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Servicing cost consequences of several residential development patterns and their implications for municipal… Pearson, Norman 1965

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THE SERVICING COST CONSEQUENCES OP SEVERAL RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MUNICIPAL G-OALS AND POLICIES by NORMAN PEARSON B. A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publi-cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Conirrrnnity and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 ? Canada Date A p r i l , 1965  'ABSTRACT M e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e communities throughout N o r t h A m e r i c a are t o d a y f a c i n g a m u l t i t u d e of major problems p r e -c i p i t a t e d by t h e i r r e c e n t r a p i d development. The l e a p f r o g chaos of urban s p r a w l has l e f t thousands of a c r e s of d i s r u p t e d l a n d i n i t s wake, and b a s i c m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l t o s o l v e t h e s e problems and p r e v e n t new ones. Much of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s chaos l i e s w i t h M u n i c i p a l Coun-c i l s t h a t , i n s t e a d of r e c o g n i z i n g the d e l i c a t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p of m u n i c i p a l development g o a l s , p o l i c i e s , p a t t e r n s , and c o s t s , are concerned o n l y w i t h a t t r a c t i n g new development. On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e are few f a c t u a l c o s t d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n a form r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p r a c t i c a l problems, and t h e r e have been few attempts t o secure such d a t a . Hence, the o b j e c t i v e i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e r v i c i n g c o s t conse-quences of d i f f e r e n t development p a t t e r n s and t o t h e r e b y e s -t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s f o s t e r i n g an e f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n . U s i n g the household as t h e c o s t u n i t , s i x p a t t e r n -c o s t hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d , i n c o r p o r a t i n g s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s , namely: l o t a r e a ; l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o ; d i s -t ance t o a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s ; a r e a of a s u b d i v i s i o n at a d i s t a n c e from t r u n k s e r v i c e s ; the p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s d eveloped; and s e r v i c i n g l e v e l . Seven t o - t h e - l o t s e r v i c e s , namely r o a d s , c u r b s , s i d e w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , water d i s t r i b u t i o n , s a n i t a r y sewers, and storm sewers, are c o n s i d e r e d with, each p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e . U t i l i z i n g an a b s t r a c t model, t w e l v e 160-acre model s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g the s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s are de-s i g n e d , s e r v i c e d , and c o s t e d f o r each of the seven s e r v i c e s t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To assure c o n s i s t e n c y , s p e c i f i c s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e -ments, and c o s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s are f o l l o w e d . The s t u d y r e s u l t s c l e a r l y u phold the f o l l o w i n g s i x p a t t e r n - c o s t hypotheses: H y p o t h e s i s A: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as l o t a r e a i s de-c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s B; That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as the l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s C: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l per h o u s ehold s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as t h e d i s t a n c e between the s u b d i v i s i o n and the a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s D: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as t h e a r e a of the s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n c r e a s e d when the s u b d i v i s i o n i s at a d i s t a n c e from a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s . H y p o t h e s i s E: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as t h e p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s d eveloped i s i n c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s F; That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as the s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s d e c r e a s e d . From the s e "basic statements i t i s apparent t h a t i f t h e need f o r s e r v i c i n g u r b an and suburban development i s ac-c e p t e d , and i f t h e e c o n o m i c a l p r o v i s i o n of t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s d e s i r e d , t h e n a " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " approach t o community b u i l d i n g must be a c c e p t e d . From the r e s u l t s , b a s i c m u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development can be f o r m u l a t e d . Development s h o u l d be staged t o t a k e i n new areas o n l y as t h e y are needed and o n l y as t h e y can be s e r v i c e d . Areas a l r e a d y s t a r t e d s h o u l d be com-p l e t e d f i r s t . Development at a d i s t a n c e from e s t a b l i s h e d areas s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i f i t i s complete and e x t e n s i v e . I n o u t l y i n g a r e a s f o r d e f e r r e d development, s e r v i c e s and sub-d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d . Urban development i n -v o l v i n g l o t s of over 7,000 square f e e t s h o u l d be d i s c o u r a g e d , w h i l e the s m a l l narrow l o t s h o u l d be r e c o n s i d e r e d because i t i s most e c o n o m i c a l . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the economies of c o n c e n t r a t i o n are c l e a r l y demonstrated by the s t u d y r e s u l t s . The d e c i s i o n makers, i f t h e y are p r o t e c t i n g the community i n t e r e s t , must a v o i d the waste of a " s c a t t e r a t i o n " p o l i c y , , ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I n s u b m i t t i n g t h i s paper, I am i n d e b t e d t o my a d v i s e r , Dr. K. J . C r o s s , f o r h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and g u i d a n c e ; and t o Dr. H. P. Ober l a n d e r , under whom I s t u d i e d , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and good c o u n s e l . I am a l s o most a p p r e c i a t i v e of the P l a n n i n g F e l l o w s h i p s g r a n t e d me by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . And, A l t h o u g h he had l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h i s paper, I would l i k e t o ex-te n d my thanks t o the l a t e K a s p a r Naegele f o r t h e b e n e f i t of h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g over the y e a r s . Norman Pe a r s o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION AND STUDY OBJECTIVES O u t l i n e of Paper 1 PREVAILING- MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT ATTITUDES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES G o a l - P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s : The C one e n t r a t i on-Sc at t e r a t i on C ontinuum The Causes of an I n a p p r o p r i a t e Development P a t t e r n The S o c i a l Cost Consequences of the P a t t e r n Summary 2 ESTABLISHING THE METHOD FOR PATTERN-COST RELATIONSHIP INVESTIGATION Study Approach, Scope, and L i m i t a t i o n s C u r r e n t L i t e r a t u r e D e a l i n g With the P a t t e r n - C o s t I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p P a t t e r n Elements and S e r v i c i n g C o s t s : S i x Hypotheses P r o c e d u r e s f o r T e s t i n g the S i x Hypotheses Summary 3 THE SERVICING COST CONSEQUENCES OF DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MUNICIPAL GOALS AND POLICIES Study R e s u l t s and T h e i r Immediate I m p l i c a t i o n s Study R e s u l t s i n a M u n i c i p a l G o a l - P o l i c y P e r s p e c t i v e Summary 4 SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 81 APPENDICES 86 A. M e t r o p o l i t a n C o n s t r u c t i o n 87 Trends i n Canada B. S u b d i v i s i o n i n S u r r e y , B r i t i s h 90 Columbia C. Cost-Revenue A n a l y s i s Techniques 93 D. The G r i d , C u r v i l i n e a r , and C l u s t e r 96 S u b d i v i s i o n P a t t e r n s E. S u b d i v i s i o n D e s i g n Requirements 99 P. S e r v i c i n g D e s i g n Requirements 101 G. C o s t i n g P r o c e d u r e s 107 H. D e s i g n , S e r v i c i n g , and C o s t i n g D a t a 112 f o r T e s t i n g the Hypotheses LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE •1 The Goal-Policy-Pattern-Cost Interrelationship 3 Within the P o l i c y Formulation Process 1.1 The Three Levels of the Concentration- 11 Scatteration Continuum 1.2 Relationship Between Occupied and Vacant 14 Residential Land i n the Vancouver Area Measured Cumulatively From Downtown Vancouver 1.3 A Square Mile of Urban Sprawl on the Fringe 22 of Vancouver 1.4 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n Among Fringe Area Residents, 28 Metropolitan Vancouver 2.1 Three Approaches to Establishing Relationships 48 2.2 Model Subdivisions (Groups 1 and 2) 51 Model Subdivisions (Groups 3 and 4) 52 3.1 Annual Cost of Services per Household by 59 Lot Area 3.2 Annual Cost of Services per Household by Lot 60 Width to Depth Ratio 3.3 Annual Cost of Services per Household by 61 Distance to Trunk Service 3.4 Annual Cost of Services per Household by Area 62 of Subdivision at a Distance from Trunk Services 3.5 Annual Cost of Services per Household by 63 Proportion of Lots Developed 3.6 Annual Cost of Services per Household by Level 64 of Servicing D.l Comparison of Features of Curvilinear and 98 Cluster Subdivision Patterns G.l Data Sheet f o r Gathering Unit Cost Information 108 1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 3.1 P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y and R e s u l t i n g D i s t a n c e s 66 t o L o c a l F a c i l i t i e s A . l D w e l l i n g S t a r t s i n Canadian M e t r o p o l i t a n 88 C e n t r e s A. 2 D w e l l i n g S t a r t s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 89 f o r S e l e c t e d Y e a r s B. l S i z e of Occupied L o t s i n S u r r e y 91 B.2 Occupied and Unoccupied L o t s i n S u r r e y , 1961 92 D . l Comparison of F e a t u r e s of G r i d and C u r v i l i n e a r 97 P a t t e r n s F . l Average D a i l y Water Consumption and Peak 104 R a t i o s by L o t A r e a F. 2 R e q u i r e d F i r e Flow 105 G. l U n i t C o s t s f o r M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s i n the 109 Vancouver A r e a G. 2 Annual C o s t s f o r M u n i c i p a l S e r v i c e s 111 •H.l P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s of the Model S u b d i v i s i o n s 113 H. 2 R e s u l t a n t D e s i g n F e a t u r e s of Water 114 D i s t r i b u t i o n Trunks H.3 R e s u l t a n t D e s i g n F e a t u r e s of S a n i t a r y Sewer 115 Trunks H.4 R e s u l t a n t D e s i g n F e a t u r e s of Storm Sewer 116 Trunks H.5 S e r v i c i n g Needs p e r Household by L o t A r e a 117 and L o t Width t o Depth R a t i o H.6 A d d i t i o n a l S e r v i c i n g Needs p e r M i l e p e r 118 Household f o r S u b d i v i s i o n s at a D i s t a n c e from Trunk S e r v i c e s H.7 Annual Cost of S e r v i c e s p e r Household by L o t 120 A r e a and L o t Width t o Depth R a t i o H.8 Annual Cost of S e r v i c e A d d i t i o n s p e r M i l e 121 p e r Household f o r S u b d i v i s i o n s at a D i s t a n c e H.9 Annual Cost of S e r v i c e s p e r Household by 122 D i s t a n c e t o Trunks, by L o t A r e a , and by A r e a of S u b d i v i s i o n H.10 Annual Cost of S e r v i c e s p e r Household by 123 P r o p o r t i o n Developed H . l l Annual Cost of S e r v i c e s p e r Household by 124 L o t A r e a and L e v e l of S e r v i c i n g INTRODUCTION AMD STUDY OBJECTIVES This study i s concerned with the North American r e s i -d ential land development process, from a municipal viewpoint. This p a r t i c u l a r focus results from an appreciation of the major problems being encountered by most metropolitan fringe municipa-l i t i e s as a consequence of t h e i r recent rapid development. Some people might argue that with the apparent current desire among new homeseekers f o r a central location and" apartment living,"^ -there i s no need to concern ourselves with these old problems. But these problems, l e f t i n the wake of rapid development, do not solve themselves, and i t i s reasonable to expect that f o r many the pendulum of taste w i l l once again swing to "suburban l i v i n g " and these "old" problems w i l l be our major concern once more. I t i s apparent that basic municipal development p o l i c y considerations are essential, both to solve the ex i s t i n g problems and to prevent the creation of new ones. To give these p o l i c y considerations t h e i r due atten-t i o n , they must be considered i n the perspective of the residen-These trends are i l l u s t r a t e d by the current s t a t i s t i c s given i n Appendix A, page 87. • t i a l land development process within which they operate. This process consists of four elements: (1) municipal development goals, (2) municipal development p o l i c y , (3) r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment pattern, and (4) municipal servicing cost. Although t h i s l i s t i n g may appear academic, for Municipal Councils aware of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s these elements are four highly s i g n i f i c a n t and closely related development variables. Shown i n Figure .1 (page 3), t h e i r interrelationship within the po l i c y formulation process i s apparent: f i r s t , the establishment of municipal development goals provides the necessary framework for development policy formulation; second, the r e s i d e n t i a l development pattern results from the administration of these p o l i c i e s ; t h i r d , the municipal servicing costs result d i r e c t l y from the pattern so determined; and fourth, as development pattern and servicing cost are major parts of our environment, any reassessment of the environment thus created results i n a reappraisal of goals and the formula-t i o n of new or the reaffirmation of existing p o l i c y . Unfortunately, the importance of t h i s interrelationship i s often ignored, and the four variables become treated as four isolated events. Although many municipalities f a i l to understand Municipal development goals embody the physical, econo-mic, and s o c i a l ideals being strived f o r as an end-product by the Municipal Council. Municipal development policy consists of a l l the municipal development controls and regulations which i n -fluence development, be they subdivision and zoning by-laws, m i l l rates, frontage charges, or servicing p o l i c i e s . Residential de-velopment pattern pertains to the physical form f i n a l l y assumed by development when i t occurs, be i t scattered or concentrated, grid or c u r v i l i n e a r , large l o t subdivision or small. Municipal servicing cost refers to the expenditures involved i n i n s t a l l i n g and maintaining services essential to the community. These four elements are used repeatedly throughout t h i s paper. 3 m u n i c i p a l development GOALS ASSESSMENT of environment m u n i c i p a l development POLICY r e s i d e n t i a l development PATTERN immediate p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic ENVIRONMENT m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g COST many o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s FIGURE l . l THE GOAL-POLICY-PATTERN-COST INTERRELATIONSHIP WITHIN THE POLICY FORMULATION PROCESS 4 the urban development process-and i t s cost consequences, they are only too eager to win t h e i r " f a i r share" of new population growth and construction. This short term objective then becomes t h e i r immediate and only "goal". Municipal zoning, subdivision, i and servicing p o l i c i e s are h a s t i l y decided or amended, often i n -dependently and i n c o n f l i c t , to accommodate actual or apparent urban growth pressures. Or where no s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s have been established, the operating departments of the municipal admini-st r a t i o n independently decide what the p o l i c y should be and re-f l e c t that policy i n t h e i r expenditures and c a p i t a l works. Mis-directed and unstated development p o l i c i e s such as these have caused many of our development pattern problems. The most pre-valent problem i s the leapfrog low density development that has scattered l i t t l e pockets of housing along p a r t i a l l y completed dead-end grid roads, has disrupted previous a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i -v i t y , has ruined potential i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , has wantonly invaded new land, and has created an automobile-oriented environment de-void of convenience. This pattern i n turn determines the munici-pal servicing cost, and the cost of i n s t a l l i n g , operating, and maintaining the needed, expected, and demanded municipal services to such an i l l o g i c a l development pattern i s astronomical. The r e a l i z a t i o n by the decision makers, the Municipal Council, that the goal, p o l i c y , pattern, and cost elements are int e r r e l a t e d , i f i t occurs at a l l , usually occurs at the f i n a l i r r e v e r s i b l e •step when the pattern i s established, the services are demanded, and the costs must be paid. Nevertheless, the f a i l u r e of Municipal Corporations to acknowledge t h i s goal-policy-pattern-cost relationship i s 5 not e n t i r e l y t h e i r f a u l t . Many have followed what they sincerely thought to be the best course of action. Accurate and re a d i l y applicable municipal servicing cost information has not been generally available as a basis for informed decisions, at least not i n a form adequately related to goals, p o l i c y , and pattern. The major studies of t h i s problem.by Wheaton and Schussheim,^ by 4 5 Isard and Coughlin, and Wetmore et a l . , reviewed i n Chapter Two, provide only a l i m i t e d assessment of t h i s relationship. This paper does not suggest that r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment should necessarily "break even" i n terms of municipal costs and revenues. But i t i s reasonable to suggest that the cost to the municipality of servicing different r e s i d e n t i a l development patterns should be s p e c i f i c a l l y known before development goals and p o l i c i e s are decided upon and long before actual development takes place, for the r e s u l t i n g costs must somehow be met through municipal taxes, special frontage rates, or other charges to the taxpayer. With the r e s i d e n t i a l function as the major land user ft i n urban areas, with an increasingly wide range of municipal •'William 1. C. Wheaton and Morton J . Schussheim, The  Cost of Municipal Services i n Residential Areas, (Washington: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1955). ^Walter Isard and Robert E. Coughlin, Municipal Costs  and Revenues Resulting from Community Growth, (Wellesley, Mass.: Chandler-Davis Publishing Company, 1957). c -\Louis B. Wetmore et a l . , The Effects of Large Lot Size  on Residential Development, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n 32, (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1958). 6 See f o r example John H. Niedercorn and Edward P. R. Hearle, Recent Land-Use Trends i n Forty-Eight Large American  C i t i e s , (Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a : The Rand Corporation, 1963). 6 " s e r v i c e s needed and expected'by every h o u s e h o l d , and w i t h i n -8 ' c r e a s e d problems of l o c a l government f i n a n c i n g , the need t o document t h e s e consequences c a r e f u l l y i s apparent. Hence, t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h i s paper i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s e r v i c i n g c o s t consequences of d i f f e r e n t development p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the means by which a m u n i c i p a l i t y can ad-j u s t ' i t s m u n i c i p a l development goals- and p o l i c i e s t o a c h i e v e an e f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n . OUTLINE OF PAPER I n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n the g o a l - p o l i c y - p a t t e r n -c o s t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p has been suggested and t h e s t u d y o b j e c t i v e has been e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o u r - e l e m e n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s des-c r i b e d i n Chapter 1 w i t h i n the p e r s p e c t i v e of the p r e v a i l i n g l a n d development a t t i t u d e s ; c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l - p o l i c y o r i e n -t a t i o n s , t h e . p r o c e s s of i n a p p r o p r i a t e p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and the s o c i a l c o s t consequences of such a p a t t e r n . The method f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n Chapter 2, i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the approach, scope, and l i m i t a t i o n s t o the s t u d y , a d i s c u s s i o n of the c u r r e n t l i t e r a -t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s t u d y , the f o r m u l a t i o n of hypotheses, and the p r o c e d u r e f o r t e s t i n g t h e hypotheses. I n Ch a p t e r 3 t h e r e -See f o r example Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, The Urban F r o n t i e r , P a r t 2, (New Westminster, B. C : The Board, 1963). Q See f o r example L y l e C. F i t c h , " M e t r o p o l i t a n F i n a n c i a l Problems", Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l  S c i e n c e , v o l . 314 (November, 1957), pp. 66-73. 7 s u i t s of t e s t i n g the hypotheses are g i v e n , the r e s u l t i n g p a t t e r n -c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y , and t h e f i n d i n g s , are c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The s t u d y as a whole i s summarized and t h e f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn i n C hapter 4 . 'CHAPTER 1 PREVAILING- MUNICIPAL' DEVELOPMENT ATTITUDES  AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES The current attitudes of many municipalities to the r e s i d e n t i a l land development process are not conducive to the e f f i c i e n t or functional development of land. In t h i s Chapter these attitudes are considered i n r e l a t i o n to the goal-policy alternatives, to the process of inappropriate pattern establish-ment, and to the resultant s o c i a l cost consequences of such a pattern. GOAL-POLICY ALTERNATIVES: THE CONCENTRATION-SCATTERATION  CONTINUUM '•Our most valuable natural resource i s the t i n y f r a c t i o n of land surface best f i t t e d by location to bring men together for co-operation, exchange, and f r a t e r n i z a t i o n . " But the extent to which an urban area successfully f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s co-operation, exchange, and f r a t e r n i z a t i o n depends upon the goals i t s t r i v e s to f u l f i l and the p o l i c i e s i t adopts toward t h i s end. In the incorporated parts of B r i t i s h Columbia the P r o v i n c i a l Government has delegated to the municipalities exten--LMason Gaffney, "Containment P o l i c i e s for Urban Sprawl", (unpublished paper, 1964), p. 4. 9 sive powers f o r formulating and administering municipal develop-ment po l i c y . These are no feeble powers. With them, f o r example, i a.-municipality can concentrate development i n a compact high-density cluster or scatter i t helter-skelter over the countryside, and i t takes l i t t l e imagination to envision the r e l a t i v e municipal servicing cost consequences of such divergent development patterns. But with the delegation of these powers goes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r proper use. The population explosion, the process of urbanization, the increased use of the automobile, and the ava-r i c e of the speculator are a l l lamely blamed for most of the de-velopment problems i n our urban areas, but i t i s with inadequate or irresponsible municipal development policy that the f a u l t actu-a l l y l i e s . What, then, are the goal alternatives open to a munici-p a l i t y establishing i t s development policy? C i t i e s , regions, and l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l areas evidence a variety of settlement patterns, each with i t s own value orien-tations. In examining these patterns, the planner has given con-ceptual names to some of the more d i s t i n c t forms: the s a t e l l i t e town, urban sprawl, the super c i t y , broadacres, the balanced com-munity, the r a d i a l corridor, the gardeneity, the subdivision, and the conurbation, to name a few. For purposes of comparison, these development patterns can be "measured" against a variety of yardsticks, such as size, scatteration or concentration, pedes-t r i a n - or auto-orientation, convenience, f u n c t i o n a b i l i t y , i n t e r -dependence or independence, and l i v a b i l i t y . Each of these yard-sticks represents a p a r t i c u l a r "dimension" or viewpoint f or ob-serving a development pattern, and one of these yardsticks,, the 10 concentration-scatteration continuum, i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance to the goal-policy-pattern-cost i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The concentration-scatteration continuum encompasses two fundamental antipodal "philosophies". "Scatteration" refers to the low density dispersal of development over a wide area, catering to i n d i v i d u a l desires and leaving considerable vacant land behind, while "concentration" pertains to the containment of development within designated areas through the staged expan-sion of an existing or new centre and complete land u t i l i z a t i o n . But t h i s i s an over-simplification, and a f u l l appreciation of the continuum must involve i t s l o c a l , c i t y , and regional l e v e l s , shown i n Figure 1.1 (page 11) as a three dimensional model. This diagram also locates some of the more d i s t i n c t development pat-tern concepts i n r e l a t i o n to these three l e v e l s , and further i d e n t i f i e s the concentration-scatteration orientations. 