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The organization and administration of city playground activities with special reference to Vancouver Howard, Arthur Muirhead 1936

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THE-ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION m  GITY PLAYGROUND ACTIVITIES  WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TANGOUTER by ARTHUR MUIRHEAD HOWARD  A t h e s i s submitted i n p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e department of PHILOSOPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1936  THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GITY PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S WITH S P E C I A L REFERENCE TO VANCOUVER TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST  OF TABLES  . . . • • . • • • * . . « « . . « .  LIST  OF FIGURES  LIST  OF APPENDICES  . . . • • . . • . . * < • • • • • • • :  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  I I A B R I E F SKETCH OF RECENT PLAY MOVEMENTS I N EUROPE AND FORTH AMERICA . . . . . . . . . Ill  URBAN R E C R E A T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A) R e c r e a t i o n a l P r o b l e m s R e s u l t i n g f r o m Urbanization (B) P r o b l e m s o f C i t y P l a n n i n g (C) O b j e c t i v e s o f C i t y P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s  I V THE PART PLAYED BY THE SCHOOLS I N THE ' CITY PLAYGROUND PROGRAM V THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S . . V I PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N VANCOUVER . . . . . . • (iA) The P r e s e n t P l a y g r o u n d S y s t e m (B) A P r o p o s e d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d . A c t i v i t i e s f o r VAncouver V I I FEATURES OF THE RECREATIONAL PROGRAM . . . . (A) A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m (B) P r o v i s i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n O t h e r t h a n Organized Playground A c t i v i t i e s ¥ 1 1 1 THE ADMINISTRATION. OF P L A Y CENTERS I X THE TRAINING OF DIRECTORS  . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .  X FINANCING PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S y''  MvCOJitGWSimS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS .  .  .  .  BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . A]?PKN-DI QE5  «  «  «  «  •  »  e  •  •  •  *  •  •  •  •  •  •  *  •  ©  i  LIST" W  TABLES  Pag e •  I  Canadian C i t i e s P r o v i d i n g F a c i l i t i e s for R e c r e a t i o n  16  II  S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s and F a c i l i t i e s i n Canadian C i t i e s  17  Use o f S c h o o l P r o p e r t y  53.  III IV V VI  i n Selected Cities  Administrative Authorities for Municipal Recreation Supervised Playgrounds of Representative  .  Cities . . .  Recreational F a c i l i t i e s of Representative  Cities  .  55 67  . 69  VII  Playground D i r e c t o r s of Representative  Cities . . . .  VIII  Playground Directors of Representative  C i t i e s — T o t a l s 71  IX X XI  Annual Attendance  Seasonal Operation of Playgrounds i n G i t 16 S • • « • « • • a • « « • a Seasonal Cxi^XOS  XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX  at Vancouver P l a y g r o u n d s - - T o t a l s  Operation of Playgrounds i n —  •» T0*b3#!l.S •  e  71  . 75  Representative 0 0 0 « • • • • 75. Representative  • * e « f t e f t « f t  >  a  *  »  Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s on Community R e c r e a t i o n Representative C i t i e s  •  «  •  »  75  in 101  Proposed Program o f R e c r e a t i o n for Vancouver . . . .  102  Age C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r P l a y G r o u p s  117  S u g g e s t e d D a i l y P r o g r a m f o r a Summer P l a y g r o u n d w i t h Two W o r k e r s  124  S u g g e s t e d W e e k l y P r o g r a m f o r a Summer P l a y g r o u n d w i t h Two W o r k e r s  125  Age-Height-Weight C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Act  Competitive  Expenditures for Municipal Recreation i n Representative C i t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . .  162  A T y p i c a l F i n a n c i a l Statement for M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i OH « • • • * e • • 0 » • * « • • a • e e 167  ii  LIST OF FIGURES '  I II  III IV  Y VI VII ¥111  Go-operative  Page 84  P l a n Proposed f o r Vancouver  Proposed O r g a n i z a t i o n of the C i t i z e n s f o r the Promotion of a R e c r e a t i o n a l Program i n Map of Playgrounds and R e c r e a t i o n a l D i s t r i c t s Proposed f o r Vancouver . , . . . . . „ „ „ . .  93  Proposed P l a n of O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a R e c r e a t i o n a l Program i n Vancouver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  98  A Well-planned Home Playground . , . . „ . . . .  119  A Well-planned Elementary School P l a y g r o u n d  139  Map  of R e c r e a t i o n a l D i s t r i c t s  0  „ „  of Denver, Colorado  Gary R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n - - O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart.  . .  IX  Milwaukee R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n —  O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart  X XT  Long Beach R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n — O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n a l P l a n Proposed by D a v i s O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart C o . . . . . . . . . . . .  188 189 190 191 192  iii  APPENDICES  Appendix Page A.  San Diego Go-operative  B. Oakland Co-operative  Plan . . . . . . . . . .  183  Plan . . . . . . . . . . . .  183  C. The Denver P l a n » . . D. Map  « «  186  of R e c r e a t i o n a l D i s t r i c t s of Denver, Colorado  188  O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart  of Gary, Indiana  • . . • ...  F. O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart  of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  G. O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart  of Long Beach., C a l i f o r n i a ,  H. O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart f o r M u n i c i p a l  . •. .  189 190 191  Recreation  Proposed by Davis. . . . . . . . . 192 I. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Age Groups as L i s t e d by ~.y;\ Department of P h y s i c a l Education, U n i v e r s i t y J". L i s t of Games and Plays "by G r a d e s — n a t i o n a l Recreation Association . . . . . . . . . . .  194  K . R e c r e a t i o n a l Program f o r , I n d u s t r i a l Workers b y Oakland R e c r e a t i o n Department. . . . . . . .  198  1  THE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF GITY PLAYGROUND ACTIVITIES,  WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO VANCOUVER CHAPTER I '  INTRODUCTION  Statement  o f the Problem  T h i s s t u d y o u t l i n e s v a r i o u s methods o f c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e S c h o o l Board and the Parks Board which ?/ould e f f e c t a w i d e r use o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  and s e c u r e a v a s t l y  i n c r e a s e d attendance f o r a l l f e a t u r e s o f the p l a y g r o u n d p r o gram.  I t suggests ways and means o f making the p r e s e n t s y s -  tem s t i l l more e f f e c t i v e and i n d i c a t e s t h e g r e a t need f o r more adequate l e g i s l a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r a phase o f c i t y l i f e which i s assuming an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e . A t f i r s t s i g h t , p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s may appear ornamental f r i l l s i n c i t y equipment;  like  b u t , j u s t as p a r k s , a s i d e  from t h e i r ornamental v a l u e , have p r o v e n t o be r e a l n e c e s s i t i e s , so adequate p l a y g r o u n d s have become n e c e s s i t i e s i n c e r t a i n phases o f c i v i c  life.  Many f i e l d s o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a r e p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d ; i t i s the duty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n departments so t o o r g a n i z e them t h a t a l l the p e o p l e o f the c i t y w i l l be a b l e t o f i n d c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n d u r i n g t h e i r hours o f leisure. The s m a l l boy w i l l p l a y on the s t r e e t , i n the v a c a n t lot  o r i n the a l l e y , b u t these l o c a t i o n s a r e n o t the b e s t en-  vironment f o r p l a y .  B e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s can be p r o v i d e d under  trained d i r e c t i o n of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s .  2 Methods o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n and Sources o f Data The t e c h n i q u e w h i c h was f o l l o w e d i n the c o l l e c t i n g and presenting  o f the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s s t u d y i s here o t i t l i n e d .  ( 1 ) The i n v e s t i g a t o r read a l l o f t h e R a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s m a t e r i a l on o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p l a y g r o u n d s and r e c r e a t i o n . (2) Two t h e s e s on p l a y g r o u n d s and r e c r e a t i o n l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y were p r o c u r e d on l o a n from the l i b r a r y o f t h e Department o f the I n t e r i o r a t Washington, D. C* (3) V a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l has been made a v a i l a b l e from t h e r e s u l t s of the questionnaires a municipal  sent out by I . W.' D a v i s t o b o t h  a u t h o r i t y and a s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y i n each o f 215  c i t i e s i n the u n i t e d  States.1  (4) A c a r e f u l survey was made o f t h e b e s t known systems of r e c r e a t i o n i n c i t i e s s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o Vancouver;  i.e.,  w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 265,000. f5) The t h i r t e e n c i t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h popu l a t i o n s ranging  from 209,000 t o 300,000 were s e l e c t e d from  the 1935 Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n  Association f o r  comparison w i t h Vancouver, s i n c e they were w i t h i n 55,000 o f Vancouver's  population.  Two e x c e p t i o n s  2  i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n were S e a t t l e a t  360,000 and P o r t l a n d a t 301,815.  These were chosen, f i r s t  i D a v i s , I . W., An I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Conduct and F i n a n c i a l Support o f P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n S e l e c t e d S t a t e s ( t h e s i s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1951)i ^ R e c r e a t i o n , Year Book Number ( N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Ass o c i a t i o n , May, 1935), 66r-95.  s "because o f p r o x i m i t y , and s e c o n d l y , because the Vancouver p l a y ground System has been developed System.  a l o n g the l i n e s of the S e a t t l e  F i n a l l y , t h e seven c i t i e s i n Canada w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s  r a n g i n g from 137,000 to 1,162,520 have a l s o been s e l e c t e d from the above y e a r book f o r comparison w i t h Vancouver. (6) P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s were w i l l i n g l y g r a n t e d t o the i n v e s t i g a t o r by l e a d e r s i n the p l a y g r o u n d movement o f Vancouver, and from them f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d .  Recommenda-  t i o n s and o p i n i o n s o f l e a d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r t s have been noted and i n c l u d e d h e r e i n . P a r t o f the e x p e r i e n c e and t r a i n i n g g a i n e d by the w r i t e r i n t h i s f i e l d i s as f o l l o w s :  fa) f i f t e e n y e a r s ' s e r v i c e i n  v a r i o u s church and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h i s city;  (b) t h r e e summers' s e r v i c e on the Vancouver C i t y P l a y -  grounds as a d i r e c t o r ;  f c ) f o u r y e a r s ' s e r v i c e as t e a c h e r o f  h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the Vancouver h i g h s c h o o l s .  4 CHAPTER 11 A BRIEF SKETCH OF RECENT PLAY MOVEMENTS I N EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r  i s t o a i d t h e reader by  means o f a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h t o become a c q u a i n t e d the p l a y movement.  with  Among t h e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h have most p r o -  f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d the p l a y movement i n N o r t h America a r e Germany and E n g l a n d . The  P l a y Movement i n Germany  The modern p l a y movement i n Germany r e c e i v e d an imp e t u s i n 1892,  when v o n S c h e n c k e n d o r f f brought b e f o r e t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n t h e need f o r p u b l i c p l a y grounds i n w h i c h r e c r e a t i o n a l i d e a l s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . As a r e s u l t , a p u b l i c commission was a p p o i n t e d ,  1  and i n 1894 a t P  l e a s t f o u r hundred p u b l i c p l a y g r o u n d s were opened i n Germany. S i n c e t h a t date, a c e n t r a l committee on games has h e l p e d i n the p r o m o t i o n o f the movement.  I n the development o f p l a y  c e n t e r s i n Germany, t h e emphasis has been p l a c e d on t h e educational side. A remarkable development i n v o l u n t a r i l y o r g a n i s e d  rec-  r e a t i o n has o c c u r r e d s i n c e t h e World War i n Germany, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d o f s p o r t s . from t h e s t a n d p o i n t  C e r t a i n important  agencies s i g n i f i c a n t  o f r e c r e a t i o n have become p r o m i n e n t .  A l l v o l u n t a r y p a t r i o t i c and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o r t h e i r avowed purpose "the o l d d r e a m — o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f — a Lee, Joseph, Normal Course i n P l a y (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1929), 2 2 1 . l b i d . , 222. 2  5 g r e a t e r Germany."  I n o r d e r to serve t h i s p u r p o s e , s p o r t s  and  a l l i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have been i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f German m i l i t a r y The  instruction.  German N a t i o n a l Committee f o r P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g i s  one of the most important  f o r c e s i n the r e c r e a t i o n movement.  I t c e n t r a l i z e s a l l s p o r t s , c l u b s and p l a y g r o u n d e f f o r t s which are s e m i - o f f i c i a l or s t a t e s u b s i d i z e d .  I t s work of propaganda  and a g i t a t i o n f o r p l a y a r e a s i s of i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e i n the p l a y movement.  One w r i t e r s t a t e s :  No c o u n t r y s u r p a s s e s Germany i n i t s r e a l i z a t i o n o f the importance of the need f o r adequate open space f o r p l a y i n g f i e l d s , gardens and the l i k e . There are two t y p e s o f p l a y or a t h l e t i c grounds.  The  f i r s t , or m u n i c i p a l grounds, a r e open to a l l ; they are used by s c h o o l s , and s u p e r v i s o r s a r e employed. maintained  The  second are grounds  by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s on l a n d g r a n t e d by  m u n i c i p a l i t y ; n a t u r a l l y these groups must be of s i z e and  the  considerable  importance to o b t a i n s u c h a g r a n t . The  f i n a n c i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n has been c a r r i e d out l a r g e l y  by s u b s i d i e s .  The P r u s s i a n M i n i s t e r of W e l f a r e w r i t e s i n h i s  " S t a t e W e l f a r e Work i n P r u s s i a , 1919-1923:" The Government P r e s i d e n t s g r a n t e d s u b s i d i e s out of the n a t i o n a l funds p l a c e d a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l f o r the purposes of 1,520 p l a y i n g grounds, 130 gymnasia, 161 s h e l t e r s , 111 b a t h i n g and swimming e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and s m a l l g r a n t s f o r 148, 111 a t h l e t i c , games and s p o r t s c l u b s and thousands of Committees on J u v e n i l e W e l f a r e and leagues of Y o u t h . 2  I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t the expenses a r e met  mainly  •'•May, H. I . , & Petgen, Dorothy, L e i s u r e and i t s Use (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1928), 77. ~ 2  ibid.,  79.  ....  .  .  by funds r e c e i v e d from s u b s c r i b e r s and t h a t the r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the securing opportunities cessful.  costs.  6  s t a t e has  been  This system o f  f o r p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e has been v e r y  suc-  May a n d P e t g e n c o m m e n t i n g o n t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Germany  write: No German c h i l d i s a l l o w e d t o l e a v e s c h o o l w i t h o u t having l e a r n e d to swim. There are f i v e hours o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g w e e k l y i n t h e s c h o o l s — t w o game a n d t h r e e gymn a s t i c p e r i o d s , or v i c e v e r s a . The y o u n g s p e n d a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e i r f r e e t i m e i n s p o r t , w i t h few o t h e r c o m p a r a b l y k e e n i n t e r e s t s ; a n d i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t some 5,000,000 adults—from f i f t e e n years up—throughout Germany a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h s p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Onef o u r t h o f t h i s membership i s f e m a l e , and h a l f o f i t i s over twenty years o f age. It  i s now a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y h e l d i n Germany t h a t i t  is  n o t d e m o c r a t i c t o have r e c r e a t i o n p r i v a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . F r e d e r i c k Wildung, S e c r e t a r y o f the S p o r t and P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g ,  C e n t r a l Commission  Leipzig,  i n g a s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y and  for  recognizes physical t r a i n -  states:  I t i s no l o n g e r s u f f i c i e n t t o l e a v e t h i s d u t y i n t h e h a n d s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ; i t must be o r g a n i z e d a n d a c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out b y the government and the i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s , and the y o u t h o f t h e w h o l e n a t i o n must be i n c l u d e d i n the s c h e m e . 2  A l i t t l e more d e m o c r a t i c i n p r i n c i p l e i s t h e German Y o u t h W e l f a r e Law o f 1922 w h i c h has b e e n c a l l e d " t h e Magna Carta of Youth." carry this  S i x w o r k i n g c o m m i t t e e s were e s t a b l i s h e d  law into e f f e c t .  One, t h e  to  c o m m i t t e e on p h y s i c a l  t r a i n i n g o f the y o u n g , has g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e  recreational  system. The r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e y o u t h movement a r e  so v a r i e d  a n d numerous t h a t a n e x t e n s i v e a c c o u n t o f them h e r e w o u l d be inadvisable.  However, an attempt w i l l  May & P e t g e n , 2  ibld.,  94.  op. c i t . ,  80.  be made t o c o n v e y t o  the  7 r e a d e r a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e and scope o f the movement. The y o u t h movement has passed through t h e f o l l o w i n g stages o f development:  one i n w h i c h the y o u t h belonged t o  gymnastic s o c i e t i e s ( J a h n ) ; a n o t h e r where they were a t t a c h e d to v o c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (1870); and f i n a l l y , one i n which they banded t o g e t h e r t o c o n s t r u c t s h e l t e r s f o r wandering y o u t h hikers."*" S i n c e t h e war, t h i s movement has broken up i n t o numerous s e c t i o n s f o r p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l ends. y o u t h i n t u r n i n g away from t h e a r t i f i c i a l  The  l i f e o f t h e urban  centers, turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to s i m p l i c i t y i n c l o t h i n g , f o o d and mode o f l i v i n g .  They found t h e i r way back t o n a t u r e  and t o l o v e o f t h e home, a v o i d i n g t h e c i v i l i z e d p o i s o n s , a l c o h o l and n i c o t i n e .  The y o u t h s o c i e t i e s countered t h e s e e v i l s i n t h e  most p r a c t i c a l way by h a v i n g t h e young p e o p l e accustomed t o g y m n a s t i c s , games, s p o r t s , w a l k i n g - t o u r s , and e d i f y i n g m o r a l amusements ( f o l k songs, music, p i c t o r i a l a r t , s c i e n t i f i c  lec-  t u r e s , f o l k dances, and home-games, among many o t h e r s ) .  Dom-  i n a n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e movement were t h e emphasis w a l k i n g - t o u r s and t h e development  on y o u t h  o f a system o f y o u t h s h e l t e r s .  Another s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e was the w i l l i n g and anxious a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by t h e s t a t e i n s u p p o r t o f these a c t i v i t i e s . N a t i o n a l committees o f t h e s e y o u t h s o c i e t i e s were a b l e t o demand c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f a l l phases o f t h e "'"May & Petgen, op . c i t . , 103. 2  I n f o r m a t i o n on the t h i r d R e i c h i s l a r g e l y i n t h e n a t u r e o f propaganda w h i c h i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e s i s . There i s a s c a r c i t y o f f a c t s on r e c r e a t i o n t h a t a r e a u t h e n t i c a t e d b y . i m p a r t i a l authorities.  8  recreational  program. The P l a y Movement i n E n g l a n d  I n E n g l a n d the  r e c r e a t i o n a l s i d e o f the modern p l a y  movement has b e e n e m p h a s i z e d . part  of the  Ability  to p l a y i s an  essential  t r a i n i n g of youth.  R e c r e a t i o n a l programs  have b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a  l a c k o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  Besides this  there  has b e e n a d i v e r s i t y o f a i m s a n d m o t i v e s on t h e p a r t  of  numerous a g e n c i e s  leisure  engaged  time through a d u l t children,  i n fostering provision for  education,  p l a y i n g f i e l d s , playgrounds  industrial welfare,  and the  o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n movement e x i s t s e n t i r e l y dependent upon p r i v a t e i s p r a c t i c a l l y no a d v a n c e state-provided  towards  1  i n s o f a r as  i n England, i t  almost There  recreation.  f i r s t p l a y c e n t e r was  opened  Gut o f t h i s g r e w t h e E v e n i n g  I n 1916 t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n a d o p t e d  the p l a n o f making g r a n t s to s c h o o l s w h i c h s t a r t e d and t h e p r a c t i c e london to other  o f m a k i n g s u c h g r a n t s has cities.  w i t h the p r o g r e s s  o f the  since spread  centers, from  Interfered  work. s u c h as  "'"May & P e t g e n ,  117.  op. c i t . ,  play  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e W o r l d War  Playing fields societies  lee,  an  A s s o c i a t i o n , i n w h i c h M r s . Humphrey Ward p l a y e d ,  so i m p o r t a n t a p a r t .  2  is  for  a well-?integrated system of  and s t a t e - s u p e r v i s e d  i n Marchmont H a l l S e t t l e m e n t .  like,  i n i t i a t i v e and s u p p o r t .  I t was i n 1897 t h a t t h e  Play Centers  the  op. c i t . , 222.  the  london Playing  9 F i e l d s , Manchester P l a y i n g F i e l d s , t h e Commons and F o o t p a t h s P r e s e r v a t i o n S o c i e t i e s and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n P u h l i c Gardens A s s o c i a t i o n , by p r o v i d i n g t h e p e o p l e w i t h p l a y g r o u n d s , have g i v e n a l i v e l y s t i m u l u s t o improvement i n r e c r e a t i o n .  One  'writer s t a t e s : The 1925 r e p o r t o f t h e London P l a y i n g F i e l d S o c i e t y shows t h a t t h e S o c i e t y has made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e London p e o p l e 187 c r i c k e t p i t c h e s , 104 f o o t b a l l grounds, 5 hockey grounds and 145 lawn t e n n i s c o u r t s , c o v e r i n g a t o t a l o f 286 a c r e s . 1  I n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f E n g l a n d , t h e system o f comp u l s o r y games i s w i d e l y u s e d .  I t has obvious v i r t u e s b u t i t  i s bound to r e a c t by making many boys l e t h a r g i c about r e c r e a t i o n a f t e r they have l e f t  school.  I n t h e h o l i d a y c e n t e r s a r e p r o v i d e d many p l a y a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as h a n d i c r a f t work a t the o p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n . There i s s u p e r v i s i o n b u t no d i r e c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the l e a d e r s ; the d e s i r e i s t o keep a b s o l u t e l y away from any suggest i o n o f t h e s c h o o l atmosphere. themselves.  The c h i l d r e n go s i m p l y t o amuse  The i m p r e s s i o n g i v e n i s one o f a c t i v i t y  without  boisterousness. l i v e n i n g p l a y c e n t e r s have been e x t e n s i v e l y developed i n London.  Such p l a y c e n t e r s i n v o l v e t h e l o a n o f a s c h o o l  b u i l d i n g w i t h i t s p l a y g r o u n d s t o t h e E v e n i n g P l a y Centers Comm i t t e e , w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c e n t e r s and r a i s i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y funds. and the Board o f E d u c a t i o n  The London County C o u n c i l  show t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e  •'-May & Petgen, op. c i t . , 154. 2  ihid.  s  162  i n t h i s work  10  •by-contributing about 75 p e r cent o f the cost." " 1  These p l a y  c e n t e r s , e x t e n s i v e l y s c a t t e r e d over london, p r o v i d e f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f thousands  of c h i l d r e n every evening i n  games, dancing, h a n d i c r a f t , p a i n t i n g , gymnastics, and s i m i l a r occupations.  Each center i s under the d i r e c t i o n of a p a i d  superintendent who i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the P l a y Centers Committee. The F e d e r a t i o n of Working Boys' Clubs deserves  mention,  s i n c e these clubs r e p r e s e n t one o f the few attempts b e i n g made to meet the problem  of the boy who goes to work a t the age o f  fourteen, and, f e l l i n g h i m s e l f a l r e a d y an a d u l t , tends to t h i n k such an o r g a n i z a t i o n as the Boy Scouts c h i l d i s h .  These clubs  are e s t a b l i s h e d i n London, L i v e r p o o l , Manchester,  Eastbourne,  2  Glasgow and other B r i t i s h  cities.  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e club i s the Duke of York's, whose camp c o n s i s t s of four hundred boys s e l e c t e d each y e a r .  One  hundred  of the P u b l i c Schools send two boys each and two hundred are sent from a hundred  industries.  boys  S e c t i o n s c o n s i s t of t e n  s c h o o l boys and ten working boys who f i e l d teams i n every o r ganized c o m p e t i t i o n .  The p l a n adopted  i s to applaud a l l those  who t r y even though they may achieve but l i t t l e . P r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l workers by emp l o y e r s i s g e n e r a l l y designed to keep workers amused.  Employers  o f t e n adopt a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward employees and, f e e l i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , make every e f f o r t to p r o v i d e v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l  activities.  Commander B. F. Coote, A d v i s o r to the Miner's May & Petgen, 2  l b i d . , 168.  op. c i t . , 165,  Welfare  Committee and r e c o g n i z e d as an o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y on p l a y grounds and r e c r e a t i o n i n England, w h i l e a d v o c a t i n g more p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , makes the f o l l o w i n g pithy  statement:  I r e f u s e t o p u t a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n f i r s t . We must r e c o n s t r u c t o u r . i d e a s i f we a r e g o i n g t o improve m a t t e r s , s t a r t a t the "bottom and l a y a sound f o u n d a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to. the c h i l d r e n . Give them a h a p p i e r t i m e , make them r e a l i z e the v a l u e o f o r g a n i z e d p l a y and the harm o f l o a f i n g , and y e a r by y e a r l e a d them on t o want h e a l t h y l e i s u r e o c c u p a t i o n i n ever i n c r e a s i n g numbers u n t i l t h e time w i l l come when, as a d u l t s , r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be t o them f a r more r e a l and v a l u a b l e than a t p r e s e n t , when p e o p l e a r e more ready t o e x e r c i s e the t u r n s t i l e s t h a n t h e m s e l v e s . 1  The P l a y Movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s The p l a y movement on t h i s c o n t i n e n t r e c e i v e d an impetus i n 1888, as a r e s u l t o f important developments i n B o s t o n .  In  t h i s f i r s t stage o f t h e p l a y movement i n t h a t c i t y ^ t w e n t y - o n e grounds o f the sand garden type were c o n s t r u c t e d .  Other c i t i e s  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s soon f o l l o w e d s u i t . The second stage was the model p l a y g r o u n d t y p e , e s t a b l i s h e d by p r i v a t e groups t o show ^the v a l u e o f p l a y under l e a d e r s h i p . I n t e r e s t was aroused and p u b l i c f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was o b t a i n e d .  The t h i r d stage was the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s m a l l parks and squares p r o v i d e d w i t h apparatus  and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s .  than on l e a d e r s h i p .  outdoor  Emphasis was on equipment r a t h e r  3  -'•May• & Petgen, op. c i t . , 174. 2 Rainwater, C.E., The P l a y Movement i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1922), 3 1 . The P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f America was o r g a n i z e d i n 1906 t o c o n c e n t r a t e upon the development o f adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l systems f o r c i t i e s . T h i s A s s o c i a t i o n has worked c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l systems supported by m u n i c i p a l g r a n t s . R e c e n t l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n has become known as t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a tion. ;  —  12  The  f o u r t h s t a g e was  adult population  to p r o v i d e  civic activities.  the r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r f o r the s o c i a l , educational, c u l t u r a l  The most s i g n i f i c a n t development was  u t i l i z a t i o n of s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s as s o c i a l The  f i f t h stage was  and  the  centers."'"  the " c i v i c a r t and w e l f a r e "  stage  i n w h i c h the importance of music and drama i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l program became r e c o g n i z e d .  A f t e r the war,  assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g  communities began to  a community-wide  l e i s u r e time program emphasizing the t r a i n i n g of  volunteer  leaders*^ The  s i x t h , s t a g e was  the neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n move-  ment w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d l a r g e numbers of community c e n t e r s ^ These have been a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e on o b t a i n i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t for recreation.  I n these c e n t e r s , attempts were made t o  develop l e a d e r s h i p and  self-government.  Countless  organizations,  some n a t i o n a l i n scope, have come i n t o e x i s t e n c e f o r the purpose of f o s t e r i n g l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r s p e c i a l phases of the t i o n a l program, i . e . the b i g b r o t h e r movement of the The  s e v e n t h s t a g e was  i n a n t s i n c e 1918;  ~  ibid., .  Siwanis.  the community s e r v i c e s t a g e , dom-  I t emphasized the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s :  "''Rainwater, op. c i t . , 2  recrea-  87.  217. .  .  .  .  .  .  A marked f e a t u r e of the r e c r e a t i o n a l movement d u r i n g the p a s t few y e a r s has been the emphasis on l e g i s l a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n , whereby s c h o o l boards and p a r k s boards have been g i v e n the r i g h t to p r o v i d e an adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l program. Another step f o r w a r d has been the compulsory p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n ' w h i c h s e t a s i d e a c e r t a i n amount of s c h o o l time f o r physical a c t i v i t i e s . 4  jbid.,  221.  IS  (a) greater, enthusiasm f o r n e i g h b o r l i n e s s ; p o r t f o r propaganda; ( c ) p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e  ( b ) f i n a n c i a l supi n the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y  and success o f i t s method; (d) p r o v i s i o n o f a n a t i o n a l o f f i c e f o r the p r o m o t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f community s e r v i c e s ; (e) c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f neighborhood w i t h c i t y i n c o n t r o l and support of a d e m o c r a t i c p l a n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p l a y , i n music weeks, h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s and community s i n g i n g ; f f ) f a c i l i t i e s f o r education  o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e use o f l e i s u r e , as p r o v i d e d by  local offices  o f community s e r v i c e ; (g) f o r m a t i o n  of advisory  c o u n c i l s i n p l a c e o f the former type o f l o c a l c o u n c i l ; (h) i n tensive training  courses f o r community r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s ;  ( i ) a i d i n g o f f i n a n c i a l campaigns, v o t i n g o f bond issues:, and the a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n s  f o r s i t e s ; (3)  development o f p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r wholesome p l a y by a l l ages throughout the y e a r ;  i . e . , noon-hour " s i n g s " i n f a c 1 t o r i e s , s t r e e t p l a y , and h o l i d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h they have not been s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , t h e p l a y -  ground movement i n N o r t h America has passed through seven s t a g e s . B e s i d e s these t h e r e were t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d s w h i c h s i g n i f i e d the passage from one c o n d i t i o n o r a c t i o n t o a n o t h e r .  The t r a n s i -  t i o n s o f t h e p l a y movement a r e nine i n number, as enumerated 2 below; (1) from p r o v i s i o n f o r l i t t l e c h i l d r e n t o p r o v i s i o n f o r a l l ages o f p e o p l e ; (2) from f a c i l i t i e s o p e r a t e d d u r i n g the summer o n l y , to those m a i n t a i n e d throughout the y e a r ;  (5) from  outdoor equipment and a c t i v i t i e s o n l y t o b o t h outdoor and indoor f a c i l i t i e s and e v e n t s ; (4) from congested urban d i s t r i c t s t o R a i n w a t e r , op. c i t . , 224-255. 2  i b i d . , 258-281.  14  "both u r b a n a n d r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s ;  (5)  from p h i l a n t h r o p i c b e -  q u e s t s t o community s u p p o r t a n d c o n t r o l ; p l a y and a " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " p o l i c y t o ordinated schedules; activities, civic  group;  (8)  " d i r e c t e d p l a n " and c o -  from a s i m p l e to a complex f i e l d  from the p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s  of standards  e.g.,  t h e a?/ard o f s p o r t m a n s h i p  (9) f r o m s t r e s s  interests  as w e l l as  t h e g r o u p t e s t was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  average  attainment  against  the s t a r  participating,  o f each group,  the  team;  for  the w i n n e r by  i n d i v i d u a l was  under  the  rated numbers  and s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups w e r e - e n c o u r a g e d own m u n i c i p a l d a n c e s  to  on g r o u p  interests;  p e r f o r m e r and c r e d i t was g i v e n f o r  exercise control of their  the  and  not always  only to s t r e s s  individual  and  only to  o f t e n t o the most s p o r t s m a n l i k e  on i n d i v i d u a l  and community i n t e r e s t s  trophies  of  social  for competitions both i n d i v i d u a l  t h e w i n n e r o f a game b u t  instance  from, u n s u p e r v i s e d  i n v o l v i n g manual, p h y s i c a l j a e s t h e t i c ,  events;  definition  (7)  (6)  to  proper  chaperones. The P l a y Movement i n Canada The p l a y movement, i n C a n a d a , t h o u g h l a t e ment,  has f o l l o w e d  I n t e r e s t i n the p r o v i s i o n o f playgrounds  f o r the most p a r t  movement seems t o have p a s s e d to those  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  development are  develops  somewhat a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e p l a y movement  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . has b e e n c e n t e r e d  in its  on t h e u r b a n a r e a s .  The  through stages o f growth s i m i l a r Some o f t h e  evident i n the l a r g e r  transitions  in  cities.  The movement i n Canada has b e e n p r o m o t e d b y s e r v i c e c l u b s s u c h as E o t a r i a n s , G y r o s , K i w a n i s , K i n s m e n and  lions.  15  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s the  construction  have g i v e n much f i n a n c i a l  assistance  o f f a c i l i t i e s arid t h e m a i n t e n a n c e  ground a c t i v i t i e s throughout  the  supplemented  regular playground  in  the work o f the  country  the program c a r r i e d out f o r the b e n e f i t F o l l o w i n g the  i n i t i a t i v e of the  of p l a y -  Some c l u b s  1  to  have  authorities  of the  children.  s e r v i c e c l u b s , 46  out  o f 70 c i t i e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 have s u p p o r t e d  or-  •  ganized playgrounds cities,  '  2  from m u n i c i p a l f u n d s I n  the playgrounds are  assistance  playgrounds,  from the  city. ff  least part  the y e a r  T h i r t e e n c i t i e s do n o t  finan-  support eon-  i  clubs.  equip the grounds.  at  organization with  t  A minority ofthe  leaders  these  i n t h e s e , v, H''i"'Tt,i ran ••ni"i"5BO a c t i v i t i e s a r e  but  d u c t e d by s e r v i c e  tional  of  c o n d u c t e d by a i m u n i c i p a l b o a r d ,  t h o u g h i n some c a s e s b y a n i n d e p e n d e n t cial  most  46 c i t i e s  do more t h a n p r o v i d e  T w e n t y o f them e m p l o y p r o f e s s i o n a l  to d i r e c t  or supervise  o f the y e a r ,  the use  o f the  or  recrea-  grounds  w h i l e t e n o f them e m p l o y s u c h  leaders  round. In the  same 70 l a r g e s t  cities  o f Canada t h e r e a r e  1,578  p u b l i c l y - c o n t r o l l e d schools with i n d i v i d u a l playgrounds. There a r e a b o u t 2 5 0 more p l a y g r o u n d s t h a n s c h o o l s , o w i n g t o t h e f a c t that y^here a r e d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s i n c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s , and t h e s e 4  provinces i n s i s t  on s e g r e g a t i n g  O n l y i n 20 o f t h e  the  s e x e s on s e p a r a t e  70 " c i t i e s l a s t  y e a r was  grounds.  there  ^Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , C i v i c Playgrounds i n C a n a d i a n P i t i e s o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n and O v e r - 1 9 3 5 , P a m p h i e t , ibidlj 3 '  1.  ibid.,  1.  2  ibid*,:1.  1.  16  s u p e r v i s e d p l a y on a n y o f t h e vacation.  W i t h i n the  tinued this practice supervisors  last  s c h o o l grounds  five years,  playground a u t h o r i t i e s ,  school board,  following  most  midsummer have d i s c o n -  In f i v e c i t i e s i n nine by the  and i n s i x by v o l u n t a r y  The t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n seen from the  many c i t i e s  as a n economy m e a s u r e .  were p a i d by the  during  the civic  organizations.  