Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of bacteria of the esherichia-aerobacter group responsible for an alleged feed flavour and stable.. Hudson, Vivienne G. 1932

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1932_A4_H8_S8.pdf [ 3.42MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0105333.json
JSON-LD: 1.0105333+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0105333.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0105333+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0105333+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0105333+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0105333 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0105333.txt
Citation
1.0105333.ris

Full Text

A STUDY B A C T E R I A O F THE BS&H1IRIGHIA-ABRCBAC H E GROUP RESPOJYSIBLE FOR m A L L E G E S F E E D FLAVOUR AND S T A B L E ODOUR o r M I L K by ViTlenne G. Baadson, B» A. and G. Duncan MacKenzie» B . S, A. A. Thesis Submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of BACTERIOLOGY and for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Of AGRICULTURE ^ in the Departments of ANIMAL HUSBANDRY and DAIRYING With One Table The University of British. Columbia A p r i l 1032 A STUDY OJ? BACTERIA OF THE ESCHERICHIA - AEROBACTER GROUP RESPOHSIBLE FOR AH ALLEGED FEED FLAVOUR AND STABLE ODOUR IH MILK The work reported upon by Sadler, Irwin and Golding and by Sadler and Irwin suggested the c r i t i c a l necessity of a comprehensive investigation being made into the relation of bacteria to the incidence of & so- called feed flavour and stable odour i n milk. Cast i n a somewhat popular mould, describing i n detail how the enquiry came to be engaged i n , the former paper ^ has shown that an alleged feed flavour and stable odour common to milk, i s to be attributed to specific strains of aerobic gas-producing bacteria; and that this so-called feed flavour ean be detected by the association therewith of a penetrating nauseating and characteristic odour* The micro-organism found to be responsible for the defect was isolated from corn silage, but no evidence i s to be adduced that this organism is present in a l l corn silage as such* (2) Sadler and Irwin describe the cultural characteristics of the organism and classify i t as an atypical strain of - 2 - (2) , . (2) (3) Aerobacter oxytocum (Migulajf, Bergey et a l • On entering upon the more comprehensive study with which the present paper i s concerned, i t appeared to he essential to examine representative milk supplies, the various feeds that go to make up the rations of milk-producing cows, and also such other sources or materials as might he a possible habitat for organisms capable of producing this characteristic feed flavour and stable odour in milk, More over, the p o s s i b i l i t y of implements and equipment to be found on farm premises being carriers of the feed flavour producing bacteria had to be borne i n mind* fhe typical organism already studied and reported upon having proved to be a strain of Aerobacter oxytocum» i t was decided to follow such procedures and use such methods and media as would make possible the isolation of bacteria of the Escherichia- Aerobacter group in particular* It seemed reasonable to conjecture that providing we could secure data on the relation of bacteria to feed flavours and stable odours i n milk, some contribution to knowledge would be assured and those things that constitute good management on milk-producing farms might be the more clearly defined* - 3 METHODS AHD PROCEDURES It became necessary to adopt, adapt, apply and employ methods and procedures suitable far the securing of samples of the material to be examined and likewise suitable for bacteriological examinations of such material* The Taking of Samples In the collecting of a l l samples the usual aseptic precautions were observed throughout* MILKS Using s t e r i l e pipettes and bottles, samples of milk--morning's, evening*s and mixed—were collected after the arr i v a l of the milk supply at the dairy or at the receiving station respectively, FEEDSs With ste r i l e forceps and spoons, samples of feeds were collected i n s t e r i l e containers* FARM PREMISESt In order to examine farm premises, equipment and implements, swabs—such as those i n use i n hospital practice—were employed, the swabs having been st e r i l i z e d previously i n the usual manner* - 4 - Examination of Material MZLKs Inoculations of 1 c.c*, l/lO c.c., and l/lOO c e . of each sample of milk to be examined* were made i n duplicate into flasks of ster i l e milk* One series was incubated at 3?°C* and the duplicate at 30°C* After 24 hours' incubation the flasks of inoculated milk were examined for the presence of the characteristic stable odour* I t was found that i f the odour developed at a l l i t was as pronounced at 30 C. as at 3? CU, and in many cases even more pronounced at the lower temperature* thereafter, the routine procedure was to o incubate at 30 C* for 24 hours when seeking to detect the typical odour in milk* From a l l flasks in which the feed flavour odour could be defined, or i n which the production of gas and frothing were evident, plates were made i n varying dilutions on neutral red b i l e salt agar* The plates o were incubated for 48 hours at 30 G« and were then examined for the colonies characteristic of organisms of the Escherichia-Aerobacter group* Tubes of litmus milk were inoculated from common colonies and after incubation were examined for gas production or frothing, and for acidity* From a l l tubes in which gas production was evident, 1 c.c* of the milk was inoculated into 250 c.c* quantities of st e r i l e milk in flasks, and these were later examined for the characteristic feed flavour ©dour and for frothing* when the # For details as to media see page 6. - 5 - defect could be detected, the culture was transferred te # agar and set aside te await further study* FESDSt Small quantities of the feed samples secured were inoculated