UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Style in the poetry of Thomas Hardy Neil, Alice C. 1932

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STYLE III THE POETRY OF THOMAS HARDY by A l i c e G. I T e i l A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department ENGLISH THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH CQLIMBIA A p r i l 1932 if ^yuJy /f3* i CONTENT'S I THOMAS HARDY P o e t r y : A p o i n t o f v i e w . S t y l e : C e n t r a l p r o b l e m . V a g a r i e s o f term. From w i t h i n , w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e . ^ E s s e n t i a l harmony o f s t y l e and e x p e r i e n c e . John Bunyan and the n a t u r a l s t y l e . True s t y l e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n a t u r a l — a r t i f i c e . True s t y l e and the i n d i v i d u a l mode•of e x p e r i e n c e . Techniq_ue — the mastery o f method. Judgment i n s t y l e comes o n l y from knowledge and sympathy. Thomas Hardy: Hardy's p a r t i c u l a r mode. S o u r c e s : Man, C o u n t r y , C e n t u r y . Thomas Hardy the g e n i u s —- w i t h Shakespeare and Chaucer. C o n s t a n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p o e t r y . C h r o n o l o g y not s i g n i f i c a n t . Sense o f Rhythm. Sense of Panorama or Cosmic g r a s p . I n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t e n s i f i e d by c o u n t r y l i f e . P i t y i n b r o a d e s t sense: T e s s . P i t y i n na r r o w e r sense: A n i m a l s . H a r d y 1 s t r a g i c sense. ¥essex: D o r s e t . y Ol d E n g l a n d . P a s t o r a l S p i r i t . Tragedy. The C e n t u r y : -S c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e — f u t i l i t y . Judej The D y n a s t s . A P h i l o s o p h y o f o n e ? s own. Hardy the Modern. 2 I I THE LYRIC GIFT L y r i c Q u a l i t y i n H a r d y 7 s P o e t r y : C o n s i s t e n t l e v e l t o n e . L y r i c Scope i n Hardy's P o e t r y : The two extremes: Weathers; The R e t r e a t from Moscow, The Wessex Mood. The Romantic Mood. P h i l o s o p h y i n the L y r i c : — Man. U n i v e r s e . The e x t e n s i o n o f Bounds. Man Made and God Made: The Convergence o f the Twain. I l l TRUTH The Wessex i n f l u e n c e : L i m i t a t i o n . D ramatic and N a r r a t i v e V e r s e : M a s t e r y o f D r a m a t i c Form. Tense k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r and sudden l i g h t . . The E n g l i s h S p i r i t . "Wessex" p e o p l e . D i a l e c t . . P o e t i c examples o f the d r a m a t i c g i f t . Two one-act p l a y s . I r o n y i n d r a m a t i c poems. "The G a r g o y l e Mood." The i r o n i c s p i r i t i n g e n e r a l . "The U g l y P i l l a r " , or F a u l t s i n S t y l e . Words. Imagery. Play thin. IV THE DYEAST A Hew A r t Form. The D y n a s t s : E p i c . Drama. Panorama. . P o e t r y . H e t a p h y s i c . "The P o e t ' s l a s t Word." STYLE I F THE POETRY OF THOMAS HARDY. ,1 THOMAS HARDY A f i e l d o f d a f f o d i l s l a y y e l l o w on the h i l l s i d e . To the n u r s e r y man, who had put them t h e r e , so many thousand a t so much, the y e l l o w s p l a s h r e p r e s e n t e d mere ly an adventure i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s , and a p o s s i b l e p r o f i t . A c h i l d wan-d e r i n g a l o n g the roadway saw a sudden g l o r y and wished to take i t home, and a t r a i l o f d r o o p i n g b lossoms marked h i s way. Another saw the f i e l d as l i g h t and n o t e d the e f f e c t o f sunsh ine upon y e l l o w as i t merges i n t o g r e e n and p r e s e n t l y , the f i e l d f o r e s h o r t e n e d , and i n squared l i m i t s r e a p p e a r e d on canvas , more y e l l o w than i t was. The f o u r t h who p a s s e d , r e -membered, and l o n g a f t e r wrote a poem. When s p r i n g t ime comes my s o u l l i f t s up L i k e y e l l o w d a f f o d i l i t s c u p . There were, i t seems obv ious to remark , f o u r d i s -t i n c t r e a c t i o n s : the f i r s t a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l one, the s e c o n d , c h i l d h o o d ' s pagan j o y i n the moment's s e n s a t i o n which y e a r s u n f o r t u n a t e l y d e s t r o y , the t h i r d a f i e l d o f d a f f o d i l s i n terms o f l i g h t and c o l o r o n l y , and the f o u r t h an e x t e n s i o n o f a moment's emot ion i n t o a s i g n i f i c a n c e o u t s i d e i t s e l f . The f i e l d , u n t i l i t w i t h e r e d , was the same, but I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e v a r i e d w i t h each b e h o l d e r . The poet whom we are about to d i s c u s s has s a i d i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t "The . p o e t r y of a scene v a r i e s w i t h the mind o f the p e r c e i v e r . I n -deed, i t does not l i e i n the scene a t a l l . " (1) Whether or not one a g r e e s , t h i s p rob lem of v i s i o n l e a d s d i r e c t l y to the main core o f t h a t d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t , S t y l e , wh ich v a r i e s w i t h each poe t and each c r i t i c which r e f u s e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and b a f f l e s a n a l y s i s . Every poet whose work a t t a i n s to any coherence or body r e a c h e s c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e towards emot iona l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s a t t i t u d e o f the poet must o f n e c e s s i t y e x h i b i t i t s e l f as d i s t i n c t l y as p o s s i b l e i f the exact e x p e r i e n c e i s t o be r e c r e a t e d f o r o t h e r s . An e f f o r t t o r e c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n -a l i t y l e a d s to a d i s t i n c t method o f e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s i n t u r n e x h i b i t s the p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s y o f the poet and c r e a t e s the c o n f u s i o n which p e r t a i n s to the term s t y l e . T h i s term i s sometimes a p p l i e d to the f o r m a l means o f e x p r e s s i o n which i s a h e r i t a g e from the p a s t which must be adapted and u s e d by the poet i f anyone i s to u n d e r s t a n d him a t a l l . At o t h e r (1) F l o r e n c e E m i l y Hardy : L i f e o f Thomas Hardy : p . 66 t imes i t i s u s e d to s i g n i f y the whole p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t e x p e r i e n c e by the poet* Most s e a r c h e r s i n t o the t r u e inwardness o f the t e r m f s meaning agree t h a t S t y l e , a l o n g w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e comes f rom w i t h i n and t h a t t r u e u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n demands an e s s e n t i a l l i k e n e s s between the two. There i s a s t r i k i n g pronouncement from B e d f o r d g a o l , which b e a r s on the s u b j e c t : " I c o u l d have e n l a r g e d much i n t h i s my D i s c o u r s e on my Temptat ions and T r o u b l e s f o r S i n ; as a l s o , of the m e r c i f u l k i n d n e s s and w o r k i n g o f God w i t h my s o u l : I c o u l d a l s o have s tepped i n t o a S t i l e much h i g h e r than t h i s , i n which I have here d i s c o u r s e d , and c o u l d have adorned a l l t h i n g s more t h a n here I have seemed to do , but I dare n o t : God d i d no t p l a y i n t e m p t i n g o f me; n e i t h e r d i d I p l a y , when I sunk as i n t o the b o t t o m l e s s p i t when Pangs o f H e l l caught h o l d upon me; where fore I may not p l a y i n r e l a t i n g of them but be p l a i n and s imp le and l a y down the t h i n g as i t was . He t h a t l i k e t h i t l e t h im r e c e i v e i t ; and he t h a t does n o t , l e t him produce a b e t t e r . " (1) John B u n y a n f s dream was a p e c u l i a r mould ing o f the E n g l i s h B i b l e and the man h i m s e l f i n t o what i s sometimes c a l l e d the f i r s t E n g l i s h n o v e l and h a s , f i t t i n g l y enough, a b l ended f l a v o r bo th o f God and t i n k e r , which i s the essence o f B u n y a n f s S t y l e . The n a t u r a l s t y l e i s d i f f i c u l t o f a t t a i n m e n t s i n c e i t approx imates somewhat c l o s e l y to the norma l mode of e x p e r i e n c e and s i n c e the e x p e r i e n c e o f most w r i t e r s and a r t i s t s tends away f r o m , r a t h e r than towards the u s u a l one. A good s t y l e , however , need not of n e c e s s i t y be " n a t u r a l " , i f i t be t r u e , f o r , " A l l s t y l e i s a r t i f i c i a l i n t h i s s e n s e , t h a t a l l good s t y l e s a re a c h i e v e d by a r t i f i c e . " (2) T h i s q u e s t i o n o f a t r u e s t y l e seems i n e x t r i c a b l y mixed up w i t h p o e t i c t r u t h g e n e r a l l y and s i n c e t h i s paper i s to d e a l w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r i n so f a r as i t may be e x t r i c a t e d from H a r d y ' s work, r a t h e r than w i t h the g e n e r a l , I do not propose to d e a l e x h a u s t i v e l y w i t h p o e t i c t r u t h e x c e p t i n g as i t appears from t ime to t ime as the stone to wh i ch s t y l e i s a n c h o r e d . We w i l l f o r the p r e s e n t d e a l on ly w i t h t r u e p o e t s and suppose t h a t i d i o s y n c r a s y hardened i n t o mannerism and t h e o r y j o s t l i n g emot ion have d i s a p p e a r e d i n t o l i m b o , •— and h o l d w i t h Bunyan t h a t the emot ion and the " S t i l e " must be and a re o f the same k i n d . I f t h i s a c c o u n t of the o r i g i n o f t r u e s t y l e i n an i n d i v i d u a l . m o d e o f e x p e r i e n c e be a c c e p t e d as i n h e r e n t l y t r u e , i t f o l l o w s tha t the success or f a i l u r e of tha t s t y l e r e s t s ( 1 ) John Bunyan: P r e f a c e : Grace Abounding to the C h i e f o f S i n n e r (2) J . M i d d l e t o n M u r r y : The Meaning o f S t y l e : p . 18 i n the a u t h o r ' s a b i l i t y t o compel language to conform and . m i n i s t e r t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r mode. Techn ique i n a l l i t s phases i s s imp ly the p r o c e s s of making language conform to the p a r t i c u l a r p o e t ' s mode o f e x p e r i e n c e . The p o e t ' s l o r d -sh ip over c o n v e n t i o n a l form and u s a g e , t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own c o n t r i b u t i o n , i f he makes one, completes h i s e f f o r t and forms h i s s t y l e . T h i s n e c e s s i t o u s t e c h n i q u e i s the a r b i t r a r i l y a r t i f i c i a l e lement wh ich has been m e n t i o n e d . S t y l e t h e n i s r e a l l y a term which we use to e x -p r e s s a v e r y d e l i c a t e p o e t i c a l or a r t i s t i c ad jus tment which we are c o n s t a n t l y c a l l e d upon to r e c o g n i z e . I t r e p r e s e n t s the b u i l d i n g up o f the p o e t ' s s t r u c t u r e by h i s own p a r t i c u l a r means. I t i s p a r t l y , i f we w i s h t o c a l l i t s o , h i s mor ta r and i t cements and b i n d s and f i r m l y h o l d s , g i v i n g p a t t e r n and s t a b i l i t y to the who le . I t i s i n t e g r a l , i n t i m a t e and e s s e n t i a l harmony. ' T h i s b e i n g s o , one may judge o f a p o e t ' s s t y l e o n l y f rom w i t h i n the p o e t r y i t s e l f , " w i t h i n " i n the sense o f h a v i n g a r r i v e d a t as thorough a knowledge o f the poet and h i s p o e t r y as can be o b t a i n e d . The bounds o f s u c c e s s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a r y w i t h the r e a d e r but g r a n t e d t h a t one has g a i n e d the e s s e n t i a l knowledge, the w i l l i n g submergence o f o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y i n t h a t o f the poet may b r i n g some degree o f s u c c e s s . There a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why the c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f a poet r e f u s e to suspend t h e i r own judgment. One i s a l a c k o f p e r s p e c t i v e ; the s a t u r a t i o n o f the r e a d e r i n the commonplace o f the day makes a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t seem unsub-s t a n t i a l . Another r e a s o n i s t h a t a ' p o e t ' s work i s not f i n i s h e d u n t i l h i s d e a t h and so cannot i n h i s l i f e t ime be judged as a w h o l e . A f u r t h e r cause o f mi s u n d e r s t a n d i n g l i e s i n the d i f f i c u l t y t h a t w r i t e r s have i n mou ld ing t h e i r g e n i u s t o the p o p u l a r fo rm. A w r i t e r whose g e n i u s i s e p i c may appear i n the c e n t u r y o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l n o v e l . Much of the adverse c r i t i c i s m w i t h which the age o f Hardy l o a d e d h im came from f a u l t y knowledge, emphasis on one phase o f h i s work to. the e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s e q u a l l y impor tant and the u t t e r r e f u s a l of r e a d e r s to suspend t h e i r own judgment. The p o e t r y of Thomas H a r d y , which we a re about to c o n s i d e r , v o i c e s more c l e a r l y than i s u s u a l to p o e t s , a p a r t i c u l a r mode o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s s t e a d y , c o n s i s t e n t and unchang ing i n many apparent ways . I t i s p o s s i b l e i n h i s case to see f a i r l y c l e a r l y the i n f l u e n c e and t e n d e n c i e s which make f o r t h i s c o n s i s t e n c y , f o r h i s l i f e was l i v e d i n s teady sequence and i n a l i m i t e d e n v i r o n m e n t , which he has h i m s e l f made i t somewhat easy to u n d e r s t a n d . He i s not the s o r t who bares h i s s o u l . I t i s perhaps mat te r f o r r e g r e t t h a t he has 7 "been so r e t i c e n t , "but i n the mass o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n s both p rose and p o e t r y , the c o n j o i n i n g emphasis which comes f rom th ree s o u r c e s , the man, the c o u n t r y and the c e n t u r y i s c o n -s i s t e n t l y a p p a r e n t . The moment t h a t one t r i e s to form a menta l p i c -t u r e of the man h i m s e l f the canvas becomes crowded, f o r round the c e n t r a l f i g u r e c l u s t e r the p e o p l e he has made, who owe t h e i r v e r y b r e a t h to h im and who a r i s e unb idden when we speak h i s name. l i k e Shakespeare i n h i s s c a r l e t c l o a k he seems a lways h e a d i n g h i s own parade and j u s t as F a l s t a f f , B a r d o l p h , B e n e d i c k f a l l m e r r i l y i n t o s t e p , so do the Men-of-Wessex j o i n the p r o c e s s i o n which moves more s l o w l y to H a r d y ' s t u n e . H a r d y ' s w o r l d i s the w o r l d o f r e a l i t y , more r e a l t h a n . t h e a c t u a l , wh ich Chaucer and h i s P i l g r i m s knew. Hardy r e f u s e d t o have g lamour thrown about h i m . H i s p a s s i o n f o r t r u t h and h i s extreme h u m i l i t y a re nowhere more apparent than i n the b r i e f a n e c d o t a l n o t e s and comments, which M r s . H a r d y ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n . One l e a r n s much c o n c e r n i n g the s i n c e r i t y and the s i m p l i c i t y o f the man. O f t e n t o o , there are no tes which bear on h i s p o e t i c i d e a l s , f o r example: "My o p i n i o n i s t h a t a p o e t s h o u l d e x p r e s s the emot ion o f a l l ages and the thought o f h i s own." ( i j "The poe t t a k e s no te o f n o t h i n g t h a t he cannot f e e l e m o t i v e l y . " ( 2 ) These n o t e s a re so f r e q u e n t as to p r o v e beyond a doubt t h a t p o e t r y was a lways the one a b s o r b i n g i n t e r e s t i n h i s l i f e . The p o i n t need not be l a b o r e d s i n c e the p o e t r y i s i n i t s e l f p r o o f o f the f a c t , but i t i s s a t i s f y i n g t o f i n d t a n g i b l e ev idence i n H a r d y ' s own h a n d . I n one of h i s p r e f a c e s Hardy s t a t e s t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i s . v e r s e the most i n d i v i d u a l p a r t o f h i s " l i t e r a r y f r u i t a g e " f o r h e r e n o t h i n g i n t e r f e r e d w i t h f reedom o f e x p r e s s i o n e i t h e r i n form or c o n t e n t , p o e t r y b e i n g l e s s l o c a l i z e d , w h i l e b r o a d e r i n a r e a than p r o s e . He goes on to say "One i s reminded . . . . h o w much more c o n c i s e and q u i n t e s s e n t i a l e x p r e s s i o n becomes when g i v e n i n r h y t h m i c form than when shaped i n the language o f p r o s e . " ( 3 ) He i s s p e a k i n g i n 1912 and i s l o o k i n g back upon h i s own p o e t i c and p r o s e p r o d u c t i o n s . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n " c o n c i s e " and " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " makes one t h i n k o f the economy o f phrase which i s so s u g g e s t i v e , i n l i n e s such a s , "There to r e a c h a r o t t i n g b e r r y T o i l s a t h r u s h . " (4) . " f r e e From t h a t l o n g d r i p of human t e a r s Which p e o p l e s o l d i n t r a g e d y ( 1 ) F l o r e n c e E m i l y H a r d y : E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 188 ( 2 ) F l o r e n c e E m i l y Hardy : E a r l y L i f e of Thomas H a r d y : p . 133 (3) Tess o f the D ' t l r b e r v i l l e s : G e n e r a l P r e f a c e v4) The Reminder: T i m e ' s Laugh ing S t o c k s : p . 2j>2 8 Have l e f t upon the e e n t u r i e d y e a r s . " ( l ) In these l i n e s the u s e l e s s n e s s o f e f f o r t r i s e s up a s p e c t r e from the r o t t i n g b e r r y and the sor row of the ages seems i n t e n s i f i e d not o n l y by the f i g u r e u s e d , but by the i n s t i n c t i v e pause a f t e r "dr ip"> which the metre demands. T h i s l e a d s to the v e r y " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " ,•• - - t h a t i s , the essence o f sorrow s o l i d i f i e d i n the p i l i n g up o f y e a r s i n t o c e n t u r i e s . "The p o e t r y o f so p r o f o u n d a poet as Mr . H a r d y , " says J". S . B a r t o n ( 2 ) , " i s not an accompl ishment n o r an a d j u n c t , but the one c e n t r a l t h i n g i n h i m . " T h i s seems p r o f o u n d l y t r u e , f o r Hardy was a poet a l l h i s l i f e . The impulse of wh ich Domic i l ium. ( 3 ) i s the f i r s t e x t a n t r e s u l t c o n t i n u e d unabated f o r s i x t y y e a r s and a l t h o u g h Wessex Poems was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 8 9 8 , many o f i t s poems date as e a r l y as 1 8 6 3 . The y e a r s o f n o v e l w r i t i n g l e s s e n e d the o u t -put of p o e t r y but they d i d not s top i t and many of the l a t e r poems are r e v i s i o n s , or t a k e n f rom o l d n o t e s s u b j e c t e d to mature a p p r o v a l . Many poems i n the l a t e r volumes a re undated and were w r i t t e n y e a r s b e f o r e . T h i s makes a c h r o n o l o g i c a l survey a lmost w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e e x c e p t i n g i n so f a r as i t may se rve t o emphasize the p o e t i c a l f r e s h n e s s and v i g o r which the poe t a t t a i n e d a t the f i r s t and which w i t h a s t o u n d -i n g v i t a l i t y he c a r r i e d i n t o o l d a g e . Thomas Hardy had a remarkab le sense o f rhythm, no m a t t e r what i t s form ( 2)Ke has h i m s e l f t o l d how p r o f o u n d l y some a i r s moved h im i n c h i l d h o o d , and has e n l a r g e d on the s u b j e c t i n a s h o r t s t o r y . The F i d d l e r o f the R e e l s (4) and i n a poem The F i d d l e r (j>). He t e l l s a l s o o f the f a s c i n a t i o n danc ing had f o r him and d w e l l s w i t h d e l i g h t on the m u s i c a l performance o f the t h r e e Hardys as members o f the p a r i s h c h o i r , " M e l i s t o o k . " In the n o v e l s , music and danc ing are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c o u n t r y l i f e . G-ranfer C a n t l e h o r n p i p i n g on the h e a t h , " i n the form of a t h r e e - l e g g e d o b j e c t among the r e s t " ( 6 ) has an a lmost demoniac v i t a l i t y o f h i s own, which l i n k s him sudden ly w i t h the Heath and the mys te ry o f e x i s -tence , and seems a lmost a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the l i f e f o r c e , g r o t e s q u e l y p e r s i s t e n t . E u s t a c i a Yye and Wi ldeve on the Green a t E a s t Sgdon a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e of the p l a c e which ( 1 ) On an I n v i t a t i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s : Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 9 9 . ( 2 ) J . E . B a r t o n : The P o e t r y o f Thomas H a r d y , i n Johnson, The A r t o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 2 6 3 . ( 3 ) D o m i e i l i u m : E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas Hardy : p. 4. ( 4 ) F l o r e n c e E m i l y Hardy : E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas Hardy : Chap. 1 passim-. ( 3 ) The Shor t S t o r i e s o f Thomas Hardy : p . 3 9 9 . ( 6 ) T ime ' s l a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 2 3 0 . 9 Hardy g i v e s t o rhy thmic sound and mot ion as d e c i s i v e i n -f l u e n c e on a c t i o n . He says — "A whole v i l l a g e f u l l o f emot ion , s c a t t e r e d abroad a l l the y e a r l o n g met here i n a f ocus f o r an h o u r ' f . . . . . . . . "The enchantment o f the dance s u r -p r i s e d h e r . A c l e a r l i n e o f d i f f e r e n c e d i v i d e d l i k e a t a n g i b l e f ence h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n t h i s maze o f mot ion from h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t i t . " (1) A v e r y p o w e r f u l a p -p l i c a t i o n o f the same i d e a o c c u r s i n the e p i s o d e of T roy and h i s sword. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the f l a s h i n g movement o f Troy * s sword i s p a r t l y a v i s u a l , p a r t l y an a u d i b l e r h y t h m . I t p l a c e s the r e a s o n i n g powers of Bathsheba c o m p l e t e l y i n abeyance and r a i s e s h e r e m o t i o n a l powers a c c o r d i n g l y . "She f e l t l i k e one who has s i n n e d a g r e a t s i n He had k i s s e d h e r . " (2) The same awareness c a r r i e s i n t o the o u t e r w o r l d and the m a g n i f i c e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f "a face on which t ime makes but l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n , " has made Egdon Heath the symbol of H a r d y ' s whole a t t i t u d e to n a t u r e . I t i s not on ly t h a t he senses the a c t u a l music o f wind and t r e e , but the l a r g e r and g r e a t e r rhythms, the r e c u r r e n c e s o f y e a r s and c y c l e s seem to beat upon h i s senses and on o u r s . There i s a s t e a d y c l o s i n g i n as i f a r e v o l v i n g l a n d s c a p e became sudden ly i n v e r t e d and r o l l e d over one . The passage i s t oo s teady and too p e r f e c t to b r e a k . The g r e a t P r e l u d e must be l e f t to speak f o r i t s e l f w h i l e p a r t s of the c l o s i n g paragraphs o n l y a re quo ted , f o r a s i d e from i t s sense o f t ime and c y c l e s t h e r e i s a p e r s o n a l note i n the e x c e r p t . I t comes i n the word " i r r e p r e s s i b l e . " "To r e c l i n e on a stump of t h o r n i n the c e n t r a l v a l l e y o f Sgdon, between a f t e r n o o n and n i g h t as now, . and t o know t h a t e v e r y t h i n g around and underneath had been from p r e h i s t o r i c t imes as u n a l t e r e d as the s t a r s overhead , gave b a l l a s t t o the mind a d r i f t on change and h a r a s s e d by the i r r e p r e s s i b l e Hew. The g r e a t i n v i o l a t e p l a c e had an a n c i e n t permanence which the sea cannot c l a i m . Who can say o f a p a r t i c u l a r sea t h a t i t i s o l d ? D i s t i l l e d by the s u n , kneaded by the moon, i t i s renewed i n a y e a r , i n a day , or i n an h o u r . The s e a changed, the f i e l d s changed, the r i v e r s , the v i l l a g e s and the p e o p l e changed, y e t Egdon r e m a i n e d . " (3) There i s another passage c o n c e r n i n g Egdon i n which E u s t a c i a Vye a p p e a r s . I t runs " I t might r e a s o n a b l y have been supposed t h a t she was l i s t e n i n g to the w i n d , which r o s e somewhat as the n i g h t advanced and l a i d h o l d of the a t t e n t i o n . The wind i n d e e d seemed made f o r the s c e n e , as the scene seemed made f o r the h o u r . P a r t o f i t s tone was q u i t e s p e c i a l ; what was h e a r d there c o u l d be h e a r d nowhere e l s e . Gus ts i n innumerable s e r i e s f o l l o w e d each o t h e r from the North-West C l ) The S e t u r n o f the N a t i v e : Bk . 1, Chap. I I I . (2) F a r from the Madding Crowd: Chap . X X V I I I . (3) The R e t u r n o f the N a t i v e : Chap. I . and when each one o f them r a c e d p a s t the sound o f i t s p r o -g r e s s r e s o l v e d i n t o t h r e e . T r e b l e , t e n o r and bass n o t e s were to be found t h e r e i n . The g e n e r a l r i c o c h e t of the whole over p i t s and prominences had the g r a v e s t p i t c h o f the chime Next t h e r e c o u l d be h e a r d the b a r i t o n e buzz of a h o l l y t r e e . Below these i n f o r c e , above them i n p i t c h a dwind led v o i c e s t r o v e h a r d a t a husky tune w h i c h was the p e c u l i a r l o c a l sound a l l u d e d t o . T h i n n e r and l e s s i m m e d i a t e l y t r a c e a b l e t h a n the o t h e r two i t was f a r more i m p r e s s i v e than e i t h e r . In i t l a y what may be c a l l e d the l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t y o f the h e a t h Throughout the b l o w i n g o f these p l a i n -t i v e winds t h a t note bore a g r e a t resemblance to the r u i n s of human song wh ich rema in to the t h r o a t o f f o u r s c o r e and t e n . I t was a worn w h i s p e r , d ry and p a p e r y , and i t b rushed so d i s t i n c t l y a c r o s s the e a r , t h a t , by the accustomed, the m a t e r i a l m i n u t i a e i n which i t o r i g i n a t e d c o u l d be r e a l i z e d as by t o u c h . I t was the u n i t e d p r o d u c t s o f i n f i n i t e s i m a l v e g e t a b l e c a u s e s , and these were n e i t h e r s tems, l e a v e s , f r u i t , p r i c k l e s , l i c h e n , n o r moss . They were the mummied h e a t h - b e l l s o f the p a s t summer, o r i g i n a l l y t ender and p u r p l e , now washed c o l o u r l e s s by Michaelmas r a i n s , and d r i e d to dead s k i n s by October suns So low was an i n d i v i d u a l sound from these t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f hundreds on ly j u s t emerged from s i l e n c e , and the myr iads o f the whole d e c l i v i t y r e a c h e d the woman's e a r but a s a s h r i v e l l e d and i n t e r m i t t e n t r e c i t a t i v e . Yet s c a r c e l y a s i n g l e a c c e n t among the many a f l o a t t o n i g h t c o u l d have such power to i m p r e s s a l i s t e n e r w i t h thoughts o f i t s o r i g i n . One i n w a r d l y saw the i n f i n i t y o f those combined m u l t i t u d e s ; and p e r c e i v e d t h a t each o f the t i n y t rumpets was s e i z e d on, e n t e r e d , s coured and emerged from by the wind as t h o r o u g h l y as i f i t were as v a s t as a c r a t e r . " (1) T h i s l i k e . t h e P r e l u d e , d e f i e s d i s s e c t i o n . In any ease I t h i n k i t u n n e c e s s a r y to p o i n t out a n y t h i n g more than t h a t H a r d y ' s s e n s i t i v e e a r , tuned to r h y t h m i c sound and phenomena g e n e r a l l y , here i n v a d e s the w o r l d o f a c t u a l u n -c l a s s i f i e d sounds, s o r t s and marks them o u t . I t i s complete mastery o f m a t e r i a l , and i t i s the r e s u l t o f i n t e n s e , c o n -c e n t r a t e d and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a t t e n t i o n . I have been s p e a k i n g thus f a r of rhythm as a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of l i f e , so u s e d by Hardy and not i n i t s f o r m a l m u s i c a l s e n s e , a l t h o u g h he h a s , as i s n a t u r a l to one w i t h the g i f t , sometimes u s e d music as i t s e x p r e s s i o n . S u p e r f i c i a l r e f e r e n c e s to dance and song both i n the n o v e l s and the p o e t r y are too numerous f o r more than a l l u s i o n and would i n themse lves form an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y . A few i n s t a n c e s as they occur n a t u r a l l y i n the s tudy o f the (1) The R e t u r n o f the N a t i v e : Chap. V I . poems w i l l be noted, l a t e r . There i s , u n d o u b t e d l y , a f o r m a l m u s i c a l element a l s o . I t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d under the head o f M e t r e . The i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t which Hardy had i n A r t , i n -t e n s i f i e d by h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g gave h im a f e e l i n g f o r form a lmost as s t r i k i n g as h i s sense of r h y t h m . He no tes how the edges o f o b j e c t s c u t a c r o s s the v i s i o n . He has an i n n a t e sense o f p r o p o r t i o n and b a l a n c e . He depends upon mass and o u t l i n e f o r h i s e f f e c t s r a t h e r than upon d e t a i l . P rose form does not c o n c e r n us h e r e , but i t i s t empt ing to no te t h a t i n The R e t u r n o f the N a t i v e , the p e r -f e c t l y drawn p l o t l i f t s one up and toward the c e n t r a l c o n -summation o f e v e n t , t h r o w i n g the c h a r a c t e r s i n t o s t r o n g r e l i e f i n a l i g h t so i n t e n s e as to b u r n . I t i s a b e a u t i -f u l l y u n i f i e d d ramat i c e n t i t y , l i k e a l o n g s i g h or a p e r f e c t cadence . On ly a s t r o n g l y d ramat i c f e e l i n g would have p l a c e d the s o l i t a r y f i g u r e s , f i r s t o f E u s t a c i a , then o f C lym, on the Heath as the p o i n t o f r e s t a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f a drama. I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t E u s t a c i a , who h a t e d the H e a t h , d i s a p p e a r s , and t h a t C lym, who l o v e d i t , r e m a i n s . I t i s p o e t i c j u s t i c e , an a lmost Greek note more s t r o n g l y sounded here than i n The D y n a s t s , where the s u p e r n a t u r a l mach inery d e n i e s j u s t i c e . I have spoken o f the scope o f rhy thmic v i s i o n , which i s t y p i c a l o f H a r d y f s s e n s i t i v e m i n d . In June 1876 he w r i t e s " I f i t be p o s s i b l e ' to compress i n t o a sentence a l l t h a t a man l e a r n s between twenty and f o r t y i t i s tha t a l l t h i n g s merge in. one a n o t h e r , good i n t o e v i l , g e n e r o s i t y i n t o j u s t i c e , r e l i g i o n i n t o p o l i t i c s , the year i n t o the ages , the world i n t o the u n i v e r s e ; w i t h t h i s i n v iew the e v o l u t i o n o f s p e c i e s seems but a minute and obv ious p r o c e s s i n the same movement." ( 1 ) I t i s a g a i n , the l a r g e v i ew, the r e l a t i o n o f one phase to a n o t h e r , which the e p i s o d e of K n i g h t and the t r i l o b i t e i l l u s t r a t e s . (2) T h i s r h y t h m i c sense n o t e s the t i m e l e s s panorama o f the pas t and the r e l a t i v e i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r e s e n t moment. The rhythmic sense appears as a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many l y r i c s ; i t becomes a dominant f a c t o r i n the v e r y s t r u c t u r e of The D y n a s t s . The marked I n d i v i d u a l i s m , which we a re c o n s i d e r -i n g , h i g h l y a c c e n t e d and i n t e n s i f i e d by l i f e i n the c o u n t r y , was deepened by a c o n s i s t e n t l y t r a g i c c o n c e p t i o n o f man and n a t u r e , The r e s u l t i s an a lmost r u t h l e s s t r a g e d y s o f t e n e d i n one way o n l y , t h a t i s by a sense o f p i t y , which i n i t s b roades t and most comprehensive phase b r e a t h e s i n the v e r y c o n c e p t i o n of T e s s , and which i n i t s l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , . speaks i n a - l o v e f o r a n i m a l s which i s not o n l y c o n s c i o u s o f ( 1 ) The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p . 146. (2) A - P a i r of B l u e E y e s : Chap. X X I I . them hut o f t h e i r s u f f e r i n g s a l s o . Of the l e s s e r p h a s e , examples m u l t i p l y . There i s the t r a g i c i n s t a n c e o f the l o n g s u f f e r i n g s ! ) ' T J r b e r v i l l e h o r s e ; there i s the more c h e e r f u l one o f G a b r i e l Oak ' s dog, t h e r e a r e the numerous a l l u s i o n s t o s u f f e r i n g war h o r s e s , which occur i n the s tage d i r e c t i o n s of The D y n a s t s ; t h e r e i The R o b i n ( 1 ) , The B l i n d e d B i r d ( 2 ) and the t r i o l e t : The P u z z l e d Game B i r d s "They a r e not those who u s e d to f e e d us When we were young — they cannot be These shapes t h a t now bereave and b l e e d u s ? They are not those who u s e d to f e e d us F o r d i d we then c r y , t h e y would heed u s . I f h e a r t s can house such t r e a c h e r y , They a r e not those who u s e d t o • f e e d . u s , When we were y o u n g , t h e y cannot; be J ? t (3) T h i s p i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g c a r r i e s over to man as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the a n i m a l a l t h o u g h i t i s sometimes drowned t o the c a s u a l ear by e c h o i n g n o t e s o f i r o n i c l a u g h t Many poems which r e f l e c t i t a re too l ong f o r q u o t a t i o n but The S a i l o r ' s Mother ( 3 ) and The Woman i n the Rye (4) a re shor t and p e r f e c t poems o f t h e i r k i n d , the former i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c . There i s the most a b j e c t human s u f f e r i n g — no i r o n y •— no l a u g h t e r , o n l y the deepest sympathy and u n d e r f standingr*without i n t r u s i o n or comment. The S a i l o r ' s Mother . . ,.. "0 whence do y o u come, F i g u r e i n the n i g h t - f o g t h a t c h i l l s me numb?" "I come to you a c r o s s from my house up t h e r e , And I d o n ' t mind the b r i n e - m i s t c l i n g i n g t o me That blows from the quay, For I h e a r d h im i n my chamber, and thought you • unaware. "But what d i d you h e a r , That b rought y o u b l i n d l y k n o c k i n g i n t h i s m i d d l e - w a t c h so d r e a r ? " ( 1 ) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 483 (2) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 418 ( 3 ) l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p . 627 ( 4 ) S a t i r e s of C i r cumstances p . 3 3 8 "My s a i l o r s o n ' a v o i c e as ' twere c a l l i n g a t your d o o r , And I d o n ' t mind my "bare f e e t clammy on the s t o n e s , And the b l i g h t to my b o n e s , For he o n l y knows o f t h i s house I l i v e d i n b e f o r e "Nobody's n i g h , Woman l i k e a s k e l e t o n , w i t h s o c k e t - s u n k e y e . " " A h — n o b o d y ' s n i g h I And my l i f e i s d r e a r i s o m e , And t h i s i s the o l d home we l o v e d i n many a day B e f o r e he went away; And the s a l t f o g mops me. And n o b o d y ' s cornel" The Woman i n the Rye . "Why do you s tand i n the d r i p p i n g r y e , C o l d - l i p p e d , u n c o n s c i o u s , wet to the knee , When t h e r e are f i r e s i d e s n e a r ? " S a i d I . " I t o l d him I w ished him dead" s a i d s h e . "Yea , c r i e d i t i n my h a s t e to one Whom I had l o v e d , whom I w e l l l o v e d s t i l l And d i e , he d i d . And I ha te the s u n , And s tand here l o n e l y , a c h i n g , c h i l l ; "S tand w a i t i n g , w a i t i n g under s k i e s That blow r e p r o a c h , the w h i l e I see The r o o k s sheer o f f t o where he l i e s Wrapt i n a peace w i t h h e l d from me." The l a r g e r q u e s t i o n o f H a r d y ' s t r a g i c g e n i u s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o i l l u s t r a t e e x c e p t i n g a t some l e n g t h , f o r i t i s so e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t o f the man and h i s mode of e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the s t r o n g t h r e a d s of the t e x t u r e wh i ch do not r a v e l . He l o o k e d c l o s e l y a t l i f e and saw i t s p a i n - s e n s e l e s s i t seemed to h i m . He saw b l i n d f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h o u t heed f o r man, but saw a l s o t h a t man i n t e n s i f i e d the m i s e r y . H e r d y ' s t r a g i c theme i n g e n e r a l was based on the e m o t i o n a l c a p a c i t y o f man to s u f f e r , o r on the s e n t i e n t and i n s e n t i e n t . Tragedy came about through the s t r u g g l e of emot iona l man w i t h o b l i v i o u s n a t u r a l f o r c e s . The t r a g i c p o i n t o f v iew deve loped i n two ways, as an a t t i -tude toward man and h i s a c t u a l everyday l i f e , c h i e f l y h i s e m o t i o n a l l i f e , and as a c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t i t u d e towards the f o r c e s of the u n i v e r s e . The l a t t e r deve loped i n t o meta -p h y s i c s and.was expressed i n The D y n a s t s ; the former p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n v a r i o u s ways i n the t r a g i c n o v e l s , ( l ) I t appears ( l ) The Mayor o f Cas te rbr idge" : The R e t u r n o f the N a t i v e : Tess o f the D ' l l r b e r v i l l e s : Jude the Obscure . a l s o In poem a f t e r poem as I s h a l l l a t e r t r y to show* The w o r l d t o Hardy was a t b e s t an unhappy p l a c e f o r man to be i n s i n c e human emot ion and m e c h a n i c a l f o r c e s must i n e v i t a b l y c l a s h * "How peop le w i l l l a u g h i n the m i d s t o f a m i s e r y ! Some would soon get to w h i s t l e i n h e l l . " The m a t e r i a l wh ich Thomas Hardy u s e d was D o r s e t . In the y o u t h f u l y e a r s o f keen and sensuous p e r c e p t i o n the s p i r i t o f the c o u n t r y s i d e was absorbed by h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Here i n "Wessex" he f o u n d h i s med ia , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t y p e s , the men and women, "humanity hand i n hand w i t h t r o u b l e , " wh ich we know. Here he found a l s o , the p a s t o r a l s p i r i t , the N a p o l e o n i c l e g e n d s , the f o l k - s o n g , l o r e and s t o r y , which he has made i m m o r t a l . Here too the poet W i l l i a m B a r n e s , whose pages murmur the s o f t l y s l u r r e d s y l l a b l e s o f the Dorse t d i a l e c t , was h i s f r i e n d . O l d E n g l a n d and the peasant c h o r u s , p a s t o r a l s gay and sad by t u r n and t ragedy s t a r k and c o m p e l l i n g a i l emerged i n H a r d y ' s work as a r e s u l t o f the "Wessex" environment* Thomas Hardy a t twenty-one went to London to s tudy a r c h i t e c t u r e and remained there from 1862 to I867. The d a t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e comment on h i s p a r t i t i s i n c r e d i b l e tha t h i s s e n s i t i v e and expanding mind s h o u l d escape the tumult o f the t i m e s . (1) There i s no need i n t h i s paper f o r any resume o f the V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d . I t s u f f i c e s t o say tha t the whole thought of the c o u n t r y was i n f l u x and t h a t the t h i n k e r s o f the day , h u r t and c o n f u s e d , r e a c t e d ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r v a r y i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Two v e r y s p l e n d i d t h e s e s have been w r i t t e n which d e a l t h o r o u g h l y among other t h i n g s w i t h the i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n c e and the c e n t u r y ' s thought on the g e n i u s o f Hardy . One, h a v i n g a n a l y z e d e x h a u s t i v e l y , makes a v e r y p e r t i n e n t comment, to the e f f e c t tha t Hardy , h a v i n g g rasped the whole s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , compressed i t and reduced i t , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , t o s o c i e t y as r e p r e s e n t e d by a s m a l l group man and woman, g u a r d i a n s o f the s p e c i e s and c r e a t u r e s of i n s t i n c t . Hedgcock (2) summarizes H a r d y ' s cho i ce of s u b j e c t t h u s : "Les themes; l a r e a c t i o n d ' u n sexe sur 1'autre; l e s mouvements de l a f o r c e v i t a l g race a l a q u e l l e l a r a c e c o n t i n u e ; l a l u t t e e n t r e l ' i n t e l l i g a n c e de l'homme et l e v o u l o i r - v i v r e de l ' u n i v e r s . Ses themes e tan t u n i v e r s e l s , e t non s o c i a u x i l n ' a pas b e s o i n de (1) I859 O r i g i n of S p e c i e s i 8 6 0 W i l b e r f o r c e and Hux ley Debate i860 Modern s p i r i t i n E s s a y s and Rev iews. I863 R e a c t i o n , Ox ford Movement. (2) F . A . Hedgcock; Thomas H a r d y , P e n s e u r e t A r t i s t e , p . 288 - 290 13 1 ' a g i t a t i o n des grandes v i l l e s u t i l i t e du cadre r u s t i q u i e pour r e n f o r c e r l a l e c o n de son o e u v r e . " " I ' a m o u r / l a base de tons ses ouvrages ; c e t t e p a s s i o n n ' e s t pas i d e a l usee chez l u i - - e l l e e s t s u r t o u t une a t t r a c t i o n s e x u e l i e . " Made l ine de Cazamian i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r o f h e r book g i v e s Hardy and G- iss ing supreme p l a c e as the g r e a t d i s i l l u s i o n e d of the c e n t u r y and n o t e s t h a t the c r i t i c a l s p i r i t i n p h i l o s o p h y , o b s e r v a t i o n i n s o c i a l and n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , r e a l i s m i n a r t , had c a r r i e d away the i d e a l i s t i c and p a s s i o n a t e f e e l i n g o f the Romantic e r a and had l e f t in. i t s p l a c e the i n d i v i d u a l s t o i c , a sad r e s i g n e d pess im ism — and i n t e l l e c t . (1) I f we accep t t h i s statement the c e n t u r y has to i t s c r e d i t the f i n a l word o f p r o s e i n Jude the Obscure and t h a t c o n c e p t i o n of man as a c o n s c i o u s p a r t of an i n s e n t i e n t w i l l , w o r k i n g r u t h l e s s l y and c r u s h i n g man even i t s e l f , wh ich i s The D y n a s t s . " I do not t h i n k , " s a i d Hardy , " t h a t there w i l l be any permanent r e v i v a l o f the o l d t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i d e a l s ; but I t h i n k t h e r e may g r a d u a l l y be deve loped an i d e a l i s m o f f a n c y ; t h a t i s an i d e a l i s m i n which f a n c y i s no l o n g e r t r i c k e d out and made t o masquerade as b e l i e f , but i s f r a n k l y and h o n e s t l y a c c e p t e d as a n i m a g i n a t i v e s o l a c e i n the l a c k of any s u b s t a n t i a l s o l a c e to be found i n l i f e . " (2) A note w r i t t e n December 3 1 , 1901 i s i n t e r e s t i n g ; i t s a y s : " A f t e r r e a d i n g v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c systems and b e i n g s t r u c k w i t h t h e i r c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and f u t i l i t i e s , I have come to t h i s . l e t every man make a p h i l o s o p h y f o r h i m s e l f out o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . He w i l l not be a b l e to escape u s i n g terms and p h r a s e o l o g y from e a r l i e r p h i l o s o p h i e s but l e t him a v o i d a d o p t i n g t h e i r t h e o r i e s i f he v a l u e s h i s own menta l l i f e . Le t him remember the f a t e of C o l e r i d g e and save y e a r s o f l a b o u r by work ing out h i s own. v iews as g i v e n him by h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . " ( 3 ) Hardy was the o n l y V i c t o r i a n t o go s t r a i g h t to l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s w i thout compromise. At twenty-one he had l o s t the b e l i e f s , wh ich had c a r r i e d the o l d e r men of l i t e r a t u r e i n t o m a t u r i t y . He fought h i s b a t t l e t h r o u g h ; he was a b l e to c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o s i t i o n . Moving onward f i f t y years and s u r v i v i n g the World War, he b u r i e d h i s c e n t u r y . He stands s q u a r e l y w i t h the Moderns . H i s v i s i o n i s the modern one. "He t h a t l i k e t h i t , l e t h im r e c e i v e i t , and he t h a t does n o t , l e t him produce a b e t t e r . " (1) Made l ine de Cazamian: Le Roman et l e s Idees en A n g l e t e r r e , Chap. VI p a s s i m . (2) F l o r e n c e E m i l y Hardy : The L a t e r Y e a r s o f Thomas H a r d y , p . 9 0 ( 3 ) F l o r e n c e E m i l y H a r d y : The L a t e r Y e a r s o f Thomas H a r d y , p . 9 1 I I THE LYRIC' GIFT . In Thomas Hardy , the u n l e a s h i n g o f a p o w e r f u l i m a g i n a t i o n found i t s supreme e x p r e s s i o n i n l y r i c a l p o e t r y . Those who h o l d t h a t the e s s e n t i a l l y r i c note i s j oy may and do q u e s t i o n the pronouncement. When they do so they a re f o r s a k i n g t r u e p o e t i c p r i n c i p l e s and s u b s t i t u t i n g s t a n d a r d s which b e l o n g to o t h e r t h i n g s . The l y r i c note may v a r y , does so i n f i n i t e l y , but i t i s p r i m a r i l y the e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e n s e emot ion and such emot ion i n our w o r l d and H a r d y ' s may or may not be j o y . To be communicable i t must be p o w e r f u l . . With Hardy i t i s p o w e r f u l and i t happens t h a t i t i s most so when c o n f r o n t e d by the t r a g i c a s p e c t s of l i f e -— which l e a d u s , we know, to sor row. Joy and sorrow are n o t , however , i n themselves the measure o f a p o e t ' s g r e a t n e s s . They are d e e p l y p o t e n t i a l or p o e t i c a l , because they are common t o a l l men i n some degree and so p o s s e s s e d o f the e s s e n t i a l l y u n i -v e r s a l q u a l i t i e s which make permanence o f the work p o s s i b l e . As I t r i e d to make c l e a r i n the b e g i n n i n g , however , they a re not i n themse lves p o e t i c or u n p o e t i e . