UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some chroniclers of the age of Richard I, Coeur de Lion Keatley, William Mahaffy 1933

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Some C h r o n i c l e r s o f the Age of R i c h a r d I , C o e u r de L i o n by W i l l i a m Hahaf fy E e a t l e y A S h e s i s submi t t ed f o r the Degree of Mas te r of A r t s i n the Department • o f t o r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , . 1935 Foreword. I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s " S p i r i t o f Modern P h i l o -sophy" Dr. J o s i a h Royce says, " F a i t h f u l n e s s t o H i s t o r y i s the "beginning of c r e a t i v e wisdom. I lov e the l a t t e r and am determined to a t t a i n i t ; t h e r e f o r e I c u l t i v a t e the former." Every student who lias gone forward i n the paths of h i s t o r y w i l l agree w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h y and w i l l humbly t r y t o f o l l o w the l e a d i n h i s aim. The e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y which are g i v e n con-c r e t e form i n t h i s t h e s i s have taken the form off an enjoyable journey. I t has l e d us through highways and byways and we have met almost face to face some of the c h i e f a c t o r s i n one h i s t o r i c a l scene of the Drama of L i f e , Throughout the l e n g t h of the journey I have r e c e i v e d the encouragement, advice and t r a i n i n g of Dr. W. H. Sage. I t was t h i s t h a t made the venture p o s s i b l e and that gave i t any value t h a t i t has. He proved h i m s e l f a guide and f r i e n d and whatever worth the t h e s i s possesses i s i n l a r g e measure due to h i s s k i l l and enthusiasm. Some C h r o n i c l e r s of the Age of R i c h a r d I , Coeur de l i o n Index P r e f a c e Chapters I M anuscripts and Sources I I Ralph de Diceto I I I Roger de Hoveden IY Roger of Wendover-J W i l l i a m o f Hewburgh General C r i t i c i s m of the C h r o n i c l e s and Uses i n standard works today Appendices Descent o f Hugh of Durham hS Charters o f the See of Durham Charter of Release to T / i l l i a m of Scots [&) The T i t l e Coeur de L i o n se) The K i l l i n g of Conrad of M o n t f e r r a t k f ) Beginning of the Year i n t h e Middle Ages (g) Maps (h) I l l u s t r a t i o n s of St. Albans Abbey ( i } F a c s i m i l e MSS. ( j j B i b l i o g r a p h y The C h r o n i c l e r s o f R i c h a r d I , Coeur de L i o n P r e f a c e I n u n d e r t a k i n g s u c h a w o r k a s t h i s , i t i s v e r y n e c e s s a r y t o a d o p t a d e f i n i t e a i m . I t m i g h t have b e e n p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t some c o n t e n t i o u s s t a t e m e n t and t o s u p p o r t i t by i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e . Such an a t t i t u d e w o u l d have c a l l e d f o r m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d n o t be f o u n d e x c e p t by e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l s i n E n g l a n d a n d F r a n c e . The a d o p t i o n o f a n o t h e r a i m may p r o v i d e a n e s s a y t h a t w i l l i n v o l v e some s u c h c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n , b u t may s e r v e the u s e f u l p u r p o s e o f m a k i n g a v a i l a b l e a knowledge o f the c h i e f s o u r c e s o f our modern books on the p e r i o d , t h e i r a u t h e n -t i c i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , together- w i t h s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i v e s a n d c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e i r w r i t e r s as s h a l l s e r v e t o b r i n g t o l i f e a g a i n t h e d r y bones o f some o f the s a i n t s and s c h o l a r s o f an age u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t from o u r s , who l i g h t e d t h e t o r c h o f l e a r n i n g i n the D a r k Ages and f l u n g i t t o u s , j o y f u l l y we b e l i e v e , but a l s o w i t h a c h a l l e n g e . One c a n s c a r c e l y h e l p f e e l i n g t h a t s u c h c h a l l e n g e s h o u l d n o t go u n a n s w e r e d . We a r e i n c l i n e d t o s m i l e a t t h o s e who keep d i a r i e s , w h i l e a t t h e same t ime we w o r s h i p a t t h e s h r i n e o f Samuel P e p y s , and r e a d w i t h a v i d i t y t h e memoirs o f a M a r g o t A s q u i t h o r a M a r q u i s o f L a n s d o w n e , and c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e l e t t e r s of Queen V i c t o r i a a r e " e x -t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e f o r t h e l i g h t t h a t t h e y s h e d on t h e l i f e o f t h e t i m e s . " The c h r o n i c l e s u n d e r r e v i e w a r e e i t h e r i n d i a r y f o r m o r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i t . I t i s o n l y t h r o u g h them t h a t "we c a n h e a r h o r n s b l o w i n g i n the m i s t " o r d i m l y d e s c r y t h r o u g h a t h o u s a n d y e a r s * the g i a n t s t h a t t h e r e were i n t h o s e d a y s . The C h r o n i c l e r s o f t h e Age o f R i c h a r d . I Coeur de L i o n . C h a p t e r I M a n u s c r i p t s and S o u r c e s . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s H i s t o r y of E n g l a n d D a v i d Hume spealcs o f r e f e r e n c e s r a t h e r s l i g h t i n g l y . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t he i g n o r e s s o u r c e s or d i s b e l i e v e s i n c o r r o b o r a t i o n . But most of u s on v i e w i n g a p i c t u r e l o o k f o r t h e " Q u i s S c u l p s i t " t h a t r e v e a l s t h e a u t h o r s h i p of t h e composi t i o n . I n t h e same way we w o u l d h e r e e n q u i r e — H o w do y o u know t h e s e t h i n g s ? How c a n we a s s u r e o u r s e l v e s t h a t t h e p i c t u r e I s t r u e t o f a c t o r t h e l i f e o f t h e t i m e s ? The answer i s t o be f o u n d i n the C h r o n i c l e s . As the w o r k p r o g r e s s e s t h e l i f e and c h a r a c t e r o f the c h r o n i c l e r a t any p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Here we w i l l s i m p l y m e n t i o n where t h e i r m a n u s c r i p t s a r e . The e a r l i e s t E n g l i s h c o l l e c t o r o f o r i g i n a l manus-c r i p t s of whom we have f o u n d m e n t i o n i s Matthew P a r k e r , ( I 5 0 4 - I 5 7 5 ) . A r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y , He e d i t e d s e v e r a l of t h e e a r l i e r c h r o n i c l e s and l e f t a p r i c e l e s s c o l l e c t i o n o f MSS t o C o r p u s C h r i s t ! C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e . The n e x t i n o r d e r o f t ime i s W i l l i a m Camden, ( I 5 5 I -I 6 2 3 ) , a n t i q u a r i a n and h i s t o r i a n . He a t t e n d e d O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y a n d a f t e r w a r d s endowed t h e Camden C h a i r o f A n c i e n t H i s t o r y t h e r e . H i s m a n u s c r i p t s came t o t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y on t h e d e a t h of C o t t o n i n 1631. The o r i g i n a l l i b r a r y a t O x f o r d was f o u n d e d by T h o s . Cobham, B i s h o p of W o r c e s t e r a b o u t 1 J 2 0 . I n 1420 i t r e c e i v e d a m u n i f i c e n t g i f t from Humphrey, Luke o f G l o u c e s t e r , ( 1 3 9 9 -I 4 4 7 ) . He c a u s e d a room t o be b u i l t , s t i l l known as Luke H u m p h r e y ' s Room, and he p r e s e n t e d h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f books t o i t . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n was d i s p e r s e d a t t h e R e f o r m a t i o n , o n l y a few o f h i s books b e i n g now a t O x f o r d * The B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y was r a i s e d r o u n d the r u i n s o f Luke H u m p h r e y ' s by S i r Thomas B o d l e y , d i p l o m a t i s t a n d h i s t o r i a n , a f r i e n d o f Camden. On B o d l e y ' s d e a t h i n 1613 the l i b r a r y r e c e i v e d a n endowment by h i s w i l l . I t was f u r t h e r e n r i c h e d by t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f E l i a s Ashmole i n I 6 8 3 . S i r R o b e r t C o t t o n (157I - I 6 3 I ) , a p u p i l of Camden, l a t e r a t C a m b r i d g e , g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r a g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n o f m a n u s c r i p t s , d i s p e r s e d by t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e m o n a s t e r i e s u n d e r H e n r y V I I I . He t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y i n E n g l a n d and on t h e C o n t i n e n t , s e e k i n g out MSS. He r e c e i v e d A r t h u r A g a r d e ' s p a p e r s i n 1614 a n d Camden's i n I 6 2 3 . These were added t o by h i s s o n . The f o u r t h b a r o n e t p r e s e n t e d them to t h e n a t i o n i n 1700, and t h e y a r e now i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum. Lambeth L i b r a r y was f o u n d e d i n l 6 l 0 by A r c h b i s h o p B a n c r o f t . I t i s h o u s e d i n Lambeth P a l a c e and h a s been augmented by s u c c e s s i v e p r i m a t e s . I t i s l a r g e l y e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l m a n u s c r i p t s , t h o u g h n o t e x c l u s i v e l y s o . O t h e r l i b r a r i e s o r c o l l e c t i o n s w h i c h p o s s e s s o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t s made u s e of i n c o m p i l i n g t h e books e x a m i n e d a r e : The Douce C o l l e c t i o n , now i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y ; The Stowe House C o l l e c t i o n , now i n the B r i t i s h Museum; t h e L i b r a r y o f T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n U n i v e r s i t y ; t h e l i b r a r y o f C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e ; P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s o f P a r i s and R o u e n , and t h e V a t i c a n L i b r a r y , Rome. The f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s m a k i n g any of t h i s m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c was t a k e n i n 18^8 w i t h t h e f o u n d i n g of t h e Camden S o c i e t y . I t s o b j e c t was t o r e n d e r a c c e s s i b l e v a l u a b l e but l i t t l e known m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e c i v i l , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l o r l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . The n e x t s t e p was i n t h e f o r m o f a s u g g e s t i o n made by the t h e n M a s t e r o f t h e R o l l s t o t h e I m p e r i a l T r e a s u r y on t h e 26th o f J a n u a r y l8j>7. H i s i d e a was to c o l l e c t v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s r e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h H i s t o r y f r o m t h e time o f t h e Romans t o t h e r e i g n o f H e n r y V I I I . The w o r k was t o be t r e a t e d as a n E d i t i o P r i n c e p s , t h e b e s t m a n u s c r i p t s b e i n g c o l l a t e d and t h e t e x t so o b t a i n e d b e i n g t u r n e d f r o m m e d i a e v a l h a n d w r i t i n g to modern p r i n t . Thus we w o u l d have s u c h a book as w o u l d have been p r o d u c e d i f t h e a u t h o r h a d a r r a n g e d or b e e n a b l e t o a r r a n g e f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s own m a n u s c r i p t . The i d e a was a c c e p t e d a n d t h e p l a n a g r e e d t o , and i n l8j>8 t h e f i r s t volume a p p e a r e d . The w o r k was c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s and has e x p a n d e d i n t o t h e p u b l i c a -t i o n o f t h e Y e a r B o o k s . I t i s our i n t e n t i o n t o t r e a t o f t h e c h r o n i c l e s o f v a r i o u s men who d e a l w i t h t h e t i m e s o f R i c h a r d t h e F i r s t . T h e i r names a r e h e r e g i v e n w i t h t h e s o u r c e s o f t e x t u s e d : — Roger o f W e n d o v e r : Douce C o l l e c t i o n ; C o t t o n C o l l e c t i o n and t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y . W i l l i a m of Newburgh: Lambeth C o l l e c t i o n ; Stowe C o l l e c t i o n ; T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n L i b r a r y . R i c h a r d o f D e v i z e s : C o r p u s C h r i s t i C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e ; C o t t o n C o l l e c t i o n . R o b e r t o f T o r i n i : B o d l e i a n M S S . O x f o r d ; A r u n d e l M S S . , C o t t o n a n d H a r l e i a n C o l l e c t i o n s . B r i t . M u s . ; R o u e n , B i b l i o t h l q u e P u b l i q u e ; Bayeux C h a p t e r L i b r a r y ; A v r a n c h e s , C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y ; P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e P u b l i q u e ; Rome, V a t i c a n L i b r a r y . J o c e l y n de B r a k e l o n d : H a r l e i a n M S S . , B r i t , M u s a J o h n C a p g r a v e : Cambridge, P u b l i c L i b r a r y ; Corpus C h r i s t ! C o l l e g e . Roger of H o v e d e n : R o y a l C o l l e c t i o n (Geo. T l ) A r u n d e l M S , B r i t o M u s . ; S t . Johns C o l l e g e , Oxfo rd ; H a r l e i a n M S , R a l p h de P i c e t o : Lambeth M S . , R a l p h ' s own c o p y ; Corpus C h r i s t ! , a b e a u t i f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n c o p y f r o m B i c e t o to Archb i shop Hubert Wal t e r C o t t o n and R o y a l C o l l e c t i o n s , B r i t . Mus T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Dub l in , . Chapter I I Ralph de D i e e t c The three w r i t e r s whom we have chosen f o r our c h i e f study of the c h r o n i c l e r s of the A n j e v i n Age present some fe a t u r e s i n common and some i n c o n t r a s t . Roger Hoveden i s the. man of w o r l d l y a f f a i r s . While he ta k e s a great i n t e r e s t i n the Church i t i s to a g r e a t extent i n s o f a r as events I n connection w i t h i t have a p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Roger Wend over i s a monk. He f o l l o w s p o l i t i c a l events i t i s t r u e , hut l a r g e l y as a s p e c t a t o r . H i s mind i s always occupied w i t h thoughts of r e l i g i o n and he sees the Divi n e Hand g u i d i n g events a t e v e r y moment. Ralph de D i c e t o , (and we must not omit that de i n t h i s c a s e ) , stands midway between these two. L i k e the present h o l d e r o f h i s o f f i ce — he was Dean of St. P a u l ' s — h e i s a churchman f i r s t o f a l l , but one who takes a keen i n t e r e s t and an a c t i v e part i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . This brings out the f a c t t h a t he a l s o stands midway between the other two i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h a t Wendover was of the r e g u l a r c l e r g y , de D i c e t o was s e c u l a r and Hoveden was a c l e r i c but, at l e a s t t i l l a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t from a c t i v e l i f e , n o t a clergyman. Ralph must have been a man of strong p e r s o n a l i t y , a f a c t t h a t i s marked i n s e v e r a l ways i n h i s c h r o n i c l e . He i s e l u s i v e , and though we may know a l i t t l e more of him a f t e r reading his book we cannot help f e e l i n g that there i s very much more to know i f only the materials could be found* V/e can i l l u s t r a t e t h i s by a reference''" t o . h i s f i r s t sentence. He begins with a preface which opens thus: In opusculo sequenti triu.m temporum, s c i l i c e t ante legem, sub lege, sub g r a t i a , p o t e r i s a l i -quantulam habere notitiam. Now Ralph lays great plans f o r a magnum opus, which w i l l t e l l a l l that there i s to know about the times whether "before the law, under the law or under grace", and not merely w i l l the countries be treated h i s t o r i c a l l y but a l s o geographically. In the l i g h t of t h i s one would l i k e to l e a r n i n what frame of mind Ralph wrote the two diminutives, opusculo and aliquantulam. Were they w r i t t e n i n a s p i r i t of r e a l humility or d i d he consider h i s work good? He c e r t a i n l y was ambitious i n planning his work, and intended to make i t a model book. Yet i n h i s own p r o f e s s i o n a l career he saw, without a trace of b i t t e r n e s s , other men overtake and pass him i n rank. And this i n s p i t e of the fact t hat he was well connected, and might f a i r l y expect advancement. We conclude that he was an i n t e l l i g e n t and well informed man, of broad culture and that he added to t h i s a very f i n e character. I. Die, I, 3„ l ike many of the .chroniclers his origin is obscure. He is always very careful to c a l l himself by his f u l l name and. other writers also c a l l him Ralph de Diceto. There are two possible reasons why a person should do so, f i r s t , to claim a share of the glory attaching to an honourable name, and secondly, to distinguish himself from some other person of the same Christian name with whom he might be confusedo In this case no trace lias been found of any other Diceto, and for the latter, the only contemporary with whom he could be confounded was Ralph of Langford, his own predecessor in the office of dean. But he already used the style when he was s t i l l archdeacon. Diss in Norfolk appears to be the only place in England which approaches his name, but there is nothing to connect RaIph with i t , and the l iving is otherwise accounted for beyond question. There appears to be more evidence in favour of a place in France, especially one named Disse-sous-de-Lude in Anjou. His nationality is as doubtful as his name. He shews no bias in his writings by which we can decide i t . Stubbs appears to think 1 that he should show some evidence of national feeling. This should not surprise us. We must a l l have noticed how weak were ties of nationality at this period. In England there is l i t t l e sign of consciousness 1 . Op. C i t . I Intro. P. ZVIII. of n a t i o n a l i t y before 12 60 and even i n Chaucer i t i s very weak, w h i l e i n France i t was s t i l l l a t e r i n de v e l o p i n g . On the other hand we have the example of Walter o f Constance Archbishop of Rouen, who became c h i e f j u s t i c i a r on t h e f a l l of Longchamp i n 1199. Walter betrays no pro French nor un E n g l i s h t r a i t s , and the h i s t o r i c case of Simon de Montfort may be c i t e d as that of a Frenchman who became "more E n g l i s h than the E n g l i s h themselves". We might a l s o remark that the Normans and A n j e v i n s have r e v e a l e d as one o f t h e i r l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s great powers of a d a p t a b i l i t y and a s s i m i l a t i o n . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t he was an A n j e v i n appears to us t o be the best one. The date of h i s b i r t h i s e q u a l l y u n c e r t a i n , the most l i k e l y y e a r x i s between 1120 and I I 3 0 . T h i s makes him over e i g h t y at the time, o f h i s death, but we know t h a t he was made archdeacon of London i n I I 5 2 . This was the post that-was often g i v e n t o a very near kinsman. Hence i t has been i n f e r r e d that he was connected w i t h t h e f a m i l y of Belmeis, Richard of Belmeis was the bishop o f London who appointed him. The f a m i l y was a l l powerful i n t h e chapter of S t . Paul's f o r more than h a l f a c e n t u r y . They were of Norman e x t r a c t i o n and had s e t t l e d i n S h r o p s h i r e . Bishop R i c h a r d I d i d much f o r St. P a u l ' s , r e p a i r i n g the c a t h e d r a l , b u i l d i n g the schools and e n c l o s i n g the churchyard. He p l a c e d !• Op. Ci t . I I n t r o o XX s e v e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n prominent p o s i t i o n s , so that by 1120 the f a m i l y was w e l l entrenched. A f t e r t h e storm of Stephen?s r e i g n we f i n d R i c h a r d I I of Belmeis bishop of London in H52, and one of h i s f i r s t a c t s was to appoint Ralph de D i c e t o archdeacon o f Middlesex. Nepotism was extremely s t r o n g a t the time and the h e r e d i t a r y i n s t i n c t was s t r o n g i n St. P a u l ' s . Thus i t is h i g h l y probable t h a t Ralph was a nephew o f Bishop Richard I I Belmeis. Support i s l e n t to the s u p p o s i t i o n by Ralph's r e f e r e n c e s 1 to the e l e v a t i o n o f the sons of p r i e s t s to high o f f i c e i n the Church. The wording o f t h i s passage i s s t r i k i n g : R i c h a r d , archdeacon of Coventry, whose f a t h e r was Robert, bishop of Chester, was consecrated in l l 6 l bishop of the same see by archbishop Theobald. Therefore the sons of p r i e s t s are not t o be ex-cluded from the ranks o f p r i e s t s , or from the care off p a r i s h e s , or from c a t h e d r a l churches, or even from the papacy i t s e l f , i f they-have been of exem-p l a r y l i f e . Ralph had s t u d i e d at a u n i v e r s i t y , e v i d e n t l y P a r i s , and was a l r e a d y 'magister' a t the time o f h i s appointment t o the archdeaconry. A p p a r e n t l y he r e t u r n e d to P a r i s , p o s s i b l y t o complete h i s l e g a l e d u c a t i o n , necessary f o r the post. I t was at P a r i s that he formed h i s l i f e - l o n g f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A r n u l f of L i s i e u x , a man who must have been v e r y u s e f u l to him l a t e r by s u p p l y i n g him w i t h many items of c u r r e n t news. 1. I b i d . I . 303 - l i -l t was a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s r e s i d e n c e abroad gave him a wider o u t l o o k on p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s * , Two l i v i n g s presented to him a f t e r his r e t u r n helped him through h i s f i n a n c i a l w o r r i e s , much needed h e l p , f o r Bishop R i c h a r d Belme i s had many t r o u b l e s of h i s own and was unable to help him much. To complete the l a t t e r ' s mis-f o r t u n e s he s u f f e r e d 1 a p a r a l y t i c s t r o k e i n 11 b l so t h a t he was unable to be present a t the c o n s e c r a t i o n of the Bishop of E x e t e r . He d i e d a year l a t e r and was succeeded by G i l b e r t F o l i o t , another member o f the f a m i l y connection. This gave Ralph an o p p o r t u n i t y to secure the f u t u r e favour of Bishop F o l i o t . The l a t t e r was a l r e a d y bishop of H e r e f o r d , and. i t was unusual to t r a n s l a t e a bishop except to York or Canterbury. Pope Alexander I I I was a t P a r i s a t the time, 1163, and D i c e t o was armed w i t h l e t t e r s from the k i n g , Becket and t h e canons, and commissioned to o b t a i n the p pope's consent. I n the pope's r e p l y g r a n t i n g the request we f i n d t h a t i t was Ralph that n e g o t i a t e d the b u s i n e s s , Alexander says: Owing to t h e l e t t e r s of our d e a r e s t son i n C h r i s t our i l l u s t r i o u s son Henry, k i n g o f the E n g l i s h , and our venerable b r o t h e r Thomas, archbishop o f Canterbury, and from the arguments of our e x c e l l e n t son Ralph, archdeacon of your ' church, we accept what the s a i d k i n g wishes most 1. Die. I. .304, 2 , I b i d , I , 309 6 s t r o n g l y and s e e l s t h a t our venerable b r o t h e r , the bishop o f Hereford, should be t r a n s l a t e d to your ••church-in order, t h a t he s h o u l d g i v e t h i s same church h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and p a s t o r a l care. The l e t t e r i s addressed to the Chapter o f Lor/1 on. F a l l o t helped him i n every w a y p o s s i b l e a n d i n t r o d u c e d him t o Henry I I . He was then to be found from time to time about the c o u r t , but seems never to have obtained any o f f i c i a l post. Already there was f r i c t i o n between F o i l o t and Socket, and the archbishop had gained the favour o f the Icing f o r h i s p a r t y . This m a y account f o r Ralph's f a i l u r e to f i n d a p l a c e . One may -well aslc why so remarkable a man was not made 1 bishop. The see o f London was vacant by t h e death o f h i s patron and r e l a t i v e G i l b e r t F o l i o t from 1186 to 1189. The f a m i l i e s of F o l i o t and Belmeis were s t i l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n i n f l u e n t i a l q u a r t e r s , but they were no longer as powerful as i n I I 7 0 . The c h o i c e f e l l 2 on R i c h a r d F i t s l e a l , dean o f L i n c o l n , son of U i g e l , bishop of E l y , the t r e a s u r e r o f Henry I I and well-known author of the Dialogues de S c a c c a r i o . He had been prominent i n Henry's r e i g n , was a personage of consequence at c o u r t and was as w e l l connected, by b i r t h as the F o l i o t s or the Belmeis f a m i l y . I*: Die. i i . 69, 7 0 . 2. I b i d . i i . 7jj 0 Diceto was a very prominent person as dean and was present o f f i c i a l l y , as we s h a l l see, at t h e c o r o n a t i o n o f Richard. He p r a c t i c a l l y f u l f i l l e d the f u n c t i o n s of bishop during t h e vacancy and i n t h i s way r e c e i v e d many prominent v i s i t o r s ; and both before and a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d as dean he came i n conta c t w i t h many men prominent i n t h e i r own n a t i o n s ' a f f a i r s and a l s o i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . Twice a year the canons of St. Paul's e n t e r t a i n e d sumptuously t h e a r c h -bishops, j u s t i c i a r s , g r e a t e r barons, judges, s h e r i f f s and any other prominent persons who happened to be v i s i t i n g England at the time. K i n g R i c h a r d I on h i s r e t u r n i n 1194 was r e c e i v e d 1 w i t h solemn p r o c e s s i o n on March 23rd. Arch-bishop Walter of Coutances v i s i t e d the c a t h e d r a l , 19th of May i n the same year. He preached the sermon and was a f t e r -wards e n t e r t a i n e d at a f e a s t i n the,bishop's p a l a c e . I n 1201 John of Salerno was r e c e i v e d ^ , and i t i s recorded t h a t Diceto was present. I t was from such sources that he obtained m a t e r i a l s f o r hi s geographical sketches of v a r i o u s p a r t s of France, of S i c i l y , Cyprus and P a l e s t i n e . For h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s he drew on G i l b e r t F o l i o t and R i c h a r d of I l c h e s t e r , two of Henry I I ' s •1, I b i d , i i . 114, 2, I b i d , i i , 115. 3 * I b i d . i i a 173. most t r u s t e d s e r v a n t s . From these two he got most of h i s f a c t s 'concerning Henry. Walter of Coutances was a. r e g u l a r correspondent and gave much i n f o r m a t i o n regarding events i n France, w h i l e he was at Rouen and l a t e r , r e g a r d i n g England w h i l e he was j u s t i c i a r . A l l these men knew 1 that he was w r i t i n g a h i s t o r y , F i t z Heal s u p p l i e d him w i t h news c 0 1 1 -2 c e r n i n g s e v e r a l b i s h o p r i c s , and of a f f a i r s i n the Holy l a n d i n 1 1 9 C . The f o l l o w i n g year he sent him an account of A Longchemp's q u a r r e l w i t h John and the barons, f o l l o w e d by the " b a t t l e of Hownslow" and the f l i g h t to London. Walter wrote him a l e t t e r c o n t a i n i n g an account of a s e c r e t agree-5 ment between P h i l i p of France and Ri c h a r d i n 1191 . The c h i e f a r t i c l e i n t h i s i s a clause to grant the archbishop of Rouen the power t o act alone i n excommunications i n the lands of e i t h e r k i n g . Coutances als.o wrote t o him p r i v a t e l y announcing Richard's r e l e a s e i n 1194. Longchamp was one of h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s and maintained a steady i n t e r c o u r s e , e s p e c i a l l y dur ing Richard's absence i n 1. I b i d . I . P r e f . 1XXV. 2. I b i d . i i . 77, 3« I b i d . i i . 88, 4* I b i d , i i . 98. 5* I b i d . i i . 135 to 137. 6. L i e . i i . 112. P a l e s t i n e . From him Diceto l e a r n e d most of h i s f a c t s con-ce r n i n g current h i s t o r y . He admired the j u s t i c i a r f o r h i s b r i l l i a n c e and sent a l e t t e r , o f which he gives a copy, 1 c o n g r a t u l a t i n g Longchamp on h i s e l e v a t i o n to the l e g a t e ' s post ana the j u s t i c i a r s h i p , February, 1190. We are given an account of Longchamp's f a l l ^ which f o l l o w s i n the ma i n Hoveden's account. He mentions the attempt to escape d i s g u i s e d as a woman but touches on i t very s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y and omits the u n d i g n i f i e d d e t a i l s . One f e e l s that he i s s o r r y f o r an o l d f r i e n d , and not th a t he i s t r y i n g to f o r g e t an unpopular acquaintance. One of Longchamp's l a s t communications^ enclosed an e p i s t l e from the Old Man of the Mountain e x o n e r a t i n g R i c h a r d i n connec-t i o n w i t h the death of Conrad, Marquis of M o n t f e r r a t . This 4 w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . He preserved e v e r y t h i n g that he r e c e i v e d i n the c a t h e d r a l l i b r a r y or s c r i p t o r i u m , and at h i s death l e f t e v e r y t h i n g to the church which he had served so l o n g and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . H i s g i f t i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s types of s e r v i c e boohs, chapter r u l e s , s e c u l a r books and h i s own l e t t e r s and manuscripts t o g e t h e r w i t h a few v e s t -ments,, r e l i c s and ornaments. He was the tru e founder of the s c r i p t o r i u m of S t . P a u l ' s . l e I b i d . i i . I77 et seq. 2. I b i d . i i . 1D0-101. 3. I b i d . i i a 127V 4 . See Appendix. -16-L i t t i e more Is known of h i s death than of h i s b i r t h . i n 1198 Robert F i t s Heal d i e d and the k i n g summoned the 1 2 chapter to France. D i c e t o was excused because o f h i s age, 3 but d i d not allow h i m s e l f to be overlooked-', and asked f o r p e r m i s s i o n to consecrate the b i s h o p - e l e c t . This was granted and he performed the o f f i c e . He served as one o f the judges i n an appeal to Rome of G i r a l d u s Cambrensis i n 1201 and was s t i l l a c t i n g i n 1 2 0 2 4 , but by 1204 had been r e p l a c e d . Stubbs draws the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he d i e d i n 1202 or 1203. He opens w i t h a preface i n which he says that he w i l l place s i g n s i n t h e margin, (which he does), to i n d i c a t e the t o p i c . Thus PS means p e r s e c u t i o n of the church; SC r e f e r s to schisms; CO, meetings of the c o u n c i l ; a c a s t l e , concerning the crowning of k i n g s ; a Greek cross r e f e r s t o p r i v i l e g e s of the Church of Canterbury; a c r o s i e r , c o n c e r n i n g the e l e c -t i o n of archbishops of Canterbury; a sword r e f e r s t o dukes of Normandy; a spear, t o the ccunts of Anjou; the s i g n DC to c o n t r o v e r s i e s between k i n g s and p r i e s t s ; a c a s t l e and sword concerns the k i n g s of England and.dukes o f Normandy; c a s t l e , sword and spear r e f e r to k i n g s of England, dukes of Normandy and counts of Anjou; a c a s t l e w i t h two m a i l e d 1 . I b i d . i i . 163 2» I b i d . i i . 164, 165, . 3> -Ibid. i i . 166'. ' 4,. Stubbs, I n t r o d , to R.S. P. 8 6 . -17-hands g r a s p i n g the p o r t c u l l i s r e f e r s t o the d i s s e n s i o n s between Henry I I and h i s t h r e e sons. These are used much more f r e e l y before 1174 than a f t e r . A t h i r d p a r t of the work i s c a l l e d the Opuscula. T h i s i s l a r g e l y an a b s t r a c t from the Imagines, c o n s i s t i n g of the more important matters d e a l t w i t h i n the main work. I n general they show t h a t he had some a p p r e c i a t i o n of the importance of events around him.. Sometimes he i n c l u d e s i n c i d e n t s i n which e i t h e r he or some f r i e n d took p a r t and In one or two cases i t would seem th a t he c o n s i d e r e d the passage s p e c i a l l y w e l l w r i t t e n . Bishop Stubbs c r i t i c i z e s 1 Diceto f o r c a r e l e s s n e s s about dates, but we must bear i n mind t h a t D i c e t o was p o s s i b l y q u o t i n g from a d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t y or he may have found c o n f u s i o n of dates, as we o u r s e l v e s have, and had not s u f f i c i e n t r e f e r e n c e s to enable him t o reach a t r u e c o n c l u -s i o n . Again, I t may sometimes be due to a d i f f e r e n t method of reckoning. One instance of t h i s i s the c o n s e c r a t i o n off Robert off Melun which Ralph p l a c e s i n 1164 but which Stubbs places i n I I 6 3 . The a c t u a l date, December 2p, shows that there i s a s t r o n g p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t Diceto i s r e c k o n i n g from some date p r i o r to January 1 s t . We have p l a c e d a note on t h i s i n the appendix. Stubbs counted seventeen dates between 1164 and 1184 and found two wrong, of which one i s 1. . Die. i i . P r e f a c e , pp. XXXIII to X l i i . the i n s t ance j u s t quo ted . I t i s t rue tha t he brushes dates a s i d e i n order to proceed w i t h h i s c h r o n i c l e , but t h i s can s c a r c e l y be c a l l e d g r o s s c a r e l e s s n e s s or u t t e r d i s r e g a r d . The f i r s t volume f a l l s i n t o two main p a r t s . . The f i r s t he c a l l s A b b r e v i a t i o n s Chronicorum and I s , as i t s name i n d i c a t e s , a resume of other c h r o n i c l e s , s t a r t i n g w i t h Cas s i odor us and a treatment o f the ages of the w o r l d and the s u c c e s s i o n of the p a t r i a r c h s . The Jews and Greeks are t r e a t e d i n shor t space, and v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n I s pa id t o the h i s t o r y of Rome. Then a s h o r t account o f mediaeval Europe i s g i v e n f o l l o w e d by a f u l l e r account of the Saxons and t h e i r kingdoms . T h i s s e c t i o n i s c a r r i e d , to the year 1147* The second s e c t i o n he names Ymagines' H i s t o r i a r u m w h i c h he c l a i m s as h i s own. This term may , for l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s be compared w i t h Wendover ' s F l o r e s . Most of the w r i t e r s are content t o c a l l t h e i r volumes c h r o n i c l e s or a c t s . These two on ly g ive some more i m a g i n a t i v e name. Roger t e l l s us why he chose h i s name; we a re l e f t to t h i n k out R a l p h ' s f o r o u r s e l v e s . The word imagines means i m i t a t i o n s , c-opies, images-or p i c t u r e s . These suggest e i t h e r t ha t lie meant t o f o l l o w i n the f oo t s t eps of former w r i t e r s , or t ha t he in tended to g i v e a s o r t , of " i d y l l s of the k i n g " „ I t -may a l s o mean r e f l e c t i o n s , but he i s r a r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l and on ly once, does he m o r a l i s e . I t may a l s o mean r eminde r s , -19-and- th i s - } a lmost the e q u i v a l e n t o f the modern memoirs, seems to "be the m o s t l i k e l y . There i s one other a p p l i c a t i o n o f the word , namely the use made i n entomology. Here I t me, an 3 the p e r f e c t i n s e c t a f t e r i t has passed through t h e embryonic and p r e p a r a t i v e s t a g e s . This Is not a c l a s s i c a l use o f the term and f u r t h e r has much i n common w i t h RalphVs own c o n -c e p t i o n of h i s r o l e . He rounded out and p e r f e c t e d former r e c o r d s . He admits t h a t the A b b r e v i a t i ones are no t h i s own work, but he claims- 1- to be an o r i g i n a l w r i t e r from 1147, a n c l-Z acknowledges Robert de Monte as h i s a u t h o r i t y f o r event s in- 1171o He was made archdeacon i n 1155 and appears to have set about c o l l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s at once, but not to have compi led them i n t h e i r p resen t form before 1180 f o r lie I s always r e f e r r e d to as dean. From the t ime o f the e l e c t i o n of Thomas a Becket i n 1164 he was e v i d e n t l y much more c l o s e l y i n touch w i t h a f f a i r s . As th e r e was no change i n h i s s t a tus between I I 5 5 and 1180 we must a s s i g n some o ther r e a s o n . Supposing him to have been bo rn about I I 3 0 he was twenty f i v e when appointed a rchdeacon . He was t h e n away from St. Pau l's at !• Die. 1. 23 . 2, I b i d , I . 346* -2 0 -l e a s t i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r a p e r i o d of from f i v e to seven y e a r s , pursuing h i s l e g a l s t u d i e s at P a r i s . At the age of t h i r t y two he was back I n London, more mature, a magister and having formed, as we know, s e v e r a l f r i e n d s h i p s at the u n i - . vers i t y . He was sent on t h e m i s s i o n t o the pope a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o , i n connection w i t h the t r a n s l a t i o n o f G i l b e r t F o l i o t t o St. P a u l ' s . Having been s u c c e s s f u l I n t h i s he then had as h i s bishop a r e l a t i v e who owed h i s p o s i t i o n i n no small measure to Ralph, and who would give him a l l the help p o s s i b l e In g a t h e r i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r h i s book. From I l 6 2 to I I 7 2 h i s c h r o n i c l e i s l a r g e l y occupied w i t h the Beeket s t r u g g l e . This i s a f a i r l y unbiassed account as we s h a l l see, but i t i s a l s o d i s p a s s i o n a t e to such a degree that i t suggests a much l a t e r w r i t i n g down. I t l a c k s the d e t a i l and the f i r e of "Jendover' s account, although Ralph must have heard e v e r y t h i n g at the time. The account of Bishop F o l i o t ' s j o u r n e y 1 i n t o I t a l y i n 1170 was s u p p l i e d by h i s l e t t e r s to D i c e t o which would be i n the l a t t e r 1 s p o s s e s s i o n t e n years l a t e r . IJnder the events of I I 7 3 we f i n d a l o n g l i s t of the punishments t h a t have come upon r e b e l l i o u s sons, a declamation t h a t would have been p e r f e c t l y .natural, i f we suppose i t to have been w r i t t e n 1.. D i e , 1 . 335. 2. I b i d . I . 333 - 2 1 -about seven to ten years l a t e r . Then the f a c t o f h i s appointment as dean i n 1180 supports the h y p o t h e s i s , f o r , as we l'iave -said , he i s always r e f e r r e d to as t h e dean. One other circumstance must be mentioned which gave S t . Paul's a great advantage i n c o m p i l i n g h i s t o r i e s . This was the s i t u a t i o n of the c a t h e d r a l . I t was s e c u l a r w h i l e Canterbury and •Westminster were monastic- I t was i n the trade and s o c i a l c a p i t a l of the kingdom and c l o s e to the Continent; and although t h e . r o y a l residence was Windsor, S t . Paul's i s v e r y near to the Tower of London which was f r e q u e n t l y occupied by the s o v e r e i g n . I t i s notable tha t when Longchamp went to London from Reading he took up residence i n the Tower, as being j u s t i c i a r and thereby the king's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and i t was a t S t . P a u l ' s that he chose to d e l i v e r h i s speech i n defence of h i s conduct. Thus St. Paul's was extremely w e l l p l aced. To t h i s may be added that the canons had t o e n t e r t a i n the g r e a t and the near-great of Court and C i t y a t s t a t e d times. Ralph undoubtedly s t a r t e d h i s book i n i t s f i n a l form about 1180 but p a r t s cannot be w h o l l y e ontemporary w r i t i n g , 1 f o r he informs us under 1182 t h a t Henry the L i o n , Duke of Saxony was d r i v e n i n t o e x i l e i n Normandy where he l i v e d i n abundant p r o f u s i o n " f o r more than t h r e e y e a r s " . Obviously !• Ibid. i i . 13, t h i s was not w r i t t e n t i l l a t l e a s t 1185. He was a man of wide r e a d i n g and h i s experience i n c l u d e d both e a r l y and l a t e w r i t e r s . He quotes Caesar, V e r g i l , Suetonius, Lucan and M a r t i a l among o t h e r s , b e sides Gregory the Great, Si d o n i u s A p o l l i n a r i s , F u l b e r t of Chartres w i t h many of the E n g l i s h c h r o n i c l e r s , those deserving mention being Geoffrey of Monmouth, W i l l i a m of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester and A i l r e d of R i e v a u l x . We n o t i c e one f e a t u r e of these quotations. Almost a l l occur p r i o r to 1180 so tha t i t i s quite p o s s i b l e t h a t he found the quotations i n those h i s t o r i e s which he was a b r i d g i n g . The e a r l i e s t o r i g i n a l q uotation that we have d i s c o v e r e d i s found i n an undated l e t t e r 1 from Ralph h i m s e l f t o W i l l i a m Longchamp, a l r e a d y bishop of E l y , g i v i n g some good advice and quoting from F u l b e r t of Ch a r t r e s . This he pla c e s I n t h e Opuscula whi ch i s not a c h r o n o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y . T h i s c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of l i s t s o f k i n g s , emperors, bishops and popes w i t h an a b r i d g -ment of Geoffrey of Monmouth's c h r o n i c l e . He makes no comment on t h i s l a s t , but the f a c t that he pla c e s i t i n the appendix would go t o show t h a t he d i d not regard i t h i g h l y . Other matters i n c l u d e d are a summary of French h i s t o r y and a l i s t of synods from Hicaea to that of Rome i n I I 7 9 . We found s e v e r a l passages whose meaning was obscure ! • M e . i i . 177. Hence the l e t t e r cannot be e a r l i e r than 1189. and whose j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n was not p l a i n . Thus under the year I O 3 6 we note a c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s h a v i ng re fe rence to the Emperor Henry I I I . Among these i s one concerning an u g l y p r i e s t 1 who i s r e p o r t e d as c h a n t i n g : " I t i s He tha t hath made us and not we o u r s e l v e s " . That t h i s i s meant as a j e s t would appear from the account of the journey' of John of Oxford to S i c i l y i n I I 7 6 , which i s i n an amusing v e i n , Diceto appears t o have r e c o g n i s e d h i s l i m i t a t i o n s as a s t y l i s t . At times he uses a p r e t e n t i o u s manner, on which occas ions lie o f t e n "becomes i n v o l v e d and obscure. He seems to have r e a l i z e d t h i s and hence r e s t r i c t e d h i m s e l f , as a r u l e , to a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t unadorned s t y l e . The r e s u l t i s that he i s r a r e l y impressive or dr a m a t i c . We get none of Wendover's atmosphere i n D i c e t o ' s account o f the death of Becke t , and the glamour of romance t h a t Hoveden throws over the c o r o n a t i o n of R i c h a r d I s m i s s i n g from D i c e t o ' s ^ f a c t u a l resume. Yet Dic e t o as dean of London c a r r i e d the sacred o i l and chrism to t h e archbishop at t h i s ceremony, as he h i m s e l f t e l l s us, through the vacancy o f the b i s h o p r i c . H i s s t o r y 4 of the- death o f Henry I I l a c k s the grandeur and pathos of 1. Ibid, i . 178. 2, I b i d . 1. 416. 3* I b i d , i i . 68, 69. 4. I b i d . i i . 63, 64» Hoveden. I n M s d e s c r i p t i o n of A n g e r s 1 , e s p e c i a l l y o f the palace and the r i v e r he i s a lmos t p i c t u r e s q u e hut i t i s some-what s p o i l e d by d i f f i c u l t ph ra seo logy and he appears t o have smi l ed a t h i m s e l f f o r s o a r i n g , f o r he f o l l o w s t h i s immed-i a t e l y by a d e s c r i p t i o n of A q u i t a i n e t h a t he i n t ends to be f a c e t i o u s , 2 We are g i v e n an account of the encounter o f R i c h a r d ' s f l e e t w i t h the g rea t merchant s h i p sent by Saphadin , b ro the r of S a l a d i n , t o the h e l p of the bes ieged Saracens i n A c r e , I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o note the c o m p o s i t i o n of the f l e e t , R icha rd had " t h i r t e e n g r e a t s h i p s which are c a l l e d busses" (these appa ren t l y resembled the S c o t t i s h h e r r i n g b u s s e s ) , a hundred other t r a n s p o r t s and f i f t y t r i r e m e g a l l e y s . The Saracen almost s l i p p e d p a s t , "But the s h i p s b e i n g drawn up i n the n i c k o f time and hav ing a l l t h i n g s neces sa ry f o r a nava l f i g h t the s h i p s came toge the r a round the boat and ve ry f i e r c e t h r u s t s were made on a l l s i d e s when, the wind f a i l i n g , the f l e e t s tood mot ion less , - So a c e r t a i n rower , l e d by the example of tha t l i t t l e b i r d known as the d i v e r , swimming under the water reached t h e s h i p and p i e r c e d i t w i t h an anger , Perhaps he had heard how t h a t E l e a a e r i n the time of the Maeabees p l a c e d h i m s e l f under t h e e lephan t around wh ich the whole weight o f the b a t t l e was s u r g i n g from a l l s i d e s , and p i e r c i n g him t h r o u g h the stomach k i l l e d h im. He was overwhelmed but i t was i n b e a r i n g through the ob jec t o f the Jews. But the rower , having C h r i s t i n h i s h e a r t , r e t u r n i n g to the g a l l e y unharmed,resumed h i s s e a t , 1, I b i d . I . 294, 2 9 5 , 2, D i e . i i . 9 3 , 9 4 , Y/e l e a r n ho?/ the water ascended t o each deck i n t u r n and the men, v/ho p r e v i o u s l y had been so c o n f i d e n t of v i c t o r y , abandoned a l l hope and p i t c h e d themselves headlong over-board. R i c h a r d ordered t h i r t e e n hundred of them to be drowned and two hundred to. be saved." This took place on the 6th of June, 1191. Then he resumed h i s prosperous course tovs/ards the p o r t he was making f o r . Then we are t o l d ; 1 l i t u o r u m itaque s t r i d o r , d u c t i l i u r a c l angor tubarum, h o r i b i l i s cornieinum s t r e p i t u s l i t o r a r e p l e v e r u n t — a sentence that i s almost worthy of V e r g i l i n i t s s o n o r i t There i s another v i v i d p i c t u r e , the a r r e s t o f G e o f f r e y of York on September 18th, 1191, at the church of St. £ Martin's at Dover on h i s r e t u r n from c o n s e c r a t i o n a t Tours Quod face r e recusans, stolam gerens i n c o l l o , bajulans crueem i n manibus, ab a l t a r i s cornu, per pedes, per c r u r a per bra c h i a , c o l l i so c a p i t e super pavimentum v i o l e n t e r e x t r a h i t u r per viam lutosam, per immunda l o c a , cum e l e r i c i s s u i s et v i r i s r e l i -g i o s i s , qui de p a r t i b u s m u l t i s ad ipsum videndum . c o n f l u x e r a n t , perductus est i n c a s t e l l u m X I I I Kalendas O c t o b r i s u b i per' octo d i e s est r e t r u s u s i n carcerenu Although he breaks out i n t h i s g r a n d i l o q u e n t s t y l e on a .few occasions he a l s o , as has been po i n t e d out , d i s p l a y s a sense of humour. One other example of t h i s must s u f f i c e ; 1, I b i d , i i . 94, 2. I b i d , i i . 97, i t i s a pun worthy of P i s t o l or F a l s t a f f , I n D i c e t o ' s account o f the q u a r r e l w i t h Beeket, g i v e n i n t h i s chapter, mention i s made o f the two d e l e g a t e s sent t o the pope "by i Thomas i n 1169, namely G r a t i a n and V i v i a n . D i c e t o sums 2 up the stalemate of the move w i t h the words: G r a t i a n found no grace w i t h the Icing, nor was V i v i a n v i v i d In the memory of t h e arc h b i s h o p . He a l s o , l i k e Wendover, l e v e l s s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m at the c u p i d i t y of the Roman c l e r g y . When P h i l i p , Archbishop of Cologne, ana P h i l i p , Count of F l a n d e r s , v i s i t e d London i n 1184, the c i t y was decorated and the guests were r e c e i v e d with great honour. There was a solemn p r o c e s s i o n to S t . Paul's and another to Westminster Abbey, then they were e n t e r t a i n e d r i g h t r o y a l l y f o r f i v e days at the k i n g ' s p a l a c e . Then Ralph concludes :^ But whether the archbishop went away loaded w i t h many g i f t s , i t i s s u p e r f l u o u s t o enquire. Again he r e p o r t s 4 that by command of the pope a f o r t i e t h of a l l movables and immovables was l e v i e d throughout the whole of England i n 1200, 1. Die. i . 332. 2. I b i d , i , 335* 3 . I b i d . i i . 31° 4 o I b i d . i i . 169. " f o r the help,-as i t was s a i d , of the land o f Jerusalem, to he c a r r i e d t h i t h e r by the hand of the a f o r e s a i d P h i l i p , n o t a r y of the Pope, but unle s s by chance the Romans renounce t h e i r n a t u r a l and i n g r a i n e d c u p i d i t y i t i s never l i k e l y to come there- u n d i m i n i s h e d , " R a l p h 1 s n o t i c e of the s u p e r n a t u r a l i s almost e n t i r e l y c o nfined to a few i n s t a n c e s o f omens. He twice remarks on the happy auspices under which marriages took place and on both of these occasions we t h i n k i t i s more as an excuse for a pun than t o t e l l t h e omens. He s a y s 1 that i t was a f e l i c i t o u s omen t h a t W i l l i a m M a n d e v i l l e was married on the feast of St. F e l i x . And a g a i n he r e p o r t s t h a t P h i l i p of France married M a r g a r i t e of H a i n s u l t at Trunc which was sur e l y a s i g n that the roy a l ' s t e m ( t r o i i e ) would be f r u i t f u l . One other case occurs. He r e p o r t s ^ that on December 26, 1194, the duke of A u s t r i a was thrown from h i s horse and his f o o t was so macerated by t r e a d i n g t h a t i t had t 0 be amputated. He adds t h a t t h i s was s u r e l y a judgment f o r h i s having i n c a r c e r a t e d R i c h a r d and, r e f u s i n g t o allow him t o walk about, had bound h i s f e e t I n c h a i n s . Two i n s t a n c e s o f n a t u r a l phenomena are recorded.. Under 1» I b i d , i l , j«, -2. I b i d . i i . 5 , 3 . I b i d . i i . 124. the date «££0"4' we read . - 1 I n the' same year a comet was seen, not o n l y i n • England b u t , as was r e p o r t e d , throughout the whole w o r l d , from the 24th o f A p r i l for no fewer than seven days i t shone w i t h sp l endou r . The o ther r e f e r s to the aurora b o r e a l i s and r u n s : 1174. On the 4th o f November about the middle of the n i g h t fo r the space o f one hour or more the whole appearance o f the heavens i n the n o r t h e r n par t appeared to be su f fused w i t h a b l o o d - r e d s t a i n . 3 he r eco rds t h r e e eases o f m i r a c u l o u s e v e n t s . Vie l e a r n tha t on one o c c a s i o n a mi racu lous l i g h t shone round the tomb of St , Thomas a Beclzet , though no marve l lous e f f e c t s a re r e p o r t e d . The o n l y i n s t ance where Ralph shows a consequent • 4 a c t i o n occurs i n an account of a s e r v i c e at Ivlentz i n I O 3 0 , where the emperor was presen t at the Feast o f P e n t e c o s t , The Abbot of F u l d a was s i n g i n g the mass. He sang the l a s t v e r s e : " H o l y S p i r i t make t h i s day g l o r i o u s " . Then the c h o i r was s i l e n t and from the a i r the re f e l l a v o i c e , f a r 1, D i e . i . 194 , 2 , Op, c i t , i . 3 ° o , 3, Op, c i t . i , 346, 4 , I b i d . i . I 7 8 . and w i d e , which chanted.: " I w i l l make t h i s day w a r l i k e " . A q u a r r e l subsequen t ly broke out between the s e rvan t s o f the emperor and those o f the abbot w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a few broken heads . Among the g i f t s w h i c h R a l p h l e f t to S t . P a u l ' s were s e v e r a l r e l i c s . These i n c l u d e d bones , a k n i f e s a i d t o have belonged to Our L o r d , a l o c k of h a i r o f Mary Magdalene and a number of vestments t h a t had b e e n w o r n by v a r i o u s famous h o l y men. Pie appears to have c o n s i d e r e d these f a i r l y p rec ious because they might possess o c c u l t powers , but we n o t i c e tha t there i s no such l i s t of marve l lous cu res such as 77 end over wou ld have g i v e n . A p p a r e n t l y R a l p h ' s sense of humour and common sense were t o o s t r o n g f o r a s imple f a i t h i n the s u p e r n a t u r a l . He wrote w i t h a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f at tachment t o the House o f A n j o u , he shows c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o p o l i t i c a l causes. He w r i t es i n a b u s i n e s s - l i k e way. H i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s not always a c c u r a t e , sometimes he I s g a r r u l o u s , sometimes he becomes magni loquen t , but he i s a t h i s beat when he t e l l s a p l a i n t a l e . H i s h i s t o r i c a l value i s v e r y h i g h , f o r he shows a s i d e of the c h a r a c t e r s of the r e i g n s of Henry I I and R i chard tha t would o the rwise be unknown. He q u i c k l y l e a p t to Importance. F i v e c o p i e s of the Imagines were soon- i n e x i s t e n c e . He was quoted as an a u t h o r i t y i n the I p t i i Cen tury , E x t r a c t s from h i s w r i t i n g s were embodied i n s e v e r a l c h r o n i c l e r s n o t a b l y Roger Wend over , Matthew P a r i s and Thomas Walshingham. The Tudor w r i ter s, l i k e Parker and Camden and s t i l l l a t e r S e i d e l l , preserved h i s a u t h o r i t y . That he sa?/ the c o n n e c t i o n between Henry's reforms and the o p p o s i t i o n to them i s shown i n t h i s p a s s a g e d "These men, whom the King had condemned to f o r -f e i t u r e f o r j u s t and proved causes, j o i n e d the p a r t y of h i s son, not because t h e y considered h i s cause as more j u s t but because the f a t h e r , w i t h a view to i n c r e a s i n g the r o y a l d i g n i t y , was t r a m p l i n g on the necks.of the proud, was a s s a u l t i n g the suspected c a s t l e s , or b r i n g i n g them under h i s own power; because he ordered nay compelled t h e "persons .who v/ere occupying p r o p e r t i e s belonging t o the ex-chequer to be content v/ith t h e i r own I n h e r i t a n c e , because he condemned t r a i t o r s to e x i l e , punished robbers w i t h death, s t r u c k t h i e v e s w i t h t e r r o r by the g a l l o w s and punished those who oppressed the poor by the l o s s o f t h e i r own money." He a l s o saw the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l importance o f the Council of C l e r k e n w e l l 2 , March 1 8 t h , 1185. Henry c a l l e d together t h e a r c h b i s h o p s , bishops, e a r l s and barons t o ask t h e i r a d v i c e on the p r o p r i e t y o f h i s proceeding on a crusade to which he was vowed. Diceto shov/s t h a t Henry was .not t r y i n g t o get out of i t , but was concerned f o r the state of England. They reminded him of h i s c o r o n a t i o n oath; Diceto rep eats the oa t h clause by c l a u s e . They r e p l i e d that i t was b e t t e r to govern England i n moderation, f o r 1 , Die. 1. p7lo 2 . I b i d . i i . 33, 34 - p l -tlie peace and s a f e t y of a l l than t o rush o f f to Jerusalem and perhaps be k i l l e d by the b a r b a r i a n s . He decided t o follo w t h e i r a d v i c e and he remained. Ralph does not miss the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l importance of Henry's a s k i n g advice and a c t i n g on i t . One o f the great s t o r i e s I n D i c e t o i s h i s account of the q u a r r e l between Henry I I and Eecket. The f i r s t m ention -we f i n d of Thomas i s when i n I I 3 4 as archdeacon o f Canterbury he i s made Henry's' c h a n c e l l o r . "Thomas, archdeacon of Canterbury, overseer of Be v e r l e y , e n r o l l e d as canon i n v a r i o u s churches throughout England was c r e a t e d c h a n c e l l o r of the k i n g . " 2 The next mention concerns h i s e l e c t i o n t o the primacy, followed immediately by h i s r e s i g n a t i o n ^ as c h a n c e l l o r . The date g i v e n by Ralph i s 1162, but Robert de Monte gives 1 1 6 l . Un f o r t u n a t e l y D i c e t o does not give t h e month, so t h a t we cannot examine t h i s d i f f e r e n c e off d a t e . 4 The general body of the c l e r g y of the whole pro-vince of Canterbury being c a l l e d t ogether at London, i n the presence o f Henry the son o f the k i n g and of the ki n g ' s j u s t i c i a r s , Thomas, archdeacon of Canter-bury and c h a n c e l l o r o f the k i n g , no one whatever-d i s s e n t i n g , was solemnly e l e c t e d to the a r c h b i s h o p r i c 1. Die. I . 300. 2. Die. I . 306, 3* I b i d . I . 307, 4. See Appendix re reck o n i n g o f dates by c h r o n i c l e r s . The pope approved and sent the p a l l to Thomas, who then r e -signed, the c h a n c e l l o r s h i p . But a f t e r he had put on the vestments c o n f e r r e d on t h e hi g h e s t p r i e s t s set apart f o r (the s e r v i c e of) God he thus changed h i s c l o a k t h a t he might change (the occupati on o f ) h i s mind. For not agreeing w i t h being occupied w i t h the a f f a i r s of the C u r i a , . i n order that he might be f r e e d from the C u r i a , and being r e l e a s e d .from i t s d i s c u s s i o n s , overseeing the a f f a i r s of h i s church, he sent a messenger to the k i n g i n Hermandy renouncing the c h a n c e l l o r s h i p and r e s i g n i n g h i s s e a l . We have thought i t worth w h i l e to quote these i n f u l l to show the unbiassed, indeed f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e of Di c e t o towards Becket. The k i n g wished to r e t a i n Thomas as c h a n c e l l o r , f e e l i n g t h a t , w i t h the p a s t o r a l s t a f f i n h i s r i g h t hand and the s e a l of the C u r i a i n h i s l e f t Becket c o u l d c o n t r o l b o t h clergy and l a i t y i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the k i n g , as had happened i n s i m i l a r circumstances on the Continent J L Thomas was not long i n showing t h a t he had indeed "changed h i s mind when he changed, h i s co a t " , f o r i n J u l y of 2 the same year he summoned Thomas, E a r l of H e r t f o r d to do homage to Canterbury f o r the c a s t l e of Tun-bridge, s a y i n g t h a t t h i s was not h e l d of the k i n g ; H e r t f o r d r e f u s e d saying he undoubtedly held of the k i n g . Immediately a f t e r t h i s Becket • ' 3 appointed a c e r t a i n L a u r e n t i u s to the vacant l i v i n g of 1. I b i d , I. 308. 2. I b i d . I . 311. 3» I b i d . I . 