into flasks or s t e r i l e milk for examination* If the smell of the particular feed as such prevailed after incubation transfers ( l c.e.) into flasks of st e r i l e milk were made from the milk containing the original gross inoculation* On the detecting: of the characteristic odour neutral red b i l e salt agar plates were made, the subsequent procedures being as already described* SWABSs The swabs were transferred from their test tube containers into tubes of litmus milk* From a l l tubes that showed production of gas, 1 c.e* inoculations were made into flasks of milk. The same procedure described above was followed for isolating the organisms* Employing these methods of examination, strains of aerobic gas-producing bacteria, each of which produced to a greater or lesser degree the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour in milk were isolated from* milk, the tongues of dairy cows, baled a l f a l f a hay i n the feed room, scrapings from dairy stable mangers, a l f a l f a from a manger, grain mixtures from a feed truck, feed room, and granary bins, pieces of cut mangles from the s l i c e r , soaked beet - 6 - pulp from the feed room, water from a drinking howl attached to stanchions, a hay truck i n dairy bam, a beet pulp shovel, mangel forks, mangel cutters in feed rooms, milk sheet blotters i n milk room attached to dairy bam, the floor i n a feed room, the floor where grain i s mixed, straw bedding i n dairy s t a l l s , the floors behind s t a l l s , a milk stool, a grooming brush i n dairy stable, dairy barn gutters, the wall i n a dairy barn, the rafters i n a barn, stanchions, a ditch, mud from a paddock, and stable manure* These described sources and the characteristics of the bacteria isolated therefrom are set forth i n Table I* THE Cm^TURAL STUDY Media Employed Agar, gelatine and the various d i f f e r e n t i a l media used i n the study were prepared from the dessicated media of the Digestive ferments Company of Detroit, Michigan, and were ster i l i z e d for 20 minutes at 14 pounds pressure* Slueose Agar: Bifco nutrient agar i n which 1$ glucose was dissolved before s t e r i l i z i n g * Milk! For the detecting of smell and odour, skim milk i n flasks (250 c.c* quantity) steamed for 45 minutes on one, two, or three successive days* Litmus Milk* Approximately 8 c.c* skim milk—with added azolitmin s o l u t i o n — f i l l e d into test tubes and st e r i l i z e d for 20 minutes at 12 pounds pressure* Carbohydrates for Fermentation Studies. With the exception of glycerine and adonite, a l l carbohydrates employed were obtained from the Digestive Ferments Company* - 7 - The method of preparing the sugar media and the procedure followed in the fermentation determin ations are here excerpted from the former paper (2)t •For the determination of the acid and gas formed from the various substances used, the shake agar method was employed* With the exception of adonite on account of i t s cost, and of aesculite, because of the d i f f i c u l t y of using & greater concentration, whieh were added to the extent of Q*5#, the carbohydrates were added t© nutrient agar to the extent of 2%* Brom-cresol- purple was used as an indicator* Portions of about 8 cc* of the various sugar media were placed i n tubes 6 in* long and 0.6 i n . in diameter, and these placed in an autoclave for 20 min* under 13 lb* pressure* A 17-hr. old nutrient broth culture grown at 37°C, was used for inoculating* In order to get results as closely comparable as possible, a similar amount of the broth—the quantity held by a loop Z mm. in diameter—was added to each melted sugar agar* Bach agar tube was immediately rotated in such a manner that the medium was not distributed around i t s walls, and i t was placed i n cold water* After setting, the inoculated tubes were placed i n a water-bath so as to reach as rapidly as possible the approximate temperature of incubation; they were then trans ferred to the incubator kept at 37 C* The tubes were examined after an incubation of four hours and at regular intervals to 10 and 12 hr. incubation* A l l inoculated media were again examined after 24 hr. Each tube being removed from the incubator to be examined was held i n a water-bath at a suitable temperature.* The following carbohydrates and higher alcohols were useds dextrose, lactose, sucrose, dulcite, s a l i c i n , glycerine, mannite, sorbite, adonite, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, laevulose, mannose, galactose, maltose, raffinose, dextrin, inulin, soluble starch, aesculin* - 8 - Bacteria Submitted to Study One hundred and four organisms that had definitely produced the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour i n milk were repurified and retained for study. Thereafter, the procedures adopted and the methods employed followed closely those described in the paper already cited v The results of the detailed cultural study are summarized in Table I* AH ANALYSIS Olf THE DATA IH TABLE I Of the one hundred and four organisms that produce the typical feed flavour and odour i n milk, one strain culture Ho* 212, a short Gram negative rod f a i l s to produce gas in any of the carbohydrates employed* Another strain Ho* 20, appearing under the microscope as long slender rods, produces acid and gas from lactose but f a i l s to ferment dextrose to gas* Throughout the present discussion, no further mention w i l l be made of cultures Ho* 20 and 212* One hundred and two strains that ferment lactose to aeid and gas—the presumptive test for bacteria of the Escherichia-Aerobacter (coli-aerogenes) group—appear under the microscope as very short Gram negative rods* - 9 - The Bacteria That Are Positive to the Voges-Proskauer Test Fifty-eight of the lactose fermenting strains are positive to the Voges-Proskauer test w and of these, thirty- five are alkaline to Methyl Red. Table I. Thus the correlation of the results of the Voges-Proskauer and Methyl Red reactions i s established for thirty-five of the f i f