UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Style in the poetry of Thomas Hardy Neil, Alice C. 1932

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1932_A8_N3_S8.pdf [ 20.38MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105348.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105348-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105348-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105348-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105348-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105348-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105348-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105348-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105348.ris

Full Text

STYLE III THE POETRY OF THOMAS HARDY  by A l i c e G. I T e i l  A Thesis submitted  f o r t h e Degree o f  MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department  ENGLISH  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  CQLIMBIA  A p r i l 1932 if  ^yuJy  /f3*  i  CONTENT'S I THOMAS HARDY Poetry: A point o f view. Style: C e n t r a l problem. Vagaries o f term. From w i t h i n , w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e . ^ E s s e n t i a l harmony o f s t y l e a n d e x p e r i e n c e . John Bunyan a n d t h e n a t u r a l s t y l e . True s t y l e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n a t u r a l — artifice. True s t y l e a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l mode•of e x p e r i e n c e . Techniq_ue — t h e m a s t e r y o f m e t h o d . Judgment i n s t y l e comes o n l y f r o m k n o w l e d g e and sympathy. Thomas H a r d y : H a r d y ' s p a r t i c u l a r mode. S o u r c e s : Man, C o u n t r y , C e n t u r y . Thomas H a r d y t h e g e n i u s —- w i t h S h a k e s p e a r e and Chaucer. Constant preoccupation w i t h poetry. Chronology not s i g n i f i c a n t . Sense o f Rhythm. Sense o f P a n o r a m a o r C o s m i c g r a s p . I n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t e n s i f i e d by c o u n t r y l i f e . P i t y i n broadest sense: Tess. P i t y i n narrower sense: Animals. Hardy s t r a g i c sense. 1  ¥essex: Dorset. y Old England. Pastoral Spirit. Tragedy. The  Century: Scientific attitude — futility. Judej The D y n a s t s . A P h i l o s o p h y o f o n e s own. Hardy t h e Modern. ?  2  II THE Lyric  Quality i n Hardy s Poetry: Consistent l e v e l tone. 7  Lyric  Scope i n H a r d y ' s P o e t r y : The  The  LYRIC G I F T  two  e x t r e m e s : W e a t h e r s ; The  Retreat  W e s s e x Mood.  The R o m a n t i c Mood. P h i l o s o p h y i n the L y r i c : Man. Universe. The e x t e n s i o n o f B o u n d s . Man  f r o m Moscow,  Made a n d God Made: The C o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e  —  Twain.  Ill TRUTH The  Wessex i n f l u e n c e : Limitation.  Dramatic and N a r r a t i v e V e r s e : M a s t e r y o f D r a m a t i c Form. Tense k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r and sudden l i g h t . . The E n g l i s h S p i r i t . "Wessex" p e o p l e . Dialect. . P o e t i c examples of the d r a m a t i c g i f t . Two o n e - a c t p l a y s . I r o n y i n d r a m a t i c poems. "The "The  G a r g o y l e Mood." The i r o n i c s p i r i t Ugly P i l l a r " ,  Words. Imagery. Play thin.  i n general.  or F a u l t s i n  Style.  IV  THE DYEAST A Hew A r t F o r m . The  Dynasts: Epic.  Drama. Panorama. .Poetry.  Hetaphysic.  "The P o e t ' s l a s t  Word."  STYLE I F THE POETRY OF THOMAS HARDY. ,1 THOMAS HARDY A f i e l d o f d a f f o d i l s l a y y e l l o w on t h e h i l l s i d e . To t h e n u r s e r y man, who h a d p u t them t h e r e , so many t h o u s a n d a t so much, t h e y e l l o w s p l a s h r e p r e s e n t e d m e r e l y a n a d v e n t u r e i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s , a n d a p o s s i b l e p r o f i t . A c h i l d wand e r i n g a l o n g t h e roadway saw a s u d d e n g l o r y a n d w i s h e d t o t a k e i t home, a n d a t r a i l o f d r o o p i n g b l o s s o m s m a r k e d h i s way. A n o t h e r saw t h e f i e l d a s l i g h t a n d n o t e d t h e e f f e c t o f s u n s h i n e u p o n y e l l o w a s i t merges i n t o g r e e n and p r e s e n t l y , the f i e l d f o r e s h o r t e n e d , a n d i n s q u a r e d l i m i t s r e a p p e a r e d on c a n v a s , more y e l l o w t h a n i t w a s . The f o u r t h who p a s s e d , r e membered, a n d l o n g a f t e r w r o t e a poem. When s p r i n g t i m e comes my s o u l l i f t s Like yellow d a f f o d i l i t s cup.  up  T h e r e w e r e , i t seems o b v i o u s t o r e m a r k , f o u r d i s t i n c t r e a c t i o n s : the f i r s t a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l one, the s e c o n d , c h i l d h o o d ' s pagan j o y i n the moment's s e n s a t i o n which y e a r s u n f o r t u n a t e l y d e s t r o y , the t h i r d a f i e l d o f d a f f o d i l s i n terms o f l i g h t and c o l o r o n l y , and the f o u r t h an e x t e n s i o n o f a moment's e m o t i o n i n t o a s i g n i f i c a n c e o u t s i d e i t s e l f . The f i e l d , u n t i l i t w i t h e r e d , was t h e same, b u t I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a r i e d w i t h each b e h o l d e r . The p o e t whom we a r e a b o u t t o d i s c u s s h a s s a i d i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t " T h e . p o e t r y of a scene v a r i e s w i t h the mind o f the p e r c e i v e r . Indeed, i t does not l i e i n the scene a t a l l . " (1) Whether o r n o t one a g r e e s , t h i s p r o b l e m o f v i s i o n l e a d s d i r e c t l y t o t h e main core of t h a t d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t , S t y l e , which v a r i e s w i t h each poet and each c r i t i c which r e f u s e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and b a f f l e s a n a l y s i s . E v e r y p o e t whose work a t t a i n s t o a n y c o h e r e n c e or body r e a c h e s c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s emotional experience. T h i s a t t i t u d e o f the p o e t must o f n e c e s s i t y e x h i b i t i t s e l f as d i s t i n c t l y as p o s s i b l e i f the e x a c t e x p e r i e n c e i s t o be r e c r e a t e d f o r o t h e r s . An e f f o r t to recreate a p a r t i c u l a r experience of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y l e a d s t o a d i s t i n c t method o f e x p r e s s i o n . This i n turn e x h i b i t s the p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s y o f the poet and c r e a t e s t h e c o n f u s i o n w h i c h p e r t a i n s t o the t e r m s t y l e . T h i s term i s s o m e t i m e s a p p l i e d t o t h e f o r m a l means o f e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h i s a h e r i t a g e f r o m t h e p a s t w h i c h must be a d a p t e d a n d u s e d by t h e p o e t i f anyone i s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i m a t a l l . At other (1)  Florence  Emily Hardy:  Life  o f Thomas H a r d y :  p.  66  t i m e s i t i s u s e d t o s i g n i f y t h e whole p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e by the poet*  experience  and  Most s e a r c h e r s i n t o the t r u e i n w a r d n e s s o f the t e r m s meaning agree t h a t S t y l e , a l o n g w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e comes f r o m w i t h i n a n d t h a t t r u e u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n demands an e s s e n t i a l l i k e n e s s between the two. f  There i s a s t r i k i n g pronouncement from B e d f o r d g a o l , w h i c h b e a r s on t h e s u b j e c t : " I c o u l d h a v e e n l a r g e d much i n t h i s my D i s c o u r s e on my T e m p t a t i o n s a n d T r o u b l e s f o r S i n ; a s a l s o , o f t h e m e r c i f u l k i n d n e s s a n d w o r k i n g o f God w i t h my s o u l : I c o u l d a l s o h a v e s t e p p e d i n t o a S t i l e much h i g h e r than t h i s , i n which I have here d i s c o u r s e d , and c o u l d h a v e a d o r n e d a l l t h i n g s more t h a n h e r e I h a v e seemed t o d o , but I dare n o t : God d i d n o t p l a y i n t e m p t i n g o f me; n e i t h e r d i d I p l a y , when I sunk a s i n t o t h e b o t t o m l e s s p i t when P a n g s o f H e l l c a u g h t h o l d u p o n me; w h e r e f o r e I may n o t p l a y i n r e l a t i n g o f them b u t be p l a i n a n d s i m p l e a n d l a y down t h e t h i n g as i t was. He t h a t l i k e t h i t l e t h i m r e c e i v e i t ; a n d he t h a t d o e s n o t , l e t h i m p r o d u c e a b e t t e r . " (1) J o h n B u n y a n s dream was a p e c u l i a r m o u l d i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h B i b l e a n d t h e man h i m s e l f i n t o what i s s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d the f i r s t E n g l i s h n o v e l and h a s , f i t t i n g l y enough, a b l e n d e d f l a v o r b o t h o f God a n d t i n k e r , w h i c h i s t h e e s s e n c e of Bunyan s S t y l e . f  f  The n a t u r a l s t y l e i s d i f f i c u l t o f a t t a i n m e n t s i n c e i t a p p r o x i m a t e s somewhat c l o s e l y t o t h e n o r m a l mode o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d s i n c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f most w r i t e r s a n d a r t i s t s t e n d s away f r o m , r a t h e r t h a n t o w a r d s t h e u s u a l o n e . A g o o d s t y l e , h o w e v e r , n e e d n o t o f n e c e s s i t y be " n a t u r a l " , i f i t be t r u e , f o r , " A l l s t y l e i s a r t i f i c i a l i n t h i s s e n s e , t h a t a l l g o o d s t y l e s a r e a c h i e v e d by a r t i f i c e . " (2) T h i s q u e s t i o n o f a t r u e s t y l e seems i n e x t r i c a b l y m i x e d up w i t h p o e t i c t r u t h g e n e r a l l y a n d s i n c e t h i s p a p e r i s t o d e a l w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n so f a r a s i t may be e x t r i c a t e d f r o m H a r d y ' s w o r k , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e g e n e r a l , I do n o t propose to d e a l e x h a u s t i v e l y w i t h p o e t i c t r u t h e x c e p t i n g as i t a p p e a r s from time to time as the stone t o w h i c h s t y l e i s anchored. We w i l l f o r the p r e s e n t d e a l o n l y w i t h t r u e p o e t s and suppose t h a t i d i o s y n c r a s y h a r d e n e d i n t o mannerism and t h e o r y j o s t l i n g e m o t i o n h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o l i m b o , •— a n d h o l d w i t h B u n y a n t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a n d t h e " S t i l e " must be a n d a r e o f the same k i n d . I f t h i s a c c o u n t of the o r i g i n of t r u e s t y l e i n an i n d i v i d u a l . m o d e o f e x p e r i e n c e be a c c e p t e d a s i n h e r e n t l y t r u e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t the s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e of t h a t s t y l e r e s t s (1) (2)  John Bunyan: P r e f a c e : Grace Abounding t o the J . M i d d l e t o n M u r r y : The M e a n i n g o f S t y l e : p .  Chief 18  of  Sinner  i n t h e a u t h o r ' s a b i l i t y t o compel l a n g u a g e t o c o n f o r m a n d . m i n i s t e r t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r mode. Technique i n a l l i t s phases i s s i m p l y the p r o c e s s of making language conform t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p o e t ' s mode o f e x p e r i e n c e . The p o e t ' s l o r d s h i p o v e r c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a n d u s a g e , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own c o n t r i b u t i o n , i f he makes o n e , c o m p l e t e s h i s e f f o r t a n d f o r m s his style. T h i s n e c e s s i t o u s t e c h n i q u e i s the a r b i t r a r i l y a r t i f i c i a l element which has been m e n t i o n e d . S t y l e t h e n i s r e a l l y a t e r m w h i c h we u s e t o e x p r e s s a v e r y d e l i c a t e p o e t i c a l or a r t i s t i c adjustment which we a r e c o n s t a n t l y c a l l e d u p o n t o r e c o g n i z e . It represents t h e b u i l d i n g up o f t h e p o e t ' s s t r u c t u r e b y h i s own p a r t i c u l a r means. I t i s p a r t l y , i f we w i s h t o c a l l i t s o , h i s m o r t a r a n d i t cements a n d b i n d s a n d f i r m l y h o l d s , g i v i n g p a t t e r n and s t a b i l i t y to the whole. I t i s i n t e g r a l , i n t i m a t e and e s s e n t i a l harmony. ' T h i s b e i n g s o , one may judge o f a p o e t ' s s t y l e only from w i t h i n the p o e t r y i t s e l f , " w i t h i n " i n the sense o f h a v i n g a r r i v e d a t as t h o r o u g h a knowledge o f the p o e t and h i s p o e t r y a s c a n be o b t a i n e d . The bounds o f s u c c e s s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a r y w i t h t h e r e a d e r b u t g r a n t e d t h a t one h a s g a i n e d t h e e s s e n t i a l k n o w l e d g e , t h e w i l l i n g submergence o f o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h a t o f t h e p o e t may b r i n g some degree of s u c c e s s . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why t h e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f a p o e t r e f u s e t o s u s p e n d t h e i r own j u d g m e n t . One i s a l a c k o f p e r s p e c t i v e ; the s a t u r a t i o n o f the r e a d e r i n the commonplace o f t h e day makes a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t seem u n s u b stantial. A n o t h e r r e a s o n i s t h a t a ' p o e t ' s work i s n o t f i n i s h e d u n t i l h i s d e a t h a n d so c a n n o t i n h i s l i f e t i m e be judged as a whole. A f u r t h e r c a u s e o f mi s u n d e r s t a n d i n g l i e s i n the d i f f i c u l t y t h a t w r i t e r s h a v e i n m o u l d i n g t h e i r g e n i u s to the p o p u l a r form. A w r i t e r whose g e n i u s i s e p i c may appear i n the c e n t u r y o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l . Much o f t h e a d v e r s e c r i t i c i s m w i t h w h i c h t h e age o f H a r d y l o a d e d h i m came f r o m f a u l t y k n o w l e d g e , e m p h a s i s on one p h a s e o f h i s work to. t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s e q u a l l y important and the u t t e r r e f u s a l of r e a d e r s to suspend t h e i r own j u d g m e n t . The p o e t r y o f Thomas H a r d y , w h i c h we a r e a b o u t t o c o n s i d e r , v o i c e s more c l e a r l y t h a n i s u s u a l t o p o e t s , a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s s t e a d y , c o n s i s t e n t and u n c h a n g i n g i n many a p p a r e n t w a y s . It i s possible i n his c a s e t o see f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h e i n f l u e n c e a n d t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h make f o r t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y , f o r h i s l i f e was l i v e d i n s t e a d y s e q u e n c e a n d i n a l i m i t e d e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h he h a s h i m s e l f made i t somewhat e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d . He i s n o t t h e s o r t who bares h i s s o u l . I t i s p e r h a p s m a t t e r f o r r e g r e t t h a t he h a s  7  "been so r e t i c e n t , "but i n t h e mass o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n s b o t h p r o s e a n d p o e t r y , t h e c o n j o i n i n g e m p h a s i s w h i c h comes f r o m t h r e e s o u r c e s , t h e man, t h e c o u n t r y a n d t h e c e n t u r y i s c o n s i s t e n t l y apparent. The moment t h a t one t r i e s t o f o r m a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e man h i m s e l f t h e c a n v a s becomes c r o w d e d , f o r r o u n d t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e c l u s t e r t h e p e o p l e he h a s made, who owe t h e i r v e r y b r e a t h t o h i m a n d who a r i s e u n b i d d e n when we s p e a k h i s name. l i k e Shakespeare i n h i s s c a r l e t c l o a k he seems a l w a y s h e a d i n g h i s own p a r a d e a n d j u s t a s F a l s t a f f , B a r d o l p h , B e n e d i c k f a l l m e r r i l y i n t o s t e p , so do t h e M e n o f - W e s s e x j o i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n w h i c h moves more s l o w l y t o Hardy's tune. H a r d y ' s w o r l d i s t h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y , more r e a l t h a n . t h e a c t u a l , w h i c h Chaucer a n d h i s P i l g r i m s knew. Hardy r e f u s e d t o have glamour thrown about h i m . His passion f o r t r u t h a n d h i s extreme h u m i l i t y a r e nowhere more a p p a r e n t t h a n i n t h e b r i e f a n e c d o t a l n o t e s a n d comments, w h i c h M r s . Hardy's autobiography contain. One l e a r n s much c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i n c e r i t y a n d t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f the man. Often too, t h e r e a r e n o t e s w h i c h b e a r on h i s p o e t i c i d e a l s , f o r e x a m p l e : "My o p i n i o n i s t h a t a p o e t s h o u l d e x p r e s s t h e e m o t i o n o f a l l ages and the thought o f h i s own." ( i j "The p o e t t a k e s n o t e o f n o t h i n g t h a t he c a n n o t f e e l e m o t i v e l y . " ( 2 ) These n o t e s a r e s o f r e q u e n t a s t o p r o v e b e y o n d a d o u b t t h a t p o e t r y was a l w a y s t h e one a b s o r b i n g i n t e r e s t i n h i s l i f e . The p o i n t n e e d n o t be l a b o r e d s i n c e the p o e t r y i s i n i t s e l f p r o o f o f the f a c t , but i t i s s a t i s f y i n g t o f i n d t a n g i b l e evidence i n H a r d y ' s own h a n d . I n one o f h i s p r e f a c e s H a r d y s t a t e s t h a t h e c o n s i d e r e d h i s . v e r s e t h e most i n d i v i d u a l p a r t o f h i s " l i t e r a r y f r u i t a g e " f o r here n o t h i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n e i t h e r i n form or c o n t e n t , p o e t r y b e i n g l e s s l o c a l i z e d , while broader i n area than p r o s e . He g o e s o n t o s a y "One i s r e m i n d e d . . . . h o w much more c o n c i s e a n d q u i n t e s s e n t i a l e x p r e s s i o n becomes when g i v e n i n r h y t h m i c f o r m t h a n when s h a p e d i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f p r o s e . " ( 3 ) He i s s p e a k i n g i n 1 9 1 2 a n d i s l o o k i n g b a c k u p o n h i s own p o e t i c and p r o s e p r o d u c t i o n s . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n " c o n c i s e " and " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " makes one t h i n k o f t h e economy o f p h r a s e which i s so s u g g e s t i v e , i n l i n e s such a s , "There to reach a r o t t i n g Toils a thrush." (4)  berry  . "free From t h a t l o n g d r i p o f human t e a r s Which p e o p l e s o l d i n tragedy (1) (2) (3) v4)  F l o r e n c e E m i l y H a r d y : E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . F l o r e n c e E m i l y H a r d y : E a r l y L i f e of Thomas H a r d y : p . Tess of the D ' t l r b e r v i l l e s : General P r e f a c e The R e m i n d e r : T i m e ' s L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 2j>2  188 133  8  Have l e f t  upon the  eenturied years."  (l)  In these l i n e s the u s e l e s s n e s s of e f f o r t r i s e s up a s p e c t r e f r o m t h e r o t t i n g b e r r y and t h e s o r r o w o f t h e a g e s seems i n t e n s i f i e d n o t o n l y by t h e f i g u r e u s e d , b u t by the i n s t i n c t i v e p a u s e a f t e r " d r i p " > w h i c h t h e m e t r e demands. T h i s l e a d s to the very " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " • ,• - - t h a t i s , t h e e s s e n c e o f s o r r o w s o l i d i f i e d i n t h e p i l i n g up o f y e a r s i n t o centuries. "The p o e t r y o f so p r o f o u n d a p o e t a s M r . H a r d y , " s a y s J". S . B a r t o n ( 2 ) , " i s n o t a n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t n o r a n a d j u n c t , b u t t h e one c e n t r a l t h i n g i n h i m . " T h i s seems p r o f o u n d l y t r u e , f o r H a r d y was a p o e t a l l h i s l i f e . The impulse of which Domicilium. ( 3 ) i s the f i r s t e x t a n t r e s u l t c o n t i n u e d u n a b a t e d f o r s i x t y y e a r s a n d a l t h o u g h Wessex Poems was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 8 9 8 , many o f i t s poems d a t e a s e a r l y as 1863. The y e a r s o f n o v e l w r i t i n g l e s s e n e d t h e o u t p u t o f p o e t r y b u t t h e y d i d n o t s t o p i t a n d many o f t h e l a t e r poems a r e r e v i s i o n s , o r t a k e n f r o m o l d n o t e s s u b j e c t e d t o mature a p p r o v a l . Many poems i n t h e l a t e r v o l u m e s a r e u n d a t e d a n d were w r i t t e n y e a r s b e f o r e . T h i s makes a c h r o n o l o g i c a l s u r v e y a l m o s t w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e e x c e p t i n g i n so f a r a s i t may s e r v e t o e m p h a s i z e t h e p o e t i c a l f r e s h n e s s a n d v i g o r w h i c h t h e p o e t a t t a i n e d a t t h e f i r s t and w h i c h w i t h a s t o u n d i n g v i t a l i t y he c a r r i e d i n t o o l d a g e . Thomas H a r d y h a d a r e m a r k a b l e s e n s e o f r h y t h m , no m a t t e r what i t s f o r m ( 2 ) K e h a s h i m s e l f t o l d how p r o f o u n d l y some a i r s moved h i m i n c h i l d h o o d , and h a s e n l a r g e d on t h e s u b j e c t i n a s h o r t s t o r y . The F i d d l e r o f t h e R e e l s (4) and i n a poem The F i d d l e r (j>). He t e l l s a l s o o f t h e f a s c i n a t i o n d a n c i n g h a d f o r h i m a n d d w e l l s w i t h d e l i g h t on t h e m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f the t h r e e H a r d y s a s members o f t h e p a r i s h choir, "Melistook." I n the n o v e l s , music and d a n c i n g are an i n t e g r a l p a r t of country l i f e . G-ranfer C a n t l e h o r n p i p i n g on t h e h e a t h , " i n t h e f o r m o f a t h r e e - l e g g e d o b j e c t among t h e r e s t " ( 6 ) h a s a n a l m o s t d e m o n i a c v i t a l i t y o f h i s own, w h i c h l i n k s h i m s u d d e n l y w i t h t h e H e a t h and t h e m y s t e r y o f e x i s t e n c e , a n d seems a l m o s t a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l i f e f o r c e , grotesquely persistent. E u s t a c i a Yye a n d W i l d e v e on t h e G r e e n a t E a s t S g d o n a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the p l a c e w h i c h (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (6)  On a n I n v i t a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 9 9 . J . E . B a r t o n : The P o e t r y o f Thomas H a r d y , i n J o h n s o n , The A r t o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 2 6 3 . D o m i e i l i u m : E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 4. F l o r e n c e E m i l y H a r d y : E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : C h a p . passim-. The S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 3 9 9 . Time's l a u g h i n g Stocks: p. 230.  1  9  Hardy g i v e s t o r h y t h m i c sound and m o t i o n as d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e on a c t i o n . He s a y s — "A w h o l e v i l l a g e f u l l o f e m o t i o n , s c a t t e r e d a b r o a d a l l t h e y e a r l o n g met h e r e i n a f o c u s f o r a n h o u r ' f . . . . . . . . " T h e e n c h a n t m e n t o f t h e dance s u r prised her. A c l e a r l i n e of d i f f e r e n c e d i v i d e d l i k e a t a n g i b l e f e n c e h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h i s maze o f m o t i o n from h e r e x p e r i e n c e without i t . " (1) A very powerful app l i c a t i o n o f t h e same i d e a o c c u r s i n t h e e p i s o d e o f T r o y a n d h i s sword. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e f l a s h i n g movement o f T r o y * s sword i s p a r t l y a v i s u a l , p a r t l y a n a u d i b l e r h y t h m . It p l a c e s the r e a s o n i n g powers of Bathsheba c o m p l e t e l y i n abeyance and r a i s e s h e r e m o t i o n a l powers a c c o r d i n g l y . "She f e l t l i k e one who h a s s i n n e d a g r e a t s i n He h a d k i s s e d h e r . " (2) The same a w a r e n e s s c a r r i e s i n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d a n d t h e m a g n i f i c e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f " a f a c e on w h i c h t i m e makes b u t l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n , " h a s made E g d o n H e a t h t h e s y m b o l of H a r d y ' s whole a t t i t u d e to n a t u r e . I t i s n o t o n l y t h a t he senses t h e a c t u a l music o f wind and t r e e , but the l a r g e r and g r e a t e r r h y t h m s , t h e r e c u r r e n c e s o f y e a r s a n d c y c l e s seem t o b e a t u p o n h i s s e n s e s a n d on o u r s . There i s a steady c l o s i n g i n a s i f a r e v o l v i n g l a n d s c a p e became s u d d e n l y i n v e r t e d a n d r o l l e d over one. The p a s s a g e i s t o o s t e a d y a n d t o o p e r f e c t to break. The g r e a t P r e l u d e must be l e f t t o s p e a k f o r i t s e l f w h i l e p a r t s of the c l o s i n g paragraphs o n l y a r e q u o t e d , f o r a s i d e from i t s sense o f time and c y c l e s t h e r e i s a p e r s o n a l note i n the e x c e r p t . I t comes i n t h e w o r d " i r r e p r e s s i b l e . " "To r e c l i n e on a stump o f t h o r n i n t h e c e n t r a l v a l l e y o f Sgdon, between a f t e r n o o n and n i g h t as n o w , . a n d t o know t h a t e v e r y t h i n g a r o u n d a n d u n d e r n e a t h h a d b e e n from p r e h i s t o r i c times as u n a l t e r e d as the s t a r s o v e r h e a d , g a v e b a l l a s t t o t h e m i n d a d r i f t on change a n d h a r a s s e d b y t h e i r r e p r e s s i b l e Hew. The g r e a t i n v i o l a t e p l a c e h a d a n a n c i e n t permanence w h i c h t h e s e a c a n n o t c l a i m . Who c a n s a y of a p a r t i c u l a r sea t h a t i t i s o l d ? D i s t i l l e d by t h e s u n , k n e a d e d b y t h e moon, i t i s r e n e w e d i n a y e a r , i n a d a y , o r i n an hour. The s e a c h a n g e d , t h e f i e l d s c h a n g e d , t h e r i v e r s , the v i l l a g e s and the p e o p l e changed, y e t Egdon r e m a i n e d . " (3) There i s a n o t h e r p a s s a g e c o n c e r n i n g Egdon i n w h i c h E u s t a c i a Vye a p p e a r s . I t runs " I t might r e a s o n a b l y h a v e b e e n s u p p o s e d t h a t s h e was l i s t e n i n g t o t h e w i n d , w h i c h r o s e somewhat a s t h e n i g h t a d v a n c e d a n d l a i d h o l d o f t h e attention. The w i n d i n d e e d seemed made f o r t h e s c e n e , a s t h e s c e n e seemed made f o r t h e h o u r . P a r t o f i t s t o n e was q u i t e s p e c i a l ; what was h e a r d t h e r e c o u l d be h e a r d nowhere e l s e . Gusts i n innumerable s e r i e s f o l l o w e d each o t h e r from the North-West Cl) (2) (3)  The S e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e : B k . 1, C h a p . I I I . F a r from t h e Madding Crowd: C h a p . X X V I I I . The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e : C h a p . I .  a n d when e a c h one o f them r a c e d p a s t t h e s o u n d o f i t s p r o gress resolved into three. T r e b l e , t e n o r and bass n o t e s were t o be f o u n d t h e r e i n . The g e n e r a l r i c o c h e t o f t h e w h o l e o v e r p i t s a n d p r o m i n e n c e s h a d t h e g r a v e s t p i t c h o f t h e chime N e x t t h e r e c o u l d be h e a r d the b a r i t o n e b u z z o f a h o l l y t r e e . B e l o w t h e s e i n f o r c e , a b o v e them i n p i t c h a d w i n d l e d v o i c e s t r o v e h a r d a t a h u s k y t u n e w h i c h was t h e p e c u l i a r l o c a l sound a l l u d e d t o . T h i n n e r and l e s s i m m e d i a t e l y t r a c e a b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r two i t was f a r more i m p r e s s i v e t h a n e i t h e r . I n i t l a y what may be c a l l e d t h e l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t y o f the h e a t h Throughout t h e b l o w i n g o f t h e s e p l a i n t i v e winds t h a t note bore a g r e a t resemblance t o the r u i n s o f human s o n g w h i c h r e m a i n t o t h e t h r o a t o f f o u r s c o r e a n d ten. I t was a w o r n w h i s p e r , d r y a n d p a p e r y , a n d i t b r u s h e d so d i s t i n c t l y a c r o s s t h e e a r , t h a t , by t h e a c c u s t o m e d , t h e m a t e r i a l m i n u t i a e i n w h i c h i t o r i g i n a t e d c o u l d be r e a l i z e d as by t o u c h . I t was t h e u n i t e d p r o d u c t s o f i n f i n i t e s i m a l v e g e t a b l e c a u s e s , a n d t h e s e were n e i t h e r s t e m s , l e a v e s , f r u i t , p r i c k l e s , l i c h e n , n o r moss. T h e y were t h e mummied h e a t h - b e l l s o f t h e p a s t summer, o r i g i n a l l y t e n d e r a n d p u r p l e , now w a s h e d c o l o u r l e s s by M i c h a e l m a s r a i n s , a n d d r i e d t o d e a d s k i n s b y O c t o b e r s u n s So l o w was a n i n d i v i d u a l s o u n d f r o m t h e s e t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h u n d r e d s o n l y j u s t emerged f r o m s i l e n c e , a n d t h e m y r i a d s o f t h e w h o l e d e c l i v i t y r e a c h e d t h e woman's e a r b u t a s a s h r i v e l l e d and i n t e r m i t t e n t r e c i t a t i v e . Yet s c a r c e l y a s i n g l e a c c e n t among t h e many a f l o a t t o n i g h t c o u l d have s u c h power t o i m p r e s s a l i s t e n e r w i t h t h o u g h t s o f i t s o r i g i n . One i n w a r d l y saw t h e i n f i n i t y o f t h o s e c o m b i n e d m u l t i t u d e s ; a n d p e r c e i v e d t h a t e a c h o f t h e t i n y t r u m p e t s was s e i z e d o n , e n t e r e d , s c o u r e d a n d emerged f r o m by the w i n d a s t h o r o u g h l y a s i f i t were a s v a s t a s a c r a t e r . " ( 1 ) This like.the Prelude, defies dissection. In a n y e a s e I t h i n k i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out a n y t h i n g more than t h a t H a r d y ' s s e n s i t i v e e a r , tuned to r h y t h m i c sound and phenomena g e n e r a l l y , h e r e i n v a d e s t h e w o r l d o f a c t u a l u n c l a s s i f i e d s o u n d s , s o r t s a n d m a r k s them o u t . I t i s complete mastery o f m a t e r i a l , and i t i s the r e s u l t o f i n t e n s e , c o n c e n t r a t e d and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a t t e n t i o n . I have been s p e a k i n g t h u s f a r of rhythm as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f l i f e , so u s e d by H a r d y a n d n o t i n i t s f o r m a l m u s i c a l s e n s e , a l t h o u g h he h a s , as i s n a t u r a l t o one w i t h the g i f t , sometimes u s e d music as i t s e x p r e s s i o n . S u p e r f i c i a l r e f e r e n c e s t o dance a n d s o n g b o t h i n t h e n o v e l s a n d t h e p o e t r y a r e t o o numerous f o r more t h a n a l l u s i o n and would i n t h e m s e l v e s form an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y . A few i n s t a n c e s as t h e y o c c u r n a t u r a l l y i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e (1)  The R e t u r n o f  the N a t i v e :  Chap.  VI.  poems w i l l be noted, l a t e r . There i s , u n d o u b t e d l y , a f o r m a l m u s i c a l element a l s o . I t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h e h e a d of Metre. The i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t w h i c h H a r d y h a d i n A r t , i n t e n s i f i e d by h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g g a v e h i m a f e e l i n g f o r form almost as s t r i k i n g as h i s sense of r h y t h m . He n o t e s how t h e e d g e s o f o b j e c t s c u t a c r o s s t h e v i s i o n . He h a s a n i n n a t e sense o f p r o p o r t i o n and b a l a n c e . He d e p e n d s u p o n mass and o u t l i n e f o r h i s e f f e c t s r a t h e r than upon d e t a i l . P r o s e form does not c o n c e r n us h e r e , but i t i s t e m p t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e , t h e p e r f e c t l y drawn p l o t l i f t s one up a n d t o w a r d t h e c e n t r a l c o n summation o f e v e n t , t h r o w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t o s t r o n g r e l i e f i n a l i g h t so i n t e n s e a s t o b u r n . It i s a beautif u l l y u n i f i e d dramatic e n t i t y , l i k e a l o n g s i g h or a p e r f e c t cadence. O n l y a s t r o n g l y d r a m a t i c f e e l i n g would have p l a c e d t h e s o l i t a r y f i g u r e s , f i r s t o f E u s t a c i a , t h e n o f C l y m , on t h e H e a t h a s t h e p o i n t o f r e s t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d end o f a drama. I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t E u s t a c i a , who h a t e d t h e H e a t h , d i s a p p e a r s , a n d t h a t C l y m , who l o v e d i t , r e m a i n s . It i s p o e t i c j u s t i c e , a n a l m o s t G r e e k n o t e more s t r o n g l y s o u n d e d h e r e t h a n i n The D y n a s t s , where t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l m a c h i n e r y denies j u s t i c e . I have spoken o f the scope o f r h y t h m i c v i s i o n , which i s t y p i c a l of H a r d y s s e n s i t i v e m i n d . I n J u n e 1 8 7 6 he w r i t e s " I f i t be p o s s i b l e ' t o c o m p r e s s i n t o a s e n t e n c e a l l t h a t a man l e a r n s b e t w e e n t w e n t y a n d f o r t y i t i s t h a t a l l t h i n g s merge in. one a n o t h e r , g o o d i n t o e v i l , g e n e r o s i t y i n t o j u s t i c e , r e l i g i o n i n t o p o l i t i c s , the y e a r i n t o the a g e s , the world i n t o the u n i v e r s e ; w i t h t h i s i n v i e w the e v o l u t i o n o f s p e c i e s seems b u t a m i n u t e a n d o b v i o u s p r o c e s s i n t h e same movement." ( 1 ) I t i s a g a i n , the l a r g e view, the r e l a t i o n o f one p h a s e t o a n o t h e r , w h i c h t h e e p i s o d e o f K n i g h t a n d t h e t r i l o b i t e i l l u s t r a t e s . (2) T h i s r h y t h m i c sense n o t e s the t i m e l e s s panorama o f t h e p a s t a n d t h e r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t moment. The r h y t h m i c s e n s e a p p e a r s a s a m a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many l y r i c s ; i t becomes a d o m i n a n t f a c t o r i n t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e o f The D y n a s t s . f  The m a r k e d I n d i v i d u a l i s m , w h i c h we a r e c o n s i d e r i n g , h i g h l y a c c e n t e d and i n t e n s i f i e d by l i f e i n t h e c o u n t r y , was d e e p e n e d by a c o n s i s t e n t l y t r a g i c c o n c e p t i o n o f man a n d nature, The r e s u l t i s an a l m o s t r u t h l e s s t r a g e d y s o f t e n e d i n one way o n l y , t h a t i s by a s e n s e o f p i t y , w h i c h i n i t s b r o a d e s t and most c o m p r e h e n s i v e p h a s e b r e a t h e s i n t h e v e r y c o n c e p t i o n of T e s s , and which i n i t s l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , . speaks i n a - l o v e f o r a n i m a l s which i s not o n l y c o n s c i o u s of (1) (2)  The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . A - P a i r of B l u e E y e s : Chap. X X I I .  146.  them h u t  of  their  sufferings  also.  Of t h e l e s s e r p h a s e , e x a m p l e s m u l t i p l y . There i s the t r a g i c i n s t a n c e o f t h e l o n g s u f f e r i n g s ! ) ' T J r b e r v i l l e h o r s e ; t h e r e i s t h e more c h e e r f u l one o f G a b r i e l O a k ' s d o g , t h e r e a r e t h e numerous a l l u s i o n s t o s u f f e r i n g war h o r s e s , w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s o f The D y n a s t s ; t h e r e i The R o b i n ( 1 ) , The B l i n d e d B i r d ( 2 ) a n d t h e t r i o l e t : The P u z z l e d Game  Birds  " T h e y a r e n o t t h o s e who u s e d t o f e e d u s When we were y o u n g — t h e y c a n n o t be T h e s e s h a p e s t h a t now b e r e a v e a n d b l e e d u s ? T h e y a r e n o t t h o s e who u s e d t o f e e d u s F o r d i d we t h e n c r y , t h e y w o u l d h e e d u s . I f h e a r t s can house such t r e a c h e r y , T h e y a r e n o t t h o s e who u s e d t o • f e e d . u s , When we were y o u n g , t h e y c a n n o t ; be J (3) ?t  T h i s p i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g c a r r i e s o v e r t o man a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e a n i m a l a l t h o u g h i t i s sometimes drowned t o t h e c a s u a l e a r b y e c h o i n g n o t e s o f i r o n i c l a u g h t Many poems w h i c h r e f l e c t i t a r e t o o l o n g f o r q u o t a t i o n b u t The S a i l o r ' s M o t h e r ( 3 ) a n d The Woman i n t h e Rye ( 4 ) a r e s h o r t and p e r f e c t poems o f t h e i r k i n d , t h e f o r m e r i n t e n s e l y dramatic. T h e r e i s t h e most a b j e c t human s u f f e r i n g — no i r o n y •— no l a u g h t e r , o n l y t h e d e e p e s t s y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r f s t a n d i n g r * w i t h o u t i n t r u s i o n o r comment. The S a i l o r ' s M o t h e r . Figure  in  "0 whence do y o u come, the n i g h t - f o g t h a t c h i l l s  .  ,..  me numb?"  " I come t o y o u a c r o s s f r o m my h o u s e up t h e r e , A n d I d o n ' t m i n d t h e b r i n e - m i s t c l i n g i n g t o me That blows from the quay, F o r I h e a r d h i m i n my c h a m b e r , a n d t h o u g h t y o u • unaware. "But what d i d y o u h e a r , That brought you b l i n d l y k n o c k i n g i n t h i s m i d d l e - w a t c h so d r e a r ? " (1) (2) (3) (4)  Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 483 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 418 l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. S a t i r e s of Circumstances p.  627 338  "My s a i l o r  'twere c a l l i n g a t your door, A n d I d o n ' t m i n d my "bare f e e t clammy on t h e stones, And t h e b l i g h t t o my b o n e s , F o r he o n l y knows o f t h i s h o u s e I l i v e d i n b e f o r e Woman l i k e  son'a voice  as  "Nobody's n i g h , a skeleton, with  socket-sunk  eye."  " A h — n o b o d y ' s n i g h I And my l i f e i s d r e a r i s o m e , And t h i s i s t h e o l d home we l o v e d i n many a d a y B e f o r e he went away; And t h e s a l t f o g mops me. A n d n o b o d y ' s cornel"  The Woman i n t h e  Rye.  "Why do y o u s t a n d i n t h e d r i p p i n g r y e , C o l d - l i p p e d , u n c o n s c i o u s , wet t o t h e k n e e , When t h e r e a r e f i r e s i d e s n e a r ? " S a i d I . "I t o l d him I wished him dead" s a i d s h e . " Y e a , c r i e d i t i n my h a s t e t o one Whom I h a d l o v e d , whom I w e l l l o v e d s t i l l A n d d i e , he d i d . And I h a t e t h e s u n , And s t a n d h e r e l o n e l y , a c h i n g , c h i l l ; "Stand w a i t i n g , w a i t i n g under s k i e s T h a t b l o w r e p r o a c h , t h e w h i l e I see The r o o k s s h e e r o f f t o where he l i e s Wrapt i n a p e a c e w i t h h e l d f r o m m e . " The l a r g e r q u e s t i o n o f H a r d y ' s t r a g i c g e n i u s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o i l l u s t r a t e e x c e p t i n g a t some l e n g t h , f o r i t i s so e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t o f the man a n d h i s mode o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the s t r o n g t h r e a d s of the t e x t u r e w h i c h do n o t r a v e l . He l o o k e d c l o s e l y a t l i f e a n d saw i t s p a i n - s e n s e l e s s i t seemed t o h i m . He saw b l i n d f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t h e e d f o r man, b u t saw a l s o t h a t man i n t e n s i f i e d the m i s e r y . H e r d y ' s t r a g i c theme i n g e n e r a l was b a s e d on t h e e m o t i o n a l c a p a c i t y o f man t o s u f f e r , o r on t h e s e n t i e n t and i n s e n t i e n t . T r a g e d y came a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e s t r u g g l e o f e m o t i o n a l man w i t h o b l i v i o u s n a t u r a l f o r c e s . The t r a g i c p o i n t o f v i e w d e v e l o p e d i n two w a y s , a s a n a t t i tude t o w a r d man a n d h i s a c t u a l e v e r y d a y l i f e , c h i e f l y h i s e m o t i o n a l l i f e , a n d as a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e f o r c e s o f the u n i v e r s e . The l a t t e r d e v e l o p e d i n t o m e t a p h y s i c s a n d . w a s e x p r e s s e d i n The D y n a s t s ; the f o r m e r p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n v a r i o u s ways i n t h e t r a g i c n o v e l s , ( l ) It appears (l)  The M a y o r o f C a s t e r b r i d g e " : The R e t u r n o f t h e T e s s o f the D ' l l r b e r v i l l e s : Jude t h e O b s c u r e .  Native:  a l s o I n poem a f t e r poem a s I s h a l l l a t e r t r y t o show* The w o r l d t o H a r d y was a t b e s t a n u n h a p p y p l a c e f o r man t o b e i n s i n c e human e m o t i o n a n d m e c h a n i c a l f o r c e s must i n e v i t a b l y clash* "How p e o p l e w i l l l a u g h i n t h e m i d s t Some w o u l d s o o n g e t t o w h i s t l e i n h e l l . "  of a misery!  The m a t e r i a l w h i c h Thomas H a r d y u s e d was D o r s e t . In the y o u t h f u l y e a r s o f keen and sensuous p e r c e p t i o n the s p i r i t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e was a b s o r b e d by h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H e r e i n "Wessex" he f o u n d h i s m e d i a , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s , t h e men a n d women, " h u m a n i t y h a n d i n h a n d w i t h t r o u b l e , " w h i c h we know. Here h e f o u n d a l s o , t h e p a s t o r a l s p i r i t , the Napoleonic l e g e n d s , the f o l k - s o n g , l o r e and s t o r y , w h i c h he h a s made i m m o r t a l . Here t o o the poet W i l l i a m B a r n e s , whose p a g e s murmur t h e s o f t l y s l u r r e d s y l l a b l e s o f t h e D o r s e t d i a l e c t , was h i s f r i e n d . Old England and t h e p e a s a n t c h o r u s , p a s t o r a l s gay and sad by t u r n and t r a g e d y s t a r k a n d c o m p e l l i n g a i l emerged i n H a r d y ' s work a s a r e s u l t o f t h e "Wessex" e n v i r o n m e n t * Thomas H a r d y a t t w e n t y - o n e went t o L o n d o n t o s t u d y a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d r e m a i n e d t h e r e f r o m 1862 t o I867. The d a t e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e comment on h i s p a r t i t i s i n c r e d i b l e t h a t h i s s e n s i t i v e a n d expanding mind s h o u l d escape the tumult o f the t i m e s . (1) T h e r e i s no n e e d i n t h i s p a p e r f o r a n y resume o f the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . I t s u f f i c e s t o s a y t h a t the w h o l e t h o u g h t o f t h e c o u n t r y was i n f l u x a n d t h a t t h e t h i n k e r s o f the day, h u r t a n d c o n f u s e d , r e a c t e d ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r varying personalities. Two v e r y s p l e n d i d t h e s e s h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n w h i c h d e a l t h o r o u g h l y among o t h e r t h i n g s w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n c e a n d t h e c e n t u r y ' s t h o u g h t on t h e g e n i u s of Hardy. One, h a v i n g a n a l y z e d e x h a u s t i v e l y , makes a v e r y p e r t i n e n t comment, t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t H a r d y , h a v i n g g r a s p e d the whole s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , compressed i t and reduced i t , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , to s o c i e t y as represented by a s m a l l g r o u p man a n d woman, g u a r d i a n s o f t h e s p e c i e s and c r e a t u r e s o f i n s t i n c t . H e d g c o c k (2) summarizes H a r d y ' s c h o i c e of s u b j e c t t h u s : " L e s themes; l a r e a c t i o n d ' u n sexe s u r 1 ' a u t r e ; l e s mouvements de l a f o r c e v i t a l g r a c e a l a q u e l l e l a r a c e c o n t i n u e ; l a l u t t e e n t r e l ' i n t e l l i g a n c e de l'homme e t l e v o u l o i r - v i v r e de l ' u n i v e r s . Ses themes e t a n t u n i v e r s e l s , e t n o n s o c i a u x i l n ' a p a s b e s o i n de  (1) I859  (2)  O r i g i n of Species i 8 6 0 W i l b e r f o r c e a n d Huxley Debate i860 M o d e r n s p i r i t i n E s s a y s a n d R e v i e w s . I863 R e a c t i o n , O x f o r d Movement. F . A . H e d g c o c k ; Thomas H a r d y , P e n s e u r e t A r t i s t e , p . 288 - 290  13  1 ' a g i t a t i o n d e s g r a n d e s v i l l e s u t i l i t e du c a d r e p o u r r e n f o r c e r l a l e c o n de s o n o e u v r e . " " I ' a m o u r / l a b a s e de t o n s p a s s i o n n ' e s t pas i d e a l usee chez l u i une a t t r a c t i o n s e x u e l i e . "  rustiquie  ses ouvrages; c e t t e -- e l l e est surtout  M a d e l i n e de C a z a m i a n i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r o f h e r book g i v e s H a r d y and G - i s s i n g supreme p l a c e a s t h e g r e a t d i s i l l u s i o n e d of the c e n t u r y and n o t e s t h a t the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t i n p h i l o s o p h y , o b s e r v a t i o n i n s o c i a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , r e a l i s m i n a r t , h a d c a r r i e d away t h e i d e a l i s t i c and p a s s i o n a t e f e e l i n g o f t h e R o m a n t i c e r a a n d h a d l e f t in. i t s p l a c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t o i c , a s a d r e s i g n e d pessimism — and i n t e l l e c t . (1) I f we a c c e p t t h i s s t a t e m e n t the c e n t u r y has to i t s c r e d i t the f i n a l word o f p r o s e i n Jude t h e O b s c u r e a n d t h a t c o n c e p t i o n o f man a s a c o n s c i o u s p a r t of an i n s e n t i e n t w i l l , w o r k i n g r u t h l e s s l y and c r u s h i n g man e v e n i t s e l f , w h i c h i s The D y n a s t s . " I do n o t t h i n k , " s a i d H a r d y , " t h a t t h e r e w i l l be any p e r m a n e n t r e v i v a l o f the o l d t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i d e a l s ; b u t I t h i n k t h e r e may g r a d u a l l y be d e v e l o p e d a n i d e a l i s m o f f a n c y ; t h a t i s a n i d e a l i s m i n w h i c h f a n c y i s no l o n g e r t r i c k e d out and made t o m a s q u e r a d e a s b e l i e f , b u t i s f r a n k l y and h o n e s t l y a c c e p t e d as a n i m a g i n a t i v e s o l a c e i n the l a c k o f a n y s u b s t a n t i a l s o l a c e t o be f o u n d i n l i f e . " ( 2 ) A n o t e w r i t t e n December 3 1 , 1901 i s i n t e r e s t i n g ; i t s a y s : " A f t e r r e a d i n g v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c systems and b e i n g s t r u c k w i t h t h e i r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and f u t i l i t i e s , I have come t o t h i s . l e t e v e r y man make a p h i l o s o p h y f o r h i m s e l f out o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . He w i l l n o t be a b l e t o escape u s i n g terms a n d p h r a s e o l o g y from e a r l i e r p h i l o s o p h i e s b u t l e t h i m a v o i d a d o p t i n g t h e i r t h e o r i e s i f he v a l u e s h i s own m e n t a l l i f e . L e t h i m remember t h e f a t e o f C o l e r i d g e a n d s a v e y e a r s o f l a b o u r by w o r k i n g out h i s own. v i e w s a s g i v e n him by h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . " ( 3 ) H a r d y was t h e o n l y V i c t o r i a n t o go s t r a i g h t t o l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s without compromise. A t t w e n t y - o n e he h a d l o s t t h e b e l i e f s , w h i c h h a d c a r r i e d t h e o l d e r men o f literature into maturity. He f o u g h t h i s b a t t l e t h r o u g h ; he was a b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o s i t i o n . M o v i n g onward f i f t y y e a r s and s u r v i v i n g t h e W o r l d War, he b u r i e d h i s c e n t u r y . He stands s q u a r e l y w i t h the Moderns. H i s v i s i o n i s the modern one. "He t h a t l i k e t h i t , l e t h i m r e c e i v e i t , a n d h e t h a t does n o t , l e t him produce a b e t t e r . " (1) (2) (3)  Madeline Chap. VI Florence Florence  de C a z a m i a n : Le Roman e t l e s passim. E m i l y H a r d y : The L a t e r Y e a r s E m i l y H a r d y : The L a t e r Y e a r s  Idees en A n g l e t e r r e , of of  Thomas Thomas  Hardy,p.90 Hardy,p.91  II THE LYRIC' G I F T . I n Thomas H a r d y , the u n l e a s h i n g o f a p o w e r f u l i m a g i n a t i o n f o u n d i t s supreme e x p r e s s i o n i n l y r i c a l p o e t r y . Those who h o l d t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l l y r i c n o t e i s j o y may and do q u e s t i o n t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t . When t h e y do s o t h e y a r e f o r s a k i n g t r u e p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s and s u b s t i t u t i n g s t a n d a r d s which belong to other t h i n g s . The l y r i c n o t e may v a r y , d o e s so i n f i n i t e l y , b u t i t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a n d s u c h e m o t i o n i n o u r w o r l d a n d H a r d y ' s may o r may n o t be j o y . To be c o m m u n i c a b l e i t must be p o w e r f u l . . W i t h H a r d y i t i s p o w e r f u l a n d i t h a p p e n s t h a t i t i s most so when c o n f r o n t e d by t h e t r a g i c a s p e c t s o f l i f e -— w h i c h l e a d u s , we know, t o s o r r o w . Joy and sorrow are n o t , however, i n t h e m s e l v e s t h e measure o f a p o e t ' s g r e a t n e s s . They a r e d e e p l y p o t e n t i a l o r p o e t i c a l , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e common t o a l l men i n some d e g r e e a n d so p o s s e s s e d o f the e s s e n t i a l l y u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s w h i c h make permanence o f the work p o s s i b l e . A s I t r i e d t o make c l e a r i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s p o e t i c or u n p o e t i e . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , p o e t i c q u a l i t y i s an a t t r i b u t e of the p o e t . It is true t h a t joy i n p o e t r y , as i n l i f e , h a s a l i f t i n g e f f e c t on t h e s p i r i t w h i c h i n a more i d e a l w o r l d m i g h t be c o n s i s t e n t b u t w h i c h i n o u r s c a n n o t be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h f a c t . It i s n o t i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n o r t h e r n m i n d t o be c o n t i n u a l l y l i f t e d up. J o y , byt i t s v e r y n a t u r e , wears i t s e l f o u t . What i s more e x h u a s t i n g t h a n t h e l o n g u n i n t e r r u p t e d p a e a n ? Who, f o r i n s t a n c e , h a s s a t t h r o u g h t h e t h o u s a n d H a l l e l u l i a s of the g r e a t c h o r u s , m a g n i f i c e n t as the performance i s , w i t h out a t r e a s o n a b l e d r y n e s s o f t h e t h r o a t and c o n t r a c t i o n o f t h e e a r drums? I n H a r d y the n o t e i s n o t j o y , n e i t h e r i s i t t h e sudden a g o n i z e d d i s c o r d o f p a i n . I t i s by c o m p a r i s o n a l m o s t monotonous, l i k e the slow c h a n t i n g of a s a c r i f i c i a l c h o r u s ; t h e r e i s i n t e n s e f e e l i n g , i n t e n s e p a i n , b u t i t i s arti»sf tically controlled. I t i s toned to a c e r t a i n p i t c h , which t h e r i s i n g and f a l l i n g v o i c e t e n d s to e m p h a s i z e , s i n c e the m a i n c h a n t h o l d s t o i t s few c h o s e n n o t e s i n t h e m i n o r k e y , and the a n t i p h o n y i s but e c h o . " I n V i s i o n I Roamed." To I n " v i s i o n I roamcedi. t h e f l a s h i n g F i r m a m e n t , S o f i e r c e - i n b l a z o n t h a t t h e n i g h t waxed wan, • As t h o u g h w i t h awe a t o r b s o f s u c h o s t e n t ; A n d a s I t h o u g h t my s p i r i t r a n g e d on a n d o n .  In f o o t l e s s t r a v e r s e through ghast heights of sky, To t h e l a s t chambers o f the m o n s t r o u s Dome, Where s t a r s t h e b r i g h t e s t h e r e a r e l o s t t o t h e e y e ; T h e n , any s p o t on o u r own E a r t h seemed Home I And t h e . s i c k g r i e f t h a t y o u were f a r away Grew p l e a s a n t t h a n k f u l n e s s t h a t y o u were n e a r , Who m i g h t h a v e b e e n , s e t on some f o r e i g n s p h e r e , L e s s t h a n a want t o me, as day by d a y I l i v e d unware, u n c a r i n g a l l t h a t l a y Locked i n that u n i v e r s e t a c i t u r n and d r e a r , ( l ) T h i s sonnet i l l u s t r a t e s , not o n l y the n e g a t i o n u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o the method o f o b t a i n i n g n e g a t i o n , which Hardy u s e d . The n i g h t v i e w o f t h e s t a r s , a n d a g e l o n g i n s p i r a t i o n t o the p o e t , here f i n d s i n the compacted t e r s e n e s s o f t h e s o n n e t f o r m a n e n t i r e l y new t r e a t m e n t . The p o e t i c v i s i o n , c o n f r o n t e d by t h e v a s t n e s s o f s p a c e , " r a n g e d on and o n , " b u t t h e i n i t i a l wonder y i e l d e d t o awed n u m b n e s s . T h e r e i s no r h a p s o d y ; n i g h t l i k e a n u n p . a i n t e d c . f a e e u n d e r I n t e n s e l i g h t l o o k e d "wan". I n f i n i t y s t r e t c h e s b e f o r e one i n " g h a s t h e i g h t s o f s k y " , where d i s t a n c e h a s become so g r e a t t h a t s t a r s no l o n g e r s h i n e . This i s the:.-characteristic range o f v i s i o n , b e f o r e w h i c h the y e a r s u n r o l l . It imm e d i a t e l y l i n k s i t s e l f w i t h the p r e s e n t a n d man i n h i s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s i n t h e E a r t h a s Home. T h e n comes s o r r o w , changed b y t h i s v i s i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s e f r o m " s i c k g r i e f " t o " p l e a s a n t t h a n k f u l n e s s " a t t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e l o v e d one m i g h t , i n a n i n s e n t i e n t scheme o f t h i n g s h a v e a r r i v e d a t l i f e on a f a r u n i v e r s e i n t h e i n f i n i t u d e o f s t a r s , a n d t h a t t h e l o v e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e n i e d e v e n the n e g a t i v e j o y o f l o n g i n g now h i s , w h i c h h a d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e d i s t u r b e d . Behind t h i s d e n i a l of joy i s H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y i n g e n e r a l . The i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t i n t h e poem i s g a i n e d by t h e u n u s u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f n i g h t , the c o n t r a s t i m p l i e d between the " m o n t r o u s Dome" a n d i t s huge w o r l d , w i t h our s m a l l one c o n s e q u e n t l y dwarfed to a p u r e l y l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and the l o v e d one a s no p o s i t i v e f o r c e a t a l l . The s p e c i f i c w o r d s and p h r a s e s , w h i c h i n t e n s i f y the e f f e c t a r e "wan", " g h a s t " , " m o n s t r o u s " , " l e s s t h a n a want t o me", " u n w a r e " , " u n c a r i n g " . T h r e e d e r i v e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l m e a n i n g from, t h e c o n t e x t , three are negative i n themselves. I n t h e .octave t h e thought r e a c h e s i t s c l i m a x , s e t s out i t s l i m i t s , s o a r s , as i t were; i n the s e s t e t i t r e a c h e s i t s c o n c l u s i o n and s i n k s t o the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d essence of the e x p e r i e n c e . Eight l i n e s t o the f i r m a m e n t , - - but s i x to the s u f f e r i n g l o v e r , — t h e s k y how f a r , - - t h e man how c l o s e a t h a n d l n e g a t i o n i n i t s most p e r f e c t f o r m i s e x p r e s s e d i n a l y r i c , , so e x q u i s i t e l y w r o u g h t t h a t i t c l i n g s a n d h a u n t s (1)  Wessex P o e m s .  (1866)  as does the  first  memory o f  sorrow  Neutral  .  Tones.  Y7e s t o o d by a p o n d t h a t w i n t e r d a y , And t h e s u n was w h i t e , as t h o u g h c h i d d e n o f G o d , And a few l e a v e s l a y on t h e s t a r v i n g s o d ; — T h e y h a d f a l l e n f r o m a n a s h , a n d were g r a y . Y o u r e y e s on me were a s e y e s t h a t r o v e Over t e d i o u s r i d d l e s o f y e a r s a g o ; And some w o r d s p l a y e d b e t w e e n u s t o a n d f r o On w h i c h l o s t t h e more b y our l o v e . The s m i l e on y o u r mouth was t h e d e a d e s t A l i v e enough t o h a v e s t r e n g t h t o d i e ; And a g r i n o f b i t t e r n e s s swept t h e r e b y l i k e a n ominous b i r d a - w i n g  thing  Since then, keen l e s s o n s t h a t love d e c e i v e s , And w r i n g s w i t h w r o n g , have s h a p e d t o me Your f a c e , and the G o d - c u r s t sun, and a t r e e , And a p o n d e d g e d w i t h g r a y i s h l e a v e s . The poem h a s t h e v i s u a l g r e y n e s s t h a t h a n g s i n the m i s t o f an Inness l a n d s c a p e , but u n l i k e l a n d s c a p e i n f o g or m i s t t h e o u t l i n e s a r e c l e a r . T h e r e i s one s i n g l e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o n l y , t h a t i s the suggested b l a c k of "an ominous b i r d a - w i n g " , a n d t h a t i s c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f y i n g , t h e one a c c e n t n e e d e d , a n d e v e n i t i s b u t a d i f f e r e n c e i n degree. I t i s a s i f one d r o p o f t h e b l a c k h a d s p l a s h e d on the' canvas u n d i l u t e d ; i t i s as i f c o l o r had n e v e r b e e n . In s p i t e of t h i s f a c t the p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s of the f o u r s t a n z a s are a r r e s t i n g . The f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e s the b a c k g r o u n d , t h e g e n e r a l t o n e , the f i g u r e s i n o u t l i n e a g a i n s t i t ; t h e s e c o n d , t h o u g h I may be w r o n g , c a l l s up the d e a d c e n t u r i e s a n d the u n s e e i n g , e y e s o f t h e s p h i n x , s t a r i n g i n e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n ; the t h i r d m i g h t be t e r m e d , P o r t r a i t o f a l a d y , w h i l e the l a s t i s l i k e the f i r s t i n c o m p o s i t i o n e x c e p t i n g t h a t t h e woman v i a a l o n e , t h e man o u t s i d e t h e picture. P e r s p e c t i v e has deepened. It i s very s u b t l e , very intense for a l l i t s grayness. H e r e , by p i c t o r i a l means Hardy r e a c h e s i n f o u r s t a n z a s the e s s e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n and tone t h a t M e r e d i t h a c h i e v e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n the sonnet sequence. It i s , I think, unnecessary to dwell i n f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i t y on t h e l e a d e n q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i m a g e r y , t h e c h i d d e n s u n , the g r a y and w i t h e r e d l e a f . They a r e o b v i o u s , but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to l e a v e t h e l y r i c w i t h o u t a l o o k a t the m e t r e , s i n c e Hardy has b o t h i n t e n s i f i e d and r e l i e v e d  1?  monotony b y i t s u s e . The v e r s e i s i n a s c e n d i n g f o u r f o o t rhythm w i t h masculine ending, but the f o o t breaks c o n t i n u a l l y f r o m iamb t o a n a p e s t . It i s t h i s constant breaking p a t t e r which r e l i e v e s the monotone, w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e d by the s e t t i n g o f one h a l f o f t h e v e r s e o v e r a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r i n f a i r l y even b a l a n c e by the m i d d l e c e s u r a l p a u s e , i s a g a i n r e l i e v e d when t h a t b a l a n c e b r e a k s , g i v i n g way t o t h e more s w e e p i n g rhythm of the f o u r t h v e r s e . The t i n y l o v e poem, The Comet a t Y e l l ' h a m ( l ) a i s s i m p l e v o i c i n g o f t h e same a r t , b u t a i m s a t n o t h i n g g r e a t e r than a l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n , b r i e f and f l e e t i n g . Death, i t i s t r u e , looms n e a r b u t i t i s n o t o v e r p o w e r i n g i n i t s shadow. The n o t e i s one o f s w e e t n e s s , r a t h e r u n u s u a l .  a  I " I t bends f a r over Y e l l h a m P l a i n , And we, f r o m Y e l l ' h a m H e i g h t , Stand and r e g a r d i t s f i e r y t r a i n , So s o o n t o swim f r o m s i g h t . T  ", • II .; I t w i l l r e t u r n l o n g y e a r s h e n c e , when As now i t s s t r a n g e s w i f t s h i n e W i l l f a l l on Y e l l ' h a m ; b u t n o t t h e n On t h a t sweet f o r m o f t h i n e . " In t h i s l i t t l e l y r i c negation i s l e s s i m p l i c i t l y emphasized t h a n i n N e u t r a l Tones but the l a s t l i n e , s u g g e s t i n g the long unbroken r e s t of death, l i f e having l o s t a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e , shows how c o n s i s t e n t l y H a r d y d i s c o u n t e d t h e present. One more poem, e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n s u b j e c t a n d treatment i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t i s more g e n e r a l i z e d a n d i t s n e g a t i o n a p p e a r s i n a l m o s t d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t , w h i c h w o u l d be u g l y were i t n o t f o r t h e n a t u r a l a n a l o g y w h i c h f o r m s t h e a c c o m p a n i m e n t , o r t h e k e y n o t e , a s one d e s i r e s . . Nature s p e a k s f r o m the f i r s t v e r s e i n each s t a n z a . A lack, t e r r i b l e i n a l l i t s n e g a t i v e p h a s e s , c l a i m s the o t h e r t h r e e . E x c e p t i n g f o r t h e t r o c h a i c f e e t w h i c h open v e r s e s one a n d • f o u r , t h e iambs f o l l o w i n r e g u l a r s e q u e n c e , . b r o k e n , h u t a orrce i n t h e s e c o n d l a s t v e r s e o f t h e poem* The r h y t h m , h o w e v e r , a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two a n d t h r e e f o o t v e r s e c a r r i e s w i t h i t a sense of c o m p l e t i o n , of s a t i s f y i n g a b s o l u t e p a u s e a t t h e end o f e a e h s t a n z a , m a k i n g e a c h s t a n d out l i k e t h e s t r o k e o f a huge hammer, w h i c h b y mere c e s s a t i o n comp l e t e s a rhythm^ - /''Waits — i n u n h o p e . " The poem I s i n t h r e e p a r t s and f o r H a r d y , r a t h e r l o n g . The f i r s t p a r t , o f w h i c h t h e o t h e r two a r e e x t e n s i o n s a n d e l a b o r a t i o n s i s com(l)  Poems o f  the P a s t and P r e s e n t :  p.  138  plete  in itself;  it.sets .  I  f o r t h an a t t i t u d e n  that  I  quote:  Tenebris. I  .'Wintertime n i g h s ; B u t my b e r e a v e m e n t - p a i n I t cannot b r i n g a g a i n ; T w i c e no one d i e s . Flower-petals flee; But s i n c e I t . o n c e h a t h b e e n , No more t h a t s e v e r i n g s c e n e Can h a r r o w me. Birds faint i n dread; I s h a l l not l o s e o l d s t r e n g t h In the.lone f r o s t ' s black length; Strength long since f l e d 1 Leaves f r e e z e t o dun; But f r i e n d s c a n n o t t u r n c o l d T h i s season as of o l d For him with none. T e m p e s t s may s c a t h ; B u t l o v e c a n n o t make s m a r t Again t h i s year h i s heart Who no h e a r t h a t h . B l a c k i s n i g h t s cope; But death w i l l not a p p a l One who, p a s t d o u b t i n g s a l l , Waits i n unhope. T  •'  I n s p i t e o f the c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l which h a s been noticed i n Hardy's emotional expression i n g e n e r a l , there a r e a t t h e same t i m e two v e r y a p p a r e n t e x t r e m e s i n h i s l y r i c gift. Two i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s p o i n t a r e W e a t h e r s ( l ) , t h e s i m p l e c h a r m i n g l i t t l e song o f f a i r day a n d down p o u r w h i c h i s H a r d y i n a p u r e l y "Wessex" mood a n d t h a t t r a g i c g r i m . r e t r e a t f r o m Hoscow ( 2 ) , w h i c h u n d e r H a r d y ' s t o u c h becomes n o t g o l d b u t d e s o l a t i o n . The R e t r e a t e x t e n d s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e from p e r s o n a l d e f e a t and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r a n d f r o m t h e p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t s o f man s t r u g g l i n g with environment to i m a g i n a t i v e metaphysic i n i t s widest s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s a l o n g f l i g h t a n d few c o u l d have made i t . The f a c t t h a t H a r d y h a s done so i s i n i t s e l f evidence of amazing power.and g e n i u s . T h e s e W o mark t h e l i m i t s ; they, a r e a s t h e s o u t h e r n a n d the n o r t h e r n p o l e s and 1) 2)  L a t e L y r i c s a n d E a r l i e r : p.- 533 The D y n a s t s : P a r t I I I , A c t L , Scene 9  the balance of p o e t i c achievement g r a d a t i o n between them.  is  distributed, in  infinite  I n Weathers Hardy s u b j e c t s h i m s e l f to N a t u r e ' s mood. T h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no i n t r u s i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s p e r sonality. I n the f i r s t s t a n z a b r i g h t n e s s and sunshine r e i g n over n e s t l i n g s , l o u n g e r s and m a i d s . The i m a g e r y i s h o m e l y a n d u s u a l i n " l i t t l e brown n i g h t i n g a l e " , c o n s u m m a t e l y a r t f u l in "sprig-muslin". In the seeond stanza e v e r y t h i n g d r i p s , t h e w h o l e mood o f the" s t a n z a c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e h o m i n g r o o k s . The m u s i c o f t h e s w i f t l y m o v i n g s o n g - l i k e r h y t h m i s i n perfect keeping. Now " I n Time o f t h e B r e a k i n g o f N a t i o n s " ( 1 ) t h e s m e l l o f Wessex e a r t h s t i l l r i s e s , b u t h e r e t h e r e i s a n u t t e r l a c k of e l a b o r a t i o n . The v i s u a l a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e speaks. l i k e N e u t r a l Tones i t i s p i c t o r i a l but the s u b t l e t y o f t h a t poem i s h e r e swept away. N o t h i n g c o u l d be s i m p l e r b u t t h e p r i m i t i v e p u r s u i t s a n d e m o t i o n s o f man a p p e a r i n t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m s a s the b a s i s ^ m e a n i n g tin' l i f e . Though t h e a p p r o a c h i s d i f f e r e n t , a s i m i l a r e m o t i o n t i n g e s t h e r e f l e c t i o n s o f the s o l d i e r i n a l e s s e r poem, The Man He K i l l e d . ( 2 ) I n P o s t p o n e m e n t ( 3 ) e m o t i o n i s more p e r s o n a l . I t i s a n e a r l y poem, s l i g h t b u t e f f e c t i v e , w i t h a s i m p l e r e f r a i n w h i c h r e p e a t s the a l t e r n a t i n g n o t e s o f the theme, b u t i t s e r v e s . h o w e v e r , t o show a n o c c a s i o n a l p l a y f u l l y r i c i s m , s u i t e d t o t h e s h a l l o w e r o r more t r a n s i e n t e m o t i o n s w h i c h Hardy sometimes a f f e c t s . " ' I planned.her a nest i n a l e a f l e s s tree, B u t t h e p a s s e r s e y e d a n d t w i t t e d me, A n d s a i d : 'How r e c k l e s s a b i r d i s h e , Cheerily mating! ' T e a r - f i l l e d , I s t a y e d me t i l l s u m m e r - t i d e , In lewth of l e a v e s to throne her b r i d e ; B u t a l a s I h e r l o v e f o r me waved a n d d i e d , Wearily w a i t i n g . ' " expressed i n Browne. (4)  T h i s r i p l i n g l y r i c note i s a l s o p e r f e c t l y the a b b r e v i a t e d l i n e s and p h r a s e s of L i z b i e  The d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s b o t h o f e m o t i o n a n d e x p r e s s i o n comes i n i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l c r y o f p a i n i n a Broken Appointment. ( 5 ) I t i s h e a r t - r e n d i n g , but i t i s not (1) (2) (3) (41 (3)  Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 311 T i m e s l a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 269 ( 1 9 0 2 ) Wessex P o e m s : p . 8 ( l 8 6 b ) Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 119 Poems o f the P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 124  a wail. H a r d y ' s g r i e f i s n o t o f t h e d u s t and. a s h e s t y p e . I t a r i s e s from a c o n s c i o u s u p r i g h t a c c e p t a n c e , w h i c h , w o r l d c o n s c i o u s and w o r l d - w e a r y as i t i s , y e t o c c a s i o n a l l y d e f i e s Fate. The m a g n i f i c e n t v e r s e , " a n d m a r c h i n g Time drew on a n d wore me n u m b , " l e a d s w i t h i n e v i t a b l e s u r e t y t o t h e b l a s t e d "hope-hour" and "you d i d n o t come." There i s nothin, f o r c e d or p e c u l i a r . The l o n g s w e e p i n g r h y t h m o f t h e r e g u l a r i a m b i c v e r s e s i s h e i g h t e n e d by f o u r r u n - o n l i n e s , u n u s u a l bounty i n an end-stopped w o r l d . The r e g u l a r b e a t o f t h e iambs i s b r o k e n once s h a r p l y , b y a t r e m e n d o u s l y p o w e r f u l i n v e r s i o n w i t h e n s u i n g p a u s e : " G r i e v e d I , when a s t h e h o p e hour s t r o k e d i t s sum." There i s a sense i n which Hardy the modern t h i n k e r may be deemed a R o m a n t i c a t h e a r t . This p e c u l i a r i t y h a s two m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i n o n e , t h e h o m e l y c o u n t r y l o v i n g , W e s s e x - b o u n d man c l i n g s t o t h e p a s t a n d t h e o l d p e o p l e , o l d t h i n g s t h a t he h a s known; i n t h e o t h e r a modern m i n d , t r a i n e d t o t h e h a b i t o f m o d e r n t h o u g h t i s p e r p e t u a l l y i n t r i g u e d by the e m o t i o n o f l o v e . F r e q u e n t l y , but n o t a l w a y s , modern p h i l o s o p h y i n t r u d e s . It i s then that the i r o n i c p i t i l e s s b r e a k , which i n Hardy s e p a r a t e s the r o m a n t i c and modern a t t i t u d e t o l o v e o c c u r s . The l a t t e r p h a s e w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . I t i s p a r t of Hardy's g a r g o y l e mood. The s h i f t f r o m one e x t r e m e t o t h e o t h e r sometimes o c c u r s i n a s i n g l e poem, s o m e t i m e s t h e r e i s p a u s e a t a m i d d l e p h a s e where l o v e i s s u b j e c t e d t o m e r c i l e s s s c r u t i n y as p a r t of the s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f u n i versal forces. The s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l o v e w h i c h H a r d y h a d i s more p r o p e r l y d i s c u s s e d i n a s u r v e y o f h i s philosophy. A t t h e moment i t i s t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l l o v e theme t h a t I c o n s i d e r . T h e r e h a s b e e n o v e r - e m p h a s i s on t h e d i s i l l u s i o n e d H a r d y , who a t s e v e n t y - f o u r w r o t e what were a s f a r a s I know, h i s f i r s t w o r d s o f s e l f - p r a i s e , — s t r a n g e words t o o : " W h a t e v e r h i s message — g l a d o r g r i m Two b r i g h t - s o u l e d women c l a v e t o h i m , S t a n d a n d s a y t h a t w h i l e day d e c a y s , I t w i l l be w o r d enough o f p r a i s e . " ( l )  —  I t r a v e l a s a Phantom nov/ ( 2 ) i s i n t h e same k e y . To go b a c k w a r d i n t i m e t h e r e i s a l i l t i n g s o n g - l i k e l i t t l e poem, When I S e t Out f o r L y o n n e s s e ( 3 ) which m i r r o r s the c a r e f r e e moments o f l o v e , b e f o r e i t i s w i s e r , t h a t was w r i t t e n i n a o e r s o n a l s o r t o f way a b o u t 1 8 7 0 . I t s mate i s A S t u d e n t ' s L o v e Song (4) b u t t h e most p o i g n a n t l y l y r i c a l l o v e e x p r e s s i o n i s f o u n d i n t h e g r o u p o f poems p a r t l y o f t h e  moment, p a r t l y r e t r o s p e c t , known a s Poems o f 1912 - 13 V e t e r i s V e s t i g i a Flammae. ( I ) H e r e t h e l o v e theme i s H a r d y ' s own. I t i s t h e one t i m e when p o e t i c a l l y , he p u t s a s i d e h i s p e r p e t u a l r e t i c e n c e a n d w r i t e s o f h i s own e m o t i o n , undisguised. Most o f t h e poems a r e b e a u t i f u l . The G-oing ( 2 ) , Beeny C l i f f ( 3 ) , a n d The Phantom H o r s e Woman. ( 4 ) a r e s u p e r b l y so. I n a l l t h e r e a r e p h r a s e s and i m a g e s p r o f o u n d l y m o v i n g — which y e t deprived of t h e i r context are naked.and s h r i n k ing. A few a r e b o l d e r . Such i s the p o w e r f u l f i g u r e o f d e a t h i n l i f e w h i c h b e r e a v e m e n t made. " I seem b u t a d e a d man h e l d on e n d , " ( 5 ) t h e p o w e r f u l f i g u r e o f d e a t h i n l i f e w h i c h b e r e a v e m e n t made, o r the note o f a b s o l u t e f i n a l i t y i n "You a r e p a s t l o v e , p r a i s e , i n d i f f e r e n c e , blame*" (b) The f i n a l s t a n z a o f t h e Phantom H o r s e Woman.has t h e same l y r i c b e a u t y t h a t t h e h u n t s m a n o f the a r r a s , w i t h g r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n , embodies i n an o l d e r poem. ( 7 ) H e r e t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e a v o i d a n c e o f o r n a m e n t , w h i c h makes t h e f i g u r e o f t h e r i d e r s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y e t c h e d , one o v e r p o w e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n e x c l u d i n g a l l e l s e , a n i n s i s t e n t t h r o b b i n g , r e p e a t , b e a t i n g upon the b r a i n . "A g h o s t - g i r l - r i d e r -— a n d t h o u g h , t o i l - t r i e d , He w i t h e r s d a i l y , Time t o u c h e s h e r n o t , But she s t i l l r i d e s g a i l y , I n h i s ra.pt t h o u g h t I n " t h a t shagged and s h a l y A t l a n t i c spot, And a s when f i r s t e y e d Draws r e i n a n d s i n g s t o t h e s w i n g o f t h e t i d e . " B e e n y C l i f f , a n e x q u i s i t e a n d more e l a b o r a t e t r e a t m e n t o f a somewhat s i m i l a r theme i s s e t i n h u r r y i n g t e r c e t f o r m , w h i c h i n s p i t e o f i t s e n d - s t o p p e d l i n e s sweeps a l o n g from phrase to phrase i n almost even c e s u r a l b a l a n c e u n t i l the v o i c e drops a t the s t r o p h e ' s e n d . It i s very m e l o d i o u s , and the n a t u r a l beat o f the metre w i t h i t s f o u r heavy s t r e s s e s encased i n a steady p a t t e r of u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i s i n t e n s i f i e d by an i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n o f v o w e l and 1 s o u n d s , i n w h i c h as the 1 l i f t s , t h e vowel l o w e r s the _.pitch. (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (6) (7)  Poems o f 1912 - 1 3 : p . 318 - 3 3 6 Poems o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 : p . 3 1 9 Poems of 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 : p . 3 3 0 Poems o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 : p . 3 3 3 The G o i n g : Poems o f 1912 - 13;. p . 319 Y o u r L a s t D r i v e : Poems o f 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 : p . 3 2 0 Matthew A r n o l d : T r i s t r a m a n d I s e u l t : P a r t I I  The a c c o m p a n y i n g i m a g e r y i s m a g i c a l , t h e e p i t o m e o f a r t , f o r e x p e r i e n c e and landscape b l e n d and condense i n a s e r i e s of cameo-like i m p r e s s i o n s , i n t h i s case delicately . c o l o r e d , w h i c h s t a n d o u t -- p e r f e c t -- f r o m a g o l d e n setting,  "A And And  III c l o u d then cloaked us, and there f l e w an i r i s e d r a i n , the A t l a n t i c dyed i t s l e v e l s w i t h a d u l l misfeatured stain, t h e n the sun b u r s t out a g a i n , and p u r p l e s p r i n k e d the main. " (1)  little  The h o m e l y m o o d i n H a r d y ' s l y r i c g i f t w h i c h tempers the harshness of s c i e n t i f i c f a c t — by a w i s t f u l c'linging to o l d t h i n g s and customs, expresses i t s e l f In s u c h l y r i c s a s O l d F u r n i t u r e ( 2 ) , To My F a t h e r ' s V i o l i n (3) a n d N i g h t i n t h e O l d Home ( 4 ) . The f i r s t , a n e x p r e s s i o n i n p o e t i c form of the charm o f a s s o c i a t i o n which almost everyone f e e l s a t t i m e s was i n t e n s i f i e d i n H a r d y b y h i s l i f e - l o n g a l l e g i a n c e t o one p l a c e . I t seems t o h a v e become a comf o r t i n g and i n s p i r i n g p a r t o f h i s l i f e . The t o n e o f t h e c h a r m i n g poem i s s e t b y " t h e h a n d s o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n . " This same c h a r m o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e c o m i n g m o r e s p e c i f i c a n d p e r s o n a l i n t h e v e r s e s t o a f a t h e r ' s memory, e v o k e d by a v i o l i n , d r a w s on t o r e g a r d t h e e n d , w h i c h comes t o a l l t h i n g s , i n t h e way i n e v i t a b l e to Hardy — the v i o l i n worm-eaten, i t s owner dust. . The l a s t poem o f t h e t h r e e c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t the l a r g e r group of which, they form a p a r t , i n t r o d u c e s the r e t u r n of the s p i r i t s of the dead to' t h e i r o l d haunts, a f a v o u r i t e and f a n c i f u l d i v e r s i o n o f the f a c t s . One i s s t r u c k i m m e d i a t e l y by Hardy's words r e g a r d i n g the s o l a c e o f f a n c y i n l i f e when a s o l a c e of r e a s o n i s d e n i e d . In this p a r t i c u l a r instance a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t between o l d b e l i e f s a n d new i s b r o u g h t o u t . The g h o s t s w e a r a " s t r a n g e upb r a i d i n g s m i l e " , and a d v i s e t h e i r modern descendant t o "let be t h e w h e r e f o r e . " S u b j e c t t o t h e g a r g o y l e mood t h e same t h e m e o f r e t u r n a n d t i m e s t h a t c h a n g e , g r i n s a n d c h u c k l e s f r o m " t h e mead o f M e m o r i e s " i n t h e i r o n i c v e r s e s o f The D e a d Q u i r e . ( 5 ) A modern b a l l a d i n the.Lucy Gray manner c a l l e d Her I m m o r t a l i t y , p r o b a b l y marks an extreme both o f r o m a n t i c s o l a c e and b a l l a d c o n t e n t . The m a n n e r i s e n t i r e l y s i m p l e (1) (2) (3) (4^ (5)  P o e m s o f 1912 - 13: p . 330 Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 456 Moments.of V i s i o n : p. 423 Times L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p. 252 Times L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p. 240  25  b u t t h e f a n c i f u l theme, .which I n p o e t s l e s s a u s t e r e m i g h t be given a s e t t i n g correspondingly romantic i s here t r e a t e d i n the r u s t i c e v e r y d a y f a s h i o n t y p i c a l b o t h o f the b a l l a d and o f H a r d y . The poem r e s t s u p o n t h e i d e a t h a t t h e d e a d a r e i m m o r t a l o n l y a s l o n g a s t h e y l i v e i n memory i n t h e m i n d s of the l i v i n g . The b a l l a d f o r m f o r . s u c h a s u b j e c t i s u n u s u a l ; the o l d b a l l a d w o r l d of a c t u a l unhappy event h a v i n g g i v e n way t o a w o r l d o f shadow, t h e shadow o f m i d - m o r n i n g , w h i c h i s o n l y a p a t c h o f g r e y a n d w i t h o u t deep c o n t r a s t . Her I m m o r t a l i t y ( l ) i s n o t the s o r t o f t h i n g t h a t anyone e l s e would have w r i t t e n . I t r e p r e s e n t s a phase of Hardy's' temperament as i t a d j u s t s a p o w e r f u l p h i l o s o p h y to the e v e r y d a y n e e d s o f man; f o r t h e o l d b e l i e f i n i m m o r t a l i t y w i t h i t s comfort gone, H a r d y s u b s t i t u t e s an i m m o r t a l i t y w h i c h p a s s e s w i t h i t s g e n e r a t i o n , t h e o n l y one he c o u l d w i t h c o n s i s t e n c y g r a n t — a s u b s t i t u t i o n w h i c h j u s t s u f f i c e s and l i t t l e more. I n H i s I m m o r t a l i t y (2) a n d The T o - B e - F o r g o t t e n (3) t h e same, p o i n t o f v i e w i s more i m p l i c i t l y c l e a r , t h a t t h e l o n g e r one i s g o n e , t h e d e e p e r d e a t h becomes. I n the f i n a l r e c k o n i n g t h e o n l y ones t o a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y a r e the I m m o r t a l s . I n t h e s e two e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s t h e r o m a n t i c a u r a i s gone -- a n d s c i e n c e d o m i n a t e s . The " y e l l - B e l o v e d ( 4 ) e a s t i n t h e same m o u l d a s Her I m m o r t a l i t y i s l i k e i t an i d e a l i z a t i o n , i n t h i s case of love. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c H a r d i a n t o u c h i s t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a n y hope o f r e a l i z i n g t h e i d e a l i n the a c t u a l . The m u t e d n o t e o f l y r i c g r i e f i n t h e f i n a l stanza i s a modulation. Y/hen H a r d y p a s s e s t h i s s t a g e o f s o r r o w he e x p r e s s e s i t b y u s i n g i r o n i c o r d r a m a t i c c o n trasts. " I f I h a v e s e e n one t h i n g I t i s the p a s s i n g p r e c i o u s n e s s of dreams, • T h a t a s p e c t s a r e w i t h i n u s : and who seems H o s t k i n g l y i s t h e k i n g . " (5) T h e s e w o r d s f o r m a most f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n t o some o f t h e l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h we h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r i n g and l e a d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y t o a d i f f e r e n t s i d e of H a r d y ' s g e n i u s , w h i c h s p e a k s o f t h o s e "most k i n g l y " , n o t i n t h e f o r m a l e l e g i a c mood, w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e i m m o r t a l i z a t i o n o f p o e t i c b e r e a v e m e n t , b u t i n t h e s i m p l e t way o f f r i e n d s h i p and a d m i r a t i o n . An u n s e e i n g c r i t i c h a s q u o t e d S h e l l e y ' s S k y l a r k ( 6 ) i n a n e f f o r t t o g i v e b o d y and s u b s t a n c e t o h i s . Cl) (2) (3) (4) (5) (fa)  V'essex Poems: p. 48 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : A Youngman's E x h o r t a t i o n : L a t e Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t . :  p . 130 p. 131 p . 120 l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 9 2  p.  569  t h e s i s t h a t H a r d y i s no p o e t . The w o r d s "A p i n c h o f u n s e e n , u n g u a r d e d d u s t " , c a l l e d up f o r H a r d y t h e c e a s e l e s s panorama of n a t u r e ' s r e n e w a l . .It a l s o emphasized the p a s s i n g p r e c i o u s n e s s o f d r e a m s , s i n c e " a l i t t l e h a l l , o f f e a t h e r and honey a l l l i f e , i n f a c t , must be t r a n s i e n t a n d the s k y l a r k has i t s i m m o r t a l i t y , not i n i t s e l f , nor even i n i t s song, b u t i n t h e poem. There i t l i v e s f o r e v e r . i !  "Go f i n d i t f a e r i e s , go a n d f i n d That t i n y p i n c h of p r i c e l e s s d u s t , And b r i n g a c a s k e t , s i l v e r - l i n e d And f r a m e d o f g o l d t h a t gems e n c r u s t , And we w i l l . l a y i t s a f e t h e r e i n And c o n s e c r a t e i t t o e n d l e s s t i m e , For i t i n s p i r e d a b a r d to win E c s t a t i c h e i g h t s i n thought and rhyme." I t i s not only a subtle a p p r e c i a t i o n of another p o e t ' s a r t ; i t I s almost a p o e t ' s c r e e d , a pronouncement of faith. Hardy c a r r i e s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of other poets i n t o h i s own g e n e r a t i o n w i t h h i s p r a i s e o f t h e p o e t M e r e d i t h . ( 1 ) The most a p p a r e n t f a c t c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e s i m p l e a n d f r i e n d l y w o r d s i s t h e e n t i r e a b s e n c e o f any d e s i r e t o make p o e t i c a l m a t e r i a l o u t o f a n o l d f r i e n d s h i p . Hardy m e n t i o n s a few ways i n w h i c h M e r e d i t h meant much t o h i m . He s p e a k s a s a man, r a t h e r t h a n a s a p o e t . It i s apprec i a t i o n pu re and s i m p l e . "His words wing on, as l i v e words w i l l . " Somewhat t h e same a t t i t u d e g o v e r n s The L a s t S i g n a l ( 2 ) w r i t t e n when W i l l i a m B a r n e s d i e d ; b u t t h e g a z e i s d e e p e r , t h e r e i s a s t a r k a w a r e n e s s o f the d e a d man i n h i s c o f f i n , w h i c h i s h e i g h t e n e d by "a wave o f h i s h a n d " , t h e sun g l i n t i n g i n H a r d y ' s eyes from the g l a s s o f the c o f f i n . I t makes one b l i n k . The d e a t h o f Sivinburne i n 1909 moved H a r d y d e e p l y . He h a d known a n d a d m i r e d S w i n b u r n e f o r many y e a r s . Like h i m , he had f e l t the s c o r c h i n g f l a m e s of V i c t o r i a n p r u d e r y . H i s admiration i s expressed i n A Singer Asleep (3) not only t h e most b e a u t i f u l o f t h e i m m e d i a t e g r o u p u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n b u t a f u l l a n d r o u n d e d poem, d e e p l y m u s i c a l , v a g u e l y r e m i n i s c e n t i n t h e sweep o f i t s l o n g i a m b i c l i n e s , o f S w i n b u r n e h i m s e l f , t r e n c h a n t l y c r i t i c a l i n a few p e r f e c t phrases. The p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s e x q u i s i t e t r i b u t e a r e the f r u i t s o f a r i p e n e d and n a t u r a l g e n i u s . In the v e r y (1) (2) (3)  George M e r e d i t h : Times L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : Moments- o f V i s i o n : p . 444 S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 3°4  p.  278  f i r s t v e z ' s e , t h e s e a , w h i c h had. s t i r r e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f S w i n b u r n e t o some o f i t s f i n e s t e f f o r t s r i s e s up as t h e mighty "unslumbering" sentry of h i s longest r e s t . I t i s the p e r f e c t note and i m m e d i a t e l y a t t u n e s the r e c e p t i v e s p i r i t to the melody t h a t f o l l o w s . The s t a t e l y p a c e o f t h e s e n t r y s e t s t h e r h y t h m i c b e a t o f t h e poem w h i c h , p o s s i b l y y i e l d i n g t o S w i n b u r n e ' s s p i r i t , i s r a t h e r r e g u l a r i n i t s m u s i c , the f i f t h s t a n z a b e i n g t h e m e t r i c a l s k e l e t o n o f t h e w h o l e , comp l e t e t o the l a s t bone. The s k e l e t o n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t a p parent. A few m a g i c w o r d s and p h r a s e s c o m p l e t e l y c l o t h e i t . They a r e " b r a b b l e " , " S t i l l o n e " , " f i r e of tongues" and "spindrift". I n s t a n z a s o n e , t h r e e a n d n i n e t h e i n i t i a l theme b e a t s p e r s i s t e n t l y , t h e f i n a l s t a n z a b e i n g an e l a b o r a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n . I n s t a n z a t w o , t h e s e c o n d theme b r e a k s i n . I n t o t h e r h y t h m comes a n i n v e r t e d f o o t a n d t h e p e r f e c t a n d s t a r t l i n g f i g u r e o f t h e Nun a n d t h e Swinburne " l e a v e s u p o n the f o r m a l m i d d l e t i m e . " The c o n t i n u i n g m e l o d y i n s t a n z a f o u r i s a p e r f e c t l y c o m p l e t e s h o r t c r i t i q u e u p o n Poems and B a l l a d s w i t h a summing up i n t h e v e r s e s f o l l o w i n g o f t h e p o e t ' s c a r e e r , from the storm r a i s e d by h i s u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e to the triumph of h i s l a t e r y e a r s . The t h i r d a n d f i n a l theme c a r r i e s t h r o u g h t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s t a n z a s a n d i s a v e r y b e a u t i f u l f i g u r e o f the poet as t h e d i s c i p l e o f S a p p h o , w h i c h b r i n g s out v i v i d l y t h e l i k e n e s s i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e two p o e t s . T h e s e t h r e e s t a n z a s make t h e m e l o d y . Here and t h e r e a r e the t y p i c a l r h y t h m i c a l b r e a k s , the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t mark H a r d y ' s m a s t e r y o f r h y t h m a n d p o e t i c f o r m . ' S w i n b u r n e ' s m e l o d i c smoothness c o p i e d by H a r d y , i s i n t e n s i f i e d b y s u c h s u b t l e t i e s i n s t a n z a one a s t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f " a l l " , t h e i n t e r n a l y r h y m e s , t h e a s s o n a n t o ' s , the b a l a n c e d l ' s o f " p i l l o w e d e t e r n a l l y " , and the c h a n g i n g o f t h e noun s e n t r y t o a s t r i k i n g v e r b a l u s e i n " s e n t r y s " . In t h e n u n ' s s t a n z a , consummate i n p i c t o r i a l a r t , t h e v e r s e " i n f a i t h o f numbers f r e a k e d w i t h m u s i c a l c l o s e s " , b y v i r t u e o f i t s own odd s o u n d g l i d e s i n i t s r h y t h m i c s e t t i n g t o a p e r f e c t l i g h t - s y l l a b l e d end — " r o s e s " , - - " c l o s e s " . . "hot s i g h s , sad l a u g h t e r s , k i s s e s , t e a r s " , i s an echo of S w i n b u r n e , as a r e a l s o the g r a n d a n d s o u n d i n g w o r d s o f t h e m e l o d i e ' s e n d , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r modern m a s t e r i n the c o s m i c scope w h i c h l i e s b e t w e e n " c o n s t e l l a t i o n s " and " d u l l s u b t e r r e n e r e v e r b r a t i o n s " . The s o u n d shows S w i n b u r n e ' s i n f l u e n c e ; t h e m e a n i n g g i v e n t o t h e poem i s t y p i c a l l y Hardy's. There a r e o t h e r words w h i c h , s i n c e they o c c u r , may he m e n t i o n e d h e r e i n t h e i r c o n t e x t r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e i s o l a t i o n of a l a t e r c h a p t e r . Of t h e s e , " b r a b b l e s " , i s a n o b s o l e t e w o r d o f o b s c u r e d e r i v a t i o n b u t so a p t i n i t s p h o n e t i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o m u l t i t u d e t h a t i t l o o k s new and s t a r t l i n g , as i f c o i n e d on the- s p o t f r o m " b a b b l e " a n d " r a b b l e " , t h e two i n t e r - r e l a t e d mob w o r d s . " S p i n d r i f t " i s the s o u t h e r n  f o r m o f a modern a d a p t a t i o n o f s p o o n d r i f t , t h e o t h e r f o r m of which i s s p e n d r i f t . "Hydro s p h e r e " , f r a n k l y modern, i s t h e s e a ' s damp a i r a b o u t Sappho a n d S w i n b u r n e . "Orts" i s r a t h e r u n u s u a l , r u s t i c i n f l a v o r , "incarnadine}"' i s ' S h a k e s pearian. One f i n d s i n a d d i t i o n a g r o u p o f compounds i n perfect v i s u a l balance. This v i s u a l balance f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s and i s an e v i d e n c e of H a r d y ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g . H a r d y ' s gaze i s the outward one. H i s emotion ha b e e n most i n t e n s e when a r o u s e d , n o t b y the p e r s o n a l a c c i d e n t of l i f e i n immediate e f f e c t upon the s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l p o e t , b u t when engaged, by the w i d e s t phenomena o f t h e o r g a n i z e d u n i v e r s e , b o t h i n i t s a b s t r a c t and i t s a p p l i e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . H e r e he h a s b e e n the m a s t e r ; h e r e h e h a s f o r c e d p o e t i c c o n v e n t i o n t o s t a n d a s i d e w h i l e he b e n t f o r m s a n d l a n g u a g e i n t o a framework s u i t e d t o the new m a t e r i a l * He h a s c a r r i e d the modern s c i e n t i f i c and e v o l u t i o n a r y v i e w o f the w o r l d and o f l i f e u p o n i t s t r a i g h t t o t h e p o e t i c r e a l m and he h a s done so s u c c e s s f u l l y . F u r t h e r he h a s f o r c e d h i s s t r a n g e m a t e r i a l , u n b e n d i n g a n d . - u n y i e l d i n g as I t sometimes i s , i n t o t h e v e r y f o r m s a r o u n d w h i c h t h e p o e t i c h a z e h a s h u n g most c l o s e l y ; w i t n e s s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l sonnets, which b o l d l y p r o c l a i m a new a l l e g i a n c e , w h i l e d e a d g h o s t s h o v e r u n h o u s e d i n the background. I t i s not t h a t p h i l o s o p h y appears i n H a r d y , f o r the f i r s t time as p o e t i c m a t e r i a l . Poets are-freq u e n t l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n one way or a n o t h e r ; s o m e t i m e s a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l b i a s has almost wrecked the superb p o e t i c " g i f t w i t h w h i c h i t j o u r n e y e d , two v a r i a n t e x a m p l e s b e i n g S h e l l e y and Wordsworth. T h e r e a r e some who t h i n k t h a t H a r d y ' s d a r k e r - s i d e makes o f h i m t h e p e r f e c t t h i r d . It i s not s o . Hardy, as•I said before, consolidated h i s p o s i t i o n . He s t a n d s as f i r m l y u p o n t h e modern s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - of the u n i v e r s e as M i l t o n stood upon the m o r a l one. T h e r e was i n e a c h c a s e , a w i l l a n d t h e e n e r g y t o s u p p o r t i t . H a r d y n o t o n l y a c c e p t e d m o d e r n t h o u g h t b u t so a b s o r b e d i t t h a t i t formed t h e v e r y . t h r e a d s of h i s t a p e s t r y ; and the f i g u r e s a n d t h e i l l u s i o n s w h i c h he wove w i t h i n i t were b u t the f i n e r s t r a n d s of p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n w h o l l y dependent upon t h e h e a v i e r body f o r s t a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h . In r e a c h i n g t h i s s o l i d a r i t y Hardy a c h i e v e s an e n l a r g e m e n t o f p o e t i c bounds j u s t a s S h a k e s p e a r e a c h i e v e d i t b y s w e e p i n g h u m a n i t y i n t h e mass w i t h i n t h e y o u n g r o m a n t i c drama. The g e s t u r e i s , a s i t w e l l m i g h t b e , t r i u m p h a n t . It i n c l u d e s i n b o t h c a s e s , the slow c r e e p i n g progress, o f g e n e r a t i o n s , c u l m i n a t i n g s u d d e n l y i n the g e n e s i s of a century's genius. S t r a n g e l y enough t h i s s t a r k l y m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h y p u s h e s more e a s i l y t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s i n p o e t r y t h a n in prose. I n Ju.de t h e O b s c u r e t h e r e i s a human r e l a t i o n s h i p  w h i c h i s b a r r e d , f r o m , the s o n n e t Hap ( l ) . The theme i s no d a r k e r b u t t h e a p p e a l o f Hap ,. b e i n g more p u r e l y t o the i n t e l l e c t , a r o u s e s l e s s p a i n t h a n does t h e u n r e l i e v e d s u f f e r i n g o f Jude t h e O b s c u r e . The n o v e l c a r r i e s t h e o r y t o extreme l i m i t s a n d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and " i l l u s i o n " b o t h suffer thereby. I n o r d e r t o c o n s i d e r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o e t r y more e a s i l y , I h a v e d i v i d e d i t i n t o two r a n k s . I n the f i r s t s t a n d t h e more a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l p h a s e s o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n , i n t h e s e c o n d a r e t h e men a n d women o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y i n poems d e a l i n g w i t h men a n d women. In the f i r s t p h a s e , the tone i s c o n s i s t e n t and l e v e l . In the second i t runs i n wide schematic range through l y r i c , d r a m a t i c and i r o n i c v e r s e . I n m a k i n g t h i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i on, I i n no w i s e i m p l y t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e or t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h y appears as such. I r e f e r merely to the poems w h e r e , a l t h o u g h v i t a l i z e d , b y c o n c r e t e i m a g e r y a n d by i t s s u b s e r v i e n c e t o m e t r e , i t a p p e a r s most c l e a r l y a s t h e e n t i r e body o f t h e poem, where i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t c e n t e r s on t h e p h i l o s o p h y r a t h e r t h a n on t h e p e r s o n o f a man o r woman. I n t h e c a s e o f men and women, i t s w o r k i n g out i s p e c u l i a r and r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n . An a c c e p t a n c e of the e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y such as t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y i s c a l l e d u p o n t o make l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e scheme o f t h i n g s w h e r e i n t h e f i t t e s t , i f a n y , s u r v i v e s w h e r e the mere c a r r y i n g out o f u n i v e r s a l l a w s l e a d s t o s u f f e r i n g a n d p a i n , where t h e o c c a s i o n a l happy i n t e r l u d e i s a p t t o t u r n a t a n y moment i n t o t h e d a r k e s t sorrow. I n t h e much q u o t e d Hap ( 2 ) Hardy f a c e s the q u e s t i o n s q u a r e l y , f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o b e a r any o f t h e o l d b e l i e f s i n a j e a l o u s o r a v e n g i n g g o d , k n o w i n g t h a t some power w i l l e d t h e m i s e r y , r a t h e r t h a n i/\ t h e s t a r k b l a n k n e s s l e f t by m o d e r n k n o w l e d g e a n d i t s i n d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s . The thought i s maddening. There might have been h a p p i n e s s , but there i s n o t . The same i d e a c a r r i e s f u r t h e r i n a s e c o n d s o n n e t o f the same y e a r , c a l l e d , A t a B r i d a l ( 3 ) ; b u t t h e r e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s i s not o n l y a matter of i n d i f f e r e n c e but p r o g r e s s of any k i n d i s l e f t to the m e r e s t c h a n c e . Hap i s the b e t t e r sonnet, f o r the l y r i c a l i n t e n s e n e s s of the p a i n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e o c t a v e i s made d e f i n i t e i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f i m a g e r y c a l l e d up b y t h e p o w e r f u l l a s t s i x l i n e s , t h e c h a l l e n g i n g "why u n b l o o m s t h e b e s t hope e v e r sown?" a n d the f i g u r e of " d i c i n g Time". (1) (Z) (3)  Wessex P o e m s : p . Wessex Poems: p . Wessex'Poems: p.  7 7 8  . There i s a f u r t h e r c o m p e l l i n g i m p e r s o n a t i o n o f T i m e , i n The L a c k i n g S e n s e . ( 1 ) I n t h a t poem p e r s o n i f i e d . Time s a y s t h a t t h e p o w e r f u l f o r c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s e , t y p i f i e d a s t h e m i g h t y m o t h e r a n d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s makes a n a p p e a l t o man.. " W h i l e she p l o d s d e a d - r e c k o n i n g In darkness of a f f l i c t i o n , A s s i s t herwhere thy c r e a t u r i l y Dependence c a n or may For thou a r t of her c l a y . "  on,  T h i s i n e v i t a b l y s u g g e s t s the m e t a p h y s i c a l framework o f The D y n a s t s a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s , or the w o r l d ' s cumulative e x p e r i e n c e . Its final s t a n z a draws man i n t o t h e scheme a s p a r t o f t h e l i f e f o r c e , a c r e a t u r e w i t h w i l l and f e e l i n g s c a p a b l e o f a m e l i o r a t i v e e f f o r t b u t i n t h e e n d d o m i n a t e d by t h e f o r c e . Napoleon e x h i b i t s both f a c u l t i e s . The l o n g s l o w m o v i n g s e p t e n a r y v e r s e s g i v e t o t h e poem a l m o s t i n s e n s i b l y a m e s m e r i c e f f e c t a s o f one w o r k i n g u n d e r a s p e l l , -which i s a t t i m e s e x t e n d e d by a n e x t r a l i g h t s y l l a b l e w h i c h r u n s t h e v e r s e on t o a n e v e n l o n g e r rhythm. There i s an o c c a s i o n a l opening l i g h t s y l l a b l e as well. M i e n t h e s e , as i n v e r s e s one a n d two o f t h e f i r s t s t a n z a , o c c u r t o g e t h e r t h e y r e a l l y amount t o a s u b s t i t u t e d d a c t y l l i e f o o t , f o r m i n g a b r e a k i n t h e e v e n tempo — w h i c h i s v a r i e d o t h e r w i s e o n l y b y t h e s t r o p h i c p a u s e c a u s e d by. t h e three-footed f i n a l verses. The p i t c h i s t o n e d t o t h e d e s i r e d e v e n n e s s o f u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i o n by t h e a l m o s t c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a n c e o f v o w e l s o u n d s , w h i c h i n a v e r s e s u c h a s "She whisper's i t i n each p a t h e t i c s t r e n u o u s slow e n d e a v o u r " , h a l t a n d d r a g t h e l i n e t o an e v e n l o n g e r s e n s u o u s f l o w . A sudden a s s o n a n t t o r a l l i t e r a t i v e b ' s may b r e a k t h e r h y t h m a n d s l i g h t l y change t h e t o n e a s i n "The s e n s e o f t h e m i e n most q u e e n l y . "  ills  misdealt  for  blisses  blanks  The p o s s i b l e r e g r e t o f a F o r c e w h i c h c r e a t e d a w o r l d so i l l , f o r m s t h e theme o f t h e The S l e e p 'Worker ( 2 ) , a s o n n e t , a n d Of a l o n g e r poem, By t h e E a r t h ' s Corpse" (j?)