311 0 E y n e s f o r d over the p r o t e s t o f the l o r d o f t h e m a n o r , W i l l lam., a t e n a n t - i n - c h i e f , who c l a i m e d the patronage,, • W i l l i a m d r o v e l a u r e n t i u s out and Becket excommunicated W i l l i a m . Henry was f u r i o u s and d e c l a r e d 1 t ha t no one whatsoever was to he excommunicated Dy anyone, I f he he ld I n c h i e f o f the k i n g , i f the k i n g had not been- c o n s u l t e d and h i s consent obta ined o 2 I t i s w o r t h note t h a t R a l p h s i m p l y r e c o r d s the conse -c r a t i o n of John , t r e a s u r e r o f Y o r k , as b i shop of P o i c t i e r s , and does not make any r emark - tha t w o u l d show that he saw t h i s as a d e l i b e r a t e s e p a r a t i o n o f Becke t from one o f h i s s t rongest s u p p o r t e r s . The k i n g was now d e t e r m i n e d to bend t h e c h u r c h t o h i s w i l l , and ca l l ed" 5 a c o u n c i l at C l a r e n d o n f o r January 25, l l o 4 , at w h i c h the a r c h b i s h o p s arid b i s h o p s were to subsc r i be t h e i r a s s e n t . t o the a n c i e n t customs of the k ingdom. We are t o l d t h a t the pope r e l e a s e d Thomas from the oath w h i c h he had t aken but are not t o l d when t h i s t o o k p l a c e . H e n r y ' s p o l i c y of p u n i s h i n g c r i m i n o u s c l e r k s , P h i l i p de Broe 's e x i l e and Thomas's q u a r e e l w i t h John M a r s h a l l , are t r ea ted a t very shor t l e n g t h and Ra lph passes on to B e c k e t ' s 1. D i e . I . 512c 2. I b i d . I . 311, 3» I b i d . I . 312. -34-t r i a l a t Northampton on .October l j.th, Roger , a r chb i shop of .'York, was c a l l e d by p e r s o n a l w r i t as was h i s r i g h t , but appa ren t ly Thomas was not so c a l l e d . He was c a l l e d t o answer a charge of contempt- Th i s e v i d e n t l y c o n s i s t e d i n h i s f a i l u r e to appear i n the Ic ing ' s cou r t i n the appea l of John M a r s h a l l , Thomas had p leaded i l l n e s s but was d i s b e l i e v e d by H e n r y . Strange t u r n of fa te t h a t Henry s h o u l d pass the same way a t h i s own f a t a l i l l n e s s , \7hen the c o u n c i l was assembled many charges were l a i d . He was c a l l e d t o account for the honours of* l y a and Eerie hampste ad s i n c e h i s e l e v a t i o n . He was f i n e d 5 5 0 0 i n the mat ter o f John M a r s h a l l , and r e s i s t e d the demands and c l a i m s of the k i n g i n t h e o ther mat ters , s a y i n g tha t he had spent much on the p r o p e r t i e s and his r e s i g n a t i o n be ing a c c e p t e d , he was f r e e from a l l r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y , and tha t he would never consent t o the wrench ing away of any o f the powers or p r i v i l e g e s o f the c h u r c h . He then l e f t the c o u n c i l , "much a f f e c t e d by h i s wrongs, l a s h e d with i n s u l t s and d e p r i v e d of t h e a d v i c e of h i s b i shops but ho ld ing h i s c r o s s a l o f t In h i s hand as he l e f t t h e chamber"'. That n i g h t he l e f t the town s e c r e t l y , and , h i d i n g by day from t h e . s i g h t o f men and t r a v e l l i n g by n i g h t he a r r i v e d i n a few days at Sandwich and i n a v e r y - s m a l l and f r a i l boat he c rossed to F l a n d e r s , whence he found h i s way to the pope at Sens- and won h i s support. , The k i n g ' s envoys had a l r e a d y a r r i v e d and had addressed the pope who was n o n - c o m m i t t a l , Both these speeches are g i v e n i n f u l l c o n s i s t i n g of a r g u -ments, the k i n g b e i n g c o n c i l i a t o r y , he d i d not w i s h to I n t e r fere i n the church c o u r t s but w i shed s u f f i c i e n t v e r b a l submiss ion from Thomas to save h i s r o y a l d i g n i t y ; the a r c h -bishop be ing a rgumenta t ive t a k i n g h i s stand on "Render t o Caesar the t h i n g s t ha t are C a e s a r ' s " , and a c c u s i n g the k i n g of w icked and c r a f t y m a c h i n a t i o n s , of i n s u l t s and p e r s e c u -t i o n . . Thomas went to Y e z e l a i where he excommunicated s e v e r a l o f ' h i s enemies, but these were l a t e r abso lved th rough Godfrey, b i shop of S t . A s a p h ' s a t the command o f two o f the 2 c a r d i n a l s , Becket t h e n wrote to t h e k i n g , a g a i n s e t t i n g out his- case by reasoned argument and a p p e a l i n g to t h e king-to remember h i s own c o r o n a t i o n ceremony, w i t h i t s s i g n i f i -cance, and h i s c h a r t e r t o the c h u r c h . , The b ishops wrote 3 oegging Thomas to submit to the k i n g and Becket r e p l i e d w i t h a l e t t e r t o t h e b i shop of L o n d o n 4 , s t i l l d e f i a n t . Next he wrote to h i s su f f r agans^ , r e v i e w i n g a l l the c i r cums tances d w e l l i n g on H e n r y t s s e i z u r e of the goods and l ands of the 1. L i e . I . 315* 2. I b i d . I . 320. 3. I b i d . I . 322. 4 . I b i d . I.. 3 2 4 , 5. I b i d . I. 326 to 328. c a t h e d r a l , and u r g i n g them not t o abandon a c t i o n or even to delay. He e v i d e n t l y wished them t o appeal again t o the pope. E a r l y I n 116 9 the pope wrote to t h e Icing 1 u r g i n g him to become r e c o n c i l e d to the .archbishop. He says t h a t he has ignored too l o n g the i n s u l t s o f f e r e d and s e i z u r e s of possessions. He h i n t s that he has r e s t r a i n e d Thomas but w i l l do so no l o n g e r . I t i s very n o t i c e a b l e t h a t so f a r Diceto has been q u i t e unbiassed. I f a n y t h i n g , he has been sympathetic to the primate. I n the next paragraph he r e p o r t s t h a t Bishop G i l b e r t o f London c a l l e d together the c l e r g y and people i n St, Paul's f o r the purpose of t u r n i n g a s i d e the I n t e n t i o n s of the archbishop (we b e l i e v e " f o r e s t a l l i n g " i s meant), and solemnly appealed to Rome. Thomas r e p l i e d by excommunicating G i l b e r t . D i c e t o ' s r e f e r e n c e to the s p i r i t i n which Bishop F o l i o t accepted the sentence i s c e r t a i n l y sympathetic t o him. The pope again wrote urg i n g Henry to l a y a s i d e anger and hatred and to be r e c o n c i l e d to Thomas, and sent two delegates t o n e g o t i a t e . But V i v i a n , one of these, took sides w i t h t h e k i n g , and Gratiam, the ot h e r , w i t h the primate, and Archbishop W i l l i a m of Sens stopped the con-f e r ence. 1» I b i d . I, 333„ The next move was a confe rence a t P a r i s between the icings o f France and E n g l a n d , where the a r chb i shop was p r e sen t 1 but avo ided Henry . Thomas proposed tha t he shou ld be r e s t o r e d and n o t h i n g was t o be s a i d about t he c l a i m s o f the Icing. The Icing s a i d t h a t s i n c e he had not d r i v e n the a r c h -bishop out i t was i m p o s s i b l e to c a n c e l d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t he had made o f some t e m p o r a l i t i e s . He r e f u s e d to g i v e Thomas the h i s s of peace, and the n e g o t i a t i o n s f e l l t h rough . I n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the account D i c e t o most c e r t a i n l y suppor t s the Icing. Meanwhile the pope had r e c e i v e d B i shop G i l b e r t ' s appeal and sen t him a l e t t e r whi ch he r e c e i v e d en route t o Rome, g ran t ing him a b s o l u t i o n and freedom from h i s excommunicat ion . Ho e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n o f , t h i s s t e p , and i t does not h e l p that the next r e p o r t r e c o r d s t he coming t o g e t h e r of Roger of York, Hugh of Durham and the su f f ragans o f Can te rbu ry a t the c a l l of the Icing, on ly to hear a l e t t e r r ead from the pope, f o r -b idding the crowning of P r i n c e Henry , the purpose o f the ga the r ing , i n the absence o f the a r c h b i s h o p . Hoy/ eve r , Henry was, crowned and the Icing r e t u r n e d to France and a f u r t h e r conference at M o n t m i r a i l . Here i n the 1. I b i d . I . 336. 2. * I b i d . I . 338, presence of the Icing of -France and s e v e r a l o t h e r s , Thomas gave Henry the k i s s o f peace, w i t h the words 11 I n honore Dei vos o s c i i l c i 1 " . Th i s appears to have "been a conven t i on w i t h a d e f i n i t e unde r s t and ing a t t a c h e d , But Henry had doubts • and r e t u r n e d i t w i t h c e r t a i n mental r e s e r v a t i o n s . A f t e r another change o f venue peace was made at Amboise through the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f the b ishops of Sens and Rouen. Henry wrote to h i s s o n - t h a t peace was made and t h a t Thomas was to have h i s r i g h t s . Hot a word was s a i d o f the o r i g i n a l causes of the q u a r r e l . Thomas landed at Sandwich on December 1st, 1170. D i c e t o says t ha t Thomas brought w i t h him two l e t t e r s from the pope. From o ther sources we know t h a t Henry knew of these and t r i e d t o prevent t h e i r e n t r y . Thomas knowing t h e i r con ten ts t r i e d to get more moderate ones but these not - a r r i v i n g i n t ime he sent the o r i g i n a l s on ahead and they reached England s a f e l y . Thomas s e n t the f i r s t t o Roger o f York which suspended him from h i s o f f i c e f o r the i n s u l t t o the pr imate i n o f f i c i a t i n g a t the c r o w n i n g . The second r e p r o v e d ' t h e b i shops f o r i n f r i n g i n g the a n c i e n t r i g h t s of. Cante rbury , suspended them from t h e i r o f f i c e s and ex -communicated the b i shops -of London a id S a l i s b u r y , 1. I b i d , I . 3 3 9 . One f u r t h e r p r o v o c a t i o n Thomas s u f f e r e d . He was t o u r i n g i n t h e d iocese and c a l l e d t o see t h e young k i n g Henry on Dec em her 18 t h at Woodstock but was r e f u s e d a d m i s s i o n by the c a s t e l l a n J o e e l i n . From the re he returned, to Cante rbury 1 where he preached t h e Chr i s tmas Day sermon * At t h e c o n c l u -s i o n o f the s e r v i c e he so l emnly excommunicated HI g e l of Saehev i l l ' e f o r - u n l a w f u l l y h o l d i n g the p a r i s h of Herges , and Robert o f Broc f o r m a l i c i o u s i n j u r y o f B e c k e t ' s sumpter h o r s e . Four days l a t e r four k n i g h t s a r r i v e d from Normandy about the h o u r - o f v e s p e r s , namely, W i l l i a m de T r a c y , Reginald. F i t s - U r s e , Hugh de H o r e v i i l e and, R i c h a r d B r i t o . These bu r s t Into the a r c h b i s h o p ' s p r i v a t e room, denounced him on b e h a l f of the k i n g w i t h f u r i o u s i n v e c t i v e , and demanded, tha t lie abso lve t he excommunicated b ishops and r e s t o r e them t o t h e i r o f f i c e s . H i s r e f u s a l was based on the, grounds t h a t i t was imposs ib l e f o r a n I n f e r i o r to annu l the sentence of h i s s u p e r i o r , and tha t no man was a l lowed ' to r eve r se what the See o f Peter* had decreed.. However he o f f e r ed to abso lve the b i shops o f London and S a l i s b u r y , i f t h e y would promise t o r e spec t h i s commands i n the f u t u r e , f o r t he sake of the peace o f the church and out o f r e s p e c t f o r the k i n g , I l l i , I r a incandescen tes et s c e l u s n e f a r i u m , quod i n mente conceperan t , ad effectual perd.ucere •. 1. I b i d . I. 34 2 . properant es, cum impetu re eesserunt. Every word of t h i s i s i n s t r o n g c'ontrast to cairn, d i s p a s s i o n ate words -of the motionless p r e l a t e . But they, burning w i t h 'anger , h a s t e n i n g to push forward r a p i d l y the impious crime which they had conceived i n t h e i r h e a r t s , rushed out v i o l e n t l y . The, archbishop, as the t w i -l i g h t drew on entered the nave i n order to s i n g v e s p e r s . But t h e f o u r " n e f a r i o u s s a t e l l i t e s " donning t h e i r armour f o l l o w e d him c l o s e l y at once. Coming to the door of the church they found i t open, as the archbishop had ordered. They entered shouting out, "Where i s the t r a i t o r to the king? Where i s the a r c h b i s h o p ? " Beeket, who had ascended three or four steps of the c h o i r , turned back and went to meet them. " I f you seek t h e archbishop," s a i d he, "behold, you see me openly." And when they o f f e r e d v i o l e n c e he s a i d , " I am prepared. to d i e , p r e f e r r i n g to defend j u s t i c e and the l i b e r t y o f t h e Church r a t h e r than l i f e . " Then when the "wicked c o u r t i e r s " rushed on him w i t h drawn swords he s a i d , "To God and St. Mary- and t o the patron s a i n t s of t h i s church and to S t . JJionysius I commend myself and the cause of t h e Church." "And so he was s a c r i f i c e d (immolatus) before the very a l t a r r e c e i v i n g the f a t a l wounds i n t h a t part of the body where the s a c r e d o i l had consecrated him,to God," -41-The whole tone and the use o f such words as "nefandi s a t e l l i t e s " and "immolatus" show that he to oh s i d e s s t r o n g l y against the k i n g and i n favour of Be eke t', which i s remarkable Henry r e c e i v e d the news' i n Normandy and at once d e c l a r e d h i s e n t i r e innocence and ignorance of t h e i r i n t e n t s , aid. denied connivance i n the c r i m e 1 . This was a l l couched i n the s t r o n g e s t terms* He o f f e r e d t o submit to t r i a l and humbly to accept whatever was decreed. An embassy was des-patched a t once to. the pope t o defend the k i n g . L a t e r at Avranches^ i n the presence of the l e g a t e s he swore that he had n e i t h e r wished the death of Thomas, nor had any knowledge nor had he t r i e d t o f i n d some d e s i g n , "But since these e v i l doers had s e i z e d upon some words o f h i s , u t t e r e d r a t h e r i n c a u t i o u s l y i n t h e heat of anger and had grasped the oppor-t u n i t y t o k i l l the h o l y man, he begged and besought a b s o l u -t i o n i n a l l h u m i l i t y . " Henry r e t u r n e d t o England i n 1174 and went s t r a i g h t t o Canterbury" 5 where he d i d penan ce and again d i sa vowed any share i n the murder. D i c e t o ' s account of the penance f o l l o w s c l o s e l y t h a t o f Hoveden. He mentions the p e n i t e n t l o o k s , the p r o c e s s i o n on f o o t , l a y i n g a s i d e h i s majesty, the 1. I b i d . I . 34^e 2. I b i d . I . 352 e 3. I b i d . I . 383, p r o s t r a t i o n s , g roans , t ea r s and long s i l e n t p r a y e r . He adds that H e n r y ' s d i s a v o w a l , i n terms r a t h e r s t r o n g e r than that at Avranches , was made on the o c c a s i o n o f a p u b l i c sermon d e l i v e r e d by the bishop of London. We f i n d one or two sho r t r e f e r e n c e s to the f ac t that Henry found Thomas dead more t r o u b l e than a l i v e and then the s t o r y passes o f f the- stage w i t h t h e g rea t a c t o r who produced i G «. i Another e n t r y we f i n d though s m a l l i s i m p o r t a n t . I t r eads : I I 7 6 The Icing w i t h the. adv i ce of h i s son the k i n g , i n the presence of the b i s h o p s , e a r l s , ba rons , . k n i g h t s and h i s o the r men and w i t h the consent o f t he se , a p p o i n t e d j u s t i c e s In s i x d i v i s i o n s of h i s kingdom, t h r e e i n each d i v i s i o n , who swore to p r e -serve j u s t i c e i n t h e i r own p a r t s . . This was dec ided at Northampton on January 2 6 t h . Later- we l e a r n of H e n r y ' s e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l the s h e r i f f s and. to o rgan ize the p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t s . He broke w i t h t r a d i t i o n when he looked, f o r and. appo in ted men as judges f o r e f f i c i e n c y and honesty r a t h e r than f o r b i r t h . "For he appo in ted abbots , counts , c a p t a i n s , s e rvan t s (gent lemen, not s e r v i t o r s ) and even f r i ends f o r the purpose o f h e a r i n g and examining causes . ' 1. I b i d . I. 404. 2. I b i d . 434, 435 . " 4 3 -Ile employed c l e r g y and appo in t ed bishops t o the bench . The s e c t i o n Is i n t r o d u c e d by the phrase "Rex pa te r A n g l o r u m " , r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from the u s u a l "Henry the l o r d k i n g o f E n g l a n d " . Ralph notes R i c h a r d ' s b e n e f a c t i o n s to r e l i g i o u s houses , and more e s p e c i a l l y t ha t t o Can te rbury i n memory of Thomas a B e c k e t , i n 1179. I t "was t h i s and s i m i l a r g i f t s tha t caused Roger Wend over to s i n g R i c h a r d ' s p r a i s e s as the p ious p r i n c e , f r i e n d o f t he c h u r c h . D i c e t o has proved a f a s c i n a t i n g charac ter . . One f e l t t h a t one was f o l l o w i n g him by h i s f o o t s t e p s down the dus ty c l o i s t e r s o f t i m e , urged t o con t inue by the echo of h i s robus t l a u g h t e r , sounding as i f he were jus t beyond the next c o r n e r . One h u r r i e s a f t e r h i m , f o r he i s f u l l o f energy, and o c c a s i o n a l l y one catches a g l impse o f h i s shadow or o f the man, but never qu i te sees hirn i n p l a i n v i e w . He was regarded as a grea t a u t h o r i t y , and h i s books were copied and made use o f f a r and w i d e . He put c h r o n i c l i n g on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , and p l a c e d S t . P a u l ' s i n the fo r e f ron t o f the s c r i p -t o r i a of an age t h a t had l e a r n e d t h e va lue of a w e l l - w r i t t e n c h r o n i c l e -44-Chapter I I I , Roger of HOveden One of the best known f a c t s of E n g l i s h h i s t o r y i s th a t the monasteries reached eminence i n Northumbria e a r l i e r than elsewhere. Whether t h i s was the r e s u l t of p r o x i m i t y to I r e l a n d i t i s hard to say. But whatever the cause, i t was i n Northumbria t h a t there arose the e a r l i e s t and longest l i v e d and widest spread s c h o o l of mediaeval h i s t o r y . Every s c h o o l boy has heard of the Venerable Bede, and no b e t t e r proof of the l e a d e r s h i p of the N o r t h could be given than t h i s , t h a t the man who stamped h i s char a c t e r most s t r o n g l y on the a r t of c h r o n i c l i n g was a Northumbrian. Bede T s E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y became the b a s i s and the model f o r the f u t u r e c h r o n i c l e s . I t was from Bede that the m a t e r i a l was drawn f o r the e a r l y p a r t , o f the Anglo-Saxon C h r o n i c l e . L i t t l e i s known of Roger's e a r l y l i f e . He takes h i s name from Hoveden, the modern Howden, i n the East R i d i n g of Y o r k s h i r e , This was a place of g r e a t e r importance i n the t w e l f t h century than today, A c e r t a i n Hugh de Hoveden was a c h a p l a i n i n attendance on Bishop Hugh de P u i s e t of Durham. This c h a p l a i n possessed a s m a l l manor at Howden which was freq u e n t l y used by de P u i s e t i n h i s p o l i t i c a l journeyings, -45-and here he d i e d . Roger, who appears to have been a man of considerable a b i l i t i e s entered the s e r v i c e of Henry I I i n 1174. Bishop S t u b b s 1 i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n draws from these f a c t s that Roger may have been a younger b r o t h e r of Hugh through whom, by the bishop, he was. in t r o d u c e d to the K i n g f 3 household. St.ubbs admits t h a t i t i s merely an h y p o t h e s i s . We t h i n k i t a v e r y weak one. The s i m i l a r i t y of name means almost n o t h i n g . We have found l i s t s of monks who are given geographical cognomens. We can even remember some such system i n our own s c h o o l days. The same t h i n g may have occurred i n t h i s case a l s o , e s p e c i a l l y as the two do not appear to have been thrown t o g e t h e r much, except on those occasions, s u f f i c i e n t l y numerous, when Hugh de P u i s e t was i n attendance on the K i n g . I t i s much more l i k e l y t hat young Roger's f a t h e r , w i s h i n g to promote h i s son's w e l f a r e , approached Hugh as a f e l l o w townsman to use h i s i n f l u e n c e i n o b t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n f o r Roger. There i s n o t h i n g i n the c h r o n i c l e to i n d i c a t e who he was, and noth i n g i n the accounts of the career of Hugh de P u i s e t throws any l i g h t on the question of r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Hugh de Hoveden. Negative evidence would seem to p o i n t to there being none. However t h i s i s mere c o n j e c t u r e . The important p o i n t s are that !• C h r o n i c l e s of Roger de Hoveden. R o l l s S e r i e s . 1868. V o l . 1, Preface Page XIV. Roger was a n a t i v e of a town i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h both Church and S t a t e , and that by some means the young c l e r i c , a man e v i d e n t l y of no mean a b i l i t y , .was taken i n t o the house-hold of Henry I I , one of the dominant f i g u r e s on the stage a t . t h a t time. I n t h i s s e r v i c e he came In contact w i t h some eminent statesmen among whom those who would be l i k e l y to Influence him most were Ranulf G l a n v i l l , the f u t u r e j u s t i c i a r , R i c h a r d F i t z H e a l , author of the Dialogus de Sc a c c a r i o , R i c h a r d . o f I l c h e s t e r of the Exchequer, and G i r a l d u s Cambrensis, poet, geographer and h i s t o r i a n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Henry I I took him t o the Conference of G i s o r s i n 1173 f o r i n h i s account of that meeting we f i n d 1 him r e p o r t i n g the v i o l e n t language of Robert E a r l of L e i c e s t e r to the K i n g w i t h some other p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t appear to be words of an eye-witness. The f o l l o w i n g year he was sent by the K i n g on a m i s s i o n to Galloway, Benedict p of Peterborough thus d e s c r i b e s i t ; "Lunique haec f i e r e n t dominus rex m i s i t i n Angliam unum de c l e r i c i s s u i s Rogerum de Kovenden ad Robert um de V a l s ut i l l i duo Hue tredum et G i l be r-t urn f i l i o s Ferregus convenirent et a l l i e e r . e n t eos ad s e r v i t i u m e j u s . " 1. Hoveden V o l . i i , Pp. '53 .and 54 . 2. Ben Pet V o l . 1, P. 8 0 . -4 7-This t e l l s us t h a t he was sent to induce the c h i e f s of Galloway to accept Henry as t h e i r o v e r l o r d , and a l s o eon-firms that Roger was i n France (hence the words ad Angliam) and most l i k e l y w i t h the K i n g . • 1 R e t u r n i n g t o court he l e a r n e d of an agreement between Hugh de P u i s e t , Bishop of Durham and Roger, Archbishop of York r e l e a s i n g ' t h e See of Durham, i n c l u d i n g Howden from payment of synodal dues to York. The K i n g e v i d e n t l y put great confidence i n Roger f o r we f i n d him i n the years 1173 and 1176 managing the e l e c -p t i o n s to vacancies i n v a r i o u s abbeys i n the King's i n t e r e s t s . T h i s c a l l e d f o r much c a r e f u l diplomacy and a hard canvass f o r votes f o r the King's f r i e n d s . A f t e r t h i s he drops from s i g h t u n t i l 1139 when the Pipe R o l l s i n form us that K i n g Henry appointed him J u s t i c e I t i n e r a n t f o r f o r e s t s i n the Horth of England. I t i s probable that he. had spent the few years preceding t h i s i n gathering the knowledge r e q u i r e d . Owing to the f e e l i n g s of both nobles and commoners towards f o r e s t r e g u l a t i o n s t h i s post would c a l l f o r t a c t and i n t e l l i g e n t care. These 1*. Hoveden, T o l , •i i . P p ' ; ' 70 , 71, 2. Ralph de D i c e t o , P. .387* ~48~ q u a l i t i e s the K i n g had a l r e a d y observed i n Hoveden. I t was i n t h i s year t h a t Henry died* and as we know, Richar d caused a great shake-up among h i s f a t h e r ' s s e r v ants. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d Roger was removed, and he would n a t u r a l l y r e t i r e to h i s e s t a t e at Howden where he b u s i e d h i m s e l f w i t h h i s c h r o n i c l e . From the minuteness of h i s accounts of the q u a r r e l s i n the Chapter at York we conclude that he was i n the neighbourhood and took an i n t e r e s t i n events t h e r e . The C h r o n i c l e breaks o f f a b r u p t l y i n 12 01, but a few more notes and l e t t e r s show tha t he was proceeding w i t h the work. E v i d e n t l y then he d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r 12 01. He i s g i v e n the t i t l e of Magister at the head of one manuscript but there i s no evidence that he ever attended Oxford. He was at Reading i n 1175 and met the deputations from the abbeys and monasteries at Woodstock i n t h a t year. This i s o n l y ten m i l e s from Oxford or perhaps f i f t e e n by road. Yet he makes no mention of Oxford or any k i n d of reference, which he s u r e l y would have done had he spent four to seven years there as a young man. L a t e r on i n l i f e he i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to matters at York which was •seventeen m i l e s from Howden, or maybe twenty to twenty f i v e 1. Ralph de D i c e t o , Y o l , I, ..P. 401, - 4 9 -by road. Of course i t may be objected that there was nothing o c c u r r i n g at Oxford worthy of mention, while a t York q u a r r e l s were being fought out on s u b j e c t s of great i n t e r e s t to him between people whom he knew. We have no grounds on which to decide e i t h e r .for or a g a i n s t , and i t must always remain a pure s p e c u l a t i o n , H i s work f a l l s i n t o f o u r n a t u r a l p a r t s ; ( l ) N a r r a t i v e up to 1148. (2) To.1169. (3) To 1192. (4) To 1201. The f i r s t p a r t i s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n from o l d e r works, without a l t e r a t i o n or a d d i t i o n . The second i s h i s own composition, compiled from v a r i o u s sources connected up and recast i n h i s own words. The t h i r d i s the C h r o n i c l e of Benedict of Peterborough (Yorks.) w i t h h i s own notes added. The f o u r t h i s e n t i r e l y h i s own. I t was n a t u r a l f o r a Northerner to take as the b a s i s of h i s work some well-known n o r t h e r n c h r o n i c l e and t o b u i l d on t h i s . That had been the method employed i n the compiling of the work which Roger used. This was the " K i s t o r i a 3axonum v e l Anglorum post obiturn Bedae". I t was compiled between 1148 and l l o l , f o r he sp e a k s 1 of the "monasterium E b o r a c i i n honore ejusdem Dei g e n i t r i o i s 1» de Hoveden. V o l . 1, P. 129, i l a r i a e " ; he then l i s t s , the abbots and. says "quarturn, qui et i n p r a e s e n t i , S e v e r i n u m . " S e v e r i n u s d i e d i n l l 6 l . This was almost c e r t a i n l y compiled, at Durham, and at l e a s t two MSS. are e x t a n t . Roger repeats t h i s almost word f o r word.. I t i s not an o r i g i n a l work being a combination of that of Henry of Huntingdon w i t h Simeon of Durham, the l a t t e r , of whom h i m s e l f combined p a r t of the work of Florence of Worcester w i t h the Northumbrian C h r o n i c l e . T h i s l a s t was a c o n t i n u a t i o n by an unknown w r i t e r o f the work of Bede. de Hoveden made some a d d i t i o n s t o the " H i s t o r l a post Bedam" perhaps none more i n t e r e s t i n g than an a b s t r a c t of 1 a c h a r t e r of W i l l i a m the Conqueror , i n view of our remarks above on the subject of Oxford , This grants the manors of Eemingburgh and Brakenholm to the Bishop of Durham "et sac et sochne, et t o l et them et infangentheof." These l i e c l o s e to Howden, and i t i s to Durham that they a r e hereby granted. This grant, " i n puram e t perpetuam eleemosy-nara," has an important b e a r i n g on the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s of the county p a l a t i n e o f Durham, a f a c t which was a l r e a d y de H o v e d e n , • Y o l . 1, P. 127 . 2. Supra P.. 5, of Hoveden* • -5JL-• beginning to be f e l t i n Roger? s days- Another impor tan t •: l a d d i t i o n i s a c h a r t e r g ran ted by Thomas Archb i shop of York to the See o f Durham i n 108j5 out of g r a t i t u d e to the b l e s sed S t . C u t h b e r t . T h i s f r ee s a l l churches i n the diocese from a l l dues payable to the a r c h b i s h o p . T h i s had great importance i n Hoveden 's day i n the q u a r r e l between Bishop Hugh de P u i s e t and Geoff rey Archb i shop of Y o r k . F o r the p e r i o d between 1148 and 1170 Roger had l i t t l e m a t e r i a l ready made. Whi le t h i s has been a d i sadvantage to us i n some ways i t se rves to throw l i g h t on the cha rac t e r of h i s work g e n e r a l l y . He shows con fus ion n o t a b l y - i n the -matter of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between F u l k and. Geoff rey of Anjou . -We draw the c o n c l u s i o n tha t i n o ther eases he would compare the accounts o f d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s and form an o p i n i o n . Sometimes i t i s not a mat ter o f g a t h e r i n g a co r r ec t i d e a so much as one of w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n and d e t a i l . Each au thor has h i s own p a r t i c u l a r c h i e f i n t e r e s t , some phase on wh ich he i s w e l l p o s t e d . By g a t h e r i n g from a number he gets a composite ba lanced account , Roger h im-s e l f i s i n t e r e s t e d i n Howdenshire and s e i s e s on every scrap of news- r e l a t i v e to Durham or Y o r k tha t concerns the East 2. I b i d . V o l . I , P . 18.4 where he makes F u l k the b ro the r of Geo f f r ey . ! • See Appendix ( e ) , Hov. 1 137 ,138. -52-R i d i n g . But f o r the p e r i o d up t o 1170 he had l i t t l e m a t e r i a l a t hand and he i s o b l i g e d to attempt o r i g i n a l arrangement. He f r e q u e n t l y misdates events, f o r example he places the f a l l of Edessa i n 1146 i n s t e a d of 1144. He 1 • says : . Anno g r a t i a e MCXLVI q u i erat annus XI r e g n i r e g i s Stephani* Eodein anno n o b i l i s c i v i t a s E d i s s a Syriae ... i n nocte H a t i v i t a t i s Domini p r o d i t i o n e c a p i t u r a Saraeenis .... whereas i t was on t h i s v ery Christmas Eve 1146 that St. 2 Bernard preached h i s sermon a t S p i r e s before Conrad I I I , c a l l i n g f o r a erusaoLe to recover Edessa, the news of whose capture had reached France from Eugenius I I I i n 114.5 • While t h i s i s a f l a w i n Roger's work i t shows some-t h i n g of h i s nature and u s u a l method. We can be sure t h a t i f manuscripts c o u l d be found he would take very great eare i n c o l l a t i o n ; hence we may look on h i s work, not g e n e r a l l y as o r i g i n a l , but as very sound and r e l i a b l e . Indeed t h i s very p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of h i s work, the p e r i o d from 1170 to 1192. This i s very l a r g e l y based on Benedict of Peterborough, He 1* de Hoveden, V o l . 1 . P. 2. Barker The Crusades, P. 52, -53 usually.'condenses Benedict's work, and h i s expansions are u s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t i o n s or e x p l a n a t i o n s made p o s s i b l e by the passage of time and the l i g h t shed on the events by o f f i c i a l papers which Roger saw or became possessed of i n the course of h i s work. Two examples of h i s treatment.of the e a r l i e r c h r o n i c l e w i l l s u f f i c e . He p gives a condensed account of Henry I I ' s e x p e d i t i o n to I r e l a n d , but adds some d e t a i l r e l a t i v e to the equipment of the s h i p s , p o s s i b l y c ontained i n h i s own o f f i c e r e c o r d s . The second^ i s h i s account o f the grant of Sadberge by R i c h a r d I to the Bishop of Durham i n 1189, As t h i s con-cerns h i s n a t i v e Hoveden i t r e c e i v e s f u l l e r treatment. I t i s n o t o r i o u s that t h i s p e r i o d i s poor i n c h r o n i c l e s , and most of those we r e , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , unknown to Roger. He appears to have had a copy of the Melrose C h r o n i c l e and we know he had the Peterborough one. H i s l a c k of comparison and s l i g h t n e s s of r e v i s i o n f o r c e s us to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t however a u t h e n t i c the manuscript as an a u t h o r i t y on t h i s period,he i s not r e l i a b l e . I t appears reasonable to assume that Roger found c e r t a i n 1* :• Hoveden''.'!i«.'33<>' . 2* : :Hov. Y o l . i i i , Pp. 13 and 14, See Appendix (e) Sadberge. „j54--records i n h i s o f f i c e , t h a t he abridged these and occasionally-i n t e r p o l a t e d l e t t e r s or r e p o r t s t h a t had come to him i n h i s o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . I t i s very n o t i c e a b l e how s l i g h t i s the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p e r i o d from 1148 to H70. Hoveden has been f o l l o w i n g the course of events i n England and France. But l a c k of m a t e r i a l turns him elsewhere,and i n Volume I I we f i n d accounts of events connected w i t h the r e l a t i o n s of the Emperor F r e d e r i c k and the. Pope Alexander I I I 1 , of the doings of Isaac Angelus, 2 Eastern Roman Emperor . We are g i v e n a p i c t u r e of the s e a l of W i l l i a m K i n g of S i c i l y ^ and the pedigrees of and agree-ments between the kings of Navarre and C a s t i l e 4 . This same volume a l s o c o n t a i n s much m a t e r i a l not g i v e n by Benedict. Under the year 1180 he t e l l s u s ^ that Henry appointed Ranulf G l a n v i l l c h i e f j u s t i c i a r f o r the whole of England, "by whose wisdom the f o l l o w i n g laws were c o n s o l i -dated, which we c a l l the E n g l i s h Law." Then f o l l o w s the whole code of Y / i l l i a m I to g e t h e r w i t h the A s s i z e of the Forests, and t h a t of Clarendon. He a l s o t e l l s the complete 1. Hoveden i i . 137. -2. I b i d . P. 208. 3- I b i d . p. 98. 4. I b i d . P. 122. 3. I b i d . Pp. 215 t o 252. s t o r y o f t h e q u a r r e l between H e n r y I I ana Thomas a B e c k e t , l a r g e p a r t s o f R o g e r ' s a c c o u n t n o t a p p e a r i n g i n B e n e d i c t a t a l l . He opens t h i s s e c t i o n by a q u o t a t i o n i n f u l l of a 1 l e t t e r from Pope A l e x a n d e r I I I t o R o g e r , A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , and Hugh, B i s h o p o f Durham,, c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t a t e o f the Church a n d t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e k i n g . The l e t t e r may have been shown t o R o g e r by H u g h , o r may have b e e n on f i l e i n 2 R o g e r ' s own o f f i c e . The s o u r c e o f t h e d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f the c o u r s e o f t h e q u a r r e l i t s e l f has n o t b e e n i d e n t i f i e d . I t may have b e e n by w o r d o f mouth f r o m H u g h . Roger was a c l e r i c but n o t a monk. Hence he n e v e r adopts t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e a b b e y . H i s t r a i n i n g was a l o n g l i n e s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . H i s e x -p e r i e n c e was g a i n e d u n d e r t h a t g r e a t l a w y e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r , Henry I I , e v e r y i n c h a k i n g . I t i s n a t u r a l t h a t Hoveden s h o u l d adopt a c a u t i o u s and n o n - c o m m i t t a l a t t i t u d e . He l i m i t s h i m s e l f t o d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . He was a s e r v a n t i n the K i n g ' s h o u s e h o l d , and he n e v e r p r e s u m e d . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s a t t i t u d e he makes v e r y l i t t l e r e -ference t o e v e n t s i n w h i c h he t o o k p a r t and a v o i d s m e n t i o n of h i m s e l f ; he n e v e r e x p r e s s e s a n o p i n i o n , and r a r e l y b e t r a y s 1. I b i d . P p . 7 t o 9. 2. I b i d . P p . 14 t o 25. h i s s y m p a t h i e s . He i s a l a w y e r and s p e a k s l i k e a l a w y e r . T h e r e a r e a few p l a c e s where one may g u e s s t h e bent o f his s y m p a t h i e s . I n h i s a c c o u n t of t h e C o u n c i l o f C l a r e n d o n 1 there i s a v e r y s l i g h t t r a c e o f b i a s i n f a v o u r o f the K i n g . Thomas a B e c k e t a p p e a r s t o whine a f t e r t h e a g r e e m e n t ; t h e K i n g ' s a n g e r i s r i g h t e o u s w r a t h . A g a i n i n t h e q u a r r e l 2 i n 1191 between G e o f f r e y , A r c h -bishop o f Y o r k , and Hugh o f Durham, the Howden c h r o n i c l e r i n c l i n e s t o Durham. R o g e r a t t h i s p o i n t has been f o l l o w i n g B e n e d i c t ' s c h r o n i c l e , f r o m w h i c h , as has been r e m a r k e d , he borrowed f r e e l y f o r h i s e a r l i e r p a r t . He has r e a r r a n g e d B e n e d i c t ' s a c c o u n t i n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e t h e l e t t e r o f A r c h -bishop R o g e r t o Hugh de P u i s e t . As t h e s t o r y s t a n d s i n Benedict i t i s a l m o s t c o l o u r l e s s . B o t h c h r o n i c l e s r e p o r t ^ : : " D u r i n g t h a t y e a r H u g h , . B i s h o p o f Durham, on a c c o u n t of t h e a n g e r w h i c h he had i n h i s mind a g a i n s t G e o f f r e y , A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , was s t r i v i n g by a l l means i n h i s •'..-./.•./power t o r e l e a s e h i m s e l f f r o m s u b j e c t i o n t o h i m . " They e a c h r e p o r t t h a t Hugh r e f u s e d t o obey, f o r he s a i d t h a t he. had once made h i s p r o f e s s i o n and o b e d i e n c e t o t h e C h u r c h of York and to R o g e r , f o r m e r a r c h b i s h o p o f t h a t c h u r c h . T h i s 1* Hoveden, V o l . I , P p . 221 and 222. 2» I b i d . V o l . 3, P p . 168 and 169. 3. I b i d . vol. i i i , P . 168. 'sounds' as i f i t , h a d been a q u a r r e l caused by o f f i c i o u s n e s s on Geoffrey's p a r t . But between these two, Hoveden i n s e r t s the text of the l e t t e r from G e o f f r e y , summoning Hugh to York to do obedience, and charging the See of Durham w i t h having usurped an independent a u t h o r i t y not i n accord w i t h the deference which Durham owes to York, From being merely o f f i c i o u s Geoffrey's act passes to actual challenge of the " l i b e r t a s " of Durham, which, as we have seen, claimed immunity from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of York under the c h a r t e r 1 granted by Thomas, Archbishop.of York i n IO78. Hence Hoveden i s r e a l l y t a k i n g s i d e s i n defence of 'Sowdenshire and of h i s own bishop. Another i n s t a n c e of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d i s the story t o l d by B e r t e r of Orleans to the Pope against Geoffrey 3 R i d e l , R i d e l , as Stubbs t e l l s us i n a footnote , was e l e c t e d bishop of L i n c o l n i n II74 and d i e d i n 1189. As we have met two l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e s to i t , one c a l l i n g i t an example of mediaeval humour, we here quote i t i n f u l l . I t i s the only attempt at humour t h a t we have met i n the c h r o n i c l e s though we know from the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the drama that the "Middle 1. I b i d . V o l . i , P. 1358. See Appendix (e) 2. I b i d . V o l . i i , P. .58. 3> I b i d , V o l . i i , P. 190. . ' ~58~ English" were not without humour. "In the meantime Richard., A r c h b i s h o p - e l e c t 'of Canterbury and R e g i n a l d , B i s h o p - e l e c t of Bath set out f o r Rome f o r the purpose of having t h e i r e l e c t i o n s confirmed, and those of - the other b i s h o p s - e l e c t of England. And a g a i n s t these Henry the K i n g the Younger (Henry I I ' s eldest son who had been crowned k i n g 1 d u r i n g h i s f a t h e r ' s l i f e t i m e , and who d i e d i n I I 8 3 ) sent Master B e r t e r of Orleans. And when these opposing p a r t i e s stood i n the presence of Pope Alexander and of the c a r d i n a l s , and my l o r d the Pope was ' f i e r c e l y , denouncing the absence o f the other E n g l i s h bishops-e l e c t , and.my l o r d the e l e c t of Canterbury excused t h e i r absence s u f f i c i e n t l y , my l o r d the Pope asked i n t e n t l y why the f a ) b i s h o p - e l e c t of Ely- had not come. B e r t e r o f Orleans thus answered him; 'My l o r d , he has a s c r i p t u r a l excuse.' And the Pope s a i d , 'What excuse, b r o t h e r ? ' Then B e r t e r answered, 'He has married a w i f e and t h e r e f o r e he cannot come.'" Quarrelings arose between the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s , but at l a s t the Pope confirmed the archbishop's e l e c t i o n , gave him the • 2 pallium and l a t':er added the primacy. Reginald of Bath wrote to Henry I I s h o r t l y afterwards r e p o r t i n g t h e i r r e c e p t i o n and the outcome. I t was p o s s i b l y from t h i s source t h a t Roger got • Hoveden, V o l . i i , P. 5 , I I 7 0 A.D. • I b i d . i i . " 5 9 . (a) This was Geoffrey,bastard son of Henry I I . the s t o r y o f B e r t e r . T h i s c o l o u r l e s s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c h r o n i c l e s may he r e -garded by a n age t h a t has r e a d M a c a u l a y and B e l l o c as due t o s t u p i d h e a v i n e s s o f i n t e l l e c t . But o t h e r q u a l i t i e s s u g g e s t that t h e s e men were n o t u n i n t e l l i g e n t . T h e i r s t y l e does n o t belong t o the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , but t h e i r a c c o u n t s a r e c l e a r and l o g i c a l , and r e v e a l an i n s i g h t i n t o e v e n t s and the importance o f them t h a t d o e s , n o t b e s p e a k the v a c a n t m i n d . We may t a k e i t t h a t t h e c l e r g y s t a n d a l o o f , u n b i a s s e d , r e a d y t o perform t h e i r o f f i c e s t o e i t h e r s i d e , n e v e r p l u n g i n g i n t o mundane a f f a i r s e x c e p t when t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e Church a r e t h r e a t e n e d . One o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c H o v e d e n e x h i b i t s i n common w i t h a l l t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e p e r i o d . T h i s i s h i s b e l i e f i n t h e power o f s a c r e d r e l i c s , and a c h i l d l i k e c r e d u l i t y i n h i s acceptance o f r e p o r t s o f s u p e r n a t u r a l e v e n t s . Thus t h e r e a s o n for the g r a n t o f t h e c h a r t e r t o Durham by Thomas, A r c h b i s h o p of Y o r k 1 , i s g i v e n by Roger""" i n t h i s w i s e : Thomas e x p l a i n e d , when making t h e g r a n t , t h a t , b e i n g s i c k of f e v e r he was i n bed when C u t h b e r t ( p a t r o n s a i n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f Durham) appeared t o h i m , l a i d h i s hand u p o n him and i m m e d i a t e l y Thomas was c u r e d . Hence h i s d e v o t i o n t o C u t h b e r t and g i f t o f ^ See A p p e n d i x ( e ) . 2 * Ho v . Y o l . 1, P . 137. -SO-the c h a r t e r t o Durham. Then t h e r e i s t h e t a l e of d i s p l a y i n g o f t h e body o f S t . C u t h b e r t . T h i s i s t o l d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g : 1104 De T r a n s -l a t i o n S a n c t i C u t h b e r t i 1 . "The body of S t . C u t h b e r t t h e b i s h o p , on a c c o u n t o f t h e d i s b e l i e f of c e r t a i n a b b o t s , i n the p o n t i f i c a t e of B i s h o p R a n n u l f , was shown b o t h by K a d u l f o f Saens t h e A b b o t , and a f t e r w a r d s by Rufus t h e b i s h o p and t h e n by the A r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , a n d t h e b r o t h e r s o f t h e convent of Durham, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e head o f S t . O s w a l d , k i n g and m a r t y r , S t . Bede and r e l i e s o f many s a i n t s ; and by c l e a r e v i d e n c e i t was f o u n d u n c o r r u p t e d , i n t h e p r e s e n c e of A l e x a n d e r , k n i g h t , a n d of E d g a r , b r o t h e r of the k i n g o f Scots and a f t e r w a r d s k i n g , 418 y e a r s , 5 months and 12 days 2 a f t e r i t s b u r i a l , w h i c h was i n t h e s i x t h y e a r of K i n g H e n r y and the s i x t h of the e p i s c o p a t e of R a n u l f . " A g a i n i n g i v i n g the a c c o u n t o f the b u r i a l of S t . Thomas a B e c k e t he t e l l s u s ^ : 1. H o v e d e n , V o l , i , P. 1 6 2 . T h i s might n o t be a l t o g e t h e r i m p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t w r i t e r , v i s i t i n g W e s t m i n s t e r Abbey i n 1 9 1 0 , was i n f o r m e d by a v e r g e r t h a t a few days p r e v i o u s l y t h e tomb of C h a r l e s I I had been o p e n e d , and the body was found i n e x c e l l e n t s t a t e o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . I t had been c a r e f u l l y e n c l o s e d i n oak a n d l e a d , 2 » R o g e r ' s d a t e i s i n a c c u r a t e . As W i l l i a m Kufus was k i l l e d o n 2nd A u g u s t 1100 i t c o u l d not have been more than t h e f o u r t h y e a r of H e n r y I . 3. Hov. V o l . i i , P. 7 . "And i t i s c r e d i b l y r e p o r t e d t h a t when t h e body l a y s t r e t c h e d u p o n the b i e r i n t h e c h o i r , s u r r o u n d e d by t h e . bowed f o r m s o f t h e m o u r n e r s , t o w a r d s dawn i t r a i s e d i t s r i g h t h a n d and gave t h e b e n e d i c t i o n . Then t h e y b u r i e d i t i n t h e c r y p t . " Hoveden a l s o g i v e s t h e s t o r y 1 , most c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y t o l d , o f a woman who h a d f l e d from h e r p a r e n t s ' home on t h e a p p r o a c h of the b i r t h o f h e r c h i l d . B e i n g o v e r t a k e n by a heavy s t o r m she p r a y e d t o God f o r h e l p , t h r e a t e n i n g t o t u r n to t h e D e v i l i f u n h e e d e d . The D e v i l a p p e a r e d i n t h e g u i s e o f a young man, and l e d h e r t o a s h e e p f o l d where he l a i d h e r down b e s i d e a f i r e w h i c h h e b u i l t . T h e n he went i n s e a r c h o f f o o d a n d d r i n k f o r h e r . He h e l p e d h e r w i t h t h e c h i l d b i r t h but l a t e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e of some t o w n s f o l k c a r r i e d o f f t h e b a b y . She t o l d them a l l t h a t t h e D e v i l had s a i d about H e l l . u He t o l d h e r t h a t e v e r s i n c e C h r i s t had robbed. H e l l ( o f h i m s e l f ) t h e r e h a d b e e n no w e e p i n g or g r i e f so g r e a t as t h a t on account o f t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e C r o s s 2 (by R i c h a r d ? ) but i t s g r i e f w o u l d be t u r n e d to j o y f o r so g r e a t w o u l d be t h e i n i q u i t y and s i n o f t h e C r u s a d e r s t h a t God would b l o t them out o f t h e Book o f L i f e ; and many of t h e m , f o r s a k i n g t h e r e -l i g i o n o f t h e C r o s s , w o u l d become p e r s e c u t o r s of the u r o s s and Name o f C h r i s t . And t h i s v e r y t h i n g a f t e r w a r d s h a p p e n e d . 1. I b i d . V o l . i i , P p . 302 & 3O3. 2 » We must remember t h a t Hoveden i s w r i t i n g t h i s a f t e r the event, p o s s i b l y 1204. • Mo pl a c e i s named where t h i s i s supposed t o have happened. I t i s a l l very obscure and has no connection w i t h what i s n a r r a t e d e i t h e r before or a f t e r , and appears to have no excuse f o r the t e l l i n g other than the miraculous nature of i t . There are many manuscripts of hoveden's C h r o n i c l e , and there i s a s i n g u l a r agreement between them, although there i s a goodly number of v a r i a e l e c t i o n e s . For the c o m p i l a t i o n of the R o l l s E d i t i o n Bishop Stubbs chose two. These two appeared t o him to be the most ancient and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y by Roger's own hand. He considers them as Volumes I and 2 of the same book as t h e y a r e i n the same handwriting and w i t h the same number of l i n e s to a sheet. They are merely two because of t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n . The f i r s t i s the manuscript i n the Koyal C o l l e c t i o n i n the B r i t i s h Museum. It was presented to the n a t i o n by George I I . This volume opens w i t h the geneology of the Northumbrian k i n g s and c a r r i e s the "Story of England" down t o 1180. In t h a t year Kanulf G l a n v i l l was made j u s t i c i a r and Hovenden breaks h i s n a r r a t i v e t o i n s e r t the c o n s o l i d a t e d statutes as compiled by t h a t remarkable lawyer and statesman. These a l s o are on the same type of sheet i n the same hand. This appendix a l s o c o n t a i n s the A s s i z e of Clarendon and the Assize of the F o r e s t . We t h i n k t h a t h e r e i n i s the reason f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e s e . We must b e a r i n mind t h a t Koger was i n the K i n g ' s s e r v i c e and h a d met G - l a n v i l l . He must have u s e d G l a n v i l l ' s d i g e s t c o n s t a n t l y i n h i s r o u t i n e w o r k , a n d h a v i n g a c o p y of h i s f r i e n d ' s work i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n he i n c l u d e d The A s s i z e of F o r e s t s i s i n s e r t e d b e c a u s e Roger was a j u s t i c e o f the f o r e s t s , and a l s o because Caput 9 f o r b i d s 1 any c l e r k f r o m t r e s p a s s i n g t h e r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h u n t i n g : 9 . Item r e x d e f e n d i t q u o d n u l l u s c l e r i c u s e i f o r i s -f a c i a t de v e n a t i o n e s u a nec de f o r e s t i s s u i s : p r a e c i -p i t bene f o r e s t a r i i s s u i s quod s i i n v e n e r i n t eos f d r i s -f a c i e n t e s , n o n d u b i t e n t i n eos manum p o n e r e , a d eos r e t i n e n d u n et a t t a c h i a n d u m , e t i p s e eos bene w a r a n t i -z a b i t . 9 . I t e m : The k i n g f o r b i d s a n y c l e r k f r o m t r e s p a s s i n g t h e r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t a k i n g h i s game or f o r a n y -t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g h i s f o r e s t s . He warns h i s f o r e s t e r s s t r o n g l y t h a t i f t h e y f i n d them t r e s p a s s i n g t h e y a r e not t o h e s i t a t e to l a y hands on them f o r t h e p u r p o s e of d e t a i n i n g a n d a t t a c h i n g them, and h e h i m s e l f w i l l w a r r a n t t h e m w e l l . T h i s r e g u l a t i o n w o u l d a f f e c t many o f H o v e d e n ' s f r i e n d s o r a t l e a s t f e l l o w c l e r k s at Howden and a t Durham. T h i s m a n u s c r i p t i s n o t t h e o r i g i n a l d r a f t but t h e c o r -r e c t e d f a i r c o p y . T h e r e a r e no s i g n s o f i t s f a t e u n t i l the S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y . On t h e f l y - l e a f i s t h e s i g n a t u r e o f L o r d Lumley, an eminent s c h o l a r i n E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n . Stubbs makes the e x c e l l e n t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i t may have been i n t h e Hov. Y o l . i i , P . 2 4 7 . -64--possession of the marl of Aru n d e l , Lumley's f a t h e r - i n - l a w . t h i s family.was i n t i m a t e l y connected with, the events of the period, e s p e c i a l l y w h i l e R i c h a r d was i n P a l e s t i n e . James I bought the humley L i b r a r y and added i t to h i s own,whence i t passed i n due time to George I I , who, as we have noted, gave i t to t h e B r i t i s h Museum. The second volume i s i n the Laud c o l l e c t i o n i n the Bodleian L i b r a r y . I t c o n t a i n s the account of events from 1181 to 1201. I t c o n s i s t s o f two hundred and two f o l i o s , of which the f i r s t seventy three are i n the same hand as the Royal MS. w i t h the same number of l i n e s to the page. A f t e r t h i s p o i n t the han d w r i t i n g changes s e v e r a l times. Several blanks where p e r s o n a l names should appear suggest that a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c r i b e had been employed who had been unable to read the rough d r a f t . We add the suggestion that t h i s i s an i n d i r e c t proof t h a t i t was w r i t t e n under Roger's d i r e c t i o n and that some of the blanks were overlooked when reference was made to the author t o decipher the name. Several documents appear, w r i t t e n on the f l y - l e a f . These a l l r e l a t e e i t h e r t o the c i t y or bishop of C a r l i s l e and ex-tend over a p e r i o d of time from Henry I I I to Henry 17. From th i s we conclude t h a t i t was i n possession of the ca t h e d r a l during these years. By some means i t passed i n t o the hands of Archbishop Laud i n 1636 who presented i t to Oxford U n i v e r s i t y . Stubbs r e g a r d s t h e s e a s one p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s i s t h e f i r MS. The s e c o n d i s i n t h e A r u n d e l c o l l e c t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum. I t i s p r o b a b l y somewhat l a t e r i n d a t e but i s v e r y e a r l y and i s b e a u t i f u l l y s e t u p . I t i s e n t i t l e d " I n c i p i u n t C h r o n i c a M a g i s t r i R o g e r i de H o u e d e n e " , whence came t h e t r a d i -t i o n o f h i s h a v i n g b e e n a t O x f o r d . I t i s v e r y w e l l a n n o t a t e d i n t h e m a r g i n s , t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g r e f e r r i n g t o t h e h i s t o r y of S t . Edmund. T h i s l e a d s S t u b b s to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y p a r t o f t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e m o n a s t e r y o f S t . Edmunds. I t came i n t o t h e hands o f a R i c h a r d B r o k e and s u b -s e q u e n t l y b e l o n g e d t o Thomas Howard E a r l o f A r u n d e l . P a r t o f his p a p e r s came i n t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y i n l 6 8 l , and by t h i s s o c i e t y was g i v e n t o t h e B r i t i s h Museum i n I 8 3 I . T h e r e i s a c o p y i n t h e C o t t o n C o l l e c t i o n t h a t i s o f no f u r t h e r v a l u e t h a n e l u c i d a t i o n b y c o m p a r i s o n . The e a r l i e r part i s on p a p e r , p r o b a b l y o f t h e S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y ; t h e l a t e r p a r t , from 1187 to 1201 i s o f the T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y on v e l l u m . The S a l i s b u r y L i b r a r y at H a t f i e l d has a c o p y o f t h e F i f t e e n t h C e n t u r y , and t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r c o p y i n t h e C o t t o n C o l l e c t i o n . Z The H a r l e i a n MSS. i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum c o n t a i n t h e -66-see'ond part, 1181 to 1 2 0 1 . It i s a fi n e copy of the T h i r -teenth Century u s e f u l for corrohoration. But one story must be t o l d of i t . Nothing i s known of i t s h i s t o r y save an entry on the cover which runs: Roger Hoveden's Chronicle from the 27th year of Henry II to the second year of King John: i t cost me x l v s h i l l i n g s of Mr. Story, March 3, 1603-4. The book i s worth the p r i c e . This l a t t e r statement appears to sum up the opinions of nearly seven centuries of readers. I found another statement by Rishanger, who f l o u r i s h e d at the end of the Twelfth Century, himself no mean h i s t o r i a n , i n which he quoted Roger de Hoveden with Matthew of Paris and Ralph de Diceto as h i s authority. This, i f v e r i f i e d , would show that Hoveden was regarded at that time very h i g h l y and as very r e l i a b l e . I t occurred i n Stubbs quoted from Rishanger's Chronicle* The Douce c o l l e c t i o n i n the Bodleian Library has a copy of the Thirteenth Century. Another part copy of the Fifteenth Century i s found i n Corpus C h r i s t i j and T r i n i t y College, Cambridge has a very good one of the Thirteenth Century. The existence of so many copies and e s p e c i a l l y as so many of these are Thirteenth or early Fourteenth Century would go to show that Hoveden was an acknowledged authority f o r the reigns of Henry II and Richard I, and was held i n high 1» R. de Hoveden. R o l l s Series, Preface P. 5L23XL11. esteem. H i s g r e a t e s t f a u l t i s t h e weakness o f h i s d a t e s i n the v e r y e a r l y s e c t i o n and i n t h e p e r i o d 1148 t o 1170. These mistakes a r e l a r g e l y due t o two c a u s e s , t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s o f e a c h o t h e r and t h e c o n f u s i o n c a u s e d by t h e o v e r l a p p i n g o f r e g n a l y e a r s w i t h c a l e n d a r o n e s . A p a r t from t h i s f a u l t he i s v e r y r e l i a b l e and S t u b b s spealcs o f h i m 1 i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g as a n a u t h o r i t y o f the f i r s t o r d e r . R o g e r ' s m e n t i o n o f e v e n t s i n P o r t u g a l , C a s t i l e , l o m b a r d y and Germany s h o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y t o a d e s i r e t o s u p p l y b u l k o f news. I t has a much d e e p e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s a s i g n o f t h e w i d e n i n g of t h e E n g l i s h m i n d . F o r s i x hundred y e a r s a f t e r t h e w i t h d r a w a l of t h e Romans E n g l a n d was almost c o m p l e t e l y e u t o f f f r o m i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e C o n t i n e n t . Then u n d e r Edward t h e C o n f e s s o r she began t o be drawn back i n t o i t s o r b i t . The C o n q u e s t d e f i n i t e l y l i n k e d h e r w i t h t h e C o n t i n e n t , and t h e work o f t h e f i r s t two H e n r i e s p u t h e r i n t o very c l o s e t o u c h , p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , w i t h a l l the f i r s t - c l a s s powers o f E u r o p e , a n d l a i d down t h e l i n e s of the f o r e i g n p o l i c y t h a t E n g l a n d was t o f o l l o w f o r f i v e h u n d r e d y e a r s . T h i s i s one of the most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f Henry I D , r e i g n , and i s j u s t why Hoveden i s so i m p o r t a n t as a c h r o n i c l e r . ! • I b i d . P r e f a c e , P . J L X X X I V •: . We Have mentioned that Roger gives the Laws of England, starting with the code of William the Conqueror. There are two sources for this code. They are Roger Hoveden and the Red Book of the Exchequer, The latter contains many inter-polations. The Report of the Commissioners on the Public 1 Records , I837 , placed i t at Edward I or I I . Stubbs suggests that lawyers made the additions, and made Edward I believe that these were the original wishes and grants of the Con-queror. But, as Stubbs points out, serious slips were made, such as the use of the word "alderman" in a connection in which i t is not used before 1260, and mention of Maurice is Bishop of London , twenty years before he was such. On these and similar grounds the Red Booh is useless for historical investigation. Roger's account is better, being free from this kind of flaw. It is the second oldest known account. Stubbs places i t at about 1201^. It is therefore within a century of William the Conqueror and more than a century earlier than the Red Book. While Stubbs was engaged on this preface he found a manu-script , hitherto unknown, among the Rawlinson treasures in the Bodleian Library. As i t contains the Constitutions of !