commonly p r o v i d e d may be  comparison: TABLE  I  CANADIAN C I T I E S PROVIDING F A C I L I T I E S FOR RECREATION Number o f C i t i e s P r o v i d i n g f o r E a c h Type  Types, o f F a c i l i t i e s Parks or grounds w i t h g e n e r a l equipment for p l a y Playing fields for baseball, s o f t b a l l , soccer, etc. • Rinks for skating only R i n k s f o r hockey o n l y R i n k s f o r b o t h s k a t i n g and h o c k e y Toboggan s l i d e s Indoor, swimming p o o l s Tennis courts Bowling greens Golf courses O u t d o o r swimming p o o l s B a t h i n g beaches I n d o o r community r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s  An a p p r e c i a t i o n  o f the  41  38 81 15 27 11 .  17 ' 8  8  8 8 3  extent of p r o v i s i o n for  indoor  facilities  f o r r e c r e a t i o n may be o b t a i n e d  from the  593 o f t h e  1,578  t h a t c a n be u s e d  gymnasiums,  schools  w h i l e 202 h a v e e q u i p p e d g y m n a s i u m s .  have swimming p o o l s , O n t a r i o and  have a u d i t o r i u m s  Quebec.  Infra,  17.  and t h e s e a r e a l l i n the 1  fact  O n l y 22  that as  schools  two p r o v i n c e s  of  CQ  J.  -p M i d CD ^ -H  c!  CO  •H  C5  !  a  O  o  -.1.  CQ  O rH  I  ' I  I  153  CQ  CO LO  cn  to  to  O  O  CM  r-i  r-i  r-i  CO  LO W  in  to  O «D  CO CO  CQ  03  LO CD  <0 W  £-  C\!  rH  rH  CO  rH  I • •  o ra co o 4J d co ra  EH  s-o - O H (D  •H O -  •H  d  § S B S  rH CO  ft "  CQ  rH  O £  >H  CO  rH  CQ  H  PH •H  tio  W  rH  LO  rH  <3  O  CQ  <q CQ EH  p -P <lO  m  CQ  <SJ..  O <D  CV2  O  o  w a  W  rH"  c-  to  Cn  IO  cn  LO  CO  PQ co cis rH  O  •H  LO  CO CQ  M O O CO O EH  0>  r-i  EH  o  H  CO  00  o  o  S  to  co N T H  M h Pi CD -=tl >  3  w  o  g s  01 H  p  C-  1  cn r-H  ft  CO  co ra  CO CO  H M  <J>  CQ  !  to i  to  *H  to  n cn ccn tD rH  rH  N rH C\3  O  o  LO  cn  to  rH  rH  rH  O O • XI  O «5  tO  IO  ca cn^  o  co  cn  co  to  03  CO  CO  "sfH  • CO  O  o  CO LO  o  CCO  LO  cn  to  S CO  LO  rH  <M r-i CQ  o  o >a  O *H " x l CO  to  W  to  OJ  o o o S C O pq  o o CO  <t-l  O  CO CD •H  CQ  S4 £ • +> o &  G -H  S O  cn  to  rH  O ; EH  CO •H  CO  « r-i  «  ft •  «  P-i  •H •4^  A3 0  aCO is (D  •H  CQ  O O  CO CO  5>  PH  pq  &  x> S3 rH  O CD  £>  CD  a?  0 •H  FH CO  -p d 0  CO  x» 0 •H CO  XI O  -P  CO  id  CQ CO  CO  O  n  XI CQ  0  O  CO  -p  PH CD  X3 rH <q  -P •H  PH  P0  18  Conclusion Throughout the w o r l d ,  interest  i n recreation  i s "becom-  i n g w i d e s p r e a d and p l a y g r o u n d s w i t h modern equipment a r e established.  S i n c e p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f the value of  movement h a s become s o g e n e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s  have a t  to assure i t s  s u c h as  t h e y o u t h movements  i n outdoor l i f e  continuation.  Spontaneous  of Europe, are  are  the r e s u l t s  o f the  manifestations,  c r e a t i n g new c u l t s  desire  more j o y o u s l i v i n g a n d a r e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s t i m e movement on t h i s  continent.  the v a l u e o f p l a y i s the  reason  comprehensive r e c r e a t i o n a l As so o f t e n soceurs phase,  over-enthusiasm  points  have b e e n e v i d e n t  assumed  financial  a n d a new s p i r i t o f f r e e d o m i n p l a y .  f o r e i g n movements  the  least  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e x t e n d i n g a l a r g e measure o f support  being  These  of youth i n the  for  leisure  The i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r the  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f more  systems. i n the  e a r l y development  and wrong emphasis  of every  on some p a r t i c u l a r  i n playground development,  but  usually  t h e s e h a v e b e e n due t o m i s c o n c e p t i o n o r m i s - d i r e c t e d z e a l t h a n t o some b a s i c w e a k n e s s of p u b l i c support.  which might j u s t i f y the w i t h d r a w a l  T h o s e who c o n t r o l m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s  h e r e and t h e r e f o r a t i m e f a i l  to a p p r e c i a t e  v e n t i o n and may d e c l i n e t o g r a s p that are used i n r e c r e a t i o n a l social preventatives t h a t the fully  first  as much t r o u b l e  a n c i a l support  as  c e n t e r s are  who a d v o c a t e d  i n educating  may  the v a l u e of  t h e known f a c t  t h a t the  premethods  t r u e e d u c a t i o n a l and  of inestimable value.  "theorists"  rather  History tells  us  free p u b l i c schools  the p u b l i c and o b t a i n i n g  the playground, advocates  a r e h a v i n g now.  had fin'  19 CHAPTER I I I URBAN RECREATION (A) R e c r e a t i o n a l Problems R e s u l t i n g from U r b a n i z a t i o n C e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s have i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p ment of t h e p l a y movement.  A review  o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l prob-  lems r e s u l t i n g from u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s worth making* R e c r e a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f u r b a n c e n t e r s . - - — - Urban r e c r e a 1  t i o n tends t o become adapted t o t h e s p e c i a l environment of t h e c i t y - d w e l l e r ; i t i s marked by p a s s i v e n e s s ,  and v i c a r i o u s enjoy-  ment and s i n c e i t must be conducted i n v e r y l i m i t e d space i t r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r i t s e f f i c i e n t tration.  adminis-  The urban d w e l l e r uses r e c r e a t i o n f o r emotional r e -  l e a s e and sometimes f o r escape from r e a l i t y .  The c o n t r o l o f  urban r e c r e a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be governmental o r commercial; the l a t t e r type i s sometimes a l l i e d w i t h o r g a n i z e d v i c e .  Either  l i m i t e d p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s o r f a u l t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the p r i m a r y cause of such a r e s u l t . Juvenile delinquency.—  I n the c i t y , j u v e n i l e delinquency  often  serves as an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o a d u l t c r i m i n a l t e n d e n c i e s  with  y o u t h f u l " f a i l u r e s " embarking upon a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r  or even  a c a r e e r o f crime. delinquency one,  A l t h o u g h one cause o f the e x i s t e n c e of urban  i s p o v e r t y , a n o t h e r , and p r o b a b l y  a more s i g n i f i c a n t  i s t h e f a c t t h a t , on the one hand, t h e t y p i c a l c i t y  provides  a r e s t r i c t e d scope f o r s o c i a l l y - a p p r o v e d e x p r e s s i o n of normal C a r p e n t e r , N . , The S o c i o l o g y of C i t y L i f e Green and Co. - 1932), 251-259.  (Longmans,  20 p l a y t e n d e n c i e s , and, on the o t h e r hand, o f f e r s e x t e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d u l g i n g i n s o c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d forms o f such p l a y t e n d e n c i e s , and, i n p e r v e r s i o n s of them.  C i t y boys  and g i r l s have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g wholesome ways of p l a y i n g , "but i t i s v e r y easy indeed f o r them t o f i n d excitement  i n ways  t h a t b r i n g them i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the law and are i n i m i c a l to t h e i r own w e l l - b e i n g . S e v e r a l a u t h o r i t a t i v e o p i n i o n s w i l l show the h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between p r o v i s i o n of playgrounds juvenile delinquency.  One  writer  and the p r e v e n t i o n of  states:  A n a l y s i s of a neighborhood by D i s t r i c t A t t o r n e y C h a r l e s Edwin Fox of P h i l a d e l p h i a , who covered the d i s t r i c t f o r f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e and a l i k e p e r i o d a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p l a y g r o u n d s , l e d him t o s t a t e : " I d i s c o v e r e d the remarkable f a c t t h a t i n the f i v e y e a r s of p l a y g r o u n d r e c r e a t i o n , the n e i g h borhood showed a f i f t y p e r cent decrease i n j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , as compared w i t h the p r e v i o u s y e a r s . , f l  - January 27,  1927.  Dr. C h a r l e s P i a t t , P r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n Association writes: I know t h a t j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i n our l a r g e c i t i e s i n c r e a s e s i n d i r e c t r a t i o n w i t h the d i s t a n c e from a p l a y g r o u n d . I know t h a t playgrounds keep c h i l d r e n out of the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s . x  Warden Lewis E. Lawes of S i n g S i n g , i n commenting on the f a c t t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a l l the cases b e f o r e the c r i m i n a l c o u r t s are o f f e n d e r s under the age of twenty-one, says: I can see, as the o n l y e f f e c t i v e way f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , w i d e r e x t e n s i o n of community system a c t i v i t i e s , such as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of more p l a y g r o u n d s , e s p e c i a l l y where c o n g e s t i o n i s a t p r e s e n t the g r e a t e s t ; the e s t a b l i s h N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i l d r e n * s P l a y and J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y (pamphlet), 1-2.  ment o f c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c l e a n a n d wholesome r e c r e a t i o n ; a n d t h e i n t e r e s t o f a d u l t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e b o y o f t o d a y , who may be t h e c r i m i n a l o f t o m o r r o w . 1 Strain— detrimental effects  o f c i t y environment upon p e r s o n a l -  ity.—- Factors conditioning urban l i f e may be d i s a s t r o u s ality. serves  to the  have consequences  i n t e g r i t y o f the  The most d i r e c t way i n w h i c h t h e  which  i n d i v i d u a l ' s persont o t a l i t y of c i t y  life  as a c o n d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e i s t h r o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l  s t i m u l i which i t b r i n g s to bear upon the writer  individual.  One  says:  The c i t y - d w e l l e r ' s p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l e q u i p m e n t encounters d i s t i n c t i v e l y u r b a n - c o n d i t i o n i n g i n f l u e n c e s i n r e l a t i o n t o at l e a s t t h r e e types' o f s e n s e - i m p r e s s i o n s , s o u n d , movement a n d v i s i o n . 2  The s o u n d s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e intensity,  c i t y are p e c u l i a r i n  t h e i r d e n s i t y and t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s n e s s .  be s t a t e d h e r e t h a t n o i s e c o n s t i t u t e s vitality  o f the  individual,  a definite  It  need  e v e n when he i s a c c u s t o m e d t o  r a p i d i t y o f movement i n v o l v e d i n c i t y l i f e  o r t o make l i g h t n i n g d e c i s i o n s on w h i c h t h e  s t i m u l i which, a f f e c t  i n a number o f w a y s .  and d e p r i v e d o f many o f t h e  number  out of safety  Carpenter,  op. c i t . ,  the  of  c i t y - d w e l l e r are  T h e y a r e more v a r i e d , more  c o l o r tones a s s o c i a t e d with  "^National R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y , 1-2. g  it.  depend.  The v i s u a l peculiar  the  the  by n o t i n g the  o f t i m e s he i s r e q u i r e d t o h u r r y , t o d a s h o r s c u t t l e  l i m b and l i f e  only  s t r a i n upon  A n y o b s e r v e r may r e a d i l y g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o  danger,  their  205.  vivid,  sunlight.  C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y and  22  S u n l i g h t - d e p r i v a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y one o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t , though, perhaps one of the l e s s o b v i o u s , o f the p h y s i c a l d i s comforts t h a t t h e u r b a n - d w e l l e r e x p e r i e n c e s . V a r i o u s o t h e r elements  combine t o h e i g h t e n the e m o t i o n a l  "tension of c i t y l i f e , o r , as Young p u t s i t , t o extend "the range of  excitation."  1  S i z e , c o n g e s t i o n , crowds and c e r t a i n o t h e r s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of c i t y l i f e may be s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l mention.  The  s i z e o f t h e c i t y enhances the e m o t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of events t h a t would o t h e r w i s e be r e l a t i v e l y commonplace.  The e m o t i o n a l  tone o f t h e c i t y i s a l s o h e i g h t e n e d by the c l o s e crowding of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . - S o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e agreed t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a crowd a f f e c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h a t such p a r t i c i p a t i o n constitutes a profoundly d i s t u r b i n g experience.  Homicide,  suicide,  robbery and a c c i d e n t s a r e events i n c i t y l i f e which arouse the emotions o f the p e o p l e . Nervous s t r a i n i s a p r o d u c t of c i t y l i f e . y e t c o n c e i v e d the danger o f h u r r y , worry, f e a r , lonesomeness and a l l t h e o t h e r elements  We have not homesickness,  t h a t go t o make up s t r a i n .  S t r a i n e n t e r s d e f i n i t e l y i n t o many problems o f d e l i n q u e n c y . P l a y g r o u n d s and r a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e needed f o r e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e and escape from the s t r a i n s caused by the impact of the c i t y upon t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . P a u c i t y o f p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s . — A l l development i s the r e s u l t of for ren,  a c t i v i t y , and t h e r e f o r e the maintenance o f the o p p o r t u n i t y wholesome a c t i v i t i e s i s of p r i m a r y n e c e s s i t y . d e p r i v e d o f t h e f u l l b e n e f i t s of f r e s h a i r , Young, K., S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y  (New York,  School c h i l d -  s u n l i g h t and 1930),  573.  23  n a t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , are kept i n d o o r s i n a sedentary p o s i t i o n • d u r i n g a g r e a t p a r t of the day. the e x t e n s i v e use  Some e d u c a t i o n i s t s advocate  of outdoor c l a s s e s and e x c u r s i o n s as p a r t of  the s c h o o l program.  H e a l t h , c i t i z e n s h i p , m o r a l i t y and even i n -  t e l l e c t are not a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s w h i c h can be secured ly;  direct-  t h e y a r e the outcome of a c t i v i t i e s . Gone are the open s p a c e s , w i t h the t r e e s and the f l o w e r s ,  the swimming p o o l s and the woods, h u n t i n g and  fishing.  The  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r wholesome a c t i v i t i e s has been reduced t o a l e v e l far  below our  realization.  On the o t h e r hand, the i n c r e a s e i n t e m p t a t i o n s wholesome l i v i n g has been steady. found l i n k e d w i t h c i t y l i f e  These t e m p t a t i o n s  situations.  Woods H u t c h i n s o n ,  low  d i s c u s s i n g the q u e s t i o n "Can  congress,  stand-  delinquency.  S u r v i v e C i v i l i z a t i o n " d u r i n g the p r o c e e d i n g s annual playground  have been  Unguided and u n d i r e c t -  ed under these o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the c h i l d has accepted ards which are g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t o un-  the  Child  of the second  says:  As p h y s i c i a n s , we must demand t h a t the schoolroom, a d m i r a b l e as are i t s aims, and i t s m o t i v e s , must r e l i n q u i s h a t l e a s t o n e - h a l f i t s c l a i m s upon the time and s t r e n g t h of our c h i l d r e n ; t h a t a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n n a t u r e * s s c h o o l — • the open a i r . The p l a y g r o u n d should be o r g a n i z e d , s u p e r v i s e d , and r e c o g n i z e d as a v i t a l and c o - o r d i n a t e branch of our scheme of e d u c a t i o n . . . . . The r e a l l i f e of the c h i l d i s l i v e d not i n the schoolroom, but on the p l a y g r o u n d Cut down the s c h o o l h o u r s o n e - h a l f and double the p l a y ground h o u r s , and you w i l l have done more f o r the p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , and m o r a l h e a l t h of young A m e r i c a than by any other p o s s i b l e s t e p . 1 Nash, J . B . , T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P l a y g r o u n d s and R e c r e a t i o n , (A.S. Barnes & Co. - 1951), 1 0 .  24 Commercial r e c r e a t i o n . — The growing octopus of commerciali z e d r e c r e a t i o n i s s l o w l y but s u r e l y s u r r o u n d i n g  and g r a d u a l l y  squeezing out the l i f e - g i v i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e community.  The c h i e f o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s type o f amusement i s  "that the people a r e s p e c t a t o r s r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s . A c t i v i t i e s have been p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d i n the clamour f o r efficiency*  Mr. E. B. De Groot  says:  P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m makes our r e c r e a t i o n a t h i n g of t o i l , asks us t o sweat f o r mere t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t and demands t h a t we p a r k our s o u l s i n t h e g r a n d s t a n d . . . . . The p h i l o s o p h y of commercialism, as a p p l i e d t o t h e w o r l d o f r e c r e a t i o n , i s b u y s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r than *be something' .... • Commercialism i s c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u t t i n g t h e 'wreck* i n the r e c - r e a t i o n of an e v e r i n c r e a s i n g number o f young p e o p l e . So l o n g "as we remain as f i s h and. t a k e our r e c r e a t i o n through s u c t i o n r a t h e r than our h i g h e r powers of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , so l o n g w i l l we r e m a i n , as V i s c o u n t Grey has s a i d , "a p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g , but not a p l e a s u r e - f i n d i n g p e o p l e . 6  f  The  f  f  c o s t t o s o c i e t y o f inadequate p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y . —  Pro-  f e s s o r O'Shea s t a t e s t h a t the o v e r - s t i m u l a t i o n o f our nervous system i s the g r e a t e s t danger t h a t we have t o f a c e .  I n the  o p i n i o n o f e x p e r t s , t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e today between s a n i t y and i n s a n i t y i s as t h i n as a k n i f e - b l a d e , and o v e r - s t r a i n and exc e s s i v e nervous s t i m u l a t i o n may e a s i l y cause a r a p i d  increase  i n the v a r i o u s forms o f i n s a n i t y . S t a t i s t i c s show t h a t we a r e p a y i n g a heavy p r i c e i n human l i f e t h r o u g h t h e number o f c h i l d r e n t h a t a r e being and  i n j u r e d w h i l e p l a y i n g on t h e s t r e e t s .  killed  A g a i n , we cannot  De G r o o t , E.B., "What Are the Chances f o r t h e S u r v i v a l of Amateur and Community R e c r e a t i o n i n an Age of P r o f e s s i o n a l and Commercial R e c r e a t i o n , " American P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, (October, 1925). 2 Nash, op. c i t . . 15.  25  estimate the number who are having "moral a c c i d e n t s " r e s u l t i n g from j u v e n i l e delinquency. ing  We are paying the p r i c e by r e s t r i c t  the growth and development o f our youth. An adequately-administered  activities,  c i t y should order i t s p o l i c e  i t s playground and r e c r e a t i o n a l program, and i t s  c i t y p l a n n i n g so as t o reduce, i f not e l i m i n a t e , a number of the d e m o r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s surrounding the l i v e s of many c h i l d ren  today.  (B) P r o b l e m s o f C i t y Cities  f r e q u e n t l y g r o w up a n d f i n d  c o m p l e t e l y o c c u p i e d by b u s i n e s s have r e a l i z e d the s u c h an e x t e n t years  Planning t h e i r area  almost  h o u s e s a n d homes b e f o r e  need o f p l a n n i n g . -  people  This s i t u a t i o n exists  to  i n numerous c i t i e s t h a t i t w i l l p r o b a b l y t a k e  to e f f e c t  d e s i r a b l e changes  tional facilities  f o r the p r o v i s i o n of  for their population.  v i s i o n f o r p l a y areas i s before The p l a n n i n g o f p l a y space.-— playgrounds, parks,  recrea-  The t i m e t o make p r o -  t h e l a n d has b e e n b u i l t  upon.  Neighborhood playgrounds,  district  a n d s c h o o l s must be l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x -  i m i t y t o t h e most d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s and t o ' t h e l i n e s o f transportation.  To s u p p l y t h e n e e d s o f t h e s m a l l c h i l d ,  e q u a t e b a c k y a r d s on l o t a r e a s o r c o m m u n i t y g a r d e n c o u r t s be p r o v i d e d . p l a y space  admust  B e c a u s e c i t i e s d i d n o t make ample p r o v i s i o n  i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , many l e g a l o b s t a c l e s  e n c o u n t e r e d i n the l o n g and b i t t e r  for  have b e e n  fight for city planning.  The c o m p u l s o r y p l a n o f s e t t i n g a s i d e i n a l l new s u b divisions tific  ten p e r cent  o f t h e l a n d f o r open s p a c e s  for three reasons:  need t h a t quota w h i l e  (2)  legal difficulties  l a w s o f c o n f i s c a t i o n ; (3)  arrangement  s e c t i o n s may n o t  o t h e r s may n e e d l a r g e r a r e a s r a t h e r  smaller unusable p l o t s ; stringent  (1.) c e r t a i n b u s i n e s s  is unscien-  may a r i s e  t h e r e may n o t be  than through  definite  o f p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k a r e a s a c c o r d i n g to the  needs  of the p e o p l e . A p r a c t i c a b l e i d e a w o u l d be t o h a v e t h e p l a n f o r p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k a r e a s o f a l l new s u b d i v i s i o n s s u b m i t t e d t o p u b l i c for approval before  the s t r e e t s have been l a i d  p l o t s w o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r p u r c h a s e b y t h e  out.  the The  c i t y when i t was i n  27 a p o s i t i o n to do s o .  1  P l a y - l o t s - - t h e backyard.— These are places near home for the •play of small children who are not of school age or who are only beginners, generally those under eight years of age.  In the  absence of i n d i v i d u a l backyards, garden courts might be provided as a common backyard which would be supervised by the mother from the back door.  The substitutes that might be provided are:  the garden playground; the roof garden; the home playground; portions of the school yard or of the neighborhood municipal playground.  The reservation of a vacant l o t per block would not  be satisfactory without supervision, and c i v i c finances  could  not bear the cost of such supervision. • The elementary school playground.— This area should be the neighborhood playground.  I f school yards are inadequate i n some  instances, play areas should be placed near to the small school 2 yards.  The minimum space problem i s very important.  The solu-  tion of this.-problem depends a great deal on reducing the peak load of children on the playground at one time by arranging schedules for play a c t i v i t i e s  on the playground.  These schedules  would begin at nine o'clock in the morning and continue throughout the day on the platoon school plan. high at noon, at recess, before and after Certain f i e l d s  The peak loads would be school.  such as those for baseball,  football and  Copies of a model plan entitled "Standard City Planning Enabling '-Act *, which embodies this idea, maybe secured from U.S. Department of Commerce. x  1  P o r t l a n d , Oregon; Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a ; and many other places are doing this successfully. 2  3rp average peak lead over the'Whdle day seems to be about 20 per cent of the school population. n e  28  b a s k e t b a l l n e e d t o be j u s t f i v e hundred b o y s .  as l a r g e f o r one h u n d r e d b o y s as  Therefore,  f o r a n y s c h o o l and t h e  a minimum-sized yard i s  consensus  for  needed  of opinion i s that four  acres  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t h e m i n i m u m - s i z e d s c h o o l y a r d and t h a t s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d when t h e a t t e n d a n c e i s i n e x c e s s  this  of s i x  hundred. The h i g h s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d . — T h i s y a r d s h o u l d be t h e playground.  The p e a k l o a d p e r c e n t a g e  district  w o u l d b e a b o u t t h e same  t h a t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y a r d . , The s c h e d u l e p l a n has ready been i n e f f e c t all  i n Vancoiiver f o r the  students are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n periods  last  few y e a r s  throughout  al-  so  the  that  week.  B e c a u s e o f t h e c l i m a t e some g r o u n d s w h i c h have b e e n p l a n t e d grass  are not a v a i l a b l e f o r a l a r g e p a r t  w a t e r and t h e w e t g r a s s result.  i s dangerous;  The c l a y s u r f a c e  of the y e a r .  as  in  They h o l d  c o n s e q u e n t l y many a c c i d e n t s  i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y  for a l l year p l a y -  ground' a c t i v i t i e s on t h e s c h o o l g r o u n d s .  Games p l a y e d b y h i g h  s c h o o l b o y s and g i r l s  as s u c h a c t i v i t i e s  r e q u i r e more s p a c e ,  more h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d i n t y p e a n d , y a r d m u s t be i n c r e a s e d .  therefore,  are  the m i n i m u m - s i z e d  R u n n i n g - t r a c k and f i e l d  sports  must  p  also receive attention  i n p l a c e m e n t and p l a n n i n g . , 5  Hov/ s c h o o l s a r e m e e t i n g t h e demand f o r p l a y s p a c e . —  The 1927  annual report  education  of  of the  d i v i s i o n o f p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h  the P h i l a d e l p h i a Board, o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s  the  V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s o f SG::sq., ft.'..to 2 0 0 ' o r 500 s q . have been o f f e r e d as p l a y - s p a c e needs p e r c h i l d .  ft.  -The c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n i s t h a t t h e minimum s p a c e s h o u l d n o t be l e s s < t h a n f r o m s i x t o t e n a c r e s . Recommendations, o f s t a t e boards i n U . S . i n w h i c h c e r t a i n a r e a s a r e recommended as s t a n d a r d s f o r s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s c a n be found on a c h a r t i n , a pamphlet e n t i t l e d " S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s " M a r i e M . Ready, ( O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , 1954, U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t ment o f I n t e r i o r ) , 1 0 - 1 1 . 2  following  s t a n d a r d s f o r new s c h o o l s i t e s ,  suggested  by the  pro-  p e r t y committee o f the board of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . F o r a h i g h s c h o o l o f 4,GOO p u p i l s , a p l a y - s p a c e o f n o t than 8 acres. For a j u n i o r high school of 2,000 p u p i l s a play-space of not l e s s than 4 a c r e s . F o r an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l o f 1,500 p u p i l s a p l a y ^ s p a c e of not l e s s than 3 acres..  less  I n 1923, the  f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d s were s u g g e s t e d  at  the  A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e o f the P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of  America: F o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a s h o u l d be 8 a c r e s i n c l u d i n g t h e l a n d o n w h i c h t h e s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d . F o r t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a s h o u l d be f r o m 10 t o 2 0 a c r e s . •i F o r h i g h s c h o o l s - - The minimum t o t a l a r e a f o r a h i g h s c h o o l , s i t e s h o u l d be f r o m 20 t o 4 0 a c r e s . 2  I n a l a r g e number o f c i t i e s are b e i n g p l a c e d i n the  on t h i s  continent  the  immediate neighborhood o f parks  schools  and  s q u a r e s w h i c h c a n be c o n v e r t e d i n t o p l a y g r o u n d s .  P a r k s and p l a y -  ground boards  in providing  are  c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h s c h o o l boards  a d d i t i o n a l space near a p p r o v i n g any p l a n s  schools.  Some b o a r d s  of education are  not  f o r new s c h o o l s w h i c h do n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e  play-space. Other r e c r e a t i o n a l areas.-?-  The r e c r e a t i o n p a r k p r o v i d e d by  p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d c a n be l o c a t e d i n a n y a d e q u a t e near  the  courts,  city.  I t provides p i c n i c grounds,  bowling-greens, bridle-paths  provincial, urban a r e a s ,  set  thus p r e s e r v i n g the n a t u r a l beauty or p i c n i c k e r s .  Ready,  op. c i t . ,  ibid.,  5.  3.  area  courses,  and g a r d e n s .  and f e d e r a l r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a s a r e  summer v a c a t i o n i s t s  2  golf  the  tennis  Municipal, aside  outside  of forests  T h e s e a r e a s may have  for  bathing  30 beaches,  golf-courses,  p i c n i c grounds  o r camps l o c a t e d  L e g i s l a t i o n f o r p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s , — • There i s tendency  today f o r the  n i z e the power o f the  different city  playground r e c r e a t i o n a l  a,general  s t a t e s and. p r o v i n c e s t o  t o s p e n d money f o r v a r i o u s  facilities.  Court decisions  types of  the  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s show t h e w i d e  p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s .  S c h o o l b o a r d s were g i v e n the  buy p l a y g r o u n d p r o p e r t y  and a t h l e t i c  were remote  of  o p i n i o n on a l l t e c h n i c a l  l a t i t u d e w h i c h h a s b e e n g i v e n c i t i e s as t o e x p e n d i t u r e s  sites  recog-  The l e g a l d e p a r t m e n t  c i t y s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d f o r e x p e r t questions.  therein.-  from the s c h o o l s .  for  right  to  f i e l d s e v e n when t h o s e In C a l i f o r n i a ,  the  C i t y of  Los A n g e l e s was g i v e n t h e p o w e r t o b u i l d a s t a d i u m , w h i c h was be o p e r a t e d tenance.  as a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e  Many c i t i e s h a v e t h e  camps o u t s i d e amount  the  have been expended  right  city limits.  to cover o p e r a t i n g  to o f f s e t  cities  costs.  In other  cities, public  school  deemed n e c e s s a r y .  fields  f o r maintenance  re-  commencement  operas and d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s .  have b e e n a l l o w e d t o e s t a b l i s h g o l f  and a t h l e t i c  funds  of auditoriums f o r such  Some  courses.  C i t i e s h a v e t h e power t o l e v y a d m i s s i o n c h a r g e s grounds  of main-  These c i t i e s c h a r g e a s m a l l  i n the b u i l d i n g  lectures,  costs  to e s t a b l i s h m u n i c i p a l  c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , exercises,  the  to  on p l a y -  o n l y , when s u c h  T h i s p o l i c y has a l s o b e e n p u r s u e d b y  is  schools  and p a r k s . L . V / . W e i r p f t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has p r e p a r e d a l i s t o f s u g g e s t i o n s on how l a n d may be a c q u i r e d f o r p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d p u r p o s e s . 1  31 (G) O b j e c t i v e s of C i t y Playground  Programs  I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t , at l e a s t i n o u t l i n e , p o i n t s of agreement f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l aspect of p l a y and e s p e c i a l l y i t s ' o b j e c t i v e s , be g i v e n .  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of these  topics w i l l  h e l p i n the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the p l a y program. Theory of p l a y . — The  e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of p l a y has been r e c o g -  n i z e d over a l o n g p e r i o d of time; but o n l y i n modern times  has  an attempt been made t o g i v e a s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n of p l a y . Many t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g p l a y have been advanced but n a t u r a l l y no e x h a u s t i v e  treatment  of these t h e o r i e s i s w a r r a n t e d here.  While l e a d i n g educators  are not y e t f u l l y i n a c c o r d  to the meaning of p l a y and as to what a c t i v i t i e s should be  as de-  noted by the term, t h e y are coming more and more t o agree on a few  fundamentals.' ' 5  I n the f i r s t p l a c e , p l a y i s a c t i v i t y as opposed to i t s opposite, idleness.  " L o a f i n g " and  "dawdling"  are not p l a y , but  are a slumping of a c t i v i t y because of a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t y , i n d i c a t i n g a l o s s of the p l a y s p i r i t .  Moreover, p l a y  i s not l i m i t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r form of a c t i v i t y ; i t may neuro-muscular, s e n s o r y , m e n t a l , or a c o m b i n a t i o n A g a i n , the v a l u e of p l a y i n e d u c a t i o n i s due  be  of a l l t h r e e .  t o i t s power t o  i n t e r e s t the p l a y e r , absorb h i s a t t e n t i o n , and arouse him  to  2  e n t h u s i a s t i c and p e r s i s t e n t a c t i v i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p l a y  activity  Bowen & M i t c h e l l , The Theory of P l a y (A.S. Barnes & Y o r k ) , Chapter IX. 1  New  Lee, J . , P l a y i n E d u c a t i o n ! M a c m i l l a n Co., New  Co.,  York),107.  32 d e p e n d s on t h e  attitude  t h i n g he i s  doing, that  action.  follows  It  of m i n d o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t  that  t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t h a t c a n a n a c t i v i t y be m e n t i o n e d  some c o n d i t i o n s be p l a y .  s u c h a s c o n v e n t i o n a l games and s p o r t s , play,  b u t we c a n n e v e r  be s u r e o f t h i s u n t i l we a p p r e c i a t e  may s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s f a i r l y i s an a t t i t u d e  Certain activities,  are u s u a l l y considered  v a r i e d m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t * .  spirit  1  g e n e r a l a c c o r d t h a t the  o f m i n d , but t h a t there i s not  ity  play  It  is,  essential  of p l a y i s a s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d from the  activ-  itself.  O b j e c t i v e s of p l a y . — The o b j e c t i v e s p l a y are  the  development  of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  same as t h o s e of g e n e r a l of the  full  three general groups not  the  so u n a n i -  c o m i n g t o be a g r e e d more a n d more t h a t t h e  characteristic  as  C o n s e q u e n t l y one  mous a n a g r e e m e n t a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s a t t i t u d e . however,  the  i s , upon the m o t i v e i m p e l l i n g him to  i s always n e c e s s a r i l y p l a y ; n e i t h e r t h a t may n o t u n d e r  toward  life  — the  of o b j e c t i v e s ,  education;  namely  enriched l i f e . the  be a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d i n p r a c t i c e .  separation They a r e  and  the  There  are  of which  immediate  can  object-  •7.  ives,  intermediate  Immediate  objectives  those which are The d e s i r e nature,  objectives  and u l t i m a t e  of p l a y . — Immediate  related  objectives. objectives  to the p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t  f o r a c t i v i t y i s one of t h e  of  are m a i n l y the  powerful forces  of  child. child  c h i l d h o o d b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r o n g t e n d e n c y  ^ C u r t i s , H . S . , E d u c a t i o n Through P l a y New Y o r k ) , 1 1 1 .  on  (macmillan C o . ,  2 ibid., 3  117.  Johnson, G . E . , New Y o r k ) , 6 3 .  E d u c a t i o n b y P l a y s & Games ( G i n n & C o . ,  S3 the p a r t ever,  of t h e  j u v e n i l e t o engage i n p l a y f u l  c e r t a i n types  others,  and i t  activities  b r i n g more s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e  i s the  p r o g r a m where t h e  f o r m of  the  duty of leaders  choice of a c t i v i t i e s . d a t i o n f o r another aged.  The b a s i s  experience.  child  than  i s to  guide the  these  Such d i r e c t i o n i s  activities is  by " s o c i a l h a b i t s " r a t h e r t h a n by i n s t i n c t . extent,  How-  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of society to d i r e c t  into s o c i a l l y useful channels.  c o r e of the  activities,,  To a  determined  considerable  children in  their  I f one d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y l a y s t h e  desirable  one,  t h e n the  foun-  f i r s t must be  of s e l e c t i o n i s t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t  encour-  and  When we r e q u i r e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t l e a d o n t o (a)  social  further  desirable  a c t i v i t i e s , we n e e d :  learning;  (b) p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n mere o n l o o k i n g ; ( c )  i n t r i n s i c rather than  m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n which i s w i l l e d and p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n by  community r a t h e r t h a n by c o m m e r c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ;  (d)  p l a n n e d w i t h the  child  r a t h e r than for the  a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n mere e x c i t e m e n t ;  (f)  child;  (e)  interest  1  Immediate  muscle" a c t i v i t i e s . development  are  the  joy of  impelled to win  composed l a r g e l y o f " b i g -  of endurance,  of  the  vitality  co-ordinations.  objectives  the h a b i t s ,  com-  the  These a c c o m p l i s h c e r t a i n e n d s s u c h a s  of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h ,  and of s e n s o r i - m o t o r Intermediate  a c t i v i t i e s are  extrinsic  activities  a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n a c t i v i t i e s i m p e l l e d b y the d e s i r e by p r i z e s .  the  o f p l a y . — The i n t e r m e d i a t e  objectives  a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s w h i c h s o c i e t y w o u l d  like  2  human b e i n g s t o a c q u i r e . ive leadership,  These a r e  for abstract  achieved best under  q u a l i t i e s of c i t i z e n s h i p ,  effectcharacter  B o w e n & M i t c h e l l , The T h e o r y of O r g a n i z e d P l a y U . S . B a r n e s & Co* , New Y o r k ) , C h a p t e r X I Y . 2 Johnson, op. c i t . , 94. 1  34 and h e a l t h a r e most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t a u g h t t h r o u g h activity.  H a b i t s , a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s  t i o n dominate the  next  situation.  play situations  of childhood w i l l  life  The " l e a d e r  his  behavior.  A boy w i l l  the  field  of a c t i o n .  dards  l e a d e r s h i p makes u s e  ship , health, c h i l d must  character  and t h e  be made t o s e e  the  other u l t i m a t e  for health  of the  drive for  r i g h t use  to the h e a l t h  learns:  to a c c o m p l i s h .  i s the  of t h e  j o y o u s ; t h e y must  is a product  citizenThe  1  These  objectives  desire  child,  Johnson,  and  The same a p p l i e s are  c h i l d wants.  but The  to accomplish, to  t h e y m u s t be  l e a d on t o o t h e r  to  easily  going to  the basis achieve, con-  spontaneous,  activities,  and  over-exertion. c h i l d *s  of p r o p e r l y g u i d e d a c t i v i t i e s .  I n a c t i v i t i e s under l e a d e r s h i p , op. c i t . ,  127.  these  natural  A child  to. p l a y a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d s w h i c h h a v e become  nature to him.  stan-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h  C h a r a c t e r m u s t a l s o be b u i l t up i n t o t h e it  the  not  forming  of l e i s u r e .  