UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Roman education Burnham, Frank Lang 1935

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F^anlr Laiig Bu^'nl$-aiii;, B. A«r A Thesis submitted f o r the. Degree of MASTER," OF .ARTS i n the Department THE^OTIVERSdETY. OE: BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1935 CONTENTS Chapter :•• X H I S T O R I C A L DEVELOPMENT OF ROMAN EDUOATION 1-25 Periods of Roman Education - Education 'V-f.-;';.:., ;y.-un&ea? -Hie- R e p u b l i c . , - - t o ' 148 "B--."-C-. - 'Romano-H e l l e n i c P e r i o d , - - C. on - Sources of ; /information - Pla n of our study. ' M i l ; : HOMEEDUCATION 26-44 Infancy - N u t r i x - Primary I n s t r u c t i o n : T r a i n i n g of G i r l s - T r a i n i n g of Boys;'--C i t i z e n s h i p - R e l i g i o n - T r a i n i n g ';,-' Paedagogus I l l ELEMENTARY EDUCATION . "' . ."" .; 45-65 Reading - W r i t i n g - A r i t h m e t i c - Geo- "M graphy - P h y s i c a l Education - Dancing - > ; Music. ; •;;IV- SECONDARY; EDUCATION , ' 66-96 I n t r b d u c t i o n of the "LUdi Grainmatici" - Greek authors s t u d i e d - L a t i n authors s t u d i e d - L e c t i o - E n a r r a t i o - Emendatio P u p i l s ' - ' E x e r c i s e s " . - Grammar - Other sub-j e c t s . V SCHOOLS. --BUILDINGS, FURNITURE, HOURS,, 97-118 HOLIDAYSDISCIPLINE, TEACHERS AND THEIR .EMOLUMENTS. VI ;:%':HIGHER: EDTOATIOH. 119-158 .." i Rh.etoric--Intr Qductioh of the study of r h e t o r i c - Age of comraencetnent ''''.','. of higher s t u d i e s - Study of Law - S t u d y of R h e t o r i c - Conception h e l d of orat o r y ~ The r h e t o r i c a l • school - Choice of a r h e t o r - Pre-l i m i n a r y ' e x e r c i s e s - Supplementary re a d i n g - Declamation. i i P hilosophy. i l l Travel: Abroad. V I I •EDHCATIGM UNDER THE LATER''-EMPIRE 159-173 .1 Endowment of Education. • il. The Decadence of Roman .Education. BIBLIOGRAPHY 174-178 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Paedagogus - "Ad Ludum" 42 Tabellae '52 S t i l u s 53 A Roman Counting Board 56 Ludus Romanus _ 101 Magister et D i s c i p u l i 101 The Roman. Voluntary E d u c a t i o n a l System^ as f i n a l l y evolved 173 ROMAN EDUCATION Chapter I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT: .03 ROMAN EDUCATION  PERIODS OF Roman education f a l l s into two general per-"ROMAN EDUCATION iods of clearly defined characteristics, though the line of demarcation between the two Is not distinct. The f i r s t of these periods i s from the earliest days to the time when Greek ideas of l i f e , culture, and enjoyment came in and Rome "became as cosmopolitan in i t s ideas and manners as i t had already become in arms and government. The'second period, which might be referred to as the Romano-Hellenic, dates from this change, approximately the middle of the second century B. C , when Macedonia was conquered and Greece became a Roman province; i t includes the later years of the Republic and a l l of the Imperial period. EDUCATION UNDER THE "What -the laws of Moses were to REPUBLIC,~-TO 148 B.C. early Hebrew education, the laws of Lycurgus to Spartan education, the laws of Solon and to a certain extent the Homeric poems to the early Athenian educa-tion, the Laws, of the Twelve Tables were to the early :educa-tion of the Romans."* Not only did these express the ideals of Roman education, but: to a large extent they formed the sub-ject-matter of i t . Their influence was dominant from the time of their formation, the. middle: of the f i f t h century B.C., to the opening of the f i r s t century B.C., by which time the Homeric * P. Monroe, "Source Book of the History of Education',' p. 328. .-poetes and the early Latin literature had largely usurped ..their place. The training of* this early period possessed i n f u l l that characteristic which Roman education never wholly lost: It was pre-eminently practical. Practical wisdom was the goal, --for the Romans were nothing i f they were not u t i l i t a r i a n to the last degree. The aim was to inculcate good morals, to awake patriotism, to make the child f i t for a l l duties which, in the house or outside of i t , would f a l l upon the gr own-up man or woman. Until the Romans hecame strongly Hellenized, such discipline rather than culture was the object of educa-tion, --"pietas" was the guiding principle in their social re-lationships. There was. no conception of, s t i l l less any de-sire for, any system of progressive culture. The "mos mai~ orum" set the standard at which the Romans aimed and, need-less to' say, since this usage must be maintained, the train-ing was very conservative. What the fathers themselves were, they made their sons; who in turn made their sons the same. The younger Pliny ("Epistula" v i i i . 1 4 ) t e l l s us that: "Erat autera ant i qui tus ins t i t u turn, ut a maioribus natu non auribus modo, verum etiam oculis diseeremus, quae facienda mox i p s i ac per.vices quasdam tradenda minoribus haberemus .... Suus cuique parens pro magistro aut, cui parens non erat, maximus quisque et vetustissimus pro p a r e n t e I f , therefore, a boy grew up healthy and strong in mind and body, i f he revered the gods, his parents and the laws and institu-tions of his country, If he was familiar with the traditional methods of agriculture, and had some knowledge of the way of conducting public business i n times of peace and of serving in the f i e l d in time of war, his education was complete; i f a g i r l learnt from her mother to be modest, virtuous, industri-ous, and skilled In the duties of the household, that is a l l that was needed. The main thing was that children should grow up what their parents would have them to be. It was the severest censure to say of a man that he had acted "contra morem maiorum." To maintain this tradition of conduct no sys-tem of teaching by outsiders was needed or desired; the di s c i -pline of the home could do a l l that was required. The education of the Roman boy was, then, for the f i r s t four or five centuries of the Republic, simply the education which home-life, citizenship, and the observance of ancestral custom gave him; i t was of a domestic, c i v i l , and military nature and was received in the home, in the forum, and in m i l i -tary exercises. As might well be expected under such circum-stances the education was chiefly physical and moral,with a very narrow range of Intellectual interest. With- this training the State had no direct concern,, and did not, as a rule, i n any way meddle. Indirectly It did much to hold up a high standard of civic duty and devotion. But the manner in which this was taught was l e f t to the individual citizen. It has been noted as something of a paradox that while the Greeks were always disposed to look with favour on the interference of the State in questions of training and education, they never secured the same devotion and obedience to the State as were shown at Rome, where the' lessons were learnt i n the home. Of this matter Cicero ("De Republica" i v . 3) says: "Principle disciplinara puerilem ingenuis, .. „ nullam certam aut destinatam legibus aut publice expositarn aut imam omnium esse voluerunt." This "laissez faire" policy toward education was the direct result of the unlimited "patria po-testas". The state took i t for granted that this paternal authority would be exercised to waken the boy's int e l l e c t , and to train him to become a good "paterfamilias" and a worthy citizen. Hence the non-existence--then and t i l l quite late--of state control. Until about 250 B. G^  Roman education remained substan-t i a l l y the same as in the preceding centuries and Rome was free from foreign influences.« But during the preceding f i f t y years a certain development had taken place. Two his-t o r i c a l facts we must take as our guide. F i r s t of a l l , in 260 B. 0., Spurius Carvilius, a freedman, Introduced a type of school i n which, after the 3 R's were learned, literature was studied,. Prior to the date of Carvilius' school there was no native literature except in the form of heroic songs and public records, rude fables, and satires cast in rough * Livy ("Historiae", ix. 36) says: "Habeo auctores, vulgo turn Romanos pueros, sicut nunc Graecis, i t a Etruscis U t e r i s erudiri solitos," but this statement i s so entirely at vari-ance with everything which we know about the nature of Roman education, that i t i s unhesitatingly rejected as incredible by modern scholars. dramatic form.* I t i s about t h i s date t h a t we have a sudden development of a n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , by the h e l p of I t a l o -Greeks e s p e c i a l l y . Cn. Naevius wrote a h i s t o r i c a l poem on the F i r s t Punic War, twenty years a f t e r G a r v i l i u s ' s c h o o l opened. He a l s o wrote dramas and epigrams on Greek l i t e r a t u r e . L i v i u s Andronlcus endeavoured to supply the want of a l i t e r a -t u r e by t r a n s l a t i n g the "Odyssey" Into L a t i n . He seems to have chosen the "Odyssey" r a t h e r than the • " I l i a d " f o r t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i n k i n g that a poem of adventure would have more a t t r a c t i o n a l s o f o r the Romans than one of c h a r a c t e r . Andronicus^reproduced Greek dramas, b o t h t r a g e d i e s and comedies, i n the L a t i n tongue. But though these p l a y s were a c t e d w i t h success, they, no l e s s than h i s "Odyssey", were a l s o i n t e n d e d to be used as t e x t s i n s c h o o l s , a purpose which they served a t l e a s t as l a t e as the boyhood of Horace, n e a r l y two c e n t u r i e s l a t e r . The work of L i v i u s was taken up and c a r r i e d on, w i t h f a r more p o e t i c t a l e n t and much wider l e a r n i n g , by Q,. Ennius, " e t sapiens, e t f o r t i s " , M<. the t r u e f a t h e r of Roman poetry as we know i t . He l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n of Roman e p i c I n h i s "Annales". F o l l o w i n g •JK Suetonius "De I l l u s t r i b u s Gratnmaticis" ( i ) , "Grammatica Romae ne i n usu quidem olira, nedum In honore u l l o e r a t : r u d i s c i l i c e t ac b e l l i c o s a e tiara turn c i v i t a t e , necdum magno opere l i b e r a l i b u s d i s c i p l i n i s vacante." Horace, " E p i s t u l a " ( i i . 1. 50) Ermius we have an ever i n c r e a s i n g number of poets and drama-t i s t s . Of the p r o d u c t i o n s mentioned, the "Odyssey" became the b a s i s of secondary s c h o o l work as a text-book and i t was s t u d i e d and l a r g e p o r t i o n s of i t memorized by the Roman youth. I t was not only the b e g i n n i n g of Roman l i t e r a r y e d u c a t i o n but continued t o be taught i n t o p o s t - R e p u b l i c a n times. Horace l e a r n e d i t i n the s c h o o l of O r b i l i u s , and Quint i i i an f a v o u r s it.-K T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n of l i t e r a r y e d u c a t i o n among the Romans was the f i r s t step toward a h i g h e r L a t i n i n s t r u c t i o n , but i t d i d not f o r some time c o n s t i t u t e such an i n s t r u c t i o n i n any l a r g e sense. L i t e r a t u r e i n e d u c a t i o n , and w i t h i t H e l l e n i s m , made gr a d u a l but steady progress d u r i n g the whole of the next century t o r e a c h I t s dominance i n the schools about the time of .the death (148 B. C.) of Cato the eld.er, who laboured to stem i t s p r o g r e s s . The r a p i d p rogress which e d u c a t i o n made i n Rome i s p a r t l y t o be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t a r e c o g n i s e d scheme of c u l t u r e a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n the H e l l e n i c s c h o o l s of I t a l y and the Medi-t e r r a n e a n c i t i e s g e n e r a l l y . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however, to f i x a date f o r the e a r l i e s t i n f i l t r a t i o n of t h i s Greek c u l t u r e i n t o I t a l y . Legends would c a r r y i t back t o very a n c i e n t times; and even p u t t i n g these a s i d e , we know t h a t , b e f o r e the f o u n d a t i o n of Rome, Greek c o l o n i e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n S i c i l y and I t a l y . At any r a t e the v a r i o u s channels of trade and the •K See q u o t a t i o n on p. 48 i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r c o u r s e with. Magna G r a e c i a and S i c i l y , a n d w i t h the Greek c o l o n i e s of the Mediterranean g e n e r a l l y , had long "been extending t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , as we can see from many t r a c e s i n the h i s t o r y of the L a t i n language, a t a date much "before t h a t of our e a r l i e s t t r u s t w o r t h y r e c o r d s . In f a c t Greek had become f a m i l i a r as the language both of commerce and diplomacy f o r i n B . C . 282 Lu c i u s Postumlus, the Roman envoy to Tar en turn, had been able t o address h i s audience i n Greek, though not of the c h o i c e s t q u a l i t y . Then the •middle of the t h i r d century b e f o r e C h r i s t , which c o i n c i d e s very n e a r l y w i t h the c l o s e of the F i r s t Punic War, was•marked by a gre a t Increase i n the i n f l o w i n g t i d e of H e l l e n i s m . And i t i s h a r d to over-estimate the e f f e c t which the ever-growing swarm of household s l a v e s , to many of whom Greek must have been t h e i r n a t i v e language and who were fam-i l i a r w i t h Greek l i f e and ways, must have had i n H e . l l e n i z i n g the upper c l a s s e s a t Rome. So we see t h a t a way was being made f o r a g r e a t change i n the aims and methods of e d u c a t i o n a l o n g Greek l i n e s . With the i n c r e a s i n g acquaintance w i t h Greek, even the hard, p r a c t i c a l Roman was g r a d u a l l y b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l the beauty and charm of Greek a r t and l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s brought about a r e v o l u t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n of the Roman and I t a l i a n youths of the upper c l a s s e s . Ho longer were they content w i t h the very elementary i n s t r u c t i o n , g i v e n mostly a t home, which had s u f f i c e d f o r a simpler age, even though to t h i s p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g had been added,.of l a t e , the r e a d i n g of the f i r s t 8-. crude beginnings of a Latin literature. They were now coming to feel that some knowledge of Greek literature, either dir-ectly or through the medium of translations., was" essential to culture. Thus many a Roman youth, conceived the ideal of he-coming not merely a capable man of affairs but also an en-lightened and cultured man, with a mind wide awake to a wider world of interests and better trained withal for practical l i f e . •. The best proof of the extent to which Greek was at this time familiar among the upper classes is found in the fact that the earliest Roman historians, Fabius Pictor and Cincius Alimentus, both wrote in Greek, thus showing not only their command of that language, but also that they could rely upon finding readers among their own countrymen. For the lower classes i t i s very significant that the comic poet Plautus could always trust a popular audience to take a joke, the point of which turned upon a play on Greek words. Suetonius (be I l l u s t . Gramm". i i ) t e l l s us of the intro-duction of the "grammar" school by Crates in B. C. 167 and the incidents in connection with i t : "Primus igitur, quantum opinamur, studium grammaticae in Urbem i n t u l i t Crates Mallotes, Aristarchi aequalis, qui missus ad Senaturn ab Attalo rege, inter secundum ac tertium bellum Punicura, sub ipsam, Ennii mortem, cum, regione P a l a t i i , prolapsus in cloacae foramen, crus fregisset, per bmne legat-ionis simul et valetudinis tempus, plurimas oc<7\f($ sub-inde f e c i t , assidueque disseruit, ac nostris exemplo f u i t ad 9. imitandum." ; Thls-:^ was ah Innovation, the importance of which we can hardly over-rate. It was not a mere widening of the curriculum: i t was the introduction of }y • • . a new principle. -in;the>s|ffle chapter as;the:one from which we have quoted, Suetonius refers to nine other "grammatici" that taught at about this time or a l i t t l e later. These teachers who were inspired by, and learnt the methods of Grates, were for the most part Greeks who taught their own language and literature to the young men of Rome. It is evident, therefore, that l i t -erary instruction was well established at Rome by the middle of the second century B. C. Cato's book, "De Liberis Educandis", v<ras doubtless in-tended as a protest against such Hellenic Innovations as the "ludus grammatici", although the Hellenic idea of culture had not yet indeed taken what could be termed permanent root. Gato's opinion of what the essentials of:the training of a "vir bonus" and a worthy citizen should be, gives an excellent idea of the general attitude toward education before the per-iod of Greek ascendancy; his l i s t of fundamentals i s : oratory, agriculture, law, medicine, war,--a striking contrast to the liter a r y culture which was being supplied .by the "grammaticus" . So much science only was to be acquired as was necessary for practical purposes. Latin grammar was not included, and. this shows that the learned had not yet done much for the gramma-t i c a l study of the native Latin tongue. Music and the mathe-matical and physical sciences were excluded. As for Greek 10. l i t e r a t u r e Cato f e l t t hat i t should be looked i n t o , but not : thorougJhly /studied. ;; To appreciate f u l l y , however, the a t t i t u d e of the " a n t i -Greek" element i n Rome we" must bear i n mind t h a t , when the Romans f i r s t came to f e e l the f u l l f o r c e of the i n f l u e n c e of Greece, i t was no longer Greece at i t s b e s t . The lessons which she had to teach were of inestimable value f o r the spread and development of c u l t u r e , but what was best i n them was mingled now w i t h the products of a decaying n a t i o n a l l i f e . In Mommsen's phrase the enchanter's cup was s t a l e , , and the Athens which Rome came to know was no more the Athens of Sophocles and P l a t o . * During the p e r i o d of which we have been speaking i t can-not be s a i d that the masses of the people r e c e i v e d any i n s t r u c -t i o n save the rudiments of readi n g and w r i t i n g , although the d i f f u s i o n of these was ever on the i n c r e a s e . Those c h i l d r e n of the b e t t e r c l a s s e s , Intended f o r m e r c a n t i l e l i f e , continued t o acquire the b a s i c fundamentals which were very w i d e l y d i f -fused even among the s l a v e s . Schools, such as e x i s t e d , were s t i l l what we" might c a l l "adventure" schools, and there i s no evidence t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Into "elementary" and "sec-ondary" schools had as y e t taken place w i d e l y although teachers here and there gave advanced or secondary i n s t r u c t i o n . On the whole, then, we may say that advanced i n s t r u c t i o n was s t i l l c h i e f l y domestic and t u t o r i a l , and consequently r e -s t r i c t e d to the upper c l a s s e s . And i n s p i t e of H e l l e n i c i n -f l u e n c e , the "mores, consuetudines , i n s t i t u t a maiorum", * As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , "Roman Education", p. 17. •which constituted the "vetus d i s c i p l i n a " , s t i l l animated education to a large degree. R0MAN0-HEELEF1C We now come to the period of Roman PERIOD,"148 B.C. OH i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e i n which education could no longer he said to he s p e c i f i c a l l y Roman at a l l , - - t h e inevitable v i c t o r y had been won by the Greek. In the f i r s t century B. G. Roman education stands f o r t h transformed on Greek methods, Greek models, Greek i d e a l s , which, however, though l a r g e l y i n the liands of Greek teachers,-have beeti: .•modi-f i e d to f i t Roman conditions,and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c education has r e s u l t e d , — a n education which i s Greek, but Greek trans-lated into Latin.. The Heilenized form of education has become dominant but without;, causing a complete e x t i n c t i o n of the old Roman v i r i l i t y . That p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y has not vanished from Roman education i s apparent from the question asked by Cicero (De Rep", i . 20) and the answer given: "Quid esse i g i t u r censes, L a e l i , discendum nobis ... ? "Eas a r t i s , quae e f f i c i -ant, ut usui c i v i t a t i simus." A type of general l i t e r a r y culture had novir made i t s appearance; something which pointed the way to "humanitas", i n s t r u c t i o n i n subjects "quae repertae sunt, ut puerorum men-tes ad humanitatem fingerentur atque virtutem."^ The better educated classes, as we.have seen, had set before them a new ide a l of culture, and new methods of att a i n i n g to i t , which -KCic. "De Oratore" ( i i i . 5 8 ) 12. fascinated them-with their novel charms.: A l l were not equally attracted by them, however, and for generations there was a ceaseless struggle between the champions of the old and the advocates of the new. As a recently discovered fragment of an unknown historian puts i t : "Duae quasi factiones Romae essent, quarum una Graecas artes atque disciplinas adamabat, altera patriae caritatem praetexebat acerrlmam."-K In some cases a passion for a l l that was Greek became quite a mania, and justly called down the ridicule of the s a t i r i s t s of the A time. • •. • -After the conquest of Macedonia (167 B. C.), the i n t e l -lectual t r a f f i c between Greece and Rome, already considerable, was greatly augmented. Then too the influx of Greek scholars increased after the f a l l of Corinth (146 B. C»), among whom were philosophers and rhetorical teachers of considerable pr extensions.. From this time forward Greek language and l i t e r -ature were regarded as indispensable elements in the higher education,--what the great conservative Cato had foreseen had now cane less than f i f t y years after his. death* Cicero t e l l s us that at the beginning of h i s . l i f e the ancient education had been wholly, overthrown. The new education embraced not only the Latin and Greek languages and literature, but to a limited extent geometry, music, and gymnastic. Of course the Romans were too practical to be able to obtain liberalizing results from music and gym-«...As quoted by A.. S. Wilkins (p. 19) as printed in "Rhein. Mus." xxxix. 623. 13.. nastic,. and too sedate to tolerate much that was so thoroughly characteristic of the Greek. Harmonious development, culture, --either of mind or body--for Its own sake were ideas alien to the Roman mind,for Roman l i f e was essentially opposed to the Greek aesthetic l i f e . As far as organization was concerned the new Graeco-Roman education, though much better organized and systematized than the Greek, was in i t s method less thoroughly nationalized; for with the Romans education remained essentially a training pro-cess,, • .. . If any one man can be regarded as representing the new form of education on Greek lines, as old Cato--in spite of some concessions"-represents the training in accordance with the "mos maiorum", i t is L. Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Perseus of Macedon, and the father of the younger Scipio. Plutarch ("Life of Aemilius" vi) t e l l s us that he devoted him-self to the education of his children, whom he not only brought up, as he had been trained himself, in the Roman and ancient discipline, but also and with unusual zeal in that of Greece. To this purpose he not only procured masters to teach them grammar, logic, and rhetoric, but had for them also preceptors in modelling and drawing, managers of horses and dogs, and in-structors i n field-sports, a l l from Greece. Such zeal in more modified form appears to have been not uncommon. Paulus, too, was the f i r s t to bring to Rome a collection of Greek books for use in his own house (Plut. "Aem." xxviii) so that the yorcager Scipio was brought up in the atmosphere of a library. He is 14.', even said to have formally invited the Athenians to send him a philosopher to train his children.* It is no wonder, then, that the "Scipionic circle" was the source of a steady stream of Hellenising influence'. Mommsen ("The History of Rome" v, 12) measures the change in the last century 'of the free Republic by'comparing-Cato's l i s t of the constituents of general culture with that given by Varro. The former, as we have already noted,, included, as con stituents of an education of. an unprofessional nature, oratory agriculture, law, war, medicine; the subjects treated in Varro nine books were probably grammar, logic or dialectics, rhet-oric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, medicine, and architecture,--a scheme of knowledge which rested wholly on a Hellenic, conception. Consequently in the course of the last century of the Republic the -sciences of war, jurisprudence^ and agriculture had been.converted from general into profes-sional studies. • It is Interesting to note that.the f i r s t three on Varro's l i s t , the three earliest introduced Into Rome, formed the "trivium" or elementary course i n the Middle Ages, while the next four constituted the 11 quadrivium" . During the latter years of the old Roman period a third type of school had appeared, the school of the "rhetor"; * Pliny, "Historia Naturalis" (xxxv. 40), "Itaque cum L. P aulu s de vi ct o Per se o petisset'ab Atheniensibus, ut sib i quam probatissimum philosophorum mitterent ad erudiendos liberos, it • 15 , such s c h o o l s were taught, f o r some time, hy Greeks alone i n Greek t o those who c o u l d f o l l o w them. T h i s h i g h e r than sec-ondary education, or what was the e q u i v a l e n t of our c o l l e g e education, was summed up by the one word " o r a t o r y " . As Sue-to n i u s suggests i n h i s "De I l l u s t r i . Grammaticis" ( i v ) , the o f f i c e s of the "grammatici" and of the " r h e t o r e s " were not a t f i r s t d i s t i n c t ; the "grammatici" taught r h e t o r i c as w e l l as l i t e r a t u r e and grammar. Secondary e d u c a t i o n and h i g h e r ed-u c a t i o n were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f o r both were of a l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r and both were Greek i m i t a t i o n s ; together they f u r -n i s h e d the i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n declamation and debate. Suetonius a l s o t e l l s us t h a t the e a r l y r h e t o r s a l t e r n a t e d t h e i r work i n r h e t o r i c , e i t h e r on s u c c e s s i v e days or on mornings and afte r n o o n s , w i t h t h a t i n grammar. There was, needless, to say, o p p o s i t i o n to the teachings of the " r h e t o r e s " but i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i t was not the l i t e r a t u r e of the Greeks, but t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t the more c o n s e r v a t i v e among the Romans most dreaded. There was a l s o not a l i t t l e d i s t r u s t of the Greek c h a r a c t e r , and th a t not without reason. Greek a r t and a r t i s t s f o l l o w e d c l o s e on the h e e l s of Greek r h e t o r i c . I t was about t h i s time a l s o t h a t the women of the h i g h e r c l a s s e s began t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the H e l -l e n i c e d u c a t i o n . The l i n e which the H e l l e n i s t i c s t u d i e s took i n Rome was, thus, grammatical and p h i l o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than a e s t h e t i c , and i n the h i g h e r schools i t was r h e t o r i c a l . The more ambitious minds a l s o occupied themselves w i t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s . * V. MIL. 4ULW" 0 16.. ; The education which-had or culture, in the Roman sense, for i t s aim was f i n a l l y established about 128 B. C. The f i r s t formal Instruction i n Latin rhetoric and ora-tory by a Roman was given about 128 B. C., the year we have named. His name was Lucius Aelius Praeconinus of Lanuvium. But i t is only as a purely Latin "rhetor" that we can c a l l him the f i r s t , for Greek rhetors had taught long before this. The continued dominance of education by oratory, though both Latin and Greek literature had now become f a i r l y well established as a part of the ordinary instruction both in the grammar and rhetorical schools, is noteworthy.. The acquisi-tion of rhetoric s t i l l governed those studies which were p r i -marily intended to cultivate the humanity of the pupil "more Graecorum" for oratory was not only a mark of culture but p r i -marily a weapon of offence and defence.-K The young Roman had at a l l times to prepare himself for speech in the forum or the senate. Thus true to i t s own instincts did Rome remain even when the narrow ancient l i f e was beginning to disappear. It i s true that the "XII Tabulae" were no longer used as a text-book, that the old domestic education was maintaining i t s e l f with d i f f i c u l t y , and that Latin and. Greek literature now formed the basis of a l l education; but the chief aim of the literary education was always oratory, not pure literature. •The study of rhetoric, as constituting the highest education .I'Oratio. omnium rerum regina," says Pacuvius (apud Hon. 113, 32),—as,, quoted by Lewis and Short, "A Hew Latin Dictionary" 17. of youth, was regarded as not merely essential to the formation of a man, "ingenuus et l i b e r a l l t e r educatus", but above a l l as the road to influence, power, and public employment. A more serious consequence of the> attention paid to rhet-oric, and with i t oratory, may be noticed. Rhetoric was natu-r a l l y only studied by those whose position and ambition led them to aim at taking an active part in public l i f e , and with a view to this at winning distinction in the lav/-courts or in the popular assembly. Hence the fissure was always widening between the culture open to the mass of the people, and that enjoyed by the upper classes. The earlier education had been meagre and narrow, but at least i t had been the same for a l l ; the newer culture was the privilege of a class. The plebeians suspected and disliked what they knew was not for them, and both the training and the literature which resulted from the "new culture'1 never wholly lost something of an exclusive and exotic character. • • _ . Then too there was the exclusive "humanitas" which devel-oped Its e l f in education along side of the simpler or special training; this eradicated the last remnants of the old social equality. The new idea of "humanity" consisted partly of a more or less superficial appropriation of the aesthetic cul-ture of the Hellenes, partly of privileged Latin culture as an imitation or mutilated copy of the Greek. In spite of these disadvantages, however, we r e c a l l that i t was to the Hellenic victory over the old Roman education that we owe Oicero, Vergil, Lucretius, and a l l that b r i l l i a n t 18. /Crowd: of literary" -men who adorned the last century of the Re-:pu"blic: and the beginnings of the Empire. Caesar, and after him Augustus, encouraged and protected the "professors" of every art, and many now took to literature and philosophy as the occupation of men to whom, under an im-perial system, the highest p o l i t i c a l activity was no longer -openv.-••While,,- therefore, we may regret with: Cato, and at a later date Tacitus^ the decay of the old Roman training, we must recognise the necessity of the Hellenic invasion i f a larger conception of the ends of education and o f - l i f e was ever to ^ animate the Roman min dy The importance of this in the fut-ure history of the world is beyond our power of estimating, for i t was under Roman protection and under Imperial power that a l l the nobler arts of l i f e were assured of recognition and encouragement in every corner of the c i v i l i s e d world, . . And yet: i t was-impossible to turn a Roman into a Greek, He remained fro the last prosaic and practical. The Hellenized few to whom culture pure and simple was-an aim, formed a kind of Intellectual aristocracy. Even i n the time of Augustus we find Horace -x f u l l y recognising the difference between the Roman, and Greek mind, just as we find the same recognition in Cicero. It is interesting to note how important knowledge of the Greek language had become. Without Greek, everybody confessed that, a half (probably more) of the world's entire wit and wis-* "De Arte Poetica", 325 f. dom^  was l o c k e d avfay,. Without Greek not merely must a man r e -fuse to c l a i m the l e a s t r e a l c u l t u r e ; he was handicapped i n a l l the p r o f e s s i o n s and i n most forms of business. He could have no commercial d e a l i n g s -with the Levant. I f he t r a v e l l e d anywhere; east -of the A d r i a t i c , he /could h a r d l y make hi m s e l f understood outside of the governor's p r a e t o r i a and the camps. Even i n t o the l i t e r a r y L a t i n there had crept an enormous num-ber, Of Greek "..terms,, mostly, having t o do v f i t h "matters Of l e a r n -'ing. or luscary,, In s h o r t , without the mastery of Greek; a Roman of any ambition was h o p e l e s s l y l o s t . In s p i t e , however, of the advantage, of knovfing how t o read and speak. Greek, i t -would ^appear that vthe knowledge; of, t ^ language was not widely spread, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West.- Many passages.of" Gicero show that; a comprehension of I t by the m a j o r i t y of people was -hot: t o be:- presumed. In ;the' provinces there were people: who acted as I n t e r p r e t e r s to the praetors and others, as Cicero ("in C. Verrem" i i i . 