• Hov. I , Pref. Footnote P. XX111. 2;. Ibid. P. X I V . 3. Ibid:. P. X X l l l o C l a r e n d o n , but n o t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f the C o u n c i l o f N o r t h -ampton he d e c i d e d t h a t i t was p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n b e f o r e H76. This v e r s i o n c o n f i r m s R o g e r ' s i n some r e s p e c t s b u t not i n a l l and Stubbs p l a c e s i t midway b e t w e e n t h e R a w l i n s o n a n d the Red Book f o r r e l i a b i l i t y , r e g a r d i n g i t a;s a c a r e l e s s epitome o f some o t h e r unknown a c c o u n t . H o v e d e n ' s c h r o n i c l e c o n t a i n s a number of i t e m s n o t found i n B e n e d i c t . One of t h e s e i s t h e B e r t e r s t o r y , and a n o t h e r , perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t , ' i s R o g e r ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e i l l n e s s and d e a t h o f H e n r y I I . H e n r y was r e c a l l e d to F r a n c e i n J u l y 1188 by a q u a r r e l between R i c h a r d and P h i l i p . As H e n r y ' s t e r r i t o r i e s were i n -v a d e d he j o i n e d t h e war a n d i n v a d e d P h i l i p ' s l a n d s . There was a t r u c e f o r the w i n t e r and i n the s p r i n g R i c h a r d , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , d e s e r t e d h i s f a t h e r a n d j o i n e d P h i l i p . n 2 T i l l June 1189 o v e r t u r e s f o r peace went o n , but broke down . P h i l i p now to ok e n e r g e t i c s t e p s but H e n r y r e m a i n e d i n a c t i v e at Le M a n s . Soon P h i l i p a p p e a r e d t h r e a t e n i n g s e i g e ; the 3 town was a c c i d e n t a l l y s e t on f i r e and H e n r y was f o r c e d to f l y , l e a v i n g h i s b i r t h p l a c e and h i s f a t h e r ' s tomb i n t h e hands o f 4 his enemy. H i s f a r e v ? e l l as r e p o r t e d by C i r a l d u s C a m b r e n s i s 1. Hov. i i , P . 362c 2. Same. 3. I b i d . P . 3 6 3 , 4. I b i d . P r e f . P . 1X111. - 7 0 -was t y p i c a l o f h i m : "My God, s i n c e , t o crown my c o n f u s i o n and i n c r e a s e my d i s g r a c e , Thou h a s t t a k e n f r o m me so v i l e l y the town w h i c h on e a r t h I have l o v e d b e s t , where I was b o r n and b r e d , a n d where my f a t h e r l i e s b u r i e d , and t h e body o f S t . J u l i a n t o o k I w i l l have my r e v e n g e on Thee a l s o , I w i l l of a s u r e t y w i t h d r a w f r o m Thee t h a t t h i n g w h i c h Thou l o v e s t b e s t i n me." T h r o u g h o u t t h e f l i g h t h i s n a t u r a l s o n G e o f f r e y , h i s c h a n c e l l o r , r e m a i n e d w i t h h i m . They s t a y e d a t l a F r e n a y e a n d went on t o A l e n q o n and t h e n c e t o C h i n o n and S a u m u r 1 . A l l t h i s time H e n r y was s u f f e r i n g from a f i s t u l a , a f a c t w h i c h P h i l i p and R i c h a r d r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e . P h i l i p s t i l l p r e s s e d on through M a i n e and t o o k T o u r s . H e n r y now met P h i l i p a n d 3 R i c h a r d a t C o l o m b i e r e s n e a r A z a i , so i l l t h a t he had t o be s u p p o r t e d on h i s h o r s e 4 . Thus he s u b m i t t e d , a s k i n g f o r a l i s t o f t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s . T h i s was brought t o h i m t h e n e x t d a y , J u l y 3th. J o h n ' s name was a t t h e head o f t h e l i s t ^ . "How," he s a i d , " l e t a l l t h i n g s go what way t h e y may, I c a r e no more for m y s e l f n o r f o r t h e w o r l d . " 1. I b i d . P . 364. 2. Same. 3. P . 365. 4. P . 366. 5» Same. G e o f f r e y r e m a i n e d with, h i m t o t h e l a s t , f a n n i n g t h e f l i e s from h i s f a c e and r e n d e r e d what s e r v i c e he c o u l d . H e n r y t o l d him t h a t he h a d i n t e n d e d t o g i v e h i m t h e a r c h b i s h o p r i c o f Y o r k , T h r o u g h o u t t h e day he k e p t c r y i n g a t i n t e r v a l s ; "Shame, shame on a c o n q u e r e d k i n g . " T h e s e d e t a i l s a r e g i v e n b y G i r a l -dus, T h e n H o v e d e n adds (P. 367) t h e k i n g o r d e r e d h i s b i e r t o be c a r r i e d i n t o t h e c h a p e l a n d p l a c e d b e f o r e the a l t a r . Here he r e c e i v e d t h e communion, made h i s c o n f e s s i o n and d i e d . R i c h a r d came n e x t day t o a t t e n d h i s f u n e r a l and was q u i t e overcome a t t h e s i g h t . T h e n H o v e d e n , e v e r o n t h e l o o k o u t f o r the m a r v e l l o u s , t e l l s us t h a t t h e body b l e d u n d e r t h e gaze of h i s s o n . He was b u r i e d i n t h e c h o i r a t F o n t v r a d d , b e i n g wrapped between c l o a k s , t h u s f u l f i l l i n g the v i s i o n o f a C i s t e r c i a n monk i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r 1 . B e f o r e p a s s i n g on t o some of t h e m a t t e r s d e a l t w i t h i n Volume II i t may be w e l l t o make some f u r t h e r r e m a r k s on Henry II - ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y , f o r much o f t h e f u t u r e h i s t o r y o f England' was s h a p e d by h i s a c t s . He gave h i s e l d e s t d a u g h t e r M a t i l d a t o H e n r y t h e L i o n of S a x o n y . He formed a n agreement w i t h F r e d e r i c k B a r b a r o s s a , and c o n s t a n t i n t e r c o u r s e o f o t h e r p r i n c e s of Germany f o u n d e d a c o n n e c t i o n t h a t l a s t e d t i l l I83O i f not t o I854. 1« Hov. i i . 336. -72- . E l e a n o r , h i s s e c o n d d a u g h t e r , was m a r r i e d t o A l f o n s o o f C a s t i l e , and t h u s began t h e i n t e r e s t of. t h e E n g l i s h i n S p a n i s h a f f a i r s . H e n r y h i m s e l f o f f e r e d an a l l i a n c e t o t h e Lombard League, and he m a r r i e d h i s y o u n g e s t d a u g h t e r J o a n n a t o W i l l i a m I I o f S i c i l y . W h i l e t h e s e had o n l y m i n o r p o l i t i c a l r e s u l t s t h e y b r o u g h t E n g l a n d i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h I t a l y , b r i n g i n g many men t o E n g l a n d o f t h e type o f L a n f r a n c and the two Anselms and s e n d i n g t o I t a l y s u c h men a s C h a u c e r and S i r John Hawkwood, and h a v i n g a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e i n E n g l a n d . I n the s e c o n d v o l u m e . t h e r e a r e t h r e e major t o p i c s d e a l t w i t h . These a r e t h e f o r e i g n a f f a i r s o f H e n r y I I , the murder of Thomas a B e c k e t and the f i n a l s t r u g g l e of the k i n g w i t h h i s sons l e a d i n g t o h i s d e a t h . We have d e a l t , i f somewhat b r i e f l y , w i t h two o f t h e s e . I t r e m a i n s to d e a l w i t h ' Thomas a B e c k e t . The q u a r r e l was d e a l t ? a t h i n t h e f i r s t v o l u m e . The c o u n c i l s o f C l a r e n d o n and N o r t h a m p t o n have been h e l d and Becket d i s g u i s e d h a s made h i s e s c a p e t o the c o u r t o f L e w i s , low t h e P o p e , a n x i o u s to h o l d t h e s u p p o r t o f L e w i s and H e n r y a g a i n s t F r e d e r i c k and h i s a n t i - p o p e , has s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g Henry and B e c k e t r e a c h a c o m p r o m i s e , w h i c h i s more r e m a r k a b l e f o r what i t l e a v e s u n m e n t i o n e d . B e c k e t has been f o r c e d by Henry to r e t u r n t o E n g l a n d e a r l i e r t h a n Thomas w i s h e d . Thus Becket has had t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h A l e x a n d e r ' s o r i g i n a l ~75 l e t t e r , being unable to stay longer i n France or to smuggle any l e t t e r s through from the Pope once he has reached England. Hoveden contents h i m s e l f w i t h the documentary evidence ' i n the case, and without comment gi v e s the l e t t e r from the 1 - 2 Pope , and elsewhere, the C o n s t i t u t i o n s of Clarendon and the Council of Northampton^. This l e t t e r from Pope Alexander i s addressed to Roger, archbishop of York and Hugh bishop of Durham. I t s tone on the whole i s a p o l o g e t i c and c o n c i l i a t o r y , but n e v e r t h e l e s s he suspends them f o r u s u r p i n g the f u n c t i o n s of the primate i n the crowning of the young p r i n c e Henry. This was the very t h i n g t h a t Becket f e a r e d . I t a l s o contained the sentence "Depressio s i quidem Anglicanae e e c l e s i a e , et d i m i n u t i o l i b e r t a t i s i p s i u s , quae per regem vestrum, s i v e p r o p r i o motu s i v e p o t i u s a l i i s s uggerentibus, f a c t a d e n o s c i t u r , plurimum jampridem animum no strum a f f l i x i t , et non modicum nobis s o l l i c i t u d i n i s et d o l o r i s i n -The checking, indeed, of the E n g l i s h Church, and the l e s s e n i n g of i t s l i b e r t y ( i . e . j u r i s d i c t i o n , the f e u d a l meaning of l i b e r t a s ) , which f a c t i s made c l e a r through (the a c t i o n of) your k i n g , whether of h i s own v o l i t i o n , or r a t h e r at the suggestions of o t h e r s , has f o r a long time very g r e a t l y d i s t r e s s e d our mind and has i n f l i c t e d on us no l i t t l e apprehension and g r i e f . The f i r s t of course i s a d i r e c t blow to Henry's p l a n of 1. 3. I b i d . P. 7. Hov. i i . 248 et seq. I b i d . P, 89. - 7 4 -making sure of the s u c c e s s i o n of hlw own son and the second, i s an adverse c r i t i c i s m of Henry's attempts to b r i n g criminous clerks w i t h i n the reach of the C u r i a Regis. Hoveden then discusses Thomas's c h a r a c t e r , showing him t o have been a s c e t i c and to have g i v e n h i m s e l f p r i v a t e scourgings. Then comes mention of the Christmas Day sermon 1. I t was on t h i s o c c a s i o n t h a t Thomas excommunicated the bishops. But Roger only mentions Robert of Broc, whose crime was t h a t on the previous day he had cut o f f the t a i l of the archbishop's sumpter horse* F i v e days l a t e r there a r r i v e d f o u r k n i g h t s , Willi a m Tracy, Hugh M o r e v i l l e , R i c h a r d B r i t o and Reginald F i t s Urse. They broke i n on the primate. They h u r l e d i n -s u l t s at h i s r e t r e a t i n g f i g u r e . He went to prepare f o r vespers. They went out to a c l o i s t e r and put on t h e i r armour. Returning they met some monks, who, on being ordered to t e l l where the bishop was, urged the knights to d e l a y t h e i r i n t e r -view. But they rushed on and found him i n the church. The rest of the account i s e x a c t l y as u s u a l l y g i v e n , e v i d e n t l y t h i s i s the c h r o n i c l e g e n e r a l l y used to supply the s t o r y . The name of the monk who i n t e r p o s e d i s given as Edward Grim. Becket's l a s t words are r e p o r t e d as "To God and St, Mary and to the patron s a i n t s of t h i s church and the blessed Dlonysius I b i d . P. 14 I commend myself and the cause of the Church." The whole account i s t o l d very s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y to Beclcet. Undoubtedly i t was a h o r r i b l e s i g h t and i t s h o r r o r was not d i m i n i s h e d by the background of the s t a t e l y Norman nave, the dim r e l i g i o u s l i g h t and the huddled crowd of monks i n gowns w i t h t h e i r beads, c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the i n f u r i a t e d armour-clad k n i g h t s w i t h f l a s h i n g swords. H i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the monk Grim, p r o t e c t i n g the archbishop's head to ward o f f the blow, i s drawn w i t h a pen intended t o get every p o s s i b l e dramatic value from the scene. Then he d i l a t e s on the need-le s s c r u e l t y of the o t h e r s , t e l l i n g how a l l the other t h r e e , a f t e r one had s t r u c k a f a t a l blow, i m p l i c a t e d themselves that none might be innocent, and plunged t h e i r swords i n t o h i s neck, and when he was l y i n g p r o s t r a t e a t t a c k e d him again c u t t i n g o f f the tonsure crown o f h i s head and s p i l l i n g h i s brains w i t h blood on the stones of the pavement. Roger pauses to mo r a l i z e on the s i g h t , the only attempt that we have met to draw a l e s s o n from the course of events. The four k n i g h t s went on crusade, t o which Alexander n 1 sent them, and there they d i e d and were b u r i e d i n Jerusalem . I f any doubts are l e f t i n the reader's mind, a f t e r reading Hoveden's dramatic and d i s t i n c t l y sympathetic account !• Hov. i i . 17. of Thomas's m a r t y r d o m , o f s o g e r ' s a t t i t u d e , t h e y a r e s e t a t r e s t by t h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r s . Hoveden now p r o c e e d s t o show how a l l E u r o p e r o s e i n a n g e r a t t h e d e e d . L e w i s V I I w r o t e t o t h e Pope u r g i n g h i m t o draw t h e sword o f P e t e r t o avenge t h e m a r t y r o f C a n t e r b u r y and t o p u n i s h a c r u e l and base c r i m e . W i l l i a m , b i s h o p o f S e n s , r e -minds t h e pope t h a t he i s s e t above a l l k i n g d o m s , and s a y s t h a t t h e r u d d y t e a r s o f the m a r t y r ' s b l o o d c r y out t o t h e . L o r d o f H o s t s , "Avenge, 0 L o r d , t h e b l o o d o f t h y s e r v a n t a n d m a r t y r , t h e a r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y , who was k i l l e d , s a c r i f i c e d i n v e r y t r u t h , f o r the l i b e r t y o f t h e C h u r c h . " T h e o b o l d , count o f B l o i s a l s o a d d r e s s e s t h e P o p e , r e -views t h e r e l a t i o n s o f k i n g and p r e l a t e and s a y s , "The b l o o d of t h e j u s t c r i e s out t o y o u and demands v e n g e a n c e . " . ' . W i l l i a m , a r c h b i s h o p o f S e n s , w r o t e a t g r e a t l e n g t h a second t i m e , r e v i e w i n g t h e whole s i t u a t i o n , r e l a t e d t h e s t o r y of the m u r d e r o u s a t t a c k , drew a n a p p e a l i n g p i c t u r e of t h e h e l p l e s s n e s s of Thomas; he blamed the b i s h o p s o f Y o r k , London and S a l i s b u r y f o r a i d i n g the k i n g , whom he c a l l e d a H e r o d , a . J u d a s , a a e r o , and a g a i n e x h o r t e d t h e pope t o avenge the m a r t y r . A g a i n s t t h i s the' o n l y r e p o r t e d f r i e n d s o f Henry a r e bishops o f R o u e n , E v r e u x and W o r c e s t e r , who made a j o u r n e y - 7 7 -1 • . to Rome and had a h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r v i e w w i t h the Pope. Later' the Pope was p r e v a i l e d on to withdraw h i s ex-communication a g a i n s t the bishops of London and S a l i s b u r y , 2 and he granted them a b s o l u t i o n s . I n September, Henry came t o Avranches and i n the cathed-r a l , i n the presence of two c a r d i n a l s , of the archbishop of Rouen and of the bishops and abbots of Normandy he swore3 on the s a c r e d . r e l i c s and on the h o l y gospels t h a t he had ne i t h e r ordered nor wished the archbishop to be k i l l e d and that he had been h e a r t i l y s o r r y when he heard of i t . He abjured schism and swore to al l o w f r e e l y the making of appeals to Rome i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l causes, we promised to take the Cross the f o l l o w i n g Christmas and to go t o Jerusalem the next summer, I I 7 3 . He f u r t h e r promised as much money as was considered necessary t o m a i n t a i n two hundred k n i g h t s f o r the defence of the lands of Jerusalem f o r one year. He swore t h a t he would r e s t o r e a l l possessions, t h a t might have been taken away, to the church at Canterbury and that he 1. HOV. i i . 27. 2. I b i d . P. 3 2 . 3. I b i d . P. 3 5 . would d i s c o n t i n u e any customs t h a t h a d been i n t r o d u c e d i n h i s t ime a g a i n s t the C h u r c h l a n d s . The • . . c a r d i n a l l e g a t e s t h e n g r a n t e d h i m a b s o l u t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e P o p e , L a t e r h e u n d e r t o o k t h e concpuest o f I r e l a n d w h i c h t h e P o p e a l l o w e d h i m t o c o u n t as a l e g i t i m a g e d e l a y of h i s c r u s a d e . I n J u l y H74 he p e r f o r m e d a p i l g r i m a g to the s h r i n e o f S t . Thomas a t C a n t e r b u r y . We a r e t o l d 1 : "And h i s f e e t a p p e a r e d t o he b l e e d i n g t o t h e o n -l o o k e r s i n the way as he w a l k e d , f o r much b l o o d f l o w e d out on the g r o u n d from h i s t e n d e r f e e t cut by t h e h a r d s t o n e s . And when he came t o the tomb, i t was good to b e h o l d t h e s c o u r g i n g s w h i c h he e n d u r e d w i t h c h o k i n g s o b s , and t h e punishment w h i c h he r e c e i v e d a t t h e hands of t h e b i s h o p s and monks a n d o f many h o l y men. And he e v e n r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i g h t b e f o r e t h e tomb o f t h e b l e s s e d m a r t y r , i n p r a y e r and f a s t i n g and b e a t i n g h i s b r e a s t , h e l p e d by the a p p r o v a l o f v e r y many h o l y m e n . " Thus c l o s e s R o g e r ' s a c c o u n t , and i f we f e e l t h a t t o o l i t t l e of the k i n g ' s s i d e a n d p o i n t of v iew i s put b e f o r e u s , we must remember t h a t p o p u l a r f e e l i n g was d e e p l y s t i r r e d by the c r u e l t y and s a c r i l e g e , t h a t jxoger had many f r i e n d s among the h i g h e r c l e r g y , and t h a t t h e a c c o u n t was w r i t t e n l o n g a f t e r H e n r y h i m s e l f h a d e x p i a t e d the c r i m e i n a l o n e l y d e a t h . We w i l l now t a k e u p , a t s h o r t l e n g t h , some of t h e o t h e r matters d e a l t w i t h by Koger , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y m e n t i o n e d by 1. I b i d . P . 62 . h i s t o r i a n s t o d a y * un page 80 we . f i n d a v e r b a t i m r e p o r t o f the c o n v e n t i o n between H e n r y and W i l l i a m , k i n g o f S c o t s , drawn up i n A u g u s t 1175, and s w o r n t o b y W i l l i a m and h i s barons a t Y o r k . The o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e i s t h e i m p o r t a n t one. I t r e a d s : " W i l l i a m , K i n g o f S c o t s becomes the l i e g e man o f my l o r d the K i n g a g a i n s t e v e r y man f o r S c o t l a n d and f o r a l l h i s o t h e r t e r r i t o r i e s and does f e a l t y t o h i m as h i s l i e g e l o r d , as o t h e r men a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o d o , t o hisni a l s o . " W i l l i a m s u r r e n d e r e d R o x b u r g h , B e r w i c k , J e d b u r g h , E d i n b u r g h and S t i r l i n g and a g r e e d t o g i v e h o s t a g e s . T h i s seems t o c l e a r up a l l d o u b t s a s t o t h e e x a c t p o s i t i o n of W i l l i a m . B e g i n n i n g on page 89 R o g e r g i v e s us a f u l l c o p y of the A s s i z e o f C l a r e n d o n a s r e v i s e d a t N o r t h a m p t o n i n I I 7 6 . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law and p r o c e d u r e , t h e c l a u s e s on page 91 are v e r y i m p o r t a n t . These maiee the s h e r i f f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e i z u r e o f t h i e v e s and other m a l e f a c t o r s , b u t s e n t e n c e i s t o be p r o n o u n c e d b y the k i n g ' s j u d g e s . T h i s makes the r i s e o f Common Law p o s s i b l e . The n e x t i t e m o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t i s a r e m a r k a b l e l e t t e r , which r u n s f r o m page 168 t o 170, f r o m Pope A l e x a n d e r t o P r e s t e r J o h n , d a t e d a t V e n i c e the 27th September 1177* He appears t o have n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t doubt o f J o h n ' s e x i s t e n c e and w r i t e s most c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y . He opens t h u s : - 8 0 -" A l e x a n d e r the b i s h o p , s e r v a n t o f t h e s e r v a n t s o f G o d , t o t h e v e r y d e a r s o n i n C h r i s t , i l l u s t r i o u s and m a g n i f i c e n t k i n g o f the I n d i e s , most h o l y p r i e s t , g r e e t i n g and a p o s t o l i c b l e s s i n g . " He t h e n p r o c e e d s t o a s s u r e J o h n t h a t the P a p a l c l a i m s are sound and g i v e s a s h o r t resume o f t h e u s u a l a r g u m e n t s . We t h e n h e a r t h a t "we have h e a r d f o r a l o n g t i m e f r o m a l l s i d e s and by many r e f e r e n c e s , and by common r e p o r t , how much y o u have p r o f e s s e d t h e name o f C h r i s t and have s t r i v e n w i t h o u t c e a s i n g t o do p i o u s works and t o t u r n y o u r mind t o t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e p l e a s i n g u n t o G o d . " Now we l e a r n t h a t i t i s M a s t e r P h i l i p , the P o p e ' s p h y s l e a n , and e v i d e n t l y a most e s t i m a b l e p e r s o n , who has g i v e n much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t J o h n , - e v e r y t h i n g except t h e name and l o c a t i o n o f h i s c i t y , - and o f h i s d e s i r e to l e a r n about t h e c a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . May h i s d e s i r e s be f u l f i l l e d . The Pope has h e a r d t h a t J o h n w i s h e s to have a c h u r c h i n t h e c i t y (Rome) where w i s e men o f h i s kingdom might s t a y and r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f a i t h . To c o n s u l t on s u c h m a t t e r s the Pope i s s e n d i n g t h i s l e t t e r by h i s p h y s i c i a n and i n t i m a t e f r i e n d , P h i l i p . And i f J o h n ' s w i s h i s to l e a r n t h e a p o s t o l i c d i s c i p l i n e , l e t him r e c e i v e P h i l i p k i n d l y and answer t h i s l e t t e r , when t h e Pope w i l l c o n s i d e r b i s r e q u e s t s c a r e f u l l y . We hope t h a t t h e l e t t e r r e a c h e d i t s d e s t i n a t i o n . What a P i t y t h a t R o g e r d o e s n o t g i v e us a copy of P r e s t e r J o h n ' s r e p l y ! T h e r e f o l l o w s a l o n g s e c t i o n c o n t a i n i n g many d e c r e e s i s s u e d by A l e x a n d e r I I I , among w h i c h we n o t e one i n s t i t u t i n g or o r d e r i n g anew the o b s e r v a n c e o f t h e T r u c e o f God. I t 1 runs : "We command t h a t a t r u c e s h a l l be o b s e r v e d f r o m the f o u r t h day o f t h e week a f t e r s u n s e t t o the s e c o n d day o f t h e week a f t e r s u n r i s e , from A d v e n t Sunday t o t h e e i g h t day o f E p i p h a n y and from S e p t u a g e s i m a Sunday t o t h e e i g h t d a y a f t e r E a s t e r , t o be o b s e r v e d by a l l i n v i o l a b l y . I f anyone s h a l l a t t e m p t t o b r e a k t h i s t r u c e , a f t e r t h e t h i r d summons, i f he s h a l l n o t g i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n , h i s b i s h o p s h a l l p r o n o u n c e s e n t e n c e o f e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n a g a i n s t h i m , and s h a l l r e p o r t i t i n w r i t i n g t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g b i s h o p s . " The b i s h o p s a r e t h e n u r g e d t o a c t f i r m l y and e n e r g e t i c a l l y i n r i g i d e n f o r c e m e n t of t h e d e c r e e , w i t h f u r t h e r p a i n s and p e n a l t i e s . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g d e c r e e i s g i v e n on page I 8 7 . T h i s d e a l s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s of c a t h e d r a l s and m o n a s t e r i e s . We have o f t e n h e a r d i t s a i d that the c a t h e d r a l and- grammar s c h o o l s were e s p e c i a l l y d e -signed t o p r o v i d e c l e r g y , p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d . T h i s d e c r e e gives no s u c h r e a s o n f o r t h e m . I t s a y s t h a t t h e C h u r c h of God s h o u l d a c t as a p i o u s m o t h e r i n a l l t h i n g s t h a t t e n d towards t h e h e l p i n g o f t h e body o r t h e improvement o f t h e 1. Hov. i i . 176 -82-mind; a n d , t h a t t h e p o o r , whose p a r e n t s do n o t e n j o y t h e n e c e s s a r y w e a l t h , may n o t he p r e v e n t e d f r o m l e a r n i n g to r e a d or d e p r i v e d o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f a d v a n c i n g t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e f o r e e v e r y c a t h e d r a l and m o n a s t e r y s h a l l a r r a n g e t o have c l e r g y to a c t as m a s t e r s t o g i v e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c -t i o n . No f e e may he c h a r g e d i n any form f o r t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n . A n o t h e r i t e m o f p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t whose o r i g i n i s g i v e n by Hoveden c o n c e r n s t h e c o l l e c t i o n of " P e t e r ' s P e n n y " . T h i s was c o m p u l s o r y u n d e r t h e code c o m p i l e d by t h e C o n q u e r o r and i n c l u d e d as No X i n t h e Laws o f E n g l a n d 1 . I t r u n s : De d e n a r i o S a n c t i P e t r i quod A n g l i c e d i c i t u r R o m e s c o t . E v e r y o n e who p o s s e s s e s t h i r t y p e n n y w o r t h o f l a n d i n h i s h o u s e , o f h i s own, s h a l l g i v e by E n g l i s h law a penny t o S t . P e t e r , and by t h e law o f the D a n e s , h a l f a m a r k . And t h i s p e n n y i s to be c a l l e d i n on the s o l e m n f e a s t o f S t s . P e t e r a n d P a u l , and t o be c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e t h e f e s t i v a l w h i c h i s known as S t . P e t e r a d V i n c u l a , and so t h a t i t i s n o t w i t h e l d more t h a n one d a y l o n g e r . I f anyone w i t h o l d s i t r e p o r t t h e r e o f s h a l l be c a r r i e d to t h e K i n g ' s j u s t i c e , s i n c e t h i s penny i s o f t h e K i n g ' s c h a r i t y . The j u s t i c e s h a l l c o m p e l t h e r e n d e r i n g o f t h e penny o r o u t l a w i n g b y b i s h o p and k i n g . And i f anyone have more h o u s e s he s h a l l r e n d e r the penny f o r t h a t one where he was r e s i d i n g at the t i m e o f t h e f e a s t o f the A p o s t l e s P e t e r and P a u l . 1. I b i d . i i . 222. G^&^s- H I Hoveden. The t h i r d volume o f Hoveden 's c h r o n i c l e i s devoted to the r e i g n of R i c h a r d I up to January 1196. Here we meet the three grea t f i g u r e s o f the e a r l y p a r t of the r e i g n , namely, Hugh'de P u i s e t , B i shop of Durham and S a r i of the P a l a t i n a t e ; Geoffrey. A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k and h a l f b r o t h e r (the "Gaufrido-^non ex l e g i t i m a . " of R i c h a r d of D e v i z e s ) of R i c h a r d ; and Y l i l l i a m Longchamp, C h a n c e l l o r to R i c h a r d and Bishop o f E l y . These three p l a y l e a d i n g p a r t s w h i l e i n the background, yet j o i n i n g i n the a c t i n g of the o ther t h r ee , there hovers and f l i t s the f i g u r e of John-- the be loved son of Henry I I , who deserves to be c a l l e d Henry the L i o n i f h i s son deserves that bombastic t i t l e Goeur de L i o n . Longchamp the U p s t a r t , t r u s t e d and f a i t h f u l servant o f Richard- wishes to be master o f the whole o f Eng land . Hugh 2 of Durham, k insman of the k i n g , s c i o n o f the House of B l o i s , intends to m a i n t a i n i n v i o l a t e the County P a l a t i n e of Durham and to t ake a share i n the c o - j u s t i c i a r s h i p granted to him and Longchamp. John and Geoff rey r e v e a l themselves as t r ue R i c h , o f D e v i s e s , P . 392. 2» See G e n e o l o g i c a l t a b l e i n Append ix . - 8 4 -oniy to. t h e i r e a r l i e r r e p u t a t i o n s o f "being t rue to l i t t l e else than s e l f I n t e r e s t , t rue sons of the.House of Anjou ~ of the House o f Yea - and - Hay. John i s anxious to grasp the shadow of power. B u t - - w i l l he the reby l o s e the substance? During R i c h a r d ' s absence tw ice he has to make a c h o i c e . F i r s t , when Longchamp i s deposed by the barons , w i l l he repudia te Richard or p l a y a n o b l e r p a r t ? Second, when news comes tha t the k i n g has d i s appea red , w i l l he prosecute the search w i t h vigour or should he s e i z e the crown? On the f i r s t o c c a s i o n he had to dec ide whether to r i s k the b i r t h o f an h e i r t o Richard or to hope tha t Fa te would leave him i n the succes s ion . And l i k e a Greek t r agedy , Fa te decided to keep that q u e s t i o n f o r the f u t u r e , and fo rce him to make a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n on the fa te of A r t h u r . On every o c c a s i o n John f a i l e d to p l a y the man. ' Geoff rey p resen t s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t yet s t r a n g e l y s i m i l a r p i c t u r e . He shows the same Angev in waywardness and stubbornness. He i s adamant i n h i s r e f u s a l to take a f r e s h oath of a l l e g i a n c e before be ing enthroned i n h i s a r c h -b i shopr ic , t he reby u n n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e n d i n g barons and c l e r g y . Most s trange o f a l l i s h i s h e s i t a t i o n i n t a k i n g o r d i n a t i o n , ,. What went on i n s i d e tha t head? D i d the son of the F a i r Rosamund cas t h i s mind back, and r e f l e c t tha t h i s ances tor 'Will iam the B a s t a r d became K i n g of England? E v i d e n t l y John -8j>-thought so, f o r John was most anxious t o see Geoffrey en-throned. I n York, tonsured and m i t r e d , l e s t he should "be enthroned at Westminster w i t h chrism and crown. He shows h i m s e l f quarrelsome and t a c t l e s s . One of the best examples of his. l a c k of t a c t i s g i v e n by Hoveden, not so much to i l l u s t r a t e h i s c h a r a c t e r as to n a r r a t e the i n -cidents t h a t e x p l a i n the subsequent f r i c t i o n between' Geoffrey and the c l e r g y of the chapter. He t e l l s 1 how Geoffrey had wished t o conduct vespers on the eve of Epiphany i n January, 1190. E v i d e n t l y he was l a t e i n a r r i v i n g , and Henry the Dean and Buchard the Treasurer r e f u s e d to wait f o r him, and proceeded w i t h the s e r v i c e . "When the archbishop e l e c t a r r i v e d i n the c h o i r w i t h Hamo the Pr e c e n t o r and other c l e r g y of t h i s same c a t h e d r a l , he p r o t e s t e d vehemently and ordered them to be s i l e n t . The precentor ordered them Yt ot to s i n g . However a l l were s i l e n t a t the command of the Archbishop and P r e c e n t o r . Then the bishop began vespers a g a i n and the t r e a s u r e r ordered tiiera as* to e x t i n g u i s h , a l l the candles.. And when these were put out and vespers f i n i s h e d , the bishop complained to God, to the c l e r g y and to the people concerning the i n j u r y which the dean and t r e a s u r e r had done him." A l i t t l e p u n c t u a l i t y and a l i t t l e t a c t would have prevented a scene which one can s c a r c e l y imagine t a k i n g place today, and i t would have rendered u n l i k e l y many f u t u r e b i t t e r a c t s . 1. Hoveden, V o l . H i , P. 3l» The other great t o p i c s of the volume are the Crusade of Richard and P h i l i p , and the capture and ransom of R i c h a r d with the attendant imposts i n Richard's dominions and the o p p o s i t i o n to these. One remarkable s e c t i o n must here be mentioned that i s not d i r e c t l y connected w i t h any of those mentioned. We must f i r s t t e l l the circumstances t h a t l e a d up to the sermon of Joachim. While R i c h a r d was at Messina he expressed great 1 penitence f o r h i s s i n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the 2 words which Hoveden uses here : "Bed p a t e r m i s e r i c o r d i a r u m Deus, q u i non v u l t mortem p e c c a t o r i s , sed ut convertatur et v i v a t ....." One cannot help but be s t r u c k w i t h the s i m i l -a r i t y to the words of the Edwardian and modern prayer books. Vie t h i n k there i s l i t t l e doubt that i t i s an echo q u o t a t i o n from the T w e l f t h Century r i t u a l . "But God, the f a t h e r of a l l mercies, Who d e s i r e t h not the death of a sinner but rather that he should t u r n (from h i s wickedness) and l i v e , . . turned upon him H i s countenance of p i t y , and gave him a 3 penitent heart and c a l l e d him to penance." E v i d e n t l y Benedict and Roger were impressed w i t h Richard's penitence and b e l i e v e d him to be s i n c e r e , f o r 1. I b i d . P. 74. 2. I b i d . P. 75. 3. Hoveden, V o l . i i i , P. 75• - 8 ? -"'-Roger continues' 1': : "He r e c e i v e d a b s o l u t i o n from the afore-men-t i o n e d bishop, and from that hour forward became a man f e a r i n g God and t u r n i n g from e v i l and doing good,; 0 happy man. who thus f a l l s i n order that he may r i s e a g a i n s t r o n g e r 1 0 happy he who a f t e r h i s penance d i d not again r e l a p s e i n t o s i n I" 0 happy El e a n o r , t h i n e e r r a n t k n i g h t i s become a t r u e knight errant J Then f o l l o w s the remarkable sermon of Joachim " i n quibus a u d i e n i s , rex Anglia-e e t ' s u i d e l e c t a b a n t u r . " This c o n s i s t e d i n an exegesis of the passage i n R e v e l a t i o n XVII which: d e s c r i b e s the Great Beast and the Seven King s . As i n the Great War when the prophecies of D a n i e l and St. John were r e l a t e d to contemporary people and events, so apparently i n the days o f the T h i r d Crusade t h i s same chapter of Revela-t i o n was a p p l i e d to the then s i t u a t i o n . The seven kings are stated to be Herod, Hero, C o n s t a n t i u s , Mahomet, Mausamuz (Youssbuf-abu-Yaconb, second monarch of Almohad dynasty), these are the f i v e who are dead. S a l a d i n i s the one who i s ' 2 and A n t i c h r i s t i s the one who i s yet to be. He says :' "and one i s , to w i t S a l a d i n , who at present oppresses the Church of God and holds i t In occupation, w i t h the sepulchre of Our L o r d and the holy c i t y of Jerusalem and the l a n d i n which have stood the f e e t of the Master, but he w i l l p e r i s h next. I b i d P. 75 2. I b i d P. 77 " T h e n t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d a s k e d h i m , 'When w i l l t h i s b e ? f A n d J o a c h i m a n s w e r e d h i m , 'When s e v e n y e a r s have e l a p s e d f r o m t h e c a p t u r e o f J e r u s a l e m . ' " Stubbs n o t e s t h a t the a c c o u n t o f R o g e r has been w r i t t e n a f t e r the s u c c e s s o f the C r u s a d e h a d become p r o b l e m a t i c a l , w h i l e B e n e d i c t ' s w h i c h had b e e n w r i t t e n e a r l i e r , b o l d l y p r o m i s e s t h a t S a l a d i n w i l l s h o r t l y - l o s e t h e kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m and be p u t t o d e a t h . J o a c h i m t h e n expounded h i s views, o f A n t i c h r i s t . Roger d e s c r i p t i o n does n o t o c c u r i n B e n e d i c t . S t u b b s has a v a l u a b l e f o o t n o t e on i t 1 . He s a y s : " T h i s famous d e s c r i p t i o n o f A n t i c h r i s t , w a s w r i t t e n o r i g i n a l l y by A d s o , t o G-erberga, Queen o f L e w i s " O u t r e m e r " , s h o r t l y b e f o r e the y e a r 9.54. Adso was a f t e r w a r d s a b b o t o f D e r . I t has been a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a t t r i b u t e d t o A u g u s t i n e among whose s p u r i o u s works i t i s p r i n t e d i n the B e n e d i c t i n e e d i t i o n . . . . ; t o A l e u i n . . . . ; t o Rabanus M a u r u s . . . . , u n d e r t h e s e names i t a p p e a r s : i n v a r i o u s forms and w i t h d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s ; as a l s o i n the shape o f a l e t t e r to A r c h b i s h o p H e r e b e r t o f C o l o g n e from A l b i n u s c i r . 999 A . L . . . . The f o r m i n w h i c h i t i s g i v e n by Hoveden c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h a t ' i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r s i n Rabanus Maurus The t h i r d volume opens by t e l l i n g how R i c h a r d , a f t e r the b u r i a l o f h i s f a t h e r , s e i z e d S t e p h e n de Turneham and J u t him i n c h a i n s , u n t i l he s h o u l d hand o v e r a l l the c a s t l e s and t r e a s u r e o f the l a t e k i n g . H a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e s e ! • Hoveden, i i i . P . 7&. Richard was made duke of Normandy and s a i l e d f o r England. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note Richard's treatment of Stephen, f o r i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s p o l i c y immediately p r i o r to 1 h i s departure f o r P a l e s t i n e . R i c h a r d of Devizes adds that the K i n g made Stephen pay/^,30,000 Angevin i n cash and a L i k e one of h i s successors, Henry ¥, R i c h a r d appears to have broken w i t h the f r i e n d s of h i s former years. Hoveden 2 reports the change very b r i e f l y : I l l o s autem omnes, tarn c l e r i e o s quam l a i c o s , q u i , r e l i c t o patre suo, i l l i adhaeserunt, odio h a b u i t , e t a f a m i l i -a r i t a t e sua a l i e n o s f e c i t : i l l o s vero, q u i p a t r i suo f i d e l i t e r s e r v i e r u n t secum r e t i n u i t , et m u l t i s bonis d i t a v i t . "But he h e l d i n h a t r e d those who, whether c l e r g y . or laymen, having d e s e r t e d h i s f a t h e r , had clung to him, and he made them strang e r s to h i s f r i e n d s h i p : but.those, who had served h i s f a t h e r f a i t h f u l l y , he r e t a i n e d w i t h h i m s e l f and enriched them w i t h many g i f t s . " There was joy i n England when R i c h a r d and John a r r i v e d . Yet everyone was not s a t i s f i e d , but the discontented t r i e d to console t h e m s e l v e s 2 . "Yet some, a few at l e a s t , were t r o u b l e d at the death of t h e i r l o r d the k i n g , but there was some_ comfort f o r them f o r as some one has s a i d : ' I w i l l t e l l wondrous t h i n g s , the sun s e t , yet no nigh t f o l l o w e d ' . " 1. R i c h . D i v i s . P. • 2. Hoveden, i i i . P. j?. -90-There i s a volume of p u b l i c o p i n i o n of Henry I I ana R i c h a r d I i n the three L a t i n l i n e s . R i c h a r d landed on August 13th, 1189, but d i d not hurry on to he crowned. He e v i d e n t l y p r e f e r r e d to secure h i s f r i e n d s and e s p e c i a l l y h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h g i f t s and honours. He "bestowed on John the county of M o r t a i n i n Normandy, the counties of C o r n w a l l , L o r s e t , Somerset, Nottingham, Derby, Lancaster, and the c a s t l e s of Marlborough and L u d g e r s h a l l , ; and the honours of W a l l i n g f o r d , T i c k h i l l and Haia, a l s o the Peak and B o l l s o v e r . "Sed quaedam c a s t e l l a praedictorum comitatuum et honorum r e t i n u i t dux i n manu sua." Here we see the t y p i c a l R i c h a r d . As the h i s t o r i a n merely records we can o n l y speculate on h i s motives. I t may have been i m p e t u o s i t y . The g i f t s may have been intended as a sop. But i f so, how c h i l d i s h . L i d R i c h a r d imagine t h a t the g i v i n g of h a l f the l o a f would check John from w i s h i n g the whole? Remembering t h a t R i c h a r d i s vowed to a crusade i t i s s c a r c e l y c r e d i b l e . He knew b e t t e r than any one e l s e the p e r f i d y of John, the beloved son. Nor, c l e a r l y has he f o r g o t t e n i t , f o r he witholds the c a s t l e s i n s e v e r a l of the honours, not a b l y Nottingham, one of the strongest mediaeval E n g l i s h c a s t l e s . l* Ibid. P. 6 1 He added to these "the county of Gloucester w i t h the daughter of the count, and he made John become betrothed to her at once; Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury f o r b i d d i n g i t , f o r they were-blood r e l a t i o n s i n the f o u r t h degree." "....et Gaufrido f r a t r i suo notho, q u i f u e r a t L i n c o l n i e n s i s e c c l e s i a e e l e c t u s archiepiscopatum E b o r a c i . " Roger r e p o r t s t h a t the canons of York duly e l e c t e d G e o f f r e y Archbishop of Y o r k 2 . Hoveden gives a very f u l l account^ of the cor o n a t i o n of Richard. T his appears to have been a most elaborate ceremony which shows th a t R i c h a r d l i k e d the pomp and panoply, and bel i e v e d i n having t h i n g s done i n c o r r e c t form. The Kin g was r e c e i v e d at the door of h i s p r i v a t e room by a pr o c e s s i o n of bishops, abbots and c l e r g y c l a d i n s i l k e n gowns, preceded by a cross and accompanied by candle bearers and a c o l y t e s with h o l y water. These conducted R i c h a r d to the church at Westminster w i t h w e l l ordered p r o c e s s i o n and magnificent s i n g i n g . A l l the path from the door of the King's chamber to the high a l t a r was carpeted w i t h a woollen c l o t h . "The 4 order of the p r o c e s s i o n was as f o l l o w s : F i r s t came the 1. I b i d . P. 6. 2. I b i d . P. 7 . 3. I b i d . P. 9. 4. Op. c i t . P. 9. -92-clergy i n t h e i r gowns, c a r r y i n g the c r o s s e s , the holy water, the candles ana the censers. Then came the p r i o r s , then the abbots, then the bishops and i n the midst of them went four barons bearing f o u r golden c a n d l e s t i c k s . Then came Godfrey de Lucy c a r r y i n g the r o y a l cap and John M a r s h a l l next him with two golden spurs, great and heavy. Then came W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l , Count of S t r i g u i l , b e a r i n g the r o y a l g o l d sceptre on the top of which i s a cro s s of g o l d . Then came W i l l i a m P a t r i c k , E a r l of S a l i s b u r y , b e a r i n g a golden s t a f f having a golden dove on the top. Next came L a v i d the brother of the King of Sc o t l a n d , E a r l of Huntingdon, and John, Count of Moreton, brother of the Duke, and R o b e r t , E a r l of L e i c e s t e r , bearing three r o y a l sumptuous swords from the treasure of the K i n g , whose scabbards from the top throughout were patterned i n g o l d . ..Then came s i x e a r l s and s i x barons c a r r y i n g on t h e i r shoulders one of the very b i g Exchequer tables upon which had'been placed the r o y a l r e g a l i a and robes. Then came W i l l i a m de M a n d e v i l l e , E a r l of Albemarle bearing the golden crown great and heavy, and decorated on a l l sides w i t h p r e c i o u s stones. Then came Richard Duke of Normandy, and Hugh, Bishop of Durham walked on h i s r i g h t side and R e g i n a l d Bishop of Bath of h i s l e f t , and four barons bore over them a s i l k e n p a l l supported on four ornamented spears, and there f o l l o w e d a l l the crowd of e a r l s and barons -93" and others both c l e r i c and l a y , and they entered the nave of the church and went w i t h the duke to the c h o i r . When the duke came i n t o the presence of the archbishops and bishops a t the a l t a r and of the p r i e s t s and people, he bowed h i s knees before many sacred r e l i c s . And he swore that he would keep the peace and do honour and reverence to God and Holy Church and of i t s ordained courses a l l the days of h i s l i f e . Then he swore t h a t he. would do j u s t i c e and righteousness to the people committed to him. Then he promised t h a t he would annul a l l bad laws and e v i l customs i f any had been brought i n t o the kingdom, that he would ad-m i n i s t e r good laws and guard them without f r a u d or e v i l design. Then they undressed him completely except h i s s h i r t and tr o u s e r s , and the s h i r t was unfastened on h i s shoulders. Next they put on him the sandals woven over w i t h g o l d . Then Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, p o u r i n g the sacred o i l over h i s head, a n o i n t e d him k i n g i n three p l a c e s , on the head, the breast and the arms, which s i g n i f y the g l o r y , bravery and knowledge., accompanied w i t h the words arranged f o r t h i s a c t . Then the same archbishop p l a c e d on h i s head the consecrated l i n e n c a p 1 w i t h the p i l l e u s above which Godfrey de Lucy had c a r r i e d . 1. This must be the p r e c u r s o r of the crimson v e l v e t Cap maintenance used today. Then, they put on him the r o y a l vestments, f i r s t the tunic , then t h e d a l m a t i c . Then t h e same archbishop handed to him the r o y a l sword, f o r the seisin g - of those who i n j u r e the Church. Then 'two k n i g h t s fastened on him t h e spurs which John M a r s h a l l ^ had brought. Then he was c l o t h e d w i t h the mantle. Then he was l e d t o the a l t a r -where the s a i d archbishop warned him i n t h e name of Almighty Cod not t o undertake t h i s honour f o r h i m s e l f u n l e s s he bore i n mind the aforementioned oath and vow w h i c h he would do a l l to preserve i n v i o l a t e ; and he answered t h a t w i t h the help of God he v/ould preserve a l l the aforementioned words w i t h o u t e q u i v o c a t i o n . Then he h i m s e l f took the crown from t h e a l t a r and gave i t to the archbishop who placed i t on h i s head, and two knights h e l d i t up because of i t s great weight. Then the archbishop p l a c e d i n h i s r i g h t hand the r o y a l sceptre and i n h i s l e f t the v i r g e , and the Icing thus crowned was l e d to h i s seat by the aforementioned bishops of Durham and Bath, the eandlebearers p r e c e d i n g them and the three swords pre v i o usly ment ione d. Next the s e r v i c e of the Mass was begun, and when the 1» I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that R i c h a r d has taken both John and W i l l i a m (see above) M a r s h a l l i n t o h i s s e r v i c e . •;• - They were h i s f a t h e r ? s most f a i t h f u l s ervants. W i l l i a m unhorsed R i c h a r d i n the p u r s u i t of Henry from Le Mans t o Angers« . -95-o f f e r t o r y was reached the aforesaid, bishops l e d him to the a l t a r , and he o f f e r e d one mark of the purest g o l d , f o r such an o b l a t i o n i s f i t t i n g f o r a k i n g at h i s own c o r o n a t i o n , and the aforementioned bishops l e d him back to h i s own seat. And when Mass had been c e l e b r a t e d and e v e r y t h i n g had been completed a c c o r d i n g to r u l e , the two bishops p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, one on the r i g h t and the other on the l e f t con-ducted him back crowned and c a r r y i n g the sceptre i n h i s r i g h t hand and t h e v i r g e i n h i s l e f t , from the church even to h i s own p r i v a t e room, the p r o c e s s i o n i n ordered rank preceding him as above. Then the p r o c e s s i o n to t h e c h o i r was reversed, and the l o r d k i n g l a i d a s i d e the r o y a l crown and robes, and put on l i g h t e r crown and robes, and thus crowned he proceeded to the f e a s t ; and the archbishops and bishops sat down w i t h him at t a b l e each a c c o r d i n g to h i s rank and d i g n i t y . And the k n i g h t s and barons served i n the house of the k i n g as t h e i r ranks demanded." We have considered i t worth while to give Roger's account i n f u l l f o r s e v e r a l reasons. I t i s one of the e a r l i e s t and most d e t a i l e d accounts of a c o r s o n a t i o n t h a t we possess. Next i t i s most probable that Hoveden was an eye-witness. Then besides Richard's l i k i n g f o r the outward show al r e a d y mentioned we t h i n k that i t r e v e a l s something of the romantic mind of the k i n g t h a t l o v e d the glamour of a great i d e a . One other f e a t u r e o f Roger's C h r o n i c l e may be p o i n t e d out here. The e a r l i e r c h r o n i c l e r s , as i s shown by the opening p a r t s of Wendover and Hoveden, were mere d i a r i s t s . The e n t r i e s are s h o r t , r a r e l y e l a b o r a t e d and never woven int o a n a r r a t i v e , nor are any connections shown between the events n a r r a t e d . Roger f o l l o w s up events and puts them i n r e l a t i o n to one another and shows the development and sequence of events. While the k i n g was s i t t i n g at the m e a l 1 the c h i e f Jews came be a r i n g g i f t s f o r the k i n g . But the door keepers would not a l l o w them to come i n and drove them o f f . Then the people beat them and d e s p o i l e d them. They invaded the Jewry and burned the houses and k i l l e d the Jews, only a few escaping through the help of C h r i s t i a n f r i e n d s . R i c h a r d seized some of the r i o t e r s the next day and had some o f them hanged, not, as Roger n a i v e l y remarks, on account of the Jews but on account of the damage done to the houses and property of the C h r i s t i a n s . Twice, i n t h i s s e c t i o n , Hoveden shows h i s i n t e r e s t i n 1. Op. c i t . E. 12 - 9 7 ~ North Country a f f a i r s . I n the account of the a n t i - J e w i s h n r i o t he i n s e r t s the s t o r y of Benedict of York , a Jew who turned C h r i s t i a n . The other place i s immediately a f t e r t h i s when R i c h a r d r e c e i v e s the homages and s e l l s e s t a t e s . Roger reports the grant of the manor of Sadberge i n the county of Durham to the bishop of Durham and quotes the grant i n f u l l . We have i n s e r t e d t h i s i n the appendix. The paragraph^ i s worth quoting f o r i t i l l u s t r a t e s one of Richard's methods of r a i s i n g money f o r the Crusade. I t i s w e l l known that he v i s i t e d h i s E n g l i s h possessions only twice d u r i n g h i s r e i g n and he seems to have regarded England simply as a convenient banker to keep him i n funds or to ransom h i s person. "And the second day a f t e r h i s co r o n a t i o n Richard, k i n g of England r e c e i v e d the homages and vows from the bishops, e a r l s and barons of England, to whom the k i n g explained that a l l t hat he had was f o r s a l e , to w i t , c a s t l e s , towns and est a t e s . Hence i t came about t h a t Hugh, bishop of Durham bought of the k i n g h i s r i g h t s i n the manor of Sedberge, t o -gether w i t h the wapentake and k n i g h t ' s fee f o r s i x hundred marks of s i l v e r i n pure and p e r p e t u a l g i f t and he confirmed. I t by t h i s c h a r t e r . Then f o l l o w s the c h a r t e r i n f u l l . 1. I b i d . Pp. 12 & 13. 2. Op. c i t . P. 13. 3. Hoveden, i i i . P. 13. -98-We are t o l d further" 1' that Hugh gave the k i n g marks of s i l v e r , (the number i s omitted, and a. space l e f t . Richard, of D e v i z e s 2 says 10,000 ) f o r the county of Northumberland to h o l d d u r i n g h i s own l i f e , together w i t h i t s c a s t l e s and i t s other b e l o n g i n g s . At a subsequent c o u n c i l at P i p e w e l l the k i n g f i l l e d .many vacancies i n c a t h e d r a l s and abbeys, and made s e v e r a l other appointments. Among these we read that W i l l i a m Longchamp his c h a n c e l l o r was made bishop o f E l y , Hubert Walter was made bishop of S a l i s b u r y and Geoffrey was made archbishop of York. Hugh Bishop of Durham and W i l l i a m E a r l of Albemarle were made j o i n t c h i e f j u s t i c i a r s ^ , and R i c h a r d named as commission of the j u s t i c e s h i p W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l , Godfrey son of P e t e r , W i l l i a m Bruere, Robert of W i h t e f e l d and Roger F i t z R e i n f r e d . This c o u n c i l was h e l d i n September. I n the f o l l o w i n g November W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l d i e d 4 and was bu r i e d i n the G a l i l e e at Durham C a t h e d r a l . 1. I b i d . P. 15. 2. R i c h . D e v i z . P. 8. 3. I b i d . P. l b . 4. I b i d . P. 19. We then l e a r n something of events i n P a l e s t i n e , the tr o u b l e between Guy de Lusignan and Conrad, and of the opening of the seige of Acre. This connects up w i t h the in f o r m a t i o n t h a t Roger has a l r e a d y given us about Richard's arrangements f o r a f l e e t to t r a n s p o r t h i s tr o o p s , to be pro-vided by a l l the p o r t s of England, Normandy, Anjou and h i s 2 other p o s s e s s i o n s , and prepares- us f o r Richard's campaign i n the neighbourhood of Acre and the capture of the c i t y . The next important event recorded i s Richard's release of W i l l i a m , K i n g of S c o t l a n d from h i s f e a l t y , i n December 1189. The subsequent c h a r t e r was very vaguely worded, so that i n l a t e r years there was di s p u t e as to whether the homage done by W i l l i a m and h i s successors was done to the k i n g as o v e r l o r d o f S c o t l a n d or as f e u d a l l o r d of Roxburgh and Berwick. E v i d e n t l y Hoveden thought t h a t R i c h a r d intended to r e -lease him f o r S c o t l a n d . .He says: ^ Therefore W i l l i a m , K i n g of the Scots came to Canterbury to the k i n g of England i n the month of December and d i d homage to him f o r the honours which he h e l d i n England such as Malcolm h i s b r o t h e r had h e l d . And R i c h a r d K i n g of England, 1. I b i d . P. 8 . 2. I b i d . P. 128 et seq.. 3. Hoveden, i i i . P. 25 . -100-returned to him the c a s t l e s of Roxburgh ana Berwick i n f r e e ana q u i e t p o s s e s s i o n , and. r e l e a s e d him and a l l h i s h e i r s free and q u i e t from h i m s e l f and the k i n g s of England i n per-p e t u i t y , from a l l l i g a n t i a and s u b j e c t i o n f o r the kingdom of Scotland; and f o r t h i s r e t u r n of h i s c a s t l e s and f o r the quiet r e l e a s e of the f e a l t y and l i g a n t i a e f o r the kingdom of Scotland, and f o r the c h a r t e r of R i c h a r d , k i n g of England, issued i n consequence, W i l l i a m , k i n g of the Scots gave • Richard, k i n g of England, t e n thousand marks s t e r l i n g . Then Richard, k i n g of England gave h i s c h a r t e r to him i n t h i s form. Then f o l l o w s the c h a r t e r which w i l l be found i n the appendix. Geoffrey had a l r e a d y had t r o u b l e at Y o r k 1 and had r e -fused to i n s t a l l the dean and t r e a s u r e r i n September. How i n December Hugh of Durham and Hubert of S a l i s b u r y appealed^ u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , however, agai n s t h i s e l e c t i o n . Geoffrey bought Richard's g o o d w i l l and the r e t u r n of some of h i s possessions w i t h a payment o f three thousand pounds s t e r l i n g . 1 general r e c o n c i l i a t i o n f o l l o w e d . When R i c h a r d at l a s t crossed to C a l a i s to meet P h i l i p on December 11, f o r the purpose of proceeding w i t h the 2 Crusade he l e f t i n England as c o - j u s t i c i a r s , Hugh de P u i s e t , 1. I b i d . P. 19. 2. I b i d . P. 2 8 . -101-bishop of Durham and W i l l i a m Longchamp, now bishop of E l y . He appointed to the c o u n c i l of jus t i c e s * - H u g h B a r d o l f , W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l , Geoffrey P i t z P e t e r and W i l l i a m Bruere. To W i l l i a m Longchamp he handed over h i s s e a l s and gave him charge of the Tower of London and to Hugh of Durham he gave charge of Windsor C a s t l e and the county of Berks. Roger does not mention any g i f t of s e a l to Hugh, No sooner had 1 the k i n g c r o s s e d over than de P u i s e t and Longchamp q u a r r e l l e d as to which was the s e n i o r . 2 R i c h a r d c a l l e d a l l h i s c o u n c i l l o r s to a meeting i n Normandy i n March, 119 0, and made Longchamp supreme j u s t i c i a r of England and Hugh j u s t i c i a r of the lands n o r t h of the Humber, and made h i s b r o t h e r s John and Geoffrey swear that they would not r e t u r n to England f o r the next three years, without h i s p e r m i s s i o n . R i c h a r d a p p l i e d to Pope Clement f o r l e g a t i n e powers f o r Longchamp which the Pope granted. R i c h a r d throughout showed great confidence i n W i l l i a m which even a baronage u n i t e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n f a i l e d to shake. Immediately on h i s r e t u r n t o England the j u s t i c i a r began that s e r i e s of l e v i e s and exactions which f i n a l l y ranged almost the e n t i r e Church and peerage against him. 1. Op. c i t . P. 29. 2. I b i d . P. 32. -102-1 There i s an almost p e r s o n a l note i n the manner of the northern c h r o n i c l e r as he couples W i l l i a m ' s f o r t i f y i n g of the Tower by a very deep moat w i t h the r e p o r t i n g of the commencement of h i s imposts i n the same paragraph. We hear 2 t h i s note a g a i n as Roger r e p o r t s very f u l l y the f i r s t t rouble between Longchamp and Hugh of Durham. Longchamp seized the o p p o r t u n i t y of the massacre of the Jews at York that same March, to go there and a s s e r t h i s a u t h o r i t y even -north of the Humber. He set o f f then to punish the r i o t e r s and appointed h i s own brother Osbert as s h e r i f f of Y o r k s h i r e . He acted i n a very h i g h handed manner towards both c l e r g y and l a i t y . I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t Roger gives no cause f o r these proceedings other than the massacre. Hugh a r r i v e d from France b e a r i n g l e t t e r s and h i s j u s t i c i a r ' s commission from R i c h a r d . He showed these t o Longchamp who promptly imprisoned him at Suwell and f o r c e d him to surrender Windsor c a s t l e and to give hostages before being r e l e a s e d . Hugh then went to Howden whither Osbert pursued him and f o r c e d from him a promise not to move w i t h -out Longchamp's p e r m i s s i o n . Hugh wrote the k i n g r e p o r t i n g these t h i n g s . Yet nowhere i n h i s re c o r d does Roger p r a i s e or condemn R i c h a r d f o r h i s p e r s i s t e n t f a i t h i n Longchamp, 1. I b i d . P. 33. 