t y - eight organisms definitely positive to the Voges-Proskauer test. Of the remaining twenty-three cultures that are positive to the Voges-Proskauer test, a correlation i s not to be found. Four strains, Ho* 206, 137, 139, 198, are £ (2) * I t has been observed by Sadler and Irwin that their Aerobacter oxytocum (atypical) strain gave a positive reaction to the Voges-Proskauer test after 24 hours incubation, and fa i l e d to do so after 96 hours incubation* In the present study fifty-three of the fifty-eight organisms gave a positive Vgges- Proskauer test after 24 hours incubation at 30 G. and 37°C* respectively. Five strains, Ho* 206, 251, 32, 52 and 116 were positive to the test in 48 hours. Judged by the Voges-Proskauer test, no acetyl-methyl- earbinol could be detected after 96 hours incubation in fifteen of these strains—cultures Ho. 24, 249, 261, 275, 282, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 122, 34, 67, 116. (4) In view of the observations of Burham and Levine et a l v5) w e think i t of interest to report that even after an incubation period of 8 hours we got a positive Voges-Proskauer reaction with cultures Ho* 24, 249, 261, 265, 275, 276, 277, 283, 49, 198, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 122, 66, 68, 34, 67, 119, 121, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 188, 229, 47, 197, 209a, 209b, 120. 10 definitely acid to Methyl Red, while nineteen are variable to the Methyl Red reaction after periods of 48 and 72 hours incubation of 30°C. and 37°C. respectively* As precautions were taken to insure purity of the cultures studied, we can offer no explanation of this variation to the Methyl Red reaction of strains that unmistakeably produce aeetyl- methyl-carbinol• The eultures that produce aeetyl-methyl- earbinol and are variable to the Methyl Red reaction are Ho. 161, 162, 163, 164, 51, 66, 127, 213, 251, 53, 67, 117, 113, 119, 121, 229, 52, 116, 120. Discrepancies such as these to which we have drawn attention, have already been observed by Johnson and Levine v '• Proceeding with the analysis of the characteristics of the organisms that produee acetyl-methyl-carbincl, i t i s seen from Table I that thirty-two strains f a i l to liquefy gelatine and twenty-six are gelatine l i q u f f i e r s * fifteen are motile and forty-three are non-motilet seven strains only form indols a l l of the fifty-eight reduce nitrates to n i t r i t e s : and the production of gas i n litmus milk i n a l l eultures was pronounced. For the fermentation studies, twenty-one carbohydra tes were employed. As can be seen from Table I, an attempt has been made to give a comparative idea of the extent to which the individual organisms attack the carbohydrates? furthermore, an indication is to be seen of the preference shown by particular organisms for specific sugars--11 - observations "being made after incubation f o r 4, 8, 10, 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. In a l l cases, when the organisms produced acid and gas, l i t t l e further development in gas production took place after the 24 hour incubation period; whilst the reaction of a l l cultures to the carbo- (3) hydrates used by Bergey et a l i n the differentiation of species within the genus Aerobacter was specific at this time. Continuing the incubation period for a further 24 hours served to accentuate the differentiating value of certain of the sugars and higher alcohols* For instance, the gas production from xylose by cultures No* 161, 162, 163, 164, 127, 213, 121 and 32 was more pronounced: likewise, more gas formation was evident i n the maltose agar tubes inoculated with cultures No. 49, 137, 139, 127, 34, 67 and 72, and the attack on the glueoside aesculin was more definite by cultures No. 127, 117, 118, 119, 121, 229, 72 and 19* fhe production of acid and gas from arabinose by culture No*. 120 and from dextrin by cultures No* 24, 249, and 275 was accentuated by continuing the incubation for 72 hours* The Bacteria That Are Negative to the Yoges-Froskauer Test Of the lactose fermenting organisms there are forty-four strains that are acid to Methyl Red and do not produce acetyl-methyl-ear hi no1* A l l f a i l to liquefy gelatine* thirty axe motile and fourteen are non motile: forty produce - 12 indol and a l l reduce nitrates to n i t r i t e s * Except cultures Ho. 144, 123* 146, and 99, a l l produced gas i n litmus milk* Usually the gas production was not as pronounced as i t was in the case of the organisms positive to the Vbges-Ixoakauer test* In the fermentation studies employing the twenty- one carbohydrates* observations were made in a manner identical with that described above* Except in the production of gas from dulcite and s a l i c i n by culture Ho* 40, from dulcite by culture Ho* 44, and from s a l i c i n by cultures Ho* 66 and 58, the presence of acid and gas when produced at a l l , was definite after 24 hours incubation} and the differentiation of species within the genus Escherichia, after Bergey et a l (3) , was specific at this time. The 43 hours incubation period served to accentuate the action of certain of the eultures on speoifio carbohydrates: for instance, the gas production from dulcite by cultures Ho* 57, 63, 146 and 222, from s a l i c i n by cultures Ho* 45, 46, 54, 123, 4 and 85, and from maltose by cultures No. 50, 21, 22 and 222 was more pronounced. The production of aeid and gas from dulcite by culture Ho. 263, from s a l i c i n by culture Ho* 64, from glycerine by cultures Ho* 240 and 269 and from aesculin by cultures Ho* 45, 54, 43, 175, 35, 146, and 41, was accentuated by continuing the incubation period for 72 hours. 