I f p l a y a c t i v i t i e s are  cause s t r a i n through  wants;  they  t h e y m u s t be p o p u l a r i n  s t a n d a r d s d e p e n d u p o n what t h e  vigorous,  standards i f  of a c t i v i t i e s under l e a d e r s h i p ,  t o amount t o s o m e t h i n g . tribute  the  objectives.  r e a l i z e d as a r e s u l t  desire  for  great  of p l a y . — U l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s a r e  t h i n g s w h i c h he w a n t s  the  adult  character.  the  ultimate  the  can i n f l u e n c e these a t t i t u d e s ,  The i n n e r " w a n t " i s a d r i v e t h a t i s  Ultimate objectives  not  eventually influence  l i v e up t o h i g h s o c i a l  of h e a l t h a n d  situa-  Attitudes acquired i n  s t a n d a r d s of t h e g r o u p , b u t  selective;  of  i n one  a p p r o v a l a n d t h e g r o u p *s a p p r o v a l a r e m a t t e r s of  moment. are  learned  directed  second  standards  35 c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . traits,  Most of the  character  a l a r g e number o f h a b i t s  ed b e f o r e  the  age o f t w e l v e .  and a t t i t u d e s ,  The r i g h t u s e i v e of t h e  has f a i l e d ile  o f the  spectator  delinquency i s traced  laborers.  object-  " A r e a l l men  Commercial r e c r e a t i o n  athletics.  Much a d u l t a n d  juven-  t o t h e m i s u s e of l e i s u r e t i m e . failed  The  t o p r o v i d e j o y i n the  Democratic education for  l e i s u r e m u s t be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l . put  through  through  The p r o b l e m i s ,  of l e i s u r e ? "  m o d e r n i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m has of  i n a c t i o n , not  o f l e i s u r e t i m e becomes t h e m a i n  proper use  with i t s  have b e e n f o r m -  supervisor*  r e c r e a t i o n a l program.  t r a i n e d f o r the  citizenship  C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g comes  advantages of p l a y p l u s l e a d e r s h i p m o r a l i z i n g on t h e p a r t  and  l a b o r and a l s o  I f democratic  work  for  education  j o y i n t o t h e work o f a l l m e n , much o f o u r r e c r e a t i o n a l  gram w o u l d t h e n n o t proper use  be n e e d e d .  pro-  More community f a c i l i t i e s f o r  of l e i s u r e m u s t be p r o v i d e d so t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s  participation i n recreative We m u s t r e - d e d i c a t e  activities will  ourselves  to a l e i s u r e  of a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r exemption from i t . "  1  the  the v a l u e o f  be f a i r l y  development  the  universal.  state  r i g h t balance  o f t h o s e wants  between  which  v a l u e of w o r k and o f t h o s e t a s t e s w h i c h leisure."  increase  2  Dewey, J o h n , D e m o c r a c y a n d E d u c a t i o n ( M a c m i l l a n & C o . 1925), 305. 2  Ibid,,  303.  for  which i s • " a reward  s e r v i c e , r a t h e r than a  We m u s t w o r k f o r  w o r k and l e i s u r e and t h e "increase  could  36 •  CHAPTER IV  THE PART PLAYED BY THE SCHOOLS IN THE CITY PLAYGROUND PROGRAM The  r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n that seems to be the most wide-  spread- i n North America i s one i n .which the park and playground board administers  the r e c r e a t i o n a l program f o r a d u l t s and pre-  school c h i l d r e n while the school board d i r e c t s the p l a y program of school-age children,,  There are many p o i n t s i n favor of t h i s  arrangement * Age  groups.--There a r e three main age groups f o r playground and  recreational administration:  the p r e - s c h o o l  c h i l d , the s c h o o l -  age  c h i l d and the a d u l t or community group.  tor  can c a r r y out e f f e c t i v e work by attempting  t i v i t i e s f o r these  to organize ac-  three groups a t the same time;  i t i e s of each group should be organized areas  No s i n g l e i n s t r u c -  s p e c i f i c a l l y reserved  the a c t i v -  a n d . c a r r i e d out on  f o r it.-**  In the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n a l program the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e t o be observed i s t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s of these i o u s groups  should be planned on separate grounds.  event o f such arrangement being impossible  var-  In the  i n some d i s t r i c t s ,  plans should be made f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n of separate areas on the same grounds at some d i s t a n c e from one another.  If'this  arrangement i s a l s o i m p o s s i b l e , then the s c h e d u l i n g of a c t i v i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of time should be e f f e c t e d so that these-groups would come i n t o i n f r e q u e n t contact with one another.-  F i n a l l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l " these groups and t h e i r •Nash, op• c i t . , 153.  37 s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be h a n d l e d s e p a r a t e l y , defined  and w i t h  well-  plans.  P l a y g r o u n d and p a r k f u n c t i o n s . - - I n o r d e r t o meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e modern c i t y , p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s combined u n d e r  one b o a r d w i t h two m a i n s u b d i v i s i o n s ;  cerned w i t h the the  laying  other with the The  s h o u l d be  first  out o f . p l a y i n g  one c o n -  f i e l d s and g a r d e n i n g ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t y programs. o f t h e s e two g r o u p s , s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d  o n l y w i t h the b e a u t i f i c a t i o n of areas which w i l l  form a  for  task  the  that  conduct of a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o w i t h the  the playgrounds w i l l  munity. trees,  not  setting  of  seeing  be d e s i r a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n s t o t h e  com-  One b o a r d s h o u l d c o n t r o l t h e p l a n t i n g a n d c a r e , o f boulevards,  and o t h e r  squares,  gardens,  town f o r e s t s ,  s c h o o l grounds  city-owned property.  The and t h e  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s for the p r e - s c h o o l  adult  or community g r o u p , and the  encouragement  child  of a l l  p e o p l e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t o u s e t h e p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s , is  another  duty of the p a r k s b o a r d .  pre-school c h i l d , ped  the needs of  s m a l l areas near park p l o t s  w i t h b e n c h e s where m o t h e r s  ference  To meet  from o t h e r  include sand-boxes,  wading p o o l ,  by  the  fields,  program of the  school authorities;  s m a l l s l i d e s and s w i n g s ;  school-age but,  of the  such  home.  c h i l d w o u l d be o r g a n i z e d  such f a c i l i t i e s  b a s e b a l l diamonds, l a c r o s s e 'Nash', o p . c i t . , 1 5 4 .  inter-  F a c i l i t i e s provided should  equipment would Supplement the p l a y f a c i l i t i e s The  s h o u l d be e q u i p -  o r -nurses may s i t w i t h o u t  a c t i v i t y groups.  the  and h o c k e y  as  football  fields,  38  w h i c h w o u l d be u s e d b y t h e - a d u l t as by the  teams o f t h e  oommunity a s  well  s c h o o l t e a m s , w o u l d be p r o v i d e d on p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d  The a d u l t 'or community g r o u p w o u l d h a v e . i t s p r o g r a m o f activities  o r g a n i z e d by t h e p a r k a n d p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d .  a c t i v i t i e s would c o n s i s t archery, ing,  horse-shoe  of l a w n - b o w l i n g ,  p i t c h i n g , croquet,  s a i l i n g and c a n o e i n g ;  community g r o u p s .  volley-ball,  horseback r i d i n g ,  and t h e s e would i n t e r e s t  The f a c i l i t i e s  o f t e n be u s e d by t h e  tennis,  for  numerous  such d i v e r s i o n s would  P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r  f a m i l y g r o u p b y a r r a n g i n g p i c n i c a n d camp f a c i l i t i e s  parks  boat-  s c h o o l - a g e g r o u p where s a t i s f a c t o r y  r a n g e m e n t s c o u l d be made.  stadiums for l a r g e  Such •  civic  functions.  Finally,  arthe  and  the p l a n n i n g of  s h o u l d i n c l u d e a q u a r i a , - z o o l o g i c a l and b o t a n i c a l gardens  and n a t u r a l p a t h s f o r e x p l o r a t o r y e x p e d i t i o n s . The s c h o o l - a g e g r o u p . — T h e p r o b l e m o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e of  r e c r e a t i o n f o r the  one c o n f r o n t i n g t h e efficient by t h e  school-age c h i l d  i s t o d a y the  program foremost  o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e p l a y g r o u n d movement.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s u c h a p r o g r a m must, be  s c h o o l , but an e f f e c t i v e  The  conducted  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n , p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d only i f the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the  by t h e p u b l i c . Realizing  school i s recognized ,  the need f o r an adequate program o f  recrea-  tion,  o t h e r a g e n c i e s h a v e e n d e a v o r e d t o do s o m e t h i n g t o f i l l  gap.  P r i v a t e organizations, churches,  p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d  b o a r d s and c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s have t a k e n t h e tinue  t o do so u n t i l  the  the  l e a d , and w i l l  s c h o o l i s a u t h o r i z e d t o c a r r y out  conthe  program.  I n . t h e m e a n t i m e , many c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p r o g r a m s  be w o r k e d o u t as t e m p o r a r y m e a s u r e s of r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s ,  under the  combined c o n t r o l  p a r k s boards and p r i v a t e groups  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  schools.  \TOrking  Some c o m m u n i t i e s have  and e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n l y i n g  can  idley  built  while  o t h e r s h a v e been a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n r e c r e a t i o n on a time b a s i s o n l y .  Attendance at the  these grounds  insufficient  to warrant  expenditures  leadership.  T h i s p l a n h a s n o t been a s u c c e s s ,  i s i r r e g u l a r and  f o r equipment  i s confused  outside agencies  attempt to organize h i s play-program,  for  i z e d by t h e p u b l i e  school.  result  the  when a number o f  e q u a l i z a t i o n of play  a l l school-age c h i l d r e n w i l l  and  because  school-age c h i l d  A more s a t i s f a c t o r y  t o some e x t e n t  part-,  opportunities  i f t h i s group  is  organ-  C r i t i c i s m s h a v e been made t h a t  b e s t - o r g a n i z e d playground boards  of the  continent,  the  when t h e y  have n o t w o r k e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , have not  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y reached over ten per  c h i l d r e n I n the  community.  Before  c o n s i d e r i n g the  advantages  c o n s i d e r some o f t h e h a n d i c a p s  c i e s i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s program. l a c k of adequate space places fic  the  grounds* of  the  for a l l the  of h a v i n g the  o f t e n endanger  and no a c c u r a t e  community t h a t  the  the  e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r I n many p l a c e s  there  school-age groups;  agenis.  in  other  main  traf-  a p p r o a c h t o and f r o m t h e  c h e c k can be k e p t u p o n t h e  play-  percentage  i s a c t u a l l y m a k i n g r e g u l a r use o f  'Nash, op. c i t . , 138.  schools  s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d , , one  space a v a i l a b l e i s not p r o p e r l y l o c a t e d ;  avenues  of  1  organize a r e c r e a t i o n a l program for the might  cent  the  40 playground:.  Again,  when c h i l d r e n are i n school most of the  and a program i s provided  f o r them a f t e r s c h o o l hours and  day  on  Saturdays,  only part-time: workers are employed.  U s u a l l y i t Is  impossible  to o b t a i n the s e r v i c e s o f q u a l i f i e d part-time work-  *  e r s j because they are u s i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f o r temporary ployment only. s t r u c t o r s who  em-  Some c i t i e s have had to r e s o r t to employing i n are not t r a i n e d f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  tasks.  Often they are f a m i l i a r with: some p a r t i c u l a r branch of a t h l e t i c s but are not t r a i n e d i n the e f f i c i e n t bers of c h i l d r e n .  i n s t r u c t i o n of l a r g e num-  Summer playgrounds are opened on f u l l  time  but the employment again i s only temporary and the s a l a r y too small t o a t t r a c t competent i n s t r u c t o r s . school and  In many c i t i e s  after-  summer p l a y a c t i v i t i e s have become a mere gesture.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n can hot  but r e t a r d the progress  of -the movement..  Arguments.in favor of the school assuming the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of playground a c t i v i t i e s f o r school-age c h i l d r e n . — A . w r i t e r of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau of Education  says:  I t i s not enough t h a t there be 'playgrounds i n every community.* They must be p a r t of the school equipment. I s o l a t e d playgrounds f o r school c h i l d r e n are m i s f i t . The c h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d by law to be at s c h o o l a l a r g e . p a r t of the year; they are r e q u i r e d by law i n many s t a t e s to have p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; and they p l a y before s c h o o l , at noon, at r e c e s s , and f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r s c h o o l . For these a c t i v i t i e s , playgrounds, equipment and"leadership must be s u p p l i e d . The school must represent s o c i e t y ' s organized o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n to get education through e s s e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s , which can not be organized by the home. A school without a playground program may be an i n t e l l e c t u a l sweatshop; or i t may be an I n t e l l e c t u a l d e l i c a t e s s e n shop; i t can not be a r e a l e d u c a t i o n a l workshop. 1  The prepared ren:  f o l l o w i n g reasons show why  the school i s  adequately  to handle the r e c r e a t i o n a l program of school-age c h i l d -  (1) Milch of the value of p l a y i s e d u c a t i o n a l ; •Nash, op,  c i t . , 138  i t i s nec-  4 1  essary f o r both mental and p h y s i c a l development.  The young, c h i l d  perhaps l e a r n s more and develops b e t t e r through I t s p l a y than through any other form of a c t i v i t y .  ''Our • youth need i n s t r u c -  t i o n i n how to p l a y as much as they do in.-how' to'work." - An1  other w r i t e r In making a p l e a f o r enriched r a t h e r than convent i o n a l play a c t i v i t i e s states! I do not mean that nervously exhausting and dead~ ening d r i l l known as the Swedish Gymnastics which.,- i n the name, of educational' gymnastics, adds f a t i g u e to f a t i g u e by t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e away from the c h i l d and f o r c i n g him t o pay constant and c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o orders of the teacher, that he may execute with prec i s i o n e n t i r e l y u n i n t e r e s t i n g and conventional movements. 2  (2) C h i l d r e n are i n attendance at school the g r e a t e r p a r t of the day, week and year.  They a r e d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s e s  of s u i t a b l e s i z e s as u n i t s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . term t h e i r attendance i s r e g u l a r .  During  the school  To give a l l the c h i l d r e n  it equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p l a y and i n s t r u c t i o n I n play^must be a d e f i n i t e l y organized p a r t of the school program. has at i t s d i s p o s a l p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and data  -The school such as ad-  dresses, phone numbers, age, .weight-, height and the general h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s of the students.  T t has-, contact with .the  parents who a s s i s t the school through the parent-teacher The  c h i l d must attend school;  groups.  t h e r e f o r e . t h e school, should o r -  ganize the c h i l d ' s p l a y so that a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l be reached In the p l a y program, (3) The school already p r o v i d e s f o r a. program-.of • physI p r e s i d e n t C o o l i d g e , "National. Conference on Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n " (New York Sun,: May 22, .1924). ~~~~ — :  E i t z , J , , "Hygiene of I n s t r u c t ion'' (Proceedings N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1898), 648. . 2  of the  42 •'.ibal e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s p r o g r a m i s more and more b e c o m i n g m o t -  i v a t e d by the. p l a y s p i r i t . ucation ment.  O r g a n i z e d p l a y and p h y s i c a l  s h o u l d be c l o s e l y c o - o r d i n a t e d P h y s i c a l education  activities  of. a d u l t  c h i l d h o o d are  under  the  should t r a i n f o r the  life.  one  ed-  depart-  leisure-time  Only the v i t a l p l a y a c t i v i t i e s of  l i k e l y t o be c a r r i e d on i n t o a d u l t  s e q u e n t l y j s u c h a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d  life;  con-  i n the  school  program. (4) reational classes  The s c h o o l h a s  activities.  are  because the  competition,-'-  sequently, achieve  i t may, be a s s e r t e d t h a t i t  o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l the  the  school  As the  i n the  the  school  tournament  Impossible  c h i l d r e n i n the  Conto com-  playground without  s c h o o l has  adequate p l a y  c o u l d be more  s c h o o l day t h a n t h e y a r e  equitably at  school b u i l d i n g i s designed with s p e c i a l reference ji  are  the  The t o t a l number o f a c t i v i t i e s entire  in  organization.  I n most modern c i t i e s  over the  for  school time.  i s almost  a c t i v i t i e s on t h e  distributed  school.  achieved  l e a g u e s and  t o the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r  co-operation, of the  t o be  much m o r e . e a s i l y  munity for r e c r e a t i o n a l  space.  or  of the group p a r t i c i p a t e  s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n of teams,  effective  (5)  these groups  The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n  T h i s can be e f f e c t e d  c a n be a d j u s t e d  periods,  o r c a n be s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o h o u s e s  i n w h i c h , a l l t h e members  activities.  o r teams;  recr-  f o r purposes of c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n the  A g a i n , many s c h o o l s a r e Ihtra-school  o r g a n i z a t i o n to care f o r  During p h y s i c a l education  d i v i d e d i n t o groups  teams form u n i t s  i s one  the  •  -  -i  present. to  -i •  1-There i s no d o u b t t o d a y t h a t i n t r a - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i n t e r - s c h o o l c o m p e t i t i o n s .  43  the number of children to be housed and to the kinds o f ' a c t i v i t i e s that are to be carried on, so the.school grounds are being planned to provide for-the physical education and recreational a c t i v i t i e s of a l l the children.  Space requirements  for games i n elementary and secondary schools are being studied and these areas are being planned accordingly.  Allotments of  play area are being made f o r the age-groups .and the sexes when necessary. (6) Thesehool has the equipment and the storage faci l i t i e s to care for i t .  Modern schools are being equipped with  gymnasia, lockers, showers and dressing rooms.  Older.buildings  have basements, outbuildings or spare rooms which can be con- \ verted for the use of physical education and u t i l i z e d for recreational a c t i v i t i e s .  Many modern elementary schoolgrounds  are being equipped''.with playground apparatus. (7.) The school has continuity of Instruction, maintains a program of a c t i v i t y from year to year. i s planned i n the form of a curriculum.  since.it  The program  In the formal program  of physical education one a c t i v i t y leads on to another;  so  should i t be with the more inclusive program of recreation* Games and a c t i v i t i e s must be suited to the impulses and i n t e r ests of the stages in the c h i l d ' s development.  The school pro-  gram endeavors to meet the challenge of the philosophy and psychology of education, taking into account children's i n dividual differences.  Playground and recreational a c t i v i t i e s  must also f i t into a s c i e n t i f i c -  plan,  (8) The school i s tax-supported;  in many instances  yearly support must be given by the c i v i c finance committee.  ,  44 F o l l o w i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of democratic  education,  sufficient  funds are g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d t o give an adequate program of education t o every  child.  (9) The e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s have l a r g e s t a f f s of te'achers with the t r a i n i n g and experience i n handling c h i l d r e n that i s necessary to playground  workers.  The teachers are  l i k e l y to be more f a m i l i a r with t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s and tendencies of education than temporary playground  directors.  They are t r a i n e d l e s s narrov/ly, and are l e s s l i k e l y to t h i n k of  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a detached  problem.  (10) The teacher*s p e r s o n a l contact with the c h i l d r e n on the playground  i s b e n e f i c i a l t o the students.  Teachers,  i n t e r e s t e d i n the games of the s c h o o l and i n the welfare o f t h e i r homeroom c l a s s e s , encourage the c h i l d r e n by s u p e r v i s i n g t h e i r games a g a i n s t other c l a s s e s . education or the playground  The teacher of p h y s i c a l  d i r e c t o r ; i s able to schedule  i a l games o r a c t i v i t i e s after, s c h o o l hours. sponsor  spec-  The other teachers  or s u p e r v i s e these games on a schedule of about one  afternoon a week each. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the school f o r the, play, of school-age c h i l d r a n . — T h e wider use o f school p r o p e r t y I s a demand o f the people, and r i g h t f u l l y so. give the school-age  I t i s the duty o f the school t o  c h i l d access to the f a c i l i t i e s  a l r e a d y at  hand every hour of d a y l i g h t f o r a l l the days of the year, Sundays and h o l i d a y s i n c l u d e d .  Nash s t a t e s :  Inasmuch as the school has a l r e a d y organized a l l the c h i l d r e n of school-age, and i s equipped with l e a d e r ship and f a c i l i t i e s , "it. should extend i t s f u n c t i o n s to a "365 day program" f o r the school-age child.-'-  45 T h i s contention i s ucational f i e l d .  a l s o supported  Cubberley  by  o t h e r s i n the  ed-  says:  By o r g a n i z i n g p l a y as a p a r t of the r e g u l a r school c u r r i c u l u m , as" i s being done now by many of our. c i t y school systems, and then p r o v i d i n g r e g u l a r p l a y teachers f o r s c h o o l s , the school playground can be u t i l i z e d cons t a n t l y from e i g h t A.M. to s i x P.M. every day, thus prov i d i n g about ten times the p l a y f a c i l i t i e s which can be p r o v i d e d f o r under the m u n i c i p a l playground p l a n , and at l e s s c o s t . 1  The  same.writer:adds: I f d i r e c t e d p l a y Is p r o v i d e d as a r e g u l a r p a r t of the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , as i t should be', the work can be so arranged as to be not only of value i n i t s e l f but a l s o of s e r v i c e i n the g e n e r a l education of the children. 2  /Because of t h e i r l o c a t i o n : i n p o p u l a t i o n Centers,  and  because of their- f a c i l i t i e s , the schools are the n a t u r a l p l a c e s for  the c h i l d r e n to go f o r their, o u t - o f - s c h o o l f r e e p l a y .  Engelhardt  and Englehardt  emphasize t h i s idea by the statement,  that, • I t I s g e n e r a l l y conceded that playgrounds serve the c h i l d r e n and'the community best when a s s o c i a t e d with the school In the center p o p u l a t i o n a r e a s . 3  T r u x a l b e l i e v e s t h a t even now  the school i s the " l a r g e s t  C o n t r i b u t o r " to c h i l d r e n ' s r e c r e a t i o n as shown by h i s statement:  of  I t must not be f o r g o t t e n that f o r the c h i l d r e n of school-age, the school i s the l a r g e s t c o n t r i b u t o r to such c h i l d r e n ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l needs. During the summer of 1928, the .Board of Education of the C i t y o f Hew York con-  In* the O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Playground, A c t i v i t i e s (Doctor's T h e s i s , Hew York U n i v e r s i t y , June, 1929), v o l . I I , 414. C u b b e r l e y , E. P., P u b l i c School A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( r e v i s e d and enlarged e d i t i o n , 1929), Hew York, 568. s  ibid.,  569,  ^Englehardt and Englehardt, Planning School B u i l d i n g Programs (Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930),209.  46 ducted supervised p l a y on 381 playgrounds, as compared with 94 conducted by the other governmental agencies combined.-'I t has been contended that c h i l d r e n do not d e s i r e to p l a y on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y a f t e r s c h o o l hours because, of the s t r i c t c i p l i n e , or because they have been there a l l day. study of s c h o o l playground  Nash, i n h i s  administration i n thirteen  t a t i v e American c i t i e s , has disproved t h i s t h e o r y ,  dis-  2  represenIn t h i s  study 14,014 c h i l d r e n answered a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which he sent out.  Of t h i s number, t h i r t y per cent p r e f e r r e d the school p l a y -  ground because of the freedom from unnecessary r e s t r i c t i o n s , four p e r cent p r e f e r r e d the park because they had been at school a l l day, eighteen per cent d i s l i k e d the park because there were so few there to p l a y with, while t h i r t y - n i n e p e r cent had no p r e f e r e n c e , as long as there was a c t i v i t y . A l i k e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made concerning the preference of mothers f o r l o c a t i o n of playgrounds. made by Nash through the parent-teacher  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was associations.3  Fifty-  two per cent p r e f e r r e d s c h o o l playgrounds because they were c l e a n e r , twenty-seven p e r cent p r e f e r r e d s c h o o l playgrounds because they knew with whom t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p l a y i n g , and seventeen per cent had no preference good s u p e r v i s i o n .  as t o p l a c e as long as there was  There were no mothers o b j e c t i n g to the school  discipline. The  o p i n i o n of s c h o o l superintendents  c o n t r o l of a l l year-round cured by N a s h .  4  concerning the  playgrounds by the schools was pro-  From f i f t y l e t t e r s sent t o s c h o o l  superintendents  •--TruxaT, A. G-. , Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t i v e n e s s (Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929), 62. • Nash, Governmental Powers, op. c i t . , 295. i b i d . , 296. i b i d . , 298. 2  5  4  47 t h i r t y - f i v e r e t u r n e d answers, w i t h - ' t h i r t y - f o u r i n f a v o r o f the year-round  program i n c o n t r o l of the s c h o o l s , while one was  not i h f a v o r o f such c o n t r o l . I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t there should be l e g a l support f o r the use of s c h o o l p r o p e r t i e s and school funds In m a i n t a i n i n g a-program o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r o u t - o f - s c h o o l hours as w e l l as i n - s c h o o l hours. C i t i e s t h a t are .adopting, the l a t t e r p o l i c y ' . - - I n Chicago, the 1  Bureau of R e c r e a t i o n under the Board o f Education p l a y program f o r school-age grounds.  i s giving a  c h i l d r e n on two hundred school p l a y -  The school a u t h o r i t i e s p l a n t o open every  ground o f the c i t y as a playground.-  school  Besides the s c h o o l p l a y -  grounds , there are many park and m u n i c i p a l playground ments.  depart-  '•.'•• In Los Angeles,  playground  the Board of E d u c a t i o n i s p r o v i d i n g a  program f o r the s c h o o l children.-on''two  six. s c h o o l playgrounds. are operated  hundred and  One hundred/.and f i v e s c h o o l playgrounds  the year round, and one hundred and one are oper-  ated d u r i n g the school term o n l y .  The school a u t h o r i t i e s em-  p l o y three hundred a r i d ' t h i r t y - t h r e e - p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s and the C i t y Department of R e c r e a t i o n employs three hundred and s i x t y d i r e c t o r s with two hundred v o l u n t e e r s . In Oakland, every school ground throughout the c i t y i s a playground.  Sixty-two. playgrounds have d i r e c t o r s throughout  the year while s i x o f them have d i r e c t o r s during the school year only..  The f u l l  s t a f f c o n s i s t s of two hundred and f o r t y - t h r e e  •Recreation, Year Book. Number (May 1934), 66-95*  48  directors are  and f o r t y - f o u r  volunteer  open b e f o r e and a f t e r  days and d u r i n g  school, at  of recreational  o t h e r c i t y on t h e satisfactorily  school authorities  on h o l i -  continent.  w i t h the  have o r g a n i z e d  a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i s not  equalled  The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s  library,  p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l organized  the board  in this  by a n y  co-operate  Certain activities city.  are  A s p e e i a l program  schools  are  organizing playground  They s h o u l d ,  a n d some a c t u a l l y d o , assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the year-round  program.  i n hundredsof  However,  f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l  equipment,  or which are  and r e c r e a t i o n  cities  on t h e  and  activities  golf  of  foreign-born  recreational  of  the  city.  Progressive  ities  a  of p u b l i c works,  i s a r r a n g e d f o r the newsboys a n d the  y o u t h o f the  playgrounds  r e c e s s and noons,  p a r k c o m m i s s i o n and o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  activities  The  vacations.  I n M i l w a u k e e , the program  assistants.  continent.  they can not p r o v i d e  for facil-  a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h demand a g r e a t adult  activities  for i n d u s t r i a l workers.  such as  deal  camping,  Facilities  for  t h e s e s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d b y t h e p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d  board.  The w i d e r u s e  accomplish-  ment o f t h e the  of the  recreational  school plant.  The s u c c e s s f u l  p r o g r a m depends u p o n t h e w i d e r u s e  of  The i d e a t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t o u g h t  t o assume some o f t h e for  school p l a n t . - -  responsibility  o r g a n i z i n g and d i r e c t i n g the  of providing  facilities  spare-time a c t i v i t i e s  of  its  c i t i z e n s b o t h young and o l d has w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s been i n c r e a s i n g l y emphasized. great extent,  the  The s c h o o l h o u s e has become,  c e n t e r o f t h e s e a c t i v i t e s . l The u s e  Much c a n be l e a r n e d  from the  history of.the  to of  a the  community  49  s c h o o l " b u i l d i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s means m u n i c i p a l economy.  1  By a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l expenditure  s c h o o l s c a n he a d a p t e d ones.  f o r other uses than p u r e l y  a r i s i n g from the use o f t h e  recreation.—  The g r e a t d a n g e r  indoor playground center children.  academic  the b u i l d i n g ,  By a s e r i e s  the  for  i n u s i n g the s c h o o l h o u s e as  an the  so b u i l t t h a t c h i l d r e n c a n move once t h e y a r e g i v e n f r e e  of gates c e r t a i n sections  i n g c o u l d be c l o s e d o f f so t h a t t h e d i r e c t l y to  school plant  i s the misuse o f the b u i l d i n g by  Most s c h o o l s a r e  f r e e l y about  If  the  2  Difficulties  it.  o f money  o f the  access  to  school b u i l d -  c h i l d r e n w o u l d be l e d  the basement o r p l a y r o o m s r e s e r v e d  for their  l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s are maintained during the  t h e r e s t o f t h e b u i l d i n g c o u l d be s a f e g u a r d e d  use.  summer  months  by g a t e s .  The u s e o f a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i n t h i s way w i l l n o t  inter-  f e r e w i t h the a n n u a l c l e a n i n g and r e p a i r i n g o f s c h o o l p r o p e r t y w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y done d u r i n g t h e  summer v a c a t i o n m o n t h s .  i n d o o r a c t i v i t i e s m i g h t be d i s c o n t i n u e d d u r i n g t h e t h e v a c a t i o n so a s t o g i v e t h e  The  l a s t week o f  j a n i t o r t i m e t o c l e a n up  the  rooms u s e d f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s * Few t e a c h e r s l o o k w i t h f a v o r u p o n h a v i n g t h e i r  rooms  c e n t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n C h i c a g o . Twenty y e a r s ago t h e c i t i z e n s o f Chicago asked the board o f e d u c a t i o n for the use o f the schools f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . , I t s r e q u e s t was r e f u s e d . Approxim a t e l y § 8 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 has b e e n s p e n t s i n c e t h e n i n e r e c t i n g s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s f o r s u c h u s e s , i n the form of c o s t l y f i e l d houses and b a t h h o u s e s . A few y e a r s ago t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e West P a r k C o m m i s s i o n s a i d , i n h i s annual address, that the p o l i c y of p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n b u i l d i n g s i n C h i c a g o s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d , and t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e s c h o o l s v / o u l d be a n e c o n o m i c a l m o v e . 1  B e r g , H . O . , The S c h o o l a s t h e P e o p l e s . C l u b h o u s e of E d u c a t i o n , Washington, D . C.) pamphlet, 1925, 1. 2  (Bureau  used a f t e r  school hours, p a r t i c u l a r l y for r e c r e a t i o n a l  The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s s u b j e c t use,  duct  t o c e r t a i n annoyances by such  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c e r t a i n afternoon a c t i v i t i e s .  boards are  School  i n v i t i n g b o t h t r o u b l e and f a i l u r e i n t r y i n g t o c o n -  these a c t i v i t i e s i n a r e g u l a r  d a n g e r s to t h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s appearance and atmosphere  classroom. of the  Besides  the  room, the v e r y s c h o o l  o f t h e room s p e l l f a i l u r e .  If  basement, gymnasium, o r s p e c i a l playrooms a r e u s e d f o r activities,  purposes.  the  these  a much more s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d s u c c e s s f u l community  c e n t e r p r o g r a m c a n be  effected.  P l a n n i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s f o r maximum r e c r e a t i o n a l  benefits.^--  New s c h o o l s c a n a n d o u g h t t o be p l a n n e d so t h a t t h e  activities  of the  r e c r e a t i o n a l program w i l l  academic a c t i v i t i e s .  not s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e  Many o l d s c h o o l s c a n , a t a s m a l l  be a l t e r e d s o a s t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s r e c r e a t i o n a l programs.  A s one w r i t e r  with. cost,  f o r b o t h academic and states:  The A m e r i c a n p e o p l e a r e no l o n g e r s a t i s f i e d f o r t h e i r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , e r e c t e d u s u a l l y a t h e a v y c o s t , t o be u s e d o n l y f o r day c l a s s e s i n o r d i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n , such l o s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s not t o be endured w i t h complacency. Furthermore, idleness during six-sevenths o f the hours o f the y e a r i s c o n t r a r y to the p r i n c i p l e o f t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f p l a n t , a n d i t means w a s t e o f i n vestment t h a t i s abhorrent to a n a t i o n which p r i d e s i t s e l f upon i t s b u s i n e s s sense. The p a s t q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y has b e e n , t h e r e f o r e , w i d e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e use o f s c h o o l h o u s e s f o r s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and community p u r p o s e s . Thirty-two states have d e f i n i t e l y p r o v i d e d b y l a w f o r s u c h u s e , a n d i n t h e other s t a t e s s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s p e r m i t i t under t h e i r g e n e r a l powers and c u s t o d i a n s . G e o r g e D. S t r a y e r , College,  Professor of Education at  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , lee,  op. c i t . .  b e l i e v e s t h a t when t h e  142-143.  Teachers school  51  b u i l d i n g s a r e " b u i l t t h e y s h o u l d be p l a n n e d a c c o r d i n g t o community's r e c r e a t i o n a l  the  needs.  S c h o o l b u i l d i n g s s h o u l d be p l a n n e d n o t o n l y f o r c h i l d r e n t o u s e d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s b u t a l s o f o r t h e community t o u s e a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s and d u r i n g v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s . R e c r e a t i o n i s now r e c o g n i z e d as a n e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t i n t h e m o d e r n p r o g r a m o f e d u c a t i o n , a n d s c h o o l h o u s e s no l o n g e r c o n s i s t s o l e l y o f a group o f r e c i t a t i o n rooms. W e l l - p l a n n e d b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d e gymnasiums, a u d i t o r i u m s , shops, l i b r a r i e s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , and music rooms. Y e t u n l e s s t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t h e community a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , a b u i l d i n g w h i c h may p r o v e a c c e p t a b l e t o a s c h o o l may be f o u n d u n s u i t e d t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e l a r g e r groups. I n p l a n n i n g s c h o o l h o u s e s f o r community u s e , t h e l o c a t i o n a n d s i z e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , t h e amount o f p l a y g r o u n d s p a c e , t h e arrangement o f t h e gymnasium, t h e need f o r p r o v i s i o n s f o r d r a m a t i c and m u s i c a l w o r k , and the p o s r s i b i l i t y o f p u b l i c use o f t h e l i b r a r y and r e a d i n g - r o o m s * a n d a l s o o f t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s a n d s h o p s j s h o u l d be c o n s i d ered. B a s e m e n t rooms a n d c o r r i d o r s c a n b e made more by p a i n t i n g the electricity  f l o o r s , whitewashing the w a l l s ,  and p l a c i n g s h a d e s a n d c u r t a i n s  A r e a s i n t h e b a s e m e n t c a n be s e t liard  rooms.  who p r e f e r  aside  lighting  with  on t h e windows.  f o r clubrooms and  The g y m n a s i u m c a n be u s e d f o r g a m e s .  to w r e s t l e , box,  inviting  bil-  F o r boys  f e n c e a n d do a p p a r a t u s w o r k ,  a  s p e c i a l a t h l e t i c room c a n be u s e d f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . I n many s c h o o l s t h e most e x p e n s i v e room a n d t h e u s e d room i s t h e a u d i t o r i u m . floor  A slanting floor,  i n an a u d i t o r i u m w i t h fastened-down  uses of t h i s tainments.  