2 Scatteration, Lessinger argues, allows f l e x i b i l i t y i n urban development. He suggests that the vacant land, l e f t i n the wake of i n i t i a l development under a scatteration p o l i c y , enables future alternative development decisions and provides greater p o s s i b i l i t i e s for imaginative reconstruction, while concentration f i r m l y straps an entire area with today's tastes. Also, he argues, scatteration reduces the chance of blight and segregation, and encourages adaptation to change. But on the other hand, i t can be argued, scatteration creates a development form that over Jack Lessinger, "The Case for Scatteration", Journal of  the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, v o l . 28, no. 3 (August, 1962), pp. 159-169. 11 i .LOCAL LEVEL i SCATTERATION 0M4SNTRATI0N 1. Local Level: • i n d i v i d u a l houses located anywhere •houses unrelated to l o c a l services •apparent independence used as a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n •automobile e s s e n t i a l 2. C i t y Level: •communities poorly related to each other and to c i t y centre •accent on l o c a l area without recognising opportunities that could be achieved with a wider reference • f a i l u r e to r e l a t e area to city-wide s e r v i c e s •assumption that with growth r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l eventually r e s u l t , or that i t i s not needed 3. Regional Level: • c i t i e s located at a functional distance from one another •assumption that i n d i v i d u a l area can provide a l l i t s own basic needs •possible f a i l u r e to recognize implications f o r regional economy •preservation of l o c a l i z e d autonomy 1. Local Level: •houses- i n distlnct^graypings •houses f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to such: l o c a l services as shops, school's, parks, and' transportation •interdependence for basic convenience accepted 2. C i t y Level: •communities located i n r e l a t i o n to one another and" to c i t y centre •communities conveniently and f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to area-wide services such as major shopping, cen t r a l business d i s t r i c t , employment, and regional transportation f a c i l i t i e s 3. Regional Level: • l o c a t i o n of c i t i e s i n functional r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one another •acceptance of interdependence of c i t i e s f o r services and transportation •acceptance of interdependence of economy • p o s s i b i l i t y of regional' transportation network FIGURE 1.1 THE THREE LEVELS OF THE CONCENTRATION SCATTERATION CONTINUUM 12 i t s h istory never provides adequate convenience and function-' a b i l i t y f o r i t s residents; i t e f f e c t i v e l y frustrates layout ^ innovations by trapping vacant land with premature and i l l o g i c a l subdivision; and i t often encourages b l i g h t , as i t i s to these sub-standard and sub-serviced amenity-free areas that the lower income groups are forced en masse by higher land values elsewhere. Scatteration f a i l s to encourage an e f f i c i e n t adaptation to change by creating confused land value patterns, intermixed development, and resultant premature decline. I t s apparent "openness" that attracts so many i s temporal and private: temporal i n that the "open space" i s simply vacant land awaiting speculative develop-ment, and private i n that public park land i s seldom acquired, or where acquired i s seldom developed. Scatteration forces longer distances to work, i t forces the municipality to provide a greater per capita investment i n roads and u t i l i t i e s , and i t forces every-one to pay higher prices for goods and services. -Concentration as a development p o l i c y assures the con-venience of a shorter distance between functions; a cosmopolitan l i f e ; the d i v e r s i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of services, interests, and contacts; and a wider choice of housing, employment, schools, shops, recreation and culture. In short, i t can assure the v a r i -ety and richness of urban l i f e that depend so much on a large population near at hand. Detractors of a concentration policy argue that i t s lack of openness i s suffocating, that i t robs man of his freedom, and that i t reduces the chances of variety that would be supposedly achieved through i n f i l l i n g . I f i n f i l l i n g follows the i n i t i a l scatteration process, i s i t not possible that either concentration or scatteration 13 p o l i c i e s would eventually result i n the same development pattern? i Or i s i t not possible to start with a scatteration approach and l a t e r switeh to a concentration policy? Regardless of which policy i s used, r e s i d e n t i a l land occupancy i n urban areas i s characterized by an increasing proportion of vacant to occupied •5 land as the distance from the centre increases, as shown i n Figure 1.2 (page 14). With reference to the figure, the d i f f e r -ences between a scatteration and a concentration p o l i c y are re-vealed by variations i n t h i s proportion at different distances from the core: a pure scatteration p o l i c y would be character-ized by a straight l i n e at, say, 45 degrees to the axes, while a concentration policy would be represented by an i n i t i a l l y steep l i n e that f i n a l l y angled over sharply at the edge of the develop-ment to approach a horizontal position. The diagram, i l l u s t r a t i n g a "half-way" p o l i c y , reveals that as the commuter l i m i t s are ex-tended by improved highways the peripheral band affected by gross land consumption rapidly increases, both i n area and i n width, i f a scatteration policy i s i n effect. This eliminates the chance of reaching the same development pattern achieved under a concen-t r a t i o n p o l i c y . S h i f t i n g from a scatteration to a concentration poli c y , although a step toward a l l that the l a t t e r pattern has to offer, necessitates the gradual absorption of a l l the prematurely •"In p a r t i c u l a r see lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Dynamics of Residential Land Settlement, (Few Westminster, B. C: The Board, 1963), and F. S. Chapin, J r . , and S. F. Weiss, Factors Influencing Land Development, (Chapel H i l l , N. C: Ins t i t u t e f o r Research i n Social Science, University of North Carolina, 1962). 14 25 oL_ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 VACANT LAND - THOUSANDS OF NET ACRES Source: Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, Dynamics  of R e s i d e n t i a l Land S e t t l e m e n t , (New Westminster, B.C.: The Board, .1963), p. ?3. F I G U R E I 2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OCCUPIED AND VACANT RESIDENTIAL LAND . ( N y A N C 0 U V E R AREA , MEASURED CUMULATIVELY FROM DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER 15 ' broken land before the f u l l benefits of concentration and staged development are re a l i z e d . The scatteration approach, i n t e n t i o n a l l y or by default, today dominates North American municipal development policy. I t i s an easy course of action f o r a municipality facing growth pressures. But "perhaps the North American i s es s e n t i a l l y non-urban, s t i l l i n the f r o n t i e r era of self-preservation and inde-pendence. Has he equated his personal freedom to open space, to physical distance from his neighbour, and to apparent indepen-dence, even though because of t h i s i s o l a t i o n he may be forced to become dependent upon the co-operation of hi s neighbour f o r his own well-being? Achieving t h i s apparent "independence" and short-lived i s o l a t i o n grants him freedom from, but no freedom to: freedom from the supposed constraints of urban l i f e , but no free-dom t_o engage i n the many educational and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and the wide choice that only, a centralized urban area can afford to offer. Has his attainment of home ownership, symbol of s e l f -reliance, overshadowed his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the greater com-munity? Perhaps scatteration i s symbolic of a false independence, suggesting that "man's growing v i r t u o s i t y i n dominating and re-shaping the environment i s i t s e l f a dangerous condition unless applied with a re s t r a i n t comparable to the l i m i t a t i o n s once im-posed on human settlement patterns by the environment i t s e l f " . 4 ^~K. R. Schneider, "Urbanization i n the C a l i f o r n i a Desert", Journal of the American In s t i t u t e of Planners, v o l . 28, no. 1, (February, 1962), p. 23. 16 THE CAUSES OP AN INAPPROPRIATE DEVELOPMENT PATTERN What happens when a municipality experiencing growth 1 pressures caters to these pressures without adequate goal-policy considerations? Within the goal-policy-pattern-cost i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , municipal policy formulation l o g i c a l l y evolves from a hierarchy of decisions, proceeding from the establishment of basic community-wide goals down to the specifies of zoning or sub-d i v i s i o n by-laws. But the consideration of long range community-wide goals i s often l o s t to a near-sighted p o l i t i c a l "need" to accommodate growth pressures at the policy l e v e l , or through the unstated decisions of the municipal administration. As a re-s u l t , higher l e v e l basic goals are established by default through the implied goals carried by these p o l i c y changes or de-5 eisions. The si t u a t i o n facing a municipal Council i s f a m i l i a r . F i r s t , the automobile, the freeway, and the acceptance of a long journey to work remove the physical barriers to d a i l y mobility, vastly increasing the supply of po t e n t i a l l y available r e s i d e n t i a l land f a r i n excess of immediate or anticipated land needs. Second, increased per capita wealth, the id e a l of "home owner-ship", the North American myth of a "land-lots-of-land" country-side, and the supposed "freedom and space", of the suburbs provide a s o c i a l " r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " for an outward spread. Third, lower JT?. S. Chapin, J r . , and S. F. Weiss, "Land Development Patterns and G-rowth Alternatives", ed. F. S. Chapin, J r . , and S. P. Weiss, Urban G-rowth Dynamics, (New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962), p. 451. 17 l a n d v a l u e s i n t h e f r i n g e and ready mortgage money remove the immediate f i n a n c i a l h a r r i e r and encourage subsequent f r i n g e de-velopment. W i t h t h e s e t h r e e f a c t o r s e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e s on t h e o f t e n n a i v e m e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and w i t h v i s i o n s of t a x revenues b e f o r e t h e d e c i s i o n makers' eyes, t h e r e i s l i t t l e chance f o r i n t e l l i g e n t g o a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t or r a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r -m u l a t i o n . I n e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of eon-temporary u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t and o f t e n u n w i l l i n g t o accept the un-f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e s of a n e i g h b o u r i n g community, f r i n g e a r e a M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s o f t e n d e c i d e t o " l e t the market t a k e i t s c o u r s e " or t o " g i v e e v e r y l a n d owner an e q u a l chance", f a i l i n g t o r e a l i z e the consequences of such wide-open p o l i c i e s f o r the home owner and f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Through amendments t o z o n i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s , v a s t a r e a s , o f t e n i n c l u d i n g prime a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s or p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , are made a v a i l a b l e t o more th a n accommodate c u r r e n t growth, and a s c a t t e r -a t i o n p o l i c y i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d development p r o c e s s i s t h e most d e c i s i v e s t e p i n the g o a l - p o l i c y - p a t t e r n - c o s t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r i t f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e s on the ground t h e r e s u l t s of m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n . I t i n v o l v e s f o u r " e v e n t s " : the f o r m u l a t i o n or change of m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y t o accommodate the development, the s u b d i v i s i o n of the l a n d , the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , and the con-s t r u c t i o n of houses. I d e a l l y , a l l f o u r events are a c c o m p l i s h e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p r e - p l a n n e d areas r e l a t e d t o p o p u l a t i o n growth; but i n p r a c t i c e many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p e r m i t s u b d i v i s i o n and u n s e r v i c e d c o n s t r u c t i o n j u s t about anywhere. However, the o c c u r r e n c e of any one of t h e s e " e v e n t s " u l t i m a t e l y precipitates the r e a l i z a t i o n of"the other three. The proeess may start with the simple subdivision of a farm, the zoning of an area for small l o t development, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a small , water l i n e to serve some acreage holdings, or the conversion of motel units into rental cottages, but each of these actions creates new demands that eventually terminate i n the creation of an urban environment. Subdivision i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t "primer" i n the land development process, even though to the speculator or de-veloper i t i s no more than a means of marketing land. This simple act sets with straight-jacket r i g i d i t y the basic physical pattern f o r the community and for successive generations of home owners. As the commuter l i m i t s of a metropolitan area are extended, a chain reaction of subdivision and resubdivision i n -variably follows. Large a g r i c u l t u r a l or bushland holdings or potential i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s are broken down into acreage, then into small holdings, and then into one-acre, half-acre, or "urban" l o t s . At each successive l e v e l of subdivision the This process i s p a r t i a l l y documented f o r one fringe municipality i n Appendix B, page 90. The "urban" l o t i s a 5,000 to 7,500 square foot parcel intended for the t y p i c a l home. I t i s usually the smallest r e s i d e n t i a l parcel size permitted i n an urban area. Lots of approximately one acre or less i n size are special cases i n t h i s process. Their appeal i s usually to the "open space" seeker. The one-acre l o t (or half-acre where s o i l conditions permit adequate septic tank operation) i s often mar-keted as a "large l o t " or "country estate" i n hopes of creating a higher market value or to avoid the cost of sewer i n s t a l l a t i o n . But the p r i n c i p a l demand for such l o t s i s l i m i t e d to established high value areas, and many of these speculative l o t s receive subsequent subdivision to "urban" l o t size at a l a t e r date when urban pressures and prices r i s e , i f the subdivision pattern i s capable of such resubdivision. fringe municipality usually'feels i t s destiny i s now estab-l i s h e d , f a i l i n g to r e a l i z e that i t s destiny w i l l be, at least i n part, urban. With each subdivision l e v e l new land values are established, but major construction seldom materializes u n t i l urban parcels are available and actual urban growth pres-sures are i n evidence. Servicing i s the other major "primer" i n the residen-t i a l land development process. Services usually follow i n i t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l development, the l e v e l of servicing depending upon the density of development, but where the servicing p o l i c y i s not geared to a development po l i c y , the provision of piped water, which i s es s e n t i a l l y an urban service, often precedes urban l o t zoning and urban growth needs. A low capacity water system i s sometimes "economically j u s t i f i e d " at a low density, enabling the servicing of small holdings. But such a system 7 exerts a strong decentralization bias, and everyone on a water l i n e feels j u s t i f i e d i n seeking urban l o t zoning even i f the system i s incapable of carrying the resultant demands. I t was t h i s pressure that i n 1955 resulted i n the zoning of over 40 square miles i n the suburban Municipality of Surrey f o r urban development. This error was subsequently realized and the area was cut back to about 16-g- square miles by early 1965. Unfor-tunately, the damage was already done, and vast areas had a l -ready been subdivided prematurely. ' J . W. Millman, "Policy Horizons f o r Future Water Supply", Land Economics, v o l . 39, no. 2, (May, 1963), p. 111. Thus, the most "open" policy component establishes the basis f o r the forced r e v i s i o n of other components. Water l i n e s create development expectations, higher values, and higher taxes. Urban subdivision and development create demands f o r other urban services. Each successive subdivision or servicing step creates demands for the next step i n the land development process. This process i s the major destroyer of a g r i c u l t u r a l land, taking i t out of production unnecessarily or prematurely. Gaffney suggests that the loss of a g r i c u l t u r a l land to urbaniza-t i o n i s actually no l o s s , f o r there i s always productive land o elsewhere, further from the expanding metropolis. But a g r i c u l -ture often forms an important segment, or even the base, of an area's economy, and disruption of that economy by the physical elements of urbanization w i l l only retard that urbanization. Even i f new growing areas can be located, a g r i c u l t u r a l products transported over long distances are more costly. In any case there i s no need to u t i l i z e prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r urban de-velopment i f non-arable lands are available. In the Santa Clara Valley of C a l i f o r n i a b i t s of scattered urban l o t subdivision t o t a l l i n g only 26 square miles have t o t a l l y ruined some 200 q square miles of prime a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Subdivision of B r i t i s h Columbia's Okanagan Valley orchards into small holdings i s crea-t i n g uneconomic farm units and eating away a v i t a l segment of the Q Gaffney, op. c i t . , p. 2. ^Heller and Wood, C a l i f o r n i a , Going, Going, (Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a : C a l i f o r n i a Tomorrow, 1962), p. 9. 21 regional economy. Premature' subdivision into acreage breaks up economic farm units and, there being few "spare-time farmers" today, the land l i e s fallow f o r years awaiting urban growth. Although the process of successive subdivision and ser-v i c i n g appears b a s i c a l l y reasonable, the r e s u l t i n g scatteration development pattern i s seldom r a t i o n a l . The usual result i s called "urban sprawl", a term which refers not to the simple out-ward expansion of our urban areas, but to the fragmented ribbon of urban development along one-mile and half-mile g r i d roads and the patchwork of urban l o t s between these gri d roads. An example of t h i s wasteful development i s shown i n Figure 1.3 (page 22). This land hungry scatteration i s l a r g e l y the result of the specu-lator-developer seeking out subdivision opportunities within the  policy framework established by the municipality. Much of the land remains i n bush or deteriorating pasture, and only part of the urban subdivision i s occupied. Like a neurotic rabbit i n an endless carrot patch, vast areas are entered, chopped up, and then only p a r t i a l l y used. Such urban l o t subdivision, especially where the section or quarter-section g r i d i s already i n existence, usually establishes a g r i d destiny for an entire area, robbing the land of i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y and ignoring natural features. I t re-moves a l l opportunity f o r a well-designed layout, even i n the un-developed parts of an area, unless the human problem of getting the many land owners a l l to agree on a plan of action at the same B r i t i s h Columbia, The Report of the Royal Commission  on the Tree F r u i t Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, Dean E. D. MacPhee, Commissioner, ( V i c t o r i a , B. C: Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1958), p. 798. FIGURE 1.3 A SQUARE MILE OF URBAN SPRAWL ON THE FRINGE OF VANCOUVER ro 23 time can be overcome. I n some s p r a w l areas th e p o s s i b i l i t y of even a l o g i c a l g r i d l a y o u t has been l o s t . THE SOCIAL COST CONSEQUENCES OF THE PATTERN So f a r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n l i t t l e m ention has been made of the people who must l i v e w i t h i n the p a t t e r n c r e a t e d . T h i s i s no m i s t a k e , f o r the b a s i c g o a l , p o l i c y , and p a t t e r n d e c i s i o n s are u s u a l l y made l o n g b e f o r e the new r e s i d e n t s a r r i v e - . What, t h e n , happens when people are "added" t o t h e p a t t e r n , e s p e c i a l l y i n an a r e a p l a g u e d by i n a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l , p o l i c y , and p a t t e r n d e c i s i o n s ? The new s u b u r b a n i t e s a r r i v e i n two ways. They a r r i v e en masse t o t a k e up houses i n a patchwork "suburban development", or t h e y a r r i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y t o purchase s c a t t e r e d p a r c e l s broken from l a r g e r h o l d i n g s a l o n g a s e c t i o n r o a d . E i t h e r way, t h e r e are consequences f o r b o t h t h e new r e s i d e n t and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , f o r as t h i s s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r s , demands f o r b a s i c m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are made. I n t h e case of s c a t t e r e d l o t b u i l d - u p where s e r v i c e s are i n v a r i a b l y l a c k i n g , the p e o p l e and t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s are few and s c a t t e r e d , and the u l t i m a t e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s u s u a l l y a-w a i t s t e n or twenty y e a r s of i n f i l l i n g u n t i l the "economic break p o i n t " f o r each s e r v i c e i s r e a c h e d . The m u n i c i p a l government o f -t e n l o o k s t o t h i s g r a d u a l b u i l d - u p t o j u s t i f y s e r v i c e s , but i n t h e i n t e r i m the r e s i d e n t s must l i v e i n an i n c o m p l e t e environment. On the o t h e r hand, l a r g e s c a l e "developments" u s u a l l y have b a s i c s e r v i c e s i n s t a l l e d by t h e d e v e l o p e r at t h e time of s u b d i v i s i o n . But where r e g u l a t i o n s are or were l a x and b a s i c s e r v i c e s have not been p r o v i d e d , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y u s u a l l y r e c e i v e s en masse demands from i t s new c i t i z e n s as soon as t h e s e i n a d e q u a c i e s are 24 discovered. 1 1 Before considering the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by the new suburbanite, i t must be understood that most of these newcomers are not i n the higher income bracket. Ever since Burgess sug-gested his concentric zone theory with i t s outer ring location 12 for the higher income groups, the word "suburb" has carried an Supper class" connotation. Unfortunately, much of the "suburbia" l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s t h i s attitude by concentrating on a few de-signed high cost developments and ignoring the dominant type of 13 fringe development. In f a c t , the middle and lower income groups have actually been the dominant forces i n the suburbanization process. 1 4 In the suburban boom of the l a t e 1950's most of the newcomers were young couples seeking t h e i r f i r s t home, forced to the fringe by higher costs i n the core, but naively expecting a l l the conveniences and services of the c i t y at lower taxes. The developer, i n response to t h i s demand, bought up scattered tracts of low value land devoid of natural amenity or free from servicing requirements, subdivided, and sold at attractive prices. NHA 11 See-for example Sandy Ross, "Surrey Sprawl", The  B r i t i s h Columbian, (June 1, 1959). 1 2 E r n e s t W. Burgess, "The Growth of the City " , i n R. E. Park et a l . (ed i t o r s ) , The Ci t y . (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925). 13 This bias i s suggested i n S. D. Clark, "The Suburban Community", unpublished paper, p. 2. 