13 THE ClASSIEICATIOH OF THE BACTERIA In attempting the classification of the bacteria, we have considered the characteristics as summarized i n Table I, and throughout, have kept before us, the qualifications to which we have drawn attention i n the foregoing c r i t i c a l analysis of the reactions of the bacteria* In defining the genus and the species of each of the (3) organisms, we have followed in the main, Bergey et a l • In the analysis of the data on Table I, we drew attention to two cultures, Ho. 212 and 20 and for the reasons given there, we refrained from including the two organisms in the discussion* In the absence of other strains showing identical characteristics, we propose to offer no suggestion as to the classification of these two organisms* Consequently, i n the clas s i f i c a t i o n of the bacteria studied, we are here concerned with one hundred and two organisms* The motile or non-motile rods that are dram negative, that form gas from dextrose and lactose, and that produce acetyl-methyl-carbinol, are placed within the genus (3) Aerobacter, Beijerinek, Bergey et a l • On the sum of the characteristics determined, Table I, cultures Ho. 161, 162, 163, 164, 165 and 206 are (3) classified as Aerobacter oxytocum (ifigula) Bergey et a l , - 14 - even though culture Ho. 206 f a i l s to produce indol, and forms no gas i n i n u l i n . Cultures Ho* 24, 249, 261, 265, and 275 are identical, the one with the other, and with the (3) atypical strain of Aerobacter oxytocia* reported upon (2) by Sadler and Irwin . Cultures Ho» 276, 277, 282, and 233 are also c l a s s i f i e d as atypical strains of Aerobacter  oxytocum • Each of the cultures No* 49, 51, 137, 139 and 198 i s classi f i e d as Aerobacter aerogenes, (Kruse) Beijerinek, and cultures Ho. 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, and 122 which f a i l to attack adonite, are to be considered as being atypical strains of the same species* If we consider only the characteristics used by Bergey et a l ^  for the major differentiation of species within the genus Aerobacter, cultures Ho. 66 and 63 appear (3) to be related to Aerobacter aerogenes ; culture Ho. 127 in some measure to Aerobacter ievans (Wolffin) Bergey et a l and cultures Ho* 213 and 251 to Aerobacter aerogenes ^ * In the ease of each of these strains, however, very specific variations from the respective types are to be seen—Bergey (3) et a l and Table I of this papers hence, considering the characteristics as a whole, we place these cultures within the genus Aerobacter but refrain from attempting a more precise cl a s s i f i c a t i o n . 15 - As can be seen front Table I, many of our strains are motile or non-motile Gram negative rods, produce aeetyl- metiiyl-carbinol, ferment sucrose to acid and gas, and liquefy (3) gelatine rapidly or slowly* According to Bergey et a l and in the light of the data on Table 1 certain of these cultures, to wit, l o * 72, 19, 47, 71, 197, 209a, 209b, 32, 52, 116, 120 and 220 might be considered as strains of (3) Aerobacter bombycis, Bergey et a l • Yet, on the other hand, based on the sum of the characteristics, these cultures are to be recognized as variants of Aerobacter cloacae* C7) (3) after Jordan , : and the failure of the strains to agree the ©ne with the other i n the a b i l i t y to attack certain of the carbohydrates, notwithstanding, we suggest that cultures So* 72, 19, 47, 71, 197, 209a, 209b, 32, 52, 116, 120 and 220 be classified as variants of Aerobacter cloacae« (Jordan) ^ Bergey et a l ^ 3*. Cultures Ho* 34, 53, 67, 117, 118, 119, 121, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 188, and 229 are the mom-motile strains of the group of organisms whose main characteristics are summarized above* These strains f a i l to agree the one with the other i n the a b i l i t y to ferment certain of the carbohydrates employed in the study, and even though the original strains of Jordan a l l proved to be motile (7) ' we feel j u s t i f i e d , considering the sum of the character i s t i c s , in placing, tentatively, cultures Ho* 34, 53, 67, 117, 118, 119, 121, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 188, and 229 as - 16 • (?) non-motile variants of Aerobacter cloacae (Jordan) , Bergey et a l ( 3 ) . The Gram negative motile or non-motile rods, that produce gas from dextrose and lactose and do not produce acetyl--methyl-carbinol from dextrose are placed within the genus Escherichia, Gastellani and Chambers, Bergey et a l ^ 3^. Of cultures No* 45, 46, 54, 56, 53, 64, 144 and 240, No* 54, 144, and 240 f a i l to attack raffinose, none produce gas from dextrin and as can be seen from Table I, identical reactions in a l l the carbohydrates employed in the study cannot be observed* Yet, in considering the characteristics as a whole, Table I, each of these cultures i s to be cl a s s i f i e d as Escherichia c o l i (Escherich) (3) Gastellani and Chambers, Bergey et a l * On the major characteristics, culture No* 263 i s classifi e d as Escherichia enterica (Gastellani and Chambers) Weldin, Bergey et a l v 'i and, cultures No* 12 and 123, which are identical with eultures No. 263 except that they are very active i n adonite, are classif i e d as adonite (3) fermenting strains of Escherichia enterica • Cultures No. 40, 43, 44, 57, 181, 192, 194, 233, 236, 245, 175, 267 and 269 form indol, and certain of them, Table X, f a i l to attack dulcite. Even so, on the characteristics as a whole, these organisms must be looked (3) upon as strains of Escherichia formica and we place - 17 - them as indol producing variants of Escherichia formica * (3) (Omelianskl) Bergey et a l • In so far as the literature permits of comparison, the cultural characteristics of our strains No. 31 and 63, we suggest that each he cla s s i f i e d as Escherichia vesiculif onaam (3) (Henrici) Bergey et a l • Cultures Ho* 4, 16, 17, 35, and 145 vary i n some (3) measure from Escherichia commanior in their action on some of the higher sugars and they appear to he specific i n that they are weak in the fermentation of sucrose and sal i e i n , Table X* Whether or not this latter characteristic i s a distinct variation i n "degree* from Escherichia (3) cowman! or cannot be said* not overlooking this qualification we classify each of cultures Ho* 4, 16, 17, 85, and 145 as Escherichia communior (Durham) Bergey et a