2. I b i d . P. 35. -103-nor o f f e r any e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s continued t r u s t , i n s p i t e of these a c t s which, to say the l e a s t , appear to the present w r i t e r most u n j u s t i f i e d and a r b i t r a r y . As h i n t e d above i t i s from Roger that we l e a r n of the t e r r i b l e massacre of the Jews at Y o r k 1 i n March 1190. I t appears t h a t the people of York and of the environs had threatened the Jews who through f e a r shut themselves up i n the Tower of York w i t h the consent of the s h e r i f f s . The mob a t t a c k e d the tower and the Jews o f f e r e d money i n r e t u r n f o r s a f e t y . There were f i v e hundred men, women and c h i l d r e n i n the tower. Counsel was g i v e n by a l e a d e r , " I t i s b e t t e r to die by our own hands than to f a l l i n t o the hands of our enemies." A l l agreed and a c c o r d i n g l y the men cut the t h r o a t s of t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n and then set f i r e to the tower. A l l p e r i s h e d e i t h e r by f i r e , or k n i f e or sword, and the people sacked the Jewry, burning t h e i r own promissory notes and the houses. On the eve of R i c h a r d ' s departure the p o s i t i o n was t h i s : The great f i g u r e s of h i s f a t h e r ' s r e i g n were e i t h e r with h i m - - l i k e G - l a n v i l l or at t h e i r b i s h o p r i c s i n Normandy— l i k e Walter of Rouen. I n England Hugh de P u i s e t had been given h i s ambitions i n the n o r t h , and John had been granted huge holdings i n the west, f r e e from i n t e r f e r e n c e by the 1., I b i d . Pp. 33 & 34 -104-r o y a l Exchequer. Across the centre the country was d i v i d e d everybody's f r i e n d s being p r o v i d e d f o r and the Grown h o l d i n g the c h i e f c a s t l e s . , Henry I I ' s f r i e n d s had been rewarded and Richard's e r s t w h i l e supporters had been checked. R i c h a r d e v i d e n t l y reckoned t h a t purchase, reward and h i s f a t h e r ' s system would c a r r y a f f a i r s through p e a c e f u l l y u n t i l h i s r e -tur n . I f so, he s e r i o u s l y underestimated the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r i n h i s f a t h e r ' s r u l e . P o s s i b l y the whole s i t u a t i o n was no more t h a n the make-shift arrangement of a mind, not p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s kingdom t h a t had f a l l e n to him, romantic, eager, i m p u l s i v e , i m p a t i e n t , t h a t f e l t the glamour of the East and wished to spend i t s energy on something more l o f t y than the s o r d i d p a t r i c i d a l and d y n a s t i c feuds of Europe. Hugh de P u i s e t was a remarkable c h a r a c t e r . He never forgot t h a t he had r o y a l blood i n h i s v e i n s , and he was more a diplomat and p o l i t i c i a n than a bishop. He was fond of the chase, i n t e r e s t e d i n s h i p p i n g , a consummate i n t r i g u e r and a wary p o l i t i c i a n . Stubbs l i k e n s h i m 1 to the type of i m p e r i a l p r i n c e bishops. He had charm of manner, good nature, strongly attached t o Henry and h i s sons. Longchamp $ was not even of noble b i r c h . Hoveden records 1. I b i d . P reface XXXVII. 2. I b i d . P. 142. -105-of him: ".. . .et s i a l i t e r a t t e n t a s s e n t , aculeo pungebantur, quern dominus prae manibus habebat, memor p i a e r e c o r d a t i o n i s a v i s u i , q u i , s e r v i l i s e o r i d i t i o n i s i n paga B e l v a c e n s i , et aratrum ducere et l o v e s e a s t i g a r e consueverat; q u i tandem ad remedium l i b e r t a t i s ad f i n e s Hormannorum t r a n s v o l a v i t . " So that the j u s t i c i a r was the grandson of a runaway s e r f . He r a i s e d h i s f a m i l y by c a r e f u l i n t e r m a r r i a g e . Roger's whole d e s c r i p t i o n through these three pages shows more personal f e e l i n g than any other p a r t of h i s n a r r a t i v e . He continues, d e s c r i b i n g him-as a h a t e r of the E n g l i s h , r u l i n g a u t o c r a t i -c a l l y , i g n o r i n g the k i n g ' s commands--Solus ergo regnabat, et solus imperabat, et a mari usque ad mare timebatur, ut Deus, et s i p l u s dicerem non m e n t i r e r . ""*" Roger gathers together a l l the. B i b l i c a l quotations he can to show tha t Longchamp's f a l l was the v.engeance of God on a haughty s p i r i t : "Let him that standeth take heed l e s t he f a l l , " " He that e x a l t e t h h i m s e l f s h a l l be brought low" and many ot h e r s . In c o n t r a s t to Hugh's good f i g u r e and hand-some f a c e , W i l l i a m was ugly. Even R i c h a r d of L e v i z e s , who i s h i s l e a s t severe c r i t i c , can only say that i t took a l l the greatness of h i s mind to make up f o r the shortness of h i s 1'. I b i d . P. 145. 2. R i c h . L e v i z . P. 11 . - 1 0 6 -body. H e . s t a r t e d as a c l e r k i n the chancery and, g a i n i n g the confidence of R i c h a r d rose r a p i d l y . According to Stubbs *v ri Giraldus Cambrensis i s p l a y i n g to the g a l l e r y when he a t t a c k s Longchamp f o r h i s l a c k of the E n g l i s h language and contempt for E n g l i s h people. T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g as a s i g n that Norman and Saxon were f u s i n g and that the Normans were now regarding themselves as n a t i v e s . Having cr o s s e d swords.with Hugh de P u i s e t he had no choice but m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f supreme. S e l f defence d i c t a t e d an o f f e n s i v e r a t h e r than defensive l i n e of conduct. To help him he had Richard's l e t t e r g i v i n g him f u l l power to act and he also had Richard's moral support. He had l e g a t i n e powers from G e l e s t i n e I I I . A g a i n s t him was h i s p e r s o n a l u n p o p u l a r i t y with the t a l e s of h i s b i r t h and c h a r a c t e r and the c h a r a c t e r and p o p u l a r i t y of Hugh de P u i s e t — a type dear to the heart of every Englishman. He fought a l o s i n g f i g h t from the s t a r t . One p o s s i b l e supporter he might have had. This was John, who might have been detached from the other barons. But Long- . champ was h o s t i l e to John's claims t o the throne. R i c h a r d wrote a l e t t e r t o Pope Clement 2 e x p l a i n i n g a l l the events leading up to h i s agreement w i t h Tancred and the arrangement 1. Hoveden, i i i . P r e f . x l i . 2* Hoveden, i i i . 65 . - 1 0 7 -1 of a marriage "between Tancred's daughter and A r t h u r of B r i t t a n y , whom R i c h a r d acknowledges as h i s h e i r i n the l e t t e r -"Cum eo etiam p a c i s et a m i c i t i a e foedus a r c t i o r i •adhuc v i n c u l o a s t r i n g e n t e s , i n t e r Artururn egregium , ducem B r i t a n n i a e , carissimum nepotem nostrum et haeredem ( s i nos decedere sine p r o l e c o n t i g e r i t ) , et i l l u s t r e m f i l i a m , e j u s , matrimonium volente Domino, condiximus contrahendum:". - The immediate cause of the break between P r i n c e John and the j u s t i c i a r was the a t t a c k of the l a t t e r on Gerard de C a m v i l l . Gerard had bought the s h e r i f f d o m of L i n c o l n s h i r e and had married the h e i r e s s o f the c a s t l e o f L i n c o l n . W i l l i a m knew t h a t R i c h a r d o b j e c t e d to such an arrangement, as i n the case of John and Nottingham. Then Gerard had allowed the castle to become a den of robbers. T h i s charge was l a i d against him by Longchamp before R i c h a r d 2 at the C o u n c i l of Nottingham i n 1194. "Deinde per c o n c i l i u m et machinationem c a n c e l l a r i , ut d i c i t u r , Gerardus de C a m v i l l a f u i t r e t a t u s de receptatione praedonum, q u i rapuerunt bona mercatorum entium ad nundinas de S t a n f o r d ; et ab eo recesserunt ad rapinam i l l a m faciendam, et de r a p i n a i l i a r e d i e r u n t ad eum." Gerard appears to,have been a v a s s a l of John, and when Longchamp c a l l e d on Gerard to give up the sheriffdom John s e i z e d the 1. I b i d . P. 01. 2. I b i d . P. 242 - 1 0 8 -' 1 c a s t l e s of T i c x h i l l and Nottingham which R i c h a r d had w i t h -held from him and the j u s t i c i a r beseiged L i n c o l n c a s t l e . " I n t e r e a o r t a est g r a v i s d i s c o r d i a i n A n g l i a i n t e r c a n c e l l a r i u m r e g i s et Johannem....propter •••'•'.•eastellum L i n c o l n i a e , quod e a n c e l l a r i u s obsederat, expulso Girardo de G a m v i l l a a b a i l l i a v i c e c o m i t a t u s Lincolniae....Bum e a n c e l l a r i u s o b s i d e r e t e a s t e l l u m L i n c o l n i a e , e a s t e l l u m de lothinham et e a s t e l l u m de T i k e h i l r e g i s , r e d d i t a sunt c o m i t i Johanni, qui s t a t i m mandavit c a n c e l l a r i o quod n i s i c e l l e r i u s r e c e s s i s s e t ab obsidione c a s t e l l i L i n c o l n i a e v i s i t -a r e t eum i n v i r g a f e r r e a ." The two moves r e s u l t e d i n stalemate and an agreement 2 was reached i n J u l y 1191. John surrendered c a s t l e s , and Long-champ r promised i n f u t u r e cases to have recourse to the proper processes o f law. We w i l l now f o l l o w the fortunes of R i c h a r d . He parted from P h i l i p at V e z e l a i , going t o M a r s e i l l e s , while P h i l i p • went to Genoa^. R i c h a r d had a great advantage i n the possession of a f l e e t o f h i s own while P h i l i p was dependent on the Genoese. This f l e e t had crossed the Bay of B i s c a y , thence to L i s b o n thence v i a Majorca t o M a r s e i l l e s . R i c h a r d went aboard and f o l l o w e d the c o a s t l i n e of I t a l y , touching at many p o i n t s , e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i n g S i c i l y , a f t e r running the gauntlet of S c y l l a and Charybdis, whose dangers he describes. 1. I b i d . P. 134. 2. I b i d . Pp. 135, 13b. 3. I b i d . P. 37 . 4. Op. c i t . P. 6 7 . -109-So complete i s Roger's account of Richard's journey and so minute the d e t a i l of Mediterranean voyaging t h a t i t i s hard to b e l i e v e t h a t Hoveden was not t h e r e . C e r t a i n l y some-one must have kept a d i a r y , and must have i n t e r v i e w e d members of the f l e e t . One remark would seem to p o i n t to. Roger's not being t h e r e . He r e p o r t s . t h e presence of f l y i n g f i s h near S a r d i n i a , whose e x i s t e n c e appears so improbable t h a t he adds 1 "And he who' saw t h i s bears testimony, and h i s witness i s true, t h a t when he h i m s e l f was seated at t a b l e on the deck of the s h i p , some of these f l y i n g f i s h f e l l on the t a b l e i n front of him." The form of e x p r e s s i o n here seems to bar Roger as the w i t n e s s . F i g h t i n g broke out between R i c h a r d and Tancred, King of S i c i l y , i n which R i c h a r d was v i c t o r i o u s . But he behaved i n a most c h i v a l r o u s manner renouncing c e r t a i n v i c t o r ' s r i g h t s . Later he gave some sh i p s to P h i l i p and d i s t r i b u t e d presents to the s o l d i e r s and servants of the whole armies, so that there had never been any l i b e r a l i t y l i k e i t before. As Roger says here, The L o r d l o v e t h a c h e e r f u l g i v e r , and Richard made a name tha t day t h a t has clung to him ever since I t was at Messina t h a t he was j o i n e d by h i s mother and Berengaria of Navarre. 1. I b i d . P. 33. 2. I b i d . P. 9% -110-P h i l i p meditated t r e a c h e r y w i t h the Puke of Burgundy 1 against R i c h a r d which was r e v e a l e d by Tailored . This caused coolness between the two and r e s u l t e d i n Richard's paying P h i l i p two thousand marks s t e r l i n g to break o f f f i n a l l y Richard's engagement to P h i l i p ' s s i s t e r A l a i s . The c o n t r a s t between Richard's conduct and P h i l i p ' s throughout the whole crusade has been a b i g f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g the R i c h a r d i a n t r a d i t i o n . These events were i n March. I n A p r i l Pope Clement d i e d and was succeeded by C e l e s t i n e I I I . Eleanor returned - to England, P h i l i p s a i l e d f o r Acre, and also R i c h a r d and B e r e n g a r i a . But Richard's f l e e t was d r i v e n by a storm to Cyprus where two ships were wrecked. Isaac Emperor of Cyprus imprisoned the people and R i c h a r d a t t a c k e d him, 3 f i n a l l y conquering the whole i s l a n d . The emperor surrendered on c o n d i t i o n that he would not be put i n i r o n s . R i c h a r d bound him i n chains of s i l v e r and g o l d . Here R i c h a r d and Berengaria were married and set s a i l f o r Tyre. The guards of the c i t y , on orders from P h i l i p and Conrad refused him 4 admission and they s l e p t t h a t n i g h t i n t e n t s outside the c i t y . Proceeding by sea he captured a Saracen ship b r i n g i n g much 1. I b i d . P. 98. 2. I b i d . P. 105 . 3. I b i d . P. 111. 4. I b i d . P. 112. - I l l -needed s u p p l i e s to the beseiged Saracens at Acre. A r r i v e d there he found everyone q u a r r e l l i n g , Guy, s o i - d i s a n t k i n g of Jerusalem w i t h Conrad and a l s o Geoffrey de Lusignan. R i c h a r d set up h i s engines, borrowed P h i l i p ' s engineers and pressed , the s e i g e . P h i l i p was i n c l i n e d to give t r o u b l e but was h e l d by R i c h a r d to t h e i r agreement and urged to a t t a c k the c i t y . Through June and J u l y 1191 the seige was pressed. S a l a d i n made an o f f e r which was r e j e c t e d . Then the Crusaders pre-pared to a s s a u l t and S a l a d i n made a f u r t h e r o f f e r . The kings demanded'*- the r e t u r n of the true Cross, the surrender of Jerusalem and i t s t e r r i t o r i e s and the r e l e a s e of a l l prisoners. These terms were r e f u s e d , and the French a s s a u l t e d , w h i l e Richard h e l d h i s f o r c e s t o the w a l l s . A breach was made but apparently the French could not enter. Here Conrad showed cowardice, withdrawing h i m s e l f and h i s men r a t h e r than face the danger from stones and arrows. S a l a d i n a g a i n o f f e r e d terms, .which i n c l u d e d p e r m i s s i o n to h i m s e l f to march three days unmolested. He r e f u s e d the s t i f f e n e d terms of the kin g s and the seige went on. A s o r t i e was r e p u l s e d . The E n g l i s h assaulted, doing much damage to men and w a l l s and making another great breach. S a l a d i n a g a i n o f f e r e d impossible terms which were r e f u s e d . 1. I b i d . P. 116. - 1 1 2 -At t h i s p o i n t Roger a g a i n reveals'** h i s b e l i e f i n the supernatural. He r e p o r t s the appearance of the Bl e s s e d V i r g i n to E n g l i s h s o l d i e r s watching before the w a l l s on J u l y 8th. She t o l d them to f e a r n o t h i n g t h a t she was sent by God to t e l l them that the c i t y would f a l l i n four days' time . Then there was an earthquake. She faded from t h e i r s i g h t at the same time as the great l i g h t t h a t had shone round about them. Cheered by the v i s i o n the army a t t a c k e d , and on J u l y 12th the 2 c i t y was taken. By the terms i t was agreed that Acre should be given up w i t h the f i v e hundred C h r i s t i a n c a p t i v e s i n i t , the h oly Cross was t o be r e s t o r e d and the ki n g s were to choose one thousand people and two hundred s o l d i e r s from among those held elsewhere i n the power of S a l a d i n . S a l a d i n was to pay two hundred thousand byzants. The c h i e f s were to remain as hostages f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of the terms w i t h i n . f o r t y days. Saladin f l e d and made f r e s h o f f e r s which were d e c l i n e d . The quarrel between Guy and Conrad was patched up. Conrad got Tyre, Sidon, Baruth and P h i l i p ' s share of Acre, Geoffrey de Lusiguan got Joppa and Caesarea and Guy got the kingdom of Jerusalem. P h i l i p s a i l e d f o r home on August 3 r d l e a v i n g R i c h a r d to 1. I b i d . P. 120. 2. I b i d . P. 121. -113-deal w i t h S a l a d i n . The l a t t e r f a i l e d to observe the t r e a t y and R i c h a r d a t t a c k e d him at Arsouf. The r e s u l t was a great v i c t o r y f o r R i c h a r d and h e n c e f o r t h h i s r e p u t a t i o n was secure. By h i s f i d e l i t y to the cause and by h i s prowess he was now Goeur de L i o n . R i c h a r d had always kept i n touch w i t h the Papacy, and sent r e p o r t s of progress to the Pope. He wrote one l e t t e r to some unknown f r i e n d , g i ven i n Hoveden onl y . He s a y s 1 : "You must l e a r n t h a t a f t e r the capture of Acre, and a f t e r the withdrawal from us of the k i n g of France, who thus shamefully abandoned h i s p l a n of a crusade and h i s oath contrary t o the w i l l of God and t o h i s e t e r n a l shame and that o f h i s kingdom we pressed our march towards Joppa." This was w r i t t e n on Oct. 1 s t , 1191, P h i l i p being then at sea. On the 10th P h i l i p landed at Otranto and v i s i t e d the Pope. He spoke much e v i l of the k i n g of England and s a i d that R i c h a r d had compelled him t o withdraw from the Holy Land . But n e i t h e r Pope nor c a r d i n a l s b e l i e v e d him. P h i l i p then v i s i t e d the Emperor Henry VI and arranged w i t h him th a t R i c h a r d would be seized i f he should e n t e r Henry's t e r r i t o r i e s . On h i s r e t u r n 3 to his own lands P h i l i p continued to calumniate R i c h a r d . 1. Op. c i t . P. 12 9. 2. I b i d . P. 1 6 6 . 3. I b i d . P. l o 7 . -114-Th e Crusaders spent the w i n t e r i n c o n s o l i d a t i n g and i n the s p r i n g , a f t e r f u r t h e r q u a r r e l s and l o v e - f e a s t s they s t a r t e d a new campaign* R i c h a r d found a p a r t of the True Cross a t a chapel about three leagues from Jerusalem, and s h o r t l y a fterwards he. captured a great caravan w i t h arms, engines and food bound from Babylon t o Jerusalem f o r Saladin's f o r c e s . He then proposed vigorous steps and the seige o f Jerusalem but the French troops r e f u s e d and r e -turned t o A c r e . S a l a d i n captured Joppa but R i c h a r d managed to rescue i t . S a l a d i n c h a l l e n g e d R i c h a r d to b a t t l e but on the Crusaders r e c e i v i n g reinforcements he agreed to a three year t r u c e 1 . R i c h a r d agreed and s a i l e d from Acre on 8 th October. He landed somewhere on the coast of Dalmatia, but Roger's geography at t h i s p o i n t i s not c l e a r 2 , p o s s i b l y i t was near P o l a . R i c h a r d d i s g u i s e d h i m s e l f w i t h a beard and long h a i r and c l o t h e s l i k e those of the people of the country. But a p p a r e n t l y i n j u d i c i o u s l y l a r g e expenditures led the people t o suspect him, and word was sent to the Emperor. . R i c h a r d l e f t a l l h i s p a r t y except one at t h i s place w i t h 1. Ibid. Pp. 183 & 184 2. I b i d . P. 185 . -115-i n s t r u c t i o n s t o stay f o u r days longer and to spend as f r e e l y as before. He h i m s e l f w i t h one e a r l mounted f a s t horses and, t r a v e l l i n g day and n i g h t , came to Vienna. They ob-tained l o d g i n g s i n a suburb and R i c h a r d went to bed. The e a r l went out to buy food, but was recognized by some s e r -vants o f the Duke of A u s t r i a . He was compelled to r e v e a l the king's h i d i n g place and R i c h a r d was s e i z e d i n h i s s l e e p 1 . The r e s t of h i s p a r t y were s e i z e d but r e l e a s e d , and there i s l i t t l e doubt that i t was by them th a t the news of Richard's fate was c a r r i e d to England. The capture took place i n December 1192. The Emperor Henry wrote at once to P h i l i p t e l l i n g him the good news. 2 In h i s l e t t e r he adds the d e t a i l s t h a t R i c h a r d had been shipwrecked between Aq_ueia and Venice and that the f i r s t v i l l a g e was F r i s a c h i n the a r c h i e p i s c o p a t e of Salzburg i n C a r i n t h i a . The Duke handed R i c h a r d over to the Emperor i n March 1193 3., A l e t t e r , which i s not i n Benedict, nor i n the f i r s t manuscript, from Walter Archbishop of Rouen to Hugh de 4 P u i s e t , gave the news of the king ' s f a t e . T h i s . l e t t e r .1. I b i d . P. 186. 2. I b i d . P. 195. 3. I b i d , P. 194. 4. Pp. 196 & 197. -116-which i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y too long to copy, speaks i n terms of the g r e a t e s t a f f e c t i o n f o r the k i n g and sorrow f o r h i s f a t e . He encloses a copy of the l e t t e r from the Emperor, ( e v i -dently h i s s e c r e t s e r v i c e was e f f i c i e n t ) and urges a c t i o n . The l e t t e r i s undated but urges Hugh to a t t e n d a meeting at Oxford on the third'Sunday i n L e n t , That would be about the end of February. Walter sent two abbots, one E n g l i s h one Norman, i n t o Germany to seek R i c h a r d , A f t e r much wandering they d i s -covered him at " v i l l a quae d i c i t u r Oxefer," p o s s i b l y Ochsenfurt near Wurzburg 1 about Palm Sunday. "And when the k i n g found t h a t the abbots were from England, he showed him-s e l f to them i n joy and f r i e n d l i n e s s , asking about the s t a t e of h i s kingdom and the f i d e l i t y o f h i s men, and" the s a f e t y and p r o s p e r i t y o f the k i n g of the Scots." They reported what they had heard and seen. R i c h a r d was overcome at the p e r f i d y of John, t o whom he had granted so many b e n e f i t s and honours, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r John's d e a l i n g s w i t h the king of France. For three d a y s 2 he was hectored, l e c t u r e d and questioned by the Emperor, concerning events and h i s 1. I b i d . P. 198. 2. I b i d . P. 199. -117-behaviour i n the Holy Land. The i n f o r m a t i o n was q u i t e e v i -dently s u p p l i e d by P h i l i p . One o f the great charges i s t h a t Richard was i m p l i c a t e d i n the a s s a s s i n a t i o n of Conrad at 1 Tyre i n A p r i l 1192. R i c h a r d c a r r i e d h i m s e l f w i t h d i g n i t y , caution and energy, showing the mind of a r u l e r , and winning the golden opinions of everyone i n c l u d i n g the Emperor. The icing answered f r e e l y , s t e a d i l y and b o l d l y and the Emperor was convinced through Richard fw c o u r t e s y and d i g n i t y . He gave the king the k i s s of peace, heaped honors and a s s i s t a n c e on him, and promised to a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g P h i l i p and R i c h a r d to an agreement. Should he f a i l i n t h i s he promised Richard release without ransom, the k i n g having promised 100,000 marks. 2 R i c h a r d a l s o , on the advice of h i s mother , resigned h i s crown and r e c e i v e d i t back from the Emperor under a t r i b u t e of 5000 a year. On h i s death Henry r e l e a s e d R i c h a r d and h i s heirs from t h i s . C e l e s t i n e threw h i s weight on the side of Richard,, threatening P h i l i p and Henry w i t h excommunication, and through the o f i i c e s of the c h a n c e l l o r W i l l i a m Longchamp an agreement was reached. This was a l l the more necessary as P h i l i p and 1. I b i d . P. 181. 2. I b i d . P. 20.2. - 1 1 8 -1 John were p l o t t i n g and were o f f e r i n g the Emperor b r i b e s to hold Richard. John had t o l d the people t h a t R i c h a r d never would r e t u r n . By the agreement^ Henry's messengers were to r e c e i v e , at London, 100,000 marks of pure s i l v e r , Cologne measure. Richard was to pay a f u r t h e r 30 ,000 marks to the Emperor leaving s i x t y hostages t i l l p a i d , and 20,000 marks to the Duke of A u s t r i a secured by seven hostages. Eleanor, A r t h u r ' s s i s t e r was to be m a r r i e d to the son of Leopold of A u s t r i a . The emperor was to provide an e s c o r t and safe conduct t o the port of embarkation of R i c h a r d . The emperor and R i c h a r d swore to observe t h i s before an august assembly of p r e l a t e s and barons. . But what of B l o n d e l and h i s song, the romantic s t o r y of our childhood days? Stubbs i n s e r t s t h i s footnote on Page XV of h i s preface to Y o l . i i i s I had intended adding a t h i r d appendix from the e a r l y French C h r o n i c l e , extant i n the MS. 432,. Corpus C h r i s t i C o l l e g e , Cambridge, which may be c a l l e d a romance of the h i s t o r y of Europe d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the Crusades. The MS. i s of t h e ' T h i r t i e t h Century and i s a 1. I b i d . P. 203. 2. I b i d . Pp. 215-216. ... -119-better v e r s i o n of the l i t t l e known work p u b l i s h e d at P a r i s in 1837 by M. L o u i s P a r i s under the t i t l e of "Chronique de Rains". The p o r t i o n I had s e l e c t e d was the s t o r y of the discovery of R i c h a r d by the m i n s t r e l B l o n d e l ; f o r which t h i s i s f i r s t a u t h o r i t y . However, on re a d i n g over my MS. f o r the press, the work appeared to me to be too fabulous and f r i v o l o u s f o r any p a r t to be i n t r o d u c e d of r e a l h i s t o r y , and I content myself w i t h r e f e r r i n g the c u r i o u s reader to M. P a r i s ' s e d i t i o n . " When P h i l i p heard of Richard's r e l e a s e he wrote to John ordering him to take care of h i m s e l f since the d e v i l i s now loosed. John immediately crossed from England and j o i n e d P h i l i p , not d a r i n g to await the a r r i v a l of h i s brother, the 1 king i n England . . • We must now r e t u r n t o the a f f a i r s of Longchamp. R e l a -tions between him and John appear to have been peaceable a f t e r the agreement of J u l y u n t i l the r e t u r n of Geoffrey i n September 1191. Geoffrey was consecrated i n August at Tours, and though l i k e John, f o r b i d d e n the kingdom, he landed at Dover. Longchamp was prepared f o r him and the archbishop i n disguise f l e d to the monastery of St. M a r t i n . The church was beseiged and taken, and Geoffrey i n vestments was s e i z e d 1. I b i d . Pp. 21b & 217 - 1 2 0 -at the a l t a r . John ordered h i s r e l e a s e which was granted. Geoffrey met John and the other magnates i n London and l a i d a formal c o m p l a i n t 1 . I t was decided that Longchamp must stand t r i a l f o r wrongs done to Geoffrey and to Hugh of Durham. He was summoned to appear at Reading but d i d not come. The party of John decided to go to London f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and a c t i o n . Longchamp who was at Windsor heard of i t and started o f f by the n o r t h e r n road. The s o l d i e r s of the two 2 parties met where the two roads crossed , and a sharp f i g h t took p l a c e . Longchamp f a i l e d to check the march, so both went on. The c h a n c e l l o r went to the Tower, the others held a meeting at S t . P a u l ' s . Here there were John, Walter of Rouen, W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l , E a r l of S t r l g u i l and many other bishops and e a r l s . They accused Longchamp of i l l e g a l pro-cedures against Hugh and Geoffrey and of doing t h i n g s without the advice of othe r s . The l e t t e r s of R i c h a r d from Messina were produced i n which he had named the c o u n c i l of regency. They advised Longchamp's removal and th a t h i s place be f i l l e d by Walter of Rouen. T h i s was done. 1. I b i d . P. 139. 2. Map i n Appendix. 3. I b i d . P. 1 4 0 . -121-The same day John and the c o u n c i l agreed to recognize the commune of London, and the c i t i z e n s swore f e a l t y to Richard and John. The Tower was not v i c t u a l l e d f o r a seige and Longchamp surrendered i t and Windsor c a s t l e . He went to Dover f o r some time, then decided to f l y to the Continent. For t h i s purpose he d i s g u i s e d h i m s e l f as a woman, f o r what reason i s not p l a i n . While s i t t i n g on the beach a s a i l o r and a woman detected him, a mob assembled and handled him roughly., dragging him along the ground by the w r i s t s and mocking him. E v e n t u a l l y he escaped t o Normandy where we hear no more of him t i l l R ichard's r e t u r n . He appears to have been i n touch -with P h i l i p but i f so i t was as a spy on Richard's b e h a l f . He was one of the f i r s t to see R i c h a r d • • • 2 who received him j o y f u l l y and i n s p i t e of e v e r y t h i n g sent him to England "not as c h a n c e l l o r , not as j u s t i c i a r but i n the character of a bishop, to arrange f o r the r a i s i n g of the ransom."^ Roger's account i s taken s o l i d l y from a l e t t e r of Hugh of Nunant, Bishop of Coventry. The l e t t e r which occupies s i x pages, 141 to 147, i s extremely b i t t e r , and e x u l t s g l o a t i n g l y i n Longchamp ' s d o w n f a l l . 1. I b i d . P. 150.' 2y I b i d . P. 20?. 3« -Ibid. p. 212. - 1 2 2 * The only other p o i n t i s r a t h e r laughable. Longchamp, using Pope C e l e s t i n e ' s warning not to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the 1 chancellor , through the agency of Hugh of L i n c o l n thundered excommunications a g a i n s t a l l and sundry. These thunders and counter thunders must have brought the weapons of excommunica-t i o n and i n t e r d i c t i n t o d i s r e p u t e . We have found no t r a c e of any p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g between Hugh of L i n c o l n and Geoffrey except a paragraph d e a l i n g w i t h Hugh's o f f i c i a l v i s i t to Godstow near Oxford. Here he found p a b e a u t i f u l tomb before the a l t a r surrounded by candles. Learning that i t was the sepulchre of the P a i r Rosamund he ordered i t s removal w i t h her bones, and she was b u r i e d i n the churchyard, as a warning to other women aga i n s t i l l i c i t and adulterous concubinage. Longchamp r e t u r n e d to R i c h a r d and i s mentioned f r e q u e n t l y i n the accounts of v a r i o u s c o u n c i l s that R i c h a r d held while s t i l l a p r i s o n e r . He i s not mentioned as t r a v e l l i n g w i t h Richard nor agai n u n t i l Richard's c o r o n a t i o n at Winchester on 3 A p r i l 17th, 1194, when he walked on the king's r i g h t hand i n the procession. A f t e r t h i s he again drops from s i g h t . ! • P. 151. 2. I b i d . P p . 167 & 1 6 8 . 3. I b i d . P . 247. -123~ 1 Richard wrote to Hubert now archbishop of Canterbury-giving January 17th as the day f o r h i s r e l e a s e . John and P h i l i p were s t i l l t r y i n g to i n f l u e n c e the Emperor to h o l d 2 him , and a delay d i d take p l a c e . R i c h a r d sent Longchamp to i n t e r v i e w John i n France. The bishop succeeded i n inducing John to r e t u r n to h i s f e a l t y to R i c h a r d , but when the wardens of h i s c a s t l e s i n Normandy r e f u s e d to give these up John r e -turned to P h i l i p ^ . R i c h a r d was removed from Speyer to Mentz on February 2nd 4 and r e l e a s e d on the f o u r t h r e c e i v i n g h i s safe conduct from the Emperor h i m s e l f . He proceeded to Cologne, thence went to Antwerp and then to Swine i n F l a n d e r s . From here he crossed to Sandwich which he reached on March 1 3 t h . Meanwhile Geoffrey was having t r o u b l e at York. In 1193 he had l a i d an e x a c t i o n of one f o u r t h part of t h e i r incomes 5 on the Chapter to be devoted to Richard's ransom . E v i d e n t l y Richard had w r i t t e n to him. A f t e r some other t r o u b l e the canons locked the c a t h e d r a l . E v e n t u a l l y the pope appointed a. committee to enquire i n t o i t . Geoffrey refused to appear at Rome and was suspended. 1. I b i d . P. 227. 2. I b i d . P. 22 9. 3. I b i d . P. 2 2 8 . 4. I b i d , P. 233. 5. I b i d . p. 222. -124™ The a rchb i shop of Can te rbu ry sent a commission to Y o r k to t r y to reach a s e t t l e m e n t , i n J u l y 1194. Geoff rey re fused to appear 1 and the b i shops s e i z e d h i s l a n d s , Geoffrey went to R i c h a r d , now i n Normandy, i n September, and by a g i f t o f two thousand marks got an order from R i c h a r d r e s t o r i n g h i s lands. R i c h a r d a l s o o rde red h i s r e s t o r a t i o n to a l l the archie p i se op a l r i g h t s . The Pope sent a second commission of enquiry w i t h power to a c t . Geof f rey was aga in ordered to appear i n Rome, and hav ing f a i l e d to do so was suspended by the Pope ' s order on December 25th, 1195. The Pope wrote a 2 long l e t t e r to Simon of A p u l i a , dean of Y o r k , i n which he gives i n d e t a i l the charges a g a i n s t G e o f f r e y . These were that he n e g l e c t e d h i s d u t i e s , tha t he was overbear ing w i t h his canons, tha t he was a v a r i c i o u s , tha t he had behaved v i o l e n t l y w i t h i n the c a t h e d r a l . a n d tha t he h a d imprope r ly used h i s powers of pa t ronage . R i c h a r d on a r r i v a l i n London, h e l d a, c o u n c i l at which John was d i s s e i s e d of a l l h i s h o l d i n g s i n Eng land . Some places s t i l l h e l d out f o r John. Hugh de P u i s e t l a i d se ige to T i c k h i i l , the E a r l of Ches te r went to Nott ingham and 5 Hubert Walter of Can te rbu ry cap tured Marlborough . nancaster ! • I b i d , P . 262. 2 * I b i d . Pp . 312-316. 3» I b i d . P . 237. -125-and St. Michael's Mount' surrendered. R i c h a r d came to the area of Nottingham, T i c k h i l l surrendered and Nottingham was 1 stormed . A great c o u n c i l was h e l d at Nottingham when Richard, s o l d v a r i o u s sheriffdoms and c a s t l e s . T h e • f o l l o w i n g month, that i s , on A p r i l 17th, R i c h a r d appeared i n h i s c o r o n a t i o n p r o c e s s i o n at Winchester. He proceeded from the c a s t l e to the c a t h e d r a l where mass was celebrated, then r e t u r n e d to the palace where a banquet was served.- He appeared crowned under a canopy borne by f o u r earls and surrounded by e a r l s , barons and bishops, w i t h 2 William of E l y on h i s r i g h t and Robert of London on h i s l e f t Stubbs says of t h i s ceremony that i t was not so much a r e -newal of h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n a f t e r an e c l i p s e of d i g n i t y as an 1 a s s e r t i o n t h a t the d i g n i t y has undergone no d i m i n u t i o n . Almost a month l a t e r , on May 12th, R i c h a r d set s a i l from Portsmouth and landed at B a r f l e u r . He was r e c o n c i l e d to John and c a r r i e d on a war w i t h P h i l i p , . which, l e f t t h i n g s much as they had been. .Another i n t e r e s t i n g e v e n t 4 of the year 1195 was the death of Hugh de P u i s e t , He d i e d on March 3rd at h i s place —— i.. • '' • • • —-1« I b i d , .P. 240. •?•••;• I b i d . P, 247 .' 3..- I b i d , P. 252. 4«••; I b i d , P. 284. at Hovedene, ana was "bai led I n the c a t h e d r a l at Durham * Thus passed.away a man who, l o o t i n g bach over f i f t y years of d ip lomacy and p o l i t i c s , might have exc la imed "Magna pars fui"«» • • • -127- • C h a p t e r I I I P a r t IV I n t h e R o l l s S e r i e s t h e t h i r d volume o f Hoveden c a r r i e s the c h r o n i c l e t o t h e y e a r 1196. R e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s have shown t h a t Roger r e l i e d m a i n l y on B e n e d i c t f o r h i s m a t e r i a l . The s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1148 t o 1169 a p p e a r s to be h i s own w o r k . I t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t d e r i v e d f r o m B e n e d i c t , n o r does i t draw on any o t h e r known w o r k - s u f f i -c i e n t l y to be r e g a r d e d as a p a r a p h r a s e or e n l a r g e m e n t o f such work. But we must b e a r i n mind t h a t R o g e r ' s c h r o n i c l e was known l o n g b e f o r e i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h B e n e d i c t was d i s -covered. I t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t some m a n u s c r i p t might be d i s c o v e r e d w h i c h w o u l d p r o v e t o be t h e s o u r c e of t h e s e c o n d p a r t , w h i c h , t h o u g h a p p a r e n t l y o r i g i n a l , d e a l s w i t h a p e r i o d r a t h e r t o o remote from Hoveden t o be f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n to h i m . The f o u r t h p a r t , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r s to be u n d o u b t e d l y h i s own. I t s t a r t s w i t h t h e y e a r 1192. He d e a l s so l a r g e l y with n o r t h e r n a f f a i r s and i n t h e way t h a t one w o u l d e x p e c t him t o do t h a t t h e r e seems l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e s e c t i o n i s Roger's own w o r k . He has d e a l t v e r y f u l l y w i t h Hugh de Puiset and G e o f f r e y o f Y o r k i n t h e t h i r d v o l u m e . We meet Geoffrey a g a i n i n t h e f o u r t h and we h e a r n o r t h e r n a f f a i r s discussed a g a i n . A g a i n we n o t e t h a t t h o u g h t h e s e two -128-prelates were important men they were not so important nationally as Longchamp or his successor Walter of Coutance, Bishop of Rouen. Yet they hold as large a place i n the chronicle. Another feature f o r e i g n to Benedict i s the sharp almost sarcastic tone adopted towards the worldliness of the clergy. 1 He complains about G e o f f r e y's secular employments mentioning p his love of the chase, and he quotes verbatim Hugh Bardulf's advice to Hubert Vifalter when he as archbishop was made chancellor i n May 1199. He warns him that a chancellor may become an archbishop, but that i t i s d i f f i c u l t for an arch-bishop t o become chancellor. Again we note the fulness of treatment of such matters 3 as the Laws of England, the Forest Assize , and the'Assize 4 of Measures , v>/ith s i m i l a r a f f a i r s which would be the very sort of document that would pass through Roger's hands. F i n a l l y there i s the matter of the supernatural. Benedict i n common with a l l the chroniclers introduces the marvellous, but i n Roger's case i t i s an obsession that 1. Hoveden i i i . 240, 274. 2. Ibid* i v . 90, 91. 3» Ibid. i v . 63, 64. "4. Ibid. i v . 33, 34. -129-amounts t o a marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . We have n o t e d a few o f these m i r a c u l o u s i n c i d e n t s . We n o t e h e r e o n l y t h e i r w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n t h e e a r l i e r p a r t s i t was n o t i c e a b l e t h a t they were a l m o s t a l w a y s an a d d i t i o n t o t h e c h r o n i c l e o f Benedict and t h a t i n t h e f o u r t h p a r t t h e y a r e much more common. W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r ' s g r a n t 1 t o Durham i s e x -p l a i n e d as t h e outcome o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s r e s u l t when he o u t -raged the r e l i e s o f S t . C u t h b e r t . A r c h b i s h o p T h o m a s ' s c h a r t e r was g i v e n because o f t h e r e m a r k a b l e c u r e by t h e v i s i o n o f S t . C u t h b e r t . T h e n we have t h e n e g l e c t e d w a r n i n g to Henry I I c o n c e r n i n g t h e h e r e t i c s o f G-uienne^, t h e 4 prophecy c o n c e r n i n g H e n r y ' s d e a t h bed and i t s f u l f i l l m e n t and t h e d e l i v e r y of t h e woman o f a c h i l d w i t h t h e a i d o f the 6 D e v i l - ' . The s t o r y o f A n t i c h r i s t w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the presence o f t h i s e l e m e n t i n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n . And t h o u g h the f o u r t h volume i s much t h e s h o r t e s t , t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h i r t e e n i n s t a n c e s o f c r e d u l o u s b e l i e f i n m i r a c u l o u s e v e n t s r e c o r d e d i n i t . Some o f t h e s e w i l l be n o t i c e d . I n J a n u a r y 1197 W i l l i a m Longchamp, b i s h o p o f E l y and 1. Hoveden V o l . i . 108-111. 2. i b i d . i . 137, 138. 3. I b i d . i i . 272. 4. I b i d . i i . 354, 367. 3 . I b i d . i i . 302. 6« I b i d . i i i . 8O-85. - 1 3 0 -sometime chancellor of England closed h i s stormy career at 1 p i o c t i e r s . Roger thus records i t : "And when he (.Philip, bishop-elect of Durham; had come to P i o c t i e r s , William, bishop of E l y and chancellor of the King, was s i c k even unto death, he died and was buried there. And when he was seen to be at the point off death a c e r t a i n cross of wood i n the cathedral church off that c i t y , which i s c a l l e d the cross of St. M a r t i a l , was seen to weep so b i t t e r l y that the streams of water, as i t were, flowing down from the eyes, bedewed the face. The people said that t h i s was now the t h i r d time that t h i s had happened... ." Again he t e l l s us most c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y how one German p i l -2 grim murdered another f o r the sake of his money . The murderer c a r r i e d the corps round his neck to throw i t i n t o some water, but could not get i t o f f his back. He thus hurried to the Pope who ordered him to carry i t with him to Jerusalem, and thus expiate h i s h o r r i b l e crime, and turn his thoughts to heaven. This he - did to the praise of the good and the t e r r o r of the e v i l doers. 3 He t e l l s a story of the cross i n the cathedral of Dublin s i m i l a r to the one given above. .Because the arch-bishop i s e x i l e d the Figure on the cross became suffused and poured blood and water. .1. Ibid. IV. 17 . 2. Ibid. IV. 2 7 . 3. Ibid. IV. 29. ' .-131- • 1 A n o t h e r type o f t h e s e m e d i a e v a l m i r a c l e s i s t h e s t o r y t o l d o f t h e Genoese p o s s e s s e d o f d e v i l s , f o r t h e i r s i n s . T h i s one has a p o s s i b l e n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n , and t h e o b v i o u s d e -m o n i a c a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e o u t c a s t s w o u l d n o t only h e l p t o s p r e a d t h i s w o n d e r , but w o u l d a l s o s e r v e t o s t r e n g t h e n p o p u l a r b e l i e f i n some o t h e r m i r a c u l o u s e v e n t . 2 f u r t h e r on we l e a r n o f t h e p r e a c h i n g of u u l k o f l e u i l l y i n 1198 and t h e m i r a c l e s he p e r f o r m e d , he c u r e d the b l i n d , deaf, dumb and s i c k a n d t h e p o s s e s s e d . He t u r n e d e v i l women and u s u r e r s from t h e i r w i c k e d n e s s . Hoveden t e l l s t h a t i t was t h u s F u l k who u r g e d H i c h a r d to p r o v i d e f o r h i s t h r e e d a u g h t e r s . R i c h a r d d e n i e d h a v i n g any d a u g h t e r s . To t h i s F u l k answered t h a t t h e y were P r i d e , C u p i d i t y and E x c e s s . R i c h a r d r e p l i e d "I w i l l g i v e t o w i f e my p r i d e t o t h e T e m p l a r s , my c u p i d i t y t o t h e C i s t e r c i a n monks and my e x c e s s to t h e p r e l a t e s o f t h e c h u r c h e s . " The n e x t m i r a c l e i s t o l d o f E u s t a c e , a b b o t o f F l a y 3 . He d i r e c t e d a woman,who s o u g h t t o be c u r e d o f a d e v i l , t o d r i n k of a h o l y w e l l a t Wye i n j i e n t . when she d i d so she vomited two g r e a t b l a c k t o a d s w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y t u r n e d i n t o two g r e a t b l a c k dogs and t h e n t o d o n k e y s . When t h e g u a r d i a n 1. I b i d . I V . 67. 2. Hov. I V . 76. 3. I b i d . 123. •-13 2 -of the w e l l s c a t t e r e d w a t e r f r o m i t between the woman and t h e donkeys t h e s e a s c e n d e d a n d d i s a p p e a r e d i n the u p p e r a i r . T At the f u n e r a l o f S t . Hugh o f L i n c o l n i n December 1200 , a woman, b l i n d of one eye f o r s e v e n y e a r s , a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e of the b i s h o p ' s c o r p s e r e c e i v e d h e r s i g h t . Then we have t h e s t o r y o f t h e f i v e moons s e e n a t one • 2 time i n Y o r k s h i r e , a n d a l m o s t a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e book t h e numerous m i r a c l e s by w h i c h iimstaee o f _'lay d e m o n s t r a t e d h i s d i v i n e m i s s i o n . T h e s e a r e s u p p o s e d to have t a k e n p l a c e i n 1201 a t B e v e r l e y , H a f f e r t o n , V / a k e f i e l d and i n L i n c o l n s h i r e . A l l of t h e s e d e a l w i t h b r e a k i n g t h e S a b b a t h and r e s u l t i n some f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t or s i g n s o f D i v i n e d i s p l e a s u r e . A c a r p e n t e r f a l l s to t h e g r o u n d p a r a l y s e d ; a weaver i s p a r a -l y s e d and s t r u c k dumb. Some b r e a d baked on Sunday p o u r e d blood when b r o k e n n e x t d a y . wheat m i l l e d on Sunday f i l l e d a c r o c k w i t h b l o o d i n s t e a d o f f l o u r , and the w h e e l s t o o d s t i l l a g a i n s t t h e f u l l f o r c e o f t h e r i v e r . T h i s a c c o u n t , , t h o u g h n o t e x h a u s t i v e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r t o throw some l i t t l e l i g h t on the t imes and on ttoger, and i s c h o s e n f r o m s u f f i c i e n t l y f a r apart p o r t i o n s o f t h e c h r o n i c l e to show t h a t t h e y were n o t 1. I b i d . P . 1 4 3 . 2. I b i d . P . 1 4 6 . -133-i n c l u d e d m e r e l y by c h a n c e b u t as p a r t o f a d e f i n i t e scheme i n Roger 's m i n d . I t was n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e e a r l i e r volumes o f Hoveden t h a t t h e s e m i r a c u l o u s e v e n t s were v e r y f a r from b e i n g as numerous a s i n t h e l a s t and t h a t even h e r e t h e y were q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r p o l a t i o n s o f R o g e r ' s own and d i d n o t o c c u r i n B e n e d i c t ' s c h r o n i c l e w h i c h Hoveden was f o l l o w i n g . We c a n n o t t h i n k t h a t xtoger was a c o n s c i o u s , i n t e n t i o n a l i m p o s t o r . We may r e g a r d them as p a r t o f t h e c u r r e n t p o p u l a r b e l i e f . We s h a l l f i n d even so i n d e p e n d e n t a t h i n k e r as W i l l i a m o f Hewburgh f o r c e d t o a c c e p t the e v i d e n c e o f p r o d i g i e s and g i v i n g a h a l f - h e a r t e d a p p r o v a l t o s u c h s t o r i e s . We cannot blame t h e p e o p l e o f t h e p e r i o d . To them G o d ' s o m n i -potence was r e v e a l e d i n s t o r i e s l i k e J o s h u a ' s h a l t i n g t h e sun and o f E l i j a h ' s and E l i s h a ' s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d t h e P l a g u e s of Egypt a n d t h e m i r a c l e s o f t h e lew T e s t a m e n t . They e x -pected Him once more t o i n t e r p o s e i n t h e c o u r s e s of n a t u r e . Many o f t h e s e s t o r i e s a r e c o i n c i d e n c e s , w h i c h a r e l i n k e d and e x p l a i n e d a s c a u s e a n d e f f e c t . Some a r e based on c r e d i b l e f a c t s w h i c h have a n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n , known t o modern s c i e n c e , t h o u g h much e m b r o i d e r e d i n r e t e l l i n g . O n l y a r e s i d u e a r e p u r e i n v e n t i o n w h i c h s u c c e e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves b e c a u s e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r m i r a c u l o u s events. I t i s s t r a n g e t h a t B i s h o p Stubbs s h o u l d m e n t i o n 1 the ! • Hoveden I V . P r e f a c e X V . • - 1 3 4 - • p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l e g e n d , n a m e l y , l i v i n g dogs and t o a d s h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d i n heds o f r o c k as r e p o r t e d by W i l l i a m of Newburgh . -We o u r s e l v e s h e s i t a t e t o r e j e c t f l a t l y n e w s -paper r e p o r t s o f d u c k s o r f r o g s f o u n d embedded i n a t r e e t r u n k and s t i l l a l i v e , or o f l i v i n g f r o g s f o u n d a t c o n -s i d e r a b l e d e p t h s i n s i n k i n g a w e l l , as r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r e s s w i t h i n t h e p a s t two y e a r s . Hence t h e i r i n c l u s i o n s h o u l d not l e a d us t o q u e s t i o n t h e g e n e r a l c r e d i b i l i t y o f the n a r r a t o r . The p e r i o d t o w h i c h t h i s volume i s d e v o t e d i s a r a t h e r u n e v e n t f u l one. Some o f t h e g r e a t e s t c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as de P u i s e t and Longchamp h a v e b e e n removed f r o m t h e s t a g e , and i n o t h e r s , l i k e G e o f f r e y o f Y o r k , s o o n t o f o l l o w them, t h e f i r e s o f p e r s o n a l h a t r e d s and a n g e r s have b u r n e d l o w . The few e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n s u t t e r e d by G e o f f r e y are but f e e b l e echoes o f t h o s e a l l - i n c l u s i v e i n t e r d i c t s , e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and anathemas, w i t h t h e i r r e s u l t a n t c r o s s - f i r e and c o u n t e r p r o c l a m a t i o n s , h u r l e d w i t h m i g h t y t h u n d e r s i n the l a t e r years of H e n r y II and t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s o f R i c h a r d I. O n l y d i s t a n t m u t t e r i n g s a r e h e a r d o f wars i n t h e H o l y L a n d . T h e r e i s a l u l l i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u g g l e s . The p o s i t i o n s , p r i v i l e g e s a n d r i g h t s o f t h e C h u r c h i n g e n e r a l , and o f C a n t e r b u r y and Durham i n p a r t i c u l a r , and of the j u s t i c i a r 1. Wm. Newb. L i b 1. C . 2 8 . -135-and c h a n c e l l o r , have b e e n c r y s t a l l i z e d , and the b a r o n s have not y e t g i r d e d t h e m s e l v e s t o go to Runnymead. T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , some i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s r e c o r d e d . I n 11?8 a g r e a t c o u n c i l was h e l d a t O x f o r d . I t t h i s m e e t i n g H u b e r t , a r c h b i s h o p o f C a n t e r b u r y and j u s t i c i a r s o u g h t 1 on b e h a l f of t h e k i n g t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a f o r c e of t h r e e h u n -dred k n i g h t s i n f o r e i g n s e r v i c e , " o r t h a t t h e y s h o u l d g i v e h i m t h e same amount o f money, whence he h i m s e l f c o u l d r e t a i n t h r e e h u n d r e d k n i g h t s i n h i s s e r v i c e b y t h e y e a r , t h a t i s t o s a y t h r e e s h i l l i n g s p e r d a y f o r e a c h k n i g h t measured i n E n g l i s h money, i n r e l e a s e o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f s e n d i n g t h e men.- And when a l l t h e o t h e r s who w e r e p r e s e n t were i n c l i n e d t o do t h i s , not d a r i n g to r e s i s t t h e w i s h of t h e king; o n l y Hugh, b i s h o p o f L i n c o l n , a t r u e c h a m p i o n o f God, k e e p i n g h i m s e l f f r o m a l l e v i l w o r k s , r e p l i e d t h a t f o r h i s p a r t he by no means r e s t e d s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s w i s h o f t h e k i n g , f i r s t b e c a u s e i t w o u l d , i n p r o c e s s o f t i m e , r e b o u n d t o t h e h u r t o f h i s c h u r c h , and t h e n b e c a u s e h i s s u c c e s s o r s w o u l d s a y , "Our f a t h e r s w a s t e d t h e u n r i p e g r a p e s and s t r u c k dumb the mouths o f t h e i r s o n s . " And t u r n i n g t o w a r d s H u b e r t t h e a r c h b i s h o p , he w a r n e d h i m s t r o n g l y to do n o t h i n g t h a t w o u l d c a u s e shame, whence shame s h o u l d mark h i s f o r e h e a d , t h e t h o u g h t of w h i c h would t w i s t h i s m i n d , o r d i s g r a c e s h o u l d i n j u r e the f a i r fame o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n . " The C o u n c i l r e f u s e d t h e r e q u e s t , a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s t e p , f o r i t set a p r e c e d e n t . I t does n o t a p p e a r w h e t h e r H u g h ' s words i m p e l l e d t h e o t h e r s t o p r o t e c t the r i g h t s of t h e C h u r c h , or whether h i s b o l d n e s s i n d u c e d them t o s t a n d up f o r t h e i r own, d i f f e r e n t , o b j e c t i o n s . We might i n f e r from t h e w o r d i n g t h a t Hov. I V . 40 -136-some members had v o i c e d some d i s l i k e of the idea but were afr a i d to vote a g a i n s t i t , because of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of the Icing's b e i n g d i s p l e a s e d . P o s t e r i t y , however * d i d not t r o u b l e i t s e l f w i t h the reasons but o n l y concerned i t s e l f w i t h the fact that the c o u n c i l had r e f u s e d a grant of money to the king. The other important event of 1198 was the e x a c t i o n of a earueage. This i s remarkable i n s e v e r a l ways. I t was an attempt on Richard's p a r t to reach those who had escaped taxation and to d i s t r i b u t e the burden more evenly. Hence i t was l e v i e d 1 on every e a r u c a t e 3 b u t those h o l d i n g by honorable 2 service other than k n i g h t s were exempt . Another f e a t u r e i s that i t does away w i t h the v a r i a b l e earucate and i t s f i x a t i o n at the same s i z e as a hi d e , that i s one hundred a c r e s . Hoveden says: "The same year R i c h a r d k i n g of England took from each earucate or hide of land i n the whole of England an a i d of f i v e s h i l l i n g s ...... Those who were e l e c t e d and appointed f o r the c a r r y i n g out of t h i s business f o r the k i n g decreed through the agreement of the l a w f u l men, one hundred acres of land to each earucate of wainage." lo t only does t h i s f i x the earucate, but of n e c e s s i t y t h i s involves a resurvey of the whole kingdom, and. the almost Ibid. P. 4 6 , Hov. -IV* 47 . -137-t o t a l abandonment of t h e Domesday s u r v e y . Thus e v e n t s a r e l e a d i n g t o w a r d s Magna C a r t a . There i s a s e c o n d way i n w h i c h t h i s p r e p a r e d f o r the C h a r t e r . R i c h a r d e n f o r c e d b o t h t h e E'orest A s s i z e and the carucage a g a i n s t t h e c l e r g y 1 w i t h g r e a t s e v e r i t y . J o h n s t a r t e d where rti c h a r d l e f t o f f . I n 1200 he c o l l e c t e d 2 a n a i d i n t h e f o r m o f a c a r u c a g e on a l l E n g l a n d o f t h r e e s h i l l i n . on each h i d e of l a n d . T h i s f i r s t ' r o u s e d t h e b a r o n s and gave them a d e f i n i t e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o r e s i s t J o h n . The most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f t h i s t a x i s s t i l l to be mentioned. T h i s i s t h e method o f c o l l e c t i n g ^ , w h i c h , f o r a tax, was e n t i r e l y new, "And f o r t h e c o l l e c t i n g of t h i s t a x t h e k i n g s e n t t h r o u g h each c o u n t y of E n g l a n d one c l e r i c and one k n i g h t , who, w i t h t h e s h e r i f f o f the c o u n t y a n d the k n i g h t s l a w f u l l y c h o s e n f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , d u l y sworn t h a t t h e y w o u l d c a r r y out t h e k i n g ' s b u s i n e s s , c a u s e d t o come b e f o r e them t h e s e n e c h a l s o f t h e barons o f t h a t c o u n t y and from any manor the l o r d and b a i l i f f o f t h a t m a n o r , and the r e e v e w i t h f o u r l a w f u l men o f the manor, w h e t h e r f r e e or v i l l e i n and two l a w f u l k n i g h t s o f the h u n d r e d who swore t h a t t h e y w o u l d d e c l a r e f a i t h f u l l y and w i t h o u t f r a u d . . . . ( t h e n the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e c o r d t h e amount, a t f i v e s h i l l i n g s on e a c h h i d e , i n each o f f o u r c o p i e s of a r o l l ) . . . . These m o n i e s w i l l be r e c e i v e d by t h e hands of the - two l a w f u l k n i g h t s o f e a c h h u n d r e d and by the hand o f the b a i l i f f o f t h e h u n d r e d , and t h e y s h a l l ! • I b i d . I Y . 66. 2. I b i d . I Y . 107. 3. I b i d . I Y . 46. -138-answer f o r i t to t h e s h e r i f f and by t h e a f o r e mentioned, r o l l s t h e s h e r i f f s h a l l answer f o r i t at the E x c h e q u e r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e b i s h o p s , abbots and b a r o n s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s w o r k . " The method o f c h o o s i n g t h e k n i g h t s and l a w f u l men i s not c l e a r , b u t i t i s p l a i n t h a t t h e y were no l o n g e r n o m i n a t e d by the Crown. H e n c e , w i t h no s p e c t a c u l a r c l a s h , i t i s a d m i t t e d that e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have some v o i c e i n t h e a s s e s s -ment o f taxes ' on p r o p e r t y . The s e t t i n g a s i d e o f Domesday f o r a new v a l u a t i o n t o be made by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t a x p a y e r s gives t h e s e l a t t e r a d i r e c t v o i c e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t a x a t i o n . I t o n l y r e m a i n s t o c a l l t h e s e k n i g h t s to a p p e a r a t the C u r i a R e g i s to answer t o the k i n g a n d a d v i s e him of the state of t h e i r c o u n t i e s and a p a r l i a m e n t o f communes w i l l have come i n t o b e i n g . T h e m a c h i n e r y by w h i c h t h i s would be brought about was a l r e a d y w o r k i n g - - f o r k n i g h t s were a l r e a d y a p p e a r i n g t h e r e t o d e f e n d t h e i r v e r d i c t s i n t h e c o u n t y c o u r t s . This i s one of t h e b e s t examples we have met o f E n g l a n d ' s method of p r o g r e s s i n g " f r o m p r e c e d e n t t o p r e c e d e n t " . I n 1197 R i c h a r d i s s u e d 1 an A s s i z e o f M e a s u r e s s t a n d a r d i z -i n g the w e i g h t s and measures i n a n a t i o n a l s y s t e m and l a y i n g down r u l e s f o r w i d t h s and q u a l i t y o f c l o t h . T h i s was the f i r s t a t t e m p t t h a t was made t o s e t up u n i f o r m s t a n d a r d s and to cheek f r a u d i n m e a s u r e s and q u a l i t y . I t p r o v e d t o o s e v e r e l « Hov. I V . 