UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The small high school in British Columbia Cameron, Maxwell A. 1932

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1932_A8_C2_S7.pdf [ 13.41MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105349.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105349-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105349-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105349-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105349-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105349-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105349-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105349-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105349.ris

Full Text

THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by Maxwell A* Cameron A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree ©f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Departments o f PHILOSOPHY and EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1932. TABLE 07 CONTENTS Chapter 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . Chapter S: A Ge n e r a l Survey o f the S m a l l High S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. • Chapter 3: The P h i l o s o p h y U n d e r l y i n g the S m a l l High. S c h o o l • 32 Chapter 4: The P r e s e n t B r i t i s h Columbia H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m •• 48 Chapter 5: The A p p l i c a t i o n o f the P r e s e n t C u r r i c u l u m to the Small H i g h S c h o o l . • 63 Chapter 6: A Programme of Reform 80 Chapter 7: A C e n t r a l B o a r d i n g S c h o o l . 99 Chapter 8: The Problem o f the Teacher i n the S m a l l High S c h o o l . 104 C k ^ j ^ v "Tk«- ^r'^^ l f>\ <rf f r \ * - S I'M. ejU - i o k.el • f/O Chapter^©: The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a Time-Table.......... 128 Appendices: Appendix *A" : The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the Study... 152 Appendix "B w : Example of A l t e r n a t i o n of Courses to Pe r m i t Combination o f C l a s s e s i n a T y p i e a l S m a l l High S c h o o l . 155 Appendix *C" : Departmental Examinations. 16? - i i -Page Appendix BD" : High S c h o o l Course ( J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n • 170 Appendix W E " : A Master Time-Table f o r S c h o o l Programme C o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter 10.... 175 B i b l i o g r a p h y : 179 - i i i -LIST OF TABLES Page Table Is D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondary S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia on the B a s i s o f Enrolment, 1930-31.. 7 Table l i s D i s t r i b u t i o n , A c c o r d i n g to Enrolment, of High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r S c h o o l Tears 1919-20 to 1950-31 8 f a b l e HI: Comparison ©f D i s t r i b u t i o n s by Enrolment of U n i t e d S t a t e s , O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia. ..... 11 Table IT: Percentage of T o t a l Enrolment Found i n V a r i o u s S i z e s of Secondary Schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1930-31 13-14 Table Y i D i s t r i b u t i o n by Enrolment of S c h o o l s of 50 or l e s s p u p i l s . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table V I : T e a c h e r - p u p i l B a t i o s of S c h o o l s of V a r i o u s S i z e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table V I I : Showing Length of Tenure i n Two V a r i e t i e s of Teaching P o s i t i o n (a) One Large Vancouver H i g h S c h o o l . . . . 19 (b) S m a l l S c h o o l s . . . . . . . . 20-22 Table V I I I : H i g h e s t , Lowest and Average S a l a r y P a i d f o r C e r t a i n Types of Teaching P o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1930-31... 26 Table IX: E x p e r i e n c e of Teachers i n 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High S c h o o l s . . . 27 - i v -Page Ta b l e X: Gymnasium F a c i l i t i e s o f 75 B r i t i s h Columbia and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s * • 28 Table XI: P l a y i n g F i e l d s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s . . . 28 Table X I I : Chemistry L a b o r a t o r i e s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s . . . . . 29 Table X I I I : P h y s i o s L a b o r a t o r i e s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s 29 Table XIV: E f f e c t of 4-Year Course on P u p i l E l i m i n a t i o n . . . . . 57 Table XV: E f f e c t of 4-Year Course on Number of Repea t e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5? Table XVI: P r i n c i p a l s * R e a c t i o n s to System of C r e d i t s . 59 Table XVII: Numbers of P r i n c i p a l s i n Fa v o r o f , N e u t r a l and Opposed to a R e t u r n to the 5-Year Course • 59 Table X V I I I : S u b j e c t s O f f e r e d i n Schools of V a r i o u s S i z e s 69 Table XIX: E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s Engaged i n by 75 B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools 121 Table XX: Percentages of Sch o o l s of D i f f e r e n t S i z e s Engaging i n C e r t a i n E x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 - V -LIST OF FIGURES F a c i n g Page F i g u r e I : D i s t r i b u t i o n by Enrolment of B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools 1930-31. 7 F i g u r e I I : Growth of B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s 1919-31 8 F i g u r e I I I : D i s t r i b u t i o n A c c o r d i n g to Enrolment of Secondary Schools of U n i t e d S t a t e s , O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia 11 F i g u r e I V j S a l a r i e s f o r Various Teaching P o s i t i o n s 26 F i g u r e V: Number of Years E x p e r i e n c e of Teachers i n Schools of V a r i o u s S i z e s . . . . . . . . 27 F i g u r e VI $ S u b j e c t s of Study i n V a r i o u s Types of Secondary S c h o o l s . . . . . 69 F i g u r e V I I : Percentages of Schools Engaging i n C e r t a i n E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . 12.1 . - v i -PLATES P a c i n g Page P l a t e I : S u b j e c t s Pursued i n V a r i o u s Courses Under Three Year P l a n 49 P l a t e I I : The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Used i n the Study. 152 P l a t e I I I : A Master Time Table f o r I l l u s t r a t i v e S c h o o l Programme Considered i n Chapter 10 175. CHAPTER 1 IKTRODUC TIOH « When a High S c h o o l i s "Small"* I t i s o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e e x a c t l y the f i e l d o f t h i s study; no one s i z e can be determined below which a l l h i g h s c h o o l s are s m a l l and above which a l l are l a r g e . There are, n e v e r t h e l e s s , c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s , a p a r t from enrolment, s t a f f and p h y s i c a l p l a n t , which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l ; among these are the f o l l o w i n g : 1* Two or more s e c t i o n s of one grade or c l a s s are r a r e l y found i n s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s * O r d i n a r i l y , f o r example, there i s o n l y one grade n i n e c l a s s o r o n l y one s e e t i o n i n f i r s t - y e a r L a t i n . 2. The P r i n c i p a l o f a s m a l l s c h o o l u s u a l l y c a r r i e s a t e a c h i n g l o a d as heavy, or n e a r l y as heavy, as t h a t o f any of h i s a s s i s t a n t s ; the P r i n c i p a l , i n such eases, cannot s u p e r v i s e the work of the s t a f f , i f s u p e r v i s i o n i s to i n v o l v e c l a s s -v i s i t a t i o n . 3. "Promotion by s u b j e c t " i s u s u a l l y i m p r a c t i c a b l e i n the s m a l l high s c h o o l * 4* Many s m a l l s c h o o l s must schedule "double" c l a s s e s , i . e . c l a s s e s i n whieh one i n s t r u c t o r teaches two or more d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s or two d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s i n d i f f e r e n t grades of the some s u b j e c t i n ene p e r i o d * Indeed, i n v e r y s m a l l s c h o o l s , " t r i p l e " e l a s s e s are f r e q u e n t l y necessary* 5* The c u r r i c u l u m of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s o r d i n a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p a u c i t y of o p t i o n s ; i n f a c t , i n many such s c h o o l s , s t u d e n t s are allowed no c h o i c e whatever i n the course they are to pursue* I t seems re a s o n a b l e to d e s i g n a t e as "small**, these high s c h o o l s which have f o u r or fewer d i v i s i o n s , w i t h e n r o l -ments i n the neighbourhood of 120 - 130 or fewer s t u d e n t s * Of course many s l i g h t l y l a r g e r s c h o o l s hare one or more of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s named above, and might p r o p e r l y be c o n s i d e r e d as s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s . In g e n e r a l , however, h i g h s c h o o l s o f f i v e ©r more d i v i s i o n s have at l e a s t some of the a t t r i b u t e s e f the l a r g e s c h o o l ; t h e r e i s u s u a l l y at l e a s t one c l a s s , perhaps Grade 9, which i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s or d i v i s i o n s ; the P r i n c i p a l f r e q u e n t l y has some time f r e e from t e a c h i n g d u t i e s ; o f t e n these s c h o o l s share w i t h the l o c a l Elementary s c h o o l one S u p e r v i s i n g P r i n c i p a l ; s c h o o l s of f i v e d i v i s i o n s are o f t e n a b l e to p r o v i d e some degree of promotion by s u b j e c t ; they r a r e l y f i n d i t ne c e s s a r y to schedule double c l a s s e s ; and f r e q u e n t l y are able to o f f e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of o p t i o n s . Consequent-l y , t h i s study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h High Schools of which the enrolments are 120 - 130 or fewer p u p i l s , though much of the d i s c u s s i o n a p p l i e s a l s o to l a r g e r s c h o o l s . Sources e f Bate. The s m a l l secondary s c h o o l c o n s t i t u t e s a f i e l d o f - 3 -study In which r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l -able} and e f the l i t e r a t u r e which has been produced i n t h i s f i e l d , v e r y l i t t l e i ndeed a p p l i e s to Canadian e o n d i t i o n s . T or these reasons, the w r i t e r was able to o b t a i n very l i t t l e c o n crete a s s i s t a n c e from the u s u a l s o u r c e s . C e r t a i n r e f e r e n c e s are l i s t e d i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y ; from these a broad, g e n e r a l view of the s i t u a t i o n was o b t a i n e d . In order to g a t h e r data f o r the study a f a i r l y com-preh e n s i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c i r c u l a t e d among the High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, The numbers of S u p e r i o r Schools, S m a l l High S c h o o l s and Large High Schools which r e p l i e d to t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e were as f o l l o w s : TYPE OF SCHOOL Number o f Sc h o o l s C i r c u l a t e d Number o f S c h o o l s R e p o r t i n g P e r c e n t , R e p o r t i n g Large High Sehools (5 e r more d i v i s i o n s ) 29 17 53,6 Small High S c h o o l s (4 e r fewer d i v i s i o n s ) 62 38 61,1 S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s 39 20 51.5 T o t a l 130 75 57.7 I t w i l l be seen t h a t the r e t u r n s from t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e are q u i t e w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d among the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f s c h o o l s , thus e n s u r i n g a good sampling. Though the data thus c o l l e c t e d c o u l d h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d complete, i t seems re a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t any c o n c l u s i o n s drawn are p r o b a b l y , on the whole, f a i r l y r e l i a b l e . (1) T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s r e p r i n t e d In Appendix n A w . - 4 -In a d d i t i o n to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s , c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , m o s t l y s t a t i s t i c a l , was o b t a i n e d from o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s ; of t h i s acknowledgement i s made i n the p r o p e r p l a c e . CHAPTER 2 A GENERAL SURVEY 0? THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL  IN BRITISH COLUMBIA* A study o f the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia must commence with a survey of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The l a t e s t s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e a t time of w r i t i n g are f o r the s c h o o l year 1930-31, and are found i n the Annual Report of the Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Though another s c h o o l year has passed s i n c e the c o m p i l a t i o n of these f i g u r e s , the slowness with which a s c h o o l system changes i s assurance t h a t these f i g u r e s p r e s e n t a s u f f i c i e n t l y t r u e p i c t u r e of the g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n . There are, a t p r e s e n t , f i v e c l a s s e s o f agency p r o v i d -i n g i n s t r u c t i o n on the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l i n the P r o v i n c e . These a r e : 1. R e g u l a r l y o r g a n i z e d High S c h o o l s . At the time of w r i t i n g there were 85 o f these s c h o o l s , o p e r a t i n g on the three-year h i g h s c h o o l p l a n . These are i n a stage o f t r a n s i t i o n to the new f o u r - y e a r programme. In both cases the time r e f e r r e d to i s t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r High S c h o o l Graduation, ( l ) S i x t i e t h Annual Report o f the P u b l i c S c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1930-31 Pp. L2 - L16. Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B. C. ~ 6 -i . e . J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n or U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e . Many sch o o l s have an e x t r a year, c a l l e d S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , which corresponds to the f i r s t year of U n i v e r s i t y work and makes a t o t a l of f o u r y e a r s , i n the t h r e e - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and f i v e years on the f o u r - y e a r p l a n . 2. J u n i o r High S c h o o l s . The J u n i o r High S c h o o l was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the B r i t i s h Columbia e d u c a t i o n a l system i n P e n t i e t o n i n September 1926, and has been g r a d u a l l y growing s i n c e . There were ten such s c h o o l s i n 1930-51, o n l y one of these, t h a t at Ocean F a l l s , e n r o l l i n g fewer than 200 s t u d e n t s . I t i s thus l a r g e l y an urban i n s t i t u t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e and i s p r i m a r i l y adapted to urban c o n d i t i o n s . 3. S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s . These s c h o o l s are v e r y s m a l l I n s t i t u t i o n s , which do both Elementary and High S c h o o l work. O r d i n a r i l y the grades e n r o l l e d are 7, 8, 9 and 10, though a c o n s i d e r a b l e number do M a t r i c u l a t i o n work, and there are even some which have S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s . Of the 37 s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1930-31, on l y two had more than one teacher, and i n no case d i d the enrolment exceed 42. But 734 students were e n r o l l e d i n these s c h o o l s i n 1930-31, and of these 218 were i n Grade 8. 4. Elementary S c h o o l s . Besides the three types of s c h o o l s d e s c r i b e d above, 64 elementary s c h o o l s i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s e n r o l l e d some h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The t o t a l number of such students was 148, a v e r a g i n g fewer than 3 per s c h o o l . These schools are not i n c l u d e d In the s t a t i s t i c s shown i n t h i s study. Oyer 3 00 251 Son Z0I-Z50 •4-c E c tot- iSo SI - too I - s o HS. H-S-jT-j-H-S. H S H. S. OHS. «0 <o i o o o x 5 cr> c I ^ «0 L O « CL 3 «0 <o i <o :t *^ <o A/. <S*. O 20 A-Q GO 65 Number of Schools DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARr SCHOOLS ACCORDING TO ENROLMENT IS30-3I r F i g . 7 - 7 -5. Correspondence Courses. B e s i d e s the s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the above s c h o o l s , the Department of E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d correspondence courses f o r s t u d e n t s i n i s o l a t e d p a r t s o f the P r o v i n c e . The t o t a l number of s t u d e n t s thus i n s t r u c t e d was 84? i n June, 1931. D i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to enrolment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 132 secondary s c h o o l s , a c c o r d i n g to enrolment i s shown i n Table I, and i l l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e I . TABLE I. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Secondary Schools of B r i t i s h  Columbia on b a s i s of enrolment 1930-51 D i s t r i b u t i o n by s i z e of enrolment. Types of Schools 1 -50 51 -rlOO 101 -150 151 -200 201 -250 251 -500 Over 300 T o t a l s Number High Schools 28 19 9 7 4 3 15 85 Percent, of T o t a l 21.2 14.4 6.8 5.3 3.0 2.3 11.4 54.4 Number Jun. High Schools. 0 1 0 0 4 1 4 10 P e r c e n t , of T o t a l 0 .75 0 0 3.0 .75 3.0 7.5 Number Sup-e r i o r S c h l a - 3? 0 0 0 0 0 0 37 Percent, of T o t a l 28.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28.0 T o t a l s No. 65 20 9 7 8 4 19 132 Percent* 49.2 15.15 6.8 5.3 6.0 3.05 14.4 100. C S u p e r i o r Schools e n r o l l p u p i l s below Grade I i . / /4-0 J 20 100 ao 60 4-0 20 Q - B O W T H O P 3BITI5H C o L U M D I r t ^ f c C O H D ^ / S y > ^ C H 0 0 L 5 1919-1951 DISTRIBUTED / ^ C C O C D / H O T O EnGOLn&MT. JUISIOR fl OVER / j ; IOI-l$0 STUDEtiTS I-too 8 101-1^0 <3 /-/oo 0\ 8 Si 8 ON OS TABLE I I . O H in o» o> e» to m CM O CM £0 to H t-i CM H to tn OJ H H © l-» H 1 © o o o A A o> o 00 e~ o» «o to •<* H CO o> +» o CM tO to H H H w o> H H U H 1 O H Si O *H CO o> 03 o» «o «s to H o H * o W CM to H H H H CM 4» © H H ft H I •ti © at +» &» (0 in o> «* CO to -<* m tn O CM CM to H H o H • Ol H H H 1 CM * tfi 1 © t m H o H o> OS HI CM CM O to to CM O so CM 0} 10 H H o o CO O OJ O) HI H H ,C H H 1 o t J 03 O o +» u in <o tO 03 IS tn <# t-i CM H to w CM to H H oo GO bo O tn o> tn -H w H H » CM 1 O 1 OS O Hi A in o o> 03 in o H H 00 CM O o> o or w H H 03 03 H m o> Hi ft H 1 0 <a u o • H OS tn in 03 to CM to O O O © © « CM CM 60 H H 03 03 u o> £ N <n H 1 O - P H 0 a O s> W « tn H 03 to CM CM o» » to o •4 te <* H 03 CO n o o» H 03 H 1 o © U o h * A © © o H Cv} o» o> o» CM to CM OD CM CM H cvj CM CM H E » o W • H o> c- Pt H i A CM bO 1 t-t to O H tn tn «o CM to H t> o> 0» trj CM CVJ 03 w H tn m o> © 0» U H H 1 O • H « © PI i-« © O m <* OJ to o (O <o <o © H 03 CM H in tn OS H 1 © o o .£) 60 4* O O o o O o a to O in o in o a w © H H CM CM to A (0 *> o o H 1 1 1 1 1 1 o H o o O © CO a> • H O M H H H H H H u 4» n A m O in O m o o s» o H I CM CM H ra The growth i n numbers and th© d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to enrolment, of the secondary s c h o o l s o f the P r o v i n c e f o r the (1) twelve year p e r i o d ending i n 1930-31 are shown i n Table I I . A somewhat c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h i s growth i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 2. Comparison o f B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n with t h a t elsewhere t I t i s p r o f i t a b l e to compare the secondary s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia with t h a t o b t a i n i n g on o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o n t i n e n t . In Table I I I a comparison i s made of the percentages o f secondary s c h o o l s of v a r i o u s - enrolment ranges i n B r i t i s h Columbia with those of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and of O n t a r i o . The s t a t i s t i c s f©r the U n i t e d S t a t e s are taken from a study made by Walter H. Gaumnitz under the d i r e c t i o n o f the (2) F e d e r a l O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . The f i g u r e s are f o r the year 1926, the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e at time of w r i t i n g . The O n t a r i o f i g u r e s are f o r the year 1929-30, a l s o the l a t e s t r e p o r t (3) a v a i l a b l e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s f i g u r e s i n c l u d e a l l types of sc h o o l s doing secondary work; not a l l American secondary (1) These s t a t i s t i c s are compiled from the Annual Reports o f the Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the years noted. (2) Gaumnitz, W. H., »The Smallness of America's R u r a l High S c h o o l s " . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n , 1930, No. 13, p.7, Washington, 1930. (3} The f i g u r e s p resented are complied from the "Report o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , f o r the year i g s O 1 1 . Pp. 222 - 312, Toronto, Ont. 1931. - 10 -s c h o o l s are i n c l u d e d i n the study, as 3,543 o f the 21,700 s c h o o l s f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . In the o p i n i o n of the author of the study, tt those f i n a l l y f a i l i n g to r e p o r t may be g e n e r a l l y assumed to be the v e r y s m a l l e s t ones. I f these very s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s c o u l d have been d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e i r proper c l a s s e s i n the t a b u l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n the study, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of the v e r y (1) s m a l l . . . . . . . h i g h s c h o o l s would have been g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . H The O n t a r i o f i g u r e s are f o r C o l l e g i a t e I n s t i t u t e s , High Schools and C o n t i n u a t i o n S c h o o l s . In o r d e r t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia f i g u r e s w i l l be as comparable as p o s s i b l e to those of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and O n t a r i o , a l l B r i t i s h Columbia secondary s c h o o l s - High, S u p e r i o r and J u n i o r High - are p r e s e n t e d . A comparison would have been made with a l l the Canadian P r o v i n c e s were i t not t h a t the r e p o r t s of the others do not c o n t a i n the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . The data i n Table I I I , are i l l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3. Although the s t a t i s t i c s here pr e s e n t e d do not give a p e r f e c t l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n because of the v a r i a t i o n s i n the v a r i o u s s c h o o l systems, and because the same years are not used f o r each system, yet i t may be assumed t h a t , on the whole, any deductions which f o l l o w from them are r e l i a b l e . (1) I b i d . P. 6. 0 v E I 3 o n T B.C. T o OfVT 3 0 0 T O OfKT 2 5 0 B . C . T O o m : cv /o/ £ T O o r t x ^ J 3 . C T O o n r i o o 7 U S A . TO orsT o /o ao 3 o >*o Di$T&i3UTion of 5Eu<zonDfi&y S C H O O L S O F UniTZD $TftTh?priTftRlO AMD BGITI3H Com/IBM flWORDiriGr TO &nROL,MZ.riT. Fl<3r. 2. - 11 -TABLE I I I to IN O vjJ O CM O to • CM • to • rH «H O ^ O H O a) * o O O •p CO Hi «H HI o t-t EH CM o <D CM Os < o • to • HI • ) o CO to to i » t<5 > CM H H o o to 1 O CM CO <sH tO 1-1 ^ • HI . O IO CM CM • CM to m O 4» to A © CM 1 H to • co to CM • 00 o • H O «o to (O to O CM d a> O O u CM lO OS CM IO c- to o 1 H o to CO • C» • to <D in N H r-t to O S» in H 1 to OS •sp • CM OS • OS CO • H H r-t OS to O H CM +» ,0 O O O -# CO H O Hi u H H • os • CM • •p eg 1 H to CO to • CM to CM IO H « o to I OS t-t to CO to CM CO • H to • HI tO to • OS «to to to Is • • • • • • Is «—% • • • • • • o «0 to . T-t O . H . r-t o CM • sJ w . a) a) * ffij W 1 . -P 1 . +> •H . +» o IO . O OS . o . o en a> CM OS . -P • CM A os . -P • | to . -p • •p H 6 0 H H H o • o «H w . o o o . o •P • W • O o • »=t *• -p •# -p H •p o w h PI O CO Pi .3 o BO fH Ft • r l <C« H © © •H HI © © 1 © a) 4» a> o h o •H O 0) o 03 O -P .3 « © T-t ,a •P ,d •3 (D tt) os « « 15 A< Pi O S3 P« •rt HI S3 P« t4 O CO - 12 -(1) As has been s a i d above the l i n e between " s m a l l " and " l a r g e " h i g h s c h o o l s i s best drawn at an enrolment of about 120 students, with a t e a c h i n g s t a f f of about 4, though many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s m a l l h i g h schools are found i n somewhat l a r g e r s c h o o l s . The p r o p o r t i o n s of " s m a l l " h i g h s c h o o l s shown above are as f o l l o w s : Percentage of sc h o o l s Enrolment Below Enrolment Below 100 150 U n i t e d S t a t e s 60,5$ 72.4$ O n t a r i o 59,9$ 69.8$ B r i t i s h Columbia 64.3$ 71.1$ The e l o s e n e s s of the percentages i s v e r y s t r i k i n g , and shows t h a t the problem,of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s by no means p e c u l i a r to B r i t i s h Columbia. Indeed, the whole c o n t i n e n t , with i t s v a s t areas and r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s , i s faced w i t h the problem of p r o v i d i n g adequate secondary e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s many s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d d i s t r i c t s . We may p i c t u r e the whole of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s - i n f a c t , the whole New World -as d o t t e d w i t h great numbers of v e r y s m a l l high s c h o o l s with here and t h e r e d e n s e l y populated c e n t e r s , served by very l a r g e s c h o o l s e n r o l l i n g the l a r g e bulk of the secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . P r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l enrolment i n s m a l l High S c h o o l s . The number of students i n s m a l l high s c h o o l s i s not (1) See P. i . - 13 -gre a t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the whole. Table IV shows the t o t a l enrolment i n the P r o v i n c e i n 1950-31, d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to s i z e o f s c h o o l . From t h i s t a b l e i t i s c l e a r t h a t the great m a j o r i t y o f secondary s c h o o l p u p i l s a r e e n r o l l e d i n comparative-l y l a r g e s c h o o l s . The h i g h s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, then, i s t h a t the number o f s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s i s r e l a t i v e l y v ery l a r g e , but the t o t a l number of p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g these s c h o o l s i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . TABLE IV. Percentage of t o t a l enrolment found i n v a r i o u s s i z e s of  Secondary S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1930-31. (a) Schools d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to number of t e a c h e r s . S i z e o f S c h o o l i n terms of Fo. of t e a c h e r s Number of Schools Enrolment Percentage of T o t a l E n r o l -ment 1 teacher 52 1,004 4.4 2 te a c h e r s 16 626 2.8 3 teach e r s 11 851 3.7 4 te a c h e r s 8 729 3.2 5 teach e r s 6 687 3.0 6 te a c h e r s 5 808 3.6 More than 6 t e a c h e r s 34 18,036 79.3 T o t a l s 132 22,741 100.0 (b) Sehools d i s t r i b u t e d by s i z e of enrolment. S i z e of Scho o l i n terms of Inrolment Number of S chools Inrolment Percentage of T o t a l I n r o l -ment 1 - 5 0 65 1,438 6.3 51 - 100 20 1,417 6.5 101 - 150 9 1,116 4.9 151 - 200 7 1, 250 5.5 201 - 250 8 1,813 8.0 251 - 300 4 1,077 4.7 Over 300 19 14,569 64.1 T o t a l s 132 22,741 100.0 I t may c l a r i f y l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s i f i t i s shown here j u s t how t i n y some of our v e r y s m a l l high s c h o o l s a re. In Table Y, a l l the s c h o o l s with an enrolment below 50 are c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to 5 student i n t e r v a l s . The high and s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s are shown s e p a r a t e l y . TABLE V. D i s t r i b u t i o n by enrolment of s c h o o l s o f 50 or l e s s p u p i l s . Inrolment High Schools S u p e r i o r Schools T o t a l 1 - 5 0 0 0 6 - 1 0 0 12 12 11 - 15 4 13 17 16 - 20 2 9 11 21 - 25 11 2 13 26 - 30 5 1 6 3 1 - 3 5 2 0 2 36 - 40 2 0 2 41 - 45 1 0 1 46 - 50 1 0 1 T o t a l s 28 37 65 - 15 -When i t i s remembered t h a t the h i g h s c h o o l s are of at l e a s t t h r e e grades, and the s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s of a t l e a s t three grades, and t h a t many of each o f f e r one or more a d d i t i o n a l years of work, the many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the matters of t e a c h i n g burden and e f f i c i e n c y of i n s t r u c t i o n are obvious. To these we w i l l have o c c a s i o n to make fr e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s . The T e a e h e r - P u p i l r a t i o . The v a r i a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o w i t h the s i z e of the s c h o o l has an important b e a r i n g on our problem. A s m a l l t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o means, of course, t h a t the teacher can g i v e more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n . I t a l s o means, however, an i n e f f i c i e n t s c h o o l , as, by and l a r g e , n e a r l y as much t e a c h i n g power i s r e q u i r e d to teach 5 p u p i l s as 30. Moreover, (1) a s m a l l s t a f f means a narrow c u r r i c u l u m , so t h a t where a s m a l l t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o i m p l i e s a s m a l l s t a f f , as i t almost i n v a r i a b l y does i n s t a t e s c h o o l s , i t r e s u l t s i n a l a c k of adjustment to p u p i l needs. The t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o s f o r v a r i o u s s i z e s of secondary s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1930-31 are shown i n Table V I . S u p e r i o r Schools and J u n i o r High S c h o o l s , as w e l l as High S c h o o l s are i n c l u d e d i n the f i g u r e s o f t h i s t a b l e . The d r o p p i n g i n the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o from 28.5 to 25 when an enrolment over 200 i s reached i s no doubt f r e q u e n t l y due to the f a c t t h a t these s c h o o l s o r d i n a r i l y employ s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s f©r o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s - such as Home Economics, Tech-n i c a l s u b j e c t s , e t c . In q u i t e l a r g e s c h o o l s , though s p e c i a l ( l ) See Chapters 5, 7. - 16 -t e a c h e r s are employed, the c l a s s e s are so l a r g e t h a t these do not lower the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o as much i n p r o p o r t i o n as i n s c h o o l s of medium s i z e . TABLE 71. T e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o s o f s c h o o l s of v a r i o u s s i z e s . Enrolment of S c h o o l . Enrolment i n the Group T o t a l lumber of Teachers employed i n each s i z e Teacher-P u p i l R a t i o 1 - 5 0 1,438 30 17.97 51 - 100 1,478 63 23.46 101 - 150 1,116 58 24.43 151 - 800 1,250 44 28.49 201 - 250 1,813 74 25.04 251 - 300 1,077 43 25.04 Over 300 14,569 496 29.37 T o t a l s ^Whole P r o v i n c e ) 22,741 343 26.97 The S t a b i l i t y o f the Teaching S t a f f . Another f a c t o r h a v i n g an important b e a r i n g on the e f f i c i e n c y o f a s c h o o l i s the s t a b i l i t y o f i t s t e a c h i n g s t a f f . I t cannot be argued that because the s t a f f o f a given s c h o o l does not change g r e a t l y over a p e r i o d of years, the s c h o o l i s n e c e s s a r i l y an e f f i c i e n t one. Indeed, there might even be a tendency f o r such a s t a f f to become f o s s i l i z e d , and r e a c t i o n -a r y . Moreover, In some eases, we eannot deny t h a t a poor te a c h e r i s ab l e to r e t a i n h i s or her p o s i t i o n by sheer s e n i o r i t y - by an a l l e g e d v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n the p o s i t i o n . On the whole, of course, t e a c h e r s who r e t a i n a job by such " s q u a t t e r ' s r i g h t s " are a v e r y s m a l l m i n o r i t y . Talcing these m a t t e r s i n t o account, we may s t i l l f a i r l y expect t h a t sehools which r e t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same s t a f f f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d s w i l l be b e t t e r s c h o o l s , by and l a r g e , than those whose t e a c h i n g body i s i n a c o n t i n u a l s t a t e of f l u x . One r e a s o n f o r e x p e c t i n g t h i s to be so i s t h a t a c o n t i n u a l l y moving t e a c h i n g body i s evidence of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g , of s a l a r y , of l a c k of community support or of o t h e r . s u c h u n d e r s i r a b l e f a c t o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n . More-over, i n s m a l l s c h o o l s , at l e a s t , no v e r y permanent p l a n o f courses to be o f f e r e d and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s can be for m u l a t e d , u n l e s s some degree of permanence i n the t e a c h i n g s t a f f can be assumed. For these reasons, i t may be s a i d with some c e r t a i n t y t h a t a t e a c h i n g body whieh changes p o s i t i o n s v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i s l i k e l y to m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t e d u c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . (See Chapter 8.} The w r i t e r has not been ab l e to d i s c o v e r any standard technique f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f the s t a b i l i t y of a g i v e n group of t e a c h e r s . I t i s eommon knowledge i n the p r o f e s s i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l sehools do move from s c h o o l to s c h o o l more f r e q u e n t l y than those i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s , but a c t u a l f i g u r e s b e a r i n g on the s i t u a t i o n are few. One method o f s t u d y i n g the problem seems to give a rough index o f the r e l a t i v e " s t a b i l i t y " and " t u r n o v e r " of given - 18 -s c h o o l s . In a t t e m p t i n g to a r r i v e a t data which would have some s i g n i f i c a n c e , a l l the s c h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e were not s t u d i e d , s i n c e the amount of e f f o r t involved* would have been out o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n to i t s importance i n a study of t h i s n a t u r e . F o r the purposes of the a n a l y s i s , one l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l i n Vancouver was chosen. T h i s s e h o o l had i n 1930-31, 27 t e a c h e r s . Then a group o f s c h o o l s of 4 or fewer t e a c h e r s each was chosen a t random from the s c h o o l s i n the P r o v i n c e so t h a t the t o t a l number o f t e a c h e r s i n 1930-31 was the same as i n the c i t y s c h o o l - 27. Data as to the number of te a c h e r s (1) and the l e n g t h o f t h e i r s t a y were then gathered f o r the f i v e year p e r i o d - 1926-1931. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t a b u l a t e d as i n Table V I I . A glance over the t a b l e r e v e a l s c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s . In the l a r g e h i g h s e h o o l 13 t e a c h e r s remained i n the p o s i t i o n throughout the e n t i r e f i v e y e a r s ; among the s m a l l s c h o o l s o n l y two t e a c h e r s d i d . s o . 40 teachers i n the s m a l l s c h o o l s remained i n one p o s i t i o n f o r o n l y one year, while but 12 of the l a r g e s e h o o l s t a f f remained o n l y one year. Among the s m a l l s c h o o l s , S c h o o l **EW, a one-room i n s t i t u t i o n , employed a new t e a c h e r each of the f i v e y e a r s ; s c h o o l s HA t t and » P changed t h e i r whole s t a f f at the end of 1926-27. Many oth e r such s i t u a t i o n s appear as the t a b l e i s s t u d i e d f u r t h e r . More s i g n i f i c a n t d e ductions may be made. In the ( l ) From the r e p o r t s of the Department of E d u c a t i o n . - 19 -TABLE V I I . Showing l e n g t h of tenure i n two v a r i e t i e s o f t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n } (a) One l a r g e Vancouver High S c h o o l ( 0 ) Twelve s m a l l High Schools chosen a t random. (a) Large Vancouver High. S c h o o l . S c h o o l Year. Teacher 1926 - 27 192? - 28 19 28 - 29 1929 - 30 1930 - 31 Tears Employed. 1 X 1 2 X X X X X 5 3 X X X X X 5 4 X 1 5 X 1 6 X X X X X 5 ? X X X X 4 8 X X X X 4 9 X X X X X 5 10 X X 2 11 X X X X X 5 12 X X X X X 5 13 X 1 14 X X X X X 5 15 X X X X X 5 16 X X X X X 5 17 X X X 3 18 X 1 19 X X X X X 5 20 X X X X X 5 21 X X X X X 5 22 X X X X 4 23 X X X 3 24 X X X X X 5 25 X 1 26 X X X X 4 2? X X X X 4 28 X 1 29 X X X X 4 30 X X X X 4 31 X X X 3 32 X 1 33 X X X 3 34 X X X 3 35 X 1 36 X 1 37 X 1 38 X 1 T o t a l s 25 21 24 25 27 122 C°J S m a l l S c h o o l s (12). Teacher 1926 1927 19 28 1929 1930 T o t a l s - 27 - 28 ~ 29 - 30 - 31 S c h o o l «A» 1 X 1 2 X 1 3 X X X X 4 4 X 1 5 X 1 6 X X X 3 7 X 1 8 X 1 2 2 3 3 3 Sehool nBn 9 X 1 10 X X 2 11 X 1 12 X X X X 4 13 X 1 14 X X 2 15 X X X 3 16 X X 2 17 X 1 3 3 3 4 4 Sehool "C" 18 X X X 3 19 X X 2 20 X 1 21 X X 2 22 X X 2 23 X 1 24 X X 2 25 X X 2 26 X 1 2? X 1 3 5 3 4 4 1 - 21 Teacher 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 T o t a l s - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 S c h o o l »D" 28 X 1 29 X X 2 30 X X X 3 31 X X X X 4 32 X 1 33 X X 2 34 X 1 35 X 1 3 3 3 3 3 S c h o o l ttEw 36 X 1 37 X 1 38 X 1 39 X 1 40 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 S c h o o l "P» 41 X 1 42 X X X X 4 1 1 1 1 1 S c h o o l BG" 43 X 1 44 X X 2 45 X 1 46 X 1 1 1 1 1 1 S c h o o l *H" 47 X X 2 48 X 1 49 X X 2 50 X 1 51 X 1 52 X 1 1 1 2 2 2 - 22 -Teacher 1926 - 27 1927 - 28 1928 - 29 1929 - 30' 1930 - 31 T o t a l s S c h o o l " I * 53 54 55 X X X X X X X 5 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 S c h o o l " J " 56 X X X X X 5 1 1 1 1 1 S e h o o l »£» 5? X 1 58 X 1 59 X JL 1 60 X X X J-3 61 X X X X 4 62 X X 2 63 X 1 64 X 1 65 X 1 3 3 3 3 3 S c h o o l »L" 66 X X X 3 67 X X 2 68 X 1 TOTALS 1 1 1 1 2 21 21 23 26 27 118 1 - g3 -l a r g e s c h o o l , t h e r e were d u r i n g the f i v e years a t o t a l of 122 " t e a c h i n g y e a r s " . These were d i v i d e d among 38 t e a c h e r s ; the average tenure of the t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l was, t h e r e f o r e , 122 -*~ 38 or 3.2 y e a r s . In the s m a l l s c h o o l s , a s i m i l a r c a l c u l a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t the average tenure i s hut 1.6 years, e x a c t l y o n e - h a l f as much. S i n c e t e a c h e r s who taught but h a l f a year are not i n d i c a t e d , ( i . e . i t i s assumed t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s were i n the p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d f o r at l e a s t one year) the average tenure must be at l e a s t one year, i n any case, even i f the maximum p o s s i b l e t u r n o v e r takes p l a c e . Hence an average tenure of but 1.6 years i s extremely low. To a t t a c k the matter from another angle, we may a r r i v e at an a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the percentage of turnover f o r each s c h o o l . In the l a r g e s c h o o l , i f the turnover had been as l a r g e as p o s s i b l e , i . e . i f an e n t i r e l y new s t a f f had been employed each year, a t o t a l of 122 d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s would have been employed. S i n c e o n l y 38 t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y were employed, we may say t h a t the t u r n o v e r was g 8 or 31$. 122 In the s m a l l s c h o o l s the t o t a l p o s s i b l e number of t e a c h e r s was 118, whereas but 68 d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y were employed. Hence, the t u r n o v e r was 58$. The turnover i n the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s was thus almost twice as much as t h a t i n the l a r g e s c h o o l . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to a r r i v e at a f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t -i n g the " s t a b i l i t y " or the extent to which teac h e r s remain i n one p l a e e . Thus, the 38 t e a c h e r s i n the l a r g e s c h o o l might have had, i n t h e i r f i v e y e a r s , 190 t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s , assuming t h a t a l l of these persons were i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n d u r i n g the f i v e years under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Of these 122 were spent i n t h i s s c h o o l . We may say then t h a t these t e a c h e r s were - x 100 or 64$ s t a b l e . A s i m i l a r computation i n the ease of the group of s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s i n d i c a t e s a s t a b i l i t y of 35$, To summarize: Large Small High Schools High Schools Average tenure 5.2 y r s . 