seats,  o r even a limits  e x p a n s i v e room l a r g e l y t o one a c t i v i t y — I f the  floor  i s l e v e l w i t h movable s e a t s ,  a u d i t o r i u m may be u s e d f o r d a n c i n g , b a n q u e t s ,  least level  the enter-  the  and n e i g h b o r h o o d  S t r a y e r , G . D . , P l a n n i n g the S c h o o l P l a n t i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e R e c r e a t i o n a l Reeds o f t h e C o m m u n i t y ( A m e r i c a n S c h o o l a n d U n i v e r s i t y , 1930- 31), 152-157, . T  52  parties floors  of a l l sorts.  I f the s t a g e i s h i g h enough,  are not necessary,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the a u d i t o r i u m i s  only o c c a s i o n a l l y used f o r What o t h e r  slanting  dramatics.  c i t i e s a r e d o i n g - I n 1858 t h e r e was l e g i s l a t i v e  a c t i o n f o r a wide use o f the  school plant  i n Indiana.  Since  t h a t t i m e t h e r e h a s "been a g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y f o r a g r e a t e r of p u h l i c school f a c i l i t i e s .  use  T h e r e f o l l o w e d s u c h a c t s as  the  M a s s a c h u s e t t s A c t o f 1 8 9 3 , t h e New Y o r k C i t y p r o v i s i o n f o r  the  establishment California  o f v a c a t i o n s c h o o l s i n 1899, the E n a b l i n g A c t o f  i n 1913, which e s t a b l i s h e d a c i v i c  every p u b l i c s c h o o l house,  center  at  e a c h and  and t h e b r o a d a n d i n c l u s i v e s c h o o l  code o f M i c h i g a n i n 1 9 2 7 . Davis sent out q u e s t i o n n a r i e s dents of the  t o . 215 s c h o o l  l a r g e r c i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  1  superinten-  From t h e  res-  p o n s e s was d e t e r m i n e d t h e number o f c i t i e s u s i n g s c h o o l p r o p e r t y . T a b l e s s h o w i n g t h e a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n were c o m p i l e d . shows t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p e r a t i n g  Table  agencies.  III  2  Some o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s f o r m e d b y D a v i s and b a s e d o n the m a t e r i a l presented  i n h i s study  are:  School p r o p e r t y i s used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes i n m o s t o f t h e c i t i e s i n a l l b u t one o f t h e s t a t e s s t u d i e d , w h i l e t h e r e a r e o n l y t h i r t e e n s t a t e s w h i c h have s p e c i a l e n a b l i n g a c t s o r s c h o o l codes t o l e g a l i z e the use o f school property. S c h o o l p r o p e r t y i s used by the c h i l d r e n f o r o u t - o f school^hour playgrounds because i t i s c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d , and most u s u a l p l a c e o f the c h i l d t o p l a y . S c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s are n o t w a i t i n g f o r l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s to l e g a l i z e t h e i r a c t i o n s i n p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the community. 3  53 TABLE  III  USE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY I N SELECTED C I T I E S  Number of C i t i e s  Agencies C i t i e s operating playgrounds not school property C i t i e s operating playgrounds school property  Total  using . .. 23  using 94  C i t i e s i n w h i c h an arm o f the m u n i c i p a l government and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e o p e r a t i n g p a r a l l e l programs —the c i t y not u s i n g school property  4 121  Conclusion;-— I t  is essential  t h a t the  school should provide  playground program f o r the c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l age. are a v a i l a b l e the p l a n t , has b e e n s e t  the  c h i l d r e n and the  a s i d e by the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s .  A t the  teachers,  c i t y d u p l i c a t e t h e s e s e r v i c e s b y s e t t i n g up more p l a n t s , s u p p l i e s and equipment?  The s c h o o l b o a r d s h o u l d  time  the more  T h e r e i s no n e e d f o r two s e p a r a t e  t o s e t up i d e n t i c a l f a c i l i t i e s .  school  and  Why s h o u l d  the  boards  organize  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s and the p a r k s b o a r d s h o u l d a s s i s t  by p r o v i d i n g  areas wherever the  Mr. Charles H .  s c h o o l grounds are  inadequate.  Cheney v / r i t e s : The s c h o o l i s t h e n a t u r a l c e n t e r f o r p l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , and more o f them a r e a t t r a c t e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y i f i t i s p r o v i d e d r e a d y a t hand a t t h e s c h o o l t h e y oome o u t o f . Many c i t i e s o f t h e c o u n t r y have now f o u n d t h a t they cannot a f f o r d a double system o f p u r c h a s i n g b o t h s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s i n t h e same n e i g h b o r h o o d . They have t h e r e f o r e a d o p t e d the p o l i c y o f u s i n g s c h o o l grounds for supervised m u n i c i p a l playgrounds outside of school hours, as f a r a s p o s s i b l e , and d i r e c t e d t h a t a l l new p u r c h a s e s o f l a n d s f o r p l a y g r o u n d s be made a d j o i n i n g e x i s t i n g s c h o o l grounds.+ Nash,  op. c i t . ,  124.  54 CHAPTER V THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N REPRESENTATIVE In  larger  c i t i e s t h e r e have c u s t o m a r i l y "been a number  of bodies concerned w i t h the recreational f a c i l i t i e s . is  CITIES  o r g a n i z a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c i t y  u s u a l l y c a r r i e d on b y p a r k s b o a r d s ,  and r e c r e a t i o n  school boards,  I n a few c o m m u n i t i e s t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d -  m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m has t h e hands o f one a g e n c y ; the  activities  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the o f the  c i t y under  differences  department board,  tendency  community r e c r e a t i o n a l  On t h e w h o l e t h e r e have b e e n , ' to the p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l  w h i c h s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h i s work—the  school  the p a r k s board or a r e c r e a t i o n commission. i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s — The A m e r i c a n 1  and C a n a d i a n c i t i e s w h i c h r e p o r t e d as  in  one a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d y s u p p l i e d  o f o p i n i o n as  Administrative authorities  are  f o r y e a r s been  and t h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e  w i t h adequate m u n i c i p a l funds. however,  playground  c o m m i s s i o n s and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d  private agencies.  towards  recreation  i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I V . A c c o r d i n g to the r e p o r t  i n most o f t h e  recreational  s e r v i c e i n 1934  2  of Table IV, school  c i t i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada have p r o -  v i d e d a major p a r t o f the program of r e c r e a t i o n a l w i t h the  authorities  recreation  activities,  c o m m i s s i o n s r a n k i n g s e c o n d and t h e  park  "^The most a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s has b e e n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e R e c r e a t i o n Year Book. 2  i n f r a , 55,,  55  commissions various  third.  The e x t e n t o f t h e  c i t y departments i s not  co-operation  between  the  shown.  TABLE I V ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITIES FOR MUNICIPAL RECREATION  Managing A u t h o r i t y Playground ana.Recreation Commissions, Boards and Departments Park Commissions, Boards, D e p a r t m e n t s , and Committees Boards o f E d u c a t i o n and Other School A u t h o r i t i e s Mayors, City. C o u n c i l s , C i t y M a n a g e r s , and B o r o u g h Authorities M u n i c i p a l P l a y g r o u n d Comm i t t e e s , A s s o c i a t i o n s j and Advisory Commissions P a r k a n d R e c r e a t i o n Commissions! B o a r d s and D e p a r t m e n t s D e p a r t m e n t s o f P u b l i c Works Departments o f P a r k s and Publ i c P r o p e r t y or B u i l d i n g s Departments o f P u b l i c Welfare Swimming P o o l a n d B a t h Commissions S o l f Commissions Departments of P u b l i c S e r v i c e Forest Reserve D i s t r i c t s Other Departments Emergency R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a tions 1  Chicago,  I l l i n o i s , has  Regular Service  Number o f C i t i e s Emergency TbTaT S e r v i c e Only  210  17  227  209  9  218  190 103 34  38  31 20  £ 1  33 21  14 10  13  14 23  5 4 3 3 18  4  5 4 3 3 22  22  218  240  of p a r k ,  playground  a variety  f i v e major m u n i c i p a l departments f o r  playgrounds  and p a r k s b o a r d  119  16  and s c h o o l b o a r d s c a r r y i n g on s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . are  347  157:  facilities..  the  First,  operation  Secondly,  of  there  there the are  These authorities administer recreational facilities and p r o g r a m s f i n a n c e d b y m u n i c i p a l f u n d s a l t h o u g h i n some o f the c i t i e s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t they are not m u n i c i p a l l y appointed. Many o f t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s f u n c t i o n v e r y much as R e c r e a t i o n B o a r d s , and C o m m i s s i o n s . 1  56  about s i x t e e n minor m u n i c i p a l departments o p e r a t i n g parks playgrounds.  Thirdly,  playgrounds.  As y e t  the board o f e d u c a t i o n operates i t s  but,  e v e r y day o f t h e y e a r , continue a large part  when e v e r y s c h o o l y a r d i s  the  of the  Michigan,  c h i l d r e n ' s playground  has  recreation. parks  a commissioner of r e c r e a t i o n  He i s r e s p o n s i b l e  He c o n d u c t s  f o r the  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h them.  supervision, o f commercial  a c t i v i t i e s i n school buildings,  and on s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s ,  receiving f u l l  Unfortunately,  r e c r e a t i o n board to a d v i s e him, and, times  t o undue p o l i t i c a l  b u t h a v i n g no the  definite  c o m m i s s i o n e r has  furthermore,  influences.  the p l a y g r o u n d  in  co-operation  Again,  he i s  subject  school with  activities.  Evanston,  Illinois,  has a n i d e a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  plan.  T h e r e t h e p a r k a n d p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n i f i e d , and r e c r e a t i o n bureau works under c o u n c i l . . T h i s c o m m i t t e e has  the p a r k committee full  t i o n w i t h the board o f e d u c a t i o n .  los  schools summer  offer  of the  c o n t r o l centered  m i t s no o v e r l a p p i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , and e f f e c t s  and i n t h e  no  t h e r e i s no c o -  o r d i n a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program o f the  program the  as  T h i s commissioner o f  and l i c e n s i n g o f c e r t a i n v a r i e t i e s  f r o m t h e p a r k and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s  at  activities.  who i s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e m a y o r , p o s s e s s e s w i d e a d -  m i n i s t r a t i v e powers. inspection,  operated  o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s may d i s -  w e l l as a p a r k s , b o a r d and g c h o o l b o a r d . recreation,  own  t h e r e i s l i t t l e d u p l i c a t i o n i n the work o f  these organizations,  Detroit,  or  city  in it,  a fine  I n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r  a program d u r i n g a f t e r - s c h o o l  the  per-  co-operaregular hours  time.  Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a ,  has  t h r e e major boards w h i c h  57  p r o v i d e programs  o f p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  parks hoard c a r r i e s  on many c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s and p r o v i d e s  a wide range o f a d u l t  f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as g o l f  a r e a s and camp s i t e s . grounds  courses,  picnic  The s c h o o l h o a r d u t i l i z e s two h u n d r e d  to p r o v i d e a f i n e program of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  p l a y g r o u n d , a c t i v i t i e s on a f t e r n o o n s , tions.  Saturdays  L a t e r when e v e r y s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d i s  throughout  the y e a r ,  no o t h e r h o a r d w i l l  ren's play a c t i v i t i e s . grounds,  and  and d u r i n g v a c a operated  e v e r y day  n e e d t o c a r r y on  child-  The p l a y g r o u n d h o a r d o p e r a t e s p l a y -  swimming p o o l s and summer camps f o r a d u l t s .  a t e l y , -these three hoards .programs.  The  have n o t a d e q u a t e l y  co-ordinated  I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y two o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l  these a c t i v i t i e s i n the  future;  the  Unfortun-  carry  school concerning  their out  itself  w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , and a p a r k a n d p l a y g r o u n d o r g a n i z a tion attending San  to the  adult  community g r o u p s .  Diego> C a l i f o r n i a ,  i  has a r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d w o r k i n g  under a j o i n t agreement o f the board of e d u c a t i o n ,  the board of  p l a y g r o u n d c o m m i s s i o n e r s , and a p r i v a t e g r o u p c a l l e d t h e munity S e r v i c e C o u n c i l . ated, all  s i n c e the  boards.  two b o a r d s  central  An e x t r a c t illustrates  Oakland,  A l l the group a c t i v i t i e s are executive organizes  the  Com-  co-ordin-  a c t i v i t i e s of  from the w r i t t e n agreement between the  plan.  California,  the  1  and c e r t a i n o t h e r  c i t i e s have  m o s t a d m i r a b l e p l a n , w h e r e b y t h e y have e f f e c t e d  a close  a  co-  o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n and t h e b o a r d o f p l a y ground d i r e c t o r s .  One man i s a p p o i n t e d  to h o l d the p o s i t i o n o f  d i r e c t o r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t infra,  182„  of  recreation.  58 Every school yard i s ganized classes  operated  as a p u h l i c p l a y g r o u n d where  i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are  c a r r i e d on d u r i n g  s c h o o l hours and p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s a r e school*  Eor educational dramatics  playground,  The c o s t e q u a l l y between  the  tion board.  The c o n t r o l o f t h e  superintendent  duties  operated  extensive  and p l a y s .  school playgrounds  s c h o o l h o a r d and t h e  .  s c h o o l and m u n i c i p a l  for festivals  o f o p e r a t i n g the  The m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d s a r e  the  on t h e  c a r r i e d on a f t e r  t h e m u n i c i p a l h o a r d o f r e c r e a t i o n has made  p r o v i s i o n i n c l u d i n g equipment  or-  is  divided  city recreation  e n t i r e l y by the  hoard.  recrea-  executive o f f i c e r ' s h i f t s  from  o f s c h o o l s t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , as  t a k e h i m f r o m t h e p r o p e r t y o f one t o t h e p r o p e r t y  his of  the  other. There i s c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n between and t h e b o a r d o f e d u c a t i o n , organization. ganizations  co-operate  employees  recreation  and community o r ^  w i t h the board o f r e c r e a t i o n t h e m u n i c i p a l camp.  in providing  Recreation for i n -  i s c a r r i e d on as a p h a s e o f t h e w o r k o f  r e c r e a t i o n board w i t h a f u l l - t i m e organizer  i n charge.  p r o v i s i o n s f o r p l a y , p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f home p l a y g r o u n d s ,  reels  the  Home and  d a n g e r s o f s t r e e t p l a y a r e w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d b y means o f tures,  board  t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n i n  Various governmental agencies  f o r s u c h f a c i l i t i e s as dustrial  but  the  the  pic-  and b u l l e t i n s .  I n speaking o f the  Oakland Go-operation P l a n at  the  A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n A s s o c i a t i o n o f P a r k Comm i s s i o n e r s and S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ,  M r . C h a r l e s H . Cheney, o f  American C i t y Planning I n s t i t u t e , 1  i n f r a , 183  made t h e  following  the  statement:  1  59  The b e s t r e s u l t s i n o r g a n i z e d p l a y , t h e h a n d l i n g o f p l a y g r o u n d s a n d o f b o t h j u v e n i l e and a d u l t r e c r e a t i o n a r e o b t a i n e d where a l l r e c r e a t i o n i s i n t h e hands o f a s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n commission which f u r n i s h e s o n l y the i n s t r u c t o r s and s p e c i a l p l a y equipment and l e a s e s from the p a r k s b o a r d and s c h o o l b o a r d , the p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s n e c e s s a r y to s e r v e the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the c i t y w i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e d u p l i c a t i o n and w a s t e . O a k l a n d seems t o h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h e most c o m p l e t e s y s t e m o f t h e c o u n t r y , g i v i n g t h e l a r g e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a y t o t h e w i d e s t number o f c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s p e r p o p u l a t i o n , at the l o w e s t comparative c o s t , b o t h i n o r i g i n a l o u t l a y and i n m a i n t e n a n c e . 1  The b o a r d o f r e c r e a t i o n . - - R e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s and members t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n have s t u d i e d t h e and a r e  i n g e n e r a l agreement t h a t : :  situation,  (1) some p h a s e s o f  t i o n may be a d m i n i s t e r e d b y c i v i c p a r k s b o a r d s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e s c h o o l b o a r d s ;  but  (.2) i t  recrea-  other is  phases  advisable  to have a s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e to  c a r r y on t h e w i d e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s and t o a c h i e v e  c o - o p e r a t i o n between the ities. tinct is,  Furthermore, tendency  the  s c h o o l and p a r k s b o a r d s  this association finds  toward the  that  body close  i n these  activ-  there i s a  separate r e c r e a t i o n board  of  dis-  plan--that  c r e a t i o n o f a b o a r d composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g a n  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m who w i l l have  j u r i s d i c t i o n over a great v a r i e t y of  activities.  T h i s board w i l l use  p a r k s b o a r d , by the or  f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by  own u s e  These f a c i l i t i e s w i l l  avail  itself  be u t i l i z e d  function. op. c i t . ,  of special  or loaned to i t by p r i v a t e  124.  equipment  groups.  i n conformity with a city-wide  p l a n designed w i t h s p e c i a l reference  Nash,  the  s c h o o l b o a r d o r by any o t h e r m u n i c i p a l b o a r d  department, and a l s o w i l l  secured for i t s  recreational  to the  recreational  60  Advantages of a r e c r e a t i o n board over other  city  depart-  ments a s t h e r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e as  follows  (1) A r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d p r o v i d e s a c o - o r d i n a t i n g b o d y upon w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  may be s e c u r e d b y a l l g r o u p s  p r o p e r t y must be u s e d i n t h e t i o n a l system.  o p e r a t i o n o f an e f f i c i e n t  The a p p o i n t m e n t  and p a r k s boards  of representatives  such c o - o p e r a t i o n .  the  departments o f the  c i t y may be u t i l i z e d  r e a d y l o a d e d w i t h w o r k and f i n d interests (3) the  adequate  difficult  is easier  for recreation  c o n s i d e r e d on i t s  to secure  an adequate a p p r o p r i a t i o n of is  commission, appointed for  the  responsible.  the  superintendent  interests  are  l i k e l y t o be  kept  community i f a s e p a r a t e b o a r d w i t h of recreation i s at  ( 7 ) The p r o b l e m s o f r e c r e a t i o n l y e x t e n s i v e and v a r i e d t o r e q u i r e  the  work.  i n a c i t y are  sufficient-  individual attention  p o s s i b l e m u n i c i p a l b o a r d u t i l i z i n g a l l the  and e n e r g y w h i c h members o f a n u n p a i d b o a r d c a n g i v e . intendent  with  own m e r i t s .  more p e r m a n e n t l y b e f o r e  strongest  itself  i f the q u e s t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t i o n  ( 6 ) The r e c r e a t i o n a l  an e f f i c i e n t  recreation-  o f s t u d y i n g and m e e t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s c a n more  r e a d i l y be h e l d  the  to g i v e  groups.  (5) A s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n s o l e purpose  are u s u a l l y a l -  attention.  o f a l l age  (4) I t funds  it  of a l l  effectively.  A c i t y r e c r e a t i o n a l program concerns  interests  machinery  I n t h i s manner a l l t h e r e s o u r c e s  (2) B o a r d s a p p o i n t e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s  al  recrea-  of school  to the r e c r e a t i o n board p r o v i d e s the  for  whose  of recreation  i n a c i t y needs the  of  time  The  hearty support  superof  s u c h a group o f p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , a b l e to g i v e attention  to a l l the  intricate  and v i t a l p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n a  comprehensive m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  system.  The p a r k s b o a r d , - - ? A few r e a s o n s f o r n o t p l a c i n g under the d i r e c t sidered:  careful  recreation  c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r k s b o a r d m i g h t a l s o be c o n -  (1) The w o r k o f t h e p a r k s b o a r d i n v o l v e s so w i d e a  1  variety of functions, and r e c r e a t i o n a l v a r i o u s types  s u c h as t h e  facilities,  construction of roads,  maintenance  of p r o p e r t i e s ,  of street trees  a c q u i s i t i o n of areas,  z o o l o g i c a l g a r d e n s and s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s , t e n t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be g i v e n t o t h e  parks and  operation of  that only minor  question of  at-  recreational  leadership, (2) B a r k s boards u s u a l l y are perties  under t h e i r  activities  (3)  concerned o n l y w i t h p r o -  c o n t r o l and a r e n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o  among p r i v a t e  agencies  a n d s c h o o l s remote  f o r the  tional activities.  hand,  On t h e  adequate i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s :  other  buildings result,  conducting of  few p a r k s b o a r d s  consequently,  indoor program i s c a r r i e d on; i n o t h e r s ,  less  from p a r k  O n l y i n a v e r y few c i t i e s have s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s  been turned over to parks boards  groups.  promote  have  i n some c e n t e r s no costly duplication of  o r t h e p r o g r a m i s c o n d u c t e d b y two o r more  E x p e r i e n c e tends to i n d i c a t e t h a t s c h o o l boards  likely  recrea-  to t u r n over t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s  r e c r e a t i o n a l uses than to an independent u p o n w h i c h t h e y p r o b a b l y have  are  to a parks board  for  r e c r e a t i o n commission  representation.  "''It s h o u l d be s t a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t r e c e n t changes i n p o l i c y of.many p a r k s boards i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r e c r e a t i o n tend t o m i n i m i z e t h e f o r c e o f some o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s .  62  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e people  themselves  o f o p i n i o n among p a r k  -as t o w h e t h e r a s u c c e s s f u l p l a y g r o u n d a n d a  " s u c c e s s f u l p a r k c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g e t h e r . s i b l e t h a t any p a r k s board can s a t i s f y recreational policy, of every child."" * 1  the  It  i s not  f i r s t axiom o f sound  n a m e l y - - " A p l a y g r o u n d w i t h i n easy  It  b o a r d t o be i n t e r e s t e d  pos-  reach  i s a l m o s t t o o much t o e x p e c t a p a r k s i n problems o f c h i l d r e n ' s  activities  w h i l e t h e y a r e b u r d e n e d w i t h so many p r o b l e m s o f g a r d e n i n g boulevard  and  building.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e boards  for recreation.--  ''What b o a r d s  s h a l l or-  g a n i z e t h e p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ? ' ' i s t h e subject  f o r d i s c u s s i o n a t most o f t h e p l a y g r o u n d and p a r k c o n -  ventions.  P a r k s i n many c i t i e s a r e  f o r v a r i o u s age g r o u p s tions  o r g a n i z i n g these  o f the c i t y p o p u l a t i o n .  activities  The new c o n c e p -  o f t h e v a l u e o f p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s have l e d t h e  t o make s e p a r a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e child,  the  school-age  a c t i v i t i e s of the  c h i l d and t h e a d u l t  M u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n boards  o r community g r o i x p .  and s c h o o l b o a r d s  show d u p l i c a t i o n  a r e p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f age g r o u p s , sometimes  on s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d s ,  and sometimes  on b o t h .  sometimes They a r e  summer.camps.  I n numerous  schools are  ities  on t h e i r  school,  cities,  own p l a y g r o u n d s  lee,  op c i t . ,  143.  operating  on m u n i c i p a l p l a y -  i n community  centers,  o r g a n i z i n g these a c t i v -  d u r i n g s c h o o l hours  on h o l i d a y s and t h r o u g h o u t  They  c a r r y i n g out a b r o a d  program o f a c t i v i t i e s i n s c h o o l gymnasiums, i n i n d u s t r i a l u n i t s and i n  people  pre-school  o r o v e r l a p p i n g o f f u n c t i o n i n a l a r g e number o f c i t i e s .  grounds  chief  or  after  the v a c a t i o n p e r i o d s .  In  63  some c i t i e s , w i t h t h e the  schools are  other  cities,  support  of the p a r e n t - t e a c h e r  g i v i n g a program f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ,  the  schools are  a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s .  A t some s c h o o l s ,  with  the p h y s i c a l ed-  numerous p l a y  opportunities  a l l children. T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f w a s t e  time,  effort,  o r g a n i z a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s ,  t i o n of o f f i c e s ,  of staff,  when two o r more b o a r d s activities  f o r the  same age g r o u p ,  it  to o f f e r  is difficult  the  caused  same t y p e o f  M o r e o v e r , when more same a c t i v i t i e s t o  to secure  B . Nash, A s s o c i a t e Professor  New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , s u m m a r i z e s t h e  funds,  through the d u p l i c a -  a t t e m p t to c a r r y out the  t h e two w i t h o u t h a v i n g a c e n t r a l e x e c u t i v e J.  in civic  o f f a c i l i t i e s and o f p r o g r a m  same age g r o u p s .  one b o a r d i s a t t e m p t i n g  at  in  o r g a n i z i n g community c e n t e r s  u c a t i o n and p l a y g r o u n d program o f f e r s for  associations,  co-operation  than the  between  officer.  of P h y s i c a l Educatidn s i t u a t i o n as  follows:  T h e r e m u s t be l e g a l p r o v i s i o n f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n . A c t i v i t y f o r t h e s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d must be c e n t e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l . A l l other types o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i n c l u d e the functions which i n t h e p a s t we have c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r p a r k s and p l a y g r o u n d s must be o r g a n i z e d i n one d e p a r t m e n t . One f e a t u r e o f t h i s new d e p a r t m e n t w i l l be r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e community group. The o t h e r f e a t u r e w i l l be t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n t h e p a s t have b e e n t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a r k s b o a r d . O n l y one t y p e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l t h e n be n e c e s s a r y . The new p a r k and p l a y g r o u n d b o a r d w i l l a l s o have t o f u r n i s h f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e m a j o r a t h l e t i c s f o r t h e s c h o o l . The s c h o o l must m a i n t a i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . 1  Nash,  op. c i t . ,  150  64  CHAPTER V I PLAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S I N VANCOUVER (A) In  this  The P r e s e n t  section,  examined and a f t e r  the  Playground System s i t u a t i o n i n Vancouver w i l l  a s k e t c h o f the  ment a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  development  he  o f i t s p l a y move-  a b r i e f s u r v e y w i l l be made o f t h e  c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f N o r t h American c i t i e s comparable  re-  in  population to Vancouver. The g r o w t h o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a y g r o u n d S y s t e m t — Vancouver Parks Board decided to e s t a b l i s h of playgrounds.  This playground,  o p e r a t e i n 1912 w i t h a s t a f f  the  of three d i r e c t o r s .  was g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e  grounds  1922,  their  the  the development  added t o t h e  club,  to  and  there  o r g a n i z a t i o n of p l a y -  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  service  series  expanded.  provided $55,000  of park areas for c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y .  e x c e l l e n t work o f t h i s  of a  Public opinion  area,  s y s t e m s h o u l d be  G y r o C l u b made t h e  objective  first  the  c a l l e d McLean P a r k , b e g a n  approved of the p l a y program p r o v i d e d i n t h i s  In  I n 1911,  for  Through-the  f o u r more p l a y g r o u n d s  system by 1924, namely, K i t s i l a n o ,  Pandora,  were  Robson  and H a r o . A n o t h e r p l a y g r o u n d was c o n s t r u c t e d  at Second Beach i n  S t a n l e y P a r k b y M r s . G r a c e E . C e p e r l e y and named a f t e r husband. of  I t was opened on June 1 4 t h ,  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  that year, staff  1924.  T h i s y e a r was  i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e movement,  s i x p l a y a r e a s were o r g a n i z e d u n d e r  o f 14 d i r e c t o r s  who a d m i n i s t e r e d  1925.  for  one in  a supervisor  the p l a y program  R a w l i n g s , W . S . , P a r k s and P l a y g r o u n d s 1911*15,  her  and  during  (Annual Reports)  65 the  summer  season.  playgrounds,  During, the  y e a r s 1927 and 1 9 2 8 ,  two more  M e m o r i a l S o u t h and N o r q u a y , were added t o  s y s t e m b y t h e G y r o C l u b , w h i l e i n 1932 R i l e y P l a y g r o u n d equipped  by the  s m a l l but  C h i l d r e n ' s Home.  sent f u n c t i o n i n g under the PLAYGROUND  the  as a p l a y g r o u n d Eisenhardt. of  School f o r  same p e r i o d o f  the  the  the  C i t y Creche, D e a f and B l i n d  playgrounds  at  and pre-  are:  LOCATION  V i c t o r i a D r i v e north of Kingsway Second B e a c h , S t a n l e y Park W a l l a c e S t r e e t & 2 5 t h Avenue C o m m e r c i a l and C o t t o n D r i v e s K i t s i l a n o Beach, F t , Arbutus Street Yew, 51st Avenue, & M a r i n e D r i v e 41st Avenue, & P r i n c e A l b e r t S t r e e t G e o r g i a , Union, Dunlevy & Jackson Kingsway & Wales S t r e e t P a n d o r a , A l b e r t & Nanaimo S t r e e t s . R e n f r e w , N o o t k a , 2 1 s t and 22nd A v e n u e s O n t a r i o S t r e e t , n o r t h o f 3 3 r d Avenue 1 5 t h Avenue & K i n g s w a y S i x t h Avenue & T r i m b l e S t r e e t  c l o s e o f 1 9 3 3 , H a r o P l a y g r o u n d was c e n t e r on t h e  A t a ceremony  the playgrounds  time., by  The f o u r t e e n  parks board '  Brewers Ceperley Ghaldecott Grandview Kitsilano Maple Grove Memorial South McLean , Norquay ' " Pandora Renfrew Riley Robson West P o i n t G r e y At  Brewers,  were c o n s t r u c t e d  the A l e x a n d r a Orphanage,  C r i p p l e d C h i l d r e n ' s Home, t h e the W a l l S t .  D u r i n g the  fully-equipped playgrounds  the Gyro Club at  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.. "10. 11. 12. 15. 14.  s i x playgrounds,  G r a n d v i e w , M a p l e G r o v e , R e n f r e w and West P o i n t G r e y ,  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1929 t o 1 9 3 2 . five  was  same c l u b .  The p a r k s board- c o n s t r u c t e d Ghaldecott,  the  to  recommendation  i n w h i c h the  discontinued  of Supervisor  Gyro C l u b donated  the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Mayor M a l k i n  I. one said:  I f t h e G y r o C l u b had n o t c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a o f e q u i p p i n g playgrounds w i t h a p p a r a t u s , thousands of c h i l d r e n w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e b e e n d e n i e d t h e i r u s e , as t h i s i s one 1  infra,  93.  of the l a s t works f o r f o u n d money. Management  which the  c o u n c i l would l i k e l y  of p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s . — S i n c e the  t h e p l a y g r o u n d movement  "beginning of  i n V a n c o u v e r , i t h a s "been t h e  respons-  i b i l i t y o f the Vancouver P a r k s Board t o promote p l a y f o r the p u b l i c .  have n o t b e e n a b l e  administered  t o meet t h e  cent o f the u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n .  city.  The t i m e i s r i p e  g r o u n d management i n t h i s the  comparable  selected  i n order  Furthermore,  than  there  has  organizations  of  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of our p l a y -  c i t y under a p l a n s u i t a b l e  P l a y g r o u n d s . - - In Table V w i l l  boards  n e e d s o f more  recreational  f o r the  s c h o o l b o a r d and the p a r k s  cities  by t h e p a r k s  recreational  b e e n no c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r the  activities  H o w e v e r , c o n d i t i o n s have a r i s e n w h i c h demon-  s t r a t e t h a t the playgrounds  ten per  have  to  both  board. be f o u n d a l i s t  of North American  i n p o p u l a t i o n t o V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h have t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n , may be made, o f t h e  been  number  2  o f p l a y g r o u n d s p r o v i d e d f o r an o r g a n i z e d I n the  thirteen  c i t i e s o f the  program.  continent  with a popula-  t i o n c l o s e t o t h a t o f V a n c o u v e r one f i n d s a t o t a l o f 487 vised playgrounds  f o r a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 3,575,294;  t h e r e i s an a v e r a g e o f one p l a y g r o u n d u n d e r l e a d e r s h i p 3 7,341 of p o p u l a t i o n .  Vancouver has  a p o p u l a t i o n of 265,000;  that  fourteen  that for  playgrounds  i s a n e v e r a g e o f one  playground f o r every 18,928 p o p u l a t i o n .  superis, every for  supervised  D i v i d i n g Vancouver's  p o p u l a t i o n o f 265,000 by the g e n e r a l average of 7 , 3 4 1 , V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , May 20., 1 9 3 0 . 2 i n f r a , 67* 3 R e c r e a t i o n , op. c i t . , 66-95.  one  finds  67 TABLE V SUPERVISED PLAYGROUNDS OE REPRESENTATIVE  Representative C i t i e s Comparable to Vancouver. Birmingham Oakland Denver Syracuse Akron Columbus, , ' Toledo Portland Providence Memphis . Houston Seattle  Population 359,678 884,063 300,000 209,275 250,040 290,564 290,718 301,815 252,981 253,143 300,000 360,000 223,017 3,575,294 275,023  Winnipeg  TOTAL AVERAGE .. Large Canadian C i t i e s . Vancouver Ottawa Toronto Montreal  265,000 137,911 623,562 1,162,520  t h a t Vancouver s h o u l d have at reach the  average standard  least  .  "  CITIES  T o t a l Number o f Playgrounds 64 68 36 30 58 27 35 23 34 25 • 23 27 37 487 35 14 JL O  60 ' 103 35 p l a y g r o u n d s  of c i t i e s o f comparable  i n order size.  f o r e V a n c o u v e r , w i t h o n l y 14 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s , deficiency In  o f 31 o f t h e s e order  of  the  c i t y ' s school yards  i n other  s h o u l d be u s e d  certain pertinent  Oakland,  words, every  one  for organized play.  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p l a y g r o u n d s i t u a t i o n  about h a l f  shows a -•  favorably with a eity l i k e  60 p l a y g r o u n d s ;  Canadian c i t i e s d i s c l o s e s  There-  areas.  t o compare  Vancouver s h o u l d have  to  i n the  facts:  major  Ottawa  has  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r b u t a g r e a t e r number o f  playgrounds.  ¥/innipeg has a p o p u l a t i o n about 42,000 l e s s  Vancouver but has playgrounds.  almost  t h r e e t i m e s t h e "number o f  Toronto, to equal Vancouver's r a t i o  than  supervised of p r o v i s i o n  68 of  s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s w o u l d n e e d t o o p e r a t e o n l y 35  vised playgrounds; Montreal,  but a c t u a l l y has  60  to equal Vancouver's r a t i o  supervised.playgrounds.  of p r o v i s i o n of  supervised  p l a y g r o u n d s w o u l d n e e d t o o p e r a t e o n l y 61 s u p e r v i s e d but a c t u a l l y has 103 s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s . statistics,  it  Other f a c i l i t i e s . F r o m  the  5  Playground Year Book, with other ities  From t h e  standard  i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n the  continent  of l i k e  size.' '  compares The  1  1935  facil-  f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r of a very high standard  i n l o c a t i o n , and i n v a r i e t y . Vancouver not  only equals  like population.  It  i n c h o i c e , i n number,  I n some f e a t u r e s one f i n d s  b u t e v e n s u r p a s s e s a g r e a t many  s u r p a s s e s most o f t h e  v i s i o n of a t h l e t i c  f i e l d s , bathing beaches,  tennis  i s c l o s e t o the  courts.  It  average  b a s e b a l l diamonds and w a d i n g p o o l s . well provided for. Vancouver as beaches,  accessible  golf  courses,  attendance. Recreation, 2  and  same e x t e n t  are in  l a r g e number o f  to Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n .  there i s a t o t a l  seasonal  pro-  O u t d o o r swimming p o o l s  c i t i e s because o f the  t i o n as p a r t o f the w i n t e r program*  indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  cities  i n the p r o v i s i o n of  They are not needed t o the  i n other  that  c i t i e s i n the  The d e f i c i e n c y i s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o r g a n i z e d  above,  above  playgrounds.  one may e x a m i n e how V a n c o u v e r  c i t i e s on t h e  Parks Board are  of  playgrounds;  i s evident t h a t Vancouver i s f a r below  i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s u p e r v i s e d  super-  In thirteen  o f 79 r e c r e a t i o n a l  cities  recrealisted  b u i l d i n g s and 265  centers both having a l a r g e y e a r l y or The a v e r a g e  of these t h i r t e e n  o p . c i t . , 66-95..  Table V I . , infra,  69.  cities  69 TABLE V I RECREATIONAL F A C I L I T I E S OF REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S  Representative Cities Comparable to Vancouver  o  r H CQ  •r-i  CO Pi CD •H , q X! o - p cd cd <D pq pq W  CQ ti  H  CD -H  X>  O  © a CQ CO  cd - H pq p  Birmingham 2 Oakland 8 Denver 20 Syracuse 3 Akron Columbus Toledo 3 Portland 2 Providence 16 Memphis 2 Houston 1 Seattle 21 Winnipeg '. 1  -  28 12 42 17 12 20 19 13 18 11 21 21 3  CO CD CD r-i CO O t-i  i  -  .i  I  3  2 •: 2 -  1 -  _  1 -•  1 1,  -2  10  1  -  2  1  CQ  •H 14  ©  e o  d o O  CO H  2 1  ~  '.  O o P4  tjD co S4 •H O g O  a  CO •H  •H - P  2  2  —  1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 .. 2  2 —  —  2 '  —  -  -8 18-  ts Pi CO o  t*D Pi  PI  •H  CD  cd  :  centers,  deficiency  6 recreational  of about  thereby  During c e r t a i n years,  18  8 5 14 6  „  15 . 