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , p o e t i c q u a l i t y i s an a t t r i b u t e of the p o e t . I t i s t rue t h a t joy i n p o e t r y , as i n l i f e , has a l i f t i n g e f f e c t on the s p i r i t wh i ch i n a more i d e a l w o r l d might be c o n s i s t e n t but which i n ours cannot be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h f a c t . I t i s not i n the na tu re o f the n o r t h e r n mind to be c o n t i n u a l l y l i f t e d u p . J o y , byt i t s v e r y n a t u r e , wears i t s e l f o u t . What i s more e x h u a s t i n g than the l o n g u n i n t e r r u p t e d paean? Who, f o r i n s t a n c e , has s a t t h r o u g h the thousand H a l l e l u l i a s of the g r e a t c h o r u s , m a g n i f i c e n t as the performance i s , w i t h -out a t r e a s o n a b l e d r y n e s s o f the t h r o a t and c o n t r a c t i o n o f the ear drums? In Hardy the note i s no t j oy , n e i t h e r i s i t the sudden a g o n i z e d d i s c o r d o f p a i n . I t i s by compar i son a lmost monotonous, l i k e the slow c h a n t i n g o f a s a c r i f i c i a l c h o r u s ; t h e r e i s i n t e n s e f e e l i n g , i n t e n s e p a i n , but i t i s arti»sf t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . I t i s toned to a c e r t a i n p i t c h , which the r i s i n g and f a l l i n g v o i c e tends to emphas ize , s i n c e the main chant h o l d s to i t s few chosen notes i n the minor k e y , and the a n t i p h o n y i s but echo . " I n V i s i o n I Roamed." To I n "vis ion I roamcedi. the f l a s h i n g F i rmament, S o f i e r c e - i n b l a z o n tha t the n i g h t waxed wan, • As though w i t h awe a t orbs o f such o s t e n t ; And as I thought my s p i r i t ranged on and o n . I n f o o t l e s s t r a v e r s e th rough g h a s t h e i g h t s o f s k y , To the l a s t chambers of the monstrous Dome, Where s t a r s the b r i g h t e s t here a re l o s t t o the e y e ; Then, any spot on our own E a r t h seemed Home I And the . s i c k g r i e f t h a t you were f a r away Grew p l e a s a n t t h a n k f u l n e s s t h a t you were n e a r , Who might have been , se t on some f o r e i g n s p h e r e , Less t h a n a want t o me, as day by day I l i v e d unware, u n c a r i n g a l l t h a t l a y Locked i n t h a t u n i v e r s e t a c i t u r n and d r e a r , ( l ) T h i s sonnet i l l u s t r a t e s , not o n l y the n e g a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o the method o f o b t a i n i n g n e g a t i o n , which Hardy u s e d . The n i g h t v iew of the s t a r s , and a g e -l o n g i n s p i r a t i o n t o the p o e t , here f i n d s i n the compacted t e r s e n e s s of the sonnet form an e n t i r e l y new t r e a t m e n t . The p o e t i c v i s i o n , c o n f r o n t e d by the v a s t n e s s o f space , " ranged on and o n , " but the i n i t i a l wonder y i e l d e d to awed numbness. There i s no r h a p s o d y ; n i g h t l i k e a n unp.aintedc.faee under In tense l i g h t l o o k e d "wan". I n f i n i t y s t r e t c h e s b e f o r e one i n "ghast h e i g h t s o f s k y " , where d i s t a n c e has become so g r e a t t h a t s t a r s no l o n g e r s h i n e . T h i s i s t h e : . - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c range o f v i s i o n , b e f o r e wh ich the y e a r s u n r o l l . I t i m -m e d i a t e l y l i n k s i t s e l f w i t h the p r e s e n t and man i n h i s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s i n the E a r t h as Home. Then comes sorrow, changed by t h i s v i s i o n of the u n i v e r s e from " s i c k g r i e f " to " p l e a s a n t t h a n k f u l n e s s " a t the thought t h a t the l o v e d one might , i n an i n s e n t i e n t scheme o f t h i n g s have a r r i v e d a t l i f e on a f a r u n i v e r s e i n the i n f i n i t u d e of s t a r s , and t h a t the l o v e r would have been d e n i e d even the n e g a t i v e joy o f l o n g i n g now h i s , which had i n the f i r s t p l a c e d i s t u r b e d . Beh ind t h i s d e n i a l of joy i s H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y i n g e n e r a l . The immediate e f f e c t i n the poem i s g a i n e d by the u n u s u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f n i g h t , the c o n t r a s t i m p l i e d between the "montrous Dome" and i t s huge w o r l d , w i t h our s m a l l one c o n s e q u e n t l y dwarfed to a p u r e l y l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and the l o v e d one as no p o s i t i v e f o r c e a t a l l . The s p e c i f i c words and p h r a s e s , wh ich i n t e n s i f y the e f f e c t a re "wan", " g h a s t " , "monst rous" , " l e s s t h a n a want to me", "unware", " u n c a r i n g " . Three d e r i v e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l meaning from, the c o n t e x t , t h r e e are n e g a t i v e i n t h e m s e l v e s . I n the .octave the thought reaches i t s c l i m a x , s e t s out i t s l i m i t s , s o a r s , as i t were; i n the s e s t e t i t r e a c h e s i t s c o n c l u s i o n and s i n k s t o the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d essence of the e x p e r i e n c e . E i g h t l i n e s to the f i rmament , - - but s i x to the s u f f e r i n g l o v e r , — the sky how f a r , - - the man how c l o s e a t hand l n e g a t i o n i n i t s most p e r f e c t form i s e x p r e s s e d i n a l y r i c , , so e x q u i s i t e l y wrought t h a t i t c l i n g s and haunts (1) Wessex Poems. (1866) as does the f i r s t memory of sorrow . N e u t r a l T o n e s . Y7e s tood by a pond tha t w i n t e r day , And the sun was w h i t e , as though ch idden o f God, And a few l e a v e s l a y on the s t a r v i n g sod ; — T h e y had f a l l e n f rom an a s h , and were g r a y . Your eyes on me were as eyes tha t rove Over t e d i o u s r i d d l e s o f y e a r s ago; And some words p l a y e d between us to and f r o On which l o s t the more by our l o v e . The smi le on your mouth was the deadest t h i n g A l i v e enough t o have s t r e n g t h to d i e ; And a g r i n of b i t t e r n e s s swept t h e r e b y l i k e an ominous b i r d a -wing S i n c e t h e n , keen l e s s o n s t h a t l o v e d e c e i v e s , And wr ings w i t h wrong, have shaped to me Your f a c e , and the G o d - c u r s t sun , and a t r e e , And a pond edged w i t h g r a y i s h l e a v e s . The poem has the v i s u a l g r e y n e s s t h a t hangs i n the m is t o f an Inness l a n d s c a p e , but u n l i k e l andscape i n fog or m is t the o u t l i n e s a re c l e a r . There i s one s i n g l e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o n l y , t h a t i s the sugges ted b l a c k of "an ominous b i r d a - w i n g " , and t h a t i s c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f y i n g , the one accent needed , and even i t i s but a d i f f e r e n c e i n d e g r e e . I t i s as i f one drop of the b l a c k had s p l a s h e d on the' canvas u n d i l u t e d ; i t i s as i f c o l o r had never been . In s p i t e of t h i s f a c t the p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s of the f o u r s t a n z a s a re a r r e s t i n g . The f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e s the background, the g e n e r a l t o n e , the f i g u r e s i n o u t l i n e a g a i n s t i t ; the second , though I may be wrong, c a l l s up the dead c e n t u r i e s and the u n s e e i n g , eyes o f the s p h i n x , s t a r i n g i n e t e r n a l q u e s t i o n ; the t h i r d might be termed, P o r t r a i t of a l a d y , w h i l e the l a s t i s l i k e the f i r s t i n c o m p o s i t i o n e x c e p t i n g t h a t the woman via a l o n e , the man o u t s i d e the p i c t u r e . P e r s p e c t i v e has deepened. I t i s ve ry s u b t l e , v e r y i n t e n s e f o r a l l i t s g r a y n e s s . H e r e , by p i c t o r i a l means Hardy reaches i n f o u r s t a n z a s the e s s e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n and tone tha t M e r e d i t h a c h i e v e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n the sonnet sequence. I t i s , I t h i n k , u n n e c e s s a r y to d w e l l i n f u r t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i t y on the l e a d e n q u a l i t i e s of the imagery , the ch idden sun , the g ray and w i t h e r e d l e a f . They are o b v i o u s , but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to l e a v e the l y r i c w i t h o u t a l o o k a t the met re , s ince Hardy has both i n t e n s i f i e d and r e l i e v e d 1? monotony by i t s u s e . The v e r s e i s i n a s c e n d i n g f o u r f o o t rhythm w i t h m a s c u l i n e e n d i n g , but the f o o t b r e a k s c o n t i n u a l l y from iamb to a n a p e s t . I t i s t h i s c o n s t a n t b r e a k i n g p a t t e r which r e l i e v e s the monotone, wh ich i n t e n s i f i e d by the s e t t i n g o f one h a l f o f the v e r s e over a g a i n s t the o t h e r i n f a i r l y even ba lance by the midd le c e s u r a l pause , i s a g a i n r e l i e v e d when t h a t b a l a n c e b r e a k s , g i v i n g way to the more sweeping rhythm of the f o u r t h v e r s e . - The t i n y l o v e poem, The Comet a t Y e l l ' h a m ( l ) a i s a s imple v o i c i n g o f the same a r t , but aims a t n o t h i n g g r e a t e r than a l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n , b r i e f and f l e e t i n g . Death , i t i s t r u e , looms near but i t i s not overpower ing i n i t s shadow. The note i s one o f sweetness , r a t h e r u n u s u a l . I " I t bends f a r over Y e l l T h a m P l a i n , And we, f rom Y e l l ' h a m H e i g h t , Stand and r e g a r d i t s f i e r y t r a i n , So soon t o swim from s i g h t . ", • I I .; I t w i l l r e t u r n l o n g y e a r s h e n c e , when As now i t s s t range s w i f t sh ine W i l l f a l l on Y e l l ' h a m ; but not t h e n On tha t sweet form of t h i n e . " In t h i s l i t t l e l y r i c n e g a t i o n i s l e s s i m p l i c i t l y emphasized than i n N e u t r a l Tones but the l a s t l i n e , s u g g e s t -i n g the l o n g unbroken r e s t o f d e a t h , l i f e h a v i n g l o s t a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e , shows how c o n s i s t e n t l y Hardy d i s c o u n t e d the p r e s e n t . One more poem, e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n s u b j e c t and t rea tment i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t i s more g e n e r a l i z e d and i t s n e g a t i o n appears i n a lmost d i r e c t s ta tement , wh ich would be u g l y were i t no t f o r the n a t u r a l a n a l o g y which forms the accompaniment, or the key n o t e , as one d e s i r e s . . Nature speaks from the f i r s t v e r s e i n each s t a n z a . A l a c k , t e r r i b l e i n a l l i t s n e g a t i v e p h a s e s , c l a ims the o t h e r t h r e e . E x c e p t i n g f o r the t r o c h a i c f e e t wh i ch open v e r s e s one and • f o u r , the iambs f o l l o w i n r e g u l a r sequence,. broken, hut a orrce i n the second l a s t v e r s e o f t h e poem* The rhythm, however , a r i s i n g f rom the c o m b i n a t i o n o f two and t h r e e f o o t v e r s e c a r r i e s w i t h i t a sense of c o m p l e t i o n , o f s a t i s f y i n g a b s o l u t e pause at the end o f eaeh s t a n z a , making each s t a n d out l i k e the s t r o k e of a huge hammer, which by mere c e s s a t i o n com-p l e t e s a rhythm^ - /''Waits — i n unhope . " The poem I s i n t h r e e p a r t s and f o r H a r d y , r a t h e r l o n g . The f i r s t p a r t , o f which the o t h e r two are e x t e n s i o n s and e l a b o r a t i o n s i s com-( l ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 138 p l e t e i n i t s e l f ; i t . s e t s f o r t h an a t t i t u d e t h a t I q u o t e : . I n T e n e b r i s . I . 'Wintertime n i g h s ; But my b e r e a v e m e n t - p a i n I t cannot b r i n g a g a i n ; Twice no one d i e s . F l o w e r - p e t a l s f l e e ; But s i n c e I t . o n c e ha th been , No more t h a t s e v e r i n g scene Can harrow me. B i r d s f a i n t i n d r e a d ; I s h a l l not l o s e o l d s t r e n g t h I n t h e . l o n e f r o s t ' s b l a c k l e n g t h ; S t r e n g t h l o n g s i n c e f l e d 1 Leaves f r e e z e t o dun; But f r i e n d s cannot t u r n c o l d T h i s season as of o l d F o r h im w i t h none . Tempests may s c a t h ; But l o v e can not make smart A g a i n t h i s y e a r h i s h e a r t Who no h e a r t h a t h . B l a c k i s n i g h t T s cope; But death w i l l not a p p a l One who, p a s t d o u b t i n g s a l l , •' Wa i ts i n unhope. In s p i t e o f the c o n s i s t e n t l e v e l which has been n o t i c e d i n H a r d y ' s e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n g e n e r a l , the re a re a t the same t ime two v e r y apparent extremes i n h i s l y r i c g i f t . Two i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s p o i n t a re Weathers ( l ) , the s imple charming l i t t l e song o f f a i r day and down pour which i s Hardy i n a p u r e l y "Wessex" mood and t h a t t r a g i c g r i m . r e t r e a t f rom Hoscow ( 2 ) , wh ich under H a r d y ' s touch becomes not g o l d but d e s o l a t i o n . The R e t r e a t extends i n s i g n i f i c a n c e from p e r s o n a l d e f e a t and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t to n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r and from the p r a c t i c a l e f f o r t s o f man s t r u g g l i n g w i t h environment to i m a g i n a t i v e metaphys i c i n i t s w idest s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s a l o n g f l i g h t and few c o u l d have made i t . The f a c t t h a t Hardy has done so i s i n i t s e l f ev idence o f amazing power .and g e n i u s . These W o mark the l i m i t s ; they, a re as the sou the r n and the n o r t h e r n p o l e s and 1) La te L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p.- 533 2) The D y n a s t s : P a r t I I I , A c t L, Scene 9 the ba lance o f p o e t i c achievement i s d i s t r i b u t e d , i n i n f i n i t e g r a d a t i o n between them. In Weathers Hardy s u b j e c t s h i m s e l f to N a t u r e ' s mood. There i s a b s o l u t e l y no i n t r u s i o n o f the p o e t ' s p e r -s o n a l i t y . In the f i r s t s t a n z a b r i g h t n e s s and sunsh ine r e i g n over n e s t l i n g s , l o u n g e r s and m a i d s . The imagery i s homely and u s u a l i n " l i t t l e brown n i g h t i n g a l e " , consummately a r t f u l i n " s p r i g - m u s l i n " . In the seeond s tanza e v e r y t h i n g d r i p s , the whole mood o f the" s t a n z a c u l m i n a t i n g i n the homing r o o k s . The mus ic of the s w i f t l y moving s o n g - l i k e rhythm i s i n p e r f e c t k e e p i n g . Now " I n Time o f the B r e a k i n g o f N a t i o n s " ( 1 ) the s m e l l o f Wessex e a r t h s t i l l r i s e s , but here t h e r e i s an u t t e r l a c k o f e l a b o r a t i o n . The v i s u a l a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e speaks . l i k e N e u t r a l Tones i t i s p i c t o r i a l but the s u b t l e t y o f t h a t poem i s h e r e swept away. N o t h i n g c o u l d be s i m p l e r but the p r i m i t i v e p u r s u i t s and emotions o f man appear i n t h e i r most s i g n i f i c a n t forms as the bas is^meaning tin' l i f e . Though the approach i s d i f f e r e n t , a s i m i l a r emot ion t i n g e s the r e f l e c t i o n s of the s o l d i e r i n a l e s s e r poem, The Man  He K i l l e d . ( 2 ) In Postponement ( 3 ) emot ion i s more p e r s o n a l . I t i s an e a r l y poem, s l i g h t but e f f e c t i v e , w i t h a s imp le r e f r a i n which r e p e a t s the a l t e r n a t i n g n o t e s o f the theme, but i t s e r v e s . h o w e v e r , to show an o c c a s i o n a l p l a y f u l l y r i c i s m , s u i t e d to the s h a l l o w e r or more t r a n s i e n t emot ions which Hardy sometimes a f f e c t s . " ' I p l a n n e d . h e r a n e s t i n a l e a f l e s s t r e e , But the p a s s e r s eyed and t w i t t e d me, And s a i d : 'How r e c k l e s s a b i r d i s h e , C h e e r i l y m a t i n g ! ' T e a r - f i l l e d , I s t a y e d me t i l l summer- t ide , In lewth of l e a v e s t o throne h e r b r i d e ; But a l a s I h e r l o v e f o r me waved and d i e d , W e a r i l y w a i t i n g . ' " T h i s r i p l i n g l y r i c note i s a l s o p e r f e c t l y e x p r e s s e d i n the a b b r e v i a t e d l i n e s and phrases of L i z b i e  Browne. (4) The d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s both o f emotion and ex -p r e s s i o n comes i n i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l c r y o f p a i n i n a Broken Appo intment . ( 5 ) I t i s h e a r t - r e n d i n g , but i t i s not (1) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 311 ( 2 ) Times l a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 269 ( 1 9 0 2 ) ( 3 ) Wessex Poems: p . 8 ( l 8 6 b ) (41 Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 119 ( 3 ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 124 a w a i l . H a r d y ' s g r i e f i s no t o f the dust and. ashes t y p e . I t a r i s e s from a c o n s c i o u s u p r i g h t a c c e p t a n c e , w h i c h , w o r l d -c o n s c i o u s and wor ld -weary as i t i s , y e t o c c a s i o n a l l y d e f i e s F a t e . The m a g n i f i c e n t v e r s e , "and march ing Time drew on and wore me numb," l e a d s w i t h i n e v i t a b l e s u r e t y to the b l a s t e d "hope-hour" and "you d i d not come." There i s no th in , f o r c e d or p e c u l i a r . The l o n g sweeping rhythm of the r e g u l a r iambic v e r s e s i s h e i g h t e n e d by f o u r r u n - o n l i n e s , u n u s u a l bounty i n an end-s topped w o r l d . The r e g u l a r beat o f the iambs i s b roken once s h a r p l y , by a t remendous ly p o w e r f u l i n v e r s i o n w i t h e n s u i n g p a u s e : " G r i e v e d I , when as the hope-hour s t r o k e d i t s sum." There i s a sense i n wh ich Hardy the modern t h i n k e r may be deemed a Romantic a t h e a r t . T h i s p e c u l i a r i t y has two m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , i n one, the homely c o u n t r y l o v i n g , Wessex-bound man c l i n g s to the p a s t and the o l d p e o p l e , o l d t h i n g s t h a t he has known; i n the o t h e r a modern mind , t r a i n e d to the h a b i t o f modern thought i s p e r -p e t u a l l y i n t r i g u e d by the emot ion o f l o v e . F r e q u e n t l y , but not a l w a y s , modern p h i l o s o p h y i n t r u d e s . I t i s then t h a t the i r o n i c p i t i l e s s b r e a k , which i n Hardy s e p a r a t e s the romant i c and modern a t t i t u d e to l o v e o c c u r s . The l a t t e r phase w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . I t i s p a r t o f H a r d y ' s g a r g o y l e mood. The s h i f t from one extreme to the o t h e r sometimes occurs i n a s i n g l e poem, sometimes t h e r e i s pause a t a m idd le phase where l o v e i s s u b j e c t e d to m e r c i l e s s s c r u t i n y as p a r t o f the s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f u n i -v e r s a l f o r c e s . The s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e towards l o v e which Hardy had i s more p r o p e r l y d i s c u s s e d i n a survey of h i s p h i l o s o p h y . At the moment i t i s the more c o n v e n t i o n a l l o v e theme t h a t I c o n s i d e r . There has been over -emphas i s on the d i s i l l u s i o n e d H a r d y , who a t s e v e n t y - f o u r wrote what were as f a r a s I know, h i s f i r s t words o f s e l f - p r a i s e , — s t range words t o o : "Whatever h i s message — g l a d or g r i m — Two b r i g h t - s o u l e d women c l a v e to h i m , Stand and say tha t w h i l e day d e c a y s , I t w i l l be word enough of p r a i s e . " ( l ) I t r a v e l as a Phantom nov/ ( 2 ) i s i n the same k e y . To go backward i n t ime t h e r e i s a l i l t i n g s o n g - l i k e l i t t l e poem, When I Set Out f o r Lyonnesse ( 3 ) wh ich m i r r o r s the c a r e f r e e moments o f l o v e , b e f o r e i t i s w i s e r , t h a t was w r i t t e n i n a o e r s o n a l s o r t o f way about 1 8 7 0 . I t s mate i s A S t u d e n t ' s Love Song (4) but the most p o i g n a n t l y l y r i c a l l o v e e x p r e s s i o n i s found i n the group o f poems p a r t l y o f the moment, p a r t l y r e t r o s p e c t , known as Poems o f 1912 - 13 V e t e r i s V e s t i g i a Flammae. ( I ) Here the l o v e theme i s H a r d y ' s own. I t i s the one t ime when p o e t i c a l l y , he p u t s a s i d e h i s p e r p e t u a l r e t i c e n c e and w r i t e s o f h i s own emot ion , u n d i s g u i s e d . Most o f the poems are b e a u t i f u l . The G-oing ( 2 ) , Beeny C l i f f ( 3 ) , and The Phantom Horse Woman. (4) are s u p e r b l y s o . In a l l t h e r e are p h r a s e s and images p r o f o u n d l y moving — wh ich y e t d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r c o n t e x t are naked .and s h r i n k -i n g . A few are b o l d e r . Such i s the p o w e r f u l f i g u r e o f death i n l i f e which bereavement made. "I seem but a dead man h e l d on e n d , " (5) the p o w e r f u l f i g u r e of d e a t h i n l i f e wh i ch bereavement made, or the note o f a b s o l u t e f i n a l i t y i n "You are p a s t l o v e , p r a i s e , i n d i f f e r e n c e , blame*" (b) The f i n a l s t a n z a o f the Phantom  Horse Woman.has the same l y r i c beauty t h a t the huntsman o f the a r r a s , w i t h g r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n , embodies i n an o l d e r poem. (7) Here t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e avo idance of ornament, which makes the f i g u r e o f the r i d e r s tand out c l e a r l y e t c h e d , one overpower ing p e r c e p t i o n e x c l u d i n g a l l e l s e , an i n s i s t e n t t h r o b b i n g , r e p e a t , b e a t i n g upon the b r a i n . "A g h o s t - g i r l - r i d e r -— and though , t o i l - t r i e d , He w i t h e r s d a i l y , Time touches h e r n o t , But she s t i l l r i d e s g a i l y , In h i s ra.pt thought I n " t h a t shagged and s h a l y A t l a n t i c s p o t , And as when f i r s t eyed Draws r e i n and s i n g s to the swing o f the t i d e . " Beeny C l i f f , an e x q u i s i t e and more e l a b o r a t e t reatment o f a somewhat s i m i l a r theme i s s e t i n h u r r y i n g t e r c e t fo rm, which i n s p i t e of i t s end-s topped l i n e s sweeps a l o n g from phrase to phrase i n a lmost even c e s u r a l b a l a n c e u n t i l the v o i c e drops a t the s t r o p h e ' s e n d . I t i s v e r y m e l o d i o u s , and the n a t u r a l beat o f the metre w i t h i t s f o u r heavy s t r e s s e s encased i n a s t e a d y p a t t e r o f u n s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s i s i n t e n s i f i e d by an i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n o f vowel and 1 sounds, i n which as the 1 l i f t s , the vowel lowers the _ .p i t ch . ( 1 ) Poems o f 1912 - 1 3 : p . 318 - 3 3 6 ( 2 ) Poems o f 1912 - 1 3 : p . 3 1 9 ( 3 ) Poems of 1912 - 1 3 : p . 3 3 0 (4) Poems of 1912 - 1 3 : p . 3 3 3 ( 3 ) The G o i n g : Poems o f 1912 - 13;. p . 319 ( 6 ) Your L a s t D r i v e : Poems o f 1912 - 1 3 : p . 3 2 0 (7) Matthew A r n o l d : T r i s t r a m and I s e u l t : P a r t I I The a c c o m p a n y i n g i m a g e r y i s m a g i c a l , t h e e p i t o m e o f a r t , f o r e x p e r i e n c e a n d l a n d s c a p e b l e n d a n d c o n d e n s e i n a s e r i e s o f c a m e o - l i k e i m p r e s s i o n s , i n t h i s c a s e d e l i c a t e l y . c o l o r e d , w h i c h s t a n d o u t -- p e r f e c t -- f r o m a g o l d e n s e t t i n g , I I I "A l i t t l e c l o u d t h e n c l o a k e d u s , a n d t h e r e f l e w a n i r i s e d r a i n , A n d t h e A t l a n t i c d y e d i t s l e v e l s w i t h a d u l l m i s f e a t u r e d s t a i n , A n d t h e n t h e s u n b u r s t o u t a g a i n , a n d p u r p l e s p r i n k e d t h e m a i n . " (1) The h o m e l y mood i n H a r d y ' s l y r i c g i f t w h i c h t e m p e r s t h e h a r s h n e s s o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t — b y a w i s t f u l c ' l i n g i n g t o o l d t h i n g s a n d c u s t o m s , e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f I n s u c h l y r i c s a s O l d F u r n i t u r e ( 2 ) , To My F a t h e r ' s V i o l i n ( 3 ) a n d N i g h t i n t h e O l d Home ( 4 ) . The f i r s t , a n e x p r e s s i o n i n p o e t i c f o r m o f t h e c h a r m o f a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h a l m o s t e v e r y o n e f e e l s a t t i m e s was i n t e n s i f i e d i n H a r d y b y h i s l i f e - l o n g a l l e g i a n c e t o one p l a c e . I t seems t o h a v e become a com-f o r t i n g a n d i n s p i r i n g p a r t o f h i s l i f e . The t o n e o f t h e c h a r m i n g poem i s s e t b y " t h e h a n d s o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n . " T h i s same c h a r m o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e c o m i n g more s p e c i f i c a n d p e r s o n a l i n t h e v e r s e s t o a f a t h e r ' s memory, e v o k e d by a v i o l i n , d r a w s on t o r e g a r d t h e e n d , w h i c h comes t o a l l t h i n g s , i n t h e way i n e v i t a b l e t o H a r d y — t h e v i o l i n w o r m - e a t e n , i t s owner d u s t . . The l a s t poem o f t h e t h r e e c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h e l a r g e r g r o u p o f w h i c h , t h e y f o r m a p a r t , i n t r o d u c e s t h e r e t u r n o f t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e d e a d t o ' t h e i r o l d h a u n t s , a f a v o u r i t e a n d f a n c i f u l d i v e r s i o n o f t h e f a c t s . One i s s t r u c k i m m e d i a t e l y b y H a r d y ' s w o r d s r e g a r d i n g t h e s o l a c e o f f a n c y i n l i f e when a s o l a c e o f r e a s o n i s d e n i e d . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e a d i r e c t c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n o l d b e l i e f s a n d new i s b r o u g h t o u t . The g h o s t s w e a r a " s t r a n g e u p -b r a i d i n g s m i l e " , a n d a d v i s e t h e i r m o d e r n d e s c e n d a n t t o " l e t be t h e w h e r e f o r e . " S u b j e c t t o t h e g a r g o y l e mood t h e same theme o f r e t u r n a n d t i m e s t h a t c h a n g e , g r i n s a n d c h u c k l e s f r o m " t h e mead o f M e m o r i e s " i n t h e i r o n i c v e r s e s o f The Dead Quire.(5) A m o d e r n b a l l a d i n t h e . L u c y G r a y manner c a l l e d H e r I m m o r t a l i t y , p r o b a b l y m a r k s a n e x t r e m e b o t h o f r o m a n t i c s o l a c e a n d b a l l a d c o n t e n t . The manner i s e n t i r e l y s i m p l e (1) Poems o f 1912 - 1 3 : p . 3 3 0 (2) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 456 (3) M o m e n t s . o f V i s i o n : p . 423 (4^ T i m e s L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 252 (5) T i m e s L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 240 25 but the f a n c i f u l theme, .which I n p o e t s l e s s a u s t e r e might be g i v e n a s e t t i n g c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y r o m a n t i c i s h e r e t r e a t e d i n the r u s t i c e v e r y d a y f a s h i o n t y p i c a l b o t h o f the b a l l a d and o f H a r d y . The poem r e s t s upon the i d e a t h a t the dead ar e i m m o r t a l o n l y as l o n g a s t h e y l i v e i n memory i n the minds o f the l i v i n g . The b a l l a d form f o r . s u c h a s u b j e c t i s u n -u s u a l ; the o l d b a l l a d w o r l d o f a c t u a l unhappy event h a v i n g g i v e n way t o a w o r l d o f shadow, the shadow o f mid-morning, w h i c h i s o n l y a p a t c h o f g r e y and w i t h o u t deep c o n t r a s t . Her I m m o r t a l i t y ( l ) i s n o t the s o r t o f t h i n g t h a t anyone e l s e w o u l d have w r i t t e n . I t r e p r e s e n t s a phase o f Hardy's' temperament as i t a d j u s t s a p o w e r f u l p h i l o s o p h y t o the e v e r y d a y needs o f man; f o r the o l d b e l i e f i n i m m o r t a l i t y w i t h i t s c o m f o r t gone, H a r d y s u b s t i t u t e s an i m m o r t a l i t y w h i c h p a s s e s w i t h i t s g e n e r a t i o n , the o n l y one he c o u l d w i t h c o n s i s t e n c y g r a n t — a s u b s t i t u t i o n w h i c h j u s t s u f f i c e s and l i t t l e more. I n H i s I m m o r t a l i t y (2) and The T o - B e - F o r g o t t e n (3) the same, p o i n t o f v i e w i s more i m p l i c i t l y c l e a r , t h a t the l o n g e r one i s gone, the deeper d e a t h becomes. I n the f i n a l r e c k o n i n g t h e o n l y ones t o a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y a r e the I m m o r t a l s . I n t h e s e two e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s t h e r o -m a n t i c a u r a i s gone -- and s c i e n c e d o m i n a t e s . The " y e l l - B e l o v e d ( 4 ) e a s t i n the same mould a s Her I m m o r t a l i t y i s l i k e i t an i d e a l i z a t i o n , i n t h i s case of l o v e . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c H a r d i a n t o u c h i s the s u g g e s t i o n o f the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f any hope o f r e a l i z i n g t h e i d e a l i n the a c t u a l . The muted n o t e of l y r i c g r i e f i n the f i n a l s t a n z a i s a m o d u l a t i o n . Y/hen Hardy p a s s e s t h i s s t a g e o f s o r r o w he e x p r e s s e s i t by u s i n g i r o n i c or d r a m a t i c c o n -t r a s t s . " I f I have seen one t h i n g I t i s the p a s s i n g p r e c i o u s n e s s o f dreams, • That a s p e c t s a r e w i t h i n u s : and who seems Host k i n g l y i s t h e k i n g . " (5) These words form a most f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n t o some of the l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n s w h i c h we have been c o n s i d e r i n g and l e a d q u i t e n a t u r a l l y t o a d i f f e r e n t s i d e of Hardy's g e n i u s , which speaks o f those "most k i n g l y " , n o t i n the f o r m a l e l e g i a c mood, w h i c h has been the i m m o r t a l i z a t i o n o f p o e t i c bereavement, but i n the s i m p l e t way of f r i e n d s h i p and a d m i r a t i o n . An u n s e e i n g c r i t i c has quoted S h e l l e y ' s S k y l a r k (6) i n an e f f o r t t o g i v e body and substance t o h i s . C l ) V'essex Poems: p. 48 (2) Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 130 (3) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 1 3 1 (4) Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 120 (5) A Youngman's E x h o r t a t i o n : L a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 569 (fa) Poems of the P a s t and Present.: p. 92 t h e s i s t h a t Hardy i s no p o e t . The words "A p i n c h of unseen , unguarded d u s t " , c a l l e d up f o r Hardy the c e a s e l e s s panorama o f n a t u r e ' s r e n e w a l . . I t a l s o emphasized the p a s s i n g p r e -c i o u s n e s s o f dreams, s i n c e " a l i t t l e h a l l , o f f e a t h e r and honey i ! a l l l i f e , i n f a c t , must be t r a n s i e n t and the s k y l a r k has i t s i m m o r t a l i t y , no t i n i t s e l f , nor even i n i t s song , but i n the poem. There i t l i v e s f o r e v e r . "Go f i n d i t f a e r i e s , go and f i n d That t i n y p i n c h o f p r i c e l e s s d u s t , And b r i n g a c a s k e t , s i l v e r - l i n e d And framed o f g o l d t h a t gems e n c r u s t , And we w i l l . lay i t s a f e t h e r e i n And c o n s e c r a t e i t to e n d l e s s t i m e , Fo r i t i n s p i r e d a b a r d to w in E c s t a t i c h e i g h t s i n thought and rhyme." I t i s no t on ly a s u b t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a n o t h e r p o e t ' s a r t ; i t I s a lmost a p o e t ' s c r e e d , a pronouncement of f a i t h . Hardy c a r r i e s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of o ther p o e t s i n t o h i s own g e n e r a t i o n w i t h h i s p r a i s e o f the poe t M e r e d i t h . (1) The most apparent f a c t c o n c e r n i n g these s imple and f r i e n d l y words i s the e n t i r e absence o f any d e s i r e to make p o e t i c a l m a t e r i a l out o f an o l d f r i e n d s h i p . Hardy ment ions a few ways i n which M e r e d i t h meant much to h im . He speaks as a man, r a t h e r than as a p o e t . I t i s a p p r e -c i a t i o n pure and s i m p l e . "H is words wing on, as l i v e words w i l l . " Somewhat the same a t t i t u d e g o v e r n s The L a s t  S i g n a l ( 2 ) w r i t t e n when W i l l i a m Barnes d i e d ; but the gaze i s deeper , t h e r e i s a s t a r k awareness o f the dead man i n h i s c o f f i n , w h i c h i s h e i g h t e n e d by "a wave of h i s h a n d " , the sun g l i n t i n g i n H a r d y ' s eyes from the g l a s s o f the c o f f i n . I t makes one b l i n k . The death o f Sivinburne i n 1909 moved Hardy d e e p l y . He had known and admired Swinburne f o r many y e a r s . L i k e h im , he had f e l t the s c o r c h i n g f l ames of V i c t o r i a n p r u d e r y . H i s a d m i r a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n A S i n g e r A s l e e p ( 3 ) no t o n l y the most b e a u t i f u l o f the immediate group under d i s c u s s i o n but a f u l l and rounded poem, d e e p l y m u s i c a l , v a g u e l y r e m i n i s c e n t i n the sweep o f i t s l o n g iambic l i n e s , o f Swinburne h i m s e l f , t r e n c h a n t l y c r i t i c a l i n a few p e r f e c t p h r a s e s . The p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h i s e x q u i s i t e t r i b u t e a re the f r u i t s o f a r i p e n e d and n a t u r a l g e n i u s . I n the v e r y ( 1 ) George M e r e d i t h : Times Laughing S t o c k s : p . 278 ( 2 ) Moments- o f V i s i o n : p. 444 ( 3 ) S a t i r e s of C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 3°4 f i r s t vez'se, the s e a , wh ich had. s t i r r e d the i m a g i n a t i o n o f Swinburne to some o f i t s f i n e s t e f f o r t s r i s e s up as the mighty "uns lumber ing" s e n t r y o f h i s l o n g e s t r e s t . I t i s the p e r f e c t note and immed ia te l y a t t u n e s the r e c e p t i v e s p i r i t to the melody tha t f o l l o w s . The s t a t e l y pace o f the s e n t r y s e t s the rhy thmic beat of the poem w h i c h , p o s s i b l y y i e l d i n g to Swinburne 's s p i r i t , i s r a t h e r r e g u l a r i n i t s m u s i c , the f i f t h s t a n z a b e i n g the m e t r i c a l s k e l e t o n o f the who le , com-p l e t e t o the l a s t bone. The s k e l e t o n , however , i s no t a p -p a r e n t . A few magic words and p h r a s e s c o m p l e t e l y c l o t h e i t . They a r e " b r a b b l e " , " S t i l l one" , " f i r e of tongues" and " s p i n d r i f t " . In s t a n z a s one, th ree and n i n e the i n i t i a l theme b e a t s p e r s i s t e n t l y , the f i n a l s t a n z a b e i n g an e l a b o r a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n . In s t a n z a two, the second theme b r e a k s i n . In to the rhythm comes a n i n v e r t e d f o o t and the p e r f e c t and s t a r t l i n g f i g u r e o f the Nun and the Swinburne " l e a v e s upon the f o r m a l midd le t i m e . " The c o n t i n u i n g melody i n s t a n z a f o u r i s a p e r f e c t l y complete s h o r t c r i t i q u e upon Poems and  B a l l a d s w i t h a summing up i n the v e r s e s f o l l o w i n g o f the p o e t ' s c a r e e r , from the storm r a i s e d by h i s u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e to the t r iumph o f h i s l a t e r y e a r s . The t h i r d and f i n a l theme c a r r i e s th rough t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e s t a n z a s and i s a v e r y b e a u t i f u l f i g u r e o f the poet as t h e d i s c i p l e o f Sappho, which b r i n g s out v i v i d l y the l i k e n e s s i n the s p i r i t o f the two p o e t s . These t h r e e s t a n z a s make the me lody . Here and there a re the t y p i c a l r h y t h m i c a l b r e a k s , the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t mark H a r d y ' s mas te ry o f rhythm and p o e t i c f o r m . ' Swinburne 's m e l o d i c smoothness c o p i e d by H a r d y , i s i n t e n s i f i e d by such s u b t l e t i e s i n s t a n z a one a s the r e p e t i -t i o n o f " a l l " , the i n t e r n a l y rhymes, the assonant o ' s , the b a l a n c e d l ' s o f " p i l l o w e d e t e r n a l l y " , and the chang ing o f the noun s e n t r y to a s t r i k i n g v e r b a l use i n " s e n t r y s " . In the n u n ' s s t a n z a , consummate i n p i c t o r i a l a r t , the v e r s e " i n f a i t h o f numbers f r e a k e d w i t h m u s i c a l c l o s e s " , by v i r t u e o f i t s own odd sound g l i d e s i n i t s rhy thmic s e t t i n g to a p e r f e c t l i g h t - s y l l a b l e d end — " r o s e s " , - - " c l o s e s " . . "hot s i g h s , sad l a u g h t e r s , k i s s e s , t e a r s " , i s an echo o f Swinburne, as a re a l s o the g rand and sounding words of the m e l o d i e ' s end , w h i c h , however , acknowledge t h e i r modern master i n the cosmic scope which l i e s between " c o n s t e l l a t i o n s " and " d u l l s u b t e r r e n e r e v e r b r a t i o n s " . The sound shows Swin-burne ' s i n f l u e n c e ; the meaning g i v e n to the poem i s t y p i c a l l y H a r d y ' s . There a re o t h e r words wh i ch , s i n c e they o c c u r , may he ment ioned here i n t h e i r c o n t e x t r a t h e r than i n the i s o l a t i o n of a l a t e r c h a p t e r . Of t h e s e , " b r a b b l e s " , i s an o b s o l e t e word o f obscure d e r i v a t i o n but so apt i n i t s p h o n e t i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o m u l t i t u d e tha t i t l o o k s new and s t a r t l i n g , as i f c o i n e d on the- spot from "babb le" and " r a b b l e " , the two i n t e r - r e l a t e d mob words . " S p i n d r i f t " i s the s o u t h e r n form o f a modern a d a p t a t i o n of s p o o n d r i f t , the o t h e r form o f wh ich i s s p e n d r i f t . "Hydro s p h e r e " , f r a n k l y modern, i s the s e a ' s damp a i r about Sappho and Swinburne. " O r t s " i s r a t h e r u n u s u a l , r u s t i c i n f l a v o r , "incarnadine}"' i s ' Shakes-p e a r i a n . One f i n d s i n a d d i t i o n a group o f compounds i n p e r f e c t v i s u a l b a l a n c e . T h i s v i s u a l ba lance f r e q u e n t l y occurs and i s an ev idence of H a r d y ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l t r a i n i n g . H a r d y ' s gaze i s the outward one . H i s emot ion ha been most i n t e n s e when a r o u s e d , not by the p e r s o n a l a c c i d e n t o f l i f e i n immediate e f f e c t upon the s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l p o e t , but when engaged, by the w i d e s t phenomena of the o r g a n i z e d u n i v e r s e , bo th i n i t s a b s t r a c t and i t s a p p l i e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . Here he has been the m a s t e r ; here he has f o r c e d p o e t i c c o n v e n t i o n to s t a n d a s i d e w h i l e he bent forms and language i n t o a framework s u i t e d to the new m a t e r i a l * He has c a r r i e d the modern s c i e n t i f i c and e v o l u t i o n a r y v iew o f the w o r l d and o f l i f e upon i t s t r a i g h t to the p o e t i c rea lm and he has done so s u c c e s s f u l l y . F u r t h e r he has f o r c e d h i s s t r a n g e m a t e r i a l , unbend ing a n d . - u n y i e l d i n g as I t sometimes i s , i n t o the v e r y forms around which the p o e t i c haze has hung most c l o s e l y ; w i t n e s s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o n n e t s , which b o l d l y p r o c l a i m a new a l l e g i a n c e , w h i l e dead g h o s t s hover unhoused i n the background . I t i s not t h a t p h i l o s o p h y appears i n H a r d y , f o r the f i r s t t ime as p o e t i c m a t e r i a l . P o e t s a r e - f r e -q u e n t l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n one way or a n o t h e r ; sometimes a p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l b i a s has a lmost wrecked the superb p o e t i c " g i f t w i t h which i t j o u r n e y e d , two v a r i a n t examples b e i n g S h e l l e y and Wordsworth. There are some who t h i n k t h a t H a r d y ' s d a r k e r - s i d e makes o f h im the p e r f e c t t h i r d . I t i s not s o . H a r d y , a s • I s a i d b e f o r e , c o n s o l i d a t e d h i s p o s i t i o n . He s tands as f i r m l y upon the modern s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a -t i on - of the u n i v e r s e as M i l t o n s tood upon the mora l one. There was i n each c a s e , a w i l l and the energy to support i t . Hardy not on ly a c c e p t e d modern thought but so absorbed i t t ha t i t formed the v e r y . t h r e a d s of h i s t a p e s t r y ; and the f i g u r e s and the i l l u s i o n s which he wove w i t h i n i t were but the f i n e r s t r a n d s of p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n w h o l l y dependent upon the h e a v i e r body f o r s t a b i l i t y and s t r e n g t h . In r e a c h i n g t h i s s o l i d a r i t y Hardy a c h i e v e s an enlargement o f p o e t i c bounds j u s t as Shakespeare a c h i e v e d i t by sweeping humanity i n the mass w i t h i n the young r o m a n t i c drama. The g e s t u r e i s , as i t w e l l might b e , t r i u m p h a n t . I t i n c l u d e s i n bo th c a s e s , the s low c r e e p i n g progress, o f g e n e r a t i o n s , c u l m i n a t i n g sudden ly i n the g e n e s i s of a c e n t u r y ' s g e n i u s . S t r a n g e l y enough t h i s s t a r k l y modern p h i l o s o p h y pushes more e a s i l y t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s i n p o e t r y than i n p r o s e . In Ju.de the Obscure t h e r e i s a human r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s barred, f rom, the sonnet Hap ( l ) . The theme i s no darker bu t the a p p e a l o f Hap ,. b e i n g more p u r e l y to the i n t e l l e c t , a r o u s e s l e s s p a i n t h a n does the u n r e l i e v e d s u f -f e r i n g of Jude the Obscure . The n o v e l c a r r i e s t h e o r y to extreme l i m i t s and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and " i l l u s i o n " both s u f f e r t h e r e b y . In o rder to c o n s i d e r the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o e t r y more e a s i l y , I have d i v i d e d i t i n t o two r a n k s . I n the f i r s t s tand the more a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l phases of i t s e x p r e s s i o n , i n the second a re the men and women or the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y i n poems d e a l i n g w i t h men and women. In the f i r s t p h a s e , the tone i s c o n s i s t e n t and l e v e l . In the second i t r u n s i n wide schemat ic range through l y r i c , d ramat i c and i r o n i c v e r s e . In making t h i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i on, I i n no wise imp ly t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e or t h a t the s o - c a l l e d a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h y appears as such . I r e f e r m e r e l y to the poems where, a l t h o u g h v i t a l i z e d , by c o n c r e t e imagery and by i t s s u b s e r v i e n c e to met re , i t appears most c l e a r l y as the e n t i r e body of the poem, where i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t c e n t e r s on the p h i l o s o p h y r a t h e r than on the p e r s o n o f a man or woman. In the case o f men and women, i t s w o r k i n g out i s p e c u l i a r and r e q u i r e s a s e p a r a t e and i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n . An acceptance of the e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y such as the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y i s c a l l e d upon t o make l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o a c r i t i c i s m of the scheme o f t h i n g s w h e r e i n the f i t t e s t , i f any , su rv iveswhere the mere c a r r y i n g out o f u n i v e r s a l laws l e a d s t o s u f f e r i n g and p a i n , where the o c c a s i o n a l happy i n t e r l u d e i s apt to t u r n a t any moment i n t o the d a r k e s t so r row. In the much quoted Hap ( 2 ) Hardy f a c e s the q u e s t i o n s q u a r e l y , f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s e a s i e r to b e a r any of the o l d b e l i e f s i n a j e a l o u s or a v e n g i n g god , knowing t h a t some power w i l l e d the m i s e r y , r a t h e r than i/\ the s t a r k b l a n k n e s s l e f t by modern knowledge and i t s i n d i f f e r e n t f o r c e s . The thought i s maddening . There might have been h a p p i n e s s , but there i s n o t . The same i d e a c a r r i e s f u r t h e r i n a second sonnet of the same y e a r , c a l l e d , At a B r i d a l ( 3 ) ; but t h e r e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s i s n o t o n l y a m a t t e r of i n d i f f e r e n c e but p r o g r e s s of any k i n d i s l e f t to the merest chance . Hap i s the b e t t e r sonnet , f o r the l y r i c a l i n t e n s e n e s s o f the p a i n e x p r e s s e d i n the octave i s made d e f i n i t e i n the s u c -c e s s i o n o f imagery c a l l e d up by the p o w e r f u l l a s t s i x l i n e s , the c h a l l e n g i n g "why unblooms the bes t hope ever sown?" and the f i g u r e o f " d i c i n g T ime" . ( 1 ) Wessex Poems: p . 7 (Z) Wessex Poems: p . 