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The organization and administration of city playground activities with special reference to Vancouver Howard, Arthur Muirhead 1936

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THE-ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION m GITY PLAYGROUND ACTIVITIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TANGOUTER by ARTHUR MUIRHEAD HOWARD A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the department of PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1936 THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GITY PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VANCOUVER TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES . . . • • . • • • * . . « « . . « . LIST OF FIGURES . . . • • . . • . . * < • • • • • • • : LIST OF APPENDICES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I A B R I E F SKETCH OF RECENT PLAY MOVEMENTS I N EUROPE AND FORTH AMERICA . . . . . . . . . I l l URBAN RECREATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A) R e c r e a t i o n a l P rob lems R e s u l t i n g f rom U r b a n i z a t i o n (B) P r o b l e m s o f C i t y P l a n n i n g (C) O b j e c t i v e s o f C i t y P l a y g r o u n d Programs I V THE PART PLAYED BY THE SCHOOLS IN THE ' CITY PLAYGROUND PROGRAM V THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N REPRESENTATIVE CITIES . . V I PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S IN VANCOUVER . . . . . . • (iA) The P r e s e n t P l a y g r o u n d Sys t em (B) A P r o p o s e d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d . A c t i v i t i e s f o r V A n c o u v e r V I I FEATURES OF THE RECREATIONAL PROGRAM . . . . (A) A c t i v i t i e s o f the P l a y g r o u n d Program (B) P r o v i s i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n Othe r t h a n O r g a n i z e d P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t i e s ¥ 1 1 1 THE ADMINISTRATION. OF PLAY CENTERS . . . . . I X THE TRAINING OF DIRECTORS . . . . . . . . . . X FINANCING PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S y'' MvCOJitGWSimS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . A]?PKN-DI QE5 « « « « • » e • • • * • • • • • • * • © i LIST" W TABLES Pag e • I C a n a d i a n C i t i e s P r o v i d i n g F a c i l i t i e s f o r R e c r e a t i o n 16 I I S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s and F a c i l i t i e s i n C a n a d i a n C i t i e s 17 I I I Use o f S c h o o l P r o p e r t y i n S e l e c t e d C i t i e s 53. I V A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A u t h o r i t i e s f o r M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n . 55 V S u p e r v i s e d P l a y g r o u n d s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s . . . 67 V I R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s . . 69 V I I P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s . . . . 71 V I I I P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s — T o t a l s 71 I X A n n u a l A t t e n d a n c e a t V a n c o u v e r P l a y g r o u n d s - - T o t a l s . 75 X S e a s o n a l O p e r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d s i n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e G i t 16 S • • « • « • • a • « « • a e 0 0 0 « • • • • 75. X I S e a s o n a l O p e r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d s i n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Cxi^XOS — •» T0*b3#!l.S • • * e « f t e f t « f t > a * » • « • » 75 X I I Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s on Community R e c r e a t i o n i n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s 101 X I I I P r o p o s e d P rogram o f R e c r e a t i o n f o r Vancouve r . . . . 102 X I V Age C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r P l a y Groups 117 XV S u g g e s t e d D a i l y Program f o r a Summer P l a y g r o u n d w i t h Two Workers 124 X V I S u g g e s t e d W e e k l y Program f o r a Summer P l a y g r o u n d w i t h Two Workers 125 X V I I A g e - H e i g h t - W e i g h t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r C o m p e t i t i v e A c t X V I I I E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n i n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 X I X A T y p i c a l F i n a n c i a l S t a t emen t f o r M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i OH « • • • * e • • 0 » • * « • • a • e e 167 i i LIST OF FIGURES ' Page I Go-operative Plan Proposed for Vancouver 84 II Proposed Organization of the Citizens for the Promotion of a Recreational Program i n III Map of Playgrounds and Recreational D i s t r i c t s Proposed for Vancouver . , . . . . . „ „ „ . . 93 IV Proposed Plan of Organization for a Recreational Program i n Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Y A Well-planned Home Playground . , . . „ . . . . 119 VI A Well-planned Elementary School Playground 0 „ „ 139 VII Map of Recreational D i s t r i c t s of Denver, Colorado 188 ¥111 Gary Recreational Plan-- Organization Chart. . . 189 IX Milwaukee Recreational P l a n — Organization Chart 190 X Long Beach Recreational P l a n — Organization Chart 191 XT Municipal Recreational Plan Proposed by D a v i s -Organization Chart C o . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 i i i APPENDICES Appendix Page A . San Diego Go-operative Plan . . . . . . . . . . 183 B. Oakland Co-operative Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 C. The Denver Plan » . . « « 186 D. Map of Recreational D i s t r i c t s of Denver, Colorado 188 Organization Chart of Gary, Indiana • . . • ... 189 F. Organization Chart of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. . •. 190 G. Organization Chart of Long Beach., C a l i f o r n i a , . 191 H. Organization Chart for Municipal Recreation Proposed by Davis. . . . . . . . . 192 I. Characteristics of Age Groups as Listed by ~.y;\ Department of Physical Education, University J". L i s t of Games and Plays "by Grades—national Recreation Association . . . . . . . . . . . 194 K . Recreational Program f o r , I n d u s t r i a l Workers by Oakland Recreation Department. . . . . . . . 198 1 THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GITY PLAYGROUND ACTIVITIES, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VANCOUVER CHAPTER I ' INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem This study o u t l i n e s various methods of co-operation between the School Board and the Parks Board which ?/ould e f f e c t a wider use of the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and secure a v a s t l y increased attendance f o r a l l features of the playground pro-gram. I t suggests ways and means of making the present sys-tem s t i l l more e f f e c t i v e and i n d i c a t e s the great need f o r more adequate l e g i s l a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l support f o r a phase of c i t y l i f e which i s assuming an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g importance. At f i r s t s i g h t , parks and playgrounds may appear l i k e ornamental f r i l l s i n c i t y equipment; but, j u s t as parks, aside from t h e i r ornamental value, have proven t o be r e a l n e c e s s i t i e s , so adequate playgrounds have become n e c e s s i t i e s i n c e r t a i n phases of c i v i c l i f e . Many f i e l d s of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s are p o o r l y organized; i t i s the duty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n de-partments so t o organize them that a l l the people of the c i t y w i l l be able to f i n d c r e a t i v e expression during t h e i r hours of l e i s u r e . The small boy w i l l p l a y on the s t r e e t , i n the vacant l o t or i n the a l l e y , but these l o c a t i o n s are not the best en-vironment f o r p l a y . B e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s can be provided under t r a i n e d d i r e c t i o n of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s . 2 Methods of I n v e s t i g a t i o n and Sources of Data The technique which was followed i n the c o l l e c t i n g and presenting of the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s study i s here o t i t l i n e d . (1) The i n v e s t i g a t o r read a l l of the R a t i o n a l Recrea-t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s m a t e r i a l on o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of playgrounds and r e c r e a t i o n . (2) Two theses on playgrounds and r e c r e a t i o n l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y were procured on loan from the l i b r a r y of the Department of the I n t e r i o r at Washington, D. C* (3) Valuable m a t e r i a l has been made a v a i l a b l e from the r e s u l t s of the questionnaires sent out by I . W.' Davis to both a municipal a u t h o r i t y and a school a u t h o r i t y i n each of 215 c i t i e s i n the u n i t e d States.1 (4) A c a r e f u l survey was made of the best known systems of r e c r e a t i o n i n c i t i e s s i m i l a r i n s i z e to Vancouver; i . e . , wi t h a p o p u l a t i o n of approximately 265,000. f5) The t h i r t e e n c i t i e s i n the United States w i t h pop-u l a t i o n s ranging from 209,000 to 300,000 were s e l e c t e d from the 1935 Year Book of the N a t i o n a l Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n f o r comparison w i t h Vancouver, si n c e they were w i t h i n 55,000 of Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n . 2 Two exceptions i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n were S e a t t l e at 360,000 and Portland at 301,815. These were chosen, f i r s t i D a v i s , I . W., An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Conduct and  F i n a n c i a l Support of Playground and R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s  i n Selected States ( t h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1951)i ^Recreation, Year Book Number (N a t i o n a l Recreation As-s o c i a t i o n , May, 1935), 66r-95. s "because of p r o x i m i t y , and secondly, because the Vancouver play-ground System has been developed along the l i n e s of the S e a t t l e System. F i n a l l y , the seven c i t i e s i n Canada w i t h populations ranging from 137,000 to 1,162,520 have a l s o been s e l e c t e d from the above year book f o r comparison w i t h Vancouver. (6) Personal i n t e r v i e w s were w i l l i n g l y granted to the i n v e s t i g a t o r by leaders i n the playground movement of Vancouver, and from them f i r s t hand information was obtained. Recommenda-ti o n s and opinions of l e a d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l experts have been noted and included h e r e i n . Part of the experience and t r a i n i n g gained by the w r i t e r i n t h i s f i e l d i s as f o l l o w s : fa) f i f t e e n years' s e r v i c e i n various church and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h i s c i t y ; (b) three summers' s e r v i c e on the Vancouver C i t y Play-grounds as a d i r e c t o r ; fc) four years' s e r v i c e as teacher of h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l education i n the Vancouver high schools. 4 CHAPTER 11 A BRIEF SKETCH OF RECENT PLAY MOVEMENTS IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to a i d the reader by means of a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l sketch to become acquainted w i t h the p l a y movement. Among the countries which have most pro-foundly a f f e c t e d the p l a y movement i n North America are Germany and England. The Play Movement i n Germany The modern p l a y movement i n Germany received an im-petus i n 1892, when von Schenckendorff brought before the ad m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n the need f o r p u b l i c p l a y -grounds i n which r e c r e a t i o n a l i d e a l s should be c a r r i e d o u t . 1 As a r e s u l t , a p u b l i c commission was appointed, and i n 1894 at P l e a s t four hundred p u b l i c playgrounds were opened i n Germany. Since that date, a c e n t r a l committee on games has helped i n the promotion of the movement. I n the development of p l a y centers i n Germany, the emphasis has been placed on the educa-t i o n a l s i d e . A remarkable development i n v o l u n t a r i l y organised r e c -r e a t i o n has occurred since the World War i n Germany, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of s p o r t s . C e r t a i n important agencies s i g n i f i c a n t from the standpoint of r e c r e a t i o n have become prominent. A l l v o l u n t a r y p a t r i o t i c and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o r t h e i r avowed purpose "the o l d dream—of the c r e a t i o n o f — a Lee, Joseph, Normal Course i n P l a y (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1929), 221. 2 l b i d . , 222. 5 greater Germany." In order to serve t h i s purpose, sports and a l l i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have been included as p a r t of German m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n . The German N a t i o n a l Committee f o r P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g i s one of the most important forces i n the r e c r e a t i o n movement. I t c e n t r a l i z e s a l l s p o r t s , clubs and playground e f f o r t s which are s e m i - o f f i c i a l or s t a t e s u b s i d i z e d . I t s work of propaganda and a g i t a t i o n f o r p l a y areas i s of inestimable value i n the play movement. One w r i t e r s t a t e s : No country surpasses Germany i n i t s r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of the need f o r adequate open space f o r p l a y i n g f i e l d s , gardens and the l i k e . There are two types of p l a y or a t h l e t i c grounds. The f i r s t , or municipal grounds, are open to a l l ; they are used by schools, and supervisors are employed. The second are grounds maintained by p r i v a t e organizations on land granted by the m u n i c i p a l i t y ; n a t u r a l l y these groups must be of considerable s i z e and importance to o b t a i n such a grant. The f i n a n c i n g of r e c r e a t i o n has been c a r r i e d out l a r g e l y by s u b s i d i e s . The P r u s s i a n M i n i s t e r of Welfare w r i t e s i n h i s "State Welfare Work i n P r u s s i a , 1919-1923:" The Government Presidents granted s u b s i d i e s out of the n a t i o n a l funds placed a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l f o r the purposes of 1,520 p l a y i n g grounds, 130 gymnasia, 161 s h e l t e r s , 111 bathing and swimming establishments, and small grants f o r 148, 111 a t h l e t i c , games and sports clubs and thousands of Committees on Juvenile Welfare and leagues of Youth. 2 I t should be emphasized that the expenses are met mainly •'•May, H. I . , & Petgen, Dorothy, Leisure and i t s Use (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1928), 77. ~ 2 i b i d . , 79. .... . . 6 by funds r e c e i v e d f rom s u b s c r i b e r s and t h a t the s t a t e has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the c o s t s . T h i s s y s t e m o f s e c u r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e has been v e r y s u c -c e s s f u l . May and P e t g e n commenting on t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Germany w r i t e : No German c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o l e a v e s c h o o l w i t h o u t h a v i n g l e a r n e d t o s w i m . There a r e f i v e h o u r s o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g w e e k l y i n the s c h o o l s — t w o game and t h r e e gym-n a s t i c p e r i o d s , o r v i c e v e r s a . The young spend a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e i r f r e e t i m e i n s p o r t , w i t h few o t h e r compar-a b l y k e e n i n t e r e s t s ; and i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t some 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 a d u l t s — f r o m f i f t e e n y e a r s u p — t h r o u g h o u t Germany a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h s p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . One-f o u r t h o f t h i s membership i s f e m a l e , and h a l f o f i t i s o v e r twen ty y e a r s o f a g e . I t i s now a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y h e l d i n Germany t h a t i t i s n o t d e m o c r a t i c t o have r e c r e a t i o n p r i v a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . F r e d e r i c k W i l d u n g , S e c r e t a r y o f t he C e n t r a l Commiss ion f o r S p o r t and P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g , L e i p z i g , r e c o g n i z e s p h y s i c a l t r a i n -i n g as a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and s t a t e s : I t i s no l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t t o l e a v e t h i s d u t y i n the hands o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ; i t must be o r g a n i z e d and a c t i v e l y c a r r i e d ou t b y the government and the i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s , and the y o u t h o f t h e who le n a t i o n must be i n c l u d e d i n the s c h e m e . 2 A l i t t l e more d e m o c r a t i c i n p r i n c i p l e i s the German Y o u t h W e l f a r e Law o f 1922 w h i c h has been c a l l e d " the Magna C a r t a o f Y o u t h . " S i x w o r k i n g commit tees were e s t a b l i s h e d t o c a r r y t h i s l a w i n t o e f f e c t . One, the commit tee on p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g o f the y o u n g , has g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t he y o u t h movement a r e so v a r i e d and numerous t h a t an e x t e n s i v e a c c o u n t o f them h e r e w o u l d be i n a d v i s a b l e . However , an a t t emp t w i l l be made t o convey to the May & P e t g e n , o p . c i t . , 80 . 2 i b l d . , 9 4 . 7 reader a general impression of the nature and scope of the movement. The youth movement has passed through the f o l l o w i n g stages of development: one i n which the youth belonged to gymnastic s o c i e t i e s (Jahn); another where they were attached to v o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (1870); and f i n a l l y , one i n which they banded together to construct s h e l t e r s f o r wandering youth hikers."*" Since the war, t h i s movement has broken up i n t o num-erous s e c t i o n s f o r p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l ends. The youth i n t u r n i n g away from the a r t i f i c i a l l i f e of the urban centers, turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to s i m p l i c i t y i n c l o t h i n g , food and mode of l i v i n g . They found t h e i r way back to nature and to love of the home, avoiding the c i v i l i z e d poisons, a l c o h o l and n i c o t i n e . The youth s o c i e t i e s countered these e v i l s i n the most p r a c t i c a l way by having the young people accustomed to gymnastics, games, s p o r t s , walking-tours, and e d i f y i n g moral amusements ( f o l k songs, music, p i c t o r i a l a r t , s c i e n t i f i c l e c -t u r e s , f o l k dances, and home-games, among many o t h e r s ) . Dom-inant features of the movement were the emphasis on youth walking-tours and the development of a system of youth s h e l t e r s . Another s i g n i f i c a n t feature was the w i l l i n g and anxious ass i s t a n c e given by the s t a t e i n support of these a c t i v i t i e s . N a t i o n a l committees of these youth s o c i e t i e s were able to demand co-operation f o r the promotion of a l l phases of the "'"May & Petgen, op . c i t . , 103. 2 I n f o r m a t i o n on the t h i r d Reich i s l a r g e l y i n the nature of propaganda which i s of l i t t l e value f o r an educational t h e s i s . There i s a s c a r c i t y of f a c t s on r e c r e a t i o n that are authenticated b y . i m p a r t i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 8 r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . The P l a y Movement i n E n g l a n d I n E n g l a n d the r e c r e a t i o n a l s i d e o f t he modern p l a y movement has been e m p h a s i z e d . A b i l i t y to p l a y i s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the t r a i n i n g o f y o u t h . R e c r e a t i o n a l p rograms have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . B e s i d e s t h i s t h e r e has been a d i v e r s i t y o f a ims and m o t i v e s on the p a r t o f t he numerous a g e n c i e s engaged i n f o s t e r i n g p r o v i s i o n f o r l e i s u r e t ime t h r o u g h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , p l a y i n g f i e l d s , p l a y g r o u n d s f o r c h i l d r e n , i n d u s t r i a l w e l f a r e , and the l i k e , i n s o f a r as an o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n movement e x i s t s i n E n g l a n d , i t i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y dependent upon p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e and s u p p o r t . There i s p r a c t i c a l l y no advance towards a w e l l - ? i n t e g r a t e d sy s t em o f s t a t e - p r o v i d e d and s t a t e - s u p e r v i s e d r e c r e a t i o n . I t was i n 1897 t h a t the f i r s t p l a y c e n t e r was opened i n Marchmont H a l l S e t t l e m e n t . Gut o f t h i s grew the E v e n i n g P l a y C e n t e r s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n , i n w h i c h M r s . Humphrey Ward p l a y e d , so i m p o r t a n t a p a r t . I n 1916 the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n a d o p t e d the p l a n o f mak ing g r a n t s t o s c h o o l s w h i c h s t a r t e d p l a y c e n t e r s , and the p r a c t i c e o f making s u c h g r a n t s has s i n c e s p r e a d f rom l o n d o n t o o t h e r c i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the W o r l d War I n t e r f e r e d w i t h the p r o g r e s s o f the w o r k . P l a y i n g f i e l d s s o c i e t i e s s u c h as the l o n d o n P l a y i n g "'"May & P e t g e n , o p . c i t . , 1 1 7 . 2 l e e , o p . c i t . , 2 2 2 . 9 F i e l d s , Manchester P l a y i n g F i e l d s , the Commons and Footpaths P r e s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t i e s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n P u h l i c Gardens A s s o c i a t i o n , by p r o v i d i n g the people w i t h playgrounds, have given a l i v e l y stimulus to improvement i n r e c r e a t i o n . One 'writer s t a t e s : The 1925 re p o r t of the London P l a y i n g F i e l d S o c i e t y shows that the S o c i e t y has made a v a i l a b l e to the London people 187 c r i c k e t p i t c h e s , 104 f o o t b a l l grounds, 5 hockey grounds and 145 lawn tennis c o u r t s , covering a t o t a l of 286 a c r e s . 1 In the P u b l i c Schools of England, the system of com-pul s o r y games i s widely used. I t has obvious v i r t u e s but i t i s bound to r e a c t by making many boys l e t h a r g i c about recrea-t i o n a f t e r they have l e f t s c h o o l . In the h o l i d a y centers are provided many p l a y a c t i v -i t i e s as w e l l as h a n d i c r a f t work at the option of the c h i l d r e n . There i s s u p e r v i s i o n but no d i r e c t i o n on the p a r t of the lead e r s ; the d e s i r e i s to keep a b s o l u t e l y away from any sugges-t i o n of the school atmosphere. The c h i l d r e n go simply to amuse themselves. The impression given i s one of a c t i v i t y without boisterousness. livening p l a y centers have been e x t e n s i v e l y developed i n London. Such p l a y centers i n v o l v e the loan of a school b u i l d i n g w i t h i t s playgrounds to the Evening P l a y Centers Com-mittee, which i s responsible f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the centers and r a i s i n g the necessary funds. The London County Council and the Board of Education show t h e i r confidence i n t h i s work •'-May & Petgen, op. c i t . , 154. 2 i h i d . s 162 10 •by-contributing about 75 per cent of the cost."1" These play centers, extensively scattered over london, provide for the recreational needs of thousands of children every evening i n games, dancing, handicraft, painting, gymnastics, and similar occupations. Each center i s under the d i r e c t i o n of a paid superintendent who i s responsible to the Play Centers Committee. The Federation of Working Boys' Clubs deserves mention, since these clubs represent one of the few attempts being made to meet the problem of the boy who goes to work at the age of fourteen, and, f e l l i n g himself already an adult, tends to think such an organization as the Boy Scouts c h i l d i s h . These clubs are established i n London, Liverpool, Manchester, Eastbourne, 2 Glasgow and other B r i t i s h c i t i e s . A representative club i s the Duke of York's, whose camp consists of four hundred boys selected each year. One hundred of the Public Schools send two boys each and two hundred boys are sent from a hundred industries. Sections consist of ten school boys and ten working boys who f i e l d teams i n every or-ganized competition. The plan adopted i s to applaud a l l those who try even though they may achieve but l i t t l e . Provision of recreation for i n d u s t r i a l workers by em-ployers i s generally designed to keep workers amused. Employers often adopt a p a t e r n a l i s t i c attitude toward employees and, f e e l -ing responsible for t h e i r health and welfare, make every e f f o r t to provide various recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Commander B. F. Coote, Advisor to the Miner's Welfare May & Petgen, op. c i t . , 165, 2 l b i d . , 168. Committee and recognized as an outstanding a u t h o r i t y on p l a y -grounds and r e c r e a t i o n i n England, while advocating more pro-v i s i o n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n of c h i l d r e n , makes the f o l l o w i n g p i t h y statement: I refuse to put adu l t r e c r e a t i o n f i r s t . We must rec o n s t r u c t our.ideas i f we are going to improve matters, s t a r t at the "bottom and l a y a sound foundation w i t h regard to. the c h i l d r e n . Give them a happier time, make them r e a l i z e the value of organized p l a y and the harm of l o a f -i n g , and year by year lead them on to want healthy l e i s u r e occupation i n ever i n c r e a s i n g numbers u n t i l the time w i l l come when, as a d u l t s , r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be to them f a r more r e a l and valuable than at present, when people are more ready to ex e r c i s e the t u r n s t i l e s than themselves. 1 The P l a y Movement i n the United States The p l a y movement on t h i s continent r e c e i v e d an impetus i n 1888, as a r e s u l t of important developments i n Boston. In t h i s f i r s t stage of the pl a y movement i n that city^twenty-one grounds of the sand garden type were constructed. Other c i t i e s i n the United States soon followed s u i t . The second stage was the model playground type, e s t a b l i s h e d by p r i v a t e groups to show ^the value of p l a y under l e a d e r s h i p . I n t e r e s t was aroused and p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l support was obtained. The t h i r d stage was the co n s t r u c t i o n of s m a l l parks and squares provided w i t h outdoor apparatus and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s . Emphasis was on equipment rather than on l e a d e r s h i p . 3 -'•May• &; Petgen, op. c i t . , 174. 2 Rainwater, C.E., The P l a y Movement i n the United  States ( U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1922), 31. — The Playground and Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n of America was organized i n 1906 to concentrate upon the development of adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l systems f o r c i t i e s . This A s s o c i a t i o n has worked c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r the establishment of year-round recrea-t i o n a l systems supported by municipal grants. Recently the or-g a n i z a t i o n has become known as the Nat i o n a l Recreation A s s o c i a -t i o n . 12 The f o u r t h stage was the r e c r e a t i o n a l center f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n to provide s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and c i v i c a c t i v i t i e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t development was the u t i l i z a t i o n of school b u i l d i n g s as s o c i a l centers."'" The f i f t h stage was the " c i v i c a r t and welfare" stage i n which the importance of music and drama i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l program became recognized. A f t e r the war, communities began to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r developing a community-wide l e i s u r e time program emphasizing the t r a i n i n g of volunteer leaders*^ The s i x t h , stage was the neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n move-ment which e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e numbers of community centers^ These have been a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e on o b t a i n i n g p u b l i c support f o r r e c r e a t i o n . In these centers, attempts were made to develop leadership and self-government. Countless o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some n a t i o n a l i n scope, have come i n t o existence f o r the purpose of f o s t e r i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r s p e c i a l phases of the recrea-t i o n a l program, i . e . the b i g brother movement of the Siwanis. The seventh stage was the community s e r v i c e stage, dom-inant since 1918; I t emphasized the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : "''Rainwater, op. c i t . , 87. 2 i b i d . , 217. ~ . . . . . . . A marked feature of the r e c r e a t i o n a l movement during the past few years has been the emphasis on l e g i s l a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n , whereby school boards and parks boards have been given the r i g h t to provide an adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l program. Another step forward has been the compulsory p h y s i c a l education l e g i s l a t i o n ' which set aside a c e r t a i n amount of school time f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . 4 j b i d . , 221. IS (a) greater, enthusiasm f o r n e i g h b o r l i n e s s ; (b) f i n a n c i a l sup-port f o r propaganda; (c) p u b l i c confidence i n the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and success of i t s method; (d) p r o v i s i o n of a n a t i o n a l o f f i c e f o r the promotion and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of community s e r v i c e s ; (e) co- o r d i n a t i o n of neighborhood w i t h c i t y i n c o n t r o l and support of a democratic p l a n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p l a y , i n music weeks, h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s and community s i n g i n g ; f f ) f a c i l i t i e s f o r education of the p u b l i c i n the use of l e i s u r e , as provided by l o c a l o f f i c e s of community s e r v i c e ; (g) formation of advisory c o u n c i l s i n place of the former type of l o c a l c o u n c i l ; (h) i n -tensive t r a i n i n g courses f o r community r e c r e a t i o n a l leaders; ( i ) a i d i n g of f i n a n c i a l campaigns, v o t i n g of bond issues:, and the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of p u b l i c appropriations f o r s i t e s ; (3) development of p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r wholesome pl a y by a l l ages throughout the year; i . e . , noon-hour " s i n g s " i n f a c -1 t o r i e s , s t r e e t p l a y , and h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s . Although they have not been sharply defined, the p l a y -ground movement i n North America has passed through seven stages. Besides these there were t r a n s i t i o n periods which s i g n i f i e d the passage from one c o n d i t i o n or a c t i o n to another. The t r a n s i -t i o n s of the pl a y movement are nine i n number, as enumerated 2 below; (1) from p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t t l e c h i l d r e n to p r o v i s i o n f o r a l l ages of people; (2) from f a c i l i t i e s operated during the summer only, to those maintained throughout the year; (5) from outdoor equipment and a c t i v i t i e s only to both outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s and events; (4) from congested urban d i s t r i c t s to Rainwater, op. c i t . , 224-255. 2 i b i d . , 258-281. 14 "both u r b a n and r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s ; (5) from p h i l a n t h r o p i c b e -q u e s t s t o community s u p p o r t and c o n t r o l ; (6) from, u n s u p e r v i s e d p l a y and a " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " p o l i c y t o " d i r e c t e d p l a n " and c o -o r d i n a t e d s c h e d u l e s ; (7) f rom a s i m p l e to a complex f i e l d o f a c t i v i t i e s , i n v o l v i n g m a n u a l , p h y s i c a l j a e s t h e t i c , s o c i a l and c i v i c e v e n t s ; (8) f rom the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s o n l y t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s f o r c o m p e t i t i o n s b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p ; e . g . , the a?/ard o f s p o r t m a n s h i p t r o p h i e s no t a l w a y s t o the w i n n e r o f a game b u t o f t e n t o the most s p o r t s m a n l i k e team; (9) f rom s t r e s s on i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s o n l y t o s t r e s s on g roup and community i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s ; f o r i n s t a n c e the group t e s t was u s e d to d e t e r m i n e the w i n n e r by the ave rage a t t a i n m e n t o f each g r o u p , the i n d i v i d u a l was r a t e d a g a i n s t the s t a r p e r f o r m e r and c r e d i t was g i v e n f o r numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g , and s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups w e r e - e n c o u r a g e d t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own m u n i c i p a l dances unde r p r o p e r c h a p e r o n e s . The P l a y Movement i n Canada The p l a y movement, i n Canada , t hough l a t e i n i t s d e v e l o p s ment , has f o l l o w e d somewhat a l o n g the l i n e s o f t he p l a y movement i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t e r e s t i n the p r o v i s i o n o f p l a y g r o u n d s has been c e n t e r e d f o r the most p a r t on the u r b a n a r e a s . The movement seems t o have p a s s e d t h r o u g h s t a g e s o f g r o w t h s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Some o f the t r a n s i t i o n s i n development a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s . The movement i n Canada has been promoted by s e r v i c e c l u b s s u c h as E o t a r i a n s , G y r o s , K i w a n i s , K i n s m e n and l i o n s . 15 These o r g a n i z a t i o n s have g i v e n much f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s arid the ma in t enance o f p l a y -g round a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y 1 Some c l u b s have supp lemented the work o f t he r e g u l a r p l a y g r o u n d a u t h o r i t i e s i n the p rogram c a r r i e d out f o r the b e n e f i t o f t he c h i l d r e n . F o l l o w i n g the i n i t i a t i v e o f the s e r v i c e c l u b s , 46 out o f 70 c i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 have s u p p o r t e d o r -• ' 2 g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d s f rom m u n i c i p a l f u n d s I n most o f t h e s e c i t i e s , t he p l a y g r o u n d s a r e c o n d u c t e d by a i m u n i c i p a l b o a r d , though i n some cases by an i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h f i n a n -c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the c i t y . T h i r t e e n c i t i e s do n o t s u p p o r t p l a y g r o u n d s , bu t i n t h e s e , f fv, iH''i"'Tt,i ran ••ni"i"5BOt a c t i v i t i e s a r e eon-d u c t e d by s e r v i c e c l u b s . A m i n o r i t y o f t h e 46 c i t i e s do more t h a n p r o v i d e o r equ ip the g r o u n d s . Twenty o f them employ p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a -t i o n a l l e a d e r s to d i r e c t o r s u p e r v i s e the use o f the g rounds a t l e a s t p a r t o f the y e a r , w h i l e t e n o f them employ s u c h l e a d e r s the y e a r r o u n d . I n t he same 70 l a r g e s t c i t i e s o f Canada t h e r e a r e 1,578 p u b l i c l y - c o n t r o l l e d s c h o o l s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p l a y g r o u n d s . There a r e about 250 more p l a y g r o u n d s t h a n s c h o o l s , owing to t h e f a c t t h a t y^here a r e d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s , and t he se 4 p r o v i n c e s i n s i s t on s e g r e g a t i n g the sexes on s e p a r a t e g r o u n d s . O n l y i n 20 o f the 70 " c i t i e s l a s t y e a r was t h e r e ^ D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , C i v i c P l a y g r o u n d s i n  Canad ian P i t i e s o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n and O v e r - 1 9 3 5 , P a m p h i e t , 1 . 2 i b i d l j 1 . 3 ' i b i d . , 1 . i b i d * , : 1 . 16 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y on any o f the s c h o o l g rounds d u r i n g midsummer v a c a t i o n . W i t h i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , many c i t i e s have d i s c o n -t i n u e d t h i s p r a c t i c e as an economy measu re . I n f i v e c i t i e s the s u p e r v i s o r s were p a i d by the s c h o o l b o a r d , i n n i n e by the c i v i c p l a y g r o u n d a u t h o r i t i e s , and i n s i x by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n most commonly p r o v i d e d may be seen f rom the f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n : TABLE I CANADIAN CITIES PROVIDING F A C I L I T I E S FOR RECREATION Types, o f F a c i l i t i e s Number o f C i t i e s P r o v i d i n g f o r E a c h Type P a r k s o r g rounds w i t h g e n e r a l equipment f o r p l a y 41 P l a y i n g f i e l d s f o r b a s e b a l l , s o f t b a l l , s o c c e r , e t c . • R i n k s f o r s k a t i n g o n l y 38 81 R i n k s f o r hockey o n l y 15 R i n k s f o r b o t h s k a t i n g and h o c k e y 27 Toboggan s l i d e s 11 Indoor, swimming p o o l s . T e n n i s c o u r t s 17 B o w l i n g g reens ' 8 G o l f c o u r s e s 8 Outdoor swimming p o o l s 8 B a t h i n g beaches 8 I n d o o r community r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s 3 An a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t he e x t e n t o f p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n may be o b t a i n e d f rom t h e f a c t t h a t 593 o f the 1,578 s c h o o l s have a u d i t o r i u m s t h a t can be u s e d as gymnasiums, w h i l e 202 have e q u i p p e d gymnas iums. On ly 22 s c h o o l s have swimming p o o l s , and t h e s e a r e a l l i n t h e two p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o and Q u e b e c . 1 I n f r a , 1 7 . H M ft to i CO CO cn r-H ! 01 H EH •H O -M h Pi CD -=tl > S o o M O O CO O ft " H O EH H •H tio O <q CQ p o 3 EH <SJ.. w a O <D p -P < l O o o CO J. -p CD CQ Mid ^ - H *H ! CQ CO c! o •H O 1 co ra g s C5 CQ I • • o ra co o 4 J d co ra •H s - o § S - O H (D B S d co N T H rH CO o EH CO CQ rH O £ >H PQ co cis CQ rH PH •H <3 CQ O m CQ rH O O O • X I o o S CO <M r-i CQ o o >a O *H " x l CO o o o S C O pq <t-l CO O CD CQ •H S4 £ • +> o & G -H O S O ; EH to <J> CO C - a w o -.1. I ' I I 153 CO CQ LO cn O O O CM rH r-i r-i r-i to CO 0> to to W rH" r- i LO CO W i n to 00 L O c- to Cn I O O CO «D CO CQ 03 CQ CO rH cn CO LO to LO <0 CD W £ - C\! W L O rH rH tD cn cn cn rH rH rH rH to CO rH CV2 N rH C\3 O cn rH rH to cn CO C -LO CO o LO L O O «5 tO IO ca ^ L O cn rH to W o co cn co to to O J cn rH 03 to CO CO "sfH • CO CO •H x> A3 S-0 a 3 CO •H CO rH •H is O n •4^  CQ (D O « O CO X I r-i O 0 x» O CO X I CO PH O •H 0 -P -p CQ 0 « pq CD FH CO PH ft CO £> CO •H id CD -P 5> & CD -p CQ X3 •H • « d CO CO rH PH P-i a? 0 CO <q P0 18 C o n c l u s i o n Throughout the w o r l d , i n t e r e s t i n r e c r e a t i o n i s "becom-i n g w i d e s p r e a d and p l a y g r o u n d s w i t h modern equipment a r e b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . S i n c e p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f t he v a l u e o f the movement has become so g e n e r a l governments have a t l e a s t assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e x t e n d i n g a l a r g e measure o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t o a s s u r e i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . Spontaneous m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , s u c h as the y o u t h movements o f E u r o p e , a r e c r e a t i n g new c u l t s i n o u t d o o r l i f e and a new s p i r i t o f f reedom i n p l a y . These f o r e i g n movements a r e the r e s u l t s o f the d e s i r e o f y o u t h f o r more j oyous l i v i n g and a r e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s i n the l e i s u r e t ime movement on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . The i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v a l u e o f p l a y i s the r e a s o n f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f more comprehens ive r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . As so o f t e n soceurs i n the e a r l y development o f e v e r y phase , o v e r - e n t h u s i a s m and wrong emphasis on some p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s have been e v i d e n t i n p l a y g r o u n d deve lopmen t , b u t u s u a l l y these have been due t o m i s c o n c e p t i o n o r m i s - d i r e c t e d z e a l r a t h e r t han t o some b a s i c weakness w h i c h m i g h t j u s t i f y the w i t h d r a w a l o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t . Those who c o n t r o l m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s may here and t h e r e f o r a t ime f a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e o f p r e -v e n t i o n and may d e c l i n e to g r a s p the known f a c t t h a t the methods t h a t a r e u s e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s a re t r u e e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l p r e v e n t a t i v e s o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e . H i s t o r y t e l l s us t h a t the f i r s t " t h e o r i s t s " who a d v o c a t e d f r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l s had f u l l y as much t r o u b l e i n e d u c a t i n g the p u b l i c and o b t a i n i n g f i n -a n c i a l s u p p o r t as the p l a y g r o u n d , a d v o c a t e s a r e h a v i n g now. ' 19 CHAPTER I I I URBAN RECREATION (A) R e c r e a t i o n a l Problems R e s u l t i n g from U r b a n i z a t i o n C e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s have i n f l u e n c e d the develop-ment of the p l a y movement. A review of the r e c r e a t i o n a l prob-lems r e s u l t i n g from u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s worth making* Re c r e a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban centers.- 1-—- Urban re c r e a -t i o n tends to become adapted to the s p e c i a l environment of the c i t y - d w e l l e r ; i t i s marked by passiveness, and v i c a r i o u s enjoy-ment and since i t must be conducted i n very l i m i t e d space i t r e -quires a high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r i t s e f f i c i e n t adminis-t r a t i o n . The urban dweller uses r e c r e a t i o n f o r emotional r e -lease and sometimes f o r escape from r e a l i t y . The c o n t r o l of urban r e c r e a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be governmental or commercial; the l a t t e r type i s sometimes a l l i e d w i t h organized v i c e . E i t h e r l i m i t e d p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s or f a u l t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the primary cause of such a r e s u l t . J u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . — I n the c i t y , j u v e n i l e delinquency often serves as an apprenticeship to adult c r i m i n a l tendencies w i t h y o u t h f u l " f a i l u r e s " embarking upon a n t i - s o c i a l behavior or even a career of crime. Although one cause of the existence of urban delinquency i s poverty, another, and probably a more s i g n i f i c a n t one, i s the f a c t t h a t , on the one hand, the t y p i c a l c i t y provides a r e s t r i c t e d scope f o r soc i a l l y - a p p r o v e d expression of normal Carpenter, N . , The Sociology of C i t y L i f e (Longmans, Green and Co. - 1932), 251-259. 20 p l a y tendencies, and, on the other hand, o f f e r s extensive o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d u l g i n g i n s o c i a l l y disapproved forms of such p l a y tendencies, and, i n perversions of them. C i t y boys and g i r l s have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g wholesome ways of p l a y i n g , "but i t i s very easy indeed f o r them to f i n d excitement i n ways that b r i n g them i n t o c o n f l i c t with the law and are i n i m i c a l to t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . Several a u t h o r i t a t i v e opinions w i l l show the high cor-r e l a t i o n between p r o v i s i o n of playgrounds and the prevention of j u v e n i l e delinquency. One w r i t e r s t a t e s : A n a l y s i s of a neighborhood by D i s t r i c t Attorney Charles Edwin Fox of P h i l a d e l p h i a , who covered the d i s t r i c t f o r f i v e years before and a l i k e p e r i o d a f t e r the establishment of playgrounds, l e d him to s t a t e : " I discovered the remarkable f a c t that i n the f i v e years of playground r e c r e a t i o n , the neigh-borhood showed a f i f t y per cent decrease i n j u v e n i l e delinquency, as compared w i t h the previous y e a r s . , f l - January 27, 1927. Dr. Charles P i a t t , P r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l Probation A s s o c i a t i o n w r i t e s : I know tha t j u v e n i l e delinquency i n our l a r g e c i t i e s increases i n d i r e c t r a t i o n with the distance from a playground. I know tha t playgrounds keep c h i l d r e n out of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s . x Warden Lewis E. Lawes of Sing Sing, i n commenting on the f a c t that three-quarters of a l l the cases before the c r i m i n a l courts are offenders under the age of twenty-one, says: I can see, as the only e f f e c t i v e way f o r the prevention of j u v e n i l e delinquency, wider exten-s i o n of community system a c t i v i t i e s , such as the establishment of more playgrounds, e s p e c i a l l y where congestion i s at present the g r e a t e s t ; the e s t a b l i s h -N a t i o n a l Recreation A s s o c i a t i o n , Children*s P l a y and J u v e n i l e Delinquency (pamphlet), 1-2. ment o f community c e n t e r s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c l e a n and wholesome r e c r e a t i o n ; and t h e i n t e r e s t o f a d u l t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the boy o f t o d a y , who may be the c r i m i n a l o f t o m o r r o w . 1 S t r a i n — d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s o f c i t y env i ronmen t upon p e r s o n a l - i t y . — - F a c t o r s c o n d i t i o n i n g u r b a n l i f e have consequences w h i c h may be d i s a s t r o u s t o t h e i n t e g r i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n -a l i t y . The most d i r e c t way i n w h i c h the t o t a l i t y o f c i t y l i f e s e r v e s as a c o n d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e i s t h r o u g h the p h y s i c a l s t i m u l i w h i c h i t b r i n g s t o bea r upon the i n d i v i d u a l . One w r i t e r s a y s : The c i t y - d w e l l e r ' s p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l equipment e n c o u n t e r s d i s t i n c t i v e l y u r b a n - c o n d i t i o n i n g i n -f l u e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o a t l e a s t t h r e e types ' o f s e n s e - i m p r e s s i o n s , s o u n d , movement and v i s i o n . 2 The sounds o c c u r r i n g i n the c i t y a r e p e c u l i a r i n t h e i r i n t e n s i t y , t h e i r d e n s i t y and t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s n e s s . I t need o n l y be s t a t e d h e r e t h a t n o i s e c o n s t i t u t e s a d e f i n i t e s t r a i n upon the v i t a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l , even when he i s accus tomed t o i t . Any o b s e r v e r may r e a d i l y g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o the r a p i d i t y o f movement i n v o l v e d i n c i t y l i f e by n o t i n g the number of t i m e s he i s r e q u i r e d t o h u r r y , t o dash o r s c u t t l e out o f dange r , o r t o make l i g h t n i n g d e c i s i o n s on w h i c h the s a f e t y o f l i m b and l i f e depend . The v i s u a l s t i m u l i which, a f f e c t t h e c i t y - d w e l l e r a r e p e c u l i a r i n a number o f ways . They a r e more v a r i e d , more v i v i d , and d e p r i v e d o f many o f t h e c o l o r t o n e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u n l i g h t . " ^ N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y and J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , 1 -2 . g C a r p e n t e r , op . c i t . , 2 0 5 . 22 S u n l i g h t - d e p r i v a t i o n i s probably one of the more important, though, perhaps one of the l e s s obvious, of the p h y s i c a l d i s -comforts that the urban-dweller experiences. Various other elements combine to heighten the emotional "tension of c i t y l i f e , o r , as Young puts i t , to extend "the range of e x c i t a t i o n . " 1 S i z e , congestion, crowds and c e r t a i n other s p e c i a l f e a -tures of c i t y l i f e may be s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l mention. The s i z e of the c i t y enhances the emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e of events that would otherwise be r e l a t i v e l y commonplace. The emotional tone of the c i t y i s a l s o heightened by the cl o s e crowding of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . - S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s are agreed that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a crowd a f f e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l and that such p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a profoundly d i s t u r b i n g experience. Homicide, s u i c i d e , robbery and accidents are events i n c i t y l i f e which arouse the emotions of the people. Nervous s t r a i n i s a product of c i t y l i f e . We have not yet conceived the danger of hurry, worry, f e a r , homesickness, lonesomeness and a l l the other elements that go to make up s t r a i n . S t r a i n enters d e f i n i t e l y i n t o many problems of delinquency. Playgrounds and r a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n are needed f o r emotional release and escape from the s t r a i n s caused by the impact of the c i t y upon the p e r s o n a l i t y . P a u c i t y of p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s . — A l l development i s the r e s u l t of a c t i v i t y , and therefore the maintenance of the opportunity fo r wholesome a c t i v i t i e s i s of primary n e c e s s i t y . School c h i l d -ren, deprived of the f u l l b e n e f i t s of f r e s h a i r , s u n l i g h t and Young, K., S o c i a l Psychology (New York, 1 9 3 0 ) , 573. 23 n a t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , are kept indoors i n a sedentary p o s i t i o n • during a great p a r t of the day. Some e d u c a t i o n i s t s advocate the extensive use of outdoor c l a s s e s and excursions as part of the school program. H e a l t h , c i t i z e n s h i p , m o r a l i t y and even i n -t e l l e c t are not a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s which can be secured d i r e c t -l y ; they are the outcome of a c t i v i t i e s . Gone are the open spaces, with the trees and the f l o w e r s , the swimming pools and the woods, hunting and f i s h i n g . The opportunity f o r wholesome a c t i v i t i e s has been reduced to a l e v e l f a r below our r e a l i z a t i o n . On the other hand, the increase i n temptations to un-wholesome l i v i n g has been steady. These temptations have been found l i n k e d with c i t y l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Unguided and u n d i r e c t -ed under these o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the c h i l d has accepted low stand-ards which are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with delinquency. Woods Hutchinson, d i s c u s s i n g the question "Can the C h i l d Survive C i v i l i z a t i o n " during the proceedings of the second annual playground congress, says: As p h y s i c i a n s , we must demand that the schoolroom, admirable as are i t s aims, and i t s motives, must r e l i n -quish at l e a s t one-half i t s claims upon the time and strength of our c h i l d r e n ; that at l e a s t h a l f of t h e i r education should be c a r r i e d out i n nature*s s c h o o l — • the open a i r . The playground should be organized, supervised, and recognized as a v i t a l and co-ordinate branch of our scheme of education..... The r e a l l i f e of the c h i l d i s l i v e d not i n the schoolroom, but on the playground Cut down the school hours one-half and double the p l a y -ground hours, and you w i l l have done more f o r the p h y s i -c a l , mental, and moral h e a l t h of young America than by any other p o s s i b l e step.1 Nash, J.B.,The Organization and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  Playgrounds and Recreation, (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1951), 10. 24 Commercial r e c r e a t i o n . — The growing octopus of commercial-i z e d r e c r e a t i o n i s slowly but s u r e l y surrounding and g r a d u a l l y squeezing out the l i f e - g i v i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the community. The c h i e f o b j e c t i o n to t h i s type of amusement i s "that the people are spectators r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a n t s . A c t i v i t i e s have been p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d i n the clamour f o r e f f i c i e n c y * Mr. E. B. De Groot says: P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m makes our r e c r e a t i o n a th i n g of t o i l , asks us to sweat f o r mere t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t and demands that we park our souls i n the grandstand..... The philosophy of commercialism, as a p p l i e d t o the world of r e c r e a t i o n , i s 6buy something f r a t h e r than *be something' .... • Commercialism i s c h i e f l y responsible f o r p u t t i n g the 'wreck* i n the r e c - r e a t i o n of an ever-i n c r e a s i n g number of young people. So long "as we remain as f f i s h f and. take our r e c r e a t i o n through s u c t i o n r a t h e r than our higher powers of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , so long w i l l we remain, as Viscount Grey has s a i d , "a pleasure-seek-i n g , but not a p l e a s u r e - f i n d i n g people. The cost t o s o c i e t y of inadequate p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y . — Pro-f e s s o r O'Shea s t a t e s that the o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n of our nervous system i s the greatest danger that we have to face. In the opinion of experts, the d i v i d i n g l i n e today between s a n i t y and i n s a n i t y i s as t h i n as a k n i f e - b l a d e , and o v e r - s t r a i n and ex-cessive nervous s t i m u l a t i o n may e a s i l y cause a r a p i d increase i n the var i o u s forms of i n s a n i t y . S t a t i s t i c s show that we are paying a heavy p r i c e i n human l i f e through the number of c h i l d r e n that are being k i l l e d and i n j u r e d while p l a y i n g on the s t r e e t s . Again, we cannot De Groot, E.B., "What Are the Chances f o r the S u r v i v a l of Amateur and Community Recreation i n an Age of P r o f e s s i o n a l and Commercial Recreation," American P h y s i c a l Education Review, (October, 1925). 2 -Nash, op. c i t . . 15. 25 estimate the number who are having "moral accidents" resulting from juvenile delinquency. We are paying the price by r e s t r i c t ing the growth and development of our youth. An adequately-administered c i t y should order i t s police a c t i v i t i e s , i t s playground and recreational program, and i t s c i t y planning so as to reduce, i f not eliminate, a number of the demoralizing influences surrounding the l i v e s of many ch i l d ren today. (B) P rob lems o f C i t y P l a n n i n g C i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y grow up and f i n d t h e i r a r e a a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y o c c u p i e d by b u s i n e s s houses and homes b e f o r e p e o p l e have r e a l i z e d the need o f p l a n n i n g . - T h i s s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s to s u c h an e x t e n t i n numerous c i t i e s t h a t i t w i l l p r o b a b l y t ake y e a r s t o e f f e c t d e s i r a b l e changes f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . The t ime t o make p r o -v i s i o n f o r p l a y a r e a s i s b e f o r e the l a n d has been b u i l t u p o n . The p l a n n i n g o f p l a y space.-— N e i g h b o r h o o d p l a y g r o u n d s , d i s t r i c t p l a y g r o u n d s , p a r k s , and s c h o o l s must be l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x -i m i t y t o the most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s and to ' the l i n e s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . To s u p p l y the needs o f t he s m a l l c h i l d , a d -equate b a c k y a r d s on l o t a r e a s or community ga rden c o u r t s must be p r o v i d e d . Because c i t i e s d i d n o t make ample p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y space i n the b e g i n n i n g , many l e g a l o b s t a c l e s have been e n c o u n t e r e d i n the l o n g and b i t t e r f i g h t f o r c i t y p l a n n i n g . The c o m p u l s o r y p l a n o f s e t t i n g a s i d e i n a l l new s u b -d i v i s i o n s t e n p e r c e n t o f the l a n d f o r open spaces i s u n s c i e n -t i f i c f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : (1.) c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n s may no t need t h a t q u o t a w h i l e o t h e r s may need l a r g e r a r e a s r a t h e r t han s m a l l e r u n u s a b l e p l o t s ; (2) l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e t h r o u g h s t r i n g e n t l aws o f c o n f i s c a t i o n ; (3) t h e r e may no t be d e f i n i t e a r rangement o f p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k a r e a s a c c o r d i n g to the needs o f t h e p e o p l e . A p r a c t i c a b l e i d e a w o u l d be t o have the p l a n f o r p l a y -g round and p a r k a r e a s o f a l l new s u b d i v i s i o n s s u b m i t t e d to the p u b l i c f o r a p p r o v a l b e f o r e the s t r e e t s have been l a i d o u t . The p l o t s w o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r p u r c h a s e by the c i t y when i t was i n 27 a position to do s o . 