1 4See the lower Mainland Regional Planning Board report The Urban Frontier, Part 2, (op. c i t . , pp. 16-17). In a survey of fringe households, i t reveals that f i n a n c i a l factors had been a reason f o r 59$ of the respondents' moving to the fringe, the reason f o r 45%« 25 funds r e a d i l y f i n a n c e d t h e low c o s t c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t , w i t h NHA acceptance of s m a l l l o t development on s e p t i c t a n k s at t h e t i m e , sprang up j u s t about everywhere. Some of t h e low v a l u e h o u s i n g * e r e c t e d has s u b s e q u e n t l y undermined the m u n i c i p a l t a x base, has p r o v i d e d o n l y a l i m i t e d b a s i s f o r the f i n a n c i n g of e s s e n t i a l m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s , and has o f t e n d e c l i n e d p r e m a t u r e l y . Many of t h e newcomers' e x p e c t a t i o n s never m a t e r i a l i z e , and t h e i r hopes are soon d i s s i p a t e d . L o t s e r v i c e s , d e s p i t e t h e salesman's o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o the c o n t r a r y , u s u a l l y remain i n -adequate or n o n - e x i s t e n t . The a l t e r n a t i v e l y d u s t y and muddy g r a v e l roads have no s i d e w a l k s , c u r b s , or s t r e e t l i g h t s and few s t r e e t s i g n s . The water mains, of inadequate s i z e , r u n d r y i n the summer s p r i n k l i n g season. S e p t i c t a n k s , once c o n s i d e r e d ade-quate f o r u r b a n l o t s , c r e a t e a h e a l t h problem when y a r d s and dit-?-ches f l o o d w i t h unabsorbed e f f l u e n t . The storm water t h a t s l o w l y t o o k i t s n a t u r a l c o u r s e b e f o r e t h e v e g e t a t i o n was s t r i p p e d o f f now runs w i l d or at be s t i s d i v e r t e d i n t o d a n g e r o u s l y deep d i t -ches. Telephones are on m u l t i - p a r t y l i n e s at h i g h r a t e s , power outages and v o l t a g e drops are common, and garbage d i s p o s a l i s l e f t t o i n d i v i d u a l i n v e n t i v e n e s s or t o an u n p r e d i c t a b l e commer-c i a l s e r v i c e . The l a c k of t h e s e immediate t o - t h e - l o t s e r v i c e s does l i t t l e t o encourage the i n d i v i d u a l t o ta k e an i n t e r e s t i n the maintenance of h i s home o r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community im-provement schemes. Community-wide s e r v i c e s , which are u s u a l l y f o r g o t t e n about by the n a i v e home buyer u n t i l he moves i n and needs them, are d i s t a n t , i n c o n v e n i e n t , and i n a d e q u a t e . A v o l u n t a r y and d i s -t a n t f i r e department combines w i t h an u n r e l i a b l e water s u p p l y t o 26 provide unpredictable effectiveness and high, f i r e insurance i rates• Police protection services are strained by distances and an incomplete road system. Parks are few, distant, and inade-quately developed, with l i t t l e land set aside for future park use. Schools, many and small i n an eff o r t to reduce distances, are unable to provide an adequate range of educational f a c i l i t i e s because of t h e i r s i z e . Shopping and business f a c i l i t i e s are d i s -tant and provide only a narrow range of goods and services, necessitating a journey to a major centre f o r furniture, c l o t h -ing, or a wider choice i n weekly needs. Store delivery to fringe areas i s not provided or costs extra. Specialized recreational, community, and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s cannot be ade-quately supported by a sparse population, and people must again t r a v e l to a^major centre or do without. The bus and other tran-s i t services upon which the people might depend for connection to these larger f a c i l i t i e s and major centres are frustrated by a t h i n l y spread population that i s economically impossible to serve. S o c i a l l y , the sprawl subdivision i s a segregated i s o -lated dormitory, and i t s inhabitants are no more than the victims of a commercial venture. I t i s a physical piece of c i t y , a square block or two, that i s functionally and s o c i a l l y non-city. I t s occupants d a i l y commute excessive distances to c i t y jobs, and i n fact to almost every a c t i v i t y that cannot be s a t i s f i e d within the home. I t s mass produced houses create a segregated s o c i a l structure: " a l l babies and no babysitters, or a l l baby-s i t t e r s and no babies". The developments that are p a r t i c u l a r -l y inadequate often become "suburban slums" despite t h e i r recenti construction. To the homeowner, the fringe location often proves to be as expensive as or more expensive than an equivalent home i n the core. Higher commuter and shopping t r i p t r a v e l costs and time losses offset the i n i t i a l economy of lower priced land. Taxes, i n r e l a t i o n to the services provided, are higher than they are i n the well-serviced core a r e a s . A s a result of the inappropriate scatteration development pattern, i t i s either very expensive or economically impossible for the municipality to improve the services u n t i l some of the untouched "patches" are f i l l e d i n . U n t i l that time l i t t l e more than makeshift ser-vices can be expected, accompanied by periodic crises as each new subdivision i s added to the already overloaded f a c i l i t i e s . People's reactions to these physical, s o c i a l , and eco-nomic d i f f i c u l t i e s are simple: they m i l i t a t e , the complain, they move. They m i l i t a t e through the community and ratepayer groups that have become so numerous i n the fringe areas. They complain to t h e i r Council and the newspapers. And when a l l else f a i l s , they move, leaving behind them vacant houses and a l i m i t e d market f o r new r e s i d e n t i a l construction. Figure 1.4 (page 28) 1 5 ^ S t e r l i n g Ferguson, "Residential Densities", Planning  1957 (Chicago: American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s , 1957), p. 124. l 6Bud E l s i e , "Who Gets Most for What They Pay?", The  Province, (August 25, 1962). This a r t i c l e compares taxes and municipal services i n several municipalities i n the Lower Main-land of B r i t i s h Columbia. PERCENT OF RESPONDENTS COMPLAINING C O N T R O L 3 , F R O N T I E R b COMPLAINT Police and Fire Protection I* Garbage collection Sanitary disposal H » 1 Water supply 24 | Inconvenience for visiting 30 Distance to Medical-Dental 30 Distanoe to shopping 32 | Distance to Elem. school 1 « 34 1 Street lighting 35 1 Distance to Sec. school 1 * 38 | Distance to park/ployground 1 6 | Street condition 1 17 65 |Bus service I s 30 | Average complaint rate 1 Households w)t|| po complaints -3 1 "Serious" complaint I" « I Making official complaint 40 90 20 10 ( > 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percent " C o n t r o l " r e f e r s t o res p o n d e n t s l o c a t e d i n i n n e r core of m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . ^ " F r o n t i e r " r e f e r s t o responde n t s l o c a t e d i n s c a t t e r e d s u b d i v i s i o n s on the f r i n g e of m e t r o p o l i t a n growth. Cases too few f o r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e S ource: Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. The Urban F r o n t i e r , P a r t 2, (New Westminster, B.C.: The Board, 1963-)., p. 24. FIGURE 1.4 DISSATISFACTION AMONG FRINGE AREA RESIDENTS, METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 29 i l l u s t r a t e s the degree of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e v i d e n c e d by a sample s u r v e y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver f r i n g e a r e a r e s i d e n t s , comparing t h e i r c o m p l a i n t r a t e s w i t h t h o s e of c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d r e s i d e n t s of a s i m i l a r s o c i a l and economic l e v e l . A l t h o u g h t h i s r e a c t i o n i s from a l i m i t e d a r e a , a s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n would be expected from any s p r a w l a r e a r e s i d e n t s under s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . SUMMARY The c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e of many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o the l a n d development p r o c e s s i s not conducive t o e f f i c i e n t or f u n c -t i o n a l l a n d development. S c a t t e r a t i o n s t i l l dominates m u n i c i p a l development p o l i c y d e s p i t e the obvious advantages of c o n c e n t r a -t i o n . Broad community g o a l s are o f t e n s i d e - s t e p p e d f o r n e a r -s i g h t e d p o l i t i c a l ends or e s t a b l i s h e d but u n s t a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s . P o l i c y change, s u b d i v i s i o n , s e r v i c i n g , and c o n s t r u c -t i o n , f o u r " e v e n t s " i n t h e development p r o c e s s , are u l t i m a t e l y p r e c i p i t a t e d by the demands t h a t f o l l o w the oc c u r r e n c e of any one of them. Inadequate o r c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s g o v e r n i n g t h i s development p r o c e s s have s t i m u l a t e d premature l o w d e n s i t y s p r a w l , caused the l o s s of prime f a r m l a n d and p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , and e s t a b l i s h e d t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n s . When the pe o p l e move t o the r e s u l t a n t s c a t t e r e d development, t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y become aware of i t s s e r v i c i n g l a c k s , i n c o n v e n -i e n c e , and s o c i a l s h o r t c o m i n g s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l o o k t o a g r a d u a l b u i l d - u p of new r e s i d e n t s t o j u s t i f y subsequent s e r v i c i n g , but i n the i n t e r i m , which may l a s t t e n or twenty y e a r s , the new f r i n g e r e s i d e n t s must do w i t h o u t the urban s e r v i c e s t h e y n a i v e l y expected, and s t i l l pay e x o r b i t a n t t a x e s . Today most urban r e s i -3 0 dents w i l l not put up w i t h t h e s e i n a d e q u a c i e s . I n r e a c t i o n , t h e y m i l i t a t e or c o m p l a i n , and i f t h a t has no e f f e c t , t h e y move, l e a v i n g a d e p r e s s e d h o u s i n g market b e h i n d . CHAPTER 2 ESTABLISHING THE METHOD FOR PATTERN-COST RELATIONSHIP INVESTIGATION The s t u d y o b j e c t i v e , s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e r v i c i n g c o s t consequences of d i f f e r e n t development p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the means by which a m u n i c i p a l i t y can ad-j u s t i t s m u n i c i p a l development g o a l s and p o l i c i e s t o a c h i e v e an e f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n . I n t h i s C h a p t e r the method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t , the s t u d y approach, scope, and l i m i t a t i o n s are o u t l i n e d ; second, the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the study i s r e v i e w e d ; t h i r d , s i x hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d ; and f o u r t h , the p r o c e d u r e s f o r t e s t i n g t h e s e hypo-t h e s e s are d e v i s e d . STUDY APPROACH, SCOPE, AND LIMITATIONS The study approach i n v o l v e s an a n a l y s i s of p a t t e r n -c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g an a b s t r a c t model. By u s i n g such a model, a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t e can be s u b d i v i d e d and s e r v i c e d i n any v a r i e t y of ways and l o c a t i o n s . Any number, of s u b d i v i s i o n and s e r v i c i n g system d e s i g n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n v a r -i a b l e s can be d e v i s e d and the s e r v i c i n g elements c o s t e d , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p hypo-32 t h e s e s . The s t u d y v i e w p o i n t i s m u n i c i p a l , f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y remains r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g p a t t e r n and c o s t , andt i n c u r s t h e c o s t of the s e r v i c i n g i n s t a l l e d . Most a s p e c t s of t h e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c i t i z e n and d e v e l o p e r v i e w p o i n t s are encom-passed by t h i s v i e w p o i n t . The c o s t s c o n s i d e r e d are monetary, f o r a l t h o u g h f u n c t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and a e s t h e t i c c o s t s are perhaps more im p o r t a n t i n terms of t h e p e o p l e , t h e d e c i s i o n g o v e r n i n g t h e i n -s t a l l a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d i n monetary terms. As the model i s a b s t r a c t , so i s the time element, and development and s e r v i c i n g i s assumed t o occur i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y r a t h e r t h a n over a p e r i o d of y e a r s . Thus o u t l i n e d , t h i s t e c h n i q u e enables the a c c u r a t e a n a l y s i s of many p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r d i r e c t comparisons i n c o s t terms. A l t h o u g h i t i s c a p a b l e of s i m p l e a p p l i c a t i o n t o a p r a c t i c a l problem, the t e c h n i q u e has g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y . A few l i m i t a t i o n s a r i s e from t h e approach u t i l i z e d , but most of t h e l i m i t a t i o n s are imposed t o l i m i t the b r e a d t h of the s t u d y . A d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s f o l l o w s , t h u s de-f i n i n g the scope of t h e s t u d y . I n the e a r l y s t a g e s of the s t u d y i t was thought t h a t t h e c o s t - r e v e n u e t e c h n i q u e s would be u s e f u l i n documenting b o t h c o s t s and revenues from a m u n i c i p a l v i e w p o i n t . However, because of t h e b a s i c d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n a d e q u a c i e s of the t e c h n i q u e (see Appendix G page 93), t h i s approach was dropped i n f a v o u r of an a n a l y s i s of c o s t s o n l y u s i n g performance b u d g e t i n g . Here, a c t u a l c o s t measurement i s attempted, d e v i s i n g a u n i t of a c t i v i -t y , a u n i t of i n c i d e n c e , a u n i t of t i m e , and a u n i t of c o s t f o r each i t e m a n a l y z e d . 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s , non-monetary c o s t consequences are r e -f e r r e d t o throughout t h e s t u d y . 33 Pattern Variables. Pattern variables are central to t h i s study, f o r these are the variables to be considered i n f o r -mulating pattern-cost hypotheses. In a l l , , ten variables are here isolated: r e s i d e n t i a l development type, subdivision type, sub-d i v i s i o n design quality, l o t area, l o t width to depth r a t i o , d i s -tance to available trunk services, area of a subdivision at a distance, proportion of l o t s developed, servicing l e v e l , and ser-v i c i n g quality. Of these variables, four are held constant to simplify the scale of the study: r e s i d e n t i a l type i s l i m i t e d to single-family development, subdivision type i s l i m i t e d to g r i d development, and subdivision quality and servicing quality are both l i m i t e d to an application of p r e v a i l i n g standards. The re-maining s i x variables are subsequently u t i l i z e d i n pattern-cost hypotheses. Limitation of study considerations to single-family development needs further explanation. Although apartment con-struction now dominates new metropolitan r e s i d e n t i a l develop-•5 ment, these apartments are concentrated i n central areas and usually replace older r e s i d e n t i a l buildings. New development i n outlying suburban and sprawl areas, because of loeational and servicing factors, i s generally confined to single-family con-struction, and i t appears t h i s trend w i l l continue. As the actu-a l and potential servicing cost problems are most acute i n these outlying areas, i t i s to the single-family u n i t , be i t row house or "country estate", that t h i s study i s confined. ^See Appendix A, page 87, for a documentation of current trends.' 34 Limiting the study to a consideration of the gri d l a y -out also needs explanation, for t h i s type i s physically and ec©T nomically i n f e r i o r to the c u r v i l i n e a r and cluster patterns.^ One reason for t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i s that the g r i d pattern proves most adaptable to the study techniques. I t s simple design pro-vides an accurate basis f o r cost comparisons, unlike the highly subjective design of the c u r v i l i n e a r layout. But more important, grid dominates current development. Even f o r new development many municipalities s t i l l use the gri d layout, and the gri d i s already f i r m l y established i n the p a r t i a l l y developed sprawl areas, as shown i n Figure 1.3 (page 22). Servicing Posts. The cost of providing services to development constitutes the other major factor i n the pattern-cost i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . These costs are generated by two service types: "to-the-lot" services, which pertain to physical services d i r e c t l y associated with the i n d i v i d u a l l o t such as roads and sewers; and "to-the-community" services, which refer to broader services such as schools, police protection, t r a n s i t service, and welfare. These costs can be divided into four categories: c a p i t a l , i n s t a l l a t i o n , maintenance, and servicing costs. The scope of t h i s study i s by design l i m i t e d to major "to-the-lot" services, and to t h e i r c a p i t a l , i n s t a l l a t i o n , and maintenance costs on an "annual cost" basis. The services con-sidered are roads, curbs, sidewalks, street l i g h t s , water d i s t r i -Several aspects of t h i s i n f e r i o r i t y are documented i n Appendix D, page 96. "bution, s a n i t a r y sewers, and storm sewers, a l l s e r v i c e s n o r m a l l y ' expected by the h o u s e h o l d e r and p r o v i d e d by or t h r o u g h t h e muni-5 c i p a l i t y . To compare the s e r v i c i n g c o s t consequences of t h e s e 1 s e r v i c e s under the d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s , an "annual c o s t " i s d e r i v e d f o r each s e r v i c e . T h i s "annual c o s t " c o n s i s t s of the c a p i t a l and i n s t a l l a t i o n c o s t of a s e r v i c e a m o r t i z e d over i t s p h y s i c a l ( r a t h e r t h a n f i n a n c i a l ) l i f e t i m e , p l u s i t s average ann-6 u a l maintenance c o s t . T h i s p r o v i d e s the monetary y a r d s t i c k n e c e s s a r y f o r c o s t comparisons. I t might be f e l t t h a t a study of " t o - t h e - l o t " s e r v i c e c o s t s i s u n n e c e s s a r y , f o r c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s h i f t s t h e s e c o s t s t o the d e v e l o p e r t h r o u g h s u b d i v i s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s or t o t h e c i t i z e n t h r o u g h a l o c a l improvement scheme. T h i s n o t i o n i s unwarranted f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : (1) t h e s e c o s t s are u s u a l l y a m o r t i z e d over t h e i r f i n a n c i a l l i f e t i m e as a l o c a l improvement scheme, and the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d f i n a n c i a l l y , b o t h as a con-t r i b u t o r and as a g u a r a n t o r , (2) the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the maintenance, o p e r a t i o n , and u l t i m a t e replacement of t h e s e s e r v i c e s , (3) t h e d e v e l o p e r i s not h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l the ^ " T o - t h e - l o t " s e r v i c e s not c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e shade t r e e p l a n t i n g , f i r e c a l l boxes, s t r e e t sweeping, garbage c o l l e c t i o n , s t r e e t name s i g n s , l o c a l t r a f f i c signs> and such t y p i c a l l y non-m u n i c i p a l e n t e r p r i s e s as e l e c t r i c i t y , t e l e p h o n e , gas, and c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n . c O p e r a t i n g c o s t s , which i n c l u d e such i t e m s as water f o r the mains and e l e c t r i c i t y f o r t h e l i g h t s , are not i n c l u d e d , as t hese c o s t s are h i g h l y v a r i a b l e from s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n but c o n s t a n t w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . I n any c a s e , t h e s e c o s t s are not p a r t of the p h y s i c a l system w i t h which the s t u d y i s con-c e r n e d . expected services, (4) i n areas where subdivision without ser-v i c i n g has occurred, especially i n l o t - b y - l o t ribbon develop-ment, the municipality w i l l eventually have to i n s t a l l these services, (5) the cost for a service i n one way or another finds i t s way back to the c i t i z e n , and (6) the municipality i s held responsible f o r the size of the servicing b i l l by the c i t i z e n . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the municipality to understand how these costs are related to the development pattern so that the decision makers can establish goals and p o l i c i e s that w i l l pro-mote e f f i c i e n t land development. CURRENT LITERATURE PEALING- WITH THE PATTERN-COST  INTERRELATIONSHIP Many studies dealing i n one way or another with the cost consequences of municipal development have been undertaken. But most of these are cost-revenue analyses aimed at discovering revenue producing uses, and f a i l to consider or recognize the major cost variations inherent i n different r e s i d e n t i a l patt-7 erns. Three notable exceptions are the recent studies by Wheaton and Schussheim, Isard and Coughlin, and Wetmore et a l . , and i t i s to these that the following review i s confined. q Wheaton and Schussheim. This study begins by point-'Ruth 1. Mace, Municipal Cost Revenue Research i n the  United States, (Chapel H i l l , N. C: I n s t i t u t e of Government, University of North Carolina, 1961), p. 172. D There are many other studies or reports that make as-sertions about pattern-cost variables, but as t h e i r methodology i s unstated, they are not here reviewed. William L. C. Wheaton and Morton J . Schussheim, The  Cost of Municipal Services i n Residential Areas, (Washington: U. S. Department of Commerce, 1955) i n g up t h e urg e n c y of m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g i n r a p i d l y growing r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and the consequent f i n a n c i a l problems. The v a u t h o r s suggest t h a t many communities have d e c i d e d r e s i d e n t i a l development i s e c o n o m i c a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e u n l e s s i t i s of h i g h v a l u e , and have t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e l o t z o n i n g , not t o stage growth but t o p r e v e n t i t . Such a c t i o n "may r a i s e r a t h e r t h a n l o w e r t h e u l t i m a t e c o s t s of a d a p t a t i o n and change". 1^ The a u t h o r s use the case s t u d y approach, and c o n s i d e r b o t h t o - t h e - l o t and to-the-community s e r v i c e s . Three suburbs are a n a l y z e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h e a c t u a l a d d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n h y p o t h e t i c a l l y adding 500 or 1,000 new houses t o each community. Two or more growth a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g t h e "most f a v o u r a b l e " and " l e a s t f a v o u r a b l e " , are s e l e c t e d i n each commu-n i t y . The c a p i t a l , maintenance, and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s of new s e r v i c e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e s p e c i f i e d growth are c a l c u l a t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s , assuming t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r of each commu-n i t y and i t s p r e v a i l i n g s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s c o n t i n u e . Any un-used c a p a c i t y i n e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . On the b a s i s of t h e case s t u d i e s the au t h o r s r e a c h s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g l o t s i z e , s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d , s e r v i c i n g l e v e l l o c a t i o n , and s c a l e of development. However, the v a l i d i t y of thes e c o n c l u s i o n s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . A t t e m p t i n g t o be r e a l i s t i c by examining a t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s r e a s o n a b l e . But by assuming t h e co n t i n u a n c e of p r e v a i l i n g y e t d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s and s t a n d a r d s i n each a r e a , by a c c e p t i n g v a r i e d I b i d . . p. 2. 38 i unused s e r v i c e c a p a c i t i e s , by u s i n g s h o r t term r e c o r d s of main-tenance c o s t s , and by c o s t i n g major c a p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s on a "when needed" r a t h e r t h a n on a p r o r a t e d b a s i s , t h e a u t h o r s f a i l t o c o n t r o l key v a r i a b l e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e v a r i a b l e s are not f u l l y documented, and the u t i l i t y of the s t u d y i n a s s e s s i n g p o l i e y - p a t t e r n - c o s t consequences i s l i m i t e d t o a few g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s about r e l a t i v e c o s t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s s t u d y i s one of the f i r s t t o e x p l o r e t h i s s u b j e c t , and a c t u a l l y c o n s i d e r s the s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l i n g r e a t e r d e pth t h a n do t h e I s a r d and C o u g h l i n , and Wetmore et a l . s t u d i e s . I s a r d and Coughlin.' 