7 ( 3 ) Wessex'Poems: p. 8 . There i s a f u r t h e r c o m p e l l i n g i m p e r s o n a t i o n o f Time, i n The L a c k i n g Sense . ( 1 ) In t h a t poem p e r s o n i f i e d . Time says tha t the p o w e r f u l f o r c e s o f the u n i v e r s e , t y p i f i e d as the m i g h t y mother and i n the f o l l o w i n g v e r s e s makes an a p p e a l to man.. "Whi le she p l o d s d e a d - r e c k o n i n g on , In d a r k n e s s o f a f f l i c t i o n , A s s i s t herwhere thy c r e a t u r i l y Dependence can or may For thou a r t o f her c l a y . " T h i s i n e v i t a b l y sugges ts the m e t a p h y s i c a l framework o f The Dynasts and the i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f the S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s , o r the w o r l d ' s cumula t i ve e x p e r i e n c e . I t s f i n a l s t a n z a draws man i n t o the scheme as p a r t o f the l i f e f o r c e , a c r e a t u r e w i t h w i l l and f e e l i n g s capab le o f a m e l i o r a t i v e e f f o r t but i n the end dominated by the f o r c e . Napo leon e x h i b i t s b o t h f a c u l t i e s . The l o n g slow moving sep tenary v e r s e s g i v e to the poem a lmost i n s e n s i b l y a mesmeric e f f e c t as o f one w o r k i n g under a s p e l l , -which i s a t t imes extended by an e x t r a l i g h t s y l l a b l e which r u n s the v e r s e on to an even l o n g e r rhy thm. There i s an o c c a s i o n a l open ing l i g h t s y l l a b l e as w e l l . M ien t h e s e , as i n v e r s e s one and two of the f i r s t s t a n z a , occur t o g e t h e r they r e a l l y amount to a s u b s t i t u t e d d a c t y l l i e f o o t , f o r m i n g a break i n the even tempo — which i s v a r i e d o therw ise o n l y by the s t r o p h i c pause caused by. the t h r e e - f o o t e d f i n a l v e r s e s . The p i t c h i s t oned to the d e -s i r e d evenness o f u n c o n s c i o u s mot ion by the a lmost c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a n c e of vowel sounds, wh ich i n a v e r s e such as "She whisper's i t i n each p a t h e t i c s t renuous s low endeavour" , h a l t and d r a g the l i n e to an even l o n g e r sensuous f l o w . A sudden assonant t or a l l i t e r a t i v e b ' s may break the rhythm and s l i g h t l y change the tone as i n "The sense of i l l s m i s d e a l t f o r b l i s s e s b l a n k s the mien most q u e e n l y . " The p o s s i b l e r e g r e t o f a F o r c e which c r e a t e d a w o r l d so i l l , forms the theme of the The S leep 'Worker ( 2 ) , a sonnet , and Of a l o n g e r poem, By the E a r t h ' s Corpse" (j?)* "Eow w i l t thou bear t h y s e l f i n thy s u r p r i s e ? W i l t thou d e s t r o y i n one w i l d shock o f shame, Thy;,'whole h i g h h e a v i n g f i r m a m e n t a l f rame , Or p a t i e n t l y a d j u s t , amend, and h e a l ? " asks the ( 1 ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 106 ( 2 ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 110 (}) Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 115 sonnet —: "That I made E a r t h , and l i f e , and man, , I t s t i l l r e p e n t e t h me", i s the r e p l y g i v e n by the o t h e r poem. What i s i n some ways the most t e r r i b l e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h i s b l i n d w o r l d impu lse i s found i n Doom and She ( 1 ) . The overwhelming gloom of the c o n c e p t i o n i s embodied i n the symbol ism o f the marr iage between the mother and Doom. Ques t i oned by the b l i n d weaver as to how the w o r l d i s g e t t i n g a l o n g , i n s e n t i e n t Doom c o u n t e r s by a s k i n g what i s " R i g h t " , "Wrong", " F e e l i n g " , " P a i n " ? They have no meaning f o r h im . They a re m e r e l y sounds . Here the d i s c o r d which mars the u n i v e r s a l harmony -jangles as the c l a s h between man i n h i s w o r l d o f emot ion and the unheed ing f o r c e s o f the u n i v e r s e becomes a p p a r e n t . Nor does the d i s c o r d end w i t h the one inharmon ic c r a s h . I t c o n t i n u e s as a de termined b r e a k i n g minor i n t o the outer w o r l d of N a t u r e , man's immediate e n -v i r o n m e n t . "The l e a d e n s k y " , the f r e e z i n g " n o r t h " , the s p i r i t s o f "Death" and " S i c k n e s s " , i n The S u b a l t e r n s ( 2 ) l i n k the cosmic f o r c e i r r e t r i e v a b l y w i t h man's n a t u r a l w o r l d w h i l e the b i r d s o f the wood, i n The B u l l f i n c h e s ( 3 ) acknow-ledge , serve and q u e s t i o n the same dominance The re .Is n e i t h e r scheme nor p i t y , o n l y the s low, r e s i s t l e s s and e n -v e l o p i n g F a t e . T h i s b r i n g s us to the p o i n t where man and p h i l o s o -phy meet and swim t o g e t h e r i n the p o o l o f t e a r s . Be ing c o n -cerned ' f o r the t ime more e x p r e s s l y w i t h l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , I must d i s r e g a r d the dramat i c poems i n which man's s t r u g g l e w i t h e x i s t e n c e i s most v i v i d l y p?oir-trayed and c l i n g t o the f r e q u e n t n o t e s o f r e b e l l i o n , compromise and p a i n , which a r e found i n the l y r i c s . There i s no b e t t e r b e g i n n i n g than the p o e t ' s c r y " 0 l i f e w i t h the sad seared f a c e " , as the h o b b l i n g wear ied o l d p l a y e r e n t e r s . In f o u r s h o r t s t a n z a s , l i f e as i t a p -p e a r s t o Hardy i s p e r s o n i f i e d . Knowledge, w i t h i t s Dea th , T ime, D e s t i n y , i s a d m i t t e d and the p o s s i b l e compromise which man may make w i t h these f o r c e s i s suggested . . The tone o f the f i r s t two s t a n z a s i s governed by the " d r a g g l e d " f i g u r e of L i f e ; but the rhythm, which i n the f i n a l s tanzas appears i n i t s p e r f e c t m e t r i c a l f rame, i s s u b t l y h a n d l e d to p o i n t the s i g n i f i c a n c e . The two l i g h t s y l l a b l e s between " L i f e " and " s a d " put the emphasis h e a v i l y on those two words, w h i l e the a n a p e s t s o f the s i n g l e f o u r s t r e s s v e r s e w i t h the c e s u r a l ( 1 ) Poems of. the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 108 ( 2 ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 110 ( 3 ) Poems o f the Pas t and P r e s e n t : p . I l l pause break i t i n t o two emphat ic images which a re l i n k e d t o the extended s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the second s t a n z a by the wrenched a c c e n t s o f " p l e a s a n t r y " and " D e s t i n y " , i n the rhyme scheme abab c b c b . The i r r e v o c a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f "Death T ime, D e s t i n y " i s a c c e n t u a t e d by rhy thmic pauses a f t e r the f i r s t two, i f one w ishes as the commas s u g g e s t , to r e a d i t s o , w h i l e the p e r f e c t r e g u l a r i t y o f the f i n a l s t a n z a s l i g h t e n s the tone to tune w i t h i t s more, a r t i f i c i a l mood o f mocking j o y , A S i g n Seeker ( l ) w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i v e name t a k e s a l o n g q u e r y i n g p i l g r i m a g e through a l l the byways of e x i s t e n c e . I t has the t r u e H a r d i a n s c o p e . F i r s t i s r e g i s t e r e d p a s s i n g t ime — then such w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d cosmic phenomena as " l i g h t n i n g - b l a d e , the l e a p i n g s t a r , The Cau ld rons o f the sea i n s to rm, . . a b y s m a l f i r e s and snow-cones" , f o l l o w e d by a rap id , summary of a s t r o n o m i c s c i e n c e which' g i v e s way to a survey of human i ty . That I s h a l l quote s i n c e i t appears a g a i n i n The Dynasts both as m a g n i f i c e n t s tage d i r e c t i o n and as e t h e r e a l s p e c u l a t i o n i n l y r i c a l m e t a p h y s i c . " I w i t n e s s f e l l o w earth-men surge and s t r i v e ; A s s e m b l i e s meet, and t h r o b , and. p a r t , D e a t h ' s sudden f i n g e r , s o r r o w ' s smart : — A i l the v a s t v a r i o u s m o i l s t h a t mean A w o r l d a l i v e . " Then f o l l o w s - t h e q u e r y : I s t h e r e l i f e a f t e r death? Does Heaven e n s c r o l l the wrong? - - and a 'summary of r e l i g i o u s t e n e t s as " h e i g h t s of t r a n c e ^ l i k e t r u s t " , In the whole t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n o f a f f i r m a t i v e answer "When a man f a l l s he l i e s . " ' In For L i f e I Had. Never Cared G r e a t l y ( 2 ) , the a c t u a l p a s s i n g o f one man's span i s s u b j e c t t o the same m e r c i l e s s s u r v e y , as the p o e t , "unwon by i t s s t y l e " , t u r n e d from the r e a d i n g o f L i f e t o S o l i t u d e and c o n t e m p l a t i o n . From t h a t vantage ground, f i r e d by the b r i l l i a n c e o f a s t a r as i t b u r s t through i t s e n v e l o p i n g " fog-damps" he determined, not to l e t h i s " p i l g r i m a g e f a i l " . I t i s the s p i r i t courageous , tempered by the s t o i c m i n d . The same temper ing of courage b r e a k i n g from a more d i s m a l background i n the v o i c e o f a p e a s a n t , governs the p l a i n t o f one " b e d - r i d d e n " , t o h i s "unknowing god" ( 3 ) , (1) Wessex Poems: p . 43 (2) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 5C5 (3) The B e d r i d d e n P e a s a n t : Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : P. 113 33 speaks i n a more i n d i g n a n t mood i n the p o e t ' s i n v o c a t i o n To An Unborn Pauper C h i l d ( l ) , and r e a c h e s i t s f i n a l s t o i c note o f v e i l e d d e f i a n c e i n the a lmost unhoped wishes o f The Blow* ( 2 ) Whi le f rom I n a K i s s ( 3 ) and A Commonplace  Day ( 4 ) two poems as d i f f e r e n t , bo th i n s t y l e and content as they w e l l can be , t h e r e comes a s l i g h t r e l i e f i n a gleam l i k e the e v a s i v e f i r e b a l l o f the marshes »- v a n i s h i n g a l -most as i t comes. I t i s the merest s u g g e s t i o n t h a t no a c t i s l o s t , t h a t s o f t l y , the e c h o i n g sound o f a k i s s t r a v e l s e t e r n a l l y , t h a t the d u l l e s t moment may have g i v e n b i r t h to an a c t or thought o f g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . " Y e t , maybe, i n some s o u l , In some spot u n d i s c e r n e d on sea or l a n d , Some impulse rose On some i n t e n t u p s t o l e Of the e n k i n d l i n g a r d e n c y from whose M a t u r e r glows The w o r l d ' s amendment f l o w s : " The same s u g g e s t i o n cones i n the song wh ich breaks from a t h r u s h who as w i n t e r beats upon him s t i l l s i n g s j o y o u s l y — "an aged t h r u s h , f r a i l gaunt and s m a l l , In b l a s t - b e r u f f l e d p lume," ' Had chosen thus .to f l i n g h i s s o u l Upon the growing g loom, So l i t t l e cause f o r c a r o l l i n g s , Of such e c s t a t i c sound Was w r i t t e n on t e r r e s t i a l t h i n g s A f a r or n i g h Some b l e s s e d Hope, whereof he knew And I was u n a w a r e . " ( 5 ) The pathway has w idened . I t i s f a i n t l y s u g g e s -t i v e o f a m e l i o r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n , the. note which ends The  Dynasts and which a f t e r the sound ing b l a r e s o f winds and b r a s s e s i n tha t mighty o r c h e s t r a t i o n , t remb les i n t o the s t i l l i n g a i r as one t h i n and p l a i n t i v e sound. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y bo th i n i t s e l f and i n some phases o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to man has p a s s e d i n r e v i e w . Now come The Convergence o f the Twain ( 6 ) w h e r e i n the p o w e r f u l c o n c e p t i o n o f man, i n h i m s e l f p a r t of the l i f e f o r c e , p roud i n accumula ted knowledge and the c u n -( 1 ) Poems o f the P a s t and Pre s e n t : p . 116 ( 2 ) Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 449 ( 3 ) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 438 (4) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 104 (5) The D a r k l i n g T h r u s h : Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p .1 3 7 (.6), S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 288 n i n g o f c e n t u r i e s , h i m s e l f becomes a c r e a t i o n arid l a u n c h e s h i s t r i u m p h . I t i s the f i n a l . w o r d as f a r as the l y r i c i s c o n c e r n e d . P h i l o s o p h y i n i t s next appearance i s m e t a p h y s i c . H e r e , the u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n of man's t r iumph over h i s environment goes down be fo re the u n r e l e n t i n g scheme o f the Immanent W i l l , a s "the t w i n h a l v e s o f one august event" u n i t e . Here b l i n d a i m l e s s n e s s g i v e s way to an a lmost m a l i g n a n t w i l l . • There i s something i n the theme i t s e l f , In. the slow f a s h i o n i n g o f two mighty b o d i e s , one the c o l d and e l e -menta l i c e b e r g , l u m p l i k e , mounta inous , the o t h e r , g l e a m i n g , f i n i s h e d m a t e r i a l c o m p l e t e l y s u b s e r v i e n t to man's g e n i u s and knowledge - - t h a t s e t s the t w e n t i e t h cen tu ry i n d i r e c t c o n -t r a s t to a l l the ages p a s t . How t e r r i b l e the c r a s h when i t comes I How s i g n i f i c a n t the s h a k i n g o f " h e m i s p h e r e s " ! Hardy has a r r a n g e d h i s t e r c e t v e r s e as a com-b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e - s t r e s s and A l e x a n d r i n e , the l a t t e r some-t imes b r e a k i n g s h a r p l y on a consonant b e f o r e the c e s u r a l p a u s e . T h i s v e r s e d i v i s i o n i s u s e d c o n s i s t e n t l y to thro?/ the two f o r c e s i n t o sharp c o n t r a s t , as i n : " S t e e l chambers l a t e the p y r e s Of h e r sa lamandr ine f i r e s , C o l d c u r r e n t s t h r i d and t u r n to Rhythmic l y r e s . " Or i n t o i r o n i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n as i n : "Over the m i r r o r s meant ' To g l a s s the o p u l e n t The Sea-worm c r a w l s — g r o t e s q u e , s l i m e d , dumb, i n d i f f e r e n t " where the p r i m i t i v e and supreme s o p h i s t i c a t i o n m i n g l e . The whole t rea tment i s c o o l , de tached a lmost i n t e l l e c t u a l , but i t i s redeemed by the sense of r e l e n t l e s s f o r c e which pervades i t and by the t e r r i f i c p o t e n t i a l mean-i n g s o f such words a s " s a l a m a n d r i n e " , "moon-eyed f i s h e s " , " v a i n g l o r i o u s n e s s " , " t w i n - h a l v e s " . One f e e l s the power — one w a i t s . I t i s a case of the " g l i t t e r i n g e y e " . There i s but one more s tep and w i t h i t we l e a v e ground l e v e l s and ascend to the r e g i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g the e a r t h . What we have c o n s i d e r e d as a p h i l o s o p h y b l e n d i n g w i t h l i f e and w i t h p o e t r y , i s now g i v e n c o n c r e t e i f e t h e r e a l body, and we .are c o n f r o n t e d , n o t o n l y w i t h a w o r l d i n f l a t t e n e d and d i m i n i s h e d p e r s p e c t i v e but .by a whole g a l a x y o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , which speak ing now from the p r e s e n t , now from f a r eons o f t i m e , r e c o u n t and i n t e r p r e t a c t i o n as i t t a k e s p l a c e . Sometimes the comment comes i n chant or r-ec i ta t i v e , a t t imes , i t i s language o n l y , s t r a n g e l y e a r t h - f l a v o r e d , hut a lways the s p i r i t s b u i l d up the g h o s t l y framework i n wh ich embedded p h i l o s o p h y a p p e a r s i n i t s new g u i s e , the m e t a p h y s i c a l framework i n s i d e which the e a r t h - a c t i o n o f drama p l a y s , — the w o r l d a s t a g e . The b l e n d i n g o f t h i s s u p e r s t r u c t u r e w i t h the drama o f e a r t h l y s i g n i f i c a n c e i s s u p e r b l y h a n d l e d i n an ep i sode of H a p o l e o n ' s d i s a s t r o u s Moscow v e n t u r e . ( l ) There i s a s tage s e t t i n g i n p r o s e , "the p o i n t o f o b s e r v a t i o n opens and s h u t s " , the e a r t h i s "a con fused e x -panse m e r e l y " , s p i r i t s and shades a p p e a r , one c a l l e d a P i t y n o t i c e s : "An o b j e c t l i k e a d u n - p i l e d c a t e r p i l l a r , S h u f f l i n g I t s l e n g t h i n p a i n f u l heaves a l o n g , H i t h e r w a r d . " We had. n o t known i t , but t h e r e went the h e r o . The d r e a d f u l L i t h u a n i a n r o a d comes n e a r e r . The snow d r i f t s down, and s o u l s "enghosted" l e a v e t h e i r l i t t l e lumps upon the p l a i n . There i s t e r r i b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n tha t f l a k e o f snow which c o v e r s a p e o p l e . E n d l e s s t ime drags o n . I t i s a s t range and u n f a m i l i a r med ley , t h i s m i x t u r e of p rose and p o e t r y , a e r i a l chant and c o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h . I t admi ts no r r u l e s and no l i m i t s save and except the g e n i u s o f i t s mas te r , but i f the re i s a n y t h i n g more m a g n i f i c e n t i n E n g l i s h I have ye t to f i n d i t . Prom p o l e to p o l e — a supreme g e n i u s i n i t s p a s s i n g has touched the f l e e t i n g mood, the f a r ranges of t h o u g h t , the s u f f e r i n g s o f men and women, the w o r l d i n f a c t i n a l l i t s phases and w i t h one a s t o u n d i n g f e a t o f the i m a g i n a t i o n has gone o u t s i d e i t a l l to c r e a t e an i n t e r p r e t a t i v e i d e a l i n a " p o s s i b l e " m e t a p h y s i c . " A r t " w r i t e s Thomas Hardy , " i s a chang ing of the a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n s and o r d e r of t h i n g s so as to b r i n g out more f o r c i b l y than might o therw ise be done t h a t f e a t u r e i n them which a p p e a l s most s t r o n g l y t o the i d i o s y n c r a s y o f the a r t i s t . " Who d a r e s o b j e c t to the " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l " e x -p r e s s i o n o f an " i d i o s y n c r a s y " such as h i s ? (1) The D y n a s t s : P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 9, p . 354 TRUTH The b i t t e r o l d and w r i n k l e d t r u t h s t r i p p e d n a k e d . " James Thompson. The s o i l o f "Wessex" permeates the whole work of H a r d y . In the n o v e l s i t i s i n t e g r a l but there i s a d e c i d e d e a r t h y f l a v o r tn many l y r i c s , w h i l e the g r i t t y musk o f p lowed f i e l d s and the n a i v e s i m p l i c i t y o f c o u n t r y f a s h i o n s pervade a g r e a t body o f d ramat i c and n a r r a t i v e v e r s e . E a r t h and the l i f e c l o s e to i t , e l e m e n t a l p a s s i o n s and emot ions , s u g g e s t i o n s o f C h r i s t m a s f e s t i v i t y , o l d and homely s u p e r s t i -t i o n s , an o c c a s i o n a l scene i n a c o u n t r y t a v e r n , the c o n -t i n u o u s l i l t o f count ry songs and d a n c e s , these showing themse lves e i t h e r as t o p i c or image, b u i l d u p the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f r u s t i c i t y and l i f e a t i t s s i m p l e s t which Hardy g i v e s . The s tatement i n no wise c o n t r a d i c t s those c o n -c e r n i n g scope and v i s i o n which have been made p r e v i o u s l y . The v i e w i s cosmic but the a p p l i c a t i o n , u n i v e r s a l i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s narrowed i n i t s human bounds to men and women as t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d by the more e l e m e n t a l e m o t i o n s . Hardy b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t r i p p e d of i t s s o p h i s t i c a t e d t r a p p i n g s s e t t l e d down to i t s b a s i c s i g n i f i -cance as p a r t o f the u n e n d i n g c y c l e o f u n i v e r s a l b e i n g , and he b e l i e v e d f u r t h e r t h a t such s i g n i f i c a n c e had i t s work ing out and i t s most apparent a p p l i c a t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s . , of men and women as the i n s t r u m e n t s and e x p r e s s i o n of the l i f e u rge o f the u n i v e r s e . One phase o f l i f e i n t e r e s t e d him p a r t i c u l a r l y . To t h a t he a p p l i e d h i s g e n i u s . He f l i p p e d h i s c o i n , an o l d and r u s t e d one, which he found i n h i s y o u t h and which he c a r r i e d w i t h him to the g r a v e . The f i g u r e s which he found on e i t h e r s i d e were o f a man and woman b l i n d f o l d and a god w i t h a j a v e l i n . These he d e c i p h e r e d as Sex and Chance. A t a t o s s the work ing of e l e m e n t a l f o r c e s i n the l i v e s o f men and women were sure to f a l l r o u g h l y under the s p e l l o f one s ide or the o t h e r . Chance, or c o i n c i d e n c e o f e v e n t , the so f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d s t r u c -t u r a l weakness o f s e v e r a l n o v e l s , was a lways p r e s e n t i n l i f e , - - no t e l l i n g which way the c o i n would f a l l , — but i t was f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t a l s o as an augmentat ion o f the complex s i t u a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t i e s caused by the l i f e urge o f the u n i v e r s e . T h i s accounts f o r the c o n s t a n t appearance of l o v e as the theme o f bo th n o v e l s and poems. I t a c c o u n t s a l s o f o r the v a r i o u s phases i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n , the most p o w e r f u l s i n g l e f a c t o r i n man's e x i s t e n c e b e i n g h i s e m o t i o n a l r e s -ponse to t h i s f o r c e , w i t h w h i c h Joy and Sorrow walk hand i n hand and b e h i n d which i n the background i s the e t e r n a l Dance o f D e a t h . I t i s t h i s s t r i p p i n g of l i f e , t h i s exposure o f i t s s t a r k r e a l i t i e s tha t forms one of H a r a y r s themes ana one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the accompanying d r a m a t i c me1h od» The c o n v i c t i o n t h a t e s s e n t i a l l y men and women a r e a l i k e v i c t i m s of F a t e , r e g a r d l e s s o f sex, s t a t i o n , or n a t i o n a l i t y h a s made "Wessex" a stage s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l the w o r l d , has made "Wessex", scenes and atmosphere a background f o r the l i f e drama as Hardy c o n c e i v e s i t . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n of s u b j e c t i s d e l i b e r a t e . I f i t has r e s u l t e d i n a s l i g h t l e s s e n i n g o f power, as I b e l i e v e i t h a s , i t has a l s o i n t e n -s i f i e d c e r t a i n s i d e s of H a r d y ' s a r t , wh ich he meant to i n -t e n s i f y . He e x e r c i s e d h i s p r e r o g a t i v e ; he p l a c e d h i s s t r e s s e s where he wanted them. The embodiments of t h i s b i a s , or as Hardy might h i m s e l f s a y , the c o n c r e t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f these t r u t h s , s t a l k i n a l o n g p r o c e s s i o n through the d ramat i c and n a r r a t i v e v e r s e , w h i l e the more s t a r k l y drawn f i g u r e s make no p r e t e n s e a t a w o r l d o f r e a l i t y and take f r a n k r e f u g e i n the i r o n i c mood. There i s h a p p i n e s s and sor row, d i s i l l u s i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n , the f r a n k l y p h y s i c a l and the s p i r i t u a l i z e d i d e a l , . a l l s u b -j e c t e d to a'keen sense of d ramat i c v a l u e s . I f t h e r e i s a c t i o n i t i s r a p i d . Always there i s a sudden tense k n i t t i n g t o g e t h e r , one moment o f b r i g h t l i g h t , or an immediate c o n -t r a s t , or a s w i f t c l i m a x o f emot ion . The method i s tha t o f the t h e a t r e , from h i g h l i g h t t o h i g h l i g h t . The scenes s t a n d out as v i v i d i m -p r e s s i o n s f l a s h e d on a s c r e e n . o r i n the sharp cut l i n e s o f c e r t a i n e t c h i n g s , or the c h a r a c t e r s may be i n s i l h o u e t t e , two b l a c k f i g u r e s oppos ing each o t h e r . There i s a lways the s m a l l tense d r a m a t i c group i n w h i c h a i l i n t e r e s t s c e n t r e . F a i l i n g t h a t t h e r e may merelyi-beRegroup i t s e l f , a u n i t such as the M e l l s t o c k Qu i re or the company of the dead i n V o i c e s o f T h i n g s Growing i n a C h u r c h y a r d . Even t h e n t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n s p a r s e n e s s of t r e a t m e n t . There i s no s u p e r f l u o u s d e t a i l , n o t h i n g to s o f t e n or b l u r the o u t l i n e . E v e r y t h i n g which does not c o n c e r n the moment and the a c t i s r u t h l e s s l y l e f t o u t . One m i s s e s the accompanying t r a p p i n g s o f the u s u a l s c e n e , the c o l o r and warmth which a re the r e s u l t o f l e s s a u s t e r e t r e a t m e n t , but to Hardy these a re n o n - e s s e n t i a l ; the f i g u r e and i t s p red icament are e v e r y t h i n g . I t i s s imple to choose at random from any number o f poems Which have the "Wessex" f l a v o r i n one form or a n o t h e r . Some poems are c o m p l e t e l y made of i t but t h e r e a re more i n which i t ' appears i n a r u s t i c image or i l l u s i o n , which immed ia te ly f l a v o r s the moment. I t appears a lmost u n h e r a l d e d i n one o f the most d r a m a t i c a l l y moving passages i n The Dynasts ( l ) When C a p t a i n H a r d y , watch ing N e l s o n d i e , t h i n k s of h i s "Wessex" home* . (1) The D y n a s t s : P a r t I , A c t V, Scene 4, p . 97 "Thoughts a l l confused., my l o r d : - t h e i r needs on deck , Your own sad s t a t e , and your u n r i v a l l e d p a s t ; M ixed up w i t h f l a s h e s o f o l d t h i n g s a f a r — O l d c h i l d i s h t h i n g s a t home, down Wessex way In the s n u g v i l l a g e • under B l a c k d o n l l H i l l , Where I was h o r n , the - tumbl ing s t ream, the g a r d e n , M a r k i n g u n c o n s c i o u s l y t h i s b l o o d y h o u r , And the r e d a p p l e s on my f a t h e r ' s t r e e s , J u s t now f u l l r i p e . " T h i s i s a b r e a t h o f E n g l a n d , l i k e to A r n o l d ' s " s p r a y o f h o n e y s u c k l e f l o w e r s " , and the "May e v e n i n g " o f B a l d e r Bead . I t comes i n more e a r t h y form i n the o c c a s i o n a l speech o f s o l d i e r s and camp f o l l o w e r s i n W e l l i n g t o n ' s E n g l i s h army. The cho i ce o f theme i n The Bynas ts i s i n i t s e l f a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the E n g l i s h s p i r i t , s i n c e Hardy thought the E n g l i s h s i d e of the N a p o l e o n i c wars had never been g i v e n the p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n s and c o n s e q u e n t l y p roceeded to b l o c k them i n ; f o r the i n s p i r a t i o n and i n t e r e s t of the theme were f i r s t s t i r r e d by i t s "Wessex" e c h o e s . The common man, when he appears i n t h a t huge panorama and escapes the mesmerism o f i t s l a r g e r c u r r e n t s , i s a p t to be a "Wessex" peasant i n a l i t t l e l o c a l f l a r e o f p a t r i o t i s m or i f n o t , an average E n g l i s h m a n commenting on some s ide o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s s t r u g g l e . Weathers , the poem w i t h which t h i s s u r v e y opens, speaks f o r the same s p i r i t i n a p u r e l y l y r i c fo rm, w h i l e The Oxen ( l ) e x q u i s i t e i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y , w i s t f u l i n i t s e n d i n g , b r i n g s back an o l d l e g e n d on C h r i s t ' s n a t i v i t y long-remembered i n c o u n t r y p l a c e s , l o c a l i s e d f o r Hardy i n the " l o n e l y b a r t o n by yonder coomb," which he remembered from c h i l d h o o d . I n a r t i c u l a t e c o u n t r y n a t u r e s and the somewhat dumb accep tance of e v e n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e s them are i l -lumined i n a few dramat i c f l a s h e s i n such g l i m p s e s i n t o l i f e as appear i n The Announcement (2) w i t h i t s . t w o f i g u r e s and t h e i r s low s i l e n c e —• or i n The Slow Nature (3) w i t h i t s s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l c l i m a x , w h i l e i n Vagg Ho l low ( 4 ) , theme, s e t t i n g and language a l l u n i t e as the haunts v a n i s h a t a wagon's c r e a k i n g and the f e a r f u l c o u n t r y man t u r n s to h i s " f l a g o n " , w h i l e the s m a l l boy , untouched by s u p e r s t i t i o n , p l o d s a l o n g w i t h h i s h o r s e s . There i s , however, no more consummate i l l u s t r a -t i o n o f the c o u n t r y i n f l u e n c e i n i t s v a r i e d phases than the group o f poems c a l l e d A Set o f .Country Songs . Some are i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c , some are i n - d i a l e c t , o t h e r s a re songs , 1) Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 439 2) Moments- o f V i s i o n : p . 439 3) Wessex Poems: p . 6 l l (4) l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p . 614 ' but they s e t f o r t h one a f t e r another s imp le p i c t u r e s of c o u n t r y t y p e s and s i t u a t i o n s . In the more d r a m a t i c v e r s e s the language i s c o l l o q u i a l ; such d i a l e c t words as " l i s s o m " , " d r o n g s " , " l e a z i n g s " , " fancy-men" , "causey k e r b " , such s u g g e s t i o n s of rus t i e o c c u p a t i o n as occur i n "honey and a p p l e s " , " h u r d l e d " , "market-dames"; such d ramat i c t u r n s o f language as "the c i d e r made t o - y e a r w i l l be as w i n e " , w i t h i t s a r c h a i s m , or the u n g r a m m a t i c a l r e p r o a c h i n "Never once d i d you say you was p r o m i s e d , Rose Ann"; the p r o v e r b i a l t a n g i n "Make a spouse i n y our p o c k e t and l e t the men b e " ; and the downr ight a g r i c u l t u r a l s u g g e s t i o n s o f "down-home I was r a i s i n g a f l o c k o f s t o c k ewes" — a l l these d e v i c e s deepen the c o u n t r y a tmosphere . Sometimes an a n c i e n t custom s e t s the t o n e . Beds ide p r e p a r a t i o n o f mourning i s the back drop o f J u l i e ' s s tage from which she i s soon to e x i t , but even t h a t cannot dampen h e r v i t a l i t y . She i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a some-what f r a n k e r acceptance o f the f a c t s o f l i f e tha t sometimes c h a r a c t e r i z e s c o u n t r y g r o u p s . J u l i e - J a n e was. a wanton, wanton i n the pagan s e n s e , f o r pagan joy i n l i f e marks even h e r dea th day , a g a i n s t the sombreness o f which Hardy w i t h consummate a r t throws the p i c t u r e o f h e r v i v i d , p u l s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . " S i n g ; how T a would dance I Dance, ho?/ l a would dance 1 She would h o l d out h e r coa ts g i v e a s l a n t i n g g l a n c e , And go round and r o u n d , " A younger and l e s s c r a f t y w i f e o f B a t h , she who was l o s i n g l i f e e x u l t e d i n i t f o r i t s own sake . Hardy i n t h i s case t a k e s the t ime to p o i n t out the a r c h a i c custom around which he wrote h i s poem and the p r o v i n c i a l a r c h a i c use of " c o a t s " f o r p e t t i c o a t s . The freedom w i t h which d i a l e c t i s h a n d l e d i s a d m i r a b l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n The Home Coming, which w h i l e not s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g i n the Dorse t -tongue, i s y e t the v e r y essence" of r u s t i c i d i o m and u s a g e . I t s easy c o l l o q u i a l i s m r a c e s on from v e r s e to v e r s e , b u i l d i n g up the c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n and the a tmosphere . The rough k i n d n e s s of the husband, the t e r r i b l e n o s t a l g i a of the l i t t l e b r i d e , the sense of l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n g i v e n by the wind i n the r e f r a i n and the o l d farm house s e t t i n g a l l b l e n d i n p e r f e c t u n i t y . The r e f r a i n -is i n t e r e s t i n g . The r a t h e r heavy word q u a l i t y of c o n v e n t i o n a l E n g l i s h , w i t h the added rhy thmic v a l u e s o f somewhat e v e n l y b a l a n c e d a l l i t e r a t i v e s y l l a b l e s , g i v e an even f l o w i n g p h r a s i n g to the v e r s e s o f t h e o l d seven s t r e s s m e t r e , which, i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the i n t i m a t e c o l l o -q u i a l l o r e o f the f a r m e r ' s words . These words have the same s t r e s s e s hut a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y , the l o n g vowels b e i n g ' a b s e n t , the words s h o r t and the movement s p e e d i n g up as . the more u n r e l a t e d consonants r a t t l e a l o n g . T h i s c o n t r a s t o f f s e t s • t h e monotony which might o therw ise r e s u l t from i d e n t i c a l rhymes and even m e t r e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to make even b road d i v i s i o n s i n the phase o f H a r d y ' s work under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , to t r e a t f o r : i n s t a n c e d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s w i t h o u t a l o o k a t the i r o n y which i s o f t e n w i t h them, or t o speak of n a r r a t i v e v e r s e as such s i n c e f r e q u e n t l y i t i s d ramat i c i n t o n e . . I f t h e r e i s i n H a r d y ' s p o e t r y one q u a l i t y which i n s i s t s above a l l o t h e r s on a b s o l u t e r e c o g n i t i o n i t i s i t s c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t . To d i s s e c t Hardy i s d i s a s t r o u s . He has not the p a r t i c u l a r g i f t o f apt phrase nor does he l o a d h i s l i n e s w i t h the " l a s t s ta tement" and the f i n a l word . He i s a, c r a f t s m a n and he weaves s l o w l y , depend ing upon the l a s t t h r e a d to complete h i s p a t t e r n , V i r g i n i a Wool f ( l ) , says o f h im "He s p r a n g up e f f o r t l e s s l y , u n c o n s c i o u s l y , l i k e a h e a t h e r r o o t under a s t o n e , not by impos ing h i s v iews or by i m p r e s s i n g h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , but by b e i n g s i m p l y and c o n s i s -t e n t l y h i m s e l f . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t he w r o t e , i t i s a q u a l i t y t h a t makes up f o r a thousand f a u l t s , had t h i s i n t e g r i t y e n g r a i n e d i n i t . " T h i s b i n d i n g q u a l i t y which i s the man's j u s t i f i c a t i o n to h i m s e l f , and h i s own sense o f t r u t h and w o r t h i n e s s are, a lways p r e s e n t i n h i s . work . They a r e , however, so i n t e g r a l a p a r t of h i s e x p r e s s i o n t h a t i t becomes a lmost i m p o s s i b l e to quote b r i e f l y i n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f them, s i n c e i n b r i e f q u o t a t i o n the t h i n g t h a t one seeks i s l o s t and the e x c e r p t " s t r e t c h e d l i k e a warp wi th out a woof" seems bare and a t t e n u a t e d . S ince the q u e s t i o n o f Dorse t speech has a r i s e n th rough The Home Coming, the f i r s t d ramat i c n a r r a t i v e which I s h a l l c o n s i d e r w i l l be the poem i n s p i r e d by an i n c i d e n t of the N a p o l e o n i c w a r s , V a l e n c i e n n e s ( 2 ) , one of the few poems wh ich f a l l s i n t o the d i a l e c t g r o u p . A l t h o u g h the Dorse t d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e i s here more apparent the language t r e a t -ment remains an i d e a l i s a t i o n a c h i e v e d by combining c o l l o q u i a l i d i o m and speech rhythms w i t h a c t u a l and suggested D o r s e t f o r m s . " C o r p e l " l i v e s i n a s i l e n t w o r l d , , but h i s memory s t i r s a t the one r o m a n t i c ep i sode i n h i s l i f e and h i s n a r r a -t i v e , — - r a c y , r a p i d , d i s c u r s i v e —• r e v e a l s not on ly the s imp le c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the man but a t y p i c a l Dorse t r e a c -t i o n to event and a n a i v e sense o f a c t u a l i t y i n s p i r i t u a l a f f a i r s v a g u e l y r e m i n i s c e n t of. the M i r a c l e p l a y s . '(1} H a l f o f Thomas H a r d y : New R e p u b l i c 5 7 : 7 0 - 7 1 , D 5 ' 2 8 . ( 2 ) "Wessex Poems:' p . 15 41 "Good l o r d , i f Wick s h o u l d bomb the w a l l s As we d i d V a l e n c i e e n J " The consonant s h i f t from l i k e to l i k e which i s t y p i c a l of the Dorse t d i a l e c t , occurs i n such s u b s t i t u t i o n s as d f o r th i n " n i n e t y - d r e e " , z f o r s , i n " z i l v e r " , t o g e t h e r w i t h the broadened vowel sounds of ''"wownded" and the d i a e r e s i s or s t r e t c h i n g o f vowels i n " V a l e n c i e e n " , " f l e e n " . There i s c o n s t a n t speech e l i s i o n o f s y l l a b l e s i n such a b b r e v i a t e d forms as "wi" and " 0 " , w h i l e c o n t r a c t i o n s l i k e " t h e r e n c e " from t h e r e whence are v e r y e v i d e n t . S u r v i v a l of the o l d Ang lo -Saxon a n , as i n "an huntunge" , remains as an a r c h a i c s u r v i v a l i n the Dorse t forms used by B a r n e s , " a -rumblen" and " a - t r i c k l e d " . The same forms appear i n H a r d y ' s " a - t o p p e r e n " and " a - t h a r t " ( l ) w h i l e the o l d form " t h i k " s e r v e s to show a d i a l e c t a l and immediate language i n f l u e n c e which Hardy was to d i s c a r d i n h i s l a t e r poems as he came to depend f o r h i s r u s t i c e f f e c t s (as i n The Home Coming) more upon rhy thm, atmosphere and t u r n of phrase t h a n upon Dorse t language- proper., . Ev idence o f t h i s n a t u r e i s suppor ted by The  B r i d e - H i g h t E i r e , where the d i a l e c t d e a l s i n n a r r a t i v e f a s h i o n w i t h a p u r e l y l o c a l s t o r y and " s k i r a m i t y - r i d e " r a t h e r than w i t h memories . Such s u b j e c t - m a t t e r as might be expected i n c r e a s e s the number o f Dorset words to such a n e x t e n t t h a t Hardy has appended a s h o r t g l o s s a r y g i v i n g t h e i r meaning. I t i s p u r e l y humorous v e r s e , r a t h e r l u d i c r o u s i n p a r t s and f o r t h a t r e a s o n o f l e s s g e n e r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than e i t h e r V a l e n c i e n n e s or The Home Coming, whioh s e r v e , I t h i n k , to show the d i r e c t i o n i n which H a r d y ' s i d e a l i z a t i o n of "Wessex" and i t s language, forms t e n d s . ( l ) F o o t n o t e From "The Athenaeum", Nov. 3 0 , 1 8 7 8 , D i a l e c t i n N o v e l s . "A somewhat vexed q u e s t i o n i s r e - o p e n e d i n y o u r c r i t i c i s m of my s t o r y , The R e t u r n of the N a t i v e ; namely, the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n i n w r i t i n g o f the speech of the p e a s a n t r y , when t h a t w r i t i n g i s i n t e n d e d to show m a i n l y the c h a r a c t e r of the s p e a k e r s , and o n l y to g i v e a g e n e r a l i d e a of t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s . "An a u t h o r may be s a i d to f a i r l y convey the s p i r i t o f i n -t e l l i g e n t p e a s a n t t a l k i f he r e t a i n s the i d i o m , compass, and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h he may not encumber the page w i t h o b s o l e t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , of the p u r e l y E n g l i s h words , and w i t h m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f t h o s e d e r i v e d from L a t i n and Greek . In•the p r i n t i n g o f s t a n d a r d speech , h a r d l y any p h o n e t i c p r i n -c i p l e - a t a l l i s o b s e r v e d ; and i f a w r i t e r a t t e m p t s t o e x h i b i t on paper the p r e c i s e a c c e n t s of a r u s t i c s p e a k e r , he d i s t u r b s the p roper b a l a n c e o f e lement ; thus d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o a p o i n t o f i n f e r i o r i n t e r e s t and d i v e r t i n g i t from the s p e a k e r ' s meaning, which i s by f a r the c h i e f c o n c e r n where the aim i s to d e p i c t men and t h e i r n a t u r e s r a t h e r than t h e i r d i a l e c t f o r m s . " Thomas - H a r d y . . The P e a s a n t ' s C o n f e s s i o n ( 1 ) a l o n g n a r r a t i v e , d ramat i c i n b o t h s p i r i t u a l and m a r t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s c a s t i n the monologue form* Through many s t a n z a s , a p l a i n t a l e , which s t r e t c h e s out i n monotone, s k e t c h e s the background a g a i n s t which the r e a l drama o f the p e a s a n t ' s remorse i s g r o w i n g . T h i s drama, u n e l a b o r a t e d , s t a r k w i t h the r e a l i t y o f the o l d b a l l a d s , i s shown i n a few b o l d s t r o k e s i n such s t a n z a s a s : . "I h i d h im deep In n o d d i n g r y e and oat H i s shroud g r e e n s t a l k s and loam; H i s requ iem the c o r n - b a l d e s ' husky note —-And then I h a s t e n e d home. . Oh M i c h a e l , J o h n , and H o l y Ones i n r e s t , E n t r e a t the l o r d f o r me I" In s p i t e o f the r u s t i c background and the p r e -sence o f "The K i n g ' s - O w n - C a v a l r y " , a d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s i n mood and measure i s found in. The Dance a t . the Phoen ix (2) , a n a r r a t i v e i n wh ich the t r a g i c and d ramat i c e lements l i e i n the p a s s i n g o f t ime and the y o u t h f u l s p i r i t s which sometimes c o n t i n u e i n o l d b o d i e s . J e n n i e and her husband are touched by a s l i g h t note o f p a t h o s ; but J e n n i e , out f o r h e r l a s t f l i n g , decked i n "two bows o f r e d " , i s a somewhat i n c o m p l e t e G r a n f e r C a n t l e , f o r , b e i n g f e m i n i n e , she l a c k s h i s s t a y i n g power . The t h r e e poems which I have been d i s c u s s i n g a l l e x h i b i t the r a t h e r s t r i k i n g r e g u l a r i t y o f metre which was t y p i c a l o f the e a r l i e r poems which f a l l v a g u e l y under the Barnes s p e l l . The f a c i l i t y and the s l i g h t l y s h a l l o w f e e l i n g which one senses i n p a r t s o f the e a r l i e r n a r r a t i v e e f f o r t s a re i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the l y r i c a l p o e t r y of the same d a t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t phase o f the l y r i c a l p o e t r y which d e a l s w i t h the cosmic u n i v e r s e . T h i s c o n t r a s t forms one b a s i s o f judgment i n any a t tempt a t a r r i v i n g a t what i s H a r d y ' s main e x p e r i e n c e as i t a f f e c t s s t y l e . . In the e a r l y sonnets Hardy i s , - for i n s t a n c e , com-p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n what Mr. George Bernard Shaw c a l l s " a s s e r t i o n " , the main Shav ian element o f s t y l e , which i s s i m p l y the i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e c l a m o r i n g f o r e x p r e s s i o n and p u s h i n g th rough to c o m p l e t i o n . The p o w e r f u l , a lmost t e r r i b l e urge which a c c o m p l i s h e s t h i s i n such l y r i c s as The l a c k i n g Sense (3) and N e u t r a l Tones i s , one f e e l s , absent i n some o f (1) WesseaL Poems: p. 26 (2) Wessex Poems: p . 38 (3) Wessex Poems: p. 23 h i s n a r r a t i v e w o r k . '.Then Hardy l a g s , t h e r e i s a r e a s o n and o n l y one t h a t i s a . s l a c k e n e d i n t e r e s t . N a r r a t i v e i s , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , s t o r y , and H a r d y ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s never as u n i f i e d Lxni-i n a r r a t i v e as i t i s i n drama. . l e s s o f the D ' U r b e r v l l l e s , The R e t u r n o f the N a t i v e , and F a r From the Madding Crowd," are p r o o f of the s t a t e m e n t . The n a r r a t i v e poem L e i p z i g and t h e . p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the same theme i n The Dynasts ( l ) a re added e v i d e n c e . '-Then i n a few l a t e r poems Hardy r e a c h e s h e i g h t s of n a r r a t i v e a r t i t w i l l he n o t i c e d t h a t the s i g -n i f i c a n c e of the poem i s not i n the event as s t o r y so much as i n i t s d ramat i c a p p l i c a t i o n to human l i f e . T h i s a p p l i e s to the two poems, b o t h i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c i n s u b j e c t , A Tramp Woman' s Tragedy (2) and P a n t h e r a Q ) . The f i r s t was t o Hardy h i s most s u c c e s s f u l poem ( 4 } . I t i s i n the Wessex s e t t i n g , the f o l k t r a d i t i o n , a b a l l a d or p l a i n t sung by a woman, w i t h a chang ing but r e i t e r a t e d r e f r a i n , a l l se t i n the minor key t o the themes of "murder" , " d e a t h " , "baby" , " g h o s t " . The group i s s m a l l , tense and d r a m a t i c . "My fancy-man and j e e r i n g J o h n , \ And Mother L e e , and I . " No o t h e r f i g u r e e n t e r s . Dramat ic t e n s i o n mounts u n t i l the t r a g e d y t a k e s p l a c e , but the theme remains, dark to the end , the o n l y p e r s o n a l i v e b e i n g t h e one who had been the t r a g i c m o t i v e , - - n o w wander ing alone;. "Yea as I s i t h e r e , c r u t c h e d , and c r i c k e d and b e n t , I t h i n k o f P a n t h e r a , " T h i s i s the d r a m a t i c i n t r o d u c t i o n to a g l o r i o u s s e t t i n g o f an o l d s e c o n d - c e n t u r y l e g e n d which i s so b e a u t i -f u l l y and s imp ly mould.ed i n t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n between two old. Romans r e t o l d by one of them, t h a t one cannot but r e g r e t t h a t such form and s u b j e c t were no t used a g a i n , t h a t Hardy d i d not choose to e x e r c i s e h i s g i f t o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n more f r e e l y . .One i s s o r r y too t h a t H a r d y ' s human i ty , I am speak-i n g o n l y o f the poems which d e a l w i t h sex , — so seldom escaped the bonds which h e l d i t , t h a t the c h a i n s as they dragged so o f t e n c l a n k e d . P a n t h e r a not on ly t r e a t s of i t s d i f f i c u l t h o l y s u b j e c t i n a d i g n i f i e d and b e a u t i f u l manner b u t , as i t b u i l d s up t h e c h a r a c t e r o f P a n t h e r a , i t b l o c k s i n a l s o the whole t r a d i t i o n a l background o f the l e g e n d . The b l a n k v e r s e o f P a n t h e r a ' s n a r r a t i v e f l a n k e d by the rhymed v e r s e s of the second Roman, s t r e n g t h e n s and u n i f i e s the whole c o n c e p t i o n I V P a r t I I I , A c t I I I , Scenes 1, 2, 3, 4 . p . 