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Eskimo kinship terminologies Stevenson, David 1964

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ESKIMO K I N S H I P  TERMINOLOGIES  by DAVID STEVENSON, B . S c . THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f Master  of Arts  in  The D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to  the required.standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e 1964  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study* mission for extensive purposes may  I further agree that per-  copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly  be granted by the Head of my Department or by  his representatives.  I t i s understood that, copying or p u b l i -  cation of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission*  Department of  Anthropology and  Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  June 12th,  1964.  ii ABSTRACT  Seventeen complete and i n c o m p l e t e Eskimo k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g i e s a r e examined and compared w i t h a v i e w t o determining reported  and a s s e s s i n g t h e n a t u r e  and e x t e n t o f t h e  discrepancies.  I t i s shown t h a t t h e l a c k o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d  ortho-  graphy f o r t h e Eskimo language has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f comparing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e r m i n o l o g y . Nuances o f t h e language, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o t h e use o f d i f f e r e n t s u f f i x e s f o r ' s t e p ' , ' a d o p t i v e ' , and ' l e s s e r ' a r e shown t o g i v e r i s e t o some of t h e r e p o r t e d discrepancies. The d e f i n i t i o n s o f S p i e r and Murdock r e l a t i n g t o the 'Eskimo Type' o f k i n s h i p system and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e are examined and f o u n d t o be i n v a l i d f o r t h e a r e a s f o r which data a r e a v a i l a b l e . I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a core o f t e r m i n o l o g i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y e x i s t s between t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d systems.  But t h e importance of l o c a l v a r i a b l e s  demands t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e k i n s h i p system and t h e a s s o c i a t e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e must be made w i t h i n t h e framework  o f t h e l o c a l economic and e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s  impinging  upon t h e d o m e s t i c group.  The a p p a r e n t l y asymmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p betweenascending and descending g e n e r a t i o n s i s examined w i t h i n the conceptual framework of the developmental groups.  c y c l e of domestic  I t i s suggested t h a t the s p e c i f i c i t y of terminology  i s r e l a t e d to the economic e f f e c t i v i t y of t h e category of r e l a t i v e under d i s c u s s i o n . The data a v a i l a b l e are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s but i t i s thought t h a t the s t a t i s t i c a l approach  will  p r o v i d e a more coherent p i c t u r e o f the s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the on-going i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h a t l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be shown t o have r a t i o n a l bases.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o thank D o c t o r H.B.  Hawthorn,  Head, Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and  Sociol-  ogy and my s u p e r v i s o r D o c t o r R.W. Dunning, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and my many f e l l o w s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and a d v i c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and completion o f t h i s t h e s i s .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION The Present State of Studies i n Eskimo Kinship Systems  1 - 14 1 -  5  Methods Used and Type of Data Available DESCRIPTION OF FIVE KINSHIP CHARTS COMPILATION AND COMPARISON OF REPORTED TERMS FOR SEVENTEEN GROUPS SUMMARY OF INTERREGIONAL CONSISTENCIES IN KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY DISCUSSION OF THE 'ESKIMO TYPE' KINSHIP SYSTEM AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE  6 - 14 15-46  47 - 66 6 6 - 6 8  68 - 74  BRIEF REVIEW OF RECENT STATISTICAL APPROACHES TO THE ANALYSIS OF KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY  74-77  DISCUSSION OF SOME SPECIFIC INTERGENERATIONAL DISCREPANCIES IN THE REPORTED KINSHIP TERMINOLOGIES  78 - 87  THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL CYCLE CONCEPT TO ESKIMO KINSHIP SYSTEMS  87 - 1 0 3  BIBLIOGRAPHY  104  V  LIST  OF  TABLES  Page  TABLE 1  11  TABLE 2  48  TABLE 3  69  TABLE 4  71  TABLE 5  85  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  Page F i g u r e 1.  Southampton I s l a n d K i n s h i p System  Figure 2 .  Cape Dorset-Lake Harbour K i n s h i p System  15  25  Figure 3 .  Pond I n l e t K i n s h i p System  32  Figure 4 .  C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t K i n s h i p System-  38  F i g u r e 5.  Eskimo P o i n t K i n s h i p System  42  F i g u r e 6.  Summary of Constant Terms  F i g u r e 7.  T h e o r e t i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Aunt/  67  Uncle Terms  79  Uncle Terms  80  Figure 8 .  Reported D i s t r i b u t i o n of Aunt/  F i g u r e 9.  Theoretical  Intergenerational  Symmetry of Uncle/Nephew Terms  F i g u r e 1 0 . Reported  83  Intergenerational  Symmetry o f Uncle/Nephew Terms  84  Work done within the l a s t f i f t e e n years has produced a number of apparently  c o n f l i c t i n g kinship t e r -  minologies f o r the various Eskimo groups.  The  importance  of resolving the problems i n the basic structure and i n the patterns of variation of Eskimo kinship systems has been recognized by a number of workers.  Giddings,  for  example, states that: ... i t seems highly probable that a study of kinship systems i n the f a r north may be used as a valuable aid i n distinguishing l i n g u i s t i c from c u l t u r a l boundaries. (1952; p.10). Dailey and Dailey c i t e the case f o r kinship studies more strongly when they say: Nor i n t h i s respect /"the study of kindreds_7 can we emphasize strongly enough the importance of supporting general studies of Eskimo kinship systems. Knowledge of t h i s kind i s p a r t i c u l a r l y urgent, not only from the standpoint of theory, but also f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes as w e l l . (1961;p.38). In regard to the reported c o n f l i c t i n g kinship  terminologies  the same two authors say: The c l a r i f i c a t i o n of these 'discrepancies' should be one of the major objectives of further Artie research i n anthropology. (Ibid; p.50) The previously accepted c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Morgan (1871) and Spier (1927) which were u t i l i z e d by Murdock  2  (1949) i n the erection of a model of 'Eskimo type' k i n ship system and s o c i a l structure are now highly  suspect  except i n an extensively modified form (for example see Lantis 1946; Giddings 1952; Hughes 1958; Damas 1 9 6 3 ) . A basic error i n the formerly accepted model appears to have derived from the r e s t r i c t e d use of male Ego terms for female r e l a t i v e s and from a lack of s u f f i c i e n t data f o r v i a b l e generalization. Murdock's 'Eskimo type  1  As Giddings points out (1958)  i s based upon two geographically  i s o l a t e d groups, one from North Central Canada and the other from East Greenland. Recent work has not yet led to an accepted reformu l a t i o n of an Eskimo 'type* kinship system and s o c i a l structure but has, rather, resulted i n the compilation of masses of apparently  c o n f l i c t i n g and regionally anomalous  patterns of kinship terms.  This s i t u a t i o n has prompted  Giddings to conclude that: "... we may not blandly assume c u l t u r a l unity between Eskimo-speaking groups. p.9).  n  (1952;  This cautious view should not, of course, completely  i n h i b i t cross-regional comparative studies of the order carried out by Damas. of the geographical  The l a t t e r author f e e l s that a study  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the variant systems  from a 'micro-diffusional' approach could lead to the d i s covery of s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a l i t i e s applicable to the Eskimo-  3  speaking groups (1963).  He also suggests, considering  the homogeneity of c u l t u r a l forms (cf. Giddings above) and some aspects of s o c i a l l i f e and, i n many cases, of ecology, that l i m i t e d covariational studies might provide testable hypotheses (ibid, I 9 6 3 ) . One of the objects of t h i s thesis i s to discuss and compare the reported kinship terminologies and to attempt to show that at l e a s t some of the inconsistencies a r i s e from a f a i l u r e to understand the nuances of the language.  A second objective i s to attempt to i s o l a t e  what appears to be inter-regional consistencies i n terms and i n the associated categories of r e l a t i v e s .  A third,  and major, objective of the thesis i s to discuss the poss i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s (as indicated by the terminological systems) holding between the f i r s t ascending, Ego's, and the f i r s t descending generations.  This l a t t e r goal w i l l  be i n the nature of a speculative exploration of Fortes' "developmental c y c l e " concept with i t s implications f o r the existence of varying and f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t categories of kinsmen. Bohannan c l e a r l y outlines the p i t f a l l s inherent i n a study of kinship systems when he states that: ... kinship terms r e f e r not merely (and often not even primarily) to the f a c t s of b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n ship, but also to the c u l t u r a l image of them that i s , to the s o c i a l f a c t s of role Expectations. (1963; p.67)  4  Such behavioural roles can be determined only i n an empirical way and cannot be deduced from the terminology. F a i l u r e to recognize t h i s essential fact l e d the e a r l i e r workers to make erroneous assumptions relationships.  concerning s o c i a l  Even i n the f i e l d of empirical v a l i d a t i o n  anomalous departures from the putative system are found. Opler, f o r example, found that among the Apache, terms for kinsmen may be s i m i l a r while the behaviour towards them d i f f e r s and vice versa. (1937; p.202-5).  Inconsistencies  of t h i s nature have l e d Murdock to caution that, although the congruity of terms and behaviour patterns i s an accepted generalization, the association of the one with the other i s not absolute (1949;p.107). With these warnings i n mind then, no attempt  will  be made to deduce s p e c i f i c behaviour patterns from the terminologies presented.  Nevertheless, i t w i l l be necessary  to attempt to de- l i m i t the f u n c t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t cateL  -'  gories of r e l a t i v e s as they appear to be indicated by the terminologies.  As Bohannan points out:  The most important fact about a kinship system i s that i t i s a set of role tags which make i t possible f o r a person to know what to expect from his kinsmen and what they expect from him. (Ibid., p. 70) Since these 'role tags' are d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t r e l a -  5  t i v e s i t can be assumed that the corresponding behaviour patterns, and t h e i r significance to Ego, w i l l d i f f e r i n some respects.  This i s the 'acceptable generalization'  followed by such writers as Radcliffe-Brown, Tax, and Murdock. In view of the nature of the available data I propose to approach the problem of Eskimo kinship systems with the intention of attempting to make comparisons at two broad l e v e l s .  These are, f i r s t , a comparison of the  reported terms with a view to comparing t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s or d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s ; second, a comparison and tentative analysis of the structures of the kinship systems as these are indicated by the l o c a l variations i n terms and in the modes of a l l o c a t i o n of terms to categories of relatives. To f a c i l i t a t e these aspects of the thesis I w i l l present a detailed description of the kinship terminologies collected by myself i n the f a l l and winter of 1 9 6 3 - 6 4 . Throughout the body of these descriptions reference w i l l be made to other reported systems wherever comment i s warranted. It i s hoped that the descriptive and comparative material w i l l indicate general trends and c l a r i f y the problem areas which have given r i s e to a good deal of confusion r e l a t i n g to Eskimo kinship systems i n general.  6  In the following descriptions I have drawn heavily upon the typologies of Lowie, Kroeber, Murdock, Goodenough and others.  Besides incorporating s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s  employed by these authors I have introduced a few minor modifications i n an attempt to achieve c l a r i t y and objectivity. The terms Agnatic and Uterine used by Bohannan (1963) are  here taken to mean those l i n k s between c o l l a t e r a l s which  are  traced through either a male or female parent but not  through both.  In t h i s sense the terms cannot be applied  between s i b l i n g s or between parents and o f f s p r i n g .  This  follows a f t e r the pattern used by Spencer i n which he separates the categories of r e l a t i v e s into A . l i n e a l and nuclear consanguines; B. c o l l a t e r a l consanguines and C. affinal  relatives. Affines w i l l be referred to i n the manner outlined  by Goodenough (1955) and w i l l be designated as being either of Order 1 . ,  those persons related to Ego through one  marital t i e or, as being of Order 2 . , those related to Ego . through two marital t i e s . The terminological determinants proposed by Kroeber, added to by Lowie and u t i l i z e d by Murdock as 'inherent criteria  1  w i l l be used with t h e i r o r i g i n a l meanings.  There  appears to be some confusion and a degree of misinterpret-  7  ation i n Bohannan's use of 'reciprocal'.  He states;  Lowie emphasized the presence of r e c i p r o c i t y i n some systems i n which kinsmen c a l l one another by reciprocal terms - the t y p i c a l example i s between l i n e a l kinsmen of the same sex but of alternate generations: grandfathers c a l l t h e i r grandsons by the same term the grandsons c a l l them. Murdock (1949) refers to t h i s characteri s t i c as 'polarity'. (1963; p.64) My f i r s t comment i s to the effect that Kroeber s p e c i f i c a l l y recognizes the c r i t e r i o n of reciprocity i n a paper published eleven years e a r l i e r than the one i n which, according to Bohannan, Lowie introduces the term (Kroeber, 1909).  In t h i s paper Kroeber says; A tendency toward reciprocal expression i s sometimes of importance and may influence the degree to which categories are given expression. Reciprocal terms are such that a l l the persons included i n the relationship expressed by one term c a l l by one name a l l the persons who apply t h i s term to them. In the most extreme form of r e c i p r o c i t y the two groups of r e l a t i v e s use the same term. (1909; p.80)  My second point i s that Murdock does not r e f e r to t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as " p o l a r i t y " .  In h i s discussion of the  c r i t e r i a set out by Kroeber i n the e a r l i e r paper, Murdock i n i t i a l l y substitutes h i s own term 'polarity' f o r the term ' r e c i p r o c i t y ' c l e a r l y distinguish  (1949; p.101).  He goes on however to  between the terms when he says:  L i n g u i s t i c recognition of t h i s c r i t e r i o n /~~polarity_7 produces two terms f o r each k i n relationship, one  by which each p a r t i c i p a n t can denote t h e o t h e r . When p o l a r i t y i s i g n o r e d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t r e a t e d as a u n i t and b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p l y t h e same c l a s s i f i c a t o r y term t o each o t h e r . ( I b i d . , p. 104). Murdock f u r t h e r d e f i n e s the d i s t i n c t i o n when he s a y s t h a t " r e c i p r o c i t y suggests e q u i v a l e n c e " ,  ( l o c . c i t . , p.  104).  The l o c u s o f the c o n f u s i o n appears t o l i e i n K r o e b e r and Bohannan s use of one 1  term, r e c i p r o c i t y , f o r two  s i t u a t i o n s ; t h a t i s , the e x i s t e n c e o f a ' p a i r ' of terms and the e x i s t e n c e of a s i n g l e term. term 'complementary' f o r the f i r s t r e c i p r o c a l ' f o r the second.  Damas (1963) uses the s i t u a t i o n and  "self-  These terms seem t o be  the  most u s e f u l and c e r t a i n l y the most unambiguous method of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the two  s i t u a t i o n s and w i l l be used i n t h i s  thesis. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the t e r m i n o l o g i e s f o l l o w s a f t e r L o w i e ' s scheme of G e n e r a t i o n a l , L i n e a l , B i f u r c a t e M e r g i n g , and B i f u r c a t e C o l l a t e r a l The  types.  data f o r the t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of f i v e  complete  k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g i e s t a k e n from t e n Eskimo i n f o r m a n t s of twelve o t h e r complete and p a r t i a l t e r m i n o l o g i e s  and  garnered  from the works of p r e v i o u s w r i t e r s . The  f r o n t i s p i e c e map  i n d i c a t e s the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s -  9  tribution  of the source areas f o r the t e r m i n o l o g i e s i n -  c l u d i n g t h o s e c o l l e c t e d b y m y s e l f and t h o s e t a k e n f r o m other  publications. The t e n m a l e E s k i m o  i n f o r m a n t s were a v a i l a b l e  a t t e n d i n g a government sponsored h e a v y - d u t y  while  machine  o p e r a t o r s c o u r s e a t t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Army S c h o o l o f E n g i n e e r i n g which i s l o c a t e d a t Vedder C r o s s i n g , Columbia. of  Vedder  Crossing i s f i v e m i l e s south of the  Chilliwack, British Two  British  o f t h e men  Columbia. spoke p a s s a b l e E n g l i s h and a l l b u t  t h r e e had a s l i g h t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f spoken E n g l i s h . i n t e r v i e w i n g was  city  A l l  c o n d u c t e d i n t h e E s k i m o l a n g u a g e on t h e  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t b y u s i n g E s k i m o a s t h e l a n g u a g e o f communication  t h e r e w o u l d be l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y o f e r r o r s .  f r o m minor, and n o t w h o l l y u n e x p e c t e d d i a l e c t a l I e n c o u n t e r e d no p r o b l e m s  Apart  differences,  i n communication. ^  F i v e c o m p l e t e and t h r e e i n c o m p l e t e k i n s h i p o l o g i e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e men m o n t h s b e t w e e n mid-November, 1963  termin-  over a period of  and mid-March,  four  1964.  F o u r o f t h e t e r m i n o l o g i e s were t a k e n f r o m s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t s , the  f i f t h was  s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n p a r t s by t h e t h r e e i n c o m p l e t e  terminologies.  -*-I s p e n t s e v e n y e a r s b e t w e e n 1950 and 1957, a s a n e m p l o y e e o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company, i n v a r i o u s p o s t s i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c , a n d h a d a c q u i r e d my k n o w l e d g e o f t h e Eskimo language d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d .  10  Two of the men were unable to provide kinship terms other than nuclear family terms.  One of these  men,  although a member of a large, complex extended type of family, knew very l i t t l e of the Eskimo terminology.  He  has been attending schools, he says, f o r a t o t a l of ten years and speaks a f a i r degree of English.  He acted as  interpreter between the other Eskimos and the 'whites'. The second man,  although conversant with the terminology  (that i s , he would assent as to whether a term was  correct  or not) never volunteered terminology by himself. The table on the following page has been set out i n an attempt to indicate, i n part, the nature of the s o c i a l matrix i n the background of each informant who supplied sets of terms. Referring to irable 1 i t can be seen that the majori t y , or a substantial minority, of each informant's k i n group were located at or close by the informants 'home' settlement.  I think that I can safely make the  assumption  that each of the informants had day to day s o c i a l contact with kinsmen of one category or another. S t i l l r e f e r r i n g to Table 1 one of the more puzzling features i s the range i n numbers of known, or recognized, kin.  The only explanation I can offer f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u -  TABLE 'Home' settlement of informant Pond I n l e t Eskimo Point Southampton Island  Age 20  17  Whale Cove  19 18  F r o b i s h e r Bay  19  tt  19  tt  20  Chesterfield Inlet  17  Baker Lake*  17  marital status  1.  