37) t e l l s us; "A. V a l e n t i u s est In S i c -i l i a , i n t e r p r e s : quo i s t e i n t e r p r e t e non ad linguam Graecam sed ad f u r t a , et f l a g i t i a u t i solebat." Gicero was accustomed, whehi.he wr'ote anything, i n h i s l e t t e r s which I f they should be broken open or f a l l i n t o wrong hands he d i d not wish to be .read, to use the Greek tongue. During the f i r s t century A, D., however, Greek became dec r e a s i n g l y important i n education. In p a r t t h i s was due to the-growth of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . Having C i c e r o , V e r g i l , and Horace, the teacher no longer needed to go t.O. the Greeks f o r models of s t y l e or f o r i n t e r e s t i n g subject-matter.. A second 20, reason f o r the disuse of Greek was the extension of the Empire over the western provinces. This g r e a t l y Increased the number of those who sought a l i b e r a l education, but who had no con-t a c t w i t h Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n and found i n the language and l i t -e rature of the Romans a l l t h e elements necessary f o r t h e i r c u l -t u r e . Thus, while the " l i b e r a l a r t s " i n h e r i t e d from Greek theory and p r a c t i c e s t i l l provided the main subjects of educa-t i o n i n the schools of the Empire, y e t the L a t i n language be-came the medium of i n s t r u c t i o n and the works of L a t i n poets and orators the text-books employed. Education, so f a r as I t commanded popular i n t e r e s t , became, under the Empire, more and more l i t e r a r y , and came to be compre-hended e n t i r e l y i n the work of the grammar and r h e t o r i c a l schools of the day, of which, as we have seen, o r a t o r y was the sole aim. I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t , notwithstanding the p u r e l y l i t e r a r y character education had assumed, p r i v a t e and p u b l i c u t i l i t y , continued t o govern i t . L i t e r a t u r e , though i n esteem both as a study, an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s triune n t , and as a r e c r e a t i o n , was above a l l necessary t o form the o r a t o r . The a t t i t u d e toward the l i t e r a r y side of education remained the same as I t had a l -ways been,--one d i d not study l i t e r a t u r e t o become a poet or an h i s t o r i a n . L i t e r a t u r e f o r the sake of l i t e r a t u r e , a r t f o r the sake of a r t , were to the Greek f a m i l i a r conceptions; and i n h i s schools i t was the " r e a l " of l i t e r a t u r e , the e n r i c h i n g of the mind w i t h noble utterances and noble forms, which was always prominent. In the case of the Roman the d i s c i p l i n e of grammar always took precedence of the l i v i n g s p i r i t of l i t e r a t u r e 21. w i t h o u t , however, by any means e x t i n g u i s h i n g i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e t h e r e was l i t t l e f o r m a l change, save by way of Improvement, between t h e age of C i c e r o and t h a t of P l i n y and J u v e n a l , there"was a p r o f o u n d change i n the s p i r i t . E d u c a t i o n was s t i l l w h o l l y r h e t o r i c a l , b u t i t h a d become a r t i -f i c i a l , c r i t i c a l , a f f e c t e d , i m i t a t i v e , and marked by p e d a n t r y and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o t fo u n d i n t h e l a s t age o f the Re-p u b l i c . I n t h e s e r e s p e c t s , e d u c a t i o n s i m p l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c changes t h a t had come about i n s o c i e t y . A l l t h a t was aimed a t was a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t would t r a i n the mind and form the c h a r a c t e r f o r the l i f e o f a Roman c i t i z e n of the upper c l a s s e s . The l i b e r a l a r t s h a d a l l come t o be c u l t i -v a t e d a t Rome, b u t n o t by Romans. They were t o be e n j o y e d , not pur s u e d . Greek a l i e n s - - v e r y o f t e n s l a v e s or freed m e n - - r e p r e -s e n t e d a l l t h e a r t s , and were h i r e d . Of cour s e t h e r e were many I n d i v i d u a l e x c e p t i o n s t o the Roman view of a r t and the a r t s among the Romans t h e m s e l v e s ; b u t the g e n e r a l u t i l i t a r i a n t endency of the Roman mind; always c o n t i n u e d i n e v i d e n c e . The H e l l e n i c , i d e a l ;of a c u l t u r e d m a n - - c u l t u r e d f o r t h e sake of c u l t u r e - - w a s n e v e r a c c e p t e d by the Roman, save i n a h a l f -h e a r t e d way. Indeed, he h a d g r e a t contempt, and w i t h good r e a s o n , f o r much of the p r o d u c t of t h e H e l l e n i c system. The l i v e l y Greek who f r e q u e n t e d t h e s t r e e t s of Rome and o t h e r I t a l -i a n towns, and who i n h i s easy s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was r e a d y t o t a l k , and t o t a l k w e l l , on any s u b j e c t and i n f a v o u r of any s i d e , was a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the Roman type of c h a r a c t e r , and t o t h a t s e r i o u s view of l i f e w h i c h had made the Roman and w h i c h 22. seemed s t i l l : to survive in spite of growing luxury, an enfeebled public s p i r i t , and a decaying morality, : As, for the administration of education under the Empire, the custom became more and more prevalent of education being supported by the State, by municipal grants, or by endowments given by private benefactors. Government support soon brought about government control, and Roman education, which began by being wholly a matter for the individual father of the family, ended in both schools and teachers being under the absolute authority of the state. SOURCES OP Of the content of early education, the surviv-INPORMATrOH fng fragments of the "XII' Tabulae" form the most important single source, A second source is the biogra-phical and traditional material relating to the early Roman heroes, This material performed the same service for the Ro-mans as did the Homeric poems for the Greeks. It is character-i s t i c of the practical nature of Roman l i f e and education that these stories, whether truth or fi c t i o n , should relate to actual meh> not to :gods or demi-gods, Such ideals,could be imitated, and so appealed to the conscience as well as to the imagination of the child;. A third source of information concerning early Roman edu-cation is found i n the references to works of this period no longer extant. The most important of such works i s the lost treatise, "De Liberis Educandls", by Cato, which according to Quintilian was the earliest work on Roman education. A further source i s found in extracts from authors of a later period, 23. presenting the ideals, methods, or subject-matter of education of these earlier days. Such references, though brief, are num-erous; they cannot, however, be altogether trusted, for we do not know how far the traditions they recount are accurate rep-resentations of the past. In some cases we know that these references are coloured by the usage of later times, and there-fore may often be misleading; nevertheless, certain inferences may with some confidence be drawn from them. Of the late Republican and Imperial periods there are num-erous extant sources. Scattered references to education appear throughout the Roman writers, but more extended descriptions are found in the following works: Cicero: "De O f f i c i i s " , "De Oratore", "De Republica". Martial: "Epigrammata". Pliny: "Epistulae".. Quintilian: "De Institutione Oratoria." Seneca: "Epistulae Morales". Suetonius: "De Illustribus Grammaticis", "De Claris Rhetoribus'J Tacitus:.. "Dialogus de Oratoribus". Because of the loss of such books as Cato's "De Liberis Educandis" and Varro's " L i b r i Disciplinarum", the writings of Quintilian are a l l the more valuable. From his "De Institutione Oratoria" we can learn both what the Romano-Hellenic education was in i t s inner workings, and also what, in his opinion, i t ought to have been. In connection with a l l our authorities i t must be noted that they are limited almost entirely to the training given to 24. children of the richer classes.. We have only s l i g h t and casual references to the education of the poor. P a r t l y t h i s i s due to the. e f f e c t which a system of slavery always has i n depressing the status of manual labourers. P a r t l y too, as we have seen already, because there was l i t t l e i n the higher education, as i t then was, to appeal to the needs or tastes of the plebeian. I t was intended either as a t r a i n i n g for p o l i t i c a l l i f e or as an amusement f o r le i s u r e hours, and from neither point of view was i t of any service to the great mass of the population. There was never anything approaching a national education at Rome. Then again we have l i t t l e or no information as to the country d i s t r i c t s . Hence a l l t h a t we can do is. sketch out the course of education most usual with the children of the more pr i v i l e g e d classes,-and to remember that the great bulk of the population, even i n Rome I t s e l f , and much more i n the r u r a l parts, of I t a l y , had a t r a i n i n g which f e l l far short of th i s both i n range and duration. PLAH OP In trac i n g the h i s t o r i c a l development of Roman OUR STUDY education we did not undertake t o go into any great amount of d e t a i l but rather to give a comprehensive introduction to the educational system. We s h a l l go on to look at the education received i n the home previous to the school entrance age and then proceed to discuss the three stages of education, namely, the training, given by the- " l u d i magister", the "gr animations 1', and the "rhetor". In making 25. a study of each of these c l a s s e s of teachers and t h e i r schools we s h a l l emphasize the c u r r i c u l u m , methods of teaching, and e x e r c i s e s of the p u p i l s ; such matters as school b u i l d i n g s , hours, h o l i d a y s , d i s c i p l i n e , the p o s i t i o n of teachers and t h e i : s a l a r i e s , we s h a l l survey i n a chapter by themselves. In con-j u n c t i o n w i t h the " c o l l e g e " education of the " r h e t o r " we s h a l l i n c l u d e the study of philosophy and "study abroad". In our concluding chapter the endowment and gradual as-sumption of c o n t r o l of education by the s t a t e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h along w i t h the (classicaiya^eadence of Roman education. CHAPTER II . HOME EDUCATION INFANCY • In practice the charge . of a? child i n i t s earlier years doubtless f e l l to Its mother. And the Roman matrons,in the early days of the Republic particularly, were not unworthy as a rule to discharge this duty. They shared with their hus-bands the rule of the house, and though legally their subordi-nates and as much "i n manu eorum" as daughters, were in their own sphere acknowledged as their equals. The formula used in marriage expressed this clearly: "ubi tu Gaius, ego Gaia." Thus i f the mother had not by law a "potestas" like that of the father, which In the nature of things could not be divided, yet the "mos maiorum" gave her an authority which in practice may have:been-hardly less. -The severe discipline and magis-t e r i a l authority of the father, therefore, were supplemented by the milder moral influence of the mother and notwithstanding the harsh power, which amongst the Romans the "paterfamilias" possessed over his "familla", a l l his paternal rights were not exercised capriciously or without the approval of the fanily "consilium";. That the :mother did not give up her share of rule in: the house, especially in the country, i s evident from such a passage as this from Horace ("Carm." i i i . 6. 37 f . ) : . " „.. rusti.corum mascula militum Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus Versare glaebas, et severae Matris ad arbitrium.reelsos Portare fustes, ..." 27. .In, the Roman mother, there--:was u s u a l l y a p u r i t y , a d i g n i t y a g r a v i t y , an. i n d u s t r y , and a d e v o t i o n to her f a m i l y and coun-t r y whi ch f i t t e d her to be -the: head of a'household, and to b r i n g up worthy c i t i z e n s . . The: "mater f a m i 11 as" was the d i r e c -t o r , i n p r a c t i c e as w e l l as i n name, of the a f f a i r s of her household. So the c h i l d was brought up "on i t s mother's knee" ("in gremio educatos ... m a t r i s " , G i c . "Brutus" L V I I I ) . For the e a r l y days of the R e p u b l i c there i s l i t t l e or no d i r e c t evidence as t o the attainments of the women, but we cannot doubt t h a t a Roman mother was, as a r u l e , w e l l able to g i v e her c h i l d r e n a t l e a s t the rudiments of such e d u c a t i o n as i t was d e s i r e d t h a t they s h o u l d r e c e i v e . From one of the g r a v e s t a n x i e t i e s of l a t e r days she must have been i n a g r e a t measure f r e e , the f a t a l curse of an ex-t e n s i v e system of domestic s l a v e r y t h a t tends so much to de-m o r a l i z e the c h i l d r e n of the slave-owners. The Romans l e a r n t t h i s , and the b e s t of them lamented over i t b i t t e r l y , i n l a t e r days. But i n e a r l y days the number of s l a v e s at Rome was much sma l l e r , .What there were, were e i t h e r "vernae", born and bred i n the house, and o f t e n the playmates or even the f o s t e r -b r o t h e r s of t h e i r young masters; or e l s e they were c i t i z e n s who had f a l l e n i n t o m i s f o r t u n e , and had been compelled by debt to s a c r i f i c e t h e i r freedom. There were as y e t none of - those gangs of barbarous c a p t i v e s , swept o f f to Rome a f t e r one of her v i c t o r i o u s campaigns, there to be t r e a t e d l i t t l e b e t t e r than brute beasts, w i t h whom they were c l a s s e d , Nor were there y e t any of those troops of household s l a v e s , s t i l l more 28. corrupting i n their influence, who later on were the tools of a senseless luxury, and who under the varnish of culture were familiar with the worst vices of the East. Thus i t was no doubt far easier to train children to a l i f e of virtue and self-control amid the plainness and gravity of the early Re-public than in the luxurious and extravagant households of later days. ... • >N-or-;.must i t be forgotten, that in the house far more of real family l i f e occurred, and that a more strong and sacred band bound together the different members of the house amongst the Romans than amongst the Greeks. The chief cause of this, was the higher dignity of the housewife, whose influence as-serted i t s e l f happily in the education.of the children, not only as a mother during their earliest years, but also in superintending them during their riper years. The eulogy which Tacitus ("Agricola" iv) bestows on the mother of Agricola, in a sadly - degenerate age (mater Iulia Procilla f u l t rarae castitatis: in huius sinu indulgentiaque edUcatnsy '-per onmera rionestarum artiura cultum pueritiam adoles-centiamque transegit) carries us back to the oldest and better days of the Republic. In comparing the mother of his own day to that of the "good old Republican days" Tacitus ("Dialogus de Oratoribus" xxviii) gives us his ideals of what a mother should be v "lam primum, suus cuique f i l i u s , ex casta parente natus, non in cella emtae nutricis, sed gremio ac sinu matris educa-batur, cuius praecipua laus er.at, tueri domum. et inservire 2 9 . l i b e r i s . " P l u t a r c h ' s s p e c i a l mention ("Cato Maior" xx) of Cato's son b e i n g nursed and tended by h i s mother i s another example •i of the great Importance p l a c e d on motherhood. I f Roman h i s -t o r y , then, g i v e s us few examples of c e l e b r a t e d women, and t h e i r power over t h e i r c h i l d r e n , l i k e those t o which r e f e r e n c e has been made, we must r e f l e c t t h a t such r e l a t i o n s were very seldom mentioned, and only In co n n e c t i o n w i t h conspicuous per-sons and events; but from those few we may understand the gen-e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the household r e l a t i o n s . -FUTRIX The maternal s u p e r v i s i o n was not i n t e r m i t t e d during the days of the R e p u b l i c and even i n t o the Empire, .the Romans having heeded the tea c h i n g s of nature In t h i s r e s p e c t longer than any other c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n of the o l d world. I f , however, the f u l l a t t e n t i o n of the mother was i m p o s s i b l e , her place was taken by a " n u t r i x " ; but i n the o r d i n a r y care of the c h i l d r e n the mother was only a s s i s t e d by such a nurse, she d i d not hand over the f u l l s u p e r v i s i o n to h e r . In L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e are many passages t h a t t e s t i f y to the a f f e c t i o n f e l t f o r each other by nurse and c h i l d , an a f f e c -t i o n t h a t l a s t e d on i n t o manhood and womanhood. That the name "mater" was f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n to the nurse would i n d i c a t e the t r u l y genuine f e e l i n g t h a t e x i s t e d between the " n u t r i x " and; her charges. I t was . a common t h i n g , too, f o r the young w i f e t o take i n t o h er new home, as her a d v i s e r and c o n f i d a n t , the nurse who had watched over her i n i n f a n c y . F a i t h f u l n e s s 30* o n t h e p a r t o f s u c h s l a v e s w a s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y r e p a i d b y m a n u -m i s s i o n . A f t e r t h e P u n i c w a r s i t b e c a m e c u s t o m a r y f o r t h e w e l l - t o -d o t o s e l e c t f o r t h e c h i l d ' s n u r s e - a G r e e k s l a v e , t h a t t h e c h i l d . m i g h t a c q u i r e t h e G r e e k l a n g u a g e a s n a t u r a l l y a s I t s o w n . G r e e k n u r s e s w e r e a l s o p r e f e r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r i n -t e l l i g e n c e . G r e a t p a i n s w e r e t a k e n b y c a r e f u l m o t h e r s t o s e e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s h o u l d ^ ? l e a r n f r o m t h e m a n d t h e i r n u r s e s o n l y c o r r e c t s p e e c h a n d r e f i n e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n . Q u i n t i l i a n , g a v e m a n y w a r n -i n g s a s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g n u r s e s w h o s e , m o r a l c h a r -a c t e r w a s g o o d , a n d w h o h a d s u f f i c i e n t - e d u c a t i o n t o s e t a g o o d . - e x a m p l e i n s p e a k i n g : " D e I n s t i t u t l o n e . O r a t o r i a " I . i . 4: " A n t e o m n i a n e s i t v i t i o s u s s e r m o n u t r i c i b u s , . . . E t m o r u m q u i d e m i n h i s h a u d d u b l e p r i o r r a t i o e s t , r e c t e t a m e h e t i a m l o q u a n t u r . " • 1. i. 5't " H o n a s s u e s c a t e r g o , n e d u m i n f a n s . q u i d e m e s t , s e r m o n i q u i d e d l s c e n d u s s i t . " F i l t h y t a l k w a s t o b e c h e c k e d b e c a u s e w o r d s w e r e t h e s h a d o w s o f a c t i o n s . O f I v a p r o p o r w o r d c a n d i n c d r r c c t s p e e c h a s a b a d i n f l u o h c b P l a u t u o - ( " M I l o s ; G l o r l o s u c " 111.- 1. 100): s a y a i --: " A t i l i a I d U n e a t m a g h o i n g o n o r o o t i n d l v i t i i c m a x l m i o L a b o r o a " h o m l n o m o d u c a r o , g o r x r i m o n u m o n t u m o t ' 3 i b i . " ..... T h e " p u d o r " o f c h i l d h o o d w a s a l w a y s e s t e e m e d a t R o m e : " a d o l e s b e n s p u d e n t i s s l m u s " w a s t h e h i g h e s t p r a i s e t h a t c o u l d t e V g i y e n , e Y e n f t o ; a grown y o u t h ; a n d t h e r e a r e s i g n s t h a t a ; f e e l -i n g s u r v i v e d o f a . c e r t a i n s a c r e d n e s s o f c h i l d h o o d , w h i c h Juvenal ( " S a t i r a " x i v . 47 f.) r e f l e c t s i n h i s famous words: "Maxima debetur puero r e v e r e n t i a . S i quid Turpe paras, ne t u p u e r i contemseris annos: '9 Sed peccaturo obstet t i h i f i l i u s i n f a n s . " Tacitus ("De Orat." x x v i i i ) t e l l s us that i t was u s u a l to s e l e c t an e l d e r l y kinswoman of approved and esteemed character to have e n t i r e charge of a l l the c h i l d r e n of the household. This p r a c t i c e , which we are.almost s u r p r i s e d to f i n d Tacitus t h i n k s worthy of mention, was probably observed i n cases where the c h i l d r e n of s e v e r a l sons continued to l i v e under the f a m i l y r o o f , or where some hindrance kept the mother from t a k i n g the whole charge h e r s e l f . T a c i t u s ' statement gives an i n t e r e s t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o the treatment accorded the c h i l d r e n and the v a r i e d d u t i e s of such a kinswoman: " E l l g e b a t u r autem a l i q u a maior natu propinqua, cuius pro-b a t i s spectatisque morlbus omnis culuspiam f a m i l i a e suboles c ommi t t e r e t u r , coram qua ne que d i c e r e f a s e r a t , quod turpe d i c t u , neque f a c e r e , quod Inhonestum f a c t u v i d e r e t u r . Ac non, s t u d i a modo curasque, sed remissiones etiam lususque puerorum, s a n e t i t a t e quadam ac verecundia temperabat. Si c Cornellam Oracchorum, s i c Aureliam Cae s a r i s , s i c Atiam Angusti matrem p r a e f u i s s e education!bus ac produxisse p r i n c i p e s l i b e r o s ac-cepimus. Quae d i s c i p l i n a ac s e v e r i t a s eo p e r t i n e b a t , ut s i n c -era et I n t e g r a , et n u l l i s p r a v i t a t i b u s d e t o r t a , uniuscuius- -que natura t o t o s t a t i m pectore a r r i p e r e t artes honestas, e t , sive ad rem m i l i t a r e r a , s i v e ad i u r i s scientiam, s i v e ad e l o -quent iae studium i n c l i n a s s e t , i d solum ageret, I d universum 32. h a u r i r e t . " What we have noted to have been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the moral education of the home during the e a r l y Roman pe r i o d continued even i n t o the Empire t o be u s u a l . More s t r e s s continued to be l a i d upon the moral than upon the i n t e l l e c t u a l development. "Prudentia", " g r a v i t a s " , " j u s t i t i a " , "honestas", "pudor", "con-s t a n t ! a" , " f o r t i t u d o " , " p a t i e n t i a " , " a b s t i n e n t i a " , " p i e t a s erga parentes", "amic'itia" were a l l v i r t u e s which the parents strove to i n s t i l i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Cicero ("De O f f i c i i s " i i . 46) sums up the q u a l i t i e s which would win a good r e p u t a t i o n f o r a young man and make him a " v i r bonus" thus: "Prima i g i t u r com-mendatio p r o f i c i s c i t u r .a modestia, turn p i e t a t e i n parentes, turn i n suos benevolentia." I t w i l l be noted that he does not look upon these v i r t u e s as being more than "prima commendatio" though they were to form the b a s i s of i d e a l c h a r a c t e r . Much of the moral t r a i n i n g came from the constant a s s o c i a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r parents, which was the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a -ture of the home t r a i n i n g of the Romans as compared w i t h that of other peoples of the time. We may w e l l b e l i e v e , too, that lessons drawn from the s t o r i e s of the past and the r i c h supply of p r o v e r b i a l sayings s u p p l i e d the m a t e r i a l f o r much of the moral t r a i n i n g of the Roman boy. P l u t a r c h , i n speaking of the Importance of moral education, points out that the elements of v i r t u e are love of honour and fe a r of punishment, and t h a t the f a u l t s of boys are, i n t r u t h , t r i f l i n g i n themselves, and e a s i l y c o r r e c t e d ; but i n youths these f a u l t s may grow to v i c e s . "Childhood i s a tender t h i n g . 3 3 , and may easily be wrought into any shape. Yea, and the very souls of children readily receive the impressions of those things that are dropped into them while they are yet but softj but when they grow older" they w i l l , as a l l hard things are, be more d i f f i c u l t to be wrought upon. And as soft wax is apt to take the stamp of the seal, so are the minds of children to receive the; instructions imprinted on them at-, that age,1' * — PRIMARY The actual "book-learning" of the child of - INSTRUCTION pre-schooT age would of course consist of :reading, writing, and. as ffltick of tke; simpler operations of arithmetic as children so young could learn. For these "sub-jects" ,, then, u n t i l the age of seven, children had their mother as their teacher. From her they learned to speak correctly their native tongue, and Latin rhetors t e l l us that the best Latin was spoken by the-noble women of the great houses of Rome. The child was tem-pted to learn by play-things, which ingenioiisly combined Instruction and amusement. Ivory letters --probably in earlier times a less costly material was used--were put into his hands, just as they are put into the hands of children now-a-days, that he might learn how to form words. As soon as reading a b i l i t y was acquired, he began to learn by heart. I t was a common view that children should have nothing * As quoted by C. D. Warner, "-Library of the World's Best literature" p. 11650, from the translation of W. W. Goodwin. to do: with the literary side of' education: before they were seven years of age„ But Quintilian ("De Inst. Orat." I. I. 19) /.;ar^e^;-:;oth.er.wiSe:; "Non^ergo perdamus primum statim tempus, atque eo minusquod I n i t i a litterarum sola memoria constant, quae non modo iam est In'parvis^turn etiam tenacissima est." He admits that the child w i l l not make as much progress during three or four years at this stage as during one year later on. S t i l l , why should such gain as is possible before the age of seven be despised? If the child has got over his rudiments by that time, he w i l l then'be able to-go on to something more dif-f i c u l t . Children must be doing something as soon as they can -talk, and why should they not be doing something which w i l l be of use to them afterwards? Quintillan (I. i . 20-26) goes on, however, to issue a warning against the use of pressure and suggests means of making learning at an early age pleasant: "Nam i d In primis cavere Oportebit,. he Studia, qui amare non-dum potest, oderit xt^ ultra rudes annos yw^*^Lusus hie s i t ; et rogetur et laudetur et numquam non fecisse se gaiideat, a l i -quando ipso nolente doceatur alius, cui invideat; contendat interim et saepius vineere se putet; praemiis etiam, quae capit i l i a aetas, evocetur. ... Non excludo autem, id quod est in~ ventum, virritandae ad discendum infantiae gratia eburneas etiam litterarum-formas; in lusum -offerre-, vel. s i quid aliud, quo magis I l i a aetas gaudeat, inveniri potest, quod tractare, in-tueri, nominare iucundum s i t . " The familiar lines of Horace ("Satira" I. i . 25), 3 5 . " ... l i t p u e r i s olira clant c r u s t u l a b l a n d i Doctores, elementa v e l i n t ut di s c e r e prima", probably r e f e r t o the same home teaching as t h a t about which Q u i n t i l l a n speaks. In c o n t r a s t to t h i s I d e a l home .education of the c h i l d of the Republic and e a r l y Empire we have T a c i t u s ' black, p i c t u r e of what he a l l e g e s to have been the u s u a l home-life of h i s day? "Atnunc natus i n f a n s delegatur Graeculae a l i c u i a n c i l l a e , c u i adi u n g i t u r unus aut a l t e r ex omnibus s e r v i s , pie rumque v i l i s -simus, nec cuiquam s e r i o m i n i s t e r i o accommodatus. Horurn fabu-l i s et e r r o r i b u s t e n e r i s t a t i m et rudes animi imbuuntur; nec quisquam i n t o t a d.omo pens! habet, quid coram i n f a n t e domino aut d i c a t , aut f a c i a t : quando etiam i p s i parentes nec p r o b i -t a t i , neque modestiae, parvalos a s s u e f a c i u n t , sed l a s c i v i a e et d i c a c i t a t i \ per quae paulatim impudent!a i r r e p i t e t s u i a l i e n ! -que contemtus. lam vero p r o p r i a et p e c u l i a r i a huius u r b i s v i t i a paene i n ut e r o m a t r i s c o n c i p i m i h i v i d e n t u r , h i s t r i o n a l i s favor et gladiatorum equorumque s t u d i a : quibus occupatus et obsessus animus quantulum l o c i bonis a r t i b u s r e l i n q u . i t ? Quotum quernque i n v e n e r i s , q u i domi quicquam a l i u d loquatur?" * TRAINING. From about the age of seven the boy g e n e r a l l y OF GIRLS passed under the care of r e g u l a r school teachers, but the g i r l remained her mother's constant companion. Her schooling was n e c e s s a r i l y cut short because the Roman g i r l be~ -x "De Or at." , x x i x . , 36. Came a w i f e so young, aha there were many' t h i n g s t o l e a r n i n t h e 'meantime t h a t books do not t e a c h . "As a matter of f a c t , .such .wasthe d i s p a r i t y ©oinrnon between the, ages of w i f e and hus~ band t h a t the l a t t e r o f t e n began h i s m a r r i e d l i f e as a s o r t of f a t h e r and s c h o o l teacher as w e l l as spouse to h i s mate." n At t h e i r mother's sid e daughters were u s u a l l y to be found l e a r n i n g l e s s o n s of conduct, house management^ s p i n n i n g , weav-i n g , and sewing. The l a t t e r were important since most of the c l o t h i n g even i n the n o b l e s t f a m i l i e s w a s : l i k e l y to be home-made. By her mother then was the daughter i n i t i a t e d i n t o a l l the m y s t e r i e s of household economy and f i t t e d to take her p l a c e as the m i s t r e s s of a household of her own, to be a Roman "ma-t r o n a " , the most d i g n i f i e d p o s i t i o n to which a woman c o u l d a s p i r e i n the a n c i e n t world. TRAINING The boy, except d u r i n g the hours of s c h o o l , was OF BOYS e q u a l l y h i s f a t h e r ' s companion, and by seeing what he d i d and s h a r i n g i n i t he l e a r n e d h i s f u t u r e d u t i e s . As the good o l d customs waned t h i s companionship of f a t h e r s somewhat waned a l s o but I t s t i l l remained one of the w o r t h i e s t f e a t u r e s of the Roman t r a i n i n g . Even a man of h i g h rank was c r i t i c i z e d i f he l e f t h i s sons too much to the guidance of p a i d t u t o r s or of s l a v e s . Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i . 1) emphasizes the f a t h e r - s o n companionship: " i g i t u r nato f i l i o p a t e r spem de i l l o primum quam optimam c a p i a t , i t a d i l i g e n t i o r a p r i n c i p i i s f l e t . " * W. B.McDaniel,"Roman P r i v a t e L i f e and I t s S u r v i v a l s " , p. 74. 37, v./'H-orape.; .(-"Satv1',..];;.. i v . .103-0.29) gives us a picture of his father's care and sacrifice for the. education of his son;- the opening of this passage reveals rea l feeling: •\ " . . i . in sue v i t pater" optimus hoc me," :Many: scenes of c h i l d - l i f e depicted on sarcophagi and other works of art give similar pleasing evidence of the interest taken by parents in the daily occupations of their children. . If the father was. a farmer, as a l l Romans were in earlier times, the boy helped in the fie l d s and learned to plow, plant and reap. If the father was a man of high position and lived 'CITIZENSHIP V- in the Capital the lad, standing by his father's "solium", would receive his f i r s t lessons in law, in pol i t i c s , and in constitutional usages when the clients, the dependants of the house, trooped into the "atrium" in the early morning hours to pay their respects to their patron or to ask his advice and assistance in their affa i r s . When the h a l l was thrown open and high fe s t i v a l was held, the lad would also be present and hear the talk over the questions of the day or the great.traditions of the past. Even when the father dined abroad i t was usual for his young sons to accompany him, and either at the common table or at small tables of their own to hear whatever might be discussed. The boy would also listen to and sometimes take part in the songs, celebrating: great heroes, which were sung at such ban-quets. How the reverence always f e l t to be due to the young tended, to check any possible license of speech is shown by the words of old Cato: "disgraceful language is no less to be 38. avoided when a boy i s there, than i f the Sacred. V i r g i n s were pres e n t . " * On great occasions, when the cabinets i n the "atrium" were opened and the wax busts' of the ancestors d i s p l a y e d , the boy would always be present to l e a r n the h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s of the f a m i l y of which he was a p a r t , and w i t h i t the h i s t o r y of Rome and i t s n a t i o n a l heroes. When the body of some famous s o l d i e r or statesman was c a r r i e d outside the w a l l s to be bu r i e d or burnt, he would be taken to hear the o r a t i o n pronounced over the b i e r . ** For a p e r i o d , too, i f we may b e l i e v e a quaint s t o r y , sons enjoyed the p r i v i l e g e of att e n d i n g meetings of the senate with t h e i r f a t h e r s a n d . l i s t e n i n g to the d i s c u s s i o n s there and so becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h the p o l i c i e s of the s t a t e . But t h i s had t o be stopped, we are t o l d , because mothers t r i e d to make t h e i r boys div u l g e the s e c r e t s of the sessions. The son, of course, would r e g u l a r l y be taken to the forum when h i s f a t h e r was an advocate or concerned i n a p u b l i c t r i a l . And so i n t h i s i n f o r m a l but very e f f e c t i v e manner he l e a r n t the p r a c t i c a l d u t i e s of c i t i z e n s h i p . RELIGION I f i t was the duty of the f a t h e r to act as p r i e s t i n some temple of the State ( f o r the p r i e s t s were not a c l a s s apart from t h e i r f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s ) , or to conduct the * As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 13. Po l y b i n s , v i . 53, 39. worship i n some chapel of the f a m i l y , the l a d would act as " c a m i l l u s " or acolyte and so l e a r n the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l , the f a i t h f u l discharge of which would secure the favour of the gods '9 and the b a l d legends connected w i t h i t . This r i t u a l and l e g -end he was X*) duty hound to hand on to h i s sons i n t u r n . Thus a hoy's r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s were a l s o l e a r n t at h i s f a t h e r ' s s i d e . Prudentius, a l a t e L a t i n poet who was a C h r i s t i a n , des-c r i b e s g r a p h i c a l l y ("Contra Symmachi Orationem" i . 197-218) how c h i l d r e n from t h e i r e a r l i e s t years were . f a m i l i a r ' w i t h the . r i t e s of paganism. The young h e i r worshipped whatever h i s grey-haired ancestors had poi n t e d out as worthy of his rever-ence; he saw the hea r t h and i t s gods d a i l y honoured w i t h v o t i v e perfume. He.became imbued w i t h the s p i r i t of h i s creed long before he marvelled a t the splendour of the worship of the Im p e r i a l c i t y , . a n d learned t o count a l l things true which the Senate h e l d as t r u t h . These statements were made of a. l a t e r time but we need not doubt that what was best i n the o l d Roman r e l i g i o n was due to the home. Indeed, u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Greek philosophy, w i t h I t s various systems of reasoned morals, there was no r e l i g i o n or moral i n s t r u c t i o n given any-where e l s e but i n the home. I t i s h a r d l y necessary to say that t h i s r e l i g i o u s side of education was an education i n the p r a c t i c e of c u l t , and not i n any k i n d of creed or idea about the gods; but so f a r as i t went i t s i n f l u e n c e was good, as i n s t i l l i n g the h a b i t of reverence and the sense of duty from a very e a r l y age. 40. PHYSICAL Under the Republic, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n a d d i t i o n to TRAINING a l l the t r a i n i n g mentioned, as every Roman was bred a s o l d i e r , another duty of the fath e r -was to t r a i n , h i s son i n the use of arms and i n the various m i l i t a r y e x e r c i s e s , as w e l l as i n the manly sports of r i d i n g , swimming, w r e s t l i n g , throwing the -javelin, and boxing. I n these e x e r c i s e s b o d i l y s t r e n g t h and a g i l i t y were kept i n view, r a t h e r than the grace of movement and symmetrical development of form, on which the Greeks l a i d so much s t r e s s . Under the Empire complaints were made tha t the sturdy t r a i n i n g t o endure hardships i n prepara-t i o n f o r warfare was disappearing from H e l l e n i c effeminacy; t h a t " ... n e s c i t equo r u d i s Haerere ingenuus puer, ' Venarique timet; ludere d o c t i o r , Sen Graeco iubeas trocho, Seus mails v e t i t a l e g i b u s a l e a . " * Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i . 6 ) makes an i n t e r e s t i n g remark as t o what the I d e a l parents' education should be w i t h a view to -bringing up t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the best way: "In parentibus vero quam plurimum esse e r u d i t i o n i s optaverim, nec de patribus tantum 1oquor." In another passage he enjoins parents to be c a r e f u l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s education and i n t h e i r choice * Horace, "Odes" i i i , 24. 54 f , 41. of "paedagogi", * and teachers. He a l s o advises against grudging expenditure on so important a matter as education and urges a l l parents to take an i n t e r e s t i n what t h e i r c h i l -dren are l e a r n i n g . Of course p u b l i c o p i n i o n s t r o n g l y condemned parents who denied t h e i r c h i l d r e n at l e a s t a l i t t l e s c h ooling, w i t h the r e s u l t that wholly i l l i t e r a t e persons were r a r e . PAEDAGOGUS At about the age of seven hoys passed out of the care of women slaves i n t o that of men. I t had long been the custom i n Greece f o r hoys to be pl a c e d under the charge of s l a v e - t u t o r s , c a l l e d "paedagogi". In Rome even as e a r l y as Plautus ("Bacchld.es" i i i . 3) and Terence ("Phormio" I . 2) we f i n d the Greek word i n use. But soon i t came t o be the recog-n i z e d term, and we f i n d i t r e g u l a r l y i n use under the Empire. I t i s o f t e n used, i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and i t i s quite r e g u l a r i n Q u i n t i l i a n . The "paedagogus" was u s u a l l y an e l d e r l y man, s e l e c t e d f o r h i s good character and tru s t w o r t h i n e s s and expected to keep the boy out of a l l harm, moral x-* as w e l l as p h y s i c a l , and look a f t e r h i s manners. Too of t e n , however, slaves were assigned * P l i n y ("Ep". i i i . 3) gives s i m i l a r advice: " c u i i n hoc lub-r i c o a e t a t i s non praeceptor modo, sed custos etiam rectorque quaerendus e s t . " >&* This assignment of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the boy's morals to the "paedagogus" came to be an inducement to some parents to renounce t h e i r proper work of s u p e r v i s i o n . AD LTJDTJM t o t h e s e d u t i e s w h e n a g e o r i l l - h e a l t h u n f i t t e d t h e m f o r o t h e r w o r k . A s t o t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i . 8 ) h a s a s h r e w d r e m a r k : " D e p a e d a g o g i s h o c a m p l i u s , u t a u t s i n t e r u d i t i p l e n e , q u a m p r i m a m e s s e c u r a m v e l i m , a u t s e n o n e s s e e r u d i t o s s c i a n t " ; o t h e r w i s e t h e y a r e a p t t o h e a s s u m -i n g a n d o v e r b e a r i n g , a n d t e a c h n o t h i n g b u t t h e i r o w n f o l l y . I n s h o r t , f o r t h e m " a l i t t l e l e a r n i n g i s a d a n g e r o u s t h i n g . " T h e b o y w a s n i g h t a n d d a y a t t e n d e d b y h i s " p a e d a g o g u s " , w h o a c c o m p a n i e d h i m t o s c h o o l , r e m a i n e d d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n s , 43. and saw hira s a f e l y home again when school was out. To a i d the constant s u p e r v i s i o n , Augustus reserved f o r the "paedagogi" s p e c i a l seats i n the t h e a t r e , c l o s e to where the boys s a t . Varro (apud Ion. p. "477)*defInes the d u t i e s of the "paeda-gogus" i n a well-known saying: " e d u c i t o b s t e t r i x , educat nut-r i x , i n s t i t u i t paedagogus, docet maglster." The scope of h i s r e g u l a r d u t i e s i s c l e a r l y shown by the L a t i n words used some-times i n s t e a d of "paedagogus": "pedisequus", "comes", "custos," "monitor", end " r e c t o r " . He was addressed by h i s ward as "dominus". . ' I t was not the duty of these men t o give i n s t r u c t i o n , despite the meaning of the E n g l i s h d e r i v a t e s , except perhaps, i n some cases, i n quite the elements of education. A f t e r the l e a r n i n g of Greek became general a Greek s l a v e , who knew some-t h i n g , and often a good d e a l , of Greek l i t e r a t u r e , was u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r the p o s i t i o n i n order that the boy might not f o r -get what he had learned from h i s nurse and might l e a r n to . speak and read the Greek language. In c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r charges these men sometimes had to depend on c o r p o r a l punishment, by means of which they seem to have had the r i g h t to compel obedience, r a t h e r than upon moral suasion; f o r the boys soon learned the normal Roman's i l l -concealed contempt f o r the people across "the A d r i a t i c . Thus the Roman boy was i n the anomalous p o s i t i o n of having t o sub-mit to chastisement from" men whom as men he despised. * As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 42, 44. The duties of the "paedagogus" ceased when the boy assumed the "toga v i r i l i s " , but often the same warm affection continued between them as between the woman and her nurse.' The reward of the attendant, when his task was completed, was usually his freedom. In a wealthy house each g i r l as well as the boys would have a "paedagogus" assigned to her. Sometimes, but less com-monly, an old female slave acted as the escort and governess of a g i r l . Boys of good position were followed to school not only by the "paedagogus" but also by a "capsarius" , * a slave whose duty i t was to carry the "capsa", a cylindrical box containing the r o l l of books needed for study, and the tablets for writing on. Many a boy, however, had no "capsarius", and carried his own bag, as Horace ("Sat," i . 6. 