l v • Cultures Ho* 130, 146, and 219 f a i l to produce gas from s a l i c i n and consequently in one of the principal sugars used (3) in differentiation a distinct variation from the type (3) Escherichia communior i s shown* Even so, we consider we shall be subscribing to the principles that should guide i n classifying i f on the sum of the characteristics, we define cultures Ho* 130, 146 and 219 as non-saliein fermenting (3) strains of Escherichia communior (Durham) Bergey et a l • Of the non-motile forms included in the genus Escherichia, cultures Ho* 50, 21, and 22 ferment adonite to 18 acid and gas and produce i n Simmon*a Citrate Agar, the blue color which i s significant of the genus Aerobacter* Culture Ho. 50 forms indol whilst cultures Ho. 21 and 22 do not. These and less c r i t i c a l variations notwithstanding, the strains without doubt are closely related to the typical Escherichia (3) neapolitana. Table 1, Bergey et a l t but in view of the variations we classify cultures Ho. 50, 21 and 22 as atypical (3) strains of Escherichia neapolitana (Emmerich) Bergey et a l • As non s a l i c i n fermenting strains of Escherichia neapolitana (3) Bergey et a l , we place cultures Ho. 28, 41, 39, 99, 222, on the sum of their characteristics. Cultures No. 13 and 255, in view of the characteristics shown in Table I, are d i f f i c u l t to define. Consequently, we leave them within the genus Escherichia but refrain from suggesting a more precise and detailed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . THE PRODUCTION BY THE ORGANISMS STUBIEB OF THE CHARACTERISTIC FEED FLAVOUR AND STABLE ODOUR IH MILK These observations were made on flasks of milk inoculated with the respective bacteria* Rather than attempt to give a description of the characteristic feed flavour and # See page 6* stable odour, we excerpt direct from the paper of Sadler, (1) Irwin and folding t "The flavor produced i n steamed or st e r i l i z e d milk....is very d i f f i c u l t to define. The taste i s disagreeable and definitely unclean. There i s an astringent effect, and a slight tingling sensation on the tongue and on the palate. It i s not necessary, however, to taste the milk to be sure that the defect i s there. The odor i s an unfailing guide. On taking the cotton wool plug out of the neck of the flask the character i s t i c odor can be noted at once. If, however, the flask be shaken vigorously for a moment, the odor i s accentuated, i s more pungent and penetrating. The shaking; produces a very heavy foam, and the milk culture fizzes almost as a syphon of soda water. When the odor characteristic of a defect is present, one i s reminded of a combination of smells—a combination of the footed close a i r that may be encountered on going into a badly ventilated heavily populated cowshed early of a morning; the mixture of smells that the remains of various feeds given to the cattle the night before can produce! and the stale, slightly sour penetrating smell that memory associates with the clothes of the old- time cowman, to whom the actual milking of the cows was not always the most important part of an arduous day's work. Withal, in the odor i s a pungent, nauseating quality not easily to be mistaken......." Except for eultures Fo. 53, 72, 47, and 71, a l l of the organisms we have placed within the genus Aerobacter, produced, when f i r s t isolated, a feed flavour character i s t i c a l l y identical with the description already given ^ . In the ease of cultures l o . 53, 72, 47 and 71, the flavour and odour were definite but not nearly so intense. When f i r s t isolated, twenty-three of the forty-four organisms, that we have classified as within the genus Escherichia, - 20 - produced the odour and flavour described as characteristic While s t i l l <tuite definite, the intensity of the flavour and odour was not quite so pronounced i n milk inoculated respectively with the other twenty-one strains placed within the genus Escherichia--cultures Ho* 45, 46, 54, 56, 58, 64, 144, 40, 43, 44, 5"?, 269, 61, 63, 85, 130, 146, 219, 41, 39 and 99* After the organisms had been i n a r t i f i c i a l media for some six months, i t was found that except cultures Ho* 66 and 68, a l l those of the genus Aerobacter produced a truly characteristic feed flavour and stable odour to a pronounced degree* Hot only i s i t of particular interest to find that after this period i n pure culture, the a b i l i t y to produce the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour was thus far a constant characteristic of the majority of these organisms, but i t i s to be observed that the four strains which, on isolation had produced the defect i n some measure, now gave the flavour and odour of an intensity comparable (l) with the flavour and odour originally described * After a similar period i n a r t i f i c i a l media, th i r t y - three of the organisms of the genus Escherichia gave a pronounced and characteristic feed flavour and stable odour— cultures Ho. 45, 46, 54, 56, 144, 240, 12, 263, 40, 5?, 181, 192, 194, 233, 236, 245, 175, 267, 269, 4, 16, 17, 85, 145, 130, 50, 21, 22, 28, 41, 39, 99 and 255. The remaining eleven - 21 organisms placed i n this genus produced the defect in lesser measure* It w i l l not he overlooked that* when making observations on a defect such as this with which we are concerned* i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to define intensity of smell i n a manner more precise than say slight, marked or pronounced* Even so* quite definitely our study permits us to report that certain cultures were, over a period of time, consistent i n that they produced the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour to a greater or lesser degree respectively throughout* On the whole, the bacteria c l a s s i f i e d as within the genus Aerobacter, produced a more pronounced feed flavour and stable odour than did the organisms finding themselves within the genus Escherichia* POSSIBLE CHABTHELS OF IKPEGTIOH As a