377 2) T i m e ' s Laughing S t o c k s : p . 182 (3) T i m e ' s Laugh ing S t o c k s : p . 262 (4) The L a t e r Y e a r s of Thomas Hardjr: p.93 as t ime sweeps a l o n g from st rophe to s t r o p h e . I t i s mag-n i f i c e n t « In the m o t l e y group of d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r s which Hardy mode ls , the woman i n A Wife and A n o t h e r (1) s tands i n r a t h e r r i g i d r e l i e f , Hardy u s i n g h e r f i g u r e as the e m o t i o n a l c e n t r e o f the f a m i l i a r t r i a n g u l a r complex, wh ich i n t h i s . i n s t a n c e works out t o an u n u s u a l i f d ramat i c c l i m a x . I t i s remarkab le t h a t i n a drama so a u s t e r e l y a r ranged ' t h e r e shou ld be f e e l i n g so i n t e n s e as t h i s — "Her heavy l i d s grew l a d e n w i t h d e s p a i r s , Her l i p s made s o u n d l e s s movements unawares" or t h a t words so u s u a l , so common s h o u l d bear the t r a g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of these — "We two s t o o d , He came, my husband, - -As She knew he wou ld . "—• * or t h a t the whole e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f a woman's l i f e s h o u l d wrap i t s e l f i n a s i n g l e moment o f v i s i o n and be "As i f ray. s o u l had l a r g e ned , c onsc ience - capped" Whi ch makes the f i n a l no te o f r e n u n c i a t i o n upon which "the scene s h u t s " d r a m a t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . "One d y i n g o f a p u r p l e f e a v e r " ( 2 } - r a r e j u s t i c e t h a t - - speaks i n a monologue a n d , a s he does s o , gay and abandoned, the chorus t r o t s i n - - i t i s the e x p o s a l scene i n The B e g g a r ' s Opera; i t i s the C a p t a i n and h i s ma ids , f o r the mood and scene are i d e n t i c a l i n s p i t e o f a sad d e c l i n e i n the s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the a c t o r s . The Chape l O r g a n i s t ( j ) i s a monologue o f an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s o r t , w i d e r " i n d i m e n s i o n , the t r a g e d y o f wh i ch comes about through the meet ing o f two s t r o n g f o r c e s i n a woman's l i f e , the s p i r i t u a l and the p h y s i c a l , the com-p l i c a t i o n b e i n g an i n t o l e r a n t and narrow s o c i a l env i ronment . Such a theme, i s t y p i c a l o f Hardy who says a g a i n and a g a i n , "These t h i n g s have a lways b e e n . " I t i s the s t u f f o f a n o v e l , and c h a r a c t e r s and background might have been r e n d e r e d more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h a t l o n g e r and more expans ive form which Hardy d i d not use a f t e r 1896. T h i s poem, p u b l i s h e d i n l a t e L y r i c s and E a r l i e r i n 1922 i s the s i n g l e r e t u r n to the theme o f Jude the Obscure . (1) T i m e ' s Laugh ing S t o c k s : p . 246 (2) One Ra lph B lossom S o l i l o q u i z e s : T i m e ' s Laugh ing S t o c k s : p . 271 (3) La te L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p . 598 The o r g a n i s t i s but a f e m i n i n e p o r t r a y a l of the same c l a s h i n temperament and the same adverse f a t e t h a t Hardy put f o r t h i n Jude . Perhaps she. had more freedom of c h o i c e . The Chape l organ was h e r C h r i s t m i n s t e r , the deacons t y p i f i e d s o c i a l f o r c e s . H e r t ragedy lay,- l i k e J u d e f s , i n the s t i f l i n g o f a l l f i n e r i m p u l s e s by m a l i g n a n t peop le and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The poem's u n i t y l i e s i n the dominance o f a s i n g l e p e r s o n a l i t y and i n the m u s i c a l background to which one m u s t . c o n s t a n t l y a t t u n e the r e v e r i e as the organ p e a l s echo back and f o r t h and as the memory of her s t r u g g l e s p a s s e s through h e r m i n d . I t i s s l i g h t l y l i k e K n i g h t and the v i s i o n o f ages as he c l u n g to the c l i f f and " T i m e . c l o s e d up l i k e a f a n " b e f o r e h i s m i n d . I t i s i r o n i c i n t h a t i n t o l e r a n c e s t a l k s where k i n d n e s s s h o u l d be f o u n d . I t i s the panorama which Hardy l o v e d . I t i s a l s o the l a s t word i n the modern and p s y c h o l o g i -c a l i n t h a t the whole d ramat i c sequence i s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the mind and c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f one p e r s o n , even to the a c t u a l t r a g i c moment, the f i n a l c o l l a p s e v i s u a l i z e d as the p o i s o n i s t a k e n . There a re s h o r t e r , more f l e e t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s , wh ich one may c i t e as f u r t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t H a r d y i s y sense o f drama. One ( 1 ) , s c a r c e l y more than a s i l h o u e t t e , shows a woman and a s e x t o n as she chooses her husband ' s grave and p l a c e s him b e s i d e , — the o ther woman. T h i s w i t h d r a w a l even i n d e a t h , from an u n f a i t h f u l husband i s a p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e m i n i n e r e a c t i o n . H a r d y ' s i n t u i t i o n i s s u b t l e . The man i s dead, she d i s c a r d s h i m , she i s f r e e . The we l l -known In t h e . S e r v a n t S i Q u a r t e r s (2) i s a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , s e t i n homely s u r r o u n d i n g s and l i m i t e d by the s a c r e d l e g e n d o f which the theme' of P e t e r ' s d e n i a l i s p a r t . I t i s r e a l l y a one-ac t p l a y a n d , g i v e n f i v e a c t o r s , c o u l d be p roduced by b r a c k e t i n g t h r e e l i n e s i n the f i r s t s t a n z a and the f i n a l two as s tage d i r e c t i o n , w i t h o u t a change i n a s i n g l e word . P o e t i c d r a m a t i z a t i o n such as t h i s l e a d s , however, t o o n l y two a c t u a l p l a y s , bo th one-ac t and u n i f i e d i n t ime and p l a c e , One, i n i t s compressed s i n g l e scene s c a r c e l y l o n g e r than " I n the S e r v a n t s ' Q u a r t e r s i s a Greek p l a y i n H e n d e c a s y l l a b i c s , c a l l e d Ar i s todemus the Messen ian (3)« I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l i n s u b j e c t but the o l d and c l a s s i c theme of a d a u g h t e r ' s s a c r i f i c e was c o m p l i c a t e d i n H a r d y ' s p l a y by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l o v e r and h i s attempt t o save the g i r l . E n v e l o p i n g F a t e , however, a l l o w s no escape and the p r o o f o f c h a s t i t y which an o u t r a g e d f a t h e r demands i s i n i t s e l f the s a c r i f i c e of the o r i g i n a l D e l p h i c demand. (l) Her Late Husband: Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 150 (2J S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p. 359 (3) Winter Words: p . 30 - 40 Whether because of the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h which E n g l i s h a lways accomodates i t s e l f t o the c l a s s i c a l mould or because o f a d e l i b e r a t e roughness which Hardy had to impose because o f the h a r s h n e s s o f h i s theme, the i n v e r s i o n , "Weigh can g r e a t e r w i t h Zeus than she my o f f s p r i n g ? " i s awkward and f o r c e d w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g v e r s e " S h a l l these S p a r t i a t s sway t o . s a v e me reavement?" seems, w i t h I t s h e a d l e s s b e -reavement and i t s s t o i c mang l ing o f the term S p a r t a n , more H a r d i a n than Greek . There, i s a l s o more t h a n a s u g g e s t i o n of cumbrous c e l e s t i a l mach inery i n p h r a s e s l i k e "Thus and now i t adumbrates" , and "Dungeoned i n an e t e r n a l n e s c i e n t n e s s " , wh i ch c l a s h e s w i t h the t r a g i c f a c t -— H o r r o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E e ' s r i p p e d h e r up — yea With h i s sword I He h a t h s p l i t h e r beauteous ' body To prove h e r maid I" The u n i t i e s which Hardy observes i n h i s t reatment o f the o l d T r i s t r a m and I s e u l t l e g e n d p l a c e s the a c t i o n e n -t i r e l y i n C o r n w a l l and so l i m i t s t ime t h a t the whole a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a re t w e n t y - f o u r s h o r t s c e n e s , c o v e r s perhaps a n hour o r even l e s s . T h i s s h i f t i n g scene i s l i t t l e more than r e -g r o u p i n g but i t g i v e s the e f f e c t of t a b l e a u x r a t h e r than of drama, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the c o n s t a n t change b r i n g s the r a p i d appearance o f the two I s e u l t g , T r i s t r a m , Andred and K i n g Mark i n a sequence which a l l o w s f o r l i t t l e development of c o n -t r a s t or o f e m o t i o n . Hardy t a k e s many l i b e r t i e s w i t h the romance; by i n t e n s i f y i n g the C o r n w a l l s e t t i n g , by i n t r o d u c i n g the A r t h u r i a n b r a c h e t found i n C o r n w a l l i n I83I, as a s l i g h t element i n the p l o t and by p l a c i n g e v e r y t h i n g o u t s i d e the moment, as r e t r o s p e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e i n the mouths o f a s o r t o f c h o r u s , composed of Dead C o r n i s h men and women. He a l s o tones the language o f b l a n k v e r s e and p o e t r y to what seems an a lmost p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . I s e u l t T s words — "One b l e e d s no more on e a r t h f o r a f u l l - f l e d g e d s i n - -Than f o r a c a l l o w , " f a l l on the ear w i t h a r e s o n a n t h o u s e - w i f e i d i o m more c o n -s i s t e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the w i f e of Bath than of romant i c l o v e - w r a c k e d , t o r n , I s e u l t . The c o n t r a c t i o n n e c e s s a r y to u n i f y the l o n g l e g e n d i n a one-ac t form has p r o b a b l y had something to do w i t h t h i s l e s s e n i n g o f romant i c f e e l i n g . I t has a l s o r e s u l t e d I n an e n t i r e change o f t r a d i t i o n i n t h a t the p l o t sequence i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n i t s compressed f o r m . K i n g Mark k i l l s T r i s t r a m ; I s e u l t s tabs K i n g Mark and t h e n , as I s e u l t o f the .White Hands a p p e a r s , throws h e r s e l f over the c l i f f . There • a re p a s s a g e s i n the 'Famous Tragedy of the Queen of C o r n w a l l vrhich s t r i k e the o l d romant i c c h o r d s ; T r i s t r a m ' s song i n scene}9 i s one, bu t i n immediate d i s c o r d ccraes "the v o i c e o f K i n g Mark ( i n l i q u o r ) " and T r i s t r a m ' s h a r s h d i s m i s s a l o f I s e u l t o f the White Hands. One cannot deny t h a t the theme i s t o o g r e a t f o r the form which h o l d s i t , t h a t the one-ac t com-p a s s d i s a l l o w s the s low b u i l d i n g up o f the med iaeva l a t -mosphere, the r o m a n t i c d i s t a n c e or the p o e t i c a l beauty which a l o n g t r a d i t i o n demands. Her Death and A f t e r ( l ) and The Tree (2) a r e two o f the l o n g e r poems tha t s h o u l d a t l e a s t be ment ioned b e -cause o f the d a r k and grimmer t r a g e d y that, they s u s t a i n , wh i ch i s the l a s t phase o f t r a g i c g e n i u s as i t s h i f t s t o i r o n y . The f i r s t does not need a n a l y s i s s ince i n s p i r i t i t i s somewhat a k i n t o A W i f e and A n o t h e r a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , but to the r e n u n c i a t o r y note a s i n i s t e r e lement i s now added when the r e v e n g e f u l and u n f o r g i v i n g husband c a s t s out the c h i l d . I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i r o n y e n t e r s , f o r the c h i l d i s h i s . In the poem The Tree the d a r k n e s s deepens . The t r e e f u r n i s h e s a s e t t i n g , the t r y s t i n g p l a c e , and the h o l e i n i t s branch h i d e s a n o t e . Chance, b r i n g s about a new t r a g e d y by d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s note which p e r t a i n s to an o l d one . As i n Her Death and A f t e r the t r a g e d y i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e , b rought back by the u p r o o t i n g o f the o ld oak. When the drama o f memories i s p l a y e d out to i t s deadest and d a r k e s t , and when•the i r o n i c l a s t words have sounded — " T T w a s s a i d f o r l o v e o f me", — the p r o p e r t i e s too must be t a k e n down: " C a r t o f f the t r e e . " The s tage i s c l e a r , the house i s dark but g h o s t l y w h i s p e r i n g s and m u f f l e d movements d r i f t to the empty p i t . • The Company o f the Dead, The F r i e n d s Beyond (3) and The Dead Qu i re ( 4 ) , the Sou ls o f the S l a i n (5) and the C h r i s t m a s ghost {b) a re r e h e a r s i n g t h e i r a c t , " a l l n i g h t e e r i l y . " (7) ' In such d ramat i c i r o n y as i s found i n F r i e n d s  Beyond and V o i c e s From Th ings Crowing i n a C h u r c h y a r d , the mood i s a mocking one . Time the l e v e l l e r i s t r iumphant and the s t r e s s f u l l i f e above ground i s made l u d i c r o u s by the l o n g 1) Wessex Poems: p . 33 2) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 149 (3) Wessex Poems: p . 53 (4) T i m e ' s l a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p . 240 ( 5 / Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 84 ( 6 ; A Chr i s tmas Ghost S t o r y : Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : P* 82 (7) V o i c e s from T h i n g s Growing i n a C h u r c h y a r d : l a t e l y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p . 590 48 i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e dead and the f i n a l m o u l d e r i n g o f even t h e house o f a m b i t i o n . I t i s l a u g h t e r , ' but i t i s not u n k i n d . The S o u l s o f the S l a i n s t r i k e s a deeper n o t e , the g h o s t s b e i n g vague and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , the i r o n y v e r g i n g on p a t h o s as the m i l i t a r y g l o r y , w h i c h had t a k e n l i f e f a d e s , l e a v i n g o n l y one s u r v i v a l , the memories of t h o s e who e a r e d . There i s a vague m e t a p h y s i c a l s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e movements of t h i s g r e a t company o f s o u l s ; t h e r e are a t t i m e s s u g g e s t i o n s o f an a l m o s t u n e a r t h l y b e a u t y o f e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h c u l m i n a t e s , i n the f i n a l d i v i s i o n o f s o u l s i n t o t h o s e f o r g o t t e n or remembered. "And t o w e r i n g t o seaward i n l e g i o n s They paused a t a spot O v e r b e n d i n g the Race — That e n g u i p h i n g , g h a s t , s i n i s t e r p l a c e — V/ i i i t h e r h e a d l o n g t h e y p l u n g e d To the f a t h o m l e s s r e g i o n s Of m y r i a d s f o r g o t . And the s p i r i t s o f those who were homing P a s s e d on,' r u s h i n g by, l i k e the P e n t e c o s t w i n d ; And the w h i r r o f t h e i r w a y f a r i n g t h i n n e d And s u r c e a s e d on the s k y , and b u t l e f t i n the g l o a m i n g S e a - m u t t e r i n g s and me." The sudden p i n n i n g down of a vague and i m a g i n a t i v e s u b j e c t by the t e r r i b l e r e a l i t y o f the s w a l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e s w i t h w h i c h the unremembered v a n i s h and the a t t e n u a t e d s u b s i -dence g i v e n by " t h i n n e d and s u r c e a s e d " i s m a g n i f i c e n t c o n t r o l of l a nguage. • The C h r i s t m a s g h o s t i s o n l y "the m o u l d e r i n g s o l d i e r " who a p p e a r e d t o Hardy one C h r i s t m a s S v e ( i ) , a q u e s t i o n on h i s l i p s -- the " I w o u l d know" w h i c h t r i e s t o r e c o n c i l e the c o n t i n -uance o f wars w i t h the term o f Christ»s r u l e upon e a r t h . The q u e s t i o n was n o t answered as the i r o n i c fragment C h r i s t m a s : 1924 a t t e s t s . (2) "'Peace upon e a r t h I' was s a i d , we s i n g i t , And pay a m i l l i o n p r i e s t s t o b r i n g i t . A f t e r two thousand y e a r s of mass •We've g o t as f a r as p o i s o n - g a s . " I n some forms governed b y the i r o n i c mood Hardy f r a n k l y and o p e n l y l a u g h s n o t a t l i f e as i t ends i n d e a t h , but a t l i f e as i t i s w h i l e i t l a s t s . I t i s i n these t h a t the mood i s most c o n t a g i o u s , as e v e r y t h i n g o f deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e f a d e s and the. s u r f a c e of human l i f e and c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t s i t s w r i n k l e d f a c e . Who can escape the humour i n the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f The Ruined L l a i d ( 5 ) ? Who f a i l s t o (1) A C h r i s t m a s Ghost S t o r y : Poems of the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 132 (2) W i n t e r Words: p. 171 (3) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 145 4? v i s u a l i s e the p r e c e d i n g f o r t y y e a r s which c u l m i n a t e i n The C u r a t e ' s K i n d n e s s ? (1) " I thought t h e y ' d he s t r a n g e r s a r o u n ' me But she's t o he t h e r e I l e t me jump out o' waggon and go hack and drown me A t Pummery or Ten-Hatches w e i r . " . I t I s p e r f e c t i o n o f a s o r t , and, as Hardy so o f t e n p r o t e s t s , must be t a k e n f o r what i t i s , a p u r e l y humorous p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n phases o f l i f e . What might be termed, a s a t i r i c r e v i e w of my c e n t u r y ' s p r o g r e s s , i s summed up i n The R e s p e c t a b l e Burgher ( 2 ) w i t h i t s amusing s u r v e y of the f i e l d o v e r w h i c h d i s s e n s i o n waged so h o t . The s t r e a m of l u d i c r o u s a l l u s i o n and c o n t r a s t i s c o n t i n u o u s , and p o i n t e d d i s t i n c t l y by such double rhymes as " g i a n t - s l a y e r " , "G-od-obeyer" , " b a n j o - p i a y e r " , and the a c c e n t o f a l l i t e r a t i o n , and i n one i n s t a n c e deepened by the s t r i d e n t s u g g e s t i o n of an a c t u a l b l a r e . "And Balaam's a s s ' s b i t t e r b l a r e ; Nebuchadnezzar's f u r n a c e - f l a r e , And D a n i e l and the den a f f a i r And o t h e r s t o r i e s r i c h and r a r e , Were w r i t t o make o l d d o c t r i n e wear Something o f a r o m a n t i c a i r . " The c o n s t a n t r e i t e r a t i o n o f the s i n g l e rhyme so monotonous i n the e x c e r p t t e n d s t o s i n k i n t o the g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f the w h o l e, as a h e i g h t e n i n g o f a b s u r d i t y . Hardy has l e f t a few odd n o t e s w h i c h throw some l i g h t on h i s own c o n v i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g humour. I n one o f t h e s e he s a y s , "A man w o u l d n e v e r l a u g h were he n o t t o f o r g e t h i s s i t u a t i o n s ; o r were he n o t one who n e v e r had l e a r n t i t a f t e r r i s i b i l i t y from comedy, how o f t e n does the t h o u g h t f u l mind r e p r o a c h i t s e l f f o r f o r g e t t i n g the t r u t h ? L a u g h t e r . a l w a y s means b l i n d n e s s , — e i t h e r from d e f e c t , c h o i c e o r a c c i d e n t . " (3) I n the case of Thomas Hardy i t was c e r t a i n l y n e i t h e r from d e f e c t or a c c i d e n t ; i t was, d e l i b e r a t e , a s h u t t i n g o f t h e eyes p e r h a p s from t h i n g s t o o p a i n f u l > a b r e a k i n t h e t r a g i c t e n s e n e s s o f a s i t u a t i o n or the sudden p e r c e p t i o n from l o n g o b s e r v a t i o n o f the l u d i c r o u s nose on the f a c e o f m a l e v o l e n t chance. Human m i s e r y i n a l l i t s forms was p a i n f u l t o h i m , b u t he saw t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d i v i d i n g 1) Time's L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p. 194 2) Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 146 3) E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy: p. 148 l i n e between the a l l i a n c e of t r a g e d y , w i t h i t s g r e a t moments of i n t e n s e emot ion , i t s c a t h a r s i s on the one hand , and the more permanent u n i o n o f man w i t h the a c h i n g d u l l p a i n o f c o n t i n u o u s m i s e r y on the o t h e r . I t was from the l a t t e r t h a t he t u r n e d when he s a i d "A man's g r i e f has a touch o f t h e l u d i c r o u s u n l e s s i t i s so keen as t o be a w f u l . " (1) I t was from t h i s t h a t he sought r e l i e f i n the i r o n i c c h u c k l e s o f the g a r g o y l e mood. I r o n y has been c a l l e d an e x c r e s c e n c e , so has the g a r g o y l e . Wi th Hardy i r o n y i s s c a r c e l y t h a t . I t i s a sudden change o f f e e l i n g abrupt and gnomic . I t i s the o u t s t u c k tongue of the beaten u r c h i n , but i t i s s t i l l p a r t of the anatomy. I t i s no t l o o s e — and /just as the g a r g o y l e pushes out i n G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e f rom amid e x p r e s s i o n s p u r e l y b e a u t i f u l , y e t i s w i t h a l c a r v e d from the s e l f - s a m e s t o n e , so H a r d y ' s g a r g o y l e has i t s b e i n g b e s i d e e x q u i s i t e l y r i c t r a c e r y and t o w e r i n g w a l l s of d y n a s t i c s c o p e . = I f one happens to t h i n k o f Hardy , R u s k i n and a r c h i t e c t u r e l o n g enough, the s o l u t i o n of a minor problem becomes c l e a r . I t i s the q u e s t i o n o f what to do w i t h t h a t s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f poems, wh ich do not m a t t e r , b e i n g few, to those who l o o k f o r a n y t h i n g but f l a w s , but which com-p l e t e l y darken the w o r l d o f those c r i t i c s who, l i k e the t h r e e o l d women o f Tanglewood T a l e s , hawing but one eye among them, wander i n g r o p i n g darkness as the eye changes h a n d s . The s o l u t i o n i s s i m p l e . Make o f i t a n "Ug ly P i l l a r " ( 2 ) , whIch, h a v i n g the u s u a l d i m e n s i o n s , wi11 not be n o t i c e d i n the l o n g a r c a d e . T h e ' f l a w s i n H a r d y ' s work i n g e n e r a l b e i n g more t h a n o f f s e t by .the power and range of h i s g e n i u s , t h i s p a r t i c u l a r moment i s concerned o n l y w i t h .those poems which r e a l l y a re u g l y e i t h e r from an e x c e s s of i r o n y too h a r s h l y s t a t e d , the too u t i l i t a r i a n and p r o s a i c use of words or a theme which i s so u n e l a b o r a t e d t h a t i t has the d u l l and s i n g l e tone o f d ry bones r a t t l i n g . The Dame o f A t h e l h a l l (3) and The Statue o f  L i b e r t y ( 4 ) , f a l l i n t o the l a t t e r c l a s s . B o t h , h a v i n g themes w i t h g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , f a i l to b r i n g the d r a m a t i c q u a l i t i e s out because they n e g l e c t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The p l o t i s u n -s u p p o r t e d and i n s p i t e o f i t s r a p i d movement has the e f f e c t o f mere o u t l i n e . The poems s u f f e r i n t h i s r e s p e c t a s does the n o v e l , Two on a Tower, wh ich reads . l i k e a work ing o u t l i n e or scheme. A s t o r y of d ramat i c import must o f n e c e s s i t y (1) E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas Hardy : p . 73 (2) In Arcade South s i d e o f the C a t h e d r a l of P e r r a r a : see The Seven Lamps o f A r c h i t e c t u r e : John R u s k i n : Chap. V (3) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 141 (4) Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 424 51 have some m o t i v a t i o n i n the c h a r a c t e r s which s u s t a i n i t i f i t i s t o he a r t i s t i c a l l y t r u e . In these poems the m o t i v a t i o n i s p r e s e n t hut i t i s undeve loped and so l a c k i n g i n any s o f t e n -i n g background t h a t the i r o n i c c o n t r a s t s wh i ch deve lop seem u n b e a r a b l e . I f deve loped more f u l l y the c h a r a c t e r s would i n themse lves become the oppos ing f o r c e s which make g r e a t t ragedy and the j u s t i c e and r e l i e f which we demand would be s a t i s -f i e d . The Dame o f A t h e l h a l l , s l i g h t as the ske t ch i s , has l a t e n t d r a m a t i c v a l u e as the p r e p o n d e r a n t l y s e n t i m e n t a l f emin ine t y p e ; her husband i s the d ramat i c o p p o s i t e , but these c o n t r a s t s a re n e g l e c t e d and the l o v e r a l s o , — tha t w r a i t h - l i k e i n d i v i d u a l a p p e a r i n g i n the g e n e r a l i z e d mas-c u l i n e f o r m u l a - - "lie was w r o t h . " One f e e l s o f course tha t the S ta tue of L i b e r t y s h o u l d not be washed. The s u g g e s t i o n of p r o s a i c everyday s t r e e t c l e a n i n g as a p p l i e d to t h a t symbol o f human d e l u s i o n i s i n i t s e l f s c a r c e l y a p o e t i c s u b j e c t . The statement r e s t s , -I know, on a f a l s e f o u n d a t i o n s i n c e we have a g r e e d w i t h Hardy t h a t the s u b j e c t does not make the poem. What I• w i s h to p o i n t out i s tha t the chang ing o f a s t a t u e t h a t i s a d i r t y and gr imy but n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t of a s p i r a -t i o n s and h o p e s , t o a form s p o t l e s s l y pure and wh i te ye t f o r the purposes o f the poem, s i g n i f i c a n t o f the deepest d e g r a d a -t i o n , i s no t a p o e t i c p r o c e s s . The i r o n i c c o n t r a s t between f a t h e r l y d e l u s i o n and r e a l i t y i s too s t a r k l y u n r e s o l v e d . . I t -i s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i d e a l i z a t i o n , the demand upon human, c r e d u l i t y i s t oo t e r r i b l e . What i s , i s too t r iumphant ; w h a t ' o n l y seems - - i s l o s t . The f i n a l s t a n z a makes t h i s c l e a r . I t i s a b l e a k s ta tement o f f a c t w i t h o u t p o t e n t i a l mean ing . The s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n words c l o t h e no p o e t i c image, make no s u g g e s t i o n . "Answer I gave n o t , o f t h a t form The c a r v e r was I a t h i s s i d e ; H i s c h i l d , my mode l , h e l d so s a i n t l y Grand i n f e a t u r e Gross i n n a t u r e , In the dens o f v i c e had d i e d . " Two s h o r t e r poems o f the t a b l e a u type show t h e i r s u b j e c t s a t a s i n g l e t r a g i c moment as the blow f a l l s . Owing t o t h e i r t ime u n i t y and p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s they a re more b e a r a b l e than the l o n g e r ones but i n both the shock i s too sudden, i r o n i c f a t e a t a h a r s h l y c r u e l moment l e e r s too t r i u m p h a n t l y . A Wife i n London ( l ) has no r e l i e f w h a t e v e r . The newcomer*s Wi fe ( 2 ) i s o f the same t y p e , two r e a l i s t i c and t e r r i b l e , moments which beat upon the mind i n the same way (1) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t ; p . 83 (2) S a t i r e s o f C i r c u m s t a n c e : p. 34-4-t h a t the u n b e a r a b l e d e c l i n e of a man's memories and a woman r s c h a r a c t e r a re hammered home by My C i c e l y . (1) Sometimes the f a u l t i s found i n a s i n g l e v e r s e such as the r e f r a i n o f The F i v e S tudents ( 2 ) , which might f a r b e t t e r b e , "One l i t t l e , two l i t t l e " , a n y t h i n g r h y t h m i c a l , r a t h e r t h a n the o d d l y enumerated pronouns "he" , " s h e " , " I " , which r e a l l y r u i n an o t h e r w i s e b e a u t i f u l poem. How d i f f e r e n t " s e a - m u t t e r i n g s and me I" -Another type o f poem i n wh ich I c o n s i d e r Hardy f a i l e d to u n i f y h i s form and m a t e r i a l i s the s a t i r e on k i n g l y g l o r y , c a l l e d The C o r o n a t i o n , which — somewhat r e -deemed by i t s f i n a l v e r s e y "Clamour dogs k i n g s h i p ; a f t e r w a r d s not s o l " s t i l l f a l l s s h o r t of r e a l s a t i r i c power. I t i s t oo s u p e r f i c i a l and t r a n s i e n t ; each c h a r a c t e r appears f o r too s h o r t a t ime w i t h h i s one w e l l - w o r n t a g . What might i n the hands o f S w i f t , who l o v e d to be c r u e l , have been a t e r r i f i c and damning c o n c e p t i o n o f the human q u a l i t i e s o f k i n g s , here degenera tes I n t o d o g g e r e l and b u r l e s q u e . > The f a u l t i s no t i n the m a t e r i a l ; i t i s i n i t s u s e ; the u n y i e l d i n g substance conquers and no d e s i g n i n any way s u g g e s t i v e o f beauty appears upon i t s s u r f a c e . I t rema ins to the e n d , the c o l d g r e y s t o n e , l a c k i n g the warmth o f i t s c a r v e r ' s f e e l i n g , l i k e R u s k i n ' s p i l l a r i t p u z z l e s and o f f e n d s . F o r t u n a t e l y i t i s not the o n l y a r t i n F e r r a r a . Words, the media o f p o e t r y , are l e s s p l a s t i c t h a n some o ther means o f a r t . They are p a r t o f the g r e a t t r a d i t i o n wh ich each g e n e r a t i o n i n h e r i t s f rom the l a s t . T h e i r meanings,, s p e l l i n g and p r o n u n c i a t i o n change. There i s , i n f a c t , a c o n s t a n t f l u x i n language but i n s p i t e . o f t h a t f a c t , any p o e t a t any t i m e , r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s medium, f i n d s t h a t words have an exact s i g n i f i c a n c e wh ich i s " k i n e t i c " a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e ; w i t h t h i s e x a c t and u t i l i t a r i a n phase o f language, he cannot, tamper . I t i s o n l y by a s s o c i a t i o n , by c o n t e x t , a l l u s i o n and image t h a t he can r a i s e about a word the exac t a u r a which he w i s h e s . In d o i n g t h i s , which i s but g i v i n g them . t h e i r deepes t " p o t e n t i a l " s i g n i f i c a n c e as suggested by h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , he encounte rs the atmosphere which a l r e a d y adheres to the word from i t s t r a d i t i o n a l p o e t i c u s e . U n l e s s h i s p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s y p rove s t r o n g e r than the p o e t i c a l aura he must g i v e up the p a r t i c u l a r word i n q u e s t i o n . In t h i s way words as mere sound a re more l i m i t e d than the t o n e s o f m u s i c . Mus ic i s pure sound and i n i t s r e g a r d a s s o c i a t i o n comes on ly through f a m i l i a r sound combi -n a t i o n s . I t does not p e r t a i n to the s i n g l e note of the s c a l e . 1) wessex Poems: p . 45 2) Moments o f V i s i o n : p . 465 Granted, the t o n a l harmonies to which the ear i s accustomed, the i n t e r v a l s and so on , the s i n g l e note i s l e f t f r e e f o r a r t i s t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n . In the Sonata i n F, QP^ S 31 Beethoven r e p r e s e n t s 'the i n v o c a t i o n , "Oh my God" ( 1 ) , or a mood w h i c h . r e p r e s e n t s t h a t i n v o c a t i o n by the m u s i c a l •phrase A . • 'U1 ± B § ^ H P . He has, o f t e n u s e d the t r i p l e t - f i g u r e B. to r e p r e s e n t Fa te k n o c k i n g - o n the d o o r . I n the t r i p l e t , the t i m i n g a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e s an onomatopoeic l i k e n e s s , which i s the a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . o f tempo and r e i t e r a t e d t o n e . The a c t u a l note n e e i - n o t .have t h a t ; e x p r e s s l y p a r t i c u l a r sensuous r e -a c t i o n . The: same; argument . a p p l i e s to phrase A . ..' P r o b a b l y an ' invocation-;-of some s o r t e x p r e s s e d the rhythm and melody to the composer but even i n comb ina t ion the sounds c a l l - u p -,-nb p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l image .such as f l a s h e s on the menta l r e t i n a a t the u t t e r a n c e of the s i n g l e word t r e e . The words o f the i n v o c a t i o n , the. : ;parenthesis , of the m u s i c a l phrase a re l i m i t e d ln-;;var-ious.---wayp^;,-•,,'0h-!t:, as a symbol o f e x c l a m a t i o n , "my" as the p o s s e s s i v e e g o , ' w h i l e ' "God" i s a h i g h l y p o t e n t i a l word, w i th ; a l o n g t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n from which i t i s impossible,-. f o r our minds to . s e p a r a t e i t . .-The . l a t e S i r , .Wal ter- R a l e i g h d e f i n e d s t y l e a s the mas te ry o f the f l u i d e lements o f s p e e c h . (2) I f t h i s be t r u e i t f o l l o w s t h a t any use: o f words which s u c c e s s f u l l y communi-c a t e s th rough v a r i o u s a d a p t a t i o n s of these f l u i d e l e m e n t s , i s good s t y l e . H a r d y ' s e c l e c t i c c h o i c e o f words has caused a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c u s s i o n ; i t has,' been for- some a s t u m b l i n g b lock , , f o r o t h e r s one of the most i n t r i g u i n g f e a t u r e s o f h i s s t y l e . I t i s , c e r t a i n l y , r e g a r d l e s s o f the way i n which one sees i t , a main e lement . . I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h W i l l i a m A r c h e r (3) Hardy i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d , and h i s p o e t i c a l usage c e r t a i n l y sup-p o r t s the s ta tement , "I have no sympathy w i t h , t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t would t r e a t E n g l i s h as a dead language , a t h i n g . c r y s t a l l i s e d a t an a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d s tage o f i t s e x i s -t e n c e , and b i d d e n to f o r g e t t h a t i t h a s a f u t u r e . P u r i s m whether i n grammar,, or v o c a b u l a r y , a lways means i g n o r a n c e , language was made b e f o r e grammar, not grammar b e f o r e language and as for. the E n g l i s h V o c a b u l a r y , p u r i s t s seem to i g n o r e (1) E d i t e d ( w i t h essay) F e l i x Borowski and Ignace Paderewsk i (2) W a l t e r R a l e i g h : S t y l e : Chap. I (3) H a r o l d , B r e h n e c k e : : T h e L i f e of Thomas Hardy : p . 139 the l e s s o n s o f h i s t o r y and. common s e n s e . " I have a l r e a d y •touched on the freedom w i t h which Hardy used d i a l e c t , i n i t s i d e a l i z e d form as a m a t e r i a l to he moulded i f he w i s h e d . ' I t was an i n d i v i d u a l freedom upon which he i n s i s t e d , which gave h im sonorous and sound ing l a t i n i s m s , modern t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , o l d and a r c h a i c s u r v i v a l s and a l a r g e ' b o d y of s t r a n g e and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m s , a r r a n g e d by h i m s e l f i n the double a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e s o f h i s compound words . The t e c h n i c a l words , t h a t i s , the terms o f a r c h i t e c t u r e , music and. p a i n t i n g which occur sometimes i n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n m e r e l y , f r e q u e n t l y appear i n the n o v e l s , i n the body o f an image. In one i n s t a n c e a f a c e i s d e s c r i b e d as s i m i l a r to a G o t h i c s h i e l d and one knows t h a t Hardy t h i n k s o f the sudden j u t t i n g out of t h a t a n g u l a r form from a wal1 or p i l l a r . The l i k e n i n g o f Under the Greenwood T r e e , t o "A R u r a l P a i n t i n g o f the Dutch S c h o o l " , and the c o n s t a n t compar ison o f f emin ine beauty w i t h t e c h n i c a l q u a l i -t i e s i n the p a i n t i n g s o f the o l d masters-, a r e , I c o n s i d e r , much l e s s apparen t i n the body o f t h e t p p e t r y . Tn the p o e t r y o r n a m e n t a t i o n f o r i t s own sake i s s t u d i o u s l y a v o i d e d and the g e n e r a l e f f e c t r e s t s not upon vague compar isons but i n d e f i -n i t e imbedded a s s o c i a t i o n o f i d e a and- image. There a r e , i t i s t r u e , many words such a s " o g i v e " " a r c h " and " f r e i z e " wh i ch a re d i r e c t l y a r c h i t e c t u r a l , such as "umbrous" and " o c h r e o u s " , wh ich a r e a d j e c t i v a l s u g g e s t i o n s o f a n a r t i s t ' s p a l e t t e . There are o t h e r s which a re m u s i c a l , "dampered", and " e f t s " . Terms l i k e " w h e t t i n g " , and " h a r r o w i n g " , are a g r i c u l t u r a l , w h i l e the t e c h n i c a l m i l i t a r y terms and s u g g e s t i o n s o f the modern age o f i n v e n t i o n a r e found i n "armaments" and " s t e e l chambers" . There are as w e l l a r a t h e r complete v o c a b u l a r y of the dance as i n H a r d y ' s day, which g i v e s the terms " p o u s s e t t e s " , " r e e l s " , " j i g s " , " f l i n g s " and " a l l e m a n d i n g " but i n the m a j o r i t y of cases these terms a re i n t h e i r n a t i v e and a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g , i n poems which i n themse lves have t h a t env i ronment . I do not c o n s i d e r t h a t such use o f the words i s i n any way u n u s u a l or p e c u l i a r e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , but p o e t i c a l l y i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t r e f l e c t s the i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t which- Hardy had i n the a r t s i n g e n e r a l and w h i c h , e x p r e s s e d i n the poem Rome S a l a D e l l e Muse ( l ) , a s s e r t s a b e l i e f i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l u n i t y . When, however, Hardy d e s e r t s the mere ly t e c h n i c a l f o r a more s y m b o l i s t i c use o f these k i n d r e d a r t s the whole mat ter i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . "When the wind sc raped a minor k e y , And the spent west from w h i t e - To g r a y t u r n e d t i r e d l y , and from gray To b r o a d e s t bands o f n i g h t . " ( l ) The C a s u a l A c q u a i n t a n c e : La te L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 647 Here the words a re o f the s i m p l e s t , on ly t h r e e b e i n g l o n g e r t h a n one s y l l a b l e , but t h e y a r e v e r y s u g g e s t i v e . C o n s i d e r f o r i n s t a n c e "minor" , " s p e n t " , " t i r e d l y " , " g r a y " , " b r o a d e s t " , " n i g h t " , a l l words which suggest sadness , e x h a u s t i o n or dark , w i t h the one e x c e p t i o n " b r o a d e s t " , which i s u s e d t o deepen the e f f e c t of " n i g h t ' s shadow". "Minor" i n t h i s ease c a r r i e s a s u g g e s t i o n of e e r i e wind which i s deepened by the deaden-i n g o f a l l p i c t o r i a l t o n e . S i m i l a r s u g g e s t i o n s are found i n " a n t i p h o n i c b r e e z e " and " T h i s dumb dark stowage a f t e r our l o u d me lod ious y e a r s . " W i t h H a r d y ' s l o v e o f f reedom, w i t h h i s modern and unt rammel led p o i n t o f view g o e s , as I have ment ioned , a s e n t i m e n t a l c l i n g i n g to o l d a s s o c i a t i o n i n a l l i t s fo rms . T h i s i s t r u e even o f words , f o r i n r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g c o n t r a s t t o h i s own s t r o n g l y hewn v o c a b u l a r y a re such w e l l worn f a v o r i t e s of p o e t i c d i c t i o n as "damsel" and t h e . E l i z a b e t h a n a f f e c t a t i o n " y c l e p t " , a n l o i d p l u r a l i n " e y n e " , a c o n t r a c t i o n o f " y e s t e r " and " e v e n " , which wears a somewhat musty a i r a i r , " y e s t e r e e n " and the a r c h a i c forms " w i s " , "wot", " w i s t " . O c c a s i o n a l l y a l s o , the pungent f l a v o r o f o l d s t r o n g v e r b s l i n g e r s i n forms l i k e "up clomb" and "up swum", w h i l e the pomp o f h e r a l d r y r e t u r n s i n " b l a z o n " . In such use o f a r c h a i s m s t h e r e i s an a b s o l u t e absence o f s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . They appear i n context which h a s not the s l i g h t e s t s u g -g e s t i o n o f any d i c t i o n o ther than H a r d y ' s own. Such words as " p a s s e g e r " , which a l l u d e s to a b i r d i n f l i g h t and "eyesome" which c o p i e s an o l d fo rm, compar isons such as " b e a u t i f u l l e r " , and " c l o s e l i e r " , the comb ina t i on " w i t h o u t s i d e " , " w i t h i n s i d e " , " w i t h o u t d o o r s " , s t r a n g e l y uncompounded, the a d j e c t i v a l use o f " c h i l d i n g " and the k e n n i n g " e a r t h t r a c k " , which t a k e s the p l a c e o f l i f e t i m e a r e , f o r , a n y t h i n g tha t I can d i s c o v e r , H a r d y ' s own. ' " • He i s fond a l s o o f making v e r b s from nouns , a d -j e c t i v e s , and a d v e r b s , i n the manner o f " e a s t e d " , "g loomed", " l i t t l e s " , "upped" , " u p s " . He has i n f a c t r a t h e r a p a r -t i a l i t y f o r v e r b s which has been a n a l y z e d i n r e g a r d to h i s p rose by Vernon l e e . ( l ) There i s a f u r t h e r s i n g u l a r i t y i n h i s system of word co inage which has much to do w i t h the . es tab l i shment of the l e v e l tone and l a c k of c o l o r t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s s t y l e ' i n g e n e r a l . I t i s the use o f the n e g a t i v e p r e f i x "un" w i t h even more than i t s u s u a l n e g a t i v e sense i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h words which have meant growth or f r u i t i o n i n the a b s o l u t e n e g a t i o n o f u t t e r d e n i a l . The verb "unbe", i s . i t s most d e f i n i t e form, but " u n c o n s c i e n c e d " , "unblooms", "unhope", " u n r e c o g n i z e " , " u n s i g h t " , " u n v i s i o n " are more t y p i c a l . In what seems to be p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e he sometimes hyphenates a p r e f i x e d s y l l a b l e , sometimes does n o t . (2) The p r e f i x "en" i s a l s o r a t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n words 1) The H a n d l i n g o f ?fords: Chap. VI 2) Examples of bo th g i v e n i n G l o s s a r y . l i k e " e n a r c h " , "enchased" , and " e n g h o s t i n g s " . I t i s p o s s i b l e , i f one w i s h e s , t o s o r t out a few odd g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s such a s the r e f r a i n quoted i n "The U g l y P i l l a r " and the i n v e r s i o n s . " C h e r i s h him can I w h i l e the t r u e one f o r t h come." or "As had f i r e d ours c o u l d even have ming led we , " but t h e y a re not f r e q u e n t and the f i r s t o f these i n which the words seem pushed and shoved i n t o p l a c e i s i n S a p p h i c s , a d i f f i c u l t form a t b e s t . H a r d y ' s s e n t e n c e s , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , medium i n l e n g t h , u s u a l l y p o s s e s s an admi rab le c o n t i n u i t y and the f o r c e of s i n c e r e u t t e r a n c e . There i s l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n f o r i t s own sake . F a u l t s i f any, a re a u s t e r i t i e s , such as the o m i s s i o n o f ornament or a statement too b a l d , but u s u a l l y rhythm and image overcome such f a u l t s . The l i n g u i s t i c mode of e x p r e s s i o n most c o n s i s -t e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the H a r d i a n g e n i u s was the com-p o u n d i n g one, f o r he c a r r i e s i t a l o n g w i t h the "Wessex" f l a v o r and sound ing words o f L a t i n o r i g i n i n t o the l y r i c a l p o e t r y o f The D y n a s t s . In the p l a c e o f p i l e d up image, p e r p e t u a l a l l u s i o n and p o e t i c d i f f u s i o n , he has put h i s p o w e r f u l and mass ive compounds w i t h t h e i r we ighted s i g n i f i -cance and double emphas i s . The comb ina t ions made f rom two p a r t s o f speech . are e n d l e s s . The most numerous c l a s s of compounds i s t h a t o f the. doub le nouns such as " a r t - b e g i n n i n g s " , " b a b y - c h i l d " , " b i r t h - h o u r " , " b u r g h e r - t h r o n g " , " b r i n e - m i s t " and so a n . There a re many combinat ions o f p a r t i c i p l e verb forms w i t h nouns , " c h u r c h - c h i m i n g " , " c o p s e - c l o t h e d " , " e a r t h - c l o g g e d " , " g l a n c e - g i v i n g " , " b e n d i n g - o c e a n " , t o c i t e a few. Then come i n a lmost e n d l e s s v a r i e t y nouns w i t h a d j e c t i v e s , nouns and a d v e r b s , a d j e c t i v e s and a d j e c t i v e s i n combinat ions too numerous and d i v e r s i f i e d to m e n t i o n . In a few i n s t a n c e s a whole p h r a s e , " a l l - e a r t h - g l a d d e n i n g - I a w - o f - P e a c e " i s com-pounded. Sometimes t h r e e or f o u r compounds appear i n a s i n g l e l i n e , " w h i t e - s h o u l d e r e d " , "broad-browed" , "brown-t r e s s e d " . F r e q u e n t l y too there i s a l l i t e r a t i o n as i n "day- ' down", " d e e p - d e l v e d " , " f l i t - f l u t t e r e d " . An i d i o s y n c r a s y a lmost as c o n s i s t e n t i s the c o n -s t a n t imagery o f d e a t h : "Sweet Loves s e p u l c h r i n g " , "the s i l e n t b l e e d o f a w o r l d d e c a y i n g " , " o l d Headsman Death" , "a dead man h e l d on end I s i n k down s o o n " , and "the r o t t e n rose i s r i p p e d from the w a l l " , a l l these p r e s e n t on ly death or. decay . As I have p o i n t e d out such q u o t a t i o n may he used to i l l u s t r a t e a d e f i n i t e p o i n t , but i t i s r e a l l y m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e i n i t s summary d i s m i s s a l of con tex t i t d e s t r o y s p o e t i c b a l a n c e . Sometimes Hardy b r e a k s h i s a u s t e r e and se l f -made r u l e s and d e s c r i b e s i n a d j e c t i v e s , as do o ther men, "A p e n s i v e s m i l e , on h e r sweet, s m a l l , m a r v e l l o u s f a c e " , or w r i t e s the s c a r c e l y t y p i c a l c o l o r f u l v e r s e , "The r i c h , r e d , ruminat i n g c ow." Imagery o f a c e r t a i n k i n d i s , however, a t the same t ime bo th t y p i c a l and m a g n i f i c e n t . I t i s found i n the g l o r y o f " l i k e a f u l l - r o b e d p r i e s t The i r r a d i a t e g lobe t h a t vouched the dark as done, or the p e r f e c t i o n o f "the c h i l l o l d keys l i k e a s k u l l ' s brown t e e t h l o o s e i n t h e i r s h e a t h , " or i n the beauty of "One qu i ck t imorous t r a n s i e n t s t a r , " the agony o f "A mi les-wade pant o f p a i n , " and the p r e c i s i o n of "The Roman Road r u n s s t r a i g h t and b a r e , As the p a l e - p a r t i n g l i n e i n h a i r . " T h i s i s what V i r g i n i a woo l f c a l l s Hardy and "moonshine" ( 1 ) . Such i n s t a n c e s g i v e a s l i g h t i n d i c a t i o n of the scope and power o f H a r d y ' s v o c a b u l a r y and i m a g i n a t i v e g e n i u s . They show the r e s t r a i n t and r e s e r v e of h i s manner and e x p r e s s i o n . In c o n t e x t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as the c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a p o w e r f u l v i t a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n becomes immed ia te ly apparent as a g r e a t t h i n k e r , c l o t h i n g h i s i d e a s i n phrase and image, g i v e s them the e m o t i o n a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e which h i s i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e demands. "S t rong w r i t e r s are those who-, w i t h e v e r y r e s e r v e of power, seek no e x h i b i t i o n o f s t r e n g t h . I t i s as i f language c o u l d not come by i t s f u l l meaning save on the l i p s of those who r e g a r d i t as an e v i l n e c e s s i t y . 