3 16  _  15 11 20 3 7 7 10  31 B  —  ...  79 6  265 20 6 1 53 2  —  «.  —  13  5 22  -  l e a v i n g an  recrea-  approximate  b u i l d i n g s and 14  the p a r k s board has  recreational conducted three  i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t T o r o n t o , w i t h o n l y two and  t h i r d t i m e s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , h a d 53 i n d o o r tional  28 11 4 83 47 10 10 5 2 34  4 2 5 18 4 6 7  no w i n t e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d t h a n It  o © ©  *H r H o •P 'rH O -H Pi o © 3 Pi © © PH pq H o PI  Vancouver has p r o v i d e d o n l y 6  indoor r e c r e a t i o n a l  months.  <d  ©  EH  4 117 1 58 7 97 10 84 — 25 2 40 8 37 7 61 — 38 2 39 2 37 87 1 55 Total Average 3 111 — 2 — 313 7 60 .  O Pi O CQ <M O -H ClC *H +"» Pi CQ +3 Cd -H u rH CO  6 r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s and 20 i n d o o r  t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r each c i t y .  centers.  p  O CQ  rH  L a r g e CanacII ah' C i t i e s Vancouver 42 26 • 9 O t t a w a / • •- 1 •4 Toronto 4 20 6 • Montreal 17 14 least  rH  CO  o  bD  CD CO  r-i  rH  PH  PH  c5  O  CO  O O  o  O  rH  H  O  rH  -P CD H Xl -P  w o u l d be a t  CO  CQ rH  c e n t e r s i n 1934. T h e r e i s no u r g e n t  need f o r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  one-  recrea-  70  r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s i n t h i s c i t y , as school p l a n t s can  be  converted  With  to these uses as has been done i n most c i t i e s .  the a s s i s t a n c e of a m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n board, l o c a l gymnasiums can be organized, and  through a co-ordinated p l a n brought i n t o  use under a community program of neighbourhood  activities.  IndOor swimming p o o l s i n t h i s c i t y are f i n d i n g i t d i f ficult  to operate  involved. and  s u c c e s s f u l l y owing to the enormous expenses  I f a m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n board rented these  pools  charged a very low nominal fee f o r t h e i r use, l a r g e r numbers  would be encouraged to use  the a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s to the  g r e a t e r b e n e f i t of the community as a whole.  ',  Thus, Vancouver i s w e l l s u p p l i e d with f a c i l i t i e s both indoor and  outdoor; the g r e a t need i s the wider use  school p l a n t and the local.gymnasium.  of the  T h i s can be brought about  s u c c e s s f u l l y only under h i g h l y t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p and with a w e l l co-ordinated p l a n of c o - o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s  civic  r e c r e a t i o n a l agencies under a m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n commission. P r o v i s i o n s , f o r l e a d e r s h i p . — In Vancouver during the summer of 1934,  the appointment of playground d i r e c t o r s was  and August only.  Seventeen d i r e c t o r s were employed on the  as p a i d workers.. Supplementing t h e i r work was v o l u n t e e r s who  made f o r J u l y  r e c e i v e d expense money.  staff  that of s i x t e e n  Work that i s c a r r i e d  out by v o l u n t e e r s i s , i n g e n e r a l , l e s s e f f i c i e n t  and  regular  than t h a t of p a i d employees and f o r purposes of comparison with other c i t i e s should be considered as supplementary l e a d e r s h i p . In Table VII w i l l be found the p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a d e r s h i p playgrounds during 1934,  on  by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c i t i e s i n the  same p o p u l a t i o n g l a s s as Vancouver.  1  •^Recreation, op, c i t . , 66-95. ~ m f r a , 71.  71 TABLE V I I . PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS OE REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S (Not I n c l u d i n g E m e r g e n c y W o r k e r s )  •Representative Cities Paid Workers Comparable Men Women ; E m p l o y e d F u l l Time to Vancouver Y e a r Round .. Birmingham 3 1 4 114 50 Oakland 88 • - ' • Denver 34 24 46 19 6 Syracuse Akron 66 10 • 1' Columbus 108 25 5 8 16 Toledo 2 Portland 31 54 9 Providence ; 50 73 15 36 Memphis 33 32 Houston 42 29 10 54 Seattle 33 17 35 6 W i n n i p e g .: T o t a l 602 394 151 Average 46 30 . . . . . .10.;. Large Canadian C i t i e s Vancouver 18 16 1 19 6 Ottawa 25 Toronto 127 134 14 Montreal 174 54 69 By t a k i n g t h e  totals  number o f c i t i e s we f i n d teer workers per  the  Volunteer  .....Work e r s  Men  Women  45 165 4  44 12  —  _  ~  90  55  —  —  6 -  4 40  —  . ...  -  124  259-  584 50  20  65 12  -  35-  27  o f T a b l e V I I and d i v i d i n g by  the  a v e r a g e number o f p a i d and v o l u n  c i t y t o be a s  illustrated  i n Table  VIII.  TABLE V I I I PLAYGROUND DIRECTORS OF REPRESENTATIVE C I T I E S - - T O T A L S  Representative C i t i e s Average Comparable to Vancouver City P a i d .Workers N o . o f men 46 P a i d W o r k e r s N o . o f women 30 10 No. /Employed f u l l year round V o l u n t e e r W o r k e r s N o . o f men 30 20 V o l u n t e e r W o r k e r s N o . o f women By c o n t r a s t i n g same s i z e ,  one c a n see  Vancouver 18 16 1 . 0 0  Vancouver w i t h the  Deficiency 28 14 9 30 20  average c i t y of  how i n a d e q u a t e i s t h e p r o v i s i o n  for  the  72  ' leadership of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s c i t y . course,  is related  This s i t u a t i o n , of  t o t h e l a c k o f s u f f i c i e n t number o f p l a y -  g r o u n d s and. i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  centers.  The V a n c o u v e r P a r k s B o a r d h a s  shOY/n g r e a t  foresight  in  working out a g r a d u a l development o f the p l a y g r o u n d system,  which  has been t o a l a r g e  At-  tendance  extent  distance  of  of the  children.  i n e x p e r i e n c e d and u n t r a i n e d ,  athletes,  interested  extensive  One r e a s o n f o r t h e l o w a t t e n d a n c e  o f p l a y g r o u n d s from one a n o t h e r  a large percentage  often  of an experiment.  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d s h a s n o t w a r r a n t e d ' a more  p r o v i s i o n of leadership.. the  i n the n a t u r e  i n n o t h i n g but  and from t h e  Again,  is  homes  the l e a d e r s  are  or e l s e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d their  own p a r t i c u l a r  activities. Attendance.—-On the attendance, report ment t o d a y b e t w e e n v a r i o u s c i t i e s . attendance? for of  I f one p l a y s f o r h a l f  t a k i n g attendance  i n the  spectators.  showing causes  v e r y generous If  to  c h i l d r e n or a d u l t s ,  or m e r e l y a c t i n g as attendance  fails  estimate  of  a day?  I f one p l a y s  The p r e s e n t  s t a t e whether those  whether t h e y are p l a y i n g Often the  games  d e s i r e f o r a good  t h e p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r t o make a attendance.  the p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s are v a l u a b l e , every  c o m m u n i t y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e b e n e f i t s .  one more r e a s o n why p l a y g r o u n d p r i v i l e g e s f o r a l l  will  n e v e r be made p o s s i b l e u n l e s s t h e school.  every c h i l d  system  on t h e p l a y -  just  public  agree-^  What i s t o be t h e b a s i s o f  I f one^alks across the playground?  an hour?  ground are  there i s l i t t l e  child  This  children  t a s k i s t a k e n o v e r by  Attendance then should i n c l u d e the presence  e a c h day a t  least,  is  the of  and a s many t i m e s on S a t u r d a y s  73 TABLE I X ANNUAL ATTENDANCE AT VANCOUVER.PLAYGROUNDS--TOTALS Year  Playgrounds  1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1935 1934  4  Attendance Taken t h r i c e d a i l y 109,785 250,140 287,274 361,269 350,093 , 390,483 819,532 494,406 651,209 449,515 368,426 529,684  6-  6 6 7 8 12 12 13 15 15 14  and v a c a t i o n d a y s a s  ,  possible.  In Vancouver, the annual attendance r e p o r t s years  f r o m 1925 t o 19.54 a r e  reports  show t h a t  playground d a i l y 1932,  the (not  i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I X ,  average  I f one m u l t i p l i e s  tion  the  This i s a very high figure  a t t e n d a n c e i n most o f t h e  other  in  playgrounds  i n comparison  c i t i e s on t h e  contin-  The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r was a p p r o x i m a t e l y  58,200 i n 1954. about  the  p l a y g r o u n d a t t e n d a n c e b y t h e number o f p l a y g r o u n d s  of V a n c o u v e r each d a y .  ent.  one  i n c l u d i n g S u n d a y a t t e n d a n c e ) was 550 i n  1954 he f i n d s - t h a t 6 , 2 1 6 c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g  With the  the These  1  number o f c h i l d r e n u s i n g  4 6 3 i n 1 9 5 3 , a n d 444 i n 1 9 3 4 ,  average  for  s i x t e e n per  Therefore, cent  the playgrounds of Vancouver reached  or. a b o u t  o n e - s i x t h of the  school popula-  daily. In Denver, t a b u l a t i o n s  ascertained  t h a t t h e number o f  c h i l d r e n v i s i t i n g the playgrounds represented  less  than.six  E i s e n h a r d t , I , , A n n u a l R e p o r t ( P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , 1954) ,- 5 .  74 p e r cent  of the  showed t h a t  total  71 p e r  school enrollment.  cent o f the  The a t t e n d a n c e  c h i l d r e n came f r o m homes  w i t h i n an a r e a % m i l e r a d i u s from the p a r k ; from an area w i t h i n a more r e m o t e p l a c e s .  figures  15 p e r c e n t  m i l e r a d i u s , and 14 p e r c e n t Three-fourths  o f a l l the  situated came  came  from  children using 1  t h e p l a y g r o u n d s l i v e d w i t h i n a r a d i u s o f one q u a r t e r  of a m i l e .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n f o r c e s one t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f o r  small  c h i l d r e n , p l a y g r o u n d s must be w i t h i n e a s y w a l k i n g apparently less  than h a l f  distance,  a m i l e away.  R e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s a s a w h o l e s a y t h a t even t h e b e s t - ' o r g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d s y s t e m s on t h e tered  c o n t i n e n t when n o t a d m i n i s -  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n have  failed  t o r e a c h more t h a n  ten per cent  community i n a n y s y s t e m a t i c  fashion.  o f the  children: of  An accurate  c o m p a r i s o n Of  t h e t o t a l a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e on t h e p l a y g r o u n d s i n t h e cities  cannot  Y e a r Book a r e full  year,  o n l y . . .,  be made b e c a u s e for  others  different are  f i g u r e s g i v e n i n the  seasons.  f o r the f u l l  the  various  Recreation  Some f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t  a,  summer o r f o r J u l y and A u g u s t  . . U n d e r t h e new p l a n , i t  reach a l l . the  s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n on a s y s t e m a t i c  s c h o o l s h o u l d t a k e up t h e The p r e s e n t  i s -realized that,  i n order basis,  to  the  d i r e c t i o n of playground a c t i v i t i e s .  p l a y g r o u n d s a r e n o t g i v i n g maximum s e r v i c e .  Seasonal d i f f e r e n c e s . —  The number o f p l a y g r o u n d s  supervised 2  d u r i n g c e r t a i n p e r i o d s o f the year i s I l l u s t r a t e d i n Table X . • T o w l e r , J o h n S . , The D e n v e r P l a n Commission-1929), 50. L  2  infra,  75.,  (Denver P l a n n i n g  75 TABLE X SEASONAL OPERATION OF PLAYGROUNDS I N REPRESENTATIVE Representative Cities Year Summer C o m p a r a b l e t o Round O n l y Vancouver Birmingham 31 35 «. Oakland 62 Denver 36 Syracuse 16 14 Akron 58 A — Columbus Toledo 55 — Portland " 25 Providence 7 •— Memphis 4. Houston 13 — Seattle Winnipeg 15 Total 120 231 Average 9 18 Large Ganadian C i t i e s Vancouver 14 ™ Ottawa 15 Toronto 5 16 Montreal 37  CITIES  School Year Only  Summer and Other Seasons  _  -  64 68 36 30 58 27 35 23 54 25 25 27 57 487 57  mm  —  23  —  _  -  average c i t y found is  10 27 22 109 8  — — —  27 2 ~  39 66  • - . . . . .  were o p e r a t e d d u r i n g 1 9 3 4 .  X  By p l a c i n g  i n Table X i n contrast w i t h Vancouver,  c l e a r l y s e e n what l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n i s made h e r e i n  with other c i t i e s Table XI d i s c l o s e s  of the  same p o p u l a t i o n  "  14 15 60 105  «>  -  These p l a y g r o u n d s  27  21  Total  class.  the it  comparison  The d a t a o f  what V a n c o u v e r i s d o i n g i n c o m p a r i s o n  with  TABLE X I SEASONAL OPERATION OF PLAYGROUNDS I N REPRESENTATIVE Representative C i t i e s Year round Summer o n l y School year only Summer & o t h e r s e a s o n s Total p R e c r e a t i o n , op. i b i d . , 66-95.  CITIES—  Average  9  City  18 2 8 37  n i t . , 66-95.  TOTALS Vancouver . 0 14 0 0 ,14  Deficiency 9 4 2 8 23  76  other c i t i e s of her ities  are  class.  T h i s means t h a t t h e  facil-  by no means g i v i n g t h e maximum r e t u r n s .  V a n c o u v e r s h o u l d be o p e r a t i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l  system.  ground are  the  activities  oan n o t  on  existing  t  127»  playground  The s c h o o l b u i l d i n g a n d t h e  l o g i c a l places  indoors.  infra  1  a year-round  to c a r r y out t h i s  be c a r r i e d o n o u t d o o r s  school  system.  t h e y c a n be  When  carried  (B) A P r o p o s e d  O r g a n i z a t i o n of Playground  Activities  for Vancouver  Community p l a y f a c i l i t i e s a r e provide necessary e r use  of these f a c i l i t i e s .  agencies,  which express  fundamental  .  environment.  important  Leadership stimulates  Public,  private,  they  the  great-  and s e m i - p u b l i c  the p l a y impulse o f the p e o p l e ,  to a community-wide program.  Lee  are  says•  B u t l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t i e s must be r e l a t e d and c h a n n e l s p r o v i d e d , f o r c o n s e r v i n g and e x t e n d i n g t h e i r values; an i n t e r w e a v i n g of a g e n c i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i f t h e y a r e t o be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e , i t i s t h r o u g h organ-* i z a t i o n t h a t f a c i l i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p and a g e n c i e s are i n t e r r e l a t e d and. p e r m a n e n c e g i v e n t h e p l a y s t r u c t u r e .3After  ation  a brief  between the  principles Reference  i n the will  e x p l a n a t i o n of the  necessity  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n  t h e n be made  program i n Vancouver w i l l  to  the  be  "Denver P l a n . "  superintendent  of s c h o o l s ,  p h y s i c a l education supervisor, o f s p e c i a l groups to  back to  the  v a r i o u s groups  of  or at  citizens.  be w o r k e d o u t . Lee,  op. c i t . ,  188.  city,  at the  the  the  such  of parks,  field,  approval.  T h e r e a r e many p l a n s The i m p o r t a n t  i n the  i n this  for t h e i r  departments concerned,  a  an adequate p l a y  when a g r e e d u p o n ,  either  ative  offered.  the playground s u p e r v i s o r ,  c o u l d be c a l l e d by the mayor, the  be  Finally,  superintendent  interested  discuss plans which,  the  certain  submitted.  heads o f the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s  called  will  co-oper-  a c o - o p e r a t i v e meeting.-r-A f i r s t meeting of  B r i n g i n g , about  leaders  of  s c h o o l b o a r d and t h e p a r k s b o a r d ,  proposed p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n to b r i n g about  the  because  as the  and  s h o u l d be  c o u l d be  taken  This meeting  suggestion  request of  of  one  represent-  of c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h can  t h i n g t o remember  in a l l  this  78 co-operation  is that lines  o f j u r i s d i c t i o n mast he  The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s c h i l d r e n o f the  city.  The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  have w e l l - e q u i p p e d g r o u n d s . the  have c l o s e c o n t a c t  Does i t n o t  recognized. with a l l  classes  need  the p l a y space i n areas of the  yards  of adequate s i z e ?  are  space,  does i t  i n a s e c t i o n of the  town where  When t h e p a r k s  n o t seem r e a s o n a b l e  that i t  town l a c k i n g p r o p e r  the  It  to  school  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  s c h o o l yard space? needless  two c i t y b o a r d s whose d u t i e s  w i t h the p l a y program of c h i l d r e n .  for  h o a r d does p r o v i d e  This close co-operation should prevent l a p p i n g between  to  seem i n a d v i s a b l e  c i t y p l a y g r o u n d d e p a r t m e n t or p a r k s h o a r d t o a t t e m p t  duplicate  the  are  over-  concerned  should also avoid  the  e x p e n s e and c o n f u s i o n o f two s e p a r a t e b o a r d s w o r k i n g w i t h o u t co-operation. children, ing  for  Since these boards are  o p e r a t i n g w i t h the  i d e n t i c a l objectives  leisure-time  habits  interested  same t a x p a y e r ' s  i n the  money,  and  of p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ,  the  striv-  proper  and c i t i z e n s h i p , t h e y s h o u l d c o n f e r  methods o f f u r t h e r i n g  same  on  c a u s e a n d o b t a i n i n g the maximum r e -  sults. Temporary c o - o p e r a t i v e Considerable ization will  plans while organiza-tion i s  time w i l l  take p l a c e .  There  elapse before  itself  limitations  to i t s  own i n d i v i d u a l  Vancouver w i l l  situation.  i n o p e r a t i o n so t h a t where power i s  to a p a r t i c u l a r other  complete  c i t y department i t  department.  It  is  form.  reorgan-  i s no u n i f o r m s o l u t i o n f o r  p l a y g r o u n d and r e c r e a t i o n a l problems.-. adjust  taking  have  There are once  to legal  delegated  c a n n o t be r e d e l e g a t e d  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the  the  to  an-  s c h o o l board  and t h e p a r k s board, t o c o - o p e r a t e i n o r g a n i z i n g a u n i f o r m p l a n .  79  The p r o b l e m i s  t o s p e n d t h e money so t h a t p l a y o p p o r t u n i t y may  he p r o v i d e d f o r a l l t h e efficiency,  children.  Co-operation w i l l  economy and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  s c h o o l c a n be f t i l l y r e s p o n s i b l e age c h i l d r e n and t h e  the  o f the p r o g r a m .  a c t i v i t i e s of  Broad-minded c i t y  officials  i n t h e p a s t on m u n i c i p a l p r o b l e m s and w i l l  a g a i n i n the  The  a c t i v i t i e s of s c h o o l -  r e c r e a t i o n board f o r the  s m a l l c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s . co-operated  for  increase  have do so  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  prob-  lem. The, o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n . — A g r o u p o f people  t h o r o u g h l y aware o f t h e  retain  the  services  values  o f an e x p e r t  of the p l a y program s h o u l d  recreational  o p e r a t i o n w i t h h i m , s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n . b y a s u r v e y o f l o c a l n e e d s and r e s o u r c e s ation w i l l program, useful  be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e public attention  interested  leader.  In co-  the g r o u p t t o  so t h a t s u f f i c i e n t  i n i t i a t i o n of an  make inform-  appropriate  c a n be c a l l e d t o t h e s e f a c t s  by a  report. F u r t h e r s t e p s must be t a k e n t o a r o u s e t h e a t t e n t i o n  the p u b l i c . leaders; al  civic  P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d  presentation  of the  and s o c i a l g r o u p s ;  solicited,  subject  with.civic  s h o u l d b e made b e f o r e  and the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the  l o c a l needs and r e s o u r c e s  will  determine  of  the  loc-  press ult-  imate form of o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d . legal provisions.--If official provision for  to c o - o p e r a t e ,  legal  c o - o p e r a t i o n must, be made t h r o u g h t h e medium o f  city charters. sufficiently  boards are  P r o v i s i o n s which grant  broad to a l l o w c i t i e s  reation board,  the growing p a r k ,  s p e c i a l p o w e r s s h o u l d be  t o combine u n d e r  p l a y g r o u n d and  one  rec-  recreational  80 needs o f the  people.  The f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s l a y i n g the problem before charter  forming body*  s h o u l d be u n d e r  the  the  a r e g i v e n m e r e l y as a g u i d e  legal authorities  of the c i t y  f l ) The r i g h t t o c o n d u c t  1  g e n e r a l powers  of the c i t y .  the  right  to organize,  activities of  to d e f i n e .  (2) B r o a d and  not  commercial r e c r e a t i o n  on a l e a s e or on a l o a n b a s i s ,  owned b y t h e  (5)  city.  (4) S u p e r v i s i o n  s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e p o l i c e  d e p a r t m e n t so t h a t no i l l - w i l l board.  terms  ( 3 ) The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d have  either  on p r o p e r t y  may a c c r u e  to the  T h e r e s h o u l d be a g o v e r n i n g b o a r d ,  recreation  t h e members  w h i c h w o u l d h o l d o f f i c e f o r a d e f i n i t e number o f y e a r s . v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r t h e r e t i r e m e n t  T h i s b o a r d s h o u l d be g i v e n power t o  and e n f o r c e  and r e g u l a t i o n s .  receive g i f t s . be d e v o t e d  It  recreational  fund.  Prothe  establish  s h o u l d have t h e p o w e r  ( 6 ) A l l income d e r i v e d f r o m r e c r e a t i o n  to the  of  o f one member from  board each y e a r . rules  or  activities  i n c l u s i v e t e r m s s h o u l d be u s e d s i n c e n a r r o w a n d l i m i t e d are d i f f i c u l t  in  to  should  ( 7 ) The s c h o o l b o a r d s h o u l d  have t h e p o w e r t o c o n d u c t a n d f i n a n c e p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s , (8) F i n a l l y ,  t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d have t h e p o w e r t o  tablish a recreational  s e r v i c e bureau w h i c h would l i n k  l i c w i t h p r i v a t e and s e m i - p u b l i c  the  es-. pub-  organizations.  P e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . — T h e form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n determined upon, All  city  s h o u l d be m a r k e d b y c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e  owned p r o p e r t y  available  f o r the use  suitable  f o r r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be made  of the board c o n d u c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n .  a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u l d be w o r k e d o u t b e t w e e n t h e lftash,  features.  op. c i t . ,  156-160.  recreational  The  81 a u t h o r i t y and t h e d e p a r t m e n t a commission, committees  c o n t r o l l i n g the p r o p e r t y .  o r some o t h e r  o r g a n i z e d group  be a p p o i n t e d t o g i v e c o l l e c t i v e t h o u g h t problems  o f the e n t i r e  t o the  leisure-time  It.is  adivsable  f o r b o t h the  b o a r d a n d t h e p a r k s b o a r d t o have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s c h o o l and p a r k p r o p e r t y  s u c c e s s f u l r e c r e a t i o n a l program. t h e members  school  on t h i s  is essential  Making the  A full  the program.  time and a t t e n t i o n . a  e x e c u t i v e s h o u l d be  This should r e q u i r e a l l of his  Frequently,  as^recreational  is  one p e r s o n i s  employed t o  e x e c u t i v e a n d a l s o t o h o l d some  o b v i o u s t h a t no one c a n do f u l l  r e c r e a t i o n a l work u n l e s s  he g i v e s h i s  A d e f i n i t e l y segregated  justice  entire  other  budget  r e a t i o n a l purposes  and t h i s  t h a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y d e f i n i t e amount  icate  4  I n some c i t i e s ,  genrec-  community  o f money w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to  t h e i r p a r k or s c h o o l  indbudget  recreation.  Generally speaking, community r e c r e a t i o n ,  administrative  is  i s p o s s i b l e for voters  t h a t a c e r t a i n percentage of  s h a l l t b e used f o r  of  it  community  tax for  a s s u r e s the  schools,  it.  of r e c r e a t i o n  Many c i t i e s have v o t e d a m i l l arrangement  to  time to  erally desirable.  each y e a r  a  terms o f o f f i c e of  p o s i t i o n s u c h as s u p e r v i s o r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e it  to  i n c o n t i n u i t y of p l a n n i n g .  time t r a i n e d r e c r e a t i o n a l  employed to d i r e c t  but  group,  o v e r l a p so t h a t n o t more t h a n one o r two e x p i r e  each y e a r would r e s u l t  serve  should  c i t y and t o w o r k otrfc e f f e c t i v e means o f  s o l v i n g these problems.  because the use  Again,  routine,  the r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d .  the p r o v i d i n g o f an adequate program  not m e r e l y the  control of property  or  s h o u l d be t h e p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f These l a t t e r  considerations  are  external  82 a n d c a n be s e n s i b l y a r r a n g e d ; successful  the  former  is essential  accomplishment o f the purpose.  to  The i m p o r t a n t  the thing  t o c o n s i d e r I n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l work i s so much t h e local  exact  form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n — i n the  c o n d i t i o n s must  determine which i s  m i n i s t e r the system—but  rather  superintendent  of  recreation  from a l l c i t y departments h a v i n g a v a i l a b l e  ities.  s h o u l d be b o r n e  tralized administrative on t h e  i n m i n d t h a t u n d e r any f o r m o f  control yet  school board,  o u t o f the e v e n i n g u s e the  day t i m e and t h e  different  d e v i s e d , problems  evening workers.  departments i s e s s e n t i a l  is p r a c t i c a l l y  cen-  based  f o r example, d i f f e r e n c e s  o f b u i l d i n g s must be a d j u s t e d  n a t u r e o f the board i n c h a r g e ,  arise. arising  between  G o - o p e r a t i o n between  to s u c c e s s ,  whatever  and, w i t h c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  the  the success  assured.  P l a n n i n g ahead.—The cities  facil-  j o i n t u s e and c o n t r o l o f f a c i l i t i e s a r e bound t o  Even w i t h i n the  ad-  co-operation  can secure It  analysis  the b e s t group t o  the degree of  w h i c h the g o v e r n i n g group and the  last  not  s t u d y and e f f o r t s  have shown t h a t g r e a t b e n e f i t s  of other result  progressive  f r o m t h e w i s e and  c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g o f a c o m p l e t e p r o v i s i o n f o r p l a y g r o u n d and recreational activities. for herself. ty-five  Yancouver should reap these  Some c i t i e s a r e p l a n n i n g ahead  years.  V a n c o u v e r has n o t y e t  for f i f t y  benefits to  seven-  c o n s i d e r e d the g r e a t  need  for a d e f i n i t e planning of i t s m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  system.  A c a r e f u l r e v i e w o f t h e v a r i o u s methods  cities  used i n other  s h o u l d be made and a p l a n s e l e c t e d w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be most p l i c a b l e to lln  the  situation i n this  1867 t h e  Office  city.  ap-  1  of E d u c a t i o n at Washington, D. G . ,  83 Vancouver w i l l o f money i n t h e recreation. in  the  sums  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  and  Therefore,  city will  service, the  future  be r e q u i r e d t o s p e n d c o n s i d e r a b l e of playgrounds  a p l a n m u s t be e v o l v e d w h e r e b y t h e  co-operate  t o o b t a i n t h e maximum r e s u l t s  e f f i c i e n c y and economy f o r  boards in  the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of  city.  The D e n v e r P l a n . — A f t e r a c a r e f u l .and t h o r o u g h s t u d y on t h e of  part  t h e D e n v e r P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , a p l a n was p r o d u c e d f o r  p r o v i s i o n of adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l  f a c i l i t i e s for that  The c o m m i s s i o n e n d e a v o u r e d  to l o o k t o the  the p o s s i b l e t r e n d s o f the  c i t y ' s development.  thought  t h a t the  future  as a g u i d e t o m u n i c i p a l d e v e l o p m e n t  city.  and t o  forecast  T h e r e was no  c i t y should immediately plunge i n t o a  dous and c o s t l y p r o g r a m o f i m p r o v e m e n t s .  the  tremen-  The p l a n s were  t o be t r a n s m u t e d  adopted  from p l a n s  t o r e a l i t i e s when t h e p l a n s became p r a c t i c a l . A map i l l u s t r a t e s  the p r o p o s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n o f  D e n v e r and t h e p l a c i n g of i t s p l a y g r o u n d s . 1 of  The p r o p o s e d p l a n  D e n v e r i n c l u d e s 35 m a j o r p l a y g r o u n d s and 202 a u x i l i a r y p l a y -  grounds  t o be p r o v i d e d i n the  be e s t a b l i s h e d lots  future.  Of t h e  on s c h o o l g r o u n d s a n d 73 a r e  latter,  85 a r e  to  t o be l o c a l p l a y  for smaller children. Features  o f the Denver P l a n which should prove o f i n -  t e r e s t a r e : ^ the p r o p o s a l s  for a commission of r e c r e a t i o n ,  l o c a t i n g playgrounds n e a r e r to the playgrounds  children, for using school  f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s and f o r t h e  i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l  for  district  div*  areas.  made i t s f i r s t s u r v e y o f h e a l t h a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and u r g e d c i t i e s t o l o o k ahead i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f s c h o o l s and c o m m u n i t i e s . ijnfra,  188.  g  i n f r a , 186.  84 , FIGURE CO-OPERATIVE  I  PLAN PROPOSED FOR VANCOUVER CITY COUNCIL  SCHOOL BOARD  PARKS BOARD RECREATION BOARD  SUPT. OF RECREATION & PHYSICAL E D . ""PARK AND PLAYGROUND ACTIVITIES FOR ADULTS AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN  ACTIVITIES FOR SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN  The p r o p o s e d  co-operative  plan.—  I n the  c r e a t i o n department f o r Vancouver, expert upon a l l l e g a l q u e s t i o n s 1 policy.  a d v i c e s h o u l d "be  as w e l l as upon a l l q u e s t i o n s  The s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s  an e x c e l l e n t g u i d e .  organizaT^iolT'of a  Furthermore,  g i v e v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and p r e s t i g e  of other  a citizens t o the  1  sought  of  cities will committee  entire  re-  movement  form  can in  the  city. The c o - o p e r a t i v e p l a n i s t h e one now i n f o r c e i n Oak2 3 land, San D i e g o , Long B e a c h , M i l w a u k e e , G a r y , B e r k e l e y and i n The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d g i v e a l l t y p e s o f e x p e r t a d v i c e on r e c r e a t i o n . 2  i n f r a , 183.  ? i n f r a , 182.  to  85 a number o f o t h e r porary practices  cities,  it  i s s u p p o r t e d by the."best  found i n v a r i o u s c i t i e s o f the  Whereas s c h o o l a n d p a r k o r g a n i z a t i o n s , may be u n a b l e tivities, its  full  contem-  continent.  because of other  duties,  t o make a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n - f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d be a b l e t o attention  concentrate  on t h i s p r o b l e m a l o n e .  Figure I i l l u s t r a t e s  a p l a n f o r Vancouver whereby  p o n s i b i l i t y may be d i s t r i b u t e d and d u p l i c a t i o n a v o i d e d . this  suggested  plan,  ities  f o r the  the  s c h o o l would o r g a n i z e a l l the  adult  a c t i v i t i e s i n the p a r k s ,  school-age c h i l d .  and i n b u i l d i n g s . to the p l a n n i n g ,  on p l a y g r o u n d s ,  c a r e and u p k e e p  of another  O l u b , who a r e  I t wcmld be- a d v i s -  body.  for a term of 'five years  These  T h e y s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d  tendent o f s c h o o l s and o f p a r k s  representatives  members o f the  in  members  i n s u e h a way t h a t  t e r m o f one b o a r d member w o u l d e x p i r e and  begin.  ex-officio  playgrounds  o f whom h a l f w o u l d be  for their  i n and t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p l a y g r o u n d s y s t e m .  ent  attention  s p o n s o r i n g t h i s movement  s h o u l d have a member o n t h i s  each y e a r the  its  r e c r e a t i o n board s h o u l d c o n s i s t of  women, a p p o i n t e d b y t h e mayor i n c o u n c i l .  s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d  conduct  on s c h o o l y a r d s  o f the p a r k s and  a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e u n p a i d l a y members,  Vancouver,  Under  school yards.  The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d . — T h e  thatather.Gyro  res-  activ-  The p a r k s b o a r d w o u l d  The p a r k s b o a r d w o u l d d e v o t e  and p o s s i b l y e v e n o f t h e  able  ac-  the  s c h o o l b o a r d and t h e p a r k s  interest  The s u p e r i n -  s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d as  of the board, a c t i n g as  that  perman-  executive board.  The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d a p p o i n t a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t recreation subject  t o the a p p r o v a l of the s c h o o l b o a r d and o f  of  86  the p a r k s b o a r d .  The l a t t e r  responsibility for  two b o a r d s  the department  of  center  o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and  the p l a y g r o u n d r e c r e a t i o n department superintendent  should agree to  i n one o f f i c e u n d e r  the  recreation.  The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d a c t a s t h e a d v i s o r y body the of  school board, recreation.  to  Its  t h e p a r k s b o a r d and t o t h e d u t y w o u l d be t o s e e  gram o f p l a y and r e e r e a t i o n creational facilities.  t h a t an adequate p r o -  board program throughout  decide  the  constant  the  issue.  today.1  the  city  city.  council  the  One w r i t e r ,  i s made b y t h e of the  seeing school  reereation  I f the a p p r o p r i a t i o n  is  s h o u l d be c a l l e d u p o n to'  superintendent  of r e c r e a t i o n .  form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s supporting, this  re-  for  The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d s e r v e as  a d v i s o r of the  c r e a t i o n board i s  city  I t w o u l d a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e  b o a r d a n d t h e p a r k s b o a r d t o meet t h e b u d g e t  not s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  superintendent  i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the  t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f funds  form,  the The  re-  recommended  states-:  There Is a d i s t i n c t tendency, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , toward the p l a n of h a v i n g a r e e r e a t i o n commission o r b o a r d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e community r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o gram. S u c h a b o a r d u s u a l l y has on i t representatives f r o m t h e s c h o o l a n d p a r k s b o a r d s and members from t h e community a t l a r g e whose a p p r e c i a t i o n o f s c h o o l a n d p a r k i d e a l s and o f community r e e r e a t i o n f i t them t o t a k e t h e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e movement. A body of t h i s k i n d o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d w i l l have t h e w i d e s t j u r i s d i c t i o n over r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y w i l l see to i t t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the p a r k , the s c h o o l or o t h e r m u n i c i p a l departments a n d . p r i v a t e groups are used to the b e s t p o s s i b l e advantage f o r a l l the people . 2  The c i t i z e n s - r e c r e a t i o n  c o m m i t t e e . - - T h e scheme  8  1  2  s u p r a , -60* Jj  e  e  .  op . . c i t . ,  1  to  illustrated  87 FIGURE I I PROPOSED ORGANIZATION OF THE CITIZENS FOR THE PROMOTION OF A RECREATIONAL PROGRAM IN VANCOUTER RECREATION BOARD (approx. 7 members),  CITIZENS* RECREATION COMMITTEE (approx. 34 members)  Nl IGB BOEHlOH  OR •AWiaATtON S  above i s the p l a n recommended i n order that the c i t i z e n s i n the v a r i o u s  d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y may take an a c t i v e p a r t i n  the promotion of the p l a y program. committee should c o n s i s t of a  1  The c i t i z e n s ' r e c r e a t i o n  body of men and women e l e c t e d  a n n u a l l y from the neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s twelve major r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . %  f o r each of the  Each of these d i s t r i c t s  s h o u l d e l e c t two members to the c e n t r a l committee as represent a t i v e s of the neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^  The f u n c t i o n of  t h i s c e n t r a l committee would be to a s s i s t the r e c r e a t i o n board i n promoting the r e c r e a t i o n a l program f o r a l l ages o f the population.  I t should a c t as the connecting l i n k between the -••infra, 87. 2  i n f r a , 89.  5  infra,  8  8  0  88 recreation "board and-the neighborhood organizations. bership should consist of persons v i t a l l y interested movement.  The memin the play-  It might be a good p o l i c y for the mayor in council  to select some members from this body to serve on the. recreation board.  lee recommends a c i t i z e n s '  the reereation commission.  committee to support  He states:  More and more recreation leaders are coming to feel that i n each case where there is a municipal recreation department there ought also to be an organized private group of citizens to stand back of the municipal recreational system, to i n i t i a t e a c t i v i t i e s which for some reason the c i t y may not be able to. carry on, to give p u b l i c i t y to the movement, to raise funds to supplement c i t y appropriations and to represent the organized public opinion of the c i t y which w i l l bring pressure to bear in securing larger appropriations and i n safeguarding the work i f i t should be at any time i n danger of curtailment.• The neighborhood organization.—The neighborhood organization should consist of a body of men and women elected annually from the various minor recreational d i s t r i c t s for public recreation , including also other recreational organizations of the major 2  district.  No group i n the neighborhood should be permitted to  elect any more than two members as representatives.  The neigh-  borhood organization should promote the recreational program for a l l age-rlevels throughout the major d i s t r i c t . .No recreational program can be r e a l l y effective or permanent i n nature unless i t is rooted i n neighborhood l i f e . Neighborhood organizations should serve as a basis for the community-wide program; they should support the work of the citizens'  committee.  "''•Lee, op. c i t . , 2  infra,  89.  Commenting on the principles underlying 191.  90  Each centre should have a completely equipped playground and i n door center as the "hub" of i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  Around this center  would be grouped a number of minor d i s t r i c t s with minor recreat i o n a l centers consisting of smaller play spaces and buildings subsidiary to the major recreational center and controlled from it. Each major center would have a neighborhood organization as outlined, whose duty would be to promote the recreational program of that d i s t r i c t .  1  A d i s t r i c t director would be i n  charge of the ma j or center and would not only direct a l l a c t i v i t i e s , but also inform the people of the d i s t r i c t as to the program that i s being carried out, endeavouring to arouse and hold the interest of a l l groups. Under the d i s t r i c t director would be assistants, both paid andvolunteer, who would not only aid i n the program at the major center, but also provide t r a v e l l i n g , part-time supervision of the a u x i l i a r y grounds.  