1"^" The c o n c e r n of t h i s s t u d y i s w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t burden i n r a p i d l y expanding s m a l l e r communities, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e l o c a t e d on t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n f r i n g e t h a t "have o f t e n made h a s t y d e c i s i o n s or have been com-p e l l e d t o make d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t the n e c e s s a r y f a c t u a l i n f o r m a -12 t i o n " . The st u d y as a whole d e a l s w i t h c o s t s and revenues i n r e s i d e n t i a l communities w i t h and w i t h o u t a s s o c i a t e d i n d u s t r i a l development. The a u t h o r s , a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome some of the l i m i t -a t i o n s of t h e Wheaton and Schussheim s t u d y , a v o i d the case s t u d y approach and i n s t e a d adopt performance b u d g e t i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e f u l l c o s t consequences of each m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g f u n c t i o n . Vacant l a n d b o r d e r i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d a r e a i s hypo-W a l t e r I s a r d and Robert E. C o u g h l i n , M u n i c i p a l C o s t s  and Revenues R e s u l t i n g from Community G-rowth. ( W e l l e s l e y , Mass.: C h a n d l e r - D a v i s P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1957). 1 2 I b i d . t p. 10. -39 t h e t i c a l l y d e veloped, u s i n g a g r i d ' l a y o u t , at t h e r a t e of 620 ' d w e l l i n g s p e r 5 y e a r s f o r 20 y e a r s . D i f f e r e n t amounts of l a n d 1 are used t o accommodate t h i s growth at t h r e e t e s t d e n s i t i e s , each w i t h t h e i r own s e r v i c i n g l e v e l , and the annual c a p i t a l and o p e r a t -i n g c o s t s of the r e s u l t a n t m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g are c a l c u l a t e d on a s e r v i c e - b y - s e r v i e e " b u i l d i n g b l o c k " b a s i s . M i n o r weaknesses are apparent i n t h e c o s t d a t a , a l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement over th e Wheaton and Schussheim s t u d y i s e v i d e n c e d . The f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s g i v e a f l u c t u a t i n g c o s t p i c -t u r e , and the t w e n t y - y e a r o v e r - a l l c o s t summary does not p r o v i d e an on-going c o n s t a n t " annual c o s t " w i t h which t o e v a l u a t e p a t t e r n -c o s t consequences. The f u l l community c o s t s are l e f t as a t o t a l r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g broken down i n t o more u s e f u l p e r h o u s e h o l d f i g u r e s , and d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s are used f o r each d e n s i t y l e v e l , e l i m i n a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of m e a n i n g f u l d i r e c t c o m p a r i -sons. The s t u d y p r e s e n t s s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , but f a i l s t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s . A l t h o u g h the s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e c o s t -revenue b a l a n c e , p a t t e r n - c o s t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s would be e x p e c t e d , f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s are key c a u s e - e f f e c t f a c t o r s i n the c o s t -revenue p i c t u r e . Some s t u d y d a t a are u s a b l e f o r such g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s , but t h e scope of t h e work l i m i t s t h e s e t o d e n s i t y r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . 13 Wetmore et a l . ' T h i s study was u n d e r t a k e n i n an •^Louis B. Wetmore et a l . , The E f f e c t s of Large l o t  S i z e on R e s i d e n t i a l Development, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 32, (Washington: Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1958). 40 e f f o r t t o c l a r i f y the c o s t consequences of l a r g e l o t r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g . Some o b s e r v e r s of the suburban scene had suggested t h a t l a r g e l o t z o n i n g would a v o i d sharp i n c r e a s e s i n m u n i c i p a l expen-d i t u r e s , w h i l e o t h e r s had charged t h a t such z o n i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t t h o s e who c o u l d not a f f o r d r e s u l t a n t h i g h e r l a n d v a l u e s . 1 ^ I n a t t e m p t i n g t o c l a r i f y t h e s u b j e c t , the s t u d y c o n s i d e r s c o s t s from t h e d e v e l o p e r ' s v i e w p o i n t , l o t s i z e and community c o s t s , and l a n d v a l u a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o l o t s i z e . I n an attempt t o weigh the p r o s and cons of l a r g e l o t development i n r e l a t i o n t o community c o s t s , the a u t h o r s a s s e s s s t r e e t sewerage, p r o t e c t i o n , and s c h o o l c o s t s f o r f i v e 1,000 a c r e model s u b d i v i s i o n s of f i v e l o t s i z e s r a n g i n g from 10,000 t o 160,000 square f e e t . Assuming " i n s t a n t development", c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s are t o t a l l e d t o g i v e an "annual c o s t " based on f i n a n c i a l l i f e t i m e a m o r t i z a t i o n of each s e r v i c i n g c o s t . C o s t s f o r r o a d s , s i d e w a l k s , storm and s a n i t a r y sewers, sewage t r e a t m e n t , and b o u l e v a r d p l a n t i n g are c o n s i d e r e d . I n c o n c l u d i n g , t h e a u t h o r s d i s c o u n t d e n s i t y f a c t o r s and suggest t h a t " the major c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s between models are due 15 t o c a p i t a l o u t l a y " . T h i s b o l d o b s e r v a t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , how-ev e r , i n the l i g h t of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s . S e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s are a r b i t r a r i l y v a r i e d by d e n s i t y , l o w e r s t a n d a r d s b e i n g a p p l i e d f o r l a r g e r l o t s . S e v e r a l s e r v i c e s are e x c l u d e d , and t h e I b i d . , p. 6. ' I b i d . , p. 36. 41 Resign s t a n d a r d s of t h e r e s t are not s t a t e d . Bounding roads are assumed t o c o n t a i n f u l l s e r v i c e s , g i v i n g weighted c o s t s about 2$ t o o l o w f o r s m a l l l o t and 10$ t o o low f o r l a r g e l o t s u b d i v i s i o n . And, as the a u t h o r s admit, the i n f l u e n c e s of s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s and d e n s i t y are not s e p a r a t e d , and no d i s t i n c t i o n as t o l o c a t i o n of t h e model s u b d i v i s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s 16 i s made. I f t h e r e s u l t s of a st u d y such as t h i s are t o be u s e -f u l , such i n a d e q u a c i e s must be avo i d e d or c o n t r o l l e d . PATTERN ELEMENTS AND SERVICING POSTS: SIX HYPOTHESES Prom t h e d i s c u s s i o n above, s e v e r a l weaknesses and shortcomings i n c u r r e n t p a t t e r n - c O s t l i t e r a t u r e are e v i d e n t . Key v a r i a b l e s are u n c o n t r o l l e d and assumptions are u n s t a t e d . D a t a are sometimes lumped so t h a t the e f f e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s are h i d d e n . I n f o r m a t i o n about the i n f l u e n c e of t h e l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o , p r o p o r t i o n of undeveloped l o t s * and the s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s e i t h e r weak and or n o n - e x i s t e n t . S i x hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d below i n an attempt t o c o r r e c t t h e s e gaps i n our knowledge, t o e s t a b l i s h a f u l l s e t of p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t o add t o t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s p e c i f i c d a t a f o r p r a c t i c a l m u n i c i p a l g o a l and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n making. As o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , the s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s i n c o r -p o r a t e d i n the hypotheses a r e : l o t a r e a , l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o , d i s t a n c e t o t r u n k s e r v i c e s , a r e a of a s u b d i v i s i o n at a d i s t a n c e from t r u n k s e r v i c e s , p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s d e veloped, and I b i d . , p. 35. s e r v i c i n g l e v e l . The c o s t s i n v o l v e d are f o r seven " t o - t h e - l o t " s e r v i c e s , namely: r o a d s , c u r b s , s i d e w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , water d i s t r i b u t i o n , s a n i t a r y sewers, and storm sewers. • S e v e r a l b a s i c c o n d i t i o n s govern the hypotheses. F o r each h y p o t h e s i s , a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g t o p o g r a p h i c con-d i t i o n s , are h e l d c o n s t a n t so t h a t t h e a c t u a l e f f e c t of t h e p a r -t i c u l a r p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e can be a s s e s s e d . The household o r t h e occ u p i e d l o t i s t h e u n i t t o which c o s t s r e f e r , p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r d i r e c t comparisons. Only t h o s e c o s t s s p e c i f i e d i n the hypo-t h e s i s and d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the a b s t r a c t model are con-s i d e r e d . L o t A r e a . As an economy of d e n s i t y , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s are l o w e r f o r a s m a l l l o t t h a n f o r a l a r g e one, f o r f r o n t a g e and f l a n k a g e s e r -v i c e s are reduced i n l e n g t h a c c o r d i n g l y . Wheaton and Schussheim f i n d t h i s t o be t h e case when t h e s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s h e l d con-s t a n t , a l t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t i c e t h a t a l o w e r s e r v i c i n g l e v e l 17 u s u a l l y accompanies l a r g e r l o t s . The I s a r d and C o u g h l i n f i n d -i n g s a l s o support t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n when t h e s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s h e l d c o n s t a n t , ^ as do the f i n d i n g s of Wetmore et a l . " ^ On t h i s b a s i s , the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s proposed: H y p o t h e s i s A: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the 17 Wheaton and Schussheim, op. c i t . t p. 92. I s a r d and C o u g h l i n , op. c i t . , pp. 19-21. 19 Wetmore et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 33• 43 s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as l o t a r e a i s de c r e a s e d . . L o t Width t o Depth R a t i o , W i t h l o t a r e a h e l d con-s t a n t , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t as l o t w i d t h i s de c r e a s e d and l o t depth i s i n c r e a s e d , c o s t s d e c r e a s e , f o r t h e e x t r a c o s t s of i n c r e a s e d f l a n k a g e s e r v i c e s spread t o many l o t s are more t h a n o f f s e t by the reduced c o s t s of s h o r t e n e d f r o n t a g e s e r v i c e s f o r each l o t . Wetmore e t a l . t a l t h o u g h i g n o r i n g f l a n k a g e c o s t s , n o t e s v a r i a t i o n s i n f r o n t a g e c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from a model w i t h a 2 0 c o n s t a n t l o t s i z e t o support t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . These p o i n t s suggest t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : H y p o t h e s i s B: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the  s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as  the l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o i s d e c r e a s e d . D i s t a n c e t o Trunk S e r v i c e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o ex-pec t t h a t p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s are l o w e r f o r a d e v e l o p -ment l o c a t e d c l o s e t o e x i s t i n g t r u n k c o n n e c t i o n s t h a n f o r one l o -c a t e d at a d i s t a n c e , f o r at a d i s t a n c e a d d i t i o n a l p e r household c o s t s f o r the n e c e s s a r y t r u n k and road c o n n e c t i o n s are i n c u r r e d . Water and sewer t r u n k l i n e s are n o r m a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a ge o g r a p h i c "catchment a r e a " t h a t extends beyond a l o c a l s e r v i c e a r e a . I f a new r e s i d e n t i a l development i s l o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o an e x i s t i n g b u i l t - u p a r e a , i t can u s u a l l y t a k e ad-vantage of t h i s d e s i g n c a p a c i t y , whereas development at a d i s -t a nce r e q u i r e s major t r u n k and road c o n n e c t i o n s . Wheaton and Wetmore et a l . , op~. c i t . . pp. 15-16 44 Schussheim recognize t h i s factor, but as they deal with a purely r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n , they only note ranges of precipitated costs 21 when "substantial aggregates of f a c i l i t i e s with excess capacity" are found. The Isard and Coughlin study merely controls t h i s fae-22 tor by l i m i t i n g development to "land bordering a settled area". Wetmore et a l . assume t h e i r model subdivision to be bounded by 2'5 major streets with f u l l trunk services, but record t h i s as a 24 l i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r study. A r i s i n g out of t h i s , the following hypothesis i s given: Hypothesis C: That per household costs f o r the  affected trunk and related municipal services  and f o r t o t a l per household servicing costs w i l l  decrease as the distance between the subdivision  and the available trunk services i s decreased. Area of a Subdivision at a Distance. I t i s reasonable to expect that within a subdivision i n t e r n a l servicing costs per unit do not vary with the areal extent of the subdivision, f o r internal servicing design i s s i m i l a r throughout the subdivision; but i f the subdivision i s located at a distance from available trunk services, economies of scale occur as the additional costs for trunk and road connections i s spread among more households. I t i s pointless, to b u i l d a long trunk l i n e capable of serving Wheaton and Schussheim, op. c i t . , p. 92. Isard and Coughlin, op. c i t . , p. 12. Wetmore et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 26. Wetmore et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 35. o n l y a few p e o p l e , f o r subsequent growth, would r e n d e r i t o b s o l e t e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a l a r g e c a p a c i t y t r u n k s e r v i n g o n l y a few people would be p r o h i b i t i v e i n c o s t on a p e r household b a s i s . The Wheaton and Schussheim f i n d i n g s support t h i s r e a s o n i n g , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t "average f i x e d u n i t c o s t s d e c l i n e when t h e t o t a l f i x e d c o s t s 2 5 are spread over more and more u s e r s " . These p o i n t s suggest the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : . H y p o t h e s i s D: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the  a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s  and f o r t o t a l p e r ho u s e h o l d s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l  d e crease as t h e a r e a of a s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n - c r e a s e d when the s u b d i v i s i o n i s at a d i s t a n c e  from a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s . P r o p o r t i o n of L o t s Developed. I t has been the u s u a l p r a c t i c e i n many d e v e l o p i n g areas t o charge a l l or most of the s e r v i c i n g c o s t s t o t h e s e r v i c e u s e r s o n l y r a t h e r t h a n t o vacant and o c c u p i e d l o t s a l i k e . Assuming t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t p e r household c o s t s drop as the p r o p o r t i o n of u s e r s i s i n c r e a s e d . Wetmore et a l . a l l u d e t o t h i s f a c t o r i n s t a t i n g t h e i r s t u d y l i m i t a t i o n s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c e r -t a i n " d i s - e conomies" r e s u l t from the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s b e f o r e t h e y are needed. The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d : H y p o t h e s i s E: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e 'Wheaton and Schussheim, op. c i t . , p. 92. Wetmore et a l . , op. c i t . , p. 35. 46 s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as t h e p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s developed i s i n c r e a s e d . \ S e r v i c i n g L e v e l . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t as the q u a l i t y or q u a n t i t y of a s e r v i c e i s reduced or as a s e r v i c e i s e l i m i n a t e d , s e r v i c i n g c o s t s drop. The Wheaton and Schussheim f i n d i n g s p o i n t t o c o s t v a r i a t i o n s of up t o 50$ a t t r i b u t a b l e t o 27 s e r v i c i n g l e v e l v a r i a t i o n s . I s a r d and C o u g h l i n p o i n t t o s i m i -l a r c o n c l u s i o n s , as do Wetmore et a l . t h e l a t t e r p r o v i d i n g the b e s t documented i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d : H y p o t h e s i s F: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e  s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d e c r e ase as  the s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s d e c r e a s e d . PROCEDURES FOR TESTING THE SIX HYPOTHESES As mentioned e a r l i e r , an a b s t r a c t model was used i n t e s t i n g the s i x p a t t e r n - c o s t h y p otheses. T h i s model c o n s i s t e d of a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t e t h a t c o u l d be v a r i e d i n a r e a l e x t e n t , s u b d i v i d e d and s e r v i c e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways, oc c u p i e d i n p a r t or i n t o t a l , o r s e t i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o determine the c o s t consequences of each p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e . To t e s t t h e hypotheses, the f i r s t s t e p was t o d e f i n e the d a t a needs. U s i n g t h e model, each of t h e s i x hypotheses c o u l d be t e s t e d by drawing up f o r each h y p o t h e s i s two model sub-Wheaton and Schussheim, op. c i t . , p. 94. i 'Isard and C o u g h l i n , op. c i t . t pp. 16-21. 'Wetmore et a l . , op. c i t . , pp. 30-34. 47 1 d i v i s i o n s i d e n t i c a l except f o r t h e p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e i n question,, s e r v i c i n g t h e s e w i t h t h e s p e c i f i e d s e r v i c e s , c o s t i n g t h e s e s e r -v i c e s , and comparing t h e r e s u l t s . With t h e c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s c l e a r l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e , a p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p would be e s t a b l i s h e d . However, t h i s would o n l y e s t a b l i s h a s i m p l e t w o - p o i n t s t r a i g h t l i n e r e l a t i o n -s h i p of l i m i t e d meaning, as i n A of F i g u r e 2.1 (page 4 8 ) . U s i n g t h r e e or more model s u b d i v i s i o n s i n s t e a d of two, at l e a s t t h r e e p o i n t s would be e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e n a t u r e of the p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p would be more e v i d e n t , as shown i n B. But by c o n s i d e r i n g a second v a r i a b l e at t h e same t i m e , a s e t of sy m p a t h e t i c l i n e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o document t h e p a t t e r n -c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r o v i d e s u p e r i o r d a t a f o r c r o s s - c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , as shown i n C. The advantages of t h e l a t t -e r were r e c o g n i z e d , and t h i s approach was used i n t e s t i n g the hypotheses. With t h e d a t a needs e s t a b l i s h e d , the dim e n s i o n s of the p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s were t h e n d e f i n e d f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . L o t s of 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 40,000 square f e e t were used, p r o -v i d i n g a f u l l range from t h e row house l o t t h r o u g h the most common s i z e s t o t h e s m a l l c o u n t r y e s t a t e . The l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o s d e f i n e d were 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4, the f o r m e r b e i n g s u i t e d t o development w i t h o u t l a n e s and houses w i t h garages at t h e i r s i d e s , and the l a t t e r b e i n g the more t r a d i t i o n a l r a t i o . The d i s t a n c e s t o t r u n k s e r v i c e s d e c i d e d upon were 0, 1, and 2 m i l e s , r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e of t h e range of d i s t a n c e s encountered i n f r i n g e a r e a d e v e l o p -ment. F o r the a r e a ! e x t e n t of s u b d i v i s i o n s , -20, 80, 160, and 320 r e l a t i o n s h i p FIGURE 2 . 1 THREE APPROACHES TO ESTABLISHING RELATIONSHIPS 49 a c r e s were s e l e c t e d , the f i r s t b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of s p r a w l a r e a development and the l a t t e r acknowledging a c u r r e n t t r e n d towards the comprehensive development of l a r g e r a r e a s . I n terms of the p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s d e veloped, 20$, 60$, and 100$ were th e p r o p o r t i o n s used, the f o r m e r b e i n g t y p i c a l of s p r a w l s u b d i v i s i o n s t h a t have f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p . The s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s , which un-f o r t u n a t e l y cannot be d e f i n e d i n n u m e r i c a l terms, were d e f i n e d as " f u l l " , " p a r t i a l " , and "sub-minimal",-^ r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e con-t r a s t i n g s e r v i c i n g p r o v i s i o n s of d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . These dimensions p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but f o r t e s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l h y potheses, t h e s e dimensions c o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o f l u c t u a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . A s e t of "base dimensions" was d e f i n e d t o which a l l the p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s except t h e one b e i n g t e s t e d were h e l d . T h i s s e t c o n s i s t e d of the 10,000 square f o o t l o t , t h e 1:2 w i d t h t o depth r a t i o , t h e 0 m i l e d i s t a n c e t o t r u n k s e r v i c e s , t h e 160-acre s u b d i v i s i o n , 100$ l o t occupancy, and " f u l l " s e r v i c i n g . The next s t e p was t o put the model i n t o use by d e s i g n -i n g model s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s , s e r v i c i n g t h e s e s u b d i v i s i o n s , and c o s t i n g t h e s e s e r -J As used i n t h i s s t u d y , " f u l l " s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e s a s p h a l t r o a d s , e x t r u d e d c u r b s , c o n c r e t e s i d e w a l k s on two s i d e s , ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t s at 1 50-foot i n t e r v a l s , and complete water d i s t r i b u t i o n , s a n i t a r y sewer, and storm sewer systems. " P a r t i a l " s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e s a s p h a l t r o a d s , no c u r b s or s i d e -w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s at 600-foot i n t e r v a l s , complete water d i s -t r i b u t i o n and s a n i t a r y sewer systems, and r o a d s i d e d i t c h e s f o r storm d r a i n a g e . "Sub-minimal" s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e s g r a v e l roads and water d i s t r i b u t i o n o n l y . 50 vices to establish pattern-cost relationships. In carrying out these steps, consistency was c a r e f u l l y maintained so that a l l cost variations would be d i r e c t l y attributable to the pattern variables being tested and not to extraneous variations i n the model i t s e l f . Specific subdivision design requirements, ser-v i c i n g requirements, and costing procedures were therefore used, and these are detailed i n Appendices E, F, and G, respectively. Assumptions about topographic conditions are included i n these requirements. The s p e c i f i c basis f o r testing each of the hypotheses was next defined. Twelve 160-acre model subdivisions, shown i n Figure 2.2 (pages 51 and 52), were designed to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s 32 tes t i n g , and the procedures used were as follows: Lot Area. The model subdivisions i n Figure 2.2 incorporated a combination of four l o t area and three l o t width to depth r a t i o pattern variables, and Hypothesis A was tested 33 by servicing and costing model groups A, B, and C. ^ Lot Width to Depth Ratio. Hypothesis B was s i m i l a r l y tested Although these procedural q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are basic to a f u l l appreciation of the study, they are somewhat involved and are therefore relegated to Appendices. See pages 99, 101 and 107. 32 Lot area i s used as a second variable i n testing Hypotheses B, C, E, and F, with the l o t width to depth r a t i o be-ing used i n Hypothesis A and the distance to trunk services being used i n Hypothesis D. This provides at least three sympathetic l i n e s of three points for each pattern variable considered. •^The model subdivisions are grouped for reference pur-poses. For example, group A includes A l , A2, A3, and A4; group 2 includes A2, B2, and 02. 