3very word i s t o r n from them, as from a r e l u c t a n t w i t n e s s . They come to speech as to a l a s t r e s o r t when a l l o ther ways have f a i l e d . . . . . . . . W i th words l i t e r a t u r e b e g i n s , to words i t must r e t u r n . . . . . S o the e lementary p a s s i o n s , p i t y and l o v e , wrath and t e r r o r , are not i n themse lves p o e t i c a l ; they must be wrought upon by the word to become p o e t r y . In no o ther way can s u f f e r i n g be t r a n s f o r m e d to (1) H a l f o f Thomas Hardy : p a t h o s , o r h o r r o r r e a c h I t s a p o t h e o s i s i n t r a g e d y . " (1) The rhythms and m e t r e s w h i c h Hardy u s e s are as d i v e r s i f i e d as h i s words. He has explored, a l l of the o l d forms; he has i n v e n t e d f r e s h ones arid he has v a r i e d the o l d by the use o f i n v e r t e d f e e t or m e t r i c a l p a u s e s . I n s p e a k i n g o f h i s own methods he s a y s : " I have l o n g h e l d , as a m a t t e r o f common sense, l o n g b e f o r e I t h o u g h t o f any o l d a p h o r i s m b e a r i n g on the s u b j e c t : ' a r s e s t c e l a r e artem'. The whole s e c r e t o f a l i v i n g s t y l e and the d i f f e r e n c e between i t and a dead s t y l e , l i e s i n not h a v i n g t o o much s t y l e — b e i n g i n f a c t a l i t t l e c a r e l e s s , o r r a t h e r seeming t o , here and t h e r e . I t b r i n g s w o n d e r f u l l i f e I n t o the w r i t i n g . o t h e r w i s e your s t y l e i s l i k e worn h a l f - p e n c e , a l l the f r e s h images rounded o f f by r u b b i n g and no c r i s p n e s s o r movement a t a l l . I t i s o f c o u r s e s i m p l y a c a r r y i n g i n t o p r o s e the knowledge I have a c q u i r e d i n p o e t r y —- t h a t i n e x a c t rhymes and rhythms now and t h e n a r e f a r more p l e a s i n g t h a n c o r r e c t t o n e s . " (2) The s u b j e c t o f rhythm i n H a r d y 7 s p o e t r y i s a l a r g e one. I do n o t i n t e n d i n t h i s paper t o make any attempt t o go i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n t h o r o u g h l y . My o b j e c t i s m e r e l y t o i n s t a n c e a few examples o f h i s m e t r i c a l s k i l l w h i c h w i l l show th e v a r i e t y and scope o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . The changes i n s t y l e w hich mark the p a s s i n g o f y e a r s are l e s s n o t i c e a b l e i n Hardy's work t h a n i n t h a t o f most p o e t s . He k e p t a r e m a r k a b l e f r e s h n e s s and v i t a l i t y even t o the end. Howhere i s t h i s v i t a l i t y more a p p a r e n t t h a n i n h i s r h y t h m i c s k i l l . He e x p e r i m e n t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y and upon h i s d e a t h l e f t among h i s p a p e r s , page upon page o f m e t r i c a l s k e l e t o n s -- rhythms w h i c h he had h e a r d , a d a p t e d from music or made f o r h i m s e l f . Much o f the e a r l i e r v e r s e i s smooth and f l o w i n g . Hardy may have been i n f l u e n c e d by Tennyson and 'Barnes. But a comparison o f the e f f e c t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the use of the same measure by Barnes i n The w i f e A - L o s t (5) and by Hardy i n The D a r k l i n g Thrush (4) shows the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r p o e t i c g i f t s c l e a r l y . Barnes i s p a s t o r a l and i d y l l i c . Hardy i s p o w e r f u l ; " S i n c e ( I noo mwore do zee y o u r Peace, Up s t e a r s o r down below, I ' l l z i t me i n the Iwonesome p l e a e e , Yfnere f l a t - b o u g h ' d beech do grow: Below the beeches' bough, my l o v e , Yfnere you d i d never come, An' I don't l o o k t o meet ye now, As I do l o o k a t hworae." (1) Walt er R a l e i g h : S t y l e : p. 115-( 2 ) The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas Hardy: p. 138 (3) Poems of R u r a l L i f e i n the D o r s e t D i a l e c t : p. 295 (4) Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 137 T h i s poem o f Barnes opens on a note o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n which the second and t h i r d s t a n z a s o n l y r e p e a t hut wh i ch r e s o l v e s i n t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l h o p e f u l end ing i n the f o u r t h s t a n z a . The p e r f e c t l y r e g u l a r i amb ic v e r s e s a l t e r n a t i n g i n f o u r and t h r e e f e e t run a l o n g m u s i c a l l y , unbroken by a n y d i s s o n a n t n o t e . The even rhythm i s g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d by the s o f t l y s l u r r e d Wessex s y l l a b l e s which are r e p e a t e d from s t a n z a to s tanza . " A l l these e lements combine to g i v e a s o p o r i f i c and n o n - t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g e f f e c t . H a r d y ' s The D a r k l i n g Thrush i s the same metre exact ly" and even has the same number o f s t a n z a s . I t opens upon the same note o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n the o u t - o f - d o o r s and c l o s e s w i t h a f a i n t note o f hope . I t i s no t an e a r l y poem but i t does meet the Barnes i d e a l i n i t s r e g u l a r i t y . Because of t h i s s l i g h t s i m i l a r i t y o f content and a c t u a l s i m i l a r i t y o f met re , i t i s as c l o s e an a n a l o g y as one can produce i n the p o e t r y o f p o e t s so d i f f e r e n t . A s ta n za from The D a r k l i n g Thrush f o l l o w s : " I l e a n t upon a copp i ce gate When F r o s t was s p e c t r e - g r a y , , And W i n t e r ' s d r e g s made d e s o l a t e The weakening eye of day . The t a n g l e d b i n e - s t e m s scored the s k y , l i k e s t r i n g s o f broken l y r e s , And a i l mankind t h a t haunted ' n i g h Had sought t h e i r h o u s e h o l d f i r e s . " In the case of bo th poems the rhyme scheme i s abab c d c d . J u s t as Barnes s o f t e n s h i s e f f e c t by vowel sounds, Hardy i n -t e n s i f i e s h i s by end ing a b r u p t l y on a consonant . "I l e a n t " i n the f i r s t v e r s e g i v e s the sense o f suddenness to what i s u s u a l l y a g e n t l e movement. " O u t l e a n t " i n the second v e r s e of the second s t a n z a has the same e f f e c t which i s immed ia te ly s t r e n g t h e n e d - b y " c r y p t " . The r e s u l t i s t h a t two v e r y s t r o n g a c c e n t s occur c l o s e t o g e t h e r h a v i n g , a l t h o u g h the metre does n o t change, a lmost the e f f e c t o f a b r e a k . When H a r d y ' s metres a r e r e g u l a r he v a r i e s t h e i r monotony by the use' to which he p u t s words . The two v e r s e s f o l l o w i n g may make a l i t t l e c l e a r e r what I am t r y i n g to p o i n t o u t . "The b l e s s e d damozel l eaned o u t ; " "The C e n t u r y ' s corpse o u t l e a n t , " In the f i r s t v e r s e R o s s e t t i ' s l o n g f l o w i n g s y l l a b l e s break sudden ly on "ou t" ; i n the second the b r e a k i n g sound i s doub led by " o u t l e a n t " , w h i l e the vowels are c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s h o r t e n e d by the l o s s o f d , caused by the s h o r t e n i n g o f the verb f o r m . Hardy b reaks even h i s smoothest rhythms i n some such s u b t l e way. Hardy i s an a b s o l u t e master o f the sonnet f o r m . I have p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d out the new content which he u s e s . The compress ion o f the form seemed e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to the e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s cosmic p h i l o s o p h y . He uses both the 6o I t a l i a n ana the S h a k e s p e a r i a n forms o f the s o n n e t . The l a t t e r appears i n a poem c a l l e d 'A C o n f e s s i o n to a F r i e n d i n T r o u b l e ( l ) I have compared i t w i t h S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Sonnet 1XVIII which has the r e g u l a r rhyme scheme ababadad e f e f g g . T h i s form does not have the ebb and f l ow o f the I t a l i a n form but mounts s t e a d i l y t o a c l i m a x i n the f i n a l two v e r s e s . The f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n Hardy a c h i e v e s i n v e r s e s t h i r t e e n and f o u r t e e n of h i s sonnet when he s a i d "Yet comrade o l d can b i t t e r e r knowledge be , Than t h a t though banned, such i n s t i n c t was i n mei" H a r d y ' s rhyme scheme v a r i e s from t h a t o f Sonnet LXVIII o n l y i n the s e s t e t which s u b s t i t u t e s c e c f g g f o r the S h a k e s p e a r i a n e f e f g g . Shakespeare uses s u b s t i t u t e d t r o c h a i c f e e t a t the b e g i n n i n g o f v e r s e s e l e v e n and t w e l v e . Hardy makes a s i m i l a r m e t r i c a l change i n v e r s e s i x and uses a n a c r u s i s i n the f i r s t f o o t o f v e r s e twelve t h u s : "The unseemly i n s t i n c t t h a t had lodgement h e r e ; " The S leep Worker (2) i s i n the I t a l i a n fo rm. The metre i s r e g u l a r l y i amb ic except f o r the . t rochee i n v e r s e twe lve and the m i s s i n g s t r o n g beat i n v e r s e f i v e . " W i l t thou d e s t r o y , i n one w i l d shock o f shame" "Wherein have p l a c e , u n r e a l i z e d by t h e e . " The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s no ted occur i n the words " w i l t " and " u n -r e a l i z e d " . There a r e a t l e a s t two g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f H a r d y ' s m e t r i c a l method which s h o u l d be commented u p o n . The f i r s t o f these i s h i s fondness f o r rhyme. By the means o f rhyme he e x p l o r e s n e a r l y e v e r y v e r s e form a n c i e n t and modern, u s u a l l y w i t h s u c c e s s . The seeond c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s h i s a d d i c -t i o n to the end s topped l i n e . I t n a t u r a l l y accompanies the r i s i n g i a m b i c metres wh ich he so f r e q u e n t l y u s e s but he v a r i e s h i s rhythms by the l i g h t s y l l a b l e d e n d i n g l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than , one would e x p e c t . Run on l i n e s , a l t h o u g h they o c c u r , a re not u s u a l even i n h i s blank- v e r s e . The s t r o n g l y end s topped l i n e s o f The D a r k l i n g Thrush ( 3 ) w i l l serve t o i l l u s t r a t e i n the c a s t o f s e r i o u s c o n t e n t : "The a n c i e n t p u l s e o f germ and b i r t h Was s h r u n k e n l h a r d and d r y , And every s p i r i t upon e a r t h Seemed f e r v o u r l e s s as I . " The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n shows the l e s s s e r i o u s (1) Wessex Poems: p .9 (2) Poems o f the Pas t and P r e s e n t : p . 110 ( 3 ) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 145 use o f rhyme: "v7e l a te - l amented . , r e s t i n g h e r e , Are mixed, t o human jam, And each to eaeh e x c l a i m s i n f e a r , I know not which I ami " (1) The e x c e r p t a l s o e x h i b i t s a common m e t r e , c o n -s i s t i n g o f f o u r and t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s rhyming abab, which Hardy o f t e n u s e s . I t i s the metre o f Lucy G r a y . The Ru ined  Maid (2) which i s a superb p i e c e of i r o n y , p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f a n a p e s t i c f o u r f o o t v e r s e w i t h i n i t i a l t r u n c a t i o n and the rhyme scheme aabb, ccbb , ddbb and so o n . "0 H l e l i a , my d e a r , t h i s does e v e r y t h i n g crown I v/ho c o u l d have supposed I s h o u l d meet you i n town? And whence such f a i r garments , such p r o s p e r i t y ? " -'0 d i d n ' t you know I ' d been r u i n e d ? s a i d she?" The l i g h t s y l l a b l e s o f these v e r s e s , the r e g u l a r a c c e n t and the s h o r t word a l l combine to g i v e the poem e s p e c i a l l y r a p i d movement. The wrenched a c c e n t on " p r o s -p e r i t y " g i v e s a n immediate emphasis to the rhyme which c a r -r i e s through each s t a n z a i n a s o r t of c o l l o q u i a l and d i v e r -s i f i e d r e f r a i n on the s i n g l e word " s h e " . S t r o n g l y end s topped b l a n k verse occurs throughout The D y n a s t s . In the f o l l o w i n g speech o f W e l l i n g t o n t h e r e i s i n t e n s e f e e l i n g . A s i m i l a r i n t e n s e n e s s i n Shakespeare would have r e s u l t e d v e r y l i k e l y i n r u n on l i n e s , Yfith Hardy t h e r e a re none . W e l l i n g t o n "I know, I know, I t m a t t e r s not one damn I I may as w e l l be shot as not p e r c e i v e What i l l s a re r a g i n g h e r e . " H i l l " conced ing such And as you may be ended momently A t r u t h t h e r e i s no b l i n k i n g , what commands Have you to l e a v e me, should•., f a t e -shape* a t sb3$e W e l l i n g t o n . "These s i m p l y : to h o l d out unto the l a s t , (1) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 144 (2) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p . 145" As l o n g as one man s tands on one lame l e g With one h a l l i n h i s pouch I then end as I . " (1) The end s topped l i n e and d e f i n i t e rhymes o f which I have heen speak ing are t y p i c a l . True to h i s c o n -v i c t i o n t h a t va r i e . t y makes rhythms more charming , Hardy o c c a s i o n a l l y v a r i e s h i s custom by u s i n g a femin ine e n d i n g — i n He P r e f e r s Her E a r t h l y (2) t h e r e a re examples . " T h i s a f t e r - s u n s e t i s a s i g h t f o r s e e i n g , C l i f f - h e a d s o f shaggy c l o u d surround ing- i t . - - And d w e l l you i n t h a t g l o r y show? You may; f o r t h e r e a re s t range s t range t h i n g s i n b e i n g , S t r a n g e r than I know." In these v e r s e s the r e g u l a r i ambic beat of the f i v e , f o u r and t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s i s v a r i e d o n l y by the f emin ine end ings i n " s e e i n g " and " b e i n g " . L e a v i n g the q u e s t i o n o f rhyme and end stopped v e r s e s , I t u r n to the poem A S i g n Seeker (3) i n which Hardy uses the A l e x a n d r i n e w i t h s u c c e s s . The poem, i s i n the u s u a l r i s i n g metre but i t s v e r s e s r h y m i n g , abba , are i n f i v e , f o u r and s i x beat f o r m s , the A l e x a n d r i n e b e i n g used to v a r y the rhythm and i n t e n s i f y the meaning . Some o f these s i x f o o t f i n a l v e r s e s a re r e g u l a r as i n : ' "And t r o d d e n where abysmal f i r e s and snow-cones a r e . " Others a re drawn out to g r e a t e r - l e n g t h by the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a n a p e s t s as i n the second and t h i r d f o o t o f the •""following-: "And h e a r the monotonous h o u r s C l a n g n e g l i g e n t l y b y . " T h i s v e r s e b e g i n s w i t h a t r o c h e e . " P a l l i d l y r i s i n g when the summer Droughts a re d o n e . " One o r two o t h e r s are broken by a c e n t r a l c e s u r a t h u s : , . "And Hesc ieuce mute ly muses: When a Man f a l l s he l i e s . " 1) P a r t I I I , Ac t T I I , Scene 7, p . 5^6 2) Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 466 (3) Wessex Poems: p . 43 I n s p i t e o f the s e v a r i a t i o n s the form of the long-l i n e h o l d s , m a r k i n g o f f the s t a n z a s i n a s e r i e s o f l o n g r h y t h m i c p h r a s e s t h u s : "Or, when E a r t h ' s F r a i l l i e b l e e d i n g o f h i s S t r o n g I f some R e c o r d e r , a s i n w r i t , Near t o the weary scene s h o u l d f l i t And drop one plume as p l e d g e t h a t Heaven i n s c r o i l s t he wrong." I n a poem c a l l e d The l a c k i n g Sense (1) the r h y t h m i c u n i t s a r e even longer", b e i n g unbroken by s h o r t v e r s e s . The s t a n z a s a re r e g u l a r l y formed o f f o u r s e v e n - s t r e s s o r S e p t e n a r y v e r s e s c o m p l e t e d 'by one t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e . " 10 Time, whence comes the mother's moody l o o k amid h e r l a b o u r s , As o f one who a l l u n w i t t i n g l y has wounded, where she l o v e s ? Why weaves she n o t h e r world-webs t o a c c o r d i n g l u t e s and t a b o r s , 7/1 t h nevermore t h i s t o o r e m o r s e f u l a i r upon h e r f a c e , As o f a n g e l f a l l e n from g r a c e I " These l o n g u n b r o k e n v e r s e s c a r r y t h e rhythm t h r o u g h t o the s t r o p h i c f a l l and pause w h i c h the s h o r t f i f t h . v e r s e e f f e c t s , t h e r e b e i n g no o t h e r pauses t h a n the e s s e n t i a l ones w h i c h come w i t h a b r e a t h a t the end o f each l o n g v e r s e . The same l o n g v e r s e s a r e found a g a i n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s i n A Commonplace Day. (2) I n t h a t poem, however, the f i v e v e r s e s t a n z a s have o n l y two l o n g e r seven-s t r e s s v e r s e s , the second and t h e f i f t h t h u s : "The day i s t u r n i n g g h o s t , And s c u t t l e s f r om the k a l e n d a r i n f i t s and f u r t i v e l y , To j o i n the anonymous h o s t Of those t h a t t h r o n g o b l i v i o n : c e d i n g h i s p l a c e , maybe To one o f l i k e d e gree." I n t h i s poem t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l o n g l i n e i s d i f f e r e n t , f o r t h e v e r s e t e n d s t o break between the f o u r t h and f i f t h f o o t on a c e s u r a l pause which i s a c c e n t u a t e d by the b a l a n c e and p a t t e r n o f t h e v e r s e . T h i s p a t t e r n i s formed by such a l l i t e r a t i v e s y l l a b l e s as occur i n " s c u t t l e s " and " k a l e n d a r " , and " f i t s and f u r t i v e l y " . . The ce s u r a l pause i n v e r s e f o u r i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the t r o c h e e which i m m e d i a t e l y (1) Poems of t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 106 (2) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 104 f o l l o w s I t . I have quoted t h e s e two poems because t h e y i l -l u s t r a t e so a p t l y the s k i l l w i t h which Hardy h a n d l e d metre and t h e many ways i n w h i c h he v a r i e d h i s usage t o o b t a i n e i t h e r s u s t a i n e d or b r o k e n rhythms. I n many o f h i s l a t e r poems he a t t a i n e d , e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e and r o l l i n g r h y t h m i c e f f e c t s . The f a l l i n g metre o f the poem I n F r o n t of. the l a n d s c a p e ( 1) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . " P l u n g i n g and l a b o u r i n g on i n a t i d e of v i s i o n s , D o l o r o u s and d r e a r , Forward I pushed my way as amid waste w a t e r s S t r e t c h i n g a r o u n d , Through whose e d d i e s t h e r e glimmered t h e Customed landscape. Yonder and n e a r . " Here Hardy h a s u s e d d a c t y l s and t r o c h e e s i n com-b i n a t i o n w i t h two, t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e s t r e s s v e r s e s . The f e m i n i n e e n d i n g o f v e r s e s two and t h r e e a c t u a l l y a l l o w the rhythm t o c a r r y t h r o u g h t o the end o f the nex t v e r s e . The rhythm t h u s slows as i t ends the phrase w i t h i a m b i c f e e t i n the s h o r t e r v e r s e s . There a r e s e v e r a l h i g h l y - c o n v e n t i o n a l F r e n c h forms such as t h e V i l l a n e l i e and t h e T r i o l e t t e w h i c h Hardy u s e s f r e q u e n t l y . They-appear r a t h e r q u a i n t l y a g a i n s t t h e sombre background of h i s more s e r i o u s v e r s e . Hardy i s c l e v e r , however, i n the management o f the r e p e a t e d v e r s e s , w h i c h b u i l d up the s e f o r m s . A poem c a l l e d The Caged Thrush  F r e e d and Home A g a i n (2) i s a V i l l a n e l i e . "'Men know b u t l i t t l e more t h a n we, Who count u s l e a s t o f t h i n g s t e r r e n e , How happy days a r e made t o beJ Of such s t r a n g e t i d i n g s what t h i n k y e , 0 b i r d s i n brown t h a t p e c k and pr e e n ? Men know but l i t t l e more t h a n we I" There a r e n i n e t e e n l i n e s and two rhymes and the r e p e a t v e r s e s a r e : "Men know but l i t t l e more t h a n We" and "How happy days a r e made t o be." 1 have p r e v i o u s l y quoted from a t r i o l e t c a l l e d (1) S a t i r e s of C i r c u m s t a n c e : p. 285 (2) Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 134 The P u z z l e d Same B i r d s ( l ) a n d a n a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l poem i s namedcBirds a t W i n t e r N i g h t f a l l (2). "Around the house the f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r , And a l l t h e b e r r i e s now are gone From h o l l y and c o t o n e a a s t e r Around the house. The f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r S h u t t i n g i n d o o r s t h a t c r u m b - o u t c a s t e r • • We u s e d t o see upon the lawn Around the h o u s e . The f l a k e s f l y f a s t e r , And a l l t h e b e r r i e s now a r e gone I " These poems a r e s l i g h t . T h e i r c h i e f charm l i e s i n the m e t r i c a l a g i l i t y w h i c h t h e forms demand. There i s a s u g g e s t i o n o f m u s i c a l p h r a s i n g and of the r e p e t i t i o n o f a s i n g l e theme about them w h i c h p r o b a b l y accountbs f o r Hardy' s use o f the f o r m s . I do n o t p ropose any d i s c u s s i o n of t h o s e e x p e r i -ments i n c l a s s i c a l p r o s o d y , the s a p p h i c s and Hexametres, w h i c h Hardy u n d e r t o o k . I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d the o r i g i n a l forms s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r . t h a t . I n g e n e r a l he seems l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n such poems as The Temporary the A l l (3) and A r i s t o d e m u s the l i e s sen I a n (4) t h a n i s u s u a l w i t h him i n poems o f a s e r i o u s n a t u r e . The p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t i s t h a t Hardy r e f u s e d t o g i v e up an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y i n f a v o r o f word forms more amenable t o the c l a s s i c a l r u l e s o f q u a n t i t y . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d Hardy's poems. c o n s i s -t e n t l y w i t h o u t becoming c o n s c i o u s o f a m u s i c a l u n d e r c u r r e n t w h i c h goes back t o Hardy's environment, o l d f o l k t u n e s and h i s own m u s i c a l g i f t . There a r e many b a l l a d s and songs i n h i s ' l y r i c p o e t r y . I n a l m o s t a l l o f these the i n f l u e n c e of o l d E n g l i s h music i s - a p p a r e n t , but i n some poems n o t o b v i o u s -l y m u s i c a l t h e metres have been i n s p i r e d by f o l k m u s i c . T h i s f o l k music was an a c t u a l p a r t o f Hardy's p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . A poem c a l l e d I n the S m a l l Hours (5) p r o v e s t h i s be-yond a doubt. The two f i r s t s t a n z a s of' the poem f o l l o w . " I l a y I n my bed and f i d d l e d W i t h a dream l a n d v i o l and bow ' And the tunes f l e w back t o my f i n g e r s I had- m e l o d i e d y e a r s ago. I t was two o r t h r e e i n the morning When I f a n c y f i d d l e d so Long r e e l s and c o u n t r y - d a n c e s , And h o r n p i p e s s w i f t and s l o w . 1) Poems qf t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 135 . 2) Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 135 3) Wessex Poems: p. 5 4) W i n t e r Words: p. 30 5) L a t e L y r i c s and E a r l i e r : p. 613 And soon anon came c r o s s i n g The chamber i n the g r a y F i g u r e s . o f j i g g i n g f i e l d f o l k — S a v i o u r s o f c o r n and- hay — To the a i r of "Haste t o the Wedding", As a f t e r a wedding-day; Yea, up and-down the m i d d l e I n w i n d l e s s w h i r l s went t h e y . " T h i s poem was w r i t t e n by the p o e t , who a s a s m a l l boy f i d d l e d a t c o u n t r y dances and who, i n h i s l a t e r y e a r s , n e v e r f o r g o t the m e l o d i e s and rhythms o f t h e o l d f o l k t u n e s w h i c h he p l a y e d a t t h a t t i m e . (1) B e f o r e p a s s i n g t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some o f Hardy's songs I am e x a m i n i n g two poems wh i c h a r e based on f o l k r hythms. The f i r s t c a l l e d , The W1 nd' s Pr o p h e c y (2) f o l l o w s : " I t r a v e l on.by b a r r e n f arms, And g u l l s g l i n t out l i k e , s i l v e r f l e c k s A g a i n s t a c l o u d t h a t speaks o f w r e c k s , And b e l l i e s down w i t h b l a c k a l a r m s . I say: "Thus from my l a d y ' s arms, I go; Those arms I l o v e the b e s t 1" The wind r e p l i e s from d i p and r i s e , 'Hay; t o w a r d h e r arms thou, j o u r n e y s t . ' " T h i s s t a n z a does not appear t o be a f o l k measure a t f i r s t g l a n c e but t h e r e i s an o l d D o r s e t f o l k - s o n g c a l l e d The.Rambling Comber (3) w h i c h i s s i m i l a r i n metre. The song f o l l o w s . i n p a r t : "You combers a l l , b o t h g r e a t and s m a l l , Come, l i s t e n t o my d i t t y , F o r i t i s ye and o n l y ye Regard my f a l l w i t h p i t y . F o r I c a n w r i t e , r e a d , dance o r f i g h t , Indeed i t s a l l my honor, '. ' ' • My f a i l i n g i s I d r i n k s t r o n g b e e r , F o r I'm a r a m b l i n g comber." B o t h the f o l k - s o n g and t h e poem have f i v e e i g h t -v e r s e s t a n z a s and somewhat s i m i l a r rhyme schemes. The poem rhymes abbaacdc. B o t h have r a t h e r u n i f o r m f o u r s t r e s s i a m b i c verse- but the f o l k measure has a m i s s i n g s t r o n g b eat i n the l a s t f o o t o f the v e r s e s . T h i s m i s s i n g b eat i s the o n l y e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the rhythms* 1) E a r l y , L i f e o f Thomas Hardy: p. 25 2) Moments o f v i s i o n : p. 464 (3) F o l k Songs o f E n g l a n d : ed. C e c i l J . Sharp: F o l k Songs o f D o r s e t : p. 27 A Tramp Woman's Tragedy (1) has been c a l l e d a new metre by many c r i t i c s . I t s s i m i l a r i t y t o an o l d lament w r i t t e n about a s h r i n e makes me t h i n k t h a t b o t h poems were i n s p i r e d by some o l d f o l k , metre. The S h r i n e o f Walsingham was d e m o l i s h e d a t t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of the m o n a s t e r i e s i n 155 8. Many contemporary b a l l a d s have r e f e r e n c e s t o i t . A tune c a l l e d Walsingham appears i n a l l t h e o l d c o l l e c t i o n s of mus i c . T h i s t u n e , however, i s n o t u s e d by Hardy. The B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y has a s m a l l q u a r t o volume i n the h a n d w r i t i n g o f P h i l i p , E a r l o f A r u n d e l , e l d e s t son o f the Duke o f N o r f o l k , Which c o n t a i n s A Lament f o r Walsingham ( 2 ) . T h i s lament, i s i n the b a l l a d f orm as f o l l o w s : "Weep, weep, 0 WalsinghamI Whose days a r e n i g h t s ; B l e s s i n g s t u r n e d t o b l a s p h e m i e s — H o l y deeds t o d e s p i t e s . S i n i s where Our Lady s a t Heaven t u r n e d i s t o h e l l ; S a t a n s i t s where Our L o r d d i d sway; •' Walsingham oh, f a r e w e l l 1" I f t h i s Lament i s compared w i t h A Tramp Woman's Tragedy i t w i l l be seen t h a t the number o f s t r e s s e s i n the v e r s e s a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l l y the same. . "Prom Wynyard's Gap the l i v e l o n g day, The l i v e l o n g day, We be a t a f o o t the n o r t h w a r d way We had t r a v e l l e d t i m e s b e f o r e . The s u n - b l a z e b u r n i n g on our backs Our s h o u l d e r s s t i c k i n g t o our p a c k s , By fosseway, f i e l d s and t u r n p i k e t r a c k s We s k i r t e d sad Sedge-Moor." The two poems d i f f e r i n t h e way i n w h i c h the r e f r a i n i s u s e d . The o l d e r one uses Walsingham i n the f i r s t and l a s t v e r s e s ; Hardy's poem r e p e a t s p a r t of v e r s e one i n v e r s e two as r e f r a i n . I n A lament f o r Walsingham t h r e e s t r e s s v e r s e s a re s i x and e i g h t ; i n A1'Tramp. Women's Tragedy t h e y a r e f o u r and e i g h t . Both have two s t r e s s e s i n the. second v e r s e and f o u r v e r s e s o f f o u r s t r e s s e s each w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e average v e r s e o f the poems. The lament has i n i t i a l t r u n c a t i o n i n each v e r s e . These d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r i n g between a poem of t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and a modern poem a r e no g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p o e t s and s u b j e c t might demand. T h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s may be t a k e n a s . s u g g e s t i o n t h a t some o l d f o l k measure was t h e source of the rhythms i n b o t h . 1) Time' s. L a u g h i n g S t o c k s : p. 182 2) O l d E n g l i s h P o p u l a r M u s i c : ed. H. E. Woo l b r i d g e C h a p p e l l : p. 70 68 I n a d d i t i o n t o poems w h i c h a r e founded on f o l k measures; t h e r e a r e many songs i n the l y r i c a l p o e t r y ; some of t h e s e -are f r a n k l y l a b e l l e d , " W r i t t e n t o an o l d f o l k - t u n e " o r "Echo o f an o l d song," One c a l l e d " T i m i n g Her" (1) has the v e r y t y p i c a l "0" r e f r a i n . " L a l a g e ' s coming: Where i s she now, 0? T u r n i n g t o bow, 0, And s m i l e , i s she, J u s t a t p a r t i n g , P a r t i n g , p a r t i n g , As she i s s t a r t i n g . To come t o me?" The r e p e t i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p h r a s e s t y p i c a l o f f o l k music i s e a s i l y t r a c e d i n the l i t t l e song j u s t quoted S i t t i n g on the B r i d g e (2) was composed by the p o e t from somewhat f l e e t i n g memories of a h a l f - f o r g o t t e n song. One o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g f r a g m e n t s o f a c t u a l f o l k music i s t h e r a t h e r s i n i s t e r l i t t l e song from the s h o r t "Wessex" s t o r y , The Three S t r a n g e r s (3). The theme of the The S t r a n g e r T s Song may have been s u g g e s t e d by the o l d b a l l a d c a l l e d . The S h e e p s t e a l e r ( 4 ) . The rhythm was b u i l t up by the poet from an o l d one w h i c h he d i s c o v e r e d i n an i n c o m p l e t e form. • H u b e r t H. P a r r y (5) says t h a t the f o l k tunes o f E n g l a n d have l i t t l e s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . They are s i m p l e and d i r e c t . l i k e the German a i r s t h e y o f t e n r e p e a t an opening . p h r a s e once or t w i c e , then i n t r o d u c e a c o n t r a s t and a g a i n r e t u r n t o t h e f i r s t p h r a s e . The S t r a n g e r ' s Song seems t o bear out t h e s e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . I t s t a t e s t h e f a c t s w i t h a c e r t a i n g r i m humour but t h e r e I s no emotion. The s u b t l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a s t s w h i c h t h e s t o r y p r e s e n t s have n o t h i n g t o do w i t h the song i t s e l f a l t h o u g h the song h e l p s t o produce them. One s t a n z a w i l l e x h i b i t the rhythm. "Oh my t r a d e i t i s t h e r a r e s t one, S i m p l e shepherds a l l — My t r a d e i s a s i g h t t o see; For my customers I t i e , and take 'Era up on h i g h , And w a f t 'em t o a f a r c o u n t r e e . " T h i s i s a hangman's song. The v i c t i m i s t o be a sheep s t e a l e r . These f i g u r e s a l o n e a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o b u i l d up t h e o l d b a l l a d atmosphere w h i c h so o f t e n i n v o l v e d a crime (l) Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 4 l 6 (2J Moments o f V i s i o n : p. 428 f3 ) The S h o r t S t o r i e s o f Thomas Hardy: p. 9 (4) F o l k Songs o f E n g l a n d : p. 1 " ' (5) The E v o l u t i o n of the A r t o f M u s i c : Chap. I l l or something pertaining to i t . The r e p e t i t i o n of phrases i s quite apparent i n verses one and three while the r e f r a i n , "Simple Shepherds a l l " , i s found i n each stanza. In addition the f a m i l i a r combination of three and four stress verses i s consistent with the t r a d i t i o n s of old f o l k music. One might go on discussing almost endlessly these rather absorbing questions of Hardy's songs and his use. of f o l k measures. In the scope of t h i s paper,however, only a few songs which bear out the general remarks which have been made can be mentioned. The Going of the Battery ( l ) (a wives' lament). A Song of Hope (2), The Sacrilege (3) (a ballad tragedy) and the f i c k l e lover's song I Said and Sang Her  Excellence (4), are poems which show Hardy's passion for music i n a l l i t s forms. This passion never abated as the many songs and other musical forms of The Dynasts show. The Drinking Song (5) was a very late poem. Two l y r i c s from The Dynasts which may be mentioned are Budmouth Dears (6) and The Night of Trafalgar (7) while the magnificent chant Albuera (b) i s an almost perfect conception of what Mr. Samuel Chew c a l l s "the t e r r o r and p i t y and splendour of f i e r y g a l l a n t r y . " (9) Before leaving the subject of rhythm I wish to note the rather peculiar and s t r i k i n g effect that Hardy has obtained i n a scene i n The Dynasts. (10) In t h i s scene there are two characters only and they speak i n a whisper f o r they are English spies. The rhythms of t h e i r whispered speech are l i k e those of the church of England services. The characterization obtained i n the case of the F i r s t English Spy, as he mutters away i n monotone, i s excellent. The long explanations of the other man represent the responses of the congregation. To the spectator the general impression i s exactly that which would be received i f one were immediately outside the church while -.a service was i n progress. In a scene that i s e n t i r e l y spectral Hardy carries h i s use of l i t u r g i c a l rhythms to a more poetical/.conclusion i n the Antiphonal Chants of the Rumours. (11) 1) Poems of the Past and Present: p.. 80 2) Poems of the Past and Present: p. 120 . 3) Satires of.Circumstance: p. 375 v 4) Moments of V i s i o n : p. 437 (5) Winter Words: p. 155 (6) The Dynasts: Part I I I , Act I I , Scene 1, p. 366 (7) The Dynasts: Part I, Act V, Scene 7, p. 106 (8) The.Dynasts: Part I I , Act VI, Scene 4, p. 501 (9) Thomas Hardy: Chap. VI, p. 173 10) Part I I , Act 1, "Scene 6, p. 168 11) Part I I , Act I, Scene 2, P. 149 Such example as I have quoted show, somewhat i n a d e q u a t e l y , the d i v e r s i t y o f r h y t h m i c e f f e c t s w hich Hardy o b t a i n e d and the a b s o l u t e freedom w i t h which he adapted both rhyme and metre t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r needs. They a r e t y p i c a l a l s o o f t h a t m u s i c a l g i f t o f w h i c h the poet made c o n s t a n t p o e t i c a l u s e . The f a c t w h i c h &nj s u r v e y of Hardy's rhythms, however b r i e f , makes most s t r i k i n g l y a p p a r e n t i s the p e r f e c t u n i t y o f h i s p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n s . He was a b l e t o make an extreme i n d i v i d u a l i s m s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e demands o f rhyme and metre. He moulded an a u s t e r e type o f language i n t o a r e s t r a i n e d e x p r e s s i o n of h i s p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s y . He made h i s e m o t i o n language and rhythms one. • ' THE DYNASTS The Dynas ts , a new and p o w e r f u l a r t f o r m , mass ive i n d imens ion and a s t o n i s h i n g i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s the o u t -s t a n d i n g a r t i s t i c achievement of i t s c e n t u r y . I t i s i n t h r e e p a r t s , n i n e t e e n a c t s and one hundred and twenty-two s c e n e s . No th ing i n the l e a s t l i k e i t has been seen , h e a r d or imagined b e f o r e . W i t h i n i t s e n v e l o p i n g c l o a k , p e a s a n t s , k i n g s , n a t i o n s and p h i l o s o p h i e s s h e l t e r . I t ranks w i t h P a r a d i s e  L o s t and The D i v i n e Comedy, bu t i s l i k e n e i t h e r . The s i n g l e achievement which the cen tu ry g i v e s f o r compar ison i s The R ing and the Book and even t h a t m a g n i f i c e n t s l i c e o f l i f e f a l l s s h o r t of the u n i v e r s a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l scope o f The D y n a s t s . . The a u t h o r c a l l s i t An Sp ic -Drama o f the War w i t h N a p o l e o n . The s u b t i t l e i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the Napoleoni* wars i m m e d i a t e l y become d e f i n i t e and a c t u a l as the a c t i o n c e n t r e s i n e p i c f a s h i o n i n a c e n t r a l f i g u r e . The theme simmered i n the p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r twenty y e a r s . At the end o f t h a t t ime the many e lements had emerged i n a compos i te , an amalgum which had the t e n u i t y o f e p i c , the s t r e n g t h o f drama-and the r e s i s t e n t q u a l i t i e s o f a n o n - c o r r o s i v e and u n w o r l d l i k e s u b s t a n c e - m e t a p h y s i c . H a r d y ' s l i f e - l o n g a b s o r p t i o n i n form s t o o d h im i n good s t e a d as he moulded h i s b u l k y and u n w i e l d y s u b j e c t i n t o a u n i f i e d , and c o n s i s t e n t who le ; as he swung the s t o r i e s o f p e o p l e s and the drama o f f o r c e s about i n an ever r e v o l -v i n g k a l e i d o s c o p i c v i s i o n which the whole i n t r i c a t e scheme b e f o r e the menta l r e t i n a a t once . He thus gave drama a new and extended fo rm, a d d i n g panorama o f a lmost i n f i n i t e scope t o the p r o p e r t i e s o f d ramat i c o p p o s i t i o n and f i n a l l y wrapp ing h u m a n i t y ' s drama i n a n ou te r s h e l l o f a b s t r a c t i o n . The v iew i s t r i p l i c a t e , t h e r e b e i n g th ree l a y e r s o f v i s i o n . The f i r s t i s the a u t h o r ' s as he senses and a r r a n g e s the i n n e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f the movements of n a t i o n s and cosmic f o r c e s . H i s i s the i d e a l i z i n g and motive view o f the whole p e r f o r m a n c e . The second i s the n a t i o n ' s , or h u m a n i t y ' s , as i t f e e l s i t s e l f drawn i n t o the v o r t e x of t ime . T h i s i s the view w i t h i n the a c t i o n . The t h i r d i s the commentatory or i n f i n i t e v iew, t h a t of the i d e a l s p e c t a t o r as e x p r e s s e d i n l y r i c or i r o n i c mood by the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f wor ld tendenc ies , or f o r c e s . In t h i n k i n g about the n o v e l and i t s p o s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n as an a r t form Hardy once made a memorable a n n o t a -t i o n which he n e v e r a p p l i e d to t h a t fo rm, but wh 1 ch he d i d a p p l y to The Dynas ts . He e x p l a i n s tha t a l l a r t must p r o g r e s s 1 72 i f i t i s t o be t r u l y e x p r e s s i v e , and he o u t l i n e s the means of p r o g r e s s t h u s : "The human r a c e t o be shown as one g r e a t network o r t i s s u e w h i c h q u i v e r s i n every p a r t when one p o i n t i s shaken,, l i k e a s p i d e r ' s web I f t o u c h e d , a b s t r a c t r e a l i s m t o be i n t h e form o f s p i r i t s s p e c t r a l , f i g u r e s e t c The r e a l i t i e s t o be t r u e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e , h i t h e r t o c a l l e d a b s t r a c t i o n s . " ( l ) The f a c t t h a t he a p p l i e d , t h i s I m a g i n a t i v e a d d i -t i o n i n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f drama and n a r r a t i v e r a t h e r than i n e i t h e r one a l o n e I s but p r o o f o f an i n n a t e sense o f form which r e a l i z e d the d i f f i c u l t y o f b l e n d i n g such a b s t r a c t and u n e a r t h l y r e a l i s m w i t h the more c o n c r e t e r e a l i s m o f t h e modern n o v e l . T h i s same sense o f form saw t h a t a n a r r a t i v e l o n g enough t o embrace the N a p o l e o n i c s t r u g g l e c o u l d n o t m a i n t a i n the n e c e s s a r y u n i t y u n l e s s the n a t i o n a l , e p i c a l elements were i n some way e q u a l i z e d . There was no way o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s s i n c e Napoleon as a f i g u r e t o w e r e d h i g h above a i l o t h e r s . Hardy's t r i u m p h was a c h i e v e d when he made Napole o n the d r a m a t i c v o r t e x o f , t o use h i s own f i g u r e , the s p i d e r of the web t o which the o t h e r n a t i o n a l heads drew i n . A n o t h e r element o f h i s s u c c e s s was the use w h i c h he made.of the " a c t u a l r e a l i t i e s " . These were t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l p e r -sonages, who, b e i n g o u t s i d e the human drama, saw i t as a whole. They e x p r e s s e d the u l t i m a t e v i e w , w h i l e t h e human drama e x p r e s s e d the immediate one* I p r o p o s e , s i n c e the s u b j e c t i s so l a r g e , t o c o n s i d e r i t f i r s t i n i t s E p i c , Dramatic and Panoramic a s p e c t s a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i n g out the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f the whole i n a f i n a l s u r v e y o f i t s p o e t i c a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l v a l u e s . "And I h e a r d sounds o f i n s u l t , shame and wrong, And t r u m p e t s blown f o r war." I n the e p i c phase o f drama which i s now c o n s i d e r e d the q u o t a t i o n above which a p p e a r s upon the t i t l e page i s i n -t e n s e l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s n o t from the g l o r i o u s or r o m a n t i c p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t t h e t e n y e a r s o f war i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s a "Great H i s t o r i c a l C a l a m i t y or C l a s h o f P e o p l e s , a r t i -f i c i a l l y brought about, some hundred y e a r s ago." As such-Hardy r e g a r d e d i t ; as such i t i s p r e s e n t e d . War t o Hardy was no g l o r i o u s a d v e n t u r e , no s a i l i n g o f f . i n t o u n c h a r t e d seas t o deeds o f d a r i n g ; i t was a s t a r k r e a l i t y of h o r r o r brought about by u n r e c o n c i l i a b l e f o r c e s i n which the p a r t i c u l a r was s a c r i f i c e d t o the g e n e r a l . He has put t h i s r a t h e r c l e a r l y i n a poem w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e f a d i n g g l o r y o f the o l d c o n c e p t i o n , c a l l e d The S i c k B a t t l e - G o d . (2) When he s t r i p s h i s s u b j e c t (1) E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas Hardy: p. 232 (2) Poems o f t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t : p. 88 o f m a r t i a l glamour Hardy takes the f i r s t s t e p , i n e v i t a b l e f o r - h i m , away f rom the e p i c t r a d i t i o n , but when he d i s c a r d s the e p i c atmosphere he c l i n g s to the theme. I t i s s t i l l n a t i o n a l , but the n a t i o n a l e lement i s not l i m i t e d as r e g a r d s the a c t i o n , to a s i n g l e sequence , o r , as r e g a r d s the atmos-p h e r e , to t h a t o f one n a t i o n . The e p i c s e q u e n c e . i s p r o -g r e s s i n g i n segments as E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , A u s t r i a , P r u s s i a , S p a i n and R u s s i a sweep i n t o the s t r u g g l e . The s t o r y of each i s t o l d . The u n i t y o f the c h r o n i c l e depends not on a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i t s f u s i o n w i t h events hut on' the separa te . p o