* "Eow w i l t t h o u b e a r t h y s e l f i n t h y s u r p r i s e ? W i l t t h o u d e s t r o y i n one w i l d s h o c k o f shame, Thy;,'whole h i g h h e a v i n g f i r m a m e n t a l f r a m e , Or p a t i e n t l y a d j u s t , amend, a n d h e a l ? " a s k s t h e (1) (2) (})  Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p .  106 110 115  sonnet  —: " T h a t I made E a r t h , a n d l i f e , I t s t i l l r e p e n t e t h me",  is  the r e p l y g i v e n by the  and man, ,  o t h e r poem.  What i s i n some ways the most t e r r i b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s b l i n d w o r l d i m p u l s e i s f o u n d i n Doom a n d She ( 1 ) . The o v e r w h e l m i n g g l o o m o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n i s e m b o d i e d i n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r a n d Doom. Q u e s t i o n e d by t h e b l i n d w e a v e r a s t o how t h e w o r l d i s g e t t i n g a l o n g , i n s e n t i e n t Doom c o u n t e r s by a s k i n g what i s " R i g h t " , "Wrong", " F e e l i n g " , " P a i n " ? They have no meaning f o r h i m . They a r e m e r e l y s o u n d s . H e r e t h e d i s c o r d w h i c h mars t h e u n i v e r s a l harmony -jangles a s the c l a s h b e t w e e n man i n h i s w o r l d o f e m o t i o n and the u n h e e d i n g f o r c e s o f the u n i v e r s e becomes a p p a r e n t . N o r d o e s t h e d i s c o r d end w i t h the one inharmonic c r a s h . I t c o n t i n u e s as a determined b r e a k i n g minor i n t o the o u t e r w o r l d of N a t u r e , man's immediate e n vironment. "The l e a d e n s k y " , t h e f r e e z i n g " n o r t h " , t h e s p i r i t s o f " D e a t h " a n d " S i c k n e s s " , i n The S u b a l t e r n s ( 2 ) l i n k t h e cosmic f o r c e i r r e t r i e v a b l y w i t h man's n a t u r a l w o r l d w h i l e t h e b i r d s o f t h e w o o d , i n The B u l l f i n c h e s ( 3 ) a c k n o w l e d g e , s e r v e a n d q u e s t i o n the same dominance The r e .Is n e i t h e r scheme n o r p i t y , o n l y t h e s l o w , r e s i s t l e s s a n d e n veloping Fate. T h i s b r i n g s u s t o the p o i n t where man a n d p h i l o s o p h y meet a n d swim t o g e t h e r i n the p o o l o f t e a r s . Being conc e r n e d ' f o r t h e t i m e more e x p r e s s l y w i t h l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , I must d i s r e g a r d t h e d r a m a t i c poems i n w h i c h m a n ' s s t r u g g l e w i t h e x i s t e n c e i s most v i v i d l y p?oir-trayed a n d c l i n g t o t h e f r e q u e n t n o t e s o f r e b e l l i o n , compromise and p a i n , w h i c h a r e found i n the l y r i c s . T h e r e i s no b e t t e r b e g i n n i n g t h a n t h e p o e t ' s c r y " 0 l i f e w i t h t h e s a d s e a r e d f a c e " , as t h e h o b b l i n g w e a r i e d old player enters. In f o u r s h o r t s t a n z a s , l i f e as i t a p pears to Hardy i s p e r s o n i f i e d . Knowledge, w i t h i t s Death, Time, D e s t i n y , i s a d m i t t e d and the p o s s i b l e compromise w h i c h man may make w i t h t h e s e f o r c e s i s s u g g e s t e d . . The t o n e o f t h e f i r s t two s t a n z a s i s g o v e r n e d by t h e " d r a g g l e d " f i g u r e of L i f e ; but the r h y t h m , which i n t h e f i n a l s t a n z a s a p p e a r s i n i t s p e r f e c t m e t r i c a l frame, i s s u b t l y handled to p o i n t the s i g n i f i c a n c e . The two l i g h t s y l l a b l e s b e t w e e n " L i f e " a n d " s a d " p u t t h e e m p h a s i s h e a v i l y on t h o s e two w o r d s , w h i l e t h e a n a p e s t s o f the s i n g l e f o u r s t r e s s v e r s e w i t h t h e c e s u r a l (1) (2) (3)  Poems of. t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t :  p. p. p.  108 110 Ill  p a u s e b r e a k i t i n t o two e m p h a t i c images w h i c h a r e l i n k e d t o the extended s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the second s t a n z a by the w r e n c h e d a c c e n t s o f " p l e a s a n t r y " a n d " D e s t i n y " , i n t h e rhyme scheme abab c b c b . The i r r e v o c a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f " D e a t h Time, D e s t i n y " i s a c c e n t u a t e d by r h y t h m i c pauses a f t e r the f i r s t t w o , i f one w i s h e s a s t h e commas s u g g e s t , t o r e a d i t s o , w h i l e the p e r f e c t r e g u l a r i t y o f the f i n a l s t a n z a s l i g h t e n s t h e t o n e t o t u n e w i t h i t s more, a r t i f i c i a l mood o f mocking j o y , A Sign Seeker ( l ) w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i v e name t a k e s a l o n g q u e r y i n g p i l g r i m a g e t h r o u g h a l l t h e byways existence. I t has the t r u e H a r d i a n s c o p e . First is r e g i s t e r e d p a s s i n g time — then such w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d c o s m i c phenomena as " l i g h t n i n g - b l a d e , t h e l e a p i n g s t a r ,  of  The C a u l d r o n s o f t h e s e a i n s t o r m , . . a b y s m a l f i r e s and snow-cones", f o l l o w e d by a r a p i d , summary o f a s t r o n o m i c s c i e n c e w h i c h ' g i v e s way t o a s u r v e y o f h u m a n i t y . That I s h a l l quote s i n c e i t a p p e a r s a g a i n i n The D y n a s t s b o t h a s m a g n i f i c e n t s t a g e d i r e c t i o n and a s e t h e r e a l s p e c u l a t i o n i n l y r i c a l m e t a p h y s i c . " I w i t n e s s f e l l o w e a r t h - m e n surge and s t r i v e ; A s s e m b l i e s m e e t , a n d t h r o b , and. p a r t , D e a t h ' s sudden f i n g e r , s o r r o w ' s smart: — A i l t h e v a s t v a r i o u s m o i l s t h a t mean A world a l i v e . " Then f o l l o w s - t h e q u e r y : I s t h e r e l i f e a f t e r death? Does H e a v e n e n s c r o l l t h e wrong? - - a n d a 'summary o f r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s as " h e i g h t s of t r a n c e ^ l i k e t r u s t " , In the whole t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n o f a f f i r m a t i v e answer "When a man f a l l s h e l i e s . " ' I n F o r L i f e I Had. N e v e r C a r e d G r e a t l y ( 2 ) , t h e a c t u a l p a s s i n g o f one m a n ' s s p a n i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same m e r c i l e s s s u r v e y , as t h e p o e t , "unwon by i t s s t y l e " , t u r n e d from the r e a d i n g o f L i f e t o S o l i t u d e and c o n t e m p l a t i o n . From t h a t v a n t a g e ground, f i r e d b y t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f a s t a r a s i t b u r s t t h r o u g h i t s e n v e l o p i n g " f o g - d a m p s " he d e t e r m i n e d , not to l e t h i s " p i l g r i m a g e f a i l " . I t i s the s p i r i t c o u r a g e o u s , tempered by the s t o i c m i n d . The same t e m p e r i n g o f c o u r a g e b r e a k i n g f r o m a more d i s m a l b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e v o i c e o f a p e a s a n t , g o v e r n s the p l a i n t o f one " b e d - r i d d e n " , t o h i s " u n k n o w i n g g o d " ( 3 ) , (1) (2) (3)  Wessex P o e m s : p . 43 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 5C5 The B e d r i d d e n P e a s a n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : P . 113  33 s p e a k s i n a more i n d i g n a n t mood i n t h e p o e t ' s i n v o c a t i o n To A n U n b o r n P a u p e r C h i l d ( l ) , a n d r e a c h e s i t s f i n a l s t o i c note o f v e i l e d d e f i a n c e i n the almost unhoped w i s h e s o f The Blow* ( 2 ) W h i l e f r o m I n a K i s s ( 3 ) a n d A Commonplace Day ( 4 ) two poems a s d i f f e r e n t , b o t h i n s t y l e a n d c o n t e n t a s t h e y w e l l c a n b e , t h e r e comes a s l i g h t r e l i e f i n a g l e a m l i k e t h e e v a s i v e f i r e b a l l o f the m a r s h e s »- v a n i s h i n g a l most a s i t c o m e s . I t i s t h e m e r e s t s u g g e s t i o n t h a t no a c t i s l o s t , t h a t s o f t l y , the e c h o i n g sound o f a k i s s t r a v e l s e t e r n a l l y , t h a t t h e d u l l e s t moment may h a v e g i v e n b i r t h t o an a c t or thought of g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . " Y e t , maybe, i n some s o u l , I n some s p o t u n d i s c e r n e d on s e a o r l a n d , Some i m p u l s e r o s e On some i n t e n t u p s t o l e Of t h e e n k i n d l i n g a r d e n c y f r o m whose Maturer glows The w o r l d ' s amendment f l o w s : " The same s u g g e s t i o n c o n e s i n t h e s o n g w h i c h b r e a k s f r o m a t h r u s h who a s w i n t e r b e a t s u p o n h i m s t i l l s i n g s j o y o u s l y — "an aged t h r u s h , f r a i l gaunt In b l a s t - b e r u f f l e d plume,"' Had c h o s e n t h u s .to f l i n g h i s s o u l Upon t h e g r o w i n g g l o o m , So l i t t l e c a u s e f o r c a r o l l i n g s , Of s u c h e c s t a t i c s o u n d Was w r i t t e n on t e r r e s t i a l t h i n g s A f a r or n i g h Some b l e s s e d H o p e , w h e r e o f he knew And I was u n a w a r e . " ( 5 )  and  small,  The p a t h w a y h a s w i d e n e d . It i s f a i n t l y suggest i v e o f a m e l i o r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n , the. n o t e w h i c h ends The D y n a s t s a n d w h i c h a f t e r the s o u n d i n g b l a r e s o f w i n d s a n d b r a s s e s i n t h a t m i g h t y o r c h e s t r a t i o n , t r e m b l e s i n t o the s t i l l i n g a i r as one t h i n a n d p l a i n t i v e s o u n d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y b o t h i n i t s e l f a n d i n some p h a s e s o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o man h a s passed i n review. Now come The C o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e T w a i n ( 6 ) w h e r e i n t h e p o w e r f u l c o n c e p t i o n o f man, i n h i m s e l f p a r t o f t h e l i f e f o r c e , p r o u d i n a c c u m u l a t e d knowledge a n d t h e c u n (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (.6),  Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 116 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 449 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 438 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 104 The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 288  p.137  n i n g o f c e n t u r i e s , h i m s e l f becomes a c r e a t i o n arid l a u n c h e s his triumph. I t i s t h e f i n a l . w o r d as f a r a s t h e l y r i c i s concerned. P h i l o s o p h y i n i t s next appearance i s metaphysic. H e r e , the u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n of man's t r i u m p h o v e r h i s e n v i r o n m e n t g o e s down b e f o r e t h e u n r e l e n t i n g scheme o f t h e Immanent W i l l , a s " t h e t w i n h a l v e s o f one august event" u n i t e . H e r e b l i n d a i m l e s s n e s s g i v e s way t o a n almost malignant w i l l . • T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n t h e theme i t s e l f , In. t h e s l o w f a s h i o n i n g o f two m i g h t y b o d i e s , one t h e c o l d a n d e l e mental i c e b e r g , l u m p l i k e , mountainous, the o t h e r , g l e a m i n g , f i n i s h e d m a t e r i a l c o m p l e t e l y s u b s e r v i e n t to man's g e n i u s and knowledge - - t h a t s e t s the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to a l l the ages p a s t . How t e r r i b l e t h e c r a s h when i t comes I How s i g n i f i c a n t t h e s h a k i n g o f " h e m i s p h e r e s " ! H a r d y h a s a r r a n g e d h i s t e r c e t v e r s e a s a comb i n a t i o n o f t h r e e - s t r e s s a n d A l e x a n d r i n e , t h e l a t t e r somet i m e s b r e a k i n g s h a r p l y on a c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e t h e c e s u r a l pause. T h i s v e r s e d i v i s i o n i s u s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y t o thro?/ t h e two f o r c e s i n t o s h a r p c o n t r a s t , a s i n : " S t e e l chambers l a t e t h e p y r e s Of h e r salamandrine f i r e s , C o l d c u r r e n t s t h r i d and t u r n to Rhythmic l y r e s . " Or i n t o  ironic  c o n t r a d i c t i o n as  in:  " O v e r t h e m i r r o r s meant ' To g l a s s t h e o p u l e n t The Sea-worm c r a w l s — g r o t e s q u e , s l i m e d , dumb, i n d i f f e r e n t " where  the p r i m i t i v e  a n d supreme  sophistication  mingle.  The w h o l e t r e a t m e n t i s c o o l , d e t a c h e d a l m o s t i n t e l l e c t u a l , b u t i t i s r e d e e m e d by t h e s e n s e o f r e l e n t l e s s f o r c e w h i c h p e r v a d e s i t a n d by t h e t e r r i f i c p o t e n t i a l m e a n i n g s o f s u c h w o r d s a s " s a l a m a n d r i n e " , "moon-eyed f i s h e s " , "vaingloriousness", "twin-halves". One f e e l s t h e power — one w a i t s . I t i s a case of the " g l i t t e r i n g e y e " . T h e r e i s b u t one more s t e p a n d w i t h i t we l e a v e g r o u n d l e v e l s a n d a s c e n d t o t h e r e g i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g the earth. What we h a v e c o n s i d e r e d a s a p h i l o s o p h y b l e n d i n g w i t h l i f e a n d w i t h p o e t r y , i s now g i v e n c o n c r e t e i f e t h e r e a l body, and we.are c o n f r o n t e d , not only with a w o r l d i n f l a t t e n e d a n d d i m i n i s h e d p e r s p e c t i v e b u t .by a w h o l e g a l a x y o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , w h i c h s p e a k i n g now f r o m t h e p r e s e n t , now f r o m f a r e o n s o f t i m e , r e c o u n t a n d i n t e r p r e t a c t i o n a s i t  takes p l a c e . Sometimes t h e comment comes i n c h a n t or r - e c i t a t i v e , at times, i t i s language o n l y , s t r a n g e l y e a r t h - f l a v o r e d , h u t a l w a y s t h e s p i r i t s b u i l d up the g h o s t l y f r a m e w o r k i n w h i c h embedded p h i l o s o p h y a p p e a r s i n i t s new g u i s e , t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l f r a m e w o r k i n s i d e w h i c h the e a r t h - a c t i o n o f drama p l a y s , — t h e w o r l d a s t a g e . The b l e n d i n g o f t h i s s u p e r s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e drama o f e a r t h l y s i g n i f i c a n c e i s s u p e r b l y h a n d l e d i n an e p i s o d e o f H a p o l e o n ' s d i s a s t r o u s Moscow v e n t u r e . (l) There i s a s t a g e s e t t i n g i n p r o s e , "the p o i n t o f o b s e r v a t i o n opens and s h u t s " , t h e e a r t h i s "a c o n f u s e d e x p a n s e m e r e l y " , s p i r i t s a n d s h a d e s a p p e a r , one c a l l e d a P i t y notices: "An o b j e c t l i k e a d u n - p i l e d c a t e r p i l l a r , S h u f f l i n g I t s length i n p a i n f u l heaves a l o n g , Hitherward." We had. n o t known i t , b u t t h e r e went t h e h e r o . The d r e a d f u l L i t h u a n i a n r o a d comes n e a r e r . The snow d r i f t s down, a n d s o u l s " e n g h o s t e d " l e a v e t h e i r l i t t l e l u m p s u p o n the p l a i n . There i s t e r r i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n that f l a k e of snow w h i c h c o v e r s a p e o p l e . E n d l e s s time drags on. It i s a s t r a n g e a n d u n f a m i l i a r m e d l e y , t h i s m i x t u r e of p r o s e and p o e t r y , a e r i a l chant and c o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h . I t a d m i t s no r r u l e s a n d no l i m i t s s a v e a n d e x c e p t t h e g e n i u s o f i t s m a s t e r , b u t i f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g more m a g n i f i c e n t i n E n g l i s h I have y e t t o f i n d i t . Prom p o l e t o p o l e — a supreme g e n i u s i n i t s p a s s i n g h a s t o u c h e d t h e f l e e t i n g mood, t h e f a r r a n g e s o f t h o u g h t , t h e s u f f e r i n g s o f men a n d women, t h e w o r l d i n f a c t i n a l l i t s p h a s e s a n d w i t h one a s t o u n d i n g f e a t o f the i m a g i n a t i o n has gone o u t s i d e i t a l l t o c r e a t e an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e i d e a l i n a " p o s s i b l e " metaphysic. " A r t " w r i t e s Thomas H a r d y , " i s a c h a n g i n g o f t h e a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n s a n d o r d e r o f t h i n g s so a s t o b r i n g o u t more f o r c i b l y t h a n m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be done t h a t f e a t u r e i n them w h i c h a p p e a l s most s t r o n g l y t o t h e i d i o s y n c r a s y o f the a r t i s t . " Who d a r e s o b j e c t t o the " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " p r e s s i o n o f an " i d i o s y n c r a s y " such as h i s ?  (1)  The D y n a s t s : P a r t  I I I , Act  I,  Scene  9,  p.  354  ex-  TRUTH The b i t t e r  o l d and w r i n k l e d t r u t h James Thompson.  stripped  naked."  The s o i l o f "Wessex" p e r m e a t e s t h e w h o l e work o f Hardy. In the n o v e l s i t i s i n t e g r a l but t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d e a r t h y f l a v o r tn many l y r i c s , w h i l e the g r i t t y musk o f p l o w e d f i e l d s a n d the n a i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f c o u n t r y f a s h i o n s p e r v a d e a g r e a t body o f d r a m a t i c a n d n a r r a t i v e v e r s e . Earth and the l i f e c l o s e to i t , e l e m e n t a l p a s s i o n s and e m o t i o n s , s u g g e s t i o n s of C h r i s t m a s f e s t i v i t y , o l d and homely s u p e r s t i t i o n s , an o c c a s i o n a l scene i n a c o u n t r y t a v e r n , the c o n t i n u o u s l i l t o f c o u n t r y s o n g s a n d d a n c e s , t h e s e showing t h e m s e l v e s e i t h e r as t o p i c or image, b u i l d u p the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of r u s t i c i t y and l i f e a t i t s s i m p l e s t which Hardy g i v e s . The s t a t e m e n t i n no w i s e c o n t r a d i c t s t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g s c o p e a n d v i s i o n w h i c h have b e e n made p r e v i o u s l y . The v i e w i s cosmic but the a p p l i c a t i o n , u n i v e r s a l i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s n a r r o w e d i n i t s human b o u n d s t o men a n d women a s t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e more e l e m e n t a l e m o t i o n s . H a r d y b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t r i p p e d of i t s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r a p p i n g s s e t t l e d down t o i t s b a s i c s i g n i f i cance a s p a r t o f the u n e n d i n g c y c l e o f u n i v e r s a l b e i n g , and he b e l i e v e d f u r t h e r t h a t s u c h s i g n i f i c a n c e h a d i t s w o r k i n g out a n d i t s most a p p a r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e r e l a t i o n s . , o f men a n d women a s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a n d e x p r e s s i o n of t h e l i f e urge of the u n i v e r s e . One p h a s e o f l i f e i n t e r e s t e d h i m particularly. To t h a t he a p p l i e d h i s g e n i u s . He f l i p p e d h i s c o i n , a n o l d a n d r u s t e d o n e , w h i c h he f o u n d i n h i s y o u t h a n d w h i c h he c a r r i e d w i t h h i m t o t h e g r a v e . The f i g u r e s w h i c h he f o u n d on e i t h e r s i d e were o f a man and woman b l i n d f o l d and a god w i t h a j a v e l i n . These he d e c i p h e r e d a s Sex a n d C h a n c e . A t a t o s s the w o r k i n g of e l e m e n t a l f o r c e s i n t h e l i v e s o f men a n d women were s u r e t o f a l l r o u g h l y u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f one s i d e or t h e o t h e r . Chance, o r c o i n c i d e n c e o f e v e n t , t h e so f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d s t r u c t u r a l w e a k n e s s o f s e v e r a l n o v e l s , was a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n l i f e , - - no t e l l i n g w h i c h way t h e c o i n w o u l d f a l l , — b u t i t was f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t a l s o a s an a u g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s c a u s e d b y t h e l i f e u r g e o f the universe. T h i s accounts f o r the c o n s t a n t appearance of l o v e a s t h e theme o f b o t h n o v e l s a n d p o e m s . It accounts a l s o f o r t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e most p o w e r f u l s i n g l e f a c t o r i n man's e x i s t e n c e b e i n g h i s e m o t i o n a l r e s ponse to t h i s f o r c e , w i t h w h i c h Joy and Sorrow walk hand i n h a n d a n d b e h i n d w h i c h i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d i s the e t e r n a l Dance of Death. I t i s t h i s s t r i p p i n g of l i f e , t h i s exposure o f i t s  s t a r k r e a l i t i e s t h a t f o r m s one o f H a r a y s themes a n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g d r a m a t i c me1h od» r  one  The c o n v i c t i o n t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y men a n d women a r e a l i k e v i c t i m s of F a t e , r e g a r d l e s s of sex, s t a t i o n , or n a t i o n a l i t y h a s made "Wessex" a s t a g e s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l t h e w o r l d , h a s made "Wessex", s c e n e s a n d a t m o s p h e r e a b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e l i f e drama a s H a r d y c o n c e i v e s i t . This l i m i t a t i o n of s u b j e c t i s d e l i b e r a t e . I f i t has r e s u l t e d i n a s l i g h t l e s s e n i n g of power, as I b e l i e v e i t h a s , i t h a s a l s o i n t e n s i f i e d c e r t a i n s i d e s o f H a r d y ' s a r t , w h i c h he meant t o i n tensify. He e x e r c i s e d h i s p r e r o g a t i v e ; he p l a c e d h i s s t r e s s e s where he w a n t e d t h e m . The embodiments o f t h i s b i a s , o r a s H a r d y m i g h t h i m s e l f s a y , the c o n c r e t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these t r u t h s , s t a l k i n a l o n g p r o c e s s i o n t h r o u g h the d r a m a t i c and n a r r a t i v e v e r s e , w h i l e t h e more s t a r k l y drawn f i g u r e s make no p r e t e n s e a t a w o r l d o f r e a l i t y a n d t a k e f r a n k r e f u g e i n t h e i r o n i c mood. T h e r e i s h a p p i n e s s a n d s o r r o w , d i s i l l u s i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n , the f r a n k l y p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l i z e d i d e a l , . a l l s u b j e c t e d to a'keen sense of d r a m a t i c v a l u e s . If there i s action it is rapid. Always there i s a sudden tense k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r , one moment o f b r i g h t l i g h t , o r a n i m m e d i a t e c o n t r a s t , or a s w i f t c l i m a x of e m o t i o n . The method i s t h a t o f t h e t h e a t r e , f r o m h i g h l i g h t to high l i g h t . The s c e n e s s t a n d out a s v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n s f l a s h e d on a s c r e e n . o r i n t h e s h a r p c u t l i n e s o f c e r t a i n e t c h i n g s , o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s may be i n s i l h o u e t t e , two b l a c k f i g u r e s o p p o s i n g e a c h o t h e r . There i s always the s m a l l tense d r a m a t i c group i n w h i c h a i l i n t e r e s t s c e n t r e . F a i l i n g t h a t t h e r e may merelyi-beRegroup i t s e l f , a u n i t s u c h a s t h e M e l l s t o c k Q u i r e o r the company o f t h e d e a d i n V o i c e s of Things Growing i n a Churchyard. Even then there i s a c e r t a i n sparseness of t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e i s no s u p e r f l u o u s d e t a i l , n o t h i n g to s o f t e n or b l u r the o u t l i n e . Everything w h i c h does n o t c o n c e r n t h e moment and t h e a c t i s r u t h l e s s l y l e f t out. One m i s s e s t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g t r a p p i n g s o f t h e u s u a l s c e n e , t h e c o l o r a n d warmth w h i c h a r e t h e r e s u l t o f l e s s austere t r e a t m e n t , but to Hardy these are n o n - e s s e n t i a l ; the f i g u r e and i t s p r e d i c a m e n t a r e e v e r y t h i n g . I t i s s i m p l e t o choose a t random f r o m any number o f poems W h i c h h a v e t h e "Wessex" f l a v o r i n one f o r m o r another. Some poems a r e c o m p l e t e l y made o f i t b u t t h e r e a r e more i n w h i c h i t ' a p p e a r s i n a r u s t i c image or i l l u s i o n , w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y f l a v o r s t h e moment. It appears almost unheralded i n o n e o f t h e most d r a m a t i c a l l y m o v i n g p a s s a g e s i n The D y n a s t s (l) When C a p t a i n H a r d y , w a t c h i n g N e l s o n d i e , t h i n k s o f h i s "Wessex" home* . (1)  The D y n a s t s : P a r t  I,  A c t V,  Scene  4,  p.  97  " T h o u g h t s a l l c o n f u s e d . , my l o r d : - t h e i r n e e d s on d e c k , Y o u r own s a d s t a t e , a n d y o u r u n r i v a l l e d p a s t ; M i x e d up w i t h f l a s h e s o f o l d t h i n g s a f a r — O l d c h i l d i s h t h i n g s a t home, down Wessex way In the s n u g v i l l a g e • under B l a c k d o n l l H i l l , Where I was h o r n , t h e - t u m b l i n g s t r e a m , t h e g a r d e n , Marking unconsciously t h i s bloody hour, And t h e r e d a p p l e s on my f a t h e r ' s t r e e s , J u s t now f u l l r i p e . " This i s a breath of England, l i k e to A r n o l d ' s " s p r a y o f h o n e y s u c k l e f l o w e r s " , a n d the "May e v e n i n g " o f Balder Bead. I t comes i n more e a r t h y f o r m i n t h e o c c a s i o n a l s p e e c h o f s o l d i e r s a n d camp f o l l o w e r s i n W e l l i n g t o n ' s E n g l i s h army. The c h o i c e o f theme i n The B y n a s t s i s i n i t s e l f a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the E n g l i s h s p i r i t , s i n c e Hardy thought the E n g l i s h s i d e of the N a p o l e o n i c wars had never b e e n g i v e n the p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o c e e d e d t o b l o c k them i n ; f o r t h e i n s p i r a t i o n a n d i n t e r e s t o f t h e theme were f i r s t s t i r r e d by i t s "Wessex" e c h o e s . The common man, when he a p p e a r s i n t h a t huge panorama a n d e s c a p e s t h e mesmerism o f i t s l a r g e r c u r r e n t s , i s a p t t o be a "Wessex" p e a s a n t i n a l i t t l e l o c a l f l a r e o f p a t r i o t i s m o r i f n o t , an a v e r a g e E n g l i s h m a n commenting on some s i d e o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s struggle. W e a t h e r s , t h e poem w i t h w h i c h t h i s s u r v e y o p e n s , s p e a k s f o r t h e same s p i r i t i n a p u r e l y l y r i c f o r m , w h i l e The Oxen ( l ) exquisite in i t s simplicity, wistful in i t s e n d i n g , b r i n g s b a c k a n o l d l e g e n d on C h r i s t ' s n a t i v i t y longremembered i n c o u n t r y p l a c e s , l o c a l i s e d f o r H a r d y i n t h e " l o n e l y b a r t o n by y o n d e r c o o m b , " w h i c h he remembered f r o m childhood. I n a r t i c u l a t e c o u n t r y n a t u r e s and t h e somewhat dumb a c c e p t a n c e o f e v e n t s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s them a r e i l l u m i n e d i n a few d r a m a t i c f l a s h e s i n s u c h g l i m p s e s i n t o l i f e a s a p p e a r i n The Announcement ( 2 ) w i t h i t s . t w o f i g u r e s and t h e i r s l o w s i l e n c e —• o r i n The Slow N a t u r e ( 3 ) with i t s s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l c l i m a x , w h i l e i n Vagg H o l l o w ( 4 ) , theme, s e t t i n g and language a l l u n i t e as the h a u n t s v a n i s h a t a w a g o n ' s c r e a k i n g a n d t h e f e a r f u l c o u n t r y man t u r n s t o h i s " f l a g o n " , w h i l e the s m a l l b o y , u n t o u c h e d b y s u p e r s t i t i o n , plods along with h i s horses. T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , no more consummate i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y i n f l u e n c e i n i t s v a r i e d phases t h a n the g r o u p o f poems c a l l e d A S e t o f . C o u n t r y S o n g s . Some a r e i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c , some a r e i n - d i a l e c t , o t h e r s a r e s o n g s , 1) 2) 3) (4)  Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 439 Moments- o f V i s i o n : p . 439 Wessex Poems: p . 6ll l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p.  614  '  b u t t h e y s e t f o r t h one a f t e r a n o t h e r country types and s i t u a t i o n s .  simple p i c t u r e s  of  I n t h e more d r a m a t i c v e r s e s t h e l a n g u a g e i s c o l l o q u i a l ; s u c h d i a l e c t w o r d s as " l i s s o m " , " d r o n g s " , " l e a z i n g s " , " f a n c y - m e n " , " c a u s e y k e r b " , such s u g g e s t i o n s o f r u s t i e o c c u p a t i o n a s o c c u r i n "honey a n d a p p l e s " , " h u r d l e d " , "market-dames"; such d r a m a t i c t u r n s of language as "the c i d e r made t o - y e a r w i l l be a s w i n e " , w i t h i t s a r c h a i s m , o r t h e u n g r a m m a t i c a l r e p r o a c h i n " N e v e r once d i d y o u s a y y o u was p r o m i s e d , Rose A n n " ; t h e p r o v e r b i a l t a n g i n "Make a s p o u s e i n y o u r p o c k e t a n d l e t t h e men b e " ; and t h e d o w n r i g h t a g r i c u l t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n s o f "down-home I was r a i s i n g a f l o c k o f s t o c k ewes" — a l l t h e s e d e v i c e s d e e p e n t h e c o u n t r y atmosphere. Sometimes a n a n c i e n t custom s e t s t h e t o n e . B e d s i d e p r e p a r a t i o n o f mourning i s the back drop of J u l i e ' s s t a g e f r o m w h i c h she i s s o o n t o e x i t , b u t e v e n t h a t c a n n o t dampen h e r v i t a l i t y . She i s t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a somewhat f r a n k e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f a c t s o f l i f e t h a t s o m e t i m e s characterizes country groups. J u l i e - J a n e was. a w a n t o n , w a n t o n i n t h e p a g a n s e n s e , f o r p a g a n j o y i n l i f e marks e v e n h e r d e a t h day, a g a i n s t the sombreness o f which Hardy w i t h consummate a r t t h r o w s t h e p i c t u r e o f h e r v i v i d , p u l s i n g personality. "Sing;  how  T  a w o u l d dance I  D a n c e , ho?/ l a w o u l d d a n c e 1 She w o u l d h o l d out h e r c o a t s g i v e  a slanting glance,  And go r o u n d a n d r o u n d , " A y o u n g e r a n d l e s s c r a f t y w i f e o f B a t h , she who was l o s i n g l i f e e x u l t e d i n i t f o r i t s own s a k e . Hardy i n t h i s case t a k e s t h e t i m e t o p o i n t out t h e a r c h a i c custom a r o u n d w h i c h he w r o t e h i s poem a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r c h a i c u s e o f " c o a t s " for petticoats. The f r e e d o m w i t h w h i c h d i a l e c t i s h a n d l e d i s a d m i r a b l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n The Home C o m i n g , w h i c h w h i l e n o t s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g i n t h e D o r s e t -tongue, i s y e t t h e v e r y essence" o f r u s t i c i d i o m a n d u s a g e . I t s easy c o l l o q u i a l i s m r a c e s on f r o m v e r s e t o v e r s e , b u i l d i n g up the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and the atmosphere. The r o u g h k i n d n e s s o f t h e h u s b a n d , the t e r r i b l e n o s t a l g i a of the l i t t l e b r i d e , the sense of l o n e l i n e s s a n d i s o l a t i o n g i v e n by t h e w i n d i n t h e r e f r a i n and the o l d farm house s e t t i n g a l l b l e n d i n p e r f e c t u n i t y . The r e f r a i n -is i n t e r e s t i n g . The r a t h e r h e a v y w o r d q u a l i t y of c o n v e n t i o n a l E n g l i s h , w i t h the added r h y t h m i c v a l u e s of somewhat e v e n l y b a l a n c e d a l l i t e r a t i v e s y l l a b l e s , g i v e a n even f l o w i n g p h r a s i n g to the v e r s e s o f t h e o l d seven s t r e s s  m e t r e , which, i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t i m a t e c o l l o q u i a l l o r e of the f a r m e r ' s words. T h e s e w o r d s h a v e t h e same s t r e s s e s hut a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y , the l o n g vowels b e i n g ' a b s e n t , t h e w o r d s s h o r t a n d t h e movement s p e e d i n g up a s . t h e more u n r e l a t e d c o n s o n a n t s r a t t l e a l o n g . This contrast o f f s e t s • t h e monotony w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e r e s u l t f r o m i d e n t i c a l rhymes a n d e v e n m e t r e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make e v e n b r o a d d i v i s i o n s i n t h e p h a s e o f H a r d y ' s work u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t o t r e a t f o r : i n s t a n c e d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s w i t h o u t a l o o k a t the i r o n y w h i c h i s o f t e n w i t h them, or t o speak of n a r r a t i v e v e r s e as such s i n c e f r e q u e n t l y i t i s dramatic i n t o n e . . I f t h e r e i s i n H a r d y ' s p o e t r y one q u a l i t y w h i c h i n s i s t s a b o v e a l l o t h e r s on a b s o l u t e r e c o g n i t i o n i t i s i t s cumulative e f f e c t . To d i s s e c t H a r d y i s d i s a s t r o u s . He h a s n o t t h e p a r t i c u l a r g i f t o f a p t p h r a s e n o r does he l o a d h i s l i n e s w i t h the " l a s t s t a t e m e n t " and the f i n a l w o r d . He i s a, c r a f t s m a n a n d h e weaves s l o w l y , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l a s t t h r e a d to complete h i s p a t t e r n , V i r g i n i a Woolf ( l ) , says of h i m "He s p r a n g up e f f o r t l e s s l y , u n c o n s c i o u s l y , l i k e a h e a t h e r r o o t u n d e r a s t o n e , n o t by i m p o s i n g h i s v i e w s o r by i m p r e s s i n g h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t by b e i n g s i m p l y and c o n s i s tently himself. E v e r y t h i n g t h a t he w r o t e , i t i s a q u a l i t y t h a t makes up f o r a t h o u s a n d f a u l t s , h a d t h i s i n t e g r i t y engrained i n i t . " T h i s b i n d i n g q u a l i t y which i s the man's j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o h i m s e l f , a n d h i s own s e n s e o f t r u t h a n d w o r t h i n e s s are, a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n h i s . w o r k . They a r e , h o w e v e r , so i n t e g r a l a p a r t o f h i s e x p r e s s i o n t h a t i t becomes a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o q u o t e b r i e f l y i n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f them, s i n c e i n b r i e f q u o t a t i o n t h e t h i n g t h a t one s e e k s i s l o s t and t h e e x c e r p t " s t r e t c h e d l i k e a warp w i t h out a woof" seems b a r e and a t t e n u a t e d . Since the question of Dorset speech has a r i s e n t h r o u g h The Home C o m i n g , t h e f i r s t d r a m a t i c n a r r a t i v e w h i c h I s h a l l c o n s i d e r w i l l be t h e poem i n s p i r e d by a n i n c i d e n t o f t h e N a p o l e o n i c w a r s , V a l e n c i e n n e s ( 2 ) , one o f t h e few poems w h i c h f a l l s i n t o the d i a l e c t g r o u p . A l t h o u g h the D o r s e t d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e i s h e r e more a p p a r e n t the l a n g u a g e t r e a t ment r e m a i n s a n i d e a l i s a t i o n a c h i e v e d by c o m b i n i n g c o l l o q u i a l i d i o m and speech rhythms w i t h a c t u a l and s u g g e s t e d D o r s e t forms. " C o r p e l " l i v e s i n a s i l e n t w o r l d , , b u t h i s memory s t i r s a t t h e one r o m a n t i c e p i s o d e i n h i s l i f e a n d h i s n a r r a t i v e , — - r a c y , r a p i d , d i s c u r s i v e —• r e v e a l s n o t o n l y t h e s i m p l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e man b u t a t y p i c a l D o r s e t r e a c t i o n t o event and a n a i v e sense o f a c t u a l i t y i n s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r s v a g u e l y r e m i n i s c e n t of. t h e M i r a c l e p l a y s . '(1} (2)  H a l f o f Thomas H a r d y : "Wessex Poems:' p . 15  New R e p u b l i c  57:  70-71,  D5'28.  41  "Good l o r d , i f Wick s h o u l d bomb t h e A s we d i d V a l e n c i e e n J "  walls  The c o n s o n a n t s h i f t f r o m l i k e t o l i k e w h i c h i s t y p i c a l of the D o r s e t d i a l e c t , o c c u r s i n such s u b s t i t u t i o n s as d f o r th i n " n i n e t y - d r e e " , z f o r s, i n " z i l v e r " , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e b r o a d e n e d v o w e l s o u n d s o f ''"wownded" a n d t h e d i a e r e s i s or s t r e t c h i n g of vowels i n " V a l e n c i e e n " , " f l e e n " . There i s c o n s t a n t speech e l i s i o n of s y l l a b l e s i n such a b b r e v i a t e d f o r m s as " w i " a n d " 0 " , w h i l e c o n t r a c t i o n s l i k e " t h e r e n c e " f r o m t h e r e whence a r e v e r y e v i d e n t . S u r v i v a l of t h e o l d A n g l o - S a x o n a n , as i n " a n h u n t u n g e " , r e m a i n s a s a n a r c h a i c s u r v i v a l i n t h e D o r s e t f o r m s u s e d by B a r n e s , " a rumblen" and " a - t r i c k l e d " . The same f o r m s a p p e a r i n H a r d y ' s " a - t o p p e r e n " and " a - t h a r t " ( l ) while the o l d form " t h i k " s e r v e s t o show a d i a l e c t a l a n d i m m e d i a t e l a n g u a g e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h H a r d y was t o d i s c a r d i n h i s l a t e r poems a s he came t o depend f o r h i s r u s t i c e f f e c t s ( a s i n The Home Coming) more upon rhythm, atmosphere and t u r n of phrase t h a n upon D o r s e t language- p r o p e r . , . E v i d e n c e o f t h i s n a t u r e i s s u p p o r t e d b y The B r i d e - H i g h t E i r e , where t h e d i a l e c t d e a l s i n n a r r a t i v e f a s h i o n with a p u r e l y l o c a l s t o r y and " s k i r a m i t y - r i d e " r a t h e r than w i t h memories. Such s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e s t h e number o f D o r s e t w o r d s t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t Hardy has appended a s h o r t g l o s s a r y g i v i n g t h e i r meaning. I t i s p u r e l y humorous v e r s e , r a t h e r l u d i c r o u s i n p a r t s and f o r t h a t reason of l e s s g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than e i t h e r V a l e n c i e n n e s o r The Home C o m i n g , w h i o h s e r v e , I t h i n k , t o show t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h H a r d y ' s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f "Wessex" and i t s language, forms t e n d s . (l) Footnote From "The A t h e n a e u m " , Nov. 3 0 , 1 8 7 8 , D i a l e c t i n N o v e l s . "A somewhat v e x e d q u e s t i o n i s r e - o p e n e d i n y o u r c r i t i c i s m o f my s t o r y , The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e ; n a m e l y , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n w r i t i n g o f t h e s p e e c h o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , when t h a t w r i t i n g i s i n t e n d e d t o show m a i n l y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s p e a k e r s , and o n l y t o g i v e a g e n e r a l i d e a of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c peculiarities. "An a u t h o r may be s a i d t o f a i r l y c o n v e y t h e s p i r i t o f i n t e l l i g e n t p e a s a n t t a l k i f he r e t a i n s the i d i o m , c o m p a s s , a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h he may n o t encumber t h e page w i t h o b s o l e t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , o f the p u r e l y E n g l i s h w o r d s , and w i t h m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f t h o s e d e r i v e d from L a t i n and Greek. In•the p r i n t i n g o f s t a n d a r d speech, h a r d l y any p h o n e t i c p r i n c i p l e - a t a l l i s o b s e r v e d ; and i f a w r i t e r a t t e m p t s t o e x h i b i t on p a p e r t h e p r e c i s e a c c e n t s o f a r u s t i c s p e a k e r , he d i s t u r b s the p r o p e r b a l a n c e o f e l e m e n t ; t h u s d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o a p o i n t o f i n f e r i o r i n t e r e s t and d i v e r t i n g i t f r o m t h e s p e a k e r ' s m e a n i n g , w h i c h i s by f a r t h e c h i e f c o n c e r n where t h e a i m i s t o d e p i c t men a n d t h e i r n a t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r d i a l e c t f o r m s . " Thomas - H a r d y . .  The P e a s a n t ' s C o n f e s s i o n ( 1 ) a l o n g n a r r a t i v e , dramatic i n both s p i r i t u a l and m a r t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s cast i n t h e monologue form* T h r o u g h many s t a n z a s , a p l a i n t a l e , which s t r e t c h e s out i n monotone, s k e t c h e s the background a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e r e a l drama o f the p e a s a n t ' s r e m o r s e i s growing. T h i s drama, u n e l a b o r a t e d , s t a r k w i t h the r e a l i t y o f t h e o l d b a l l a d s , i s shown i n a few b o l d s t r o k e s i n s u c h stanzas as: . " I h i d h i m deep I n n o d d i n g r y e a n d o a t H i s shroud green s t a l k s and loam; H i s requiem the c o r n - b a l d e s ' husky note And t h e n I h a s t e n e d h o m e . . Oh M i c h a e l , J o h n , a n d H o l y E n t r e a t t h e l o r d f o r me I"  Ones i n  —-  rest,  I n s p i t e o f the r u s t i c background and the p r e s e n c e o f "The K i n g ' s - O w n - C a v a l r y " , a d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s i n mood and m e a s u r e i s f o u n d in. The Dance a t . the P h o e n i x ( 2 ) , a n a r r a t i v e i n w h i c h t h e t r a g i c and d r a m a t i c elements l i e i n the p a s s i n g o f time a n d the y o u t h f u l s p i r i t s which sometimes continue i n old bodies. J e n n i e and her husband are touched b y a s l i g h t n o t e o f p a t h o s ; b u t J e n n i e , out f o r h e r l a s t f l i n g , d e c k e d i n "two bows o f r e d " , i s a somewhat i n c o m p l e t e G r a n f e r C a n t l e , f o r , b e i n g f e m i n i n e , she l a c k s h i s s t a y i n g power. The t h r e e poems w h i c h I h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i n g a l l e x h i b i t t h e r a t h e r s t r i k i n g r e g u l a r i t y o f m e t r e w h i c h was t y p i c a l o f t h e e a r l i e r poems w h i c h f a l l v a g u e l y u n d e r t h e Barnes s p e l l . The f a c i l i t y a n d the s l i g h t l y s h a l l o w f e e l i n g w h i c h one s e n s e s i n p a r t s o f t h e e a r l i e r n a r r a t i v e e f f o r t s a r e i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h e l y r i c a l p o e t r y o f t h e same d a t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t phase o f the l y r i c a l p o e t r y which d e a l s w i t h the c o s m i c u n i v e r s e . attempt affects  T h i s c o n t r a s t f o r m s one b a s i s o f judgment i n any a t a r r i v i n g a t what i s H a r d y ' s m a i n e x p e r i e n c e a s i t style..  