1 Play-lots--the backyard.— These are places near home for the •play of small children who are not of school age or who are only beginners, generally those under eight years of age. In the absence of individual backyards, garden courts might be provided as a common backyard which would be supervised by the mother from the back door. The substitutes that might be provided are: the garden playground; the roof garden; the home playground; portions of the school yard or of the neighborhood municipal playground. The reservation of a vacant lot per block would not be satisfactory without supervision, and c iv ic finances could not bear the cost of such supervision. • The elementary school playground.— This area should be the neighborhood playground. If school yards are inadequate in some instances, play areas should be placed near to the small school 2 yards. The minimum space problem is very important. The solu-tion of this.-problem depends a great deal on reducing the peak load of children on the playground at one time by arranging schedules for play act iv i t ies on the playground. These schedules would begin at nine o'clock in the morning and continue through-out the day on the platoon school plan. The peak loads would be high at noon, at recess, before and after school. Certain fields such as those for baseball, football and xCopies of a model plan entitled "Standard City Planning Enabling '-Act1*, which embodies this idea, maybe secured from U.S. Department of Commerce. 2 Portland, Oregon; Oakland, California; and many other places are doing this successfully. 3rp n e average peak lead over the'Whdle day seems to be about 20 per cent of the school population. 28 b a s k e t b a l l need t o be j u s t as l a r g e f o r one hundred boys as f o r f i v e hundred b o y s . T h e r e f o r e , a m i n i m u m - s i z e d y a r d i s needed f o r any s c h o o l and the consensus o f o p i n i o n i s t h a t f o u r a c r e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d the m i n i m u m - s i z e d s c h o o l y a r d and t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d when the a t t e n d a n c e i s i n exces s o f s i x h u n d r e d . The h i g h s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d . — T h i s y a r d s h o u l d be the d i s t r i c t p l a y g r o u n d . The peak l o a d p e r c e n t a g e w o u l d be abou t t he same as t h a t o f t he e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y a r d . , The s c h e d u l e p l a n has a l -r e a d y been i n e f f e c t i n V a n c o i i v e r f o r t he l a s t few y e a r s so t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p e r i o d s t h r o u g h o u t the week. Because o f the c l i m a t e some grounds w h i c h have been p l a n t e d i n g r a s s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f the y e a r . They h o l d w a t e r and the wet g r a s s i s dange rous ; c o n s e q u e n t l y many a c c i d e n t s r e s u l t . The c l a y s u r f a c e i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r a l l y e a r p l a y -ground' a c t i v i t i e s on the s c h o o l g r o u n d s . Games p l a y e d by h i g h s c h o o l boys and g i r l s r e q u i r e more s p a c e , as s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a r e more h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n type and , t h e r e f o r e , the m i n i m u m - s i z e d y a r d must be i n c r e a s e d . R u n n i n g - t r a c k and f i e l d s p o r t s must p a l s o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n i n p l acemen t and p l a n n i n g . , 5 Hov/ s c h o o l s a r e m e e t i n g the demand f o r p l a y s p a c e . — The 1927 a n n u a l r e p o r t o f the d i v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n o f the P h i l a d e l p h i a Board , o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s the V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s o f S G : : s q . , f t . ' . . t o 2 0 0 ' o r 500 s q . f t . have been o f f e r e d as p l a y - s p a c e needs p e r c h i l d . -The consensus o f o p i n i o n i s t h a t the minimum space s h o u l d no t be less< t h a n f rom s i x t o t e n a c r e s . 2 Recommendat ions , o f s t a t e b o a r d s i n U . S . i n w h i c h c e r t a i n a r e a s a r e recommended as s t a n d a r d s f o r s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s can be found on a c h a r t i n , a pamph le t e n t i t l e d " S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s " -M a r i e M . Ready , ( O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1954, U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t -ment o f I n t e r i o r ) , 1 0 - 1 1 . f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r new s c h o o l s i t e s , s u g g e s t e d by the p r o -p e r t y commit tee o f the b o a r d o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . F o r a h i g h s c h o o l o f 4,GOO p u p i l s , a p l a y - s p a c e o f n o t l e s s t h a n 8 a c r e s . F o r a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o f 2 , 0 0 0 p u p i l s a p l a y - s p a c e o f n o t l e s s t h a n 4 a c r e s . F o r an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l o f 1 ,500 p u p i l s a p l a y ^ s p a c e o f no t l e s s t h a n 3 ac res . . I n 1923 , the f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d s were s u g g e s t e d a t the A n n u a l Confe rence o f the P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a : F o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a s h o u l d be 8 a c r e s i n c l u d i n g the l a n d on w h i c h the s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d . F o r the i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a s h o u l d be from 10 to 20 a c r e s . •i F o r h i g h s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a f o r a h i g h s c h o o l , s i t e s h o u l d be from 20 t o 4 0 a c r e s . 2 I n a l a r g e number o f c i t i e s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t the s c h o o l s a r e b e i n g p l a c e d i n the immedia te n e i g h b o r h o o d o f p a r k s and s q u a r e s w h i c h can be c o n v e r t e d i n t o p l a y g r o u n d s . P a r k s and p l a y -g round b o a r d s a r e c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h s c h o o l boa rds i n p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l space nea r s c h o o l s . Some boa rds o f e d u c a t i o n a r e n o t a p p r o v i n g any p l a n s f o r new s c h o o l s w h i c h do n o t p r o v i d e adequate p l a y - s p a c e . O the r r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s . - ? - The r e c r e a t i o n p a r k p r o v i d e d by the p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d can be l o c a t e d i n any adequate a r e a n e a r the c i t y . I t p r o v i d e s p i c n i c g r o u n d s , g o l f c o u r s e s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , b o w l i n g - g r e e n s , b r i d l e - p a t h s and g a r d e n s . M u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a s a r e s e t a s i d e o u t s i d e u rban a r e a s , thus p r e s e r v i n g the n a t u r a l b e a u t y o f f o r e s t s f o r summer v a c a t i o n i s t s or p i c n i c k e r s . These a r e a s may have b a t h i n g Ready , o p . c i t . , 3 . 2 i b i d . , 5 . 30 beaches , g o l f - c o u r s e s , p i c n i c grounds o r camps l o c a t e d t h e r e i n . -L e g i s l a t i o n f o r p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , — • There i s a , g e n e r a l t endency t o d a y f o r the d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s and. p r o v i n c e s t o r e c o g -n i z e the power o f the c i t y t o spend money f o r v a r i o u s t ypes o f p l a y g r o u n d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The l e g a l depar tment o f the c i t y s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d f o r e x p e r t o p i n i o n on a l l t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s . C o u r t d e c i s i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s show the w i d e l a t i t u d e w h i c h has been g i v e n c i t i e s as to e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s . S c h o o l b o a r d s were g i v e n the r i g h t to buy p l a y g r o u n d p r o p e r t y and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s even when those s i t e s were remote f rom the s c h o o l s . I n C a l i f o r n i a , t h e C i t y o f Los A n g e l e s was g i v e n the power to b u i l d a s t ad ium, w h i c h was t o be o p e r a t e d as a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t o o f f s e t the c o s t s o f m a i n -t e n a n c e . Many c i t i e s have the r i g h t t o e s t a b l i s h m u n i c i p a l camps o u t s i d e t h e c i t y l i m i t s . These c i t i e s cha rge a s m a l l amount t o c o v e r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . I n o t h e r c i t i e s , p u b l i c funds have been expended i n the b u i l d i n g o f a u d i t o r i u m s f o r s u c h r e -c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s c h o o l commencement e x e r c i s e s , l e c t u r e s , operas and d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s . Some c i t i e s have been a l l o w e d to e s t a b l i s h g o l f c o u r s e s . C i t i e s have the power t o l e v y a d m i s s i o n cha rges on p l a y -grounds and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s f o r ma in tenance o n l y , when s u c h i s deemed n e c e s s a r y . T h i s p o l i c y has a l s o been p u r s u e d by s c h o o l s and p a r k s . 1 L . V / . W e i r p f t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f s u g g e s t i o n s on how l a n d may be a c q u i r e d f o r p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d p u r p o s e s . 31 (G) Objectives of C i t y Playground Programs I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t , at l e a s t i n o u t l i n e , p o i n t s of agreement f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l aspect of p l a y and e s p e c i a l l y i t s ' o b j e c t i v e s , be given. An understanding of these t o p i c s w i l l help i n the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the p l a y program. Theory of p l a y . — The educational value of play has been recog-nized over a long p e r i o d of time; but only i n modern times has an attempt been made to give a s c i e n t i f i c e xplanation of p l a y . Many t h e o r i e s regarding p l a y have been advanced but n a t u r a l l y no exhaustive treatment of these t h e o r i e s i s warranted here. While l e a d i n g educators are not yet f u l l y i n accord as to the meaning of p l a y and as to what a c t i v i t i e s should be de-noted by the term, they are coming more and more to agree on a few fundamentals.'5' In the f i r s t p l a c e , p l a y i s a c t i v i t y as opposed to i t s opposite, i d l e n e s s . " L o a f i n g " and "dawdling" are not p l a y , but are a slumping of a c t i v i t y because of a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t y , i n d i c a t i n g a l o s s of the play s p i r i t . Moreover, p l a y i s not l i m i t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r form of a c t i v i t y ; i t may be neuro-muscular, sensory, mental, or a combination of a l l three. Again, the value of p l a y i n education i s due to i t s power to i n t e r e s t the p l a y e r , absorb h i s a t t e n t i o n , and arouse him to 2 e n t h u s i a s t i c and p e r s i s t e n t a c t i v i t y . Furthermore, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p l a y a c t i v i t y 1Bowen & M i t c h e l l , The Theory of P l a y (A.S. Barnes & Co., New Y o r k ) , Chapter IX. Lee, J . , P l a y i n Education! Macmillan Co., New York),107. 32 depends on t h e a t t i t u d e of mind o f the p a r t i c i p a n t t oward the t h i n g he i s d o i n g , t h a t i s , upon t h e m o t i v e i m p e l l i n g h i m t o a c t i o n . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t h a t i s a l w a y s n e c e s s a r i l y p l a y ; n e i t h e r can an a c t i v i t y be men t ioned t h a t may no t under some c o n d i t i o n s be p l a y . C e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , such as c o n v e n t i o n a l games and s p o r t s , a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d as p l a y , but we can n e v e r be su re o f t h i s u n t i l we a p p r e c i a t e the v a r i e d m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t * . 1 C o n s e q u e n t l y one may s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s f a i r l y g e n e r a l a c c o r d t h a t the p l a y s p i r i t i s an a t t i t u d e o f m i n d , b u t t h a t t h e r e i s no t so u n a n i -mous an agreement as t o the n a t u r e of t h i s a t t i t u d e . I t i s , however , coming t o be ag reed more and more t h a t the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p l a y i s a s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d f rom the a c t i v -i t y i t s e l f . O b j e c t i v e s of p l a y . — The o b j e c t i v e s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p l a y a r e the same as t h o s e of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ; namely the development of the f u l l l i f e — the e n r i c h e d l i f e . There a r e t h r e e g e n e r a l g r o u p s of o b j e c t i v e s , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f w h i c h can not be a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d i n p r a c t i c e . They a re immedia te o b j e c t -•7. i v e s , i n t e r m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e s and u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s . Immediate o b j e c t i v e s of p l a y . — Immediate o b j e c t i v e s a re m a i n l y t h o s e w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o the p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d . The d e s i r e f o r a c t i v i t y i s one of the p o w e r f u l f o r c e s of c h i l d n a t u r e , c h i l d h o o d b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y on ^ C u r t i s , H . S . , E d u c a t i o n Through P l a y ( m a c m i l l a n C o . , New Y o r k ) , 1 1 1 . 2 i b i d . , 1 1 7 . 3 J o h n s o n , G . E . , E d u c a t i o n by P l a y s & Games ( G i n n & C o . , New Y o r k ) , 6 3 . S3 the p a r t of t he j u v e n i l e t o engage i n p l a y f u l a c t i v i t i e s , , How-e v e r , c e r t a i n t y p e s b r i n g more s a t i s f a c t i o n t o the c h i l d t h a n o t h e r s , and i t i s t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y t o d i r e c t t he se a c t i v i t i e s i n t o s o c i a l l y u s e f u l c h a n n e l s . Such d i r e c t i o n i s t he c o r e o f the p rogram where t h e form of a c t i v i t i e s i s d e t e r m i n e d by " s o c i a l h a b i t s " r a t h e r t h a n by i n s t i n c t . To a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , t he d u t y o f l e a d e r s i s t o g u i d e the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s . I f one d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y l a y s the f o u n -d a t i o n f o r a n o t h e r d e s i r a b l e o n e , t h e n the f i r s t must be e n c o u r -a g e d . The b a s i s of s e l e c t i o n i s t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t and s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . When we r e q u i r e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t l e a d on t o f u r t h e r d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t i e s , we need : (a) i n t r i n s i c r a t h e r t h a n e x t r i n s i c l e a r n i n g ; (b) p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n mere o n l o o k i n g ; (c) com-m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n wh ich i s w i l l e d and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by the community r a t h e r t h a n by c o m m e r c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; (d) a c t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d w i t h the c h i l d r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e c h i l d ; (e) the j o y o f a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n mere e x c i t e m e n t ; ( f ) i n t e r e s t i m p e l l e d a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n a c t i v i t i e s i m p e l l e d by the d e s i r e t o w i n by p r i z e s . 1 Immediate a c t i v i t i e s a r e composed l a r g e l y o f " b i g -m u s c l e " a c t i v i t i e s . These a c c o m p l i s h c e r t a i n ends such a s t h e development of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h , of e n d u r a n c e , of v i t a l i t y and of s e n s o r i - m o t o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n s . I n t e r m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a y . — The i n t e r m e d i a t e o b j e c t i v e s a r e t h e h a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s w h i c h s o c i e t y would l i k e 2 human b e i n g s t o a c q u i r e . These a r e a c h i e v e d bes t under e f f e c t -i v e l e a d e r s h i p , f o r a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p , c h a r a c t e r 1 B o w e n & M i t c h e l l , The Theory of O r g a n i z e d P l a y U . S . Ba rnes & Co* , New Y o r k ) , C h a p t e r X I Y . 2 J o h n s o n , op . c i t . , 9 4 . 34 and h e a l t h a r e most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t a u g h t t h r o u g h d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t y . H a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n one s i t u a -t i o n dominate the n e x t s i t u a t i o n . A t t i t u d e s a c q u i r e d i n the p l a y s i t u a t i o n s o f c h i l d h o o d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e a d u l t l i f e b e h a v i o r . The " leader can i n f l u e n c e t h e s e a t t i t u d e s , f o r h i s a p p r o v a l and the group *s a p p r o v a l are m a t t e r s of g r e a t moment. A boy w i l l l i v e up t o h i g h s o c i a l s t a n d a r d s i f t h e y a r e the s t a n d a r d s of t he g r o u p , but t h e y must be p o p u l a r i n t h e f i e l d of a c t i o n . The i n n e r "want" i s a d r i v e t h a t i s n o t s e l e c t i v e ; l e a d e r s h i p makes use o f the d r i v e f o r f o r m i n g s t a n -d a r d s of h e a l t h and c h a r a c t e r . U l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s of p l a y . — U l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s a r e c i t i z e n -s h i p , h e a l t h , c h a r a c t e r and the r i g h t use of l e i s u r e . 1 The c h i l d must be made t o see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h and the t h i n g s w h i c h he wants t o a c c o m p l i s h . The same a p p l i e s t o the o t h e r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e e a s i l y r e a l i z e d as a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t i e s under l e a d e r s h i p , but t he u l t i m a t e s t a n d a r d s depend upon what the c h i l d w a n t s . The b a s i s o f t he d e s i r e f o r h e a l t h i s the d e s i r e t o a c c o m p l i s h , t o a c h i e v e , t o amount t o s o m e t h i n g . I f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s a r e g o i n g t o c o n -t r i b u t e t o t h e h e a l t h of t h e c h i l d , t h e y must be s p o n t a n e o u s , v i g o r o u s , j o y o u s ; t h e y must l e a d on t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , and no t cause s t r a i n t h r o u g h o v e r - e x e r t i o n . C h a r a c t e r must a l s o be b u i l t up i n t o the c h i l d *s n a t u r a l w a n t s ; i t i s a p r o d u c t of p r o p e r l y g u i d e d a c t i v i t i e s . A c h i l d l e a r n s : to. p l a y a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d s w h i c h have become second n a t u r e t o h i m . I n a c t i v i t i e s under l e a d e r s h i p , t he se s t a n d a r d s J o h n s o n , op . c i t . , 1 2 7 . 35 can be e s t a b l i s h e d . Most o f the c h a r a c t e r and c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i t s , a l a r g e number of h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s , have been f o r m -ed b e f o r e the age o f t w e l v e . C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g comes t h r o u g h advan tages of p l a y p l u s l e a d e r s h i p i n a c t i o n , no t t h r o u g h m o r a l i z i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r * The r i g h t u s e of l e i s u r e t ime becomes the m a i n o b j e c t -i v e of t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . The p r o b l e m i s , "Are a l l men t r a i n e d f o r the p r o p e r u s e o f l e i s u r e ? " C o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n has f a i l e d w i t h i t s s p e c t a t o r a t h l e t i c s . Much a d u l t and j u v e n -i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s t r a c e d t o t h e m i s u s e of l e i s u r e t i m e . The modern i n d u s t r i a l sys tem has f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e j o y i n the work of l a b o r e r s . D e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n f o r l a b o r and a l s o f o r l e i s u r e must be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l . I f d e m o c r a t i c e d u c a t i o n c o u l d pu t j o y i n t o t h e work o f a l l men, much of our r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o -gram would t h e n not be needed . More community f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o p e r u se of l e i s u r e must be p r o v i d e d so t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be f a i r l y u n i v e r s a l . We must r e - d e d i c a t e o u r s e l v e s t o a l e i s u r e wh ich i s • " a r e w a r d o f a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e , r a t h e r t h a n a s t a t e e x e m p t i o n f rom i t . " 1 We must work f o r t h e r i g h t b a l a n c e between work and l e i s u r e and the development o f t h o s e wants w h i c h " i n c r e a s e the v a l u e of work and of t h o s e t a s t e s w h i c h i n c r e a s e the v a l u e of l e i s u r e . " 2 Dewey, J o h n , Democracy and E d u c a t i o n ( M a c m i l l a n & C o . 1 9 2 5 ) , 3 0 5 . 2 I b i d , , 3 0 3 . 36 • CHAPTER IV THE PART PLAYED BY THE SCHOOLS IN THE CITY PLAYGROUND PROGRAM The recreational plan that seems to be the most wide-spread- i n North America i s one i n .which the park and playground board administers the recreational program for adults and pre-school children while the school board directs the play program of school-age children,, There are many points i n favor of this arrangement * -Age groups.--There are three main age groups for playground and recreational administration: the pre-school c h i l d , the school-age c h i l d and the adult or community group. No single instruc-tor can carry out ef f e c t i v e work by attempting to organize ac-t i v i t i e s for these three groups at the same time; the ac t i v -i t i e s of each group should be organized and.carried out on areas s p e c i f i c a l l y reserved for it.-** In the organization of a recreational program the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e to be observed i s that the a c t i v i t i e s of these var-ious groups should be planned on separate grounds. In the event of such arrangement being impossible i n some d i s t r i c t s , plans should be made for the reservation of separate areas on the same grounds at some distance from one another. I f ' t h i s arrangement i s also impossible, then the scheduling of ac t i v -i t i e s at different periods of time should be effected so that these-groups would come into infrequent contact with one an-other.- F i n a l l y the organization of a l l " these groups and their •Nash, op• c i t . , 153. 37 s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be h a n d l e d s e p a r a t e l y , and w i t h w e l l -d e f i n e d p l a n s . P l a y g r o u n d and p a r k f u n c t i o n s . - - I n o r d e r t o meet the needs of t he modern c i t y , p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be combined under one boa rd w i t h two m a i n s u b d i v i s i o n s ; one c o n -c e r n e d w i t h the l a y i n g out o f . p l a y i n g f i e l d s and g a r d e n i n g , and the o t h e r w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m s . The f i r s t of t h e s e two groups , s h o u l d be conce rned n o t o n l y w i t h the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f a r e a s w h i c h w i l l f o rm a s e t t i n g f o r the conduc t o f a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o w i t h the t a s k o f s e e i n g t h a t t he p l a y g r o u n d s w i l l be d e s i r a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n s t o the com-m u n i t y . One b o a r d s h o u l d c o n t r o l t he p l a n t i n g and c a r e , o f t r e e s , b o u l e v a r d s , s q u a r e s , g a r d e n s , town f o r e s t s , s c h o o l g rounds and o t h e r c i t y - o w n e d p r o p e r t y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r t he p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d and t h e a d u l t o r community g r o u p , and the encouragement o f a l l p e o p l e i n the community t o use the p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s , i s a n o t h e r du ty of t he p a r k s b o a r d . To meet the needs of t he p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d , s m a l l a r e a s nea r p a r k p l o t s s h o u l d be e q u i p -ped w i t h benches where mothe r s o r -nurses may s i t w i t h o u t i n t e r -f e r e n c e f rom o t h e r a c t i v i t y g r o u p s . F a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d s h o u l d i n c l u d e s a n d - b o x e s , wading p o o l , s m a l l s l i d e s and s w i n g s ; such equipment wou ld Supplement the p l a y f a c i l i t i e s of the home. The p rogram o f the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d wou ld be o r g a n i z e d by the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s ; b u t , such f a c i l i t i e s as f o o t b a l l f i e l d s , b a s e b a l l d i amonds , l a c r o s s e and h o c k e y f i e l d s , 'Nash', o p . c i t . , 154 . 38 w h i c h w o u l d be u sed by t h e - a d u l t teams o f the oommunity as w e l l as by the s c h o o l t eams , w o u l d be p r o v i d e d on p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d The a d u l t 'or community group wou ld have . i t s p rogram o f a c t i v i t i e s o r g a n i z e d by t h e p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d . Such • a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d c o n s i s t of l a w n - b o w l i n g , t e n n i s , v o l l e y - b a l l , a r c h e r y , h o r s e - s h o e p i t c h i n g , c r o q u e t , h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g , b o a t -i n g , s a i l i n g and c a n o e i n g ; and t he se would i n t e r e s t numerous community g r o u p s . The f a c i l i t i e s f o r such d i v e r s i o n s wou ld o f t e n be u sed by the s c h o o l - a g e group where s a t i s f a c t o r y a r -rangements c o u l d be made. P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r the f a m i l y group by a r r a n g i n g p i c n i c and camp f a c i l i t i e s and s t ad iums f o r l a r g e c i v i c f u n c t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the p l a n n i n g o f p a r k s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a q u a r i a , - z o o l o g i c a l and b o t a n i c a l gardens and n a t u r a l p a t h s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y e x p e d i t i o n s . The s c h o o l - a g e g r o u p . — T h e p r o b l e m o f o r g a n i z i n g the program o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r t he s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d i s t o d a y the fo remos t one c o n f r o n t i n g the o r g a n i z e r s o f the p l a y g r o u n d movement. The e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such a p r o g r a m must, be conduc t ed by the s c h o o l , but an e f f e c t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , can be accom-p l i s h e d o n l y i f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l i s r e c o g n i z e d by the p u b l i c . , R e a l i z i n g the need f o r an adequate p rogram o f r e c r e a -t i o n , o t h e r a g e n c i e s have endeavored t o do someth ing to f i l l the gap . P r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c h u r c h e s , p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d boards and community g roups have t a k e n the l e a d , and w i l l c o n -t i n u e t o do so u n t i l the s c h o o l i s a u t h o r i z e d t o c a r r y out t he p r o g r a m . I n . t h e mean t ime , many c o m b i n a t i o n s o f programs can be worked out as t e m p o r a r y measures under the combined c o n t r o l o f r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s , p a r k s boa rds and p r i v a t e groups \TOrking i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s c h o o l s . Some communi t i e s have b u i l t and e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d s w h i c h have been l y i n g i d l e y w h i l e o t h e r s have been a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n r e c r e a t i o n on a p a r t - , t ime b a s i s o n l y . A t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s e grounds i s i r r e g u l a r and i n s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t the e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r equipment and l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s p l a n has no t been a s u c c e s s , because the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d i s con fused t o some e x t e n t when a number o f o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s a t t empt t o o r g a n i z e h i s p l a y - p r o g r a m , A more s a t i s f a c t o r y e q u a l i z a t i o n o f p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n w i l l r e s u l t i f t h i s group i s o r g a n -i z e d by t h e p u b l i e s c h o o l . C r i t i c i s m s have been made t h a t the b e s t - o r g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d boa rds o f the c o n t i n e n t , when t h e y have not worked i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s , have not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e a c h e d o v e r t e n p e r cen t o f the c h i l d r e n I n the c o m m u n i t y . 1 B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e advan tages o f h a v i n g the s c h o o l s o r g a n i z e a r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram f o r t h e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d , , one migh t c o n s i d e r some o f the h a n d i c a p s e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r agen -c i e s i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s p r o g r a m . I n many p l a c e s t h e r e i s . l a c k o f adequate space f o r a l l t h e s c h o o l - a g e g r o u p s ; i n o t h e r p l a c e s the space a v a i l a b l e i s not p r o p e r l y l o c a t e d ; m a i n t r a f -f i c avenues o f t e n endanger the approach t o and f rom t h e p l a y -grounds* and no a c c u r a t e check can be kep t upon the p e r c e n t a g e of the community t h a t i s a c t u a l l y mak ing r e g u l a r use o f the 'Nash , op . c i t . , 1 3 8 . 40 playground:. Again, when children are i n school most of the day and a program i s provided for them afte r school hours and on Saturdays, only part-time: workers are employed. Usually i t Is impossible to obtain the services of q u a l i f i e d part-time work-* ersj because they are using t h e i r positions for temporary em-ployment only. Some c i t i e s have had to resort to employing i n -structors who are not trained for t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r tasks. Often they are f a m i l i a r with: some p a r t i c u l a r branch of a t h l e t i c s but are not trained i n the e f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n of large num-bers of children. Summer playgrounds are opened on f u l l time but the employment again i s only temporary and the salary too small to a t t r a c t competent instructors. In many c i t i e s a f t e r -school and summer play a c t i v i t i e s have become a mere gesture. This situation can hot but retard the progress of -the movement.. Arguments.in favor of the school assuming the administration of  playground a c t i v i t i e s for school-age children. — A . writer of the United States Bureau of Education says: It i s not enough that there be 'playgrounds i n every community.* They must be part of the school equipment. Isolated playgrounds f o r school children are m i s f i t . The children are required by law to be at school a large . part of the year; they are required by law i n many states to have physical training a c t i v i t i e s ; and they play before school, at noon, at recess, and frequently aft e r school. For these a c t i v i t i e s , playgrounds, equip-ment and"leadership must be supplied. The school must represent society's organized opportunities for the children to get education through essential a c t i v i t i e s , which can not be organized by the home. A school with-out a playground program may be an i n t e l l e c t u a l sweat-shop; or i t may be an I n t e l l e c t u a l delicatessen shop; i t can not be a re a l educational workshop. 1 The following reasons show why the school i s adequately prepared to handle the recreational program of school-age c h i l d -ren: (1) Milch of the value of play i s educational; i t i s nec-•Nash, op, c i t . , 138 4 1 essary for both mental and physical development. The young, c h i l d perhaps learns more and develops better through Its play than through any other form of a c t i v i t y . ''Our • youth need instruc-t i o n i n how to play as much as they do in.-how' to'work."1- An-other writer In making a plea for enriched rather than conven-t i o n a l play a c t i v i t i e s states! I do not mean that nervously exhausting and dead~ ening d r i l l known as the Swedish Gymnastics which.,- i n the name, of educational' gymnastics, adds fatigue to fatigue by taking the i n i t i a t i v e away from the ch i l d and forcing him to pay constant and close attention to orders of the teacher, that he may execute with pre-c i s i o n e n t i r e l y uninteresting and conventional move-ments. 2 (2) Children are i n attendance at school the greater part of the day, week and year. They are divided into classes of suitable sizes as units for ins t r u c t i o n . During the school term t h e i r attendance i s regular. To give a l l the children i t equal opportunities for play and in s t r u c t i o n In play^must be a d e f i n i t e l y organized part of the school program. -The school has at i t s disposal personal information and data such as ad-dresses, phone numbers, age, .weight-, height and the general health conditions of the students. Tt has-, contact with .the parents who a s s i s t the school through the parent-teacher groups. The c h i l d must attend school; therefore.the school, should or-ganize the child's play so that a l l children w i l l be reached In the play program, (3) The school already provides for a. program-.of • phys-Ipresident Coolidge, "National. Conference on Outdoor Recreation" (New York Sun,: May 22, .1924). : ~~~~ — 2 E i t z , J, , "Hygiene of Instruct ion'' (Proceedings of the National Education Association, 1898), 648. . 42 • ' . ibal e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p rog ram i s more and more becoming mot -i v a t e d by the . p l a y s p i r i t . O r g a n i z e d p l a y and p h y s i c a l e d -u c a t i o n s h o u l d be c l o s e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d under the one d e p a r t -ment . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d t r a i n f o r the l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s of. a d u l t l i f e . O n l y the v i t a l p l a y a c t i v i t i e s o f c h i l d h o o d a r e l i k e l y t o be c a r r i e d on i n t o a d u l t l i f e ; c o n -s e q u e n t l y j such a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be emphas ized i n the s c h o o l p r o g r a m . (4) The s c h o o l has the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c a r e f o r recr-r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d s , c l a s s e s a re d i v i d e d i n t o g roups o r teams; t h e s e groups o r teams fo rm u n i t s f o r p u r p o s e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n the s c h o o l . A g a i n , many s c h o o l s a r e o r can be s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o houses f o r I h t r a - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n , - ' - The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n t o be a c h i e v e d i s one i n which, a l l the members o f the g roup p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s can be e f f e c t e d much m o r e . e a s i l y i n the s c h o o l because the s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t eams , l e a g u e s and tournament can be a d j u s t e d t o the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r s c h o o l t i m e . C o n -s e q u e n t l y , i t may, be a s s e r t e d t h a t i t i s a l m o s t I m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n the com-m u n i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s on the p l a y g r o u n d w i t h o u t the c o - o p e r a t i o n , o f t he s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . (5) I n most modern c i t i e s the s c h o o l has adequate p l a y space . The t o t a l number o f a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be more e q u i t a b l y d i s t r i b u t e d ove r the e n t i r e s c h o o l day t h a n t h e y a r e at p r e s e n t . As the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i s d e s i g n e d w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o ji • - -i -i • 1-There i s no doubt t oday t h a t i n t r a - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s a r e of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n t e r - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s . 43 the number of children to be housed and to the kinds of'activ-i t i e s that are to be carried on, so the.school grounds are being planned to provide for-the physical education and rec-reational act iv i t ies of a l l the children. Space requirements for games in elementary and secondary schools are being studied and these areas are being planned accordingly. Allotments of play area are being made for the age-groups .and the sexes when necessary. (6) Thesehool has the equipment and the storage fac-i l i t i e s to care for i t . Modern schools are being equipped with gymnasia, lockers, showers and dressing rooms. Older.buildings have basements, outbuildings or spare rooms which can be con- \ verted for the use of physical education and ut i l i zed for rec-reational ac t iv i t i e s . Many modern elementary schoolgrounds are being equipped''.with playground apparatus. (7.) The school has continuity of Instruction, since.it maintains a program of act iv i ty from year to year. The program is planned in the form of a curriculum. In the formal program of physical education one act iv i ty leads on to another; so should i t be with the more inclusive program of recreation* -Games and act iv i t ies must be suited to the impulses and inter-ests of the stages in the child's development. The school pro-gram endeavors to meet the challenge of the philosophy and psychology of education, taking into account children's i n -dividual differences. Playground and recreational act ivi t ies , must also f i t into a scientif ic plan, - (8) The school is tax-supported; in many instances yearly support must be given by the c ivic finance committee. 44 Following the p r i n c i p l e s of democratic education, s u f f i c i e n t funds are generally provided to give an adequate program of education to every c h i l d . (9) The educational authorities have large staffs of te'achers with the training and experience i n handling children that i s necessary to playground workers. The teachers are l i k e l y to be more fa m i l i a r with the general p r i n c i p l e s and tendencies of education than temporary playground directors. They are trained less narrov/ly, and are less l i k e l y to think of physical education as a detached problem. (10) The teacher*s personal contact with the children on the playground i s b e n e f i c i a l to the students. Teachers, interested i n the games of the school and i n the welfare of thei r homeroom classes, encourage the children by supervising t h e i r games against other classes. The teacher of physical education or the playground director; i s able to schedule spec-i a l games or a c t i v i t i e s after, school hours. The other teachers sponsor or supervise these games on a schedule of about one afternoon a week each. Responsibility of the school for the, play, of school-age c h i l d - ran.—The wider use of school property Is a demand of the people, and r i g h t f u l l y so. It i s the duty of the school to give the school-age c h i l d access to the f a c i l i t i e s already at hand every hour of daylight for a l l the days of the year, Sun-days and holidays included. Nash states: Inasmuch as the school has already organized a l l the children of school-age, and i s equipped with leader-ship and f a c i l i t i e s , "it. should extend i t s functions to a "365 day program" for the school-age child.-'-45 This contention i s also supported by o t h e r s i n the ed-ucational f i e l d . Cubberley says: By organizing play as a part of the regular school curriculum, as" i s being done now by many of our. c i t y school systems, and then providing regular play teachers for schools, the school playground can be u t i l i z e d con-stantly from eight A.M. to six P.M. every day, thus pro-viding about ten times the play f a c i l i t i e s which can be provided for under the municipal playground plan, and at less c o s t . 1 The same.writer:adds: If directed play Is provided as a regular part of the school curriculum, as i t should be', the work can be so arranged as to be not only of value i n i t s e l f but also of service i n the general education of the c h i l d r e n . 2 -/Because of t h e i r location: i n population Centers, and because of their- f a c i l i t i e s , the schools are the natural places for the children to go for their, out-of-school free play. Engelhardt and Englehardt emphasize t h i s idea by the statement, that, • It I s generally conceded that playgrounds serve the children and'the community best when associated with the school In the center population areas. 3 Truxal believes that even now the school is the "largest Contributor" to children's recreation as shown by h i s statement: It must not be forgotten that for the children of school-age, the school i s the largest contributor to such children's recreational needs. During the summer of of 1928, the .Board of Education of the C i t y of Hew York con-In* the Organization and Administration of Playground, A c t i v i t i e s (Doctor's Thesis, Hew York University, June, 1929), v o l . I I , 414. Cubberley, E. P., Public School Administration (revised and enlarged edition, 1929), Hew York, 568. s i b i d . , 569, ^Englehardt and Englehardt, Planning School Building  Programs (Bureau of Publication, Columbia University, 1930),209. 46 ducted supervised play on 381 playgrounds, as compared with 94 conducted by the other governmental agencies combined.-'-It has been contended that children do not desire to play on school property af t e r school hours because, of the s t r i c t d i s -c i p l i n e , or because they have been there a l l day. Nash, i n his study of school playground administration i n thirteen represen-tative American c i t i e s , has disproved t h i s theory, 2 In thi s study 14,014 children answered a questionnaire which he sent out. Of this number, t h i r t y per cent preferred the school play-ground because of the freedom from unnecessary r e s t r i c t i o n s , four per cent preferred the park because they had been at school a l l day, eighteen per cent d i s l i k e d the park because there were so few there to play with, while thirty-nine per cent had no preference, as long as there was a c t i v i t y . A l i k e investigation was made concerning the preference of mothers for location of playgrounds. This investigation was made by Nash through the parent-teacher associations.3 F i f t y -two per cent preferred school playgrounds because they were cleaner, twenty-seven per cent preferred school playgrounds be-cause they knew with whom t h e i r children were playing, and seven-teen per cent had no preference as to place as long as there was good supervision. There were no mothers objecting to the school d i s c i p l i n e . The opinion of school superintendents concerning the control of a l l year-round playgrounds by the schools was pro-cured by Nash. 4 From f i f t y l e t t e r s sent to school superintendents •--TruxaT, A. G-. , Outdoor Recreation Le g i s l a t i o n and i t s Effectiveness (Columbia University Press, 1929), 62. • 2Nash, Governmental Powers, op. c i t . , 295. 5 i b i d . , 296. 4 i b i d . , 298. 47 t h i r t y - f i v e returned answers, with-'thirty-four i n favor of the year-round program i n control of the schools, while one was not i h favor of such control. It i s for these reasons that there should be legal support f o r the use of school properties and school funds In maintaining a-program of a c t i v i t i e s for out-of-school hours as well as in-school hours. C i t i e s that are .adopting, the l a t t e r policy'. 1--In Chicago, the Bureau of Recreation under the Board of Education i s giving a play program for school-age children on two hundred school play-grounds. The school authorities plan to open every school ground of the c i t y as a playground.- Besides the school play-grounds , there are many park and municipal playground depart-ments. ' • . ' • • In Los Angeles, the Board of E d u c a t i o n i s providing a playground program for the school children.-on''two hundred and six. school playgrounds. One hundred/.and f i v e school playgrounds are operated the year round, and one hundred and one are oper-ated during the school term only. The school authorities em-ploy three hundred arid'thirty-three-playground directors and the C i t y Department of Recreation employs three hundred and sixty directors with two hundred volunteers. In Oakland, every school ground throughout the c i t y i s a playground. Sixty-two. playgrounds have directors throughout the year while s i x of them have directors during the school year only.. The f u l l s t a f f consists of two hundred and forty-three •Recreation, Year Book. Number (May 1934), 66-95* 48 d i r e c t o r s and f o r t y - f o u r v o l u n t e e r a s s i s t a n t s . The p l a y g r o u n d s a r e open b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l , a t r e c e s s and noons , on h o l i -days and d u r i n g v a c a t i o n s . I n M i l w a u k e e , the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s have o r g a n i z e d a p rogram o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i s no t e q u a l l e d by any o t h e r c i t y on t h e c o n t i n e n t . The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s c o - o p e r a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h t h e l i b r a r y , the b o a r d o f p u b l i c w o r k s , the p a r k c o m m i s s i o n and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . C e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d i n t h i s c i t y . A s p e e i a l p rogram o f a c t i v i t i e s i s a r r a n g e d f o r t he newsboys a n d t h e f o r e i g n - b o r n y o u t h o f t he c i t y . P r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l s a r e o r g a n i z i n g p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n h u n d r e d s o f c i t i e s on the c o n t i n e n t . They s h o u l d , and some a c t u a l l y do , assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e y e a r - r o u n d p r o g r a m . However , t hey can n o t p r o v i d e f a c i l -i t i e s f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h demand a g r e a t d e a l o f equ ipment , o r w h i c h a r e a d u l t a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as camping , g o l f and r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . F a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s e s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by the p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d . The w i d e r u se o f t h e s c h o o l p l a n t . - - The s u c c e s s f u l a c c o m p l i s h -ment o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram depends upon the w i d e r use o f t he s c h o o l p l a n t . The i d e a t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l government ought t o assume some o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g the s p a r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s o f i t s c i t i z e n s b o t h young and o l d has w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s been i n c r e a s i n g l y e m p h a s i z e d . The s c h o o l house has become, t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , t he c e n t e r o f t h e s e a c t i v i t e s . l The use o f t he Much c a n be l e a r n e d f rom t h e h i s t o r y o f . t h e community 49 s c h o o l " b u i l d i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s means m u n i c i p a l e c o n o m y . 1 By a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l e x p e n d i t u r e o f money t h e s c h o o l s c a n he adap ted f o r o t h e r u ses t h a n p u r e l y academic o n e s . 2 D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from the use o f t h e s c h o o l p l a n t f o r  r e c r e a t i o n . — The g r e a t danger i n u s i n g the s c h o o l h o u s e as a n i n d o o r p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r i s t h e m i s u s e o f t he b u i l d i n g b y the c h i l d r e n . Most s c h o o l s a r e so b u i l t t h a t c h i l d r e n can move f r e e l y abou t t h e b u i l d i n g , once t h e y a r e g i v e n f r e e a c c e s s t o i t . By a s e r i e s o f g a t e s c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f the s c h o o l b u i l d -i n g c o u l d be c l o s e d o f f so t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n would be l e d d i r e c t l y t o the basement o r p l a y r o o m s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r u s e . I f the l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s a r e m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e summer months the r e s t o f t he b u i l d i n g c o u l d be s a f e g u a r d e d by g a t e s . The use o f a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i n t h i s way w i l l n o t i n t e r -f e r e w i t h t h e a n n u a l c l e a n i n g and r e p a i r i n g o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y done d u r i n g the summer v a c a t i o n m o n t h s . The i n d o o r a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t be d i s c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g the l a s t week o f the v a c a t i o n so as t o g i v e the j a n i t o r t ime t o c l e a n up the rooms u s e d f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s * Few t e a c h e r s l o o k w i t h f a v o r upon h a v i n g t h e i r rooms c e n t e r deve lopment i n C h i c a g o . Twenty y e a r s ago t h e c i t i z e n s o f C h i c a g o a s k e d the b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e u s e o f t h e s c h o o l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . , I t s r e q u e s t was r e f u s e d . A p p r o x i -m a t e l y § 8 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 has been s p e n t s i n c e t h e n i n e r e c t i n g s e p a r -a t e b u i l d i n g s f o r s u c h u s e s , i n the fo rm o f c o s t l y f i e l d houses and b a t h h o u s e s . 1A few y e a r s ago the p r e s i d e n t o f t h e West P a r k Commiss ion s a i d , i n h i s a n n u a l a d d r e s s , t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g s i n C h i c a g o s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , and t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t the use o f t he s c h o o l s v/ould be an e c o n o m i c a l move. 2 B e r g , H . O . , The S c h o o l as the P e o p l e s . C l u b h o u s e (Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . ) p a m p h l e t , 1925 , 1 . used a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s s u b j e c t t o c e r t a i n annoyances by s u c h u s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c e r t a i n a f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t i e s . S c h o o l b o a r d s a r e i n v i t i n g b o t h t r o u b l e and f a i l u r e i n t r y i n g t o c o n -d u c t t hese a c t i v i t i e s i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m . B e s i d e s the dangers to t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e room, the v e r y s c h o o l appearance and a tmosphere o f t h e room s p e l l f a i l u r e . I f the basement , gymnasium, o r s p e c i a l p l a y r o o m s a r e u s e d f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , a much more s a t i s f a c t o r y and s u c c e s s f u l community c e n t e r p rogram can be e f f e c t e d . P l a n n i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s f o r maximum r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s . ^ - -New s c h o o l s can and ought t o be p l a n n e d so t h a t t he a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram w i l l n o t s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h . academic a c t i v i t i e s . Many o l d s c h o o l s c a n , a t a s m a l l c o s t , be a l t e r e d so as t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r b o t h academic and r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s . As one w r i t e r s t a t e s : The A m e r i c a n p e o p l e a r e no l o n g e r s a t i s f i e d f o r t h e i r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , e r e c t e d u s u a l l y a t heavy c o s t , to be u s e d o n l y f o r day c l a s s e s i n o r d i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n , s u c h l o s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s no t t o be endured w i t h c o m p l a c e n c y . F u r t h e r m o r e , i d l e n e s s d u r i n g s i x - s e v e n t h s o f the h o u r s o f the y e a r i s c o n t r a r y t o the p r i n c i p l e o f t he f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f p l a n t , and i t means was te o f i n -ves tmen t t h a t i s a b h o r r e n t to a n a t i o n w h i c h p r i d e s i t s e l f upon i t s b u s i n e s s s e n s e . The p a s t q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y has been , t h e r e f o r e , w i d e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e use o f s c h o o l houses f o r s o c i a l , r e -c r e a t i o n a l , and community p u r p o s e s . T h i r t y - t w o s t a t e s have d e f i n i t e l y p r o v i d e d by l a w f o r s u c h u s e , and i n the o t h e r s t a t e s s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s p e r m i t i t under t h e i r g e n e r a l powers and c u s t o d i a n s . George D. S t r a y e r , P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t i o n a t Teache r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , b e l i e v e s t h a t when the s c h o o l l e e , o p . c i t . . 1 4 2 - 1 4 3 . 51 b u i l d i n g s a r e " b u i l t t h e y s h o u l d be p l a n n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e commun i ty ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s . S c h o o l b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be p l a n n e d n o t o n l y f o r c h i l d -r e n t o use d u r i n g s c h o o l hou r s b u t a l s o f o r the community t o use a f t e r s c h o o l hours and d u r i n g v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s . R e c r e a t i o n i s now r e c o g n i z e d as an e s s e n t i a l e lement i n t h e modern p rog ram o f e d u c a t i o n , and s c h o o l h o u s e s no l o n g e r c o n s i s t s o l e l y o f a group o f r e c i t a t i o n rooms . W e l l - p l a n n e d b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e gymnasiums, a u d i t o r i u m s , shops , l i b r a r i e s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , and m u s i c r o o m s . Y e t u n l e s s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t h e community a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , a b u i l d i n g w h i c h may p r o v e a c c e p t a b l e t o a s c h o o l may be found u n s u i t e d t o the needs o f t he l a r g e r g r o u p s . I n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l h o u s e s f o r community u s e , the l o c a t i o n and s i z e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t he amount o f p l a y -g round s p a c e , t h e a r rangement o f t h e gymnasium, t h e need f o r p r o v i s i o n s f o r d r a m a t i c and m u s i c a l w o r k , and the p o s r s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i c use o f t h e l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g - r o o m s * and a l s o o f t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s and shops j s h o u l d be c o n s i d -e r e d . Basement rooms and c o r r i d o r s c a n be made more i n v i t i n g by p a i n t i n g the f l o o r s , w h i t e w a s h i n g t h e w a l l s , l i g h t i n g w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y and p l a c i n g shades and c u r t a i n s on t h e windows . A r e a s i n the basement can be s e t a s i d e f o r c lubrooms and b i l -l i a r d rooms . The gymnasium c a n be u s e d f o r games. F o r boys who p r e f e r to w r e s t l e , b o x , fence and do a p p a r a t u s w o r k , a s p e c i a l a t h l e t i c room can be used f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . I n many s c h o o l s t h e most e x p e n s i v e room and the l e a s t u s e d room i s the a u d i t o r i u m . A s l a n t i n g f l o o r , o r even a l e v e l f l o o r i n a n a u d i t o r i u m w i t h f a s t ened -down s e a t s , l i m i t s the u s e s o f t h i s e x p a n s i v e room l a r g e l y to one a c t i v i t y — e n t e r -t a i n m e n t s . I f t h e f l o o r i s l e v e l w i t h movable s e a t s , the a u d i t o r i u m may be u sed f o r d a n c i n g , b a n q u e t s , and n e i g h b o r h o o d S t r a y e r , G . D . , P l a n n i n g the S c h o o l P l a n t i n R e l a t i o n  to the R e c r e a t i o n a l Reeds o f the Communi ty(Amer ican S c h o o l and U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 0 - T 3 1 ) , 1 5 2 - 1 5 7 , . 