33, 34 - 1 3 9 -and a f t e r a f a i l u r e to e n f o r c e i t a t S t . B o t o l p h ' s F a i r i n 1201 J o h n h a d t o r e l a x some o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s . We l e f t G e o f f r e y a t t h e p o i n t 2 where he had q u a r r e l l e d w i t h R i c h a r d i n 1195 b e c a u s e he r e b u k e d t h e k i n g ' s s i n s , a n d when a new o r d e r was r e c e i v e d f r o m Rome commanding t h e a r c h -bishop t o a p p e a r G e o f f r e y went to Rome where he f o u n d h i s 3 opponents. He a p p e a r s t o have won o v e r Pope C e l e s t i n e , c o n -v i n c e d h i m t h a t t h e c h a r g e s were f a l s e and -was r e s t o r e d by the pope t o h i s s e e . R i c h a r d was f u r i o u s , f o r b a d e h i m t o r e t u r n and l e f t Adam t h e a r c h d e a c o n i n c h a r g e . Roger showed the p o p e ' s l e t t e r , e x c o m m u n i c a t e d Adam^ and r e t u r n e d t o Rome. His s e c r e t a r y , R a l p h o f W i g e t o f t c o n f e s s e d t h a t he h a d s e n t some f o r g e d l e t t e r s t o E n g l a n d and had t r i e d t o p o i s o n Dean Simon o f Y o r k — a s he s a i d by G e o f f r e y ' s o r d e r s 3 . Many o f G e o f f r e y ' s f r i e n d s and h i s own a p p o i n t e e s t u r n e d a g a i n s t h i m . I n 1198 G e o f f r e y met R i c h a r d i n Normandy6 and made peace 1. I b i d . 17 . 172 . 2. Hov. I I I . 287. 3. I b i d . I V . 7. 4. I b . I V . 9 . 5. I b i d . 15 . 6. I b i d . I V . 4 4 . -140-i - • i j with him. R i c h a r d proposed a r b i t r a t i o n of the chapter i ' quarrel, but was won over, by the dean and canons. Only Hugh : Murdac remained f a i t h f u l to Geoffrey, and Simon the dean I promptly excommunicated him. At t h i s p o i n t C e l e s t i n e I I I : died and was succeeded by Innocent I I I . G e o f f r e y hastened to Rome and l a i d h i s case before him. The new pope saw through a l l the i n t r i g u i n g and decided i n favour of Geoffrey. Geoffrey was to c o n f i r m the Icing's a c t s and R i c h a r d was to 2 restore the archbishop t o h i s see . Geoffrey would not agree. R i c h a r d was dead befor e any settlement was reached. Immediately a f t e r h i s c o r o n a t i o n i n 1199 John ordered everything r e s t o r e d t o G e o f f r e y 3 , The l a t t e r "having con-cluded h i s business w i t h the pope a c c o r d i n g to the d e s i r e of h i s own heart r e t u r n e d t o Normandy and was r e c e i v e d by his brother John honorably and i n f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n . " 4 A f t e r a f u r t h e r attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Geoffrey and the chapter by Hugh of L i n c o l n - agreement was f i n a l l y reached between a l l p a r t i e s i n 1200^. 1, I b i d . IT. 52. 2* Hove IV. 67. 3.- I b i d . IV. 92* 4-. I b i d . 93. 5* I b i d . 98. V I b i d . 126, -141-A f f a i r s , however, a i d not go smoothly and John, a f t e r his second c o r o n a t i o n , a t Westminster ,• w i t h I s a b e l , a g a i n dispossessed. "Geoffrey, who r e p l i e d , by excommunicating the s h e r i f f and. other o f f i c e r s . 1 John r e s t o r e d h i s e s t a t e s hut ordered him t o appear and defend h i m s e l f , and a p p a r e n t l y p he s a t i s f i e d John . The f o l l o w i n g March, 1201, he was r e -in s t a t e d on payment of a money f i n e to the k i n g .-^  This seems to have been the use and f a t e o f Geoffrey. Both Packard and John squeezed a l l the money they c o u l d from him, making h i s l i f e unbearable, and t h e n punishing him when he struck back. Immediately a f t e r r e s t o r a t i o n he appointed h i s f r i e n d Hugh Murdac archdeacon o f Cl e v e l a n d . This offended the dean^, Simon, and the chapter and. t h e i r nominee Honorius of Richmond. The l a t t e r appealed t o Rome. The pope i n v e s t i -gated and wrote to G e o f f r e y , rebuking him f o r h i s overbearing conduct, and or d e r i n g him to c o r r e c t h i s abuses. John removed him and a g a i n r e p l a c e d him on payment of one thousand pounds s t e r l i n g - ^ , and surrender of h i s barony. 1.., I b i d . 139" 2. I b i d , P. 1 4 0 . 3. I b i d . P. 157* 4. I b i d . 158. 5« I b i d . 163. -142- . Honorius was granted the archdeaconry by the pope but Geoffrey would not agree. There f o l l o w twenty pages of the quarrel, appeals and conferences. On page 184 we are t o l d that. Honorius was upheld, e v i d e n t l y G e o f f r e y was l e f t i n possession of h i s see. This i s the l a s t mention i n Hoveden of t h i s stormy c h a r a c t e r , who appears.to have had some good t r a i t s , n o t a b l y h i s l o v e of and f i d e l i t y to h i s f a t h e r * But he possessed the waywardness, the f i e r y temper and the stubbornness of the A n j e v i n and these s p o i l e d an otherwise f i n e c h a r a c t e r . He d i e d i n e x i l e a t Rouen i n 1212. Hoveden g i v e s an account o f Richard's death. I t appears that i n 1199 the Yiscount of Limoges found a great t r e a s u r e of gold and s i l v e r i n a w e l l on h i s l a n d . He sent a s m a l l part o f i t t o R i c h a r d who r e f u s e d i t , c l a i m i n g the whole. This the v i s c o u n t r e f u s e d , and R i c h a r d besieged h i s c a s t l e of Chaluz (Chaluz-Chabrol) w i t h a l a r g e army. The g a r r i s o n came out and o f f e r e d t o n e g o t i a t e surrender, Richard refused, swearing t o storm the c a s t l e and hang the g a r r i s o n . He therefore rode round examining i t s defences and w h i l e he was engaged on t h i s a c e r t a i n Bertram de Gurdun f i r e d at him w i t h a poisoned arrow, h i t t i n g him i n the shoulder, Richard rode o f f to the h o s p i t a l and the siege was continued and the c a s t l e stormed by Marchadeus, The doctor t r i e d t o e x t r a c t the arrow but only the wood -143-eame away l e a v i n g the poisoned barb i n the wound,, There were no means of c a u t e r i z i n g a t hand and the i r o n was ex-tracted without i t . When i t was seen t h a t he was d y i n g , he named John as h i s successor, thus s e t t i n g a s i d e A r t h u r . Then they brought Bertram i n t o h i s presence and the Icing a she d him, "What harm have I done you, why d i d you w i s h to k i l l me?" And Bertram answered him, "You k i l l e d my f a t h e r and my two b r o t h e r s w i t h your own hand, and now I have wished to k i l l - you. Therefore take your vengeance on me i n what manner . you w i s h , I w i l l s u f f e r g l a d l y what ever g r e a t e r punishment you can c o n c e i v e , now t h a t you are k i l l e d , you who have c o n f e r r e d so many and so great e v i l s on t h e w o r l d . " Then the k i n g ordered him t o be set at l i b e r t y , s a y i n g , "I forgive you f o r my death." The youth f l u n g h i m s e l f a t the Icing's f e e t , begged him to take h i s vengeance and urged him to l i v e and be the hope and example o f the vanquished. He was r e l e a s e d but a f t e r Richard's death was s e i z e d and flayed a l i v e . Hoveden g i v e s d e f i n i t i o n s 1 o f the terms used i n f e u d a l r i g h t s , w e l l known to readers o f mediaeval h i s t o r y , sac and soc, t o l and theam and infangentheof:-lo Hov. i i . 229, -144-What i s Sac? Sac i s when anyone s h a l l have accused any-one by name, of something, and he s h a l l have denied i t , i t sh a l l be the r i g h t of the former whether the e x a c t i n g of proof or of d e n i a l s h a l l be proceeded withu What i s Soc? Soc i s when anyone s h a l l enter a p l e a i n his own l a n d s , i t i s i n h i s own j u r i s d i c t i o n whether i t s h a l l be t r i e d there o r not. What i s Tol? T o l i s what we c a l l teloneum, t h a t i s when one has the r i g h t of s e l l i n g o r buying i n h i s own l a n d s . What Is Theam? The am i s when anyone s h a l l , l a y a charge against anyone f o r something and the accused s h a l l n o t be able to ho l d ( o r s t a y ) t he warrant, the f o r f e i t u r e (or l o s s of r i g h t o f defence) s h a l l be the l a t t e r ' s , and s i m i l a r l y ( i . e . v i c e versa) the c e s s a t i o n from t h e e x e r c i s e of j u s t i c e of the accuser i f he s h a l l have f a i l e d ( t o uphold the warrant). What i s infangentheof? A l l , who have sac and soc and theam and inf a n g e n t h e o f , th at i s to say, t h e aforementioned customs, have the r i g h t to do j u s t i c e on t h i e v e s known t o have committed the f t , where i t concerns h i s own man ( i . e . anyone who owes him homage), i f such s h a l l be taken upon h i s own ( i . e . the l o r d ' s ) , l a n d . But they who have not t h i s custom, o f r i g h t , s h a l l do j u s t i c e i n t h e presence o f the court of the l o r d the k i n g , i n the hundreds, and i n the wapen-takes or i n the s h i r e s . We s h a l l conclude our survey of Hoveden by quoting two. - 1 4 5 -of s e v e r a l epigrams on Richard., V i r u s , a v a r i t i a s s c e l u s , enormisque l i b i d o Foe da fame's, a t r o x e l at i o caeca cupido Annis regnarunt b i s qui n n i s a r c u b a l i s t a • A r t e , manu, t e l o p r o s t r a v i t v i r i b u s ista„ Spleen, greed, wickedness, l u s t without l i m i t , D i s g r a c e f u l g l u t t o n y , b r u t a l l y headstrong b l i n d d e s i r e , These bore sway f o r t w i c e f i v e years, then an archer By h i s s k i l l , h i s s t r e n g t h and h i s weapon l a i d th em a l l 1 ow. The second g i v e s the other s i d e of the p i c t u r e : -In hujus morte p e r i m i t formica Leonem Proh.dolor'2 i n tanto funere mundus o b i t . In h i s death the ant k i l l e d t h e L i o n A l a s , what sorrow* the w o r l d p e r i s h e s i n so great a murder. 1. I b i d . IV. 8 4 . -146-C h a p t e r i f R o g e r de Wendover. L i t t l e i s known o f t h e w r i t e r o f t h e work c a l l e d " F l o r e s H i s t o r i a r u m " . E v i d e n t l y he was h o r n a t Wendover i n B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e . The y e a r o f h i s b i r t h i s n o t known w i t h c e r t a i n t y . A s t u d y o f t h e r e c o r d e d ages o f monks a t t h a t p e r i o d r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y commonly l i v e d t o some s i x t y f i v e y e a r s . T h i s w o u l d p l a c e R o g e r ' s b i r t h a t about 1170 A . L . I n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e g i v e s l i t t l e h e l p o r c o r r o -b o r a t i o n . He b o r r o w s l a r g e l y f o r h i s a c c o u n t o f e v e n t s down t o a b o u t 1180, - a f t e r w h i c h d a t e he a p p e a r s t o be an o r i g i n a l w r i t e r . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t 1170 e r r s p e r h a p s i n b e i n g t o o l a t e , b u t t h a t g i v e s him a n age a t the t i m e o f h i s d e a t h o f s i x t y s e v e n y e a r s . He e n t e r e d t h e Abbey o f S t . A l b a n s , H e r t f o r d s h i r e , where he r o s e t o t h e r a n k o f p r i o r . Somewhere between 1214 and 1235, p o s s i b l y i n 1224, he was d e g r a d e d 1 , the cause, a l l e g e d b y W a l t e r de T r u m p i n g t o n the a b b o t , b e i n g t h a t he had w a s t e d the p r o p e r t y o f the house b y e x t r a v a -gance. He was l a t e r r e c a l l e d t o the abbey and d i e d t h e r e o n t h e 6 t h o f May 1237» 1. Wendover C h r o n i c a . R o l l s S e r i e s . L o n d o n 1889 V o l . i i i i n t r o d . P . I X . -147-I n t h e p r e f a c e to h i s w o r k , q u o t e d by M r . J . A . 1 G i l e s , he s t a t e s h i s r e a s o n s f o r w r i t i n g . He s a y s , i n p a r t , "The l i v e s o f good men i n t i m e s p a s t a r e s e t f o r t h f o r the i m i t a t i o n o f s u c c e e d i n g t i m e s , a n d t h a t the examples o f e v i l men, when s u c h o c c u r , a r e n o t t o be f o l l o w e d , b u t t o be s h u n n e d . " T h i s , he p r o c e e d s , j u s t i f i e s the c o m m i t t a l t o w r i t i n g o f t h e s t o r i e s o f G a i n , A b e l , J o b , E s a u , t h e sons o f I s r a e l a n d o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f Sodom and G o m o r r a h . S t . A l b a n s was j u s t s u c h a s p o t as w o u l d i n s p i r e a l i t e r a r y - m i n d e d p e r s o n t o w r i t e a h i s t o r y . I t i s c l o s e to the s i t e o f t h e Roman town o f Y e r u l a m i u m . The Roman b u i l d i n g s were made use o f e v e n b e f o r e t h e Conquest t o f u r n i s h m a t e r i a l s f o r the m o n a s t e r y b u i l d i n g s , a n d a f t e r 1100 the m o n a s t e r y was c o m p l e t e d f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . I n d e e d many s t o n e s show Roman i n s c r i p t i o n s , and the a u s t e r e c h a r a c t e r o f the o l d e r p a r t s i s i n no s m a l l measure due t o the n a t u r e and o r i g i n o f the m a t e r i a l s u s e d . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t might tempt such a p e r s o n a s Roger i s to be f o u n d i n t h e d a t e s o f v a r i o u s p a r t s . The abbey was c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1115 and i n 1155 the c h a p t e r 1. Wendover F l . H i s t , t r a n s - G i l e s J . A . , L o n d o n , H e n r y Bonn 1 8 4 9 . P r e f a c e P . 1. -148-house was added,together w i t h the c l o i s t e r i n which Roger. mast o f t e n have paced i n studious mood. These, then, were comparatively recent events at the time when Roger entered the great gateway, which alone of the p u r e l y monastic b u i l d i n g s s u r v i v e s today. The reason f o r the choice of name f o r h i s book i s suggested i n the preface mentioned above 1. " F i n a l l y , t h a t which f o l l o w s has been taken from the books of c a t h o l i c w r i t e r s worthy of c r e d i t , j u s t as f l o w e r s of v a r i o u s c o l o u r s are gathered from v a r i o u s f i e l d s , to the end that the very v a r i e t y noted i n the d i v e r s i t y of the c o l o u r s , may be g r a t e f u l to the v a r i o u s minds of the readers, and b.y p r e s e n t i n g some which each may r e l i s h , may s u f f i c e f o r the p r o f i t and enter -tainment of a l l . " I t i s pleasant to note t h a t the "sraale f o w l e s " are already "maken rnelodye" i n the s o u l of a monk two c e n t u r i e s before Chaucer. . 2 He concludes the preface to the second Book by a r e i t e r a t i o n of h i s object i n w r i t i n g ; "to the end tha t being admonished by past e v i l s , men may betake themselves to h u m i l i a t i o n and repentance, t a k i n g an example f o r i m i t a t i o n from the good and shunning the ways of the perverse." 1 , Op. C i t . P.2 . 2 . Ibid. P . 3 „ -149-He f o l l o w s ' t h e p a t t e r n of h i s predecessors, from whom he borrows so much. In those days when h i s t o r i e s were l a r g e l y a matter of chronology i t was n a t u r a l that a w r i t e r should use previous c o m p i l a t i o n s , t r a n s f e r r i n g i n extenso or condensing as seemed good to him. Thus i t became the p r a c t i c e t o begin w i t h the C r e a t i o n and to f o l l o w the h i s -tory of the World, the Jews, of Europe and of one's own country down to contemporary times. I n t h i s way Roger i s indebted t o many c h r o n i c l e r s , more e s p e c i a l l y Marianus Scotus, Bede and W i l l i a m of Malmesbury. Matthew of Westminster r e v e a l s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1 very c l e a r l y . I n h i s preface he g i v e s h i s reasons f o r s e t t i n g f o r t h the c h i e f events of the time. He then goes on, i n an almost p e r f e c t echo of Roger of Wendover, to reply to the questions of " c e r t a i n d u l l a u d i t o r s " as to why such t h i n g s should be committed to w r i t i n g . He answers t h u s 2 : "Let them know t h a t the good l i v e s and v i r -tuous manners of men of o l d time are recorded to serve as p a t t e r n s f o r the i m i t a t i o n of subsequent ages'; and t h a t the examples of the wicked are set f o r t h , not that they may be i m i t a t e d , but that they may be shunned." 1. : Matth. of Westminster, Preface P. 1. 2 , I b i d , P. 1. Comparing t h i s w i t h the q u o t a t i o n g i v e n above*1", we see a very c l o s e resemblance. He even continues, w i t h l i k e references to " p r o d i g i e s and p o r t e n t s " as Roger does . An even c l o s e r copy occurs i n the l i s t of B i b l i c a l 3 characters where Roger speaks of "the innocence of A b e l , the envy of Gain,"the • s i n c e r i t y of Job, the d i s s i m u l a t i o n of Esau, . the malice of e l e v e n o f the sons of I s r a e l , the goodness of Joseph the t w e l f t h , the punish-ment o f the f i v e c i t i e s i n t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e and brimstone, to the end that we may i m i t a t e the good, and c a r e f u l l y t u r n from the ways of the wicked; and t h i s not only does Moses, but a l s o a l l the w r i t e r s of the sacred page, who, by commending v i r t u e , and h o l d i n g up v i c e to d e t e s t a t i o n , i n v i t e us to the love and f e a r of God." Matthew f o l l o w s t h i s c l o s e l y 4 "....the innocence of A b e l , the envy of Cain, the s i m p l i c i t y of Jacob, the c r a f t i n e s s of Esau, the malice of the eleven sons of I s r a e l , the goodness of the t w e l f t h , to w i t , Joseph, and the punishment o f the f i v e c i t i e s which were consumed by f i r e and brimstone; i n order that we may i m i t a t e the good, and avoid being f o l l o w e r s of the wicked and by shunning a l l temptations t o s i n , we may r a d i c a l l y weaken i t ; -1. Supra. Ch. IY, P . 1 . 2 . Rog. of Wend. Preface P. 3° 3. -- I b i d . Preface P. 1, 4. Matthew of Westminster, ed. C. D. Yonge. Y o l . 1, Preface P. 2. - I n l -and t h i s i s the e f f e c t produced i n us not only by Moses, but by a l l the authors o f the Holy Volume, both i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and moral works, where they commend v i r t u e , ana. show their-d e t e s t a t i o n of v i c e and so teach us at the same time to f e a r and t o l o v e G o d . " Who can doubt t h a t Matthew had a copy of Roger's manus-c r i p t on h i s t a b l e as he penned the above passage? Some i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the C h r o n i c l e s and t h e i r w r i t e r s can be obtained from the "Gesta Abbatum M o n a s t e r i i Sancti A l b a n i " , by Thomas Walsingham who was h i s t o r i o -grapher to the Monastery of S t , Albans i n the r e i g n of 1 Richard I I . I t i s from him we l e a r n o f the removal of Roger from the post of P r i o r of B e l v o i r , "tempore guerrae". Henry Hewlett, Keeper of the Records of the Land Revenue and e d i t o r o f the R o l l s S e r i e s e d i t i o n of Wendover places 2 t h i s at e i t h e r 1224, 1227 or 1231-4. He remarks that any of these dates w i l l s u i t as the next e n t r y i s a report o f a f i r e which occurred at H a t f i e l d C e l l i n 1231• But against t h i s we must place the f a c t that the c h r o n i c l e r s did not always keep t h e i r n a r r a t i v e s i n s t r i c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l order. Indeed Hewlett p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s very t h i n g has occurred at t h i s p o i n t i n the "Gesta". I f we are to assume 1. Wendover R o l l s S e r i e s , V o l . i i i , Preface P. V I I I . . / v o l . i i i . 2. : Roger de Wendover Int rod P. IX. -152-that Roger compiled h i s c h r o n i c l e a f t e r h i s r e t u r n to S t . Albans the date 1 2 3 1 leaves hut l i t t l e time before h i s death i n 1 2 3 6 i n which to w r i t e h i s whole C h r o n i c l e . We ourselves p r e f e r to t h i n k t h a t i t was the w e l l - s t o c k e d l i b r a r y at St. Albans t h a t s t a r t e d Roger on h i s l i f e - w o r k , which he may then have begun before h i s promotion. The date of h i s removal i s then o f l i t t l e importance. . To the present w r i t e r i t would seem to be of g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t and importance t o l e a r n more of the circumstances of Roger's removal from the post of p r i o r . Hewlett quotes a passage 1 from Thomas WalsIngham i n which the o f f i c i a l v i s i t of the abbot of S t . Albans, W i l l i a m de Trumpington i s mentioned* "Et cum y i s i t a s s e t Cellam de B e a l v a i r , a u d i v i t arcanas querelas de P r i o r e i l l i u s domus, Domino Rogero de Wend-overe quasi d i s s i p a s s e t bona e c c l e s i a e i n p r o d i g a l i t e i n c i r c u m s p e c t a , ...... . Correptus i g i t u r hoc ab Ahbate, P r i o r se p r o m i s i t t a l i a p r o f e c t o correcturum. Tamen Abbas ad horam •dissimulans observabat omnia, haec conferens i n corde sua " It i s u n l i k e l y , from the tone of the last'uncompleted sentence t h a t the f u l l t e x t would answer our modern q u e r i e s . One i s tempted to ask, Why were the complaints s e c r e t , (arcanas)? Does i t mean tha t Roger's examination was 1 . I b i d , P. V l l l private or t h a t -the charges were anonymous? I f the l a t t e r , was i t customary to take such d r a s t i c and summary a c t i o n in monasteries of the T h i r t e e n t h Century? On the face of i t , a l l t h at we can answer i s t h a t such was the case. Again what d i d the Abbot c o n s i d e r a " p r o d i g a l i t a s " ? He may have spent a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of the C e l l ' s allowance on parchment—he was an e n t h u s i a s t i c w r i t e r . I n what way was i t "incircumspecta"? Does he mean i l l judged or i n d i s c r e e t ? After h i s a r r e s t the P r i o r promises complete amends. "Never-theless the Abbot, d i s s e m b l i n g at the time, n o t i c e s every-thing, h i d i n g these t h i n g s i n h i s h e a r t . " I s Roger to be given no chance to defend h i m s e l f and e q u a l l y none i f un-defended w i t h an unnamed accuser?. I s he not to be allowed to make good the i n d i s c r e t i o n ? To judge by the abbey f i n a n c i a l accounts g i v e n i n such books as the. R e g i s t e r of Malmesbury i t may have been wine. This d i s c u s s i o n b r i n g s out the c o n t r a s t very w e l l between the ancient h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r and the modern p h i l o s o p h i c h i s t o r i a n . The monk has not only detached h i m s e l f from the world, he has withdrawn i n t o h i s • c e l l , There he l i v e s h i s l i f e a l o o f , alone. He c h r o n i c l e s what he observes and l e a r n s , and "nothing extenuates or sets down aught i n m a l i c e . " He i s a recorder, he must have ao opinions, he has no personal f e e l i n g s , he must show only d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t e r e s t . That i s almost as f a r as h i s -1^4 philosophy of h i s t o r y goes. The i n c i d e n t serves t o show the d i f f e r e n c e between the T h i r t e e n t h and Twentieth Century a t t i t u d e s , f o r today a rec o r d e r would d i s c u s s the circumstances, the f u l l causes, the j u s t i c e or other-wise, and perhaps the community a t t i t u d e towards the defendant and h i s punishment. I n connection w i t h Hoveden' account of the C o u n c i l of Clarendon i t has a l r e a d y been no t e d 1 that we do fi n d , o c c a s i o n a l passages th a t r e v e a l personal b i a s , though i n that p a r t i c u l a r passage i t i s d i f f i c u l t to c a l l i t other than b i a s , i t s c a r c e l y r i s e s to the l e v e l of judgment or considered o p i n i o n . In the same way Hoveden's f u l l e r treatment of the a f f a i r s of the See of Durham i s probably due to h i s f u l l e r knowledge of that area,; Since Roger, i n common w i t h so many of the w r i t e r s , and e s p e c i a l l y the e a r l i e r ones, s t a r t s h i s n a r r a t i v e w i t h Old Testament h i s t o r y i t may be o f i n t e r e s t and p r o f i t , to trace h i s sources and to d i s c u s s as f a r as p o s s i b l e w i t h the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e , how much of hi m s e l f i s i n h i s chronicle, and wherein h i s composition i s o r i g i n a l . Thomas of Walsingham, the monk of S t . Albans, w r i t i n g !• • Supra Chap. Ill, P. 7--155-1 i n the Fourteenth. Century .speaks thus of Roger: Cohsequentur i n no s t r o monasterio f l o r u i t Roger us de Wendover, no s t e r monachus, oui paene to'tius r e g n i chronograph! q u i c q u i d ha bent, lam plane et p e r l u c i d e ab i n i t i o mundi per annorum d i s t i n c t i o n e m d i g e s s i t c r o n i e a sua usque ad tempora R e g i s , Modern s c h o l a r s consider t h a t the e a r l i e r p a r t of the work i s an adoption and a d a p t a t i o n by Roger from an e a r l i e r w r i t e r but the author i s unknown and h i s manuscript i s l o s t . p Mr. Hewlett quotes from S i r Thomas Hardy's w r i t i n g s on the subject of Roger's sources. The l a t t e r was of o p i n i o n t h a t the p o r t i o n down to the N a t i v i t y of Our Lord was taken from the Old Testament, e x t r a c t s from Bede, Methodius, St. Augus-t i n e , Geoffrey of Monmouth and other s . From t h i s point t o 1066 he draws on the Hew Testament, Bede, Geoffrey of Mon-mouth, W i l l i a m of St. Albans, Henry of Huntingdon, Florence of Worcester, S i g e b e r t of Gemblour s " W i l l i a m of Malmesbury and o t h e r s . The p e r i o d from 1066 to 1154 i s obtained from much the same sources together w i t h the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. I n the s e c t i o n down t o about 1200 he draws from some o f those a l r e a d y mentioned and from A i l r e d of Ri e v a u l x , Ralph de D i c e t o , Benedict of Peterborough, Roger de Hoveden and o t h e r s . The R o l l s S e r i e s e d i t i o n does not include, the e a r l i e r 1. Wendover, R o l l s S e r i e s I n t r o d u c t i o n , P. X I . 2. Wendover, R o l l s S e r i e s , V o l . i i i . I n t r . P. X I I I . \part of the work, but opens''-with the year 11J?4 A.D, From this p o i n t p o s s i b l y to 1200 he i s drawing h i s m a t e r i a l s from • :other: c h r o n i c l e r s who are more r e l i a b l e than those used f o r the e a r l i e r p a r t , and hence t h i s s e c t i o n of h i s work i s ex-tremely u s e f u l . From 1200 to 1235 we may assume th a t he i s w r i t i n g of contemporary events. This p a r t i s regarded by s c h o l a r s as his own o r i g i n a l work, Mr. Coxe e d i t e d Wendover's works f o r the E n g l i s h H i s -t o r i c a l S o c i e t y and i t was h i s t e x t t h a t Dr. J . A. G i l e s t r a n s l a t e d . This e d i t i o n opens w i t h the coming of the Angles .-• i n 4 4 7 A.D. Dr. G i l e s has t h i s to say of the e a r l i e r p a r t : To a l l t h i s p o r t i o n of h i s work, co p i e s from the Roman and Greek w r i t e r s , and from the romance of :•;';•. Geoffrey of Monmouth, not the s l i g h t e s t value i s to be a t t a c h e d , 2 Of the same s e c t i on Mr. Coxe says : The h i s t ory of England, indeed a t t h i s p e r i o d , i s to' be sought.... i n the works of Caesar, T a c i t u s , Dion C a s s i u s , Suetonius and o t h e r s , whom Wendover, we r e g r e t to say, has r e j e c t e d f o r the f a b l e s of Geoffrey of Monmouth whom he has made almost h i s s o l e a u t h o r i t y ? . 1. Wend. C h r o n i c l e . G i l e s V o l . I . Preface P. V I . 2. Wend. R.S. i i i . P r eface P. XIV. 3. Wend., Coxe V o l . IV, Preface P. X I I I , -157-fhe- s e c t i o n from 44? t o .120.0.A. D*, we nave remarked, was a. re e d i t i n g of v a r i o u s h i s t o r i a n s . He appears to have a l t e r e d l i t t l e of the o r i g i n a l , and indeed t h i s g i v e s i t a curious v a l u e , on which Dr. G i l e s r e m a r k s l : I t i s w e l l known t h a t the monastic h i s t o r i a n s were i n the h a b i t o f copying l a r g e l y from one another,... Every monastery had I t s c h r o n i c l e r whose duty i t was to r e c o r d the events of the day. When a h i s t o r y or c h r o n i c l e of past events was to be c o p i e d . , , . i t was an obvious proceeding t o b r i n g down the n a r r a t i v e t o 1 the time of the w r i t e r , A new w r i t e r , moreover,did not h e s i t a t e to copy or a b r i d g e , . . . and i n some cases i n consequence of t h i s p r a c t i c e , the o r i g i n a l d i s -appeared a l t o g e t h e r from e x i s t e n c e . This would have been the case w i t h Roger de Wendover were i t not f o r the c u r i o u s f a c t , t h a t the v e r y copy of h i s work, which Matthew P a r i s , h i s c o n t i n u a t o r , used as a b a s i s f o r h i s own more extended labours i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . From an i n s p e c t i o n of t h i s MS., and a comparison of i t w i t h other copies of Matthew P a r i s ' s own h i s t o r y , i t .appears t h a t the l a t t e r w r i t e r embodied Roger de Wendover verbatim i n h i s own work, a l t e r i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y a s i n g l e sentence, or adding a few paragraphs of his. own. I t was due to t h i s f a c t t h a t Roger's work was f o r m e r l y as-cribed to Matthew P a r i s e Dr. Luard, i n the preface t o h i s e d i t i o n of Matthew •Paris,, makes some comments on Roger de Wendover which are -made use of by Mr. Hewlett i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n 2 . I n most eases he f o l l o w s h i s a u t h o r i t y word f o r word, sometimes, however, he merely a b r i d g e s . F r e q u e n t l y he enlarges and 1. Wend., G i l e s , V o l . I. P r e f . P. VII,, 2. Wendv, R.S., V o l . I I I . P r e f . P. XVI. -158-embellish.es, i n t r o d u c i n g r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h e s merely f o r e f f e c t . He seems to c o n s i d e r a l l h i s a u t h o r i t i e s of equal value and h i s s t o r i e s , whether legendary or h i s t o r i c a l , of equal i n t e r e s t . He a f f i x e s dates t o h i s s t o r i e s , and some-times a l t e r s d e t a i l s to s u i t h i s own t i m e s . He makes no attempt t o c orre et wrong quotations i n h i s own a u t h o r i t i e s . There are a l s o attempts t o make the fabulous s t o r i e s more probable by a l t e r i n g the names given i n them which would be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the dates to which they are assigned. Sometimes he t r i e s to r e c o n c i l e d i s c r e p a n c i e s by minute a l t e r a t i o n s , but more f r e q u e n t l y he i s not d e t e r r e d by f i n d i n g c o n t r a r y accounts i n d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r i t i e s and simply copies both. • The o n l y personal t r a i t t hat shines through to our own day i s h i s apparent magnanimity. Walter de Trumpington, the abbot had d i s m i s s e d him from h i s p r i o r y , g i v i n g him no opportunity t o redeem h i s promise to mend h i s ways. Yet Roger shows no s p i t e i n h i s account of Walter's abbacy,-though he i s o f t e n outspoken i n c r i t i c i s m of those i n high places, and the abbot was dead before Roger f i n i s h e d h i s work. His worst f a u l t i s h i s acceptance of rumour as proof of f a c t . For example he t e l l s the s t o r y of the death of William, E a r l of S a l i s b u r y , 1 uncle of Henry I I I . W i l l i a m 1» I b i d , Y o l . I I . P. 2?7« -139-a r r i v e d at Marlborough to v i s i t the k i n g , a f t e r a stormy-voyage from France, A rumour had gone out that he had been drowned. The j u s t i c i a r , Hubert de Burgh, gained the king's consent to a marriage between the countess and h i s nephew Raymond. The l a d y r e f u s e d , s a y i n g t h a t she would have nothing t o do w i t h him, even i f her husband were dead, which she doubted. 1 S a l i s b u r y , on a r r i v a l , l a i d a complaint against Hubert, who was compelled to make amends. A f t e r giving presents he i n v i t e d W i l l i a m t o a banquet, where, "ut d i c i t u r " , he was poisoned. Then Roger t e l l s w i t h f u l l c i r - . eumstances of S a l i s b u r y ' s death a f t e r c o n f e s s i n g h i m s e l f a t r a i t o r to the k i n g . We are then t o l d the usual miracu-lous event, how candles, c a r r i e d i n the f u n e r a l procession f o r about a m i l e through wind and r a i n were not e x t i n g u i s h e d , proving t h a t the e a r l had been f o r g i v e n . The s t o r y r e s t s e n t i r e l y on the p r o b a b i l i t y of hatred between the two men being pushed to extremes. I t i s t o l d by Roger as s e r i o u s l y as any w e l l a u t h e n t i c a t e d i n c i d e n t , and as i f de Burgh had been t r i e d and c o n v i c t e d . Yet, as even Roger t a c i t l y admits by h i s " i t i s s a i d " , i t was only a rumour. I n 1230 a f t e r a b a r o n i a l war the nobles of France w i t h -in I b i d . , I I . 2?. - 1 6 0 -drew t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e from the Icing, Roger assigns as the reason that, they scorned t o serve under a que en who had he en mistress to the Count of Champagne and a l s o to the Roman legate. Coxe says'- t h a t French h i s t o r i a n s have r e j e c t e d the story as at var i a n c e w i t h r e l i a b l e evidence. Roger s t a t e s i t as t r u e . A l l the e a r l y c h r o n i c l e s are d i s j o i n t e d owing t o t h e i r close adherence to d i a r y form. Hoveden could break from •this on occ a s i o n and f o l l o w an i n c i d e n t or a person to a climax. Wendover shows no such a b i l i t y . Again Hoveden places e c c l e s i a s t i c a l events i n t h e i r true p e r s p e c t i v e . Wendover breaks h i s n a r r a t i v e to r e c o r d the c o n s e c r a t i o n or death of some w h o l l y unimportant c l e r i c . Church a f f a i r s loom too l a r g e l y i n h i s w r i t i n g s . Under the years 1180 and 1181 we had been r e a d i n g of the important events between Henry of England and P h i l i p o f France. Then we are given the l e t t e r from Pope Alexander to P r e s t e r John, which a l s o occurs i n Hoveden. Next we are t o l d that Geoffrey, son of Henry I I , r e s i g n e d as b i s h o p - e l e c t o f L i n c o l n ^ ; that he i s succeeded by Walter of Constance; that Walter of Rochester died; t h a t Simon, abbot of St. Albans died and was succeeded 1. Wend., R.S. I I I . 4. 2. Wend., ed. Coxe, IV. 216 note. 3. Wnd,, R.S. I.. 128, -161-f a r i n u s , the p r i o r , 1 AgaiiT, the death of Henry b r i n g s R i c h a r d i n t o prominence. Wendover f o l l o w s the l a t t e r f a i r l y p e r s i s t e n t l y t i l l h i s com-ing to England f o r h i s c o r o n a t i o n . At t h i s point he i n j e c t s a paragraph to inform us"- t h a t Geoffrey, bishop o f E l y d i e d . Then he resumes, w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of Richard's c o r o n a t i o n . Under the years 1204.and 1205 he devotes very c o n s i d e r -able space to r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s , t e l l i n g o f the death of. Geoffrey, bishop of 77 i n t o n 3 and the e l e c t i o n of h i s successor; he g i v e s a l o n g account of the death of Hubert, 4 archbishop of Canterbury, and e l e c t i o n of h i s successor. This i s f o l l o w e d immediately by an account o f the e l e c t i o n of John as bishop of Horwich and at once we are. plunged into the q u a r r e l between the r e g u l a r and s e c u l a r c l e r g y o f Canterbury over the e l e c t i o n of Reginald as archbishop, This i s out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o the importance of the events. Often he r e c o r d s events i n p a r t s y e t f a i l s to see the connection. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s we w i l l t r a c e the s t o r y of the Becfcet q u a r r e l as g i v e n by Roger. 1. 2. I b i d . , P. I63. 3 . Wend, R.S., i i , 9 * 4. I b i d , P. 10, - 1 6 2 -1 The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e i s t o the agreement a r r i v e d a t between ki n g and archbishop i n H 7 0 . We are l e f t to i n f e r , from the preceding account off the c o r o n a t i o n of P r i n c e Henry by the Archbishop o f York and the Pope's l e t t e r of veto, t h a t the q u a r r e l arose from Henry's p e r s i s t e n c e i n pressing on w i t h the c o r o n a t i o n i n s p i t e o f Canterbury's absence. ITo modern h i s t o r i a n , as f a r as our researches have gone , uses Wendover as a u t h o r i t y f o r the s t o r y , which is t o l d by D i c e t o 2 . Wendover simply records the meeting at Amboise and the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . Then he gives the t e x t of King Henry's despatch t o P r i n c e Henry, r e s t o r i n g Thomas's possessions and t h a t o f the Pope's l e t t e r to the archbishop. He t r a c e s the a c t s o f the primate excommunicating the a r c h -bishop and bishops and the command of the k i n g t o withdraw his ban. Without f u r t h e r n a r r a t i o n or e x p l a n a t i o n we are 3 brought to the Christmas Day sermon . Immediately the a r r i v a l of the f o u r k n i g h t s i s recorded and the martyrdom consumeted. Ho r e a s o n i s a s s i g n e d f o r t h e i r conduct,nor i s any connection shown between them and the k i n g . Stranger s t i l l , 1. I b i d . , I. 79. 2. Diceto I. 313 . 3. Wend. R.S., I. 8 3 . -163-v/e are t o l d of the king's g r i e f and r e p e n t a n c e 1 , and o f how he put on s a c k c l o t h and swore t h a t he had n e i t h e r wished, nor connived, at the murder. L a t e r we f i n d h i m 1 i n conference with the pope's envoys denying c o m p l i c i t y i n the murder, yet promising t o m a i n t a i n two hundred k n i g h t s f o r a year i n defence of the Holy Land. Here f o r the f i r s t time do we learn a n y t h i n g of the o r i g i n a l cause of the murder when i t i s reported t h a t the k i n g e x p l a i n e d to the envoys that "his words spoken I n anger, t h a t he provided f o r a s o r r y set of k n i g h t s and f o l l o w e r s who were too cowardly to take his part a g a i n s t the archbishop, had caused h i s murderers to put the man of God to death." Even t h i s does not connect up the p a r t s of the s t o r y as we l l as c o u l d have been done by an e a r l y r e c o r d i n g of the words, "Who w i l l r i d me of t h i s troublesome monk?" I t may be p o i n t e d out here that a reference t o the o r i g i n a l MS. would be necessary to e l u c i d a t e the authorship of the account. I t i s known that Matthew P a r i s i n e d i t i n g Wendover f r e q u e n t l y rearranged the paragraphing and o f t e n inserted sentences which c l e a r up obscure r e f e r e n c e s . This may be an emended passage. Hewlett c r i t i c i z e s Wendover 2 f o r h i s omissions and 1*. I b i d . , P. 90, '2. Wend.. R.S., H i . I n t r o . P. XX. -164-appears to r e g a r d P a r i s more h i g h l y because the l a t t e r saw why the o b s c u r i t y arose and c o r r e c t e d i t by i n s e r t i n g m a t e r i a l . Hewlett i n s t a n c e s the h a l t i n g account which Roger gives of the d e a l i n g s of John w i t h t h e Pope.. He i n s e r t s an appendix-1-, quoting from P a r i s the account o f John's s e c r e t embassy to t h e Emir of Morocco, o f f e r i n g to become h i s vassal. This i s a most c i r c u m s t a n t i a l account, a p p a r e n t l y by an eye v^itness, p r o b a bly t o l d t o P a r i s long a f t e r John's death. The emir r e j e c t e d the o f f e r w i t h becoming d i g n i t y 2 but great s c o r n . John had no hope of h e l p from any other quarter and t h i s may have brought p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s t o a c r i s i s . While h o l d i n g no b r i e f f o r Wendover,'we would l i k e t o point out t h a t i t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t John's a c t s appeared as i n e x p l i c a b l e t o Roger as they would to us, had Paris not w r i t t e n h i s account and t h a t Wendover's l a c k o f clearness may be due not to s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s but t o h i s never having heard of the embassy to Morocco. I t i s noticeable throughout that h i s r e p o r t s of despatches from John are b r i e f ^ and u s u a l l y i n i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n , whereas 1* I b i d . , P . l x i x . 2-« I b i d . , P . l x x i . .3* I b i d . , V o l . i i . P. 138. - 1 6 5 -those a r r i v i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y those from Rome, which would the more e a s i l y become known to a monk and a p r i o r , are given i n f u l l i n d i r e c t n a r r a t i o n . This i s n o t a b l y true o f the Pope's f i r s t despatch on the su b j e c t o f the conduct of the barons. John's despatch to t h e Pope, j u s t mentioned, i s reported i n h a l f a page. Only t h e Pope's exclamation i s re p o r t e d d i r e c t l y . The papal b u l l a n n u l l i n g the barons' l i b e r t i e s is quoted i n f u l l occupying four pages. In p a s sing we may note the Pope's remark 2 beginning "verum etiam plenariam l i b e r t a t e m c o n t u l i t e c c l e s i a e A n g l i -canae". The passage reads:-".... but a l s o granted f u l l l i b e r t y to the E n g l i s h Church; and f u r t h e r , both decrees being a n n u l l e d , he y i e l d e d h i s kingdom of England a s - w e l l as t h a t of I r e l a n d to St. P e t e r and the Church of Rome, rec e i v i n g i t from us i n fee under an annual charge of one thousand marks, and under oath of f e a l t y to us as appears by h i s c h a r t e r s e a l e d w i t h t h e golden b u l l . " Thus, the grant of freedom to the Church of England contained- i n Magna Carta i s wiped out; the Crown l o s e s the right to make appointments and the Church i s f o r e v e r chained.in s u b j e c t i o n t o Rome. The c h i l d l i k e mind of the mediaeval monk i s not the test mechanism, f o r the a p p r a i s a l of charac t e r . Richard and - 1 6 6 -john d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of R i c h a r d which has shone most s t e a d i l y through the ages i s h i s c h i v a l r y coupled w i t h h i s s e m i - b r u t a l m i l i t a r y s k i l l of brain and arm. That of John i s h i s f a t a l weakness of w i l l , coupled w i t h t h a t underground c r a f t i n e s s that i s so o f t e n found i n a weak c h a r a c t e r . But viewed from the p o i n t of moral standards and c h a r a c t e r t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the b r o t h e r s . Yet we f i n d t h a t Wendover p r a i s e s 1 Richard f o r h i s wisdom and heroism and does not blame over-2 much h i s u n f i l i a l - c o n d u c t to h i s f a t h e r or c r u e l t y to the Jews5, w h i l e he r e p o r t s , w i t h l i t t l e comment i t i s t r u e , the harsh t h i n g s s a i d about John. This i s e s p e c i a l l y ' t r u e of c r i t i c i s m s of t h e Pope. And we t h i n k ' t h a t h e r e i n i s the explanation o f . h i s b l i n d n e s s and b i a s , f o r Richard was the knight who took the Cross and went to the Holy Land and was the benefactor of r e l i g i o u s houses, w h i l e John took the Cross but turned back, and was the one who s o l d the E n g l i s h Church f o r a mess of pottage. Wendover waxes almost e l o q u e n t 4 over Richard's m i l i t a r y prowess when he defeated t h e f o r c e at Joppa i n 1192 sent by 1* I b i d . , i . 215© 2. I b i d . , 1 . 154 * 3° I b i d . , i . 166. 4. I b i d . , P p . 2147215. -167-Saladin t o capture him a t a l l c o s t s . According to Wendover there were s i x t y - t w o thousand Saracens w h i l e R i c h a r d had hut eighty k n i g h t s , only e l e v e n being horsed, and four hundred cross-bowmen. S u r e l y Leonidas and Alexander must have looked on from the c l o u d s . Roger f o r g e t s h i s customary coldness and breaks out Into picturesque phrases t o speak of " q u i v e r i n g l a n c e " , "thunderous blows", " c l a s h i n g sword" and "helmed heads". And towards the end- of the d e s c r i p t i o n he speaks of the " i n v i n c i b l e bravery of the k i n g and h i s men". We have mentioned that Roger says l i t t l e i n c r i t i c i s m of Richard's conduct, e s p e c i a l l y h i s t r e a c h e r y to h i s f a t h e r and h i s c r u e l t y to the Jews. I n c o n t r a s t to t h i s we -would 1 place, the account o f the death o f Hugh of Coventry . I n order to c a t c h the tone i t should be quoted i n f u l l , but i t is too long f o r t h i s . This r e v e a l s one of h i s l e a d i n g q u a l i t i e s . More space i s g i v e n t o t h i s death than to . matters that p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d England and Europe. . • I t appears that Hugh, bishop of Coventry or of Chester, took s e r i o u s l y i l l i n Normandy on h i s way to Rome i n 11?8. ' Feeling t h a t he was about t o d i e he sent f o r a l l the abbots and p r i o r s , t h a t c o u l d reach him, t o come. Then when they were assembled, " f l e n s at e j u l a n s " he confessed s i n s , f a u l t s ;1. I b i d . , I . E73, 274. - 1 6 8 -a n d offences. So d r e a d f u l was h i s confess! on t h a t the monks were aghast a t so great wickedness. He begged them to name liis penance but. they.were w h o l l y unable t o do so. Then he condemned h i m s e l f to pu r g a t o r y t i l l the day of judgment. They agreed that t h i s was very meet and r i g h t . We have now read a f u l l page of weeping and hand c l a s p i n g , and the be-wildered l a y mind begins to w i s h t h a t the w r i t e r would t e l l us to what depths of degradation the bishop had sunk, what blasphemies, what i m m o r a l i t i e s i n an amoral age. At l a s t he t e l l s us. He had e x p e l l e d the monks from Coventry and adding t o the heap of a l l h i s e v i l s he had introduced i r r e l i g i o u s p r i e s t s i n t h e i r p l a c e * As we t u r n the pages of Chaucer we wonder i f t h i s was a curse. or a b l e s s i n g to Coventry, t o Hugh's d i s c r e d i t or glory. V. I n the same way, we f i n d t h a t Hugh, bishop of L i n c o l n , 1 receives but a poor o b i t u a r y n o t i c e . I t runs :-In the same year, (123.5) d i e d Hugh bishop of L i n c o l n , the enemy of a l l monks, on the 7th of February, and was buried i n t h e c a t h e d r a l church a t L i n c o l n . Where the commentator i s so o b v i o u s l y biassed we can put l i t t l e t r u s t i n h i s o p i n i o n s . We f i n d ourselves unable to agree whole h e a r t e d l y w i t h Fir. Hewlett when he speaks of Roger'seven-handed j u s t i c e . He c i t e s 2 Wendover's x« I b i d . , i i i . 102. 2> Ibid:., i i i . I n t r o . XXVII. - 1 6 9 -rec or cling of the C h r i s t i a n mercy 1 of the unnamed knight as being j u s t as w e l l d i s p l a y e d as the v i r t u e s of Ric h a r d , But i t might be argued t h a t the s t o r y of the knight i s t o l d i n f u l l f o r two d i f f e r e n t purposes. F i r s t i t g i v e s Roger a chance t o mention the miraculous bowing of the head and 2 shoulders of the f i g u r e on the cro s s , and secondly, i t leads on to a hymn of p r a i s e of Richard's mercy and magnanimity that q u i t e overshadows the t r i b u t e t o the k n i g h t , R i c h a r d had c o n f e r r e d many favours on t h e monasteries, for which Roger admires him. I t was safe to do so, f o r Richard was a l r e a d y something of a t r a d i t i o n and had l o n g been a popular i d o l . H i s censures o f Joh n 3 are not very daring f o r John was dead, he had never been popular and the. party t h a t had checked him was s t i l l i n power. He a t t a c k s the c l e r g y , w i t h what j u s t i f i c a t i o n we are not sure. Further i t r e q u i r e d l i t t l e courage t o do so, f o r i t was well-known th a t the r e g u l a r and secular c l e r g y were not on good terms, and besides i t was u n l i k e l y that any of the l a t t e r would see the c h r o n i c l e , at l e a s t during Roger's l i f e - t i m e . • 1» I b i d , , i i i . 2 4 , 2. I b i d , , i i i . 23. 3« I b i d . , i i . 47, 63, 162, -170-Th e most d a r i n g of h i s c r i t i c i s m s are d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Papacy. Even here we n o t i c e t h a t most of h i s remarks are l e v e l l e d a t papal l e g a t e s , and h i s censures of e i t h e r the papacy 1 or a l e g a t e are concerned, w i t h e x c e s s i v e exac-t i o n s . Bow t h i s i s a p e r f e c t l y safe course f o r these l e v i e s were causing much o p p o s i t i o n both by c l e r g y and l a i t y . The Church i n England had always shown a wayward i n s u l a r i t y , and both l e g a t e s and the papacy were at t h i s time s u f f e r i n g from an i n c r e a s i n g u n p o p u l a r i t y . Since he shows l i t t l e sense of a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of events, as a l r e a d y noted, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g i f he serves out p r a i s e and blame to h i g h and low w i t h l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n of persons. We are not prepared to w r i t e down h i s value as an h i s t o r i a n simply because of h i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s . He had not access to a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n re. qui red f o r f a i r evalua-t i o n , - and he was too c l o s e , i n time, to the events he recorded to get a true p e r s p e c t i v e , Wendover gi v e s an uncoloured p i c t u r e o f the times i n recounting events belonging to the re v e i l i o n of the barons in II73-74. We are apt to speak of "Stephen's stormy reign", and to c o n s i d e r the Wars of the Roses as a serious breach of the k i n g ' s peace which, we take i t , was the normal s t a t e of a f f a i r s . Roger's t o t a l l a c k of comment or 1» I b i d . , i i . 36O. -171-of personal "bias would l e a d us to i n f e r that marchings and counter-marchings w i t h the siege of a c a s t l e or town were very u s u a l proceedings. We r e a d 1 : I n the same year (H73) on the 3rd of J u l y , by the order o f the king', the c i t y of L e i c e s t e r i s s a i d 2 to have been besieged, because the e a r l , the l o r d o f t h a t c i t y , having l e f t the k i n g , the f a t h e r , had f l e d t o the k i n g the son; but at l e n g t h , since a great p a r t of the c i t y had been burned the c i t i z e n s t r e a t e d f o r peace, having given the k i n g three hundred marks so t h a t they might have leave to go wherever they wished. Then we l e a r n t h a t W i l l i a m , k i n g of S c o t l a n d , h u r r i e d the North, burning s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s , k i l l i n g women and c h i l d r e n and c o l l e c t e d p r i c e l e s s booty. : 3 Under the f o l l o w i n g year we l e a r n t h a t Roger of Mowbray renounced h i s f e a l t y to Henry II and r e p a i r e d a r u i n e d castle i n the i s l a n d of Axiholm, L i n c o l n s h i r e . But a l a r g e number of men of t h a t county crossed the Trent i n boats, l a i d siege t o i t and compelled i t to surrender., In these and s i m i l a r accounts there i s no p r o t e s t raised a g a i n s t the l a w l e s s n e s s of the war or the personal or property damage. E v i d e n t l y such t h i n g s were taken as matters of course. 1. Wend. R.S., I . 94. 2. I t i s not c l e a r to which word, rege or L e g e c e s t r i a , d i c i -t u r r e f e r s . There i s no need to assume tha t the siege was o n l y a matter of rumour. Miss Horgate r e p o r t s i t on . the a u t h o r i t y of Diceto and the Gesta H e n r i c i i , i n / E n g l a n d under the Angevin Kings V o l . i i , P. 14o. 3> lend.,' R.S;.., I . 97* -172-We must not leave the t o p i c of Wend over's c r i t i c i s m s of high and low without some remark on the standards o f t h e day. I t may have been an age of d i s o r d e r , of f o r c e r a t h e r than of counsel; an age of s u p e r s t i t i o n and c r e d u l i t y , rather than one of s p i r i t u a l i t y , yet above the w e l t e r of violence and i m m o r a l i t y , there shines out c l e a r l y the f a c t that i t was a l s o an age t h a t recognized t h a t the C h r i s t i a n i d e a l , whose main p r i n c i p l e s were w e l l known, was to be the aim of h i g h and low. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s not one of d e s p a i r . Given a people of i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t h powers of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n , i t only r e q u i r e s experience, w i t h the passage of time, to produce a n a t i o n that w i l l g i v e to the world a p r a c t i c a l philosophy of " B r i t i s h j u s t i c e and f a i r p l a y " . I t has a l r e a d y been remarked that the c h r o n i c l e r s of the p e r i o d gathered up many s t o r i e s of the miraculous and supernatural. S e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s have been quoted i n the chapter on Roger Hoveden. Ho c h r o n i c l e r can surpass Wend-over i n t h i s r e s p e c t . One can f i n d some such s t o r y on almost every page, They appear to be the breath of h i s n o s t r i l s , ' and c e r t a i n l y a world i n which there were not innumerable i n s t a n c e s of Divin e i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h the natural course of events would be a very unnatural w o r l d to Wendover, -173-One o f the l o n g e s t and most d e t a i l e d of these s t o r i e s concerns the d i s c o v e r y o f the r e l i c s of St. Amphibalus . It seems t h a t S t . Alban appeared one night t o an honest and devout burgher of the abbey town. The s a i n t ordered him to a r i s e and f o l l o w t h a t he might be shown the b u r i a l place of St. Amphibalus. This was d i s c o v e r e d i n a mound some d i s -tance n o r t h of the town. On the opening of the mound a l i g h t shone f o r t h which g r a d u a l l y l i g h t e d up the whole world. Then they c l o s e d up the ground a g a i n . The abbot decided to open the tomb, but nothing was done f o r some time. Meanwhile people thronged to the p l a c e , so that i t was never deserted, .and many miraculous cures were wrought and other s u p e r n a t u r a l i n c i d e n t s took p l a c e . On St. Alban* s day the sepulchre'was opened and'the bodies of St. Amphibalus and nine companions were found. The passage d e s c r i b i n g the e n t r y of someone b r i n g i n g the news 2 Is one of the v e r y few where Roger- becomes animated. The monks were at d i n n e r and were l i s t e n i n g t o an account of the martyrdom of St. Amphibalus w i t h a l l the harrowing d e t a i l s . The messenger bu r s t s i n w i t h the news •and Roger i s q u i t e overcome. He can only b r i n g i n h i s 1. Wend. R.3. I. 109. 2, Ibid., P. 114. -174-f a v o r i t e f l o u r i s h — Q u i d ergo?, to be f o l l o w e d a page l a t e r by h i s other phrase, Quid multa? S e v e r a l s u p e r n a t u r a l circumstances attended t h e t r a n s f e r of the martyr to the abbey church and many healing' m i r a c l e s were recorded subsequently. Roger asks pardon f o r t h e d i g r e s s i o n . One can almost imagine t h a t he i s r e a l l y asking i t f o r h i s . show of f e e l i n g . Another remarkable s t o r y i s that o f the monk of Evesham 1 This i s t o l d , at great length'and w i t h a remarkable wealth of d e t a i l . I t concerns a monk who thought t h a t he -was dying, and hence prayed t h a t he might be shown something of the future l i f e before he departed t h i s one. His prayer was answered and i n a v i s i o n the w o r l d of the s p i r i t was revealed to him by a venerable though comely person. His guide conducted him through t h e f i r s t , second and t h i r d places o f punishment, which are described w i t h l u r i d though not a r t i s t i c d e t a i l * - . some -were burned i n the f i r e , others were ro a s t e d i n a pan, f o r some, red hot n a i l s were d r i v e n i n t o t h e i r bones..... others s u f f e r e d t o r -t u r e i n baths of p i t c h and sulphur with h o r r i d s m e l l , or w i t h l i q u i d brass or lead and other kinds of metals...... immense worms w i t h poisonous t e e t h gnawed o t h e r s , others i n dense a r r a y were t r a n s f i x e d on stakes w i t h f i e r y thorns." .1. I b i d . I . 246-266. 2. I b i d . , ?• 253. -175-i i i d so he proceeds through the other two pl a c e s of punishment He does not. s p e c i f y the people or t h e i r s i n s . A dishonest gold-smith and an unconfessed lawyer are the only ones ment i one d. He next passes through the three d w e l l i n g s of the blessed. I n the f i r s t we meet an abbess, a p r i o r and a p r i e s t . I n ..the other two. no one i s mentioned. The d e s c r i p -t i o n l a c k s the v i g o u r and l i v e l i n e s s o f the purgatory. Sweet odours, r e s t and i n c r e a s i n g b r i g h t n e s s appear to be the only-a t t r i b u t e s of the p a r a d i s e . The whole s t o r y bears such a resemblance to tha t of Dante,, though w i t h o u t h i s magic genius, that one wonders i f there was some t r a d i t i o n a l t a l e commonly curren t i n Europe i n the T h i r t e e n t h Century, which Roger has b o l d l y Included. Under the date 1204 we 1 earn-'- of the conversion of some drops of o i l from a f i g u r e of the T i r g i n to f l e s h and blood. This took place i n the p r i s o n . o f the C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r s i n t h e c a s t l e of Damascus. Another long s t o r y concerns the daughter of a noble house, who joined.the order of the M i n o r i t e s . A f t e r many years she .began to r e g r e t what she had g i v e n up and then the Devil a s s a i l e d her. However she fought him so s u c c e s s f u l l y !• I b i d , i i . J>* -176-that lie became her s l a v e , -Then one n i g h t 1 w h i l e l o d g i n g i n a p r i v a t e house a young man t r i e d t o r a v i s h her. But three times the D e v i l h u r l e d him across.the room.so t h a t he d e s i s t e d . We read - that on the 8th of A p r i l 1233 i n the d i s t r i c t of Hereford and Worcester there appeared four f i c t i t i o u s suns of d i f f e r e n t c o l o u rs around the r e a l sun. This wonder-f u l s p e c t a c l e was witnessed by more than a thousand t r u s t -worthy people, some of whom, on account of the unusual s i g h t , p a i n t e d suns and c i r c l e s i n v a r i o u s c o l o u r s on parchment. Almost at the c l o s e of h i s c h r o n i c l e he t e l l s u s 3 of a m i r a c l e performed by Roger de Lawes, a M i n o r i t e who was preaching i n 1233 on b e h a l f of a crusade i n the town of G l a r e . I t appears t h a t a woman, who had been unable to walk f o r three y e a r s , had h e r s e l f c a r r i e d t o hear Roger's preach-i n g . Here she l a y groaning and lamenting. At the c l o s e Lawes questioned her and, o r d e r i n g her to go home, discovered that she was p a r a l y s e d . On her d e c l a r i n g her f a i t h i n God's power Roger l i f t e d her up and she returned to her house X• X"bxcL* XX© 2L^ 2o 2, I b i d , i i i . 