R e l a t i v e with whom he r e s i d e s  No. of persons recognized as k i n  L o c a l i t y of m a j o r i t y of putative kin  S S  Father Father  85 46  Pond I n l e t Eskimo P t .  S  Father  71  Southampton  s s  Elder  Brother  Elder  Brother  32  Whale Cove  23  Frobisher/Cape Dorset  s s  Father  18  Frobisher  Father  19  Frobisher/C. Dorset  s s  Father  24  Rankin/Chesterfield.  Father  18  Baker Lake  * T h i s i s the man who a p p a r e n t l y knew the terminology but would not v o l u n t e e r the t e r m s . Personal names have been omitted f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , the names by which these men were r e f e r r e d t o were names given them by the ' w h i t e s ' , f o r example Sam Eskimo f o l l o w e d by a r e g i s t r a t i o n number. Another example i n v o l v e d one of the men who was r e f e r r e d to by h i s f a t h e r ' s name ( f a t h e r l i v i n g ) t h i s was anomalous since the group t o which he belongs p r o h i b i t s the p r a c t i c e of c o n f e r r i n g the names of l i v i n g r e l a t i v e s . When I queried the man about h i s name he informed me of h i s own name. In short the names used by the men a r e , i n the main those given them by non-Eskimo and as such are spurious. The second reason f o r o m i t t i n g the names of the informants i s simply t h a t I d i d not secure p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n .  12  tion  r e l a t e s to the extent of m i g r a t i o n s i n t o the  manent s e t t l e m e n t s .  In the case  per-  o f t h e Pond I n l e t  figure  the e n t i r e k i n group of the i n f o r m a n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h dependents of descending a long history  (20 y e a r s )  s e t t l e m e n t o f Pond I n l e t final  g e n e r a t i o n s , have  of c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h itself.  On  the  the contrary, the whose  o n l y are permanently s e t t l e d i n Baker Lake.  informant  s t a t e d t h a t he h a d  i n l a n d and  o t h e r kinsmen but  t h a t he n e i t h e r knew who  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o him. Bay  ascending  f i g u r e i n t h e t a b l e i s t a k e n f r o m an i n f o r m a n t  parents  lived  and  and  that  t h e y were  This they nor  Similarly for three Frobisher  informants, t h a t i s , they admitted  by p a r e n t s  their  t o h a v i n g been  other c o - r e s i d e n t i a l kinsmen t h a t they  o t h e r k i n i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the A r c t i c .  The  told had  point i s  t h a t t h e y d i d n o t know e x a c t l y w h e r e o r e x a c t l y what k i n d of k i n they The  were. t o t a l number o f known k i n a l t h o u g h  important  when d i s c u s s i n g t h e i d e a l k i n s h i p s y s t e m i s o f l e s s  import-  a n c e t h a n t h e t o t a l number o f s o c i a l l y i n t e r - a c t i n g k i n i n the face-to-face The  situation.  g e n e o l o g i c a l m e t h o d was  followed i n  t h e t y p e s and number o f k i n s m e n o f w h i c h t h e was kin'  aware.  These were a c c e p t e d  (Cf. Table  1; p. 11)  as  'persons  i f the informant  eliciting  informant recognized  could  either  as  13  s p e c i f y them by name, o r , i f he could s p e c i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e unnamed and a named kinsman.  'Blanks' i n  the k i n s h i p c h a r t r e s u l t i n g from the l i m i t e d ranges of the geneologies  were f i l l e d by a s k i n g f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p  which would e x i s t should an Ego have such r e l a t i v e s ,  e.g.  greatgrandfather/mother. The  f i n a l k i n s h i p c h a r t s were checked i n p a r t by  g o i n g o v e r each one w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e respondent and i n s e r t i n g ' e r r o r s ' i n those p l a c e s where t h e r e had been some doubt.  These d o u b t f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s had been n o t e d by  u n d e r l i n i n g w i t h the b i o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o f o r example, i f t h e term f o r an u n c l e seemed t o be u n c e r t a i n l y , or not a t a l l ,  The  ant and i n every case where t h i s method was i n s i s t e d upon by the i n f o r m a n t .  ' e r r o r ' was  accepted  was  i n s e r t i o n of  ' e r r o r ' appeared t o g a l v a n i z e t h e r e c a l l of the  term was  given  the n o t a t i o n FaBr or MoBr  p l a c e d a g a i n s t t h e symbol on t h e c h a r t . the  Ego,  inform-  used the ' c o r r e c t '  Not  a single  by any o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s .  The  majority  o f the d o u b t f u l terms appeared t o be r e l a t e d t o doubt o r c o n f u s i o n on t h e p a r t of the i n f o r m a n t  as t o t h e  exact  b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the r e l a t i v e or imaginary)  i n q u e s t i o n and Ego.  (real  Whenever t h i s doubt  c l e a r e d away the i n f o r m a n t s u s u a l l y had no h e s i t a t i o n i n a p p l y i n g a k i n s h i p term t o the kinsman.  was  14  The  reliability  o f d a t a o f t h i s n a t u r e , when t a k e n  from s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t s , i s always questionable.  On  the  o t h e r h a n d i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e r e p o r t e d s i c r e p a n c i e s i n t e r m i n o l o g i c a l systems taken from i n f o r m a n t s from a a r e a the problem of a s s e s s i n g data r e l i a b i l i t y basically,  t o an e i t h e r / o r  state.  single  i s reduced,  That i s , the  variation  is  e i t h e r a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y l e v e l  it  i s a t t h e group l e v e l .  both types of v a r i a t i o n  I c o n c u r w i t h Damas (1963)  or  that  c a n and do o c c u r .  Although I f e e l t h a t the informants are r e l i a b l e i t i s r e i t e r a t e d t h a t the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s showing  kinship  terms a r e , i n each case, taken from a s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t . In ship to  t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i v e  systems male Egos a r e used e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e  t h e t e r m s u s e d b y f e m a l e E g o s where t h e s e d i f f e r  t h o s e u s e d by m a l e E g o s . Ego  kin-  oriented  Figure  from  No c h a r t s were e r e c t e d f o r f e m a l e  systems.  One. F i g u r e One  shows t h e k i n s h i p  system a c c o r d i n g t o the  s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t from Southampton I s l a n d .  I n Ego's g e n e r -  a t i o n s i b l i n g s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from other t h i s h o l d s f o r a n Ego  of e i t h e r sex.  collaterals,  Within the  sibling  g r o u p d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t on t h e b a s e s o f age and o f s e x .  There a r e d i s t i n c t terms f o r o l d e r  relative and  FIGURE 1 Q| ni ngauk O atsak. O ananats k D atsak ft atatats akj^j angak a  O  A angak  a  n  9  a  atsak  —  <!l n i ngauk  •  !  ananats akpj atsak atatats ananats  ak  P  a i  Mi  nayak  "9 .Q anana  li  ^  1  atata  <] ningauk O ego nuliak  •4O  a i  angayuk O ai nuka  Q ananats ak <5 atatats ak  v  O pan i k  <3 i rngn i k  1° kangiyak  <] n i ngauk nayah  O atsak  D ananats akD atsak  akak  O ai  <i n i ngauk  ananats akp i k O atsak akak  kang i yak kangiyak  kangiyak  arigut i kat  a.tatats akl^ akak  tjj atatats  yuruk  atsak  § atatats akL •angak  1'2  yuruk  angnakat i k  nayak  l<j angak  A K  —r"~  <] ningauk O  <] ningauk  ananats akp atsak atatats aklcj akak I' akD atsak ananats — •$ atatats akl<] akak  uyuruk  nayak  k  3 ananats ak il, q atatats ak  <1  a i  angnakat i k  o  O  O  atsak ananats akO <D al atatats akkl  yuruk  nayak  ai  atsak <!] ningauk  ai ft  Male Ego  angnakat i.k  kang i yak  kang i yak  C  16  younger  s i b l i n g s o f t h e same s e x a s E g o ; t h e t e r m s a r e ,  f o r o l d e r s i b l i n g , Angayuk and f o r younger The  sibling  Nuka.  r o o t meaning o f t h e former term i s a sense o f ' l a r g e r ' ,  ' o l d e r ' w h i l e t h e r o o t o f t h e s e c o n d t e r m i s 'new'.  There  a r e two o t h e r t e r m s commonly u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o same s e x siblings. Nukakinak  These a r e Angayunerkpa (youngest).  as Nukakpak  (same  There  ( o l d e s t , l a r g e s t ) and  The l a t t e r t e r m i s o f t e n r e n d e r e d  meaning).  i s a s i n g l e term f o r o p p o s i t e s e x s i b l i n g s ;  f o r m a l e E g o , s i s t e r s a r e N a i y a k , f o r f e m a l e : Ego b r o t h e r s a r e Anik.  Both are primary terms. Still  another term e x i s t s which i s a p p l i c a b l e t o  a newborn o r i n f a n t s i b l i n g o f e i t h e r s e x , t h i s term i s Nutak  ( s t e m : New) a n d i s u s e d by b o t h s e x e s o f n u c l e a r a n d  l i n e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n any a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . The  s i s t e r term, Naiyak,  (or a derivative) i s  extended t o f e m a l e c o l l a t e r a l s o f male Ego's g e n e r a t i o n and t h e b r o t h e r t e r m A n i k , i s extended t o t h e f e m a l e Ego's male c o l l a t e r a l s i n her generation. taken from a l l  This i s t r u e f o r the data  sources with the d e f i n i t e exception of  A l a s k a n m a t e r i a l used and t h e o p t i o n a l e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Iglulik  a n d Pond I n l e t d a t a . T h e r e a r e two t e r m s f o r same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s o f E g o ' s  17  generation.  The term A n g u t i k a t i k i s used t o d e s i g n a t e  those c o l l a t e r a l s who t r a c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h two a g n a t i c l i n k s . a male.  t o Ego  The stem o f t h e term i s Angut,  T h i s stem w i t h t h e p o s s e s s i v e s u f f i x 'ga' i s  commonly used t o d e s i g n a t e ascending  generation.  'a male r e l a t i v e ' o f t h e f i r s t  I n t h e case o f an a d o p t i v e  s h i p a second s u f f i x , 'sak', i s appended.  relation-  This l a t t e r  usage i s r e p o r t e d by Damas (1963) t o a p p l y t o a d o p t i v e relationships  only.  The t e r m A r n g n a k a t i k d e s i g n a t e s same  sex c o l l a t e r a l s whose r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s t r a c e d through  either  two u t e r i n e l i n k s o r t h r o u g h a u t e r i n e p l u s an a g n a t i c link.  T h i s p l a c e s a l l c r o s s - c o u s i n s and m a t e r n a l  c o u s i n s i n t h e same c a t e g o r y .  parallel  The stem o f t h i s term i s  Arngnak, 'female' and, as w i t h t h e Angut term can be used to d e s i g n a t e a female r e l a t i v e of an a s c e n d i n g These ' c o u s i n ' terms a r e s e l f - r e c i p r o c a l ,  generation.  t h a t i s , Ego  i s A n g u t i k a t i k t o t h o s e whom he d e s i g n a t e s by t h i s  term  and i s A r n g n a k a t i k t o those whom he so a d d r e s s e s . F o r o p p o s i t e sex c o l l a t e r a l s and s i b l i n g s t h e termi n o l o g y i s of 'Hawaiian'  type.  The o n l y systems r e p o r t e d  to conform t o t h e 'Eskimo t y p e ' a r e those g i v e n by Honigman (1962) f o r Great whale R i v e r a r e a and W i l l m o t t (1961) f o r the Port Harrison area.  The c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y w i l l be d i s -  cussed more f u l l y i n a l a t e r  section.  As Damas (1963) s u g g e s t s , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e  18  terms appears ation. in  t o be l o c a t e d i n t h e f i r s t  ascending  gener-  The r e c i p r o c a l n a t u r e o f t h e t e r m s i s e x p l a i n a b l e  t e r m s o f T a x ' s (1955) ' e q u i v a l e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p '  concept. The is  terminology f o rthe f i r s t  bifurcate collateral  generation  i n type f o r males o n l y .  are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from c o l l a t e r a l ter  ascending  consanguines.  The l a t -  (males), are separated t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y according t o  w h e t h e r t h e l i n k t o Ego i s a g n a t i c o r u t e r i n e . a r e t h e same f o r e i t h e r m a l e o r f e m a l e ology f o rfemale in  Parents  consanguines  Ego.  The t e r m s  The t e r m i n -  of t h i s generation i s L i n e a l  t y p e ; t h a t i s , MoSi = F a S i and mother i s d e s i g n a t e d by  a separate term. i s Anana.  A male p a r e n t i s A t a t a ; a female  parent  The o n l y d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e s e two p r i m a r y  terms  i s f o u n d i n t h e A l a s k a n s y s t e m s w h e r e t h e t e r m s Aapa a n d Aaka  (male a n d f e m a l e  are r e p o r t e d .  parent r e s p e c t i v e l y ) o r  I n t h e A l a s k a n system  t h e t e r m s A t a t a a n d Anana a r e u s e d kin  o f t h e second The  and  Spencer  to designate the l i n e a l  ( A t t a k o f Damas) i n c l u d e s b o t h  consanguineals of t h i s  a v a i l a b l e data a r e unevenly furcate collateral  r e p o r t e d by  ascending generation.  term A t s a k  agnatic female  derivatives  uterine  generation.  The  d i v i d e d between l i n e a l and b i -  type terminology f o r consangines  of the  19  first  ascending  generation.  Male c o l l a t e r a l s who  h a v e an a g n a t i c  Aqak  o f Damas).  l i n k t o Ego  Damas t o be  The as  generation  are designated  a r e t e r m e d Angak.  term f o r female c o l l a t e r a l s  collaterals.  ascending  Akak  (Cf.  Male c o l l a t e r a l s of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n  a u t e r i n e l i n k t o Ego the  of the f i r s t  are  These terms  extended to  mode o f e x t e n d i n g  with and  parents  these terms i s said  by  follows:  P a r e n t ' s c o u s i n s a r e a c c o r d e d a u n t and u n c l e t e r m s a f t e r t h e same p a t t e r n ( a s u s e d f o r p a r e n t ' s s i b l i n g s ) ; t h a t i s , f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r and f a t h e r ' s m a l e c o u s i n a r e b o t h d e s i g n a t e d as a q a k y[my a k a k j ; m o t h e r ' s s i s t e r and m o t h e r ' s f e m a l e c o u s i n a r e b o t h d e s i g n a t e d as a i y a k , and so o n . (1963;  We  are not  since our examination  concerned w i t h  'mother's f e m a l e c o u s i n s '  systems d i f f e r f o r these o f e i t h e r Damas' o r my  consanguines but charts w i l l  Damas' e x p l a n a t i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . c h a r t f a t h e r ' s male c o u s i n s a r e Angak n o t were c o r r e c t .  Aqak a s t h e y I suspect  s t a t e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n an more f u l l y  with these  of the t h e s i s . of the  On  Sugluk data  and  p.36)  For  here an  show t h a t  e x a m p l e , on Damas'  on t h e f a t h e r ' s m o t h e r ' s s h o u l d be  t h a t he has  i f his h e r e an  explanation incomplete  erroneous explanation. related questions  t h e o t h e r hand, G r a b u r n ' s (1964) a r e  side  I will  in a later  deal part  classifications  c l e a r l y meant t o be  the  same  20  a s t h o s e p o s i t e d b y Damas; h o w e v e r , G r a b u r n d o e s n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t data t o determine t h e mode o f e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e In  the f i r s t  descending  t h e exact nature o f  terms i n t h e Sugluk  area.  g e n e r a t i o n i t c a n be s e e n  t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n of t h e n u c l e a r from t h e c o l l a t e r a l k i n persists.  Ego's o f f s p r i n g  are separated  sex; males a r e I r n g n i k and f e m a l e s  on t h e b a s i s o f  are Panik.  The  offspring,  o f male Ego's male s i b l i n g s a r e K a n g i y a k and t h e o f f s p r i n g of female  siblings  a r e Uyuruk.  For female  s p r i n g o f male s i b l i n g s a r e Angnak; female (Damas* W b a k ) .  This s i t u a t i o n  data available.  </  i sa 'universal'  Alaskan  There i s  i n t h e extension of these terms t o des-  . scending c o l l a t e r a l s .  A c c o r d i n g t o Damas t h e c o n s a n g u i n e a l  terms o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n a r e determined linking relative  for the  a r e extended t o  o f c o l l a t e r a l s o f Egos g e n e r a t i o n .  great v a r i a t i o n  Nuvak  data.  terms f o r s i b l i n g ' s o f f s p r i n g  the offspring  siblings  The two e x c e p t i o n s a r e S p e n c e r ' s  and my E s k i m o P o i n t The  Ego t h e o f f -  i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n .  by t h e sex o f t h e T h i s a p p e a r s t o be  t h e c a s e f o r t h e c h a r t g i v e n b y Damas f o r t h e I g l u l i k a r e a b u t I h o p e t o show t h a t t h i s i s a c o i n c i d e n c e a n d t h a t there i s another as w e l l  explanation which w i l l  as t o a l l o t h e r v a r i a t i o n s  apply t o the I g l u l i k  of the extension of these  21  terms. Consanguines and a f f i n e s o f t h e second a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a r e d e s i g n a t e d b y two s e x d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t e r m s u s e d b y an Ego o f e i t h e r s e x . A m a l e r e l a t i v e o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s termed A t a t a t s i a k and a female  relative  A n a n a t s i a k . The s t e m o f t h e t e r m s a r e t h e p r i m a r y t e r m s used f o r p a r e n t s w i t h t h e p e r f e c t s u f f i x Tsiak'appended. A literal  t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e terms reads 'perfect  ' p e r f e c t mother'.  father';  Damas (1963) g i v e s t h e s e two t e r m s  a s a l t e r n a t i v e s t o two o t h e r s i . e . I t u k a n d N i n g i u k . These l a t t e r terms a r e p r i m a r y and a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o any ' o l d man' a n d ' o l d woman'.  D u r i n g my i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e  e t y m o l o g y o f t h e k i n s h i p t e r m s I was g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t A t a t a t s i a k a n d A n a n a t s i a k a r e t h e more s p e c i f i c k i n terms and t h a t t h e I t u k and N i n g i u k terms a r e g e n e r a l , nons p e c i f i c and n o n - k i n terms. terms t h e s u f f i x  To b e u s e d a s s p e c i f i c k i n  'ga' i s a p p e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e  'possession'.  This accords w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f the data a v a i l a b l e . It boundary  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e a f f i n a l / c o n s a n g u i n e a l i s o v e r r i d d e n i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n ; t h e terms  a p p l i c a b l e t o spouses o f t h e consanguines o f t h i s  being  genera-  tion . A s i n g l e term, Irngutak  ( I r n g u t a q , c f . Damas) i s  22  u s e d b y an Ego o f e i t h e r s e x t o d e n o t e a l l c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e l a t i v e s o f t h e second descending g e n e r a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of  their  s e x and degree o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y .  Unlike the  second ascending g e n e r a t i o n t h e a f f i n a l / c o n s a n g u i n e a l boundary  i s m a i n t a i n e d as i t i s i n a l l o t h e r descending  generations. The  stem o f t h e I r n g u t a k term i s t h a t used t o  d e s i g n a t e t h e male o f f s p r i n g o f Ego.  The same s t e m i s  o f t e n used t o phrase t h e meaning 'born' o r ' b i r t h ' . The  t h i r d a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e  d e n o t e d b y e i t h e r a m a l e o r f e m a l e Ego b y a s i n g l e each.  The t e r m Amau d e s i g n a t e s b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e ,  a f f i n a l and c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e l a t i v e s ing  generation.  as I l l u l i k , of  the third  The t e r m  of the t h i r d  ascend-  Illuligik,sometimes rendered  r e f e r s t o male and female consanguines descending generation.  p o r t s a term, I l l u u q a t i k the  term  same h o u s e ' .  Willmott  (same r o o t I l l u )  only  (1961) r e -  t o mean  'sharing  I s u g g e s t t h a t t h e stem h a s t h e m e a n i n g  'inside' or, better,  'encompassed'.  The E s k i m o t e r m f o r  a snowhouse i s I l l u v i n e r k o r I g l u v i n e r k ;  the s u f f i x to  i n d i c a t e p o s i t i o n i s 'Ane'; t h e w o r d f o r ' i n s i d e ' 'those i n s i d e ' i s rendered I l l u l i k term i s used i n t h e I g l u l i k ,  .  i s Illuane,  and t h e stem o f t h i s  Pond I n l e t and A l a s k a n  systems  23  to  indicate cross-cousins.  to  the d i s t a n t but  descending  In short I l l u l i g i k  included consanguineal  generations.  Spencer  refers  r e l a t i v e s i n the  (1959) s u g g e s t s  that  f o r e g o i n g terms are m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the " r e l a t i v e "  the  term  Illaka. F i g u r e 1 shows t h e t e r m s f o r f i r s t r e l a t i v e s of In  Ego's g e n e r a t i o n a l l i n - m a r r y i n g a f f i n e s  ' r e c i p r o c a l ' term.  The  s i n g l e term A i denotes a s t a n d s i n an  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r and  this  by a s e l f - r e c i p r o c a l  and  equivalent  equivalence i s denoted  a f f i n a l males of t h e f i r s t  a l l descending  a f f i n a l females  relation-  term.  