52 p a r t i e s o f a l l s o r t s . I f t he s t a g e i s h i g h enough, s l a n t i n g f l o o r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the a u d i t o r i u m i s o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y u s e d f o r d r a m a t i c s . What o t h e r c i t i e s a r e d o i n g - I n 1858 t h e r e was l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n f o r a w i d e use o f t h e s c h o o l p l a n t i n I n d i a n a . S i n c e t h a t t ime t h e r e has "been a g r o w i n g t endency f o r a g r e a t e r u s e o f p u h l i c s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . T h e r e f o l l o w e d s u c h a c t s as t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s A c t o f 1 8 9 3 , t he New Y o r k C i t y p r o v i s i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v a c a t i o n s c h o o l s i n 1899 , t he E n a b l i n g A c t o f C a l i f o r n i a i n 1913 , w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d a c i v i c c e n t e r a t e ach and e v e r y p u b l i c s c h o o l house , and t h e b r o a d and i n c l u s i v e s c h o o l code o f M i c h i g a n i n 1 9 2 7 . D a v i s s e n t o u t q u e s t i o n n a r i e s t o . 215 s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n -d e n t s o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 From the r e s -ponses was d e t e r m i n e d the number o f c i t i e s u s i n g s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . T a b l e s showing t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n were c o m p i l e d . T a b l e I I I shows the g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s . 2 Some o f the c o n c l u s i o n s formed by D a v i s and b a s e d on the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n h i s s t u d y a r e : S c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s u s e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i n most o f the c i t i e s i n a l l b u t one o f the s t a t e s s t u d i e d , w h i l e t h e r e a r e o n l y t h i r t e e n s t a t e s w h i c h have s p e c i a l e n a b l i n g a c t s o r s c h o o l codes t o l e g a l i z e the use o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . S c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s used by the c h i l d r e n f o r o u t - o f -s c h o o l ^ h o u r p l a y g r o u n d s because i t i s c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c -a t e d , and most u s u a l p l a c e o f t he c h i l d t o p l a y . S c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e n o t w a i t i n g f o r l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s t o l e g a l i z e t h e i r a c t i o n s i n p r o -v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . 3 53 TABLE I I I USE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY I N SELECTED CITIES A g e n c i e s Number o f C i t i e s T o t a l C i t i e s o p e r a t i n g p l a y g r o u n d s n o t u s i n g s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . .. 23 C i t i e s o p e r a t i n g p l a y g r o u n d s u s i n g s c h o o l p r o p e r t y 94 C i t i e s i n w h i c h an arm o f the m u n i c i p a l government and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e o p e r a t i n g p a r a l l e l p rograms —the c i t y n o t u s i n g s c h o o l p r o p e r t y 4 121 C o n c l u s i o n ; - — I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d p r o v i d e the p l a y g r o u n d p rogram f o r the c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l a g e . A t the s c h o o l a r e a v a i l a b l e the p l a n t , t he c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r s , and t i m e has been s e t a s i d e by the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . Why s h o u l d the c i t y d u p l i c a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s by s e t t i n g up more p l a n t s , more s u p p l i e s and equ ipment? There i s no need f o r two s e p a r a t e boa rds to s e t up i d e n t i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . The s c h o o l b o a r d s h o u l d o r g a n i z e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s and the p a r k s b o a r d s h o u l d a s s i s t by p r o v i d i n g a r e a s whe reve r the s c h o o l g rounds a r e i n a d e q u a t e . M r . C h a r l e s H . Cheney v / r i t e s : The s c h o o l i s the n a t u r a l c e n t e r f o r p l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , and more o f them a r e a t t r a c t e d to t a k e advantage o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y i f i t i s p r o v i d e d r e a d y a t hand a t the s c h o o l t h e y oome out o f . Many c i t i e s o f t he c o u n t r y have now found t h a t t h e y cannot a f f o r d a d o u b l e s y s t e m o f p u r c h a s i n g b o t h s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s i n the same n e i g h b o r h o o d . They have t h e r e f o r e a d o p t e d the p o l i c y o f u s i n g s c h o o l grounds f o r s u p e r v i s e d m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s o u t s i d e o f s c h o o l h o u r s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , and d i r e c t e d t h a t a l l new pu rchase s o f l a n d s f o r p l a y g r o u n d s be made a d j o i n i n g e x i s t i n g s c h o o l g r o u n d s . + N a s h , o p . c i t . , 1 2 4 . 54 CHAPTER V THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N REPRESENTATIVE CITIES I n l a r g e r c i t i e s t h e r e have c u s t o m a r i l y "been a number o f b o d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c i t y r e c r e a t i o n i s u s u a l l y c a r r i e d on by p a r k s b o a r d s , s c h o o l b o a r d s , p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n commiss ions and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l depar tments and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . I n a few communi t i e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram has f o r y e a r s been i n the hands o f one agency ; and t h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e t endency towards the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l the community r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the c i t y unde r one a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body s u p p l i e d w i t h adequa te m u n i c i p a l f u n d s . On the whole t h e r e have b e e n , ' however , d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n as t o the p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l depar tment w h i c h s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s w o r k — t h e s c h o o l b o a r d , the p a r k s b o a r d o r a r e c r e a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s 1 — The A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n c i t i e s w h i c h r e p o r t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n 1934 a r e as i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I V . 2 A c c o r d i n g to the r e p o r t o f T a b l e I V , s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s i n most o f t he c i t i e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada have p r o -v i d e d a major p a r t o f the p rogram o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n commiss ions r a n k i n g second and the p a r k "^The most a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n as to the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s has been o b t a i n e d f rom the R e c r e a t i o n Y e a r B o o k . 2 i n f r a , 5 5 , , 55 commiss ions t h i r d . The e x t e n t o f t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n be tween the v a r i o u s c i t y depa r tmen t s i s n o t shown. TABLE I V ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES FOR MUNICIPAL RECREATION Manag ing A u t h o r i t y P l a y g r o u n d a n a . R e c r e a t i o n Commiss ions , Boa rds and Depar tments P a r k C o m m i s s i o n s , B o a r d s , D e p a r t m e n t s , and Commit tees Boa rds o f E d u c a t i o n and O t h e r S c h o o l A u t h o r i t i e s M a y o r s , C i t y . C o u n c i l s , C i t y M a n a g e r s , and B o r o u g h A u t h o r i t i e s M u n i c i p a l P l a y g r o u n d Com-m i t t e e s , A s s o c i a t i o n s j and A d v i s o r y C o m m i s s i o n s 1 P a r k and R e c r e a t i o n Commissions! B o a r d s and Depar tments Depar tments o f P u b l i c Works Depar tments o f P a r k s and P u b -l i c P r o p e r t y o r B u i l d i n g s Depar tments o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e Swimming P o o l a n d B a t h Com-m i s s i o n s S o l f Commiss ions Depar tments o f P u b l i c S e r v i c e F o r e s t R e s e r v e D i s t r i c t s O t h e r Depar tments Emergency R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s R e g u l a r S e r v i c e Number o f C i t i e s Emergency 210 209 190 103 34 31 20 14 10 5 4 3 3 18 22 S e r v i c e On ly 17 9 157: 16 £ 1 13 4 218 TbTaT 227 218 347 119 38 33 21 14 23 5 4 3 3 22 240 C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , has a v a r i e t y o f p a r k , p l a y g r o u n d and s c h o o l boa rds c a r r y i n g on s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e f i v e major m u n i c i p a l depar tments f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d s and p a r k s b o a r d f a c i l i t i e s . . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e 1 T h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s a d m i n i s t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and programs f i n a n c e d by m u n i c i p a l funds a l t h o u g h i n some o f the c i t i e s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y a r e no t m u n i c i p a l l y a p p o i n t -e d . Many o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s f u n c t i o n v e r y much as R e c r e a t i o n Boards , and C o m m i s s i o n s . 56 about s i x t e e n m i n o r m u n i c i p a l depar tments o p e r a t i n g p a r k s o r p l a y g r o u n d s . T h i r d l y , the b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t e s i t s own p l a y g r o u n d s . As y e t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d u p l i c a t i o n i n the work o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u t , when e v e r y s c h o o l y a r d i s o p e r a t e d e v e r y day o f the y e a r , the o t h e r m u n i c i p a l depar tments may d i s -c o n t i n u e a l a r g e p a r t o f the c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n , has a c o m m i s s i o n e r o f r e c r e a t i o n as w e l l as a p a r k s , b o a r d and g c h o o l b o a r d . T h i s commiss ione r o f r e c r e a t i o n , who i s a p p o i n t e d by the mayor , p o s s e s s e s wide a d -m i n i s t r a t i v e p o w e r s . He i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s u p e r v i s i o n , i n s p e c t i o n , and l i c e n s i n g o f c e r t a i n v a r i e t i e s o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n . He c o n d u c t s a c t i v i t i e s i n s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , i n p a r k s and on s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s , r e c e i v i n g f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n f rom the p a r k and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s bu t h a v i n g no d e f i n i t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h them. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the commiss ione r has no r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d to a d v i s e h i m , and , f u r t h e r m o r e , he i s s u b j e c t a t t imes t o undue p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . A g a i n , t h e r e i s no c o -o r d i n a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p rogram o f the s c h o o l w i t h the p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s , has an i d e a l r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n . There the p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n i f i e d , and the r e c r e a t i o n b u r e a u works under the p a r k commit tee o f the c i t y c o u n c i l . . T h i s commit tee has f u l l c o n t r o l c e n t e r e d i n i t , p e r -m i t s no o v e r l a p p i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , and e f f e c t s a f i n e c o - o p e r a -t i o n w i t h the b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r p rogram the s c h o o l s o f f e r a p rogram d u r i n g a f t e r - s c h o o l hours and i n the summer t i m e . l o s A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , has t h r e e major boa rds w h i c h 57 p r o v i d e p rograms o f p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r k s h o a r d c a r r i e s on many c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s and p r o v i d e s a wide range o f a d u l t f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as g o l f c o u r s e s , p i c n i c a r e a s and camp s i t e s . The s c h o o l h o a r d u t i l i z e s two hundred g rounds to p r o v i d e a f i n e p rogram o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p l a y g r o u n d , a c t i v i t i e s on a f t e r n o o n s , S a t u r d a y s and d u r i n g v a c a -t i o n s . L a t e r when e v e r y s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d i s o p e r a t e d e v e r y day t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r , no o t h e r h o a r d w i l l need to c a r r y on c h i l d -r e n ' s p l a y a c t i v i t i e s . The p l a y g r o u n d h o a r d o p e r a t e s p l a y -g r o u n d s , swimming p o o l s and summer camps f o r a d u l t s . U n f o r t u n -a t e l y , - t hese t h r e e hoa rds have n o t a d e q u a t e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d t h e i r . p rog rams . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y two o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l c a r r y out t he se a c t i v i t i e s i n the f u t u r e ; the s c h o o l c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , and a p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d o r g a n i z a -t i o n a t t e n d i n g to the a d u l t community g r o u p s . i San Diego> C a l i f o r n i a , has a r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d w o r k i n g u n d e r a j o i n t agreement o f the b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , t he b o a r d o f p l a y g r o u n d c o m m i s s i o n e r s , and a p r i v a t e group c a l l e d the Com-m u n i t y S e r v i c e C o u n c i l . A l l the group a c t i v i t i e s a r e c o - o r d i n -a t e d , s i n c e the c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e o r g a n i z e s the a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l b o a r d s . An e x t r a c t f rom the w r i t t e n agreement be tween the two boa rds i l l u s t r a t e s the p l a n . 1 O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , and c e r t a i n o t h e r c i t i e s have a most a d m i r a b l e p l a n , whereby t hey have e f f e c t e d a c l o s e c o -o r d i n a t i o n between the boa rd o f e d u c a t i o n and the b o a r d o f p l a y -ground d i r e c t o r s . One man i s a p p o i n t e d to h o l d the p o s i t i o n o f d i r e c t o r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . i n f r a , 182„ 58 E v e r y s c h o o l y a r d i s o p e r a t e d as a p u h l i c p l a y g r o u n d where o r -g a n i z e d c l a s s e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are c a r r i e d on d u r i n g s c h o o l hours and p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a r r i e d on a f t e r . s c h o o l * E o r e d u c a t i o n a l d r a m a t i c s on the s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d , the m u n i c i p a l hoa rd o f r e c r e a t i o n has made e x t e n s i v e p r o v i s i o n i n c l u d i n g equipment f o r f e s t i v a l s and p l a y s . The c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g the s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s i s d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between the s c h o o l h o a r d and the c i t y r e c r e a t i o n h o a r d . The m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s a r e o p e r a t e d e n t i r e l y by the r e c r e a -t i o n b o a r d . The c o n t r o l o f the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r ' s h i f t s f rom the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , as h i s d u t i e s t a k e h im from the p r o p e r t y o f one t o the p r o p e r t y o f the o t h e r . There i s c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d and t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , b u t t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . V a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s and community or^ g a n i z a t i o n s c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the b o a r d o f r e c r e a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g f o r s u c h f a c i l i t i e s as the m u n i c i p a l camp. R e c r e a t i o n f o r i n -d u s t r i a l employees i s c a r r i e d on as a phase o f t he work o f the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d w i t h a f u l l - t i m e o r g a n i z e r i n c h a r g e . Home p r o v i s i o n s f o r p l a y , p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f home p l a y g r o u n d s , and the dangers o f s t r e e t p l a y a re w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d by means o f p i c -t u r e s , r e e l s and b u l l e t i n s . I n s p e a k i n g o f the Oak land G o - o p e r a t i o n P l a n a t the A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n o f the N o r t h w e s t e r n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P a r k Com-m i s s i o n e r s and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , M r . C h a r l e s H . Cheney, o f the A m e r i c a n C i t y P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e , made the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : 1 1 i n f r a , 183 59 The b e s t r e s u l t s i n o r g a n i z e d p l a y , the h a n d l i n g o f p l a y g r o u n d s and o f b o t h j u v e n i l e and a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n a r e o b t a i n e d where a l l r e c r e a t i o n i s i n the hands o f a s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h f u r n i s h e s o n l y the i n s t r u c t o r s and s p e c i a l p l a y equipment and l e a s e s from the p a r k s b o a r d and s c h o o l b o a r d , the p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s n e c e s s a r y to s e r v e the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the c i t y w i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e d u p l i c a t i o n and w a s t e . O a k l a n d seems to have d e v e l o p e d the most comple t e sys t em o f the c o u n t r y , g i v i n g the l a r g e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a y t o the w i d e s t number o f c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s p e r p o p u l a t i o n , a t the l o w e s t c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t , b o t h i n o r i g i n a l o u t l a y and i n m a i n t e n a n c e . 1 The b o a r d o f r e c r e a t i o n . - - R e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s and members o f t he N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n have s t u d i e d the s i t u a t i o n , and a r e i n g e n e r a l agreement t h a t : : (1) some phases o f r e c r e a -t i o n may be a d m i n i s t e r e d by c i v i c p a r k s boa rds b u t o t h e r phases s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out by the s c h o o l b o a r d s ; (.2) i t i s a d v i s a b l e to have a s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body t o c a r r y on the wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s and t o a c h i e v e c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between the s c h o o l and p a r k s b o a r d s i n these a c t i v -i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n f i n d s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s -t i n c t t e n d e n c y toward the s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d p l a n - - t h a t i s , the c r e a t i o n o f a b o a r d composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a p l a y g r o u n d p rogram who w i l l have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s b o a r d w i l l use f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the p a r k s b o a r d , by the s c h o o l b o a r d o r by any o t h e r m u n i c i p a l b o a r d o r depa r tmen t , and a l s o w i l l a v a i l i t s e l f o f s p e c i a l equipment s e c u r e d f o r i t s own use o r l o a n e d to i t by p r i v a t e g r o u p s . These f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h a c i t y - w i d e p l a n d e s i g n e d w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . N a s h , o p . c i t . , 124 . 60 Advan tages o f a r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d ove r o t h e r c i t y d e p a r t -ments as t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s (1) A r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d p r o v i d e s a c o - o r d i n a t i n g body upon w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may be s e c u r e d by a l l g roups whose p r o p e r t y must be u s e d i n the o p e r a t i o n o f an e f f i c i e n t r e c r e a -t i o n a l s y s t e m . The appo in tmen t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s c h o o l and p a r k s b o a r d s t o the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d p r o v i d e s the mach ine ry f o r s u c h c o - o p e r a t i o n . I n t h i s manner a l l the r e s o u r c e s o f a l l the depar tments o f t he c i t y may be u t i l i z e d e f f e c t i v e l y . (2) Boa rds a p p o i n t e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s a r e u s u a l l y a l -r e a d y l o a d e d w i t h work and f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to g i v e r e c r e a t i o n -a l i n t e r e s t s adequa te a t t e n t i o n . (3) A c i t y r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram conce rns i t s e l f w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l age g r o u p s . (4) I t i s e a s i e r t o s e c u r e an adequate a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f funds f o r r e c r e a t i o n i f t he q u e s t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d on i t s own m e r i t s . (5) A s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n , a p p o i n t e d f o r the s o l e pu rpose o f s t u d y i n g and m e e t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l needs can more r e a d i l y be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e . (6) The r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e l i k e l y to be k e p t more p e r m a n e n t l y b e f o r e the community i f a s e p a r a t e b o a r d w i t h an e f f i c i e n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n i s a t w o r k . (7) The p r o b l e m s o f r e c r e a t i o n i n a c i t y a r e s u f f i c i e n t -l y e x t e n s i v e and v a r i e d to r e q u i r e the i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n o f the s t r o n g e s t p o s s i b l e m u n i c i p a l b o a r d u t i l i z i n g a l l the t ime and ene rgy w h i c h members o f an u n p a i d b o a r d can g i v e . The s u p e r -i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n i n a c i t y needs the h e a r t y s u p p o r t o f s u c h a group o f p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , a b l e to g i v e c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n to a l l the i n t r i c a t e and v i t a l p rob l ems i n v o l v e d i n a comprehens ive m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The p a r k s board , - -? A few r ea sons f o r no t p l a c i n g r e c r e a t i o n unde r t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the p a r k s b o a r d m i g h t a l s o be c o n -s i d e r e d : 1 (1) The work o f the p a r k s b o a r d i n v o l v e s so wide a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s , s u c h as the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , ma in tenance o f s t r e e t t r e e s and v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p r o p e r t i e s , a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e a s , o p e r a t i o n o f z o o l o g i c a l ga rdens and s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s , t h a t o n l y m i n o r a t -t e n t i o n i s l i k e l y to be g i v e n to the q u e s t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , (2) B a r k s boa rds u s u a l l y a r e conce rned o n l y w i t h p r o -p e r t i e s under t h e i r c o n t r o l and a r e no t accus tomed to promote a c t i v i t i e s among p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and s c h o o l s remote from p a r k (3) O n l y i n a v e r y few c i t i e s have s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s been t u r n e d o v e r t o p a r k s b o a r d s f o r t he c o n d u c t i n g o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . On the o t h e r hand , few p a r k s boa rds have adequate i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s : c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n some c e n t e r s no i n d o o r p rogram i s c a r r i e d on ; i n o t h e r s , c o s t l y d u p l i c a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s r e s u l t , o r the p rogram i s c o n d u c t e d by two o r more g r o u p s . E x p e r i e n c e t ends to i n d i c a t e t h a t s c h o o l boards a r e l e s s l i k e l y to t u r n o v e r t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s to a p a r k s b o a r d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l uses t h a n t o an i ndependen t r e c r e a t i o n commiss ion upon w h i c h they p r o b a b l y have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . "''It s h o u l d be s t a t e d , however , t h a t r e c e n t changes i n p o l i c y of .many p a r k s b o a r d s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r e c r e a t i o n tend to m i n i m i z e the f o r c e o f some o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . 62 There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n among p a r k p e o p l e t hemse lves -as t o w h e t h e r a s u c c e s s f u l p l a y g r o u n d and a " succes s fu l p a r k can be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g e t h e r . I t i s no t p o s -s i b l e t h a t any p a r k s b o a r d can s a t i s f y the f i r s t ax iom o f sound r e c r e a t i o n a l p o l i c y , n a m e l y - - " A p l a y g r o u n d w i t h i n easy r e a c h o f e v e r y c h i l d . " " 1 * I t i s a l m o s t too much to e x p e c t a p a r k s b o a r d to be i n t e r e s t e d i n p rob l ems o f c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e t h e y a r e burdened w i t h so many p rob l ems o f g a r d e n i n g and b o u l e v a r d b u i l d i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e boa rds f o r r e c r e a t i o n . - - ''What boa rds s h a l l o r -g a n i z e the p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ? ' ' i s the c h i e f s u b j e c t f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t most o f the p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k c o n -v e n t i o n s . P a r k s i n many c i t i e s a r e o r g a n i z i n g these a c t i v i t i e s f o r v a r i o u s age g roups o f t he c i t y p o p u l a t i o n . The new concep -t i o n s o f the v a l u e o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s have l e d the p e o p l e to make s e p a r a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d , the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d and the a d u l t o r community g ro ixp . M u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s and s c h o o l boa rds show d u p l i c a t i o n o r o v e r l a p p i n g o f f u n c t i o n i n a l a r g e number o f c i t i e s . They a r e p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f age g r o u p s , o p e r a t i n g sometimes on s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s , sometimes on m u n i c i p a l p l a y -grounds and sometimes on b o t h . They a re c a r r y i n g out a b r o a d program o f a c t i v i t i e s i n s c h o o l gymnasiums, i n community c e n t e r s , i n i n d u s t r i a l u n i t s and i n summer.camps. I n numerous c i t i e s , s c h o o l s a r e o r g a n i z i n g these a c t i v -i t i e s on t h e i r own p l a y g r o u n d s d u r i n g s c h o o l hours o r a f t e r s c h o o l , on h o l i d a y s and t h r o u g h o u t the v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s . I n l e e , op c i t . , 143 . 63 some c i t i e s , w i t h the s u p p o r t o f the p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , the s c h o o l s a r e g i v i n g a p rogram f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , i n o t h e r c i t i e s , the s c h o o l s a r e o r g a n i z i n g community c e n t e r s w i t h a wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s . A t some s c h o o l s , the p h y s i c a l e d -u c a t i o n and p l a y g r o u n d program o f f e r s numerous p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f was t e i n c i v i c f u n d s , t i m e , e f f o r t , o r g a n i z a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , t h r o u g h the d u p l i c a -t i o n o f o f f i c e s , o f s t a f f , o f f a c i l i t i e s and o f p rogram caused when two o r more boa rds a t t e m p t to c a r r y out the same type o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r the same age g r o u p s . M o r e o v e r , when more t han one b o a r d i s a t t e m p t i n g to o f f e r t h e same a c t i v i t i e s to the same age g r o u p , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to s e c u r e c o - o p e r a t i o n between the two w i t h o u t h a v i n g a c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r . J . B . Nash , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i d n a t New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , summarizes the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : There must be l e g a l p r o v i s i o n f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n . A c t i v i t y f o r the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d must be c e n t e r e d i n the s c h o o l . A l l o t h e r t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i n c l u d e the f u n c t i o n s w h i c h i n the p a s t we have c l a s s i f i e d under p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s must be o r g a n i z e d i n one d e p a r t m e n t . One f e a t u r e o f t h i s new depar tment w i l l be r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t he com-m u n i t y g r o u p . The o t h e r f e a t u r e w i l l be the a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n the p a s t have been the f u n c t i o n o f the p a r k s b o a r d . On ly one type o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l t h e n be n e c e s s a r y . The new p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d w i l l a l s o have t o f u r n i s h f a c i l i t i e s f o r the major a t h l e t i c s f o r the s c h o o l . The s c h o o l must m a i n t a i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 1 Nash , o p . c i t . , 150 64 CHAPTER V I PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S IN VANCOUVER (A) The P r e s e n t P l a y g r o u n d Sys tem I n t h i s s e c t i o n , the s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver w i l l he examined and a f t e r a s k e t c h o f the development o f i t s p l a y move-ment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a b r i e f s u r v e y w i l l be made o f t h e r e -c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s comparable i n p o p u l a t i o n t o V a n c o u v e r . The g r o w t h o f the Vancouve r P l a y g r o u n d Sys temt— I n 1911 , the V a n c o u v e r P a r k s B o a r d d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h the f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f p l a y g r o u n d s . T h i s p l a y g r o u n d , c a l l e d McLean P a r k , began to o p e r a t e i n 1912 w i t h a s t a f f o f t h r e e d i r e c t o r s . P u b l i c o p i n i o n app roved o f the p l a y p rogram p r o v i d e d i n t h i s a r e a , and t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the sys t em s h o u l d be expanded . I n 1922 , t he Gyro C l u b made t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p l a y -grounds t h e i r o b j e c t i v e and s u b s e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d $ 5 5 , 0 0 0 f o r the deve lopment o f p a r k a r e a s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y . Th rough - the e x c e l l e n t work o f t h i s s e r v i c e c l u b , f o u r more p l a y g r o u n d s were added t o the sys t em by 1924 , name ly , K i t s i l a n o , P a n d o r a , Robson and H a r o . A n o t h e r p l a y g r o u n d was c o n s t r u c t e d a t Second Beach i n S t a n l e y P a r k by M r s . Grace E . C e p e r l e y and named a f t e r he r husband . I t was opened on June 1 4 t h , 1924 . T h i s y e a r was one o f t he most i m p o r t a n t i n the h i s t o r y o f the movement, f o r i n t h a t y e a r , s i x p l a y a r e a s were o r g a n i z e d under a s u p e r v i s o r and s t a f f o f 14 d i r e c t o r s who a d m i n i s t e r e d the p l a y program d u r i n g R a w l i n g s , W . S . , P a r k s and P l a y g r o u n d s ( A n n u a l R e p o r t s ) 1911*15, 1925 . 65 the summer s e a s o n . D u r i n g , the y e a r s 1927 and 1928 , two more p l a y g r o u n d s , M e m o r i a l Sou th and N o r q u a y , were added to the sys tem by the G y r o C l u b , w h i l e i n 1932 R i l e y P l a y g r o u n d was e q u i p p e d by the same c l u b . The p a r k s board- c o n s t r u c t e d s i x p l a y g r o u n d s , B r e w e r s , G h a l d e c o t t , G r a n d v i e w , Maple G r o v e , Renfrew and West P o i n t G r e y , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1929 t o 1932 . D u r i n g the same p e r i o d o f time., f i v e s m a l l but f u l l y - e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d s were c o n s t r u c t e d by the G y r o C l u b a t the A l e x a n d r a Orphanage, the C i t y C r e c h e , the C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s Home, the S c h o o l f o r the Deaf and B l i n d and the W a l l S t . C h i l d r e n ' s Home. The f o u r t e e n p l a y g r o u n d s a t p r e -sen t f u n c t i o n i n g under the p a r k s b o a r d a r e : PLAYGROUND ' LOCATION 1. B rewer s V i c t o r i a D r i v e n o r t h o f K i n g s w a y 2 . C e p e r l e y Second B e a c h , S t a n l e y P a r k 3 . G h a l d e c o t t W a l l a c e S t r e e t & 25 th Avenue 4 . G r a n d v i e w C o m m e r c i a l and C o t t o n D r i v e s 5 . K i t s i l a n o K i t s i l a n o B e a c h , F t , A r b u t u s S t r e e t 6. Map le Grove Yew, 51s t A v e n u e , & M a r i n e D r i v e 7. M e m o r i a l S o u t h 4 1 s t A v e n u e , & P r i n c e A l b e r t S t r e e t 8 . McLean , G e o r g i a , U n i o n , D u n l e v y & J a c k s o n 9.. Norquay ' " K i n g s w a y & Wales S t r e e t "10. P a n d o r a P a n d o r a , A l b e r t & Nanaimo S t r e e t s 1 1 . Renfrew .Renfrew, N o o t k a , 21s t and 22nd Avenues 1 2 . R i l e y O n t a r i o S t r e e t , n o r t h o f 33 rd Avenue 1 5 . Robson 1 5 t h Avenue & K i n g s w a y 1 4 . West P o i n t G r e y S i x t h Avenue & T r i m b l e S t r e e t A t t h e c l o s e o f 1 9 3 3 , Ha ro P l a y g r o u n d was d i s c o n t i n u e d as a p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r on the recommendat ion o f S u p e r v i s o r I . E i s e n h a r d t . A t a ceremony i n w h i c h the Gyro C l u b donated one o f t he p l a y g r o u n d s t o the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Mayor M a l k i n s a i d : I f the Gyro C l u b had not c o n c e i v e d the i d e a of e q u i p -p i n g p l a y g r o u n d s w i t h a p p a r a t u s , thousands o f c h i l d r e n w o u l d l i k e l y have been d e n i e d t h e i r u s e , as t h i s i s one 1 i n f r a , 9 3 . o f t he l a s t works f o r w h i c h the c o u n c i l would l i k e l y have found money. Management o f p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . — S i n c e the "beginning of the p l a y g r o u n d movement i n V a n c o u v e r , i t has "been the r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y o f the V a n c o u v e r P a r k s Boa rd t o promote p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e p u b l i c . However , c o n d i t i o n s have a r i s e n w h i c h demon-s t r a t e t h a t the p l a y g r o u n d s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the p a r k s boards have no t been a b l e t o meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f more t h a n t e n p e r cen t o f the u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e has been no c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the c i t y . The t i m e i s r i p e f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of our p l a y -ground management i n t h i s c i t y unde r a p l a n s u i t a b l e t o bo th the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d . P l a y g r o u n d s . - - I n T a b l e V w i l l be found a l i s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s comparab le i n p o p u l a t i o n t o V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h have been s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t h a t a compar ison, may be made, o f the number 2 of p l a y g r o u n d s p r o v i d e d f o r an o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m . I n the t h i r t e e n c i t i e s o f the c o n t i n e n t w i t h a p o p u l a -t i o n c l o s e t o t h a t o f V a n c o u v e r one f i n d s a t o t a l o f 487 s u p e r -v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s f o r a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 , 5 7 5 , 2 9 4 ; t h a t i s , t h e r e i s an average o f one p l a y g r o u n d under l e a d e r s h i p f o r e v e r y 3 7 ,341 o f p o p u l a t i o n . V a n c o u v e r has f o u r t e e n p l a y g r o u n d s f o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 6 5 , 0 0 0 ; t h a t i s a n everage o f one s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d f o r e v e r y 18 ,928 p o p u l a t i o n . D i v i d i n g V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n o f 265 ,000 by t h e g e n e r a l average o f 7 , 3 4 1 , one f i n d s Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , May 20., 1930 . 2 i n f r a , 67* 3 R e c r e a t i o n , op . c i t . , 6 6 - 9 5 . 67 TABLE V SUPERVISED PLAYGROUNDS OE REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s P o p u l a t i o n T o t a l Number o f Comparable t o V a n c o u v e r . . P l a y g r o u n d s B i r m i n g h a m 359 ,678 64 O a k l a n d 884 ,063 68 Denver 300 ,000 36 S y r a c u s e 209 ,275 30 A k r o n 250 ,040 58 Columbus, , ' 290 ,564 27 T o l e d o 290 ,718 35 P o r t l a n d 301 ,815 23 P r o v i d e n c e 252 ,981 34 Memphis . 253 ,143 25 • H o u s t o n 300 ,000 23 S e a t t l e 360 ,000 27 W i n n i p e g 223 ,017 37 TOTAL 3 , 5 7 5 , 2 9 4 487 AVERAGE .. 275 ,023 35 L a r g e C a n a d i a n C i t i e s . " Vancouver 265 ,000 14 Ot tawa 137 ,911 JL O T o r o n t o 623 ,562 60 M o n t r e a l 1 ,162 ,520 ' 103 t h a t Vancouver s h o u l d have a t l e a s t 35 p l a y g r o u n d s i n o r d e r t o r e a c h the ave rage s t a n d a r d of c i t i e s o f comparable s i z e . T h e r e -f o r e V a n c o u v e r , w i t h o n l y 14 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s , shows a -• d e f i c i e n c y o f 31 of t hese a r e a s . I n o r d e r t o compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h a e i t y l i k e O a k l a n d , Vancouve r s h o u l d have 60 p l a y g r o u n d s ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , e v e r y one o f the c i t y ' s s c h o o l y a r d s s h o u l d be u sed f o r o r g a n i z e d p l a y . An a n a l y s i s o f the p l a y g r o u n d s i t u a t i o n i n the major C a n a d i a n c i t i e s d i s c l o s e s c e r t a i n p e r t i n e n t f a c t s : Ot tawa has about h a l f t he p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouve r bu t a g r e a t e r number o f p l a y g r o u n d s . ¥ / i n n i p e g has a p o p u l a t i o n about 42 ,000 l e s s t han Vancouver bu t has a l m o s t t h r e e t i m e s the "number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s . T o r o n t o , t o e q u a l V a n c o u v e r ' s r a t i o o f p r o v i s i o n 68 of s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s would need t o o p e r a t e o n l y 35 s u p e r -v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s ; but a c t u a l l y has 60 s u p e r v i s e d . p l a y g r o u n d s . M o n t r e a l , t o e q u a l V a n c o u v e r ' s r a t i o o f p r o v i s i o n o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s wou ld need to o p e r a t e o n l y 61 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s ; but a c t u a l l y has 103 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s . From t h e above s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t V a n c o u v e r i s f a r be low s t a n d a r d i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s . O the r f a c i l i t i e s . 5 F r o m the i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the 1935 P l a y g r o u n d Y e a r B o o k , one may examine how Vancouver compares w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s on the c o n t i n e n t o f l i k e s i z e . ' 1 ' The f a c i l -i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Vancouver P a r k s B o a r d a r e o f a v e r y h i g h s t a n d a r d i n c h o i c e , i n number, i n l o c a t i o n , and i n v a r i e t y . I n some f e a t u r e s one f i n d s t h a t Vancouve r no t o n l y e q u a l s bu t even s u r p a s s e s a g r e a t many c i t i e s o f l i k e p o p u l a t i o n . I t s u r p a s s e s most o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , b a t h i n g b e a c h e s , g o l f c o u r s e s , and t e n n i s c o u r t s . I t i s c l o s e t o the ave rage i n the p r o v i s i o n of b a s e b a l l diamonds and wad ing p o o l s . Ou tdoor swimming p o o l s a r e w e l l p r o v i d e d f o r . They a r e not needed t o the same e x t e n t i n Vancouve r as i n o t h e r c i t i e s because o f the l a r g e number o f beaches , a c c e s s i b l e t o V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n . The d e f i c i e n c y i s i n the p r o v i s i o n o f o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a -t i o n as p a r t o f the w i n t e r program* I n t h i r t e e n c i t i e s l i s t e d above , t h e r e i s a t o t a l o f 79 r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and 265 i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s b o t h h a v i n g a l a r g e y e a r l y o r s e a s o n a l a t t e n d a n c e . The average of these t h i r t e e n c i t i e s R e c r e a t i o n , op . c i t . , 66-95.. 2 T a b l e V I . , i n f r a , 69 . 69 TABLE V I RECREATIONAL F A C I L I T I E S OF REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S R e p r e s e n t -a t i v e CQ CO C i t i e s rH O H O CO Comparable rH o O rH r-i t o rH O PH PH O O Pi O c5 o O CQ <M O Vancouve r o rH CQ W CO CD CO bD tjD co P4 -H ClC *H •r-i CO p CQ a S4 +"» Pi CQ +3 - P CQ Pi CD CD CD rH © •H 14 •H O CO t*D Cd -H u rH CO CD ti X> O •H , q r-i CO O CQ e o g O •H Pi © <d o © © H H © a X! o O t-i PI •H *H r H o •P 'rH Xl CD CQ CO - p cd .i d •H - P O -H Pi o - P -H cd - H cd <D i o CO o ts Pi CD cd © 3 Pi © © pq p pq pq rH O CO H CO o EH PH pq H o PI B i r m i n g h a m 2 28 - I 2 4 117 18 8 28 O a k l a n d 8 12 - 1 ~ . 1 : 58 „ 5 11 Denver 20 42 3 2 •: '. 2 2 7 97 15 14 4 S y r a c u s e 3 17 - 2 — 10 84 6 83 A k r o n 12 1 - 1 2 — 25 . 3 _ 47 Columbus - 20 - _ 1 — 2 40 16 4 10 T o l e d o 3 19 1 1 2 8 37 2 10 P o r t l a n d 2 13 - 1, 2 7 61 15 5 5 P r o v i d e n c e 16 18 - • 1 - — 38 11 18 2 Memphis 2 11 2 1 — 2 39 20 4 34 H o u s t o n 1 21 - 1 2 37 3 6 31 S e a t t l e 21 21 10 1 2 87 7 7 B W i n n i p e g '. 1 3 - - .. 2 1 55 7 — ... T o t a l 79 265 L a r g e Canac II ah' C i t i e s Average 6 20 Vancouve r 42 26 • 9 2 2 ' - 3 111 10 — 6 Ot tawa / • • - 1 - • 4 - - 8 — 2 «. — 1 T o r o n t o 4 20 6 • — - — 313 13 5 53 M o n t r e a l 17 14 - 1 - 18 7 60 - 22 2 wou ld be a t l e a s t 6 r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and 20 i n d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r each c i t y . Vancouver has p r o v i d e d o n l y 6 i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s , t h e r e b y l e a v i n g an app rox ima te d e f i c i e n c y o f about 6 r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and 14 r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . D u r i n g c e r t a i n y e a r s , the p a r k s boa rd has conduc ted no w i n t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t han t h r e e months . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t T o r o n t o , w i t h o n l y two and one-t h i r d t i m e s the p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , had 53 i n d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l c e n t e r s i n 1934 . There i s no u r g e n t need f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 70 recreational buildings i n this c i t y , as school plants can be converted to these uses as has been done i n most c i t i e s . With the assistance of a municipal recreation board, l o c a l gymnasiums can be organized, and through a co-ordinated plan brought into use under a community program of neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s . IndOor swimming pools i n t h i s c i t y are finding i t d i f -f i c u l t to operate successfully owing to the enormous expenses involved. I f a municipal recreation board rented these pools and charged a very low nominal fee for their use, larger numbers would be encouraged to use the available f a c i l i t i e s to the greater benefit of the community as a whole. ' , Thus, Vancouver i s well supplied with f a c i l i t i e s both indoor and outdoor; the great need i s the wider use of the school plant and the local.gymnasium. This can be brought about successfully only under highly trained leadership and with a well co-ordinated plan of co-operation between the various c i v i c recreational agencies under a municipal recreation commission. Provisions, for l e a d e r s h i p . — In Vancouver during the summer of 1934, the appointment of playground directors was made for July and August only. Seventeen directors were employed on the staff as paid workers.. Supplementing their work was that of sixteen volunteers who received expense money. Work that i s carried out by volunteers i s , i n general, less e f f i c i e n t and regular than that of paid employees and for purposes of comparison with other c i t i e s should be considered as supplementary leadership. In Table VII w i l l be found the provisions for leadership on playgrounds during 1934, by the representative c i t i e s i n the same population glass as Vancouver. 1 •^Recreation, op, c i t . , 66-95. ~mfra, 71. 71 TABLE V I I . PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS OE REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S (Not I n c l u d i n g Emergency Workers ) • R e p r e s e n t a t i v e V o l u n t e e r C i t i e s P a i d Workers .....Wor k e r s Comparable Men Women ; Employed F u l l Time Men Women t o V a n c o u v e r Y e a r Round .. B i rmingham 3 1 4 45 — Oak land 114 88 50 165 44 Denver 34 24 • - ' • 4 12 S y r a c u s e 46 19 6 _ ~ A k r o n 66 10 • 1 ' 90 55 Columbus 108 25 5 — — T o l e d o 8 16 2 6 4 P o r t l a n d 31 54 9 - 40 P r o v i d e n c e ; 50 73 15 — . . . . Memphis 33 36 32 - -H o u s t o n 42 29 10 65 124 S e a t t l e 54 33 17 12 -W i n n i p e g .: 35 6 -T o t a l 602 394 151 584 259 Average 46 30 . . . . . . 10 . ; . 50 20 L a r g e C a n a d i a n C i t i e s V a n c o u v e r 18 16 1 - -Ottawa 25 19 6 -T o r o n t o 127 134 14 -M o n t r e a l 174 54 69 27 35 By t a k i n g the t o t a l s o f T a b l e V I I and d i v i d i n g by the number o f c i t i e s we f i n d the average number o f p a i d and v o l u n t e e r w o r k e r s p e r c i t y t o be as i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e V I I I . TABLE V I I I PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS OF REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S - - T O T A L S R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s Average Comparable t o Vancouve r C i t y Vancouver D e f i c i e n c y P a i d .Workers N o . o f men 46 18 28 P a i d Worker s N o . o f women 30 16 14 N o . /Employed f u l l y e a r r o u n d 10 1 9 V o l u n t e e r Worker s N o . o f men 30 . 0 30 V o l u n t e e r Workers N o . o f women 20 0 20 By c o n t r a s t i n g Vancouve r w i t h the average c i t y o f the same s i z e , one can see how i n a d e q u a t e i s the p r o v i s i o n f o r 72 ' l e a d e r s h i p o f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s c i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , o f c o u r s e , i s r e l a t e d t o the l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t number o f p l a y -grounds and. i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . The V a n c o u v e r P a r k s Boa rd has shOY/n g r e a t f o r e s i g h t i n w o r k i n g out a g r a d u a l development o f the p l a y g r o u n d sys t em, wh ich has been t o a l a r g e e x t e n t i n the n a t u r e o f an e x p e r i m e n t . A t -tendance on the p l a y g r o u n d s has no t war ran t ed ' a more e x t e n s i v e p r o v i s i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p . . One r e a s o n f o r the low a t t endance i s the d i s t a n c e o f p l a y g r o u n d s from one a n o t h e r and from the homes o f a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n . A g a i n , the l e a d e r s a r e o f t e n i n e x p e r i e n c e d and u n t r a i n e d , o r e l s e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a t h l e t e s , i n t e r e s t e d i n n o t h i n g but t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A t t e n d a n c e . — - O n t h e a t t e n d a n c e , r e p o r t t h e r e i s l i t t l e ag ree -^ ment t o d a y between v a r i o u s c i t i e s . What i s t o be the b a s i s o f a t t e n d a n c e ? I f o n e ^ a l k s a c r o s s the p l a y g r o u n d ? I f one p l a y s f o r an h o u r ? I f one p l a y s f o r h a l f a day? The p r e s e n t sys tem o f t a k i n g a t t e n d a n c e f a i l s t o s t a t e whether t hose on the p l a y -ground a r e c h i l d r e n o r a d u l t s , whether t h e y a r e p l a y i n g games o r m e r e l y a c t i n g as s p e c t a t o r s . O f t e n the d e s i r e f o r a good a t t e n d a n c e showing causes the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r t o make a v e r y gene rous e s t i m a t e of a t t e n d a n c e . I f the p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e v a l u a b l e , e v e r y c h i l d i n the community s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the b e n e f i t s . T h i s i s j u s t one more r e a s o n why p l a y g r o u n d p r i v i l e g e s f o r a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l n e v e r be made p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the t a s k i s t a k e n over by the p u b l i c s c h o o l . A t t e n d a n c e t h e n s h o u l d i n c l u d e the p re sence of e v e r y c h i l d each day a t l e a s t , and as many t i m e s on S a t u r d a y s 73 TABLE I X ANNUAL ATTENDANCE AT VANCOUVER.PLAYGROUNDS--TOTALS Y e a r P l a y g r o u n d s A t t e n d a n c e Taken t h r i c e d a i l y 1923 4 1 0 9 , 7 8 5 1924 6- 250 ,140 1925 6 287 ,274 1926 6 361,269 1927 7 350 ,093 , 1928 8 3 9 0 , 4 8 3 1929 12 819 ,532 1930 12 4 9 4 , 4 0 6 1931 13 651,209 1932 15 4 4 9 , 5 1 5 1935 15 368 ,426 1934 14 , 529 ,684 and v a c a t i o n days as p o s s i b l e . I n V a n c o u v e r , t he a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e r e p o r t s f o r the y e a r s f rom 1925 t o 19.54 a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I X , 1 These r e p o r t s show t h a t the average number o f c h i l d r e n u s i n g one p l a y g r o u n d d a i l y (not i n c l u d i n g Sunday a t t e n d a n c e ) was 550 i n 1932 , 463 i n 1 9 5 3 , and 444 i n 1934, I f one m u l t i p l i e s the average p l a y g r o u n d a t t e n d a n c e by t h e number o f p l a y g r o u n d s i n 1954 he f i n d s -that 6 ,216 c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g the p l a y g r o u n d s o f Vancouve r each day . T h i s i s a v e r y h i g h f i g u r e i n compar i son W i t h the a t t e n d a n c e i n most o f the o t h e r c i t i e s on the c o n t i n -e n t . The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 58 ,200 i n 1954 . T h e r e f o r e , t he p l a y g r o u n d s o f Vancouver r e a c h e d about s i x t e e n p e r cen t or. about o n e - s i x t h o f the s c h o o l p o p u l a -t i o n d a i l y . I n D e n v e r , t a b u l a t i o n s a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t the number o f c h i l d r e n v i s i t i n g the p l a y g r o u n d s r e p r e s e n t e d l e s s t h a n . s i x E i s e n h a r d t , I , , A n n u a l R e p o r t ( P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n Depar tmen t , V a n c o u v e r , 1954) ,- 5 . 74 p e r cent o f the t o t a l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t . The a t t endance f i g u r e s showed t h a t 71 p e r cen t o f the c h i l d r e n came f rom homes s i t u a t e d w i t h i n an a r e a % m i l e r a d i u s f rom the p a r k ; 15 p e r cen t came f rom an a r e a w i t h i n a m i l e r a d i u s , and 14 p e r cen t came from more remote p l a c e s . T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f a l l the c h i l d r e n u s i n g 1 t he p l a y g r o u n d s l i v e d w i t h i n a r a d i u s o f one q u a r t e r o f a m i l e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n f o r c e s one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n , p l a y g r o u n d s must be w i t h i n e a sy w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e , a p p a r e n t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f a m i l e away. R e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s as a whole say t h a t even the b e s t - ' o r g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d sys tems on the c o n t i n e n t when no t a d m i n i s -t e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n have f a i l e d t o r e a c h more t h a n t e n p e r cen t o f the c h i l d r e n : o f the community i n any s y s t e m a t i c f a s h i o n . An a c c u r a t e c o m p a r i s o n Of the t o t a l a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e on the p l a y g r o u n d s i n the v a r i o u s c i t i e s cannot be made because f i g u r e s g i v e n i n the R e c r e a t i o n Y e a r Book a re f o r d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n s . Some f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t a , f u l l y e a r , o t h e r s a r e f o r t he f u l l summer o r f o r J u l y and Augus t o n l y . . ., . . Under the new p l a n , i t i s - r e a l i z e d t h a t , i n o r d e r t o r e a c h a l l . t he s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s , t he s c h o o l s h o u l d t ake up t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . The p r e s e n t p l a y g r o u n d s a r e no t g i v i n g maximum s e r v i c e . S e a s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . — The number o f p l a y g r o u n d s s u p e r v i s e d 2 d u r i n g c e r t a i n p e r i o d s o f the y e a r i s I l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e X . • L T o w l e r , John S . , The Denver P l a n (Denver P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n - 1 9 2 9 ) , 5 0 . 2 i n f r a , 7 5 . , 75 TABLE X SEASONAL OPERATION OF PLAYGROUNDS IN REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s Y e a r Summer S c h o o l Summer and Comparable t o Round O n l y Y e a r O n l y Othe r Seasons T o t a l Vancouve r B i rmingham 31 35 _ 64 O a k l a n d 62 «. 68 Denver - 36 mm 36 S y r a c u s e 16 14 — 30 A k r o n 58 58 Columbus A — 23 27 T o l e d o — 55 35 P o r t l a n d " — 25 _ 23 P r o v i d e n c e 7 • — 27 54 " Memphis - 4. 21 25 H o u s t o n - 13 — 10 25 S e a t t l e — — 27 27 W i n n i p e g - 15 — 22 57 T o t a l 120 231 27 109 487 A v e r a g e 9 18 2 8 57 L a r g e G a n a d i a n C i t i e s Vancouve r 14 ~ 14 Ot tawa ™ 15 «> 15 T o r o n t o 5 16 39 60 M o n t r e a l 37 - • - . . . . . 