The assistants would be sent out to  supervise the minor centers at regular times,  supervising play  and outlining further programs. If possible,  the major recreational center would be l o -  cated i n the most suitable section of the d i s t r i c t . existing playgrounds could be used as centers.  Some of the  The further  equipping of them would be done on a basis of a continued i n crease of f a c i l i t i e s  as funds become available.  Each center would be.equipped for play and c u l t u r a l pursuits.  It would be preferable to have a l l a c t i v i t i e s  tract of land, but where park f a c i l i t i e s 1 supra,88 .  on one  are separated from  89 neighborhood  o r g a n i z a t i o n , Lee  states;  N e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d grow o f some n e i g h b o r h o o d n e e d and s h o u l d be c o n t i n u a l l y d i s c o v e r i n g n e i g h borhood needs. I t s h o u l d be as d e m o c r a t i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d a s p o s s i b l e , t h e members o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n d e t e r m i n i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s what t h e d u e s s h a l l be* I t must s t a r t e x a c t l y where t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i s and n o t t r y s u d d e n l y t o r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f n e i g h b o r h o o d t a s t e s and i n t e r e s t s . It s h o u l d have a s i m p l e form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s h o u l d use e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s a s f a r as p o s s i b l e t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s , t h e l i b r a r i e s , t h e b a c k y a r d s and homes o f t h e members. Neighborhood work s h o u l d use v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s a s much as p o s s i b l e a n d s h o u l d s e c u r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f a l a r g e number o f n e i g h b o r hood p e o p l e . 1  The i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n as the charge  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s not  degree.of  c o - o p e r a t i o n which the  can s e c u r e from governmental  groups having a v a i l a b l e  so much t h e f o r m o f group  departments and from  in  private  facilities.  M a j o r and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  districts.—  It  i s proposed  that  the  M u n i c i p a l i t y o f V a n c o u v e r be d i v i d e d i n t o a r e a s , t o be named maj o r and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c i p l e o f "The D e n v e r P l a n . " a c c o r d i n g to the  group  the  consciousness  after  the  T h e s e d i s t r i c t s w o u l d be the  prin-  organized  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  a v a i l a b i l i t y of a b u i l d i n g or of  indoor recreational  b e r o f commerce,  somewhat  density of population,  large playing areas, i n g s as  districts,  centers,  and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a  buildlocal  w h i c h f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n a community cham-  a l o c a l newspaper,  or a p a r e n t - t e a c h e r  associa-  tion. Each major al  recreational  d i s t r i c t w o u l d have a  recreation-  c e n t e r and w o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e t h e r e , u n d e r a c o - o p e r a t i v e  the neighborhood a c t i v i t i e s of such p u b l i c agencies board,  the p a r k s b o a r d ,  the r e c r e a t i o n  •[infra. 1 8 6 . L e e , op. c i t . , 196.  as t h e  plan, school  board and the l i b r a r y b o a r d .  91  e x i s t i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and g r o u n d s i d e d i n t o two o r more u n i t s .  the  c e n t e r c o u l d be  A l l f a c i l i t i e s w o u l d be a t  d i s p o s a l o f b o t h t h e p l a y g r o u n d o r r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d and s c h o o l board through the  superintendent  P l a n o f major and m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  of  a b o u t one m i l e ,  shores.  the  centers for Vancouver.-illustrates  o u t l i n e a d i v i s i o n of the C i t y o f Vancouver i n t o  major r e c r e a t i o n a l  natural  the  recreation.  A p r o p o s e d p l a n a n d a map w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g l e g e n d i n general  div-  lines,  but  districts,  each w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l  radius of  i n r e a l i t y bounded as f a r a s p o s s i b l e  such as t r a f f i c  thoroughfares,  by  r a i l w a y s , and  X  It  i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r be  i n t o twelve major r e c r e a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and m o s t o f t h e tional centers.  d i s t r i c t s , w i t h the  s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s as  divided  junior high  the major  recrea-  A t t h e s e c e n t e r s w o u l d be c a r r i e d on t h e  t i o n a l program of the a b o u t one m i l e ,  the  major r e c r e a t i o n a l  adult population l i v i n g within a  a r e a being a p p r o x i m a t e l y the district.  recrea-  radius  extent of  The h i g h s c h o o l g r o u n d s and  the the  n e a r b y p a r k p l a y f i e l d s w o u l d be u t i l i z e d a s a r e a s f o r t h e door  sea  out-  program. F a c i l i t i e s w o u l d n o t be d u p l i c a t e d .  utilized  by t h e h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l  the evening and, ulation.  after  t h a t t i m e , would serve  Such f a c i l i t i e s as the  i u m , and the  be p r o v i d e d . couver would  satisfactory  ••-infra,  1  93.  f o r the a d u l t  for this  pop-  auditor-  second group.  f a c i l i t i e s n o t now a v a i l a b l e w o u l d  The p r o p o s e d m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a l be:  6:00 o ' c l o c k i n  s c h o o l gymnasium, the  l i b r a r y w o u l d be o p e r a t e d  I n some s c h o o l s ,  They w o u l d be  centers for  Van-  92 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1. 2. 3.  LOCATION  Kitsilano P o i n t Grey Templeton  10th Ave. & Trafalgar Street 37th Ave. & East Boulevard G e o r g i a S t . & Templeton D r i v e  SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  LOGATION  Britannia Byng K i n g Edward K i n g George Magee John O l i v e r Technical  Parker Street & Cotton Drive 16th Ave. & Wallace Street 1 2 t h A v e . & Oak S t r e e t Nelson & Burrard Streets 49th A v e . & Maple S t r e e t 43rd Ave. & Draper S t r e e t Broadway & C l i n t o n S t r e e t s  ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS  LOCATION  11.  Garleton  K i n g s w a y & J o y c e Road  12.  Florence Nightingale  12th A v e . & Guelph  The two h i g h s c h o o l s o f commerce view)  Street  ( F a i r v i e w and G r a n d -  and P r i n c e o f W a l e s H i g h S c h o o l h a v e b e e n o m i t t e d i n  s e l e c t i o n of major r e c r e a t i o n a l i m i t y to other  high school centers.  s c h o o l s h a v e been s e l e c t e d tricts  c e n t e r s because of t h e i r  somewhat r e m o t e  Minor r e c r e a t i o n a l  Instead,  two  as m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  prox-  elementary centers i n d i s -  from a h i g h s c h o o l .  centersm—  It  i s proposed t h a t Vancouver  should i n i t i a t e the r e c r e a t i o n a l program of our p r e - s c h o o l r e n by p r o v i d i n g f o r seventeen of  minor r e c r e a t i o n a l centers.  t h e s e m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s w o u l d be l o c a t e d  l y w i t h i n a one-mile radius centers,  of each o f the major  and d i r e c t e d f r o m i t .  In almost  t h e r e are  r e n do n o t t r a v e l f a r recreational  two. '  It  district  center, small  •""infra,  93.  and  r e c r e a t i o n a l program of the  inade-  pre-school  in  child-  Such .a number o f m i n o r  c e n t e r s as s t a t e d above may be f o u n d t o be  q u a t e , .and,, i f t h e  Each  recreational  h a s been f o u n d t h a t  t o .a p l a y g r o u n d .  child-  approximate-  e v e r y major  shown on t h e map, t h e r e i s one m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l some p l a c e s  the  MAP OF  VANCOUVER BRITISH  -REFERENCES Present Supervised:. . T l a ^ r ^ j ^ 2 TVoTpo5e& -pre-school CYn Uren's® Playgrounds  3  H.a.-(OTf  ^  Hccrea.tC.OU Centre*  j  \  4 H^^lor "Hecr e a t t QYi^j\C S t r c c t ~ ^ O urges* circle)  Z.  EGEND  Railways shewn thus \ Electric Reilwoys she wr)-thus... 'Bus Lines v. Fire. Halls.. '...» «  Hospitals  ft L  ». n  D,sTricls Posts/ Block AIQS  „  ». n.. „  „  „  Circles  O  •  rod isle  Fz  ».  L/brerieS Schools  One-Mile  —  -from present-  % ^-^yr^  G R A N D V I E W  gooo  City  IMile  2100  Hell.  1/4  2200  COLUMBIA  O.W ABBOTT ST ABERDEEN ST. 34003500 E. SIOO • MILL ACAOIA RD. UNIVERSITY ADANAC ST. 700 200 3600E ADERA ST ISOO ISOOW S600 AGRONOMY RO. UNIVERSITY AISNE ST. asoo ALBERNI ST. GOO ALBERTA RD. 900 ISOO W. ALBERTA ST. ISOO UNIVERSITY /iL DEB ST.. ZOO 3O0 W. 2100 ALEXANDER ST 1100 1200 W. IOO ALEXANDRA CRES. IOO SOOE. 3900 ALICE ST. ISOO 1600 W. 3800 ALMA RD. I900 2OO0 E /SOO ANGUS DRIVE 3600 37O0 W. 3400 A NOUS ST. 1300 I6O0W. S3O0 ANN noo isoow 4900 ARBUTUS ST. 340D 3SO0 E IO00 ARCHIMEDES ST 2000 2IOO W S30O ARSYLE ST. 3ZO0 34O0 £ .4900 ASH ST moo noo 4900 ASQUITH AV. soo eoow AT LIN ST 26O0 3600 E 4IOO AUSTREY AV ZBOOE 4900 AVERY 3IOO 3300 E ISOOW l&OO BALACLAVA ST. 37O0 BALFOUR. AV. 4IOO BALKAN ST. 4IOO 300 BALMORAL ST. ISOO 2300 BALSAM ST lOOO BARCLAY ST. BATTISON ST. BAYSWATER ST. ISOO BEACH AV IOOO 700 BEATRICE ST. 430U 1300 BEATTY ST. 400 o BEAVER ST 6400 BEECHWOOD ST. saoo BELLA-VISTA ST. 34O0 noo OELLEVUE DB. 1400 4SOO BELMONT AV. 1400 4200 BERKELEY ST. seoo 2400 BIDWELL ST. 300 ISOO BIRCH ST. IZOO 2O0O BLANCA ST. ISOO 4600 BLENHEIM ST. ISOO 3200 BORDEN ST 740O BOUNDARY RO 700N 3SOO BRANT • ST 4OO0 2200  JOO aoow.  ST.  E  300 5600  S. s.  800 86O0  S S  87O0 TOO  ,S' S  3200 3O00 200 4soo 4200 3200 5300 asoo S20O  S S S. s: S. S S. s. S s.  ssoo s, aioo s aioo s. 7SOO 4SOO 5300 8600  s. s: S 5  3IO0W. 30OO ISOOW IOO 400E 4O0E. 2400 W. 2OO0W. seoo • 3400E 2900 HI 2000W. 1900 E IO0WE 3400 2IOOW E 460OIII. SOOO IV 2500 W. I70O w 1300 W 4700W 330OW ISOOE 3700E 23O0E  7SOO 3800 4200 4300 70OO 9O0 6300 2S00 ISOO 02OO 900 IOOO 1300 3600 noo ISOO sooo 1300 320D 3300 3000 3700 S2PO 430O  S. S. S. S S S. SS. S S S S S S s. s. s S. S *S. S. S S S.  BR/OSEWAY BRITANNIA BROADWAY BROADWAY BROOK BROOKS BROUSHTON BRUCE BRUNSWICK BULLER B^RNABY BURNS BURRAeo BURSILL BUTE BUTLER  E. W. ST. ST ST ST. ST ST. ST ST. ST. ST ST. ST.  CAMBIE ST. CAMBRIDGE ST CAMERON ST. CAMOSUN ST. CAMPBELL AV. CAMPUS RO CANTON ALLEY CAROERO ST CARIBOO ST. CARLTON ST CAR MA R VON ST CAROLINA ST CARRALL ST CARTIER ST CASSIA G ST CECIL ST CEDAR ST. CEDAR. CR. CEDARHURSTST. CELTIC AV. CENTRAL ST CHAMBERS ST CHANCELLOR BVD CHARLES ST CHATHAM ST CHERRY ST CHESTER ST CHESNUT ST CHEYENNE ST CHILCO ST CHURCH ST CHURCH LANS CHURCHILL ST. CLARENDON ST  70O H. 3600 E 3300 3000 E 2900 3000 IN E O4600 O 2S00E 2400 3300 3200 1400 E Wsaoo S 1300 noo .1800 ESOOO S 3O0E 2300E 2200 CONNAUOHrOR. I8O0W 1000 7O0. E 900 23O0 IOOO w IIOO 3OO0 E esoo 1200 W 33O0E aooo s IOO 200 VI. 2000 3600 E 2300 4IOOW 2SOOW 4000 800 900 E UNIVERSITY 0C€ OOUI ISOO 3SOO ISOOW 340O 28O0 2900 EE 2900 3000 W E O.W OE14001*1 300 3400E 3300 3IOO 3300W e 1700 1800 2300 IV W 2900 3S00 TOO 300 EE 2S0O 2S00 UNIVERSITY IIOO 3600 1300 E 4aoo 290O 3100 3200 340O EE 7O0 300E aoo 2700 i 2800 E I200S 200OW eoo 3200 3300 E SOO eoo IOO ISOO ssoo 24O0 ISOOW 400 7000 2400 2400  SSOO SOO 46O0 ZOOO 4700 IZOO 2000 300 SIOO SOO  aoo  soo  noo  100 IOO ISOO 2SOO 200 HILL SOO 3O0 SOON S300 2400 1700 eoo IOO 3600 400 S300 I40O 3400 zooo w. £300 7300 ISOO 4900 HILL 1200 S4O0 4BOO  noo  lgoo  iaoo  w  4700  7400 2500 2SO0 4500  S. S S. S.  ISOO S  2S00 4800 1300 S400 ISOO ssoo isoo saoos  S S S S S s s  20C M I4O0 s 2600 S IIOO S  eoos I400S 4SO0S B200S 7aoo s 4O00 S SOO s aaoo s 4100 S ssoo s 3400 S 4IOO S 6400 S 7700 S ISOO s saoos  s sioo s 5700 S sioo s ISOOS 4900 S  SSOOS 700 s 7 aooo s zeoo 4400 E SSOO w  CLARK DR CLINTON ST. CLIVE ST COLERIDGE ST COLLEGE HIGH06 COLLEGE ST COLLINGWOODST. COLUMBIA ST COMMERCIAL OR COMOX ST COOKE COPLEY CORDOVA CORNISH CORNWALL COTTON COURTENAY COY CRABTREE CREE CREELMAN CRESCENT CROMPTON CROWE CROWN CROWN CULLOOEN CYPRESS  DALHOUSIE DAVID DAVIE DAWSON DENMAN DEVONSHIRE DIN MONT DOM AN DOUGLAS DOVER DRAKE DRAPE/2 DRUNMOND DUCHESS DUFF DUKE DUMFRIES DUNBAR DUN DAS DUDLEY s DUNDEE  ST ST ST. ST ST DR. ST. ST LANE ST ST THE RO ST ST CR ST ST ST. ST. ST. ST. ST. CR AV RO CR. ST ST. ST. DR ST. ST. ST. ST. St ST ST  oo 4000 •s  DUNKIRK DUN LEVY DUNSMUIR OUR WARD  ST ST. ST AV.  3500 400 IIOO IOOO  W 4000 4200 E O SOO W 500 SOO E 4300  s  saoo  UNIVERSITY HILL 54O0 3200 E 3100 IIOO WOO W 200 2300 E 2700 1900 W 1700 1400 W. 4300 900 300 W. 4200 0 6000 3100 3200 IOOO W E 3400 900 ZOOO 2IOO E BSOO IZOO 2O0 4600 2SOO ZOOO 2500 14-00 2300  27O0  4300 W  4800 2600 2IOO E E. 69O0 4800 2300 E ISOO £ 3000 3SOO W. ISOO SOO 3S0O E 3t00 e 890O S200 28O0 E  S9oo s  SSOO S 1200 S 8600 S 1300 S 4500 S 4500 S .9000 S 3500 S B700 S I3O0 S S900 S ZOOO S SIOO S 7500 S SIOO S 7700 S £500 S. 600 H 3O0O S. SSOO S  300 O SOO  EARLES RO. EAST BOULEVB EAST MALL EAST ST ELGIN ST ELLIOTT ST ELLIS AV. ElM ST ETON ST EUCLID ST EVELEIGH ST.  2700 290O E 2O00 2100 W UNIVERSITY 3S00 360O E IIOO E 2500 2600 E 3600 E 2S00 2600 W 2IOO 3EOO E 260O 3S00 E 900 IIOO W  FAIRMONT FANNIN FERHOALE FIR FLEMING FRANCIS FRANKLIN FRASER FREMLIN FRENCH FRONTENAO  2800 4300 1600 ISOO ISOO IIOO IIOO SOO 900 I3O0  ST. AV. ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST ST  290O sooo 2400 1600 1600 I60O 3600 7O0 IOOO 1400 3600  E w £  E E £ E W W E  3200 W SAL/AND 2500 £ SALT 2300 E GARDEN 1200 E ST GEORGE 3600 E GEORGIA STE GEORGIA ST.W. -J900 W G-ILFORO GLADSTONE ST 220O E GLEN DR iaoo iioo e GLEN DALE RD 3600 E GLENGYLE ST 2O0O E GOODMURPHY ST IIOO W GORE AV. 300 £ GOTH AOO ST 2700 e GRANDVIEWHY. 3BO0 E GRANT ST. 36O0 £ GRANVILLE ST TOO W ISOO w 1 GRANVILLE STS. 1400 W \ GRANVILLE ID. 3600 £• { GRAVELEY ST aero iaoo m. GREER ST GROVE ST 400 900 E  4400 5OO0  S5O0 8200  700 N 6500 S  39O0 3S00 20O 4SOO SOO  90OO BTBO 300 SSOO GOO  SIOO 1300 SOO 1600 3000 SOO 200 3O00 4800 asoo 6400  5400 1400 6O0 3200 7300 SOO 300 SOOO  3500 4O0O SOON aoo eoo eoo eoo 3BOO  3700 490O 3800 1200 TOO 700 1200 asoo ISOO 40O0 4000 9200 900  440O 280O 1400 ZOO 1800 1200 ISOO I30O aoo  ON  BLOCK  THE  MAP  STREETS AND  NUMBERS GIVE  ARE  AS EAST  THE  INDICATED OR WEST  s s  EXACT  HORIZONTALLYAND  LOCATION NORTH  CARRALL  _J'LNOM,  OF  Of? SOUTH &. ONTARIO  EACH  ^  THE OR  INDEX SOUTH  AVENUES /sr GUELPH HADDEN HAIG HAMILTON HARO HAROLD HARRIET HA R VIE HARWOOD HASTINGS HASTINGS HAWKS HEATHER HELMCKEN, HEMLOCK HENRY HIGHBURY HIGHGATE HOBSON HOLLAND HOMER HORLEY HORNBY HOSMER. HOWE HOY HUDSON HULL HUMM  OF  ST.  300  4500 1400 300 2O0 2000 900 3300 3200  £  w. W w w E aoo E 3GO0 £. 90O 1700 HI O 3S00 eIOOO w 0 TOO SOO E . isoo 700 w IOOO W 200 I4C0 w 1300 3700 3800 w 24O0 E 220O W 2100 3900 W 400 W 300 2700 3IO0 E aoo aoo W 2OO0w I700 700 aoo w 3500 3600 E I3O0 W 1200 1900 2000 E 2100 E 4300  2000 1300 8200 300 800  2800  |||  BLOCK  NUMBERS  EAST  OR WEST AND  NORTH  STREET F ROM  EAST TO  Q6OO-F7OOS0 400  ST^.  RESPECTIVELY.  a ^ l ^ $  ^Sourh  POSTAL  EACH  s.  IMPERIAL IMPERIAL INDUSTRIAL INVERNESS ISLAND IVANHOE IVY  TO WEST  7©TH ST RD ST ST AV. ST ST  I40O s 8300 s IOOO s 900 s seoo 5700 s 44O0 4HO0 s : AV 7000 J JACKSON 6700 ST UAM&S 1300 s 400 s ST UELl/jCOE 300 G~IR 300 400 s : JERICHO ST "• 0 IOOO s aeoo s ST 2000 JOHN IIOO s JOYOg RD IOOO 3/00 s 2000 4400 4900 s ST KAMLOOPS 640O s ST 1500 /CASLO SOOO SZOO S . ST seoo s KEITH 5500 OR 5900 s KELdWHA ST SSOO KENT AV. 300 1300 s ST 4900 S4O0 s KERR s 300 isoo KINGEDWARDAV.E KING EDWARD AVW 3500 4000 s KlNGSWAY 300 ISOO 5 SIOO 5400 s KIRK LAND ST 3300 3900 s KITCHENER ST 3500 3700 s KNIGHT ST KOQTEAIAY ST e900 7400 s.  I300 E ST2300.  ST ST. ST ST AV ST. ST . ST ST ST:  THE  EXTEND  AVE.  AV. ST ST ST ST ST ST ST STE STW. AY. ST ST ST ST ST ST  GIVES  STREET SL. DUNDAS  STREETS  FOR SAMPLE  MCLEAN M cNICHOl MCRAE MCSPADDEN  !/£&T/C/QLLY  OF POWELL  PQWELLST.  S s  S S  INDEX  Wf?ITTEN  AS OF  S S  8700 7O0O  ISOO IOOO  POSTAL  S S  6O00  370O 8800  STREET  S S S S  SOONSOOO 4400 S 4900 6200 6300 SS HILL S400 SSOO ISOO 6000 S S. 2oo eoo eoo o aooo s IOOO SSOO IIOO S s eooo aooo s 4300 noo iaoo s 3000 4O00 S N 200 400 S a/OO I4O0S.TOMARINLDR ISOO S 900 iaoo s 2300 3200 S S BOO 3000 IIOO 3100 I4O0 S. W IIOO noo s 3200 34O0 3SOOS S S200 iaoo 1900 j" asoo isoo sioo j 2300 2S00 S SZOO S900SS 90O 7400 RO3O0O ST DR2000 2200 IIOO O saoo STiaooO isoo w SOO 2IOO 200 3SO0 3700 IOOO O saoo m IOOO 200 s eoo E Hoo 2600 2900 s 2SO0 isoo s: 1200 1200 a eoo 9000 s I4O0 iaoo s IIOO 3500 isoo s  1200 I3O0 E 2S00 2SO0 E 320O 33O0 E 3IO0 32VO £ UNIVERSITY 2800 29O0E 3500N 340O 100 E O ISOOW ISOO 20OO W 900 ISOO W 800 300 W 200 2SO0 E 2IOO 600W IZOOE ISOO W 2SO0 W iaoo ISOO E 4200 W. 4100 I4O0 E 1300 900 E 2O0 I 2000 W 1700 I4O0 w 1200 1300 E 1200 SOO W 200 4000 W 3900 4/O0 W 4000 1400 E 1300 I9O0 W iaoo  A  42O0 4300 UNIVERSITY IOO IIOO I300 IIOO I6O0 1900 3000 32QO 2000 2100 400 O  1200  JERVIS  3100 24O0 2700 IOO IIOO  : AND  VB.  SOO 100 ?800 4300 1300 300 360O  I3O0 HILL E 1600. E. 3O0O. E 3200 £ 5500 E 8200  W  E E £ W W E £  2S0O E 2800 E IIOO E I200 E 3000 E nob; I200 E 3000 3200 £ 3SOO £ 0 0 200 3000 3600 EE 3£00 £ 1300 1300 I400 E seoo £ 3S0O  KEEEER  >5  2O0N 4300  aioo  I90O SOO 4100 •4500  3700  A RE S, ,  1900  3200 8300 8300  S S S S  IOOO SIOO 8400 2000 1400 4600 6O0O  S S s: S S' S S.  soon 2300  S 70ON 4400 S SOO eoo s 2500 S 2100 IOOO 1200 S 8400 S aaoo asoo s SSOO 4000 4100 s 4000 4IOO S 230O S7O0 S eioo 62O0 S I4O0 SI300 3IO0 7BOO S 700N 4IO0 S.  4eoo W  S  N UNI B ER ED  FROM  LABURNUM LAGOON LAKEVIEW LAKE WOOD . LAMBERT LANARK LANCASTER LANGARA 'LARCH LATTA LAUREL LAURIER LAVAL LILLOOET LILY LIME' LINCOLN LINDEN LITTLE LOCARNO LOGAN LORNf  ST OR OR ST ST ST AY ST ST sr ST RD ST ST ST ST ST sr CR. ST AV  T900 W 2000 2IOO W zooo 2I0O £. 2000 £ 3600 E 1400 ISOO E 3000 E 4400 4500 W 2400 2500 W 3200 33O0 £ 900 W aoo 900 noo W UNIVERSITY 3000 3100 £ I900 f 2IOO 2200 W 3eoo B 1900 W 1900 2000 E 4300 W aoo w 2000 E  MCC LEERY MCDONALD c M ff/LL M'&ILL MCHARDY MCKENZIE M e KINNON  ST ST RD ST ST ST ST  2700 2800 2700 2800. UNIVERSITY 2200 3600 3200 3400 2800 290O 32O0  iaoo  W W  E  E W E  62O0 7O0 ICON 3600  8200  S  S  3IO0 900 S .3800 a aooo 8400 S 7GO0 S 3600 S500. £900 S 1500 ISOO S 7300 0600 S saoo eooo S 2100 aeoo s 3800 3900 S HILL 400 44O0 s )200 1300 S 66OO S 64O0 S4O0 seoo s 4900 SOOOS 4eoo 4700 s iaoo 1900 s 8500 S 360O 3700 s 63O0  leoo  HUL  300  4500 2500 S4O0  6400 S 78O0 S 400 SSOO eooo eooo  N S s s  DR ST AY ST  1300 I70O I30O 1700  1400 E 2000 IN 1400 W iaoo E  /400 I200 3200 2000  s s s  E  3200  s  E  aeoo s  MADDEN AV. ST. MAIN MAINLAND ST ST MANITOBA MANNERING AV MANOR ST ST MAPLE MARGUERITE AV MARINE CR MARINE DR MW MARINE DR. SE. MARINE DR. S.W. MARMON ST MARPOLE AV MARSHALL ST MATTHEWS ST ST MAXWELL MELBOURNE ST ST MELVILLE MIDLOTHIAN AV MILLER ST MILTON ST MINTO CR ST MINTO MONMOUTH MONTCALM ST MONTROSE AV MORRISON ST MORTON • AV ST MOSCROP. MOSS ST  3000 0 W. /OOO w. 1600 £ E 4S0Q w 900 isoo noo w 3800 2500 w UNIVERSITY HILL O 3600 E 7900 O 4000 w S600 3200 3300 £ 1300 iaoo W 3000 2O00 £ 3600 900 1900 IV 3500 /eoo E 3400 3400 350O E S300 I0OC 1200 W 0 300 W 4500 1700 iaoo E 3700 1500 W 8900 IIOO /400 HI 4700 3S00 HI 5900 3/00 3300- E 4100 1200 1300 W 7500 2000 2200 £ 3600 E 77O0 2O00 W IIOO IBOO 3400 3600 E 4SO0 2700 3000 E 4800  NANA 1 MO NANTON NAPIER NELSON  2200 2400 ZOOO IIOO IIOO 27O0 200 2000 UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY 400 500 300 2300 3000 2500 2600 300 .200 IOOO 900 1300  ST AV ST ST  IOO 200 0 2000 2900 1900  1400 200 300 100 2300 3200 2O00  O l/OO  E W £ W  s  1300 s 3000 s 4800 s SZOO s 7SO0 s 47O0 s 6600 s  s s saoo s 3500 s 37OOs 3900 s 3500 s B200 s 600 s 4600 s 43O0 s 9000 s s SOOO s 4900 s azoo s 34O0 J 8400 s IZOO s 4600 s 54O0 s 8400 9000  600N 8400  4200 IOOO  s 4300 s IIOO s /OOO s  NEWTON . WYNO CR 900 NEWTON NICOLA ST NIGEL AV OST w eoo NOOTKA NOR: QUAY ST 4900 S NORTHERN OAK' sr /aoo w 900 ODLUM OR O&DEN AV HILL HILL  w E £ E W E  I300 44O0 4600 400 4400 4000 . I400 2200 8700 900 2400 /OOO  s S S  S S S S  OL YMPIC ST ONTARIO ST ONTARIO PS ST OBMIDALL OSLER AV. OXFORD ST PACIFIC ST PANDORA ST PARK DR PARKER ST PAYNE ST PENDER ST PENORELL ST PERRY ST PEVERIL AV PICTON ST PINE CR PINE ST POINT GREYRD POPLAR ST 'ST, PORTER ST POUND POWELL ST PRICE RD PRINCE AL BERT ST PRINCE EDWARD ST PRINCESS ST PRIOR ST P/SESCOTT ST  PC/GET  QUADRA QUEBEC QUEBEC QUEENS QUEENS QUESNELLE QUILCHENA QUILCHENA RAE RAILWAY RA VINE RA YMUR REID REILLY RENFREW RHOOES RICHARDS RICHLIEU RINGWOOO ROBSON ROGERS  DR ST ST pet  AV RD  OR CR Pei ST ST ST AV ST ST  sr  ST ST ST ST  ST ST  OE OE /OOO 2/00  300  ISOO  3300 W SSOO SOOO S 0 W 1600 8800 S 100 £ 5700 S 3S00 E SSOO eooo s 1200 W 330O. 8700 S 3600  E  1300 IOO IN  3600 1200 E I4O0 W  O N  1400 S 200 S  7900 S eoo 900 S 5/005200 S IOO0W 36O0 e 400 500 S /OOO 2000 W /cod IIOO S 1600 E 3600 4400 $ 0 100 W 4500 4600 S 4800 S 3000 3100 E 4600 /eoo iaoo IN 3300 S3O0iS /600 1700 W noo 32O0 S zoos 900 3600 E 3400 3500 E  24O0 SOO  /eoo 260O  0  3300 700  39O0 W  7500  /3O0  WOOS  soo e 7900 3500 S 1900 £ 3000 3300 S 3400 S 2700 e 3300 /OO iaoo E 200 S  3600  45O0 E S7O0  E E E  400 E 2000 300 aoo SOO O ZOO, eoo aoo W 6800 3200 2600 32O0 w 3200 3300 3400 w 3400 O IOO E 1700 O £ 3200 O  4BO0 S  aioo s aioo s IOOO 5 900.S 7000 S 44O0.S 3600 S 72O0 S  3400 S  3200 33O0 E 4800S UNIVERSITY H/LL 32O0 3400 W 3200 33O0 S /900 2100 W 4900 S I9O0 2IOO W 4300 S 3600 £ 5300 5400 S 200. 600 E 00 S 2900 3000 E 4600 4700 s: . 900 IOOO £ 200 1200 S 3100 3200 £ 4700 S 2100 2200 E 3600 3700 S 230O 2900 £ BOON 440O S 2700 2800 £ 52O0 5800 S IOO /.3O0 5 400 900 IIOO W 500 3200 330O S 900 E 4500 S IOO aoo 3 2000 w 700 O 900 E 300  IN  N.  ROSE  ST  ROSS  ST  ROSSLAND ROXBURGH QUBY • RUPERT ST.CATHER/NE ST GEORGE ST LAWRENCE STMARGARETS SALSBURY SA SAM AT SCHOOL SCOTIA  scorr  ST CR ST ST ST. ST ST. ST DR ST RD ST  sf  SEATON ST SELKIRK ST SEMLIN DR SEN LAC SEYMOUR ST SHANGHAI ALLEY SHAUGHNESSYST SHERBROOK ST  SHORT  .  SIMPSON - SLOGAN SMITHS SOMERSET SOMERV/LLE SOPHIA SOUTHERN SPENCER. SPERLING •; SPRUCE. STAMFORD STATION STEPHENS STEWART STIRLING SYDNEY TALISMAN TANNER. TAUNTON TECUMSEH TEMPLETON TERMINAL THOMAS THURLOW TODER/CK TOLMIE TRAFALGARST  ST  AV ST ST CO. ST ST ST ST ST. ST ST ST ST ST ST ST AV RD ST AV DR AV ST ST ST ST  2O00 E /20Q S IOOO IIOO £ 2000 8IOO S 2300 E IOOO 1200 S ISOO W 4900 sooo s 3600 E 4900 S4O0 S 2900 7O0N eooo s 800 3300 900 E E 2000 6400 S 400 SOO E 2000 aioo s 24O0 2500 E 4600 47O0 s 24O0 E SOOO 5900 s ISOO 1700 e IOON isoo s 4400 45O0 W I2O0 aioo s 29O0 5900S 3300 E 5SOO 200 300 E 20002400 S TOO E 60O 2000 3O00S IOOO 1200 W 300 400 S IIOO 3500 3800 S 1900 2000 I200 EIN IOON 30O0 5 3300 3400 £ 57005800 S SOO 600 W 300 1300 S 0 W. SOO S 90O IOOO W 7800 S4O0 S IIOO 1200 E 300O 7500 s ISOO 7/00 7200 s 4eoo 1600 w /300 1400 S 2500 Z7O0 E BOON 5300 S /OO IOOO W aoo 900 S 1600 W S40O SSOO S 90O E 490O 5300S aoo 20O 300 E 2500 a/00 s 200 300 E /soo s 3000 3200 E SOOO. S400 S . 7200 S 1700 W 5700 IOOO IIOO W 2000 3IOO- S 3300 340O E 56O0 S70O S 20O 300 E. '900 1200 S 2700 HV 2600 /sod 3IO0 S I700 iaoo e 0 /OO H 2200 E a/00 8700S 45O0S 4000 2/00 E O 300 HI 4200 44O0 S 3600 £ 4SOO 340V 4700 S  TRIMBLE TRINITY TRIUMPH TRUTCH TUPPER TURNER TYMEUNION UNIVERSITY VALDEZ VANNESS VENABLES VERNON VICTORIA VINE VIVIAN WALDEN WALES WALKER WALL WALLACE WALNUT WARD WATER. WATERLOO WAVERLEY WEBBER WELLINGTON WEL WYN  E  3IOO IIOO 2IOO 200 200O IOOO 3400 4500 2500  3200  E  530O  1200 W 2200 e 300N IIOO £  I2O0  2IOO £ a/OO IIOO W 3500 £  200  £400  4000 W /300  /3O0  260O W  5400  S  3200 S 3500 S /eoos  8300 S /400 J .  7000 S 3/00 S eioo s  :  ST S.T ST ST ST ST  ST  ST BVD RO AV ST OR  DR  ST ST ST ST  ST.  ST ST ST, ST ST ST ST ST ST ST WE NONA H ST WESBROOK OR WESSEX ST WEST BOULEVO WEST MALL WESTERN CR WESTERN pKWA Y AV. WHYTE ST WILLIAM  4400 W /3O0 2200 3600 £ 400  4300  /TOO  360O  £  OS 3/O0 3200 W 1600 SOO W 3200 2400 3600 £ SOO 3300 3500 E 5300 200 24O0 E 700 UNIVERSITY HILL 2900 3100 W 3300 seoo E I3O0 3500 9O0 3400 E aoo I200 E IIOO O I8O0 2OO0 £ O 2300 W 2200 I4O0 2700 2800 £ eooo 20D E 44O0 2600 E 5200 2Z00 E 3G00 2DOO 3OO0 E O  3/00 S SOON /OO S 3300 S 3900 S  eoo s  84O0  S  aoo s  3900 S S400 S 900 S /30O S 3400 S 34O0 S 8400 S SOOO S 8400 S 3800 S 700 S  3800 3900 W 700 eooo s 1900 W 1300 1400 J 2600 4900 5000 s Z700 O IOOEW 200 S 3300 2000  200  3000  3400 W 3200 £  ISOO  3600  4500  300 e E  iaoo noo e 39O0 2100 2200 E .4300  3100 6200 4IOO SIOO 4800 4SOO  S S S S S S  UN/VERS/TY HILL 3300 £ 5700 5 ZOOO 2/00 W sooo 64O0 S UNIVERSITY HILL N. END OF WESTERNPARKWAY UNIVERSITY HILL /aoo ZOOO w IIOO 1200 S. 1200 s IOOO 3tl60 E IIOO eooo S /3O0 W S7O0 WILLINaOON PSf WILLOW sr TOO aoo w 2Z00 seoo s WINDERMERE 3100 3200 E 70ON 4400 S WINDSOR sr 900 IOOO E 2400 aioo s WOLFE AV IOOO 1200 W 3100,3600 S 3000 S DR O WOODLAND I4O0 /SOO £• IOOW WOODSTOCK AV. 10b E 50OO S sr 400 W WVLLIE I90O S ST 24O0 YALE 3600 E SOO ST eoo S YEW 2IOO Z200 W I4O0 8200 YORK AV 2400 2SOO W I300 S YUKON 300 ST 4O0 W /SOO aioo s.  N  94 c h i l d r e n p r o v e d t o he a s u c c e s s f u l o n e ,  it  i s proposed that  the  number o f m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s f o r s u c h c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - s i x , t h a t i s , t h r e e every major r e c r e a t i o n a l In every case,  in  district.  the minor r e c r e a t i o n a l center  or p l a y -  g r o u n d w o u l d c o n s i s t o f a s m a l l p l a y p l a c e on a m u n i c i p a l fenced  i n and e q u i p p e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e u s e o f t h e  children*  The g r o u n d s ,  of course,  when n o t u n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n . door p l a y a r e a , if  necessary,  a l l times  the work o f each  out-  a n e a r b y community b u i l d i n g o r c h u r c h h a l l ,  a public school b u i l d i n g ,  c a r r y out a p a r t o f the To d a t e ,  pre-school  w o u l d be c l o s e d a t  To s u p p l e m e n t  park,  w o u l d be s e c u r e d  or,  to  indoor program.  t h e G y r o C l u b and p a r k s , b o a r d combined have  c o n s t r u c t e d and e q u i p p e d f o u r t e e n p l a y g r o u n d s a s f a c i l i t i e s the  r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m o f t h e p r e - s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n ,  s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n and t h e a d u l t s  of'the  city..  It  is  the  proposed  that_ t h e s e f o u r t e e n a r e a s c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e o n l y f o r t h e 1 school c h i l d . It  for  i s p r o p o s e d t h a t H a r o p l a y g r o u n d be r e o p e n e d  pre-  to  f u n c t i o n a s a p a r k w i t h e n o u g h p l a y s p a c e and e q u i p m e n t t o p r o Vide for pre-school c h i l d r e n . superfluous for  It  the  t r e e s o r s h r u b s w h i c h make i t a n a t t r a c t i v e  the l o i t e r i n g of d e l i n q u e n t s .  fenced in-and r e s t r i c t e d s h o u l d be c l o s e d a t It  s h o u l d be f r e e d f r o m  Furthermore,  to small c h i l d r e n .  grounds  small p l a y areas>^uil/able  p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n be c o n s t r u c t e d a t 93.  These  s h o u l d be  s i x o ' c l o c k every evening.  i s proposed that  supra,  it  place  for  the  G r a n v i l l e Park  95 and a t H e a t h e r P a r k .  The t h r e e p l a y g r o u n d a r e a s o f t h e  s c h o o l c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n recommended  for early construction  PARK  are:  1  LOCATION  1. H a r o 2. G r a n v i l l e  Haro & Butte S t r e e t s F i r & P i n e S t s . , 14th & 15th Aves.  3. Heather  1 8 t h Avenue & H e a t h e r  W i t h i n any o f the major ed i t , m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  districts  park.  Street  i f attendance  warrant-  c e n t e r s c o u l d be s t a r t e d f o r t h e  p o p u l a t i o n on t h e p l a y g r o u n d o f t h e  local  elementary  c e n t e r of each  School recreational  s c h o o l g r o u n d f u n c t i o n as t h e  be t r a n s f e r r e d grounds.  i s proposed that every  recreational  Equipment s u i t a b l e  sufficient  should  school  s h o u l d be  s p a c e on t h e  utiliz-  school  The s c h o o l a u d i t o r i u m , basement o r gymnasium s h o u l d be  utilized  for  the  indoor program.  tary  There are  fifty-three  s c h o o l s i n Vancouver w h i c h c o u l d serve as the 2 centers for their p u p i l s . ' There are t h r e e  students.  senior  as the p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r s  for  T e n o f t h e s e h i g h s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d t o 3  as the major  recreational  centers for adults.  r e m a i n i n g f o u r h i g h s c h o o l s w h i c h were o m i t t e d i n t h a t 1  supra, 93. i n f r a , 97. 3.. Y . _ 2  elemen-  playground  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and t w e l v e  high schools which c o u l d serve  utilized  pop-  t o t h a t group  from the m u n i c i p a l p l a y a r e a s t o the  e d by s c h o o l s when t h e r e i s n o t  city  c e n t e r f o r the  Large m u n i c i p a l p l a y i n g f i e l d s nearby  grounds.  major  district.  centers.-— I t  u l a t i o n of that s c h o o l .  adult  s c h o o l or  T h e s e w o u l d be s u b s i d i a r y t o a n d d i r e c t e d f r o m t h e  recreational  their  pre-  be  The selection  are '  as f o l l o w s : -  SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS  .  LOCATION  1.  Fairview High School of Commerce ,2. F a l r v i e w H i g h A n n e x 3. Grandview High S c h o o l of Commerce  1st A v e . & Commercial D r i v e  4.  44th Ave. & Fraser  John O l i v e r Annex  Broadway & G r a n v i l l e S t . 4 t h A v e . & "Vine S t .  St*  The p r o p o s e d , p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r V a n c o u v e r . T h e p l a n  or  scheme s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  community r e c r e a t i o n a l  of  program and the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n I gram f o r V a n c o u v e r i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e I V . A c o n s e r v a t i v e hut p r a c t i c a l p l a n i s h e r e o f f e r e d  pro-  meet t h e  stage  theoretical  minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s 2  o f g r o w t h and p o p u l a t i o n .  The a v e r a g e p r o v i s i o n f o r  t i o n a l n e e d s made by c i t i e s  i n the p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s  f o r m the. b a s i s v i s i o n o f the  recreational  The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t i o n w o u l d be t h e  infra,  of Vancouver  p l a n c a n be made a c c o r d i n g t o  of r e c r e a t i o n . — trained  acting for  it.  basic  Yfhen t h e  board,  Befuture  organization.  The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f  advisor of.the  t i o n was on. s c h o o l p r o p e r t y 1  recrea-  o f t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r V a n c o u v e r .  needs and g r o w t h w i t h o u t any d i s r u p t i o n o f the  and f r e q u e n t l y  to  recrea-  representing  superintendent of  he w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  to the  it  recreaschool  98.  \  2 . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g community r e c r e a t i o n c a n be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . ' 3 V a r i o u s forms o f c i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s V I I t o X o f the a p p e n d i x . The o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a n f o r V a n c o u v e r i s meant t o be s i m p l e and e f f i c i e n t , a c h i e v i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e p a r k s b o a r d and t h e s c h o o l board but not d u p l i c a t i n g e i t h e r program o r f a c i l i t i e s . The scheme i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e s a d o p t e d by c i t i e s r e c o g n i z e d t o have good p l a n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4  Infra,  189-192.  ELEMENTARY SOHOOLS 1. Aberdeen 2. Alexandra 5. Bayyiew 4. Begbie •5. B e a c o n s f i e l d 6. Brook 7. C a r l t o n &* E d i t h O a v e l l < ' 9> E d i t h C a v e l l Annex 10* C e n t r a l 1 1 . Dawson 12* C h a r l e s D i c k e n s 13* D o u g l a s 14* F l e m i n g 15* F r a n k l i n 16. Simon F r a s e r 1 7 . Simon F r a s e r Annex 18* G e n e r a l G o r d o n 19* H a s t i n g s 2 0 . ' Henry Hudson 21. Kerrisdale 22* L o r d K i t c h e n e r 2 3 . Langara 24. L i v i n g s t o n 2 5 . D a v i d L l o y d George 26. McBride 2 7 . MacDonald 28. S i r . A . MacKenzie 2 9 . Maple Grove 30. Moberly 3 1 . M o b e r l y Annex 32. Model 3 5 , Mount P l e a s a n t 34. Lord Nelson 55. Florence Nightingale 5 6 . John Norquay 3 7 . Norquay Annex 3 8 . P r i n c e o f Wales 3 9 . Queen M a r y 40. Quilchena • 41* Renfrew 4 2 . C e c i l Rhodes 43. Lord Roberts 44. Laura Secord 45. Lord S e l k i r k 46. sexsmith 4 7 . Seymour 48. Strathcona 4 9 . 'I'ecumseh 5 0 . L o r d Tennyson 5 1 . Van Horne 52. Wolfe 5 3 . Woodland  LOCATION Barclay & Burrard Sts. Broadway & C l a r k D r . 6th Ave. & Collingwood S t . Kitchener & L i l l o e t Sts. 2 0 t h Ave* & C l i n t o n S t . 5 3 r d Ave.. & M a i n S t . K i n g s w a y & J o y c e Road 2 0 t h Ave* & A s h S t r e e t 2 5 t h A v e * & Oak S t r e e t Pender & Hamilton S t r e e t s Helmcken & B u r r a r d S t r e e t 1 7 t h A v e * & G l e n Dr* 59th Ave, & - V i c t o r i a Dr, ' 4 9 t h A v e . & K n i g h t Road A l b e r t & Cariboo S t s . 1 6 t h Ave* & M a n i t o b a S t . , 6 t h A v e * & Quebec S t r e e t 6 t h Ave* & Bayswater S t . A l b e r t & C l i n t o n Sts.. Cornwall & Cypress Sts* 4 1 s t Ave* & Carnarvon 25th Ave. & Blenheim S t . 1 4 t h A v e , & Crown S t * 25rd Ave. & Sophia S t . 67th Ave, & C a r t i e r S t . 2 9 t h Ave* & G u l l o d e n S t . . Hastings, & V i c t o r i a , Dr. 59th Ave., & Windsor 4 5 t h A v e , & Cypress . 5 9 t h A v e . & Ross Marine Drive & Fraser S t . 12th Ave, & Ash St* Broadway & K i n g s w a y C h a r l e s S53, & T e m p l e t o n Dr... 1 2 t h A v e . Guelph St,. E u c l i d A v e . & S l o c a n St., Wellingtons- Rupert S t . 2 5 t h Ave* &\Marguerite Ave* 5 t h Ave* & Trimble 5 7 t h Ave* & Maple 22nd A v e . & R u p e r t . S t * 14th Ave* & A l d e r S t . B i d w e l l & Comox S t . Lakewood D r * & B r o a d w a y 22nd Ave* & C o m m e r c i a l Dr.. 58th Ave. & Ontario S t . G e o r g i a St.. & V e r n o n Dr* P e n d e r & J a c k s o n Ave* 4 1 s t Ave* & C o m m e r c i a l D r . 1 0 t h A v e . & Cypress S t . 42nd A v e . & O n t a r i o S t . 27th Ave. & Ontario S t . 4 t h Ave* & Woodland D r ,  98 FIGURE  IH  'GA' PROPOSED PLAN OF .ORGANIZATION FOR A RECREATIONAL PBGGBAWr PROGRAM: TT\] VANCOUVER  CITY COUNCIL SCHOOL BOARD RECREATION BOARD SUPERINTENDENT OF. RECREATION AND P H Y S I C A I EDUCATION! SCHOOL DEPARTMENT  [SUPERVISOR:  .PARK OR PLAYGROUND DEPARTMTO  ISUPERVISOI OF GIRLS  BOYS  pUPERVISOt OF MEN .:  PH 1—1  CQ  m  hi  cs  M CQ E-l W CQ O  &q O  ra@  ffl  pa oCQ cb  H  FH  IX  K  CQ t>H  © o o c$ '•  ra  O  ft O G K  ft} M  pq (- oCQ cb FrCQ  i-i  EH M t>-  t>  e-i  EH H  CQ  3UPERVIS01 3F :WOMEN ~% PRE-SCHQO CHlJjd^El'  M EH O <J  CQ  CQ  is;  b  O H M CQHf> trj M  r:  is;  ft;  1 ENDUSTRIA1L RECREATION  CQ  H  o o MOB o  PH  EH  o  DRANATI Ci DANCING  TOie WNICIPAD CAMPS  CONSTRUE IVE ACTIVITIES  ISPECIAL mCHEAT I ON  ST/IMMING  IffiG.  99  board through the  superintendent  p e r t y he w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e superintendent  of parks;  o f s c h o o l s ; when on p a r k p r o -  to  the p a r k s board t h r o u g h  the  when he was c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n  b u i l d i n g s o r on p r o p e r t y p r o v i d e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , c l u b s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s he w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  to  other  such i n accordance  with  w h a t e v e r a r r a n g e m e n t s he h a d made w i t h t h e g o v e r n i n g boards*, The c h i e f  concern of the  superintendent  o f r e c r e a t i o n w o u l d be  the p r o m o t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i o n between the v a r i o u s agencies  i n the  c i t y and the  recreational  o r g a n i z a t i o n of neighborhood  asso-  c i a t i o n s and community c e n t e r s so a s t o ' o b t a i n  t h e maximum o f  a c t i v i t y on the r e c r e a t i o n a l  city.  w o u l d be p a i d b y t h e The e x e c u t i v e superintendent  f a c i l i t i e s of the  s c h o o l b o a r d and t h e p a r k s  staff.—•  The e x e c u t i v e  o f r e c r e a t i o n and t h e  v i s o r s w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e p l o y e d and t o t h e  to the  superintendent  t i o n , or p l a y g r o u n d department  at  board.  s t a f f would c o n s i s t of supervisors.  boards  two s u c h  A m a l e s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  In the  and a l s o f o r men's a c t i v i t i e s ( b o t h  i n the  evening r e c r e a t i o n a l  centers.  a l s o come u n d e r h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . i n each major r e c r e a t i o n a l activities  of that  supervisors, necessary. 1  f o r the  recrea-  i n d o o r and  after-  outdoor)  The m u n i c i p a l camp m i g h t  He w o u l d h o l d one man d i r e c t o r  d i s t r i c t responsible  f o r the  men's  district.  0 a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , a c i t y i n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n as V a n c o u v e r , h a s s i x s u p e r v i s o r s u n d e r t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . 1  2  infra.  em-  recrea-  noon h o u r s a n d i n t h e l a t e  noons,  the  super-  by whom t h e y a r e  of r e c r e a t i o n . least  The  who w o u l d be e m p l o y e d by t h e p a r k s b o a r d , w o u l d be  t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l workers at  His salary  class  100 A l a d y s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e dramatics, activities,  for  educational  f o l k and d r a m a t i c d a n c i n g , a n d p r e - s c h o o l b o t h i n d o o r and o u t d o o r .  w o u l d , be h e l d i n t h e adult recreation.  The women's  evening r e c r e a t i o n a l  children's  activities  centers provided for  The " s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d h o l d one l a d y d i r e c t o r  i n each major r e c r e a t i o n a l  d i s t r i c t responsible  f o r the  ladies  a c t i v i t i e s and t h e p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r a m o f t h a t  dis-  trict. I n the p h y s i c a l education department, at supervisors, -necessary*" " 1  who w o u l d be e m p l o y e d by t h e  least  school board,  A m a l e s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  physicalCeduoatiori: and-recreation s c h o o l s of the  city.  that school.  are  for  the  o f a l l the boys i n the  He w o u l d h o l d one man r e s p o n s i b l e  the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l program o f the 2 of  two  B y t h i s means t h e  standard  .68 for  boys  o f the work would  be c o n s i d e r a b l y i m p r o v e d b y means o f m o n t h l y s u p e r v i s i o n . A l a d y s u p e r v i s o r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n o f a l l t h e city.  g i r l s i n the  She w o u l d h o l d one l a d y r e s p o n s i b l e  schools of  the  i n each s c h o o l f o r  t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m f o r the  girls  O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , has t h r e e s u p e r v i s o r s u n d e r t h i s d e p a r t m e n t a n d some o f t h e o t h e r s i x s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a n d p l a y g r o u n d d e p a r t m e n t a l s o a s s i s t w i t h t h e work o f t h e school c h i l d r e n . p  U n d e r t h e p r e s e n t p l a n i n w h i c h home-room t e a c h e r s o f the elementary s c h o o l s m a i n t a i n t h i s work, i t i s ahialmost, i m p o s s i b l e t a s k f o r t h e one s u p e r v i s o r t o keep i n c o n s t a n t and c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h a b o u t 765 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s as w e l l . as w i t h the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s o f the secondary s c h o o l s . s  i n f r a , 183.  Annual Report June, 1935  (Vancouver Board of S c h o o l  Trustees)  101 TABLE X I I SMART  OF S T A T I S T I C S ON COMHUNITY RECREATION REPRESENTATIVE  ,  CITIES  P r o v i s i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n a l Program  NUMBER C  if  14 35 21  68  A" 1. S u p e r v i s e d 2.  3.  4.  