F o r a m a l e Ego own  of  T h i s i s a c l a s s i c example of  s h i p i n which each p a r t i c i p a n t  his  affinal  Ego.  o p p o s i t e sex are termed M . a  order  ascending,  g e n e r a t i o n s are Ningauk  of a l l descending  generations are  and Ukuak  (Damas' U k k u a q ) . For a female  Ego  a f f i n a l females  descending  generations  descending  generations are Ningauk.  JJingauk and females  Ukuak  a r e Ukuak.  o f h e r own  A f f i n a l males of a l l T h e s e two  terms,  are a p p l i e d t o i n - m a r r y i n g males  r e s p e c t i v e l y i n every  and a l l  reported  system.  and  24  In the second a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n female  affines  are  d e s i g n a t e d by t h e same t e r m u s e d f o r c o n s a n g u i n e s  the  a f f i n a l / c o n s a n g u i n e a l boundary i s o v e r r i d d e n f o r t h i s  sex i n t h i s  thus  generation.  F i g u r e 2 shows t h e k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y g i v e n by the to  r e s p o n d e n t f r o m F r o b i s h e r Bay.  I suspect t h i s  be a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e L a k e H a r b o u r  systems.  The r e s p o n d e n t was  system  and Cape D o r s e t  b o r n i n t h e Cape D o r s e t a r e a ,  w h i c h i s a l s o t h e a r e a o f o r i g i n h i s f a t h e r and h i s f a t h e r ' s kinsmen.  When t h e r e s p o n d e n t was  about  four years o l d h i s  f a t h e r moved t h e f a m i l y t o t h e L a k e H a r b o u r  area, this area  i s t h e a r e a o f o r i g i n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s m o t h e r and kinsmen. Bay  her  The f a m i l y h a s o n l y r e c e n t l y moved t o F r o b i s h e r  and I do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e r e p o r t e d t e r m i n o l o g y c a n  be t a k e n a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t a r e a .  This conclusion  i s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e r m i n o l o g i e s r e p o r t e d t o me b y t h e t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t s who s t a y e d i n t h e F r o b i s h e r Bay a r e a .  had been b o r n  and  Unfortunately these  l a t t e r r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u n a b l e t o g i v e me  full  kinship  s y s t e m s , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e F r o b i s h e r Bay a r e a i s o m i t t e d f r o m consideration i n this  thesis.  F i g u r e Two . The  terms f o r l i n e a l and n u c l e a r c o n s a n g u i n e s  are  FIGURE 2  aiyarapikulu atsakuluapik Qananats iak ft a t a t a t s i a k \q angakulu  Q] ningauk  O  A angaku1u  Q KI  atsaku1uapi k  nayaku l u  |^  ai  0  uyuruk  k  nayaku1u  ^nanatsiak Q  a t s l a^ln k u inguak luapik  Q  <J  ningauk  <] ningauk  a t a t a t s iak Lj a k a k u l u atsaku1uap i k ananats iak p • a t a t a t s i a k •<]  a ka ku 1 u  atsaku]uap i k Q a n a n a t s iak 0  anana II •  _<]atata  ft a t a t a t s iak angakulu atsaku1uap ik ananatsiakp  <i a t a t a t s i a k  *-3  .O  ningauk  l<]  nu1iak  O  ego  <  ai  O  O  4  angayuk O  3-ryjarapikulu O  atsaku1uap i k D ananats i a k P  nayak  Q  ^ a t a t a t s i a k L j angakulu 3 a n a n a t s iak  uyuruk  nayak  ti— <]  akakulu  ai  <3 n ingauk "O  nayakulu  O  a t a t a t s i a k L akakulu <]  <In inguak  O  ningauk nayaku 1 a  1  uyuruk  Male Ego  uyuruk panik  ^  ^.  i r n g n i k a> 15 kang i ya  < kang i yak  kangiyak  3 1  i1lukuluapi  atsaku1uap i k ananats i a k P ats akuluapik ^ atatatsiakL^ akakulu  uyuruk  uyuruk  i1lukuluapi  latatatsiak atsaku1uap i k Dananatsiak  uyuruk  uyuruk  —T  l a t a t a t s i a k Uangakulu -^ananatsiak  O  kang i yak  kangiyak  kangiyak>i» <J/  26  the as  same a s t h o s e  r e p o r t e d f o r a l l o t h e r areas and a r e  shown i n t h e summary c h a r t . I n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n  same s e x s i b l i n g s a r e t e r m i n -  o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s .  Two  t e r m s a r e u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s . The  term I l l u k u l u a p i k d e s i g n a t e s  c o l l a t e r a l s who  trace  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego t h r o u g h e i t h e r two a g n a t i c o r t h r o u g h two u t e r i n e l i n k s . and  The stem o f t h e t e r m i s I l l u  t h e . a f f i x e s a r e t h e d i m i n u t i v e s Kulu and A p i k .  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r stem f o r t h e s e  relatives differs  The u s e from  t h a t r e p o r t e d b y Damas (I963) f o r I g l u l i k a n d b y L a n t i s , Hughes a n d S p e n c e r f o r A l a s k a n p o r t s and f o r t h e Pond I n l e t  data  the term i s used t o designate parallel  cousins.  groups.  In the l a t t e r r e -  collected at Chilliwack,  cross-cousins  r a t h e r than  The t e r m U y u r u k d e s i g n a t e s  c o l l a t e r a l s who t r a c e t h e i r  same s e x  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego t h r o u g h an  a g n a t i c and a u t e r i n e c o m b i n a t i o n .  T h i s i s one o f t h e two  i n s t a n c e s i n which t h e term Uyuruk i s a p p l i e d t o consanguines  o f t h e same g e n e r a t i o n  i s reported reported to  as Ego, t h e o t h e r  f o r the C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t area.  systems t h e term, although  consanguines o f the f i r s t  stricted to this The  instance  In a l l other  a p p l i e d i n v a r i o u s ways  descending generation,  i s re-  generation.  f o r e g o i n g t e r m s a r e t h e same f o r an Ego o f e i t h e r  27  sex.  Opposite  sex c o l l a t e r a l s  of the opposite  sex s i b l i n g term.  terms are: Naiyak lesser  sister).  ( b r o t h e r ) and  are designated  (sister)  and  In the f i r s t  diminutive  F o r a m a l e Ego  Naiyakulu  F o r a f e m a l e Ego  Anikulu  by a  these  (female  cousin =  the terms a r e :  Anik  (lesser brother).  ascending  g e n e r a t i o n terms f o r l i n e a l  consanguines are d i s t i n c t  from terms f o r c o l l a t e r a l  con-  sanguines.  terms f o r c o l l a t e r a l male  relat-  T h e r e a r e two  ives of t h i s b r o t h e r and  generation. Akakulu Angakulu designates  designates  the  father's  the mother's b r o t h e r .  stems o f t h e terms a r e t h e p r i m a r y  t e r m s Akak and  Angak  found i n the m a j o r i t y of the ..reported t e r m i n o l o g i e s with the  p o i n t e d out t h a t the use  i n Eskimo appears t o r e f e r t o both 'lesser quality'  ing  physical  Thus t h e  p o s s i b l e : Angut  ( p h y s i c a l l y s m a l l male c h i l d  (insignificant  diminutives  'lesser quantity'  i n w h i c h t h e r e f e r e n c e i s made.  Angutikulu  of  the exact meaning b e i n g d e r i v e d from  s e r i e s of meanings a r e  male, d i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d  and the  follow-  (male),  etc.),  Angutikulu  etc; i n a  non-  sense.).  The lateral  but  d i m i n u t i v e a f f i x K u l u appended.  I t s h o u l d be  context  The  Akakulu  and  Angakulu terms are  c o n s a n g u i n e s of Ego's p a r e n t s  extended to  col-  i n t h e same manner  as  28  in  t h e o t h e r r e p o r t e d systems.  who a r e l i n k e d  to either  That i s , male  collaterals  o f Ego's p a r e n t s t h r o u g h  their  male p a r e n t a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e Akak term o r a d e r i v a t i v e such as Akakulu. either  M a l e c o l l a t e r a l s who a r e l i n k e d t o  o f Ego's p a r e n t s t h r o u g h t h e i r f e m a l e p a r e n t a r e  d e s i g n a t e d by t h e Angakulu term  (cf. p. 17).  In the  Sugluk system t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e terms i s s a i d  t o be  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e x o f t h e p a r e n t l i n k i n g t h e r e l a t i v e t o Ego.  Thus Akak  (Graburn's A t k a k ) r e f e r s t o :  A male p a t e r n a l consanguine o f t h e f i r s t o r s e c o n d d e g r e e o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y and f i r s t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n , e.g. F a B r , F a M o B r S o n .  (1964; p.46)  Similarly,  Angakulu  MoBr, o r M o F a S i S o n , A single  (Angak  o f Graburn)  i s said  to refer to  etc.(ibid.).  term, A t s a k u l u a p i k , denotes a l l female  sanguines of the f i r s t  ascending generation. In this  con-  The s t e m o f  the  term i s t h e primary term Atsak.  system, as i n  the  Southampton I s l a n d system, t e r m i n o l o g y r e f e r r i n g t o  female consanguines o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s L i n e a l  i n type  w h e r e a s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y f o r m a l e c o n s a n g u i n e s o f t h e same generation i s Bifurcate Collateral ogy f o r c o n s a n g u i n e s i n t h e f i r s t the  i n type.  The t e r m i n o l -  ascending generationi s  same f o r an Ego o f e i t h e r s e x . A curious pattern i n t h i s particular  terminologyi s  29  the  use o f d i m i n u t i v e s f o r a l l c o l l a t e r a l c o n s a n g u i n e a l  relatives.  The stem terms a r e , however, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h  those recorded f o r other k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g i e s . In are  the f i r s t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n Ego's o f f s p r i n g  t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h o s e of h i s l i n e a l  c o l l a t e r a l consanguines.  and  The son and daughter terms  I r n g i k and P a n i k a r e the same as t h o s e g i v e n f o r every r e p o r t e d k i n s h i p system. For  a male Ego t h e o f f s p r i n g  (both s e x e s ) , o f male  s i b l i n g s a r e d e s i g n a t e d K a n g i y a k ; o f f s p r i n g o f female l i n g s a r e Uyuruk. are  sib-  F o r a female Ego t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g terms  g i v e n as Nuvak f o r o f f s p r i n g of both sexes from a  female s i b l i n g and Angnak d e s i g n a t e s the o f f s p r i n g o f male siblings.  Both s e t s of terms, t h o s e f o r male and f o r  female Ego, a r e extended t o t h e o f f s p r i n g o f f i r s t collaterals.  degree  The mode o f e x t e n s i o n i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l and  w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r i n t h e t h e s i s .  These terms and  the  primary r e l a t i v e s they designate, with the exception  of  Spencer's A l a s k a n d a t a and t h a t g i v e n by the i n f o r m a n t  from C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t , appear t o be  'universal'.  Two terms a r e used t o d e s i g n a t e r e l a t i v e s of t h e second a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n .  The term A t a t a t s i a k  refers  t o male c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s of t h i s genera-  30  t i o n and t h e term A n a n a t s i a k r e f e r s t o f e m a l e c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s .  The stems o f t h e terms a r e Anana  and A t a t a i . e . mother and f a t h e r , w i t h t h e p e r f e c t  affix  T s i a k appended t o them. A s i n g l e term, I r n g u t a k , d e s i g n a t e s a l l  consan-  g u i n e a l s of e i t h e r sex i n the second d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . The term o v e r r i d e s the l i n e a l / c o l l a t e r a l boundary as w e l l as b e i n g n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g as t o t h e sex o f t h e r e l a t i v e . R e l a t i v e s o f both t h e t h i r d a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e denoted by a s i n g l e t e r m .  Affinal  and  c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e l a t i v e s of b o t h sexes i n t h e t h i r d ascending of  g e n e r a t i o n a r e d e s i g n a t e d Amau.  e i t h e r sex i n t h e t h i r d d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a r e de-  s i g n a t e d as I l l u l i k . of  Consanguineal r e l a t i v e s  U n l i k e t h e s i n g l e term f o r r e l a t i v e s  t h e t h i r d ascending g e n e r a t i o n t h i s t e r m e x c l u d e s a f f i n a l  relatives. I n c l u d e d i n F i g u r e 2 a r e the terms a p p l i e d t o f i r s t order a f f i n a l  relatives.  I n - m a r r y i n g persons i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n and of opp o s i t e sex t o Ego a r e d e s i g n a t e d by the s e l f - r e c i p r o c a l term A i . For  a male Ego i n - m a r r y i n g males o f the f i r s t  ascend-  31  ing  and  a l l descending  marrying  females  Aiyarapikulu.  g e n e r a t i o n s are Ningauk.  of the f i r s t The  stem o f t h i s t e r m  w i t h t h e d i m i n u t i v e s A p i k and marrying  females  females  Ego  generations  and  Figure  In-  first  A l l in-marrying  a l l descending  a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak. A l l i n - m a r r y i n g males of the generations are  Aiyak  are Ukkuak.  i n - m a r r y i n g males of t h e  ascending  are  a p p e a r s t o be  generation are A i y a r a p i k u l u .  of the f i r s t  generation  K u l u appended t o i t .  of a l l descending  For a female ascending  ascending  A l lin-  generdescending  Ningauk.  Three. F i g u r e T h r e e shows t h e k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y t a k e n  the s i n g l e  i n f o r m a n t f r o m t h e Pond I n l e t  ology f o r t h i s area i s almost  area.  d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e I g l u l i k and  on t h e b a s e s o f s e x and  few  data  will  description.  I n E g o ' s g e n e r a t i o n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and of s i b l i n g s  The  Pond I n l e t  p o i n t e d out i n t h e body o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  tion  termin-  e x a c t l y analogous to that  r e p o r t e d by Damas (1963) f o r t h e I g l u l i k a r e a .  be  The  from  classifica-  relative  age  f o l l o w s t h a t g i v e n f o r a l l o t h e r r e p o r t e d Eskimo k i n s h i p systems. There are t h r e e terms f o r c o l l a t e r a l s of the s e x a s Ego  i n t h i s generation.  c o l l a t e r a l s who  Angnakatik  same  designates  t r a c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego  through  those two  FIGURE 3  3  p  n i ngauk  . uyuruk  nayak  ningiuk  Q a i yak  ft: ituk  c 3  9  angak  ^ angak  i 11 u  ningiuk  Q ai yak  nayak  ituk  <1 angak  aiyak  :  igauk  ningiuk  r9  c  9.  n i ng i uk  3 atsak  ituk •  <3 akak  n i ng i uk  3 atsa'k.  n i ng i uk  3 aiyak  ituk  <] angak.  ningiuk  0 a iyak  ituk  ^ angak  ML  nayak  O •HO  anana _<] atata  ningiuk  3 1  akak  3 atsak '  O nuliak ego 3 1  angayuk ai nuka  n ing i uk  j3 atsak  3  ituk ,  Ia akak  h6- nayak O  4  |<q akak  ro  c  Opan i k  IS-  •  ituk  <j ningauk  Q Kl  O  3  yuruk  -O  <j ni ngauk  ituk  yuruk  K6" nayak  akak  §  ni,ngauk  angut i kat i  r6" nayak O nayak i 1 lu  Male Ego  <]i rngn i k  ro  +J 3  c  — —  —  lO kangiyak  j^kang iyak  ^kangiyak  a i  <] ningauk atsak  yuruk  yuruk  ' <] n i ngauk  ningiuk 3  ir  angnakat i k  ituk  '3  P uyuruk i  Q ningauk ai  ituk  ro  ai  j^-J^kang i yak  kang i yak  kangiyak  ^ \L  33  uterine links.  The  stem o f t h e t e r m i s Angnak  (female).  The t e r m A n g u t i k a t i k d e s i g n a t e s t h o s e c o l l a t e r a l s trace their The  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego  stem o f t h e t e r m i s A n g u t  who  t h r o u g h two a g n a t i c  (male).  The  third  links.  term  a p p l i e d t o same-sex c o l l a t e r a l s i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s Illu. who  T h i s term i s s p e c i f i c  f o r cross-cousins i . e . those  have b o t h a m a j o r a g n a t i c and u t e r i n e l i n k t o  Ego.  The t e r m a p p e a r s t o stem f r o m t h e r o o t I l l u d e n o t i n g position  ' i n s i d e ' e.g.  'inside'  or ' • i t i s i n s i d e ' .  as Aaxanaken Iiloreik  'illuane'  o r ' i l l u a n i t o k ' meaning  Spencer r e n d e r s t h e s e terms  (Angnakin); Anuutaken  (Illurik).  ( A n g u t a k i n ) and  These a r e a s , Pond I n l e t ,  N o r t h A l a s k a Nunivak, S t . Lawrence,  Iglulik  a n d N o r t o n Bay  are the  o n l y a r e a s f o r which t h e s e t h r e e terms a r e r e p o r t e d f o r collaterals  i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n .  The  Eskimo  Point  system  has t h r e e t e r m s a l s o b u t d i f f e r s i n t h e t e r m f o r t h e cousins.  A l l o t h e r r e p o r t e d s y s t e m s have f e w e r t h a n t h r e e  t e r m s f o r same s e x c o n s a n g u i n e s o f t h i s The collaterals Ego  cross-  generation.  o p p o s i t e sex s i b l i n g term i s extended to a l l o f o p p o s i t e s e x i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n . F o r a m a l e  t h i s i s N a i y a k a n d f o r a f e m a l e Ego  Pond I n l e t r e s p o n d e n t r e m a r k e d  that,  i t i s Anik.  The  i n order to  distinguish  t h e s e p e r s o n s t h e y were ' t y p e d ' by p r e f i x i n g t h e  appropriate  s a m e - s e x c o u s i n t e r m , e.g. a c r o s s - c o u s i n f e m a l e w o u l d  be  34  I l l u - N a i y a k . Damas (1963) r e c o r d e d t h e same s o r t o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n t h e I g l u l i k a r e a b u t f e l t t h a t t h e usage was a f a m i l i a l r a t h e r t h a n a r e g i o n a l phenomenon.  Damas  a l s o r e p o r t s t h e o p t i o n a l use o f t h e a f f i x Sag i n t h e I g l u l i k area. In the f i r s t ascending generation l i n e a l are  relatives  c l e a r l y s e t o f f from c o l l a t e r a l consanguines.  Four  terms a r e used t o denote t h e c o l l a t e r a l s o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , two f o r males and two f o r f e m a l e s . f o r an Ego o f e i t h e r  sex.  The terms a r e t h e same  A male c o l l a t e r a l t r a c e d t o  Ego through t h e l a t t e r ' s f a t h e r i s d e s i g n a t e d Akak;  a male  related  t o Ego t h r o u g h t h e l a t t e r ' s mother i s d e s i g n a t e d  Angak.  Female c o l l a t e r a l s l i n k e d  a r e  t o Ego t h r o u g h h i s f a t h e r  Atsak and t h o s e l i n k e d t o Ego through h i s mother a r e  Aiyak  I n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n . T h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l type i s  Bifurcate Collateral for relatives  o f e i t h e r sex.  These f o u r terms appear t o be extended t o p a r e n t ' s c o u s i n s on t h e bases o f the sex o f t h e r e l a t i v e  linking  them t o t h e p a r e n t s of Ego. Consanguineal r e l a t i v e s o f t h e f i r s t generation are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  descending  on t h e bases o f l i n e a l i t y  and c o l l a t e r a l i t y .  The o f f s p r i n g  o f Ego a r e t e r m i n o l o g i c -  ally differentiated  from c o l l a t e r a l s on t h e c r i t e r i o n of  35  l i n e a l i t y and from each o t h e r on t h e b a s i s of sex. F o r a male Ego t h e o f f s p r i n g of s i b l i n g s o f t h e same s e x a r e K a n g i y a k ; o f f s p r i n g o f o p p o s i t e s e x s i b l i n g s a r e Uyuruk. The e x t e n s i o n of t h e s e terms t o t h e o f f s p r i n g o f o t h e r c o l l a t e r a l s i s a p p a r e n t l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e x o f t h e l i n k i n g r e l a t i v e n e a r e s t Ego. Where t h i s l i n k i s a g n a t i c the  Kangiyak term i s a p p l i e d , where i t i s a u t e r i n e l i n k  the  Uyuruk term i s u s e d .  F o r a female Ego t h e terms  Nuvak and Angnak r e p l a c e t h e terms Kangiyak and Uyuruk respectively.  As p o i n t e d out p r e v i o u s l y ( C f . p. 18) t h e s e  t e r m s , a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c t o t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , a r e extended to c o l l a t e r a l s i n v a r i o u s ways. particular  A d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s  problem w i l l be found i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e  k i n s h i p systems and t h e i r  structure.  Two terms a r e employed t o d e s i g n a t e r e l a t i v e s o f t h e second a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . These a r e I t u k f o r male and M i n g i y u k f o r female r e l a t i v e s .  When used as p r i m a r y terms  they mean s i m p l y ' o l d man' and ' o l d woman'.  When used a s  k i n s h i p terms t h e p o s s e s s i v e a f f i x 'ga' r e n d e r s t h e i r meaning  'my o l d man/woman'.  I n the m a j o r i t y o f the reported  systems t h e more s p e c i f i c k i n terms A t a t a t s i a k and A n a n a t s i a k are u s e d i n p l a c e o f I t u k and N i n g i y u k . the  Damas found t h a t  I g l u l i k group gave t h e l a t t e r two terms as a l t e r n a t i v e s  f o r t h e f o r m e r two.  36  The t e r m s f o r t h e s e c o n d a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n i n the Pond I n l e t  system, as i n a l l  others with the possible  e x c e p t i o n of t h e N o r t h A l a s k a n and Sugluk override the consanguineal/affinal  systems,  boundary.  A s i n g l e t e r m , and an a l t e r n a t i v e s i n g l e t e r m , i s used t o d e s i g n a t e a f f i n a l and consanguineal r e l a t i v e s o f t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n , t h e s e terms a r e I t u k i n a k and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e Amau.  