UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Roman education Burnham, Frank Lang 1935

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F^anlr Laiig Bu^'nl$-aiii;, B. A«r  A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r the. Degree o f MASTER," OF .ARTS i n the Department  THE^OTIVERSdETY. OE: BRITISH COLUMBIA  A p r i l , 1935  CONTENTS Chapter :•• X H I S T O R I C A L DEVELOPMENT OF ROMAN EDUOATION Periods  1-25  of Roman E d u c a t i o n - E d u c a t i o n  'V-f.-;';.:., ;y.-un&ea? -Hie- R e p u b l i c . , - - t o ' 1 4 8 "B--."-C-. - 'Romano-  Hellenic Period,-; 'Mil  /information  C. on - Sources o f  - P l a n o f our s t u d y .  HOMEEDUCATION  ; :  Infancy :  26-44  - N u t r i x - Primary I n s t r u c t i o n  T r a i n i n g of G i r l s - T r a i n i n g o f Boys;'-Citizenship - Religion -  Training  ';,-' Paedagogus Ill  ELEMENTARY EDUCATION . "' . ."" .;  45-65  R e a d i n g - W r i t i n g - A r i t h m e t i c - Geography - P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n - D a n c i n g -  "M >  ; Music. ; •;;IV-  SECONDARY; EDUCATION  ,  '  66-96  I n t r b d u c t i o n o f t h e " L U d i Grainmatici" - Greek a u t h o r s s t u d i e d - L a t i n a u t h o r s s t u d i e d - L e c t i o - E n a r r a t i o - Emendatio Pupils'- 'Exercises".-  Grammar - Other sub-  jects. V  SCHOOLS. --BUILDINGS, FURNITURE, HOURS,, H O L I D A Y S D I S C I P L I N E , TEACHERS AND THEIR .EMOLUMENTS.  97-118  VI  : ' HIGHER: EDTOATIOH.  ;  119-158  %  :  .." i R h . e t o r i c - - I n t r Q d u c t i o h  of t h e study  of r h e t o r i c - Age of comraencetnent ''''.','.  o f h i g h e r s t u d i e s - Study o f Law - S t u d y of R h e t o r i c - C o n c e p t i o n h e l d of o r a t o r y ~ The r h e t o r i c a l  •  s c h o o l - Choice  of a r h e t o r - P r e -  l i m i n a r y ' e x e r c i s e s - Supplementary r e a d i n g - Declamation. ii ill VII  Philosophy. T r a v e l : Abroad.  •EDHCATIGM UNDER THE  LATER''-EMPIRE  159-173  .1 Endowment of E d u c a t i o n . • BIBLIOGRAPHY  i l . The Decadence of Roman . E d u c a t i o n . 174-178  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page  Paedagogus - "Ad Ludum"  42  Tabellae  '52  Stilus  53  A Roman C o u n t i n g Board  56  Ludus Romanus  _  Magister et D i s c i p u l i  101 101  The Roman. V o l u n t a r y E d u c a t i o n a l System^ as f i n a l l y evolved  173  ROMAN EDUCATION  Chapter I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT: .03 ROMAN EDUCATION PERIODS  OF  "ROMAN EDUCATION  Roman education f a l l s  into two general per-  iods of c l e a r l y defined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  though the l i n e of demarcation between the two Is not d i s t i n c t . The f i r s t of these periods i s from the e a r l i e s t days to the time when Greek ideas of l i f e , culture, and enjoyment came i n and Rome "became as cosmopolitan i n i t s ideas and manners as i t had already become i n arms and government.  The'second period,  which might be r e f e r r e d to as the Romano-Hellenic,  dates from  t h i s change, approximately the middle of the second century B. C , when Macedonia was conquered and Greece became a Roman province; i t includes the later years of the Republic and a l l of the Imperial period. EDUCATION UNDER THE  "What -the laws of Moses were to  REPUBLIC,~-TO 148 B.C.  early Hebrew education, the laws  of Lycurgus to Spartan education, the laws of Solon and to a c e r t a i n extent the Homeric poems to the early Athenian educat i o n , the Laws, of the Twelve Tables were to the early educa:  t i o n of the Romans."*  Not only d i d these express the ideals  of Roman education, but: to a large extent they formed the subject-matter of i t .  Their influence was dominant from the time  of their formation, the. middle: of the f i f t h century B.C., to the opening of the f i r s t century B.C., b y which time the Homeric  * P. Monroe, "Source Book of the History of Education',' p. 328.  .-poetes and the early L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e had largely usurped ..their place. The t r a i n i n g of* t h i s early period possessed i n f u l l that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which Roman education never wholly l o s t : was pre-eminently p r a c t i c a l . --for  P r a c t i c a l wisdom was the goal,  the Romans were nothing i f they  the l a s t degree.  It  were  not u t i l i t a r i a n to  The aim was to inculcate good morals, to  awake patriotism, to make the c h i l d f i t for a l l duties which, i n the house or outside of i t , would f a l l upon the gr own-up man  or woman. U n t i l the Romans hecame strongly Hellenized,  such d i s c i p l i n e rather than culture was the object of educat i o n , --"pietas" was the guiding p r i n c i p l e i n their s o c i a l relationships.  There was. no conception of, s t i l l less any de-  sire f o r , any system of progressive culture.  The "mos  orum" set the standard at which the Romans aimed  mai~  and, need-  less to' say, since this usage must be maintained, the t r a i n ing  was very conservative. What the fathers themselves were,  they made t h e i r sons; who  i n turn made t h e i r sons the same.  The younger P l i n y ("Epistula" v i i i . 1 4 ) t e l l s us that: "Erat autera ant i qui tus  ins t i t u turn, ut a maioribus natu non  auribus modo, verum etiam oculis diseeremus, quae facienda mox ....  i p s i ac per.vices quasdam tradenda minoribus haberemus Suus cuique parens pro magistro aut, c u i parens non  erat, maximus quisque et vetustissimus pro p a r e n t e I f , therefore, a boy grew up healthy and strong i n mind and body, i f he revered the gods, h i s parents and the laws and i n s t i t u tions of h i s country, I f he was f a m i l i a r with the t r a d i t i o n a l  methods of agriculture, and had some knowledge of the way of conducting public business i n times of peace and of serving i n the f i e l d i n time of war, h i s education was complete; i f a g i r l learnt from her mother to be modest, virtuous, i n d u s t r i ous, and s k i l l e d In the duties of the household, that i s a l l that was needed.  The main thing was that children should  grow up what their parents would have them to be.  I t was the  severest censure to say of a man that he had acted "contra morem maiorum."  To maintain t h i s t r a d i t i o n of conduct no sys-  tem of teaching by outsiders was needed or desired; the d i s c i pline of the home could do a l l that was required. The education of the Roman boy was, then, for the f i r s t four or f i v e centuries of the Republic, simply the education which home-life, c i t i z e n s h i p , and the observance  of ancestral  custom gave him; i t was of a domestic, c i v i l , and m i l i t a r y nature and was received i n the home, i n the forum, and i n m i l i tary exercises. As might well be expected under such circumstances the education was c h i e f l y physical and moral,with a very narrow range of I n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t . With- this t r a i n i n g the State had no direct concern,, and did not, as a r u l e , i n any way meddle.  I n d i r e c t l y I t did much  to hold up a high standard of c i v i c duty and devotion. But the manner i n which t h i s was taught was l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l citizen.  I t has been noted as something of a paradox that  while the Greeks were always disposed to look with favour on the interference of the State i n questions of t r a i n i n g and education, they never secured the same devotion and obedience  to the State as were shown at Rome, where the' lessons were learnt i n the home. 3) says:  Of t h i s matter Cicero ("De Republica" i v .  " P r i n c i p l e disciplinara puerilem ingenuis,  .. „ nullam  certam aut destinatam legibus aut publice expositarn aut imam omnium esse voluerunt."  This " l a i s s e z f a i r e " p o l i c y toward  education was the direct r e s u l t of the unlimited " p a t r i a potestas".  The state took i t f o r granted that t h i s paternal  authority would be exercised to waken the boy's i n t e l l e c t , and to t r a i n him to become a good "paterfamilias" and a worthy citizen.  Hence the non-existence--then and t i l l quite l a t e - -  of state control. U n t i l about 250 B. G^ Roman education remained substant i a l l y the same as i n the preceding free from f o r e i g n influences.« fifty  centuries and Rome was  But during the preceding  years a c e r t a i n development had taken place.  t o r i c a l f a c t s we must take as our guide.  Two h i s -  F i r s t of a l l , i n  260 B. 0., Spurius C a r v i l i u s , a freedman, Introduced a type of school i n which, a f t e r the 3 R's were learned, was studied,.  literature  Prior to the date of C a r v i l i u s ' school there  was no native l i t e r a t u r e except i n the form of heroic songs and public records, rude fables, and s a t i r e s cast i n rough  * Livy ("Historiae", i x . 36) says:  "Habeo auctores, vulgo turn  Romanos pueros, sicut nunc Graecis, i t a E t r u s c i s U t e r i s e r u d i r i s o l i t o s , " but t h i s statement i s so e n t i r e l y at v a r i ance with everything which we know about the nature of Roman education,  that i t i s unhesitatingly rejected as incredible by  modern scholars.  dramatic form.* development  I t i s about t h i s  of a n a t i o n a l  Greeks e s p e c i a l l y . the F i r s t opened. Livius  literature,  Cn. N a e v i u s w r o t e  P u n i c War, He  a l s o wrote  of  that  Garvilius'  school  on G r e e k  Into L a t i n .  than the •"Iliad"  of c h a r a c t e r .  Greek dramas, b o t h t r a g e d i e s  literature.  t h a n h i s "Odyssey",  seems t o have  for translation,  and c o m e d i e s ,  were a l s o  i n the L a t i n  success,  of H o r a c e , n e a r l y t a k e n up  two  tongue.  t h e y , no  less  i n t e n d e d t o be u s e d as t e x t s i n  a purpose which they served a t l e a s t  L i v i u s was  litera-  Andronicus^reproduced  But t h o u g h t h e s e p l a y s were a c t e d w i t h  boyhood  He  on  a poem o f a d v e n t u r e w o u l d h a v e more a t t r a c t i o n also  t h e Romans t h a n one  schools,  sudden  Italo-  A n d r o n l c u s e n d e a v o u r e d t o s u p p l y t h e want o f a  thinking  centuries  and c a r r i e d  later.  as l a t e  as the  The work o f  on, w i t h f a r more  poetic  a n d much w i d e r l e a r n i n g , b y Q,. E n n i u s , " e t s a p i e n s , e t  fortis", laid  a  a h i s t o r i c a l poem  dramas a n d e p i g r a m s  chosen the "Odyssey" r a t h e r  talent  have  by t h e h e l p  twenty y e a r s a f t e r  t u r e by t r a n s l a t i n g t h e " O d y s s e y "  for  d a t e t h a t we  M<. t h e t r u e f a t h e r  the f o u n d a t i o n  •JK S u e t o n i u s  "De  o f Roman e p i c  Illustribus  Romae ne  i n u s u quidem  scilicet  ac b e l l i c o s a  liberalibus  o f Roman p o e t r y  Gratnmaticis"  e tiara turn c i v i t a t e , vacante."  (ii.  1.  50)  know i t .  In h i s "Annales".  (i),  He  Following  "Grammatica  o l i r a , nedum I n h o n o r e u l l o  disciplinis  Horace, " E p i s t u l a "  as we  erat:  rudi  necdum magno o p e r e  E r m i u s we  h a v e an e v e r  i n c r e a s i n g number  of poets  and  drama-  tists. Of basis  the  productions mentioned,  of secondary  studied I t was  and not  it.-K was  s c h o o l work a s a t e x t - b o o k  only the b e g i n n i n g taught  i t i n the  the f i r s t  large  and  s c h o o l of O r b i l i u s , of l i t e r a r y  step toward a h i g h e r  f o r some t i m e  sense.  constitute  Literature  century  I t s dominance i n t h e  to reach  of .the d e a t h  (148  B.  C.)  an  i n education, progress  of Cato  Horace favours  instruction, instruction  but i t in  any  and w i t h i t H e l l e n i s m ,  during  the  times.  but  e d u c a t i o n among t h e Romans  such  steady  youth.  education  and Q u i n t i i i an  Latin  made g r a d u a l b u t  the  i t was  t h e Roman  o f Roman l i t e r a r y  into post-Republican  This introduction  d i d not  " O d y s s e y " became  l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f i t m e m o r i z e d by  c o n t i n u e d t o be learned  the  the whole  of the  s c h o o l s about the eld.er, who  next time  laboured  to  stem i t s p r o g r e s s . The t o be  r a p i d p r o g r e s s w h i c h e d u c a t i o n made i n Rome i s p a r t l y  e x p l a i n e d by  already  existed  i n the  terranean c i t i e s a date Italy.  f o r the  the f a c t  Hellenic  generally.  earliest  of I t a l y  and  the  Medi-  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however, t o f i x  infiltration  a s i d e , we  o f Rome, G r e e k c o l o n i e s h a d  •K See  schools  culture  of t h i s  Greek c u l t u r e  Legends would c a r r y i t back t o v e r y a n c i e n t times;  even p u t t i n g t h e s e  Italy.  t h a t a r e c o g n i s e d scheme o f  A t any  know t h a t , b e f o r e  48  and  foundation  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n S i c i l y  r a t e the v a r i o u s channels  q u o t a t i o n on p .  the  into  of t r a d e and  and the  increasing the  i n t e r c o u r s e with. Magna G r a e c i a a n d S i c i l y , a n d w i t h  Greek c o l o n i e s o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n  "been e x t e n d i n g  their  in  of the L a t i n  the h i s t o r y  that  influence,  o f our e a r l i e s t  become f a m i l i a r  g e n e r a l l y , had long  a s we c a n see f r o m many t r a c e s  language,  a t a date  trustworthy records.  as the language b o t h  much "before  In f a c t  Greek h a d  o f commerce a n d d i p l o m a c y  for  i n B . C . 282 L u c i u s P o s t u m l u s , t h e Roman e n v o y t o T a r en turn,  had  been able  the  choicest quality.  t o address  Then t h e •middle  h i s audience  of the t h i r d  i n Greek,  though n o t o f  century before  Christ,  which c o i n c i d e s very n e a r l y w i t h the close of the F i r s t War,  was•marked b y a g r e a t I n c r e a s e  Hellenism. the  And i t i s h a r d  ever-growing  G r e e k must h a v e b e e n t h e i r iliar  with  the u p p e r  Greek l i f e  i n the i n f l o w i n g t i d e of  to over-estimate  swarm o f h o u s e h o l d  Punic  the e f f e c t  which  s l a v e s , t o many o f whom  n a t i v e language  a n d who were fam-  a n d ways, must h a v e h a d i n H e . l l e n i z i n g  c l a s s e s a t Rome.  So we  see t h a t a way was b e i n g  made f o r a g r e a t change i n t h e a i m s a n d methods o f e d u c a t i o n a l o n g Greek  lines.  With the i n c r e a s i n g hard, beauty  a n d charm  Greek, even t h e  o f Greek a r t a n d l i t e r a t u r e .  of the upper  the v e r y had  with  p r a c t i c a l Roman was g r a d u a l l y b e g i n n i n g  about a r e v o l u t i o n youths  acquaintance  elementary  i n the e d u c a t i o n classes.  t o f e e l the This  o f t h e Roman a n d I t a l i a n  Ho l o n g e r were t h e y  instruction,  given mostly  content  the reading  with  a t home, w h i c h  s u f f i c e d f o r a s i m p l e r age, even though t o t h i s  t r a i n i n g had been added,.of l a t e ,  brought  practical  of the f i r s t  8-.  crude beginnings of a Latin l i t e r a t u r e .  They were now  coming  to f e e l that some knowledge of Greek l i t e r a t u r e , either d i r ectly or through the medium of translations., was" e s s e n t i a l to culture.  Thus many a Roman youth, conceived the i d e a l of he-  coming not merely a capable man lightened and cultured man,  of a f f a i r s but also an en-  with a mind wide awake to a wider  world of i n t e r e s t s and better trained w i t h a l f o r p r a c t i c a l l i f e . •. The best proof of the extent to which Greek was  at t h i s  time f a m i l i a r among the upper classes i s found i n the fact that the e a r l i e s t Roman h i s t o r i a n s , Fabius Pictor and Cincius Alimentus, both wrote i n Greek, thus showing not only their command of that language, but also that they could r e l y upon f i n d i n g readers among their own countrymen.  For the lower  classes i t i s very s i g n i f i c a n t that the comic poet Plautus could always trust a popular audience to take a joke, the point of which turned upon a play on Greek words. Suetonius  (be I l l u s t . Gramm". i i ) t e l l s us of the i n t r o -  duction of the "grammar" school by Crates i n B. C. 167 and the incidents i n connection with i t : "Primus i g i t u r , quantum opinamur, studium grammaticae i n Urbem i n t u l i t Crates Mallotes, A r i s t a r c h i aequalis, qui missus ad Senaturn ab A t t a l o rege, inter secundum ac tertium bellum Punicura, sub ipsam,  E n n i i mortem, cum,  regione P a l a t i i ,  prolapsus i n cloacae foramen, crus f r e g i s s e t , per bmne legationis simul et valetudinis tempus, plurimas inde f e c i t , assidueque  oc<7\f($ sub-  d i s s e r u i t , ac nostris exemplo f u i t ad  9.  imitandum." ; Thls-:^  was ah  Innovation,  the importance of which we can hardly over-rate. a mere widening of the curriculum: •  }y  a new  •  i t was  I t was  not  the introduction of  .  principle.  -  in;the>s|ffle chapter as the:one from which we have quoted, ;  Suetonius r e f e r s to nine other "grammatici" that taught at about t h i s time or a l i t t l e l a t e r .  These teachers who were  inspired by, and learnt the methods of Grates, were for the most part Greeks who to the young men  taught their own  of Rome.  language and  literature  It i s evident, therefore, that l i t -  erary i n s t r u c t i o n was w e l l established at Rome by the middle of the second century B. Cato's book, "De  C.  L i b e r i s Educandis", v<ras doubtless i n -  tended as a protest against such H e l l e n i c Innovations  as the  "ludus grammatici", although the H e l l e n i c idea of culture had not yet indeed taken what could be termed permanent root. Gato's opinion of what the essentials of:the t r a i n i n g of a "vir  bonus" and a worthy c i t i z e n should be, gives an excellent  idea of the general attitude toward education before the period  of Greek ascendancy; h i s l i s t of fundamentals i s :  oratory,  agriculture, law, medicine, war,--a s t r i k i n g contrast to the l i t e r a r y culture which was being supplied .by the "grammaticus" . So much science only was p r a c t i c a l purposes.  to be acquired as was necessary for  L a t i n grammar was not included, and. t h i s  shows that the learned had not yet done much f o r the grammat i c a l study of the native L a t i n tongue.  Music and the mathe-  matical and physical sciences were excluded.  As for Greek  10.  l i t e r a t u r e Cato f e l t t h a t i t s h o u l d be l o o k e d i n t o , b u t n o t : thorougJhly / s t u d i e d . ;  ;  To a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y , however, the a t t i t u d e o f t h e " a n t i Greek" element i n Rome we" must bear i n mind t h a t , when the Romans f i r s t came t o f e e l the f u l l f o r c e of the i n f l u e n c e o f Greece, i t was no l o n g e r Greece a t i t s b e s t .  The l e s s o n s  w h i c h she h a d t o t e a c h were of i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e f o r t h e s p r e a d and development o f c u l t u r e , b u t what was b e s t i n them was m i n g l e d now w i t h t h e p r o d u c t s o f a d e c a y i n g n a t i o n a l l i f e . In  Mommsen's phrase t h e e n c h a n t e r ' s  cup was s t a l e , , and t h e  Athens w h i c h Rome came t o know was no more t h e Athens of Sophocles  and P l a t o . *  D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of w h i c h we have been s p e a k i n g i t cannot be s a i d t h a t the masses o f the people r e c e i v e d any i n s t r u c t i o n save t h e rudiments  of r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , a l t h o u g h the  d i f f u s i o n o f these was ever on t h e i n c r e a s e .  Those c h i l d r e n  of the b e t t e r c l a s s e s , I n t e n d e d f o r m e r c a n t i l e l i f e , to  continued  a c q u i r e t h e b a s i c f u n d a m e n t a l s w h i c h were v e r y w i d e l y d i f -  f u s e d even among t h e s l a v e s .  S c h o o l s , such as e x i s t e d , were  s t i l l what we" m i g h t c a l l "adventure" evidence  s c h o o l s , and t h e r e i s no  t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n I n t o "elementary"  and " s e c -  ondary" s c h o o l s h a d as y e t t a k e n p l a c e w i d e l y a l t h o u g h here and t h e r e gave advanced or secondary  teachers  instruction.  On t h e whole, then, we may say t h a t advanced i n s t r u c t i o n was s t i l l c h i e f l y domestic  and t u t o r i a l , and c o n s e q u e n t l y r e -  s t r i c t e d t o t h e upper c l a s s e s .  And i n s p i t e o f H e l l e n i c i n -  f l u e n c e , the "mores, c o n s u e t u d i n e s ,  i n s t i t u t a maiorum",  * As q u o t e d by A. S. W i l k i n s , "Roman E d u c a t i o n " , p. 17.  •which c o n s t i t u t e d the "vetus d i s c i p l i n a " , s t i l l animated education t o a large degree. R0MAN0-HEELEF1C  We now come to the p e r i o d of Roman  PERIOD,"148 B.C. OH  i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e i n which education  could no longer he s a i d t o he s p e c i f i c a l l y Roman at a l l , - - t h e i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r y had been won by the Greek.  I n the f i r s t  century B. G. Roman education stands f o r t h transformed on Greek methods, Greek models, Greek i d e a l s , which, however, though l a r g e l y i n the liands of Greek teachers,-have beeti .•modi:  f i e d t o f i t Roman conditions,and a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c education has r e s u l t e d , — a n education which i s Greek, but Greek transl a t e d i n t o Latin.. The H e i l e n i z e d form of education has become dominant but without;, causing a complete e x t i n c t i o n of the o l d Roman v i r i l i t y .  That p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y has not vanished from  Roman education i s apparent from the question asked by Cicero (De Rep", i . 20) and the answer given: censes, L a e l i , discendum nobis ... ? ant, u t u s u i c i v i t a t i  "Quid esse i g i t u r "Eas a r t i s , quae e f f i c i -  simus."  A type of general l i t e r a r y c u l t u r e had  novir  made i t s  appearance; something which pointed the way t o "humanitas", i n s t r u c t i o n i n subjects "quae repertae sunt, u t puerorum mentes ad humanitatem f i n g e r e n t u r atque v i r t u t e m . " ^  The b e t t e r  educated c l a s s e s , as we.have seen, had set before them a new i d e a l of c u l t u r e , and new methods of a t t a i n i n g t o i t , which  -KCic. "De Oratore" ( i i i . 5 8 )  12. fascinated them-with their novel charms.: A l l were not equally attracted by them, however, and f o r generations there was  a  ceaseless struggle between the champions of the o l d and the advocates of the new.  As a recently discovered fragment of  an unknown h i s t o r i a n puts i t :  "Duae quasi factiones Romae  essent, quarum una Graecas artes atque d i s c i p l i n a s adamabat, altera patriae caritatem praetexebat cases a passion f o r a l l that was  acerrlmam."-K  In some  Greek became quite a mania,  and j u s t l y c a l l e d down the r i d i c u l e of the s a t i r i s t s A time. • •. •  of the  -  After the conquest of Macedonia (167 B. C.), the  intel-  l e c t u a l t r a f f i c between Greece and Rome, already considerable, was  greatly augmented.  Then too the i n f l u x of Greek scholars  increased after the f a l l of Corinth (146 B. C»), among whom were philosophers and r h e t o r i c a l teachers of considerable pr extensions.. From t h i s time forward Greek language and l i t e r ature were regarded as indispensable elements i n the higher education,--what the great conservative Cato had foreseen had now  cane less than f i f t y years a f t e r his. death*  Cicero t e l l s  us that at the beginning of h i s . l i f e the ancient education had been wholly, overthrown. The new  education embraced not only the L a t i n and Greek  languages and l i t e r a t u r e , but to a l i m i t e d extent geometry, music, and gymnastic.  Of course the Romans were too p r a c t i c a l  to be able to obtain l i b e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s from music and  gym-  «...As quoted by A.. S. Wilkins (p. 19) as printed i n "Rhein. xxxix.  623.  Mus."  13.. nastic,. and too sedate to tolerate much that was so thoroughly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Greek.  Harmonious development, culture,  --either of mind or body--for I t s own sake were ideas a l i e n to the Roman mind,for Roman l i f e was e s s e n t i a l l y opposed to the Greek aesthetic l i f e . As f a r as organization was concerned the new Graeco-Roman education, though much better organized and systematized than the Greek, was i n i t s method less thoroughly nationalized; f o r with the Romans education remained e s s e n t i a l l y a t r a i n i n g process,, • .. . If any one man can be regarded as representing the new form of education on Greek l i n e s , as old Cato--in spite of some concessions"-represents the t r a i n i n g i n accordance with the "mos maiorum", i t i s L. Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Perseus of Macedon, and the father of the younger Scipio. Plutarch ("Life of Aemilius" v i ) t e l l s us that he devoted hims e l f to the education of h i s children, whom he not only brought up, as he had been trained himself, i n the Roman and ancient d i s c i p l i n e , but also and with unusual zeal i n that of Greece. To t h i s purpose he not only procured masters to teach them grammar, l o g i c , and r h e t o r i c , but had for them also preceptors i n modelling and drawing, managers of horses and dogs, and i n structors i n f i e l d - s p o r t s , a l l from Greece.  Such zeal i n more  modified form appears to have been not uncommon. was the f i r s t  Paulus, too,  to bring to Rome a c o l l e c t i o n of Greek books for  use i n h i s own house (Plut. "Aem." x x v i i i ) so that the yorcager Scipio was brought up i n the atmosphere of a l i b r a r y .  He i s  14.', even said to have formally i n v i t e d the Athenians to send him a philosopher to t r a i n h i s c h i l d r e n . *  I t i s no wonder, then,  that the "Scipionic c i r c l e " was the source of a steady stream of Hellenising influence'. Mommsen ("The History of Rome" v, 12) measures the change i n the last century 'of the free Republic by'comparing-Cato's l i s t of the constituents of general culture with that given by Varro.  The former, as we have already noted,, included, as con  stituents of an education of. an unprofessional nature, oratory agriculture, law, war, medicine; the subjects treated i n Varro nine books were probably grammar, logic or d i a l e c t i c s , rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, medicine, and architecture,--a scheme of knowledge which rested wholly on a Hellenic, conception.  Consequently i n the course of the last  century of the Republic the -sciences of war, jurisprudence^ and agriculture had been.converted from general into professional studies. • I t i s Interesting to note that.the f i r s t three on Varro's l i s t , the three e a r l i e s t introduced Into Rome, formed the "trivium" or elementary course i n the Middle Ages, while the next four constituted the quadrivium" . 11  During the l a t t e r years of the old Roman period a t h i r d type of school had appeared, the school of the "rhetor";  *  Pliny, " H i s t o r i a Naturalis" (xxxv. 40), "Itaque cum L.  P aulu s de v i ct o Per se o petisset'ab Atheniensibus, ut s i b i quam probatissimum philosophorum mitterent ad erudiendos liberos, it  • such  s c h o o l s were t a u g h t ,  f o r some t i m e ,  Greek t o t h o s e who c o u l d f o l l o w them. ondary e d u c a t i o n ,  hy Greeks alone i n  This higher  than  suggests  offices first  i n h i s "De I l l u s t r i .  of t h e "grammatici"  distinct;  literature  the "grammatici"  a n d grammar.  taught  rhetoric  Secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r both  a n d b o t h were G r e e k i m i t a t i o n s ;  nished the i n s t r u c t i o n Suetonius  also t e l l s  work i n r h e t o r i c , afternoons,  and t r a i n i n g  either  of the Greeks, b u t t h e i r  reason.  and debate.  t h a t i t was n o t t h e  philosophy,  t h a t t h e more  T h e r e was a l s o  of t h e Greek c h a r a c t e r , a n d t h a t n o t  Greek a r t and a r t i s t s  o f Greek r h e t o r i c .  women o f t h e h i g h e r  f o l l o w e d c l o s e on t h e  I t was a b o u t t h i s  time  c l a s s e s began t o p a r t i c i p a t e  a l s o that the i n the Hel-  education. The  l i n e which the H e l l e n i s t i c  s t u d i e s took  grammatical and p h i l o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than  the higher  schools  minds a l s o o c c u p i e d *  fur-  opposition to the teachings  distrust  in  they  w i t h t h a t i n grammar.  a little  thus,  literary  on s u c c e s s i v e d a y s o r on m o r n i n g s a n d  not  lenic  of a  together  among t h e Romans most d r e a d e d .  heels  and higher ed-  were  conservative  without  the  as w e l l as  i n declamation  t h e " r h e t o r e s " b u t i t s h o u l d be n o t e d  literature  (iv),  us t h a t the e a r l y r h e t o r s a l t e r n a t e d t h e i r  T h e r e was, n e e d l e s s , t o s a y , of  Grammaticis"  As Sue-  a n d o f t h e " r h e t o r e s " were n o t a t  u c a t i o n were n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d character  sec-  o r what was t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f o u r c o l l e g e  e d u c a t i o n , was summed u p b y t h e one w o r d " o r a t o r y " . tonius  15,  V. MIL. 4ULW" 0  i t was r h e t o r i c a l .  i n Rome was,  a e s t h e t i c , and  The more  ambitious  themselves with p h i l o s o p h i c a l questions.  16.. ;  The education which-had  or culture, i n the Roman  sense, f o r i t s aim was f i n a l l y established about 128 B. C. The f i r s t formal Instruction i n L a t i n rhetoric and oratory by a Roman was given about 128 B. C., the year we have named.  His name was Lucius Aelius Praeconinus of Lanuvium.  But i t i s only as a purely L a t i n "rhetor" that we can c a l l him the f i r s t , f o r Greek rhetors had taught long before  this.  The continued dominance of education by oratory, though both L a t i n and Greek l i t e r a t u r e had now become f a i r l y w e l l established as a part of the ordinary i n s t r u c t i o n both i n the grammar and r h e t o r i c a l schools, i s noteworthy.. The acquisit i o n of rhetoric s t i l l governed those studies which were p r i marily intended to c u l t i v a t e the humanity of the p u p i l "more Graecorum" f o r oratory was not only a mark of culture but p r i marily a weapon of offence and defence.-K  The young Roman  had at a l l times to prepare himself f o r speech i n the forum or the senate.  Thus true to i t s own i n s t i n c t s d i d Rome remain  even when the narrow ancient l i f e was beginning to disappear. It i s true that the "XII Tabulae" were no longer used as a text-book, that the o l d domestic education was maintaining i t s e l f with d i f f i c u l t y , and that Latin and. Greek l i t e r a t u r e now formed the basis of a l l education; but the chief aim of the l i t e r a r y education was always oratory, not pure l i t e r a t u r e . •The study of r h e t o r i c , as c o n s t i t u t i n g the highest  education  .I'Oratio. omnium rerum regina," says Pacuvius (apud Hon. 113, 32),—as,, quoted by Lewis and Short, "A Hew L a t i n Dictionary"  17. of youth, was of a man,  regarded as not merely e s s e n t i a l to the  formation  "ingenuus et l i b e r a l l t e r educatus", but above a l l as  the road to influence, power, and public employment. A more serious consequence of the> attention paid to rheto r i c , and with i t oratory, may  be noticed.  Rhetoric was  natu-  r a l l y only studied by those whose position and ambition l e d them to aim at taking an active part i n public l i f e , and with a view to t h i s at winning d i s t i n c t i o n i n the lav/-courts or i n the popular assembly.  Hence the f i s s u r e was  always widening  between the culture open to the mass of the people, and that enjoyed by the upper classes.  The e a r l i e r education had been  meagre and narrow, but at least i t had been the same for a l l ; the newer culture was  the p r i v i l e g e of a c l a s s .  suspected and d i s l i k e d what they knew was  The  plebeians  not for them, and  both the training and the l i t e r a t u r e which resulted from the "new  culture' never wholly l o s t something of an exclusive 1  exotic character.  and  • • _.  Then too there was  the exclusive "humanitas" which devel-  oped I t s e l f i n education  along side of the simpler or special  t r a i n i n g ; t h i s eradicated the l a s t remnants of the old s o c i a l equality.  The new  idea of "humanity" consisted partly of a  more or less s u p e r f i c i a l appropriation of the aesthetic culture of the Hellenes, p a r t l y of p r i v i l e g e d L a t i n culture as an imitation or mutilated copy of the Greek. In spite of these disadvantages, however, we r e c a l l that i t was that we  to the Hellenic v i c t o r y over the old Roman education owe  Oicero, V e r g i l , Lucretius, and a l l that b r i l l i a n t  18.  /Crowd: of literary" -men who adorned the l a s t century of the Re:pu"blic: and the beginnings of the Empire. Caesar, and after him Augustus, encouraged and protected the "professors" of every art, and many now took to l i t e r a t u r e and philosophy as the occupation of men to whom, under an imp e r i a l system, the highest p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y was no longer -openv.-••While,,- therefore, we may regret with: Cato, and at a l a t e r date Tacitus^ the decay of the old Roman t r a i n i n g , we must recognise the necessity of the Hellenic invasion i f a larger conception of the ends of education and o f - l i f e was ever to ^animate the Roman min dy  The importance of t h i s i n the f u t -  ure history of the world i s beyond our power of estimating, for i t was under Roman protection and under Imperial power that a l l the nobler arts of l i f e were assured of recognition and encouragement i n every corner of the c i v i l i s e d world, .. . And yet: i t was-impossible to turn a Roman into a Greek, He remainedfrothe l a s t prosaic and p r a c t i c a l .  The Hellenized  few to whom culture pure and simple was-an aim, formed a kind of I n t e l l e c t u a l aristocracy.  Even i n the time of Augustus  we f i n d Horace -x f u l l y recognising the difference between the Roman, and Greek mind, just as we f i n d the same recognition i n Cicero. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note how important knowledge of the Greek language had become.  Without Greek, everybody confessed  that, a h a l f (probably more) of the world's entire wit and wis-  *  "De Arte Poetica", 325 f .  dom^ was  l o c k e d avfay,. W i t h o u t Greek n o t m e r e l y must a man  re-  f u s e t o c l a i m the l e a s t r e a l c u l t u r e ; he was h a n d i c a p p e d i n a l l the p r o f e s s i o n s and i n most forms of b u s i n e s s .  He  have no commercial d e a l i n g s -with the L e v a n t .  travelled  I f he  could  anywhere; e a s t -of the A d r i a t i c , he /could h a r d l y make h i m s e l f understood  o u t s i d e of the governor's  p r a e t o r i a and the camps.  Even i n t o the l i t e r a r y L a t i n t h e r e had c r e p t an enormous number, Of Greek "..terms,, m o s t l y , h a v i n g t o do v f i t h "matters Of  learn-  'ing. or luscary,, I n s h o r t , w i t h o u t the m a s t e r y of Greek; a Roman of any a m b i t i o n was h o p e l e s s l y l o s t . the advantage, of knovfing how  I n s p i t e , however, of  t o r e a d and speak. Greek, i t -would  ^appear t h a t vthe knowledge; of, t ^  language was  not w i d e l y  spread, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West.- Many passages.of" G i c e r o show that; a comprehension of I t by the m a j o r i t y of people -hot: t o be:- presumed.  I n ;the' p r o v i n c e s t h e r e were people:  was who  a c t e d as I n t e r p r e t e r s t o the p r a e t o r s and o t h e r s , as C i c e r o ("in ilia,  C. Verrem" i i i . interpres:  37)  t e l l s us;  "A.  Valentius est In S i c -  quo i s t e i n t e r p r e t e non ad linguam Graecam  sed ad f u r t a , e t f l a g i t i a u t i s o l e b a t . "  G i c e r o was  accustomed,  whehi.he wr'ote anything, i n h i s l e t t e r s w h i c h I f t h e y s h o u l d be b r o k e n open or f a l l i n t o wrong hands he d i d not w i s h t o be .read, t o use the Greek tongue. D u r i n g the f i r s t c e n t u r y A, D., d e c r e a s i n g l y important i n education. the-growth  of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e .  however, Greek became I n p a r t t h i s was  Having  Cicero, Vergil,  due  to  and  Horace, the t e a c h e r no l o n g e r needed t o go t.O. the Greeks f o r models of s t y l e or f o r i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . . A second  20, r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s u s e of Greek was the e x t e n s i o n of the Empire over t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s .  T h i s g r e a t l y I n c r e a s e d t h e number  of t h o s e who sought a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t who h a d no cont a c t w i t h Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n and f o u n d i n t h e language and l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Romans a l l t h e elements n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r ture.  cul-  Thus, w h i l e the " l i b e r a l a r t s " i n h e r i t e d from Greek  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e s t i l l p r o v i d e d the main s u b j e c t s of educat i o n i n the s c h o o l s of t h e Empire, y e t t h e L a t i n language became t h e medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n and the works of L a t i n p o e t s and o r a t o r s the t e x t - b o o k s  employed.  E d u c a t i o n , so f a r as I t commanded p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t , became, under t h e E m p i r e , more and more l i t e r a r y , and came t o be comprehended e n t i r e l y i n t h e work o f t h e grammar and r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s of t h e day, of w h i c h , as we have seen, o r a t o r y was t h e s o l e aim. I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p u r e l y l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r e d u c a t i o n h a d assumed, p r i v a t e and p u b l i c u t i l i t y , c o n t i n u e d t o govern i t .  L i t e r a t u r e , though i n esteem b o t h as  a s t u d y , an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s triune n t , and as a r e c r e a t i o n , was above a l l n e c e s s a r y t o form t h e o r a t o r .  The a t t i t u d e  toward  t h e l i t e r a r y s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n remained t h e same as I t had a l ways been,--one d i d n o t study l i t e r a t u r e t o become a poet or an historian.  L i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e sake of l i t e r a t u r e , a r t f o r the  sake of a r t , were t o t h e Greek f a m i l i a r c o n c e p t i o n s ; and i n h i s s c h o o l s i t was t h e " r e a l " of l i t e r a t u r e , t h e e n r i c h i n g of the mind w i t h noble u t t e r a n c e s and n o b l e forms, w h i c h was always prominent.  I n the case o f the Roman the d i s c i p l i n e of grammar  always took precedence o f t h e l i v i n g s p i r i t o f l i t e r a t u r e  21. w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r , b y a n y means e x t i n g u i s h i n g i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e t h e r e was l i t t l e f o r m a l c h a n g e ,  save  b y way o f I m p r o v e m e n t , b e t w e e n t h e age o f C i c e r o a n d t h a t o f P l i n y and Juvenal, there"was a profound  change i n t h e s p i r i t .  E d u c a t i o n was s t i l l w h o l l y r h e t o r i c a l , b u t i t h a d become ficial, and  critical,  a f f e c t e d , i m i t a t i v e , and m a r k e d b y  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s n o t found  public.  arti-  pedantry  i n t h e l a s t age o f t h e Re-  I n these respects, education  simply p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h a n g e s t h a t h a d come a b o u t i n s o c i e t y . A l l t h a t was a i m e d a t was a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t w o u l d t r a i n t h e mind and form t h e c h a r a c t e r f o r t h e l i f e the upper c l a s s e s .  The l i b e r a l a r t s h a d a l l come t o be  v a t e d a t Rome, b u t n o t b y Romans. pursued. sented  o f a Roman c i t i z e n o f  T h e y w e r e t o be e n j o y e d , n o t  Greek a l i e n s - - v e r y o f t e n s l a v e s or  a l l t h e a r t s , and were h i r e d .  many I n d i v i d u a l e x c e p t i o n s  culti-  freedmen--repre-  Of c o u r s e  t h e r e were  t o t h e Roman v i e w o f a r t a n d t h e  a r t s among t h e Romans t h e m s e l v e s ;  but the general  utilitarian  t e n d e n c y o f t h e Roman mind; a l w a y s c o n t i n u e d i n e v i d e n c e . H e l l e n i c , i d e a l ;of a c u l t u r e d m a n - - c u l t u r e d culture--was h e a r t e d way.  never accepted  ian  f o r t h e sake o f  b y t h e Roman, s a v e i n a h a l f -  I n d e e d , he h a d g r e a t contempt, and w i t h good  r e a s o n , f o r much o f t h e p r o d u c t lively  The  of t h e H e l l e n i c  system.  