Playgrounds  Playground D i r e c t o r s Salaried; directors—-men Salaried directors—women S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r round Volunteer directors .men ; Volunteer directors—-women  18 16 1 0 0  Seasonal Operation of Playgrounds Year round Summer o n l y .- * . School year only Summer and o t h e r s e a s o n s  0 9 14 18 0 2 0 8  Indoor R e c r e a t i o n Buildings (municipal) P l a y Centers  *  , i « a s A j B» C,  The  lQ  te  s  u  46 30 10 50 20  E* ' 85  28 114 56 14 88 56 9 30 112 3 0 165 80 20 4 4 80 9 4 2 8  62 0 6 0  85 0 0 0  0 6 6 6 20 14  5 11  0 85  s i g n i f y s t a t e m e n t s c l a s s i f i e d above D and E . s  e  d  A . The p r e s e n t p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m i n V a n c o u v e r . B. The a v e r a g e o f t h o s e c i t i e s c i t e d p r e v i o u s l y w h i c h a r e i n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s a s V a n c o u v e r . C.  The d e f i c i e n c i e s o f V a n c o u v e r a s compared w i t h the average c i t y . D . The r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m i n O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a ( a c i t y i n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s as V a n c o u v e r , n o t e d as h a v i n g a good p r o v i s i o n ) . E.  of  that  The p r o p o s e d p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n  school.  The same c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d p r e v a i l as shown i n  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  supervisor  Summary . o f s t a t i s t i c s the  reader-may  for Vancouver.  of the  hoys.  on c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n . —  appreciate  the  In order  that  extent to which Vancouver, i n  102 TABLE X I I I PROPOSED PROG-BAM OE RECREATION FOR VANCOUVER  Proposed R e c r e a t i o n a l Program I.  Number  Supervised Playgrounds Under P a r k s Board ... P r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s playgrounds—minimum —maximum Adult r e c r e a t i o n a l centers; high school areas Under S c h o o l Board Elementary school c h i l d r e n ' s playgrounds Junior & S e n i o r . h i g h school playgrounds Total supervised playgrounds  2. P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s Under Parks Board S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r - —men S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r - —women 2 V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s ' — s e a s o n a l - •^men V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — ^ s e a s o n a l - —women ' Under School Board Elementary Schools S a l a r i e d , d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r - •men S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r - —?/omen V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l --men V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l - —women Junior & Senior High Schools S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l year- -men S a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s — f u l l y e a r - -women* V o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s — s e a s o n a l - -men V o l u n t e e r d i r e e t o r s — - s e a s o n a l - -women,  17 (36) (12) 53 15 85  13 13 12 12 (53)3 (53)  27 27 53 53  3  16 16 15 15  2  r  «3 a  Seasonal O p e r a t i o n of Playgrounds & Indoor Centers P l a y g r o u n d s o p e r a t i n g the f u l l y e a r . I n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s o p e r a t i n g the f u l l year . . . . ...: , .......  comparison with other gram, the  statistics  marized i n Table X I I .  5  One  4  The s t a t i s t i c s  Employed p a r t - t i m e 101.  pro-  p r e s e n t e d i n . T a b l e s V t o X I have been sumare  f o r the year  playgrounds.  supervisor.  '"supra,  85:  c i t i e s , has p r o v i d e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l  U s e d as h i g h s c h o o l and a d u l t 2  85  only for  recreation.  1934.  103 Proposed program of r e c r e a t i o n f o r V a n c o u v e r . — Using Table X I I as a b a s i s , d e t a i l s of a proposed p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l program i n Vancouver w i l l be o u t l i n e d .  The  summary of proposed  p r o v i s i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table X I I I and i s c l a s s e d under headings,  the parks board and the school The Parks Board Playground  A. F a c i l i t i e s . —  board.  two  1  Program  I t i s proposed that the f a c i l i t i e s of  most of the e x i s t i n g playgrounds  be more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a d j u s t -  ed to the needs of the v a r i o u s age groups.  Equipment s u i t a b l e  f o r the s c h o o l . c h i l d r e n should be t r a n s f e r r e d to v a r i o u s school playgrounds The  where they would be a v a i l a b l e throughout  the year.  swimming p o o l s should remain on m u n i c i p a l park p r o p e r t i e s  but should be used by the school p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as by the small c h i l d r e n .  These p o o l s should be constructed i n such a  way  that they might be used f o r swimming i n s t r u c t i o n or f o r wading purposes,  depending upon the group u s i n g the f a c i l i t i e s .  e x i s t i n g playground equipped  The  areas should be made s m a l l e r , and should  be  and fenced i n f o r the p r e - s c h o o l or small c h i l d . These areas should be s i t u a t e d nearer to the homes of  young c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s  (with the a s s i s t a n c e of  t r a v e l l i n g d i r e c t o r s ) , made a v a i l a b l e during the day to parents, nurse-maids and k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers. Vancouver should begin with seventeen  I t i s recommended that pre-school children's play-  grounds, l a t e r p r o v i d i n g from three to f i v e such areas i n every major d i s t r i c t i n the c i t y .  Such areas should not be considered  as spaces f o r complete playground p l a c e s on which to p l a y . s l i d e s and 1  equipment but r a t h e r as safe  F a c i l i t i e s such as sand boxes, swings,  small wading p o o l s s u i t a b l e ' f o r small c h i l d r e n should  supra,  102.  104 . be p r o v i d e d i n t h e s e a r e a s .  L o c a l g y m n a s i u m s , c h u r c h h a l l s and  p u b l i c rooms s h o u l d be u s e d f o r t h e Facilities provided at  suitable  scheduling of indoor  f o r t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be  the major r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s .  s h o u l d be s i t u a t e d  on some s c h o o l g r o u n d s  nearby park p l a y i n g f i e l d s .  These f a c i l i t i e s  o'f g r e a t e r a r e a o r on  P r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be  made f o r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s v o l l e y b a l l , b a l l and b a d m i n t o n .  tennis,  handball,  i s proposed t h a t the  have p r o v i s i o n f o r t w e l v e m a j o r adult population.  soft-  The s c h o o l g y m n a s i u m , a u d i t o r i u m , basement  a n d l i b r a r y s h o u l d a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e It  programs  indoor program.  i n i t i a l program i n Vancouver recreational centers for  On demand o t h e r m i n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  the  centers  s h o u l d be opened i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e m a j o r d i s t r i c t ,  but  t h e s e w o u l d be s u b s i d i a r y t o a n d d i r e c t e d f r o m t h e m a j o r  recrea-  tional  center. B. Provisions for leadership.—  staff  should consist  d i r e c t o r at full-time ladies'  of at  least  center,  T h e y s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y throughout  Subordinate  i s proposed that  to the p a i d d i r e c t o r s ,  the  one man d i r e c t o r and one l a d y  every major r e c r e a t i o n a l  salary.  It  e a c h t o be p a i d a f o r t h e men•s  the e n t i r e  t h e r e s h o u l d be a t  man a n d one l a d y a s v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r s , ,  No d i r e c t o r  and  district. least  one  whether  salaried or volunteer  s h o u l d be engaged u n t i l he o r she had com-  pleted a satisfactory  t r a i n i n g course.  Two s u p e r v i s o r s ,  and one l a d y , s h o u l d be e m p l o y e d . t o o v e r l o o k t h e guide c e r t a i n phases of the program. dance w a r r a n t — u s u a l l y unteer d i r e c t o r s  i n the  should a s s i s t  directors  When c o n d i t i o n s and  summer s e a s o n — e x t r a at  one man and atten-  p a i d and  the minor as w e l l as the  volmajor  105 • recreational C  centers.  P r o g r a m . - - The men . d i r e c t o r s  both f o r the  work h o u r s .  noon h o u r s and f o r  competitive  Many a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t s  i z e d f o r Wednesday a n d S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s tional  districts.  the p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d  activities  s h o u l d be  organ-  i n the major  The t r a v e l l i n g d i r e c t o r s  s i b l e f o r a d e f i n i t e l y scheduled afternoon of  responsible  o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r i n -  d u s t r i a l workers at after  s h o u l d be  s h o u l d be  recrea-  respon-  recreational  i n their respective  program,  districts.  M e n ' s and l a d i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on u n d e r the P.M.  directors  i n every major  d a i l y . e x c e p t Sundays.  district  from 6:00 P . M . t o  The p r o g r a m o f a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be  a year-round program i n c l u d i n g seasonal door a c t i v i t i e s . art,' l i t e r a t u r e , both f o r the  sports,  V a r i e d phases of r e c r e a t i o n , and h a n d i c r a f t s  i n d o o r and  the  ferable groups. of t h i s  the  the  center.  the r i g h t  w o u l d be  from the  members  i n the p l a n n i n g o f the program.  E.  central citizens'  Self-  organization  as-  Two members  s h o u l d be e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i z a t i o n on t h e  pre-  local  to hold o f f i c e .  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d b y h a v i n g t h e  directors  It  s h o u l d be p e r m a n e n t e x - o f f i c i o  organization, without  organ-  n o t more t h a n two members  t o h a v e one man and one l a d y e l e c t e d  government sist  each l o c a l group a t  The d i r e c t o r s  twelve  s h o u l d form a neighborhood  i z a t i o n . c o n s i s t i n g o f e l e c t e d members, representing  program  adults.  D. Neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s . — Each o f the districts  out-  s u c h as m u s i c ,  should constitute  s m a l l c h i l d r e n and f o r the  major r e c r e a t i o n a l  10:00  organ-  committee.  F i n a n c e . — The p a r k s b o a r d s h o u l d s u p p l y t h e  funds  106  for  this  department  the  r e c r e a t i o n board.  the d i r e c t o r s " department  b y means o f a b u d g e t From t h i s t h e  p r e v i o u s l y prepared  salaries  of the  and t h e workmen s h o u l d be p a i d .  supervisors  Supplies for  s h o u l d a l s o be p r o v i d e d b y t h e p a r k s b o a r d .  .. n e i g h b o r h o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d e n d e a v o r sure of s e l f - s u p p o r t F.  T h i s department  w h i c h s h o u l d send s k i l l e d  p l i c a t i o n was made f o r participants.  to effect  this  The :•  a large  mea-  b y means o f l o ? r n o m i n a l charges."""  Service bureau.—  service bureau,  by  should conduct  a  d i r e c t o r s whenever  ap-  s p e c i a l e v e n t s i n v o l v i n g l a r g e numbers o f  I n f o r m a t i o n and m a t e r i a l s needed i n c o n n e c t i o n  with a l l types  o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d be p r o v i d e d i f  seemed a d v i s a b l e .  -  such  '  The S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m A. F a c i l i t i e s . — the  city  Each of the  s i x t y - e i g h t school yards  s h o u l d be a s u i t a b l y e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d f o r t h e  children i n attendance.  I n some i n s t a n c e s , : t h e  f r o m some o f t h e p r e s e n t p a r k p l a y g r o u n d s  school grounds  so that  throughout  homes o f t h e  on t h e  and g i r l s ; ment  to  children the  c h i l d r e n , open a n d i n u s e e v e r y d a y o f t h e y e a r  ex-  T h r e e s e p a r a t e a r e a s s h o u l d be l i n e d o r  elementary (b)  suitable  the  school playground for  older g i r l s ;  f o r the  and  (c)  smaller elementary  the  (a)  f o r the  older elementary  o l d e r boys.  169.  boys  Equip-  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n would Facilities  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w o u l d be  b a l l d i a m o n d s , v o l l e y b a l l and- b a s k e t b a l l infra,  fenced  the younger  be s w i n g s , s l i d e s , a p p a r a t u s , a n d o u t d o o r g y m n a s i u m s . suitable  should  T h e s e g r o u n d s w o u l d be n e a r e r t o  cept Sundays. off  i t m i g h t be u t i l i z e d by t h e  the whole y e a r .  school  equipment  be t r a n s f e r r e d  in  courts.  base-  107  The s e c o n d a r y adult  p o p u l a t i o n i n the  i n the a f t e r n o o n . athletic ball,  school yards  e v e n i n g and f o r t h e  These y a r d s  rugby,  constructed  by  nearby  on t h e  provided within  school  the  on t h e m .  b a d m i n t o n a n d h a n d b a l l s h o u l d be grounds.  weather  a p r o g r a m o f a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be  school b u i l d i n g .  S u c h f a c i l i t i e s as  g y m n a s i u m , l i b r a r y and basement c o u l d be  extensively.  ' The same f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d  p o p u l a t i o n i n the  A  Small p l a y f i e l d s  auditorium,  their  base-  t r a c k m e e t s , p l a y d a y s and r e g a t t a s ,  basketball,  In inclement  ranted  the  school population  s h o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t e d  p r o g r a m c o u l d be a r r a n g e d  for v o l l e y b a l l ,  adult  for  f i e l d s o f t h e park, s y s t e m f o r a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as  soccer,  suitable  s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d  e v e n i n g s when s u f f i c i e n t  the  utilized for  the  attendance war-  use.  E v e r y s c h o o l s h o u l d be f u r n i s h e d w i t h two rooms w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d  a s gymnasiums and i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  E a c h o f t h e s e rooms s h o u l d be a t feet.  I n many b u i l d i n g s , t h e  least  s i x t y feet  b u i l d i n g s , vacant  r o o m s , o u t b u i l d i n g s o r a u d i t o r i u m s m i g h t be B. P r o v i s i o n s for leadership.— of the  elementary  s a l a r i e d man d i r e c t o r the  fifty-three  All  s h o u l d be  The minimum r e c r e a t i o n a l  one  f o r each o f  staff  s h o u l d be one s a l a r i e d man  and one s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c t o r  class  The minimum r e c r e a t i o n a l  and one s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c t o r  schools.  tem-  utilized.  s c h o o l s f o r the present  high schools f o r the present  t h r e e hundred  by t h i r t y - f i v e  b a s e m e n t s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d a s  porary centres f o r t h i s work; i n other  staff  centers.  of  the  director  f o r e v e r y t h r e e h u n d r e d b o y s and  girls.  s a l a r i e d d i r e c t o r s who have h a d a t r a i n i n g i n p e d a g o g y  108 as w e l l a s  i n p h y s i c a l education  t i m e on t h e  school staff  p a r t o f the  time a f t e r  the  administration  :» , .  ana r e c r e a t i o n  d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s ahd t h e  of the p l a y g r o u n d  remaining  a n d one l a d y t o e a c h  salaried  the  work o f t h e  directors.  salaried  to f u l f i l  lady director,  direc-  c o u l d supplement  The v o l u n t e e r  certain  directors  requirements of  training  engagement. The'staff  sponsors f o r a f t e r a schedule  of the  school should.assist  s c h o o l , noon h o u r ,  of time p e r i o d s .  It  w i t h t h e work  as  and r e c e s s a c t i v i t i e s  on  w o u l d be a d v i s a b l e  t o have a  minimum and a maximum number o f h o u r s w h i e h s h o u l d be s p e n t the  supervising  t e a c h e r s of the  of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a school.  activities  by the  I n many I n s t a n c e s a few  t e a c h e r s w o u l d be o v e r - w o r k e d , t e a c h e r s w o u l d do v e r y l i t t l e  class  enthusiastic  w h i l e i n other cases such  in  certain  supervision.  C . P r o g r a m . - - The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s h o u l d c a r r i e d on d u r i n g school hours, schools  s c h o o l h o u r s and t h e p l a y g r o u n d  on S a t u r d a y s and on h o l i d a y s .  s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d ;  d a i l y except Sundays.  s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d  i n t o the  s c h o o l t e n months o f the  evening..  school-age  6:00 P . M . i n the  summer s e a s o n ,  the  even-  activities  The c h i l d r e n a r e  at  y e a r and a c a r r y - o v e r p r o g r a m c o u l d be  more: e a s i l y a r r a n g e d f o r t h e All  I n the  be  program'after  Facilities in  f o r the program of the  c h i l d r e n from 9:00 A . M . i n the morning to ing,  in  activities.  one man t o e a c h s a l a r i e d man  tor  before  half  s c h o o l h o u r s on S a t u r d a y s and h o l i d a y s  Volunteer directors,  s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d  could serve  holiday  organized a c t i v i t i e s ,  seasons.  b o t h i n d o o r and o u t d o o r ,  be drawn up i n s c h e d u l e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p  should  classifications  109 w i t h i n the  school.  No boy o r g i r l  ted to p a r t i c i p a t e day o f t h e week.  s h o u l d be e x p e c t e d  i n a c t i v i t i e s for a long period of.time The d i r e c t o r s  s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e  s t i m u l a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s through leagues, meets,  up b y t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d , ground program of the the  every  for  tournaments,  the contests,  s t u n t n i g h t s and d i s p l a y s . D. . F i n a n c e . — The ..school b o a r d ,  of  or p e r m i t -  supervisors,  should supply the  school children.  directors  p l i e s f o r t h i s department E. Parent-teacher,  t h r o u g h a budget  drawn  funds f o r the  From t h i s the  salaries  a n d workmen s h o u l d be p a i d .  Sup-  s h o u l d a l s o come f r o m t h e s c h o o l b o a r d . recreational  committees.—  In  each  s c h o o l a c o m m i t t e e o f seven"members, s h o u l d be e l e c t e d f r o m parent-teacher association. school r e c r e a t i o n a l work w i t h i n the  T h i s g r o u p s h o u l d be named  committee,  their  s c h o o l , and to a s s i s t  o c c a s i o n s i n the p l a y g r o u n d p r o g r a m . permanent  e x - o f f i c i o members o f t h i s  C o n c l u s i o n . — Only, a g e n e r a l  the  the  d u t y b e i n g t o promote the d i r e c t o r s The d i r e c t o r s  that  on s p e c i a l s h o u l d be  committee.  o u t l i n e showing the f u n c t i o n s  t h e two s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t s h a s b e e n a t t e m p t e d  in this  An i n t r i c a t e p l a n w o u l d h a v e t o be .drawn up b y t h e board a f t e r  of  chapter.  recreation  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h .might a f f e c t  t h e p a r k s b o a r d and t h e the proposed p l a n w i l l  school board.  be i n d i c a t e d i n t h e n e x t  l i c a t e d by t h e  herewith stated:  (1)  chapters.  would not b u i l d r e c r e a t i o n a l p a l b u i l d i n g s at  harid.  for  F a c i l i t i e s w o u l d n o t be  two s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t s ;  both  A d d i t i o n a l features of  C e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s i n f a v o r of the proposed p l a n Vancouver are  play-  dup-  i . .e*., p a r k s b o a r d .  b u i l d i n g s but would use the  munici-  (2) A p r o g r a m w o u l d n o t be o f f e r e d t o  the  110 same age group by the two separate departments; i .  e., both  parks board and s c h o o l board would not attempt to o f f e r a program f o r school-age c h i l d r e n .  (3) There would be a greater co-  o r d i n a t i o n between the p h y s i c a l education program and the recreat i o n a l program of the school-age c h i l d r e n . greater e f f i c i e n c y . whole year.  T h i s would r e s u l t i n  (4) A program would be a v a i l a b l e f o r the  ( 5 ) The v a r i o u s age groups .would not be using the  same areas a t the same time.  Ill CHAPTER V I I FEATURES OF THE RECREATIONAL PROGRAM (A)  Activities  There  o f The P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m  i s need f o r a p l a n n e d program i f any a t t e m p t I s  he made f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f wholesome p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n of t h e  community.  r e s o l v e themselves varieties that  interests  (1)  recognition:  a n d many v a r i e t i e s  v a r y from i n d i v i d u a l to  to time i n the  the  The p r i n c i p l e s o f p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g  i n t o the  of interests  to  t h a t t h e r e a r e many  o f hoys and g i r l s , ( 2 )  i n d i v i d u a l and from time  same i n d i v i d u a l and f r o m age t o age i n t h e  same  individual. After  the f a c t o r s  have b e e n c o n s i d e r e d ,  i n f l u e n c i n g the p l a n n i n g of a program  a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d f o r t h e  three  m a j o r age g r o u p s : p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and y o u t h and a d u l t s . day,  Sample a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m s w i l l be o f f e r e d f o r  t h e week a n d t h e  the  year.  F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g program planning"}— I n p l a n n i n g a p l a y g r o u n d , it  i s necessary (1)  to c o n s i d e r such f a c t o r s  as:  S i z e and s t a g e o f development  o f the playground.  general I t  i s assumed t h a t e v e r y p l a y g r o u n d s h o u l d have  apparatus;  courts  either quiet  f o r several types  indoors, or outdoors games;  a sheltered  area  for story t e l l i n g ,  handicraft,  and  f o r a v a r i e t y of p l a y a c t i v i t i e s .  (2) A g e s o f c h i l d r e n t o be s e r v e d . t h a t s m a l l c h i l d r e n come i n l a r g e s t o l d e r boys and g i r l s i n the  certain  o f games;  and a n open a r e a  late  a p p e a l i n g t o t h e s e age g r o u p s  In  numbers  afternoon;  It  i s often  found  i n t h e m o r n i n g and consequently,  events  s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g l y .  ^ N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s n . , P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s , p a m p h l e t , 5.  112 (3) bers  of  Number  children  of  are  children  to  is  little  time  of  music,  drama, a r t s  be  available  cared  open  f o r the  during the  and  attend. varied  The  it  i s possible  is  not not  be  the  Length  preparation; may  be  to  include  whereas,  is  (6) worker, little special  Number  can  be  where  carried  if.any program  workers  on.  nature  A  study  emphasize  there  there  i n the  fields  as  a  rule  of  is  should  children the  be  can  more  I f the  only a  which  few  these p r o j e c t s . by  the  season  long,  involve  weeks, The  is  the  daily  number  long  leaders program  o f weeks  the'  this  Relation  to  i s o n l y one  contacts with i s planned  Where to  the  be  a playground  restricted  worker  to  has  and  only  one  comparatively  s m a l l groups  requiring  instruction,  Qualifications  are  (8)  leaders,  leadership  available,  season.  however,  is likely  or  which  to  i n using  g i v e n by  of playground  likely  Unless  number  time  num-  study.  playground  i f i t i s open  of workers.  ience  handicraft,  activities  nature  largest  two  large  open.  guidance (7)  or  playground projects  affected,  the program time  the  Where  program.  justified  playground  the  of playground  essentially  one  i s available.  day,  when  and  l o n g e r the playground  should (5)  f o r by  crafts,  entire  hours  served.  f o r s m a l l group  (4) H o u r s p l a y g r o u n d available  t o be  of  leaders.  largely  leader or  some  who  The  training  determine  the  i s competent  form  of p h y s i c a l  and  exper-  activities i n music, activity  drama, is  activity. other playgrounds. playground,  there are  other playgrounds  entirely  around  In  the  small likely  communities t o be  few  during the  season.  The  individual  playground.  IIS In larger often  c i t i e s , however,  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e  Some s u g g e s t i o n s  t h e p r o g r a m o f one p l a y g r o u n d  schedule  of other  centers.  f o r p l a n n i n g programs.---  gram c a r r i e d on u n d e r  competent  A w i s e l y planned  leadership  i s certain to  i n - a l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n b e i n g p r e s e n t on t h e engaging i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s *  each  result  S i n c e boys and g i r l s v a r y -  s h o u l d be g o i n g o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  most p r o g r a m s  pro-  playground,  i n g w i d e l y i n ages and i n t e r e s t s are u s u a l l y p r e s e n t , activities  is  several  For t h i s  should provide three or four different  reason,  activities  period. A n o t h e r means o f e n l a r g i n g t h e  i s t o encourage  s e r v i c e of the  playground  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e many I n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l  g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e more o r l e s s  s e l f - d i r e c t i n g and w h i c h  i n c l u d e some o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r games and s p o r t s .  One means  of  contests  increasing this  t y p e o f a c t i v i t y i s by a r r a n g i n g  or  tournaments.  1 There are  two common m i s t a k e s  i n program p l a n n i n g .  One  i s t o p r o v i d e so few e v e n t s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t many c h i l d r e n find est .  l i t t l e or n o t h i n g t o a t t r a c t  them o r t o r e t a i n t h e i r  Such f a u l t y p l a n n i n g sometimes r e s u l t s  preparation  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  the program which i s so f u l l  leaders.  from inadequate  A t the  other  extreme  and v a r i e d a n d w i t h so many  events that the playground schedule  inter-  featured  i s c r o w d e d and p r e s s u r e  exerted  on b o t h c h i l d r e n and p l a y l e a d e r s  a rule,  children prefer  to carry i t  p a r t i c i p a t i n g whole-heartedly  out.  is  is As  i n a few  activities. N a t . R e c . A s s ^ n . , P l a n n i n g . Summer P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s .  6.  114 One a u t h o r i t y o f f e r s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n  the  following  of playground  specific  suggestions  programs.  1 . P r o v i d e a v^ide r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s : p h y s i c a l , manual, rhythmic, m u s i c a l , dramatic, etc. 8.  I n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s f o r b o y s and g i r l s o f v a r i o u s  3. D i v i d e the leaders* time f a i r l y g r o u p s , b e t w e e n b o y s and g i r l s , types of a c t i v i t i e s .  ages.  b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t age and b e t w e e n v a r i o u s  4 . A l t e r n a t e s t r e n u o u s w i t h q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s ; team games with individual play, etc. 5* S c h e d u l e s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a t f o r t h e g r o u p t o be s e r v e d .  a t i m e most  convenient  6. A r r a n g e p e r i o d s s o t h a t i f a p r o j e c t o r a c t i v i t y i s n o t c o m p l e t e d on s c h e d u l e t i m e , i t w i l l be c a r r i e d over without i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the program. 7 . P r o v i d e t i m e s when no s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i s 8. P l a n a s p e c i a l f e a t u r e days.  scheduled.  t o t a k e p l a c e e a c h week o r  ten  9. C o r r e l a t e the v a r i o u s p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e .  the  1 0 . Encourage i n f o r m a l s e l f - o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t y , by g i v i n g i t a p l a c e on t h e p r o g r a m . 11.  I n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n v o l v e c o - o p e r a t i o n as as t h o s e w h i c h f e a t u r e c o m p e t i t i o n .  1 3 . A l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l p l a y g r o u n d l e a d e r i n the c h o i c e of a c t i v i t i e s . 1 3 . Make p r o g r a m s p r o g r e s s i v e , t h e end o f t h e s e a s o n .  some  well  freedom  pointing to a climax  at  1 4 . F e a t u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p l a y day t y p e w i t h l a r g e numbers o f members p a r t i c i p a t i n g r a t h e r t h a n e v e n t s i n which o n l y the p l a y g r o u n d champions p a r t i c i p a t e . 15. Give the c h i l d r e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s as t o t h e p r o g r a m .  t o make  suggestions  1 6 . R e v i s e t h e p r o g r a m i f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s do n o t p r o v e s a t i s f a c t o r y o r i f c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e changes t o be desirable. •-"Nat. R e c . A s s n . , P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d P r o g r a m s , r  if  6.  115 1 7 . Keep a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t s and regular routine a c t i v i t i e s .  the  18. A v o i d any tendency t o b r i b e or f o r c e c h i l d r e n take p a r t i n a c t i v i t y .  to  19. Emphasize o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l to p a r t i c i p a t e than f o r the development of champions. Classification ity  of. c h i l d r e n b y age groups.'—• The t y p e s o f a c t i v -  i n which the  l y by the  young c h i l d  is. i n t e r e s t e d  are determined l a r g e -  stage o f development which i t has r e a c h e d .  i n g a program i t  i s important,  worker s h a l l understand ed i n the p l a y l i f e later  rather  childhood,  therefore,  that the  In p l a n -  recreational  the p e r i o d s o f development as  of the c h i l d  in infancy, early  represent-  childhood,  e a r l y a d o l e s c e n c e and l a t e r a d o l e s c e n c e .  He  s h a l l a l s o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s and t h e p l a y a p p e a l i n g t o the he  c h i l d at  chief  types of  the v a r i o u s stages through  which  passes. A child  d o e s n o t a l w a y s s t a y i n h i s p a r t i c u l a r age g r o u p  f o r p l a y , a n d t h e r e c a n be no h a r d and f a s t  r u l e l a i d down  a b o u t t h e age p e r i o d a t w h i c h he p a s s e s f r o m one s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o another*.  There i s a c e r t a i n advantage,  i n i s o l a t i n g one p e r i o d f r o m a n o t h e r striking c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . may b e ,  is helpful  beneficial  to the  following  i n order to b r i n g out  Such a method, a r t i f i c i a l  though  i n determining a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l c h i l d r e n at  e a c h age  A number o f s t u d e n t s o f t h e child's life  however,  into different periods.  classification:  L e e , op. c i t . , passim, ' i b i d . , passim .  level.  its it  be most  1  s u b j e c t have d i v i d e d J o s e p h L e e h a s made  the the  116  1.  F i r s t t h r e e y e a r s . — P e r i o d s o f b a b y h o o d when t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e i s l a r g e l y centered i n h i s r e l a t i o n to h i s mother. C r e a t i v e impulse begins to manifest i t self in this period.  2.  T h r e e t o s i x . — Age o f I m p e r s o n a t i o n . The i m p u l s e t o i m p e r s o n a t e c o l o r s a l m o s t a l l the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t i e s . M a i n l i n e s o f growth i n t h i s p e r i o d are a l o n g the l i n e s Of. f i g h t i n g , n u r t u r e , r h y t h m , c r e a t i o n , c u r i o s i t y a n d s o c i a l membership.  3* S i x t o e l e v e n . — " B i g I n j u n " o r age o f self-assertions d o m i n a t e d l a r g e l y by t h e f i g h t i n g i m p u l s e , t h o u g h t h e c h a s i n g , n u r t u r i n g and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a r e s t r o n g . of 4 . E l e v e n t o f o u r t e e n . — A g e ^ l o y a l t y . The " b e l o n g i n g " i n stinct' i s strong. I t i s t h e age when g a n g s f l o u r i s h . The p e r i o d s , M r . L e e p o i n t s h a r d and f a s t  l i n e s but  out,  are not  shade g r a d u a l l y i n t o  G e o r g e E . J o h n s o n h a s made t h e m o s t  • f i c a t i o n w h i c h has on t h e  other.  detailed  classi-  1  been e v o l v e d .  His classification is  theory that play a c t i v i t y varies  animal v a r i e s ,  each  s e p a r a t e d by  as t h e  based  structure of  and t h a t a n a t o m i c a l and m e n t a l g r o w t h a r e  the  inter2  d e p e n d e n t . He h a s d i v i d e d h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o s e v e n g r o u p s . The d e p a r t m e n t o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l l 5 f o r n l a has d i v i d e d the c h i l d ' s l i f e i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s . The N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n l i s t s the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s of 4 c h i l d r e n u n d e r f i v e age g r o u p s . ""•Johnson, . infra, 2  op.  c i t . , passim.  Table X I V . , 117.  ^ A b r i e f summary o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e age group* as o u t l i n e d by the Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a has been p l a c e d f o r r e f e r e n c e i n the appendix. 4 The l i s t o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n p r o p e r l y be encouraged on a p l a y g r o u n d c e n t e r i s almost i n f i n i t e i n e x t e n t . H o w e v e r , a s u g g e s t e d l i s t o f games and p l a y s a d a p t e d t o v a r i o u s age g r o u p s w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e a p p e n d i x .  117 TABLE X I V AGE C L A S S I F I C A T I O N S FOR P L A Y GROUPS  LEE Group, Y e a r s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The  U n i v e r s i t y of National California R e c r e a t i o n As<? »i  JOHNSON Group  0-5 5 — 6 6-11 11 - 14 14 - 21  1. 2. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Years 04 710 15 15 18 -  Group I Y e a r s  5 6 9 12 15 18 40  1. 2, 5. 4.  Group I Y e a r s  4 - 6 7-10 11 - 15 14 - 20  lo 2. 5. 4. 5.  0-5 6-8 8-11 11 - 14 14 - 18  program f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , — E a r l J , Reeder, of  National Safety Council,  after  an e x t e n s i v e survey of  the  traffic  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h r e l a t i o n t o a c c i d e n t s , b e l i e v e s t h a t most o f t h e 25,000 l i t t l e  lives  t h a t h a v e b e e n c r u s h e d o u t on t h e  ments o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  during f i v e years  c o u l d have  saved had t h e r e been adequate p l a y g r o u n d f a c i l i t i e s 1 cities.  He f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e  t o s c h o o l and on e r r a n d s they are  because  p l a y s i t u a t i o n i n the accidents involving  street,  children.  been  in a l l  the  c o m p a r a t i v e l y safe going  t h e y a r e on g u a r d , b u t  i n d a n g e r when p l a y i n g on o r n e a r t h e  t h e y are not a l w a y s on g u a r d .  pave-  streets  that because  I f the p u b l i c can c o n t r o l i t c a n e l i m i n a t e most o f  the  the  The p r o b l e m t h e n i s p u b l i c  pro-  v i s i o n o f more i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n may p l a y . Every small  c h i l d up t o e i g h t y e a r s o f age must be p r o -  v i d e d w i t h a d e q u a t e p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e home. Such p r o v i s i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s garden c o u r t s ,  roof  gardens,  the equipping, of backyard p l a y g r o u n d s , c o - o p e r a t i v e l y conducted playgrounds  118 and m u n i c i p a l  playgrounds.  With a l i t t l e al., o r g a n i z e r , the expense." " 1  backyard playground  a few s u g g e s t e d p i e c e s  c o s t s as  f o l l o w s : sand box, $ 2 . 0 0 ;  flying  rings,  $10.25;  their  least  exclusive use.  the  An a t t i c ,  s u n n y and w e l l - v e n t i l a t e d , The p l a y p r o g r a m p r o b l e m o f the act  home;  as p l a y l e a d e r s .  corner  the  horizontal  young c h i l d r e n  bars,  like.  for  o r a basement r o o m ,  w o u l d be a n e x c e l l e n t  of the p r e - s c h o o l  place  child  o l d e r members o f t h e  A supplementary program  for  play.  is largely  the  family usually c a n be o f f e r e d  on  t h e m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and n e a r b y p l a y c e n t e r s by t h e  playground  department.  this  Travelling, directors  could administer  b y g o i n g f r o m one m i n o r c e n t e r t o a n o t h e r on a s c h e d u l e i n the  characteristic  follows:  s i n g i n g games, s t o r y p l a y s ,  realistic  stories,  f  program posted  d a i l y newspaper. A c t i v i t i e s which are  ren s  2  should  of a room, r e s e r v e d  a shed,  little  of a p p a r a t u s w i t h  b a b y s w i n g , # 8 . 5 5 ; and t h e  E v e r y home i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e have a room, o r a t  recreation-  c a n be b u i l t a t v e r y  Nash l i s t s  approximate $6.75;  i m a g i n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e  songs,  nature s t o r i e s ,  of t h i s  r i n g games , f a i r y  i t i e s , l i n g u i s t i c , a c t i v i t i e s , manual  1 2  infra, 4. 3  194.  big-muscle  activities,  "Nash, op. c i t . , 241, A n i l l u s t r a t i o n of a w e l l l a i d - o u t shown i n F i g u r e  child-  games.  school c h i l d r e n . — A c t i v i t i e s which s t a r t  p l a y a c t i v i t i e s may be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :  as  tales,  f a n c i f u l flower tales,  c h i l d r e n * s poems and o c c u p a t i o n a l  The p r o g r a m f o r  age a r e  as activ-  environmental  home p l a y g r o u n d  is  FIGURl :  P#JP1K  :  Xbrse!  ROMS  V  PLAYGROUND  I Shoes I  lllllll^ •e <re.-fcaj>le Fere-pi ate! ° « r <V«or-Je.n |  r-  O  ^ iPljj boast  Hep  5«-tch.  ISO  activities,  (general  activities. the  science  and. s o c i a l s c i e n c e ) , and m u s i c a l  P r o v i s i o n f o r these a c t i v i t i e s  s h o u l d he made by  school. A t p r e s e n t m u s i c a l and m a n u a l  a measure o f a t t e n t i o n  i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l .  cludes the p r o v i d i n g of o p p o r t u n i t i e s clubs,  orchestras,  tivities  and b a n d s .  exists.  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r manual a c t i v i t i e s shop,  This interest  for participation  i n the  science  I n the  i n g p l a c e d upon d r a m a t i c s ,  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s  for producing  and  w i t h the  environmental  activities,  sc\ience  clubs are  the  school, i t  i s obvious that  all  schools  throughout by  The s c h o o l i s  the"'  on s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  for  children.  being duplicated  "big-muscle" type.  t h a t the  one t y p e  of p l a y which  i n o t h e r departments of the  school i s  Ho d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l  than the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n department i s s t r e s s i n g It  general  complete program should not .  s u c h a c t i v i t y c a n be c a r r i e d  I t must be n o t i c e d not  connection  s o c i a l s c i e n c e and  be d u p l i c a t e d by t h e p l a y g r o u n d d e p a r t m e n t . p l a c e where  In  c a r r i e d on so e x t e n s i v e l y  the  and be-  throughout school l i f e .  