1.6 y r s . P e r c e n t t u r n o v e r 31 f> 58 % P e r c e n t s t a b i l i t y 64 # 35 # I t i s not claimed f o r any of these f i g u r e s or d e d u c t i o n s t h a t they are s t r i c t l y exact, or t h a t they give a m a t h e m a t i c a l l y sound p i c t u r e of the s i t u a t i o n . I t may be, a l s o , t h a t the s c h o o l s ehosen are not p e r f e c t examples of c o n d i t i o n s throughout the P r o v i n c e . I t i s submitted, however, t h a t a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e rough e s t i m a t e i s here presented, which i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence to j u s t i f y the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the teachers i n s m a l l high s c h o o l s move from p o s i t i o n to p o s i t i o n v e r y much more f r e q u e n t l y than those i n l a r g e s c h o o l s . The e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are obvious. A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the problem and i t s p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s w i l l be • 25 -(1) developed l a t e r . S a l a r i e s , Our study o f turnover of teach e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s i n s m a l l high s c h o o l s are f o r v a r i o u s reasons, r e l a t i v e l y u n a t t r a c t i v e , s i n c e t e a c h e r s do not seem cont e n t to remain i n these s c h o o l s . The main reason f o r t h i s u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i s not f a r to seek, and i s to be found i n the s m a l l remuneration a t t a c h e d to p o s i t i o n s i n these s c h o o l s . Table T i l l shows the h i g h e s t , lowest and average s a l a r i e s p a i d f o r v a r i o u s kinds o f t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c e , (1930-31), I t w i l l be seen t h a t the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s at a great disadvantage i n the matter of s e c u r i n g and h o l d i n g good t e a c h e r s , f o r i n s p i t e of the heavy l o a d these t e a c h e r s are r e q u i r e d to c a r r y , the remuneration they r e c e i v e i s s m a l l compared with t h a t p a i d f o r the same or l e s s work i n l a r g e s c h o o l s . The problem and i t s probable s o l u t i o n are d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n Chapter 8, ( l ) See Ch, 8 IPRL3 THNTZ a-a Hie •H $><Z,h HO'QHO r. ZIPKC? zc fit& ALL , <ZHOO£j Oath - JZoorr i Hi 'T/9/Y7* Thfi<ZHt II O SOQ IQOO I30Q £.00 O OOOO Z&OO ^ OOO 26 -TABLE 7 1 I I . H i g h e s t . lowest and average s a l a r y p a i d f o r c e r t a i n types of t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 19 30-31. Type of P o s i t i o n H i g h e s t S a l a r y Lowest S a l a r y Average S a l a r y P r i n c i p a l s , Large High Schools (5 o r more d i v i s i o n s ) 4,280 2,100 3,251 A s s i s t a n t s , Large High S c h o o l s 3,410 1,220 2,402 P r i n c i p a l s , S m a l l High S c h o o l s (4 o r fewer d i v i s i o n s ) 3,000 1,460 2,210 One-teacher High Schools 2,250 1,500 1,788 A s s i s t a n t s , S m a l l High Schools 2,200 1,200 1,669 S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s 2,800 950 1,778 A l l h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and P r i n c i p a l s i n P r o v i n c e 4,280 1, 200 2,335 A l l t e a c h e r s and P r i n c i p a l s i n s c h o o l s o f p r o v i n c e 4, 280 700 1,534 A l l elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and P r i n c i p a l s i n p r o v i n c e 3,760 700 1,401 Teacher E x p e r i e n c e . Some of the s c h o o l s whieh answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not, a p p a r e n t l y , have e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e data r e g a r d i n g the experience of t h e i r t e a c h e r s ; the i n f o r m a t i o n t a b u l a t e d (See Table IX) i s t h e r e f o r e not very complete. The t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was grouped i n thr e e - y e a r i n t e r v a l s to reduce to a minimum the l a b o r i n v o l v e d i n answer-i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t w i l l be seen t h a t n e a r l y h a l f the t e a c h e r s i n l a r g e High Schools r e p o r t e d over 12 years* e x p e r i e n c e , while •4-~€> y&s. T-9 y e s . / 0 V 2 y c a ov«5/2yes. JTOfftf3\xr£tn f yn s. 4--Q-yJ2S>. 2 -25 yrea 7~ &~y&8. /O-JZyuz. oversf&y&s. o. JO. •40. P E L U ^ H T H ^ £ L ^ o r TEF/ZHZP? i n s m a l l High. S c h o o l s and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s the g r e a t e s t number of t e a c h e r s have 1 - 3 y e a r s experience; while the f i g u r e s are o n l y rough approximations, we are j u s t i f i e d i n c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the c u r r e n t i m p r e s s i o n t h a t s m a l l s c h o o l s a c t as a t r a i n i n g ground f o r t e a c h e r s i s p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t . TABLE IX. E x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h e r s i n 75 B r i t i s h Columbia S c h o o l s . Numb e ] £* and p e r c e n t . o f Teachers No. of years E x p e r i e n c e S u p e r i o r Sehools S m a l l High Schools Large High Schools No. i> No. % No. $ 1 - 3 years i n c . 7 35 58 38 22 13 4 - 6 y r s . 4 20 20 19 30 18 7 - 9 y r s . 3 15 25 22 31 18 10 - 12 y r s . 1 5 7 7 10 6 Over 12 y r s . 1 5 14 14 77 45 No answer 4 20 0 0 0 0 20 100 102 100 170 100 The S c h o o l P l a n t . In o r d e r to gather i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the s c h o o l p l a n t , q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (See Appendix A), i n which the d i f f e r e n t p r i n c i p a l s were asked to r a t e t h e i r s c h o o l s under the headings of gymnasium, p l a y i n g f i e l d , and v a r i o u s k i n d s of l a b o r a t o r y . S i n c e only 75 of the p r i n c i p a l s answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to give a complete a p p r a i s a l of - 28 -the s c h o o l p l a n t s of the P r o v i n c e , fhe number r e p o r t i n g , however, ( n e a r l y 6Q$>) g i v e s a r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampli fhe r a t i n g s g i v e n by p r i n c i p a l s to t h e i r Gymnasiums, P l a y i n g F i e l d s , Chemistry and P h y s i c a l l a b o r a t o r i e s are analysed i n T a b l e s X, XI, X I I , X I I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . TABLE X. gymnasium F a c i l i t i e s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s Type o f S c h o o l R a t i n g of Gymnasium T o t a l S e p o r t i n g A B c D E None S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s - - - - 20 20 S m a l l High S c h o o l s (140 or fewer s t u d e n t s ) 2 2 2 2 30 38 Large High Schools 5 1 1 1 - 9 17 TOTALS 7 S 3 1 2 59 75 TABLE XI. P l a y i n g F i e l d s o f 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r Schools C l a s s o f S c h o o l B a t i n g o f P l a y i n g F i e l d A B C D s None T o t a l S u perior S c h o o l s r 3 1 9 3 2 2 20 Small High Schools 3 6 10 8 7 4 38 .arge High S c h o o l s 1 2 6 5 1 2 17 TOTALS 1 7 9 25 16 10 8 75 - 29 -TABLE X I I . Chemistry L a b o r a t o r i e s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and Super! Sehools C l a s s o f S c h o o l 1) at ins > of e bemistrv L* Lboratory A B c D E None T o t a l S u p e r i o r Sehools 0 1 i i 2 2 4 20 Sma l l High Schools 5 9 18 1 1 4 38 Large High Schools 7 6 4 0 0 0 17 TOTALS 12 16 33 3 3 8 75 TABLE X I I I . P h y s i c s L a b o r a t o r i e s of 75 B r i t i s h Columbia High and S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s . C l a s s o f S c h o o l E a t i n g o f P h y s i c s L a b o r a t o r y A B C D E None T o t a l s S u p e r i o r Schools 0 0 6 2 4 8 20 Sma l l H i g h Schools 2 6 16 5 1 8 38 Large High Schools 5 5 5 1 0 1 17 TOTALS 11 27 8 5 17 75 C e r t a i n deductions may be f a i r l y drawn, (1) I t i s seen t h a t n e a r l y 80$ of the hig h schools are without gymnasia o f any k i n d , though the Department of Ed u c a t i o n c o n s i d e r s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t importance to make i t a compulsory s u b j e c t f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . Since almost h a l f the l a r g e h i g h sehools have gymnasia of v a r i o u s degrees o f e x c e l l e n c e , t h e i r equipment i n t h i s r e s p e c t , though not s a t i s f a c t o r y , i s s t i l l f a r s u p e r i o r to t h a t i n the oth e r types of s c h o o l s * (£) Most s c h o o l s (89$) have a p l a y i n g f i e l d o f some s o r t . . The degree of e x c e l l e n c e of the p l a y i n g f i e l d f a c i l i t i e s does not v a r y g r e a t l y among the v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f s c h o o l s . (3) A l l the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s have Chemistry l a b o r a t o r i e s which are adequate or b e t t e r ; a l i t t l e more than £4$ of the s m a l l h i g h sehools have e i t h e r no Chemistry l a b o r a t o r i e s or inadequate ones. (4) One l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l has no P h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r y ; one has a poor one. N e a r l y £8$ of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s and s u p e r i o r sehools have no P h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r i e s ; over 48$ of these sehools have e i t h e r no P h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r i e s or inadequate ones. The r a t i n g s of the Botany and B i o l o g y l a b o r a t o r i e s are not t a b u l a t e d because so few e x i s t . Fo l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l and no s u p e r i o r s c h o o l r e p o r t e d l a b o r a t o r i e s f o r these s u b j e c t s ; t h r e e s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d average Botany l a b o r a t o r i e s ; f i v e s m a l l high s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d B i o l o g y - 31 -l a b o r a t o r i e s , two o f them b e i n g average, one poor and one v e r y poor. Thus, of a l l the s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g , o n l y 4% have Botany l a b o r a t o r i e s , and s l i g h t l y under ?% have B i o l o g y l a b o r a t o r i e s . I t w i l l be seen from the f o r e g o i n g data t h a t while the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s are not u n i f o r m l y w e l l equipped, they are h i g h l y f a v o r e d i n t h i s r e g a r d i f compared with s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s and s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s . CHAPTEH 3 THE PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL. The h i s t o r y of the development of secondary e d u c a t i o n on the C o n t i n e n t , and of the g r a d u a l l y changing p h i l o s o p h y t h a t has accompanied t h a t development, has been o f t e n t o l d j and may be found i n n e a r l y any modern work on the s u b j e c t of the hig h (1) s c h o o l . A s h o r t r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s a l l that i s neces s a r y i n t h i s s t udy. I t i s a f a r c r y indeed from the Boston Grammar Scho o l w i t h i t s r i g i d l y c l a s s i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the c o l l e g e s to the huge cosm o p o l i t o n h i g h s c h o o l s now o p e r a t i n g i n many l a r g e c e n t e r s on t h i s C o n t i n e n t . In t h i s g r e a t change, our American c o u s i n s have l e d the way, and s t i l l do so. Canadian h i g h s c h o o l s , though d e v e l o p i n g a l o n g the same g e n e r a l l i n e s , have yet done so more s l o w l y , p a r t l y because of l e s s e r m a t e r i a l ( l ) a. Douglass, A. A. "Secondary E d u c a t i o n " , pp. 3-28. R i v e r s i d e Textbooks i n Edu c a t i o n , Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1927. b. Cubberley, E.P. "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of Education", R i v e r s i d e Textbooks i n Ed u c a t i o n , New York, 1922. e. Monroe, P a u l . "A Text-Book i n the H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n " . The M a c M i l l a n Co., New York,1922. d. Judd, C.H. "The E v o l u t i o n o f a Democratic Sehool System". R i v e r s i d e E d u c a t i o n a l Monographs Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1918. - 33 -r e s o u r c e s , and a l s o , i n a l a r g e degree, because of a more c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e among e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s - an a t t i t u d e which i s d e r i v e d from England, and which tends towards com-p a r a t i v e r i g i d i t y and a l a r g e measure of c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l . There has been, i n the l a s t hundred ye a r s , or so, a slow but v e r y profound change i n the accepted p h i l o s o p h y of the high s e h o o l . These s c h o o l s were, at f i r s t , d e f i n i t e l y p r e - v o c a t i o n a l . T h e i r c h i e f f u n c t i o n was to prepare young men f o r entrance to the c o l l e g e s and the p r o f e s s i o n s - g e n e r a l l y law and t h e o l o g y . Mathematics and the C l a s s i c s - L a t i n and Greek - had the honored plaee i n the c u r r i c u l u m , but were there l a r g e l y f o r v o c a t i o n a l reasons. In a very r e a l sense the e a r l y secondary s c h o o l was a d j u s t e d to the needs of the r e s t r i c t e d group who sought t h e i r t r a i n i n g t h e r e i n . L a t e r , as the s c h o o l became more po p u l a r , these s t u d i e s , w h i l e remaining i n the c u r r i c u l u m , l o s t t h e i r p r e - v o e a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e from the s t a n d p o i n t of meeting the needs of many s t u d e n t s . In the course of time c l a s s i c s and mathematics became l a r g e l y " t r a d i t i o n a l " , and were defended f o r t h e i r s o - c a l l e d " d i s c i p l i n a r y " or " c u l t u r a l " v a l u e . The m a j o r i t y of schoolmen of the day championed the d o c t r i n e of f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n e , c h i e f l y on the b a s i s of the now-outworn f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . T h i s s c h o o l of thought has s t i l l many adherents. Of l a t e , however, the f a c u l t y psychology has been shown to be u n s c i e n t i f i c ; the human mind can no longer be - 34 -e x p l a i n e d with such dogmatic s i m p l i c i t y . Moreover, a great i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , and the development of s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -cedures and r e s u l t s , have l a r g e l y exploded the theory of formal d i s c i p l i n e as upheld by i t s more extreme adherents. P a r a l l e l i n g g r e a t advances i n the s c i e n c e of ed u c a t i o n has been a new and wider co n c e p t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n and aim of the secondary s c h o o l . E d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s have eome to r e a l i z e t h a t h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g ought to be more of an end i n i t s e l f r a t h e r than a mere p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y . Both l a i t y and e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k e r s have dreamed a wonderful new dream of a gre a t system of secondary s c h o o l s , s e r v i n g the people, a d j u s t e d to the people's needs, and p l a y i n g a foremost p a r t i n the p r o g r e s s i v e u p b u i l d i n g of s o c i e t y . The dream i s , as y e t , i m p e r f e c t l y r e a l i z e d , but si g n s of i t s gr a d u a l f u l f i l m e n t are not l a c k i n g . The l a r g e c i t y s c h o o l i s changing i n outlook, i n aim, i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n t e a c h i n g more q u i c k l y than i t has ever changed b e f o r e , and as r a p i d l y as such a c o n s e r v a t i v e organism as a s c h o o l can s a f e l y change, Canadian h i g h s c h o o l s have not yet gone as f a r i n t h i s proeess of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as many American sehools. They are not as yet, and perhaps w i l l never be ready to break away from t h e i r somewhat t r a d i t i o n a l moorings. F e a r i n g a c e r t a i n d i f f u s e n e s s and l a c k of thoroughness which they have come, r i g h t l y or wrongly, to a s c r i b e to the American high s c h o o l , - 35 -Canadian educators have changed t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y more s l o w l y , and have e r e a t e d a secondary sehool system d i f f e r e n t i n many important r e s p e c t s from t h a t g e n e r a l l y p r e v a l e n t among our neighbours. I t seems probable t h a t the h i g h sehool i n Canada, wh i l e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by American thought, w i l l remain a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n . The Development of Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The h i s t o r y o f secondary education i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o l l o w s , i n a g e n e r a l way, that of the high schools i n the other p r o v i n c e s of Canada. In the c u r r i c u l u m of the f i r s t h i g h s c h o o l i n the P r o v i n c e , founded i n V i c t o r i a i n 1876, (1) the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s are l i s t e d ? A r i t h m e t i c , A l g e b r a , Geometry, N a t u r a l P h i l o s o p h y ( P h y s i c s ) , A n c i e n t and B r i t i s h H i s t o r y , Geography, French, L a t i n , Greek ( o p t i o n a l ) , Book-keeping, Music, Elementary B i o l o g y and Botany. Since the high s c h o o l a l s o p r o v i d e d Normal Sehool t r a i n i n g , E d u c a t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n the course. T h i s o r i g i n a l course served as a p a t t e r n f o r l a t e r s c h o o l s . Home Economics and Manual T r a i n i n g were i n t r o d u c e d i n 1911; a complete Commercial Course i s now given i n many of the l a r g e r s e h o o l s ; T e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s - shop-work and theory - may be o f f e r e d . A g r i c u l t u r e , Chemistry, General S c i e n c e , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and many other s u b j e c t s ( l ) " C u r r i c u l a of P u b l i c Sehools f o r General E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia", E d u c a t i o n a l Monograph No. 1, p u b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Depart-ment "of E d u c a t i o n , P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s , V i c t o r i a , B. C., 1914. - 36 -are now i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m * The e a r l y course of s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d few o p t i o n s , and, g e n e r a l l y speaking, a l l students took the same s u b j e c t s . P r o v i s i o n i s now made f o r a wide v a r i e t y of o p t i o n s depending, of course, on the r e s o u r c e s of the s c h o o l attended. In 1926, the J u n i o r High Sch o o l was made a p a r t of the P r o v i n c i a l system, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of the Comprehensive (1) P u t m a n - l e i r E d u c a t i o n a l Survey of the P r o v i n c e . These s c h o o l s have been s p r e a d i n g s l o w l y s i n c e , and there are at p r e s e n t (1931) ten such s c h o o l s s i t u a t e d mostly i n the l a r g e c e n t e r s of the P r o v i n c e . In 1930, the h i g h s c h o o l programme was e n l a r g e d to a f o u r - y e a r course l e a d i n g to g r a d u a t i o n ; u n t i l t h a t time the to work/Junior M a t r i c u l a t i o n o r d i n a r i l y covered three y e a r s . C e r t a i n o t h e r fundamental changes were made i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the needs of the " l e a v i n g * 1 student, who may now take a g e n e r a l course not l e a d i n g to M a t r i c u l a t i o n , and i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of a system of " c r e d i t s " f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the programme of the s t u d e n t . The B r i t i s h Columbia system o f secondary schools i s now p r o b a b l y the most advanced i n Canada. The Programme of S t u d i e s p r e s c r i b e d i s much the most e l a s t i c of those which have been i n f o r c e thus f a r . I t i s s t i l l somewhat hampered i n many r e s p e c t s but has many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r expansion and ( l ) Putman, T.H. and Weir, G.M., "Survey of the School System", Pp. 71-110 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , T i c t o r i a , B. C., 1925. - 3? -a d a p t a t i o n to meet l o c a l needs* With c e r t a i n r e g u l a t i o n s made by the Department of E d u c a t i o n the w r i t e r i s not i n agreement* He b e l i e v e s , how-ever, t h a t fundamentally the system i t s e l f i s sound. A f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the d e t a i l s o f the Programme and i t s workings (1) w i l l be found i n a subsequent p a r t of t h i s study* The Small High S c h o o l remains a U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y I n s t i t u t i o n . Although the development of the secondary s c h o o l , i n g e n e r a l , and the p h i l o s o p h y d i c t a t i n g t h a t development, has been r a p i d , and although the B r i t i s h Columbia High S c h o o l Programme of S t u d i e s has made s u b s t a n t i a l advances towards the i d e a l secondary s e h o o l , i t can be s a i d with reasonable c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e r e i s a c l a s s of s c h o o l i n the Pr o v i n c e which has been, and p o s s i b l y w i l l c o ntinue to be, l a r g e l y u n a f f e c t e d by these r e c e n t p r o g r e s s i v e t r e n d s . That c l a s s i s the sm a l l B r i t i s h Columbia High S c h o o l . And s i n c e many o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the way of such pr o g r e s s are pr o b a b l y i n h e r e n t i n the s i z e o f these s c h o o l s , i t may be assumed t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i s common to the numerous s m a l l high sehools i n Canada. (2) I t has been shown that the number of schools i n the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y i s extremely l a r g e - by f a r the m a j o r i t y . The p o r t i o n o f the se h o o l p o p u l a t i o n a t t e n d i n g them i s not very g r e a t - 16,7% i f s c h o o l s with an enrolment up to 150 students (1) See Chapter 4. (2) See Chapter 2. Pp. 7. - 38 -be I n c l u d e d . T h i s l a t t e r f i g u r e i n c l u d e s , of course, s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s , which e n r o l l some students i n the elementary grades; these s c h o o l s , however, must come w i t h i n the scope of our study. Not o n l y i s the secondary t r a i n i n g of n e a r l y 17$ of our students o f v e r y great importance, but i t i s probable that the number of students e n r o l l e d i n these schools would m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e , i f the above i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be proper-l y a r t i c u l a t e d with p u p i l needs. In the l i g h t o f the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , i t can be s a i d t h a t the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s not a d j u s t e d to the needs of most of i t s s t u d e n t s ; I t can a l s o be s a i d t h a t , under p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, these s c h o o l s cannot be so a d j u s t e d . Some e l a b o r a t i o n of these statements must be made. There are two g e n e r a l groups o f students who seek h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , those who inte n d to seek entrance to U n i v e r s i t y or Normal S c h o o l , and those who do not. High s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a means to an end f o r the former group of st u d e n t s ; to the l a t t e r i t i s an end i n i t s e l f . The s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d by the former are p r e s c r i b e d by the U n i v e r s i t y and are s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same f o r a l l U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y or M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s . The s u b j e c t s needed by the l a t t e r are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , and va r y g r e a t l y a c c o r d i n g to the student concerned; among the many courses most l i k e l y to s a t i s f y the needs o f these " l e a v i n g " students a r e : Home Economics, Shop-work o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , M e c h a n i c a l Drawing, Commercial s u b j e c t s , A r t , Music and so f o r t h , t o mention but a few. Moreover, even - 39 -when s t u d y i n g the same s u b j e c t s as the M a t r i c u l a t i o n students, the l e a v i n g group w i l l o f t e n r e q u i r e a d i f f e r e n t approach, as w e l l as a d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . How, s i n c e the l e a v i n g students commonly f a r out-number the M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s , i t might be argued that i f one group were to be n e g l e c t e d the m a t r i c u l a t i o n student should not r e c e i v e p r e f e r e n t i a l treatment, yet the o p p o s i t e i s u s u a l l y the case. F i r s t , t e a c h e r s are employed to teach the u n i v e r s i t y -p r e p a r a t i o n s u b j e c t s ; then, and then o n l y i f enrolment and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s warrant, p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the l e a v i n g s t u d e n t . I t i s of l i t t l e use to argue t h a t t h i s p o l i c y i s a mistaken one. I t i s not an e n t i r e l y i n d e f e n s i b l e one; a good case c o u l d be made out t h a t the needs of those who seem most l i k e l y to be l e a d e r s ought to be given f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . But whether the t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y i s a wise one or not has l i t t l e b e a r i n g on our problem, f o r I t seems probable that i t w i l l c o n t i n u e to p r e v a i l . No community would allow i t s h i g h s e h o o l to cease o f f e r i n g M a t r i c u l a t i o n s u b j e c t s . T h i s means, under p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n the P r o v i n c e , t h a t most s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s can have but one f u n c t i o n , namely, th a t of U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t i o n . The reasons f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n are obvious. Under the t h r e e - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l course, f o r m e r l y i n vogue, 35 p e r i o d s a week f o r three years were r e q u i r e d f o r the work l e a d i n g to U n i v e r s i t y entrance; t h i s i s a t o t a l of 105 t e a c h i n g p e r i o d s a - 40 -week d u r i n g the whole course and would correspond r o u g h l y to 105 o f the new " c r e d i t s " . f h e requirements under the new r e g u l a t i o n s are 108 - 114 e r e d i t s at l e a s t , though the student i s expected to earn 120 e r e d i t s . Hence, under e i t h e r course, the high s c h o o l o f f e r i n g a M a t r i c u l a t i o n course must f u r n i s h i n s t r u c t i o n f o r at l e a s t 105 t e a c h i n g p e r i o d s per week. f h i s would keep a s t a f f of three teachers f u l l y o ccupied f o r each p e r i o d o f a 35-period week. I f the 120 c r e d i t s p r e s c r i b e d by the Department are o f f e r e d , a t h r e e -t e a c h e r s t a f f must teaeh each p e r i o d of the week and c a r r y b e s i d e s 5 e x t r a p e r i o d s each, e i t h e r by l e n g t h e n i n g the s c h o o l day, or by h a v i n g p e r i o d s where two c l a s s e s are combined. A f o u r - t e a c h e r s c h o o l o r d i n a r i l y p r o v i d e s at l e a s t one o p t i o n , so that i t i s not l i k e l y to be any b e t t e r o f f . One or two-teacher s c h o o l s are, of course, even more h e a v i l y burdened. (1) We s h a l l examine t h i s s i t u a t i o n more f u l l y below; enough has been s a i d t o make i t c l e a r t h a t the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l , as at p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t e d , can make no p r o v i s i o n f o r any but the U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y student i f o n l y the t e a c h i n g l o a d be c o n s i d e r e d . The d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g proper equipment aggravates the c o n d i t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y . In the l i g h t of our somewhat c u r s o r y d i s c u s s i o n of modern p h i l o s o p h y e a r l i e r i n the chapter i t ean, t h e r e f o r e , be s a i d that the boys and g i r l s i n communities where the high s c h o o l i s s m a l l do not have the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g they need and ought to have. (1) See Chapter 4, Pp.§3-54; .Chapter 5, Pp.*8~68 , - 41 -Two Methods of A t t a c k , The s i t u a t i o n , then, i s t h a t the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e f i n i t e l y a U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y i n s t i t u t i o n , and must remain so u n l e s s d e v i c e s are developed to enable i t to serve i n a broader c a p a c i t y . I f the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s to r i s e above the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by i t s p r e s e n t U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n , two a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t themselves: 1, The U n i v e r s i t y entrance requirements may be a l t e r e d , by r e d u c i n g t h e i r burden or broadening t h e i r content, so that e i t h e r U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y work w i l l i t s e l f become more s u i t e d t o the needs of the l e a v i n g student; or so that a d j u s t -ments may be made whereby a s m a l l s c h o o l may o f f e r a s u f f i c i e n t -l y e l a s t i c c u r r i c u l u m to s u i t the above two groups of s t u d e n t s . 2. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the present system of s m a l l high s c h o o l s may be changed to p r o v i d e f o r the l e a v i n g as w e l l as the M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t . A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the f i r s t of these a l t e r n a t i v e s i s not w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e of t h i s study. The U n i v e r s i t y i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to have the r i g h t to p r e s c r i b e i t s own entrance requirements, and presumably does so a f t e r c a r e f u l study of the needs of the s c h o o l system of the P r o v i n c e . The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y w i l l have o c c a s i o n to a l t e r i t s entrance requirements i n the next few y e a r s ; he does not b e l i e v e t h a t these requirements w i l l be lowered, nor does he contend that such l o w e r i n g of standards would n e c e s s a r i l y - 42 -be d e s i r a b l e . The tendency i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia at p r e s e n t i s towards r e s t r i c t i o n of enrolment, and the admission o n l y of the a b l e r student. Any r e a l move away from the p r e s e n t h i g h standards must r e s u l t from a r a d i c a l change i n the Canadian c o n c e p t i o n of the aim of the U n i v e r s i t y , and would n e c e s s i t a t e great changes i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and work of t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n . The w r i t e r , however, does m a i n t a i n that some of the P r o v i n c i a l Department's r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g M a t r i c u l a t i o n ought not to apply to the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l . These are d i s c u s s e d f u l l y i n Chapter 5. Any s u b s t a n t i a l improvement i n the secondary s c h o o l programme i n communities now s u p p o r t i n g s m a l l h i g h schools presumably must come, then, from changes i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves. The N e c e s s i t y of a S m a l l High 3 c h o o l P o l i c y . In the f i r s t p l a c e , i f any s i g n i f i c a n t steps towards the adjustment of the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l programme to the needs of the communities i t serves are to be taken, i t i s a n e c e s s i t y t h a t our p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s formulate an e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r that purpose. Seldom have our P r o v i n c i a l Departments of E d u c a t i o n taken o f f i c i a l cognizance of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s J . 1. That the great m a j o r i t y of our high s c h o o l s and ( M s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s are very s m a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s . (1) See Chapter 2. - 43 -2. That an important p o r t i o n of secondary sehool (1) students are e n r o l l e d t h e r e i n . 3. And t h a t the problems c o n f r o n t i n g s m a l l s c h o o l s , at p resent, are l a r g e l y p e c u l i a r to them. The p r e s c r i b i n g of Programmes of study and the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s have been d i r e c t e d , i n l a r g e p a r t , by the needs of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e s c h o o l s ; there has been l i t t l e d i s p o s i t i o n to r e g a r d the s m a l l s c h o o l as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the system, h a v i n g needs which cannot be met u n l e s s s p e c i a l d e v i c e s are adopted. The Heed of a S p e c i a l O f f i c i a l . There i s a r e a l need f o r an o f f i c e r of the P r o v i n c i a l Department, who s h a l l be s p e c i f i c a l l y chosen f o r the one purpose of making s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s more e f f i c i e n t . Such an o f f i c i a l would need q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a very s p e c i a l n a t u r e . He should, f i r s t , have had a c t u a l t e a c h i n g experience, as e x t e n s i v e as p o s s i b l e , i n s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s ; he should a l s o have devoted c o n s i d e r a b l e time to the study of the i n s t i t u t i o n ; and, perhaps most important of a l l , he should possess a very s o l i d and e n l i g h t e n e d p h i l o s o p h y of secondary education i n g e n e r a l , and the s m a l l sehool i n p a r t i c u l a r . In a d d i t i o n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y should be such that he i s capable of t a c t f u l but f o r c e f u l l e a d e r s h i p . Such a person c o u l d not be obtained and r e t a i n e d u n l e s s a s u i t a b l e s a l a r y were a t t a c h e d to the p o s t . (1) See -Chapter £. - 44 -There would be much f o r such, an o f f i c i a l to do. I t would be h i s duty f i r s t to make a thorough study of the s i t u a t i o n , c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l I n s p e c t o r s and the s m a l l high, s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . In the l i g h t of h i s knowledge, and a i d e d by those c l o s e to the problem, he would have to d i r e c t the f o r m u l a t i o n o f an advanced e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r the reform o f the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e . T h i s p o l i c y would i n c l u d e p r o b a b l y an e x t e n s i v e adjustment of the c u r r i c u l u m ; i t would of n e c e s s i t y , i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l matters, and of the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s . Having done t h i s the most d i f f i c u l t problem would remain, f o r he would be f a c e d with the ta s k of p r o s e c u t i n g a v i g o r o u s programme of e d u c a t i o n throughout the P r o v i n c e of t e a c h e r s , o f s c h o o l boards and communities, of government ageneies, and of normal s c h o o l s t a f f s and s t u d e n t s . At the same time, i t would be i n h i s p r o v i n c e to s u p e r v i s e the p u t t i n g i n t o e f f e c t of h i s reforms, t h i s i n v o l v i n g some degree of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y . The f i n d i n g of such a man would probably be d i f f i c u l t , but not by any means i m p o s s i b l e , i f a t t a c k e d with due care and earnestness; and wh i l e a p e r f e c t combination of the q u a l i t i e s d e s c r i b e d may not e x i s t , a man of the proper personality,, with the s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e , to whom the complexity of the s i t u a t i o n would be a c h a l l e n g e , should very soon overcome any minor d e f i c i e n c i e s i n h i s t r a i n i n g . I t i s ve r y d o u b t f u l i f a r e a l a t t a c k on the problem - 45 -of our s m a l l s c h o o l s , can be made u n l e s s under the d i r e c t i o n of such a l e a d e r . C e r t a i n s t e p s could, no doubt, be taken by-committees of t e a c h e r s , and by p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r s . A r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e programme, however, would r e q u i r e the s e r v i c e s of an able o f f i c e r , d e v o t i n g h i s t o t a l time and a t t e n t i o n to the matter. The w r i t e r i s convinced of the r e a l n e c e s s i t y of such an o f f i c i a l , u n l e s s we are to be content with the present s i t u a t i o n , and has no h e s i t a t i o n recommending very s t r o n g l y h i s appointment. Two General P o l i c i e s f o r the Improvement of the Small High S c h o o l . P o l i c i e s f o r the improvement of the s m a l l s c h o o l f a l l under two heads: {a) P o l i c i e s to be pursued i f the s m a l l high s c h o o l i s to r e t a i n i t s U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n . (b) P o l i c i e s which w i l l remove the U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n from the s m a l l high s c h o o l . The f i r s t of these may be o u t l i n e d as i n v o l v i n g the f o l l o w i n g : (1) C o n s o l i d a t i o n of e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s where p o s s i b l e . (2) A very thorough a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s to reduce the t e a c h i n g l o a d necessary to o f f e r U n i v e r s i t y - p r e -p a r a t o r y work. (3) The p o s s i b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l correspondence courses f o r the purpose of e n r i c h i n g the s m a l l sehool c u r r i c u l u m . ( 4 } The r e d u c t i o n of one-room high schools to the lowest p o s s i b l e minimum, by the combination of the one-room h i g h s c h o o l with the adjacent elementary s c h o o l to form at l e a s t a two-room, and, i n some cases, a three-room, J u n i o r High S c h o o l . (5) The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s , except i n v e r y s p e c i a l cases, on a J u n i o r High S c h o o l b a s i s . (6) The g e n e r a l a d o p t i o n of the J u n i o r High School o r g a n i z a t i o n where t h a t i s p o s s i b l e . T h i s p o l i c y i s o u t l i n e d f u l l y i n Chapter 6. The second p l a n i n v o l v e s the f o l l o w i n g : (1) The m a i n t a i n i n g of one or more C e n t r a l Boarding s c h o o l s to o f f e r M a t r i c u l a t i o n work. (2) The r e l i e v i n g of s m a l l s c h o o l s of the U n i v e r s i t y -p r e p a r a t o r y and Normal Entrance f u n c t i o n , and t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n to " g e n e r a l " s c h o o l s . T h i s p o l i c y i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 7. The d i f f e r e n t aspects of these two p o l i c i e s are d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent cha p t e r s to which r e f e r e n c e s have been made. I t i s to be noted t h a t many of the aspects of the f i r s t p o l i c y , such as a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , might r e c e i v e immediate a t t e n t i o n without r a d i c a l changes. Many, though not a l l , of the remarks i n Chapter 8, " R u r a l Secondary S c h o o l Teadhers," apply to both of these p l a n s . F i n a n c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The p r o p o s a l s put forward here and elsewhere i n t h i s study w i l l , i n some cases, n e c e s s i t a t e a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l - 47 * e x p e n d i t u r e . To many, t h i s i n i t s e l f would j u s t i f y an immediate v e t o . B r i t i s h Columbia i s not i n a prosperous f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n ; i n any case, and the p r e v a i l i n g hard times have aggravated the c o n d i t i o n . Moreover, there are those who b e l i e v e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l expenditure i s a l r e a d y too l a r g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , an immediate veto of these p r o p o s a l s i s by no means j u s t i f i e d i f expense alone i s c o n s i d e r e d . In the f i r s t p l a c e , the a d d i t i o n a l expense i s not v e r y g r e a t , and i s spread over many communities. In the second, (1) the sound f i n a n c i a l p r o p o s a l s of the Putman-Weir Survey f o r the more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l expense have not been put i n t o e f f e c t ; i f they were, i t would not be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sums r e q u i r e d f o r the steps proposed i n t h i s study. Moreover, many of these changes must be prepared^ f o r by the e d u c a t i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n ; and by the time p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s prepared f o r change, more prosperous c o n d i t i o n s may p r e v a i l . However, even i f the expense i n v o l v e d were much g r e a t e r than i t i s , these steps are f o r p r o g r e s s and f o r more j u s t i c e to the student i n the s m a l l secondary sehool; much expense c o u l d be defended on t h i s b a s i s . (1) I b i d . Pp. 270 - 298. - 48 -CHAPTER 4 THE PRESENT BRITISH COLUMBIA HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r e s e n t High S c h o o l Programme of S t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e q u i r e s a knowledge of the former t h r e e - y e a r course, which was used i n our schools u n t i l the end o f the s c h o o l year 1928-29. Indeed, t r a n s i t i o n from the t h r e e - y e a r to the f o u r - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s by no means completed. The Three-year Course. T i l l the end of 1928-29, the High Sehools of B r i t i s h Columbia, l i k e those of the m a j o r i t y of the P r o v i n c e s , o f f e r e d t hree years of secondary s c h o o l i n g a f t e r the e i g h t - y e a r elementary s c h o o l ; the P r o v i n c e was o r g a n i z e d on the 8 - 3 system. At the end of t h i s 3-year h i g h s c h o o l p e r i o d , students who had taken a proper combination of courses, and who had passed the Department examinations, won a J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e , awarded by the Department, and e n t i t l i n g them to e n t e r the U n i v e r s i t y . A number of s c h o o l s o f f e r e d a f o u r t h year of i n s t r u c t i o n l e a d i n g to S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n and entrance to the seeond year of the U n i v e r s i t y ; t h i s , a l s o , was i n accordance w i t h c u r r e n t Canadian p r a c t i c e . There were t h r e e courses o f f e r e d - the General or M a t r i c u l a t i o n Course, the Commercial Course, and the i'echnieal S41 pi n © © © N ,P &4 ©I •a a}! id 04 © (9 e i-P a A © CD K» H 01 © •d 1 © S o ra *4 o •0 p © u o n W H 60—. Pi id « • H CM PI o • H 4* 60 0 P H • H 0 +> O Pi « H 0 h O +» © © * * •d - H Pi a* M © P* • H a ,3 o CQ *H pj +» © at N a •r4 © P ,P •H P O © © •H P © ,0 o © X •p 0 at © CO © o $4 - H pi ra o !