50* 3* I b i d , i i i , I O 7 . -177-completely r e s t o r e d . -Before l e a v i n g the d e t a i l e d examination of the t e x t , mention should be made of Wendover's r e p o r t of papal exac-t i o n s , the behaviour of Roman p r i e s t s i n England and the r e a c t i o n o f the E n g l i s h to these matters. We are t o l d 1 t h a t the Pope demanded prebends f o r h i s own use to do away w i t h t h e e v i l p r a c t i c e o f g i v i n g presents.. His request was r e f u s e d by subterfuge. Roger's account i s c o l o u r l e s s i n t h i s . Three years l a t e r , i n 1229, the Pope asked t i t h e s 2 t o c a r r y on war against the Emperor F r e d e r i c k . The Church appears to have bowed to t h i s , but there was much di s c o n t e n t . Roger r e v e a l s h i s own sympathies very c l e a r l y 3 as l y i n g against Rome and r e p o r t s : The l a n d was f i l l e d w i t h constant but s e c r e t m a l e d i c t i o n s , and a l l prayed t h a t such exactions might never b e n e f i t the e x a c t o r s . A l o n g passage 4 deals w i t h the insolence o f the Roman c l e r g y r e s i d e n t i n England. Roger d e s c r i b e s the formation of a s e c r e t , i n f o r m a l league of passive r e s i s t a n c e to these c l e r g y , and l a t e r t e l l s how g r a i n belonging to some o f the 1. I b i d . • i i • 295» 2* I b i d , i i . 315« 3* I b i d , i i . . 3 7 7 ° 4* I b i d , i i i . Pp, . 1 6 - 1 9 , -178-a l i e n p r i e s t s was s e i z e d by men who wore hoods over t h e i r heads. This, was clone w i t h t h e connivance of t h e j u s t i c i a r , Hubert de Burgh. I n t h i s passage Roger c l e a r l y s i d e s against Rome, and throughout, although Wendover i s very cautious, we can see that a s t r o n g n a t i o n a l , i n s u l a r f e e l i n g -i s r i s i n g . 111. c l a s s e s .are w i l l i n g to acknowledge the s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s h i p of Rome, hut r e g u l a r and s e c u l a r c l e r g y j nobles and commons r e v e a l a s p i r i t , s u r p r i s i n g l y l i k e the temper of Englishmen i n the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth centuries and the present day, of o p p o s i t i o n t o a r b i t r a r y acts from w i t h i n the kingdom or ex a c t i o n s or I n t e r f e r e n c e from w i t h o u t . As an a n n a l i s t he cannot compare w i t h Hoveden, e i t h e r i n s t y l e , matter or r e l i a b i l i t y . . So l i t t l e i s known of him pe r s o n a l l y t h a t judgment i s d i f f i c u l t , but he appears to have been a man of l i t t l e i f any b e t t e r education than the average monk. He c e r t a i n l y was not w e l l placed f o r forming an estimate of the p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e or value of the .incidents he n a r r a t e s . His l i f e was too ci r c u m s c r i b e d , he cannot have t r a v e l l e d much. He had not the quick, a c t i v e and h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t mind of Hoveden. On the other hand, although H e w l e t t 1 t h i n k s that Roger was unfavourably placed, 1. I b i d , i i i . I n t r o . x x i x . -179-7 9 he admits l a t e r 'that Wendover's s t o r y of the Wandering Jew fias obtained from a knight of the r e t i n u e of the Archbishop of Armenia Major, who v i s i t e d the abbey i n 1228. This b r i n g s out a p o i n t worth mentioning. The abbeys were the great h o t e l s and guest-houses of those days, and as we l e a r n from J o c e l i n de Braheload, a l l s o r t s o f t r a v e l l e r s were e n t e r t a i n e d , e i t h e r by the abbot i n h i s own quarters or by the abbey i n the guest-house. Thus Wendover would o f t e n meet both high and low, under circumstances where they 'could be induced to t a l k , more f r e e l y t h a n they would have done had they been guests i n a neighbouring c a s t l e where d i s c r e t i o n would o f t e n have sealed t h e i r l i p s . Another f a c t that was o f a s s i s t a n c e to Roger was t h a t John de C e l l a who was abbot of S t . Albans from 1195 to 1214, b u i l t up a v a l u a b l e l i b r a r y 3 , and appears to have encouraged the w r i t i n g o f c h r o n i c l e s . He would be c e r t a i n . t o g i v e every a s s i s t a n c e t o the abbey c h r o n i c l e r . Wendover has n e i t h e r the s c h o l a r l y s t y l e of that man of the. w o r l d , Hoveden, nor the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l tone of the 1. I b i d , i i i * I n t r o , s o a r . 2» I b i d . i i . 352. 3« I b i d . I i i . I n t r o , x i i . -18.0-i y p i e a l m o n k J o e e l i n , but he presents a f a i r l y l i v e l y n a r r a -t i v e , o c c a s i o n a l l y adorned w i t h a few pet phrases or t r i t e c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n s . Which of us i s f r e e of these l e t him cast a stone. He i s not a n a l y t i c a l , yet he uses judgment, e s p e c i a l l y from a moral s t a n d p o i n t . Here he i s f a i r , frank and f e a r -l e s s , no r e s p e c t e r of persons and a b i t t e r enemy of a l l unjust oppressors. He may be regarded as the founder o f the school o f h i s t o r i a n s of St. Albans which reckons Matthew o f P a r i s and Matthew of Westminster i n i t s ranks. \J<x-U^^L>^ f These two t h i n g s — t h e d e f i n i t i o n , i m p l i c i t i n h i s -work, of the duty and a t t i t u d e o f the h i s t o r i a n , and the founding of the s c h o o l — a r e the l i f e work of Roger of Wendover, - 1 8 1 -C h a p t e r Y . W i l l i a m o f Newburgh. T h u s f a r we have d e a l t w i t h major c h r o n i c l e r s i n Hoveden and R a l p h de D i c e t o , and w h i l e Wendover may be o m i t t e d f r o m the l i s t of major w r i t e r s , he may be so c l a s s i -f i e d f o r our p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s as b e i n g t h e r e a l f o u n d e r o f a famous s c h o o l o f c h r o n i c l e r s . T h e s e , t h e n , may be t a k e n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h a t c l a s s , w h i c h a l s o i n c l u d e s Matthew P a r i s and G - i r a l d u s C a m b r e n s i s . Hew b u r g h has been c h o s e n because he s t a n d s midway between the major a n d m i n o r w r i t e r s and b e c a u s e o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of h i s book p e c u l i a r to i t s e l f , w h i c h w i l l be t r e a t e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Somewhat more i s known o f W i l l i a m t h a n of most o f t h e s e men. He h i m s e l f t e l l s u s t h a t he was b o r n i n t h e 2 f i r s t y e a r of S t e p h e n , t h a t i s 113b, and Howie t t p r o v e s f a i r l y c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t he d i ed i n 1198. A t a v e r y e a r l y age h e e n t e r e d Newburgh P r i o r y where he p a s s e d t h e whole o f h i s l i f e . The p r i o r y was s i t u a t e d i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d of B y l a n d a n d R i e v a u l x abbeys and t h e r e a p p e a r s to have 1. New b u r g h i . 1 9 . 2. I b i d , l e P r e f . p . X . been c o n s i d e r a b l e f r a t e r n a l i n t e r c o u r s e between t h e t h r e e . T h i s w o u l d be o f a s s i s t a n c e i n c o m p i l i n g t h e i r c h r o n i c l e s , f o r e a c h w o u l d p a s s on w h a t e v e r was l e a r n e d , e s p e c i a l l y from t h e i r v i s i t o r s . We know t h a t t h e r e were s u c h r e l a t i o n 1 f o r W i l l i a m opens h i s book w i t h a d e d i c a t i o n to S r n a l d , Abbot of R i e v a u l x , i n the c o u r s e o f w h i c h i t a p p e a r s t h a t Newburgh knew t h e b r o t h e r s o f R i e v a u l x and what t h e y d i s c u s s e d . We l e a r n l a t e r some f a c t s t h a t h e l p ta< r e v e a l more of h i s b i r t h p l a c e . He i s d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t s p r i n g s i n e a s t Y o r k s h i r e a n d s a y s : " I n p r o v i n c i a quoque Deicrura baud p r o c u l a l o c o n a t i v i t a t i s meae r e s m i r a b i l i s c o n t i g i t , quam a p u e r o c o g n o v i . E s t v i c u s a l i q u o t a m a r i o r i e n t a l e m i l l i a r i i s d i s t a n s , j u x t a quern famosae i l l a e a q u a e , quas v u l g o G i p s e v o c a n t , nurnerosa s e a t u r i g i n e e t e r r a p r o s i l i u n t . At the p r e s e n t d a y t h e G i p s e y Race r i s i n g n e a r Wold Newton runs i n t o the s e a n e a r B r i d l i n g t o n . As t h e r e was a p r i o r y at B r i d l i n g t o n w h i c h was t h e p a r e n t o f Newburgh, and t h e s p r i n g s a t W o l d Newton a r e n o t f a r from B r i d l i n g t o n i t i s more t h a n p o s s i b l e h e was b o r n a t t h i s l a t t e r p l a c e . I n II54 t h e p r i o r y was removed to a s i t e n e a r the v i l l a g e o f Coxwold by t h e s i d e o f the h i g h r o a d from Y o r k 1. Op. e i t . i • 3» 2. Op. c i t . i . 85* -183-to the mouth o f t h e T e e s . T h i s would p l a c e i t i n a v e r y f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n f o r m e e t i n g i m p o r t a n t t r a v e l l e r s and no d o u b t b r o u g h t W i l l i a m much i n f o r m a t i o n . The b u i l d i n g s have a l l d i s a p p e a r e d and Newburgh l i v e s on o n l y i n t h e c e l e b r a t e d h i s t o r y o f i t s c a n o n . The s o u r c e s of h i s work are h a r d e r t o t r a c e t h a n almost a n y o t h e r w r i t e r . He opens the h i s t o r y w i t h a p r e -f a t o r y c h a p t e r . I n t h i s he makes s h o r t m e n t i o n o f Bede and G i l d a s and t h e n p a s s e s on t o a v e r y c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a -t i o n o f G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth. He shows how G e o f f r e y has p a s s e d beyond a l l bounds o f b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d t r u s t w o r t h y . Thus i t w o u l d seem t h a t he knew s e v e r a l a u t h o r s , but he never a c k n o w l e d g e d h i s a u t h o r i t i e s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s he o f t e n s a y s , "A boy t o l d m e , " as i n the c a s e q u o t e d , o r " A n o l d man s a y s . " Hoveden and D i c e t o l i k e to quote a l e t t e r or p r o c l a m a t i o n i n e x t e n s o , w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e and t h e y l e a v e the r e a d e r t o f o r m h i s own o p i n i o n s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t . Hew b u r g h t r i e s to ma Ice i t v i v i d by r e p o r t i n g e v e n t s as f a r a s p o s s i b l e i n d i r e c t s p e e c h . Often he has c o n v e y e d t h e s u b s t a n c e b u t t h e w o r d s a r e h i s own i n v e n t i o n . Thus b o t h Hove den 1 - and New b u r g h g i v e what l i H o v . i . 1 6 9 . 2. Newb. i . 2 9 . - 1 8 4 -p u r p o r t s t o be a n e y e w i t n e s s ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e d e a t h o f Thomas, A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k , i n 1114. B o t h r e p o r t T h o m a s ' s w o r d s , w h i c h d i f f e r w i d e l y i n t h e two a c c o u n t s , Hoveden says t h a t i n a n s w e r t o the a n x i o u s q u e r i e s o f h i s f r i e n d s Thomas a n s w e r e d : " A l a s , t h r o u g h t h i s s i c k n e s s , no m e d i c i n e a v a i l s a g a i n s t a l i f e o f l u x u r y . " Newburgh r e p o r t s t h a t b e i n g e a r n e s t l y e x h o r t e d b y h i s f r i e n d s , b e c a u s e one w o u l d k i l l h i m s e l f who d i d not obey the a d v i c e o f t h e d o c t o r s , Thomas a n s w e r e d : "Be s i l e n t , no m e d i c i n e o f y o u r s may w h i s p e r a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r of t h i s a d v i c e , f o r I s h a l l n o t a t l e n g t h l o s e the I m m o r t a l g l o r y o f l o n g - d e l a y e d v i r t u e f o r the s a k e o f the s a f e t y o f t h e f l e s h . " T h i s p a s s a g e i l l u s t r a t e s what we s a i d above o f New-b u r g h ; he i s c a r e f u l t o g i v e the t r u e s u b s t a n c e o f a s t o r y but he c l o t h e s i t i n a f o r m o f h i s own i n v e n t i o n . H o v e d e n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s c a r e f u l o f b o t h , and i f he happens t o p o s s e s s t h e o r i g i n a l , w h e t h e r l e t t e r o r p r o -c l a m a t i o n , he g i v e s an e x a c t t r a n s c r i p t o f i t . I t i s t h i s h a b i t t h a t makes i t , a s we have s a i d , h a r d t o t r a c e Newburgh's s o u r c e s . He r e a r r a n g e s and r e c a s t s t h e n a r r a -t i v e u n t i l i t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e r e a l a u t h o r . O c c a s i o n a l l y he l e a v e s a s e n t e n c e or c l a u s e u n -changed and the o r i g i n a l c a n be t r a c e d . I n h i s a c c o u n t -185~ of the d e a t h of W i l l i a m the C o n q u e r o r he s a y s : 1 "Thus he s l e p t w i t h h i s f a t h e r , a man q u i c k i n arms f r o m h i s y e a r s of a d o l e s c e n c e , of l o f t y -m i n d , h a p p y i n s u c c e s s , a u n i q u e ornament t o b a s t a r d s ; a n d was b u r i e d a t C a e n i n t h e m o n a s t e r y o f the p r o t o m a r t y r S t e p h e n , w h i c h he h i m s e l f h a d c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m t h e f o u n d a t i o n s and h a d e n -r i c h e d e x c e e d i n g l y . " T h i s s e n t e n c e i s s a i d b y H e w l e t t 2 t o be t h e a c t u a l words of Symeon o f Durham, the p l a c e g i v e n i n t h e m a r g i n o f the t e x t as Column 214, l i n e 4. Newburgh a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w Symeon up t o t h e c r o w n i n g o f S t e p h e n i n 1136. The c l o s i n g s e n t e n c e s o f C h a p t e r V d e a l i n g w i t h t h e war a g a i n s t the S c o t s i n I I 3 8 , a n d t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f T h e o b a l d o f Bee t o the p r i m a c y a r e t a k e n f r o m H e n r y o f H u n t i n g d o n , a s t h e q u o t a t i o n 3 f r o m Book V I I I o f the l a t t e r w r i t e r , g i v e n as a f o o t n o t e , g o e s t o show. I n II74 K i n g H e n r y s e n t R a n n u l f de G l a n v i l l e a g a i n s t Hugh B i g o d . T h i s army c a p t u r e d W i l l i a m the L i o n of S c o t l a n d . N e w b u r g h ' s s t y l e becomes q u i t e a n i m a t e d a t t h i s p o i n t 4 . The m e s s e n g e r , s e n t t o t h e k i n g , u r g e s t h e n e c e s s i ty o f s e e i n g H e n r y a t o n c e , though i t i s t h e m i d d l e o f the n i g h t . "And when t h e k i n g had b e e n wakened, ' W h o , ' s a i d he ' a r e y o u ? ' And he s a i d , ' I am t h e boy o f 1. Op. c i t . i . 2 1 , 2 2 . 2. Newb. i . P r e f . X X V . 3* Op. c i t . p . 35® 4. I b i d . i . 1 8 9 . -186-"Ramiulf de Glanville, your trusty servant,sent by whom I his messenger am come to your highness.' Then the other, 'Is our Rannulf,' said he, 'well?* And the f i r s t , 'He is wel l , my lord, and l o , he holds your enemy, the king of the Scots a captive in chains at Richmondo'"' More conversation is reported and the king leaps out of bed and with tears gives thanks to God, Who alone works marvels. This a l l follows closely the account, equally picturesque, given by Jordan Fantosme.^ The Itinerarium of Richard the Canon appears also to have been read by Newburgh. Here again i t is diff icul t to trace the use th a t has been made owing to Hewburgh's habit of reading a portion and then recasting the whole from memory in his own style and phraseology. Yet his style is almost always affected by an author especially i f that writer has a strongly marked l i terary style. There 2 is a distinct change in form between the account of the quarrel of Richard and John with Phil ip in I I87 and that of the si tuati on of the kingdom of Jerusalem, which im-mediately follows i t . Here we see another characteristic of Hew burgh, wherein he differs from most of the chroniclers of this period. The passage referred to above forms an 1. Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II and Richard I , Vol . i l l . Ed. by R. Howlett, Rolls Series, London, Longman and Co, 1886. P. 366. L i . l?6o -.1970 and 1985 - 20l8o 2;. Hewb. i . 248. -187-i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the a c c o u n t of t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f Guy o f L u s i g n a n t o t h e t h r o n e and o f t h e f a t e f u l c a m p a i g n of H87 which l e d t o t h e c a p t u r e o f the' T r u e C r o s s and t h e f a l l o f J e r u s a l e m . H i s i n t r o d u c t i o n d o e s not c o n s i s t o f any c h a i n of e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e c a m p a i g n hut o f p h i l o s o p h i s i n g ' on the e v i l s t h a t t h e H o l y L a n d has a l w a y s s e n t upon any of h e r o c c u p i e r s who have t u r n e d a s i d e f r o m t h e t r u e r e l i -g i o n . Here we s e e t h e f i r s t s i g n o f t h e development o f the c h r o n i c l e r i n t o t h e h i s t o r i a n . A n o t h e r s o u r c e u s e d i s H o v e d e n . T h i s i s s c a r c e l y t o he wondered at f o r Hew b u r g h was n e a r Howden . Y e t i t was e i t h e r H o v e d e n h i m s e l f or someone who knew b o t h men who gave the i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r l i t t l e i s b o r r o w e d e x c e p t two 2 l e t t e r s w h i c h a r e f o u n d o n l y i n H o v e d e n . The se came f r o m someone who was w i t h t h e k i n g t h r o u g h o u t h i s j o u r n e y s and the f i g h t i n g . The f i r s t d e a l s w i t h R i c h a r d ' s c o u r s e a f t e r the d e p a r t u r e o f P h i l i p , and h i s m a s s a c r e o f t h e g a r r i s o n of A c r e , n o m i n a l l y f o r S a l a d i n ' s f a i l u r e t o r e s t o r e t h e C r o s s , b u t r e a l l y as r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t h e S a r a c e n l e a d e r ' s massacre o f t h e T e m p l a r s 3 a f t e r t h e b a t t l e o f H i t t i n i n I I 8 7 . The s e c o n d t r e a t s of the b a t t l e o f A r s i i f i n 1 1 9 1 « . 1. Hewb. i , 250 t o 255* 2. l e w b . 1, .359, 3 6 I . 3. I b i d . i . 259. -188-A l l commentators are agreed that t h i s person was Anselm, Richard's chaplain, who is known to have w r i t t e n an account of his experiences which has never been found. We r e c a l l that Hoveden closed his account of the f l y i n g f i s h observed i n the Mediterranean with the words, "And he who t o l d these things i s he who saw them, and we know that his witness i s true." One or two other items have been borrowed from Hoveden. He also draws from Ralph of Coggeshall. It is most noticeable i n reading through th i s chronicle that the author i s thi n k i n g p r i m a r i l y of his manner of putting h i s t a l e before his reader and secondarily of the content and truthfulness of his t a l e . This i s i n strong contrast with others, notably Ralph de Diceto who told a p l a i n unvarnished t a l e , and was far more concerned about t e l l i n g f a c t s as they happened with as l i t t l e personal bias as possible . This i s not to say that Hewburgh de-l i b e r a t e l y invent ed; we cannot f o r a moment think o f him as being i n the same class as Geoffrey of Monmouth who i s surely the Munchausen of c h r o n i c l e r s . It i s Hewburgh, and he alone , who a t t a c k s 1 Geoffrey and at some pains, shows how absurd and f a n t a s t i c i s his story. 1. lewb. i . Pp. 11 to 19c - 1 8 9 -I t i s v e r y r e m a r k a b l e how o f t e n he r e l a t e s a n event i n d i r e c t s p e e c h q u o t i n g the w o r d s o f the p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h many a n " i n q u i t « o r " a i t " . An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t l i e s h e r e H o w l e t t r e m a r k s t h a t b o t h Hewburgh a n d Hoveden o f t e n r e p o r t m a t t e r s t h a t must have had a common s o u r c e — the l o s t book o f A n s e l m t h e c h a p l a i n . He f u r t h e r r e m a r k s t h a t q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y t h e two a c c o u n t s are n o t so much d i f f e r e n t , r e t e l l i n g s o f t h e same s t o r y as m u t u a l l y s u p p l e -mental a c c o u n t s . We w o u l d advance the pure h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e i t h e r t h e s e two were p r e s e n t when A n s e l m r e c o u n t e d e v e n t s , a n i n c i d e n t w h i c h may have t a k e n p l a c e a f t e r h i s r e t u r n from t h e E m p e r o r ' s c o u r t , or e v e n more p r o b a b l e , Anselm v i s i t e d b o t h Hewburgh P r i o r y and Howden. He would be l i k e l y t o v i s i t e i t h e r o f t h e s e or b o t h en r o u t e t o Durham. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t Hugh de P u i s e t was s t i l l a l i v e i n 1194, and A n s e l m w o u l d be a l m o s t c e r t a i n to v i s i t h i m . T h i s s t y l e i s n o t d e v e l o p e d f u l l y u n t i l he b e g i n s t o r e c o r d t h e e v e n t s o f 1174. T h r e e c a s e s o c c u r b e f o r e t h i s , the f i r s t b e i n g a v e r y s i m p l e o n e , s o much so t h a t one c a n 1 h a r d l y c a l l i t 'a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . ' I t i s i n h i s a c c o u n t of h i s own v i s i t t o S t . G o d r i c , h e r m i t o f F i n c h e l e on h i s deathbed i n I I 7 0 . When i t was s e e n t h a t the s p i r i t was 1. Op. c i t . i . 1 4 9 , 150. - 1 9 0 -almost f l e d h i s H p s o f t e n r e p e a t e d t h e f a m i l i a r words " F a t h e r , Son and H o l y S p i r i t " . A much more e x t e n d e d use 1 i s made o f i t i n r e c o u n t i n g the l e g e n d o f K e t e l l , a r u s t i c o f Farnham i n Y o r k s h i r e , who was r e p u t e d to have the power of s e e i n g a n d c o n v e r s i n g w i t h d e v i l s . Here i t has a d e f i n i t e l i t e r a r y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a l u e . He r e p o r t s t h e a c t u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n between K e t e l l and t h e d e v i l s . Then w i t h t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e i n v a s i o n of the n o r t h e r n c o u n t i e s by W i l l i a m t h e L i o n , K i n g of S c o t l a n d i n 1174, he b e g i n s t o make i t a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s i s due t o h i s m e e t i n g e y e -w i t n e s s e s o f t h e s e e v e n t s i s p l a u s i b l e . He i s by t h i s time a man of mature y e a r s and judgment and he h e a r s echoes w i t h i n t h e c l o i s t e r w a l l s o f t h e d i n o f the o u t s i d e w o r l d . But i t i s not the o n l y p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h J o h n Fantosme shows t h a t i t i s e q u a l l y p r o b a b l e t h a t the l a t t e r ? s l i v e l y s t y l e and d r a m a t i c t e l l i n g g a l v a n i z e d at l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y t h i s q u i e t monk who e v i d e n t l y was a man o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a b i l i t i e s and who, w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i -t i e s o f Roger Hoveden or R a l p h de D i c e t o , might have l e f t a d e e p e r mark on h i s n a t i o n . 1. I b i d . i . 151 t o l j54 e -191-T h e r e are n i n e m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h i s c h r o n i c l e a l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e i s t h e o r i g i n a l . T h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e that the c o p y i n t h e Stowe c o l l e c t i o n was i n t h e p r i o r y l i b r a r y d u r i n g W i l l i a m ' s l i f e - t i m e . These a r e i n t h e Stow% Lambeth, C o r p u s C h r i s t i and T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , D u b l i n , c o l l e c t i o n s and i n the B o d l e i a n , the C o t t o n and a n o t h e r B r i t i s h Museum c o l l e c t i o n . T h r e e o f t h e s e a r e a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d from t h e same s o u r c e , but a r e t o o s i m i l a r t o have any v a l u e f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . They are t h e Stowe, Lambeth and C o t t o n m a n u s c r i p t s . The f i r s t i s o f t h e T w e l f t h C e n t u r y b e a u t i -f u l l y w r i t t e n , and has s u f f e r e d some m u t i l a t i o n . The second i s a l s o w e l l w r i t t e n , o f t h e T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y , which i s u s e d t o c h e c k up on t h e r e a d i n g s i n t h e f i r s t and to s u p p l y t h e m i s s i n g p a r t s . The t h i r d i s a l s o o f the T h i r t e e n t h C e n t u r y . I t g i v e s a c o m p l e t e t e x t o f Hewburgh's w o r k s , and s e r v e s t o c o r r o b o r a t e the two p r e v i o u s o n e s . Thomas Wykes, canon o f Oseney i n t h e l a t e T h i r t e e n t h Century a p p e a r s t o have u s e d t h i s copy. Wykes g r o u p e d W i l l i a m w i t h Bede a n d Matthew of P a r i s a s a n a u t h o r i t y . The o n l y o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i s the D u b l i n one, w h i c h c o n t a i n s o n l y Books IV and V , but i s i n a c l e a r F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r y hand and v e r y f r e e from c o n t r a c -t i o n s . E v e r y t h i n g a b o u t the v a r i o u s m a n u s c r i p t s t e n d s to show t h a t the a u t h o r w r o t e out a r o u g h d r a f t and i n t e n d e d to write a revised copy, that possibly he did revise a small portion, hut never completed i t . When we think of the imperfect means at his disposal, we can only wonder at how much was accomplished in a period of about three years, when he was in fa i l ing health. He opens his book with the prefatory letter addressed to Ernald of Rievaulx, which he follows with an index of Book I. This shows a careful divis ion into chapters, each dealing with a topic. This is a departure from the scheme of other writers, for though none shows an unbroken chronology, on the whole the arrangement i s chronological and any breaks and- returns to dates already mentioned are more for geographical reasons. In Hewburgh we find that each chapter deals with a separate topic. Thus we learn that Chapter 6 t e l l s of Bishops Roger of Salisbury and Alexander of Lincoln, and how they were captured by King Stephen. Chapter 18 te l l s concerning the cause of the second expedition to the Holy Land. Practically the whole of this book is a transcript from Henry of Huntingdon. In like manner the other four books are indexed showing a careful arrangement and a definite planning, but also showing that the history has been wri tten out at a later date and not contemporaneously. The second book deals with events between 11.54 and 1174. T h i s i s f a i r l y o r i g i n a l or f r o m s o u r c e s now l o s t , a n d i n v i e w of t h e p a u c i t y of m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s p e r i o d i s one of h i s most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . He opens w i t h 1 an a c c o u n t of H e n r y I I » s a r r i v a l i n E n g l a n d , a n d r e m a r k s t h a t the p e o p l e l o o k e d f o r w a r d h o p e f u l l y t o b e t t e r t h i n g s u n d e r t h i s p r i n c e t h a n u n d e r t h e former k i n g , i n whose r e i g n so much e v i l h a d f l o u r i s h e d . He c o n t i n u e s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f H e n r y ' s e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n s i n r e d u c i n g t h e c o u n t r y t o o r d e r a n d o b e d i e n c e t o t h e Crown. The p a r t s where H e n r y t o o k m i l i t a r y a c t i o n t h a t are m e n t i o n e d b y Newburgh a r e a l l n o r t h e r n , Y o r k s h i r e w i t h t h e c a s t l e s o f 2 S c a r b o r o u g h a n d B r i d g e n o r t h . M a l c o l m of S c o t l a n d gave up the extreme n o r t h a n d west a n d r e c e i v e d b a c k the e a r l d o m o f H u n t i n g d o n . M a l c o l m ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o o k p l a c e i n I I 5 7 and w i t h i n a 3 few days a d i s p u t e a r o s e between H e n r y and the W e l s h , "a r e s t l e s s and u n c i v i l i s e d r a c e " . T h i s was caused by H e n r y ' s demand f o r c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t were not c u s t o m a r y . Henry d e c i d e d t o i n v a d e by t h e e a s i e s t p o s s i b l e r o u t e w i t h a l a r g e a r m y , but the W e l s h made use of the woody n a t u r e of t h e i r c o u n t r y w h e t h e r h i l l o r v a l l e y , and c o n c e a l i n g 1. Kewb. i . 1 0 1 . 2. Op. c i t • i . 70 g i v e s a n a c c o u n t o f t h e c o n f i r m i n g o f t h e s e p a r t s t o t h e K i n g of S c o t l a n d i n 1149. 3* Op. c i t . i . 106. -194-themselves c a u t i o u s l y , watched the narrow places of the roads. The k i n g t h e r e f o r e , on e n t e r i n g , had.to contend w i t h the n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of the r e g i o n and hence made an unfortunate s t a r t on the a f f a i r . P a r t of the army advanced through a wooded and damp place and was caught by an enemy ambush. There Eustace, son of John, a noble famed f o r w e a l t h and wisdom, and Robert de Courjr p e r i s h e d w i t h many o t h e r s . So great was the l o s s o f both men and nobles t h a t a rumor spread t h a t the k i n g had been k i l l e d . Henry of Essex, h e r e d i t a r y standard-bearer t o the k i n g , b e l i e v e d the r e p o r t and proclaimed i t to those coming together round him, We are t o l d here t h a t a f t e r -wards 1 he was c h a l l e n g e d to a duel by a c e r t a i n noble on account of t h i s and was beaten. The k i n g , at Reading, out of p i t y f o r him c a n c e l l e d the sentence of death and ordered him t o become a monk, and s e i s e d h i s whole patrimony f o r the t r e a s u r y . At the time the k i n g s p e e d i l y r e s t o r e d the s p i r i t of the army by showing h i m s e l f to the men. He reduced t h e c o n f u s i on, re-formed the ranks and l a i d an ambush f o r the enemy. He then ordered a l a r g e f l e e t to be prepared and he a t t a c k e d the enemy from the sea. This e x p e d i t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l and soon the c h i e f s came begging 1. This was i n H63, so that the account was w r i t t e n much l a t e r . - 1 9 5 -f o r p e a c e . H e n r y c o m p e l l e d them t o h a n d o v e r c e r t a i n f o r t i f i c a t i o n s a n d to g i v e s u r e t i e s f o r the o a t h s o f the i r c h i e f s . " T h e n a h a p p y peace s m i l e d more p l e a s a n t l y a f t e r the c l o u d o f w a r , the army r e t u r n e d w i t h j o y to i t s own l a n d a n d t h e k i n g t u r n e d t o o t h e r more d e l i g h t f u l a f f a i r s . " R e t u r n i n g to t h e y e a r H 5 4 he t e l l s us o f t h e e l e c -t i o n of N i c h o l a s B r e a k s p e a r e t o t h e p a p a c y as A d r i a n I V . He s e i z e s on t h i s e v e n t t o t e l l the l i f e - s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h m a n who became p o p e . I t o p e n s 1 w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c a l l y w r i t t e n s e n t e n c e : We must t e l l a b o u t t h i s man how he was r a i s e d , so t o s p e a k , f r o m t h e d u s t t h a t he m i g h t s i t i n the m i d s t o f p r i n c e s , a n d s h o u l d h o l d t h e s e a t o f t h e A p o s t o l i c g l o r y . H i s f a t h e r was a c l e r k of n o t o v e r - m u c h a b i l i t y . As a b e a r d l e s s y o u t h he was made a monk at S t . A l b a n s . They were so p o o r t h a t he was n o t able to a t t e n d t h e s c h o o l and o n l y d i d so t h a n k s t o a g i f t . T h i s made h i s f a t h e r ashamed, he was c o n s t a n t l y c h i d i n g h i m f o r h i s d u l n e s s , a n d , d e p r i v i n g h i m of a l l s o l a c e , d r o v e him out w i t h g r e a t d i s p l e a s u r e . R a t h e r t h a n beg i n E n g l a n d young N i c h o l a s c r o s s e d t o F r a n c e . Here he was e v e n l e s s s u c c e s s -f u l so he m i g r a t e d a g a i n , c r o s s e d t h e Rhone and e n t e r e d 1. Op. c i t . i . 1 0 9 . - 1 9 6 -P r o v e n c e , He got w o r k a t t h e a b b e y o f S t . Rufus whore h i s s p l e n d i d f i g u r e , j o l l y f a c e and w i s e s p e e c h commended him to t h e b r o t h e r s . They u r g e d h i m t o t a k e t h e h a b i t w h i c h he d i d , and he showed s u c h z e a l , s k i l l and knowledge t h a t he was e v e n t u a l l y made a b b o t . L a t e r t h e y t u r n e d a g a i n s t h i m , a p p a r e n t l y o n l y b e c a u s e he was a f o r e i g n e r , and t h e y a p p e a l e d t o Pope E u g e n i u s t o remove h i m . The pope c o u l d f i n d n o t h i n g but g o o d c o n c e r n i n g h i m and r e f u s e d t h e i r r e q u e s t . A s e c o n d t i m e t h e y a p p e a l e d and Hewburgh quotes the e x a c t w o r d s o f t h e pope i n r e p l y : "I know, b r o t h e r s , " s a i d h e , "where the s e a t o f S a t a n i s , I know what has s t i r r e d up t h i s s t o r m i n y o u . G-o, choose a f a t h e r f o r y o u r -s e l v e s one w i t h whom y o u w i l l be a b l e to keep the p e a c e , or r a t h e r whom y o u w i s h , f o r t h i s man w i l l not be a b u r d e n t o y o u any l o n g e r . " The pope made N i c h o l a s b i s h o p o f A l b a n o , a n d s e n t him t o Denmark a n d Norway, " v e r y f i e r c e p e o p l e " , as l e g a t e . He was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l on t h i s m i s s i o n , a c t i n g w i t h g r e a t t a c t a n d e n e r g y . On h i s r e t u r n t o Rome he was t e n d e r e d a g r e a t r e c e p t i o n . E u g e n i u s had meanwhile been s u c c e e d e d by A n a s t a s i u s , a l r e a d y a n o l d man. He d i e d v e r y s h o r t l y a f t e r B r e a k s p e a r e '.s r e t u r n a n d he was c h o s e n u n a n i m o u s l y as A d r i a n IV. He n e v e r f o r g o t S t . A l b a n s , h o n o u r e d i t w i t h g i f t s a n d gave i t s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . ! • Op. c i t . i . I I I . -197-Hewburgh s u p p l i e s 1 , u n d e r t h e same y e a r 11.54, some f r e s h e v i d e n c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the w e l l - k n o w n s t o r y o f t h e d e a t h o f W i l l i a m , A r c h b i s h o p of Y o r k . W i l l i a m h a d been d e p r i v e d o f the see by E u g e n i u s who h a d n o m i n a t e d h i s f r i e n d H e n r y f o r t h e p o s t . H e n r y and E u g e n i u s d y i n g w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e of e a c h o t h e r , W i l l i a m was r e s t o r e d to Y o r k and p r o c e e d e d t h i t h e r i n A p r i l . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g . o f June he was s e i z e d w i t h a f e v e r and s n a t c h e d from t h i s l i f e t o the g r e a t g r i e f o f c l e r g y and l a i t y on June 8th. He c o n t i n u e s : " I n d e e d on a c c o u n t o f the u n e x p e c t e d n e s s of h i s p a s s i n g i t was b e l i e v e d b y many t h a t he had b e e n removed by p o i s o n , f o r t h e y a s s e r t e d t h a t he h a d drunic f r o m t h e s a c r e d c h a l i c e a f a t a l d r a u g h t , w i t h the wine o f l i f e , m i x e d w i t h i t e i t h e r by c e r t a i n o f h i s opponents or on t h e i r b e h a l f , b e i n g f i r e d w i t h j e a l o u s y . " The rumour was s p r e a d among t h e p e o p l e " w a n t o n l y j u s t a s i f i t were e s t a b l i s h e d e v i d e n c e " . I n t h a t c l a u s e we have our a u t h o r ' s own o p i n i o n . But he d o e s n o t choose t o l e a v e i t t h e r e , p r o c e e d i n g t o s h o w 2 t h a t he had r e a s o n t o d i s -b e l i e v e t h e s t o r y : " T h e n I , i n the c o u r s e of t i m e , when t h i s s t o r y c o n t i n u e d to s p r e a d , b e t h o u g h t me of a c e r t a i n p r o m i n e n t and aged man, a monk o f t h e monastery o f R i e v a u x , now f e e b l e and c l o s e t o d e a t h , who 1. Op. c i t . i • 8 0 . 2. I b i d . i . 81 . - 1 9 8 -"had b e e n a t . t h a t t i m e a c a n o n of the c h u r c h a t Y o r k , and was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s t o r y o f ... the a r c h b i s h o p who s h o u l d be q u e s t i o n e d u p o n o a t h c o n c e r n i n g t h i s . And he s t e a d i l y r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s was u t t e r l y u n t r u e c o n t r i v e d b y p e o p l e o f p r e c o n c e i v e d o p i n i o n , t h a t he h i m -s e l f was i n d e e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f and i n a t t e n d a n c e on t h e a r c h b i s h o p when t h a t c r i m e was s a i d t o have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n , and t h a t i t h a d b e e n by no means p o s s i b l e f o r anyone w h a t -e v e r t o s l i p i n among t h e f a i t h f u l f r i e n d s s t a n d i n g a r o u n d h i m f o r the p u r p o s e of a t t e m p t -i n g any s u c h e v i l d e e d . " He c o n t i n u e s i n t h i s s t r a i n , p o i n t i n g out t h at the s t o r y of h i s r e f u s i n g t o t a k e an a n t i d o t e was a l s o f a l s e , and r e m a r k i n g on t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f h i s w i t n e s s . T h i s i s one o f t h e b e s t e x a m p l e s o f N e w b u r g h ' s r e a l h i s t o r i c a l g i f t . Hewburgh t e l l s a e o n s i d e r a b l e number of s t o r i e s o f the i m p r o b a b l e a n d t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . One o f t h e s e 1 i s the •account o f E c o n , a B r e t o n , who c o u l d work m a r v e l s by the a i d o f d e v i l s . He g a t h e r e d a number o f d i s c i p l e s , but was s o u g h t b y t h e c h u r c h as a h e r e t i c . The A r c h b i s h o p of Rheims c a p t u r e d h i m i n 1148 and he was t r i e d a n d condemned to p r i s o n where he d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r . A p a r t f r o m t h i s t a l e he g a t h e r s p r a c t i c a l l y a l l h i s n o n - n a t u r a l e v e n t s i n t o C h a p t e r s 27 and 28 o f Book I . The f i r s t of t h e s e 2 i s d e v o t e d t o t h e s t o r y of t h e g r e e n 1. Op. c i t . i . 6 3 . 2. I b i d . i . 8 4 . - 1 9 9 -c h i l d r e n , a b o y a n d a g i r l who w e r e s u p p o s e d , t o come o u t o f a n a n c i e n t d i t c h , k n o w n a s t h e W o l f s ? p i t s . T h i s w a s s i t u a t e d n e a r a v i l l a g e f o u r o r f i v e m i l e s f r o m B u r y S t . E d m u n d ' s . T h e s e c h i l d r e n w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e v i l l a g e a n d w e r e b a p t i z e d . S u i t a b l e f o o d s e e m e d t o c a u s e a d i f f i -c u l t y w h i c h may a c c o u n t f o r t h e b o y ' s e a r l y d e m i s e . T h e g i r l l i v e d o n , m a r r i e d , a n d w a s s a i d t o be s t i l l a l i v e a f e w y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . H e w b u r g h r e c o u n t s t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d a n s w e r s o n v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r f o r m e r c o u n t r y a n d l i f e , a s k e d t h e m f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . He c o n c l u d e s t h e c h a p t e r b y s a y i n g " b u t a s f o r me i t h a s n o t b o t h e r e d me t o h a v e e x h i b i t e d t h e p r o d i g i o u s a n d m a r v e l l o u s e v e n t " . The w o r d " e x p o s u i s s e " l e a v e s one i n d o u b t a s t o w h e t h e r he m e a n t e x p o s e d i t o r made i t p u b l i c . T h e n e x t c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s f o u r i t e m s . T h e f i r s t c o n -c e r n s t w o g r e y - h o u n d s w h i c h w e r e f o u n d i n a c a v i t y w h e n a r o c k w a s s p l i t i n a q u a r r y . The n e x t i s t h e t a l e o f a f r o g f o u n d s i m i l a r l y , w i t h a g o l d c h a i n r o u n d i t s n e c k . T h e n f o l l o w s t h e a c c o u n t o f t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t s p r i n g s a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o . T h e l a s t t e l l s o f a c o u n t r y f e l l o w who h e a r d s o u n d s o f c o n v i v i a l r e j o i c i n g s c o m i n g f r o m a m o u n d . A p p r o a c h i n g i t he f o u n d a d o o r i n i t s s i d e t h r o u g h w h i c h he s a w a p a r t y o f men a n d w o m e n . One o f t h e s e r v a n t s o f f e r e d h i m a c u p . He p o u r e d o u t t h e d r i n k a n d w e n t o f f w i t h t h e c u p . T h i s w a s o f a n u n k n o w n m a t e r i a l , a n d o f -200-u n u s u a l c o l o u r s a n d s h a p e . The r u s t i c gave i t to H e n r y I and by h i m t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w D a v i d , K i n g o f S c o t s , who p r e s e r v e d i t i n h i s t r e a s u r y f o r many y e a r s * F o l l o w i n g t h i s Newburgh makes some r e m a r k s on e a c h . He w o u l d l i k e s u c h s t o r i e s t o be v o u c h e d f o r by r e l i a b l e p e o p l e . I n view of the i n c a n t a t i ons o f the M a g i , and o f s e c r e t charms he i s not p r e p a r e d t o take a s t a n d . T h e r e may be a p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n . O n l y t h e g r e e n c h i l d r e n c a n n o t be e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d . The r e a s o n i s more a b s t r u s e a n d the p o v e r t y o f our i n t e l l i g e n c e i s n o t s u f f i -c i e n t t o e x p l o r e i t . O n l y one o t h e r s t o r y 1 o f t h i s type i s t o l d . T h i s c o n -c e r ns a c e r t a i n r u s t i c c a l l e d K e t e l l of F a r n h a m . He was c r e d i t e d w i t h t h e power o f s e e i n g and t a l k i n g t o d e v i l s . The t a l e i s t o l d v e r y c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y but w i t h o u t any comment. 2 We have f o u n d j u s t one r e m a r k t h a t shows s u p e r s t i t i o n . He r e m a r k s on the c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t H e n r y I I was d o i n g penance a t C a n t e r b u r y at t h e v e r y . t i m e when t h e b a r o n s o f Y o r k s h i r e were s e i z i n g the k i n g o f S c o t l a n d . F r o m Hewburgh a l s o we l e a r n ^ the s t o r y o f t h e d i s c o v e r y 1. Op. c i t . i . 1^1. 2. I b i d . i . 188. 3» I b i d . i . 116. - 2 0 1 -o f t h e b o d i e s o f t h e T h r e e K i n g s a t M i l a n and o f t h e i r t r a n s f e r e n c e t o C o l o g n e . He r e c o u n t s how B a r b a r o s s a c a p t u r e d M i l a n i n h i s I t a l i a n c a m p a i g n o f I l 6 0 - l l 6 2 . C e r -t a i n s a c r e d b u i l d i n g s s t o o d o u t s i d e t h e w a l l s w h i e h might be of u s e to t h e b e s e i g e d i n f u t u r e . m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s . These were d e s t r o y e d and a n y t h i n g d e s e r v i n g r e v e r e n c e t h a t was f o u n d t h e r e was c a r r i e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y , and e s p e c i a l l y the b o d i e s o f the T h r e e M a g i who had p r e s e n t e d m y s t i c g i f t s to t h e I n f a n t S a v i o u r , They a l s o f o u n d t r e a s u r e t h a t h a d b e e n d e p o s i t e d t h e r e l o n g a g o . The b o d i e s were d i s c o v e r e d i n a s t a t e of p e r f e c t p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h t h e b o n e s , n e r v e s and s k i n . A f t e r the f a l l o f the c i t y the v i c t o r i o u s emperor bore o f f t h e s a c r e d r e l i c s and t h e y were i n t e r r e d a t C o l o g n e . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r 1 we a r e t o l d o f t h e s e c o n d s c h i s m i n t h e C h u r c h . A d r i a n IV d i e d i n A u g u s t , 1159. A c e r t a i n R o l a n d was e l e c t e d as A l e x a n d e r I I I , w h i l e a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e c o l l e g e , a l m o s t n o n e , chose O c t a v i a n as V i c t o r I V . Hewburgh l e a v e s us i n no doubt of the d i r e c t i o n of h i s s y m p a t h i e s , c a l l i n g A l e x a n d e r a r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r e d man who was e l e c t e d by t h e "more d i s c r e e t " s e c t i o n and whom the l e s s e r p a r t " r e v i l e d by t h e words o f t h e i r c u r s e s " , w h i l e h e , "nudo nomine et f a l l a c i o m i n e " , of no 1 . I b i d , i . 1 1 8 . -20 2-l u s t r e o f name and of d e c e i t f u l p r o m i s e who was c a l l e d Y i c t o r was d e s t i n e d t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e shame o f d e f e a t . F r e d e r i c l c B a r b a r o s s a f a v o u r e d V i c t o r , . A c o u n c i l was h e l d a t Pa v i a i n 1160 w h i c h , swayed h y t h e e m p e r o r , s u s t a i n e d V i c t o r . A l e x a n d e r t h e n sought t o g a i n the s u p p o r t o f t h e Icings o f F r a n c e and E n g l a n d . But t h e y , not b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d and c a u t i o u s l y s u s p e n d i n g judgment u n t i l the f u l l t r u t h s h o u l d be l e a r n e d , c a l l e d a n o t h e r e o u n c i 1 . T h i s a s s e m b l e d s o o n a f t e r , p o s s i b l y i n 1161, and t o i t came on b e h a l f o f O e t a v i a n t h e c a r d i n a l s Guy of Cremona a n d J o h n of S t . M a r t i n s , and f o r A l e x a n d e r t h r e e c a r d i n a l s , H e n r y o f P i s a , J o h n of N a p l e s and W i l l i a m o f P a v i a . E v i d e n t l y t h e r e was a n e q u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s s e m b l y , w h i c h l i s t e n e d a t t e n -t i v e l y to w e l l - d e l i v e r e d s p e e c h e s by t h e c a r d i n a l s . New-b u r g h g i v e s p r a i s e e q u a l l y t o both s i d e s f o r e l o q u e n c e , but s a y s t h a t W i l l i a m o f P a v i a t o r e t o p i e c e s , w i t h v e r y sound a r g u m e n t s , t h e o b j e c t i o n s to A l e x a n d e r . Thus by t h i s d u e l the t r u t h was made p l a i n , s o t h a t n e i t h e r p r i n c e d e l a y e d any l o n g e r but f o u n d f o r A l e x a n d e r and r e p u d i a t e d O e t a v i a n . Hence t h e s c h i s m w i t h i t s c o n f u s i o n and d i s g r a c e was w i p e d o u t , a n d , w i t h t h e u s u a l solemn e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a g a i n s t a l l o f t h e o t h e r o p i n i o n , the c o u n c i l d i s s o l v e d . A l e x a n d e r , who h a d b e e n k e e p i n g h i m s e l f s a f e i n t h e t e r r i -t o r y of t h e Icing o f S i c i l y now c r o s s e d i n t o G a u l . The whole L a t i n w o r l d a c c e p t e d h i m a s pope except t h e p r o v i n c e -203-of Germany .where t h e emperor c l u n g t o t h e o t h e r p a r t y . We a r e n e x t g i v e n a n a c c o u n t o f H e n r y ' s e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t T o u l o u s e , B e c a u s e o f the a l l i a n c e between H e n r y a n d the Count of B a r c e l o n a , t h i s l e a d s our a u t h o r t o g i v e some d e t a i l s o f t h e h i s t o r y of A r a g o n . The s i e g e was abandoned and we p a s s on to r e a d o f t h e murder o f t h e V i s c o u n t o f ^ e z i e r s a n d C a r c a s s o n n e . One c o u l d w i s h t o be g i v e n some p i c t u r e t h a t w o u l d b r i n g to us t h e glamour and romance of m e d i a e v a l C a r c a s s o n n e , o t h e r t h a n t h e d e t a i l s o f the h o r r i b l e murder of Raymond T r e n c a v e l , i t s l o r d . P e r -h a p s t h e m i s t s o f s u b s e q u e n t c e n t u r i e s have t h r o w n a s o f t e n i n g m a n t l e o v e r i t s s t a r k n e s s and we may r e j o i c e t h a t we d i d n o t go t o C a r c a s s o n n e , a t l e a s t i n I I 6 7 , The o r t h o d o x monk g i v e s h i s a t t e n t i o n 1 to t h e a r r i v a l o f t h i r t y h e r e t i c s f r o m Germany i n l l o O . A f t e r s i x ' y e a r s t h e y h a d made one c o n v e r t who d e s e r t e d when t h e y were s e i z e d , t r i e d and condemned. They -were b r a n d e d and d r i v e n out h a l f n a k e d t o d i e o f e x p o s u r e . We o b s e r v e a n o t e o f h a l f s a n c t i m o n i o u s a p p r o v a l o f t h i s b y Hewburgh. 2 Pope A l e x a n d e r ' s f i r s t o f f i c i a l a c t was t o c a l l a c o u n c i l w h i c h met a t T o u r s i n I I 6 3 and w h i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e powers and d u t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s r a n k s of the c l e r g y 1. I b i d . I . 131 t o 1 3 4 . 2 . I b i d . i . I 3 5 to I 3 9 . - 2 0 4 -and w i t h the q u e s t i on o f t h e A l b i g e n s e s . Newburgh g i v e s i n t h e s e pages t h e a c t u a l w o r d i n g of t h e r e s u l t i n g d e c r e e s , a f t e r t h e s t y l e o f H o v e d e n , . " H i s n e x t t o p i c i s t h e . q u a r r e l w i t h Be eke t , but at t h i s p o i n t he d e c i d e s t o r e t u r n t o c h r o n i c l i n g i n s t e a d o f w r i t i n g h i s t o r y . Hence e v e n t s o f the y e a r s f r o m 1164 t o 1170 a r e i n s e r t e d between t h e o p e n i n g p h a s e s and t h e t r a g i c c l i m a x . We l e a r n o f t h e c o n t i n u e d s c h i s m i n t h e P a p a c y 1 w i t h the e l e c t i o n of the a n t i - p o p e P a s c h a l , o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f the c i t y of A l e s s a n d r i a i n I I 7 8 , of t h e s e c o n d war a g a i n s t W a l e s , t h e d o m e s t i c p l a n s o f H e n r y and a f f a i r s i n S c o t l a n d . T h e n he g i v e s t h e l e g e n d of K e t e l l , a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t 0 , and t h e s t o r y of t h e two e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t Egypt by A m a l r i c , k i n g o f J e r u s a l e m i n 1164-67. W i t h a s h o r t c h a p t e r on t h e c o n c l u s i on of peace between E n g l a n d and F r a n c e i n 1169 a n d H e n r y ' s a r r a n g e m e n t t o m a r r y the y o u n g e r H e n r y 2 to t h e d a u g h t e r o f the k i n g of F r a n c e , Newburgh i s r e a d y t o c o n t i n u e the s t o r y o f B e e k e t . The o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e of the c h a p t e r on B e c k e t i s v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Newburgh and h i s s t y l e . Hoveden a n d D i c e t o b e g i n w i t h an u n a d o r n e d "eodem anno" o r s ome s u c h p h r a s e . But N e w b u r g h 3 s t a r t s : 1. I b i d , i . 143« 2. I b i d . i . I 5 9 • ,3. I b i d , i . 1 3 9 . -205-"Anno c o n c i l i i ejusdem nondum ernenso, a d v e r s u s v e n e r a b i l e m Thomam C a n t a u r i e n s e m a r c h i e p i s c o p u m , i r a r e g i s A n g l o r u m e x c a n d u i t , m u l t o r u m e t e n o r -rnium m a l o r u m , quae s e c u t a n o s e u n t u r , infame p r i n c i p i u m . " A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e between l e w b u r g h a n d o t h e r s i s s e e n h e r e . W h i l e t h e y n a r r a t e the f a c t s and t r a c e t h e a c t i o n s o f the p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d l e a v i n g the r e a d e r t o f o r m h i s own e s t i -m a t e s , l e w b u r g h v e r y f r e q u e n t l y I n t r o d u c e s a t o p i c by some comment o r judgment o f h i s own• On t h i s o c c a s i o n he g i v e s 1 us h i s a p p r a i s a l o f Thomas. He s a y s : " A n d i n d e e d t h i s same Thomas o f L o n d o n a r o s e , a man o f k e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and c a p a b l e i n s p e e c h , g r a c i o u s i n a p p e a r a n c e and manner, and i n h i s e f f i c i e n c y i n g e t t i n g a n y t h i n g done s e c o n d t o n o n e . " Then we a r e t o l d how H e n r y made him c h a n c e l l o r , low comes the i n s i s t e n c e o f the k i n g on p u n i s h i n g c l e r k s f o r s u c h c r i m e s a s s e c r e t t h e f t s , r o b b e r y w i t h v i o l e n c e and h o m i -c i d e . B e i n g g r e a t l y s t i r r e d he p a s s e d l a w s a g a i n s t s u c h w r o n g d o i n g . W i l l i a m t h i n k s t h e k i n g was r i g h t but was t o o z e a l o u s i n c a r r y i n g i t o u t . The b i s h o p s , however, were c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f the C h u r c h and p r o t e c t e d o f f e n d e r s . A t t h e C o u n c i l o f C l a r e n d o n H e n r y o b t a i n e d t h e a s s e n t o f a l l t h e b i s h o p s e x c e p t B e c k e t t o h i s w i s h e s . B e c k e t o b s t i n a t e l y h e l d o u t . We h e a r n o t h i n g of a q u a l i -f i e d s u b m i s s i o n f r o m l e w b u r g h ' s a c c o u n t . H e n r y now began 1. I b i d . i . 159 - 2 0 6 -t o p u r s u e M m with, demands f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of h i s a c -c o u n t s as c h a n c e l l o r . B e c k e t f l e d to F r a n c e and was d e c l a r e d b a n i s h e d . W i l l i a m s a y s t h a t no g o o d c o u l d come o f s u c h a c t i o n , a n d , t h a t i t s e r v e d no u s e f u l p u r p o s e i s p l a i n f r o m t h e g r e a t e v i l s t h a t a f t e r w a r d s s p r a n g f r o m i t . He blames B e c k e t f o r h i s o b s t i n a c y . Hewburgh p i c k s up the t h r e a d s of t h e s t o r y once more w i t h the y e a r 1170. He c a r r i e s u s 1 v e r y q u i c k l y t h r o u g h t h e a c c o u n t of t h e c r o w n i n g of t h e young H e n r y , B e c k e t ' s c o m p l a i n t t o the pope a n d t h e re c o n c i l i a t i o n . W i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n and f a v o u r o f the k i n g the a r c h b i s h o p r e t u r n e d t o h i s own c h u r c h . But he h a d i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n , w i t h o u t t h e k i n g ' s k n o w l e d g e , l e t t e r s f r o m the pope a g a i n s t t h e a r c h b i s h o p of Y o r k and t h e o t h e r s who were p r e s e n t a t the i l l - o m e n e d c r o w n i n g , now about t o be the d i s t u r b e r s of the a g r e e m e n t a n d t h e p r o v o k e r s of f u t u r e g r e a t e r a n g e r . The b r e v i t y o f the a c c o u n t , w i t h i t s q u i e t t o n e and u n r e l i e v e d s t y l e , shows e i t h e r t h a t i t was c o n d e n s e d from some o t h e r w r i t e r ' s a c c o u n t or t h a t i t was w r i t t e n down l o n g a f t e r w a r d s , and a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y i t i s not the w r i t i n g o f a n e y e - v i / i t n e s s o r i n t i m a t e or e v e n o f f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a -t i o n . I f we t a k e i t t h a t i t was a much l a t e r w r i t i n g , u n d e r 1. I b i d . P . 160. - 2 0 7 -e i t h e r R i c h a r d o r J o h n , and i f we r e c a l l t h a t t h e murder s h o c k e d t h e w h o l e o f E u r o p e and l e f t H e n r y w i t h s c a r c e l y a s i n g l e a p o l o g i s t , t h e r e i s no s p e c i a l b r a v e r y i n Newburgh's 1 comment, on t h e p o p e ' s c o n d u c t . I t i s the o n l y i n s t a n c e t h a t we c a n r e c a l l where t h e a u t h o r u s e s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r i n e x p r e s s i n g an o p i n i o n . He s a y s , " ' I t h i n k t h a t the (most) most b l e s s e d pope G r e g o r y a c t e d , up to t h i s t i me, i n a r a t h e r g e n t l e and c o n s i d e r a t e manner t o w a r d s the q u e s t i o n of an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g w i t h the k i n g , and t h a t he eonduc t e d t h e m a t t e r i n a f a s h i o n t h a t was a b l e t o be j u s t i f i e d w i t h o u t r i s k t o C h r i s t i a n g o o d - f a i t h , h a v i n g t o d i s -g u i s e h i s c o n d u c t a s a c o u n t e r b a l a n c e t o t h e t i m e s , f o l l o w i n g up t h e p r o p h e c y : 'He w i l l o b s e r v e a p r u d e n t s i l e n c e i n t h o s e days b e c a u s e the t i m e s a r e b a d . ' And so as s o m e t h i n g had t o be done b y the v e n e r a b l e p o n t i f f a t t h a t t i m e , n e i t h e r . j u d g e t h a t he i s t o be p r a i s e d n o r do I presume to c e n -s u r e h i m . ' As t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o be d o n e about the l e t t e r s from the p o p e , w h i c h were t o o i m m o d e r a t e , Thomas p r o c e e d e d t o s u s p e n d t h e b i s h o p s from a l l o f f i c i a l d i g n i t i e s . The k i n g i n e x a s p e r a t i o n over t h e q u a r r e l g r o a n e d a l o u d and was d i s -t u r b e d b e y o n d m e a s u r e , a n d " f r o m t h e abundance o f h i s t o r t u r e d h e a r t he b e l c h e d f o r t h words t h a t were n o t w i s e " . F o u r n o b l e s went out f r o m h i s p r e s e n c e , j e a l o u s f o r t h e i r m a s t e r and c r o s s e d over by s h i p , "at s u c h g r e a t speed t h a t t h e y seemed t o be h a s t e n i n g t o a s o l e m n f e a s t " , and came to C a n t e r b u r y . They f o u n d B e c k e t at h i s d e v o t i o n s a n d 1. i b i d , i . l 6 l . w a i t e d u n t i l he was s e a t e d at a meal w i t h h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d men. T h i s d e t a i l was n o t g i v e n i n any of t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e c h r o n i c l e s . They o r d e r h i m t o w i t h d r a w h i s s e n t e n c e a g a i n s t t h e b i s h o p s , b u t he ' s a i d t h a t a s u p e r i o r ' s commands c o u l d not be r e v e r s e d b y a n i n f e r i o r ' s . They l e f t him and went t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e i r c r i m e , f o r t h e y had come unarmed, " w i t h g r e a t d i n and s h o u t i n g " , a n o t h e r d e t a i l t h a t i s new. So f a r t h e a c c o u n t has b e e n m e r e l y t h e s t o r y o f a d i s -i n t e r e s t e d r e c o r d e r , b u t a t t h i s p o i n t t h e use o f " f a c i n u s " and " s a t e l i t e s d i a b o l i " 1 shows a t l e a s t sympathy f o r t h e a r c h b i s h o p as a l s o do " n e q u i s s i m i " and " c r u d e l i s s i m e " a t the same p l a c e . B e c k e t ' s d y i n g words a r e n o t r e c o r d e d , n o r e v e n t h e f a c t t h a t v e s p e r s were a b a n d o n e d . The k n i g h t s f l e d t o the n o r t h o f E n g l a n d . The r e p o r t o f so g r e a t a s a c r i f i c e s o o n s p r e a d over the L a t i n w o r l d and d i s h o n o u r e d t h e i l l u s t r i o u s k i n g of E n g l a n d , f o r e v e r y o n e b e l i e v e d t h a t i t had b e e n done by h i s i n s t i g a t i o n . And when Henry h e a r d what h i s men h a d done he was overwhelmed w i t h g r i e f f o r he u n d e r s t o o d how i t w o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d and how i t w o u l d h u r t h i s own r e p u t a t i o n , and he was u n a b l e t o e a t f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . He d i d not know w h e t h e r t o s p a r e t h e s e e x c e e d i n g l y w i c k e d men or n o t , knowing t h a t men would be i n c l i n e d to t h i n k e v i l o f h i m . He d e c i d e d to s p a r e them. 1. I b i d , i . 