I n t h e e a r l y s o n n e t s H a r d y i s , - f o r i n s t a n c e , comp l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n what M r . G e o r g e B e r n a r d Shaw c a l l s " a s s e r t i o n " , the main S h a v i a n element o f s t y l e , which i s s i m p l y the i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e c l a m o r i n g f o r e x p r e s s i o n and p u s h i n g through to c o m p l e t i o n . The p o w e r f u l , a l m o s t t e r r i b l e u r g e w h i c h a c c o m p l i s h e s t h i s i n s u c h l y r i c s a s The l a c k i n g Sense (3) a n d N e u t r a l T o n e s i s , one f e e l s , a b s e n t i n some o f (1) (2) (3)  WesseaL Poems: p . Wessex Poems: p . Wessex P o e m s : p .  26 38 23  h i s n a r r a t i v e work. '.Then H a r d y l a g s , t h e r e i s a r e a s o n a n d o n l y one t h a t i s a . s l a c k e n e d i n t e r e s t . Narrative i s , strictly s p e a k i n g , s t o r y , and H a r d y ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s never as u n i f i e d Lxni-i n a r r a t i v e as i t i s i n drama. . l e s s of the D ' U r b e r v l l l e s , The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e , and F a r From t h e M a d d i n g C r o w d , " a r e p r o o f o f the s t a t e m e n t . The n a r r a t i v e poem L e i p z i g a n d t h e . p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e same theme i n The D y n a s t s ( l ) a r e added e v i d e n c e . '-Then i n a few l a t e r poems H a r d y r e a c h e s h e i g h t s o f n a r r a t i v e a r t i t w i l l he n o t i c e d t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e poem i s n o t i n t h e e v e n t a s s t o r y so much a s i n i t s d r a m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o human l i f e . This applies t o t h e two poems, b o t h i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c i n s u b j e c t , A Tramp Woman' s T r a g e d y (2) a n d P a n t h e r a Q ) . The f i r s t was t o H a r d y h i s most s u c c e s s f u l poem ( 4 } . I t i s i n t h e Wessex s e t t i n g , t h e f o l k t r a d i t i o n , a b a l l a d or p l a i n t sung by a woman, w i t h a c h a n g i n g b u t r e i t e r a t e d r e f r a i n , a l l s e t i n t h e m i n o r k e y t o t h e themes o f " m u r d e r " , " d e a t h " , " b a b y " , "ghost". The g r o u p i s s m a l l , t e n s e a n d d r a m a t i c . "My f a n c y - m a n a n d j e e r i n g J o h n , And Mother L e e , and I . "  \  No o t h e r f i g u r e e n t e r s . D r a m a t i c t e n s i o n mounts u n t i l t h e t r a g e d y t a k e s p l a c e , b u t t h e theme r e m a i n s , d a r k t o t h e e n d , t h e o n l y p e r s o n a l i v e b e i n g t h e one who h a d b e e n t h e t r a g i c m o t i v e , - - n o w wandering alone;. "Yea a s I s i t h e r e , c r u t c h e d , I think of Panthera,"  and c r i c k e d and  bent,  T h i s i s the dramatic i n t r o d u c t i o n to a g l o r i o u s s e t t i n g o f a n o l d s e c o n d - c e n t u r y l e g e n d w h i c h i s so b e a u t i f u l l y a n d s i m p l y mould.ed i n t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n between two old. Romans r e t o l d by one o f t h e m , t h a t one c a n n o t b u t r e g r e t t h a t s u c h f o r m a n d s u b j e c t were n o t u s e d a g a i n , t h a t H a r d y d i d n o t c h o o s e t o e x e r c i s e h i s g i f t o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n more freely. .One i s s o r r y t o o t h a t H a r d y ' s h u m a n i t y , I am s p e a k i n g o n l y o f t h e poems w h i c h d e a l w i t h s e x , — so s e l d o m e s c a p e d t h e b o n d s w h i c h h e l d i t , t h a t t h e c h a i n s a s t h e y d r a g g e d so often clanked. Panthera not only t r e a t s of i t s d i f f i c u l t h o l y s u b j e c t i n a d i g n i f i e d a n d b e a u t i f u l manner b u t , a s i t b u i l d s up t h e c h a r a c t e r o f P a n t h e r a , i t b l o c k s i n a l s o t h e whole t r a d i t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f the l e g e n d . The b l a n k v e r s e o f P a n t h e r a ' s n a r r a t i v e f l a n k e d by t h e rhymed v e r s e s o f t h e s e c o n d Roman, s t r e n g t h e n s a n d u n i f i e s t h e whole c o n c e p t i o n IV 2) (3) (4)  P a r t I I I , A c t I I I , S c e n e s 1, 2, 3, 4 . p . Time's Laughing S t o c k s : p. 182 T i m e ' s Laughing S t o c k s : p. 262 The L a t e r Y e a r s o f Thomas Hardjr: p.93  377  as t i m e sweeps a l o n g f r o m s t r o p h e nificent«  to  strophe.  It  is  mag-  In the m o t l e y group of d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r s which H a r d y m o d e l s , t h e woman i n A W i f e a n d A n o t h e r ( 1 ) s t a n d s i n r a t h e r r i g i d r e l i e f , H a r d y u s i n g h e r f i g u r e as the e m o t i o n a l c e n t r e o f the f a m i l i a r t r i a n g u l a r complex, which i n t h i s . i n s t a n c e works out t o an u n u s u a l i f d r a m a t i c c l i m a x . It i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t i n a drama so a u s t e r e l y a r r a n g e d ' t h e r e s h o u l d be f e e l i n g so i n t e n s e a s t h i s — " H e r h e a v y l i d s grew l a d e n w i t h d e s p a i r s , H e r l i p s made s o u n d l e s s movements u n a w a r e s " or t h a t w o r d s so u s u a l , so s i g n i f i c a n c e of these —  common s h o u l d b e a r  the  tragic  "We two s t o o d , He came, my h u s b a n d , - As She knew he w o u l d . " — •  *  o r t h a t t h e w h o l e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a woman's l i f e s h o u l d wrap i t s e l f i n a s i n g l e moment o f v i s i o n and be "As i f ray. s o u l h a d l a r g e n e d , c o n s c i e n c e - c a p p e d " Whi ch makes the f i n a l n o t e o f r e n u n c i a t i o n upon which "the scene s h u t s " dramatically consistent. "One d y i n g o f a p u r p l e f e a v e r " ( 2 } - r a r e j u s t i c e t h a t - - s p e a k s i n a monologue a n d , a s he d o e s s o , g a y a n d a b a n d o n e d , the c h o r u s t r o t s i n - - i t i s t h e e x p o s a l scene i n The B e g g a r ' s O p e r a ; i t i s t h e C a p t a i n a n d h i s m a i d s , f o r t h e mood a n d s c e n e a r e i d e n t i c a l i n s p i t e o f a s a d d e c l i n e i n the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the a c t o r s . The C h a p e l O r g a n i s t ( j ) i s a monologue o f a n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s o r t , w i d e r " i n dimension, the tragedy o f w h i c h comes a b o u t t h r o u g h t h e m e e t i n g o f two s t r o n g f o r c e s i n a woman's l i f e , t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d t h e p h y s i c a l , t h e comp l i c a t i o n b e i n g a n i n t o l e r a n t and n a r r o w s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S u c h a theme, i s t y p i c a l o f H a r d y who s a y s a g a i n a n d a g a i n , "These t h i n g s have always b e e n . " I t i s t h e s t u f f o f a n o v e l , and c h a r a c t e r s and b a c k g r o u n d m i g h t have b e e n r e n d e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h a t l o n g e r a n d more e x p a n s i v e f o r m w h i c h H a r d y d i d n o t u s e a f t e r 1896. T h i s poem, p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e L y r i c s a n d E a r l i e r i n 1922 i s the s i n g l e r e t u r n t o t h e theme o f Jude the O b s c u r e . (1) (2) (3)  T i m e ' s L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 246 One R a l p h B l o s s o m S o l i l o q u i z e s : T i m e ' s L a u g h i n g p . 271 Late L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 598  Stocks:  The o r g a n i s t i s b u t a f e m i n i n e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e same c l a s h i n temperament a n d t h e same a d v e r s e f a t e t h a t H a r d y p u t f o r t h i n Jude. P e r h a p s she. h a d more f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e . The C h a p e l o r g a n was h e r C h r i s t m i n s t e r , t h e d e a c o n s t y p i f i e d s o c i a l forces. H e r t r a g e d y lay,- l i k e J u d e f s , i n t h e s t i f l i n g o f a l l f i n e r i m p u l s e s by m a l i g n a n t p e o p l e and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The p o e m ' s u n i t y l i e s i n t h e dominance o f a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y a n d i n the m u s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t o w h i c h one m u s t . c o n s t a n t l y a t t u n e t h e r e v e r i e as the organ p e a l s echo back and f o r t h a n d a s t h e memory o f h e r s t r u g g l e s p a s s e s t h r o u g h h e r m i n d . I t i s s l i g h t l y l i k e K n i g h t a n d t h e v i s i o n o f a g e s a s he c l u n g t o t h e c l i f f a n d " T i m e . c l o s e d up l i k e a f a n " b e f o r e h i s mind. I t i s i r o n i c i n t h a t i n t o l e r a n c e s t a l k s where k i n d n e s s s h o u l d be f o u n d . I t i s t h e panorama w h i c h H a r d y loved. I t i s a l s o t h e l a s t w o r d i n the m o d e r n a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t h a t t h e whole d r a m a t i c s e q u e n c e i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e m i n d a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f one p e r s o n , e v e n t o t h e a c t u a l t r a g i c moment, t h e f i n a l c o l l a p s e v i s u a l i z e d a s t h e p o i s o n i s taken. T h e r e a r e s h o r t e r , more f l e e t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s , w h i c h one may c i t e as f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t H a r d y i s y sense o f drama. One ( 1 ) , s c a r c e l y more t h a n a s i l h o u e t t e , shows a woman a n d a s e x t o n as she c h o o s e s h e r h u s b a n d ' s g r a v e a n d p l a c e s h i m b e s i d e , — t h e o t h e r woman. This withdrawal even i n d e a t h , from an u n f a i t h f u l husband i s a p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l feminine r e a c t i o n . Hardy's i n t u i t i o n i s subtle. The man i s d e a d , she d i s c a r d s h i m , she i s f r e e . The w e l l - k n o w n I n t h e . S e r v a n t S i Q u a r t e r s (2) i s a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , s e t i n homely s u r r o u n d i n g s and l i m i t e d by t h e s a c r e d l e g e n d o f w h i c h t h e theme' o f P e t e r ' s d e n i a l i s part. It i s r e a l l y a one-act p l a y and, given f i v e a c t o r s , c o u l d be p r o d u c e d by b r a c k e t i n g t h r e e l i n e s i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a a n d the f i n a l two a s s t a g e d i r e c t i o n , w i t h o u t a change i n a s i n g l e w o r d . P o e t i c d r a m a t i z a t i o n s u c h as t h i s l e a d s , h o w e v e r , t o o n l y two a c t u a l p l a y s , b o t h o n e - a c t a n d u n i f i e d i n t i m e and p l a c e , One, i n i t s compressed s i n g l e scene s c a r c e l y l o n g e r than " I n the S e r v a n t s ' Q u a r t e r s i s a Greek p l a y i n H e n d e c a s y l l a b i c s , c a l l e d A r i s t o d e m u s t h e M e s s e n i a n (3)« It i s t r a d i t i o n a l i n s u b j e c t b u t t h e o l d and c l a s s i c theme o f a d a u g h t e r ' s s a c r i f i c e was c o m p l i c a t e d i n H a r d y ' s p l a y by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a l o v e r and h i s a t t e m p t t o s a v e t h e g i r l . E n v e l o p i n g F a t e , h o w e v e r , a l l o w s no e s c a p e and t h e p r o o f o f c h a s t i t y w h i c h a n o u t r a g e d f a t h e r demands i s i n i t s e l f t h e s a c r i f i c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l D e l p h i c demand. (l) (2J (3)  H e r L a t e H u s b a n d : Poems o f the P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p. 359 W i n t e r W o r d s : p . 30 - 40  p.  150  Whether because of the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h which E n g l i s h a l w a y s a c c o m o d a t e s i t s e l f t o t h e c l a s s i c a l m o u l d or b e c a u s e o f a d e l i b e r a t e r o u g h n e s s w h i c h H a r d y h a d t o impose b e c a u s e o f t h e h a r s h n e s s o f h i s t h e m e , t h e i n v e r s i o n , "Weigh c a n g r e a t e r w i t h Z e u s t h a n she my o f f s p r i n g ? " i s awkward and f o r c e d w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g v e r s e " S h a l l t h e s e S p a r t i a t s sway t o . s a v e me r e a v e m e n t ? " seems, w i t h I t s h e a d l e s s b e r e a v e m e n t a n d i t s s t o i c m a n g l i n g o f t h e t e r m S p a r t a n , more Hardian than Greek. There, i s a l s o more t h a n a s u g g e s t i o n o f cumbrous c e l e s t i a l m a c h i n e r y i n p h r a s e s l i k e "Thus a n d now i t a d u m b r a t e s " , a n d "Dungeoned i n a n e t e r n a l n e s c i e n t n e s s " , w h i c h c l a s h e s w i t h t h e t r a g i c f a c t -—  H o r r o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E e ' s r i p p e d h e r up — W i t h h i s sword I He h a t h s p l i t h e r b e a u t e o u s body To p r o v e h e r m a i d I"  yea  The u n i t i e s w h i c h H a r d y o b s e r v e s i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f the o l d T r i s t r a m and I s e u l t l e g e n d p l a c e s the a c t i o n e n t i r e l y i n C o r n w a l l a n d so l i m i t s t i m e t h a t t h e w h o l e a c t i o n , although there are twenty-four short scenes, covers perhaps a n hour o r even l e s s . T h i s s h i f t i n g s c e n e i s l i t t l e more t h a n r e g r o u p i n g but i t g i v e s the e f f e c t of t a b l e a u x r a t h e r than of d r a m a , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e c o n s t a n t change b r i n g s the r a p i d a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e two I s e u l t g , T r i s t r a m , A n d r e d a n d K i n g Mark i n a sequence which a l l o w s f o r l i t t l e development of c o n t r a s t or o f emotion. H a r d y t a k e s many l i b e r t i e s w i t h t h e r o m a n c e ; by i n t e n s i f y i n g the C o r n w a l l s e t t i n g , by i n t r o d u c i n g the A r t h u r i a n b r a c h e t f o u n d i n C o r n w a l l i n I83I, a s a s l i g h t element i n the p l o t a n d by p l a c i n g e v e r y t h i n g o u t s i d e the moment, a s r e t r o s p e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e i n t h e mouths o f a s o r t o f c h o r u s , composed o f Dead C o r n i s h men and women. He a l s o t o n e s t h e l a n g u a g e o f b l a n k v e r s e a n d p o e t r y t o what seems an almost p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . I s e u l t s words — T  "One b l e e d s no more Than f o r  a  on e a r t h f o r  a  full-fledged sin --  callow,"  f a l l on t h e e a r w i t h a r e s o n a n t h o u s e - w i f e i d i o m more c o n s i s t e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the w i f e o f B a t h t h a n o f r o m a n t i c love-wracked, t o r n , I s e u l t . The c o n t r a c t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o u n i f y t h e l o n g l e g e n d i n a o n e - a c t f o r m h a s p r o b a b l y h a d s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h i s l e s s e n i n g of romantic f e e l i n g . I t has a l s o r e s u l t e d  '  I n a n e n t i r e change o f t r a d i t i o n i n t h a t the p l o t s e q u e n c e i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n i t s compressed f o r m . K i n g Mark k i l l s T r i s t r a m ; I s e u l t s t a b s K i n g Mark and t h e n , a s I s e u l t o f t h e .White Hands a p p e a r s , t h r o w s h e r s e l f o v e r t h e c l i f f . There • a r e p a s s a g e s i n t h e ' F a m o u s T r a g e d y o f t h e Queen o f C o r n w a l l vrhich s t r i k e the o l d r o m a n t i c c h o r d s ; T r i s t r a m ' s song i n s c e n e } 9 i s o n e , b u t i n i m m e d i a t e d i s c o r d ccraes " t h e v o i c e o f K i n g Mark ( i n l i q u o r ) " a n d T r i s t r a m ' s h a r s h d i s m i s s a l o f I s e u l t of the White Hands. One c a n n o t deny t h a t t h e theme i s t o o g r e a t f o r t h e f o r m w h i c h h o l d s i t , t h a t t h e o n e - a c t comp a s s d i s a l l o w s t h e s l o w b u i l d i n g up o f t h e m e d i a e v a l a t m o s p h e r e , t h e r o m a n t i c d i s t a n c e o r the p o e t i c a l b e a u t y w h i c h a l o n g t r a d i t i o n demands. Her Death and A f t e r ( l ) a n d The T r e e ( 2 ) a r e two o f t h e l o n g e r poems t h a t s h o u l d a t l e a s t be m e n t i o n e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d a r k a n d grimmer t r a g e d y t h a t , t h e y s u s t a i n , w h i c h i s the l a s t phase o f t r a g i c g e n i u s as i t s h i f t s t o irony. The f i r s t d o e s n o t n e e d a n a l y s i s s i n c e i n s p i r i t i t i s somewhat a k i n t o A W i f e a n d A n o t h e r a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , b u t t o t h e r e n u n c i a t o r y n o t e a s i n i s t e r e l e m e n t i s now a d d e d when t h e r e v e n g e f u l a n d u n f o r g i v i n g h u s b a n d c a s t s o u t t h e child. I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i r o n y e n t e r s , f o r the c h i l d is his. I n t h e poem The T r e e t h e d a r k n e s s d e e p e n s . The t r e e f u r n i s h e s a s e t t i n g , the t r y s t i n g p l a c e , and the h o l e i n i t s branch h i d e s a n o t e . Chance, b r i n g s a b o u t a new t r a g e d y by d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s n o t e which p e r t a i n s to an o l d one. A s i n H e r D e a t h and A f t e r t h e t r a g e d y i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e , b r o u g h t b a c k by t h e u p r o o t i n g o f t h e o l d o a k . When t h e drama o f m e m o r i e s i s p l a y e d out t o i t s d e a d e s t a n d d a r k e s t , a n d when•the i r o n i c l a s t w o r d s h a v e s o u n d e d — " T w a s s a i d f o r l o v e o f m e " , — t h e p r o p e r t i e s t o o must be t a k e n down: " C a r t o f f the t r e e . " The s t a g e i s c l e a r , t h e h o u s e i s d a r k b u t g h o s t l y w h i s p e r i n g s a n d m u f f l e d movements d r i f t t o t h e empty p i t . • The Company o f t h e D e a d , The F r i e n d s B e y o n d (3) a n d The Dead Q u i r e ( 4 ) , the S o u l s o f t h e S l a i n (5) a n d t h e C h r i s t m a s g h o s t {b) a r e r e h e a r s i n g t h e i r a c t , " a l l n i g h t eerily." (7) T  ' In such d r a m a t i c i r o n y as i s found i n F r i e n d s B e y o n d a n d V o i c e s From T h i n g s C r o w i n g i n a C h u r c h y a r d , t h e mood i s a m o c k i n g o n e . Time t h e l e v e l l e r i s t r i u m p h a n t a n d t h e s t r e s s f u l l i f e above g r o u n d i s made l u d i c r o u s by t h e l o n g 1) 2) (3) (4) (5/ (6; (7)  Wessex Poems: p . 33 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 149 Wessex P o e m s : p . 53 T i m e ' s l a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 240 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 84 A C h r i s t m a s G h o s t S t o r y : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : P* 82 V o i c e s from T h i n g s Growing i n a C h u r c h y a r d : l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 590  48 i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e d e a d and t h e f i n a l m o u l d e r i n g house o f a m b i t i o n . I t i s laughter,' but i t i s not  o f even t h e unkind.  The S o u l s o f t h e S l a i n s t r i k e s a d e e p e r n o t e , t h e g h o s t s b e i n g v a g u e a n d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , t h e i r o n y v e r g i n g on p a t h o s as the m i l i t a r y g l o r y , which had t a k e n l i f e f a d e s , l e a v i n g o n l y one s u r v i v a l , t h e m e m o r i e s o f t h o s e who eared. T h e r e i s a v a g u e m e t a p h y s i c a l s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e movements o f t h i s g r e a t company o f s o u l s ; t h e r e a r e a t t i m e s s u g g e s t i o n s o f an a l m o s t u n e a r t h l y b e a u t y o f e x p r e s s i o n which c u l m i n a t e s , i n t h e f i n a l d i v i s i o n o f s o u l s i n t o t h o s e f o r g o t t e n o r remembered. "And t o w e r i n g t o s e a w a r d i n l e g i o n s They p a u s e d a t a s p o t O v e r b e n d i n g t h e Race — That e n g u i p h i n g , g h a s t , s i n i s t e r p l a c e — V/iiither h e a d l o n g t h e y p l u n g e d To t h e f a t h o m l e s s r e g i o n s Of m y r i a d s f o r g o t . And t h e s p i r i t s o f t h o s e who w e r e h o m i n g P a s s e d on,' r u s h i n g b y , l i k e the P e n t e c o s t wind; And the w h i r r o f t h e i r w a y f a r i n g t h i n n e d A n d s u r c e a s e d on t h e s k y , a n d b u t l e f t i n t h e S e a - m u t t e r i n g s and me." The s u d d e n p i n n i n g down o f s u b j e c t by t h e t e r r i b l e r e a l i t y o f t h e w i t h w h i c h the unremembered v a n i s h and d e n c e g i v e n by " t h i n n e d a n d s u r c e a s e d " of l a n g u a g e .  gloaming  a vague and i m a g i n a t i v e swallowing a d j e c t i v e s the a t t e n u a t e d s u b s i i s magnificent control •  The C h r i s t m a s g h o s t i s o n l y " t h e m o u l d e r i n g s o l d i e r " who a p p e a r e d t o H a r d y one C h r i s t m a s S v e ( i ) , a q u e s t i o n on h i s l i p s -- t h e " I w o u l d know" w h i c h t r i e s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f w a r s w i t h t h e t e r m o f Christ»s r u l e u p o n e a r t h . The q u e s t i o n was n o t a n s w e r e d a s t h e i r o n i c f r a g m e n t C h r i s t m a s : 1924 a t t e s t s . ( 2 ) " ' P e a c e u p o n e a r t h I' was s a i d , we s i n g i t , And p a y a m i l l i o n p r i e s t s t o b r i n g i t . A f t e r two t h o u s a n d y e a r s o f mass •We've g o t a s f a r a s p o i s o n - g a s . " I n some f o r m s g o v e r n e d b y t h e i r o n i c mood H a r d y f r a n k l y and o p e n l y l a u g h s n o t a t l i f e as i t ends i n d e a t h , but a t l i f e as i t i s w h i l e i t l a s t s . I t i s i n these t h a t the mood i s m o s t c o n t a g i o u s , a s e v e r y t h i n g o f d e e p e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f a d e s a n d the. s u r f a c e o f human l i f e and c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t s i t s w r i n k l e d f a c e . Who c a n e s c a p e t h e humour i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f The R u i n e d L l a i d ( 5 ) ? Who f a i l s t o (1) (2) (3)  A C h r i s t m a s G h o s t S t o r y : Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d p. 132 W i n t e r Words: p. 171 Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 145  Present:  4?  v i s u a l i s e the p r e c e d i n g f o r t y y e a r s which c u l m i n a t e The C u r a t e ' s K i n d n e s s ? (1)  in  " I t h o u g h t t h e y ' d he s t r a n g e r s a r o u n ' me B u t s h e ' s t o he t h e r e I l e t me jump o u t o' waggon a n d go h a c k a n d A t Pummery o r T e n - H a t c h e s w e i r . " .  drown  me  I t I s p e r f e c t i o n o f a s o r t , a n d , a s H a r d y so o f t e n p r o t e s t s , must be t a k e n f o r what i t i s , a p u r e l y h u m o r o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n phases of l i f e . What m i g h t be t e r m e d , a s a t i r i c r e v i e w o f my c e n t u r y ' s p r o g r e s s , i s summed up i n The R e s p e c t a b l e B u r g h e r (2) w i t h i t s amusing survey of the f i e l d over which d i s s e n s i o n waged so h o t . The s t r e a m o f l u d i c r o u s a l l u s i o n a n d c o n t r a s t i s c o n t i n u o u s , a n d p o i n t e d d i s t i n c t l y by s u c h d o u b l e r h y m e s a s " g i a n t - s l a y e r " , "G-od-obeyer" , " b a n j o - p i a y e r " , and t h e a c c e n t o f a l l i t e r a t i o n , a n d i n one i n s t a n c e d e e p e n e d by t h e s t r i d e n t s u g g e s t i o n of an a c t u a l b l a r e . "And B a l a a m ' s a s s ' s b i t t e r b l a r e ; Nebuchadnezzar's f u r n a c e - f l a r e , And D a n i e l a n d t h e d e n a f f a i r And o t h e r s t o r i e s r i c h a n d r a r e , Were w r i t t o make o l d d o c t r i n e w e a r Something of a romantic a i r . " The c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e s i n g l e rhyme so m o n o t o n o u s i n the e x c e r p t t e n d s t o s i n k i n t o the g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f the whole, as a h e i g h t e n i n g o f a b s u r d i t y . H a r d y has l e f t a f e w odd n o t e s w h i c h t h r o w some l i g h t on h i s own c o n v i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g humour. I n one o f t h e s e he s a y s , "A man w o u l d n e v e r l a u g h w e r e he n o t t o f o r g e t h i s s i t u a t i o n s ; o r w e r e he n o t one who n e v e r h a d l e a r n t i t a f t e r r i s i b i l i t y f r o m comedy, how o f t e n d o e s t h e t h o u g h t f u l mind r e p r o a c h i t s e l f f o r f o r g e t t i n g the t r u t h ? L a u g h t e r . a l w a y s means b l i n d n e s s , — e i t h e r from d e f e c t , choice or a c c i d e n t . " (3) I n t h e c a s e o f Thomas H a r d y i t was certainly n e i t h e r f r o m d e f e c t o r a c c i d e n t ; i t was, d e l i b e r a t e , a s h u t t i n g of the eyes perhaps from t h i n g s too p a i n f u l > a b r e a k i n the t r a g i c t e n s e n e s s o f a s i t u a t i o n or the sudden p e r c e p t i o n f r o m l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l u d i c r o u s n o s e on t h e f a c e o f m a l e v o l e n t c h a n c e . Human m i s e r y i n a l l i t s f o r m s was p a i n f u l t o h i m , b u t he saw t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d i v i d i n g 1) 2) 3)  T i m e ' s L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 194 Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 146 E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 148  l i n e between t h e a l l i a n c e o f t r a g e d y , w i t h i t s g r e a t moments o f i n t e n s e e m o t i o n , i t s c a t h a r s i s on t h e one h a n d , a n d t h e more p e r m a n e n t u n i o n o f man w i t h t h e a c h i n g d u l l p a i n o f c o n t i n u o u s m i s e r y on the o t h e r . I t was f r o m t h e l a t t e r t h a t he t u r n e d when h e s a i d "A m a n ' s g r i e f h a s a t o u c h o f t h e l u d i c r o u s u n l e s s i t i s so k e e n a s t o be a w f u l . " ( 1 ) I t was from t h i s t h a t he sought r e l i e f i n the i r o n i c c h u c k l e s o f t h e g a r g o y l e mood. I r o n y h a s b e e n c a l l e d an e x c r e s c e n c e , so has the g a r g o y l e . With Hardy i r o n y i s s c a r c e l y t h a t . It i s a s u d d e n change o f f e e l i n g a b r u p t a n d g n o m i c . I t i s the o u t s t u c k tongue of the b e a t e n u r c h i n , but i t i s s t i l l p a r t of the anatomy. I t i s n o t l o o s e — a n d /just a s t h e g a r g o y l e pushes out i n G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e from amid e x p r e s s i o n s p u r e l y b e a u t i f u l , y e t i s w i t h a l c a r v e d from the s e l f - s a m e s t o n e , so H a r d y ' s g a r g o y l e h a s i t s b e i n g b e s i d e e x q u i s i t e l y r i c t r a c e r y and t o w e r i n g w a l l s of d y n a s t i c s c o p e . = I f one h a p p e n s t o t h i n k o f H a r d y , R u s k i n a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e l o n g enough, the s o l u t i o n of a m i n o r problem becomes c l e a r . I t i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f what t o do w i t h t h a t s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f poems, w h i c h do n o t m a t t e r , b e i n g f e w , t o t h o s e who l o o k f o r a n y t h i n g b u t f l a w s , b u t w h i c h comp l e t e l y d a r k e n t h e w o r l d o f t h o s e c r i t i c s who, l i k e t h e t h r e e o l d women o f T a n g l e w o o d T a l e s , h a w i n g b u t one eye among t h e m , wander i n g r o p i n g d a r k n e s s as t h e eye c h a n g e s hands. The s o l u t i o n i s s i m p l e . Make o f i t a n " U g l y P i l l a r " ( 2 ) , w h I c h , h a v i n g t h e u s u a l d i m e n s i o n s , w i 1 1 n o t be n o t i c e d i n the long a r c a d e . T h e ' f l a w s i n H a r d y ' s work i n g e n e r a l b e i n g more t h a n o f f s e t b y . t h e power a n d r a n g e o f h i s g e n i u s , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment i s c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h . t h o s e poems w h i c h r e a l l y a r e u g l y e i t h e r f r o m an e x c e s s o f i r o n y t o o h a r s h l y s t a t e d , t h e t o o u t i l i t a r i a n a n d p r o s a i c u s e o f words o r a theme w h i c h i s so u n e l a b o r a t e d t h a t i t has t h e d u l l a n d s i n g l e tone o f d r y bones r a t t l i n g . The Dame o f A t h e l h a l l (3) a n d The S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y ( 4 ) , f a l l i n t o the l a t t e r c l a s s . B o t h , h a v i n g themes w i t h g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , f a i l t o b r i n g the d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s out b e c a u s e t h e y n e g l e c t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The p l o t i s u n s u p p o r t e d a n d i n s p i t e o f i t s r a p i d movement h a s the e f f e c t o f mere o u t l i n e . The poems s u f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t a s d o e s t h e n o v e l , Two on a T o w e r , w h i c h r e a d s . l i k e a w o r k i n g o u t l i n e o r scheme. A story (1) (2) (3) (4)  of  dramatic  i m p o r t must  of  necessity  E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 73 I n A r c a d e S o u t h s i d e o f t h e C a t h e d r a l o f P e r r a r a : see The S e v e n Lamps o f A r c h i t e c t u r e : J o h n R u s k i n : C h a p . V Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 141 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 424  51  h a v e some m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h s u s t a i n i t i f i t i s t o he a r t i s t i c a l l y t r u e . I n t h e s e poems t h e m o t i v a t i o n i s p r e s e n t h u t i t i s u n d e v e l o p e d a n d so l a c k i n g i n any s o f t e n i n g b a c k g r o u n d t h a t t h e i r o n i c c o n t r a s t s w h i c h d e v e l o p seem unbearable. I f d e v e l o p e d more f u l l y t h e c h a r a c t e r s w o u l d i n t h e m s e l v e s become t h e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s w h i c h make g r e a t t r a g e d y a n d t h e j u s t i c e a n d r e l i e f w h i c h we demand w o u l d be s a t i s fied. The Dame o f A t h e l h a l l , s l i g h t a s t h e s k e t c h i s , h a s l a t e n t dramatic v a l u e as the p r e p o n d e r a n t l y s e n t i m e n t a l feminine t y p e ; her husband i s the dramatic o p p o s i t e , but these c o n t r a s t s are n e g l e c t e d and the l o v e r a l s o , — t h a t w r a i t h - l i k e i n d i v i d u a l a p p e a r i n g i n the g e n e r a l i z e d masc u l i n e f o r m u l a - - "lie was w r o t h . " One f e e l s o f c o u r s e t h a t t h e S t a t u e o f L i b e r t y s h o u l d n o t be w a s h e d . The s u g g e s t i o n o f p r o s a i c e v e r y d a y s t r e e t c l e a n i n g a s a p p l i e d t o t h a t s y m b o l o f human d e l u s i o n i s in i t s e l f scarcely a poetic subject. The s t a t e m e n t r e s t s , I know, on a f a l s e f o u n d a t i o n s i n c e we h a v e a g r e e d w i t h H a r d y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t d o e s n o t make t h e poem. What I• w i s h t o p o i n t o u t i s t h a t the c h a n g i n g o f a s t a t u e t h a t i s a d i r t y and grimy but n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t of a s p i r a t i o n s and h o p e s , t o a form s p o t l e s s l y pure and w h i t e y e t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e poem, s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e d e e p e s t d e g r a d a t i o n , i s not a p o e t i c process. The i r o n i c c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n f a t h e r l y d e l u s i o n and r e a l i t y i s t o o s t a r k l y u n r e s o l v e d . . Iti s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i d e a l i z a t i o n , t h e demand u p o n human, c r e d u l i t y i s t o o t e r r i b l e . What i s , i s t o o t r i u m p h a n t ; w h a t ' o n l y seems - - i s l o s t . The f i n a l s t a n z a makes t h i s c l e a r . It i s a bleak statement of f a c t without p o t e n t i a l meaning. The s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n w o r d s c l o t h e n o p o e t i c i m a g e , make no suggestion. "Answer I gave n o t , o f t h a t f o r m The c a r v e r was I a t h i s s i d e ; H i s c h i l d , my m o d e l , h e l d so s a i n t l y Grand i n f e a t u r e Gross i n nature, I n the dens o f v i c e had d i e d . " Two s h o r t e r poems o f t h e t a b l e a u t y p e show t h e i r s u b j e c t s a t a s i n g l e t r a g i c moment a s t h e b l o w f a l l s . Owing t o t h e i r t i m e u n i t y a n d p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s t h e y a r e more b e a r a b l e t h a n t h e l o n g e r ones b u t i n b o t h t h e s h o c k i s t o o s u d d e n , i r o n i c f a t e a t a h a r s h l y c r u e l moment l e e r s t o o triumphantly. A Wife i n London ( l ) h a s no r e l i e f w h a t e v e r . The newcomer*s W i f e ( 2 ) i s o f t h e same t y p e , two r e a l i s t i c a n d t e r r i b l e , moments w h i c h b e a t u p o n the m i n d i n t h e same way (1) (2)  Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t ; p . S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 34-4-  83  t h a t t h e u n b e a r a b l e d e c l i n e o f a m a n ' s m e m o r i e s a n d a woman s c h a r a c t e r a r e hammered home by My C i c e l y . ( 1 ) r  Sometimes t h e f a u l t i s f o u n d i n a s i n g l e v e r s e s u c h a s t h e r e f r a i n o f The F i v e S t u d e n t s ( 2 ) , w h i c h m i g h t f a r b e t t e r b e , "One l i t t l e , two l i t t l e " , a n y t h i n g r h y t h m i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n the o d d l y enumerated pronouns " h e " , " s h e " , " I " , w h i c h r e a l l y r u i n a n o t h e r w i s e b e a u t i f u l poem. How d i f f e r e n t " s e a - m u t t e r i n g s a n d me I" A n o t h e r t y p e o f poem i n w h i c h I c o n s i d e r H a r d y f a i l e d t o u n i f y h i s f o r m a n d m a t e r i a l i s t h e s a t i r e on k i n g l y g l o r y , c a l l e d The C o r o n a t i o n , w h i c h — somewhat r e deemed b y i t s f i n a l v e r s e y " C l a m o u r dogs k i n g s h i p ; a f t e r w a r d s not s o l " s t i l l f a l l s s h o r t of r e a l s a t i r i c power. It i s too s u p e r f i c i a l and t r a n s i e n t ; each c h a r a c t e r appears f o r t o o s h o r t a t i m e w i t h h i s one w e l l - w o r n t a g . What m i g h t i n t h e h a n d s o f S w i f t , who l o v e d t o be c r u e l , have b e e n a t e r r i f i c a n d d a m n i n g c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e human q u a l i t i e s o f k i n g s , h e r e d e g e n e r a t e s I n t o d o g g e r e l and b u r l e s q u e . > The f a u l t i s n o t i n the m a t e r i a l ; i t i s i n i t s u s e ; t h e u n y i e l d i n g s u b s t a n c e c o n q u e r s and no d e s i g n i n any way s u g g e s t i v e o f b e a u t y a p p e a r s u p o n i t s s u r f a c e . It r e m a i n s t o t h e e n d , t h e c o l d g r e y s t o n e , l a c k i n g t h e warmth of i t s c a r v e r ' s f e e l i n g , l i k e Ruskin's p i l l a r i t puzzles and o f f e n d s . F o r t u n a t e l y i t i s not the o n l y a r t i n F e r r a r a . Words, the media o f p o e t r y , are l e s s p l a s t i c t h a n some o t h e r means o f a r t . They a r e p a r t o f t h e g r e a t t r a d i t i o n w h i c h each g e n e r a t i o n i n h e r i t s from the l a s t . T h e i r meanings,, s p e l l i n g a n d p r o n u n c i a t i o n c h a n g e . There i s , i n f a c t , a c o n s t a n t f l u x i n language but i n s p i t e . o f t h a t f a c t , any p o e t a t any t i m e , r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s medium, f i n d s t h a t w o r d s h a v e an e x a c t s i g n i f i c a n c e which i s " k i n e t i c " at that p a r t i c u l a r time; with t h i s exact a n d u t i l i t a r i a n p h a s e o f l a n g u a g e , h e cannot, t a m p e r . It is o n l y b y a s s o c i a t i o n , by c o n t e x t , a l l u s i o n a n d image t h a t he c a n r a i s e a b o u t a w o r d t h e e x a c t a u r a w h i c h he w i s h e s . In d o i n g t h i s , w h i c h i s b u t g i v i n g them . t h e i r d e e p e s t " p o t e n t i a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e a s s u g g e s t e d by h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , h e e n c o u n t e r s the atmosphere which a l r e a d y adheres to the word from i t s t r a d i t i o n a l poetic use. Unless h i s personal idiosyncrasy p r o v e s t r o n g e r t h a n the p o e t i c a l a u r a he must g i v e up t h e p a r t i c u l a r word i n q u e s t i o n . I n t h i s way w o r d s a s mere s o u n d a r e more l i m i t e d than the tones of m u s i c . M u s i c i s pure sound and i n i t s r e g a r d a s s o c i a t i o n comes o n l y t h r o u g h f a m i l i a r s o u n d c o m b i nations. I t does not p e r t a i n to the s i n g l e note of the s c a l e . 1) 2)  wessex Poems: p . 45 Moments o f V i s i o n : p .  465  Granted, t h e t o n a l h a r m o n i e s t o w h i c h t h e t h e i n t e r v a l s a n d so o n , t h e s i n g l e n o t e a r t i s t i c manipulation. In the Sonata i n B e e t h o v e n r e p r e s e n t s 'the i n v o c a t i o n , "Oh mood w h i c h . r e p r e s e n t s t h a t i n v o c a t i o n by •phrase A . •  'U1 ±  B  ear i s accustomed, i s l e f t free for F, Q P ^ 31 my God" ( 1 ) , o r a the m u s i c a l S  §^HP.  He h a s , o f t e n u s e d t h e t r i p l e t - f i g u r e B. t o r e p r e s e n t Fate k n o c k i n g - o n the d o o r . I n the t r i p l e t , the t i m i n g a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e s an onomatopoeic l i k e n e s s , which i s t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . o f tempo a n d r e i t e r a t e d t o n e . The a c t u a l n o t e n e e i - n o t .have t h a t ; e x p r e s s l y p a r t i c u l a r s e n s u o u s r e action. The: same; argument . a p p l i e s t o p h r a s e A . ..' P r o b a b l y a n ' i n v o c a t i o n - ; - o f some s o r t e x p r e s s e d the r h y t h m and m e l o d y t o the composer b u t e v e n i n c o m b i n a t i o n t h e sounds c a l l - u p -,-nb p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l image . s u c h a s f l a s h e s on t h e m e n t a l r e t i n a a t t h e u t t e r a n c e o f the s i n g l e w o r d t r e e . The words of the i n v o c a t i o n , the.:;parenthesis, of the m u s i c a l phrase are l i m i t e d ln-;;var-ious.---wayp^ ,-• '0h- , a s a s y m b o l o f e x c l a m a t i o n , "my" a s t h e p o s s e s s i v e e g o , ' w h i l e ' "God" i s a h i g h l y p o t e n t i a l word, w i t h ; a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m w h i c h i t i s impossible,-. f o r o u r m i n d s t o . s e p a r a t e i t . ;  ,,  !t  :  .-The . l a t e S i r , . W a l t e r - R a l e i g h d e f i n e d s t y l e a s t h e m a s t e r y o f t h e f l u i d e l e m e n t s o f s p e e c h . (2) I f t h i s be t r u e i t f o l l o w s t h a t a n y use: o f words w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y communicates through v a r i o u s a d a p t a t i o n s of these f l u i d elements, i s good s t y l e . H a r d y ' s e c l e c t i c c h o i c e o f words h a s c a u s e d a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n ; i t has,' b e e n for- some a s t u m b l i n g b l o c k , , f o r o t h e r s one o f t h e most i n t r i g u i n g f e a t u r e s o f h i s style. I t i s , c e r t a i n l y , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e way i n w h i c h one sees i t , a main element. . I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m A r c h e r (3) H a r d y i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d , and h i s p o e t i c a l usage c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t s t h e s t a t e m e n t , " I h a v e no sympathy w i t h , t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t would t r e a t E n g l i s h as a dead l a n g u a g e , a t h i n g . c r y s t a l l i s e d a t an a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d stage of i t s e x i s t e n c e , and b i d d e n to f o r g e t t h a t i t h a s a f u t u r e . Purism w h e t h e r i n grammar,, o r v o c a b u l a r y , a l w a y s means i g n o r a n c e , l a n g u a g e was made b e f o r e grammar, n o t grammar b e f o r e l a n g u a g e a n d a s f o r . t h e E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y , p u r i s t s seem t o i g n o r e (1) (2) (3)  E d i t e d ( w i t h e s s a y ) F e l i x Borowski and Ignace P a d e r e w s k i W a l t e r R a l e i g h : S t y l e : Chap. I H a r o l d , B r e h n e c k e : T h e L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 139 :  t h e l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y and. common s e n s e . " I have a l r e a d y • t o u c h e d on t h e f r e e d o m w i t h w h i c h H a r d y u s e d d i a l e c t , i n i t s i d e a l i z e d f o r m a s a m a t e r i a l t o he m o u l d e d i f he w i s h e d . ' I t was an i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m u p o n w h i c h he i n s i s t e d , w h i c h gave him sonorous and s o u n d i n g l a t i n i s m s , modern t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , o l d and a r c h a i c s u r v i v a l s and a l a r g e ' b o d y of s t r a n g e a n d u n c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m s , a r r a n g e d by h i m s e l f i n t h e d o u b l e a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s o f h i s compound w o r d s . The t e c h n i c a l w o r d s , t h a t i s , the t e r m s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , m u s i c and. p a i n t i n g w h i c h o c c u r s o m e t i m e s i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n m e r e l y , f r e q u e n t l y appear i n the n o v e l s , i n t h e b o d y o f an i m a g e . I n one i n s t a n c e a f a c e i s d e s c r i b e d a s s i m i l a r t o a G o t h i c s h i e l d a n d one knows t h a t Hardy t h i n k s o f the sudden j u t t i n g out of t h a t a n g u l a r form from a wal1 or p i l l a r . The l i k e n i n g o f U n d e r t h e Greenwood T r e e , t o "A R u r a l P a i n t i n g o f t h e D u t c h S c h o o l " , a n d t h e constant comparison of feminine beauty with t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t i e s i n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f the o l d m a s t e r s - , a r e , I c o n s i d e r , much l e s s a p p a r e n t i n the body o f t h e t p p e t r y . Tn t h e p o e t r y o r n a m e n t a t i o n f o r i t s own sake i s s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d e d a n d the g e n e r a l e f f e c t r e s t s not upon vague comparisons but i n d e f i n i t e imbedded a s s o c i a t i o n o f i d e a a n d - i m a g e . T h e r e a r e , i t i s t r u e , many w o r d s s u c h a s " o g i v e " " a r c h " and " f r e i z e " which are d i r e c t l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l , such a s "umbrous" a n d " o c h r e o u s " , w h i c h a r e a d j e c t i v a l s u g g e s t i o n s of an a r t i s t ' s p a l e t t e . There are o t h e r s which a r e m u s i c a l , "dampered", and " e f t s " . Terms l i k e " w h e t t i n g " , a n d " h a r r o w i n g " , a r e a g r i c u l t u r a l , w h i l e the t e c h n i c a l m i l i t a r y t e r m s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e m o d e r n age o f i n v e n t i o n a r e f o u n d i n "armaments" a n d " s t e e l c h a m b e r s " . T h e r e a r e as w e l l a r a t h e r c o m p l e t e v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e dance a s i n H a r d y ' s d a y , which g i v e s the terms " p o u s s e t t e s " , " r e e l s " , " j i g s " , " f l i n g s " and " a l l e m a n d i n g " but i n the m a j o r i t y of cases these terms a r e i n t h e i r n a t i v e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g , i n poems w h i c h i n themselves have t h a t environment. I do n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t s u c h u s e o f the w o r d s i s i n a n y way u n u s u a l or p e c u l i a r e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , but p o e t i c a l l y i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t which- H a r d y h a d i n t h e a r t s i n g e n e r a l a n d w h i c h , e x p r e s s e d i n t h e poem Rome S a l a D e l l e Muse ( l ) , a s s e r t s a b e l i e f i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . When, h o w e v e r , H a r d y d e s e r t s t h e m e r e l y t e c h n i c a l f o r a more s y m b o l i s t i c u s e o f t h e s e k i n d r e d a r t s t h e w h o l e matter i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . "When the w i n d s c r a p e d a m i n o r k e y , And t h e s p e n t w e s t f r o m w h i t e - To g r a y t u r n e d t i r e d l y , and f r o m g r a y To b r o a d e s t b a n d s o f n i g h t . " (l)  The C a s u a l A c q u a i n t a n c e :  Late  L y r i c s and E a r l i e r :  p.  647  H e r e t h e words a r e o f t h e s i m p l e s t , o n l y t h r e e b e i n g l o n g e r t h a n one s y l l a b l e , b u t t h e y a r e v e r y s u g g e s t i v e . Consider f o r instance "minor", "spent", " t i r e d l y " , "gray", "broadest", " n i g h t " , a l l w o r d s w h i c h s u g g e s t s a d n e s s , e x h a u s t i o n or d a r k , w i t h t h e one e x c e p t i o n " b r o a d e s t " , w h i c h i s u s e d t o d e e p e n t h e e f f e c t o f " n i g h t ' s shadow". "Minor" i n t h i s ease c a r r i e s a s u g g e s t i o n o f e e r i e w i n d w h i c h i s d e e p e n e d by t h e d e a d e n i n g of a l l p i c t o r i a l tone. S i m i l a r suggestions are found i n " a n t i p h o n i c b r e e z e " a n d " T h i s dumb d a r k stowage a f t e r o u r loud melodious y e a r s . " W i t h H a r d y ' s l o v e o f f r e e d o m , w i t h h i s modern a n d u n t r a m m e l l e d p o i n t o f v i e w g o e s , as I have m e n t i o n e d , a s e n t i m e n t a l c l i n g i n g to o l d a s s o c i a t i o n i n a l l i t s forms. T h i s i s t r u e even of words, f o r i n r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g c o n t r a s t t o h i s own s t r o n g l y hewn v o c a b u l a r y a r e s u c h w e l l w o r n f a v o r i t e s of p o e t i c d i c t i o n a s "damsel" and t h e . E l i z a b e t h a n a f f e c t a t i o n " y c l e p t " , a n l o i d p l u r a l i n "eyne", a contraction o f " y e s t e r " a n d " e v e n " , w h i c h w e a r s a somewhat m u s t y a i r a i r , " y e s t e r e e n " a n d the a r c h a i c forms " w i s " , "wot", " w i s t " . O c c a s i o n a l l y a l s o , the pungent f l a v o r of o l d s t r o n g v e r b s l i n g e r s i n f o r m s l i k e "up c l o m b " and "up swum", w h i l e t h e pomp o f h e r a l d r y r e t u r n s i n " b l a z o n " . In such use of archaisms there i s an a b s o l u t e absence of s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . They a p p e a r i n c o n t e x t w h i c h h a s n o t the s l i g h t e s t s u g g e s t i o n o f a n y d i c t i o n o t h e r t h a n H a r d y ' s own. Such words a s " p a s s e g e r " , w h i c h a l l u d e s t o a b i r d i n f l i g h t a n d "eyesome" which c o p i e s an o l d f o r m , comparisons such as " b e a u t i f u l l e r " , and " c l o s e l i e r " , the c o m b i n a t i o n " w i t h o u t s i d e " , " w i t h i n s i d e " , " w i t h o u t d o o r s " , s t r a n g e l y uncompounded, the a d j e c t i v a l u s e o f " c h i l d i n g " and the k e n n i n g " e a r t h t r a c k " , which t a k e s the place of l i f e t i m e a r e , f o r , a n y t h i n g that I can d i s c o v e r , H a r d y ' s own. ' " • He i s f o n d a l s o o f m a k i n g v e r b s f r o m n o u n s , a d j e c t i v e s , and a d v e r b s , i n t h e manner o f " e a s t e d " , " g l o o m e d " , " l i t t l e s " , "upped", "ups". He h a s i n f a c t r a t h e r a p a r t i a l i t y f o r verbs which has been a n a l y z e d i n r e g a r d to h i s p r o s e by V e r n o n l e e . ( l ) There i s a f u r t h e r s i n g u l a r i t y i n h i s s y s t e m o f w o r d c o i n a g e w h i c h h a s much t o do w i t h t h e . e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e l e v e l t o n e and l a c k o f c o l o r t h a t characterizes h i s style' i n general. I t i s the use of the n e g a t i v e p r e f i x " u n " w i t h e v e n more t h a n i t s u s u a l n e g a t i v e sense i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h words w h i c h have meant g r o w t h o r f r u i t i o n i n the a b s o l u t e n e g a t i o n o f u t t e r d e n i a l . The v e r b " u n b e " , i s . i t s most d e f i n i t e f o r m , b u t " u n c o n s c i e n c e d " , "unblooms", "unhope", " u n r e c o g n i z e " , " u n s i g h t " , " u n v i s i o n " a r e more t y p i c a l . I n what seems t o be p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e he sometimes h y p h e n a t e s a p r e f i x e d s y l l a b l e , sometimes does n o t . (2) The p r e f i x " e n " i s a l s o r a t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n w o r d s 1) 2)  The H a n d l i n g o f ? f o r d s : C h a p . V I Examples of both g i v e n i n G l o s s a r y .  