r t r a y a l o f the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f each of the f i v e n a t i o n s . T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s f i n a l l y centres . . . in i n t e n s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n , of the one common menace. The e p i c s t o r y o f eaeh n a t i o n r i s e s to e m o t i o n a l c l i m a x on t h a t c o n -s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s one source o f bo th n a r r a t i v e and dramat i c u n i t y . As each s t r u g g l e c o n t i n u e s the tfaiecioTne^w'/i^each n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s merges w i t h the European one. I t i s then tha t , e p i c and drama merge as the growing f o r c e o f each n a t i o n a l b e i n g t u r n s f rom i t s e l f and f r o n t s H a p o l e o n . There i s one s e n s e , however, i n which the e p i c s i n g l e n e s s o f n a t i o n a l i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d . The s u b ? t i t l e , "An Ep ic -Drama o f the War w i t h H a p o l e o n " , has a s l i g h t l y p r o v i n c i a l f l a v o r . To' each c o u n t r y "the War" meant a c t u a l l y the war as i t concerned t h a t p a r t i -c u l a r n a t i o n . I t i s a t y p i c a l human r e a c t i o n ; i t i s a n e x -p r e s s i o n of the n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s tha t a l l o w s a n a t i o n to m a r s h a l l i t s own d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s i n a s i n g l e b o l d s tand a g a i n s t the enemy. In the mouth o f an E n g l i s h m a n i t c o u l d have but one meaning and such i t has i n H a r d y ' s . He c o n s i d e r e d and s t a t e s i n h i s P r e f a c e , tha t the E n g l i s h s ide o f the N a p o l e o n i c s t r u g g l e had never been p r e s e n t e d i n i t s t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s . H i s emphasis was to be on the E n g l i s h e l ement . The F o r e s c e n e and A c t I . c o n s e q u e n t l y s e t f o r t h t w o . p o i n t s o f v iew supremely impor tant throughout "the drama. They are cosmic and E n g l i s h and they t y p i f y two extremes o f the H a r d i a n g e n i u s which I have t r i e d perhaps f e e b l y to set f o r t h by means o f the n o v e l and the l y r i c poems. In the sense t h a t the whole m o t i v a t i n g i d e a l i z a t i o n comes through E n g l i s h e y e s , the o l d e p i c t r a d i t i o n o f u n i f i c a t i o n h o l d s . In the sense t h a t one c o u n t r y a f t e r another comes i n t o the n a r r a t i v e , y e t t r i u m p h a n t l y m a i n t a i n s i t s own n a t i o n a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e , the t r a d i t i o n breaks and t h e r e are s i x e lements i n s t e a d of one. The o l d e r e p i c s swing i n t o a s t r a i g h t r e c i -t a l o f deed upon deed , w i t h o u t the c o m p l i c a t i o n caused by new and unknown p e r s o n a g e s . The Dynasts , combin ing many e lements , d e p a r t s from v e r t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f I may speak i n t h a t way, o f u n i f i e d n a r r a t i v e sequence, and s u b s t i t u t e s an i n g a t h e r i n g or concave movement i n which the segments of n a r r a t i v e c o n -verge a t a c e n t r a l p o i n t . G i v e n a v i s u a l form t h e r e i s no i l l u s t r a t i o n which more a p t l y f i t s t h i s c o n v e r g i n g . n a r r a t i v e t h a n the one ,o f the s p i d e r ' s web which Hardy u s e d . The f i r s t and o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n of a scheme o f c o n s t r u c t i o n was a l o n g b a l l a d sequence, based on separa te e p i s o d e s i n N a p o l e o n ' s c a r e e r , such, as The Hundred Days and The R e t r e a t f rom Moscow, — "An I l i a d of Europe from 1789-181.5 T h i s note i s d a t e d 1875• (1) I n two y e a r s the i d e a had a d -vanced from b a l l a d sequence t o grand drama. F i n a l l y i t was r e s o l v e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l way as E p i c - D r a m a . I t was r e v o l u -t i o n a r y i n t h a t I t s per fo rmance was t o be a menta l one. As drama The Dynasts i s a w i d e n i n g and expanding o f a l l d ramat i c l i m i t s . The e p i c s c a l e o f the a c t i o n i s the f i r s t e x t e n s i o n . S ince the days of the C h r o n i c l e P l a y s we have become accustomed to a c o n s t a n t t h i n n i n g of d r a m a t i c m a t e r i a l as i t was s u b j e c t e d t o the weakening demands o f c o n v e n t i o n and the a c c e l e r a t i n g tempo of l i f e . The tendency has been towards c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , and towards s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be pu t w i t h i n the compass o f moments h i g h i n d r a m a t i c , v a l u e . D i f f u s e d themes and spread ing , e l o n g a t e d forms have p a s s e d . No drama w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the modern s tage has even a s u g g e s t i o n o f the scope o f The D y n a s t s . Time and space p r o h i b i t . . Hardy was f o r c e d e i t h e r , to g i v e up h i s theme or to adapt some form to h i s n e e d s . I have t r i e d >to show t h a t the e p i c form c o u l d not u n i f y such d i v e r s i f i e d e lements as Hardy u s e d . By making h i s drama a menta l one he escaped c o m p l e t e l y f rom the t ime and s p a c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the t h e a t r e i n t o a wor l d o f h i s own i n which he c o u l d do what p l e a s e d h i m . In t h i s wor l d he cou ld make h i s s e t t i n g Europe and h i s oppos ing f o r c e s a rmies and n a t i o n s i f he w i s h e d . W i t h such heavy m a t e r i a l t h e r e c o u l d be no b i c k e r i n g over moments and i n c h e s . The s c a l e o f the drama had to be r a i s e d to accomodate a rmies and n a t i o n s . In speak ing o f h i s method Hardy s a i d t h a t h i s " C h r o n i c l e p i e c e made no attempt to c o m p l e t e l y c o o r d i n a t e a c t i o n w i t h the c l o s e l y - w e b b e d development of c h a r a c t e r and m o t i v e , wh ich a re demanded i n a drama s t r i c t l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . As a panoramic s h o w - l i k e the >>pre sent i s a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r i -c a l " o r d i n a t e s " ( t o use a t e r m . i n g e o m e t r y ) : the s u b j e c t i s f a m i l i a r to a l l : and foreknowledge i s assumed to f i l l i n the j u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o combine the .scenes i n t o an a r t i s t i c u n i t y . Shou ld the menta l s p e c t a t o r be u n w i l l i n g or unab le to do t h i s , an h i s t o r i c a l presentment on an i n t e r m i t t e n t p l a n , i n which t h e "d ramat i s personae" number some hundreds , e x c l u s i v e o f crowds and a r m i e s , becomes i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l . case u n s u i t a b l e . " He makes h i s p o i n t c l e a r and j u s t i f i e s i t by r e f e r r i n g t o the A t t i c Drama and the t r a d i t i o n a l b a c k -ground i n the minds of the p e o p l e a g a i n s t which the a c t i o n of the Greek p l a y s moved. "Ay: b e g i n s m a l l and so l e a d up to the g r e a t e r . I t i s a sound dramat ic p r i n c i p l e . " (2) 1) The E a r l y l i f e o f Thomas Hardy : p . 140 2) P a r t I , Ac t I , Scene 1, p . 8 7> T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n by the S p i r i t S i n i s t e r must have been one which Hardy had pondered w e l l , f o r he opens h i s drama w i t h e n t i r e l y minor c h a r a c t e r s i n "Wessex", s t r i k i n g an e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h note and mere ly s u g g e s t i n g the f o r c e s which a re g a t h e r i n g i n o p p o s i t i o n to h i s main c h a r a c t e r . Fo r f i v e scenes he b u i l d s up s u c c e s s i v e l y the E n g l i s h s p i r i t and the N a p o l e o n i c l e g e n d ' b e f o r e he b r i n g s M i l a n C a t h e d r a l , pomp and s p l e n d o u r , Napo leon and the Empress i n t o t h e drama. There are many scenes i n which n a t i o n a l f o r c e s o f both s i d e s draw themse lves t o g e t h e r i n what i s r e a l l y l i t t l e more than .. e l a b o r a t e stage s e t t i n g . These g i v e , however, a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of each n a t i o n which i s e s s e n t i a l and p r o v i d e a means whereby the d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s s l i d e i n t o f o c u s . The r e a l a c t i o n beg ins i n P a r t I Act I Scene 4, but i n Eng land there i s p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n s i o n , which weakens the f o r c e of h e r m i l i t a r y t h r e a t s , A u s t r i a f a l l s a v i c t i m i n h e r f i r s t appearance to the v i c t o r i o u s Napo leon . The essen^-t i a l dramat ic check to Napoleon eaomes w i t h T r a f a l g a r , and an a c t w h i c h , s a v i n g the t r a g i c demise o f V i l l e n e u v e , i s e n -t i r e l y E n g l i s h . Such coherence of p l o t s t r u c t u r e as t h e r e i s r e s t s i n the s t e a d i l y r i s i n g E n g l i s h r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h , weakened by the death of P i t t and the r e v e r s e s i n S p a i n , r i s e s t o a f i n a l apex a t the end o f P a r t I I I A c t 4, when Napoleon i s conquered and goes to E l b a . The German and R u s s i a n cam-p a i g n s which occur i n the meantime may be c a l l e d p a r t of the g e n e r a l drawing i n of f o r c e s , but compared w i t h E n g l a n d ' s r e s i s t a n c e tha t o f the o ther n a t i o n s i s s p o r a d i c . Napo leon , the m o t i v a t i n g dramat i c f o r c e , s t e a d i l y expands h i s i n f l u e n c e and t r iumphs from the t ime o f the M i l a n ceremony to tha t o f the Moscow i n v a s i o n , e x c e p t i n g f o r one major check a t T r a f a l g a r and a minor one i n S p a i n . H i s dramatic , c l i m a x e s are Ulm, A u s t e r l i t z and J e n a . H i s p e r -s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a m b i t i o n s are shown i n the A u s t r i a n m a r r i a g e and h i s d e s i r e t o found a d y n a s t y , vrtiieh s tands out i n i r o n i c r e l i e f as he l e a v e s h i s son and h e i r to invade R u s s i a . H i s d o w n f a l l , l i k e h i s t r i u m p h , has t h r e e d ramat i c c l i m a x e s , T r a f a l g a r , Moscow a n d ' W a t e r l o o . The E l b a i m p r i s o n -ment marked a d ramat i c l e v e l f o r a l l f o r c e s c o n c e r n e d , f o l l o w -i n g which they a l l . j o i n e d i n the movement towards 'Waterloo. The u n i t y ' o f - T h e D y n a s t s . d o e s not r e s t upon p l o t s t r u c t u r e . I t i s a c h i e v e d by ex tend ing drama to the scope o f panorama and by p r e s e n t i n g the r e l e n t l e s s f o r c e s and t e n -d e n c i e s which a re beh i n d a l l human a c t i o n i n the g u i s e of m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s . W i t h i n the human drama t h e r e a r e , however, two u n i f y i n g f o r c e s , which a re Napoleon and the E n g l i s h n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . These e n t e r i n t o c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n and as such w i l l be somewhat expanded. The o ther u n i f y i n g element i s H i s t o r y . In t h a t p a r t i c u l a r , the au thor has been most p a i n s t a k i n g and c a r e f u l . The drama i s h i s t o r -i c a l not on ly i n i t s - m a i n a c t i o n , but .a lso i n pe rsonage , document, d e t a i l and s e t t i n g . In g e n e r a l the w o r l d which Hardy p r e s e n t s i s s a t i s f y i n g . Man i s i n h i s c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n ; v a r y i n g t ypes are p r e s e n t e d i n r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . I n f i n i t e numbers of a c t o r s , shown i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n the mass, b u i l d up an i m p r e s s i o n of swarming humanity which i s c l e a r l y h e l d , and wh ich i s so h e l d i n i t s t r u e p r o p o r t i o n s . No s i n g l e hero h o l d s the s tage f o r l o n g e r than h i s l i n e s p e r m i t . C h a r a c t e r o f n e c e s s i t y r e c e i v e s the s c a n t e r a t t e n t i o n t h a t panorama demands. Napo leon as the s u b j e c t o f b u r n i n g a m b i t i o n i s shown i n the scenes which c o n c e r n the A u s t r i a n marr iage and the d i v o r c e o f J o s e p h i n e . H i s i n g r a t i t u d e to V i l l e n e u v e and Ney i s accompanied by an a b s o l u t e i n d i f f e r e n c e to s u f f e r i n g . The l a t t e r q u a l i t y i s shown through the scenes which f o l l o w h i s abandonment•Of the remnants of the army wh ich Invaded R u s s i a , and h i s unbend ing r u t h l e s s n e s s towards the conquered . Once o r twice o n l y , he shows human weakness. He i s a lmost won over by l o u i s e of P r u s s i a . He i s w i l l i n g to s a c r i f i c e a dynasty t o the l i f e o f M a r i e L o u i s e . When he f i n d s t h a t the dynamic f o r c e which i s w i t h i n h im has r e a c h e d i t s down-f a l l , he i s f o r the time dazed and crushed i n the manner of more o r d i n a r y men. H i s t e r r i f i c v i t a l i t y , however, and the sense o f r u t h l e s s f o r c e which t h a t v i t a l i t y g i v e s , i s a l l p e r v a d i n g . The menta l p i c t u r e o f the conqueror i s h a r d to b l o t o u t , but i t i s weakened d r a m a t i c a l l y by H a r d y V p h i l o s o -phy . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the p u r e l y d r a m a t i c e lements of The. .Dynasts . A g a i n and a g a i n t h e r e a r e r e f e r e n c e s t o the compuls ion wh ich unseen f o r c e s b r i n g to bear upon the a c t o r s . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y p u t s the l i n e s " L i f e ' s c u r s e b e g i n s I s e e , w i t h h e l p l e s s n e s s 1" ( l ) i n the mouth o f Napoleon* I t f l a v o r s somewhat the human s i d e of N a p o l e o n ' s a s p i r a t i o n s as they a re shown i n a m a g n i f i c e n t passage i n the l a s t a c t o f the human drama. " I have n o t h i n g more to l o s e But l i f e 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . I s h o u l d have scored A v a s t r e p u t e , s c a r c e p a r a l l e d i n t i m e , As i t d i d n o t , the f a t e s had se rved me best I f i n the t h i c k and thunder o f t o d a y , L i k e N e l s o n , H a r o l d , H e c t o r , C y r u s , S a u l , I had been s h i f t e d from t h i s j a i l o f f l e s h , To wander as a g r e a t e n e d ghost e l s e w h e r e , Y e s , a good d e a t h , to have d i e d p u i y o n d e r f i e l d ; But never a b a l l came p a s s i n g down my way. So, as i t i s , as miss-mark they w i l l dub me; And y e t — I found the crown of F rance i n the m i r e , And w i t h the p o i n t o f my p r e v a i l i n g sword I p i c k e d i t u p l But f o r a l l t h i s and t h i s I s h a l l be n o t h i n g To shou lde r C h r i s t from out the topmost n i c h e (1) P a r t I I I , Ac t V I I , Scene 6, p . ^04 77 In human fame, as onee I f o n d l y f e l t , Was no t f o r me. I came t o o l a t e In t ime To assume the p rophet or the demi -god , A p a r t past, p l a y i n g now. My on ly course To make good showance to p o s t e r i t y Was to i m p l a n t my l i n e upon the t h r o n e , And how shape t h a t , i f now e x t e n s i o n n e a r s ? Great men are meteors tha t consume themse lves To l i g h t the e a r t h . T h i s i s my b u r n t - o u t h o u r . " ( l ) . Joseph ine i s , l i k e M a r i e , a pawn, but h e r h i s t o r y and a c e r t a i n p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r va lue a re g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d i n h e r f i n a l s c e n e . There i s , i n f a c t , some-t h i n g about her p a t h e t i c l o y a l t y and h e r r e f u s a l to b e l i e v e e v i l of Napoleon tha t makes one t h i n k of F a l s t a f f and H e n r y . She i s d y i n g . F i r s t Lady: J o s e p h i n e : F i r s t Lady: J o s e p h i n e : "I t h i n k I h e a r d you. speak, your m a j e s t y ? " "I asked what hour i t was - - i f dawn or eve;?" "Ten i n the morn ing , Madame, You f o r g e t You asked the same but a b r i e f w h i l e a g o . " "D id I? I thought i t was so l o n g ago I . . . . I w ished to go t o E l b a w i t h him much, But the A l l i e s p r e v e n t e d me 1 ; And why? I would n o t have d i s g r a c e d h i m , or themse lves I would have gone to him at F o n t a i n e b l e a u , With my e i g h t h o r s e s and my h o u s e h o l d t r a i n , In d i g n i t y , and q u i t t e d h im no more A l t h o u g h I am h i s w i fe no l o n g e r now, I t h i n k I s h o u l d have gone i n s p i t e of them, Had I not f e a r e d p e r v e r s i o n s might be sown Between him and the woman o f h i s cho i ce Fo r whom he s a c r i f i c e d me." s on t h u s : She speaks of Mar ie L o u i s e and of N a p o l e o n ' s "I a l s o s a i d That when my arms were round h im , I f o r g o t That I was not h i s mother . So spoke I , But oh me ~ I remembered i t too w e l l ! He was a l o v e l y c h i l d : i n h i s f o n d p r a t e H i s f a t h e r ' s v o i c e was e l o q u e n t . " She goes on t h i n k i n g o f h e r f l i r t a t i o n s a n d , r e -g r e t t i n g them, a t tempts to w r i t e t o Napoleon t o t e l l him so - - but cannot . As h e r s t r e n g t h f a i l s , she s a y s : (1) P a r t I I I , A c t V I I , Scene 9, p . >19 78 " T e l l him t h e s e t h i n g s I have s a i d — hear him ray l o v e — T e l l h im —- I c o u l d not w r i t e 1" ( l ) The passage i s superb c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . But t h e r e are few complete f e m i n i n e e h a r a c t e r i z a - ' t i o n s i n the drama. M a r i e L o u i s e i s n e v e r more than a pawn. The E n g l i s h women appear s p a s m o d i c a l l y and a r e g i v e n no v i t a l p a r t s . L o u i s e o f P r u s s i a i s a s t r i k i n g f i g u r e b u t h e r p e r -s o n a l t r a i t s a r e n o t brought out c l e a r l y . The two women who a r e somewhat c o m p l e t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d a r e J o s e p h i n e and the -P a r i s i a n p r o s t i t u t e . (2) I n the case of t h e l a t t e r the im-p r e s s i o n i s f l e e t i n g but s t r o n g . Hardy has done a g r e a t d e a l w i t h a few. l i n e s . The p a r e n t h e s i s i n the' f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the p o i n t . "But she's i n s t r a i t s . She's l o s t h e r Napoleon mow, (A w o r t h y man; He l o v e d a woman w e l l i ) George d r o o l s and b a b b l e s i n a darkened room, Her heaven-born m i n i s t e r d e c l i n e s a pace; A l l smooths the Emperor's sway." I have quoted from the words o f Napoleon and J o s e p h i n e r a t h e r a t l e n g t h i n an e f f o r t t o show Hardy's s k i l l i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The scope of the drama a l l o w e d l i t t l e d e t a i l i n t h a t r e g a r d but what t h e r e i s i s e x c e l l e n t l y h a n d l e d . Hardy a c h i e v e s a g r e a t d e a l w i t h few words.. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of W e l l i n g t o n , the P r i n c e Regent, and P r i n c e KutuTzof, the R u s s i a n F i e l d M a r s h a l l are i n s t a n c e s i n p o i n t . An e q u a l ' s k i l l has b u i l t up what might be termed a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f each n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The method -u s e d i s d i f f e r e n t , f o r h a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c -t e r i z a t i o n i n a few b o l d s t r o k e s , Hardy b u i l d s up n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r by a d d i n g d e t a i l t o d e t a i l . The seenes w h i c h a r e not s p e c i f i c a l l y panoramic or d r a m a t i c i n e f f e c t a r e d e v o t e d m a i n l y to t h i s p u r p o s e . They v a r y g r e a t l y ; some are of h i g h l i f e ; some ar e o f low. There a r e P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e s , p a l a c e scenes and s t r e e t scenes. There i s the g l i t t e r and pomp o f s t a t i o n and the f a t i g u e and m i s e r y o f the common s o l d i e r . The d i v e r s i t y o f w h i c h I speak i s shown by the scene i n London, i n the "Old House o f Commons" as S h e r i d a n and P i t t d e b ate. (;>) I t i s shown by d i v e r s i f i e d t y p e s o f the M i l i t a r y Review on the "Down" (4) when the K i n g and h i s r e t i n u e appear and when c u r i o u s "Wessex" s p e c t a t o r s watch Woman the Review. P r u s s i a emerges n a t i o n a l l y through scenes on the " S t r e e t s of B e r l i n " ( l ) and i n the scene d e s i g n a t e d as "A Room , ove r look i n g a P u b l i c P l a c e " (2), f rom which N a p o l e o n ' s ' t r iumphant e n t r y i s ' observed . The same p a i n s t a k i n g care b u i l d s up each n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r . There are b a l l s such as the famous one i n B r u s s e l s (3) and the one which Napoleon a t t e n d e d i n P a r i s (4), and there i s a f e t e a t V a u x h a l l G a r -dens (5) and a scene a t the Opera ( b ) . I have a l l u d e d p r e -v i o u s l y to s t r e e t scenes i n both P a r i s and London. The wide survey of humani ty which i s taken i n the scenes I have i n s t a n c e d i s the t a n g i b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f one phase o f H a r d y ' s g e n i u s . The same, phase was e x h i b i t e d i n the note which f o l l o w s - - "To i n s e c t s the twe lve month has been an epoch , to l e a v e s a l i f e , t o t w e e t i n g b i r d s a g e n e r a t i o n , t o man a y e a r . " ( 7 ) ' T h i s shows the sense of r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r o p o r t i o n which s o r t e d . o u t and p r e s e n t e d the many t y p e s o f peop le and the d i v e r s i f i e d backgrounds o f The D y n a s t s . T h i s same sense o f p r o p o r t i o n and r e l a t i o n g i v e s the knowledge, i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and p o e t r y a l i k e , which makes' the b a s i c s t r u c -t u r e s t r o n g enough to c a r r y the v a u l t e d h e i g h t s o f the com-p l e t e d work. T h i s sense o f p r o p o r t i o n was i n t e g r a l i n Hardy . I t was p a r t o f the i n n e r - e x p e r i e n c e which made h i s p o e t r y . I t gave t h a t p o e t r y c o h e s i o n and s t r e n g t h . I t r e s o l v e d i n t o a sense o f form which i s one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t i e s o f h i s s t y l e . The opening prose s tage d i r e c t i o n "two columns o f s h i p s appear i n f u l l s a i l , s m a l l as moths to the a e r i a l V i s i o n " (8) w i t h the . l i n e s which f o l l o w , shows not on ly a sense o f p e r s p e c t i v e but a sense o f p r o p r i e t y as w e l l . I t i s the l a t t e r which I am c o n s i d e r i n g . The chant of the i n -t o n i n g R e c o r d i n g a n g e l immed ia te l y p l a c e s the s p e c t r a l f o r c e s o u t s i d e the a c t u a l drama o f l i f e ye t makes t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t e d wisdom a s o r t o f prophecy as t o the outcome o f the s t r u g g l e . The sense of p r o p r i e t y immed ia te l y s h i f t s the p o i n t of v iew to the v e r y midd le of the a c t i o n as the f l e e t s draw i n to b a t t l e . At the same time the p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n s h i f t s from the l y r i c a l monotone and m u s i c a l rhymed verse o f the u n -e a r t h l y b e i n g s to the rhythms o f a c t u a l speech which make the c o l l o q u i a l b l a n k verse spoken i n the a c t u a l drama. T h i s b l ank v e r s e marks a change i n both' rhythm and c h a r a c t e r , f o r (1) P a r t I I , A c t I , Scene 3, p . 153 (2) P a r t I I , Ac t I , Scene 5, p . 160 (3) P a r t I I I , A c t V I , Scene 2, p . 454 (4) P a r t I I , A c t V, Scene 1, p . 253 (5) P a r t I I I , A c t I I , Scene 4,' p . 372 (b) P a r t I I I , A c t IV , Scene 8, p . 424 . (7) The E a r l y L i f e o f Thomas H a r d y : p. 72 (8) P a r t I , A c t V ,Seenei , 1, p . 8 l Hardy s y n c h r o n i z e s speech, and n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n such uncouth images as t h i s — • "The o v e r c r o w d e d : s a i l s Bu lge l i k e b lown bladder*" i n a t r i p e m a n ' s shop The market-morn ing a f t e r s l a u g h t e r day I" I t i s a F rench v iew of E n g l i s h i n s o l e n c e but a-p e t t y o f f i c e r ' s mut te red response makes the image s i n i s t e r . " I t ' s morn ing b e f o r e s l a u g h t e r d a y w i t h u s , I make so b o l d to bode I" T h i s sense o f p r o p r i e t y keeps the c h a r a c t e r o f H e l s o n c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t i n s p i t e of the d i n of b a t t l e . I t a l s o p u t s the i d iom of a n a t i o n of gourmants i n k e e p i n g w i t h the n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n p h r a s e s which speak o f food and the " c o o k ' s skimmer" as the f l e e t s engage. I t c a r r i e s "Wessex" i n t o a c t i o n w i t h a young o f f i c e r as he says to H e l s o n : "That f e l l o w i n the m i z z e n - t o p , my l o r d , Who made i t h i s a f f a i r to wing you t h u s , We took good care to s e t t l e ; and he f e l l l i k e an o l d r o o k , smack from h i s p e r c h , Stone deadf." How p e r f e c t I How c o n s i s t e n t l y and t r u l y "Wessex" I As the time o f N e l s o n ' s p a s s i n g nears e m o t i o n a l t enseness i n c r e a s e s i n the words of a l l who s p e a k ; . t h e b l a n k v e r s e b e -comes more broken i n the rhythm. F i n a l l y — the C h a p l a i n ' s 6 s • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • he has homed to where T h e r e ' s no more s e a l " r a i s e s the o l d and u n i v e r s a l image o f a c l o s i n g l i f e about which Requiem and C r o s s i n g the Bar have thrown the s p e l l o f their- e x q u i s i t e m u s i c . The passage i s p e r f e c t and s a t i s -f y i n g and i n t h a t the moment i s so s i m p l y p u t , i n t h a t no p o e t i c g lamour b l u r s the image, i n tha t the noun has changed to v e r b , i t i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t y p i c a l o f Hardy . The consummate a r t which w i t h a few b o l d s t r o k e s c h a r a c t e r i z e s both N e l s o n and C a p t a i n Hardy so p e r f e c t l y a l s o •presents the m e t a p h y s i c a l personages s u p e r b l y . The r a p i d , b roken speech rhythms o f b lank v e r s e , which have been used f o r the human a c t i o n g i v e way t o more s t a t e l y v e r s e s as the s p i r i t of the P i t i e s s p e a k s . T h i s S p i r i t put f o r t h s h o r t l y the f l a w i n w o r l d l y arrangements a g a i n s t which Hardy r e b e l s . I t i s done i n a b l a n k v e r s e speechoff our teen l i n e s which c o n -tends t h a t a mechanized u n i v e r s e s h o u l d not g o v e r n an emo-t i o n a l i z e d man. The l i n e s are f i l l e d wi t h what might be termed a cosmic v o c a b u l a r y s i n c e w i t h Hardy the v o c a b u l a r y a r i s e s a t the moment w h e n . h i s v iew changes from the human sphere to cosmic r e l a t i o n s . The words used are l o n g e r , u s u a l l y o f h e a v i e r vowel c o n t e n t ; sometimes they a r e s c i e n -t i f i c or n e a r l y so as i n '' 'mechanized", " c o i l " , " p i v o t s " ; t h e y are f r e q u e n t l y t y p i c a l of the p h i l o s o p h y as " n e c e s s i t a -t i o n " and "governance" p r o v e ; sometimes, they sound the note o f r e v o l t wh ich the s t range phrase " thorough sphered m e l o d i c r u l e " , sugges ts when i n i t s p r o p e r c o n t e x t . These same words a re n e a r l y a lways muted to the note of n e g a t i o n which was ment ioned as t y p i c a l of the l y r i c mood, by some such word as " i n e x i s t " , or by the d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of i n s e n t i e n t w i l l wh ich comes w i t h passages l i k e the f o l l o w i n g : "The cogn izance ye mourn, l i f e ' s doom to f e e l , I f I r e p o r t i t m e e t l y , came unmeant Emerg ing w i t h b l i n d g ropes from i m p e r e i p i e n c e By l i s t l e s s sequence — l u c k l e s s t r a g i c chance, In your, more human t o n g u e . " • The words which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y g i v e the e f f e c t of n e g a t i o n i n t h i s passage are "unmeant", " i m p e r e i -p i e n c e " , " l i s t l e s s " , " l u c k l e s s " . These words added to " c o g n i z a n c e " , "doom", " b l i n d g r o p e s " , and " t r a g i c chance" make up the cosmic v o c a b u l a r y o f the p a s s a g e . H a r d y ' s humour i s nowhere more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a n i n the scene , m a i n l y p r o s e , which marks the r e t u r n of N e l s o n ' s body to h i s n a t i v e l a n d . The t y p i c a l Eng l i shman o f the lower m idd le c l a s s i s here shown as boatman and burgher meet i n .an i n n ( l ) and as two London c i t i z e n s chat on the s t r e e t , (2) i n scenes which are l a i d i n "South V/essex" and "The G u i l d h a l l , London . " The f o l l o w i n g wel l -known passage w i l l se rve t o i l l u s t r a t e : • F i r s t Boatman ( l o w e r i n g h i s v o i c e ) "But what happened was t h i s . They were a l o n g t ime coming, owing to c o n t r a r y w i n d s , and the " v i c t o r y " b e i n g l i t t l e more than a wreck . And grog r a n s h o r t , because t h e y ' s u s e d near a l l they had to p e c k l e h i s body i n . B o -th ey broached the a d m ' l . " Sec ond Burgher . "How?" •First Boatman. ' " f t e l l ; the p l a i n c a l e n d a r of i t i s , tha t when he came to be unhooped, i t was found tha t the crew had drunk him d r y . What was the men to do? Broke down by the b a t t l e , and h a r d l y - a b l e to keep a f l o a t , ' twas a most dependable t h i n g , and i t f a i r l y saved t h e i r l i v e s . So he was t h e i r s a l v a t i o n (1) P a r t I , Ac t Y, Scene 7, p . 10b (2) P a r t I , A c t V, Scene 5, p . 100 a f t e r dea th as he-had been i n the f i g h t . I f he c o u l d have : laiowed i t , ' twou ld have p l e a s e d hi-me down to the ground I How'a would have laughed th rough the s p i g o t - h o l e . "Draw on, my h e a r t i e s ! B e t t e r - 1 s h r i v e l t h a n you f a m i s h I Ha-ha I"" Second Burgher . " I t may be dependable a f l o a t ; but i t seems queer a s h o r e . " Such humour i s not e l e v a t i n g but i t i s amusing and the e f f e c t which i t g i v e s i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o b t a i n e d by the r u s t i c chorus i n F a r From the Madding Crowd. The humour changes t o s t a r k r e a l i t y i n a l a t e r s cene , t h a t o f the drunken' d e s e r t e r s i n S p a i n , ( l ) w h i c h has but one redeeming c o n t r a s t , t h a t f u r n i s h e d by the h e r o i c cough ing s e r g e a n t . (2) T h i s same r e a l i s m c a r r i e s th rough a g r e a t number o f scenes d e a l i n g w i t h the Span i sh campaign. I t f u r n i s h e s h i g h r e l i e f ; i t i s d r a m a t i c but i t i s s c a r c e l y -poetry . I t shows the a b s o l u t e f reedom, however , w i t h which Hardy manages h i s m a t e r i a l and i t i s one of the means by which he m a i n t a i n s a sense o f - r e a l i t y s u f f i c i e n t to support a theme and a c t i o n so e x t e n s i v e . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to a n a l y z e The Dynasts w i t h o u t complete t e d i o u s n e s s s i n c e the scope o f the drama a lmost i n s i s t s tha t i t be i t s own argument. I have been s e e k i n g m e r e l y to show the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which Hardy kept h i s main t h r e a d s c l e a r . In g e n e r a l the n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s emerge c l e a r l y . Whi le t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n s p a r s e n e s s i n c h a r a c t e r i -z a t i o n the few c h a r a c t e r s - w h o are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a re a s t o n i s h i n g l y a l i v e . . The b a t t l e which i n o l d e r dramas has been b e h i n d the s c e n e s , or i f p r e s e n t has appeared as mere b u r l e s q u e becomes m a g n i f i c e n t s p e c t a c l e i n The D y n a s t s . I t becomes a main m o t i f o f p l o t as c o n v e r g i n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e a lmost too g i g a n t i c to v i s u a l i z e marches i n t o our c o n -s c i o u s n e s s . The f i n a l success of t h i s d ramat i c p r o c e s s which u n f o l d s i n such s t a r t l i n g f a s h i o n r e s t s upon i t s panoramic c h a r a c t e r , upon the f r i n g e s o f which'we have t o u c h e d . Even the heavens e n l a r g e : "The n e t h e r sky opens and Europe i s d i s c l o s e d as a prone and emac ia ted f i g u r e , the A l p s s h a p i n g l i k e a back-bone , and the b r a n c h i n g m o u n t a i n - c h a i n s l i k e r i b s , the p e n i n -s u l a r p l a t e a u of S p a i n forming a h e a d . Broad and l e n g t h y lowlands s t r e t c h from the n o r t h o f F rance a c r o s s R u s s i a l i k e a g r e y - g r e e n garment , hemmed by the U r a l Mountains and the g l i s t e n i n g A r c t i c Ocean. (1) P a r t I I , A c t I I I , Scene 1, p. 206 - 210 (2) P a r t I I , A c t I I I , Scene 1, p. 20'/ 85 "The p o i n t o f v iew s i n k s downward through space , and draws near t o the s u r f a c e of the p e r t u r b e d c o u n t r i e s , where the p e o p l e s , d i s t r e s s e d by events which they d i d not cause a re seen w r i t h i n g , c r a w l i n g , h e a v i n g and v i b r a t i n g i n t h e i r v a r i o u s c i t i e s and n a t i o n a l i t i e s . " "A new and p e n e t r a t i n g l i g h t descends on the s p e c t a c l e , imbuing men and t h i n g s w i t h a seeming t r a n s p a r e n c y , and e x h i b i t i n g as one organism the anatomy o f l i f e and move-ment i n a i l humanity and v i t a l i z e d mat te r i n c l u d e d i n the d i s p l a y . " ( l ) Such i s the s e t t i n g , no t o n l y panoramic but s u f f u s e d by a s t range and u n e a r t h l y l i g h t which makes v i t a l i z e d mat ter t r a n s p a r e n t and wh ich r e v e a l s the i n n e r and a n i m a t i n g Immanent W i l l . A s e t t i n g of t h i s k i n d i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c . By the ruse of i l l u s i o n Hardy conveys i n a s t r i k i n g l y v i s u a l c o n c e p t i o n the essence o f the a b s t r a c t i d e a s tha t express u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s to h i m . In e x t e n d i n g the l i m i t s of the a c t i o n to v a s t h e i g h t s of sky he not on ly g e t s the cosmic . r e l a t i v i t y which he d e s i r e s but he a t t a i n s a v i s u a l compre-h e n s i v e n e s s which c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n no o t h e r way. The i m a g i n a t i o n o f Thomas Hardy has a c h i e v e d i n l i t e r a t u r e what a e r i a l photography a c h i e v e d f o r s c i e n c e . I t g i v e s a f a r and d i m i n i s h i n g view and l i k e photography p r e s e n t s a s p r e a d out f l a t t e n e d geography i n which the eye,- accustomed to both n a t u r a l and c a r e f u l l y a r r a n g e d p e r s p e c t i v e , f i n d s no v a n i s h -i n g p o i n t . T h i s q u a l i t y o f f l a t n e s s g i v e s a s t r a n g e l a t e r a l sameness which would be deadening were i t not r e l i e v e d by the c o n t r a s t s p r o v i d e d by cosmic and n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . When., as he sometimes does , Hardy s t e p s from the n a t u r a l environment to t h a t of a god or a modern machine he g i v e s h i m s e l f a p o e t i c l i c e n s e tha t has not been taken s i n c e Dante descended i n t o H e l l and M i l t o n ascended t o the Heavens . I t i s the p e c u l i a r p r e r o g a t i v e of g r e a t gen ius to see thus out o f the a c t u a l w o r l d i n t o a w o r l d w i t h o u t bounds made by the mind f o r i t s e l f . The panoramic scene i s u s e d to show movements of a rmies - - f a r and n e a r . I t i n v a r i a b l y i n t e n s i f i e s the t r u e d ramat i c a c t i o n . • An i n s t a n c e i n p o i n t i s the scene i n which G e n e r a l Mack s u r r e n d e r s h i s sword to Napoleon a f t e r the B a t t l e o f U lm. (2) The A u s t r i a n o f f i c e r s l a y down t h e i r , swords. Then f o l l o w s the l o n g f i l i n g p a s t o f the A u s t r i a n s o l d i e r s which i s suggested by e v e r l e s s e n i n g p rose d i r e c t i o n s th rough an e n t i r e l o n g scene which i n c l u d e s both a c t u a l and s p e c t r a l p e r s o n a g e s . The f i l i n g p a s t marks' a p e r p e t u a l move-ment b e f o r e Napoleon and h i s s t a f f which s i g n i f i e s both the power o f the man and the c o l o s s a l t r a g e d i e s which he c a u s e s . I t g i v e s an a lmost monotonous sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y and c a l l s up u n c o n s c i o u s l y the au tomat i c f u n c t i o n i n g of the human w i l l (-1) P a r t I , F o r e s e e n e , p. 6 (2) P a r t I , A c t IV, Scene 4, p . 74 which Hardy w ishes t o emphas ize . An e x h i b i t i o n o f the same kind: comes i n dumb show as Napoleon u rges h i s a rmies over the Danube. (1) At the f i e l d o f Water loo the extended view shows . .actua l d ramat i c c o n f l i c t as one army surges a g a i n s t the o t h e r . Throughout the e n t i r e l a s t a c t of the drama the v iewp>p i i i t l pe rpe tua l l y .hovers above the F rench and E n g l i s h p o s i t i o n s i n such a way as t o p resent the e n t i r e a c t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . (2) Such a v i e w p o i n t overcomes not only d i s -tance but t i m e . The p o e t r y of The Dynasts i s s imp ly a c a r r y i n g " on o f the t e n d e n c i e s which have been n o t e d i n the l y r i c and d ramat i c v e r s e . The b l a n k verse has been c r i t i c i z e d some-t imes f o r i t s l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n a n d i t s l e v e l t o n e . . I have t r i e d t o show t h a t the c o l l o q u i a l language i n some p a r t s has been one means o f p e r s o n a l and n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The . l e v e l tone h a s , I t h i n k , been adopted c o n s c i o u s l y as a means o f th rowing the l y r i c p o e t r y of the m e t a p h y s i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i n t o s t r i k i n g r e l i e f . The b lank v e r s e , w h i l e l a c k i n g i n the t h u n d e r i n g g l o r y of the language o f T a m b u r l a i n e , i s s t i l l adequate f o r the purposes o f the p o e t . Hardy does not s i n g a g l o r i o u s w o r l d nor of some one, com-p e l l i n g , v i t a l urge w i t h i n man such as the l u s t o f power i n Tambur la ine or the g r e e d o f knowledge i n D r . F a u s t u s . He i s p r e s e n t i n g an i d e a l i z a t i o n which d e a l s w i t h man i n phases o f h i s exper i ence which show h i s p o w e r l e s s n e s s b e f o r e cosmic f o r c e s and which thwart h i s e f f o r t s a t e n f o r c i n g h i s own w i l l . N a p o l e o n ' s l u s t f o r power drove him on and on but Hardy makes i t an a t t r i b u t e not on ly o f Napoleon but of cosmic f o r c e s as w e l l . Napo leon i s sometimes an automaton. In the f i r s t a c t o f P a r t I I I , he muses t h u s : . • "Napoleon ( w i t h sudden .despondency) That which has worked w i l l work . — s i n c e L o d i .. ; ' B r i d g e The f o r c e I t h e n f e l t move me, moves me onw Whether I w i l l or no ; and o f t e n t i m e s A g a i n s t my b e t t e r m i n d . . . . W h y am I h e r e ? — By l aws . imposed on me i n e x o r a b l y ! H i s t o r y makes use o f me to weave h e r web To h e r l o n g w h i l e a f o r e t i m e —• f i g u r e d mesh And contemplated c h a r a c t e r y : no more. W e l l , w a r ' s my t r a d e ; and whence soever s p r i n g s T h i s one i n hand, t h e y ' l l l a b e l i t wi t h my name J"(3) Constant i n s i s t a n c e on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase of . man's e x i s t e n c e n a t u r a l l y tones the v e r s e to a s i m i l a r k e y . En thus iasm, hope and e x u l t a t i o n i n t h e i r extremes would seem out of p l a c e i n H a r d y ' s w o r l d where a c e r t a i n u s e l e s s n e s s o f 1) P a r t I I , A c t 17,. Scene 2, p . 234 2) P a r t I I I , A c t V I I , p . 484 (3) P a r t I I I , Ac t I , Scene 9, g . 