G r e e k who f r e q u e n t e d t h e s t r e e t s o f Rome a n d o t h e r  The Ital-  t o w n s , a n d who i n h i s e a s y s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e was r e a d y t o  talk,  and t o t a l k w e l l ,  on a n y s u b j e c t a n d i n f a v o u r  s i d e , was a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e Roman t y p e that s e r i o u s view of l i f e  of any  of c h a r a c t e r , and t o  w h i c h h a d made t h e Roman a n d w h i c h  22.  seemed s t i l l : to survive i n spite of growing luxury, an enfeebled public s p i r i t , and a decaying morality, : As, for the administration of education under the Empire, the custom became more and more prevalent of education being supported by the State, by municipal grants, or by endowments given by private benefactors.  Government support soon brought  about government control, and Roman education, which began by being wholly a matter for the i n d i v i d u a l father of the family, ended i n both schools and teachers being under the absolute authority of the state. SOURCES OP  Of the content of early education, the surviv-  INPORMATrOH  fng fragments of the "XII' Tabulae" form the  most important  single source,  A second source i s the biogra-  p h i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l material r e l a t i n g to the early Roman heroes,  This material performed the same service for the Ro-  mans as did the Homeric poems for the Greeks.  I t i s character-  i s t i c of the p r a c t i c a l nature of Roman l i f e and education that these stories, whether truth or f i c t i o n , should relate to actual meh> n o t to gods or demi-gods, :  Such ideals,could be imitated,  and so appealed to the conscience as well as to the imagination of the child;. A t h i r d source of information concerning early Roman education i s found i n the references to works of t h i s period no longer extant.  The most important of such works i s the lost  t r e a t i s e , "De L i b e r i s Educandls", by Cato, which according to Q u i n t i l i a n was the e a r l i e s t work on Roman education.  A further  source i s found i n extracts from authors of a later period,  23.  presenting the i d e a l s , methods, or subject-matter of education of these e a r l i e r days.  Such references, though b r i e f , are num-  erous; they cannot, however, be altogether trusted, for we  do  not know how far the traditions they recount are accurate representations of the past.  In some cases we know that these  references are coloured by the usage of later times, and therefore may  often be misleading; nevertheless, certain inferences  may with some confidence be drawn from them. Of the late Republican and Imperial periods there are numerous extant sources. throughout  Scattered references to education appear  the Roman writers, but more extended descriptions  are found i n the following works: Cicero:  "De  Martial: Pliny:  Oratore", "De  Republica".  "Epigrammata".  "Epistulae"..  Quintilian: Seneca:  O f f i c i i s " , "De  "De  Institutione Oratoria."  "Epistulae Morales".  Suetonius:  "De I l l u s t r i b u s Grammaticis", "De C l a r i s Rhetoribus'J  Tacitus:.. "Dialogus de Oratoribus". Because of the loss of such books as Cato's "De Educandis"  Liberis  and Varro's " L i b r i Disciplinarum", the writings of  Q u i n t i l i a n are a l l the more valuable.  From h i s "De  Institutione  Oratoria" we can learn both what the Romano-Hellenic education was i n i t s inner workings, and also what, i n h i s opinion, i t ought to have been. In connection with a l l our authorities i t must be noted that they are limited almost e n t i r e l y to the training given to  24.  c h i l d r e n of the r i c h e r classes.. We have only s l i g h t and casual references t o the education of the poor. the.  P a r t l y t h i s i s due to  e f f e c t which a system of s l a v e r y always has i n depressing  the s t a t u s of manual l a b o u r e r s .  P a r t l y t o o , as we have seen  already, because there was l i t t l e i n the higher education, as i t then was, t o appeal t o the needs or t a s t e s of the plebeian. I t was intended e i t h e r as a t r a i n i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l l i f e or as an amusement f o r l e i s u r e hours, and from n e i t h e r point of view was i t of any s e r v i c e t o the great mass of the population. There was never anything approaching a n a t i o n a l education at Rome. Then again we have l i t t l e or no i n f o r m a t i o n as to the country d i s t r i c t s .  Hence a l l t h a t we can do is. sketch out the  course of education most u s u a l w i t h the c h i l d r e n of the more p r i v i l e g e d classes,-and t o remember that the great bulk of the population, even i n Rome I t s e l f , and much more i n the r u r a l parts, of I t a l y , had a t r a i n i n g which f e l l f a r short of t h i s both i n range and d u r a t i o n . PLAH OP  I n t r a c i n g the h i s t o r i c a l development of Roman  OUR STUDY  education we d i d not undertake t o go i n t o any  great amount of d e t a i l but r a t h e r t o give a comprehensive i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the educational system.  We s h a l l go on to  look a t the education r e c e i v e d i n the home previous t o the school entrance age and then proceed t o discuss the three stages of education, namely, the t r a i n i n g , given by the- " l u d i magister", the "gr animations ', and the " r h e t o r " . 1  In making  25. a s t u d y of each of these c l a s s e s of t e a c h e r s and t h e i r s c h o o l s we  s h a l l emphasize the c u r r i c u l u m , methods of t e a c h i n g , and  e x e r c i s e s of the p u p i l s ; such m a t t e r s as s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , h o u r s , h o l i d a y s , d i s c i p l i n e , the p o s i t i o n of t e a c h e r s and s a l a r i e s , we  s h a l l survey i n a c h a p t e r by t h e m s e l v e s .  I n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e " c o l l e g e " e d u c a t i o n of the " r h e t o r " we i n c l u d e the study of p h i l o s o p h y and " s t u d y  thei:  shall  abroad".  I n our c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r the endowment and g r a d u a l assumption of c o n t r o l of e d u c a t i o n by the s t a t e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h a l o n g w i t h the ( c l a s s i c a i y a ^ e a d e n c e of Roman e d u c a t i o n .  CHAPTER I I . INFANCY  HOME EDUCATION  • In practice the charge . of a? c h i l d i n i t s e a r l i e r  years doubtless f e l l to I t s mother.  And the Roman matrons,in  the early days of the Republic p a r t i c u l a r l y , were not unworthy as a rule to discharge t h i s duty.  They shared with their hus-  bands the rule of the house, and though l e g a l l y their subordinates and as much " i n manu eorum" as daughters, were i n their own sphere acknowledged as their equals. marriage expressed t h i s c l e a r l y :  The formula used i n  "ubi tu Gaius, ego Gaia."  Thus i f the mother had not by law a "potestas" l i k e that of the father, which In the nature of things could not be divided, yet the "mos maiorum" gave her an authority which i n practice may have been-hardly :  less.  -The severe d i s c i p l i n e and magis-  t e r i a l authority of the father, therefore, were  supplemented  by the milder moral influence of the mother and notwithstanding the harsh power, which amongst the Romans the "paterfamilias" possessed over h i s " f a m i l l a " , a l l h i s paternal r i g h t s were not exercised capriciously or without the approval of the f a n i l y "consilium";.  That the :mother d i d not give up her share of rule  in: the house, especially i n the country, i s evident from such a passage as this from Horace ("Carm." i i i . .  " „.. rusti.corum mascula militum Proles, Sabellis docta ligonibus Versare glaebas, et severae Matris ad arbitrium.reelsos Portare fustes, ..."  6. 37 f . ) :  27. .In,  the  a gravity, try  Roman mother, there-- was u s u a l l y :  an. i n d u s t r y ,  whi ch f i t t e d h e r  b r i n g up w o r t h y tor,  and a d e v o t i o n t o h e r f a m i l y  t o be -the: h e a d  citizens..  i n practice  ("in  educatos  direct  the  b r o u g h t up  ... m a t r i s " ,  e a r l y days  was  that  desired  From one  Gic. "Brutus"  a Roman m o t h e r was,  that  the rudiments  system  moralize  of the g r a v e s t a n x i e t i e s  slavery  o f the  of l a t e r  the  direc-  of her knee"  LVIII). or no  i n early  days  t h e number  and  of t h e i r  had f a l l e n sacrifice  gangs o f b a r b a r o u s victorious  ex-  t e n d s so much t o  de-  The  or e v e n t h e  or e l s e  i n later  been c o m p e l l e d by  T h e r e were a s y e t none  captives,  swept o f f t o Rome a f t e r  t h e r e t o be  much  treated  debt  of - t h o s e  little Nor  of t h o s e t r o o p s o f h o u s e h o l d s l a v e s ,  bred  citizens  freedom.  campaigns,  learnt  foster-  t h e y were  t h a n b r u t e b e a s t s , w i t h whom t h e y were c l a s s e d , t h e r e y e t any  Romans  " v e r n a e " , b o r n and  i n t o m i s f o r t u n e , and had  their  to  she must  o f s l a v e s a t Rome was  o f t e n the playmates young m a s t e r s ;  days  over i t b i t t e r l y ,  .What t h e r e were, were e i t h e r  the house,  we  c u r s e o f an  slave-owners.  t h e b e s t o f them l a m e n t e d  But  brothers  of d o m e s t i c  the c h i l d r e n  and  smaller,  her  to  they should receive.  that  to  and  o f s u c h e d u c a t i o n as  tensive  who  coun-  as a r u l e , w e l l a b l e  the f a t a l  in  and  "on i t s m o t h e r ' s  h a v e b e e n i n a g r e a t measure f r e e ,  days.  dignity  of the R e p u b l i c t h e r e i s l i t t l e  give her c h i l d r e n at least  this,  a  e v i d e n c e a s t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t s o f t h e women, b u t  cannot doubt  it  was  as w e l l as i n name, o f t h e a f f a i r s  So t h e c h i l d was  For  of a'household,  The: "mater f a m i 11 as"  household. gremio  a purity,  one  of  better were  still  more  28. corrupting i n t h e i r influence, who  later on were the tools of  a senseless luxury, and who under the varnish of culture were f a m i l i a r with the worst vices of the East.  Thus i t was  no  doubt far easier to t r a i n children to a l i f e of virtue and s e l f - c o n t r o l amid the plainness and g r a v i t y of the early Republic than i n the luxurious and extravagant households of later days. •  ...  >N-or-;.must i t be forgotten, that i n the house f a r more of  r e a l family l i f e occurred, and that a more strong and sacred band bound together the d i f f e r e n t members of the house amongst the Romans than amongst the Greeks. was  The chief cause of t h i s ,  the higher dignity of the housewife, whose influence as-  serted i t s e l f happily i n the education.of the children, not only as a mother during their e a r l i e s t years, but also i n superintending them during their riper years. The eulogy which Tacitus ("Agricola" iv) bestows on the mother of Agricola, i n a sadly - degenerate age P r o c i l l a f u l t rarae c a s t i t a t i s :  (mater I u l i a  i n huius sinu indulgentiaque  edUcatnsy '-per onmera rionestarum artiura cultum pueritiam adolescentiamque transegit) carries us back to the oldest and better days of the Republic.  In comparing the mother of h i s own  day  to that of the "good old Republican days" Tacitus ("Dialogus de Oratoribus" x x v i i i ) gives us h i s ideals of what a mother should be v "lam primum, suus cuique f i l i u s , ex casta parente  natus,  non i n c e l l a emtae n u t r i c i s , sed gremio ac sinu matris educabatur, cuius praecipua laus er.at, t u e r i domum. et inservire  29. liberis." Plutarch's  s p e c i a l mention  ("Cato M a i o r "  xx) o f Cato's  son b e i n g n u r s e d a n d tended by h i s mother i s another  example  •i  of  t h e g r e a t I m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on m o t h e r h o o d .  tory,  t h e n , g i v e s u s few e x a m p l e s  their  power o v e r  has  children,  b e e n made, we must r e f l e c t  seldom sons  their  mentioned,  I f Roman h i s -  o f c e l e b r a t e d women, a n d like  that  those  t o which reference  s u c h r e l a t i o n s were  and o n l y I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h conspicuous  and e v e n t s ; b u t from  t h o s e few we may u n d e r s t a n d  e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the h o u s e h o l d r e l a t i o n s . FUTRIX during  The m a t e r n a l t h e days  t h a n any o t h e r c i v i l i z e d attention  children  she  d i d n o t hand over In  Latin  that  In this respect  n a t i o n of the o l d w o r l d .  but i n the o r d i n a r y care of  the f u l l  literature f o r each  lasted  supervision to her.  a r e many p a s s a g e s other by nurse  that  testify  and c h i l d ,  on i n t o manhood a n d womanhood.  genuine  and; h e r c h a r g e s .  f e e l i n g that  t o the  an a f f e c That the  name " m a t e r " was f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n t o t h e n u r s e w o u l d the t r u l y  If,  t h e m o t h e r was o n l y a s s i s t e d b y s u c h a n u r s e ,  affection felt tion  t h e E m p i r e , .the  o f t h e m o t h e r was i m p o s s i b l e , h e r  p l a c e was t a k e n b y a " n u t r i x " ; the  t h e gen-  s u p e r v i s i o n was n o t i n t e r m i t t e d  o f the R e p u b l i c and even i n t o  however, t h e f u l l  per-  -  Romans h a v i n g h e e d e d t h e t e a c h i n g s o f n a t u r e longer  very  indicate  e x i s t e d between t h e " n u t r i x "  I t was . a common t h i n g ,  t o o , f o r t h e young  w i f e t o t a k e i n t o h e r new home, a s h e r a d v i s e r a n d c o n f i d a n t , t h e n u r s e who h a d w a t c h e d over h e r i n i n f a n c y .  Faithfulness  30* on  the  part  of  such  slaves  was  also  frequently  repaid  by  manu-  mission. After do  to  the  select  for  child.might Greek  Punic wars the  were  became  c h i l d ' s  acquire  nurses  i t  the  nurse-  Greek  also  customary a  Greek  language  preferred  as  for  the  slave,  that  naturally  because  of  well-to-  their  the  as  Its  own.  superior  i n -  see  the  telligence. Great children speech ings  and  the  was  sermo  1.  i.  sermoni Filthy  who  and  mothers  their  to  nurses  that  only  correct  Q u i n t i l i a n , g a v e many  providing nurses  had  warn-  whose, m o r a l  sufficient-education  est,  to  be  to  set  chara  good  4:  "Ante  Et  morum  quidem  tameh  etiam  eat  ergo,  checked  because  wordc ;  magho  of  and  i n  haud  dum i n f a n s . q u i d e m  gorxri  was  grown y o u t h ;  a. c e r t a i n  the  were  incdrrcct 111.-  gonoro  c h i l d h o o d was  pudentisslmus"  t e V g i y e n , eYenfto;a  i n his  sit  loquantur."  words  Glorlosuc"  "homlnom o d u c a r o , of  ne  omnia ne  est,  sit."  ("MIlos  IdUn  "pudor"  survived  i .  . . .  recte  Of Ivapropor  Plautuo-  "adolesbens  I.  "Hon assuescat  was  actions.  Laboroa  Oratoria"  dedlscendus  -: " A t i l i a  ing  them  of  nutricibus,  5't  talk  ..... T h e  careful  pronunciation.  and  ratio  qui  influohcb  by  speaking:  prior  •  from  Institutlone.  vitiosus duble  taken  necessity  good,  i n  "De  of  refined  to  .-example  were  should^?learn  as  acter  pains  ot  i n  speech  and t h e r e of  are  at  maxlmio  Rome:  that  signs  childhood,  bad  3ibi."  ot'  praise  a  sayai-  d l v i t i i c  esteemed  highest  shadows as  100):  monumontum  always  s acre dness  1.  the  could  that which  a;feel-  J u v e n a l ( " S a t i r a " x i v . 47 f . ) r e f l e c t s i n h i s famous words: "Maxima debetur puero r e v e r e n t i a . Turpe p a r a s , ne  Si  quid  t u p u e r i c o n t e m s e r i s annos:  '9  Sed p e c c a t u r o o b s t e t t i h i f i l i u s Tacitus  ("De  infans."  Orat." x x v i i i ) t e l l s us t h a t i t was  s e l e c t an e l d e r l y kinswoman of approved and  esteemed  usual  to  character  t o have e n t i r e charge of a l l the c h i l d r e n of the h o u s e h o l d . T h i s p r a c t i c e , which we  are.almost s u r p r i s e d to f i n d  t h i n k s worthy of m e n t i o n , was  Tacitus  p r o b a b l y observed i n cases where  the c h i l d r e n of s e v e r a l sons c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e under the  family  r o o f , or where some h i n d r a n c e k e p t the mother from t a k i n g  the  whole charge h e r s e l f .  Tacitus'  statement g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g  i n s i g h t i n t o the t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d e d the c h i l d r e n and  the  varied  d u t i e s of such a kinswoman: "Ellgebatur  autem a l i q u a maior n a t u p r o p i n q u a , c u i u s  b a t i s spectatisque  pro-  morlbus omnis c u l u s p i a m f a m i l i a e s u b o l e s  c ommi t t e r e t u r , coram qua ne que  d i c e r e f a s e r a t , quod t u r p e  d i c t u , neque f a c e r e , quod Inhonestum f a c t u v i d e r e t u r .  Ac  non,  s t u d i a modo curasque, sed r e m i s s i o n e s e t i a m lususque puerorum, s a n e t i t a t e quadam ac v e r e c u n d i a temperabat. Oracchorum, s i c A u r e l i a m C a e s a r i s , praefuisse cepimus.  s i c Atiam A n g u s t i matrem  e d u c a t i o n ! b u s ac p r o d u x i s s e p r i n c i p e s l i b e r o s acQuae d i s c i p l i n a ac s e v e r i t a s eo p e r t i n e b a t ,  era et Integra, que  Sic Cornellam  natura  s i v e ad rem  ut  sinc-  et n u l l i s p r a v i t a t i b u s d e t o r t a , uniuscuius-  -  toto statim pectore a r r i p e r e t artes honestas, et, m i l i t a r e r a , s i v e ad i u r i s s c i e n t i a m ,  s i v e ad e l o -  quent i a e studium i n c l i n a s s e t , i d solum a g e r e t , I d universum  32.  hauriret." What we have n o t e d t o have been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e m o r a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e home d u r i n g t h e e a r l y Roman p e r i o d c o n t i n u e d even i n t o t h e Empire t o be u s u a l .  More s t r e s s c o n t i n u e d t o be  l a i d upon the m o r a l t h a n upon t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l "Prudentia", "gravitas", " j u s t i t i a " ,  development.  " h o n e s t a s " , "pudor", "con-  s t a n t ! a" , " f o r t i t u d o " , " p a t i e n t i a " , " a b s t i n e n t i a " , " p i e t a s erga p a r e n t e s " , " a m i c ' i t i a " were a l l v i r t u e s w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s s t r o v e to  i n s t i l i n their children.  C i c e r o ("De O f f i c i i s "  ii.  46)  sums up t h e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h would w i n a good r e p u t a t i o n f o r a young man and make him a " v i r bonus" t h u s :  "Prima i g i t u r com-  mendatio p r o f i c i s c i t u r .a m o d e s t i a , turn p i e t a t e i n p a r e n t e s , turn i n suos b e n e v o l e n t i a . "  I t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t he does n o t  l o o k upon t h e s e v i r t u e s as b e i n g more t h a n "prima commendatio" though t h e y were t o f o r m the b a s i s of i d e a l c h a r a c t e r . the  Much o f  m o r a l t r a i n i n g came from the c o n s t a n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f the  c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , w h i c h was the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of the home t r a i n i n g o f t h e Romans as compared w i t h t h a t of  other p e o p l e s o f t h e t i m e .  We may w e l l b e l i e v e , t o o , t h a t  l e s s o n s drawn from t h e s t o r i e s of t h e p a s t and t h e r i c h supply of p r o v e r b i a l s a y i n g s s u p p l i e d t h e m a t e r i a l f o r much of the m o r a l t r a i n i n g o f t h e Roman boy. P l u t a r c h , i n s p e a k i n g o f t h e Importance of m o r a l e d u c a t i o n , p o i n t s out t h a t t h e elements o f v i r t u e a r e l o v e o f honour and f e a r of punishment, and t h a t t h e f a u l t s o f boys a r e , i n t r u t h , t r i f l i n g i n t h e m s e l v e s , and e a s i l y c o r r e c t e d ; b u t i n youths these f a u l t s may grow t o v i c e s .  " C h i l d h o o d i s a tender t h i n g  .  and may e a s i l y be wrought into any shape.  3 3 ,  Yea, and the very  souls of children r e a d i l y receive the impressions of those things that are dropped into them while they are yet but softj but when they grow older" they w i l l , as a l l hard things are, be more d i f f i c u l t to be wrought upon.  And as soft wax i s apt to  take the stamp of the seal, so are the minds of children to receive the; instructions imprinted PRIMARY  on them at-, that age, ' * — 1  The actual "book-learning" of the c h i l d of  - INSTRUCTION  pre-schooT age would of course consist of  reading, writing, and. as ffltick of tke simpler ;  :  arithmetic as children so young could learn.  operations of For these "sub-  jects" ,, then, u n t i l the age of seven, children had their mother as t h e i r teacher.  From her they learned to speak correctly  their native tongue, and Latin rhetors t e l l us that the best Latin was spoken by the-noble women of the great houses of Rome.  The c h i l d was tem-pted to l e a r n by play-things, which  ingenioiisly combined Instruction and amusement.  Ivory l e t t e r s  --probably i n e a r l i e r times a less costly material was used-were put into his hands, just as they are put into the hands of children now-a-days, that he might learn how to form words. As soon as reading a b i l i t y was acquired, he began to learn by heart. I t was a common view that children should have nothing  * As quoted by C. D. Warner, "-Library of the World's Best literature"  p. 11650, from the t r a n s l a t i o n of W. W. Goodwin.  to do: with the l i t e r a r y side of' education: before they were seven years of age„  But Q u i n t i l i a n ("De  Inst. Orat." I. I. 19)  /.;ar^e^;-:;oth.er.wiSe:; "Non^ergo perdamus primum statim tempus, atque eo m i n u s q u o d I n i t i a litterarum sola memoria constant, quae non modo iam est In'parvis^turn etiam tenacissima est." He admits that the c h i l d w i l l not make as much progress during three or four years at this stage as during one year later on. S t i l l , why  should such gain as i s possible before the age of  seven be despised?  I f the c h i l d has got over h i s rudiments by  that time, he w i l l then'be able to-go on to something more d i f ficult .  Children must be doing something as soon as they can  -talk, and why should they not be doing something which w i l l be of use to them afterwards?  Q u i n t i l l a n (I. i . 20-26) goes on,  however, to issue a warning against the use of pressure and suggests means of making learning at an early age pleasant: "Nam  i d In primis cavere Oportebit,. he Studia, qui amare non-  dum potest, oderit xt^ u l t r a rudes annos yw^*^Lusus hie s i t ; et rogetur et laudetur et numquam non f e c i s s e se gaiideat, a l i quando ipso nolente doceatur a l i u s , c u i invideat; contendat interim et saepius vineere se putet; praemiis etiam, quae capit i l i a aetas, evocetur. ...  Non excludo autem, i d quod est i n ~  ventum, virritandae ad discendum infantiae gratia eburneas etiam litterarum-formas; i n lusum -offerre-, vel. s i quid aliud, quo magis I l i a aetas gaudeat, i n v e n i r i potest, quod tractare, i n t u e r i , nominare iucundum s i t . " ("Satira" I. i .  25),  The f a m i l i a r lines of Horace  35.  "  ... l i t p u e r i s olira clant c r u s t u l a b l a n d i  D o c t o r e s , elementa v e l i n t u t d i s c e r e  prima",  p r o b a b l y r e f e r t o t h e same home t e a c h i n g a s t h a t about w h i c h Q u i n t i l l a n speaks. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s I d e a l home .education of the c h i l d o f the R e p u b l i c  and e a r l y Empire we have T a c i t u s ' black, p i c t u r e  of what he a l l e g e s t o have been t h e u s u a l h o m e - l i f e of h i s day? "Atnunc natus i n f a n s d e l e g a t u r  Graeculae a l i c u i a n c i l l a e , c u i  a d i u n g i t u r unus a u t a l t e r ex omnibus s e r v i s , pie rumque v i l i s simus, n e c cuiquam s e r i o m i n i s t e r i o accommodatus.  Horurn f a b u -  l i s e t e r r o r i b u s t e n e r i s t a t i m e t rudes a n i m i imbuuntur; nec quisquam i n t o t a d.omo p e n s ! h a b e t , q u i d coram i n f a n t e domino aut d i c a t , a u t f a c i a t :  quando e t i a m i p s i p a r e n t e s nec p r o b i -  t a t i , neque m o d e s t i a e , p a r v a l o s d i c a c i t a t i \ p e r quae p a u l a t i m que  contemtus.  assuefaciunt,  sed l a s c i v i a e e t  impudent!a i r r e p i t e t s u i a l i e n ! -  lam v e r o p r o p r i a e t p e c u l i a r i a h u i u s u r b i s  v i t i a paene i n u t e r o m a t r i s c o n c i p i m i h i v i d e n t u r , f a v o r e t g l a d i a t o r u m equorumque s t u d i a :  histrionalis  q u i b u s occupatus e t  obsessus animus quantulum l o c i b o n i s a r t i b u s r e l i n q u . i t ? Quotum quernque i n v e n e r i s , q u i domi quicquam a l i u d l o q u a t u r ? "  *  TRAINING.  From about t h e age o f seven the boy g e n e r a l l y  OF GIRLS  passed under the c a r e of r e g u l a r s c h o o l  teachers,  but t h e g i r l remained h e r mother's c o n s t a n t companion. Her s c h o o l i n g was n e c e s s a r i l y c u t s h o r t because the Roman g i r l be~  -x  "De Or a t . " , x x i x . ,  36. Came a  wife  so y o u n g ,  t h e 'meantime t h a t  aha  there  b o o k s do  not  were many' t h i n g s  teach.  "As  to  learn i n  a matter  of  .such . w a s t h e d i s p a r i t y ©oinrnon b e t w e e n the, a g e s of w i f e band t h a t father At  the  and  latter  school  teacher  t h e i r mother's side  learning lessons ing,  and  made.  sewing.  as  By  her  aspire  The  latter noblest  the  of a h o u s e h o l d  ancient  equally h i s father's  he  d i d and  boy,  sharing  except  i n i t he  g o o d o l d customs waned t h i s  of  It s t i l l  Roman t r a i n i n g .  slaves.  his  during  the  t o be  companionship  remained  one  E v e n a man  t o be  the  home-  into a l l place  a Roman  "ma-  could  of  by  of f a t h e r s  of the  worthiest  guidance  pater  a principiis  B.McDaniel,"Roman Private Life  and  As  what the  somewhat features criticized  of p a i d  spem de  was  seeing  duties.  emphasizes the  nato f i l i o  school,  o f h i g h r a n k was  sons t o o much t o the  "igitur  hours  companion, and  quam optimam c a p i a t , i t a d i l i g e n t i o r  W.  weav-  to take her  learned h i s future  Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . i . 1)  companionship:  *  fitted own,  n  world.  BOYS  left  of  found  daughter i n i t i a t e d  of her  OF  waned a l s o b u t  a sort  s i n c e most of  families was:likely  The  i f he  t o be  most d i g n i f i e d p o s i t i o n t o w h i c h a woman  i n the  hus~  t o h i s mate."  were i m p o r t a n t  TRAINING  of the  spouse  of h o u s e h o l d economy and  the m i s t r e s s the  as  d a u g h t e r s were u s u a l l y  m o t h e r t h e n was  mysteries  trona",  as w e l l  as  and  of c o n d u c t , h o u s e management^ s p i n n i n g ,  c l o t h i n g even i n the  the  o f t e n began h i s m a r r i e d l i f e  fact,  tutors  or  father-son illo  primum  flet."  I t s S u r v i v a l s " , p.  74.  37, v./'H-orape.; .(-"Satv',..];;.. i v . .103-0.29) gives us a picture of h i s 1  father's care and s a c r i f i c e for the. education of h i s son;- the opening of t h i s passage reveals r e a l f e e l i n g : •\  " . . i . i n sue v i t pater" optimus hoc me,"  :Many: scenes of c h i l d - l i f e depicted on sarcophagi and other works of art give similar pleasing evidence of the interest taken by parents i n the d a i l y occupations of t h e i r children. . I f the father was. a farmer, as a l l Romans were i n e a r l i e r times, the boy helped i n the f i e l d s and learned to plow, plant and reap.  I f the father was a man of high p o s i t i o n and l i v e d  'CITIZENSHIP V-  i n the Capital the lad, standing by h i s  father's "solium", would receive h i s f i r s t lessons i n law, i n p o l i t i c s , and i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l usages when the c l i e n t s , the dependants of the house, trooped into the "atrium" i n the early morning hours to pay their respects to their patron or to ask h i s advice and assistance i n their a f f a i r s .  When the  h a l l was thrown open and high f e s t i v a l was held, the l a d would also be present and hear the talk over the questions of the day or the great.traditions of the past. Even when the father dined abroad i t was usual for h i s young sons to accompany him, and either at the common table or at small tables of their own to hear whatever might be discussed. The boy would also l i s t e n to and sometimes take part i n the songs, celebrating: great heroes, which were sung at such banquets.  How the reverence always f e l t to be due to the young  tended, to check any possible license of speech i s shown by the words of old Cato:  "disgraceful language i s no less to be  38. a v o i d e d when a boy i s t h e r e , t h a n i f the Sacred. V i r g i n s were present."* On g r e a t  o c c a s i o n s , when the c a b i n e t s i n the " a t r i u m "  opened and t h e wax b u s t s ' of t h e a n c e s t o r s  were  d i s p l a y e d , the boy  w o u l d always be p r e s e n t t o l e a r n the h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s of the f a m i l y of w h i c h he was a p a r t , and w i t h i t the h i s t o r y o f Rome and i t s n a t i o n a l h e r o e s .  When the body of some famous  s o l d i e r or statesman was c a r r i e d o u t s i d e t h e w a l l s t o be b u r i e d or b u r n t , he w o u l d be taken t o h e a r the o r a t i o n pronounced over the b i e r . ** F o r a p e r i o d , t o o , i f we may b e l i e v e a q u a i n t s t o r y , sons e n j o y e d the p r i v i l e g e o f a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s of the senate w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s a n d . l i s t e n i n g t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n s t h e r e and so becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p o l i c i e s o f the s t a t e .  But t h i s  had t o be stopped, we a r e t o l d , because mothers t r i e d t o make t h e i r boys d i v u l g e t h e s e c r e t s of t h e s e s s i o n s .  The s o n , o f  c o u r s e , w o u l d r e g u l a r l y be t a k e n t o the forum when h i s f a t h e r was an advocate o r concerned i n a p u b l i c t r i a l .  And so i n  t h i s i n f o r m a l b u t v e r y e f f e c t i v e manner he l e a r n t t h e p r a c t i c a l duties of c i t i z e n s h i p . RELIGION  I f i t was the duty o f the f a t h e r t o a c t as  p r i e s t i n some temple of the S t a t e  ( f o r t h e p r i e s t s were n o t a  c l a s s a p a r t from t h e i r f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s ) , o r t o conduct the  * As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 13. P o l y b i n s , v i . 53,  39. w o r s h i p i n some c h a p e l of the f a m i l y , the l a d would a c t as " c a m i l l u s " o r a c o l y t e and so l e a r n the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l , t h e f a i t h f u l d i s c h a r g e of w h i c h would secure the f a v o u r of the gods '9  and t h e b a l d legends connected w i t h i t .  T h i s r i t u a l and l e g -  end he was X*) duty hound t o hand on t o h i s sons i n t u r n .  Thus  a hoy's r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s were a l s o l e a r n t a t h i s f a t h e r ' s s i d e . P r u d e n t i u s , a l a t e L a t i n poet who was a C h r i s t i a n , desc r i b e s g r a p h i c a l l y ("Contra Symmachi Orationem" i .  197-218)  how c h i l d r e n from t h e i r e a r l i e s t y e a r s were . f a m i l i a r ' w i t h t h e . r i t e s o f paganism.  The young h e i r w o r s h i p p e d whatever h i s  g r e y - h a i r e d a n c e s t o r s h a d p o i n t e d out as worthy of h i s r e v e r ence; he saw the h e a r t h and i t s gods d a i l y honoured w i t h v o t i v e perfume.  He.became imbued w i t h t h e s p i r i t of h i s c r e e d l o n g  b e f o r e he m a r v e l l e d a t t h e splendour  of the worship  of the  I m p e r i a l c i t y , . a n d l e a r n e d t o count a l l t h i n g s t r u e w h i c h the Senate h e l d as t r u t h .  These statements were made of a. l a t e r  time b u t we need n o t doubt t h a t what was b e s t i n the o l d Roman r e l i g i o n was due t o the home.  Indeed, u n t i l t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  of the Greek p h i l o s o p h y , w i t h I t s v a r i o u s systems o f reasoned m o r a l s , t h e r e was no r e l i g i o n or m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n anywhere e l s e b u t i n t h e home.  I t i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t o say  t h a t t h i s r e l i g i o u s s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n was an e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r a c t i c e o f c u l t , and n o t i n any k i n d of c r e e d or i d e a about the gods; b u t so f a r as i t went i t s i n f l u e n c e was good, as i n s t i l l i n g the h a b i t o f r e v e r e n c e and the sense of duty from a v e r y e a r l y age.  40. PHYSICAL  Under t h e R e p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o  TRAINING  a l l the t r a i n i n g mentioned, as every Roman was  b r e d a s o l d i e r , another duty of the f a t h e r -was t o t r a i n , h i s son i n t h e use of arms and i n the v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y  exercises,  as w e l l as i n the manly s p o r t s o f r i d i n g , swimming, w r e s t l i n g , t h r o w i n g t h e - j a v e l i n , and b o x i n g .  I n these e x e r c i s e s b o d i l y  s t r e n g t h and a g i l i t y were k e p t i n view, r a t h e r than t h e grace of movement and s y m m e t r i c a l development of form, on which the Greeks l a i d so much s t r e s s .  Under t h e Empire c o m p l a i n t s were  made t h a t t h e s t u r d y t r a i n i n g t o endure h a r d s h i p s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w a r f a r e was d i s a p p e a r i n g from H e l l e n i c e f f e m i n a c y ; that "  ... n e s c i t equo r u d i s  Haerere  ingenuus  ' Venarique  puer,  timet; ludere doctior,  Sen Graeco i u b e a s t r o c h o , Seus m a i l s v e t i t a l e g i b u s a l e a . " Quintilian (I. i .  *  6 ) makes an i n t e r e s t i n g remark as t o  what the I d e a l p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be w i t h a view t o -bringing u p t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the b e s t way:  " I n parentibus  v e r o quam plurimum esse e r u d i t i o n i s o p t a v e r i m , nec de p a t r i b u s tantum 1oquor."  I n another passage he e n j o i n s p a r e n t s t o be  c a r e f u l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n and i n t h e i r c h o i c e  * Horace, "Odes" i i i ,  24. 54 f ,  41. of  "paedagogi",  * and t e a c h e r s .  He a l s o a d v i s e s a g a i n s t  g r u d g i n g e x p e n d i t u r e on so i m p o r t a n t a m a t t e r as e d u c a t i o n and u r g e s a l l p a r e n t s t o take an i n t e r e s t i n what t h e i r dren a r e l e a r n i n g .  chil-  Of course p u b l i c o p i n i o n s t r o n g l y condemned  p a r e n t s who d e n i e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t l e a s t a l i t t l e s c h o o l i n g , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t w h o l l y i l l i t e r a t e PAEDAGOGUS  persons were r a r e .  A t about t h e age o f seven hoys p a s s e d out o f  the care of women s l a v e s i n t o t h a t o f men.  I t h a d l o n g been  the custom i n Greece f o r hoys t o be p l a c e d under t h e charge of  s l a v e - t u t o r s , c a l l e d "paedagogi".  P l a u t u s ("Bacchld.es"  iii.  I n Rome even as e a r l y as  3 ) and Terence ("Phormio" I . 2) we  f i n d t h e Greek word i n u s e .  But soon i t came t o be t h e r e c o g -  n i z e d term, a n d we f i n d i t r e g u l a r l y i n use under t h e Empire. I t i s o f t e n used, i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and i t i s q u i t e r e g u l a r i n Quintilian. The "paedagogus" was u s u a l l y an e l d e r l y man, s e l e c t e d f o r his  good c h a r a c t e r and t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s and e x p e c t e d t o keep t h e  boy out of a l l harm, m o r a l x-* as w e l l as p h y s i c a l , and l o o k a f t e r h i s manners.  * P l i n y ("Ep". i i i .  Too o f t e n , however, s l a v e s were a s s i g n e d  3) gives s i m i l a r advice:  " c u i i n hoc l u b -  r i c o a e t a t i s non p r a e c e p t o r modo, sed c u s t o s e t i a m r e c t o r q u e quaerendus e s t . " >&* T h i s assignment of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e boy's morals t o t h e "paedagogus" came t o be an inducement t o some p a r e n t s t o renounce t h e i r proper work of s u p e r v i s i o n .  AD LTJDTJM to  these  duties  work.  As  (I.  i .  8) h a s  aut  sint  e r u d i t i  non  esse  eruditos  ing  and  In  who  their a  age  for boy  shrewd  accompanied  i l l - h e a l t h unfitted  remark:  plene,  quam  sciant";  them was  or  i n t e l l e c t u a l  overbearing,  short, The  to  when  and  "a  night him  to  "De  paedagogis  otherwise  l i t t l e and  qualifications  primam esse  teach  them  they  nothing  learning  curam are  but is  a  hoc  amplius,  velim, apt  to  by  his  school,  remained  during  aut he  own  dangerous  attended  other  Quintilian  their  day  for  ut se  assum-  f o l l y . thing."  "paedagogus", the  sessions,  43. and saw hira s a f e l y home a g a i n when s c h o o l was  out.  To a i d the  c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n , Augustus r e s e r v e d f o r the "paedagogi" s p e c i a l s e a t s i n the t h e a t r e , c l o s e t o where the boys s a t . V a r r o (apud I o n . p. "477)*defInes the d u t i e s of the "paedagogus" i n a well-known s a y i n g :  " e d u c i t o b s t e t r i x , educat n u t -  r i x , i n s t i t u i t paedagogus, docet m a g l s t e r . "  The scope of h i s  r e g u l a r d u t i e s i s c l e a r l y shown by the L a t i n words used sometimes i n s t e a d of "paedagogus": " m o n i t o r " , end " r e c t o r " . "dominus". .  " p e d i s e q u u s " , "comes", " c u s t o s , "  He was a d d r e s s e d by h i s ward as  '  I t was n o t t h e duty of these men t o g i v e  instruction,  d e s p i t e the meaning of the E n g l i s h d e r i v a t e s , except perhaps, i n some c a s e s , i n q u i t e the elements of e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r the l e a r n i n g of Greek became g e n e r a l a Greek s l a v e , who knew somet h i n g , and o f t e n a good d e a l , o f Greek l i t e r a t u r e , was  usually  s e l e c t e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n i n order t h a t the boy might not f o r g e t what he had l e a r n e d from h i s n u r s e and might l e a r n t o . speak and r e a d the Greek  language.  I n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r charges these men  sometimes had t o  depend on c o r p o r a l punishment, by means o f w h i c h t h e y seem t o have had the r i g h t t o compel obedience, r a t h e r than upon m o r a l s u a s i o n ; f o r the boys soon l e a r n e d the n o r m a l Roman's i l l c o n c e a l e d contempt f o r the people a c r o s s "the A d r i a t i c .  Thus  the Roman boy was i n t h e anomalous p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o subm i t t o c h a s t i s e m e n t from" men whom as men he d e s p i s e d .  * As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 42,  44. The duties of the "paedagogus" ceased when the boy assumed the "toga v i r i l i s " , but often the same warm a f f e c t i o n between them as between the woman and her nurse.'  continued  The reward of  the attendant, when his task was completed, was usually h i s freedom. In a wealthy house each g i r l as w e l l as the boys would have a "paedagogus" assigned to her.  Sometimes, but less com-  monly, an old female slave acted as the escort and governess of a girl. Boys of good p o s i t i o n were followed to school not only by the "paedagogus" but also by a "capsarius" , * a slave whose duty i t was to carry the "capsa", a c y l i n d r i c a l box containing the r o l l of books needed for study, and the tablets for writing on. Many a boy, however, had no "capsarius", and carried h i s own bag, as Horace ("Sat," i . 6. 74) says of the centurions' sons: "Laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto." Q u i n t i l i a n (I. 1, 11) mentions a knowledge of correct language expression as being very important  i n any companion:  " S i taraen non continget, quales maxime velim nutrices, pueros, paedagogos habere, at unus certe s i t assiduus loquendi non im~ peritus, qui, s i qua erunt ab his praesente ose, corrigat protinus nec insidere i l l i  *  Juvenal, "Satira" x. 117:  alumno dicta v i t i -  sinat."  "Quem sequitur custos angustae  vernula capsae". Suetonius, "Hero" xxxvi: et capsariis uno prandio  "Constat, quosdam cum paedagogis necatos."  CHAPTER I I I ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Children were sent to the "ludus raagistri" or "Indus l i t t e r a t i " * at ahout the age of seven and usually spent some five years on the elementary subjects,--reading, writing, and a r i t h metic.  Both Horace and M a r t i a l give us pictures of the elem-"  entary type of school but their references are to such things as the d i s c i p l i n e , school hours, and holidays, rather than to the subject matter and teaching methods which we are to consider i n this p a r t of our study. do make reference to the "ludus  The few other writers who raagistri"  have mentioned, f o r  the most part, only such matters as do Horace and M a r t i a l . And so, after a l l that has been written on Roman education, the precise d e t a i l s of work i n the elementary schools are by no means c e r t a i n save i n so f a r as Q u i n t i i i a n , i n outlining the education of an orator, discusses the f i r s t stages of education.  