ready means whereby one may see something of the relationship of known strains to the sources from which respectively they have been isolated, a series of p i c t o r i a l designs has been prepared* These p i c t o r i a l designs give one an idea as to possible channels through which the infection of milk by organisms responsible for the alleged feed flavour and stable odour may proceed* As an example three such pictures or diagrams are given here—Diagrams A, B, and C. - 22 - Considering Diagram A, i t w i l l be seen that the (2) (3) atypical Aerobacter oxytocum has been recovered from „ t l ) (2) , „ v t f c t corn silage, manger scrapings, milk, the tongue of a eow, a l f a l f a from a manger, straw used for bedding, and from grain mixtures* According to Diagram B, Aerobacter aerogenes has been recovered from a mangel fork, milk, a mangel cutter, and from a milk stool* According to Diagram C, Escherichia c o l i has been recovered from a milk sheet blotter, a beet pulp shovel, a hay truck, manger scrapings and from the rafters i n a barn* - 23 -- 25 -THE APPLICATION Off THE FIHDIIfSS Reviewing the work as a whole, i t would seem that the findings relate themselves to the practice of milk production on the farm, to the methods in vogue in the routine inspection of dairy farms, to the management and control of milk, and to the public health aspect of milk production* The study has shown definitely that this co-called feed flavour and stable odour in milk can be caused by specific strains of bacteria within the Escherichia-Aerobacter group, and that these strains may be obtained from numerous and varied sources* This study has demonstrated possible channels through which milk might become infected* Consequently, i f the defect i s to be avoided, i t i s necessary to employ the most approved methods and practices i n the production, management and control of milk* Whilst the using of any particular feed for milk producing cows i s not condemned, i t w i l l be observed that the greatest care must be exercised in management so that no bacterial contamination from the feed i s possible* This investigation has shown that the presence or absence i n milk of the bacteria of the Escherichia-Aerobacter group may be taken as a measure of the conditions and the - 2? - quality of management prevailing on milk producing farms and in milk distriouting depots. Possibly therefore, i n the ligh t of the results of this study, the whole question of milk control, of farm inspection and of the grading of dairy farms for milk production might to advantage he reviewed* SIJMMABY The relation of bacteria of the Ischerichia- Aerobacter group to an alleged feed flavour and stable odour i n milk has been investigated* Bacteria have been isolated from milk, feeds and farm premises* One hundred and four organisms that were found to cause the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour i n milk have been subjected to a detailed cultural study* The respective sources of the bacteria recovered and the complete results of the detailed cultural study are summarized in Table I* A c r i t i c a l analysis of the data i n Table X i s presented* Based on the sum of the characteristics of the bacteria under study, one hundred and two of the one hundred - 28 - and four hare been classi f i e d * Fifty-eight strains are placed within the genus Aerobacter; for a l l but five the species has been defined and the classified organisms include strains of Aerobacter oxytoeum* Aerobacter oxytoeum atypical* Aerobacter aerogenes* Aerobacter aerogenes atypical, and variants of Aerobacter cloacae* as can be seen from Table I* Forty-four of the organisms are placed i n the genus Escherichia and for forty-two of the organisms the species has been defined and the cla s s i f i e d organisms include strains of Escherichia c o l i * Escherichia enterica* adonite fermenting strains of Escherichia enterica* indol producing variants of Escherichia formica, Escherichia vesiculiformane* Escherichia  eommunior, non s a l i c i n fermenting strains of Escherichia  common!or, Escherichia neapolitana atypical, and non s a l i c i n fermenting strains of Escherichia neapolitana—Table I* Hot only have observations been made on the intensity of the flavour and odour produced i n milk by the bacteria when freshly isolated, but also on the intensity after the same organisms had been held in a r t i f i c i a l media for some six months* Certain cultures are consistent i n that they produce—to a greater or lesser degree—the characteristic feed flavour and stable odour throughout* On the whole, the bacteria c l a s s i f i e d as within the genus Aerobacter, produce a more pronounced feed flavour and stable - 29 - odour i n milk than do the organisms finding themselves within the genus Escherichia* fhe possible channels through which infection ©f the milk by the bacteria may take place are indicated piet o r i a l l y * Attention i s drawn i n the application of the findings to the practice of milk production, to the routine inspection of dairy farms, the management and control of milk, and to the public health aspect of milk production* ACKirOfLEDGEMlNfS To Professor H. K * King and Professor Wilfrid Sadler for their guidance, encouragement, and advice; to the Eational Research Council of Canada for the funds that have made this investigation possible? and to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for the laboratory f a c i l i t i e s enjoyed, we give our most appreciative thanks* - 30 REFERENCES 1* Sadler, Wil f r i d , Irwin, K* Lenora, and S-olding, N. S., 1929, December. An Alleged "Feed" Flavour in Milk Caused by Specific Bacteria* fhe Milk Dealer, 2. Sadler, Wilfrid, and Irwin, It. Lenora, 1930* Feed Flavour or Stable Odour i n Milk Caused by an Atypical Strain of Aerobacter oxytocum* Can* Jour* of Res* 3, 200-204* 3* Bergey, B. R., 1930* Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 3rd edition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore. 4* Durham, 1901* (cited by Levine, Weldin and Johnson) Jour. Inf. Diseases* 21, 1. 