330 e f f o r t makes i t s e l f a p p a r e n t . • TnWhenirije • vwish.ese t e a t o e x p r e s s the more i d e a l i s t i c s i d e s of drama he aoes so by u s i n g the s p e c t r a l p e r s o n a g e s . Sometimes, however, i n scenes such as the one I' have a l r e a d y i n s t a n c e d o f the R e t r e a t from Moscow, Hardy o b t a i n s a m a g n i f i c e n t e f f e c t by m i n g l i n g r a t h e r u n i m a g i n a t i v e b l a n k v e r s e w i t h p r o s e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s and s p e c t r a l comment. Sometimes the p o e t i c f l a v o r i s im-bedded i n t h e p r o s e w h i l e the b l a n k v e r s e i s m e r e l y commen-t a t o r y o r e x p l a n a t o r y . S p i r i t o f t h e P i t i e s . • "The s t r a n g e , one-eyed, w h i t e - s h a k o e d , s c a r r e d o l d man, R u t h l e s s l y h e a d i n g e v e r y onset made, I seem t o r e c o g n i z e . " S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s . " K u t u z o f he: The c e a s e l e s s l y — a t t a c k e d one, M i c h a e l Hey, A g a i n as" s t o u t as t h o u , E a r t h , e v e r has twirnmed 1 K u t u z o f , t e n y e a r s younger, w o u l d e x t i r p The i n v a d e r s , and our drama f i n i s h h e r e , With B o n a p a r t e , a c a p t i v e or a c o r p s e . But he i s o l d ; " ( l ) The most i n t e n s e l y p o e t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s i n the scene under d i s c u s s i o n l i e i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the " f l a k e o f snow" and the l i k e n i n g o f the r e t r e a t i n g army t o a " c a t e r p i l l a r " , and the r a b b l e w h i c h f o l l o w e d i t t o "an a r t i -c u l a t e d t a i l " . These a r e imbedded i n s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h precede and f o l l o w the passage quoted. The passage i s a t y p i c a l one. I t has the u s u a l s m a t t e r i n g o f compounds i n "one-eyed", " w h i t e - s h a k o e d " , and " c e a s e l e s s l y - a t t a c k e d " , and f r e q u e n t l y s h o r t e n e d v e r b a l form i n " e x t i r p " , but i t has l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s e l f . I n i t s c o n t e x t i t i s the one note o f human drama even though i t comes from a s p i r i t . The g e n e r a l tone i s s e t by panorama and m e t a p h y s i c s . I n t h e n e x t scene, however, t h e r e i s no b l a n k v e r s e w h a t e v e r . The whole scene i s s p e c t r a l . ' The v e r s e s a r e c o u p l e t s and t e r c e t s , w h i c h form a b e a u t i f u l and u n e a r t h l y comment. Chorus "Then women a r e seen i n the w a t e r f l o w l i m p l y b e a r i n g t h e i r i n f a n t s between w i z e n e d arms s t r e t c h i n g above; Yea, motherhood, s h e e r l y s u b l i m e i n h e r L a s t d e s p a i r i n g , and l i g h t i n g h e r d a r k e s t (1) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 9, p. 352 D e c l e n s i o n w i t h l i m i t l e s s l o v e . u (1) The Chorus i s the s p e c t r a l comment, as the b r i d g e over the B e r e s i n a goes down. The l o n g s u s t a i n e d rhythms of* the e i g h t - s t r e s s a n a p e s t i c v e r s e s g i v e way to the s h o r t e r v e r s e s of the t e r c e t s where in anapes t s and d a c t y l s m ing le t h u s : Semi. Chorus I o f the P i t i e s ' ( a e r i a l mus ic) "What w i l l be seen i n the morn ing l i g h t ? What w i l l be l e a r n t when the s p r i n g b reaks b r i g h And the f r o s t u n l o c k s to the s u n ' s s o f t s i g h t . " Semi Chorus I I "Death i n a thousand mot ley forms; Char red c o r p s e s hook ing each o t h e r ' s arms In the s l e e p tha t d e f i e s a l l w a r ' s a la rms I " Chorus "Pa le c y s t s o f s o u l s i n every s t a g e , S t i l l bent to embraces o f l o v e or r a g e , — S o u l s p a s s e d to where H i s t o r y pens no p a g e . " (2) In the f o l l o w i n g scene t h e r e i s g r e a t e r r e a l i s m ; a g a i n t h e r e i s b lank v e r s e . F i r s t S o l d i e r (dazed) "What - - gone, do you say? Cone?" S t r a g g l e r "Yea, I say gone 1 He l e f t us. a t 3morgoni hours ago . The S a c r e d Squadron even he has l e f t b e h i n d , -By t h i s t ime h e ' s a t Warsaw or beyond, F u l l pace f o r P a r i s . " (3) T h i s r a t h e r u n i n s p i r e d passage r e s u l t s i n the macabre and p e r f e c t "Mad S o l d i e r ' s Song . " "Ha, f o r the snow and hoar I Ho, f o r our f o r t u n e ' s made 1 We can shape our bed w i thout s h e e t s to spread , (1) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 10, p. 356 (2) P a r t I ' l l , A c t I , Scene 10, p. 356 (3) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 11, p. 357 And our g raves w i thout a spade . So f o o l i s h l i f e a d i e u , And i n g r a t e Leader t o o . a h , out we l o v e d you t r u e I Yet — he-he-he 1 and h o - h o - h o l — W e ' l l never r e t u r n . t o fcou. What can we w ish f o r more? Thanks to the f r o s t and f l o o d — V/e a re g r i n n i n g c r o n e s — t h i n hags o f hones Who once were f l e s h and b l o o d . So f o o l i s h l i f e a d i e u And i n g r a t e l e a d e r t o o . - - oh but we l o v e d you t r u e ! Ye t - - he-he-he I and ho-ho-ho i — We'11 never r e t u r n t o y o u . " (1) There i s something about t h e r a p i d movement and the s t r o n g beat o f d a c t y l s i n the opening f e e t of the f i r s t two v e r s e s which e n a b l e s t h i s song to g i v e both an a u d i b l e and v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n . The s o l d i e r ' s w i l d dance of death i s symbo l i c o f the whole R e t r e a t from Moscow. With the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a b i t o f r e f r a i n s tanzas the v e r s e s v a r y i n l e n g t h but the s i n g l e l o n g v e r s e might be broken i n t o two s h o r t e r ones s i n c e there a r e i n t e r i o r rhymes i n "bed" and " s p r e a d " , " c r o n e s " and " b o n e s " . The c o n t i n u o u s s h i f t i n g o f iambs, anapes ts and d a c t y l s i n the rhythm, which y e t r e -t a i n s the s t r o n g beat s u g g e s t i v e o f s tamping f e e t , makes one c o n s c i o u s of some o l d dance t u n e . There i s no poet who .does t h i s as o f t e n as Hardy does . He not on ly uses dance a n d . s o n g i n t h e i r u s u a l way but he f r e q u e n t l y uses t h e i r rhythms as the b a s i s o f o ther poems. I t i s w i t h t r u e c o n -s i s t e n c y t h a t he e x p r e s s e s the t e r r i b l e r e s u l t s of the Moscow i n v a s i o n i n a song and dance . Fo r the Frenchmen i t was a dance of d e a t h . The prose s tage d i r e c t i o n s which f o l l o w complete the a c t as f a r as the F rench are concerned . They r e a d t h u s : • " the f r o s t s t i f f e n s . The f i r e s i n k s and goes ou t ; but the Frenchmen do no t move. The day dawns and s t i l l they s i t on . " In the background e n t e r some l i g h t h o r s e of the R u s s i a n army, f o l l o w e d by K u t u z o f h i m s e l f and a few of h i s s t a f f , He p r e s e n t s a t e r r i b l e appearance now — b r a v e l y s e r v i n g thougli s l owing d y i n g , h i s f ace p u f f e d wi th the i n -tense c o l d , h i s one eye s t a r i n g out as .he s i t s i n a heap i n the s a d d l e , h i s head sunk i n t o h i s s h o u l d e r s . . The whole de -tachment pauses a t the s i g h t o f the F rench a s l e e p . They shout ; b u t . t h e b i v o u a e k e r s g i v e no s i g n . " (1) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 11, p. 358 K u t u z o f "Go, s t i r them up I We s l a y not s l e e p i n g men." "The R u s s i a n s advance and p rod the F rench w i t h t h e i r l a n c e s . " 'R u s s i an O f f i c e r " P r i n c e , h e r e ' s a c u r i o u s p i c t u r e . They are dead. K u t u z o f ( w i t h i n d i f f e r e n c e ) "Oh, n a t u r a l l y . A f t e r the snow was down I marked a s h a r p e n i n g o f the a i r l a s t n i g h t We s h a l l be s t u m b l i n g on-such f r o s t - b a k e d meats Most o f the way t o W i l n a . " ' O f f i c e r (examin ing the b o d i e s ) "They a l l s i t as t h e y were l i v i n g s t i l l , but s t i f f as bones And even the c o l o u r has not l e f t t h e i r cheeks , Whereon the t e a r s rema in i n s t r i n g s o f i c e , I t was a marve l they were not consumed: T h e i r c l o t h e s a re c i n d e r e d by the f i r e i n f r o n t , Whi le a t t h e i r back the f r o s t has caked them h a r d . K u t u z o f " ' T i s w e l l , so f i n i s h R u s s i a ' s enemiesI" "Exeunt K u t u z o f , h i s s t a f f , and the detachment o f horse i n the d i r e c t i o n o f W i l n a ; and w i t h the advance of day the snow resumes i t s - f a l l , s l o w l y b u r y i n g the dead b i v o u a c k e r s . " ( l ) In the scenes from which I have been q u o t i n g Hardy a c h i e v e s the most complete and awfu l r e a l i s m , but t h a t r e a l i s m m in g les w i t h the l y r i c beauty of the s p e c t r a l c h a n t s . The f l a k e s o f snow which s i g n a l l e d the approach o f the Rus-s i a n w i n t e r a re s t i l l f a l l i n g as the scene c l o s e s . Nature i n t e n s i f i e s the s u f f e r i n g . Nature i s , a s Hardy a l w a y s i n -s i s t s - - i n d i f f e r e n t . • I have t r i e d to i l l u s t r a t e the methods by which Hardy a c h i e v e s h i s d ramat i c e f f e c t s . I have a l l u d e d to h i s r a t h e r u t i l i t a r i a n use o f b l a n k verse and to, the u n e x a l t e d l e v e l tone which i t a c h i e v e s . E a r l i e r In She paper I quoted passages which concern the deaths of N e l s o n and of Joseph ine i n an at tempt to show both c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s and the o c c a -( 1 ) P a r t I I I , Ac t I , Scene 1 1 , p. 359 s i o n a l h e i g h t s o f beauty to which t h i s same verse can r i s e . The l y r i c a l g i f t and the m u s i c a l backgrounds of which I have p r e v i o u s l y spoken are i n t h i s passage r e p r e s e n t e d by the c h a n t s , and The Had . S o l d i e r ' s Song. The imagery and the a l l u s i o n s which c o l o r the p o e t r y o f The Dynasts e i t h e r t y p i f y the"Wessex" i n f l u e n c e or the r e s e r v e which i s a lways an a t t r i b u t e of H a r d y ' s poems. A few examples such as the f o l l o w i n g w i l l se rve to i l l u s t r a t e . "The r i v e r coops them s e m i - c i r c l e - w i s e , And we" s h a l l have them l i k e a swathe o f g r a s s , W i t h i n a s i d e ' s curve I" ( l ) T h i s i s the v e r y essence of r u s t i c i t y , from the p e c u l i a r use of the word "coops" i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r i v e r , t o the "swathe o f g r a s s " and the " s i d e ' s c u r v e " . An e q u a l l y r u s t i c note i s s t r u c k by an a l l u s i o n to cock f i g h t i n g i n " I t c l a p s a m u f f l e r r o u n d t h i s c o c k ' s s t e e l s p u r s " , (2) An i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the same q u a l i t y w h i c h , however , embodies an i r o n i c note as w e l l , occurs i n a prose s tage d i r e c t i o n t h u s : "Cocks crow t h i n k i n g i t i s s u n r i s e ere they are b u r n t - t o . d e a t h . " The f i r s t q u o t a t i o n i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t i v e of the f l a i r f o r f o r m , that l o v e f o r the c l e a r cu t edge o f t h i n g s wh ich i s so n o t i c e a b l e i n H a r d y ' s imagery . He uses the " s i d e " i n an e n v e l o p i n g s e n s e , but one i s c o n s c i o u s of the image o f the " s i c l e " by i t s e l f . He notes i t s curve j u s t as he has n o t e d the curve of the moon's edge, or as he n o t e s the o u t l i n e s o f a face i n , "Yes , by God, H i s f a c e as c l e a r - c u t as the edge o f a c l o u d The sun beh ind shows u p . " (3) I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s r u s t i c a l l u s i o n and imagery f r e q u e n t p r o v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n s a re f o u n d . The S p i r i t S i n i s t e r , h a v i n g i t seems, l e s s c u l t u r e than the o ther s p e c -t r a l b e i n g s , uses them f r e q u e n t l y . l o r d ""Yet t h e r e b y E n g l i s h f o l k are f r e e d h i m , F a i t h , as a n c i e n t peop le s a y . I t ' s ah i l l wind tha t blows good l u c k to n o n e ! " ( 1 ) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 3, p.337 • ( 2 ) P a r t I , A c t IV, Scene 1, p . 66 (3) P a r t I I I , Act V I , Scene 3, p . 4 3 2 M i n i s t e r "Who i s y o u r f r i e n d , tha t drops so a i r i l y T h i s p r e c i o u s p i n c h o f s a l t on our ra?/ s k i n ? " (1) Lady "Something u n c a n n y 1 s i n i t a l l , i f t r u e , Good L o r d , the thought g i v e s me a sudden sweat, That f a i r l y makes my l i n e n s t i c k to me I" (2) S p i r i t S i n i s t e r " S m a l l blame to h e r , however; she must cut her coat a c c o r d i n g t o h e r c l o t h , as they wou ld say below t h e r e . " (3) I t w i l l be observed tha t both the L o r d and the M i n i s t e r of the f i r s t e x c e r p t speak w i t h a pungent count ry i d i o m and . that the l a d y o f the second does not mince h e r words i n any c o u r t l y f a s h i o n . . The p r o v e r b i a l remark of the S p i r i t S i n i s t e r i s t y p i c a l of the homely p h r a s e s which he o f t e n u s e s . In d i r e c t a n t i t h e s i s to these downright and f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n s of the r u s t i c v i e w p o i n t and i d i o m are the more a u s t e r e p h r a s e s which mark H a r d y ' s r e s e r v e . Such are i l l u s -t r a t e d by "the remoter b a l d g r e y brow of the I s l e o f S l i n g e r s . " (4) T h i s r a t h e r s t a r k d e s c r i p t i o n occurs i n a s tage d i r e c t i o n and i s u n e l a b o r a t e d . A more t y p i c a l l y p o e t i c e x -p r e s s i o n of the r e s e r v e of Hardy i s found "Save f o r a s l i d i n g t e a r " , (5) which d e p i c t s Joseph ine and the s e l f - c o n t r o l which she e x e r c i s e d as Napo leon d i v o r c e d h e r . An example o f the e f f e c t o b t a i n e d by the a u s t e r e l i m i t a t i o n o f words occurs i n the S p i r i t ' s speech to the P a r i s i a n street-woman S p i r i t "R ight 1 Lady many-spoused, more c h a r i t y Hpbrims i n theee than i n some l o f t i e r ones 1) P a r t I , A c t I , Scene 5, p . 30 2) P a r t I , A c t I , Scene 5, p..31 (5) P a r t I , A c t I , Scene 6, p. 34 (4) P a r t I , A c t I I I , Scene 3, p . 63 (5) P a r t I J , A c t I , Scene 5, p. 162 91 Vftio would not name thee w i t h t h e i r whi te-washed tongues Enough . " (1) In t h i s p a s s a g e , which i s packed w i t h meaning, the whole e f f e c t i s g a i n e d by the use o f these words , "many-spoused" , " u p b r i m s " , and "white-washed t o n g u e s " . One cannot h e l p but n o t i c e t h e . s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s p a r t o f the i n t e r -v iew and t h a t o f C h r i s t and l l a r y Magda lene . 'The l o v e and p i t y f o r a n i m a l s which i s e x h i b i t e d so many t imes i n H a r d y ' s n o v e l s and poems i s found i n The Dynasts a l s o . There a re c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s to the army h o r s e s both i n b a t t l e and r e t r e a t . The' two which f o l l o w a re t y p i c a l . The f i r s t i s a stage d i r e c t i o n . "Nature i s mute. Save f o r t h e i n c e s s a n t ; f l o g g i n g of the w ind-broken and l a c e r a t e d h o r s e s t h e r e a re no sounds ." (2) In t h i s passage the s u g g e s t i o n o f complete s i l e n c e s u b t l y i n t e n s i f i e s our c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the s u f f e r i n g of the h o r s e s . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n from the speech o f the S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s . I t i s but a f u r t h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f H a r d y ' s p i t y f o r s u f f e r i n g whether found i n man or b e a s t . S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s "But mark t h a t r o a r , A mash o f men's c r a z e d c r i e s e n t r e a t i n g mates To r u n them through and end t h e i r agony; v Boys c a l l i n g on t h e i r mothers , v e t e r a n s B laspheming G-od and man. Those shady shapes Are h o r s e s , maimed i n m y r i a d s , t e a r i n g round In maddening pangs , t h e - h a r n e s s i n g s they wear C l a n k i n g d i s c o r d a n t j a n g l e s as they t e a r I I t i s enough. l e t now the scene be c l o s e d . " (The n i g h t t h i c k e n s ) . (3) I do not f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s need f o r much f u r t h e r comment as r e g a r d s the q u a l i t y of p i t y which Hardy e x p r e s s e s so o f ten* I t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the man's e x p e r i e n c e . I t was one of the emotions which governed h i s whole a t t i t u d e towards l i f e and the u n i v e r s e . The i n t e n s i t y of the emot ion was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s which c o u l d e x p l a i n the w o r l d ' s s u f f e r i n g s i n no way were they not the e x h i b i t i o n o f an i n s e n t i e n t w i l l . B e f o r e p a s s i n g to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l personages and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e in . the drama I w ish to i n s t a n c e an example or two which w i l l e x h i b i t the p o e t i c form (1) P a r t I , A c t V I , Scene 7, P« 131 (2) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene 9, p . 354 (3) P a r t I I I , A c t I , Scene b, p . 345 92 which, t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n t a k e s . The f i r s t i s from the scene which . immediate ly p r e c e d e s the B a t t l e o f Q u a t r e - B r a s . S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s "I see an u n n a t u r a l monster , l o o s e l y j o i n t e d , Wi th an A p o c a l y p t i c B e i n g ' s shape, " • And l i m b s and eyes a. hundred thousand s t r o n g , And f i f t y thousand heads ; which c o i l s i t s e l f About the b u i l d i n g s t h e r e . " S p i r i t of the Y e a r s "Thou,... dos t i n d e e d . I t i s the Monster D e v a s t a t i o n . Watch . " (1) T h i s v i s i o n o f N a p o l e o n ' s army c a r r i e s the panoramic v i e w p o i n t i n t o the v e r y c o n c e p t i o n o f an image. The B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e i s made more p o i n t e d and g i v e n an i r o n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the p rose d i r e c t i o n which f o l l o w s and which e x p l a i n s t h a t the f i g h t i n g takes p l a c e about a c h u r c h . T h i s passage i l l u s t r a t e s the change i n imagery and i n the g e n e r a l use of words which occurs i n H a r d y ' s p o e t r y as he e n t e r s the cosmic w o r l d . A r e c i t a t i v e , used to e x p l a i n a m i l i t a r y movement, which o c c u r s w i t h g r e a t e f f e c t between two prose passages w i l l f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s l i n g u a l change. R e c o r d i n g A n g e l "The f u r y o f the tumult there begun Scourged q u i v e r i n g l i g n y th rough the a f t e r n o o n : N a p o l e o n ' s g r e a t I n t e n t grew s u b s t a n t i v e , And on the P r u s s i a n p i t h and p u l s e he bent H i s f o r e t i m e d b low. B l u c h e r , to b u t t the shock , Ca l l ed , up h i s l a s t r e s e r v e s , and h e a d i n g on , W i t h b lade h i g h b r a n d i s h e d by h i s aged arm, S p u r r e d fo rward h i s whi te s t e e d . But they outspent F a i l e d f a r t o f o l l o w . Darkness coped the s k y , . And s to rm, and r a i n wi th t h u n d e r . Yet once more ' He cheered them on to charge .• H i s h o r s e , the w h i l e , P i e r c e d by a b u l l e t , f e l l on him i t b o r e , He , t r a m p l e d , b r u i s e d , f a i n t , and i n d i s a r r a y Dragged to ano ther mount, was' l e d .away. H i s ragged l i n e s withdraw from s i g h t and sound. And t h e i r a s s a i l a n t s camp upon the g r o u n d . " ( 2 ; The d i f f e r e n c e i n tone between t h i s r e c i t a t i v e b l a n k v e r s e and t h e c o l l o q u i a l passages which I have quoted ( 1 ) P a r t I I I , A c t VI, Scene 5, p . 474 (2) P a r t I I I , A c t V I , Scene 6, p . 477 p r e v i o u s l y i s a t once a p p a r e n t . P h r a s e s w h i c h make i t so a re such as t h e s e : "grew s u b s t a n t i v e " , " p i t h and p u l s e " , " f o r e -t imed blow" and " t o b u t t the shock" . 'Such language i s t y p i c a l of Hardy i n h i s cosmic moments when he d e s e r t s the more u s u a l forms of e x p r e s s i o n and makes a v o c a b u l a r y which i s p e c u l i a r l y h i s own. The combinat ions o f words and the new forms which he i n v e n t s have an odd u n e a r t h l y s i g n i f i c a n c e which seems to answer h i s purpose and which v i t a l i z e s the a b s t r a c t r e a l i s m which he seeks t o o b t a i n . Words such as " o u t s p e n t " and the v e r b " coped" , formed from a noun, would be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f any phase o f h i s p o e t r y but the accumu-l a t i o n o f such terms and the use o f . o n e a f t e r a n o t h e r i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n i s t y p i c a l of h i s cosmic p o i n t of v iew o n l y . One f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n w i l l serve to show not on ly the l y r i c a l beauty o f some o f the u n e a r t h l y choruses but the d i f f e r e n c e i n tone which they a c h i e v e . C o n t r a s t f o r i n s t a n c e the r e c i t a t i v e b lank v e r s e which I have j u s t c o n -s i d e r e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : Chorus o f the Y e a r s ( A e r i a l M u s i c ) "The e y e l i d s of eve f a l l t o g e t h e r a t l a s t , And the forms so f o r e i g n to f i e l d and t r e e l i e down as, though n a t i v e and slumber f a s t i " "Yea , the coneygsare s c a r e d by the thud o f h o o f s , And t h e i r wh i te s c u t s f l a s h a t t h e i r v a n i s h i n g h e e l s And swal lows abandon the h a m l e t - r o o f s The m o l e ' s t u n n e l l e d chambers a re c rushed by wheels The l a r k ' s eggs s c a t t e r e d , t h e i r owners f l e d ; And the hedgehog 's househo ld the sapper u n s e a l s . The s n a i l draws i n , a t the t e r r i b l e t r e a d , But i n v a i n ; he i s c rushed by the f e l l o e - r i m , The worm asks what can be overhead , And w r i g g l e s deep from a scene so g r i m , And guesses h im s a f e ; f o r he does not know What a f o u l r e d f l o o d w i l l be s o a k i n g h i m . Trodden and b r u i s e d . t o a m i r y tomb Are e a r s tha t have greened but w i l l never be g o l d And f l o w e r s i n the bud t h a t w i l l never b loom." Chorus o f the . P i t i e s "So the s e a s o n ' s i n t e n t , ere i t s f r u i t u n f o l d , I s f r u s t r a t e , and mangled, and made succumb, L i k e a youth o f promise s t r u c k s t a r k and c o l d 1" 94 Chorus of S i n i s t e r S p i r i t s ' "And each s o u l s i g h s as he s h i f t s h i s head On the loam h e ' s t o l e a s e v/ith the o t h e r dead From tomorrow's m i s t - f a l l t i l l Time he s p e d . " ( 1 ) T h i s l y r i c a l passage w i t h i t s p e r f e c t p o r t r a y a l of the s m a l l e r forms of animate l i f e i s t y p i c a l of H a r d y : i n many ways. The e x q u i s i t e image, "The e y e l i d s of eve f a l l t o g e t h e r a t l a s t " , b r i n g s a mood o f q u i e t and calm which makes the c o n t r a s t t o come i n the B a t t l e of Water loo a l l the more s t r i k i n g and t e r r i b l e . The exact knowledge of s m a l l an ima ls and even lower forms o f l i f e which these v e r s e s show, i s but another m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the keen observance and aware-ness which Hardy a lways gave t o n a t u r e . The d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the sounds of Edgon H e a t h , which was i n s t a n c e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s p a p e r , i l l u s t r a t e s the same powers o f o b s e r -v a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The "coney" c o u l d not be more p e r f e c t l y d e s c r i b e d i n a dozen l i n e s than i n " t h e i r wh i te s c u t s f l a s h a t t h e i r v a n i s h i n g h e e l s " ; nor c o u l d f r u s t r a t i o n s be b e t t e r e x p r e s s e d than by the two i n s t a n c e s which Hardy g i v e s i n the "ea rs t h a t have greened but w i l l never be g o l d " and the " f l o w e r s i n the bud t h a t w i l l never b loom." Hardy here d r i v e s home h i s ana logy In the words o f two c h o r u s e s , those of the P i t i e s and the S i n i s t e r S p i r i t s . I t i s i n those t h a t the r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the v e r s e s i s i n t e n s i f i e d and a p p l i e d to man. . There i s an ana logy between the l i v e s o f the w o r l d of n a t u r e and the l i v e s of men. One i s reminded of the sonnet In V i s i o n I Boaraed (2) wh ich has been a n a l y z e d , and o f the way i n which the cosmic and. a b s t r a c t i d e a s o f the octave were a p p l i e d d e f i n i t e l y to man i n the s e s t e t . In the case o f these choruses the same e f f e c t i s g a i n e d by u s i n g man's immediate environment f o r the s u b j e c t o f the chorus o f the Y e a r s and man h i m s e l f as the s u b j e c t o f the Chorus o f the P i t i e s and the Chorus of S i n i s t e r S p i r i t s . In t h i s somewhat inadequate su rvey•o f a few of The D y n a s t s ' p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s I have meant to show t h a t the E p i c Drama does not d i f f e r e s s e n t i a l l y from t h e . o t h e r p o e t r y . I t s scope i s so g r e a t t h a t i t n e c e s s i t a t e s a g r e a t e r f reedom. T h i s freedom Hardy has a c h i e v e d i n b o t h verse forms and l a n g u a g e . He s h i f t s from rhyme and' l y r i c to b lank v e r s e and drama or f rom e i t h e r i n t o p rose as i t p l e a s e s h i m . The i n -d i v i d u a l i s t i c language forms whieh are t y p i c a l o f h i s p o e t i c s t y l e i n g e n e r a l are c a r r i e d i n t o The Dynas t s and there ex -tended as I have t r i e d to show. T h e . v a r i e d v e r s e forms are u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h panorama or set to a m u s i c a l a c -companiment. Hardy seems a b l e to a c h i e v e any e f f e c t he w i s h e s . I f p o e t r y w i l l no t g i v e i t , he u s e s p r o s e . He c o u l d 1) P a r t I I I , Ac t V I , Scene 8, p . 483 2) Wessex Poems: p. 7 not have been as s u c c e s s f u l as he i s i n e i t h e r medium a l o n e . The e f f e c t of p o e t r y i n The Dynasts i s c u m u l a t i v e . I t b u i l d s up a background and a n atmosphere . At t imes i t i n t e n s i f i e s d r a m a t i c e f f e c t s , a t o t h e r s i t s o f t e n s them. I t a lways a s s i s t s i n c r e a t i n g the i l l u s i o n or the " w i l l i n g . s u s p e n s i o n o f d i s b e l i e f " , wh ich a c c o r d i n g to C o l e r i d g e c o n s t i t u t e s p o e t i c f a i t h . As the l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n of m e t a p h y s i c a l a b -s t r a c t i o n s i t encases the whole human drama i n an outer p o e t i c s h e l l wh ich i s s u i t e d to both H a r d y ' s p h i l o s o p h y and the d r a m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n of tha t p h i l o s o p h y i n human a c t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d Hardy ""himself s a y s : — " In p o i n t o f l i t e r a r y fo rm, the scheme o f c o n t r a s t e d choruses and other c o n v e n t i o n s of t h i s e x t e r n a l - f e a t u r e was shaped w i t h a s i n g l e v iew to Lae modern o u t l o o k , and i n f r a n k d i ve rgence from c l a s s i c a l and. o ther d ramat i c p r e c e d e n t which r u l e d the a n c i e n t v o i c i n g s of a n c i e n t themes." (1) The "phantasmal I n t e l l i g e n c e s " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the new dramat i c m a t e r i a l of the The D y n a s t s , shaped to ex -p r e s s "a modern o u t l o o k " c o n s i s t of f o u r l e a d i n g s p i r i t s . They a r e the a n c i e n t S p i r i t of the Y e a r s which r e p r e s e n t s the " p a s s i o n l e s s i n s i g h t of the a g e s " , the S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s which approx imates to "the u n i v e r s a l sympathy o f human n a t u r e , the S p i r i t s S i n i s t e r and I r o n i c and the S p i r i t o f Rumour. Each o f them has a c h o r u s . There are i n a d d i t i o n the Shade of the E a r t h , S p i r i t - M e s s e n g e r s and R e c o r d i n g a n g e l s . The S p i r i t of the P i t i e s i s something l i k e the i d e a l s p e c t a t o r of the o l d Greek Chorus . I t i s swayed h i t h e r and t h i t h e r by e v e n t s . The S p i r i t s S i n i s t e r and I r o n i c approx imate r o u g h l y to Chance, as i t i s u n d e r s t o o d from the n o v e l s , and to the I r o n i c mood of the poems. The Forescene and the A f t e r s c e n e are p l a c e d i n the o v e r w o r l d . I t i s i n the chants and, choruses o f these two scenes' t h a i t H a r d y . ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n e t s are most c l e a r l y se t f o r t h , a l t h o u g h as I have p o i n t e d out t h e y r u n as a comment throughout the drama. The prob lem over wh ich Hardy pondered f o r so many y e a r s i s s e t f o r t i l as the open ing words o f The D y n a s t s . "What o f the Immanent W i l l and i t s d e s i g n s ? " The S p i r i t o f the Y e a r s r e p l i e s " I t works u n c o n s c i o u s l y . " (2) Then the v a r i o u s s u p p o s i t i o n s as to the n a t u r e of t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s w i l l , to which the poems Hap (3) , The Blow ( 4 ) , N a t u r e ' s Q u e s t i o n i n g (5) and The Convergence o f the Twain (b j have made us accus tomed, a re s e t f o r t h . There i s , I T a p p e a r s , no scheme o f t h i n g s ; the e v o l u t i o n o f W i l l was i t s e l f u n c o n s c i o u s . The Shade of the E a r t h r e p l y i n g to the P i t i e s ' hope tha t men (1) P r e f a c e : p . 9 (2) F o r e s c e n e : p . 1 (3) 'Wessex Poems: p. 7 (4) Moments of V i s i o n : p . 449 (5; Wessex- Poems: p . 58 (6) S a t i r e s of C i r c u m s t a n c e : p . 288 9b may develop an a m e l i o r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n , p u t s . t h e mat te r t h u s : "They may come, w i l l they I am not averse Yet know I am hut the i n e f f e c t u a l Shade Of h e r the T r a v a i l l e r , h e r s e l f a t h r a l l To I t ; In a l l her l a b o u r i n g s curbed and k i n g e d I" (1)' The Forescene c l o s e s wi th the m a g n i f i c e n t l y v i s u a l p r e s e n t a -t i o n of the work ing o f the Immanent W i l l which i s d i s c l o s e d i n the v i s i o n of the s k e l e t o n o f E u r o p e . In the A f t e r s e e n e the d i s c u s s i o n , now v i t a l i z e d by the a c t u a l e v e n t s which a re embodied i n the drama, c o n t i n u e s , but the S p i r i t o f the Years has found no p r o o f t h a t the W i l l i s becoming c o n s c i o u s . There i s n o t h i n g i n the t r a g e d i e s o f l i f e t o show tha t i t i s d o i n g so.-"Yet but one f l i m s y r i b a n d o f I t s web Have we here watched i n weaving-web Enorm, Whose f u r t h e s t hem and se l vage may extend To where the r o a r s and p l a s h i n g s o f the f lames Of e a r t h - i n v i s i b l e suns s w e l l n o i s i l y , And onwards i n t o g h a s t l y g u l f s o f s k y , Where h ideous^presences churn through the dark — Monsters o f magnitude w i thout a shape, Hanging amid deep w e l l s of n o t h i n g n e s s . Yet seems t h i s v a s t and s i n g u l a r c o n f e c t i o n Where in our scenery g l i n t s , of s c a n t e s t s i z e , I n u t i l e a l l — so f a r as r e a s o n i n g s t e l l " The S p i r i t o f P i t i e s however a rgues t h a t : "Men g a i n e d c o g n i t i o n w i t h the f l u x o f t ime And where fore not the F o r c e In fo rming them, When f a r - r a n g e d a i o n s p a s t a l l fa thoming S h a l l have swung by , and s t a n d as. backward y e a r s ? " (2). There i s l i t t l e i n t h i s chanted d i s c u s s i o n to prove t h a t the u n i v e r s e may ever r e a c h v ' o i i t i o n . There i s , however, one f a i n t note of hope which the S p i r i t o f the P i t i e s p r e s e n t s and which the f i n a l chorus c h a n t s . Chorus "But — a s t i r r i n g t h r i l l s the a i r l i k e to sounds o f joyance t h e r e " That the r a g e s Of the ages S h a l l be c a n c e l l e d , and d e l i v e r a n c e o f f e r e d from F o r e s c e n e : p. JJ A f t e r s e e n e ; p. j>22 The d a r t s t h a t were Consc iousness the w i l l i n f o r m i n g , t i l l I t f a s h i o n A l l t h i n g s f a i r l " (1) These are the l a s t words . Hardy has put h i s whole t h e o r y i n t o a r t i s t i c f o r m . The f a i n t hope i s c o n - • s i d e r e d i n c o n s i s t e n t wi t h H a r d y T s g e n e r a l v i e w p o i n t by some c r i t i c s . There i s , however, some ev idence o f the same hope i n the p o e t r y . The D a r k l i n g Thrush p r o v i d e s one example. I n the n o v e l s D iggory Venn, \Z) G a b r i e l Oak (3) and Mar ty South ('4) r e p r e s e n t H a r d y ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n man. T h i s same c o n f i d e n c e i n c h a r a c t e r i s suggested by HeIson (5), P i t t (6), Hey (7) and the "cough ing Sergeant" (8) o f The D y n a s t s . Such c h a r a c t e r s suppor t the g e n e r a l i d e a l . o f s low a m e l i o r a t i v e e v o l u t i o n which the P i t i e s expound, f o r i n s p i t e of t r a g i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s they manage to r e c o n c i l e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s . Hardy d i d not t h i n k t h a t he had evolved, a complete p h i l o s o p h y . He hoped to p r o v i d e a s o l a c e o f f a n c y which would take the p l a c e of o l d r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s u n t i l such t ime as a more s a t i s f a c t o r y p h i l o s o p h y .might be e v o l v e d . In a l e t t e r to a f r i e n d who had commented on The Dynasts Hardy wrote "Yes : I l e f t o f f on a note of hope . I t was j u s t as w e l l t h a t the P i t i e s s h o u l d have t h e l a s t word, s i n c e , l i k e P a r a d i s e h o s t , The Dynasts p r o v e s n o t h i n g . " ( 9 ) T h i s p r e s e n t and modern g e n e r a t i o n i s s t i l l too near t o H a r d y ' s own day t o be a b l e to judge of the p o s i t i o n which he w i l l u l t i m a t e l y h o l d as a p o e t . There i s no doubt o f the p o s i t i o n which he w i l l h o l d as a t h i n k e r s i n c e he has been the f i r s t and on ly man i n h i s c e n t u r y t o c a r r y the i d e a s i n v o l v e d i n the advance o f s c i e n c e to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u -s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to l i f e . He has not o n l y done t h i s , but he has been the on ly poet who has used those i d e a s as the i n s p i r a t i o n a l b a s i s o f p o e t r y . I f s t y l e be d e f i n e d as the f u l l r e n d e r i n g o f the i n t e n d e d i m p r e s s i o n , Hardy has s u c -ceeded as a.;, p o e t , f o r a c l o s e s tudy of the p o e t ' s l i f e , h i s l e t t e r s , no tes and comments makes one t h i n g c l e a r . H i s p o e t r y g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h e , the p o e t , i n t e n d e d . Hardy made a note i n 1899 which s a y s : "Ho man's p o e t r y can be t r u l y judged t i l l i t s l a s t l i n e i s w r i t t e n . What i s the l a s t l i n e ? The death of the p o e t . And hence there i s t h i s q u a i n t c o n s o l a t i o n to any w r i t e r of verse that i t may be i m p e r i s h a b l e f o r a l l t h a t anybody can t e l l h im to the c o n t r a r y ; (1) A f t e r s e e n e : p. 525 (2) The Return of the N a t i v e . O ) Par Prom the Madding Crowd. (4) The Woodlanders . (5) P a r t I , A c t V, Scene 4, p . 95 (6) P a r t I , A c t V I , Scene 6, p . 128 (7) P a r t I I I , A c t V I I , Scene 4, p . 497 (3) P a r t I I I , A c t . I l l , Scene 1, p . 207 (9) The L a t e r Y e a r s of Thomas H a r d y : p. 275 and t h a t i f w o r t h l e s s he ean ne v e r know i t , u n l e s s he be a g r e a t e r adept a t s e l f - c r i t i c i s m t h a n p o e t s u s u a l l y a r e . " (1) When Hardy d i e d i n 1923 "the l a s t l i n e " was w r i t t e n . I t cannot y e t be judged -- but Hardy the poet was c o n s i s t e n t t o the end. I n h i s l a s t two days of l i f e he was s t i l l p o n d e r i n g on the problems o f e x i s t e n c e . He would l i s t e n o n l y t o p o e t r y , the l a s t v e r s e s w h i c h he a s k e d f o r b e i n g t h e s e : "Oh Thou, who man o f b a s e r E a r t h d i d s t make, And ev'n w i t h P a r a d i s e d e v i s e the Snake; F o r a l l . the S i n wherewith the Face of Man I s blackened-man' s f o r g i v e n e s s g i v e -- and t a k e I" (1) The l a t e r Y e a r s of Thomas Hardy: p. 275 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY The f o i l o w i n g l i s t does not p r e t e n d to he complete and c o n t a i n s on ly hooks t h a t I have r e a d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s p a p e r . I have not had a c c e s s t o a u n i f o r m e d i t i o n of H a r d y ' s works and do not i n the case of the n o v e l s g i v e page r e f e r e n c e s . The C o l l e c t e d Poems o f Thomas Hardy : London: M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1923 The D y n a s t s : P a r t s I and I I : Thomas H a r d y : London: M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1928 The D y n a s t s : P a r t I I I : and The Queen o f C o r n w a l l : Thomas H a r d y ; London: M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1929 Winter Words; Thomas Hardy : London: M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1930 F a r From the Madding Crowd: Thomas Hardy : Hew Y o r k : Harper ,1992 Under the Greenwood T r e e : Thomas Hardy : New Y o r k ; H a r p e r , 1902 Two on a Tower: Thomas H a r d y : New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1902 The R e t u r n of the N a t i v e : Thomas Hardy : New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1902 Tess of, the D ' U b e r v i l l e s : Thomas Hardy : New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1902 Jude the O b s c u r e : Thomas H a r d y : New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1902 Aberc romb ie , L a s c e l l e s : Thomas H a r d y : A C r i t i c a l Study: New Y o r k : M i t c h e l l K e n n e r i y , 1912 Beach , Joseph Warren: The Technique o f Thomas Hardy : C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y ox Uhicago P r e s s , 1922 B e r l e , 1. W. : George E l i o t and Thomas Hardy : New Y o r k : M i t c h e l l K e n n e r i y , 1917 Brennecke , E r n e s t , J r . : Thomas H a r d y ' s U n i v e r s e : A Study o f a P o e t ' s M ind ; B o s t o n : S m a l l , Maynard and C o . , 1924 Cazamian, Made l ine 1 . : Le Roman et Les Idees en A n g l e t e r r e : I n f l u e n c e de l a Sc ience I860 - 1890: P h . D. T h e s i s : . S t r a s b o u r g : 19 23 Chase, Mary E l l e n : Thomas Hardy from S e r i a l t o H o v e l : M i r m e a p o l i s : I'ne U n i v e r s i t y or i . i m i e s o t a P r e s s , 1927 Chew, Samuel C : Thomas Hardy; Hew Y o r k : A l f r e d A. Knopf , 1929 C h i l d , H a r o l d : Thomas Hardy : Hew Y o r k : Henry H o l t and C o . , 191b C u n l i f f e , J . V/. : E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the l a s t H a l f C e n t u r y . Dobree, Bonamy: The Lamp and the L u t e : S t u d i e s I n S i x Modern A u t h o r s : O x f o r d ; C la rendon P r e s s , 1929 P u f f i n , H. C . : Thomas H a r d y : A Study o f the Wessex N o v e l s : M a n c h e s t e r : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 191b Freeman, J o h n : • Moderns: New Y o r k : Crowe11, 1917 Garwood, H e l e n : Thomas H a r d y ; An I l l u s t r a t i o n o f the P h i l o s o - phy o f Schopenhauer: P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . 0. W ins ton C o . , 1911 H a r d y , F l o r e n c e E m i l y : The E a r l y L i f e of Thomas Hardy , 1840 - 1891: London:•Macmi l l an and Co. L t d . , I928 Hardy , F l o r e n c e E m i l y : The L a t e r Y e a r s of Thomas Hardy , 1892 - 1928: London: M a c m i l l a n and C o . L t d . , 1930 Hedgcock, F. A . : Thomas Hardy : Penseur et A r t i s t e : P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e E a e h e t t e , 1910 Johnson , L i o n e l : The A r t 0 f Thomas Hardy : c o n t a i n s a B i b l i o g -raphy o f F i r s t E d i t i o n s by John Lane and an e s s a y , The P o e t r y o f Thomas  Hardy by J . E . B a r t o n : London: S l k i n Matthews and John Lane, 1894 ( r e i s s u e d 1922) Lowes, John L i v i n g s t o n e : Of Reading Books; London: C o n s t a b l e and Co. L t d . , 193° W i l l i a m s , C h a r l e s : P o e t r y a t P r e s e n t ; O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1930 MAGAZINE ARTICLES Colum, P.: R o b e r t B r i d g e s and Thomas Ha r a y : He?/ R e p u b l i c , 12: 4'/ - 9, A u g u s t , 1917 F o i l e t , H. J . and F o l l e t t , W.: The H i s t o r i a n o f Wessex A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , 120: 35b - bb, September, 1917 Gosse , E.: Mr. Hardy's L y r i c a l Poems: E d i n b u r g h Review, 227 : 272 - 93, A p r i l , 1918 K i n g , R. W.: L y r i c a l Poems o f Thomas Hardy: London M e r c u r y , 15: 57 - 70, December, 192b Macy, John: Two-Fold G e n i u s o f Hardy: The Bookman, by: 154 - 9, ' A p r i l , 1928 West, Rebecca: I n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e i r age: S a t u r d a y Review o f L i t e r a t u r e , 1 A u g u s t , 1924 W i l l i a m s , H a r o l d : The Wessex H o v e l s o f Thomas Hardy: N o r t h American, 199: 120 - 34, J a n u a r y , 1914 Woolf, V i r g i n i a : H a l f o f Thomas Hardy: New R e p u b l i c , 57: 70 - 1, December, 1928 Van Doren, M.: Thomas Hardy, p o e t : The N a t i o n , 126: 151 - 2, F e b r u a r y , 1928 - REFERENCES B a r n e s , W i l l i a m : Poems of R u r a l L i f e i n the Dorset D i a l e c t (wi t i i g l o s s a r y , ) : London: ICegan P a u l and C o . , 1879 Bunyan, J o h n : Grace Abounding and The P i l g r i m ' s P r o g r e s s : e d . John Brown D.D. 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L td . - , 1928 L a n i e r , S i d n e y : The Sc ience of E n g l i s h V e r s e : New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1927 L e e , V e r n o n : The H a n d l i n g of Words: London: John Lane the Bod ley Head L t d . , 1923 M i d d l e t o n , Mur ry : The Prob lem of S t y l e : Ox fo rd u n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922 . R a l e i g h , W a l t e r : S t y l e : London: Edward A r n o l d ; 1910 W i n c h e s t e r , G. T . : Some P r i n c i p l e s o f L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m : Chap. V: New York : M a c m i l l a n and Co. L t d . , 1928 GLOSSARY T h i s g l o s s a r y does not r e s t upon a d e f i n i t e or a b s o l u t e scheme o f s e l e c t i o n . The words have been chosen somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y as b e i n g i n some way t y p i c a l • o f H a r d y 1 s v o c a b u l a r y and S t y l e . Some a r e a r c h a i c , o t h e r s a re u n u s u a l e i t h e r i n fo rm, a p p l i c a t i o n or meaning; many are o r i g i n a l compounds made by H a r d y . The l i s t o f compounds i s f a i r l y comp le te , t h a t o f v a r y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c words much l e s s s o . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e l e c t i o n the c o n t e x t w i l l make c l e a r . ABBREVIATIONS Wessex Poems Poems o f the P a s t and P r e s e n t Times Laugh ing S tocks • S a t i r e s o f C i r cumstance Moments of V i s i o n Late L y r i c s and E a r l i e r Winter Words CHARACTERISTIC WORDS ache f u l W . P . 45 adumbrates w.w. 53 a f t e r g r i n d s M.V. 485 a f t e r haps v< © 3? * 50 a i l s 263 a i o n s W.W. 133 a i s l e S e C « 353 a l a c k S e C o 178 a n i g h s t W . P . 116 annoy -I?«X • S • 186 anon M.V. 507 any when I • I . E • 658 apogee W .P- . 45 a r c a d e s 3 a C • 353 a r c h P . P . P . 93 a r m i p o t e n t s M.7.- 518 a s h l a r s S • 0 • 380 aswoon S • C • 411 A t h ' a r t W . P . 15 a t n ' t p . p . p . 145 A - t o p p e r en W . P . 16 awave 460 b a l d a c h i n e d s * c» 353 b a r t o n p . p . p . 145 b e a u t i f u l l e r s . c . 385 b e e a l l p . p . p . 95 bechance 3 * G • 293 be chanced s • c • 361 be-drenches - s . c . 350 b e f e l w.w. 173 b e g r i e v e d w.w. 133 besom 205 b e t o s s e d w.w. I65 b i r d s i n g i n g M .V. ' 435 b l a n d i s h P . P . P . 103 b l a n k e d W . P . 21 b l a z o n W . P . 7 b l i n k e r e d M.V. 519 b l u r t i n g W.W. 17 bord 85 boscage X» XJ»E • 650 b r a b b l e S • G • 305 b r e a s t s . c . 286 broach w.w. 37 b r u i t 0? * Xf • D ft 2Q6 b u r g h i e s T . I . 3 . 226 bypast o # G • 287 cadavers S • G« 286 c a p p e l W . P . 30 caresome W.W. 112 cark S • C 0 351 c a r y a t e d c a s t e d s t 3«C« 548 JJ • JJ • Hi • 631 chancewise X» J j * i i i e 552 c h i l d i n g W . P . 32 ch imley 0? e X » S a 235 c h i n e s S 0 G« 305 c i t ivi«V • 491 d a y t i m e X » X e 13 » 588 c l o s e l i e r S«G» 381 coa ts T • X« S» 229 Cockers M.V. 518 cohue T © Xitt- S • 213 c o l d i n g T© X«S« 191 c o l l T 0 Xi e S» 228 c o n s t e l l a t e d T • X • 3 • 252 contemns p . p . p . 102 contumely If • X* • 11 coomb ft C » 285 c r e a t u r e l y X* ftX* wX*« 107 c rook t X • X» HJ • 627 crowned W « 52 customed S • G« 285 cyme 1 . 1 . E . 537 c y s t W.W. 41 dampered JJ . I » E . 559 damsel W . P . 5 dark M. Ve 512 darked m T 0 J. . J j . O . 252 d a r k l e d S .C . 340 d e e d i l y W.W. 1 demilune W.W. 81 d e n i z e n s h i p M.V. 507 d i f f e r e n c e d M.V. 500 d i s ennoble W . P . 55 dogged W . W . 101 dome • X* ft? • 93 dorp W . P . 6 d owne d . W.Yf. 106 downsta i rward T « J j e S » 248 dree I . I L . E . 611 drongs T«I . S • 226 dumbed W • W . 135 dumbles m T 0 X « J j » O . 211 durn W . P . 41 e a r t h t r a c k W . P . 5 e a r t h i n g W.W. 1 e a r t h l i n g s M.V. 518 e a s t e d W.P. 28 een -P *JP «3? * 14? e l s e w h i t h e r T* * "L * S * 181 embowment W . P . 54 . Empery 5 s Me Ye 510 enarch W.P . 555 enchased P . P . P . 100 e n e a r t h J j . l . E . 574 enghosted 1 . I . E . 53? e n g h o s t i n g s W. W . 185 e n g r a i l e d W.P . 68 e n v i e r W . P . 15 e n j a i l e d M.Y. 41? e n t a b l a t u r e P . P . P . 93 enray W . P . 55 e n r i n g e d Ivi* "V"» 426 e n - s e p u l c h r e d M.Y. 41? eve shade M.Y. 444 eye s ome JJ . I . H i . 65O eyne W.P. 58 eyot w i t h i e s M«Y o 454 f a n t o c i n e M.Y. 479 f i n e d W.P . 55 f larnens W.W. 127 f l e x u r e s S • G * 381 . f l i p p e d Iia XiaSa 548 f l i n g s W.P . 40 f l o w e r e t s W.P . 71 f o n t W . P . 17 f o o t W.W. 119 f o o t e d 1.1 . E . 660 ' f o o t s W.W. 154 f o r e deeming T • Xi» S * 262 foredone X** a J? • 2? a 115 f o r e f e l t W.P. 5 f o r e f r a m e d W.W. 83 f o r e n i g h t W.W. 168 f o r t h shone JO a Xi a S a 218 f r e a k f u l W.W. 78 f r e s h e d M.Y. 497 f r i e z e jP a]P a? a 94 f r u s t r a n c e S a C • 345 f a i t h O a G a 304 f u r t i v e w ise M.Y. 440 gaged W . P , • 28 g a i n g i v i n g s P . P . P . 89 g a l o r e i:/ a \if a 156 g a r r e t e e r Jj a XjaJS a 576 gayed W.P . ' 17 germed JO a X a S • 196 ghast J? a J? a 3? a 87 ghost JD a Xfa S a 212 gloomed M a V a 447 glum j-' a XJ « 111 a 625 goddessed T a Ija S a 196 gossamery S a C 0 354 g r a v e a c r e W.P. 46 g r e e n t h M.V. 499 g r i f f M.Y. 497 grime f i l m s 1 • I . ili . 584 g r o i n P. P»P. 94 g a r g o y l e s • M.Y. 437 h a c k e r e d S a C a 363 handkercher m T 0 j _ a JJO O a 234 h a p l y 505 haps W.W. 114 harrows w • w • 28 hazed M.Y. 491 heathy W.W. 1 here under M.V. 424 h e r i t o r -L a XJ a Hi 0 579 h i l l o c k W.W, 10 h i t h e r around T T TP 591 h o d i e r n a l W.P . 54 homing P . P a P » 87 h a s s i f vi .Jr. 62 h u s s i f ' r y W.P . 111 i l l i m i t e d W.P.. 21 inbe I . I . E . 564 i n c h e d T • .L • S. 203 i n c r e e p i n g T T TP Xi . Jj .Hi . 613 i n d w e l l W.P . 6 i n s c r o l l s W.P. 44 j a i l i n g S a C « 324 j i n e d W.P. 16 joyance XJ a Xi a lC a 540 jambs S a C 0 382 j i g s V/ ©-Pa 40 joyance XJ a Xj a ill • 654 joyance W.P . 45 j u n e t i v e W.P . 11 k i n d l e s s n e s s W.W. 134 knap W.P, 13 l acune . M.V. 491 l a n d s k i p 0? 0 Jb a D a 182 l a n t h orn T « Lo O a 272 l a r g e n e d JJ a IJ e ill » 57 8 l a t e d W.P . 27 l e a W.W. 65 l e a n t P . P . P . 137 l e a z e • G 9 28b l e a z e s W . P . 38 l e a z i n g s 2!«IJ»s# 227 l e g g e d • W . W . lb3 l i b e r t i c i d e M.Y. 518 lew W . W . 29 l e w t h W • ? • 8 l i p p e d • 0. 509 l i p w o r d s 1 . JLl.E . 572 l i t t i e d W . W . 194 l i t t l e s m -r 0 X 9 X J e O • 254 l o n g w h i i e . W . W . 57 l o t t e d W . P . 24 l o u d e n i n g JJ . JL.il]. 5b5 lueeney M.Y. 431 l u t h e r n L . L . S . 585 maidy I 5. -L. 0 © 224 mammet I « P . S. 187 mead W . W . 154 me seemed 1. It. jjj. 585 meet ly w.w-.. 14b metope p . p . p . 94 midmost X . It.Hi . 630 mind s i g h t M.Y. 513 minims T T X J a Xi *Jii « 59b m i s p r i s i o n M *Ye 431 m i s - w i s ! o n O a G a 335 m o i l s b« C « 302 M o l l y i s h S 0 C 0 392 m o n i t i o n M.Y. 498 m u l l i o n s D * C 0 382 n a t a n t Vf a $f a 93 nave S t C • 353 nay s a y i n g J- a Xi a 3 a 267 n e s c i e n t n e s s W . W . 35 n e w e l l e d s . c . 353 n i g h e d W . P . 24 nimb p «p »p» 89 n i p p e r k i n 0? a XJ a S a 269 nonage W . P . 45 noose W . W . 11 N o r ' l i g h t s M.Y. 500 norward 3 s G« 326 ochreous P . P . P . 91 o lden p . p . p . 102 o l d e n i n g w. w. 137 onbearers 1 . P . jii« 596 on c r e e p i n g P . P . jil. 534 o n f l e e t i n g Xi. P . j i l . 541 0011 J? a J? aX^  a 145 op ined W . W . 76 orbed S . C e 296 o r t s S e 0 0 305 o s t e n t T?r -p »*.. Jr . 7 o u b l i e t t e M.V. 449 o u t b r e a k i n g W . P . 44 out b r i n g s P «P «P * 89 og ive-work W . P . 67 out g a z i n g M.Y. 520 out l a i d rn T 0 X . X ) . O e 208 out l e a n t P . P . P . 137 out loom W . W . 73 o u t r o l l i n g s ' M.Y. 521 out shapes rn T q X 0 XJ e O « 254 outshow W . P . 5 out s h r i e k s M.V. 465 out s k e l e t o n 2? aX* *Ps 93 out smoothed 0? a Xi» S a 253 over g a t ? oX* aX* a 155 p a s s a g e r s S»G • 380 p a s s i o n e d W . W . 15 p e r i w i n k s M.V. 426 pewing S a G a 353 p h a s i n 1 a Ijajlj a . 557 p i e d W . P . 41 p i e r P » P . P . 94 p h i l o s o p h W . W . 