We must  not, however, b e l i t t l e what Q u l n t i l i a n has l e f t us for he did not consider i t below h i s dignity to give h i s advice on the teaching of the elementary .subjects i n their e a r l i e s t  stages  with the r e s u l t that we have many very i n t e r e s t i n g remarks on "methods." The work of the "ludus" no doubt varied a great deal from  * A wealthy father, of course, might, by providing a private tutor, see h i s son-through'his-whole education at home.  46.  time t o time as i t has done I n our own p r e s e n t day s c h o o l s and depended on t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r . READING-  Under t h e R e p u b l i c books seem t o have been s c a r c e  and c o s t l y .  I f any books a t a l l were u s e d i n the elementary  s c h o o l s , t h e p u p i l s must have made them f o r themselves ing  from t h e t e a c h e r ' s d i c t a t i o n .  a matter  of much importance  by w r i t -  D i c t a t i o n t h e r e f o r e became  f o r by means o f i t s e l e c t poems  c o u l d be w r i t t e n down and l e a r n e d by h e a r t when t h e complete works o f t h e p o e t s c o u l d n o t be h a d .  The poor t e a c h e r might  have a few musty r o l l s of papyrus w h i c h h i s charges would be a l l o w e d t o handle  g i n g e r l y , b u t "Readers"  as u n d e r s t o o d i n  l a t e r y e a r s were unknown. Books c o n t i n u e d s c a r c e and c o s t l y u n t i l t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l a r g e o r g a n i s a t i o n s of c o p y i n g s l a v e s . c o p y i s t s books were produced  By means o f these  so a b u n d a n t l y t h a t under t h e  Empire they were q u i t e cheap and p l e n t i f u l .  So e v e r y s c h o o l  boy may w e l l have h a d h i s own t e x t - b o o k s c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y , no doubt, of t h e s t a n d a r d p o e t s .  Even when r o l l s became cheap,  however, the p r a c t i c e o f a good d e a l of d i c t a t i o n was kept up, i t b e i n g l a r g e l y p r a c t i s e d w i t h a view t o i m p r o v i n g  spelling.  I n o r a l r e a d i n g g r e a t s t r e s s was l a i d upon t h e importance of a c l e a r and c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n . enough b u t q u a n t i t y was h a r d t o master.  The sounds were easy The t e a c h e r would  pronounce f i r s t s y l l a b l e by s y l l a b l e , t h e n t h e separate words, and f i n a l l y the complete  * The " p r a e l e c t i o " .  sentence, * t h e p u p i l s  pronouncing  47,  a f t e r him a t the t o p s of t h e i r v o i c e s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o the teaching  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s advice  of p r o p e r v o c a l i z a t i o n i s ( I . v i i i .  1, 2 ) : " ... l e c t i o , i n qua puer u t s c i a t , u b i suspendere "f  s p i r i t u m debeat, quo l o c o v e r s u s d i s t i n g u e r e , u b i c l a u d a t u r sensus, unde i n c i p i a t , quando a t t o l l e n d a v e l summittenda s i t vox,  quo quidque f l e x u , q u i d l e n t i u s , c e l e r i u s , c o n c i t a t i u s ,  l e n i u s dicendum, d e m o n s t r a r i n i s i i n opere i p s o non p o t e s t , ... u t omnia I s t a f a c e r e p o s s i t , i n t e l l i g a t .  S i t autem i n  p r i m i s l e c t i o v i r i l i s e t cum s u a v i t a t e quadam g r a v i s e t non quidem prosae s i m i l i s . "  Then of .reading g e n e r a l l y he says  ( I . i . 3 3 ) : " C e r t a s i t ergo i n p r i m i s l e c t i o , deinde  coniuncta  e t d i u l e n t i o r , donee e x e r c i t a t i o n e c o n t i n g a t emendata v e l o c i tas."  T h i s attachment o f so much importance t o r e a d i n g and  the d e s i r e t o have so much care l a v i s h e d on i t was t y p i c a l o f a l l Romans and Greeks. Q u i n t i l l a n d i s a p p r o v e s o f t h e common p r a c t i c e o f c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t h e names and the sequence o f the l e t t e r s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e i r form and f u n c t i o n ; * r e a l l y hinders  he f e e l s t h a t such a method  t h e c h i l d ' s r e c o g n i t i o n of the l e t t e r s when  arranged i n a d i f f e r e n t order.  He p r e f e r s the s y l l a b i c method  * "De I n s t . Orat." I . i . 24, 25:  "Heque enim m i h i i l l u d saltern  p l a c e t , quod f i e r i i n p l u r i m i s v i d e o , u t l i t t e r a r u m nomina e t contextual p r i u s quam formas p a r v u l i d i s c a n t .  Obstat hoc ag-  n i t i o n i earum non i n t e n d e n t i b u s ' m o x animum ad i p s o s d u c t u s , dum anteeedentem memoriam sequuntur."  48. of  l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h w h i c h he says ( I . i . 3 0 )  " S y l l a b i s n u l l u m compendium e s t ; p e r d i s c e n d a e  omnes n e c , u t  f i t plerumque, d i f f i c i l l i m a quaeque earum d i f f e r e n d a , u t i n nominibus s c r i b e n d i s  deprehendantur  How as t o t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f r e a d i n g , - - t h e  original  " f i r s t r e a d e r " , as we have a l r e a d y n o t e d , c o n s i s t e d of the "XII  Tabulae" w i t h r e s p e c t t o w h i c h C i c e r o ("De L e g i b u s " i i .  23) says:  "Discebamus enim p u e r i X I I , u t carmen necessarium: i  quas iam nemo d i s c l t . " Quintillan mer  (I. v i i i .  5) g i v e s v e r y sound reasons why Ho-  and V i r g i l s h o u l d be r e a d even by c h i l d r e n of t h e elementary  s c h o o l age;  "Ideoque optime i n s t i t u t u m e s t , u t ab Homero a t -  que V e r g i l l o l e c t i o i n c i p e r e t , quanquam ad i n t e l l i g e n d a s eorum v i r t u t e s f i r m i o r e i u d i c i o opus e s t ; sed h u i c r e i s u p e r e s t ternpus, . ne que enim semel l e g e n t u r .  Interim et sublimitate heroi  c a r m i n i s animus a d s u r g a t e t ex magnitudine ducat e t o p t i m i s  rerum s p i r i t u m  imbuatur."  Of t h e s e , and such as t h e s e , t h e n , d i d t h e r e a d i n g m a t t e r of t h e Roman boy I n the elementary  school consist.  The sub-  stance of what was r e a d was, of c o u r s e , e x p l a i n e d ' and genera l l y the o l d p r e c e p t was observed: "multum legendum esse, non m u l t a . " xOur d i s c u s s i o n of r e a d i n g would be Incomplete w i t h o u t a word about "memory" t o w h i c h much a t t e n t i o n was p a i d by the Romans.  As w i t h us t h e Ten Commandments a r e l e a r n t by h e a r t ,  * P l i n y , "Ep." v i i . 9.  49. the  " X I I Tabulae" were by the Roman boys.  T r a d i t i o n a l - songs  i n p r a i s e o f h e r o e s were a l s o memorised a n d c h a n t e d , declamat i o n and m o d u l a t i o n o f tone always r e c e i v i n g g r e a t a t t e n t i o n . Then t o o t h e p u p i l s were made t o l e a r n by h e a r t a l l s o r t s of v e r s e s c o n t a i n i n g maxims and p r e c e p t s , many o f w h i c h  ga-eraie  would be t a k e n from t h e i r r e a d i n g . of  Here a r e a few specimens  " s e n t e n t i a e " t a k e n from t h e mimes o f P u b l i u s .Syr us;  i t will  be seen t h a t they convey much shrewd good sense and o c c a s i o n a l l y have t h e t r u e r i n g of humanity as w e l l as t h e f l a v o u r o f Stoic  "sapentia": Avarus i p s e m i s e r i a e causa e s t suae. Audendo v i r t u s c r e s c i t , t a r d a n d o t i m o r . C i c a t r i x conscientiae pro vulnere e s t . Fortunam c i t i u s r e p e r i a s quam r e t i n e a s .  ' Gravissima e s t p r o b i hominis i r a c u n d i a . Homo t o t i e n s m o r i t u r , q u o t i e n s a m i t t i t suos. Homo v i t a e commodatus, non donatus e s t . H u m a n i t a t i s optima e s t c e r t a t i o . lucundum n i l e s t , n i s i quod r e f i c i t  varietas.  Malum e s t c o n s i l i u m quod m u t a r i non p o t e s t . Minus saepe p e c c e s , s i s c i a s quod n e s c i a s . Perpetuo v i n e i t q u i u t i t u r  dementia.  Quis i u s iurandum s e r v a t , q u o v i s p e r v e n i t . Ubi  p e c c a t a e t a s maior, male d i s c i t minor.-K  y. As quoted from t h e e d i t i o n o f Mr. B i c k f o r d - S m i t h by W. W. F o w l e r , " S o c i a l L i f e a t Rome i n t h e Age of C i c e r o " , p. 185.  50, We have quoted these t o show t h a t Roman c h i l d r e n , were not w i t h out o p p o r t u n i t y even i n e a r l y s c h o o l days' of l a y i n g to h e a r t much t h a t might l e a d them t o good and generous conduct i n l a t e r l i f e , as w e l l as t o p r a c t i c a l wisdom.  But we know the f a t e of  our copy book maxims; we know t h a t i t i s not through them t h a t our c h i l d r e n become good men  and women, but by the examples  and the u n - s y s t e m a t i s e d p r e c e p t s  of p a r e n t s  and t e a c h e r s .  such n e a t " s e n t e n t i a e " can do much good w i t h o u t  No  a s a n c t i o n of  g r e a t e r f o r c e t h a n any t h a t i s i n h e r e n t i n them. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . I . 3 6 ) e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y suggests t h a t memory may  be  l o o k e d upon as e n t e r t a i n m e n t :  orum v i r o r u m  "Etiam d i c t a  clar-  et e l e c t o s ex p o e t i s maxime (namque eorum cog-  n i t i o p a r v i s g r a t i o r e s t ) l o c o s e d i s c e r e i n t e r lusum l i c e t . " He goes on to p o i n t out how  important  the t r a i n i n g of memory  i s * . . "Ham  e t maxime n e c e s s a r i a e s t o r a t o r i ... meraoria,  praecipue  f i r m a t u r atque a l i t u r e x e r c i t a t i o n e . "  however, one viii.  4):  He  e t ea  issues,  c a u t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the m a t t e r of memory ( I .  " i n p r i m i s ... non modo quae d i s e r t a sed v e l magis  quae h o n e s t a s u n t , d i s c a n t , " There are many r e f e r e n c e s made by w r i t e r s t o l e a r n t by them i n t h e i r c h i l d h o o d .  Jerome ("Ad  quotations  L a c t . " 107) x-  quoted a verse w i t h the remark " l e g i quondam i n s c h o l i s puer" and Phaedrus ("Pabulae A e s o p i a e " i i i . "Ego,  quondam l e g i quam puer  E p i l o g u s 3 3 , 4)  sententiam,  Pa lam m u t t i r e p l e b e i o p i a c u l u m e s t . "  * As quoted by A, S. W i l k i n s , p.  52.  says:  ' WRITING  51.  Q.uintilian ( I .  i . 27) sums up admirably the method  by which children were commonly taught to write. recommends of f a c i l i t a t i n g the teaching writing i s :  "Cum  The means he  of the f i r s t stages of  vero iam ductus sequi cooperit, non  inutile  e r i t eas tabellae quam op time' i n s c u l p i , ut per i l l o s velut sulcos ducatur s t y l u s .  Nam  neque e r r a b i t , quemadmodum i n c e r i s  (continebitur enim utrinque marginibus neque extra praescriptum egredi poterit) et celerius ac saepius sequendo certa v e s t i g i a firmabit a r t i c u l o s , neque egebit adiutorio manum suam manu superimposita regentis." There was  of course the method of teaching writing, which  had always to some extent been used, i n which the teacher guides the pupil's hand by holding  i t with h i s own  :  "Digiti  illorum (puerorum) tenentur et a l i e n a manu per litterarum simulacra ducuntur; deinde i m i t a r i iubentur proposita et ad i l i a reformare chirographum." >fr When once the l e t t e r s had been learnt, further was  teaching  given i n writing by means of the " d i c t a t a magistr-i", moral  sentiments of a s i m i l a r nature to those which were assigned to be memorized.  Q u i n t i l i a n (1. i . 35, 36) emphasizes this copy-  ing of l i n e s which, convey moral lessons:  " ... i i quoque ver-  sus, qui ad imitationem scribendi proponentur, non  otiosas  velim sententias habeant sed honestum a l i q u i d monentes.  Pro-  sequitur haec memoria i n senectutem et impressa animo rudi usque ad mores p r o f i c l e t Q u i n t i l l a n also thinks that a  * Seneca, "Spistula" xciv.  51.  TABELLAE c h i l d , i n l e a r n i n g t o w r i t e , s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t a n t l y  exercised  on o r d i n a r y words, b u t on t h e more u n u s u a l words, t h a t he may acquire  betimes a knowledge of terms w h i c h , a t a l a t e r  period  of h i s l i f e , may be u s e f u l t o h i m . Nor  does Q u i n t i l i a n l o s e the chance of e n l a r g i n g on the  advantage, e s p e c i a l l y f o r a l i t e r a r y man, of a r a p i d and l e g i ble handwriting,  "quae f e r e ab h o n e s t i s  negligi solet." *  He  then goes on t o p o i n t out how much f u t u r e p r o g r e s s and c u l t i v a t i o n depend on the a r t o f w r i t i n g . As f o r the a c t u a l w r i t i n g equipment and m a t e r i a l s , the u s u a l w r i t i n g s u r f a c e used was the wax t a b l e t which'resembled our  s l a t e of a g e n e r a t i o n  "pugillaris", two  or t h r e e  ago.  or s i m p l y " c e r a " .  T h i s t a b l e t was c a l l e d " t a b e l l a " , O r d i n a r y t a b l e t s were made of  t h i n s t r i p s of wood j o i n e d t o g e t h e r l i k e  later-day  b o o k - c o v e r s , and s p r e a d over the i n s i d e w i t h a c o a t i n g of wax. The  l e a v e s might be made of f i n e c i t r u s wood or even o f i v o r y .  * "De I n s t . Orat." I . i , 28.  STILUS * Only the inner side of the leaf was written on, a r a i s e d wooden "border serving to protect the w r i t i n g when two or more tablets were joined together or made into a book ("duplices", " t r i p l i ces", " m u l t i p l i c e s " ) .  The outer surface or cover was often  adorned with ivory carvings, jewels, or precious metals. The implement used for i n c i s i n g or erasing the l e t t e r s ("stilum vertere") was the " s t i l u s " or "graphium". 'When some dexterity had been acquired with the " s t i l u s " , the pupil was taught to use the reed pen and write with ink on papyrus or parchment.  This kind of w r i t i n g was done with an ink (atra-  mentum librarium) made of a solution of soot and gum.  There  was also a red ink, r i c h and permanent, f o r ornamental l i n e s . But parchment and papyrus were f a r too expensive for  to be used  elementary school exercises and so p r a c t i c a l l y a l l v/ork i n  this grade of school was done i n the " t a b e l l a " with the " s t i lus".  Then, too, as Q u i n t i l i a n says (X. i i i . 31): ' " s c r i b i  optime c e r i s , i n quibus f a c i l l i m a est r a t i o delendi."  Since,  however, i t was impossible to read with any convenience writing on more than one side of the ordinary papyrus discarded books were often used f o r schoolboys' exercises or for mere s c r i b -  * Pig. 227 i n "A Guide to the Exhibition I l l u s t r a t i n g Greek and Roman L i f e " of the B r i t i s h Museum, Dept. of Greek and Roman Antiquities.  54. bling  paper.*  ARITHMETIC  The Roman s y s t e m  of numerical n o t a t i o n , which  was -.very cumbrous, made t h e s t u d y w i t h the r e s u l t the  that  other elementary  of a r i t h m e t i c a l  i t s s t u d y was c a r r i e d subjects.  computation  his  own a c c o u n t s  the  small inn-keeper  o f a r i t h m e t i c f a r from on l a t e r  Yet i n spite  easy  than i n  of the d i f f i c u l t y  e v e r y Roman h a d t o be a b l e t o k e e p  a n d n o t be t o o d e p e n d e n t  on h i s s e r v a n t s .  to the great c a p i t a l i s t ,  From  e v e r y man o f b u s -  i n e s s n e e d e d t o be p e r f e c t l y a t home i n r e c k o n i n g sums o f money. The m a g i s t r a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y q u a e s t o r s of c l e r k s who must h a v e b e e n s k i l l e d cial  governors  butes  the tax-payer  ledgers.  the p r o v i n -  of the.Empire's  as i n l e n d i n g t h e money t o  of c a l c u l a t i o n  b u s i n e s s h a d been the cause  growing  the t r i -  t o p a y , were c o n s t a n t l y b u s y w i t h  T h i s great importance  inhabitants  accountants;.  and a l l who were engaged i n c o l l e c t i n g  of t h e p r o v i n c e s , as w e l l  enable  and a e d i l e s , had s t a f f s  their•  i n the running  o f even the humbler  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e Roman a p t i t u d e f o r a r i t h -  metic. The rest  c h i l d r e n might l e a r n a r i t h m e t i c a t school•with the  of t h e i r  s u b j e c t s o r go t o a s p e c i a l a r i t h m e t i c t e a c h e r ,  "calculator,,"**  * Martial,  The c a l c u l a t o r was e n t i t l e d  "Eplgrammata"  i v . .8-6.  charta." Mart.,  " E p i g . " x. 62. 4.  t o charge  extra  II:/. " I n v e r s a p u e r i s a r a n d e  55,  large fees, although e q u i t e s ' sons who  one  s u s p e c t s t h a t most of h i s p u p i l s were  would p r o b a b l y  engage i n commerce.  n o t c e r t a i n whether such t e a c h e r s had  schools  t a u g h t i n the o r d i n a r y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s .  It i s  of t h e i r own  Probably  or  there  were i n s t a n c e s of b o t h arrangements. A r i t h m e t i c was,  as amongst the Greeks, g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d  on i n two ways, e i t h e r by making s i g n s w i t h the f i n g e r s or by a c o u n t i n g t a b l e ("abacus").  M e n t a l c a l c u l a t i o n was  of cour se  emphasized.. We' have s t i l l p r e s e r v e d t o us e l a b o r a t e accounts of the manner i n w h i c h the f i n g e r s were u s e d f o r c a l c u l a t i o n as f o r example C i c e r o ("ad A t t i c u m " v. 2 1 ) %  "hoc  quid i n t e r s i t , s i  tuos d i g i t o s n o v i , c e r t e habes subdueturn" and Ovid ex Ponto" i l . 3 ,  ("Epistula  IS):  " a t r e d i t u s lam qulsque suos amat, e t s i b i q u i d s i t Utile, solicitis The  supputat a r t i c u l i s . "  l e f t hand was u s e d t o s i g n i f y numbers below a hundred  the r i g h t , numbers above i t ;  and  or amounts were i n d i c a t e d by  the  f i n g e r - j o i n t s and by t o u c h i n g d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the body. For more e l a b o r a t e c a l c u l a t i o n s an "abacus" was One  k i n d was  u s e d and any  quite simple.  employed.  I n t h i s p e b b l e s ("calculi') were  o p e r a t i o n of a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n c o u l d e a s i l y  be performed, p r o v i d e d the numbers were not too l a r g e . t h i s was  the case i t was  necessary  t o mark the b o a r d out  When by  l i n e s , so t h a t p e b b l e s or v a r i o u s l y c o l o u r e d b a l l s p l a c e d on , these had a c o n v e n t i o n a l v a l u e .  There was  one  one f o r f i v e s , one f o r t e n s , one f o r f i f t i e s ,  line for units, one f o r hundreds,  o o o o o G  X  o o o &  0  M  -a  0  c 2 I o o o o o o 0  o  *  o  0  o o o o o 0) o o o o o o o  A R OMAN G OUSTING BOARD K  The p e b b l e s n e a r e s t the numbered d i v i d i n g p a r t i t i o n were t h o s e w h i c h counted. Each pebble above when moved do?mward counted f i v e of those i n the same d i v i s i o n below. The b o a r d now shows 8,760,254. one f o r f i v e hundreds, and one f o r thousands.  On such boards  n o t o n l y l a r g e r sums could, be d e a l t w i t h , but i t was t o ' m u l t i p l y and d i v i d e .  possible  A n o t h e r k i n d of "abacus" was worked by  means of s l i d i n g knobs, moving i n sunken c h a n n e l s , of w h i c h e i g h t s h o r t e r ones, each f u r n i s h e d w i t h one knob, f a c e e i g h t l o n g e r ones, each p r o v i d e d w i t h f o u r knobs.  The d e t a i l s of  the w o r k i n g are r a t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d , b u t the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e i s the same as the s i m p l e r k i n d , the v a l u e of each s i g n depending on i t s p o s i t i o n , a c c o r d i n g as the mark was I , V, X, L, C, D, 'M. Horace  ("De A r t e P o e t i c a " 323 f . ) c o m p l a i n s of the mono-  tony of l e a r n i n g a r i t h m e t i c :  *  ,  As i n E . P. C u b b e r l e y , "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n , " p.  34.  57. "Roman! p u e r i l o n g i s r a t i o n i b u s assem D i s c u n t i n p a r t e s centum d i d u c e r e . F i l i u s A l b i n i , S i de quincunce U n c i a , quid superat? Augustine  Dicat  remota e s t  • P o t e r a s d i x i s s e , T r i e n s . Eu!"  ("Confessiones"  I . 13) a l s o s a y s :  "unum e t  unum duo, duo e t duo q u a t t u o r o d i o s a c a n t i o m i h i erafr." An o r a t o r was e x p e c t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . x. 3 5 ) , n o t o n l y to'be a b l e t o make h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s i n c o u r t , b u t a l s o to And  show c l e a r l y t o h i s audience ho?/ he a r r i v e d a t h i s r e s u l t s . so a r i t h m e t i c was an i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t t o the many who  a s p i r e d t o becoming o r a t o r s , GEOGRAPHY  Geography does n o t seem t o have been s t u d i e d  i n the s c h o o l s , c e r t a i n l y n o t g e n e r a l l y , u n t i l q u i t e l a t e ing  the E m p i r e .  dur-  The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from Eumenius ("De  R e s t a u r . S c h o l . " 1 2 0 ) * dates from Gaul i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y a f t e r .Christ: et  "Videat iuventus praeterea i n i l l i s  porticibus  q u o t i d i e s p e c t e t omnes t e r r a s e t c u n c t a m a r l a e t q u i d q u i d  i n v i c t i s s i m i p r i n c i p e s u r b i u m , gentium, nationum ,,, d e v i n c u n t , Siquidem  illic  ... i l l u s t r a n d a e p u e r i t a e causa, quo m a n i f e s t i u s  o c u l l s d i s c e r e n t u r , quae d i f f i c i l l u s p e r c i p i u n t u r omnium cum nominibus s u i s locorum sunt."  situs, spatia, intervalla descripta  The r e f e r e n c e of S t . Jerome ("Ep." 60. 7 ) * t o t h e use  of maps i s n o t any e a r l i e r t h a n t h i s q u o t a t i o n of Eumenius, But P r o p e r t i u s ( " E l e g i a e " i v . 3. 3 7 ) ,  » As quoted by A. S. W i l k i n s , p. 45, 6.  58.  "Cogor et e t a b u l a p i c t o s e d i s c e r e mundos," proves the use  of maps i n p r i v a t e h o u s e s , i f not i n s c h o o l s ,  d u r i n g the e a r l y Empire. has  a reference  V a r r o too  ("De  Re R u s t i c a " I . i i .  1)  t o a " p i c t a I t a l i a " , on the w a l l s of a t e m p l e .  PHYSICAL  I n s p i t e of the i n f l u e n c e of Greek models, the  EDUCATION  Romans never f u l l y adopted the p r i n c i p l e of a  .harmonious and p r o p o r t i o n e d I n e a r l y days the aim  education  of. a l l the  faculties.  of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g at Rome had'been  s i m p l y t o e q u i p the y o u t h f o r war,  not as a t Athens t o develop  b o d i l y h e a l t h , b e a u t y , and g r a c e .  Accordingly,  exercises  of the "gymnasi," were i n t r o d u c e d  though the  a t Rome, conserva-  t i v e f a t h e r s d i s a p p r o v e d , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t g y m n a s t i c , gene r a l l y speaking, continued tary  t o have a p u r e l y h y g i e n i c and  mili-  aim. The  elaborate  t r a i n i n g of the a t h l e t e and the s t r i c t r e g u -  l a t i o n , of h i s f o o d and d r i n k were thought l i k e l y t o h i n d e r rather than help i n bearing  the h a r d s h i p s  of d a i l y l i f e /  We  f i n d m e n t i o n of b a l l - p l a y i n g of v a r i o u s k i n d s , the t h r o w i n g of spears and q u o i t s , swimming, r i d i n g , and when o c c a s i o n hunting.  offered,  But Rome had no such t h i n g as a n a t i o n a l game.  the time of her  spreading  conquests i n t e r e s t t u r n e d r a t h e r  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l e f f i c i e n c y t h a t m i l i t a r i s m demanded. must r u n and  In to  A youth  jump and w r e s t l e : and f e n c e because o n l y so  could  he hope t o overcome h i s f o e , or, i f need be, l i v e t o f i g h t another day by making a speedy escape. I n the Greek "gymnasia" the main o b j e c t was  to a t t a i n that  59.  p e r f e c t development of the p h y s i c a l powers, w h i c h might ensure ease and g r a c e of movement; and t h e h i g h e s t honours were bestowed on t h o s e a t h l e t e s , a t t h e g r e a t n a t i o n a l games who d i d the  best i n the v a r i o u s competitions.  To the Roman " g r a v i t a s "  i n t h e b e t t e r days i t would have seemed unworthy t o a t t a c h such i m p o r t a n c e t o what were a f t e r a l l b u t anusements, and not  p u r s u i t s t o w h i c h a c i t i z e n c o u l d p r o p e r l y devote months  and y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g . To f r e q u e n t "gymnasia", as t h e Greek y o u t h d i d ,  was r e -  g a r d e d by the Romans o f t h e time Of C i c e r o and even l a t e r as e n c o u r a g i n g i d l e n e s s and as dangerous t o m o r a l s , or t o quote C i c e r o ' s own words  ("De Rep." i v . 4 ) ;  c i t a t i o quam absurda i n g y m n a s i i s . "  " i u v e n t u t i s v e r o exerThe complete n u d i t y usual.,  i n the c o n t e s t s of t h e " p a l a e s t r a " o u t r a g e d t h e Roman n o t i o n s of the  decorum; e x p r e s s i o n i s g i v e n t o these f e e l i n g s by E n n i u s i n line*. " F l a g i t i i p r i n c i p i u m e s t nudare i n t e r c i v e s c o r p o r a . " *  Hence t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of Greek e x e r c i s e s a t Rome was l o n g postponed and b i t t e r l y opposed.  Such language as t h a t r e p o r t e d  by T a c i t u s ("Annales" x i v . 20) as h a v i n g been u s e d I n r e s i s t i n g the. i n n o v a t i o n o f a f e s t i v a l on Greek l i n e s i n honour of Nero, was d o u b t l e s s an echo of what "had been u s e d i n e a r l i e r  times:  "Ceterum a b o l i t o s ... amores exercendo. ... q u i d superesse ... armis m e d i t e n t u r ? "  Lucan ("De B e l l o C i v i l ! " v i i . 270) on t h e  same s u b j e c t says:  * Apud C i c . ,  "Tusculanae Q u a e s t i o n e s " i v . 33.  60. " ... G r a l i s d e l e c t a inventus-". Gymnasiis  a d e r i t studioque i g n a v a p a l a e s t r a e  E t v i x arm a f erens Pliny  (H. N. x x x v . 168) s a y s ;  " " c e r o m a t i s quibus  exercendo  i n v e n t u s n o s t r a c o r p o r i s . v i r e s p e r d i t animorum."  The language  of Seneca ("Ep." 88. 18) a l s o no doubt e x p r e s s e s of many:  the f e e l i n g s  " l u c t a t o r e s e t totam o l e o ac l u t o constantem s c i e n -  t i a m e x p e l l o ex h i s s t u d i i s l i b e r a l i b u s . "  I t must be remembered  however t h a t the Romans d i d n o t make the a c q u a i n t a n c e Greek gymnastics  of the "  when they formed an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a h a r -  monious and w e l l - d e v i s e d system of c u l t u r e , b u t when they had a l r e a d y degenerated  I n t o o many cases i n t o a mere o c c a s i o n f o r 1  amusement and d i s p l a y . A t ' a l a t e r date Seneca ("Ep." 15) has some i n t e r e s t i n g remarks on the e x t e n t t o w h i c h the s e v e r e r a t h l e t i c e x e r c i s e s were a p t t o encroach upon t h e time and s t r e n g t h w h i c h s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e study of l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y . u r a l l y lead to over-eating.  They n a t -  B e s i d e s , the a t h l e t e had t o put  h i m s e l f a t the o r d e r s of t h e t r a i n e r s , s l a v e s of low r e p u t a t i o n , "quibus ad votura d i e s a c t u s e s t . "  Seneca h i m s e l f a d v i s e s  " e x e r c i t a t i o n e s e t f a c i l e s e t b r e v e s , quae corpus e t s i n e mora l a s s e n t e t t e m p o r i p a r c a n t , c u i u s p r a e c i p u a r a t i o habenda e s t . " Among these he i n c l u d e s r u n n i n g , the use of dumb-bells,  jump-  i n g , b o t h h i g h and b r o a d , and another k i n d w h i c h he c a l l s " s a l I a r i s " or " u t c o n t u m e l i o s i u s dicam, f u l l o n i u s " , w h i c h seems t o have resembled  the a c t i o n o f men stamping  on c l o t h e s i n order  t o wash them.  I t i s somewhat amusing t o f i n d Seneca, l i k e the  .  elder P l i n y , giving a decided preference  6  1  »  :  to the "gestatio", or,  as i t i s now humorously c a l l e d , "carriage exercise", for "et corpus concuti't et studio non o f f i c i t , " though he reminds us that i t i s possible to study even while walking.; And  so while Rome did not continue .for us the noble ex-  ample that Greece set in, her prime by pursuing  sport for sport's  sake and shunning the s p i r i t of professionalism, yet she d i d transmit some of the Hellenic appreciation of physical t r a i n i n g as a preservative of health, f o r i t was a Roman who said "mens s*^ i n corpore ^sano."-K  '  • '  Q u i n t i l i a n advocates relaxation and play but he gives: us no i n d i c a t i o n of the amount of d a i l y headwork he expected of a boy.  He says ( I . i i i .  12) that "Mores quoque se inter Puden-  dum simplicius detegunt"; while boys of tender years thus r e veal themselves unconsciously  their f a u l t s can be corrected.  The playground, then, would appear to have been with Q u i n t i l i a n part of the school. But i n spite of t h i s recommendation of Q u i n t i l i a n i t would appear -that physical education was one thing about^which teachers did not have to worry.  The Romans merely wanted to see  that their boys got exercise enough to keep them i n good health,--they  could not grasp the p r a c t i c a l value of a t r a i n -  ing that neither made the lads better soldiers nor better men of  business.  -x Juv. "Sat." x, 356.  62. DANCING  Dancing was commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h gymnastics  and music b y the Greeks.  On i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n a t Rome i t seems  to.have found b o t h warmer welcome and s t r o n g e r o p p o s i t i o n even than g y m n a s t i c s . for  E v i d e n c e o f t h e l a t t e r i s abundant,  Nepos,  i n s t a n c e , i n c o n t r a s t i n g the Greek and Roman a t t i t u d e t o -  wards music and d a n c i n g says ("Eparainondas" I ) :  "Scimus  enim,  musicam n o s t r i s moribus abesse a p r i n c i p i s p e r s o n a ; s a l t a r e vero etiam I n v i t i i s poni: et  laude d i g n a ducuntur."  quae omnia apud Graecos e t g r a t a , To c a l l a man a " s a l t a t o r " was a  g r i e v o u s i n s u l t , and t o be Y v i l l i n g " s a l t a r e i n f o r o " was a p r o v i n c i a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r the g r e a t e s t shamelessness as t h e l i n e of C i c e r o ("Pro Murena" v i . 13) i n d i c a t e s : fere saltat sobrius, n i s i forte insanit."  "nemo enim  The d i s a p p r o v a l of  such an accomplishment was n a t u r a l l y even s t r o n g e r i n t h e case of  a woman:  hence t h e well-known  judgment passed by S a l l u s t  ("Bellum C a t i l i n a r i u m " 25) on Sempronia: . e l e g a n t i u s , quam necesse e s t probae,"  "psallere,  saltare  On the o t h e r hand the  v e r y p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t the a r t show how i t was g r o w i n g i n f a v o u r . When Horace  ("Odes" i i i ,  "Motus d o c e r i gaudet  6. 21) c o m p l a i n s , Ionicos  Matura v i r g o ...", he i s p r o b a b l y d e s c r i b i n g no i m a g i n a r y e v i l .  Of t h e e x t e n t t o  w h i c h i t was c a r r i e d a c e n t u r y b e f o r e h i m we have some c u r i o u s f i r s t - h a n d knowledge. ing  M a c r o b i u s ("Satuk^iU i i i .  14) i n compar-  the l u x u r y of h i s own time t o t h a t of an e a r l i e r day quotes  from a speech of the younger S c i p i o , d e l i v e r e d i n B. C. 133: "Docentur p r a e s t i g i a s i n h o n e s t a s , cum c i n a e d u l i s e t sambuca  p s a l t e r i o q u e emit I n ludum h i s t r i o n u m , d i s c u n t c a n t a r e , quae maiores n o s t r i I n g e n u i s p r o b r o d u e l e r v o l u e r u n t : I n ludum s a l t a t o r l u r a i n t e r cinaedos Haec cum  eunt, inquam,  v i r g i n e s puerique  ingenui.  m i l l ! quisquam n a r r a b a t , non poteram aniraum indue e r e ,  ea l i b e r o s suos homines n o b i l e s d o c e r e , sed cum  ductus sum  in  ludum s a l t a t o r i u m , p l u s medius f i d i u s I n eo l u d o v i d i p u e r i s virginibusque qulnquaginta,  I n h i s unum--quod me r e i p u b l i c a e  maxime miser!turn est--puerf~bu11aturn, or em a n n i s duodecim, cum pudicus  p e t i t o r i s f i l i u m non min-  c r o t a l i s s a l t a r e quam s a l t a t i o n e m  s e r v u l u s h o n e s t e s a l t a r e non  im-  posset."  But Greek i n f l u e n c e r a r e l y went so f a r as t o r a i s e  these  p u r s u i t s f r o m the r a n k of mere amusements, and t o g i v e them a recognized place i n a regular education.  Under the Empire,  however, d a n c i n g , p a r t a k i n g v e r y much of the n a t u r e  of c a l i s -  t h e n i c s and "deportment", d i d i n c r e a s e somewhat i n p o p u l a r i t y . MUSIC one  M u s i c , w h i c h i s c o u p l e d w i t h d a n c i n g i n more than  of the q u o t a t i o n s above, was  always i n demand t o a c e r t a i n  e x t e n t i n the w o r s h i p of the gods, e s p e c i a l l y such as were honoured "Graeco r i t u . "  ,.  On f e s t i v a l and r e l i g i o u s o c c a s i o n s , and i n solemn banquet the y o u t h was  accustomed i n the e a r l i e r c e n t u r i e s t o a s s i s t i n  c h a n t i n g the n a t i o n a l songs.  As e a r l y as B. C. 207 we  find  L i v i u s A n d r o n i c u s composing a hymn t o be sung a t a solemn p l i c a t l o " by Roman maidens, and Horace's "Carmen S a e c u l a r e "  "supIs  a f a m i l i a r i n s t a n c e of the same k i n d of c o n s i d e r a b l y l a t e r date But though choruses of boys and maidens are not uncommonly  64. mentioned, t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t music took i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n the r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n g i r l d u r i n g the R e p u b l i c who  any  of an o r d i n a r y hoy  or the e a r l y Empire.  The  or  music-girls,  o f t e n appear i n l i t e r a t u r e and i n works of a r t as m i n i s t e r -  i n g t o the p l e a s u r e  of the b a n q u e t e r s , were u s u a l l y e i t h e r  s l a v e s or freedwomen, and  often foreigners.  S i m i l a r l y the  g u i l d of f l u t e - p l a y e r s , whose s e r v i c e s were e s s e n t i a l i n the r i t e s of some d e i t i e s , were p r o f e s s i o n a l and h i r e d p e r f o r m e r s , of E t r u s c a n  origin.  M u s i c was  n o t , as among the Greeks, a domestic  and an a l l e v i a t o r of d a i l y l i f e . v a t e d nor was  As an a r t i t was  institution not  i t s t u d i e d w i t h a view t o p l a y i n g on an  ment as i n Greece.  cultiinstru-  B y the Roman the h o r n and the trumpet were  p r e f e r r e d t o the l y r e and " c i t h a r a " w h i c h charmed the Greek. M u s i c , l a t e r i n the Empire, began t o r e c e i v e a c e r t a i n amount of r e c o g n i t i o n and was birth.  t a u g h t t o boys and g i r l s of good  But even then i t d i d not form an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of edu-  c a t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y speaking i t ,  l i k e dancing, continued  l o o k e d upon as e n t e r t a i n m e n t where amusement was  t o be  supplied  by  paid performers. What we have d i s c u s s e d  as b e i n g  d a n c i n g , and music i n c o n n e c t i o n continued  the " s t u d y " of g y m n a s t i c s ,  w i t h the elementary s c h o o l  a l o n g w i t h the s u b j e c t s of the secondary s c h o o l  r i c u l u m of the " l u d u s g r a m m a t i c i " .  was  cur-  As the c h i l d became o l d e r ,  however, these " s p e c i a l " e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s u b j e c t s came more and more t o be s t u d i e d o n l y i n so f a r as they c o n t r i b u t e d  to  the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e o r a t o r .  I t w i l l be, t h e n , s o l e l y i n t h e i r  r e s t r i c t e d s t u d y t h a t we s h a l l d i s c u s s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , d a n c i n g , and music i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u r a of s t u d i e s a l t h o u g h what we have s a i d i n t h i s  chapter  about them c o n t i n u e s t o a p p l y t o them t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t .  CHAPTER TV .  SECONDARY EDUCATION  THE . TH TR QDUO TI OH  Among t h e r e s u l t s o f c o n t a c t w i t h other  " 0? THE "LUPUS  peoples t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e Punic, wars was  GRAMMATICI"  t h e e x t e n s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a t Rome be-  yond the elementary -Greek language,  and s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n  subjects.  The  as we have seen, came t o be g e n e r a l l y l e a r n e d  and Greek i d e a s of e d u c a t i o n were i n some degree adopted. S c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n w h i c h the c e n t r a l p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m was the study of the Greek p o e t s ; a s c h o o l 'of such a type we may r e f e r t o as the " l u d u s  grammatici."  As t o t h e date o f the f o u n d a t i o n o f the secondary  schools,  taught by the " g r a m m a t i c i " we cannot' say d e f i n i t e l y ; we o n l y know t h a t t h e y e x i s t e d e a r l i e r than 148 B. C.  Before t h a t date,  some"of t h e o r d i n a r y " l u d i " may have c a r r i e d boys beyond the l i m i t s o f a: p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n but we a r e n o t e n t i t l e d t o go beh i n d the a u t h o r i t y of" S u e t o n i u s , who t e l l s us t h a t C r a t e s duced the study of grammar a t Rome.a to s c h o o l s :  We.refer, of course,  Introonly  t h a t advanced i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n by Greek t u t o r s  i n f a m i l i e s we know.  P r o g r e s s was h o t , however, v e r y r a p i d .  About 140 B. C. t h e r e were, a c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s , .-KK more than twenty c e l e b r a t e d " g r a m m a t i c i "  a t Rome, a l l , i t I s presumed,  See q u o t a t i o n on p. 8. *-K "De Gram." i l l .  ," .. ,«£ temporlbus  qulbusdam super  c e l e b r e s s c h e l a e f u i s s e i n Urbe t r a d a n t u r . "  viglnti  67. teaching. ,  A t f i r s t , d o u b t l e s s , the Greek language was l e a r n t f o r  p r a c t i c a l purposes  o n l y ; t h e r e seems t o have been no i d e a of  u s i n g the l i t e r a t u r e as an Instrument  of mental c u l t u r e .  But  by degrees, a t f i r s t perhaps h a l f - u n c o n s c i o u s l y , the study of t h e language was extended t o i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f t h e works w r i t ten  init.  The importance  o f t h e s t e p t h e n taken was enormous,  for  thus t h e Romans came t o be t h e f i r s t n a t i o n t o base t h e i r  c u l t u r e on t h e study of l i t e r a t u r e i n a f o r e i g n language, and so marked out t h e l i n e s on w h i c h t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n of a l l c i v i l i s e d n a t i o n s was t o move down t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .  What  Greek was t o the Romans, t h a t i n i t s own way L a t i n was d e s t i n e d to be i n t h e time t o come t o t h e n a t i o n s o f Western Europe, and t h e r e has never been a time when much o f t h e b e s t t r a i n i n g of the mind d i d n o t c o n s i s t i n t h e study of t h e thought  of t h e  p a s t r e c o r d e d i n a language n o t t h e s t u d e n t ' s own. The  " g r a m m a t i c i G r a e c i " , i n accordance  w i t h the p r a c t i c e  u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n t h e i r own l a n d , h a d t a k e n as t h e i r  text-  books t h e works of t h e i r g r e a t e s t a u t h o r s , and e s p e c i a l l y Homer. The  " g r a m m a t i c i L a t i n ! " , - - f o r t h e L a t i n language was soon made  the s u b j e c t of s t u d y s i m i l a r t o the Greek, though a t f i r s t i n s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s - - n a t u r a l l y wished t o t r e a t t h e study of t h e L a t i n language on the same l i n e s as.those on w h i c h they h a d been accustomed t o t r e a t the study o f the Greek language.: t h i s t h e f i r s t t h i n g needed was l i t e r a r y , t e x t s . to  and f o r  The endeavour  s u p p l y t h e s e , c o u p l e d w i t h the l a c k of L a t i n p o e t r y t o ?;ork  upon,--for  prose t e x t s were n o t y e t made t e x t - b o o k s - - l e d , as  68.  we have seen, t o the t r a n s l a t i o n by L i v i u s . A n d r o n i c u s , about 250 B. C., verses.  of the "Odyssey" of Homer i n t o L a t i n S a t u r n i a n  Prom t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , rude as the s u r v i v i n g  show i t t o have been, d a t e s the b e g i n n i n g of L a t i n  fragments  literature,  and i t was not u n t i l t h i s l i t e r a t u r e had f u r n i s h e d poets Terence, V e r g i l , and Horace, t h a t the rough Saturn!ans i u s A n d r o n i c u s d i s a p p e a r e d from the s c h o o l s of the  like  of L i v -  "grammatici  Latin!." I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t f o r the g r e a t b u l k of the p o p u l a t i o n e d u c a t i o n ceased when the e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l was  l e f t f o r there  was n o t h i n g answering t o our t e c h n i c a l or commercial e d u c a t i o n , except what might be g i v e n by a f a t h e r t o h i s sons i n h i s workshop or p l a c e of b u s i n e s s .  