like  "enarch",  "enchased",  and  "enghostings".  I t i s p o s s i b l e , i f one w i s h e s , t o s o r t o u t a odd g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s s u c h a s t h e r e f r a i n q u o t e d "The U g l y P i l l a r " a n d t h e i n v e r s i o n s . " C h e r i s h him can I w h i l e  the  true  one f o r t h  few in  come."  or "As h a d f i r e d  ours  c o u l d even have mingled w e , "  but t h e y a r e not f r e q u e n t and the f i r s t w o r d s seem p u s h e d a n d s h o v e d i n t o p l a c e d i f f i c u l t form at b e s t .  of these i n which the i s i n Sapphics, a  H a r d y ' s s e n t e n c e s , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , medium i n l e n g t h , u s u a l l y p o s s e s s a n a d m i r a b l e c o n t i n u i t y and the f o r c e of s i n c e r e u t t e r a n c e . There i s l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n f o r i t s own s a k e . F a u l t s i f any, are a u s t e r i t i e s , such as the o m i s s i o n o f ornament o r a s t a t e m e n t t o o b a l d , b u t u s u a l l y r h y t h m a n d image overcome s u c h f a u l t s . The l i n g u i s t i c mode o f e x p r e s s i o n most c o n s i s t e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e H a r d i a n g e n i u s was t h e comp o u n d i n g o n e , f o r he c a r r i e s i t a l o n g w i t h t h e "Wessex" f l a v o r a n d s o u n d i n g w o r d s o f L a t i n o r i g i n i n t o the l y r i c a l p o e t r y o f The D y n a s t s . I n t h e p l a c e o f p i l e d up i m a g e , p e r p e t u a l a l l u s i o n a n d p o e t i c d i f f u s i o n , he h a s p u t h i s p o w e r f u l a n d m a s s i v e compounds w i t h t h e i r w e i g h t e d s i g n i f i cance and double emphasis. The c o m b i n a t i o n s made f r o m two p a r t s o f s p e e c h . are e n d l e s s . The most numerous c l a s s o f compounds i s t h a t o f the. d o u b l e n o u n s s u c h a s " a r t - b e g i n n i n g s " , " b a b y - c h i l d " , " b i r t h - h o u r " , " b u r g h e r - t h r o n g " , " b r i n e - m i s t " and so a n . T h e r e a r e many c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p l e v e r b f o r m s w i t h nouns, "church-chiming", "copse-clothed", "earth-clogged", " g l a n c e - g i v i n g " , "bending-ocean", t o c i t e a few. T h e n come i n a l m o s t e n d l e s s v a r i e t y nouns w i t h a d j e c t i v e s , nouns and a d v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s and a d j e c t i v e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n s t o o numerous a n d d i v e r s i f i e d t o m e n t i o n . I n a few i n s t a n c e s a w h o l e p h r a s e , " a l l - e a r t h - g l a d d e n i n g - I a w - o f - P e a c e " i s compounded. Sometimes t h r e e o r f o u r compounds a p p e a r i n a s i n g l e l i n e , " w h i t e - s h o u l d e r e d " , "broad-browed", "browntressed". F r e q u e n t l y t o o t h e r e i s a l l i t e r a t i o n as i n " d a y - ' down", " d e e p - d e l v e d " , " f l i t - f l u t t e r e d " . An i d i o s y n c r a s y a l m o s t a s c o n s i s t e n t i s the c o n s t a n t i m a g e r y o f d e a t h : "Sweet L o v e s s e p u l c h r i n g " , " t h e s i l e n t b l e e d o f a w o r l d d e c a y i n g " , " o l d Headsman D e a t h " , "a dead man h e l d on end I s i n k down s o o n " , and " t h e r o t t e n rose i s r i p p e d from the w a l l " , a l l these p r e s e n t only death  or. d e c a y . As I h a v e p o i n t e d out s u c h q u o t a t i o n may he u s e d to i l l u s t r a t e a d e f i n i t e p o i n t , but i t i s r e a l l y m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e i n i t s summary d i s m i s s a l o f c o n t e x t i t d e s t r o y s p o e t i c balance. Sometimes H a r d y b r e a k s h i s a u s t e r e and s e l f - m a d e r u l e s a n d d e s c r i b e s i n a d j e c t i v e s , a s do o t h e r men, "A p e n s i v e s m i l e , o n h e r s w e e t , s m a l l , m a r v e l l o u s f a c e " , or w r i t e s t h e s c a r c e l y t y p i c a l c o l o r f u l v e r s e , "The r i c h , r e d , r u m i n a t i n g c ow." Imagery o f a c e r t a i n k i n d i s , however, a t the same t i m e b o t h t y p i c a l a n d m a g n i f i c e n t . I t i s f o u n d i n the g l o r y of "like  a full-robed  The i r r a d i a t e or t h e p e r f e c t i o n  globe  priest that  vouched the  dark as  done,  of  "the c h i l l o l d keys l i k e a s k u l l ' s brown t e e t h loose i n t h e i r sheath," or i n the  beauty "One  the agony  of quick  timorous  transient  star,"  of "A m i l e s - w a d e p a n t o f p a i n , " and the p r e c i s i o n "The Roman Road r u n s s t r a i g h t a n d b a r e , As t h e p a l e - p a r t i n g l i n e i n h a i r . "  of  T h i s i s what V i r g i n i a w o o l f c a l l s H a r d y a n d " m o o n s h i n e " ( 1 ) . Such i n s t a n c e s g i v e a s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e scope a n d power o f H a r d y ' s v o c a b u l a r y a n d i m a g i n a t i v e g e n i u s . They show t h e r e s t r a i n t and r e s e r v e o f h i s manner and e x p r e s s i o n . I n c o n t e x t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as the c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a p o w e r f u l v i t a l i t y a n d i m a g i n a t i o n becomes i m m e d i a t e l y apparent as a g r e a t t h i n k e r , c l o t h i n g h i s i d e a s i n phrase a n d i m a g e , g i v e s them t h e e m o t i o n a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i c h h i s i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e demands. " S t r o n g w r i t e r s a r e t h o s e who-, w i t h e v e r y r e s e r v e o f p o w e r , seek no e x h i b i t i o n o f s t r e n g t h . I t i s a s i f l a n g u a g e c o u l d n o t come by i t s f u l l m e a n i n g save on t h e l i p s o f t h o s e who r e g a r d i t a s an e v i l n e c e s s i t y . 3 v e r y word i s t o r n f r o m t h e m , a s f r o m a r e l u c t a n t w i t n e s s . T h e y come t o s p e e c h as t o a l a s t r e s o r t when a l l o t h e r ways have f a i l e d . . . . . . . . W i t h words l i t e r a t u r e b e g i n s , t o words i t must r e t u r n . . . . . S o the e l e m e n t a r y p a s s i o n s , p i t y a n d l o v e , w r a t h and t e r r o r , a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s p o e t i c a l ; t h e y must be w r o u g h t u p o n by t h e word t o become poetry. I n no o t h e r way c a n s u f f e r i n g be t r a n s f o r m e d t o (1)  Half  o f Thomas H a r d y :  pathos, or horror reach I t s apotheosis i n tragedy."  (1)  The r h y t h m s a n d m e t r e s w h i c h H a r d y u s e s a r e a s d i v e r s i f i e d as h i s words. He h a s e x p l o r e d , a l l o f t h e o l d f o r m s ; he h a s i n v e n t e d f r e s h o n e s arid h e h a s v a r i e d t h e o l d by the use o f i n v e r t e d f e e t or m e t r i c a l p a u s e s . In speaking o f h i s own m e t h o d s he s a y s : " I h a v e l o n g h e l d , a s a m a t t e r o f common s e n s e , l o n g b e f o r e I t h o u g h t o f a n y o l d a p h o r i s m b e a r i n g on t h e s u b j e c t : ' a r s e s t c e l a r e a r t e m ' . The w h o l e s e c r e t o f a l i v i n g s t y l e and the d i f f e r e n c e between i t and a d e a d s t y l e , l i e s i n n o t h a v i n g t o o much s t y l e — b e i n g i n f a c t a l i t t l e c a r e l e s s , o r r a t h e r seeming t o , here and t h e r e . I t b r i n g s w o n d e r f u l l i f e I n t o the w r i t i n g . otherwise y o u r s t y l e i s l i k e worn h a l f - p e n c e , a l l the f r e s h images r o u n d e d o f f b y r u b b i n g a n d no c r i s p n e s s o r movement a t a l l . I t i s o f course s i m p l y a c a r r y i n g i n t o prose the knowledge I h a v e a c q u i r e d i n p o e t r y —- t h a t i n e x a c t r h y m e s a n d r h y t h m s now a n d t h e n a r e f a r more p l e a s i n g t h a n c o r r e c t t o n e s . " ( 2 ) The s u b j e c t o f r h y t h m i n H a r d y s p o e t r y i s a l a r g e one. I do n o t i n t e n d i n t h i s p a p e r t o make a n y a t t e m p t t o go i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n t h o r o u g h l y . My o b j e c t i s m e r e l y t o i n s t a n c e a few e x a m p l e s o f h i s m e t r i c a l s k i l l w h i c h w i l l show t h e v a r i e t y a n d s c o p e o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . 7  The c h a n g e s i n s t y l e w h i c h m a r k t h e p a s s i n g o f y e a r s a r e l e s s n o t i c e a b l e i n H a r d y ' s work t h a n i n t h a t o f most p o e t s . He k e p t a r e m a r k a b l e f r e s h n e s s a n d v i t a l i t y e v e n t o the e n d . Howhere i s t h i s v i t a l i t y more a p p a r e n t t h a n i n h i s rhythmic s k i l l . He e x p e r i m e n t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d u p o n h i s d e a t h l e f t among h i s p a p e r s , p a g e u p o n page o f m e t r i c a l s k e l e t o n s -- r h y t h m s w h i c h he h a d h e a r d , a d a p t e d f r o m m u s i c o r made f o r h i m s e l f . Much o f t h e e a r l i e r v e r s e i s smooth and flowing. H a r d y may h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y T e n n y s o n a n d 'Barnes. B u t a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the u s e o f t h e same m e a s u r e b y B a r n e s i n The w i f e A - L o s t (5) a n d b y H a r d y i n The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h ( 4 ) shows t h e d i f f e r e n c e in their poetic gifts clearly. B a r n e s i s p a s t o r a l and idyllic. Hardy i s p o w e r f u l ; " S i n c e I noo mwore do z e e y o u r P e a c e , Up s t e a r s o r down b e l o w , I ' l l z i t me i n t h e Iwonesome p l e a e e , Yfnere f l a t - b o u g h ' d b e e c h do g r o w : B e l o w t h e b e e c h e s ' b o u g h , my l o v e , Yfnere y o u d i d n e v e r come, A n ' I d o n ' t l o o k t o meet y e now, A s I do l o o k a t hworae." (  (1) (2) (3) (4)  W a l t er R a l e i g h : S t y l e : p . 115The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 138 Poems o f R u r a l L i f e i n t h e D o r s e t D i a l e c t : p . Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 137  295  T h i s poem o f B a r n e s opens on a n o t e o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n w h i c h t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d s t a n z a s o n l y r e p e a t h u t w h i c h r e s o l v e s i n t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l h o p e f u l e n d i n g i n the f o u r t h s t a n z a . The p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a r i a m b i c v e r s e s a l t e r n a t i n g i n f o u r and t h r e e f e e t r u n a l o n g m u s i c a l l y , unbroken by a n y d i s s o n a n t note. The e v e n r h y t h m i s g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e s o f t l y s l u r r e d Wessex s y l l a b l e s w h i c h a r e r e p e a t e d f r o m s t a n z a t o s t a n z a . " A l l t h e s e e l e m e n t s combine t o g i v e a s o p o r i f i c and non-thought-provoking e f f e c t . H a r d y ' s The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h i s the same m e t r e e x a c t l y " a n d e v e n h a s t h e same number o f stanzas. I t opens u p o n t h e same n o t e o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n the o u t - o f - d o o r s and c l o s e s w i t h a f a i n t note o f h o p e . It i s n o t a n e a r l y poem b u t i t d o e s meet t h e B a r n e s i d e a l i n its regularity. Because of t h i s s l i g h t s i m i l a r i t y of content and a c t u a l s i m i l a r i t y of m e t r e , i t i s a s c l o s e an a n a l o g y as one c a n p r o d u c e i n t h e p o e t r y o f p o e t s so d i f f e r e n t . A s t a n z a f r o m The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h f o l l o w s : " I l e a n t upon a coppice gate When F r o s t was s p e c t r e - g r a y , , And W i n t e r ' s d r e g s made d e s o l a t e The w e a k e n i n g eye o f d a y . The t a n g l e d b i n e - s t e m s s c o r e d t h e s k y , l i k e s t r i n g s of broken l y r e s , And a i l m a n k i n d t h a t h a u n t e d ' n i g h Had s o u g h t t h e i r h o u s e h o l d f i r e s . " I n t h e c a s e o f b o t h poems t h e rhyme scheme i s abab c d c d . J u s t a s Barnes s o f t e n s h i s e f f e c t by vowel sounds, Hardy i n t e n s i f i e s h i s b y e n d i n g a b r u p t l y on a c o n s o n a n t . "I l e a n t " i n t h e f i r s t v e r s e g i v e s t h e sense o f s u d d e n n e s s t o what i s u s u a l l y a g e n t l e movement. " O u t l e a n t " i n the s e c o n d v e r s e o f the s e c o n d s t a n z a h a s t h e same e f f e c t w h i c h i s i m m e d i a t e l y strengthened-by "crypt". The r e s u l t i s t h a t two v e r y s t r o n g a c c e n t s o c c u r c l o s e t o g e t h e r h a v i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e m e t r e does not change, almost the e f f e c t of a b r e a k . When H a r d y ' s m e t r e s a r e r e g u l a r he v a r i e s t h e i r monotony by the use' t o which he p u t s w o r d s . The two v e r s e s f o l l o w i n g may make a l i t t l e c l e a r e r what I am t r y i n g t o p o i n t o u t . "The b l e s s e d d a m o z e l l e a n e d o u t ; " "The C e n t u r y ' s c o r p s e o u t l e a n t , " In the f i r s t verse R o s s e t t i ' s l o n g f l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s break s u d d e n l y on " o u t " ; i n t h e s e c o n d t h e b r e a k i n g s o u n d i s d o u b l e d by " o u t l e a n t " , w h i l e t h e v o w e l s a r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s h o r t e n e d by t h e l o s s o f d , c a u s e d by t h e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e verb form. H a r d y b r e a k s e v e n h i s s m o o t h e s t r h y t h m s i n some s u c h s u b t l e way. Hardy i s an a b s o l u t e master o f the sonnet f o r m . I have p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d out t h e new c o n t e n t w h i c h he u s e s . The c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e f o r m seemed e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n of h i s cosmic p h i l o s o p h y . He u s e s b o t h t h e  6o I t a l i a n ana the S h a k e s p e a r i a n forms o f the s o n n e t . The l a t t e r a p p e a r s i n a poem c a l l e d 'A C o n f e s s i o n t o a F r i e n d i n T r o u b l e ( l ) I h a v e compared i t w i t h S h a k e s p e a r e ' s S o n n e t 1 X V I I I w h i c h h a s t h e r e g u l a r rhyme scheme a b a b a d a d e f e f g g . T h i s form does not h a v e t h e ebb a n d f l o w o f t h e I t a l i a n f o r m b u t mounts s t e a d i l y t o a c l i m a x i n t h e f i n a l two v e r s e s . The f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n Hardy a c h i e v e s i n v e r s e s t h i r t e e n and f o u r t e e n of h i s sonnet when h e s a i d " Y e t comrade o l d c a n b i t t e r e r k n o w l e d g e b e , T h a n t h a t t h o u g h b a n n e d , s u c h i n s t i n c t was i n m e i " H a r d y ' s rhyme scheme v a r i e s f r o m t h a t o f S o n n e t L X V I I I o n l y i n the s e s t e t which s u b s t i t u t e s c e c f g g f o r t h e Shakespearian e f e f g g . Shakespeare uses s u b s t i t u t e d t r o c h a i c f e e t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f v e r s e s e l e v e n and t w e l v e . Hardy makes a s i m i l a r m e t r i c a l change i n v e r s e s i x a n d u s e s a n a c r u s i s i n the f i r s t f o o t of v e r s e twelve t h u s : "The u n s e e m l y i n s t i n c t  t h a t had lodgement  here;"  The S l e e p Worker ( 2 ) i s i n t h e I t a l i a n f o r m . The m e t r e i s r e g u l a r l y i a m b i c e x c e p t f o r the . t r o c h e e i n v e r s e t w e l v e and m i s s i n g strong beat i n verse f i v e .  the  " W i l t t h o u d e s t r o y , i n one w i l d s h o c k o f shame" " W h e r e i n h a v e p l a c e , u n r e a l i z e d by t h e e . " The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s realized".  noted occur  in  the w o r d s  "wilt"  and " u n -  T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H a r d y ' s m e t r i c a l method w h i c h s h o u l d be commented u p o n . The f i r s t of these i s h i s fondness f o r rhyme. By t h e means o f rhyme h e e x p l o r e s n e a r l y e v e r y v e r s e f o r m a n c i e n t a n d m o d e r n , usually with success. The s e e o n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s h i s a d d i c t i o n t o t h e end s t o p p e d l i n e . I t n a t u r a l l y accompanies the r i s i n g i a m b i c m e t r e s w h i c h h e so f r e q u e n t l y u s e s b u t h e v a r i e s h i s r h y t h m s by t h e l i g h t s y l l a b l e d e n d i n g l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n , one w o u l d e x p e c t . Run on l i n e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y o c c u r , a r e n o t u s u a l e v e n i n h i s blank- v e r s e . The s t r o n g l y e n d s t o p p e d l i n e s o f The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h ( 3 ) w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e i n t h e cast of serious content: "The a n c i e n t p u l s e o f germ a n d b i r t h Was s h r u n k e n l h a r d a n d d r y , And e v e r y s p i r i t u p o n e a r t h Seemed f e r v o u r l e s s a s I . " The (1) (2) (3)  following  quotation  Wessex Poems: p . 9 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t :  shows t h e p. p.  110 145  less  serious  use  of  rhyme: "v7e l a t e - l a m e n t e d . , r e s t i n g h e r e , A r e mixed, t o human jam, And e a c h t o eaeh e x c l a i m s i n f e a r , I know n o t w h i c h I ami " ( 1 )  The e x c e r p t a l s o e x h i b i t s a common m e t r e , c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r and t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s rhyming abab, which Hardy o f t e n u s e s . I t i s the metre of Lucy G r a y . The R u i n e d Maid (2) which i s a superb p i e c e of i r o n y , p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f a n a p e s t i c f o u r f o o t v e r s e w i t h i n i t i a l t r u n c a t i o n a n d t h e rhyme scheme a a b b , c c b b , ddbb a n d so o n . "0 H l e l i a , my d e a r , t h i s does e v e r y t h i n g crown I v/ho c o u l d h a v e s u p p o s e d I s h o u l d meet y o u i n town? And whence s u c h f a i r g a r m e n t s , s u c h p r o s p e r i t y ? " ' 0 d i d n ' t y o u know I ' d b e e n r u i n e d ? s a i d s h e ? " The l i g h t s y l l a b l e s o f t h e s e v e r s e s , t h e r e g u l a r a c c e n t and t h e s h o r t w o r d a l l combine t o g i v e t h e poem e s p e c i a l l y r a p i d movement. The w r e n c h e d a c c e n t on " p r o s p e r i t y " g i v e s a n i m m e d i a t e e m p h a s i s t o t h e rhyme w h i c h c a r r i e s t h r o u g h e a c h s t a n z a i n a s o r t o f c o l l o q u i a l and d i v e r s i f i e d r e f r a i n on t h e s i n g l e w o r d " s h e " . S t r o n g l y end s t o p p e d b l a n k v e r s e o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t The D y n a s t s . I n the f o l l o w i n g speech o f W e l l i n g t o n t h e r e i s intense f e e l i n g . A s i m i l a r i n t e n s e n e s s i n Shakespeare would have r e s u l t e d v e r y l i k e l y i n r u n on l i n e s , Yfith H a r d y t h e r e are none. Wellington " I know, I know, I t m a t t e r s n o t one damn I I may a s w e l l be s h o t as n o t p e r c e i v e What i l l s a r e r a g i n g h e r e . " Hill " c o n c e d i n g such A n d as y o u may be e n d e d momently A t r u t h t h e r e i s no b l i n k i n g , what commands Have y o u t o l e a v e me, should•., f a t e -shape* a t s b 3 $ e Wellington. "These (1) (2)  Poems o f Poems o f  simply:  to h o l d  the P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : the P a s t and P r e s e n t :  out u n t o p. p.  144 145"  the  last,  As l o n g as one man s t a n d s on one lame l e g W i t h one h a l l i n h i s p o u c h I t h e n end a s I . "  (1)  The e n d s t o p p e d l i n e a n d d e f i n i t e r h y m e s o f w h i c h I have h e e n s p e a k i n g a r e t y p i c a l . True to h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t v a r i e . t y makes r h y t h m s more c h a r m i n g , H a r d y o c c a s i o n a l l y v a r i e s h i s custom by u s i n g a f e m i n i n e e n d i n g i n He P r e f e r s H e r E a r t h l y (2) t h e r e a r e e x a m p l e s .  —  "This after-sunset i s a sight for seeing, C l i f f - h e a d s o f shaggy c l o u d s u r r o u n d i n g - i t . - - And d w e l l y o u i n t h a t g l o r y show? Y o u may; f o r t h e r e a r e s t r a n g e s t r a n g e t h i n g s in being, S t r a n g e r t h a n I know." I n t h e s e v e r s e s t h e r e g u l a r i a m b i c b e a t o f the f i v e , f o u r and t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s i s v a r i e d o n l y by the feminine endings i n " s e e i n g " and " b e i n g " . L e a v i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f rhyme and e n d s t o p p e d v e r s e s , I t u r n t o t h e poem A S i g n S e e k e r (3) i n which Hardy u s e s the A l e x a n d r i n e w i t h s u c c e s s . The poem, i s i n the u s u a l r i s i n g metre but i t s v e r s e s r h y m i n g , a b b a , are i n f i v e , f o u r and s i x beat f o r m s , the A l e x a n d r i n e b e i n g u s e d to v a r y the r h y t h m and i n t e n s i f y t h e m e a n i n g . Some o f t h e s e s i x f o o t f i n a l v e r s e s are r e g u l a r as i n : '  "And t r o d d e n where a b y s m a l f i r e s are."  and  snow-cones  O t h e r s a r e drawn out t o g r e a t e r - l e n g t h by the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a n a p e s t s a s i n the s e c o n d a n d t h i r d f o o t o f t h e •""following-: "And h e a r t h e monotonous Clang n e g l i g e n t l y by."  hours  This verse begins with  trochee.  a  " P a l l i d l y r i s i n g when t h e Droughts are done." thus:  One o r two o t h e r s a r e , .  summer  b r o k e n by a c e n t r a l  "And H e s c i e u c e m u t e l y m u s e s : When a Man f a l l s he l i e s . " 1) 2) (3)  P a r t I I I , A c t T I I , Scene 7, Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 466 Wessex Poems: p . 43  p.  5^6  cesura  I n s p i t e o f t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s t h e f o r m o f t h e longl i n e holds, marking o f fthe stanzas i n a s e r i e s of long rhythmic phrases thus: "Or, when E a r t h ' s F r a i l l i e b l e e d i n g o f h i s I f some R e c o r d e r , a s i n w r i t , Near t o t h e weary scene s h o u l d f l i t A n d d r o p one p l u m e a s p l e d g e t h a t Heaven i n s c r o i l s t h e wrong."  Strong  I n a poem c a l l e d The l a c k i n g S e n s e ( 1 ) t h e r h y t h m i c u n i t s a r e even longer", b e i n g u n b r o k e n by s h o r t verses. The s t a n z a s a r e r e g u l a r l y f o r m e d o f f o u r s e v e n - s t r e s s o r S e p t e n a r y v e r s e s c o m p l e t e d 'by one t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e . " 10 T i m e , whence comes t h e m o t h e r ' s moody l o o k amid h e r l a b o u r s , As o f one who a l l u n w i t t i n g l y h a s w o u n d e d , w h e r e she l o v e s ? Why w e a v e s she n o t h e r w o r l d - w e b s t o a c c o r d i n g l u t e s and tabors, 7/1 t h n e v e r m o r e t h i s t o o r e m o r s e f u l a i r upon h e r f a c e , As o f a n g e l f a l l e n f r o m g r a c e I " These l o n g u n b r o k e n v e r s e s c a r r y t h e r h y t h m through t o t h e s t r o p h i c f a l l and pause which the s h o r t f i f t h . v e r s e e f f e c t s , t h e r e b e i n g no o t h e r p a u s e s t h a n t h e e s s e n t i a l o n e s w h i c h come w i t h a b r e a t h a t t h e e n d o f e a c h l o n g v e r s e . The same l o n g v e r s e s a r e f o u n d a g a i n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s i n A Commonplace Day. ( 2 ) I n t h a t poem, however, t h e f i v e v e r s e s t a n z a s have o n l y two l o n g e r s e v e n s t r e s s v e r s e s , the second and the f i f t h thus: "The d a y i s t u r n i n g g h o s t , And s c u t t l e s f r o m t h e k a l e n d a r i n f i t s and furtively, To j o i n t h e anonymous h o s t Of t h o s e t h a t t h r o n g o b l i v i o n : c e d i n g h i s p l a c e , maybe To one o f l i k e d e g r e e . " I n t h i s poem t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l o n g l i n e i s d i f f e r e n t , f o r t h e verse tends t o break between the f o u r t h a n d f i f t h f o o t on a c e s u r a l p a u s e w h i c h i s a c c e n t u a t e d b y the balance and p a t t e r n o f t h e v e r s e . This p a t t e r n i s formed by s u c h a l l i t e r a t i v e s y l l a b l e s a s o c c u r i n " s c u t t l e s " a n d " k a l e n d a r " , a n d " f i t s a n d f u r t i v e l y " . . The ce s u r a l p a u s e i n verse f o u r i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the trochee which immediately (1) (2)  Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 106 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 104  f o l l o w s I t . I h a v e q u o t e d t h e s e two poems b e c a u s e t h e y i l l u s t r a t e so a p t l y the s k i l l w i t h which Hardy h a n d l e d metre a n d t h e many w a y s i n w h i c h h e v a r i e d h i s u s a g e t o o b t a i n e i t h e r s u s t a i n e d or broken rhythms. I n many o f h i s l a t e r poems h e a t t a i n e d , e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e and r o l l i n g rhythmic e f f e c t s . The f a l l i n g m e t r e o f t h e poem I n F r o n t of. t h e l a n d s c a p e ( 1 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. " P l u n g i n g a n d l a b o u r i n g on i n a t i d e o f v i s i o n s , Dolorous and drear, F o r w a r d I p u s h e d my way a s a m i d w a s t e w a t e r s S t r e t c h i n g around, T h r o u g h whose e d d i e s t h e r e g l i m m e r e d t h e Customed landscape. Yonder and near." H e r e H a r d y h a s u s e d d a c t y l s a n d t r o c h e e s i n comb i n a t i o n w i t h t w o , t h r e e , f o u r a n d f i v e s t r e s s v e r s e s . The f e m i n i n e e n d i n g o f v e r s e s two a n d t h r e e a c t u a l l y a l l o w t h e r h y t h m t o c a r r y t h r o u g h t o t h e e n d o f t h e n e x t v e r s e . The rhythm t h u s slows as i t ends t h e phrase w i t h i a m b i c f e e t i n the s h o r t e r v e r s e s . There a r e s e v e r a l h i g h l y - c o n v e n t i o n a l F r e n c h forms such as t h e V i l l a n e l i e and t h e T r i o l e t t e w h i c h Hardy uses f r e q u e n t l y . They-appear r a t h e r q u a i n t l y a g a i n s t t h e sombre b a c k g r o u n d o f h i s more s e r i o u s v e r s e . H a r d y i s c l e v e r , h o w e v e r , i n t h e management o f t h e r e p e a t e d v e r s e s , w h i c h b u i l d up t h e s e f o r m s . A poem c a l l e d The C a g e d T h r u s h F r e e d a n d Home A g a i n (2) i s a V i l l a n e l i e . "'Men know b u t l i t t l e more t h a n we, Who c o u n t u s l e a s t o f t h i n g s t e r r e n e , How h a p p y d a y s a r e made t o b e J Of s u c h s t r a n g e t i d i n g s what t h i n k y e , 0 b i r d s i n brown t h a t peck and preen? Men know b u t l i t t l e more t h a n we I" T h e r e a r e n i n e t e e n l i n e s a n d two r h y m e s a n d t h e repeat verses a r e : "Men know b u t l i t t l e  more t h a n  We"  and "How h a p p y d a y s a r e made t o b e . " 1 have p r e v i o u s l y quoted from a t r i o l e t (1) (2)  S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 285 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 134  called  The P u z z l e d Same B i r d s ( l ) a n d a n a l m o s t namedcBirds a t W i n t e r N i g h t f a l l (2).  ••  identical  poem i s  "Around the house the f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r , And a l l t h e b e r r i e s now a r e gone From h o l l y and c o t o n e a a s t e r Around the house. The f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r Shutting indoors t h a t crumb-outcaster We u s e d t o see u p o n t h e l a w n Around the house. The f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r , A n d a l l t h e b e r r i e s now a r e g o n e I "  T h e s e poems a r e s l i g h t . T h e i r c h i e f charm l i e s i n t h e m e t r i c a l a g i l i t y w h i c h t h e f o r m s demand. T h e r e i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f m u s i c a l p h r a s i n g and of the r e p e t i t i o n o f a s i n g l e theme a b o u t t h e m w h i c h p r o b a b l y accountbs f o r H a r d y ' s use of the forms. I do n o t p r o p o s e a n y d i s c u s s i o n o f t h o s e e x p e r i ments i n c l a s s i c a l p r o s o d y , the s a p p h i c s and Hexametres, which Hardy undertook. I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e o r i g i n a l forms s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r . t h a t . I n g e n e r a l he seems l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n s u c h poems a s The T e m p o r a r y t h e A l l (3) a n d A r i s t o d e m u s t h e l i e s s e n I a n (4) t h a n i s u s u a l w i t h h i m i n poems o f a s e r i o u s n a t u r e . The p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t i s t h a t H a r d y r e f u s e d t o g i v e up a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y i n f a v o r o f w o r d f o r m s more a m e n a b l e t o t h e c l a s s i c a l rules of quantity. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d H a r d y ' s poems. c o n s i s t e n t l y without becoming conscious of a m u s i c a l undercurrent w h i c h goes back t o H a r d y ' s environment, o l d f o l k t u n e s and h i s own m u s i c a l g i f t . T h e r e a r e many b a l l a d s a n d s o n g s i n his 'lyric poetry. I n almost a l l of these the i n f l u e n c e of o l d E n g l i s h m u s i c i s - a p p a r e n t , b u t i n some poems n o t o b v i o u s l y m u s i c a l t h e m e t r e s have been i n s p i r e d by f o l k m u s i c . T h i s f o l k m u s i c was a n a c t u a l p a r t o f H a r d y ' s p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s ness. A poem c a l l e d I n t h e S m a l l H o u r s (5) p r o v e s t h i s b e yond a doubt. The two f i r s t s t a n z a s of' t h e poem f o l l o w . " I l a y I n my b e d a n d f i d d l e d W i t h a dream l a n d v i o l a n d bow ' And t h e t u n e s f l e w b a c k t o my f i n g e r s I had- m e l o d i e d y e a r s ago. I t was two o r t h r e e i n t h e m o r n i n g When I f a n c y f i d d l e d so Long r e e l s and country-dances, A n d h o r n p i p e s s w i f t and s l o w . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)  Poems q f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . W e s s e x Poems: p . 5 W i n t e r W o r d s : p . 30 L a t e L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p . 613  135 . 135  And  s o o n a n o n came c r o s s i n g The c h a m b e r i n t h e g r a y Figures.of jigging f i e l d folk — S a v i o u r s o f c o r n and- h a y — To t h e a i r o f " H a s t e t o t h e W e d d i n g " , As a f t e r a wedding-day; Y e a , up and-down t h e m i d d l e I n w i n d l e s s w h i r l s went t h e y . " T h i s poem was w r i t t e n b y t h e p o e t , who a s a s m a l l boy f i d d l e d a t c o u n t r y d a n c e s a n d who, i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s , never f o r g o t the melodies and rhythms o f t h e o l d f o l k tunes w h i c h he p l a y e d a t t h a t t i m e . (1) B e f o r e p a s s i n g t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f H a r d y ' s s o n g s I am e x a m i n i n g t w o poems w h i c h a r e b a s e d on f o l k rhythms. The f i r s t c a l l e d , The W1 n d ' s P r o p h e c y (2) follows: " I t r a v e l on.by b a r r e n f a r m s , And g u l l s g l i n t o u t l i k e , s i l v e r f l e c k s A g a i n s t a c l o u d t h a t speaks o f wrecks, And b e l l i e s down w i t h b l a c k a l a r m s . I s a y : "Thus f r o m my l a d y ' s a r m s , I g o ; T h o s e a r m s I l o v e t h e b e s t 1" The w i n d r e p l i e s f r o m d i p a n d r i s e , 'Hay; t o w a r d h e r a r m s thou, j o u r n e y s t . ' " T h i s s t a n z a d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a f o l k m e a s u r e a t f i r s t g l a n c e b u t t h e r e i s an o l d Dorset f o l k - s o n g c a l l e d T h e . R a m b l i n g Comber (3) w h i c h i s s i m i l a r i n m e t r e . The s o n g follows.in part: "You c o m b e r s a l l , b o t h g r e a t Come, l i s t e n t o my d i t t y , For i t i s ye and o n l y ye R e g a r d my f a l l w i t h p i t y . F o r I c a n w r i t e , r e a d , dance I n d e e d i t s a l l my h o n o r , '. My f a i l i n g i s I d r i n k s t r o n g F o r I'm a r a m b l i n g comber."  and s m a l l ,  or f i g h t , ' ' • beer,  B o t h t h e f o l k - s o n g a n d t h e poem h a v e f i v e e i g h t v e r s e s t a n z a s a n d somewhat s i m i l a r rhyme schemes. The poem rhymes a b b a a c d c . B o t h have r a t h e r u n i f o r m f o u r s t r e s s i a m b i c verse- b u t t h e f o l k m e a s u r e h a s a m i s s i n g s t r o n g b e a t i n the l a s t foot of the verses. This m i s s i n g beat i s the o n l y e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e rhythms* 1) 2) (3)  Early,Life Moments o f F o l k Songs Dorset: p.  o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 25 v i s i o n : p . 464 o f E n g l a n d : e d . C e c i l J . S h a r p : F o l k Songs o f 27  A Tramp Woman's T r a g e d y ( 1 ) h a s b e e n c a l l e d a new m e t r e b y many c r i t i c s . I t s s i m i l a r i t y t o a n o l d lament w r i t t e n a b o u t a s h r i n e makes me t h i n k t h a t b o t h poems w e r e i n s p i r e d b y some o l d f o l k , m e t r e . The S h r i n e o f W a l s i n g h a m was d e m o l i s h e d a t t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e m o n a s t e r i e s i n 155 8. Many c o n t e m p o r a r y b a l l a d s h a v e r e f e r e n c e s t o i t . A tune c a l l e d Walsingham appears i n a l l t h e o l d c o l l e c t i o n s o f music. T h i s tune, however, i s n o t used by Hardy. The B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y h a s a s m a l l q u a r t o volume i n t h e h a n d w r i t i n g o f P h i l i p , E a r l o f A r u n d e l , e l d e s t s o n o f t h e Duke o f N o r f o l k , W h i c h c o n t a i n s A L a m e n t f o r W a l s i n g h a m ( 2 ) . T h i s lament, i s i n the b a l l a d form as f o l l o w s : "Weep, weep, 0 W a l s i n g h a m I Whose d a y s a r e n i g h t s ; B l e s s i n g s turned t o blasphemies — H o l y deeds t o d e s p i t e s . S i n i s w h e r e Our L a d y s a t Heaven t u r n e d i s t o h e l l ; S a t a n s i t s w h e r e Our L o r d d i d sway; ••' W a l s i n g h a m o h , f a r e w e l l 1" I f t h i s L a m e n t i s c o m p a r e d w i t h A Tramp Woman's T r a g e d y i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e number o f s t r e s s e s i n t h e v e r s e s a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l l y t h e same. . "Prom W y n y a r d ' s Gap t h e l i v e l o n g d a y , The l i v e l o n g d a y , We b e a t a f o o t t h e n o r t h w a r d way We h a d t r a v e l l e d t i m e s b e f o r e . The s u n - b l a z e b u r n i n g on o u r b a c k s Our s h o u l d e r s s t i c k i n g t o o u r p a c k s , By f o s s e w a y , f i e l d s a n d t u r n p i k e t r a c k s We s k i r t e d s a d S e d g e - M o o r . " The t w o poems d i f f e r i n t h e way i n w h i c h t h e r e f r a i n i s used. The o l d e r one u s e s W a l s i n g h a m i n t h e f i r s t a n d l a s t v e r s e s ; H a r d y ' s poem r e p e a t s p a r t o f v e r s e one i n v e r s e two as r e f r a i n . I n A lament f o r Walsingham t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s a r e s i x a n d e i g h t ; i n A1'Tramp. Women's T r a g e d y t h e y a r e four and e i g h t . B o t h h a v e two s t r e s s e s i n t h e . s e c o n d v e r s e and f o u r v e r s e s o f f o u r s t r e s s e s each w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e a v e r a g e v e r s e o f t h e poems. The l a m e n t h a s i n i t i a l t r u n c a t i o n i n each v e r s e . These d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n a poem o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d a modern poem a r e no g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p o e t s a n d s u b j e c t m i g h t demand. Their s i m i l a r i t i e s may be t a k e n a s . s u g g e s t i o n t h a t some o l d f o l k m e a s u r e was t h e s o u r c e o f t h e r h y t h m s i n b o t h . 1) 2)  T i m e ' s. L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 182 O l d E n g l i s h P o p u l a r M u s i c : e d . H. E . C h a p p e l l : p . 70  Woolbridge  68  I n a d d i t i o n t o poems w h i c h a r e f o u n d e d on f o l k m e a s u r e s ; t h e r e a r e many s o n g s i n t h e l y r i c a l p o e t r y ; some o f t h e s e -are f r a n k l y l a b e l l e d , " W r i t t e n t o a n o l d f o l k - t u n e " or "Echo o f an o l d song," One c a l l e d " T i m i n g H e r " ( 1 ) h a s the v e r y t y p i c a l "0" r e f r a i n . " L a l a g e ' s coming: Where i s she now, 0 ? T u r n i n g t o bow, 0, And s m i l e , i s s h e , Just at parting, Parting, parting, A s she i s s t a r t i n g . To come t o me?" The r e p e t i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p h r a s e s t y p i c a l of f o l k music i s e a s i l y t r a c e d i n the l i t t l e song j u s t quoted S i t t i n g on t h e B r i d g e ( 2 ) was c o m p o s e d by t h e p o e t f r o m somewhat f l e e t i n g m e m o r i e s o f a h a l f - f o r g o t t e n s o n g . One o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g f r a g m e n t s o f a c t u a l f o l k music i s t h e r a t h e r s i n i s t e r l i t t l e s o n g f r o m t h e s h o r t "Wessex" s t o r y , The T h r e e S t r a n g e r s ( 3 ) . The theme o f t h e The S t r a n g e r s Song may h a v e been s u g g e s t e d b y t h e o l d b a l l a d c a l l e d . The S h e e p s t e a l e r ( 4 ) . The r h y t h m was b u i l t up by t h e p o e t f r o m a n o l d one w h i c h he d i s c o v e r e d i n a n i n c o m p l e t e f o r m . • H u b e r t H. P a r r y (5) s a y s t h a t t h e f o l k t u n e s o f E n g l a n d h a v e l i t t l e strong emotional expression. They a r e s i m p l e a n d direct. l i k e t h e German a i r s t h e y o f t e n r e p e a t a n o p e n i n g . p h r a s e once o r t w i c e , t h e n i n t r o d u c e a c o n t r a s t a n d a g a i n r e t u r n t o t h e f i r s t p h r a s e . The S t r a n g e r ' s Song seems t o bear out these g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . I t s t a t e s the f a c t s w i t h a c e r t a i n g r i m humour b u t t h e r e I s no e m o t i o n . The s u b t l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a s t s w h i c h the s t o r y p r e s e n t s have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e s o n g i t s e l f a l t h o u g h t h e s o n g h e l p s t o p r o d u c e them. One s t a n z a w i l l e x h i b i t t h e r h y t h m . T  "Oh  my t r a d e i t i s t h e r a r e s t one, Simple shepherds a l l — My t r a d e i s a s i g h t t o s e e ; F o r my c u s t o m e r s I t i e , a n d t a k e 'Era up on h i g h , And w a f t 'em t o a f a r c o u n t r e e . " T h i s i s a hangman's s o n g . The v i c t i m i s t o be a sheep s t e a l e r . These f i g u r e s a l o n e a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o b u i l d up t h e o l d b a l l a d a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h so o f t e n i n v o l v e d a c r i m e (l) (2J f3 ) (4) (5)  Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 4 l 6 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 428 The S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 9 F o l k Songs o f E n g l a n d : p. 1 " ' The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e A r t o f M u s i c : C h a p . I l l  or something p e r t a i n i n g to i t . The r e p e t i t i o n of phrases i s quite apparent i n verses one and three while the r e f r a i n , "Simple Shepherds a l l " , i s found i n each stanza. In a d d i t i o n the f a m i l i a r combination of three and four s t r e s s verses i s consistent w i t h the t r a d i t i o n s of o l d f o l k music. One might go on d i s c u s s i n g almost e n d l e s s l y these r a t h e r absorbing questions of Hardy's songs and h i s use. of f o l k measures. In the scope of t h i s paper,however, only a few songs which bear out the general remarks which have been made can be mentioned. The Going of the B a t t e r y ( l ) (a wives' lament). A Song of Hope ( 2 ) , The S a c r i l e g e (3) (a b a l l a d tragedy) and the f i c k l e l o v e r ' s song I Said and Sang Her Excellence ( 4 ) , are poems which show Hardy's passion f o r music i n a l l i t s forms. This passion never abated as the many songs and other musical forms of The Dynasts show. The D r i n k i n g Song (5) was a very l a t e poem. Two l y r i c s from The Dynasts which may be mentioned are Budmouth Dears ( 6 ) and The Night of T r a f a l g a r (7) while the magnificent chant Albuera (b) i s an almost p e r f e c t conception of what Mr. Samuel Chew c a l l s "the t e r r o r and p i t y and splendour of f i e r y g a l l a n t r y . " (9) Before l e a v i n g the subject of rhythm I wish to note the r a t h e r p e c u l i a r and s t r i k i n g e f f e c t that Hardy has obtained i n a scene i n The Dynasts. (10) In t h i s scene there are two characters only and they speak i n a whisper f o r they are E n g l i s h s p i e s . The rhythms of t h e i r whispered speech are l i k e those of the church of England s e r v i c e s . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n obtained i n the case of the F i r s t E n g l i s h Spy, as he mutters away i n monotone, i s e x c e l l e n t . The long explanations of the other man represent the responses of the congregation. To the spectator the general impression i s e x a c t l y t h a t which would be r e c e i v e d i f one were immediately outside the church while -.a service was i n progress. In a scene that i s e n t i r e l y s p e c t r a l Hardy c a r r i e s h i s use of l i t u r g i c a l rhythms to a more poetical/.conclusion i n the Antiphonal Chants of the Rumours. (11) 1) 2) 3) 4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 10) 11) v  Poems of the Past and Present: p.. 80 Poems of the Past and Present: p. 120 . S a t i r e s of.Circumstance: p. 375 Moments of V i s i o n : p. 437 Winter Words: p. 155 The Dynasts: P a r t I I I , Act I I , Scene 1, p. 366 The Dynasts: P a r t I , Act V, Scene 7, p. 106 The.Dynasts: P a r t I I , Act VI, Scene 4, p. 501 Thomas Hardy: Chap. V I , p. 173 P a r t I I , Act 1, "Scene 6, p. 168 P a r t I I , Act I , Scene 2, P. 149  S u c h e x a m p l e a s I h a v e q u o t e d show, somewhat i n a d e q u a t e l y , the d i v e r s i t y o f r h y t h m i c e f f e c t s which Hardy o b t a i n e d a n d t h e a b s o l u t e f r e e d o m w i t h w h i c h he a d a p t e d b o t h rhyme a n d m e t r e t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s . They a r e t y p i c a l a l s o o f t h a t m u s i c a l g i f t o f w h i c h t h e p o e t made c o n s t a n t p o e t i c a l use. The f a c t w h i c h &nj s u r v e y o f H a r d y ' s r h y t h m s , however b r i e f , makes most s t r i k i n g l y a p p a r e n t i s t h e p e r f e c t u n i t y of h i s poetic expressions. He was a b l e t o make a n e x t r e m e i n d i v i d u a l i s m s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e demands o f rhyme and m e t r e . He m o u l d e d a n a u s t e r e t y p e o f l a n g u a g e i n t o a r e s t r a i n e d e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s y . He made h i s e m o t i o n l a n g u a g e a n d r h y t h m s o n e . • '  THE DYNASTS The D y n a s t s , a new and p o w e r f u l a r t f o r m , m a s s i v e i n d i m e n s i o n and a s t o n i s h i n g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s the o u t s t a n d i n g a r t i s t i c achievement of i t s c e n t u r y . It i s i n three p a r t s , n i n e t e e n a c t s a n d one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - t w o s c e n e s . Nothing i n the l e a s t l i k e i t has been seen, h e a r d or imagined before. Within i t s enveloping cloak, peasants, kings, n a t i o n s and p h i l o s o p h i e s s h e l t e r . I t ranks w i t h P a r a d i s e L o s t a n d The D i v i n e Comedy, b u t i s l i k e n e i t h e r . The s i n g l e achievement which the century g i v e s f o r comparison i s The R i n g a n d t h e Book and e v e n t h a t m a g n i f i c e n t s l i c e o f l i f e f a l l s s h o r t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l scope o f The D y n a s t s . . The a u t h o r c a l l s i t An S p i c - D r a m a o f the War with Napoleon. The s u b t i t l e i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e N a p o l e o n i * w a r s i m m e d i a t e l y become d e f i n i t e a n d a c t u a l a s the a c t i o n centres i n epic fashion i n a central figure. The theme simmered i n t h e p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r twenty y e a r s . A t t h e end o f t h a t t i m e t h e many e l e m e n t s h a d emerged i n a c o m p o s i t e , a n amalgum w h i c h h a d t h e t e n u i t y o f e p i c , t h e s t r e n g t h o f drama-and the r e s i s t e n t q u a l i t i e s of a n o n - c o r r o s i v e and u n w o r l d l i k e s u b s t a n c e - m e t a p h y s i c . H a r d y ' s l i f e - l o n g a b s o r p t i o n i n form s t o o d him i n good s t e a d a s he moulded h i s b u l k y and u n w i e l d y s u b j e c t i n t o a u n i f i e d , a n d c o n s i s t e n t w h o l e ; a s he swung t h e s t o r i e s o f p e o p l e s a n d t h e drama o f f o r c e s a b o u t i n an e v e r r e v o l v i n g k a l e i d o s c o p i c v i s i o n w h i c h t h e w h o l e i n t r i c a t e scheme b e f o r e the m e n t a l r e t i n a a t o n c e . He t h u s g a v e drama a new a n d e x t e n d e d f o r m , a d d i n g panorama o f a l m o s t i n f i n i t e scope t o the p r o p e r t i e s o f d r a m a t i c o p p o s i t i o n a n d f i n a l l y w r a p p i n g h u m a n i t y ' s drama i n a n o u t e r s h e l l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . The v i e w i s t r i p l i c a t e , there being three l a y e r s of v i s i o n . The f i r s t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s as he s e n s e s and a r r a n g e s t h e i n n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e movements o f n a t i o n s a n d c o s m i c f o r c e s . His is t h e i d e a l i z i n g a n d m o t i v e v i e w o f t h e whole p e r f o r m a n c e . The s e c o n d i s t h e n a t i o n ' s , or h u m a n i t y ' s , as i t f e e l s i t s e l f drawn i n t o t h e v o r t e x o f t i m e . T h i s i s t h e v i e w w i t h i n the action. The t h i r d i s t h e c o m m e n t a t o r y or i n f i n i t e v i e w , t h a t o f t h e i d e a l s p e c t a t o r a s e x p r e s s e d i n l y r i c or i r o n i c mood by the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f w o r l d t e n d e n c i e s , or f o r c e s . I n t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e n o v e l and i t s p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n a s an a r t f o r m H a r d y once made a memorable a n n o t a t i o n w h i c h he n e v e r a p p l i e d t o t h a t f o r m , b u t wh 1 ch h e d i d a p p l y t o The D y n a s t s . He e x p l a i n s t h a t a l l a r t must p r o g r e s s  1  72  i f i t i s t o be t r u l y e x p r e s s i v e , progress thus:  a n d h e o u t l i n e s t h e means of  "The human r a c e t o be shown a s one g r e a t n e t w o r k o r t i s s u e w h i c h q u i v e r s i n e v e r y p a r t w h e n one p o i n t i s shaken,, l i k e a s p i d e r ' s web I f t o u c h e d , a b s t r a c t r e a l i s m t o be i n t h e f o r m o f s p i r i t s s p e c t r a l , f i g u r e s e t c The r e a l i t i e s t o be t r u e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e , h i t h e r t o c a l l e d abstractions." ( l ) The f a c t t h a t he a p p l i e d , t h i s I m a g i n a t i v e addit i o n i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f drama a n d n a r r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n i n e i t h e r one a l o n e I s b u t p r o o f o f a n i n n a t e s e n s e o f f o r m which r e a l i z e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f b l e n d i n g such a b s t r a c t and u n e a r t h l y r e a l i s m w i t h t h e more c o n c r e t e r e a l i s m o f t h e modern n o v e l . T h i s same s e n s e o f f o r m saw t h a t a n a r r a t i v e l o n g e n o u g h t o embrace t h e N a p o l e o n i c s t r u g g l e c o u l d n o t maintain the necessary u n i t y unless the n a t i o n a l , e p i c a l e l e m e n t s w e r e i n some way e q u a l i z e d . T h e r e was no way o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s s i n c e N a p o l e o n a s a f i g u r e t o w e r e d h i g h above a i l others. H a r d y ' s t r i u m p h was a c h i e v e d when h e made N a p o l e o n t h e d r a m a t i c v o r t e x o f , t o u s e h i s own f i g u r e , t h e s p i d e r o f t h e web t o w h i c h t h e o t h e r n a t i o n a l h e a d s drew i n . A n o t h e r e l e m e n t o f h i s s u c c e s s was t h e u s e w h i c h h e made.of the " a c t u a l r e a l i t i e s " . These w e r e t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l p e r s o n a g e s , who, b e i n g o u t s i d e t h e human d r a m a , saw i t a s a whole. They e x p r e s s e d t h e u l t i m a t e v i e w , w h i l e t h e human drama e x p r e s s e d t h e i m m e d i a t e one* I p r o p o s e , s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t i s so l a r g e , t o consider i t f i r s t i n i t s E p i c , Dramatic and Panoramic a s p e c t s a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i n g out t h e e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f t h e whole i n a f i n a l survey o f i t s p o e t i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l v a l u e s . "And I h e a r d s o u n d s o f i n s u l t , shame a n d w r o n g , And t r u m p e t s b l o w n f o r w a r . " I n t h e e p i c p h a s e o f drama w h i c h i s now c o n s i d e r e d the q u o t a t i o n above w h i c h a p p e a r s upon t h e t i t l e page i s i n tensely significant. I t i s n o t from the g l o r i o u s or romantic p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t t h e t e n y e a r s o f w a r i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s a "Great H i s t o r i c a l Calamity or Clash o f P e o p l e s , a r t i f i c i a l l y b r o u g h t a b o u t , some h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o . " A s suchH a r d y r e g a r d e d i t ; a s s u c h i t i s p r e s e n t e d . War t o H a r d y was no g l o r i o u s a d v e n t u r e , no s a i l i n g o f f . i n t o u n c h a r t e d s e a s t o d e e d s o f d a r i n g ; i t was a s t a r k r e a l i t y o f h o r r o r b r o u g h t a b o u t b y u n r e c o n c i l i a b l e f o r c e s i n w h i c h t h e p a r t i c u l a r was s a c r i f i c e d t o the general. He h a s p u t t h i s r a t h e r c l e a r l y i n a poem w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e f a d i n g g l o r y o f t h e o l d c o n c e p t i o n , c a l l e d The S i c k B a t t l e - G o d . (2) When h e s t r i p s h i s s u b j e c t (1) (2)  E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 232 Poems o f t h e P a s t a n d P r e s e n t : p . 88  o f m a r t i a l glamour Hardy takes the f i r s t s t e p , i n e v i t a b l e f o r - h i m , away f r o m the e p i c t r a d i t i o n , b u t when he d i s c a r d s t h e e p i c atmosphere he c l i n g s t o t h e theme. It is s t i l l n a t i o n a l , but the n a t i o n a l element i s not l i m i t e d as r e g a r d s t h e a c t i o n , t o a s i n g l e s e q u e n c e , o r , as r e g a r d s t h e a t m o s p h e r e , t o t h a t o f one n a t i o n . The e p i c s e q u e n c e . i s p r o g r e s s i n g i n segments a s E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , A u s t r i a , P r u s s i a , S p a i n a n d R u s s i a sweep i n t o t h e s t r u g g l e . The s t o r y o f each i s t o l d . The u n i t y o f t h e c h r o n i c l e depends n o t on a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i t s f u s i o n w i t h events hut on' t h e s e p a r a t e . p o r t r a y a l o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e a c h o f the f i v e n a t i o n s . T h i s consciousness f i n a l l y centres...in i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , o f t h e one common m e n a c e . The e p i c s t o r y o f e a e h n a t i o n r i s e s t o e m o t i o n a l c l i m a x on t h a t c o n sciousness. I t i s one s o u r c e o f b o t h n a r r a t i v e a n d d r a m a t i c unity. As e a c h s t r u g g l e c o n t i n u e s t h e tfaiecioTne^w'/i^each n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s merges w i t h the E u r o p e a n one. It i s then that, e p i c a n d drama merge a s t h e g r o w i n g f o r c e o f e a c h n a t i o n a l b e i n g t u r n s from i t s e l f and f r o n t s H a p o l e o n . T h e r e i s one sense, however, i n which the e p i c s i n g l e n e s s of n a t i o n a l i t y i s maintained. The s u b ? t i t l e , " A n E p i c - D r a m a o f t h e War w i t h Hapoleon", has a s l i g h t l y p r o v i n c i a l f l a v o r . To' e a c h c o u n t r y " t h e War" meant a c t u a l l y t h e war a s i t c o n c e r n e d t h a t p a r t i cular nation. I t i s a t y p i c a l human r e a c t i o n ; i t i s a n e x p r e s s i o n of the n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t a l l o w s a n a t i o n t o m a r s h a l l i t s own d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s i n a s i n g l e b o l d s t a n d a g a i n s t t h e enemy. I n t h e mouth o f an E n g l i s h m a n i t c o u l d have b u t one m e a n i n g a n d s u c h i t h a s i n H a r d y ' s . He c o n s i d e r e d and s t a t e s i n h i s P r e f a c e , t h a t t h e E n g l i s h s i d e o f the N a p o l e o n i c s t r u g g l e had n e v e r been p r e s e n t e d i n i t s true proportions. H i s e m p h a s i s was t o be on t h e E n g l i s h element. The F o r e s c e n e a n d A c t I . c o n s e q u e n t l y s e t f o r t h t w o . p o i n t s o f v i e w s u p r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h o u t "the d r a m a . They a r e c o s m i c a n d E n g l i s h a n d t h e y t y p i f y two e x t r e m e s o f t h e H a r d i a n g e n i u s w h i c h I have t r i e d p e r h a p s f e e b l y t o s e t f o r t h b y means o f t h e n o v e l a n d t h e l y r i c p o e m s . In the s e n s e t h a t the w h o l e m o t i v a t i n g i d e a l i z a t i o n comes t h r o u g h E n g l i s h e y e s , the o l d e p i c t r a d i t i o n o f u n i f i c a t i o n h o l d s . I n t h e s e n s e t h a t one c o u n t r y a f t e r a n o t h e r comes i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e , y e t t r i u m p h a n t l y m a i n t a i n s i t s own n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the t r a d i t i o n b r e a k s and t h e r e are s i x e l e m e n t s i n s t e a d of one. The o l d e r e p i c s s w i n g i n t o a s t r a i g h t r e c i t a l o f deed u p o n d e e d , w i t h o u t t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n c a u s e d by new a n d unknown p e r s o n a g e s . The D y n a s t s , c o m b i n i n g many e l e m e n t s , d e p a r t s f r o m v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f I may s p e a k i n t h a t way, of u n i f i e d n a r r a t i v e sequence, and s u b s t i t u t e s an i n g a t h e r i n g o r c o n c a v e movement i n w h i c h t h e segments of n a r r a t i v e c o n verge at a c e n t r a l p o i n t . G i v e n a v i s u a l form t h e r e i s no i l l u s t r a t i o n w h i c h more a p t l y f i t s t h i s c o n v e r g i n g . n a r r a t i v e t h a n t h e o n e , o f the s p i d e r ' s web w h i c h H a r d y u s e d . The f i r s t a n d o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f a scheme o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was a l o n g b a l l a d s e q u e n c e , b a s e d on s e p a r a t e  e p i s o d e s i n N a p o l e o n ' s c a r e e r , such, a s The H u n d r e d Days a n d The R e t r e a t f r o m Moscow, — " A n I l i a d o f E u r o p e f r o m 1789-181.5 T h i s n o t e i s d a t e d 1875• (1) I n two y e a r s t h e i d e a h a d a d vanced from b a l l a d sequence t o g r a n d drama. F i n a l l y i t was r e s o l v e d i n a n i n d i v i d u a l way a s E p i c - D r a m a . I t was r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t h a t I t s p e r f o r m a n c e was t o b e a m e n t a l o n e . As drama The D y n a s t s i s a w i d e n i n g a n d e x p a n d i n g of a l l dramatic l i m i t s . The e p i c s c a l e o f t h e a c t i o n i s t h e f i r s t extension. S i n c e t h e d a y s o f t h e C h r o n i c l e P l a y s we h a v e become a c c u s t o m e d t o a c o n s t a n t t h i n n i n g o f d r a m a t i c m a t e r i a l a s i t was s u b j e c t e d t o t h e w e a k e n i n g demands o f c o n v e n t i o n a n d t h e a c c e l e r a t i n g tempo o f l i f e . The t e n d e n c y has been towards c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , and towards s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be p u t w i t h i n t h e compass o f moments h i g h i n d r a m a t i c , value. D i f f u s e d themes a n d s p r e a d i n g , e l o n g a t e d f o r m s h a v e passed. No drama w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e modern s t a g e h a s e v e n a s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e s c o p e o f The D y n a s t s . Time a n d space p r o h i b i t . . H a r d y was f o r c e d e i t h e r , t o g i v e up h i s theme or t o a d a p t some f o r m t o h i s n e e d s . I h a v e t r i e d >to show t h a t the e p i c form c o u l d n o t u n i f y such d i v e r s i f i e d elements as Hardy u s e d . By m a k i n g h i s drama a m e n t a l one h e e s c a p e d c o m p l e t e l y from t h e time and s p a c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t h e a t r e i n t o a w o r l d o f h i s own i n w h i c h he c o u l d do what pleased him. I n t h i s w o r l d he c o u l d make h i s s e t t i n g E u r o p e a n d h i s o p p o s i n g f o r c e s a r m i e s a n d n a t i o n s i f he w i s h e d . W i t h such heavy m a t e r i a l t h e r e c o u l d be no b i c k e r i n g o v e r moments a n d i n c h e s . The s c a l e o f t h e drama h a d t o b e r a i s e d to accomodate a r m i e s and n a t i o n s . I n s p e a k i n g o f h i s method H a r d y s a i d t h a t h i s " C h r o n i c l e p i e c e made n o a t t e m p t t o c o m p l e t e l y c o o r d i n a t e a c t i o n w i t h t h e c l o s e l y - w e b b e d development o f c h a r a c t e r a n d m o t i v e , w h i c h a r e demanded i n a drama s t r i c t l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . A s a p a n o r a m i c s h o w - l i k e t h e >>pre s e n t i s a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l " o r d i n a t e s " ( t o use a t e r m . i n geometry): the subject i s f a m i l i a r t o a l l : a n d f o r e k n o w l e d g e i s assumed t o f i l l i n t h e j u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o combine t h e . s c e n e s i n t o a n a r t i s t i c unity. S h o u l d t h e m e n t a l s p e c t a t o r be u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e t o do t h i s , a n h i s t o r i c a l p r e s e n t m e n t on a n i n t e r m i t t e n t p l a n , i n w h i c h t h e " d r a m a t i s p e r s o n a e " number some h u n d r e d s , e x c l u s i v e o f crowds a n d a r m i e s , becomes i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l . case u n s u i t a b l e . " He makes h i s p o i n t c l e a r a n d j u s t i f i e s i t by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e A t t i c Drama a n d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b a c k ground i n t h e minds o f t h e p e o p l e a g a i n s t which t h e a c t i o n of t h e Greek p l a y s moved.  It 1) 2)  " A y : b e g i n s m a l l a n d so l e a d up t o t h e g r e a t e r . i s a s o u n d d r a m a t i c p r i n c i p l e . " (2) The E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : P a r t I , A c t I , Scene 1, p . 8  p . 140  7>  T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n by t h e S p i r i t S i n i s t e r must h a v e b e e n one w h i c h H a r d y h a d p o n d e r e d w e l l , f o r he opens h i s drama w i t h e n t i r e l y m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s i n " W e s s e x " , s t r i k i n g an e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h note and merely s u g g e s t i n g the f o r c e s which a r e g a t h e r i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n to h i s main c h a r a c t e r . F o r f i v e s c e n e s h e b u i l d s up s u c c e s s i v e l y t h e E n g l i s h s p i r i t a n d t h e N a p o l e o n i c l e g e n d ' b e f o r e he b r i n g s M i l a n C a t h e d r a l , pomp a n d s p l e n d o u r , N a p o l e o n a n d t h e E m p r e s s i n t o t h e drama. T h e r e a r e many s c e n e s i n w h i c h n a t i o n a l f o r c e s o f b o t h s i d e s draw t h e m s e l v e s t o g e t h e r i n what i s r e a l l y l i t t l e more t h a n .. e l a b o r a t e stage s e t t i n g . These g i v e , h o w e v e r , a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f e a c h n a t i o n w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l and p r o v i d e a means w h e r e b y t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s s l i d e i n t o focus. The r e a l a c t i o n b e g i n s i n P a r t I A c t I Scene 4, b u t i n E n g l a n d t h e r e i s p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n s i o n , w h i c h weakens the f o r c e of h e r m i l i t a r y t h r e a t s , Austria f a l l s a victim in her f i r s t appearance to the v i c t o r i o u s Napoleon. The essen^t i a l d r a m a t i c c h e c k t o N a p o l e o n eaomes w i t h T r a f a l g a r , a n d a n a c t w h i c h , s a v i n g the t r a g i c demise o f V i l l e n e u v e , i s e n tirely English. Such c o h e r e n c e o f p l o t s t r u c t u r e a s t h e r e i s r e s t s i n the s t e a d i l y r i s i n g E n g l i s h r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h , weakened by t h e d e a t h of P i t t a n d t h e r e v e r s e s i n S p a i n , r i s e s t o a f i n a l a p e x a t the end o f P a r t I I I A c t 4, when N a p o l e o n i s c o n q u e r e d and g o e s t o E l b a . The German and R u s s i a n camp a i g n s w h i c h o c c u r i n the meantime may be c a l l e d p a r t o f the g e n e r a l d r a w i n g i n o f f o r c e s , b u t compared w i t h E n g l a n d ' s r e s i s t a n c e t h a t of the o t h e r n a t i o n s i s s p o r a d i c . N a p o l e o n , the m o t i v a t i n g d r a m a t i c f o r c e , s t e a d i l y expands h i s i n f l u e n c e a n d t r i u m p h s f r o m t h e t i m e o f t h e M i l a n ceremony t o t h a t o f the Moscow i n v a s i o n , e x c e p t i n g f o r one m a j o r c h e c k a t T r a f a l g a r a n d a m i n o r one i n S p a i n . His d r a m a t i c , c l i m a x e s a r e U l m , A u s t e r l i t z and J e n a . His pers o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a m b i t i o n s a r e shown i n t h e A u s t r i a n m a r r i a g e a n d h i s d e s i r e t o f o u n d a d y n a s t y , vrtiieh s t a n d s out i n i r o n i c r e l i e f a s he l e a v e s h i s s o n a n d h e i r t o i n v a d e Russia. H i s d o w n f a l l , l i k e h i s triumph, has three dramatic c l i m a x e s , T r a f a l g a r , Moscow a n d ' W a t e r l o o . The E l b a i m p r i s o n ment marked a d r a m a t i c l e v e l f o r a l l f o r c e s c o n c e r n e d , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h t h e y a l l . j o i n e d i n t h e movement t o w a r d s ' W a t e r l o o . The u n i t y ' o f - T h e D y n a s t s . d o e s n o t r e s t upon p l o t structure. I t i s a c h i e v e d by e x t e n d i n g drama t o t h e s c o p e o f panorama a n d by p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l e n t l e s s f o r c e s a n d t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h a r e b e h i n d a l l human a c t i o n i n t h e g u i s e o f metaphysical conceptions. W i t h i n t h e human drama t h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , two u n i f y i n g f o r c e s , w h i c h a r e N a p o l e o n and t h e English national consciousness. These e n t e r i n t o c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n a n d a s s u c h w i l l be somewhat e x p a n d e d . The o t h e r u n i f y i n g element i s H i s t o r y . I n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r , the a u t h o r h a s b e e n most p a i n s t a k i n g and c a r e f u l . The drama i s h i s t o r i c a l not o n l y i n i t s - m a i n a c t i o n , but .also i n p e r s o n a g e , document, d e t a i l a n d s e t t i n g .  I n g e n e r a l the w o r l d which Hardy p r e s e n t s i s satisfying. Man i s i n h i s c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n ; v a r y i n g t y p e s are presented i n r e l a t i v e importance. I n f i n i t e numbers o f a c t o r s , shown i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d i n t h e m a s s , b u i l d up a n i m p r e s s i o n o f swarming h u m a n i t y w h i c h i s c l e a r l y h e l d , a n d w h i c h i s so h e l d i n i t s t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s . No s i n g l e h e r o holds the stage f o r longer than h i s l i n e s p e r m i t . Character o f n e c e s s i t y r e c e i v e s t h e s c a n t e r a t t e n t i o n t h a t panorama demands. Napoleon as the s u b j e c t o f b u r n i n g a m b i t i o n i s shown i n t h e s c e n e s w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e A u s t r i a n m a r r i a g e a n d the d i v o r c e o f J o s e p h i n e . H i s i n g r a t i t u d e to V i l l e n e u v e and Ney i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a n a b s o l u t e i n d i f f e r e n c e t o s u f f e r i n g . The l a t t e r q u a l i t y i s shown t h r o u g h t h e s c e n e s w h i c h f o l l o w h i s abandonment•Of t h e r e m n a n t s o f t h e army w h i c h I n v a d e d R u s s i a , and h i s unbending r u t h l e s s n e s s towards the conquered. Once o r t w i c e o n l y , h e shows human w e a k n e s s . He i s a l m o s t won o v e r by l o u i s e o f P r u s s i a . He i s w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e a d y n a s t y t o the l i f e o f M a r i e L o u i s e . When h e f i n d s t h a t t h e dynamic f o r c e w h i c h i s w i t h i n h i m h a s r e a c h e d i t s downf a l l , he i s f o r t h e t i m e d a z e d a n d c r u s h e d i n t h e manner o f more o r d i n a r y m e n . H i s t e r r i f i c v i t a l i t y , h o w e v e r , a n d t h e sense o f r u t h l e s s f o r c e w h i c h t h a t v i t a l i t y g i v e s , i s a l l pervading. The m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e c o n q u e r o r i s h a r d t o b l o t o u t , b u t i t i s weakened d r a m a t i c a l l y by H a r d y V p h i l o s o phy. T h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the p u r e l y d r a m a t i c e l e m e n t s o f The. . D y n a s t s . Again and again there are r e f e r e n c e s t o the c o m p u l s i o n w h i c h unseen f o r c e s b r i n g t o b e a r upon the actors. This p h i l o s o p h y puts the l i n e s " L i f e ' s curse begins I s e e , w i t h h e l p l e s s n e s s 1" ( l ) i n t h e mouth o f N a p o l e o n * I t f l a v o r s somewhat t h e human s i d e o f N a p o l e o n ' s a s p i r a t i o n s a s t h e y a r e shown i n a m a g n i f i c e n t p a s s a g e i n t h e l a s t a c t o f t h e human d r a m a . " I h a v e n o t h i n g more t o l o s e But l i f e 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . I s h o u l d have s c o r e d A vast repute, scarce p a r a l l e d i n time, As i t d i d n o t , t h e f a t e s h a d s e r v e d me b e s t I f i n t h e t h i c k and thunder of today, Like Nelson, Harold, Hector, Cyrus, Saul, I h a d been s h i f t e d from t h i s j a i l o f f l e s h , To wander a s a g r e a t e n e d g h o s t e l s e w h e r e , Y e s , a g o o d d e a t h , t o have d i e d p u i y o n d e r f i e l d ; B u t n e v e r a b a l l came p a s s i n g down my w a y . S o , a s i t i s , a s m i s s - m a r k t h e y w i l l dub me; And y e t — I f o u n d t h e crown o f F r a n c e i n t h e m i r e , And w i t h t h e p o i n t o f my p r e v a i l i n g sword I p i c k e d i t u p l But f o r a l l t h i s and t h i s I s h a l l be n o t h i n g To s h o u l d e r C h r i s t f r o m o u t t h e t o p m o s t n i c h e (1)  Part  I I I , A c t V I I , Scene  6, p . ^04  77  I n human f a m e , a s onee I f o n d l y f e l t , Was n o t f o r me. I came t o o l a t e I n t i m e To assume the p r o p h e t or t h e d e m i - g o d , A p a r t p a s t , p l a y i n g now. My o n l y c o u r s e To make g o o d showance t o p o s t e r i t y Was t o i m p l a n t my l i n e u p o n t h e t h r o n e , And how shape t h a t , i f now e x t e n s i o n n e a r s ? G r e a t men a r e m e t e o r s t h a t consume t h e m s e l v e s To l i g h t the e a r t h . T h i s i s my b u r n t - o u t h o u r . " ( l ) . J o s e p h i n e i s , l i k e M a r i e , a pawn, b u t h e r h i s t o r y and a c e r t a i n p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r value are g r e a t l y strengthened i n her f i n a l scene. T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , somet h i n g about h e r p a t h e t i c l o y a l t y and h e r r e f u s a l to b e l i e v e e v i l o f N a p o l e o n t h a t makes one t h i n k o f F a l s t a f f a n d H e n r y . She i s d y i n g . F i r s t Lady: Josephine: First  Lady:  Josephine:  " I t h i n k I h e a r d you. s p e a k , y o u r m a j e s t y ? " " I a s k e d what h o u r i t was - - i f dawn o r eve;?" "Ten i n t h e m o r n i n g , Madame, Y o u f o r g e t Y o u a s k e d t h e same b u t a b r i e f w h i l e a g o . " "Did I? I t h o u g h t i t was so l o n g ago I . . . . I w i s h e d t o go t o E l b a w i t h h i m much, B u t t h e A l l i e s p r e v e n t e d me 1 And why? I w o u l d n o t have d i s g r a c e d h i m , o r themselves I w o u l d have gone to h i m a t F o n t a i n e b l e a u , W i t h my e i g h t h o r s e s a n d my h o u s e h o l d train, I n d i g n i t y , a n d q u i t t e d h i m no more A l t h o u g h I am h i s w i f e no l o n g e r now, I t h i n k I s h o u l d have gone i n s p i t e o f them, Had I n o t f e a r e d p e r v e r s i o n s m i g h t be sown B e t w e e n h i m a n d t h e woman o f h i s c h o i c e F o r whom he s a c r i f i c e d m e . " ;  s on t h u s :  She  speaks  of Marie  Louise  and o f  Napoleon's  "I a l s o s a i d T h a t when my arms were r o u n d h i m , I f o r g o t T h a t I was n o t h i s m o t h e r . So spoke I , B u t oh me ~ I remembered i t t o o w e l l ! He was a l o v e l y c h i l d : i n h i s f o n d p r a t e H i s f a t h e r ' s v o i c e was e l o q u e n t . " She g o e s on t h i n k i n g o f h e r f l i r t a t i o n s a n d , r e g r e t t i n g t h e m , a t t e m p t s t o w r i t e t o N a p o l e o n t o t e l l him so - - but cannot. A s h e r s t r e n g t h f a i l s , she s a y s : (1)  Part  III,  Act V I I ,  Scene  9, p .  >19  78  " T e l l him T e l l him The  these t h i n g s I have s a i d — h e a r h i m ray l o v e — —- I c o u l d n o t w r i t e 1" ( l )  passage i s superb c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  B u t t h e r e a r e few c o m p l e t e f e m i n i n e e h a r a c t e r i z a - ' t i o n s i n t h e drama. M a r i e L o u i s e i s n e v e r more t h a n a pawn. The E n g l i s h women a p p e a r s p a s m o d i c a l l y a n d a r e g i v e n no v i t a l parts. Louise of P r u s s i a i s a s t r i k i n g f i g u r e but her pers o n a l t r a i t s a r e n o t b r o u g h t out c l e a r l y . The two women who a r e somewhat c o m p l e t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d a r e J o s e p h i n e and t h e P a r i s i a n p r o s t i t u t e . (2) I n the case of t h e l a t t e r the imp r e s s i o n i s f l e e t i n g b u t s t r o n g . H a r d y h a s done a g r e a t d e a l w i t h a few. l i n e s . The p a r e n t h e s i s i n the' f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the p o i n t . Woman "But  she's i n s t r a i t s .  She's l o s t h e r  Napoleon mow,  (A w o r t h y man; He l o v e d a woman w e l l i ) George d r o o l s and b a b b l e s i n a d a r k e n e d room, Her h e a v e n - b o r n m i n i s t e r d e c l i n e s a p a c e ; A l l s m o o t h s t h e E m p e r o r ' s sway." I have quoted from the words o f N a p o l e o n and J o s e p h i n e r a t h e r a t l e n g t h i n a n e f f o r t t o show H a r d y ' s s k i l l i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The s c o p e o f t h e drama a l l o w e d l i t t l e d e t a i l i n t h a t r e g a r d but what t h e r e i s i s e x c e l l e n t l y h a n d l e d . H a r d y a c h i e v e s a g r e a t d e a l w i t h few words.. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f W e l l i n g t o n , t h e P r i n c e Regent, and P r i n c e KutuTzof, t h e R u s s i a n F i e l d M a r s h a l l a r e i n s t a n c e s i n p o i n t . An e q u a l ' s k i l l h a s b u i l t up what m i g h t be t e r m e d a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n of each n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The m e t h o d used i s d i f f e r e n t , f o r having accomplished i n d i v i d u a l charact e r i z a t i o n i n a few b o l d s t r o k e s , H a r d y b u i l d s up n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r by a d d i n g d e t a i l t o d e t a i l . The s e e n e s w h i c h a r e not s p e c i f i c a l l y p a n o r a m i c or d r a m a t i c i n e f f e c t a r e d e v o t e d mainly to t h i s purpose. T h e y v a r y g r e a t l y ; some a r e o f h i g h l i f e ; some a r e o f l o w . There a r e P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e s , p a l a c e s c e n e s and s t r e e t s c e n e s . There i s the g l i t t e r and pomp o f s t a t i o n a n d t h e f a t i g u e a n d m i s e r y o f t h e common soldier. The d i v e r s i t y o f w h i c h I s p e a k i s shown by t h e s c e n e i n L o n d o n , i n t h e " O l d H o u s e o f Commons" a s S h e r i d a n a n d P i t t d e b a t e . (;>) I t i s shown by d i v e r s i f i e d t y p e s o f t h e M i l i t a r y R e v i e w on t h e "Down" (4) when t h e K i n g a n d h i s r e t i n u e a p p e a r a n d when c u r i o u s "Wessex" s p e c t a t o r s w a t c h  the Review. P r u s s i a emerges n a t i o n a l l y t h r o u g h s c e n e s on t h e " S t r e e t s o f B e r l i n " ( l ) a n d i n t h e s c e n e d e s i g n a t e d a s "A Room,overlooking a P u b l i c P l a c e " (2), from which Napoleon's 'triumphant entry i s 'observed. The same p a i n s t a k i n g c a r e b u i l d s up e a c h n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r . There are b a l l s such as t h e famous one i n B r u s s e l s (3) and t h e one w h i c h N a p o l e o n a t t e n d e d i n P a r i s (4), and there i s a f e t e at V a u x h a l l Gardens (5) a n d a scene a t the O p e r a ( b ) . I have a l l u d e d p r e v i o u s l y to s t r e e t scenes i n both P a r i s and London. The w i d e s u r v e y o f h u m a n i t y w h i c h i s t a k e n i n t h e s c e n e s I h a v e i n s t a n c e d i s t h e t a n g i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f one phase o f H a r d y ' s g e n i u s . The same, p h a s e was e x h i b i t e d i n t h e n o t e w h i c h f o l l o w s - - "To i n s e c t s t h e t w e l v e month h a s b e e n an epoch, to l e a v e s a l i f e , to t w e e t i n g b i r d s a g e n e r a t i o n , t o man a y e a r . " ( 7 ) ' T h i s shows t h e s e n s e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d p r o p o r t i o n w h i c h s o r t e d . o u t and p r e s e n t e d t h e many t y p e s o f p e o p l e a n d t h e d i v e r s i f i e d b a c k g r o u n d s o f The D y n a s t s . T h i s same s e n s e o f p r o p o r t i o n and r e l a t i o n g i v e s the k n o w l e d g e , i n a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d p o e t r y a l i k e , w h i c h makes' t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s t r o n g enough t o c a r r y t h e v a u l t e d h e i g h t s o f t h e comp l e t e d work. T h i s s e n s e o f p r o p o r t i o n was i n t e g r a l i n H a r d y . I t was p a r t o f t h e i n n e r - e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h made h i s p o e t r y . I t gave t h a t p o e t r y c o h e s i o n and s t r e n g t h . It resolved into a s e n s e o f f o r m w h i c h i s one o f the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s of h i s s t y l e . The o p e n i n g p r o s e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n "two columns o f s h i p s a p p e a r i n f u l l s a i l , s m a l l a s moths t o t h e a e r i a l V i s i o n " (8) w i t h t h e . l i n e s w h i c h f o l l o w , shows n o t o n l y a s e n s e o f p e r s p e c t i v e b u t a sense o f p r o p r i e t y a s w e l l . It i s t h e l a t t e r w h i c h I am c o n s i d e r i n g . The c h a n t o f t h e i n t o n i n g R e c o r d i n g a n g e l immediately p l a c e s the s p e c t r a l f o r c e s o u t s i d e the a c t u a l drama o f l i f e y e t makes t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t e d wisdom a s o r t o f p r o p h e c y a s t o t h e outcome o f t h e s t r u g g l e . The s e n s e o f p r o p r i e t y i m m e d i a t e l y s h i f t s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w t o the v e r y m i d d l e o f t h e a c t i o n a s t h e f l e e t s draw i n t o battle. A t t h e same t i m e t h e p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n s h i f t s f r o m t h e l y r i c a l monotone a n d m u s i c a l rhymed v e r s e o f t h e u n e a r t h l y b e i n g s t o t h e r h y t h m s o f a c t u a l s p e e c h w h i c h make t h e c o l l o q u i a l b l a n k v e r s e spoken i n the a c t u a l drama. This b l a n k v e r s e marks a change i n b o t h ' r h y t h m a n d c h a r a c t e r , f o r (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (b) (7) (8)  P a r t I I , A c t I , Scene 3, p . 153 P a r t I I , A c t I , Scene 5, p . 160 P a r t I I I , A c t V I , Scene 2, p . 454 P a r t I I , A c t V , Scene 1, p . 253 P a r t I I I , A c t I I , Scene 4,' p . 372 P a r t I I I , A c t I V , Scene 8, p . 424 . The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 72 P a r t I , A c t V , S e e n e i , 1, p . 8 l  H a r d y s y n c h r o n i z e s speech, a n d n a t i o n a l s u c h u n c o u t h i m a g e s as t h i s — •  characteristics  "The o v e r c r o w d e d : s a i l s B u l g e l i k e b l o w n bladder*" i n a t r i p e m a n ' s The m a r k e t - m o r n i n g a f t e r s l a u g h t e r day I" petty  in  shop  I t i s a French view of E n g l i s h i n s o l e n c e but ao f f i c e r ' s m u t t e r e d r e s p o n s e makes t h e image s i n i s t e r . " I t ' s morning before slaughterday with I make so b o l d t o bode I"  us,  T h i s sense o f p r o p r i e t y keeps the c h a r a c t e r o f H e l s o n c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t i n s p i t e o f t h e d i n o f b a t t l e . I t a l s o p u t s the i d i o m o f a n a t i o n of gourmants i n k e e p i n g w i t h the n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n p h r a s e s which speak o f f o o d a n d t h e " c o o k ' s skimmer" a s the f l e e t s e n g a g e . It c a r r i e s "Wessex" i n t o a c t i o n w i t h a y o u n g o f f i c e r a s he says to Helson: " T h a t f e l l o w i n t h e m i z z e n - t o p , my l o r d , Who made i t h i s a f f a i r t o w i n g y o u t h u s , We t o o k g o o d c a r e t o s e t t l e ; a n d he f e l l l i k e a n o l d r o o k , smack f r o m h i s p e r c h , S t o n e deadf." How p e r f e c t I How c o n s i s t e n t l y a n d t r u l y "Wessex" I As the time o f N e l s o n ' s p a s s i n g n e a r s e m o t i o n a l t e n s e n e s s i n c r e a s e s i n t h e w o r d s o f a l l who s p e a k ; . t h e b l a n k v e r s e b e comes more b r o k e n i n t h e r h y t h m . F i n a l l y — the C h a p l a i n ' s 6 s• • • • • • • • « • • • • • • he h a s homed t o where T h e r e ' s no more s e a l "  r a i s e s the o l d a n d u n i v e r s a l image o f a c l o s i n g l i f e a b o u t w h i c h Requiem a n d C r o s s i n g t h e B a r h a v e t h r o w n the s p e l l o f their- e x q u i s i t e music. The p a s s a g e i s p e r f e c t a n d s a t i s f y i n g a n d i n t h a t t h e moment i s so s i m p l y p u t , i n t h a t n o p o e t i c g l a m o u r b l u r s the i m a g e , i n t h a t the n o u n h a s c h a n g e d to v e r b , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t y p i c a l of Hardy. The consummate a r t w h i c h w i t h a few b o l d s t r o k e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s b o t h N e l s o n and C a p t a i n H a r d y so p e r f e c t l y a l s o •presents the m e t a p h y s i c a l personages s u p e r b l y . The r a p i d , b r o k e n speech rhythms o f blank v e r s e , which have been used f o r the human a c t i o n g i v e way t o more s t a t e l y v e r s e s a s t h e s p i r i t of the P i t i e s s p e a k s . T h i s S p i r i t put f o r t h s h o r t l y the f l a w i n w o r l d l y arrangements a g a i n s t which Hardy r e b e l s . I t i s done i n a b l a n k v e r s e speechoff o u r t e e n l i n e s w h i c h c o n t e n d s t h a t a m e c h a n i z e d u n i v e r s e s h o u l d n o t g o v e r n a n emot i o n a l i z e d man. The l i n e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h what m i g h t be  termed a cosmic v o c a b u l a r y s i n c e w i t h Hardy the v o c a b u l a r y a r i s e s a t the moment w h e n . h i s v i e w c h a n g e s f r o m t h e human sphere to cosmic r e l a t i o n s . The words u s e d a r e l o n g e r , u s u a l l y o f h e a v i e r v o w e l c o n t e n t ; sometimes t h e y a r e s c i e n t i f i c or n e a r l y so a s i n '''mechanized", " c o i l " , " p i v o t s " ; t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y t y p i c a l o f the p h i l o s o p h y a s " n e c e s s i t a t i o n " a n d " g o v e r n a n c e " p r o v e ; sometimes, t h e y s o u n d t h e n o t e o f r e v o l t w h i c h the s t r a n g e p h r a s e "thorough sphered m e l o d i c r u l e " , s u g g e s t s when i n i t s p r o p e r c o n t e x t . These same w o r d s a r e n e a r l y a l w a y s muted t o the n o t e o f n e g a t i o n w h i c h was m e n t i o n e d a s t y p i c a l o f the l y r i c mood, b y some s u c h w o r d a s " i n e x i s t " , o r by t h e d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f i n s e n t i e n t w i l l w h i c h comes w i t h p a s s a g e s l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g : "The c o g n i z a n c e y e m o u r n , l i f e ' s doom t o f e e l , I f I r e p o r t i t m e e t l y , came unmeant E m e r g i n g w i t h b l i n d g r o p e s from i m p e r e i p i e n c e By l i s t l e s s s e q u e n c e — l u c k l e s s t r a g i c c h a n c e , I n y o u r , more human t o n g u e . " • The words w h i c h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y g i v e the e f f e c t of n e g a t i o n i n t h i s passage a r e "unmeant", " i m p e r e i pience" , " l i s t l e s s " , "luckless". These words added t o " c o g n i z a n c e " , "doom", " b l i n d g r o p e s " , a n d " t r a g i c c h a n c e " make up t h e c o s m i c v o c a b u l a r y o f the p a s s a g e . H a r d y ' s humour i s nowhere more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a n i n t h e s c e n e , m a i n l y p r o s e , w h i c h marks t h e r e t u r n o f N e l s o n ' s body t o h i s n a t i v e l a n d . The t y p i c a l E n g l i s h m a n o f t h e l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s i s h e r e shown a s boatman a n d b u r g h e r meet i n .an i n n ( l ) a n d a s two L o n d o n c i t i z e n s c h a t on t h e s t r e e t , (2) i n s c e n e s w h i c h a r e l a i d i n " S o u t h V/essex" and "The G u i l d h a l l , L o n d o n . " The f o l l o w i n g w e l l - k n o w n passage w i l l serve t o i l l u s t r a t e : •  F i r s t Boatman ( l o w e r i n g h i s v o i c e ) "But what h a p p e n e d was t h i s . They were a l o n g t i m e c o m i n g , owing t o c o n t r a r y w i n d s , a n d the " v i c t o r y " b e i n g l i t t l e more t h a n a w r e c k . And g r o g r a n s h o r t , b e c a u s e t h e y ' s u s e d n e a r a l l they had t o p e c k l e h i s body i n . Bot h ey b r o a c h e d t h e a d m ' l . " Sec ond B u r g h e r . "How?" •First Boatman. ' " f t e l l ; the p l a i n c a l e n d a r of i t i s , t h a t when he came t o be u n h o o p e d , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e crew h a d d r u n k him d r y . What was t h e men t o d o ? B r o k e down by t h e b a t t l e , a n d h a r d l y - a b l e to keep a f l o a t , ' t w a s a most d e p e n d a b l e t h i n g , and i t f a i r l y saved t h e i r l i v e s . So he was t h e i r s a l v a t i o n (1) (2)  Part Part  I, I,  Act Y, Act V,  Scene 7, Scene 5,  p. p.  10b 100  a f t e r d e a t h as he-had been i n the f i g h t . I f he c o u l d h a v e : laiowed i t , ' t w o u l d h a v e p l e a s e d hi-me down t o t h e g r o u n d I How'a w o u l d h a v e l a u g h e d t h r o u g h t h e s p i g o t - h o l e . "Draw o n , my h e a r t i e s ! B e t t e r - 1 s h r i v e l t h a n y o u f a m i s h I H a - h a I""  ashore."  Second B u r g h e r . " I t may be d e p e n d a b l e  afloat;  but  it  seems  queer  S u c h humour i s n o t e l e v a t i n g b u t i t i s a m u s i n g a n d the e f f e c t w h i c h i t g i v e s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by t h e r u s t i c c h o r u s i n F a r From t h e M a d d i n g C r o w d . The humour c h a n g e s t o s t a r k r e a l i t y i n a l a t e r s c e n e , t h a t o f the d r u n k e n ' d e s e r t e r s i n S p a i n , ( l ) w h i c h has b u t one r e d e e m i n g c o n t r a s t , t h a t f u r n i s h e d by t h e h e r o i c c o u g h i n g s e r g e a n t . (2) T h i s same r e a l i s m c a r r i e s t h r o u g h a g r e a t number o f s c e n e s d e a l i n g w i t h the S p a n i s h c a m p a i g n . It furnishes high r e l i e f ; i t i s d r a m a t i c but i t i s s c a r c e l y -poetry. I t shows t h e a b s o l u t e f r e e d o m , h o w e v e r , w i t h w h i c h H a r d y manages h i s m a t e r i a l a n d i t i s one o f t h e means by w h i c h he m a i n t a i n s a s e n s e o f - r e a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p o r t a theme and a c t i o n so extensive. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y z e The D y n a s t s w i t h o u t c o m p l e t e t e d i o u s n e s s s i n c e the s c o p e o f t h e drama a l m o s t i n s i s t s t h a t i t be i t s own a r g u m e n t . I have b e e n s e e k i n g m e r e l y t o show the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h i c h H a r d y k e p t h i s main t h r e a d s c l e a r . I n g e n e r a l t h e n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s emerge clearly. While there i s a c e r t a i n sparseness i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h e few c h a r a c t e r s - w h o a r e c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a r e astonishingly alive.. The b a t t l e w h i c h i n o l d e r dramas h a s been b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s , o r i f p r e s e n t h a s a p p e a r e d a s mere b u r l e s q u e becomes m a g n i f i c e n t s p e c t a c l e i n The D y n a s t s . I t becomes a m a i n m o t i f o f p l o t a s c o n v e r g i n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e almost too g i g a n t i c to v i s u a l i z e marches i n t o our c o n sciousness. The f i n a l s u c c e s s o f t h i s d r a m a t i c p r o c e s s w h i c h u n f o l d s i n such s t a r t l i n g f a s h i o n r e s t s upon i t s panoramic c h a r a c t e r , u p o n t h e f r i n g e s o f w h i c h ' w e have t o u c h e d . Even the heavens e n l a r g e : "The n e t h e r sky opens a n d E u r o p e i s d i s c l o s e d a s a p r o n e and e m a c i a t e d f i g u r e , the A l p s s h a p i n g l i k e a b a c k bone , and the b r a n c h i n g m o u n t a i n - c h a i n s l i k e r i b s , t h e p e n i n s u l a r p l a t e a u of S p a i n f o r m i n g a h e a d . B r o a d and l e n g t h y l o w l a n d s s t r e t c h f r o m the n o r t h o f F r a n c e a c r o s s R u s s i a l i k e a g r e y - g r e e n g a r m e n t , hemmed by t h e U r a l M o u n t a i n s a n d t h e g l i s t e n i n g A r c t i c Ocean. (1) (2)  Part Part  I I , Act I I , Act  III, III,  Scene 1, Scene 1,  p. p.  206 20'/  210  85  "The p o i n t o f v i e w s i n k s downward t h r o u g h s p a c e , a n d draws n e a r t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p e r t u r b e d c o u n t r i e s , where t h e p e o p l e s , d i s t r e s s e d by e v e n t s w h i c h t h e y d i d n o t cause a r e seen w r i t h i n g , c r a w l i n g , h e a v i n g and v i b r a t i n g i n t h e i r v a r i o u s c i t i e s and n a t i o n a l i t i e s . " "A new a n d p e n e t r a t i n g l i g h t d e s c e n d s on t h e s p e c t a c l e , i m b u i n g men a n d t h i n g s w i t h a s e e m i n g t r a n s p a r e n c y , a n d e x h i b i t i n g a s one o r g a n i s m the anatomy o f l i f e a n d m o v e ment i n a i l h u m a n i t y a n d v i t a l i z e d m a t t e r i n c l u d e d i n the display." (l) Such i s the s e t t i n g , n o t o n l y p a n o r a m i c b u t s u f f u s e d b y a s t r a n g e a n d u n e a r t h l y l i g h t w h i c h makes v i t a l i z e d m a t t e r t r a n s p a r e n t a n d w h i c h r e v e a l s the i n n e r a n d a n i m a t i n g Immanent W i l l . A s e t t i n g of t h i s k i n d i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c . By t h e r u s e o f i l l u s i o n H a r d y c o n v e y s i n a s t r i k i n g l y v i s u a l c o n c e p t i o n the essence of the a b s t r a c t i d e a s t h a t e x p r e s s u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s to him. I n e x t e n d i n g the l i m i t s o f t h e a c t i o n to v a s t h e i g h t s o f s k y h e n o t o n l y g e t s t h e c o s m i c . r e l a t i v i t y w h i c h he d e s i r e s b u t he a t t a i n s a v i s u a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s w h i c h c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n no o t h e r way. The i m a g i n a t i o n o f Thomas H a r d y h a s a c h i e v e d i n l i t e r a t u r e what a e r i a l photography achieved f o r s c i e n c e . It gives a far and d i m i n i s h i n g view and l i k e photography p r e s e n t s a s p r e a d out f l a t t e n e d g e o g r a p h y i n w h i c h t h e eye,- a c c u s t o m e d t o b o t h n a t u r a l a n d c a r e f u l l y a r r a n g e d p e r s p e c t i v e , f i n d s no v a n i s h ing point. This q u a l i t y of f l a t n e s s g i v e s a strange l a t e r a l sameness w h i c h w o u l d be d e a d e n i n g w e r e i t n o t r e l i e v e d b y t h e c o n t r a s t s p r o v i d e d by c o s m i c and n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . When., a s he s o m e t i m e s d o e s , H a r d y s t e p s f r o m t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o t h a t o f a g o d o r a modern m a c h i n e he g i v e s h i m s e l f a p o e t i c l i c e n s e t h a t h a s n o t b e e n t a k e n s i n c e Dante d e s c e n d e d i n t o H e l l a n d M i l t o n a s c e n d e d t o the H e a v e n s . I t i s the p e c u l i a r p r e r o g a t i v e o f g r e a t g e n i u s t o see t h u s out o f the a c t u a l w o r l d i n t o a w o r l d w i t h o u t bounds made by t h e mind for i t s e l f . The p a n o r a m i c scene i s u s e d t o show movements o f a r m i e s - - f a r and n e a r . I t i n v a r i a b l y i n t e n s i f i e s the t r u e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . • An i n s t a n c e i n p o i n t i s t h e s c e n e i n w h i c h G e n e r a l Mack s u r r e n d e r s h i s s w o r d t o N a p o l e o n a f t e r the B a t t l e of Ulm. (2) The A u s t r i a n o f f i c e r s l a y down t h e i r , swords. T h e n f o l l o w s the l o n g f i l i n g p a s t o f t h e A u s t r i a n s o l d i e r s w h i c h i s s u g g e s t e d by e v e r l e s s e n i n g p r o s e d i r e c t i o n s t h r o u g h a n e n t i r e l o n g s c e n e w h i c h i n c l u d e s b o t h a c t u a l and spectral personages. The f i l i n g p a s t marks' a p e r p e t u a l movement b e f o r e N a p o l e o n a n d h i s s t a f f w h i c h s i g n i f i e s b o t h the power o f t h e man a n d t h e c o l o s s a l t r a g e d i e s w h i c h he c a u s e s . I t g i v e s a n a l m o s t m o n o t o n o u s sense o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y a n d c a l l s up u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h e a u t o m a t i c f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e human w i l l (-1) (2)  Part Part  I, I,  Foreseene, p. A c t I V , Scene  6 4,  p.  74  which Hardy wishes t o emphasize. An e x h i b i t i o n o f the same k i n d : comes i n dumb show a s N a p o l e o n u r g e s h i s a r m i e s o v e r the Danube. (1) At the f i e l d of Waterloo the extended view shows . . a c t u a l d r a m a t i c c o n f l i c t a s one army s u r g e s a g a i n s t the o t h e r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e l a s t a c t o f t h e drama t h e v i e w p > p i i i t l p e r p e t u a l l y . h o v e r s above t h e F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h p o s i t i o n s i n s u c h a way a s t o p r e s e n t t h e e n t i r e a c t i o n simultaneously. ( 2 ) Such a v i e w p o i n t o v e r c o m e s n o t o n l y d i s tance but t i m e . The p o e t r y o f The D y n a s t s i s s i m p l y a c a r r y i n g " on o f t h e t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h have been n o t e d i n t h e l y r i c a n d dramatic v e r s e . The b l a n k v e r s e h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d sometimes f o r i t s l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n and i t s l e v e l tone. . I h a v e t r i e d t o show t h a t t h e c o l l o q u i a l l a n g u a g e i n some p a r t s h a s b e e n one means o f p e r s o n a l a n d n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The . l e v e l t o n e h a s , I t h i n k , b e e n a d o p t e d c o n s c i o u s l y a s a means o f t h r o w i n g t h e l y r i c p o e t r y o f t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l superstructure into striking r e l i e f . The b l a n k v e r s e , w h i l e l a c k i n g i n the t h u n d e r i n g g l o r y of t h e language o f T a m b u r l a i n e , i s s t i l l a d e q u a t e f o r the purposes o f t h e p o e t . H a r d y does n o t s i n g a g l o r i o u s w o r l d n o r o f some o n e , comp e l l i n g , v i t a l u r g e w i t h i n man s u c h a s t h e l u s t o f power i n Tamburlaine or the g r e e d o f knowledge i n D r . F a u s t u s . He i s p r e s e n t i n g a n i d e a l i z a t i o n w h i c h d e a l s w i t h man i n p h a s e s o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h show h i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s b e f o r e c o s m i c f o r c e s a n d w h i c h t h w a r t h i s e f f o r t s a t e n f o r c i n g h i s own w i l l . N a p o l e o n ' s l u s t f o r power d r o v e h i m on a n d on b u t H a r d y makes i t an a t t r i b u t e not only of Napoleon but of cosmic f o r c e s as well. N a p o l e o n i s sometimes a n a u t o m a t o n . In the f i r s t a c t o f P a r t I I I , he muses t h u s : . •  "Napoleon ( w i t h sudden .despondency) That which has worked w i l l w o r k . — s i n c e L o d i .. ; ' Bridge The f o r c e I t h e n f e l t move me, moves me onw Whether I w i l l o r n o ; a n d o f t e n t i m e s A g a i n s t my b e t t e r m i n d . . . . W h y am I h e r e ? — By l a w s . i m p o s e d on me i n e x o r a b l y ! H i s t o r y makes u s e o f me t o weave h e r web To h e r l o n g w h i l e a f o r e t i m e —• f i g u r e d mesh A n d c o n t e m p l a t e d c h a r a c t e r y : no m o r e . W e l l , w a r ' s my t r a d e ; a n d whence s o e v e r s p r i n g s T h i s one i n h a n d , t h e y ' l l l a b e l i t wi t h my name J " ( 3 )  C o n s t a n t i n s i s t a n c e on m a n ' s e x i s t e n c e n a t u r a l l y t o n e s the E n t h u s i a s m , hope a n d e x u l t a t i o n i n o u t o f p l a c e i n H a r d y ' s w o r l d where 1) 2) (3)  Part Part Part  I I , A c t 17,. Scene 2, I I I , Act V I I , I I I , A c t I , Scene 9,  p. p. g.  