157 p l a i n i n g W . W . 190 p l a i n l i e r T 0 I J 0 S 0 213 p l a i n song 65 b p l e a s a u n c e W . P . 20 pomped XJ a IjaPC a-554 poppet jl? a Xja S • 234 p o p p l i n g m T Q X 0 J_i 0 O « I89 p o t h e r XJ « Xjalli a 553 p o u s e t t e W . P . 40 p r e s c i e n c e l e s s n e s s W . W , p r i c k e d 'T a XJ a S 0 2b6 p r i n k e d 3 a C a 330 p u b l i c a n W.W. 45 p u r f l i n g s M.V. 424 qu ieked M. Y • 40b q u i e t some M.Y. 490 q u i t t a n c e P » P » P . 128 q u o r i n P . P . P . 94 r e e l s W. P . 40 reavement W«W 0 31 r i b a n d W . P . 4b r l c h e n e d M.Y. 42 b roomage J J . Jj.E* 54-1 r o s e i JL . Jb.E • 541 r u b i e d W.W. 14 r u e i n g s 'el. W. 134 r u n l e t fs S . C . 316 sa lamandr ine q - n 288 s a d l i e r D • C . 308 s e our W.W. 106 s c o u r i n g 3? s c r a b b l e d M.V. 454 sc rub W.W. 106 s e i s e I . I . E . 619 s e l f ward w. w. 168 semblant T . I . S. 277 s e m p i t e r n a l m T q , J- e Xf. 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JJ.iii» 393 up l i t M.Y. 448 up mouthed 81 u p s i d l e d W.W. 168 up s p r e a d W.P. 25 up s t o l e P • J? *X* • 105 up swum M.Y. ,441 upthrow - W.W. 121 upped '< /. w. 72 upp i n g P a P a E » ups M.Y. 465 v a i n g l o r i o u s n e s s S .C. 289 v e r m i c u l a t i o n s M.Y. 433 v u l t u r i n e M. "V . 465 wanning M.V. 427 wanzing IJ . JJ . iii . 383 wanzing ' M.V. 481 w a r e l y \i © \I 9 201 •weariful m T q 254 weet W.W. 160 weeted M.Y. 420 w e e t i n g P. P . E . 5o2 weet l e s s - m -p 0 X * XI. O . 254 w e s t e r i n g rn T O X I X .U I 215 'what s 0 S. 0 ft 354 w h i f f l e d T a Jj . S . 189 w h i l e d P »P eP 0 141 w h i l i n g X . L. b . 205 whilom M.V. 456 whin W.W. 172 wight . M.V. 511 w i l i n g s 179 wis P . P . P . 157 wi s t P. P.XJ . 660 w i t h i n s i d e rn T 0 X © XJ a 0 « 187 w i t h o u t d o o r s M.Y. 406 without s ide J- e XJO S 9 247 -wonning ~D "P T) X * X © X *> 100 worsed W.W. 140 worsen W.P. 71 wot P »P eP * 105 wowiided W.P. 16 y c l e p t *P 0 XJ » S 0 202 y e s t e r eve - P . P . E . 591 y e s t r e e n X 0 XJ 0 Jli • 639 y i e l d a n c e T 0 Xja ^ • 266 yond W.W. 70 y o n s i d e W.W. 116 Z i l v e r W.P. 16 COMPOUNDS 110 a - c o a s t v-.p. 33 autumn-end a - d o i n g T . JJ . S. 230 a-dreaming ra T cj 253 b a b e - l i k e a-drowse p . p . p . i l l baby-boy a - g r o a n i n g T . I . S . 2? i b a b y - c h i l d a - p e r c h 13 . J j . S . 224 b a c k - s t r e e t a-row X*« IJ «S. 183 b a l l - d r e s s e s a - s h i n e T.L.3. 228 B a l l a d - s i n g e r s a - s t a n d i n g P . P . P . 162 B a n j o - p l a y e r a - t l i i n k i n g m T Q J- . JJ . o . 279 Bank-walk a-thumping JJ . 1 »E . 631 bare-browed a-wing M . V . 418 barga in -cheap a b o u t - t o - f i r e I . J j . 2 . 358 bark-bound a b s e n t - t h o u g h t e d W.W. 70 barn -cocks a c e o r d i a n - p l e a t e d M . V . 443 barn -door a f a r - n o i s e d \ 4 mXJ « 66 barrow-beacon a f a r - o f f D * XJ e S ft 22 2 b a r t o n - s h e d a f t e r - h o u r s W.P. 61 b a s s - v i o l a f t e r - s u n s e t 1.1 • V a 466 b a t t i e - b r e a t h i n g a i l - s t r i c k e n ML ft V tt 412 B a t t l e - g o d a i m e d - a t X a XJ ft ill » 558 B a y - r e d a i r - b l u e t_) • C a 326 beauty -spo t a l l - a d o r n i n g A.1 o XJ ft i-j « 580 beds ide- lamp a l l - a l l u r i n g M . V . 422 b e l f r y - l o f t a l l - d a y -L/a X ft 10 • 630 b e l i e v e d - i n - t h i n g a l l - d e l i v e r i n g 139- be11-chime a l l - e a r t h - g l a d d e n i n g - l a w • b e l l - l i k e o f -Peace ? ft X* •? * 82 b e l l - l o f t a l l - e c l i p s i n g W.P. 5 b e l l - r o p e a l l - e m b a r r a s s e d S . C . 341 bend ing-ocean A l l - E m p e r y M . V . 318 b e n t - b e a r d e d a l l - e n a c t i n g rn T o ± « Xi • O • 222 bereavement -pa in a l l - i m m a n e n t 2 © X • s« 269 b e r y l - b e spread a l l - i n c l u d i n g M . V . 401 b e r y l - b r i g h t a l l - p r e v a i l i n g M.V.- 464 he-webbed A l l - S a i n t s W.P. 40 b ine -s tems a l l - s o u l s o»G» 353 b i r t h - c h a m b e r s A l l - u n e a r e d M . V . 413 b i r t h - h o u r a i l - u n k n o w i n g l y 171 b i r t h - m o o n a l l - h e i g h t o«G» 303 b i r t h - t i d e a l t a r - a f f i r m a t i o n ' X«X/ftlC e 654 b l a c k - c r a p e d a l t a r - c r u m b b»0« 287 b l a c k - t r e s s e d a l t a r - v o w x* • X • S« 273 blame-exempt a l t a r - w h i m 348 b i a s t - b e r u f f l e d a p p l e - b l o o t h W.P. 38 b l i g h t - t i m e a p p l e - g r e e n s • c • 378 b l o o d - b e s p r e a d a p p l e - t o p s . T • X • S e 192 b l o o d - b r e t h r e n a p p l e - t r e e s O ft G a 334 b l o o d - h o l e a r m - c h a i r JJ ft X ft Jli ft 639 b l u e - c o l o u r e d a r t - b e g i n n i n g s o a C ft 334 b l u e - e y e d a s s embly-hour W.P. 31 body-borne WftWft 163 11a ¥ . 0? e x» s« e X • S • X • XjftB • S • G a T. l.S. Xs a ? ft? s a X • S • M . V . JJ.L.JJ]. V< a ? tt M .V.-S • G © W.P. • W.P. W.P, ? • ? a? «. P . P . P . P «P , P . T . 1. S. L . L . E . si a vl • 'T. I i . S. X. X .Hi. W.W. w.w. XJ. X. J J J . V-t V! p . p . p . p . p . p . M e V o M . V . M . V . P . P . P . L . L . E . p . p . p . W.P. JD a X • S ft M . V . XJ.JJ.I1J. 1/ . p . p . p . p . L . I . E . M . V . VI w P . P . P . -L a Xa i-J » O a C • Q ft O • O o 462 229 193 598 327 223 146 243 405 585 50 506 413 32 61 53 97 90 119 268 602 70 209 585 44 I67 655 158 84 153 479 446 454 137 623 116 50 240 494 556 29 137 633 510 157 89 602 373 287 I l l b o i s t e r o u s - w i s e W . W . i ? bond-serwants W.P. 14 bosom-beat ing W.P. 41 bosom-burn ing Ii a IJ a ill a 595 bran-new W . W . 142 b r e a d - b r i n g e r W **" u . n a 91 b r e a k f a s t - f i r e P . 1. ill. 602 break fas t - smoke W.P. 30 b r e a s t - b a r e 11. V . 401 b r e a t h - f o r s a k e n M . V . 455 b r e a t h - n i g h XJ • XJ a iii o 575 b r e a t h - w h i l e JO • XJ* S * 241 b r e a t h i n g - t i m e IJ 0 XJ 0 iii 0 594 breeze -b lown M . V . 442 b r i a r - m e s h e d . M . V . 463 b r i c k - b r o w n - -L 0 XJ * iii 9 581 b r i c k - b u i l t • W . W . 75 b r i d e - a l e W.P. 38 b r i d e - c l o t h e s w»w. 190' B r i d e - s t r e a m s W.P. 46 b r i g h t - h a t t e d S 0 C o 523 b r i g h t - s o u l e d o * C • 390 b r i g h t - t i m e M . V . 493 b r i n e - m i s t P . P .ill a 627 b r i s k - e y e d W . W . 80 broad-browed O 0 C © 327 b r o o k - s i d e o n yj 9 u 0 316 b r o o m - s t i c k \I 9 \ J 9 64 brown-shawled M . V . 494 b r o w n - t r e s s e d D 0 C 0 327 b r u t e - l i k e XJ a -b a iii ft 557 Bubb-Down P . P . P . 159 b u g l e - h o r n W.P. 31 b u r g h e r - t h r o n g W . W . 195 burnt -up W . W . 122 b u t t on-ho le S a C 0 393 b y - a n d - b y . T«L » S » 261 b y - t r a c k M . V . 510 b y e - p a t h W . W . 16 b y e - r o a d s M . V . 503 cab-hacks JJ . P.E . 652 c a l l - t i m e P . P . Iii a 562 candlemas-t ime K) » C o 324 c a n d l e - s n o f f W.P. 64 candle-wax W . W . 114 c a n n o n - p l a y • W.P. 24 cap- f ramed T • XJ 0 S 0 258 c a r t - t a i l R T q 258 casement-comers I? a It a S » 199 casement-sash W . W . 103 C a s t e r b r i d g e - w a y M . V . 489 catacomb-p ined M . V . 482 c a t t l e - s h o w c h a l k - p i t c h a n c e l - a l t a r chap e l - e r owned char-wench c h a r i o t - s e a t c h a r n e l - e y e d c h a r n e l - s i t e c h e c k - f l o o r e d c h e s t n u t - d r i v e c h e v a l - g l a s s c h i e f s - a t - a r m s c h i l d - f a i r c h i m l e y - t u n ch imney-breas t ch imney-corner chimney-nook chimney-pot ch imney- roar ch imney-seat ch ina-ware c h i t - c h a t C h r i s t - c r o s s C h r i s t - d a y c h u r c h - a i s l e c h u r c h - c h i m i n g church-day c h u r c h - g l a s s c h u r c h - r e s t o r e r s c h u r c h - t e x t c hureh-warden church-way c hur c hy ar d -p 1 a c e c i d e r - m a k i n g s c i n d e r - g r a y c i t y - o p p r e s t c law-worn c l a y - c a r v e d c l a y - p i t s c l e a r - e y e d c l e a r - s u n n e d c l i c k - c l i c k c l i f f - h e a d s c l i f f - s i d e c l i f f - t o p c l o c k - b e a t s c l o c k - c o r n e r c l o c k - l i k e c l o s e - b a r r e d c l o s e - c o w l e d c losed-up b • U « 395 3 0 0 a 285 S a C a 548 W.P. 28 W.P. 31 1» P. E » 354 <U a W 0 202 S a C 0 363 P. P.B. 604 . M . V . 455 S.C. 338 W.P. 23 M . V . 497 W.P, 64 X* a lie S 0 253 X> a XJ a £i a 648 P . P . P . 155 O • C a 36b T a XJ a 3 a 259 P «P «P« l b l S « C a 316 P.P.E, 596' Xi * IJ a iii e 640: rp y 0 X a J_Jo yj 9 1 240 T. P. S. 23b M . V . 4b4 M a V a 403 W.P. 48 M . V . 503 P.P.E.' 593 P. P«E 0 b42 Q n 364 (il T q J- a JJ. O . 240 P . P . P . 141 O a G a 365 IJ a IJ a jtil «. 614 W.P. 56 P. P.E a 622 V a w a 131 M . V . 463 O 9 C 9 312 O a C e 330 W . W a 55 M . V . 466 M . V . 458 JJ 9 -LaE ft 625 T•Lt S• 21? J- * Xja 3 a 22b XJ a lia3 0 567 M . V . 4b7 M . V . 483 3 0 G a 388 112 c l o s i n g - i n c l o t h - c o v e r i n g c l o u d - e a s t c l o u d - c o l o u r s c l o u d - h o l e s c l u b - f i r e c lub- room cobweb-time cock-crow c o d l i n - t r e e c o f f i n - t h r a l l c o i g n - s t o n e c o l d - e y e d c o l d - l i p p e d c o l d e r - f e a t u r e d come-at comet-comings c o n s c i e n c e - c a p p e d c o n s o r t - q u e e n s copper-crowned c o p p e r - r e d c o p s e - c l o t h e d c o r n - b l a d e s c o r n - c h a f f co rn m a r k e t - p l a c e c o r p s e - c o l d c o r p s e - l i k e c o r p s e - t h i n g c o t t a g e - p l a c e c o t t o n - h o o d e d c o u c h - g r a s s couch- t ime c ounte s s-widow coup l ing-vow c o u r t - c l a d c r a f t - w i t . c r e e p e r - n a i l s c r i m s o n - b r i g h t c r i m s o n - f a c e d c r i m s o n - r e d c r i s p - c u r l e d c r i s p l y - c r o p p i n g c r i s s - c r o s s e d c r i s s - c r o s s i n g c r o c u s - b o r d e r c r o c u s - c o l o u r e d c r o s s - a n d - h a n d c r u m b - o u t c a s t e r cup-eyed c u r f e w - r i n g i n g c u r f e w - t i d e c u r t a i n - c h i n k cusp ing-marks M.V. • Vif e a r% *J 9 KJ e O p W.W. L . I . E . T . L . S . x . 1. su • W • w. W.P. L . L . E . rn -r o i . • JJ . o . L • Jj . jh • S . C . Li. C. X * L »E e L . L . Hi e T . L . S , o • G« T«X*S * 3«G» W.P. JJ . L »E e T. L. S . s . c . L. L. ii*. rn T q X » Jj . D • T T <3 » JJ . tj • P .P . P . 11. "7. M.V. \I * w • *3P ttX* 4 I • JJ * ii*« S • G • X • X * JJJ » M.V. S . C . S * C * M.V. X • X/« XJ « jj * XttiC © ? eX* • ? • P . P . P . P . P . P . P . P . P . x • L • iij • M.V. W.P. X » XJ * ilt * 492 10? 3 3 4 291 1 3 568 225 539 121 64 390 1 9 6 563 338 4 0 4 5 8 1 578 247 352 285 264 3 4 0 29 612 226 398 618 203 193 1 4 3 511 4 4 1 137 1 0 4 554 382 659 4 8 2 372 3 7 5 4 8 1 555 608 84 155 72 158 135 547 52 566 582 custom-growths . L . L . E . 610 custom-kept" W.P. 66 c u s t o m - s t r a i g h t e n e d ' W.P. 6 d a i n t y - c u t da i - sy -and-but te r cup w.w. 152 L . L . E . d a i sy-p i ed W.W. da nc i n g - r 00m S .C . d a n d e l i o n - g l o b e s W.W. d a r k - e y e d T . L . S . d a r k n e s s - o v e r t a k e n W.P. d a t e - d a y S . C . d a t e - d a y ' s - ' M.V. d a t e - g r a v e n L . L . E . day-dawn P . P . P . day-dawning M.V. day-down P . P . P . day-dreamt L . L . E . d a y - f a l l . M.V. day-spans M.V. d a y - s t a r .W.P. dead-drowses L . L . E . d e a d - r e c k o n i n g P . P . P . dead-whi te T . L . S . death-bed T . L . S . death-day T . L . S . d e a t h - i n d u c i n g • P . P . P . dea th- lament P . P . P . death-mains M.V. death-mark W.W. d e a t h - p e n a l t i e s T . L . S . death-rumour W.P. d e a t h - s e a l e d T . L . S . d e a t h - w h i t e L . L . E . D e a t h ' s - h e a d T . L . S . d e b t - f r e e P . P . P . d e e p - d e l v e d P . P . P . d e l i c a t e - f i l m e d M.V. d e l l a - l a n d M.V. dew-damps W.P. dew-dashed T . L . S . dew- f l eece L . L . E . dewfa l l -hawk M.V. d i a g r a m - l i n e s S . C . d i m - d i s c e r n e d P . P . P . d i m - l i t M.V. d i m - o u t l i n e d L . L . E . d ing -dong M.V. d ing-dongs T . L . S . d i r g e - l i k e P . P . P . d o u b l e - b a s s M.V. d o u b l e - l i n e d W.W. 592 10 595 7 3 227 5 4 3 4 2 4 4 2 620 1 6 2 446 1 6 4 5 5 7 452 5 0 4 5 5 582 1 9 7 208 230 1 8 4 1 7 1 137 5 1 8 48 2 6 4 45 277 642 1 8 1 1 5 6 91 521 • 509 30 2 0 1 585 521 3 8 1 85 409 633 4 1 1 2 2 6 1 0 1 4 8 0 1 5 4 115 down-drip 1.1.3. 547 d r a b - a i r e d M.V. 491 dr a u g h t - b o a r d S.C. 382 d r e a m - b u i l t M.V, 437 dream-endangering P . P . P . 91 d r e a m - p r o j e c t e d W.W. 132 dream-time M.V. 428 d r e s s e r - l e d g e W .P. 62 drop-drenched M.V. 453 drum-beat S.C. 35I dug-outs L.L.E. 557 d u l l - h u e d P . P . P . 105 dumb-show S.C. 392 d u n - c o l o u r e d P . P . P . 155 dusk-hour L.L.E. 539 dust-paven S.C. 321 d w e l l i n g - p l a c e M.V. 480 e a r - d r o p s S.C. 376 e a r t h - b o u n d W .P. 60 e a r t h - c l o g g e d S.C. 353 Earth-Gods? P . P . P . 149 earth-men W .P. 44 E a r t h - s e c r e t s P . P . P . 134 e a s e l - l u m b e r L.L.E. 584 e a v e s - d r i p L.L.E. 631 e a v e s - d r o p s T.L.S. 259 Sdgon-side W .P. 62 e f f - h o l e s M.V. 423 e i g h t e e n - p e n c e W.W. 60 e i g h t y - y e a r s L.L.E. 651 e l b o w - h i g h L.L.E, 592 elm-rows W .P. 41 e n e m y - s o l d i e r M.V. 513 E p i c - f a m e d P . P . P . . 91 eve-damps M.V. 412 ewe-leaze T.L.S. 259 e y e s - f u l l " M.V. 405 eye-sweep VI.'W. 168 e y e - t r y i n g W.W. 18 f a i r - e y e d S.C. 327 f a i t h f u l - b e n t •L.L.E. 626 f a l l - t i m e L.L.E. 562 f a n c y - f a n n e d L.L.E. 653 f a n c y - f i d d l e d L.L.E." 613 f a n c y - f r e e P . P . P . 127 fancy-man T.L.S. 182 fancy-men T.L.S. 230 f a n c y - p l a c e M.V. 497 f a r - b a c k ' T.L.S. 258 f a r - d i s t a n t M.V. 467 far-down L.L.E. 598 f a r - f a m e d P . P . P . ?8 f a r - f a m e d T.L.S. I85 f a r - o f f XJ * X; »lb • 561 f a r - r e a c h i n g XaX.Sa 601 f a r - s i g h t ri « VV 0 4 f a r - s i g h t e d X^  • 3?aX?» 35 f a s t - l o c k e d M.V. 490 f e a r - f i l l e d W.P. 8 f e l l o w - c l i m b e r M . V . 460 f e l l o w - d e a c o n 599 fellow-made M.V. 507 f e l l o w - w i g h t W.P. 55 f e l l o w - w i g h t s W • P . 14 f e l l o w - y e a r sme n p.p.p. 151 f e n d e r - b r i n k x *1 x»ii*» 566 f e v e r - s t r i k e n -P • x»s © 220 f i g h t i n g - f l o o r -D • X • o« 265 f i n g e r - t i p s X • X friii • 559 f i n g e r - t o u c h P . P . P . 107 f i r - c o n e s w.w. 67 f i r e - f i e e k e d S«G * 340 f i r e - g n a w e d X5«X • Xs • 105 f i r e - r e d 0 • C • f i r m - f i x e d M •. V • 490 f i r m - l i p p e d X • X * El • 645 f i r m a m e n t - r i d i n g M.V, 466 f i r s t - b o r n 36 f i r s t - u n w i 1 l i n g I? • 3? « X5 A I63 f l a g - r o p e M.V. 464 f l a g - s t a f f W.W. I65 f l a m e - l i t X • X * It* • 649 f l i n t - a n d - s t e e l X • X ft Hi •' 631 f i i n t - t i p t X•X•Do 178 f l i t - f l u t t e r e d X • X ft iii e 590 f l o a t i n g - l i l y M.V. 454 f l o w e r - f a i r X » X ft S a 188 f i o w e r - f r e s h sb ft C ft 386 f l o w e r - l i k e 192 f l o w e r - p e t a l s 153 f l u n g - o f f . w«w • 13 f l u s h - t i m e s * c • 285 f l u t e - n o t e s S * C a 388 f l y - b l o w n M.V. 487 f l y - f l e c k e d •W.W. 60 f o a m - f i n g e r e d ' X * X' • xu • 554 fog-damp s M.V. 505 fog-dimmed T»JL. S. 239 f o g - f e s t o o n e d M.V. 436 f o g - f l e e c e M.V. 452 f o l d i n g - d o o r s L . L a ill 0 652 f o o t - f a i n t JJ . L . Ill . 592 f o o t - f o l k M.V. 464 f o o t - s o r e O a \j a 331 114 foot-swift foot-track fore-borne fore-desired fore-discerned f o r e - f o l k fare-hewn forlorn-hope formal-fashioned fortune-finding forty-three .forward-footing forward-straining f r a i l - w i c k f d F r a i l - w i t t e d frenzy-led f r e s h - f l u t e d frinting-time front-trench-line fuchsia-bells ftill-bough ed full-charged ' f u l l - f e a t u r e d f u l l - f i n i s h e d full-fugued f u l l - h e a r t f u l l - h e a r t e d f u l l - l e n g t h f u l l - p u l s e d f u l l - r a y e d f u l l - r o b e d f u l l - s t a r r e d f u l l - t h r o a t e d f u l l - u p f u l l - u s e d full-winged f u r y - f i r e s . gable-cock gable-end g a b l e - s l i t gallery-scene gallows-tree garde-robes garden-hatch garden-path garden-plot garden-wall Gas-glimmers gate-bars gateway-pier gay-pictured ghost-day "D *p "D O e G 9 - M.V. S . C . II. Y. TT VT .» . .i • i* « X » o « C © 17. P . -P»3?» J? 0 Li.Y. W . P . W . P . o n o»o « M.Y. W.W. M.Y. W . P . . ]• i • V • T • Jj • S • M.Y. T . P* S» P . P . P . o . C • P . P »E« Jj. L . iii. 1 . P . E a M.V. Ij» HJ • E© T a o S« Jj » Xi » j-b « K) o 0 « P . P . P . • M.V. M.V. T • P • S . T . P . S . • P . P . P . W . P . X » X o t> 9 w.w. W.W. .w.w. p.p.p. P . P . E . P . P . P . o 0 G 0 P . P . E . 331 16 0 30? 413 314 408 163 17 326 70 23 97 162 459 48 45 304 318 .61 512 50 509 204 458 404 216 137 338 561 547 537 521 544 219 557 342 89 516 509 215 236 158 21 259 44 138 I54 81 533 I65 327 609 g h o s t - g i r l - r i d e r ghost-like ghost-white giant-slayer gibbet-post gibbet-tree glance-giving glory-gleam glory-show glow-forsaken glow-worm God-created god-glance god-haunted \ God-obeyed God-set goer-by gold-topped golden-red' good-and-all good-bye Good-bying Good-morning good-night good-nighting gown-skirt grace-beguiled g r a s s - f l a t grass-path grave-brim grave-place grave-way gravel-path gr e e n-g owne d green-grained green-grassed green-gray green-rheumed grief-groan gur g oy 1 e -h e a d hag-ridden half-a-crown half-awake half-awakened half-blinded half-company half-conscious . half-crazed half-eased half-frightened half-god half-hearts S 0 G 9 333 L f t L . E * 631 X* 0 XJ 0 S e 191 t »p ftp* 146 W.W. 165 r »P «p * 151 P . P . P . 118 P . P . P . 89 M.V. 466 W . P . 54 Xi 0 XJ 0 Hi e 535 P . P . P . 121 P«P »P 0 102 »P aP • 91 I* 0 P 0 P? 0 146 W . P . 19 P » JLi • E . 592 M.V. 472 M.V. 479 P»1 »E . 632 P . P . E . 556 W . P . 31 -P » XJ 9 S 0 257 XJ • lift E 0 556 XJ 0 Ij 0 E 0 539 • M.Y. 441 T * Ii* S0 • 247 S a C 0 285 S«G * 388 M.Y. 502 s»c« 301 M.V. 444 • X' » IJ 0 E 0 539 P . P . P . 111 P. P * E . 660 P . P . E . 611 P. P.E» 640 M.V. 431 rn T 0 J- . j j . O « 24y P . p . E . 631 P . P . P . 145 T . P . S . 269 P • P . E . 555 T«P. S . 215 P«P«E« 599 T•P.S» 264 W . P . 48 W.W. 97 'ti 0 1* 0 7 I » J j 0 S 0 17? lY* X »E 9 iii 604 1* 0 X9 S 9 231 115 half-height M . V . 482 h a l f - h i d 1« XJ . SU . 561 half-naked W . P . 64 half-passed 17. P. 36 half-perished o«G o 571 half-sunny -b»_P .P • 155 half-transparent o * C • 514 haIf-unrobed M.V. 431 half-uttered X . X • D • 178 half-wrapt o • G • 312 halo-bedecked o«G <• 236 halting-place P.P.P. 94 hand-hid 11.V. 516 hand-rail •Vt • W • 125 hands-across X • X ft iii» 605 happiness-insuring M.Y, 422 harbour-bridge X ft X ft iii © 551 harbour-wall S«C ft 544 hard-run S ft G a 502 have-beens Jj • X ft jli ft 564 head-god X«X a HJ « 605 heart-aches X a X. S 9 223 heart-bane o n , U • U f 354-heart-beats "XT VI " 'it ft it ft 159 heart-burnings T • X • S • 260 heart-enslavement X»X S o 220 heart-halt . W.P. 56 heart-harm o ft C« 338 heart-heaves JJ ft X ft Hi a 648 heart-heavings W.P. 46 heart-hit IJ . JJ . E . 626 heart-hydromel L . I . E . 574 Heart-King W.P. 21 heart-queens W.P. ' 67 heart-scope W.W. 152 heart-sick W.P. 64 heart-strings - Il a *\T « 507 hearth-stone X • X ft -lli « 608 heath-rimmed W.W. 111 heavily-haunted L . L . E . 556 heavy-browed . 1 « ; 1 . 92 heir-looms P.P.P. 156 h i l l - d a r k • W.W. .28 h e l l - f o r t r e s s \ I * p ft 46 h e l t e r - s k e l t e r T • X a S • 269 hiding-hole high-bred T • Xft S • 197 X . X a ill ft 590 high-expectant II. Y * 454 high-hung p «p ftp ft 91 high-lighted X5 a X a S a 186 High-Priest •w.w. 93 h i gh-pur p os e d W.P. 8 high-road 17 i*r :t * i* e 2$ High-Stoy P a P a Jr* a 159 Kigh-Street W.P. 20 h i l l - h i d L.L.E. 533 H i l l - t o p X a Xo S e 257 history-haunted P . P . P . 95 hog-backed W. W. 149 hollow-eyed M.V. 481 holm-flames .W.W. 121 home-bound M.V. 464 home-coming • S • G a 580 home-den X ft X ft ill a 606 home-gone JJ ft X • lli e 605 home-life P . P . P . 145 home-planned P • P • P • 84 home-pride ' w.w. 38 home-things W.P. 34 honey-like S « C a 395 honour-wrecked X a X « S • 274 Hoo-hoo X a Xft S • 254 hope-hour • - P . P . P . 124 hope -hue s L.L.E. 65O •horn-lantern L. L. i i . 65I hot-faced M.V. 454 hot-faced M.V. 471 house-front M. V • 422 house-fronts W.W. 73 house-full W.W. 105 house-gear X ft XJ a XJ « 584 house-things s»c» 341 household-clock M.V. 512 human-wr ought W.W. 82 Kundr e d-an d-Thir t e enth S • G a 332 hunting-days X • X ft S e 251 hus ba nd-and-wi fe X ft X • 1C • 554 hush-offering M.V. 421 i l l - a d v i s e d s»c» 596 i l l - c o n t e n t Xft XftiS* 624 ill-endowed M.V. 470 i l l - i n c l i n e d 'T.L.S. 267 ill-motherings X a X • So I89 i l l - t e a c h i n g s 4 i l l - t i m e d P ftP ©P. 102 i l l - u s a g e ct ri 339 i l l - u s e d W.P, 36 i l l - u s i n g W.P. 11 i l l - w i s h e d JJ ft X • XJ ft 640 i l l - w i t c h e r y s S a G 0 378 inquiring-wise s.c. 291 iris-hued p.p.p. 118 ivy-green L.L.E. 591 ivy-shoot M.V. 458 i v y - s p u n W«P« 57 j a c k - o - c l o c k iii • V • 4-11 j a c k - o ? - l a n t h o r n ? •S • i i . V. 424 j o y - j a u n t s M.Y. 44b j o y l e s s - h u e d T • ZJ • S • 177 j u d g e m e n t - c a l l 10 J u dg e m e n t - da y D « C • 287 j u d g e m e n t - h a l l 'T # L« D a 264 Judgement-Sign *i / * J? » 24 judgement-time o • G« 37 9 Jumpi n g - j a c k S * C o 354 J u m p i n g - j i l l s.o. 354 J u n e - l i g h t P • JJ . E o 635 K e n n e l - s h e d XJ . Jj . E . 635 K i n g ? s-Own W.P. 39 K i s s i n g - g a t e W.W. 154 Knee-deep T a X a S • 278 K o p j e - c r e s t p.p.p. 83 l a c e — r obed S a C a 395 Lammas-tide M.V. 402 l a m p - l i t lia X"*E • 560 l a m p - l i t 0? a Xi a S a 201 lamp-worm's M.V. 431 l a n g u i d - l i p p e d . O » G a 307 l a n t e r n - b e a r i n g O « C a 362 l a n t e r n - l i g h t W.P, 64 l a n t e r n - s l i d e S.O. 306 l a r g e - e y e d P.P.P. 115 l a r g e - p u p i l i e d M.V. 484 l a s t - t a k e n P . I . E . 644 l a s t - t i m e S » C a 320 l a t t i c e - g l e a m i V i a V a 454 l a u g h - l o u d \/ a W* 168 l a w - l a c k i n g W.W. 186 l e a f - s t r e w n P.P.E. 595 l e a f - s t r e w n W.P. 23 l e a f - w o v e S.C. 316 l i f e - d e e p W.P. 5 l i f e - f r a i g h t XJ a XJ aE a 594 l i f e - l i g h t M • V a 519 l i f e - l o n g XJ a Xi a Jjj a 552 l i f e - l o v e X a X aE a 602 l i f e - l o y a l t i e s W * X5 * 57 l i f e - m a t e D a G a 369 l i f e - s h o t t e n W.W. 130. l i f e - s p a n W.W. 88 l i f e - t i d e s _ X*. JJ « E . 647 l i g h t - h e a r t e d P.P.E. 652 l i g h t - h e a r t e d l y S.C. 330 l i g h t - l i m b e d X • X a £J • 659 l i g h t - p e n n e d Jj a Xj a Hi a 543 l i g h t - t i m e XJ a JL a iii 9 541 l i g h t - t o n g u e d T 0 Xe « 210 l i g h t - t r i p p i n g W.P. 64 l i g h t n i n g - b l a d e t* * JZ « 43 l i g h t n i n g - s t r e a k 3 « C a 347 l i k e - i n t e n d i n g 138 l i l y - w h i t e W.W. 180 l i m e - d r y rn x 0 X • Jj a • Q e 265 l i n e n - b a n d e d J a XJ E a603 l i o n s - T h r e e W.P. 4b l i q u o r - b a r a C a 344 l i q u o r - c u p s T 0 X a S a 225 l i q u o r - f i r e d 'rf 6 P 9 47 l i t t l e - E a s e M.Y* 480 P o d i - b r e d P *P «P• 99 l o f t - l a d d e r W.P. bb log-ends l o n e - l i v e d T•L»Da 192 X • XJ a 3 a 17 9 long-ago * Xia XaE a 539 long-ago P.P.P. 8b long-drawn S a G a 334 l o n g - l i m b e d M.V. 4bl l o n g - l i n g e r i n g W.P. 69 l o n g - l o v e d P«P»P « 99 l o n g - m i s s e d rn T, Q 17? l o n g - p u r p o s e d Ii « Xa III 0 638 l o n g - r o l l X a I i * E a 620 l o n g - s u f f e r i n g X a X a E "a 643 l o n g - s u f f e r i n g »^ ) a C a 298 long-sunned W.P. 27 l o n g - s w e e p i n g 3 a G a 292 l o n g - t r i e d M.V.' 422 long-vogued S.C. 380 l o o k - o u t W.W. 168 Poud-acclaimed T1 L i S . 272 l o v e - a n g u i s h e d S.C. 305 l o v e - b i r d s M.V. 475 love-campaign S « G a 344 l o v e - c l a i m P.P.P. 130 l o v e - l a b o u r i n g M.V. 501 l o v e - l e a f i . p . E . 569 l o v e - l e t t e r s 17 VT *i « w e 51 l o v e - l i g h t • W.P. 61 l o v e - l i g h t s P.P.P. 102 l o v e - l i n e 3 a C a 343 l o v e - l o o k s M.V. 520 l o v e - l o r e X a X a E 0 564 l o v e - n e s t Q n i-J 9 Kj a 313 love-rhyme D 0 C 0 315 l o v e - s t r a t a g e m IV'i « V a 460 l o v e - t h o u g h t W a W 0 ibo l o v e - t h r a l l s X a XaE a 55O l o v e - w o r n W.P. I I i o v e r - b r i g h t ii » ** « 15 l o v i n g - k i n d n e s s P.P.P. 12p I o v i n g - k i n d n e s s O a 0 a 306 l o w - l a i d P.P.P. 113 l o w - v o i c e d P.P.P. 154 lumber-shop il? a Wa 60 l u s t - l e d lla"fy a 518 Lyonnesse-way X . L A E . 580 magic-minted X a X a lO a 603 M a i l - t r a i n O © 0 a 326 m a n - l i k e 5 a C a 307 Man-p r o j e c t e d L> « G » 307 manor-ha11 o«C t 334 manor-lady o«C • 370 M a n s i o n - f r o n t XJ a.X a Hi o 627 mansi on-place M.V. 459 many-eyed M.V. 484 Many-flamed M. V. 468 many-shaped W.P. 43 many-sidedness P.P.P. 89 many-wived q p 352 many-yeared W.P. 42 marble-keen W..W. 96 m a r b l e - s t r e e t e d L.L.E. 644 Market-dames T.L.S. 223 market-days T • L. S • 199 Market-men T.L.S. 199 m a r k e t - p e o p l e •L.L.E. 542 m a r r i a g e - r i t e s P.P.P. 128 m a s k - c l a d 'M.V. 490 mas t er-ma sons 3 * C * 580 M a s t e r - m i n d W • Hi 9 156 M a s t e r - v e i n W.P. 42 ma t r on-manners S • C a 541 me-ward X a X a J-J a . 647 meek-eyed 11 a V • 404 Meek-eyed <0 * C a 341 M e e t i n g r-days X a X a S a 204 m e e t i n g - p l a c e X © X » S a 211 m e e t i n g - t i m e P.P.P. 89 M e e t i n g - t i m e s X « XJ • w • 226 Memory-acted q p 371 Memory-laden W.P. 58 Mem o r y - p o s s e s s e d 299 mercy-seat q n 506 merry-making M.V. 478 mid-aged T.L.S. 216 M i d - s e a rr yi 96 m i d d l e - w a t c h L.L.E. 628 Mighty-vanned P.P.P. 84 m i l e s - w i d e W • P . 25 m i n d - c h a i n s a O * 300 m i n d - s t r i f e 190 M i n u t e - b e a t s P.P.P. 120 M i r a g e - m i s t s . W.P. 59 Mi r e - b e s t a r r e d - T . L . S . 259 m i r t h - t i m e M.V. 499 m i s - s e n t W.P. 29 Mist-bow S . C . 523 m i s t - i m b u e d . M.V. 465 8 M o c k i n g - B i r d W.W. M o l e - h i l l rn T 0 X . X i e O . 180 month-night x . L«S . 177 month-old S . C . 345 Moon-blanched P.P.P. 156 Moon-eyed S a C a 289 moon-gleam M.V. 520 m o o n - l i t X a X a ll-o 607 moor-cock Xj a X a JJJ * 565 Moor-hen , M.V. 455 M o r n i n g - t i d e 11 • Jr « 42 m o s t - l o v e d W.W. 11 mountain-road m T q -L • J J a O © 264 much-beloved X a X A E a 599 mud-bespat T - T TP J-J a Jki a J_J a 582 m u s i c - c h a r t M.V. 424 Music -Men X a X* S a 256 Music-mother S a C a 305 M u s i c - w i s e It/ • V/ ® 192 n e e d l e - t h i c k s P.P.P. 101 n e i g h b o u r - n a t i v e s W.P. 35 n e r v e - s t r a i n e d S . C . 541 9 n e s t i n g - t r e e W P n e u t r a l - t i n t e d W.W. 114 never-known XJ . L . E . 554 llever-napp i n g W.P. 63 n e w - a r i s e n M.V. 499 n e w - b r o u g h t - f o r t h XJ • L . S • 564 n e w - b u i l d e d L . L . E . 602 new-found M.V. 515 n e w - l a i d b«c« 394 new-made W.P. 36 Hew-rigged T . L . S . 257 new-sprung it • */ © 6 new-spun M.V. 521 Hew-Years S a C # 310 n i g h - r e g a r d i n g W.P. 13 n i g h t - f o g L . L . E . 627 n i g h t - g u n s M.V. 510 n i g h t - l o n g - M.V. 422 night-mare L . L . E . 557 Wight-moths P.P.P. 84 n i g h t - p r o c e s s i o n s . Il a V a 455 118 P i g h t - q u e e n n i g h t - r a i l n i g h t - s c r e e n e d night-shadows n i g h t - s i g h s M g h t - t i d e ' s n i g h t - t i m e n i g h t - w i n d n i g h t - w i n d s Nine - a n d - f i f t y N i n e - a n d - n i n e t y N i n e - P i l l a r e d noon-heat noon-time H.or? -west K o r t h - w e s t n o t e - b e n t n u t - c o l o u r e d Pymph-Piche oak-copse o f f - h a n d ogive-work o i l - l e s s o l d - f a s h i o n e d o l d - t i m e omen-scouting o n c e - l o v e d o n e - p u l s e d one-time o n e - v o i c e d o r d e r - k e e p i n g s o u t - a r t e d out-count • o u t - o f - d o o r s o u t - s k i r t over-hope o v e r - s a d o v e r - s e a s paddock-path p a g e - f u l l p a l e - f a c e d p a l e - w i n g e d p a n e - f i y T s p a r a d i se-paths p a r i s h - c l e r k p a r k - p a l e p a r k - p o o l p a r l o u r - d o o r p a r t i n g - l i h e p a r t i n g - t i m e p a r t n e r - g i r l s P.P.P. W.P. X 0 X e S 0 w . p . T • Jj • D • XJ • XJ « xu» JJ • Jj 0 E a M . V . W.P. ' 1. p . iii. W.P. W.P. O a C a X 0 X 0 E 0 S a C « X a X a E a S a G « X a X aS a S a C e X* a Jj a S a W.P. J_i . p . ia . M . V . M . V . W.P. T.P.S. M . V . S.C. M . V . S a C a T.P.S. X* a X' a S a XJ a X aE a »'/ a IP a « G a W.P. M . V . M . V . P.P.P. S a G a S.C. W.P. W.W. 2v'l a Y a X a X a E a rn' T q X t JJ t J • X a X a E a J! a X a O a JP a JP a JP a I » X a S a 102 6.4 213 153 22 197 541 630 516 41 547 46 52 314 631 297 541 328 651 316 269 67 653 502 501 54 177 463 363 403 303 266 181 547 14 350 47 512 453 84 33? 370 61 14 488 568 l?8 550 248 81 202 p a r t y - w a i l p a s s e r - b y p a s s i n g - b e l l p a s s i o n - g o a d e d passion-moved p a s s i o n - t o s s e d p a s s i o n a t e - e y e d p a t h - p a v i n g pavement-stone p a v i n g - s t o n e s pawn-shop peace-enshrouded pea c e - y e a r - p e l l - m e l l p e t t i s h - l i k e pewter-ware pewter-wares phaet o n - l a n t e r n phantom-fo oted phant om-guise p h a n t o m - l i k e phant om-thought p h a r o s - f i r e p h a r o s - s h i n e p h y s i c - w i n e pick-me-up p i c t u r e - d r a w n p i c t u r e - l a n d p i e r - g l a s s p i l e d - u p p i n e - t r e e p i n e - t r e e s p i n k - f a c e d p i t - p a t . p l a c e - e n t h u s i a s m s p l e a s u r e - c a u g h t p l e a s u r e - g l e a m p l i n t h - s l o p e s p o c k e t - h o l e Poesy-paven p o i n t - b l a n k p o i s o n - d r i p p o i s o n - g a s P o l e - s t a r Pooh-pooh porch-QUOin poppy-head p o r p h y r y - b a s i n e d p o r t i c o - s h a d e p r a y - t i m e pre s e n t a t i o n - t r a i n s p r i e - d i e u p r i s o n - c e l l X a XJ a jbi a M . V . i \ i . V . W .P . X a X » iii a X" a JP a LP a M . V . Q n i_> a O a X a X a Xb a W .P . U a Ii a X a X a S a V* a JP • Xi a X a ill a X a X * S a X a X a S e M«Y* a V a S • G a . W . P . X • Xa S a W .P , P • P • E • M . V . X • XJ 0 'S a X o X * E a Hi 0 W 0 III 0 V 0 M0 V 0 C p O 0 \J 0 X 0 X 0 Xi 0 M . V . M . V . X0X a E0 T 0 X0 S 0 W.?0 m T q X © XJ 0 O 0 X 0 X 0 iii • JP *P ePt X 0 X 0 E 0 P . P . E . W .P . W.W. W.W. w. w. M . V . W . P . P . P . P . X 0 Xa XU j^ i i i , 0 i/ © o 0 G 0 P . P . P . 618 492 413 52 641 164 463 364 571 10 108 273 19 655 235 241 436 47 2 299 52 263 12 549 465 181 602 184 437 484 365 605 512 442 535 279 51 245 630 150 581 639 56 17^ ; ? 7 105 467 10 167 628 448 327 153 346 p r o s p e c t - i m p r e s s e d M.V. 420 p u f f - s l e e v e d p u l l - h e a r t p u l p i t - g l i m m e r p u l s e - s t i r r i n g s p u p p e t - l i k e Q u a r t e r - C i r c l e q u a t r e - f o i l e d q u i c k - c u e d Q u i c k - S t e p r a i l - t r a c k r a i n - d r o p r a i n - f a l l r a i n - r e e k r a i n - s h a f t s r a i n - s h a f t s r a i n b o w - r a y s r a y - l i t • r e - a c c e p t a n c e r e - a d o r n i n g re-awaken r e - c r e a t e s r e - c r e a t i o n s r e - d e e k e d r e - e n a c t r e - e n a c t re-enactment r e - e n t e r e d r e - e x p r e s s i o n r e - g r e e t i n g r e - i l l u m i n e d r e d - c l o a k e d r e d - e y e d r e d - h o t r e d - l i p p e d r e d - v e i n e d r e s t i n g - p l a c e R h i n e - s t r e a m r i c h - n o t e d Ridge-way r i g i d - f a c e d r i p e - y e a r e d r i p p l e - g l e a m r i p p l e - t i p s r i v e r - f a c e r i v e r - g l e a m r i v e r - o o z e r i v e r - w e e d r o b i n - s o n g " r o a d - s c r e e n r o o f - l a m p s M.V. 443 L . L . E . 549 M.V. 404 s.c. 351 xi.XJ. 185 s.c. 395 M.V. 412 L . L . E . 541 w.w. 195 M.V. M.V. X . X j ft it* « XJ » X • X * XJ » O • 17. W. K.Y. v* . X T o • c. • W • Jr • W • P • O * C * o ft G« S.C. X • X. S • s.c. W.P. M.V. , Li ft "V * M.V. Xi. w» i v i . V . Xj e l i a jij . • S.C. S.C. M.V. L.L.E. W.W. L . L . E . o* C # W.P. M.V. P .P ._f. P.P.?. P.P.P. P.P.P. M.V. 509 466 651 554 259 26 501 566 54 54 505 285 326 371 592 195 328 47 410 505 494 91 418 659 518 511. 508 564 33 ; 91 21 646 294 46 452 144 94 156 157 485 r o o f - t r e e r o o f - w r e c k e d Rose-Ann ro s e - b u s h r o s e - f l u s h r o s e - n e c k e d r o s e - r e d r o s e - t r e e r o s y - r e d r o t e - r e s t r i c t e d rough-hewn r u b y - r e d R u l e - o f - T h r e e r u s h - c a n d l e • T . L . S T T IP1 XJ.» . x i * -iii T . L . S S . C ••s.c XJ ft X ftXLj T . L . S -L *• X e i l l T ft XJ • S P.P.P W.P JJ . L . E M.V X« Xft lb . 258 . 659 . 255 . 554 . 528 . 554 . 227 . 626 . 191 . 172 . 42 . 573 . 4 8 1 . 631 s a b l e - s a d W.P. 10 s a c k c l o t h - c l a d rp T O J- « XJ e O « 190 Sacrament—wine W "T I67. safe-bestowed W . P . 31 s a f e - g u a r d s . rrt T q 227 S a i n t - P e t e r s M. V. 447 s a l t - a i r e d M.V. 440 s a l t - e d g e d S • G« 322 s a l t - s m e l l i n g • L . L . E . 555 Sanet-shape X5 *P ft?* 102 sand-swept T T TP» . JJ . XJ « X i e 604 s a n g u i n e - s o u l e d X * XJ • 659 scoop-eyed S.C. 307 s e a - b i r d s O ft W « 527 s e a - b o r d M.V. 464 s e a - c a p t a i n X. X»ii* e 600 sea-downs o.ft G ft 339 s e a - l i n e P . P . P . 78 s e a - m u t t e r i n g s P . P . P . 87 s e a - s a l t s • XJ a X 0 ill « 644 s e a - s w e l l O a C ft 286 sea-worm O 9 yj a 288 s e a l e d - u p T.L.S. 202 s e l f - a b a s e m e n t 0»c« 298 s e l f - c e n t r e d M.V. 462 s e l f - c o l l o q u y VT • v e * * X a 47 s e i f - c omraune d W.P. 5 s e l f - d e c e i v e d 0»G * 507 s e l f - e n t a i l e d P a J? • P « 112 s e l f - h e l d W.W. 17 9 s e l f - j o y s X ftp 6p 0. 106 s e l f - l o v e X • X • xu e 655 s e l f - r e g a r d U a O ft 3^ 5 s e I f - r e p r o a c h e s W.P. 51 s e l f - s a m e rn T q 186 s e l f - s l a u g h t e r M.V. 419 s e l f - a m i t i n g s P.P.P. 106 s e l f - s t r u c k M.V. 455 ISO s e l f - t r e a s o n *:i e W « 5 s e l f - wi d o w e r e d O e \j « s e l f - w i l l e d 1.1» J * 4 2 5 s e l f - w r a p t •. - « V * 411 s e l f i s h - w i s e W.P. 13 3 e l p u c i i r e - l e d P « J? eJr* a 1 0 5 s e n s e - s e a l e d T • jj» S • 251 s e p u l t u r e d - c l a d S . C . 2 8 6 sermon-time P. P. hi. 593 s e t - t o W.T/. 16? s e t t i n g - d a y P.P.E « 659 seven-odd P. P »E« 593 s e v e n t y - f o u r o * C« 354 s h a d e - f i e e k e d Ju e 1 • J i . 554 s h i p - l i g h t s M.V. 469 s h o p - s i g n s W.W. 73 s h o r e - l i n e -W.P. 3 3 shrewd-eyed M«V O 474 s h u t - i n M.V. 480 shy-seeming J.' • JU • 3 • 2 2 6 s i c k - l e a v e jb • L# E • s i d e b o a r d - g l a s s IJ • JJ • E » 6 1 6 s i g n a l - t h r i l l T • IJ • S • 180 s i l k - l i n e d M.V. 455 s i l k - p i e c e S«G 9 375 S i l v e r - l i n e d J? 8 LP • j? • 92 s i m p l y - c u t S • G • 3 0 2 s i n g - s o n g i n g !•LftE j 5 6 5 s i n g i n g - m i s t r e s s 3 0 5 s i n g l e - h e a r t e d V* » j? « 41 s i r e - s o w n M* V* 431 s i s t e r - l o v e P.P.P'. I 6 7 s i t - o u t M.V. 433 s i x t y - t h r e e JO • I i • 3 • I 8 7 s k e l e t o n - t h i n M.V. 463 skimmer-cake I3 * IJ a 3 • 2 3 4 skiromi t y - r i de W.P. 66 s k y - b i r d s W.W. 175 s k y - g l a n c i n g M»V • 40 7 s k y - g r a y P.P.E. 534 s l e e p - w r a p t o»C • 326 s l i c i n g - m i 1 1 W.W. 103 s l o e - b a c k G a 0 « 3 7 6 s l o w - c r e e p i n g W.W. 65 slowed-down -•  V ft Y/ • 74 3 1 o w l y - s t e p p i n g pi rt kJ a U « 307 smock-frock W.W. 17 smoke-headed W.W. 184 smoke-hazed X • Jj » S a 241 smoke-shaft P.P.P. 7 3 sin o oth - b r owed JJ ft IJ a E • 659 s m o o t h - f l o o r e d T a lift S « 201 snow-bound W.P. 8 snow-cones W.P. 43 snow-claked M.V. 4 6 4 s o - c a l l e d W.P. 24 socket-bones M.V. 442 s o c k e t - s u n k J_i. 1 >i!i. 668 s o f t - t h i n k i n g P . P.ilj . 6 5 I s o l d i e r - m a n W.W. 5 1 S o n g - b i r d s P a P 0 P * 143 song-notes l i a V * 4 9 4 song-time Ma V . 4 4 8 soon-reached If a Jj a E e 5 8 4 s 9 r r 0 w—wrung M.V. 420 s o u g h t - f o r JJ a Jj a Ji a 5 8 0 S o u l - f l a m e P a P a P a 85 S o u l - s h e l l - P a P a P • 1 0 2 s o u l - s i c k S.C. 299 s o u l - s m a r t IJ a l i a E 9 547 s o u l - s t i f l i n g T Q a. ft JJ a UJ e 1 9 3 s o u l - s u b l i m i n g P ftP aP a 9 1 soul-swoon . M.V. 4 5 4 s o u l - 1 o u c h i n g M.V.. 462 South-Wessex W.P. 3 0 S o u t h - w e s t e r ' s P.P.P. 149 sou'-west P. P. E. 5 4 0 sp e c t r e - b e r i d d e n JJ . P.E . 557 s p e c t r e - g r e y P.P.P. 137 s p e c t r e - s p e e d M.V. 4 5 2 S p e c t r e - s p o t s P. P. E« 5 3 9 s p i r i t - g u i s e W.W. 13 s p i r i t - h o u r T.P.S. 17? s p i r i t - k i s s e s 4 4 S p i r i t - q u e n c h i n g W.W. 2? s p i r i t - t a m e W.P. 56 s p o r t - m a k i n g I! • L * S • 2 3 3 s p r a y - r o o f e d ii'a vi 0 65, s p r i g - m u s l i n Jj a Jj a iii a 5 3 3 S p r i n g - t i m e 3 * C # 327 S p r i n g t i m e - d a y s W.W. 83 s p r i n k l e - b a t h P. P. E « 577 s t a g e - c o a c h M.V, s t a g e - h o s t e l W.P. 46 s t a g e - j o y a n c e T « Jja S 0 2 7 3 stage-woman m T Q X a JJ* O a 274 s t a n d e r s - b y Jj a JJ a E ft 6 4 2 s t a r - b l i n k P.P.P. 1 2 1 s t a r - l i t XJ a Jj • Jli e 5 7 2 S t a r - r a y S • G • 3 9 0 S t a t e - w e a l \I a XI a 38 s t a t i o n - y a r d Ma Va 4 5 0 Steady-eyed Wf i~r n a '11 a 62 s t e e l - r o p e d O  G a 3 8 7 s t e e p l e - c o c k T * Jj a 3 » 2 5 1 s t i c k - e n d s 3 » C a 3 3 6 121 JJ L. L . E T P . L » S« . P . P . St one-bordered VI. P . s t o n e - d e a f W . P . s t o r m - b i r d s M.V. s t e r m - s t r a i n e d . W . W . s t o r m - t i g h t T . L . S . s t r a i g h t - s t r e t c h e d L . L . E . s t r a i n i n g - s t r i p s M.V. s t r a n g e - e y e d P . P . P . s t r a y - t i m e W .W, s t r e a m - l i l i e s M.V. s t r e a m - s h i n e M.V. s t r e e t - f i d d l e r W . P . s t r e e t - l a m p P . P . P . Str ike-h im-dumb ' L . L . E . s t u m b l i n g - b l o c k s s u b - c a p t a i n s u b - p r i o r summer-house . summer-tide. summer-time s u b - b l a z e . s u n - c a s t . s u n - g l a z e d sun-shapes sun-sweep sun-swept sunke n-h ear t e d . s u n s e t - s h i n e s u p p e r - f i r e supper - t ime s u r e - s e a l e d swan-necked sweat-drops s w e e t - b i t t e r sv/eet -wi l l i am s y l p h - l i k e t a b l e t - w i s e t a g - r a g T a l e - t e l l i n g t a l l - s p i r e d t a l l - s t e m m e d tap-maid t a r - c l o t h s t a r g e t - c i r c l e s T a t e - a n d - B r a d y t a v e r n - h o l d e r t e a r - f r a u g h t t e l l - t a l e tense-drawn t e n t h - r a t e t e r r a - c o t t a L T P L L P L L T P L M.V. W . P . * 1» it» • X • S • .p.p. • X ft iii « .p.p. «X • JS * * X J « H J « • XJ • S • . P . P . . L . E , W . W . S«0 • w.w. * X • S e . X . Sh 9 X«Xft So X . XJ« S . X* • P ft X ft S • C a • w.w. D • C ft •p.p.p. M.V. M • V . o • G . L . J j «E . VI VI JJ . L . E . .»/. W • o « C «. 4b Thames-s ide l b t h a t c h - r o o f e d 46p The M a r k e t - G i r l 154 t h e a t r e - s c e n e s 2^9 t h e r e - r i g h t t h i c k - v a r n i s h e d 5b4 T h i n - d r a p e d 492 t h i n - d r a w n 83 t h i n - e d g e d 135 t h i n - f a c e d 454 t h i n - u r n e d 453 t h i r d - c l a s s 22 t h i r d - p l a c e d 83 thorough-bass 636 thought-bound 574 Thought -wor ld 265 thought-worn 159 t h r e e - m i l e 503 t h r e e - s t r i n g e d 8 t h u n d e r - c l o u d s 563 T i c - t o e 182 t i g h t - t i e d 105 t i l t - b o n n e t 556 t i m e - l i n e s '543 t i m e - t o r n 94 t i m e - t o u c h e d 560 t i m e - t r e n c h e d 560 t i m e - t r i e d 189 t ime-worn l 6 l T i m e - w r a i t h s b ib To-be 38 t o - d a y 319 to-morrow 167 t o - n i g h t 211 t o - y e a r 467 T o i l - t r i e d 564 t o i l - w e a r y tomb-door 277 t o n g u e - t i p 265 t ons -we igh t 167 t o o - c r u e l 301 t o o - f o r c e d o5 t o p - l i n e d 335 tov/er-window 8 l town-boy 494 town-sh ine 403 • town-sor t 335 t r a c e r y - f r a m e 640 t r a f f i c - r o a r s 108 . t r a g e d y - b r i n k 372 t r a n c e - l i p p e d I36 t r a n s p o r t - t o s s e d 294 t r a v e l - t a r n i s h e d P * P »X* ft X « J_; ft ft X • X J » S « M.V. X • JJ « S • X e X « H i e S .C . X • X • >\D • X . X • Hi • s.c. L. L . j i . M.V. W.W. X«X»s« S • C ft M.V. W . P . 1 s. w. M.V. 224 224 480 234 584 370 223 583 394 590 483 154 240 322 470 53 165 480 s . c . 521 M.V. 517 vi V.T ii » V! » s . c . M.V. P . P . P . & ft G * 67 372 407 124 558 L . L . E . 534 s . c . 586 L . L . E . 555 P . P . P . l i b P . P . P . 78 L . L . E . 559 L . L . E . 551 M.V. 489 T . L . S . 250 S . C . 333 • W . P . 41 P . P . P . ' W . W . rO ft C « W.W. p.p.p. p.p.p.-X«X e 3 • w.w. M.V. L« L . E . W . W . . X e, X * S • W . W . X»X s hi« P . P . P . P . P . P . 86 190 352 I89 107 94 256 180 441 570 14 216 100 558 127 162 t r a v e l - t i r e d . M.Y. 427 t r e b l e - b o b b e d 166 t r e e - b o u g h X a Ii •> Jtli a 631 t r e e - g o d P . P . P . 101 t r e e - t r u n k s P . P . P . 159 T r i p l e - r a m p a r t e d ' i rr -r-| Vf aPa 46 t r i p l e - t i m e d o • G • 365 t r o p i c - b u r n e d i~J o W a 362 t r o t h - p l i g h t e d P . P . P . 122 T r o u b a d o r - y o u t h T . P.S. 203 t r o u b l e - t o r n iv'i a V « 412 t r o u b l e - t r i e d s * c« 344 t r y s t i n g - p l a c e J J • Jj e iii e 379 t u n e - l e d W . P . 40 t w e n t y - s e c o n d ; i • v# o 77 t w e n t y - t h r e e W.W. 77 t w i l i g h t - t i m e M • V.. 409 t w i n - h e a r t e d T e p . S . 179 two-handled W.W. 48 two-score rp T q X * J J • O e 240 under-echo W.W. 159 up-browed P . P . P . 91 u p - d a l e d S.C. 386 u p - e a r e d W • W • 6 Y a l e - f o l k P . P . P . 158 v a s s a l - s e r v i c e .p * p « p • 167 v a s s a l - w i g h t M.V. 490 v e i l - l i f t i n g s/ a Vife 160 v e s t r y - d o o r S. C • 390 v e s t r y - g l a s s q n 392 v e s t r y - n o o k P . P . P . 124 v i c t i m - s h r i e k P . P . P . 111 v i g i l - t r a c e d W.W. 91 v i n e - w r a p t P a P a P a 141 v i o l - s t r i n g s P . P . P . 121 v i o l e t - s p r i n k l e d P . XJ • P . 545 w a i t i n g - r o o m 'M.V. 487 wan-cheeked-. X i » P .Jli . 596 w a n - l i t T. P . S. 177 war-adept ' P • X i »it • 557 w a r - b o a t s W • P . 31 war-men P . P . P . 538 w a r - m i g h t i n e s s P . P . P . 85 war-seemed P . i L . i i i , ' 598 war-worn X e XJ e O . 177 w a t c h - c h a i n M.V. 462 w a t c h - f i r e s W .P . 24 watch-towers P . P . P . 109 w a t e r - c o l o u r ' W.W. 124 w a t e r - c o u r s e s Jj a X a Jh * 614 w a t e r - p i p e s Jj a X ft ill a 5t>5 w a t e r i n g - p l a c e S a C a 569 w a t e r i n g - p o t P a P a P a 147 wat e ry-browed Jj a X a Jli a 554 w e a l t h - w a n t l e s s Xf • Jj ft ill « 624 weary-eyed X a X * ib a 619 weary-kneed X • X • Jli a 570 wea t h e r - b r owne d M.V. 457 we a the r-che eke d LaXaiilo 578 weathe r - g r a y W a V/ a 152 w e a t h e r - s t a i n e d S a G a 363 wedding-day X • J J a iii ft 613 wedding-dress » G a 392 w e d d i n g - p e a l W.W. 91 week-day W.W. 142 week-ending X ft X ft iii a 586 w e f t - w i n g e d X a X a ill a 558 w e i r - h a t c h W.P. 64 welcome-warm rn T c X a X J a O 0 275 w e l l - b e i n g W.P. 45 w e l l - b e l o v e d T a X « G a 254 we11-graced k> a \j « 384 w e l l - k e p t T a X a S a 191 well-known X a Xa JS a 542 we11-meaner S e G » 364 w e l l - n i g h Xa Xa iL a 560 w e l l - o b e y e d p p "D X a JP a JP a 108 w e l l - s c r e e n e d M.V. 421 w e l l - s h a p e d iVi»V. 472 w e l l - t o - d o M.V. 413 wet-eyed W.W. c u w h a r f - s i d e W 0 wr * 92 w h e e l - r u t ' 'M.V. 463 w h i p p e r - i n P . 1.10. 655 w h i t e - c l o t h e d M. V. 409 w h i t e - f l o w e r e d M.V. 516 • w h i t e - g l o v e d T a Xa S 0 199 w h i t e - h a t t e d M.V. 442 w h i t e - m u s l i n e d M. V • 454 w h i t e - s e l v a g e d • ij.P.xO. ' 598 W h i t e - s h o u l d e r e d S.C. 327 w h i t e - s h r o u d e d W.W. 184 w h i t e - s t oned O a C a 344 wh i te-wrea t h e d S 0 G • 346 wii o l e - r oas t - b u l 1 ock M.V. 455 w i d e - f a c e d W.W. 95 w i d e - l i p p e d p.p.p. 91 . w i l d - h a i r e d X a X a ill * 554 w i l d - w i n g e d X a X a Jli a 535 w i n d - c r a c k M.V. 442 wind-swept W.P. 62 w i n d - t h r e a d e d M.V. 472 wind-tugged C p w # O a 522 ' 123 w i n d - w a f t s jL a J j a i i i » 534 wind-warped 521 w i n d i n g - s h e e t • J J « Xa Sh a 651 w i n d o w - b l i n d P.P.P. 162 window-cur t a i n s O » G e 578 window-drapery O -o G © 544 window-fram e W.P. 57 window-glass M# \To 456 window-gleam r 15 window-pane o * C » 367 window-panes Jr a J7? a J? a 128 w i n d o w - s i l l Jj • X » i l l a 622 window-s qua r e I'-'i o "V* ft 431 wind ow-s guares <i) © c« 287 w i n g - c l i p t kJ a L/ a 357 w i n n o w i n g - f a n J J a X « J-il ft 612 w i n t e r - w i l d 1? • P • P • 155 w i t c h - d r a w n J j ft X ft JIJ a 567 woinan-grown H.Y. 497 wonder-wan X « J j a b « 276 wooing-wise M.V. 509 w o r d - w i l d X a X a iC • 585 work-hours JJ a X e JIJ ft 548 wo r k i n g - j a c k e t W.P. 65 working-men 142 world-awakening P.P.P. 152 w o r l d - e n c i r c l i n g 305 World-weaver P.P.P. 109 world-webs p P T> - L ft X * JL . 10b world-wide 1-.. « V 6 507 worm-eaten b« C 8 554 worm-wounds iu« "V 0 424 w 0 rm w 0 0 d-w 0 r k e d p . p . p « 10 b y e a r - z ones w.w. 77 years-deep X © X 0 s © 201 y e a r s T - f l i g h t M.V. 462 y e a r s - h e e r e d Ill a 1/" 0 407 y e a r s - l o n g O a C 0 286 y e a r s f - l o n g - b i n n e d O a .C a -540 years-wed J j ft XJ • JJJ a 5b8 y e l l o w - g r e e n JJ • X • Hi ft 535 y e l l o w y - g r e e n M.V. 476 ye s t e r — m o r n i n g X e X © b e 257 yew-archer 0 ft G • 524 yew-boughed 11 0 V 0 444 yew-p lumes Jj a X* l l i © 611 yew-tree . M.V. 480 young-eyed P a X* « X* • 98 y o u t h - t i m e X a X ft S a 263 y o u t h - t i m e , W.P. 48 Z e p h y r - f a n n e d Xl . Il e iii 0 655 

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