163. - 2 0 9 -They were o r d e r e d b y t h e pope t o come t o Rome f o r the p u r -pose o f u n d e r t a k i n g a s o l e m n p e n a n c e . So a t t h e urge o f c o n s c i e n c e t h e y s e t o u t f o r Rome where t h e pope o r d e r e d them t o p e r f o r m a p i l g r i m a g e t o J e r u s a l e m , Here t h e y spent s e v e r a l y e a r s i n e x p i a t i o n of t h e i r c r i m e a n d , as has been s a i d , n o t s l o w l y a l l f i n i s h e d t h e i r l i v e s t h e r e . "But t h a t was a f t e r w a r d s . " T h i s l a s t r e m a r k i s a f u r t h e r p r o o f t h a t t h e a c c o u n t was n o t w r i t t e n a t the t i m e . H e n r y s e n t e n v o y s t o t h e p o p e , but e v e r y o n e c u r s e d t h e E n g l i s h k i n g so much t h a t t h e y c o u l d s c a r c e l y g a i n a d m i s s i o n . When t h e y h a d g a i n e d a n a u d i e n c e o f t h e pope t h e y swore t h a t H e n r y h a d n o t g i v e n e i t h e r h i s command or cons e n t t o t h e c o m m i t t i n g o f so g r e a t a c r i m e . The pope s e n t two l e g a t e s to t h e F r e n c h t e r r i t o r i e s o f the E n g l i s h k i n g t o make e n q u i r i e s . These two c a r d i n a l s h e l d a c o u n c i l a t A v r a n c h e s , H e r e e c c l e s i a s t i c s , n o b l e s and c h i e f s a l l a f f i r m e d s t e a d i l y t h a t he h a d n e i t h e r w i s h e d i t n o r o r d e r e d i t , t h a t the r e p o r t l a y h e a v y on h i m a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d u n d e r t a k e a s o l e m n p u r g a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t he m i g h t no l o n g e r be a f f l e e t e d b y i t . He d i d n o t d e n y t h a t t h e m u r d e r e r s had s e i z e d on w o r d s o f h i s b l u r t e d out i n anger when he had h e a r d t h e news o f t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e b i s h o p s , and b e i n g a n g e r e d beyond r e a s o n he h a d spoken i n c a u t i o u s l y . "And on a c c o u n t o f t h i s " , s a i d h e , "I w i l l n o t f l e e from C h r i s t i a n d i s c i p l i n e ; d e c r e e what i s p l e a s i n g , I w i l l - 2 1 0 -embraee and c a r r y out t h e d e c r e e . " T h e n he c a s t a s i d e h i s c l o t h e s and s u b m i t t e d to t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f the C h u r c h a n d p e r f o r m e d ' p u b l i c p e n a n c e . E v i d e n t l y t h e r e were g r e a t m i n g l i n g s o f t e a r s o f j o y a n d of s o r r o w a n d the c o u n c i l d i s s o l v e d . New "burgh d e v o t e s a c h a p t e r t o H e n r y ' s i n v a s i o n o f I r e l a n d , a n d we n o t e w i t h i n t e r e s t t h e a b s e n c e o f any r e -f e r e n c e t o t h e p a p a l b u l l L a n d a b i l i t e r . However t h i s i s e v e n w e a k e r t h a n n e g a t i v e e v i d e n c e u s u a l l y i s , f o r Hew-. b u r g h r a r e l y q u o t e s d i r e c t f r o m documents and has i n c l u d e d no s i n g l e b u l l . He g i v e s i n f u l l 1 the g e n e r a l e p i s t l e o f G r e g o r y V I I I c o n c e r n i n g t h e a f f a i r s of t h e kingdom of J e r u s a l e m i n H87. C o p i e s o f t h i s would i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y p be sent t o a l l c a t h e d r a l s and a b b e y s . A g a i n he quotes v e r b a t i m the s t a t u t e s of r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e c r u s a d e r s as o r d a i n e d by t h e pope i n 1188 w i t h t h e c onsent of a c o u n c i l composed o f t h e k i n g s of F r a n c e and E n g l a n d w i t h t h e i r a r c h b i s h o p s , b i s h o p s and b a r o n s . T h i s a l s o would most l i k e l y be c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e agency of t h e c h u r c h e s f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h o s e p r o p o s i n g to go t o P a l e s t i n e , and i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e f o r t h e f u r t h e r r e a s o n that i t a u t h o r i s e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e S a l a d i n t i t h e from a l l 1. I b i d . i . 2 6 7 . 2. I b i d . I . 2 7 3 . - 2 1 1 -wlio d i d not t a k e t h e c r o s s . T h e s e t h e n w o u l d most n a t u r a l l y he known to l e w b u r g h and c o p i e s w o u l d he a v a i l a b l e The o n l y o n e , t h a t c a n n o t , he a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h i s way i s a l e t t e r 1 f r o m Pope L u c i u s I I I t o K i n g H e n r y I I i n 1184. E v e n t h i s , may he e x p l a i n e d i n much the same way f o r though i t i s i n t h e f o r m o f a p r i v a t e l e t t e r i t c o n c e r n s t h e m i s s i o n , of H e r a c l i u s p a t r i a r c h of J e r u s a l e m who came t o E n g l a n d f o r h e l p . The c o n t r a s t between Hewburgh a n d D i c e t o i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . Had L a n d a b i l i t e r been m i s s i n g from D i c e t o we w o u l d have b e e n j u s t i f i e d i n a s s u m i n g t h a t i t was a l a t e r f o r g e r y or a t l e a s t i s s u e d a f t e r the e v e n t . Ho such c o n c l u s i o n i s j u s t i f i e d i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e . D i c e t o p l a c e s 2 t h e b u l l i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h i s f i r s t men-t i o n o f I r e l a n d and t h o u g h he does not s a y t h a t i t was the r e a s o n f o r H e n r y ' s i n v a s i o n he does make out t h a t armed w i t h t h i s H e n r y f e l t t h a t he c o u l d go ahead w i t h h i s p r o -'•7 4 p o s e d a t t a c k , Hewburgh gives-? .other r e a s o n s . He opens w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i s l a n d w h i c h shows a v e r y modern I r e l a n d : 1. I b i d . i . 245 "to 247. 2. D i c e t o I . 5 0 0 . 3 . Hewh. i . 167., 4,. I b i d . 1... I 6 3 . -212-" I r e l a n d i s , as we have h e a r d the second among the i s l a n d s f o r s i z e a f t e r t h e g r e a t e r B r i t a i n , hut as the v e n e r a b l e Bede s a y s , i t i s much more e x c e l l e n t f o r c l e a r n e s s a n d h e a l t h f u l n e s s o f i t s c l i m a t e , e s p e c i a l l y a b o u n d i n g i n g r a i n l a n d s and f i s h e r i e s , and s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o v i d e d w i t h p l o u g h l a n d s , i f the i n d u s t r y o f t h e good c u l t i v a t o r be n o t w a n t i n g ; hut i t has a p e o p l e u n c u l t u r e d but b a r b a r o u s i n c u s t o m s , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y u n s k i l l e d i n l a w s and d i s c i p l i n e and l a z y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d much p r e f e r r i n g t o 1 i ve on m i l k r a t h e r t h a n b r e a d . But i t has t h i s s i n g u l a r p r i v i l e g e and endowment f r o m n a t u r e o v e r a l l o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t i t p r o -d u c e s n e i t h e r any a n i m a l o f t h e c h a s e n o r any h a r m f u l r e p t i l e . " T u r n i n g t o i t s h i s t o r y he r e m a r k s t h a t B r i t a i n has b e e n s e i z e d , f i r s t by t h e Romans, t h e n by t h e Germans, n e x t by the Danes and l a s t l y by t h e l o r m a n s , w h i l e I r e l a n d h a d n e v e r s u f f e r e d c a p t u r e n o r been s u b j e c t to a f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t y u n t i l t h e y e a r I I 7 I . 1 The manner i n w h i c h he q u o t e s the y e a r i s t y p i c a l o f h i s s t y l e : " . . . . u s q u e a d annum a p a r t u V i r g i n i s m i l l e s i m u m c e n t e s i m u m septuagesimum primum, q u i f u i t r e g i s A n g l o r u m H e n r i c i s e c u n d i o c t a v u s d e c i m u s . " ^He a d d s t h a t when t h e B r i t o n s c l a i m t h a t the i s l a n d was s u b j e c t t o A r t h u r i t was a p u r e f a b l e , i n v e n t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f l y i n g b o l d l y and f r e e l y . I r e l a n d was d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l kingdoms b y custom w h i c h were c o n s t a n t l y t o r n by d i s s e n s i o n s ; a n d w h i l e t h e y - 2 1 3 -knew nothing of f o r e i g n wars t h e y made up f o r i t by the mutual s l a u g h t e r by which they t o r e out t h e i r own v i t a l s m i s e r a b l y . Now i t happened t h a t a c e r t a i n k i n g o f t h a t i s l a n d 1 was being pressed e x c e s s i v e l y by h i s neighbours and he was l o s i n g s t r e n g t h through d e s e r t i o n s , s o he formed a p l a n , and sent h i s son to England to f e t c h m i l i t a r y men and vigorous youth, Inducing them w i t h the hope of abundant p i l l a g e . These new a r r i v a l s seem to have h e s i t a t e d at f i r s t but f i n a l l y t hey changed and a t t a c k e d the I r i s h and de-f e a t e d them. The k i n g rewarded them so l i b e r a l l y t h a t t h e y decided t o f o r g e t t h e i r n a t i v e land and to s e t t l e i n I r e l a n d . But t h e f i e r c e I r i s h grew so troublesome t h a t they sent to England f o r reinforcements f o r t h e i r small number, and because they were sheep w i t h o u t a shepherd they sought a l e a d e r and found one i n the person of the noble and powerful e a r l - R i c h a r d (of Pembroke). K i n g Henry, on hearing o f the completeness of Richard's arrangements and of the power of h i s e x p e d i t i o n forbade i t , but the e a r l ignored t h i s and s a i l e d f o r D u b l i n . This i s a famous seaport and i n commerce and provender trade r i v a l s . our own London. The e a r l to ok i t by storm i n August, 1171. 1. I b i d . i . 169« . , -214-He e n t e r e d a n a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e k i n g and m a r r i e d h i 3 d a u g h t e r . H e n r y s e i s e d h i s E n g l i s h e s t a t e s and f o r b a d e t h e s e n d i n g of s u p p l i e s . T h i s f o r c e d R i c h a r d to s u r r e n d e r h i s c o n q u e s t s to t h e k i n g , but he e v i d e n t l y s t a y e d i n I r e l a n d . where he d i e d i n H 7 7 . A s h o r t t i m e a f t e r w a r d s H e n r y v i s i t e d I r e l a n d . Hew b a r g h now t a k e s up t h e s t o r y of t h e r e b e l l i o n of H e n r y ? s sons a g a i n s t t h e i r f a t h e r , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e younger H e n r y i n H 7 3 . T h i s was t h e c a u s e of e m b r o i l i n g him w i t h L o u i s ¥11 o f F r a n c e i n a q u a r r e l t h a t was t o grow more b i t t e r a n d was t o c u l m i n a t e i n t h e i m p l a c a b l e e n m i t y of P h i l i p A u g u s t u s and H e n r y ' s s u b m i s s i o n and d e a t h . 1 He a s s i g n s as t h e r e a s o n f o r the young k i n g ' s f l i g h t t o F r a n c 9 , t h e a n g e r o f the p r i n c e a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r ' s r e f u s a l t o make h i m j o i n t k i n g i n f a c t . T h i s most l i k e l y had an i n f l u e n c e on t h e y o u n g e r H e n r y , b u t Hew burgh e i t h e r d i d n o t know t h a t K i n g H e n r y had s u g g e s t e d t a k i n g p a r t o f Anjou f r o m H e n r y a n d g i v i n g i t to G e o f f r e y , or e l s e t h e c h r o n i c l e r m i s s e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e p r o p o s a l i n t h e f l i g h t o f H e n r y t h e s o n . From t h e f a c t t h a t he do es t r y to e x t r a c t t h e most h e c a n f r o m t h e s t o r y b e f o r e him we are i n c l i n e d t o say t h a t t h e r e s t i s o m i t t e d because Sew b u r g h d i d n o t know, a n d n o t t h a t he d i d not u n d e r s t a n d . 1. I b i d . , 1 7 0 . "215" Henry the Younger s t i r r e d 1 up h i s b r o t h e r s , w i t h the connivance, i t was s a i d , of t h e i r mother, and won them over. These three w i t h L o u i s were j o i n e d by the Count o f Flanders who seems to have j o i n e d f o r reasons of f r i e n d s h i p f o r L o u i s r a t h e r than enmity f o r Henry. Then many powerful nobles both i n England and on the Continent, s t i r r e d up by specious promises defected from t h e f a t h e r and j o i n e d the,, son, amongst whom were the e a r l s of L e i c e s t e r and Chester, Hugh Bigod, Ralph de Fougeres and many o t h e r s . To these was added the f e r o c i o u s k i n g of Scots, lewburgh f o l l o w s the campaigns i n France and England. I n France Henry the E l d e r found h i m s e l f a t t a c k e d at V e r n e u i l , Aumale and Chateau-leuf. The Count of Flanders withdrew and Henry was able to concentrate h i s a t t a c k on L o u i s . The French nobles decided to withdraw and the f o r c e s o f King Henry occupied the ground. Almost immediately r e b e l l i o n broke out i n B r i t t a n y and re b e l s s e i z e d the town of L o l . 2 Henry's f o r c e s captured the town and many r e b e l s surrendered. Among these were the E a r l of Chester and Ralph de Fougeres. Some o f these were k i l l e d , others were imprisoned f o r . a time, and the 1 . I b i d . i . 1 7 1 , 2. I b i d . i . 176. -21.6-two named, h a v i n g g i v e n s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r f i d e l i t y t o t h e Icing, e a r n e d t h e i r f r e e d o m . W h i l e s u c h t h i n g s were g o i n g on i n F r a n c e s i m i l a r t h i n g s were t a l c i n g p l a c e i n E n g l a n d . The E a r l o f L e i c e s t e r , who was t h e f i r s t t o d e f e c t f r o m t h e Icing, l e d o t h e r s a s t r a y by h i s w i c k e d e x a m p l e . R i c h a r d de L u c y , who was i n command o f E n g l a n d , b r o u g h t a n army to b e s i e g e t h e town o f L e i c e s t e r . The town was c a p t u r e d and b u r n e d but he f a i l e d t o s t o r m t h e c a s t l e b e f o r e more u r g e n t m a t t e r s came up and he abandoned t h e s i e g e . The K i n g o f S c o t s , t a k i n g a d -v a n t a g e o f H e n r y ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l o r m a n d y i n v a d e d E n g l i s h t e r r i t o r y , l a i d s i e g e to C a r l i s l e and l a i d w a s t e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y . We see W i l l i a m t h e s t y l i s t a t t h i s 1 p o i n t . He s a y s : P o r r o r e x S c o t t o r u m , . . , . cum g e n t i s b a r b a r a e e t s i t i e n t i s s a n g u i n e m i m m a n i s s i m i s c o p i i s Anglorum f i n e s i n g r e s s u s c i v i t a t e m C a r d u l i e n s e m o b s i d i o n e c i r c u m d e d i t , totamque a d j a c e n t em p r o v i n c i a m c a e d i b u s e t r a p i n i s f o e d a v i t . S i n c e he has r e f e r r e d t o t h e army as a b a r b a r o u s p e o p l e a n d t h i r s t i n g f o r b l o o d i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say whether he means h u g e , u n w i e l d y f o r c e s or f i e r c e , " i m m a n i s s i m i s " may be e i t h e r . We have n o t e d a l r e a d y h i s f o n d n e s s f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e S c o t s as f i e r c e , b l o o d y or u n r u l y . However de L u c y 1. I b i d . i . I 7 7 . c o m p e l l e d M m t o r a i s e t h e s i e g e and he r e t i r e d a c r o s s N o r t h u m b r i a w h i c h he l a i d w a s t e . Hews f r o m . t h e S o u t h u r g e d the j u s t i c i a r t o r e t i r e . We w i l l h e r e f o l l o w H e w b u r g h ' s a c c o u n t : F o r the E a r l of L e i c e s t e r w i t h a h o s t i l e f l e e t f r o m F l a n d e r s d i r e c t e d h i s c o u r s e t o w a r d s E a s t A n g l i a w i t h h i s c o n f e d e r a t e , Hugh B i g o d , a shrewd and p o w e r f u l man, who came a s h o r e a t the same • p l a c e a s h o r t t i m e a f t e r w a r d s , w i t h t h e army he h a d b r o u g h t . Soon t h i s army under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Hugo and h i s a l l y o v e r r a n t h e c i t y o f N o r w i c h ! They s a c k e d t h e c i t y a n d r e t u r n e d w i t h t h e i r b o o t y t o t h e camp. T h e y t r i e d to do t h e same t h i n g a t Dunwich, but the i n h a b i t a n t s were b e t t e r p r e p a r e d and t h e y were f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w empty h a n d e d . Hugh t h e n d e c l a r e d h i s i n t e n t i o n o f m a r c h i n g on L e i c e s t e r ; he f e l t g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e f o r he had e i g h t y c h o s e n k n i g h t s and f o u r or f i v e t h o u s a n d f o o t -s o l d i e r s . The k i n g ' s n o b l e s a w a i t e d h i m a t S t . E d m u n d ' s . Hugh d i s p o s e d h i s f o r c e s s k i l f u l l y and j o i n e d b a t t l e f i e r c e l y . V i c t o r y l a y w i t h t h e k i n g ' s t r o o p s . Hugh and -h i s w i f e , "a woman o f v e r y a c t i v e m i n d " , were t a k e n and a l m o s t a l l t h e h o r s e m e n . A l m o s t a l l the f o o t - s o l d i e r s p e r i s h e d . The m a r g i n g i v e s Fornham S t . G e n i v e v e as the s i t e o f t h i s b a t t l e . T h i s l i e s about t h r e e m i l e s n o r t h o f B u r y S t . Edmund's on t h e r o a d t o N o r w i c h . 1. I b i d . i . I 7 8 . -218-The v a r i o u s a c c o u n t s o f t h i s i n c i d e n t c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r somewhat. R o b e r t de Monte or T o r i g n i speaks"1* as i f t h e b a t t l e o c c u r r e d on the o c c a s i o n o f L e i c e s t e r ' s f i r s t r e b e l l i o u s move. He s a y s t h a t R o b e r t o f L e i c e s t e r , w i s h i n g to d i s t u r b the k i n g d o m , s a i l e d to E n g l a n d w i t h h i s w i f e and Hugh o f C h a t e a u n e u f , h i s c o u s i n , and a l s o many s o l d i e r s , b u t t h e y were I n t e r c e p t e d and c a p t u r e d a t B u r y , and many F l e m i s h were c a p t u r e d or k i l l e d . Roger of Wendover makes no m e n t i o n o f t h e e a r l u n t i l a f t e r t h e s i e g e o f L e i c e s t e r . But when he comes t o t h e E a s t A n g l i a n 2 c a m p a i g n he' s a y s t h a t L e i c e s t e r and h i s w i f e , b e i n g about to r e t u r n to E n g l a n d s e t s a i l and l a n d e d a t W a l t o n i n . S u f f o i k on September 2 9 , II73. He b e s i e g e d the c a s t l e o f t h a t town but p r o f i t e d b y i t not a t a l l . M a r c h i n g t h e n c e he l a i d s i e g e t o t h e c a s t l e o f Hagenet on t h e 13th of O c t o b e r . He c a p t u r e d a n d b u r n e d i t and p u t t h i r t y k n i g h t s to r a n s o m . T h e n t h e y d e c i d e d t o t u r n b a c k t o Fremingeham and t o p r o c e e d t o w a r d s L e i c e s t e r . But t h e y met the f o r c e s o f t h e k i n g a t S t . E d m u n d ' s , were d e f e a t e d and c a p t u r e d on O c t o b e r 16. I n p a s s i n g we n o t e t h a t Wendover m e n t i o n s Hugh de 1. C h r o n i c a , R o b e r t i . R . S . V o l . I V , p p . 260, 26l. 2. W e n d o v e r . R . S . I . 95. - 2 1 9 -P u i s e t as h e l p i n g W i l l i a m , Icing of S o o t s , and c e r t a i n l y -n o t h e l p i n g de L u c y at a l l . ..; R a l p h de D i c e t o a g r e e s 1 w i t h Wendover? s d a t e s a n d f a c t s . M i s s N o r g a t e a c c e p t s t h i s , 2 f o l l o w s D i c e t o ? s a c c o u n t a n d makes no m e n t i o n o f N o r w i c h . S i r James Ramsay a c c e p t s i t w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s , m e n t i o n i n g t h a t L e i c e s t e r h a d b e e n p r e s e n t a t the C o u n c i l o f G i s o r s f o u r days p r e v i o u s l y , l e w -burgh-' s d a t e i s O c t o b e r 17, w h i c h a g r e e s w i t h D i c e t o ' s . The a t t a c k s on H a r w i c h a n d Dunwieh a r e m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n Newburgh. He g i v e s no d a t e f o r t h e s e , and i t seems a b s u r d t o i m a g i n e t h a t R o b e r t w o u l d have marched n o r t h as f a r a s N o r w i c h , p a s s i n g D u n w i c h on h i s way, t h e n r e t u r n i n g t o the l a t t e r and t h e n h e a d i n g west t o w a r d s S t . Edmund's where he knew t h e k i n g ' s t r o o p s l a y . I t i s not i m p o s s i b l e t h at he s h o u l d have marched so f a r n o r t h i n o r d e r t o s k i r t S t . E d m u n d ' s ; he a l s o h a d t h e p r o b l e m o f b r i n g i n g h i s army a c r o s s t h e marshy v a l l e y of t h e Ouse and t h e f e n s o f C a m b r i d g e s h i r e . But i f s u c c e s s f u l he w o u l d t h e n have a d i r e c t p a t h t o L e i c e s t e r . Two f a c t o r s are a g a i n s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s - - t i m e and t h e c o m p l e t e s i l e n c e o f a l l o t h e r , c h r o n i c l e r s . The o n l y o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h at he l e f t t h e p a r t y of; t h e E a r l of C h e s t e r to c a r r y on t h e 1. D i c e t o . i . 377. 2. N o r g a t e E n g l a n d u n d e r t h e A n g e v i n K i n g s , i i . 1 4 9 . -220-• o p e r a t i ons a g a i n s t V e r n e u i l and c r o s s e d to England. F i n d i n g de Lucy too w a t c h f u l he r e t u r n e d to France, but l e a r n i n g that W i l l i a m of Scots was i n v a d i n g from the northwest, he decided to make another attempt, as he would by no?/ have heard of de Lucy's move a g a i n s t the c i t y of L e i c e s t e r , and hence, as Wendover says, he r e t u r n e d t o England. W i l l i a m r e t u r n e d and ravaged the North. Here we f i n d C-eoffrey, Rosamund's son, b i s h o p - e l e c t of L i n c o l n , showing h i m s e l f a true son of Henry and f i g h t i n g 1 s u c c e s s f u l l y a g a i n s t the Scots and d e f e c t i n g barons. w e are given a "purple patch" i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of S c o t t i s h a t r o c i t i e s i n Northumbria. Then the k i n g sat down t o watch Alnwick. The Y o r k s h i r e barons, w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y , assembled f o r c e s to meet him and advanced on Alnwick. They were hampered by f o g arid were d i s c u s s i n g retirement when Bernardde B a l i o l , a noble and high minded man, spoke up. "Withdraw," s a i d he, "whoever wishes, but as f o r me I w i l l go forward, even i f no one f o l l o w s , and I w i l l not be branded w i t h a p e r p e t u a l s t a i n . " With t h a t they advanced, and, the fog suddenly l i f t i n g , they found themselves at close quarters w i t h the enemy. In the ensuing f i g h t the E n g l i s h were v i c t o r i o u s ; W i l l i a m was captured and taken t o 1. Newb. i . 1 8 2 . - 2 2 1 - • Richmond as a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d . K i n g H e n r y c r o s s e d from Normandy and went s t r a i g h t t o C a n t e r b u r y t o do p e n a n c e , t h e n s e n t h i s army a g a i n s t Hugh B i g o d . P e r h a p s i t was t h e good news f r o m A l n w i c k t h a t i n d u c e d h i m l a t e r t o d e a l l e n i e n t l y w i t h t h i s t r a i t o r . T t was a m i s t a k e , a n d one c a n n o t h e l p f e e l i n g a s we r e a d t h i s and o f H e n r y ' s d e a l i n g s w i t h h i s own r e b e l l i o u s sons t h a t t h e r e was a s t r a i n , however s l i g h t , of weakness i n t h i s w o n d e r f u l c h a r a c t e r * W h i l e H e n r y was i n E n g l a n d L o u i s a n d the Count of F l a n d e r s w i t h t h e young H e n r y made a j o i n t a t t a c k on Rouen. The c i t y was n a t u r a l l y s t r o n g s o t h a t t h o u g h as g r e a t a n army a s h a d b e e n s e e n i n Europe f o r v e r y many y e a r s was brought a g a i n s t i t , y e t t h e y c o u l d o n l y employ a t h i r d p a r t of i t i n t h e s i e g e , a n d a b r i d g e a c r o s s the r i v e r gave r e a d y a c c e s s t o a n d from t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y , so t h a t t h e d e f e n d e r s were a b l e t o b r i n g i n abundant s u p p l i e s o f e v e r y t h i n g n e e d f u l . The a t t a c k e r s d i v i d e d t h e i r f o r c e s i n t o r e l i e f s so as to a l l o w t h e d e f e n d e r s no r e s p i t e from a t t a c k by day or b y n i g h t . The d e f e n d e r s a d o p t e d s i m i l a r t a c t i c s a n d were a b l e t o h o l d o u t . On A u g u s t 1 0 t h , 1174, L o u i s d e c l a r e d a t r u c e i n h o n o u r o f the f e a s t o f S t . L a w r e n c e . The c i t i z e n s e n j o y e d t h e r e s t as h a p p i l y as p o s s i b l e . , Young a n d o l d , boys a n d g i r l s , j o i n e d i n ma Icing ~222~ the c i t y r i n g - w i t h s o n g , A h a n d o f s o l d i e r s h e l d a t o u r n a -ment on t h e h a n k o f t h e r i v e r o u t s i d e t h e c i t y . T h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i s g i v e n 1 i n d i r e c t s p e e c h . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t , w h i l e t h e s e p e o p l e were e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n s i d e and- o u t s i d e t h e c i t y , t h e F r e n c h s o l d i e r s s h o u l d q u i e t l y t a k e t h e i r a r m s , s u d d e n l y p l a n t s c a l i n g l a d d e r s a g a i n s t the w a l l s and s e i z e e v e r y t h i n g o f v a l u e . But t h e k i n g s a i d , "Be i t f a r f r o m me t o b l a c k e n a f a i r kingdom w i t h t h i s s t a i n . You must know t h a t I have t h i s d a y g r a n t e d a r e s p i t e i n h o n o u r o f t h e most h o l y L a w r e n c e . n Then t o a l l h i s n o b l e s who were p r e s e n t , l i n g e r i n g about and c h a t t i n g , "Whether by g u i l e o r v i r t u e , who would, e n q u i r e i n t h e c a s e of a n enemy?", he a t l e n g t h c o n s e n t e d . T h i s q u o t a t i o n from A e n e i d Book I I i s the s e c o n d c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n he u s e s i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t , the p r e v i o u s one b e i n g f r o m Horace»s s e c o n d E p i s t l e . Some p r i e s t s , who were k e e p i n g w a t c h , gave a n a l a r m . E v e r y o n e r u s h e d t o t h e d e f e n c e w i t h s u r p r i s i n g s p e e d . " C o n f l i c t u s super, murum a c e r r i m u s g e r i t u r j a c u l i s v a c a n t ! b u s , arma e t c o r p o r a c o l l i d u n t u r m u l t i s u t r i n q u e s a n g u i s e f f u n d i t u r « " I f one t h o u g h t t h a t the l i n e from " V e r g i l was c u l l e d from 1. I b i d , i . 1 9 2 . -22?-a n o t h e r c h r o n i c l e , the above q u o t a t i o n s h o u l d a s s u r e u s t h a t lew b u r g h h a d r e a d t h e poem f o r h i m s e l f , l i g h t p u t a n e n d t o t h e f i g h t i n g a n d . t h e enemy, h a v i n g s u f f e r e d heavy-l o s s e s , r e t u r n e d t o camp. The Icing, good s p o r tI put t h e blame on t h e F l e m i s h c o u n t . H e n r y c r u s h e d t h e r e b e l l i o n i n c e n t r a l E n g l a n d and r e t u r n e d to l o r m a n d y w i t h g r e a t f o r c e s , i n c l u d i n g some W e l s h t r o o p s , . He a r r i v e d two days a f t e r t h e t r e a c h e r o u s a t t a c k . The F r e n c h were amazed a t h i s s u d d e n and t r i u m p h a n t r e t u r n o f the k i n g a n d a t t h e number a n d d i s t i n c t i o n o f h i s c a p t i v e s . He e n t e r e d Rouen w i t h s o l e m n p r o c e s s i o n , a n d two d a y s l a t e r t h e s i e g e was a b a n d o n e d . A month l a t e r peace was c o n c l u d e d w i t h L o u i s , H e n r y was r e c o n c i l e d t o h i s two sons a n d t h e E n g l i s h r e b e l b a r o n s were r e l e a s e d , t h e i r g o o d s and h o n o u r s b e i n g r e s t o r e d . O n l y the K i n g of S c o t s was h e l d , and he was r e l e a s e d w i t h c a r e f u l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r h o s t a g e s s h o r t l y a f t e r . E a r l y i n t h e new y e a r , I I 7 5 , a g a t h e r i n g o f a l l t h e n o b l e s was h e l d a t Y o r k . The most i m p o r t a n t agendum was t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f K i n g W i l l i a m , w h i c h i s t h u s r e p o r t e d : I p s e QUOque r e x S c o t t o r u m coram u n i v e r s a raulti-t u d i n e n o b i l i u m u t r i u s q u e r e g n l regem A n g l o r u m modis s o l l e m n i b u s dominum suum, seque hominem 1, I b i d * i . 198® -224-e t ffidelem e j u s d e c l a r e v i t ; e i q u e t r i a p r a e c i p u a r e g n i s u i m u n i m i n a , s c i l i c e t R o k e s b u r g , B e r e w i c , C a s t e l l u m p u e l l a r u m , l o c o obsidum t r a d i d i t . . . . e t r e x A n g l o rum t a n t o r u m operurn a t q u e s u c c e s s u u m t i t u l i s c l a r u s n o m i n a t u s e s t us que a d f i n e s t e r r a e . One wonders why E d i n b u r g h was c a l l e d C a s t e l l u m p u e l l a r u m . The k i n g o f S c o t s h i m s e l f i n t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e whole crowd o f the n o b l e s o f b o t h " k i n g d o m s i n s o l e m n f a s h i o n d e c l a r e d t h e k i n g o f E n g l a n d t o be h i s l o r d and he h i m s e l f h i s man a n d o f h i s f e a l t y , a n d i n p l a c e o f h o s t a g e s he s u r r e n d e r e d t h e t h r e e c h i e f f o r t r e s s e s o f h i s k i n g d o m , n a m e l y , R o x b u r g h , B e r w i c k and E d i n b u r g h , ; We have t r e a t e d t h i s p a r t of the c h r o n i c l e f a i r l y f u l l y because t h e r e c o r d s f o r the y e a r s 1 1 ^ 4 to H 7 4 a r e p o o r e r t h a n f o r a n y o t h e r p e r i o d t h r o u g h t h e A n j e v i n age a n d i t happens t h a t Hewburgh i s v e r y f u l l at t h i s p o i n t , g i v i n g d e t a i l s o f s e v e r a l e v e n t s t h at a r e n o t t o be found e v e n i n B e n e d i c t , The n e x t i m p o r t a n t e v e n t t h a t he n o t e s c o n c e r n s t h e E m p i r e . W i t h no p r e f a t o r y a c c o u n t o f t h e b a t t l e o f Legnano he opens a c h a p t e r on t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of pope a n d e m p e r o r , a g a i n as a s t y l i s t : I n t h e y e a r o f the d e l i v e r y o f t h e V i r g i n , I I 7 7 , and t h e e i g h t e e n t h y e a r o f t h e p o n t i f i c a t e of our l o r d pope A l e x a n d e r t h e l o n g s t a n d i n g r a g e o f t h e emperor F r e d e r i c k a g a i n s t t h e v e n e r a b l e p o n t i f f s a n k t o r e s t F o r our B l e s s e d L o r d who t o u c h e s t h e mount a ins a n d t h e y smoke o v e r -threw t h e p e r s i s t e n t one and s o f t e n e d t h e h a r d . 1. I b i d . i . 205 - 2 2 5 " So f a r lewburgh, has been i m p a r t i a l simply r e p o r t i n g events and never b e t r a y i n g h i s own sympathies even when usi n g f l o w e r y phrases. Here however he r e v e a l s c l e a r l y h i s sympathy towards Alexander, f o r he r e f e r s to the " s c h i s m a t i s t s , t o w i t O c t o v i a n , ( V i c t o r IV) who f i r s t Invaded the papacy, Guy of Cremona (Paschal I I I ) , h i s successor, who made h i m s e l f prominent i n madness, and John Strumena i s ( C a l i x t u s I I I ) , who t h i r d continued the e r r o r , these being swallowed up by the judgment of God, at l e n g t h , the emperor, being brought to reason through wise and noble.men began to t r e a t f o r peace." A conference was h e l d and peace e s t a b l i s h e d on J u l y 24. lie are not t o l d that i t took place at Venice. This i s strong language t o use i n d e s c r i b i n g two deaths which w e r e as n a t u r a l and p e a c e f u l as that of A d r i a n IV, and as f o r C a l i x t u s he con s i d e r e d h i m s e l f pope f o r a f u l l year longer and r e s i g n e d 1 i n August, I I 7 8 , t o die q u i e t l y l a t e r . The peace was c e l e b r a t e d by the c a l l i n g of the T h i r d L a t e r a n c o u n c i l , which met i n March, .1179. lev;burgh q u o t e s 2 i t s decrees i n f u l l , and as we have a l r e a d y referred, to these we w i l l pass on w i t h the s i n g l e remark on the f i r s t decree. This d e c l a r e d t h a t a two t h i r d s majority, of the sacred c o l l e g e would henceforth be r e q u i r e d to 1. Tout, Empire and Papacy, p. 263 . 2 . Hewb. i . 206 to 223. - 2 2 6 -e l e c t a pope; t h i s o b v i o u s l y being the outcome of the events ' f o l l o w i n g on the appointment of A l ex an der I I I who was e l e c t e d by a s m a l l m a j o r i t y . N O Tburgh shows great f a i r n e s s and almost t o t a l l a c k of b i a s i n h i s account of Roger, archbishop of York, whose death i n 1181 he r e c o r d s . 1 He p r a i s e s him as a s c h o l a r and a c a r e f u l a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the t e m p o r a l i t i e s . He mentions Roger's hatred of monies and p r e f e r ence f o r s e c u l a r c l e r g y , but we miss the venom of the a c i d pen of Hugh of Hunant. He contents h i m s e l f by c l o s i n g h i s r e p o r t of the s e i z u r e of Roger's t r e a s u r e by King Henry w i t h a m o r a l i s i n g r e f l e c t i o n : Thus the judgment of God was f u l f i l l e d , that others may be d e t e r r e d by h i s example, and may l e a r n from the hoarder t h a t t h e i r t r e a s u r e s are i n heaven where no t h i e f may s e i z e i t nor break i n f o r p l u n d e r . H i s o p i n i o n of the conduct of the king's sons i s c l e a r l y expressed. I n the r e p o r t of the death of the younger p Henry he says: He d e f i l e d h i s youth by an i n e x p i a b l e s t a i n , t h a t i s t o say, by an i m i t a t i o n of the most wicked Absalom, as has been set out above. Jealousy because of the c r e a t i o n of R i c h a r d as Duke of 1. I b i d , i . 22J5. 2. I b i d . i . 2 3 3 . - 2 2 7 -Acjuitaine i s given as the cause of p r i n c e Henry's r e b e l l i o n . With h i s mention of the death of R i c h a r d of Canterbury, and the t r a n s l a t i o n of Walter of Coutances from L i n c o l n , to Rouen he has brought E n g l i s h a f f a i r s up t o 118b,.... As he has an important event t o r e c o r d f o r t h a t ye a r i n I r e l a n d he r e t u r n s t o I I 7 2 where he broke o f f h i s n a r r a t i v e and devotes a chapter to c e r t a i n events i n I r e l a n d . Here we observe the r e s u l t s of h i s p l a n n i n g , and we can see t h a t he has a view of h i s t o r y . He b u i l d s by chronology, e i t h e r because w i t h h i s reading o f the c h r o n i c l e s of others he does i t as second nature or because he sees t h a t i t i s im p o s s i b l e to cut w h o l l y a d r i f t from i t , but he plans to gi v e an i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e of a man or an i n c i d e n t and he c a r r i e s out h i s ' p l a n . He opens-*- w i t h , a b r i e f resume of h i s previous r e p o r t and p i c k s up the threads w i t h Henry»s r e t u r n t o England I n .1172. John de Courcy, one of the commanders l e f t behind, decided t o invade U l s t e r . The people were urged t o r e s i s t him by C a r d i n a l V i v i a n , the l e g a t e t o Scotland, a man of good standing among the Scots, who happened t o be spending some time at Lownpatrick. The I r i s h r e s i s t e d de Courcy f i e r c e l y but the town was captured. V i v i a n moved to 1* i b i d , , i . 238 - 2 2 8 -D u b l i n where he c a l l e d a g e n e r a l c o u n c i l at w h i c h he d e -n o u n c e d t h e E n g l i s h and u r g e d r e s i s t a n c e . T h i s t o o k p l a c e i n M a r c h , 1177* de C o u r c y a n d h i s o f f i c e r s gave him the c h o i c e o f l e a v i n g t h e c o u n t r y or o f f i g h t i n g f o r I r i s h g o l d " f o r w h i c h he t h i r s t e d g r e a t l y " . T h i s l a s t c l a u s e e x p r e s s e s much t h e same o p i n i o n o f the p a p a l l e g a t e s as D i c e t o g i v e s u s . He c h o s e t o r e t u r n t o S c o t l a n d , de C o u r c y t h e n s t o r m e d A r m a g h , where t h e r e i s s a i d t o he the; c h i e f s e a t i n h o n o u r o f S t . P a t r i c k and o t h e r i n d i g e n t s a i n t s whose s a c r e d r e l i c s r e s t t h e r e , a n d he subdued t h e whole o f t h a t p r o v i n c e . The most eminent o f the E n g l i s h c h i e f s i n I r e l a n d was Hugh de l a c y . 1 On t h e d e a t h - o f E a r l R i c h a r d de C l a r e t h e k i n g made Hugh commander o f h i s p o s s e s s i o n s and a d m i n i s -t r a t o r o f h i s d o m i n i o n s w i t h f u l l e s t p o w e r s . He s o i n c r e a s e d h i s b o u n d a r i e s , h i s w e a l t h and number of men t h a t he became a s o u r c e of f e a r not o n l y t o t h e enemy but a l s o t o h i s a l l i e s t h e o t h e r n o b l e s . He seemed t o be more t h a n e q u a l t o t h e k i n g o f E n g l a n d i n I r e l a n d and he was s a i d t o have p r e p a r e d t o s e i s e the crown f o r h i m s e l f . When t h e s e t h i n g s were r e p o r t e d t o H e n r y , t h e k i n g r e c a l l e d 1. I b i d . i . 239, 2 4 0 . - 2 2 9 -liim but he i g n o r e d the command. On J u l y 2.5, 1186, he t o o k a s t r o l l i n t h e f i e l d s o u t s i d e the f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , f a r f r o m h i s a t t e n d a n t s . A y o u t h b e l o n g i n g t o t h e I r i s h a l l i e s a man s k i l l e d i n t r e a c h e r y , r e j o i c e d t o f i n d t h e l o n g -s o u g h t o p p o r t u n i t y , t h r e w . a t w o - e d g e d stone w h i c h s t r u c k h i s h e a d and k i l l e d h i m . H i s a t t e n d a n t s r u s h e d up t o t a k e v e n g e a n c e , but i n v a i n , t h e y o u t h e s c a p e d i n t o t h e n e i g h b o r i n g w o o d s . And when t h i s was a n n o u n c e d to t h e k i n g , t h e r e was g r e a t j o y t h r o u g h a l l t h e l a n d . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s I r i s h a f f a i r s assumed the more c a u t i o u s t e n o u r o f t h e i r w a y s , Hewburgh f u r n i s h e s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the C r u s a d e s a n d e v e n t s i n t h e H o l y L a n d . We have a very c o m p r e s s e d a c c o u n t 1 o f t h e F i r s t C r u s a d e and t h e c a p t u r e o o f J e r u s a l e m , a n d a f u l l e r a c c o u n t o f the Second C r u s a d e , H e r e he makes one o f t h e m i s t a k e s i n a c c u r a c y w h i c h may be compared f o r s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h h i s c o n f u s i o n o f the two i n v a s i o n s o f E a s t A n g l i a a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o , i n a s s i g n i n g as t h e c a u s e o f the f a l l o f E d e s s a the b e t r a y a l o f t h e c i t y t o t h e S a r a c e n s by a c i t i z e n t o avenge h i s d a u g h t e r on J o e e l y n , The s t o r y o f t h i s c r u s a d e i s c a r r i e d on 1 • i b i d , i , 2j?o 2. I b i d . i . 51 t o 60 , - 2 3 0 -somewhat l a t e r with, a n a c c o u n t of t h e deeds of K i n g L o u i s and t h e E m p e r o r C o n r a d - i n 1147, w i t h some i n f o r m a t i o n c o n -c e r n i n g M a n u e l Comnenus, Raymond of A n t i o c h and B a l d w i n , t i n g o f J e r u s a l e m , f h e v i s i t of H e r a c l i u s , p a t r i a r c h of J e r u s a l e m t o E n g l a n d i n 1184 c a u s e s a much more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t 2 o f a f f a i r s . The p a t r i a r c h ' s m i s s i o n was a f a i l u r e i n s p i t e o f h i s own e l o q u e n c e and a l e t t e r f r o m Pope L u c i u s I I I o The k i n g p l e a d e d h i s i n a b i l i t y to l e a v e h i s d o m i n i o n s and p r o m i s e d a sum o f money i n s t e a d , a p r o m i s e w h i c h - h e f u l f i l l e d . One p o i n t i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e Second C r u s a d e we w i l l m e n t i o n b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o the a f f a i r s o f H e n r y . The y e a r 1187 was a d a r k one f o r C h r i s t i a n P a l e s t i n e , Hewburgh p a u s e s i n h i s n a r r a t i v e t o remark on t h e c a p t u r e o f J e r u s a l e m . He p l a c e s ^ t h e blame f o r t h i s on t h e s i n f u l n e s s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n s and c o u p l e s a c t i o n and c o n -sequence i n t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y o f t h e r e c e p t i o n and r e j e c t i o n o f t h e C r u s a d e r s by t h e S a c r e d S o i l . And w h i l e h i s s t y l e 1. I b i d . i . 65 t o 68. 2. I b i d . 240 t o 247 a n d 249 t o 2 7 4 , 3 . I b i d . i . 249 to 253* p a r t a k e s l a r g e l y o f t h e n a t u r e o f a j e r e m i a d , and though we t o d a y w o u l d p e r h a p s i n t e r p r e t t h i n g s on a more p h y s i c a l or a t l e a s t n o n - s p i r i t u a l b a s i s , i t r e m a i n s t h a t we h e r e see a c h r o n i c l e r p a u s i n g i n n a r r a t i v e t o a n a l y z e and i n t e r p r e t t h e e v e n t s o f w h i c h he i s a s p e c t a t o r . R e c o r d i n g has t a k e n a s t e p f o r w a r d towards c r i t i c a l h i s t o r y . T h a t H e n r y ' s f e a r s were w e l l g r o u n d e d i s shown by t h e f a c t t h a t f r e s h t r o u b l e broke o u t - between him and h i s i n v e t e r a t e enemy P h i l i p A u g u s t u s b e f o r e H e r a c l i u s l e f t E n g l a n d . The F r e n c h i n v a d e d H e n r y ' s t e r r i t o r y and H e n r y i m m e d i a t e l y c r o s s e d * - to F r a n c e . A p a r l e y f a i l e d t o s e c u r e p e a c e a n d d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s R i c h a r d d e s e r t e d h i s f a t h e r a n d , w i t h many o f t h e n o b l e s and P r i n c e J o h n , j o i n e d P h i l i p . Newburgh r e c o u n t s , 3 w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e d r a m a t i c e f f e c t and v e r y i m p r e s s i v e s t y l e , t h e c a p t u r e and b u r n i n g o f Le M a n s , t h e s t o r m i n g o f T o u r s and the s u d d e n d e a t h of t h e k i n g a t C l i m o n . W h i l e t h i s a c c o u n t l a c k s t h e i n t i m a t e d e t a i l o f H o v e d e n , y e t t h e r e i s a note o f p a t h o s i n t h e m e n t i o n o f h i s d e a t h , a n d a g r e a t n o b i l i t y , a n d d i g n i t y i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b u r i a l I n t h e b e a u t i f u l m o n a s t e r y o f F o n t e v r a n d , t h e r e t o a w a i t i n h i s p l a c e o f r e p o s e h i s f i n a l r e s u r r e c t i o n . 1. I b i d . i . 247. 2. I b i d , i . 276. 3« I b i d . i . 278. -232™ T h e r e i s no venom or a c i d i n t h e pen w i t h w h i c h h e s k e t c h e s Henry»s c h a r a c t e r . 1 He g r a c e d the t h r o n e a n d h o n o u r e d t h e k i n g d o m . Of h i s m o r a l s Hew burgh s p e a k s v e r y b r i e f l y a n d l a y s a l m o s t , a l l t h e blame on h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , H e n r y I , but he may mean W i l l i a m I , h i s g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s n o t the n o t e o f c o n d e m n a t i o n t h a t one might have e x p e c t e d f r o m one who p r a i s e d 2 t h e c h a s t i t y o f M a l c o l m I T o f S c o t l a n d s o h i g h l y . The f o r e s t laws he r e g a r d s a s h a r s h b u t g i v e s H e n r y I I c r e d i t f o r h a v i n g made them m i l d e r t h a n t h o s e o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r . A g a i n , he i s n o t s e v e r e i n s p e a k i n g o f H e n r y ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e J e w s . "He f a v o u r e d them more than was r i g h t . " But f o r a C h r i s t i a n monk, s p e a k i n g o f the Jews i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , " J u s t u s , gens p e r f i d a , C h r i s t i a n i s I n i m i c a l a r e n o t h a r d words when he spoke o f the f o r e s t laws as " f e r a e 5 1 . I t may be t h a t a man, who h a d e x p e r i e n c e d Longchamp's e x a c t i o n s on b e h a l f o f R i c h a r d I , w o u l d hence r e g a r d H e n r y ' s t a x a t i o n a s l i g h t , b u t Hewburgh i s e x t r e m e l y f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e l a t t e r when he s a y s t h a t Henry was a l i t t l e immoderate i n h i s demands f o r money a n d t h a t a f t e r a l l he c a n be j u s t i f i e d . However he i s n o t e x c u s e d so 1. I b i d . i . 77 a n d 78 . 2 . I b i d . i . 280 t o 2 8 3 . -233-. f r e e l y f o r h i s c o n f i s c a t i o n o f t h e r e v e n u e s of v a c a n t s e e s * The u n h a p p y r e l a t i o n s o f H e n r y w i t h h i s sons i s a t t r i -b u t e d t o h i s h a v i n g m a r r i e d E l e a n o r 9 the d i v o r c e d w i f e of L o u i s V i l o f F r a n c e a n d h i s o t h e r m i s f o r t u n e s i n p a r t a t l e a s t t o h i s n o t h a v i n g r e p e n t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r h i s most u n f o r t u n a t e s e v e r i t y t o a r c h b i s h o p Thomas* He was most z e a l o u s f o r p u b l i c p e a c e , b r o u g h t c u l p r i t s to p u n i s h m e n t , he was t h e d e f e n d e r o f t h e C h u r c h a n d t h e p r e s e r v e r o f h e r p r i v i l e g e s . He had s p e c i a l c a r e f o r t h e o r p h a n s , t h e widows a n d t h e p o o r , and s p e n t l a v i s h l y on n o t e d c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s . He s t opped t h e a n c i e n t a n d inhuman c u s t o m of w r e c k i n g s h i p s . He n e v e r imposed, heavy t a x e s e i t h e r i n England, o r on t h e C o n t i n e n t u n t i l the t i m e o f t h e S a l a d i n t i t h e . He h a t e d b l o o d y d i s p u t e s and k i l l i n g s o f men a n d s p e n t money f r e e l y t o s e c u r e p e a c e . The w i c k e d r e v i l e d h i m b u t u n h a p p y e x p e r i e n c e s l a t e r made h i s memory e x c e l l e n t . : W i t h a l i t e r a r y f l o u r i s h Hewburgh i n t r o d u c e s R i c h a r d m e n t i o n i n g t h e j o y f u l r e c e p t i o n t e n d e r e d him by n o b l e s a n d commons. He o n l y o f t h e c h r o n i c l e r s h e r e t r e a t e d m e n t i o n s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e day c h o s e n f o r t h e c o r o n a t i o n . T h i s was Sunday, September 3, a u d i e s A e g y p t i a c u s , p r o n o u n c e d 1. I b i d . I. 294 by those of former times to be a day of i l l omen, when every important matter of bus i n e s s should be postponed,, I t : i s t a n t a l i s i n g t o r e f l e c t t h a t Few burgh p o s s i b l y knew the r e a s o n f o r t h e c h o i c e when he was penning the words, or a t l e a s t had heard p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of i t , but t e l l s us n o t h i n g . Was i t c a r e l e s s n e s s , or d e l i b e r a t e choice? Haste i t was not, f o r R i c h a r d had been I n England f o r some ti m e , postponing h i s c o r o n a t i o n , w h i l e h i s mother c a r r i e d out .what we would c a l l today a l i t t l e propaganda. Hewburgh g i v e s a long and d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t 1 of the a t t a c k on the Jews i n Lond on. Strangely enough he do es not a s c r i b e i t t o the choice o f an unlucky date. On the c o n t r a r y i t i s a p r o p h e t i c s i g n t h a t R i chard i s t o bear the cross a g a i n s t , t h e enemies of C h r i s t v The k i n g ?;as angry, and annoyed that he could not punish so great a 'crowd,, e s p e c i a l l y as i t numbered among i t members o f almost a l l the noble f a m i l i e s who had come to atten d h i s ' coronation.., He sent Ranulf de G l a n v i l l e t o q u e l l i t but i n v a i n . Hew burgh does not t e l l us how Richard got out o f h i s dilemma, D i c e t o , who does not dra?/ a t t e n t i o n to the problem, mentions that the k i n g got out of i t by puni s h i n g some Jews on the charge of damaging C h r i s t i a n p r o p e r t y . There i s no s i g n t h a t e i t h e r k i n g or c h r o n i c l e r 1 . I b i d . i , 294 to 299» -23 5~ saw the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the I n c i d e n t or i t s probable con-sequences , or considered, i t e i t h e r humanly or e t e r n a l l y wrong, - • - -Newburgh does s e e , 1 however, that Richard's over-generous treatment o f John l e d to the l a t t e r ' s e n t e r -t a i n i n g treacherous, d e s i g n s . I t was a p i t y that the Icing ;could not t r e a t . h i s . h a l f - b r o t h e r , Geoffrey, as generously, Henry's dying w i s h was to see h i s o n l y f a i t h f u l son i n s t a l l e d i n •..York, "Phis was c a r r i e d out, not because of the f a t h e r ' s . w i s h , but because Rich a r d saw i n Geoffrey an almost bottomless purse and he s t a r t e d t h e i r j o i n t c a r e e r s as he f i n i s h e d them by e x t r a c t i n g payment f o r t h e honour, Ranulf de G l a n v i l l e r e s i g n e d the j u s t i c i a r s h i p i n order to go on a crusade and i n September, 118?, Hugh de 2 P u i s e t was appointed i n h i s p l a c e , This appointment was not to TJewburgh^s l i k i n g , and he has much t o say about people choosing to serve God and Mammon. Then Rich a r d proceeded t o / s e l l honours and o f f i c e s , and o f f e r e d ^ london for. s a l e i f he c o u l d f i n d a purchaser* On December 1 , . 1 1 8 9 , he q u i t t e d England f o r Normandy on the f i r s t stage of t h a t strange and romantic journey, that was to cost h i s people dear, but was to w r i t e h i s name la r g e on the 1. I b i d , i , 302. 2* I b i d , I , 303, 3« I b i d * i . 306, pages 1 of Time* • Once again lew burgh bewails the wickedness' , of. de P u i s e t * •. T h i s t ime. i t Is because he bought the earldom of l o r thumb e r l and. He quotes I s a i a h 5.8. "Woe onto them tha t j o i n house to house t h a t l a y f i e l d t o f i e l d : even s o they that j o i n earldom to b i s h o p r i c A s he does not a t t a c k ; R i c h a r d along t h i s l i n e , one can o n l y suppose t h a t e i t h e r Richard's benefactions t o abbeys, or the f a c t that he was not ;a churchman s a v e d him f r o m such, or, what i s much more l i k e l y , t hat the abbey o f lew burgh b e i n g , w i t h i n - ' the j u r i s d i e t i o n of York, W i l l i a m f e l t very s t r o n g l y . ' o n , any course of a c t i o n f o l l o w e d by Durham» lewburgh Is remarkably f r e e from r e f e r e n c e s t o n a t u r a l phenomena and the miraculous. He makes ment ion of the 1 aurora b o r e a l i s " which vie have noted i n other authors. He r e f e r s t o t h e appearance of sun l o g s 2 on June 16, 1196. This he observed h i m s e l f and g i v e s t h e i r • n u m b e r ' a s two. Hoveden 'gave i t as four • We b e l i e v e t h a t two i s the o n l y authentic: number; we ourselves have observed two. He regards i t as an i l l omen. St r a n g e l y enough the abrupt , ending of h i s c h r o n i c l e ^ i n 1198 "c ohsists-. of a reference . 1. I b i d , i . 4 0 1 . 2. I b i d , i i , 482o 3 . I b i d . i i . 5 O O 0 to a show er of biood at Andely on May 7, This he says was vouched f o r b y " c e r t a i n not i g n o b l e people who were present on t h a t o c c a s i on" 6 King Richard was present d i r e c t i n g some b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n s , when t h i s r a i n mixed w i t h blood f e l l and s p a t t e r e d h i s garments. The others took i t as a bad, omen, but the k i n g d i d not show f e a r , l e s t he should be the cause-of stopping the work, "on which he had set h i s heart so much t h a t , u n l e s s I am deceived, even i f an angel 'from heaven should t r y t o stop him he would have cursed". •'The words.with which he describes the observers of the sun dogs echo very c l o s e l y those t e l l i n g 1 of the c r u c i f i x seen a t Dunstable o n August 9,. .1188.' Perhaps, he had admired h i s " own w r i t i n g and hence used 'it a g a i n . And t r u l y t h e r e i s a T e r g i l i a n picturesqueness, about i t . One would say t h a t he was a man who would o f t e n s i t a t h i s c e l l window, or b e t t e r s t i l l go to the c l o i s t e r i f per-m i s s i b l e t o contemplate. the q u i e t of the n i g h t sky above those broad Y o r k s h i r e moors and r e f l e c t o n human l i f e and G-od's . w a y s ' w i t h men. For t r u l y W i l l i a m was not a D i c e t o , a man of p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s i n a cosmopolitan centre. He was a q u i e t , contemplative, p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c t a t o r of the drama of l i f e . This c r u c i f i x 100k the form o f the Dominican standard, s h i n i n g w h i t e as m i l k , and. joined t o 1. xbid. io 307« - 2 3 3 -the c r u c i f i x t h e form of a man of the same s o r t as i t i s customary to- p a i n t i n churches i n memory of our Lord* s p a s s i o n . Some said' t h a t i t was a portent "but as f o r me I am.:'a simple n a r r a t o r , hot an i n t e r p r e t e r of omens, l e t each i n t e r p r e t the wonderful s i g n how he w i l l s , I do not know what God wished t o s i g n i f y by i t , " Other r e f e r e n c e s t h a t he makes to the s u p e r n a t u r a l are a l l grouped together i n t h e f i f t h book. These r e l a t e e n t i r e l y to; the appearing of corpses from t h e i r graves. We w i l l take t h i s up l a t e r . ' lewburgh now d e v o t e s 1 a l a r g e s e c t i o n to a f f a i r s off the Jews s t a r t i n g w i t h the massacre of Jews a t Lyme Regis i n January, 1190,- through those a t Stamford and L i n c o l n , and c u l m i n a t i n g i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of York c a s t l e i n March and Longchamp's p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n i n May. We are t o l d that f o r e i g n t r a d e r s or i n t e n d i n g crusaders were prominent I n l e a d e r s h i p , but t h a t the motive of the a t t a c k was e i t h e r plunder by the impecunious or that the nobles might get even w i t h them f o r t h e i r usury. We know from other-sources t h a t l e d g e r s and promissory notes were se i z e d and burned. Although the s t o r y of York, i s t o l d at great l e n g t h l i t t l e new matter i s added, except the remark about. 1. I b i d . i . 3O8 to 324. " 2 3 9 -t h e w a r d e n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t he h a d l e f t t h e c a s t l e on b u s i n e s s . On h i s r e t u r n t h e Jews f e a r e d to a d m i t h i m . He m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r ; m o t i v e s and t h r o u g h him t h e s h e r i f f c a l l e d on t h e mob t o a t t a c k t h e c a s t l e , o n l y to f i n d t o o l a t e t h a t t h e y c o u l d not c o n t r o l t h e mob. 1 •--Fewburgh t h i n k s t h a t the Jews ought t o be a l l o w e d to l i v e among t h e C h r i s t i a n s f o r a s t h e y c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t t h e y s h o u i d be c o m p e l l e d t o go on l i v i n g , l i k e t h e W a n d e r i n g Jew, t o do penance b y s e r v i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n s . He i s v e r y f a i r t o t h e Jews and r e m a r k s 2 t h a t t h e c o n d u c t o f the p e o p l e o f Y o r k was i n e x c u s a b l e . a n d e x e c r a b l e , t h a t mankind h a s n o t t h e r i g h t to s p i l l b l o o d i n s u c h a way. He l i s t s t h r e e . o t h e r r e a s o n s why such c onduct i s t o he c ondemned. But the i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t h e r e I s t h a t on t h e s e two o c c a s i o n s he p a u s e s t o a p p r a i s e t h e c o n d u c t o f the a c t o r s , t o t r e a t o f t h e p r o and c o n , t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r i t was w i s e o r j u s t i f i a b l e b e h a v i o u r . Thus t h e w r i t e r o f the N o r t h , w h i c h a s we r e m a r k e d p r o d u c e d some of the e a r l i est c h r o n i c l e r s , r e v e a l s h i m s e l f as one of t h e e a r l i est h i s t o r i a n s * We a r e now a s k e d t o f o l l o w t h e f o r t u n e s o f R i c h a r d and P h i l i p as t h e y j o u r n e y towards A c r e , and of F r e d e r i c k 1. I b i d . i . 3-6*• 2 . I b i d . i . 322. • -240-Barbarossa on h i s journey overland through t he Byzantine Empire,, One point develops here, R i c h a r d was r e f u s e d ad-1 mittance t o Messina , and he took i t by storm. F r e d e r i c k , a l s o was r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n to cro s s Byzantine t e r r i t o r y by the emperor, Isaac Angelus. One would expect that i f any d i r e c t words of e i t h e r monarch were gi v e n they would be,those off R i c h a r d . But we f i n d t h a t only Richard's a c t i o n s are d e s c r i b e d , w h i l e Barbarossa's address to h i s men i s r e p o r t e d i n d i r e c t speech. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Newburgh's informant was German, r a t h e r than E n g l i s h or French, hence ?\?e conclude .that where he r e p o r t s the exact words of h i s a c t o r s , i t i s probably o n l y a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e . This would be e n t i r e l y negative evidence, which i s always weak u n l e s s c o r r o b o r a t e d , were i t not f o r the many signs.,:, that W i l l i a m always keeps h i s s t y l e i n mind as he w r i t e s . The Germans decided to f o r c e the passage. They i n -vaded the h o s t i l e t e r r i t o r y , captured T h e s s a l o n i e a 3 and ; Wintered i n the neighbouring province. I n the s p r i n g of 1190 they f o r c e d Isaac to agree to terms and t h e crusaders crossed i n t o A s i a . Then comes the sudden c l i m a x . While 1, I b i d . i . 