As f o r the- g i r l s of the poorer  c l a s s e s , we have n o t e d how h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s would soon c l a i m them, and they m a r r i e d e a r l y .  The g i r l s of the r i c h e r  i f t h e y w i s h e d t o go on t o the study of the secondary  classes, school  s u b j e c t s , appear- t o have t a k e n them under a p r i v a t e t u t o r r a t h e r than i n the r e g u l a r " l u d u s g r a m m a t i c i . "  But the r e g u l a r course  f o r a l l boys whose p a r e n t s c o u l d a f f o r d i t was,  a t the age  of  t w e l v e , a f t e r h a v i n g a t t e n d e d the " l u d u s m a g i s t r i " and g a i n e d a g r o u n d i n g i n the fundamentals,  t o p r o c e e d t o the  s c h o o l of the "granimations", who  endeavoured t o give . i n s t r u c t i o n  i n the r e a l n i c e t i e s of Greek and L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e .  secondary  I t was  to  t h i s "grammar" t e a c h e r t h a t the e p i t h e t s " d o c t u s " and " e r u d i t u s " were f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d .  The boy u s u a l l y c o n t i n u e d w i t h  the "grammaticus" I n h i s " h i g h s c h o o l " s t u d i e s t i l l he assumed the " t o g a  virilis."  69.. The the  boy  choice  of t h e  " g r a m m a t i c u s " was  of h i g h  school  age  j e c t matter ial  only.  emphasis  "Ep."  iii.  modo s e d "Ep." sub  on  3.  i v . 13. oculis The  w i t h him  importance  " c u i i n hoc etiam  enim  able,  e n t e r i n g the  elements  school"  literary,  observed that t o the  praeceptor  est." continerentur  and  with  ori t h e  quam  fact  b e e n t r a i n e d by  long l i n e  i n h i s "De  Latin,  next necessary  the  one  And  "high  L a t i n and schools"  h a n d t h e r e was  State  no  with  find  a  that  grammatical  Greek  languages.  i t has  been w e l l  the  fair  considers  f o r him  wholly  a  supposes  a n d he  so we  took  greatest  freedom  prescribed curriculum,  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n any  way.  no  im-  On  the  seems t o have b e e n i n p r a c t i c e r e m a r k a b l e u n i -  f o r m i t y both i n the t o the  write  i n s t r u c t i o n was  m a s t e r ; t h e r e was  other hand t h e r e  Quintilian  I s h i s grammar.  the  p e n d i n g e x a m i n a t i o n , no  * The  espec-  grammatici" u s u a l l y  3 R's.  i n c l u d i n g both the  In c o n n e c t i o n  had  pudicius  "ludus  fundamental d i s c i p l i n e  the."high  mainly  sub-  choice:  quaerendus  o f the  also, to read  view to h i s c u l t i v a t i o n  left  places  l u b r i c o a e t a t i s non  ....  of  a s c e r t a i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e o f G r e e k and  t o be  and  of t h i s  rectorque  "ubi  p u p i l on  him  in  n e e d e d more t h a n a t e a c h e r  since  parentum."  of t h e  the  the  4:  knowledge  that  important  P l i n y , as w e l l as Q u i n t i l i a n ,  4:  custos  very  i d e a l s and that  the  I n the m e t h o d s .  teachers>  G r e e k s *: and  i f not  followed  o f famous " g r a m m a t i c i "  Illustribus  Grammaticis"  on  T h i s was  Greeks the  due  themselves,  lines  which  commemorated by  ( i i i ) would I n d i c a t e  Suetonius this.  70.  had been approved  i n the Greek s c h o o l s .  was  and r e m a r k a b l e  no  one  important  l i t e r a t u r e had  their  own  different guistic  Of c o u r s e  was  G r e e k or i n • L a t i n * .  then "A  regards  the  had  to d e a l with  lin-  thought  familiar.  study  of  t a k e up  literature,  literature  ( I . i . 1 2 ) , r a t h e r t o our as t h e p r e f e r a b l e c o u r s e .  h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s the  In  surHe  logical qui  one: plur-  i n usu e s t , v e l n o b i s n o l e n t i b u s perb.ibet, s i m u l q u i a d i s quoque G r a e c i s p r i u s  fluxerunt."  He  ( I . I . 13)  boys too l o n g e x c l u s i v e l y adeo s u p e r s t i t i o s e  quatur  aut d i s c a t ,  dunt e t  oris  o b j e c t s , however, t o t h e k e e p i n g  fieri  sicut  i n s t i t u e n d u s e s t , unde e t n o s t r a e  i n the  study  o f Greek:  "Hon  i n peregrinum  Graecae f i g u r a e  tamen  est.  -Hoc  enim  acci-  sonum c o r r u p t ! e t s e r -  assidua. consuetudine  haeserunt,  d i v e r s a quoque l o q u e n d i r a t i o n e p e r t i n a c i s s i m e d u r a n t .  longe  itaque Latina  fiet,  u t , cum  neutra a l t e r i  subsequi debent  et c i t o  pariter  a e q u a l i c u r a l i n g u a m utramque t u e r i officlat."  the secondary  G r e e k , however, was  s c h o o l , and was  tongue; advanced p u p i l s  of  v e l i m , u t d i u tantum G r a e c e l o -  p l e r i s q u e moris  plurima v i t i a  m o n i s ; c u i cum  of  some p l a c e was" made f o r  should f i r s t  Greek f i r s t why  written i n  sermone G r a e c o puerum i n c i p e r e m a l o , q u i a L a t i n u m ,  ciplinis  in  schools  d i a l e c t s were u s e d f o r  p a s s e d , on t o t h e  Quintilian  goes on t o t e l l  Ibus  hoc  I n the Greek  i n a medium w i t h w h i c h t h e y were n o t  a q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r he  prise,  thus  the Greeks never  But when a Roman boy it  there  exception.  different  of p o e t r y , and  studies, but  expressed  t h i s , however,  e v e r b e e n s t u d i e d e x c e p t what was  language. kinds  To  the  ire.  Hon Ita  coeperimus, l e a d i n g study  a c q u i r e d as i f i t were a n a t i v e  spoke and w r o t e i t w i t h  ease.  71. T h e r e were f r e q u e n t l y d i f f e r e n t guages  t e a c h e r s f o r the  ("grammatici G r a e c i e t L a t i n i " )  and  e x t e n t a p p a r e n t l y the  Greek grammar  distinct.  n o t uncommon f o r t h e  But  b o t h , - - i n any natural, their  case  literature  as a p p l i e d t o  was  r e a d by  the p u p i l s  and  dictated  in ilium  stage,  Quint.  o t h e r h a n d p o e t r y we  to had  secondary  school  of i s t h a t  prose  t o them as m a t e r i a l f o r ("Ad  Quintum"  refer  iii.I.  t o those  r a t h e r than  do know was  very  "grammaticus"  i n elucidating  i i . 11.  27)  e t e d i s c i m u s , hanc e r u d i t i o n e m  quoted  transferred  who  literature.  thoroughly spent  the  by f a r  poets.**  A.  "Nos,  poetarum"  S. W i l k i n s , p.  docti  "Ars  grammatica  ( S e r g . i v . p. 486,  57)).  scilicet  a pueritia  l i b e r a l e m et doctrinam  a L a t i n grammarian s a y s :  by  says  ( s c . the works of the p o e t s )  consistit in intellectu (as  was  ( I . i v . 2 ) : " u t r i q u e eadem v i a e s t , "  a G r a e c i a , e t haec  amus," and  sure  t h i s may  i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the  * * C i c e r o ("Tusc, Q u a e s t . "  mus  simply  studying rhetoric  the g r e a t e s t p a r t of h i s time  *  teach  ( C a l v e n t i u m Marium) p u e r i omnes,  were, a t t h e n e x t  s t u d i e d and  to  p r i n c i p l e s which they  can.be  p e r d i s c a n t , " but  the  L a t i n were  same,>f as i n d e e d  s t u d i e d at a l l i n the  tamquam d i c t a t a ,  On  same man  Cicero writes to h i s brother  "meam ( o r a t i o n e m )  the  Greek.  open t o q u e s t i o n ; a l l t h a t we  composition. 4),  schools  t h e methods and  W h e t h e r p r o s e was is  Latin  lan-  to a considerable  s c h o o l s and  t h e methods were t h e  s e e i n g t h a t the  own  learnt  i t was  two  legiput-  praecipue ed.  Keil  72. Q u i n t i l i a n ( I , i v . 4) says:  "nec poetas l e g i s s e s a t i s e s t :  exeutiendum omne s c r i p t orum genus^propter verba."  h i s t o r i a s modo sed  A l t h o u g h we cannot be sure as t o how f a r t h i s a d v i c e  o f f e r e d by Q u i n t i l i a n was f o l l o w e d i t w o u l d appear t h a t C i c e r o ' statement ("De Orat."  i . 1 8 7 ) , " I n grammaticis  poetarum p e r ~  t r a c t a t i o , h i s t o r i a r u m c o g n i t i o , verborum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o n u h t i a n d l : quidam sonus" was f a i r l y i n d i c a t i v e o f the u s u a l practice..  H i s t o r y was r e g a r d e d ,  ,  a c c o r d i n g t o Q u i n t i l i a n ' s own  d e f i n i t i o n (X. i . 31) as "proxima p o e t i s e t quodam modo carmen solutum"', w r i t t e n " a d narrandum ~non a d probandum" and t h e r e f o r e coming w i t h i n the sphere o f pure l i t e r a t u r e .  Native h i s t o r y  h a d - c o m p r i s e d a v e r y r e a l p a r t of early-'Roman education:. Of g e n e r a l a d v i c e as t o r e a d i n g Q u i n t i l i a n (X. i . 20) says "Ac d i u non n i s i fallat  optimus quisque  e t q u i credentem s i b i minime  legendus e s t , s e d d i l i g e n t e r ac paene ad s c r i b e n d i s o l -  l i c i t u d i n e m ; nec p e r p a r t e s modo s c r u t a n d a  omnia, sed p e r l e c t u s  l i b e r u t i q u e ex i n t e g r o resumendus, praecipueque o r a t i o ,  cuius  v i r t u t e s f r e q u e n t e r ex i n d u s t r i a quoque o c c u l t a n t u r . " GREEK AUTHORS  The r u l e at-Rome, as i n Greece, was always t o  -•STUDIED  b e g i n w i t h Homer*.  Pliny  ("Ep." i i .  1 4 ) : " s i c i n f o r o pueros a c e n t u m - v i r a l i b u s  c a u s i s a u s p i c a r i u t ab Homero i n s c h o l i s . " Horace ("Ep." i i .  2. 4 2 ) :  "Romae n u t r i r i m i h i c o n t i g i t atque d o c e r i , I r a t u s G r a i i s quantum n o c u i s s e t A c h i l l e s . "  73. Q u i n t i l i a n (X. I . 46) advises beginning with Homer who.; he says i s "omnium amniura fontiumque cur sus initium" for nibus eloquentiae partibus exemplum et ortum dedit."  "om-  Quin-  t i l i a n ' s remarks * advocating Homer as t h e " f i r s t reader" i n the elementary school apply equally to the "high school" a l though, of course, the secondary school pupil, at his more advanced age, would be expected to get more out of h i s reading Of Homer than he had i n the elementary school. But while Homer was  the invariable basis of l i t e r a r y  the pupils were by no means confined to him.  study,  The fables of  Aesop were read as being valuable i n r e a d i l y lending themselves to reproduction into pure and simple language.  Heslod with his  prudential morality, h i s homely common sense, and h i s p r a c t i c a l maxims, was a favourite school-book. With respect to the reading of tragedy and l y r i c s Quintilian  (I. viii.  6) says:  "Utiles tragoediae, alunt et l y r i c i ;  s i tamen i n h i s non auctores modo sed etiam partes operis elegeris."  He thinks that amatory elegies and hendecasyllables  (which would generally be of a s a t i r i c a l character) should be banished, altogether or reserved for a riper age.  Comedy, as  being especially useful for the future orator, he says ( I . v i i i . 7) "cum  mores i n tuto f u e r i t , inter praecipua legenda  erit."  Menander seems to have been always a favourite, doubtless owing to h i s happy sententiousness.  Statius ("Silvae" i i . 1.  114)  couples him with Homer as the subject' of a boy's studies:  * See quotation on p.  48.  74. " ... . seu Attica The  two  go  Graius  facundi  amictu  decurreret  together  as  late  orsa  Menandri."  as A u s o n i u s  ("Edyllia"  i v . 46):  A  We  "Conditor  Illados,  Evolvenda  tibi. '  find  ii.  8)  but  the  a g a i n s t the  that Q u i n t i l i a n  place  Is  of t h e i r  t h a n we  protest  shows t h a t t h e y were  proving  orsa Menandri  1  less reference  tragedians,  et amabilis  s h o u l d have' e x p e c t e d t o  of A u g u s t i n e  given  to  ("De  only  s a n c t i o n i n g the  study.  The  Civitate  stage-plays  so u s e d i n h i s t i m e ,  in  were u n d e r t h e  and we  cannot  teachers  the  seems t o h a v e k e p t them o u t  of A l e x a n d r i a  tradition of the  LATIN AUTHORS  In the  STUDIED  o f p r e e m i n e n c e h e l d by  a f t e r h i s d e a t h , was schools. begin  with  f i n d no  Vergil,  comprehend h i m  mention  o f any  of S u l l a ;  but  vius  continued  t o be  nales"  ¥, See  A place  of E n n i u s .  quotation  to t h a t the  the  translation  of h a r d l y The  on p.  fully.  o f the  48.  of t h e  ordinary  not as  Greek  curriculum. the  place  Vergil", at a l l events of Homer I n the  as w i t h  Greek  o f the of t h e  l e s s h o n o u r was like  Homer, t h e  It i s rather  curious  "Iliad"  before  "Odyssey" by  c h i e f text-books,  dramatists  do  thotight & t h a t i t i s b e s t  old translation  one  ap-  Popular  of L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e  even though a t f i r s t ,  time  of H o r a c e .  comparable  Q u i n t i l i a n expresses  p i l s might not we  schools  doubt  usual practice i n  Greek p o e t s  e a r l y Empire,  Dei"  education  a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d i n t h e Roman s c h o o l s . they  the  i n the  given  Pacuvius,  puthat the Hae-  boyhood  to the  Accius,  to  "An-  Afranius,  75. Plautusj  Oaecilius,  the e a r l y Empire the  and T e r e n c e were a l s o s t u d i e d ; b u t u n d e r  there  seems t o h a v e  been a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t  older w r i t e r s . Along  with V e r g i l ,  made h i s way Lucan, the  into  the s c h o o l s , and we  of S t a t i u s ,  lifetime  though n o t without read  e x c i s i o n s , Horace t h a t t h e poems o f  a n d e v e n o f N e r o were l e c t u r e d u p o n  of t h e i r  authors.  g l o r y w h i c h he h a d won  while  But when O v i d b o a s t s  still  living,  he  authors ject  as some h a v e  supposed.  * seems t o h a v e  been  I n any c a s e  left  t o the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e  entirely  of boys i n  the c h o i c e  "non m u l t a s e d multum".  the p o p u l a r i t y of a poet  of  to the teacher,  f l u e n c e which c l i q u e s of t e a c h e r s might have retarding  of the  i s certainly  t h i n k i n g more o f t h e g e n e r a l r e a d i n g p u b l i c t h a n schools,  during  sub-  The i n -  i n p r o m o t i n g or  i s i n d i c a t e d b y Horace  ("Ep."  ' i . 19. 4 0 ) : v.  "Hon  ego  . ...  Grammaticas ' The m a i n substance while It  ambire t r i b u s  perused  o f what was  read  generally f e l t ,  s h o u l d be m o r a l l y good and  too, that those  aliquid."  on l e a r n i n g b e i n g  (X. I . 57)  says  inspiring,  of  imitation,  t h i n g s were t o be  b y b o y s w h i c h most, of a l l n o u r i s h e d  Quintilian  always t h a t the  c h a r a c t e r o f i t s h o u l d be w o r t h y  l a r g e d t h e mind--books  *  dignor."  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a l l r e a d i n g was  the l i t e r a r y  was  et p u l p i t a  t h a t "esse  the t a l e n t  chiefly and  en-  postponed.  Whatever  i n omnibus  utilitatis  76. was s t u d i e d , was s t u d i e d w i t h m i n u t e n e s s and w i t h g r e a t gence a n d known  LECTIO  dili-  thoroughly.  Varro  laid  erature,--the f i r s t  down f o u r s t a g e s f o r t h e s t u d y  one was t h e " l e c t i o " .  of l i t -  What we have  w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e a d i n g method i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  the  said  elementary  s c h o o l * a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o the h i g h s c h o o l , w i t h perhaps attention be  t o punctuation and e s p e c i a l l y  of value  t o the a s p i r i n g  orator.  added  e x p r e s s i o n which would  Quintillan  ( I . v i i i ) has  some g o o d a d v i c e t o o f f e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e , t o t h e r e a d i n g o f poetry.  The p o e t s  difference time  they  s h o u l d n o t be r e a d l i k e  p r o s e - w r i t e r s ; the  s h o u l d be marked b u t n o t e x a g g e r a t e d . s h o u l d n o t be r e a d i n a s i n g - s o n g  ma t e e f f e m i n a t a " - - t h a t i s t o s a y , r e n d e r e d exaggerated  and a f f e c t e d m o d u l a t i o n .  once s a i d  t o a .reader  si  cantas."  legis,  t e r e d by t h e r e a d e r difference  of tone  of t h i s  last  A t t h e same  tone,  nor " p l a s -  e f f e m i n a t e b y an  He t e l l s u s t h a t  Caesar  k i n d " S i c a n t a s , male  cantas;  He o b j e c t s t o s p e e c h e s i n p o e t r y b e i n g u t as an a c t o r would u t t e r necessary  i n order  them; b u t t h i n k s a  t o show t h a t t h e y a r e  speeches. For the proper •of  r e a d i n g of verse,  m e t r e was r e q u i r e d a n d so c e r t a i n  both rules exact  and e x c e p t i o n s — h a d  study.  Even boys,  * See q u o t a t i o n s  of course,  l i c e n c e s and v a r i a t i o n s - -  t o be t h e m a t t e r  says Q u i n t i l i a n ,  on p.. 47.  some knowledge  o f t h e most  understood  the nature  77. ' of m e t r i c a l f e e t , from which i t i s p l a i n t h a t earliest tered,  subjects  the  taught  teacher  them i n a p i e c e  would e x p l a i n  of v e r s e .  lesson  i n the  verse,  which included  the  verse  schools  The  was  ("mei  by  were g e n e r a l l y  the  earliest  b e g i n w i t h the  hexameter.  i n the  the  (trimeter}"iambic\  tic  literature. place  reserved  the  f e e t e i t h e r by  Hor.  i v . 55),  t o be  studied,  detail.  by  foot fact  the mas-  recognize such a  of  the  laws the  of lines  snapping h i s  "Odes" i v . 6.  I n v i e w o f the  a  stroke 35),  or  ("crepitu. that Epic  p u p i l s would and  poets  commonly  capabilities  N e x t t o t h i s w o u l d come  metre most e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d i n dramaof r h y t h m h e l d  i n prose than i n verse; higher  to  of the  Its varied beauties  Questions  f o r the  t h i s was  in reciting  Q u i n t . IX.  ictu",  greatest the  treatment  teacher  of  of t e a c h i n g  s t a m p i n g w i t h the  i v . 55).  tant  The  pollicis  pedum", Quint.. IX.  were.studied  u s u a l manner  d i v i s i o n s of  p e r h a p s more f r e q u e n t l y  s o o n as  t o h i s p u p i l s how  a pretty f u l l  ("crepitu digitorum",  o f h i s thumb  As  to begin with a discussion  under discussion.  w o u l d mark o f f the fingers  i n schools.  i t i s one  stage,  but  a hardly  they  i . e . f o r the  less  impor-  seem t o have teaching  of  been the  "rhetores".  ENARRATIO the  Next t o  the  "poetarum e n a r r a t i o "  u r a l l y made the  greatest  ample s c o p e t o  show t h e i r  "lectio",  or  i n Varro's d i v i s i o n ,  explanation  o f the  c a l l s upon, and scholarship;  text.  gave the  This  "graramaticus"  of r e p u t e was  nat-  "grammatici"  some of them,  indeed,  t h o u g h t more of d i s p l a y i n g i t t h a n o f i n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r A  came  pupils.  s u p p o s e d t o have a t h i s f i n g e r s '  -  78.  ends the explanation of a l l the possible meanings i n the l i t e r - , a/wp-.3 texts; likewise the knowledge..needed to explain the i n c i dents and a l l u s i o n s , concerning such subjects as mythology, h i s t o r y , geography, philosophy, and astronomy, i n the books usually studied; and to be able to i l l u s t r a t e them by appropriate s t o r i e s .  Thus the study of l i t e r a t u r e became what was  r e a l l y a form of a "General Information" course. Needless t o say i t became fashionable to propound and to answer f r i v o l o u s questions and much of the learning became s u p e r f i c i a l , f o r i t was~a f i n e thing i n many c i r c l e s . t o affect to be erudite, and more stress was sometimes l a i d on absurd problems of mythology than, upon learning sober f a c t s .  Juvenal  ("Sat." v i i . 234 f.) gives us some of the puzzles that were taken from V e r g i l : ^ e  » • e  t i l C £L *fc  Nutricem Anchisae, nomen patriamque  novercae  Anchemoli; dicat, quot Acestes v i x e r i t annos, Quot Siculus Phrygibus v i n l donaverit urnas." Suetonius ("Tiberius" 70) says of Tiberius: eiusmodi fere quaestionibus experiebatur:  "grammaticos .... 'quae mater Hecuba^'  'quod A c h i l l i nomen inter virgines f u i s s e t : ' 'quid Sirenes cantare sint solitae?'"  Homer i n t h i s respect furnished abun-  dant material f o r the elucidation of points of ancient h i s t o r y and mythology., geography and r e l i g i o n , manners and customs. When we note the t r i v i a l and absurd pedantry into which the "enarratio" was apt to f a l l , we cannot wonder that Seneca brands i t with the contemptuous name of "litterarum inutilium  79. studia"; * but If kept within due bounds the method must have quickened and s a t i s f i e d an i n t e l l i g e n t c u r i o s i t y better than any other possible at that time. The various d e f i n i t i o n s of the "poetarum enarratio" prove how-wide was the range which i t covered; one generally accepted was "obscurorum sensuura quaestionumque narratio" ( K e i l , "Gramm. Lat".  v i i . p. 376)*; another less comprehensive  voluntatem uniusculusque p. 188).*  Vsecundum poetae  ; d e s c r i p t i o n i s explanatio" (Ibid.vi.  Of course the l i f e of the poet, and the circumstances  under which the poem was composed would f a l l to be discussed. The time spent on mythology, which naturally entered largely into the matter of both epics and dramas, was b i t t e r l y complained of by the C h r i s t i a n fathers as being time spent on the legends of Paganism.  As for h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , Q u i n t i l i a n  thinks that they should be .explained, but that the pupils should not be overloaded with them, rather that they should be conf i n e d to what i s r e l a t e d by authors of mark. EMENDATIO  The next duty of the "grammaticus", according  to Varro, lay i n the "emendatio".  Of this there were two kinds  which i n practice ran into one another more than would seem natural to us.  The f i r s t dealt with the correctness of the  text i n the hands of the pupils.  Prom the f i r s t ,  care seems to  have, been taken that there should be authoritative texts of the leading poets.  The d i f f e r e n t readings of later copies  * As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 67.  80. were due I t was  as a r u l e  and  mechanical learning  d e r i v e d from  or g o o d  judgment:  to secure  brother  ("Ad  this  pupils'  second  author's  style.  the r u l e persuasixm perfecta  traditional  followed with  left,  from  "de  course  and  so a  rate The  Latinis  with  any  a rule,  to  one  need  vero,  quo  me  escaping  their  of Q u i n t i l i a n  i f the  texts  It is  boldness, censures.  ob-  teacher's  integrity  s c h o o l s of the  of  rhetoric  criticism  of  grammarians were a c c u s t o m e d t o  (X. i . 2 4 ) ,  Summi enim  t h a t the  another.  t o the  e v e n t h e most  "neque i d s t a t i m  famous  i n connection with  this  to  legenti  dixerint utique  s u n t , h o m i n e s tamen."  the  pro-  They a c t e d f u l l y up  s i t omnia quae o p t i m i a u c t o r e s  "grammaticus"  see  Hence  intelligence.  f u n c t i o n of " e m e n d a t i o " was H e r e the  of  C i c e r o ' s words t o  t h e a u t h o r s h i p and  as  than  textual  Of  text.  t e x t s must have a g r e e d  c e e d w i t h g r e a t f r e e d o m and w r i t e r s not  5):  agreed  dealing with  l i t e r a r y works were the  that  even a c e r b i t y .  d u t i e s o f a t e a c h e r was  comments were t o be Questions  find  f o r t e a c h i n g purposes,  iii.  rather a  t h o u g h d i s p u t e d p o i n t s were  comes p l a i n l y  Quint."  o l d as  on a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r  do n o t  and  i n the  as  T h i s was  o f a b s o l u t e c o r r e c t n e s s a t any  the h a n d s o f h i s p u p i l s  of t h e  of c o p y i s t s  I t a mendose e t s c r i b u n t u r , e t v e n e u n t . "  of the f i r s t  vious, t h a t t h e  But  energy  maintained  vertam n e s c i o :  in  sources.  and we  necessary  i f not  u n i f o r m i t y , was  one  little  t e x t was  standard,  of c a r e  best  i n v e r y h i g h esteem,  c o n t e s t e d w i t h no a uniform  the  k i n d of b u s i n e s s , depending  c r i t i c i s m was  his  c a r e l e s s n e s s or i g n o r a n c e  t h e r e f o r e a great p o i n t to secure manuscripts  possible  high  t o the  Of t h e  particular  esse duties p a r t of  8£.  the work Q u i n t i l i a n barbara, Gellius  g i v e s us ii.  of V e r g i l .  shallow  i n more t h a n  I f such  defence  effect  e x p l a i n e d and  "Deprehendat,  t h a t the either  pupils  structure  been passed  of the  order  any  arrangement vowels And  to the  of t h e p o e t  the  acter represented,  between s u c h  complaints,  as we  croached  bn  the  * Quint.  IX.  was  t o be  t o o weak  they  Scylla  somewhat show a t  least  studied.•  Care had  o f words i n a s e n t e n c e  to  w h i c h sounded h a r s h l y i n  the  appropriateness  be  d i d not b r i n g  t e a c h e r had  t o impress  or d e f e c t s w h i c h t h e r e m i g h t be  and  language  be  teacher.*  or c o n s o n a n t s  treatment t o the  the  the  selection  of  on  i n the topics  o f t h e words t o t h e  i n k n o w i n g where a f u l l e r  e v i d e n t l y Impossible  appropriate  on  to  p l a c e , and where c o n c i s e n e s s was I t was  "Noctes  o f words i n a s e n t e n c e , h a d  o f t h e work as a w h o l e , i n t h e  and r e f l e x i o n s ,  posita.  damage done by  sophistical,  in particular  merits  thought  quae  sint  (especially  sometimes seems t o us  a little  I l l u s t r a t e d by  juxtaposition.  in  criticism  c a r e w i t h w h i c h the t e x t  together  place  a p p l i e d ("Ecl\ v i . 76)  or t h e  The  one  " V e x a s s e " , f o r example, was  to ships.  his  says:  6) c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h h a d  a w o r d t o be  taken  13)  quae i m p r o p r i a , quae c o n t r a l e g e s l o q u e n d i  Atticae"  the  (I. v i i l .  char-  statement  was  required.  t o draw a h a r d  o f l i t e r a r y w o r k s and  and  fast  t h a t which  line was  s c h o o l o f r h e t o r i c , h e n c e t h e r e were many shall  sphere  i v . 23.  see  later,  t h a t the  of the " r h e t o r . "  "grammaticus"  en-  82, PUPILS  We have surveyed i n some d e t a i l the duties of  1  EXERCISES  the teachers of the secondary schools:'  now  let-,us see what tasks the pupils were set to at the various stages of t h e i r study of l i t e r a t u r e .  Fortunately Q u i n t i l i a n  (I. i x . I f . ) gives us f u l l and i n t e r e s t i n g Information on t h i s point. The exercises of the "grammar"  'School  boy were:  (1) Reading;--We have seen how much attention was paid to t h i s , f o r i t was  indeed a f i n e art among the Romans.  (2) Reproduction, o r a l and written:--The f i r s t step as an exercise i n prose composition was for the pupils to reproduce the substance of a story t o l d by the teacher i n h i s own words i n simple language, and never r i s i n g above the ordinary l e v e l ; then i n a style less p l a i n ; thenpassing on to bolder phrases, sometimes shortening, sometimes amplifying the o r i g i nal,  but always following the sense of the o r i g i n a l story.  Fa-  bles, especially ,those of Aesop, were commonly employed for this purpose, as furnishing simple and b r i e f narratives.  The pupils  also wrote l i t t l e stories from the material supplied by the poets but we are rather surprised to learn from Q u i n t i l i a n (I. i x . 6) that t h i s was more to make them f a m i l i a r with the matter than to improve their s t y l e , " n o t i t i a e causa non eloquentiae tractandas puto."  In t h i s type of exercise clearness and correct-  ness of style were of course the chief things, aimed at. (3) Paraphrasing:--After simple reproduction the pu-r p i l had to make h i s f i r s t attempt at paraphrasing the poets and  83. giving brief had  statements r e g a r d i n g  a moral s i g n i f i c a n e e :  verbis  interpretari,  breviare  events  "versus  turn p a r a p h r a s i  quaedam e t e x o r n a r e  Orat."  a valuable  exercise.  i . 154) o b s e r v e s ,  w r i t e r w i l l have a l r e a d y possible,  so t h a t  only  s e t f o r paraphrase.  agree w i t h  this:  Latinas vetant, imus, n e c e s s e  optimis  s i t esse  Great  on a command  o f a n abundance  t o p r a c t i c e i n put-  ones.  Hence i t was  of l i t e r a t u r e  should  (X. v . 5) does n o t a l t o g e t h e r  dissentio, qui vertere occupatis,  quidquid  the treatment  s t o r e was s e t , b o t h  orationes  allter  dixer-  of short  s e n t e n c e s or  i n speaking  and w r i t i n g ,  of such g e n e r a l  t r u t h s or common-  a n d b o y s were t r a i n e d t o commit them t o memory, t o ex-  pand them, a n d t o i l l u s t r a t e  them f r o m h i s t o r y .  The f i r s t  o f t h e e x p a n s i o n was o f a v e r y m e c h a n i c a l c h a r a c t e r , i n -  v o l v i n g m e r e l y a change i n t h e f o r m use  a great  deterius."  reflexions.  stage  of better  Quintilian  ("De  h i s m e a n i n g i n t h e b e s t way  second r a t e p i e c e s  (4) T h e n f o l l o w e d  places;  B u t p a r a p h r a s e , as C i c e r o  expressed  "Ab i l l i s quia  sensu p e r m i t t i t u r .  i m i t a t i o n " of the poet and  i t i s a p t t o amount o n l y  u r g e d b y some t h a t be  a u d a c l u s v e r t e r e , qua e t  i s open t o t h e o b j e c t i o n t h a t  t i n g worse w o r d s i n t h e p l a c e  which  primo s o l v e r e , mox•mutatis  s a l v o modo p o e t a e  T h i s was i n t r u t h a " r h e t o r i c a l doubtless  or c h a r a c t e r s  of d i f f e r e n t  s y n t a c t i c a l constructions; but obviously  was a n o p p o r t u n i t y  ¥, Q u i n t .  o f t h e " s e n t e n t i a " by the  f o r t h e employment  ( I . i x . 2)  there  o f any amount o f i n g e n u i t y  84. and r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l .  This exercise i s similar to that i n  which our pupils are required to convert direct into i n d i r e c t i n Latin, and vice versa. (5) Pithy sayings of great men were also given and the p u p i l required to explain them, and also to paraphrase them L  as we have explained above. (6) Prosody and the practice of verse-writing were taught but we have no d e f i n i t e information as to the place which was held among the exercises of the schools by composition i n verse.  We have, however, many references to the early age at  which verses were produced, which presume a school t r a i n i n g i n the mechanism of rhythm and d i c t i o n , and Indeed this i s almost implied i n the studies of metrical questions, already referred.  to which we have  Cicero, V e r g i l , Persius, Ovid, Lucan, may  be quoted, as examples of precocity of a b i l i t y i n writing poetry. Such men as these point to a vfidely diffused f a c i l i t y .  Indeed  there are phrases used of some of the EmperCrs which indicate the teaching of composition i n verse pretty p l a i n l y : ("Ann." XIII. 3) says of Nero, "Puerilibus annis  Tacitus  .... aliquando  carminibus pangendis inesse s i b i elementa doctrinae ostendebat," while of Verus we read ( J u l . Cap. "Ver," 2), "amavit i n p u e r i t i a versus facere."*  There i s nothing  surprising In the fact that  such compositions were sometimes i n Greek; the younger Pliny ("Ep." v i i i . 4. 2) t e l l s us of h i s youthful e f f o r t s i n Greek  * As; quoted by A. S. Wllkins, :p.. 74.  - •;  .-  .  composition:  '.  • -85'.  "lumquam a p o e t i c e ;.-.... a l i e n u s f u i ; q u i n  etiam  quattuordecim natus inquis. these  Nescio:  annos Graecam t r a g o e d i a m  tragoedia  e x e r c i s e s and  of C i c e r o "  i i ) was  guage; and  those  verses  daily,  s u c h as simply  a means o f l i t e r a r y  m e n t i o n I t as  training.  i n ordinary  being  part  i t may  artistic  t r a n s l a t i o n was  the  course.  I t was As  so  introduced  conservatism  only  cannot but first  by The  of the  be  the  we  "Life  lan-  them e a c h n i g h t . by  that  the  the  Romans  appear  Quintilian  work o f t h e  little  as  t o have  does  not  of p r o d u c i n g  f o r p u p i l s , so  plastic  i t was and  hindered  when  that  have f o u n d t h i s  as  exercise  s u r p r i s e d t h a t i t was  not  as  literary  afterwards  i t s more common  to introduce  curriculum  really  long  of  of t h e k i n d i n Greek, t h e  neglected  as  "grammaticus".  task  i n t o Roman s c h o o l s ,  school  of  (Plut.  g r a d u a l l y t h a t i t became a p a r t  school masters probably  modern s c h o o l s  burnt  i t does n o t  difficult  nothing  of t h e i r  school  invented  n a t u r a l to teachers  t h e r e was  formed a p a r t  too  purpose  a r e a d y command of  schools.  o f the  the  Qualem?  l i k e Marcus A u r e l i u s , wrote  Yet  have been f e l t  L a t i n l a n g u a g e was  adoption.  who,  e x e r c i s e was  Possibly  t r a i n i n g was  to acquire  scripsi.  But  C i c e r o wrote at  showed them t o none, and  T r a n s l a t i o n as an  the  vocabatur."  were w i s e s t  b e e n much i n u s e  •  Greek  what h a d  not  school boys. so v a l u a b l e  the  In  that  p r a c t i s e d f r o m the  we very-  p r a c t i c a l Romans.  above e x e r c i s e s combined w i t h  l a n g u a g e and  have; s p o k e n , and  the  of numerous p a s s a g e s  literary f r e e and  qualities  the  close c r i t i c a l  of poems, of w h i c h  study we  e l o c u t i o n a r y d e l i v e r y f r o m memory  of p o e t r y ,  c o n s t i t u t e d the  p r i n c i p a l work  86. of the grammar school i n conjunction with the study of grammar. Thus poetry was known with extraordinary thoroughness.  We  now  go on to discuss the grammatical i n s t r u c t i o n , GRAMMAR  Instruction i n Grammar meant In Rome ordinary  grammar as we now understand i t , to which a l l philology of the time was made contributory, i n other words the analysis of language with a view to mastering a l l i t s forms. As might be expected, formal grammar was  superficially  treated i n some schools, but Q u i n t i l i a n urged the importance of a surely and soundly l a i d foundation of grammatical knowledge as the basis of future l i t e r a r y culture.  He l a i d great stress  on the accurate and detailed knowledge of i t , including what we now c a l l h i s t o r i c a l grammar, the inquiry into the sounds of l e t ters, the transposition and substitution of vowels and consonants by reference to ancient Greek and Latin forms:  then the  study of the parts of speech and inquiry into etymologies and synonyms.  The d i f f i c u l t y of f i x i n g the number of the parts of  speech and the difference of opinion as regarded their origin and proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was, Q u i n t i l i a n thought, no argument against the study. The analysis.of language i n such a way was productive of much benefit to the Intelligence of a boy, and gave, a firmness and s o l i d i t y to the i n t e l l e c t which even logic would f a i l to give where there had been no such grammatical d i s c i p l i n e .  In  connection with the uses of words Q u i n t i l i a n (I. Prooem,xvi) says:  "nam verborum proprietas.ac d i f f e r e n t i a omnibus, qui  87. sermonem c u r a e h a b e n t , "Iam  cum  omnis  debet  oratio  emendata, u t d i l u c i d a , sunt  supra d i c t i s  and  these e r r o r s  are  importance  of e m p l o y i n g  stance  i n form.  he  p o i n t s out t h a t  i t rests  of c o r r e c t  1  render  language.  certain  dignity  and  chaic.  Orators  and h i s t o r i a n s w i l l f u r n i s h  less  But the " c e r t i s s i m a employed must be  * Quint.  ( I . v.  1)  Ibid.  ( I . v.  5)  i n sub-  generally  which  on a n a l o g y ,  we  Whereby  s i m i l a r which i s There  is a  a t t a c h i n g t o what i s a r authority;  of the c o n s t r a i n t s  Care must be  poets  of metre.  l o q u e n d i m a g i s t r a " i s u s a g e , and  current coin.  the  s o u r c e s , or  first,  i t i s sometimes a i d e d by e t y m o l o g y .  s a f e g u i d e s , because  speech."  r e a d them  language  something  But  sanctity  If  "correct  may  The  •certain.  are  accent.  of these  "reason", r e l i e s mainly  what i s u n c e r t a i n i s e s t a b l i s h e d by  false  "vetustas", "auctoritas",  then c o n s i d e r s each  almost  first  b a r b a r i s m i ac  be  on a l l who  on " r a t i o " ,  rather  perhaps  will  I n s p e a k i n g of c o r r e c t  He  may  "Prima  quae quae  s e c u r e the  o n l y s u c h words as a r e c o r r e c t  and " c o n s u e t u d o " . guarantees,  To  i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n and  impress  ut  totidem v i t i a ,  Under t h i s h e a d t o o came  avoided the r e s u l t  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s remarks here  and  solecism:  absit."**  other e r r o r s  virtutes,  emendate l o q u e n d i r e g u l a m ,  pars e s t , examinet."*  soloecismi foeditas  all  o r n a t a s i t ....  must a v o i d b a r b a r i s m and  quantities  communis."  ( s t y l e ) t r i s habeat  contraria,  grammatices p r i o r we  ut  esse  the  taken that  diction archaic  88. words when e m p l o y e d a r e n o t s o -.obsolete a s t o be u n i h t e l l l g b l e ; and  i n t h e same way n o a u t h o r i t y  w h i c h the h e a r e r c a n n o t  can j u s t i f y  understand.  In the s e l e c t i o n  t h e n , we must he g u i d e d by t h e c u s t o m  o f g o o d men d e t e r m i n e s  of l i v i n g .  for  p o i n t s out t h a t  t h e "grammaticus";  mentary thus  school.  (I. vii.  scribendum elegance  eruditorum",  j u s t as  c u s t o m as r e g a r d s manner  .  With r e g a r d t o orthography tilian  of words,  o f our t i m e , - - n o t t h e  custom o f t h e m u l t i t u d e b u t the "consensus the consensus  t h e u s e o f words  "recte  the elementary  scribendi rules  toward  iudico,  quomodo s o n a t . "  i n the e l e -  s p e l l i n g he  3 0 ) : - " E g o ( n i s i quod consuetudo  quidque  Quin-  are not a matter  t h e y w i l l h a v e been l e a r n t  His general attitude  scientia"  states  obtinuerit) s i c  The t r e a t m e n t o f  o f d i c t i o n he l e a v e s t o t h e r h e t o r s .  . ' Such a r e t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e s greatest  s c h o o l master  Some, he t e l l s  o f h i s day w o u l d h a v e t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s .  u s , t h o u g h t many  of these  t r o u b l e p u p i l s w i t h , b u t he a r g u e s h a r m f u l t o t h o s e who p a s s t o o l o n g over  fuit  through  that it,  questions too petty to such t r a i n i n g  i s not  b u t o n l y t o t h o s e who  linger  i t ; a n d he c o n f i r m s h i s own judgments b y t h a t o f  high authorities, tissimus  o f t h e grammar w h i c h t h e  including  et i n f i l i o  C i c e r o , who " a r t i s h u i u s  .... r e c t e  l o q u e n d i asper  diligenquoque ex-  a c t o r ."* As  f o r grammar t e x t - b o o k s we do n o t know o f any i n t h e time  a Quint.. I . v i i .  34.  /•;;•  ...  , .:  of the R e p u b l i c , e i t h e r Treatises  prepared or adapted  like  L. A e l i u s  cilius  gave much s p a c e  graphy  and grammar.  Stilo  to the  t h e t e a c h e r t o take  i n schools.  discussion  and  i t a s b e s t he m i g h t  pils,  a t a s k w h i c h was  G r e e k book g e n e r a l l y  naturally  expected  t o be  s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose  of D i o n y s i u s T h r a x .  The  first  i n s c h o o l s was  was  Latin  by  time  onwards L a t i n  great  abundance.  there  seems t o have b e e n s o m e t h i n g  pecially  Indeed  the  t h e Roman  The  elemen-  grammar i n -  c o m p i l e d by Q.  Remmius of  Ves-  grammars were p r o d u c e d  the remark has  c o n g e n i a l t o the  the  oral.  P a l a e m o n ; i t must h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n e a r l y i n t h e r e i g n Prom t h i s  and  of. h i s Roman pu-  of c o u r s e made a l l t h e e a s i e r  tended e x p r e s s l y f o r use  pasian.  to  however, q u i t e u s u a l f o r  t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s  t h a t h i s t e a c h i n g was  Lu-  of p o i n t s of o r t h o -  s u c h as t h e s e a p p e a l e d  I t was,  early  the poet  some Greek compendium as h i s g u i d e ,  adapt  treatise  Praeconinus,  But w r i t e r s  scholars, not t o l e a r n e r s .  tary  f o r use  on q u e s t i o n s o f grammar h a d b e e n w r i t t e n a t an  d a t e b y men  fact  : - 89.  .  been  i n the  somewhat r i g i d  j u s t l y made t h a t  study and  in  o f grammar  prosaic  turn  esof  temper.  I t may exercises,  be n o t e d t h a t , the a t t i t u d e  i n spite  o f the g r a d u a t e d  of the p u p i l s i n the  system  s c h o o l of  of  the  " g r a m m a t i c u s " w o u l d seem t o have b e e n much more p a s s i v e t h a n should c o n s i d e r i n accordance  w i t h sound method.  ( I I . v.  " i n omnibus f e r e minus  15)  says, i t i s true,  p r a e c e p t a quam e x p e r i m e n t a . "  But  as a r u l e  the  Quintilian  "grammaticus"  i n explaining authors d e l i v e r e d eloquent p r e l e c t i o n s , h e a r e r s t o o k down i n t h e i r  note-books  valent  and h i s  as much as t h e y c o u l d  we  90. of h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s  of c r i t i c i s m s .  t o h a v e much r e s e m b l e d t h o s e : o f remarkably  full  with blunders of  carefully  such  and accurate,  (Ibid.  times  o f nowadays:  sometimes c o n f u s e d  teaching  of p u p i l s found  that a string'  as Q u i n t i l i a n  most u n l i m i t e d f i e l d  of the school-room.  