The stem o f t h e f o r m e r t e r m  i s Ituk  ( o l d man) w i t h t h e a f f i x K i n a k a p p e n d e d s o a s t o r e n d e r t h e term The  'more d i s t a n t o l d man'/or, ' o l d e r o l d man'.  s e c o n d t e r m , A m a u , i s a p r i m a r y t e r m w h i c h m i g h t be  t r a n s l a t e d as 'ancestor'.  Where t h e t e r m I t u k i n a k i s  used t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o males o n l y and t h e i n f o r m a n t thought t h a t t h e Amau t e r m w o u l d t h e n a p p l y o n l y t o f e m a l e s o f t h a t generation.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d he t h o u g h t t h a t i f t h e Amau  term were u s e d i t s h o u l d i n c l u d e b o t h s e x e s . I n both t h e second and t h i r d a s i n g l e term i s used t o denote  descending generations  consanguineal k i n .  c a s e s t h e d e g r e e o f c o l l a t e r a l i t y and s e x c r i t e r i a nored a l t h o u g h t h e a f f i n a l / c o n s a n g u i n e a l boundary tained.  The t e r m f o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e s e c o n d  In both are i g -  i s main-  descending  g e n e r a t i o n i s I r n g u t a k a n d f o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e t h i r d deescending g e n e r a t i o n t h e term i s I l l u l i k . terms have been d i s c u s s e d .  The stems o f t h e s e  37  The t e r m i n o l o g y f o r f i r s t tem  i n this  sys-  i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t r e p o r t e d f o r I g l u l i k b y Damas  (1963).  There a r e t h r e e terms f o r a f f i n e s .  o p p o s i t e s e x a f f i n e s who m a r r y ascending generation. For  order a f f i n e s  A i designates  i n t o Ego's o r t h e f i r s t  T h i s i s a s e l f - r e c i p r o c a l term.  a m a l e Ego m a l e a f f i n e s o f t h e f i r s t  d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ningauk.  a s c e n d i n g and a l l  Female a f f i n e s o f a l l  d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak. For  a f e m a l e Ego f e m a l e a f f i n e s o f t h e f i r s t  ascending  a n d a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak a n d a l l m a l e a f f i n e s of a l l descending g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ningauk. Figure  Four. F i g u r e F o u r shows t h e k i n s h i p  respondent from C h e s t e r f i e l d  Inlet.  system as g i v e n by t h e Lineal  and n u c l e a r  c o n s a n g u i n e s a r e c l a s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e common f o r t h e o t h e r Eskimo  pattern  systems.  T h e r e a r e two t e r m s f o r same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n .  Angutikatik r e f e r s t o those  who t r a c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p father.  consanguines  t o Ego t h r o u g h t h e l a t t e r ' s  A n g n a k a t i k r e f e r s t o t h o s e c o n s a n g u i n e s who a r e  l i n k e d t o Ego t h r o u g h t h e l a t t e r ' s m o t h e r .  Opposite sex  c o l l a t e r a l s a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t e sex s i b l i n g term.  F o r a m a l e Ego t h i s i s N a i y a k f o r a  f e m a l e Ego t h i s i s A n i k . The t e r m s a r e e x t e n d e d i n t h e p r i m a r y  •FIGURE k  n i ngauk  O ananats iakO atsak A atatatsiak^ a  ananats iak  ZIP  n  g  a  I* angak  k  Q ai Kl, angnakat i k  Q tsak a  atatatsiakW iakW angak  atsak fO § ningauk (angak)  ^ ananats iak il <I atatats iak ananats iak  nayak  atsak  Q  P  O  ft  lO uyuruk r  nayak ningauk  yu ruk  a1  yuruk  angnakat i k  <] n i ngauk  atsak  uyuruk  yuruk  nayak  atatats i a k L akak nayak  i  ananats iak D atsak atatats iakv] akak  3  Q ananats iak  atsak  anana 11  O nuliak 4  1  rO atata  Q  atatats i a k U angak  3 1  a1  <3 <J] atatats iakl<3 angak  ft , nuka <] ningauk atsak, (a i ) ^a, hO" nayak O  <5 atatats iak  O  ego  angayuk  ananats iakO atsak  ananats iak  O ai  akak  D ananatsiakD atsak  angut i kat i k  atatats i a k L kak a  z\ ningauk  ananatsiakD atsak h atatats iakkl akak  uyuruk  <] n i ngauk  nayak  atsak LO  —  m  <] i rngn i k  c  P  <  kang i yak  j^kangi yak  kangiyak;. ki kang i yak  kang i yak  nayak  <n i nguak ft Male Ego  Qpanik  angut i kat-i k  kangiyak  •  39  form i . e . are unmodified.  T h i s system i s v e r y s i m i l a r  t h a t r e c o r d e d by D a i l e y and D a i l e y Inlet  (1961) f o r t h e R a n k i n  Eskimos. In  are  the f i r s t  clearly  ascending generation l i n e a l  s e t o f f from c o l l a t e r a l s .  f o r male c o l l a t e r a l s  and a s i n g l e  als  of t h i s  are  Akak f o r t h o s e l i n k e d  generation.  The  and Angak f o r t h o s e l i n k e d  female r e l a t i v e s  T h e r e a r e two  terms f o r t h e male  terms  collater-  collaterals  t o Ego t h r o u g h E g o ' s m a l e p a r e n t t o Ego t h r o u g h h i s f e m a l e p a r e n t .  of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n .  same f o r an Ego o f e i t h e r  relatives  term f o r female  The t e r m A t s a k d e s i g n a t e s b o t h a f f i n a l  sex.  The  and c o n s a n g u i n e a l The t e r m s a r e t h e  ' a u n t ' and  'uncle'  terms are extended t o the c o u s i n s of the p a r e n t s ; the relative located  focal  whose s e x d e t e r m i n e s t h i s e x t e n s i o n a p p e a r s t o  be  i n the second ascending generation. In the f i r s t  are  to  terminologically  d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n Ego's  offspring  s e p a r a t e d from those of h i s c o l l a t e r a l s .  O f f s p r i n g o f a male Ego's m a l e s i b l i n g a r e K a n g i y a k , of a f e m a l e s i b l i n g a r e Uyuruk.  F o r a f e m a l e Ego  those  the  off-  s p r i n g of female s i b l i n g s  a r e Nuvak and o f f s p r i n g  m a l e s i b l i n g a r e Angnak.  These s e t s o f t e r m s a r e e x t e n d e d t o  the  offspring  of cousins.  those r e l a t i v e s  of a  From t h e s y s t e m i t a p p e a r s  i n the f i r s t  d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n who  that have  40  •an a g n a t i c l i n k a s t h e most p r o x i m a l t o Ego t h o s e who are  have a u t e r i n e  Ego  U y u r u k . </  a f f i n a l s of the second  l i n e a l r e l a t i v e s as w e l l as a l l  a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n are denoted  t e r m s , one f o r e i t h e r  sex.  Male r e l a t i v e s of  generation are designated A t a t a t s i a k , Ananatsiak. in  Kangiyak,  l i n k as t h e most p r o x i m a l t o  C o n s a n g u i n e a l and  two  are  The  the p r e v i o u s  this  relatives  as  stems o f t h e s e t e r m s h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d charts.  Consanguineal eration  female  by  relatives  o f t h e second  a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e t e r m  descending  I r n g u t a k . The  term  c l u d e s a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s but i n c l u d e s consanguines  gen-  ex-  of both  sexes. The third  term I l l u l i k  d e s i g n a t e s consanguineals of the  descending g e n e r a t i o n , again i r r e s p e c t i v e  exclusive  of sex  of a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s .  In the t h i r d ascending g e n e r a t i o n a s i n g l e Amau, i s u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e r e l a t i v e s o f e i t h e r c l u d e s a f f i n a l and  term,  s e x and i n -  consanguineal r e l a t i v e s .  Opposite sex a f f i n e s s i g n a t e d by t h e r e c i p r o c a l affines  and  of the f i r s t  o f Ego's g e n e r a t i o n a r e term A i .  a s c e n d i n g and  F o r a m a l e Ego  a l l descending  demale  genera-  41  t i o n s a r e Ningauk. Female a f f i n e s o f t h e f i r s t  ascending  g e n e r a t i o n a r e merged w i t h t h e c o n s a n g u i n e a l t e r m A t s a k . Female a f f i n e s o f a l l descending g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak. F o r a female Ego female a f f i n e s o f t h e f i r s t ing  g e n e r a t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e Atsak term f o r  consanguines. ing  ascend-  I n - m a r r y i n g females o f h e r own and a l l  descend-  g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak. A l l i n - m a r r y i n g male r e -  l a t i v e s o f a l l descending g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ningauk. Figure Five. F i g u r e F i v e i s t h e f i n a l k i n s h i p c h a r t e r e c t e d by m y s e l f from d a t a g a t h e r e d a t C h i l l i w a c k .  This information  was g i v e n by a s i n g l e i n f o r m a n t from t h e Eskimo P o i n t a r e a . In  t h i s system t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f  l i n e a l and c o l l a t e r a l consanguines p e r s i s t s .  I n Ego's  g e n e r a t i o n t h r e e terms a r e used t o denote same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s o t h e r than s i b l i n g s .  Those r e l a t i v e s who t r a c e  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego t h r o u g h two a g n a t i c l i n k s a r e d e s i g n a t e d as A n g u t i k a t i k .  Those r e l a t i v e s who t r a c e t h e i r r e -  l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego t h r o u g h two u t e r i n e l i n k s a r e d e s i g n a t e d as A n g n a k a t i k . The t h i r d term, Uyuruk, r e f e r s t o same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s who t r a c e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Ego through b o t h an a g n a t i c and a u t e r i n e l i n k .  I t was noted p r e -  v i o u s l y ( C f . p. 2 4 ) t h a t t h i s term f o r these r e l a t i v e s i s used i n t h e Lake Harbour t e r m i n o l o g y and t h a t i t i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e d t o c e r t a i n r e l a t i v e s o f t h e next descending  genera-  FIGURE 5  O  O ananats i a k n a n a t n a k ft  a t a t a t s i a k  A  anats iak  SK),  D kangi yak  nayaksak  <I uyuruk  3i  anyak  c:  ananats i a k O a n a t n a k  <J  D ananats i a k  p kang i yak  ft <J ningauk  uyuruk  nin gauk  kangi yak  ;  angnakat i k  <3 a t a t a t s i a k  y, ningauk ananats iiaakkpp;a t s a k atatats  I akak' i  nayak  uyuruk  nayak  kangi yak  0 ananats i a k 0  a  n  a  t  n  a  k  uyuruk  <] n i ngauk  anana II  O  atata  *  nuliak ego ai  a t a t a t s iak|^ angak  iriO  kangi yak  •9  k  a t s a  a t a t a t s iak<l iak<]'akak'  <  •  angayuk  a n a n a t s•iiaakkPpa n a t n a k  • O  ananats i a k  <j ningauk  atatats  Ha  akak  O ai angut i kat i k  akak , ^  ananats i a k p a t s a k ^  a t a t a t s i a l ^ j a ka k  kangiyak  uyuruk 1  nayaksak  O  D ananats i a k p a t s a k  <] i r n g n i k  kangiyak > nuka  <J a t a t a t s i a k  lO pan i k  uyuruk  ^ a t a t a t s ii a k U angak  9  uyuruk  TaT^,.  ananats \akO ia k 0  ro E . ro  A  uyuruk  nayaksak anatnak  A  kangiyak  uyuruk  k ] angak  * • 2-ft <] si a t a t a t s iakkjangak II,  n i ngauk  atsak  lO §  — ningauk  ningauk  r6" nayaksak O ai  Ml-  .JJ yuruk  Male  Ego  5  o kang i yak < uyuruk kangiyak uyuruk.  o kang i yak uyur'ukkangi yak uyuruk  C7I  3  c •—  43  tion.  The  only other doubtful instance of t h i s  crossing generational boundaries H a r r i s o n area  term  i s r e p o r t e d f o r the  Port  ( W i l l m o t t , 1961).  Opposite  sex c o l l a t e r a l s  of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n  are  designated  by a m o d i f i e d o p p o s i t e s e x  a m a l e Ego  a l l female consanguines of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n  Naiyaksak  with the exception of  For  a f e m a l e Ego  the modified  i s e x t e n d e d t o a l l male In the f i r s t  'brother' term  ascending  Two  male s i b l i n g s  The  term Atsak  t h e t e r m A n a t n a k was  mother's s i s t e r .  Aniksak  are  consanguines. Male  of mother  The  female r e l a t i v e s  the exception  given as r e f e r r i n g  are  o f own  descending  of  to a  parents':  i n the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d  t e r m s a r e t h e same f o r an Ego  In the f i r s t  sib-  r e f e r s to a f a t h e r ' s  These terms are extended t o  c o u s i n s i n t h e manner o u t l i n e d systems.  Naiyak.  t e r m s a r e u s e d to denote f e m a l e c o l l a t e r a l s  this generation. s i s t e r and  are  g e n e r a t i o n Ego's p a r e n t s  from c o l l a t e r a l  o f f a t h e r a r e Akak and  Angak.  and  is  terms a r e used to d e s i g n a t e male c o l l a t e r a l s .  lings  all  ' s i s t e r ' who  For  collaterals.  terminologically separated Two  s i b l i n g term.  of e i t h e r  g e n e r a t i o n m a l e Ego  sex.  speaking,  of a l l degrees of c o l l a t e r a l i t y , w i t h offspring,  a l l male r e l a t i v e s  are d e s i g n a t e d  are designated  Uyuruk.  Kangiyak This i s a  44  radical  departure from the p r e v i o u s l y described  and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y paper.  The  i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h e  c o r r e s p o n d i n g t e r m s f o r a f e m a l e Ego  Nuvak and Angnak f o r o f f s p r i n g  systems  are  o f same s e x c o l l a t e r a l s  and  s i b l i n g s and f o r o f f s p r i n g o f o p p o s i t e sex c o l l a t e r a l s  and  siblings. The t e r m i n o l o g y f o r r e l a t i v e s o f t h e s e c o n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n i s t h e same a s t h a t r e p o r t e d f o r a l l systems.  ascendother  The t e r m A t a t a t s i a k r e f e r s t o b o t h c o n s a n g u i n e a l  and a f f i n a l m a l e r e l a t i v e s and t h e t e r m A n a n a t s i a k r e f e r s to female a f f i n a l  and c o n s a n g u i n e a l r e l a t i v e s .  In t h e second d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n males are o p t i o n a l l y t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from females. latives  of a l l  degrees of c o l l a t e r a l i t y  Male r e -  are designated  I r n g i s a k , females of a l l  degrees of c o l l a t e r a l i t y a r e  signated Paniksak.  stems o f t h e t e r m s a r e t h e son  The  d a u g h t e r t e r m s I r n g i k and P a n i k . u s e d i n t h e manner o f ' m a t e r i a l ' e x a m p l e r a w c a r i b o u h i d e s may  The  affix  deand  Sak i s u s u a l l y  o r ' m a t e r i a l f o r ....', f o r  be K o l i t a k s a k o r K r i p i k s a k  o r K a r g l i k s a k depending upon what use t h e s p e a k e r has i n mind i . e . a p a r k a , a s l e e p i n g bag, a p a i r o f p a n t s . t e r m i n o l o g y a b e t t e r example i s T i g u a k s a k which can thought of as g i v e s way  In k i n be  'someone ( s o m e t h i n g ) f o r a d o p t i o n ; t h i s  term  t o I r n g i k s a k o r P a n i k s a k , depending upon the s e x  45  of  t h e p e r s o n b e i n g a d o p t e d , when a c t u a l a d o p t i o n o c c u r s .  An a l t e r n a t i v e t e r m f o r r e l a t i v e s o f e i t h e r s e x o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n was g i v e n a s I r n g u t a k , t h i s t e r m i s t h e one common t o o t h e r a r e a s . Male and female consanguines and a f f i n e s o f t h e third  a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e t e r m Amau. Male and female consanguines of t h e t h i r d  ing  descend-  g e n e r a t i o n a r e d e s i g n a t e d by t h e term I l l u s a k .  The  s t e m I l l u i s common f o r t h i s g e n e r a t i o n b u t h a s b e e n more u s u a l l y rendered as I l l u l i k First  order a f f i n a l  r a t h e r than  Illusak.  terms of t h i s system d i f f e r  from  the  m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e p o r t e d systems but i s s i m i l a r t o  the  r e p o r t e d B a k e r Lake system i n t h a t t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t  terms f o r i n - m a r r y i n g female a f f i n e s .  A female  m a r r i e d t o E g o ' s f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r i s Ai_, term f o r a f f i n e s .  affine  t h i s i s a common  A f e m a l e a f f i n e m a r r i e d t o Ego's mother's  brother i s Angnatsiak.  The s y s t e m t h e n i s B i f u r c a t e  C o l l a t e r a l f o r e i t h e r a f f i n a l or consanguineal female r e latives  of the f i r s t  D a i l e y and D a i l e y  ascending generation.  Unfortunately  (1961) do n o t i n c l u d e t h e s e a f f i n e s i n  t h e i r kinship chart  f o r the Rankin I n l e t area.  I f they  had done so a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f o u r a d j a c e n t a r e a s , R a n k i n I n l e t , Eskimo P o i n t , C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t and B a k e r  Lake  46  would have been p o s s i b l e . For  a male Ego i n - m a r r y i n g males o f t h e f i r s t  ascend-  i n g and a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ningauk. A l l i n - m a r r y i n g f e m a l e s of h i s own g e n e r a t i o n a r e A i as a r e f e m a l e s a f f i n e d t o him through an a g n a t i c l i n k .  In-marry-  i n g f e m a l e s o f a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ukkuak. For  a female Ego i n - m a r r y i n g males o f a l l d e s c e n d i n g  g e n e r a t i o n s a r e Ninguak. A l l i n - m a r r y i n g  males o f t h e f i r s t  a s c e n d i n g and h e r own g e n e r a t i o n a r e A i .  In-marrying f e -  males of t h e f i r s t a s c e n d i n g and a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s are  Ukkuak. Table 2 i s a c o m p i l a t i o n of terms r e p o r t e d f o r each  g e n e r a t i o n from + 3 t o -3  f o r 17 Eskimo groups.  I t will  become s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t some o f t h e r e p o r t e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s found i n t h e Eskimo k i n s h i p systems a r e due e i t h e r t o d i a l e c t a l d i f f e r e n c e s of the language, o r , t o an i n a b i l i t y , on the  p a r t of t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r , t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e language.  Once t h e s e ' i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s ' have been c l a r i f i e d t h e way t o a more m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e k i n s h i p systems w i l l be opened.  47  EXPLANATION AND  KEY  TO  2.  TABLE  Abbreviations M  male  ch  children  f  female  Fa  father mother  a  affine  mo  c  consanguine  Br  .........  brother  o  older  si  .........  sister  y  younger  So  son  paternal  da  daughter  ma  maternal  pc  parallel  gr  great  xc  Gr  grand  Pa  ...  Sources of  (parent)  cross-cousin  co  pc o r  data  1.  Damas-Iglulik  - 0I963  2.  Vallee-Baker  3.  Willmott-Port  Harrison -  4.  Lantis-Nunivak  Island -  5.  S t e v e n s o n ( i ) S o u t h a m p t o n I s l a n d - 1964 " ( i i ) L a k e H a r b o u r - 1964 " ( i i i ) Pond I n l e t - I964 " ( i v ) C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t - I964 " (v) E s k i m o P o i n t - 1964  6.  H u g h e s - S t . L a w r e n c e I s l a n d - I960  7.  H o n i g m a n - G r e a t Whale R i v e r -  8.  D a i l e y and  9.  Spencer-Point Barrow -  Lake -  1962 1961 1946  1964  11.  G i d d i n g s - K o y u k , N o r t o n Bay  13.  "  - E l i m , N o r t o n Bay  P o s p i s i l and  I96I  1949  Graburn-Sugluk -  12.  1962  D a i l e y - Rankin I n l e t -  10.  Laughlin  -  cousin  1952 1952  - A n a k t u v u k - I963  xc  48  2  TABLE Generation + 3- g r G r p a r e n t  Terminology amau.  (l,5i-v  ) - mf a n d a c  a m a ' x l u a amaxn  ( ) x (4) - mf  amaw (9) - mf a n d ac ataatacialiquitak  (10) - m  anaanacialiquitak  (10) - f o n l y  (5iii)  itukinak  + 2. G r F a  ituk  (l,5iii)  apa'xlugax  (alternative term)  - ac  (4) - a c (2)-c only  atatatsia  (5i-ii-iv-v)  atatatsiak  - m ac  (3) - a c  ataatsiak ata'sia  - m only -  only  ( a ) (7) - c o n l y  atatachia  (8) - c o n l y  ataatcia  (10) - c o n l y  a e p a (6) - a c atata  (9,13)  - a , c, ( i f c o r e s i d e n t w i t h Ego) (9) - a o n l y ( i f n o t c o r e s i d e n t w i t h Ego)  angaaruk  Grmo  ningiuk  (l,5iii)  ananatsia anaantsiak  -f ac  (2) - f c (3) - f c  49 Generation Grmo ( c o n t d ) .  Terminology ama'xlugax  (4) - f a c  ananatsiak  ( 5 i - i i - i v - v ) - f ac  ningyuoei  (6) - f a c  ana'ntsia  ( a ) (7) - f c  ananachia  (8) - f a ? c  anana  (9) - f a c  a s o a e e i k (9) - f a sakirrak  (9) - mf a c ( b u t n o t l i n e a l pairs).  ataatcia aanak aana  + 1. F a  (10) - f a c  (10) - FaMo o n l y (13) - a c  ataata  (1)  (2,5i-v,  atata  (3,10)  ataatak  a'taka and a t i T  aeta  apa  FaBr  (4)  (6)  atata' aapa  8)  (7)  (9)  (13)  aqak  (1)  akak  (2,5i-iii-v)  akkak  (3)  a k a k u l u (5ii)  Generation +  1  . FaBr (contd.)  Terminology ata'taxlugax ( ataeta (  6  aka'  )  (  7  4  )  )  acug ( 8 ) angak (  9  )  akaakuk  (9)  atkak (  1  0  )  angaluk ( 1 3 ) - ac  Fasi  atchuk (  2  )  attsak (  3  )  aca'xlugax ( atsak  4  )  (5i-iii-v,10)  atsakuluapik ( aesuk  (  6  atsa'  (  achug  (&)  aacuk (  7  5  i  i  0  )  ) )  9  )  a t c a k ( 1 3 ) - ac  mo  anaana ( anana  (  anaanak (  1 2  , 1 , 5i-v,  3  8)  )  a'naka and a ' n i ( 4 ) naegaka (  6  )  )  51  Generation 4- 1,  mo (contd.)  