51 FIGURE 2.2 MODEL SUBDIVISIONS (GROUPS I AND 2) 52 r-r-1 i | I 1 1 1 1 I 1 | L 1 | | 1 1 L U A, 3 10.000 SO. FT. 1 1 A4 40JD00 SQ.FT. I:I • 1 \ I r A 3 10,000 SO. FT. I '. 2 Q4 40 ,000 SQ.FT. 1:2 • 1 LJ. C3 10,000 SQ.FT. 1:4 C4 40,000 SQ. FT. 1:4 FIGURE 2.2 MODEL SUBDIVISIONS (GROUPS 3 AND4) by s e r v i c i n g and c o s t i n g model groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. D i s t a n c e t o Trunk. . S e r v i c e s . H y p o t h e s i s C was t e s t e d by s e r -v i c i n g and c o s t i n g model group B w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of p e r h o u s e h o l d c o s t i n c r e m e n t s f o r c o n n e c t i n g t r u n k s e r v i c e s f o r 0, 1, and 2 m i l e d i s t a n c e s t o t r u n k c o n n e c t i o n s . Trunk c o n n e c t i o n s i n c l u d e d a c o l l e c t o r - l e v e l a s p h a l t r o a d , s a n i t a r y and storm sewer and water t r u n k l i n e s , and s t r e e t l i g h t s at 600-foot i n t e r v a l s . A r e a of S u b d i v i s i o n at a D i s t a n c e . H y p o t h e s i s D was t e s t e d by s e r v i c i n g and c o s t i n g model B3 w i t h the a d d i -t i o n of p e r household c o s t i n c r e m e n t s f o r t h e t r u n k s e r -v i c e s as s p e c i f i e d - i n (C.) above f o r 20, 80, 160, and 320-acre s u b d i v i s i o n s and f o r 0, 1, and 2 m i l e d i s t a n c e s t o t r u n k c o n n e c t i o n s . P r o p o r t i o n of L o t s Developed. H y p o t h e s i s E was t e s t e d by s e r v i c i n g model group B and s p r e a d i n g the r e s u l t a n t c o s t s between 20$, 60$, and 100$ of the t o t a l number of l o t s . S e r v i c i n g L e v e l . H y p o t h e s i s F was t e s t e d by s e r v i c i n g and c o s t i n g model group B u s i n g " f u l l " , " p a r t i a l " , and "sub-m a r g i n a l " s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s . The r e s u l t s of t h e s e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s are g i v e n i n C h a p t e r 3. J F o r s t u d y purposes, t h e 160-acre s u b d i v i s i o n s i z e i s t h e o n l y one f o r which model s u b d i v i s i o n s were made. T h i s s i t e s i z e was l a r g e enough t o e l i m i n a t e the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of d e s i g n t h a t r e s u l t from a s m a l l e r a r e a , and y e t s m a l l enough t o be manageable. D a t a f o r the 20, 80, and 320-acre l a y o u t s were based on a m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n or m u l t i p l e of the 160-acre base. 5 4 SUMMARY The s t u d y approach i n v o l v e s the use of an a b s t r a c t model capable of documenting a wide v a r i e t y of p a t t e r n - c o s t r e -l a t i o n s h i p s . Study c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are l i m i t e d t o s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s — l o t a r e a , l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o , d i s t a n c e t o t r u n k s e r v i c e s , s u b d i v i s i o n a r e a at a d i s t a n c e , p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s developed, and l e v e l of s e r v i c i n g — and t o seven t o - t h e -l o t s e r v i c e s , namely: r o a d s , s i d e w a l k s , c u r b s , s t r e e t l i g h t s , water d i s t r i b u t i o n , storm sewers, and s a n i t a r y sewers. The st u d y i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d t o s i n g l e f a m i l y development i n a g r i d l a y o u t , f o r t h e s e are t y p i c a l of p r e v a i l i n g development p r a c t i c e s i n t h e f r i n g e a r e a s . S e v e r a l weaknesses and gaps i n t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e st u d y are apparent. Wheaton and Schussheim f a i l t o c o n t r o l key v a r i a b l e s , and t h e u t i l i t y of t h e i r s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about r e l a t i v e c o s t s . I s a r d and C o u g h l i n c o n c e n t r a t e on the c o s t - r e v e n u e b a l a n c e , but f a i l t o suggest any p a t t e r n - c o s t c o n c l u s i o n s . The Wetmore e t a l . s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s the c o s t consequences of l o t s i z e , but f a i l s t o s e p a r a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e s of s e r v i c i n g s t a n d a r d s and d e n s i t y . S i x hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d i n an attempt t o c o r r e c t t h e s e gaps, t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t o p r o -v i d e s p e c i f i c d a t a f o r p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n making: H y p o t h e s i s A: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as l o t a r e a i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s B: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as t h e l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s C: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l p e r • household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as the d i s t a n c e between the s u b d i v i s i o n and the a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s D: That per household c o s t s f o r t h e a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l d ecrease as the a r e a of the s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n c r e a s e d when the s u b d i v i s i o n i s at a d i s t a n c e from a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s . H y p o t h e s i s E: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as the p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s developed i s i n c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s F: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as t h e s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s d e c r e a s e d . The p r o c e d u r e s f o r t e s t i n g the hypotheses were next developed. D a t a needs were s p e c i f i e d t o a s s u r e the adequacy of d a t a used i n d e f i n i n g the p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l f o r c r o s s - c o m p a r i s o n s . The dimensions of the p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s were d e f i n e d f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n purposes, i n c l u d i n g a s e t of "base dimensions" f o r use as a r e f e r e n c e base. The s p e c i f i c b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g each of t h e hypotheses was e s t a b l i s h e d , and t w e l v e 160-acre model s u b d i v i s i o n s were d e s i g n e d , s e r v i c e d , and c o s t e d t o p r o v i d e the t e s t d a t a . Spe-c i f i c s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , and c o s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s were developed t o assure c o n s i s t e n c y i n c a r r y i n g out t h e s e s t e p s so t h a t a l l c o s t v a r i a t i o n s would he d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y . . CHAPTER 3 THE .SERVICING COST CONSEQUENCES OF DIFFERENT  DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MUNICIPAL GOALS AND POLICIES In t h i s Chapter the study results are given, pattern-cost relationships are established, and t h e i r immediate implica-tions are considered. These results are then viewed within the perspective of municipal goals and p o l i c i e s . STUDY RESULTS AND THEIR IMMEDIATE IMPLICATIONS Considerable concern i s expressed over the costs of servicing new r e s i d e n t i a l development. But i t i s commonly be-lieved that these costs are more or less s t a t i c , and any concern usually centres on who i s going to pay them or how they are going to be paid. This i s evidenced i n the following extract from the Congressional Record: 1 And then there i s the effect of urban sprawl on the a v a i l a b i l i t y and cost of homes. I t has been estima-ted that to meet our housing needs i n the coming de-cade we w i l l need upwards of two m i l l i o n new homes a year. Can we r e a l l y hope to meet t h i s goal when the greater the sprawl or scatteration, the greater the costs f o r streets and roads to service the homes, the greater the cost for earthwork, storm drains, sewage disposal, water supply, u t i l i t i e s , and i r r i g a t i o n ? United States, Congressional Record, 87th Congress, F i r s t Session,' 1961, v o l . 107, part 9 (February 9, 1961). Underlining mine. 58 Someone has t o bear ""those c o s t s — e i t h e r the peopl e of t h e community t h r o u g h t a x e s , or t h e d e v e l o p e r , who may absorb some of t h e c o s t but w i l l c e r t a i n l y be p a s s i n g a good p a r t of i t a l o n g i n the c o s t of t h e house t o t h e buyer. L i t t l e thought i s g i v e n t o r e d u c i n g the t o t a l c o s t s , a l t h o u g h the f i n d i n g s below perhaps suggest t h a t t h i s i s where t h e c e n t r e of c o n c e r n s h o u l d l i e . The c o s t consequences of the s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n the hypotheses are summarized g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 3.1 t o 3.6 (pages 59 t o 64), w h i l e t h e f u l l d e t a i l s of s e r v i c i n g needs and r e s u l t a n t s p e c i f i c c o s t f i g u r e s are g i v e n i n Appendix H (page 112). R e s u l t i n g from an a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e c o s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o t h e s e r v i c e d model s u b d i v i s i o n s as out -l i n e d i n Chapter 2, the s e graphs i l l u s t r a t e t h e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e n a t u r e of the p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n the graphs, each s e r v i c e has been drawn i n the same page l o c a t i o n so t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s of the d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s can be r e a d i l y compared. A l t h o u g h d o l l a r annual c o s t s were u t i l i z e d t o p r o v i d e a common denominator f o r t a b u l a t i o n s and comparisons, the r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e s a l s o p r o v i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d a t a f o r p r a c -t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . These d a t a are d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a t t e r n - c o s t hypotheses below, and t h e i r immediate i m p l i c a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d . L o t A r e a . From F i g u r e 3.1 (page 59), i t i s apparent t h a t f o r each s e r v i c e and f o r a l l t h e s e r v i c e s as a t o t a l , a nnual c o s t s drop as l o t a r e a i s d e c r e a s e d . The annual c o s t v a r i a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t l o t s i z e s are c o n s i d e r a b l e . The c o s t s f o r s e r v i c e s t o a 5,000 square f o o t l o t are l e s s t h a n o n e - t h i r d those t o a 40,000 square f o o t l o t , and almost 30$ l e s s t h a n 59 FIGURE 3.1 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY LOT AREA 60 t iB t:4 112 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO ROADS i :e 1:4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO CURBS i:s 1:4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO SIDEWALKS 1:9 1:4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO STREET LIGHTS M 6 K 4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO WATER i:e 1:4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO SANITARY SEWER i : a 1:4 1:2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO STORM SEWER NOTES: 1 - LOT AREA 2500 SQUARE FEET 2 - LOT AREA 5000 SQUARE FEET 3 - LOT AREA 10,000 SQUARE FEET 4 - LOT AREA 40,000 SQUARE FEET SOURCE: TABLE H-7 1:8 l :4 i : 2 LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO ALL SERVICES FIGURE 3.2 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO 61 DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES ROADS O .5 1.0 1.9 2.0 DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES CURBS DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES SIDEWALKS d 4 a 8 S 2 a 0 .5 LO 1.5 2 . 0 DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES STREET LIGHTS DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES WATER DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES SANITARY SEWER DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES STORM SEWER NOTES: 1 - LOT AREA 2J00 SQUARE FEET 2 - LOT AREA 5000 SOUARE FEET 3 - LOT AREA 10,000 SQUARE FEET 4 - LOT AREA 40,000 SQUARE FEET SOURCE: TABLE H:9 DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICES IN MILES ALL SERVICES FIGURE 3 . 3 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY DISTANCE TO TRUNK SERVICE 62 So reo 240 SUBDIVISION IN ACRES ROADS 03 H O K < - 1 - 1 4 0 O O z — ?o 1 -0 1 o O 0 X.Y.Z 2 0 6 0 1 6 0 2 4 0 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES CURBS 2 0 8 0 1 6 0 2 4 0 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES SIDEWALKS 5 ^ 2 0 8 0 ISO 2 4 0 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES STREET LIGHTS ISO 240 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES WATER 2 0 S O t « 0 2 4 0 3 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES SANITARY SEWER 160 240 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES STORM SEWER NOTES: X - AT O MILES TO TRUNK SERVICES Y - AT I MILE TO TRUNK SERVICES Z - AT 2 MILES TO TRUNK SERVICES N.B. CURBS AND SIDEWALKS NOT INCLUDED ON CONNECTION ROADS. SOURCE: TABLE H>9 8 0 1 6 0 2 4 0 AREA OF SUBDIVISION IN ACRES ALL SERVICES FIGURE 3.4 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY AREA OF SUBDIVISION AT A DISTANCE FROM TRUNK SERVICES 63 208 ISO. Ii \ i«0 V 140 I l?0 1 100 l\ •0 «o \\ tn K < _ *o s o a Sta 4 ^ o •••is 3 0 10 40 60 « 0 100 PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) ROADS 0 20 40 60 80 IO0 PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) CURBS 140 itn ion AO no «. to 4 0 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 WO PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) SIDEWALKS 0 20 40 60 60 HO PROPORTION OEVELOPEO (PERCENT) STREET LIGHTS 0 t o 40 60 80 100 PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) WATER o to 4 0 io eo IOO PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) SANITARY SEWER 0 20 40 60 80 100 PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT ) STORM SEWER NOTES: 1 - LOT AREA 2500 SQUARE FEET 2 - LOT AREA 5000 SQUARE FEET 5 - LOT AREA 10,000 SQUARE FEET 4 - LOT AREA 40,000 SQUARE FEET SOURCE : TABLE H-IO o o • I I I I I 0 20 40 60 80 100 PROPORTION DEVELOPED (PERCENT) ALL SERVICES FIGURE 3.5 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY PROPORTION OF LOTS DEVELOPED 64 ISO 140 130 120 i in ion 90 « n F. P 70 3 en sn £ 4n < j an Z t. in 0» O O 0 0 LOT 5 10 20 B0 40 AREA IN SQ.FT. (11000) ROADS 60 £ 40 < J *> o ° tn z l_ 10 01 o O ft 0 LOT 5 10 20 SO 40 AREA IN SQ.FT. (IlOOOl CURBS no ton 90 en 70 en 50 + f 01 tC 40 < o o 20 Z I- 10 01 o U 0 c LOT 5 10 20 30 40 AREA IN SQ.FT. (11000) SIDEWALKS 60 so B so 8 ?n mm f S 1- 10- — P o> 8 o 0 LOT 5 10 20 30 40 AREA IN SQ. FT. (S 1000) STREET LIGHTS 90 80 70 60 SO 40 HO 70 10 0 LOT AREA IN SQ.FT. (11000) WATER LOT AREA IN SO. FT. (ilOOO) SANITARY SEWER LOT AREA IN SO. FT. (11000) STORM SEWER NOTES: F - FULL SERVICING LEVEL P - PARTIAL SERVICING LEVEL S - SUB-MINIMAL SERVICING LEVEL N.B. WHERE NO COST IS SHOWN FOR A SERVICING LEVEL, THE SERVICE IS NOT INCLUDED SOURCE: TABLE H.II LOT AREA IN SQ.FT. UIOOO) ALL SERVICES FIGURE 3.6 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY LEVEL OF SERVICING 65 • those t o a 10,000 square f o o f p a r c e l . And t h e s e r v i c e s t o a 2,500 square f o o t l o t are y e t another 30$ l e s s i n c o s t t h a n those t o a 5,000 square f o o t l o t . These f i n d i n g s , which a l s o h o l d f o r each of t h e s e r v i c e s , u p h o l d H y p o t h e s i s A: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as l o t a r e a  i s d e c r e a s e d . S e v e r a l immediate i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r m u n i c i p a l d e v e l o p -ment p o l i c y are apparent. Contemporary N o r t h American s o c i a l p a t t e r n s s t i l l emphasize l a r g e l o t suburban development, a l -though i n the l a s t y e a r or two a "back t o t h e c i t y " movement p appears t o have m a t e r i a l i z e d . The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t t h i s l a r g e l o t development i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e , o r at l e a s t c o s t l y , i f •5 t h e s e r v i c e s n o r m a l l y expected by ho u s e h o l d e r s are p r o v i d e d . S m a l l e r l o t s i z e s p e r m i t g r e a t e r convenience, f o r the s e r v i c e s people use can be l o c a t e d i n g r e a t e r p r o x i m i t y t o more p e o p l e . ^ W i t h improved d e s i g n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o develop the s m a l l l o t a t t r a c t i v e l y , and t h e r e i s no need t o t r y t o zone o r r e p l o t i t out of e x i s t e n c e . M u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h i n g s e r v i c e d l o t s of o ver, say, 7,000 square f e e t s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y examined i n r e l a t i o n t o r e s u l t a n t costs,.; I n h o l d i n g f r i n g e a r e a l a n d s from premature development, . . m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a f a i r l y See Appendix A, page 87. •3 R e s u l t s of a su r v e y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver suggest t h a t h o u s e h o l d e r s want and e v e n t u a l l y demand the s e s e r v i c e s . See l o w e r M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, The Urban F r o n t i e r , P a r t 2, (New Westminster, B. C : The Board, 1963) p. 33. ^ T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d f o r a few s e r v i c e s i n Table 3*1 page 66. P o p u l a t i o n C o n t a i n e d W i t h i n A G i v e n R a d i u s at F u l l Develop-ment a Radius R e q u i r e d t o Accommodate P o p u l a t i o n -O r i e n t e d S e r v i c e At I d e a l S i z e of O p e r a t i o n i n M i l e s b L o t S i z e (Sq. f t . ) 1/4 M i l e 1/2 M i l e 1 M i l e 2 M i l e s Elem.Sch. H i g h Sen. L o c a l Park L o c a l Shopping 2,500 5,340 21,350 85,400 342,000 o24 .42 .24 .22 5,000 3,140 12,560 50,200 20,000 • 31 .55 .32 ,28 10,000 1,730 6,920 27,600 110,600 -42 .73 .42 .38 40,000 470 1,885 7,540 30,200 .81 1.41 082 ,73 a Based on f i g u r e s i n Table H.l„ U s i n g an i d e a l elementary s c h o o l s i z e of 700 p u p i l s from p o p u l a t i o n of 4,900; an i d e a l h i g h s c h o o l o f 1,500 p u p i l s from p o p u l a t i o n of 15 ?000; an i d e a l l o c a l park of 20 a c r e s s e r v i n g 5,000 p o p u l a t i o n ; and an i d e a l l o c a l shopping f a c i l i t y s e r v i n g 4,000 p o p u l a t i o n . Maximum accepted r a d i i a r e .5, 1..0, .5, and .5 m i l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Standards Developed from I n t e r - C o u n t y R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Standards f o r New Urban  Development, (Denver, C o l o r a d o : The Commission, I 9 6 0 ) . N.B. I f d e v e l o p -ment, as i s o f t e n t h e c a s e , was o n l y o n e - h a l f complete, these d i s t a n c e s would i n c r e a s e by a f a c t o r of 1.4, and i f o n l y 20 percent complete, t h e y would i n c r e a s e 2.2 t i m e s . TABLE 3-1 POPULATION DENSITY AND RESULTING DISTANCES TO LOCAL FACILITIES l a r g e minimum p a r c e l s i z e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o n e T h a l f a c r e or one acre minimum, t o t h u s prevent s u b d i v i s i o n t h a t can s t r a p the p r o p e r f u t u r e development of the a r e a , and t o a v o i d premature s e r v i c i n g c o s t s . L o t Width t o Depth R a t i o , F i g u r e 3.2 (page 6 0 ) , shows how a n n u a l c o s t s are reduced w i t h the use of l o w e r l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o s . The c o s t d i f f e r e n c e s are not as marked as t h e y are f o r d i f f e r e n t l o t a r e a s , but t h e e f f e c t i s s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h a drop of 15 t o 20$ i n annual c o s t s f o r a s h i f t from a 1:1 t o a 1:2 r a t i o , or from a 1:2 t o a 1:4 r a t i o . A 5,000 square f o o t l o t w i t h a 1:1 r a t i o c o s t s more t o s e r v i c e t h a n a 10,000 square f o o t l o t w i t h a 1:4 r a t i o , and c o n v e r s e l y a 5,000 square f o o t l o t w i t h a 1:4 r a t i o has s e r v i c i n g c o s t s of l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f t h o s e of a 10,000 square f o o t l o t w i t h a 1:1 r a t i o . These f i n d i n g s u p h o l d H y p o t h e s i s B: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as t h e l o t  w i d t h t o d e pth r a t i o i s d e c r e a s e d . Two immediate i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r development p o l i c y and d e s i g n a r i s e . F i r s t , the deep l o t w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y narrow w i d t h s h o u l d be r e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e s i g n terms, e s p e c i a l l y f o r s m a l l l o t s . W i th p r o p e r d e s i g n , f u l l s i t e u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l a c h i e v e s e r v i c i n g economies. Second, a l t h o u g h the square l o t (1:1 r a t i o ) i s more expensive t o s e r v i c e , i t i s perhaps the most a p p r o p r i a t e shape f o r c u r r e n t development. With a p p r o p r i -ate d e s i g n , p a i r s of l o t s can be s e t a l t e r n a t e l y hack from and next t o the r o a d , panhandle s t y l e , t o reduce s e r v i c i n g c o s t s 68 but s t i l l r e t a i n the wide l o t . D i s t a n c e t o Trunk S e r v i c e s . F i g u r e 3.3 (page 6 1 ) , which shows the e f f e c t of d i s t a n c e on annual c o s t s f o r a 160-acre s u b d i v i s i o n , i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r the a f f e c t e d s e r v i c e s p e r hous e h o l d c o s t s i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e . T h i s e f f e c t i s a l s o i n t e n s i f i e d f o r the l a r g e r l o t s i z e s , t h e r e b e i n g fewer l o t s w i t h i n the 160-acre s i t e t o which the c o s t s can be s p r e a d . F o r a 2,500 square f o o t l o t t h e annual c o s t s i n c r e a s e by about 7$ p e r m i l e , and f o r a 40,000 square f o o t l o t t h e s e c o s t s i n -c r e a s e s h a r p l y by about 26$ p e r m i l e . These f i n d i n g s u p h o l d H y p o t h e s i s C: }  That p e r household c o s t s f o r the a f f e c t e d  t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r  t o t a l p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l de- cr e a s e as t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e s u b d i v i s i o n  and the a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s i s decr e a s e d. Two immediate i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s e from t h i s r e s u l t . Where vacant s e r v i c e d l o t s e x i s t , t h e s e s h o u l d be put t o use b e f o r e development i s extended t o new a r e a s , f o r t h e unused c a p a c i t y of a system c o n s t i t u t e s a c a p i t a l l o s s t o the m u n i c i -p a l i t y . When new areas are wa r r a n t e d , the most econ o m i c a l a-pproach i s t o t h e n add o n l y at t h e edge of e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p -ment where s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e . J3ee f o r example Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , New Approaches  t o R e s i d e n t i a l Land Development, T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 40, (Washington: The I n s t i t u t e , 1961). 