Some-  as h a s  Sometimes however a m a s t e r  own n o t e s - - " p r o f i t e n t i u m commen-  ( I . v . 7)  calls  them.  Out o f t h e a l -  o f k n o w l e d g e w h i c h was t i l l e d  by t h e "gram-  a s a body, e a c h v/ould c h o o s e h i s own s p e c i a l  so,- when h i s n o t e s  been  c i r c u l a t i o n a-  ( Q u i n t . I "Prooem." 7 ) ,  i n modern t i m e s .  of eminence w o u l d p u b l i s h h i s  1. 50 f . ) , may have  t h e i r way i n t o  of the teacher  a l s o been t h e case  matici"  sometimes  and teeming  I t i s probable  ("Ep." i i .  the t r a d i t i o n a l  g a i n s t the wishes  and  o f l e c t u r e s seem •  chosen e p i t h e t s f o r g r e a t w r i t e r s of the p a s t ,  the notes  tariolis",  students  I I . . xi.. 7 ) .  a s t h a t . g i v e n by H o r a c e  derived from  The n o t e s  corner,  were p u b l i s h e d , e a c h came t o a d d s o m e t h i n g  to the s t o r e s of l e a r n i n g t o which l a t e r  criticism  was so l a r g e l y  indebted. Q u i n t i l i a n has a l o f t y required poetas  conception  of t h e " g r a m m a t i c u s " .  legisse  satis est:  He s a y s  excutiendum  p r o p t e r h i s t o r i a s modo s e d v e r b a , toribus  sumunt.  perfecta, rationem ortu  Turn neque  cum e i de m e t r i s siderum  occasuque  ( I . i v . 4 f . ) : "^ec omne s c r i p t o r u m genus n o n  quae f r e q u e n t e r  l u s ab a u c -  c i t r a m u s i c e n grammatice p o t e s t rhythmisque dicendum - s i t ,  i g n o r e t , poetas  intelligat,  nec,  esse s i  q u i .... t o t i e n s  signorum i n d e c l a r a n d i s temporibus u t a n t u r , nec  i g n e r a p h i l o s o p h i a e , cum p r o p t e r minibus  o f t h e v a r i e d knowledge  plurimos  l o c o s ex i n t i m a n a t u r a l i u m  i n omnibus f e r e c a r -  quaestionum  subtilitate  91. repetitos, Lucretium  turn v e l p r o p t e r in Latinis,  diderunt."  He  Empedoolea i n G r a e c i s , Varronem  qui praecepta  goes on t o  sapientiae versibus tra-.  s t r e s s the  importance  eloquence  a "grammaticus":  ut  de unaquaque earum, quas d e m o n s t r a v i m u s , r e r u m d i c a t p r o p r i e  et  copiose."  efforts says: quid  t o the "nisi  the  great  importance  oratoris futuri  Q u i n t i l i a n now,  SUBJECTS  special f i e l d  at  the  esse  says  cal  ( I . x.  the  nature;  study he  studies  should  stance,  that  one  M u s i c was grammatical and as  be  looked should  t o be  of  "high  iecit,  quid-  the  subjects  train  such  acting for,  s c i e n t i a non  are  of a  strictly  potest would  practi-  of e a c h o f  suggestion, or an  playing  o f an  these  for i n actor.  of i n s t r u c t i o n i n  a view t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  following Is  On  g r o u n d s on w h i c h he  course  the  taking  educated  play  t o become a m u s i c i a n  not  be  to  additional subjects  l i m i t s what p a r t  added to the  adverts  school".  g y m n a s t i c s , and  But  language,the  or c o m p l e t e l y  i n t o , - - t h e r e i s no  i n t o n a t i o n In utterance, The  the  omnium t a l i u m  definitely  school with  i n Greece.  study  "sine  of t h e s e  very  ( I . i v . 5).  of  "grammaticus",  orator  dancing,  11):  study  thinks a youth should  to the  perfecta eloquentia."  advocate  of the  a d v o c a t e s the  as m a t h e m a t i c s , m u s i c , as he  Quintilian  l e a v i n g the  i s attending  of t h e i r u t i l i t y  man,Quintilian  opus,  " grammaticus ' "  fundamenta f i d e l i t e r  s t u d i e s w h i c h he  same t i m e as he  account  est  corruet."  OTHER  other  mediocri  of t h e  youth's f u t u r e education  super s t r u x e r i s ,  those  quoque non  of  to  Of  "Eloquentia  ac  the  o f rhythm instrument  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s summary of  the  92. values-of; musicalVstudy  '(IV -'x. 22 f . ) :  "Humeros m u s i c e - d u p l l -  ce s ha be t i n v o c l b u s e t i n c or pore, . ... Hum I g i t u r non haec omnia o r a t o r i n e c e s s a r i a ? c o i l o c a t l o r i e m verborUm  >  quorum unum ad gestum, a l t e r u m ad  t e r t l u m a d f l e x u s v o c i s , q u i sunt  agendo q u o q u e p l u r i m l  iri  e t voce e t modu-  l a t i o n e g r a n d i a e l a t e , i u c u n d a d u l c i t u r , moderata l e n i t e r e a n i t , totaque  a r t e c o n s e n t i t cum eorurn quae d i c u n t u r a d f e c t i b u s .  A t q u i i n orando quoque i n t e n t i o v o c i s , r e m i s s i o , f l e x u s p e r t i n e t ad movendos a u d i e n t i u m  adfectus, aliaque et c o l l o c a t i o n i s  e t v o c i s .... m o d u l a t i o n e c o n c i t a t i o n e m  iudicis, alia miseri-  cordiam petimus; .... C o r p o r i s quoque aptus e t decens motus, ....  e t e s t n e c e s s a r i u s nec a l i u n d e p e t i p o t e s t .  :ebit i m p r i m i s curam v o c i s o r a t o r ?  .... non hab-  Q u i d tarn musices proprium?"  Q u l h t i l i a n would nave no m i s t a k e m a d e as t o what k i n d of music he advocates f o r study  ( i . x, 3 1 ) :  "non hanc ( s c . k i n d of  music) a me p r a e c i p i , , quae nunc I n s c e n l s e f f e m i n a t a e t imp u d i c i s modis f r a c t a noh ex p a r t e minima, s i q u i d i n n o b i s v i r i l i s r o b o r i s manebat, e x c i d i t , sed qua laudes f o r t i u m caneban t u r , quaque i p s i f o r t e s canebant; nec p s a l t e r i a e t s p a d i c a s , e t i a m v i r g i n l b u s p r o b i s r e c u s a n d a , sed c o g n i t i o n e m quae ad movendos leniendosque  rationis,  a d f e c t u s plurimum v a l e t . "  I n a s i m i l a r l y d e f i n i t e way Q u i n t i l i a n ( I . x. 49) s t a t e s why geometry s h o u l d be s t u d i e d :  " s i e s t o r a t o r i .... de omni-  bus r e b u s dicendum> n u l l o modo s i n e g e o m e t r i a esse p o s s i t orat o r ."  Elsewhere ( I . x . 37) he p o i n t s out t h a t there might be  a v a l u a b l e t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g from the study of geometry t o  93. -oratory; one example of "transfer" he expresses thus: est  "ordo  geometrlae necessarius; nonne et eloquentiae?"' As a l i b -  e r a l study geometry had no a t t r a c t i o n for the Romans with the •i  r e s u l t that i t was taught c h i e f l y i n i t s r e l a t i o n s to mensuration.  The part of geometry which, along 'with astronomy, i n -  cluded In those; days the whole of physical science, was  merely  touched, save by a few of the more ardent.  i-}->~}-^<Mi§&  :  play-acting  - was-, regarded, as a degrading employment,  Q u i n t i l i a n (I. x i . 3 f.) recommends that the student who i s going on to the study of oratory take lessons from an actor with a v i e w o n l y t o "pronuntiatio": :  ac motus a comoedis petendus est.  "Ne gestus quidem omnis Quanquam enim utrumque eorum  ad quendam modum praestare debet Orator, plurimum tamen aberit a scenico, nec vultu nec manu nec excursionibus nimius.  Nam  s i qua i n h i s ars est dicentium, ea prima est, ne ars esse v i d eatur.  Quod est i g i t u r huius doctoris officlum?  In primis  v i t i a s i qua sunt oris emendet, ut expressa sint verba, ut suis quaeque l i t t e r a e sonis enuntientur. ....  Debet etiam docere  comoedus, quomodo narrandum, Gymnastics tod were valuable and,so should be given a cert a i n amount of time, or to quote Quintilian's words ( I . x i . 15): '•Ne i l l o s quidem reprehendendos puto, qui paulum - etiam palaest r i c i s vacaverunt."  He hastens to explain, however, that the  teacher s, of gymnastics he recommends are not "de his. .... quibus p a r s v i t a e i n oleo, -par's: In vino consumitur, qui corporurn cura mehtem obruerunt," but rather those "a quibus gestus motusque formantur, ut recta slnt /brachia, ne indoctae rusticae manus,  94. ne status indecorus, ne qua i n proferendis pedibus i n s c i t i a , ne caput oculique ab a l i a corporis i n c l i n a t i o n e dissideant." Cicero ("De Orat." i l l . 59) quotes the words of Crassus, i n v/hich he lays down the p r i n c i p l e that the orator should learn to move "laterum inflexione hac f o r t i ac v i r i l i , non a scaena et h i s t r i o n i b u s , sed ab armis aut etiam a palaestra."  Before  closing his discussion of gymnastics and the advantages they might a f f o r d the orator, Q u i n t i l i a n does not neglect to i n d i cate that such p h y s i c a l exercises should have a stopping-point (I.  x i . 19):  "A me tamen nec u l t r a pueriles annos r e t i n e b i t u r  nec i n h i s i p s i s dlu." The better " l u d i grammatici" turned out pupils who though perhaps not youth of deep learning had a great fund of i n f o r mation, v/ho could write clear, accurate Latin (and often a ft  Greek,) s t y l e , and generally c a r r i e d themselves as c u l t i v a t e d young gentlemen.  The great defect of the "high school" was  that i t gave but l i t t l e , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r learning to d i s t i n g u i s h fact from fancy, or acquiring the s c i e n t i f i c habit of mind which at Rome was so rare. The further.education of the youth a f t e r he had assumed, the "toga v i r i l i s "  (generally at sixteen years of age) depended  oh h i s future occupation.  Those intended for a farmer's l i f e  went to l i v e at some farm station; those intended: for the army passed very young into the service; those again who were intended for public l i f e or for pleaders or j u r i s t s , or who aspired to pass as highly educated, inevitably went to the r h e t o r i c a l schools.  95-. It part  may  be  of the  a few  n o t i c e d In p a s s i n g  curriculum  i n the  earlier  o f the  lower  schools  in  the  former  begun v e r y If.)  complains  rather the  and  the  Gram." 4 ) . the  sphere  t o the  does n o t latter  of r h e t o r i c :  et  rhetores  alienas  declamandi intra  uti'que n o s t r i  occupaverunt.  latter,  noted.  "Tenuit  Graecis  postulat, traderentur.  ac f a c u l t a t e m  tradere  officii  quae r e l i c t a  (nam satis  (quo. nomine g r a t i a  p r o s o p o p o e i a s usque ac  onus d i c e n d i v e l maximum e s t , i r r u m p u n t . quae a l t e r i u s  artis  prima erant  a l t e r i u s novissiraa, et  aetas  altioribus  in  s c h o l a minore  subsidat  on  the  altogether, be cotidie  Latinis  qui-  s e r i u s quam  grammatici  s u i ducuht,  cepisse,  ut,  ( I I . I.  should  d e c l a m a r e modo e t  sua m i n o r a d e s p i c i u n t ) , e t h i non  dit,  given  seems t o have  omiserunt et  fessione  bus  training  c o n s u e t u d o , quae  d e l i b e r a t i v a s i u d i c i a l e s q u e materias  habenda e s t ) , sed u t  the  E i u s r e i d u p l e x c a u s a e s t , quod  et i l l i  erant,  ele-  o f more  "grammaticus"  interim, discipuli  no not  of  Quintilian  eloquentiae,  suas p a r t e s  Nam  of t h e  f o r s h u n n i n g what  :-dem  ratio  places  condemn t h e f o r m e r  praeceptoribus  sed etiam  schools,  tendency  o f the  i n t r u s i o n of t h e  blame t h e  The  "overlapping"  magis i n v a l e . s o i t , u t semper  "grammar"  even w r o t e u p o n t h e  have a l r e a d y  of t h i s  stages  and  of t h a t proper  "rhetor" but  does he  first  and  e a r l y , as we  work o f t h e  "De  t o e n c r o a c h on  advanced education,  ordinary  days taught  ments o f r h e t o r i c ( S u e t . ,  t h a t , t h o u g h r h e t o r i c was  idque  cetera ut credunt  proex-  quoque l i s  s u a s o r i a s , In q u i Hinc  ergo  opera, f a c t a iam  scientiam  acci-  sint  disciplinis  ac r h e t o r i c e n a p u d g r a m m a t i c o s  debita  96. exerceat.  I t a , quod e s t maxime r i d i c u l u m , non  ante  ad d e c l a -  m a n d i m a g i s t r u m m i t t e n d u s v i d e t u r p u e r quam d e c l a m a r e This nature  complaint  seems o n l y p a r t l y  of t h i n g s t h a t a s c h o o l - m a s t e r  promising  p u p i l and  t e a c h him  that  t h e more a d v a n c e d t e a c h e r  sent  t o him  that  t h e p r a c t i c e was  as  s o o n as he  interfered with  discipline. competition  class  can;  and  like  a  equally natural  t o have h i s  I t i s manifest,  student  however, Inasmuch  showy e x h i b i t i o n s of o r a t o r y  But  evil  be  culture, the  and  and  the  the of  work done i n t h e  in particular  business  of the  find  same a s t h o s e  some d i f f e r e n c e s b o t h  by  gullibility  s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g was  of s u r p r i s e , t h e n , i f we  of s c h o o l l a r g e l y  accentuated  the  a g o o d d e a l of the  o f s t y l e , w h i c h was  though w i t h  should wish to r e t a i n  among m a s t e r s f o r p u p i l s and  no m a t t e r  i n the  the more t h o r o u g h p r e p a r a t o r y . l i n g u i s t i c  for the'general  formation  one  and  of r h e t o r i c w i t h a view t o  suitable  n e e d be  is fit*  E s p e c i a l l y would t h i s  t h e Roman p a r e n t . school  should  It.Is  of d o u b t f u l e d u c a t i o n a l value,  as i t l e d t o p r e m a t u r e thus  a l l he  justified.  sciat."  the  for  less  the  school.  It  e x e r c i s e s In  In the  i n method a n d  not  other,  i n extent.  CHAPTER  V  SCHOOLS.--BUILDINGS. FURNITURE. HOURS, HOLIDAYS, D I S C I P L I N E . 'TEACHERS AND  INTRODUCTION  .Originally: a l l education  OF SCHOOLS for  t h e home.  given  and  The m o t h e r w o u l d be  i t over.  given i n  responsible  and a t b e s t  be  subject  to h i s private business this that  t o have  e m b a r r a s s m e n t was i t was  struction, dren.;  to turn  I t must  over  one  appreciated  competent  w o u l d seem o n l y  of i n t e r r u p t i o n s  i n very  would i n c l u d e  We  early  f a m i l i a s " who to give  slaves  Roman m a s t e r s .  n a t u r a l f o r the f o r t u n a t e  times, happened  of t h e  t a k e n i n war  a competent  find  the needed i n -  t o him the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g  educated than t h e i r  h o u s e h o l d s , however,  w i t h h i s own  or h i s p u b l i c d u t i e s .  be remembered t h a t  o f t e n much b e t t e r  to receive  to a l l sorts  customary f o r a "pater  among h i s s l a v e s  * and  The a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n  t o t h e c h i l d r e n by t h e f a t h e r w o u l d v a r y  education  that  a t Rome was  t h e c h i l d r e n ' s up t o s a y t h e s i x t h or s e v e n t h y e a r  then the f a t h e r would take  due  THEIR EMOLUMENTS  chilr  were Not a l l  teacher,  and i t  owner o f s u c h a  slave  i n t o h i s h o u s e a t f i x e d h o u r s o f t h e day c h i l d r e n  of h i s f r i e n d s a n d n e i g h b o r s t o be t a u g h t  together  with h i s  own. For fit,  this  as we  p r i v i l e g e he m i g h t c h a r g e a f e e f o r h i s own  are t o l d  * See p . 3 3 .  C a t o a c t u a l l y d i d , or he m i g h t a l l o w  benethe  98. slave to r e t a i n as h i s "peon.Hum" the l i t t l e presents given him by h i s pupils i n l i e u of direct payment.  The next step  was to select for the school a more convenient place than a private house, one that,was central and e a s i l y accessible, and to receive as pupils a l l who could pay the modest fee that was demanded. And so we had the beginning of what we might refer to as the "school-house".  A large number of these "adventure"  schools  sprang up to meet the needs of the less opulent; they of course continued to be generally taught by slaves or freedmen.  Such  schools would be.only private undertakings, and probably without even an authority from the state. It i s very d i f f i c u l t to say with confidence whether during the early Republic there were any "public" schools at Rome, It i s true that we f i n d schools referred to i n more than one of the old legends.  Livy for example t e l l s us ("Hist." i i i .  44) how V i r g i n i a i n 305 B. 0. was seized as she was on her way t o school:  " V i r g i n ! venienti i n forum, ( i b i namque i n  tabernis literarum l u d i erant,) minister decemviri l i b i d i n i s manum i n i e c i t . "  Dionysius i n t e l l i n g the same story (XI. 24)*  gives i t the same setting,  Livy has also something to say  about a school master of boys at P a l e r i i ("Hist." v. 27): "Mos  erat F a l i s c i s , eodem magistro liberorum et comite u t i :  simulque plures pueri, .... unius curae demandabantur."  * As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 8.  '•• • 99. Some c r i t i c s accuse Livy of romancing here, especially as Plutarch ("Quaestiones Romanae", l i x ) expressly states that Spurius C a r v i l i u s was the f i r s t to open,a school at Rome sometime about 235-230 B. C.  To reconcile Livy and. Plutarch, i t  has been suggested that, while C a r v i l i u s was the f i r s t to charge fees, the teachers of the schools previously existing had been recompensed by voluntary g i f t s . expresses  A. S. ?/ilkins (p. 8 )  the opinion that Livy had no better authority for  these d e t a i l s than h i s own imagination.  He suggests i t would  be hardly more perilous to draw an inference from the fact that Plutarch ("Life of Romulus", v i ) t e l l s us that Romulus and Remus went to school at Gabii. The regular term for a school was "ludus", a name chosen --so the grammarian Festus  (p. 347)* assures u s — l e s t by using  some more deterrent word attendance should be discouraged.  The  "ludus" was a place for exercise of any kind, for example " l u dus m i l i t a r i s " , where soldiers were exercised.  I t thus was  naturally used for the place to which children resorted for school exercises.  In C l a s s i c a l L a t i n "ludus" continued to be  the only designation for the elementary school.  Higher schools  came i n time to be c a l l e d "scholae"; which term does not occur i n the sense of a school t i l l the later imperial times. Under the later Repiiblic and Empire schools were well established; they presented the appearance of a system corres-  * As quoted by A. S. Wilkins, p. 43.  100, ponding and  to ourelementary,  i t had  secondary,  hecome t h e a p p r o v e d  c e i v e h i s e d u c a t i o n from c l u n g t o the  o l d home e d u c a t i o n u n d e r  man.  The  better tried  poor t e a c h e r  teacher had to handle  There as  more t h a n  matter  continere toribus  t i m e , meant day  corrumpuntur  ....  et v e l u t  rei  exempla tarn h e r c u l e quam c o n s e r v a t a e  que  opinionis.  i n aetate prima  pudoris:  ionem  secreta praebuerint. p r a e c e p t o r , nec  Nam  tutior  but n e i t h e r  He  (I.ii)  education, education  accordingly  instruction;  publicis  praecep-  putant;  non  ille  formandi  uos  parum m o d e s t o s c o n v e r s a t i o e s t . "  Da  custodien-  minorem f l a g i t i i s  inter  eius  sanctlssime utrobi-  et potest t u r p i s  cus  nam  sunt multa  totum curaque d i s t a t .  mentem a d p e i o r a f a c i l e m , da n e g l e g e n t i a m dique  The  p r i v a t o s p a r i e t e s studentem  s e d domi quoque, e t  cuiusque  no  alone.  "public"  C o r r u m p i mores i n s c h o l i s  interim,  Hatura  occurred to  private  schools.  opposed t o s c h o o l  an f r e q u e n t i a e s c h o l a r u m  tradere.  passed  discussion i n Quintilian  By  intra  are  pupils.  i n Roman e d u c a t i o n .  s i t domi a t q u e  pupils  monitors,  and  as  i d e a of v a s t  h i s school entirely  of " p u b l i c "  c o n t r a s t i n g domestic  The  "graduated"  thirty  interesting  i n Quintilian's  "Utiliusne  small.  of e f f i c i e n t  say  yet  tutors,  a f t e r year  at l a s t  conducted  to the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s  Was,  et  and  a couple  i s a very  an I m p o r t a n t  Is  to teacher  to re-  them, t h o u g h t h e r e were many who  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s where y e a r  from-teacher  education;  t h i n g f o r t h e Roman boy  Roman s c h o o l s were a t a l l t i m e s "graded"  and h i g h e r  esse  occasdomesti-  s e r v o s m a l o s quam Q u i n t i l i a n goes on  ingento  LUDUS  ROMANUS  M A G I S T E R ET  DISCIPULI  T h i s picture ia a photograph of a R o m a n carving in stone.  p a i n t a very "black p i c t u r e of the domestic l i f e  of many Romans  - - t h e i r d a i l y h a b i t s of l u x u r y , t h e i r s e n s u a l i t y , and l i c e n t i o u s conversation be  and  songs.  No day p u b l i c s c h o o l  o t h e r w i s e t h a n b e n e f i c i a l t o the boy  that i s c e r t a i n .  The  their could  of such a f a m i l y , - -  "tone" of a d a y - s c h o o l as a whole c o u l d  not f a i l , hov/ever d e f e c t i v e , t o be b e t t e r than the tone of a boy  so r e a r e d .  The  s c h o o l would have t o guard a g a i n s t him,  he a g a i n s t the s c h o o l .  And  so Q u i n t i l i a n comes t o the  conclu-  s i o n , "lumen tamen i l l u d conventus h o n e s t i s s i m i t e n e b r i s ac solitudini  praetulissem."  not  102. ' Q u i n t i l i a n also points out (I. i i .  18) the advantage of  a "public" education to the aspiring orator:  "Ante omnia f u -  turus orator, cui i n maxima celebritate et i n media r e i publi.*r  cae luce vivendum est, adsuescat  iam a tenero non  reformidare  homines neque i l i a s o l i t a r i a et velut umbratica v i t a pallescere Both our pictures are of private " l u d i " as i s obvious from the elaborate furnishings of the "schools" and the small number of p u p i l s . ..SCHOOL  Neither among the Greeks nor the Romans were  BUILDINGS  school buildings universal or even common i n our  modern sense; nor were any special buildings b u i l t or used for educational purposes.  "Adventure" teachers  ('and a l l were ad-  venture teachers) n a t u r a l l y provided their own  school rooms.  ' 'For a long time any room or shelter was good enough for giving elementary i n s t r u c t i o n .  Sometimes schools were held i n  the open a i r , In some quiet corner of a street or market place. Horace ("Ep." I. xx. 17)  says:  ".... Ut pueros elementa docentem Occupet extremis i n v i c i s balba  senectus."  In e a r l i e r times we read of "tabernae"* and these "tabernae"  -- sheds or booths;  i n later times were l i k e shops opening on  the street, and attached to even fashionable houses.  There  are abundant examples of these at Pompeii. We read that the school was  * See quotation on p.  9B„  commonly held " i n pergula".  103. Suetonius  ("De  I l l u s t . Gram." 18) says:  "deinde i n p e r g u l a  docuit."  T h i s word i s used i n somewhat v a r i o u s senses but i t  g e n e r a l l y denotes a k i n d of veranda, w i t h a r o o f but open a t the s i d e s . But we may  Sometimes i t was much the same as a " t a b e r n a " . t h i n k of the " p e r g u l a " u s e d f o r t e a c h i n g purposes  as b e i n g o r d i n a r i l y a room on the g r o u n d - f l o o r , open t o the s t r e e t i n f r o n t , and  o f t e n on the s i d e s as w e l l .  At a l a t e r  date " p e r g u l a e m a g i s t r a l e s " came t o be the r e g u l a r term f o r the l e c t u r e - r o o m s  of the r h e t o r i c i a n s (cp. V o p i s c u s , "Sat^r-o.  !i  10).* Open- as the s c h o o l s were t o the s t r e e t , the c h i l d r e n were exposed t o a l l the d i s t r a c t i o n s of the busy town l i f e around them, and the people  l i v i n g near were I n t u r n annoyed  by the n o i s y r e c i t a t i o n s and even n o i s i e r punishments. judge from a passage i n A u g u s t i n e  ("Confessiones"  To  i , 13)**  c u r t a i n s were sometimes u s e d t o separate the " p e r g u l a " from the s t r e e t ; t h i s would n o t , however, h e l p the n o i s e tions at a l l .  distrac-  As t ime went on and the forum became more and  more busy and n o i s y , s c h o o l s were a p p a r e n t l y removed t o more s u i t a b l e l o c a l i t i e s ; t h i s would a i d c o n s i d e r a b l y the e f f o r t s of the t e a c h e r t o keep a t t e n t i o n . The  school establishment  sometimes had a v e r y  • * As quoted by Lewis and Short,, "A New  convenient  Latin Dictionary."  ** "At e n i m ' v e l a pendent l i m i n i b u s grammaticsrum scholarum."  104. ante-room where the v a r i o u s a t t e n d a n t s of the p u p i l s might t a r r y and match g o s s i p w h i l e t h e i r charges were b e i n g I n s t r u c t e d . .E^HITURE OF  The h e a l t e a c h e r s a t on h i s " c a t h e d r a " ,-K a  THE' SCHOOLS  h i g h s e a t w i t h a round back, g e n e r a l l y r a i s e d  on a " p u l p i t u m " .  I f t h e r e was  an a s s i s t a n t  ("hypodidasculus",  "ad l u t o r " , or " s u b - d o c t o r " ) he w o u l d s i t on a " s e l l a " , which was  p l a c e d on the f l o o r and had no back. ' C i c e r o ("Ad  a r e s " i x . . 18) says: a s c a l o proxima: The  Famili-  " S e l l a t i b i e r i t i n ludo tanquam hypodid-  earn p u l v i h u s sequetur."  c h i l d r e n of the lov>rer grade s c h o o l s , f o r the most p a r t ,  would appear t o have s a t on the f l o o r , o r , i f i n the s t r e e t , the s t o n e s .  The  s c h o o l s of the " g r a m m a t i c i "  on  seem t o have been  p r o v i d e d w i t h wooden benches w i t h no backs, so t h a t Seneca .("Ep." 49) says "apud Sotionem s e d i " f o r " I a t t e n d e d the c l a s s e s of S o t i o n . "  I n w r i t i n g , the p u p i l s commonly r e s t e d t h e i r t a b -  l e t s on t h e i r knees; we do not r e a d of t a b l e s or desks, nor we  see any The  such f u r n i t u r e  do  represented.  s c h o o l rooms of the b e t t e r c l a s s of s c h o o l s  ("pergulae  m a g i s t r a l e s " ) were f r e q u e n t l y adorned^, a f t e r the Greek f a s h i o n , w i t h works of a r t - - b o t h i n s c u l p t u r e (marble or p l a s t e r ) and In p a i n t i n g .  I n the schools" of l i t e r a t u r e , f o r I n s t a n c e , b u s t s  of famous a u t h o r s might be d i s p l a y e d ; and some i n t e r p r e t e r s h o l d t h a t t h i s I s r e f e r r e d t o by J u v e n a l ("Sat." v i i . 226 I n the  lines:  a See p i c t u r e of a "Ludus Romanus" on p.  101.  f.)  -/. :  .  1G5.  ".... cum totus decolor esset Flaccus, et haereret nigro f u l i g o Maroni." The walls of the class room were also adorned with tablets containing pictures, i n c i s e d on marble or on plaster, of scenes from mythology or h i s t o r y ; the most famous of these, though by no means the o n l y one preserved to us more or less complete, i s the "tabula I l i a c a " , the inscriptions on which make:: i t clear that i t was: intended to teach pupils i n schools the main Inci- ' dents i n the Trojan war. As time went on appliances for teaching were improved and increased; certainly there was an increase i n the;number of classroom "readers".  Maps and chronological tables were i n  existence, but there i s no evidence that they were used i n schools, at least not u n t i l f a i r l y late i n the Empire.* SCHOOL  The school day began before sunrise, as did a l l the  HOURS .  work at Rome on account of the heat i n the middle  of the day.  The session lasted u n t i l time for the noonday  luncheon and s i e s t a , and was resumed i n the afternoon. But the curious "Colloquia Scholastica"--dialogues i n Greek and Latin of an uncertain date--describes how the pupils went off i n the middle of the morning to their homes to get their dium" and to change their dress.**  * See quotations on p.  "pran-  Often, however, boys 'hOught  57,58.  **«-. As quoted by A, S. Wilkinsy p. 48.  106* cakes on their way to school, as a l i g h t early breakfast: "Surgite, iara vendit pueris ientacula p i s t o r , Gristataeque sonant undique l u c i s aires". (Mart. "Epig." x i v . 223) Ausonius at a somewhat later date speaks ("Ep." x . 18. 10) of six hours as the usual length of the school day.* res" x i i i . 17) i n speaking  Ovid ("Amo-  of the early hour of the opening of  schools thus addresses "Dawn": "Tu pueros somno fraudas, tradisque magistris; Ut subeant tenerae verbera saeva manus." M a r t i a l ("Epig." IX. 69) complains of h i s sleep being disturbed by the early school sessions and bribes the school-master to close up shop: " V i c i n i somnum non tota nocte rogamus: Nam v i g i l a r e leve est, p e r v i g i l a r e grave. Discipulos dimitte tuos:  v i s , garrule, quantum  Accipis ut clames, accipere ut taceas." Elsewhere (Ibid. IX. 30) M a r t i a l refers to the teacher as "matutinus".** hardships  Juvenal ( v i i . 222 f.) represents as one of the  of a teacher's l i f e that he has to breathe a i r i n  h i s school room poisoned by the smoke of the many lanterns which the pupils used before dawn:,  * As quoted by A. S. Wilklns, p. 48. ** M a r t i a l makes other references to "School Hours" i n passages quoted under " D i s c i p l i n e " , p. 111.  107. "Dummodo non pereat, mediae quod noctis ab hora S e d i s t i , qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet, Qui docet obliquo lanam deduoere ferret Dummodo non pereat totidem olfecisse lucernas, Quot stabant pueri, cum totus decolor esset Flaccus, et haereret nigro f u l i g o Maroni." SCHOOL  Holidays appear to have been numerous.  School  HOLIDAYS  was closed for the "Quinquatria" (Mar. 19-23,  i n honour of Minerva), at the "Saturnalia" (beginning Dec. 17 and l a s t i n g several days), and probably on such f e s t i v a l s as those of Flora, V i c t o r i a , Geres, and Apollo,  Triumphs and  g l a d i a t o r i a l shows would be occasions for i n c i d e n t a l holidays. The holidays i n connection with the "Quinquatria" and the "Sat u r n a l i a " are both frequently mentioned, as: M a r t i a l ("Epig." V. 84): "lam t r i s t i s nucibus puer r e l i c t i s Clamoso revocatur a magistro." Pliny ("Ep." v i i i . 7):  Tu i n scholam te revocas, ego a dime  Saturnalia extendo." .Horace ("Ep." i i . 2. 197): "Ac potius, puer ut f e s t i s quinquatribus olim, Exiguo gratoque f r u a r i s tempore raptim." Symraachus ("Ep." v, 85):  "Nempe Minervae t i b i solemne de  scholis.notum est, ut fere memores sumus etiam aevo puerilium feriarum."*  * As quoted by A. W. Becker, "Gallus", p.  193.  procedente  108. T h e r e h a s "been much d i s c u s s i o n as t o t h e l e n g t h summer h o l i d a y s . ; ded  I t has teen  .  of the  assumed b y some t h a t t h e y , e x t e n -  o v e r f o u r months o f t h e summer; T h i s  v i e w m a i n l y r e s t e d on  •i  an  apparently  75):  "ibant  read:  school  of the l i n e Idibus  octonis referentes  of Horace aeras."  Idibus  aera !; 1  Some e d i t o r s and then  their  fees  on e i g h t  i t would appear t h a t  o f the twelve  the t r u e r e a d i n g  a n d t h a t we may l e a r n . f r o m  i s t h e one f i r s t  i t t h e amount o f t h e f e e p a i d ,  The c h i l d r e n o f w e a l t h y p a r e n t s  Rome d u r i n g  the h o t s e a s o n ,  attendance  during  the c h i l d r e n of poorer  cause  the boys Martial  instruments tober,  classes  ( " E p i g . " X. 62) b i d s o f punishment;  of i t s admirable sceptra  Cessent, e t Idus dormiant Aestate  pueri  s i valent,  or t h e v i n t a g e  of course would not  t o stay  t o have a r e s t  away f r o m  till  sentiment:  In Octobres: discunt."  school. allow h i s  t h e I d e s o f Oc-  schoolboy w i l l  paedagogorum,  satis  close  t h e r e was l i t t l e or  the " l u d i magister"  a remark t o which the i d l e s t  •"Ferulaeque . t r i s t e s ,  This  from  c u t down  and m i g h t p e r h a p s  the o l i v e h a r v e s t  parents.  o f the b e t t e r  L a t i n f o r t h e sake  w o u l d be a b s e n t  We may assume, t o o , t h a t  attendance a t school  during the  and t h i s w o u l d a t l e a s t  i n some o f t h e s c h o o l s  them a l t o g e t h e r .  for  year.  t h e number o f m o n t h s i n w h i c h I t was d u e .  summer.  no  this  Ides each  T h e r e was, however, no d o u b t a good r e s p i t e  the  ("Sat." i . 6.  i s b y some i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t b o y s went t o t h i s taking  given, not  reading  octonbs r e f e r e n t e s  "Ibant  reading  But  false  f o r g i v e i t s •.•  .109.  M a r t i a l does not evidently mean that he i s t o close h i s school altogether — i f t h i s had been the practice, as some have assumed, the poet's advice would have been needle a s — b u t  only that, l i k e  wise teachers nowadays, he should not press h i s pupils when the weather was extremely hot and school work was inconvenient and dangerous. The following quotations from Q u i n t i l i a n give some very sane advice with respect to holidays: (I. i i i .  8):  "Danda est .... omnibus aliqua remissio."  (I. i i i .  9):  "Itaque et virium plus adferunt ad discendum  renovati ac recentes et acriorem animum, qui fere n e c e s s i t a t i bus  repugnat." (I. i i i . 1 1 ) :  DISClPhllJE.,'. .  "Modus s i t remissionibus."  The school d i s c i p l i n e was severe and the hot  temper of the school master was almost proverbial. ("Bacchides"  iii.  Plautus  3 . 27) says:  "Cum l i b r o ut legeres:  s i hercle unam peccavisses syllabam  Pieret corium tarn maculosum quamst n u t r i c i s pallium." The low class teacher knew well enough that the type of parents who employed him believed i n the old maxim "he who i s not flogged i s not educated."  And the great majority of parents  would probably have agreed with the doctrine put forward so frankly by Ausonius  i n h i s exhortation to h i s grandson ("Edyl-  l i a " i v ) , that he must not mind the severe d i s c i p l i n e of school, for that i s what made h i s mother and father what they were. Such a stern and. even cruel d i s c i p l i n e was by no means out of  • "  k e e p i n g with., t h e Roman m i l i t a r y have been i n p a r t system  one  of those  c h a r a c t e r , hut  1  i t may  b e e n d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a l w a y s  stern discipline  o f the c e n t u r i o n w i t h h i s v . i n e - s t o c k .  naturae  Suetonius  scuticaque  The r o d : a n d secondary  school.  Horace  ("Sat."  "ferula".  o f p u n i s h m e n t , was  subduximus."  offences.  But  The  1.  Significat,  i . 3) r e f e r s "flagellum",  "ferula",  15)  says:  t h e " f e r u l a " was  !  S1  quos  elementary t o the " s c u ~  and b o t h were  the g e n e r a l i n -  i s used  " e t nos  as,  e r g o manum  only used f o r  the instrument  or whip w i t h one  manner i n w h i c h t h i s  autem  quos omni sermone  commonly a p p l i e d t o t h e h a n d  For graver f a u l t s  "scutica"  "Puit  cecidit.'"  i n s t a n c e , J u v e n a l ("Sat."  ferulae  says:  s t r a p were f r e e l y u s e d b o t h i n the  more s e v e r e t h a n t h e  the  Gram." 9)  a s a w h i p more s e v e r e t h a n t h e  strument  ("Ep." I I . 1.  a p p e l l a n s , e t Domitius Marsus s c r i b e n s ,  Orbilius ferula  for  Illust.  sed etiam i n d i s c i p u l o s , u t H o r a t i u s  'plagosum' eum  tica"  ("De  the  "plagosum", i s e s p e c i a l l y  a c e r b a e , non modo i n a n t i s o p h i s t a s ,  lacerayit,  and  had been, c a l l s  of a  somewhat  name o f O r b i l i u s P u p i l l u s , whom H o r a c e  Infamous.  •  .  well  Thus t h e i d e a l  Roman s c h o o l h a s  .70).,.whose t e a c h e r he  0  d e m o r a l i s i n g r e s u l t s which a  of s l a v e r y b r i n g s i n i t s t r a i n .  The  1  slighter  of p u n i s h m e n t  or more thongs' o f l e a t h e r .  i s shown i n a f r e s c o f o u n d a t  c u l a n e u m and f r e q u e n t l y r e p r o d u c e d ,  which r e p r e s e n t s a  was The Her-  pupil  " h o r s e d " by a n o t h e r , w h i l e a t h i r d h o l d s h i s f e e t , a n d t h e master  administers a flogging Perhaps  we  may  on h i s b a r e  back.  t h i n k t h e " f e r u l a " w e l l d e s e r v e d when  we  3s 3 * 3 n ©  read  of t h e schoolboy's  iii.  44 f . ) : "Saepe  trick  i m m o r t a l i z e d by P e r s i u s  o c u l o s , m e m i n i , tangebam p a r v u s  ("Sat."  olivo,  "9  Grandia  s i nollem morituro verba Catoni  D i c e r e n o n sano multum l a u d a n d a The  magistro."  Roman s c h o o l b o y h a d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e  stole  fire  from heaven i n the h o l l o w  such a t r i c k  as t h i s  that  of a cane,  Prometheus i f caught a t  or chewing cumin t o i n d u c e the p a l l o r o f  illness. Martial of  ("Epig."  I X . 69) g i v e s u s an e x a g g e r a t e d  school d i s c i p l i n i n g "Quid t i b i  a n d t h e d i n c a u s e d by i t :  nobiscum e s t , l u d i  Invisum  scelerate  rupere  Murmure i a m s a e v o percussis  silentia  galli:  verberibusque incudibus aera  tonas. resultant,  C a u s i d i c u m m e d i o cum f a b e r a p t a t Mitior  i n magno c l a m o r  Vincenti Then  (Ibid,  xii.  furit  57) h e  amphitheatro,  complains: negant  L u d i m a g i s t r i mane, n o c t e ("EcLyllia"  vitam pistores."  I V . 24) a l s o h a s a word t o s a y on the  -x M a r t i a l makes a n o t h e r sage  equo.  parraae cum s u a t u r b a f a v e t ."*  "....  Ausonius  magister,  p u e r i s v i r g i n i b u s q u e caput?  Nondum c r i s t a t i  Tarn g r a v e  picture  reference to "Discipline"  q u o t e d u n d e r " S c h o o l H o l i d a y s " , p . 106.  i n the pas-  subject of school punishment% ".. .. quamvis schola verbere multo Increpet, et truculenta senex gerat ora magister " e  Seneca ( Ep." 94. 9) declares i n disgust that i t i s a n  common thing to f i n d "Irascendum non esse magister iracundissimus disputat."  He i s indignant with the savage who  will  "butcher" a young learner because he hesitates at a word--a v e n i a l / f a u l t when we;.remember what must have been the of a Roman book, written as i t was  aspect  i n capitals, almost without  stops, and with l i t t l e or no d i s t i n c t i o n s between the words. Q u i n t i l i a n Is equally decided In the matter of corporal punishment though he allows that flogging was  an i n s t i t u t i o n  (I. H i . 14 f . ) : "Caedi vero discentes, quamlibet et receptum sit  .... minime velim.  Primum, quia deforme atque servile est  et certe, (quod convenit, s i aetatem mutes), i n i u r i a est; deinde, quod, s i cui tam est mens i l l i b e r a l i s ,  ut:obiurgatione  non corrigatur, i s etiam ad plagas Ut pessima,quaeque. mancipia . durabitur.  postremo, quod tie opus e r i t quidem hac castigatione,  s i assiduus studiorura^astiterit.  Nunc fere.neglegentia paeda-  gogorum s i c emendari videtur, ut pueri non facere, quae recta sunt, cogantur sed cur non f e c e r i n t .Plutarch ("De  puniantur."  L i b e r i s Educandis" x i l ) , ,on the subject of  coercion^ denounces corporal punishment as degrading and f u t i l e and says that children-are to be -won by exhortations  to follow l i b e r a l studies,  and r a t i o n a l motives, and on no account to be  forced thereto by whipping or any other contumelious punishments.  He says that praise and reproof are much more effectual  ^on.^reejborn.cail^en than any such disgraceful handling, the former to i n c i t e them to what i s good, the l a t t e r to r e s t r a i n them from that which Is e v i l .  .'  r  •Notwithstanding the appeals of Cato, Cicero, Martial, Q u i n t i l i a n , Seneca, and others that the teachers follow the milder way, that more l e n i t y be practised and that virtue was not to be i n s t i l l e d by force, notwithstanding a l l t h i s , the severe d i s c i p l i n e continued. TEACHERSV-~THEIR :SOCIAL  STATUS  During the Republic and the early Em' pi-re p a r t i c u l a r l y , the position of ele-  mentary teacher was not an honourable  but rather a very humble  one, though t h i s depended upon the character of the teacher himself just as the respect shown toward him by h i s pupils depended on i t . - .And before the Empire even the "grammaticus",. though more esteemed, d i d not stand high.  The fact that most  teachers were Greek and so subject to being despised by the Romans among whom they taught, was a barrier which had to be faced.  We f i n d therefore that while the pupils feared the mas-  ter they seem often to have had l i t t l e respect f o r him and he often had to.maintain a d a i l y contest, with h i s unruly pupils. To teach under such a handicap must have been very d i f f i c u l t . The s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the teachers seems to have varied greatly, but seeing that anyone could open a school without any regular license, and that the attainments needed f o r the early stages of i n s t r u c t i o n \irere very s l i g h t , we may well believe that i t was i n most cases humble.  Most teachers had been  -  •  freedmen of savants  114. or g r e a t n o b l e s .  bought i n the s l a v e market.  The  Some b a d  actually  o c c u p a t i o n of an  been  elementary  t e a c h e r - - i t c o u l d h a r d l y be  c a l l e d a profession--was  generally  ill-paid  consideration.  was  and  enjoyed  little  t h e l a s t r e s o r t o f t h o s e who  had  Teaching  f a i l e d i n o t h e r a n d n o t more  d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a l l i n g s , f o r any k i n d o f a h a l f - e d u c a t e d c o u l d s e t up had by  failed,  as a s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  to t r y to earn a  shop n e a r a n " i n s u l a "  office*, others had been p u g i l i s t s  mime.  Q.  Remmius P a l a e m o n h a d  n a l l y a weaver. elementary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s when he r e f e r s  i n sordidissimum  Juvenal  o f e s t e e m shown t o w a r d  1. 229  "....  ( x x i . 5)  h a v i n g become a  origi-  t o the s t o r y primary  teachers  a v i v i d p i c t u r e of t h e l a c k  and  their  s m a l l rewards a l -  r e q u i r e d o f them:  Sed vos  (sc. parents)  saevas imponite  legat historlas,  a u c t o r e s n o v e r i t omnes  Tamquam u n g u e s d i g i t o s q u e s u o s , 1. 