66 105 These p l a y g r o u n d s were o p e r a t e d d u r i n g 1 9 3 4 . X By p l a c i n g the ave rage c i t y found i n T a b l e X i n c o n t r a s t w i t h V a n c o u v e r , i t i s c l e a r l y seen what l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n i s made he re i n compar i son w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s o f the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s . The d a t a o f T a b l e XI d i s c l o s e s what Vancouve r i s d o i n g i n compar i son w i t h TABLE X I SEASONAL OPERATION OF PLAYGROUNDS I N REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S — TOTALS R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C i t i e s A v e r a g e C i t y Vancouver D e f i c i e n c y Y e a r round 9 . 0 9 Summer o n l y 18 14 4 S c h o o l y e a r o n l y 2 0 2 Summer & o t h e r seasons 8 0 8 T o t a l 37 , 1 4 23 p R e c r e a t i o n , op . n i t . , i b i d . , 6 6 - 9 5 . 6 6 - 9 5 . 76 o t h e r c i t i e s o f h e r c l a s s . T h i s means t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g f a c i l -i t i e s a r e by no means g i v i n g t h e maximum r e t u r n s . V a n c o u v e r s h o u l d be o p e r a t i n g a y e a r - r o u n d p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m . 1 The s c h o o l b u i l d i n g and the s c h o o l g round a r e the l o g i c a l p l a c e s t o c a r r y out t h i s s y s t e m . When a c t i v i t i e s oan n o t be c a r r i e d on o u t d o o r s t h e y can be c a r r i e d on i n d o o r s . i n f r a t 127» (B) A P roposed O r g a n i z a t i o n of P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t i e s f o r Vancouver Community p l a y f a c i l i t i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t because they p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y e n v i r o n m e n t . L e a d e r s h i p s t i m u l a t e s the g r e a t -e r use o f t he se f a c i l i t i e s . P u b l i c , p r i v a t e , and s e m i - p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , w h i c h e x p r e s s t h e p l a y i m p u l s e o f the p e o p l e , a r e fundamenta l to a communi ty-wide p r o g r a m . Lee s ays • B u t l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t i e s must be r e l a t e d and c h a n n e l s p rov ided , f o r c o n s e r v i n g and e x t e n d i n g t h e i r v a l u e s ; an i n t e r w e a v i n g o f a g e n c i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i f . t hey a r e to be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , i t i s t h r o u g h organ-* i z a t i o n t h a t f a c i l i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p and a g e n c i e s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d and. permanence g i v e n the p l a y s t r u c t u r e .3-A f t e r a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y o f c o - o p e r -a t i o n be tween the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d , c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be o f f e r e d . Re fe r ence w i l l t hen be made to the "Denver P l a n . " F i n a l l y , a p r o p o s e d p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b r i n g abou t an adequate p l a y program i n V a n c o u v e r w i l l be s u b m i t t e d . B r i n g i n g , about a c o - o p e r a t i v e m e e t i n g . - r - A f i r s t m e e t i n g o f the heads o f the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s i n t h e c i t y , such as the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s , the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f p a r k s , the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r , t he p l a y g r o u n d s u p e r v i s o r , and l e a d e r s o f s p e c i a l groups i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s f i e l d , s h o u l d be c a l l e d to d i s c u s s p l a n s w h i c h , when ag reed upon , c o u l d be t a k e n back to the v a r i o u s g roups f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . T h i s m e e t i n g c o u l d be c a l l e d by the mayor , e i t h e r a t the s u g g e s t i o n o f one o f the depar tments c o n c e r n e d , o r a t the r e q u e s t o f r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e c i t i z e n s . There a re many p l a n s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h can be worked o u t . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o remember i n a l l t h i s L e e , op . c i t . , 1 8 8 . 78 c o - o p e r a t i o n i s t h a t l i n e s of j u r i s d i c t i o n mast he r e c o g n i z e d . The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s have c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a l l the c h i l d r e n o f t he c i t y . The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s need t o have w e l l - e q u i p p e d g r o u n d s . Does i t not seem i n a d v i s a b l e f o r the c i t y p l a y g r o u n d depar tment or p a r k s h o a r d to a t t empt to d u p l i c a t e the p l a y space i n a reas o f t he town where s c h o o l y a r d s a r e o f adequa te s i z e ? When the p a r k s hoa rd does p r o v i d e s p a c e , does i t n o t seem r e a s o n a b l e t h a t i t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n a s e c t i o n o f t he town l a c k i n g p r o p e r s c h o o l y a r d space? T h i s c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n s h o u l d p r e v e n t n e e d l e s s o v e r -l a p p i n g between the two c i t y boards whose d u t i e s a r e conce rned w i t h the p l a y p rog ram o f c h i l d r e n . I t s h o u l d a l s o a v o i d the expense and c o n f u s i o n o f two s e p a r a t e boards w o r k i n g w i t h o u t c o - o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e these boa rds a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the same c h i l d r e n , o p e r a t i n g w i t h the same t a x p a y e r ' s money, and s t r i v -i n g f o r i d e n t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , p r o p e r l e i s u r e - t i m e h a b i t s and c i t i z e n s h i p , t h e y s h o u l d c o n f e r on methods o f f u r t h e r i n g the cause and o b t a i n i n g the maximum r e -s u l t s . Temporary c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n s w h i l e o r g a n i z a - t i o n i s t a k i n g f o r m . C o n s i d e r a b l e t ime w i l l e l a p s e b e f o r e c o m p l e t e r e o r g a n -i z a t i o n w i l l t ake p l a c e . There i s no u n i f o r m s o l u t i o n f o r the p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l problems.-. Vancouver w i l l have t o a d j u s t i t s e l f to i t s own i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n . There a re l e g a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n o p e r a t i o n so t h a t where power i s once d e l e g a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y depar tment i t canno t be r e d e l e g a t e d to a n -o t h e r depa r tmen t . I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the s c h o o l boa rd and the p a r k s board, t o c o - o p e r a t e i n o r g a n i z i n g a u n i f o r m p l a n . 79 The p r o b l e m i s t o spend the money so t h a t p l a y o p p o r t u n i t y may he p r o v i d e d f o r a l l the c h i l d r e n . C o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y , economy and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m . The s c h o o l can be f t i l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c t i v i t i e s o f s c h o o l -age c h i l d r e n and t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d f o r the a c t i v i t i e s o f s m a l l c h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s . B r o a d - m i n d e d c i t y o f f i c i a l s have c o - o p e r a t e d i n the p a s t on m u n i c i p a l p rob lems and w i l l do so a g a i n i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o b -l e m . The, o r g a n i z a t i o n of community r e c r e a t i o n . — A group o f i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e t h o r o u g h l y aware o f the v a l u e s o f t h e p l a y program s h o u l d r e t a i n the s e r v i c e s o f an e x p e r t r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r . I n c o -o p e r a t i o n w i t h h i m , s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n . b y the g r o u p t t o make a s u r v e y o f l o c a l needs and r e s o u r c e s so t h a t s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m -a t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o g r a m , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n can be c a l l e d to t he se f a c t s by a u s e f u l r e p o r t . F u r t h e r s t e p s must be t a k e n to a r o u s e the a t t e n t i o n o f t he p u b l i c . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d w i t h . c i v i c l e a d e r s ; p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s h o u l d be made b e f o r e l o c -a l c i v i c and s o c i a l g r o u p s ; and the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t he p r e s s s o l i c i t e d , l o c a l needs and r e s o u r c e s w i l l d e t e r m i n e the u l t -imate form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d . l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s . - - I f o f f i c i a l boa rds a r e to c o - o p e r a t e , l e g a l p r o v i s i o n f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n must, be made t h r o u g h the medium o f c i t y c h a r t e r s . P r o v i s i o n s w h i c h g r a n t s p e c i a l powers s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y b r o a d t o a l l o w c i t i e s t o combine under one r e c -r e a t i o n b o a r d , the g r o w i n g p a r k , p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l 80 needs o f the p e o p l e . The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a r e g i v e n m e r e l y as a g u i d e i n l a y i n g the p r o b l e m b e f o r e the l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f the c i t y or c h a r t e r f o r m i n g b o d y * 1 f l ) The r i g h t t o conduc t a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be under the g e n e r a l powers o f t he c i t y . (2) B r o a d and i n c l u s i v e terms s h o u l d be u sed s i n c e nar row and l i m i t e d terms a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e . (3) The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d have the r i g h t t o o r g a n i z e , e i t h e r on a l e a s e or on a l o a n b a s i s , a c t i v i t i e s on p r o p e r t y not owned by the c i t y . (4) S u p e r v i s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out by the p o l i c e depar tment so t h a t no i l l - w i l l may a c c r u e to t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . (5) There s h o u l d be a g o v e r n i n g b o a r d , the members o f w h i c h w o u l d h o l d o f f i c e f o r a d e f i n i t e number o f y e a r s . P r o -v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f one member from the b o a r d each y e a r . T h i s b o a r d s h o u l d be g i v e n power t o e s t a b l i s h and e n f o r c e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d have the power to r e c e i v e g i f t s . (6) A l l income d e r i v e d from r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be devo ted to the r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n d . (7) The s c h o o l board s h o u l d have the power to conduc t and f i n a n c e p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s , (8) F i n a l l y , t he r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d have the power t o e s - . t a b l i s h a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e bu reau w h i c h would l i n k the pub-l i c w i t h p r i v a t e and s e m i - p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . — T h e form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d upon , s h o u l d be marked by c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e f e a t u r e s . A l l c i t y owned p r o p e r t y s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t he use o f the b o a r d c o n d u c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n . The a r rangements s h o u l d be worked out be tween the r e c r e a t i o n a l l f t a s h , op . c i t . , 1 5 6 - 1 6 0 . 81 a u t h o r i t y and the depar tmen t c o n t r o l l i n g the p r o p e r t y . A g a i n , a c o m m i s s i o n , commit tees o r some o t h e r o r g a n i z e d group s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d t o g i v e c o l l e c t i v e t h o u g h t t o the l e i s u r e - t i m e p r o b l e m s o f the e n t i r e c i t y and to work otrfc e f f e c t i v e means of s o l v i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s . I t . i s a d i v s a b l e f o r b o t h the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d t o have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h i s g r o u p , because the use o f s c h o o l and p a r k p r o p e r t y i s e s s e n t i a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . M a k i n g the terms o f o f f i c e o f the members o v e r l a p so t h a t not more t han one or two e x p i r e each y e a r wou ld r e s u l t i n c o n t i n u i t y o f p l a n n i n g . A f u l l t ime t r a i n e d r e c r e a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s h o u l d be employed to d i r e c t the p r o g r a m . T h i s s h o u l d r e q u i r e a l l o f h i s t i m e and a t t e n t i o n . F r e q u e n t l y , one p e r s o n i s employed t o a s e r v e a s ^ r e c r e a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e and a l s o to h o l d some o t h e r p o s i t i o n s u c h as s u p e r v i s o r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , b u t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t no one can do f u l l j u s t i c e to community r e c r e a t i o n a l work u n l e s s he g i v e s h i s e n t i r e t ime to i t . A d e f i n i t e l y s e g r e g a t e d budget o f r e c r e a t i o n i s gen -e r a l l y d e s i r a b l e . Many c i t i e s have v o t e d a m i l l t a x f o r r e c -r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s and t h i s a r rangement a s s u r e s the community t h a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y d e f i n i t e amount o f money w i l l be a v a i l a b l e each y e a r 4 I n some c i t i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r v o t e r s to i n d -i c a t e t h a t a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e of t h e i r p a r k or s c h o o l budge t s h a l l t b e used f o r r e c r e a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the p r o v i d i n g o f an adequate program o f community r e c r e a t i o n , no t m e r e l y the c o n t r o l o f p r o p e r t y or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o u t i n e , s h o u l d be the p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . These l a t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e e x t e r n a l 82 and can be s e n s i b l y a r r a n g e d ; the former i s e s s e n t i a l t o the s u c c e s s f u l a ccompl i shmen t o f the p u r p o s e . The i m p o r t a n t t h i n g to c o n s i d e r I n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l work i s n o t so much the e x a c t form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n — i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s must de t e rmine w h i c h i s the b e s t group t o a d -m i n i s t e r the s y s t e m — b u t r a t h e r the degree o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h the g o v e r n i n g group and the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n can s e c u r e from a l l c i t y depa r tmen t s h a v i n g a v a i l a b l e f a c i l -i t i e s . I t s h o u l d be bo rne i n mind t h a t under any form o f c e n -t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l y e t d e v i s e d , p rob lems based on the j o i n t use and c o n t r o l of f a c i l i t i e s a r e bound to a r i s e . Even w i t h i n the s c h o o l b o a r d , f o r example , d i f f e r e n c e s a r i s i n g out o f the e v e n i n g use o f b u i l d i n g s must be a d j u s t e d between the day t ime and the e v e n i n g w o r k e r s . G o - o p e r a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t depar tments i s e s s e n t i a l to s u c c e s s , wha t e ve r the n a t u r e o f the b o a r d i n c h a r g e , and , w i t h c o - o p e r a t i o n , s u c c e s s i s p r a c t i c a l l y a s s u r e d . P l a n n i n g ahead .—The s t u d y and e f f o r t s o f o t h e r p r o g r e s s i v e c i t i e s have shown t h a t g r e a t b e n e f i t s r e s u l t f rom the w i s e and c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g o f a comple te p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Y a n c o u v e r s h o u l d reap these b e n e f i t s f o r h e r s e l f . Some c i t i e s a r e p l a n n i n g ahead f o r f i f t y to s e v e n -t y - f i v e y e a r s . V a n c o u v e r has no t y e t c o n s i d e r e d the g r e a t need f o r a d e f i n i t e p l a n n i n g o f i t s m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m . A c a r e f u l r e v i e w o f the v a r i o u s methods used i n o t h e r c i t i e s s h o u l d be made and a p l a n s e l e c t e d w h i c h appears to be most ap -p l i c a b l e t o the s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s c i t y . 1 l l n 1867 the O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n a t Wash ing ton , D . G . , 83 V a n c o u v e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d to spend c o n s i d e r a b l e sums o f money i n the f u t u r e on t h e deve lopment o f p l a y g r o u n d s and r e c r e a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , a p l a n must be e v o l v e d whereby the boards i n the c i t y w i l l c o - o p e r a t e to o b t a i n the maximum r e s u l t s i n s e r v i c e , e f f i c i e n c y and economy f o r the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f the c i t y . The Denver P l a n . — A f t e r a c a r e f u l .and t h o r o u g h s t u d y on the p a r t o f the Denver P l a n n i n g Commiss ion , a p l a n was p roduced f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h a t c i t y . The c o m m i s s i o n endeavoured t o l o o k t o the f u t u r e and to f o r e c a s t the p o s s i b l e t r e n d s o f the c i t y ' s deve lopmen t . There was no t hough t t h a t t he c i t y s h o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y p l u n g e i n t o a t r emen-dous and c o s t l y p rogram o f improvements . The p l a n s were adopted as a g u i d e to m u n i c i p a l development to be t r ansmuted from p l a n s to r e a l i t i e s when the p l a n s became p r a c t i c a l . A map i l l u s t r a t e s the p r o p o s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n o f Denver and the p l a c i n g of i t s p l a y g r o u n d s . 1 The p r o p o s e d p l a n o f Denver i n c l u d e s 35 major p l a y g r o u n d s and 202 a u x i l i a r y p l a y -grounds to be p r o v i d e d i n the f u t u r e . Of the l a t t e r , 85 a r e to be e s t a b l i s h e d on s c h o o l g rounds and 73 a r e to be l o c a l p l a y l o t s f o r s m a l l e r c h i l d r e n . F e a t u r e s o f t he Denver P l a n w h i c h s h o u l d p r o v e o f i n -t e r e s t a r e : ^ the p r o p o s a l s f o r a commiss ion o f r e c r e a t i o n , f o r l o c a t i n g p l a y g r o u n d s n e a r e r t o the c h i l d r e n , f o r u s i n g s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s and f o r t he d i s t r i c t d i v * i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s . made i t s f i r s t s u r v e y o f h e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and u r g e d c i t i e s to l o o k ahead i n p l a n n i n g f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f s c h o o l s and c o m m u n i t i e s . i j n f r a , 188. g i n f r a , 186. 84 , FIGURE I CO-OPERATIVE PLAN PROPOSED FOR VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL SCHOOL BOARD PARKS BOARD RECREATION BOARD SUPT. OF RECREATION & PHYSICAL E D . A C T I V I T I E S FOR SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN ""PARK AND PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S FOR ADULTS AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN The p r o p o s e d c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n . — I n the organizaT^iolT 'of a r e -c r e a t i o n depar tmen t f o r V a n c o u v e r , e x p e r t a d v i c e s h o u l d "be sought upon a l l l e g a l q u e s t i o n s as w e l l a s upon a l l q u e s t i o n s o f 1 p o l i c y . The s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s o f o t h e r c i t i e s w i l l form an e x c e l l e n t g u i d e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c i t i z e n s 1 commit tee can g i v e v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and p r e s t i g e t o the e n t i r e movement i n the c i t y . The c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n is t he one now i n f o r c e i n Oak-2 3 l a n d , San D i e g o , Long B e a c h , M i l w a u k e e , G a r y , B e r k e l e y and i n The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d t o g i v e a l l t y p e s o f e x p e r t a d v i c e on r e c r e a t i o n . 2 i n f r a , 183. ? i n f r a , 182. 85 a number o f o t h e r c i t i e s , i t i s s u p p o r t e d by the."best contem-p o r a r y p r a c t i c e s found i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s o f the c o n t i n e n t . Whereas s c h o o l and p a r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s , because of o t h e r d u t i e s , may be unab l e to make adequate p r o v i s i o n - f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c -t i v i t i e s , the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d be a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e i t s f u l l a t t e n t i o n on t h i s p r o b l e m a l o n e . F i g u r e I i l l u s t r a t e s a p l a n f o r Vancouver whereby r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y may be d i s t r i b u t e d and d u p l i c a t i o n a v o i d e d . Under t h i s s u g g e s t e d p l a n , the s c h o o l wou ld o r g a n i z e a l l the a c t i v -i t i e s f o r the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d . The p a r k s b o a r d w o u l d conduc t a d u l t a c t i v i t i e s i n the p a r k s , on p l a y g r o u n d s , on s c h o o l y a r d s and i n b u i l d i n g s . The p a r k s b o a r d wou ld devo te i t s a t t e n t i o n to the p l a n n i n g , c a r e and upkeep o f the p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s and p o s s i b l y even o f t he s c h o o l y a r d s . The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . — T h e r e c r e a t i o n boa rd s h o u l d c o n s i s t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e u n p a i d l a y members, o f whom h a l f w o u l d be women, a p p o i n t e d by the mayor i n c o u n c i l . I t wcmld be- a d v i s -a b l e t ha t a the r .Gyro O l u b , who a re s p o n s o r i n g t h i s movement i n V a n c o u v e r , s h o u l d have a member on t h i s b o d y . These members s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d f o r a t e rm o f ' f i v e y e a r s i n sueh a way t h a t each y e a r the t e rm o f one b o a r d member wou ld e x p i r e and t h a t o f a n o t h e r b e g i n . They s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n and t h e i r knowledge o f t he p l a y g r o u n d s y s t e m . The s u p e r i n -t enden t o f s c h o o l s and o f p a r k s s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d as perman-ent e x - o f f i c i o members o f t he b o a r d , a c t i n g as the e x e c u t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d . The r e c r e a t i o n boa rd s h o u l d a p p o i n t a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n s u b j e c t t o the a p p r o v a l o f t he s c h o o l boa rd and o f 86 the p a r k s b o a r d . The l a t t e r two boa rds s h o u l d a g r e e t o c e n t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the depar tment o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and the p l a y g r o u n d r e c r e a t i o n depar tment i n one o f f i c e under the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d a c t as the a d v i s o r y body to the s c h o o l b o a r d , t o t h e p a r k s b o a r d and t o the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . I t s du ty wou ld be to see t h a t an adequate p r o -gram o f p l a y and r e e r e a t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the c i t y r e -c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . I t w o u l d a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f funds i s made by the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d to meet the budget o f the r e e r e a t i o n b o a r d p rogram t h r o u g h o u t the c i t y . I f the a p p r o p r i a t i o n i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y , the c i t y c o u n c i l s h o u l d be c a l l e d upon to' d e c i d e the i s s u e . The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d s e r v e as the c o n s t a n t a d v i s o r o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . The r e -c r e a t i o n b o a r d i s the form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s recommended t o d a y . 1 One w r i t e r , s u p p o r t i n g , t h i s fo rm, s ta tes - : There I s a d i s t i n c t t endency , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , t oward the p l a n o f h a v i n g a r e e r e a t i o n commiss ion o r b o a r d to a d m i n i s t e r the community r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o -gram. S u c h a boa rd u s u a l l y has on i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the s c h o o l and p a r k s boa rds and members from the community a t l a r g e whose a p p r e c i a t i o n of s c h o o l and p a r k i d e a l s and o f community r e e r e a t i o n f i t them to t ake the l e a d e r s h i p i n the movement. A body o f t h i s k i n d o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d w i l l have the w i d e s t j u r i s -d i c t i o n over r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . They w i l l see to i t t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the p a r k , the s c h o o l or o t h e r m u n i c i p a l depar tmen t s a n d . p r i v a t e g r o u p s a r e used to the b e s t p o s s i b l e advantage f o r a l l the p e o p l e . 2 The c i t i z e n s 8 - r e c r e a t i o n commit tee . - - T h e scheme i l l u s t r a t e d 1 s u p r a , -60* 2 J j e e . op . . c i t . , 1 87 FIGURE II PROPOSED ORGANIZATION OF THE CITIZENS FOR THE PROMOTION OF A RECREATIONAL PROGRAM IN VANCOUTER RECREATION BOARD (approx. 7 members), CITIZENS* RECREATION COMMITTEE (approx. 34 members) Nl IGB BOEHlOH OR •AWiaATtON S above i s the plan recommended i n order that the citi z e n s i n the various d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y may take an active part i n the promotion of the play program. 1 The c i t i z e n s ' recreation committee should consist of a body of men and women elected annually from the neighborhood organizations for each of the twelve major recreational d i s t r i c t s . % Each of these d i s t r i c t s should elect two members to the central committee as represen-tatives of the neighborhood organization.^ The function of this central committee would be to as s i s t the recreation board in promoting the recreational program for a l l ages of the pop-ula t i o n . I t should act as the connecting l i n k between the -••infra, 87. 2 i n f r a , 89. 5 i n f r a , 8 8 0 88 recreation "board and-the neighborhood organizations. The mem-bership should consist of persons v i t a l l y interested in the play-movement. It might be a good policy for the mayor in council to select some members from this body to serve on the. recrea-tion board. lee recommends a cit izens' committee to support the reereation commission. He states: More and more recreation leaders are coming to feel that in each case where there is a municipal recreation department there ought also to be an organized private group of citizens to stand back of the municipal re-creational system, to in i t iate act ivi t ies which for some reason the city may not be able to. carry on, to give publicity to the movement, to raise funds to sup-plement city appropriations and to represent the organ-ized public opinion of the city which w i l l bring pressure to bear in securing larger appropriations and in safeguarding the work i f i t should be at any time in danger of curtailment.• The neighborhood organization.—The neighborhood organization should consist of a body of men and women elected annually from the various minor recreational d is tr ic ts for public recreation , including also other recreational organizations of the major 2 d i s t r i c t . No group in the neighborhood should be permitted to elect any more than two members as representatives. The neigh-borhood organization should promote the recreational program for a l l age-rlevels throughout the major d i s t r i c t . .No recreational program can be real ly effective or per-manent in nature unless i t is rooted in neighborhood l i f e . Neighborhood organizations should serve as a basis for the community-wide program; they should support the work of the cit izens' committee. Commenting on the principles underlying "''•Lee, op. c i t . , 191. 2 in fra , 89. 90 Each centre should have a completely equipped playground and i n -door center as the "hub" of i t s ac t iv i t i e s . Around this center would be grouped a number of minor d i s tr ic t s with minor recrea-tional centers consisting of smaller play spaces and buildings subsidiary to the major recreational center and controlled from i t . Each major center would have a neighborhood organization as outlined, whose duty would be to promote the recreational program of that d i s t r i c t . 1 A d i s tr i c t director would be in charge of the ma j or center and would not only direct a l l ac t iv i -t ies , but also inform the people of the d i s tr ic t as to the pro-gram that is being carried out, endeavouring to arouse and hold the interest of a l l groups. Under the d i s tr ic t director would be assistants, both paid andvolunteer, who would not only aid in the program at the major center, but also provide travel l ing, part-time supervision of the auxil iary grounds. The assistants would be sent out to supervise the minor centers at regular times, supervising play and outlining further programs. If possible, the major recreational center would be lo -cated in the most suitable section of the d i s t r i c t . Some of the existing playgrounds could be used as centers. The further equipping of them would be done on a basis of a continued i n -crease of f a c i l i t i e s as funds become available. Each center would be.equipped for play and cultural pur-suits. It would be preferable to have a l l act iv i t ies on one tract of land, but where park f a c i l i t i e s are separated from 1 supra,88 . 89 n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n , Lee s t a t e s ; N e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d grow o f some n e i g h -bo rhood need and s h o u l d be c o n t i n u a l l y d i s c o v e r i n g n e i g h -borhood needs . I t s h o u l d be as d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d as p o s s i b l e , t he members o f the a s s o c i a t i o n d e t e r m i n i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s what t h e dues s h a l l be* I t must s t a r t e x a c t l y where t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i s and no t t r y s u d d e n l y t o r a i s e the l e v e l o f n e i g h b o r h o o d t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s . I t s h o u l d have a s i m p l e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s h o u l d use e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s as f a r as p o s s i b l e the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , t he l i b r a r i e s , the b a c k y a r d s and homes o f the members. N e i g h b o r h o o d work s h o u l d use v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s as much as p o s s i b l e and s h o u l d s ecu re a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the p a r t o f a l a r g e number o f n e i g h b o r -hood p e o p l e . 1 The i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s n o t so much t h e f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n as t h e d e g r e e . o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h the group i n charge can s e c u r e f rom g o v e r n m e n t a l depar tmen t s and f rom p r i v a t e g roups h a v i n g a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s . M a j o r and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . — I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Vancouve r be d i v i d e d i n t o a r e a s , t o be named ma-j o r and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , somewhat a f t e r the p r i n -c i p l e o f "The Denver P l a n . " These d i s t r i c t s w o u l d be o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , t he a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e p l a y i n g a r e a s , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a b u i l d i n g o r o f b u i l d -i n g s as i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s , and the p r e sence o f a l o c a l group c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n a community cham-ber o f commerce, a l o c a l newspaper , o r a p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a -t i o n . Each major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t would have a r e c r e a t i o n -a l c e n t e r and w o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e t h e r e , under a c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n , t he n e i g h b o r h o o d a c t i v i t i e s o f such p u b l i c a g e n c i e s as the s c h o o l b o a r d , the p a r k s b o a r d , the r e c r e a t i o n board and the l i b r a r y b o a r d . • [ i n f r a . 1 8 6 . L e e , op . c i t . , 1 9 6 . 91 e x i s t i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and g rounds the c e n t e r c o u l d be d i v -i d e d i n t o two o r more u n i t s . A l l f a c i l i t i e s wou ld be a t the d i s p o s a l o f b o t h the p l a y g r o u n d o r r e c r e a t i o n boa rd and the s c h o o l b o a r d t h r o u g h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . P l a n o f ma jo r and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r V a n c o u v e r . - -A p r o p o s e d p l a n and a map w i t h accompanying l e g e n d i l l u s t r a t e s i n g e n e r a l o u t l i n e a d i v i s i o n o f the C i t y o f Vancouve r i n t o major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , each w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l r a d i u s o f about one m i l e , bu t i n r e a l i t y bounded as f a r as p o s s i b l e by n a t u r a l l i n e s , such as t r a f f i c t h o r o u g h f a r e s , r a i l w a y s , and sea s h o r e s . X I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r be d i v i d e d i n t o t w e l v e major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , w i t h the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and most o f the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s as the major r e c r e a -t i o n a l c e n t e r s . A t t h e s e c e n t e r s wou ld be c a r r i e d on the r e c r e a -t i o n a l p rog ram of t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g w i t h i n a r a d i u s about one m i l e , the a r e a b e i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y the e x t e n t o f the ma jo r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t . The h i g h s c h o o l g rounds and the n e a r b y p a r k p l a y f i e l d s w o u l d be u t i l i z e d as a r e a s f o r the o u t -door p r o g r a m . F a c i l i t i e s w o u l d n o t be d u p l i c a t e d . They would be u t i l i z e d by t h e h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l 6 :00 o ' c l o c k i n the e v e n i n g a n d , a f t e r t h a t t i m e , would s e r v e f o r the a d u l t p o p -u l a t i o n . Such f a c i l i t i e s as t he s c h o o l gymnasium, the a u d i t o r -i u m , and the l i b r a r y w o u l d be o p e r a t e d f o r t h i s second g r o u p . I n some s c h o o l s , s a t i s f a c t o r y f a c i l i t i e s not now a v a i l a b l e would be p r o v i d e d . The p r o p o s e d major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r V a n -couver w o u l d b e : 1 • • - inf ra , 9 3 . 92 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS LOCATION 1. K i t s i l a n o 1 0 t h A v e . & T r a f a l g a r S t r e e t 2 . P o i n t G r e y 3 7 t h A v e . & E a s t B o u l e v a r d 3 . T e m p l e t o n G e o r g i a S t . & Temple ton D r i v e SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS LOGATION 4 . B r i t a n n i a P a r k e r S t r e e t & C o t t o n D r i v e 5 . Byng 1 6 t h A v e . & W a l l a c e S t r e e t 6. K i n g Edward 1 2 t h A v e . & Oak S t r e e t 7. K i n g George N e l s o n & B u r r a r d S t r e e t s 8 . Magee 4 9 t h A v e . & M a p l e S t r e e t 9 . J o h n O l i v e r 4 3 r d A v e . & D r a p e r S t r e e t 1 0 . T e c h n i c a l Broadway & C l i n t o n S t r e e t s ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LOCATION 1 1 . G a r l e t o n K i n g s w a y & J o y c e Road 1 2 . F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e 1 2 t h A v e . & Gue lph S t r e e t The two h i g h s c h o o l s o f commerce ( F a i r v i e w and G r a n d -v i e w ) and P r i n c e o f Wales H i g h S c h o o l have been o m i t t e d i n the s e l e c t i o n o f major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s because o f t h e i r p r o x -i m i t y t o o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l c e n t e r s . I n s t e a d , two e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s have been s e l e c t e d as ma jo r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s i n d i s -t r i c t s somewhat remote f rom a h i g h s c h o o l . M i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s m — I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t Vancouver s h o u l d i n i t i a t e t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m o f our p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d -r e n by p r o v i d i n g f o r s e v e n t e e n m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . Each o f t hese m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s w o u l d be l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e -l y w i t h i n a o n e - m i l e r a d i u s o f each o f the major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s , and d i r e c t e d from i t . I n a lmos t e v e r y major d i s t r i c t shown on the map, t h e r e i s one m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r , and i n some p l a c e s t h e r e a re two . ' I t has been found t h a t s m a l l c h i l d -r e n do n o t t r a v e l f a r to .a p l a y g r o u n d . Such .a number o f m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s as s t a t e d above may be found to be i n a d e -q u a t e , .and,, i f the r e c r e a t i o n a l p rog ram o f the p r e - s c h o o l •""infra, 9 3 . MAP OF VANCOUVER B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A -REFERENCES Present Supervised:. . T l a ^ r ^ j ^ 2 TVoTpo5e& -pre-school CYn Uren's® Playgrounds ^ 3 H.a.-(OTf Hccrea.tC.OU Centre* j \ 4 H^^lor "Hecr e at t QYi^j\C Strcct~^ O urges* circle) Z. EGEND Railways shewn thus \ Electric Reilwoys she wr)-thus... — 'Bus Lines v. Fire. Halls.. '...» « Fz Hospitals ». ft L/brerieS ». ». L Schools n n.. D,sTricls „ „ G R A N D V I E W Posts/ Block AIQS „ „ gooo 2100 2200 One-Mile Circles rod isle -from present- City Hell. O • % ^-^yr^ IMile 1/4 ABBOTT ST ABERDEEN ST. ACAOIA RD. ADANAC ST. ADERA ST AGRONOMY RO. AISNE ST. ALBERNI ST. ALBERTA RD. ALBERTA ST. /iL DEB ST.. ALEXANDER ST ALEXANDRA CRES. ALICE ST. ALMA RD. ANGUS DRIVE A NOUS ST. ANN ST. ARBUTUS ST. ARCHIMEDES ST ARSYLE ST. ASH ST ASQUITH AV. AT LIN ST AUSTREY AV AVERY BALACLAVA ST. BALFOUR. AV. BALKAN ST. BALMORAL ST. BALSAM ST BARCLAY ST. BATTISON ST. BAYSWATER ST. BEACH AV BEATRICE ST. BEATTY ST. BEAVER ST BEECHWOOD ST. BELLA-VISTA ST. OELLEVUE DB. BELMONT AV. BERKELEY ST. BIDWELL ST. BIRCH ST. BLANCA ST. BLENHEIM ST. BORDEN ST BOUNDARY RO BRANT • ST O.W 3400- 3500 E. UNIVERSITY 200 3600E ISOO ISOOW UNIVERSITY JOO aoow. 900 ISOO W. UNIVERSITY ZOO 3O0 W. 1100 1200 W. IOO SOOE. ISOO 1600 W. I900 2OO0 E 3600 37O0 W. 1300 I6O0W. noo isoow 340D 3SO0 E 2000 2IOO W 3ZO0 34O0 £ moo noo E soo eoow 26O0 3600 E ZBOOE 3IOO 3300 E ISOOW SIOO MILL 700 S600 asoo GOO ISOO 2100 IOO 3900 3800 /SOO 3400 S3O0 4900 IO00 S30O .4900 4900 4IOO 4900 300 S. • 5600 s. 800 S 86O0 S 87O0 ,S' TOO S 3200 S 3O00 S 200 S. 4soo s: 4200 S. 3200 S 5300 S. asoo s. S20O S s. ssoo s, aioo s aioo s. 7SOO s. 4SOO s: 5300 S 8600 5 30OO IOO 300 2300 lOOO 700 1300 o 4SOO 4200 2400 ISOO IZOO 4600 3200 3SOO 2200 3IO0W. ISOOW 400E 4O0E. 2400 W. 2OO0W. 3400E 2900 HI 2000W. 1900 E IO0W 3400 E 2IOOW noo E 460OIII. SOOO IV 2500 W. I70O w 1300 W 4700W 330OW I SOOE 3700E 23O0E l&OO 37O0 4IOO 4IOO ISOO seoo • ISOO IOOO 430U 400 6400 saoo 34O0 1400 1400 seoo 300 2O0O ISOO ISOO 740O 700N 4OO0 7SOO S. 3800 S. 4200 S. 4300 S 70OO S 9O0 S. 6300 S-2S00 S. ISOO S 02OO S 900 S IOOO S 1300 S 3600 S noo s. ISOO s. sooo s 1300 S. 320D S 3300 *S. 3000 S. 3700 S S2PO S 430O S. BR/OSEWAY BRITANNIA BROADWAY E. BROADWAY W. BROOK ST. BROOKS ST BROUSHTON ST BRUCE ST. BRUNSWICK ST BULLER ST. B^RNABY ST BURNS ST. BURRAeo ST. BURSILL ST BUTE ST. BUTLER ST. CAMBIE ST. CAMBRIDGE ST CAMERON ST. CAMOSUN ST. CAMPBELL AV. CAMPUS RO CANTON ALLEY CAROERO ST CARIBOO ST. CARLTON ST CAR MA R VON ST CAROLINA ST CARRALL ST CARTIER ST CASSIA G ST CECIL ST CEDAR ST. CEDAR. CR. CEDARHURSTST. CELTIC AV. CENTRAL ST CHAMBERS ST CHANCELLOR BVD CHARLES ST CHATHAM ST CHERRY ST CHESTER ST CHESNUT ST CHEYENNE ST CHILCO ST CHURCH ST CHURCH LANS CHURCHILL ST. CLARENDON ST 3300 2900 O O 2400 3200 1300 noo 2200 1000 7O0. 900 23O0 IIOO 3600 E 3 00 E 3000 E 4600 IN 2S00E 3300 E 1400 W .1800 E 3O0E 2300E I8O0W aoo E IOOO w 3 O0 E 1200 W 33O0E OE 300 3300 IOO 200 VI. 2000 3600 E 2300 2SOOW 4000 4IOOW 800 900 E UNIVERSITY 0C€ OOUI ISOO ISOOW 340O 3SOO E 28O0 2900 E 2900 3000 W soo eoo E O.W 14001*1 3400E 3IOO 3300 e 1700 1800 W noo zooo w. 2300 IV 2900 3S00 W TOO 300 E 2S0O 2S00 E UNIVERSITY IIOO 3600 E 290O 3100 E 3200 340O E 7O0 300E noo iaoo w 2700 i 2800 E lgoo 200OW 3200 3300 E SOO w ISOO ISOOW 24O0 zeoo E 400 7000 2400 2400 SSOO SOO 46O0 ZOOO 4700 IZOO 2000 300 SIOO SOO esoo 1 0 IOO I OO 2S O 200 HILL SOO 3O0 SOON S300 2400 1700 IOO 3600 400 S300 I40O 3400 £300 7300 ISOO 4900 HILL 1200 4aoo S4O0 4BOO aoo 4700 eoo SSOO eoo ssoo 4400 70O H. 7400 S. 2500 S 2SO0 S. 4500 S. saoo S ISOO S SOOO S 2S00 S 4800 S 1300 S S400 S ISOO S ssoo s isoo s saoos aooo s 20C M I4O0 s 2600 S IIOO S eoos I400S 4S 0S B200S 7aoo s 4O00 S SOO s aaoo s 4100 S ssoo s 3400 S 4IOO S 6400 S 7700 S ISOO s saoos 1300 s sioo s5700 S sioo s ISOOS 4900 S I200S SSOOS 700 s 7 IOO s aooo s CLARK DR CLINTON ST. CLIVE ST COLERIDGE ST COLLEGE HIGH06 COLLEGE ST COLLINGWOODST. COLUMBIA ST COMMERCIAL OR COMOX ST CONNAUOHrOR. COOKE ST COPLEY ST CORDOVA ST. CORNISH ST CORNWALL ST COTTON DR. COURTENAY ST. COY ST CRABTREE LANE CREE ST CREELMAN ST CRESCENT THE CROMPTON RO CROWE ST CROWN ST CROWN CR CULLOOEN ST CYPRESS ST DALHOUSIE ST. DAVID ST. DAVIE ST. DAWSON ST. DENMAN ST. DEVONSHIRE CR DIN MONT AV DOM AN RO DOUGLAS CR. DOVER ST DRAKE ST. DRAPE/2 ST. DRUNMOND DR DUCHESS ST. DUFF ST. DUKE ST. DUMFRIES ST. DUNBAR St DUN DAS ST DUDLEY DUNDEE ST 1200 I3O0 E 2S00 2SO0 E 320O 33O0 E 3IO0 32VO £ UNIVERSITY 2800 29O0E 3500N 100 E ISOOW 20OO W ISOO W 300 W 2SO0 E 340O O ISOO 900 800 200 2IOO 600W IZOOE ISOO W 2SO0 W ISOO E 4200 W. I4O0 E 900 E 2O0 I 2000 W I4O0 w 1300 E SOO W 4000 W 4/O0 W 1400 E I9O0 W iaoo 4100 1300 BOO 1700 1200 1200 200 3900 4000 1300 iaoo oo 4000 •s SOON 4400 S 4900 SOOO S 6200 6300 S HILL S400 SSOO S ISOO 6000 S. 2oo eoo s o aooo s IOOO IIOO s 4300 SSOO S noo iaoo s 3000 4O00 S 200 400 S a/OO S.TOMARINLDR I4O0 ISOO S 900 iaoo s 2300 3200 S 3000 3100 S IIOO I4O0 S. saoo S9oo s IIOO noo s 3200 3SOO S S200 34O0 S iaoo 1900 j" isoo sioo j 2300 2S00 S SZOO S900 S 90O 7400 S UNIVERSITY HILL 3100 3200 E 54O0 SSOO S 200 WOO W IIOO 1200 S 2700 2300 E saoo 8600 S 1700 1900 W SOO 1300 S 900 1400 W. 4300 4500 S 0 300 W. 4200 4500 S 3100 3200 E 6000 .9000 S 900 IOOO W 3400 3500 S ZOOO 2IOO E BSOO B700 S 2O0 IOOO m IZOO I3O0 S eoo E saoo S900 S 4600 4300 W Hoo ZOOO S 2SOO 2600 E 4800 SIOO S ZOOO IOO E. 69O0 7500 S 2500 2300 E 4800 SIOO S 14-00 ISOO £ 3000 7700 S 3500 3SOO W. ISOO £500 S. 2300 3t00 E SOO 600 H S0O e 890O 3O0O S. 27O0 28O0 E S200 SSOO S DUNKIRK ST DUN LEVY ST. DUNSMUIR ST OUR WARD AV. EARLES RO. EAST BOULEVB EAST MALL EAST ST ELGIN ST ELLIOTT ST ELLIS AV. ElM ST ETON ST EUCLID ST EVELEIGH ST. FAIRMONT ST. FANNIN AV. FERHOALE ST FIR ST FLEMING ST FRANCIS ST FRANKLIN ST FRASER ST FREMLIN ST FRENCH ST FRONTENAO ST 3500 W 4000 4200 S 300 400 E O SOO S O IIOO W 500 SOO S SOO IOOO E 4300 S 2700 290O E 2O00 2100 W UNIVERSITY 3S00 360O E IIOO E 2500 2600 E 3600 E 2S00 2600 W 2IOO 3EOO E 260O 3S00 E 900 IIOO W 4400 S5O0 S 5OO0 8200 S eoo 700 N 6O00 6500 S eooo aooo s 39O0 90OO S 3S00 BTBO S 20O 300 N 4SOO SSOO S SOO GOO s 2800 4300 1600 ISOO ISOO IIOO IIOO SOO 900 I3O0 RO ST DR ST STE ST.W. ST SAL/AND SALT GARDEN GEORGE GEORGIA GEORGIA G-ILFORO GLADSTONE ST GLEN DR GLEN DALE RD GLENGYLE ST GOODMURPHY ST GORE AV. GOTH AOO ST GRANDVIEWHY. GRANT ST. GRANVILLE ST 1 GRANVILLE STS. \ GRANVILLE ID. { GRAVELEY ST GREER ST GROVE ST 3O0O 2000 2200 IIOO O O iaoo 2IOO iaoo 3SO0 IOOO 200 2600 2SO0 1200 eoo I4O0 IIOO aero 400 290O E sooo w 2400 £ 1600 W 1600 E I60O E 3600 £ 7O0 E IOOO W 1400 W 3600 E 3200 W 250  £ 230  E 1200 E 3600 E isoo w -J900 W 220O E iioo e 3600 E 2O0O E IIOO W 300 £ 2700 e 3BO0 E 36O0 £ TOO W ISOO w 1400 W 3600 £• iaoo m. 900 E SIOO 1300 SOO 1600 3000 SOO 200 3O00 4800 asoo 6400 3500 4O0O SOON aoo eoo eoo eoo 3BOO 200 3700 370O 8800 O 440O 280O 1400 ZOO 1800 1200 ISOO I30O aoo 5400 1400 6O0 3200 7300 SOO 300 SOOO asoo 8700 7O0O 3700 490O 3800 1200 TOO 700 1200 asoo ISOO 40O0 4000 9200 900 S S s 2900 s isoo s: 1200 a 9000 s iaoo s isoo s ISOO s IOOO s STREET INDEX POSTAL BLOCK NUMBERS Wf?ITTEN HORIZONTALLYAND !/£&T/C/QLLY ON THE MAP GIVE THE EXACT LOCATION OF EACH STREET STREETS ARE INDICATED AS NORTH Of? SOUTH OF POWELL SL. DUNDAS ST^. AND AS EAST OR WEST OF CARRALL &. ONTARIO STREETS RESPECTIVELY. _J'LNOM, FOR SAMPLE a ^ l ^ PQWELLST. $ ^ ^Sourh ||| THE INDEX GIVES THE POSTAL BLOCK NUMBERS EAST OR WEST AND NORTH OR SOUTH OF EACH STREET AVENUES EXTEND F ROM EAST TO WEST : AND A RE N UNI B ER ED FROM /sr AVE. Q6OO-F7OOS0 TO 7©TH A VB. >5 GUELPH ST. 300 400 £ 2000 2800 s. IMPERIAL ST 42O0 4300 W I3O0 3700 S, , LABURNUM ST iaoo T900 W 62O0 8200 S IMPERIAL RD UNIVERSITY HILL LAGOON OR 2000 2IOO W 7O0 900 S HADDEN AV. 4300 4500 w. 1300 I40O s INDUSTRIAL ST IOO IIOO E 1600. 1900 S LAKEVIEW OR zooo 2I0O £. ICON 3IO0 S HAIG ST 1400 W 8200 8300 s INVERNESS ST IIOO I300 E. 3O0O. 3200 S LAKE WOOD ST 2000 £ 3600 .3800 a HAMILTON ST 2O0 300 w 300 IOOO s ISLAND AV. I6O0 1900 E 3200 8300 S . LAMBERT ST 3600 E aooo 8400 S HARO ST 900 2000 w 800 900 s IVANHOE ST 3000 32QO £ 5500 S LANARK ST 1400 ISOO E 3600 7GO0 S HAROLD ST 3200 3300 E seoo 5700 s IVY ST 2000 2100 E 8200 8300 S LANCASTER 3000 E S500. £900 S HARRIET ST aoo E 44O0 4HO0 s : LANGARA AY 4400 4500 W 1500 ISOO S HA R VIE ST 3GO0 £. 6700 7000 J JACKSON AV 400 SOO E 2O0N IOOO S 'LARCH ST 2400 2500 W 7300 0600 S HARWOOD ST 90O 1700 HI 1300 s UAM&S ST O 100 E 4300 SIOO S LATTA ST 3200 33O0 £ saoo eooo S HASTINGS STE O 3S00 e- 300 400 s UELl/jCOE ST ?800 £ aioo 8400 s: LAUREL sr aoo 900 W 2100 aeoo s HASTINGS STW. 0 IOOO w 300 400 s : JERICHO G~IR 4300 W I90O 2000 S LAURIER ST 900 noo W 3800 3900 S HAWKS AY. TOO SOO E "• 0 IOOO s JERVIS ST 1200 1300 W SOO 1400 S' LAVAL RD UNIVERSITY HILL HEATHER ST . isoo 700 w 2000 aeoo s OHN ST 300 E 4100 4600 S LILLOOET ST 3000 3100 £ 400 44O0 s HELMCKEN, ST 200 IOOO W IOOO IIOO s JOYOg RD 3100 360O £ •4500 6O0O S. LILY ST I900 f )200 1300 S HEMLOCK ST I300 I4C0 w 2000 3/00 s LIME' ST 2IOO 2200 W 64O0 66OO S HENRY ST 13 0 E 4400 4900 s KAMLOOPS ST 24O0 2S0O E soon 2300 S LINCOLN ST 3eoo B S4O0 seoo s HIGHBURY ST 3700 3800 w 1500 640O s /CASLO ST 2700 2800 E 70ON 4400 S LINDEN ST 1900 W 4900 SOOOS HIGHGATE ST 2300. 24O0 E SOOO SZOO S . KEEEER ST IOO IIOO E SOO eoo s LITTLE sr 1900 2000 E 4eoo 4700 s HOBSON ST 100 22 O W 5500 seoo s EITH OR IIOO I200 E 2100 2500 S LOCARNO CR. 4300 W iaoo 1900 s HOLLAND T 3900 W SSOO 5900 s KELdWHA ST 3000 E IOOO 1200 S LOGAN ST aoo w 8500 S HOMER ST. 300 400 W 300 1300 s KENT AV. nob; I200 E aaoo 8400 S LORNf AV 2000 E 360O 3700 s HORLEY ST 2700 3IO0 E 4900 S4O0 s KERR ST 3000 3200 £ SSOO asoo s HORNBY ST aoo aoo W 300 isoo s KINGEDWARDAV.E 0 3SOO £ 4000 4100 s MCC LEERY ST 2700 2800 W 63O0 6400 S HOSMER. AV I700 2OO0 w 3500 4000 s KING EDWARD AVW 0 4eoo W 4000 4IOO S MCDONALD ST 2700 2800. W leoo 78O0 S HOWE ST. 700 aoo w 300 ISOO 5 KlNGSWAY 200 3000 E 230O S7O0 S M cff/LL RD UNIVERSITY HUL HOY ST 3500 3600 E SIOO 5400 s KIRK LAND ST 6  eioo 62O0 S M'&ILL ST 2200 3600 E 300 400 N HUDSON . ST 1200 I3O0 W 3300 3900 s KITCHENER ST 1300 3£00 £ I300 I4O0 S- MCHARDY ST 3200 3400 E 4500 SSOO S HULL ST 1900 2000 E 3500 3700 s KNIGHT ST 1300 I400 E 3IO0 7BOO S MCKENZIE ST 2800 290O W 2500 eooo s HUMM ST: 2100 E e900 7400 s. KOQTEAIAY ST 3S0O seoo £ 700N 4IO0 S. M e KINNON ST 32O0 E S4O0 eooo s MCLEAN DR 1300 1400 E O /400 s M cNICHOl ST I70O 2000 IN l/OO I200 s MCRAE AY I30O 1400 W 3200 s MCSPADDEN ST 1700 iaoo E 2000 s MADDEN AV. 1400 E 3000 3200 s MAIN ST. IOO 200 E 0 aeoo s MAINLAND ST 200 300 W. /OOO 1300 s MANITOBA ST 0 100 w. 1600 3000 s MANNERING AV 2000 2300 £ 4800 s MANOR ST 2900 3200 E 4S0Q SZOO s MAPLE ST 1900 2O00 w 900 7SO0 s MARGUERITE AV isoo noo w 3800 47O0 s MARINE CR 2500 w 6600 s MARINE DR MW UNIVERSITY HILL MARINE DR. SE. O 3600 E 7900 8400 s MARINE DR. S.W. O 4000 w S600 9000 s MARMON ST 3200 3300 £ saoo s MARPOLE AV 1300 iaoo W 3000 3500 s MARSHALL ST 2O00 £ 3600 37OO s MATTHEWS ST 900 1900 IV 3500 3900 s MAXWELL ST /eoo E 3400 3500 s MELBOURNE ST 3400 350O E S300 B200 s MELVILLE ST I0OC 1200 W 600 s MIDLOTHIAN AV 0 300 W 4500 4600 s MILLER ST 1700 iaoo E 3700 43O0 s MILTON ST 1500 W 8900 9000 s MINTO CR IIOO /400 HI 4700 s MINTO ST 3S00 HI 5900 SOOO s MONMOUTH 3/00 3300- E 4100 4900 s MONTCALM ST 1200 1300 W 7500 azoo s MONTROSE AV 2000 2200 £ 34O0 J MORRISON ST 3600 E 77O0 8400 s MORTON • AV IBOO 2O00 W IIOO IZOO s MOSCROP. ST 3400 3600 E 4SO0 4600 s MOSS ST 2700 3000 E 4800 54O0 s NANA 1 MO ST 2200 2400 E 600N 8400 s NANTON AV IIOO ZOOO W 4200 4300 s NAPIER ST IIOO 27O0 £ IOOO IIOO s NELSON ST 200 2000 W 900 /OOO s NEWTON . CR NEWTON WYNO NICOLA ST NIGEL AV NOOTKA ST NOR: QUAY NORTHERN ST OAK' sr ODLUM OR O&DEN AV UNIVERSITY HILL UNIVERSITY HILL 400 O 2300 2500 .200 900 500 w eoo 300 w 44O0 3000 E 400 2600 £ 4000 . 300 E IOOO W 2200 1300 E 900 /aoo w 900 I300 s 4600 S 4400 S 4900 S I400 S 8700 S 2400 S /OOO S OL YMPIC ST 3300 W SSOO SOOO S ROSE ST 2O00 E /20Q S TRIMBLE ST 4300 4400 W /3O0 3/00 S ONTARIO ST OE 0 W 1600 8800 S ROSS ST IOOO IIOO £ 2000 8IOO S TRINITY S.T 2200 3600 £ 400 SOON ONTARIO PS OE 100 £ 5700 S ROSSLAND ST 2300 E IOOO 1200 S TRIUMPH ST /TOO 360O £ OS /OO S OBMIDALL ST 3S00 E SSOO eooo s ROXBURGH CR ISOO W 4900 sooo s TRUTCH ST 3/O0 3200 W 1600 3300 S OSLER AV. /OOO 1200 W 330O. 8700 S QUBY ST 3600 E 4900 S4O0 S TUPPER ST SOO W 3200 3900 S OXFORD ST 2/00 3600 E O N • RUPERT ST 2900 3300 E 7O0N eooo s TURNER ST 2400 3600 £ SOO eoo s PACIFIC ST 300 1200 IN 1300 1400 S ST.CATHER/NE ST. 800 9 0 E 2000 6400 S TYME- ST 3300 3500 E 5300 84O0 S PANDORA ST ISOO 360  E IOO 200 S ST GEORGE ST 400 SOO E 2000 aioo s UNION ST 200 24O0 E 700 aoo s PARK DR zoos I4O0 W 7500 7900 S ST LAWRENCE ST. 24O0 2500 E 4600 47O0 s UNIVERSITY BVD UNIVERSITY HILL PARKER ST 900 3600 E eoo 900 S STMARGARETS ST 24O0 E SOOO 5900 s VALDEZ RO 2900 3100 W 3300 3900 S PAYNE ST 3400 3500 E 5/00 5200 S SALSBURY DR ISOO 1700 e IOON isoo s VANNESS AV I3O0 seoo E 3500 S400 S PENDER ST IOO0W 36O0 e 400 500 S SA SAM AT ST 4400 45O0 W I2O0 aioo s VENABLES ST 9O0 3400 E aoo 900 S PENORELL ST /OOO 2000 W /cod IIOO S SCHOOL RD 29O0 3300 E 5SOO 5900S VERNON OR IIOO I200 E O /30O S PERRY ST 1600 E 3600 4400 $ SCOTIA ST 200 300 E 2000 2400 S VICTORIA DR I8O0 2OO0 £ O 3400 S PEVERIL AV 0 100 W 4500 4600 S scorr sf 60O TOO E 2000 3O00S VINE ST 2200 2300 W I4O0 34O0 S PICTON ST 3000 3100 E 4600 4800 S SEATON ST IOOO 1200 W 300 400 S VIVIAN ST 2700 2800 £ eooo 8400 S PINE CR /eoo iaoo IN 3300 S3O0iS SELKIRK ST IIOO I200 IN 3500 3800 S WALDEN ST 20D E 44O0 SOOO S PINE ST /600 1700 W noo 32O0 S SEMLIN DR 1900 2000 E IOON 30O0 5 WALES ST 2600 E 5200 8400 S POINT GREYRD 24O0 39O0 W /3O0 WOOS SEN LAC 3300 3400 £ 5700 5800 S WALKER ST. 2Z00 E 3G00 3800 S POPLAR ST SOO soo e 7900 3500 S SEYMOUR ST SOO 600 W 300 1300 S WALL ST 2DOO 3OO0 E O 700 S PORTER 'ST, /eoo 1900 £ 3000 3300 S SHANGHAI ALLEY 0 W. SOO S WALLACE ST 3800 3900 W 700 eooo s POUND ST 260O 2700 e 3300 3400 S SHAUGHNESSYST 90O IOOO W 7800 S4O0 S WALNUT ST, 1900 W 1300 1400 J POWELL ST 0 iaoo E /OO 200 S SHERBROOK ST IIOO 1200 E 300O 7500 s WARD ST 2600 Z700 E 4900 5000 s PRICE RD 3300 3600 E 45O0 4BO0 S SHORT . ST ISOO 1600 E 7/00 7200 s WATER. ST O IOO W 200 S PRINCE AL BERT ST 700 aoo E S7O0 aioo s SIMPSON AV 4eoo w /300 1400 S WATERLOO ST 3300 3400 W ISOO 3100 S PRINCE EDWARD ST 300 400  2000 aioo s - SLOGAN ST 2500 Z7O0 E BOON 5300 S WAVERLEY ST 2000 3200 £ 6200 S PRINCESS ST SOO eoo E O IOOO 5 SMITHS ST /OO IOOO W aoo 900 S WEBBER ST 200 300 e 4IOO S PRIOR ST ZOO, aoo E 900.S SOMERSET CO. 1600 W S40O SSOO S WELLINGTON ST 3000 3600 E 4500 SIOO S P/SESCOTT ST 3200 W 6800 7000 S SOMERV/LLE ST aoo 90O E 490O 5300S WEL WYN ST iaoo noo e 39O0 4800 S PC/GET DR 2600 32O0 w 3200 44O0.S SOPHIA ST 20O 300 E 2500 a/00 s WE NONA H ST 2100 2200 E .4300 4SOO S QUADRA ST 3300 3400 w 3400 3600 S SOUTHERN ST 200 300 E /soo s WESBROOK OR UN/VERS/TY HILL QUEBEC ST O IOO E 1700 72O0 S SPENCER. ST 3000 3200 E SOOO. S400 S WESSEX ST 3300 £ 5700 5 QUEBEC pet O O £ 3200 3400 S SPERLING ST. . 1700 W 5700 7200 S WEST BOULEVO ZOOO 2/00 W sooo 64O0 S QUEENS AV 3200 33O0 E 4800S •; SPRUCE. ST IOOO IIOO W 2000 3IOO- S WEST MALL UNIVERSITY HILL QUEENS RD UNIVERSITY H/LL STAMFORD ST 3300 340O E 56O0 S70O S : WESTERN CR N. END OF WESTERNPARKWAY QUESNELLE OR 32O0 3400 W 3200 33O0 S STATION ST 20O 300 E. '900 1200 S WESTERN pKWA Y UNIVERSITY HILL QUILCHENA CR /900 2100 W 4900 S STEPHENS ST 2600 2700 HV /sod 3IO0 S WHYTE AV. /aoo ZOOO w IIOO 1200 S. QUILCHENA Pei I9O0 2IOO W 4300 S STEWART ST I700 iaoo e 0 /OO H WILLIAM ST IOOO 3tl60 E IIOO 1200 s RAE ST 3600 £ 5300 5400 S STIRLING ST 2200 E a/00 8700S WILLINaOON PSf /3O0 W S7O0 eooo S RAILWAY ST 200. 600 E 00 S SYDNEY ST 2/00 E 4000 45O0S WILLOW sr TOO aoo w 2Z00 seoo s RA VINE ST 2900 3000 E 4600 4700 s: TALISMAN AV O 300 HI 4200 44O0 S WINDERMERE 3100 3200 E 70ON 4400 S RA YMUR AV . 900 IOOO £ 200 1200 S TANNER. RD 340V 3600 £ 4SOO 4700 S WINDSOR sr 900 IOOO E 2400 aioo s REID ST 3100 3200 £ 4700 S TAUNTON ST 3IOO 3200 E 530O 5400 S WOLFE AV IOOO 1200 W 3100 ,3600 S REILLY ST 2100 2200 E 3600 3700 S TECUMSEH AV IIOO 1200 W 3200 S WOODLAND DR I4O0 /SOO £• O 3000 S RENFREW sr 230O 2900 £ BOON 440O S TEMPLETON DR 2IOO 2200 e 300N 3500 S WOODSTOCK AV. IOOW 10b E 50OO S RHOOES ST 2700 2800 £ 52O0 5800 S TERMINAL AV 200 IIOO £ I2O0 /eoos WVLLIE sr 400 W I90O S RICHARDS ST 400 500 IN IOO /.3O0 5 THOMAS ST 200O 2IOO £ a/OO 8300 S YALE ST 24O0 3600 E SOO eoo N RICHLIEU ST 900 IIOO W 3200 330O S THURLOW ST IOOO IIOO W 200 /400 J . YEW ST 2IOO Z200 W I4O0 8200 S RINGWOOO ST 900 E 4500 S TODER/CK ST 3400 3500 £ £400 7000 S YORK AV 2400 2SOO W I300 S ROBSON ST IOO 2000 w 700 aoo 3 TOLMIE ST 4500 4000 W /300 3/00 S YUKON ST 300 4O0 W /SOO aioo s. ROGERS ST 900 E O 300 N. TRAFALGARST 2500 260O W /3O0 eioo s 94 c h i l d r e n p r o v e d t o he a s u c c e s s f u l one , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t the number o f m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r such c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - s i x , t h a t i s , t h r e e i n e v e r y ma jo r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t . I n e v e r y c a s e , the m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r o r p l a y -g round wou ld c o n s i s t o f a s m a l l p l a y p l a c e on a m u n i c i p a l p a r k , f e n c e d i n and e q u i p p e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the use o f the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n * The g r o u n d s , o f c o u r s e , would be c l o s e d a t a l l t i m e s when n o t under s u p e r v i s i o n . To supplement the work o f each o u t -door p l a y a r e a , a n e a r b y community b u i l d i n g o r c h u r c h h a l l , o r , i f n e c e s s a r y , a p u b l i c s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , would be s e c u r e d t o c a r r y out a p a r t o f the i n d o o r p r o g r a m . To d a t e , the Gyro C l u b and parks , board combined have c o n s t r u c t e d and e q u i p p e d f o u r t e e n p l a y g r o u n d s as f a c i l i t i e s f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram o f t h e p r e - s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n , the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n and the a d u l t s o f ' t h e c i t y . . I t i s p r o p o s e d that_ these f o u r t e e n a r e a s c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e o n l y f o r the p r e -1 s c h o o l c h i l d . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t Haro p l a y g r o u n d be reopened to f u n c t i o n as a p a r k w i t h enough p l a y space and equipment t o p r o -V i d e f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I t s h o u l d be f r e e d from the s u p e r f l u o u s t r e e s o r sh rubs wh ich make i t an a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e f o r the l o i t e r i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s h o u l d be f e n c e d i n - a n d r e s t r i c t e d t o s m a l l c h i l d r e n . These grounds s h o u l d be c l o s e d a t s i x o ' c l o c k e v e r y e v e n i n g . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t s m a l l p l a y a r ea s>^u i l / ab l e f o r the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n be c o n s t r u c t e d a t G r a n v i l l e P a r k s u p r a , 9 3 . 95 and a t H e a t h e r P a r k . The t h r e e p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s o f the p r e -s c h o o l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n recommended f o r e a r l y c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e : 1  PARK LOCATION 1. Ha ro Haro & B u t t e S t r e e t s 2 . G r a n v i l l e F i r & P i n e S t s . , 1 4 t h & 1 5 t h A v e s . 