moBr  Terminology annana annana  (7) (7)  11  aaka (9,  13)  angak  (1,3,5i-iii-v,6,9,10)  arngak  (2) (4)  aoa'xlugax  (5ii)  angakulu (7)  anga'  anug (8) (13)  angaluk  mosi  - ac  (l,5iii)  aiyak  (2)  arngnaksak (3)  attsak  (but data r e p o r t e d as i n sufficient), ana'na'xlugax (4) (5i,iv)  atsak  atsakuluapik (5v)  anatnak anaena ajya  (5ii)  (6)  (7)  anakviga aacuk  (8)  (9)  ajakulu atcak (13)  (10) - ac  Generation -Ml. FaPamco  Terminology aqak  (1)  akak  (5i-iii-v)  akakulu ( 5 i i ) iiloreik ar>uutaken  (9) (9)  atkak (10)  - (pc both sexes)  * ( b u t see note below) (13)  angaluk  Famamco  - (xc of both s e x e s , and ma)  angak ( l , 5 i - i i i - v ) angakulu ( 5 i i ) aaxanaken  (9)  atkak (10)  (but see note below)  angaluk (13)  FaPafco  attak  - pc both sexes  - ac  (1)  atcak (13)  - ac  atsak ( 5 i - i i i - v , 1 0 ) but c f . below atsakuluapik  Famafco  (5ii)  aiyak  (l,5iii)  atsak  (5i,iv,10)  atsakuluapik, ( 5 i i ) - ( a l s o FaPafco) atcak (13) anatnak  - ac (5v)  53  Generation  Terminology  + "il. MoPa and ma, m and f co  0 ..  oBr (=oSib same sex)  e x a c t l y as f o r Fa. co  (l,5i-v,)  angayuk  angayok ( 2 ) angajuk  (3,10)  a'niDa(x)  (4)  aningaeka (6) angayug ( 8 ) aapayax ( 9 ) apiak ( 1 3 )  yBr (=ySib same sex)  nuka ( 1 , 5 ) nukak  (2,3,10)  uyu'gax ( 4 ) - ( a l s o y s i ) oyuowaek ( 6 ) - ( a l s o y s i ) nukuk ( 8 ) nuqaceax ( 9 ) <. nukatceak ( 1 3 )  (male speaking)  naiyak ( 1 ) nayak  (2,5i-v)  najak ( 3 ) a'lka ( 4 ) - o s i only  eration  Terminology  si(male speaking)  naiyuk  (6)  nayug ( 8 ) nayaq  (9)  naijak  (10)  a t a u r o k (13)  FaBrSo  - o s i only  angutikattik angotikut  (l,5i-iii-v)  (2)  a'mpatx) (4) - oSo ataligoon katangoti  (6)  - also  (8)  aouutaken (9)  - also  qatangutiksak  (10)  akanakan (13)  dllu  da  - ac  (l,riii)  angnakat v  da  (7)  1  angotikatik  FasiSo  only  i l u ' ax  (2) (4)  angnakatik  - a l s o dai (5i)  uyuruk ( 5 i i , v ) - (Fa Br ych f o r Nunivak group) angutikattik i  (5iv)  i l o w a e k (6) - a l s o katangoti'  v angotikatik  (7) (8)  da  Generation Or.  FasiSo (contd. )  FaBrda  Terminology iiloreik  ( 9 ) - ( a l s o da)  qatangutiksak (  1  akanakan (  ) - ac  naiyak  1  3  (saq)  nayaksak (  naj'sak (  0  )  ( 1 , )  2  ,  3  5  v  )  )  a'lka ( 4 ) - oldest only nayak  ($i,iii,iv)  nayakulu ( nayatsa (  5 7  i  i  )  )  nayug (8) a a r n o r e i k ( 9 ) - ( a l t e r n a t i v e term f .iloreik (9)) v  naijaksak ( ainak  1  0  )  ( 1 3 ) - ac  Fasida  as FaBrda w i t h t h e noted A l a s k a n departures .  moBrSo  illu (i,5) arngnakat (  2  )  i l u ' r a x ( 4 ) - ( a l s o da) angnakattik (  5  uyuruk ( 5 i i , v )  i  , iv)  56  Generation 0.  moBrSo (contd.)  Terminology ilowaek  (6) - ( a l s o  katangoti'  (7)  achnakatik  [8)  illoreik  da)  (9) - ( a l s o da) (10)  qatangutiksak  akanakan (13) - ac  mosiSo  (1,5i,iii,iv,v)  arngnakattik arngnakat a'rnira(x)  (2) (4)  - (oldest  only)  illukuluapik (5ii) aeganaligoon  (6) - (da a l s o )  katangoti'  (7)  achnakatik  (8)  aaxanaken (9) - ( a l s o da) qatangutiksak  (10)  akanakan (13) - ac  -1.  mosiDa  as f o r FaBrda w i t h n o t e d A l a s k a n ures.  So  irngik  (l,5i-v)  ernik  (2)  irniq  (3,10)  depart-  Generation -  1  . So (contd.)  Terminology k(a)tu'nax ( iganak  (6)  iatni'  ( 7 )  erning (  8  4  )  )  iriniq ( 9 ) eknek (  da  Brch  panik  1  3  )  ( l , 2 , 3 , 5 i - v , 1 0 ,  pania (  4  )  paeni (  6  )  pani'  (  7  )  panig (  8  )  paniq (  9  )  qaniak (  1  ,  3  )  kangia (  2  ,  7  kaoia'gax (  4  )  )  kangi y a k ' ( 5 i - v ) kangiyak ( kangiag (  6 8  ) )  uyuruk ( 9 ) qangiak (  1  0  )  u j o r o ( 1 3 ) - ac  Generation -  1  Terminology  . sich  uyuruk  (l,5i-v)  uyorok  (2)  uju'uk  (  3 (4)  u'zurox oyugo  (6)  uyau  male  pcch  )  (7)  oyorug  (8)  uyoo  (9)  o  ujuruk  (  ujoro  (  qaniak  1 1  (  kangiya  0 3  1  )  ac  )  uyuruk  ( 5 i , i i i , i v )  uyuruk  ( 5 v )  *achnakatik 1  0  ujuro  1  3  )  (  qaniak kangiya uyuruk  (  - macoch  1  ch  - Pa  ( 8 ) - m a  (  Pacoch  co  only  only  - female  ( 8 )  qangiak  -  - male  ( 5 v )  *angotikatik  xc  -  ( 5 i , i i , i i i , i v )  kangiya  male ch  )  ch  co  only  only  only  ) -  ac  )  ( 5 i - i v )  - Pa  (5i-iv)-ma  co  co  ch  only  ch  only  o  Generation - 1 " . .  ch  Terminology male xc  (contd.)  uyuruk  kangiya  ( 5 v ) - m a l e ch o n l y  ( 5 v ) - female ch o n l y  ^angotikatik *achnakatik qangiak ujuro  female pc c h  (  ( 8 ) - P a co c h o n l y ( 8 ) - ma  1  0  )  ( 1 3 ) - ac  uyuruk ( kangiya  1  )  (5i-iv)  - P a pc c h o n l y  uyuruk  (5i-iv)  uyuruk  ( 5 v ) - male ch o n l y  kangiya  -^achnakatik ujuruk ( ujuro  - ma pc c h o n l y  ( 5 v ) - female ch o n l y  ^angotikatik  female xc ch  co c h o n l y  1  ( 8 ) - Pa pc c h o n l y ( 8 ) - ma pc ch o n l y 0  )  ( 1 3 ) - ac  uyuruk ( uyuruk kangiya uyuruk kangiya  1  )  ( 5 i - i v ) ( 5 i - i v )  - ma  co c h o n l y  - Pa co c h o n l y  ( 5 v ) - male ch o n l y ($v) - f e m a l e ch o n l y  *angotikatik *achnakatik  ( 8 ) - P a co c h o n l y ( 8 ) - ma  co c h o n l y  Generation •1.  -2.  Terminology  female xc ch  (10)  ujuruk ujuro  Grch  (13)  - ac  (1)  irngutaq  - F r ch of co  also  (2)  ergnotak  (3,5i-iv,10) - alternately for (5v) Gr ch o f co a l s o (4) ditto  irngutak t o ax  (5v)-males o n l y )  ditto  p a n i k s a k (5v-females o n l y  ditto  irngisak  (6)  thtowaek i ota'  (7) (8)  engutak tutiq  (9)  - own  i n a ootak (9) tutik  -3.  g r Gr ch  (13)  (1)  i l u ' l e ' a ox  illuksak amaw (9)  s i g r ch  only  - gr Gr ch of c a l s o (4)  (5i-iv) (5v) - g r Gr ch of s i b l i n g s a l s o  irngutaliquitak * D a i l e y and  - Br and  only  - ac  illuligiik  illulik  gr ch  (10)  Dailey state that:  These terms (the c o u s i n terms) are a l s o extended t o the c h i l d r e n of t h e s e f i r s t c o u s i n s . (1961; p. 41)  61  However i f t h i s i s t h e case t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o which o f t h e two male c o u s i n terms a r e extended t o which o f t h e female c o u s i n s male c h i l d r e n ? R e f e r r i n g t o t h e t a b l e a s a whole i t i s g l a r i n g l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h e l a c k of a s t a n d a r d i z e d o r t h o g r a p h y f o r Eskimo has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n f u s i o n .  L e f e v r e (1947)  has produced a d r a f t o r t h o g r a p h y b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e workers i n t h i s area have chosen to use t h e i r p e r s o n a l l y d e v i s e d modes o f s p e l l i n g f o r Eskimo I n t h e + 3 g e n e r a t i o n t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e a v a i l a b l e r e p o r t e d systems have a s i n g l e term f o r c o n s a n g u i n e a l and a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e s of both s e x e s .  The stem o f t h i s term  appears t o be t h e same f o r a l l a r e a s , Amau. The o n l y r e p o r t e d d e p a r t u r e i s found i n Graburn's d a t a f o r t h e Sugluk group.  I n t h i s l a t t e r system t h e terms g i v e n a r e sex  s p e c i f i c and a r e d e r i v e d from t h e g r a n d p a r e n t a l terms. R e l a t i v e s o f t h e + 2 g e n e r a t i o n a r e , i n every system, t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d as t o sex. Data a r e i n c o n c l u s i v e as t o whether o r - n o t every system i g n o r e s t h e a f f i n a l / c o l l a t e r a l boundary. The common term f o r GrFa i n t h e Canadian groups seems t o be A t a t a t s i a k o r a d e r i v a t i v e .  62  The t e r m I t u k i s a g e n e r a l term f o r ' o l d man' w h i c h , when c o n v e r t e d t o the 1 s t . p e r s o n p o s s e s s i v e becomes a s p e c i f i c k i n term i . e . I t u g a .  The term f o r f e m a l e r e -  l a t i v e s o f t h i s g e n e r a t i o n a r e t r e a t e d i n t h e same manner. The A l a s k a n systems e x h i b i t t h e most d e f i n i t e d e p a r t u r e s ; the terms Aep_a, A t a t a ( t h e F a term f o r Canadian g r o u p s ) , and Apa'xlugax b e i n g r e p o r t e d .  The s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  t o f e m a l e k i n of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o r male k i n . The most common term appears t o be A n a n a t s i a k , o r a d e r i v a t i v e , w i t h t h e term N i n g i u k , o r a d e r i v a t i v e , b e i n g r e p o r t e d f o r two a r e a s i n Canada and one i n A l a s k a . The o t h e r A l a s k a n groups on w h i c h t h e r e i s i n f o r m a t i o n have the terms Ama'xlugax, Aana, and Anana (the Mo term f o r Canadian groups) t o d e s i g n a t e t h e s e r e l a t i v e s .  Graburn  (1964) r e p o r t s t h a t the term Aanak r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o FaMo o n l y .  T h i s i s analogous to t h e system r e p o r t e d by  G i d d i n g s (1952) f o r t h e U n a l i t o f E l i m i n N o r t o n Bay, A l a s k a . I n t h i s system t h e MoMoBr i s t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from t h e o t h e r members o f t h e +2 g e n e r a t i o n (he does n o t s u p p l y t h e term i t s e l f ) . A c c o r d i n g t o G i d d i n g s ( i b i d ) t h e Malemiut o f Koyuk have d i s t i n c t terms f o r t h e g r a n d p a r e n t s on t h e mother's and f a t h e r ' s s i d e .  I t i s not c l e a r  whether  he means t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r d i s t i n c t terms f o r t h e s e r e latives.  As w i t h t h e male r e l a t i v e s t h e d a t a a r e i n c o n -  c l u s i v e c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n o f c o n s a n g u i n e a l terms t o  63  a f f i n e s of the +2 g e n e r a t i o n . The term f o r Fa, A t a t a , a p p e a r s t o be r a t h e r c o n s t a n t f o r a l l groups r e p o r t e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of t h e P o i n t Barrow and Anaktuvuk groups, which a r e r e p o r t e d to use t h e term Aapa. W i t h the d e f i n i t e e x c e p t i o n of the Nunivak and S t . Lawrence I s l a n d systems and the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the P o i n t Barrow and Anaktuvuk  systems t h e term f o r FaBr  appears r e g u l a r l y , w i t h v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g s , as Akak. The term f o r F a s i appears i n a l l  systems as a  v a r i a n t form o f A t s a k . The term f o r mo, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e P o i n t Barrow, Anaktuvuk, and S t . Lawrence I s l a n d groups, i s g i v e n as a form of Anana.. moBr appears i n a l l  systems as a form of Angak.  Seven terms a r e l i s t e d as a p p l y i n g to moSi (aiyak= a j y a = a j a k u l u and a t t s a k = a t s a k = a t s a k u l u a p i k = a a c u k ) p l u s f i v e others. The system o f e x t e n d i n g terms t o p a r e n t s c o u s i n s i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l but f o r the a v a i l a b l e d a t a seems t o f o l l o w one or o t h e r of two forms.  E i t h e r t h e a u n t / u n c l e terms a r e  extended to t h e s e r e l a t i v e s i n v a r i o u s l y r e p o r t e d ways, o r ,  64  the terms f o r Ego's cousins are extended, again, i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  This p a r t i c u l a r problem w i l l be dealt  with more f u l l y i n a l a t e r part of the t h e s i s . In every system elder siblings of the same sex are terminologically d i s t i n c t .  The terms used d i f f e r i n that  the Alaskan groups use Aningaeka (or variation) Apiak, and Aapayax. In the Canadian groups the common term i s Angayuk, or some v a r i a t i o n .  Similarly, the term f o r younger s i b l i n g  of the same sex i s commonly Nuka,or a v a r i a t i o n except f o r the Nunivak and St. Lawrence Island groups.  The s i s t e r  term Nayak i s reported f o r a l l systems with the exception of the Nunivak and Anaktuvuk. The terminology f o r f i r s t degree, cross and p a r e l l e l , same sex as Ego, cousins varies widely from group to group. After lumping b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r terms together, e.g. Katangoti' and Qatangutiksak, there are seven terms reported i n use.  Not only do terms d i f f e r but the cousins to whom  same or similar terms apply also d i f f e r s ; thus we have FaBr-So only designated Angutikattik i n some systems and both FaBrSo and FasiSo so designated i n others.  In t h i s  respect the terminology for opposite sex cousins i s simple. With the exception of the Nunivak and Anaktuvuk systems a l l opposite sex cousins are designated by the opposite sex s i b l i n g term, or a derivative of t h i s term.  65  The t e r m i n o l o g y f o r own c h i l d r e n i s c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t t h e s e r e l a t i v e s a r e always t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r c o l l a t e r a l s o f t h e same g e n e r a t i o n . L a n t i s i s t h e o n l y worker t o r e p o r t a term f o r So d i f f e r e n t from I r n g i k o r some d e r i v a t i v e .  The term f o r da i s t h e  same i n e v e r y system r e p o r t e d . The terms f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f s i b l i n g s i s c o n s t a n t f o r a l l systems.  The term K a n g i y a , o r a v a r i a t i o n of t h i s ,  r e f e r s t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f b r o t h e r s (male s p e a k i n g ) P o i n t Barrow and Anaktuvuk excepted; c h i l d r e n o f s i s t e r s a r e d e s i g n a t e d Uyuruk, o r a v a r i a n t o f t h i s (again,male speaking).  The terms used by f e m a l e s d i f f e r , i . e . Angnak and  Nuvak f o r c h i l d r e n o f b r o t h e r and s i s t e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . The e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e n i e c e and nephew terms t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f c o u s i n s i s c a r r i e d o u t i n a number o f ways. T h i s a s p e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . With the s i n g l e d e f i n i t e exception of the Point Barrow and Anaktuvuk systems t h e term f o r g r a n d c h i l d r e n i  s  Irngutak,or a v a r i a t i o n .  The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e  e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s term t o o t h e r consanguines o f t h i s genera t i o n v a r i e s l o c a l l y . S i m i l a r l y , the term I l l u l i k , o r a v a r i a t i o n , i s s p e c i f i c t o l i n e a l and c o l l a t e r a l consanguines of t h e g r e a t g r a n d c h i l d g e n e r a t i o n . Spencer (1959) g i v e s t h e  66  t e r m Amaw (Amau) f o r t h e s e r e l a t i v e s . the  The e x t e n s i o n o f  t e r m v a r i e s , a l t h o u g h , as w i t h t h e terms i n t h e n e x t  ascending generation, are a p p l i c a b l e t o consanguines for  a l l systems except the  Anaktuvuk.  I n - m a r r y i n g m a l e s , e.g. first  SiHu, FaSiHu, e t c . of the  a s c e n d i n g and a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a r e con-  s i s t e n t l y termed the  only  first  Ningauk  (male) and i n - m a r r y i n g f e m a l e s o f  ascending g e n e r a t i o n s are A i , of the 0 genera-  t i o n A i , and o f a l l d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s - Ukkuak. t e r m f o r Wi i s commonly N u l i a k The is  foregoing l i s t  of i n t e r e s t i n s o f a r  or a  The  derivative.  i l l u s t r a t i n g the v a r i a n t  as t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l  terms  similarities  and v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d s y s t e m s exposed.  Other t h a n showing t h e d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n s  more p e r t i n e n t p o i n t l i e s  are a  i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n of consis-  t e n c i e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e systems. F i g u r e 6 h a s b e e n e r e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e m a t e r i a l found i n the l i s t  of terms; the s o l i d  symbols  i n d i c a t e w h a t a p p e a r t o be c o n s t a n t ' t y p e s ' o f in  relatives  t h e s e n s e o f a ' p a n - E s k i m o ' s y s t e m ; t h e open  represent the i n d i c a t e d v a r i a b l e terms.  symbols  I t i s recognized  t h a t t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s i s t e n t a t i v e o n l y and r e p l a c e e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n and o n - t h e - s p o t  cannot  interpretations  68  o f day-to-day b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s as a method f o r a r r i v i n g a t valid generalizations.  On t h e o t h e r hand I f e e l t h a t the  approach t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s , i n p a r t , j u s t i f i e d  by  the f a c t t h a t i t has been u t i l i z e d f o r s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s by a number o f o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f k i n s h i p systems. Leach, f o r example i n h i s reassessment of t h e T r o b r i a n d k i n s h i p system s t a t e s t h a t : My v i e w i s t h a t most words employed i n k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g i e s a r e c a t e g o r y terms r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g p r o p e r names. (1958; p.124) I n F i g u r e 6 two t y p e s of ' c o n s t a n t s ' are i n c l u d e d :  first,  t h e r e a r e t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c o n s t a n t s which may o r may i n d i c a t e same or s i m i l a r i n t e r p e r s o n a l  not  relationships.  Second, t h e r e a r e ' s t r u c t u r a l ' c o n s t a n t s i n the sense t h a t c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of r e l a t i v e s are always t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , though the s p e c i f i c term may v a r y .  The diagram  i s meant t o provoke q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r than t o p r o v i d e answers. The d e f i n i t i o n of t h e Eskimo t y p e o f s o c i a l organi z a t i o n used by Murdock has been c r i t i c i s e d on almost every c r i t e r i o n employed i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Murdock: ... the Eskimo t y p e i n c l u d e s a l l s o c i e t i e s w i t h Eskimo c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y and no exogamous u n i l i n e a r k i n groups. I n a d d i t i o n , as t h e o r y l e a d s us t o e x p e c t , i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by monogamy, independent  6 9  n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s , l i n e a l terms f o r aunts and n i e c e s , the b i l a t e r a l e x t e n s i o n o f i n c e s t t a b o o s , and t h e f r e q u e n t presence of such b i l a t e r a l k i n groups as k i n d r e d s and demes, though t h e s e may be often unreported. ( 1 9 4 9 ; p . 2 2 7 ) The Eskimo groups on which t h e model was based were the Angmassalik  of E a s t Greenland and t h e Copper Eskimo of  C e n t r a l A r c t i c Canada.  C r i t i c i s m s by L a n t i s ( 1 9 4 6 ) ,  G i d d i n g s ( 1 9 5 2 ) and Hughes ( 1 9 5 8 ) among o t h e r s , r e l a t e t o t h e absence of u n i l i n e a r k i n groups (Hughes and  Lantis  have good evidence f o r the e x i s t e n c e of t h e s e i n t h e i r Alaskan groups).  Other c r i t i c i s m s concern t h e use  of  Eskimo t y p e c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y and the use of l i n e a l terms f o r aunts and n i e c e s .  The d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s t h e s i s  r e l a t e to the l a t t e r two c r i t e r i a and are p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e form below. Table to  source on P. / ) 1 2 3 4 5  . . . . .  6 7 8 9 1 0 1 3  . . . . . .  Uncles  3  nephews  aunts  nieces  be be be be be be be be L be be be be be be be be be L be i. be be L be ii. be be be be iii. be L be be iv. L be L be v. be be be be be be be be be be be be L L L L be be be be L L L L bc<* b i f u r c a t e c o l l a t e r a l L = Lineal NB. 1 1 and 1 2 , G i d d i n g s Norton Bay groups l a c k data  this  70  The f o r e g o i n g t a b l e shows a preponderence of b i f u r c a t e t e r m i n o l o g y f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s of r e l a t i v e s .  Considering  the meagre n a t u r e of t h e d a t a no s t a t i s t i c a l  significance  can be a t t a c h e d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of types a l t h o u g h t h e t r e n d i n d i c a t e s t h a t the L i n e a l type s h o u l d n o t be expected invariably. The t h r e e t y p e s o f c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y r e l e v a n t t o the d i s c u s s i o n a r e : a c c o r d i n g t o Murdock (1949; p.223). Eskimo t y p e : FaSiDa and MoBrDa c a l l e d by t h e same term as p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s b u t t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from s i s t e r s ; t h e terms f o r the two c r o s s - c o u s i n s a r e u s u a l l y but not always t h e same. Hawaiian t y p e : a l l c r o s s and p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s c a l l e d by t h e same terms as those used f o r s i s t e r s . I r o q u o i s type : FaSiDa and MoBrDa c a l l e d by t h e same terms but t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s as w e l l as from s i s t e r s ; p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s commonly b u t n o t always c l a s s i f i e d with sisters. NB.  Male Ego s p e a k i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e o f the type and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y shows t h a t most o f t h e Eskimo groups f o r which t h e r e a r e d a t a do not f i t t h e 'Eskimo' t y p e .  