74) says of the centurions' sons: "Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto." Quintilian (I. 1, 11) mentions a knowledge of correct language expression as being very important in any companion: "Si taraen non continget, quales maxime velim nutrices, pueros, paedagogos habere, at unus certe s i t assiduus loquendi non im~ peritus, qui, s i qua erunt ab his praesente alumno dicta v i t i -ose, corrigat protinus nec insidere i l l i sinat." * Juvenal, "Satira" x. 117: "Quem sequitur custos angustae vernula capsae". Suetonius, "Hero" xxxvi: "Constat, quosdam cum paedagogis et capsariis uno prandio necatos." CHAPTER III ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Children were sent to the "ludus raagistri" or "Indus l i t -t e r a t i " * at ahout the age of seven and usually spent some five years on the elementary subjects,--reading, writing, and arith-metic. Both Horace and Martial give us pictures of the elem-" entary type of school but their references are to such things as the discipline, school hours, and holidays, rather than to the subject matter and teaching methods which we are to con-sider in this part of our study. The few other writers who do make reference to the "ludus raagistri" have mentioned, for the most part, only such matters as do Horace and Martial. And so, after a l l that has been written on Roman education, the pre-cise details of work in the elementary schools are by no means certain save in so far as Quintiiian, in outlining the education of an orator, discusses the f i r s t stages of education. We must not, however, b e l i t t l e what Qulntilian has le f t us for he did not consider i t below his dignity to give his advice on the teaching of the elementary .subjects in their earliest stages with the result that we have many very interesting remarks on "methods." The work of the "ludus" no doubt varied a great deal from * A wealthy father, of course, might, by providing a private tutor, see his son-through'his-whole education at home. 46. time t o time as i t has done I n our own present day schools and depended on the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the teacher. READING- Under the R e p u b l i c books seem t o have been scarce and c o s t l y . I f any books at a l l were used i n the elementary schools, the p u p i l s must have made them f o r themselves by w r i t -i n g from the teacher's d i c t a t i o n . D i c t a t i o n t h e r e f o r e became a matter of much importance f o r by means of i t s e l e c t poems could be w r i t t e n down and learned by heart when the complete works of the poets c o u l d not be had. The poor teacher might have a few musty r o l l s of papyrus which h i s charges would be allowed to handle g i n g e r l y , but "Readers" as understood i n l a t e r years were unknown. Books continued scarce and c o s t l y u n t i l the establishment of l a r g e o r g a n i s a t i o n s of copying s l a v e s . By means of these c o p y i s t s books were produced so abundantly that under the Empire they were q u i t e cheap and p l e n t i f u l . So every school boy may w e l l have had h i s own text-books c o n s i s t i n g mainly, no doubt, of the standard poets. Even when r o l l s became cheap, however, the p r a c t i c e of a good deal of d i c t a t i o n was kept up, i t being l a r g e l y p r a c t i s e d w i t h a view t o improving s p e l l i n g . In o r a l reading great s t r e s s was l a i d upon the importance of a c l e a r and c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The sounds were easy enough but q u a n t i t y was hard to master. The teacher would pronounce f i r s t s y l l a b l e by s y l l a b l e , then the separate words, and f i n a l l y the complete sentence, * the p u p i l s pronouncing * The " p r a e l e c t i o " . 4 7 , a f t e r him at the tops of t h e i r v o i c e s , Q u i n t i l i a n ' s advice w i t h respect t o the teaching of proper v o c a l i z a t i o n i s ( I . v i i i . 1, 2 ) : " ... l e c t i o , i n qua puer u t s c i a t , u b i suspendere "f s p i r i t u m debeat, quo loco versus d i s t i n g u e r e , u b i claudatur sensus, unde i n c i p i a t , quando a t t o l l e n d a v e l summittenda s i t vox, quo quidque f l e x u , q u i d l e n t i u s , c e l e r i u s , c o n c i t a t i u s , l e n i u s dicendum, demonstrari n i s i i n opere i p s o non p o t e s t , ... ut omnia I s t a facere p o s s i t , i n t e l l i g a t . S i t autem i n pr i m i s l e c t i o v i r i l i s et cum s u a v i t a t e quadam gr a v i s et non quidem prosae s i m i l i s . " Then of .reading g e n e r a l l y he says ( I . i . 33): "Certa s i t ergo i n p r i m i s l e c t i o , deinde coniuncta et d i u l e n t i o r , donee e x e r c i t a t i o n e contingat emendata v e l o c i -t a s . " This attachment of so much importance t o reading and the d e s i r e to have so much care l a v i s h e d on i t was t y p i c a l of a l l Romans and Greeks. Q u i n t i l l a n disapproves of the common p r a c t i c e of c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g the names and the sequence of the l e t t e r s without r e -gard to t h e i r form and f u n c t i o n ; * he f e e l s that such a method r e a l l y hinders the c h i l d ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of the l e t t e r s when arranged i n a d i f f e r e n t order. He p r e f e r s the s y l l a b i c method * "De I n s t . Orat." I . i . 24, 25: "Heque enim mihi i l l u d saltern p l a c e t , quod f i e r i i n p l u r i m i s video, ut l i t t e r a r u m nomina et contextual p r i u s quam formas p a r v u l i d i s c a n t . Obstat hoc ag-n i t i o n i earum non intendentibus'mox animum ad ipsos ductus, dum anteeedentem memoriam sequuntur." 48. of l e a r n i n g to read, i n connection w i t h which he says ( I . i . 3 0 ) " S y l l a b i s nullum compendium e s t ; perdiscendae omnes nec, ut f i t plerumque, d i f f i c i l l i m a quaeque earum d i f f e r e n d a , ut i n nominibus s c r i b e n d i s deprehendantur How as to the subject-matter of reading,--the o r i g i n a l " f i r s t reader", as we have already noted, c o n s i s t e d of the "XII Tabulae" w i t h respect to which C i c e r o ("De Legibus" i i . 23) says: "Discebamus enim p u e r i X I I , ut carmen necessarium: i quas iam nemo d i s c l t . " Q u i n t i l l a n ( I . v i i i . 5) gives very sound reasons why Ho-mer and V i r g i l should be read even by c h i l d r e n of the elementary school age; "Ideoque optime i n s t i t u t u m e s t , u t ab Homero at-que V e r g i l l o l e c t i o i n c i p e r e t , quanquam ad i n t e l l i g e n d a s eorum v i r t u t e s f i r m i o r e i u d i c i o opus e s t ; sed huic r e i superest tern-pus, . ne que enim semel legentur. I n t e r i m et s u b l i m i t a t e h e r o i carminis animus adsurgat et ex magnitudine rerum s p i r i t u m ducat et optimi s imbuatur." Of these, and such as these, then, d i d the reading matter of the Roman boy In the elementary school c o n s i s t . The sub-stance of what was read was, of course, explained' and gener-a l l y the o l d precept was observed: "multum legendum esse, non multa." x-Our d i s c u s s i o n of reading would be Incomplete without a word about "memory" to which much a t t e n t i o n was p a i d by the Romans. As w i t h us the Ten Commandments are l e a r n t by heart, * P l i n y , "Ep." v i i . 9. 49. the " X I I Tabulae" were by the Roman boys. T r a d i t i o n a l - songs i n p r a i s e of heroes were a l s o memorised and chanted, declama-t i o n and modulation of tone always r e c e i v i n g great a t t e n t i o n . Then too the p u p i l s were made to l e a r n by heart a l l s o r t s of ga-eraie verses c o n t a i n i n g maxims and precepts, many of which would be taken from t h e i r r e a d i n g . Here are a few specimens of " s e n t e n t i a e " taken from the mimes of P u b l i u s .Syr us; i t w i l l be seen t h a t they convey much shrewd good sense and occasion-a l l y have the true r i n g of humanity as w e l l as the f l a v o u r of S t o i c " s a p e n t i a " : Avarus ipse miseriae causa est suae. Audendo v i r t u s c r e s c i t , tardando timor. C i c a t r i x c o n s c i e n t i a e pro vulnere e s t . Fortunam c i t i u s r e p e r i a s quam r e t i n e a s . ' Gravissima est p r o b i hominis i r a c u n d i a . Homo t o t i e n s m o r i t u r , quotiens a m i t t i t suos. Homo v i t a e commodatus, non donatus e s t . Humanitatis optima est c e r t a t i o . lucundum n i l e s t , n i s i quod r e f i c i t v a r i e t a s . Malum est c o n s i l i u m quod mutari non po t e s t . Minus saepe pecces, s i s c i a s quod n e s c i a s . Perpetuo v i n e i t q u i u t i t u r d e m e n t i a . Quis i u s iurandum servat, quovis p e r v e n i t . Ubi peccat aetas maior, male d i s c i t minor .-K y. As quoted from the e d i t i o n of Mr. Bickford-Smith by W. W. Fowler, " S o c i a l L i f e at Rome i n the Age of Ci c e r o " , p. 185. 50, We have quoted these to show that Roman ch i l d r e n , were not with-out opportunity even i n e a r l y school days' of l a y i n g to heart much that might l e a d them t o good and generous conduct i n l a t e r l i f e , as w e l l as to p r a c t i c a l wisdom. But we know the f a t e of our copy book maxims; we know t h a t i t i s not through them that our c h i l d r e n become good men and women, but by the examples and the un-systematised precepts of parents and teachers. No such neat "sen t e n t i a e " can do much good without a sanction of greater f o r c e than any t h a t i s inherent i n them. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . I . 3 6 ) e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y suggests that mem-ory may be looked upon as entertainment: "Etiam d i c t a c l a r -orum virorum et e l e c t o s ex p o e t i s maxime (namque eorum cog-n i t i o p a r v i s g r a t i o r est) locos ediscere i n t e r lusum l i c e t . " He goes on to point out how important the t r a i n i n g of memory is* . . "Ham et maxime ne c e s s a r i a est o r a t o r i ... meraoria, et ea praecipue f i r m a t u r atque a l i t u r e x e r c i t a t i o n e . " He i s s u e s , however, one caution w i t h respect to the matter of memory ( I . v i i i . 4 ) : " i n p r i m i s ... non modo quae d i s e r t a sed v e l magis quae honesta sunt, d i s c a n t , " There are many references made by w r i t e r s to quotations l e a r n t by them i n t h e i r childhood. Jerome ("Ad Lact." 107) x-quoted a verse w i t h the remark " l e g i quondam i n s c h o l i s puer" and Phaedrus ("Pabulae Aesopiae" i i i . Epilogus 3 3 , 4) says: "Ego, quondam l e g i quam puer sententiam, Pa lam m u t t i r e p l e b e i o piaculum e s t . " * As quoted by A, S. W i l k i n s , p. 52. ' 51. WRITING Q.uintilian ( I . i . 27) sums up admirably the method by which children were commonly taught to write. The means he recommends of f a c i l i t a t i n g the teaching of the f i r s t stages of writing i s : "Cum vero iam ductus sequi cooperit, non inutile e r i t eas tabellae quam op time' insculpi, ut per i l l o s velut sulcos ducatur stylus. Nam neque errabit, quemadmodum in ceris (continebitur enim utrinque marginibus neque extra praescriptum egredi poterit) et celerius ac saepius sequendo certa vestigia firmabit articulos, neque egebit adiutorio manum suam manu superimposita regentis." There was of course the method of teaching writing, which had always to some extent been used, in which the teacher guides the pupil's hand by holding i t with his own : "Digi t i illorum (puerorum) tenentur et aliena manu per litterarum simulacra ducuntur; deinde imitari iubentur proposita et ad i l i a reformare chirographum." >fr When once the letters had been learnt, further teaching was given in writing by means of the " dictata magistr-i", moral sentiments of a similar nature to those which were assigned to be memorized. Quintilian (1. i . 35, 36) emphasizes this copy-ing of lines which, convey moral lessons: " ... i i quoque ver-sus, qui ad imitationem scribendi proponentur, non otiosas velim sententias habeant sed honestum aliquid monentes. Pro-sequitur haec memoria in senectutem et impressa animo rudi usque ad mores p r o f i c l e t Q u i n t i l l a n also thinks that a * Seneca, "Spistula" xciv. 51. TABELLAE c h i l d , i n l e a r n i n g to w r i t e , should not be c o n s t a n t l y e x e r c i s e d on ordinary words, but on the more unusual words, that he may acquire betimes a knowledge of terms which, at a l a t e r p e r i o d of h i s l i f e , may be u s e f u l t o him. Nor does Q u i n t i l i a n lose the chance of e n l a r g i n g on the advantage, e s p e c i a l l y f o r a l i t e r a r y man, of a r a p i d and l e g i -ble handwriting, "quae f e r e ab hone s t i s n e g l i g i s o l e t . " * He then goes on to point out how much fu t u r e progress and c u l t i -v a t i o n depend on the a r t of w r i t i n g . As f o r the a c t u a l w r i t i n g equipment and m a t e r i a l s , the us u a l w r i t i n g surface used was the wax t a b l e t which'resembled our s l a t e of a generation ago. This t a b l e t was c a l l e d " t a b e l l a " , " p u g i l l a r i s " , or simply " c e r a " . Ordinary t a b l e t s were made of two or three t h i n s t r i p s of wood joined together l i k e l a t e r - d a y book-covers, and spread over the i n s i d e w i t h a c o a t i n g of wax. The leaves might be made of f i n e c i t r u s wood or even of i v o r y . * "De I n s t . Orat." I . i , 28. STILUS * Only the inner side of the leaf was written on, a raised wooden "border serving to protect the writing when two or more tablets were joined together or made into a book ("duplices", " t r i p l i -ces", "multiplices"). The outer surface or cover was often adorned with ivory carvings, jewels, or precious metals. The implement used for incising or erasing the letters ("stilum vertere") was the "stilu s " or "graphium". 'When some dexterity had been acquired with the "s t i l u s " , the pupil was taught to use the reed pen and write with ink on papyrus or parchment. This kind of writing was done with an ink (atra-mentum librarium) made of a solution of soot and gum. There was also a red ink, rich and permanent, for ornamental lines. But parchment and papyrus were far too expensive to be used for elementary school exercises and so practically a l l v/ork in this grade of school was done in the "tabella" with the " s t i -lus". Then, too, as Quintilian says (X. i i i . 31): ' " scribi optime ceris, in quibus facillima est ratio delendi." Since, however, i t was impossible to read with any convenience writing on more than one side of the ordinary papyrus discarded books were often used for schoolboys' exercises or for mere scrib-* Pig. 227 in "A Guide to the Exhibition Illustrating Greek and Roman Life" of the British Museum, Dept. of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 54. b l i n g paper.* ARITHMETIC The Roman system of nu m e r i c a l n o t a t i o n , which was -.very cumbrous, made the study of a r i t h m e t i c f a r from easy w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t i t s study was c a r r i e d on l a t e r than i n the other elementary s u b j e c t s . Yet i n s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t y of a r i t h m e t i c a l computation every Roman had t o be able to keep h i s own accounts and not be too dependent on h i s s e r v a n t s . From the s m a l l inn-keeper to the gre a t c a p i t a l i s t , every man of bus-i n e s s needed to be p e r f e c t l y a t home i n r e c k o n i n g sums of money. The m a g i s t r a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y quaestors and a e d i l e s , had s t a f f s of c l e r k s who must have been s k i l l e d accountants;. the p r o v i n -c i a l governors and a l l who were engaged i n c o l l e c t i n g the t r i -butes of the p r o v i n c e s , as w e l l as i n l e n d i n g the money t o enable the tax-payer to pay, were c o n s t a n t l y busy w i t h t h e i r • l e d g e r s . T h i s great importance of c a l c u l a t i o n i n the running of the.Empire's business had been the cause of even the humbler i n h a b i t a n t s growing f a m i l i a r w i t h the Roman a p t i t u d e f o r a r i t h -m e t i c . The c h i l d r e n might l e a r n a r i t h m e t i c a t s c h o o l • w i t h the r e s t of t h e i r s u b j e c t s or go t o a s p e c i a l a r i t h m e t i c teacher, " c a l c u l a t o r , , " * * The c a l c u l a t o r was e n t i t l e d to charge e x t r a * M a r t i a l , "Eplgrammata" i v . .8-6. II:/. " I n v e r s a p u e r i s arande c h a r t a . " Mart., " E p i g . " x. 62. 4. 5 5 , l a r g e f e e s , although one suspects t h a t most of h i s p u p i l s were eq u i t e s ' sons who would probably engage i n commerce. I t i s not c e r t a i n whether such teachers had schools of t h e i r own or taught i n the ordinary elementary schools. Probably there were instances of both arrangements. A r i t h m e t i c was, as amongst the Greeks, g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d on i n two ways, e i t h e r by making signs w i t h the f i n g e r s or by a counting t a b l e ("abacus"). Mental c a l c u l a t i o n was of cour se emphasized.. We' have s t i l l preserved to us elaborate accounts of the manner i n which the f i n g e r s were used f o r c a l c u l a t i o n as f o r example C i c e r o ("ad Atticum" v. 21)% "hoc quid i n t e r s i t , s i tuos d i g i t o s n o v i , c e r t e habes subdueturn" and Ovid ("Epistula ex Ponto" i l . 3 , I S ) : "at r e d i t u s lam qulsque suos amat, et s i b i quid s i t U t i l e , s o l i c i t i s supputat a r t i c u l i s . " The l e f t hand was used to s i g n i f y numbers below a hundred and the r i g h t , numbers above i t ; or amounts were i n d i c a t e d by the f i n g e r - j o i n t s and by touching d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the body. For more elaborate c a l c u l a t i o n s an "abacus" was employed. One k i n d was q u i t e simple. In t h i s pebbles ("calculi') were used and any operation of a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n could e a s i l y be performed, provided the numbers were not too l a r g e . When t h i s was the case i t was necessary t o mark the board out by l i n e s , so that pebbles or v a r i o u s l y coloured b a l l s placed on , these had a conventional v a l u e . There was one l i n e f o r u n i t s , one f o r f i v e s , one f o r tens, one f o r f i f t i e s , one f o r hundreds, o o o o o o 0 M G X c 2 I o o 0 o o -a o o o & o o 0 0 o o o o o 0) o o o o o o o o * A R OMAN G OUSTING BOARD K The pebbles nearest the numbered d i v i d i n g p a r t i t i o n were those which counted. Each pebble above when moved do?mward counted f i v e of those i n the same d i v i s i o n below. The board now shows 8,760,254. one f o r f i v e hundreds, and one f o r thousands. On such boards not only l a r g e r sums could, be de a l t w i t h , but i t was p o s s i b l e t o ' m u l t i p l y and d i v i d e . Another k i n d of "abacus" was worked by means of s l i d i n g knobs, moving i n sunken channels, of which eight shorter ones, each f u r n i s h e d w i t h one knob, face e i g h t longer ones, each provided w i t h four knobs. The d e t a i l s of the working are r a t h e r complicated, but the general p r i n c i p l e i s the same as the simpler k i n d , the value of each si g n de-pending on i t s p o s i t i o n , according as the mark was I, V, X, L, C, D, 'M. Horace ("De Arte P o e t i c a " 323 f.) complains of the mono-tony of l e a r n i n g a r i t h m e t i c : , * As i n E. P. Cubberley, "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Education," p. 34. 57. "Roman! p u e r i l o n g i s r a t i o n i b u s assem Discunt i n partes centum diducere. D i c a t F i l i u s A l b i n i , S i de quincunce remota est Uncia, quid superat? •Poteras d i x i s s e , T r i e n s . Eu!" Augustine ("Confessiones" I . 13) a l s o says: "unum et unum duo, duo et duo quattuor odiosa c a n t i o m i h i erafr." An orator was expected, according to Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . x. 35), not only to'be able to make h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s i n c o u r t , but a l s o to show c l e a r l y to h i s audience ho?/ he a r r i v e d at h i s r e s u l t s . And so a r i t h m e t i c was an important subject to the many who a s p i r e d to becoming o r a t o r s , GEOGRAPHY Geography does not seem t o have been s t u d i e d i n the schools, c e r t a i n l y not g e n e r a l l y , u n t i l q u i t e l a t e dur-ing the Empire. The f o l l o w i n g quotation from Eumenius ("De Restaur. Schol." 120)* dates from Gaul i n the f o u r t h century a f t e r .Christ: "Videat iuventus praeterea i n i l l i s p o r t i c i b u s et q u o t i d i e spectet omnes t e r r a s et cuncta marla et quidquid i n v i c t i s s i m i p r i n c i p e s urbium, gentium, nationum ,,, devincunt, Siquidem i l l i c ... i l l u s t r a n d a e pueritae causa, quo mani f e s t i u s o c u l l s d i s c e r e n t u r , quae d i f f i c i l l u s p e r c i p i u n t u r omnium cum nominibus suis locorum s i t u s , s p a t i a , i n t e r v a l l a d e s c r i p t a sunt." The reference of St. Jerome ("Ep." 60. 7 ) * to the use of maps i s not any e a r l i e r than t h i s quotation of Eumenius, But P r o p e r t i u s ("Elegiae" i v . 3. 37), » As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 45, 6. 5 8 . "Cogor et e t a b u l a p i c t o s ediscere mundos," proves the use of maps i n p r i v a t e houses, i f not i n schools, during the e a r l y Empire. Varro too ("De Re R u s t i c a " I . i i . 1) has a reference to a " p i c t a I t a l i a " , on the w a l l s of a temple. PHYSICAL In s p i t e of the i n f l u e n c e of Greek models, the EDUCATION Romans never f u l l y adopted the p r i n c i p l e of a .harmonious and proportioned education of. a l l the f a c u l t i e s . In e a r l y days the aim of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g at Rome had'been simply t o equip the youth f o r war, not as at Athens to develop b o d i l y h e a l t h , beauty, and grace. A c c o r d i n g l y , though the e x e r c i s e s of the "gymnasi," were introduced at Rome, conserva-t i v e f a t h e r s disapproved, w i t h the r e s u l t that gymnastic, gen-e r a l l y speaking, continued to have a p u r e l y h y g i e n i c and m i l i -t a r y aim. The elaborate t r a i n i n g of the a t h l e t e and the s t r i c t regu-l a t i o n , of h i s food and d r i n k were thought l i k e l y to hinder rather than help i n bearing the hardships of d a i l y l i f e / We f i n d mention of b a l l - p l a y i n g of various k i n d s , the throwing of spears and q u o i t s , swimming, r i d i n g , and when occasion o f f e r e d , hunting. But Rome had no such t h i n g as a n a t i o n a l game. In the time of her spreading conquests i n t e r e s t turned r a t h e r t o that i n d i v i d u a l e f f i c i e n c y that m i l i t a r i s m demanded. A youth must run and jump and wrestle: and fence because only so could he hope t o overcome h i s f o e , or, i f need be, l i v e to f i g h t another day by making a speedy escape. In the Greek "gymnasia" the main object was to a t t a i n that 59. p e r f e c t development of the p h y s i c a l powers, which might ensure ease and grace of movement; and the highest honours were bes-towed on those a t h l e t e s , a t the great n a t i o n a l games who d i d the best i n the various competitions. To the Roman " g r a v i t a s " i n the b e t t e r days i t would have seemed unworthy to att a c h such importance to what were a f t e r a l l but anusements, and not p u r s u i t s to which a c i t i z e n could p r o p e r l y devote months and years of t r a i n i n g . To frequent "gymnasia", as the Greek youth d i d , was r e -garded by the Romans of the time Of Cicero and even l a t e r as encouraging i d l e n e s s and as dangerous t o morals, or to quote Cicero's own words ("De Rep." i v . 4 ) ; " i u v e n t u t i s vero exer-c i t a t i o quam absurda i n gymnasiis." The complete nu d i t y usual., i n the contests of the " p a l a e s t r a " outraged the Roman notions of decorum; expression i s given to these f e e l i n g s by Ennius i n the line*. " F l a g i t i i p r i n c i p i u m est nudare i n t e r c i v e s corpora."* Hence the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Greek e x e r c i s e s at Rome was long postponed and b i t t e r l y opposed. Such language as that reported by T a c i t u s ("Annales" x i v . 20) as having been used In r e s i s t i n g the. i n n o v a t i o n of a f e s t i v a l on Greek l i n e s i n honour of Nero, was doubtless an echo of what "had been used i n e a r l i e r times: "Ceterum a b o l i t o s ... amores exercendo. ... quid superesse ... armis meditentur?" Lucan ("De B e l l o C i v i l ! " v i i . 270) on the same subject says: * Apud C i c . , "Tusculanae Quaestiones" i v . 33. 60. " ... G r a l i s d e l e c t a inventus-". Gymnasiis a d e r i t studioque ignava p a l a e s t r a e Et v i x arm a f erens " P l i n y (H. N. xxxv. 168) says; "ceromatis quibus exercendo inventus n o s t r a c o r p o r i s . v i r e s p e r d i t animorum." The language of Seneca ("Ep." 88. 18) a l s o no doubt expresses the f e e l i n g s of many: " l u c t a t o r e s et totam oleo ac l u t o constantem s c i e n -tiam e x p e l l o ex h i s s t u d i i s l i b e r a l i b u s . " I t must be remembered however that the Romans d i d not make the acquaintance of the " Greek gymnastics when they formed an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a har-monious and w e l l - d e v i s e d system of c u l t u r e , but when they had already degenerated In too many cases i n t o a mere1 occasion f o r amusement and d i s p l a y . At ' a l a t e r date Seneca ("Ep." 15) has some i n t e r e s t i n g remarks on the extent to which the severer a t h l e t i c e x e r c i s e s were apt to encroach upon the time and strength which should be given t o the study of l i t e r a t u r e and philosophy. They nat-u r a l l y l e a d t o over-eating. Besides, the a t h l e t e had to put hi m s e l f at the orders of the t r a i n e r s , slaves of low r e p u t a t i o n , "quibus ad votura dies actus e s t . " Seneca hi m s e l f advises " e x e r c i t a t i o n e s et f a c i l e s et breves, quae corpus et sine mora l a s s e n t et tempori parcant, cuius praecipua r a t i o habenda e s t . " Among these he i n c l u d e s running, the use of dumb-bells, jump-i n g , both h i g h and broad, and another k i n d which he c a l l s " s a l -I a r i s " or "ut contumeliosius dicam, f u l l o n i u s " , which seems to have resembled the a c t i o n of men stamping on c l o t h e s i n order to wash them. I t i s somewhat amusing to f i n d Seneca, l i k e the . 6 1 » : elder Pliny, giving a decided preference to the "gestatio", or, as i t i s now humorously called, "carriage exercise", for "et corpus concuti't et studio non o f f i c i t , " though he reminds us that i t i s possible to study even while walking.; And so while Rome did not continue .for us the noble ex-ample that Greece set in, her prime by pursuing sport for sport's sake and shunning the sp i r i t of professionalism, yet she did transmit some of the Hellenic appreciation of physical training as a preservative of health, for i t was a Roman who said "mens s*^ in corpore ^ sano."-K ' • ' Quintilian advocates relaxation and play but he gives: us no indication of the amount of daily headwork he expected of a boy. He says ( I . i i i . 12) that "Mores quoque se inter Puden-dum simplicius detegunt"; while boys of tender years thus re-veal themselves unconsciously their faults can be corrected. The playground, then, would appear to have been with Quintilian part of the school. But in spite of this recommendation of Quintilian i t would appear -that physical education was one thing about^which tea-chers did not have to worry. The Romans merely wanted to see that their boys got exercise enough to keep them in good health,--they could not grasp the practical value of a train-ing that neither made the lads better soldiers nor better men of business. -x Juv. "Sat." x, 356. 62. DANCING Dancing was commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gymnastics and music by the Greeks. On i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n at Rome i t seems to.have found both warmer welcome and stronger o p p o s i t i o n even than gymnastics. Evidence of the l a t t e r i s abundant, Nepos, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n c o n t r a s t i n g the Greek and Roman a t t i t u d e t o -wards music and dancing says ("Eparainondas" I ) : "Scimus enim, musicam n o s t r i s moribus abesse a p r i n c i p i s persona; s a l t a r e vero etiam I n v i t i i s p o ni: quae omnia apud Graecos et g r a t a , et laude digna ducuntur." To c a l l a man a " s a l t a t o r " was a grievous i n s u l t , and t o be Y v i l l i n g " s a l t a r e i n f o r o " was a p r o v i n c i a l expression f o r the gr e a t e s t shamelessness as the l i n e of Cice r o ("Pro Murena" v i . 13) i n d i c a t e s : "nemo enim f e r e s a l t a t s o b r i u s , n i s i f o r t e i n s a n i t . " The di s a p p r o v a l of such an accomplishment was n a t u r a l l y even stronger i n the case of a woman: hence the well-known judgment passed by S a l l u s t ("Bellum C a t i l i n a r i u m " 25) on Sempronia: " p s a l l e r e , s a l t a r e .elegantius, quam necesse est probae," On the other hand the very p r o t e s t s against the a r t show how i t was growing i n favour. When Horace ("Odes" i i i , 6. 21) complains, "Motus d o c e r i gaudet Ionicos Matura v i r g o ...", he i s probably d e s c r i b i n g no imaginary e v i l . Of the extent to which i t was c a r r i e d a century before him we have some curious f i r s t - h a n d knowledge. Macrobius ("Satuk^iU i i i . 14) i n compar-in g the lux u r y of h i s own time t o that of an e a r l i e r day quotes from a speech of the younger S c i p i o , d e l i v e r e d i n B. C. 133: "Docentur p r a e s t i g i a s inhonestas, cum c i n a e d u l i s et sambuca p s a l t e r i o q u e emit In ludum h i s t r i o n u m , discunt cantare, quae maiores n o s t r i Ingenuis probro dueler voluerunt: eunt, inquam, In ludum s a l t a t o r l u r a i n t e r cinaedos v i r g i n e s puerique i n g e n u i . Haec cum m i l l ! quisquam narrabat, non poteram aniraum indue ere, ea l i b e r o s suos homines n o b i l e s docere, sed cum ductus sum i n ludum s a l t a t o r i u m , plus medius f i d i u s I n eo ludo v i d i p u e r i s v i r g i n i b u s q u e qulnquaginta, In h i s unum--quod me r e i publicae maxime miser!turn est--puerf~bu11aturn, p e t i t o r i s f i l i u m non min-or em annis duodecim, cum c r o t a l i s s a l t a r e quam saltationem im-pudicus servulus honeste s a l t a r e non posset." But Greek i n f l u e n c e r a r e l y went so f a r as to r a i s e these p u r s u i t s from the rank of mere amusements, and to give them a recognized place i n a r e g u l a r education. Under the Empire, however, dancing, p a r t a k i n g very much of the nature of c a l i s -t h e n ics and "deportment", d i d increase somewhat i n p o p u l a r i t y . MUSIC Music, which i s coupled w i t h dancing i n more than one of the quotations above, was always i n demand to a c e r t a i n extent i n the worship of the gods, e s p e c i a l l y such as were hon-oured "Graeco r i t u . " ,. On f e s t i v a l and r e l i g i o u s occasions, and i n solemn banquet the youth was accustomed i n the e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s t o a s s i s t i n chanting the n a t i o n a l songs. As e a r l y as B. C. 207 we f i n d L i v i u s Andronicus composing a hymn to be sung at a solemn "sup-p l i c a t l o " by Roman maidens, and Horace's "Carmen Saeculare" Is a f a m i l i a r instance of the same k i n d of considerably l a t e r date But though choruses of boys and maidens are not uncommonly 64. mentioned, there i s no reason to t h i n k that music took any important place i n the r e g u l a r education of an ordinary hoy or g i r l during the Republic or the e a r l y Empire. The m u s i c - g i r l s , who often appear i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n works of a r t as m i n i s t e r -i n g to the pleasure of the banqueters, were u s u a l l y e i t h e r slaves or freedwomen, and o f t e n f o r e i g n e r s . S i m i l a r l y the g u i l d of f l u t e - p l a y e r s , whose s e r v i c e s were e s s e n t i a l i n the r i t e s of some d e i t i e s , were p r o f e s s i o n a l and h i r e d performers, of Etruscan o r i g i n . Music was not, as among the Greeks, a domestic i n s t i t u t i o n and an a l l e v i a t o r of d a i l y l i f e . As an a r t i t was not c u l t i -vated nor was i t s t u d i e d w i t h a view to p l a y i n g on an i n s t r u -ment as i n Greece. By the Roman the horn and the trumpet were p r e f e r r e d to the l y r e and "cithara" which charmed the Greek. Music, l a t e r i n the Empire, began to r e c e i v e a c e r t a i n amount of r e c o g n i t i o n and was taught to boys and g i r l s of good b i r t h . But even then i t d i d not form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of edu-c a t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y speaking i t , l i k e dancing, continued to be looked upon as entertainment where amusement was s u p p l i e d by p a i d performers. What we have discussed as being the "study" of gymnastics, dancing, and music i n connection w i t h the elementary school was continued along w i t h the subjects of the secondary school cur-r i c u l u m of the "ludus grammatici". As the c h i l d became ol d e r , however, these " s p e c i a l " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r subjects came more and more to be s t u d i e d only i n so f a r as they c o n t r i b u t e d to the education of the o r a t o r . I t w i l l be, then, s o l e l y i n t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d study that we s h a l l discuss p h y s i c a l education, dancing, and music i n connection w i t h the secondary school cur-riculura of s t u d i e s although what we have s a i d i n t h i s chapter about them continues to apply t o them t o a considerable extent. CHAPTER TV . SECONDARY EDUCATION  THE . TH TR QDUO TI OH Among the r e s u l t s of contact w i t h other " 0? THE "LUPUS peoples t h a t f o l l o w e d the Punic, wars was GRAMMATICI" the extension of education at Rome be-yond the elementary and s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n s u b j e c t s . The -Greek language, as we have seen, came to be g e n e r a l l y learned and Greek ideas of education were i n some degree adopted. Schools were e s t a b l i s h e d i n which the c e n t r a l p a r t of the cur-r i c u l u m was the study of the Greek poets; a school 'of such a type we may r e f e r t o as the "ludus grammatici." As t o the date of the foundation of the secondary schools, taught by the "grammatici" we cannot' say d e f i n i t e l y ; we only know t h a t they e x i s t e d e a r l i e r than 148 B. C. Before t h a t date, some"of the ordinary " l u d i " may have c a r r i e d boys beyond the l i m i t s of a: primary education but we are not e n t i t l e d to go be-h i n d the a u t h o r i t y of" Suetonius, who t e l l s us that Crates I n t r o -duced the study of grammar at Rome.a We.refer, of course, only to schools: t h a t advanced i n s t r u c t i o n was given by Greek t u t o r s i n f a m i l i e s we know. Progress was hot, however, very r a p i d . About 140 B. C. there were, according to Suetonius, .-KK more than twenty c e l e b r a t e d "grammatici" at Rome, a l l , i t Is presumed, See quotation on p. 8. *-K "De Gram." i l l . ," .. ,«£ temporlbus qulbusdam super v i g l n t i celebres schelae f u i s s e i n Urbe tradantur." 67. teaching. , At f i r s t , doubtless, the Greek language was l e a r n t f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes only; there seems t o have been no idea of us i n g the l i t e r a t u r e as an Instrument of mental c u l t u r e . But by degrees, at f i r s t perhaps h a l f - u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the study of the language was extended t o i n c l u d e a study of the works w r i t -ten i n i t . The importance of the step then taken was enormous, f o r thus the Romans came t o be the f i r s t n a t i o n to base t h e i r c u l t u r e on the study of l i t e r a t u r e i n a f o r e i g n language, and so marked out the l i n e s on which the higher education of a l l c i v i l i s e d n a t i o n s was t o move down t o the present time. What Greek was t o the Romans, that i n i t s own way L a t i n was destined to be i n the time to come t o the nations of Western Europe, and there has never been a time when much of the best t r a i n i n g of the mind d i d not c o n s i s t i n the study of the thought of the past recorded i n a language not the student's own. The "grammatici G r a e c i " , i n accordance w i t h the p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n t h e i r own land, had taken as t h e i r t e x t -books the works of t h e i r greatest authors, and e s p e c i a l l y Homer. The "grammatici L a t i n ! " , - - f o r the L a t i n language was soon made the subject of study s i m i l a r t o the Greek, though at f i r s t i n separate s c h o o l s - - n a t u r a l l y wished t o t r e a t the study of the L a t i n language on the same l i n e s as.those on which they had been accustomed to t r e a t the study of the Greek language.: and f o r t h i s the f i r s t t h i n g needed was l i t e r a r y , t e x t s . The endeavour to supply these, coupled w i t h the l a c k of L a t i n poetry to ?;ork upon,--for prose t e x t s were not yet made text-books--led, as 6 8 . we have seen, to the t r a n s l a t i o n by L i v i u s . A n d r o n i c u s , about 250 B. C., of the "Odyssey" of Homer i n t o L a t i n Saturnian verses. Prom t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , rude as the s u r v i v i n g fragments show i t to have been, dates the beginning of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e , and i t was not u n t i l t h i s l i t e r a t u r e had f u r n i s h e d poets l i k e Terence, V e r g i l , and Horace, that the rough Saturn!ans of L i v -i u s Andronicus disappeared from the schools of the "grammatici L a t i n ! . " I t i s probable that f o r the great bulk of the population education ceased when the elementary school was l e f t f o r there was nothing answering to our t e c h n i c a l or commercial education, except what might be given by a f a t h e r to h i s sons i n h i s work-shop or place of business. As f o r the- g i r l s of the poorer c l a s s e s , we have noted how household d u t i e s would soon c l a i m them, and they married e a r l y . The g i r l s of the r i c h e r c l a s s e s , i f they wished t o go on t o the study of the secondary school s u b j e c t s , appear- to have taken them under a p r i v a t e t u t o r r ather than i n the r e g u l a r "ludus grammatici." But the r e g u l a r course f o r a l l boys whose parents could a f f o r d i t was, at the age of twelve, a f t e r having attended the "ludus m a g i s t r i " and gained a grounding i n the fundamentals, to proceed to the secondary school of the "granimations", who endeavoured to give . i n s t r u c t i o n i n the r e a l n i c e t i e s of Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e . I t was to t h i s "grammar" teacher that the e p i t h e t s "doctus" and " e r u d i -tus" were f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d . The boy u s u a l l y continued w i t h the "grammaticus" In h i s "high school" studies t i l l he assumed the "toga v i r i l i s . " 69.. The c h o i c e of the "grammaticus" was very important s i n c e the boy of h i g h s c h o o l age needed more than a teacher of sub-j e c t matter o n l y . P l i n y , as w e l l as Q u i n t i l i a n , p l a c e s espec-i a l emphasis on the importance of t h i s c h o i c e : "Ep." i i i . 