5. Levine, Kax, Weldin, J. C , and Johnson, Beryl R., 1917* fhe Voges-Proskauer and Correlated Reactions of c o l i - l i k e Bacteria. Jour. Inf. Diseases* 21, 1* 6* Johnson, B. R., and Levine, Max, 1917* Characteristics of c o l i - l i k e microorganisms from the So i l * Jour* Bact* II, 4* 7. Jordan, 2. 0. 1890. Rept* Mass* State Bd. Health, Part II. TABLE I CULTUREX SOURCE OF BACTERIA MP \NUMBER FARM SPECIFIC SOURCE\ NUMBER OF BACTERIA MR. \GELATME WOT/l/m /A/DOL \p£XT/ea5t\ LACTONE. 3AL fc/N. Vri rcFje/A/A/faw/rA 5OJ?3/TE. \AooA//r£ [Xn OSE. WABINOSE J?f/AW05E\lAEVM05E.\/$4M05E:. GALACFOSA M/IL TOJF. WAFF/A/OSF. DFXTR/N. INUUN. STARCH AE5CUL/N. \l?EDUCT/Of*\ Of W/TRATES. * LITMUS M/LK. Z4 HOURS ClA55/F/CA T/ON. ULTURE\ \NUMBEG. IG1 3Z3 M I L K P O S . ? NON-LlQ. NOHMJTILE F O R M E D . A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G N I T R A T E S REDUCED AeFobecter oxytocum f&i ie/2. A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G AG AG A G I €2 163 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G 163 i&4 A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G 164 165 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G 165 HOG m S T R A W B E D D I N G A C I D I NOT FORMED A G A G A c A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A © 206 "24 M A N G E R S C R A P I N G S A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G Aerobacter oxytocum atypica/ 24 M I L K 2.61 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G 24-9 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 261 IAS T O N G U E O F C O W A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A S 265 -2.-75 .FALFA FROM M A N G E R A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G 275 276 S T R A W B E D D I N G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 2 . 7 7 A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A S 276 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G 277 G R A I N M I X T U R E A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A O 282 -2.83 A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G AG A G 283 4 3 M A N G E L F O R K A G A G A G A G AG A G A G Ac A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A 3 Aerobacter aerogenes 4.9 s i MfLK A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G AG A G A G A G AG A G A G 51 »37 M A N G E L C U T T E R A C I D A G AG A G AG A G AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A S 137 133 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G J39 138 x n M I L K S T O O L A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A S J98 I O S M I X E D G R A I N IN B I N ALK. A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG AG A G A G A S \Aerobacter aerogenes atypical I09 I I O A G Ac A G A G AtS A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A S I/O 112. 113 114 115 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 112 A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A 6 1/3 A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG 1/4 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A<3 1/5 12.2. A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G 122 6 6 M A N G E L F O R K A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A c AG A G A S \Acrobacfer 66 6 8 A L K . A G 12.-7 M I L K M O T I L E AG -2.13 m M A N G E R S C R A P I N G S A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G Ac A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A AC3 68 A G AG /27 AG A G A G 213 2.51 B R U S H I N B A R N A G AG A G A G A G A c AG AG AG AG A G A G AG AG A G 25/ 3 4 M I X E D G R A I N IN TRUCK A L K . I LlQ. NOMMJTILE F O R M E D A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G Aerobacter cloacae (1) 34- 53 PIECE O F C U T M A N G E L NOT FORMED A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G 53 en IIXED GRAIN IN T R U C K F O R M E D A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G 67 \\1 T O N G U E O F C O W HOT FORMED A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G /I7 118 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG 1/8 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 1/9 1*2.1 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G /2f 1 e e m M I L K A L K . A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G 166 1€>7 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G 167 168 A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G /6& I&9 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AvG A G A G /69 n o A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G AG /70 188 F L O O R IN F E E D R O O M A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 188 229 12* M U D O N R O A D A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG 6 229 72. M A N G E R S C R A P I N G S A L K . M O T I L E A G A G 13 M A N G E L F O R K A G AG 4 7 T O N G U E O F Cow A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G Aerobacter cloacae (2) 72 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A Ac A G A G IS AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 47 71 MANGER S C R A P I N G S A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 71 13-7 i n M I L K S T O O L A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G 197 203; M I X E D G R A I N A G -203 b. AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G 2093. A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 209b. 37L W A T E R F R O M D R I N K I N G B O W L A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G 32 52. Pi ECE OF C U T M A N G E L AG A G A G A G AG A G AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G 52 116 T O N G U E O F C O W A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG AG A G AG A G 1/6 I 2 . 0 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G 120 2 2 0 TU W A L L IN B A R N A L K . A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G Z20 2 . 0 M A N G E L F O R K N0N-M0T|.d 4 5 B L O T T E R FOR N E G M I L K S H E E T *ao| N O N - L I Q . 