T a b l e 4 - see f o l l o w i n g page.  7 1  Table Source and a r e a  Eskimo  1 . Damas-Iglulik 2 . V a l l e e - B a k e r Lake 3 . Willmott-Port Harrison 4. L a n t i s - N u n i v a k Island 5. Stevenson-Southampton Island 6 . - Lake Harbour 7 . - Pond I n l e t 8. - Chesterfield Inlet 9 . - Eskimo P o i n t 1 0 . Hughes - S t . Lawrence Island 1 1 . Honigman - Great Whale River 1 2 . D a i l e y and D a i l e y Rankin I n l e t 1 3 . Spencer - P o i n t Barrow 14. Graburn-Sugluk 1 $ . G i d d i n g s - Norton Bay 1 6 . - Norton Bay 1 7 . P o s p i s i l and L a u g h l i n Anaktuvuk  4 Hawaiian  Iroquois  other  ( 1 )  ( 2 ) ( 3 )  (4) (5)  1. W i l l m o t t s t a t e s t h a t : We may t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e are d i f f erent terms f o r c o u s i n s , t h e s e terms u s u a l l y do not d i s t i n g u i s h between p a r a l l e l and c r o s s - c o u s i n s , u s u a l l y do d i s t i n g u i s h between s i b l i n g s and f i r s t c o u s i n s . Thus the c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y appears t o f o l l o w Murdock's "Eskimo t y p e " . ( 1 9 6 l ; p . 8 0 ) However, W i l l m o t t data t h a t :  ( i b i d ; p . 7 9 ) s t a t e s , i n reference to h i s  C o u s i n s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r sex and r e l a t i v e sex. The term q u a t a n g u t i k i s used between c o u s i n s of the same sex, w h i l e n a j a ' s a k i s used by males t o r e f e r t o f e male f i r s t c o u s i n s . S i n c e Murdock s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t h i s 'types' are based on a male Ego speaking of female r e l a t i v e s ( i b i d ; p . 2 2 3 ) and s i n c e i n t h e P o r t H a r r i s o n d a t a the term /extended to female c o u s i n s i s the simple m o d i f i e d s i s t e r term na.jafc ( W i l l m o t t 1 9 6 1 ; p . 1 7 0 ) then we must conclude t h a t t h e P o r t H a r r i s o n c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y i s Hawaiian, o r , as Damas c a t e g o r i z e s i t , a  q u a s i - H a w a i i a n system  ( 1 9 6 3 ; p . 2 1 1 ) .  7 2  2 . The system r e p o r t e d by Hughes f o r S t . Lawrence I s l a n d and c a l l e d " I r o q u o i s " by him shows the f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of terms: FaBrch FaSich MoBrch MoSich  ... a t a l i g o o n ... ilowaek ... Ilowaek ... aeganaligoon  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r system f i t s none of the 'types' proposed by Murdock but i f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i t might be termed a q u a s i - I r o q u o i s type on t h e b a s i s of the t e r m i n o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between c r o s s and p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s . On t h e o t h e r hand Hughes n o t e s t h a t : To be s u r e , c r o s s - c o u s i n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from s i s t e r s , b u t , on the o t h e r hand, t h e t e r m f o r p a t e r n a l p a r a l l e l cousi n s i s o f t e n used i n t e r - c h a n g e a b l y w i t h t h a t f o r s i s t e r / ~ n a i y u k _ 7 , whereas the t e r m f o r m a t e r n a l p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s i s n e v e r used t h a t way. (1958; p p . 2 2 9 - 2 3 2 ) . I n t h i s case the system c o u l d not be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h any o f the s t a n d a r d types and i n my t a b l e would be p l a c e d under the Other column. 3 . Honigman s t a t e s t h a t : ... one t e r m ( k a t a n g o t i ' a) d e s i g n a t e s a l l c r o s s and p a r a l l e l c o u s i n s of the same sex as ego; .... The second term, used o n l y by males, d e s i g n a t e s any c r o s s or p a r a l l e l c o u s i n of  opposite  sex.  ( 1 9 6 2 ; p . 5 0 ) .  The second term r e f e r r e d t o by Honigman i s g i v e n by him ( i b i d ; p . 4 9 ) as 'na a t s a ? u' a'. T h i s i s the s i s t e r term nayak w i t h the sak m o d i f i e r . As i n t h e case of the P o r t H a r r i s o n system the Great Whale R i v e r system can be r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g of a q u a s i - H a w a i i a n t y p e r a t h e r than an Eskimo type. The c o u s i n terms r e p o r t e d by Spencer ( 1 9 5 9 ) from the P o i n t Barrow a r e a a r e :  4 .  FaBrch FaSich MoBrch MoSich  ... a u u t a k e n ... i i l y o r e i k ... i i l y o r e i k ... aaxanaken  As w i t h the S t . Lawrence I s l a n d system t h e P o i n t Barrow system can ,be more a c c u r a t e l y r e f e r r e d t o as b e i n g of a q u a s i Iroquois type.  73  5. The c o u s i n terms r e p o r t e d by G i d d i n g s f o r t h e Koyuk group o f Norton Bay, A l a s k a d i f f e r s from a l l o t h e r a v a i l a b l e systems i n t h a t o n l y t h e a g n a t i c c r o s s - c o u s i n s are t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from a l l o t h e r f i r s t degree c o u s i n s . Although  t h e d a t a a r e not q u a n t i t a t i v e l y (and  p o s s i b l y not q u a l i t a t i v e l y ) s u f f i c i e n t f o r a t t e m p t i n g significant statistical systems  a n a l y s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  o f c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g i e s i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e  'Eskimo t y p e ' i s n o t i c e a b l y absent from t h e r e p o r t e d Eskimo groups and t h a t t h e 'Hawaiian t y p e ' i s t h e preponderant one. Three o f t h e A l a s k a n  systems r e p o r t e d are p o s s i b l y  of an I r o q u o i s o r q u a s i - I r o q u o i s type., A f o u r t h  Alaskan  system, t h e Nunamiut o f Anaktuvuk, and t h e E a s t e r n systems a r e of t h e Hawaiian or q u a s i - H a w a i i a n  Arctic  type.  Three o f t h e most r e c e n t and thorough s t u d i e s of Eskimo s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e (Hughes, Spencer, Damas) l a y a g r e a t d e a l o f emphasis on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o c a l e c o l o g i c a l and economical f a c t o r s i n d i r e c t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c and l o c a l s o c i a l development.  I t might be t h a t an examination o f  t h e i d e a l and t h e a c t u a l b i l a t e r a l e x t e n s i o n of t h e i n c e s t taboos f o r each group w i l l  g i v e some meaning t o t h e v a r i -  ation i n the cousin terminologies.  My own i n f o r m a n t s were  unanimous i n t h a t t h e b i l a t e r a l e x t e n s i o n of t h e i n c e s t taboo i n c l u d e d a l l f i r s t and second degree  collaterals  74  s i n c e t h e y were l i k e s i s t e r s " (nayaksak o r n a y a k t u t ) .  It  M  was a s s e r t e d t h a t m a r r i a g e t o r e l a t i v e s o f t h e s e  categories  was n o t a good t h i n g ( p i u n g i t o k / k a t i t i t a u ' o n u n g i t o k o r , more s t r o n g l y , k a t i t i t a u ' t a i l i l e ) .  I n the Alaskan data  p r e s e n t e d by Hughes, L a n t i s , and G i d d i n g s t h e I r o q u o i s type o f c o u s i n t e r m i n o l o g y  appears t o f i t t h e s t a t e d  p r e f e r e n t i a l cousin marriage p r a c t i c e s .  Giddings  (1952;  p.5) s t a t e s q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y t h a t among t h e Malemiut o f Koyuk t h e c h i l d r e n o f F a S i a r e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from a l l o t h e r c o u s i n s and t h a t t h i s group of c o u s i n s i n c l u d e s preferred marriage partners. Two r e p o r t e d p a t t e r n s  serve t o confuse t h e s i t u -  a t i o n and t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e need f o r c a u t i o n i n making conjectures  c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e t e r m i n o l o g -  i c a l system t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s .  Among the Taqagmiut, f o r  example, Graburn, (1964) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e m o d i f i e d term  riaiyaksak  i s extended t o a l l female c o u s i n s  'sister' (male  s p e a k i n g ) but t h a t f i r s t c o u s i n m a r r i a g e s a r e known to have o c c u r r e d  w i t h o u t apparent s a n c t i o n s .  Giddings (Loc.  c i t . ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e U n a l i t o f E l i m have a s i n g l e term f o r a l l c o u s i n s but t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n o f MoBr a r e c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r r e d mates. The  need f o r a c c u r a t e  s t a t i s t i c a l analysis i s  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l  rela-  75  t i o n s h i p s b i n d i n g t h e members o f t h e k i n d r e d , t h e ' i l a t k a ' . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i n t e r - a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between t h e members o f t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y s i g n i f i cant g e n e r a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l , t h e 0 , t h e -+-1 and -1 g e n e r a t i o n s might p r o v i d e some semblance o f coherence t o each l o c a l v a r i a n t o f t h e k i n s h i p system. Problems i n h e r e n t i n a s t a t i s t i c a l approach t o k i n s h i p systems a r e amply demonstrated by t h e componential a n a l y s e s c a r r i e d out by P o s p o s i l (I963) f o r t h e Nunamiut system and by Graburn (1964) f o r t h e Taqagmiut system. Although  I do not f e e l q u a l i f i e d t o c r i t i c i z e t h e  t h e o r y r e l a t i n g t o t h e componential  a n a l y t i c a l method p e r  se i t seems obvious t h a t , i f t h e method i s t o p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e assessment o f t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , t h e c a t e g o r i e s must be c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r mine whether t h e y a r e primary o r m o d i f i e d k i n s h i p terms. Graburn attempts t o do t h i s when he s t a t e s t h a t : I t i s t o be noted t h a t no " s t e p - " " h a l f - " " a d o p t i v e - " "wif e - e x c h a n g e r e l a t i v e s have been i n c l u d e d y e t . They can be a n a l y z e d i n terms of s u f f i x e s added to the above, (op. c i t . p. 56). Jt  I t appears however t h a t he does i n f a c t i n c l u d e m o d i f i e d p r i m a r y terms. speaking)  F o r example, h i s 'male c o u s i n term  i s g i v e n as a n i k s a k and h i s female  (male speaking)  i s g i v e n as n a i j a k s a k .  (female  c o u s i n term  Both terms a r e  76  m o d i f i e d forms o f t h e b r o t h e r and s i s t e r terms a n i k and Mai.iak.  The s u f f i x  'sak' can be t a k e n t o mean, de-  p e n d i n g upon t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s used, as ' s t e p ' , ' h a l f , or 'adoptive'.  I n h i s c r i t i c i s m of P o s p i s i l ' s  c o m p o n e n t i a l a n a l y s i s Graburn says: Many o f t h e i r £~Posposil and Laughlin's_7 terms a r e " a d o p t i v e - , exchange-, o r s t e p - k i n " w h i c h can (as I have s a i d ) be a t t r i b u t e d to s u f f i x e s o n l y , not e x t r a k i n terms." ( i b i d ; p.61). I t would appear t h a t some o f t h e terms Graburn uses a r e o f t h e same n a t u r e .  I f t h i s i s so, i t means t h a t t h e  'components' he has chosen f o r h i s a n a l y s i s a r e i n a d e q u a t e . An a l t e r n a t i v e approach would be t o i n c l u d e , as t r u e c a t e g o r i e s , a l l terms which d i f f e r by h a v i n g one o f t h e numerous m o d i f y i n g s u f f i x e s such as 'sak' ( m a t e r i a l f o r ) , ' u l u k ' ( d i m i n u t i v e ) , 'apik' ( d i m i n u t i v e ) o r , ' j u k '  (greater).  C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e numbers o f k i n c a t e g o r i e s t h e r e would have t o be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e c r i t e r i a used i n o r d e r t o encompass t h e i n c r e a s e d number o f p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f components. Previous t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of the componential a n a l y s i s of t h e Sugluk system by Graburn I had a t t e m p t e d t o a p p l y a s i m i l a r type o f a n a l y s i s t o my f i g u r e number 6 showing t h e ' c o n s t a n t ' terms f o r Eskimo k i n s h i p systems. T h i s was abandoned when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t my use o f t h i s  77  method was i n a d e q u a t e t o handle e i t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e i l l u s t r a t e d s y n t h e t i c k i n s h i p system.  The system shows  two t y p e s of c o n s t a n t s ; f i r s t , t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l , which cannot be assumed t o r e p r e s e n t e x a c t l y the same c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t i v e s from a r e a t o a r e a .  That i s , l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s  i n s t a t u s h e l d , r o l e s , and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s , p o s s i b l y accrue t o 'constant' terms.  The second type of c o n s t a n t  i s t h a t r e l a t i n g t o t h e method o f e x t e n d i n g terms a c r o s s c o n s a n g u i n e a l / a f f i n a l b o u n d a r i e s and o v e r 'degrees' of c o l l a t e r a l r e l a t i v e s .  With r e s p e c t t o t h e f o r m e r d i v -  i s i o n Graburn s a y s : There i s one d i v i s i o n t h a t c u t s r i g h t a c r o s s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y system. That i s , t h e Eskimos p r a c t i c a l l y never use t h e same terms f o r a c o n s a n g u i n e a l and an a f f i n a l r e l a t i v e , ... ( i b i d ; p. 56). Graburn m o d i f i e s t h i s i s i n a f o o t n o o t e to t h e e f f e c t t h a t : In c e r t a i n cases of " d e v i a n c e " , t h i s i s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , n o t t r u e , The e x c e p t i o n s a r e i n t h e G e n e r a t i o n 2 and t h i s was by no means a g r e e d on by a l l i n f o r m a n t s . ( i b i d ; p. 56). H i s statement i s t r u e f o r t h e Sugluk d a t a b u t i s not a p p l i c a b l e t o Eskimo groups as a whole, f o r example, P o s p i s i l and L a u g h l i n r e p o r t t h e o v e r r i d i n g of t h e cons a n g u i n e a l / a f f i n a l boundary i n t h e +3, +2, +1, 0, - 1 , and -2 g e n e r a t i o n s . On t h e whole, a l t h o u g h t h e method o f t h e ext e n s i o n of t e r m s o v e r c o n s a n g u i n e a l / a f f i n a l b o u n d a r i e s , and over degrees o f c o l l a t e r a l l y appears t o be of major  78  s t r u c t u r a l importance, data are l a c k i n g or are i n s u f f i c i ent f o r m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s i s . One p u z z l i n g p a t t e r n i n t h e r e p o r t e d systems r e l a t e s t o t h e e x t e n s i o n of u n c l e / a u n t  terms t o p a r e n t s  c o u s i n s and t o t h e e x t e n s i o n o f nephew/niece terms t o cousins  children. According  t o Damas:  P a r e n t ' s c o u s i n s a r e accorded aunt and u n c l e terms a f t e r t h e same p a t t e r n ; t h a t i s , f a t h e r ' s b r o t h e r and f a t h e r ' s male c o u s i n a r e b o t h d e s i g n a t e d as aqak; mother's s i s t e r and mother's f e m a l e c o u s i n are b o t h d e s i g n a t e d as i i y a k , and so on. (1963; p.36) Graburn (op c i t . p.46) defines these "atkak—  concurs w i t h Damas i n t h i s when he  categories of r e l a t i v e s as: " p a t e r n a l u n c l e and Fa's male f i r s t  "angak-- " m a t e r n a l u n c l e  cousin"  etc."  " a t s a k - - " p a t e r n a l aunt, e t c . " " a j a k u l u — maternal My own data show  "aunt", e t c . "  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e terms e x a c t l y  as shown by Damas i n h i s f i g u r e 4 ( i b i d ; p . 3 7 ) .  Damas'  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e mode of e x t e n s i o n o f t h e terms i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y however as an examination indicate.  of h i s chart  will  I f we f o l l o w e d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  of t h e terms would be as shown i n F i g u r e 7.  79  FIGURE  7  A<3  "AO  £F<J  feU"  "2*0  -a=cr  "D 1  3  1  1 3  6"  1  3  I  A?o' 5»A I I 1  2  4  2  4  A=0  1 = 6"  ts-O  5»A  2  3.  c  . Akak.  £o I  I 2  Eo  £o  A*?  Edo  . Angak.  I  3  i*o I_  5*A  I  « Atsak.  4  4  2  4  4  A-O  I  . MoSi  So I  term,variable,  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t found i n any o f t h e a v a i l a b l e t e r m i n o l o g i e s .  W i t h t h e ex-  c e p t i o n o f t h e P o i n t Barrow and Nunamiut systems, which appear t o be s p e c i a l  cases unique t o t h e l o c a l on-going  systems, t h e r e p o r t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e a s shown i n F i g u r e 8.  (See f o l l o w i n g page). I t would appear t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f t h e s e  r e l a t i v e s i s determined by t h e s e x o f Ego's l i n e a l r e l a t i v e i n the next ascending generation which t h e r e l a t i v e i s l o c a t e d .  above t h e one i n  I n t h e case o f p a r e n t s  c o u s i n s t h e s e l i n k i n g r e l a t i v e s a r e Ego's g r a n d p a r e n t s and c l a s s i f i c a t o r y grandparents.  I n t h i s way FaFa  siblings  (male and female) sons a r e Akak and FaMo s i b l i n g s  (male  so  and female) sons are Angak to E g o s i m i l a r l y f o r Ego's t  mother's c o u s i n s . FIGURE  A=Q  A^O  AiD 1  SO  A=Q  A""~U  A~~L>  3  1  AO  3  2  4  2  S=0  A  A~^i.  "So  A=6~  A<3  S  S =D  Z50  O  4  1  1  = 6"  A~"L)  Z T D  2  13  '3'  A=Q  4  2  4  A=0  "A-O  4  /So  II  O»A I  <5=A  A=o I  : <5o  I  1  I  . Akak.  So I  2  EG  . Angak.  P  £0  A=6 I  3  . Atsak.  O=A I  I  4  A » O <5*A  A-O A«6 I ...  I  . MoSi t e r m (variable).  In any case, i f we f o l l o w Damas', Graburn's,  or my  own  e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e mode of e x t e n s i o n of terms t o k i n s -  men  of the f i r s t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n a more b a s i c prob-  lem remains  unsolved.  I f , as seems t o be the c a s e , the a u n t / u n c l e terms  I  81  f o r t h e r e p o r t e d systems are d i s t r i b u t e d as shown i n F i g u r e 8 t h e n Ego stands i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e two male member c a t e g o r i e s of t h e next ascending generation: Ego's term f o r r e l a t i v e  R e l a t i v e ' s term f o r Ego  Anak  Kangiya  Angak  Uyuruk  1. Male Ego and male r e l a t i v e s o n l y b e i n g used here and i n l a t e r f i g u r e s s i n c e the system i s the same f o r f e male Ego and f o r f e m a l e r e l a t i v e s . C o n c e r n i n g t h e s e p a i r s of terms Damas s a y s : The correspondence of t h e f o u r aunt and u n c l e terms w i t h f o u r nephew terms ( t a k i n g i n t o account t h e nephew-niece terms o f b o t h male and female Ego) can t h u s be seen t o r e p r e s e n t a b a s i c cons i s t e n c y w i t h i n the system. To anyone t h a t male Ego c a l l s aqak he i s always q a n i a k . To anyone he c a l l s a t t a k he i s angnak. (op. c i t . p. 3 6 ) Note t h a t Angnak i s not the same term as Angak. Damas goes on t o say: The f e m a l e Ego's a u n t - and u n c l e - n i e c e d u a l i t i e s f o l l o w t h e same i n v a r i a n t p a t t e r n . The system of d u a l i t i e s i s extended outward t o p a r e n t ' s c o u s i n s and c o n v e r s e l y t o c h i l d r e n of c o u s i n s . ( i b i d ; p. 39) My own d a t a a c c o r d w i t h t h e i n v a r i a n t n a t u r e o f the p a i r s  .  82  o f terms.  D u r i n g the c o l l e c t i n g o f the t e r m i n o l o g i e s I  o c c a s i o n a l l y checked on t h i s by d e l i b e r a t e l y c r o s s i n g t h e terms - t h e response  was a l w a y s the same, an emphatic  c o r r e c t i o n by the i n f o r m a n t and an ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' t h a t , when c r o s s e d , the terms made no sense.  Further  evidence  f o r the i n d i v i s i b i l i t y of the dyadic p a i r s o f terms i s found i n Spencer's d a t a f o r the P o i n t Barrow groups and i n P o s p i s i l and L a u g h l i n ' s d a t a f o r Anaktuvuk. particular  In these  systems FaBr = MoBr (a ak) and S i c h  (uyoo o o r u y u r u q ) .  =  Brch  A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e between the P o i n t  Barrow system and t h e o t h e r s i s i n the e x t e n s i o n o f c o u s i n terms t o the c o u s i n s of p a r e n t s .  own  A c c e p t i n g the  c o n s i s t e n t n a t u r e of t h e d y a d i c p a i r s o f terms and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r e n t a l s i b l i n g terms t h e n we s h o u l d  expect  t h a t an Ego would stand i n a s i m i l a r t e r m i n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s n i e c e s ' and nephews' and c o u s i n s ' c h i l d r e n as he h i m s e l f stands to h i s aunts'and cousins.  D e s p i t e Damas' statement  a p e r u s a l o f h i s and my own i s not f o l l o w e d .  uncles'and  parent's  t h a t t h i s i s t h e case,  d a t a shows t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n  A c c o r d i n g t o Damas the e x t e n s i o n of t h e  terms i s c a r r i e d out as f o l l o w s : There i s an e x t e n s i o n o f nephew-niece terms to c o u s i n s ' c h i l d r e n , .... Consanguines i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n a r e c l a s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o the sex of. the l i n k i n g r e l a t i v e i n Ego's g e n e r a t i o n . Thus the c h i l d r e n o f male Ego's male s i b l i n g s o r male c o u s i n s a r e a l l qaniak, and the c h i l d r e n o f female s i b l i n g s o r female c o u s i n s are a l l uyuruk.  