>> © ,P 04 O o ts •d a <d at P © to l P u A o P P) Of o h A P CO • p u © © H at © © > o ,o at m at to •^1 IO CO > PI O P A at o a © «• o a ^ at T4 J»» 4» • U M t>» © ra 4» M Pi g © m O O © ' < H - H IB 4>rf » S Pi 60 M 4 s >> © O p - H at ,p .3 A Ed a 0* o to .0 ra Pi at • H -d © Pi St © I T4 +» >» © *4 & O .4 60 C9 >H Pi T4 U M W «4 •d Pi at 60 60 Pi Pi •ri -ri P i * 3 © Pi to PJ pj 43 0) T4 .0 Pi O O O o <A n 4* F4 O .0 IB © 8» i4 60 60 © Pi 0 H <H r l T * 8l 4 * p , 0 - p -H ,0 © © © T4 O 10 B g 4 ) 4 h h r l O 4 M 4> ^ O H -H 4 * A} fi © 6 O O g a 60 > - H Pi -ri Pi O A • • * • H W H CO 64 IO to O «t W CO &4 O H CM to •si" to to o Pi » at o t4 T4 at © p a at A O 4 S P h P « 4 © P at H © T4 -P at © p p A >* * © f4 g • H O © 60 n 4» p <H at W W 3 >» 14 © p a «> O T4 © © C5 © €5 •* 14 « » P © - H 60 p f-4 Ol o © 60 © Ot 60 at p 60 P at *A P 60 *d •H P © o U O O « to fO i4 u\ 0 ° L © o m P o © •ri a © O CQ P O H © at m Pi © © p n © 0 *4 © P at o « 4 * P © a o © 60 H «4 I +» • O M at P o i-t 4> Pi O >» U -P © O p o 60 <H f4 54 I © © 4» i» at ^ a • H O © H +» A 60 © P P -H © W ^ a © O © • © co t» © o • © © p ra © © © O O • H P © Pt o 04 CO » » . • * H CM tO tO H CM CO <«H © A 04 © © P © «4 © «— <H 4-* a 14 & • H O © H14* A 60 B 4> p -H © M W S3 © »4 - P -P © H « 60 p t»» Si O U 0 n-t +» 60 M © pj 60 -H at «4 f p 60 •H © O o| o| © 60 © at o p P 60 © P "4 © © H CO • • • to <o H CM tO • • 1^ IO o p O © <d tt ^ P P 0 0 © o o © © O CO 03 W to © u A © 60 P H © O © 1 * H P t»» at i h a O © p 4 60 © 4* P T4 © N W S • • • H CM tO •H H © 60 © t» P M M 4» P © © o © p •H T3 © P Pi © O pq u\o • o| © «a< © © p 60 tO © © O « H 0 - H O 60 a CO P O © P u H O © © OA 0 *s n 4* P p o © o © • H © a H © © o 01 w co ID 10 to 4* Pi to © 14 © •H t>4 1 ^ Pi O © © H *4 «d P Pi O © © © © JM CO O © «d © K U O <d f4 14 © •ri © E4 O © <d H © M p j=t 60 •H © 60 © P 60 P © © © Pi A £4 © © « H » 04 14 O P © • • H •d a © • © p ip ,p O © O H N r-t © © © Vl *4 60 O P P © - H © p © © a .0 » n M © © © © o © Pi P U P © O O •H O o -d to P © © o © -ri A S I 4 » © O a p <N m o O © O & W © P • 5 o a p o * © {Ej o> ^ CM © H cn P © H - H © © (4 ^3 © © Pi - 49 -Course, A p p r o p r i a t e c e r t i f i c a t e s were granted upon the s u c c e s s f u l completion of each. The s u b j e c t s of study i n each course are o u t l i n e d on P l a t e I. By f a r the g r e a t e s t number of students took the M a t r i c u l a t i o n course; the number of High Schools o f f e r i n g the o t h e r courses was r e l a t i v e l y q u i t e s m a l l . I t i s to be noted t h a t o p t i o n s were, f o r the most p a r t , between whole courses or c u r r i c u l a . Moreover, but f o u r groups of p u p i l s were reco g n i z e d - the M a t r i c u l a t i o n , T e c h n i c a l , Commercial and Home Economics s t u d e n t s . The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s programme was wide-( spread. A c c o r d i n g to the Putman-Weir Sehool Survey of 1924-25 "When we come to examine the secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, we t h i n k we understand why they are not wholly p o p u l a r . The t r u t h i s they have a narrow, .... r i g i d c u r r i c u l u m - not n e c e s s a r i l y r i g i d i n i n t e n t or theory, but i n i t s p r a c t i c a l outcome, Outside of a few l a r g e centres these s c h o o l s are meeting the genuine or f a n c i e d needs of at most only two c l a s s e s of students - those who expect to enter a U n i v e r s i t y and those who wish to t e a c h . In the n a t u r a l order of t h i n g s these c l a s s e s put t o g e t h e r form an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l number o f p u p i l s i n h i g h schools, 1* The change from the three-year to the f o u r year programme was made i n September, 1929, the f i r s t c l a s s on the f o u r year p l a n e n t e r i n g Grade 9 at that time. I t had been f e l t f o r y e ars t h a t a reform of the h i g h s c h o o l was needed; the (1) op. c i t . P. 112. - 50 -change when i t came, was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the Putman-Weir Survey, because the Survey had made a d e f i n i t e recommendation to t h a t e f f e c t , and a l s o because the new J u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l had been i n t r o d u c e d i n many communities as a r e s u l t of the Survey, and t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n should be f o l l o w e d by a three-year S e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . In the f a l l of 1929, then, we have a new f o u r - y e a r programme f o r the B r i t i s h Golumbia High S c h o o l . P r o v i s i o n was made at f i r s t f o r Grade 9 o n l y . L a t e r a programme f o r the whole s c h o o l was announced. The ge n e r a l o u t l i n e of t h i s programme i s giv e n i n Appendix "D", as i t appears i n the (1) o f f i c i a l Programme of S t u d i e s . A r e f e r e n c e to t h i s Appendix w i l l show that i n a d d i t i o n to the f a c t that an e x t r a year i s added, c e r t a i n o t h e r fundamental ehanges are made: 1, Options or E l e c t i v e s are now opt i o n s among s u b j e c t s , not among whole courses o r c u r r i c u l a . 2. The use of c r e d i t s i s i n t r o d u c e d . 5. P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r the f i r s t time f o r a "General" course f o r the " l e a v i n g " student l e a d i n g to High School "Graduation" but not m a t r i c u l a t i o n . 4. H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n are made compulsory f o r a l l h i g h s c h o o l students i n the P r o v i n c e . 5. P r o v i s i o n i s now made f o r f r e e e l e c t i v e s where the s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s p e r m i t . (1) "New Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the High and Tech-n i c a l Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia," Pp. 7 - 10, Department of Edu c a t i o n , Y i c t o r i a , B. C., 1930. 51 The Programme i n G e n e r a l . T h i s study i s concerned with the f o u r - y e a r course, o n l y i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to the s m a l l high s c h o o l . Yet some g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the programme must be i n t e r j e c t e d at t h i s p o i n t . Whether or not the new Programme i s a step forward depends on what i t has s e t out to accomplish and to what extent i t has succeeded. Quoting the Foreword to the Programme -wThe High Sch o o l Programme of S t u d i e s now p u b l i s h e d r e p r e s e n t s a f u r t h e r step i n the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c h o o l system of the P r o v i n c e i n c o n f o r m i t y with the recommendations of the B r i t i s h Columbia S c h o o l Survey Commission, and i n l i n e with the methods f o l l o w e d i n the most e f f i c i e n t e d u c a t i o n a l systems i n Europe and F o r t h America......* ( l ) and a g a i n : wWhen the advantages and b e n e f i t s of the new course are f u l l y r e a l i z e d there w i l l be g e n e r a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n t h a t the short t h r e e - y e a r High S c h o o l course, which h.as been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o n g hours o f Home study and f o r harmful and unpedagogic methods of cram and d r i l l , has given p l a c e to a f o u r - y e a r course which w i l l encourage sounder methods of t e a c h i n g and g r e a t e r permanence of l e a r n i n g . " ( 2 ) A c c o r d i n g to the Report of the Putman-Weir School (3) Survey Commission mentioned above, "The proposed p l a n f o r a middle s c h o o l c o v e r i n g the work up to the end of grade nine, and f o r a three-year high s c h o o l course c o v e r i n g grades ten, e l e v e n , and twelve, i s r e a l l y adding a f u l l year to the present h i g h s c h o o l course. I t seems to us t h a t t h i s change i s Imperative. Everywhere throughout the P r o v i n c e we are t o l d t h a t the p r e s e n t high s c h o o l course i s too heavy; that the work i s not thoroughly (1) op. c i t . P. 5. (2) op. e i t , P. 5. (3) op. c i t . P. 115. - 52 -done; that the burden of homework on the student i s o p p r e s s i v e and that the young people are e n t e r i n g the normal schools and the U n i v e r s i t y immature and i l l - p r e p a r e d . The e x t r a h i g h s c h o o l year should meet a l l these o b j e c t i o n s and more than compensate f o r any a d d i t i o n a l expense," The same s e c t i o n of the Survey Report dea l s with a recommended new High S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . . From these e x p r e s s i o n s of o p i n i o n from the a u t h o r i t i e s , one i s j u s t i f i e d i n assuming t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o i o f new Programme had, or ought to have had, as o b j e c t i v e s : 1, The f i n a l step i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 6-3-5 p l a n , 2, The broadening of the scope of the c u r r i c u l u m by the i n t r o d u c t i o n (a) of new courses, and (b) of great freedom of e l e c t i o n . 3, The l e s s e n i n g of the s t r a i n of the thr e e - y e a r M a t r i c u l a t i o n course - the "lon g hours of home study" and the "unpedagogic methods of cram and d r i l l " . The F i r s t O b j e c t i v e . The f i r s t of these o b j e c t i v e s i s , of course, f u l l y a c h i e v e d i n the sense t h a t any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i s h i n g to inaugurate the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l - the 6-5-3- p l a n - w i l l f i n d a programme o f s t u d i e s s u i t e d to t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . As the new Programme of S t u d i e s s t a t e s : "The J u n i o r High School i s spreading slowly, though s t e a d i l y , i t s growth b e i n g a f f e c t e d by f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n . " ( l ) Th i s growth has perhaps been somewhat slower than was a n t i c i p a t e d . P r o b a b l y the o f f i c i a l s of the Department (1) op. e l t . P. 5. might have wie l d e d g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e i n a e e e l e r a t i n g the spread o f the J u n i o r High S c h o o l i n the P r o v i n c e . For example, only-one s u p e r i o r s c h o o l where a middle s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s being attempted has come to the n o t i e e of the w r i t e r . A d m i t t e d l y , however, the a d a p t a t i o n of the J u n i o r High Sch o o l p l a n to s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s i s no easy matter. Be t h a t as i t may, the g e n e r a l p l a n of the new Programme i s s u i t e d to the growth of the middle s c h o o l , fhe Broadening of the C u r r i c u l u m . With r e g a r d to the broadening of the course, there i s no doubt t h a t the new programme i s a notable success, fhose who framed i t are to be eommended f o r an able and e n l i g h t e n e d p i e c e of work as regards the General Course. fhe programme i s much more e l a s t i e than t h a t of any s c h o o l which usee i t , and a p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l i s not hampered to any c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t by the p r o v i n c i a l h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . I t cannot be too s t r o n g l y emphasized, however, t h a t t h i s broadening of the c o n c e p t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l programme does not apply to any a p p r e c i a b l e degree to the r e a l l y s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s p o i n t i s somewhat f u l l y (1) developed elsewhere. C e r t a i n t h i n g s may be s a i d here, however, with a f a i r degree of assurance. fhe new course has not enabled the high s c h o o l f o u r or fewer d i v i s i o n s to broaden i t s c u r r i c u l u m , beeause of i t s a l r e a d y overburdened s t a f f , C l ) See Chap. 5. P. 63-68. - 54 -because the s t a f f , more o f t e n than not, i s u n t r a i n e d to teach any s u b j e e t which would broaden the s c h o o l o f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y , and because, a l s o , o f l i m i t a t i o n s i n the s c h o o l p l a n t * In s m a l l schools, the p r o v i s i o n f o r Free E l e e t i v e s , and the requirement of 120 c r e d i t s from each p u p i l , r e s u l t i n the student being g i v e n e x t r a s u b j e c t s - a seeond language, or a seeond or t h i r d s c i e n c e - which he does not * e l e c t * i n any t r u e sense of the word* The s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l as at present c o n s t i t u t e d , governed by the p r e s e n t programme, cannot broaden i t s e u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g . T h i s broadening, h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e as i t i s , must wait t i l l p r o v i s i o n f o r i t i s made d e l i b e r a t e l y and c a r e f u l l y i n the l i g h t of a c a r e f u l study o f the problem, and under the d i r e c t i o n of a p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t . The E a s i n g of the S t r a i n . I t was c o n s i d e r e d when the present programme was i n t r o d u c e d that a g e n e r a l r e l a x i n g o f the s t r a i n of the former m a t r i c u l a t i o n g r i n d would f o l l o w . Many i n the p r o f e s s i o n have come to have s e r i o u s doubts t h a t t h i s w i l l be t r u e . I f the course i s examined c a r e f u l l y i t w i l l be found t h a t the impression, t h a t more s c h o o l time i s allowed f o r a given q u a n t i t y of work, Is s c a r c e l y c o r r e c t ; i n f a c t , the a c t u a l s c h o o l time has been l e s s e n e d . To look at t h i s more c a r e f u l l y , one may a l l o t to a given s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s , the number of c r e d i t s i t would have earned under the former system. - 5 5 -A t y p i c a l M a t r i c u l a t i o n eours© under the former t h r e e - y e a r arrangement f o l l o w s : Subjeet Fo, h r s . allowed i n New Programme E n g l i s h 23 S. S. 14 Math. 23 A r t i n Grade 9 3 Chemistry 10 P h y s i c s 10 General Science 3 French 16 102 I f the "language o p t i o n " was chosen, L a t i n would be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r General Science and e i t h e r Chemistry or P h y s i c s , and the t o t a l number of c r e d i t s now allowed would be 105. Now, i n the t h r e e - y e a r programme each student devoted 35 p e r i o d s a week f o r three years, a l t o g e t h e r 105 week-periods, to t h i s group of s t u d i e s . Consequently, the a c t u a l amount of time spent i n s c h o o l on the s u b j e c t s i s not at a l l i n c r e a s e d by reason of the a d d i t i o n of a year to cover the work. The d i s p o s i t i o n o f the 140 week-periods i s as f o l l o w s : S u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d by former course, e x c l u d i n g A r t 99-102 H e a l t h and P h y s i e a l E d u c a t i o n 9 General S c i e n c e 3 Free E l e e t i v e s 6- 12 Study 20 TOTAL 140 T h i s , of course, i s f o r the J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s u b j e c t s . N a t u r a l l y , the s p r e a d i n g of the course over f o u r years, and the p r o v i s i o n of study p e r i o d s , does tend to reduce • 5© -the d a i l y amount of homework necessary. However, as the above a n a l y s i s has shown, the a c t u a l amount of s c h o o l time devoted to i n s t r u c t i o n i n J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s u b j e c t s has been less e n e d r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d ; we should not be s u r p r i s e d , then, i f the s t r a i n , the cramming and the s l a v i s h d r i l l f o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n examinations are not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the f o u r - y e a r c o u r s e . E f f e c t on E l i m i n a t i o n and R e t a r d a t i o n . I t would a l s o be of i n t e r e s t to know what has been the e f f e c t of t h i s r a d i c a l change i n our system on p u p i l e l i m i n a t i o n and r e t a r d a t i o n . f o o b t a i n some data r e g a r d i n g what v a r i o u s p r i n c i p a l s are d i s c o v e r i n g , a q u e s t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d throughout the (1) p r o v i n c e . As a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out above, not by any means every s c h o o l i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the data thus c o l l e c t e d ; never-t h e l e s s i t i s probable that a f a i r sampling of the s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e was o b t a i n e d . fhe answers to the q u e s t i o n on e l i m i n a t i o n are t a b u l a t e d i n f a b l e XIT. Where no answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n was r e c e i v e d , i t was because the new programme had been In e f f e c t i n the s c h o o l concerned f o r so short a time that the p r i n c i p a l d i d not eare to hazard an o p i n i o n . Although the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools r e p r e s e n t e d are f a r from unanimous i t i s n o t i c e d t h a t 48 of the 57 answers i n d i c a t e t h a t e l i m i n a t i o n w i l l e i t h e r not be a f f e c t e d or w i l l be reduced s l i g h t l y . With regard to the e f f e c t of the new course on the (1) See Chap. 1. P. 3. - 5? M a •1 00 rH (0 CO o w +» H to oa fr» O frl f l O <H P to o io so i-t H t-i O P. Jz; o © •P w © © gj Q3 p Pt Pi o o H t-i o & O •H P •P © St •H © to H © M © oi H 10 H © •H P «4 H P -P o O © to , o> <o <D <** H 02 00 O S-l Pt S2» N o o P u o © •H © •P >> H © 03 03 t Hi 3 02 © «d s © *•» CO « O •P o fl 0) O Vt * 4 © 4» © © o oi to ^ P © © H O o A H • • o O 03 to ra O A • • u «4 © o o © t-i PI H © © Pi © 3 i4 CO CO 19 H © 00 o IP -P r-l to w O fr*. Pi O •H Pi to e~ <# •H HI O p , te o © © © © • © © u O o o O © p o •p O Pt © o H © P © © © <i-i © o © O o o O Pi u o © P P s • P t & N -p P o o © <# IO i-i <-! © O <H © PI S3 o o P O u * r t © •P © H © lO CO to 50 >> H p H 03 1 © a © CO « o •P p © o © • © lO to o> O © 0 03 P -d o © O P5 ra H O O © A H * • a o CO CO CO CO O * • Pi < o w O en 03 *H o © H Pi Ml H © Pi © © CO CO number of students who repeat a year or more, our p r i n c i p a l s have e s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n . T h e i r answers to the question concerned are shown i n Table XV, Here, a l s o , a number o f p r i n c i p a l s are not as yet prepared to express an o p i n i o n . N e g l e c t i n g these, and con-s i d e r i n g o n l y the 61 p r i n c i p a l s who d i d answer, the median r e p l y i s i n "a s m a l l r e d u c t i o n " . The q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to the views of the p r i n c i p a l s concerned to the new system of c r e d i t s d i d not allow p r e c i s e t a b u l a t i o n . Y e t , on the whole, the o p i n i o n i n f a v o r of t h i s p a r t of the new Programme was overwhelming. They are shown In Table XVI. I t i s to be noted, a l s o , t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y among the s m a l l e r sehools, while endorsing the p r i n c i p l e of the use of c r e d i t s , f e l t t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t to put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n s m a l l s c h o o l s ; or that the range of s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d by 120 c r e d i t s c o u l d not be o f f e r e d i n s m a l l s c h o o l s . General A p p r a i s a l of the New Course, The p r i n c i p a l s were a l s o asked whether or not they were i n f a v o r of a r e t u r n to the former Programme. T h e i r answers are shown i n Table XVII. The f a c t t h a t none of the l a r g e high s c h o o l s f a v o r s a r e v e r s i o n to the t h r e e - y e a r programme, and the marked laek of unanimity i n the s m a l l high schools may be taken as evidence t h a t the new Programme i s w e l l s u i t e d to the 59 w H e- CO o m •P H to w O •p Pi • H o • P • H © Pi Pt •rl O H CO o P, o o o © S3 •p H © O o Pi •p PV o» Hi Pi H ra © p © o •H * H O •P © © H ca © ** o tO CO <o «S a PI H <M H m H Pi P I P< • H O Pi • H u H Hi • O O w O O H 44 A 0 a o O 60 CO 44 o Hj 44 A co CO o 60 60 •4 o •rl t-i Pi 44 w m O ^ o -rl o co © H Pi H © PI a> Pi as P H CO 60 H H pq w Pi 0 o o Pi | ra to H Si CO o m <D -p t-i to w 44 o 4» O •P a P o Pi Ti P p O HI to «* •P © O Pi 55 Q © o •p © P e> Pi -p o o p lO CO CO H © Pi-P -P H J H P» © o O 03 p o H •p © p Pi © •P CM CO to I,. | P H © J2i Pi P © Pi © # i>> 1 o <M to o Pi o o Pi *» > o o lO © > P © H H © Pi © 4-i p Pi P +> p <H Pi © o m Hi <K O w i-i as P H t-i •H O o ra © O O r-t p 44 44 O ft © © O Pi CO co 44 Pk O H I 44 44 co CO o 6 0 6 0 H ) o O t-i •H Pi «i 44 w w O © o •H o Pi CO © H Pi EH a> © x> Pi © Pi a © a P CO CO - 60 -o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l , but i s not by any means as w e l l adapted to the needs of the s m a l l s c h o o l s . C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations. The present programme of s t u d i e s was p r i m a r i l y con-c e i v e d f o r the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l , and i s , on the whole, w e l l adapted to i t s needs. I t i s e l a s t i c , and makes ample p r o v i s i o n so that the l a r g e s c h o o l , through the General Course taken by the l e a v i n g student, can adapt i t s e l f to the needs of many groups of s t u d e n t s . The problem of these schools i s t h a t of c o n v i n c i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , parents and students, t h a t t h i s a d a p t a t i o n i s necessary, and can be done to advantage. The case of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . G e n e r a l l y speaking these s c h o o l s can o f f e r o n l y a M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Formal Entrance Course. T r e e e l e c t i v e s w have no meaning whatsoever i n these schools} hence, i n most cases, i f a student i s to g a i n 120 c r e d i t s , he must take c e r t a i n courses p r e s c r i b e d by the s c h o o l to " f i l l out the course". The e x t r a course, (beyond J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) i s taken, not to f i l l a p u p i l need, but to comply with a Departmental r e g u l a t i o n . P r i n c i p a l s who d i s r e g a r d the above r e g u l a t i o n are begging the q u e s t i o n . In view of the f a c t t h at the new course does not allow any more t e a c h i n g time i n s c h o o l than before (1) f o r the J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Formal Entrance work, and i n view of the f a c t t h a t a great number of our schools cannot o f f e r any courses whatever from which s i g n i f i c a n t f r e e (1) See P. 54-56. - 61 -elective® can be chosen, and i n view of the n e c e s s i t y i n s m a l l schools of r e s t r i c t i n g the s c h o o l o f f e r i n g to J u n i o r (1) M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Normal Ent r a n c e , i t i s the c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h a t the present f r e e e l e c t i v e s ought not to be r e q u i r e d of the M a t r i c u l a t i o n or Normal Entrance student, and t h a t the a l l o t m e n t of c r e d i t s should be r e a d j u s t e d so t h a t the m a t r i c u l a t i o n s u b j e c t s now p r e s c r i b e d would earn 120 c r e d i t s and a High Sch o o l Graduation Diploma* A f t e r a l l , no one can r e a s o n a b l y say t h a t the course l e a d i n g to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e i s an easy one or one t h a t does not j u s t i f y f o u r years of work. An e x t r a 5-10 c r e d i t s i s p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i e d i n the mathematics course alone, and other s u b j e c t s have s i m i l a r c l a i m s . I t i s to be noted, i n a d d i t i o n , that the a l l o t m e n t of more time to the s u b j e c t s d e s e r v i n g i t could r e a s o n a b l y be expected f u r t h e r to reduce the number of " r e p e a t e r s " . From the l i m i t e d data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study, i t would appear that the e f f e c t of the new programme on the number of students who f a i l has not been very marked. With the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n noted here there i s l i t t l e t h a t can be o b j e c t e d to i n the present o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t w i l l undoubtedly need frequent r e v i s i o n ; no c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d long remain unchanged i n a r a p i d l y growing P r o v i n c e . The general scheme of the course i s , however, sound, and i t should form as (1) See Chap. 5. • 62 -s u i t a b l e a v e h i c l e as any f o r the changes which must come i n our s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s , i f they are e f f i c i e n t l y to serve the community which supports them. While the programmes of s t u d i e s f o r secondary schools on t h i s c o n t i n e n t have been drawn up i n most cases f o r the l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n , the d e f e c t s i n the s m a l l high s c h o o l are not to be a t t r i b u t e d to these c u r r i c u l a only; and these d e f e c t s cannot be removed by mere e u r r i c u l a r r e v i s i o n , A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m i s p r o b a b l y d e s i r a b l e , at l e a s t i n so f a r as i t a p p l i e s to s m a l l e r high s c h o o l s ; however, other more fundamental changes i n the s c h o o l s themselves must (1) r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . {1} See Chap, 6, 7 63 CHAPTER 5 THE APPLICATION OF THE PRESENT CURRICULUM TO THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL. In a study of the s m a l l s c h o o l , l o o k i n g to i t s p o s s i b l e betterment, suggestions made are o f two c l a s s e s ; those to p r i n c i p a l s and other a d m i n i s t r a t o r s as to how best t h e i r s c h o o l can be or g a n i z e d under present c o n d i t i o n s ; and those to the a u t h o r i t i e s who d i r e c t the system, as to d e s i r a b l e changes i n the system i t s e l f f o r the betterment of s m a l l e r s c h o o l s . The l a t t e r suggestions are perhaps more important as they would, i f f o l l o w e d , l e a d to much more r e a l p r o g r e s s . The c o n c l u s i o n s of the author as to how the s c h o o l system can be r e a d j u s t e d to take more cognizance of the needs of the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l are found s t a t e d g e n e r a l l y i n Chapters 6, 7, and 8. I t i s the aim of t h i s chapter to present c e r t a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r the guidance of s m a l l s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s when they are d e c i d i n g upon the e u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s of t h e i r s c h o o l s . Many of these ideas are by no means o r i g i n a l ; many of them, as a matter of f a e t , are used by p r i n c i p a l s everywhere. The f o l l o w i n g suggestions, however, may prove h e l p f u l to a number of f e l l o w t e a c h e r s . The C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Teaching Load. "In the very s m a l l High S c h o o l . . . t h e r e i s a - 64 -tendency towards o v e r l o a d i n g the teacher. While the ambition towards broader s e r v i c e i s commendable, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r must not y i e l d to the temptation to s a c r i f i c e q u a l i t y of a c h i e v e -ment or h e a l t h of t e a c h e r s . " ( l ) I t takes no v e r y s e a r c h i n g a n a l y s i s to j u s t i f y the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the t e a c h i n g l o a d i n most s m a l l h i g h schools (and some l a r g e ones) i s much too heavy. Assuming a seven-period day, a t e a c h i n g l o a d of 35 p e r i o d s per week would e x a c t l y f i l l a t e a e h e r f s schedule, l e a v i n g no f r e e p e r i o d s and no e x t r a p e r i o d s . I f a teacher has 36 p e r i o d s to teach, he has then one p e r i o d i n which he teaches two c l a s s e s at one time, i . e . he has one "double c l a s s " ; he has i n f a c t one d o u b l e - c l a s s f o r each p e r i o d over 35 i n h i s t e a c h i n g l o a d . These d o u b l e - c l a s s e s do not occur i n l a r g e high s c h o o l s , but are p a r t of the r e g u l a r schedule of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l . Indeed, i n one-room high schools " t r i p l e - c l a s s e s " are not uncommon. These d o u b l e - c l a s s e s are o b v i o u s l y u n d e r s i r a b l e . Though the number of students e n r o l l e d i s very s m a l l , the l e s s o n s must be prepared as i f the c l a s s were a l a r g e one, and the same circumstances which make the d o u b l e - c l a s s e s necessary, f o r c e upon the t e a c h e r s a l a r g e number of d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , i n many of which he has, of n e c e s s i t y , scant t r a i n i n g . Con-sequently, much time must be spent i n p r e p a r a t i o n , i f the work i s to be done c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y . T h i s , and the d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n (1) F o s t e r H.H. , "High School A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . P. 101. The Century Co., New York, 1928. - 65 -and s h o r t time a v a i l a b l e m i l i t a t e s d e c i d e d l y a g a i n s t the e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . In f i x i n g the programme of s m a l l high s c h o o l s , t h e r e f o r e , a l l reasonable d e v i c e s must be adopted f o r r e d u c i n g the t e a c h i n g l o a d to a minimum. Th i s means that the number of s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d must be c o n f i n e d to the co n s t a n t s i n very s m a l l s c h o o l s and must be very l i m i t e d i n those s l i g h t l y l a r g e r . This i m p l i e s , a l s o , that no courses which are not p r e s c r i b e d f o r J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a -t i o n or Normal Entrance can be Included i n a s m a l l high s c h o o l ' s o f f e r i n g . To be more e x p l i c i t , i f a high s c h o o l i s to o f f e r a course l e a d i n g to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , i t may reasonably choose the f o l l o w i n g . P e r i o d s allowed per week i n each grade. ( l ) Subjeet 9 10 11 12 T o t a l E n g l i s h 6 6 6 5 25 H e a l t h & P. E. 3 2 2 2 9 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 5 3 3 3 14 Mathematics 6 6 6 5 23 French 4 4 4 4 16 General Science 3 3 Chemistry 5 5 10 gP-h^ysics 5 5 10 TOTALS 2? 26 31 24 108 ( l ) As In the o f f i c i a l Programme. See P l a t e I. - 66 -T h i s i s t h e minimum e o u r s e l e a d i n g t o J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t programme; a n d , as 120 c r e d i t s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d , i t does n o t -si n a H i g h S e h o o l G r a d u a t i o n d i p l o m a . I f L a t i n were o f f e r e d i n p l a c e o f P h y s i c s , t h e number o f p e r i o d s p r e s c r i b e d w o u l d be 114. I f a c o u r s e l e a d -i n g t o H o r m a l E n t r a n c e were r e q u i r e d , A r t I w o u l d have t o be added t o G r a d e 9, G e o g r a p h y g i v e n i n p l a c e o f C h e m i s t r y o r P h y s i c s ; a n d S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c and Grammar p r o v i d e d f o r . C o n s i d e r i n g , f o r t h e s a k e o f s i m p l i c i t y , o n l y t h e c o u r s e o u t l i n e d , one s e e s t h a t 108 c r e d i t s o r p e r i o d s p e r week must be o f f e r e d . H e n c e , s i n c e t h e r e a r e 35 p e r i o d s i n t h e t e a c h e r - w e e k , i n a one-room s c h o o l , t h e s i n g l e t e a c h e r must d u r i n g e a c h o r d i n a r y p e r i o d t e a c h a t l e a s t t h r e e c l a s s e s . I n a two-room s c h o o l o f f e r i n g t h e a b o v e c o u r s e e a c h t e a c h e r w o u l d h a v e a l o a d o f a b o u t 54 p e r i o d s p e r week; h e n c e , 19 p e r i o d s , a b o u t h a l f , m ust be d o u b l e - p e r i o d s . I n t h e c a s e o f a 3 - t e a c h e r s c h o o l , e a c h t e a c h e r w o u l d have 36 p e r i o d s p e r week, o n l y one d o u b l e - p e r i o d b e i n g n e c e s s a r y . Of c o u r s e , t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d may be l e s s e n e d some-what by a j u d i c i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n c l a s s e s s u c h as P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and a l s o somewhat - t h o u g h n o t a g r e a t d e a l , ( 1 ) a t p r e s e n t - b y a p o l i c y o f a l t e r n a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s . The s a v i n g o f t e a c h e r - l o a d a t p r e s e n t p o s s i b l e i s n o t v e r y l a r g e , ( 1 ) See Chap. 6, P p . 82-89. and A p p e n d i x "B", P p . 155-166. - 6? -and an i r r e d u c i b l e minimum of about 95 p e r i o d s i s soon reached. I t w i l l be seen from the above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the problem o f the t e a c h i n g l o a d i n a s m a l l s c h o o l i s a very p e r p l e x i n g one. So onerous i s the t e a c h i n g burden that s m a l l schools should adopt any means i n i t s power to reduce i t . T h i s may be done i n a number of ways. F i r s t , i n the one and two teacher sehools, no op t i o n s whatever should be o f f e r e d . The number o f s u b j e c t s should be redueed to the minimum which w i l l l e a d to J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n . I f i t i s necessary to p r o v i d e f o r Normal Entrance students, the Geography necessary f o r that course should be taken as one of the s c i e n c e s f o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n . Second, i n sc h o o l s o f three or more te a c h e r s , the opt i o n s o f f e r e d should be l i m i t e d a c c o r d i n g to the s t a f f a v a i l a b l e . The t e a c h i n g l o a d should not exceed a maximum of 40 p e r i o d per week per teacher, i . e . the maximum number of dou b l e - p e r i o d s should not exceed 5 per t e a c h e r . T h i s would mean t h a t 14-15$ of the t o t a l t e a c h i n g p e r i o d s would be double p e r i o d s . In a t h r e e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l , the t o t a l courses o f f e r e d should not, under t h i s p r o v i s i o n , r e q u i r e more than 1£0 t e a c h i n g p e r i o d s per week. The p r i n c i p l e s governing the o f f e r i n g of o p t i o n s are (1) d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n the ch a p t e r . T h i r d , f u l l advantage should be taken of a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s . This i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 6 • C e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e ( l ) See below Pp. 68-76. • 68 -under tile p r e s e n t arrangement of c o u r s e s . S c i e n c e s such as Chemistry and P h y s i c s can be a l t e r n a t e d very r e a d i l y i n s m a l l s c h o o l s where s i z e of c l a s s e s p e r m i t s . Those courses such as S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c and S p e c i a l Grammar, which are given only f o r one year, allow a l t e r n a t i o n . Where a l t e r n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e f u l l advantage of i t should be taken. When these procedures f o r the r e d u c t i o n of the t e a c h i n g l o a d have been adopted, no f u r t h e r steps towards the betterment of the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n can be taken under e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . That the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e are, i n f a c t , o f f e r i n g a r e s t r i c t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1) Table XVIII and F i g u r e 6 . I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the Constant S u b j e c t s , and L a t i n , French, Chemistry and P h y s i c s are o f f e r e d by p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s c h o o l s . With regard to the important o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s - Home Economics, I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , and Commercial S u b j e c t s - the case i s d i f f e r e n t , few Small High Schools and no S u p e r i o r Schools I n c l u d i n g these s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . Only three s c h o o l s i n the P r o v i n c e o f f e r T e c h n i c a l work, two of them being l a r g e T e c h n i c a l High Schools, and the other a s m a l l High Sc h o o l i n a Company Town, The O f f e r i n g of Options. B e c i d i n g upon the programme means, e s s e n t i a l l y , the determining of what o p t i o n s w i l l be o f f e r e d . C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s are p r e s c r i b e d by the Department of I d u c a t i o n j thus, by law, ( l ) T h i s data was obtained from the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . -40 so <Z0N3TflNTS 3H.S FRENCH CHS S 8.8 CHS e.H.s S3 CHS an .a e.s G t O G B f l P H y ^ " 3 Inn f\m"5\ flOBI <CULTU B£ <ZOMM. 3UBJ.' M U 5 I C B / O L O G - y s s.a Z.H.S SMS. 3.3 3 Ms 3.8 cms 3 Ha as CHS gjf-a s.s CMS SMS s.s SH.S S.S CHS S.H.3 ss 9-H.3 o o r> to - J 3 0) $ O 70 p n o o p - 69 • H H M 64 © r C- N e > O s C 0 C D « O t > l O C 0 O s i O O » C 0 C 0 r-t • • • • • • • • • • • » • • » O O ^ f f i o o ^ w c o t D o ^ n t O H n H i n i f l o O t O D O O t O l O l O l O M O N I O H O l r l .0 t-t 1-4 H © 03 60 • H 60 w * O t> • H © 13 H r l r l r l r l r l r l r t H H H © u 44 © 44 o • © © r-t © O n n o H •ri A O CO CO OS CD w IS tO IO CO OS IO LO CO o o • • • • • • • • • • w O O t O O C O t N O t O H l O C O H H W C O H H O M O O 0 0 C 0 t N t f i i n « O O H H W H t-t H 44 CO HI Hi o o • H « , CO A 60 © -r4 o © Hi • C O t O t 0 0 0 3 0 s < * t > « 0 £ > C D « s J < H t O < < i | * ^ 0 © O CO u u r-t is; to W W W I f l M H W M o © i-4 04 © ta a H tJ CO o 0 o 0) A o f4 CO © © C» «0 CO lO IO M H • • » • • • • • 0 S O o - * C O o s t O O H i - I H O O O O O O O i O O -ri o O S t O C O O - l O t O t O W US A r-t o © CO © OS *4 44 H O 44 T4 • o U O OS C 0 t 0 t > - * H « > « O - * O O O O O O C 3 H O © HI H H H «-« H <a Pi P © W © T-S 0 ,© O 0 0 H | •ri —- o to H 0 -P * «rt © © H © CO N © T4 © O O • • a 44 f4 • H 0 •rl Sss • © O O <0 4* <— r»q m © O !S| © ra P. •d CO © S3 +» ra M E4 © r-t © * H — o -P pel O (4 60 «. © ,0 • -p © © •H 0 ,0 a 4» © © U © i-» © r-t 0 •H W f4 © o 0 © © 4 * P T l © « ©• T4 © 0 4 Q O 0 f4 © © t-t t» © 4» 0 -r4 <4 CO 0 O to *4 44 t*)A * • H © a © to 44 0 Cu A © U U O H f4 H * © O 43 CO !