237 E x i g i t e u t m o r e s t e n e r o s Ut  panto-  v i t a e genus d e s c e n d i t . "  Ut p r a e c e p t o r i verborum r e g u l a c o n s t e t , Ut  and  i n a pub-  " h u m i l l i m a quaeque t u t i s s i m a ex-  ("Sat." v i i ) g i v e s u s  t h o u g h much was  living  J u s t i n , among o t h e r s , shows h i s c o n t e m p t f o r  a f t e r h i s expulsion*.  i s timans,  or low a c t o r s I n  been.a h o u s e - s l a v e ,  of D i o n y s i u s the t y r a n t of Syracuse teacher  one  and r u n n i n g a s c h o o l .  O r b i l i u s , t h e m a s t e r of H o r a c e , h a d b e e n an a t t e n d a n t lic  fellow  A common p r a c t i c e when  say as an i n n - k e e p e r , was  l e a s i n g a vacant  often  ceu p o l l i c e  s i q u i s cera voltura f a c i t ;  E t p a t e r i p s i u s c o e t u s , ne  .... ducat,  exigite ut s i t  turpia  ludant.  leges,  115. 'Haec' inqult ' cruras, et cum  se v e r t e r i t annus,  Accipe, v i c t o r ! populus quod postulat, aurum'". But even t h i s meagre sum w i l l not "be a l l the teacher's 1. 216  u  ....  own,  Et tamen ex hoc  Quodcumque est, minus est autem quam r h e t o r i s aera, D i s c i p u l i custos praemordet acoenonoetus, Et qui dispensat, f r a n g i t s i b i . Et patere inde a l i q u i d 1. 222  Cede, Palaeraon,  decrescere,....  Dummodo non pereat mediae quod noctis ab hora  S e d i s t i , qua nemo faber, qua nemo sederet Qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro." The."grammatici", as has already been indicated, held a higher p o s i t i o n and were spoken of with some respect, but i t was  only of the "rhetores" (of whom we s h a l l speak under "Higher  Education") that r e s p e c t f u l and laudatory remarks were made by Roman writers. Under the later emperors, however, such for instance as Gratian, the p o s i t i o n of teachers generally seems to have become one of considerable emolument.and dignity, and a rhetor of eminence l i k e Ausonius might r i s e to high o f f i c e i n the State. As to the s o c i a l status of a l l teachers, we must remember a fact which influenced the ancient mind to an extent which we f a i l f u l l y to comprehend, that they taught for money.  It has  also to be noted that they were not held to "educate", but only to "teach certain subjects", and to take their payment  116.  l i k e dealers i n other a r t i c l e s TEACHERS'  A l l references to the circumstances  EMOLUMENTS  before the time of Cicero represent them as i n  poverty.  of teachers  The payments to them were for a long period In the  form of "honoraria" rather than fees. had to take what they could get.  Generally speaking  they  Then In the middle of the  t h i r d century C a r v i l i u s introduced the practice of taking fees for h i s i n s t r u c t i o n and this custom gradually became general. The fees varied, of course, with the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the master, and some whose reputations were established and whose schools were "fashionable" charged no fees at a l l , but l e f t the amount to be paid to the generosity of their patrons. tonius, for example, t e l l s us ("De  Sue-  l l l u s t . Gramm." v i i ) of one  distinguished teacher of l i t e r a t u r e of the time of Cicero, M. Antonius Gnipho, that he never would make any s t i p u l a t i o n as to h i s fees:  "nec unquam de mercedibus pactus, eoque plura ex  l i b e r a l i t a t e discentium consecutus."  But he belonged to a  much higher class of teachers. In. addition to the fee, however, g i f t s to the  teacher  continued customary at stated seasons--the Miner vale munus" 11  at the "Quinquatriis", the "sportula Saturnalicia" at the "Saturnalia" , the "strena Kalendaria" on the Kalends of January, and other g i f t s at the dates known as "Cara Cognatio"  and  "Septimontium". The.amount of the "salary" of the " l i t t e r a t o r " , "grammaticus" , and "rhetor" varied, of course, with the time, the place.  117. and the t e a c h e r ' s s t a t u s . t e r a r i i " was  The pay  of the " r a a g i s t e r l u d i l i t -  never h i g h , f o r h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s m a l l and  s i n c e as a r u l e anyone might open a s c h o o l , h i s f e e s were lowe r e d by c o m p e t i t i o n .  As t o the amount of the f e e s , t h e  only  d e f i n i t e e v i d e n c e w h i c h we have r e f e r s n o t t o Rome, but t o a t h i r d r a t e s c h o o l i n a c o u n t r y town.  Horace ("Sat." i . 6.  75)*  t e l l s us t h a t , i n h i s n a t i v e town, each p u p i l b r o u g h t e i g h t "asses" monthly.  Even a l l o w i n g f o r the much h i g h e r  purchasing  power of money i n those d a y s - - l e t us say t h r e e times what i t i s a t p r e s e n t i n the case of n e c e s s a r i e s - - t h i s cannot have amounted t o more t h a n about t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s . t e a c h e r was  none t o o sure of prompt payment.  of the elementary  t e a c h e r was  Then, t o o , the Thus the income  a mere p i t t a n c e / v a r y i n g from  t h r e e d o l l a r s a pupI1 per y e a r .  The  "grammaticus" would r e -  c e i v e , as a r u l e , a sum f i v e or s i x times t h i s amount.  At a l l  events the pay f o r t u i t i o n v a r i e d a good d e a l . As to when the payments f o r t u i t i o n were made, the u s u a l t i m e f o r the h i g h e r s c h o o l s would appear t o have been a t the t e r m i n a t i o n of the s c h o o l - y e a r a f t e r the " Q u i n q u a t r i a " ) .  (which p r o b a b l y began i n March,  Monthly payments were a p p a r e n t l y the  r u l e w i t h the lower s c h o o l s a l t h o u g h we do f i n d some I n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h the f a t h e r c o n t r a c t e d t o pay an a n n u a l sum f o r h i s son's elementary  tuition.  In I m p e r i a l t i m e s , the number of s c h o o l s , p r i m a r y  * T h i s q u o t a t i o n i s g i v e n on p.  108.  and  118. secondary, i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , t h e t e a c h e r s  g r a d u a l l y came t o  he engaged by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or the government t o be p a i d a f i x e d s a l a r y .  d i r e c t and  V e s p a s i a n , f o r example, f i x e d the  S t a t e - s a l a r y o f " r h e t o r e s " a t one hundred thousand s e s t e r c e s . * Such moves as these n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the s e t t i n g by the government  of a standard  s c a l e of f e e s .  I n the days of Dio-  c l e t i a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , the maximum monthly f e e from each p u p i l was f i x e d a t f i f t y d e n a r i i f o r the " l i t t e r a t o r " , for  two hundred  t h e "grammaticus", and two hundred f i f t y f o r t h e " r h e t o r . "  Clever teachers  c o u l d , under such a s c a l e , make l a r g e incomes.  The "grammaticus" Q. Remmius palaemon drew from h i s s c h o o l f o u r hundred thousand s e s t e r c e s a y e a r . Sometimes t e a c h e r s  a t t a i n e d t o r a n k and f o r t u n e by b e i n g  entrusted w i t h the t u i t i o n of the i m p e r i a l c h i l d r e n . for  example, made a c e r t a i n P l a c c u s  Augustus,  t u t o r t o h i s grandsons,  g i v i n g him a s a l a r y o f what would be the e q u i v a l e n t  of about  e i g h t hundred d o l l a r s a y e a r , w h i c h f o r t h a t time was a good salary f o r a teacher.  * See q u o t a t i o n  on p. 160.  CHAPTER  VI  HIGHER"' EDUCATION i ' Rhetoric •INTRODUCTION  .Alongside of, but quite d i s t i n c t  OF THE STUDY  , of l i t e r a t u r e i n Greek and Latin as a means of  OF RHETORIC  from,,  the study  general culture, there had come into the Roman  educational "system" by degrees something of that training i n rhetoric and i n philosophy, which had. long been regarded as an important part of the higher education i n Greece. , Doubtless the curriculum of the "grammar" schools was quite enough for the ordinary c i t i z e n ; but those who aspired to take a prominent part i n public, l i f e often wished to t r a i n themselves for i t by a l l ; the resources of Greek. culture . -We. cannot say precisely when.this, higher teaching was f i r s t given at Rome or when schools, f i r s t exclusively Greek, were opened for i n s t r u c t i o n i n oratory. We do, however, know that the value of t h i s training, which was confined to the upper ranks of the c i t i z e n s , was f u l l y recognized i n the second century B. C.  Peculiar as i t may seem, how-  ever, no welcome was given to attempts to supersede Greek rhet o r i c by Latin f o r the "rhetores L a t i n i " were considered to be s t i l l more pernicious than the Greek.*  * Suet., "De C l a r i s Rhetoribus"  I t was to prevent the  ( i ) : "Rhetorica quoque apud  nos, perinde atque Grammatica, sero recepta est, paulo etiam :  d i f f I c i l i u s , quippe quam constet nonnumquam etiam prohibitam exerceri."  120. threatening supersession of the Greek by the Latin rhetors that even the State i n t e r f e r e d ; and, i n 161 B. C., "rhetores L a t i n i " * were banished by the Senate as being a menace to Roman  i n s t i t u t i o n s and the preservation of Roman character.  The  provisions of the ban, needless to say, were i n e f f e c t i v e against tendencies  so manifestly i n accord with the whole movement of •  the times; i t s significance was rather an indication of a fact accomplished than of a reform I t was a new met  instituted.  probably i n order to supply what was  demand f o r r h e t o r i c , which he f e l t might be  i n h i s day otherwise  In a more perilous way by the Greek teachers, that Cato  included among the books which he drew up f or the training of his son, one on the art of speaking.  And i t i s very s i g n i f i -  cant that in-preparing this book Cato, who was  the most elo-  quent speaker of h i s day, studied c a r e f u l l y the speeches of Demosthenes as well as those found i n the pages of Thucydides. So l i t t l e could the b i t t e r e s t opponent  of Greek culture af-  ford to neglect the resources which i t put at his command. The f i r s t Roman who  seems to have brought a training i n  formal r h e t o r i c to bear wi th marked success on public speaking was a consul of B. C. 137, M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina, was  taken as a model by Tiberius and Gains Gracchus.  who  His style  showed c a r e f u l and effective use of the period, and the polished  a This terra probably denotes Greeks who used L a t i n as the medium of t h e i r teaching; i t i s not l i k e l y that rhetoric was taught as early as t h i s by native Romans.  123_  0  elegance  w h i c h came f r o m the c o n s t a n t use o f the pen.  A some-  what o l d e r contemporary S e r . S u l p i c l u s Galba i s s a i d by C i c e r o ("Brut."  82) " p r i n c e p s ex L a t i n i s " t o have employed a l l the  a r t s o f r h e t o r i c , b u t h i s speeches d i d n o t r e a d w e l l , owing t o t h e i r a r c h a i c and u n p o l i s h e d d i c t i o n , so t h a t he cannot have owed much, a t any r a t e d i r e c t l y , t o Greek t e a c h e r s .  On the  o t h e r hand w i t h S c i p i o A e m i l i a n u s , t h e son o f A e m i l i u s P a u l u s , and h i s f r i e n d Gains L a e l i u s , who was even more d i s t i n g u i s h e d as an e l e g a n t speaker, we a r e a l r e a d y i n t h e f u l l t i d e of Greek influence.  B o t h T i b e r i u s and Gaius Gracchus were taught  rhe-  t o r i c by Menelaus of Mar a t h u s , and Diophanes of Mytiiene*, and we may c o n f i d e n t l y say t h a t a s t u d y of the p r i n c i p l e s and methods of Greek r h e t o r i c h a d become common among the upper c l a s ses a t Rome by the m i d d l e  o f the second c e n t u r y B. C.  Nor need  we doubt- t h a t t h i s was of g r e a t s e r v i c e i n d e v e l o p i n g the; power and f l e x i b i l i t y  o f t h e L a t i n language.  Too much f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Greek c u l t u r e - - w h e t h e r  i n rhet-  o r i c , i n l i t e r a t u r e , or i n philosophy--was always l o o k e d on w i t h some s u s p i c i o n by an average Roman audience  i n t h e days of t h e  Republic*, and C i c e r o and h i s contemporaries  sometimes amuse us  by t h e i r attempts, to. a v o i d any d i s p l a y of knowledge.x j u r i e s l o o k e d on t h e l i t e r a r y b a r r i s t e r as u n p r a c t i c a l :  Roman hence  the f a l t e r i n g way i n w h i c h C i c e r o owns t o a knowledge of Greek  x I n the "De O r a t o r e "  ( i i . 4) the a n t i p a t h y o f Crassus and An-  t o n i u s toward a r e p u t a t i o n f o r Greek l e a r n i n g i s v e r y e v i d e n t .  122.. l i t e r a t u r e i n passages  l i k e " P r o Murena" ( 6 3 ) .  The f e e l i n g  l a s t e d l o n g as I s apparent from T a c i t u s ("De Orat." 2 ) : "Aper x.  communi e r u d i t i o n e imbutus/ contemnehat p o t i l i s l i t e r a s quam n e s c i e b a t , tanquam maiorem i n d u s t r i a e e t l a b o r i s g l o r i a m habi t u r n s , s i ingenium e i u s n u l l i s a l i e n a r u m a r t i u m a d m i n i c u l i s inniti  videretur."  That L a t i n r h e t o r s h a d n o t by any means been d i s c o u r a g e d by t h e i r banishment by government l e g i s l a t i o n i n 161 B. C. i s apparent from t h e f a c t t h a t i n 92 B. C. another ban, t h i s time imposed by t h e c e n s o r s , p r o h i b i t e d L a t i n s c h o o l s of r h e t o r i c as haunts of i d l e n e s s and " p r a e t e r c on sue tudinem ac morem maiorum."*  We l e a r n from T a c i t u s ("De Orat," 35) t h a t t h i s d i s -  a p p r o v a l arose p r i n c i p a l l y from t h e s o p h i s t i c a l n a t u r e of the instruction:  " A t nunc a d o l e s c e n t u l i n o s t r i deducuntur i n  scenas s c h o l a s t i c o r u m , q u i r h e t o r e s v o c a n t u r , quos p a u l o ante G i c e r o n i s tempora e x t i t i s s e , nec p l a c u i s s e m a i o r i b u s n o s t r i s , ex eo manifestum  e s t , quod. L. Crasso e t D o m i t i o C e n s o r i b u s ,  ' c l u d e r e ' , u t a i t C i c e r o , 'ludum irapudentiae' i u s s i sunt." And y e t one o f these c e n s o r s , L. L i c i n i u s C r a s s u s , was the most e l o q u e n t and a c c o m p l i s h e d o r a t o r of h i s day. Crassus i s r e p r e s e n t e d by C i c e r o as d e f e n d i n g h i s a c t i o n on the ground of the incompetence  of t h e teachers,, who were n o t a b l e t o impart  any r e a l l y v a l u a b l e c u l t u r e . The L a t i n t e a c h e r s of r h e t o r i c were i n d e e d l o n g viewed with distrust.  On t h e p o i n t o f the precedence  * Suet. "De C l a r . Rhet." ( i ) .  o f t h e Greek  123.  r h e t o r i c over t h a t of the L a t i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e  to  P l o t i u s and G i c e r o , t h e r e i s an I n t e r e s t i n g q u o t a t i o n from a l o s t l e t t e r of C i c e r o g i v e n hy Suetonius  ("De  C l a r . Rhet." I i )  i n h i s l i f e of the r h e t o r L. P l o t i u s G a l l u s , w h i c h may  be i n -  t r o d u c e d here f o r the l i g h t i t throws on the s u b j e c t .  "'Squi-  dem memoria teneo, p u e r i s n o b i s , primum L a t i n e docere  coepisse  L. P l o t i u m quendam:  ad quem cum  s i s s i m u s quisque apud eum licere. qui  Continebar  f i e r e t concursus,  quod s t u d i o -  e x e r c e r e t u r , dolebam, raihi idem  autem doctissimorum  hominum a u c t o r i t a t e ,  existimabant, Graecis e x e r c i t a t i o n l b u s a l l melius  posse.'"  non  ingenia  Undoubtedly the Greek masters had b e h i n d them a sound  t r a d i t i o n of method, w h i c h must have been w a n t i n g a t f i r s t t o t h e i r Roman i m i t a t o r s ; though l a t e r on the a d o p t i o n of t h i s by the l a t t e r l e d i n the l o n g r u n t o the most marked r e s u l t s ,  by  no means w h o l l y f o r good, upon e d u c a t i o n and so upon l i t e r a t u r e , Ao  b o t h i n prose and Suetonius i n t o i t s own  ("De  verse. C l a r . Rhet." i ) t e l l s us how  r h e t o r i c came  d u r i n g the l a t e r R e p u b l i c and the Empire:  l a t i m e t i p s a u t i l i s honestaque a p p a r u l t ; m u l t i q u e s i d i i causa e t g l o r i a e a p p e t i v e r u n t  "Pau-  earn prae-  Quare magno s t u d i o  hominibus i n i e c t o , magna e t i a m p r o f e s s o r u m ac doctorum pr of l u x i t c o p i a , adeoque f l o r u i t , u t n o n n u l l i ex i n f i m a f o r t u n a i n ordinem senatorium,  atque ad summos honores p r o c e s s e r i n t . "  Under the Empire, t h e n , the r h e t o r i c a l e d u c a t i o n became d e f i n i t e l y s y s t e m a t i z e d and the s c h o o l s of the r h e t o r s the dominant e d u c a t i o n .  represented  Indeed g r e a t honours were f r e q u e n t l y  12.4. bestowed on r h e t o r s ,  Q u i n t i l i a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , who a c q u i r e d  a g r e a t r e p u t a t i o n as an i n s t r u c t o r o f r h e t o r i c , was g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o wear t h e i n s i g n i a o f a man o f c o n s u l a r r a n k , a somewhat h i g h e r honour than was u s u a l l y c o n f e r r e d on r h e t o r s . I t i s t o t h i s t h a t J u v e n a l ("Sat." v i i . 197) r e f e r s i n t h e l i n e : "Si AGE  F o r t u n a v o l e t , f i e s de r h e t o r e c o n s u l . "  OF  A l a d h a d commonly " f i n i s h e d " h i s e d u c a t i o n  COMMENCEMENT OF  when he exchanged the "toga p r a e t e x t a " f o r  HIGHER STUDIES  t h e "man's gown" ("toga v i r i l i s "  at  about t h e age o f s i x t e e n .  or "pura" )  A t t h i s time h i s name would be  f o r m a l l y c o n f i r m e d and e n r o l l e d among t h e c i t i z e n s and he w o u l d e n t e r on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f manhood.  The e d u c a t i o n  t h e r e a f t e r was t h e e d u c a t i o n o f p u b l i c l i f e , i n c l u d i n g m i l i t a r y e x e r c i s e s , a l t h o u g h t h e home e d u c a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e never ceased.  I f t h e y o u t h thought  statesman,  o f becoming a  a n d t a k i n g o f f i c e i n the commonwealth, he h a d much  yet to learn. In  of p o l i t i c a l l i f e ,  He h a d t o make h i m s e l f a lawyer and an o r a t o r .  s h o r t , we may say t h a t i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o f youths  who aimed a t some form o f p u b l i c l l f e - - a s a l l t h e a m b i t i o u s among t h e w e l l - t o - d o d i d - - t h e two words "law" and " o r a t o r y " p r a c t i c a l l y summed up t h e i r s t u d i e s .  As t o the age a t which  the y o u t h s h o u l d b e g i n t o p l e a d on f i n i s h i n g h i s course a t the r h e t o r i c a l school, Q u i n t i l i a n  ( X I I . v i . 1) says:  i n i t i u m s i n e dubio secundum v i r e s cuiusque  "Agendl autem  sumendum e s t . "  STUDY  Law the y o u t h l e a r n t by a t t a c h i n g h i m s e l f , by becom-  OF LAW  i n g the p u p i l , as we s h o u l d say, o f some g r e a t man  125,  t h a t was famed f o r h i s knowledge.  T h i s arrangement was n o t  o n l y v e r y advantageous t o the young men b u t was c o n s i d e r e d v e r y honourable  f o r those under whom they s t u d i e d ,  C i c e r o ("De Am-  *r  icitia"  i ) r e l a t e s h i s own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e :  "Ego autem a  p a t r e i t a eram deduetus ad Scaevolam sumta v i r i l i  toga, u t ,  quoad possem e t l i c e r e t a s e n i s l a t e r e nunquam discederem; i t a q u e m u l t a ab eo p r u d e n t e r . d i s p u t a t a , m u l t a e t i a m b r e v i t e r et commode d i c t a memoriae mandabam f i e r l q u e studebam e i u s p r u - • dentIa d o c t i o r .  Quo mortuo me ad p o n t i f i c e m Scaevolam c o n t u l i ,  quern unum n o s t r a e c i v i t a t i s t i s s i m u m audeo d i c e r e . "  e t ingenio e t i u s t i t i a praestan-  He goes on t o g i v e us a p i c t u r e of  t h i s second S c a e v o l a and h i s p u p i l s .  He t e l l s us t h a t Scae-  v o l a d i d n o t undertake t o g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n t o anyone, y e t he p r a c t i c a l l y taught those who were a n x i o u s t o l i s t e n  t o him,  a l l o w i n g them t o hear h i s - a n s w e r s t o those who c o n s u l t e d h i m . These c o n s u l t a t i o n s took p l a c e e i t h e r i n t h e Forum or a t h i s own house.  When he gave audience a t home t h e y would stand by  his  I t must be remembered t h a t men who a c t e d i n t h e  chair.  r o l e t h a t S c a e v o l a d i d took no payment f o r t h e i r  tutelage.  T a c i t u s ("De Orat." i i ) t e l l s us o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h his  "sponsor"; i t i s , q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f C i c e r o ' s :  "Marcus Aper e t I u l l u s Secundus, c e l e b e r r i m a turn i n g e n i a f o r i nostri:  quos ego i n i u d i c i i s non u t r o s q u e modo s t u d i o s e a u d i -  ebam, sed domi quoque e t i n p u b l i c o a s s e c t a b a r , m i r a studiorum c u p i d i t a t e e t quodam ardore i u v e n i l i ,  u t f a b u l a s quoque eorum  et d i s p u t a t i o n e s e t a r c a n a semotae d i c t i o n i s p e n i t u s exciperem."  126.  STUDY OF  - But the young Roman h a d n o t o n l y t o l e a r n law, he  RHETOR10  must a l s o l e a r n how t o s p e a k - - l e a r n , as f a r as  such a t h i n g c o u l d be l e a r n t , how.to be e l o q u e n t .  What we  w o u l d c a l l t h e c a r e e r o f the p u b l i c man was i n Rome c a l l e d the c a r e e r of the o r a t o r .  F o r t o the Roman o r a t o r y was o f much  b r o a d e r c o n n o t a t i o n t h a n t o t h e modern.  The o r a t o r i n c l u d e d  the t e a c h e r , t h e p u b l i c i s t , the r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r , of the p r e s e n t , a s w e l l as t h e man d e v o t e d t o l e g a l , j u d i c i a l , or l e g i s lative activities:  t h e o r a t o r was I d e n t i f i e d , w i t h the educated  man p a r t i c i p a t i n g I n p u b l i c a f f a i r s .  I n t h e absence of the  modern p u l p i t , o f t h e p r e s s , of t h e U n i v e r s i t y and s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e o r a t o r combined the f u n c t i o n s of these the f u n c t i o n s o f t h e b a r and forum. complished  with  The spoken word then a c -  what b o t h the spoken and w r i t t e n word do now.  Ora-  t o r y meant e f f i c i e n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y . W i t h u s i t i s much a m a t t e r speak or n o t . necessary us.  o f chance whether a man can  But t h a t such t e a c h i n g s h o u l d be a p a r t of t h e  t r a i n i n g of a statesman i s an i d e a q u i t e strange t o  A Roman r e c e i v e d i t as a matter  t o have been t h e keystone t o s u c c e s s .  of c o u r s e .  Oratory seems  True, t h e f a l l of the  R e p u b l i c made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o harangue the assembled G o m i t i a i n b e h a l f of f a v o u r i t e c a n d i d a t e s  or proposed laws.  Even i n  the Senate t h e r e were now grave l i m i t a t i o n s upon f r e e eloquence, N e v e r t h e l e s s , the d e s i r a b i l i t y of "fame" as an o r a t o r seemed incalculable.  To w i n your cause i n t h e c o u r t s ; t o make a  crowded h a l l r e s o u n d w i t h applause the h e i g h t of p e a c e f u l t r i u m p h .  a t your s e t o r a t i o n s seemed  Never w i l l another  age s e t  127. more s t o r e on h i g h - s o a r i n g f o r m a l t a l k t h a n t h i s age Roman E m p i r e . r h e t o r i c was,  And  so no m a t t e r how  of the  i m p r a c t i c a l the study  of  the upper c l a s s e s a t Rome a s s u r e d l y doted upon  i t w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the s c h o o l s of the r h e t o r s  prepared  the m a j o r i t y f o r Roman l i f e . CONCEPTION  To a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y what r h e t o r i c , the crown of  HELD OP  e d u c a t i o n , a n d the p r o f e s s i o n of the o r a t o r  ORATORY  t o a Roman we must l o o k a t what some of t h e i r  l e a d i n g exponents have t o say ahout them. we may  r e a l i z e how  l o f t y an aim was  t e d t o the s o l e achievement of  I t i s o n l y thus t h a t  s e t f o r what r e a l l y amoun-  education.  Cato, i n h i s l o s t t r e a t i s e on e d u c a t i o n , d e f i n e d tor"  we  the " o r a -  as " v i r bonus d i e e n d ! p e r i t u s " , a thus p u t t i n g the  stamp of the man s h a l l f i n d was The  i n the f i r s t p l a c e . very  T h i s emphasis on  c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e of C i c e r o ' s "De  Oratore"  passages g i v e some i d e a of the p e r s o n a l  and b r e a d t h  ethical character  general. i s t h a t the  p e r f e c t o r a t or must be a s o r t of " s u p e r - c i t i z e n " . The ing  meant  follow-  characteristics  of knowledge which C i c e r o would have a l l o r a t o r s  possess: I . ^ x x . "Ac mea  quidem s e n t e n t i a nemo p o t e r i t esse orani laude  cumulates o r a t o r , n i s i e r i t a r t i u m s c i e n t i a m consecutus. e f f l o r e scat  omnium rerum magnarum atque E t e n i m ex rerum c o g n i t i o n e  e t ro-xlundet o p o r t e t o r a t i o j quae, n i s i  * As quoted b y Q u i n t .  ( X I I . i . 1)  res  128.  e s t ab or a t o r e p e r c e p t a e t c o g n i t a , inanem quandam habet e l o c u t i o n e m e t paene p u e r i l e m . " I.., x x v . s"?." Sed or a t or em plenum, atque p e r f e c t u m esse euro .dicam, q u i de omnibus r e b u s v a r i e eopioseque d i c e r e . " fl  I. l x i x .  "Quare h i e l o c u s de v i t a e t moribus t o t u s e s t o r a t -  or! perdiscendus." I. x x v i i i .  " I n o r a t o r e autem acumen d i a l e c t i c o r u m , s e n t e n t i a e  phi1osophorum, v e r b a prope poetarum, memoria i u r i s - - c o n suItorum, vox tragoedorum, g e s t u s paene summorum actorum est requirendus." I I I . x i v . s-f."Vero.• enim o r a t o r i , quae sunt i n hominum v i t a , quandoquidem i n ea v e r s a t u r o r a t o r atque ea e s t e i subi e c t a m a t e r i e s , omnia q u a e s i t a , a u d i t a , l e c t a , d i s p u t a t a , t r a e t a t a , a g i t a t a esse debent." C o n c e r n i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y of h a v i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h wisdom and eloquence f o r s u c c e s s i n o r a t o r y C i c e r o ("De t i o n e " i ) says:  Inven-  "Saepe e t multum hoc me cum c o g i t a v i , bonine  an m a l l p l u s a t t u l e r i t , hominibus e t c i v i t a t l b u s c o p i a d i c e n d i ac summum e l o q u e n t i a e s t u d i u m .  Nam  cum e t n o s t r a e r e ! p u b l i -  cae d e t r i m e n t a c o n s i d e r o e t maximarum c i v i t a t u m v e t e r e s animo c a l a m i t a t e s c o n l i g o , non minimam v i d e o per d i s e r t i s s i m o s homines i n v e c t a m partem incommodorum." T a c i t u s ("De  Orat." x x x i i ) sums up h i s views of what an  o r a t o r ought t o be as f o l l o w s :  "quern non posse a l i t o r  nec e x t i t i s s e umquam, c o n f i r r a o , n i s i eum,  existere,  q u i , tanquam i n aciem  omnibus armis i n s t r u c t u s , s i c i n forum omnibus a r t i b u s armatus, exierit."  129. Q u i n t i l i a n , l i k e C i c e r o , a l s o emphasizes the m o r a l r e q u i s i t e as b e i n g the p r i m a r y one f o r success as an o r a t o r . The  importance he p l a c e s on t h e  f r o m h i s statement ( I . Proa em.5) c a t i o n r e a l l y begins:  o r a t o r ' s t r a i n i n g i s apparent as t o when an o r a t o r ' s edu-  "nec a l i t o r , quam s i m i h i t r a d a t u r edu-  candus o r a t o r , s t u d i a e i u s formare ab i n f a n t i a i n c i p i a m . " C a t o , as we have seen, h a d a f f i r m e d i t t o be the aim of education  t o produce t h e "bonus v i r . " Q u i n t i l i a n s u b s t i t u t e s  f o r t h i s t h e "bonus o r a t o r " , and i n doing so he p l a c e s  himself  I n more d i r e c t sympathy w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l aims of the p o s t r e p u b l i c a n Roman l i f e and e d u c a t i o n .  Mere eloquence i n t h e  o r d i n a r y sense ( " f a c u l t a s d i c e n d i " ) d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e an o r a t o r i n Q u i n t i l i a n ' s mind; he h e l d t h a t a man c o u l d n o t be engaged i n the p u r s u i t of those noble s t u d i e s of l i t e r a t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h were i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the e d u c a t i o n  of an  o r a t o r , u n l e s s he were f r e e from v i c e .  He aimed a t a m o r a l  r e s u l t as the supreme end o f e d u c a t i o n ,  as i s v e r y apparent  from t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : ( I . Prooem.9):  "Oratorem autem i n s t i t u i m u s i l i u m p e r f e c t u m ,  q u i esse n i s i v i r bonus non p o t e s t ; ideoque non d i c e n d i modo eximiam i n eo f a c u l t a t e m s e d omnes a n i m i v i r t u t e s .  .-exigimus."  ( I . Prooem.18):  " S i t i g i t u r o r a t o r v i r t a l i s , q u a l i s vere  s a p i e n s a p p e l l a r i p o s s i t ; nec moribus modo p e r f e c t u s . . . . sed e t i a m s c i e n t i a e t omni f a c u l t a t e d i c e n d i , q u a l i s f o r t a s s e nemo adhuc f u e r i t . "  130, I . i i . 3 ) : "neque enim esse oratorem n i s i bonum v i r u m i u d i c o , et f i e r i e t i a m s i potest ,  f  nolo."  A p a r t from the importance o f good c h a r a c t e r  t o an o r a t o r  r h e t o r i c or t h e a r t and p r a c t i c e of e f f e c t i v e s p e a k i n g was a l s o very necessary.  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s conception  of what c o n s t i -  t u t e d p e r f e c t eloquence i s a v e r y l o f t y one as i s e v i d e n t  from  v a r i o u s statements he has made: ( I . Prooem.20):  "Ham e s t c e r t e a l i q u i d consummata e l o q u e n t i a ,  neque ad earn p e r v e n i r e (II. v i i i .  n a t u r a humani i n g e n i i p r o h i b e t . "  1 5 ) : "Nam s i c u t c i t h a r a i t a o r a t i o p e r f e c t a non e s t ,  n i s i ab imo ad summum omnibus i n t e n t a n e r v i s ( I I . x v . 3 4 ) : " r h e t o r i c e n esse bene d i c e n d i  consentiat."  scientiam."  ( I I . x x l . 4 ) : "Ego (neque i d s i n e a u c t o r i b u s ) materiam esse r h e t o r i c e s i u d i c o omnes r e s quaecunque e i ad dicendum subiectae  erunt."  ( I I I . I . 1 ) : "... q u i d e s s e t r h e t o r i c e e t q u i s f i n i s artem quoque esse earn e t u t i l e m e t v i r t u t e m ,  eius,  ... ostend-  imus, materiamque e i r e s omnes, de quibus d i c e r e oporteret,^..." (XII,  iii.  1): " l u r i s  quoque c i v i l i s  necessaria huic v i r o  s c i e n t i a e s t e t morum ac r e l i g i o n u m e i u s r e i p u b l i c a e , quam c a p e s s e t . " The  d e s i g n a t i o n " o r a t o r " , t h e n , as used by Q u i n t i l i a n , may  be r e g a r d e d as synonymous w i t h a c o m p l e t e l y  educated man.  He  w i s h e d t o produce a man "optima s e n t i e n t e m , optimeque dicentem" (XII.  i . 2 5 ) , and n o t a mere mercenary p l e a d e r  or a c l a p t r a p p o p u l a r t a l k e r .  i n t h e forum,  He admits t h a t no man ever was  131. what he aims a t p r o d u c i n g and t h a t such an one i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t "sed non .... •r  i d e o minus .nobis ad summa tendendum e s t  Quod ( n o i i f s i ^ c o n t i n g a t , a l t i u s tamen i b u n t , q u i ad summa  n i t e n t u r , quam- q u i , praesumpta d e s p e r a t i o n e de ndi , p r o t i n u s c i r c a ima s u b s t i t e r i n t " On t h i s a d m i s s i o n we  quo v e l i n t eva-  ( I . Prooem.19, 2 0 ) .  do n o t q u a r r e l w i t h Q u i n t i l i a n because,  under a v e r y n a t u r a l tendency, p e c u l i a r t o h i s age and n a t i o n , to tor"  magnify the o f f i c e of the " r h e t o r " , he u s e d the word " o r a as a synonym f o r the p e r f e c t l y t r a i n e d and f u l l y equipped  citizen:  nor y e t because he h e l d t h a t the p e r f e c t o r a t o r  was  a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y the p e r f e c t c i t i z e n . THE  H a v i n g surveyed what was  RHETORICAL  o r a t o r b o t h w i t h r e s p e c t t o c h a r a c t e r and  SCH00L  i n g , l e t us now  The r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l was sumption of the " t o g a v i r i l i s " .  (II.  i . 7) has  of an learn-  l o o k at the. s c h o o l I n w h i c h the  a s p i r i n g o r a t o r " l e a r n e d t o be  i d e a l l y s p e a k i n g , e n t e r the  t o be expected  eloquent." r e g u l a r l y begun a f t e r the asBut as t o when a boy  should,  s c h o o l of the " r h e t o r " , Q u i n t i l i a n  some v e r y s e n s i b l e a d v i c e — t o - o f f e r :  "Nos  porro  quaerimus quando l i s , quae r h e t o r i c e p r a e c i p i t , p e r c i p i e n d i s puer maturns esse v i d e a t u r . mandum, c u i u s quisque effecerit.  I n quo quidem non i d e s t a e s t i -  s i t a e t a t i s , sed quantum i n s t u d i i s  iam  E t ne d i u t i u s d i s s e r a m , quando s i t r h e t o r i t r a -  dendus, s i c optime f i n i r i  c r e d o ; cum  ex s u p e r i o r e pendet q u a e s t i o n e .  Nam  poterit.  Sed hoc  ipsum  s i grammatices munus us-  que ad s u a s o r i a s p r o r o g a t u r , t a r d i u s r h e t o r e opus e s t .  At s i  132. rhetor prima o f f l c i a operis sui non recusat, a narrationibus statim et laudandi vituperandique atur" and then l a t e r ( I I . i i .  opusculis cura eius desider-  1) he adds:  "Ergo cum ad eas i n  studiis vires pervenerit puer, ut, quae prima esse praecepta rhetorum dixiraus, mente consequi possit, tradendus eius a r t i s magistris e r i t . " GHOICE OP  As on the choice of an elementary and "high school"  A RHETOR  so does Q u i n t i l i a n place much emphasis on the  choice of a "rhetor": (II. i i .  1): "Quorum (rhetorum) i n primis i n s p i c i mores oport-  ebit." ( I I . i i . 3):  "Nam et a d u l t i fere pueri ad hos praeceptores  transferuntur et apud eos iuvenes etiam f a c t i ideoque maior adhihenda turn cura est,  perseverant;  u t et teneriores  annos ab i n i u r i a sanctitas docentis custodiat et f e r o c i ores a l i c e n t i a gravitas deterreat." (II. i i i .  12): " S i t ergo tam eloquentia quam raoribus praestan-  tissiraus, qui .... dicere ac facere doceat." ( I I . i v . 9): "Quapropter i n primis evitandus et i n pueris praecipue magister aridus." Q u i n t i l i a n goes on to animadvert on the tendency of parents to think that a second-rate or third-rate master would do well enough for their sons. i s the best teacher.  He maintains that the ablest man  The ablest and profoundest scholar w i l l  teach most simply, most c l e a r l y , and most successfully. He would not count that man among pr receptors at a l l who would  133. not g i v e care i n s m a l l t h i n g s . P l i n y ("Ep." I I I . 3) o f f e r s s i m i l a r a d v i c e t o G o r e I l i a H i s p u l l a on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a " r h e t o r " f o r h e r son: " ( l a m studia eius e x t r a limen proferenda r h e t o r L a t i n u s , c u i u s scholae titas  s u n t ) , iam  circumspiciendus  s e v e r i t a s , pudor, I n p r l m i s c a s -  constet." W h i l e t o some e x t e n t the r h e t o r i c a l e d u c a t i o n was a l s o  g i v e n hy t u t o r s , t h e s c h o o l was the dominant t y p e .  The s c h o o l s  of r h e t o r i c were formed on Greek l i n e s and conducted l a r g e l y by Greek t e a c h e r s . of e d u c a t i o n ,  They were n o t a p a r t of the r e g u l a r system  but c o r r e s p o n d e d more n e a r l y t o our c o l l e g e s ,  being frequented,  as we have seen, by persons beyond the age  of boyhood a n d j w i t h r a r e e x c e p t i o n s , only.  o f the h i g h e r  classes  The r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s were a r r a n g e d r a t h e r as h a l l s of  audience t h a n as o r d i n a r y c l a s s r o o m s and the y o u t h was now r a t h e r a l i s t e n e r than a p u p i l . The  teachers  o f eloquence were what we may c a l l the "pro-  f e s s o r s " * of Rome.  No s l a v e , of c o u r s e ,  or o r d i n a r y "grammati-  cus" c o u l d hope t o conduct a r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l .  The masters  were e i t h e r Romans o f such r a n k t h a t t h e y c o u l d mingle w i t h s e n a t o r s , or were d i s t i n g u i s h e d Greeks f r e s h from the s c h o o l s of Rhodes or A t h e n s .  Senators,  degraded and b a n i s h e d f o r r e a -  sons good or bad, c o u l d e a r n a l i v i n g i n the p r o v i n c e s by opening r h e t o r i c a l schools.  Thus L i c i n i a n u s d i d s o i n S i c i l y i n  * Seneca ("Ep." 88. 2) was p r o b a b l y ignation.  the f i r s t t o use t h i s des-  154. Trajan's  time.*  Modern c r i t i c s have o f t e n d i s p a r a g e d the v a l u e of the r h e t o r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , as d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h words.  S t i l l the  methods of the Greek r h e t o r s were beyond q u e s t i o n v e r y ful  success-  i n t e a c h i n g the s k i l f u l i n v e n t i o n and arrangement of argu-  ments, and a ready command of a p p r o p r i a t e language. s t r u c t i o n of the " r h e t o r e s " was  The i n -  of a p r o f e s s i o n a l nature  as  opposed t o the l i b e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n of the " g r a m m a t i c i " . p o l i t i c i a n s t o whom the power of e f f e c t i v e speech was g r e a t e s t importance  of the  f o r t h e i r success i n l i f e - - s u c h men  C i c e r o and Caesar--were the v e r y men  who  Those  as  v a l u e d i t most h i g h l y .  R h e t o r i c d i d not do, what i t never p r o f e s s e d t o do:  i t d i d not  t e a c h e l e v a t e d p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e , or i n s p i r e a l o f t y p a t r i o t i s m . But i t put i n t o the hands of statesmen, who  aimed a t s e r v i n g  t h e i r c o u n t r y , a power of p e r s u a s i o n w h i c h made them b e t t e r a b l e t o do so under the c o n d i t i o n s of the t i m e ; and i f t h i s wer was  sometimes misused, i t was  i n t h a t o n l y l i k e every  poother  capacity. PRELIMINARY  The main o b j e c t i v e of the p r e l i m i n a r y work of  EXERCISES  the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l was  p r a c t i c e i n composition.  T h i s was  t o o b t a i n p l e n t y of  begun i n i t s s i m p l e s t form,  * P l i n y the Younger r e c o r d s ("Ep." IV. i i ) t h a t he began h i s A  f i r s t s e t o r a t i o n by d e c l a r i n g : facis?  "Quos t i b i , F o r t u n a ,  ludos  f a c i s enim ex s e n a t o r i b u s p r o f e s s o r e s , ex p r o f e s s o r i b u s  senator es,"  135 «  the n a r r a t i v e ( " n a r r a t i o " ) , and the end i n v i e w was ("declamatio").  continued  s t e p hy s t e p  until  r e a c h e d , the p r a c t i c e of p u b l i c s p e a k i n g  These e x e r c i s e s were a l l i n t e n d e d t o g i v e a  wide scope f o r o r a t o r y , - - t o h e l p i n v e n t i o n , t o a f f o r d p r a c t i c e i n the use  of c o r r e c t language, i n the n a t u r e and use  of  tropes  and f i g u r e s of speech, and i n a l l d e v i c e s whereby a speaker c o u l d i n f l u e n c e h i s f e l l o w men.  Even i f a boy had had  some  t r a i n i n g i n the p r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e s b e f o r e he came t o the " r h e t o r " , h i s more s e r i o u s work a t them would b e g i n The  there.  order i n w h i c h the p r e l i m i n a r y r h e t o r i c a l e x e r c i s e s  ("progymnasmata") were t a k e n was from the Greek usage.  The  a t r a d i t i o n a l one,  f i r s t e x e r c i s e was  derived  p r a c t i c e i n nar-  r a t i v e because i t r e s e m b l e d s u b j e c t s a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d under the teacher lar  of l i t e r a t u r e . *  Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 15) puts p a r t i c u -  s t r e s s on t h i s e x e r c i s e :  " n a r r a t i o n e s s t i l o componi quanta  maxima p o s s i t a d h i b i t a d i l i g e n t i a v o l o " .  W i t h r e g a r d t o the  s u b j e c t matter of these e x e r c i s e s i n n a r r a t i v e he would  now  drop the f a b l e and  the  the  s t o r y ("argumentum") and c o n f i n e  m a t t e r t o comment upon remarkable p o i n t s of h i s t o r y as "tanto robust!or  quanto v e r i e r "  being  ( I I . i v . 2).  On t h i s type of e x e r c i s e f o l l o w e d n a t u r a l l y the t r e a t m e n t of n a r r a t i v e s ("opus d e s t r u e n d i  critical  confirmandique n a r -  r a t i o n e s " ) — a m a s s e d arguments f o r or a g a i n s t the t r u t h of some  * Quint. puer  ( I I . i v . 1):  didicerit."  " c u i u s a l i q u i d s i m i l e apud grammaticos  136.  s t o r y such, f o r example, as t h a t of the r a v e n which was s a i d t o have s e t t l e d on t h e helmet of V a l e r i u s Corvus i n the m i d s t of combat and w i t h i t s wings and beak s t r u c k the eyes o f a G a u l who was h i s a d v e r s a r y .  C o n c e r n i n g t h i s type of e x e r c i s e  Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 18) says:  " n a r r a t i o n i b u s non i n u t i l i t e r  s u b i u n g i t u r opus d e s t r u e n d i c o n f i r m a n d i q u e eas, ....  