83  T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n seems t o f i t Damas' d a t a v e r y w e l l b u t an examination o f h i s consanguineal k i n s h i p chart (Figure 4 ) shows t h a t t h e d y a d i c p a i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (Akak/Kaniya  and A n g a k / U y u r u k ) f o r u n c l e - n e p h e w b e t w e e n Ego's and t h e next descending  generation are crossed.  I f i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l symmetry o f t e r m i n o l o g y i s m a i n t a i n e d and i f t h e d y a d i c p a i r p a t t e r n i s f o l l o w e d t h e n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e r m s w i l l be a s shown i n F i g u r e 9.  "So"  A=6"  A=o  A*c) C  6»A  A~T) D  A=o  AO"  5=A  1  56  £ 0 '  ET6  F.  A  E  nephew' A B C D E F G  H  I J  r  Ao  A=0 E(te  A~^) A  9  FIGURE = 6"  E  5  4  So"  &  O'A  6  B  Nephews' t e r m f o r Ego Akak Angak Angak Angak Akak Akak Angak Angak Akak Akak  "A-O  A<)  A"b B  A*0A-O  A~b G  A~0 H  A<5<5<A-  ATD I  E g o ' s t e r m f o r 'nephews' Kangiya Uyuruk Uyuruk Uyuruk Kangiya Kangiya Uyuruk Uyuruk Kangiya Kangiya  ST o J  84  In c o n t r a s t t o t h e 'model' d i s t r i b u t i o n , F i g u r e . 1 0 and t h e accompanying T a b l e 5 r e p o r t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 'nephew' terms. FIGURE 1 0  A=6~  1  A=0  "7s=0  = 6"  ANGi K  AKAK  £o~5=A  A=o  5=A  : A=0  A^O  S6"  A=6  6*A  A>0  A-0  AO  O*A--  EJO  AlT) • C  A~0  D.  E  A~~^> . F  A O A  A~~^> A  A O  A O B  A ~ ^ ) A~^> A ~ t ) A~TD B  F o r Table 5 - see f o l l o w i n g page  G  H  ^I  A~C5  J  85  TABLE  5 'Nephews'  Source  A  B  C  D  1  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  2  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  3  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  5i  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak )  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (akak)  5ii  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (akak)  5iii  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (akak)  5iv  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (angak)  kangiya (akak)  5v  uyuruk ^ kangiya © (akak)  as A  as A  as A  as A  7  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  8  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  10  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  Model Figure 9 p. 83 =  ;  E  8 6  F  G  H  I  J  uyuruk (akak)  kangiya (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  5 i  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  5 i i  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  5 i i i  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  5 i v  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  as A  as A  as A  as A  as A  Source  5 v  7  8  1 0  Model = Figure 9 p. 8 3 1 2 3 4 5  . . . . .  uyuruk (akak)  kangiya (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (akak)  kangiya (akak)  uyuruk (angak)  uyuruk (angak)  kangiya (akak)  kangiya (akak)  B l a n k s = no d a t a Key t o source as f o r Table 2 , p. 4 6 . Alaskan data omitted. My own s p e l l i n g s u b s t i t u t e d . B r a c k e t s below 'nephew' terms c o n t a i n term f o r u n c l e as d e t e r m i n e d i n the next a s c e n d i n g s e t .  87  Two p o i n t s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d . F i r s t , the c h i l d r e n of s i b l i n g s are designated terms and i n t h e same o r d e r f o r every r e p o r t e d  by t h e same system. The  P o i n t Barrow and Anaktuvuk systems are. t h e o n l y ones t h a t d i f f e r ; t h i s has been seen t o f o l l o w t h e ' r u l e ' f o r dyadic  p a i r s of terms ( c f . p. 8 2 ) . Second, t h e r e i s no  apparent t r e n d o r d i r e c t i o n i n t h e v a r i o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t e r m s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f c o u s i n s .  A t h i r d , and i n c i d -  e n t a l p o i n t , i s t h a t t h e r e does not appear t o be a c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e c o u s i n c a t e g o r y  and t h e e x t e n d e d n i e c e and  nephew c a t e g o r i e s  6  ( c f . Damas 1  9  3  ; p. 3  6  )  .  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e apparent d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e r e c i p r o c a l and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p a i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between terminological categories I s h a l l offer a possible hypothesis. These s p e c u l a t i o n s w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h e a s y m m e t r i c a l ext e n s i o n o f term c a t e g o r i e s between Ego and t h e f i r s t a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s . work w i t h i n which t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d by F o r t e s  The c o n c e p t u a l  frame-  w i l l be made i s t h a t  ( 1 9 4 6 ; ) and expounded, and v a l i d a t e d , by  Freeman, Leach and o t h e r s ( 1 9 5 8 ) . In g e n e r a l , t h i s concept a s s e r t s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ,  88  as members o f f a m i l y and domestic groups  (which may o r  may n o t be co-terminous) occupy a s e r i e s or s u c c e s s i o n o f d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e domestic group and w i t h t h e s o c i a l system as a whole.  The  domestic group p e r se i s s a i d t o pass t h r o u g h a sequence of  phases which r e f l e c t t h e p h a s e - s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of  t h e component members. F o r t e s (1958) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e domestic  domain and t h e p o l i t i c o - j u r a l domain as b e i n g i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e domestic group.  The domestic  domain i s thought o f as b e i n g o r i e n t e d about t h e n u c l e a r and u l t r a - b a s i c group c o n s i s t i n g of a mother and h e r children.  F o r t h o s e groups w h i c h emphasize t h e c o n j u g a l  and p a t r i - f i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e n u c l e a r group i s coterminous w i t h t h e elementary f a m i l y .  The domestic  group  i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y as i t embraces the e f f e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d u n i t which, as a u n i t , f u n c t i o n s t o p r o v i d e t h e m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l minima e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e maintenance and s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f i t s members.  As F o r t e s s u g g e s t s :  One might put i t t h a t t h e domestic domain i s t h e system o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h which t h e r e productive nucleus i s integrated with the environment and w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l s o c i e t y . (1958; p.90) On t h e o t h e r hand t h e e x t e r n a l o r p o l i t i c o - j u r a l domain i s t h a t i n and by w h i c h t h e domestic group i s i n t e g r a t e d ,  89  politically, ure.  j u r a l l y , and r i t u a l l y , i n t o the s o c i a l  struct-  Every member of the s o c i e t y i s a t once a member of  a domestic and of an e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c o - j u r a l grouping and his  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the former are d e f i n e d and  s a n c t i o n e d by the l a t t e r . F o r t e s proposes t h a t there a r e t h r e e phases developmental c y c l e of the domestic group.  i n the  F i r s t , the  phase of expansion; second, the phase of d i s p e r s i o n ; and third,  the phase of replacement.  These phases are des-  c r i b e d and d e f i n e d by F o r t e s as f o l l o w s : F i r s t t h e r e i s a phase of expansion t h a t l a s t s from t h e marriage of two people u n t i l the comp l e t i o n of t h e i r f a m i l y of p r o c r e a t i o n . The b i o l o g i c a l l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r here i s the d u r a t i o n of t h e w i f e ' s (or wives') f e r t i l i t y . In s t r u c t u r a l terms i t corresponds to the p e r i o d during which a l l the o f f s p r i n g of the parents a r e economically, a f f e c t i v e l y and j u r a l l y dependent on them. Secondly, and o f t e n o v e r l a p p i n g the f i r s t i n time (hence my p r e f e r e n c e f o r the term 'Phase' i n s t e a d of ' s t a g e ' ) , t h e r e i s the phase of d i s p e r s i o n or f i s s i o n . T h i s begins w i t h the marriage of t h e o l d e s t c h i l d and continues u n t i l a l l the c h i l d r e n are m a r r i e d . Where the custom by which the youngest c h i l d remains t o take over the f a m i l y e s t a t e i s found, t h i s commonly marks the b e g i n n i n g of the f i n a l phase. T h i s i s the phase o f r e p l a c e ment, which ends with the death of t h e parents .... (1958; p. 4 ) . These phases,  or m o d i f i c a t i o n s , are a s s e r t e d to be a p p l i c a b l e  to  systems.  a l l social  In  the process of p r o j e c t i n g my meagre data a g a i n s t  90  t h i s c o n c e p t u a l framework I w i l l examine t h e phases w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r o v e r l a p p i n g n a t u r e and t h e i r t i g h t n e s s of  definition.  I n t h e l i g h t o f d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r Eskimo  s o c i a l systems I f e e l t h a t some m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s a r e warranted. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e phases i n o r d e r o f s u c c e s s i o n we have: 1.  The Phase o f E x p a n s i o n :  t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h i s phase i s  s a i d t o l a s t from t h e i n i t i a l f o r m a t i o n o f an elementary f a m i l y t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e f a m i l y of p r o c r e a t i o n d u r i n g which time t h e c h i l d r e n a r e i n a s t a t e o f economic dependency upon t h e p a r e n t s . In  t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r Eskimo groups  one f i n d s almost everywhere t h a t t h e s e people c a r r y on a d o p t i o n o f new members i n t o t h e f a m i l y (and so, i n t o t h e domestic  group) f a r beyond t h e l i m i t o f t h e w i f e ' s ( o r  wives') f e r t i l i t y .  The use o f t h e b i o l o g i c a l parameter o f  p r o c r e a t i o n as a determining f a c t o r i n t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the phase of e x p a n s i o n cannot be v a l i d i n these c a s e s .  The  adoption practice serves to attenuate the duration of t h i s , and t h e d i s p e r s i o n , phase w i t h o u t r e s p e c t t o b i o l o g i c a l determinants. to  F o r Eskimo groups t h e expansion phase appears  be determined  l a r g e l y by t h e s o c i a l f a c t o r o f i n t e r -  91  domestic  group t r a n s f e r e n c e o f p e r s o n n e l .  Adoption  p r a c t i c e s among Eskimo groups have been examined r e c e n t l y by Dunning (1962) who has p r o v i d e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d approach t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f i n c i d e n c e and p a t t e r n s o f a d o p t i o n among t h e Southampton I s l a n d Eskimo  groups.  Dunning's data show t h a t t h e .'demographic h y p o t h e s i s , r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n , does n o t a d e q u a t e l y  e x p l a i n the patterns of  a d o p t i o n found i n t h e Southampton I s l a n d a r e a . Although  i n s u b s t a n t i a l agreement w i t h Spencer's  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a d o p t i o n i s a means o f e x t e n d i n g t h e bonds o f c o - o p e r a t i o n t o e x t r a - f a m i l y k i n groups (Spencer, 195-9) he suggests i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t : where t h e cases [_ o f adoption_7 i n v o l v e k i n s h i p c l a i m s , e s p e c i a l l y g r a n d p a r e n t a l c l a i m s , i t would appear t h a t r a t h e r than e x t e n d i n g a l r e a d y c l o s e l y e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y bonds, t h i s type o f a d o p t i o n i n t e n s i f i e s t h e s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s o f k i n by a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u r p l u s o r o t h e r new-born i s s u e w i t h i n t h i s ' c i r c l e ' . (1962; p. 165). In d e v e l o p m e n t a l  terms such i n t e r - k i n a d o p t i o n s serve t o  a t t e n u a t e both t h e Expansion developmental  and D i s p e r s i o n Phases o f t h e  c y c l e , as Dunning s a y s :  T h i s might be seen as f i l l i n g t h e gap w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e which i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g opened by t h e d i s appearance o f a n u c l e a r f a m i l y g r o u p , i . e . t h a t o f the g r a n d p a r e n t ( s ) . (ibid.)  92  A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n n o t e d by Dunning and c o n c e r n i n g the e x p a n s i o n and d i s p e r s i o n phases o f t h e Eskimo domestic group i s found i n t h o s e cases of a d o p t i o n where a s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l appears t o o p e r a t e .  I n most of t h e ethno-  graphic data a v a i l a b l e i t i s i m p l i c i t that status accrues t o numbers o f members i n c l u d e d i n thejdomestic group  as  w e l l as t o , and perhaps c o r r e l a t e d w i t h , t h e s o c i a l  and  economic e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e group.  Dunning's h y p o t h e s i s  i s t h a t the s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a l " i s e x p r e s s e d i n p a r t by the number of dependents w h i c h a man p r o v i d e f o r . " ( i b i d ; p. 166).  can b o t h c l a i m and  The r e l e a s e or t r a n s f e r e n c e  of a member from a l a r g e , e f f i c i e n t domestic group s e r v e t o demonstrate t h e r e l a t i v e s t a t u s o f t h e w i t h i n t h e l o c a l h i e r a r c h i a l arrangement. p a n s i o n of the i n i t i a l domestic group  would  group  Whether the ex-  (the p a r e n t p a i r )  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b i o l o g i c a l l y , by a d o p t i n g members, o r by a c o m b i n a t i o n of these methods would make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a l a r g e group.  W i t h i n the bounds  of the s o c i a l mores r e l a t i n g t o a d o p t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o n c e i v e of cases i n which b i o l o g i c a l l y a c q u i r e d members are  r e l e a s e d from t h e domestic group and t h e i r p l a c e u l -  t i m a t e l y f i l l e d by a d o p t i v e s .  When t h e i n i t i a l p a i r ,  the  p a r e n t s , r e a c h t h e p o i n t i n l i f e where t h e y are n e i t h e r r e p r o d u c i n g b i o l o g i c a l l y nor a r e p e r m i t t e d t o r e p l e n i s h t h e i r domestic group by a d o p t i n g new members t h e n t h e phase of e x p a n s i o n i s t e r m i n a t e d .  93  With r e g a r d t o economic dependency o f c h i l d r e n , even i f t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e phase o f e x p a n s i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h the f e r t i l i t y  o f t h e mother, t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c , d a t a f o r  Eskimo groups show t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n ( t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n a t l e a s t ) a r e i n many cases f u l l y independent p r o d u c i n g members i n ' t h e economic sphere o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e mothers' p e r i o d o f f e r t i l i t y .  In t h i s  case t h e f a c t o r o f economic dependency cannot be used as d e f i n i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e phase. D u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e e x p a n s i o n phase, t h e phase o f d i s p e r s i o n i s i n i t i a t e d but t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the d o m e s t i c group may be m a i n t a i n e d a t t h e norm f o r t h e s p e c i f i c s o c i e t y and t h e s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r a p e r i o d g r e a t l y extended beyond t h e p r o c r e a t i v e r a n g e o f t h e o r i g i n a l parent p a i r . 2.  The Phase of D i s p e r s i o n :  the remarks p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e  i n i t i a l o r e x p a n s i o n phase a p p l y t o t h i s phase a l s o .  As  F o r t e s s t a t e s , t h e phases o v e r l a p ; they a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , t h e y a r e i n f a c t i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and i n t e r d e p endently v a r i a b l e .  Where t h e i n i t i a l phase i s q u a l i f i e d  by l o c a l f a c t o r s t h e r e s u l t a n t w i l l  be i n t h e form o f a  s e r i e s o r s e t o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e e d i n g phases. Of t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e bounds o f the domestic group t h e i n c e s t t a b o o s e x e r t g r e a t p r e s s u r e  94  toward ensuring  t h a t a d i s p e r s i o n p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d out.  Murdock (1949) and F o r t e s  (1958) to name o n l y two  writers,  f e e l t h a t a thorough understanding o f the o p e r a t i n g  incest  taboos i s e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of many, i f not a l l , other a s p e c t s i n c l u d i n g the k i n s h i p system of the s t r u c t u r e under The  social  consideration.  a v a i l a b l e data f o r i n c e s t r e g u l a t i o n s and  the  extent  of i n c e s t taboos among the Eskimo groups i s con-  fusing  ( c f . the c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s of such authors as  Damas, L a n t i s , Hughes, Graburn e t c . ) conducive to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  and c e r t a i n l y not  However an examination of  the  f o r e g o i n g k i n s h i p c h a r t s shows t h a t the s i s t e r term or category i s g e n e r a l l y extended b i l a t e r a l l y to 1st degree c o l l a t e r a l s of Ego's  generation.  L o c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the a c t u a l extension taboos w i l l be conditions..  explainable only i n the l i g h t of  of i n c e s t local  I suggest t h a t the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n w i l l  be found i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f i r s t  cousins and  that  these v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s i d e n c e and  formation  local  patterns  of economic groupings p r e v a i l i n g i n the  s i t u a t i o n . Concommitant with these l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s  w i l l be v a r i a t i o n s i n the b e h a v i o u r a l patterns  and  terminological  a p p l i e d to male c o l l a t e r a l s of the same  As w i t h the  s i t u a t i o n regarding  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be  females, the  generation.  inter-male  l o g i c a l w i t h i n the framework of  the  95  l o c a l ecology.  I t seems c l e a r t h a t a s t a t i s t i c a l  approach  to the problem of same-sex c o u s i n c a t e g o r i e s among the Eskimo groups w i l l l i k e l y y i e l d the more s i g n i f i c a n t  clues  t o the s o c i a l e f f e c t i v i t y of these r e l a t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the 3.  The  individual. Phase of Replacement:  the a v a i l a b l e data f o r t h e  Eskimo groups i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s  rather  than an a b r u p t change upon t h e d e a t h of the p a r e n t s .  The  process  appears t o b e g i n w i t h the assumption of t h e c o n t r o l  of the economic a f f a i r s o f t h e domestic group by a son ( o f t e n the e l d e s t but may sons).  I n any  be any  son o r even a p a i r of  case, the c o n t r o l of the economy  begins  by t h e assumption of economic A c t i v i t i e s under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the p a r e n t s .  The  supervisory role i s r e l e -  gated t o c o - r e s i d e n t o f f s p r i n g a t a l a t e r stage and  the  p a r e n t s assume what appears t o be a p o s i t i o n of R i t u a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e domestic group (see f o r example, L a n t i s ' account o f the t r a n s f e r e n c e o f m a g i c o - r e l i g i o u s power f r o m parent t o o f f s p r i n g ) . T o t a l Replacement i s , as F o r t e s s a y s , a c c o m p l i s h e d by the death of t h e  parents.  A q u e s t i o n a r i s e s h e r e as to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e x t e r n a l domain o f the m a g i c o - r e l i g i o u s  aspect  of s o c i a l l i f e of the Eskimo and the i n t e r n a l domain of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Many e t h n o g r a p h e r s w o r k i n g among the Eskimo groups have n o t e d and r e p o r t e d the e x i s t e n c e of  96  a naming p r a c t i c e i n which t h e names o f deceased r e l a t i v e s a r e c o n f e r r e d upon c h i l d r e n . with i t ,  The name, i t i s s a i d ,  carries  o r i n some c a s e s a c t u a l l y i s , t h e s p i r i t o f t h e  deceased a n c e s t o r . C h i l d r e n so named a r e r e f e r r e d t o and c a l l e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e k i n s h i p term by t h e speaker.