>» « a J C 5 t » 0 © 0 © H © -P S4 A O T4 P *H © © 0 © • « m © H 4 3 © M H p 4 © M H © © <H >> © H 0 © © © ,0 © O © © © r S j 4 » 0 m < H P 60 r>> +» O O * H w ri O 0 - H - H T4 T4 fn © © © 0 © © O 0 » O T4 rrl © 0 - H a © © © t i D © 0 T 4 a ^ . H a H © 0 A 0 t J 0 © 4> © >% 43 » o o B ' d r i g e « < l 0 4 ) O © © 43 0 © * 4 © . 4 , 0 f e P ( P ( © O 0 « ) O © 0 r 4 T 4 O 1 O n H CO © N » 4 O A i < 4 t 0 C 0 C 5 f E ) M - = < ! O ^ a O « « - 70 -E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n are compulsory s u b j e c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia High S c h o o l s . C e r t a i n o t h e r s u b j e c t s must be taken by students i n t e n d i n g to proceed to the U n i v e r s i t y ; and, s i n c e , as we have seen, the U n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n , must, of n e c e s s i t y , remain the c h i e f work of the very s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l , the course of s t u d i e s i s l a r g e l y predetermined f o r these i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, i t i s p o s s i b l e i n many schools to allow a choice between c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . In d e t e r m i n i n g what s u b j e c t s these s h a l l be, the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should be born i n minds 1. Every o p t i o n a l s u b j e e t added to the programme means an i n c r e a s e i n the t e a c h i n g burden o f the s c h o o l , and, i f e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d , adds to the hours of t e a c h i n g and number of s u b j e c t s of each t e a c h e r . 2. Every o p t i o n o f f e r e d means, i n g e n e r a l , a t i m e - t a b l e problem to be s o l v e d . 3. To o f f e r an o p t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean to i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y of the s c h o o l . I f the p r i c e of o p t i o n s i s an overburdened s t a f f and many doubl e - p e r i o d s , i t i s too expensive. Much b e t t e r to have a few s u b j e c t s p r o p e r l y taught, than many courses improperly taught because of l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n and d i v i d e d a t t e n t i o n . 4. Many opt i o n s are not " s i g n i f i c a n t " c h o i c e s . An o p t i o n between P h y s i c s and Chemistry, i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t one, f o r the two s u b j e c t s have much the same s o r t of o b j e c t i v e s , and are - 71 -s u i t e d t o much t h e same c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s ; g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e n e e d s o f t h i s c l a s s o f s t u d e n t s w i l l be met a s w e l l , o r n e a r l y a s w e l l , b y one s u b j e c t as t h e o t h e r . An o p t i o n b e t w e e n L a t i n and P h y s i c s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s a s i g n i f i c a n t o n e , f o r t h e i r a i m s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o c a t e r t o two w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t t y p e s o f p i p i l s . f h e f i r s t a n d t h i r d p r i n c i p l e s , when a p p l i e d t o a o n e - r o o m o r two-room h i g h s c h o o l , mean I n e f f e c t t h a t no o p t i o n s w h a t e v e r s h a l l be o f f e r e d , f o r t h e s t a f f i n a s c h o o l o f t h i s s i z e i s a l r e a d y o v e r b u r d e n e d by many t e a c h i n g p e r i o d s i n many d i f f e r e n t . s u b j e c t s . A t e a c h e r i n a two-room H i g h S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s a t l e a s t 50 e l a s s e s a week, i . e . o f h i s 35 p e r i o d s , a l m o s t h a l f a r e d o u b l e - c l a s s e s , w h e r e two c l a s s e s a r e t a u g h t i n t h e same room and p e r i o d . F o r t h e s c h o o l t o i n c r e a s e t h i s l o a d by o f f e r i n g o p t i o n s i s u n d e f e n s i b l e . The same p r i n c i p l e s l i m i t t h e o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n t h r e e o r f o u r - r o o m s c h o o l s t o a v e r y s m a l l number. To see how t h e o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s may be a p p l i e d , we may c h o o s e a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m . J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e q u i r e s t h a t a c a n d i d a t e s h a l l o b t a i n s t a n d i n g i n two l a n g u a g e s and one s c i e n c e o r two s c i e n c e s and one l a n g u a g e , i n a d d i t i o n t o c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t c o u r s e s . I f a s c h o o l i s s t a f f e d and e q u i p p e d t o o f f e r L a t i n , F r e n c h , C h e m i s t r y and P h y s i c s , i t s s t u d e n t s w i l l m e et t h e M a t r i c u l a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s by ( a ) c h o o s i n g any t h r e e o f t h e s e ; o r - ( b ) b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o t a k e one g i v e n - 72 -L a n g u a g e and one g i v e n s c i e n c e , and b e i n g a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e b e t w e e n t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e and t h e s e c o n d s c i e n c e . To d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a r r a n g e m e n t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d f o l l o w , l e t u s s e e t h e t i m e t a b l e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r i s e . I f , e a c h s t u d e n t may s e l e c t a n y o f t h e f o u r c o u r s e s , f o u r c o n f l i c t -i n g g r o u p s w o u l d r e s u l t : I . e . t h o s e t a k i n g ( l ) L a t i n , F r e n c h and C h e m i s t r y , (2 ) L a t i n , F r e n c h and P h y s i c s , ( 3 ) L a t i n , P h y s i c s and C h e m i s t r y , (4 ) F r e n c h , P h y s i c s and C h e m i s t r y . Any o f t h e s e w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . F r o m a t i m e t a b l e s t a n d p o i n t , t h e s e a r e a l l c o n f l i c t i n g g r o u p s : w h i l e t h e f i r s t t h r e e g r o u p s t a k e L a t i n , t h e l a s t g r o u p must be u n -o c c u p i e d ; t h e y c a n n o t , f o r i n s t a n c e , t a k e C h e m i s t r y a t t h a t t i m e , f o r p a r t o f t h e C h e m i s t r y c l a s s i s b e i n g t a u g h t L a t i n , S i n c e t h e same d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s w i t h e a c h o f t h e f o u r g r o u p s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t f o u r p e r i o d s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r e a c h g r o u p t o o b t a i n one p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o u r s e s i t h a s c h o s e n . O b v i o u s l y , i n a l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l , t h e r e i s no d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e p a r i n g a s u i t a b l e t i m e t a b l e . I n a s m a l l s c h o o l , w h e r e t h e r e i s b u t one c l a s s i n e a c h g r a d e , t h i s g i v e s r i s e t o a n e x t r e m e l y awkward s i t u a t i o n . Were i t h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e a b o v e a r r a n g e m e n t s h o u l d e x i s t , i t w o u l d b e h o o v e t h e s c h o o l t o a d j u s t i t s e l f a c c o r d i n g l y , f o r c e r t a i n l y t h e n e e d s o f s t u d e n t s o u g h t n o t t o be s a c r i f i c e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a w o r k a b l e t i m e t a b l e . B u t i t i s n o t e v e n v e r y d e s i r a b l e , f o r m o s t o f t h e c h o i c e s a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t o n e s , i . e . t h e s e f o u r g r o u p s a r e - 73 -not composed of fou r d i f f e r e n t types of i n d i v i d u a l , each type n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r combination of courses i t has chosen; or, the s c i e n c e of e d u c a t i o n i s not yet s u f f i c i e n t -l y exact to d i s c o v e r these p e c u l i a r i t i e s , i f they e x i s t . The w r i t e r , at l e a s t , has not yet found any t e s t or study t h a t would make i t p o s s i b l e to determine that a c e r t a i n student would be b e t t e r served by t a k i n g French, Chemistry and P h y s i c s than by t a k i n g L a t i n , Chemistry and P h y s i c s . The choice a student makes between two such combinations w i l l o f t e n prove to be based on l i t t l e sounder f o u n d a t i o n than a d i s t a s t e f o r washing t e s t - t u b e s , o r a l i k i n g f o r the c o l o r of the cover on the t e x t book. We can, as y e t , go l i t t l e f a r t h e r than to say that there are c e r t a i n students of l i t e r a r y t a s t e s , who have the mental equipment to p r o f i t by the study of languages, and l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or l e a n i n g toward s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s , w h ile there are c e r t a i n students whose i n t e r e s t s are l a r g e l y s c i e n t i f i c The f i r s t group should have two languages, and one s c i e n c e , the second, two s c i e n c e s and one language; and i t r e a l l y matters l i t t l e which s c i e n c e the f i r s t group i s gi v e n , One i s as good (or bad) as the other; a c h o i c e between them would not be a s i g n i f i c a n t one. And the second group i s as w e l l s u i t e d by L a t i n as by French. We w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , make French and Chemistry compulsory; and o f f e r a c h o i c e between L a t i n and P h y s i c s . We w i l l thus have two n o n - c o n f l i c t i n g groups, ( l ) French, L a t i n and Chemistry, (s) French, Chemistry - 74 -and P h y s i c s . The two w i l l not c o n f l i c t , but w i l l take French and Chemistry together, and d i v i d e f o r separate c l a s s e s i n L a t i n and P h y s i c s . The t i m e - t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i s reduced to a minimum, and we may have s u f f i c i e n t Chemistry students to convince the S c h o o l Board t h a t the l a b o r a t o r y should be p r o p e r l y equipped. The same g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s may be a p p l i e d to other such problems. In v e r y s m a l l s c h o o l s where no o p t i o n s can be o f f e r e d , the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether two languages and one s c i e n c e or two s c i e n c e s and one language should be o f f e r e d . The d e c i s i o n w i l l d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g to l o c a l i t y . French w i l l g e n e r a l l y be o f f e r e d because i t i s e a s i e r to o b t a i n t e a c h e r s who can teach French than those capable of t e a c h i n g L a t i n or, perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , teachers are more l i k e l y to have had some French than some L a t i n ; and because, though there i s l i t t l e to choose between the two languages, the modern language i s p r o b a b l y more apt to be of f u t u r e b e n e f i t . Chem-i s t r y i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y offered,, i n many cases because there i s l e s s mathematical t h i n k i n g necessary i n t h a t s u b j e c t than i n P h y s i c s . The s c h o o l i s then c o n f r o n t e d with the problem of d e c i d i n g between the second language and the second s c i e n c e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r a b l e to o f f e r the s c i e n c e because: 1. I t has, f o r most p u p i l s , a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n to l i f e . 8. I t w i l l o r d i n a r i l y be found to be s u i t a b l e to more st u d e n t s . On the other hand, the expense f o r apparatus may • ?5 -make i t p r o h i b i t i v e ; o r the Chairman of the Board may b e l i e v e that a l l students ought to be able to read e i c e r o i n the o r i g i n a l . Somewhat l a r g e r s c h o o l s , of course, can pro v i d e both groups of s u b j e c t s . B i o l o g y i s r a r e l y o f f e r e d because of the l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s necessary, and the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . A g r i c u l t u r e , though w e l l s u i t e d to r u r a l communities, i s not o r d i n a r i l y g i v e n because teachers q u a l i f i e d i n t h i s s u b j e c t are r a r e . The f a c t t h a t so few o p t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y manageable, makes the f o u r - y e a r programme, with i t s p r o v i s i o n f o r o p t i o n s , f r e e e l e c t i v e s , and p r o v i s i o n f o r the High School l e a v i n g students, very l i t t l e b e t t e r s u i t e d to s m a l l s e h o o l s than the former programme, u n l e s s I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , T o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s , Commercial S u b j e c t s or Home Economies can be i n c l u d e d . F or, u n l e s s these o r some of them can be o f f e r e d , the student i s merely given more courses very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to those he would be t a k i n g i n any case. Hence the o n l y b e n e f i t i s a broader a t t a c k on the s u b j e c t , which, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , under p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e because of l a c k of l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l . The same r e a s o n i n g e x p l a i n s why the Free E l e c t i v e s have l i t t l e or no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s . The c u r r i c u l u m of these s c h o o l s i s so l i m i t e d that a student cannot " e l e e t " courses i n a d d i t i o n to those r e q u i r e d f o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n . H© merely takes what i s given him. These e x t r a courses, then, - 76 -are n e i t h e r " f r e e " nor " e l e e t i v e s * . Moreover, the s u b j e c t s thus added to h i s course are not g e n e r a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n aim, i n treatment, or i n type of s u b j e c t matter from those a l r e a d y on h i s programme, so t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t i s not to f i l l a f e l t need on h i s p a r t , or to develop a s i d e of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y not a l r e a d y being developed, but merely to add more "work" to h i s s c h o o l programme. On the other hand, i f a s c h o o l i s f o r t u n a t e enough to have the s t a f f and equipment necessary to o f f e r such s u b j e c t s as Shopwork, Home Economics or Commercial s u b j e c t s , i t i s proper that students whose programmes allow i t , should e l e c t these s u b j e c t s . The o p t i o n then a v a i l a b l e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t one, and the e l e c t i v e i s a f r e e one. The p o s i t i o n of the w r i t e r i s , however, t h a t s c h o o l s which cannot o f f e r such s u b j e c t s should be r e l e a s e d from the requirement to p r o v i d e Free E l e e t i v e s to f i l l out an a r b i t r a r y 120 c r e d i t s ; and, f u r t h e r -more, when these s m a l l s c h o o l s have p r o v i d e d a course e n a b l i n g a student to g a i n M a t r i c u l a t i o n or Normal Entrance, t h e i r duty (1) ought to be regarded as d i s c h a r g e d . Normal E n t r a n c e . A course i s l a i d down i n the Programme f o r students (2) d e s i r i n g entrance to one of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal S c h o o l s . The p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s course and that l e a d i n g to M a t r i c u l a t i o n a r e : 1. Two years of Geography are r e q u i r e d . (1) See a l s o i n Chapter 4, Pp. 60-62. (2) See P l a t e I. - 7? -2. Only two years of language study are r e q u i r e d . More may be taken as a Free E l e c t i v e . 3. Instead of two years of a given s c i e n c e being p r e s c r i b e d , one year i n each of two s c i e n c e s may be taken. 4. A r t I, S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c and S p e c i a l Grammar are compulsory. I t w i l l be seen that a student may gain both J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Normal Entrance i f he o b t a i n s Geography as one of h i s s c i e n c e s , and, i n a d d i t i o n , takes the necessary A r t , A r i t h m e t i c and Grammar. I t i s s t r o n g l y recommended that the s c h o o l o f f e r i n g be such that the Normal Entrance students o b t a i n J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n as w e l l , f o r a number of reasons: 1. I t i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e that the p r o s p e c t i v e teacher be able to e n t e r U n i v e r s i t y should he or she be a b l e , and thus o b t a i n a h i g h e r c e r t i f i c a t e . Normal Entrance only, f o l l o w e d by Normal t r a i n i n g , g i v e s but a s e c o n d - c l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e . A f u r t h e r year of academic work, e i t h e r at the U n i v e r s i t y or i n Senior M a t r i c u l a t i o n , i s necessary f o r the F i r s t C l a s s C e r t i f i c a t e . In the p r e s e n t overcrowded c o n d i t i o n i n the p r o f e s s i o n , a teacher who has only a Second C l a s s c e r t i f i c a t e i s a t a decided disadvantage i n o b t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n . 2. A l s o , many elementary t e a c h e r s , a f t e r some time i n the Elementary s c h o o l , wish to q u a l i f y themselves f o r high s c h o o l work by o b t a i n i n g a U n i v e r s i t y degree and the Academic C e r t i f i c a t e . T h i s road should be l e f t open. - ?8 -3. L i m i t a t i o n s are now being made i n the enrolment at the Normal Sc h o o l s , Students who have a year at U n i v e r s i t y or Senior M a t r i c u l a t i o n are p r e f e r r e d to many o t h e r s . I t i s not impossible t h a t S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n or i t s e q u i v a l e n t w i l l , before many years, be r e q u i r e d of a l l p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . 4. The arrangement of courses so that the M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Normal Entrance students o b t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same course, reduces the t e a c h i n g l o a d to the minimum p o s s i b l e i f both c l a s s e s of students are to be c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s to be noted that P r i n c i p a l s would be wise to advise students p l a n n i n g to teach i n Elementary Schools to o b t a i n Senior M a t r i c u l a t i o n or i t s e q u i v a l e n t whenever p o s s i b l e . P r o s p e c t i v e Elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s should not n e g l e c t t h i s more advanced p r e p a r a t i o n u n l e s s they have no a l t e r n a t i v e . C o n c l u s i o n . In t h i s chapter and the one p r e c e d i n g i t , reasons have been advanced and recommendations made, that s m a l l h i g h sehools should, i n most cases, adopt a r i g i d course of s t u d i e s , l e a d i n g to U n i v e r s i t y M a t r i c u l a t i o n as lo n g as c o n d i t i o n s remain as they a r e . I t i s to be hoped t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l not l e a d to the impression t h a t the w r i t e r i s of the o p i n i o n that the secondary s c h o o l i n ge n e r a l should be dominated by U n i v e r s i t y requirements, or should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a narrow course of s t u d i e s . Such i s not the case. The w r i t e r does b e l i e v e , how-ever, t h a t , under e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the n e c e s s i t y of o f f e r -ing courses r e q u i r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y and the heavy l o a d • 79 -e n t a i l e d thereby, j u s t i f y the s m a l l high s c h o o l i n c o n f i n i n g i t s e l f l a r g e l y to the U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n , as i t i s (1) g e n e r a l l y doing. In the f o l l o w i n g chapters d e v i c e s are d i s c u s s e d whereby the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l may u l t i m a t e l y escape i t s p r e s e n t narrow f u n c t i o n , when e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s have been made more i d e a l . In d i s c u s s i n g p l a n s which might enable the s m a l l s c h o o l to a d j u s t i t s e l f to i t s community, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a change i n the p o l i c y of the U n i v e r s i t y has not been taken i n t o account. The f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r has r e f r a i n e d from a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s matter does not mean that he regards with d i s f a v o r the p o s s i b l e l o o s e n i n g of U n i v e r s i t y entrance requirements; indeed, a c e r t a i n r e l a x i n g of these standards might w e l l be expected to b e n e f i t not o n l y the s m a l l high sehool, but a l l the high s c h o o l s of the P r o v i n c e . An a t t a c k on t h i s problem, however, c o u l d not s u i t a b l y be made a pa r t of t h i s study. ( l ) An a n a l y s i s of the s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d i n v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i s made above Pp. 68-69. - 80 -CHAPTER 6 A PROGRAMME OF REFORM. I t i s the aim of the p r e s e n t chapter to d i s e u s s c e r t a i n procedures f o r the reform of the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l . The d e v i c e s o u t l i n e d are based on the assumption t h a t t h i s c l a s s of s c h o o l s w i l l c o ntinue to e x e r c i s e i t s U n i v e r s i t y -p r e p a r a t o r y f u n c t i o n . A somewhat more r a d i c a l reform i n v o l v i n g the removal of t h i s f u n c t i o n from the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 7. C o n s o l i d a t i o n . Of the s o l u t i o n s which p r e s e n t themselves, the most obvious i s c o n s o l i d a t i o n . Where th e r e are two or more smal l high s c h o o l s w i t h i n a few m i l e s of each other, i t i s undoubted-l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t they be combined. Such a c o n s o l i d a t i o n w i l l undoubtedly be a b i g step i n the improvement of the t r a i n i n g o f f e r e d by the communities i n v o l v e d . A l a r g e r s t a f f and b e t t e r m a t e r i a l f a c i l i t i e s w i l l o r d i n a r i l y r e s u l t , and a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l u m - o f f e r i n g i s p o s s i b l e . Though the step would i n v o l v e some a d d i t i o n a l expense, the w i l l i n g n e s s of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n to pay h a l f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n expense of the students, would reduce the cost to a minimum, and the i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y of the s c h o o l would f a r o f f s e t the e x t r a expenditure necessary. There are undoubtedly d i s t r i c t s i n the P r o v i n c e - 81 -where t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s i s p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e . S u c h d i s t r i c t s a r e f o u n d i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e F r a s e r v a l l e y , on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and i n some o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . B u t c o n s o l i d a t i o n a l o n e d o e s n o t o f f e r a v e r y c o m p l e t e s o l u t i o n t o t h e s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l p r o b l e m . T h e r e a r e a number o f r e a s o n s f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The n a t u r a l d e s i r e o f e a c h c o m m u n i t y t o h a v e a h i g h s c h o o l o f i t s own i s a d i f f i c u l t y , t h o u g h n o t an i n s u p e r a b l e one, and i t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o y i e l d t o a p r o p e r p o l i c y o f t h e e n l i g h t e n -ment o f c o m m u n i t y o p i n i o n , i f s u c h a p o l i c y were v i g o r o u s l y p r o s e c u t e d by t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l b o d i e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . The c h i e f r e a s o n f o r n o t r e g a r d i n g c o n s o l i d a t i o n as e f f i c a c i o u s i n more t h a n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f c a s e s , i s t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l s a r e i n t o o w i d e l y d i s t a n t l o c a l i t i e s , w h i l e i n many c a s e s t h e h i g h w a y f a c i l i t i e s a r e t o o l i m i t e d . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s a r e i n i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s , on t h e s e a c o a s t , o r i n p a r t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e where t h e t i m e consumed i n r e a c h i n g a c o n s o l i d a t e d s c h o o l w o u l d be much t o o g r e a t . As t h e P r o v i n c e becomes more s e t t l e d , and t h e r o a d s y s t e m e x p a n d s , more s i t u a t i o n s where c o n s o l i d a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e w i l l , no d o u b t , a r i s e ; on t h e o t h e r h a n d , more s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s and s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s w i l l be c r e a t e d . C o n -s o l i d a t i o n , t h e n , w h i l e p r o m i s i n g many a d v a n t a g e s where i t i s p o s s i b l e , c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e ; a g r e a t number o f s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s c a n n o t be s o a f f e c t e d . - 82 -(1) A l t e r n a t i o n of S u b j e c t s . The a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n s m a l l schools i s a device which has never r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n i t deserves, e i t h e r by those who frame the c u r r i c u l u m , or by those who put i t i n t o e f f e c t . By c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g , t h i s device should s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the t e a c h i n g l o a d i n s m a l l s c h o o l s . The c o o p e r a t i o n of the Department of Ed u c a t i o n might make a s a v i n g of almost o n e - h a l f of the t o t a l t e a c h i n g burden i n the small high s c h o o l . An example w i l l serve to make the p r i n c i p l e c l e a r . Let us suppose a s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l e n r o l l i n g 75 p u p i l s , i n which the r e g i s t r a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : F i r s t year, (Grade 9) 30: Second year, (Grade 10 J 20: T h i r d year (Grade 11) 15: F o u r t h year (Grade 12) 10. L e t us suppose f u r t h e r t hat t h i s s c h o o l o f f e r s 2 years each o f Chemistry and P h y s i c s i n the upper three y e a r s . The arrangement o f courses under presen t c o n d i t i o n s would o r d i n a r i l y be somewhat as f o l l o w s : Grade Courses 10 Chemistry I ot h e r courses i n c l u d . study 11 Chemistry 2 P h y s i c s 1 other courses i n c l u d . study 12 P h y s i c s 2 ot h e r courses i n c l u d . study OR P e r i o d s (per week) 5 30 5 5 25 5 30 Grade Courses P e r i o d s 10 Chemistry 1 5 other courses 30 11 P h y s i c s 1 5 other courses 30 12 Chemistry 2 5 P h y s i c s 2 5 other courses 25 ( l ) A d e t a i l e d i l l u s t r a t i o n of the use of t h i s device i s found i n Appendix "B", Pp. 155-166. - 83 -I t w i l l be seen t h a t under e i t h e r of the above arrangements the t e a c h i n g time devoted to Chemistry and P h y s i c s i s 20 p e r i o d s per week. I f a system of a l t e r n a t i o n i s introduced,two c l a s s e s are combined f o r these s u b j e c t s , the programme c o n s i s t i n g of two p a r t s o f f e r e d i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , as f o l l o w s : F i r s t Tear and Even Years Grade Courses 10 11 12 P e r i o d s (per week) Chemistry 1 5 o t h e r courses 30 Chemistry 1 5 P h y s i c s 2 5 othe r courses 25 P h y s i c s 2 5 ot h e r courses 30 Second Year and Odd Years Grade Courses P e r i o d s 10 P h y s i c s 1 other courses 11 P h y s i c s 1 Chemistry 2 other courses 12 Chemistry 2 other courses 5 30 5 5 25 5 30 The c l a s s i n Grade X the f i r s t year and each a l t e r n a t e year t h e r e a f t e r would have the f o l l o w i n g programme i n these s u b j e c t s : Grade 10: Grade 11: Grade 12: Chemistry 1 Chemistry 2 P h y s i c s 1 P h y s i c s 2 5 p e r i o d s 5 5 n w 20 p e r i o d s The c l a s s i n Grade Xthe second year and each a l t e r n a t e year would have, i n these s u b j e c t s , the f o l l o w i n g programme: 84 Grade 10: P h y s i c s 1 5 p e r i o d s Grade 11: P h y s i c s 2 Chemistry 1 5 p e r i o d s 5 p e r i o d s Grade 12: Chemistry 2 5 p e r i o d s 20 p e r i o d s S i n c e the e l a s s e s are combined, and the same teacher teaches Grades 10 and 11 Chemistry 1 t o g e t h e r , the t o t a l t e a c h i n g time r e q u i r e d i s but 10 p e r i o d s per year, the s a v i n g of t e a c h e r - t i m e b e i n g 10 p e r i o d s per year or o n e - h a l f , These ten p e r i o d s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n other ways to the g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y of the s c h o o l . that the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l t e r n a t i o n are: 1. A s c h o o l enrolment i n the s u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d , such that two c l a s s e s can be combined without making too l a r g e a group i s n e c e s s a r y . For i n s t a n c e , i n the above i l l u s t r a t i o n , i f the enrolment had been 30 p u p i l s i n each of Grades 10 and 11, the combined c l a s s o f 60 would be t o o l a r g e a u n i t , and a l t e r n a t i o n would be i m p o s s i b l e . 2. One s u b j e e t a l t e r n a t e d cannot depend on the other. For example i f Chemistry 1 was p r e r e q u i s i t e to P h y s i c s , these s u b j e c t s c o u l d not be a l t e r n a t e d . 3. I f the s u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d are of two years* d u r a t i o n , e i t h e r the s c h o o l must be a f o u r - y e a r s c h o o l , or the s u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d must be such that they can be g i v e n i n Grade 9. The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n does not allow A p u r p o s e l y simple case was chosen. I t i l l u s t r a t e s - 85 -Chemistry to be taught i n Grade 9; hence t h i s s u b j e c t could not be a l t e r n a t e d i n a s c h o o l o p e r a t i n g on a th r e e - y e a r b a s i s . 4. S u b j e c t s which are of more than two years* d u r a t i o n cannot be a l t e r n a t e d without a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s u b j e c t -matter. E n g l i s h and Mathematics f o r example, are p r e s c r i b e d f o r each of the f o u r y e a r s , and a set c u r r i c u l u m Is l a i d down f o r each grade. Such s u b j e c t s eannot at pr e s e n t , be a l t e r n a t e d , though a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m would make a l t e r n a t i o n p o s s i b l e i n some of the s u b j e c t s at l e a s t . Sinee a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s p r e s c r i b e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia High Schools i s given i n each of the fo u r years, and many o f the ot h e r s are given i n each of three years, our l a s t c o n d i t i o n l i m i t s c o n s i d e r a b l y the amount o f a l t e r n a -t i o n f e a s i b l e . Some of these s u b j e c t s , however, may be r e o r g a n i z e d so t h a t a l t e r n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n necessary i s not always s e r i o u s ; i t depends e n t i r e l y on the extent to which a given year's work i s based on t h a t o f the p r e c e d i n g year. I f A l g e b r a i s p r e s c r i b e d f o r each of fo u r years i t cannot be a l t e r n a t e d s i n c e eaeh year's work depends on that of the grade b e f o r e . The o n l y way i n which such a s u b j e c t could be a l t e r n a t e d would be to condense i t i n t o two or three y e a r s , a l l o w i n g more time i n eaeh grade. S u b j e c t s such as E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s are i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t category, and can be rearranged to permit a l t e r n a t i o n i n whole or i n p a r t . The d e t a i l s of such a - 86 -rearrangement would have to be worked out by a group of E n g l i s h s p e c i a l i s t s i n the l i g h t o f a c a r e f u l study of the s i t u a t i o n ; however, a g e n e r a l scheme might be c o n s i d e r e d here. I t may be that a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s would show that the E n g l i s h course f a l l s under two heads - (a) s u b j e c t matter, perhaps grammar, i n which the sequence i s extremely important and (b) s u b j e c t matter which i s l a r g e l y u n r e l a t e d to t h a t which had gone b e f o r e ; p a r t s of the l i t e r a t u r e and composition might f a l l under t h i s heading. Content under the f i r s t heading might be d e s i g n a t e d E n g l i s h 1 ( a ) , 2 ( a ) , 3 (a) and 4(a) and be given f o r one or two p e r i o d s a week i n each year, a l l o w i n g no a l t e r n a t i o n . The remainder of the course might be d e s i g n a t e d E n g l i s h 1 ( b ) , 2 ( b ) , 3 (b) and 4 (b) and a l t e r n a t e d - 1 (b) with 2 (b) i n Grades 9 and 10; 3 (b) w i t h 4 (b) i n Grades 10 and 11. I t may be t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r device would not prove p r a c t i c a b l e ; the w r i t e r , however, cannot see any v a l i d reason why i t should not. The o b j e c t i o n might be r a i s e d that many students under such an arrangement would be t a k i n g E n g l i s h 4 (a) i n Grade 11, and t h a t E n g l i s h 4 (a) should not be taken t i l l the student i s ready to w r i t e the Grade 12 Departmental exam-i n a t i o n i n the s u b j e e t . To t h i s there are two answers: one i s that E n g l i s h 3 (a) and 4 (b) should, i n our scheme, be of approximately equal d i f f i c u l t y , and t h a t students would w r i t e the D e p a r t m e n t s examinations at the end of Grade 12, on which-ever course they had s t u d i e d that year; they would at that time have taken the f o u r years of E n g l i s h , and the sequence f a c t o r - 8? -i s cared f o r i n the (a) c o u r s e s . I f t h i s cannot be done, there i s at l e a s t one other way i n which some degree of a l t e r n a t i o n would s t i l l be p o s s i b l e ; i . e . to permit a l t e r n a t i o n i n Grades 10 and 11 only, the courses f o r Grade 9 and f o r Grade IS being p r e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y , no a l t e r n a t i o n being p e r m i t t e d i n these grades; i t w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be i m p o s s i b l e to combine c l a s s e s with Grade 9, i n any ease, because of the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e enrolment i n t h a t grade i n many s c h o o l s . Other f o u r year s u b j e c t s would, of course, be t r e a t e d the same way where p o s s i b l e . The f a c t o r of u n i f o r m i t y among the sc h o o l s i n the Pr o v i n c e would a l s o have to be c o n s i d e r e d , to allow f o r students who change from s c h o o l to s c h o o l , and would pr o b a b l y be best eared f o r by a Departmental r e g u l a t i o n t h a t covered a l l the sch o o l s i n the P r o v i n c e , r e q u i r i n g , f o r example, that a l l schools o f f e r E n g l i s h 3 i n Grade 11 the even years and i n Grade IS the odd y e a r s . In l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s the l a r g e c l a s s enrolment makes a l t e r n a t i o n i m p o s s i b l e except i n such s u b j e c t s as the enrolment i s very s m a l l - Greek, f o r example. However, although the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n suggested above might,or might not, apply to a l l s c h o o l s , the w r i t e r has not, as y e t , been able to d i s c o v e r any reason why i t should not. I f d i f f i c u l t i e s develop i n l a r g e sehools, an adjustment would have to be made, f o r , of course these s c h o o l s , which e n r o l l the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the students, ought not to be impeded by an arrangement f o r the betterment of - 88 -the many s m a l l s c h o o l s . In any case, there would seem to be no reason why a d u a l c u r r i c u l u m should not be i n t r o d u c e d , thereby e n a b l i n g s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s to proceed with an exten-s i v e combination o f c l a s s e s by means of a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t . I t i s e v i d e n t from the above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t a c a r e f u l l y planned and o r g a n i z e d system of a l t e r n a t i o n would r e s u l t i n a s u b s t a n t i a l s a v i n g of teacher time i n s m a l l high s c h o o l s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g would l i k e l y be e f f e c t e d i n s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s and j u n i o r high s c h o o l s . The q u e s t i o n then a r i s e s , ttTo what extent would the s c h o o l o f f e r i n g be a f f e c t e d by t h i s change?* The answer depends l a r g e l y on the s i z e of the s c h o o l . (1) As shown e a r l i e r i t i s the f i r m b e l i e f of the w r i t e r t h a t no s e h o o l should o f f e r o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s as long as the average t e a c h i n g burden i s more than 40 p e r i o d s per week per teacher, a t the v e r y maximum, i . e . where the number of " d o u b l e - p e r i o d s " exceeds 5. In the s u p e r i o r s c h o o l and the one-room h i g h s c h o o l , any system of a l t e r n a t i o n would s t i l l l e ave the teacher w i t h a great number of d o u b l e - p e r i o d s . These s c h o o l s , consequently, cannot i n c r e a s e t h e i r o f f e r i n g ; the r e s u l t of the r e d u c t i o n of the teaching-burden i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l not, then, be an i n c r e a s e of the e f f i c i e n c y of the s c h o o l by broadening i t s c u r r i c u l u m , but a decrease of the i n e f f i c i e n c y of the s c h o o l by l o w e r i n g i t s p r e s e n t un-reasonable t e a c h i n g burden. In the two-room s c h o o l , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a (1) Chap. 5. Pp. 63-67. - 89 -thorough system of a l t e r n a t i o n might, i n some cases, make a s l i g h t l y broader c u r r i c u l u m p o s s i b l e . T h i s depends somewhat on the c h a r a c t e r of the s t a f f ; s h o p - subjects, f o r i n s t a n c e , could not f r e q u e n t l y be g i v e n without a d d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r s . Some o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s might be i n t r o d u c e d ; Music, A r t and B i o l o g y are examples, i f s u i t a b l e t e a c h e r s are a v a i l a b l e . I f the p r i n c i p l e of a l t e r n a t i o n i s extended to the J u n i o r High School, a f a i r l y e f f i c i e n t combined J u n i o r and S e n i o r High Sch o o l might be formed i n a d i s t r i c t now served by an elementary (1) s c h o o l and a two-room high s c h o o l . In somewhat l a r g e r s c h o o l s - those now employing three or f o u r t e a c h e r s - a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of e l a s t i c i t y may r e s u l t when teacher-time now devoted to U n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n i s f r e e d f o r other d u t i e s by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l t e r n a t i o n . The c h i e f l i m i t s w i l l be those imposed by the (2) a b i l i t i e s of the s t a f f and the e x t e n s i v e n e s s of the equipment. Correspondence Courses. Among the d e v i c e s f o r broadening the s m a l l high sehool c u r r i c u l u m i s the use of correspondence courses i n v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s . The Department of Edu c a t i o n now p r o v i d e s correspond-ence i n s t r u c t i o n i n High S c h o o l s u b j e c t s to many students i n i s o l a t e d d i s t r i c t s of the P r o v i n c e . What i s here contemplated i s a broadening of the scope of t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n to cover more branches of secondary s c h o o l i n g , and i t s use i n the s m a l l high (1) See below Pp. 94-97. (2) A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of a l t e r n a t i o n i s found i n Appendix "B% Pp. 155-166. ~ 90 -s c h o o l I n t i m e a l l o w e d f o r i n t h e s c h o o l s c h e d u l e and u n d e r some s l i g h t s u p e r v i s i o n b y t h e s t a f f . I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t "We h a v e g a i n e d s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e . . . t o be a b l e t o s a y t h a t a s t u d e n t o f good a b i l i t y who w i l l d e v o t e f u l l s c h o o l t i m e ( s i x o r s e v e n h o u r s p e r d a y ) t o c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w o r k w i l l r e a d i l y c o m p l e t e t h e e n t i r e w o r k o f a g r a d e i n t e n m o n t h s , -o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , he c a n j u s t k e e p up w i t h a s t u d e n t o f e q u a l a b i l i t y i n t h e a v e r a g e h i g h s c h o o l . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h i m p r o v e d m e t h o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n and w i t h a d d e d f a c i l i t y i n h a n d l i n g t h e w o r k t h e b e t t e r c l a s s o f s t u d e n t w i l l go a l i t t l e f a s t e r . " ( l ) The w r i t e r c a n n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e o r r e f u t e t h i s some-what q u e s t i o n a b l e s t a t e m e n t and knows o f no e x p e r i m e n t where s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o s t u d y t h e q u e s t i o n . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e s t h u s f a r p r o v i d e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a r e g i v e n t o i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s who a p p l y f o r i t , a n d c o v e r M a t r i c u l a t i o n a n d N o r m a l E n t r a n c e , C o m m e r c i a l s u b j e c t s a n d " P e r s o n a l I m p r o v e m e n t " . The p o s s i b i l i t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e s c o p e o f t h i s w o r k t o i n c l u d e many b r a n c h e s o f V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , and i t s u s e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e programme o f t h e s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l . U n d e r t h i s p l a n t h e s t u d e n t e n t e r i n g a s m a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w o u l d , i f he a s p i r e d t o e n t r a n c e t o U n i v e r -s i t y , t a k e t h e u s u a l M a t r i c u l a t i o n c o u r s e p r o v i d e d . I f , how-e v e r , s u c h w e re n o t h i s a i m , he w o u l d t a k e t h e C o n s t a n t (1) G i b s o n , J . W., " H i g h S c h o o l C o r r e s p o n d e n c e C o u r s e s " i n S i x t i e t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P p . L50 -L51. D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B. C., 1931. - 81 -S u b j e c t s , - E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n -and s u c h o t h e r s o f f e r e d b y t h e s c h o o l as s u i t e d h i s n e e d s ; t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h i s c o u r s e w o u l d c o n s i s t o f V o c a t i o n a l S u b j e c t s o r o t h e r s u b j e c t s c h o s e n by t h e s t u d e n t w i t h t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e P r i n c i p a l f r o m t h o s e i n w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . A l e a v i n g s t u d e n t who p l a n n e d t o l i v e on t h e f a r m m i g h t c h o o s e , f o r e x a m p l e , f r o m t h e s c h o o l programme t h e C o n s t a n t s , P h y s i c s , C h e m i s t r y and A r i t h m e t i c ; and f r o m t h e C o r r e s p o n d e n c e s C o u r s e s , A g r i c u l t u r e , B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n t h e o r y and E l e m e n t a r y A c c o u n t s a n d B o o k k e e p i n g . A s t u d e n t who w i s h e d t o w o r k i n an i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e r n m i g h t t a k e by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e M e c h a n i c a l D r a w i n g , H y d r a u l i c s , H e a t , E l e c t r i c a l T h e o r y , o r some c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e . The r a n g e o f s u b j e c t s w h i c h m i g h t be o f f e r e d b y t h i s m e t h o d i s v e r y g r e a t , a n d i n c l u d e s a l l s u b j e c t s w h e r e t h e m a t e r i a l t o be p r e s e n t e d e a n be t r e a t e d i n w r i t t e n l e s s o n s ; f o r e x a m p l e : A g r i c u l t u r e , a nd r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s ; I n d u s t r i a l s u b -j e c t s s u c h a s E l e m e n t a r y s t e a m e n g i n e e r i n g , H y d r a u l i c s , M e c h a n i c s , M e c h a n i c a l D r a w i n g , B u i l d i n g C o n s t r u c t i o n t h e o r y , E l e m e n t a r y E l e c t r i c i t y , W i r e l e s s , e t c ; C o m m e r c i a l S u b j e c t s s u c h as S h o r t h a n d , S p e e d w r i t i n g , T y p e w r i t i n g , B o o k k e e p i n g and B u s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c . Many o t h e r s u c h w i l l p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s a f t e r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o f f e r i n g o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e w o r k i n f i e l d s i n v o l v i n g t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t o o l s , i s more p r o b l e m a t i c a l . I t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o r e n t s e t s o f t o o l s o r a p p a r a t u s t o be - 92 -r e t u r n e d at the end o f the year u n l e s s the student d e s i r e d to purchase i t . However, s u b j e c t s r e q u i r i n g the use of machinery, or the demonstration of an i n s t r u c t o r could not, of course, be given by correspondence s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T h i s Work. I f correspondence i n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n the s e h o o l , i n s c h o o l time, the amount of time which the s t a f f would have to devote to t h i s work should not be g r e a t . I t would be the duty of the t e a c h e r to r e c e i v e and d i s t r i b u t e the i n s t r u c t i o n s h eets; to c o l l e c t these sheets when the work i s done and forward them to the Department; to e x e r c i s e a g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n over the work, s e e i n g that the s t u d e n t s ' time i s spent p r o f i t a b l y ; to advise the student r e g a r d i n g methods of study; and, by r e f e r e n c e to t a b u l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the Correspondence O f f i c e , to inform the student of h i s p r o g r e s s . Grades or marks would be d e c i d e d by the C e n t r a l O f f i c e and forwarded to the s c h o o l to be i n c l u d e d among the o t h e r r a t i n g s on the student's r e p o r t c a r d . A l s o , i f equip-ment f o r a eourse were p r o v i d e d by the Department, the teacher would have to i n v e n t o r y i t , r e p o r t i n g breakages or l o s s e s , and c o l l e c t i n g the money to r e p l a c e i t , where necessary. A s m a l l fee might be c o l l e c t e d from the student, though, i n g e n e r a l , t h i s would not be d e s i r a b l e , as work of t h i s nature should be made as e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e as p o s s i b l e . Each s c h o o l d i s t r i c t might, however, be r e a s o n a b l y expected to c o n t r i b u t e to the expense of the i n s t r u c t i o n of i t s s t u d e n t s . - 93 -A s a t i s f a c t o r y c e n t r a l o f f i c e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .of correspondence work now e x i s t s i n the P r o v i n c e ' s Department of E d u c a t i o n . T h i s o f f i e e c o u l d r e a d i l y be expanded as c o n d i t i o n s warrant. C o n c l u s i o n s . I t i s not to be supposed t h a t Correspondence courses such as those d i s c u s s e d above co u l d take the p l a c e of the t r a i n i n g t h a t i s giv e n i n a T e c h n i c a l o r Commercial High S c h o o l . The d i f f i c u l t i e s of a student attempting a s u b j e c t by correspondence without the s t i m u l a t i o n of f e l l o w - s t u d e n t s , or the p e r s o n a l d i r e c t i o n o f a good teacher, are obvio u s . I t i s necessary, too, t h a t the p u p i l s t u d y i n g by correspondence possess a d e t e r m i n a t i o n to succeed, and an a b i l i t y f o r s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n , which i s not always found i n the secondary sehool boy or g i r l . I t may be t h a t correspondence study has a tendency to develop t h i s h a b i t of c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n a g r e a t e r degree than r e s u l t s from the u s u a l c l a s s s i t u a t i o n . Be t h a t as i t may, i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the comparison to be drawn i s not t h a t between a student t a k i n g a s u b j e c t by correspondence, and the same student t a k i n g the same s u b j e c t i n a p r o p e r l y equipped s c h o o l with a h i g h l y t r a i n e d s t a f f ; i t i s r a t h e r t h a t between a student t a k i n g by correspondence a s u b j e e t he d e s i r e s and needs, and the same student e i t h e r remaining out o f s c h o o l , or t a k i n g courses he does not d e s i r e and does not need from the r e s t r i c t e d c u r r i c u l u m of a s m a l l high s c h o o l . - 9 4 -I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the o p i n i o n o f the w r i t e r t h a t correspondence courses i n V o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e a l broadening o f the c u r r i c u l u m of the sm a l l . h i g h s c h o o l , and are consequently worthy of very s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . P o s s i b i l i t i e s of R e o r g a n i z a t i o n . As we have s a i d above almost a l l the sc h o o l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia are o r g a n i z e d on the 8-4 p l a n . The J u n i o r High Schools are c o n f i n e d almost e n t i r e l y to the c i t i e s . I t i s a l s o probable that the c o n d i t i o n s necessary f o r a f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the J u n i o r High S c h o o l i d e a l cannot be found, as a r u l e , i n s m a l l communities. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the many l i m i t a t i o n s to J u n i o r High S c h o o l work which e x i s t i n s m a l l s c h o o l s , there are e e r t a i n b e n e f i t s which may r e a s o n a b l y be expected to r e s u l t from a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g i t even i n q u i t e s m a l l s e h o o l s . These a r e : 1. The I n t r o d u c t i o n , i n l i m i t e d amount, of J u n i o r High Sehool procedures, and s u b j e c t matter, i n t o Grades ? and 8 of the Elementary s c h o o l . 2. Some d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n . The b e a r i n g of the J u n i o r High S c h o o l on the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l i n the P r o v i n c e , was commented on i n the Putman-Weir Sehool Survey as f o l l o w s : "What ought to be the standard of e f f i c i e n c y f o r a high school? ...The o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by any p a r t i c u l a r (1) Page 52* - 95 high s c h o o l must depend upon the r e s o u r c e s of t h a t s c h o o l measured i n t e a c h i n g power. B r i t i s h Columbia has seventeen ene-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s , s i x t e e n two-teacher high s c h o o l s , and nine t h r e e - t e a c h e r s c h o o l s i n a d d i t i o n to a number of s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s d o i n g or a t t e m p t i n g to do the work of grades nine and t e n . We assume t h a t i f middle s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d the p r e s e n t s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s would at once be converted i n t o middle s c h o o l s . But what of the seventeen one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s now attempting to do the work of grades nine, ten and eleven? We have seen some of these s c h o o l s . In some few cases t h i s comprehensive t e a c h i n g programme i s b e i n g undertaken by i n e x p e r i e n c e d graduates of the U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . Needless to say, the i m p o s s i b l e cannot be a c h i e v e d . A s i n g l e experienced, v i g o r o u s and h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t teacher might c o n c e i v a b l y teach the o b l i g a t o r y s u b j e c t s on our h i g h s c h o o l programme and add v o c a l music, a r t , geometry or even a f o r e i g n language. But seldom, i f ever, do these one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s secure t h i s type of t e a c h e r . . . . . Obviously these one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s ought to become p a r t of a middle s c h o o l or be s u f f i c i e n t l y strengthened to employ two t e a c h e r s . We b e l i e v e t h a t , under our p l a n of r e q u i r i n g a high s c h o o l to p r o v i d e f o r grades ten, eleven, and twelve, the minimum t e a c h i n g s t a f f should be two teachers.•»" ( l ) The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the above q u o t a t i o n i s , as we have seen, s u b s t a n t i a l l y unchanged, though some e i g h t years have el a p s e d s i n c e the comment was made. The w r i t e r has been a b l e to d i s c o v e r o n l y one s m a l l s c h o o l i n the P r o v i n c e where any s i g n i f i c a n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o n g the l i n e s suggested i n the S c h o o l Survey has been made. In t h i s s c h o o l , a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p a l , "Upon recommendation of the Departmental I n s p e c t o r and myself the S c h o o l Board has d e c i d e d upon the f o l l o w i n g r a d i c a l departure i n o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c h o o l : D i v i s i o n Grades I X to XII I I Y I I to IX I I I IV to VI IV I to I I I (1) op. c i t . Pp. 116 -Type of work s t u d i e d S e n i o r High - 28 p u p i l s J u n i o r High - 38 » Elementary - 34 n Elementary - 34 w • 9 6 -»fii© J u n i o r High room w i l l be e n r o l l e d by a teacher with an Academic C e r t i f i c a t e . The P r i n c i p a l . . . w i l l teach Mathematics, Science and S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n J u n i o r and S e n i o r High. The ( l ) A s s i s t a n t w i l l take French, E n g l i s h and H e a l t h i n both rooms..." The s c h o o l d e s c r i b e d above i s not a S u p e r i o r School in the o r d i n a r y sense of the term, s i n c e a p p a r e n t l y a teacher i s employed e n t i r e l y f o r High S c h o o l work. In a S u p e r i o r School where a s i n g l e t eacher i s e n t r u s t e d with the work of Grades •seven to ten, or h i g h e r , the advantage of a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s not so g r e a t . Yet even the o r d i n a r y S u p e r i o r S c h o o l , with the a s s i s t a n c e of a thorough system of s u b j e e t a l t e r n a t i o n , perhaps extending even to J u n i o r High School subjects, and the p o s s i b l e supplementing of the c u r r i c u l u m by correspondence courses, may be expected to b e n e f i t to some extent, at l e a s t , by the adoption of the J u n i o r High S c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The b e n e f i t s i n the way of d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a c c r u i n g to the one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l which can combine wi t h the upper elementary s c h o o l grades, are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n the above example. The a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , and the p o s s i b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n of correspondence courses i n V o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s , would p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e the e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s type of s c h o o l a l s o . The same r e o r g a n i z a t i o n may be a p p l i e d to two and t h r e e - t e a c h e r h i g h s c h o o l s . A two-teacher h i g h s c h o o l i s o r d i n a r i l y f e d by elementary s c h o o l s having at l e a s t two teachers i n grades seven and e i g h t . A combination of the high (1) From a p e r s o n a l account by J . C. McGuire, P r i n c i p a l , Quesnel S u p e r i o r S c h o o l , Quesnel, B, G. • 9? -school with the upper grades of the elementary s c h o o l would make p o s s i b l e a combined J u n i o r and S e n i o r High School of at l e a s t four t e a c h e r s - perhaps more i f some degree of c o n s o l i d a -t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n the elementary grades. The s i z e of the combined s c h o o l where th e r e i s a t h r e e - t e a c h e r h i g h s c h o o l would be c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g r e a t e r ; and i n some cases i t might be p o s s i b l e to employ a t e a c h e r or t e a c h e r s f o r Manual A r t s or Home Economics, G e n e r a l , The exact s i z e and type of combined J u n i o r and S e n i o r High School p o s s i b l e w i l l depend to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree on l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; no v e r y r e l i a b l e estimate i s p o s s i b l e here. I t i s hoped, however, t h a t the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has o u t l i n e d a g e n e r a l p o l i c y i n v o l v i n g : 1, The combination of s u p e r i o r s c h o o l s , and s m a l l high schools with grades seven and e i g h t of the elementary s c h o o l to form combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l s , 2. The r e d u c t i o n i n the t e a c h i n g l o a d i n s m a l l schools by a s u i t a b l e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m making f e a s i b l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s u b j e c t a l t e r n a t i o n and combination of c l a s s © s, 3* The p o s s i b l e supplementing of the s m a l l secondary school c u r r i c u l u m by means of correspondence courses. It i s to be noted that these procedures may be introduced s e p a r a t e l y , i f a l l three cannot be u t i l i z e d . I t must a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t , i f the above p o l i c y - 98 • commends i t s e l f to the e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s of the P r o v i n c e , no very thorough-going p r o g r e s s i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t u n l e s s i t i s encouraged by the Department of E d u c a t i o n , and e l a b o r a t e d and s u p e r v i s e d by a s u i t a b l y t r a i n e d o f f i c e r employed f o r that purpose. 99 -CHAPTER ? i A CENTRAL BOARDING SCHOOL. The p o l i c y f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e s m a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a d v a n c e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r was b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f o r h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be one o f i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s . Now t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who e n t e r U n i v e r s i t y , and who a r e m e n t a l l y s u i t e d t o s t u d y t h e r e , u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a t l e a s t , i s v e r y s m a l l i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t o t a l p r e s e n t a n d p o t e n t i a l h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . A p o l i c y w h i c h w o u l d r e l e a s e t h e s m a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l f r o m t h e d u t y o f t r a i n i n g t h e s e s t u d e n t s i s , t h e r e f o r e , w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S u c h a p l a n , f i r s t s u g g e s t e d i n t h e P u t m a n - W e i r S c h o o l ( 1 ) S u r v e y , w o u l d i n v o l v e a p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f f u t u r e U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s s e r v e d by s m a l l h i g h s e h o o l s i n a c e n t r a l b o a r d i n g s c h o o l , a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n . More t h a n one s u c h s c h o o l m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y , t h o u g h t h a t i s n o t p r o b a b l e . The e n r o l m e n t i n t h i s s c h o o l w o u l d , o f n e c e s s i t y , have t o be l i m i t e d , and w o u l d be f i x e d a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e m e n t a l a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s n e c e s s a r y t o s u c c e s s i n U n i v e r s i t y w o r k ; p o s s i b l y , a l s o , t h e number o f s t u d e n t s ( 1 ) op. c i t . P. 1 0 9 . j - 100 -which t h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d a d m i t m i g h t h a v e a b e a r i n g on t h e q u e s t i o n . The s t u d e n t s t o be a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d t h i s s c h o o l c o u l d be s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r a d m i s s i o n b y t h e u s e o f m o dern s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , t h e i r p r e v i o u s s c h o o l r e c o r d , and t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e i r P r i n c i p a l and t h e G o v e r n m e n t I n s p e c t o r , S t u d e n t s who d e s i r e d t o a t t e m p t U n i v e r s i t y w o r k , b u t w e r e n o t j u d g e d s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o m i s i n g t o j u s t i f y e d u c a t i n g them f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a t t h e p u b l i c e x p e n s e , c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o d e f r a y t h e c o s t of s u c h t r a i n -i n g t h e m s e l v e s . The l a r g e r h i g h s c h o o l s w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , c o n t i n u e t o o f f e r U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g . A d v a n t a g e s , The a d v a n t a g e s of s u c h a p l a n a r e many. Among them may be m e n t i o n e d : 1. The s m a l l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , r e l e a s e d f r o m t h e b u r d e n o f U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t i o n , w o u l d become a " g e n e r a l " s c h o o l , and c o u l d be more e a s i l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e n e e d s o f i t s p u p i l s . I t s e u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g w o u l d a l t e r c o n s i d e r a b l y : f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s and c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e m a t h e m a t i c s , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d p r o b a b l y be d r o p p e d f r o m i t s s c h e d u l e ; new c o u r s e s w o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a s t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y became e v i d e n t , and t h e s u b j e c t s r e m a i n i n g w o u l d c h a n g e b o t h i n t h e i r c o n t e n t and i n the t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d . C e r t a i n i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g teacher - t r a i n i n g are d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 8, S t u d e n t s who were a d m i t t e d t o t h e c e n t r a l b o a r d i n g - 101 -school would r e c e i v e a t r a i n i n g much s u p e r i o r to that which i s now given i n the s m a l l high s c h o o l . Working i n a homo-geneous group, c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r i t s a b i l i t y , s t i m u l a t e d by c o n t a c t with s t u d e n t s from a l l over the P r o v i n c e , taught by a h i g h l y - t r a i n e d s t a f f , and s u p e r v i s e d d u r i n g t h e i r hours of study and p l a y , these f o r t u n a t e boys and g i r l s c o u l d be expected to develop i n mental a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n a way which would j u s t i f y the c o n s i d e r a b l e expense Involved, both f o r the b e n e f i t s to the students themselves as p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s i n the development of the P r o v i n c e , and f o r i t s e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The Sc h o o l , even i f i t s b u i l d i n g s and equipment were not of the best, would probably r a p i d l y become one of the foremost i n the P r o v i n c e . 3. T h i s C e n t r a l Boarding s c h o o l would be a convenient and f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , F o r t h i s reason i t might be wise to a t t a c h i t to the U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g s c h o o l , where i t would s o l v e the pr e s e n t p r a c t i c e - t e a c h i n g problem of th a t i n s t i t u t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y model s c h o o l . T h i s step would a l s o make i t b e t t e r a v a i l a b l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and b r i n g the student i n c l o s e r contact w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n he Intends to e n t e r . Disadvantages. 1. The p r i n c i p a l disadvantage of t h i s p l a n i s that of expense. P r o v i s i o n would have to be made f o r the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n of the st u d e n t s to the s c h o o l , f o r t h e i r l i v i n g expenses th e r e , f o r the upkeep of the b u i l d i n g s and the purchase - 10g -of s u p p l i e s , and f o r the s a l a r i e s of an e f f i c i e n t s t a f f . The f u l l value of the i n s t i t u t i o n would not be r e a l i z e d i f a fee were eharged, as admission to the i n s t i t u t i o n should be on the basis of a b i l i t y o n l y . A g a i n s t t h i s i t may be p o i n t e d out that the expense could be reduced to a minimum by a l l o t t i n g to the students themselves such d u t i e s as the care of t h e i r d o r m i t o r i e s , the s e r v i n g of t h e i r meals, and so f o r t h . The t r a i n i n g value o f such d u t i e s s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d . Moreover, the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t from which a student came should be r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e towards h i s expenses. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e , though perhaps u n l i k e l y , t h a t some endowment might be forthcoming by p r i v a t e p h i l a n t h r o p y . S. Some s c h o o l boards might s e i z e on the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f such a p l a n , as an excuse to c u r t a i l the p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s on t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . The number of such s c h o o l boards i s not l i k e l y to be l a r g e , and a s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n of community o p i n i o n might prevent such a c t i o n i n any case. Even i f some s m a l l s c h o o l s were c l o s e d , the l o s s would not be great, as under the p r e s e n t system the c u r r i c u l a are l i m i t e d to U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y s u b j e c t s , which would be taken care of by the new s c h o o l . C o n c l u s i o n . The i n s t i t u t i o n of a C e n t r a l Boarding School to r e l i e v e the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l of the burden e n t a i l e d i n o f f e r i n g the U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y s u b j e c t s i s a promising - 103 -p l a n f o r the a t t a c k o f the pr e s e n t s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l problem. Though the d i f f i c u l t i e s are o b v i o u s l y great, the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g would be s u b s t a n t i a l . I t i s not contended that such an i n s t i t u t i o n should be immediately c r e a t e d : no great forward step should be h u r r i e d . I t i s here commended to the a t t e n t i o n of the a u t h o r i t i e s as w a r r a n t i n g a f u r t h e r and more d e t a i l e d study with a view to i t s p o s s i b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n , i f f e a s i b l e , should f u t u r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s be f a v o r a b l e . 104 -CHAPTER 8 THE PROBLEM OE THE TEACHER IN THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL. The S m a l l S c h o o l Teacher Problem  High Turnover ana i t s Remedy. (1) In an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r i t was shown that the tenure of the t e a c h e r i n the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l i s r e l a t i v e l y much s h o r t e r than that of the t e a c h e r i n the l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l . This s t a t e of f l u x i n the t e a c h e r p e r s o n n e l of the s m a l l high s c h o o l i s u n d e s i r a b l e , not only because of i t s e f f e c t on the s m a l l s c h o o l i t s e l f , but because i t i s evidence of the un-a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s . U n s t a b l e tenure i n the t e a c h i n g - p e r s o n n e l of a s m a l l s c h o o l means, f r e q u e n t l y , t h a t a permanent programme of s u b j e c t s to be o f f e r e d cannot be formulated, or i f formulated, \ Is l i k e l y to be c a r r i e d out by a teacher who i s not t r a i n e d to I teach the p a r t i c u l a r combination of s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d . E x t r a - t c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are, i n some cases, s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d ; a student self-government programme, or an arrangement of |j a t h l e t i c s , f o r example, i s l i k e l y t o be s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d by | a change of t e a c h e r s . I t i s sometimes unhealthy, too, that i methods of c o n t r o l should v a r y from year to year, or term to term. A l s o , c o n f u s i o n of s c h o o l records and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a teacher l e a r n i n g e a s i l y the a b i l i t y of a new c l a s s , or 3 (1) See Chap. 2. Pp. 16-25. (••{ m. - 105 -j u s t how f a r i t has p r o g r e s s e d , make a s t a b l e s t a f f h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e . Of c o u r s e , one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r f r e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e s t a f f o f s m a l l h i g h s e h o o l s i s t h e t e n d e n c y o f i n -e f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r s t o g r a v i t a t e t o t h e s e s c h o o l s , b e i n g u n a b l e t o h o l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n l a r g e r c e n t e r s , a n d t o move f r o m s c h o o l t o s c h o o l , r e m a i n i n g a y e a r o r so i n e a c h , and s t r i v i n g a l w a y s t o be "one jump a h e a d " o f t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n . H e nce a p e r f e c t l y s t a b l e s t a f f o f a l o w - g r a d e p e r s o n n e l i s n o t a l w a y s d e s i r a b l e , a s i t p u t s a p r e m i u m on i n e f f i c i e n c y , o r , a t l e a s t , d o e s n o t r e m e d y t h e c o n d i t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h o u g h i n e f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r s d o , o f c o u r s e , e x i s t , i t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t a h i g h t e a c h e r t u r n o v e r i s e v i d e n c e o f l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s t h a n a r e l a t i v e l y more s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n ; a n d a l s o t h a t a s c h o o l c a n n o t r e a c h i t s maximum e f f i c i e n c y i f i t s s t a f f i s i n a c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e o f f l u x . R e a s o n s f o r t h e C o n d i t i o n : t h e S o l u t i o n . S i n c e , on t h e w h o l e , t e a c h e r s do n o t s e e k new p o s i t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d i s c h a r g e d o r made t o f e e l unwelcome as o f t e n as f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s d e s i r e a c h a n g e , t h e h i g h t u r n o v e r o f t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l s c h o o l s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n s t h e s e o f f e r a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n a t t r a c t i v e . A l t h o u g h p u b l i c a p a t h y , p o o r b u i l d i n g s and s c a r c i t y o f e q u i p m e n t i n s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y h a v e some b e a r i n g on t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e c h i e f r e a s o n f o r t h e u n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s i s * 106 -t h e f a c t t h a t s a l a r i e s ^ a t t a c h e d t h e r e t o a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l -o f t e n p i t i f u l l y s o . The w r i t e r knows o f a p o s i t i o n i n a t h r e e - t e a c h e r h i g h s c h o o l , where i n 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 a s a l a r y o f §1000 w i l l be p a i d t o a t e a c h e r h o l d i n g a n A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e and c a p a b l e o f t e a c h i n g L a t i n . Human n a t u r e b e i n g what i t i s , i t i s n o t t o be w o n d e r e d a t t h a t v e r y many t e a c h e r s i n s m a l l s e h o o l s - h i g h and e l e m e n t a r y - r e g a r d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a s t e m p o r a r y o n l y , t o be v a c a t e d as s o o n a s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a h i g h e r s a l a r y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y l e a d s t o t h e c i t y w i t h i t s f i x e d s c h e d u l e o f i n c r e m e n t s . I f t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n p r e s e n t s t h e s i t u a t i o n t r u l y - and a l l i n d i c a t i o n s a r e i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n - t h e l i n e o f a p p r o a c h t o a remedy i s c l e a r . I f i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e r e be f o r m e d a b o d y o f t e a c h e r s who w i l l be c o n t e n t t o r e m a i n i n s m a l l s c h o o l s , t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s c o n s c i o u s l y t o meet t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e s e s c h o o l s p r e s e n t , and t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h t h e s e s c h o o l s s e r v e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y s a l a r i e s be a t t a c h e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s t h e r e i n , and we c a n s a y , w i t h some c e r t a i n t y , t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s , no s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f s c h o o l s i n s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s c a n be e f f e c t e d t i l l t h e s e s c h o o l s a r e made r e a s o n a b l y a t t r a c t i v e f r o m a s a l a r y p o i n t o f v i e w . A P r o v i n c i a l minimum S a l a r y S c h e d u l e i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . (1) See C h a p . 2. P p . 