3. 4: " c u i i n hoc l u b r i c o a e t a t i s non praeceptor modo sed custos etiam rectorque quaerendus e s t . " "Ep." i v . 13. 4: " u b i enim .... p u d i c i u s c o n t i n e r e n t u r quam sub o c u l i s parentum." The p u p i l on e n t e r i n g the "ludus grammatici" u s u a l l y took w i t h him a s c e r t a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l knowledge of Greek and a f a i r knowledge of the elements of the 3 R's. Q u i n t i l i a n supposes him t o be a b l e , a l s o , t o r e a d and w r i t e L a t i n , and he c o n s i d e r s t h a t the fundamental d i s c i p l i n e next necessary f o r him w i t h a view to h i s c u l t i v a t i o n Is h i s grammar. And so we f i n d t h a t i n t h e . " h i g h s c h o o l " the i n s t r u c t i o n was wholly grammatical and l i t e r a r y , i n c l u d i n g both the L a t i n and Greek languages. In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the " h i g h schools" i t has been w e l l observed t h a t ori the one hand there was the g r e a t e s t freedom l e f t t o the master; there was no p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m , no im-pending examination, no State i n t e r f e r e n c e i n any way. On the other hand there seems to have been i n p r a c t i c e remarkable u n i -f o r m i t y both i n the i d e a l s and In the methods. This was due mainly to the f a c t t h a t the teachers> i f not Greeks themselves, had been t r a i n e d by Greeks *: and f o l l o w e d on the l i n e s which * The long l i n e of famous "grammatici" commemorated by Suetonius i n h i s "De I l l u s t r i b u s Grammaticis" ( i i i ) would I n d i c a t e t h i s . 70. had been approved i n the Greek s c h o o l s . To t h i s , however, there was one important and remarkable e x c e p t i o n . In the Greek s c h o o l s no l i t e r a t u r e had ever been s t u d i e d except what was w r i t t e n i n t h e i r own language. Of course d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s were used f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds of p o e t r y , and thus some p l a c e was" made f o r l i n -g u i s t i c studies, but the Greeks never had to d e a l w i t h thought expressed i n a medium w i t h which they were not f a m i l i a r . But when a Roman boy passed, on to the study of l i t e r a t u r e , i t was a q u e s t i o n whether he should f i r s t take up l i t e r a t u r e In Greek or i n • Latin*. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i . 12), r a t h e r to our sur-p r i s e , regards the Greek f i r s t as the p r e f e r a b l e c o u r s e . He then goes on t o t e l l why h i s recommendation i s the l o g i c a l one: "A sermone Graeco puerum i n c i p e r e malo, q u i a Latinum, qui p l u r -Ibus i n usu e s t , v e l nobis n o l e n t i b u s perb.ibet, simul quia d i s -c i p l i n i s quoque Gr a e c i s p r i u s i n s t i t u e n d u s e s t , unde et nostrae f l u x e r u n t . " He ( I . I . 13) o b j e c t s , however, to the keeping of boys too long e x c l u s i v e l y i n the study of Greek: "Hon tamen hoc adeo s u p e r s t i t i o s e f i e r i v e l i m , u t d i u tantum Graece l o -quatur aut d i s c a t , s i c u t p l e r i s q u e moris e s t . -Hoc enim a c c i -dunt e t o r i s p l u r ima v i t i a i n peregrinum sonum c o r r u p t ! e t ser-monis; c u i cum Graecae f i g u r a e assidua. consuetudine haeserunt, i n d i v e r s a quoque l o q u e n d i r a t i o n e p e r t i n a c i s s i m e durant. Hon longe i t a q u e L a t i n a subsequi debent et c i t o p a r i t e r i r e . I t a f i e t , u t , cum a e q u a l i cura linguam utramque t u e r i coeperimus, n e u t r a a l t e r i o f f i c l a t . " Greek, however, was the l e a d i n g study of the secondary s c h o o l , and was a c q u i r e d as i f i t were a n a t i v e tongue; advanced p u p i l s spoke and wrote i t w i t h ease. 71. There were f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s f o r the two l a n -guages ("grammatici G r a e c i et L a t i n i " ) and to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent a p p a r e n t l y the Greek grammar schools and the L a t i n were d i s t i n c t . But i t was not uncommon f o r the same man to teach b o t h , - - i n any case the methods were the same,>f as indeed was n a t u r a l , s e e i n g that the L a t i n schools simply t r a n s f e r r e d to t h e i r own l i t e r a t u r e the methods and p r i n c i p l e s which they had l e a r n t as a p p l i e d to Greek. Whether prose was s t u d i e d at a l l i n the secondary s c h o o l i s open t o q u e s t i o n ; a l l t h a t we can.be sure of i s t h a t prose was r e a d by the p u p i l s and d i c t a t e d t o them as m a t e r i a l f o r composition. C i c e r o w r i t e s to h i s b r o t h e r ("Ad Quintum" i i i . I . 4), "meam (orationem) i n i l i u m (Calventium Marium) p u e r i omnes, tamquam d i c t a t a , p e r d i s c a n t , " but t h i s may r e f e r t o those who were, at the next stage, s t u d y i n g r h e t o r i c r a t h e r than l i t e r a t u r e . On the other hand poetry we do know was very thoroughly s t u d i e d and i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the "grammaticus" spent by f a r the g r e a t e s t p a r t of h i s time i n e l u c i d a t i n g the p o e t s . * * * Quint. ( I . i v . 2): " u t r i q u e eadem v i a e s t , " ** C i c e r o ("Tusc, Quaest." i i . 11. 27) says "Nos, d o c t i s c i l i c e t a G r a e c i a , et haec ( s c . the works of the poets) a p u e r i t i a l e g i -mus et ediscimus, hanc eruditionem l i b e r a l e m et doctrinam put-amus," and a L a t i n grammarian says: "Ars grammatica praecipue c o n s i s t i t i n i n t e l l e c t u poetarum" (Serg. i v . p. 486, ed. K e i l (as quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 5 7 ) ) . 72. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I , i v . 4) says: "nec poetas l e g i s s e s a t i s e s t : exeutiendum omne s c r i p t orum genus^propter h i s t o r i a s modo sed verba." Although we cannot be sure as to how f a r t h i s advice o f f e r e d by Q u i n t i l i a n was f o l l o w e d i t would appear that Cicero' statement ("De Orat." i . 187), " I n grammaticis poetarum per~ t r a c t a t i o , h i s t o r i a r u m c o g n i t i o , verborum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n pro-nuhtiandl: quidam sonus" was f a i r l y i n d i c a t i v e of the u s u a l , practice.. H i s t o r y was regarded, according t o Q u i n t i l i a n ' s own d e f i n i t i o n (X. i . 31) as "proxima p o e t i s et quodam modo carmen solutum"', w r i t t e n "ad narrandum ~non ad probandum" and therefore coming w i t h i n the sphere of pure l i t e r a t u r e . Native h i s t o r y had-comprised a very r e a l p a r t of early-'Roman education:. Of general advice as to readin g Q u i n t i l i a n (X. i . 20) says "Ac d i u non n i s i optimus quisque et qui credentem s i b i minime f a l l a t legendus e s t , sed d i l i g e n t e r ac paene ad s c r i b e n d i s o l -l i c i t u d i n e m ; nec per partes modo scrutanda omnia, sed p e r l e c t u s l i b e r utique ex i n t e g r o resumendus, praecipueque o r a t i o , cuius v i r t u t e s frequenter ex i n d u s t r i a quoque oc c u l t a n t u r . " GREEK AUTHORS The r u l e at-Rome, as i n Greece, was always to -•STUDIED begin w i t h Homer*. P l i n y ("Ep." i i . 14): " s i c i n f o r o pueros a centum-viralibus causis a u s p i c a r i u t ab Homero i n s c h o l i s . " Horace ("Ep." i i . 2. 42): "Romae n u t r i r i m ihi c o n t i g i t atque d o c e r i , Ir a t u s G r a i i s quantum noc u i s s e t A c h i l l e s . " 73. Quintilian (X. I. 46) advises beginning with Homer who.; he says i s "omnium amniura fontiumque cur sus initium" for "om-nibus eloquentiae partibus exemplum et ortum dedit." Quin-t i l i a n ' s remarks * advocating Homer as the"first reader" in the elementary school apply equally to the "high school" a l -though, of course, the secondary school pupil, at his more advanced age, would be expected to get more out of his reading Of Homer than he had in the elementary school. But while Homer was the invariable basis of literary study, the pupils were by no means confined to him. The fables of Aesop were read as being valuable in readily lending themselves to reproduction into pure and simple language. Heslod with his prudential morality, his homely common sense, and his practical maxims, was a favourite school-book. With respect to the reading of tragedy and lyrics Quin-t i l i a n ( I . v i i i . 6) says: "Utiles tragoediae, alunt et l y r i c i ; s i tamen in his non auctores modo sed etiam partes operis ele-geris." He thinks that amatory elegies and hendecasyllables (which would generally be of a s a t i r i c a l character) should be banished, altogether or reserved for a riper age. Comedy, as being especially useful for the future orator, he says ( I . v i i i . 7) "cum mores in tuto fuerit, inter praecipua legenda er i t . " Menander seems to have been always a favourite, doubtless owing to his happy sententiousness. Statius ("Silvae" i i . 1. 114) couples him with Homer as the subject' of a boy's studies: * See quotation on p. 48. 74. " ... . seu Graius amictu A t t i c a f a c u n d i d e c u r r e r e t orsa Menandri." The two go together as l a t e as Ausonius ( " E d y l l i a " i v . 46): A "Conditor I l l a d o s , e t a m a b i l i s orsa Menandri Evolvenda t i b i . 1 ' We f i n d l e s s r e f e r e n c e than we should have' expected to the t r a g e d i a n s , but the p r o t e s t of Augustine ("De C i v i t a t e Dei" i i . 8) a g a i n s t the p l a c e g i v e n t o s t a g e - p l a y s i n e d u c a t i o n shows t h a t they were so used i n h i s time, and we cannot doubt t h a t Q u i n t i l i a n Is only s a n c t i o n i n g the u s u a l p r a c t i c e i n ap-p r o v i n g of t h e i r study. The Greek poets of A l e x a n d r i a do not appear to have been s t u d i e d i n the Roman s c h o o l s . Popular as they were under the e a r l y Empire, the t r a d i t i o n of the Greek t e a c h e r s seems t o have kept them out of the o r d i n a r y c u r r i c u l u m . LATIN AUTHORS In the s c h o o l s of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e the p l a c e STUDIED of preeminence h e l d by Vergil", a t a l l events a f t e r h i s death, was comparable to t h a t of Homer In the Greek s c h o o l s . Q u i n t i l i a n expresses the thotight & t h a t i t i s b e s t to b e g i n w i t h V e r g i l , even though at f i r s t , as w i t h Homer, the pu-p i l s might not comprehend him f u l l y . I t i s r a t h e r c u r i o u s that we f i n d no mention of any t r a n s l a t i o n of the " I l i a d " before the time of S u l l a ; but the o l d t r a n s l a t i o n of the "Odyssey" by Hae-v i u s continued t o be one of the c h i e f text-books, i n the boyhood of Horace. A p l a c e of h a r d l y l e s s honour was g i v e n to the "An-n a l e s " of Ennius. The dramatists l i k e Pacuvius, A c c i u s , A f r a n i u s , ¥, See q u o t a t i o n on p. 48. 75. P l a u t u s j O a e c i l i u s , and Terence were a l s o s t u d i e d ; but under the e a r l y Empire there seems t o have been a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the o l d e r w r i t e r s . Along w i t h V e r g i l , though not without e x c i s i o n s , Horace made h i s way i n t o the s c h o o l s , and we r e a d that the poems of Lucan, of S t a t i u s , and even of Nero were l e c t u r e d upon during the l i f e t i m e of t h e i r authors. But when Ovid boasts of the g l o r y which he had won while s t i l l l i v i n g , he i s c e r t a i n l y t h i n k i n g more of the g e n e r a l r e a d i n g p u b l i c than of boys i n s c h o o l s , as some have supposed. In any case the c h o i c e of authors * seems t o have been l e f t e n t i r e l y to the teacher, sub-j e c t t o the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e "non multa sed multum". The i n -f l u e n c e which c l i q u e s of t e a c h e r s might have i n promoting or r e t a r d i n g the p o p u l a r i t y of a poet i s i n d i c a t e d b y Horace ("Ep." ' i . 19. 40): v. "Hon ego . ... Grammaticas ambire t r i b u s et p u l p i t a dignor." ' The main c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a l l r e a d i n g was always t h a t the substance of what was r e a d should be m o r a l l y good and i n s p i r i n g , while the l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r of i t should be worthy of i m i t a t i o n , I t was g e n e r a l l y f e l t , too, that those t h i n g s were to be c h i e f l y perused by boys which most, of a l l n o u r i s h e d the t a l e n t and en-l a r g e d the mind--books on l e a r n i n g being postponed. Whatever * Q u i n t i l i a n (X. I . 57) says t h a t "esse i n omnibus u t i l i t a t i s a l i q u i d . " 76. was s t u d i e d , was s t u d i e d w i t h minuteness and w i t h g r e a t d i l i -gence and known thoro u g h l y . LECTIO V a r r o l a i d down fo u r stages f o r the study of l i t -e r a t u r e , - - t h e f i r s t one was the " l e c t i o " . What we have s a i d w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e a d i n g method i n connection w i t h the elementary s c h o o l * a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o the h i g h s c h o o l , w i t h perhaps added a t t e n t i o n to p u n c t u a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y e x p r e s s i o n which would be of value to the a s p i r i n g o r a t o r . Q u i n t i l l a n ( I . v i i i ) has some good advice t o o f f e r w i t h reference, to the r e a d i n g of po-e t r y . The poets s h o u l d not be r e a d l i k e p r o s e - w r i t e r s ; the d i f f e r e n c e should be marked but not exaggerated. At the same time they should not be r e a d i n a sing-song tone, nor " p l a s -ma te e f f e m i n a t a " - - t h a t i s t o say, rendered effeminate by an exaggerated and a f f e c t e d modulation. He t e l l s us that Caesar once s a i d t o a .reader of t h i s l a s t k i n d " S i cantas, male cantas; s i l e g i s , cantas." He o b j e c t s t o speeches i n po e t r y being u t -t e r e d by the reader as an a c t o r would u t t e r them; but t h i n k s a d i f f e r e n c e of tone necessary i n order t o show t h a t they are speeches. For the proper r e a d i n g of v e r s e , of course, some knowledge •of metre was r e q u i r e d and so c e r t a i n l i c e n c e s and v a r i a t i o n s - -b o t h r u l e s and e x c e p t i o n s — h a d t o be the matter of the most exact study. Even boys, says Q u i n t i l i a n , understood the nature * See quotations on p.. 47. 77. ' of m e t r i c a l f e e t , from which i t i s p l a i n t h a t i t i s one of the e a r l i e s t s u b j e c t s taught i n s c h o o l s . As soon as t h i s was mas-t e r e d , the teacher would e x p l a i n to h i s p u p i l s how to r e c o g n i z e them i n a p i e c e of v e r s e . The u s u a l manner of t e a c h i n g such a l e s s o n i n the schools was t o begin w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the v e r s e , which i n c l u d e d a p r e t t y f u l l treatment of the laws of the verse under d i s c u s s i o n . The teacher i n r e c i t i n g the l i n e s would mark o f f the d i v i s i o n s of the f e e t e i t h e r by snapping h i s f i n g e r s ( " c r e p i t u d i g i t o r u m " , Q u i n t . IX. i v . 55), by a stroke of h i s thumb ("mei p o l l i c i s i c t u " , Hor. "Odes" i v . 6. 35), or perhaps more f r e q u e n t l y by stamping w i t h the f o o t ("crepitu. pedum", Quint.. IX. i v . 55). In view of the f a c t t h a t E p i c poets were g e n e r a l l y the e a r l i e s t t o be s t u d i e d , p u p i l s would commonly beg i n w i t h the hexameter. I t s v a r i e d b e a u t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s w e re.studied i n the g r e a t e s t d e t a i l . Next to t h i s would come the (trimeter}"iambic\ the metre most e x t e n s i v e l y used i n drama-t i c l i t e r a t u r e . Questions of rhythm h e l d a h a r d l y l e s s impor-t a n t p l a c e i n prose than i n v e r s e ; but they seem t o have been r e s e r v e d f o r the h i g h e r stage, i . e . f o r the t e a c h i n g of the " r h e t o r e s " . ENARRATIO Next to the " l e c t i o " , i n Varro's d i v i s i o n , came the "poetarum e n a r r a t i o " or e x p l a n a t i o n of the t e x t . T h i s nat-u r a l l y made the g r e a t e s t c a l l s upon, and gave the "grammatici" ample scope to show t h e i r s c h o l a r s h i p ; some of them, indeed, thought more of d i s p l a y i n g i t than of i n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r p u p i l s . A "graramaticus" of repute was supposed to have at h i s f i n g e r s ' - 78. ends the explanation of a l l the possible meanings in the liter-, a/wp-.3 texts; likewise the knowledge..needed to explain the i n c i -dents and allusions, concerning such subjects as mythology, history, geography, philosophy, and astronomy, in the books usually studied; and to be able to illustrate them by appro-priate stories. Thus the study of literature became what was really a form of a "General Information" course. Needless t o say i t became fashionable to propound and to answer frivolous questions and much of the learning became superficial, for i t was~a fine thing in many circles.to affect to be erudite, and more stress was sometimes laid on absurd problems of mythology than, upon learning sober facts. Juvenal ("Sat." v i i . 234 f.) gives us some of the puzzles that were taken from Vergil: ^ e » • e t i l C £L *fc Nutricem Anchisae, nomen patriamque novercae Anchemoli; dicat, quot Acestes vixerit annos, Quot Siculus Phrygibus vinl donaverit urnas." Suetonius ("Tiberius" 70) says of Tiberius: "grammaticos .... eiusmodi fere quaestionibus experiebatur: 'quae mater Hecuba^' 'quod A c h i l l i nomen inter virgines fuisset:' 'quid Sirenes cantare sint solitae?'" Homer in this respect furnished abun-dant material for the elucidation of points of ancient history and mythology., geography and religion, manners and customs. When we note the t r i v i a l and absurd pedantry into which the "enarratio" was apt to f a l l , we cannot wonder that Seneca brands i t with the contemptuous name of "litterarum inutilium 79. studia"; * but If kept within due bounds the method must have quickened and satisfied an intelligent curiosity better than any other possible at that time. The various definitions of the "poetarum enarratio" prove how-wide was the range which i t covered; one generally accepted was "obscurorum sensuura quaestionumque narratio" (Keil, "Gramm. Lat". v i i . p. 376)*; another less comprehensive Vsecundum poetae voluntatem uniusculusque ; descriptionis explanatio" (Ibid.vi. p. 188).* Of course the l i f e of the poet, and the circumstances under which the poem was composed would f a l l to be discussed. The time spent on mythology, which naturally entered largely into the matter of both epics and dramas, was bitterly com-plained of by the Christian fathers as being time spent on the legends of Paganism. As for h i s t o r i c a l allusions, Quintilian thinks that they should be .explained, but that the pupils should not be overloaded with them, rather that they should be con-fined to what i s related by authors of mark. EMENDATIO The next duty of the "grammaticus", according to Varro, lay in the "emendatio". Of this there were two kinds which in practice ran into one another more than would seem natural to us. The f i r s t dealt with the correctness of the text in the hands of the pupils. Prom the f i r s t , care seems to have, been taken that there should be authoritative texts of the leading poets. The different readings of later copies * As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 67. 80. were due as a r u l e to the c a r e l e s s n e s s or ignorance of c o p y i s t s I t was t h e r e f o r e a g r e a t p o i n t to secure manuscripts as o l d as p o s s i b l e and d e r i v e d from the best sources. T h i s was r a t h e r a mechanical k i n d of b u s i n e s s , depending on a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r than l e a r n i n g or good judgment: and we do not f i n d t h a t t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m was i n very h i g h esteem, though d i s p u t e d p o i n t s were c o n t e s t e d w i t h no l i t t l e energy and even a c e r b i t y . Of course a uniform t e x t was necessary f o r t e a c h i n g purposes, and so a h i g h standard, i f not of absolute c o r r e c t n e s s at any r a t e of u n i f o r m i t y , was maintained i n the t r a d i t i o n a l t e x t . The need of care to secure t h i s comes p l a i n l y from C i c e r o ' s words to h i s b r o t h e r ("Ad Quint." i i i . 5 ) : "de L a t i n i s vero, quo me vertam n e s c i o : I t a mendose et s c r i b u n t u r , et veneunt." Hence one of the f i r s t d u t i e s of a teacher was to see t h a t the t e x t s i n the hands of h i s p u p i l s agreed w i t h one another. I t i s ob-vious, t h a t the p u p i l s ' t e x t s must have agreed i f the teacher's comments were to be f o l l o w e d w i t h any i n t e l l i g e n c e . Questions d e a l i n g w i t h the a u t h o r s h i p and i n t e g r i t y of l i t e r a r y works were l e f t , as a r u l e , t o the schools of r h e t o r i c But the second f u n c t i o n of "emendatio" was the c r i t i c i s m of the author's s t y l e . Here the grammarians were accustomed to pro-ceed w i t h great freedom and boldness, even the most famous w r i t e r s not escaping t h e i r censures. They a c t e d f u l l y up to the r u l e of Q u i n t i l i a n (X. i . 24), "neque i d s t a t i m l e g e n t i persuasixm s i t omnia quae o p t i m i auctores d i x e r i n t u t i q u e esse p e r f e c t a Summi enim sunt, homines tamen." Of the d u t i e s of the "grammaticus" i n co n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of 8 £ . the work Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . v i i l . 13) says: "Deprehendat, quae barbara, quae i m p r o p r i a , quae c o n t r a leges loquendi s i n t p o s i t a . G e l l i u s g i v e s us i n more than one p l a c e ( e s p e c i a l l y "Noctes A t t i c a e " i i . 6) c r i t i c i s m s which had been passed on the language of V e r g i l . "Vexasse", f o r example, was thought t o be too weak a word to be a p p l i e d ("Ecl\ v i . 76) to the damage done by S c y l l a t o s h i p s . I f such c r i t i c i s m sometimes seems to us somewhat shallow or the defence a l i t t l e s o p h i s t i c a l , they show at l e a s t the care w i t h which the t e x t of the poet was s t u d i e d . • The e f f e c t of the order of words i n a sentence,had to be e x p l a i n e d and I l l u s t r a t e d by the t e a c h e r . * Care had to be taken t h a t the arrangement of words i n a sentence d i d not b r i n g together e i t h e r vowels or consonants which sounded h a r s h l y i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n . And i n p a r t i c u l a r the teacher had t o impress on h i s p u p i l s any m e r i t s or d e f e c t s which there might be i n the s t r u c t u r e of the work as a whole, i n the s e l e c t i o n of t o p i c s and r e f l e x i o n s , the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the words to the char-a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d , and i n knowing where a f u l l e r statement was i n p l a c e , and where co n c i s e n e s s was r e q u i r e d . I t was e v i d e n t l y Impossible to draw a h a r d and f a s t l i n e between such treatment of l i t e r a r y works and t h a t which was a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s c h o o l of r h e t o r i c , hence there were many complaints, as we s h a l l see l a t e r , t h a t the "grammaticus" en-croached bn the sphere of the " r h e t o r . " * Quint. IX. i v . 23. 82, PUPILS1 We have surveyed in some detail the duties of EXERCISES the teachers of the secondary schools:' now let-,us see what tasks the pupils were set to at the various stages of their study of literature. Fortunately Quintilian (I. ix. I f . ) gives us f u l l and interesting Information on this point. The exercises of the "grammar" ' S c h o o l boy were: (1) Reading;--We have seen how much attention was paid to this,for i t was indeed a fine art among the Romans. (2) Reproduction, oral and written:--The f i r s t step as an exercise in prose composition was for the pupils to re-produce the substance of a story told by the teacher in his own words in simple language, and never ri s i n g above the ordinary level; then in a style less plain; thenpassing on to bolder phrases, sometimes shortening, sometimes amplifying the origi-nal, but always following the sense of the original story. Fa-bles, especially ,those of Aesop, were commonly employed for this purpose, as furnishing simple and brief narratives. The pupils also wrote l i t t l e stories from the material supplied by the poets but we are rather surprised to learn from Quintilian (I. ix. 6) that this was more to make them familiar with the matter than to improve their style, "notitiae causa non eloquentiae trac-tandas puto." In this type of exercise clearness and correct-ness of style were of course the chief things, aimed at. (3) Paraphrasing:--After simple reproduction the pu-r p i l had to make his f i r s t attempt at paraphrasing the poets and 83. g i v i n g b r i e f statements r e g a r d i n g events or c h a r a c t e r s which had a moral s i g n i f i c a n e e : "versus primo s o l v e r e , mox•mutatis v e r b i s i n t e r p r e t a r i , turn p a r a p h r a s i audaclus v e r t e r e , qua et b r e v i a r e quaedam et exornare s a l v o modo poetae sensu p e r m i t t i t u r . T h i s was i n t r u t h a " r h e t o r i c a l i m i t a t i o n " of the poet and doubtless a v a l u a b l e e x e r c i s e . But paraphrase, as C i c e r o ("De Orat." i . 154) observes, i s open to the o b j e c t i o n t h a t a great w r i t e r w i l l have a l r e a d y expressed h i s meaning i n the best way p o s s i b l e , so t h a t i t i s apt to amount only t o p r a c t i c e i n put-t i n g worse words i n the pl a c e of b e t t e r ones. Hence i t was urged by some t h a t o n l y second r a t e p i e c e s of l i t e r a t u r e should be s e t f o r paraphrase. Q u i n t i l i a n (X. v. 5) does not a l t o g e t h e r agree w i t h t h i s : "Ab i l l i s d i s s e n t i o , q u i v e r t e r e o r a t i o n e s L a t i n a s v e t a n t , q u i a optimis o c c u p a t i s , q u i d q u i d a l l t e r d i x e r -imus, necesse s i t esse d e t e r i u s . " (4) Then f o l l o w e d the treatment of short sentences or r e f l e x i o n s . Great s t o r e was se t , both i n speaking and w r i t i n g , on a command of an abundance of such g e n e r a l t r u t h s or common-p l a c e s ; and boys were t r a i n e d t o commit them to memory, to ex-pand them, and t o i l l u s t r a t e them from h i s t o r y . The f i r s t stage of the expansion was of a very mechanical c h a r a c t e r , i n -v o l v i n g merely a change i n the form of the " s e n t e n t i a " by the use of d i f f e r e n t s y n t a c t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s ; but o b v i o u s l y there was an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the employment of any amount of i n g e n u i t y ¥, Quint. ( I . i x . 2) 84. and rhetorical s k i l l . This exercise i s similar to that in which our pupils are required to convert direct into indirect in Latin, and vice versa. (5) Pithy sayings of great men were also given and the pupil required to explain them, and also to paraphrase them L as we have explained above. (6) Prosody and the practice of verse-writing were taught but we have no definite information as to the place which was held among the exercises of the schools by composition in verse. We have, however, many references to the early age at which verses were produced, which presume a school training in the mechanism of rhythm and diction, and Indeed this i s almost implied in the studies of metrical questions, to which we have already referred. Cicero, Vergil, Persius, Ovid, Lucan, may be quoted, as examples of precocity of ab i l i t y in writing poetry. Such men as these point to a vfidely diffused f a c i l i t y . Indeed there are phrases used of some of the EmperCrs which indicate the teaching of composition in verse pretty plainly: Tacitus ("Ann." XIII. 3) says of Nero, "Puerilibus annis .... aliquando carminibus pangendis inesse sibi elementa doctrinae ostendebat," while of Verus we read (Jul. Cap. "Ver," 2), "amavit in pueritia versus facere."* There is nothing surprising In the fact that such compositions were sometimes in Greek; the younger Pliny ("Ep." v i i i . 4. 2) t e l l s us of his youthful efforts in Greek * As; quoted by A. S. Wllkins, :p.. 74. - •; ..- . • ' . • -85'. composition: "lumquam a p o e t i c e ;.-.... a l i e n u s f u i ; quin etiam quattuordecim natus annos Graecam tragoediam s c r i p s i . Qualem? i n q u i s . Nescio: t r a g o e d i a vocabatur." But the purpose of these e x e r c i s e s and such as C i c e r o wrote at s c h o o l ( P l u t . " L i f e of C i c e r o " i i ) was simply to a c q u i r e a ready command of l a n -guage; and those were w i s e s t who, l i k e Marcus A u r e l i u s , wrote verses d a i l y , showed them to none, and burnt them each n i g h t . T r a n s l a t i o n as an e x e r c i s e was i n v e n t e d by the Romans as a means of l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g . Y e t i t does not appear to have been much i n use i n o r d i n a r y s c h o o l s . Q u i n t i l i a n does not mention I t as being p a r t of the work of the "grammaticus". P o s s i b l y i t may have been f e l t t h a t the task of producing r e a l l y a r t i s t i c t r a n s l a t i o n was too d i f f i c u l t f o r p u p i l s , so long as the L a t i n language was so l i t t l e p l a s t i c as i t was when l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Roman schools, and that afterwards the conservatism n a t u r a l t o teachers h i n d e r e d i t s more common adop t i o n . I t was only g r a d u a l l y t h a t i t became a p a r t of the course. As there was n o t h i n g of the k i n d i n Greek, the Greek s c h o o l masters probably n e g l e c t e d to i n t r o d u c e what had not formed a p a r t of t h e i r s chool c u r r i c u l u m as s c h o o l boys. In modern schools we have found t h i s e x e r c i s e so v a l u a b l e t h a t we cannot but be s u r p r i s e d t h a t i t was not p r a c t i s e d from the very-f i r s t by the p r a c t i c a l Romans. The above e x e r c i s e s combined w i t h the c l o s e c r i t i c a l study of the language and l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s of poems, of which we have; spoken, and the f r e e and e l o c u t i o n a r y d e l i v e r y from memory of numerous passages of poetry, c o n s t i t u t e d the p r i n c i p a l work 86. of the grammar school in conjunction with the study of grammar. Thus poetry was known with extraordinary thoroughness. We now go on to discuss the grammatical instruction, GRAMMAR Instruction in Grammar meant In Rome ordinary grammar as we now understand i t , to which a l l philology of the time was made contributory, in other words the analysis of lan-guage with a view to mastering a l l i t s forms. As might be expected, formal grammar was superficially treated in some schools, but Quintilian urged the importance of a surely and soundly l a i d foundation of grammatical knowledge as the basis of future literary culture. He laid great stress on the accurate and detailed knowledge of i t , including what we now c a l l h i s t o r i c a l grammar, the inquiry into the sounds of let ters, the transposition and substitution of vowels and conson-ants by reference to ancient Greek and Latin forms: then the study of the parts of speech and inquiry into etymologies and synonyms. The d i f f i c u l t y of fixing the number of the parts of speech and the difference of opinion as regarded their origin and proper classification was, Quintilian thought, no argument against the study. The analysis.of language in such a way was productive of much benefit to the Intelligence of a boy, and gave, a firmness and solidity to the i n t e l l e c t which even logic would f a i l to give where there had been no such grammatical discipline. In connection with the uses of words Quintilian (I. Prooem,xvi) says: "nam verborum proprietas.ac differentia omnibus, qui 87. sermonem curae habent, debet esse communis." "Iam cum omnis o r a t i o ( s t y l e ) t r i s habeat v i r t u t e s , u t emendata, u t d i l u c i d a , u t ornata s i t .... totidem v i t i a , quae sunt supra d i c t i s c o n t r a r i a , emendate loquendi regulam, quae grammatices p r i o r pars e s t , examinet."* To secure the f i r s t we must a v o i d barbarism and s o l e c i s m : "Prima b a r b a r i s m i ac s o l o e c i s m i f o e d i t a s a b s i t . " * * Under t h i s head too came f a l s e q u a n t i t i e s and other e r r o r s i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and accent. I f a l l these e r r o r s are avoided the r e s u l t w i l l be " c o r r e c t speech." Q u i n t i l i a n ' s remarks here impress on a l l who may r e a d them the importance of employing only such words as are c o r r e c t i n sub-stance and i n form. In speaking of c o r r e c t language g e n e r a l l y he p o i n t s out t h a t i t r e s t s on " r a t i o " , " v e t u s t a s " , " a u c t o r i t a s " , and "consuetudo". He then c o n s i d e r s each of these sources, or r a t h e r guarantees, of c o r r e c t language. The f i r s t , which we may perhaps 1 render "reason", r e l i e s mainly on analogy, Whereby what i s u n c e r t a i n i s e s t a b l i s h e d by something s i m i l a r which i s • c e r t a i n . But i t i s sometimes aided by etymology. There i s a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y and almost s a n c t i t y a t t a c h i n g t o what i s ar-c h a i c . Orators and h i s t o r i a n s w i l l f u r n i s h a u t h o r i t y ; poets are l e s s safe guides, because of the c o n s t r a i n t s of metre. But the " c e r t i s s i m a loquendi magistra" i s usage, and the d i c t i o n employed must be c u r r e n t c o i n . Care must be taken that a r c h a i c * Quint. ( I . v. 1) I b i d . ( I . v. 5) 8 8 . words when employed are not so -.obsolete as t o be u n i h t e l l l g b l e ; and i n the same way no a u t h o r i t y can j u s t i f y the use of words which the hearer cannot understand. In the s e l e c t i o n of words, then, we must he guided by the custom of our time,--not the custom of the mu l t i t u d e but the "consensus eruditorum", j u s t as the consensus of good men determines custom as regards manner of l i v i n g . . With r e g a r d t o orthography " r e c t e s c r i b e n d i s c i e n t i a " Quin-t i l i a n p o i n t s out t h a t the elementary r u l e s are not a matter f o r the "grammaticus"; they w i l l have been l e a r n t i n the e l e -mentary s c h o o l . H i s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e toward s p e l l i n g he s t a t e s thus ( I . v i i . 30): - " E g o ( n i s i quod consuetudo o b t i n u e r i t ) s i c scribendum quidque i u d i c o , quomodo sonat." The treatment of elegance of d i c t i o n he leaves to the r h e t o r s . . ' Such are the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s of the grammar which the g r e a t e s t s c h o o l master of h i s day would have taught i n the schools. Some, he t e l l s us, thought many of these questions too p e t t y t o t r o u b l e p u p i l s w i t h , but he argues t h a t such t r a i n i n g i s not harmful to those who pass through i t , but only t o those who l i n g e r too long over i t ; and he confirms h i s own judgments by that of h i g h a u t h o r i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g C i c e r o , who " a r t i s huius d i l i g e n -t i s s i m u s f u i t et i n f i l i o .... r e c t e loquendi asper quoque ex-ac t o r ."* As f o r grammar text-books we do not know of any i n the time a Quint.. I . v i i . 34. /•;;• , .: ... . : - 89. of the R e p u b l i c , e i t h e r prepared or adapted f o r use i n s c h o o l s . T r e a t i s e s on questions of grammar had been w r i t t e n a t an e a r l y date by men l i k e L. A e l i u s S t i l o Praeconinus, and the poet Lu-c i l i u s gave much space to the d i s c u s s i o n of p o i n t s of ortho-graphy and grammar. But w r i t e r s such as these appealed to s c h o l a r s , not t o l e a r n e r s . I t was, however, q u i t e u s u a l f o r the teacher to take some Greek compendium as h i s guide, and adapt i t as b e s t he might to the requirements of. h i s Roman pu-p i l s , a t a s k which was of course made a l l the e a s i e r by the f a c t t h at his t e a c h i n g was n a t u r a l l y expected to be o r a l . The Greek book g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose was the elemen-t a r y t r e a t i s e of D i o n y s i u s Thrax. The f i r s t L a t i n grammar i n -tended e x p r e s s l y f o r use i n s c h o o l s was compiled by Q. Remmius Palaemon; i t must have been w r i t t e n e a r l y i n the r e i g n of Ves-p a s i a n . Prom t h i s time onwards L a t i n grammars were produced i n g r e a t abundance. Indeed the remark has been j u s t l y made t h a t there seems t o have been something i n the study of grammar es-p e c i a l l y c o n g e n i a l to the somewhat r i g i d and p r o s a i c t u r n of the Roman temper. I t may be noted t h a t , i n s p i t e of the graduated system of e x e r c i s e s , the a t t i t u d e of the p u p i l s i n the s c h o o l of the "grammaticus" would seem to have been much more passive than we should c o n s i d e r i n accordance w i t h sound method. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . v. 15) says, i t i s t r u e , " i n omnibus f e r e minus v a l e n t praecepta quam experimenta." But as a r u l e the "grammaticus" i n e x p l a i n i n g authors d e l i v e r e d eloquent p r e l e c t i o n s , and h i s h e a r e r s took down i n t h e i r note-books as much as they could 90. of h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s of c r i t i c i s m s . The notes of l e c t u r e s seem • t o have much resembled those:of students of nowadays: sometimes remarkably f u l l and a c c u r a t e , sometimes confused and teeming w i t h blunders ( I b i d . I I . . xi.. 7 ) . I t i s probable t h a t a s t r i n g ' of c a r e f u l l y chosen e p i t h e t s f o r great w r i t e r s of the past, such as t h a t . g i v e n by Horace ("Ep." i i . 1. 50 f . ) , may have been d e r i v e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g of the school-room. Some-times the notes of p u p i l s found t h e i r way i n t o c i r c u l a t i o n a-g a i n s t the wishes of the teacher (Quint. I "Prooem." 7 ) , as has a l s o been the case i n modern times. Sometimes however a master of eminence would p u b l i s h h i s own n o t e s - - " p r o f i t e n t i u m commen-t a r i o l i s " , as Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . v. 7) c a l l s them. Out of the a l -most u n l i m i t e d f i e l d of knowledge which was t i l l e d by the "gram-m a t i c i " as a body, each v/ould choose h i s own s p e c i a l corner, and so,- when h i s notes were p u b l i s h e d , each came to add something to the s t o r e s of l e a r n i n g t o which l a t e r c r i t i c i s m was so l a r g e l y i ndebted. Q u i n t i l i a n has a l o f t y c o n c e p t i o n of the v a r i e d knowledge r e q u i r e d of the "grammaticus". He says ( I . i v . 4 f . ) : "^ec poetas l e g i s s e s a t i s e s t : excutiendum omne scri p t o r u m genus non pro p t e r h i s t o r i a s modo sed verba, quae f r e q u e n t e r l u s ab auc-t o r i b u s sumunt. Turn neque c i t r a musicen grammatice p o t e s t esse p e r f e c t a , cum e i de m e t r i s rhythmisque dicendum - s i t , nec, s i rationem siderum i g n o r e t , poetas i n t e l l i g a t , q u i .... t o t i e n s o r t u occasuque signorum i n d e c l a r a n d i s temporibus u t a n t u r , nec i g n e r a p h i l o s o p h i a e , cum propter plurimos i n omnibus f e r e c a r-minibus locos ex intima n a t u r a l i u m quaestionum s u b t i l i t a t e 91. r e p e t i t o s , turn v e l p r o p t e r Empedoolea i n G r a e c i s , Varronem ac Lucretium i n L a t i n i s , q u i praecepta s a p i e n t i a e v e r s i b u s t r a - . d i d e r u n t . " He goes on to s t r e s s the importance of eloquence to a "grammaticus": " E l o q u e n t i a quoque non m e d i o c r i e s t opus, ut de unaquaque earum, quas demonstravimus, rerum d i c a t p r o p r i e et copiose." Of the g r e a t importance of t h e " grammaticus ' " e f f o r t s to the youth's f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i v . 5). says: " n i s i o r a t o r i s f u t u r i fundamenta f i d e l i t e r i e c i t , quid-q u i d super s t r u x e r i s , c o r r u e t . " OTHER Q u i n t i l i a n now, l e a v i n g the study of language,the SUBJECTS s p e c i a l f i e l d of the "grammaticus", adverts to those other s t u d i e s which he t h i n k s a youth should be t a k i n g at the same time as he i s a t t e n d i n g the "high s c h o o l " . On account of t h e i r u t i l i t y to the orator or completely educated m a n , Q u i n t i l i a n advocates the study of such a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s as mathematics, music, dancing, gymnastics, and p l a y a c t i n g f o r , as he says ( I . x. 11): " s i n e omnium t a l i u m s c i e n t i a non p o t e s t esse p e r f e c t a e l o q u e n t i a . " But the grounds on which he would advocate the study of these s u b j e c t s are of a s t r i c t l y p r a c t i -c a l nature; he very d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t s what p a r t of each of these s t u d i e s should be looked i n t o , - - t h e r e i s no suggestion, f o r i n -stance, that one s h o u l d t r a i n to become a musician or an a c t o r . Music was to be added to the course of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the grammatical s c h o o l w i t h a view to the understanding of rhythm and i n t o n a t i o n In u t t e r a n c e , not the p l a y i n g of an instrument as i n Greece. The f o l l o w i n g I s Q u i n t i l i a n ' s summary of the 92. values-of; musicalVstudy '(IV -'x. 22 f . ) : "Humeros musice-dupll-ce s ha be t i n voclbus e t i n c or pore, . ... Hum I g i t u r non haec omnia o r a t o r i necessaria? quorum unum ad gestum, alterum ad coilocatloriem verborUm > t e r t l u m a d f l e x u s v o c i s , qui sunt i r i agendo q u o q u e p l u r i m l et voce et modu-l a t i o n e grandia e l a t e , iucunda d u l c i t u r , moderata l e n i t e r e a n i t , totaque a r t e c o n s e n t i t cum eorurn quae dicuntur a d f e c t i b u s . A t q u i i n orando quoque i n t e n t i o v o c i s , r e m i s s i o , f l e x u s per-t i n e t ad movendos audientium adfectus, aliaque et c o l l o c a t i o n i s et v o c i s .... modulatione concitationem i u d i c i s , a l i a m i s e r i -cordiam petimus; .... Corporis quoque aptus et decens motus, .... et est necessarius nec aliunde p e t i potest. .... non hab-:ebit imprimis curam v o c i s orator? Quid tarn musices proprium?" Q u l h t i l i a n would nave no mistakemade as to what k i n d of music he advocates f o r study ( i . x, 31): "non hanc (sc. k i n d of music) a me p r a e c i p i , , quae nunc In scenls effeminata et im-pu d i c i s modis f r a c t a noh ex parte minima, s i quid i n nobis v i r i l i s r o b o r i s manebat, e x c i d i t , sed qua laudes f o r t i u m cane-ban t u r , quaque i p s i f o r t e s canebant; nec p s a l t e r i a et spadicas, etiam v i r g i n l b u s p r o b i s recusanda, sed cognitionem r a t i o n i s , quae ad movendos leniendosque adfectus plurimum v a l e t . " I n a s i m i l a r l y d e f i n i t e way Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . x. 49) states why geometry should be stu d i e d : " s i est o r a t o r i .... de omni-bus rebus dicendum> n u l l o modo sine geometria esse p o s s i t ora-to r ." Elsewhere ( I . x. 37) he po i n t s out t h a t there might be a valuable t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g from the study of geometry to 93. -oratory; one example of "transfer" he expresses thus: "ordo est geometrlae necessarius; nonne et eloquentiae?"' As a l i b -eral study geometry had no attraction for the Romans with the •i result that i t was taught chiefly in i t s relations to mensu-ration. The part of geometry which, along 'with astronomy, in-cluded In those; days the whole of physical science, was merely touched, save by a few of the more ardent. i-}->~}-^<Mi§&: p l a y - a c t i n g - was-, regarded, as a degrading employment, Quintilian (I. x i . 3 f.) recommends that the student who i s going on to the study of oratory take lessons from an actor with a viewonly :to "pronuntiatio": "Ne gestus quidem omnis ac motus a comoedis petendus est. Quanquam enim utrumque eorum ad quendam modum praestare debet Orator, plurimum tamen aberit a scenico, nec vultu nec manu nec excursionibus nimius. Nam si qua in his ars est dicentium, ea prima est, ne ars esse vid-eatur. Quod est igitur huius doctoris officlum? In primis v i t i a s i qua sunt oris emendet, ut expressa sint verba, ut suis quaeque litterae sonis enuntientur. .... Debet etiam docere comoedus, quomodo narrandum, Gymnastics tod were valuable and,so should be given a cer-tain amount of time, or to quote Quintilian's words (I. x i . 15): '•Ne i l l o s quidem reprehendendos puto, qui paulum - etiam palaes-t r i c i s vacaverunt." He hastens to explain, however, that the teacher s, of gymnastics he recommends are not "de his. .... quibus parsvitae in oleo, -par's: In vino consumitur, qui corporurn cura mehtem obruerunt," but rather those "a quibus gestus motusque formantur, ut recta slnt /brachia, ne indoctae rusticae manus, 94. ne status indecorus, ne qua in proferendis pedibus i n s c i t i a , ne caput oculique ab a l i a corporis inclinatione dissideant." Cicero ("De Orat." i l l . 59) quotes the words of Crassus, in v/hich he lays down the principle that the orator should learn to move "laterum inflexione hac f o r t i ac v i r i l i , non a scaena et histrionibus, sed ab armis aut etiam a palaestra." Before closing his discussion of gymnastics and the advantages they might afford the orator, Quintilian does not neglect to indi-cate that such physical exercises should have a stopping-point ( I . x i . 19): "A me tamen nec ultra pueriles annos retinebitur nec in his ipsis dlu." The better "ludi grammatici" turned out pupils who though perhaps not youth of deep learning had a great fund of infor-mation, v/ho could write ftclear, accurate Latin (and often a Greek,) style, and generally carried themselves as cultivated young gentlemen. The great defect of the "high school" was that i t gave but little,opportunity for learning to distinguish fact from fancy, or acquiring the scientific habit of mind which at Rome was so rare. The further.education of the youth after he had assumed, the "toga v i r i l i s " (generally at sixteen years of age) depended oh his future occupation. Those intended for a farmer's l i f e went to live at some farm station; those intended: for the army passed very young into the service; those again who were inten-ded for public l i f e or for pleaders or jurists, or who aspired to pass as highly educated, inevitably went to the rhetorical schools. 95-. I t may be n o t i c e d In p a s s i n g t h a t , though r h e t o r i c was no p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m of the o r d i n a r y "grammar" sc h o o l s , not a f e w i n t h e e a r l i e r days taught and even wrote upon the e l e -ments of r h e t o r i c (Suet., "De Gram." 4 ) . The tendency of the lower schools to encroach on the sphere of the p l a c e s of more advanced educa t i o n , and the " o v e r l a p p i n g " of the t r a i n i n g g i v e n i n the former and of t h a t proper t o the l a t t e r , seems to have begun very e a r l y , as we have a l r e a d y noted. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . I. I f . ) complains of t h i s i n t r u s i o n of the "grammaticus" on the work of the " r h e t o r " but does not condemn the former a l t o g e t h e r , r a t h e r does he blame the l a t t e r f o r shunning what should be the f i r s t stages of r h e t o r i c : " T e n u i t consuetudo, quae c o t i d i e magis i n v a l e . s o i t , u t p r a e c e p t o r i b u s e l o q u e n t i a e , L a t i n i s q u i -:-dem semper sed etiam G r a e c i s i n t e r i m , d i s c i p u l i s e r i u s quam r a t i o p o s t u l a t , t r a d e r e n t u r . E i u s r e i duplex causa e s t , quod et r h e t o r e s uti'que n o s t r i suas p a r t e s omiserunt e t grammatici a l i e n a s occupaverunt. Nam et i l l i declamare modo et s c i e n t i a m declamandi ac f a c u l t a t e m t r a d e r e o f f i c i i s u i ducuht, idque i n t r a d e l i b e r a t i v a s i u d i c i a l e s q u e materias (nam c e t e r a ut pro-f e s s i o n e sua minora d e s p i c i u n t ) , et h i non s a t i s credunt ex-c e p i s s e , quae r e l i c t a e r a nt, (quo. nomine g r a t i a quoque l i s habenda e s t ) , sed ut prosopopoeias usque ac s u a s o r i a s , In q u i -bus onus d i c e n d i v e l maximum e s t , irrumpunt. Hinc ergo a c c i -d i t , u t , quae a l t e r i u s a r t i s prima erant opera, f a c t a s i n t a l t e r i u s novissiraa, e t aetas a l t i o r i b u s iam d i s c i p l i n i s d e b i t a i n s c h o l a minore s u b s i d a t ac r h e t o r i c e n apud grammaticos 96. e x e r c e a t . I t a , quod e s t maxime r i d i c u l u m , non ante ad d e c l a -mandi magistrum mittendus v i d e t u r puer quam declamare s c i a t . " T h i s complaint seems only p a r t l y j u s t i f i e d . I t . I s i n the nature of t h i n g s t h a t a school-master should wish t o r e t a i n a p r o m i s i n g p u p i l and t e a c h him a l l he can; and e q u a l l y n a t u r a l t h a t the more advanced teacher should l i k e to have h i s student sent t o him as soon as he i s f i t * I t i s m a n i f e s t , however, t h a t the p r a c t i c e was of d o u b t f u l e d u c a t i o n a l value, Inasmuch as i t l e d to premature and showy e x h i b i t i o n s of o r a t o r y and thus i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the more thorough p r e p a r a t o r y . l i n g u i s t i c d i s c i p l i n e . E s p e c i a l l y would t h i s e v i l be accentuated by the c o m p e t i t i o n among masters f o r p u p i l s and the g u l l i b i l i t y of the Roman parent. But a good d e a l of the work done i n the s c h o o l of r h e t o r i c w i t h a view to s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g was not l e s s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e ' g e n e r a l c u l t u r e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r the f o r m a t i o n of s t y l e , which was the business of the s c h o o l . I t need be no matter of s u r p r i s e , t h e n , i f we f i n d the e x e r c i s e s In one c l a s s of s c h o o l l a r g e l y the same as those In the other, though w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s both i n method and i n e x t e n t . CHAPTER V SCHOOLS.--BUILDINGS. FURNITURE. HOURS, HOLIDAYS, DISCIPLINE. 'TEACHERS AND THEIR EMOLUMENTS INTRODUCTION . O r i g i n a l l y : a l l e d u c a t i o n at Rome was g i v e n i n OF SCHOOLS the home. The mother would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s up to say the s i x t h or seventh year * and then the f a t h e r would take i t over. The a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n given t o the c h i l d r e n by the f a t h e r would vary w i t h h i s own edu c a t i o n and at best be s u b j e c t t o a l l s o r t s of i n t e r r u p t i o n s due to h i s p r i v a t e business or h i s p u b l i c d u t i e s . We f i n d t h a t t h i s embarrassment was a p p r e c i a t e d i n very e a r l y times, and t h a t i t was customary f o r a "pater f a m i l i a s " who happened to have among h i s s l a v e s one competent to give the needed i n -s t r u c t i o n , t o t u r n over to him the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g of the c h i l r dren.; I t must be remembered t h a t s l a v e s taken i n war were o f t e n much b e t t e r educated than t h e i r Roman masters. Not a l l households, however, would i n c l u d e a competent teacher, and i t would seem only n a t u r a l f o r the f o r t u n a t e owner of such a slave t o r e c e i v e i n t o h i s house a t f i x e d hours of the day c h i l d r e n of h i s f r i e n d s and neighbors t o be taught together w i t h h i s own. For t h i s p r i v i l e g e he might charge a f e e f o r h i s own bene-f i t , as we are t o l d Cato a c t u a l l y d i d , or he might allow the * See p. 33. 98. slave to retain as his "peon.Hum" the l i t t l e presents given him by his pupils in lieu of direct payment. The next step was to select for the school a more convenient place than a private house, one that,was central and easily accessible, and to receive as pupils a l l who could pay the modest fee that was demanded. And so we had the beginning of what we might refer to as the "school-house". A large number of these "adventure" schools sprang up to meet the needs of the less opulent; they of course continued to be generally taught by slaves or freedmen. Such schools would be.only private undertakings, and probably with-out even an authority from the state. It i s very d i f f i c u l t to say with confidence whether dur-ing the early Republic there were any "public" schools at Rome, It is true that we find schools referred to in more than one of the old legends. Livy for example t e l l s us ("Hist." i i i . 44) how Virginia i n 305 B. 0. was seized as she was on her way to school: "Virgin! venienti in forum, ( i b i namque in tabernis literarum ludi erant,) minister decemviri l i b i d i n i s manum in i e c i t . " Dionysius in tel l i n g the same story (XI. 24)* gives i t the same setting, Livy has also something to say about a school master of boys at Palerii ("Hist." v. 27): "Mos erat F a l i s c i s , eodem magistro liberorum et comite u t i : simulque plures pueri, .... unius curae demandabantur." * As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 8. '•• • 99. Some c r i t i c s accuse Livy of romancing here, especially as Plutarch ("Quaestiones Romanae", lix) expressly states that Spurius Carvilius was the f i r s t to open,a school at Rome some-time about 235-230 B. C. To reconcile Livy and. Plutarch, i t has been suggested that, while Carvilius was the f i r s t to charge fees, the teachers of the schools previously existing had been recompensed by voluntary g i f t s . A. S. ?/ilkins (p. 8) expresses the opinion that Livy had no better authority for these details than his own imagination. He suggests i t would be hardly more perilous to draw an inference from the fact that Plutarch ("Life of Romulus", vi) t e l l s us that Romulus and Remus went to school at Gabii. The regular term for a school was "ludus", a name chosen --so the grammarian Festus (p. 347)* assures u s — l e s t by using some more deterrent word attendance should be discouraged. The "ludus" was a place for exercise of any kind, for example "l u -dus m i l i t a r i s " , where soldiers were exercised. It thus was naturally used for the place to which children resorted for school exercises. In Classical Latin "ludus" continued to be the only designation for the elementary school. Higher schools came in time to be called "scholae"; which term does not occur in the sense of a school t i l l the later imperial times. Under the later Repiiblic and Empire schools were well established; they presented the appearance of a system corres-* As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 43. 100, ponding t o o u r e l e m e n t a r y , secondary, and h i g h e r education; and i t had hecome the approved t h i n g f o r the Roman boy to r e -c e i v e h i s e d u c a t i o n from them, though there were many who y e t cl u n g to the o l d home ed u c a t i o n under t u t o r s , Roman schools were at a l l times s m a l l . The i d e a of v a s t "graded" e s t a b l i s h m e n t s where year a f t e r year p u p i l s are passed from-teacher t o teacher and a t l a s t "graduated" o c c u r r e d to no man. The poor teacher conducted h i s s c h o o l e n t i r e l y alone. The b e t t e r teacher had a couple of e f f i c i e n t monitors, but n e i t h e r t r i e d t o handle more than say t h i r t y p u p i l s . There i s a very i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i i ) as to the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s of " p u b l i c " and p r i v a t e education, an Important matter i n Roman e d u c a t i o n . By " p u b l i c " education Was, i n Q u i n t i l i a n ' s time, meant day s c h o o l s . He a c c o r d i n g l y Is c o n t r a s t i n g domestic as opposed to s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n ; " U t i l i u s n e s i t domi atque i n t r a p r i v a t o s p a r i e t e s studentem c o n t i n e r e an f r e q u e n t i a e scholarum et v e l u t p u b l i c i s praecep-t o r i b u s t r a d e r e . .... Corrumpi mores i n s c h o l i s putant; nam et corrumpuntur i n t e r i m , sed domi quoque, et sunt multa eius r e i exempla tarn h e r c u l e quam conservatae s a n c t l s s i m e u t r o b i -que o p i n i o n i s . Hatura cuiusque totum curaque d i s t a t . Da mentem ad p e i o r a f a c i l e m , da neglegentiam formandi c u s t o d i e n -dique i n aetate prima p u d o r i s : non minorem f l a g i t i i s occas-ionem s e c r e t a p r a e b u e r i n t . Nam et p o t e s t t u r p i s esse domesti-cus i l l e p raeceptor, nec t u t i o r i n t e r servos malos quam ingen-uos parum modestos c o n v e r s a t i o e s t . " Q u i n t i l i a n goes on to L U D U S R O M A N U S M A G I S T E R E T D I S C I P U L I This picture ia a photograph of a R o m a n carving in stone. p a i n t a very "black p i c t u r e of the domestic l i f e of many Romans - - t h e i r d a i l y h a b i t s of l u x u r y , t h e i r s e n s u a l i t y , and t h e i r l i c e n t i o u s conversation and songs. No day p u b l i c school could be otherwise than b e n e f i c i a l to the boy of such a f a m i l y , - -that i s c e r t a i n . The "tone" of a day-school as a whole could not f a i l , hov/ever d e f e c t i v e , to be b e t t e r than the tone of a boy so reared. The school would have to guard against him, not he against the school. And so Q u i n t i l i a n comes to the conclu-s i o n , "lumen tamen i l l u d conventus h o n e s t i s s i m i t e n e b r i s ac s o l i t u d i n i praetulissem." 102. ' Quintilian also points out (I. i i . 18) the advantage of a "public" education to the aspiring orator: "Ante omnia fu-turus orator, cui in maxima celebritate et in media r e i publi-.*r cae luce vivendum est, adsuescat iam a tenero non reformidare homines neque i l i a s o l i t a r i a et velut umbratica vita pallescere Both our pictures are of private "ludi" as i s obvious from the elaborate furnishings of the "schools" and the small number of pupils. ..SCHOOL Neither among the Greeks nor the Romans were BUILDINGS school buildings universal or even common in our modern sense; nor were any special buildings built or used for educational purposes. "Adventure" teachers ('and a l l were ad-venture teachers) naturally provided their own school rooms. ' 'For a long time any room or shelter was good enough for giving elementary instruction. Sometimes schools were held in the open air, In some quiet corner of a street or market place. Horace ("Ep." I. xx. 17) says: ".... Ut pueros elementa docentem Occupet extremis in v i c i s balba senectus." In earlier times we read of "tabernae"* -- sheds or booths; and these "tabernae" i n later times were like shops opening on the street, and attached to even fashionable houses. There are abundant examples of these at Pompeii. We read that the school was commonly held "in pergula". * See quotation on p. 9B„ 103. Suetonius ("De I l l u s t . Gram." 18) says: "deinde i n pergula docuit." This word i s used i n somewhat various senses but i t g e n e r a l l y denotes a k i n d of veranda, w i t h a roof but open at the s i d e s . Sometimes i t was much the same as a "taberna". But we may t h i n k of the "pergula" used f o r teaching purposes as being o r d i n a r i l y a room on the ground-floor, open to the s t r e e t i n f r o n t , and often on the sides as w e l l . At a l a t e r date "pergulae m a g i s t r a l e s " came to be the regular term f o r the lecture-rooms of the r h e t o r i c i a n s (cp. Vopiscus, "Sat^r-o.!i 10).* Open- as the schools were to the s t r e e t , the c h i l d r e n were exposed to a l l the d i s t r a c t i o n s of the busy town l i f e around them, and the people l i v i n g near were I n t u r n annoyed by the n o i s y r e c i t a t i o n s and even n o i s i e r punishments. To judge from a passage i n Augustine ("Confessiones" i , 13)** c u r t a i n s were sometimes used to separate the "pergula" from the s t r e e t ; t h i s would not, however, help the noise d i s t r a c -t i o n s at a l l . As t ime went on and the forum became more and more busy and n o i s y , s c h o o l s were apparently removed to more s u i t a b l e l o c a l i t i e s ; t h i s would a i d considerably the e f f o r t s of the teacher t o keep a t t e n t i o n . The school establishment sometimes had a very convenient • * As quoted by Lewis and Short,, "A New L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y . " ** "At enim'vela pendent l i m i n i b u s grammaticsrum scholarum." 104. ante-room where the various attendants of the p u p i l s might t a r r y and match gossi p while t h e i r charges were being I n s t r u c t e d . .E^HITURE OF The h e a l teacher sat on h i s "cathedra" ,-K a THE' SCHOOLS h i g h seat w i t h a round back, g e n e r a l l y r a i s e d on a "pulpitum". I f there was an a s s i s t a n t ("hypodidasculus", "ad l u t or", or "sub-doctor") he would s i t on a " s e l l a " , which was p l a c e d on the f l o o r and had no back. ' Cice r o ("Ad F a m i l i -ares" i x . . 18) says: " S e l l a t i b i e r i t i n ludo tanquam hypodid-a s c a l o proxima: earn p u l v i h u s sequetur." The c h i l d r e n of the lov>rer grade schools, f o r the most p a r t , would appear t o have sat on the f l o o r , or, i f i n the s t r e e t , on the stones. The schools of the "grammatici" seem to have been provided w i t h wooden benches w i t h no backs, so that Seneca .("Ep." 49) says "apud Sotionem s e d i " f o r " I attended the classes of Sotion." In w r i t i n g , the p u p i l s commonly r e s t e d t h e i r t a b -l e t s on t h e i r knees; we do not read of t a b l e s or desks, nor do we see any such f u r n i t u r e represented. The school rooms of the b e t t e r c l a s s of schools ("pergulae m a g i s t r a l e s " ) were f r e q u e n t l y adorned^, a f t e r the Greek f a s h i o n , w i t h works of a r t - - b o t h i n sculpture (marble or p l a s t e r ) and In p a i n t i n g . I n the schools" of l i t e r a t u r e , f o r Instance, busts of famous authors might be d i s p l a y e d ; and some i n t e r p r e t e r s h o l d that t h i s I s r e f e r r e d to by Juvenal ("Sat." v i i . 226 f.) In the l i n e s : a See p i c t u r e of a "Ludus Romanus" on p. 101. -/. : . 1 G 5 . ".... cum totus decolor esset Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni." The walls of the class room were also adorned with tablets containing pictures, incised on marble or on plaster, of scenes from mythology or history; the most famous of these, though by no means the only one preserved to us more or less complete, is the "tabula Iliaca", the inscriptions on which make:: i t clear that i t was: intended to teach pupils in schools the main Inci- ' dents in the Trojan war. As time went on appliances for teaching were improved and increased; certainly there was an increase in the;number of classroom "readers". Maps and chronological tables were in existence, but there i s no evidence that they were used in schools, at least not u n t i l f a i r l y late in the Empire.* SCHOOL The school day began before sunrise, as did a l l the HOURS . work at Rome on account of the heat in the middle of the day. The session lasted u n t i l time for the noonday luncheon and siesta, and was resumed in the afternoon. But the curious "Colloquia Scholastica"--dialogues in Greek and Latin of an uncertain date--describes how the pupils went off in the middle of the morning to their homes to get their "pran-dium" and to change their dress.** Often, however, boys 'hOught * See quotations on p. 57,58. **«-. As quoted by A, S. Wilkinsy p. 48. 106* cakes on their way to school, as a light early breakfast: "Surgite, iara vendit pueris ientacula pistor, Gristataeque sonant undique lucis aires". (Mart. "Epig." xiv. 223) Ausonius at a somewhat later date speaks ("Ep." x . 18. 10) of six hours as the usual length of the school day.* Ovid ("Amo-res" x i i i . 17) in speaking of the early hour of the opening of schools thus addresses "Dawn": "Tu pueros somno fraudas, tradisque magistris; Ut subeant tenerae verbera saeva manus." Martial ("Epig." IX. 69) complains of his sleep being disturbed by the early school sessions and bribes the school-master to close up shop: "Vicini somnum non tota nocte rogamus: Nam vigilare leve est, pervigilare grave. Discipulos dimitte tuos: vis, garrule, quantum Accipis ut clames, accipere ut taceas." Elsewhere (Ibid. IX. 30) Martial refers to the teacher as "ma-tutinus".** Juvenal ( v i i . 222 f.) represents as one of the hardships of a teacher's l i f e that he has to breathe air in his school room poisoned by the smoke of the many lanterns which the pupils used before dawn:, * As quoted by A. S. Wilklns, p. 48. ** Martial makes other references to "School Hours" in pas-sages quoted under "Discipline", p. 111. 107. "Dummodo non pereat, mediae quod noctis ab hora Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet, Qui docet obliquo lanam deduoere ferret Dummodo non pereat totidem olfecisse lucernas, Quot stabant pueri, cum totus decolor esset Flaccus, et haereret nigro fuligo Maroni." SCHOOL Holidays appear to have been numerous. School HOLIDAYS was closed for the "Quinquatria" (Mar. 19-23, in honour of Minerva), at the "Saturnalia" (beginning Dec. 17 and lasting several days), and probably on such festivals as those of Flora, Victoria, Geres, and Apollo, Triumphs and gladiatorial shows would be occasions for incidental holidays. The holidays in connection with the "Quinquatria" and the "Sa-turnalia" are both frequently mentioned, as: Martial ("Epig." V. 84): "lam t r i s t i s nucibus puer r e l i c t i s Clamoso revocatur a magistro." Pliny ("Ep." v i i i . 7): Tu in scholam te revocas, ego a dime Saturnalia extendo." .Horace ("Ep." i i . 2. 197): "Ac potius, puer ut festis quinquatribus olim, Exiguo gratoque fruaris tempore raptim." Symraachus ("Ep." v, 85): "Nempe Minervae t i b i solemne de scholis.notum est, ut fere memores sumus etiam procedente aevo puerilium feriarum."* * As quoted by A. W. Becker, "Gallus", p. 193. 1 0 8 . . There has "been much d i s c u s s i o n as t o the l e n g t h of the summer holidays.; I t has t e e n assumed by some that they, exten-ded over f o u r months of the summer; This view mainly r e s t e d on •i an a p p a r e n t l y f a l s e r e a d i n g of the l i n e of Horace ("Sat." i . 6. 75): " i b a n t octonbs r e f e r e n t e s Idibus aeras." Some e d i t o r s read: "Ibant o c t o n i s r e f e r e n t e s Idibus aera 1!; and then t h i s r e a d i n g i s by some i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t boys went to t h i s s c h o o l t a k i n g t h e i r f e e s on e i g h t of the twelve Ides each year. But i t would appear t h a t the t r u e r e a d i n g i s the one f i r s t g i v e n , and t h a t we may lea r n . f r o m i t the amount of the fee p a i d , not the number of months i n which I t was due. There was, however, no doubt a good r e s p i t e d u r i n g the summer. The c h i l d r e n of wealthy parents would be absent from Rome durin g the hot season, and t h i s would at l e a s t cut down the attendance i n some of the schools and might perhaps c l o s e them a l t o g e t h e r . We may assume, too, that there was l i t t l e or no attendance a t s c h o o l d u r i n g the o l i v e h a r v e s t or the vintage f o r the c h i l d r e n of poorer p a r e n t s . This of course would not cause the boys of the b e t t e r c l a s s e s t o stay away from s c h o o l . M a r t i a l ("Epig." X. 62) b i d s the " l u d i magister" allow h i s instruments of punishment; t o have a r e s t t i l l the Ides of Oc-tober, a remark t o which the i d l e s t schoolboy w i l l f o r g i v e i t s •.• L a t i n f o r the sake of i t s admirable sentiment: •"Ferulaeque . t r i s t e s , s c e p t r a paedagogorum, Cessent, e t Idus dormiant In Octobres: Aestate p u e r i s i v a l e n t , s a t i s d i s c u n t . " .109. Martial does not evidently mean that he is to close his school altogether — i f this had been the practice, as some have assumed, the poet's advice would have been needle as—but only that, like wise teachers nowadays, he should not press his pupils when the weather was extremely hot and school work was inconvenient and dangerous. The following quotations from Quintilian give some very sane advice with respect to holidays: (I. i i i . 8) : "Danda est .... omnibus aliqua remissio." ( I . i i i . 9) : "Itaque et virium plus adferunt ad discendum renovati ac recentes et acriorem animum, qui fere necessitati-bus repugnat." ( I . i i i . 1 1 ) : "Modus s i t remissionibus." DISClPhllJE.,'. . The school discipline was severe and the hot temper of the school master was almost proverbial. Plautus ("Bacchides" i i i . 3 . 27) says: "Cum libro ut legeres: s i hercle unam peccavisses syllabam Pieret corium tarn maculosum quamst nutricis pallium." The low class teacher knew well enough that the type of parents who employed him believed in the old maxim "he who is not flogged is not educated." And the great majority of parents would probably have agreed with the doctrine put forward so frankly by Ausonius in his exhortation to his grandson ("Edyl-l i a " i v ) , that he must not mind the severe discipline of school, for that i s what made his mother and father what they were. Such a stern and. even cruel discipline was by no means out of • " 1 1 0 . • keeping with., the Roman m i l i t a r y c h a r a c t e r , hut i t may w e l l have been i n p a r t one of those d e m o r a l i s i n g r e s u l t s which a system of s l a v e r y b r i n g s i n i t s t r a i n . Thus the i d e a l of a Roman s c h o o l has been d e s c r i b e d as being always somewhat the s t e r n d i s c i p l i n e of the c e n t u r i o n w i t h h i s v.ine-stock. The name of O r b i l i u s P u p i l l u s , whom Horace ("Ep." I I . 1. .70).,.whose teacher he had been, c a l l s "plagosum", i s e s p e c i a l l y Infamous. Suetonius ("De I l l u s t . Gram." 9) says: " P u i t autem naturae acerbae, non modo i n a n t i s o p h i s t a s , quos omni sermone l a c e r a y i t , sed etiam i n d i s c i p u l o s , u t H o r a t i u s S i g n i f i c a t , 'plagosum' eum a p p e l l a n s , e t Domitius Marsus s c r i b e n s , !S1 quos O r b i l i u s f e r u l a s c uticaque c e c i d i t . ' " The r o d : and s t r a p were f r e e l y used both i n the elementary and secondary s c h o o l . Horace ("Sat." i . 3) r e f e r s to the "scu~ t i c a " as a whip more severe than the " f l a g e l l u m " , and both were more severe than the " f e r u l a " . The " f e r u l a " , the g e n e r a l i n -strument of punishment, was commonly a p p l i e d to the hand as, f o r i n s t a n c e , J u v e n a l ("Sat." 1. 15) says: " e t nos ergo manum f e r u l a e subduximus." But the " f e r u l a " was only used f o r s l i g h t e r o f f e n c e s . For graver f a u l t s the instrument of punishment was the " s c u t i c a " or whip w i t h one or more thongs' of l e a t h e r . The manner i n which t h i s i s used i s shown i n a f r e s c o found at Her-culaneum and f r e q u e n t l y reproduced, which r e p r e s e n t s a p u p i l "horsed" by another, w h i l e a t h i r d h o l d s h i s f e e t , and the mas-t e r a d m i n i s t e r s a f l o g g i n g on h i s bare back. Perhaps we may t h i n k the " f e r u l a " w e l l deserved when we 3 s 3 * 3 n © read of the schoolboy's t r i c k i mmortalized by P e r s i u s ("Sat." i i i . 44 f . ) : "Saepe oculos, memini, tangebam parvus o l i v o , "9 Grandia s i nollem m o r i t u r o verba Catoni Dicere non sano multum laudanda magistro." The Roman s c h o o l boy had reason to b e l i e v e that Prometheus s t o l e f i r e from heaven i n the ho l l o w of a cane, i f caught at such a t r i c k as t h i s or chewing cumin t o induce the p a l l o r of i l l n e s s . M a r t i a l ("Epig." IX. 69) g i v e s us an exaggerated p i c t u r e of s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n i n g and the d i n caused by i t : "Quid t i b i nobiscum e s t , l u d i s c e l e r a t e magister, Invisum p u e r i s v i r g i n i b u s q u e caput? Nondum c r i s t a t i rupere s i l e n t i a g a l l i : Murmure iam saevo verberibusque tonas. Tarn grave p e r c u s s i s i n c u d i b u s aera r e s u l t a n t , Causidicum medio cum f a b e r aptat equo. M i t i o r i n magno clamor f u r i t amphitheatro, V i n c e n t i parraae cum sua t u r b a f avet ."* Then ( I b i d , x i i . 57) he complains: ".... negant vitam L u d i m a g i s t r i mane, nocte p i s t o r e s . " Ausonius ("EcLyllia" IV. 24) a l s o has a word to say on the -x M a r t i a l makes another r e f e r e n c e t o " D i s c i p l i n e " i n the pas-sage quoted under "School H o l i d a y s " , p. 106. subject of school punishment% ".. .. quamvis schola verbere multo Increpet, et truculenta senex gerat ora magister e" Seneca (nEp." 94. 9) declares in disgust that i t is a common thing to find "Irascendum non esse magister iracundis-simus disputat." He is indignant with the savage who w i l l "butcher" a young learner because he hesitates at a word--a venial/fault when we;.remember what must have been the aspect of a Roman book, written as i t was in capitals, almost without stops, and with l i t t l e or no distinctions between the words. Quintilian Is equally decided In the matter of corporal punishment though he allows that flogging was an institution (I. H i . 14 f . ) : "Caedi vero discentes, quamlibet et receptum s i t .... minime velim. Primum, quia deforme atque servile est et certe, (quod convenit, s i aetatem mutes), iniuria est; deinde, quod, si cui tam est mens i l l i b e r a l i s , ut:obiurgatione non corrigatur, is etiam ad plagas Ut pessima,quaeque. mancipia . durabitur. postremo, quod tie opus er i t quidem hac castigatione, s i assiduus studiorura^astiterit. Nunc fere.neglegentia paeda-gogorum sic emendari videtur, ut pueri non facere, quae recta sunt, cogantur sed cur non fecerint puniantur." .Plutarch ("De Liberis Educandis" x i l ) , ,on the subject of coercion^ denounces corporal punishment as degrading and futile and says that children-are to be -won to follow liberal studies, by exhortations and rational motives, and on no account to be forced thereto by whipping or any other contumelious punish-ments. He says that praise and reproof are much more effectual ^on.