69 A r e a of S u b d i v i s i o n at a D i s t a n c e . F i g u r e 3.4 (page 62), shows how annual c o s t s drop as the a r e a of a sub- i d i v i s i o n i n c r e a s e s when the s u b d i v i s i o n i s l o c a t e d at a d i s t a n c e from t r u n k s e r v i c e s . The r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d c o s t s of t r u n k s e r -v i c e s are spread over an i n c r e a s i n g number of p e o p l e , d e s c r i b i n g a h y p e r b o l i c c u r v e . At two m i l e s the annual c o s t p e r l o t f o r s e r v i c e s f o r a 320-acre development i s o n e - t h i r d t h a t f o r a 20-a c r e development, a d i f f e r e n c e t h a t would be compounded by i n -c r e a s e d d i s t a n c e . And i n r e l a t i o n t o v a r i e d d i s t a n c e , s e r v i c e s t o a 320-acre development at two m i l e s c o s t about 30$ more p e r l o t t h a n f o r t h e same development at z e r o m i l e s , w h i l e s e r v i c e s t o a 20-acre development at two m i l e s c o s t 400$ more t h a n t h e y would at z e r o m i l e s . These f i n d i n g s u p h o l d H y p o t h e s i s D: That p e r h o usehold c o s t s f o r the a f f e c t e d t r u n k  and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l  p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as  the a r e a of a s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n c r e a s e d when the  s u b d i v i s i o n i s l o c a t e d at a d i s t a n c e from a-v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s . From t h i s , s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are a p parent. Areas are o f t e n made a v a i l a b l e f o r development p r e m a t u r e l y , and r e -c e i v e i s o l a t e d s p o r a d i c s u b d i v i s i o n on a patchwork b a s i s , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1.3 (page 22). Many of t h e s e s u b d i v i s -i o n s are Only t h r e e or f o u r a c r e s i n t o t a l a r e a , and t h e i r c o s t consequences, i f they r e c e i v e d t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y need and de-mand, would be a s t r o n o m i c a l . I t i s apparent from the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s C t h a t development at a d i s t a n c e i s t o be d i s c o u r a g e d . F a i l i n g t h i s , any development at a d i s -70 tance should be complete, and of such areal extent that, f i r s t , the spread of costs between i t s numbers results i n as small a per household cost increment for connection services as possible, and second, the future provision of other community f a c i l i t i e s can be economically j u s t i f i e d . Needless to say, such development has dire s o c i a l and economic implications f or the future of any nearby built-up area, and these implications should not be overruled by mere developer desires. Proportion of Lots Developed. Figure 3.5 (page 63) relates the manner i n which eff i c i e n c y r i s e s as the proportion of developed l o t s increases, assuming eff i c i e n c y i s measured i n terms of the number of households served. Per household annual costs f o r 60$ development are almost double those for f u l l development, and those for 20$ development are about f i v e times those for f u l l development. These findings uphold Hypo-thesis E: That per household costs for the specified  municipal services w i l l decrease as the pro- portion of l o t s developed i s increased. The major implication of t h i s finding i s that before new areas are opened up for development, existing subdivision should be f i l l e d i n to take advantage of existing servicing and reduce per household costs. I t also suggests that when new development i s considered, the amount of land subdivided should be related to anticipated growth so that serviced areas do not l i e i d l e awaiting construction. Level of Servicing. In Figure 3.6 (page 64), the 71 * l o w e r c o s t s f o r a l o w e r l e v e l of s e r v i c i n g are e v i d e n c e d , a l t h o u g h i t must be remembered t h a t a low l e v e l of s e r v i c i n g i cannot be endured on the s m a l l e s t l o t s . Most s t r i k i n g , a f u l l y -s e r v i c e d l o t of about 7,000 square f e e t has an annual c o s t a-bout th e same as a 40,000 square f o o t l o t w i t h o n l y a g r a v e l r oad and water p i p e . These f i n d i n g s u p h o l d H y p o t h e s i s P: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d  m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as t h e s e r - v i c i n g l e v e l i s d e c r e a s e d . T h i s shows t h a t f o r a g i v e n l o t s i z e i n c r e a s e d s e r -v i c e s r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d c o s t s . But more i m p o r t a n t , i t shows t h a t sub-minimal s e r v i c e s t o a l a r g e l o t a c t u a l l y c o s t more t h a n f u l l s e r v i c e s t o an u r b a n - s i z e d l o t . S i n c e people need and demand s e r v i c e s , urban l o t s s h o u l d be kept s m a l l so t h a t s e r v i c e s can be p r o v i d e d e c o n o m i c a l l y . I n areas where urban development i s t o be a v o i d e d or t e m p o r a r i l y d i s c o u r a g e d , muni-c i p a l s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be kept t o an a b s o l u t e minimum, a v o i d i n g a h a l f - w a y p o l i c y . STUDY RESULTS IN A MUNICIPAL G-0AL-P0LICY PERSPECTIVE W i t h i n the development p r o c e s s , a m u n i c i p a l i t y must d e c i d e upon c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s : whether t o have l a r g e l o t s or s m a l l , wide l o t s o r deep; whether t o open the whole m u n i c i p a l -i t y f o r development a f o n c e or t o stage i t s growth; whether A l t h o u g h l o t s i z e i s used as the p r i m a r y v a r i a b l e s i n c e " s e r v i c i n g l e v e l " has no s i m p l e measure a t t a c h e d t o i t , r e l a t i o n s h i p s can s t i l l be c o n s i d e r e d on a r e l a t i v e b a s i s . t o i n s t a l l a h i g h or l o w " s t a n d a r d of s e r v i c e s , when the a r e a i s d e v e l o p i n g o r a f t e r , o r t o have none at a l l ; and whether t o pe r m i t new s u b d i v i s i o n o r seek i n f i l l i n g of vacant l a n d s f i r s t . Each p o l i c y , as i s apparent from the s t u d y r e s u l t s , has a p r o -found e f f e c t on t h e development p a t t e r n and s e r v i c i n g c o s t . O f t e n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s are not made by the d e c i s i o n makers, but by t h e o p e r a t i n g departments w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n the absence of an acknowledged p o l i c y , each o p e r a t i n g department makes i t s own assumptions about t h a t p o l i -cy, and i t s subsequent o p e r a t i o n s may a c t u a l l y be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e of another department or w i t h a d e s i r a b l e p o l i c y . O f t e n t h e p a t t e r n t h u s c r e a t e d cannot be coped w i t h . Urban s p r a w l , t h e most p r e v a l e n t development p a t t e r n i n t h e f r i n g e a r e a s , r e s u l t s from such a c a r e l e s s approach t o the complex b u s i n e s s of b u i l d i n g communities. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s , of c o u r s e , u n d e s i r a b l e , and some f a c t u a l b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g or c o r r e c t i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c i e s i s e s s e n t i a l . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s paper, as suggest ed e a r l i e r , i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e r v i c i n g c o s t consequences of d i f f e r e n t development p a t t e r n s so t h a t m u n i c i p a l g o a l s and p o l i c i e s can be a d j u s t e d t o a c h i e v e an e f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n . The hypotheses, u p h e l d by the st u d y r e -s u l t s , p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r t h i s adjustment. The s t u d y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e r e i s economy i n the s m a l l e r l o t , i n the deeper l o t , i n development l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o e x i s t i n g development, i n t h e l a r g e r s u b d i v i s i o n , and i n a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of o c c u p i e d l o t s . There i s even economy i n s m a l l f u l l y s e r v i c e d l o t s ove~r l a r g e s u b - m i n i m a l l y s e r v i c e d 7 3 l o t s . I f t h e f a c t t h a t people l i v i n g i n and around a b u i l t -up u r ban c e n t r e need and demand urban l e v e l s e r v i c e s i s ae- 1 c e p t e d , and i f t h e need f o r economy i n our r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p -ment i s a c c e p t e d , t h e n the " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " p h i l o s o p h y f o r u r b a n and suburban development must be a c c e p t e d . I n o t h e r words, t h e r e i s no excuse f o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e m u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s , f o r such p o l i c i e s m e r e l y c o s t the m u n i c i -p a l i t y , and t h e t a x p a y e r , more i n c a p i t a l and c o n t i n u i n g main-tenance c o s t s . An urban s p r a w l o r s c a t t e r a t i o n p o l i c y i s not j u s t i n c o n v e n i e n t , w a s t e f u l , and d e s t r u c t i v e of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d ; i t i s e x p e n s i v e f o r a l l concerned. Prom the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s , and w i t h -i n the framework of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n g o a l o b j e c t i v e , a b a s i c m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y f o r t h e guidance of r e s i d e n t i a l development can be p i e c e d t o g e t h e r . B a s i c a l l y , development s h o u l d be s t a g e d so t h a t the t o t a l s u p p l y of urban l a n d a v a i l a b l e at any one time i s adequate t o accommodate o n l y a s h o r t - t e r m p o p u l a t i o n growth, and i s capable of f u l l s e r v i c i n g at the time of development. An o v e r - s u p p l y of l a n d m e r e l y i n c r e a s e s t h e chances of s p o r a d i c development and u n p r e d i c t a b l e s e r v i c i n g needs. Ready s e r v i c e d areas s h o u l d be used f i r s t , t h e n new areas on t h e edge of e s t a b l i s h e d development can be added. When development i s en-couraged i n s t a g e d a r e a s , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why f u l l s e r v i c e s cannot be i n s t a l l e d at the time of development, f o r t h e w a i t i n g p e r i o d between i n i t i a l and f u l l development would be much s h o r -t e r and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s would a t t r a c t new r e s i -d ents t o the a r e a . I f new development i s t o be l o c a t e d at a d i s t a n c e , i t s h o u l d be e x t e n s i v e enough — a square m i l e or two — so t h a t the c o s t increment f o r t r u n k s w i l l not be d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e . I n o u t l y i n g areas where urban development i s to-be avoided or d e f e r r e d t o a l a t e r s t a g e , s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be .kept t o an a b s o l u t e minimum t o a v o i d the c h a i n r e a c t i o n of s u c c e s s i v e i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b d i v i s i o n . And l o t s i z e s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y watched, f o r l o t s of over, say, 7 , 0 0 0 square f e e t i m p l y h e a v i e r c o s t s . The s m a l l narrow l o t s h o u l d be r e -examined, f o r i t i s the most econo m i c a l t o s e r v i c e and t h r o u g h p r o p e r d e s i g n can be made p r i v a t e and a t t r a c t i v e . Most im-p o r t a n t , the m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n makers must remember t h a t the investment n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e r e s i d e n t i a l development w i t h e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s i s v e r y l a r g e , and even a s m a l l s a v i n g t h r o u g h the avoidance of i n a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y i s w o r t h w h i l e . At t h e same t i m e , the p o l i c i e s of t h e many b o d i e s i n f l u e n c i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development must a c t i n c o n c e r t , or t h e e f f o r t s of each w i l l be n e u t r a l i z e d . W i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s e l f , p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g water, sewer, r o a d , s c h o o l , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s must be c o - o r d i n a t e d . NHA mort-g a g i n g p o l i c i e s t h a t have i n the p a s t worked i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d r e f l e c t a c o - o r d i n a t e d p o l i -c y . S i m i l a r l y , P r o v i n c i a l Highways, Water and Sewer Boards, t r a n s i t , and o t h e r development f u n c t i o n s must be c o - o r d i n a t e d i n - t h e i r p o l i c i e s so t h a t i l l o g i c a l consequences do not r e s u l t . SUMMARY The s t u d y r e s u l t s , p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 3.1 t o 3.6, u p h o l d the s i x p a t t e r n - c o s t hypotheses. I t i s apparent, i f the f a c t t h a t u r ban and suburban s e t t l e m e n t r e -q u i r e s s e r v i c i n g i s a c c e p t e d , and i f the e c o n o m i c a l p r o v i s i o n 75 of t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s a c c e p t e d , t h a t a " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " approach , t o community development must be a c c e p t e d . The m u n i c i p a l de-c i s i o n makers have no excuse f o r a d o p t i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c a t t e r -a t i o n p o l i c i e s s i n c e t h e r e s u l t i n g urban s p r a w l development, as w e l l as b e i n g i n c o n v e n i e n t and w a s t e f u l , i s t o t a l l y uneconomic. A b a s i c p o l i c y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development can be f o r -m u lated. Development s h o u l d be s t a g e d so t h a t t h e l a n d made a-v a i l a b l e f o r development i s ready f o r t h a t development i n terms of s h o r t - t e r m p o p u l a t i o n growth, and c a p a b l e of f u l l s e r v i c i n g at the time of development. Development i n s e r v i c e d or p a r -t i a l l y developed areas s h o u l d be completed b e f o r e new a r e a s are s t a r t e d . Development at a d i s t a n c e from e s t a b l i s h e d u r ban areas s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i f i t i s complete, and of such e x t e n t t h a t the t r u n k c o s t increment i s not d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e . I n o u t -l y i n g areas f o r d e f e r r e d development, s e r v i c e s and s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y s h o u l d be kept t o an a b s o l u t e minimum. Development i n v o l v i n g l o t s of over 7,000 square f e e t s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d , f o r at t h i s p o i n t c o s t s r i s e s h a r p l y . Most i m p o r t -a n t , the d e c i s i o n makers must r e a l i z e t h a t community b u i l d i n g i s a v e r y e x p e n s i v e b u s i n e s s , and even s m a l l s a v i n g s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the avoidance of i n a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y are i m p o r t a n t . CHAPTER 4 SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y i s concerned w i t h the N o r t h American r e s i -d e n t i a l l a n d development p r o c e s s , from a m u n i c i p a l v i e w p o i n t . T h i s p r o c e s s c o n s i s t s of f o u r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s — m u n i c i p a l development g o a l s , development p o l i c y , r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n , and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c i n g c o s t — but un-f o r t u n a t e l y t h e i r d e l i c a t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f t e n s a c r i f i c e d by a m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r s h o r t t e rm p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , the f a i l u r e of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not e n t i r e l y t h e i r f a u l t , f o r r e a d i l y a p p l i c a b l e d a t a are not g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s paper i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s e r v i c i n g c o s t consequences of d i f f e r e n t development p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e means by which m u n i c i p a l development g o a l s and p o l i c i e s can be ad-j u s t e d t o a c h i e v e an e f f i c i e n t r e s i d e n t i a l development p a t t e r n . I n p u r s u i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the g o a l - p o l i c y a l t e r n a -t i v e s open t o a m u n i c i p a l i t y , the p r o c e s s of c r e a t i n g an i n -a p p r o p r i a t e development p a t t e r n , and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s encount-ered by the people l i v i n g w i t h i n such a p a t t e r n , are c o n s i d e r e d . G o a l a l t e r n a t i v e s or " p h i l o s o p h i e s " range from the low d e n s i t y d i s p e r s a l of " s c a t t e r a t i o n " , t o t h e c o n t a i n e d and st a g e d d e v e l o p -77 meat of " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " , th'e f o r m e r b e i n g the most p r e v a l e n t and l e a s t p a i n f u l course of a c t i o n f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y e x p e r i -e n c i n g growth p r e s s u r e s . The p r o c e s s of c r e a t i n g the d e v e l o p -ment p a t t e r n or e s t a b l i s h i n g development f i r m l y on t h e ground i n v o l v e s ( l ) the f o r m u l a t i o n or change of m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y t o accommodate the development, (2) the s u b d i v i s i o n of t h e l a n d , (3) the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , and (4) the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses. The o c c u r r e n c e of but one of t h e s e f a c t o r s u l t i m a t e l y p r e c i p i t a t e s the o t h e r t h r e e , and an i n a p p r o p r i a t e m u n i c i p a l p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g even: one f a c t o r can e a s i l y l e a d t o u r b a n s p r a w l . The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by the new s u b u r b a n i t e range from the g r o s s i n a d e q u a c i e s of t o - t h e - l o t s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g g r a v e l r o a d s , no s i d e w a l k s , deep d i t c h e s , and water mains t h a t r u n d r y i n t h e summer, t o e q u a l l y i n adequate to-the-community s e r v i c e s such as d i s t a n t s t o r e s and s c h o o l s , and an u n r e l i a b l e f i r e de-partment. S o c i a l l y , the s p r a w l areas are i s o l a t e d and s e g r e -g a t e d , and i n terms of c o s t are p r o b a b l y more expen s i v e t h a n a c o r e l o c a t i o n because of t r a v e l c o s t s and h i g h t a x e s . The s t u d y approach f o c u s e s on the documentation of p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g an a b s t r a c t l a n d model t h a t can be h y p o t h e t i c a l l y s u b d i v i d e d and s e r v i c e d i n a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t ways and l o c a t i o n s . Study c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are l i m i t e d t o s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s , namely l o t a r e a , l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o , d i s t a n c e t o t r u n k s e r v i c e s , s u b d i v i s i o n a r e a at a d i s -t a n c e , p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s d e v e l o p e d , and s e r v i c i n g l e v e l . Seven t o - t h e - l o t s e r v i c e s — r o a d s , s i d e w a l k s , c u r b s , s t r e e t -l i g h t s , water d i s t r i b u t i o n , s a n i t a r y sewers, and storm sewers — 78 , axe c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o each of these p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s . The s t u d y i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d t o s i n g l e f a m i l y development i n a , g r i d l a y o u t , the most p r e v a l e n t form of f r i n g e development. C o n s i d e r i n g the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , s e v e r a l gaps and b a s i c weaknesses are a p p arent. These i n c l u d e u n c o n t r o l l e d key v a r i a b l e s , u n s t a t e d assumptions, and inadequate documentation. To c o r r e c t t h e s e gaps, t o e s t a b l i s h a f u l l s e t of p a t t e r n - c o s t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t o add t o t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s p e c i f i c and r e a d i l y u s a b l e c o s t d a t a upon which m u n i c i p a l g o a l and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s can be based, s i x hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d f o r t e s t i n g , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e s i x p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s and seven t o - t h e - l o t s e r v i c e s mentioned above. To t e s t t h e s e hypotheses, the a b s t r a c t model was put t o work. Twelve 160-acre model s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s were d e s i g n e d , s e r v i c e d , and c o s t e d t o p r o v i d e p a t t e r n - c o s t d a t a . To assure c o n s i s t e n c y , s p e c i f i c s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , and c o s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used. The s t u d y r e s u l t s , p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e s 3.1 t o 3.6 (pages 59 t o 64) are most s i g n i f i c a n t : f i r s t , as a l l the hypotheses are u p h e l d , and second, because of t h e i m p l i -c a t i o n s t h a t can be drawn from t h e s e s u p p o r t e d h ypotheses. The hypotheses a r e : H y p o t h e s i s A: That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as l o t a r e a i s de-c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s B: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l d ecrease as t h e l o t w i d t h t o depth r a t i o i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s C; That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e s u b d i v i s i o n and the a v a i l a b l e t r u n k s e r v i c e s i s d e c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s D; That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e a f f e c t e d t r u n k and r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f o r t o t a l p e r household s e r v i c i n g c o s t s w i l l decrease as the a r e a of a s u b d i v i s i o n i s i n c r e a s e d when the s u b d i v i s i o n i s at a d i s t a n c e from a v a i l a b l e t r u n k - s e r v i c e s . H y p o t h e s i s E; That p e r household c o s t s f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as the p r o p o r t i o n of l o t s developed i s i n c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s F: That p e r household c o s t s f o r the s p e c i f i e d m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s w i l l decrease as the s e r v i c i n g l e v e l i s d e c r e a s e d . From t h e s e b a s i c s t a tements i t i s apparent t h a t i f the need f o r s e r v i c i n g u r b an and suburban development i s a c c e p t e d , and i f the e c o n o m i c a l p r o v i s i o n of t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s d e s i r e d , t h e n a " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " approach t o community development i s im-p e r a t i v e . The m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n makers have no excuse f o r a d o p t i n g s c a t t e r a t i o n p o l i c i e s . A b a s i c p o l i c y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development emerges. Development s h o u l d be staged t o t a k e i n new a r e a s as t h e y are 80 needed f o r development o n l y as t h e y can he s e r v i c e d , and areas a l r e a d y s t a r t e d s h o u l d he completed f i r s t . Development at a d i s t a n c e from e s t a b l i s h e d areas s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i f i t i s e x t e n s i v e , as would be the case w i t h a new town. I n o u t l y i n g areas f o r d e f e r r e d development,, s e r v i c e s and s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i -v i t y s h o u l d be k e p t t o a minimum. Urban development i n v o l v i n g l o t s of over 7,000 square f e e t s h o u l d be d i s c o u r a g e d , w h i l e the s m a l l narrow l o t s h o u l d be r e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e s i g n terms as i t i s the most e c o n o m i c a l t o s e r v i c e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s s t u d y c l e a r l y demonstrates the economies of " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " and the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h c o s t s encountered under a " s c a t t e r a t i o n " p o l i c y . As the s t u d y c o n s i d e r s each p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e s e h i g h c o s t s of " s c a t t e r a t i o n " are even h i g h e r when the combined e f f e c t s of s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s are c a l c u l a t e d . The m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n makers must r e a l i z e t h a t community development i s a v e r y e x p e n s i v e b u s i n e s s : f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y , f o r the c i t i z e n s as t a x p a y e r s , and f o r the c i t i z e n s as i n d i v i d u a l s . There i s no excuse f o r i n -a p p r o p r i a t e m u n i c i p a l development p o l i c y i f M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l i s p r o t e c t i n g the community i n t e r e s t . Land cannot be thought of as a commodity t o be chopped up and s o l d t o the h i g h e s t b i d d e r : i t i s our most v a l u a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e , and must be used w i t h c a r e . 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"Urbanization i n the C a l i f o r n i a Desert", Journal of the American In s t i t u t e of Planners, v o l . 28, no. .1 (February, 1962), 18-23. "Subdivision Design — Good, Grid, and Gimmicky", Ontario  Planning, v o l . 5, no. 8 (October, 1958), 1-4. Wolfe, Jerome B., "Peak Demands i n Residential Areas", Journal  of the American Water Works Association, (October, 1961), 1250-1254. Unpublished Material Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Regional Branch, Vancouver. Unpublished servicing cost data for l o c a l municipalities f or 1963. Clark, S. D. "The Suburban Community". (Mimeographed). Engineering Department, Corporation of the City of New West-minster. Unpublished servicing cost data for 1964. Engineering Department, Corporation of the City of North Van-couver. Unpublished servicing cost data for 1964. Engineering Department, Corporation of the C i t y of Port Moody. Unpublished servicing cost data f o r 1964. Engineering Department, Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby. Unpublished servicing cost data for 1964. Engineering Department, Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. Unpublished servicing cost data f o r 1964. Gaffney, Mason. "Containment P o l i c i e s f or Urban Sprawl". 1964. (Mimeographed). Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t . Unpublished cost data. G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t . U n p u b l i s h e d c o s t d a t a . Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a on o c c u p i e d l o t s i n S u r r e y , 1949 and 1954. P l a n n i n g Department, C o r p o r a t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t of Richmond. Comparative d a t a f o r c o s t s on g r i d and c u r v i l i n e a r development. - • -P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y . U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a on l o t s i z e s i n S u r r e y , 1961. A F P E N D I C E S APPENDIX A METROPOLITAN CONSTRUCTION TRENDS IN CANADA i In recent years there has been a gradual s h i f t to apartment l i v i n g i n metropolitan Canada. This trend i s shown i n Table A . l (page 88) f o r representative metropolitan centres. Apartment construction has been spectacular compared with single family development, although the l a t t e r has maintained a consis-tent annual t o t a l . Recent r e s i d e n t i a l construction for the Vancouver Metropolitan Area (as defined by the 1961 Census) i s shown i n Table A.2, (page 89). Construction for 1964 exceeds the 1958 peak year, but the emphasis has shifted to central location and to apartments. Where i n 1958 only 19$ of the new units were i n the central c i t y , 56$ of the 1964 units were cen t r a l l y located. And i n 1958 apartments accounted f o r only 26$ of the new units, s h i f t i n g to 67$ i n 1964. M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a a New D w e l l i n g S t a r t s 1 9 6 0 b 1963 1 3 1964° S d M e S M S M C a l g a r y 2,551 • • 2,238 683 1,434 M o n t r e a l 6,884 8,443 9,461 18,173 Ot t awa-Hull 3,247 2,873 1,327 4,371 T or ont o 5,545 10,437 8,635 12,986 Vancouver 3,553 3,874 4,219 1,122 5,067 8,572 a As d e f i n e d by the 1956 Census f o r I960 f i g u r e s , and by the 1961 Census f o r 1963 and 1964 f i g u r e s . C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Canadian  H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s 1965,(Ottawa: The C o r p o r a t i o n , 1964), T a b l e s 9 and 10, pp. 16-17. C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Housing  S t a t i s t i c s . B r i t i s h C olumbia R e g i o n , December, 1964. ^ S i n g l e and d u p l e x e s . Row and apartments. TABLE A . l DWELLING STARTS IN CANADIAN METROPOLITAN CENTRES 89 T y p e b New D w e l l i n g U n i t S t a r t s c Area 3' 1951 1956 1958 1961 1962 1963 1964 Vaneouver S M' 1,113 375 1,053 2,093 878 2,412 596 1,772 888 2,221 795 3,176 899 6,273 I n n e r A r e a S M 891 27 1,090 135 898 467 434 528 455 1,026 471 892 487 1,260 Outer A r e a s : North. Shore S M 734 33 1,267 154 1,376 266 623 112 750 375 803 952 742 678 E a s t A r e a 3 M 96 0 535 0 1,074 9 673 40 629 122 639 0 754 174 South A r e a 3 M 175 0 2,086 14 4,806 77 938 67 861 36 1,162 47 1,334 190 Other 3 M 69 41 17 0 15 22 5 0 24 0 4 0 3 0 TOTAL S 3,078 6,048 9,047 3,269 3,607 3,874 4,219 M 476 2,396 3,253 2,319 3,780 5,067 8,572 I n n e r A r e a - Burnaby and New Westminster; N o r t h Shore -N o r t h Vancouver G i t y a.nd D i s t r i c t , and West Vancouver; E a s t A r e a - C o q u i t l a m , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , and P o r t Moody; South A r e a - Richmond, D e l t a , S u r r e y , and White Rock; Other - U n o r g a n i z e d , I . R., U. E. L., F r a s e r M i l l s . ^3 - s i n g l e s and d u p l e x e s ; M - row and apartments. c C o m p i l e d from C. M. H. C. Housing S t a t i s t i c s , B r i t i s h C olumbia R e g i o n . TABLE A.2 DWELLING STARTS IN METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER FOR SELECTED YEARS 90 APPENDIX B SUBDIVISION IN SURREY, BRITISH COLUMBIA D u r i n g the m i d d l e and l a t e 1950's, S u r r e y , an e x t e n -s i v e m u n i c i p a l i t y on the f r i n g e of the Vancouver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b d i v i s i o n and p o p u l a t i o n s e t -t l e m e n t . Table B . l (page 91), documents the c h a n g i n g numbers of o c c u p i e d l o t s over t h i s p e r i o d . The d a t a show i n c r e a s e s i n the number of o c c u p i e d l o t s from 1949 t o 1954 i n a l l but the f i v e a c r e or more c a t e g o r y . There was l i m i t e d s u b d i v i s i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and some of the p r e - e x i s t i n g s m a l l h o l d i n g s became o c c u p i e d f o l l o w i n g the war, a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e s e i n c r e a s e s . A p e r i o d of e x t e n s i v e s u b d i v i s i o n f o l l o w e d , and from 1954 t o 1961 t h e numbers i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s of over one acre were reduced as l a r g e r h o l d i n g s were s u b d i v i d e d and r e s u b d i v i d e d . Most s i g n i -f i c a n t , the number of l o t s of l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f acre more t h a n doubled and those between o n e - h a l f and one acre i n c r e a s e d by 60$. Prom Table B.2 (page 92) i t i s apparent t h a t t h e b u l k of t h e l o t s l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f acre are a c t u a l l y l e s s t h a n one-t h i r d a c r e , and a c u r s o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows t h a t t h e b u l k of t h e s e are c l o s e r t o 7,000 square f e e t , or t y p i c a l "urban" l o t s . T able B.2 a l s o shows t h a t the s u p p l y of vacant l o t s i n each c a t e g o r y i s f a i r l y l a r g e , so t h a t s e t t l e m e n t has not had t o s e l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r l o t s i z e because i t was the o n l y l o t a v a i l -a b l e . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s h i f t from l a r g e h o l d i n g s , even where o c c u p i e d , t o u r b a n s i z e p a r c e l s when the urban p r e s s u r e s o c c u r . P a r c e l S i z e ( a c r e s ) O c c u p i e d 3 , i n 1 9 4 9 b l o t s , a l l i n 1 9 5 4 b l a n d uses i n 1961° under 1/2 acre 3,626 5,030 11,313 1/2 t o 1 714 1,022 1,638 1 t o 2 1,071 1,432 1,351 2 t o 5 2,621 2,895 2,796 5 or more 2,159 2,153 1,762 TOTAL 10,191 12,532 18,860 l e s s t h a n 1/2 acre as a per c e n t a g e of t o t a l 36$ 40$ 60$ ^ o t s w i t h a s s e s s e d imDrovements. ^From u n p u b l i s h e d Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d d a t a , c o r r e c t e d t o e x c l u d e l a n d s i n the C i t y of K i t e R o c k wh i ch , s e c e d e d from S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1957. c F r o m u n p u b l i s h e d S u r r e y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n d a t a . TABLE B . l SIZE OF OCCUPIED LOTS IN SURREY 92 P a r c e l S i z e ( a c r e s ) Occupied and Unoccupied L o t s , 1 9 6 l a Unoccupied Occupied T o t a l P e r c e n t Occupied under 1/3 acre 8,500 9,230 17,730 52$ 1/3 t o 1/2 685 1,228 1,913 64$ 1/2 t o 1 749 1,455 _,-204 • 66$' 1 t o 2 823 1,269 2,092 61$ 2 t o 5 1,065 2,709 3,774 72$ 5 or-more 429 941 1,370 69$ TOTAL 12,251 16,832 29,083 58$ ^ r o m u n p u b l i s h e d S u r r e y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n d a t a . TABLE B.2 OCCUPIED AND UNOCCUPIED RESIDENTIAL LOTS IN SURREY, 1961 93 ' APPENDIX C COST-REVENUE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES v As applied to municipal finance, cost-revenue analysis i s e s s e n t i a l l y a procedure f o r checking, from a municipal view-point, the costs involved i n providing the usual variety of municipal government services to an area against the revenues received from that area. One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s with the procedure i s the " a l l o c a t i o n " of costs and revenues to p a r t i c u l a r areas or uses, t h i s a l l o c a t i o n tending to become arbitrary or to get lost i n d e t a i l . The aim behind the many cost-revenue analy-ses that have been prepared i s to provide the municipality with a basis f o r an evaluation of existing situations, p o l i c i e s , or a new proposal, especially i n r e l a t i o n to f i s c a l p o l i c i e s , c a p i t a l budgeting, governmental reorganization, annexation,and land use planning. Cost-revenue analysis gained considerable popularity i n the United States during the 1950's when the "proper economic balance" of different land uses became a planning issue, p a r t i a l -l y as a result of the problems of urban sprawl being experienced at the time. But i t s origins go back to the "economic" studies of the slums of the 1930*s, to the redevelopment studies of the p 1940*s, and to the annexation studies of the 1940's and 1950*3. Much of the material presented here i s derived from Ruth L. Mace, Municipal Cost-Revenue Research i n the United  States, (Chapel H i l l , N. C: I n s t i t u t e of Government, 1961). This book i s devoted to a c r i t i c a l survey of municipal cost-revenue research i n r e l a t i o n to land use. 2 I b i d . , p. 15. The t e c h n i q u e s and methods used i n the s e s t u d i e s — even i n thos e produced d u r i n g the 1950's — are o f t e n g r o s s l y i n a d e q u a t e . I n s t e a d of drawing on the methods of m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e , a c c o u n t -i n g , or economics, t h e time-worn " s o c i a l cause" o r i e n t e d methods of the e a r l y slum c o s t s t u d i e s are o f t e n adopted u n c r i t i c a l l y . I n t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s c o s t s are u s u a l l y " a l l o c a t e d " t o a use or a r e a by the s h o r t c u t method of assuming t h a t the c o s t s v a r y i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o p e r t y v a l u e , number of p e o p l e , geo-g r a p h i c a r e a , o r some o t h e r such f a c t o r or f a c t o r s , o r t h e y are a l l o c a t e d on the b a s i s of department head judgements. I n terms of revenues, p r o p e r t y t a x e s are q u i c k l y r e - a l l o c a t e d t o a use or a r e a , but o t h e r revenues are u s u a l l y i g n o r e d on the assump-t i o n t h a t p r o p e r t y t a x e s s h o u l d pay f o r b e n e f i t s t o p r o p e r t y . As many of the s e " a l l o c a t i o n s " i n v o l v e p e r s o n a l judgements, the chances of d e l i b e r a t e or u n c o n s c i o u s b i a s are c o n s i d e r a b l e , and i t i s not u n u s u a l t h a t these s t u d i e s o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t one an-o t h e r . S i n c e t h e mid-1950's a few u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s have been made t h a t have de p a r t e d from c o n v e n t i o n i n b o t h t e c h n i q u e and s u b s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h many of the " a l l o c a t i o n " d i f f i c u l t i e s are s t i l l apparent. I n t e c h n i q u e , the c o n t r i b u t i o n has been t o i n t r o d u c e c o s t a l l o c a t i o n on a performance b u d g e t i n g b a s i s , de-v i s i n g f o r each s e r v i c e a u n i t of a c t i v i t y , a u n i t of i n c i d e n c e , a u n i t of t i m e , and a u n i t of c o s t . I n subs t a n c e , a few of ^ R e f e r t o s t u d i e s by Wheaton and Schussheim, I s a r d and C o u g h l i n , and Wetmore et a l . , c i t e d i n Chapter 1 and 2, as w e l l as o t h e r s t u d i e s c i t e d i n Mace, op. c i t . . page 17. t h e s e s t u d i e s d e p a r t from the u s u a l concern f o r a "balance of ' u s e s " and devote more a t t e n t i o n t o v a r i a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l , development p a t t e r n s , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2. But i n g e n e r a l terms the c o s t - r e v e n u e t e c h n i q u e p r o v e s t o be t o o a r b i t r a r y and t o o i n v o l v e d . f o r g e n e r a l use. U n t i l new a c c o u n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and computer d a t a p r o c e s s i n g are a p p l i e d and assumptions agreed upon, the t e c h n i q u e w i l l have l i m i t e d u t i l i t y . APPENDIX D THE GRID. CURVILINEAR. AND CLUSTER SUBDIVISION PATTERNS , I t i s generally accepted that savings result when the cu r v i l i n e a r form i s used i n place of the time-worn grid pattern, or when the cluster form replaces either of these sub-d i v i s i o n types. Table D.l (page 97), gives a comparison of actual gri d and c u r v i l i n e a r subdivisions, and the cost and other differences are c l e a r l y apparent. Figure D.l (page 98) compares the c u r v i l i n e a r and cluster patterns, although the comparison i s not complete as different l o t sizes are involved. Although there are many variations possible i n sub-2 d i v i s i o n design, t h i s study i s l i m i t e d to the grid pattern for technical reasons. In any case, t h i s pattern dominates much of the new development that i s occurring or w i l l occur i n the near future. The g r i d pattern has been established over vast areas, and unless major programmes are undertaken, the g r i d w i l l not be avoided. See E. Beecroft, "Let Us Make Our C i t i e s E f f i c i e n t " , Commercial Letter, The Canadian Bank of Commerce, (October, 1955), and "Subdivision Design — Good, Grid and Gimmicky", Ontario Planning, v o l . 5, no. 8, (October, 1958). 2 See for examples Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , New Approaches  to Residential Land Development, Technical B u l l e t i n 40, (Washington: The I n s t i t u t e , 1961). | F e a t u r e of Development A c t u a l G r i d Development Ac t ua.1 C u r v i I i n e ar Developm.o.n.'l; 1. Area of s i t e s 160 a c r e s 160 a c r e s 2. L e n g t h of i n t e r n a l r oads 33,460 f e e t 19,400 f e e t 3- A r e a of r o a d a l l o w a n c e s 50 a c r e s (32$) 24 a c r e s (15$) 4. T o t a l c o s t f o r r o a d s , water, l i g h t s , s t o r m sewer, and s i d e w a l k $1,003,860 $ 582,000 5. Number of l o t s o b t a i n e d (66 f e e t ) 484 560 6. Cost of s e r v i c e s p e r l o t $2,080 SI,040 7. Number of 4-way i n t e r -s e c t i o n s 40 3 8. Number of i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h major a r t e r i a l s 25 4 Source: Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. TABLE D . l COMPARISON OF FEATURES OF GRID AND CURVILINEAR PATTERNS 98 r CURVILINEAR $225,000 for streets and sidewalks 1. Streets and Paving: $132,581 Collector 50,155.6 sq. yds. $ 80,249 Residential 36,666.7 sq. yds. 49,067 Plus Street Excavation & Grading 16,325 cu. yds. $ 3,265 2. Sidewalks, Curbs, Gutters (46,400 lin. ft.) $ 92,800 3. Lot Grading (368 lots at $100 per lot) $ 36,800 4. Sewers $ 75,550 Sewers 20,500 lin. ft. $ 5 1 , 2 5 0 Manholes 81 at $300 ea. 24,300 5. Water $ go,545 8" 10,200 lin. ft, $ 41,820 6" 12.700 lin. ft, 41,275 Hydrants 10 3,250 Culvert 60 lin. ft. 4,200 6. Engineering and Planning $ 62 560 T O T A L COST $490,836 (Total cost/lot $ 1,334) Figures based on current (1963) per unit costs in the Denver Metropolitan Area. l f i O A C R E S P L A G U E D B Y B I G L O T Z O N I N G 112,500 Sq. ft.) become a tradit ional curvi l inear hodge-podge o f 368 units, nearly half o f which front o n heavily travelled col lector streets ( r e d ) . T o o many of these also back up on main arteries at south and east. Other shortcomings: difficult access to houses within the perimeter of basic col lector streets; l imited park areas (only 4.4 acres, in just two spots) ; no provis ion made f o r a school unless it is poor ly located in the park area at the northeast. C O L L E C T O R fSTREEI 1 CLUSTER $177,000 for streets and sidewalks 1. Streets and Paving $107,603 Collector 45,100 sq. yds. $ 7 2 , 1 6 0 Residential 20,800 sq. yds. 33,280 Plus Street Excavation & Grading 10,817 cu. yds. $ 2,163 2. Sidewalks, Curbs, Gutters (35,400 lin. ft.) $ 70,800 3. Lot Grading (366 lots at $10O per lot) $ 36,600 4. Sewers $ 72,500 Sewers 18,200 lin. ft. $ 45,500 Manholes 90 at $300 ea. 27,000 5. Water $ 96,026 8 " 9,330 lin. ft. $ 38,253 6" 13,350 lin, ft. 43,388 4" 3,300 lin. ft. 7,260 Hydrants 9 2,925 Culvert 60 lin. ft. 4,200 6. Engineering and Planning $ 62,220 7. Planting $ 23,298 Trees 300 at $3.90 each $ 1,170 Turf 553,212 sq. ft. at 4(t/sq. ft. $ 22,128 T O T A L COST $469,047 (Toal cost/lot $ 1,282) S A M E 1 6 0 A C R E S Z O N E D F O R 7 , 5 0 0 S Q . F T . per lot take advantage of cul-de-sac p lanning . Resul t : 366 units reasonably separated f r o m busy col lec-tor streets and m a i n arteries: 25.5 acres o f park area, inc lud ing space for a centrally located schoo l . C o s t : $21,789 less than the p l a n al the left, despite inciusion o f $23,298 i n trees a n d turf. B o t h plans are by H a r m a n , O ' D o n n e l l & Henninger Associates, technical advisors for "Innovat ions vs. Trad i t ions in C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t , " a new study sponsored by U L I a n d N A H B . Source: "The A l b a t r o s s o f Localism'," House and Home, v o l , 24, no, 6 (December, 1963), pp= 106-107° FIGURE D . l COMPARISON OF FEATURES OF CURVILINEAR AND CLUSTER SUBDIVISION PATTERNS 99 APPENDIX E SUBDIVISION DESIGN REQUIREMENTS To a s s u r e c o n s i s t e n c y of d e s i g n f o r purposes of the s t u d y , s e v e r a l b a s i c d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n each model s u b d i v i s i o n : (1) The l o t a r e a and shape conformed as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e t o the p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e dimensions e s t a b l i s h e d by the s t u d y . (2) The s u b d i v i s i o n a r e a was made as c l o s e t o 160 a c r e s as possible,,, and as c l o s e t o a square i n shape as p o s s i b l e . (3) The s u b d i v i s i o n b o u n d a r i e s were d e s i g n a t e d as t h e c e n t r e l i n e s of the bounding r o a d a l l o w a n c e s . (4) The h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t e was assumed t o p o s s e s s no d i f f i c u l t i e s of t e r r a i n or o t h e r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t might i n t e r r u p t a s t a n d a r d i z e d s u b d i v i s i o n p a t t e r n . (5) B l o c k l e n g t h was l i m i t e d t o the l e s s e r of 1,450 f e e t o r 25 houses, w i t h l e n g t h s r u n n i n g i n an east-west d i r e c t i o n . (6) Lanes were a v o i d e d . (7) A r t e r i a l roads w i t h an 8 0 - f o o t r i g h t - o f - w a y were l o c a t e d at the n o r t h and west b o u n d a r i e s of each s u b d i v i s i o n . (8) C o l l e c t o r roads w i t h a 60-foot r i g h t - o f - w a y were d e s i g n a t e d as d e n s i t y w a r r a n t e d . (9) The r e m a i n i n g roads were d e s i g n a t e d as l o c a l roads w i t h a 50-foot r i g h t - o f - w a y . (10) Land was s e t a s i d e on the b a s i s of 520 square f e e t p e r household i n r e c o g n i t i o n of p u b l i c l a n d needs of the neighbourhood p a r k - e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t y p e , a l t h o u g h i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t f o r the l a r g e r l o t s u b d i v i s i o n s t h i s l a n d would not amount t o a u s a b l e s i t e . ( T h i s amount was based on a s t a n d a r d of a 15-acre s i t e b e i n g needed f o r a popu-l a t i o n of 4,900 when 700 of t h e s e are elementary s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n . ) I n t e r - C o u n t y R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, Standards  f o r New Urban Development. (Denver, C o l o r a d o : The Commission. I 9 6 0 ) , p. 2. 1 0 1 APPENDIX F SERVICING DESIGN REQUIREMENTS W i t h the model s u b d i v i s i o n s drawn w i t h i n the g u i d e -l i n e s of Appendix E, s e r v i c i n g was th e n d e s i g n e d t o the f o l l o w -i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s : G e n e r a l : (1) F o r subsequent c o s t i n g p urposes, the h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t e was assumed t o have g e n t l e s l o p e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p e r m i t t e d t h e l o c a t i o n of underground s e r v i c e s at a c o n s i s t e n t depth of 7 t o 8 f e e t i n ground h a v i n g no d i g g i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . (2) A l t h o u g h the s p e c i f i e d s e r v i c e s supposedly covered the en-t i r e s u b d i v i s i o n , i t was assumed t h a t s i m i l a r s u b d i v i s i o n s would be l o c a t e d on a l l s i d e s of t h e model and t h a t on bounding s t r e e t s s e r v i c e s would be shared."*" Hence: (a) r o a d , c u r b , and s i d e w a l k needs were t a k e n t o the c e n t r e l i n e of bounding s t r e e t s , and (b) s t r e e t l i g h t , water, s a n i t a r y sewer, and storm sewer needs were t a k e n t o i n c l u d e b o t h s i d e s of bounding s o u t h and west s t r e e t s , w i t h the n o r t h and e a s t bounding s t r e e t needs b e i n g c a r e d f o r by a b u t t i n g development. (3) The s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s d e f i n e d e a r l i e r were used as needed. " F u l l " s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e d a s p h a l t r o a d s , e x t r u d e d c u r b s , c o n c r e t e s i d e w a l k s on two s i d e s , ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t s T h i s was assumed f o r b o t h i s o l a t e d s u b d i v i s i o n s at a d i s t a n c e and s u b d i v i s i o n s l o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o ex-i s t i n g development and t o s e r v i c e t r u n k s . 102 at 1 5 0 -foot i n t e r v a l s , and complete water d i s t r i b u t i o n , s a n i t a r y sewer, and storm sewer systems. " P a r t i a l " s e r -v i c i n g i n c l u d e d a s p h a l t r o a d s , no c u r b s or s i d e w a l k s , s t r e e t l i g h t s at 600-foot i n t e r v a l s , complete water d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a n i t a r y sewer systems, and r o a d s i d e d i t c h e s f o r storm d r a i n a g e . "Sub-minimal" s e r v i c i n g i n c l u d e d g r a v e l roads and water d i s t r i b u t i o n o n l y . (4-) P o r s u b d i v i s i o n s at a d i s t a n c e , t h e c o n n e c t i o n s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t e d of a c o l l e c t o r l e v e l a s p h a l t road; no c u r b s or s i d e w a l k s ; s a n i t a r y sewer, storm sewer, and water t r u n k l i n e s ; and s t r e e t l i g h t s at 600-foot i n t e r v a l s . S p e c i f i c : (1) Roads: A r t e r i a l , c o l l e c t o r , and l o e a l roads were d e s i g n e d t o a s u r f a c e w i d t h of 58, 38, and 28 f e e t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s amounts t o a l l the road a l l o w a n c e except f o r an 11-f o o t s t r i p around each b l o c k , i n c l u d i n g c o r n e r s . (2) Curbs: Curbs were l o c a t e d so t h a t the r o a d s i d e edge would be 12 f e e t from the b l o c k l o t l i n e s , i n c l u d i n g a 1 2 - f o o t r a d i u s at c o r n e r s . Thus, one f o o t of the road-bed on each s i d e of t h e s t r e e t was used as a f o o t i n g , and the a c t u a l t r a v e l l e d r o ad w i d t h s between the curbs were 56, 36, and 26 f e e t . (3) S i d e w a l k s ; S i d e w a l k s were l o c a t e d one f o o t from b l o c k l o t l i n e s on a l l s i d e s of the b l o c k s , e x t e n d i n g t o t h e c u r b s at c o r n e r s . (4) S t r e e t L i g h t s : Ornamental s t r e e t l i g h t s were l o c a t e d at r o a d s i d e , and underground w i r i n g was used o n l y i n l i n e a r 103 runs p a r a l l e l t o b l o c k l e n g t h s and house f r o n t a g e s . (5) Water: I n d e t e r m i n i n g the water s u p p l y system c a p a c i t y r e -q u i r e m e n t s , domestic water needs were as s e s s e d on the b a s i s of the d a t a i n Table P . l (page 104) which c o n s i d e r s v a r i a -t i o n s i n peak demands f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of r e s i d e n t i a l de-p velopment, and r e q u i r e d f i r e f l o w s were determined u s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n Table P.2 (page 105). I n d e s i g n i n g the •5 o n - s i t e system, S t e e l ^ was used as a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e . I t was assumed t h a t a p r i m a r y f e e d e r g r i d system would be a-v a i l a b l e at the edge of e x i s t i n g development. Each 160-acre model s u b d i v i s i o n was r i n g e d w i t h a secondary f e e d e r system, w i t h s i x - i n c h g r i d d i s t r i b u t i o n mains i n s t a l l e d i n t e r n a l l y . P i p e s i z e and l a y o u t were arranged t o keep f i r e f l o w v e l o c i -t i e s below f i v e f e e t p e r second. (6) S a n i t a r y Sewers: The s a n i t a r y sewer systems f o r t h e model s u b d i v i s i o n s were d e s i g n e d f o r a peak f l o w of 400 g a l l o n s p e r c a p i t a p e r day i n the l a t e r a l s and s u b - t r u n k s , and 250 g a l l o n s i n the main t r u n k s . ^ A c t u a l d e s i g n of each system was done on a c u m u l a t i v e b a s i s , w o r k i n g t h r o u g h the system from the h i g h e s t e l e v a t i o n s down, u s i n g S t e e l as a r e f e r e n c e . " R e q u i r e d f i r e f l o w " r e f e r s t o the f l o w of water i n g a l l o n s p e r minute f o r a s p e c i f i e d d u r a t i o n , used i n d e t e r m i n i n g f i r e i n s u r a n c e r a t e s . I t i s apparent from Table H.2 (page 114) t h a t t h i s " r e q u i r e d f i r e f l o w " i s by f a r the b i g g e s t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g p i p e s i z e s . •^Ernest W. S t e e l , Water Supply and Sewerage. ( 4 t h ed.: New York: M c G a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , I960) pp. 132-140. 4 I b i d . , p. 24. I b i d . , pp. 407-413. 