I d porro  non tantum i n f a b u l o s i s e t carmine t r a d i t i s f i e r i p o t e s t , verum e t i a m i n I p s i s annaliura monumentis." "Inde p a u l a t i m ad m a l o r a tendere i n c i p i e t , l a u d a r e c l a r o s v i r o s e t v i t u p e r a r e improbos, quod non s i m p l i c i s u t i l i t a t i s opus e s t . "  (Quint. I I . i v . 2 0 ) .  T h i s e x e r c i s e . w a s of e s p e c i a l  v a l u e , p a r t l y from t h e v a r i e d demands w h i c h i t made upon the m e n t a l powers, p a r t l y from i t s development  of t h e m o r a l judg-  ment, and p a r t l y from t h e way i n w h i c h i t s t o r e d t h e memory w i t h examples t o be used on o c c a s i o n .  W i t h t h i s e x e r c i s e was  i  sometimes combined t h e comparison of c h a r a c t e r s . Other e x e r c i s e s c o n s i s t e d of:  " l o c i communes", w h i c h were  r e f l e x i o n s on p a r t i c u l a r v i c e s and I n support of v i r t u e s i n the abstract.  They were thus g e n e r a l I n t h e i r t r e a t m e n t and o f im-  mediate s e r v i c e I n l e g a l c a s e s .  But t h e s e , as w i t h a l l other  e x e r c i s e s b o t h of t h e grammar and r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l , had f o r t h e i r o b j e c t t h e f i x e d development  of a subject i n a c e r t a i n  form and t h e a r t of f i n d i n g arguments,  Q u i n t i l i a n ' s comment  on t h i s type o f e x e r c i s e i s "communes l o c i ex m e d i i s sunt i u d i c i i s e t , s i r e jam a d i i c i a s , a c c u s a t i o n e s ; quamquam h i quoque ab i l l o g e n e r a l ! t r a c t a t u ad quasdam deduct s p e c i e s s o l e n t , ut  s i ponatur a d u l t e r caecus, a l e a t o r pauper, p e t u l a n s senex." ( I I . i v . 22)  137. Even more of  immediate  s e r v i c e i n l e g a l cases t h a n "communes l o c i " were " t h e s e s " , a b s t r a c t q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v i n g comparisons of such a debatable n a t u r e as " r u s t i c a n e v i t a an urbana p o t i o r " , " i u r i s p e r i t i  an  m i l i t a r i s v i r i l a u s m a i o r " , "ducendane u x o r " , or "petendine s i n t m a g i s t r a t u s " . Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . i v . 24) comments on t h i s k i n d of e x e r c i s e t h u s :  "Theses .... m i r e sunt ad e x e r c i t a t -  ionem d i c e n d i s p e c l o s a e atque u b e r e s , quae v e l ad suadendi o f f i c i u m v e l e t i a m ad i u d i c i o r u m d i s c e p t a t l o n e m i u v a n t plurimum." The " c h r i a " i n r h e t o r i c -  so c a l l e d , we are t o l d , - beeatise I t was  the most u s e f u l of a l l  tho e x e r c i s e s - - w a s an e x h a u s t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of a s e n t i m e n t , d i c t u m , or pregnant sentence a s c r i b e d t o some d e f i n i t e p e r s o n , u s u a l l y of some eminence,--take  f o r example P l a t o ' s statement  t h a t "the Muses d w e l l i n the s o u l of the c u l t u r e d man."  The  u s u a l t r e a t m e n t of the " c h r i a " was somewhat as f o l l o w s ;  First  came a p a n e g y r i c on the author t o whom the u t t e r a n c e or deed was a s c r i b e d ; then h i s words were p a r a p h r a s e d and developed sostLafc t h e i r meaning might be f u l l y brought out.  Next the u n d e r l y i n g ,  p r i n c i p l e of the thought was e s t a b l i s h e d and i t s t r u t h proved b o t h p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y , i n the l a t t e r case by p o i n t i n g out what r e s u l t s would f o l l o w i f I t were not t r u e .  Then came  comparisons w i t h o t h e r thoughts l i k e or u n l i k e , - - i l l u s t r a t i o n s were adduced from h i s t o r y , c o n f i r m a t o r y q u o t a t i o n s of s i m i l a r p u r p o r t were g i v e n from s t a n d a r d a u t h o r s ; f i n a l l y came a conc l u s i o n , w h i c h o f t e n took the form of a p r a c t i c a l e x h o r t a t i o n . The " s e n t e n t i a " or p i t h y  138. s a y i n g was  t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner t o tlie " c h r i a " .  t h i s s t y l e of treatment  Indeed  has been the model on w h i c h the a r t of  l i t e r a r y c o m p o s i t i o n has been taught ever s i n c e , b o t h i n media e v a l and i n more modern s c h o o l s . A favorite exercise also was  the w r i t i n g of a speech t o be put i n the mouth of some per-  son famous i n l e g e n d or h i s t o r y .  How  e f f e c t i v e these  c o u l d be  made i s seen i n the speeches i n s e r t e d i n t h e i r h i s t o r i e s S u l l u s f r , L i v y , and  Tacitus. Quintilian  speaks w i t h f a v o u r  by  ( I I . i v . 26)  of an e x e r c i s e used by h i s own  teachers, i n  w h i c h p u p i l s had t o d i v i n e the r e a s o n f o r something, as f o r example "cur armata apud Lacedaemonios Venus", and " q u i d i t a c r e d e r e t u r Cupido puer atque v o l u c e r e t s a g i t t i s ac f a c e armatus "Legum l a u s ac v i t u p e r a t i o iam mores ac prope sumtnis operibus (Quint. I I . i v . 33).  suffecturas vires  desiderant.  T h i s e x e r c i s e i n d e e d c a l l e d f o r the u t - •  most e f f o r t s of the s p e a k e r , i n v o l v i n g , as i t f r e q u e n t l y d i d , questions  of the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y and.importance, as w e l l  as of the g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y . These were the c h i e f p r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e s by w h i c h the a n c i e n t s t r a i n e d the c a p a c i t y f o r s p e a k i n g , but d i v o r c e d as they v/ere from a l l d i r e c t b e a r i n g on p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , they tended more and more t o become mere d e c l a m a t i o n s .  I t must not  be supposed t h a t the Roman y o u t h had thrown on him the imposs i b l e t a s k of p r o d u c i n g guidance.  The  the above e x e r c i s e s w i t h o u t h e l p and .  Greeks had reduced the w r i t i n g of such e x e r c i s e s  139.  t o an a r t , and t h e l o g i c i a n s had h e l p e d them. heen p r e s e r v e d for  t o us of model e x e r c i s e s  the guidance of t h e i r p u p i l s .  Examples have  w r i t t e n by the  So g u i d e d , the boy  teachers  could  s c a r c e l y f a i l t o produce a f a i r l y good e x e r c i s e , e s p e c i a l l y as the l e a r n i n g by h e a r t of the p o e t s had words and f e l i c i t o u s e x p r e s s i o n s ,  s t o r e d h i s mind w i t h  I t being h e l d a merit  borrow f r o m d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s , and not a f a u l t . "progymnasmata", however, were i n t e n d e d  to  A l l the  o n l y as i n t r o d u c t o r y  t o the.main e x e r c i s e of the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l , t h a t i s , p r a c tice in  "declamatio".  T r a n s l a t i o n from Greek i n t o L a t i n was the  not p r a c t i s e d i n  advanced r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s u n t i l a f t e r the time of Aug-  ustus.  Q u i n t i l i a n does, not mention t r a n s l a t i o n as  of the work of the t e a c h e r  being'part  of r h e t o r i c even i n the f i r s t  stage  of h i s i n s t r u c t i o n but he does mention (X. v. 2)  t h a t the  e a r l i e s t o r a t o r s thought h i g h l y of t r a n s l a t i o n .  I t was  t i s e d by those-who had and by many who gether,  a t t a i n e d some p r o f i c i e n c y i n r h e t o r i c ,  had p a s s e d out of the t r a i n i n g s c h o o l  as the b e s t means of i m p r o v i n g  by C i c e r o i n mature manhood.  But from the p o i n t of view of Pliny  a good d e a l of p r a i s e t o bestow on t r a n s -  l a t i o n as an e x e r c i s e : vel  alto-  t h e i r s t y l e , f o r example  s t y l e i t seems t o have been l i t t l e used i n s c h o o l s . ("Ep." V I I . i x ) has  prac-  " U t i l e i n p r i m i s (et m u l t i praeceperunt)  ex Graeco i n Latinum v e l ex L a t i n o v e r t e r e i n Graecum;  quo  genere e x e r c i t a t i o n i s p r o p r i e t a s splendorque verborum, c o p i a figurarum,  v i s e x p l i c a n d i , p r a e t e r e a i m i t a t i o n e optimorum  s i m i l i a inveniendi facultas paratur;  ... I n t e l l i g e n t i a ex  hoc  140. et iudicium a d q u i r i t u r . " SUPPLEMENTARY READING  :  B e f o r e Q u i n t i l i a n goes on t o speak of declamat i o n p r o p e r , t h e s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n of the "rhe-  t o r " , he stops t o p o i n t out how much advantage t o a would-he o r a t o r may be g a i n e d from the c r i t i c a l study w i t h a t e a c h e r , not  only o f p o e t s , b u t o f h i s t o r y and e s p e c i a l l y of o r a t o r s . *  Q u i n t i l i a n says t h a t i n d o i n g such r e a d i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o t h e l o g i c a l arrangement and p e r s u a s i v e power, t h a t a l l t h e v i r t u e s of language and form s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out i n b r i e f .  He a l s o suggests t h a t the p u p i l s  should  be t r a i n e d t o observe m e r i t s and f a u l t s , b o t h of m a t t e r and of s t y l e , f o r themselves:  "nam q u i d a l i u d agimus docendo eos,  quam ne semper d o c e n d i s i n t ? "  ( I I . v . 13)  Q u i n t i l i a n t h i n k s t h a t even bad specimens of o r a t o r y may be t a k e n , t h a t t h e i r v i c e s of language, s t y l e , and arrangement  * (X. i . 2 7 ) : "Pluriraum  ... o r a t o r ! c o n f e r r e  .... l e c t i o n e m  poetarum .... Namque ab h i s i n rebus s p i r i t u s e t i n v e r b i s s u b l i r a i t a s e t i n a d f e c t i b u s motus omnis e t i n p e r s o n i s decor p e t i t u r , praecipueque v e l u t a t t r l t a c o t i d i a n o a c t u f o r e n s i i n g e n i a optime rerum t a l i u m b l a n d i t i a r e p a r a n t u r . " (X. i . 3 1 ) : " H i s t o r i a quoque a l e r e oratorem .... p o t e s t . " ( I I . v . 1 ) : " i t a .t^L^quoque h i s t o r i a e atque e t i a m magis o r a tionum l e c t i o n e . . . . "  •141.  may  be p o i n t e d out.  Such, w r i t i n g s , he s a y s , s h o u l d be commen-  ted  on t o show t h a t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y , they are  f u l l of o b s c u r i t i e s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of language,  turgidity,  meanness, and e f f e m i n a c y , - - the v e r y r e a s o n , i n d e e d , why many p r a i s e them.  The p u p i l s , t o o , w i l l much p r e f e r t o have the  m i s t a k e s of o t h e r s p o i n t e d out r a t h e r than t h e i r While  own.  of the o p i n i o n t h a t the b e s t w r i t e r s s h o u l d be r e a d ,  Q u i n t i l i a n ( I I . v. 19) advocates  t h a t those s h o u l d f i r s t  be  s t u d i e d whose w r i t i n g s are most t r a n s p a r e n t , p o s t p o n i n g , f o r example, S a l l u s t t o L i v y . "et  Above a l l C i c e r o s h o u l d be s t u d i e d  iucundus i n c i p i e n t i b u s quoque e t a p e r t u s e s t , nec  tanturn sed etiam amari p o t e s t " ( I I . v. 2 0 ) .  prodesse  N e i t h e r the rough  and a r c h a i c s t y l e of the w r i t e r s of a n t i q u i t y , * nor the a f f e c ted  and o v e r - o r n a t e d i c t i o n of Q u i n t i l i a n ' s own t i m e , * * i s t o  be taken as a model. DECLAMATION mation p r o p e r we  As an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o our d i s c u s s i o n of d e c l a s h o u l d perhaps b r i e f l y l o o k a t the v a r i o u s  k i n d s of o r a t o r y f o r w h i c h the young men  would have t o prepare  themselves. The  o r a t o r y f o r w h i c h the y o u t h was  * ( I I . v. 21) "...  t r a i n e d was  commonly  ne q u i s eos a n t i q u l t a t i s n i m i u s a d m i r a t o r  i n Gracchorum Catonisque e t aIIorum  similium lectione  dures-  cere v e l i t . " ** ( I I . v. 22)  ne r e c e n t ! s h u i u s l a s c i v i a e  flosculis  c a p t i v o l u p t a t e prava d e l e n i a n t u r , u t p r a e d u l c e i l l u d genus e t p u e r l l i b u s I n g e n i i s hoc g r a t i u s , quo prop -ius e s t , adaraent."  142.  d i v i d e d I n t o t h r e e genera--the "genus demonstrativum", the genus d e l i b e r a t i v u m " , and the " genus i u d i c a l e . " the speaker makes a d i s p l a y of h i s own way  I n the  first  powers, u s u a l l y I n the  of e u l o g y or censure of c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l , or i t might be  imaginary,  a c t s and c h a r a c t e r s .  ment a d d r e s s i n g  The  d e l i b e r a t i v e was  an  i t s e l f t o the q u e s t i o n whether any a c t  should  have been done or not and so endeavouring t o persuade the ence t o take some a c t i o n .  The  j u d i c i a r y was  p l e a d i n g b e f o r e a judge i n w h i c h one g u i l t or Innocence of someone who of law.  argu-  audi-  i n the form of a  t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h the  i s a r r a i g n e d before a court  These p l e a d i n g s were o f t e n r e g a r d i n g f i c t i t i o u s  cases,  sometimes r e g a r d i n g cases t h a t had a c t u a l l y been i n the courts.' The  g e n e r a l course of I n s t r u c t i o n a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l forms  of o r a t o r y embraced # i v e t a s k s w h i c h d e v o l v e d upon the  speaker,  f o r w h i c h he had t o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and t o which he  was  e x p e c t e d t o g i v e good heed: (1) " I n v e n t ! o " , (2)  11  the d e v i s i n g of s u i t a b l e arguments;  d i s p o s i t i o " , or arrangement;  ( 3 ) " e l o c u t i o " , or a p p r o p r i a t e  diction;  (4) " p r o n u n t i a t i o " , the d e l i v e r y , i n c l u d i n g p r o p r i e t y of tone and  gesture.  D e c l a m a t i o n was  the most u s e f u l of a l l the e x e r c i s e s of  the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l . *  * ( Q u i n t . I I . x. 1,2)  "...  Indeed, some thought' t h a t i t was  quae quidem u t ex omnibus n o v i s s i m e  inventa i t a multo est u t i l l s s i m a . bus  diximus,  reddit."  alone  Nam  e t c u n c t a i l i a , de q u i -  i n se f e r e c o n t i n e t , e t v e r i t a t i proximam imaginem  143. s u f f i c i e n t t o d e v e l o p eloquence.  Q u i n t i l i a n thought t h a t i t  had been u n d e r v a l u e d because o f the a b s u r d themes, out o f a l l r e l a t i o n w i t h r e a l l i f e , which h a d been chosen as i t s s u b j e c t s . He t h e r e f o r e advocates k e e p i n g i n view the k i n d of o c c a s i o n s f o r w h i c h the speaker was b e i n g t r a i n e d .  I n f o r e n s i c cases a r t  must be c a r e f u l l y c o n c e a l e d ; b u t t h e r e were times when a d i s p l a y o f o r a t o r i c a l s k i l l would be i n p l a c e , i n , o r d e r t o g i v e pleasure t o the audience.  He a l s o ( I I . x i ) demonstrates the  v a l u e of the s y s t e m a t i c study of r h e t o r i c , as a g a i n s t those who b e l i e v e d i n n o t h i n g b u t n a t u r a l powers and p r a c t i c e .  He  i s i n d e e d s a t i r i c a l i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of those speakers who l o o k f o r a s u p p l y of m a t t e r and language t o the i n s p i r a t i o n of,, the moment: ers  and d i s p r o v e s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t u n t r a i n e d speak-  have more f o r c e , and t h e r e f o r e more power w i t h an a u d i e n c e .  The t r a i n e d , he m a i n t a i n s ( I I . x i i , 6 ) , l o s e o n l y t h e i r  faults;  " d o c t i s e s t et e l e c t i o e t modus ', w h i l e the u n t r a i n e d pour out 1  everything,  ,  "Declamatio" was n o t s o l e l y a m a t t e r f o r t h e s c h o o l ; C i c e r o ("Brut." 90) s a y s , "commentabar d e c l a m i t a n s ( s i c enim nunc l o q u u n t u r ) saepe cum M. P i s o n e , e t cum Q. Pompeio, a u t cum a l i q u o c o t t i d i e ; idque f a c i e b a m multum e t i a m L a t i n e , sed Graece saepius."  And even l a t e r on I n h i s l i f e he g u i d e d the p r a c t i c e  of h i s younger f r i e n d s H I r t i u s and D o l a b e l l a ,  This practice  would d o u b t l e s s be on the l i n e s l a i d down i n t h e s c h o o l s , b u t i n these t h e r e was, as S u e t o n i u s t e l l s u s , a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y of method, a c c o r d i n g t o the t a s t e s of t h e t e a c h e r s .  144.  I n C i c e r o ' s time the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  was  strengthened,  the range of knowledge extended, hy the w r i t i n g out of  essays  on g e n e r a l t o p i c s , " p r o p o s i t a " as C i c e r o c a l l e d them, and the treatment  of any s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of a matter  of p r a c -  These were d e l i v e r e d w i t h t h e proper accent and  lation.  by  of t o p i c s of such a n a t u r e as were sure t o come  up i n the course tice.  and  articu-  They c o n s t i t u t e d the main i f n o t the o n l y e x e r c i s e  known t o the e d u c a t i o n i s t s of C i c e r o ' s day. d i v i d e d "quaestiones" son, and c i r c u m s t a n c e s  Cicero himself x  i n t o the l i m i t e d (as t o t i m e , p l a c e , perg e n e r a l l y ) or c o n c r e t e "causae" and  u n l i m i t e d or a b s t r a c t " p r o p o s i t a " ; but of t h e s e , t h e much p r e f e r r e d as s u b j e c t s of  l a t t e r were  declamation.  B o i s s i e r t r a c e s the changes which o c c u r r e d i n the of d e c l a m a t i o n  the  subjects  or perhaps one might more c o r r e c t l y say changes  i n the terms u s e d of the s u b j e c t s : were r e p l a c e d by  "A l i t t l e l a t e r the  'theses'  'causae', w h i c h s i g n i f i e d , no doubt, t h a t the  s u b j e c t s t r e a t e d a t the s c h o o l resembled those pleaded  before  the judges; t h e n , a l l a t once, t h e r e was. no l o n g e r any  question  of ' t h e s e s ' or 'causae'; and we are t o l d of ' s u a s o r i a e ' , of ' c o n t r o v e r s i a e ' , * * a n d the s c h o l a s t i c e x e r c i s e s by which boys  x " P a r t i t i o n e s O r a t o r i a e " 61:  "Duo  sunt ....  quaestionum gen-  e r a , quorum a l t e r u m f i n i t u m temporibus e t p e r s o n i s causam app e l l o , , a l t e r u m I n f i n i t u m n u l l i s neque p e r s o n i s neque temporibus notaturn p r o p o s i t u m  voco."  x* As the e l d e r Seneca says  ("Controversiae"  v e r s i a s nos d i c i m u s , C i c e r o causas  vocabat."  I. x i i ) ,  "contro-  145, are t r a i n e d t o speak assumes the name of ' d s c l a m a t i o ' , which i n t h i s sense i s new."*  D o u b t l e s s "causae" tended t o d r i v e  out " t h e s e s " , h u t t h e former seems t o have been i n use from t h e f i r s t ; and the l a t t e r were p r o b a b l y never w h o l l y abandoned. B o i s s i e r goes on:  " i f " " t h e need were f e l t of changing the name,  i t was p r o b a b l y because the t h i n g a l s o h a d changed, b u t no one i n f o r m s us i n what t h e change c o n s i s t e d , and I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o determine i t f o r c e r t a i n .  We can o n l y c o n j e c t u r e t h a t i t  must have been o f some i m p o r t a n c e , and t h a t i t was "of a n a t u r e e n t i r e l y t o s a t i s f y t h e p u b l i c , s i n c e i t s success-was and so complete".  And so under the Empire  so r a p i d  d e c l a m a t i o n s were  commonly d i v i d e d , i n t o " s u a s o r i a e " and " c o n t r over s i a e " . i n b o t h t h e " c o n t r o v e r s l a " and " s u a s o r i a " a supposed was  case  t a k e n i n h a n d - - i t might be. from r e a l l i f e - or p u r e l y i m a g i -  nary.  Both o f them appear  t o have g i v e n more room f o r i n g e n u i t y  of r h e t o r i c , and l e s s f o r s e r i o u s thought.  I n the " s u a s o r i a " ,  a s e t o r a t i o n , a c e r t a i n course of a c t i o n was debated; the s t u dents took s i d e s on, f o r example, a d i s p u t e d p o i n t of h i s t o r y and s u p p o r t e d t h e i r views by arguments.  This e x e r c i s e , t h e n ,  was r e a l l y a "communis l o c u s " connected w i t h a name.  I t was  thought t h e e a s i e r , and b e t t e r adapted f o r b e g i n n e r s ; i t s e r v e d as a t r a i n i n g f o r d e l i b e r a t i v e o r a t o r y .  A good example of the  " s u a s o r i a " i s g i v e n by J u v e n a l ("Sat." i . 15)1  * "The S c h o o l s of D e c l a m a t i o n a t Rome" ( I I ) , as t r a n s l a t e d by W. Gr. H u t c h i n s o n . •  146.  " . . , . e t nos C o n s i l i u m dedimus S u l l a e , p r i v a t u s u t a l t u m Dormiret." I n t h e " c o n t r o v e n s i a " , a p r e t e n d e d l e g a l argument, some p r o p o s i t i o n was m a i n t a i n e d or d e n i e d ; i t was b e s t s u i t e d t o the more advanced and p r e p a r e d f o r t h e o r a t o r y of the l a w - c o u r t , w h i c h was always r e g a r d e d as making t h e s e v e r e s t demands upon speakers.  There a r e two good examples of t h e " c o n t r o v e r s i a "  g i v e n b y S u e t o n i u s ("De C l a r . Rhet." i ) : " A e s t i v o tempore a d o l e s c e n t e s u r b a n ! cum Ostiam v e n i s s e n t , l i tus ingress!, p i s c a t o r e s trahentes rete adierunt, e t pepigerunt, bolum q u a n t ! eraerent*. r e t i a extraherentur:  nummos s o l v e r u n t :  d i u e x p e c t a v e r u n t dum  aliquando e x t r a c t i s , p i s c i s nullus  sed s p o r t a a u r i obsuta.  infuit,  Turn emtores bolum suum a i u n t , p i s c a -  t o r e s suum. " V e n a l i c i i , cum B r u n d i s i i gregem venaHum e n a v i educerent, formoso e t p r e t i o s o puero, quod p o r t i t o r e s v e r e b a n t u r , b u l l a m e t praetextam togam imposuere: Roma-m v e n i t u r :  f a c i l e fallaciam celarunt.  r e scognita est:  p e t i t u r puer, quod domini  voluntate f u e r i t l i b e r , i n libertatem." When each y o u t h I n t u r n mounted the o r a t o r ' s s t a n d i n the s c h o o l and began h i s " s u a s o r i a " or h i s " c o n t r o v e r s i a " a l l h i s f e l l o w s were d u l y bound t o c r y i n Greek, " E u g e l " or "Sophosl" a t every booming s e n t i m e n t or w e l l - r o u n d e d c l i m a x . *  At least  x Q u i n t i l i a n o b j e c t s t o a l l o w i n g the s t u d e n t s t o applaud  each  o t h e r ' s e x e r c i s e s , as t e n d i n g t o abuse and as l e a d i n g the p u p i l t o l o o k away from t h e r i g h t source of judgment w h i c h i s the master .  147. once d u r i n g t h e o r a t i o n i t was good f o r m f o r them t o r i s e from t h e i r s e a t s and j o i n i n a s a l v o o f a p p l a u s e — t h e y w o u l d a l l g e t l i k e c o u r t e s i e s when t h e i r own t u r n s came. When the young d e c l a i m e r h a d f i n i s h e d the master would arise.  He would show how t o g e s t u r e , making h i s garments  i n picturesque f o l d s . and r e p e a t t h e argument  fall  He would t a k e t h e s u b j e c t j u s t h a n d l e d showing how each p o i n t c o u l d be b e t t e r  d e v e l o p e d ; how new m a t t e r c o u l d be brought i n ; how a l l u s i o n s t o t h e gods, the w o r t h i e s of o l d , and perhaps t o t h e r e i g n i n g Emperor would improve t h e e f f e c t ; how t o u s e one's v o i c e a t each p a r t i c u l a r t u r n .  I f t h e o n l y o b j e c t of o r a t o r y was t o  t i c k l e the e a r , the r e s u l t was m a g n i f i c e n t .  The s t u d e n t s would  d u t i f u l l y a p p l a u d t h e i r master even more l o u d l y then they d i d t h e i r f e l l o w s , and each w o u l d go home wondering a n x i o u s l y , when he c o u l d argue h i s f i r s t case b e f o r e the p r a e t o r . I t was customary f o r a p u p i l t o l e a r n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n by h e a r t , and d e c l a i m i t i n t h e presence of h i s r e l a t i v e s and friends.  Q u i n t i l i a n d i s c o u r a g e d t h i s p r a c t i c e f o r speeches  produced i n t h i s way and f o r t h i s purpose n a t u r a l l y aimed a t making an immediate i m p r e s s i o n by g l i t t e r i n g phrases and e p i grammatic  turns of thought.  He recommended i n s t e a d t h a t p u p i l s  s h o u l d s t o r e t h e i r memories w i t h s t r i k i n g passages from eminent writers.x  -x ( I I . v i i .  C e r t a i n l y they s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o r e c i t e from  2)  "Ham u t s c r i b e r e pueros plurimumque  esse i n hoc  opere p l a n e v e l i m , s i c e d i s c e r e e l e c t o s ex o r a t i o n i b u s v e l h i s t o r i i s a l i o v e quo genere dignorum ea c u r a voluminum magis suadeam."  l o c o s , rnulto  148.  memory, t h e i r own p r o d u c t i o n s u n t i l they have a t t a i n e d some exc e l l e n c e , and t h e n o n l y as a reward of t h e i r p r o g r e s s . Under t h e R e p u b l i c so p r o f o u n d l y r h e t o r i c a l a system as we have d i s c u s s e d n o u r i s h e d i t s p u p i l s on t h e m a s t e r p i e c e s of f r e e speech; i t i n f l a m e d t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s w i t h dreams of r h e t o r i c a l triumph.  O r a t o r i c a l a b i l i t y was of supreme  Import-  ance f o r p l e a d i n g i n t h e l a w - c o u r t s , a n d under a p o l i t i c a l  con-  s t i t u t i o n i n w h i c h a senate or a p o p u l a r assembly had t o be c o n v i n c e d , o r a t o r y was t h e g r e a t i n s t r u m e n t of the r i s i n g  poli-  tician . Under the Empire t h i s importance  d i m i n i s h e d , b u t the study  of r h e t o r i c c o n t i n u e d , and i t became more and more m e t h o d i c a l . When the y o u t h went f o r t h i n t o t h e w o r l d of t h e Empire, they found the o n l y arena f o r d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r powers t o be the d u l l c o u r t of the " C e n t u m v i r i " , or the h i r e d l e c t u r e h a l l , where they might d i l a t e on some f r i g i d or s i l l y theme b e f o r e a weary axxdience.  Thus the power of speech, w h i c h t o the statesmen  of the  R e p u b l i c from Cato t o C i c e r o had been--next perhaps t o success i n war--the most p o t e n t a i d t o w i n o f f i c e and power i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e , had now become merely a g r a c e f u l accomplishment, s e r v i n g to  draw f o r t h t h e p l a u d i t s of a d i l e t a n t e  audience.  I t was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a tempting e x c i t e m e n t t o e x e r t the a r t s l e a r n t i n the " s c h o o l of Q u i n t i l i a n " i n a r e a l where the l i f e  onslaught,  or l i b e r t y of t h e accused was a t s t a k e .  the g r e a t e s t o r a t o r s of the p a s t had never a s p l e n d i d m a t e r i a l reward.  And  o f f e r e d t o them such  One q u a r t e r of the e s t a t e of the  149,  condemned man h a d been the O l d l e g a l f e e of the a c c u s e r . t h i s l i m i t was l e f t f a r b e h i n d i n the j u d i c i a l plunder  But  of t h e  e a r l y C a e s a r s . . P r o b a b l y I n no other way c o u l d a man then so e a s i l y make h i m s e l f a " m i l l i o n a i r e " . Under the Empire, t h e n , the s t r e e t s of Rome d a i l y  resoun-  ded w i t h n o i s e from the r h e t o r i c a l schools--some y o u t h  labori-  o u s l y I n c i t i n g . t h e _ A t h e n i a n p a t r i o t s , Harmodius and A r i s t o g e i ton,  t o screw up t h e i r courage and f r e e t h e i r c o u n t r y by s l a y -  ing  the f o u l Hipparchus,--another  u r g i n g H a n n i b a l t o advance  (or  n o t t o advance) on Rome a f t e r h i s v i c t o r y a t Cannae,--or  some mimic p r o s e c u t o r w o r k i n g h i m s e l f i n t o a p a s s i o n a g a i n s t the "malus i n g r a t u s q u e  maritus".*  J u v e n a l ("Sat." v i i . 150 f . ) r i d i c u l e s the f o r m a l ter  charac-  of t h e work of the s c h o o l s of the r h e t o r s : "Declamare doces?  0 f e r r e a pectora  Vetti,  Cum p e r i m i t saevos c l a s s ! s numerosa t y r a n n o s . Ham quaecumque sedens modo l e g e r a t , h a e c e a d e m s t a n s . P e r f e r e t atque eadem c a n t a b i t v e r s i b u s isdem; O c c i d i t miseros  crambe r e p e t i t a  magistros,  Quis c o l o r e t quod s i t causae genus atque u b i summa Quaestio,  quae v e n l a n t d i v e r s a e f o r t e s a g i t t a e ,  Hosse v o l u n t omnes, mercedem s o l v e r e nemo. ' Ivlercedem a p p e l l a s ?  Quid enim s c i o ? '  'Culpa  S c i l i c e t a r g u i t u r , quod laevae p a r t e m a m i l l a e H i l s a l i t Arcadico i u v e n i , cuius mihi sexta  * J u v e n a l , Sat." v i i , 169. 11  docentis  150. Quaque d i e miserum d i r u s c a p i a t H a n n i b a l Q u i d q u i d i d e s t de quo  inplet,  d e l i b e r a t , an p e t a t urbem  A C a n n i s , an p o s t nimbos e t f u l m i n a G i r cutnagat madidas a tempestate  cautus  cohortes.  Quantum v i s s t i p u l a r e e t p r o t i n u s a c c i p e , q u i d Ut t o t i e n s I l i u m p a t e r Seneca ("Ep," 106,  do  audiat?'  12) a n g r i l y w r i t e s of such debates as were  c o n d u c t e d i n the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s , "non  v i t a e sed  scholae  discimus". We  cannot but be  s t r u c k , however, w i t h the remarkable i n -  g e n u i t y shown b o t h I n d e v i s i n g problems of c o n f l i c t i n g laws or m o r a l c l a i m s , and i n i n v e n t i n g c o n c e i v a b l e  s o l u t i o n s f o r them.  Viewed as an i n t e l l e c t u a l g y m n a s t i c , t h i s method of t r a i n i n g was  c e r t a i n l y not w i t h o u t  drawbacks.  i t s value.  But t h e r e were s e r i o u s  I n the f i r s t p l a c e the m a t t e r was  i n i t s r a n g e , and the  much r e s t r i c t e d  s u b j e c t s were few I n number,  f r o m the specimens p r e s e r v e d  To  judge  t o us by Seneca the E l d e r  o t h e r s . t h a t have come down t o u s , the themes are  and  strangely  hackneyed, though t h e r e i s g r e a t d i v e r s i t y i n the treatment of them.  Apparently  the d e c l a i m e r s  l i k e d t o show t h e i r  ingenuity  i n the t r e a t m e n t of f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than i n the t i o n of new-.  A s t i l l more s e r i o u s f a u l t was  were out of a l l r e l a t i o n w i t h r e a l l i f e , and  t h a t the  inven-  subjects  such as c o u l d  not  genuinely  e x c i t e the i n t e r e s t or touch the f e e l i n g s of the  speaker.  Even the laws, assumed t o be b i n d i n g , are o f t e n such  as never e x i s t e d anywhere. l e s s a t t e n t i o n was  The  consequence was  t h a t l e s s and  p a i d t o the substance of the speech,  and  151.  more and more t o the language.  J u s t n e s s and  appropriateness  of thought came t o he l e s s esteemed than b r i l l i a n c e and of  novelty  expression. ii  Philosophy  Hand i n hand w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r h e t o r i c i n t o Roman l i f e and e d u c a t i o n an i n f l u e n c e h a r d l y l e s s p o w e r f u l , even more s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d , was  though  b e i n g e x e r t e d by the growing  a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o Greek p h i l o s o p h y a t Rome.  The  study of  lit-  e r a t u r e had been taken i n t o the r e g u l a r s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m w i t h out awakening any s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n .  I t had not been d i r e c t l y ,  a t any r a t e , i n antagonism w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s of l i f e  and  conduct and had put f o r w a r d no a r r o g a n t c l a i m s t o remould them. But p h i l o s o p h y  came f o r w a r d w i t h i t s r u l e s f o r the r e g u l a t i o n  of l i f e , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p r e s c r i p t i o n s of a n t i q u i t y . I t cannot be t o o c o n s t a n t l y borne i n mind t h a t f o r t h o u g h t f u l in  Greece and Rome p h i l o s o p h y was  men  no i d l e amusement, but a  s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o d i s c o v e r t h a t guidance f o r the conduct of l i f e w h i c h the n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n c o u l d o f f e r o n l y t o a v e r y small extent. for  They f e l t t h a t some s u b s t i t u t e had t o be found  n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n and f o r l o s t gods.  Hence even more  than r h e t o r i c , p h i l o s o p h y , w i t h i t s b o l d q u e s t i o n i n g s  of ac-  c e p t e d t e a c h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y on p o i n t s of m o r a l conduct, was  for  many y e a r s viewed w i t h grave s u s p i c i o n a t Rome and so i t was a l l e g e d t h a t the d e c l i n e of p u b l i c and p a t r i o t i c i n t e r e s t which was  c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the growth of p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r e s t ,  p a r t l y due  t o the. • growth of the  latter.  was  152.  Cato, n e a r i n g the c l o s i n g of h i s l i f e , was h o r r i f i e d Athenian  philosophers  lest  s h o u l d c o r r u p t the younger g e n e r a t i o n , hy  t e a c h i n g them the a r t o f making r i g h t seem wrong and wrong r i g h t . But i t may he doubted whether t h e a t t r a c t i o n which the b r i l l i a n t new  p h i l o s o p h y , w i t h a l l i t s s o p h i s t r y , h a d f o r the younger men  d i d n o t a t l e a s t e q u a l the d r e a d and d i s l i k e f e l t f o r them by men o f t h e o l d s c h o o l , as we have seen was the case w i t h r h e t o r i c . We n o t i c e d under "Home E d u c a t i o n " how the r e l i g i o u s ing  teach-  of t h e Roman boy was m a i n l y a m a t t e r of l e a r n i n g the c u s t o -  mary r i t u a l  observances, and b e i n g t r a i n e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  m o r a l s a t home and a t s c h o o l .  But something more may here be  s a i d as t o the t e a c h i n g by w h i c h t h i s was commonly supplemented as t h e p u p i l grew t o manhood.  F o r the upper c l a s s e s a t Rome,  of whom alone we have adequate i n f o r m a t i o n , the guide of l i f e was  f o u n d f a r more i n p h i l o s o p h y  than i n r e l i g i o n .  I f a man  w i s h e d t o know about r i g h t or wrong, what he h a d t o do and why he  s h o u l d do i t , and was n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r u l e s which had  been t a u g h t t o h i m as a c h i l d , he would go t o a p h i l o s o p h e r , never t o a p r i e s t . To some e x t e n t under the R e p u b l i c and s t i l l more under the E m p i r e , t h e v a r i o u s Greek p h i l o s o p h i c a l s c h o o l s were coming t o lay  a s i d e t h e i r s p e c u l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s , and d w e l l i n g more on  t h a t m o r a l t e a c h i n g on w h i c h they agreed.  Prom the f i r s t i n ~  t r o d u c t i o n o f Greek p h i l o s o p h y a t Rome i t had been common f o r l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s t o have p r o f e s s o r s of the s u b j e c t r e s i d e n t i n t h e i r houses.  These have been c a l l e d "the domestic c h a p l a i n s  of heathendom", b u t t h e phrase i s n o t an a l t o g e t h e r happy one  153.  as i t suggests some d u t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f a m i l y w o r s h i p . A b e t t e r comparison i s w i t h the " d i r e c t o r s of c o n s c i e n c e " , * who.often r e s i d e d i n n o b l e C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s , t o g i v e t h e i r guidance his  and c o n s o l a t i o n as might be needed.  house D i o d o t u s  C i c e r o took  into  the S t o i c , whose l e c t u r e s he had h e a r d as a  youth. To r e a l i s e the t r a i n i n g of a Roman boy o f " h i g h f a m i l y , we must keep i n mind t h i s d a i l y i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h those whose v e r y p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t they s h o u l d be h a b i t u a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h g r e a t and e l e v a t i n g t h o u g h t s .  Of  t h e r e were p r e t e n d e r s and h y p o c r i t e s i n t h i s , as i n every  course other  age, and the t r i t e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of much of t h e i r t a l k g a i n e d for  them the name by which they were k n o w n - - " a r e t a l o g i " ,  ers  on v i r t u e " - - a by no means r e s p e c t f u l meaning.  as i n the case  "talk-  Sometimes,  of Seneca, a p h i l o s o p h e r might have a wide c i r c l e  of younger f r i e n d s t o whom he a c t e d as " d i r e c t o r " , and h i s l e t t e r s t o L u c i l i u s show us how direction  s u g g e s t i v e and p e n e t r a t i n g t h i s  was.  But i n a d d i t i o n t o the i n f o r m a l and h a l f - u n c o n s c i o u s  fam-.  i l i a r i t y w i t h the d o c t r i n e s of p h i l o s o p h y , p i c k e d up i n the home, we must not Ignore study,  the p l a c e g i v e n t o i t s more s y s t e m a t i c  C i c e r o ' s f a t h e r , though not r i c h , was  son, and had  ambitious f o r h i s  access t o the b e s t c i r c l e s of Roman s o c i e t y .  b e f o r e he put on the d r e s s of manhood C i c e r o a t t e n d e d the t u r e s of Phaedrus the E p i c u r e a n a t Rome.  When he was  -x An e x p r e s s i o n suggested by A. S. W i l k l n s , p.  89.  Thus lec-  eighteen  • 154. y e a r s of age he a t t e n d e d  the l e c t u r e s which P h i l o the head of  the Academic s c h o o l d e l i v e r e d i n Rome.  Then when he  t o Greece and A s i a Minor he made a f u r t h e r study of Here, as so o f t e n , i t i s h a r d t o say how  travelled philosophy.  f a r cases such as  C i c e r o ' s are to he t a k e n as, t y p i c a l ; y e t examples enough are q u o t e d to show i t must have been v e r y common. But i t must be remembered t h a t any p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e a c h i n g , pursued as i t o f t e n was  t i l l f a r on i n t o mature l i f e , was  v o l u n t a r y , and whether g i v e n , as was  purely  p r o b a b l y most commonly the  c a s e , p r i v a t e l y , or i n the f o r m of p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , formed no p a r t of the r e g u l a r s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . e x i s t e d , but were never  P h i l o s o p h i c a l "schools  11  popular.  Even when the Roman began t o p h i l o s o p h i s e s e r i o u s l y , i t was  always p r a c t i c a l e t h i c a l s t u d i e s t h a t a t t r a c t e d him.  i t s l a r g e r s c i e n t i f i c a s p e c t s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l study was t o the Roman mind, and took the form, as we  In alien  see I n C i c e r o , of  l i t e r a r y and academic e x e r c l t a t i o n s . P h i l o s o p h y was  valued  because i t a f f o r d e d , abundant p r a c t i c e i n d i s c u s s i o n and  decla-  m a t i o n , as w e l l as p r e s e n t i n g a d m i r a b l e i d e a l s of conduct, but one d i d n o t study p h i l o s o p h y  t o become a p h i l o s o p h e r .  t i l i a n advocates a knowledge of p h i l o s o p h y  Quin-  as n e c e s s a r y t o  the  o r a t o r but adds c e r t a i n l i m i t s t o i t s study: ( I . i v . 4):  "nec  Ignara p h i l o s o p h i a e , -e«i p r o p t e r p l u r i m o s  omnibus f e r e carminibus  l o c o s ex i n t i m a n a t u r a H u m quaes-  tionum s u b t i l i t a t e r e p e t i t o s . " (XII. i i .  29):  in  "Heque ea 4i*h*i-&&©pfc±a4 solum , quae t a l i b u s  155.  d i s c i p l i n i s c o n t i n e n t u r , s e d n a g i s e t i a m , quae sunt t r a d i t a a n t i q u i t u s d i c t a ac f a c t a p r a e c l a r e , e t nosse e t a n i mo semper agitar.e c o n v e n i e t . " Q u i n t i l i a n d i d n o t t h i n k i t necessary f o r a student t o a t t a c h h i m s e l f t o any s e c t of p h i l o s o p h e r s ; h u t o n l y t o study p h i l o sophy, and g e t what w a s . n o b l e s t  and b e s t i n i t f o r the forma-  t i o n o f h i s own c h a r a c t e r . C i c e r o ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the i d e a l r e l a t i o n of an o r a t o r t o p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t the o r a t o r s h o u l d have tfe^. knowledge of 4»aep h i l o s o p h y i n r e s p e c t b o t h o f t h i n g s and human n a t u r e , b u t i n a d d i t i o n he s h o u l d have the power t o make such knowledge o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e i n i n f l u e n c i n g h i s f e l l o w s through h i s powers of speech. There was, of c o u r s e , a c e r t a i n d a b b l i n g i n p h i l o s o p h y as being extremely f a s h i o n a b l e .  The z e a l f o r p h i l o s o p h y , or a t  l e a s t f o r the patronage t h e r e o f , I s shown by t h e s t o r y of howT r a j a n u s e d t o i n v i t e the g r e a t r h e t o r i c i a n Dion Ghrysostom t o v i s i t h i m and take l o n g j o u r n e y s w i t h him.  The Emperor, g r e a t l y  Impressed by the o t h e r ' s l e a r n i n g , openly d e c l a r e d t o him, " I don't i n the l e a s t u n d e r s t a n d what you keep t a l k i n g about, b u t for  a l l t h a t I l o v e you l i k e my own s o u l l " * There are p l e n t y of  s t o r i e s about noblemen who h a d t r e a t i s e s on p h i l o s o p h y r e a d t o them w h i l e they were b e i n g c a r r i e d t o and f r o . i n t h e i r under the p o r t i c o e s of t h e i r v i l l a s ;  litters  or even of l a d i e s who  l i s t e n e d t o l e c t u r e s by a p r o f e s s i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r every morning  * As quoted by W. S. D a v i s , "A Day i n Old Rome"  f  p. 204.  