^reejborn.cail^en than any such disgraceful handling, the former to incite them to what i s good, the latter to restrain them from that which Is e v i l . .' r •Notwithstanding the appeals of Cato, Cicero, Martial, Quintilian, Seneca, and others that the teachers follow the milder way, that more lenity be practised and that virtue was not to be i n s t i l l e d by force, notwithstanding a l l this, the severe discipline continued. TEACHERSV-~THEIR During the Republic and the early Em-:SOCIAL STATUS ' pi-re particularly, the position of ele-mentary teacher was not an honourable but rather a very humble one, though this depended upon the character of the teacher himself just as the respect shown toward him by his pupils de-pended on i t . - .And before the Empire even the "grammaticus",. though more esteemed, did not stand high. The fact that most teachers were Greek and so subject to being despised by the Romans among whom they taught, was a barrier which had to be faced. We find therefore that while the pupils feared the mas-ter they seem often to have had l i t t l e respect for him and he often had to.maintain a daily contest, with his unruly pupils. To teach under such a handicap must have been very d i f f i c u l t . The social position of the teachers seems to have varied greatly, but seeing that anyone could open a school without any regular license, and that the attainments needed for the early stages of instruction \irere very slight, we may well believe that i t was in most cases humble. Most teachers had been - • 114. freedmen of s a v a n t s or g r e a t n o b l e s . Some bad a c t u a l l y been bought i n the s l a v e market. The o c c u p a t i o n of an elementary t e a c h e r - - i t c o u l d h a r d l y be c a l l e d a p r o f e s s i o n - - w a s g e n e r a l l y i l l - p a i d and e n j o y e d l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T e a c h i n g was o f t e n the l a s t r e s o r t o f t h o s e who h a d f a i l e d i n o t h e r and not more d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a l l i n g s , f o r any k i n d of a h a l f - e d u c a t e d f e l l o w c o u l d s e t up as a s c h o o l t e a c h e r . A common p r a c t i c e when one had f a i l e d , say as an i n n - k e e p e r , was t o t r y t o e a r n a l i v i n g by l e a s i n g a v a c a n t shop near an " i n s u l a " and r u n n i n g a s c h o o l . O r b i l i u s , the master of Horace, had been an a t t e n d a n t i n a pub-l i c o f f i c e * , o t h e r s had been p u g i l i s t s or low a c t o r s I n panto-mime. Q. Remmius Palaemon had been.a h o u s e - s l a v e , and o r i g i -n a l l y a weaver. J u s t i n , among o t h e r s , shows h i s contempt f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s when he r e f e r s ( x x i . 5) t o the s t o r y of D i o n y s i u s the t y r a n t of Syracuse h a v i n g become a p r i m a r y t e a c h e r a f t e r h i s expulsion*. " h u m i l l i m a quaeque t u t i s s i m a ex-i s t i m a n s , i n s o r d i d i s s i m u m v i t a e genus d e s c e n d i t . " J u v e n a l ("Sat." v i i ) g i v e s us a v i v i d p i c t u r e of t h e l a c k of esteem shown toward t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s m a l l rewards a l -though much was r e q u i r e d of them: 1. 229 ".... Sed vos ( s c . p a r e n t s ) saevas i m p o n i t e l e g e s , U t p r a e c e p t o r i verborum r e g u l a c o n s t e t , Ut l e g a t h i s t o r l a s , a u c t o r e s n o v e r i t omnes Tamquam ungues d i g i t o s q u e suos, .... 1. 237 E x i g i t e u t mores t e n e r o s ceu p o l l i c e d u c a t , Ut s i q u i s c e r a v o l t u r a f a c i t ; e x i g i t e u t s i t E t p a t e r i p s i u s c o e t u s , ne t u r p i a l u d a n t . 115. 'Haec' inqult ' cruras, et cum se verterit annus, Accipe, victor! populus quod postulat, aurum'". But even this meagre sum w i l l not "be a l l the teacher's own, 1. 216 u .... Et tamen ex hoc Quodcumque est, minus est autem quam rhetoris aera, Discipuli custos praemordet acoenonoetus, Et qui dispensat, frangit s i b i . Cede, Palaeraon, Et patere inde aliquid decrescere,.... 1. 222 Dummodo non pereat mediae quod noctis ab hora Sedisti, qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro." The."grammatici", as has already been indicated, held a higher position and were spoken of with some respect, but i t was only of the "rhetores" (of whom we shall speak under "Higher Education") that respectful and laudatory remarks were made by Roman writers. Under the later emperors, however, such for instance as Gratian, the position of teachers generally seems to have be-come one of considerable emolument.and dignity, and a rhetor of eminence like Ausonius might rise to high office in the State. As to the social status of a l l teachers, we must remember a fact which influenced the ancient mind to an extent which we f a i l f u l l y to comprehend, that they taught for money. It has also to be noted that they were not held to "educate", but only to "teach certain subjects", and to take their payment like dealers in other articles 116. TEACHERS' A l l references to the circumstances of teachers EMOLUMENTS before the time of Cicero represent them as in poverty. The payments to them were for a long period In the form of "honoraria" rather than fees. Generally speaking they had to take what they could get. Then In the middle of the third century Carvilius introduced the practice of taking fees for his instruction and this custom gradually became general. The fees varied, of course, with the qualifications of the mas-ter, and some whose reputations were established and whose schools were "fashionable" charged no fees at a l l , but left the amount to be paid to the generosity of their patrons. Sue-tonius, for example, t e l l s us ("De l l l u s t . Gramm." v i i ) of one distinguished teacher of literature of the time of Cicero, M. Antonius Gnipho, that he never would make any stipulation as to his fees: "nec unquam de mercedibus pactus, eoque plura ex liberalitate discentium consecutus." But he belonged to a much higher class of teachers. In. addition to the fee, however, gifts to the teacher continued customary at stated seasons--the 11 Miner vale munus" at the "Quinquatriis", the "sportula Saturnalicia" at the "Sat-urnalia" , the "strena Kalendaria" on the Kalends of January, and other gifts at the dates known as "Cara Cognatio" and "Septimontium". The.amount of the "salary" of the "litterator", "grammati-cus" , and "rhetor" varied, of course, with the time, the place. 117. and the teacher's s t a t u s . The pay of the "raagister l u d i l i t -t e r a r i i " was never h i g h , f o r h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were small and since as a r u l e anyone might open a school, h i s fees were low-ered by competition. As t o the amount of the f e e s , the only d e f i n i t e evidence which we have r e f e r s not to Rome, but to a t h i r d r a t e school i n a country town. Horace ("Sat." i . 6. 75)* t e l l s us t h a t , i n h i s n a t i v e town, each p u p i l brought eight "asses" monthly. Even a l l o w i n g f o r the much higher purchasing power of money i n those d a y s - - l e t us say three times what i t i s at present i n the case of n e c e s s a r i e s - - t h i s cannot have a-mounted to more than about twenty-five cents. Then, too, the teacher was none too sure of prompt payment. Thus the income of the elementary teacher was a mere p i t t a n c e / v a r y i n g from three d o l l a r s a pupI1 per year. The "grammaticus" would r e -ceive , as a r u l e , a sum f i v e or s i x times t h i s amount. At a l l events the pay f o r t u i t i o n v a r i e d a good d e a l . As to when the payments f o r t u i t i o n were made, the usual time f o r the higher schools would appear to have been at the t e r m i n a t i o n of the school-year (which probably began i n March, a f t e r the " Q u i n q u a t r i a " ) . Monthly payments were apparently the r u l e w i t h the lower schools although we do f i n d some Instances i n which the f a t h e r contracted t o pay an annual sum f o r h i s son's elementary t u i t i o n . In I m p e r i a l times, the number of schools, primary and * This quotation i s given on p. 108. 118. secondary, i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , the teachers g r a d u a l l y came to he engaged by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or the government d i r e c t and to be p a i d a f i x e d s a l a r y . Vespasian, f o r example, f i x e d the S t a t e - s a l a r y of "rhetores" at one hundred thousand s e s t e r c e s . * Such moves as these n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the s e t t i n g by the government of a standard scale of f e e s . I n the days of Dio-c l e t i a n , f o r in s t a n c e , the maximum monthly fee from each p u p i l was f i x e d at f i f t y d e n a r i i f o r the " l i t t e r a t o r " , two hundred f o r the "grammaticus", and two hundred f i f t y f o r the "rhetor." Clever teachers could, under such a s c a l e , make large incomes. The "grammaticus" Q. Remmius palaemon drew from h i s school four hundred thousand sesterces a year. Sometimes teachers a t t a i n e d to rank and fortune by being entrusted w i t h the t u i t i o n of the i m p e r i a l c h i l d r e n . Augustus, f o r example, made a c e r t a i n Placcus t u t o r to h i s grandsons, g i v i n g him a s a l a r y of what would be the equivalent of about eight hundred d o l l a r s a year, which f o r that time was a good s a l a r y f o r a teacher. * See quotation on p. 160. CHAPTER VI HIGHER"' EDUCATION  i ' Rhetoric •INTRODUCTION .Alongside of, but quite distinct from,, the study OF THE STUDY , of literature i n Greek and Latin as a means of OF RHETORIC general culture, there had come into the Roman educational "system" by degrees something of that training in rhetoric and in philosophy, which had. long been regarded as an important part of the higher education in Greece. , Doubtless the curriculum of the "grammar" schools was quite enough for the ordinary citizen; but those who aspired to take a prominent part in public, l i f e often wished to train themselves for i t by a l l ; the resources of Greek. culture . -We. cannot say precisely when.this, higher teaching was f i r s t given at Rome or when schools, f i r s t exclusively Greek, were opened for instruction in oratory. We do, however, know that the value of this training, which was confined to the upper ranks of the citizens, was fu l l y recog-nized in the second century B. C. Peculiar as i t may seem, how-ever, no welcome was given to attempts to supersede Greek rhe-toric by Latin for the "rhetores Latini" were considered to be s t i l l more pernicious than the Greek.* It was to prevent the * Suet., "De Claris Rhetoribus" ( i ) : "Rhetorica quoque apud nos, perinde atque Grammatica, sero recepta est, paulo etiam : d i f f I c i l i u s , quippe quam constet nonnumquam etiam prohibitam exerceri." 120. threatening supersession of the Greek by the Latin rhetors that even the State interfered; and, i n 161 B. C., "rhetores L a t i n i " * were banished by the Senate as being a menace to Ro-man institutions and the preservation of Roman character. The provisions of the ban, needless to say, were ineffective against tendencies so manifestly in accord with the whole movement of • the times; i t s significance was rather an indication of a fact accomplished than of a reform instituted. It was probably in order to supply what was in his day a new demand for rhetoric, which he f e l t might be otherwise met In a more perilous way by the Greek teachers, that Cato included among the books which he drew up f or the training of his son, one on the art of speaking. And i t is very s i g n i f i -cant that in-preparing this book Cato, who was the most elo-quent speaker of his day, studied carefully the speeches of Demosthenes as well as those found in the pages of Thucydides. So l i t t l e could the bitterest opponent of Greek culture af-ford to neglect the resources which i t put at his command. The f i r s t Roman who seems to have brought a training in formal rhetoric to bear wi th marked success on public speaking was a consul of B. C. 137, M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina, who was taken as a model by Tiberius and Gains Gracchus. His style showed careful and effective use of the period, and the polished a This terra probably denotes Greeks who used Latin as the medium of their teaching; i t is not likely that rhetoric was taught as early as this by native Romans. 123_0 elegance which came from the constant use of the pen. A some-what older contemporary Ser. S u l p i c l u s Galba i s s a i d by Cicero ("Brut." 82) "princeps ex L a t i n i s " to have employed a l l the a r t s of r h e t o r i c , but h i s speeches d i d not read w e l l , owing to t h e i r a r c h a i c and unpolished d i c t i o n , so that he cannot have owed much, at any r a t e d i r e c t l y , to Greek teachers. On the other hand w i t h S c i p i o Aemilianus, the son of Aemilius Paulus, and h i s f r i e n d Gains L a e l i u s , who was even more d i s t i n g u i s h e d as an elegant speaker, we are already i n the f u l l t i d e of Greek i n f l u e n c e . Both T i b e r i u s and Gaius Gracchus were taught rhe-t o r i c by Menelaus of Mar a thus, and Diophanes of Mytiiene*, and we may c o n f i d e n t l y say th a t a study of the p r i n c i p l e s and me-thods of Greek r h e t o r i c had become common among the upper c l a s -ses at Rome by the middle of the second century B. C. Nor need we doubt- that t h i s was of great s e r v i c e i n developing the; power and f l e x i b i l i t y of the L a t i n language. Too much f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Greek culture--whether i n r h e t -o r i c , i n l i t e r a t u r e , or i n philosophy--was always looked on wi t h some s u s p i c i o n by an average Roman audience i n the days of the Republic*, and Cice r o and h i s contemporaries sometimes amuse us by t h e i r attempts, to. avoid any d i s p l a y of knowledge.x Roman j u r i e s looked on the l i t e r a r y b a r r i s t e r as u n p r a c t i c a l : hence the f a l t e r i n g way i n which Cicero owns to a knowledge of Greek x In the "De Oratore" ( i i . 4) the antipathy of Crassus and An-tonius toward a r e p u t a t i o n f o r Greek l e a r n i n g i s very evident. 122.. l i t e r a t u r e i n passages l i k e "Pro Murena" (63). The f e e l i n g l a s t e d long as Is apparent from T a c i t u s ("De Orat." 2): "Aper x. communi e r u d i t i o n e imbutus/ contemnehat p o t i l i s l i t e r a s quam nesci e b a t , tanquam maiorem i n d u s t r i a e et l a b o r i s gloriam hab-i t u r n s , s i ingenium eius n u l l i s alienarum artium a d m i n i c u l i s i n n i t i v i d e r e t u r . " That L a t i n r h e t o r s had not by any means been discouraged by t h e i r banishment by government l e g i s l a t i o n i n 161 B. C. i s apparent from the f a c t that i n 92 B. C. another ban, t h i s time imposed by the censors, p r o h i b i t e d L a t i n schools of r h e t o r i c as haunts of i d l e n e s s and "praeter c on sue tudinem ac morem ma-iorum."* We l e a r n from Tacitus ("De Orat," 35) that t h i s d i s -approval arose p r i n c i p a l l y from the s o p h i s t i c a l nature of the i n s t r u c t i o n : "At nunc a d o l e s c e n t u l i n o s t r i deducuntur i n scenas scholasticorum, qui rhetores vocantur, quos paulo ante G i c e r o n i s tempora e x t i t i s s e , nec p l a c u i s s e maioribus n o s t r i s , ex eo manifestum e s t , quod. L. Crasso et Domitio Censoribus, 'cludere', u t a i t C i c e r o , 'ludum irapudentiae' i u s s i sunt." And y e t one of these censors, L. L i c i n i u s Crassus, was the most eloquent and accomplished orator of h i s day. Crassus i s rep-resented by Cice r o as defending h i s a c t i o n on the ground of the incompetence of the teachers,, who were n o t a b l e t o impart any r e a l l y v aluable c u l t u r e . The L a t i n teachers of r h e t o r i c were indeed long viewed w i t h d i s t r u s t . On the point of the precedence of the Greek * Suet. "De C l a r . Rhet." ( i ) . 1 2 3 . r h e t o r i c over that of the L a t i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h reference to P l o t i u s and Gicero, there i s an I n t e r e s t i n g quotation from a l o s t l e t t e r of C i c e r o given hy Suetonius ("De C l a r . Rhet." I i ) i n h i s l i f e of the r h e t o r L. P l o t i u s G a l l u s , which may be i n -troduced here f o r the l i g h t i t throws on the subject. "'Squi-dem memoria teneo, pu e r i s n o b i s , primum Lat i n e docere coepisse L. Plotium quendam: ad quem cum f i e r e t concursus, quod stu d i o -sissimus quisque apud eum exe r c e r e t u r , dolebam, raihi idem non l i c e r e . Continebar autem doctissimorum hominum a u c t o r i t a t e , qui existimabant, Graecis e x e r c i t a t i o n l b u s a l l melius ingenia posse.'" Undoubtedly the Greek masters had behind them a sound t r a d i t i o n of method, which must have been wanting at f i r s t to t h e i r Roman i m i t a t o r s ; though l a t e r on the adoption of t h i s by the l a t t e r l e d i n the long run to the most marked r e s u l t s , by no means wholly f o r good, upon education and so upon l i t e r a t u r e , Ao both i n prose and verse. Suetonius ("De C l a r . Rhet." i ) t e l l s us how r h e t o r i c came i n t o i t s own during the l a t e r Republic and the Empire: "Pau-l a t i m et i p s a u t i l i s honestaque apparult; multique earn prae-s i d i i causa et g l o r i a e appetiverunt Quare magno studio hominibus i n i e c t o , magna etiam professorum ac doctorum pr o-f l u x i t c o p i a , adeoque f l o r u i t , ut n o n n u l l i ex infima fortuna i n ordinem senatorium, atque ad summos honores p r o c e s s e r i n t . " Under the Empire, then, the r h e t o r i c a l education became d e f i n -i t e l y systematized and the schools of the rhetors represented the dominant education. Indeed great honours were f r e q u e n t l y 12.4. bestowed on r h e t o r s , Q u i n t i l i a n , f o r in s t a n c e , who acquired a great r e p u t a t i o n as an i n s t r u c t o r of r h e t o r i c , was given per-m i s s i o n to wear the i n s i g n i a of a man of consular rank, a some-what higher honour than was u s u a l l y conferred on r h e t o r s . I t i s t o t h i s that Juvenal ("Sat." v i i . 197) r e f e r s i n the l i n e : " S i Fortuna v o l e t , f i e s de rhetore consul." AGE OF A l a d had commonly " f i n i s h e d " h i s education COMMENCEMENT OF when he exchanged the "toga praetexta" f o r HIGHER STUDIES the "man's gown" ("toga v i r i l i s " or "pura" ) at about the age of s i x t e e n . At t h i s time h i s name would be f o r m a l l y confirmed and e n r o l l e d among the c i t i z e n s and he would enter on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of manhood. The education t h e r e a f t e r was the education of p u b l i c l i f e , i n c l u d i n g m i l i t a r y e x e r c i s e s , although the home education and i n f l u e n c e never ceased. I f the youth thought of p o l i t i c a l l i f e , of becoming a statesman, and t a k i n g o f f i c e i n the commonwealth, he had much ye t to l e a r n . He had to make him s e l f a lawyer and an o r a t o r . In s h ort, we may say that i n the higher education of youths who aimed at some form of p u b l i c l l f e - - a s a l l the ambitious among the well-to- d o did--the two words "law" and "oratory" p r a c t i c a l l y summed up t h e i r s t u d i e s . As to the age at which the youth should begin to plead on f i n i s h i n g h i s course at the r h e t o r i c a l school, Q u i n t i l i a n ( X I I . v i . 1) says: "Agendl autem i n i t i u m sine dubio secundum v i r e s cuiusque sumendum est." STUDY Law the youth l e a r n t by a t t a c h i n g h i m s e l f , by becom-OF LAW i n g the p u p i l , as we should say, of some great man 1 2 5 , t h a t was famed f o r h i s knowledge. This arrangement was not only very advantageous t o the young men but was considered very honourable f o r those under whom they s t u d i e d , Cicero ("De Am-*r i c i t i a " i ) r e l a t e s h i s own personal experience: "Ego autem a patre i t a eram deduetus ad Scaevolam sumta v i r i l i toga, u t , quoad possem et l i c e r e t a senis l a t e r e nunquam discederem; itaque multa ab eo prudenter . d i s p u t a t a , multa etiam b r e v i t e r et commode d i c t a memoriae mandabam f i e r l q u e studebam eius pru- • dentIa d o c t i o r . Quo mortuo me ad p o n t i f i c e m Scaevolam c o n t u l i , quern unum nostrae c i v i t a t i s et ingenio et i u s t i t i a praestan-tissimum audeo d i c e r e . " He goes on to give us a p i c t u r e of t h i s second Scaevola and h i s p u p i l s . He t e l l s us that Scae-v o l a d i d not undertake t o give i n s t r u c t i o n to anyone, yet he p r a c t i c a l l y taught those who were anxious to l i s t e n to him, al l o w i n g them to hear his-answers to those who consulted him. These c o n s u l t a t i o n s took place e i t h e r i n the Forum or at h i s own house. When he gave audience at home they would stand by h i s c h a i r . I t must be remembered that men who acted i n the r o l e t h a t Scaevola d i d took no payment f o r t h e i r t u t e l a g e . Tacitus ("De Orat." i i ) t e l l s us of h i s experience w i t h h i s "sponsor"; i t i s , q u i te s i m i l a r to that of Cicero's: "Marcus Aper et I u l l u s Secundus, celeberrima turn i n g e n i a f o r i n o s t r i : quos ego i n i u d i c i i s non utrosque modo studiose audi-ebam, sed domi quoque et i n p u b l i c o assectabar, mira studiorum c u p i d i t a t e et quodam ardore i u v e n i l i , ut fabulas quoque eorum et d i s p u t a t i o n e s et arcana semotae d i c t i o n i s penitus exciperem." 126. STUDY OF - But the young Roman had not only to l e a r n law, he RHETOR10 must a l s o l e a r n how to speak--learn, as f a r as such a t h i n g could be l e a r n t , how.to be eloquent. What we would c a l l the career of the p u b l i c man was i n Rome c a l l e d the career of the o r a t o r . For to the Roman oratory was of much broader connotation than t o the modern. The orator i n c l u d e d the teacher, the p u b l i c i s t , the r e l i g i o u s teacher, of the pre-sent, a s w e l l as the man devoted to l e g a l , j u d i c i a l , or l e g i s -l a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s : the orator was I d e n t i f i e d , w i t h the educated man p a r t i c i p a t i n g In p u b l i c a f f a i r s . In the absence of the modern p u l p i t , of the press, of the U n i v e r s i t y and s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , the orator combined the f u n c t i o n s of these with the f u n c t i o n s of the bar and forum. The spoken word then ac-complished what both the spoken and w r i t t e n word do now. Ora-t o r y meant e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y . With us i t i s much a matter of chance whether a man can speak or not. But that such teaching should be a part of the necessary t r a i n i n g of a statesman i s an idea q u i t e strange to us. A Roman r e c e i v e d i t as a matter of course. Oratory seems to have been the keystone t o success. True, the f a l l of the Republic made i t impossible to harangue the assembled Gomitia i n behalf of f a v o u r i t e candidates or proposed laws. Even i n the Senate there were now grave l i m i t a t i o n s upon f r e e eloquence, Nevertheless, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of "fame" as an orator seemed i n c a l c u l a b l e . To win your cause i n the courts; to make a crowded h a l l resound with applause at your set orations seemed the height of peacef u l triumph. Never w i l l another age set 127. more store on h i g h - s o a r i n g formal t a l k than t h i s age of the Roman Empire. And so no matter how i m p r a c t i c a l the study of r h e t o r i c was, the upper c l a s s e s at Rome assuredly doted upon i t w i t h the r e s u l t that the schools of the r h e t o r s prepared the m a j o r i t y f o r Roman l i f e . CONCEPTION To appreciate f u l l y what r h e t o r i c , the crown of HELD OP education,and the p r o f e s s i o n of the orator meant ORATORY t o a Roman we must look at what some of t h e i r l e a d i n g exponents have to say ahout them. I t i s only thus that we may r e a l i z e how l o f t y an aim was set f o r what r e a l l y amoun-te d to the s o l e achievement of education. Cato, i n h i s l o s t t r e a t i s e on education,defined the "ora-t o r " as " v i r bonus dieend! p e r i t u s " , a thus p u t t i n g the e t h i c a l stamp of the man i n the f i r s t p l a c e . This emphasis on character we s h a l l f i n d was very general. The c e n t r a l doctrine of Cicero's "De Oratore" i s that the p e r f e c t orat or must be a sort of " s u p e r - c i t i z e n " . The f o l l o w -i n g passages give some idea of the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and breadth of knowledge which Cicero would have a l l orators possess: I.^xx. "Ac mea quidem s e n t e n t i a nemo p o t e r i t esse orani laude cumulates o r a t o r , n i s i e r i t omnium rerum magnarum atque artium scientiam consecutus. Etenim ex rerum cognitione e f f l o r e scat et ro-xlundet oportet o r a t i o j quae, n i s i res * As quoted by Quint. ( X I I . i . 1) 128. est ab or a tore percepta et c o g n i t a , inanem quandam habet elocutionem et paene puerilem." I.., xxv. s"?." Sed or at or em plenum, atque perfectum esse euro .dicam, qui de omnibus rebus f lvarie eopioseque d i c e r e . " I . l x i x . "Quare h i e locus de v i t a et moribus totus est orat-o r ! perdiscendus." I . x x v i i i . " I n oratore autem acumen d i a l e c t i c o r u m , sententiae phi1osophorum, verba prope poetarum, memoria i u r i s - - c o n -suItorum, vox tragoedorum, gestus paene summorum actorum est requirendus." I I I . x i v . s-f."Vero.• enim o r a t o r i , quae sunt i n hominum v i t a , quandoquidem i n ea ver s a t u r orator atque ea est e i sub-i e c t a materies, omnia qu a e s i t a , a u d i t a , l e c t a , d i s p u t a t a , t r a e t a t a , a g i t a t a esse debent." Concerning the n e c e s s i t y of having a combination of both wisdom and eloquence f o r success i n oratory Cicero ("De Inven-t i o n e " i ) says: "Saepe et multum hoc me cum c o g i t a v i , bonine an m a l l plus a t t u l e r i t , hominibus et c i v i t a t l b u s copia d i c e n d i ac summum eloquentiae studium. Nam cum et nostrae r e ! p u b l i -cae detrimenta considero et maximarum c i v i t a t u m veteres animo cal a m i t a t e s c o n l i g o , non minimam video per d i s e r t i s s i m o s homi-nes invectam partem incommodorum." Tacitu s ("De Orat." x x x i i ) sums up h i s views of what an orator ought t o be as f o l l o w s : "quern non posse a l i t o r e x i s t e r e , nec e x t i t i s s e umquam, confirrao, n i s i eum, q u i , tanquam i n aciem omnibus armis i n s t r u c t u s , s i c i n forum omnibus a r t i b u s armatus, e x i e r i t . " 129. Q u i n t i l i a n , l i k e C i c e r o , a l s o emphasizes the moral r e -q u i s i t e as being the primary one f o r success as an o r a t o r . The importance he places on the orator's t r a i n i n g i s apparent from h i s statement ( I . Proa em.5) as to when an orator's edu-c a t i o n r e a l l y begins: "nec a l i t o r , quam s i mihi t r a d a t u r edu-candus o r a t o r , s t u d i a eius formare ab i n f a n t i a i n c i p i a m . " Cato, as we have seen, had a f f i r m e d i t t o be the aim of education t o produce the "bonus v i r . " Q u i n t i l i a n s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h i s the "bonus o r a t o r " , and i n doing so he places himself In more d i r e c t sympathy w i t h the p r a c t i c a l aims of the post-r e p u b l i c a n Roman l i f e and education. Mere eloquence i n the ordinary sense ("facultas d i c e n d i " ) d i d not c o n s t i t u t e an ora-t o r i n Q u i n t i l i a n ' s mind; he h e l d that a man could not be en-gaged i n the p u r s u i t of those noble s t u d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e and philosophy which were indispensable t o the education of an orato r , unless he were f r e e from v i c e . He aimed at a moral r e s u l t as the supreme end of education, as i s very apparent from the f o l l o w i n g quotations: ( I . Prooem.9): "Oratorem autem i n s t i t u i m u s i l i u m perfectum, qui esse n i s i v i r bonus non potest; ideoque non d i c e n d i modo eximiam i n eo facu l t a t e m sed omnes animi v i r t u t e s . .-exigimus." ( I . Prooem.18): " S i t i g i t u r orator v i r t a l i s , q u a l i s vere sapiens a p p e l l a r i p o s s i t ; nec moribus modo p e r f e c t u s . . . . sed etiam s c i e n t i a et omni f a c u l t a t e d i c e n d i , q u a l i s f o r -tasse nemo adhuc f u e r i t . " 130, I . i i . 3 ) : "neque enim esse oratorem n i s i bonum virum i u d i c o , et f i e r i e t i a m s i potest nolo." ,f Apart from the importance of good character to an orator r h e t o r i c or the a r t and p r a c t i c e of e f f e c t i v e speaking was a l s o very necessary. Q u i n t i l i a n ' s conception of what c o n s t i -t u t e d p e r f e c t eloquence i s a very l o f t y one as i s evident from var i o u s statements he has made: ( I . Prooem.20): "Ham est certe a l i q u i d consummata el o q u e n t i a , neque ad earn pervenire natura humani i n g e n i i prohibet." ( I I . v i i i . 15): "Nam s i c u t c i t h a r a i t a o r a t i o p e r f e c t a non es t , n i s i ab imo ad summum omnibus i n t e n t a n e r v i s consentiat." ( I I . xv. 34): " r h e t o r i c e n esse bene d i c e n d i scientiam." ( I I . x x l . 4 ) : "Ego (neque i d sine auctoribus) materiam esse r h e t o r i c e s i u d i c o omnes res quaecunque e i ad dicendum sub-ie c t a e erunt." ( I I I . I . 1): "... quid esset r h e t o r i c e et quis f i n i s e i u s , artem quoque esse earn et u t i l e m et vi r t u t e m , ... ostend-imus, materiamque e i r e s omnes, de quibus dic e r e opor-t e r e t , ^ . . . " ( X I I , i i i . 1): " l u r i s quoque c i v i l i s n e c e s s a r i a huic v i r o s c i e n t i a e st et morum ac rel i g i o n u m eius r e i p u b l i c a e , quam capesset." The d e s i g n a t i o n " o r a t o r " , then, as used by Q u i n t i l i a n , may be regarded as synonymous w i t h a completely educated man. He wished t o produce a man "optima sentientem, optimeque dicentem" ( X I I . i . 25), and not a mere mercenary pleader i n the forum, or a c l a p t r a p popular t a l k e r . He admits that no man ever was 131. what he aims at producing and t h a t such an one i s v i r t u a l l y n on-existent "sed non ideo minus .nobis ad summa tendendum est .... Quod ( n o i i f s i ^ c o n t i n g a t , a l t i u s tamen ibunt, qui ad summa •r n i t e n t u r , quam- q u i , praesumpta desperatione quo v e l i n t eva-de ndi , p r o t i n u s c i r c a ima s u b s t i t e r i n t " ( I . Prooem.19, 20). On t h i s admission we do not q u a r r e l w i t h Q u i n t i l i a n because, under a very n a t u r a l tendency, p e c u l i a r t o h i s age and n a t i o n , to magnify the o f f i c e of the " r h e t o r " , he used the word "ora-t o r " as a synonym f o r the p e r f e c t l y t r a i n e d and f u l l y equipped c i t i z e n : nor yet because he h e l d that the p e r f e c t orator was a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y the p e r f e c t c i t i z e n . THE Having surveyed what was to be expected of an RHETORICAL orator both w i t h respect t o character and l e a r n -SCH00L i n g , l e t us now look at the. school In which the a s p i r i n g orator "learned to be eloquent." The r h e t o r i c a l school was r e g u l a r l y begun a f t e r the as-sumption of the "toga v i r i l i s " . But as to when a boy should, i d e a l l y speaking, enter the school of the " r h e t o r " , Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i . 7) has some very s e n s i b l e advice—to - o f f e r : "Nos porro quaerimus quando l i s , quae r h e t o r i c e p r a e c i p i t , p e r c i p i e n d i s puer maturns esse v i d e a t u r . In quo quidem non i d est a e s t i -mandum, cuius quisque s i t a e t a t i s , sed quantum i n s t u d i i s iam e f f e c e r i t . Et ne d i u t i u s disseram, quando s i t r h e t o r i t r a -dendus, s i c optime f i n i r i credo; cum p o t e r i t . Sed hoc ipsum ex superiore pendet quaestione. Nam s i grammatices munus us-que ad suasorias prorogatur, t a r d i u s rhetore opus est. At s i 132. rhetor prima o f f l c i a operis sui non recusat, a narrationibus statim et laudandi vituperandique opusculis cura eius desider-atur" and then later (II. i i . 1) he adds: "Ergo cum ad eas in studiis vires pervenerit puer, ut, quae prima esse praecepta rhetorum dixiraus, mente consequi possit, tradendus eius artis magistris e r i t . " GHOICE OP As on the choice of an elementary and "high school" A RHETOR so does Quintilian place much emphasis on the choice of a "rhetor": ( I I . i i . 1): "Quorum (rhetorum) in primis inspici mores oport-ebit." (II. i i . 3): "Nam et adulti fere pueri ad hos praeceptores transferuntur et apud eos iuvenes etiam f a c t i perseverant; ideoque maior adhihenda turn cura est, ut et teneriores annos ab iniuria sanctitas docentis custodiat et feroci-ores a licentia gravitas deterreat." (II. i i i . 12): "Sit ergo tam eloquentia quam raoribus praestan-tissiraus, qui .... dicere ac facere doceat." (II . i v . 9): "Quapropter in primis evitandus et in pueris praecipue magister aridus." Quintilian goes on to animadvert on the tendency of par-ents to think that a second-rate or third-rate master would do well enough for their sons. He maintains that the ablest man is the best teacher. The ablest and profoundest scholar w i l l teach most simply, most clearly, and most successfully. He would not count that man among pr receptors at a l l who would 133. not give care i n sm a l l t h i n g s . P l i n y ("Ep." I I I . 3) o f f e r s s i m i l a r advice to G o r e I l i a H i s p u l l a on the s e l e c t i o n of a "rhetor" f o r her son: "(lam s t u d i a eius e x t r a limen proferenda sunt), iam circumspiciendus r h e t o r L a t i n u s , cuius scholae s e v e r i t a s , pudor, I n prl m i s cas-t i t a s constet." While to some extent the r h e t o r i c a l education was a l s o given hy t u t o r s , the school was the dominant type. The schools of r h e t o r i c were formed on Greek l i n e s and conducted l a r g e l y by Greek teachers. They were not a part of the r e g u l a r system of education, but corresponded more n e a r l y t o our c o l l e g e s , being frequented, as we have seen, by persons beyond the age of boyhood andjwith r a r e exceptions, of the higher c l a s s e s only. The r h e t o r i c a l schools were arranged rather as h a l l s of audience than as ordinary classrooms and the youth was now r a -ther a l i s t e n e r than a p u p i l . The teachers of eloquence were what we may c a l l the "pro-f e s s o r s " * of Rome. No s l a v e , of course, or ordinary "grammati-cus" c o u l d hope t o conduct a r h e t o r i c a l school. The masters were e i t h e r Romans of such rank that they could mingle w i t h senators, or were d i s t i n g u i s h e d Greeks f r e s h from the schools of Rhodes or Athens. Senators, degraded and banished f o r rea-sons good or bad, co u l d earn a l i v i n g i n the provinces by open-i n g r h e t o r i c a l schools. Thus L i c i n i a n u s d i d so i n S i c i l y i n * Seneca ("Ep." 88. 2) was probably the f i r s t to use t h i s des-i g n a t i o n . 154. Trajan's time.* Modern c r i t i c s have of t e n disparaged the value of the rhe-t o r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , as d e a l i n g only w i t h words. S t i l l the methods of the Greek r h e t o r s were beyond question very success-f u l i n teaching the s k i l f u l i n v e n t i o n and arrangement of argu-ments, and a ready command of appropriate language. The i n -s t r u c t i o n of the "rhetores" was of a p r o f e s s i o n a l nature as opposed to the l i b e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n of the "grammatici". Those p o l i t i c i a n s t o whom the power of e f f e c t i v e speech was of the greatest importance f o r t h e i r success i n l i f e - - s u c h men as Cicero and Caesar--were the very men who valued i t most h i g h l y . R h e t o r i c d i d not do, what i t never professed to do: i t d i d not teach e l e v a t e d p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e , or i n s p i r e a l o f t y p a t r i o t i s m . But i t put i n t o the hands of statesmen, who aimed at serving t h e i r country, a power of persuasion which made them be t t e r able t o do so under the conditions of the time; and i f t h i s po-wer was sometimes misused, i t was i n that only l i k e every other c a p a c i t y . PRELIMINARY The main ob j e c t i v e of the p r e l i m i n a r y work of EXERCISES the r h e t o r i c a l school was to obtain p l e n t y of p r a c t i c e i n composition. This was begun i n i t s simplest form, * P l i n y the Younger records ("Ep." IV. i i A ) that he began h i s f i r s t set o r a t i o n by d e c l a r i n g : "Quos t i b i , Fortuna, ludos f a c i s ? f a c i s enim ex senatoribus professores, ex professoribus senator es," 135 « the n a r r a t i v e ( " n a r r a t i o " ) , and continued step hy step u n t i l the end i n view was reached, the p r a c t i c e of p u b l i c speaking ("declamatio"). These ex e r c i s e s were a l l intended to give a wide scope f o r o r a t o r y , - - t o help i n v e n t i o n , to a f f o r d p r a c t i c e i n the use of c o r r e c t language, i n the nature and use of tropes and f i g u r e s of speech, and i n a l l devices whereby a speaker could i n f l u e n c e h i s f e l l o w men. Even i f a boy had had some t r a i n i n g i n the p r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e s before he came to the " r h e t o r " , h i s more serious work at them would begin there. The order i n which the p r e l i m i n a r y r h e t o r i c a l exercises ("progymnasmata") were taken was a t r a d i t i o n a l one, d e r i v e d from the Greek usage. The f i r s t e x e r c i s e was p r a c t i c e i n nar-r a t i v e because i t resembled subjects already acquired under the teacher of l i t e r a t u r e . * Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 15) puts p a r t i c u -l a r s t r e s s on t h i s e x e r c i s e : "narrationes s t i l o componi quanta maxima p o s s i t a d h i b i t a d i l i g e n t i a v o l o " . With regard to the subject matter of these e x e r c i s e s i n n a r r a t i v e he would now drop the f a b l e and the s t o r y ("argumentum") and confine the matter to comment upon remarkable p o i n t s of h i s t o r y as being "tanto robust!or quanto v e r i e r " ( I I . i v . 2). On t h i s type of exercise f o l l o w e d n a t u r a l l y the c r i t i c a l treatment of n a r r a t i v e s ("opus destruendi confirmandique nar-r a t i o n e s " ) —amassed arguments f o r or against the t r u t h of some * Quint. ( I I . i v . 