25-26. - 107 -The P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n i s to be c o n g r a t u l a t e d f o r h a v i n g a t t a c k e d t h i s problem, though judgment must be r e s e r v e d t i l l i t s s o l u t i o n i s made p u b l i c . Teacher T r a i n i n g f o r Small High S c h o o l s . There i s a c e r t a i n tendency i n f i x i n g the programme of t r a i n i n g f o r f u t u r e h i g h s c h o o l teachers, to lean towards i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , r e q u i r i n g a high academic s t a n d i n g i n a somewhat narrow f i e l d , with c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . How i n a l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l where the t e a c h i n g i s almost c o m p l e t e l y d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d , i t may be d e s i r a b l e that teachers be s p e c i a l i s t s i n the s u b j e c t s they teach. In s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , however, the amount of d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n i s much more l i m i t e d ; and the p o t e n t i a l t e a c h e r i n these s c h o o l s should a v o i d c o n f i n i n g h i s p r e p a r a t i o n to one or even two f i e l d s . The p r e s e n t one-room h i g h s c h o o l o b v i o u s l y does not allow any d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n whatever; and i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether any programme of t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g could f i t a teacher to a d m i n i s t e r such a s c h o o l e f f i c i e n t l y ; or Indeed, whether any c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of e f f i c i e n c y i s p o s s i b l e i n such a s c h o o l at best* With a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of these s c h o o l s such as i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 6, the s t a f f would c o n s i s t of at l e a s t two teachers. In t h i s case i t would be d e s i r a b l e that one of the teachers, p r o b a b l y a l a d y , be prepared to teach E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , F o r e i g n Language, and perhaps H e a l t h and - 108 -P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( G i r l s ) , while the oth e r teacher would be ent r u s t e d w i t h the Mathematics, P h y s i c s , Chemistry and P h y s i c a l Education (Boys), With a l a r g e r s t a f f than two-teachers, somewhat more d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e ; the same g e n e r a l d i v i s i o n s would e x i s t , however. I t w i l l be seen, t h e r e f o r e , that the teacher needs of s m a l l secondary s c h o o l s would best be p r o v i d e d f o r by p r e p a r i n g two g e n e r a l c l a s s e s of teacher, one of which i s equipped to teach the languages and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , the other of which i s t r a i n e d to teach Mathematics and S c i e n c e s . Handwork Teachers. There i s a r e a l need i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t e a c h e r s who can teach some of the aeademic s u b j e c t s , and a l s o some elementary work i n the Shop S u b j e c t s , Commercial Courses or Home Economics. In a three or f o u r - t e a c h e r high s c h o o l , where the t e a c h i n g l o a d i s reduced by the a l t e r n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , some time can be devoted to t h i s work, i f a s u i t a b l e teacher Can be secured. I f such s c h o o l s are combined with the l o c a l elementary s c h o o l or s c h o o l s , to form a combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l with a t o t a l s t a f f of f i v e or s i x teachers, i t i s almost e s s e n t i a l that one of the women and one of the men be able to teach some of the s o - c a l l e d " o p t i o n a l " s u b j e c t s . There are a l r e a d y , no doubt, teachers i n the Province whose experience or t r a i n i n g would enable them to f i t themselves f o r such p o s i t i o n s with but such l i t t l e f u r t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n as might be obtained i n a summer s c h o o l . I f any - 109 -(1) or a l l of the p o l i c i e s suggested e a r l i e r are adopted, the number of such t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d would l i k e l y be c o n s i d e r a b l e . I t would then be necessary to d i s c o v e r how many of these s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s are a v a i l a b l e ; the programmes of the P r o v i n c i a l Normal Schools or the U n i v e r s i t y T r a i n i n g School would a l s o have to be e n l a r g e d to permit teachers to t r a i n f o r t h i s s o r t of p o s i t i o n . I t can be noted here that i f a C e n t r a l Boarding School such as i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 7, were i n t r o d u c e d , and the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l were no l o n g e r o b l i g e d to p r o v i d e U n i v e r s i t y - p r e p a r a t o r y i n s t r u c t i o n , the type of teacher r e q u i r e d i n the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l would be c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t from that at p r e s e n t . Though no l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l would be r e q u i r e d , the c u r r i c u l u m would become l e s s adademic, both i n s u b j e c t - m a t t e r and methods of a t t a c k . I t would then be n e c e s s a r y to p r o v i d e f o r the t r a i n i n g of a new type of h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r ; and i t may be that a "sisfall s c h o o l s p e c i a l i s t n would deve l o p . (1) Chapter 6 - 110 -CHAPTER 9 THE PRINCIPAL OF THE SMALL HIGH SCHOOL, Importance e f the S m a l l High S c h o o l P r l n c i p a i s b . j p . The key p o s i t i o n s i n the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n are those h e l d by the P r i n c i p a l s . In many important ways, the •m a l l h i g h s c h o o l I s an e x p r e s s i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y of i t s P r i n c i p a l . Whether the a t t i t u d e to the s c h o o l o f the teachers and p u p i l s , o f the community and the S c h o o l Board, i s a h e a l t h y one or not depends to a great degree, though not e n t i r e l y , on h i s l e a d e r s h i p . So g r e a t are the i n t i m a c i e s of the s m a l l s c h o o l , t h a t the P r i n c i p a l ' s c o n t r o l extends even to the s m a l l e s t d e t a i l ; so c l o s e i s the r e l a t i o n between the s m a l l s c h o o l , i t s community and i t s S c h o o l Board, t h a t h i s o p i n i o n s and d e c i s i o n s are o f t e n o f supreme importance. Of course, the p r i n c i p a l s h i p of any hig h sehool i s the most important s i n g l e p o s i t i o n i n i t . Yet the importance ©f the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s h i p i s i n c r e a s e d somewhat because: ( l ) there i s r a r e l y a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t of sc h o o l s i n the s m a l l community, and some of the f u n c t i o n s of a s u p e r i n t e n -dent are n e c e s s a r i l y a t t a c h e d to the p r i n e i p a l s h i p ; and (2) •mall high sehools are f r e q u e n t l y so i s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y that t h e i r o n l y c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r high s c h o o l s are through the i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s o f the P r o v i n c i a l I n s p e c t o r . - I l l -fhe P r i n c i p a l aa Leader of h i s S e h o o l . l a g e n e r a l , P r i n c i p a l s belong to one o f two t y p e s . One type e f p r i a e i p a l i s the d i c t a t o r : he arranges the A school's o f f e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t s the t i m e - t a b l e , d e c i d e d promotion out l i s t s , w i th/the a d v i c e e f h i s t e a c h e r s . H i s t e a c h e r s ' meetings are I n f r e q u e n t , and, i n them f r e e e x p r e s s i o n of o p i n i o n i s (1) s t i f l e d . l a the words o f Johnson t h i s type o f p r i n c i p a l a c hieves a "mechanical e f f i c i e n c y " . The o t h e r type o f P r i n c i p a l regards h i m s e l f as c h i e f of a band o f co-workers, as f i r s t among e q u a l s . He makes no important d e c i s i o n without c o n s u l t i n g h i s s t a f f : he takes c a r e t h a t no t e a c h e r should have reason to a v o i d g i v i n g him h i s f u l l e s t c o n f i d e n c e ; h i s t e a c h e r s ' meetings are f r e q u e n t aad c h a r a c t e r i z e d above e v e r y t h i n g e l s e by p e r f e c t frankness o f d i s c u s s i o n . The many reasons f o r p r e f e r r i n g the l a t t e r type of p r i n c i p a l a p p l y w i t h e s p e c i a l f o r c e to the s m a l l s c h o o l * i t s very s m a l l a e s s makes i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t the s t a f f should work as a u n i t . One of the g r e a t handicaps to e f f i c i e n t I n s t r u c t i o n i n the s m a l l h i g h s e h o o l i s the l a c k of s u p e r v i s i o n of t e a c h i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l I n s p e c t o r i s r a r e l y able to v i s i t a s e h o o l more thaa twice a year and f r e q u e n t l y i n s p e c t s a s c h o o l o n l y once. The P r i n c i p a l must devote most of h i s time t o p u r e l y t e a c h i n g (1) Johnson, F. W., "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n aad S u p e r v i s i o n o f the High S c h o o l . " P. 86. Ginn and So., New York, 19 25. - 112 -d i t t i e s ; among the seventeen l a r g e h i g h s e h o o l s which answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d In c o n n e c t i o n with t h i s study, the average number of p e r i o d s which the p r i n c i p a l r e p o r t e d as f r e e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n was f i f t e e n per week; among the t h i r t y -s m a l l e i g h t / h i g h s e h o o l s , the average number of p e r i o d s per week not devoted to t e a c h i n g d u t i e s was a l i t t l e l e s s than two. Con-sequently, i n the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s u p e r v i s i o n , as such, can-not e x i s t . The appointment of a number o f D i r e c t o r s o f Education, each to have j u r i s d i c t i o n over a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f t e a c h e r s , would make e f f e c t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n p o s s i b l e , (1) T h i s s t e p , recommended by the Putman-Weir Sehool Survey dees not seem p r o b a b l e f o r some time to come. Consequently, the t e a c h e r s * meeting and i n d i v i d u a l conference assume an added importance i n s m a l l s c h o o l s . While the p r e c i s e way these are t r e a t e d w i l l v e r y from s c h o o l to s e h o o l a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c problems to be c o n f r o n t e d , there i s one r e q u i s i t e to f u l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and t h a t i s t h a t they should be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p e r f e c t l y democratic freedom • f d i s c u s s i o n . L o y a l t y to the s e h o o l , to the P r i n c i p a l and ether t e a c h e r s , as w e l l as the s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to problems ®f c o n t r o l , promotion, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n , develop n a t u r a l l y from t e a e h e r s * meetings and conferences where there i s ne r e s t r a i n t upon d i s c u s s i o n . The p o l i c y , advocated by some w r i t e r s , of p l a n n i n g a year's t e a c h e r s * meetings i n advance and c e n t e r i n g them (1) op. C i t . Pp. 240 - 244. - 113 -around some e d u c a t i o n a l t o p i c , i s p r o b a b l y a d e s i r a b l e on© i n many l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s * In the s m a l l h i g h Bchool, however, where the s t a f f I s a l r e a d y o v e r l o a d e d with the d u t i e s of i n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , and where teach e r s meetings must take the p l a c e of s u p e r v i s i o n i n c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work of the s e h o o l , i t w i l l l i k e l y be necessary to devote these meetings to the s o l u t i o n of c o n c r e t e problems. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s ' meetings i n a s m a l l high s e h o o l i s s i m p l e . They sh o u l d be o f r e g u l a r occurrence -once or twice a month i s suggested. A l s o , the t o p i c s to be c o n s i d e r e d s h o u l d not be l e f t to the spur of the moment; i t w i l l not be d i f f i c u l t f o r the P r i n c i p a l to see each teacher f o r a few minutes two o r t h r e e days b e f o r e the meeting, to inform him of the p r o b a b l e s u b j e c t s of d i s c u s s i o n , and to a s c e r t a i n i f he has any a d d i t i o n a l matter which should come before the meeting. As l o n g as the purpose o f the meeting i s c l e a r , and the d i s c u s s i o n i s not a l l o w e d to degenerate i n t o mere t a l k about i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , i t w i l l be best t h a t the meeting be eondueted q u i t e i n f o r m a l l y . The P l a c e of the P r i n c i p a l i n a Programme of Reform. Of n e c e s s i t y , the success of any p o l i c y f o r the betterment of the s m a l l secondary s c h o o l w i l l depend v e r y g r e a t l y on the i n t e l l i g e n t c o o p e r a t i o n of P r i n c i p a l s of these s c h o o l s . These men must be thoroughly convinced that reform i s necessary, and t h a t the p o l i c y i n q u e s t i o n i s a f e a s i b l e - 114 -one, f o r o n l y through them can the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the h i g h sehool be a f f e c t e d , or the t e a c h e r reached. *i*he support of S c h o o l Boards and communities g e n e r a l l y , can b e s t be secured and r e t a i n e d by the h i g h s e h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . Any programme i n v o l v i n g the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l must, t h e r e f o r e , b e g i n w i t h the e d u c a t i o n of the P r i n c i p a l , Moreover the P r i n c i p a l must hare some p a r t i n f r a m i n g the Programme; knowing i n t i m a t e l y the problems o f the s m a l l s c h o o l , he i s best equipped t o f o r e s e e d i f f i c u l t i e s and suggest s o l u t i o n s , t h o r o u g h l y conversant with the s p i r i t and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t e d reform, and c o n v i n c e d of i t s e f f i c a c y , he can then approach h i s s t a f f , h i s Sehool Board and h i s community, and secure t h e i r maximum c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the improvement of h i s s c h o o l . Records. We have seen t h a t the P r i n c i p a l of the S m a l l High Sehool c a r r i e s , In the m a j o r i t y of cases, q u i t e a heavy t e a c h -i n g l o a d ; t h i s , w i t h the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s c h o o l , the meeting o f p a r e n t s , c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h t e a c h e r s , s t a f f meetings and the s u p e r v i s i o n of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , makes him an extremely busy and sometimes r a t h e r harassed o f f i c i a l . Consequently, the s c h o o l r e c o r d s kept should be reduced to a minimum, and so planned t h a t a good d e a l of the c l e r i c a l work i n v o l v e d can be d e l e g a t e d to the o t h e r t e a c h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s q u i t e e s s e n t i a l to the e f f i c i e n c y ©f the s c h o o l t h a t c e r t a i n minimum r e c o r d s be kept; and the most - 115 -important are those which keep t r a c k of the s c h o o l c a r e e r o f each i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . The aims of t h i s type o f r e c o r d are, i n generals 1* To make i t p o s s i b l e t o t e l l of any student, when he cat e r e d and l e f t , what s u b j e c t s he s t u d i e d and what marks he made t h e r e i n , q u i c k l y and c o n v e n i e n t l y , 2, To a l l o w ehanges i n t e a c h e r s or P r i n c i p a l to take plaee w i t h a minimum e f c o n f u s i o n . One of the t e s t s of e f f i c i e n c y which a P r i n c i p a l might w e l l apply to h i m s e l f from time to time i s whether h i s s e h o o l i s so o r g a n i z e d and h i s re c o r d s so w e l l kept, t h a t another p e r s o n might take h i s p l a c e at s h o r t n o t i c e w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r r u p t i o n i n the smoothness of the s c h o o l * s f u n c t i o n i n g . Two kinds of r e c o r d are nece s s a r y f o r a complete r e a l i z a t i o n of the above aims; these a r e : ( l ) G l a s s sheets, and (s) the p u p i l s * i n d i v i d u a l f o l d e r s or r e c o r d c a r d s . By " c l a s s s h e e t s * i s meant a l i s t of the students i n a c l a s s , and the marks eaeh student makes i n eaeh of h i s sub j e c t s i n the v a r i o u s examinations h e l d throughout the year. I f examinations are h e l d f o u r times a year, as i s u s u a l , there w i l l be f o u r c l a s s s h e e t s . Some sueh form as below i s s u i t a b l e - I I S -SUBJECTS ©BADE X, OCTOBER, « © 1932. 0 •rt !3 4» w H at •rt © O 03 « u 0 4 » at U 0 4* •ri •4 o • H 4 » •rt oa o Pt o o Algebra Geometry © 0. e ri rt © • H © •0 o a o •rt © 4» H © © H at 4» o Average Mi 0 © Anderson, Thomas Barns, L o u i s e Casaidy, George e t e . A t the end of the s e h o o l year, when examinations are ever, and promotions have been decided, the C l a s s Sheets of eaeh e l a s s f o r the year are f i l e d t ogether, and with them a l i s t o f a l l of the students of the c l a s s s t a t i n g when they entered, whether they l e f t d u r i n g the year and, i f so, f o r what reason, and whether they were promoted, somewhat as f e l l o w s : GRADE X June, 1953, Anderson, Thoma| Burns, L o u i s e Gassidy, George ete, E n t e r e d Oct. 15, 1932; l e f t E a s t e r 1933, To work E n t e r e d Sept. 1, 1932; Promoted to Grade XI, E n t e r e d Sept. 1, 1932; Promoted on P r o b a t i o n . The c l a s s sheets and f i n a l l i s t c o n s t i t u t e a complete r e c o r d of the c l a s s f o r the s c h o o l y e a r . They are Placed on f i l e f o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e when o c c a s i o n a r i s e s . - 11? -When f i l i n g i t i s a d v i s a b l e to keep a l l the sheets o f a given e l a s s t o g e t h e r year a f t e r y e a r . They can he l a b e l l e d , f o r i n s t a n c e : C l a s s e n t e r i n g , September, 1931: S r . 9:- 1931-32: §r. 10:- 32-33: S r . 11:- 33-34: Gr. 12:- 34-35: Graduate June, 1935. The r e c o r d of the work of the c l a s s f o r the whole of i t s h i g h s c h o o l e a r e e r i s then a v a i l a b l e q u i c k l y and e a s i l y . FmnliM) f o l d e r or I n d i v i d u a l Record Card. In c o n j u n c t i o n with these sheets, some form of p u p i l * s i n d i v i d u a l f o l d e r or card i s d e s i r a b l e . The w r i t e r i s i n c l i n e d to f a v o r a f o l d e r , f o r the reason t h a t much more m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g to i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s can be f i l e d t h e r e i n , A simple and i n e x p e n s i v e device i s to use sheets of mimeograph paper, s i z e about 8§-n x 11". A form can be mimeographed on eaeh sheet i f a d u p l i c a t i n g maehine i s a v a i l a b l e ; i t can then b f o l d e d , a l i t t l e below the middle so t h a t a p a r t o f the sheet i s l e f t p r o j e c t i n g f o r the student's name. In the f o l d e r thus formed, much m a t e r i a l can be f i l e d t h a t cannot be kept elsewhere as c o n v e n i e n t l y . For example: 1, The p u p i l ' s Elementary S c h o o l P r o g r e s s Card. 2. The p u p i l ' s H i g h S c h o o l Report Cards when they are r e t u r n e d to the s c h o o l . 3* I f a student has come from another s c h o o l , h i s t r a n s f e r s l i p , diploma or oth e r c r e d e n t i a l . 4. In c e r t a i n c a s e s , i t i n a d v i s a b l e i f a student i s a d i f f i c u l t d i s c i p l i n a r y problem, to p l a c e i n h i s f o l d e r - 118 -notes of h i s misdemeanours, thus accumulating a store of i n f o r m a t i o n to be used as evidence should i t ever become d e s i r a b l e to convince the Board t h a t d r a s t i c a c t i o n such as e x p u l s i o n i s necessary* C e r t a i n o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n can be w r i t t e n on the i n s i d e o f the f o l d e r i t s e l f * In d e c i d i n g what data are to be preserved thus, the tendency to keep r e c o r d s f o r records* sake must be avoided, and o n l y u t i l i t y should be c o n s i d e r e d . Such i n f o r m a t i o n as the f o l l o w i n g , however, can be pr e s e r v e d : 1. S t u d e n t ' s name, n a t i o n a l i t y , date and p l a c e of b i r t h , and address; and the same i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p a r e n t s . 2. I n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t r e s u l t s , i f any* 3* Date o f e n t e r i n g ; date o f l e a v i n g * 4* S c h o o l l a s t attended* At the end of the s c h o o l year, the f o l d e r s o f each c l a s s should be brought up to date, by w r i t i n g i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space, whether or not the student i s promoted t o the next grade* I f t h i s i s done, i t can r e a d i l y be seen i n what c l a s s the student i s e n r o l l e d ; and the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d ant marks made are e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e by r e f e r e n c e to the c l a s s sheet. I t should not, t h e r e f o r e , be necessary to place t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on the f o l d e r * The f o l d e r s can be f i l e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n a s u i t a b l e box or drawer. F i v e compartments w i l l be necessary: one f o r •ach of the grades, and one f o r students who are no lon g e r attending the s e h o o l . I t should be c l e a r from the above d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t - 119 -an i n d i v i d u a l f o l d e r ean be put to more uses than a r e c o r d cardj much i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would otherwise r e q u i r e s p e c i a l f i l i n g d evices can be kept t h e r e i n . S i n c e l a b o r i n the keeping of records should be reduced to a minimum, e s p e c i a l l y i n s m a l l sehools, i t i s the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r that these s c h o o l s would be w e l l a d v i s e d to adopt the p l a n of u s i n g f o l d e r s s i m i l a r , i n a g e n e r a l way at l e a s t , to those d e s c r i b e d above. The keeping of these r e c o r d s i s thus q u i t e simple, and should be d e l e g a t e d to the home-room te a c h e r s ; the P r i n c i p a l should eare o n l y f o r the r e c o r d s o f the c l a s s he h i m s e l f e n r o l l s , I f any. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i s always a v e x i n g one i n the s m a l l s c h o o l . I n f l u e n c e d on one hand by a n a t u r a l d e s i r e to make s c h o o l l i f e as a t t r a c t i v e and worthwhile to the stu d e n t as p o s s i b l e , and on the other by a r e l u c t a n c e to burden f u r t h e r an a l r e a d y overloaded s t a f f , the P r i n c i p a l has c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e c i d i n g which a c t i v i t i e s to s t i m u l a t e and f o s t e r . Some data r e g a r d i n g e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were gathered by means of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n connection with t h i s study. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s analysed i n Tables XIX and XX ., and shown more c l e a r l y i n F i g u r e 7 • I t w i l l be seen that f a r the most p o p u l a r form of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y i s a t h l e t l e s . Some s c h o o l s , o f course, r e p o r t e d a more v a r i e d a t h l e t i c programme than o t h e r s , though a l l sehools r e p o r t i n g - 120 -any a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s whatever, are i n c l u d e d i n the t a b l e , The next i n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y i s Dramatics i n a l l except the S u p e r i o r S c h o o l s , where L i t e r a r y Clubs rank h i g h e r ; i t i s to be noted, however, t h a t i n most s m a l l sehools, the L i t e r a r y Clubs engage i n some Dramatic a c t i v i t i e s . Sehool P u b l i c a t i o n , SsIf-government and Debates are a l l c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s f requent than e i t h e r a t h l e t i c s or Dramatics. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t i c e t h a t , even among the l a r g e High S c h o o l s , fewer than h a l f allow student s e l f -government; a p p a r e n t l y our p r i n c i p a l s do not approach unanimity i n t h e i r h e l i e f i n the value of t h i s work. In a l l a c t i v i t i e s except Debates, the Large High Sehool enjoys a f a v o r e d p o s i t i o n compared w i t h the s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n . The amount of d e b a t i n g c a r r i e d on i n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and i n L i t e r a r y Clubs i s not known; hence, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n would show our f i g u r e s to be i n a c c u r a t e with r e g a r d to t h i s form of a c t i v i t y . There are many reasons f o r t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of the s m a l l high s c h o o l . We have seen i n Chapter 5 t h a t the heavy t e a c h i n g l o a d of the o r d i n a r y teacher i n these s c h o o l s makes a c o m p a r a t i v e l y narrow c u r r i c u l u m n e c e s s a r y . E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s must be very much r e s t r i c t e d f o r the same reasons. A l s o , the f a c t t h a t many students a t t e n d i n g s m a l l schools l i v e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e away, and the n e c e s s i t y f o r a l a r g e number of r u r a l c h i l d r e n to work at home, means - 121 -TABUS XIX S x t r a - e u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s Engaged i n by 75 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Secondary Sehools Eype e f A c t i v i t y Sumber o f S c h o o l s Engaging i n : of 1? o f 38 of 20 Large H.S. Small E.S. S u p e r i o r Sehools A t h l e t i c s : I n t e r - S c h o o l 17 25 12 I n t r a - M u r a l 16 32 11 Self-Government: S 12 2 Sehool P u b l i c a t i o n : A n n u a l l y 4 3 0 Oftener than A n n u a l l y 3 5 2 Dramatics: P u b l i c Performance 10 15 2 Non-Public 6 3 1 Debates: (Club or I n t e r - c l a s s ) 5 13 3 Clubs: L i t e r a r y 7 6 5 S c i e n c e 5 1 0 S c h o o l S e r v i c e (Hi-Y, etc 4 0 1 Slee Club & O r c h e s t r a 4 2 0 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 2 5 1 /JT£,B-&'OH0OC, Ift-S^MOOC, ll3FIMf\Tt<ZO JC.H.8. a .H.s s.s, SMS, <$.<S, 3.H-& SO. S.H.S. 83. SHO-CKS. QjZUE> TU2>&nT SMS. &3. ZO 40 <?0 GO TO QO SO too or 3><ZHOOC$ &rfG-fl<zmG in C frteTrfin / 7 c TI v/ TI / T o - . *Z - 122 -TABLE XX Percentages e f Seheola o f D i f f e r e n t S i z e s Engaging i a C e r t a i n E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s U f 75 Sehools R e p o r t i n g ) . type o f A c t i v i t y P e r c e n t o f Schools of 17 Large H.S, of 38 S m a l l H.S. Of 20 S u p e r i o r Schools A t h l e t i e s : I n t e r - S c h o o l I n t r a - K u r a l 100 94 61 84 60 55 Self-Government: 4? 31 10 School P u b l i c a t i o n : 59 21 10 Dramatics: 84 47 15 Debates: 29 34 15 L i t e r a r y C lub 41 16 25 that o f t e n i f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are to be engaged i n time must be taken out o f the s c h o o l day. And i t i s p o i n t e d out above t h a t the teae h e r * s sehool-day i s a l r e a d y too f u l l . I t has o f t e n been argued t h a t i f e x t r a - e u r r i c u l a r work i s a l e g i t i m a t e s e h o o l e n t e r p r i s e , time f o r i t ought to be provided i n the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l schedule. There i s a good d e a l t© be s a i d f o r t h i s view. Our p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n of the teaching l o a d , however, should make i t c l e a r t h a t no s c h o o l time i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose i n the s m a l l high s c h o o l , and that such a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the t i m e - t a b l e , only i f a c o n s i d e r a b l e readjustment Were made i n the B r i t i s h Columbia High S c h o o l Programme of S t u d i e s . T h i s b e i n g so, a S u p e r i o r Sehool or a one or two-- 123 -teacher High S c h o o l c o u l d h a r d l y be blamed I f , under present c o n d i t i o n s , no e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were f o s t e r e d by i t . - The f a c t t h a t many such s c h o o l s do engage i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r work - i n some cases, q u i t e e x t e n s i v e - speaks w e l l f o r the enthusiasm and energy of the teachers concerned. I f e i t h e r of the p o l i c i e s of reform d e s c r i b e d i n Chapters S and 7 were inau g u r a t e d , some of the time thus made a v a i l a b l e might w e l l be used f o r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r work. * In l a r g e r s e h o o l s , the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t e a c h i n g l o a d which determine the e u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g a p p l y with equal f o r c e to o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s . The t e a c h e r of E n g l i s h , f o r example, w i l l be a l r e a d y burdened wi t h a good d e a l of c o r r e c t i o n of e x e r c i s e s , and p r o b a b l y w i t h the care o f the s e h o o l l i b r a r y ; the P r i n c i p a l might w e l l h e s i t a t e before a s k i n g t h i s teacher to undertake the s u p e r v i s i o n of a s c h o o l paper or magazine. The Science t e a c h e r i s u n l i k e l y to have f r e e p e r i o d s f o r the necessary work of the l a b o r a t o r y ; i f any a t h l e t i c coaching i s to be a s s i g n e d to him, t h i s f a c t should be c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t a t h r e e - t e a c h e r sehool should not engage i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I t does mean, however, t h a t such work n e c e s s i t a t e s c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c h o o l , and t h o u g h t f u l p l a n n i n g of the programme of a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t such work as l i b r a r y and l a b o r a t o r y r o u t i n e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s d e l e g a t e d to students wherever p o s s i b l e , and so t h a t the amount of s u p e r v i s i o n accessary f o r the e x t r a - e u r r i e u l a r a c t i v i t i e s themselves i s - 124 -reduced t o a minimum. A t h l e t i c s . Of the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s we have d i s c u s s e d , only one, a t h l e t i e s , i s l i k e l y to i n v o l v e c o m p e t i t i o n between sc h o o l s , fhe w r i t e r wishes to take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y o f express-i n g h i s o p i n i o n i n f a v o r o f i n t r a - m u r a l as opposed to i n t e r -sehool a t h l e t i c s . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t h a t the aims o f an a t h l e t i c programme sho u l d be the development of a h e a l t h i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , and o f r i g h t a t t i t u d e s of c o - o p e r a t i o n and u n s e l f i s h n e s s through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n team games. I f t h i s be admitted, i t f o l l o w s t h a t s c h o o l a t h l e t i e s should be organized to allow as many s t u d e n t s as p o s s i b l e to take p a r t . Where, then, a c h o i c e must be made between i n t e r - s c h o o l and i n t r a -mural games, the l a t t e r ought t o be s e l e c t e d ; where both v a r i e t i e s o f a t h l e t i e s may be engaged i n , i t i s a matter of emphasis, and c e r t a i n l y the a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the s c h o o l deserve f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The development of r e l a t i v e l y few good a t h l e t e s at the expense of the many mediocre p l a y e r s i s undemocratic, s i n c e the s e l e c t i o n i s based on mere p h y s i c a l prowess* I t i s to be remarked, too, t h a t the i n t e n s e com-p e t i t i o n and g r e a t p h y s i c a l e f f o r t which o f t e n r e s u l t from a s e r i e s of games between d i f f e r e n t sehools are l i k e l y to be i n j u r i o u s to the h e a l t h of growing boys and g i r l s . O r g a n i z i n g of an A t h l e t i c Programme. In s p e a k i n g of a t h l e t i c s w i t h i n a s c h o o l , we have - 185 -used the term " i m t r a - m u r a l " i n s t e a d of the more common " i n t e r -c l a s s " ; t h i s i s because i n a s m a l l s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n between c l a s s e s or grades i s f r e q u e n t l y not the best arrangement. Since there i s o r d i n a r i l y o n l y one c l a s s i n each grade, one c l a s s team i s l i k e l y to be r e l a t i v e l y much s t r o n g e r than any of the o t h e r s ; a l s o the f i r s t year c l a s s i s u s u a l l y the l a r g e s t , so t h a t some s t u d e n t s i n t h a t grade are not able to p a r t i c i p a t e , l o r these reasons an " i n t e r - h o u s e " p l a n or other s i m i l a r arrange-ment i s almost always d e s i r a b l e . In the i n t e r - h o u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s c h o o l i s d i v i d e d i n t o three or more "houses", the students being grouped v e r t i c a l l y i n s t e a d of h o r i z o n t a l l y , as they are i n c l a s s e s . Competition i n v a r i o u s s p o r t s i s then between houses. This p l a n has the advantage t h a t the same o r g a n i z a t i o n can be used f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s ; debates are between houses, or, i f the s c h o o l i s to p r e s e n t a dramatic programme, c e r t a i n items can be a l l o t e d to eaeh house; t h i s scheme i s a l s o s u i t a b l e to a system of self-government. Another method o f o r g a n i z i n g a t h l e t i e s , i s l e s s formal and, w h i l e not a p p l y i n g to o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , has the advantage of p e r m i t t i n g easy adjustment to ensure teams o f equal a b i l i t y . A l l the students who are to take p a r t i n Boys* B a s k e t b a l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , gather t o g e t h e r a f t e r s c h o o l ; the teacher i n eharge then determines how many teams are to be formed, by a l l o w i n g seven or e i g h t boys to a team. The boys e l e c t c a p t a i n s ; i f there are to be three teams, the group - 126 -S l e e t s t h r e e c a p t a i n s . The c a p t a i n s draw l o t s f o r f i r s t c h o i c e , and proceed to choose teams i n the a n c i e n t " s a n d l o t " f a s h i o n , eaeh c a p t a i n s e l e c t i n g a hoy i n t u r n t i l l a l l are p l a c e d . I f i n the course of the league one team develops a marked s u p e r i o r i t y to the o t h e r s , the coach may r e p l a c e one or more o f the p l a y e r s on t h a t team wi t h boys from one of the other squads; o r , i f i t seems d e s i r a b l e , a new league may be formed, by s e l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t c a p t a i n s and teams as b e f o r e . This i s o f t e n a d v i s a b l e as i t allows more boys to t a s t e of l e a d e r s h i p . I n an i n t r a - m u r a l league, the t e a c h e r r a r e l y has to complain o f l a c k of i n t e r e s t ; i n f a c t i t very f r e q u e n t l y happens t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n becomes so keen t h a t the teams do not wish to j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r chances of winning by a l l o w i n g t h e i r weaker p l a y e r s to take p a r t , and the " s u b s t i t u t e s " do not get i n t o many games. Sinee these p l a y e r s are the very ones who most need to p a r t i c i p a t e , i t i s w e l l i n such cases to p r e s c r i b e a "Schedule of S u b s t i t u t i o n s " ; to do t h i s , the p l a y e r s i n each team are ranked i n o r d e r of t h e i r a b i l i t y , and a t a b l e i s drawn up f i x i n g the games i n which each p l a y e r i s to p a r t i c i -pate, and so arranged t h a t each boy p l a y s approximately the same number of " h a l v e s " or " q u a r t e r s " d u r i n g the league; f o r example, i n a c e r t a i n game, between teams "A" and "B", the Schedule of S u b s t i t u t i o n s w i l l show t h a t p l a y e r s Number 2 and 1 are to remain out i n the f i r s t h a l f of the game, and p l a y e r s number 4 and 7 the second h a l f . T h i s deviee, while somewhat - IE? -eumbersome, ensures p e r f e c t j u s t i c e to a l l the boys. I t i s a d v i s a b l e , i f u s i n g such a schedule, to leave the team c a p t a i n free to decide when he h i m s e l f w i l l p l a y and to r u l e t h a t the c a p t a i n may d e c i d e t h a t any p l a y e r on h i s team may be sub-s t i t u t e d f o r him whenever he sees f i t . I t o f t e n happens i n a s m a l l s c h o o l t h a t there are two d i s t i n c t groups of boys, ©no composed of students much bigge r and more e x p e r t i n games than the o t h e r . In such cases, i t i s d e s i r a b l e , i f p o s s i b l e , e i t h e r t h a t two d i f f e r e n t leagues be formed; o r , s i n c e the b i g g e r boys are g e n e r a l l y fewer i n number, t h a t one team of b i g boys be formed and entered i n c o m p e t i t i o n with o t h e r s c h o o l s or with other teams i n the community. I f something of t h i s s o r t i s done, the b i g g e r boys may be taught to r e f e r e e the games of the s m a l l e r , whieh i s v a l u a b l e t r a i n i n g f o r the students themselves, and makes the t e a c h e r ' s work somewhat l e s s onerous. In G e n e r a l . The d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s has been m o s t l y concerned with a t h l e t i c s , not because these are the most important, but because the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g such a programme are so much g r e a t e r than i n other a c t i v i t i e s . More time i s g e n e r a l l y necessary and more stndents o r d i n a r i l y take p a r t . The teacher-work i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i s p r o b a b l y q u i t e as great, but the problems to be solved are not u s u a l l y as c o m p l i c a t e d ; the w r i t e r f e e l s that he •an add l i t t l e t h a t i s new to the voluminous l i t e r a t u r e concern-ing them. - 3.28 CHAPTER 10 THE CONSTRUCTION OP A TIM'S TABLE. I n t r o d u c t i o n I f the purpose of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the p r o v i s i o n of a smoothly-running s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t the primary f u n c t i o n of the s c h o o l , namely t e a c h i n g , can proceed as e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t one of the most important t a s k s of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a * t i m e - t a b l e , or, as i t i s sometimes c a l l e d , a schedule of r e c i t a t i o n s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the acknowledged importance of the t i m e - t a b l e , the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t i s q u i t e l i m i t e d , CD To quote P u c k e t t "There are a number of e x p l a n a t i o n s of the l a c k of t h i s type of m a t e r i a l which would be h e l p f u l f o r the one who has t h i s duty of schedule making t h r u s t upon him. Probably the most important one i s the f a c t t h a t the men i n the secondary f i e l d who have gained the g r e a t e s t experience i n t h i s l i n e are too busy to w r i t e a n y t h i n g about i t . Another i s the great v a r i a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e found i n the d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , which leads many p r i n c i p a l s to f e e l t h a t every s i t u a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s , so t h a t the method of schedule making used i n one p l a c e w i l l not work i n another. A t h i r d reason, p o s s i b l e , i s the d i f f i c u l t y o f e x p l a i n i n g a procedure i n terms which can be understood by one who i s not f a m i l i a r with the p a r t i c u l a r system." Most books on High S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n devote a chapter to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t i m e - t a b l e ; yet suggested procedures are not d i s c u s s e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l to be u s e f u l ( l ) P u c k e t t , B.C., "Making a High Sch o o l Schedule o f R e c i t a t i o n s . " Pp.2-3 Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1931, - 129 » to the P r i n c i p a l who has a t i m e - t a b l e problem to s o l v e . The (1) best book i n the f i e l d i s t h a t o f Puekett quoted above. However, even t h i s book, sound as i t i s , w i l l not be found to be very h e l p f u l to the P r i n c i p a l of a s m a l l high s e h o o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The reasons f o r t h i s a re, among o t h e r s : 1. Most st u d e n t s i n American High Schools c a r r y o n l y four c l a s s e s per s c h o o l day. Students i n B r i t i s h Columbia c a r r y , as a r u l e , s i x or more c l a s s e s per day. 2. Many American h i g h s c h o o l s a s s i g n each teacher o n l y f i v e s u b j e c t c l a s s e s a day, though Mathematics teachers o f t e n have s i x . In a g r e a t number of high sehools i n B r i t i s h Columbia, even among l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s , t eachers must teach every p e r i o d of every day; and, as we have seen, d o u b l e - c l a s s e s are f r e q u e n t l y scheduled i n s m a l l s c h o o l s . 3. Most c l a s s e s In American h i g h sehools meet every day, - i . e . f i v e times per week; consequently, the same time t a b l e can be used f o r each day i n the week, with but minor a d j u s t -ments to care f o r l o n g l a b o r a t o r y and shop p e r i o d s . A very few (2) s u b j e c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia High Schools are given f o r • x a c t l y f i v e p e r i o d s a week; consequently the s c h o o l t i m e - t a b l e must be made f o r the whole week. Obviously, i t s complexity i s thereby g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . F o r the above reasons, the p r i n c i p a l o f a s m a l l h i g h •©heel i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l f i n d t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of (1) op. c i t . (2) See Appendix "D". - 130 - & a t i m e - t a b l e i s a t a s k which he must s o l v e without much o u t s i d e a i d . A few s u g g e s t i o n s , a r i s i n g out of the experience of the w r i t e r , are p r e s e n t e d here merely f o r guidance i n a t t a c k i n g the problem, N e c e s s i t y o f an E a r l y S t a r t , " I t s h o u l d be the aim of the p r i n c i p a l when h i s s c h o o l assembles f o r the new semester to have each p u p i l with h i s schedule i n h i s hand, each teacher with c l a s s l i s t s on h i s desk, and a l l p u p i l s a s s i g n e d to rooms f o r r e c i t a t i o n and study i n s e c t i o n s o f s u i t a b l e s i z e . " (1) The above q u o t a t i o n p i c t u r e s w e l l the way i n which an e f f i c i e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d s c h o o l opens the f a l l term. Every c o n s c i e n t i o u s p r i n c i p a l w i l l wish h i s s c h o o l to escape the c o n f u s i o n and l o s t time which are i n e v i t a b l e i f a s u i t a b l e schedule has not been prepared before the s c h o o l opens. Assembling of Data, To do t h i s , i t w i l l be necessary to c o l l e c t i n the s p r i n g term the data n e c e s s a r y to p l a n n i n g the s c h o o l ' s programme f o r the f o l l o w i n g year. In very s m a l l s c h o o l s , the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y w i l l be l i t t l e and e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e ; few or no o p t i o n s ar© u s u a l l y o f f e r e d , and the approximate s i z e of the incoming Grade 9 e l a s s can be f o r e c a s t with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . In somewhat l a r g e r s c hools some or a l l of the f o l l o w -ing s t e p s w i l l p r o b a b l y have to be taken: 1. The c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g of the s c h o o l f o r the f o l l o w -ing year must be determined by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t e a c h i n g (1) Johnson, o p . e i t . P. 232. - 131 -power of the s t a f f i n numbers and p r e p a r a t i o n . 2. I f o p t i o n s are to be g i v e n i n the upper years, i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y to d i s c o v e r the number o f students i n each s e c t i o n . 3. X'he s i z e of the incoming Grade 9 c l a s s must be known f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y : i f o p t i o n s are to be o f f e r e d i n Grade 9, the approximate number of students who w i l l take each o p t i o n ean be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h the e o - o p e r a t i o n of the Elementary S c h o o l . Of these the f i r s t i s the most important, and i s l i k e l y to be the most p e r p l e x i n g , i f the s i t u a t i o n Is at a l l c o m p l i c a t e d . In d e c i d i n g what o p t i o n s , i f any, are to be o f f e r e d , a t e n t a t i v e p l a n f o r s e v e r a l years to f o l l o w must be kept i n mind; i t i s obvious, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t i n making L a t i n o p t i o n a l i n Grade 9, the sehool i s committed to the p r o v i s i o n of t h i s s u b j e e t to the c l a s s f o r f o u r ; y e a r s , u n t i l these s t u d e n t s have graduated. P r i n c i p l e s governing the e u r r i e u l a r o f f e r i n g of s e h o o l s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4. When the s e h o o l programme f o r the f o l l o w i n g year i s decided, i t should be reeorded i n some convenient way such as the f o l l o w i n g : (A s e v e n - p e r i o d day i s assumed.) - 132 -grade 9 s fir ad e 10: A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 perds. A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 perds, S o e - S t ' R ^ See.St. 5 • Math. 6 tt B P . l . 