104 Lot S i z e ( s q . f t . ) Average D a i l y Consumption ( G a l l o n s ) Peak R a t i o 2,000 - 2,400 163 3=84:1 5,000 - 7,500 183 3.30:1 9,000 - 12,000 227 4.36:1 15,000 - 25,000 333 7.90:1 40,000 + 524 10.30:1 Source: Jerome B. Wolfe, "Peak Demands i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s " , J o u r n a l of the  American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n . October, 1961, pp. 1252-1253-TABLE P . l AVERAGE DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION AND PEAK RATIOS BY LOT AREA 105 P o p u l a t i o n R e q u i r e d F i r e Plow (Gal/Min) R e q u i r e d D u r a t i o n (Hours) 1,000 1,000 4 1,500 1,250 5 2,000 1,500 6 3,000 1,750 7 4,000 2,000 8 5,000 2,250 9 6,000 - 2,500 10 10,000 3,000 10 13,000 3,500 10 17,000 4,000 10 22,000 4,500 10 28,000 5,000 10 Source: E r n e s t ¥. S t e e l , Water Supply and Sewerage. ( 4 t h ed.; New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , I 9 6 0 ) , p. 20. TABLE F.2 REQUIRED EIRE PLOW 106 The actual pipe sizes needed were determined using Manning > formula diagrams and a flow v e l o c i t y of "between two and eight feet per second i n the pipes. (7) Storm Sewers: The amount of storm sewage to be handled by storm drainage systems i n the model subdivisions was c a l -culated using the formula Q = AIR where "Q" equals the runoff i n cubic feet per second, "A" i s the area drained i n acres, " I " i s the runoff c o - e f f i c i e n t , and "R" i s the r a i n f a l l i n inches per hour of any storm lengthy enough to produce runoff. A representative r a i n f a l l rate of one inch per hour was used, and Kuichling's co-7 e f f i c i e n t s were used i n determining the runoff c o - e f f i c i e n t s for the different subdivisions. In determining actual dO-sign, Steel was again used as the basic reference, and the Manning formula diagrams were used to assure a flow v e l o c i t y of between three and nine feet per second i n the system. 6 I b i d . , pp. 371-373. 7 I b i d . , p. 337. 8 I b i d . , pp. 413-417. APPENDIX G COSTING PROCEDURES With the model s u b d i v i s i o n s d e s i g n e d and s e r v i c e d u s i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t s g i v e n i n Appendices E and P, t h e c o s t consequences of each p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e were t h e n a s s e s s e d . An "annual c o s t " was d e r i v e d f o r each s e r v i c e : c a p i t a l p l u s i n -s t a l l a t i o n c o s t s a m o r t i z e d over t h e p h y s i c a l l i f e t i m e of the f a c i l i t y , p l u s an average annual maintenance c o s t . I n d e r i v i n g t h e s e annual c o s t s , the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used: (1) The elements of a s e r v i c e were f u l l y s p e c i f i e d and c o s t d a t a c o l l e c t e d . Sources i n c l u d e d the Vancouver R e a l E s t a t e 1 2 Board and C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , but t o a ssure c o n s i s t e n c y , u n i t c o s t d a t a were o b t a i n e d from f i v e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s i n g the d a t a sheet reproduced i n F i g u r e G . l (page 108). These d a t a are p r e s e n t e d i n Table G . l (page 109), a l t h o u g h f i g u r e s t h a t d i d not a p p l y t o the s t a t e d c o n d i t i o n s are l e f t out. Modal c o s t s are g i v e n , t h e s e b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of u n i t c o s t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d A r e a . (2) To e s t a b l i s h a m o r t i z e d c a p i t a l c o s t s , v a l u e s f o r the p h y s i c a l l i f e t i m e of each s e r v i c e were needed; and t o e s -t a b l i s h annual c o s t s , average annual maintenance c o s t s were a l s o n e c e s s a r y . V a l u e s f o r these were a l s o sought ^Vancouver R e a l E s t a t e Board, R e a l E s t a t e and B u s i n e s s Trends 1962. (Vancouver, B. C : The Board, 1962) p. E. 36. 2 U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a f o r l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o m p i l e d by C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , R e g i o n a l Branch, Vancouver, B. C. 108 MUNICIPAL SERVICING COSTS IN RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVIDIONS Three Aspects of Municipal Servicing: 1. I n i t i a l C a p i t a l - I n s t a l l a t i o n Costs: For each of.une following services i n a single family r e s i d e n t i a l area, what i s the c a p i t a l plus i n s t a l l a t i o n cost on a unit foot basis, within the area only? 2. Average F a c i l i t y L i f e t i m e : How long does' each of these service f a c i l i t i e s l a s t before the greater part o f - i t needs or has received replacement? (Average p h y s i c a l l i f e t i m e , not f i n a n c i a l or l o c a l improvement.lifetime.) 3. Average Annual Maintenance Costs: Over i t s l i f e t i m e , what are the average annual maintenance costs of a f a c i l i t y (costs to keep the system repaired, etc., but not the costs of operating the system,) .on a unit foot basis, or as an annual percentage of the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l - i n s t a l l a t i o n cost? (This r e f e r s to the f a c i l i t y within the s u b d i v i s i o n only.) Service Standards and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (please add any q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary f o r your municipality) dap i l n s t a l . cost/foot. Ave?age Lifetime.. Aver.-'Annual Maintenance cost/foot. Water 6", no d i f f i c u l t i e s with digging Sanitary Sewer 8", no digging d i f f i c u l t i e s , average depth 7-8', i n c l . - manholes but ho connections. Storm Sewer 12", no digging d i f f i c u l t i e s , 7-8' deep av., with catch basins. 18" " shallow roadside d i t c h i n g Roads gravel, excluding c l e a r i n g , i n c l , grading, base, gravel. State width: f t . blacktop, excluding c l e a r i n g , i n c l . base. .State width: f t . Side-walks concrete, with base. State width f t . concrete, base, with curb i n c l . State width: f t . Curbs concrete, f u l l concrete, extruded concrete, curb and gutter Street Lights corner l i g h t s , u t i l i t y pole mounted, 1. per 330' ornamental lamp and pole, 1 per 150' FIGURE G.l DATA SHEET FOR GATHERING UNIT COST INFORMATION MUNICIPALITY •UNIT COSTS IN DOLLARS* Roada (sq.ft.) Gravel Asphalt Concrete base Curbs Curb + Concrete Sxtrud. Gutter Curb Curb Sidewalks 5' with Curb Street Lights 150' 300' Water 6" Sanitary Storm Sewer 12" 18" Ditch 19 61 6 Vancouver North Van. C i t y West Van. 19_62g Richmond North Van. D i s t . 1963h Burnaby West Van. Surrey 19641 Port Moody Burnaby North Van. C i t y " New West-minster North Van. D i s t . .13 .24 .22 .23 .28. .22 .14 .20 .31 .17 .20 .20 • 19 .11 .10 .10 .10 .08 .10 .08 .08 .08 .07 .12 .40 4.50 2.80 3.17 3.60 2.80 2.80 2.50 2.70 4.00 2.00 1.00 3.20 .75 .48 .65 4.00 4.00 3.18 5.00 3.60 4.60 3.50 3.60 4.00 4.30 4.00 5.25 5.75 4.60 5.40 625.00 600.00 400.00 9.00 6.00 4.25 3-75 6.50 6.40 5.00 3.88 5.00 6.50 6.75 4.50 6.00 10.00 7.50 7.00 10.00 10.00 8.00 7.50 10.00 7.70 6.50 7.50 10.00 7.70 12.00 .70 9.50 7.20 8.50 11.00 6.25 .80 .50 .75 .90 9.00 9.00 15.00 .25 10.30 11.50 MODE .20 .10 .40 2.80 .65 4.00 540.00 690.00 6.00 7.70 9.50 11.00 .70 Costs are per l i n e a l foot, unless otherwise stated. Gravel base includes a l l grading, l e v e l l i n g , and gravel costs, but excludes c l e a r i n g . Asphalt and concrete surfacing costs are f o r the surfacing only and must be added to the gravel base cost f o r complete costs. Costs are f o r ornamental l i g h t s with underground wiring on a per lamp basis. Excludes connections, includes hydrants. Costs assume no digging d i f f i c u l t i e s with 7 to 8 feet average depth, including manholes but no connections. Same as f o r sanitary sewers, but includes catchbasins. ^ Based on Vancouver Real Estate Board, Real Estate and Business Trends. 1962. (Vancouver. B.C.: The Board, 1962), p. E-36. ^ Based on unpublished data compiled by Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation Reginal O f f i c e , Vancouver. 1 Data supplied by Engineering Departments of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l i s t e d . TABLE G.l UNIT COSTS FOR MUNICIPAL SERVICES IN THE VANCOUVER AREA 110 from the f i v e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The v a l u e s shown i n Table G-.2 (page 111) were e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of an American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s r e p o r t and c o n s i d e r -a b l e work w i t h t h e E n g i n e e r i n g Departments i n Burnaby and N o r t h Vancouver C i t y . (3) A m o r t i z e d u n i t c o s t s were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a : ( 1 + i ) n ) a = i P ( 1 + i ) n - D where "a" e q u a l s th e a m o r t i z e d u n i t c o s t , " i " e q u a l s the i n t e r e s t r a t e , "P" e q u a l s the u n i t c o s t , and "n" e q u a l s the f a c i l i t y l i f e t i m e i n y e a r s . An i n t e r e s t r a t e of 6$ was used i n a p p l y i n g t h i s f o r m u l a , f o r t h i s i s t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e t h a t most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h i r d i n l i n e below the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, must o f f e r t o f l o a t t h e i r debentures at p r e s e n t . (4) The "annual c o s t s " were th e n determined by t o t a l l i n g the a m o r t i z e d u n i t c o s t s and t h e average annual maintenance c o s t s p e r u n i t . These c o s t s are s u b s e q u e n t l y used t o show the c o s t consequences of t h e p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s f o r each s e r v i c e . ^American S o c i e t y of P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , S u b d i v i s i o n  Improvement P o l i c i e s , C i t y of S a n t a C l a r a , P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e , ASPO S p e c i a l R e p o r t , ( C h i c a g o , 111.: The S o c i e t y , 1959), p. 3A. SERVICE Unit C o s t a l i f e Amortized Unit Annual Annual Cost Cost Maintenance Per Unit Cost/Unit Roads: Base .20/sq.ft. 60 .0124 Gravel — .0124 .010 .0224 Asphalt .10/sq.ft. 20 .0087 + .0124 .0026 .0237 Concrete .40/sq.ft. 60 .0248 + .0124 .0015 .0387 Curbs: P u l l Concrete 2.80/ft 50 .178 .004 .182 Extruded .65/ft. 30 .047 .006 .053 Side- 4.00/ft. walks: 4' Concrete 40 .266 .006 .272 Street-l i g h t s : At l'50ft. 3.60/ft. 50 .229 .079 .308 At 300ft. 2.30/ft. It .146 .049 .195 At 600ft. 1.65/ft. tt .105 .029 .134 Water: 4 inch 5.90/ft. 60 .365 .045 .410 6' inch 6.00/ft. it .371 .040 .411 8 inch 6.10/ft. n .377 .040 .417 10 inch 6.40/ft. ti .396 .040 .436 12 inch 6.58/ft. it .407 .040 .447 15 inch 6.74/ft. II .417 .035 .452 18 inch 6.95/ft. tt .430 .030 .460 21 inch 8.50/ft. II .526 .010 .536 Sanitary: 6 inch 7.60/ft. 50 .484 .160 .644 8 7.70/ft. tt .489 .150 • 639 10 8.10/ft. tt .514 .150 .664 12 8.33/f*. - It .528 .150 .678 15 8.53/ft. tt .542 .150 .692 Storm: 12 inch 9.50/ft. 50 .602 .05 .652 15 10.25/ft. .650 .05 .700 18 11.00/ft. II .698 .05 .748 21 14.00/ft. .888 .02 .908 24 15.60/ft. n .990 .02 1.010 27 17.50/ft. I I 1.110 .02 1.130 30 19.70/ft. I I 1.250 .02 1.270 33 22.20/ft. tt 1.410 .02 1.430 36 24.80/ft. tt 1.575 .02 1.595 42 29.80/ft. tt 1.891 .02 1.911 48 34.90/ft. tt 2.215 .02 2.235 54 40.50/ft. tt 2.570 .02 2.590 66 49,50/ft. tt 3.142 .02 3.162 Ditch .70 20 .061 .04 .101 ^ a s e d on mode figures i n Table G.l, except f o r large sized water and sewer trunk costs which were obtained from the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t and the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t . TABLE G.2 ANNUAL COSTS FOR MUNICIPAL SERVICES APPENDIX H DESIGN, SERVICING. AND COSTING- DATA FOR TESTING HYPOTHESES The design, servicing, and costing data r e s u l t i n g from the testing procedures outlined i n Chapter 2 are given below. These data form the basis f o r the graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n Chapter 3. The physical design features of the model subdivisions are given f o r reference purposes i n Table H.l (page 113)• In passing, the influence of the l o t width to depth r a t i o i s of i n -terest, the increased road needs for the larger r a t i o l o t s re-s u l t i n g i n a reduction of the number of l o t s obtained on the 160-acre s i t e . The amount of land devoted to road allowances i s also notable, s h i f t i n g from a high of 56.3 Acres i n the small l o t de-velopment to 16.6 Acres i n the larger l o t subdivision, while on a per l o t basis the amount of road allowance attributable to each l o t i s lowest f o r the small l o t development. The design features of the water d i s t r i b u t i o n , sani-tary sewer, and storm sewer trunks, based on the requirements given i n Appendix F, are summarized i n Tables H.2, H.3, and H.4 (pages 114 to 116). The influence of suburban type demands and peaks for water i s especially evident. The variations i n the storm runoff co - e f f i c i e n t f or the different subdivisions results from differences i n surfaces, there being more man-made imper-vious surfaces i n the more densely developed areas. Servicing needs per household and additional servicing needs for subdivisions at a distance are given i n Tables H.5 and H.6 (pages 117 and 118). These are actual measurements res u l t i n g Sub' n L o t Width A c t u a l Lot Dimensions No. Land U t i l i z a t i o n i n Acres Road No. Are a Depth Width Depth Area of Roads R e s i d e n - P u b l i c T o t a l A l l o w a n c e •- (3q.Pt.) R a t i o ( F t . ) ( F t . ) (Sq.Ft.) L o t s t i a l P e r L o t ( S q F t ) A l 2500 1:1 50 50 2500 1478 56.3 84.9 17.6 158.8 1,659 B l II 1:2 35,7 70 2499 1614 50.0 92.7 19.2 161.9 1,353 GI II 1:4 25 100 2500 1700 40.9 97.6 20.1 158.6 1,049 A2 5000 1:1 71.4 70 4998 900 47.6 103.4 10.8 161.8 2,306 B2 II 1:2 50 100 5000 939 39.0 107.8 11.3 158.1 1,808 G2 II 1:4. 35.7 140 4998 996 36.1 114.4' 12.0 162.5 1,575 A3 10,000 1:1 100 100 10,000 496 37.6 114.0 5.9 157.5 3,300 B3 II 1:2 71.4 140 9,996 532 31.5 122.2 6.3 160.0 2,588 G3 II 1:4 50 200 10,000 547 28.2 125.6 6.7 160.5 2,250 A4 40,000 1:1 200 200 40,000 142 24.5 130.5 1.8 156.8 7,526 B4 II 1:2 142.8 280 39,984 150 19.9 137.8 1.8 159.5 5,763 G4 II ,1:4 100 400 40,000 154 16.6 141.6 1.8 160.0 4,700 j TABLE H . l FEATURES OF THE MODEL SUBDIVISIONS Lot Area Area of Population Basic Peak . Design Number Design F i r e T o t a l Resultant (3q.Pt.) Sub'n C ont ained Domestic Factor Domestic Of Lots Domestic Need Demand Needs Primary (Acres) (Approx.) Need' Weed' In Sub'n Per 3ub'n •(Gal/Mjji) (Gal/Min) Feeder (Gal/Day/Lot) (Gal/Day/Lot) (Gal/Min/3ub'n) Pipe Size 2500 20 850 170 x3.7 630 213 94 1000 1094 12" 80 . ^400 II II ti 850 375 2000 2375 18" 160 6800 II It II 1700 750 3000 3750 18" 320 13,600 11 It tt 3400 1500 4000 5500. 21" 5000 20 500 180 x3.7 670 129 59 1000 1059 12" 80 2000 II II tt 498 . 235 1500 1735 15" 160 4000 II It tt 996 470 2000 2470 18" 320 8000 tt II II 1992 940 3000 3940 18" 10,000 20 275 225 x4.6 1040 68 50 500 550 10" 80 1100 II tt tt 274 200 1250 1450 12" 160 2200 it II II 547 400 . 1500 1900 15" 320 4400 it ti it 1094 800 2250 3050 18" 40,000 20 75 500 xlO.O 5000 19 65 500 565 10" 80 • 300 tt II tt 77 260 500 760 10" 160 600 II II II 154 520 1000 1520 12" 320 1200 II II II 308 1040 1250 2290 15" TABLE H.2 RESULTANT DESIGN FEATURES OF WATER DISTRIBUTION TRUNKS L o t A r e a ( s q . f t . ) A r e a of Sub'n. ( a c r e s ) No. of L o t s i n Sub'n. D e s i g n C a p a c i t y _ o f Trunks R e s u l t a n t P i p e S i z e (Trunk) (Gal/min.) ( C u . f t / s e c ) 2,500 20 213 150 .4 8" 80 850 595 1.6 8" 160 1,700 1,190 3.2 12" 320 3,400 2,380 6.4 15" 5,000 20 129 88 .2 8" 80 498 350 .9 8" 160 996 700 1.9 10" 320 1,992 1,400 3.7 12" 10,000 20 68 48 .1 8" 80 274 193 .5 8" 160. 547 385 1.0 8" 320 1,094 770 2.1 10" 40,000 20 19 14 .04 8" 80 77 54 .15 8" 160 154 108 .3 8" 320 308 216 .6 8" TABLE H.3 RESULTANT DESIGN FEATURES OF SANITARY SEWER TRUNKS Area, of R u n o f f R u n o f f R e s u l t a n t L o t S i z e Sub'n. C o e f f i c i e n t (Q) Trunk S i z e ( s q . f t . ) ( a c r e s ) ( I ) ( C u . F t . / s e c . ) Needed o r: , 500 5,000 10,000 40,000 20 80 160 320 20 80 160 320 20 80 160 320 20 80 160 320 .65 = 65 .65 .65 .47 .47 .47 .47 • 34 .34 34 • 34 . 21 . 21 21 . 21 13 52 104 208 9 33 75 150 1 28 55 110 4 17 34 68 18" 33" 48" 66" 15" 30" 42" 66" 12" 24" 36" 48" \ o " 21" 27" 42" TABLE H,4 RESULTANT DESIGN FEATURES 0? STORr-'i 3EWER TRUNKS Lot Area Sq.Pt. Width Depth Ratio . SERVICING :iE3D3 HCU 32H0LD3 Roads (Sq.Pt .) Curbs (Lin.Pt.) Walks (Lin.Pt.) Lights (Lin.Pt.) Water, Lin.Pt. Sanit.!-•rVt Lin.Pt. Storm Sewer, Lin.Pt. 6" 1 3" 10" 8" 10" 12" 15" 12" 15" 18" 21" 24" 27" 33" 42" 2500 1:1 999 61.4 61.8 23.4 29.4 3.6 26.9 . 41 .11 14.0 .30 .91 .61 .91 1.80 .62 1:2 823 49.4 49.8 20.3 23.5 3.3 21.2 .47 .12 9.5 .94 .94 1.40 1.80 .41 .41 1:4 642 37.7 38.0 14.4 17.3 3.1 15.4 .29 .29 3.0 .59 1.20 1.20 1.60 .40 .40 5000 1:1 1378 85.6 86.0 38.7 38.6 5.9 40.6 .22 20.4 .42 .85 .42 1.69 2.78 1:2 1095 65.9 66.3 27.0 29.6 5.6 29.2 .27 14.1 .80 1.60 1.60 2.56 .98 1:4 971 57.0 57.4 20.0 25.4 5.3 22.5 .34 11.5 1.33 3.98 1.99 .67 .67 10,000 1:1 1769 122.7 123.2 54.9 53.8 10.3 57.0 25.'2 1.01 2.02 1.01 5.77 1:2 1548 95.8 96.2 39.8 38.6 9.9 43.0 19.6 1.24 2.48 1.24 5.04 1:4 1368 81.5 81.9 28.2 33.5 9.7 32.5 17.4 2.47 2.47 4.02 1.59 40,000 1:1 4510 277.0 278.0 106.2 107.6 36 8 113.4 63.0 6.34 12.70 4.75 1:2 3500 208.3 209.0 75.4 72.9 35 2 91.0 41.9 8.12 8.12 9.86 1:4 2886 166.5 167.2 .52.9 51.9 31 3 67.7 39.3 11.05 8.96 ^rom measurement of se r v i c i n g needs f o r each model subdivision divided by the t o t a l number of l o t s i n each. TABLE H.5 SERVICING NEEDS PER HOUSEHOLD BY LOT AREA AND LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO 118 Lo t Are a of L i n e a l F eet of A d d i t i o n a l A r e a Sub'n. S e r v i c i n g Needs P e r ( S q . f t . ) ( a c r e s ) Household P e r M i l e ' 2,500 20 26.20 80 6.54 160 3.27 320 1,:64 5,000 20 45.00 80 11.25 160 5.62 320 2.82 10,000 20 79.40 80 19.80 160 9.92 320 4,96 40,000 20 281.50 80 70.40 160 35.20 320 17.60 'Servi c e s i n c l u d e d are a 3 8 - f o o t c o l l e c t o r l e v e l r o a d , s t r e e t l i g h t s at 600-foot i n t e r v a l s , and water, s a n i t a r y , and storm t r u n k s as s p e c i f i e d i n T a b l e s H,2, H.3 and H„4. Group B model sub-d i v i s i o n s are used. TABLE H.6 ADDITIONAL SERVICING NEEDS PER MILE PER HOUSEHOLD FOR SUBDIVISIONS AT A DISTANCE FROM TRUNK SERVICES 119 'from an a n a l y s i s of t h e s e r v i c e d model s u b d i v i s i o n s . C o s t i n g d a t a are g i v e n i n T a b l e s H.7 t o H . l l (pages 120 t o 1 2 4 ) , and are based on an a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e c o s t d a t a g i v e n i n Table G-.2 (page 111) t o the s e r v i c i n g needs found f o r each model. Table H.7 g i v e s t h e annual c o s t d a t a f o r t h e t e s t i n g of hypotheses A and B. The c o s t s of s e r v i c e a d d i t i o n s f o r sub-d i v i s i o n s at a d i s t a n c e are g i v e n i n Table H.8, and these d a t a are used t o develop the d a t a i n Table H.9, and t o t e s t hypo-t h e s e s C and D. D a t a f o r t h e t e s t i n g of h y p o t h e s i s E, g i v e n i n -Table H.10, i s developed m a t h e m a t i c a l l y from Table H.5 and H.7, and a s s e s s e s c o s t s when d i f f e r e n t p o r t i o n s are d e v e l o p e d . F i n a l l y , i n Table H . l l the c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from the use of the d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c i n g l e v e l s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix G- are g i v e n , f o r m i n g the. b a s i s f o r t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i s F. — — — — — L o t Width Annual Cost i n D o l l a r s 3 , A r e a Depth Roads Curbs Walks L i g h t s Water S a n i t a r y Storm T o t a l ( S q . P t .) R a t i o 2500 1:1 23.70 3.25 16.80 8.75 13.65 20.69 14.72 101.56 1:2 19.50 2.62 13.55 6.26 11.10 17.48 11.99 82.50 1:4 15.22 2.00 10.34 4.44 8.47 13.72 10.57 64.76 5000 1:1 32.67 4.53 23.40 11.92 18.43 27.36 19.47 137.78 1:2 25.95 3.49 18.04 8.32 14.61 20.44 16.39 107.24 1:4 23.00 3.20 15.62 6.16 12.75 16.66 14.94 92.33 10,000 1:1 41.95 6.50 33.51 16.91 26.83 36.40 25.43 187.53 1:2 36.70 5.08 26.17 12.26 2.0.16 27.50 21.74 149.61 1:4 3 2.40 4.32 22.28 8.69 18.00 20.75 20.38 126.82 . 40,000 1:1 106.90 14.67 75.62 32.70 59.55 75.60 59.18 424.22 1:2 83.00 11.04 56.90 23.21 44.63 58.20 48.01 324.99 1:4 68.40 8.82 45.50 16.30 35.62 43.25 42.00 259.89 'Based on an a p p l i c a t i o n of the c o s t d a t a g i v e n i n Table G-.2 t o the s e r v i c i n g i n Table H.5. TABLE H.7 ANNUAL COST OP SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY LOT AREA AND LOT WIDTH TO DEPTH RATIO Lot A r e a ( s q . f t . ) A r e a of ( a c r e s ) Annual Cost i n D o l l a r s 3 Roads L i g h t s Water S a n i t a r y Storm Tot a l 2,500 20 23,60 3*50 11.72 16,75 19.60 75.17 80 5,90 ,88 3.01 4.18 9,37 23 = 34 160 2,94 .44 1,50 2„22 7,31. 14,41 320 1.47 ,22 ,88 1.14 5»19 8,90 5,000 20 40,50 6 S03 20,10 28„75 31*50 126,88 80 10.13 1,51 5.85 7.19 14.30 38,98 160 5-05 .75 2,57 3,73 10*75 22,85 320 2.53 ..38 1,30 1,91 8,90 15.02 10,000 20 71,60 10,65 34, 60 50 = 75 51,80 219,40 80 17.87 2.65 8,86 12.65 20.00 . 62,03 160 8,94 1,33 4.48 6 ,72 15,80 37*27 320 • 4,46 ,66 2,28 3,29 11.10 21.79 40,000 20 253=60 37,60 122,80 180,00 183.50 777.50 80 63.30. 9.43 30,70 44,95 63«90 212,28 160 31.75 4.71 15.75 22,, 50 39.80 114,51 320 15.83 2.35 7.96 11.70 34.80 72,64 a Based on an a p p l i c a t i o n of d a t a i n Table G„2 t o a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c i n g needs e s t a b l i s h e d i n Table H s6. G-roup B model s u b d i v i s i o n s are used, rTABLE H„8 ANNUAL COST OP SERVICE ADDITIONS PER MILE PER HOUSEHOLD FOR SUBDIVISIONS AT A .DISTANCE, IN DOLLARS  Lot Area of ANNUAL COST IN D0LLAR3'"1 -Area 3q.Pt. 3ub'n Acres Roads 1 mile 2 miles Curbs ( a l l ) Walks ( a l l ) Lights 1 mile 2 miles Water 1 mile 2 miles Sanitary Sewer 1 mile 2 miles Storm Sewer 1 mile 2 miles Totals 0 miles 1 mile 2 miles 2500 20 80 160 320 43.10 25.40 22.44 20.97 66.70 31.30 25.38 22.44 2.62 2.62 2.62 2.62 13.55 13.55 13.55 13.55 9.76 7.14 6.70 6.48 13.26 8.02 7.14 6.70 22.82 14.11 12.60 11.98 34.54 17.12 14.10 12.86 34.23 21.66 19.70 18.62 50.98 25.84 21.92 19.76 31.59 21.36 19.30 17.18 51.19 30.73 26.61 22.37 82.50 82.50 82.50 82.50 157.67 107.28 96.91 91.40 232.84 130.62 111.32 100.30 5000 20 80 160 320 66.45 36.08 31.00 28.48 106.95 46.21 36.05 31.01 3.49 3.49 3.49 3.49 18.04 18.04 18.04 18.04 14.35 9.83 9.07 8.70 20.38 11.34 9.82 . 9.08 34.71 20.46 17.18 15.91 54.81 26.31 19.75 17.21 49.19 27.63 24.17 22.35 77.94 34.82 27.90 24.26 47.89 30.69 27.14 25.29 79.39 44.99 37.89 34.19 107.24 107.24 107.24 107.24 234.12 146.22 130.09 122.26 361.00 135.20 152.94 137.28 10,000 20 80 160 320 108.30 54.57 45.64 41.16 179.90 72.44 54.58 45.62 5.08 5.08 5.08 5.08 26.17 26.17 26.17 26.17 22.91 14.91 13.59 12.92 33.56 17.56 14.92 13.58 54.76 29.02 24.64 22.44 89.36 37.88 29.12 24.72 78.25 40.15 34.22 .30.79 129.00 52.80 40.94 34.08 73.54 41.74 37.54 32.84 125.34 61.74 53.34 43-94 149.61 149.61 149.61 149.61 369.01 211.64 186.88 171.40 588.41 273.67 224.15 193-19 40,000 20 80 160 320 336.60 146.30 114.75 98.83 590.20 209.60 146.50 114.66 11.04 11.04 11.04 11.04 56.90 56.90 56.90 56.90 60.81 32.'-: 27.9 a 25.56 98.41 42.07 32.63 27.91 167.43 75.33 60.38 52.59 290.23 106.03 75.93 60.55 238.20 103.15 80.70 69.45 418.20 148.10 103.20 80.70 231.51 111.91 87.81 82.81 415.01 175.81 127.61 117.61 324.99 324.99 324.99 324.99 1102.49 537.27 439.50 397.18 1879.99 749.55 554.01 469.37 ^ a s e d on a summarization of data i n Tables H.7 and H.8. Group B model subdivisions are used. TABLE H.9 ANNUAL COST OP SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY DISTANCE TO TRUNKS, BY LOT AREA, AND Br AREA OF SUBDIVISION L o t A r e a Sq. F t . P r o p o r t i o n Developed Annual Cost i n D o l l a r s a Roads Curbs Walks L i g h t s Water S a n i t ary Storm T o t a l 2,500 20?6 97.50 13.10 67.75 31.30 55.50 87.40 59.95 412.50 6 0?6 32.50 4.37 22.58 10.43 18.50 29.13 19.98 137.49 100% 19 5 2.62 13.55 6.26 11.10 17.48 11.99 82.50 5,000 20% 129.75 17.45 90.20 41.60 73.05 102.20 81.95 536.20 60% 43.25 5.82 30.07 13.87 24.35 34.07 27.32 178.75 100% 25.95 3.49 18.04 8.32 14.61 20.44 16.39 107.24 10,000 20% 183.50 25.40 130.85 61.30 100.80 137.50 108.70 748.05 60% 61.17 8.47 43.62 20.43 33.60 45.83 36.23 249.35 100% 36.70 5.08 26.17 12.26 20.16 27.50 21.74 149.61 40,000 20% 41$s©0' 55.20 284.50 . 116 005 223*15 291.00 240.05 1,624.95 60% 138.33 18.40 94.83 38.68 74.38 97.00 80.02 •541.64 100% 83.00 11.04 56.90 23.21 44.63 58.20 48.01 324.99 d e v e l o p e d m a t h e m a t i c a l l y from c o s t d a t a f o r Group B model s u b d i v i s i o n s : : . i n Table H.5 and H.7. TABLE H.10 ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY PROPORTION DEVELOPED L o t A r e a Sq. F t . S e r v i c i n g L e v e l A n n u a l Cost i n D o l l a r s a Roads Curbs Walks L i g h t s Water S a n i t a r y Storm Tot a l 2,500 F u l l P a r t i a l Sub-Minimal 19.50 1 9.50 18.45 2.62 13.55 6.26 2.72 11.10 11.10 11.10 17.48 17.48 11.99 4.99 82.50 55.79 29.55 5,000 F u l l P a r t i a l Sub-Minimal 25.95 25.95 24.50 3.49 18.04 8.32 3.62 14.61 14.61 14.61 20.44 20.44 16.39 6.63 107.24 71.25 39.11 10,000 F u l l P a r t i a l Sub-Minimal 36.70 36.70 34.70 5.08 26.17 12.26 5.33 20.16 20.16 20.16 27.50 27.50 21.74 9.68 149.61 99.37 54.86 40,000 F u l l P a r t i a l Sub-Minimal 83.00 83.00 78.40 11.04 56.90 23.21 10.10 44.63 44.63 44.63 58.20 58.20 48.01, 21.01° 324.99 216.94 123.03 ^ a s e d on a p p l i c a t i o n of the c o s t d a t a i n Table G-.2 t o the s e r v i c i n g l e v e l r e q uirements g i v e n i n Appendix G. Group B model s u b d i v i s i o n s are used. ^ D i t c h i n g a p p l i e d t o both s i d e s of s t r e e t on t h e same b a s i s as c u r b s and assuming n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e from d i t c h e s w i t h o u t storm d r a i n a g e system. Sub-standard x o r these l o t s i z e s , a l t h o u t h examples e x i s t . TABLE H . l l ANNUAL COST OF SERVICES PER HOUSEHOLD BY LOT AREA AND LEVEL OF SERVICING 

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