1): "cuius a l i q u i d s i m i l e apud grammaticos puer d i d i c e r i t . " 136. s t o r y such, f o r example, as that of the raven which was s a i d to have s e t t l e d on the helmet of V a l e r i u s Corvus i n the midst of combat and w i t h i t s wings and beak struck the eyes of a Gaul who was h i s adversary. Concerning t h i s type of exe r c i s e Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 18) says: " n a r r a t i o n i b u s non i n u t i l i t e r s u biungitur opus destruendi confirmandique eas, .... Id porro non tantum i n f a b u l o s i s et carmine t r a d i t i s f i e r i p otest, verum etiam i n I p s i s annaliura monumentis." "Inde paulatim ad malora tendere i n c i p i e t , laudare c l a r o s v i r o s et v i t u p e r a r e improbos, quod non s i m p l i c i s u t i l i t a t i s opus e s t . " (Quint. I I . i v . 20). This exercise.was of e s p e c i a l value, p a r t l y from the v a r i e d demands which i t made upon the mental powers, p a r t l y from i t s development of the moral judg-ment, and p a r t l y from the way i n which i t stored the memory w i t h examples to be used on occasion. With t h i s e x e rcise was i sometimes combined the comparison of characters. Other e x e r c i s e s c o n s i s t e d of: " l o c i communes", which were r e f l e x i o n s on p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s and I n support of v i r t u e s i n the a b s t r a c t . They were thus general In t h e i r treatment and of im-mediate s e r v i c e In l e g a l cases. But these, as w i t h a l l other ex e r c i s e s both of the grammar and r h e t o r i c a l school, had f o r t h e i r object the f i x e d development of a subject i n a c e r t a i n form and the a r t of f i n d i n g arguments, Q u i n t i l i a n ' s comment on t h i s type of exe r c i s e i s "communes l o c i ex mediis sunt i u d i c i i s e t , s i r e jam a d i i c i a s , accusationes; quamquam h i quo-que ab i l l o g e n e r a l ! t r a c t a t u ad quasdam deduct species so l e n t , ut s i ponatur a d u l t e r caecus, a l e a t o r pauper, petulans senex." ( I I . i v . 22) 137. Even more of immediate s e r v i c e i n l e g a l cases than "communes l o c i " were "theses", ab s t r a c t questions i n v o l v i n g comparisons of such a debatable nature as " r u s t i c a n e v i t a an urbana p o t i o r " , " i u r i s p e r i t i an m i l i t a r i s v i r i laus maior", "ducendane uxor", or "petendine s i n t m agistratus". Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 24) comments on t h i s k i n d of e x e r c i s e thus: "Theses .... mire sunt ad e x e r c i t a t -ionem d i c e n d i speclosae atque uberes, quae v e l ad suadendi o f f i c i u m v e l etiam ad i u d i c i o r u m disceptatlonem iuvant plurimum." The " c h r i a " i n r h e t o r i c - -so c a l l e d , we are t o l d , - beeatise I t was the most u s e f u l of a l l tho exercises--was an exhaustive d i s c u s s i o n of a sentiment, dictum, or pregnant sentence a s c r i b e d to some d e f i n i t e person, u s u a l l y of some eminence,--take f o r example P l a t o ' s statement that "the Muses d w e l l i n the s o u l of the c u l t u r e d man." The u s u a l treatment of the " c h r i a " was somewhat as f o l l o w s ; F i r s t came a panegyric on the author to whom the utterance or deed was a s c r i b e d ; then h i s words were paraphrased and developed sostLafc t h e i r meaning might be f u l l y brought out. Next the un d e r l y i n g , p r i n c i p l e of the thought was e s t a b l i s h e d and i t s t r u t h proved both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y , i n the l a t t e r case by p o i n t i n g out what r e s u l t s would f o l l o w i f I t were not t r u e . Then came comparisons w i t h other thoughts l i k e or u n l i k e , - - i l l u s t r a t i o n s were adduced from h i s t o r y , confirmatory quotations of s i m i l a r purport were given from standard authors; f i n a l l y came a con-c l u s i o n , which of t e n took the form of a p r a c t i c a l e x h o r t a t i o n . The " s e n t e n t i a " or p i t h y 138. saying was t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner to tlie " c h r i a " . Indeed t h i s s t y l e of treatment has been the model on which the a r t of l i t e r a r y composition has been taught ever s i n c e , both i n medi-aeval and i n more modern schools. A f a v o r i t e e x e r c i s e a l s o was the w r i t i n g of a speech to be put i n the mouth of some per-son famous i n legend or h i s t o r y . How e f f e c t i v e these could be made i s seen i n the speeches i n s e r t e d i n t h e i r h i s t o r i e s by Sullusfr, L i v y , and T a c i t u s . Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 26) speaks w i t h favour of an e x e r c i s e used by h i s own teachers, i n which p u p i l s had t o d i v i n e the reason f o r something, as f o r ex-ample "cur armata apud Lacedaemonios Venus", and "quid i t a crederetur Cupido puer atque volucer et s a g i t t i s ac face armatus "Legum laus ac v i t u p e r a t i o iam mores ac prope sumtnis operibus s u f f e c t u r a s v i r e s desiderant. (Quint. I I . i v . 33). This e x e r c i s e indeed c a l l e d f o r the u t - • most e f f o r t s of the speaker, i n v o l v i n g , as i t f r e q u e n t l y d i d , questions of the greatest d i f f i c u l t y and.importance, as w e l l as of the greatest v a r i e t y . These were the c h i e f p r e l i m i n a r y exercises by which the ancients t r a i n e d the c a p a c i t y f o r speaking, but divorced as they v/ere from a l l d i r e c t bearing on p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , they tended more and more to become mere declamations. I t must not be supposed that the Roman youth had thrown on him the impos-s i b l e task of producing the above ex e r c i s e s without help and . guidance. The Greeks had reduced the w r i t i n g of such exercises 139. to an a r t , and the l o g i c i a n s had helped them. Examples have heen preserved to us of model exerc i s e s w r i t t e n by the teachers f o r the guidance of t h e i r p u p i l s . So guided, the boy could s c a r c e l y f a i l t o produce a f a i r l y good e x e r c i s e , e s p e c i a l l y as the l e a r n i n g by heart of the poets had stored h i s mind w i t h words and f e l i c i t o u s expressions, I t being h e l d a merit to borrow from d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s , and not a f a u l t . A l l the "progymnasmata", however, were intended only as i n t r o d u c t o r y t o the.main e x e r c i s e of the r h e t o r i c a l school, that i s , prac-t i c e i n "declamatio". T r a n s l a t i o n from Greek i n t o L a t i n was not p r a c t i s e d i n the advanced r h e t o r i c a l schools u n t i l a f t e r the time of Aug-ustu s . Q u i n t i l i a n does, not mention t r a n s l a t i o n as being'part of the work of the teacher of r h e t o r i c even i n the f i r s t stage of h i s i n s t r u c t i o n but he does mention (X. v. 2) that the e a r l i e s t orators thought h i g h l y of t r a n s l a t i o n . I t was prac-t i s e d by those-who had a t t a i n e d some p r o f i c i e n c y i n r h e t o r i c , and by many who had passed out of the t r a i n i n g school a l t o -gether, as the best means of improving t h e i r s t y l e , f o r example by Cicero i n mature manhood. But from the point of view of s t y l e i t seems to have been l i t t l e used i n schools. P l i n y ("Ep." V I I . i x ) has a good d e a l of p r a i s e to bestow on t r a n s -l a t i o n as an e x e r c i s e : " U t i l e i n p r i m i s (et m u l t i praeceperunt) v e l ex Graeco i n Latinum v e l ex Latino v e r t e r e i n Graecum; quo genere e x e r c i t a t i o n i s p r o p r i e t a s splendorque verborum, copia figurarum, v i s e x p l i c a n d i , praeterea i m i t a t i o n e optimorum s i m i l i a i n v e n i e n d i f a c u l t a s paratur; ... I n t e l l i g e n t i a ex hoc 140. et i u d i c i u m a d q u i r i t u r . " SUPPLEMENTARY : Before Q u i n t i l i a n goes on to speak of declama-READING t i o n proper, the s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n of the "rhe-t o r " , he stops t o point out how much advantage to a would-he orator may be gained from the c r i t i c a l study w i t h a teacher, not only of poets, but of h i s t o r y and e s p e c i a l l y of o r a t o r s . * Q u i n t i l i a n says that i n doing such reading p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n should be d i r e c t e d t o the l o g i c a l arrangement and persuasive power, that a l l the v i r t u e s of language and form should be pointed out i n b r i e f . He a l s o suggests that the p u p i l s should be t r a i n e d to observe merits and f a u l t s , both of matter and of s t y l e , f o r themselves: "nam quid a l i u d agimus docendo eos, quam ne semper docendi s i n t ? " ( I I . v. 13) Q u i n t i l i a n t h i n k s that even bad specimens of oratory may be taken, that t h e i r v i c e s of language, s t y l e , and arrangement * (X. i . 27): "Pluriraum ... o r a t o r ! conferre .... lectionem poetarum .... Namque ab h i s i n rebus s p i r i t u s et i n v e r b i s s u b l i r a i t a s et i n adfe c t i b u s motus omnis et i n personis decor p e t i t u r , praecipueque v e l u t a t t r l t a c o t i d i a n o actu f o r e n s i i n g e n i a optime rerum t a l i u m b l a n d i t i a reparantur." (X. i . 31): " H i s t o r i a quoque a l e r e oratorem .... potest." ( I I . v. 1): " i t a .t^L^quoque h i s t o r i a e atque etiam magis ora-tionum l e c t i o n e . . . . " •141. may be pointed out. Such, w r i t i n g s , he says, should be commen-ted on to show that notwithstanding t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y , they are f u l l of o b s c u r i t i e s , inappropriateness of language, t u r g i d i t y , meanness, and effeminacy,-- the very reason, indeed, why many p r a i s e them. The p u p i l s , too, w i l l much p r e f e r to have the mistakes of others p o i n t e d out r a t h e r than t h e i r own. While of the opinion that the best w r i t e r s should be read, Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . v. 19) advocates that those should f i r s t be s t u d i e d whose w r i t i n g s are most transparent, postponing, f o r example, S a l l u s t to L i v y . Above a l l Cicero should be studied "et iucundus i n c i p i e n t i b u s quoque et apertus e s t , nec prodesse tanturn sed etiam amari potest" ( I I . v. 20). Neither the rough and a r c h a i c s t y l e of the w r i t e r s of a n t i q u i t y , * nor the a f f e c -ted and over-ornate d i c t i o n of Q u i n t i l i a n ' s own time,** i s to be taken as a model. DECLAMATION As an i n t r o d u c t i o n to our d i s c u s s i o n of decla-mation proper we should perhaps b r i e f l y look at the various kinds of oratory f o r which the young men would have to prepare themselves. The oratory f o r which the youth was t r a i n e d was commonly * ( I I . v. 21) "... ne quis eos a n t i q u l t a t i s nimius admirator i n Gracchorum Catonisque et aIIorum similium l e c t i o n e dures-cere v e l i t . " ** ( I I . v. 22) ne recent!s huius l a s c i v i a e f l o s c u l i s c a p t i voluptate prava d e l e n i a n t u r , ut praedulce i l l u d genus et p u e r l l i b u s I n g e n i i s hoc g r a t i u s , quo prop -ius e s t , adaraent." 142. d i v i d e d Into three genera--the "genus demonstrativum", the the speaker makes a d i s p l a y of h i s own powers, u s u a l l y In the way of eulogy or censure of c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l , or i t might be imaginary, acts and c h a r a c t e r s . The d e l i b e r a t i v e was an argu-ment addressing i t s e l f t o the question whether any act should have been done or not and so endeavouring to persuade the audi-ence to take some a c t i o n . The j u d i c i a r y was i n the form of a pleading before a judge i n which one t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h the g u i l t or Innocence of someone who i s arraigned before a court of law. These pleadings were often regarding f i c t i t i o u s cases, sometimes regarding cases that had a c t u a l l y been i n the courts.' The general course of I n s t r u c t i o n a p p l i c a b l e to a l l forms of oratory embraced #ive tasks which devolved upon the speaker, f o r which he had t o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and to which he was expected to give good heed: of tone and gesture. Declamation was the most u s e f u l of a l l the e x e r c i s e s of the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l . * Indeed, some thought' that i t was alone * ( Q u i n t . I I . x. 1,2) "... quae quidem ut ex omnibus novissime inventa i t a multo est u t i l l s s i m a . Nam et cuncta i l i a , de q u i -bus diximus, i n se f e r e c o n t i n e t , et v e r i t a t i proximam imaginem r e d d i t . " genus d e l i b e r a t i v u m " , and the " genus i u d i c a l e . " In the f i r s t (1) "Invent!o", the d e v i s i n g of s u i t a b l e arguments; ( 2 ) 11 d i s p o s i t i o " , or arrangement; (3) " e l o c u t i o " , or appropriate d i c t i o n ; (4) " p r o n u n t i a t i o " , the d e l i v e r y , i n c l u d i n g p r o p r i e t y 143. s u f f i c i e n t t o develop eloquence. Q u i n t i l i a n thought that i t had been undervalued because of the absurd themes, out of a l l r e l a t i o n w i t h r e a l l i f e , which had been chosen as i t s subjects. He th e r e f o r e advocates keeping i n view the k i n d of occasions f o r which the speaker was being t r a i n e d . In f o r e n s i c cases a r t must be c a r e f u l l y concealed; but there were times when a d i s -p lay of o r a t o r i c a l s k i l l would be i n place, i n , order t o give pleasure t o the audience. He a l s o ( I I . x i ) demonstrates the value of the systematic study of r h e t o r i c , as against those who b e l i e v e d i n nothing but n a t u r a l powers and p r a c t i c e . He i s indeed s a t i r i c a l i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of those speakers who l o o k f o r a supply of matter and language to the i n s p i r a t i o n of,, the moment: and disproves the contention that u n t r a i n e d speak-ers have more f o r c e , and t h e r e f o r e more power w i t h an audience. The t r a i n e d , he maintains ( I I . x i i , 6), lose only t h e i r f a u l t s ; " d o c t i s est et e l e c t i o et modus1', while the u n t r a i n e d pour out eve r y t h i n g , , "Declamatio" was not s o l e l y a matter f o r the school; C i c -ero ("Brut." 90) says, "commentabar declamitans ( s i c enim nunc loquuntur) saepe cum M. Pisone, et cum Q. Pompeio, aut cum a l i q u o c o t t i d i e ; idque faciebam multum etiam L a t i n e , sed Graece saepius." And even l a t e r on In h i s l i f e he guided the p r a c t i c e of h i s younger f r i e n d s H I r t i u s and D o l a b e l l a , This p r a c t i c e would doubtless be on the l i n e s l a i d down i n the schools, but i n these there was, as Suetonius t e l l s us, a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y of method, according to the t a s t e s of the teachers. 144. I n Cicero's time the understanding was strengthened, and the range of knowledge extended, hy the w r i t i n g out of essays on general t o p i c s , " p r o p o s i t a " as Cicero c a l l e d them, and by the treatment of t o p i c s of such a nature as were sure to come up i n the course of any serious d i s c u s s i o n of a matter of prac-t i c e . These were d e l i v e r e d w i t h the proper accent and a r t i c u -l a t i o n . They c o n s t i t u t e d the main i f not the only exercise known to the e d u c a t i o n i s t s of Cicero's day. C i c e r o himself x d i v i d e d "quaestiones" i n t o the l i m i t e d (as to time, p l a c e , per-son, and circumstances g e n e r a l l y ) or concrete "causae" and the u n l i m i t e d or a b s t r a c t " p r o p o s i t a " ; but of these,the l a t t e r were much p r e f e r r e d as subjects of declamation. B o i s s i e r t r a c e s the changes which occurred i n the subjects of declamation or perhaps one might more c o r r e c t l y say changes i n the terms used of the subjects: "A l i t t l e l a t e r the 'theses' were r e p l a c e d by 'causae', which s i g n i f i e d , no doubt, t h a t the subjects t r e a t e d at the school resembled those pleaded before the judges; then, a l l at once, there was. no longer any question of 'theses' or 'causae'; and we are t o l d of 'suasoriae', of 'controversiae',**and the s c h o l a s t i c e x e r c i s e s by which boys x " P a r t i t i o n e s Oratoriae" 61: "Duo sunt .... quaestionum gen-era, quorum alterum f i n i t u m temporibus et personis causam ap-p e l l o , , a l t e r u m I n f i n i t u m n u l l i s neque personis neque temporibus notaturn propositum voco." x* As the elder Seneca says ("Controversiae" I . x i i ) , "contro-v e r s i a s nos dicimus, Cicero causas vocabat." 145, are t r a i n e d to speak assumes the name of 'dsclamatio', which i n t h i s sense i s new."* Doubtless "causae" tended t o drive out "theses", hut the former seems to have been i n use from the f i r s t ; and the l a t t e r were probably never wholly abandoned. B o i s s i e r goes on: "if""the need were f e l t of changing the name, i t was probably because the t h i n g a l s o had changed, but no one informs us i n what the change c o n s i s t e d , and I t i s impossible to determine i t f o r c e r t a i n . We can only conjecture that i t must have been of some importance, and that i t was "of a nature e n t i r e l y t o s a t i s f y the p u b l i c , since i t s success-was so r a p i d and so complete". And so under the Empire declamations were commonly divided, i n t o " suasoriae" and " contr over s i a e " . i n both the " c o n t r o v e r s l a " and "su a s o r i a " a supposed case was taken i n hand--it might be. from r e a l l i f e - or purely imagi-nary. Both of them appear to have given more room f o r inge n u i t y of r h e t o r i c , and l e s s f o r serious thought. In the " s u a s o r i a " , a set o r a t i o n , a c e r t a i n course of a c t i o n was debated; the stu-dents took sides on, f o r example, a disputed p o i n t of h i s t o r y and supported t h e i r views by arguments. This e x e r c i s e , then, was r e a l l y a "communis locus" connected w i t h a name. I t was thought the e a s i e r , and b e t t e r adapted f o r beginners; i t served as a t r a i n i n g f o r d e l i b e r a t i v e oratory. A good example of the "su a s o r i a " i s given by Juvenal ("Sat." i . 15)1 * "The Schools of Declamation at Rome" ( I I ) , as t r a n s l a t e d by W. Gr. Hutchinson. • 146. " . . , . et nos Consilium dedimus S u l l a e , p r i v a t u s ut altum Dormiret." In the "controvensia", a pretended l e g a l argument, some p r o p o s i t i o n was maintained or denied; i t was best s u i t e d t o the more advanced and prepared f o r the oratory of the law-court, which was always regarded as making the severest demands upon speakers. There are two good examples of the " c o n t r o v e r s i a " given by Suetonius ("De C l a r . Rhet." i ) : " A e s t i v o tempore adolescentes urban! cum Ostiam venissent, l i -t u s i n g r e s s ! , p i s c a t o r e s trahentes r e t e a d i e r u n t , et pepigerunt, bolum quant! eraerent*. nummos solve runt: d i u expectaverunt dum r e t i a extraherentur: aliquando e x t r a c t i s , p i s c i s n u l l u s i n f u i t , sed sporta a u r i obsuta. Turn emtores bolum suum a i u n t , p i s c a -tores suum. " V e n a l i c i i , cum B r u n d i s i i gregem venaHum e n a v i educerent, formoso et p r e t i o s o puero, quod p o r t i t o r e s verebantur, bullam et praetextam togam imposuere: f a c i l e f a l l a c i a m c e l a r u n t . Roma-m v e n i t u r : r e s co g n i t a e s t : p e t i t u r puer, quod domini voluntate f u e r i t l i b e r , i n l i b e r t a t e m . " When each youth In tu r n mounted the orator's stand i n the school and began h i s " s u a s o r i a " or h i s " c o n t r o v e r s i a " a l l h i s f e l l o w s were duly bound to cry i n Greek, "Eugel" or "Sophosl" at every booming sentiment or well-rounded climax.* At l e a s t x Q u i n t i l i a n objects to a l l o w i n g the students to applaud each other's e x e r c i s e s , as tending to abuse and as lea d i n g the p u p i l to look away from the r i g h t source of judgment which i s the master . 147. once during the o r a t i o n i t was good form f o r them to r i s e from t h e i r seats and j o i n i n a salv o of a p p l a u s e — t h e y would a l l get l i k e c o u r t e s i e s when t h e i r own turns came. When the young declaimer had f i n i s h e d the master would a r i s e . He would show how to gesture, making h i s garments f a l l i n picturesque f o l d s . He would take the subject j u s t handled and repeat the argument showing how each p o i n t could be bet t e r developed; how new matter could be brought i n ; how a l l u s i o n s to the gods, the worthies of o l d , and perhaps to the r e i g n i n g Emperor would improve the e f f e c t ; how to use one's voice at each p a r t i c u l a r t u r n . I f the only object of oratory was to t i c k l e the ear, the r e s u l t was magnificent. The students would d u t i f u l l y applaud t h e i r master even more l o u d l y then they d i d t h e i r f e l l o w s , and each would go home wondering anxiously, when he c o u l d argue h i s f i r s t case before the pra e t o r . I t was customary f o r a p u p i l to l e a r n h i s composition by he a r t , and declaim i t i n the presence of h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . Q u i n t i l i a n discouraged t h i s p r a c t i c e f o r speeches produced i n t h i s way and f o r t h i s purpose n a t u r a l l y aimed a t making an immediate impression by g l i t t e r i n g phrases and e p i -grammatic turns of thought. He recommended i n s t e a d that p u p i l s should store t h e i r memories w i t h s t r i k i n g passages from eminent w r i t e r s . x C e r t a i n l y they should not be allowed to r e c i t e from -x ( I I . v i i . 2 ) "Ham u t s c r i b e r e pueros plurimumque esse i n hoc opere plane v e l i m , s i c ediscere electos ex orationi b u s v e l h i s -t o r i i s a l i o v e quo genere dignorum ea cura voluminum locos, rnulto magis suadeam." 148. memory, t h e i r own productions u n t i l they have a t t a i n e d some ex-c e l l e n c e , and then only as a reward of t h e i r progress. Under the Republic so profoundly r h e t o r i c a l a system as we have discussed nourished i t s p u p i l s on the masterpieces of f r e e speech; i t inflamed t h e i r imaginations w i t h dreams of r h e t o r i c a l triumph. O r a t o r i c a l a b i l i t y was of supreme Import-ance f o r pleading i n the law-courts,and under a p o l i t i c a l con-s t i t u t i o n i n which a senate or a popular assembly had to be convinced, oratory was the great instrument of the r i s i n g p o l i -t i c i a n . Under the Empire t h i s importance diminished, but the study of r h e t o r i c continued, and i t became more and more methodical. When the youth went f o r t h i n t o the world of the Empire, they found the only arena f o r d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r powers to be the d u l l court of the "Centumviri", or the h i r e d l e c t u r e h a l l , where they might d i l a t e on some f r i g i d or s i l l y theme before a weary axxdi-ence. Thus the power of speech, which to the statesmen of the Republic from Cato to Cicero had been--next perhaps to success i n war--the most potent a i d to win o f f i c e and power i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e , had now become merely a g r a c e f u l accomplishment, serving to draw f o r t h the p l a u d i t s of a d i l e t a n t e audience. I t was, neve r t h e l e s s , a tempting excitement to exert the a r t s l e a r n t i n the "school of Q u i n t i l i a n " i n a r e a l onslaught, where the l i f e or l i b e r t y of the accused was at stake. And the greatest orators of the past had never o f f e r e d to them such a splen d i d m a t e r i a l reward. One quarter of the estate of the 149, condemned man had been the Old l e g a l fee of the accuser. But t h i s l i m i t was l e f t f a r behind i n the j u d i c i a l plunder of the e a r l y Caesars. . Probably In no other way could a man then so e a s i l y make h i m s e l f a " m i l l i o n a i r e " . Under the Empire, then, the s t r e e t s of Rome d a i l y resoun-ded w i t h noise from the r h e t o r i c a l schools--some youth l a b o r i -ously I n c i t i n g . t h e _ A t h e n i a n p a t r i o t s , Harmodius and A r i s t o g e i -ton, t o screw up t h e i r courage and f r e e t h e i r country by s l a y -i n g the f o u l Hipparchus,--another u r g i n g Hannibal to advance (or not to advance) on Rome a f t e r h i s v i c t o r y a t Cannae,--or some mimic prosecutor working h i m s e l f i n t o a passion against the "malus ingratusque m a r i t u s " . * Juvenal ("Sat." v i i . 150 f.) r i d i c u l e s the formal charac-t e r of the work of the schools of the r h e t o r s : "Declamare doces? 0 f e r r e a pectora V e t t i , Cum p e r i m i t saevos c l a s s ! s numerosa tyrannos. Ham quaecumque sedens modo l e g e r a t , haeceadem stans . P e r f e r e t atque eadem c a n t a b i t versibus isdem; O c c i d i t miseros crambe r e p e t i t a magistros, Quis c o l o r et quod s i t causae genus atque u b i summa Quaestio, quae venlant diversae f o r t e s a g i t t a e , Hosse volunt omnes, mercedem solvere nemo. ' Ivlercedem appellas? Quid enim s c i o ? ' 'Culpa docentis S c i l i c e t a r g u i t u r , quod laevae parte mamillae H i l s a l i t Arcadico i u v e n i , cuius m i h i sexta * Juvenal, 11 Sat." v i i , 169. 150. Quaque die miserum d i r u s c a p i a t Hannibal i n p l e t , Quidquid i d est de quo d e l i b e r a t , an petat urbem A Cannis, an post nimbos et fulmina cautus Gir cutnagat madidas a tempestate cohortes. Quantum v i s s t i p u l a r e et p r o t i n u s accipe, quid do Ut t o t i e n s I l i u m pater audiat?' Seneca ("Ep," 106, 12) a n g r i l y w r i t e s of such debates as were conducted i n the r h e t o r i c a l schools, "non v i t a e sed scholae discimus". We cannot but be s t r u c k , however, w i t h the remarkable i n -genuity shown both In d e v i s i n g problems of c o n f l i c t i n g laws or moral c l a i m s , and i n i n v e n t i n g conceivable s o l u t i o n s f o r them. Viewed as an i n t e l l e c t u a l gymnastic, t h i s method of t r a i n i n g was c e r t a i n l y not without i t s value. But there were serious drawbacks. In the f i r s t place the matter was much r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s range, and the subjects were few In number, To judge from the specimens preserved to us by Seneca the E l d e r and others.that have come down to us, the themes are strangely hackneyed, though there i s great d i v e r s i t y i n the treatment of them. Apparently the declaimers l i k e d to show t h e i r ingenuity i n the treatment of f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than i n the inven-t i o n of new-. A s t i l l more serious f a u l t was that the subjects were out of a l l r e l a t i o n w i t h r e a l l i f e , and such as could not genuinely e x c i t e the i n t e r e s t or touch the f e e l i n g s of the speaker. Even the laws, assumed to be b i n d i n g , are often such as never e x i s t e d anywhere. The consequence was that l e s s and l e s s a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to the substance of the speech, and 151. more and more to the language. Justness and appropriateness of thought came to he l e s s esteemed than b r i l l i a n c e and novelty of expression. i i Philosophy Hand i n hand w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r h e t o r i c i n t o Roman l i f e and education an i n f l u e n c e h a r d l y l e s s powerful, though even more s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d , was being ex e r t e d by the growing a t t e n t i o n given to Greek philosophy at Rome. The study of l i t -e rature had been taken i n t o the r e g u l a r school curriculum with-out awakening any strong o p p o s i t i o n . I t had not been d i r e c t l y , at any r a t e , i n antagonism w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l ideas of l i f e and conduct and had put forward no arrogant claims to remould them. But philosophy came forward w i t h i t s r u l e s f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of l i f e , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p r e s c r i p t i o n s of a n t i q u i t y . I t cannot be too c o n s t a n t l y borne i n mind that f o r t h o u g h t f u l men i n Greece and Rome philosophy was no i d l e amusement, but a s e r i o u s e f f o r t to discover that guidance f o r the conduct of l i f e which the n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n could o f f e r only to a very small extent. They f e l t that some s u b s t i t u t e had to be found f o r n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n and f o r l o s t gods. Hence even more than r h e t o r i c , philosophy, w i t h i t s b o l d questionings of ac-cepted teaching, e s p e c i a l l y on p o i n t s of moral conduct, was f o r many years viewed w i t h grave s u s p i c i o n at Rome and so i t was a l l e g e d that the d e c l i n e of p u b l i c and p a t r i o t i c i n t e r e s t which was c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the growth of p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r e s t , was p a r t l y due to the. • growth of the l a t t e r . 152. Cato, nearing the c l o s i n g of h i s l i f e , was h o r r i f i e d l e s t Athenian philosophers should corrupt the younger generation, hy teaching them the a r t of making r i g h t seem wrong and wrong r i g h t . But i t may he doubted whether the a t t r a c t i o n which the b r i l l i a n t new philosophy, w i t h a l l i t s s o p h i s t r y , had f o r the younger men d i d not at l e a s t equal the dread and d i s l i k e f e l t f o r them by men of the o l d school, as we have seen was the case w i t h r h e t o r i c . We n o t i c e d under "Home Education" how the r e l i g i o u s teach-i n g of the Roman boy was mainly a matter of l e a r n i n g the custo-mary r i t u a l observances, and being t r a i n e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l morals at home and a t school. But something more may here be s a i d as to the teaching by which t h i s was commonly supplemented as the p u p i l grew to manhood. For the upper c l a s s e s at Rome, of whom alone we have adequate inf o r m a t i o n , the guide of l i f e was found f a r more i n philosophy than i n r e l i g i o n . I f a man wished t o know about r i g h t or wrong, what he had to do and why he should do i t , and was not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r u l e s which had been taught to him as a c h i l d , he would go to a philosopher, never to a p r i e s t . To some extent under the Republic and s t i l l more under the Empire, the various Greek p h i l o s o p h i c a l schools were coming to la y aside t h e i r s p e c u l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s , and dw e l l i n g more on that moral teaching on which they agreed. Prom the f i r s t i n ~ t r o d u c t i o n of Greek philosophy at Rome i t had been common f o r l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s to have professors of the subject r e s i d e n t i n t h e i r houses. These have been c a l l e d "the domestic chaplains of heathendom", but the phrase i s not an altogether happy one 153. as i t suggests some du t i e s i n connection w i t h f a m i l y worship. A b e t t e r comparison i s w i t h the " d i r e c t o r s of conscience",* who.often r e s i d e d i n noble C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s , to give t h e i r guidance and c o n s o l a t i o n as might be needed. Cicero took i n t o h i s house Diodotus the S t o i c , whose l e c t u r e s he had heard as a youth. To r e a l i s e the t r a i n i n g of a Roman boy of"high f a m i l y , we must keep i n mind t h i s d a i l y i n f o r m a l education by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h those whose very p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e d that they should be h a b i t u a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h great and e l e v a t i n g thoughts. Of course there were pretenders and h y p o c r i t e s i n t h i s , as i n every other age, and the t r i t e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of much of t h e i r t a l k gained f o r them the name by which they were known--"aretalogi", " t a l k -ers on v i r t u e " - - a by no means r e s p e c t f u l meaning. Sometimes, as i n the case of Seneca, a philosopher might have a wide c i r c l e of younger f r i e n d s to whom he acted as " d i r e c t o r " , and h i s l e t -t e r s to L u c i l i u s show us how suggestive and penetrating t h i s d i r e c t i o n was. But i n a d d i t i o n to the i n f o r m a l and half-unconscious fam-. i l i a r i t y w i t h the d o c t r i n e s of philosophy, picked up i n the home, we must not Ignore the place given to i t s more systematic study, Cicero's f a t h e r , though not r i c h , was ambitious f o r h i s son, and had access to the best c i r c l e s of Roman s o c i e t y . Thus before he put on the dress of manhood Cicero attended the l e c -t u res of Phaedrus the Epicurean a t Rome. When he was eighteen -x An expression suggested by A. S. W i l k l n s , p. 89. • 154. years of age he attended the l e c t u r e s which P h i l o the head of the Academic school d e l i v e r e d i n Rome. Then when he t r a v e l l e d to Greece and A s i a Minor he made a f u r t h e r study of philosophy. Here, as so o f t e n , i t i s hard to say how f a r cases such as Cicero's are to he taken as, t y p i c a l ; yet examples enough are quoted to show i t must have been very common. But i t must be remembered that any p h i l o s o p h i c a l teaching, pursued as i t often was t i l l f a r on i n t o mature l i f e , was purely v o l u n t a r y , and whether given, as was probably most commonly the case, p r i v a t e l y , or i n the form of p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , formed no part of the r e g u l a r school education. P h i l o s o p h i c a l "schools 1 1 e x i s t e d , but were never popular. Even when the Roman began to p h i l o s o p h i s e s e r i o u s l y , i t was always p r a c t i c a l e t h i c a l s t u d i e s that a t t r a c t e d him. In i t s l a r g e r s c i e n t i f i c aspects, p h i l o s o p h i c a l study was a l i e n to the Roman mind, and took the form, as we see In C i c e r o , of l i t e r a r y and academic e x e r c l t a t i o n s . Philosophy was valued because i t afforded, abundant p r a c t i c e i n d i s c u s s i o n and decla-mation, as w e l l as presenting admirable i d e a l s of conduct, but one d i d not study philosophy to become a philosopher. Quin-t i l i a n advocates a knowledge of philosophy as necessary t o the orator but adds c e r t a i n l i m i t s to i t s study: ( I . i v . 4): "nec Ignara p h i l o s o p h i a e , -e«i propter plurimos i n omnibus f e r e carminibus locos ex intima naturaHum quaes-tionum s u b t i l i t a t e r e p e t i t o s . " ( X I I . i i . 29): "Heque ea 4i*h*i-&&©pfc±a4 solum , quae t a l i b u s 155. d i s c i p l i n i s c o n t i n e n t u r , sed nagis etiam, quae sunt t r a -d i t a a n t i q u i t u s d i c t a ac f a c t a p r a e c l a r e , et nosse et a n i -mo semper agitar.e conveniet." Q u i n t i l i a n d i d not t h i n k i t necessary f o r a student to a t t a c h h i m s e l f to any sect of philosophers; hut only to study p h i l o -sophy, and get what was.noblest and best i n i t f o r the forma-t i o n of h i s own character. Cicero's conception of the i d e a l r e l a t i o n of an orator to philosophy i s that the orator should have tfe^. knowledge of 4»ae-philosophy i n re s p e c t both of things and human nature, but i n a d d i t i o n he should have the power to make such knowledge of p r a c t i c a l value i n i n f l u e n c i n g h i s f e l l o w s through h i s powers of speech. There was, of course, a c e r t a i n dabbling i n philosophy as being extremely f a s h i o n a b l e . The z e a l f o r philosophy, or a t l e a s t f o r the patronage t h e r e o f , I s shown by the story of how-Trajan used to i n v i t e the great r h e t o r i c i a n Dion Ghrysostom to v i s i t him and take long journeys w i t h him. The Emperor, g r e a t l y Impressed by the other's l e a r n i n g , openly declared to him, " I don't i n the l e a s t understand what you keep t a l k i n g about, but for a l l that I love you l i k e my own s o u l l " * There are ple n t y of s t o r i e s about noblemen who had t r e a t i s e s on philosophy read to them w h i l e they were being c a r r i e d to and f r o . i n t h e i r l i t t e r s under the p o r t i c o e s of t h e i r v i l l a s ; or even of l a d i e s who l i s t e n e d t o l e c t u r e s by a p r o f e s s i o n a l philosopher every morning * As quoted by W. S. Davis, "A Day i n Old Rome"f p. 204. 156. while t h e i r maids arranged t h e i r h a i r . * Such personages, needless to say, never improved upon the f a m i l i a r guesses at the r i d d l e of human exist e n c e ; but some-times t h e i r d e s i r e to moralize became worse than comical. People f r e q u e n t l y repeated s t o r i e s of Agrippinus, a high-born v i c t i m of Hero. When he caught a fever he immediately d i c t a t e d a panegyric on the moral e x c e l l e n c i e s of f e v e r . He was ordered i n t o - e x i l e ; he wrote a t r e a t i s e on the b e n e f i t s of e x i l e . He was made a h i g h judge; he added to the anguish of those he con-demned by g i v i n g h i s v i c t i m s long o r a t i o n s to prove that he passed, sentence on them only f o r t h e i r own good. i i i T r a v e l Abroad A f t e r the subjugation of Greece there was a prevalent cus-tom, In the case of the noblest and most wealthy f a m i l i e s or those whose t a l e n t s and ambition in. e a r l y vprotni sed a b r i l l i a n t f u t u r e , to supplement the t r a i n i n g of the schools by a p e r i o d of t r a v e l and residence abroad. Athens and the Greek East were s t i l l looked upon as the t i n t e l l e c t u a l and e d u c a t i o n a l centre, the Roman c u l t u r e being, a f t e r a l l , but an i m i t a t i o n . Young Romans went abroad f o r what * Musonlus the S t o i c i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g as he discusses the question of the education of women and whether women should study philosophy. 