3 . H e a t h e r 1 8 t h Avenue & H e a t h e r S t r e e t W i t h i n any o f the major d i s t r i c t s i f a t t endance w a r r a n t -ed i t , m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s c o u l d be s t a r t e d f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n on the p l a y g r o u n d o f the l o c a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l or p a r k . These wou ld be s u b s i d i a r y t o and d i r e c t e d f rom the major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r o f each d i s t r i c t . S c h o o l r e c r e a t i o n a l cen te r s . -— I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t e v e r y c i t y s c h o o l g round f u n c t i o n as the r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r f o r the p o p -u l a t i o n o f t h a t s c h o o l . Equipment s u i t a b l e t o t h a t group s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d f rom the m u n i c i p a l p l a y a r e a s t o the s c h o o l g r o u n d s . L a r g e m u n i c i p a l p l a y i n g f i e l d s nearby s h o u l d be u t i l i z -ed by s c h o o l s when t h e r e i s no t s u f f i c i e n t space on the s c h o o l g r o u n d s . The s c h o o l a u d i t o r i u m , basement o r gymnasium s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r the i n d o o r p r o g r a m . There a re f i f t y - t h r e e e lemen-t a r y s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e as the p l a y g r o u n d 2 c e n t e r s f o r t h e i r p u p i l s . ' There a r e t h r e e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and t w e l v e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e as the p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r s f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . Ten o f t h e s e h i g h s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d t o be 3 u t i l i z e d as the major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r a d u l t s . The r e m a i n i n g f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s w h i c h were o m i t t e d i n t h a t s e l e c t i o n 1 s u p r a , 9 3 . 2 i n f r a , 97 . 3.. Y . _ are as f o l l o w s : ' - SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS . LOCATION 1. F a i r v i e w H i g h S c h o o l o f Commerce Broadway & G r a n v i l l e S t . ,2. F a l r v i e w H i g h Annex 4 t h A v e . & "Vine S t . 3 . Grandv iew H i g h S c h o o l o f Commerce 1 s t A v e . & Commerc i a l D r i v e 4 . John O l i v e r Annex 4 4 t h A v e . & F r a s e r St* The proposed , p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r V a n c o u v e r . T h e p l a n o r scheme sugges t ed f o r t he o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the community r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram and the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o -I gram f o r Vancouve r i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e I V . A c o n s e r v a t i v e hut p r a c t i c a l p l a n i s he r e o f f e r e d t o meet the t h e o r e t i c a l minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s s tage 2 o f g r o w t h and p o p u l a t i o n . The average p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l needs made by c i t i e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s o f Vancouver form the. b a s i s o f the minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r V a n c o u v e r . B e -v i s i o n o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n can be made a c c o r d i n g to f u t u r e needs and g r o w t h w i t h o u t any d i s r u p t i o n o f the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . — The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a -t i o n wou ld be the t r a i n e d a d v i s o r o f . t h e b o a r d , r e p r e s e n t i n g i t and f r e q u e n t l y a c t i n g f o r i t . Yfhen the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a -t i o n was on. s c h o o l p r o p e r t y he would be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the s c h o o l 1 i n f r a , 9 8 . \ 2 -. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g community r e c r e a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d f rom t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . ' 3 V a r i o u s forms o f c i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s V I I t o X o f the a p p e n d i x . The o r g a n -i z a t i o n p l a n f o r Vancouver i s meant t o be s i m p l e and e f f i c i e n t , a c h i e v i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n between the p a r k s boa rd and the s c h o o l boa rd bu t no t d u p l i c a t i n g e i t h e r p rogram o r f a c i l i t i e s . The scheme i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s adopted by c i t i e s r e c o g n i z e d t o have good p l a n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 I n f r a , 189-192. ELEMENTARY SOHOOLS LOCATION 1. Aberdeen 2 . A l e x a n d r a 5 . B a y y i e w 4 . B e g b i e •5. B e a c o n s f i e l d 6 . B r o o k 7 . C a r l t o n &* E d i t h O a v e l l < ' 9> E d i t h C a v e l l Annex 10* C e n t r a l 1 1 . Dawson 12* C h a r l e s D i c k e n s 13* D o u g l a s 14* F l e m i n g 15* F r a n k l i n 1 6 . S imon F r a s e r 1 7 . S imon F r a s e r Annex 18* G e n e r a l Gordon 19* H a s t i n g s 2 0 . ' Henry Hudson 2 1 . K e r r i s d a l e 22* L o r d K i t c h e n e r 2 3 . L a n g a r a 2 4 . L i v i n g s t o n 2 5 . D a v i d L l o y d George 2 6 . M c B r i d e 2 7 . MacDonald 2 8 . S i r . A . M a c K e n z i e 2 9 . Map le Grove 3 0 . M o b e r l y 3 1 . M o b e r l y Annex 3 2 . M o d e l 3 5 , Mount P l e a s a n t 3 4 . L o r d N e l s o n 5 5 . F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e 5 6 . John Norquay 3 7 . Norquay Annex 3 8 . P r i n c e o f Wales 3 9 . Queen Mary 4 0 . Q u i l c h e n a • 41* Renfrew 4 2 . C e c i l Rhodes 4 3 . L o r d R o b e r t s 4 4 . L a u r a S e c o r d 4 5 . L o r d S e l k i r k 4 6 . s e x s m i t h 4 7 . Seymour 4 8 . S t r a t h c o n a 4 9 . 'I'ecumseh 5 0 . L o r d Tennyson 5 1 . Van Horne 5 2 . Wol f e 5 3 . Woodland B a r c l a y & B u r r a r d S t s . Broadway & C l a r k D r . 6 t h A v e . & C o l l i n g w o o d S t . K i t c h e n e r & L i l l o e t S t s . 2 0 t h Ave* & C l i n t o n S t . 5 3 r d Ave.. & M a i n S t . K i n g s w a y & Joyce Road 2 0 t h Ave* & A s h S t r e e t 2 5 t h Ave* & Oak S t r e e t Pender & H a m i l t o n S t r e e t s He lmcken & B u r r a r d S t r e e t 1 7 t h Ave* & G l e n Dr* 5 9 t h A v e , & - V i c t o r i a D r , ' 4 9 t h A v e . & K n i g h t Road A l b e r t & C a r i b o o S t s . 1 6 t h Ave* & M a n i t o b a S t . , 6 t h Ave* & Quebec S t r e e t 6 t h Ave* & B a y s w a t e r S t . A l b e r t & C l i n t o n S ts . . C o r n w a l l & Cypre s s S t s * 4 1 s t Ave* & Ca rna rvon 2 5 t h A v e . & B l e n h e i m S t . 1 4 t h A v e , & Crown S t * 2 5 r d A v e . & S o p h i a S t . 6 7 t h A v e , & C a r t i e r S t . 2 9 t h Ave* & G u l l o d e n S t . . H a s t i n g s , & V i c t o r i a , D r . 5 9 t h Ave . , & Windsor 4 5 t h A v e , & Cypre s s . 5 9 t h A v e . & Ross M a r i n e D r i v e & F r a s e r S t . 1 2 t h A v e , & A s h S t* Broadway & K i n g s w a y C h a r l e s S53, & Temple ton Dr... 1 2 t h A v e . G u e l p h St , . E u c l i d A v e . & S l o c a n St . , W e l l i n g t o n s - Rupe r t S t . 2 5 t h Ave* &\Marguerite Ave* 5 t h A v e * & T r i m b l e 5 7 t h Ave* & Maple 22nd A v e . & R u p e r t . S t * 1 4 t h A v e * & A l d e r S t . B i d w e l l & Comox S t . Lakewood Dr* & Broadway 22nd Ave* & Commerc ia l Dr.. 5 8 t h A v e . & O n t a r i o S t . G e o r g i a St . . & Vernon Dr* Pender & J a c k s o n Ave* 4 1 s t Ave* & Commercia l D r . 1 0 t h A v e . & Cypress S t . 42nd A v e . & O n t a r i o S t . 2 7 t h A v e . & O n t a r i o S t . 4 t h Ave* & Woodland D r , 98 FIGURE I H 'GA' PROGRAM: PROPOSED PLAN OF .OR ANIZATION FOR A RECREATIONAL BG B Wr TT\] VANCOUVER SCHOOL BOARD CITY COUNCIL RECREATION BOARD SUPERINTENDENT OF. RECREATION AND PHYSICAI EDUCATION! SCHOOL DEPARTMENT .PARK OR PLAYGROUND DEPARTMTO [SUPERVISOR: BOYS ISUPERVISOI OF GIRLS pUPERVISOt OF MEN .: 3UPERVIS01 3F :WOMEN ~% PRE-SCHQO CHlJjd^El ' CQ E-l W CQ O &q O ffl ra@ pa o cb H CQ FH M K © o '• o c$ ra hi cs CQ IX CQ t>H ft O ft} O G K M pq (- o cb CQ Fr-CQ CQ PH 1—1 m EH i - i M EH t>-H t> e-i M b EH O <J CQ CQ is; is; 1 H o o CQ M O B O H M CQHf> r: trj M o EH ft; o PH ENDUSTRIA1L RECREATION DRANATI Ci DANCING TOie WNICIPAD CAMPS CONSTRUE A C T I V I T I E S IVE ISPECIAL mCHEAT I ON ST/IMMING IffiG. 99 b o a r d t h r o u g h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s ; when on p a r k p r o -p e r t y he would be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the p a r k s boa rd t h r o u g h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f p a r k s ; when he was c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n b u i l d i n g s o r on p r o p e r t y p r o v i d e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , c l u b s o r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s he wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e t o such i n accordance w i t h wha teve r a r r angemen t s he had made w i t h the g o v e r n i n g boards*, The c h i e f c o n c e r n o f the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n would be the p r o m o t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n the c i t y and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o -c i a t i o n s and community c e n t e r s so as t o ' o b t a i n the maximum o f a c t i v i t y on the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f t he c i t y . H i s s a l a r y would be p a i d by the s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s b o a r d . The e x e c u t i v e s t a f f . — • The e x e c u t i v e s t a f f wou ld c o n s i s t o f t he s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n and the s u p e r v i s o r s . The s u p e r -v i s o r s wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e t o the boards by whom t h e y a r e em-p l o y e d and t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n . I n the r e c r e a -t i o n , o r p l a y g r o u n d depar tment a t l e a s t two such s u p e r v i s o r s , who would be employed by the p a r k s b o a r d , wou ld be n e c e s s a r y . 1 -A male s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c r e a -t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s a t noon h o u r s and i n the l a t e a f t e r -n o o n s , and a l s o f o r men ' s a c t i v i t i e s ( b o t h i n d o o r and ou tdoor ) i n the e v e n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . The m u n i c i p a l camp migh t a l s o come under h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . He wou ld h o l d one man d i r e c t o r i n each major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the men 's a c t i v i t i e s o f t h a t d i s t r i c t . 1 0 a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , a c i t y i n the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s as V a n c o u v e r , has s i x s u p e r v i s o r s under t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . 2 i n f r a . 100 A l a d y s u p e r v i s o r wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d r a m a t i c s , f o l k and d r a m a t i c d a n c i n g , and p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , bo th i n d o o r and o u t d o o r . The women's a c t i v i t i e s would, be h e l d i n the e v e n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s p r o v i d e d f o r a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n . The " s u p e r v i s o r would h o l d one l a d y d i r e c t o r i n each ma jo r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a d i e s a c t i v i t i e s and the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s p rogram of t h a t d i s -t r i c t . I n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n depa r tmen t , a t l e a s t two s u p e r v i s o r s , who w o u l d be employed by the s c h o o l b o a r d , a re -necessary*" 1" A male s u p e r v i s o r wou ld be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he p h y s i c a l C e d u o a t i o r i : a n d - r e c r e a t i o n o f a l l the boys i n the .68 s c h o o l s o f the c i t y . He would h o l d one man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram o f the boys 2 o f t h a t s c h o o l . By t h i s means t h e s t a n d a r d o f the work would be c o n s i d e r a b l y improved by means o f m o n t h l y s u p e r v i s i o n . A l a d y s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n o f a l l the g i r l s i n the s c h o o l s o f the c i t y . She w o u l d h o l d one l a d y r e s p o n s i b l e i n each s c h o o l f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l p rog ram f o r the g i r l s O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , has t h r e e s u p e r v i s o r s under t h i s depar tment and some o f the o t h e r s i x s u p e r v i s o r s i n the r e c r e a -t i o n and p l a y g r o u n d depar tment a l s o a s s i s t w i t h the work o f the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . p Under the p r e s e n t p l a n i n w h i c h home-room t e a c h e r s o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n t h i s w o r k , i t i s ahia lmos t , i m -p o s s i b l e t a s k f o r t h e one s u p e r v i s o r t o keep i n c o n s t a n t and c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h about 765 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s as w e l l . as w i t h the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s o f t he s econda ry s c h o o l s . J u n e , 1935 s i n f r a , 183. A n n u a l R e p o r t (Vancouver Boa rd o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s ) 101 TABLE X I I S M A R T OF STATISTICS ON COMHUNITY RECREATION REPRESENTATIVE CITIES , P r o v i s i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n a l P rogram A" NUMBER C if E * ' 1 . S u p e r v i s e d P l a y g r o u n d s 14 35 21 68 85 2 . P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s S a l a r i e d ; d i r e c t o r s — - m e n S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — w o m e n S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r round V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s .men ; V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — - w o m e n 18 16 1 0 0 46 30 10 50 20 28 14 9 30 20 114 88 30 165 44 56 56 112 80 80 3 . S e a s o n a l O p e r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d s Y e a r round Summer o n l y .- * . S c h o o l y e a r o n l y Summer and o t h e r seasons 0 14 0 0 9 18 2 8 9 4 2 8 62 0 6 0 85 0 0 0 4 . I n d o o r R e c r e a t i o n B u i l d i n g s ( m u n i c i p a l ) P l a y C e n t e r s 0 6 6 20 6 14 5 11 0 85 * T h e, l Qi t e« s u s e d s i g n i f y s t a t emen t s c l a s s i f i e d above as A j B» C, D and E . A . The p r e s e n t p l a y g r o u n d p rogram i n V a n c o u v e r . B. The ave rage o f t h o s e c i t i e s c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y w h i c h a r e i n the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s as V a n c o u v e r . C . The d e f i c i e n c i e s o f Vancouve r as compared w i t h the ave rage c i t y . D . The r e c r e a t i o n a l p rogram i n O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a (a c i t y i n the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s as V a n c o u v e r , n o t e d as h a v i n g a good p r o v i s i o n ) . E . The p r o p o s e d p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r V a n c o u v e r . o f t h a t s c h o o l . The same c o n d i t i o n s would p r e v a i l as shown i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r o f the h o y s . Summary .of s t a t i s t i c s on community r e c r e a t i o n . — I n o r d e r t h a t the r eade r -may a p p r e c i a t e the e x t e n t t o wh ich V a n c o u v e r , i n 102 TABLE X I I I PROPOSED PROG-BAM OE RECREATION FOR VANCOUVER P r o p o s e d R e c r e a t i o n a l P rog ram Number I . S u p e r v i s e d P l a y g r o u n d s Unde r P a r k s B o a r d . . . P r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s p l ayg rounds—min imum —maximum A d u l t r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s ; h i g h s c h o o l a r e a s Unde r S c h o o l B o a r d E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d s J u n i o r & S e n i o r . h i g h s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s  T o t a l s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s  2 . P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s  U n d e r P a r k s B o a r d S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l year-S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l year-V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s ' — s e a s o n a l -V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — ^ s e a s o n a l -' U n d e r S c h o o l B o a r d E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s S a l a r i e d , d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r -S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l yea r -V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l -V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l -J u n i o r & S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r -S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r -V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l -V o l u n t e e r d i r e e t o r s —-seasonal -—men —women •^men —women •men —?/omen -men —women - m e n 2 r -women* -men -women, 2 17 (36) (12) 53 15 85 (53)3 (53) 3 «3 a S e a s o n a l O p e r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d s & Indoor C e n t e r s P l a y g r o u n d s o p e r a t i n g the f u l l y e a r . I n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s o p e r a t i n g the f u l l y e a r . . . . ...: , . . . . . . . 13 13 12 12 27 27 53 53 16 16 15 15 85 85: c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s , has p r o v i d e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o -gram, the s t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d i n . T a b l e s V t o X I have been sum-m a r i z e d i n T a b l e X I I . 4 The s t a t i s t i c s a r e f o r the y e a r 1934 . 2 Used as h i g h s c h o o l and a d u l t p l a y g r o u n d s . One s u p e r v i s o r . 5 Employed p a r t - t i m e o n l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n . '"supra, 1 0 1 . 103 Proposed program of recreation for Vancouver.— Using Table XII as a basis, d e t a i l s of a proposed provision for the recreational program i n Vancouver w i l l be outlined. The summary of proposed provision i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table XIII and i s classed under two headings, the parks board and the school board. 1 The Parks Board Playground Program A. F a c i l i t i e s . — It i s proposed that the f a c i l i t i e s of most of the existing playgrounds be more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y adjust-ed to the needs of the various age groups. Equipment suitable for the school.children should be transferred to various school playgrounds where they would be available throughout the year. The swimming pools should remain on municipal park properties but should be used by the school population as well as by the small children. These pools should be constructed i n such a way that they might be used for swimming instruction or for wading purposes, depending upon the group using the f a c i l i t i e s . The existing playground areas should be made smaller, and should be equipped and fenced i n for the pre-school or small c h i l d . These areas should be situated nearer to the homes of young children, and t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s (with the assistance of t r a v e l l i n g d i r e c t o r s ) , made available during the day to parents, nurse-maids and kindergarten teachers. It i s recommended that Vancouver should begin with seventeen pre-school children's play-grounds, l a t e r providing from three to f i v e such areas i n every major d i s t r i c t i n the c i t y . Such areas should not be considered as spaces for complete playground equipment but rather as safe places on which to play. F a c i l i t i e s such as sand boxes, swings, slides and small wading pools suitable' for small children should 1supra, 102. 104 . be p r o v i d e d i n t he se a r e a s . L o c a l gymnasiums, c h u r c h h a l l s and p u b l i c rooms s h o u l d be u s e d f o r t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f i n d o o r programs F a c i l i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d a t t he major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . These f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be s i t u a t e d on some s c h o o l grounds o'f g r e a t e r a r e a o r on n e a r b y p a r k p l a y i n g f i e l d s . P r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be made f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as v o l l e y b a l l , t e n n i s , h a n d b a l l , s o f t -b a l l and b a d m i n t o n . The s c h o o l gymnasium, a u d i t o r i u m , basement and l i b r a r y s h o u l d a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e f o r the i n d o o r p rogram. I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p rogram i n Vancouver have p r o v i s i o n f o r t w e l v e major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . On demand o t h e r m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s s h o u l d be opened i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f the major d i s t r i c t , but t h e s e would be s u b s i d i a r y t o and d i r e c t e d f rom t h e major r e c r e a -t i o n a l c e n t e r . B . P r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a d e r s h i p . — I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t the s t a f f s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f a t l e a s t one man d i r e c t o r and one l a d y d i r e c t o r a t e v e r y major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r , each t o be p a i d a f u l l - t i m e s a l a r y . They s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the men•s and l a d i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y t h roughou t the e n t i r e d i s t r i c t . S u b o r d i n a t e t o the p a i d d i r e c t o r s , t h e r e s h o u l d be a t l e a s t one man and one l a d y as v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s , , No d i r e c t o r whether s a l a r i e d o r v o l u n t e e r s h o u l d be engaged u n t i l he o r she had com-p l e t e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . Two s u p e r v i s o r s , one man and one l a d y , s h o u l d be e m p l o y e d . t o o v e r l o o k the d i r e c t o r s and gu ide c e r t a i n phases o f t h e p r o g r a m . When c o n d i t i o n s and a t t e n -dance w a r r a n t — u s u a l l y i n the summer s e a s o n — e x t r a p a i d and v o l -u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d a s s i s t a t t h e m i n o r as w e l l as the major 105 • r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . C P r o g r a m . - - The men . d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e b o t h f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n -d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s a t noon h o u r s and f o r c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r work h o u r s . Many a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t s s h o u l d be o r g a n -i z e d f o r Wednesday and S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s i n the major r e c r e a -t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . The t r a v e l l i n g d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r a d e f i n i t e l y s c h e d u l e d a f t e r n o o n r e c r e a t i o n a l program, o f the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s t r i c t s . M e n ' s and l a d i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on under the d i r e c t o r s i n e v e r y major d i s t r i c t f rom 6:00 P . M . t o 10 :00 P . M . d a i l y . e x c e p t Sundays . The p rogram o f a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be a y e a r - r o u n d p rogram i n c l u d i n g s e a s o n a l s p o r t s , i n d o o r and o u t -door a c t i v i t i e s . V a r i e d phases o f r e c r e a t i o n , such as m u s i c , a r t , ' l i t e r a t u r e , and h a n d i c r a f t s s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e the program b o t h f o r t h e s m a l l c h i l d r e n and f o r the a d u l t s . D . N e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . — Each o f the t w e l v e ma jo r r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d form a n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n -i z a t i o n . c o n s i s t i n g o f e l e c t e d members, no t more than two members r e p r e s e n t i n g each l o c a l group a t the c e n t e r . I t wou ld be p r e -f e r a b l e t o have one man and one l a d y e l e c t e d from the l o c a l g r o u p s . The d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be permanent e x - o f f i c i o members o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h o u t the r i g h t t o h o l d o f f i c e . S e l f -government s h o u l d be encouraged by h a v i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s -s i s t the d i r e c t o r s i n the p l a n n i n g o f the p r o g r a m . Two members s h o u l d be e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e ne ighborhood o r g a n -i z a t i o n on the c e n t r a l c i t i z e n s ' commi t t ee . E . F i n a n c e . — The p a r k s b o a r d s h o u l d s u p p l y t h e funds 106 f o r t h i s depar tment by means o f a budget p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d by the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . From t h i s t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r s t h e d i r e c t o r s and the workmen s h o u l d be p a i d . S u p p l i e s f o r t h i s " depar tment s h o u l d a l s o be p r o v i d e d by the p a r k s b o a r d . The :• .. n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d endeavor t o e f f e c t a l a r g e mea-su re o f s e l f - s u p p o r t by means o f l o ? r n o m i n a l charges.""" F . S e r v i c e b u r e a u . — T h i s depar tment s h o u l d conduct a s e r v i c e b u r e a u , w h i c h s h o u l d send s k i l l e d d i r e c t o r s whenever ap -p l i c a t i o n was made f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s i n v o l v i n g l a r g e numbers o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n and m a t e r i a l s needed i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l l t y p e s o f t he se a c t i v i t i e s wou ld be p r o v i d e d i f such seemed a d v i s a b l e . - ' The S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d P rog ram A . F a c i l i t i e s . — Each o f the s i x t y - e i g h t s c h o o l y a r d s i n the c i t y s h o u l d be a s u i t a b l y equ ipped p l a y g r o u n d f o r t he s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n a t t e n d a n c e . I n some i n s t a n c e s , : the equipment s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d f rom some o f the p r e s e n t p a r k p l a y g r o u n d s t o s c h o o l g rounds so t h a t i t m i g h t be u t i l i z e d by the c h i l d r e n t h roughou t the whole y e a r . These grounds w o u l d be n e a r e r t o the homes o f t h e c h i l d r e n , open and i n use e v e r y day o f the y e a r e x -cep t Sundays . Three s e p a r a t e a r e a s s h o u l d be l i n e d o r f enced o f f on t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d f o r (a) t he younger boys and g i r l s ; (b) the o l d e r g i r l s ; and (c) the o l d e r boys . E q u i p -ment s u i t a b l e f o r t he s m a l l e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would be s w i n g s , s l i d e s , a p p a r a t u s , and o u t d o o r gymnasiums. F a c i l i t i e s s u i t a b l e f o r the o l d e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would be base -b a l l d i amonds , v o l l e y b a l l and- b a s k e t b a l l c o u r t s . i n f r a , 1 6 9 . 107 The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l y a r d s s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n the e v e n i n g and f o r the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n the a f t e r n o o n . These y a r d s s h o u l d be supplemented by nea rby a t h l e t i c f i e l d s o f the park, sys tem f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as b a s e -b a l l , s o c c e r , r u g b y , t r a c k m e e t s , p l a y days and r e g a t t a s , A s u i t a b l e p rogram c o u l d be a r r a n g e d on them. S m a l l p l a y f i e l d s f o r v o l l e y b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , badmin ton and h a n d b a l l s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d on the s c h o o l g r o u n d s . I n i n c l e m e n t wea ther a p rogram o f a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g . Such f a c i l i t i e s as the a u d i t o r i u m , gymnasium, l i b r a r y and basement c o u l d be u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y . ' The same f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e e v e n i n g s when s u f f i c i e n t a t t endance w a r -r a n t e d t h e i r u s e . E v e r y s c h o o l s h o u l d be f u r n i s h e d w i t h two rooms w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as gymnasiums and i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . Each o f t hese rooms s h o u l d be a t l e a s t s i x t y f e e t by t h i r t y - f i v e f e e t . I n many b u i l d i n g s , t h e basements c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as tem-p o r a r y c e n t r e s f o r t h i s w o r k ; i n o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , v a c a n t c l a s s rooms, o u t b u i l d i n g s o r a u d i t o r i u m s migh t be u t i l i z e d . B . P r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a d e r s h i p . — The minimum r e c r e a t i o n a l s t a f f o f t he e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s f o r the p r e s e n t s h o u l d be one s a l a r i e d man d i r e c t o r and one s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c t o r f o r each o f the f i f t y - t h r e e s c h o o l s . The minimum r e c r e a t i o n a l s t a f f o f the h i g h s c h o o l s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s h o u l d be one s a l a r i e d man d i r e c t o r and one s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c t o r f o r e v e r y t h r e e hundred boys and t h r e e hundred g i r l s . A l l s a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s who have had a t r a i n i n g i n pedagogy 108 as w e l l as i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ana r e c r e a t i o n c o u l d s e r v e h a l f t ime on the s c h o o l s t a f f d u r i n g s c h o o l hou r s ahd the r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f the t i m e a f t e r s c h o o l hou r s on S a t u r d a y s and h o l i d a y s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . :» , . V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s , one man t o each s a l a r i e d man d i r e c -t o r and one l a d y t o each s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c t o r , c o u l d supplement the work o f t he s a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s . The v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o f u l f i l c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t r a i n i n g b e f o r e engagement. T h e ' s t a f f o f t h e s c h o o l s h o u l d . a s s i s t w i t h the work as s p o n s o r s f o r a f t e r s c h o o l , noon h o u r , and r e c e s s a c t i v i t i e s on a s c h e d u l e o f t ime p e r i o d s . I t w o u l d be a d v i s a b l e t o have a minimum and a maximum number o f h o u r s w h i e h s h o u l d be spent i n the s u p e r v i s i n g o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a a c t i v i t i e s by the c l a s s t e a c h e r s o f the s c h o o l . I n many I n s t a n c e s a few e n t h u s i a s t i c t e a c h e r s w o u l d be o v e r - w o r k e d , w h i l e i n o t h e r ca ses c e r t a i n t e a c h e r s w o u l d do v e r y l i t t l e such s u p e r v i s i o n . C . P r o g r a m . - - The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p rogram s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s and the p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m ' a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s , on S a t u r d a y s and on h o l i d a y s . F a c i l i t i e s i n the s c h o o l s s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r the p rogram o f the s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n f rom 9 :00 A . M . ; i n the m o r n i n g t o 6:00 P . M . i n the even -i n g , d a i l y e x c e p t S u n d a y s . I n the summer s e a s o n , a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d i n t o the e v e n i n g . . The c h i l d r e n a r e a t s c h o o l t e n months o f t he y e a r and a c a r r y - o v e r program c o u l d be more: e a s i l y a r r a n g e d f o r the h o l i d a y s e a s o n s . A l l o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , b o t h i n d o o r and o u t d o o r , s h o u l d be drawn up i n s c h e d u l e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s group c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 109 w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l . No boy o r g i r l s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d or p e r m i t -t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f . t i m e e v e r y day o f the week. The d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t i m u l a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h l e a g u e s , t o u r n a m e n t s , c o n t e s t s , mee t s , s t u n t n i g h t s and d i s p l a y s . D. . F i n a n c e . — The . .school b o a r d , t h r o u g h a budget drawn up by the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , s h o u l d s u p p l y t h e funds f o r the p l a y -ground p rog ram of the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . From t h i s the s a l a r i e s o f t he s u p e r v i s o r s , d i r e c t o r s and workmen s h o u l d be p a i d . Sup-p l i e s f o r t h i s depar tment s h o u l d a l s o come f rom the s c h o o l b o a r d . E . P a r e n t - t e a c h e r , r e c r e a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s . — I n each s c h o o l a commit tee o f seven"members, s h o u l d be e l e c t e d from the p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s group s h o u l d be named the s c h o o l r e c r e a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e , t h e i r d u t y b e i n g t o promote t h a t w o r k w i t h i n the s c h o o l , and t o a s s i s t the d i r e c t o r s on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s i n the p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m . The d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be permanent e x - o f f i c i o members o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e . C o n c l u s i o n . — Only , a g e n e r a l o u t l i n e showing the f u n c t i o n s o f the two s e p a r a t e depa r tmen t s has been a t t e m p t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . An i n t r i c a t e p l a n w o u l d have t o be .drawn up by the r e c r e a t i o n board a f t e r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h .might a f f e c t bo th the p a r k s b o a r d and t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . A d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f the p r o p o s e d p l a n w i l l be i n d i c a t e d i n the nex t c h a p t e r s . C e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s i n f a v o r o f the p r o p o s e d p l a n f o r Vancouver a r e h e r e w i t h s t a t e d : (1) F a c i l i t i e s wou ld not be dup-l i c a t e d by t h e two s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t s ; i . .e*., p a r k s board . would not b u i l d r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s but would use the m u n i c i -p a l b u i l d i n g s a t har id . (2) A p rogram would no t be o f f e r e d t o the 110 same age group by the two separate departments; i . e., both parks board and school board would not attempt to offer a pro-gram for school-age children. (3) There would be a greater co-ordination between the physical education program and the recrea-t i o n a l program of the school-age children. This would result i n greater e f f i c i e n c y . (4) A program would be available for the whole year. ( 5 ) The various age groups .would not be using the same areas at the same time. I l l CHAPTER V I I FEATURES OF THE RECREATIONAL PROGRAM (A) A c t i v i t i e s o f The P l a y g r o u n d P rog ram There i s need f o r a p l a n n e d program i f any a t t empt I s t o he made f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f wholesome p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n of t h e community . The p r i n c i p l e s o f p rogram p l a n n i n g r e s o l v e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n : (1) t h a t t h e r e a r e many v a r i e t i e s o f i n t e r e s t s and many v a r i e t i e s o f hoys and g i r l s , (2) t h a t i n t e r e s t s v a r y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l and f rom t ime t o t ime i n the same i n d i v i d u a l and f rom age t o age i n the same i n d i v i d u a l . A f t e r the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the p l a n n i n g o f a p rogram have been c o n s i d e r e d , a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d f o r the t h r e e major age g r o u p s : p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and y o u t h and a d u l t s . Sample a c t i v i t y programs w i l l be o f f e r e d f o r the day , the week and the y e a r . F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g p rogram p lann ing"}— I n p l a n n i n g a p l a y g r o u n d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r such f a c t o r s a s : (1) S i z e and s t age o f deve lopment o f t he p l a y g r o u n d . I n g e n e r a l I t i s assumed t h a t e v e r y p l a y g r o u n d s h o u l d have c e r t a i n a p p a r a t u s ; c o u r t s f o r s e v e r a l t y p e s o f games; a s h e l t e r e d a r e a e i t h e r i n d o o r s , o r o u t d o o r s f o r s t o r y t e l l i n g , h a n d i c r a f t , and q u i e t games; and an open a r e a f o r a v a r i e t y o f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s . (2) Ages o f c h i l d r e n t o be s e r v e d . I t i s o f t e n found t h a t s m a l l c h i l d r e n come i n l a r g e s t numbers i n the morn ing and o l d e r boys and g i r l s i n the l a t e a f t e r n o o n ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , even t s a p p e a l i n g t o t he se age g roups s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g l y . ^ N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s n . , P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d  P r o g r a m s , p a m p h l e t , 5. 112 (3) Number o f c h i l d r e n t o be s e r v e d . Where l a r g e num-b e r s o f c h i l d r e n a r e t o be c a r e d f o r by one o r two l e a d e r s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d s o f m u s i c , drama, a r t s and c r a f t s , and n a t u r e s t u d y . (4) H o u r s p l a y g r o u n d i s a v a i l a b l e . U n l e s s l e a d e r s h i p i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e e n t i r e day, t h e p l a y g r o u n d as a r u l e s h o u l d be open d u r i n g t h e h o u r s when the l a r g e s t number o f c h i l d r e n can a t t e n d . The l o n g e r t h e p l a y g r o u n d t i m e a v a i l a b l e , t h e more v a r i e d s h o u l d be t h e p r o g r a m . (5) L e n g t h o f p l a y g r o u n d s e a s o n . I f t h e s e a s o n i s l o n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e p l a y g r o u n d p r o j e c t s which i n v o l v e l o n g p r e p a r a t i o n ; whereas, i f i t i s open o n l y a few weeks, the l e a d e r s may n o t be j u s t i f i e d i n u s i n g t h e s e p r o j e c t s . The d a i l y p r o g r a m i s n o t e s s e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d , however, by t h e number o f weeks t h e ' p l a y g r o u n d i s open. (6) Number o f w o r k e r s . Where a p l a y g r o u n d has o n l y one w o r k e r , t h e p r o g r a m i s l i k e l y t o be r e s t r i c t e d and c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e t i m e c a n be g i v e n by t h e worker t o s m a l l g r o u p s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l g u i d a n c e o r i n s t r u c t i o n , (7) Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of l e a d e r s . The t r a i n i n g and e x p e r -i e n c e o f p l a y g r o u n d w o r k e r s l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e c a r r i e d on. A l e a d e r who i s competent i n m u s i c , drama, h a n d i c r a f t , n a t u r e s t u d y o r some form o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s l i k e l y t o emphasize t h i s a c t i v i t y . (8) R e l a t i o n t o o t h e r p l a y g r o u n d s . I n s m a l l communities where t h e r e i s o n l y one p l a y g r o u n d , t h e r e a r e l i k e l y t o be few i f . a n y c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r p l a y g r o u n d s d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n . The p r o g r a m i s p l a n n e d e n t i r e l y a r o u n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a y g r o u n d . I I S I n l a r g e r c i t i e s , however , t he p rogram o f one p l a y g r o u n d i s o f t e n i n f l u e n c e d by the s c h e d u l e o f o t h e r c e n t e r s . Some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g p rograms . - - - A w i s e l y p l a n n e d p r o -gram c a r r i e d on under competent l e a d e r s h i p i s c e r t a i n t o r e s u l t i n - a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g p r e s e n t on the p l a y g r o u n d , engag ing i n a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s * S i n c e boys and g i r l s v a r y -i n g w i d e l y i n ages and i n t e r e s t s a re u s u a l l y p r e s e n t , s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be g o i n g on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , most programs s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h r e e o r f o u r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s each p e r i o d . A n o t h e r means o f e n l a r g i n g the s e r v i c e o f the p l a y g r o u n d i s t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e many I n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a re more o r l e s s s e l f - d i r e c t i n g and wh ich i n c l u d e some o f t h e most p o p u l a r games and s p o r t s . One means o f i n c r e a s i n g t h i s t y p e o f a c t i v i t y i s by a r r a n g i n g c o n t e s t s o r t o u r n a m e n t s . 1 There a r e two common m i s t a k e s i n program p l a n n i n g . One i s t o p r o v i d e so few e v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t many c h i l d r e n f i n d l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o a t t r a c t them o r t o r e t a i n t h e i r i n t e r -e s t . Such f a u l t y p l a n n i n g sometimes r e s u l t s f rom inadequa te p r e p a r a t i o n on the p a r t o f the l e a d e r s . A t the o t h e r extreme i s t he p rog ram w h i c h i s so f u l l and v a r i e d and w i t h so many f e a t u r e d even t s t h a t t h e p l a y g r o u n d s c h e d u l e i s crowded and p r e s s u r e i s e x e r t e d on b o t h c h i l d r e n and p l a y l e a d e r s t o c a r r y i t o u t . As a r u l e , c h i l d r e n p r e f e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y i n a few a c t i v i t i e s . N a t . R e c . A s s ^ n . , P l a n n i n g . Summer P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s . 6. 114 One a u t h o r i t y o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t he p r e p a r a t i o n o f p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m s . 1 . P r o v i d e a v^ide range o f a c t i v i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s : p h y s i c a l , m a n u a l , r h y t h m i c , m u s i c a l , d r a m a t i c , e t c . 8 . I n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s f o r boys and g i r l s o f v a r i o u s ages . 3 . D i v i d e the l e a d e r s * t i m e f a i r l y between d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s , between boys and g i r l s , and between v a r i o u s t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s . 4 . A l t e r n a t e s t r e n u o u s w i t h q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s ; team games w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p l a y , e t c . 5* S c h e d u l e s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a t a t ime most c o n v e n i e n t f o r the g roup t o be s e r v e d . 6. A r r a n g e p e r i o d s so t h a t i f a p r o j e c t o r a c t i v i t y i s n o t comple t ed on s c h e d u l e t i m e , i t w i l l be c a r r i e d o v e r w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e p r o g r a m . 7 . P r o v i d e t i m e s when no s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i s s c h e d u l e d . 8. P l a n a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e t o t a k e p l a c e each week o r t e n d a y s . 9 . C o r r e l a t e the v a r i o u s p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e . 1 0 . Encourage i n f o r m a l s e l f - o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y , by g i v i n g i t a p l a c e on the p r o g r a m . 1 1 . I n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e c o - o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as t h o s e w h i c h f e a t u r e c o m p e t i t i o n . 1 3 . A l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l p l a y g r o u n d l e a d e r some freedom i n the c h o i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s . 1 3 . Make programs p r o g r e s s i v e , p o i n t i n g t o a c l i m a x a t t h e end o f t h e s e a s o n . 1 4 . F e a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f the p l a y day t y p e w i t h l a r g e numbers o f members p a r t i c i p a t i n g r a t h e r than e v e n t s i n wh ich o n l y the p l a y g r o u n d champions p a r t i c i p a t e . 1 5 . G i v e t h e c h i l d r e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make s u g g e s t i o n s as t o t h e p r o g r a m . 1 6 . R e v i s e the p rogram i f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s do not p r o v e s a t i s f a c t o r y o r i f c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e changes t o be d e s i r a b l e . •-"Nat. R e c . A s s r n . , P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d P rog rams , 6. i f 115 1 7 . Keep a b a l a n c e between t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t s and the r e g u l a r r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s . 18 . A v o i d any t endency t o b r i b e o r f o r c e c h i l d r e n t o t ake p a r t i n a c t i v i t y . 1 9 . Emphas ize o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l t o p a r t i c i p a t e r a t h e r t h a n f o r the development o f champions . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of. c h i l d r e n b y age groups. '—• The t y p e s o f a c t i v -i t y i n wh ich the young c h i l d i s . i n t e r e s t e d a r e d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e -l y by the s t a g e o f development w h i c h i t has r e a c h e d . I n p l a n -i n g a p rogram i t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t he r e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s h a l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e p e r i o d s o f development as r e p r e s e n t -ed i n the p l a y l i f e o f t he c h i l d i n i n f a n c y , e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , l a t e r c h i l d h o o d , e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e and l a t e r a d o l e s c e n c e . He s h a l l a l s o be f a m i l i a r w i t h the p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s and the c h i e f t y p e s o f p l a y a p p e a l i n g t o the c h i l d a t t he v a r i o u s s t a g e s t h r o u g h wh ich he p a s s e s . A c h i l d does no t a l w a y s s t a y i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r age group f o r p l a y , and t h e r e can be no h a r d and f a s t r u l e l a i d down about t he age p e r i o d a t w h i c h he p a s s e s f rom one s t age o f d e -ve lopment t o another*. There i s a c e r t a i n a d v a n t a g e , however , i n i s o l a t i n g one p e r i o d f rom a n o t h e r i n o r d e r t o b r i n g ou t i t s s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Such a method , a r t i f i c i a l though i t may b e , i s h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w i l l be most b e n e f i c i a l t o the c h i l d r e n a t each age l e v e l . 1 A number o f s t u d e n t s o f the s u b j e c t have d i v i d e d the c h i l d ' s l i f e i n t o d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s . J o s e p h Lee has made the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : L e e , op . c i t . , p a s s i m , ' i b i d . , p a s s i m . 116 1. F i r s t t h r e e y e a r s . — P e r i o d s o f babyhood when the c h i l d ' s l i f e i s l a r g e l y c e n t e r e d i n h i s r e l a t i o n t o h i s m o t h e r . C r e a t i v e i m p u l s e b e g i n s t o m a n i f e s t i t -s e l f i n t h i s p e r i o d . 2 . Three t o s i x . — Age o f I m p e r s o n a t i o n . The i m p u l s e t o i m p e r s o n a t e c o l o r s a l m o s t a l l the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t i e s . M a i n l i n e s o f g r o w t h i n t h i s p e r i o d a re a l o n g the l i n e s Of. f i g h t i n g , n u r t u r e , r h y t h m , c r e a t i o n , c u r i o s i t y and s o c i a l membersh ip . 3* S i x t o e l e v e n . — " B i g I n j u n " o r age of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n s domina ted l a r g e l y by the f i g h t i n g i m p u l s e , though the c h a s i n g , n u r t u r i n g and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a re s t r o n g . o f 4 . E l e v e n t o f o u r t e e n . — A g e ^ l o y a l t y . The " b e l o n g i n g " i n -s t i n c t ' i s s t r o n g . I t i s the age when gangs f l o u r i s h . The p e r i o d s , M r . Lee p o i n t s o u t , a r e n o t s e p a r a t e d by h a r d and f a s t l i n e s but shade g r a d u a l l y i n t o each o t h e r . George E . J o h n s o n has made t h e most d e t a i l e d c l a s s i -• 1 f i c a t i o n w h i c h has been e v o l v e d . H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on the t h e o r y t h a t p l a y a c t i v i t y v a r i e s as t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the a n i m a l v a r i e s , and t h a t a n a t o m i c a l and m e n t a l g r o w t h a r e i n t e r -2 dependen t . He has d i v i d e d h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o seven g r o u p s . The depar tment o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l l -5 f o r n l a has d i v i d e d t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s . The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n l i s t s the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s o f 4 c h i l d r e n unde r f i v e age g r o u p s . -""•Johnson, op . c i t . , p a s s i m . . 2 i n f r a , T a b l e X I V . , 1 1 7 . ^ A b r i e f summary o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the age group* as o u t l i n e d by the Department o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n of t he U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a has been p l a c e d f o r r e f e r e n c e i n the a p p e n d i x . 4 The l i s t o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n p r o p e r l y be encouraged on a p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r i s a lmos t i n f i n i t e i n e x t e n t . However , a s u g g e s t e d l i s t o f games and p l a y s adap ted t o v a r i o u s age g roups w i l l be found i n t h e a p p e n d i x . 117 TABLE X I V AGE CLASSIFICATIONS FOR P L A Y GROUPS L E E JOHNSON U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n As<? »i Group , Y e a r s Group Y e a r s Group I Y e a r s Group I Y e a r s 1. 0 - 5 2. 5 — 6 3. 6 - 1 1 4. 11 - 14 5. 14 - 21 1. 0 - 5 2. 4 - 6 5. 7 - 9 4. 10 - 12 5. 15 - 15 6. 15 - 18 7. 18 - 40 1. 4 - 6 2, 7 - 1 0 5. 11 - 15 4. 14 - 20 lo 0 - 5 2. 6 - 8 5. 8 - 1 1 4. 11 - 14 5. 14 - 18 The p rogram f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , — E a r l J , Reede r , o f the N a t i o n a l S a f e t y C o u n c i l , a f t e r an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e l a t i o n t o a c c i d e n t s , b e l i e v e s t h a t most o f t he 25,000 l i t t l e l i v e s t h a t have been c r u s h e d out on the p a v e -ments o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g f i v e y e a r s c o u l d have been saved had t h e r e been adequate p l a y g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s i n a l l the 1 c i t i e s . He found t h a t c h i l d r e n a re c o m p a r a t i v e l y sa fe g o i n g t o s c h o o l and on e r r a n d s because t h e y a re on g u a r d , but t h a t t h e y a re i n danger when p l a y i n g on o r nea r t he s t r e e t s because t h e y a r e not a l w a y s on g u a r d . I f the p u b l i c can c o n t r o l the p l a y s i t u a t i o n i n the s t r e e t , i t can e l i m i n a t e most o f the a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n . The p r o b l e m t h e n i s p u b l i c p r o -v i s i o n o f more i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n may p l a y . E v e r y s m a l l c h i l d up t o e i g h t y e a r s o f age must be p r o -v i d e d w i t h adequate p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e home. Such p r o v i s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e equ ipp ing , o f b a c k y a r d p l a y g r o u n d s , g a r d e n c o u r t s , r o o f g a r d e n s , c o - o p e r a t i v e l y conduc ted p l a y g r o u n d s 118 and m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s . W i t h a l i t t l e i m a g i n a t i o n on the p a r t o f the r e c r e a t i o n -a l . , o r g a n i z e r , the b a c k y a r d p l a y g r o u n d can be b u i l t a t v e r y l i t t l e expense." 1" Nash l i s t s a few s u g g e s t e d p i e c e s of appa ra tu s w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e c o s t s as f o l l o w s : sand b o x , $ 2 . 0 0 ; h o r i z o n t a l b a r s , $ 6 . 7 5 ; f l y i n g r i n g s , $ 1 0 . 2 5 ; baby s w i n g , #8 .55 ; and the l i k e . 2 E v e r y home i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e young c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have a room, o r a t l e a s t the c o r n e r o f a room, r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r e x c l u s i v e u s e . An a t t i c , a s h e d , o r a basement room, sunny and w e l l - v e n t i l a t e d , w o u l d be an e x c e l l e n t p l a c e f o r p l a y . The p l a y p rogram o f the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d i s l a r g e l y the p r o b l e m o f the home; the o l d e r members o f t he f a m i l y u s u a l l y a c t as p l a y l e a d e r s . A s u p p l e m e n t a r y p rogram can be o f f e r e d on the m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and n e a r b y p l a y c e n t e r s by the p l a y g r o u n d depa r tmen t . T r a v e l l i n g , d i r e c t o r s c o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h i s p rogram by g o i n g f rom one m i n o r c e n t e r t o a n o t h e r on a s c h e d u l e p o s t e d i n the d a i l y newspaper . A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s age a re as f o l l o w s : s i n g i n g games, s t o r y p l a y s , r i n g games , f a i r y t a l e s , r e a l i s t i c s t o r i e s , n a t u r e s t o r i e s , f a n c i f u l f l o w e r t a l e s , c h i l d -r e n f s s o n g s , c h i l d r e n * s poems and o c c u p a t i o n a l games. The p rogram f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . — A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h s t a r t as p l a y a c t i v i t i e s may be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : b i g - m u s c l e a c t i v -i t i e s , l i n g u i s t i c , a c t i v i t i e s , manual a c t i v i t i e s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l 1 " N a s h , op . c i t . , 241 , 2 A n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a w e l l l a i d - o u t home p l a y g r o u n d i s shown i n F i g u r e 3 i n f r a , 1 9 4 . 4 . F I G U R l V : P # J P 1 K : ROMS PLAYGROUND Xbrse! I Shoes I r-lllllll^ •e <re.-fcaj>le Fere-pi ate! °«r <V«or-Je.n | O ^ iPljj boast Hep 5«-tch. ISO a c t i v i t i e s , ( g e n e r a l s c i e n c e and. s o c i a l s c i e n c e ) , and m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d he made by the s c h o o l . A t p r e s e n t m u s i c a l and manual a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e c e i v i n g a measure o f a t t e n t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l . T h i s i n t e r e s t i n -c l u d e s t h e p r o v i d i n g o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g l e e c l u b s , o r c h e s t r a s , and b a n d s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h manual a c -t i v i t i e s a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . S c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r manua l a c t i v i t i e s i n the manua l t r a i n i n g shop , i n the m e t a l - w o r k s h o p , i n the d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r y and i n t h e manual a r t s c l a s s . I n the e a r l y g r a d e s emphas is i s b e -i n g p l a c e d upon d r a m a t i c s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o d u c i n g and s t a g i n g p l a y s c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h o u t s c h o o l l i f e . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l s c i e n c e and g e n e r a l s c \ i e n c e c l u b s a r e b e i n g conduc t ed i n the s c h o o l s t h roughou t t h e y e a r . W i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on so e x t e n s i v e l y by t h e s c h o o l , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e comple t e p rog ram s h o u l d no t . be d u p l i c a t e d by the p l a y g r o u n d depa r tmen t . The s c h o o l i s the" ' p l a c e where such a c t i v i t y can be c a r r i e d on s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . I t must be n o t i c e d t h a t the one t y p e o f p l a y w h i c h i s not b e i n g d u p l i c a t e d i n o t h e r depar tments o f t he s c h o o l i s the " b i g - m u s c l e " t y p e . Ho depar tment o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l o t h e r than the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n depar tment i s s t r e s s i n g t h i s a c t i v i t y . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l t o c a r r y out the p l a y -g r o u n d p rogram o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i f the program i s to be a d -m i n i s t e r e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . Some p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e : 121 team games, group games,' c o n t e s t s , s t u n t s , t a b l e games, o c c u p a -t i o n a l games, h o b b i e s , s i n g i n g games, f o l k d a n c e s , d r a m a t i c d a n c e s , c o m b a t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , s p o r t s 1 c l u b s , a p p a r a t u s , t r a c k 1 and f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l games. The, p rogram f o r , a d u l t s . — The a d u l t group r e q u i r e s I n d i v i d u a l t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o -gram. R e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e a d u l t group s h o u l d be b r o a d l y c o n -c e i v e d . I t s h o u l d n e v e r be l i m i t e d t o what i s c a l l e d the " b i g -m u s c l e " a c t i v i t i e s , bu t s h o u l d i n c l u d e m u s i c a l , manual and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Community r e c r e a t i o n from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the r e c r e a -t i o n b o a r d r e s o l v e s i t s e l f l a r g e l y i n t o a s t i m u l a t i o n and an encouragement o f s e l f - o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s . The f a m i l y , the c h u r c h , t he shop , t he i n d u s t r i a l u n i t , the c l u b , t he improvement a s s o -c i a t i o n , a r e m e r e l y t y p e s o f the many t h a t e x i s t . R e c r e a t i o n i n the community group w i l l be c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y w i t h a s e l e c t -ed group o f a s s o c i a t e s . Such a s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t f rom t h a t o f t h e l o w e r age l e v e l . The s e l f - o r g a n i z e d group needs l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n . I f the s i t u a t i o n i s h a n d l e d p r o p e r l y , t he g roup w i l l manage i t s own p r o b l e m o f d i s c i p l i n e . Many o f the a c t i v i t i e s i n t o w h i c h t h i s s e l f - o r g a n i z e d group e n t e r s can w e l l be made s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . I n f a c t , i f t h e y a re n o t made s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g , t h e y w i l l o f t e n no t be s u c c e s s f u l . Under t h e community p l a n , the c o s t o f r e c r e a t i o n t o t h e i n -d i v i d u a l i s v e r y l o w . F o r example , the c o s t o f a m u n i c i p a l g o l f c o u r s e i s s e ldom more t h a n t e n p e r cen t o f the c o s t o f a p r i v a t e c o u r s e . C i v i c f i n a n c i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n i s n o t i n t e n d e d •j: : " -'"• 1 ' . ' ; ; : — — • i n f r a , 194 . Nash , , op . c i t . , 3 5 1 . 122 to cover a l l types of community recreation. It would not apply to certain types of a c t i v i t y that are expensive and are engaged i n by only a small percentage of the community.. Under the s e l f -sustaining plan, there- might be a great increase i n the types of a c t i v i t i e s offered to the adults of the community. Eventually, even f i s h i n g and hunting might be added to the growing l i s t of community a c t i v i t i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s which are referred to i n this section, to-gether with the places where they occur, should not be confused with the school children's a c t i v i t i e s nor the places where they are carried on. These community a c t i v i t i e s should be organized at d i f f e r e n t places and under dif f e r e n t conditions. In most of the community recreational a c t i v i t i e s , the recreation board acts merely as the organizer and i n i t i a t o r . It organizes leagues, tournaments, regattas; makes out schedules; provides places to play and then withdraws, leaving the group to work out the financing, o f f i c i a t i n g and similar d e t a i l s . If the a c t i v i t i e s show signs of stopping, the recreation department once more i s calle d upon to give the group a new start, Eor the youth, the a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l function under this department w i l l consist l a r g e l y of those a c t i v i t i e s which are similar to the program for the high school boys and g i r l s . ^ Such a c t i v i t i e s are team games, boxing, wrestling, apparatus work, track and f i e l d events, s o c i a l games, swimming, winter sports and the l i k e . Other a c t i v i t i e s for the adult population w i l l consist of games such as golf, tennis, badminton, bowling, swimming, skating and others, i n which the opposite sexes play i n f r a , 194. 123 together. Some t y p i c a l programs.— There are three considerations confront-ing a director i n planning the summer playground program, namely, arranging d a i l y , weekly, and summer schedules. No s p e c i f i c rules can.he l a i d down for the scheduling of the various a c t i v i t i e s . The p r e v a i l i n g conditions, t r a d i t i o n s , and habits of the people i n the neighborhood must .be taken into account. Wise program planning takes advantage of these facts and provides for activ-i t i e s at the times when the children interested can take advan-tage of them. Two suggested summer programs follow i n Tables XV" and 1' XVI. These are for playgrounds on which two leaders at least are employed. The asterisks (*) i n the following tables indicate the a c t i v i t i e s to which the workers give more or less direct and continuous supervision. It w i l l be noted that during several periods more than two a c t i v i t i e s are so indicated. In such cases, a l l these a c t i v i t i e s are not conducted under leadership each day. Some of them are carried,on only once or twice a week. Through-out the entire day, many children w i l l be engaged i n a variety, of continuous s e l f - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The following suggested program w i l l give some conception of the features entering into a community-wide recreational plan for the year." September October Institute for game leaders con- Community Play Day eluding with a general commun- Organization of hiking clubs Ity Play Day Organization of camera clubs Organization of games and play Treasure hunt leaders' club Lantern parade 'Lee, op. c i t . , 47. i n f r a , 124, 125." S B G C - E S T E B D A I L Y P R O G R A M F O R i CUi.lIEB F L A T ' - H O U I I D V I ™ T V O V o r : K L T , G 9:30-10:00 10:00-10:45 10:45-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 13:00- .1:30 Children under 8 Children 8 to 11 knol. -^lag r a i s i n g Getting out equip,.. „ : inspection^appiratusl'and gron --JLPJ.lio=; p o - t m c an-onncer. l ent £; p- an i z i n g rrouVs f o r So'pnipc p i a ^ Boys and Girls over 11a .arking .courts; d i s t r i b u t i n g .c.iBle •Group and si nging garleajj" 'Apparatus play low organized caaec^- '• tppar&tua play t )ro, s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y scheduled; Ti-> J i i f o r m a l team and group games 'and box .pl a y - — B l o c k b u i l d i n g '•torytelling*- Sand box play-<look b u i l d i n g  i-'lay; attendance tr.keB; playgro" i a n d i c r a f t r .Bature• aoj»i»itie9fe Quiet .Games Badge tasks, " t w i t s , • etc.*; I clean-up Handicraft*. Mature a c t i v i t i e s * - Quiet g-mes |Badge t e s t s , stunts, etc 1:30- 2:00 2:00- 2:30 2:30- 2:45 2:45- 4:15 4:15- 5:15 0:30 S A T ^ a l ^ n ^ r 1 - p r e P a r 6 3 f°r a " e r R 0 C l n e T 9 n t a °<"" i o - l P a n i c s or , e i n e r roasts Quiet games . s t o r y t e l l i n g and story a c t i n g * troup paraes* Music* Apparatus b l a y p i s i c a c t i v i t i e s * Informal group games I n d i v i d u a l Karnes and a t h l e t i c events Free a c t i v i t i e s Sand box play Quiet' games Organization Of team games* P r a c t i c e f o r League Games or f o r s p e c i a l events Preparation f o r lafternoon f e a t u r e s * o s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y scheduled; f r o play; attendance taken; p r e p a r , " :n f o r s n e c i B ! eventr. or c o n t e s t ..pparatus play Singing pomes "aking oart i n or watching s p e c i a l events ...uiet games Sand box play Contest, tournaments ot s p e c i a l features** Handicraft1 Preparation f o r coming events S t o r y t e l l i n g * . Dramatics*. Folk dancing^. Quiet games , Meetings of playground clubs and committees *o scheduled a c t i v i t y One leader .resent C o l l e c t ' oli.vg .lay be used b" •"ovr.r people or adults f o r team "anes S p e c i a l features^ outing, contests and tournaments** League Games i n playground baseball v o l l e y b a l l , e tc. Preparation for'coming events ' [Handicraft Completion of s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s ^ S t o r y t e l l i n g * Dramatics* Fo l k dancing* Meetings of playground 'clubs, and, committees Quiet games  >und suppl. ..u and check c o n d i t i o n of. playgrounds ^loyground OD Pi •H ra m CD I>5 •=8 8 co CO <d P t OC ft p i O 00 • P ft Pi CC c b . H CO 03 N >H r j f>J 03 CO OC - d ft • H o ro ft CD £ 8 o S H OO OO Pi [•H H H CD ft o l-p CO o M ca pi PJ H O CO 'H »H !-P O CQ CO (0 CO ft P . ft CO CQ £ P +3 c0 h co .14 O CD lP-t.*H C H H CD CO l>i ft CQ ...H H ,pJ - p O A") . p p| CD CD CO CD Pi CD CD i> CO g <H ij) ! 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CQ >H raw • p P! ft CD O CD C\3 1^—-ft ra 0 24 t> CD CD CD - P P S 'H o g co 8 ft G CO o -p p A a> ft oo ft O "H |PH t H pj oo PJ i«H • o § f d ft o ft hP H 8 8 o tQ (=•9-- p ft raj 00 !> CD • H CD CD I is;-- &l 00 Pi •H CD Pi CQ OOCD co 8 CD • CO H oo p i ra i-i O o CO *H , CO - P M 8 CD 'H C0<H O ft CO ft O co 00 Pi •H • P o p CO a> to f - i © CO PJ 8 O ft o H o "si ~' - H 1 • •H O , ' d H CO o P i « H p •> c3 ca w cr> t IJ r d CQ ft Pi Q M a LO p 66: H H OO P i •H ' H : H CD !-P !>s ft o hp co I p o P N P o-to o |H HJH CXtlw i—I H H H e - ? | H ca CD I CO oo P i ft leu l-p Pi ft CD O 8 co ra ft CO PI Pi O « H 'EH-'H H ra co -p • H CQ O CD CD - P CQ O O OO oo pi P i >r-l ••"-) O H rH' CD - P f=s ft O O - P ft CO \M H: o •-ft ft*-; lo o o to • • -»» CM W I'sf H Hi I H H ft * 0 O ltd t<3 1 * • ** 126 September (cont'd) Organization of s t o r y t e l l i n g '.• clubs Organization of community music clubs Organization of dramatic clubs Checker tournament Labor Day Celebration Hikes HOYember Armistice Day celebration Special Thanksgiving stories i n schools and churches Opening of neighborhood recrea-ion centers H i s t o r i c a l pageant S t o r y t e l l i n g contest Soccer January Twelfth Night and New Year's Eve party Continuation of winter sports :and indoor games Dramatics Music memory contest Coasting parties Ice carnival Moving pictures Out-of-doors day Drama i n s t i t u t e March St. Patrick's Day party Indoor community box supper, games and s p e l l i n g bee Table tennis tournament Easter sunrise c e l e b r a t i o n — carols, egg r o l l i n g and hunts .Marble and top tournaments May May Day f e s t i v a l and games Mothers' Day Celebration of Memorial Day Arbor Day celebration F i e l d Day Kite tournament Music Week October (cont'd) Old Home ?/eek. . Hallowe'en celebration Pushmobile tournament Barn dance December Organization of winter sports General development of i n -door games Community Christmas tree celebration lather and son banquets Organization of Sunday School a t h l e t i c league Loaned art exhibit February Community choruses "Valentine party Weekly gymnasium classes Stunt night Business men's volley b a l l G i r l s ' v o l l e y b a l l Community music i n s t i t u t e A p r i l Organization of vo l l e y b a l l and indoor basket b a l l league Roller skating tournament S t i l t tournament Bird Day Play tournament Recreation i n s t i t u t e June Vacant l o t play with volunteer leaders Bird-house contest Organization of playgrounds Volley b a l l tournament Celebration of Flag Day 12? August A t h l e t i c Badge Tests Croquet tournament Horseshoe tournament Star study parties F i r s t of July celebration Swimming contest .and Play day F e s t i v a l on playground Bank concerts Tennis tournament Community picn i c Exhibits Community singing Bank concerts Twilight baseball Camping Block parties Outdoor dramatics Pet shows Reception of new c i t i z e n s Camping The necessity for a year-round recreational program.-- In con-clusion, reasons for the necessity of a year-round recreational system might be summarized as follows: (a) The need of self-expression through play and recrea-t i o n i s a year-round need. Without the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h i s need, the l i f e of the in d i v i d u a l cannot be well-balanced. (b) It i s essential to the l i f e and growth of the chi l d . The f u l l development of the c h i l d requires play every day of the year. (c) It i s necessary to the well-being of the adult. Mod-ern working conditions make i t imperative that the worker find relaxation i n expressional a c t i v i t i e s which continue throughout the year* (d) It i s necessary for the needs of the community as a whole. A community enjoys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n pageants, i n celebra-tions, i n community singing, and i n other events which bring i t s c i t i z e n s together. (e) It attracts and u t i l i z e s the highest type of leader-ship. The secret of success i n community recreation l i e s i n leadership. Part-time employment does not attract the best workers to seek playground' positions. 128 (f) A well-rounded program of a c t i v i t i e s i s essential to meet the needs of communities and of groups. Winter sports, spring and f a l l sports, and summer a c t i v i t i e s are combined into a plan which w i l l be community-wide and expressive of the inter-ests of a l l . (g) The benefits derived from part-time recreational pro-grams j u s t i f y their extension throughout the year. Play as a health and character building function cannot be limited to the summer months. Juvenile delinquency i s not peculiar to any one season. (h) It i s important to continue and reinforce the school program. The free time i n the late afternoon, after school has closed, and on Saturdays presents a challenge to the community for year-round f a c i l i t i e s , leadership, and a program of construc-tive recreation. (i) It i s good business economy to have the year-round recreational system. Large investments are made in f a c i l i t i e s which often operate less than one-third of the year. Long terms of i n a c t i v i t y result i n duplication and waste. Ij)- The year-round recreational system i s essential to municipal e f f i c i e n c y . With such, the c i t y i s a good place i n which to l i v e for i t s c i t i z e n s , and an a t t r a c t i v e place to out-siders. (k) The year-round recreational program has now passed the experimental stage and become an established fact. In 1934 approximately 290 c i t i e s on the continent conducted year-round recreation i n charge of workers employed for the f u l l twelve months,"1" . -^•Recreation, op. c i t . , 66-95. 129 (1) Modern c i t y conditions demand the year-round recrea-t i o n a l program and i t i s a definite part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a modern community to provide i t . Each year more c i t i e s are placing their a c t i v i t i e s on the year-round basis; each year more public funds are being spent for year-round recreation. These facts are signif i c a n t testimony to the value of the year-round recreational system. Conclusion.— The problem of planning an effective playground program i s one concerned with arranging the deta i l s of the daily, weekly and monthly a c t i v i t i e s which are to be offered, encouraged and taught on the playgrounds. Provision must be made for the recreational needs of a l l who frequent the playground; the d i r -ector must take each group according to i t s p a r t i c u l a r need, desires, and play tendencies for a given period each day. Programs should be f l e x i b l e , varied to suit the condi-tions of different l o c a l i t i e s , and the ages and sex of atten-dants, and permitting plenty of i n i t i a t i v e on the part of the director. Dates for special* a c t i v i t i e s , e f f i c i e n c y tests, ex-h i b i t i o n s , f i e l d days, outings, etc. should be posted ahead. Most playground programs should be planned so that they culminate i n a f i n a l event or a series of events. The f i n a l event or events should serve as an objective toward which the children, and their leaders work, not i n forced but i n happy normal play during the whole season. 130 (B) Provisions for Recreation Other than Organized Playground A c t i v i t i e s There are many a c t i v i t i e s of the recreational program which should be given special attention, for they can not be l o g i c a l l y included i n the playground program. Municipal g o l f . — The r i s e of the municipal golf course move-ment brought with i t a method of financing community recreation which i s being strongly recommended, namely, the "pay as you go" plan."'" The new method was forced upon the community because of the high cost of the construction and maintenance of a golf course. Coupled with t h i s high cost of construction and opera-tion was the fact that golf was at f i r s t played by only a small percentage of the people. Because of the limited number of people who played the game, support by public taxation was impracticable. The present popularity of golf i s undoubtedly due to the p a r t i c u l a r appeal of the game, and to the fact that i t i s played i n small groups. The fact that i t i s an out-of-door game for young and old has been one feature i n i t s favor. The game provides vigorous exercise of the body as well as mental relaxa-t i o n . Municipal golf courses are being organized i n most of the large c i t i e s on the continent. The popularity of this form of recreation i s evident by the large numbers which participate. The recreation board should be the organizing agency in the c i t y for the promotion of municipal golf. It i s safe to say that any c i t y that builds a good and 'Nash, op• c i t . , 354. 131 accessible golf course and places a reasonable charge of from f i f t y to seventy-five cents for a round of play, w i l l be able to cover a l l the costs of operation and i n addition lay aside at least ten per cent of the income to take care of upkeep."*" The municipal camp.— The municipal camp i s a place of public recreation e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from the private camp and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l camp. It i s not a place for convalescents, nor i s i t a charitable i n s t i t u t i o n ; i t i s simply an extension of the park and playground system. The municipal camp i s a place where people resort i n family units. It i s pe r f e c t l y obvious that regardless of finan-c i a l considerations, a family with small children i s out of place in the t y p i c a l summer resort. The children are an annoyance to thei r parents, to the guests, and to the management. Under mun-i c i p a l camp conditions, where the family unit i s maintained, the cost of supervision may be kept at a minimum. The municipal camp makes possible l i f e in the open under more or less primitive con-ditions; provision i s made f o r three basic needs: shelter, proper cooking accommodation, and health protection. To these w i l l , of course, be added the various recreational a c t i v i t i e s . The camp i s b u i l t upon the basis that every person i n camp must be of some assistance. In the f i r s t place, the campers take care of the i r own beds, and are responsible for the picking up of papers within reasonable distance of their sleeping quar- • ters. The campers take turns i n waiting on the table, and stack-ing the dishes, as well as i n preparing the f r u i t s and vegetables. Campers a s s i s t weekly i n organizing and contributing entertain-ment to the evening camp f i r e . In a well-organized camp talents iKash, op. c i t . , 765. 152 w i l l be brought to l i g h t which have remained dormant for years. The low cost of the municipal camp seems almost unbeliev-able. It i s possible to transport people and return them at the end of the two weeks, during which time they have been housed i n tents or cabins with cots and mattresses, have been provided with well-cooked food, and have been afforded the opportunity of a great variety of recreational opportunities, for approx-imately a d o l l a r a day plus transportation costs. The t y p i c a l camp i s provided with a nurse, life-guard, . playground director, director of hikes, nature guide and director of evening s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Municipal camps have been organized i n many of the large c i t i e s of the continent. Such camps are almost e n t i r e l y self-supporting and are proving to be a very successful part of the recreational program. Community c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ^ " — Cultural a c t i v i t i e s are of interest and value to a l l members of the community. In the pre-school children's program are found a c t i v i t i e s such as drama-t i c games, story plays, and dances. For school children, a c t i v -i t i e s such as folk dances, music and dramatics are arranged, and for the adult group, a c t i v i t i e s such as pageants, plays, panto-mines, masques, and f e s t i v a l s . By means of such a c t i v i t i e s , wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various forms of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y should be effected. This program should be carried out throughout the •'•Nash, op. c i t . , 372. 2No single word i s inclusive enough to take i n a l l types of community a c t i v i t i e s such as drama, music,- and folk and drama-t i c dancing. The Eisteddfod i s being used in certain parts of the continent to designate just this type of competition. The name "Eisteddfod" comes from the Welsh, and i t has had a very important place i n the development of the cultural l i f e of the Welsh- people. 153 year. A plan which would provide special programs for various holidays and f e s t i v a l s , should be made out i n advance. There should be a central municipal costume room, where a l l costumes and scenery for dramatic a c t i v i t i e s could be stored and kept in good condition so that they may be used on other occasions. A definite budget allowance should be made for the var-ious types of a c t i v i t i e s . This allowance may be kept within reasonable l i m i t s by adherence to simple and inexpensive proper-t i e s . Volunteer help can be secured for the making of costumes, for the construction of scenery, and for the u t i l i z a t i o n of orchestras. It i s essential that the costs be low, so that i t w i l l not be necessary to make an admission charge. Community.centers.— Community centers are not new insofar as their general functions are concerned. There have always been community gathering places. At these gathering places interest-ing a c t i v i t i e s have always taken place. In the early days when recreation boards became interested i n the use of the community center as a part of the recreational l i f e of the community, the center was associated with the needs of the underprivileged. A c t i v i t i e s were organized for the people, but in no way by the people. It was soon seen that before any of these a c t i v i t i e s could become educational, they must be changed from a charity 1 basis to a self-sustaining basis. The new community center ?;hich i s emerging from the charity-dominated and au t o c r a t i c a l l y managed center of the past w i l l be a part of the school or of the recreational a c t i v i t i e s 'Nash, op. c i t . , 412. 134 of the c i t y . However, i t w i l l he controlled "by the people or-ganized into self-governing groups. Community f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be used, such as school build-ings, park and playground f i e l d houses and l i b r a r i e s . The groups which use these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be self-organized and self-sus-taining, engaging i n many v a r i e t i e s of wholesome a c t i v i t i e s i n which they are interested as contributing c i t i z e n s of a commun-i t y . Thus the community center w i l l be merely one of the admin-i s t r a t i v e branches of the recreation board. It i s preferable that the schools conduct a c t i v i t i e s i n their own buildings, but i f t h i s i s not being done to the f u l l capacity, some co-operative measures should be taken so that the parks and school boards of the c i t y can combine their forces to carry out one intensive program. Community games.— There are a number of p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f a c -tory community games. F a c i l i t i e s should be provided for games such as baseball, soccer, f o o t b a l l and tennis. There i s prac-t i c a l l y no l i m i t to the number of grounds that could be used for these games. Horseshoes and quoits are always popular with com-munity groups. These games are used extensively in connection with camping a c t i v i t i e s and i n d u s t r i a l a t h l e t i c s and i n parks where older men gather. Again, the game of archery has gained i n popularity i n t h i s country very rapidly during the past d e c a d e . F a c i l i t i e s for archery are not d i f f i c u l t to provide. Bonarro, which evolved out of archery and golf offers an excel-lent example of a suitable community game. It i s less monoton-ous than archery alone, and there i s exercise of the legs as 'Nash, op. c i t . , 441. 135 well as the. upper body. There are many other types of a c t i v i t i e s , such as howl-ing , horseback r i d i n g , f l y casting and trap shooting, that can be encouraged by the provision of f a c i l i t i e s and the stimulation of interest through propaganda and organization. With the community providing merely the f a c i l i t i e s and a l l a c t i v i t i e s being placed upon a self-sustaining basis, these forms of community recreation must inevitably be enlarged. Winter a c t i v i t i e s . — Winter sports should constitute one of the features of the municipal recreational program. The promotion of winter a c t i v i t i e s helps to round out and complete the com-munity program. Some of the winter a c t i v i t i e s which should be included i n the recreational program are skating, snowshoeing, tobogganing and bobsledding; while cross-country skiing, ski s l i d i n g and curling should be made special carnival events. Many f a c i l i t i e s can be provided at very l i t t l e cost through the recreation board, but outdoor skating rinks can be made in very cold weather by having the fire-department flood suitable areas. In some c i t i e s , streets are set aside for coast-ing, while snow-erusted h i l l s are used for tobogganing and may be iced for greater smoothness and speed. There would be a considerable increase i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n winter a c t i v i t i e s i f f a c i l i t i e s were provided and equipment rented out. Swimming p o o l s . — A marked interest in the building of pools i s at present evident on the continent. Pools are being constructed in playground and recreational centers, churches, clubs, schools -'-Safety regulations pertaining to the winter a c t i v i t i e s need to be published and emphasized. These can be well adver-tised i n the newspapers, and children should be urged through school to observe them. 136 and even in apartment houses. The modern swimming pool may be a great blessing or a greater curse; a place where wholesome exercise and recreation may be secured, or one of the most effectual mediums for dis-seminating the germs of disease. Sanitation can be guaranteed only through e f f i c i e n t administration. Such administration i n -cludes the control of bathers; the cleaning, control, and opera-tion of the poolroom and service departments; and .the control of the water supply and i t s heating, f i l t r a t i o n and s t e r i l i z a t i o n . 1 A swimming pool i s a safe and sanitary place to swim in only when the management i s i n t e l l i g e n t , responsible, and eternally v i g i l a n t , and bathers are conscientious, careful, and co-opera-t i v e . Many companies owning their own pools are not able to finance a c t i v i t i e s successfully. Some co-operative arrangement should be made with them by the recreation board. There i s no reason why the recreation board could not organize a c t i v i t i e s i n these swimming pools by renting them for certain periods and a s s i s t i n g their financing by subsidizing the costs of administra-tion during these r e n t a l periods. Recreation for i n d u s t r i a l workers.—• Many i n d u s t r i a l plants on the continent are conducting intra-mural recreational programs and are providing such f a c i l i t i e s as play areas, swimming pools, a t h l e t i c f i e l d s and recreational buildings. Any program based merely upon increasing the e f f i c i e n c y of the worker, or upon the i d e a l of health for greater economy of work, w i l l certainly f a i l . The employer must co-operate with the employees as dem-o c r a t i c a l l y as possible i n organizing a c t i v i t i e s . -'-Nash, op. c i t . , 441. 137 The r e c r e a t i o n h o a r d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program, f o r • i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . The d u t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s n o t p r i m a r i l y t o c o n d u c t , b u t a l s o t o o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s . He s h o u l d f i n d o u t what t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n t h e i n d u s t r i a l g r o u p s want; when t h e y can p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s ; a n d where t h e n e a r e s t f a c i l i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d . When a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n c o l l e c t e d , t h e d i r e c t o r o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h c o m m i t t e e s f r o m t h e e m p l o y e e s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , s h o u l d l a y o u t t h e y e a r ' s p r o g r a m and o u t l i n e t h e p o l i c i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d a l s o be made l a r g e l y s e l f - s u s t a i n -i n g , t h a t i s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s h o u l d d e f r a y t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g them. I t i s assumed t h a t f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as f i e l d s c o u r t s , d i a m o n d s , gymnasiums a n d c l u b r o o m s w i l l be e i t h e r f u r -n i s h e d by t h e e m p l o y e r , o r t h a t r e g u l a r f a c i l i t i e s o f the c i t y r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d w i l l be u s e d . S u c h a-..lei sure--: t i m e movement on t h e p a r t o f t h e w o r k e r s i s by no means c o n f i n e d t o s p o r t s . I t i s b e i n g c o n s t a n t l y b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n . -^Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , i s c o n d u c t i n g an e x t e n s i v e r e c r e a -t i o n a l p r o g r a m t h r o u g h t h e I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f G r e a t e r O a k l a n d and t h e G i r l s ' A u x i l i a r y f o s t e r e d by t h e O a k l a n d R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t . * ^ I n f - r a , 198. 138 ;/"/CHAPTER V I I I THE ADMINIS TEATION OE PLAY CENTERS A t t h i s p o i n t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p rob l ems e n c o u n t e r e d by the d i r e c t o r o f r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be o u t l i n e d . The t r e a t m e n t o f the p rob lems w i l l o f n e c e s s i t y be g e n e r a l r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c . P l a n f o r a t y p i c a l e lementary, s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d I n F i g u r e V I i s found, an example o f a w e l l - p l a n n e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p l a y -g r o u n d . 1 The r e a d e r - w i l l no te the l a n d s c a p i n g , the f e n q i n g , and t h e generous s i z e o f . t h e b a s e b a l l g r o u n d . P r o v i s i o n s have been made f o r a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s and boys and a l s o f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n . S c h e d u l e o f h o u r s . - - O n a p l a y g r o u n d where one woman and one man a r e i n c h a r g e , i t i s sugges t ed t h a t the woman be i n charge from 10 A . M . to 6 P . M . , and the man from 1 P M . By means o f sueh an a r rangement i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r the i n s t r u c t r e s s to be on the p l a y g r o u n d i n the m o r n i n g and a f t e r n o o n when most o f the c h i l d r e n were, t h e r e . The i n s t r u c t o r wou ld be p r e s e n t on the p l a y g r o u n d d u r i n g the a f t e r n o o n , and w o u l d a l s o be t h e r e d u r i n g the e v e n i n g hours y/hen the a c t i v i t i e s f o r o l d e r boys and men were c a r r i e d o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , he w o u l d be t h e r e i n the e v e n i n g to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he e v e r - p r e s e n t p r o b l e m o f d i s c i p l i n e . . P r o v i s i o n s f o r r a i n y d a y s . r - - l n many c i t i e s , i n d o o r q u a r t e r s a r e p r o v i d e d where a c t i v i t i e s may be c o n t i n u e d i n case o f emergency o r s t o r m . A l i g h t shower i s n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a j u s t i f i -a b l e excuse f o r t he c l o s i n g o f a p l a y g r o u n d . The P l a y g r o u n d and Recs rea t ion A s s o c i a t i o n o f Wyoming. V a l l e y sugges t s t h a t i f i t i s r a i n i n g h a r d a t 9 A . M . , i n s t r u c t o r s s h o u l d not r e p o r t f o r a u t y u n t i l a f t e r the shower i s o v e r . I f a shower comes d u r i n g i n f r a , 139 . FIGURE 71 A WELL-PLANNED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PLAYGROUND ( F o r Key See Next Page) KEY TO FIGURE V I A W E L L - P M N E D ELEMENTARYSCHOOL PLAYGROUND D e s c r i p t i o n o f A p p a r a t u s I n d i c a t e d by Numbers on D i a g r a m , 1 . G i r l s 1 Sand-box The d imens ions o f t h i s a re 1 ' x 5 ' x 1 2 ' . I t i s equ ipped w i t h a s h e l f w h i c h s e r v e s e i t h e r as a s e a t o r as a m o l d i n g t a b l e . I t i s f i l l e d w i t h a c o a r s e g rade o f s a n d , w h i c h w i l l no t become d u s t y i n d r y w e a t h e r n o r muddy when m o i s t e n e d . . 2 . G i r l s 1 S l i d e — - T h i s i s a m e d i u m - s i z e d s l i d e and e q u i p -ped w i t h a l a n d i n g - p i t f i l l e d w i t h c l e a n s a n d , 3 . G i r l s ' - G y m n a s i u m Frame, w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f s i x t r a v e l i n g r i n g s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r u n i t y has been foxznd most s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r g i r l s . 4 . G i r l s r V o l l e y - b a l l C o u r t , w h i c h has 4 x 4 - i n c h p o s t s s e t i n s o c k e t s , so t h a t t h e y may be e a s i l y removed. 5* G i r l s 1 B a s k e t - b a l l C o u r t — - p o s t s s e t i n s i c k e t s . (Num-b e r s 4 and 5 a r e c o n v e r t i b l e i n t o t e n n i s c o u r t s d u r i n g seasons ?/hen b a s k e t b a l l i s no t p l a y e d , ) 6 . Double H a n d b a l l Cour t s—One s i d e f o r boys and the o t h e r f o r g i r l s . T h i s c o n s i s t s o f p l a i n h a n d b a l l b a c k s t o p s t w e n t y f e e t w i d e , t w e l v e f e e t h i g h , w i t h a s i x - f o o t w i r e e x t e n s i o n . 7 . Boys* B a s k e t - b a l l C o u r t s — p o s t s s e t i n s o c k e t s . 8 . B o y s ' V o l l e y - b a l l C o u r t — - p o s t s s e t i n s o c k e t s . ( l um-b e r s 7 and 8 a r e c o n v e r t i b l e i n t o t e n n i s c o u r t s . ) 9 . B o y s ' Gymnasium Frame U n i t s e l e c t e d f o r b o y s ' gymna-s ium frame i s one h o r i z p n t a l b a r , one c l i m b i n g - p o l e , one c l i m b i n g - r l a d d e r , two s e t s f l y i n g - r i n g s , 1 0 . H i g h S l i d e f o r B o y s , e q u i p p e d w i t h l a n d i n g - p i t f i l l e d w i t h s a n d . 1 1 . Sand-Box f o r B o y s , equ ipped as Number 1. 1 2 . S o c c e r p o s t s * made o f 6 x 6 - i n c h p o s t s . S i z e o f f i e l d i s r e d u c e d t o 50 x 80 y a r d s , w h i c h has p r o v e d s a t i s -f a c t o r y f o r s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d p u r p o s e s . Hockey i s p l a y e d on t h i s f i e l d . 1 3 . J u m p i n g - p i t , f i l l e d w i t h s h a v i n g s . 14* W i r e - c a g e B a c k s t o p s f o r b a s e b a l l * 141 the hours o f d u t y , the i n s t r u c t o r s a r e a sked no t to go home u n l e s s the s to rm has l a s t e d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t ime and the grounds have been r e n d e r e d u n f i t f o r the c a r r y i n g on o f the p r o g r a m . I n some c i t i e s , w o r k e r s are r e q u i r e d to go to the o f f i c e i f r a i n makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e d i r e c t o r s t o keep the p l a y g r o u n d open . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s , s t a f f mee t ings a r e h e l d , o r the w o r k e r s spend the t ime r e p a i r i n g equ ipment . P r o v i s i o n s . for s a f e t y a n d , h e a l t h . — G r e a t ca r e s h o u l d be t a k e n i n the p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g p l a y g r o u n d s . Gare i s n o t o n l y o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the s a f e -t y o f the c h i l d r e n , b u t a l s o from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the person^-a l l i a b i l i t y o f t he d i r e c t o r and the l i a b i l i t y o f the c i t y . ,1: The p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s and the c a r e t a k e r s s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n s p e c t i o n o f t he v a r i o u s grounda. A p p a r a -tus s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d f o r d e f e c t s d a i l y i f p o s s i b l e , and a t any r a t e n o t l e s s t h a n w e e k l y . Any d e f e c t s d e t e c t e d s h o u l d be r e p o r t e d i m m e d i a t e l y and d e f e c t i v e appa ra tu s s h o u l d be e l i m i n -a t e d o r i n some o t h e r way made n o n - u s a b l e u n t i l i t can be r e -p a i r e d . E v e r y p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e measure f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h e a l t h and the p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t s h o u l d be e n f o r c e d . Such p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d I n c l u d e the e n f o r c i n g o f a l l the laws o f s a n i t a t i o n and o f a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n . Some o f the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e : 1. The p l a y g r o u n d s h o u l d be s p r i n k l e d to e l i m i n a t e d u s t 2 . L a v a t o r i e s s h o u l d be k e p t c l e a n . 5 . S a n i t a r y d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s s h o u l d be. p r o v i d e d . 4 . Showers t a k e n by c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d . 5. Towels s h o u l d no t be used by more than one p e r s o n . 6 . F a c i l i t i e s f o r w a s h i n g hands s h o u l d b e - p r o v i d e d . _ / 7 . C i r c l e games where t h e r e i s "hand h o l d i n g " s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d . 142 8. C h i l d r e n who a re o b v i o u s l y i l l s h o u l d he e x c l u d e d from the p l a y g r o u n d . 9.. S m a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p l a y i n p r o t e c t e d a r e a s . 1 0 . Swings s h o u l d be f e n c e d . 1 1 . Danger zones f o r the g i a n t s t r i d e s h o u l d be marked . 1 2 . Danger zones f o r h a r d b a s e b a l l s h o u l d be marked . •13 . Danger zones f o r ho r seshoe games s h o u l d be marked . 1 4 . Sand boxes s h o u l d be k e p t c l e a n . 1 5 . S o f t l a n d i n g - p i t s should, be p r o v i d e d under a l l ap -• ' . p a r a t u s where c h i l d r e n c l i m b . 1 6 . S o f t l a n d i n g - p i t s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r the s l i d e s 1 7 . There s h o u l d be no u n s u p e r v i s e d l o a f i n g - p l a e e s . 1 8 . A p p a r a t u s s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y . 1 9 . A l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d i n the use o f the a p p a r a t u s . ! D i s c i p l i n e on the p l a y g r o u n d . — S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i s one o f the g r e a t o b j e c t i v e s i n t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p . I n many i n s t a n c p l a y g r o u n d s have no t c o n t r i b u t e d e f f e c t i v e l y to e i t h e r s e l f -d i s c i p l i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r or g o o d . c i t i z e n s h i p i n g e n e r a l . One w r i t e r : s a y s : There have been many i n s t a n c e s on p l a y g r o u n d s when goodness has no t been i n t e r e s t i n g . Take , f o r example , the. s i t u a t i o n Where the ' b u l l y ' o f the ne ighborhood e n t e r s the p l a y g r o u n d . The d i r e c t o r s e n s i n g t r o u b l e • d rops v/hat he i s d o i n g and devo t e s h i s a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . He g e t s h im i n t o a b a s k e t -b a l l game p r o v i d e s h im w i t h a good b a l l and maybe he even r e f e r e e s t h e game. ' I t i s e s s e n t i a l , ' he s a y s , ' f o r i f I do no t do t h i s , . t h e r e w i l l be t r o u b l e . ' B u t the weakness here I s i m m e d i a t e l y s e e n : because o f the t r oub l e some c h a r a c t e r o f the ' bad c i t i z e n ' he g e t s a l l the a t t e n t i o n . The ' good c i t i z e n * on the p l a y -g round who keeps the r u l e s , l o o k s out f o r h i m s e l f . T h i s t r e a t m e n t on the p l a y g r o u n d causes the v e r y s i t u a t i o n we want to a v o i d — n a m e l y , making bad c i t i z e n s h i p p r o f i t -a b l e . Make goodness I n t e r e s t i n g . 3 u s t make i t p r o f i t a b l e to be l a w - a b i d i n g . L e t I t be known t h a t the more l a w -a b i d i n g a c h i l d i s , the more p r i v i l e g e s he may have , and the l e s s l a w - a b i d i n g , the l e s s p r i v i l e g e s he may h a v e , ^ Smoking , i m p r o p e r c o n d u c t , o r the use o f improper l a n - . guage s h o u l d no t be p e r m i t t e d on the p l a y g r o u n d , nor should, the r o u g h t r e a t m e n t o f any p r o p e r t y be a l l o w e d . C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be 1 N a s h , o p . c i t . , 327 2 i b i d , 3 2 8 . 143 t a u g h t to t ake a p e r s o n a l p r i d e i n the c a r e o f the a p p a r a t u s , the p l a y g r o u n d i n g e n e r a l , the f i e l d houses and the s c h o o l ' •"buildings. O l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f o r c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . — R e f -erence- has been made t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n t o age g roups f o r t he pu rpose o f p l a n n i n g s p e c i f i c p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r s u c h g r o u p s . I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r the d i f f i c u l t pro? b l e m o f c l a s s i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r the pu rpose o f o b t a i n i n g homogeneous groups f o r p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y t e s t s . Many methods o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s a re b e i n g used t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . A l l o f them have e lements o f s t r e n g t h , and l i k e w i s e e l emen t s o f w e a k n e s s . P r o b a b l y the a g e - h e i g h t -w e l g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b e s t . An example o f t h i s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I I . 1 O the r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have a t t empted to u t i l i z e a s t r e n g t h o r a c a p a c i t y i n d e x f o r the pu rpose o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . None o f t h e s e has been used s u f f i c i e n t l y to p r o v e i t s v a l u e . Mos t o f them a r e e n t i r e l y too c o m p l i c a t e d f o r p l a y g r o u n d u s e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the end has c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e o b j e c -t i v e s , and any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h r e a l i z e s these o b j e c t i v e s may be u s e d . One o f the f i r s t o b j e c t s o f a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s a f e t y . C h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n games f o r w h i c h t hey a r e n o t p h y s i c a l l y s u i t e d . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i v e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t he e q u a l i z a t i o n o f p l a y i n g a b i l i t y . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n tends t o s e t c e r t a i n l i m i t s o f a b i l i t y w i t h i n w h i c h c o m p e t i t i o n can be C a r r i e d o n . F i n a l l y , one o f the l a s t , bu t no t the l e a s t , o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the p r o v i d i n g of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g g roups w i t h i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n so t h a t i t may be p o s s i b l e t o i n c l u d e e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i n the a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m . 1 i n f r a , 144. TABLE X V I I AGE-HEIGHT-WEIGHT -CLASSIFICATION FOE COMPETITIVE ACTIVITIES. R a t i n g Age : Yrs,..Mos H e i g h t . Inche£ Weigh -! Pounds t. 5 R a t i n g Sum o f R a t i n g C l a s s 1 Below 9-6 Below 50 Below 61 1 2 9-6 9-11 50 61-64 2 3 10-0 10-5 51 65-67 3 4 10-6 10-11 52-53 68-70 4 , 5 • 11-0 11-5 54 71 75 5 Below 12 A 6 11-6 11-11 55-56 76-80 6 7 12-0 12-5 ' 57-58 81-85 7 8 12-6 12-11 59 86-89 8 12-20 B 13-0 60- 90-9 13-5 61 94 9 10 13-6 13-11 62 95 100 10 11 14-0 14-5 63 101-106 11 21-29 G 12 14-6 14-11 64 •107-112 12 13 15-0 15-5 65 113-117 13 30-37 D 14 15-6 15-11 66 118-122 14 15 16-0 16-5 123-127 15 38-47 E 16 16-6 16-11 67 128 130 16 48-57 F 17 17-0 17-5 131 133 17 18 17-6 17-11 68 134-135 18 57 and ove r G 19 18-0 18-5 136-138 19 20 18-6 18-11. 69 139-141 20 21 19-0 . and o v e r Over' : •; 69 Over 141 21 Example: Boy Age 15 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s . . R a t i n g f o r age.....13 H e i g h t 63 i n c h e s . . . . . . . R a t i n g f o r h e i g h t . . 1 1 Weight 119, p o u n d s . . . . . . R a t i n g f o r weig h t . . 1 4 Sum o f r a t i n g . . . . . . . . 3 8 -- " C l a s s 145 P l a y g r o u n d h o n o u r - p o i n t s y s t e m s . - - T h e h o n o u r - p o i n t sys tem has been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a l a r g e number o f p l a y g r o u n d systems d u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s , and r ' e c r e a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s have d e v i s e d v a r i o u s methods o f g r a n t i n g p o i n t s and awards f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and ach ievemen t i n a w i d e range o f a c t i v i t i e s . However, t he r e ; i s no s t a n d a r d sys t em i n u s e . Some p l a n s a r e s i m p l e , f o r t h e y a re based on a few a c t i v i t i e s and on a l i m i t e d number of. p o i n t s , whereas o t h e r s a r e e l a b o r a t e , n e c e s s i t a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r e c o r d k e e p i n g . Some a re r e s t r i c t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l boy o r g i r l , w h i l e o t h e r s i n v o l v e group p a r t i c i p a t i o n or a ch i evemen t , i n many c i t i e s , p o i n t s a r e g r a n t e d t o p l a y g r o u n d s r a t h e r t h a n to i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . The P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f Wyoming V a l l e y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , g i v e s p o i n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g ' the summer p l a y g r o u n d s e a s o n . I n t h i s com-p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e t y p e o f p rog ram, no added p o i n t s a re g i v e n f o r w i n n i n g or f o r s p e c i a l e x c e l l e n c e . The b a s i s o f award ing p o i n t s i s as f o l l o w s ; ! A C T I V I T Y 1 0 . OF POINTS (A) P e t Show 1 :fuB) S a f e t y League Member 1 (G) B e a u t i f y i n g P l a y g r o u n d 2 (D) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C i r c u s 2 (E) Ha rmon ica C o n t e s t 3 (F) Wood C a r v i n g 2 (G) S a f e t y P a t r o l D u t i e s • >• 2 (H) M a k i n g F l o a t s 2 ( I ) M a r d i Gras Pa rade 2 ( J ) M a k i n g l a n t e r n s 2 (K) M a r c h i n g I n L a n t e r n Parade 1 ( L ) T r a c k Meet 2 , j-MJ P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s T e s t s 2 (N) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a y or Pageant 2 (0) I n d i a n C o u n c i l 2 (P) B a s e b a l l P i t c h i n g 1 TOTAL ~"2T~ N a t . R S c . A s s ' n . , Cor respondence Cour se , L e s s o n V I , 1 9 . A g o l d m e r i t badge i s awarded to a l l g i r l s and boys e a r n i n g t w e n t y - f i v e o r more p o i n t s , a s i l v e r m e r i t badge to a l l g i r l s and boys e a r n i n g twenty to twen ty -f i v e p o i n t s and a b r o n z e m e r i t badge to a l l g i r l s and boys e a r n i n g f i f t e e n to twen ty p o i n t s . I n s t r u c t o r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o f i l l out a fo rm showing the a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h each c h i l d has p a r t i c i p a t e d and the number o f m e r i t p o i n t s e a r n e d . M e r i t badges are awarded o n l y on the b a s i s o f the ach ievement shown on t h e s e f o r m s . 1 One s y s t e m , t h a t i s i n use on the p l a y g r o u n d s o f l o n g B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a , awards a l l p o i n t s f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d or f o r ach ievement on the p l a y g r o u n d . A s p e c i a l f e a t u r e o f t h i s sys t em i s t h a t some o f the p o i n t s a re g i v e n on the b a s i s o f the r e c o r d o f the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a t i v e and good spo r t smansh ip d u r i n g the p l a y i n g s e a s o n . E a c h boy o r g i r l e a r n i n g 500 p o i n t s " i s e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e an emblem. The sys tem i s o u t l i n e d b e l o w . I A t t e n d a n c e 1 h r . i n A . M . o r P . M . m e r i t s 1 p o i n t i n one day a p o s s i b l e ' F o r b r i n g i n g o t h e r s a s h l g h a s 1 0 2 p o i n t s I I . L e a d e r s h i p and. S e r v i c e Team, c a p t a i n s . S u p p l y i n g M o n i t o r s M a k i n g c o u r t s O r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( c l u b teams) Othe r s s e r v i c e s on grounds up t o H I Teams - C l u b s and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s 10 15 15 10 10 P l a y g r o u n d teams •Champion p l a y g r o u n d teams . I n t e r r ? p l a y g r o u n d teams Champion i n t e r - p l a y g r o u n d teams Membership i n a c t i v e c l u b s E f f o r t and c o - o p e r a t i o n on teams and i n clubs 25 R e p r e s e n t i n g p l a y g r o u n d i n a c t i v i t i e s such as mee t s , p l a y s and p a g e a n t s , as h i g h as 50 25 50 50 60 25 II i r II II rr II IV D e c a t h l o n E v e n t s t a k e n from Badge T e s t s or chosen by D i r e c t o r 25-50 7 I n i t i a t i v e — o r i g i n a l i t y i n o r g a n i z i n g . . . . a c t i v i t i e s (awarded a t end o f summer) 50 .Hat. R e c . A s s ' n . , Cor respondence , .Course , L e s s o n V I , 1 9 . 147 V I Good s p o r t s m a n s h i p - — c i t i z e n s h i p . Awarded a t end o f summer t o those g i r l s and. boys who have i n the o p i n i o n o f t he d i r e c t o r shown s p e c i a l e v i d e n c e o f s e r -v i c e , good s p o r t s m a n s h i p and f i n e qual-r i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p on the p l a y g r o u n d . 50 p o i n t s Emblems a r e awarded a t end o f summer.-1-. E x p e r i e n c e w i t h t he se m e r i t p o i n t systems i n d i c a t e s t h a t a w e l l d e v i s e d p l a n w i l l s e r v e s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e i t has a b e a r i n g on d i s c i p l i n e , as i t i s l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e the number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the v a r i o u s types o f a c t i v i t i e s . I n the s econd p l a c e , i t f r e q u e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e s f o r c h i l d r e n a c o n t i n u i t y o f i n t e r e s t i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . The r e a d e r w i l l n o t i c e t h a t the awards g i v e n are w i t h o u t i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . The g e n e r a l consensus o f o p i n i o n among s u p e r -i n t e n d e n t s o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t h a t r i b b o n s and badges as awards a re the most d e s i r a b l e i n c e n t i v e s to a c t i v i t y , t h a t i n no ease s h o u l d money p r i z e s o r merchand i se p r i z e s be g i v e n to c h i l d r e n , b u t t h a t - - o c c a s i o n a l l y i n e x p e n s i v e medals as a form o f h i g h g rade award can be s a f e l y g i v e n . The s e r v i c e b u r e a u . - - T h e t h e o r y o f the bu reau i s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be one c e n t r a l p l a c e i n e v e r y community where a l l the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d to the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s o f the e n t i r e community wou ld be c o n c e n t r a t e d . The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d be r e a d y to g i v e maximum s e r v i c e to the homes o f the communi ty . Pamphle ts d e a l i n g w i t h the b a c k y a r d p l a y g r o u n d and i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l -a b l e a t a l l t i m e s , and i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e c o n -c e r n i n g home games. A g a i n , the r e c r e a t i o n boa rd may c o n t r i b u t e to the s c h o o l ^ l a t . E e c . Ass » n . , Correspondence Course , 2 3 . 148 recreational program. Costumes and stage scenery may be loaned to the school for plays and l i s t s of plays may be made a v a i l -able to school groups for various p a t r i o t i c and c i v i c celebra-tions. However, because of the great variety of demands, i t i s to the general community that the greatest service can be ren-dered. A few- of the services are the following: finding places for the play a c t i v i t i e s of self-organized groups; providing l i s t s of places for vacations; supplying information concern-? ing p i c n i c grounds; supplying playground equipment such as b a l l s , bats and nets for p i c n i c s ; supplying a special director to handle games and sports for p i c n i c s ; making available rec-reational a c t i v i t i e s for v i s i t i n g delegates to conventions. Publicity.