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase o f . verse to a s i m i l a r k e y . t h e i r e x t r e m e s w o u l d seem a c e r t a i n uselessness of  234 484 330  e f f o r t makes i t s e l f a p p a r e n t . • TnWhenirije • vwish.ese t e a t o e x p r e s s t h e more i d e a l i s t i c s i d e s o f drama he a o e s so by u s i n g the s p e c t r a l personages. Sometimes, however, i n scenes s u c h a s t h e one I' h a v e a l r e a d y i n s t a n c e d o f t h e R e t r e a t f r o m Moscow, H a r d y o b t a i n s a m a g n i f i c e n t e f f e c t by m i n g l i n g r a t h e r unimaginative blank verse w i t h prose stage d i r e c t i o n s a n d s p e c t r a l comment. S o m e t i m e s t h e p o e t i c f l a v o r i s i m b e d d e d i n t h e p r o s e w h i l e t h e b l a n k v e r s e i s m e r e l y comment a t o r y or explanatory. Spirit  of the  Pities.  • "The  s t r a n g e , one-eyed, white-shakoed, s c a r r e d old man, R u t h l e s s l y h e a d i n g e v e r y o n s e t made, I seem t o r e c o g n i z e . " Spirit  of the Y e a r s .  " K u t u z o f he: The c e a s e l e s s l y — a t t a c k e d one, M i c h a e l Hey, A g a i n as" s t o u t a s t h o u , E a r t h , e v e r h a s twirnmed 1 Kutuzof, t e n years younger, would e x t i r p The i n v a d e r s , a n d o u r drama f i n i s h h e r e , W i t h B o n a p a r t e , a c a p t i v e or a c o r p s e . But he i s o l d ; " ( l ) The most i n t e n s e l y p o e t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e scene under d i s c u s s i o n l i e i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the " f l a k e o f snow" a n d t h e l i k e n i n g o f t h e r e t r e a t i n g army t o a " c a t e r p i l l a r " , a n d t h e r a b b l e w h i c h f o l l o w e d i t t o "an a r t i culated t a i l " . These a r e imbedded i n s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h p r e c e d e and f o l l o w t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d . The p a s s a g e i s a t y p i c a l one. I t h a s t h e u s u a l s m a t t e r i n g o f compounds i n "one-eyed", " w h i t e - s h a k o e d " , and " c e a s e l e s s l y - a t t a c k e d " , and f r e q u e n t l y s h o r t e n e d v e r b a l form i n " e x t i r p " , but i t has l i t t l e significance i n i t s e l f . I n i t s c o n t e x t i t i s t h e one n o t e o f human drama e v e n t h o u g h i t comes f r o m a s p i r i t . The g e n e r a l t o n e i s s e t by p a n o r a m a a n d m e t a p h y s i c s . In the next s c e n e , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no b l a n k v e r s e w h a t e v e r . The w h o l e s c e n e i s s p e c t r a l . ' The v e r s e s a r e c o u p l e t s and t e r c e t s , w h i c h f o r m a b e a u t i f u l a n d u n e a r t h l y comment. Chorus "Then women a r e s e e n i n t h e w a t e r f l o w l i m p l y b e a r i n g t h e i r i n f a n t s between w i z e n e d arms s t r e t c h i n g a b o v e ; Yea, motherhood, s h e e r l y sublime i n h e r L a s t d e s p a i r i n g , and l i g h t i n g h e r d a r k e s t (1)  P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 9, p .  352  Declension with  limitless  love.  u  (1)  The C h o r u s i s t h e s p e c t r a l comment, a s the b r i d g e o v e r t h e B e r e s i n a g o e s down. The l o n g s u s t a i n e d r h y t h m s of* t h e e i g h t - s t r e s s a n a p e s t i c v e r s e s g i v e way t o the s h o r t e r v e r s e s of the t e r c e t s w h e r e i n a n a p e s t s and d a c t y l s m i n g l e thus: Semi. C h o r u s  I o f the P i t i e s '  (aerial  music)  "What w i l l be s e e n i n t h e m o r n i n g l i g h t ? What w i l l be l e a r n t when t h e s p r i n g b r e a k s b r i g h And t h e f r o s t u n l o c k s t o t h e s u n ' s s o f t s i g h t . " Semi C h o r u s  II  "Death i n a thousand motley forms; C h a r r e d c o r p s e s h o o k i n g e a c h o t h e r ' s arms In the s l e e p that d e f i e s a l l w a r ' s alarms I" Chorus "Pale c y s t s of s o u l s i n every stage, S t i l l b e n t t o embraces o f l o v e o r r a g e , — S o u l s p a s s e d t o where H i s t o r y p e n s no p a g e . " again there  In the f o l l o w i n g i s blank v e r s e . First "What  --  scene  Soldier  gone,  there  i s greater  realism;  (dazed)  do y o u s a y ?  Cone?"  Straggler " Y e a , I s a y gone 1 He l e f t u s . a t 3morgoni h o u r s a g o . The S a c r e d S q u a d r o n e v e n he h a s l e f t b e h i n d , -By t h i s t i m e h e ' s a t Warsaw o r b e y o n d , F u l l pace f o r P a r i s . " (3) T h i s r a t h e r u n i n s p i r e d passage r e s u l t s macabre a n d p e r f e c t "Mad S o l d i e r ' s S o n g . " " H a , f o r the snow and h o a r I H o , f o r o u r f o r t u n e ' s made 1 We c a n shape o u r b e d w i t h o u t (1) (2) (3)  Part Part Part  III, I'll, III,  Act Act Act  I, I, I,  Scene 10, Scene 10, Scene 11,  p. p. p.  356 356 357  sheets  to  (2)  in  the  spread,  And our g r a v e s w i t h o u t a s p a d e . So f o o l i s h l i f e a d i e u , And i n g r a t e L e a d e r t o o . a h , out we l o v e d y o u t r u e I Yet — he-he-he 1 and h o - h o - h o l — W e ' l l n e v e r r e t u r n . t o fcou. What c a n we w i s h f o r m o r e ? Thanks t o the f r o s t and f l o o d — V/e a r e g r i n n i n g c r o n e s — t h i n h a g s Who once were f l e s h and b l o o d . So f o o l i s h l i f e a d i e u And i n g r a t e l e a d e r t o o - - oh b u t we l o v e d y o u t r u e ! Y e t - - h e - h e - h e I and h o - h o - h o i — We'11 n e v e r r e t u r n t o y o u . " (1)  of  hones .  T h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e r a p i d movement a n d the s t r o n g beat o f d a c t y l s i n the opening f e e t of the f i r s t two v e r s e s w h i c h e n a b l e s t h i s song t o g i v e b o t h a n a u d i b l e and v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n . The s o l d i e r ' s w i l d d a n c e o f d e a t h i s s y m b o l i c o f t h e w h o l e R e t r e a t f r o m Moscow. With the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a b i t of r e f r a i n stanzas the verses vary i n l e n g t h b u t t h e s i n g l e l o n g v e r s e m i g h t be b r o k e n i n t o two s h o r t e r ones s i n c e t h e r e a r e i n t e r i o r rhymes i n " b e d " a n d " s p r e a d " , " c r o n e s " and " b o n e s " . The c o n t i n u o u s s h i f t i n g o f i a m b s , a n a p e s t s and d a c t y l s i n t h e r h y t h m , w h i c h y e t r e t a i n s t h e s t r o n g b e a t s u g g e s t i v e o f s t a m p i n g f e e t , makes one c o n s c i o u s o f some o l d dance t u n e . T h e r e i s n o p o e t who .does t h i s as o f t e n a s H a r d y d o e s . He n o t o n l y u s e s dance a n d . s o n g i n t h e i r u s u a l way b u t he f r e q u e n t l y u s e s t h e i r r h y t h m s a s t h e b a s i s o f o t h e r poems. It i s with true cons i s t e n c y t h a t he e x p r e s s e s t h e t e r r i b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e Moscow i n v a s i o n i n a song a n d d a n c e . F o r t h e Frenchmen i t was a dance o f d e a t h . The p r o s e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w complete the a c t as f a r as the F r e n c h a r e c o n c e r n e d . They r e a d t h u s : • " the f r o s t s t i f f e n s . The f i r e s i n k s a n d g o e s o u t ; b u t t h e F r e n c h m e n do n o t m o v e . The d a y dawns and s t i l l they s i t on. " I n t h e b a c k g r o u n d e n t e r some l i g h t h o r s e o f the R u s s i a n a r m y , f o l l o w e d b y K u t u z o f h i m s e l f and a few o f h i s staff, He p r e s e n t s a t e r r i b l e a p p e a r a n c e now — b r a v e l y s e r v i n g t h o u g l i s l o w i n g d y i n g , h i s f a c e p u f f e d wi t h t h e i n t e n s e c o l d , h i s one eye s t a r i n g out a s .he s i t s i n a heap i n t h e s a d d l e , h i s h e a d sunk i n t o h i s s h o u l d e r s . . The whole d e tachment pauses a t the s i g h t of the F r e n c h a s l e e p . They s h o u t ; b u t . t h e b i v o u a e k e r s g i v e no s i g n . " (1)  Part  III,  Act  I,  Scene 11, p.  358  Kutuzof "Go,  stir  them up I  "The R u s s i a n s a d v a n c e lances." 'Russian "Prince,  We s l a y n o t  and p r o d the  s l e e p i n g men."  French with  their  Officer  here's  Kutuzof  a curious picture.  (with  They a r e  dead.  indifference)  "Oh, n a t u r a l l y . A f t e r t h e snow was down I marked a s h a r p e n i n g o f the a i r l a s t n i g h t We s h a l l be s t u m b l i n g o n - s u c h f r o s t - b a k e d m e a t s M o s t o f t h e way t o W i l n a . " 'Officer "They a l l  (examining the  bodies)  sit  a s t h e y were l i v i n g s t i l l , b u t s t i f f a s bones And even the c o l o u r has not l e f t t h e i r c h e e k s , Whereon t h e t e a r s r e m a i n i n s t r i n g s o f i c e , I t was a m a r v e l t h e y were n o t c o n s u m e d : T h e i r c l o t h e s a r e c i n d e r e d by t h e f i r e i n f r o n t , W h i l e a t t h e i r b a c k t h e f r o s t h a s c a k e d them h a r d . Kutuzof "'Tis  well,  so f i n i s h R u s s i a ' s  enemiesI"  " E x e u n t K u t u z o f , h i s s t a f f , a n d the d e t a c h m e n t h o r s e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f W i l n a ; and w i t h the advance t h e snow r e s u m e s i t s - f a l l , s l o w l y b u r y i n g the d e a d bivouackers." (l)  of o f day  I n the scenes from w h i c h I have been q u o t i n g H a r d y a c h i e v e s the most complete and a w f u l r e a l i s m , but t h a t r e a l i s m m i n g l e s w i t h t h e l y r i c b e a u t y o f the s p e c t r a l c h a n t s . The f l a k e s o f snow w h i c h s i g n a l l e d the a p p r o a c h o f t h e R u s s i a n w i n t e r a r e s t i l l f a l l i n g a s t h e scene c l o s e s . Nature i n t e n s i f i e s the s u f f e r i n g . Nature i s , a s Hardy always i n sists -- indifferent. • I have t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e methods b y w h i c h Hardy achieves h i s dramatic e f f e c t s . I have a l l u d e d t o h i s r a t h e r u t i l i t a r i a n u s e o f b l a n k v e r s e and to, t h e u n e x a l t e d l e v e l tone which i t a c h i e v e s . E a r l i e r I n She p a p e r I q u o t e d p a s s a g e s w h i c h c o n c e r n the d e a t h s o f N e l s o n a n d o f J o s e p h i n e i n a n a t t e m p t t o show b o t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s a n d t h e o c c a (1)  Part  III,  Act  I,  Scene 1 1 , p .  359  s i o n a l h e i g h t s o f b e a u t y t o w h i c h t h i s same v e r s e c a n r i s e . The l y r i c a l g i f t and t h e m u s i c a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f w h i c h I h a v e p r e v i o u s l y s p o k e n a r e i n t h i s p a s s a g e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c h a n t s , a n d The H a d . S o l d i e r ' s S o n g . The i m a g e r y a n d t h e a l l u s i o n s w h i c h c o l o r t h e p o e t r y o f The D y n a s t s e i t h e r t y p i f y t h e " W e s s e x " i n f l u e n c e or t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h i s a l w a y s a n a t t r i b u t e o f H a r d y ' s p o e m s . A few e x a m p l e s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e . "The r i v e r c o o p s them s e m i - c i r c l e - w i s e , And we" s h a l l have them l i k e a swathe o f W i t h i n a s i d e ' s c u r v e I" ( l )  grass,  T h i s i s the v e r y essence of r u s t i c i t y , from the p e c u l i a r u s e o f t h e word " c o o p s " i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r i v e r , t o t h e "swathe o f g r a s s " a n d t h e " s i d e ' s c u r v e " . An e q u a l l y r u s t i c n o t e i s s t r u c k by an a l l u s i o n t o cock f i g h t i n g i n "It c l a p s a m u f f l e r round t h i s c o c k ' s s t e e l s p u r s " , (2) A n i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e same q u a l i t y w h i c h , however, embodies an i r o n i c n o t e a s w e l l , o c c u r s i n a p r o s e stage d i r e c t i o n thus: "Cocks burnt-to.death."  crow t h i n k i n g  it  is  sunrise  ere  they  The f i r s t q u o t a t i o n i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e f l a i r f o r f o r m , t h a t l o v e f o r t h e c l e a r c u t edge o f w h i c h i s so n o t i c e a b l e i n H a r d y ' s i m a g e r y . He u s e s " s i d e " i n a n e n v e l o p i n g s e n s e , but one i s c o n s c i o u s image o f t h e " s i c l e " by i t s e l f . He n o t e s i t s c u r v e he h a s n o t e d t h e c u r v e o f t h e m o o n ' s e d g e , or a s he the o u t l i n e s o f a face i n , " Y e s , by G o d , H i s f a c e a s c l e a r - c u t a s t h e edge The s u n b e h i n d shows u p . " (3)  of a  are  of the things the of the just as notes  cloud  I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s r u s t i c a l l u s i o n and imagery frequent p r o v e r b i a l expressions are found. The S p i r i t S i n i s t e r , h a v i n g i t seems, l e s s c u l t u r e t h a n t h e o t h e r s p e c t r a l b e i n g s , u s e s them f r e q u e n t l y .  lord ""Yet thereby E n g l i s h f o l k are f r e e d h i m , F a i t h , as a n c i e n t people s a y . I t ' s ah i l l wind t h a t blows good l u c k t o n o n e ! " (1) (2) (3)  Part Part Part  I I I , A c t I , Scene 3, p.337 • I , A c t I V , Scene 1, p . 6 6 I I I , A c t V I , Scene 3 , p . 4 3 2  Minister "Who i s y o u r f r i e n d , t h a t d r o p s so a i r i l y T h i s p r e c i o u s p i n c h o f s a l t on o u r ra?/ s k i n ? "  (1)  Lady "Something u n c a n n y s i n i t a l l , i f t r u e , Good L o r d , t h e t h o u g h t g i v e s me a s u d d e n T h a t f a i r l y makes my l i n e n s t i c k t o me I" 1  Spirit  sweat, (2)  Sinister  " S m a l l blame t o h e r , h o w e v e r ; she must cut her coat a c c o r d i n g to h e r c l o t h , as t h e y w o u l d s a y b e l o w t h e r e . " (3) I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t b o t h t h e L o r d a n d the M i n i s t e r o f t h e f i r s t e x c e r p t speak w i t h a p u n g e n t c o u n t r y i d i o m a n d . t h a t t h e l a d y o f t h e s e c o n d does n o t m i n c e h e r w o r d s i n a n y c o u r t l y f a s h i o n . . The p r o v e r b i a l r e m a r k o f t h e S p i r i t S i n i s t e r i s t y p i c a l o f t h e h o m e l y p h r a s e s w h i c h he often uses. In d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s t o t h e s e downright and f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n s o f the r u s t i c v i e w p o i n t and i d i o m a r e t h e more a u s t e r e p h r a s e s w h i c h mark H a r d y ' s r e s e r v e . Such a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by " t h e r e m o t e r b a l d g r e y brow o f t h e  I s l e of Slingers."  (4)  T h i s r a t h e r s t a r k d e s c r i p t i o n occurs i n a stage d i r e c t i o n and i s u n e l a b o r a t e d . A more t y p i c a l l y p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e o f H a r d y i s f o u n d "Save f o r a s l i d i n g t e a r " , (5) w h i c h d e p i c t s J o s e p h i n e a n d the s e l f - c o n t r o l w h i c h she e x e r c i s e d a s N a p o l e o n d i v o r c e d h e r . An example o f the e f f e c t o b t a i n e d by the a u s t e r e l i m i t a t i o n o f words o c c u r s i n the S p i r i t ' s speech t o the P a r i s i a n street-woman Spirit " R i g h t 1 L a d y m a n y - s p o u s e d , more c h a r i t y H p b r i m s i n t h e e e t h a n i n some l o f t i e r ones 1) 2) (5) (4) (5)  Part Part Part Part Part  I, Act I, Act I, Act I, Act IJ,Act  I , S c e n e 5, p . 30 I , Scene 5, p..31 I , Scene 6, p . 34 I I I , Scene 3, p . 63 I , Scene 5, p . 162  91  Vftio w o u l d n o t Enough."  name t h e e w i t h  their  white-washed tongues  (1)  In t h i s passage, which i s packed w i t h meaning, t h e whole e f f e c t i s g a i n e d by t h e u s e o f t h e s e w o r d s , "manys p o u s e d " , " u p b r i m s " , and " w h i t e - w a s h e d t o n g u e s " . One c a n n o t h e l p b u t n o t i c e t h e . s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s p a r t o f the i n t e r view and t h a t o f C h r i s t and llary Magdalene. 'The l o v e a n d p i t y f o r a n i m a l s w h i c h i s e x h i b i t e d so many t i m e s i n H a r d y ' s n o v e l s a n d poems i s f o u n d i n The D y n a s t s a l s o . T h e r e a r e c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s t o the army h o r s e s both i n b a t t l e and r e t r e a t . The' two w h i c h f o l l o w a r e typical. The f i r s t i s a s t a g e d i r e c t i o n . "Nature i s mute. Save f o r t h e i n c e s s a n t f l o g g i n g o f t h e w i n d - b r o k e n and l a c e r a t e d h o r s e s t h e r e a r e no s o u n d s . " (2) In t h i s passage t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f c o m p l e t e s i l e n c e s u b t l y i n t e n s i f i e s our c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the s u f f e r i n g of the h o r s e s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m the s p e e c h o f t h e S p i r i t o f t h e Pities. I t i s but a f u r t h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f H a r d y ' s p i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g w h e t h e r f o u n d i n man o r b e a s t . ;  Spirit  o f the  Pities  "But mark t h a t r o a r , A mash o f m e n ' s c r a z e d c r i e s e n t r e a t i n g m a t e s To r u n them t h r o u g h a n d end t h e i r a g o n y ; B o y s c a l l i n g on t h e i r m o t h e r s , v e t e r a n s B l a s p h e m i n g G-od a n d man. Those shady s h a p e s A r e h o r s e s , maimed i n m y r i a d s , t e a r i n g r o u n d I n m a d d e n i n g p a n g s , t h e - h a r n e s s i n g s t h e y wear C l a n k i n g d i s c o r d a n t j a n g l e s as t h e y t e a r I It i s enough. l e t now t h e s c e n e be c l o s e d . " (The n i g h t t h i c k e n s ) . (3)  v  I do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s n e e d f o r much f u r t h e r comment a s r e g a r d s t h e q u a l i t y o f p i t y w h i c h H a r d y e x p r e s s e s so o f t e n * I t was a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e m a n ' s e x p e r i e n c e . I t was one o f t h e e m o t i o n s w h i c h g o v e r n e d h i s w h o l e a t t i t u d e towards l i f e and the u n i v e r s e . The i n t e n s i t y o f t h e e m o t i o n was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s w h i c h c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e w o r l d ' s s u f f e r i n g s i n no way were t h e y n o t the e x h i b i t i o n o f an i n s e n t i e n t w i l l . B e f o r e p a s s i n g to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l p e r s o n a g e s a n d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n . t h e drama I w i s h t o i n s t a n c e a n e x a m p l e or two w h i c h w i l l e x h i b i t t h e p o e t i c f o r m (1) (2) (3)  Part Part Part  I , A c t V I , Scene 7, P« 131 I I I , A c t I , Scene 9, p . 354 I I I , A c t I , Scene b, p . 345  92  which, t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n t a k e s . The f i r s t w h i c h .immediately p r e c e d e s the B a t t l e o f Spirit  " •  of  the  i s from the scene Quatre-Bras.  Pities  " I see a n u n n a t u r a l m o n s t e r , l o o s e l y j o i n t e d , With an A p o c a l y p t i c B e i n g ' s shape, A n d l i m b s a n d e y e s a. h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s t r o n g , And f i f t y thousand heads; which c o i l s i t s e l f About the b u i l d i n g s t h e r e . " Spirit  of  the  Years  "Thou,... d o s t i n d e e d . I t i s the Monster D e v a s t a t i o n .  Watch."  (1)  T h i s v i s i o n o f N a p o l e o n ' s army c a r r i e s t h e p a n o r a m i c v i e w p o i n t i n t o t h e v e r y c o n c e p t i o n o f an i m a g e . The B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e i s made more p o i n t e d a n d g i v e n a n i r o n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the p r o s e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s a n d which e x p l a i n s t h a t the f i g h t i n g takes p l a c e about a c h u r c h . T h i s p a s s a g e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e change i n i m a g e r y a n d i n t h e g e n e r a l u s e o f w o r d s w h i c h o c c u r s i n H a r d y ' s p o e t r y a s he e n t e r s the cosmic w o r l d . A r e c i t a t i v e , used to e x p l a i n a m i l i t a r y movement, w h i c h o c c u r s w i t h g r e a t e f f e c t b e t w e e n two p r o s e p a s s a g e s w i l l f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s l i n g u a l change. Recording  Angel  "The f u r y o f t h e t u m u l t t h e r e b e g u n Scourged q u i v e r i n g l i g n y t h r o u g h the a f t e r n o o n : N a p o l e o n ' s g r e a t I n t e n t grew s u b s t a n t i v e , And on t h e P r u s s i a n p i t h a n d p u l s e he b e n t His foretimed blow. B l u c h e r , t o b u t t the s h o c k , C a l l e d , up h i s l a s t r e s e r v e s , a n d h e a d i n g o n , W i t h b l a d e h i g h b r a n d i s h e d by h i s a g e d a r m , Spurred forward h i s white s t e e d . But t h e y outspent F a i l e d far to follow. Darkness coped the s k y , . And s t o r m , a n d r a i n w i th t h u n d e r . Y e t once more He c h e e r e d them on t o c h a r g e . • H i s h o r s e , t h e w h i l e , P i e r c e d by a b u l l e t , f e l l on h i m i t b o r e , H e , t r a m p l e d , b r u i s e d , f a i n t , and i n d i s a r r a y D r a g g e d t o a n o t h e r mount, was' l e d .away. H i s r a g g e d l i n e s withdraw from s i g h t and sound. A n d t h e i r a s s a i l a n t s camp u p o n t h e g r o u n d . " (2;  '  The d i f f e r e n c e i n t o n e between t h i s r e c i t a t i v e b l a n k v e r s e and t h e c o l l o q u i a l p a s s a g e s which I have quoted (1) (2)  Part Part  I I I , A c t VI, I I I , Act VI,  Scene 5 , Scene 6,  p. p.  474 477  p r e v i o u s l y i s a t once a p p a r e n t . P h r a s e s w h i c h make i t so a r e s u c h a s t h e s e : "grew s u b s t a n t i v e " , " p i t h a n d p u l s e " , " f o r e t i m e d blow" and " t o b u t t the s h o c k " . 'Such language i s t y p i c a l o f H a r d y i n h i s c o s m i c moments when he d e s e r t s t h e more u s u a l f o r m s o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d makes a v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h i s p e c u l i a r l y h i s own. The c o m b i n a t i o n s o f w o r d s a n d t h e new f o r m s w h i c h he i n v e n t s have a n odd u n e a r t h l y s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i c h seems t o answer h i s p u r p o s e a n d w h i c h v i t a l i z e s t h e a b s t r a c t r e a l i s m w h i c h he s e e k s t o o b t a i n . Words s u c h a s " o u t s p e n t " a n d the v e r b " c o p e d " , f o r m e d f r o m a n o u n , w o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a n y p h a s e o f h i s p o e t r y b u t t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of such terms and the use o f . o n e a f t e r another i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n i s t y p i c a l of h i s cosmic p o i n t of view o n l y . One f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n w i l l s e r v e t o show n o t o n l y t h e l y r i c a l b e a u t y o f some o f t h e u n e a r t h l y c h o r u s e s but the d i f f e r e n c e i n tone which they a c h i e v e . Contrast for i n s t a n c e the r e c i t a t i v e b l a n k v e r s e w h i c h I h a v e j u s t c o n s i d e r e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : Chorus  o f the Y e a r s  (Aerial  Music)  "The e y e l i d s o f eve f a l l t o g e t h e r a t l a s t , And t h e f o r m s so f o r e i g n t o f i e l d a n d t r e e l i e down as, t h o u g h n a t i v e a n d s l u m b e r f a s t i " " Y e a , t h e c o n e y g s a r e s c a r e d by the t h u d o f h o o f s , And t h e i r white s c u t s f l a s h a t t h e i r v a n i s h i n g heels And swallows abandon the h a m l e t - r o o f s The m o l e ' s t u n n e l l e d chambers a r e c r u s h e d by wheels The l a r k ' s e g g s s c a t t e r e d , t h e i r owners f l e d ; And the h e d g e h o g ' s h o u s e h o l d the sapper u n s e a l s . The s n a i l draws i n , a t the t e r r i b l e t r e a d , B u t i n v a i n ; he i s c r u s h e d by the f e l l o e - r i m , The worm a s k s what c a n be o v e r h e a d , A n d w r i g g l e s deep f r o m a s c e n e so g r i m , And g u e s s e s h i m s a f e ; f o r h e d o e s n o t know What a f o u l r e d f l o o d w i l l be s o a k i n g h i m . T r o d d e n a n d b r u i s e d . t o a m i r y tomb A r e e a r s t h a t have g r e e n e d b u t w i l l n e v e r be g o l d A n d f l o w e r s i n t h e bud t h a t w i l l n e v e r b l o o m . " Chorus  of the  .Pities  "So t h e s e a s o n ' s i n t e n t , e r e i t s f r u i t u n f o l d , I s f r u s t r a t e , a n d m a n g l e d , and made succumb, L i k e a y o u t h o f p r o m i s e s t r u c k s t a r k a n d c o l d 1"  94  Chorus '  of  Sinister  Spirits  "And e a c h s o u l s i g h s a s h e s h i f t s h i s h e a d On t h e loam h e ' s t o l e a s e v/ith t h e o t h e r dead From t o m o r r o w ' s m i s t - f a l l t i l l Time he s p e d . " ( 1 )  T h i s l y r i c a l passage with i t s p e r f e c t p o r t r a y a l of the s m a l l e r forms of animate l i f e i s t y p i c a l of H a r d y : i n many w a y s . The e x q u i s i t e i m a g e , "The e y e l i d s o f eve f a l l t o g e t h e r a t l a s t " , b r i n g s a mood o f q u i e t a n d c a l m w h i c h makes t h e c o n t r a s t t o come i n t h e B a t t l e o f W a t e r l o o a l l the more s t r i k i n g a n d t e r r i b l e . The e x a c t k n o w l e d g e o f s m a l l a n i m a l s a n d even l o w e r f o r m s o f l i f e w h i c h t h e s e v e r s e s show, i s but a n o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e k e e n observance and awareness which Hardy always gave t o n a t u r e . The d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e sounds o f E d g o n H e a t h , w h i c h was i n s t a n c e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s p a p e r , i l l u s t r a t e s the same p o w e r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The " c o n e y " c o u l d n o t be more p e r f e c t l y d e s c r i b e d i n a dozen l i n e s than i n " t h e i r white scuts f l a s h at t h e i r v a n i s h i n g h e e l s " ; nor c o u l d f r u s t r a t i o n s be b e t t e r e x p r e s s e d t h a n b y t h e two i n s t a n c e s w h i c h H a r d y g i v e s i n t h e " e a r s t h a t h a v e g r e e n e d b u t w i l l n e v e r be g o l d " a n d t h e " f l o w e r s i n t h e bud t h a t w i l l n e v e r b l o o m . " Hardy h e r e d r i v e s home h i s a n a l o g y I n the words o f two c h o r u s e s , those of the P i t i e s and the S i n i s t e r S p i r i t s . It i s i n those t h a t the r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v e r s e s i s i n t e n s i f i e d a n d a p p l i e d t o man. . T h e r e i s a n a n a l o g y between t h e l i v e s o f t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e a n d t h e l i v e s o f men. One i s r e m i n d e d o f t h e s o n n e t I n V i s i o n I Boaraed ( 2 ) which has been a n a l y z e d , a n d o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e c o s m i c and. a b s t r a c t i d e a s o f t h e o c t a v e were a p p l i e d d e f i n i t e l y t o man i n t h e s e s t e t . In the c a s e o f t h e s e c h o r u s e s t h e same e f f e c t i s g a i n e d by u s i n g m a n ' s i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r the s u b j e c t o f t h e c h o r u s o f t h e Y e a r s a n d man h i m s e l f a s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e C h o r u s o f t h e P i t i e s and the Chorus of S i n i s t e r S p i r i t s . I n t h i s somewhat i n a d e q u a t e s u r v e y • o f a few o f The D y n a s t s ' p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s I have meant t o show t h a t t h e E p i c Drama d o e s n o t d i f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y f r o m t h e . o t h e r p o e t r y . I t s s c o p e i s so g r e a t t h a t i t n e c e s s i t a t e s a g r e a t e r f r e e d o m . T h i s freedom Hardy has a c h i e v e d i n b o t h v e r s e forms and language. He s h i f t s f r o m rhyme and' l y r i c t o b l a n k v e r s e a n d drama o r f r o m e i t h e r i n t o p r o s e a s i t p l e a s e s h i m . The i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c language forms whieh are t y p i c a l of h i s p o e t i c s t y l e i n g e n e r a l a r e c a r r i e d i n t o The Dynas t s and t h e r e e x t e n d e d a s I h a v e t r i e d to show. T h e . v a r i e d v e r s e forms are u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h panorama o r s e t t o a m u s i c a l a c companiment. H a r d y seems a b l e t o a c h i e v e a n y e f f e c t he wishes. I f p o e t r y w i l l n o t g i v e i t , he u s e s p r o s e . He c o u l d 1) 2)  P a r t I I I , A c t V I , Scene 8, Wessex Poems: p . 7  p.  483  n o t h a v e b e e n a s s u c c e s s f u l a s he i s i n e i t h e r medium a l o n e . The e f f e c t o f p o e t r y i n The D y n a s t s i s c u m u l a t i v e . It builds up a b a c k g r o u n d a n d a n a t m o s p h e r e . At times i t i n t e n s i f i e s d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s , a t o t h e r s i t s o f t e n s them. I t always a s s i s t s i n c r e a t i n g t h e i l l u s i o n or t h e " w i l l i n g . s u s p e n s i o n of d i s b e l i e f " , which a c c o r d i n g to C o l e r i d g e c o n s t i t u t e s poetic f a i t h . As the l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n of m e t a p h y s i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s i t e n c a s e s t h e w h o l e human drama i n a n o u t e r p o e t i c s h e l l w h i c h i s s u i t e d to both H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y and the d r a m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t p h i l o s o p h y i n human a c t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d H a r d y ""himself s a y s : — " I n p o i n t o f l i t e r a r y f o r m , t h e scheme o f c o n t r a s t e d c h o r u s e s and o t h e r c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h i s e x t e r n a l - f e a t u r e was s h a p e d w i t h a s i n g l e v i e w t o Lae modern o u t l o o k , a n d i n f r a n k d i v e r g e n c e f r o m c l a s s i c a l and. o t h e r d r a m a t i c p r e c e d e n t which r u l e d the a n c i e n t v o i c i n g s of a n c i e n t themes." (1) The " p h a n t a s m a l I n t e l l i g e n c e s " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e new d r a m a t i c m a t e r i a l o f t h e The D y n a s t s , s h a p e d t o e x p r e s s "a modern o u t l o o k " c o n s i s t o f f o u r l e a d i n g s p i r i t s . They a r e the a n c i e n t S p i r i t of the Y e a r s which r e p r e s e n t s t h e " p a s s i o n l e s s i n s i g h t o f the a g e s " , t h e S p i r i t o f t h e P i t i e s w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e s t o " t h e u n i v e r s a l sympathy o f human n a t u r e , t h e S p i r i t s S i n i s t e r a n d I r o n i c and t h e S p i r i t o f Rumour. E a c h o f them h a s a c h o r u s . There are i n a d d i t i o n t h e Shade o f t h e E a r t h , S p i r i t - M e s s e n g e r s and R e c o r d i n g angels. The S p i r i t o f t h e P i t i e s i s s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h e i d e a l s p e c t a t o r of the o l d Greek C h o r u s . I t i s swayed h i t h e r a n d t h i t h e r by e v e n t s . The S p i r i t s S i n i s t e r a n d I r o n i c a p p r o x i m a t e r o u g h l y t o C h a n c e , as i t i s u n d e r s t o o d f r o m t h e n o v e l s , a n d t o t h e I r o n i c mood o f t h e poems. The F o r e s c e n e and the A f t e r s c e n e a r e p l a c e d i n t h e o v e r w o r l d . It i s i n t h e c h a n t s and, c h o r u s e s o f t h e s e two s c e n e s ' t h a i t H a r d y . ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n e t s a r e most c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h , a l t h o u g h a s I h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h e y r u n a s a comment t h r o u g h o u t t h e drama. The p r o b l e m o v e r w h i c h H a r d y p o n d e r e d f o r so many y e a r s i s s e t f o r t i l a s t h e o p e n i n g words o f The D y n a s t s . "What o f t h e Immanent W i l l a n d i t s d e s i g n s ? " The S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s r e p l i e s " I t works u n c o n s c i o u s l y . " (2) Then t h e v a r i o u s s u p p o s i t i o n s as to the n a t u r e of t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s w i l l , t o w h i c h the poems Hap ( 3 ) , The B l o w ( 4 ) , N a t u r e ' s Q u e s t i o n i n g (5) a n d The C o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e T w a i n ( b j h a v e made u s a c c u s t o m e d , a r e s e t f o r t h . T h e r e i s , I T a p p e a r s , no scheme o f t h i n g s ; t h e e v o l u t i o n o f W i l l was i t s e l f u n c o n s c i o u s . The Shade o f the E a r t h r e p l y i n g t o t h e P i t i e s ' hope t h a t men (1) (2) (3) (4) (5; (6)  P r e f a c e : p. 9 Forescene: p. 1 'Wessex Poems: p . 7 Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 449 Wessex- Poems: p . 58 S a t i r e s of Circumstance: p.  288  9b  may d e v e l o p  an a m e l i o r a t i v e  evolution,  puts.the  matter  thus:  " T h e y may come, w i l l t h e y I am n o t a v e r s e Y e t know I am h u t t h e i n e f f e c t u a l Shade Of h e r t h e T r a v a i l l e r , h e r s e l f a t h r a l l To I t ; I n a l l h e r l a b o u r i n g s c u r b e d and k i n g e d I" (1)' The F o r e s c e n e c l o s e s wi t h t h e m a g n i f i c e n t l y v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g o f the Immanent W i l l w h i c h i s d i s c l o s e d i n t h e v i s i o n o f the s k e l e t o n o f E u r o p e . In the A f t e r s e e n e t h e d i s c u s s i o n , now v i t a l i z e d b y t h e a c t u a l e v e n t s w h i c h a r e embodied i n the drama, c o n t i n u e s , but the S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s h a s f o u n d no p r o o f t h a t t h e W i l l i s b e c o m i n g c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e t r a g e d i e s o f l i f e t o show t h a t i t i s d o i n g so." Y e t b u t one f l i m s y r i b a n d o f I t s web Have we h e r e w a t c h e d i n w e a v i n g - w e b E n o r m , Whose f u r t h e s t hem and s e l v a g e may e x t e n d To where the r o a r s a n d p l a s h i n g s o f the f l a m e s O f e a r t h - i n v i s i b l e suns s w e l l n o i s i l y , And onwards i n t o g h a s t l y g u l f s o f s k y , Where h i d e o u s ^ p r e s e n c e s c h u r n t h r o u g h t h e d a r k Monsters o f magnitude w i t h o u t a shape, H a n g i n g a m i d deep w e l l s o f n o t h i n g n e s s . Y e t seems t h i s v a s t and s i n g u l a r c o n f e c t i o n W h e r e i n our s c e n e r y g l i n t s , of s c a n t e s t s i z e , I n u t i l e a l l — so f a r a s r e a s o n i n g s t e l l " The  Spirit  of P i t i e s  however a r g u e s  —  that:  "Men g a i n e d c o g n i t i o n w i t h t h e f l u x o f t i m e And w h e r e f o r e n o t the F o r c e I n f o r m i n g them, When f a r - r a n g e d a i o n s p a s t a l l f a t h o m i n g S h a l l h a v e swung b y , a n d s t a n d as. b a c k w a r d y e a r s ? " (2).  There i s l i t t l e i n t h i s chanted d i s c u s s i o n to p r o v e t h a t the u n i v e r s e may e v e r r e a c h v ' o i i t i o n . There i s , h o w e v e r , one f a i n t n o t e o f h o p e w h i c h t h e S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s p r e s e n t s and w h i c h t h e f i n a l c h o r u s c h a n t s . Chorus "But like  — to  a s t i r r i n g t h r i l l s the a i r sounds o f joyance t h e r e " That the r a g e s Of the ages S h a l l be c a n c e l l e d , a n d d e l i v e r a n c e F o r e s c e n e : p. A f t e r s e e n e ; p.  J j>22 J  offered  from  The d a r t s t h a t were Consciousness the w i l l A l l things f a i r l " (1)  informing,  till  It  fashion  These a r e the l a s t w o r d s . Hardy has put h i s whole theory i n t o a r t i s t i c f o r m . The f a i n t hope i s c o n - • s i d e r e d i n c o n s i s t e n t wi t h H a r d y s g e n e r a l v i e w p o i n t by some critics. T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , some e v i d e n c e o f t h e same hope i n the p o e t r y . The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h p r o v i d e s one e x a m p l e . I n t h e n o v e l s D i g g o r y V e n n , \Z) G a b r i e l Oak (3) a n d M a r t y S o u t h ('4) r e p r e s e n t H a r d y ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n man. T h i s same c o n f i d e n c e i n c h a r a c t e r i s s u g g e s t e d by HeIson (5), P i t t (6), Hey (7) a n d t h e " c o u g h i n g S e r g e a n t " (8) o f The D y n a s t s . Such c h a r a c t e r s s u p p o r t the g e n e r a l i d e a l . o f slow a m e l i o r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n w h i c h the P i t i e s e x p o u n d , f o r i n s p i t e o f t r a g i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e y manage t o r e c o n c i l e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h e i r environments. H a r d y d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t he h a d evolved, a complete p h i l o s o p h y . He h o p e d t o p r o v i d e a s o l a c e o f f a n c y w h i c h would take the p l a c e of o l d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s a more s a t i s f a c t o r y p h i l o s o p h y .might b e evolved. I n a l e t t e r t o a f r i e n d who h a d commented on The D y n a s t s H a r d y w r o t e " Y e s : I l e f t o f f on a n o t e o f h o p e . I t was j u s t a s w e l l t h a t t h e P i t i e s s h o u l d h a v e t h e l a s t w o r d , s i n c e , l i k e P a r a d i s e h o s t , The D y n a s t s p r o v e s n o t h i n g . " ( 9 ) T  T h i s p r e s e n t a n d modern g e n e r a t i o n i s s t i l l t o o n e a r t o H a r d y ' s own day t o be a b l e t o j u d g e o f the p o s i t i o n w h i c h he w i l l u l t i m a t e l y h o l d a s a p o e t . T h e r e i s no d o u b t o f t h e p o s i t i o n w h i c h he w i l l h o l d a s a t h i n k e r s i n c e he h a s b e e n t h e f i r s t a n d o n l y man i n h i s c e n t u r y t o c a r r y t h e i d e a s i n v o l v e d i n the advance of s c i e n c e to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to l i f e . He h a s n o t o n l y done t h i s , b u t h e h a s b e e n the o n l y p o e t who h a s u s e d t h o s e i d e a s a s the i n s p i r a t i o n a l b a s i s of poetry. I f s t y l e be d e f i n e d a s t h e f u l l r e n d e r i n g o f the i n t e n d e d i m p r e s s i o n , H a r d y h a s s u c c e e d e d a s a.;, p o e t , f o r a c l o s e s t u d y o f t h e p o e t ' s l i f e , h i s l e t t e r s , n o t e s a n d comments makes one t h i n g c l e a r . His p o e t r y g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h e , the p o e t , i n t e n d e d . H a r d y made a n o t e i n 1899 w h i c h s a y s : "Ho m a n ' s p o e t r y c a n be t r u l y j u d g e d t i l l i t s l a s t l i n e i s w r i t t e n . What i s t h e last line? The d e a t h o f the p o e t . And h e n c e t h e r e i s t h i s q u a i n t c o n s o l a t i o n t o any w r i t e r o f v e r s e t h a t i t may be i m p e r i s h a b l e f o r a l l t h a t a n y b o d y c a n t e l l h i m t o the c o n t r a r y ; (1) (2) O) (4) (5) (6) (7) (3) (9)  A f t e r s e e n e : p. 525 The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e . P a r Prom t h e M a d d i n g C r o w d . The W o o d l a n d e r s . P a r t I , A c t V , Scene 4, p . 95 P a r t I , A c t V I , Scene 6, p . 128 P a r t I I I , A c t V I I , Scene 4, p . 497 P a r t I I I , A c t . I l l , Scene 1, p . 207 The L a t e r Y e a r s o f Thomas H a r d y : p .  275  a n d t h a t i f w o r t h l e s s he e a n n e v e r know i t , u n l e s s h e be a g r e a t e r adept a t s e l f - c r i t i c i s m than poets u s u a l l y a r e . " (1) When H a r d y d i e d i n 1 9 2 3 " t h e l a s t l i n e " was w r i t t e n . I t c a n n o t y e t be j u d g e d -- b u t H a r d y t h e p o e t was c o n s i s t e n t t o t h e e n d . I n h i s l a s t two d a y s o f l i f e he was s t i l l pondering on t h e p r o b l e m s o f e x i s t e n c e . He w o u l d l i s t e n o n l y t o p o e t r y , t h e l a s t v e r s e s w h i c h he a s k e d f o r b e i n g t h e s e : "Oh T h o u , who man o f b a s e r E a r t h d i d s t make, And e v ' n w i t h P a r a d i s e d e v i s e t h e S n a k e ; F o r a l l . t h e S i n w h e r e w i t h t h e F a c e o f Man I s b l a c k e n e d - m a n ' s f o r g i v e n e s s g i v e -- a n d t a k e I"  (1)  The l a t e r Y e a r s o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 275  99 BIBLIOGRAPHY The f o i l o w i n g l i s t does n o t p r e t e n d t o he c o m p l e t e a n d c o n t a i n s o n l y h o o k s t h a t I have r e a d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s p a p e r . I have n o t h a d a c c e s s t o a u n i f o r m e d i t i o n o f H a r d y ' s w o r k s a n d do n o t i n t h e c a s e o f the n o v e l s g i v e page r e f e r e n c e s . The C o l l e c t e d Poems The D y n a s t s : P a r t s The D y n a s t s : P a r t Winter  Words;  of  Thomas H a r d y : L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n C o . L t d . , 1923  I a n d I I : Thomas H a r d y : and Co. L t d . , 1928  London:  and  Macmillan  I I I : a n d The Queen o f C o r n w a l l : Thomas H a r d y ; L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n a n d C o . L t d . , 1929  Thomas H a r d y :  London: M a c m i l l a n and Co.  Ltd.,  1930 F a r From t h e M a d d i n g C r o w d : Under  the  Greenwood T r e e :  Two on a T o w e r : The R e t u r n Tess  of, the  Jude  the  of  Beach, Berle,  Thomas H a r d y :  Thomas H a r d y :  Hew  York:  New Y o r k ;  New Y o r k : H a r p e r ,  Harper,1992  Harper, 1902  Thomas H a r d y :  New Y o r k :  Harper,  1902  D'Ubervilles:  Thomas H a r d y :  New Y o r k : H a r p e r ,  1902  Thomas H a r d y :  New Y o r k :  Harper,  1902  L a s c e l l e s : Thomas H a r d y : A C r i t i c a l S t u d y : New Y o r k : M i t c h e l l K e n n e r i y , 1912  J o s e p h W a r r e n : The T e c h n i q u e o f Thomas H a r d y : C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y ox U h i c a g o P r e s s , 1.  Brennecke,  1902  the N a t i v e :  Obscure:  Abercrombie,  Thomas H a r d y :  W. : George E l i o t a n d Thomas H a r d y : New Y o r k : M i t c h e l l K e n n e r i y , Ernest,  Cazamian, Madeline  1917  J r . : Thomas H a r d y ' s U n i v e r s e : A Study o f a P o e t ' s M i n d ; B o s t o n : S m a l l , Maynard and C o . , 1.:  1924  Le Roman e t L e s I d e e s en A n g l e t e r r e : I n f l u e n c e de l a S c i e n c e I860 - 1 8 9 0 : P h . D. T h e s i s : . S t r a s b o u r g : 19 23  1922  Chase,  Chew,  Mary E l l e n : Thomas H a r d y f r o m S e r i a l t o H o v e l : M i r m e a p o l i s : I'ne U n i v e r s i t y o r i . i m i e s o t a P r e s s , 1927 Samuel C :  Child,  Thomas H a r d y ; Hew Y o r k :  A l f r e d A.  H a r o l d : Thomas H a r d y : Hew Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t  Cunliffe,  J . V/. : E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e Century.  Dobree,  Bonamy:  Puffin,  H.  Freeman,  C.:  Knopf,  and C o . ,  191b  d u r i n g the l a s t  Half  The Lamp a n d t h e L u t e : S t u d i e s I n S i x Modern A u t h o r s : Oxford; Clarendon P r e s s , 1929 Thomas H a r d y : A S t u d y o f t h e Wessex N o v e l s : M a n c h e s t e r : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 191b  J o h n : • Moderns: New Y o r k :  Garwood, H e l e n :  Crowe11,  1917  Thomas H a r d y ; A n I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e P h i l o s o phy o f Schopenhauer: P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . 0. W i n s t o n C o . , 1911  Hardy,  Florence Emily:  Hardy,  Florence Emily:  The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y , 1840 1891: L o n d o n : • M a c m i l l a n a n d C o . L t d . , I928 The L a t e r Y e a r s  1892  -  o f Thomas H a r d y ,  1928:  London: M a c m i l l a n and C o . Hedgcock, Johnson,  Lowes,  F.  A.:  Lionel:  Ltd.,  1930  Thomas H a r d y : P e n s e u r e t A r t i s t e : P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Eaehette, 1910 The A r t 0 f Thomas H a r d y : c o n t a i n s a B i b l i o g r a p h y o f F i r s t E d i t i o n s by J o h n Lane a n d a n e s s a y , The P o e t r y o f Thomas H a r d y by J . E . B a r t o n : L o n d o n : S l k i n Matthews a n d J o h n L a n e , 1894 ( r e i s s u e d 1922)  J o h n L i v i n g s t o n e : Of R e a d i n g B o o k s ; London: Constable and Co.  Williams,  1929  Charles:  Poetry at P r e s e n t ; Oxford: Clarendon Press,  Ltd., 1930  193°  MAGAZINE A R T I C L E S C o l u m , P.: R o b e r t B r i d g e s a n d Thomas Ha r a y : He?