4 6 5 4 B E E T P U L P S H O V E L 56 B L O T T E R FOR M I L K S H E E T 58 H A Y T R U C K <S4 144 MANGER S C R A P I N G S 2 . 4 0 R A F T E R S IN B A R N 1 2 M I L K MCN-MOTILE J - 2 3 2.63 4 0 B A L E D ALFALFA H A Y 43 B E E T P U L P S H O V E L 4 4 57 B L O T T E R FOR M I L K S H E E T 181 I L T FLOOR BEHIND S T A L L S 19-2. M A N U R E 134 233 T V FLOOR BEHIND S T A L L S 23<© G U T T E R Z45 M U D N E A R B A R N \1S m M U D Z 6 7 S T A N C H I O N S ZG9 M A N U R E 61 F L O O R WHERE G R A I N IS M I X E D C33 M I L K 16 17 85 145 130 M U D I N P A D D O C K t46 M I L K 2 1 3 T U D I T C H O N R O A D 5 0 G U T T E R 2.1 M A N G E L C U T T E R 28 4 1 3 9 99 W E T B E E T P U L P T O N G U E OF C O W B A L E D A L F A L F A HAY M I L K A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G NOT R E D U C E D A G 20 M O T I L E F O R M E D A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG N I T R A T E S ! R E D U C E D A G Escherichia co// 45 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A S A G 4-6 S4 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 5£ A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G S3 AG A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G Ac AG 64- A G A G A G A G A G 144- AG AG A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG AG MOTiLE AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A A AG AG AG A G A G A G A G A G AG AG A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G AG NONMOTILE A G A G A G A G A G A G M O T I L E A G A G AG A G AG AG A G AG A G AG NON-MOTILE NOT FORMED F O R M E D A G A G AG A G AG A G AG 240 AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG Escherichia Enlerica0J 12 AG AG A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 123 A G A G A G A A A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G AG AG AG A G -AG A G A G AG A G A G AG A G AG AG A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G Ac A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G A G AG A G AG A G A G AG A G AG AG A G AG A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G AG A G AG A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG AG A G A G AG A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A6 Escherichia Enterica 263 A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G Escherichia formica® 40 A G A G AG A G A G A G AG AG AG A G 43 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 44 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G 57 AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G /8/ A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G 192 A G AG A G A G AG A G A G Ac A S 194 A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A A A G 233 A G 236 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G 245 AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G !7S A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG 267 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 269 AG AG A G A G A G A G A G A G A G vEscberichia vesiculi-T&rrrmtTisf -64- A G A G A G A G A G A G €3 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G Escherichia communior A G AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G /6 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG 17 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG 85 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G 14-5 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A S Escherichia communior &) /30 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG AG /46 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A S 2/9 A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G Escherichia neapol/Tana - atypical so A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G 21 AG AG AG AG A G A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G 22 A G A G A G A G AG AG A G AG AG A G A G Escherichia neapoHtana&)\ 2& A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G AG A G 4/ A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G A G 39 A G A G A G A G AG A G A G A G A G A G 99 2.-2.2. A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G A G AG A G 222 M O T I L E NOT FORMED A G A G A G A G A A G A G [Escherichia /3 255 1ST WOOPE N STANCHIONS NON-MOTILE m M A N G E R S C R A P I N G S A G A G AG A G A G AG A G A G AG AG A G A G A G A G 255 N O T R E D U C E D A G 2/2 FARM NUMBET< I T H E UNIVERSITY FAT^M POINT G R E Y B . C . I I . A FARM ON VANCOUVER ISLAND ' m "TV V " S i r LULU ISLAND N i l GO IN/IE: IN ISLAND AT M I SS ION H ARR I SON N / I I L L S L A D NE . R • A L L C U L T U R E S G R A M N E G A T I V E R O D S . A G A C I D A N D G A S - M E O I A S*=>L.IT IKI L A Y E R S , A N 1 D B L O W N U P T U B E B Y © A S . A G A C I D A N D G A S — G A S P R O D U C T I O N P R O F U S E , A S A C I D A N D G A S . A A C I D N O G A S . — N o A C I D A N D N O G A S . fi) C L A S S I K I E D A S N O N - M O T I L E V A R I A N T S O F A E R O B A C T E R C L O A C A E . (*) « " V A R I A N T S O F A E R O B A C T E R C L O A C A E (3) W I T H Q U A L I F I C A T I O N S : S E F T E X T . * * A D I S C U S S I O N O N T H E P R O D U C T I O N B V " T H E B A C T E R I A O F " T H E A L L E G E D F E E D F L A V O R A N I D S T A B L E O D O U R IN N/llL-K IS T O B E F O U N D I N T H E T E X T P A G E S : El r>n p l o y i n g S i m m o n ' s C i t r a t e A g a r a l l o r g a n i s m s wi+hin t h e g e n u s A e r o b a c t e r b r o u g h t a b o u t a b l u e c o l o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e m e d i u m . T h r e e s t r a i n s , c u l t u r e s 5 0 , 2 1 , a n d 22. w i t h i n t h e g e n u s E s c h e r i c h i a a l s o b r o u g h t a b o u t a b l u e c o l o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e m e d i u m . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 7 0
China 7 30
City Views Downloads
Beijing 7 0
Seattle 3 0
Ashburn 3 0
Redwood City 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105333/manifest

Comment

Related Items