1 « " H e a l t h 1 » j| French 4 « Chem. 5 " c. . 5 Math. 6 P.E. 3 H e a l t h 1 Gen.Sc. 3 Fre n c h 4 26 < O p t i o n a l L a t i n 4 A r t 3 30 29 26 O p t i o n a l L a t i n 4 30 P h y s i c s 5 31 Srade 11: A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 pe r d s . Soc.St.-3 * P.E. 1 » H e a l t h 1 » Math. 6 « French 4 B Ohem. __5 n 26 O p t i o n a l Grade 13: A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 3 perds. Soc.St. 3 * P.E. 1 « H e a l t h 1 » Math. 5 » French 4 " S p e c i a l Gr. __S *» 21 O p t i o n a l L a t i n 4 P h y s i c s 5 L a t i n 4 30 31 25 Note: The above i s pr e s e n t e d as merely an example of a convenient method of t a b u l a t i n g a s c h o o l programme. I t i s not to be i n t e r p r e t e d as a recommended c u r r i c u l u m , i f onl y f o r the reason t h a t no cognizance i s taken of the p o s s i b i l i t y of sub j e c t a l t e r n a t i o n . P r e l i m i n a r y P rocedures. When the programme to be o f f e r e d d u r i n g the f o l l o w -ing s c h o o l year has been drawn up i t can be examined to see i f •ay d e v i c e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t , or f o r the r e d u c t i o n of the t e a c h i n g l o a d are p o s s i b l e . - 133 -The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s u b j e c t a l t e r n a t i o n are d i s -(1) cussed elsewhere. C e r t a i n other d e v i c e s are o c c a s i o n a l l y p o s s i b l e ; f o r example: 1. The P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s of two or more grades ean o f t e n be scheduled f o r the same p e r i o d . The g i r l s and boys ©f the two c l a s s e s can then be separated, making two separate P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , one composed wholly of g i r l s , the other o f boys. I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t the boys and g i r l s r e c e i v e t h e i r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n s e p a r a t e l y ; combination of c l a s s e s e f f e c t s t h i s o b j e c t without an i n c r e a s e of the te a c h i n g l o a d . I f s i z e p e r m i t s , t h r e e c l a s s e s can be thus combined, e f f e c t i n g a s a v i n g o f one t e a c h i n g p e r i o d per week. In one and two-teacher s c h o o l s , o f course, a l l students ean take t h e i r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t one time. 2. In s c h o o l s o f t h r e e or more teach e r s i t may be d e s i r a b l e t h a t c e r t a i n s t u d e n t s have the o p p o r t u n i t y to take, f o r i n s t a n c e , L a t i n and y e t the number of p u p i l s r e q u i r i n g the subj e c t may be so s m a l l as h a r d l y to j u s t i f y the a d d i t i o n o f 16 hours, n e a r l y h a l f a t e a c h e r ' s time, to the t e a c h i n g l o a d . I f such a s u b j e c t i s o f f e r e d the l o a d can be reduced to a minimum by c o v e r i n g the course i n three years and a l t e r n a t i n g t h i s s u b j e c t , g i v i n g i t i n Grade 9 every second year. The • l a s s e s e n t e r i n g Srade 9 odd ye a r s would take L a t i n i n Grades 9, 10, and 11; those e n t e r i n g even years i n Grades 10, 11 and 12. The p e r i o d s a l l o t t e d would be 5, 5 and 6, t o t a l l i n g 16 as under (1) See Chap. 6, and Appendix "B". - 134 -the f o u r year o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s e h o o l programme would be: Odd years Grade 9 ) Grade 10) f i r s t year of L a t i n - 5 p e r i o d s Grade 11) Grade 12) t h i r d year of L a t i n ?6 p e r i o d s Teaching Load - 11 p e r i o d s . Even years Grade 9 - no L a t i n Grade 10) Grade 11) second year of L a t i n - 5 p e r i o d s Grade 12 <• no L a t i n Teaching Load - 5 p e r i o d s . The above arrangement, of course, i s a s u b j e c t a l t e r n a t i o n . T h i s important r e d u c t i o n of the t e a c h i n g l o a d j u s t i f i e s the s m a l l s c h o o l i n r e o r g a n i z i n g the p r e s c r i b e d course. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Teaching Load. When the s c h o o l programme f o r a given year has been f i x e d , the t e a c h i n g l o a d i n v o l v e d must be d i s t r i b u t e d as e q u a l l y as p o s s i b l e among the t e a c h e r s . C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the matter at a t e a c h e r s ' meeting i s d e s i r a b l e i f a l l members of the s t a f f are to be convinced t h a t they are r e c e i v i n g f a i r treatment. Assuming, f o r purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n only, that the s c h o o l i s to o f f e r the programme o u t l i n e d above, that the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s are to be combined i n Grades 9 and - 135 -10, and i n Grades 11 and IE, and t h a t the L a t i n i s to be a l t e r n a t e d as o u t l i n e d , the Programme f o r the year becomes: ( f o r an even year) grade 9: Grade 10: A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 p e r d s . A l l st u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 perds. Soc.St. 5 Math, 6 ^Combined w i t h #Phy,Ed. 1 grade 10 H e a l t h 1 Gen,Sc. 3 Fre n c h 4 A r t _3 29 n H n it « n Soc.St. 3 Math. 6 #Combined with #Phy.Ed. 1 Grade 9 H e a l t h 1 French 4 Chem. 5 26 O p t i o n a l L a t i n (Combined with Grade 11) __5 P h y s i c s 5 51 31 Grade l i t A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 6 pe r d s . S o c . S t . #Combined w i t h #Phy.Ed. Grade 12 H e a l t h Math. F r e n c h Chem. 1 1 6 4 5 23 O p t i o n a l » n L a t i n (combined w i t h Grade 10 _J5 P h y s i c s 5 31 31 Grade 12: A l l s t u d e n t s : E n g l i s h 5 perds. Soc.St. 3 n #0ombined with#Phy.Ed. 1 » ©rade 11 H e a l t h 1 » Math. 5 * French 4 n S p e c i a l Or. 2 " 21 Note: The above i s used f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o n l y . A g r e a t e r degree of s u b j e c t a l t e r n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , e.g. the P h y s i c s and Chemistry might w e l l be a l t e r n a t e d . - 136 -The t e a c h i n g l o a d i s measured about as f o l l o w s : ( i n an even y e a r ) Grade T o t a l 9 10 11 12 E n g l i s h Soc. S t . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n H e a l t h Mathematics French L a t i n g e n e r a l S c i e n c e Chemistry P h y s i c s S p e c i a l Grammar A r t T o t a l Teaching l o a d : I f there are t h r e e t e a c h e r s , the l o a d must be d i s t r i b u t e d so t h a t each has approximately 39 p e r i o d s . The l o a d might be d i v i d e d about as f o l l o w s : Teacher A E n g l i s h a l l grades: 23 p e r i o d s French a l l grades: 16 p e r i o d s 39 p e r i o d s So. o f double p e r i o d s . . . 4. Teacher B Chemistry, 10, 11: 10 p e r i o d s P h y s i c s 10, 11: 10 p e r i o d s Mathematics, 9, 11, 12: 17 p e r i o d s P.E. Boys, 9, 10: 1 p e r i o d P.E. Boys, 11, 12: 1 p e r i o d 39 p e r i o d s 6 6 6 5 23 5 3 3 3 14 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 6 6 6 5 23 4 4 4 4 16 (5 5) Combined 5 3 3 5 5 10 5 5 10 2 2 3 3 117 117 p e r i o d s . Mo. of double p e r i o d s . . . 4. - 137 -Teacher C L a t i n , 10, 11 combined: 5 p e r i o d s S o c i a l S t u d i e s : 14 p e r i o d s Health, a l l grades: 4 p e r i o d s P. E, g i r l s , 9, 10: 1 p e r i o d P. E, g i r l s , 11, 12: 1 p e r i o d Gen* S c i e n c e , 9: 3 p e r i o d s A r t 9: 3 p e r i o d s Mathematics, 10: 6 p e r i o d s S p e c i a l Grammar, 12: _2 p e r i o d s 39 p e r i o d s Number of double p e r i o d s . . 4 . T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s , u s e d merely to i l l u s t r a t e the method; f o r example, i n view of the l a r g e number of d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d Teacher » C W , i t would pr o b a b l y be f a i r e r to B h i f t some of t h i s t e a c h e r ' s l o a d to » B W . The t e a c h i n g l o a d i s so heavy t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , such a s c h o o l ought not to o f f e r the L a t i n o p t i o n , u n l e s s o t h e r s u b j e c t s are a l t e r n a t e d to reduce the t e a c h i n g burden. D e c i d i n g Double P e r i o d s . The next step i s to decide f o r eaeh te a c h e r what c l a s s e s w i l l be combined i n double p e r i o d s . I t i s i n f i x i n g these doubles t h a t the P r i n c i p a l must know the approximate s i z e of the c l a s s i n each grade, and about how many students w i l l e l e c t each o p t i o n . In our sample programme, the f o l l o w -i n g doubles might perhaps be scheduled: Teacher W A W - 4 double p e r i o d s : 1. F r e n c h , Gr. 9 w i t h French, Gr. 10 2. French, S r . 11 n French, Gr. 12 3. E n g l i s h (Comp), Gr. 9 n E n g l i s h (Comp), Gr. 10 4. E n g l i s h (Comp), Gr. 11 * E n g l i s h (Comp), Gr. 12 - 158 -Teacher "B* - 4 double p e r i o d s t 1. M a t h . ( A l g ) , Gr. 9 w i t h Math.(Geom), Gr. 11 2. P h y s i c s , Gr. 10 • P h y s i c s , Gr, 11 3. M a t h . ( A r i t h } , Gr. 9 * Chem. Gr. 10 4. Math.(Geom), S r . 9 » Mat h . ( A l g ) , Gr. 12 Teacher "O" - 4 double p e r i o d s : 1. M a t h . ( A l g ) , S r. 10 w i t h A r t , Gr. 9 2. L a t , Grs. 10 & 11 " Soo. S t . , Gr. 12 5. S o c i a l S t . , Gr. 9 • Math.(Geom), Gr. 10 4. Gen. Sc., Gr. 9 » Soc. S t . , Gr. 11. P e r i o d D i s t r i b u t i o n Sheet, The above stops are necessary p r e l i m i n a r i e s to any method of c o n s t r u c t i n g a t i m e - t a b l e . The procedure t h e r e a f t e r w i l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y a c c o r d i n g t o the i d e a s of the person c o n s t r u c t i n g the t i m e - t a b l e , and i n any case, i s l i k e l y to resemble the s o l u t i o n o f a Jig-saw p u z z l e . The important t h i n g i s t h a t t h e r e should be a d e f i n i t e method which minimize the t r i a l and e r r o r element. The w r i t e r has found a "P e r i o d D i s t r i b u t i o n Sheet" u s e f u l . T h i s sheet i s a simple device used to decide the number of p e r i o d s which each t e a c h e r spends wi t h each c l a s s fo eaeh day of the week* Each t e a c h e r ' s l o a d i s f i r s t a n alysed to see how many p e r i o d s must be devoted to each grade: Teacher "A". 9 10 11 12 T o t a l E n g l i s h 6 6 6 5 25 French 4 4 4 4 16 T o t a l 10 10 10 9 39 Teacher *B*> 9 Mathematics 6 Chemistry P h y s i c s Phys. Ed« Boys T o t a l 6 Teacher "g*. 9 S o c i a l S t . 3 H e a l t h 1 Gen. Sc i e n c e 3 A r t 3 Mathmmatics S p e c i a l Gram. Phys. E d . G i r l s L a t i n T o t a l 12 Combined (9-10) - 139 -10 11 1 1 Combined (9-10) 5 5 10 10 3 1 6 Combined (11-12) 6 5 5 10 12 5 1 1 T o t a l 17 10 10 2 39 Combined Combined (10-11) 11 (11-12) 12 T o t a l 3 1 10 5 5 14 4 3 2 2 5 39 When t h i s has be en done a "P e r i o d D i s t r i b u t i o n Sheet* can be attempted i n some form such a! 3 the f o l l o w i n The purpose of t h i s sheet i s to d i s t r i b u t e < jach t e a c h e r ' s p e r i o d s with a give n c l a s s over the days of the week. Teacher "A". PERIODS M W Th F T o t a l 9 2 2 2 2 2 10 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 11 2 2 2 2 2 10 12 2 1 2 2 2 9 T o t a l 3 7 3 8 8 39 taeher "B*. - 140 -PERIODS M T W Th F T o t a l 9 1 1 1 2 1 6 9 & 10 1 1 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 11 3 3 4 3 3 16 11 & 12 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 5 T o t a l ? 8 8 8 8 39 PERIODS M T W Ta F T o t a l 9 & 10 1 1 1© 2 2 2 2 2 10 10 & 11 1 1 1 1 1 5 11 1 1 1 1 4 11 & 12 1 1 12 2 1 1 1 1 6 T o t a l 3 8 ? 1 9 39 The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s made so t h a t the s u b j e c t s are * spread as e v e n l y as p o s s i b l e over tbe d i f f e r e n t days of the week, A t e a c h e r ' s t o t a l f o r a giv e n day i n d i c a t e s h i s te a c h -i n g l o a d f o r t h a t day. F o r example Teacher "A" has 8 p e r i o d s on Monday; hence one o f h i s f o u r double p e r i o d s must be scheduled f o r t h a t day, the others o c c u r r i n g on Wednesday, Thursday and F r i d a y . I t i s to be noted, too, that c e r t a i n d e s l d e r o t a have to be watched i n c o m p i l i n g t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n ; f o r i n s t a n c e , Teacher ttBw i s given one p e r i o d with Grades 9 and 10 combined on Tuesday; s i n c e t h i s i s known to be a P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d f o r boys, care must be taken to schedule a s i m i l a r - 141 -p e r i o d f o r Teacher W C M on the same day, as t h i s t eacher takes the g i r l s f o r t h i s c l a s s * A f t e r a t e n t a t i v e p e r i o d d i s t r i b u t i o n has been planned as above, i t must be checked to see t h a t the p e r i o d s are e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d f o r each grade throughout the week. Adding the p e r i o d s a l l o t t e d to Grade 9, c o u n t i n g onee the p e r i o d s where 9 and 10 are combined, we have: M T W Th J_ T o t a l P e r i o d s 5 7 5 6 6 29 T h i s would allow students of t h i s c l a s s no f r e e p e r i o d s on Tuesday, and two on Monday and Wednesday; consequently i t would be a d v i s a b l e , i f p o s s i b l e , to s h i f t a Grade 9 p e r i o d from Tuesday to e i t h e r Monday or Wednesday. Shocking the o t h e r Grades s i m i l a r l y , we have: M T W Th f T o t a l Grade 10 7 8 7 7 7 36 Grade 11 7 6 8 7 8 36 Grade 12 5 3 4 4 5 21 The t o t a l s above f o r Grades 10 and 11 do not mean th a t eaeh student has t h i s number of p e r i o d s per day, f o r there i s an o p t i o n between L a t i n and P h y s i c s i n these grades. Con-s e q u e n t l y the p e r i o d s of e i t h e r the P h y s i c s or L a t i n group are d i s t r i b u t e d 6, 7, 6, 6, 6 i n Grade 10, and 6, 5, 7, 6, 7 i n Grade 11. In Grade 11, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s d e s i r a b l e , to e f f e c t a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of work and study p e r i o d s , that a - 148 -p e r i o d be s h i f t e d from Wednesday or F r i d a y to Tuesday, A s i m i l a r change i s n e c e s s a r y i n Grade 12* Consequently, i n our i l l u s t r a t i o n t here are three changes to make: 1, The s h i f t i n g of a p e r i o d i n Grade 9 from Tuesday to Monday or Wednesday, 2, The s h i f t i n g o f a p e r i o d i n Grade 11 from Wednesday or F r i d a y to Tuesday, 3, The s h i f t i n g of a p e r i o d i n Grade 12 from Monday or F r i d a y to Tuesday, These changes may be accomplished by any of a number of readjustments. P r o b a b l y the s i m p l e s t would be to change the combined P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s i n Grades 11 and 12 from F r i d a y to Tuesday, and the combined P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s i n Grades 9 and 10 From Tuesday to e i t h e r Monday or Wednesday. I f t h i s i s done, our f i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n becomes: Teacher "A". PERIODS M T W Th F T o t a l 9 2 2 2 2 2 10 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 11 2 2 2 2 2 10 12 2 1 2 2 2 9 T o t a l 8 7 8 8 8 39 - 145 -Teacher "B w. PERIODS H T W Th F T o t a l 9 1 1 1 2 1 6 P.E. 9 & 10 1 0 0 0 0 1 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 11 3 3 4 3 3 16 P.E. 11 & 12 0 1 0 0 0 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 5 T o t a l a 3 a 8 7 39 Teaeher *C W. PERIODS M T W Th F T o t a l 9 2 3 2 2 3 12 P.E. 9 & 10 1 0 0 0 0 1 10 2 2 2 2 2 10 L a t i n 10 &. 11 1 1 1 1 1 5 11 1 0 1 1 1 4 P.E. 11 & 12 0 1 0 0 0 1 12 2 1 1 1 1 6 T o t a l 9 3 7 7 8 39 Grade 9. Aga i n cheeking the number of p e r i o d s i n each c l a s s : M T ¥ Th F T o t a l Teacher "A* 2 2 2 2 2 Teacher n B n 1 1 1 2 1 Teacher »C" 2 3 2 2 3 Phy.Ed. M B » & "C" 1 T o t a l 6 6 5 6 6 29 Grade 10. Teaeher "A" 2 2 2 2 2 Teacher "B» 2 2 2 2 2 Teaeher "C" 2 2 2 2 2 Combined with 11 f o r L a t i n , ... ...Teacher MC" 1 1 1 1 1 Phy.Ed. "B» & "C" 1 T o t a l ( i n c l u d i n g o p t i o n ) 8 7 7 7 7 36 - 144 -Grade 11. M T 1 Th I T o t a l Teaeher «A" 2 2 2 2 2 Teacher *B W 3 3 4 3 3 Teacher 8 C 1 0 1 1 1 Combined w i t h 1G f o r L a t i n , . . . ...Teacher W C » 1 1 1 1 1 Phy.Ed. »B» & "C" 1 T o t a l ( i n c l u d i n g o p t i o n ) 7 7 8 7 7 36 Grade 12» M T I Th P T o t a l Teaeher "A" 2 1 2 2 2 Teaeher "B" 1 1 1 1 1 Teacher nCn 2 1 1 1 1 Phy.Ed. "B" & «C» 1 T o t a l 5 4 4 4 4 21 Note: The w r i t e r does not b e l i e v e t h a t the l i g h t l o a d of the Grade 12 c l a s s i s d e s i r a b l e . T h i s s e c t i o n , however, i s not concerned w i t h e u r r i e u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; the example i l l u s t r a t e s s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l a method of a t t a c k i n g the time-t a b l e problem. The F i n a l T l m e - T a b l e . When t h i s p i o n e e r i n g has been done, the a c t u a l con-s t r u c t i o n of a t i m e - t a b l e i s not d i f f i c u l t , and can be accomplished i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t time by r e f e r e n c e to a s a t i s f a c t o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n sheet. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s should be noted: 1. Nothing has been done to s e t the order of p e r i o d s i n a given day; and t h i s o r d e r may be f i x e d to take account of f a t i g u e or o t h e r f a c t o r s . 2. There i s no reason why the days themselves cannot be Interchanged i n any way t h a t may appear d e s i r a b l e . 3. Study p e r i o d s are n e g l e c t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n sheet. - 145 -When students have study p e r i o d s they w i l l e i t h e r remain un s u p e r v i s e d o r study i n a classroom where a s u b j e c t i s being taught. The t i m e - t a b l e should be made f i r s t without f i l l i n g i n the names o f the s u b j e c t s , and without r e g a r d to the or d e r o f p e r i o d s i n a giv e n day* To i l l u s t r a t e , l e t us choose one day, say Monday* Teaeher BA" on Monday has two p e r i o d s i n each grade; e i g h t i n a l l , n e c e s s i t a t i n g one double p e r i o d . R e f e r r i n g to our l i s t o f doubles (Page 137 } we choose one of them f o r t h i s day - perhaps the f i r s t which combines Grades 9 and 10. A s k e l e t o n o u t l i n e f o r t h i s t e a c h e r ' s programme ean be made as f o l l o w s : (See next page*) - 146 -P e r i o d MONDAY 1. 9 A 10 11 12 2. 9 A 10 A 11 12 3. 9 10 A 11 12 4. 9 10 11 A 12 5. 9 10 11 A 12 6. 9 10 11 12 A 7. 9 10 11 12 A Notes i 1* The t e a c h e r * s i n i t i a l o n l y i s p l a c e d a f t e r the c l a s s he i s to t e a c h . 2. She order of the p e r i o d s i s i m m a t e r i a l . 3. The double i s i n d i c a t e d by p l a c i n g the t e a c h e r ' s i n i t i a l a f t e r both c l a s s e s f o r the one p e r i o d - i n t h i s case the second. - 147 -i'he same procedure i s f o l l o w e d f o r each t e a c h e r f o r each day; the arrangement f o r Monday would be, f o r example: P e r i o d MONDAY 1. /J 9 A i ( l ) A double c l a s s i n Grades 10 & 10 B (C) 11 P h y s i c s f o r te a c h e r »B». 11 B (C) iz) A combined c l a s s i n Grades 10 12 C & 11 L a t i n f o r t e a c h e r "0" (5) A double c l a s s with Grades 10 2. # 9 A & 11 L a t i n and Grade 12 S o c i a l 10 A S t u d i e s f o r t e a c h e r ttCw. 11 C #(A double c l a s s f o r teacher "A" 12 B ( i n Grades 9 and 10. 3. 10 A 11 12 G 4. 9 B)Combined f o r A combined c l a s s i n Phys. Ed. f o r 10 C)Phys. Ed. t e a c h e r *B W (boys) and teacher "C" 11 A ( g i r l s ) . 12 5. 9 0 10 B 11 A 12 6. 9 C A double c l a s s i n Grades 9 and 10 10 C f o r t e a c h e r n C n 11 B 12 A 7. 9 10 C 11 B 12 A Note: A combined c l a s s i s i n d i c a t e d by a b r a c k e t . In the f i r s t p e r i o d above Grades 10 and 11 are combined f o r L a t i n ; t h i s i s not, i n i t s e l f , a double p e r i o d . C e r t a i n o f the s u b j e c t s to be taught i n given p e r i o d s are determined by the c l a s s e s to be doubled, e.g. i n the second p e r i o d above French w i l l be scheduled f o r Grade 9 and a l s o - 148 -French f o r Grade 10j (See double No. ( l ) f o r t h i s t e a c h e r ) . Twice d u r i n g the week care should be taken that Teacher nB" has two p e r i o d s i n s u c c e s s i o n w i t h Grade 11; these p e r i o d s can then be used f o r l a b o r a t o r y work i n Chemistry or P h y s i c s i f d e s i r e d ; the same p r o v i s i o n must be made i n Grade 10. When the s k e l e t o n t i m e - t a b l e has been made f o r each day of the week, the s u b j e c t s can be f i l l e d i n . A f i n a l time-t a b l e f o r Monday f o l l o w s : P e r i o d MONDAY 1. 9 A E n g l i s h 10 B (0) P h y s i c s L a t i n & See next page 11 B (G) P h y s i c s combined f o r note. 12 C S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2. 9 A F r e n c h 10 A French A double c l a s s 11 C S o c i a l S t u d i e s 12 B Mathematics 3. 9 B Mathematics 10 A E n g l i s h 11 12 C S p e c i a l Grammar 4. 9 B) P h y s i c a l B - boys Not a double, but a C) E d u c a t i o n C - g i r l s combined c l a s s 10 11 A E n g l i s h 12 Study 5. 9 0 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10 B Chemistry 11 A French 12 Study 6. 9 0 A r t 10 0 Mathematics A double e l a s s 11 B Chemistry 12 A E n g l i s h 7. 9 Study 10 G S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11 B Mathematics 12 A French - 149 • # Notes T h i s i s a double c l a s s f o r Teacher W B W i n Chemistry and P h y s i c s ; i t i s not a double but a combined c l a s s f o r Teacher *C n i n L a t i n , s i n c e the two grades are t a k i n g the same work, but i s a double of L a t i n i n Grades 10 and 11 w i t h S o c i a l S t u d i e s i n Grade 12. In making out the t i m e - t a b l e f o r the whole week the P r i n c i p a l w i l l have to arrange t h a t s u b j e c t s which are given f o r o n l y two or three p e r i o d s a week are f a i r l y w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d * F o r example, S o c i a l S t u d i e s i s g i v e n f o r o n l y three p e r i o d s a week i n Grade 12; i t i s b e s t , then, t h a t these p e r i o d s be on Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y , i f p o s s i b l e ; or perhaps on Tuesday, Thursday and F r i d a y . S u b j e c t s r e c e i v i n g only two p e r i o d s a week are b e s t scheduled on Mondays and Thursdays, or on Tuesdays and F r i d a y s . To ensure as e f f i c i e n t a d i s t r i b u t i o n as p o s s i b l e i t i s w e l l to make an o u t l i n e o f eaeh t e a c h e r * s s u b j e c t s . For i n s t a n c e , f o r Teacher "C" i n the above programme: P e r i o d s i n Grade 9: A r t 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 5 H e a l t h 1 General Science 3 ( I t i s not necessary to c o n s i d e r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n as t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y p l a c e d on the D i s t r i b u t i o n Sheet J. The t o t a l i s 12, d i s t r i b u t e d 2, 3, 2, 2, 3. These can be p l a c e d as f o l l o w s : M 1 I Th F S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 1 1 1 1 A r t 1 1 1 Gen. Seience I 1 1 H e a l t h 1 T o t a l s 2 3 2 2 3 - 150 -T h i s o u t l i n e can then be r e f e r r e d to i n a s s i g n i n g s u b j e c t s t o a g i v e n p e r i o d . S i m i l a r o u t l i n e s should be made f o r each teacher i n each c l a s s . The complete t i m e - t a b l e f o r our sample s c h o o l i s now drawn up. From t h i s Master Time-Table, the i n d i v i d u a l (1) schedules o f eaeh t e a c h e r and c l a s s are c o p i e d . Assignment of Booms. The above procedures are used o n l y to f i x the time-t a b l e ; the assignment of c l a s s e s to rooms v a r i e s w i d e l y with the i n d i v i d u a l s e h o o l p l a n t t h a t no d e f i n i t e r u l e s can be l a i d down. In our i l l u s t r a t i o n , a f o u r - y e a r s e h o o l w i t h o n l y three t e a c h e r s was used; most s c h o o l s o f t h i s s i z e w i l l have but three classrooms, the two s m a l l e s t c l a s s e s having the same room. T h i s i s the c h i e f reason why the study p e r i o d s can be n e g l e c t e d t i l l a f t e r the t i m e - t a b l e i s drawn up. No study h a l l s , as such, are a v a i l a b l e ; students must, p e r f o r c e , study i n a c l a s s room where a s u b j e e t i s b e i n g taught. C o n c l u s i o n . The w r i t e r i s unable t o t e l l how widely u s e f u l the above p l a n w i l l prove. I t has been h i s experience t h a t i t reduces to a minimum the haphazard, t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r element n e c e s s a r y i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a time t a b l e . I t may bo t h a t the ( l ) A Time-Table f o r the i l l u s t r a t i v e ease we have been c o n s i d e r i n g i s presented, w i t h teacher and c l a s s schedules, i n Appendix " I " , - 151 -method i s too cumbersome to be used i n a s c h o o l which has few c o n s t a n t s and many v a r i a b l e s ; the s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l , however, seems l i k e l y to co n t i n u e to o f f e r a c u r r i c u l u m i n which most s u b j e c t s w i l l be c o n s t a n t s . $ PLATE II The Questionnaire Used i n the Study Powell River, B .C . , May 9, 1932-DEAR SIR OR MADAM; In conneclion with a study now being made of "The Small High School in British Columbia," it & neccMary that certain opinion* and facts regarding the present situation be gathered. It is felt that the rnoS significant opinion* are those of the High School Principals of the Province. You are accordingly urged to prosst the information requested below. The writer is naturally apologetic for bothering you at this time of the year. He feels, however, thai l k problem is sufficiently important to justify the request, and humbly begs for your valued co-operation. To minimize the trouble of filling this form, nothing has been asked which can be obtained from any oltr* source, and an addressed envelope is enclosed for your convenience. W i l l you please help? Sincerely yours. M . A . C A M E R O N . Principal, Powell River High Scowl In answering the questions below, you are urged to add whatever remarks appeal to you as reteraoft using the back of the sheet if you wish. A . D A T A R E G A R D I N G T H E P R E S E N T C O U R S E O F S T U D I E S : 1. In your experience, what has been the effect of the introduction of ihe new 4-year Course of Studies on elimination? (underline one answer) A great reduction; a small reduction; no effect; an increase; a great increase. Remarks: (Any definite figures will be appreciated) — 2. From your experience, what, in your opinion, is the effect of the introduction of the 4-year course <a the number of students who repeat some high-school year? (Underline one answer) A considerable reducton; a small reduction; no effect; a small increase; a considerable increase. Remarks: (Any definite information yon have will be appreciated) : i . . . . . ..,.„ , _ 3,— (a) In a general way, what is your reaction to the present system of credits? (Favorable or un-favorable, etc.) _ (b) Assuming that [he system of credits will rsmain in our school system, do you think that 120 cre&s ought to be required for High School Graduation? Pleas; elaborate _ (c) Do you think that the number of credits required might properly vary with the student, the comse chosen, or the size and equipment of the school? Please state your views fully I am m f a v o ^ " „ ™ L T : ' « p ^ s ° d ° '° " * V ' ° < " * m a s fome*' b r i b e d ? (Underline one , « « , , D.p . r taenJ i ' S l l n ^ o n ! l^Li^Z t\t^rlZt 1 " P r ° C e c d to t i 8 W i»»«>™o»)-and 6. In your opinion, in what subjects ought Junior Matriculation candidates be required to write Depart-mental examinations? (Underline one answer) A l l subjects:A11 subjects except free eleetives: only those subjects required by the University for admission: Remarks: —. 7. — (a) In your opinion, ought students be required to write Departmental examinations in Health? (b) In your opinion, would the standard of teaching in Health drop if no Departmental examinations were set in that subject? , — 6. In you opinion, can the present Music Course be offered by a school not having the services o! a Music Specialist? ^^ ^V«.wm-.^«..-.w..-.™V.,. .~-— .— 9. In your opinion, can the present Art Course be offered by a school not having the services of an A i t Specialist? • >-••.• -10. Given ample facilities, what changes would you like to make in your school? Given a free hand, but lirtU *v f , t -i- • "' l ^ r i ^ ' What *-« y*u * to make in your school? B . D A T A R E G A R D I N G T H E S I T U A T I O N I N Y O U R S C H O O L . 1. Is your High School now operating on the 4-year plan? ..... 2. If so, is it possible with present facilities to allow certain students to graduate in 3 years? 3. Do you offer full Senior Matriculation in your school? 4. Do you arrange for junior Matriculation candidates to take some Senior Matriculation courses? 5. About what per cent of your students are Normal Entrance students? 6. About what per cent of your students are "leaving" students? (I.e. taking courses which do not lead to Matriculation or Normal Entrance) 7. In a normal teaching week of 35 periods: (a) approximately how many periods does the principal devote to purely teaching duties? (b) Approximately how many free or spare periods does the average teacher have? - ... 8. — (a) Have you in your school any "double" periods—i.e. periods in which a single teacher teaches at one time more than one class or subject? (b) If so, about what per cent of the total teaching periods are double periods? 9. Kindly rate your school plant under the heads noted below, by placing opposite each the appropriate letter: (A—excellent: B—good: C—average (adequate without extras) : D—poor: L—very poor: G—none.) Chemistry laboratory Biology laboratory Physics laboratory Botany laboratory Gymnasium Playing Field 10. — (a) Have you an assembly hall in which all your students can be gathered? (b) If so, is this assembly hall suitable for dramatic performances? 1 1 — (a) Have you in your school a special study hall or halls for supervised study? (b) If so, about what number of students will your study hall or halls hold? 12. — (a) Have you a special library room in your school? (b) Have you a specially trained librarian, devoting full time to library duties? (c) If not, have you a teacher devoting, part of her school, time to library duties?.:*;/.': (d) What is the approximate number of volumes in your school library, if any? (e) Approximately what amount, if any, is available annually for additions to the library? (f) What amount, if any, can you spend annually on teachers' professional books? $ (g) How many periodicals of a general nature do you receive annually? (h) How many professional periodicals do you receive? 13. T o what extent does your school board consult you in appointing new teachers?.... 14. — (a) Courses offered: It is assumed that English, Social Studies, Physical Education and Health, Mathematics, and Genera} Science are offered iu all schools. If this is not so in your school, please specify (b) Please place after each subject listed below the numbers describing what courses in that subject are offered in your school. Example: English 1, 2, 3. 4 ) . French Biology Home Economics B Latin Botany , Chemistry Chemistry A r t Physics. , Physics Industrial Arts A Agriculture Special Arithmetic Industrial Arts B Geography Special Grammar „ Home Economics A Music Dramatics and Oral Expression Technical Subjects (Please describe) Commercial Subjects: (Please describe) (a) School Paper or Magazine? "(.) Se l f -governs How often published? Please describe briefly " " (b) Dramatics or Operetta > :::::::::::::::: -v Please describe briefly . , , . , ( ' ) Athletics: Inter-school Please say what forms . (c) Debates ' ' W,p<:l"b!'J fe)"A^7w£'^^^-™-S^ Please describe s a i ' wh<i? roims; 16.— (a) Name end location of School... Enrollment No. Divisions (b) Name of Principal (c) Enrollment and number of dh^ons" w 'g^des ' Grade 9 .. E D r ° I , m £ n t N ° " Grade 10 G r a d e 1 ' Senior Matric. Grade 1 3 G r a d e 1 2 -----, Y i E ^ ^ ^ J ^ 3 " ^ ' ' ^ - - * -93,-32: > 1 - J (inclusive) , 0XT N„. of Teachers 4 - 6 (inclusive) ;;;;;;?r' IW ,T e. ) •,• \ More lhan 12 1 0 — u (inclusive) 1 fl 158 -APPENDIX "A w  Q.ueation.naire used i n t h i s Study l a o r d e r to gather i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to the matters d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s study* a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent to a l l P r i n c i p a l s o f High and S u p e r i o r Sehools i n the P r o v i n c e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s shown i n P l a t e I I . , A b r i e f comment on each of the qu e s t i o n s i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w s : A. 1. 2, and 3 ( a ) : The answers to these q u e s t i o n s are r e f e r r e d to i n Chapter 4. A. 3(b) and ( e ) : The answers r e c e i v e d were su g g e s t i v e o n l y and are not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d to i n the study. A. 4, 5, G, 7 ( a ) , 7 ( b ) , 8, 9: The answers are r e f e r r e d t o b r i e f l y i n Appendix *»Ctt, A. 10, 11: These q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o v e r i f y the w r i t e r ' s impressions r e g a r d i n g some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s b e i n g experienced i n v a r i o u s kinds of s c h o o l . The answers, while v a l u a b l e , d i d not l e n d themselves to t a b u l a t i o n . B. 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, 6 are not r e f e r r e d to s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the study: The answers were as f o l l o w s : -w— v•> v ^ ~ " •urn Schools o p e r a t i n g w h o l l y o r p a r t i a l l y 16 36 18 70 Not on 4-yr. p l a n . . . 1 2 1 4 0 0 1 1 T o t a l s 17 38 80 75 - 153 -Question. B s. Large H.S. S m a l l H.S. Sup.Seh. T o t a l Sehools a l l o w i n g some ar a l l students t o graduate i n 3 y r s . . . * Sehools not d o i n g so. 6 11 IS 86 4 16 22 53 T o t a l s 1? 38 80 75 Question B 3. Large H.S* S m a l l H.S. Sup.Seh. T o t a l Sehools o f f e r i n g S e n i o r 7 rr 14 61 l e h o o l s not doing s o ... f 10 I 31 0 20 T o t a l s 1? 38 80 7S Question B 4. Large H.S. Sm a l l H.S. Sup.Seh. T o t a l Sehools a l l o w i n g J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t u d e n t s to take some S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s u b j e c t s . Sehools not doing so... 1 16 3 35 1 19 5 70 T o t a l s 17 33 20 75 The answers t o ques t i o n s 5 and 6 were not s u i t a b l e f o r t a b u l a t i o n . B. 7: T h i s i s r e f e r r e d to b r i e f l y i n Chapter 9, (P. l i s ) B. 8: The r e p o r t s to t h i s q u e s t i o n d i d not allow any p r e c i s e treatment. B. 9: T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 8. B. 10, 11, 18: These q u e s t i o n s are not t r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the study. In almost every case the answers to 10, 11, and 18(a), (b) and (e) were i n the n e g a t i v e . In many s c h o o l s , 18 ( a ) , (e) and ( f ) c o u l d not be answered, as the i n f o r m a t i o n was not • 154 -a v a i l a b l e . The v a r i a t i o n s i n the answers to 12 (g) and (h) were so g r e a t even among sehools of the same c l a s s t h a t no a i g n i f i c a n t c o n c l u s i o n s would be drawn. The High Sehool L i b r a r i e s of the P r o v i n c e present a problem f o r f u r t h e r study. B. 13: T h i s q u e s t i o n , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , was not worded t o ensure o b j e c t i v e answers. In any ease, the l a r g e number o f s u p e r i o r and one-teacher h i g h s c h o o l s reduced the number o f s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g to 41; t h i s was not c o n s i d e r e d a s u f f i c i e n t l y wide sampling t o make c o n c l u s i o n s drawn r e l i a b l e . B 14: The data gathered i n answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n are p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 5. B 15: T h i s data i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 9. B 16: The i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the enrolment o f the sc h o o l s was used to c l a s s the r e p o r t as t h a t of a l a r g e or s m a l l h i g h s e h o o l . The s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to enrolment i n Chapter 2, are taken from Departmental r e p o r t s , and, t h e r e f o r e , i n c l u d e every s c h o o l i n the P r o v i n c e . B 17: T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n Chapter 2. i - 155 -APPENDIX «B» Example e f A l t e r n a t i o n o f Courses to Permit Com- b i n a t i o n o f C l a s s e s i n a T y p i c a l S m a l l High S c h o o l F o r purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , a f o u r - y e a r s m a l l h i g h s e h o o l with a s t a f f o f three t e a c h e r s and an enrolment of 60 p u p i l s i s supposed. T h i s enrolment i s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : Grade 9 25 students 10 15 it tt 11 10 « 12 10 H 60 It I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s s c h o o l o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e : {Table n A w ) . TABLE W A W Grade IX Grade X Su b j e e t P e r i o d s Subjeet P e r i o d s per p e r week week E n g l i s h 1 6 E n g l i s h 2 6 Mathematics 1 6 Mathematics 2 6 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 5 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2 3 H e a l t h 1 1 H e a l t h 2 1 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 2 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1 Gene r a l Selence 5 C h e m i s t r y l 5 A r t 1 3 S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c 3 French 1 4 French 2 4 T o t a l 30 T o t a l 29 - 156 -TABLE »A" (Cont*a.) Grade XI Sub j e e t P e r i o d s Grade XII Subjeet P e r i o d s p e r week E n g l i s h 3 6 Mathematics 3 S S o c i a l S t u d i e s 3 3 H e a l t h 3 1 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1 Chemistry 2 5 Geography 1 5 Fre n c h 3 4 T o t a l 31 p e r week E n g l i s h 4 5 Mathematics 4 5 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 4 3 He a l t h 4 1 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1 Geography 2 5 French 4 S p e c i a l Grammar 2 T o t a l 26 I t w i l l be noted t h a t t h i s course earns 116 c r e d i t s , and l e a d s to both J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n and Normal Entrance. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a course which a hig h s c h o o l o f t h i s s i z e might w e l l o f f e r . S l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s w i l l be p o s s i b l e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , i f the s c h o o l does not p r o v i d e Normal Entrance, the S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c might be dropped, and P h y s i c s might be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r Geography. However, the above course i s s u f f i c i e n t l y t y p i c a l to i l l u s t r a t e the advantages of s u b j e c t -a l t e r n a t i o n * The t e a c h i n g - p e r i o d s t o t a l 116 per week; eaeh teacher, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l have a t e a c h i n g l o a d of 38-39 p e r i o d s , n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h a t each teaeher should have, on the average, 3 or 4 double p e r i o d s per week Sample r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m to permit A l t e r n a t i o n . Though the exact d e t a i l s of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m n e c e s s a r y to accomplish the d e s i r e d a l t e r n a t i o n must - 157 -be f i x e d a f t e r e a r e f u l study by s u i t a b l e committees i n eaeh s u b j e e t , i t i s probable t b a t the course might w e l l be arranged somewhat as f o l l o w s : 1, The E n g l i s h s u b j e e t - m a t t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s ! (a) t h a t i n which sequence i s important; t h i s i s d e s i g n a t e d E n g l i s h l a , 2a, 3a, and 4a, and i s not a l t e r n a t e d ; (b) that i n which sequence i s unimportant i s arranged i n E n g l i s h l b , 2b, 3b,and 4b, and these courses are a l t e r n a t e d . ( R e f e r to pp. 36 and 87.) 2. The Mathematics at p r e s e n t c o n s i s t s of (a) A r i t h m e t i c , g i v e n i n Grade 9 o n l y ; (b) A l g e b r a , given i n Grade 9 f o r 2 p e r i o d s p e r week and i n Grades 10, 11 and 12 f o r 3 p e r i o d s each, (e) Geometry, given i n Grades 9 and 12 f o r 2 p e r i o d s per week, each, and i n Grades 10 and 11 f o r 3 p e r i o d s p e r week, each. A p o s s i b l e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n would be: 1 The A r i t h m e t i c would be u n a f f e e t e d . 