324.= 2 , I b i d . I . 326, 327, 3 , I b i d , i , 327, A footnote says t h i s i s an e r r o r . His son took Demotica and they wintered at Adr i a n o p l e . This i s g i v e n on the a u t h o r i t y of the I t i n e r a r y , p. 47 , -241-r i d i n g along he became anxious to see and t a l k to h i s son* This e n t a i l e d c r o s s i n g a s m a l l r i v e r . His counts t r i e d to disuade him from c r o s s i n g an unexamined t o r r e n t thought-l e s s l y . But d r i v e n by f a t e he would not l i s t e n and f o r -g e t t i n g h i s own importance he spurred h i s horse forward and l e a p t i n t o the r i v e r . I n a moment he had perished before anyone could come t o h i s h e l p . But others say t h a t thanks t o a jug of wine when he had. r a s h l y gone down i n t o the r i v e r , the waters ignorant o f h i s i m p e r i a l importance 2 sucked him under. "But whether t h i s i s t r u e or that i t i s agreed that i n t h a t s m a l l stream the waters penetrated to h i s v e r y s o u l . " The e x p e d i t i o n continued and Barbarossa was b u r i e d at Tyre, We now take up the p u r s u i t of a f f a i r s i n England and the s t o r y of Longchamp i s unfolded. Hugh de P u i s e t had been appointed j u s t i c i a r , and here we are t o l d that .Long-champ was g i v e n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the kingdom. Whether R i c h a r d d i v i d e d the d u t i e s between-them or arranged i t t e r r i t o r i a l l y we are not t o l d . The outcome would l e a d us to b e l i e v e t h a t he d i d both. T h i s may have been cunning but we are of o p i n i o n t h a t . i t was simply due to h i s l a c k . of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y . Ho new l i g h t i s shed on h i s I f F r e d e r i c k , Buke of Swabia. 2. I b i d . i . 3 3 I , - 2 4 2 - -career but we w i l l remark on Hewburgh's a t t i t u d e . We might have expected him to favour Longchamp f o r h i s o p p o s i t i o n to P u i s e t , but Longchamp acted, i n too a r b i t r a r y a f a s h i o n and h i s a t t i t u d e towards G e o f f r e y of York w i t h the s e i z u r e of the t e m p o r a l i t i e s of the s e e 1 d e f i n i t e l y threw Hew-burgh a g a i n s t him. His as t u t e n e s s , arrogance and tyranny, h i s p r i d e and a m b i t i o n and. h i s heavy e x a c t i o n s are a l l scored. We are t o l d t h a t he f e a r e d no man except John, e v i d e n t l y because. Longchamp expected t h a t so l a b o r i o u s and dangerous an un d e r t a k i n g as a crusade might: cause the death of R i c h a r d and t h a t John would- succeed to t h e throne. He t r i e d to meet t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y by means of two t r e a t i es w i t h the k i n g of Scotland i n favour of P r i n c e A r t h u r , but John's m i l i t a r y successes and the e x p i r y of Longchamp's l e g a t i n e powers on the death of Pope Clement f o r c e d him t o make peace w i t h John. The r e s t of h i s account up to i t s serio-comic conelu-s i o n on the beach a t Dover f o l l o w s Hoveden's account i n b r i e f . We note one e r r o r i n h i s f a c t s i n Hewburgh' s account of Eleanor's journey to meet her s on. The marriage of Ri chard and Berengaria i s s t a t e d 2 as t a k i n g place i n 1o I b i d • i . 333® 2. I b i d . i . 347. -243-S i c i l y , whereas we know i t took place i n Cyprus, There i s a f u l l account of the a t t a c k on Cyprus, i n c l u d i n g the s h a c k l i n g o f Isaac Conmenus, We are t o l d Richard's words, 1 Isaac had begged t h a t he might not be put i n i r o n s . To which the k i n g r e p l i e d : "He has spoken w e l l , " s a i d he, "and because he i s noble and we do not wish him to d i e , t h a t he may l i v e h a r m l e s s l y he s h a l l be f a s t e n e d i n chains of s i l v e r , " Hewburgh g i v e s a good i n t r o d u c t i o n to the course of the a c t u a l crusade i n P a l e s t i n e by b r i n g i n g out P h i l i p ' s j e a l o u s y of R i c h a r d over the conquest of Cyprus and the r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the d i s s e n s i o n between Conrad of Montfferrat and Guy of Lusignan on the r e l a t i o n s of the two k i n g s . In h i s account o f the war he f o l l o w s Hoveden very c l o s e l y , one i s almost prepared to say that both must have l i s t e n e d to a v e r b a l account by the same man. Hew burgh a l s o t e l l s the story of the Old Man of the Mountain, and fastens the murder of Conrad on two of h i s f o l l o w e r s , thus r e l i e v i n g R i c h a r d of P h i l i p ' s charges. The T h i r d Crusade has reached an impasse. P h i l i p i s back i n France, p l o t t i n g as ever a g a i n s t the House of Anjou, Dissensions are r i f e among both C h r i s t i a n s and Saracens* 1. I b i d . i , 351« 2, I b i d , i . 363, "-244™; • : Ri c h a r d becomes i l l , ana S a l a d i n out, of a d m i r a t i o n o f f e r s 1 a three years? t r u c e . / R i c h a r d accepts and on October 9, 1192, Leaves the Holy Land f o r e v e r . And once a g a i n our 2 author t u r n s to t h i n k over i n the quiet of the c l o i s t e r , the events of t h i s great' e x p e d i t i o n and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . W i l l i a m i s now ne a r i n g the c l o s e of h i s book and p o s s i b l y f e e l s that he i s drawing near to t h e c l o s e of h i s l i f e and he r e f l e c t s more than ever on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of - th i n g s * '•' Of course I t i s n a t u r a l t h a t he should be more a f f e c t e d by a crusade than by the p e r f i d y of Henry's sons. But i t i s remarkable t h a t more than any other c h r o n i c l e r does he t r y to t r a c e cause and r e s u l t , and t o form something l i k e a phi l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y . H i s account o f the c a p t i v i t y of Richard resembles those of the other w r i t e r s . He b r i n g s out the reason f o r the delay i n r e l e a s i n g him somewhat b e t t e r . ^ The death o f the bishop of L i e g e , and the e l e c t i o n of the co u s i n of-the: Duke of Louvain complicated matters and i m p e r i l l e d Richard f o r s ome t ime . ;; John had been.acting i n a high handed manner and the nobles were...now.-; up i n arms a g a i n s t him. At l a s t they 1. I b i d . 1. 37 7» 2. I b i d . i . 379 to 381. 3. I b i d . i . 396 to 398, . ~245~ ' besieged him i n Windsor C a s t l e which s u r r e n d e r e d 1 i n A p r i l 119.3 and John s a i l e d f o r France to j o i n P h i l i p i n an a t t a c k on Normandy. Ri c h a r d was a t l a s t r e l e a s e d on January 17, 1194, and l a n d e d 2 at Sandwich on March 13, There were great r e j o i c i n g s on .his r e t u r n and the c a s t l e s were soon a l l i n - h i s • hands. He h e l d a great c o u n c i l at Northampton and a ceremonial crowning^ was h e l d at Winchester on A p r i l X 1 © The f i f t h book deals w i t h events between 1194 and 1198. I t i s as c a r e f u l l y d i v i d e d i n t o chapters as the other f o u r , and. shows l i t t l e t r a c e of h i s advanced age or hastening end. A f t e r h i s c o r o n a t i o n Richard s e i z e d i n t o h i s hands much of the l a n d which he had granted before going t o the Holy. Land. Among those who l o s t by the king' s r e t u r n was Hugh de P u i s e t , t h e k i n g d e p r i v i n g 4 him of h i s earldom, over which Newburgh sheds no t e a r s . We are not t o l d I f he d e p r i v e d John of h i s count i es and honours, but sin c e these had been g i v e n i n such a way that they made no r e t u r n s t o the r o y a l exchequer and had been taken by the king i n 1. I b i d . I . 391. 2. I b i d , i . 4 0 5 . 3 . I b i d , i . 4 0 8 . 4 . Newb, i i . 41.6•# -246-m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s , v;e presume t h a t i t was taken for granted t h a t John had l o s t them* Ri c h a r d put t h e baronage and the c l e r g y under a l a n d t a x , borrowed money through the C i s t e r c i a n s , and "imposed unaccustomed poverty on the most famous-monasteries." Then p u t t i n g the archbishop,Hubert * of Canterbury i n charge of England, he set s a i l on May 12, , 1194, w i t h h i s army, f o r France f o r he had heard t h a t P h i l i p was; i n v a d i n g Normandy. As the words were penned before R i chard? s death there I s no f l o u r i s h on the p a r t of our author such as might have been expected had he r e a l i z e d that our knight-errant'was l e a v i n g h i s E n g l i s h domains f o r e v e r * D e s u l t o r y warfare went on f o r a s h o r t time when a t r u c e was arranged, e v i d e n t l y f o r l a c k of funds. Each k i n g turned to the Church f o r money which causes Newburgh to t e l l ^ a s t o r y about t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e p u t a t i o n s . John, archbishop of Lyons,had been i n London and hearing some d i s c u s s i o n he broke i n "Don't t a l k thus," he' s a i d , " f o r I t e l l you t h a t your k i n g i n comparison w i t h the king of the French i s a h e r m i t . " * B i chard l e f t no a l l e y unexplored t h a t might l e a d t o 2 money, and so we read t h a t he r e i n t r o d u c e d tournaments i n 1. I b i d . i i . ,421* I b i d , i i . 422. s p i t e of t h e papal ban. I t i s t r u e , as he says, t h a t they were used to teach the a r t and p r a c t i c e of war, but t h e i r main purpose was the r a i s i n g of- revenue. The truc e was ended 1 i n J u l y , 1195, and Richard and P h i l i p took the f i e l d a g a i n . The f i g h t i n g l a s t e d t i l l December, s e v e r a l 2 c a s t l e s changing hands i n c l u d i n g Issoudun. R i c h a r d won and l o s t G i s o r s and f a i l e d to retake i t . I t was d u r i n g these l a s t o perations that he, one n i g h t , gave the password f o r the d a y "Dieu et Hon D r o i t " . Peace was made i n January, 1196. This l a s t e d about s i x months when war broke out a f r e s h , 4 which a l s o developed i n t o a n i n t e r -changing o f c a s t l e s . During t h i s p e r i o d Richard made peace -w i t h t h e Count of T o u l o u s e — a war had been going on there s i n c e about 1158--and w i t h the Bretons. He was now able to g i v e u n d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n to P h i l i p , which made t h e war f i e r c e r and added to t h e h o r r o r s o f a famine which had b e e n r a g i n g f o r f i v e y e a r s . Richard bought over the Count o f Flanders and thus r e i n f o r c e d he soon compelled P h i l i p to sue f o r peace. A t r u c e was arranged f o r s i x t e e n months, 1. I b i d . i i . 455. 2. I b i d . i i . 4 6 l . 3 . /See Appendix, »< 4 . Newb. i i . 483* 5 . I b i d . i i . 491> - 2 4 8 -d e s t i n e d never t o be broken and here our author leaves him. The s i e g e of Chains as a l r e a d y n a r r a t e d had no con-n e c t i o n w i t h P h i l i p , lewburgh t e l l s , 1 w i t h much d e t a i l , of the r e l e a s e of Richard's hostages. F i r e , f l o o d , drought and p e s t i l e n c e gave warning of the impending death of the Duke of A u s t r i a , I n December, 1194, he was thrown from h i s horse; h i s f o o t was so crushed that i t had to be amputated. M o r t i f i c a t i o n set i n and he d i e d , He had been cursed by the nope f o r s e i z i n g R i c h a r d , so on h i s death bed he r e l e a s e d the hostages and r e c e i v e d a b s o l u t i o n , The Crusade appears t o have s t i r r e d i n t e r e s t i n f a r o f f lands and e s p e c i a l l y those of the Mediterranean. So here we f i n d much i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l concerning S i c i l y - from the. time of Robert G u i s c a r d , about 1080 t i l l i t s s e i z u r e by the emperor Henry YI i n 1194. This f e a t should save him from being merely t h e son of F r e d e r i c k I and f a t h e r of F r e d e r i c k I I . An even more i n t e r e s t i n g n a r r a t i v e - 7 concerns the i n v a s i o n of Spain by the Saracens from A f r i c a i n 1195* This l e ads him on t o d i s c u s s the r i s e and spread of Islam I b i d . i i . 432 t o 434, 2 , I b i d . i i . 445 t o 447, 3 , I b i d . i i . 447 to 455 . '' -24;?--from 6 l l t o 11?5o His o p i n i o n of them i s summarized i n the sentence: .' " • There descended, from the remnants of the I s h -m a e l i t e s a people c o r r e c t l y e a l i e d Saracens but m o r e t r u l y A g a r e n i , a more voracious plague of whom indeed i t was w r i t t e n ( J o e l 1 .4) 'The l o c u s t s h a l l devour the r e s t of the p l a n t , « Much of the account i s gi v e n tp Mahomet and S a l a d i n , but he t r a c e s the advance up t o the i n v a s i o n of Gaul. Ho mention i s made of .the b a t t l e of Tours. He assigns as the 1 reason f o r the r e t r e a t t h a t God had s a i d , "Thus f a r s h a l t thou come and no f u r t h e r . " Hewburgh g i v e s 2 the t e x t of the l e t t e r from the Old Man of the Mountain, the sheikh of Alamoot concerning the death of Conrad. I t Is addressed from h i m s e l f to the c h i e f s and a l l those of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . He gives as h i s reason f o r w r i t i n g that he i s u n w i l l i n g t h a t any innocent person should labour under a charge i n n o c e n t l y when i t was caused by h i s men. I t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t no s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of the murder are g i v e n . He confines h i m s e l f t o the remark that "by our w i s h and command he was j u s t l y k i l l e d " . -The l a t i n i z e d form of the s u b j e c t s of the S h e i k - a l -J a b a l i s gi v e n as I-Iansesisii, s c a r c e l y recognisable as the 1..' • I b i d . I i - . . 455o " 2 . I b i d . " i i . A$%* See a l s o Diceto i i . '127. -2J50-modern E n g l i s h Assassins,, The whole a f f a i r i s very vague. I f R i c h a r d had laiown the t r u t h , which may f a i r l y be doubted, he might have asked f o r such a l e t t e r ; i f granted, which would be extremely d o u b t f u l i t would probably have been sent to him, even i f addressed to Christendom. Then, as remarked, the Senex Montanus would almost c e r t a i n l y have s t a t e d the r e a l ' f a c t s . The only p o i n t s that we can see a g a i n s t these a r e , t h a t the l a s t might have been w i t h h e l d as r e v e a l i n g •something of A s s a s s i n procedure which as i s w e l l .-known' was a v e r y c l o s e l y guarded s e c r e t ; t h a t once Ri c h a r d was e x c u l p a t e d by the emperor he l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the matter. The o n l y one d i i - e c t l y interested-was P h i l i p who a t t h a t v e r y time was seeking the hand of Johanna, Richard's .sister"-and''widow of W i l l i a m IT of S i c i l y . This a l l p o i n t s to i t s being a f o r g e r y by P h i l i p . 'Hewburgh relates"*" how he knows, as u s u a l not g i v i n g h i s informantt s name, and how the l e t t e r became p u b l i c : . low t h i s l e t t e r was w r i t t e n i n Hebrew, Greek and L a t i n , and i t was w r i t t e n , not w i t h i n k , but w i t h a substance most unusual c a l l e d purple s h e l l f i s h , l i k e blood as i t shows i t s e l f . This indeed a man ...worthy of t r u s t a f f i r m e d to me t h a t ,he had both seen and read when i t was presented i n most solemn form to the King of the French at P a r i s . i e I b i d . i i . A51 * -251-The best account of the popular discontent In 1196 i s , found.-1- i n Newburgh, "Phis was c h i e f l y experienced by London Both Hoveden and Diceto f u r n i s h information but neither treats the movement as f u l l y , lev;burgh says he got his information from a t r u t h f u l man. who was present at some of the gatherings. The leader was a man named William F i t z Osbert known as Longbeard. He was a member of the council of the commune, now 1196, i n i t s f i f t h year,^ was a man "of sharp •.wits., moderate le a r n i n g and eloquent beyond the ordinary. He maintained that the taxes, l a r g e l y due to Richard's extravagance, were un j u s t l y heavy on the poor, Aeonjuratio was started by him to r e s i s t t h i s injustice.,, Strange that lev;burgh should use the word current on the Continent f o r a commune but never once used of that o f London. E v i d e n t l y the commune was anything but democratic. In one of his harangues, quoted i n part, he says " I w i l l divide the humble and f a i t h f u l people from the proud and, f a i t h l e s s . 1 " He enroll e d f i f t y too thousand followers who were prepared to s t a r t l o o t i n g . They proceeded to r e s i s t the "noble people". Then he crossed t o France to see Richard and to beg:for reforms. Richard, probably because IV Bewb. i i * 466 t o • .471.' 2 . I b i d , ' i i . 469. 5. Round Commune of London, p. 224. - 2 5 2 -he knew that Hubert Walter could be r e l i e d on sent Longbeard home s a t i s f i e d . On h i s r e t u r n he continued the speeches. Summoned t o appear before the c o u n c i l he came w i t h a body-guard. Two men w i t h an armed guard were deputed to watch and s e i z e Him. He k i l l e d one man but was dragged o f f from sanctuary a t Bow Church. The C u r i a Regis t r i ed him and condemned him, w i t h nine o t h e r s , t o be dragged along by horses then hanged. There i s j u s t a suggestion of sympathy on Hewburgh's part f o r the movement and i t s l e a d e r s . We have mentioned above the famine i n France. This w i t h a plague raged i n England a l s o . Again i t i s to Hew bur gh*-that we are indebted f o r the f u l l est account. W i l l i a m has saved h i s most h i g h l y c o l o u r e d L a t i n f o r t h i s occasion. So many d i e d , mostly of plague, t h a t the customary type of b u r i a l ceased and t h e bodies v^ere put i n trenches. I t passed as m y s t e r i o u s l y as i t had come. One other gruesome t o p i c i s d e a l t w i t h , the emergence 2 of corpses from t h e i r graves. The f i r s t s t o r y we are t o l d he l e a r n e d from Stephen, archdeacon of Buckingham. A c e r t a i n man d i e d and was b u r i e d . Apparently there was nothing wicked about him, but he refused t o stay i n t e r r e d and haunted f i r s t h i s w i f e then h i s brothers then the v i l l a g e . 1, * Hewbo i i . 4 8 4 , 4 8 5 * 2. I b i d . i i . 4 ? 4 , 4 7 5 * 'He was a. very-noisy-'ghost and r e v e l l e d w i l d l y . He was seen by many people, s i n g l y , i n twos and i n groups. At l a s t when the people were t e r r i f i e d beyond measure they decided to '..'seek counsel of the Church w h i t h e r they went on t h e i r mournful m i s s i o n , Stephen took the matter to Hugh Bishop of L i n c o l n , He, w i s e - and p r a c t i c a l man, wrote out a c a r t u l a r y c o n t a i n i n g the corpse's f u l l a b s o l u t i o n . The tomb was opened, the parchment a f f i x e d to the man's b r e a s t , the grave was c l o s e d . The ghost was never seen a g a i n . .And there he l i e s unto t h i s day t o w i t n e s s i f I l i e . Brave St. Hugh. Your c a n o n i s a t i o n i s m e r i t e d , 'The s t o r i e s are r e p o r t e d from a l l s e c t i o n s , none a t such l e n g t h . U s u a l l y exhumation and burning sent the l o s t s o u l t o r e s t . G e n e r a l l y they were bad c h a r a c t e r s 'or had d i e d unshriven. * Perhaps there i s a moral, i t i s not s t a t e d and lev?burgh has r e v e a l e d no s u b t l e t y so f a r . They are a l l . t o l d v ery simply, d i r e c t l y and are e v i d e n t l y t o he accepted i n a l l f u l n e s s as they were by the n a r r a t o r as t r u e . The only s i g n that he had b e l i e f • -1 r a t h e r than mere c r e d u l i t y i s a short passage w i t h which he prefaces the s t o r y of the ghost of a p r i e s t of Melrose, He says i n 'substance: I do not know why these corpses r e -appear, whether t o spread t e r r o r or c a l a m i t y , and then r e t u r n of t h e i r own w i l l t o the grave. The s t o r i e s cannot 1. i b i d . , i l . 47 7* very e a s i l y be accepted (here he i s r e f e r r i n g t o such s t o r i e s found i n books,. as i s shown by a l a t e r rem ark) were i t not f o r the frequent examples- a v a i l a b l e i n our own time and the evidence t h a t i s abundant.' A more n a t u r a l phenomenon i s d e a l t w i t h and handled i n a s u r p r i s i n g l y s c i e n t i f i c manner, c o n s i d e r i n g the know-ledge of and a t t i t u d e towards chemistry i n the t w e l f t h century. This i s the matter of a s p h y x i a t i o n by the carbonic, gases generated i n burning l i m e s t o n e . Some monks at Mai t o n had prepared l i m e by burning and had taken a l l pre-c a u t i o n s . A b r o t h e r , h u r r y i n g past i n t h e darkness, s l i p p e d and f e l l i n , The o t h e r s , when he d i d not get up'immediately,. asked i f he were h u r t , to which he r e p l i e d , " I have p e r i s h e d " , A second man went to h i s help and was l i k e w i s e engulfed i n s i l e n c e . A t h i r d one, e v i d e n t l y u s i n g a la d d e r , went more c a u t i o u s l y and p r e s e n t l y c a l l e d out " I am dying, p u l l me out". He was brought out. d i s h e v e l l e d and foaming at the mouth and was i l l f o r some time. L a t e r they recovered t h e two bodies and m a r v e l l e d t h a t there were no signs of hu r t on them except i n t h e i r eyes. £ somewhat s i m i l a r experience i s r e p o r t e d i n the c l e a n i n g out of an o l d disused w e l l i n 1 East A n g l i a , Then our author t a c k l e s the problem and I , I b i d , i i , 4 9 9 . -2J55-sol v e s i t : But t h i s i s , not a t a l l to be wondered a t and '.•probably'-.the. explanation- could, be made l i k e t h i s . I t may chance t h a t the bottom of the w e l l had h i d d e n i n i t e i t h e r q u ick s i l v e r or some other h a r m f u l poison,,-which,-when i t was touched, and ' uncovered by the workmen, gave o f f dread and ~ poisonous gas and which overcoming a l l t h e i r senses, i n a moment, deprived the diggers of l i f e . Newburgh n o t e s 1 the death of longchamp when on a m i s s i o n to the pope. So now he i s gone, not to plead the cause of the k i n g of the E n g l i s h ( r e g i s Anglorum), but to plead f o r h i m s e l f a t the bar of the K i n g of Angels (Regis Angel or urn),. New burgh ha s shown h i m s e l f throughout very f a i r , w i t h no b i a s , r a r e l y does he c r i t i c i z e and th en never w i t h b i t t e r -ness . I n two cases only does he use animated language, towards. P u i s e t and Longchamp. He accuses him of i n t o l e r a b l e haughtiness and of being more s o l d i e r than p r e l a t e . '.Yet he i s f a i r and mentions Longchamp's hard work on behalf of captive. Richard.- He--reveals "no f e e l i n g over Richard's r e -instatement of the c h a n c e l l o r , but c l o s e s h i s account w i t h the strongest words he has used. There was general . r e j o i c i n g i n England at h i s death and no t e a r s were shed at the removal of such a scourge. Yet a l l t h a t Longchamp had done was t o c a r r y out the king's commands and i t was the k i n g and. not h i s m i n i s t e r s who c a r r i e d o f f t h e g o l d and s i l v e r from the-abbeys and churches* 1. I b i d , i i , 48?, 4?0 But Hewburgh i s as I n t e n s e an admirer of Richard as were the other w r i t e r s and n o t h i n g but good can be s a i d o f him. Strange.how t h i s stubborn* f i c k l e , wayward troubadour appealed to the fancy of h i s own ge n e r a t i o n s i z c e n t u r i e s before S i r Walter S c o t t made him the hero of every school boy. Sincere crusader, v a l i a n t f i g h t e r , honourable f o e , t h e best of a v e r y poor body of gen e r a l s romantic and i d e a l i s t i c he was, but a d m i n i s t r a t o r he was not. Only the momentum of his.: f a t h e r ' s energy staved o f f a r e t u r n of'Stephen's anarchy. H i s f r i e n d s and foes h a i l e d him during h i s l i f e -time and conceded him a crown and on h i s death gave him a halo at l e a s t of romance. And though we have deprived him of h i s B l o n d e l , we cannot do l e s s than s a l u t e him w i t h h i s g r e e t i n g t o Robin Hood--King of Outlaws and P r i n c e o f Good f e l l o w s . He i s and ever w i l l be, w i t h a l l i t connotes or suggests--Richard Coeur de L i o n . Hewburgh's c h r o n i c l e c l o s e s a b r u p t l y i n May, 1198. The l a s t p o r t i o n shows a q u a l i t y d i f f e r i n g from the e a r l i e r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the w r i t e r was c l o s e r i n time t o the events he was d e s c r i b i n g . I t i s g e n e r a l l y "supposed that he h u r r i e d i t s w r i t i n g as he f e l t death coming' on him, and that he die d s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s completion. I f so, he di e d as he would have wished, a t h i s w r i t i n g t a b l e , A few s c a t t e r e d notes show t h a t he was assembling the next m a t e r i a l . He - 2 5 7 -was not a g r e a t man, p o s s i b l y not a c l e v e r man, but he was something almost as good., a man of sound common sense. He omitted a l l the u s u a l o u t l i n e of world h i s t o r y and confined h i m s e l f t o h i s own more immediate p e r i o d . He t e l l s a t a l e f a i t h f u l l y but w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a r y atmosphere. And he does i t not t o pass time or as a pious work but as he say h i m s e l f , " f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n and warning of p o s t e r i t y " . He has i n s t i t u t e d h i m s e l f almost the guardian s a i n t of every subsequent E n g l i s h h i s t o r i a n from R a l e i g h to Kacaulay and T r e v e l y a n . -2^8-General Survey and C r i t i c i s m of-..Their'Work, We have t r a v e l l e d a l o n g way since we set out under the .urbane Ralph, de Di c e t o to explore the l i f e of the period of the T h i r d Crusade, Many c o u n t r i e s have we v i s i t e d , many famous personages have we l i s t e n e d t o , many i n c i d e n t s w e l l known i n h i s t o r y have we watched, being reenacted before our eyes, .and o c c a s i o n a l l y we have heard noises o f f stage'that t o l d of the t u r m o i l of the l i f e of the common people, Diceto i s the cosmopolite, the m e t r o p o l i t e he belongs to the s e c u l a r c l e r g y and hence moves more i n the world of men than a monk would. He i s ve r y c l o s e to longchamp and hence i s , v e r y w e l l - i n f o r m e d i f .somewhat biassed. He i s a c a r e f u l , p a i n s t a k i n g c o l l e c t o r of f a c t s . He shows great care i n having h i s c h r o n i c l e accurate and i n ar r a n g i n g f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . He d i s p l a y s energy, i n t e l l i g e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n . The h i s t o r i c a l value of the Imagines i s i n e s t i m a b l e ; w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d as the r e i g n s of Henry I I and Ri c h a r d I are,- w i t h o u t Diceto one s i d e o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r would be i m p e r f e c t l y known and some of t h e c r i s e s o f t h e i r p o l i t i c s would be almost i n e x p l i c a b l e . I t i s no wonder that from the moment of t h e i r composition the Imagines became a work of a u t h o r i t y . - 2 5 9 -Hoveden i s a North Country man who a l s o moved among men and. events and was a l s o the i n t i m a t e of a great man of the p e r i o d , the w a r r i o r - b i s h o p of Durham, Hugh de P u i s e t . To the student who wishes to trace the a c t u a l connection between';cause .and e f f e c t as w e l l as to f o l l o w the broader f e a t u r e s of n a t i o n a l development Hoveden's must always be one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g i n our annals. His work was, f o r c e n t u r i e s a f t e r E n g l i s h h i s t o r y began to he s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y , the g r e a t store of f a c t s f o r these r e i g n s , on which both In mediaeval and modern times h i s t o r i a n s have c h i e f l y drawn.. Even a f t e r the e x i s t e n c e of the e a r l i e r work known as Benedict was a s c e r t a i n e d , Hoveden -was so much more a c c e s s i b l e , and so much b e t t e r worked, t h a t as a matter of f a c t he continued t o be t h e a u t h o r i t y . , . Wendover s u f f e r e d in'one way i n comparison w i t h the two we have just mentioned, he was a monk. Hence he was r a t h e r u n f a v o r a b l y p l a c e d f o r observing men and events, and matters e c c l e s i a s t i c a l are g i v e n a prominence out of p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r importance.. Nor i s t h i s w h o l l y the f a u l t of h i s circumstances but i s a t l e a s t p a r t l y due t o t h e man, he l a c k e d p e r s p e c t i v e . We have noted that he views a b a t t l e more from a m i l i t a r y than from a p o l i t i c a l angle. Other f a u l t s . h a v e been noted i n t h e i r place and must he taken account of i n e s t i m a t i n g h i s place and worth. - But these shortcomings are atoned f o r i n two ways t h a t announce h i s importance, h i s f e a r l e s s c r i t i c i s m o f h i g h born and l o w l y , •which; set. a precedent f o r a l l f uture w r i t e r s ; and he pre-pared the way f o r , and i n s p i r e d the works o f Matthew of P a r i S o Though l i m i t e d i n view and inadequate i n d e t a i l he i s f a i t h f u l . a c c o r d i n g t o h i s l i g h t . H is honesty, frankness, s i n c e r i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y together w i t h h i s pioneer work-e n t i t l e him to rank among the Founders. New burgh a l s o s u f f e r s from having been a monk, yet does not appear to have been so much cut o f f from the world as Wendover* L i k e Roger he i s i n a c c u r a t e in. d e t a i l s . He-.' serves to s uppl em a i t the more d e t a i l e d c h r o n i c l e s , and i f he i s not always i n p o s s e s s i o n of the f a c t s a t l e a s t he knows the r e s u l t s of which they are the i n v i s i b l e components.. He gi v e s us broad, g e n e r a l impressions o f the times, and i s the only contemporary a u t h o r i t y f o r the period from 11^4 to 1170. He shows strong common sense, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and judgment. He has a r i g h t e o u s s p i r i t , an eloquent pen and ideas i n advance of h i s age. We have searched many books f o r evidence of the use of these w r i t e r s i n modern c o m p i l a t i o n s . Often we have found an i n c i d e n t recorded i n such f a s h i o n t h a t we f e l t sure of the source but no r e f e r e n c e or b i b l i o g r a p h y had been giv e n . We found t h a t Bishop Stubbs, II. W. .C. Davis and Hate Ho r gate . -2-61-I h t h e i r v a r i o u s works on E n g l i s h h i s t o r y have leaned h e a v i l y on;these among ot h e r s , and almost i n v a r i a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o •the'Rolls' -'Series. " J.."H. Round i n the Commune of-.London: and Feudal England acknowledges these as sources, as also does the Tery Rev. W.; R. Stephens, Dean of Winchester, i n h i s H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Church from 1 0 6 6 to 1272. (We found one v e r y , s m a l l s l i p i n Davis, and a more important one i n -.• Miss Horgate's John Lackland.) We examined K e i g h t l e y ' s H i s t o r y o f / E n g l a n d 1 . T h i s was done c l o s e l y i n view o f the date and a remark of Mr. E. A. Freeman to be dealt w i t h soon. I n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h Henry I I and Richard I •he "quote's as h i s a u t h o r i t i e s among others the c h r o n i c l e s of Hoveden, D i c e t o and Hew burgh. As f a r as we checked we found him a c c u r a t e . Owing t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e ' of paging between h$s e d i t i o n s and the R o l l s S e r i e s i t was slow work, but s u f f i c i e n t ' e v i d e n c e was found t o show h i s accuracy. P r o f e s s o r E. A. Freeman in'-his H i s t o r i c a l Essays gives an e s s a y 2 on S t . Thomas of Canterbury and h i s Biographers. He ciuotes o r i g i n a l sources and b u i l d s on them. This essay f i r s t appeared i n the n a t i o n a l Review f o r A p r i l i860., and -caused much co n t r o v e r s y . .Yet between i860 and I87I he made , 1 * X e i g h t l e y , Thos,, H. of Eng. 5 v o l . London, ?/hittaker , and Co., 1839. 2. Freeman, E.A., H i s t . Essays, London, Macmillan & Co., I 8 7 I . - 2 6 2 -no a t t e m p t t o r e v i e w i t , I n a f o o t n o t e on page 68 he c o m -p l a i n s t h a t no r e a l l y good e d i t i o n of t h e whole l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t has y e t a p p e a r e d i n t h e R o l l s S e r i e s , He t h i n k s the M a s t e r o f t h e R o l l s s h o u l d b e s t i r h i m s e l f * Yet h i s own f a i l u r e t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f m a t e r i a l , o b t a i n a b l e i n 18J.9 i s shown by f a i l i n g t o examine any c h r o n i c l e o t h e r t h a n a volume d e a l i n g w h o l l y and s o l e l y w i t h B e c k e t , H e n r y H a l i a m ' s H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e A g e s , 1 t h e s e c o n d volume of a t h r e e volume book quotes h i s a u t h o r i t i e s , among them H o v e d e n . He i s c a r e f u l and e x a c t . P r o f e s s o r M a i t l a n d i n h i s L e c t u r e s on Const i t u t i o n a l p H i s t o r y r e f e r s c o n s t a n t l y to Stubb* s S e l e c t C h a r t e r s a n d t o P o l l o c k and M a i t l a n d - ? s H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Law. B o t h of t h e s e l a t t e r make u s e o f and r e f e r to D i c e t o , Hoveden, and lew b u r g h , and a r e , as might be e x p e c t e d , u n i m p e a c h a b l e . B i s h o p S t u b b s i n h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l a n d r e f e r s c o n s t a n t l y to a l l our f o u r w r i t e r s and t o e v e r y o t h e r m e d i a e v a l c h r o n i c l e r t h a t one c a n name. He must have been a - p r o d i g i o u s w o r k e r and a c a r e f u l o n e . M r . J . H . Round 1 . • Hallamj -HenryV H i s t , .of Eng. during Middle Ages, V o l , I I . V lew York, C o l o n i a l P r e s s , 1 8 9 9 . : 2* M a i t l a n d , , Lectures, on C o n s t i t u t i o n a l H i s t o r y * - 2 6 j -e h a l l e n g e s 1 the accuracy of h i s s y n t h e s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n at one po i n t i n the account of the st r u g g l e between Longchamp and John, t r e a t e d i n the p r e f a c t to Hoveden i l l . Apart from t h i s we know of no place where Stubbs has made a mis-t ak e. We a l s o checked over p a r t s of S i r Walter Scott's Ivanhoe and The Talisman. Here there are to be found passages which echo the words of Hoveden which f a c t suggests t h a t Scott knew e i t h e r t h a t w r i t e r or the Ch r o n i c l e o f Melrose. The c o n c l u s i o n we have formed i s t h a t s e v e r a l acknow-ledged l e a d e r s i n t h e f i e l d have made c a r e f u l , d e t a i l e d and accurate study of the c h r o n i c l e r s , and that other w r i t e r s have been drawing t h e i r m a t e r i a l s from these. We b e l i e v e more progress would be made i f more reference were taken d i r e c t to the o r i g i n a l c h r o n i c l e s . Few can equa1 Bishop Stubbs, none c a n e x c e l him. Mistaken I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i l l be c o r r e c t e d by constant reference and c cmparison. 1. Round Commune of London, Pp. 208 to 2l6<> Table showing descent of 'PIugh cle P u i s e t Bishop of Durham and, the R e l a t i o n s h i p "between Hugh of Durham, Geoffrey of York and R i c h a r d I . A p p e n d i x ( e ) E x c e r p t f r o m R o g e r de H o v e d e n , V o l . 1, Page 12 7. C o n f i r m a t i o n o f the P o s s e s s i o n s and P r i v i l e g e s o f t h e B i s h o p and See o f t h e C o u n t y P a l a t i n e o f Durham by W i l l i a m the C o n q u e r o r H o v . 1 s t , 1 0 7 2 . E t i n s u p e r d e d i t e t c o n c e s s i t , et c h a r t a sua c o n f i r m -a v i t , Leo e t S a n e t o C u t h b e r t o , et p r i o r i et monachis i b i d e m Deo s e r v i e n t i b u s , i n puram e t p e r p e t u a m eleemosynam, r e g i u m mane r i urn suum, v i d e l i c e t v i l l a i n de Hemingburh cum omni t e r r a de B r a k e n h o l m et cum omnibus t e r r i s a d j a c e n t i b u s cum e c c l e s i a v i l l a e p r a e d i c t a e , et c u n c t i s r e b u s eidem p e r t i n e n t i b u s , i n b o s c o et p i a n o , m o r i s ac p r a t o , i n s y l v i s e t p a l u d i b u s , a q u i s , m o l e n d i n i s et s t a g n i s , cum mere et m e r e , et s a c h e t s o c h n e , et t o l e t them et i n f a n g e n t h e o f , e t omnibus r e c t i s d i v i s i s e j u s , i t a bene ac q u i e t e e t l i b e r e , cum r e c t i t u d i n i b u s e t omnibus c o n s u e t u d i n i b u s s u i s „ s i c u t miquam S a n e t u s C u t h b e r t u s a l i a s t e r r a s suas m e l i u s • e t ' q u i e t i u s h a b u i t , cum omnibus c o n s u e t u d i n i b u s r e g i i s e t l i b e r t a t i b u s , quas i p s e r e x h a b u i t i n i p s o , dum i l l u d p o s t v i c t o r i a m A n g l i a e i n manu p r o p r i a t e n u i t , et p e r easdem d i v i s a s q u i b u s i p s e , s i v e a n t e eum T o s t i u s v e l S i w a r d u s , i p s u m msnerium t e n u e r u n t . A p p e n d i x (e) Thomas, A r c h b i s h o p o f Y o r k f r e e s a l l c h u r c h e s i n the D i o c e s e o f Y o r k w h i c h b e l o n g t o the Abbey o f Durham fr-om payment o f a l l dues p a y a b l e t o the A r c h b i s h o p , R o g e r de Hoveden,Page 1 3 8 , V o l . 1 C a r t a Thomae E b o r a e e u s i s a r e h i e p i s c o p i s e n i o r i s de l i b e r t a t i b u s e e e l e s i a r u m S a n c t i C u t h D e r t i IO83,Thomas, D e i g r a t i a E b o r a e e u s i s a r c h i e p i s c o p u s , e o i s -c o p i s e t a b b a t i b u s , p e r A n g l i a m tarn c o n s t i t u t e s quam i n p o s t e r u m s u c c e s s u r i s , et omnibus s i b i i n E b o r a c o " a r c h i e p i s -c o p i s s u c c e s s u r i s i n p e r p e t u u m , s a l u t e m . Q,uibus p l u r i m u m g a v i s u s , ex p r a e c e p t o p r a e f a t i papae e t ex i m p e r i o d o m i n i r e g i s W i l l e l m i , b e a t i G u t h b e r t i amore d e b i t o , s u b s c r i p t a s l i t t e r a s Saneto C u t h b e r t o 9 et e j u s e p i s c o p o , e t omnibus m o n a c h i s e i s e r v i e n t i b u s , c o n s e n s u e t p e r m i s s i o n e c a p i t u l i E b o r a c i , et t o t i u s s y n o d i e o n f i r m a t i o n e d e d i , c o n c e s s i , e t p r a e s e n t i c a r t a e o n f i r m a v i , et p o s t p r o p r i a manu s u p e r a l t a r e S a n c t o C u t h b e r t o o b t u l i . S c i a n t i g i t u r tam p r a e s e n t e s quam f u t u r i , quod ego Thomas E b o r a e e u s i s , - a r c h i e p i s c o p u s , ex p r a e c e p t o papae Q - r e g o r i i s e p t i m i , e t e o n f i r m a t i o n e d o m i n i r e g i s W i l l e l m i , sub t e s t i -monio u n i v e r s a l i s A n g l o r u m c o n c i l i i , et c o n c e n s u E b o r a c e h s i s c a p i t u l i , do et eoncedo Deo, et S a n c t o C u t h b e r t o , e t omnibus e j u s e p i s c o p i s s u c c e s s u r i s , et omnibus monachis i b i d e m i n p o s t e r u m f u t u r i s , ut omnes e c c l e s i a s quascunque i n p r a e s e n t i i n d i o c e n s i a n a p a r o c h i a mea p o s s i d e n t , v e l I n p o s t e r u m c a n o n i c e a d q u i r e r e p o t e r u n t c o n c e s s i o n e regum, l a r g i t i o n e f i d e l i u m , v e l a e d i f i c a v e r i n t i n p r o p r i o fundo t e r r a r u m , h a b e a n t l i b e r as e t q u i e t a s omnino i n perpetuum a me, e t omnibus s u c e e s s o r i b u s m e i s , ab omnibus quae ad me v e l a d s u c c e s s o r e s meos p e r t i n e n t , Q,uare v o l o e t p r a e c i p i o , u t omnes e c c l e s i a s s u a s i n manu s u a t e n e a n t , et q u i e t e eas p o s s i d e a n t , et v i c a r i o s suos i n e i s l i b e r e p o n a n t , q u i m i h i e t s u c e e s s o r i b u s meis de c u r a tantum i n t e n d a n t animarum i p s i s v e r o de omnibus c a e t e r i s eleemosynarum b e n e f i c i i s . C once do i n s u p e r , e o n f i r mo et p r a e c i p i o , ut tam i p s i q.uam i p s o r u m v i c a r i i l i b e r i et q u i e t i i n perpetuum s i n t ab omni r e d d i t u s y n o d a l ! , e t ab omnibus a u x i l i i s , g r a v a m i n i b u s v e l r e d d i t i b u s , e x a c t i o n i b u s v e l h o s p i t l i s , tam a me quam a d e c a n i s , a r c h i d i a c o n i s , v e l omnium n o s t r o r u m v i c a r - i i s et m i n i s t r i s : sub anathemate e t i a m p r o h i b e o , ne a l i q u i s u l t r a , i p s o s , v e l eorum c l e r i c o s , a l i q u a sub o c e a s i o n e f a t i g e t , v e l acl synoda, v e l c a p i t u l a i r e , n i s i v e l i n t s p o n t e , com-p e l l a n t . Seel s i q u i s erga eos v e l suos aliquam que re lam h a b u e r i t , a d c u r i a m S a n c t i C u t h b e r t ! Dunelmum v e n i a t , ut i b i , q u a l e m d e b u e r i t , r e c t i t u d i n e m p e r c i p i a t . Omnes enim l i b e r t a t e s e t d i g n i t a t e s , quas ego v e l mei sequaees i n e c c l e s i i s p r o p r i i s v e l t e r r i s n o s t r i s p o s s e d e r i m u s , i p s i s e t S a n c t o C u t l iber t o i n omnibus e c c l e s i i s , et t e r r i s s u i s l i b e r e i n p e r p e t u u m c o n c e d i m u s , et absque t e r g i v e r s a t i o n e s i v e c a l u m n i a a me meisq_ue s u c c e s s o r i b u s , l i b e r a s e t q u i e t a s c o n f i r m a m u s . (The o r i g i n a l c o n t i n u e s to s p e c i f y p r i v i l e g e s , and ends w i t h t h e a t t e s t a t i o n o f w i t n e s s e s . ) Appendix Hoveden, V o l . i i i , Page 1 3 , Grant of Sadberge to the See of Durham. Richardus Dei g r a t i a r e x A n g l i a e , dux Normamiiae et Aciuitanniae, comes Andegaviae, a r c h i e p i s c o p i s , e p i s c o p l s , baronibus, v i c e c o m i t i b u s , et omnibus b a l l i v i s et minis tri's t o t i u s A n g l i a e , salutem, S c i a t i s nos dedisse et eoneess-i s s e , et p r a e s e n t i c a r t a confirmasse, Deo, et beato Cuthberto, et e c c l e s i a e Dunelmensi, et Hugoni Duneimensi episcopo, caro consaguineo r i o s t r o , et suceessoribus ejus, i n puram et perpetuam eleemosynam, pro anima p a t r i s , n o s t r i et antecesserurn nostrorum, et pro s a l u t e n o s t r a et haeredum nostrorum, et pro s t a b i l i t a t e et incremento r e g n i n o s t r i , manerium nostrum de Sadberge, cum wapentac ad Idem maneriurn p e r t i n e n t e , et cum omnibus a l i i s rebus ad i l l u d p e r t i n e n -t i b u s , tam i n hominibus, quam i n t e r r i s c u l t i s et i n c u l t i s , i n v i i s et s e m i t i s , i n p r a x i s et p a s t u r i s , i n stag n i s et mo l e n d i n i s , i n aquis et p l s e a r i i s ; et s e r v i t i u m P e t r i Caron et haeredum suorum de feodo unius m i l i t i s de Setune et de Ovetune; et s e r v i t i u m Thomae de Amundevile et haeredum suorum de feodo unius m i l i t i s de Cottona et de T r e i f o r d ; et s e r v i t i u m f i l l ! G o d e f r i d i Baard et de l i i d e l t u n , et de Herteburne; quas t e r r a s de nobis tenebant i n t e r Tinam et Teisam; cum omnibus a l i i s rebus ad p r a e d i c t a feoda p e r t i n -e n t i b u s : i n escambium pro s e r v i t i o f e o d i t r i u m m i l i t u m , quod P h i l i p p u s de Kimba de i p s o episcopo i n L i n e c i n e s i r e tenebat, et pro feodo unius m i l i t i s , quod Baldwinus Wac, et f i l i u s R o g e r i de O s e v i l e Ibidem de eodem tenebant. Quare volumus et oraecipimus, quod pr a e d i c t u s Hugo Dunelmensis episcopus, et suceessores s u i , p r a e d i c t a duo feoda m i l i t u m , et duas p a r t e s f e o d i unius m i l i t i s , cum praedieto manerio de Sadberge et wapentaeeo, s i c u t praedictum e s t , teneant, habeant et possideant l i b e r e et quiete'et h o n o r i f i c e , cum omnibus rebus ad ea p e r t i n e n t i b u s i n bosco et piano, cum socea et sacca, et t o l et them et infangenthef, et cum omnibus a l i i s l i b e r t a t i b u s et l i b e r i s censuetudinibus, et cum p l a c i t i s ad coronam p e r t i n e n t i b u s , s i c u t nos I p s i i n p r o p r i a manu n o s t r a habebamus„ et s i c u t ipse episcopus habet et tenet a l i a s t e r r a s suas, et feoda m i l i t u m i n e p i s -copatu suo; et ut tam ipse i p i s c o p u s quam suceessores s u i disponant de hominibus et t e r r i s ad idem manerium p e r t i n -e n t i b u s , ad l i b i t u m suum et voluntatem, s i c u t de a l i i s ho m i n i bus et t e r r i s s u i s i n eoduni episcopatu suo ffaciunt. H i s t e s t i b n s : (Here f o l l o w the signatures of the arch-bishops, bishops, of John, and of a l l the e a r l s . We note t h a t W i l l i a m M a r s h a l l signs as E a r l of Essex.) Datum anno primo r e g n i n o s t r i X V I I I 0 die Septembris, apud G-atingtun per manum W i l l e l m i de Longo-campo, c a n c e l -l a r i i n o s t r i . P r a e t e r e a idem episcopus d e d i t praenominato r e g i ( marcas a r g e n t ! pro comitatu Horthumbriae habendo i n v i t a sua, cum c a s t e l l i s et a l i i s p e r t i n e n t i i s s u i s . (AS remarked before i n the t e x t Hugh i s s t a t e d by R i c h a r d of Devises to have p a i d 10,00.0 marks.) Appendix Hoveden, V o l . i i i , Page 25. C h a r t e r of Release to W i l l i a m , K i n g of Scots Richardus D e i g r a t i a rex A n g l i a e , dux Hormanniae et A q u i t a m i i a e , et comes Andegaviae, a r c h i e p i s c o p l s , e p i s c o u i s , abbatibus, comitibus et baronibus, j u s t i t i i s et vioereomit-i b u s , et omnibus m i n i s t r i s et f i d e l i b u s s u i s t o t i u s A n g l i a e , salutem. S c i a t i s nos earissimo censanguineo nostro W i l l e l m o , eadem g r a t i a r e g i Scottorum, r e d d i d i s s e c a s t e l i a sua Rokesburh et Eerewic, tanquam ejus p r o p r i a , jure h a e r e d i t a r i o ab eo et haeredibus s u i s i n peruetuum possidenda. P r a e t e r e a quietavimus e i omnes conventiones et p a c t i o n e s , quas bonae memoriae pater n o s t e r Eenricus rex A n g l i a e per novas caetas et per captionem suam e x t o r s i t , i t a v i d e l i c e t ut nobis f a c i a t i n t e g r e et p l e n a r i e quod rex Scottorum Malcolm us, f r a t e r e jus, antecessoribus n o s t r i s " de jure f e c i t , et de jure facere debuit; et nos faciamus e i q u i c q u i d antecessore a n o s t r i p r a e d i c t o Malcolmo de jure f e c e r u n t et facere debusrunt, s c i l i c e t i n conductu veniendo ad curiam, et rede undo a c u r i a , et i n morando i n c u r i a , et i n p r o c u r a t i o n i b u s , et i n omnibus l i b e r t a t i b u s et d i g n i t a t - -i b u s et honoribus eidem jure d e b i t i s , secundum quod recognoscetur a quatuor proceribus n o s t r i s ab ipso Willelmo rege e l e c t i s , et a quatuor proceribus i l l i u s a nobis e l e c t i s S i antem f i n e s s i v e marcias r e g n i Scotiae a l i q u i s nostrorum hominum, postquam p r a e d i c t u s Willelmus a patre nostro captus ffuit, u s u r p a v e r i t absque j u d i c i o , volumus ut i n t e g r e r e s t i t u a n t u r , et ad eum statum redueantur quo erant ante ejus captionem. P r a e t e r e a de t e r r i s s u i s quas habet i n A n g l i a , sen d o m i n i e i s , sen f e o d i s , s c i l i c e t i n comitatu Huntendoniae et i n omnibus a l i i s , i n ea l i b e r t a t e et p l e n i t u d i n e p o s s i d e a t , et haeredes ejus i n perpetuum, qua Malcolmus p o s s e d i t v e l possidere debuit, n i s i p r a e d i c t u s Malcolmus v e l haeredes s u i a l i q u i d postea i n f e o d a v e r i n t : i t a tamen quod s i qua postea i n f e o d a t a sunt, ipsorum feodorum s e r v i t i a ad eum v e l haeredes ejus p e r t i n e a n t . Et s i q u i d p a t e r n o s t e r p r a e d i c t o Willelmo r e g i Scotiae don-aver i t , raturn et firmum habere volumus: reddidimus etiam e i l i g a n t i a s hominum suorum, et omnes c a r t a s quas do-minus p a t e r n o s t e r de eo habuit p e r captionem suam. Et s i a l i q u a e a l i a e f o r t e per oblivionem retentae ant inventae f u e r i n t , eas penitus v i r i b u s carere praecipimus. Ipse T 7 > autem l i g i u s homo noster devenit de omnibus t e r r i s de ciuihus antecessores sui l i g i i homines a n t e c e s s o r s nostrorum f uer-unt. i t x i d e l i t a t e m j u r a v i t nobis et haeredibus n o s t r i s . T estibus hast (Then f o l l o w signatures of the archbishops, bishops, Eleanor and. John.) 1 * Appendix • The Beginning of the Year i n the Middle Ages. There were s e v e r a l dates made use of d u r i n g the Middle Ages f o r the commencement of the year. These had v a r i o u s causes, c i v i l , m i l i t a r y and r e l i g i o u s . J u l i u s Caesar had e s t a b l i s h e d January 1 as the f i r s t day of- the year, and t h i s was used through many pa r t s of the o l d empire w e l l i n t o t h e seventh century / T h i s met w i t h o b j e c t i o n by C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s on the grounds that i t was a pagan f e s t i v a l . Many E n g l i s h c h r o n i c l e r s began to use Christmas Day as the. f i r s t of the year. A p r i e s t Dionysius i n the seventh century had worked out a t a b l e f o r f i n d i n g the date of E a s t e r . As he used the words ab i n c a r n a t i one i n course of time March 25 came to be favoured i n place of December 25 i n r e c k o n i n g the number of years and hence the beginning of the y e a r . The s t y l e of l a d y Day p o s s i b l y s t a r t e d i n Burgundy but i t became known as the S t y l u s PI or en-t i n u s . I t was adopted i n England i n the. l a t e t w e l f t h century and continued as the o f f i c i a l usage u n t i l 1752. This s t y l e made i t s way but. s l o w l y i n Prance and we f i n d Henry I of England at Tours i n January using the Lady Day s t y l e , and at Angers the f o l l o w i n g March u s i n g Christmas s t y l e . P h i l i p Augustus made more confusing by d a t i n g from E a s t e r . Gervase of Canterbury about 1200 mentions the Easter s t y l e as among one of the r e c o g n i s e d methods. By 1215 Easter -was the es-t a b l i s h e d r u l e i n the French chancery. Bearing i n mind t h e i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s between France, England and t h e A n j e v i n lands and remembering th a t E aster Day was movable and March 25 f i x e d , i t i s easy to see the con-f u s i o n that would a r i s e . I n I m p e r i a l t e r r i t o r i e s the o l d Roman s t y l e was' n a t u r a l l y r e t a i n e d . I n France Easter became accepted. On t h e f r o n t i e r s l o c a l v a r i a t ions between the tw0 methods were found. F u r t h e r the r i s e o f any one s t y l e to the p o s i t i o n of o f f i c i a l or customary use v a r i e s from place to p l a c e . Thus France was employing Easter Day i n 1215 while i n Auvergne Lady Day was s t i l l c urrent i n 1 4 ? 8 . I n the Dauphine i n I343 Lady Day was s t i l l the r u l e w h i l e Avignon was reckoning from Christmas, Further n o r t h d y n a s t i c changes a f f e c t the reckoning, so t h a t i n the Low C o u n t r i e s we must take i n t o account not only the h i s t o r y and geography o f a l o c a l i t y but al s o i t s a l l e g i a n c e before we can c a l c u l a t e the year c o r r e c t l y . Sometimes we even f i n d two dates i n one l o c a l i t y , one c a l l e d c ourt s t y l e and the other popular s t y l e . During the f o u r t e e n t h century o p p o s i t i o n g r a d u a l l y arose, w i t h a swing back i n favour of January 1 s t , On February 24, 1581/2 Pope Gregory X I I I Issued a b u l l p r o c l a i m i n g January 1 s t as the beginning o f the year, yet i t d i d not come i n t o u n i v e r s a l use i n Western Europe u n t i l 1797. Enough has been s a i d t o show th a t c a u t i o n i s r e -qu i r e d i n r e f e r r i n g t o dates. M a t e r i a l s from a r t i c l e by R. L. Poole i n Proceedings of B r i t i s h Academy, T o l . X, 1?21-23, Pp. 113 to 137. Appendix. A l e t t e r from Longchamp t o Diceto encloses copy of one from the Old Man of the Mountain t o Limpold, Duke of A u s t r i a . The A s s a s s i n c h i e f f r e e s Richard I from a l l blame f o r k i l l i n g Conrad, Marquis of M o n t f e r r a t , s a y i n g t h a t he was k i l l e d by the Assassins i n vengeance f o r the k i l l i n g of a member of t h e i r band who was t r a v e l l i n g on a ship from S a t a l i a towards h i s own home. This man was taken ashore at Tyre and murdered by some f o l l o w e r s of Conrad w i t h the ob j e c t of robbery. He s t a t e s most d e f i n i t e l y t h a t Richard had no p a r t i n t h i s whatever«, Appendix How R i c h a r d gained the name Cor L e o n i s . This i s taken from the Ch r o n i c l e o f Henry Knighton or C n i t t h o n 1 , a canon of L e i c e s t e r Abbey, i n the l a t e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . He acknowledges Higden as the source of much of h i s account of Richard I , but not of the f o l l o w i n g s t o r y . The i n c i d e n t took place as C n i t t h o n t e l l s us w h i l e Richard was a prisoner of the Emperor and John was working w i t h P h i l i p against R i c h a r d . .At the time when Richa r d was thus i n p r i s o n a f i e r c e and famished l i o n was loosed upon him, to the end i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t weakened by hunger he would devour the k i n g , as i f thro ugh the negligence of the l i o n ' s guard. But the k i n g , f u l l of boldness and bra v e r y , b r e a t h i n g a prayer to God, seeing the l i o n r u s h i n g upon him w i t h open jaws and f i e r eely, seized h i s own c l o a k and winding i t round h i s arm, and t h r u s t h i s hand, and arm i n t o the l i o n ' s t h r o a t , and c l o s i n g up h i s f i s t he drew out the heart of the l i o n w i t h the sup p o r t i n g p a r t s and devoured i t s t i l l hot and ble e d i n g . From t h i s f a c t there arose the name by which he i s c a l l e d , R i c h a r d the Li o n - h e a r t e d . 1. Knighton, Chron. i . 167 Last Journey of Henry II. His meeting with Philip , Colornbieres and death at Chinon. Richard's dispositions in England before going on t] Crusade. John's possessions are underlined in red. See of Durham in green. Longchamp's flight from Windsor to London and the "battle" of Hounslow. Richard's journeyings during his captivity from his landing at Ragusa to his liberations at Swine. X HI W e s t C l o i s t e r walk East w a l l N o r t h Cloister walk N o r t h wall arcade OLD MONASTERY GATEWAY. ST. A L B A N S . B i b l i o g r a p h y B Brimary S ources D i c e t o , Ralph de, Opera H i s t o r i e s , 2 v o l s . , e d i t e d by W i l l i a m Stubbs, R o l l s Series London, Longman and Co., 1876. Hoveden, Roger de, Chronica, 4 v o l s , , e d i t e d by W i l l i a m Stubbs, R o l l s S e r i e s London, Longman and Co., I87O0 Knighton, Henry, Chronica, 2 v o l s . , e d i t e d by J . R. Lumby, R o l l s Series London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1889. Hewburgh, W i l l i a m of, H i s t o r i a Rerum Anglicarum, 2 v o l s e d i t e d by Richard Hewlett, R o l l s S e r i e s London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1884-85. T o r i g n i , Robert de, Abbot of Mont St. Michael . Rerum Britannicarum e d i t e d by R. Howie t t , R o l l s Series London, H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 188.9. Wendover, Roger de, F l o r e s Hi storiarum, 5 v o l s . , e d i t e d by H. G. Hewlett, R o l l s S e r i e s London, 'H.M. S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1887. .• References Barker, E r n e s t , The Crusades., London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925„ Freeman, E. A., H i s t o r i c a l Essays, London, Macmillan and. Co., I 8 7 I . Hallam, Henry, H i s t o r y of England d u r i n g the Middle Age 3 v o l s . , Hew York, C o l o n i a l Press, 1899. H e i g h t l e y , Thos., H i s t o r y of England, 3 v o l s . , London, Whittaker and Co., 1839. H a i t i a n ! , F . W. , C o n s t i t u t i o n a i H i s t o r y of England, Cam "bridge , Univers i t y P r e s s , 1911=, Korgate, Kate, England under t h e A n l e v i n s , London and Hew York, H a c m i l l a n and Co,, 1887. P o l l o c k and Ha i t l a n d , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Law, Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1923. P o o l e , Reginald 1.,, A r t i c l e on Beginning of the Year . i n the Middle Ages, i n Proceedings o f the B r i t i s h Academy, Y o l . 2, 1921-23, London, Humphrey M i l f o r d , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Ramsay, S i r J a s . H., The A n l e v i n Empire, London, Swan Sonnenschein and Co., 1903. Round, J . II.,. Commune of London, Westminster, A. Constable and Co., 1899• Round , J , H., Feudal-Engl and, London, S . Sonnenschein and Co., 1895 o Stubbs, Bishop Wm., C ens t i t u t i onal H i s t o r y of England, 3 v o l s . , Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1891, Stubbs, Bishop Wm., H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n to the R o l l s . S e r i e s , e d i t e d by Ar t h u r K a s s a l l , London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1902. Stubbs, Bishop Wm., S e l e c t C h a r t e r s , 8 t h e d i t i o n , Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , 1905. Tout, T. F., The Empire and the Papacy, London, R i v i n g t o n ' s , 1 8 9 8 . Wendover, Roger de, Flowers of H i s t o r y , 2 v o l s . , t r a n s , by J . A. G i l e s , London, Henry G. Bonn, 1849, 

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