156.  w h i l e t h e i r maids arranged t h e i r h a i r . * Such personages, n e e d l e s s  to say, never improved upon the  f a m i l i a r guesses a t the r i d d l e of human e x i s t e n c e ; but somet i m e s t h e i r d e s i r e t o m o r a l i z e became worse than c o m i c a l . f r e q u e n t l y r e p e a t e d s t o r i e s of A g r i p p i n u s , a h i g h - b o r n of Hero.  When he caught a f e v e r he immediately  panegyric  on the m o r a l e x c e l l e n c i e s of f e v e r .  People  victim  dictated a He was  ordered  i n t o - e x i l e ; he wrote a t r e a t i s e on the b e n e f i t s of e x i l e .  He  was made a h i g h judge; he added t o the a n g u i s h of those he condemned by g i v i n g h i s v i c t i m s l o n g o r a t i o n s t o prove t h a t he passed, sentence on them o n l y f o r t h e i r own iii  good.  T r a v e l Abroad  A f t e r the s u b j u g a t i o n of Greece t h e r e was tom,  a p r e v a l e n t cus-  I n the case of the n o b l e s t and most wealthy f a m i l i e s or  those whose t a l e n t s and a m b i t i o n in. e a r l y protni sed a b r i l l i a n t v  f u t u r e , t o supplement the t r a i n i n g of the s c h o o l s by a p e r i o d of t r a v e l and r e s i d e n c e  abroad.  Athens and the Greek E a s t were s t i l l l o o k e d upon as  the  t  i n t e l l e c t u a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e , the Roman c u l t u r e b e i n g , a f t e r a l l , but an i m i t a t i o n . *  Young Romans went abroad f o r what  Musonlus the S t o i c i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g as he  discusses  the q u e s t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n of women and whether women s h o u l d study  philosophy.  157, corresponded  somewhat t o our advanced c o l l e g e study and i n  order t o g e t a more p o l i s h e d e d u c a t i o n .  I n Greece Romans of  the upper, c l a s s amended t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a c i a l b o o r i s h n e s s c o n t a c t w i t h a people  t h a t , however much i t had d e t e r i o r a t e d ,  was y e t s u p e r i o r t o the L a t i n i n t a s t e and Athens was  hy  learning.  a " u n i v e r s i t y " town; f o r the purposes of s e r i o u s  study i t o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t a t t r a c t i o n s and might almost have been c a l l e d the " U n i v e r s i t y of Rome". r h e t o r i c might be  There p h i l o s o p h y  and  s t u d i e d under famous p r o f e s s o r s , - - b o t h of  these s u b j e c t s would of course have been begun a t Rome but o n l y i n the E a s t c o u l d t h e i r study be p r o p e r l y consummated. be remembered, however, t h a t the Roman who was  I t must  s t u d i e d i n Athens  as f a m i l i a r w i t h Greek as w i t h h i s n a t i v e L a t i n and f o r t h i s  r e a s o n was  v e r y w e l l p r e p a r e d to p r o f i t by h i s l e c t u r e s .  Inci-  d e n t a l l y he o b t a i n e d a f i n a l p o l i s h f o r h i s Greek, w h i c h w i t h h i s own  tongue c o n s t i t u t e d the w o r l d languages of a n t i q u i t y .  B e s i d e s Greece t h e r e were o t h e r Important  c e n t r e s of l e a r n -  i n g f u r t h e r away, such as A l e x a n d r i a , Rhodes, and the g r e a t c i t i e s of A s i a M i n o r , where Roman youths c o u l d broaden t h e i r minds by c o n t a c t w i t h strange peoples and by the  contemplation  of the scenes of g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l events and the r i c h t i o n s of the m a s t e r p i e c e s  of l i t e r a t u r e  of course those " s t u d e n t s " who  and a r t .  collec-  There were  t r a v e l l e d merely t o enjoy the  n a t u r a l charms and s o c i a l s p l e n d o u r s of the gay and l u x u r i o u s c a p i t a l s of the E a s t . The young a r i s t o c r a t who  a s p i r e d t o be a statesman and  158.  p o s s e s s e d p o l i t i c a l I n f l u e n c e o f t e n went abroad on t h e s t a f f of some p r o v i n c i a l governor,  thereby a c q u i r i n g , along w i t h a cer-  t a i n amount of t a i n t e d money, i f he had l u c k and few s c r u p l e s , an e x p e r i e n c e  of the w o r l d t h a t s e r v e d him i n good s t e a d when  he h i m s e l f became an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . I t was  a t the age of twenty-seven t h a t C i c e r o went t o  Greece, m a i n l y t o r e c r u i t h i s h e a l t h .  Here he spent two  years  s t u d y i n g b o t h r h e t o r i c and p h i l o s o p h y under the most eminent p r o f e s s o r s a t Athens,  i n A s i a M i n o r , and e s p e c i a l l y at Rhodes.  But the course w h i c h C i c e r o f o l l o w e d , owing to c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e p e r i o d of h i s l i f e , was e a r l i e r by o t h e r s .  Caesar f o r i n s t a n c e was  taken, much  t w e n t y - f i v e when  he v i s i t e d Rhodes t o study r h e t o r i c , but the younger C i c e r o and Ovid were o n l y twenty when they went abroad.  Horace ap-  -  pears t o have begun h i s s t u d i e s t h e r e at the age of e i g h t e e n , and we may  perhaps r e g a r d e i g h t e e n t o twenty as the u s u a l time  f o r a Roman y o u t h to " t r a v e l abroad"  i n s e a r c h of more e d u c a t i o n  CHAPTER V I I EDUCATION UNDER THE LATER EMPIRE i Endowment o f E d u c a t i o n The Empire of w h i c h J u l i u s Caesar t r a c e d out the l e a d i n g l i n e s was i n t e n d e d t o b l e n d H e l l e n i c c u l t u r e w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f the Roman s t a t e t - i t was t o be c o s m o p o l i t a n . I t does n o t t h e r e f o r e s u r p r i s e us to: f i n d t h a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s of a system o f s t a t e s c h o o l s were l a i d by Caesar, when he gave the f r a n c h i s e t o a l l t e a c h e r s o f l i b e r a l a r t s ( t h e n m o s t l y Greeks) who were l i v i n g a t Rome or s h o u l d s e t t l e there.-K Augustus i n b a n i s h i n g f o r e i g n e r s from Rome made an except i o n i n favour of teachers.xx  Thus, b e g i n n i n g w i t h Caesar's  change, t h e " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " p o l i c y o f t h e s t a t e g r a d u a l l y ceased. The  i n t e r e s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n of the " a l i m e n t a r i i p u e r i e t  p u e l l a e " i s another  step i n the d i r e c t i o n of the State r e g u l a -  t i o n of education.  I t h a d l o n g been customary f o r t h e p o o r e r  c i t i z e n s t o be a i d e d by g r a t u i t o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f c o r n , o i l , and money.  Nero' extended these g r a n t s from a d u l t s t o c h i l d r e n  i n need.  •  * Suetonius, quo  " J u l i u s Caesar":  " . . . . l i b e r a Hum a r t i u m  l i b e n t i u s e t i p s i Urbem i n c o l e r e n t , e t c e t e r i  civitate  doctores,  appeterent,  donavit."  Suetonius,  "Augustus":  .... p r a e c e p t o r i b u s ,  ".... peregrinosque  .... Urbe e x p u l i s s e t . "  omnes, e x c e p t i s  160. The most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i n g u l a r t r a i t i n V e s p a s i a n i s t h a t , w i t h no p r e t e n s i o n s was  the f i r s t Caesar who  t o l i t e r a r y or a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e , he gave a f i x e d endowment t o the p r o f e s -  s o r s of the l i b e r a l a r t s .  To him t h e n i s due  s u p p o r t of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  the f i r s t i m p e r i a l  He a p p o i n t e d f o r Greek and L a t i n  p r o f e s s o r s of r h e t o r i c an a n n u a l s a l a r y of one hundred thousand s e s t e r c e s payable from the " f i s c u s " .  I t i s n o t , however, prob-  able t h a t t h i s s a l a r y of a l m o s t f o u r thousand d o l l a r s was t o any r h e t o r s b u t those of the c a p i t a l . i n d e e d h e l d t h a t i t was  paid  Some s c h o l a r s have  u n i v e r s a l , a meaning w h i c h the w e l l -  known words i n S u e t o n i u s ,  ("Vespasianus", 18) would bear:  "primus e f i s c o L a t i n i s G r a e c i s q u e r h e t o r i b u s annua centena constituit." tem  But i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t such an e x t e n s i v e  as t h i s would i m p l y s h o u l d have p e r i s h e d w i t h o u t  a t r a c e , nor t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s , at home- and i n the s h o u l d have been p a i d e q u a l l y .  sys-  leaving  country,  Indeed i t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t  t h i s endowment, though founded by V e s p a s i a n ,  was  f i r s t actually  p a i d by D o m i t i a n ; f o r Jerome under the year A. D. 92  says,  " Q u i n t i l i a - n u s ex H i s p a n i a primus Romae publicatii scholam e t s a l arium e f i s c o a c c e p i t e t c l a r u i t . " * i s the f i r s t endowed p r o f e s s o r who And  so V e s p a s i a n was  At a l l events Q u i n t i l i a n i s known to u s .  the f o u n d e r of t h a t system of educa-  t i o n w h i c h , f o r good or e v i l , produced p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on Roman c h a r a c t e r and i n t e l l e c t down to the end of the Western  -K As q u o t e d b y A. S. W i l k i n s , p.  94.  161, Empire.  H i s move was h o t , as some have suggested,  l i t e r a t u r e i n t o thraldom t o the s t a t e .  to bring  He was r e a l l y making  h i m s e l f the organ of a g r e a t i n t e l l e c t u a l movement.  For, while  the v a s t f i e l d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n absorbed much of the energy o f the c u l t i v a t e d c l a s s , t h e decay of f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s h a d l e f t a g r e a t number w i t h o n l y a shadow of p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t , and the mass o f u n o c c u p i e d energies. sition,  t a l e n t h a d t o f i n d some other scope f o r i t s  I t found I t f o r ages i n f u g i t i v e and ephemeral compo  or i n the.more ephemeral d i s p l a y s of the r h e t o r i c i a n ' s  c l a s s - r o o m , toward the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w h i c h Vespasian's  legis-  l a t i o n d i d a great d e a l . F o l l o w i n g a l o n g t h e l i n e s of Nero w i t h r e s p e c t t o the " a l l m e n t a r i i p u e r i e t p u e l l a e " , Trajan provided that grants should be made monthly b o t h t o orphans and t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f poor par ents.  To a l l these c h i l d r e n he undertook t o g i v e the "munus  e d u c a t i o n i s " t o t h e number of f i v e thousand ( P l i n y , "Paneg." 26-28),.  We have r e c o r d s of the r u l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on  stones found a t V e l e i a near P l a c e n t i a , and. a l s o near Beneventum. B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the e d u c a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n of the s u c c e e d i n g emperors we s h o u l d b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r the u n d e r t a k i n g s of p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n .  The payment  of t e a c h e r s was sometimes a charge on the i m p e r i a l t r e a s u r y , sometimes on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  P r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , however, now  and then gave endowments w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t l o c a l s c h o o l s came t o be s u p p o r t e d by other means than t u i t i o n a l o n e .  There  Is a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g l e t t e r of P l i n y t h e Younger ( i v . 13)  162,  w r i t t e n t o the h i s t o r i a n T a c i t u s ,  d e s c r i b i n g how  and endowed a s c h o o l f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s of h i s own ium",  0omura.  he  founded  "municip-  F i n d i n g t h a t p r o m i s i n g youths of Oomum had  to  r e s o r t to M i l a n f o r t h e i r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , he o f f e r e d t o cont r i b u t e one  t h i r d of the expense of a " h i g h s c h o o l " a t Comum,  i f the p a r e n t s would r a i s e the remainder. records  The  l e t t e r which  the o f f e r shows P l i n y at h i s b e s t , wise and  as w e l l as generous.  thoughtful  He w i s h e s t o keep boys under the  protec-  t i o n of home i n f l u e n c e , t o make them l o v e r s of t h e i r mother c i t y ; and he l i m i t s h i s b e n e f a c t i o n i n order t o s t i m u l a t e the i n t e r e s t of the p a r e n t s appointment of the  i n the cause of e d u c a t i o n  and I n the  teachers.  P l i n y ' s l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s that higher education p r o v i n c e s was  s t i l l private.  in  the  I t would seem t h a t such- p r i v a t e l y  endowed s c h o o l s as t h a t I n which P l i n y was  I n t e r e s t e d were f a r  f r o m uncommon. Of l a t e r Emperors H a d r i a n was  especially liberal in his  patronage of the l i b e r a l a r t s , I n w h i c h he was erested.  He b u i l t an Athenaeum i n Rome as a s c h o o l f o r l i t e r -  a t u r e , where p o e t s p u b l i c l y r e c i t e d and where  personally i n t -  o r a t o r s declaimed,  and  Greek and L a t i n " g r a m m a t i c i " and " r h e t o r e s " had numerous  students.  But i t I s r a t h e r c u r i o u s t h a t we do not r e a d of any-  t h i n g l i k e u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s at Rome, answering to the Museum,  f o r i n s t a n c e , a t A l e x a n d r i a , where the p r o f e s s o r s of a l l  the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s c o u l d g i v e t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n under a common  roof.  The Athenaeum was  as ever e x i s t e d .  as c l o s e t o a " U n i v e r s i t y of Rome"  163, H a d r i a n and b o t h the A n t o n i n e s  extended t o the p r o v i n c e s  the i n s t i t u t i o n s e t up by Hero and T r a j a n t o a i d the  education  of the poor ( " a l i m e n t a r i i p u e r i e t p u e l l a e " ) ; but t h i s  institu-  t i o n seems always t o have f a l l e n s h o r t of a s y s t e m a t i c scheme of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h some have seen i n i t . A n t o n i n u s P i u s c o n t i n u e d the same p o l i c y I n the p r o v i n c e s as d i d H a d r i a n , g i v i n g b o t h honour and income to the h i g h e r teachers:  11  r h e t o r i b u s e t p h i l o s o p h i s per omnes p r o v i n c i a s e t  h on ores e t s a l a r i a de b u i l t "  ( J u l . C a p i t . c. 1 1 ) . *  He was  the  f i r s t , i t i s b e l i e v e d , t o make them a p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s by r e l i e v i n g them of r a t e s and t a x e s , the o b l i g a t i o n t o h o l d munic i p a l o f f i c e , t o serve i n the army, and t o have s o l d i e r s t e r e d on them.  These Immunities  were extended t o a l i m i t e d  number of p h i l o s o p h e r s , r h e t o r s , a n d grammarians i n every community a c c o r d i n g t o i t s s i z e .  T h i s custom was  the i m p e r i a l endorsement of e d u c a t i o n throughout Alexander  quar-  civic  e q u i v a l e n t to the Empire.  Severus ( L a m p r i d i u s , c. 44) " r h e t o r i b u s ... s a l -  a r i a I n s t i t u i t e t a u d i t o r i a d e c r e v i t e t d l s c i p u l o s cum pauperum f i l i o s modo ingenuos d a r l i u s s i t . " x  The  annonis  c o s t s of these  s c h o l a r s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the maintenance of poor s t u d e n t s were perhaps I n some cases met  from i m p e r i a l f u n d s , but as a  r u l e they appear t o have been charged  on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  As a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of a l l t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n on the p a r t of the Emperors we f i n d government endowment e n d i n g i n govern-  -x As quoted by A. S. V/ilk i n s , p.  94.  164,  merit c o n t r o l .  The  e a r l y emperors l e f t the management of  schools  a l o n e , hut the l a t e r emperors, of whom we have been s p e a k i n g , I n i n t e r f e r i n g i n the appointment and r e m u n e r a t i o n of a c t u a l l y took over the f u l l c o n t r o l of the  teachers  schools.  • D i o c l e t i a n f i x e d the r a t e of payment f o r the  Instructors  of the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s and he a l s o r e s t r i c t e d the number of t e a c h e r s , who The  were now  indeed a t r u l y p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s .  ensuing emperors took an even more d i r e c t p a r t i n the  c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l s .  Under C o n s t a n t i n e the Great the  l e g e s and exemptions a c c o r d e d t e a c h e r s c o n f i r m e d and  privi-  by A n t o n i n u s P i u s were  extended.  J u l i a n a s s e r t e d the r i g h t of the Emperor t o r e v i s e the pointments to p r o f e s s o r s h i p s .  H i t h e r t o i t had been the excep-  t i o n f o r the Emperor t o make the n o m i n a t i o n h i m s e l f ; he  ap-  sometimes  empowered someone e l s e to nominate; but u s u a l l y the  selec-  t i o n had been l e f t t o the l o c a l " c u r i a " . G r a t i a n o r d e r e d t h a t i n a l l the c a p i t a l s of the provinces  the " g r a m m a t i c i " and " r h e t o r e s "  i n b o t h L a t i n and  Greek s h o u l d r e c e i v e from the i m p e r i a l chest a sum their municipal  salary.  seventeen  e q u a l to  At the same time, p r o b a b l y a t the  g e s t i o n of A u s o n i u s , G r a t i a n i s s u e d an e d i c t w h i c h , w h i l e ing  sugleav-  the g r e a t towns f r e e t o a p p o i n t t e a c h e r s , f i x e d the s a l a r i e s  w h i c h were to be g i v e n .  The  teacher  of r h e t o r i c was  t w i c e as l a r g e a s t i p e n d as the t e a c h e r  to r e c e i v e  of gramrnar, whether  Greek or L a t i n . An i m p e r i a l e d i c t of Theodosius and V a i e n t i n i a n made the government the s o l e e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , and d e c l a r e d  the  165. opening of s c h o o l s b y persons u n a u t h o r i z e d by the government a penal  offence. We know, a good d e a l about the s c h o o l s  of Gaul i n the f o u r t h  c e n t u r y , m a i n l y from t h e w r i t i n g s of the poet Ausonius;  and we  can see how s t r o n g and s t e a d y was the i n f l u e n c e which the Empe r o r s e x e r t e d on e d u c a t i o n .  There was, i n d e e d , l i t t l e l i t e r a r y  p r o d u c t i v e n e s s , and what t h e r e was was marked b y many s e r i o u s faults.  But a t l e a s t g r e a t w r i t e r s were s t u d i e d and admired  I n t e l l i g e n t l y and a t r a d i t i o n of c u l t u r e was m a i n t a i n e d ,  until  I t was swept away by the i r r u p t i o n s o f the b a r b a r i a n s . The  t r a d i t i o n of the Roman s c h o o l s was overthrown only by  the P r a n k i s h i n v a s i o n and by the r i s e of t h e m o n a s t i c s c h o o l s of G a s s i a n , whose " I n s t i t u t i o n e s " , e a r l y i n t h e f i f t h  century,  were a c c e p t e d as the r u l e f o r monastic l i f e i n G a u l .  Under  these a system of r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n was i n s t i t u t e d , based upon d i s t r u s t o f , I f n o t h o s t i l i t y towards pagan l e a r n i n g .  But n e i -  t h e r the m o n a s t i c s c h o o l s nor t h e c a t h e d r a l s c h o o l s , which f o l lowed them on s i m i l a r l i n e s , took the p l a c e of the o l d m u n i c i pal  s c h o o l s i n m a i n t a i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l  litera-  t u r e , and a genuine d e v o t i o n t o l e a r n i n g , ii The  The Decadence of Roman E d u c a t i o n  decadence of Roman e d u c a t i o n i s a q u e s t i o n of r e l a t i v i t y .  By the c l o s e of the f i r s t c e n t u r y there was, t o be sure, d e c l i n e i n some r e s p e c t s , b u t c e r t a i n l y there were advances i n many. Por some t h r e e c e n t u r i e s a f t e r 100 A. D., or u n t i l the i m p e r i a l I n t e r e s t s were c e n t r e d i n the E a s t , Roman e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e d .  166  on the same g e n e r a l l i n e s as b e f o r e i n such r e s p e c t s as form, methods, and c o n t e n t .  A p u l e i u s ( " F l o r i d a " i v . 20) says:  cratera L i t e r a t o r i s , ruditatem eximit: doctrina i n s t r u i t : too,  Augustine  secunda  "Prima  Grammatici,  t e r t i a R h e t o r i s , e l o q u e n t i a arraat."  Then,  ("Confess." i . 13) s a y s , " i l l a s primas, u b i l e g -  ere e t s c r i b e r e e t numerare d i s c i t u r . "  But the i n c r e a s i n g decay  of the Empire saw a marked d e c l i n e i n the s p i r i t and purpose of education..  The l i t e r a t u r e  of i t s form, n o t on account inspiration; i n time  o f t h e p e r i o d was g r e a t on account o f i t s o r i g i n a l i t y or i t s power of  and i n a s i m i l a r way e d u c a t i o n became f o r m a l and  artificial.  There was a l s o a marked change i n the c h a r a c t e r of Roman society.  W h i l e t h e change i n m o r a l s t a n d a r d s , t o g e t h e r w i t h  l u x u r y and debauchery i n the h i g h e r c l a s s e s , had become perman e n t , the f a t a l weaknesses of Roman s o c i e t y d i d n o t appear u n t i l l a t e r and t h e n s o c i e t y o n l y g r a d u a l l y came t o g i v e evidence of t h a t m o r a l and c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e t h a t p r e v i o u s l y had become char a c t e r i s t i c of the i m p e r i a l c o u r t . T h i s d e c l i n e from the h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l s t a t u s of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d o c c u r r e d a t the time of an e x t e n s i o n of the p r i v i l e g e s  of e d u c a t i o n and an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t  i n the  support of e d u c a t i o n on the p a r t o f the government and p u b l i c spirited citizens.  This was p r o b a b l y b u t another evidence of  the g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n v i r i l i t y and m o r a l i t y , f o r i t was i n order t o combat these t e n d e n c i e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n was encouraged.. There was i n a d d i t i o n t o a m u l t i p l i c a t i o n  of s c h o o l s and the  167.  development of the e d u c a t i o n a l system a s i m i l a r development i n the method and w o r k i n g s of the s c h o o l s .  Hot  o n l y I n Rome, but  throughout I t a l y and i n a l l . t h e c i t i e s of the Empire, grammar s c h o o l s had a r i s e n .  These were f o s t e r e d , as we have seen, by  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , encouraged by the emperors, and a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of them endowed w i t h p u b l i c money.  T h i s wide  d i f f u s i o n of grammar s c h o o l s i n a l l the c o u n t r i e s round the Mediterranean  may  be I n f e r r e d from the l a r g e number of h i g h e r  or r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s w h i c h grew up i n a d d i t i o n t o the s c h o o l s of Rhodes, Athens, and Pergamos. i o d , moreover, numerous "grammatici"  great  D u r i n g a l l t h i s per-  and s o p h i s t s wandered  from town t o town and opened p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . Although  the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of s c h o o l s and  educational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s t a k e n by some t o be but a f u r t h e r evidence of the times i t cannot be doubted t h a t , w i t h the l o s s of opport u n i t i e s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the a f f a i r s "of s t a t e , t h e r e was  an i n c r e a s e of i n t e r e s t i n p u r e l y  i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s a l o n g more s c h o l a s t i c l i n e s . was  t h a t the d e c l i n e i n the c h a r a c t e r , m o t i v e ,  of e d u c a t i o n was institutions,  Hence i t  and m o r a l r e s u l t s  c o i n c i d e n t w i t h a development of e d u c a t i o n a l  the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of l i b r a r i e s , and an  attendance upon the h i g h e r s c h o o l s . intellectual life,  How  increased  the p u r s u i t of the  or the s c h o l a s t i c I d e a l s , became a type  life distinct in itself.  The  d e c l i n e In m o r a l i t y and  and purpose, marked by J u v e n a l and T a c i t u s , was time by a d e c l i n e I n every o t h e r r e s p e c t .  of  spirit  followed i n  168.  The "grammaticus"  g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d h i s t r a i n i n g to pre-  p a r a t i o n f o r the r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l s ; the change w h i c h came about i n the l a t t e r we have a l r e a d y n o t i c e d . 1  The change from the Re-  p u b l i c t o the Empire had caused o r a t o r y t o be almost e n t i r e l y d i s j o i n e d from r e a l l i f e and so t o l o s e i t s g r e a t i n s p i r a t i o n . I n s t e a d of v i g o r o u s d i s c u s s i o n of l i v e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , we f i n d a showy, and a r t i f i c i a l type of d e c l a m a t i o n growing up. The s u b j e c t s chosen were commonplace themes or f i c t i t i o u s problems s u g g e s t e d by l i t e r a t u r e or h i s t o r y ; and i n s t e a d of s e e k i n g to  d e v e l o p a s t y l e of argument t h a t would c a r r y C o n v i c t i o n i n  a p u b l i c assembly or a c o u r t of law, the speaker's aim was  to  w i n applause from h i s i n v i t e d audience of f r i e n d s by h i s i n g e n u i t y i n c o i n i n g smart, s t r i k i n g phrases whose c h i e f m e r i t was t h e i r g l i t t e r and t h e i r n o v e l t y .  And so r h e t o r i c became more  f o r m a l , narrow, and a r t i f i c i a l , f u l l of g l i t t e r and smartness, b u t s u p e r f i c i a l and w i t h o u t s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n , G l i b n e s s of tongue and f a c i l i t y  of i m i t a t i o n were m i s t a k e n f o r t r u e o r a t o r i c a l power.  V e s t u r e of thought became more and more an o b j e c t of w o r s h i p i n the  shape of word-cunning, elegance of s t y l e , and r u l e s f o r r h e -  t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and r h y t h m i c a l e f f e c t .  Under such c i r c u m -  s t a n c e s i t was not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t young men  i n the second cen-  t u r y A. D. s h o u l d become i m p a t i e n t of the slow p r o c e s s e s of d i s ciplinary preparation.  They r u s h e d the p r e p a r a t o r y grammar,  l i t e r a t u r e , and d i a l e c t i c i n order t o g e t a t the s o p h i s t i c s , the  d e c l a m a t i o n and s u p e r f i c i a l p o l i t i c s of the " r h e t o r " . Because  of t h i s l a r g e a c c e s s i o n t o the numbers of l e a r n e r s  and of competing t e a c h e r s the q u a l i t y of d i s c i p l i n e and i n s t r u e -  169.  t i o n of the h i g h e r s c h o o l s degenerated.  And s o , a l t h o u g h  liter-  a t u r e and r h e t o r i c were pursued w i t h much d i l i g e n c e on the t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s , t h e r e was l i t t l e  or n o t h i n g of the s e r i o u s and  independent study o f - p h i l o s o p h y , s t i l l l e s s of s c i e n c e .  The  wide and comprehensive m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e , w h i c h C i c e r o and Q u i n t i l i a n h a d d e s i d e r a t e d , was ho l o n g e r even an i d e a l ; and .the n a r r o w e r s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g of t h e " r h e t o r " c a r r i e d the day over the sounder t r a i n i n g o f the man of a f f a i r s .  There was no  c a r e f u l c u r r i c u l u m o f severe s t u d y i n language, h i s t o r y , d i a l e c t i c , and l i t e r a t u r e , as was r e q u i r e d hy Q u i n t i l i a n , and contemplated, osophers.  i n p a r t a t l e a s t , hy many l e a d i n g s o p h i s t - p h i l -  The s e r v i l i t y w h i c h was l e a r n t i n the s l a v i s h i m i -  t a t i o n o f the c l a s s i c a l models n o t u n n a t u r a l l y moulded the whole thought and combined w i t h the p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the time t o s t i l l a l l t r u e independence.  Greek, f o r m e r l y con-  s i d e r e d so e s s e n t i a l , ceased t o be g e n e r a l l y taught i n s c h o o l s . A f t e r t h e second c e n t u r y A. D. fewer and fewer p u p i l s pursued h i g h e r s t u d i e s , t i l l these came t o be the e x c l u s i v e p o s s e s s i o n of o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l . s c h o l a r s .  Seneca's remark "non  v i t a e sed s c h o l a e d i s c i m u s " i n d e e d became t r u e i n a v e r y eral  sense. •The remarkable  in  lit-  d e v o t i o n t o Roman l i t e r a t u r e and r h e t o r i c  t h e p r o v i n c e s d o u b t l e s s h e l p e d the d e c l i n e , w h i l e i t was a  g r a t i f y i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r a p i d d i f f u s i o n o f the Roman language and l i t e r a t u r e among the n a t i v e Gauls- and S p a n i a r d s . They h e l p e d the d e c l i n e because t h e n a t i v e p r o v i n c i a l s were  170.  essentially  i m i t a t o r s though, d o u b t l e s s , f r e q u e n t l y a b l e and  a l m o s t always ( a t l e a s t I n Gaul) e l o q u e n t . T a c i t u s d i s c u s s e s the d e c l i n e of e d u c a t i o n on the i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e i n h i s "De O r a t o r i b u s " . complains,  The e v i l s of which he  and w h i c h were t o be found i n G a u l and Spain as w e l l  as a t Rome and i n the E a s t , were a l r e a d y v i s i b l e , i f n o t consp i c u o u s , when Q u i n t i l i a n ,  began t o t e a c h .  Though the:language  of T a c i t u s i s w h o l l y t h a t of a " l a u d a t o r temporis  a c t ! " , we  n e v e r t h e l e s s f i n d i n h i s p r o t e s t a v e r y v i v i d p i c t u r e of h i s ovm c o n c e p t i o n o f former ages and o f contemporary e v i l s .  The  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from h i s work,though r a t h e r l e n g t h y , a f f o r d s us an e x c e l l e n t r e v i e w of e d u c a t i o n under the R e p u b l i c as compared w i t h t h a t o f the I m p e r i a l p e r i o d , a s w e l l as p o i n t i n g out the weak spots i n the l a t t e r w h i c h f i n a l l y brought about i t s downfall." (xxviii)  "Quis enim i g n o r a t , e t eloquentiam  et ceteras artes  d e s c i v i s s e ab I s t a v e t e r e g l o r i a , non i n o p i a hominum, sed desI d i a i u v e n t u t i s e t n e g l e g e n t l a parentum e t i n s c i e n t i a  praecip-  i e n t i u m e t o b l i v i o n e moris a n t i q u i ? .... (xxxlv)  "Ergo apud malores n o s t r o s i u v e n i s i l l e ,  eloquentiae parabatur,  qui foro et  .... r e f e r t u s h o n e s t i s s t u d i i s , deduce-  b a t u r a p a t r e , v e l a p r o p i n q u i s , ad eum oratorem, q u i p r i n c i p e m i n c i v l t a t e locum o b t i n e b a t :  hunc s e c t a r i , hunc p r o s e q u i , h u i u s  omnibus d l c t i o n i b u s i n t e r e s s e , siv.e i n i u d i c i i s s i v e I n conc i o n i b u s , assuescebat,  i t a u t a l t e r c a t i o n e s quoque e x c i p e r e e t  i u r g i i s i n t e r e s s e , utque s i c d i x e r i m , pugnare i n p r o e l i o d i s ceret:  magnus ex hoc u s u s , multum c o n s t a n t i a e .  Plurimum  171.  iuclicii  iuvenibus  statim contingebat,  i n media l u c e  studentibus  a t q u e i n t e r i p s a d i s c r i m i n a , u b i nemo impune s t u l t e a l i q u i d aut contrarie probret,  dicit, ipsi  quo m i n u s e t i n d e x r e s p u a t  d e n i q u e a d v o c a t i asperne,tur .  e t i n c o r r u p t a e l o q u e n t i a imbuebantur; populi diversissimarum  I g i t u r vera  statim  .... h a b e b a n t q u e  a u r i u m c o p i a m , e x qua f a c i l e  e r e n t , q u i d i n quoque v e l p r o b a r e t u r praeceptor.deerat,  e t a d v e r s a r i u s ex-  ipsius  deprehend-  v e ldispliceret.  I t a nec  optimus quidem e t e l e c t i s s i m u s , q u i f a c i e m  e l o q u e n t i a e , non imaginem p r a e s t a r e t , nec a d v e r s a r i i e t aemuli f e r r o , non r u d i b u s ,  dimicantes*.  nec a u d i t o r i u m  semper p l e n u m ,  semper novum, e x i n v l d i s e t f a v e n t i b u s , u t n e c bene d i c t a d i s simularentur iuvenis sectator tis, lis  ille  Atque h e r e u l e de quo l o q u i m u r ,  sub e i u s m o d i  oratorum d i s c i p u l u s , f o r i  ludiclorum, eruditus et assuefactus  cui, cotidie  praeceptoribus  alienis  auditor  experimen-  a u d i e n t l , notae leges,  .... f r e q u e n s  i n ocu-  c o n s u e t u d e concionum, saepe c o g n i t a e  p o p u l i aures,  sive  accusationem susceperat,  s i v e d e f e n s i o n e m , s o l u s s t a t i m e t unus  cuicumque causae p a r e r a t . (xxxv)  ....  " A t nunc a d u l e s c e n t u l i n o s t r i d e d u c u n t u r i n s c e n a s  s c h o l a s t i c drum, q u i r h e t o r e s v o c a n t u r  .... S e d , u t d i c e r e  tueram,-deducuntur I n s c h o l a s , i n q u i b u s non f a c i l e utrumne l o c u s I p s e ,  quem nemo, n i s i  dixerim,  an c o n d l s c i p u l i , an genus s t u d i o r u m  mail ingeniis afferent.  insti~  plus  Earn i n l o c o n i h i l r e v e r e n t i a e , s e d i n  aequo i m p e r i t u s i n t r a t .  In condiscipulis n i h i l  p r o f e c t u s , cum p u e r i i n t e r p u e r o s , e t a d u l e s c e n t u l i i n t e r a d ule scentulos, p a r i  s e c u r i t a t e e t d.icant e t a u d i a n t u r .  Ipsae  172. v e r o e x e r c i t a t i o n e s magna e x p a r t e c o n t r a r i a e . genera materiarum ver siae .  apud r h e t o r e s t r a c t a n t u r ,  Nempe e n i m  duo  s u a s o r i a e e t c on t r o -  E x h i s s u a s o r i a e q u i d e m , tanquam p l a n e  leviores  et  minus p r u d e n t i a e e x i g e n t e s , p u e r i s d e l e g a n t u r , c o n t r o v e r s i a e r o h u s t i o r i h u s a s s i g n a n t u r , q u a l e s , p e r f i d e m , e t quam i n c r e d i biliter  compositae!  veritate  Sequitur  autem, u t m a t e r i a e  d e c l a m a t i o quoque a d h i b e a t u r .  darum p r a e m i a , remedia,  abhorrent! a  Sic f i t , ut  a u t v i t i a t a r u m e l e c t I o n e s , aut  tyrannici-  pestilentiae  a u t i n c e s t a matrum, a u t q u i c q u i d i n s c h o l a c o t i d i e  a g i t u r , i n f o r o v e l r a r o v e l numquam ingentibus v e r b i s perseT  quantur." P e t r o n i u s A r b i t e r , a b o u t t h e same t i m e as T a c i t u s , s i m i l a r l y laments  t h e d e c l i n e of t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and  sophists.  C o n f i r m a t o r y passages have a l r e a d y been quoted  Juvenal.  Then t o w a r d  l e a r n from Lucan  t h e end  o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y we  w h a t the t e n d e n c y  of the h i g h e r  was--a11 towards the premature f i t t i n g in  life,  w i t h t h e s t o c k commonplaces o f  spite  of a l l t h i s  and  i t s s o c i e t y , morale,  the  spirit  adverse  of h u m a n i t y w h i c h was  spirit  public  saw  success  superficial  argumentation. of the l a t e r Empire  i n some m e a s u r e We  from  instruction  a n d e d u c a t i o n , we m u s t n o t  t h e "human!tas" of mere c u l t u r e . uine  criticism  the  can  out of y o u t h f o r  b y means o f r h e t o r i c . a n d o r a t o r y , and a  acquaintance In  satirises  evidence  overlook  superseding of t h i s  gen-  i n P l i n y ' s d o n a t i o n t o h i s n a t i v e c i t y Comum of a  l i b r a r y a n d an endowment t o w a r d  s c h o o l system.  the f o u n d i n g  of a  local  Such deeds of a l t r u i s m would appear t o have  173. 'been n o t uncommon.  Wi tho the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the Empire,  however, and.the i n v a s i o n of t h e b a r b a r i a n s , e d u c a t i o n , which had previously... become w h o l l y f o r m a l and a r t i f i c i a l , ceased t o ar o u s e any enthusiasm and f i n a l l y t o command any s u p p o r t . many c e n t u r i e s h a d t o e l a p s e b e f o r e the Romano-Hellenic  And education  and c u l t u r e was f o u n d t o be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the C h r i s t i a n aim. I n c o n c l u s i o n we reproduce * a t a b l e of the Roman  educa-  Greek U n i v e r s i t i e s University  . Law Medicine Architecture Mathematics Grammar Rhetoric  of Rome  (Professors)  6  or 7 ; 12 to 16 v 16 to 18 to 12 or 19 Elementary; Secondary Collegiate  18  :  or 19 ; to 21 and .26 University  t i o n a l system as i t was f i n a l l y e v o l v e d :  Schools  of  Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic Law  Rhetoric (Rhetor.) Latin  ;.' Grammar  Grammar  Literature  Schools (Grammaticus)  Reading Writing  L u d i , or P r i m a r y Schools (Ludi magister)  .  Reckoning ;  THE ROMAN VOLUNTARY .EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, as f i n a l l y e v o l v e d .  ¥. E. P. Cubberley "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n " , p. 37.  BIBLIOGRAPHY C i c e r o , "De  Oratorae".  Juvenal, " S a t i r a e " . M a r t i a l , "Epigrammata". Pliny, "Epistulae" Q u i n t i l i a n , "De I n s t i t u t i o n e O r a t o r i a " . Seneca, " E p i s t u l a e " . Suetonius,  "De I l l u s t r i o u s Grammaticis," "De C l a r i s  T a c i t u s , "Dialogus  Rhetoribus".  de Or a t o r i bus" .  Of t h e f o l l o w i n g H i s t o r i e s of Rome, H i s t o r i e s of E d u c a t i o n , and works on A n t i q u i t i e s , all  some g i v e v e r y d e t a i l e d accounts of  or p a r t o f Roman E d u c a t i o n ,  o t h e r s cover  the s u b j e c t i n a  v e r y c u r s o r y manner.. 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Houghton M i f f l i n Co., B o s t o n - - 1 9 2 2 . "Readings i n the H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n " . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1920. D a v i s , W. S.--"A Day i n O l d Rome". • A l l y n & Bacon, Hew York--1925. D a v i d s o n , P.--"A H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n " . C. S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, Hew York--1900. " A r i s t o t l e and A n c i e n t E d u c a t i o n a l I d e a l s " . C. S c r i b n e r s ' Sons, New York--1905. Dill,  S.--"Roman S o c i e t y from Nero t o Marcus A u r e l i u s " . M a c m i l l a n & Co., L t d . , London--1919, "Roman S o c i e t y i n the L a s t Century of the Western Empire". M a c m i l l a n & Co., L t d . , London--1906.  Duggan, S. P.--"A S t u d e n t ' s Textbook i n t h e H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n " D. A p p l e t o n & Co., New York--1927. Duruy, V . - - " H i s t o r y o f Rome and the Roman P e o p l e " . K. P a u l , T r e n c h , & Co., London--1886. Emerson, M. I.--"The E v o l u t i o n of the E d u c a t i o n a l I d e a l " . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1914.  176. "The E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a " - - E l e v e n t h E d i t i o n - - v o l . V I I I . Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y Press--1910. F e r r e r o , G . - - " C h a r a c t e r s and E v e n t s of Roman H i s t o r y " . G. P. Putnam's Sons, London--1909. F e r r e r o , G.j B a r b a g a l l o ,  C.--"A S h o r t H i s t o r y of Rome".  G. P. Putnam's Sons, London--1918. F o w l e r , W. W . - - " S o c i a l L i f e a t Rome i n the Age of C i c e r o " . M a c m i l l a n & Co., L t d . , London--1929. F r a n k , T, - - "A H i s t o r y of Rome". J . Cape, London--1923. P r i e d l a n d e r , L.--"Roman L i f e and Manners under t h e E a r l y Empire" - - T r a n s l a t e d by J . H. F r e e s e . G. R o u t l e d g e & Sons, L t d . , London--1913. G i l m a n , A.--"Rome". T. F. Unwin, London--1885. G r a v e s , F. P.--"A H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n " . The M a c m i l l a n Co., New Y o r k - - 1 9 . i l . G u h l , E.; Koner, W.--"The L i f e of the Greeks and Romans"-T r a n s l a t e d by F, H u e f f e r . C h a t t o & Windus, London--1875. H a r p e r ' s " D i c t i o n a r y o f C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e and A n t i q u i t i e s " - - E d i t e d by H. T. Peck. American Book Co., New York--1923, Hodgson,, G. S . - - " P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n " . T. & T. C l a r k , Edinburgh--1906. Holmes, T. R.--"The Roman R e p u b l i c " . Oxford a t the Clarendon Press--1923.  177. J o h n s t o n , H, W.--"The P r i v a t e L i f e of the Romans". S c o t t , Poresman & Co., New York--1905. K a n d e l , I . L . - - " H i s t o r y o f Secondary E d u c a t i o n " . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston--1930. Kemp, E. L . - - " H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n " . J . P. L i p p i n c o t t Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a ~ - 1 9 1 2 . 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