^ Thus i f A names h i s daughter f o r h i s own f a t h e r he w i l l r e f e r to h e r as ' f a t h e r ' and 'my f a t h e r ' ; t h e s i b l i n g s o f the c h i l d w i l l r e f e r t o h e r as ' g r a n d f a t h e r ' and 'my 2  grandfather'. Does t h i s mean t h a t f o r t h e Eskimo groups t h e r e i s no t e r m i n a l p o i n t i n t h e 'phase o f r e p l a c e m e n t ' ?  The  answer seems t o be t h a t f o r m a t e r i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e domain of t h e domestic group t h e death o f t h e p a r e n t s marks t h e end o f t h e phase but t h a t f o r t h e c i r c u m s c r i b i n g magicor e l i g i o u s domain, which s e r v e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e domestic groups w i t h t h e t o t a l s o c i e t y , t h e r e a r e no 'phase' phenomena b u t t h e r e a r e , i n s t e a d , c o n t i n u a i n t h e form o f the m a g i c o - r e l i g i o u s , t h e p o l i t i c o - j u r a l and t h e r i t u a l domains.  This accords with the accepted  ideas  concerning  the n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y as a s u p r a - p e r s o n a l whole. My query r e l a t e s t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between Eskimo domestic groups and t h e i r s o c i e t y . •'•It i s not r e c o r d e d whether o r n o t t h e c h i l d i s taught t o r e s p o n d w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e complementary t e r m when s p e a k i n g t o an a d u l t . ^There i s some doubt c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e and/or t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of t h i s naming system (see Damas 1963) a l t h o u g h I have had p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i t , e s p e c i a l l y among t h e Cape D o r s e t group who m i g r a t e d t o , and now r e s i d e i n and about, Spence Bay.  9 7  The  f o r e g o i n g remarks and o b s e r v a t i o n s  a r e not  meant t o be c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e concept of the d e v e l o p m e n t a l c y c l e i n domestic•groups b u t a r e i n tended t o p o i n t out t h a t , f o r s p e c i f i c s o c i e t i e s ( i n t h i s case t h e Eskimo), t h e p h a s e - s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e e l u c i d a t i o n and r i g o r o u s d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h my data a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and m e a n i n g f u l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s I f e e l t h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e t h e changing r e l a t i o n s h i p s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e l i f e of any i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e bounds o f t h e domestic group. The  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon i s r e l a t e d , i n my  c h a r t s , t o t h e a s y m m e t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f c l o s e c o l l a t e r a l k i n terms t o more d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s i . e . to cousins  o f p a r e n t s and t o c h i l d r e n o f c o u s i n s .  A l t h o u g h I agree w i t h Murdock, i n r e f e r e n c e  t o the  l e a r n i n g o f t h e e x i s t i n g k i n s h i p c a t e g o r i e s and b e h a v i o u r , when he s a y s : I n e i t h e r case, i t i s t h e p a r e n t s , e l d e r s i b l i n g s , o t h e r r e l a t i v e s and n e i g h b o r s who s e t the  s t a n d a r d s .... (  and w i t h Leach who  1  9  4  9  ;  !  p. 9  2  )  .  says:  My t h e s i s i s , however, t h a t t h e young c h i l d ... i s t a u g h t t o a c c e p t a s e t of k i n s h i p c a t e g o r i e s which a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l s i t u a t i o n of t h a t h o u s e h o l d . ( 1 9 5 6 ; p. 1 2 9 ) .  98  I suggest t h a t , i n t h e Eskimo groups i t i s the i n i t i a t e i n t o the a d u l t sphere of a c t i v i t i e s ,  the economic, the  s e x u a l , t h e r i t u a l e t c . , who demands r e c o g n i t i o n as an adult.  He does t h i s i n one way by i n s t i g a t i n g the 'proper'  t e r m i n o l o g i c a l response  i n his relationships  with h i s  kin-members of the next  ascending g e n e r a t i o n .  As I have  attempted to show ( c f . p. 82-4) the e x i s t e n c e o f immutable p a i r s of terms makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r him t o announce and have h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e c o g n i z e d simply by r e f e r r i n g t o his  r e l a t i v e s w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e k i n term.  The n e c e s s i t y  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n has o t h e r than e s o t e r i c reasons.  The  young a d u l t male i s dependent upon the a d u l t members o f h i s group f o r p r a c t i c a l knowledge, guidance p r o v i s i o n o f , the paramount Eskimo - a w i f e .  i n choosing and  essential to l i f e  f o r an  These alone, among a host of other  f a c t o r s make i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t he know h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with, and have h i s s t a t u s recognized, by h i s kinsmen. My s p e c u l a t i o n would c a r r y more weight i f i t were supported with data o f k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g i e s g i v e n by nona d u l t Eskimo.  Few a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n c l u d e s t a t i s t i c s on  t h e i r informants. Spoehr (1947) i s one of the exceptions and he has put the age f a c t o r of the informants t o good use i n determining ship terminologies.  and a n a l y z i n g the recent changes i n k i n I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the m a j o r i t y of  99  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have done as Graburn d i d a t Sugluk s e l e c t e d the 'most knowledgeable  i n f o r m a n t s ' f r o m among  the group under i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h a t t h e s e 'most know*  l e d g e a b l e i n f o r m a n t s ' w e r e , i n the main, a d u l t s .  I f my  assumption i s c o r r e c t , then the data a v a i l a b l e r e p r e s e n t the a d u l t members' v i e w of t h e k i n s h i p  system.  Whether of m a r r i e d or s i n g l e s t a t u s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a d u l t i n f o r m a n t and the g e n e r a t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y above and below h i s own are u l t i m a t e l y t h e same.  I f a s i n g l e a d u l t , h i s s t a t u s , i n developmental  terms, i s as a member of h i s p a r e n t s ' expanding o r d i s p e r s i n g domestic group. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t h i s p a r e n t s ' domestic group has e n t e r e d i n t o the replacement phase by t h e i n t r u s i o n of a m a r r i e d son. s t a t u s t h e i n f o r m a n t may p a r e n t s ' domestic group  I f of married  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be a member o f h i s (whatever developmental phase  i t happens t o be p a s s i n g t h r o u g h ) and a member o f h i s own d o m e s t i c group w h i c h may be i n t h e expanding o r d i s p e r s i o n phase. Whatever the complex of p h a s e - s p e c i f i c  relationships  i n which t h e a d u l t i s enmeshed, the f u n c t i o n a l l y  signific-  ant c a t e g o r i e s of r e l a t i v e s w i l l , f o r him, be l o c a t e d i n h i s own  or i n the n e x t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . The  social  d i s t a n c e between him and t h e next d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i l l  100  be g r e a t e r then t h e s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between him and h i s own and t h e f i r s t a s c e n d i n g The  generation.  f a c t o r determining  relative social  distance,  i n groups l i v i n g under s t r i n g e n t e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , i s assumed t o be t h e economic e f f e e t i v i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . As an economic a d u l t member o f t h e group, s u b j e c t t o t h e s o c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , r i g h t s and d u t i e s , o f a l l o t h e r economically  f u n c t i o n i n g members o f t h e group i t i s im-  p o r t a n t t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e members o f h i s own and t h e n e x t a s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n  are w e l l  defined,  t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e k i n s h i p system and t h e associated behaviour.  On t h e o t h e r hand t h e members o f  the n e x t d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n  a r e , as h a s been suggested,  f u n c t i o n a l l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t i n every aspect of s o c i a l  life;  I suggest t h a t t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c a s u a l and almost random d i s t r i b u t i o n o f k i n s h i p terms w i t h i n t h i s  generation.  My s p e c u l a t i o n i s t h a t , as t h e younger members o f t h e group approach and f i n a l l y life,it  enter i n t o t h e a d u l t  i s i m p e r a t i v e j s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  social t h a t they  e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s by e l i c i t i n g t h e p r o p e r terminological  (and so b e h a v i o u r a l )  response f r o m a d u l t  kinsmen by u t i l i z i n g s p e c i f i c and t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y ' c o r r e c t kin  terms.  The i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f the p a & s ^ i n t e r - g e n e r a -  t i o n a l terms ensures t h a t t h e a d u l t s respond w i t h t h e s u i t a b l e complementary t e r m .  1  101  I f e e l that a s t a t i s t i c a l kin  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  terras used by t h e p r e - a d u l t members o f Eskimo groups  w i l l show a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s p e c i f i c i t y of t h e terms and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s ' s o c i a l p r o x i m i t y t o e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e a d u l t socio-economic sphere o f l i f e . T h i s i s n o t s i m p l y t h a t t h e c h i l d has l e a r n e d t h e ' c o r r e c t ' terminology  as he has grown t h r o u g h c h i l d h o o d .  i n f o r m a n t s f o r example, know the ' c o r r e c t ' although they apparently  -The a d u l t  terminology  i g n o r e t h e ' c o r r e c t ' f o r m when  r e f e r r i n g t o members o f t h e next d e s c e n d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . ) What t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n means i s t h a t t h e young a d u l t has become aware o f t h e s o c i a l and economic n e c e s s i t y f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g from t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e immediate f a m i l y o r domestic group i n t o t h e c o n t e x t kin  of t h e i m p o r t a n t l a r g e r  group. I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s suggested t h a t i n t h e study o f  Eskimo k i n s h i p systems a s t a t i s t i c a l approach t o t h e termi n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of each system and t o t h e p r o b a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e l o c a l k i n s h i p system and t h e p r a c t i s e d i n c e s t r e g u l a t i o n s be t a k e n ,  ( i f one may marry a  ' q u a s i - s i s t e r ' as i s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e Taqagmiut t h e n what are t h e i n c e s t r e g u l a t i o n s ? ) and between t h e l o c a l k i n s h i p system and t h e a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e  p a t t e r n . Such an a n a l y t i c a l  method must attempt t o a s s e s s t h e l o c a l economic and e c o l -  102  o g i c a l f a c t o r s i m p i n g i n g upon t h e s o c i e t y .  In this respect,  and s p e a k i n g of r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s F o r t e s s a y s : Apparent anomalies i n t h e ethnographic d a t a a r e r e s o l v e d i f t h e k i n s h i p nomenclature i s r e l a t e d to t h e p a t t e r n s o f l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n / " o f r e s i d e n c e , p r e and post marital_7 t h a t r e s u l t from t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c y c l e o f t h e domestic group. (1958; p.8) I t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e as Graburn says t h a t : ... a p e n e t r a t i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i s t can " g e t as much o u t o f " t h e system by i n s p e c t i o n , w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o go t o t h e r a t h e r l a b o r i o u s ends o f componential a n a l y s i s . (1964; p. 61) But t h i s remark a p p l i e s o n l y t o t h e system p e r se and n o t to t h e f u n c t i o n a l - s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which i n t e g r a t e t h e k i n s h i p system w i t h t h e o t h e r v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of an on-going  society.  From t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e and p r e s e n t e d i t appears t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o G i d d i n g s , (1952) t h e r e may be b a s i c similarities,  o t h e r t h a n l i n g u i s t i c , between t h e many geo-  g r a p h i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d Eskimo groups.  One o f these  simil-  a r i t i e s a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of t h e domestic  group and t o t h e accommodation o f t h e r e l e -  vant k i n s h i p t e r m i n o l o g y t o l o c a l changes i n t h e s o c i o economic sphere. Spencer's  (1959) A l a s k a n m a t e r i a l i s out-  s t a n d i n g i n t h a t i t c l e a r l y shows t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  103  t h e e c o l o g y and t h e l o c a l v a r i a n t s o f two b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r k i n s h i p systems.  S t u d i e s such as t h i s and t h e  type c a r r i e d out by Damas (1963) on t h e s o c i a l  structure  of l o c a l g r o u p i n g s and by Dunning (1962) on a d o p t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e needed f o r t h e Eskimo groups as a whole.  104  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Boas, F r a n z . "The C e n t r a l Eskimo". Bureau o f American E t h n o l o g y S i x t h Annual R e p o r t , 1888: 4 0 9 - 6 6 9 . . The Eskimo of B a f f i n Land and Hudson Bay. American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , 1907. B u l l e t i n 15. Bohannan, P a u l . S o c i a l A n t h r o p o l o g y . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston I n c . , 1963. D a i l e y , R o b e r t and L o i s D a i l e y . The Eskimo o f R a n k i n I n l e t : A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t . Ottawa: Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , N o r t h e r n C o - o r d i n a t i o n and Research C e n t r e , R e p o r t 6 l - 7 , 1961. Damas, D a v i d . I g l u l i g m i u t K i n s h i p and L o c a l G r o u p i n g s : A S t r u c t u r a l Approach. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada 1963. B u l l e t i n 196. Dunning, R. W i l l i a m . "A Note on A d o p t i o n Among t h e Southampt o n I s l a n d Eskimo", Man, 62 (November, 1962), 1 6 3 167. F o r t e s , Myer. "Time and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e : An A s h a n t i Case Study", S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , M. F o r t e s , e d i t o r . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1946. . . " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , The Developmental C y c l e i n Domestic Groups, J a c k Goody, e d i t o r . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Freeman, J.D. "The F a m i l y System o f t h e Iban o f Borneo", The Developmental C y c l e i n Domestic Groups, Jack Goody, e d i t o r . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. G i d d i n g s , James L. " O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e 'Eskimo Type' of K i n s h i p and S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e " , U n i v e r s i t y of A l a s k a ; A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P a p e r s (1952), 5-10. Goodenough, Ward H. " P r o p e r t y , K i n and Community o f Truk", Yale U n i v e r s i t y , P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology, 4 6 (1951):1-192.  105  Graburn, N e l s o n H.H. Taqagmiut Eskimo K i n s h i p T e r m i n o l o g y . Ottawa: Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , N o r t h e r n C o - o r d i n a t i o n and Research C e n t r e , Report 64-1, 1964. Honigman, John J . S o c i a l Networks i n Great Whale R i v e r . Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 1962. B u l l e t i n 178.  Hughes, C.C. "An Eskimo D e v i a n t from the 'Eskimo Type' of S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n " , American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 60  (February,  1958), 1140-1147.  . An Eskimo V i l l a g e i n t h e Modern World. I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. Jenness, Diamond. "The L i f e of t h e Copper Eskimo", Canadian A r c t i c E x p e d i t i o n : 1913-18, R e p o r t , 1922. 12. K r o e b e r , A l f r e d L. " C l a s s i f i c a t o r y Systems o f R e l a t i o n ships", Journal of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 39  (1909), 77-84.  L a n t i s , M a r g a r e t . "The S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of t h e Nunivak Eskimo", T r a n s a c t i o n s of t h e American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 35 (March, 1946), 153-316. Leach, Edmund R. "Concerning T r o b r i a n d C l a n s and t h e K i n s h i p Category 'Tabu'", The Developmental C y c l e i n Domestic Groups. Jack Goody, e d i t o r . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. L e f e v r e , G.R. A D r a f t Orthography f o r t h e Canadian Eskimo. Ottawa: Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, N o r t h e r n C o - o r d i n a t i o n and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Report 57-1. Lowie, Robert H. "A Note on R e l a t i o n s h i p T e r m i n o l o g i e s " , American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t . 30 ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1928), 265-66.  Morgan, L e w i s H. "Systems of C o n s a n g u i n i t y and A f f i n i t y " , S m i t h s o n i a n C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Knowledge, 17 (1870). Murdock, George P. S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . New York: M a c M i l l a n Company, L t d . , 1949. O p l e r , M o r r i s E. "Apache Data C o n c e r n i n g the R e l a t i o n o f K i n s h i p Terminology t o S o c i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , 39 ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1937), 208-212.  106  P o s p i s i l , L. and W.S. L a u g h l i n . " K i n s h i p Terminology and Kindred Among the Nunamiut Eskimo", Ethnology, 11:2 ( A p r i l , 1963), 180-189. R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n , A.R. " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , A f r i c a n Systems of K i n s h i p and M a r r i a g e , A R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n and D a r y l l Forde, e d i t o r s . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. . S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n i n P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t y . London: Cohen and West L t d . , 1952. Rasmussen, Knud. "The N e t s i l i k Eskimo: S o c i a l L i f e and S p i r i t u a l C u l t u r e " , F i f t h Thule E x p e d i t i o n : 1921-24, Report, 8 (1931). . " I n t e l l e c t u a l C u l t u r e of the Copper Eskimo", F i f t h Thule Expedition:1921-24, Report, 9 (1932). Spencer, Robert F. The North Alaskan Eskimo. Washington: Bureau o f American Ethnology, 1959. B u l l e t i n 171. Spier, L e s l i e . "The D i s t r i b u t i o n of K i n s h i p Systems i n North America", U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology,! (1925). Spoehr, Alexander. Changing K i n s h i p Systems; New York: F i e l d Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , 1947. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S e r i e s 33:4. 1957. Tax, Solomon. "Some Problems o f S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n " , S o c i a l Anthropology o f North American T r i b e s , Fred Eggan, e d i t o r . Second r e v i s e d e d i t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1955. V a l l e e , Frank. Kabloona and Eskimo i n the C e n t r a l Keewatin. Ottawa: Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Northern C o - o r d i n a t i o n and Research Centre, Report 62-2, 1962. W i l l m o t t , W i l l i a m . The Eskimo Community a t P o r t H a r r i s o n , Quebec. Ottawa: Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Northern C o - o r d i n a t i o n and Research Centre, Report 61-1, 1961.  

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