—Keeping the public informed about the work qf the., c i v i c recreational organization requires more than propaganda;-in the long run:the. recreation board w i l l not p r o f i t by the "press agent" method. Occasionally a story of human interest w i l l be of value, but.too many sentimental stories may shake the confidence of the people i n the substantial a c t i v i t i e s which are being conducted. However, many types of p u b l i c i t y may prove of value to the recreation board of a large community, none of these should be overlooked, especially i n the early period of organized recreational a c t i v i t i e s . In the f i r s t place, the l o c a l newspaper constitutes one of the most important channels for p u b l i c i t y . There are two types of newspaper stories, and these should be kept d i s t i n c t i n the mind of the superintendent of recreation. The f i r s t type is that of the current news story, a b r i e f account of an event which i s going to happen or 149 w h i c h has happened on the day o f the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the news-p a p e r . • T h i s t ype o f news i t e m s h o u l d d e a l c h i e f l y w i t h dramas, m u s i c a l a f f a i r s , dances , l e a g u e s and tou rnamen t s . The second type I s tha t - o f the f e a t u r e s t o r y f o r w h i c h most newspapers p e r i o d i c a l l y p r o v i d e c o n s i d e r a b l e s p a c e . A n o t h e r w o r t h w h i l e method o f p u b l i c i t y i s to use v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s u c h as s l i d e s and moving p i c t u r e s , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t news i t e m s and f e a t u r e s t o r i e s . P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t o f the d i r e c t o r w i t h members o f the c i t i z e n body i s o f cour se the most v a l u a b l e t ype of p u b l i c i t y ; such c o n t a c t may be nade by t h e i n d i v i d . u a ! i n s t r u c t o r i n h i s d a i l y r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s o r t h r o u g h the .appearance o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s b e f o r e groups s u c h as c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , improvement c l u b s , -and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 150 CHAPTER IX THE TRAINING OF DIRECTORS The success of the r e c r e a t i o n a l program depends l a r g e l y upon l e a d e r s h i p . No r e c r e a t i o n a l program can he e f f e c t i v e w i t h -out an adequate number of t r a i n e d and paid leaders to p l a n and administer i t . Volunteer leaders are also needed i n the form of groups of c i t i z e n s , teachers s or d i r e c t o r s i n t r a i n i n g , who support the paid leaders and who help i n the development of the program, leadership i s more important than equipment and f a c i l -i t i e s ; without i t the value of p l a y f o r character "building and fo r c i t i z e n s h i p i s l o s t . The playground d i r e c t o r . — Playground leadership has become a p r o f e s s i o n . M u n i c i p a l bodies conducting playground programs are asking that the workers they employ s h a l l have had d e f i n i t e t r a i n i n g q u a l i f y i n g them to serve as leaders i n t h i s important p r o f e s s i o n . Many c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , , schools of p h y s i c a l education and other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s are o f f e r i n g courses i n the t r a i n i n g of playground workers. So important has the problem of w e l l - t r a i n e d leadership become that the Nat i o n a l Rec-r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l Recreation School f o r c o l l e g e graduates and i s a l s o conducting a summer school where workers already i n the f i e l d may come together to secure the most up-to-date inform a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s ever-?expanding f i e l d , 1 Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to playground d i r e c t o r s i s the f a c t that the A s s o c i a t i o n has issued a correspondence course f o r summer playground workers c o n s i s t i n g of ten lessons w i t h seven 1 5 1 accompanying p a m p h l e t s . C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e awarded t o t h o s e who s u c c e s s f u l l y comple te the c o u r s e . The s e l e c t i o n o f p l a y g r o u n d w o r k e r s . — A p p l i c a n t s s h o u l d he r e -q u i r e d to f i l l ou t some t y p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k . The fol low-? 1 i n g i s a sugges t ed a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k . RECREATION DEPARTMENT CITY OF — — - . -A p p l i c a t i o n B l a n k • • • • • • X « • * e » N a m e . . . * A d d r e s s . . . * A g e . . . . P h o n e NOi . . . . P o s i t i o n A p p l i e d f o r . . . A r e You a C i t i z e n o f Canada? . Of What S c h o o l s o r C o l l e g e s A r e You a Gradua t e? ( I f no t a g r a d u a t e , s t a t e how l o n g i n a t t e n d a n c e ) . . Have Y o u Taken a S p e c i a l Course o f T r a i n i n g f o r P l a y g r o u n d Do You H o l d a T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ? E x p e r i e n c e : On P l a y g r o u n d G e n e r a l * I n o t h e r work w i t h c h i l d r e n — • • • *S « » a ® © © each) Can Y o u T e a c h t h e F o l l o w i n g S u b j e c t s ? ( S t a t e " y e s " or "no" t o k i n d e r g a r t e n , i n c l u d i n g F r e e Games, i n c l u d i n g Games . . . . . . S t o r y T e l l i n g . . . . . * . . R u n n i n g . . . . C i r c l e Use o f Sand B o x . . . , . . . . . . . ; . . , . * * . S i n g i n g . . . . . . B a l l Games, i n c l u d i n g Gymnas t i c . . D r i l l . B a s e b a l l . . . . B a s k e t b a l l . . . . . . F o l k l h D a n c i n g * . , . . . * . . . . . . V o l l e y B a l l . . . M i s c e l l a n e o u s . . . . M a n u a l . T r a i n i n g } I n c l u d i n g Use o f Gymnasium . B a s k e t r y . . . . R a f f i a . . . . . . . each) A r e y o u F a m i l i a r w i t h the F o l l o w i n g ? ( S t a t e " y e s " o r "no" t o F i r s t A i d to the I n j u r e d . G e n e r a l R e c r e a t i o n A o t i v i t -O r g a n i z e d A t h l e t i c s , i n c l u d i n g i e s i n c l u d i n g L e a g u e s . » . . . * T e a m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . C l u b s . * . . . . D r a m a t i c s . . . . . . . T r a c k and F i e l d E v e n t s . . . . . . . . . . N e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t e r s . S o c i a l and S e t t l e m e n t Work* R e f e r e n c e s : ITQIUQS • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .A.cLcL3r©s s ©s • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r . — Even more i m p o r t -an t t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a r e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a i t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r and h i s n a t u r a l a p t i t u d e s . The B u r e a u o f R e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Ch icago B o a r d o f 1 Nash , o p r o i t . , 1 9 5 . 152 E d u c a t i o n on one o c c a s i o n made a s t u d y o f the o p i n i o n s and de-s i r e s o f the c h i l d r e n ?/ho a t t e n d e d the p l a y g r o u n d . Among the q u e s t i o n s a s k e d was the f o l l o w i n g : "What k i n d o f a p l a y l e a d e r wou ld y o u have on the p l a y g r o u n d ? " A summary o f the r e p l i e s f o l l o w : The f i r s t t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deemed;most d e s i r a b l e i n a p l a y g r o u n d i n s t r u c t o r w e r e : 1 •1. K i n d 140 6 . To bp young 78 2 . Knows Games ." 128 7 . To be j o l l y 77 5 . I s a t h l e t i c 102 8 . To be f a i r 64 4 , I s i n t e r e s t e d 94 9 . To know " F i r s t A i d " 58 5 . To p l a y w i t h c h i l d r e n 85 1 0 . Good game t e a c h e r 53 A s e c o n d t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t as t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f t he c h i l d r e n a re shrewd a t r e c o g n i z i n g i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s . 1 1 . To be s t r o n g 51 1 6 . To have knowledge 58 1 2 . To be p a t i e n t 49 o f work 1 3 . l i k e s c h i l d r e n 47 1 7 . H e a l t h y 50 1 4 . To be a c t i v e 43 1 8 . E x p e r i e n c e d 28 1 5 . To be s t r i c t 43 19« To t e a c h new games 25 1; 2 0 . To be s y m p a t h e t i c 25 D r . E l b e r t K . F r e t w e l l , o f Teacher s C o l l e g e , Co lumbia U n i v e r s i t y , i n commenting on the q u a l i t i e s o f p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s s t a t e s : I t i s e a sy to s e t down some o f t h e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s .•.ad? a - l e a d e r as t h e y e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s ! i n what he d o e s . T-kis l e a d e r o f boys and g i r l s i s : 1 . S i n c e r e , and b e l i e v e s i n the work he i s d o i n g . 2 . E n t h u s i a s t i c , c o n t a g i o u s l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , about what he i s d o i n g . 3 . C l e a r as to the ends to be a t t a i n e d and mas ter o f the m a t e r i a l and methods t o a t t a i n these e n d s . 4 . F i r m w i t h o u t b e i n g f i e r c e . A GENUINE LEADER 1 . S e c u r e s the c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t o f h i s group to d e t e r m i n e y/hat t h e y can do and how t h e y can do i t . 2 . S e l e c t s and d e v e l o p s l e a d e r s , and d e v e l o p s the a b i l i t y on the p a r t o f a l l to choose a l e a d e r w i s e l y * 3 . S t i m u l a t e s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , t o -g e t h e r w i t h the d e s i r e to work f o r the good o f the g r o u p . 4 . P l a n s c l e a r l y , f o r e s e e s what w i l l happen, u t i l i z e s l e a d e r s h i p o f o t h e r s , i s l o y a l to h i s g r o u p . 1 N a t . R e c . A s s ' n . , The Conduct o f P l a y g r o u n d s . Pamphle t , 3, 153 5 . Knows t h a t what he does has i t s c h i e f i m p o r t a n c e i n what i t causes o t h e r s t o d o , 6 . R e s p e c t s h i m s e l f , 7 . l o o k s f o r , e x p e c t s , demands, t h a t the f i n e q u a i l * t i e s o f h i s group show t h e m s e l v e s , and a t t i m e s he i s even s e e m i n g l y b l i n d t o some f a u l t s , 8 . M o d i f i e s games q u i c k l y to meet e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 9 . S t i r s the i m a g i n a t i o n o f h i s g r o u p , and a p p e a l s to t h e i r d r a m a t i c s e n s e , . 1G, Says and a c t s ?Do' i n s t e a d o f T D o n ' t l ? 1 1 . R e c o g n i z e s t h a t 'Do Good ' i s g r e a t e r s t i m u l u s t o boys and g i r l s t h a n ,'Be G o o d , f 1 2 . B u i l d s m o r a l e t h r o u g h a c t i v i t y . 1 3 . Has a sense o f h u m o u r . 1 T r a i n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . — The g r e a t need i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d t o - d a y i s f o r t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , b o t h i n the r a n k s o f employed w o r k e r s and v o l u n t e e r s . The number o f c e n t e r s f o r t r a i n i n g p e o p l e f o r a l l - r o u n d l e a d e r s h i p @nd f o r f i t t i n g them t o assume p o s i t i o n s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i n a d e q u a t e ; the demand f o r t r a i n e d w o r k e r s exceeds the s u p p l y . A b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l backg round i s d e s i r a b l e f o r r e c -r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s . A g e n e r a l knowledge o f p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , c h i l d n a t u r e , v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , l i t e r a t u r e , c i v i c s , and p e d a -gogy i s v a l u a b l e f o r a l l t hose e n t e r i n g the f i e l d . F u r t h e r m o r e 4 a c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f m u s i c and drama i s a l s o a v a l u a b l e a s s e t . A w o r k e r ' s knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u s i c , drama and a r t w i l l be o f i n e s t i m a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s p l a n n i n g o f a b r o a d e r and more e x p r e s s i v e p r o g r a m . To meet the immedia te need f o r w o r k e r s w i t h some t r a i n -i n g i n the l e i s u r e t ime f i e l d , t h e r e has been a r a p i d d e v e l o p -ment d u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s i n shor t - r t ime i n s t i t u t e s d e s i g n e d to a rouse the i n t e r e s t o f v o l u n t e e r s i n the community r e c r e a t i o n -a l p rogram and to g i v e them the g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g n e c e s s a r y . 1 Nash , o p . c i t . . 3 2 0 . 154 A t the p r e s e n t t i m e , the i n t e r e s t i n t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s o f t h i s k i n d g i v e s p r o m i s e o f f u r t h e r development w i t h i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . i n s t i t u t e s a r e by no means l i m i t e d to v o l u n t e e r s , and many employed w o r k e r s s u c h as l i b r a r i a n s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s and p l a y g r o u n d l e a d e r s a r e a t t e n d i n g the i n s t i t u t e s . S h o r t s t i m e i n -t e n s i v e c o u r s e s a r e o f t e n u s e d i n t r a i n i n g p r o s p e c t i v e employed w o r k e r s , ' o r i n g i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t o those who haye a l -r e a d y e n t e r e d the s e r v i c e . S u c h cou r se s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p r a c -t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l i n t h e i r s c o p e , d e a l i n g w i t h the use o f a p p a r a t u s , p r o b l e m s o f d i s c i p l i n e , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a t h l e t -i c s , i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o l k d a n c i n g , and the a c t i v i t i e s o f the r e c -r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . . ' The t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s m a i n t a i n e d by the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c l e a g u e o f B a l t i m o r e i s d e s i g n e d to p r e p a r e t r a i n e d l e a d e r s f o r the v a r i o u s depar tments o f i t s w o r k . The c o u r s e s f o r 1924-25 were as f o l l o w s : P l a y g r o u n d . - - F o r l e a d e r s o f c h i l d r e n under 10 y e a r s o f a g e . T h i s c o u r s e ex tends o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s . J u n i o r C l a s s . T h i r t y p e r i o d s o f s t u d y . Oc tober 1 s t to " " June 1 s t ; t h r e e hour s w e e k l y , S a t u r d a y s , 9 to 12 A . M . Theory 5 h r s . Games 10 h r s . P l a y g r o u n d t e c h n i q u e 5 h r s . S t o r y t e l l i n g 15 h r s . H a n d i c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s 15 h r s . D r a m a t i z a t i o n 10 h r s . K i n d e r g a r t e n games 10 h r s . H e a l t h 10 h r s . F o l k dances 10 h r s . M u s i c __5 h r s . T o t a l 90 h r s . Twelve p e r i o d s o f p r a c t i c e and o b s e r v a t i o n o f f i e l d - - -t he se p e r i o d s t o be a r r a n g e d . F i f t y - t w o p e r i o d s o f a s s i s t a n t s h i p , J u l y and A u g u s t j 5 hour s d a i l y , m o r n i n g , a f t e r n o o n or e v e n i n g . S e n i o r ^ C l a s s . — T h i r t y p e r i o d s o f s t u d y , Oc tober 1 s t t o June 1 s t ; 3 hour s w e e k l y , S a t u r d a y s , 9 t o 12 A . M . T h e o r y 10 h r s . D r a m a t i z a t i o n 10 h r s . C o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y 15 h r s . H e a l t h 10 h r s . K i n d e r g a r t e n games 10 h r s . M u s i c 5 h r s . 1 5 5 F o l k dances 10 h r s . Games 10 h r s . S t o r y t e l l i n g 10 h r s . T o t a l "¥0" h r s . l e c t n r e s - r r - F i v e l e c t u r e s w i l l he s c h e d u l e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r , to he announced . A t t e n d a n c e i s r e q u i r e d b o t h by J u n i o r s and S e n i o r s . D i p l o m a s a re awarded to s t u d e n t s . G r a d u a t e s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r p o s i t i o n s as p l a y l e a d e r s and whenever v a c a n c i e s o c c u r w i l l be g i v e n p o s i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to a b i l i t y . Gradua te Glass .rrr- Twenty p e r i o d s o f s t u d y , November 1 s t to May '" 1 s t ; p e r i o d s t o be a r r a n g e d . T h i s c l a s s t o be a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o r e g i s t r a t i o n . A t h l e t i c — r F o r A s s i s t a n t l e a d e r s o f a d o l e s c e n t s o v e r 14 y e a r s o f a g e . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s o f t h e o r y , Oc tober 1 s t t o May 1 s t , Monday 7 :30 t o 8 : 3 0 P . M . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s o f p r a c -t i c e , O c t o b e r 1 s t t o May 1 s t , Monday, 8 :30 to 10 :00 P . M . F o r l e a d e r s o f c h i l d r e n o v e r 10 y e a r s o f age : T w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s o f p r a c t i c e , Oc tobe r 1 s t t o May 1 s t , S a t u r d a y , 9 :30 to 11 :30 . A . M . The r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e as f o l l o w s : F o r P l a y g r o u n d Course " " Jun io r C l a s s Three y e a r s H i g h S c h o o l o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t E i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s S e n i o r C l a s s Those c o m p l e t i n g the J u n i o r y e a r w i t h c r e d i t s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s c o u r s e . Gradua te C l a s s Those h a v i n g r e c e i v e d d i p l o m a s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s c o u r s e . F o r A t h l e t i c Course E n t r y f o r t h e s e c l a s s e s i s as f o l l o w s : A . C l a s s , f o r A s s i s t a n t l e a d e r s o f a d o l e s c e n t s , i s open to advanced s t u d e n t s o f t he e v e n i n g r e c r e a -t i o n a l c e n t e r s o f the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c League , and to s p e c i a l s t u d e n t s whose former t r a i n i n g i s j udged i t s e q u i v a l e n t . B , C l a s s j f o r Leade r s o f c h i l d r e n ove r 10 y e a r s o f age , i s a n o r m a l t r a i n i n g c l a s s open to advanced w o r k e r s o f the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c League, The t r a i n i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s , whether employed o r v o l u n t e e r , s h o u l d be a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . I n s t i t u t e s , c o n -f e r e n c e s and r o u n d t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s — a l l methods w h i c h i n c r e a s e "**lee, o p . c i t . , 130 the knowledge o f t he w o r k e r i n the a c t i v i t i e s he i s c o n d u c t i n g , w h i c h s t i m u l a t e h i s i n t e r e s t , and w h i c h g i v e h im a b roade r o u t -l o o k a re i n v a l u a b l e . D i r e c t o r s who a r e s p e c i a l i s t s . — W i t h the g r o w t h d u r i n g the p a s t , f ew y e a r s o f i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s has come an i n -c r e a s e i n the number o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f a c t i v -i t i e s . These w o r k e r s a r e i n charge o f t he development o f spe -c i a l f e a t u r e s o f t he programs on a number o f p l a y g r o u n d s and community c e n t e r s . Some o f the s p e c i a l i s t s t h a t a r e employed devo te t h e i r t ime to t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t s : m u s i c , drama, n e i g h b o r h o o d work , h a n d i c r a f t , s t o r y t e l l i n g , f o l k d a n c i n g , a t h l e t i c s u p e r v i s i n g , r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , g i r l s ' . work and w a t e r s p o r t s . One o f the major t a s k s o f s p e c i a l i s t s i s t o t r a i n and h e l p the r e g u l a r l e a d e r s . By d e v e l o p i n g l e a d e r s , t hese spe-r c i a l i s t s a r e making p o s s i b l e the d rawing o f many community g roups i n t o the p r o g r a m . F u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h s p e c i a l i s t s a r e c o n d u c t i n g a n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l t ype o f work b y means o f w h i c h s p e c i a l r e c -r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the v a r i o u s s e c -t i o n s o f the communi ty . H i t h e r t o , i n most c o m m u n i t i e s , t he s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r r a r i t y . A l l o c a t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s . - - - One o f t he most com-p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m s w h i c h f a c e commit tees t oday i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l e a d e r s h i p o f p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s on s c h o o l days i s the s e l e c t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p l i c a t e d because o f t h e f a c t t h a t p l a y g r o u n d hours a f t e r s c h o o l a r e r e l a t i v e l y shor t ; , and hence s u p e r v i s i o n o f a f t e r -s c h o o l p l a y a c t i v i t i e s does no t p r o v i d e f u l l - t i m e employment . 157 The p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s h o u l d he a f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r . Three s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the s o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m a re h e r e b y g i v e n : 1 . I f the p o s i t i o n o f the a f t e r - s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r can be combined w i t h the d i r e c t o r s h i p o f an e v e n i n g community c e n t e r , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to have a p e r s o n s t a r t h i s a c t i v i t i e s a t 2 - P . M . and c o n t i n u e u n t i l .10 P . M . - f r e q u e n t l y c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t the same s c h o o l b u i l d i n g o r a t l e a s t i n the same community . 2 . A t the o t h e r t i m e s , i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r one o f the r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s o f the s c h o o l to come a t t he b e -g i n n i n g o f the second o r t h i r d p e r i o d i n the morn ing and teach, t h r o u g h u n t i l s i x , t hus making a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n . 3 . A t h i r d s o l u t i o n m i g h t be t h a t whereby a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r o f t he s c h o o l r emained on the p l a y g r o u n d f o r a n hour a f t e r s c h o o l - - s a y from t h r e e t o f o u r — and was a s s i s t e d by a p a r t - t i m e h e l p e r who w o u l d be on the g round from t h r e e t o s i x . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g hour makes i t p o s s i b l e to c o - o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s on the p l a y g r o u n d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . 1 E f f i c i e n c y r a t i n g f o r p r o m o t i o n . — R e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s a r e n a t u r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a t t e r s o f s a l a r y and p r o m o t i o n . V a r -i o u s methods a r e i n u s e i n the d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s f o r d e t e r m i n -i n g the b a s i s f o r p r o m o t i o n o f w o r k e r s . The R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t -ment o f D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n , .uses the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s y s t e m : P o i n t s : A . 5 0 - P r o g r a m . The w o r k e r p e r f o r m i n g i n a p r o p e r manner the amount o f work r e q u i r e d by the o f f i c e o r s u p e r -v i s o r s . B . 2 0 - P e r s o n a l i t y . I n t e r e s t i n work ; a t t i t u d e towards the depa r tmen t , s u p e r v i s o r s and o t h e r w o r k e r s ; e x e c u -t i v e a b i l i t y ; i n i t i a t i v e ; w i l l i n g n e s s to deve lop an . a d d i t i o n a l p rog ram and t o do more work t han r e q u i r e d . C . 1 5 - O r g a n i z a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p o f ac---t i v i t i e s ; i n c l u d i n g v o i c e , mannerisms and d i r e c t i n g a b i l i t y , D . 1 0 - P e r s o n a l H a b i t s . P e r s o n a l appearance a t c e n t e r , conduc t o u t s i d e the depa r tmen t ; r e l i a b i l i t y ; t a r d i n e s s ; absence w i t h o u t l e a v e ; a t t endance a t s t a f f mee t ings and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . 'Nash, o p . c i t . , 321 158 E . 5 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s Q u a l i t i e s . K e e p i n g up to da te r e p o r t s an$ o t h e r c l e r i c a l work r e q u i r e d ; o r d e r l i n e s s and c l e a n -•"•i.^liriess" o f 7 p l a y - c e n t e r s . I m p r e s s i o n o f p r i n c i p a l , t e a c h -e r s , n e i g h b o r h o o d groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . I n a P e n n s y l v a n i a c i t y , 10 p o i n t s a r e g i v e n f o r p e r s o n -a l appea rance , 10 f o r p u n c t u a l i t y , 10 f o r a t t i t u d e , 50 f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n and 40 f o r p r o g r a m . E i g h t y i s c o n s i d e r e d the minimiun s t a n d a r d . 1 C o n c l u s i o n . — There i s g r e a t need f o r a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d l e a d e r s f o r the p l a y g r o u n d sys tem o f V a n c o u v e r , A t p r e s e n t , d i r e c t o r s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r s u c h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a t t r a c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y , academic t r a i n i n g , and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y . I n most c a s e s , t he se w o r k e r s have p r o v e d to be v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y as l e a d e r s ; bu t most o f t he se l e a d e r s have had v e r y l i t t l e s p e c i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r work and use t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as s t e p p i n g s t o n e s o n l y . I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a f f o f d i r e c t o r s more o r l e s s permanent i n n a t u r e , c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y : f i r s t , t h e y must be g i v e n f u l l - t i m e employment the y e a r - r o u n d ; s e c o n d l y , t he s a l a r i e s must be a t l e a s t up t o the minimum schedu l e o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ; t h i r d l y , t h e y must be c a p a b l e o f and p r e p a r e d f o r a t r a n s f e r to s c h o o l t e a c h i n g a f t e r t h e y r e a c h the age o f t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . The minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o s p e c t i v e d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be a s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n c e r t i f i -c a t e , n o r m a l s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , c o m p l e t i o n o f i n t e n s i v e cou r se s g i v e n t h r o u g h the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , one y e a r o f s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e as a v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r , and an a s su rance o f an i n t e n -t i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g i n the v o c a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g the y o u n g . An i n t e n s i v e c o u r s e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l worke r s m i g h t I !a t . E e c . A s s ' n . , The Conduct o f P l a y g r o u n d s , 7 . 159 c o n s i s t o f t h r e e b r a n c h e s , namely : a b e g i n n e r ' s cou r se b e f o r e s e r v i n g as a v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r , a s e c o n d a r y cou r se b e f o r e com-mencing work i f a p p o i n t e d as a p a i d , d i r e c t o r , and a s e r i e s o f advanced c o u r s e s g i v e n a n n u a l l y f o r p a i d d i r e c t o r s a f t e r a , y e a r ' s s e r v i c e . I n some phases o f these c o u r s e s the men and women c o u l d be s c h e d u l e d t o g e t h e r and i n o t h e r phases t h e y wou ld meet s e p a r a t e l y . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f sueh t o p i c s as have been o u t l i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r ; t h a t i s , s u c h as a r e i n c l u d e d i n the Cor respondence Course o f the N a t i o n -a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . 160 CHAPTER 2 FINANCING PIAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S The v a l u e o f p l a y as a medium o f wholesome r e c r e a t i o n , as a means o f p r o m o t i n g good c i t i z e n s h i p , as a method o f r e d u c -i n g c h i l d d e l i n q u e n c y , as a d e t e r r e n t t o c h i l d a c c i d e n t s , i s t o d a y r e c o g n i z e d - by the p u b l i c . One w r i t e r s a y s : The economic v a l u e o f s u c h programs i s demons t rab le when one i t e m a l o n e i s c o n s i d e r e d . The ca re o f one d e l i n -quent c o s t s the community a p p r o x i m a t e l y § 6 0 0 a y e a r . The s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y c o s t a p p r o x -i m a t e l y $25 a n n u a l l y f o r each c h i l d s e r v e d . When p l a y -grounds a r e found t o r educe d e l i n q u e n c y from 60 t o 90 p e r c e n t , i t w o u l d seem good b u s i n e s s f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y to spend i t s money f o r sound p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r than" d o u b t f u l c u r e . ! So d e f i n i t e a re the b e n e f i t s o f p l a y t h a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s Chamber o f Commerce, an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f ha rd -headed and p r a c t i c a l b u s i n e s s men, i s a c t i v e l y s p o n s o r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l p rograms t h roughou t the c o u n t r y . A n o t h e r w r i t e r s t a t e s : The e x p e n d i t u r e s r e p o r t e d by 658 communi t i es f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n 1927 were ove r 32 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . D u r i n g t h a t y e a r 56 c i t i e s r e p o r t e d d o n a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l p u r p o s e s v a l u e d a t ove r 2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The d a i l y ave rage a t t e n d a n c e a t p l a y g r o u n d s i n 535 c i t i e s t o t a l e d 1 ,220 , 609 w i t h an e x p e n d i t u r e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven cen t s p e r c h i l d p e r d a y . 2 I n o r d e r to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f i n a n c i n g r e c r e a t i o n -a l p rograms the f o l l o w i n g s t u d i e s may be made: a s u r v e y o f e x -p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i e s ; a c o m p a r i s o n o f Vancouve r w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s on the c o n t i n e n t i n the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s ; a s t u d y o f v a r i o u s methods o f s u p p o r t f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s ; and a s t u d y o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r r a i s -i n g money f o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . ^ F a w l e r , op . c i t . , 4 7 . 2 R o g e r s , G . S . , P l a y g r o u n d Handbook, Chamber o f Commerce o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 7 . 161 Expenditures for playground a c t i v i t i e s . — Worth, American c i t i e s , with populations approximating that of 'Vancouver, have been selected for a comparison of the expenditures for playground a c t i v i t i e s . 1 Data on these c i t i e s i s presented i n Table 27/111.2 In the thirteen c i t i e s of the continent which have been selected, the t o t a l expenditures are found to be: (1) salaries of directors only, $450,696; (2) t o t a l salaries and wages $721,690; (3) grand t o t a l $1,337,180. In dividing these totals by the number of centers, the average c i t y i s found to have ex-penditures as follows: (1) for directors only, §34,668; (2) t o t a l salaries and wages $55,514; (3) grand' t o t a l $102,860. The expenditures for Vancouver are found to be as follows: (1) for directors only $4,000; (2) t o t a l salaries and wages $..4,000; (3) grand-total $32,585., If Vancouver i s compared with the average c i t y i n the same population class, the deficiency from the standard of expenditures i s found to be as follows: (1) for directors only §30,669; (2) t o t a l salaries and wages $51,515; (3) grand t o t a l $70,275. In order that Vancouver might be on a par with such a progressive c i t y as Oakland.Its provision should be as follows: (1). for directors only $108,489; (2) other., salaries and wages $71,907; (3) grand t o t a l $180,397. In this connection, a few facts worthy of consideration are aa follows: (1) Ottawa has about half the population of Vancouver but has a t o t a l expenditure for playground a c t i v i t i e s almost double that of Vancouver; (2) Winnipeg has a population of 42,000 less than that of Vancouver but provides almost three times as much as Vancouver f o r playground a c t i v i t i e s ; (3.) Toronto, ^Recreation, op. c i t - . 6 6 - 9 5 . ^ i n f r a , 162. 1 6 2 CD O u u P o o CO CO' P •H p O O % p Cd P p p •H ro PH ' • i - ' f'SS >0 *==ri *sHi F=3 F=5 ° 0 *s=i P-. rp =3 II! e% p., trr-* •O Pi CM H cd - p o EH ca CD tifl cd P cd ca co •r-l P & r-i cd 03 r-i cd o E H co 03 r>- EV.H «o--^ ( O R er# C" ^ " H CP. G ' tr; @ O M v r~I PS co o ^ cn H H i D o j to-to o <£> ~? H ^ cx| H to o> CO O i H o (O colco LCJ 0 3 O V 1 "erf r-\ O CD 0 ! a s LO Q i £ > OIH coi •>*>«»•»«»»•».»•,.,„«,. j ^ V LO W C2 CO -4< C-i <J- to LO o in GO -tflts 02 LO o | • » o, 0.! H - i ca LO LO M tO O i CO CO O LO CO CO r H CO co co r-i ca to mi t o o n ca © <& © S> «. # ( 5 ' ^ ® © ® ^ .js CO £S O CM CO CS LO H O ^ t D CQ t s co OI LO c m c i c co cj5 LO co co ^ CO C.J CO LO £ s LO CO CO to ©> 6 to <>' O O CO ^)( CO 0> r-i O r - i LO r-TcO* CO CO <cH C 0 r - l CO r - | CO t s CO tO. CD CO CO pi O f t © H H fc: Ol fis—i co PTP| Pi ,P P ©j o o CQ P o p o © r-l -H o LO ^ O r - i O LO tO vl' O C> O L -co o o r H o a> CO O O O O CO CJ> a> O P< CS r - l *s 9\ ii ^ O r - l O LO Q2 CO -G- CO H O O i Cs CO t s C i l O ® e ® « O r - i 02 t s IS 'Xi ~p O Cs ES CO 9\ ti\ *S W\ a> co to co CO r H CO" to o CO CN3 CO CO o o r - l CO LO H LO c s . O H W M O'- r-i O O r-H CTi «ci' to' O d r - l LC3 ^ 'i O LO tO r - i CD © « # « f& ® . # & *} ^ fj m 0 O CTi O O CO Cs O r H CT. C3 CO ^ CO O CO LO C2 LO If; ca cs CJ> C2 O t O Es LO ^ CV! <Ji 0~! LO CO t O Cs CO r - i CO CO tO CO O CO O H H r-H r—l -I Ol rH H H K © -! i - : ca to ^ r - i CQ +3 P4 CD p< CD - H © ( D H c ! ' d 01 M p H P i - H H Pi P) Cd O cd •>d © CD rcJ cd P cd r l -I fi-H •H J4 P' pi CD a PQ P-i W -P 0> 03 CO CO CD CD CD Cd CD r H f - l CO O i o LO GO H CO ^ o o o ^ o c o ® * » © SS » @ CO CO x}< t s CO -vji CO O r H r—l CO LCJ CO " Q CO CO LS H Cn CD to #\ *S «\ »S *\ ,t\ i% t s H O CO LO r H to r H -CO. r-i CO cv ca co CO' O i CR CO r H CO CO r H ca $"* IP* CO cn r - l ca UO CO -•a 9 CO 00 a> co CO CD O ^ LO CO o O O t 0 Lf i O LO o CO O CD ft o o o o> ^ ! O CO o O O CO CO o LO L O O «0 H ca o <n iy\ r - i t O CO r H H I O CO r H ca • ca £S o F-l j>fi ft O PITH.-P g j . p i ( D P - H O O Cd PI cd o o p >-8 r d a) ?~) P •H cd © o r—l i> Cd Pi M P P •H cd co PP o n co o p P H M O <4 co CD G <p d .P CO o cd r d r P H »H © - p p r - l P O O O p -E-i ft P i . w P •H O P P Pt w pi r-* CO o CD CD: 3 .EH P -ri P -P •-d P © *H CO EH o • LO O H CO t s H CX) U J r-| r-n LiO Lp- O i -siI ^ *> CM © ca O CO LO LO O ca ca r - i H ca LO «r> !> ca ® t o CO o O O i O o O M O O O « CS O O r H r H O O CO LO LO »v iF4 e\ #\ O r-i CO c : CD p cd O P o P Pi p cd P 0.0 P cd P ) P- O EH S H O ' . c d P © P P O P J p p o o O LO a co to o ® O CO c-a o oa o a ca O i <?* £S 'CO CO r - l O . CO # CO O i l O r-i CO ' ca CO O r - i a s o ca o *» IS O CO O i o ca , LO O CO r s m .... ^ LO to-r~i co p p P1 o © Pi:P Pi Cd P !> CO »H P H PH .cd ' •H ! O I p P P-; p • •H -<!-!' O © o P o P -H O P p ^ <D. J r p 1 P K , CO O i r { P P CD • r H cd o to •r-i 163 t o e q u a l V a n c o u v e r ' s r a t i o o f e x p e n d i t u r e f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v -i t i e s , would need t o p r o v i d e t h e sum- of $78,806; i n 1934 she p r o v i d e d t h e sum o f § 2 5 9 , 9 1 7 ; (4) M o n t r e a l , t o e q u a l V a n c o u v e r ' s r a t i o of e x p e n d i t u r e f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s * would need t o p r o v i d e t h e sum of $146,637; i n 1934 she p r o v i d e d the sum of $200,442. From a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e above s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t V a n c o u v e r i s below s t a n d a r d i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u n d s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . I n f a c t , her p r o v i s i o n i s l e s s t h a n h a l f t h a t o f t h e o t h e r c i t i e s of l i k e p o p u l a t i o n on t h e c o n t i n e n t . I f t h e f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i s comparable t o t h a t o f o t h e r C a n a d i a n c i t i e s , i t i s time t h a t V a n c o u v e r I n -c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l l y t h e t o t a l o f her e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . — There a r e v a r i o u s methods o f f i n a n c i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s : 1. The budget p l a n . As a r u l e , t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d of t h e c i t y i s on a budget p l a n , as a r e a l l the r e s t o f the d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e c i t y . Under t h i s p l a n , t h e matter of p r o -v i d i n g a n n u a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e p l a y g r o u n d s w i l l be a t the o p t i o n o f t h e b u d g e t - f i x i n g body o f t h e c i t y ; namely, t h e c i t y c o u n c i l . T h e r e i s a g r e a t danger under s u c h a s y s t e m t h a t t h e r e c r e a t i o n , b o a r d w i l l s u f f e r as a r e s u l t o f the s e v e r e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the o l d e r b o a r d s f o r f u n d s . G r e a t p r e s s u r e f r o m the community w i l l be n e c e s s a r y I f t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d i s t o be a d e q u a t e l y s u p p o r t e d . 2. S p e c i a l m i l l r a t e . Many c i t i e s have a c h a r t e r p r o -v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g a minimum f i x e d m i l l r a t e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l 164 , purposes. If this i s the oase, provision should he made so that the amount thereby raised may for emergency use or expan-sion be increased by appropriation. The m i l l rate at the pre-'•V's'ent time varies over the continent from two to eleven mills • rfor combined park and playground expenditures. 3. Joint, budget plan. Where the parks board and the school board unite on a plan for the recreational needs of school children, a joint budget should be arranged. Under this plan'the school board might finance the school playgrounds on school days and the e i t y parks board on non-school days. Important considerations i n budgeting.— No problem '-weighs more • heavily upon the director of recreation and his board than that of financing the work. The financing of municipal recreation involves two main f a c t o r s — t h e preparation of a budget, and the actual r a i s i n g of the funds for which the budget c a l l s . Budget-ing Is essential i n planning the expenditures of a municipal recreational system., i n order that disbursements may be made only when funds are assured to cover the necessary expenditures. Frequently, members of a board of directors are Interest-ed i n certain recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Budgeting provides a method for securing the active interest of such members i n r a i s -ing funds for those a c t i v i t i e s . Furthermore, budgeting neces-sitates a careful st.udj? of the year's work and a thorough know-ledge of the program; It helps remove the temptation to appeal for funds on the basis of a general, i n d e f i n i t e , projected pro-gram. Rather, i t ensures the carrying on of the work on a care-f u l l y planned basis. F i n a l l y , - i t promotes public confidence i n the administration of the recreational program. 165 I n d i v i d u a l s making a budget f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d have a l o n g terra p r o g r a m i n mind. Such p e r s o n s s h o u l d budget f o r a f i v e or t e n y e a r p r o g r a m o f development f o r t h e c i t y and s h o u l d t a k e t h e p u b l i c i n t o t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g ,that program, ' i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s may guage i t s m e r i t s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o p e r budget k e e p i n g where m u n i c i p a l f u n d s a r e i n v o l v e d c a n n o t be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d . F a i l u r e t o o b s e r v e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f budget making and t o keep w i t h i n the budget have p r o v e d d i s a s t r o u s t o a number of r e c r e a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . The f i r s t e s s e n t i a l of budget p l a n n i n g I s good program p l a n n i n g . W e l l i n advance o f t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new f i s c a l y e a r , t h e p r o g r a m o f work f o r t h e y e a r s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y o ut-l i n e d and t h e c o s t d e t e r m i n e d , so t h a t t h e s c o p e o f t h e work may be m o d i f i e d or e n l a r g e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f u n d s a v a i l a b l e . •An e s t i m a t e - o f t h e p r o b a b l e r e v e n u e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be made, w i t h due a l l o w a n c e s f o r u n c o l l e c t e d p l e d g e s and o t h e r s h r i n k a g e . I t i s a l s o w i s e t o make a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f new members and r e v e n u e p r o d u c i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l o w a n c e f o r r e d u c t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l as ©pposed- t o a n t i c i p a t -ed r e v e n u e u s u a l l y v a r i e s f r o m f i v e t o t e n p e r c e n t . A g a i n , a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e p r o b a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d , i n t h e p r o g r a m i s i m p o r t a n t . T h i s e s t i m a t e i n c l u d e s c o s t o f s e r v i c e , r e n t a l s , m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r i t e m s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c o n d u c t o f the work. A h e l p f u l budget cannot be worked out e x c e p t on a d e f i n i t e b a s i s of a n t i c i p a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o show i n t h e budget th e c o s t o f r e l a t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The a c c o u n t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n board 166 would I n c l u d e i t s own i t e m s o f c o s t and a l s o i t e m s of c o s t w h i c h a r e shown i n t h e a c c o u n t s o f the o t h e r c i v i c d e p a r t m e n t s . The c o s t s common t o s e v e r a l "boards or d e p a r t m e n t s a r e d i s t r i b u t -ed a c c o r d i n g t o t h e time and e f f o r t expended on t h e v a r i o u s a c -t i v i t i e s . F r e q u e n t p e r i o d i c a l s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d be made c o m p a r i n g e s t i m a t e d income and e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h a c t u a l income, and expen-d i t u r e s i n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f fun d s i s b e i n g c a r r i e d on i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e income w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o c a r r y t h e p r o g r a m o f work t h r o u g h t h e f i s c a l y e a r , i t i s un-d e s i r a b l e t o have t o a p p e a l t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c f o r s u p p o r t more t h a n once a y e a r , i f t h a t o f t e n . I n T a b l e X I X w i l l be fo u n d a t y p i c a l a n n u a l s t a t e m e n t , w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i t e m s o f the e x p e n d i t u r e s and income f r o m the m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a . 1 The B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s a n n u a l l y s u b m i t s a budget t o th e C i t y C o u n c i l . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a b l e shows t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s , as f o l l o w s : (1} B r a n c h e s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m a r e ap-p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . (2) The e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e needs o f the v a r i o u s s e r -v i c e s . (3) L a r g e f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n has b e e n made f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l program. The Oakland f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s h o u l d s e r v e as a u s e f u l model t o a r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d i n b u d g e t i n g f o r the p l a y p r o g r a m o f a c i t y s u c h as V a n c o u v e r . Amount o f re v e n u e t o be r a i s e d by t a x a t i o n . — O p i n i o n s on the s u b j e c t o f r a i s i n g money f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s by t a x a t i o n 167 TABLE XIX A TYPICAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR MUNICIPAL RECREATION B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s , O a kland, C a l i f o r n i a 1 , ACCOUNTS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR J u l y 1 , 1955 t o June. 5.0.,. 1954 '....„.-..., R e c e i p t s C o u n c i l A p p r o p r i a t i o n "" " E a r n i n g s - - G o l f C o u r s e L i o n s Swimming P o o l Camps Lake M e r r i t t N i g h t T e n n i s M i s c e l l a n e o u s ' > S a l e o f S e r v i c e P r e v i o u s y e a r s d e l i n q u e n t taxes--"brought f o r w a r d # 180,910,00 28,389.60 3,912.90 12,780.32 8,694.79 1,405.35 2,225*44 3,397.53 .5,697,26 T o t a l $ 247,413.19 D i s b u r s e m e n t s P a y r o l l A t h l e t i c S u p p l i e s L i g h t , Power, H e a t Water F a r e s and T r a v e l i n g E x p e n s e s Upkeep and. O p e r a t i o n A u t o m o t i v e Equipment I n s u r a n c e phone S e r v i c e P o s t a g e L a u n d r y T o o l s P r i n t i n g J a n i t o r i a l S u p p l i e s C h r i s t m a s P a g e a n t O t h e r O p e r a t i n g E x p e n s e s Camp S u p p l i e s M a i n t e n a n c e j Improvements and R e p a i r s , B u i l d i n g s and Grounds •Maintenance a n d R e p a i r s , Equipment 165,800.10 9,817.14 3,805.12 13,655.59 729.06 2,381.52 1*106.59 2 9 JL # 5 S 458.94 946.41 277.88 649,37 570,99 1,720.15 4,086*78 6,725.95 29,593.29 4,798.72 T o t a l .$ 247,413.19 1. B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s , A n n u a l R e p o r t , (1933-34), O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , " ^ ' 168 w i l l d i f f e r ; the only basis of deciding the sums to he raised i n t h i s way i s the reports of what c i t i e s are spending where adequate provisions are being made for recreation. In the western part of the United .States where the need is less than i n many of the eastern states, the amount expended yearly for combined a c t i v i t i e s of park and playground i s about two dollars per capita,-*- Among the c i t i e s spending this amount" are Denver, Seattle, San Francisco, los Angeles, Colorado Springs, Long Beach, Pasadena, Pomona, Santa Monica and Oakland. It may be that the larger c i t i e s w i l l be able to cut down this amount per capita, but no one can say, as none of the large eastern c i t i e s has yet established an adequate program which reaches any large percentage of the children, l e t alone one which reaches the . adults. Various suggested estimates are offered for the financ-ing of recreational a c t i v i t i e s , 'fhe national Recreation Asso-c i a t i o n suggests the annual amount of three dollars per capita, to finance the expenditures for operation and maintenance only.^ Some estimates would place.one per cent of the t o t a l assessed valuation of the c i t y i n park and playground property, while other estimates would place this estimate as high as five per cent. Somewhere between these' two estimates, probably close to five per cent, w i l l be found the figure representing the pro-v i s i o n which should be made. In addition to the provision for recreational purposes made by the parks boards, numerous school boards expend large sums for physical education. In certain c i t i e s , these boards "%ash, OP. c i t . , 160. % a t . Rec. Ass 'n., Schedule for the Appraisal of Community Recreation, pamphlet, 29. 1 6 9 have power t o r a i s e f o r s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s on t h e b a s i s of from t h r e e t o s i x - t e n t h s o f a m i l l p e r d o l l a r of t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t a x a b l e p r o p e r t y . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n Vanco u v e r a r e l i m i t e d . The p r o p e r t y : . t a x — t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f c i v i c r e v e n u e — c a n n o t c a r r y any h e a v i e r b u r d e n t h a n t h a t borne a t p r e s e n t . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m must come i n p a r t f r o m t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o vernment. T h i s government i s now c a r r y i n g out a n emergency p r o g r a m o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e unemployed. - I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h e government w i l l be f o l l o w e d by e f f o r t s t o b r i n g about c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments i n p r o v i d i n g a n ade q u a t e p r o g r a m o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R a i s i n g money by v o l u n t a r y means.-- Most o f t h e money expended f o r o r g a n i z e d community r e c r e a t i o n comes f r o m m u n i c i p a l t r e a s u r -i e s . I n t h e l o n g r u n , f i n a n c i n g p l a y g r o u n d s f r o m t a x f u n d s i s the e a s i e s t , most permanent, and most e f f e c t i v e way t o do i t . I t i s t h e g o a l toward w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l committees s h o u l d work. However, i n many c i t i e s where s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s a r e n o t s u p p l i e d by t h e c i t y c o u n c i l f o r a n adequate p r o -gram of r e c r e a t i o n , t h e money must be r a i s e d by p r i v a t e e f f o r t . I n Birmingham, Alabama, p a r t o f t h e money, f o r b a l l s , b a t s , and h a n d i c r a f t m a t e r i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l p l a y g r o u n d s i s r a i s e d i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h o s e p l a y g r o u n d s by p a r e n t - t e a c h e r or s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s . Whatever i s r a i s e d up t o twenty d o l l a r s i s matched by t h e m u n i c i p a l p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . I n t h i s c i t y , when a community wants s u c h improvements as a 170 wading p o o l or a community c e n t e r , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d group r a i s e s h a l f t h e n e c e s s a r y sum and t h e b o a r d s u p p l i e s t h e r e m a i n -der . I n r a i s i n g money f o r r e c r e a t i o n , committees or a g e n c i e s s h o u l d a l w a y s l o o k t o t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a permanent c o n s t i t -u e n c y . T h a t i s , t h e y s h o u l d , whenever p o s s i b l e , r a i s e t h e i r b u d g e t s by o u t r i g h t c o n t r i b u t i o n s , s i n c e t h i s s t i m u l a t e s i n t e r -e s t and s u p p o r t w h i c h i s i n f o r m e d and l a s t i n g . The means of b u i l d i n g t h i s t y p e o f s u p p o r t i s t h r o u g h membership campaigns or c o mmunit y c a mpa i g n s . P a y i n g membership dues i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i n g r e c r e a t i o n i s n o t q u i t e as p a i n l e s s a way o f g i v i n g as b u y i n g t i c k e t s t o a home t a l e n t show, but i t sometimes i s a s o u r c e o f . p r e s t i g e , and i t o f t e n c o n f e r s on t h e s u b s c r i b e r a r i g h t t o s h a r e i n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The membership i d e a i s sound i n t h a t a p e r s o n i s l i k e l y t o f e e l a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a n agen c y t o w h i c h he b e l o n g s . T h e . t e c h n i q u e f o r community f i n a n c i a l - d r i v e s has been w i d e l y employed i n r e c e n t y e a r s by o r g a n i z e r s of community c h e s t f u n d s and s i m i l a r c i t y - w i d e e f f o r t s . I n a community p r o j e c t , t h e e n t i r e p u b l i c must be r e a c h e d , not j u s t a s e c t i o n o f i t . T h i s assumes t h a t a p p e a l s must be made t o t h e man i n o v e r a l l s as w e l l as t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s and t h e w e a l t h y . I t a l s o means u s i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e forms of p u b l i c i t y and e d u c a t i o n i n . r a i s i n g f u n d s. There a r e many t e m p o r a r y and i n c i d e n t a l methods 'which c a n be r e s o r t e d t o i n r a i s i n g money. These methods m i n i m i z e t h e b u r d e n o f g i v i n g and even c o n c e a l t h e a c t e i t h e r under t h e 171 g a r b o f b u y i n g and s e l l i n g o r i n some f o r m o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . Some o f them t h r o w t h e p l e a s a n t a t m o s p h e r e o f s o c i a b i l i t y a r o u r t h e " b e n e f i t " and t h u s s e r v e a d o u b l e p u r p o s e . I t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t some o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s of tl: t e c h n i q u e o f money r a i s i n g a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( a ) The d o i n g o f good w o r k . (b) The k e e p i n g o f y o u r c o n t r i b u t o r s and o t h e r s c o n -t i n u o u s l y i n f o r m e d as t o what i a b e i n g d o n e . ( c ) I n t e r e s t i n g a few i n d i v i d u a l s deeply and g e t t i n g t h e s t r o n g e s t p e o p l e I n t h e community b e h i n d t h e w or k. (d) T r a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r s i n t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f t h e work and m a k i n g t h e s t o r y human, n o t a b s t r a c t . ( e ) W o r k i n g I n c e s s a n t l y on money r a i s i n g i n e v e r y - d e p a r t m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . ( f ) B u d g e t i n g y o u r w o r k and w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e b u d g e t . ( g ) S t a r t i n g f i v e t i m e s as much money r a i s i n g e f f o r t as y o u t h i n k heeded t o r a i s e t h e b u d g e t v o t e d , ( h ) K e e p i n g money i n t h e bank a t l e a s t one month ahead i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e amount o f p l e d g e s on hand. ( I ) C l o s i n g e v e r y y e a r w i t h o u t a d e f i c i t S i n c e t h e above methods a r e n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , o t h e r methods o f - h e l p i n g t o f i n a n c e t h e work a r e i n u s e i n a number o f c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y where p r i v a t e g r o u p s a r e c o n d u c t i n g t h e c e n t e r s . These methods c o n s i s t o f c h a r g i n g f e e s f o r c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f a c t i v i t i e s i n o r d e r t o meet t h e s a l a r i e s o f i n -s t r u c t o r s . As a n a u x i l i a r y method, where n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o c -i a t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d t o h e l p a d m i n i s t e r t h e c e n t e r s and s u p p o r t t h e movement, members o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n p a y dues w h i c h may be t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s , one d o l l a r , or some o t h e r annual amount w h i c h t h e y themselves d e s i g n a t e . T h r o u g h s u b s c r i p t i o n s , e n t e r -t a i n m e n t s and s i m i l a r e n t e r p r i s e s , t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s r a i s e f u n d s t o h e l p i n t h e f i n a n c i n g o f t h e c e n t e r s . One w r i t e r s t a t e s : The Community R e c r e a t i o n S o c i e t y o f P l a i n s f i e l d , New ' l e e , op. c . i t . , 2 0 3 . 172 Jersey, has arranged the fees for i t s community center on the following basis: for classes i n a r t c r a f t , dressmaking, millinery, basketry, public speaking, l i t e r a t u r e and dram-a t i c s , the fee i s $1*50 per term. For quoits, cards and similar a c t i v i t i e s the fee is $1.00. A large proportion of the Chicago centers meet more than half of their oxra. expenses. The fees range from a few cents a year for some a c t i v i t i e s to 25 cents an evening, depending to some extent upon the a c t i v i t y and to a large degree upon the neighborhood i n which the school center is located• A l l a c t i v i t i e s carry some small fee. 1 Conclusion.—The fact that a recreational program is well organ-ized and e f f e c t i v e l y carried out does not guarantee that ample funds w i l l be made avai l a b l e . It is obvious that the whole-hearted support of the public must be obtained so that the nec-essary funds w i l l be found. The only means of reaching this goal is to have the public i n t e l l i g e n t l y informed both as to merits of the recreational program and the sums necessary ade-quately to finance the program. The reader has seen evidence of Vancouver's backwardness i n appropriating funds for recreation. Advantages should be taken of temporary measures for r a i s i n g funds; such measures should lead to more municipal support i n the future. Many ac-t i v i t i e s , especially those of the adult group, could be.largely self - s u s t a i n i n g , where neighborhood organizations raise funds by various means, the municipal authorities could match these with equal contributions, lash asserts that: A c i t y ' s greatness depends not upon the length of i t s streets or.the size of i t s water system but upon the t r a i n -ing for health and citizenship i t is giving to the children. If this be sOj then a c i t y council would be very wise to encourage a l l forms of recreation. H a t . -Rec. Ass 'n., The Conduct of Community Centers, Nash, op. c i t . , 162* (pamphlet, 9. 173 CHAPTER 2 1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations a re based on a s t u d y o f the m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . A : V a n c o u v e r ' s R e c r e a t i o n a l D e f i c i e n c i e s . 1 . T h i r t e e n , c i t i e s o f the c o n t i n e n t w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t o f Vancouve r were s e l e c t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h V a n c o u v e r , The c o m p a r i s o n showed t h a t , on the a v e r a g e , Vancouver . ' s p r o v i s i o n s were d e f i c i e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s p e c t s ; (a) 21 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s ; (b) 28 s a l a r i e d men d i r e c t o r s , 14 s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c -t o r s , n i n e d i r e c t o r s employed f u l l y e a r , 30 v o l u n t e e r men d i r e c t o r s and 20 v o l u n t e e r l a d y d i r e c t o r s j (e) n i n e p l a y g r o u n d s open f o r the f u l l ^ y e a r , f o u r p l a y -• grounds open f o r the summer o n l y , two p l a y g r o u n d s open f o r the s c h o o l y e a r o n l y and e i g h t p l a y g r o u n d s open f o r the l o n g summer s e a s o n ; (d) $30 ,669 f o r the s a l a r i e s o f d i r e c t o r s o n l y and #70,275 f o r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . 2 . Vancouver was a l s o compared w i t h c e r t a i n l a r g e Can-a d i a n c i t i e s , namely M o n t r e a l , Ot tawa , To ron to and W i n n i p e g . Ot tawa , w i t h about h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n o f Vancouve r , has a g r e a t e r number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and has a l m o s t doub le the e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . W i n n i p e g , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 4 2 , 0 0 0 l e s s t h a n t h a t o f V a n c o u v e r , has a lmos t t h r e e t imes the number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and p r o v i d e s a l m o s t t h r e e t imes the amount i n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . T o r o n t o , w i t h a l i t t l e more t han t w i c e the p o p u l a t i o n 174 o f V a n c o u v e r , has more t h a n f o u r t i m e s t h e number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and p r o v i d e s a l m o s t e i g h t t i m e s the'amount i n ex-p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , M o n t r e a l , w i t h more t h a n f o u r t i m e s the p o p u l a t i o n of V a n c o u v e r , has s e v e n t i m e s the number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and p r o v i d e s s i x t i m e s t h e amount i n e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . ^ : O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1. A m e e t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l c i v i c b o d i e s i n -t e r e s t e d i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m s h o u l d be c a l l e d , and s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o w a r d t h e a d o p t i o n o f some p l a n o f c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e c a r r y i n g out o f t h a t p r o g r a m , 2. I n a ' c i t y , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s ' t h a t t h e • r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e n t i r e p r o g r a m o f r e c r e a t i o n be p l a c e d on a g e n e r a l - b o a r d of r e c r e a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on t h e p a r k s b o a r d or t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . F a i l i n g t h i s , a c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s h o u l d be c h o s e n t o e f f e c t a v e r y c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e p a r k s board and the s c h o o l b o a r d . T h i s p l a n has b een a d o p t e d by the c i t i e s n o t e d as b e i n g v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e i n . t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n . 3. The C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r s h o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o a p p r o x - • i m a t e l y 12 major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . I n each d i s t r i c t , s h o u l d be f o u n d a major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r about w a i c h s h o u l d be grouped t h e minor r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s of t h e d i s t r i c t . From th e major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r t h e p l a y p r o g r a m o f t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d . 4. To s u p p o r t t h e work o f the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , v o l u n t a r y n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d i n each of t h e major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 5. The p a r k s b o a r d s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o g r a m 175 oi' r e c r e a t i o n o f t h e a d u l t s and t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n * 6. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the s c h o o l b o a r d s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l - a g e . At the s c h o o l a r e a v a i l a b l e the p l a n t , the c h i l d r e n and t h e t e a c h e r s ; and t h e t i m e has b e e n s e t a s i d e by t h e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . i t i s not e c o n o m i c a l t o d u p l i c a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s by p r o v i d i n g more p l a y g r o u n d s , s u p p l i e s and equipment,- because o f t h e un-n e c e s s a r y - o v e r h e a d e x p e n s e s . T h e r e i s no need f o r b o t h the s c h o o l b o a r d and t h e paries b o a r d t o o f f e r a p r o g r a m o f r e e r e a -t i o n f o r s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n . 7. The . p r o v i n c i a l r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d promote p r o -grams and f a c i l i t i e s o n l y i n t h o s e c ommunities where t h e r e a r e ho m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s . I t s h o u l d l e n d i t s c o n s t a n t -s u p p o r t t o a l l m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s . 0: F a c i l i t i e s . 1. E v e r y s c h o o l ground o f t h e c i t y s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d as t h e p l a y c e n t e r f o r t h e p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l . 2. The p r e s e n t p l a y g r o u n d s of t h e paries b o a r d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f K i t s i l a n o , C e p e r l e y and Robson, s h o u l d be r e -c o n s t r u c t e d so as t o s e r v e t h e p r e - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n a l o n e . 5. K i t s i l a n o and O e p e r l e y p l a y g r o u n d s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e as p l a y g r o u n d s f o r the summer s e a s o n o n l y . Robson p l a y g r o u n d s h o u l d o p e r a t e aa a major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e S c h o o l . 4. As t h e need a r i s e s , o t h e r s m a l l p l a y g r o u n d s s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h e major r e c r e a -t i o n a l - d i s t r i c t s . A t p r e s e n t , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t s u c h p l a y -g r o u n d s be c o n s t r u c t e d a t H e a t h e r and G r a n v i l l e P a r k s . 176 5. A number of h i g h s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s s h o u l d o p e r a t e as t h e p l a y c e n t e r s f o r t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , I n c l u d i n g y o u t h who have l e f t s c h o o l . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s e , n e a r b y p a r k p l a y i n g " i ' i e l d s s h o u l d o p e r a t e d u r i n g the day f o r t h i s age g r o u p . 6 . I n o r d e r t h a t the p r o g ram of r e c r e a t i o n may be ade-q u a t e , a w i d e r use s h o u l d be made of each s c h o o l p l a n t . Such f a c i l i t i e s as the l i b r a r y , t h e gymnasium, t h e a u d i t o r i u m and t h e basement rooms s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d f o r t h e c a r r y i n g out of v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . D: D i r e c t o r s . 1. I t i s f o u n d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o -gram depends l a r g e l y Upon w e l l - t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , To e s t a b l i s h a s t a f f o f d i r e c t o r s more or l e s s permanent i n n a t u r e , c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y : (a) She d i r e c t o r s must be g i v e n f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s . (b) The s a l a r i e s must be a t l e a s t up t o t h e minimum s c h e d u l e of the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . ( c ) I n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t y o u n g e r p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c -t o r s , a r e b e t t e r s u i t e d p h y s i c a l l y f o r the p e r f o r m a n c e o f p l a y l e a d e r s h i p , a l l d i r e c t o r s must be p r e p a r e d f o r a t r a n s -f e r i n l a t e r l i f e t o s c h o o l t e a c h i n g . 2. The minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o s p e c t i v e d i r e c t o r s s h o u l d be as f o l l o w s : (a) A s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e . (b) A n o r m a l s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . ( c ) i'he c o m p l e t i o n o f I n t e n s i v e c o u r s e s g i v e n under the a u s p i c e s o f t h e b o a r d o f r e c r e a t i o n . (d) One y e a r o f s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e as a v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r . (e) I n a s s u r a n c e o f a n i n t e n t i o n t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e 177 v o c a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g t h e young* E : Program. 1. There s h o u l d be g r e a t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n between t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l programs of t h e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n . 2. A p r o g r a m o f r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be o f f e r e d t o more t h a n one age group a t t h e same t i m e i n t h e same p l a c e . 3. A p r o g r a m o f r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d e x t e n d t h r o u g h o u t the e n t i r e y e a r , and s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l forms o f s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 4. I n u n s u i t a b l e w e a ther, t h e p r o g r a m s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d i n d o o r s . 5. The p r o g r a m s h o u l d be w e l l - b a l a n c e d p r o v i d i n g f o r s p o r t s , h o b b i e s and c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of v a r i o u s k i n d s . F: Finance.. 1. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e p u b l i c be e d u c a t e d t o t h e v a l u e s o f a more a d e q u a t e p r o g r a m . 2. A d v a n t a g e s h o u l d be t a k e n o f t e m p o r a r y measures f o r r a i s i n g f u n d s . , By means o f s u e h measures, t h e m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r -i t i e s s h o u l d match w i t h e q u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s f u n d s r a i s e d v o l u n -t a r i l y by l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3. Many a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f the a d u l t g r o u p , s h o u l d be made s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . 4. E v e n t u a l l y , t h e p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments s h o u l d g i v e r e g u l a r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r a i l forms o f o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n c a r r i e d on under m u n i c i p a l or p r o v i n c i a l a u s p i c e s . I n o t h e r words, t h e f i n a n c i n g o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s s h o u l d be p l a c e d upon a sound and d e f i n i t e b a s i s . 178 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Bowen, W . E . , and M i t c h e l l , E * D . The (Theory o f P l a y . New Y o r k : A . S . Ba rnes & C o . , 1923 . Bowen, W . E . , and M i t c h e l l , S . D . The Theory o f O r g a n i z e d  P l a y . New Y o r k : A . S . B a r n e s & G o . , 1927 . C a r p e n t e r , N i l e s . The S o c i o l o g y o f P i t y L i f e . New Y o r k , L o n d o n . a n d T o r o n t o : Longmans, Green & C o . , 1932 . C u b b e r l e y , E . P . P u b l i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n ) . New Y o r k : Houghton" M i f f l i n C o . , 1929 . C u r t i s , H . S . E d u c a t i o n Through P l a y . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1917 . Dewey, J o h n . Democracy and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1925 , Johnson , George E . E d u c a t i o n by P l a y s and Games. New Y o r k : G i n n & G o . , 19W, "~~ L e e , J . Normal Course i n P l a y . New Y o r k : A . S . B a r n e s & C o . , 19277—-" . • v , ' L e e , J . P l a y i n E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 2 3 . May, H . L . , and P e t g e n , D o r o t h y . L e i s u r e and i t s U s e . New Y o r k ; A . S . B a r n e s & C o . * 1924 . ~ ! N a s h , Jay B . The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P l a y -frounds and R e c r e a t i o n . New Y o r k : A . S . Barnes & C o . , R a i n w a t e r , C . E . The P l a y Movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Ch icago P r e s s , 1 9 2 2 . ""~ ~"~ T r u x a l , A . G . Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t - i v e n e s s . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y : Bureau o f P u b l i c a t i o n " , .1929. Young , K. S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : P . S* G r o f t , 1930 . 179 Reports" A n n u a l Repor t^ R e c r e a t i o n Depa r tmen t , O a k l a n d : Board o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s , 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 . D o m i n i o n Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . O i v i c P l a y g r o u n d s i n Canad ian C i t i e s o f 10 ,000 P o p u l a t i o n and overT Ottawa": - D e p a r t -ment of Trade and Commerce, 1934 . D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s . S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s i n Canad ian  C i t i e s o f 10 ,000 Population~"a,nd o v e r . Ottawa": D e p a r t -ment o f Trade and Commerce, 1934, E i s e n h a r d t , I . Annual . R e p o r t , P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t - men t . V a n c o u v e r : P a r k s B o a r d , - 1934 . F o w l e r , J . S . The Denver P l a n . D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o : Denver P l a n n i n g Commiss ion , 1 9 2 9 . V o l . 1. M a c C o r k i n d a l e , H . N . A n n u a l R e p o r t , C i t y S c h o o l s . V a n c o u v e r : B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , 1934 . R e c r e a t i o n Y e a r B o o k . Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s on Community R e c r e a t i o n . New Y o r k : N a t . R e c . A s s ' n . , May, 1934 and May, 1 9 3 5 . R a w l i n g s , W . S . A n n u a l R e p o r t s , P a r k s and Playgrounds^, V a n c o u v e r : B o a r d o f P a r k C o m m i s s i o n e r s , 1 9 1 1 - 1 5 - 2 5 . R o g e r s , G . S . P l a y g r o u n d Handbook f o r Chamber o f Commerce  S x e o u t i v e s T new r o n e : unamoer o r commerce u m t e a S t a t e s , C i v i c Development Depar tment , 1929 . Monographs D a v i s , I . W . " A n I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Conduct and F i n a n c i a l S u p p o r t o f P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n S e l e c t e d S t a t e s . " T h e s i s . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1931 . F o x , John J r . "The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f R e c r e a t i o n i n a C i t y w i t h a P o p u l a t i o n under 2 5 j 0 0 0 . " T h e s i s . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 1 . N a s h , J . B . "Gove rnmen ta l Powers and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t i e s . " D o c t o r ' s T h e s i s . New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , . 1 9 2 9 . V o l . I I . N a t i o n a l R e e r e a t i o n A s s ' n . "Cor respondence Course f o r Summer P l a y g r o u n d l e a d e r s " . New Y o r k : Lessons 1 to 1 0 . 180 Pamphle t s A . P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k : 1 ~ ~ A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P i t y R e c r e a t i o n . C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y and D e l i n q u e n c y . Conduct o f Community C e n t e r s . Conduct o f P l a y g r o u n d s . E i g h t y - e i g h t S u c c e s s f u l P l a y A c t i v i t i e s . Games and P l a y f o r S c h o o l M o r a l e . Home P l a y g r o u n d and Indoor P l a y r o o m . How to Conduct a Referendum Campaign . Kennedy , C . W . , C h a r a c t e r V a l u e s o f P l a y and R e c r e a t i o n . K i l p a t r i c k , Wm. H . , P l a c e o f A t h l e t i c s i n Modern E d u c a t i o n . M o n e y - R a i s i n g S t u n t s f o r F a i r s , C a r n i v a l s , e t c . Nash , J . B . , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f . P l a y and R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s  i n a C i t y . P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s . P l a y g r o u n d L a y o u t and E q u i p m e n t . P l a y L e a d e r s h i p . R a i s i n g Money f o r P l a y and R e c r e a t i o n . Sand M o d e l i n g M a n u a l . S c h e d u l e f o r t h e A p p r a i s a l o f Community R e c r e a t i o n .  S c h o o l P l a y . What We D i d on a Summer P l a y g r o u n d . Pamphle t s f c o n t ' d ) . B . Other P a m p h l e t s . B e r g , H . 0 . The S c h o o l as the P e o p l e ' s C l u b h o u s e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . G . : B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , 1925 . ~ Ready , M a r i e M . S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s . U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f I n t e r i o r " ? B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , 1934 . A r t i c l e s De G r o o t , E . . B . "What a r e the Chances f o r the S u r v i v a l o f Amateur and Community R e c r e a t i o n i n an Age o f Profes-r s i o n a l and Commerc ia l R e c r e a t i o n . " A m e r i c a n P h y s i c a l  E d u c a t i o n R e v i e w . O c t o b e r , 1925 . F i t z , J . "Hyg iene o f I n s t r u c t i o n . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  N a t u r a l E d u c a t i o n A s s ' n . , 1898 . Newspapers  l e w Y o r k S u n . New Y o r k ; May 2 2 , 1924. Vancouver P r o v i n c e * V a n c o u v e r : May 2 0 , 1930 and September ' 19 , 1 9 3 5 . 1 SAN. DIEGO CO-OPERATIVE PLAN Agreement. F o r C o - o p e r a t i o n Between Board And P l a y g r o u n d  Commiss ione r s And B o a r d Of E d u c a t i o n , San D i e g o , C a l i f . The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d Comm-i s s i o n e r s i n j o i n t s e s s i o n a r r a n g e d f o r a commit tee to "bring i n a p l a n for< the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the two b o d i e s i n the p r o m o t i o n o f p l a y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and community r e c r e a t i o n . The commit tee hereby recommends the f o l l o w i n g agreement f o r a d o p t i o n : P u r p o s e s o f Agreement : "~ The B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d Commiss ioners and the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n e n t e r i n t o t h i s agreement because o f t h e i r j o i n t r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y t o use p l a y as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n . I t a f f o r d s c h a r a c t e r and c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g . I t d e v e l o p s p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y and m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s . I t l e a d s t o the f o r m a t i o n o f h a b i t s i n the use o f l e i s u r e t ime t h a t make f o r happy and more abundant l i f e . D e a l i n g w i t h the same c h i l d r e n , s p e n d i n g the same t a x p a y e r ' s money and r e q u i r i n g the same k i n d o f f a c i l i t i e s , i n the same l o c a t i o n s , t h e two a g e n c i e s a im t o c o - o p e r a t e i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may no t compete f o r t he a t t e n t i o n o f the c h i l d , and I n o r d e r t h a t the g r o u n d s , b u i l d i n g s , equ ipmen t . and p e r s o n n e l under any c i t y depar tment may be so u t i l i z e d as t o a c h i e v e maximum s e r v i c e t o b o t h the c h i l d r e n and the a d u l t s d u r i n g and a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . Whatever i n c i d e n t a l d e f e c t s may be found i n the d e t a i l s o f t h i s agreement , I t s p l a i n i n t e n t i s . to p r o v i d e a w o r k i n g b a s i s and t o e x p r e s s f a i t h i n t h e a b i l i t y o f the two b o d i e s to work t o g e t h e r on b r o a d l i n e s . Work ing A r r a n g e m e n t s : The B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d Commiss ioners and the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n s h a l l a n n u a l l y meet i n j o i n t s e s s i o n to s e l e c t a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e e r e a t i o n . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n s h a l l a l s o be t h e D i r e c t o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r the San D i e g o P u b l i c S c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g H i g h , J u n i o r H i g h and E l emen-t a r y . The s a l a r y ' o f t h i s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l be borne e q u a l -l y by the two b o a r d s . That whe reve r p o s s i b l e , s u p e r v i s i o n s h a l l be e x e r c i s e d i n b e h a l f o f a d u l t s as w e l l as s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and i n c l u d e a l l s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s j games * d r a m a t i c s , d a n c i n g , p a g e a n t s , f e s t i -v a l s , e v e n i n g r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s i n s c h o o l - b u i l d i n g s . , e x c l u s i v e o f t he needs o f t he s c h o o l depar tmen t , shower b a t h s , d r e s s i n g rooms and p l a y g r o u n d s u p p l y room. T h a t , on the f i r s t Monday i n June , when t h e e l e c t i o n o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n s h a l l be up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d Commiss ioners s h a l l meet w i t h the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n i n j o i n t s e s s i o n f o r the purpose o f s e l e c t -i n g t h i s o f f i c i a l . A m a j o r i t y v o t e o f each boa rd s i t t i n g i n t h e . j o i n t s e s s i o n s h a l l be r e q u i r e d to e l e c t . J o i n t mee t ings , o f the two. B o a r d s may be c a l l e d a t any t ime by e i t h e r , on no -t i c e o f t he Cha i rman , r>rovided t e n d a y s ' n o t i c e i s g i v e n . 183 • * 1 DETAILS OF OAKLAND C0-OPSRATIVE PLAN The Oak land P l a n i n v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and the B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s . The two hoards ag reed some y e a r s ago t o c e n t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the depar tment o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and the r e c r e a t i o n depar tment i n one o f f i c e , the t i t l e o f the e x e c u t i v e to be S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n o f the C i t y o f Oak land and D i r e c t o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n the Oak land P u b l i c S c h o o l s ; payment o f the s a l a r y o f t h i s o f f i c e to be s h a r e d . No r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t r u s t e d t o one b o a r d i s r e - d e l e g a t e d t o a n o t h e r b o a r d , so that- t h e r e ite no l e g a l hand icap i n t h i s p l a n . - When t h i s o f f i c e r . i s on a s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d , he i s re-? s p o n s i b l e t o the b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s ; and when on a m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d , he i s r e s p o n -s i b l e to the B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s . When c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p a r k s , on p r o p e r t y l o a n -ed by i n d i v i d u a l s o r c l u b s , i n s t a t e o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s , o r on the U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t R e s e r v e , he i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n a c c o r d -ance w i t h wha teve r agreement has been e n t e r e d i n t o by the g o v e r n i n g b o a r d s . EXECUTIVE STAFF S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and D i r e c t o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Oakland P u b l i c S c h o o l s ( S a l a r y s h a r e d by the two boa rds ) P a i d b y . B o a r d o f p l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s P a i d by,. B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n { R e c r e a t i o n Depar tment ) ( S c h o o l Depar tment) ~ A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a - S u p e r v i s o r o f p h y s i c a l t i o n Edxxcat ion D i r e c t o r o f B o y s ' A c t i v i t i e s J r . & S r . h i g h s c h o o l girlfe D i r e c t o r o f G i r l s 1 A c t i v i t i e s S u p e r v i s o r o f p h y s i c a l D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n a l D r a m a t i c s E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r o f I n d u s t r i a l R e c r e a t i o n J r . & S r . h i g h s c h o o l boys O f f i c e S t a f f S u p e r v i s o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e S t a f f PLAYGROUND ADiMINISTRATION B o t h . t h e m i n i e i p a l p laygrounds-and the s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s a r e o p e r a t e d e v e r y , d a y o f the y e a r . MUNICIPAL PLAYGROUNDS — 11 UNITS Funds s u p p l i e d w h o l l y by C i t y R e c r e a t i o n Depar tment , SCHOOL PLAYGROUNDS — - 49 UNITS Opera ted as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e by funds s u p p l i e d , sha re and sha re a l i k e , by the S c h o o l and R e c r e a t i o n Depa r tmen t s . 1 . i m s n , op . c i t . ' 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 . OAKLAND. 00-OPERATIYE PLAN ( c o n t ' d ) P a i d b y B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d P a i d b y Boa®d o f E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r s ( R e c r e a t i o n Department) ( S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t ) , Funds Funds s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h P i t y B u d g e t s u p p l i e d . t h r o u g h County,.Budget S a l a r i e s Pay s a l a r i e s o f p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c - Pay s a l a r i e s o f -playground t o r s i n c h a r g e f r o m 9:3-0 A.M. t o d i r e c t o r s f r o m 3":15 t o -5:15 5:30 P.M. on n o n - s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d P.M. on s c h o o l days . h o u r s , a f t e r s c h o o l and summer v a c a t i o n s P l a y g r o u n d S u p p l i e s P r o v i d e p l a y g r o u n d s u p p l i e s f o r P r o v i d e p l a y g r o u n d s u p p l i e s u s e d u r i n g p l a y g r o u n d h o u r s , f o r u s e d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s a f t e r s c h o o l and summer v a c a t i o n s Workmen F u r n i s h o n e - h a l f o f crew o f F u r n i s h o n e ^ h a l f o f crew o f workmen f o r r e p a i r and workmen f o r r e p a i r and up-keep o f g r o u n d s - -keep o f g r o u n d s Space, and Equipment P r o v i d e l a r g e s p a c e s on"muni-~ P r o v i d e s p a c e and equipment c i p a l u n i t s f o r s c h o o l e v e n t s , f o r s c h o o l y a r d s - — y a r d s t o s u c h as t r a c k meets, p l a y d a y s , be l a r g e enough f o r p l a y -r e g a t t a s , e t c . . g r o u n d s E x t r a S t a f f P r o v i d e e x t r a s t a f f f o r c o n d u c t P r o v i d e j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e , o f i n t e r - * s c h o o l e v e n t s , e n c l u d - c a r e o f g r o u n d s , y e a r r o u n d i n g m a r k i n g o f g r o u n d s e q u i p s ment, o f f i c i a l s , e t c . RE GREAT ION AGO? I v T T I E S  R e c r e a t i o n Department" ' : S c h o o l Department E v e n i n g A c t i v i t i e s i n S c h o o l Gymnasiums F u r n i s h s u p e r v i s o r s f o r ' ! ~~ F u r n i s h l i g h t , h e a t , and c o n d u c t a c t i v i t i e s j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e A q u a t i c S p o r t s F u r n i s h t w e l v e - r o a r e d " F u r n i s h o a r s and s u p e r v i s i o n b o a t s on l a k e Costume Room O p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n a " ~ ~ "TJostumes u s e d by s c h o o l s costume room. Loan c o s - -tumes w i t h o u t c o s t E d u c a t i o n a l D r a m a t i c s F u r n i s h D i r e c t o r o f ( i n c l u d i n g P a g e a n t s , S c h o o l s c o - o p e r a t e E d u c a t i o n a l D r a m a t i c s May Days, P l a y s , e t c . ) i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h and D i r e c t o r o f F o l k t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n D a n c i n g and c o n d u c t o f a c t i v i t i e s B a s e b a l l F i e l d s G i v e o u t p e r m i t s e a c h Mon- F u r n i s h s c h o o l f i e l d s when-day m o r n i n g a t 8:30. F u r - e v e r y a r d s a r e a d a p t e d n i s h f i e l d s , f i e l d h o u s e s , showers, d r e s s i n g r r r o o m s e t c . B o y s ' and G i r l s ' . Gamps -M a i n t a i n e d by R e c r e a t i o n ~ Groups a r e o r g a n i z e d i n D e p a r t m e n t . P r a c t i c a l l y t h e s c h o o l s s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g u ^ |>E^f ig - ' | ( - . 185 OAKLAND CO-OPERATIVE PLAN ( c o n t ' d ) OTHER ACTIVITIES' Funds s u p p l i e d w h o l l y by c i t y r e c r e a t i o n department b u d g e t . G o l f Course--— 1—-18 H o l e U n i t : An e igh teen - rho le g o l f c o u r s e I s ' a d m i n i s t e r e d by the r e c r e a t i o n depar tment and i s made p r a c t i -c a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g by a s m a l l f e e . F a m i l y Camps: F a m i l y camps a r e m a i n t a i n e d to w h i c h f a m i l i e s . go f o r summer v a c a t i o n s . They a r e p r a c t i c a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . P l a y g r o u n d s i n the P a r k s : (Opera t ed e v e r y day o f the y e a r . ) Through s p e c i a l a r rangements w i t h t h e B o a r d o f P a r k D i r e c t o r s , f a c i l i t i e s f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n a re i n s t a l l e d i n the p a r k s . C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h I n d u s t r i e s : The R e c r e a t i o n Department f u r -n i s h e s one f u l l - t i m e i n d i v i d u a l t o work w i t h the I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f O a k l a n d , a group o f some s i x t y i n d u s -t r i e s w h i c h have o r g a n i z e d t h e i r v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l u n i t s i n a l l - y e a t p r o g r a m . C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t S e r v i c e : I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n t h a t t h e Depar tment r e c e i v e s l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d i n the moun ta ins f o r the conduc t o f c h i l d r e n 1 s and f a m i l y camps. C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h P r i v a t e and S e m j - P u b l i o Groups : The Recreat ion Depar tment m a i n t a i n s a c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e and semi-p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f u r n i s h i n g them i n many i n s t a n c e s w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r camping , f i r e p l a c e s f o r p i c n i c s , a t h l e t i c f i e l d s f o r t ou rnamen t s , "evening gymnasiums f o r leagues<, and a u d i t o r i m s w i t h k i t c h e n s f o r e v e n i n g p a r t i e s . A l l o f t he se o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t u r n a s s i s t the R e c r e a t i o n Department t h r o u g h the l o a n o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , such, as a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , gymnasiums, a u d i -t o r i u m s and swimming p o o l s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Home P l a y : The R e c r e a t i o n Department ma in ta ins a depar tment f o r the p r o m o t i o n o f home p l a y . The department f u r n i s h e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and b l u e p r i n t s f o r e q u i p p i n g b a c k y a r d p l a y g r o u n d s . T h i s s e r v i c e i s f u r n i s h e d t h r o u g h the medium o f v a r i o u s women's c l u b s and P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s . E v e n i n g Community C e n t e r s : (Opera t ed e v e r y day o f the y e a r . ) o p e r a t e d by tne R e c r e a t i o n Department f o r the purpose o f supp^-i i n g wholesome r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g the e v e n i n g period, S e r v i c e Depa r tmen t : The R e c r e a t i o n Depar tment m a i n t a i n s a Se:» v i c e Depar tment I n a d d i t i o n t o a l l t he above f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s S e r v i c e Department aims t o answer a l l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i v e to r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h may a r i s e w i t h i n the c i t y . I t f u r n i s h e s b l u e p r i n t s , p l a n s , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l l t ypes o f a c t i v i t i e s ; and s u p p l i e s s l i d e s and m o v i n g - p i c t u r e r e e l s , and s p e a k e r s on a l l s u b j e c t s r e l a t -i n g t o l e i s u r e - t i m e t o p i c s . ' The •Service- Depar tment , i n addi^-t i o n to t h i s , sends s k i l l e d worke r s to conduct p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n or f a m i l y g roups whenever a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number o f c i t i z e n s d e s i r e such a s e r v i c e . APPENDIX "0 6 1 THE DENVER PLAN To c o - o r d i n a t e t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e v a r i o u s p i i b l i c a g e n c i e s now p r o v i d i n g m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n and t o show a way toward s y s t e m a t i c p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n i s the e s s e n c e o f t h i s p l a n c T h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e t h e s c h o o l h o a r d , t h e l i b r a r y b o a r d and t h e a r t a s s o c i a t i o n . A p l a c e t o p l a y w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f e v e r y r s m a l l c h i l d and an e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d i n e v e r y d i s t r i c t i s i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l . I t may n o t be p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h i s g o a l f o r many y e a r s ; t e m p o r a r y measures may be n e c e s s a r y t o a r r i v e a t a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s ; many y e a r s may p a s s b e f o r e i t s f u l f i l m e n t , b u t e v e r y s t e p i n r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be made toward t h i s g o a l * Under t h e p l a n a l l t h e m e n t i o n e d p u b l i c a g e n c i e s s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d a c t i v i t i e s a t m a j o r d i s t r i c t r e -c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e t h e c i t y o f Denver has been d i v i d e d i n t o 33 d i s t r i c t s , e a c h w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l r a d i u s o f x - m i l e , b u t i n r e a l i t y bounded by n a t u r a l l i n e s s u c h as r a i l -ways, t r a f f i c t h o r o u g h f a r e s , r i v e r s , as f a r a s p o s s i b l e . E a c h d i s t r i c t has a c o m p l e t e l y e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d as i t s c e n t e r o f a c t i v i t i e s . A r o u n d t h i s c e n t e r a r e g r o u p e d a number o f s m a l l e r p l a y s p a c e s t h a t a r e s u b s i d i a r y t o t h e c e n t e r and a r e c o n t r o l l e d f r o m i t . In t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t s , c a r e has been t a k e n t h a t r a c i a l g r o u p s a r e k e p t t o t h e m s e l v e s as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . , The m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r has been l o c a t e d i n the p a r t o f t h e d i s t r i c t w h e r e v e r i t was p r a c t i c a l t o do s o . Many o f t h e e x i s t i n g p l a y g r o u n d s can be us.ed- f o r t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c e n -t e r s . The f u r t h e r .equipment o f them s h o u l d be done on a b a s i s o f a c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e o f f a c i l i t i e s a s f u n d s become a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r t h a n a n immediate r e a r r a n g e m e n t a t g r e a t e x p e n s e . E a c h c e n t e r must be e q u i p p e d f o r p l a y , s p o r t s and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s * I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o have a l l t h i s on one t r a c t o f l a n d § b u t where e x i s t i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and g r o u n d s , and p a r k -f a c i l i t i e s a r e s e p a r a t e d , t h e c e n t e r can be d i v i d e d i n t o .two or more u n i t s * The i d e a l c e n t e r w i l l p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; (a) S m a l l c h i l d r e n ' s c o r n e r , w i t h s a n d boxes * sw i n g s , s l i d e s / t o b o g g a n h i l l s , a p p a r a t u s , m e r r y r g o - r o u n d s and outr-door g y m n a s i a , fb ) Open s p a c e s f o r i n d o o r b a s e b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l and b a s k e t b a l l . ' f c ) O utdoor swimming p o o l , a l s o t o be u s e d f o r s k a t - , i n g . (d) Wading P o o l . (e) T e n n i s c o u r t s . ( f ) B a s e b a l l and f o o t b a l l f i e l d s . 1. F o w l e r , p p . o,i.t., 52 187 APPENDIX Q . THE DENVER PLAN ( c o n t ' d ) (g) H o r s e s h o e p i t c h i n g c o u r t s , h a n d b a l l c o u r t s , b owl-i n g f i e l d , c r o q u e t c o u r t , e t c . (h) Open lawns where s t o r y - t e l l i n g c a n be done. The e n t i r e l a y o u t must be c a r e f u l l y s c r e e n e d f r o m c i t y s t r e e t s and n o i s e s . The p l a y g r o u n d s s h o u l d have b e a u t i f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s and w e l l - a r r a n g e d f l o w e r g a r d e n s . The b u i l d i n g equipment i n c l u d e : f a ) Gymnasium f o r i n d o o r p l a y t o be u s e d b y y o u t h s and o l d a t r e g u l a t e d i n t e r v a l s * (b) I n d o o r swimming p o o l . ( c ) A b r a n c h l i b r a r y i n a s e p a r a t e w i n g . (d) Rooms f o r s t o r y - t e l l i n g and handwork. (e) Rooms f o r a r t e x h i b i t s , m u s i c , r e a d i n g o f p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e , and f o r d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t i e s . The m a j o r c e n t e r i s t o be i n c h a r g e o f a c a p a b l e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r who n o t o n l y d i r e c t s a l l a c t i v i t i e s , b u t a l s o i n -f o r m s t h e p e o p l e o f t h e d i s t r i c t as t o t h e p r o g r a m t h a t i s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t , a r o u s i n g and h o l d i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f a l l g r o u p s . Under t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r w i l l be a s s i s t a n t s who n o t o n l y a i d i n t h e p r o g r a m a t t h e m a j o r c e n t e r , b u t a l s o p r o v i d e t r a v e l i n g , p a r t - t i m e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e a u x i l i a r y g r o u n d s . The a s s i s t a n t s a r e s e n t out t o c o v e r t h e s m a l l e r g r o u n d s a t r e g u l a r t i m e s , s u p e r v i s i n g t h e p l a y and o u t l i n i n g f u r t h e r p r o -grams. The q u e s t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d s has been one o f t h e most p e r p l e x i n g * The p r o v i s i o n o f g r o u n d i s n o t so d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e t h e c i t y owns a l m o s t a l l t h e s i t e s r e q u i r e d , as i t i s s e e n below, b u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n was a t r y i n g one. As a r e s u l t , t h e t r a v e l i n g s u p e r v i s i o n s y s t e m was worked o u t . E x p e r i e n c e may p r o v e i t , i s i m p r a c t i c a l and some change may be n e c e s s a r y , b u t a t p r e s e n t t i m e i t a p p e a r s t o be t h e most l o g i c a l . T h e - c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o g r a m i n v o l v e s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e B o a r d Of E d u c a t i o n , t h e Commissioner o f P a r k s , t h e L i b r a r y B o a r d , a l l o f w h i c h a r e o f f i c i a l arms o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , and t h e A r t A s s o c i a t i o n * One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f . e a c h o f - t h e s e agen-c i e s , w i t h p e r h a p s a d d i t i o n a l c i t i z e n members, c o u l d be formed i n t o a c o m m i s s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n * T h i s commission o f r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d a c t as an a d v i s o r y b o a r d i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e p r o g r a m and c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . FIGURE V I I flreg of'Pteygmuact'•Supervision - Mmt.ffadfin Proposed Golf Courses £xist/ny Br&ncf? Libraries D E N V E R COLORADO DENVER PLANNING COMMISSION. APPENDIX E ". "IIGDSE T i l l GARY GR-ATIGNAL PLA1---0RGAM ZATTON GHART Ctty Gary Indiana Cottiicil ~Pa.T C 01111)1 t'ssion Boat A of L c V t t O t l Thy steal -d-ttOtv Se.-m.i-pY-tva.te APPB1PIX ff •FIGURE.132- '•• MILWAUKEE Rii G Rt AT 10¥ AL''PLAN- - -OR GAN IZ ATION CHART Cit-<J MiltU4U"Kcc Wis C CVttTlCl." 1 C o w m i ' s s C o n e r s Parens D H i s i o n 1 of c a t i o n •fcl-ucatioti 191 APPENDIX GT . FIGURE BONG BEACH RECREATIONAL PLAN—-ORGANIZATION CHART "Boe.-1-l "P\a.\rS"rou.«.-a. ant. K t ' i S n W ^ 1= i«.to.<.ion. S«p*T. Of of / y i ^ r i c c L p tJ s«.tia<V "Ret* «•»**•*>• •V Area "PHV Et. See/3* y> 1 1 1 School C\vit _ , . — — — — — ~ ~ — . =c>^ —: FIGURE _xl MUNICIPAL RECREATIOFAL PLAIT PROPOSED BT DAVIS—ORGAHIZAriOH CHMT 6 due* S kpe W n * endent tree-tor TUbUfi lfa.ro 193 APPENDIX I CHARACTERISTICS OF ACE GROUPS fas l i s t e d by Depar tment o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ) Age Group I . K i n d e r g a r t e n , age 4 t o 6, i n d i v i d u a l - r a t h e r than s o c i a l j no w e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r * C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A g e ; S a n t a C l a u s age* G r e a t a c t i v i t y , l o v e , o f m o t i o n , t o y s , s i n g i n g , d o l l p l a y , r i n g games, b l o c k s , r hy thm, • c o l l e c t i n g o b j e c t s , s t o r y - t e l l i n g , c o u n t i n g , e tc* Time o f d r a m a t i c "make b e l i e v e " * • - < Age Group I I * Schoo l -—:2nd t o 5 t h g rade i n c l . , age 7 - 1 0 , group games, no w e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n * C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A g e : " B i g I n j u n " a g e . C o n s t r u c t i v e , f i g h t -i n g , i m a g i n a t i v e , i n t e r e s t s p r e d o m i n a t i n g , "Know i t a l l " a g e . Sense o f sex g r o w i n g — - v e r y i n q u i s i t i v e — - n o i s y wants t o i m i t a t e m e n — - l i k e s t o be tough* Games o f c l i m b i n g , h u n t i n g , c h a s i n g , and r i v a l r y se'em to p r e d o m i n a t e . D r i f t i n g from i n d i -v i d u a l i s t i c to c o - o p e r a t i v e games. E lements o f s k i l l and com-p e t i t i o n a p p e a r . G i r l s f r e e , a c t i v e games—-runn ing c l i m b -i n g . Age Group I I I * S c h o o l - — 6 t h , 7 t h , and 8 t h g r a d e s , age 11 to 15 , team games, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — - - 7 0 l b s . , 80 l b s , , 90 l b s . , 100 l b s . , 110 l b s . , 120 l b s . , u n l i m i t e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Age< Age o f l o y a l t y — — h e r o w o r s h i p - — t e a m p l a y - - - " g a n g " age* Development o f the " b e l o n g i n g i n s t i n c t " . Boys move i n . herds:—-under l e a d e r . W i t h c e r t a i n l e a d e r s t e n d -ency toward c r ime-—love t o show o f f . Boys and g i r l s p a r t com-pany f o r a t ime a t t h i s a g e , "Tom Boy-' age f o r g i r l s , who de-velop, s p i r i t o f the ' c l i q u e <>rather t h a n the team. R a p i d d e v e l -opment o f , s e x s e n c e . T i m e ^ a w k w a r d n e s s — - l a z i n e s s , s e l f - c o n -s c i o u s n e s s f o r g i r l s and b o y s . Age Group . I V * H i g h S c h o o l — - a g e 14 t o 2 0 , team games, c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n 85 l b s . , 100 l b s . , 110 l b s . , 120 l b s . , 130 l b s . , u n -l i m i t e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A g e : D e s i r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e c o g n i t i o n . Time o f r a p i d g r o w t h and r e - o p e n i n g o f sex n a t u r e . Age o f e x -treme l o y a l t y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y and a p p l i c a t i o n . l a c k o f judgment combined w i t h fo rward t e n d e n c i e s make the games and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s age ha rd to c o n t r o l . " W i n a t any c o s t " l i a b l e to be mot to o f the boy* The g i r l somewhat more mature t h a n the b o y . 1 . N a t . R e c . A s s ' n . , P l a y g r o u n d C o r r e s p o n d e n c e C o u r s e , l e s s o n I I , p a s s i m . ' 194 APPENDIX J i LIST OE GAMES AND PLAYS (by Grades) I K i n d e r g a r t e n ( I n a d d i t i o n to F r o e b e l ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n games) S i n g i n g and D a n c i n g Games — R i n g a round a r o s e y ; Farmer i n the d e l l ; O a t s , p e a s , beans and b a r l e y grow; M u l b e r r y bush ; D i d you eve r see a l a s s i e ; London B r i d g e . Runn ing Games Gat and mouse ( s i n g i n g a l s o ) ; Drop the hand-k e r c h i e f ; B l i n d man's B l u f f ; T a g . G o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y — Sand B o x ; B l o c k s . I I F i r s t Two Grades (6 t o 8 y e a r s ) . S i n g i n g and D a n e i n g Games - - S u r v i v o r s o f the K i n d e r g a r t e n l i s t ; Looby L o o ; H i c k o r y d i c k o r y dock ; M a r c h i n g ; Roman s o l d i e r s ; K i n g o f F r a n c e . / D r a m a t i c s - - D r a m a t i z e , I n f o r m a l l y and impromptu , f a i r y s t o r i e s , s cenes f r»m h i s t o r y , myths ; Dumb Grambo; P l a y i n g S c h o o l . Dances ~ - S w e d i s h c l a p d a n c e ; . C a r o u s e l ; N i x i e p o l k a ; B l e k i n g "(Swedish) ; I see y o u ; Gus tav S k a e l ( S w e d i s h ) ; Our l i t t l e g i r l s ; Seven p r e t t y g i r l s ; Seven j o l l y b o y s . Running^Games ^ - Cat^mouse; Drop the h a n d k e r c h i e f ; Fox and geese.; Puss i n the c o r n e r ; B l a c k m a n ; Pom pom p u l l a w a y ; H i l l d i l l ; C ross t a g ; • I¥ood t a g ; F o l l o w my l e a d e r ; R o i l i n g hoops; R o l l e r s k a t i n g . Jumping Games ~ - Leap f r o g and . f o o t - a n ' - a - h a l f ; Jump; Hop s c o t c h . B a l l Games and Near B a l l Games — Teache r b a l l ; Cen te r c a t c h ; B a s e b a l l i n the form o f P a s s i n g B a l l , Three o l d e a t s , S c r u b games; K i c k i n g f o o t b a l l ; Bean bag b o a r d ; Bean Bag games; R i n g t o s s ; Tops ; M a r b l e s ; J a c k s t o n e s . P u l l i n g , and,. Push ing ; Games — B u l l i n the r i n g ; I n d i a n p u l l ( c a t c h and p u l l t u g o f w a r ) ; K i n g o f t he r i n g ; O l d man i n the c a s t l e ; Tug o f w a r . C l i m b i n g — ( L a d d e r s , s l i d e s , r o p e s , p o l e s , r i n g s , t r e e w i t h r o p e s ) ; Hang t a g ; Fence t a g . 1. N a t . R e c . Ass ' n . , Games and P l a y f o r Schoo l "  Mora le , , p a m p h l e t , 4 1 T 4 5 . " 195 APPENDIX J C o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y — Sand Box; C l a y m o d e l i n g : F o l d i n g : C u t t i n g o u t ; Drawing; Weaving; R a f f i a ; Bead work; Sewing; K n i t t i n g ; W h i t t l i n g * N u r t u r e P l a y D o l l s ; House; P e t s ; Home gardens,. W i n t e r rr~ S k a t i n g ; * C o a s t i n g ; S l i d i n g . Summer — : Wading; Swimming. I l l G rades 3, 4, 5, and 6. (8 t o 1 1 ) D r a m a t i c s — I n f o r m a l l y d r a m a t i z e s t o r i e s , s c e n e s f r o m h i s t o r y ; Dumb Orambo; C h a r d e s . Dances — The l i s t f o r preceding age; S w e d i s h ox dance; I r i s h j i g ; S e v e n jumps ( D a n i s h ) ; Come l e t u s be j o y f u l (German); C r e s t e d hem ( D a n i s h ) Sweet K a t e ; Bo Peep; G r e e n s l e e v e s . R unning. Games --. T h r e e deep; H i l l d i l l ; S t e a l i n g s t i c k s ( r a i d -i n g t h e c a s t l e ) ; P r i s o n e r s ' b a s e : H i p ; R e l a y r a c e s ( w i t h bean b a g s , c l u b s ) . R u n n i n g . a n d H i d i n g Games -- The l i s t f o r p r e c e d i n g age; R e l i e v o ; Run: sheep r u n . Jumping Games — Leap f r o g and F o o t - a n ' - a - h a l f ; Jump r o p e : Hop s c o t c h * B a l l Games and Hear B a l l Games — End b a l l ; Newcomb; D o d g e b a l l ; R o u n d e r s ; B a s e b a l l ; T h r e e odd e a t s and s c r u b ; Long b a l l ; " i n d o o r b a s e b a l l ; P l a y g r o u n d b a l l ; S o c c e r ; S h i n n e y ; T i p c a t ( c a t t i e , p e g g i e ) ; Duck on a r o c k . F i g h t i n g Games - - ^ B o x i n g ; W r e s t l i n g ; P o i s o n snake* B a s t e the b e a r . C l i m b i n g — (As above) C o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y — C l a y m o d e l i n g ; F/eaving; R a f f i a - Sewing; Carpentry; B u i l d i n g huts'; Snow ho u s e s , snow men. N u r t u r e P l a y « D o l l s ' House, Home and s c h o o l gardens« P e t s , 01her Q u i e t Games — C h e c k e r s ; Dominoes; P a r c h e s i ; J a c k s t o n e s . N a t u r e P l a y — C o l l e c t i o n s o f l e a v e s , s e e d s , f l o w e r s , s t o n e s . W i n t e r S k a t i n g ; Hockey ( i n f o r m a l ) ; C o a s t i n g ; S k i i n g ; Snow s h o e i n g ; G y m n a s t i c s t u n t s ; . Ground t u m b l i n g . Summer — Swimming; Rowing; S a i l i n g ; Toy B o a t s ; T e n n i s / 196 APPENDIX J Sex D i f f e r e n c e s : — I n t h e age p e r i o d s so f a r c o v e r e d , e s p e c -i a l l y t h e e a r l i e r ones, sex. d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be as f a r as p o s s i b l e i g n o r e d , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o f c o u r s e some e x c e p t i o n s , as f o r i n s t a n c e f o o t b a l l and b o x i n g * B a s k e t b a l l f o r g i r l s s h o u l d be b y g i r l s ' r u l e s and- c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d * IV. G r a d e s 7, 8 (and 9) (11 t o 14 y e a r s ) D r a m a t i c s ~ As above; P l a y s * Dances -- T h e i r c h o i c e o f p r e c e d i n g l i s t ; H i g h l a n d f l i n g ( b o y s ) ; G u a rds; K a m a r i s k a i a ; G o t l a n d s Q u a d r i l l e ( S w e d i s h ) ; The H a t t e r ( D a n i s h ) ; G a t h e r i n g plascods ( E n g l i s h ) ; Bo Peep ( E n g l i s h ) . R u n n i n g Games -- T h r e e deep; S t e a l i n g s t i c k s ; P r i s o n e r s ' b a s e ; B e l a y r a c e s ; F o o t - a n ' - a - h a l f * R u n n i n g and H i d i n g Games -- C a p t a i n b a l l ; I n d o o r b a s e b a l l ; P l a y g r o u n d B a l l ; B a s e b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; Hand b a l l ; S o c c e r ; S h i n n e y ; Q u o i t s . F i g h t i n g P l a y -- B o x i n g ; W r e s t l i n g ; H i p , C o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y ~* Sewing; C l a y m o d e l i n g ; C a r p e n t r y (making b o a t s , b i r d h o uses, dog h o u s e s , k i t e s , c h e c k e r b o a r d s , c h e c k e r and c h e s s men); Making h u t s . N u r t u r e P l a y — Home and S c h o o l g a r d e n s ; F a r m i n g ; Care o f a n i m a l s ; P e t s and m a s c o t s . O t h e r Q u i e t Games — • C h e c k e r s ; P a r c h e s i ; C h e s s . N a t u r e P l a y and E x c u r s i o n s -- l i s t o f b i r d s s e e n ; C o l l e c t i o n s o f l e a v e s , c l a s s i f y i n g t r e e s , s e e d s , f l o w e r s , s t o n e s , H u n t i n g w i t h a camera; H i k e s , w i t h c o o k i n g ; Map making. W i n t e r — L i s t f o r p r e c e d i n g age; B a s k e t b a l l . Summer -- L i s t f o r p r e c e d i n g age; G o l f . S e a s o n s -r- Most o f t h e above games e x c e p t f o o t b a l l and s h i n n e y a r e n o t c o n f i n e d to awy s p e c i a l s e a s o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r -e n c e s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d . Many r u n n i n g games c a n be p l a y e d on s k a t e s . Games f o r . M i x e d Groups — §oys and g i r l s a t t h i s , a g e u s u a l l y p r e f e r t o p l a y s e p a r a t e l y , b u t i t i s o f t e n w e l l t o have them p l a y t o g e t h e r u n d e r c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g games a r e recommended, f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ; D a n c i n g ; Crambo; Charades; D r a m a t i c s ; S i n g i n g ; V o l l e y b a l l ( g i r l s a g a i n s t b o y s ) ; T e n n i s ; B a s e b a l l ( s o f t ) ; T h r e e deep; H i k i n g ; B o a t i n g ; S k a t i n g ; P r i s o n e r s ' b a s e ; Long b a l l ; H i l l d i l l ; Drop t h e h a n d k e r c h i e f . APPENDIX J 1 9 7 V . H i g h S c h o o l Boys A t t h i s a g e ' t h e games become more s e a s o n a l and a r e a c c o r d -i n g l y so d i v i d e d . I n t h e F a l l — Exxgby; S o c c e r ; H a n d b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; L a -c r o s s e ; F i e l d hockey ; H i k e s : use b i c y c l e and camera i n n a t u r e s t u d y ; T e n n i s ; G o l f ; Q u o i t s * g . W i n t e r a . "Outdoor — S k a t i n g ; I c e hockey ; C o a s t i n g ; S k i i n g ; Snow s h o e i n g ; C ros s c o u n t r y e x p l o r a t i o n ; Gross c o u n t r y r u n n i n g and frare and hounds; L a c r o s s e . b . I n d o o r — H a n d b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; C a p t a i n b a l l ; B a s k e t b a l l ; R e l a y r a c e s ; Gymnas t i c s t u n t s ; Swimming, L i f e - s a v i n g ; B o x i n g and w r e s t l i n g ; W a l l s c a l i n g ; D r a m a t i c s ; Charades , p l a y s and p a g e a n t s . c . D a n c i n g — S o c i a l d a n c i n g ; V i r g i n i a r e e l ; P o r t l a n d f a n c y ; Other s u r v i v i n g A m e r i c a n f o l k dances ; Come l e t us be j o y f u l ; B u t t e r f l y ( E n g l i s h ) ; I r i s h j i g ; H i g h l a n d F l i n g ; C z a r d a s ; Kamar-i s k a i a ; Beam s e t t i n g ( E n g l i s h M o r r i s d a n c e s ) ; R i g O 'Mar low ( E n g l i s h M o r r i s d a n c e ) ; F lamborough Sword dance ( E n g l i s h ) ; Ox dance; The H a t t e r . 3 e S p r i n g — B a s e b a l l ; P l a y g r o u n d b a l l ; H a n d b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; L a c r o s s e ; H i k e s ; 1 B i c y c l i n g ; Rowing ; T e n n i s ; G o l f ; Na tu re w o r k . 4* Summer — S p r i n g l i s t ; Swimming; Rowing;. . S a i l i n g ; C a n o e i n g ; Camping; i n c l u d i n g s i g n a l l i n g , c o o k i n g , making f i r e , b u i l d i n g a s h e l t e r , use o f axe , m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g . F o r a l l seasons — R i d i n g , W a l k i n g . V I . H i g h S c h o o l G i r l s F a l l — B a s e b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; F i e l d hockey ; T e n n i s ; G o l f ; Walks i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e s t u d y . W i n t e r a « Outdoor > - S k a t i n g ; C o a s t i n g ; S k i i n g ; Snow s h o e i n g . b. Indoor — V o l l e y b a l l ; C a p t a i n b a l l ; B a s k e t b a l l (not f o r a l l ) ; R e l a y r a c e s ; Swimming; L i f e - s a v i n g ; D r a m a t i c s ; Charades ; P l a y s and p a g e a n t s . D a n c i n g — S o c i a l d a n c i n g ; V i r g i n i a r e e l ; P o r t l a n d f a n c y ; Come l e t us be j o y f u l ; B u t t e r f l y ( E n g l i s h ) ; L i t t l e man i n a f i x ( D a n i s h ) ; The H a t t e r ; T i n k e r s ' Dance (Danish)-; B l a c k nag ( E n g l i s h ) ; Mag on a t r e e { E n g l i s h ; F j a l e n a s p o l k a . . S p r i n g - r Same as f o r b o y s , e x c e p t L a c r o s s e . Summer - - Same as f o r b o y s . A l l Seasons — R i d i n g ; "Walking, APPENDIX g RECREATIONAL PROG-BAM FOR INDUSTRIAL WORKERS by Oakland, R e c r e a t i o n ' Department (The f o l l o w i n g p r o g r a m was a r r a n g e d f o r 192 A c t i v i t i e s ( R e g u l a r ) I e Noon Hour P l a y . ( a t p l a n t ) A. A t h l e t i c Games V o l l e y b a l l , b a s e b a l l , t e n n i s , q u o i t s . Bo R a i n y Day A c t i v i t i e s O c c u p a t i o n a l work; s u i t a b l e i n d o o r games L a t e A f t e r n o o n s A. R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s Rowing; swimming, e t c * E v e n i n g s A, A c t i v i t i e s I I , X X X e 1. V o l l e y b a l l 2 6 B a s k e t B a l l 3* Swimming 4. Rowing 5. I n t e r p r e t i v e and F o l k Dane i n g S p e c i a l E v e n t a X & I I . - I l l © E d u c a t i o n a l C l a s s e s i n a . E n g l i s h S o c i a l P r o b l e m s Economics P a r l i a m e n t a r y Law O t h e r s may be i n -t r o d u c e d as t h e need a r i s e s b G a. e, S p o r t s C a r n i v a l (March) F i e l d Day (June) I n d u s t r i a l P i c n i c (September) Whole f a m i l y c o n s i d e r e d . IV. P a r t i e s and S o c i a l Dances To be g i v e n m o n t h l y a l t e r n a t i n g between p l a n t s w h i c h have a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s . D i r e c t o r t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h i n d u s t r i e s w i s h i n g t o e n t e r t a i n s o l e l y f o r employees i n t h e i r p l a n t by h e l p i n g t o p l a n p r o g r a m . Tournaments • I . S c h e d u l e s A. Games 1. To be p l a y ^ e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e a s o n 2A G r o u p i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n t s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . 3. C ombining women's ou t d o o r c l u b s and i n d u s t r i a l g r o u p s ( f o r g i r l s 1 a c t i v i t i e s ] I I . P l a y Days A. N e i g h b o r h o o d P l a y Days t o be h e l d q u a r t e r l y and f i n a l s o f tournament games t o be p l a y g e d o f f a t t h e s e meets. M e e t i n g s I . I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Oakland and G i r l s 1 A u x i l i a r y A. E x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g t o be h e l d m o n t h l y t o d i s c u s s and p l a n v a r i o u s programs B. G e n e r a l meetings t o be h e l d q u a r t e r l y C. S p e c i a l m e e t i n g s as needs a r i s e L e e , op A c i t . , 33A 

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