/ R e p u b l i c , 12: 4'/ - 9, A u g u s t , 1917 Foilet,  H . J . a n d F o l l e t t , W . : The H i s t o r i a n o f W e s s e x A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , 120: 35b - bb, S e p t e m b e r , 1917  G o s s e , E . : M r . H a r d y ' s L y r i c a l Poems: E d i n b u r g h R e v i e w , 227 : 272 - 9 3 , A p r i l , 1918 K i n g , R. W.:  L y r i c a l Poems o f Thomas H a r d y : L o n d o n M e r c u r y , 15: 57 - 70, D e c e m b e r , 192b  Macy, J o h n : Two-Fold G e n i u s o f H a r d y : The Bookman, b y : 154 - 9, A p r i l , 1928  '  West, Rebecca: I n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e i r age: S a t u r d a y Review o f L i t e r a t u r e , A u g u s t , 1924 W i l l i a m s , H a r o l d : The W e s s e x H o v e l s o f Thomas H a r d y : N o r t h A m e r i c a n , 199: 120 - 34, J a n u a r y , 1914 Woolf, V i r g i n i a :  H a l f o f Thomas H a r d y : New R e p u b l i c , 57: 70 - 1, D e c e m b e r , 1928  V a n D o r e n , M.: Thomas H a r d y , p o e t : The N a t i o n , 126: 151 - 2, F e b r u a r y , 1928  1  -  REFERENCES  Barnes,  W i l l i a m : Poems o f R u r a l L i f e i n t h e D o r s e t D i a l e c t (witii glossary,): L o n d o n : ICegan P a u l a n d C o . , 1879  Bunyan,  J o h n : G r a c e A b o u n d i n g a n d The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s : e d . J o h n Brown D . D . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1907  Ruskin,  John:  The S e v e n Lamps o f A r c h i t e c t u r e : L o n d o n : J . jii. u e n t ana S o n s ,  1921  Shakespeare, W i l l i a m :  S o n n e t s : The Q u e e n ' s " ' L i b r a r y : L o n d o n : L e o p o l d B. H i l l  Folk-Songs  ed. C e c i l J . Sharp: C o l l e c t e d by H . E . Hammond,• Book L o n d o n : H o v e l l o a n d Go.  of E n g l a n d :  The E v o l u t i o n  of the A r t of M u s i c : London:  Hubert  H. P a r r y :  I;  Chap.  Ill  O l d E n g l i s h P o p u l a r M u s i c : e d . H. E. W o o i b r i d g e , V o l . I & I I : L o n d o n ; C h a p p e l l a n d Go. L t d . , 1893  Abercrombie, Alden, Ker,  Raymond: E n g l i s h V e r s e : Hew Y o r k : H e n r y H o l t  W. P . :  Lanier, Lee,  L a s e e l l e s : The T h e o r y o f P o e t r y : New Y o r k : H a r e o u r t B r a c e and C o . , and C o . ,  Form a n d S t y l e i n P o e t r y : London: M a c m i l l a n and Co.  Sidney:  I929  Ltd.-,  The S c i e n c e o f E n g l i s h V e r s e : New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s  1926  1928  Sons,  1927  V e r n o n : The H a n d l i n g o f W o r d s : L o n d o n : J o h n Lane t h e B o d l e y H e a d L t d . ,  1923 Middleton, Raleigh,  Murry:  Walter:  Winchester,  G.  The P r o b l e m o f S t y l e : Oxford u n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Style:  T.:  L o n d o n : Edward A r n o l d ;  1922  .  1910  Some P r i n c i p l e s o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : Chap. V: New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n and C o . L t d . , 1928  GLOSSARY T h i s g l o s s a r y does not r e s t upon a d e f i n i t e or a b s o l u t e scheme o f s e l e c t i o n . The w o r d s h a v e b e e n c h o s e n somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y a s b e i n g i n some way t y p i c a l • o f H a r d y s vocabulary and S t y l e . Some a r e a r c h a i c , o t h e r s a r e u n u s u a l e i t h e r i n f o r m , a p p l i c a t i o n o r m e a n i n g ; many a r e o r i g i n a l compounds made b y H a r d y . The l i s t o f compounds i s f a i r l y c o m p l e t e , t h a t o f v a r y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w o r d s much l e s s s o . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l e c t i o n t h e c o n t e x t w i l l make c l e a r . 1  ABBREVIATIONS Wessex Poems Poems o f  the P a s t a n d P r e s e n t  Times L a u g h i n g Satires  of  Moments o f  •  Circumstance Vision  L a t e L y r i c s and Winter  Stocks  Words  Earlier  CHARACTERISTIC WORDS ache f u l adumbrates aftergrinds a f t e r haps ails aions aisle alack anighst annoy anon a n y when apogee arcades arch armipotents ashlars aswoon Ath'art atn' t A - t o p p e r en awave bald a chined barton beautifuller beeall bechance be c h a n c e d be-drenches befel begrieved besom betossed birdsinging blandish blanked blazon blinkered blurting bord boscage brabble breast broach bruit burghi e s bypast cadavers cappel  W.P.  45  w.w. 53 M . V . 485 v< © 3? *50  263 W.W. 133 S e C « 353 SeC  o  178  116 -I?«X • S • 186 M . V . 507 I • I . E • 658 W.P.  W.P-.  45  P.P.P.  93  3 a C •353  M.7.- 518 S • 0 • 380 S • C • 411 W.P.  p.p.p. W.P.  15  145 16  460 s * c» 353 p . p . p . 145  s . c . 385  p.p.p. 95 3 * G •293 s • c • 361  - s . c . 350  173 133 205 w.w. I65 M . V . ' 435 P . P . 103 W.P. 21 w.w. w.w.  P .  7 M . V . 519 W.P.  W.W.  17 85 X» XJ»E • 650 S • G •305 s . c . 286  w.w. 37 0? * Xf • D ft2Q6 T . I . 3 . 226 o # G •287 S • G« 286 W.P.  30  caresome cark caryated castedst chancewise childing chimley chines cit daytime closelier coats Cockers cohue colding coll constellated contemns contumely coomb creaturely crookt crowned customed cyme cyst dampered damsel dark darked darkled deedily demilune denizenship differenced d i s ennoble dogged dome dorp d owne d downstairward dree drongs dumbed dumbles durn earthtrack earthing earthlings  W.W. 112 S • C 0 351  3«C« 548  JJ • JJ • Hi •631  552 32 0? e X » S a235 S 0 G« 305  X» J j * i i i e  W.P.  ivi«V • 491  X » X e 13 » 588  S«G» 381 T • X« S» 229 M . V . 518 T © Xitt- S •213 T© X«S« 191  T 0 Xi e S» 228  T • X • 3 •252 p . p . p . 102 If • X* • 11 ft C »285  X*ftX*wX*« 107  X • X» HJ • 627 W « 52 S • G« 285 1 . 1 . E . 537 W.W. 41  JJ . I » E .  559 5 M. Ve 512 T 0 Jj. O . 252 W.P.  m  J. .  S . C . 340 W.W. 1 W.W. 81 M . V . 507 M . V . 500 W.P. W.W.  55 101 • X*ft?• 93 W.P. 6 . W.Yf. 106 T « J j e S »248 I . I L . E . 611 T « I . S • 226 W • W . 135 m T 0 X « J j » O . 211 W. P . W.P.  41  5  W.W. 1 M.V. 518  easted een else whither embowment . Empery s enarch enchased enearth enghosted enghostings engrailed envier enjailed entablature enray enringed en-sepulchred eve shade eye s ome eyne eyot w i t h i e s 5  fantocine fined flarnens flexures . flipped flings flowerets font foot footed 'foots f o r e deeming foredone forefelt foreframed forenight f o r t h shone freakful freshed frieze frustrance faith f u r t i v e wise gaged gain givings galore garreteer gayed germed ghast  W.P. 28 -P *JP «3? *14? T* * "L * S *181 W.P. 54 Me Ye 510 W . P . 555 P . P . P . 100 J j . l . E . 574 1 . I . E . 53? W. W . 185 W.P. 68 W.P. 15 M . Y . 41? P.P.P. 93 W.P. 55 Ivi* "V"» 426 M.Y. 41? M.Y. 444 JJ . I . H i . 65O W.P. 58 M«Y o 454 M.Y. W.P.  479 55 W.W. 127 S • G *381 Iia XiaSa 548 W.P. 40 W.P. 71 W.P. 17 W.W. 119 1 . 1 . E . 660 W.W. 154 T • Xi» S *262 X** a J? • 2?115 a W.P. 5 W.W. 83 W.W. 168 JO a Xi a S a218 W.W. 78 M.Y. 497 jP a]P a? a 94 S a C • 345 O a G a 304 M.Y. 440 W.P, P.P.P.  • 28 89 156 i/ a a Jj a XjaJS a 576 W . P . ' 17 JO a X a S •196 J? a J? a 3? a 87 :  \if  ghost gloomed glum goddessed gossamery graveacre greenth griff grime f i l m s groin gargoyles  M a V a 447 j-' a XJ « 111 a625 T a Ija S a 196 S a C 0 354 W.P. 46 M . V . 499 M.Y. 497 1 • I . ili . 584 P . P»P. 94 • M.Y. 437  hackered handkercher haply haps harrows hazed heathy here under heritor hillock h i t h e r around hodiernal homing hassif hussif'ry  S a C a 363 0 234 j _ a JJO O a 505 W.W. 114 w • w • 28 M.Y. 491 W.W. 1 M . V . 424 -L a XJ a Hi 0 579 W.W, 10 T T TP 591 W.P. 54 P . P a P » 87 vi .Jr. 62 W . P . 111  illimited inbe inched increeping indwell inscrolls  21 W.P.. I . I . E . 564 T • .L • S. 203 T TP Xi . TJj .Hi . 613 W.P. 6 W.P. 44  jailing jined joyance jambs jigs joyance joyance junetive  S a C «324 W.P. 16 XJ a Xi a lC a 540 S a C 0 382 V/ ©-Pa 40 XJ a Xj a ill •654 45 W.P. W.P. 11  kindlessness knap lacune land skip l a n t h orn largened lated lea  JD a Xfa S a 212  m  T  W.W.  W.P,  134 13  . M.V. 491 0? 0 Jb a D a 182 T « Lo O a 272 JJ a IJ e ill »57 8 W.P. 27 W.W. 65  leant leaze leazes leazings legged liberticide lew lewth lipped lipwords littied littles longwhiie lotted loudening lueeney luthern  P . P . P .  137  • G 9 28b  38 2!«IJ»s# 227 W.P.  lb3 M . Y . 518 W.W. 29 W•? • 8  • W.W.  • 0. 509  1 . JLl.E . 572 W.W. 194 m -r 0 X 9 X J e O • 254 .  W.W. W.P.  57  24 J J . JL.il]. 5b5 M . Y . 431 L . L . S . 585  maidy mammet mead me seemed meetly metope midmost mind s i g h t minims misprision mis-wis!on moils Mollyish monition mullions  224 S . 187 W.W. 154 1 . It. jjj. 585 w.w-.. 14b 94 p.p.p.  natant nave nay s a y i n g nescientness newelled nighed nimb nipperkin nonage noose Nor'lights norward  Vf a $f a 93 S t C • 353 J- a Xi a 3 a267 W.W. 35 s . c . 353 W.P. 24 p «p »p» 89 0? a XJ a S a269  ochreous olden oldening onbearers on c r e e p i n g onfleeting  P . P . P .  I . -L. 0 © 5  I«P.  X . It.Hi . 630  M.Y.  T T X J a Xi *Jii «  513  59b M *Ye 431 O a G a 335 b« C « 302 S 0 C 0 392 M . Y . 498 D * C 0 382  W.P. W.W.  45  11  M . Y . 500 3 s G« 326 p.p.p. w. w. 1 . P . jii«  91  102  137 596  jil. 534 Xi. P . j i l . 541 P.P.  0011  opined orbed orts ostent oubliette outbreaking out b r i n g s ogive-work out g a z i n g out l a i d out l e a n t out loom outrollings ' out s h a p e s outshow out s h r i e k s out s k e l e t o n o u t smoothed over g a t  J? a J? aX^ a145  76  W.W.  S . C e 296 S e 0 0 305  T?r -p  7 449 W .P. 44 P «P «P * 89 W.P. 67 M . Y . 520 rn T 0 X . X ) . O e 208 P . P . P . 137 »*.. Jr .  M.V.  W.W.  M.Y. rn X  T q XJ e. P O .« W  73  521 254  5 M . V . 465 2? aX* *Ps 93 0? a Xi» S a253 ? oX* aX* a155 0  passagers S»G • 380 W.W. passioned 15 periwinks M . V . 426 pewing S a G a 353 phasin 1 a Ijajlj a 557 . W.P. pied 41 pier P »P. P. 94 philosoph W.W. 157 W . W . 190 plaining plainlier T 0 I J 0 S 0213 p l a i n song 65 b W.P. pleasaunce 20 pomped XJ a IjaPC a- 554 poppet jl? a Xja S •234 m T Q X 0 J_i 0 O «I89 poppling pother XJ « Xjalli a553 W.P. pousette 40 presciencelessness W.W, pricked 'T a XJ a S 0 2b6 prinked 3 a C a 330 publican W.W. 45 purflings M.V. 424 quieked q u i e t some quittance quorin reels reavement riband rlchened  M. Y • 40b M.Y. 490 P »P »P . P . P . P . W. P . W«W 0 W .P.  M.Y.  128 94 40  31 4b  42 b  roomage rosei rubied rueings runlet s f  salamandrine sadlier s e our scouring scrabbled scrub seise s e l f ward semblant sempiternal sengriens sepultured sere ward shadeful s h a l l oon sheeted • sherds shoon showance sick l i e d smalled smalling smartened snapt Snocks sock softling Songsingings Soughed spandrels Spartiats speechful sphered spudding spuds Stats stillicide stilly stowage strook strown strut stubble stucoed suaged subserved subtrude  J J . Jj.E* . Jb.E • W.W. 'el. W. S.C.  JL  q -  n  54-1 541 14 134  316 288  • C . 308 W.W. 106 D  3?  M.V. 454 W.W. 106 I . I . E . 619 w. w. 168 T . I . S . 277 m T q , 214 T • Xf. Jj •K> S •«224 J- e 1 . I . E . 590 3? . 3?. 3?» 127 M . V . 450 W.W. 159 W.W. 21 M . V . 475 3? »P . P . 121 W.P. 5 W.P. 71 I* a Xft S •243 P.P.P. 78 m T Q 257 px .«p J.up* O. a 112. W.P. 16 IP *3?» JP • 145 SftG * 326' p . p . p . 116 p . p . p . 101 D • C e 386 w.w. 31 S * G o 285 W.P. 43 . p . p . p . 145 M . V . 468 W.P. 16 W.P a 55  s.c.  288  Jj. JJU « 559 T • J J . S . 189 I . I . E . 640 . W.W.- 193 W.W. 106 94 p.p.p. M.V. 46l ij . J J . 584 43 W.P. Hi.  suchwise surceased swain tarriance teen tendance theas thee ward thencefrom thence wise there around there awhile t h e r ence t h e r e from thik thinned thinning thorough sped thrid thridding thuswise Thwart toilsomely tongued tor t other treen t r i s t f u l ne.ss trow tv/ain r  M.V. m T q  487 87 178  0? « lift S •197 1? • Xi • S 186 • W.W. 186 p . p . p . 145 -PftJ?ft1? ft 116 W.P. 46 Jj . Jj. E 0 558 T • Jj • 3 •219 Jj. Jj. E . 534 W.P.  16  -X • X • iii •660 3?«? * 145 pft?ft?ft 87 p . p . p . 122 Vi"« X*« 21 3?ftp*P» 98 P . P . P .  95  X« X • 3 •545 T • X • S •274 .WaWft 63 ¥ftW • 160 «X«S © I83 145 • ? * X*ft? ft X» LftS a 620 T • X • S •253 w.w. 192 X »3? a? «130 5  umbered P.P.P. 93 umbraged Jj. I . E . 544 unadieu'd M.V. 425 u n be P P p 162 un b l i n d e d W.W. 68 u n blooms W.P. 7 unconscience d M . V . 473 uhdoubt W.W. 83 uneagerness T a XftS ft218 unease W.P. 35 uneyed M . V . 422 52 u n f o r e boded W.P. u n f oreknowin^sly 1 . I . E .. 547 un heed W.P. 44 unhope p . p . p . 155 unilluded !D«X e S • 262 un p e r i s h e d P . P . P . 131 rXn* JUft T q O « 208 unrecognize unrein 3? a ?ftX* »103 49 unrest ' W.P. p r> -p unshent 82 X . J_ . JT e  unsight tmtombea unt r oub1ousiy un v i s i o n unware un w e e t i n g unwitting u n wombs under v o i c i n g s upbrimming up clomb upclosing up d r a v e upedging up e y e d upfingered uplipped up l i t up mouthed upsidled up s p r e a d up s t o l e up swum upthrow upped upp i n g ups  W.P. 33 T o 202 rXn9 TJj«QO O 268 M.Y. JL ejje ue 498 21 W.P. 2? • J? «P« 133  rn  313  T e L« S «23 4 X «X • 3? o 105 S  3  W.P.  P.P.P.  W.P.  33  121  263 25  T a Jj. S «180 m -r oJ a 211 1 «XJ»  W.P.  Jj. JJ.iii»  M.Y.  W.W.  60  393 448  81  168  W.P.  25  <' /. w.  72  P • J? *X* • 105 M.Y. ,441 - W.W. 121 P aPaE» M.Y. 465  vaingloriousness S . C . 289 vermiculations M.Y. 433 vulturine M. "V . 465 wanning wanzing wanzing  M.V.  IJ . JJ . iii .  427  383  ' M.V. 481  warely •weariful weet weeted weeting weet l e s s westering 'what s 0 whiffled whiled whiling whilom whin wight. wilings wis wi s t with i n side withoutdoors without side wonning worsed worsen wot wowiided yclept y e s t e r eve yestreen yieldance yond yonside Zilver  \i © \I 9 m  T  q  W.W.  201  254  160  M.Y. 420 P. P . E . 5o2 - m -p X * XI. 0O . 254 rn T O X I X . U I 215 S. 0 ft354  T a Jj . S . 189 P »P eP 0 141 X . L . b . 205  M.V.  W.W.  M.V.  456 172  511  179  P . P . P . 157 P. P.XJ . 660 rXn©TXJ a0 0 « 187  M.Y.  406  W.P.  16  J- e XJO S 9 247 ~D X *"PX ©T)X *>100 W.W. 140 W.P. 71 P »P eP * 105 *P 0 XJ » S 0 202 - P . P . E . 591 X 0 XJ 0 Jli •639 T 0 Xja ^ • 266  W.W. W.W.  116  W.P.  16  70  110  COMPOUNDS a-coast v-.p. 33 T . JJ. S. 230 a-doing a-dreaming ra T cj 253 a-drowse p.p.p. i l l a-groaning T. I . S . 2?i 13 . J j . S . 224 a-perch a-row X*« IJ «S. 183 a-shine T . L . 3 . 228 a-standing P . P . P . 162 a-tli inking m T Q 279 J- ..1JJ»E . o. . 631 JJ a-thumping a-wing M . V . 418 about-to-fire I . J j . 2 . 358 absent-thoughted W.W. 70 aceordian-pleated M . V . 443 afar-noised \ 4 mXJ « 66 afar-off D * XJ e S ft22 2 after-hours W.P. 61 after-sunset 1.1 • V a 466 ail-stricken MLftV tt 412 aimed-at X a XJftill » 558 air-blue t_) • C a 326 all-adorning A.1 o XJfti-j580 « all-alluring M . V . 422 all-day -L/a Xft10 • 630 all-delivering 139all-earth-gladdening-law• of-Peace ?ftX* • ? * 82 all-eclipsing W.P. 5 all-embarrassed S . C . 341 All-Empery M . V . 318 r n T o ± « Xi • O • 222 all-enacting all-immanent 2 © X • s« 269 all-including M . V . 401 all-prevailing M.V.- 464 All-Saints W.P. 40 all-souls o»G» 353 All-uneared M . V . 413 ail-unknowingly 171 o « G » 303 all-height a l t a r - a f f i r m a t i o n ' X«X/ftlC e 654 altar-crumb b»0« 287 altar-vow x* • X • S«273 348 altar-whim apple-blooth W.P. 38 apple-green s • c • 378 apple-tops. T • X • S e 192 OftG a 334 apple-trees arm-chair JJftXftJli ft 639 o a C ft 334 art-beginnings a s s embly-hour W.P. 31  autumn-end babe-like baby-boy baby-child back-street ball-dresses Ballad-singers Banjo-player Bank-walk bare-browed bargain-cheap bark-bound barn-cocks barn-door barrow-beacon barton-shed bass-viol battie-breathing Battle-god Bay-red beauty-spot bedside-lamp belfry-loft believed-in-thing be11-chime bell-like bell-loft bell-rope bending-ocean bent-bearded bereavement-pain beryl-be spread beryl-bright he-webbed bine-stems birth-chambers birth-hour birth-moon birth-tide black-craped black-tressed blame-exempt biast-beruffled blight-time blood-bespread blood-brethren blood-hole blue-coloured blue-eyed body-borne  WftWft  163  11a ¥ . 0? e x» s« e X • S • X • XjftB •  462  229 193 598 S • G a 327 T . l . S . 223 X a ? ft? s 146 s  aX  • S • 243  M.V.  405  JJ.L.JJ]. 585 V< a ? tt 50  M.V.- 506 S • G ©413 32 W.P.  61 • W.P. 53 W.P, 97 ? • ? a? «. 90 P.P.P. P «P , P . 119 T . 1. S. 268 L . L . E . 602 si  70  a vl •  'T. I i . S . 209 X. X .Hi. 585 W.W. 44 w.w. I67 XJ. X . J J J .  655  V-t V158 !  84 p.p.p. p . p . p . 153 M e V o 479 M.V. M.V.  446 454 P . P . P . 137 L . L . E . 623 p . p . p . 116 W.P. 50 JD a X • S ft 240  M.V.  494  XJ.JJ.I1J. 556 1/ . p . 29 p . p . p . 137 L . I . E . 633  M.V. VI w  510 157 89 P.P.P. 602 -L a Xa i-J » O a C • 373 287 Q ft O •Oo  Ill boisterous-wise bond-serwants bosom-beating bosom-burning bran-new bread-bringer breakfast-fire breakfast-smoke breast-bare breath-forsaken breath-nigh breath-while breathing-time breeze-blown briar-meshed . brick-brown brick-built bride-ale bride-clothes Bride-streams bright-hatted bright-souled bright-time brine-mist brisk-eyed broad-browed brook-side broom-stick brown-shawled brown-tressed brute-like Bubb-Down bugle-horn burgher-throng burnt-up butt on-hole by-and-by. by-track bye-path bye-roads cab-hacks call-time candlemas-time candle-snoff candle-wax cannon-play • cap-framed cart-tail casement-comers casement-sash Casterbridge-way catacomb-pined  W.W.  W.P. W.P.  i? 14 41  Ii a IJ a ill a595 W.W. 142 W u .**"n a 91 P . 1. ill. 602 W.P.  30  11. V . 401 M . V . 455 XJ • XJ a iii o575 JO • XJ* S *241 IJ 0 XJ 0 iii 0594 M . V . 442 M . V . 463 - -L 0 XJ * iii 9 581  75 38 w»w. 190' W.P. 46 S 0 C o 523 o*C• 390 M . V . 493 P . P .ill a 627 W.W. 80 O 0 C ©327 o nu 0 316 \I \ J 64 M . V . 494 D 0 C 0 327 XJ a -b a iii ft 557 P . P . P . 159 W.P. 31 W.W. 195 W.W. 122 S a C 0 393 T«L » S »261 M . V . 510 W.W. 16 M . V . 503 W.W.  •  W.P.  yj  9  9  9  JJ. P . E . 652 P . P . Iii a 562 K)  »C o  W.P. W.W.  324 64  114  W.P. 24 T • XJ 0 S 0258 R  T  q  258  I? a It a S »199 W.W.  M.V. M.V.  103 489 482  cattle-show chalk-pit chancel-altar chap e l - e r owned char-wench chariot-seat charnel-eyed charnel-site check-floored chestnut-drive cheval-glass chiefs-at-arms child-fair chimley-tun chimney-breast chimney-corner chimney-nook chimney-pot chimney-roar chimney-seat china-ware chit-chat Christ-cross Christ-day church-aisle church-chiming church-day church-glass church-re storers church-text c hureh-warden church-way c h u r c hy a r d -p 1 a c e cider-makings cinder-gray city-opprest claw-worn clay-carved clay-pits clear-eyed clear-sunned click-click cliff-heads cliff-side cliff-top clock-beats clock-corner clock-like close-barred close-cowled closed-up  b • U « 395  3 00 a  285  S a C a 548  28 31 1» P. E » 354 <U a W 0 202 S a C 0 363 W.P. W.P.  P. P . B . 604 M . V . 455 S.C. 338  .  W.P.  23 497 W.P, 64 X* a lie S 0 253 X> a XJ a £i a648 P . P . P . 155 O • C a 36b T a XJ a 3 a259 M.V.  P «P «P« l b l S « C a316 P . P . E , 596' Xi * IJ a iii e640: rp y 0 240 X a J_Jo yj 9 1 T. P. S. 23b M . V . 4b4 M a V a 403 W.P.  48  M . V . 503 P . P . E . ' 593 P . P « E 0 b42 Q  (il  n  q  364  240 PJ-.aPJJ. . PO.. 141 O a G a 365 IJ a IJ a jtil «614 . T  56 622 V a w a 131 M . V . 463 O 9 C 9 312 O a C e 330 W.W a 55 M . V . 466 M . V . 458 JJ 9 -LaE ft 625 T•Lt S• 21? J- * Xja 3 a 22b XJ a lia3 0 567 M . V . 4b7 M . V . 483 3 0 G a 388 W.P.  P. P . E a  112  closing-in M.V. 492 cloth-covering • Vif e 10? a r% e3 3 4 cloud-east *J O p cloud-colours 291 cloud-holes W.W. 13 club-fire L . I . E . 568 club-room T . L . S . 225 cobweb-time x . 1. su • 539 cock-crow W • w. 121 codlin-tree W.P. 64 coffin-thrall L . L . E . 390 rn -r o coign-stone i . • JJ . o . 1 9 6 cold-eyed L • Jj . jh •563 cold-lipped S . C . 338 colder-featured Li. C. 4 0 4 come-at X * L »E e 5 8 1 comet-comings L . L . Hi e 578 c o n s c i e n c e - c a p p e d T . L . S , 247 consort-queens 352 copper-crowned o • G« 285 copper-red T«X*S * 264 copse-clothed 3«G» 3 4 0 corn-blades W.P. 29 corn-chaff 612 JJ . L »E e c o r n m a r k e t - p l a c e T . L . S . 226 corpse-cold s . c . 398 corpse-like L . L . ii*. 618 rn T q corpse-thing X » Jj . D • 203 cottage-place T »TJJ .<3tj • 193 cotton-hooded P .P . P . 143 couch-grass 11. "7. 511 couch-time M.V. 4 4 1 c ounte s s-widow \I * w • 137 coupling-vow *3PttX*4 1 0 4 court-clad I • JJ * ii*«554 craft-wit S • G •382 .creeper-nails X • X * JJJ » 659 crimson-bright M.V. 4 8 2 crimson-faced S . C . 372 crimson-red S * C *3 7 5 crisp-curled M.V. 4 8 1 crisply-cropping X • X/« XJ «555 criss-crossed jj * XttiC ©608 criss-crossing ? eX* • ? • 84 crocus-border P . P . P . 155 crocus-coloured 72 cross-and-hand P . P . P . 158 crumb-outcaster P . P . P . 135 cup-eyed x • L • iij •547 curfew-ringing M.V. curfew-tide W.P. 52 curtain-chink X » XJ * ilt * 566 cusping-marks 582 9  KJ  custom-growths . L.L.E. custom-kept" W.P. c u s t o m - s t r a i g h t e n e d ' W.P.  610 66 6  dainty-cut da i - s y - a n d - b u t t e r cup  152  w.w.  L . L . E . 592 d a i s y - p i ed W.W. 10 da nc i n g - r 00m S . C . 595 dandelion-globes W.W. 73 dark-eyed T . L . S . 227 darkness-overtaken W.P. 54 date-day S.C. 342 date-day's-' M.V. 4 4 2 date-graven L . L . E . 620 day-dawn P . P . P . 162 day-dawning M.V. 4 4 6 day-down P.P.P. 164 day-dreamt L . L . E . 557 day-fall . M.V. 452 day-spans M.V. 5 0 4 day-star .W.P. 55 dead-drowses L . L . E . 582 dead-reckoning P . P . P . 197 dead-white T . L . S . 208 death-bed T . L . S . 230 death-day T.L.S. 184 death-inducing • P.P.P. 171 death-lament P . P . P . 137 death-mains M.V. 5 1 8 death-mark W.W. 48 death-penalties T . L . S . 264 death-rumour W.P. 45 death-sealed T . L . S . 277 death-white L . L . E . 642 Death's-head T.L.S. 181 debt-free P . P . P . 156 deep-delved P.P.P. 91 delicate-filmed M.V. 521 • della-land M.V. 509 dew-damps W.P. 30 dew-dashed T . L . S . 201 dew-fleece L . L . E . 585 dewfall-hawk M.V. 521 diagram-lines S.C. 381 dim-discerned P.P.P. 85 dim-lit M.V. 409 dim-outlined L . L . E . 633 ding-dong M.V. 4 1 1 ding-dongs T . L . S . 226 dirge-like P.P.P. 101 double-bass M.V. 4 8 0 double-lined W.W. 1 5 4  115  down-drip 1.1.3. 547 drab-aired M.V. 4 9 1 draught-board S.C. 382 dream-built M.V, 437 dream-endangering P . P . P . 91 dream-projected W.W. 132 dream-time M.V. 428 dresser-ledge W.P. 62 drop-drenched M.V. 453 drum-beat S.C. 35I dug-outs L . L . E . 557 dull-hued P . P . P . 105 dumb-show S.C. 392 dun-coloured P . P . P . 155 dusk-hour L . L . E . 539 dust-paven S.C. 321 dwelling-place M.V. 480 ear-drops earth-bound earth-clogged Earth-Gods? earth-men Earth-secrets easel-lumber eaves-drip eaves-drops Sdgon-side eff-holes eighteen-pence eighty-years elbow-high elm-rows enemy-soldier Epic-famed eve-damps ewe-leaze eyes-full " eye-sweep eye-trying fair-eyed faithful-bent fall-time fancy-fanned fancy-fiddled fancy-free fancy-man fancy-men fancy-place far-back ' far-distant far-down  S.C. 376 W.P. 60 S.C. 353 P . P . P . 149 W.P. 44 P . P . P . 134 L . L . E . 584 L . L . E . 631 T.L.S. 259 W.P. 62 M.V. 423 W.W. 60 L . L . E . 651 L . L . E , 592 W.P. 41 M.V. 513 P . P . P . . 91 M.V. 412 T.L.S. 259 M.V. 405 VI.'W. 168 W.W. 18 S.C. •L.L.E. L.L.E. L.L.E. L.L.E." P . P . P .  T.L.S. T.L.S. M.V. T.L.S. M.V. L.L.E.  327 626 562 653 613 127 182 230 497 258 467 598  far-famed far-famed far-off far-reaching far-sight far-sighted fast-locked fear-filled fellow-climber fellow-deacon fellow-made fellow-wight fellow-wights f e l l o w - y e a r sme n fender-brink fever-striken fighting-floor finger-tips finger-touch fir-cones fire-fieeked fire-gnawed fire-red firm-fixed firm-lipped firmament-riding first-born first-unwi1ling flag-rope flag-staff flame-lit flint-and-steel fiint-tipt flit-fluttered floating-lily flower-fair fiower-fresh flower-like flower-petals flung-off flush-time flute-notes fly-blown fly-flecked foam-fingered fog-damp s fog-dimmed fog-festooned fog-fleece folding-doors foot-faint foot-folk foot-sore  ?8 T.L.S. I85 XJ * X; »lb • 5 6 1 XaX.Sa 601 ri « VV 0 4 X^ • 3?aX?» 35 M.V. 490 W.P. 8 460 M.V. 599 M.V. 507 W.P. 55 W • P . 14 p.p.p. 151 x *1 x»ii*» 566 -P • x»s © 220 -D • X • o« 265 X • Xfriii• 559 107 P . P . P . 67 w.w. S«G * 340 X «X • X • 105 P . P . P .  5  s  0 • C•  M •. V • 490 X • X * El • 645 M.V, 466 36 I? • 3? « X A I63 M.V. 464 W.W. I65 X • X * It* •649 X • XftHi •' 631 X•X•Do 178 X • Xftiii e 590 M.V. 454 X » XftS a 188 sbftC ft 386 192 153 . w«w • 13 s * c • 285 S * C a 388 M.V. 487 60 •W.W. ' X * X' • xu •554 M.V. 505 T»JL. S. 239 M.V. 436 M.V. 452 L . L a ill 0 652 JJ . L . Ill .592 M.V. 464 O a \j 331 a 5  114  foot-swift 331 ghost-girl-rider "D *p "D foot-track 16 0 ghost-like fore-borne O e G 30? ghost-white fore-desired - M.V. 413 giant-slayer fore-discerned S . C . 314 gibbet-post fore-folk II. Y. 408 gibbet-tree TT fare-hewn .»VT. .i163 • glance-giving forlorn-hope i* « X » 17 glory-gleam formal-fashioned o « C ©326 glory-show fortune-finding 17. P . 70 glow-forsaken forty-three 23 glow-worm .forward-footing -P»3?» J? 0 97 God-created forward-straining 162 god-glance frail-wick d Li.Y. 459 god-haunted \ Frail-witted W.P. 48 God-obeyed frenzy-led W.P. 45 God-set fresh-fluted o n « 304 o»o goer-by frinting-time M.Y. 318 gold-topped front-trench-line W.W. .61 golden-red' fuchsia-bells M.Y. 512 good-and-all ftill-bough ed 50 W.P. good-bye full-charged ' . ]• i • V •509 Good-bying full-featured T • Jj • S •204 Good-morning full-finished M.Y. 458 good-night full-fugued 404 good-nighting full-heart T . P* S» 216 gown-skirt full-hearted P . P . P . 137 grace-beguiled full-length o . C • 338 g rass-flat full-pulsed P . P »E« 561 grass-path full-rayed Jj. L . iii. 547 grave-brim full-robed 1 . P . E a 537 grave-place full-starred M.V. 521 grave-way full-throated Ij» HJ • E© 544 gravel-path full-up T o S« 219 gr e e n-g owne d full-used Jj » Xi » j-b «557 green-grained full-winged K) o 0 « 342 green-grassed fury-fires. P . P . P . • 89 green-gray green-rheumed gable-cock M.V. 516 grief-groan gable-end M.V. 509 gur g oy 1 e -h e a d gable-slit T • P • S . 215 gallery-scene T . P . S . 236 hag-ridden gallows-tree • P . P . P . 158 half-a-crown garde-robes 21 W.P. half-awake garden-hatch X » X o t> 259 9 half-awakened garden-path w.w. 44 half-blinded garden-plot W.W. 138 half-company garden-wall .w.w. I54 half-conscious . Gas-glimmers p.p.p. 81 half-crazed gate-bars P . P . E . 533 half-eased gateway-pier P . P . P . I65 half-frightened gay-pictured o 0 G 0 327 half-god ghost-day P . P . E . 609 half-hearts  S 0 G 9 333 L f t L . E * 631 X* 0 XJ 0 S 191 e  9  t »p ftp* 146 W.W. 165 r »P «p * 151  P. P.P. P.P.P.  118 89 M.V. 466 W.P. 54 Xi 0 XJ 0 Hi e 535 P . P . P . 121 P«P »P 0 102  f  a  »P aP • 91  I* 0 P 0 P? 0146 W.P. 19 P » JLi • E . 592  M.V. 472 M.V. 479  P»1 »E . 632 P . P . E . 556 W.P. 31 -P » XJ 9 S 0 257  XJ • lift E 0556 XJ 0 Ij 0 E 0539  • M.Y. 441  T * Ii* S0 • 247 S a C 0 285 S«G * 388  M.Y. 502 301 s»c« 444 • M.V.  X' » IJ 0 E 0539 P . P . P . 111 P . P * E . 660 P . P . E . 611 P . P.E» 640  M.V. 431 T 0 j j . O « 24y P . p . E .631 rn J- .  P.P.P. T.P.S. P • P. E. T«P. S . P«P«E« T•P.S» W.P. W.W. I  145 269  555  215 599 264 48 97  'ti 0 1* 0 7 » J j 0 S 017?  iii604  lY* X »E 9 1* 0 X9 S 9 231  115  half-height M . V . 482 1 « XJ . half-hid 561 half-naked W . P . 64 half-passed 17. P. 36 half-perished o«G o 571 half-sunny -b»_P .P • 155 half-transparent o * C • 514 M.V. 431 haIf-unrobed half-uttered X . X • D •178 o • G • 312 half-wrapt halo-bedecked o«G < • 236 halting-place P.P.P. 94 hand-hid 11.V. 516 hand-rail • W • 125 hands-across X • Xftiii» 605 happiness-insuring M . Y , 422 harbour-bridge XftXftiii © 551 harbour-wall S«C ft 544 hard-run SftG a 502 have-beens Jj • Xftjli ft564 head-god X«X a HJ « 605 heart-aches X a X. S 223 heart-bane 354•U heart-beats ft ft 159 heart-burnings T•X • S •260 heart-enslavement X»X S o 220 heart-halt . W.P. 56 heart-harm oftC« 338 heart-heaves JJftXftHi a 648 heart-heavings W.P. 46 heart-hit IJ . JJ . E . 626 heart-hydromel L . I . E . 574 Heart-King W.P. 21 heart-queens W.P. ' 67 heart-scope W.W. 152 heart-sick W.P. 64 heart-strings - Il a *\T507 « hearth-stone X • Xft-lli «608 heath-rimmed W.W. 111 L.L.E. heavily-haunted 556 heavy-browed « ; 1 .92 heir-looms P.P.P. 156 • W.W. .28 hill-dark hell-fortress \ I * p ft 46 helter-skelter T • X a S •269 hiding-hole T • Xft S •197 high-bred X . X a ill ft590 high-expectant II. Y * 454 high-hung p «pftpft91 high-lighted X a X a S a 186 •w.w. High-Priest 93 8 h i gh-pur p os e d W.P. 17 i* high-road 2$ SU .  •Vt  9  o  n  ,  U f "XT VI "  'it  it  .1  5  r  :t  * i* e  High-Stoy Kigh-Street hill-hid Hill-top history-haunted hog-backed hollow-eyed holm-flames home-bound home-coming home-den home-gone home-life home-planned home-pride home-things honey-like honour-wrecked  Hoo-hoo  P a P a Jr* a 159 W.P.  20  L.L.E. 533 X a Xo S e 257  P.P.P.  95  W. W. 149  M.V.  481 121 M . V . 464 • S • G 580 a XftXftill a 606 JJftX • lli e 605 P . P . P . 145 P • P • P • 84 ' w.w. 38 W.P. 34 S « C a 395 X a X « S • 274 X a Xft S • 254 - P . P . P . 124 L.L.E. 65O L. L. ii . 65I M.V. 454 M.V. 471 M. V • 422 W.W. 73 W.W. 105 XftXJ a XJ « 584 s»c» 341 M.V. 512 W.W. 82  .W.W.  hope-hour • hope -hue s •horn-lantern hot-faced hot-faced house-front house-fronts house-full house-gear house-things household-clock human-wr ought Kundr e d-an d-Thir t e enth S • G a332 X • X ftS e 251 hunting-days X ft X • 1C • 554 hus ba nd-and-wi fe M.V. 421 hush-offering ill-advised ill-content ill-endowed ill-inclined ill-motherings ill-teachings ill-timed ill-usage ill-used ill-using ill-wished ill-witcherys inquiring-wise iris-hued ivy-green ivy-shoot  s»c» 596 624 470 'T.L.S. 267 X a X • So I89 4 102 PftP ©P. ct ri 339 36 W.P, W.P. 11 JJftX • XJ ft 640 S a G 0 378 s.c. 291 p.p.p. 118 L.L.E. 591 M.V. 458 Xft XftiS* M.V.  ivy-spun  W«P«  57  jack-o-clock iii • V • 4-11 j a c k - o - l a n t h o r n ? •S • i i . V. 424 joy-jaunts M.Y. 44b joyless-hued T • ZJ • S • 177 judgement-call 10 J u dg e m e n t - da y D « C • 287 judgement-hall 'T # L« D a264 Judgement-Sign *i / * J? » 24 judgement-time o • G« 37 9 Jumping-jack S * C o 354 Jumping-jill s.o. 354 June-light P • JJ . E o 635 ?  Kennel-shed K i n g s-Own Kissing-gate Knee-deep Kopje-crest  W.P. 39 W.W. 154 T a X a S • 278 p.p.p. 83  l a c e — r obed Lammas-tide lamp-lit lamp-lit lamp-worm's languid-lipped lantern-bearing lantern-light lantern-slide large-eyed large-pupilied last-taken last-time lattice-gleam laugh-loud law-lacking leaf-strewn leaf-strewn leaf-wove life-deep life-fraight life-light life-long life-love life-loyalties life-mate life-shotten life-span life-tides_ light-hearted light-heartedly light-limbed  S a C a 395 M.V. 402 lia X"*E • 560 0? a Xi a S a 201 M.V. 431 . O » G a 307 O « C a 362 W.P, 64 S.O. 306 P . P . P . 115 M.V. 4 8 4 P . I . E . 644 S » C a 320 iVia V a 454 \/ a W* 168 W.W. 186 P.P.E. 595 W.P. 23 S.C. 316 W.P. 5 XJ a XJ aE a 594 M • V a 519 XJ a Xi a Jjj a 552 X a X aE a 602 W * X * 57 D a G a 369 W.W. 130. W.W. 88 X*. JJ « E . 647 P.P.E. 652 S.C. 330 X • X a £J •659  ?  XJ . Jj . E .635  5  light-penned light-time light-tongued light-tripping lightning-blade lightning-streak like-intending lily-white lime-dry linen-banded lions-Three liquor-bar liquor-cups liquor-fired little-Ease Podi-bred loft-ladder log-ends lone-lived long-ago long-ago long-drawn long-limbed long-lingering long-loved long-missed long-purposed long-roll long-suffering long-suffering long-sunned long-sweeping long-tried long-vogued look-out Poud-acclaimed love-anguished love-birds love-campaign love-claim love-labouring love-leaf love-letters love-light • love-lights love-line love-looks love-lore love-nest love-rhyme love-stratagem love-thought love-thralls  Jj a Xj a Hi a 543 XJ a JL a iii 9 5 4 1  T 0 Xe « 210 W.P. 64 t* * JZ « 43 3 « C a 347 138 W.W. 180 rn x 0 265 X • XJ a Jj XJ aa•EQ ae 603 W.P. 4b a C a 344 T 0 X a S a 225 'rf 6 P 9 47 M.Y* 480 P *P «P• 99 W.P. bb T • L » D a 192 X • XJ a 3 a 17 9 * Xia XaE a 539 P.P.P. 8b S a G a 334 M.V. 4bl W.P. 69 P«P»P « 99 rn T, Q 17? Ii « Xa III 0 638 X a Ii* E a 620 X a X a E "a 643 »^) a C a 298 W.P. 27 3 a G a 292 M.V.' 422 S.C. 380 W.W. 168 T1 L i S . 272 S.C. 305 M.V. 475 S « G a 344 P.P.P. 130 M.V. 501 i . p . E .569 17 VT *i « w e 51 W.P. 61 P.P.P. 102 3 a C a 343 M.V. 520 X a X a E 0 564 Q n 313 D C a0 315 i-J 0 9 Kj IV'i « V a 460 W a W 0 ibo X a XaE a 55O  love-worn iover-bright loving-kindness Iov ing-kindness low-laid low-voiced lumber-shop lust-led Lyonnesse-way magic-minted Mail-train man-like Man-p r o j e c t e d manor-ha11 manor-lady Mansion-front mansi on-place many-eyed Many-flamed many-shaped many-sidedness many-wived many-yeared marble-keen marble-streeted Market-dames market-days Market-men market-people marriage-rite s mask-clad mas t er-ma s o n s Master-mind Master-vein ma t r on-manners me-ward meek-eyed Meek-eyed M e e t i n g r-days meeting-place meeting-time Meeting-times Memory-acted Memory-laden Mem o r y - p o s s e s s e d mercy-seat merry-making mid-aged Mid-sea middle-watch Mighty-vanned miles-wide  W.P. ii  » ** «  P.P.P. O  a  0  a  P.P.P. P.P.P. il? a Wa lla"fy a X . L A E .  II 15 12p 306 113 154 60 518 580  a lO a 603 O © 0 a 326 5 a C a 307 L> « G » 307 o«C t 334 o«C • 370 XJ a.X a Hi o 627 M.V. 459 M.V. 484 M. V. 468 W.P. 43 P.P.P. 89 q p 352 W.P. 42 W..W. 96 L . L . E . 644 T.L.S. 223 T • L. S • 199 T.L.S. 199 •L.L.E. 542 P.P.P. 128 'M.V. 490 3 * C * 580 W • 156 W.P. 42 S • C a 541 X a X a J-J a 647 . 11 a V • 404 <0 * C a 341 X a X a S a 204 X © X » S a 211 P.P.P. 89 X « XJ • w • 226 q p 371 W.P. 58 299 506 q n M.V. 478 T.L.S. 216 96 rr yi L . L . E . 628 P.P.P. 84 W • P . 25 X aX  Hi 9  mind-chains mind-strife Minute-beats Mirage-mists Mi r e - b e s t a r r e d mirth-time mis-sent Mist-bow mist-imbued Mocking-Bird Mole-hill month-night month-old Moon-blanched Moon-eyed moon-gleam moon-lit moor-cock Moor-hen , Morning-tide most-loved mountain-road much-beloved mud-bespat music-chart Music-Men Music-mother Music-wise needle-thicks neighbour-natives nerve-strained nesting-tree neutral-tinted never-known llever-napp i n g new-arisen new-brought-forth new-builded new-found new-laid new-made Hew-rigged new-sprung new-spun Hew-Years nigh-regarding night-fog night-guns night-longnight-mare Wight-moths night-processions  aO  *  300 190  P . P . P . 120 . W.P. 59 T . L . S . 259 M.V. 499 W.P. 29 S . C . 523 . M.V. 465 W.W. 8 rn T 0 X . Xie O . 180 x . L«S . 177 S . C . 345 P.P.P. 156 S a C a 289 M.V. 520 X a X a ll-o 607 Xj a X a JJJ * 565 M.V. 455 11  • Jr « 42  W.W. m T q  11 264  -L •a X JJ a O © X A E a 599 TP J_J a  582 M.V. 424 X a X* S a 256 S a C a 305 It/ • V/ ®192 T - T J-J a Jki  a  P.P.P. 101 W.P. 35 W.W.  541 9 114  W.P. M.V.  499  S.C.  W  XJ  P  . L . E . 554  63  X J • L . S • 564 L . L . E . 602  M.V. 515 b«c« 394 W.P. 36 T . L . S . 257 it • */ © 6 M.V. 521 S a C # 310 W.P. 13 L . L . E . 627 M.V. 510 M.V. 422 L . L . E . 557 P.P.P. 84 . Il a V a 455  118  Pight-queen night-rail night-screened night-shadows night-sighs Mght-tide's night-time night-wind night-winds Nine - a n d - f i f t y Nine-and-ninety Nine-Pillared noon-heat noon-time H.or - w e s t Korth-west note-bent nut-coloured Pymph-Piche ?  P . P . P . 102 W.P. 6.4 X 0 X e S 0 213 153 w.p. 22 T • Jj • D •197 XJ • XJ « xu» 541 JJ • Jj 0 E a 630 M . V . 516 W.P. 41 ' 1. p . iii. 547 46 W.P. 52 W.P. O a C a 314 X 0 X 0 E 0 631 S a C « 297 X a X a E a 541 S a G « 328 X a X aS a 651  oak-copse off-hand ogive-work oil-less old-fashioned old-time omen-scouting once-loved one-pulsed one-time one-voiced order-keepings out-arted out-count • out-of-doors out-skirt over-hope over-sad over-seas  54 W.P. T.P.S. 177 M . V . 463 S.C. 363 M . V . 403 S a C a 303 T.P.S. 266 X* a X' a S a 181 XJ a X aE a 547 14 »'/ a IP a « G a 350 W.P. 47 M . V . 512  paddock-path page-full pale-faced pale-winged pane-fiy s p a r a d i se-paths parish-clerk park-pale park-pool parlour-door parting-lihe parting-time partner-girls  453 84 S a G a 33? S.C. 370 W.P. 61 W.W. 14 2v'l a Y a 488 X a X a E a 568 rn' T q X t JJ t J • l?8 X a X a E a 550 J! a X a O a 248 JP a JP a JP a 81 I » X a S a 202  T  S a C e 316 X* a Jj a S a 269  W.P.  67  J_i . p . ia . 653 M . V . 502 M . V . 501  M.V.  P.P.P.  party-wail X a XJ a jbi a 618 passer-by M . V . 492 passing-bell i\i. V . 413 passion-goaded W.P. 52 passion-moved X a X » iii a 641 passion-tossed X" a JP a LP a 164 passionate-eyed M . V . 463 Q n path-paving 364 i_> a O a pavement-stone 571 paving-stones X a X a Xb a 10 W.P. pawn-shop 108 peace-enshrouded a a 273 peace-year Xa XaSa 19 -pell-mell V* a JP • 655 pettish-like Xi a X a ill a 235 pewter-ware X a X* Sa 241 pewter-wares X a X aSe 436 phaet on-lantern M«Y* 47 2 aV a phantom-fo oted 299 S•Ga p h a n t om-guise 52 . W.P. phantom-like 263 X • Xa S a p h a n t om-thought 12 W.P, pharos-fire 549 P • P •E • pharos-shine M . V . 465 physic-wine X • XJ 0 'S a 181 pick-me-up X o X * E a 602 p i cture-drawn 184 0W0 picture-land 437 III 0 V 0 pier-glass M0 V 0 484 piled-up C p 365 pine-tree O0 0 605 pine-trees X 0 X 0 Xi 0 512 pink-faced M.V. 442 pit-pat. M.V. 535 X0XaE0 place-enthusiasms 279 T 0 X0 S 0 p l e a sure-caught 51 W.?0 pleasure-gleam m T q 245 X © XJ 0 O 0 plinth-slopes X 0 X 0 iii •630 pocket-hole JP * P e P t 150 Poesy-paven X 0 X 0 E 0 581 point-blank P . P . E . 639 poison-drip 56 W.P. poison-gas 17^ W.W. Pole-star W.W. ; ? 7 Pooh-pooh w. w. 105 porch-QUOin M . V . 467 poppy-head 10 W.P. porphyry-basined 167 P . P . P . portico-shade X 0 Xa XU^j 628 pray-time 448 i i i , 0 i/ © p r e s e n t a t i o n - t r a i n s o 0 G 0 327 prie-dieu 153 P . P . P . prison-cell 346 U  Ii  Hi  \J  p r o s p e c t - i m p r e s s e d M.V. puff-sleeved M.V. pull-heart L.L.E. pulpit-glimmer M.V. pulse-stirrings s.c. puppet-like xi.XJ. Quarter-Circle s.c. quatre-foiled M.V. quick-cued L.L.E. Quick-Step rail-track rain-drop rain-fall rain-reek rain-shafts rain-shafts rainbow-rays ray-lit • re-acceptance re-adorning re-awaken re-creates re-creations re-deeked re-enact re-enact re-enactment re-entered re-expression re-greeting re-illumined red-cloaked red-eyed red-hot red-lipped red-veined resting-place Rhine-stream rich-noted Ridge-way rigid-faced ripe-yeared ripple-gleam ripple-tips river-face river-gleam river-ooze river-weed robin-song " road-screen roof-lamps  w.w.  M.V. M.V.  420 443 549  404  351 185  395 412 541  195  509 466 X . X jftit* « 651 XJ » X • 554 X * XJ » O • 259 17. W. 26 K.Y. 501 v* . X T o • c. 566 • W • Jr • 54 W • P • 54 505 O * C * 285 326  oftG«  371  S.C. 592 X • X. S • 195  s.c.  328 47  W.P. 410  M.V. 505 , Lift"V *494 M.V. 91  Xi. w» 418 V . 659 Xj e l i a jij . • 518 S.C. 511. S.C. 508 M.V. 564 L.L.E. 33 ivi.  W.W. L.L.E.  ; 91  21 646  o* C # 294  W.P.  M.V.  46 452  P .P ._f. 144 P . P . ? . 94 P.P.P. 156 P.P.P. 157  M.V.  485  roof-tree roof-wrecked Rose-Ann rose-bush rose-flush rose-necked rose-red rose-tree rosy-red rote-restricted rough-hewn ruby-red Rule-of-Three rush-candle sable-sad sackcloth-clad Sacrament—wine safe-bestowed safe-guards Saint-Peters salt-aired salt-edged salt-smelling Sanet-shape sand-swept sanguine-souled scoop-eyed sea-birds sea-bord sea-captain sea-downs sea-line sea-mutterings sea-salts • sea-swell sea-worm sealed-up self-abasement self-centred self-colloquy s e i f - c omraune d self-deceived self-entailed self-held self-joys self-love self-regard seIf-reproaches self-same self-slaughter self-amitings self-struck  •T.L.S .  T . xTi * -iii IP XJ.» . T.L.S . S.C . 1  ••s.c .  XJftX ftXLj  .  T.L.S . -L *•  X e ill .  TftXJ • S . P.P.P . W.P . JJ . L . E .  M.V . X« Xft lb .  258 659 255 554 528 554 227 626 191 172  42  573 481  631  W.P. 10 rp T O J- « XJ e O « 190 W  "T  W.P.  I67.  31  q 227 M. V. 447 M.V. 440 S • G« 322  . rrt  T  • L . L . E .  555  X *P ft?* 102 5  T  T  TP» .  JJ . XJ « X i e 604 X * XJ • 659  S.C.  O ft W «  307 527  M.V. 464 X. X»ii* e 600 o.ft G ft339  P . P . P .  78 87  P . P . P . XJ a X 0 ill « 644 O  a  O 9  C ft286 yj a 288  T.L.S. 202 298  0»c« 462 M.V. VT e * •*vX a 47 W.P. P  5  0»G * 507  J? • P « 112 W.W. 17 9 Xftp6p 0. 106 a  X • X • xu e655 U  a  O ft  3^5  W.P. 51 rn T q 186 M.V. 419 P.P.P. 106  M.V.  455  ISO  self-treason s e l f - w i d ow e r e d self-willed self-wrapt selfish-wise 3elpuciire-led sense-sealed sepultured-clad sermon-time set-to setting-day seven-odd seventy-four shade-fieeked ship-lights shop-signs shore-line shrewd-eyed shut-in shy-seeming sick-leave sideboard-glass signal-thrill silk-lined silk-piece Silver-lined simply-cut sing-songing singing-mi stress si ngle-hearted sire-sown sister-love sit-out sixty-three skeleton-thin skimmer-cake skiromi t y - r i de sky-birds sky-glancing sky-gray sleep-wrapt slicing-mi11 sloe-back slow-creeping slowed-down 31owly-stepping smock-frock smoke-headed smoke-hazed smoke-shaft sin o o t h - b r owed smooth-floored snow-bound  *:i e  W «  5  e \j « 1.1» J * 4 2 5 O  « V * 411 W.P. 13 P « J? eJr* a 1 0 5 T • jj» S • 251  •. -  S.C.  286  P. P. hi. 593 W.T/. 16? P.P.E « 659 P. P »E« 593 o * C« 354 Ju e 1 • J i . 5 5 4 M.V.  469  W.W. -W.P.  33  73  M«V O 474 M . V . 480 J.' • JU • 3 •2 2 6  jb • L# E • IJ • JJ • E » 6 1 6 T • IJ • S • 180 M . V . 455 S«G 9 375 92 J? 8 LP • j? • S • G • 302 !•LftE j 565 305 » j? « 41 M* V* 431 P.P.P'. I 6 7 M.V. 433 JO • Ii • 3 • I 8 7 M.V. 463 I * IJ a 3 • 2 3 4 V*  3  W.P. W.W.  66  175 M»V • 40 7  P.P.E. 534 o»C • 326 W.W. 103 G a0« 376 W.W. 65 • -• VftY/ • 74 pi rt 307 kJ a U « W.W. 17 W.W. 184 X • Jj » S a 241 P.P.P. 7 3 JJftIJ a E • 659 T a lift S « 201 W.P. 8  snow-cones snow-claked so-called socket-bones socket-sunk s oft-thinking soldier-man Song-birds song-notes song-time soon-reached s 9 r r 0 w—wrung sought-for Soul-flame Soul-shellsoul-sick soul-smart soul-stifling soul-subliming soul-swoon s o u l - 1 ouching South-Wessex South-wester's sou'-west sp e c t r e - b e r i d d e n spectre-grey spectre-speed Spectre-spots spirit-guise spirit-hour spirit-kisses Spirit-quenching spirit-tame sport-making spray-roofed sprig-muslin Spring-time Springtime-days sprinkle-bath stage-coach stage-hostel stage-joyance stage-woman standers-by star-blink star-lit Star-ray State-weal station-yard Steady-eyed steel-roped steeple-cock stick-ends  W.P.  43 464 24 W.P. M.V. 4 4 2 J_i. 1 >i!i. 6 6 8 P . P.ilj . 6 5 I W.W. 51 P aP 0P * 143 li a V * 494 Ma V . 4 4 8 If a Jj a E e 5 8 4 M.V. 4 2 0 JJ a Jj a Ji a 5 8 0 P aP aP a 85 P a P a P • 102 S.C. 2 9 9 IJ a l i a E 547 a.ftTJJ a QUJ e 1 9 3 PftPaP a 91 . M.V. 454 M.V.. 4 6 2 W.P. 30  M.V.  9  P.P.P. P. P. E. JJ . P.E . P.P.P.  149  540 557 137 M.V. 452 P. P. E« 5 3 9 W.W. 13 T.P.S. 1 7 ? 44 2? W.W. W.P. 56 I! • L * S • 2 3 3 ii'a vi 0 65, Jj a Jj a iii a 5 3 3 3 * C # 327 W.W. 83 P. P. E « 5 7 7 M.V, W.P. 46 T « Jja S 0 2 7 3 m X aT JJ* Q O a 274 Jj a JJ a E ft6 4 2 P.P.P. 1 2 1 XJ a Jj • Jli e 5 7 2 S • G • 390 \I a XI a 3 8 Ma Va 4 5 0 Wf i~r 62 n a O a 1 ' 1G aa 3 8 7 T * Jj a 3 » 2 5 1 3 » C a 336  121  St one-bordered VI. P . 4b stone-deaf W.P. lb storm-birds M . V . 46p sterm-strained . W . W . 154 storm-tight T . L . S . 2^9 straight-stretched L . L . E . 5b4 straining-strips M . V . 492 strange-eyed P . P . P . 83 stray-time W . W , 135 stream-lilies M . V . 454 stream-shine M . V . 453 street-fiddler W.P. 22 street-lamp P . P . P . 83 S t r i k e - h i m - d u m b ' JJL . L . E . 636 stumbling-blocks L . L . E 574 sub-captain T . L » S« 265 sub-prior P .P.P. 159 summer-house M.V. 503 . summer-tide. W.P. 8 summer-time L * 1» it» 563 sub-blaze T • X • S •182 .sun-cast. P .p.p. 105 sun-glazed L 556 sun-shapes L • Xftiii « '543 sun-sweep P .p.p. 94 sun-swept L «X • JS *560 sunke n-h e a r t e d L * X J « H J « 560 . sunset-shine T • XJ • S • 189 supper-fire P .P.P. l6l supper-time L . L . E , bib sure-sealed W.W. 38 swan-necked S«0 • 319 sweat-drops w.w. 167 sweet-bitter 211 * X • S e467 sv/eet-william sylph-like 564 . X . Sh 9 tablet-wise X«Xft So 277 tag-rag X . XJ« S . 265 Tale-telling X* • PftX ft 167 tall-spired S • C a 301 tall-stemmed • w.w. o5 tap-maid D • C ft335 tar-cloths •p.p.p. 8l target-circles M.V. 494 Tate-and-Brady M • V . 403 • tavern-holder o • G . 335 tear-fraught L . J j «E . 640 tell-tale VI VI 108 . tense-drawn JJ . L . E . 372 tenth-rate .»/. W • I36 terra-cotta o « C «.294  Thames-side thatch-roofed The M a r k e t - G i r l theatre-scenes there-right thick-varnished Thin-draped thin-drawn thin-edged thin-faced thin-urned third-class third-placed thorough-bass thought-bound Thought-world thought-worn three-mile three-stringed thunder-clouds Tic-toe tight-tied tilt-bonnet time-lines time-torn time-touched time-trenched time-tried time-worn Time-wraiths To-be to-day to-morrow to-night to-year Toil-tried toil-weary tomb-door tongue-tip tons-weight too-cruel too-forced top-lined tov/er-window town-boy town-shine town-sort tracery-frame traffic-roars tragedy-brink trance-lipped transport-tossed travel-tarnished  P * P »X* ft X « J_; ft ft 224 X • X J » S « 224 M.V. 480 X • JJ « S • 234 X e X « H i e 584 S . C . 370 X • X • >\D •223 X . X • Hi • 583  s.c.  394 590 L . L . j i . 483  M.V. 154 W.W. 240 X«X»s« 322 S • C ft 470 M.V.  53 165 1 s. w. 480 M.V. s . c . 521 M.V. 517 vi V.T 67 ii » V! » 372 s . c . 407 W.P.  M.V. P . P . P .  124 558  L . L& ft . EG.* 534 s . c . 586 L . L . E . 555 P . P . P . P . P . P .  lib 78  L.L.E. L.L.E. M.V. T.L.S. S.C. • W.P.  559 551  489 250  333 41  86 190 ftC « 352 W.W. I89 p . p . p . 107 p.p.p.94 X « X e 3 • 256 w.w. 180 P . P . P . ' W.W. rO  M.V. 441 L« L . E . 570 W.W.. 14 X e, X * S • 216 W.W.  X»X  s  100  hi«558  P . P . P . P . P . P .  127 162  travel-tired. M.Y. 427 treble-bobbed 166 tree-bough X a Ii •> Jtli a631 tree-god P.P.P. 101 tree-trunks P . P . P . 159 i r r -r-| Triple-ramparted' Vf aPa 46 triple-timed o • G • 365 tropic-burned o a 362 troth-plighted P.P.P. 122 Troubador-youth T . P . S . 203 trouble-torn iv'i a V « 412 trouble-tried 344 s * c« 379 t r y st i n g - p l a ce J J • Jj e iii e tune-led W.P. 40 twenty-second ;i • v # o 77 twenty-three W.W. 77 twilight-time M • V.. 409 twin-hearted T e p . S .179 two-handled W.W. 48 two-score rp T q 240 i~J  W  X * JJ • O e  under-echo up-browed up-daled up-eared Yale-folk vassal-service vassal-wight veil-lifting vestry-door vestry-glass vestry-nook victim-shriek vigil-traced vine-wrapt viol-strings violet-sprinkled waiting-room wan-cheeked-. wan-li t war-adept war-boats war-men war-mightiness war-seemed war-worn watch-chain watch-fires watch-towers water-colour water-courses  W.W. P . P . P .  159 91  S.C. 386 W•W • 6 P . P . P .  158  .p * p « p •167  M.V. 490 s/ a V i f e 160 S. C • 390 392  qn P . P . P . P.P.P.  124 111  W.W. 91 P a P a P a 141 P . P . P . P . XJ • P .  121 545  'M.V. 487 P .Jli . 596 T. P . S. 177 ' P • X i »it • 557 W • P . 31 P.P.P. 538 P . P . P . 85 P . i L . i i i , ' 598 X e XJ e O . 177 M.V. 462 Xi»  W.P.  P . P . P .  24  109  ' W.W. 124 Jj a X a Jh *614  water-pipes Jj a Xftill a 5t>5 watering-place S a C a 569 watering-pot P a P a P a 147 wat e r y - b r o w e d Jj a X a Jli a554 wealth-wantless X • Jjftill « 624 weary-eyed X a X * ib a619 weary-kneed X • X • Jli a570 wea t h e r - b r owne d M.V. 457 we a t h e r - c h e eke d LaXaiilo 578 weathe r - g r a y W a V/ a 152 weather-stained S a G a 363 wedding-day 613 X • J J a iii ft wedding-dress » G a 392 wedding-peal W.W. 91 week-day W.W. 142 week-ending XftXftiii a 586 weft-winged X a X a ill a 558 weir-hatch W.P. 64 rn T c 275 welcome-warm well-being X a W.P. XJ a O 0 45 well-beloved T a X « G a 254 we11-graced k> a \j « 384 well-kept T a X a S a 191 well-known X a Xa JS a 542 we11-meaner S e G » 364 well-nigh Xa Xa iL a 560 p p "D well-obeyed X a JP a JP a 108 well-screened M.V. 421 well-shaped iVi»V. 472 well-to-do M.V. 413 c wet-eyed W.W. u wharf-side W 0 w * 92 wheel-rut' 'M.V. 463 whipper-in P . 1.10. 655 white-clothed M. V. 409 white-flowered M.V. 516 •white-gloved T a Xa S 0 199 white-hatted M.V. 442 white-muslined M. V • 454 white-selvaged• ij.P.xO. '598 White-shouldered S.C. 327 white-shrouded W.W. 184 w h i t e - s t oned O a C a 344 wh i t e - w r e a t h e d S 0 G • 346 wii o l e - r oas t - b u l 1 ock M.V. 455 wide-faced W.W. 95 wide-lipped p.p.p. 91 .wild-haired X a X a ill * 554 wild-winged X a X a Jli a 535 wind-crack M.V. 442 wind-swept W.P. 62 wind-threaded M.V. 472 C p 522 ' wind-tugged w # O a f  r  123  wind-wafts wind-warped winding-she et window-blind window-cur t a i n s window-drapery window-fram e window-glass window-gleam window-pane window-panes window-sill w i n d o w - s qua r e w i n d ow-s g u a r e s wing-clipt winnowing-fan winter-wild witch-drawn woinan-grown wonder-wan wooing-wise word-wild work-hours wo r k i n g - j a c k e t working-men world-awakening world-enci r c l ing  a Jj a iii  534 521 • J J « Xa Sh a 651 P.P.P. 162 O » G e 578 O -o G © 544 W.P. 57 M# \To 456 15 o * C » 367 Jr a J7? a J? a 128 Jj • X » i l l a 622 I'-'i o "V* ft 431 <i) © c« 287 kJ a L/ a 357 J J a X « J-il ft 612 1? • P • P • 155 J jftXftJIJ a 567 H.Y. 497 X « Jj a b « 276 M.V. 509 X a X a iC • 585 JJ a X e JIJ ft 548 W.P. 65 142 P.P.P. 152 305 jL  r  »  World-weaver world-webs world-wide worm-eaten worm-wounds w 0 rm w 0 0 d-w 0 r k e d  P.P.P. 109 p P T> - LftX * JL . 10b 1-.. « V 6 507 b« C 8 554 iu« "V 0 424 p . p . p « 10 b  y e a r - z ones years-deep years -flight years-heered years-long years -long-binned years-wed yellow-green yellowy-green ye s t e r — m o r n i n g yew-archer yew-boughed yew-p l u m e s yew-tree young-eyed youth-time youth-time ,  w.w. 77 X © X s © 201  476 257 524 444 Jj a X* l l i © 611 . M.V. 480 P a X* « X* • 98 X a XftS a 263 W.P. 48  Z ephyr-fanned  Xl . Il e iii 0 655  T  f  0  M.V.  462  Ill a 1/" 0 407 O a C 0 286 O a .C a -540 J j ft XJ • JJJ a 5b8 JJ • X •Hi ft 535  M.V. XeX© be 0ftG • 11 0 V 0  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105348/manifest

Comment

Related Items