157, corresponded somewhat to our advanced c o l l e g e study and i n order t o get a more p o l i s h e d education. In Greece Romans of the upper, c l a s s amended t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a c i a l boorishness hy contact w i t h a people t h a t , however much i t had d e t e r i o r a t e d , was yet superior to the L a t i n i n t a s t e and l e a r n i n g . Athens was a " u n i v e r s i t y " town; f o r the purposes of serious study i t o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t a t t r a c t i o n s and might almost have been c a l l e d the " U n i v e r s i t y of Rome". There philosophy and r h e t o r i c might be studied under famous professors,--both of these subjects would of course have been begun at Rome but only i n the East c o u l d t h e i r study be p r o p e r l y consummated. I t must be remembered, however, that the Roman who s t u d i e d i n Athens was as f a m i l i a r w i t h Greek as w i t h h i s n a t i v e L a t i n and f o r t h i s reason was very w e l l prepared to p r o f i t by h i s l e c t u r e s . I n c i -d e n t a l l y he obtained a f i n a l p o l i s h f o r h i s Greek, which w i t h h i s own tongue c o n s t i t u t e d the world languages of a n t i q u i t y . Besides Greece there were other Important centres of l e a r n -i n g f u r t h e r away, such as A l e x a n d r i a , Rhodes, and the great c i t i e s of A s i a Minor, where Roman youths could broaden t h e i r minds by contact w i t h strange peoples and by the contemplation of the scenes of great h i s t o r i c a l events and the r i c h c o l l e c -t i o n s of the masterpieces of l i t e r a t u r e and a r t . There were of course those "students" who t r a v e l l e d merely to enjoy the n a t u r a l charms and s o c i a l splendours of the gay and l u x u r i o u s c a p i t a l s of the East. The young a r i s t o c r a t who aspired to be a statesman and 158. possessed p o l i t i c a l Influence often went abroad on the s t a f f of some p r o v i n c i a l governor, thereby a c q u i r i n g , along w i t h a cer-t a i n amount of t a i n t e d money, i f he had luck and few scruples, an experience of the world t h a t served him i n good stead when he h i m s e l f became an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . I t was at the age of twenty-seven that Cicero went to Greece, mainly to r e c r u i t h i s h e a l t h . Here he spent two years studying both r h e t o r i c and philosophy under the most eminent professors at Athens, i n A s i a Minor, and e s p e c i a l l y at Rhodes. But the course which Cicero followed, owing to circumstances, at a comparatively l a t e p e r i o d of h i s l i f e , was taken, much e a r l i e r by others. Caesar f o r instance was twenty-five when he v i s i t e d Rhodes to study r h e t o r i c , but the younger Cicero and Ovid were only twenty when they went abroad. Horace ap- -pears to have begun h i s s t u d i e s there at the age of eighteen, and we may perhaps regard eighteen to twenty as the usual time f o r a Roman youth to " t r a v e l abroad" i n search of more education CHAPTER V I I  EDUCATION UNDER THE LATER EMPIRE i Endowment of Education The Empire of which J u l i u s Caesar traced out the leading l i n e s was intended to blend H e l l e n i c c u l t u r e w i t h the t r a d i -t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s of the Roman s t a t e t - i t was t o be cosmopolitan. I t does not therefore s u r p r i s e us to: f i n d that the beginnings of a system of state schools were l a i d by Caesar, when he gave the f r a n c h i s e to a l l teachers of l i b e r a l a r t s (then mostly Greeks) who were l i v i n g at Rome or should s e t t l e there.-K Augustus i n banishing f o r e i g n e r s from Rome made an excep-t i o n i n favour of teachers.xx Thus, beginning w i t h Caesar's change, the " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " p o l i c y of the state g r a d u a l l y ceased. The i n t e r e s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n of the " a l i m e n t a r i i p u e r i et pue l l a e " i s another step i n the d i r e c t i o n of the State r e g u l a -t i o n of education. I t had long been customary f o r the poorer c i t i z e n s to be aided by g r a t u i t o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n s of corn, o i l , and money. Nero' extended these grants from a d u l t s to c h i l d r e n i n need. • * Suetonius, " J u l i u s Caesar": " . . . . l i b e r a Hum artium doctores, quo l i b e n t i u s et i p s i Urbem i n c o l e r e n t , et c e t e r i appeterent, c i v i t a t e donavit." Suetonius, "Augustus": ".... peregrinosque omnes, exceptis .... praeceptoribus, .... Urbe e x p u l i s s e t . " 160. The most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i n g u l a r t r a i t i n Vespasian i s t h a t , w i t h no pretensions to l i t e r a r y or a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e , he was the f i r s t Caesar who gave a f i x e d endowment to the profes-sors of the l i b e r a l a r t s . To him then i s due the f i r s t i m p e r i a l support of p u b l i c education. He appointed f o r Greek and L a t i n p r o f e s s o r s of r h e t o r i c an annual s a l a r y of one hundred thousand sesterces payable from the " f i s c u s " . I t i s not, however, prob-able that t h i s s a l a r y of almost four thousand d o l l a r s was p a i d t o any r h e t o r s but those of the c a p i t a l . Some scholars have indeed h e l d that i t was u n i v e r s a l , a meaning which the w e l l -known words i n Suetonius, ("Vespasianus", 18) would bear: "primus e f i s c o L a t i n i s Graecisque r h e t o r i b u s annua centena c o n s t i t u i t . " But i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t such an extensive sys-tem as t h i s would imply should have perished without l e a v i n g a t r a c e , nor that a l l teachers, at home- and i n the country, should have been p a i d e q u a l l y . Indeed i t seems p o s s i b l e that t h i s endowment, though founded by Vespasian, was f i r s t a c t u a l l y p a i d by Domitian; f o r Jerome under the year A. D. 92 says, "Quintilia-nus ex Hispania primus Romae publicatii scholam et s a l -arium e f i s c o a c c e p i t et c l a r u i t . " * At a l l events Q u i n t i l i a n i s the f i r s t endowed professor who i s known to us. And so Vespasian was the founder of that system of educa-t i o n which, f o r good or e v i l , produced profound e f f e c t s on Roman character and i n t e l l e c t down to the end of the Western -K As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 94. 161, Empire. His move was hot, as some have suggested, to b r i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n t o thraldom to the s t a t e . He was r e a l l y making h i m s e l f the organ of a great i n t e l l e c t u a l movement. For, while the vast f i e l d of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n absorbed much of the energy of the c u l t i v a t e d c l a s s , the decay of free i n s t i t u t i o n s had l e f t a great number wit h only a shadow of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t , and the mass of unoccupied t a l e n t had to f i n d some other scope f o r i t s energies. I t found I t f o r ages i n f u g i t i v e and ephemeral compo s i t i o n , or i n the.more ephemeral d i s p l a y s of the r h e t o r i c i a n ' s class-room, toward the p r e s e r v a t i o n of which Vespasian's l e g i s -l a t i o n d i d a great d e a l . F o l l o w i n g along the l i n e s of Nero w i t h respect to the " a l l m e n t a r i i p u e r i et p u e l l a e " , Trajan provided that grants should be made monthly both to orphans and to the c h i l d r e n of poor par ents. To a l l these c h i l d r e n he undertook to give the "munus ed u c a t i o n i s " to the number of f i v e thousand ( P l i n y , "Paneg." 26-28),. We have records of the r u l e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on stones found at V e l e i a near P l a c e n t i a , and. a l s o near Beneven-tum. Before c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the education l e g i s l a t i o n of the succeeding emperors we should b r i e f l y consider the undertakings of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h respect to education. The payment of teachers was sometimes a charge on the i m p e r i a l treasury, sometimes on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . P r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , however, now and then gave endowments w i t h the r e s u l t that l o c a l schools came to be supported by other means than t u i t i o n alone. There Is a very i n t e r e s t i n g l e t t e r of P l i n y the Younger ( i v . 13) 162, w r i t t e n to the h i s t o r i a n T a c i t u s , d e s c r i b i n g how he founded and endowed a s c h o o l f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s of h i s own "municip-ium", 0omura. F i n d i n g t h a t promising youths of Oomum had to r e s o r t to M i l a n f o r t h e i r higher education, he o f f e r e d to con-t r i b u t e one t h i r d of the expense of a "high school" at Comum, i f the parents would r a i s e the remainder. The l e t t e r which records the o f f e r shows P l i n y at h i s best, wise and t h o u g h t f u l as w e l l as generous. He wishes to keep boys under the protec-t i o n of home i n f l u e n c e , to make them l o v e r s of t h e i r mother c i t y ; and he l i m i t s h i s benefaction i n order to stimulate the -i n t e r e s t of the parents i n the cause of education and In the appointment of the teachers. P l i n y ' s l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s that higher education i n the provinces was s t i l l p r i v a t e . I t would seem that such- p r i v a t e l y endowed schools as that In which P l i n y was I n t e r e s t e d were f a r from uncommon. Of l a t e r Emperors Hadrian was e s p e c i a l l y l i b e r a l i n h i s patronage of the l i b e r a l a r t s , In which he was p e r s o n a l l y i n t -e rested. He b u i l t an Athenaeum i n Rome as a school f o r l i t e r -a t ure, where poets p u b l i c l y r e c i t e d and orators declaimed, and w h e r e Greek and L a t i n "grammatici" and "rhetores" had numerous students. But i t Is r a t h e r curious t h a t we do not read of any-t h i n g l i k e u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s at Rome, answering to the Mus-eum, f o r i n s t a n c e , at A l e x a n d r i a , where the professors of a l l the v a r i o u s subjects could give t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n under a com-mon r o o f . The Athenaeum was as close to a " U n i v e r s i t y of Rome" as ever e x i s t e d . 163, Hadrian and both the Antonines extended to the provinces the i n s t i t u t i o n set up by Hero and Trajan to a i d the education of the poor ( " a l i m e n t a r i i p u e r i et p u e l l a e " ) ; but t h i s i n s t i t u -t i o n seems always to have f a l l e n short of a systematic scheme of p u b l i c education, which some have seen i n i t . Antoninus Pius continued the same p o l i c y In the provinces as d i d Hadrian, g i v i n g both honour and income to the higher teachers: 11 r h e t o r i b u s et p h i l o s o p h i s per omnes p r o v i n c i a s et h on ores et s a l a r i a de b u i l t " ( J u l . Capit. c. 1 1 ) . * He was the f i r s t , i t i s b e l i e v e d , to make them a p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s by r e -l i e v i n g them of r a t e s and taxes, the o b l i g a t i o n to h o l d muni-c i p a l o f f i c e , to serve i n the army, and to have s o l d i e r s quar-t e r e d on them. These Immunities were extended to a l i m i t e d number of philosophers, rhetors,and grammarians i n every c i v i c community according to i t s s i z e . This custom was equivalent to the i m p e r i a l endorsement of education throughout the Empire. Alexander Severus (Lampridius, c. 44) "rhetoribus ... s a l -a r i a I n s t i t u i t et a u d i t o r i a d e c r e v i t et d l s c i p u l o s cum annonis pauperum f i l i o s modo ingenuos d a r l i u s s i t . " x The costs of these s c h o l a r s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the maintenance of poor students were perhaps In some cases met from i m p e r i a l funds, but as a r u l e they appear to have been charged on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . As a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of a l l t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n on the part of the Emperors we f i n d government endowment ending i n govern--x As quoted by A. S. V/ilk i n s , p. 94. 164, merit c o n t r o l . The e a r l y emperors l e f t the management of schools alone, hut the l a t e r emperors, of whom we have been speaking, In i n t e r f e r i n g i n the appointment and remuneration of teachers a c t u a l l y took over the f u l l c o n t r o l of the schools. • D i o c l e t i a n f i x e d the r a t e of payment f o r the I n s t r u c t o r s of the v a r i o u s subjects and he a l s o r e s t r i c t e d the number of teachers, who were now indeed a t r u l y p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s . The ensuing emperors took an even more d i r e c t part i n the c o n t r o l of the schools. Under Constantine the Great the p r i v i -leges and exemptions accorded teachers by Antoninus Pius were confirmed and extended. J u l i a n asserted the r i g h t of the Emperor to r e v i s e the ap-pointments to p r o f e s s o r s h i p s . H i t h e r t o i t had been the excep-t i o n f o r the Emperor to make the nomination h i m s e l f ; sometimes he empowered someone el s e to nominate; but u s u a l l y the s e l e c -t i o n had been l e f t to the l o c a l " c u r i a " . G r a t i a n ordered that i n a l l the c a p i t a l s of the seventeen provinces the "grammatici" and "rhetores" i n both L a t i n and Greek should r e c e i v e from the i m p e r i a l chest a sum equal to t h e i r m unicipal s a l a r y . At the same time, probably at the sug-g e s t i o n of Ausonius, G r a t i a n issued an e d i c t which, while leav-i n g the great towns f r e e to appoint teachers, f i x e d the s a l a r i e s which were to be given. The teacher of r h e t o r i c was to receive twice as large a stipend as the teacher of gramrnar, whether Greek or L a t i n . An i m p e r i a l e d i c t of Theodosius and V a i e n t i n i a n made the government the sole educational a u t h o r i t y , and declared the 165. opening of schools by persons unauthorized by the government a penal offence. We know, a good d e a l about the schools of Gaul i n the f o u r t h century, mainly from the w r i t i n g s of the poet Ausonius; and we can see how strong and steady was the in f l u e n c e which the Emp-erors exerted on education. There was, indeed, l i t t l e l i t e r a r y productiveness, and what there was was marked by many serious f a u l t s . But at l e a s t great w r i t e r s were s t u d i e d and admired I n t e l l i g e n t l y and a t r a d i t i o n of c u l t u r e was maintained, u n t i l I t was swept away by the i r r u p t i o n s of the barbarians. The t r a d i t i o n of the Roman schools was overthrown only by the P r a n k i s h i n v a s i o n and by the r i s e of the monastic schools of Gassian, whose " I n s t i t u t i o n e s " , e a r l y i n the f i f t h century, were accepted as the ru l e f o r monastic l i f e i n Gaul. Under these a system of r e l i g i o u s education was i n s t i t u t e d , based upon d i s t r u s t of, I f not h o s t i l i t y towards pagan l e a r n i n g . But n e i -ther the monastic schools nor the c a t h e d r a l schools, which f o l -lowed them on s i m i l a r l i n e s , took the place of the o l d munici-p a l schools i n m a i n t a i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a -t u r e , and a genuine devotion to l e a r n i n g , i i The Decadence of Roman Education The decadence of Roman education i s a question of r e l a t i v i t y . By the close of the f i r s t century there was, to be sure, d e c l i n e i n some re s p e c t s , but c e r t a i n l y there were advances i n many. Por some three c e n t u r i e s a f t e r 100 A. D., or u n t i l the i m p e r i a l I n t e r e s t s were centred i n the East, Roman education continued . 166 on the same general l i n e s as before i n such respects as form, methods, and content. Apuleius ( " F l o r i d a " i v . 20) says: "Prima c r a t e r a L i t e r a t o r i s , ruditatem e x i m i t : secunda Grammatici, d o c t r i n a i n s t r u i t : t e r t i a R h e t o r i s , e l o q u e n t i a arraat." Then, too, Augustine ("Confess." i . 13) says, " i l l a s primas, u b i l e g -ere et s c r i b e r e et numerare d i s c i t u r . " But the i n c r e a s i n g decay of the Empire saw a marked d e c l i n e i n the s p i r i t and purpose of education.. The l i t e r a t u r e of the p e r i o d was great on account of i t s form, not on account of i t s o r i g i n a l i t y or i t s power of i n s p i r a t i o n ; and i n a s i m i l a r way education became formal and i n time a r t i f i c i a l . There was a l s o a marked change i n the character of Roman s o c i e t y . While the change i n moral standards, together w i t h luxury and debauchery i n the higher c l a s s e s , had become perma-nent, the f a t a l weaknesses of Roman s o c i e t y d i d not appear u n t i l l a t e r and then s o c i e t y only g r a d u a l l y came to give evidence of that moral and c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e that p r e v i o u s l y had become cha-r a c t e r i s t i c of the i m p e r i a l court. This decline from the h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral status of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d occurred at the time of an extension of the p r i v i l e g e s of education and an increased i n t e r e s t i n the support of education on the p a r t of the government and p u b l i c -s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s . This was probably but another evidence of the general d e c l i n e i n v i r i l i t y and m o r a l i t y , f o r i t was i n order to combat these tendencies that education was encouraged.. There was i n a d d i t i o n to a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of schools and the 167. development of the e d u c a t i o n a l system a s i m i l a r development i n the method and workings of the schools. Hot only In Rome, but throughout I t a l y and i n a l l . t h e c i t i e s of the Empire, grammar schools had a r i s e n . These were f o s t e r e d , as we have seen, by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , encouraged by the emperors, and a consid-erable number of them endowed w i t h p u b l i c money. This wide d i f f u s i o n of grammar schools i n a l l the c o u n t r i e s round the Mediterranean may be I n f e r r e d from the large number of higher or r h e t o r i c a l schools which grew up i n a d d i t i o n to the great schools of Rhodes, Athens, and Pergamos. During a l l t h i s per-i o d , moreover, numerous "grammatici" and sophists wandered from town to town and opened p r i v a t e schools. Although the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of schools and educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s taken by some to be but a f u r t h e r evidence of the times i t cannot be doubted t h a t , w i t h the l o s s of oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n connection w i t h the a f f a i r s "of s t a t e , there was an increase of i n t e r e s t i n purely i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s along more s c h o l a s t i c l i n e s . Hence i t was that the d e c l i n e i n the character,motive, and moral r e s u l t s of education was c o i n c i d e n t w i t h a development of educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of l i b r a r i e s , and an increased attendance upon the higher schools. How the p u r s u i t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e , or the s c h o l a s t i c I d e a l s , became a type of l i f e d i s t i n c t i n i t s e l f . The decline In m o r a l i t y and s p i r i t and purpose, marked by Juvenal and T a c i t u s , was f o l l o w e d i n time by a d e c l i n e In every other r e s p e c t . 168. The "grammaticus" g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d h i s t r a i n i n g to pre-p a r a t i o n f o r the r h e t o r i c a l schools; the change which came about i n the l a t t e r we have already 1 n o t i c e d . The change from the Re-p u b l i c to the Empire had caused oratory to be almost e n t i r e l y d i s j o i n e d from r e a l l i f e and so to lose i t s great i n s p i r a t i o n . Instead of vigorous d i s c u s s i o n of l i v e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , we f i n d a showy, and a r t i f i c i a l type of declamation growing up. The subjects chosen were commonplace themes or f i c t i t i o u s prob-lems suggested by l i t e r a t u r e or h i s t o r y ; and i n s t e a d of seeking to develop a s t y l e of argument that would carry Conviction i n a p u b l i c assembly or a court of law, the speaker's aim was to win applause from h i s i n v i t e d audience of f r i e n d s by h i s ingen-u i t y i n c o i n i n g smart, s t r i k i n g phrases whose c h i e f merit was t h e i r g l i t t e r and t h e i r n o v e l t y . And so r h e t o r i c became more formal, narrow, and a r t i f i c i a l , f u l l of g l i t t e r and smartness, but s u p e r f i c i a l and without s o l i d foundation, Glibness of tongue and f a c i l i t y of i m i t a t i o n were mistaken f o r true o r a t o r i c a l power. Vesture of thought became more and more an object of worship i n the shape of word-cunning, elegance of s t y l e , and r u l e s f o r rhe-t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and r h y t h m i c a l e f f e c t . Under such circum-stances i t was not s u r p r i s i n g that young men i n the second cen-tury A. D. should become impatient of the slow processes of d i s -c i p l i n a r y p r e p a r a t i o n . They rushed the preparatory grammar, l i t e r a t u r e , and d i a l e c t i c i n order to get at the s o p h i s t i c s , the declamation and s u p e r f i c i a l p o l i t i c s of the " r h e t o r " . Because of t h i s large accession to the numbers of learners and of competing teachers the q u a l i t y of d i s c i p l i n e and i n s t r u e -169. t i o n of the higher schools degenerated. And so, although l i t e r -ature and r h e t o r i c were pursued w i t h much d i l i g e n c e on the t r a -d i t i o n a l l i n e s , there was l i t t l e or nothing of the serious and independent study of-philosophy, s t i l l l e s s of science. The wide and comprehensive mental d i s c i p l i n e , which Cicero and Q u i n t i l i a n had desiderated, was ho longer even an i d e a l ; and .the narrower s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g of the "rhetor" c a r r i e d the day over the sounder t r a i n i n g of the man of a f f a i r s . There was no c a r e f u l c u r r i c u l u m of severe study i n language, h i s t o r y , d i a -l e c t i c , and l i t e r a t u r e , as was r e q u i r e d hy Q u i n t i l i a n , and contemplated, i n part at l e a s t , hy many l e a d i n g s o p h i s t - p h i l -osophers. The s e r v i l i t y which was l e a r n t i n the s l a v i s h i m i -t a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l models not u n n a t u r a l l y moulded the whole thought and combined w i t h the p o l i t i c a l c o n ditions of the time to s t i l l a l l true independence. Greek, formerly con-s i d e r e d so e s s e n t i a l , ceased to be g e n e r a l l y taught i n schools. A f t e r the second century A. D. fewer and fewer p u p i l s pursued higher s t u d i e s , t i l l these came to be the e x c l u s i v e possession of o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l .scholars. Seneca's remark "non v i t a e sed scholae discimus" indeed became true i n a very l i t -e r a l sense. •The remarkable devotion t o Roman l i t e r a t u r e and r h e t o r i c i n the provinces doubtless helped the d e c l i n e , while i t was a g r a t i f y i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r a p i d d i f f u s i o n of the Roman language and l i t e r a t u r e among the na t i v e Gauls- and Spaniards. They helped the de c l i n e because the na t i v e p r o v i n c i a l s were 170. e s s e n t i a l l y i m i t a t o r s though, doubtless, f r e q u e n t l y able and almost always (at l e a s t In Gaul) eloquent. T a c i t u s discusses the d e c l i n e of education on the i n t e l -l e c t u a l side i n h i s "De Oratoribus". The e v i l s of which he complains, and which were to be found i n Gaul and Spain as w e l l as at Rome and i n the East, were already v i s i b l e , i f not cons-picuous, when Q u i n t i l i a n , began to teach. Though the:language of T a c i t u s i s wholly that of a "laudator temporis a c t ! " , we nevertheless f i n d i n h i s p r o t e s t a very v i v i d p i c t u r e of h i s ovm conception of former ages and of contemporary e v i l s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o tation from h i s work,though r a t h e r lengthy, a f f o r d s us an e x c e l l e n t review of education under the Republic as com-pared w i t h that of the I m p e r i a l period,as w e l l as p o i n t i n g out the weak spots i n the l a t t e r which f i n a l l y brought about i t s downfall." ( x x v i i i ) "Quis enim i g n o r a t , et eloquentiam et ceteras artes d e s c i v i s s e ab I s t a vetere g l o r i a , non i n o p i a hominum, sed des-I d i a i u v e n t u t i s et neglegentla parentum et i n s c i e n t i a praecip-ientium et o b l i v i o n e moris a n t i q u i ? .... (xxxlv) "Ergo apud malores nostros i u v e n i s i l l e , qui f o r o et eloquentiae parabatur, .... r e f e r t u s honestis s t u d i i s , deduce-batur a p a t r e , v e l a propi n q u i s , ad eum oratorem, qui principem i n c i v l t a t e locum obtinebat: hunc s e c t a r i , hunc prosequi, huius omnibus d l c t i o n i b u s i n t e r e s s e , siv.e i n i u d i c i i s sive In con-c i o n i b u s , assuescebat, i t a ut a l t e r c a t i o n e s quoque excipere et i u r g i i s i n t e r e s s e , utque s i c dixerim, pugnare i n p r o e l i o d i s -cer e t : magnus ex hoc usus, multum constantiae. Plurimum 171. i u c l i c i i i u v e n i b u s s t a t i m c o n t i n g e b a t , i n media l u c e s t u d e n t i b u s atque i n t e r i p s a d i s c r i m i n a , u b i nemo impune s t u l t e a l i q u i d aut c o n t r a r i e d i c i t , quo minus e t i n d e x r e s p u a t e t a d v e r s a r i u s ex-p r o b r e t , i p s i denique a d v o c a t i asperne,tur . I g i t u r v e r a s t a t i m e t i n c o r r u p t a e l o q u e n t i a imbuebantur; .... habebantque i p s i u s p o p u l i d i v e r s i s s i m a r u m aurium copiam, ex qua f a c i l e deprehend-e r e n t , q u i d i n quoque v e l p r o b a r e t u r v e l d i s p l i c e r e t . I t a nec p r a e c e p t o r . d e e r a t , optimus quidem e t e l e c t i s s i m u s , q u i f a c i e m e l o q u e n t i a e , non imaginem p r a e s t a r e t , nec a d v e r s a r i i e t aem u l i f e r r o , non r u d i b u s , dimicantes*. nec a u d i t o r i u m semper plenum, semper novum, ex i n v l d i s e t f a v e n t i b u s , u t nec bene d i c t a d i s -s i m u l a r e n t u r Atque h e r e u l e sub eiusmodi p r a e c e p t o r i b u s i u v e n i s i l l e de quo l o q u i m u r , oratorum d i s c i p u l u s , f o r i a u d i t o r s e c t a t o r l u d i c l o r u m , e r u d i t u s e t a s s u e f a c t u s a l i e n i s experimen-t i s , c u i , c o t i d i e a u d i e n t l , notae l e g e s , .... f r e q u e n s i n ocu-l i s consuetude concionum, saepe c o g n i t a e p o p u l i a u r e s , s i v e a c c u s a t i o n e m s u s c e p e r a t , s i v e defensionem, s o l u s s t a t i m e t unus cuicumque causae par e r a t . .... (xxxv) "At nunc a d u l e s c e n t u l i n o s t r i deducuntur i n scenas scholastic drum, q u i r h e t o r e s v o c a n t u r .... Sed, u t d i c e r e i n s t i ~ tueram,-deducuntur I n s c h o l a s , i n quibus non f a c i l e d i x e r i m , utrumne l o c u s I p s e , an c o n d l s c i p u l i , an genus st u d i o r u m p l u s m a i l i n g e n i i s a f f e r e n t . Earn i n l o c o n i h i l r e v e r e n t i a e , sed i n quem nemo, n i s i aequo i m p e r i t u s i n t r a t . I n c o n d i s c i p u l i s n i h i l p r o f e c t u s , cum p u e r i i n t e r p u e r o s , et a d u l e s c e n t u l i i n t e r ad-u l e s c e n t u l o s , p a r i s e c u r i t a t e e t d.icant e t a u d i a n t u r . Ipsae 172. v e r o e x e r c i t a t i o n e s magna ex p a r t e c o n t r a r i a e . Nempe enim duo genera m a t e r i a r u m apud r h e t o r e s t r a c t a n t u r , s u a s o r i a e e t c on t r o -v e r s i a e . Ex h i s s u a s o r i a e quidem, tanquam plane l e v i o r e s e t minus p r u d e n t i a e e x i g e n t e s , p u e r i s d e l e g a n t u r , c o n t r o v e r s i a e r o h u s t i o r i h u s a s s i g n a n t u r , q u a l e s , per f i d e m , e t quam i n c r e d i -b i l i t e r c ompositae! Sequitur autem, u t m a t e r i a e a b h o r r e n t ! a v e r i t a t e d e c l a m a t i o quoque a d h i b e a t u r . S i c f i t , u t t y r a n n i c i -darum praemia, a u t v i t i a t a r u m e l e c t I o n e s , aut p e s t i l e n t i a e r e m e d i a , aut i n c e s t a matrum, aut q u i c q u i d i n s c h o l a c o t i d i e a g i t u r , i n f o r o v e l r a r o v e l numquam Tingentibus v e r b i s p e r s e -q u a n t u r . " P e t r o n i u s A r b i t e r , about the same time as T a c i t u s , s i m i l a r l y laments the d e c l i n e of the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and s a t i r i s e s the s o p h i s t s . C o n f i r m a t o r y passages have a l r e a d y been quoted from J u v e n a l . Then toward the end of the second c e n t u r y we can l e a r n f rom Lucan what the tendency of the h i g h e r i n s t r u c t i o n was--a11 towards the premature f i t t i n g out of y o u t h f o r success i n l i f e , by means of r h e t o r i c . a n d o r a t o r y , and a s u p e r f i c i a l a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the s t o c k commonplaces of a r g u m e n t a t i o n . I n s p i t e of a l l t h i s adverse c r i t i c i s m of the l a t e r Empire and i t s s o c i e t y , m o r a l e , and e d u c a t i o n , we must not o v e r l o o k the s p i r i t of humanity w h i c h was i n some measure s u p e r s e d i n g the "human!tas" of mere c u l t u r e . We saw e v i d e n c e of t h i s gen-u i n e s p i r i t i n P l i n y ' s d o n a t i o n t o h i s n a t i v e c i t y Comum of a p u b l i c l i b r a r y and an endowment toward the f o u n d i n g of a l o c a l s c h o o l system. Such deeds of a l t r u i s m would appear t o have 173. 'been not uncommon. Wi tho the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the Empire, however, and.the i n v a s i o n of the barbarians, education, which had previously... become wholly formal and a r t i f i c i a l , ceased to a-rouse any enthusiasm and f i n a l l y to command any support. And many c e n t u r i e s had to elapse before the Romano-Hellenic education and c u l t u r e was found to be compatible w i t h the C h r i s t i a n aim. In c o n c l u s i o n we reproduce * a table of the Roman educa-t i o n a l system as i t was f i n a l l y evolved: 18 or 19 : ; to 21 and .26 University Greek U n i v e r s i t i e s U n i v e r s i t y of Rome (Professors) . Law Medicine A r c h i t e c t u r e Mathematics Grammar Rheto r i c 16 to 18 or 19 Collegiate Schools of Rh e t o r i c (Rhetor.) Grammar Rheto r i c D i a l e c t i c Law ; 12 to 16 v Secondary L a t i n Grammar Schools (Grammaticus) ;.' Grammar . L i t e r a t u r e 6 or 7 to 12 Elementary; L u d i , or Primary Schools (Ludi magister) ; Reading W r i t i n g R e c k o n i n g THE ROMAN VOLUNTARY .EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, as f i n a l l y evolved. ¥. E. P. Cubberley "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Education", p. 37. BIBLIOGRAPHY C i c e r o , "De Oratorae". Juvenal, " S a t i r a e " . M a r t i a l , "Epigrammata". P l i n y , " E p i s t u l a e " Q u i n t i l i a n , "De I n s t i t u t i o n e O r a t o r i a " . Seneca, " E p i s t u l a e " . Suetonius, "De I l l u s t r i o u s Grammaticis," "De C l a r i s Rhetoribus". T a c i t u s , "Dialogus de Or a t o r i bus" . Of the f o l l o w i n g H i s t o r i e s of Rome, H i s t o r i e s of Education, and works on A n t i q u i t i e s , some give very d e t a i l e d accounts of a l l or part of Roman Education, others cover the subject i n a very cursory manner.. Adams, J.--"The E v o l u t i o n of Educ a t i o n a l Theory". Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1912. Becker, W. A.--"Gallus"--Translated by P. Metcalfe. J . W. Parker, London--1849. B o i s s i e r , G.--"Tacitus and Other Roman Studies"--Translated by W. G. Hutchinson. A. Constable & Co., L t d . , London--1906. Bury, J . B.--"A H i s t o r y of the Roman Empire". J. Murray, London--1922. " H i s t o r y of the Later Roman Empire". Macmillan Ss Co., L t d . , London- - 1923 . 175. Chrisman, 0.--"The H i s t o r i c a l C h i l d " . R. C. Badger, Boston--1920. Church, A. J.--"Roman L i f e i n the Days of Cicero " . The Macmillan Co., Hew York--1924. Clapp, F. L.; Chase, W. J . ; Merriman, C.--"Introduction to Edu-c a t i o n " . G-inn & Co., Boston--1929. Cubberly, E. P.--"A H i s t o r y of Education". Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1922. "Readings i n the H i s t o r y of Education". Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1920. Davis, W. S.--"A Day i n Old Rome". • A l l y n & Bacon, Hew York--1925. Davidson, P.--"A H i s t o r y of Education". C. S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, Hew York--1900. " A r i s t o t l e and Ancient Educational I d e a l s " . C. S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, New York--1905. D i l l , S.--"Roman Society from Nero to Marcus A u r e l i u s " . Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1919, "Roman So c i e t y i n the Last Century of the Western Empire". Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1906. Duggan, S. P.--"A Student's Textbook i n the H i s t o r y of Education" D. Appleton & Co., New York--1927. Duruy, V.--"History of Rome and the Roman People". K. Pau l , Trench, & Co., London--1886. Emerson, M. I.--"The E v o l u t i o n of the Educational I d e a l " . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1914. 176. "The Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a " - - E l e v e n t h E d i t i o n - - v o l . V I I I . Cambridge at the U n i v e r s i t y Press--1910. F e r r e r o , G.--"Characters and Events of Roman H i s t o r y " . G. P. Putnam's Sons, London--1909. F e r r e r o , G.j Barbagallo, C.--"A Short H i s t o r y of Rome". G. P. Putnam's Sons, London--1918. Fowler, W. W.--"Social L i f e at Rome i n the Age of Cicero " . Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1929. Frank, T, - - "A H i s t o r y of Rome". J . Cape, London--1923. P r i e d l a n d e r , L.--"Roman L i f e and Manners under the E a r l y Empire" --Translated by J . H. Freese. G. Routledge & Sons, L t d . , London--1913. Gilman, A.--"Rome". T. F. Unwin, London--1885. Graves, F. P.--"A H i s t o r y of Education". The Macmillan Co., New York--19.il. Guhl, E.; Koner, W.--"The L i f e of the Greeks and Romans"--Translated by F, Hueffer. Chatto & Windus, London--1875. Harper's " D i c t i o n a r y of C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e and A n t i q u i t i e s " - - E d i t e d by H. T. Peck. American Book Co., New York--1923, Hodgson,, G. S . - - " P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n Education". T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh--1906. Holmes, T. R.--"The Roman Republic". Oxford at the Clarendon Press--1923. 177. Johnston, H, W.--"The P r i v a t e L i f e of the Romans". Sco t t , Poresman & Co., New York--1905. Kandel, I . L.- - " H i s t o r y of Secondary Education". Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1930. Kemp, E. L.- - " H i s t o r y of Education". J . P. L i p p i n c o t t Co., Philadelphia~-1912. L a u r i e , S. S . - - " H i s t o r i c a l Survey of P r e - C h r i s t i a n Education". Longmans, Green, & Co., London--1900. Long, G.--"The Decline of the Roman Republic" G. B e l l & Sons, London--1874. McDaniel, W. B.--"Roman P r i v a t e L i f e and I t s S u r v i v a l s " . Longmans, Green, & Co., Hew York--1929. M e r i v a l e , C.--"A H i s t o r y of the Romans under the Empire". Longmans, Green, & Co., London--1862. Mommsen, T. " " T h e - H i s t o r y • of Rome"--Translated by W. P. Dickson. Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1901. "The Provinces of the Roman Empire"--Translated by W. P. • . . Dickson. Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1909. Monroe, P.--"A Cyclopaedia of Education". Hie Macmillan Co., Hew York--1917. "Source Book of the H i s t o r y of Education f o r the Greek and Roman Period" The Macmillan Co., Hew York~-1921. "A Text-Book-in the H i s t o r y of Education". -The Macmillan Co., Hew York--1922. 178. N i l s son, M. P.--" I m p e r i a l Rome 1 1--Translated by G. C . Richards G. B e l l & Sons, L t d . , London--1926. Reisner, E. H . - - " H i s t o r i c a l Foundations of Modern Education". The Macmillan Co., New York--1927. Sandys, J . S.--"A Companion to L a t i n Studies". Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y Press--191o. Sandys, J . E.; N e t t i e s h i p , H.--"A D i c t i o n a r y of C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t i e s " - - F r o m the German of Gskar S e y f f e r t . The Macmillan Co., New York-~1895. Showerman, G.--"Eternal Rome". Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, New Haven--1924. . Tucker, T. G.--"Life i n the Roman World of Nero and St. Paul" Macmillan & Co., L t d . , London--1910. Watson, F.--"The Encyclopaedia and D i c t i o n a r y of Education". 1. Pitman & Sons., L t d . , London--1921. W i l k i n s , A. S.--"Roman Education 1 1.. Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y Press--1905. Wodehouse, H.--"A Survey of the H i s t o r y of Education". E. Arnold & Co., London--1924. 

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