2_ The A l g e b r a i n Grade 9 would not be changed. I t would be a s s i g n e d 5 p e r i o d s p e r week f o r two years, and a l t e r -nated with Geometry, which would be t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y . The content of these courses would o f n e c e s s i t y be condensed to two ye a r s ; f i v e p e r i o d s b e i n g a l l o t t e d to each year i n each s u b j e c t . The t o t a l time a l l o t t e d to Mathematics, e x c l u s i v e of S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c , would thus be 26 p e r i o d s , arranged as f o l l o w s : Mathematics 1 (unchanged) i n c l u d i n g A l g e b r a 1 and Geometry 1 6 p e r i o d s A l g e b r a 2 and 3 to be taken e i t h e r i n Grades 10 and 11, or Grades 11 and 12 10 p e r i o d s Geometry, 2 and 3 as f o r A l g e b r a 2 and 3 10 p e r i o d s 26 p e r i o d s . - 158 -5. The S o e i a l S t u d i e s would he rear r a n g e d to permit S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 to be a l t e r n a t e d with S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2, 4 p e r i o d s b e i n g a l l o t t e d to each; and S o c i a l S t u d i e s 3 to be a l t e r n a t e d with S o c i a l S t u d i e s 4, 3 p e r i o d s per week being a l l o t t e d to each. 4 H e a l t h 1 would be a l t e r n a t e d with H e a l t h 2, and H e a l t h 3 w i t h H e a l t h 4. £ The whole s c h o o l would take P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n at one time, i f the number of boys were approximately equal t o the number of g i r l s . In t h i s way the boys and g i r l s would be sepa r a t e d from Oaeh oth e r f o r t h i s work, a d e s i r a b l e arrange-ment. Should t h i s be i m p o s s i b l e , Grade 9 and 10 would be combined f o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ; a l s o Grades 11 and 12. 6^  G e n e r a l Science and A r t 1 would be a l t e r n a t e d i n Grades 9 and 10. 7_ S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c and S p e c i a l Grammar would not be a l t e r n a t e d . jl Chemistry and Geography would be a l t e r n a t e d i n the t h r e e upper Grades. (See pp. 82 - 84.) £ I t i s assumed f o r the pres e n t t h a t French depends too much on the p r e c e d i n g year's work to permit s u c c e s s f u l a l t e r n a t i o n . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y so: a study of the Programme might show i t to be p o s s i b l e to a l t e r n a t e i'reneh 2 and 3; even more a l t e r n a t i o n might be p o s s i b l e . A p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s C u r r i c u l u m R e o r g a n i z a t i o n . How i f these courses be a l t e r n a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the - 159 -p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 6, h a l f the courses to be a l t e r n a t e d are g i v e n to two grades one year, and the other h a l f t© the same two c l a s s e s , i n d i f f e r e n t grades the next. The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s shown i n Table n B w , Hot©: The f o l l o w i n g p l a n allows no study p e r i o d s i n Grade XI. Ho attempt was made to r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n , though a number of d e v i c e s may be p o s s i b l e . F o r example; only one p e r i o d might be a l l o t t e d t o E n g l i s h 5a i n t h i s grade, and E n g l i s h 4a might r e c e i v e two p e r i o d s In Grade 12; French 3 might be t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y ; a l s o the p e r i o d s a l l o t t e d to Geometry or A l g e b r a 2 might be reduced to 4; and the time a s s i g n e d to the S c i e n c e which i s being taken f o r the f i r s t time t h a t year might be reduced by one or two p e r i o d s , with a p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e i n Grade X I I . In any case, i f any c l a s s i s to be more h e a v i l y loaded, the Grade XI c l a s s i s most s u i t a b l e , because of i t s r e l a t i v e m a t u r i t y , and because Departmental examinations are not w r i t t e n i n most s u b j e c t s t i l l the l a s t year. - 160 -F i r s t Year and Odd Years SUBJECT Grade#Englisa l a 9 E n g l i s h l b Mathematics 1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 H e a l t h 1 # P h y s i e s l E d u c a t i o n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e #French 1 T o t a l Grade#English 2a 10 E n g l i s h l b A l g e b r a 1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 H e a l t h 1 # P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e #French 2 Chemistry # S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c T o t a l Grade#English 3a 11 E n g l i s h 3b A l g e b r a 1 Geometry 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 3 H e a l t h 3 # P h y s i e a l E d u c a t i o n #Freneh 3 Chemistry 1 Geography 2 T o t a l 6rade#English 4a 12 E n g l i s h 3b Geometry 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 3 H e a l t h 3 # P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n French 4 Geography 2 ) e e i a l Grammar T o t a l TABLE "B" Perd. Second Year and Even per week SUBJECT 2 # S n g l i s h l a 4 E n g l i s h 2b 6 Mathematics 1 4 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2 , 1 H e a l t h 2 1 # P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 3 A r t 1 4 #Freneh 1 Years 25 2 4 5 4 1 1 3 4 5 3 32 2 4 5 5 3 1 1 4 5 5 35 T o t a l # E n g l i s h 2a E n g l i s h 2b Geometry 2 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2 H e a l t h 2 #P h y s i e a l E d u c a t i o n A r t 1 #Freneh 2 Geography 1 # S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c T o t a l # E n g l i s h 3a E n g l i s h 4b Geome t r y 2 A l g e b r a 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 4 H e a l t h 4 # P h y s i e a l E d u c a t i o n #Freneh 3 Chemistry 2 Geography 1 T o t a l 1 1 4 5 2 26 Snglish 4a E n g l i s h 4b A l g e b r a 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 4 H e a l t h 4 # P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n French 4 Chemistry 2 #Speeial Grammar T o t a l P erd. per week 2 4 6 4 1 1 3 4 25 2 4 5 4 1 1 3 4 5 3 32 2 4 5 5 3 1 1 4 5 5 35 1 4 5 3 1 1 4 5 2 26 #..Not a l t e r n a t e d <D Of T4 m tS © A © to i-t H H « T4 « a et « u © -q> m © •P © a © e © >» A i> 4» © a - 161 -A O t e n s» o © A © 4* f4 r4 0 © « © <©-© *4 © © o © 60 •H o H H O 44 © 4* a © O r© 60 © H "H r-l © 60 a «rl <©-© © 60 © fX U A • H © m © <©• © >» r-4 4» a u © o 49 » 4 » (M © © © r© f© >. 0 Cl +»©«©• !>> tJ a <©-•Or© o o O f© H ej © © © 0 A 9 0 O 4* <d 44 © © © ' r l h r l ©• e o © 0 o ra u © © © u © a o a m o a +» a 0 r© 4» « © r© © Pi & 0 t* 0 60 Ft 03 • H H *4 © © 4» «0" ft ©" © M © 4» Tj © © 60 0 © 4> u © « © 4» © PI -d © & > 4» © © © _fCj 0 © 64 4» Pi a © «H © © f-4 r-t r© fit tt 0 © H r-t U 0 H O d « © 0 o CP •4 64 © P 4» ©I H ! H a •a o f4 © a (4 Si o 44| o M © 44 O a» © a 14 • & o o © a o © At 44 0 o © f4 • 0 o o 64 O CO H to <# <* to to <o tO CM O O r4 H in to H H to 00 H to w © A to N IO Ifl K r l r l tO LO to © A CO IO •O-O T4 CM <tf *4 © At TO 10 10 tO TO H io H H ta <# to IO w to at A w ea www H w H CM -sC <D t > H H » tO TO © ,© M H H t4 r4 « © a F4 A O © © 60 © © H © © *~• ©©•(-I h -H 60 Jj 4* H • O © <4 0 © & O © • © ~*AoO A 4» ri-— ^ « © >» 0 H 0 r4 . . © r4 P © «4 & >» f H » » H f l r4 A 0 d o H H 4» © 8 r-i A © C O ^ © © © 60 O © P T4 H © < r t < « 4 « 4 H © T4 r4 © • Pi O © 0 <<0 « < M ) 4 > t • « • O 0 A 0 M Pi p» ftrf © p Pi © Pi 60 O t4 E4 O &4 - 162 -r© H O Of T4 4» Ft O © to CM t o CM ft C O t O t O t O C Q C M O O H H H fr- to H O O H r-t tip a o •H Ft <D At IO tO r-t r-i CM IO 4-t © o a Ft • 0 o o {2! O at <o «tf to to to to H CM n «© o i-i Ft at At CM <t|l tO IO t® r-t H IO tO 4t © © © Ft • 0 o o a) , o to ««« IO CM •« H to CM H o ri Pi © At CM <«jt IO tj< H! r-J to to 10 o a Ft * 0 O O o © 43 CM H CM CM H ta r© o •H u © At CM to «# H H ro <H © O ra Ft • 9 © o © <o r-t CM H CM CM H H H EH P CO r-t © © © © © n o © U U -ri 0 0 4» ^ J O O © © © © g <T"t © «0 © r© *» © • H 6S © © H <rt —» <d >» 0 © Ft +* H • Ft +» CO «4 3 ,Q © © © g H .0 • © 60 o © 4» O CiJ H © «rt r-t a e> © © «-* <g o © - tam © H © © •ri U © © S» 0 ,0 © At «J» •P Ft >> >> Ft A H H +» p, ,0 © © © © H © Vl *H i-t Ft 0 O © 0 M 4 9 © © © © O Ft Ft PuPtA © «lh ra woo - 263 -I t w i l l be seen t h a t the c l a s s e n t e r i n g odd years would have S o c i a l S t u d i e s courses i n the o r d e r 1, 2, 5, 4; the next e l a s s would have the courses i n the o r d e r 2, I, 4, 5. Other s u b j e c t s g i v e n f o r f o u r y e a r s are treated s i m i l a r l y . S u b j e c t s which are gi v e n f o r o n l y two years are t r e a t e d somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y * Geography and Chemistry are examples* C l a s s e s e n t e r i n g odd years get the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s o r d e r : Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Geography 1 Geography 2 Chemistry 1 Chemistry 2 The e l a s s which a l t e r n a t e s w i t h i t get the same s u b j e c t s as f o l l o w s : Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Chemistry 1 Chemistry 2 Geography 1 Geography 2 S u c c e s s f u l a l t e r n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e f o r s u b j e c t s given f o r e i t h e r two ©r f o u r y e a r s . I f two s u b j e c t s are to be giv e n f o r three years each, the f i r s t year i n each w i l l not be a l t e r n a t e d ; the remaining two years w i l l be a l t e r n a t e d ; A l g e b r a and Geometry are examples. I t might be d e s i r a b l e to a l t e r n a t e o n l y one year of a s u b j e c t which i s given f o r two or t h r e e y e a r s * Assuming the l a s t year i s to be a l t e r n a t e d the arrange-ment would then be:-Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade I I Grade 12 A l g e b r a 1 A l g e b r a 2 Odd years - A l g e b r a 3 Geometry 3 Geometry I Geometry 2 Even years-Geometry 3 A l g e b r a 3 There would seem, however, to be l i t t l e gained by t h i s arrange-ment. In g e n e r a l , the more a l t e r n a t i o n p o s s i b l e , the b e t t e r . - 164 -Advantages o f the Method of A l t e r n a t i o n . fhe p r i n c i p a l advantage of t h i s system i s the g r e a t l y reduced t e a c h i n g l o a d . R e f e r r i n g t o Table W B W l e f t - h a n d eolumn i t w i l l be seen t h a t both Grades 9 and 10 are t a k i n g E n g l i s h l b odd y e a r s ; these c l a s s e s are t h e r e f o r e combined, t a k i n g the same s u b j e e t i n the same room under the same te a c h e r . In a s i m i l a r way, a l l c l a s s e s a l t e r n a t e d are combined. fhe t e a c h i n g l o a d ©an, t h e r e f o r e , be d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : S u b j e c t s not a l t e r n a t e d : E n g l i s h l a , 2a, 3a, 4a French 1, 2, 3, 4 Mathematics 1 S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c P h y s i c a l Ed., whole s c h o o l at same time, Boys and G i r l s separate S p e c i a l Grammar S u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d : T e aching l o a d odd years E n g l i s h l b , 3b 8 p e r i o d s S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1, 3 1 m H e a l t h 1, 3 2 " Gen e r a l S c i e n c e 3 " Chemistry 1 5 *» Geography 2 __5 n 30 p e r i o d s ? p e r i o d s 16 • 6 » 3 • 2 2 M ft 36 p e r i o d s Teaching l o a d even years E n g l i s h 2b, 4b 3 p e r i o d s S o c i a l S t u d i e s 2, 4 ? w S e a l t h 2, 4 2 n A r t 1 3 " Chemistry 2 5 * Geography 1 _5 tt 30 p e r i o d s Thus the t o t a l t e a c h i n g l o a d i s o n l y 66 p e r i o d s , f o r e x a c t l y the same course as r e q u i r e s 116 p e r i o d s i f a l t e r n a t i o n i s not used; the t e a c h i n g l o a d i s almost h a l v e d . In the s e h o o l we have chosen as an example, th r e e - 165 -t e a c h e r s a re employed; hence the average l o a d would be o n l y 22 p e r i o d s p e r week p e r teac h e r ; study p e r i o d s have not, of course, been i n c l u d e d because they would o r d i n a r i l y be handled by some system o f combination, (See Chapter on Time-Table). With a t e a c h i n g l o a d o f o n l y 82 p e r i o d s per week per teacher n e c e s s a r y t o handle the course o u t l i n e d , o p t i o n s might w e l l be i n t r o d u c e d . Another s c i e n c e might be o f f e r e d ; or one of the te a c h e r s might be a shop t e a c h e r ; i t might be p o s s i b l e , with a s u i t a b l e s t a f f , to i n c l u d e both Woodwork and Home Economics, o r Commercial s u b j e c t s . I t i s to be noted, too, t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of combining t h i s s e h o o l w i t h Grades ? and 8 to form a S e n i o r -J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l as suggested i n Chap, 6, has not been commented on here, as a f a i r l y simple case was chosen f o r purposes e f i l l u s t r a t i o n , The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s u b j e c t - a l t e r n a t i o n does not depend i n any way on the number of teachers employed, i f the c o n d i t i o n s of a f o u r year course, and the rearrangement of s u b j e c t matter be f a v o u r a b l e . Thus a two-teacher high s c h o o l c o u l d o f f e r the above eourse without the n e c e s s i t y o f any d o u b l e - p e r i o d s , though without a l t e r n a t i o n over h a l f the p e r i o d s would be double (See pp, 63 - 65 ), A l s o , though double-p e r i o d s would s t i l l be necessary i n a one-teacher high s c h o o l , " t r i p l e - p e r i o d s " would d i s a p p e a r . Another advantage o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e i n c i d e n t a l to the r e d u c t i o n o f t e a c h i n g l o a d , i s t h a t i t w i l l - l e e -make "promotion by s u b j e c t " p o s s i b l e - p o s s i b l y necessary - f o r f a i l i n g s t u d e n t s . I»et us take the example of a student e n t e r -i n g Grade 9 i n an "odd* year, and f a i l i n g i n E n g l i s h l a , Math-ematics 1, and French 1. I f t h i s student remains i n Grade 9, he w i l l r e p e a t the work of these s u b j e c t s , but w i l l auto-m a t i c a l l y proceed to the work of the next year i n the s u b j e c t s i n which he has passed; i f he f a i l s i n one of the s u b j e c t s a l t e r n a t e d , he ean be promoted to Grade X, f o r he w i l l r e c e i v e the same work t h e r e as he would i n Grade IX, i f not promoted; i f he has f a i l e d i n some of both groups of s u b j e c t s , e i t h e r promotion or non-promotion w i l l be of more advantage to him than b e i n g made to r e p e a t the year under the p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a -t i o n . Moreover, i n c e r t a i n cases the t i m e - t a b l e w i l l permit him to be promoted w h i l e s t i l l being able to r e p e a t the work o f h i s f a i l i n g s u b j e c t s . A l s o , some students would thus have an e x t r a year to make up a d e f i c i e n c y by p r i v a t e study, should they so d e s i r e . Hence the g e n e r a l e f f e c t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a system of a l t e r n a t i o n would be to combine the work of the f i r s t two y e a r s , so t h a t a d i l i g e n t student who was of somewhat mediocre a b i l i t y would have a b e t t e r chance of being a b l e to succeed, and would be more l i k e l y to remain i n s c h o o l ; a t the same time, the s c h o o l c a r e e r of the a b l e r student would not be a f f e c t e d . - 16? -APPENDIX "C" Departmental Examinations An extended d i s c u s s i o n of the Departmental Exam-i n a t i o n s i s not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study, f o r the reason t h a t any r a d i c a l change would i n v o l v e some degree o f a c c r e d i t i n g o f High Sehools, and such a c c r e d i t i n g c o u l d be expected to app l y to o n l y a few s m a l l High S c h o o l s , Eor t h i s reason the a c c r e d i t i n g of s c h o o l s i s not a r e l e v a n t t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n h e r e . C e r t a i n m a t e r i a l b e a r i n g on the Departmental Exam-i n a t i o n s , however, was c o l l e c t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s i s here p r e s e n t e d f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n of those i n t e r e s t e d . Opinions of P r i n c i p a l s as to what Depart- mental examinations should be w r i t t e n by  l e a v i n g s t u d e n t s ( i . e . those who w i l l not  proceed to h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s FT dumber of P r i n c i p a l s O p i nion S u p e r i o r Small H i g h Large High S c h o o l s Schools Schools T o t a l s 10 16 6 32 Constants, and some f r e e e l e c t i v e s . , . . 1 6 1 13 Constants o n l y . , . . . 4 8 1 8 3 8 ? 18 2 0 2 4 T o t a l 20 38 17 75 - 168 -Opinions e f P r i n c i p a l s as to what Depart , mental Examinations shouia be w r i t t e n T y c a n d i d a t e s f o r J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n . O p i n i o n Number at V r i n e irtala S u p e r i o r Sehools S m a l l High Sehools Large High Schools T o t a l s A l l s u b j e c t s A l l s u b j e c t s except F r e e E l e e t i v e s Only s u b j e c t s r e -q u i r e d by TJniv, Not t a b u l a t e d 8 . E 8 2 14 2 21 1 4 3 8 2 26 7 37 5 T o t a l 20 38 1? 75 Answers of P r i n c i p a l s to the q u e s t i o n . "In your o p i n i o n , aught students be r e q u i r e d to w r i t e Departmental examinations i n H e a l t h ? " Opinion Number of P r i n c i p a l s S u p e r i o r Schools S m a l l High Schools t a r g e High Schools T o t a l s Yes No No o p i n i o n 13 6 1 22 15 1 10 5 2 45 26 4 T o t a l 20 38 17 75 Answers of P r i n c i p a l s to the q u e s t i o n , "In your o p i n i o n , would the standard o f t e a c h i n g i n H e a l t h drop i f no Departmental examinations  were s e t i n t h a t s u b i e e t ? H O p i n i o n Number of P r i n c i p a l s S u p e r i o r S m a l l High Large High Sehools Sehools Schools T o t a l s Yes 14 22 11 47 No 5 12 5 22 No o p i n i o n 1 4 1 6 T o t a l 20 38 17 75 - 169 -The answers to the q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the h e a l t h examination are a l s o i l l u m i n a t i n g . Though a s t r i d i n g l a c k of unanimity appears, the m a j o r i t y of P r i n c i p a l s b e l i e v e that a Departmental examination i s d e s i r a b l e i n t h i s s u b j e e t , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t i t i s not r e q u i r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y . Since 47 o f the 75 P r i n c i p a l s r e p o r t i n g are of the o p i n i o n that the e f f i e i e n e y o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n H e a l t h would d e t e r i o r a t e i f i t were not f o r the Department's examination i n the s u b j e c t , one i s almost i n c l i n e d to conclude t h a t the aim of the t e a c h e r i n t h i s s u b j e e t i s not the development of r i g h t h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s f o r the p h y s i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l and the community, but the p a s s i n g of Departmental examinations. Ob v i o u s l y the I n t r o d u c t i o n of a system of a c c r e d i t e d s c h o o l s i s not a d v i s a b l e as l o n g as the a t t i t u d e p r e v a i l s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , a f a c t which many of the champions of a c c r e d i t e d s e h o o l s sometimes appear t o overlook* - 170 • (1) APPENDIX "D n H i g h S e h o o l Course ( J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) . A, E n g l i s h - „. -Pe r i o d s . 1. Grade IX.. I I . Grade X... I I I . Grate XI.. IV. Grade XII, I I , Grade X.. I I I . Grade XI. IT. Grade X I I D. Mathematics ( A r i t h m e t i c , A l g e b r a , Geometry) I . Grade IX.. 6 6 6 _5 23 B* S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( H i s t o r y , e t c . ) . I . Grade IX. 5 I I , Grade X.. • 3 I I I . Grade XI. 3 IV. Grade X I I . . . . . . . . . . . _3 14 C. H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . I . Grade IX 3 2 z 6 I I . Grade X . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I I I . Grade XI ,, , 6 IV. Grade XII ,,. , 5 23 ( l ) R e p r i n t e d from the "New Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the High and T e c h n i c a l Schools o f B r i t i s h Columbia," Depart-ment of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 1930. 171 *• F o r e i g n Language ( L a t i n or F r e n c h ) . I» Grate IX I I . Grade X. I I I . Grade XI. . * IT. Grade XII F. S c i e n c e . G e n e r a l S c i e n c e (Grade IX. o r Grade X.) and e i t h e r _ (P h y s i o s I . (Grade X. or XI.) and ( P h y s i c s I I . (Grade XI. or XII.}. OB (Chemistry 1. (Grade X. or XI.) and (Chemistry I I . (Grade XI. or X I I . ) . . . . 6. One of the Languages i n E not a l r e a d y taken... OB One o f the two S c i e n c e s (Chemistry I*, I I . , and P h y s i c s I . , I I . ) i n F not a l r e a d y taken* OR A g r i c u l t u r e I . and I I . (Grades X. o r XI. o r XI. and XII.) * , OB B i o l o g y I . and I I . (Grades X. and XI. o r XI. and X I I . ) . . . , OR Geography I, and I I . (Grades X. and XI. o r XI. and X I I . ) . . OR Home Economics (A) I . , I I . , I I I . , o r Home Economics (B), I . , I I . , I I I . OR T e c h n i c a l ( I n d u s t r i a l A r t s ) S u b j e c t s (A) I., I I . , I I I . , o r T e c h n i c a l ( I n d u s t r i a l A r t s ) S u b j e c t s (B) I , , I I . , I I I . , OR Ten c r e d i t s from the f o l l o w i n g : -P e r i o d s . 4 4 4 4 16 3 10 10 13 16 10 10 10 10 15 15 - 178 6 3 P e r i o d s Greek I . ( J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) . . 5 Greek I I . ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) • . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 German I* ( J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) 5 German I I * ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) . * 5 l a t i n V* ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) * • 5 French V. ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) * 5 E n g l i s h 7* ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) 5 Canadian H i s t o r y ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) . . . . . . . 5 A g r i c u l t u r e I I I * * • (5 c r e d i t s ) 6 B i o l o g y I I I * ( S e n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n ) ( 5 e r e d i t s ) 6 Chemistry I I I * * * (5 c r e d i t s ) P h y s i c s I I I * * * (5 c r e d i t s ) Mathematics V . — , A l g e b r a V*........ Geometry 7*. ...* •• 3 Trigonometry* .*....... • 2 (These mathematical s u b j e c t s may be taken s e p a r a t e l y . ) P e r i o d s ( e r e d i t s ) . . . . . . . . . 108-114 H. Fr e e E l e e t i v e s * Under t h i s heading candidates must o b t a i n c r e d i t s s u f f i c i e n t to b r i n g t h e i r t o t a l up t o 120. Any s u b j e c t o r s u b j e c t s i n the Programme of S t u d i e s not a l r e a d y taken, or an advanced course i n any s u b j e c t beyond t h a t a l r e a d y taken. - 6-12 T o t a l p e r i o d s ( c r e d i t s ) . . . . . . . . . 120 Rotes. 1* I t i s recommended, but i t i s not o b l i g a t o r y , t h a t the day be d i v i d e d i n t o 7 p e r i o d s of from 40 to 45 minutes each. 2. A c r e d i t i n a s u b j e e t r e p r e s e n t s one p e r i o d per week throughout the s c h o o l - y e a r . The number of e r e d i t s assigned to a s u b j e c t w i l l not be a f f e c t e d by reason of the f a c t t h at the course i n t h a t s u b j e c t was completed by a student i n a s h o r t e r or l o n g e r time than t h a t suggested i n the schedule* 3* Every student should be allowed, on an average, one p e r i o d a day f o r "Study i n S c h o o l * " 4* C r e d i t f o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n i s not giv e n f o r p e r i o d s devoted to "Study i n S c h o o l . " Except i n the case of Free E l e e t i v e s , c r e d i t i s not given i n any s u b j e c t towards J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n u n t i l the complete course l e a d i n g to M a t r i c u l a t i o n - 173 -s t a n d i n g i n t h a t s u b j e c t has been covered. 5. F r e e E l e c t i v e s . - A candidate may o b t a i n c r e d i t f o r the r e q u i r e d f r e e e l e c t i v e s e i t h e r by t a k i n g s u b j e c t s upon which Departmental examinations are o f f e r e d and p a s s i n g the examinations i n them, or by completing i n a High or S u p e r i o r S c h o o l the r e q u i r e d amount of c r e d i t i n any course or courses p r o v i d e d i n the High S c h o o l Programme of S t u d i e s . In the l a t t e r ease the P r i n c i p a l of the High S c h o o l or S u p e r i o r S c h o o l w i l l be r e q u i r e d to c e r t i f y t h a t the r e q u i r e d work has been done t h o r o u g h l y . Should a student wish h i s f r e e e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t t o be a c c r e d i t e d f o r advanced s t a n d i n g i n the U n i v e r -s i t y or to s a t i s f y the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a s u b j e c t proposed to be taken at the U n i v e r s i t y , he s h a l l i n t h i s case take the Departmental examination i n the s u b j e c t . 8. Students who g a i n 120 c r e d i t s w i l l r e c e i v e a High S e h o o l G r a d u a t i o n Diploma. 7. I f a student f o r any reason f i n d s i t n e c e s s a r y to leave High S c h o o l b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n , he, on l e a v i n g , w i l l be g i v e n a c e r t i f i c a t e by the P r i n c i p a l , showing the s u b j e c t s taken and the c r e d i t s gained i n them. 8. J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n In Three Y e a r s . - Students who f o r any r e a s o n cannot spend more than three years at High S c h o o l may g a i n J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g (but not a High S e h o o l Graduation Diploma) without t a k i n g the Free E l e c t i v e s r e f e r r e d to under S e c t i o n H of the s c h e d u l e . (Page 172). HIGH SCHOOL Q0URSE (NORMAL ENTRANCE). A ca n d i d a t e f o r Normal Entrance w i l l be r e q u i r e d to meet the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s : -C r e d i t s . E n g l i s h . . . 23 S o c i a l S t u d i e s . . ••• 14 H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . . . . 9 Mathematics. 23 F o r e i g n Language - L a t i n I . and I I . o r F r e n c h I . and I I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 S c i e n c e (3 or which are i n General Science and e i t h e r 10 i n one S c i e n c e or 5 i n each o f two SeiencesTT 13 Geography I . and I I . 10 A r t I. 3 S p e c i a l A r i t h m e t i c , . . . . • •••• 3 S p e c i a l Grammar...... ,,, •• 2 F r e e E l e c t i v e s , . , 12 Notes. 1. Students who gain 120 u n i t s w i l l be granted a High - 174 -S c h o o l Graduation Diploma. 2. The notes under J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n apply, m u t a t i s mutandis, to the Normal Entrance Course. 3* Normal Entranee i n Three T e a r s . ~ Students who f o r any reason cannot spend more than three years at High S c h o o l may g a i n Normal Entranee s t a n d i n g (but not a High Sch o o l Graduation Diploma) w i t h o u t talcing the Free E l e e t i v e s r e f e r r e d t o i n the schedule f o r Normal Entrance c a n d i d a t e s * GENERAL COURSE  Co n s t a n t s . (46 c r e d i t s * ) A* E n g l i s h I * , Grade IX. E n g l i s h I I . , Grade X. E n g l i s h I I I * , Grade XI • E n g l i s h IT., Grade X I I , B* S o c i a l S t u d i e s I*, Grade IX.................... S o c i a l S t u d i e s I I * , Grade X. S o c i a l S t u d i e s I I I * , Grade XI.................. S o c i a l S t u d i e s IT., Grade X I I . . . . . . . . . P e r i o d s 6 6 6 5 23 5 3 3 5 14 C. H e a l t h & P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I . , Grade IX....... H e a l t h & P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I I . , Grade X He a l t h & P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I I I . , Grade XI H e a l t h & P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n IT., Grade X I I . . , . . 3 2 2 2 E l e e t i v e s . (74 e r e d i t s . ) P r e s c r i b e d s u b j e c t s chosen on the advic e o f the P r i n c i p a l . F o r a General Graduation Diploma a student w i l l be r e q u i r e d to take, as c o n s t a n t s , the s u b j e c t s of E n g l i s h (23 c r e d i t s ) , S o c i a l S t u d i e s (14 e r e d i t s ) , H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n (9 e r e d i t s ) , and to make up the remaining 74 c r e d i t s from o t h e r p r e s c r i b e d s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g A r t and Music i f o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l . Note. See notes under the J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n schedule. Those notes apply, m u t a t i s mutandis, to the General Course, M H M n rl A. g to <D •H <d >.+» Ft CQ A A 4» Q 81 CO ft Tt ft H rt S 60 t)Q © 0 PJ «CJ «C «J CQ O H Of ft O o ra o •H -p X) at a> 44 6 ft 4* >» © rt iH«S A 60 © 0 4» 0 © 4» © «jO F0 60-P PI © a © Ft 4» © © ft r*» © 0 ,d -p p © CQ 2 M a o ra •at O CP r© 0 © CQ ft +» * r l © ra MS © <rt © ft >» H A © «d 60 P 5» 0 0 © ,0 4» H a ft ra «4 O PP H H H « j o o a © •p ra © r*»ft 44 >0 © © 0 J» >> & *> A *S © CQ At St rl 4» r * l — C Q O O << CP P) PI •H ft -P -P © © rl rl © rCt © ft M <©" >* r l h fl 60*1 P 0 0 At CQ +» W ——«CQ O «aj pq o © © © o r© 0 P ft CO 4» © r l r l H g © © © © 0 Pi - • r l © © O P rl U O © r l r i CO 3 <4 «4 O r l 9 O H M H r l H © © Pi © •rl © CQ r l d r l rl © © Pi Pi © © u «2> r l © © f t <d © 0 © -P ft CQ +> © © © •H fit O +> O © co a o <4 o m © © Pi © ft © CQ t» Pi r l 4* © r l Q rl O ft 5>» © 0 g TJ PI © © 0 © rl r l 4s Cd r l O CO O «4 (£) © © ft -P © 0 r l © © r l a +» © © rl a r l «d 4» CO r | © » © ft © a © n ,0 O 4> O © co a CP «4 © CP o ft P © © r l 4» © ra © f t 4» r l © © & ft © r l r t 60 -P a © A -p r l Si fp CP o © © 4» © r l S a r l © >»f t ,0 r l r© © -P 60 0 © © Pj 4» Pi 3 P4 CQ CQ CP «4 O 0» O r l « r i H H a © ft r© 0 P CQ r l © •rl O O A a •H >> r l <et 60 ^ a 4» CQ O r l CQ © CP «4 © -H TJ 0 +» CQ r l © i-l © •rl r l 60 -P a at a o •rl 4» © © >» r l *0 0 4» CQ r i a © <J CP ra o ft •P r l d a a ft © H A 6 0 4» a © <d 0 4» a co O «4 CP a a O Ft CP «H • • CP o a r l O A ©" *rl a © 4» >» "rl -rl © <d r l a O 0 6 0 *>» 0 4> a r l ra WAiW a a rHrl O rl PP 1-1 cd • • CP o a r l O © i - l A U P © •ri © ft >» O © r l «© S 0 60 0 r l a P At W r l CQ Ol O H W H H H a © Tt r© a 0 © 4» •rl CQ a © A o A r l a •ri © &>» S» © © •H a a *d r© Tt 1^ r l 4» l » © 0 0 © 4> 60 rl r l rl 4» 4» O © a •4 At CQ CQ CQ a O CO <4 O PP •4 a a © o i-l ri •P 4» at © &1 0 r l A © © © © .a .a a a p p © © © © rl rl a 3 r l r l pq o "4 "4 a © 0 r> -P rl CQ 4» B r l r l $*»"ri O © >0 3 0 -rt 0 © © O 4» A Pi O CQ O r l CQ CP -aj O a © Tt •d 0 P !>. CQ rl •P r l B r l © -rl © r» •H a a *d © © © 0 O A Pi 4» CQ O r l CQ O CP -a) » O H « H H H rl © a © ri >> P f4 © +»,a H © cs 8 © <rl r l a 4» © 0) r l a o H ra CP CP «{ o a •rl i - l r l O 60 © a a © ri 0 4» CQ a r l r l r i © a a © i - l l - l «rl i - l a r l r l o !» «> M o r i a a ra At w w © CO «jj «4 © © a 0 « © •H •H <0 a a © 0 © o CQ >» 4» •H •H Pi CQ 4» +* r l 4> © A «t © 8 r l r l a © a a Pi r4 O >» © ft © © a 0 *0 ft A r l A a © © 0 © P 60 4» « 4 rt4> O © a © C!> © pc, CQ CQ a w a © CP «4 © o <tj CP a o ft r*» 4» rl © 4» A a © a ffl ft ft r l g r l p +» © 60 Ft © r l a •oiaow © © CQ <J H H H a a © © •H ft •P 4» © a a a ^ © © >» o *1 r l *d a 4» 4» 0 © © © +> m a a CQ r l CP © «<t «©• 0 +> CQ a A © r l a ^• r l +» -H •d B r l r l 0 »» a oo 4» A © a CQ At HI M CP © «>} a © •H tt a 0 o -p ft CQ P © r i a -a r»S © © O •b ft ,0 a 0 © 4» © 4» O © Ft CQ CQ a to O CP «a| 0 +» r l © © Ft +» a >» ft •d a 0 © 4» XI W O W PP <»1 •d a 0 © p ft CQ P © H a rt J» © © o •d Tt r l 0 0 O +> © 4> O © Ft CQ CQ a r l O CP <aj e» o r i ra r i H r| © A 4» © P 0 £> ft Ft P a M Ft O B= r>» Ft O -P © Ft O A © © r© © Ft r? Ft © •d Ft ft r l o a 0 ft Tt o a ^ r© © rd a a © >d 0 a o ps •H © Ft A © © • X> Pt 0 O >> © r l 0 © r l © © r l 0 © O 4> © t» «d > • © © > > ft © «d Ft © o ra O *d © © ra Ft Ft 0 0 Ft © o <d ft a « a © r0 Ft fes t»6t o a Ft •d a+> a © o <d a •d * l >H o ft o 4» Ft -ri a «H © Ft © Pt Vi Pi © A © O P .© Pi 4» -d r l Ft A 0 0 4» O 4» © 4» tD a a a © I© © r© 60 W 0 i - l 0 a r l © a © © >» U <D Xt A ^ Ft >d 4» At Ft © © to to © Ft 0 Ft © © ft © A A «4 fH E4 rl a « 4» o ra to 4» o • 0 a © « r l a A © 0 a a o «© a <d o © ft r l i» Ft © r l © •H Pi «d Ft « © © 0 a H •H a A r© © 0 a o o o © o O 0 to to 175 -APPEND IX *»E» Grade 9 Master T i m e - T a b l e ^ T r [ . ^ Consid e r e d i n Chap**-* xo The Master Time-Table i s Shown i n P l a t e I I I , G l a s s Time-Tables (From the Master Time-Table)* M T W Grade 1 0 Th F 1 Eng. Eng. Eng. Eng. Eng. 2 Fren* Eng. F r e n . F r e n . F r e n , 3 Math Math. Math. Gen.Sc. Gen.Sc. 4 Phys.Ed. Study A r t Soe.St. Soc.St. 5 S o c . S t . Gen.Sc. Study Math. A r t 6 A r t Soc.St* Soe.St. Math. Study 7 Study H e a l t h Study Study Math M T W Th F 1 Lat.Phys. Math* Math. H e a l t h Eng. 2 F r e n . Lat.Phys. Lat.Study Lat.Study Lat.Study 3 Eng. Eng. Fren, F r e n . Fren. 4 Phys.Ed, Eng. Eng. Eng. Chem 5 Chem. Chem. (Chem* ] Math, Phys. 6 Math. Math. I (Phys. S t u d 'hem. Soe.St. 7 Soc.St. Study Soc.St, 'hys.Stud. iJath (Bracketed s u b j e c t s ean be used f o r Labs, i f d e s i r e d . ) (Bracketed s u b j e c t s ean be used f o r Labs, i f d e s i red.) Grade 12 M T W Th F 1 Soc.St. Study Study Math. Soc.St. 2 Hath. Study Study Study Study 3 Sp.Gr. H e a l t h Math Study Math 4 Study Phys.Id. Study Study Study 5 Study Study Soe.St. F r e n . Study 6 Eng. Math. Eng. Sp.Gr• Eng. 7 F r e n . Eng. F r e n . Eng. F r e n . • 17? -Teachers* Time-Tables (From the Master Time-Table) Teacher 1 Eng. 9 F r . 9 F r . 10 Eng. 9 Eng. 9 Eng. 9 F r . 9 Eng. 9 F r . 9 Eng. 9 Ene. 10 F r . 9 Eng. 10 Eng. 10 F r . 10 F r . 10 F r . 10 Eng. 11 Eng. 10 Eng. 10 Eng. i o Eng. i i F r , 11 F r . 11 F r . 11 F r . 11 F r . 12 F r . 11 Eng. 12 Eng. 11 Eng. 11 Ene. l a Eng. 11 Eng. 12 F r . 12 Eng. 12 F r . 12 Eng. 12 F r . 12 ... Teacher 1 »B" 2 Phys.10 Phys.11 Pays, l l Chem.11 Math.12 Chem,11 Math.12 Phys. 10 Phys.11 Phys.11 Phys.11 Math. 9 Math. 9 M f r t h t U Math. 9 Math.12 Chem,11 Math,12 Phys.Ed. iBovs 9 & ]n Phys.Ed. _ B y s . l l & IP. Math,11 Math.11 Chem,10 Chem. 10 Chem.10 Chem.10 Math, 9 Phys.10 Chem. 11 Math 12 Phys.10 Math. 9 Chem.10 Math.11 Math. 12 Chem. 11 Math.11 Phys.10 Math. 9 178 -p to • o o 03 A IN IS P rH <D W p H H P of H P at •4 o H * H • • O P CO w • © o & ra p ra • a o ra a» 4 * o» e ra © Ctt p CO • o o ra o r-l A p (0 H H • P CO o o CO en p w H • +» CO • o o ra p CO • o o ra t4 CD • P. ra CO •p ra * o o ra o H -a p aS a -a p a) o H p ra * © o ra o .4 P . * o H H CM H O +» H ra • p o «. o •4 ra H o H • 4 » a) •4 H P ra o o ra CM r-t A p H © CM H « A. o CO CM H f4 CiJ P. ra o H •d to • u ra <H A A. 4 » ra o o ra • o -P H CO • A O 4 » o «t ra % o r-t + » P N Si •4S o> A p H a) © o P ra O o ra CM to 10 to - 179 BIBLIOGRAPHY Note: R e p o r t s and Programmes o f S t u d i e s i s s u e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n are l i s t e d at the end of the B i b l i o g r a p h y . Barnes, I . G., " R u r a l S e h o o l Management," The Macmillan Co., New York, 1925. Broady, E. 0., e t a l . " P r a c t i c a l Procedures f o r E n r i c h i n g the Currleulums of S m a l l S c h o o l s * " U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska E d u c a t i o n a l Monograph No. 2. L i n c o l n , Neb. 1931. Coxe, W. W., and Cowen, P* A., " E d u c a t i o n a l Needs of P u p i l s i n S m a l l High S c h o o l s . " U n i v e r s i t y of the S t a t e of New York B u l l e t i n No. 969, U n i v e r s i t y o f S t a t e of New York P r e s s , Albany, N. Y., 1931. Cubberley, E, P., "A B r i e f H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n , " Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1922. Douglass, A, A., "Secondary E d u c a t i o n . " Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1927. F e r r i s , E. N., "Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n Country and V i l l a g e . " D, A p p l e t o n and Go., New York, 1927. F e r r i s , E. N., "The R u r a l High S c h o o l . " U. S. O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1925, No. 10., Washington, D. C., 1925. F o s t e r , 6. R., " E x t r a C u r r i e u l a r A c t i v i t i e s i n the High School.' Johnson P u b l i s h i n g Co., Richmond, 7a., 1925. F o s t e r , C. R., "High S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " The Century Co., New York, 1923. Gaumnitz, W. H., "The Smallness of America's R u r a l High S e h o o l s . " U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1930, No. 13., Washington, D. C,, 1930, Heck, A. 0 #, " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u p i l P e r s o n n e l . * Ginn and Co,, New York, 1929, I n g l i s , A. J , , " P r i n c i p l e s of Secondary E d u c a t i o n . " Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1918, - 180 -Johnson., F. W., "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o a aad S u p e r v i s i o a o f the High S c h o o l , * S i a a aad Co,, New York, 1985, Judd, C, H,, "The E v o l u t i o n of a Democratic S c h o o l System," Houghtott M i f f l i a Co., New York, 1918. Monroe, P,, "A T e x t Book i n the H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n . " The Maemillan Co,, New York, 1928. M u e l l e r , A, D., " P r o g r e s s i v e Trends i n S u r a l E d u c a t i o n . " The Century Co., New York, 1926, P u c k e t t , H. G., "Making a High S c h o o l Schedule o f R e c i t a t i o n s . Longmans, Green and Co,, New York, 1931. Putmaa, J . H,, and Weir, 6. M,, "Survey o f the S c h o o l System." Department of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B, C., 1925. Showalter, N. D., "Handbook f o r R u r a l S c h o o l O f f i c e r s . " Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York, 1920. Wiggins, D. M., " C u r r i c u l u m Problems of S m a l l R u r a l High S c h o o l s i n Texas," S c h o o l Review, June, 1932. P. 460. Records of P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . A l b e r t a , Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Handbook f o r Secondary S c h o o l s , " Edmonton, 1930, — — — — — "Re g u l a t i o n s of the Department o f E d u c a t i o n R e l a t i n g to Programme of S t u d i e s and Annual Examinations f o r Secondary S c h o o l s . " Edmonton, 1930. - " T w e n t y - f i f t h Annual Report of the Department of E d u c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e of A l b e r t a , 1930." Edmonton, 1931. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f E d u c a t i o n . " C u r r i c u l a of P u b l i c Schools f o r G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia." E d u c a t i o n a l Monograph No. 1. V i c t o r i a , 1914. - •'•». "Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r the J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia." V i c t o r i a , 1932. - — "Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the High and T e c h n i c ! Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1928-29.? V i c t o r i a , 1928. — - "New Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the Hieh and To^v,4« i Schools o f B r i t i s h Columbia." V i c t o r i a , ^ 9 3?! * 6 C l U l i C a l - 181 -s p o r t nee " S i x t i e t h Annual Report o f the P u b l i c Sehools o f B r i t i s h Columbia." V i c t o r i a , 1932. Manitoba. Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the S c h o o l s o f Manitoba." Winnipeg, 1931. 1 11 "• "High S c h o o l L e a v i n g Correspondence Courses." Winnip O n t a r i o . Department o f E d u c a t i o n . "Courses of Study and Examinations." Toronto, 1931. -mmm——— "Report o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o f o r the Tear 1930." Toronto, 19 32. P r i n e e Edward I s l a n d . Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Annual Re o f the C h i e f Superintendent of E d u c a t i o n f o r the P r o v i of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d f o r the F i s c a l l e a r Ending December 31st, 1931." Charlottetown, 1932. •" '• 1 1 •• "Course of S t u d i e s . " Charlottetown, 1931. Quebec. Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Report of the Superintendent o f E d u c a t i o n f o r the Tear 1930-31." Quebec, 1932. New Brunswick. Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Annual Report of the Schools of New Brunswick, 1930-31." F r e d e r i e t o n , 1932. Nova S c o t i a . Department of E d u c a t i o n . "Annual Report of the Superintendent o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Nova S c o t i a f o r the Tear Ended J u l y 31st, 1931." H a l i f a x , 1932. Saskatchewan. Department of Education* "Annual Report of the Department of E d u c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, 1930." Regina, 1931. •"' " R e g u l a t i o n s and Courses of Study f o r Secondary Schools, 1931-32." Regina, 1931. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105349/manifest

Comment

Related Items