i n the  shop,  is  staging plays continue  With these a c t i v i t i e s  given  laboratory  e a r l y grades emphasis  being conducted  glee  ac-  i n the manual t r a i n i n g  domestic  in-  in  School c h i l d r e n are  i n the manual a r t s c l a s s .  the y e a r .  receiving  I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h manual  a similar situation  i n the metal-work  a c t i v i t i e s are  i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the  activity. play-  g r o u n d p r o g r a m o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i f t h e p r o g r a m i s t o be ministered  systematically for  the  other  this  s c h o o l to c a r r y out the  ad-  a l l children.  Some p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s  for school children  is  are:  121 team games,  g r o u p games,' c o n t e s t s ,  t i o n a l games, dances,  hobbies,  combatative  stunts,  s i n g i n g games,  activities,  sports  a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l  games.  folk  table  dances,  clubs,  1  games,  occupa-  dramatic  apparatus,  track  1 and f i e l d  The, p r o g r a m f o r , a d u l t s . —  The a d u l t  group r e q u i r e s  Individual  t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s f o r it's r e c r e a t i o n a l gram.  Recreation f o r the  ceived.  It  adult  group  s h o u l d be b r o a d l y c o n -  s h o u l d n e v e r be l i m i t e d t o what i s c a l l e d t h e  muscle" a c t i v i t i e s , but v a r i e t y of other  educational  t i o n board r e s o l v e s  activities.  itself  from the  standpoint  of s e l f - o r g a n i z e d groups.  the  industrial unit,  ciation, in  the  the  The f a m i l y ,  c l u b , the  ed g r o u p o f a s s o c i a t e s .  If  t h e g r o u p w i l l manage i t s  the  Under the  the  golf  •  " -'"•  i s very low.  course  private j: :  community p l a n ,  self-organized handled  self-organized In fact,  o f t e n n o t be  i f they  the c o s t  are  successful.  of r e c r e a t i o n to the  For example,  group  in-  of a municipal  i s s e l d o m more t h a n t e n p e r c e n t o f the c o s t o f a  course. 1  cost  select-  different  situation is  e n t e r s c a n w e l l be made s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . they w i l l  asso-  own p r o b l e m o f d i s c i p l i n e .  a c t i v i t i e s i n t o which t h i s  n o t made s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ,  The  church,  Recreation  Such a s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s  group needs l i t t l e s u p e r v i s i o n .  Many o f t h e  the  be c a r r i e d on l a r g e l y w i t h a  t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e l o w e r age l e v e l .  properly,  recrea-  improvement  a r e m e r e l y t y p e s o f t h e many t h a t e x i s t .  community group w i l l  dividual  of the  l a r g e l y i n t o a s t i m u l a t i o n a n d an  encouragement the  "big-  s h o u l d i n c l u d e m u s i c a l , m a n u a l and a  Community r e c r e a t i o n  shop,  pro-  Civic  financing  '.' ; i n f r a , 194. Nash,, op. c i t . , 351.  of r e c r e a t i o n i snot  ;  :  —  intended  —  •  122  to cover a l l types of community r e c r e a t i o n .  I t would not  apply  t o c e r t a i n types of a c t i v i t y t h a t are expensive and are engaged i n by only a small percentage of the community.. Under t h e s e l f s u s t a i n i n g p l a n , there- might be a great increase i n t h e types a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d to the a d u l t s of the community.  of  Eventually,  even f i s h i n g and hunting might be added to the growing l i s t  of  community a c t i v i t i e s . The gether with  a c t i v i t i e s which are r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s s e c t i o n , to-  with the p l a c e s where they occur, should not be  confused  the school c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s nor the p l a c e s where they  are c a r r i e d on.  These community a c t i v i t i e s should be  organized  at d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s and under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . In most of the community r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n board a c t s merely as the o r g a n i z e r and I t organizes  leagues,  initiator.  tournaments, r e g a t t a s ; makes out  p r o v i d e s p l a c e s to p l a y and  the  schedules;  then withdraws, l e a v i n g the group  to work out the f i n a n c i n g , o f f i c i a t i n g and  similar details.  If  the a c t i v i t i e s show signs of stopping, the r e c r e a t i o n department once more i s c a l l e d upon to g i v e the group a new  start,  Eor the youth, the a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l f u n c t i o n under t h i s department w i l l c o n s i s t l a r g e l y of those  a c t i v i t i e s which  are s i m i l a r to the program f o r the high school boys and Such a c t i v i t i e s are team games, boxing, work, t r a c k and f i e l d events, sports and  the l i k e .  girls.^  w r e s t l i n g , apparatus  s o c i a l games, swimming, winter  Other a c t i v i t i e s f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n  w i l l c o n s i s t of games such as g o l f , t e n n i s , badminton, bowling, swimming, s k a t i n g and infra,  194.  o t h e r s , i n which the opposite  sexes p l a y  123 together. Some t y p i c a l p r o g r a m s . — There are three c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ing a d i r e c t o r i n planning arranging  confront-  the summer playground program, namely,  d a i l y , weekly, and summer schedules.  No s p e c i f i c r u l e s  can.he l a i d down f o r the scheduling of the v a r i o u s  activities.  The p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t r a d i t i o n s , and h a b i t s of the people i n the neighborhood must .be taken i n t o account.  Wise program  planning takes advantage of these f a c t s and provides f o r a c t i v i t i e s at the times when the c h i l d r e n i n t e r e s t e d can take advantage of them. Two suggested summer programs f o l l o w i n Tables XV" and 1' XVI.  These are f o r playgrounds on which two l e a d e r s at l e a s t  are employed.  The a s t e r i s k s (*) i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s i n d i c a t e  the a c t i v i t i e s to which the workers give more or l e s s d i r e c t and continuous  supervision.  I t w i l l be noted that during s e v e r a l  p e r i o d s more than two a c t i v i t i e s are so i n d i c a t e d .  In such  cases,  a l l these a c t i v i t i e s are not conducted under l e a d e r s h i p each day. Some of them are c a r r i e d , o n only once or twice a week.  Through-  out the e n t i r e day, many c h i l d r e n w i l l be engaged i n a v a r i e t y , of continuous The  self-directed  activities.  f o l l o w i n g suggested program w i l l give some conception  of the f e a t u r e s e n t e r i n g i n t o a community-wide r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n f o r the year." September I n s t i t u t e f o r game l e a d e r s cone l u d i n g with a g e n e r a l communI t y P l a y Day O r g a n i z a t i o n of games and p l a y l e a d e r s ' club 'Lee, op. c i t . , 47. i n f r a , 124, 125."  October Community P l a y Day O r g a n i z a t i o n of h i k i n g clubs O r g a n i z a t i o n of camera clubs Treasure hunt Lantern parade  SBGC-ESTEB  DAILY  Children under 8 9:30-10:00  :  le  £  10:45-11:00  ) o, s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y scheduled; Ti->  low organized caaec^- ''• tppar&tua p l a y t  r  11:00-11:30  'and box . p l a y - — B l o c k b u i l d i n g  11:30-12:00  ' • t o r y t e l l i n g * - Sand box p l a y <look b u i l d i n g 1  . s t o r y t e l l i n g and s t o r y a c t i n g *  Free a c t i v i t i e s  i-'lay; attendance tr.keB; p l a y g r o "  prePar63 f  ° " ra  erR0C  l  troup paraes* M u s i c * blay  n eT9nta  .arking .courts; d i s t r i b u t i n g  .c.  iBle  J i i f o r m a l team and group games  i a n d i c r a f t r .Bature• aoj»i»itie9fe Quiet .Games Badge t a s k s , " t w i t s , • etc.*; I  SAT^al^n^r -  2:00- 2:30  2:30- 2:45  T V O Vor:KLT,G  Boys and Girls over 11a  -^lag r a i s i n g G e t t i n g out equip,.. „ i n s p e c t i o n ^ a p p i r a t u s l ' a n d gron -JLPJ.lio=; p o - t m c an-onncer. nt ; p- a n i z i n g rrouVs f o r So'pnipc p i a ^ •Group and si n g i n g garleajj" 'Apparatus p l a y  1:30- 2:00  CUi.lIEB F L A T ' - H O U I I D V I ™  Children 8 to 11 knol.  10:00-10:45  13:00- .1:30  PROGRAM FOR i  clean-up H a n d i c r a f t * . Mature a c t i v i t i e s * |Badge t e s t s , s t u n t s , e t c  °<"" i o - l P a n i c s o r , e i n e r r o a s t s  Apparatus  Sand box p l a y Quiet' games  Quiet g-mes  Quiet games  p i s i c a c t i v i t i e s * I n f o r m a l group games I n d i v i d u a l Karnes and a t h l e t i c events O r g a n i z a t i o n Of team games* P r a c t i c e f o r League Games o r f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s P r e p a r a t i o n f o r lafternoon f e a t u r e s *  o s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y scheduled; f r o p l a y ; attendance taken; p r e p a r , " :n f o r s n e c i ! eventr. or c o n t e s t B  2:45- 4:15  ..pparatus p l a y S i n g i n g pomes Contest, tournaments o t s p e c i a l "aking o a r t i n o r watching s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s * * H a n d i c r a f t 1 events P r e p a r a t i o n f o r coming events  4:15- 5:15  ...uiet games  0:30  Sand box p l a y  S p e c i a l f e a t u r e s ^ o u t i n g , c o n t e s t s and t o u r n a m e n t s * * League Games i n playground b a s e b a l l v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . P r e p a r a t i o n for'coming events ' [Handicraft  S t o r y t e l l i n g * . Dramatics*. F o l k Completion of s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s ^ S t o r y t e l l i n g * d a n c i n g ^ . Quiet games , Meetings o f D r a m a t i c s * F o l k d a n c i n g * Meetings of playground playground clubs and committees 'clubs, and, committees Quiet games  *o scheduled a c t i v i t y One l e a d e r .resent C o l l e c t ' oli.vg >und suppl. ..u and check c o n d i t i o n of. playgrounds .lay be used b" •"ovr.r people o r a d u l t s f o r team "anes  ^loyground  OD Pi •H  ra8 m  •=8  CD  I>o5 c ft  <d P t pi O • P ft CC c b . CO  CO OC  00 Pi H OO Pi [•H  03 N >H rj f>J 03 CO OC -d • H o ro CD  PJ O 'H !-P CO ft CO P  H  H CD  ft ft  ft  £ 8  o  S Ho OO  o  CQ  CQ rP CQ O CD - P  PS- P i ra pi CD  o0 EHcift occo  ^5  C  00  w  §  <8  PI  fl. !>»ftooo|£ ora l-P co HG CD  Pv  ft - P  -H  -P  © CQ CD •H -P  ft  OD ft  O CQ . CD  & 8: O  '-p - p  CO  a' ra  M od I  OO Pi H  ftCQ 1  o  l-P I-P CO  CQ  CO , © •d CQ CD CO, Pi EH P .  oo| o ooj  00 Pi •H  OO Pi •H 'H : H CD !-P !>s H ft «H ca rd  o to pft "si o~' H o o o hp pw•> co I a LO p o p o Pto oCO • P © a> PJ 8 -H •H  CO  f-i CO  O  1 • O , 'd Pi c3 IJ cr> t  CQ ft Pi Q  M 66: |H  H HPH N  HJH H H  co oo Pi Pi  oo  o ft  oo  t  s co  og  1^—-  co  ft ra 0 CD CO CD CD  CD - P pJ £q CO i - t  fd  G  8 8  ft o ft  o -p p A a> ft oo  00 Pi •H  o  - p ft raj 00 !> CD • H CD CD  I  is;-- &l pi  ra  o  i-i  O CO *H , CO - P 8 CD 'H C0<H O ft CO  CD Pi CQ OOCD  M  co 8 H oo  CD • CO  co eg co  tQ (=•9-  hP H  §  8  24 ft  t>  ft fl  0  PJ i«H • o  ft O "H |PH t H pj  >3 ft  ft O co oo  ca  l-p  CD  I  Pi CD  ft H O 8 •H O CD ft CO PI Pi O « H CQ 'EH-'H  CO  oo ft leu  lo o to o • • -»» CM W  I'sf  OO pi P i >r-l ••")O H ra rH' CD CQ -P CD f=s - P \M ft O O O -P O ft CO  co -p  co ra  Pi  CXtlw — i I •-ft ft*-; e-?|H  P  H-ri B  Ps O ft - P CQ - p O  o  -P PS'H  •p P!  I -p F) CD CD CD Pi CO  co p.q-1 a CQ « H H co & co oo| O ft  raw  !  f^CD 8 ft CO 24 - H - p d P-l ,C! CQ >H  OD Pi H  CD  G  CQ O •H -p  124  H oc  ft !>s PJ CO CD O P OOH O O f J f t CD C\3 ft - P "H  to  8  H  O CQ H |-P P! CQ O o CD - P •H [ E - l t f IPH  |<8 |  CQ CD  l>H O P! CO ri  CD 2 CQ ODCCt CO 8 ,CD CO  . o eg co  CO •H >d ra CD 00  i>  Pi  OO  l-p  ft  ft A") p|  .14 O CD lP-t.*H H  pi  CO  P5  •H CO CO <d: CO  H CD CO l>i CQ ...H H ,pJ - p O .p CD CD CO CD CD CD CO g <H ij)  c0 h co  M ca  l-p ra  ! OC  H CO »H O CQ (0 CO P . ft CQ £ +3  H  H:  Hi IH  H ft *  0  ltd <t3 O  1 * • **  126  September (cont'd) O r g a n i z a t i o n of s t o r y t e l l i n g '.• clubs O r g a n i z a t i o n of community music clubs O r g a n i z a t i o n of dramatic clubs Checker tournament Labor Day C e l e b r a t i o n Hikes  October (cont'd) Old Home ?/eek. . Hallowe'en c e l e b r a t i o n Pushmobile tournament Barn dance  HOYember A r m i s t i c e Day c e l e b r a t i o n S p e c i a l Thanksgiving s t o r i e s i n schools and churches Opening of neighborhood r e c r e a i o n centers H i s t o r i c a l pageant S t o r y t e l l i n g contest Soccer  December O r g a n i z a t i o n o f winter sports General development of i n door games Community Christmas tree celebration l a t h e r and son banquets O r g a n i z a t i o n of Sunday School a t h l e t i c league Loaned a r t e x h i b i t  January Twelfth Night and New Year's Eve p a r t y C o n t i n u a t i o n of winter sports :and indoor games Dramatics Music memory contest Coasting p a r t i e s Ice c a r n i v a l Moving p i c t u r e s Out-of-doors day Drama i n s t i t u t e  February Community choruses "Valentine p a r t y Weekly gymnasium c l a s s e s Stunt n i g h t Business men's v o l l e y b a l l Girls' volley ball Community music i n s t i t u t e  March S t . P a t r i c k ' s Day p a r t y Indoor community box supper, games and s p e l l i n g bee Table t e n n i s tournament Easter sunrise c e l e b r a t i o n — c a r o l s , egg r o l l i n g and hunts  April Organization o f v o l l e y b a l l and indoor basket b a l l league R o l l e r s k a t i n g tournament S t i l t tournament B i r d Day P l a y tournament Recreation i n s t i t u t e  .Marble and top tournaments May May Day f e s t i v a l and games Mothers' Day C e l e b r a t i o n o f Memorial Day Arbor Day c e l e b r a t i o n F i e l d Day K i t e tournament Music Week  June Vacant l o t p l a y with v o l u n t e e r leaders Bird-house contest O r g a n i z a t i o n o f playgrounds V o l l e y b a l l tournament C e l e b r a t i o n o f F l a g Day  12?  A t h l e t i c Badge Tests Horseshoe tournament F i r s t of J u l y c e l e b r a t i o n .and P l a y day Bank concerts Community p i c n i c Community s i n g i n g Twilight baseball Block p a r t i e s Pet shows Reception o f new c i t i z e n s Camping The  August Croquet tournament Star study p a r t i e s Swimming contest F e s t i v a l on playground Tennis tournament Exhibits Bank concerts Camping Outdoor dramatics  n e c e s s i t y f o r a year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l program.-- In con-  c l u s i o n , reasons f o r the n e c e s s i t y of a year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l system might be summarized as f o l l o w s : (a) The need of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n through p l a y and r e c r e a t i o n i s a year-round need.  Without the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h i s  need, the l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l cannot be well-balanced. (b) I t i s e s s e n t i a l to the l i f e and growth of the c h i l d . The  f u l l development of the c h i l d r e q u i r e s p l a y every day of the  year. (c) I t i s necessary to the well-being ern working c o n d i t i o n s make i t imperative r e l a x a t i o n i n expressional the  of the a d u l t . Mod-  that the worker f i n d  a c t i v i t i e s which continue throughout  year* (d) I t i s necessary f o r the needs of the community as a  whole.  A community enjoys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n pageants, i n c e l e b r a -  t i o n s , i n community s i n g i n g , and i n other events which b r i n g i t s citizens  together. (e) I t a t t r a c t s and u t i l i z e s the highest  ship.  type of l e a d e r -  The s e c r e t of success i n community r e c r e a t i o n l i e s i n  leadership.  P a r t - t i m e employment does not a t t r a c t the best  workers t o seek playground' p o s i t i o n s .  128 (f)  A well-rounded program of a c t i v i t i e s i s e s s e n t i a l  to meet the needs of communities s p r i n g and f a l l  and of groups.  Winter s p o r t s ,  s p o r t s , and summer a c t i v i t i e s are combined i n t o  a p l a n which w i l l be community-wide and expressive of the i n t e r ests of a l l . (g) The b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from part-time r e c r e a t i o n a l programs j u s t i f y t h e i r extension throughout the year.  P l a y as a  h e a l t h and c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n cannot be l i m i t e d to the summer months.  J u v e n i l e delinquency i s not p e c u l i a r to any  one  season. (h) I t i s important t o continue and r e i n f o r c e the school program.  The f r e e time i n the l a t e a f t e r n o o n , a f t e r school has  c l o s e d , and on Saturdays p r e s e n t s a challenge to the community for  year-round f a c i l i t i e s , l e a d e r s h i p , and a program of construc-  tive recreation. (i)  I t i s good business economy to have the year-round  r e c r e a t i o n a l system.  Large investments are made i n f a c i l i t i e s  which o f t e n operate l e s s than o n e - t h i r d of the year. of  Long terms  i n a c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n d u p l i c a t i o n and waste. Ij)- The year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l system i s e s s e n t i a l to  municipal e f f i c i e n c y .  With such, the c i t y i s a good p l a c e i n  which to l i v e f o r i t s c i t i z e n s , and an a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e t o outsiders. (k) The year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l program has now the  experimental stage and become an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t .  passed In 1934  approximately 290 c i t i e s on the continent conducted year-round r e c r e a t i o n i n charge of workers employed f o r the f u l l months," "  .  1  -^•Recreation,  op.  c i t . , 66-95.  twelve  129 (1) Modern c i t y c o n d i t i o n s demand the year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l program and i t i s a d e f i n i t e p a r t of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a modern community to p r o v i d e i t . Each year more c i t i e s are p l a c i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s the year-round  on  b a s i s ; each year more p u b l i c funds are being  spent f o r year-round r e c r e a t i o n .  These f a c t s are  significant  testimony t o the value of the year-round r e c r e a t i o n a l C o n c l u s i o n . — The problem  system.  of planning an e f f e c t i v e playground  program i s one concerned with a r r a n g i n g the d e t a i l s of the d a i l y , weekly and monthly a c t i v i t i e s which are t o be o f f e r e d , and taught on the playgrounds. r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of a l l who  encouraged  P r o v i s i o n must be made f o r the frequent the playground; the d i r -  e c t o r must take each group according to i t s p a r t i c u l a r need, d e s i r e s , and p l a y tendencies f o r a g i v e n p e r i o d each  day.  Programs should be f l e x i b l e , v a r i e d to s u i t the condit i o n s of d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s , and the ages and sex of a t t e n dants, and p e r m i t t i n g p l e n t y of i n i t i a t i v e on the p a r t of the director.  Dates f o r special* a c t i v i t i e s , e f f i c i e n c y t e s t s ,  ex-  h i b i t i o n s , f i e l d days, o u t i n g s , e t c . should be posted ahead. Most playground programs should be planned so that they culminate i n a f i n a l event or a s e r i e s of events.  The  final  event or events should serve as an o b j e c t i v e toward which the c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r l e a d e r s work, not i n forced but i n happy normal p l a y during the whole season.  130 (B)  P r o v i s i o n s f o r Recreation  Other than  Organized Playground A c t i v i t i e s There are many a c t i v i t i e s of the r e c r e a t i o n a l program which should  be g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , f o r they can not be  l o g i c a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the playground program. Municipal  g o l f . — The r i s e of the municipal  g o l f course move-  ment brought with i t a method of f i n a n c i n g community r e c r e a t i o n which i s being plan."'"  s t r o n g l y recommended, namely, the "pay as you go"  The new method was f o r c e d upon the community because of  the high  cost of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of a g o l f  course.  Coupled with t h i s high cost of c o n s t r u c t i o n and opera-  t i o n was the f a c t that g o l f was at f i r s t played percentage of the people. people who played  by only a small  Because of the l i m i t e d number of  the game, support by p u b l i c t a x a t i o n was  impracticable. The present  p o p u l a r i t y of g o l f i s undoubtedly due t o  the p a r t i c u l a r appeal of the game, and t o the f a c t that i t i s played  i n small groups.  The f a c t that i t i s an out-of-door game  f o r young and o l d has been one f e a t u r e i n i t s favor. provides  vigorous  The game  e x e r c i s e of the body as w e l l as mental r e l a x a -  tion. Municipal  g o l f courses are being  the l a r g e c i t i e s on the c o n t i n e n t . of r e c r e a t i o n i s evident The  organized  i n most of  The p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s form  by the l a r g e numbers which p a r t i c i p a t e .  r e c r e a t i o n board should be the o r g a n i z i n g agency i n the c i t y  f o r the promotion of municipal  golf.  I t i s safe to say that any c i t y that b u i l d s a good and 'Nash, op• c i t . , 3 5 4 .  131  a c c e s s i b l e g o l f course and p l a c e s a reasonable  charge of from  f i f t y to s e v e n t y - f i v e cents f o r a round of p l a y , w i l l be able t o cover a l l the c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n and i n a d d i t i o n l a y aside a t l e a s t t e n per cent of the income to take care of upkeep."*" The m u n i c i p a l camp.— The m u n i c i p a l  camp i s a p l a c e of p u b l i c  r e c r e a t i o n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from the p r i v a t e camp and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l camp.  I t i s not a p l a c e f o r convalescents,  nor i s  i t a c h a r i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n ; i t i s simply an extension o f the park and playground system. The m u n i c i p a l family u n i t s .  camp i s a p l a c e where people r e s o r t i n  I t i s p e r f e c t l y obvious that r e g a r d l e s s of f i n a n -  c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a f a m i l y with small c h i l d r e n i s out of p l a c e i n the t y p i c a l summer r e s o r t .  The c h i l d r e n are an annoyance to  t h e i r p a r e n t s , t o the guests, and to the management.  Under mun-  i c i p a l camp c o n d i t i o n s , where the f a m i l y u n i t i s maintained, the cost of s u p e r v i s i o n may be kept at a minimum. makes p o s s i b l e l i f e  The municipal  camp  i n the open under more or l e s s p r i m i t i v e con-  d i t i o n s ; p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r three b a s i c needs: s h e l t e r , proper cooking accommodation, and h e a l t h p r o t e c t i o n .  To these w i l l , of  course, be added the v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The  camp i s b u i l t upon the b a s i s that every person i n  camp must be of some a s s i s t a n c e .  In the f i r s t p l a c e , the campers  take care of t h e i r own beds, and are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p i c k i n g up of papers w i t h i n reasonable ters.  d i s t a n c e of t h e i r s l e e p i n g quar- •  The campers take turns i n waiting on the t a b l e , and stack-  ing the d i s h e s , as w e l l as i n preparing the f r u i t s and vegetables. Campers a s s i s t weekly i n o r g a n i z i n g and c o n t r i b u t i n g e n t e r t a i n ment to the evening  camp f i r e .  iKash, op. c i t . , 765.  In a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d  camp t a l e n t s  152 w i l l be brought to l i g h t which have remained dormant f o r years. The low cost of the m u n i c i p a l camp seems almost unbelievable.  I t i s p o s s i b l e to t r a n s p o r t people and r e t u r n them at the  end of the two weeks, during which time they have been housed i n t e n t s or cabins with cots and mattresses, have been provided with well-cooked  food, and have been a f f o r d e d the opportunity  of a great v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f o r approximately a d o l l a r a day p l u s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s .  The  typical  camp i s p r o v i d e d with a nurse, l i f e - g u a r d , . playground  director,  d i r e c t o r of h i k e s , nature guide and d i r e c t o r of evening  social  activity.  M u n i c i p a l camps have been organized i n many of the  l a r g e c i t i e s of the continent.  Such camps are almost  entirely  s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and are proving to be a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l p a r t of the r e c r e a t i o n a l program. Community c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ^ " — C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s are of i n t e r e s t and value to a l l members of the community.  In the  p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s program are found a c t i v i t i e s such as dramat i c games, s t o r y p l a y s , and dances.  For school c h i l d r e n , a c t i v -  i t i e s such as f o l k dances, music and dramatics are arranged,  and  f o r the a d u l t group, a c t i v i t i e s such as pageants, p l a y s , pantomines, masques, and f e s t i v a l s .  By means of such  activities,  wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s forms of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y be e f f e c t e d .  should  T h i s program should be c a r r i e d out throughout  the  •'•Nash, op. c i t . , 372. No s i n g l e word i s i n c l u s i v e enough to take i n a l l types of community a c t i v i t i e s such as drama, music,- and f o l k and dramat i c dancing. The E i s t e d d f o d i s being used i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of the continent to designate j u s t t h i s type of competition. The name " E i s t e d d f o d " comes from the Welsh, and i t has had a very important place i n the development of the c u l t u r a l l i f e of the Welsh- people. 2  153 year.  A p l a n which would p r o v i d e s p e c i a l programs f o r v a r i o u s  h o l i d a y s and f e s t i v a l s ,  should be made out i n advance.  There should be a c e n t r a l m u n i c i p a l costume room, where all  costumes and scenery f o r dramatic  a c t i v i t i e s could be stored  and kept i n good c o n d i t i o n so that they may be used on other occasions. A d e f i n i t e budget allowance ious types of a c t i v i t i e s . reasonable l i m i t s ties.  should be made f o r the v a r -  T h i s allowance may be kept w i t h i n  by adherence t o simple and inexpensive proper-  Volunteer help can be secured f o r the making of costumes,  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of scenery, and f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of orchestras.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l that the c o s t s be low, so that i t  w i l l not be necessary to make an admission  charge.  Community.centers.— Community centers are not new i n s o f a r as t h e i r g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n s a r e concerned. community g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s .  There have always been  At these g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s i n t e r e s t -  ing a c t i v i t i e s have always taken p l a c e .  In the e a r l y days when  r e c r e a t i o n boards became i n t e r e s t e d i n the use of the community center as a p a r t of the r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e of the community, the center was a s s o c i a t e d with the needs of the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . A c t i v i t i e s were organized f o r the people, but i n no way by the people.  I t was soon seen that before any of these  activities  could become e d u c a t i o n a l , they must be changed from a c h a r i t y b a s i s to a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g  basis.  1  The new community center ?;hich i s emerging from the charity-dominated and a u t o c r a t i c a l l y managed center of the past w i l l be a p a r t o f the school or of the r e c r e a t i o n a l 'Nash, op. c i t . , 412.  activities  134  of the c i t y .  However, i t w i l l he c o n t r o l l e d "by the people  or-  ganized i n t o s e l f - g o v e r n i n g groups. Community f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be used, such as school b u i l d ings, park and playground  f i e l d houses and l i b r a r i e s .  which use these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be s e l f - o r g a n i z e d and  The  groups  self-sus-  t a i n i n g , engaging i n many v a r i e t i e s of wholesome a c t i v i t i e s i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g c i t i z e n s of a community.  Thus the community center w i l l be merely one of the admin-  istrative  branches of the r e c r e a t i o n board.  I t i s p r e f e r a b l e that the schools conduct t h e i r own  activities in  b u i l d i n g s , but i f t h i s i s not being done to the  full  c a p a c i t y , some co-operative measures should be taken so that the parks and school boards of the c i t y can combine t h e i r f o r c e s to c a r r y out one  i n t e n s i v e program.  Community games.— There are a number of p a r t i c u l a r l y t o r y community games.  satisfac-  F a c i l i t i e s should be provided f o r games  such as b a s e b a l l , soccer, f o o t b a l l and t e n n i s .  There i s prac-  t i c a l l y no l i m i t to the number of grounds that could be used f o r these games.  Horseshoes and q u o i t s are always popular with com-  munity groups.  These games are used e x t e n s i v e l y i n connection  with camping a c t i v i t i e s and where o l d e r men  gather.  i n d u s t r i a l a t h l e t i c s and  i n parks  Again, the game of archery has  gained  i n p o p u l a r i t y i n t h i s country very r a p i d l y during the past d e c a d e . F a c i l i t i e s f o r archery are not d i f f i c u l t to provide. Bonarro,  which evolved out of archery and g o l f o f f e r s an e x c e l -  l e n t example of a s u i t a b l e community game.  I t i s l e s s monoton-  ous than archery alone, and there i s e x e r c i s e of the l e g s as 'Nash, op. c i t . , 441.  135 w e l l as the. upper body. There are many other types of a c t i v i t i e s , such as howling , horseback r i d i n g , f l y c a s t i n g and t r a p shooting, that can be encouraged by the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and the s t i m u l a t i o n of  i n t e r e s t through propaganda and o r g a n i z a t i o n . With the community p r o v i d i n g merely the f a c i l i t i e s and  a l l a c t i v i t i e s being p l a c e d upon a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g b a s i s , these forms of community r e c r e a t i o n must i n e v i t a b l y be enlarged. Winter a c t i v i t i e s . — Winter sports should c o n s t i t u t e one of the f e a t u r e s of the m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a l program.  The promotion  of winter a c t i v i t i e s helps to round out and complete the community program.  Some of the winter a c t i v i t i e s which should be  i n c l u d e d i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l program are s k a t i n g , snowshoeing, tobogganing sliding  and bobsledding;  while cross-country s k i i n g , s k i  and c u r l i n g should be made s p e c i a l c a r n i v a l  events.  Many f a c i l i t i e s can be provided a t v e r y l i t t l e through  the r e c r e a t i o n board,  but outdoor  s k a t i n g r i n k s can be  made i n v e r y c o l d weather by having the fire-department s u i t a b l e areas. ing,  cost  flood  In some c i t i e s , s t r e e t s are set aside f o r coast-  while snow-erusted h i l l s are used f o r tobogganing  be i c e d f o r g r e a t e r smoothness and speed.  and may  There would be a  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n winter  activities  i f f a c i l i t i e s were p r o v i d e d and equipment rented out. Swimming p o o l s . — A marked i n t e r e s t at present evident on the c o n t i n e n t . i n playground  i n the b u i l d i n g of pools i s Pools are being constructed  and r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s , churches,  c l u b s , schools  -'-Safety r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the winter a c t i v i t i e s need to be p u b l i s h e d and emphasized. These can be w e l l advert i s e d i n the newspapers, and c h i l d r e n should be urged through school to observe them.  136 and even i n apartment houses. The modern swimming p o o l may  be a great b l e s s i n g or a  g r e a t e r curse; a p l a c e where wholesome e x e r c i s e and r e c r e a t i o n may  be secured,  seminating  or one  of the most e f f e c t u a l mediums f o r d i s -  the germs of d i s e a s e .  S a n i t a t i o n can be guaranteed  only through e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . cludes the c o n t r o l of bathers; t i o n o f the poolroom and the water supply and  Such a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n -  the c l e a n i n g , c o n t r o l , and  opera-  s e r v i c e departments; and .the c o n t r o l of  i t s h e a t i n g , f i l t r a t i o n and  A swimming p o o l i s a safe and  sterilization.  1  s a n i t a r y place to swim i n only  when the management i s i n t e l l i g e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e , and e t e r n a l l y v i g i l a n t , and bathers  are c o n s c i e n t i o u s , c a r e f u l , and  co-opera-  tive. Many companies owning t h e i r own f in an ce a c t i v i t i e s s u c c e s s f u l l y .  pools are not able to  Some co-operative arrangement  should be made with them by the r e c r e a t i o n board.  There i s no  reason why  activities  i n these  the r e c r e a t i o n board could not organize  swimming pools by r e n t i n g them f o r c e r t a i n periods  and  a s s i s t i n g t h e i r f i n a n c i n g by s u b s i d i z i n g the costs of administrat i o n during these r e n t a l p e r i o d s . R e c r e a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l workers.—• Many i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s on the continent are conducting  i n t r a - m u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a l programs  and are p r o v i d i n g such f a c i l i t i e s as p l a y areas, swimming p o o l s , a t h l e t i c f i e l d s and r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s .  Any program based  merely upon i n c r e a s i n g the e f f i c i e n c y of the worker, or upon the i d e a l of h e a l t h f o r g r e a t e r economy of work, w i l l fail.  The  certainly  employer must co-operate with the employees as dem-  o c r a t i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e i n o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s . -'-Nash, op.  c i t . , 441.  137  The  r e c r e a t i o n hoard  • industrial to  workers.  conduct,  what t y p e s  i s responsible  The d u t y o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r  but a l s o  t o organize  activities.  of recreation the i n d u s t r i a l  can  participate i nactivities;  are  located.  director  When a l l t h i s  of industrial  information  activities,  employees' a s s o c i a t i o n s , should  and  outline the policies.  ing,  that  activities  nished  is  them.  part being  board w i l l  be u s e d .  of the workers constantly  intellectual  or that  with  committees  from  program  b e made l a r g e l y s e l f - s u s t a i n defray  the actual  facilities  regular  cost of  such as  be e i t h e r  facilities  o f the  fields furcity  S u c h a - . . l e i sure--: t i m e m o v e m e n t o n  i s b y no means c o n f i n e d  broadened t o include  and c u l t u r a l  they  facilities  l a yout the year's  I t i s assumed t h a t  by t h e employer,  f i n d out  has been c o l l e c t e d , the  diamonds, gymnasiums and clubrooms w i l l  recreation the  also  He s h o u l d  the nearest  together  i s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s should  administering courts,  should  i s not p r i m a r i l y  g r o u p s w a n t ; when  and where  the  The  f o r t h e program, f o r  to sports.  the various  I t  types of  recreation.  -^Oakland, C a l i f o r n i a , i s c o n d u c t i n g an e x t e n s i v e recreat i o n a l program through the I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f G r e a t e r O a k l a n d and t h e G i r l s ' A u x i l i a r y f o s t e r e d by t h e Oakland Recreation Department.* ^Inf-ra,  198.  138  ;/"/CHAPTER  VIII  THE ADMINIS TEATION OE PLAY CENTERS At  this point  problems encountered outlined.  the p r e s e n t a t i o n  of c e r t a i n  administrative  by the d i r e c t o r o f r e c r e a t i o n  The t r e a t m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i l l  s h o u l d be  of necessity  be  general rather than s p e c i f i c . Plan for a t y p i c a l is  elementary, s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d I n F i g u r e V I  found, a n e x a m p l e o f a w e l l - p l a n n e d e l e m e n t a r y  ground.  1  The r e a d e r - w i l l n o t e t h e  the generous  size of.the  made f o r a d o l e s c e n t Schedule are  landscaping,  baseball ground.  it  g i r l s and b o y s and a l s o  i s suggested  that  i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e  fenqing,  been  for small c h i l d r e n .  t h e woman be i n c h a r g e  f o r the  and  one woman and one man  10 A . M . t o 6 P . M . , a n d t h e man f r o m 1 P M . arrangement  the  P r o v i s i o n s have  o f h o u r s . - - O n a p l a y g r o u n d where  i n charge,  school play-  from  B y means o f s u e h a n  instructress  t o be on  t h e p l a y g r o u n d i n t h e m o r n i n g and a f t e r n o o n when most o f  the  c h i l d r e n were, t h e r e .  The i n s t r u c t o r w o u l d be p r e s e n t on  the  p l a y g r o u n d d u r i n g the  afternoon,  the  e v e n i n g h o u r s y/hen t h e  a c t i v i t i e s f o r o l d e r b o y s and men  were c a r r i e d o n .  Furthermore,  t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the  Provisions  and w o u l d a l s o be t h e r e d u r i n g  he w o u l d be t h e r e i n t h e  ever-present  problem of  f o r r a i n y d a y s . r - - l n many c i t i e s ,  discipline..  indoor quarters  p r o v i d e d where a c t i v i t i e s may be c o n t i n u e d i n c a s e o f or  storm.  able  f o r the  c l o s i n g of a playground.  are  emergency  A l i g h t shower i s n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a  excuse  evening  justifi-  The P l a y g r o u n d  a n d R e c s r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f Wyoming. V a l l e y s u g g e s t s t h a t i f it  i s r a i n i n g hard at  auty u n t i l  after infra,  the 139.  9 A.M., instructors shower i s  over.  s h o u l d not  report  I f a shower comes  for  during  FIGURE 71  A WELL-PLANNED  (For  E L E M E N T A R Y SCHOOL  Key See Next  Page)  PLAYGROUND  KEY TO FIGURE V I A W E L L - P M N E D ELEMENTARYSCHOOL PLAYGROUND D e s c r i p t i o n of 1.  .2.  Apparatus  I n d i c a t e d b y Numbers on D i a g r a m ,  Girls Sand-box The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s a r e 1 ' x 5 ' x 12'. I t i s equipped w i t h a s h e l f which serves e i t h e r a s a s e a t o r as a m o l d i n g t a b l e . It i s f i l l e d w i t h a c o a r s e g r a d e o f s a n d , w h i c h w i l l n o t become d u s t y i n d r y w e a t h e r n o r muddy when m o i s t e n e d . 1  G i r l s S l i d e — - T h i s i s a m e d i u m - s i z e d s l i d e and ped w i t h a l a n d i n g - p i t f i l l e d w i t h c l e a n sand, 1  equip-  3.  G i r l s ' - G y m n a s i u m Frame, w h i c h c o n s i s t s of a set o f s i x traveling rings. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r u n i t y has b e e n foxznd most s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r g i r l s .  4.  Girls V o l l e y - b a l l C o u r t , w h i c h has 4 x 4 - i n c h p o s t s s e t i n s o c k e t s , so t h a t t h e y may be e a s i l y r e m o v e d .  5*  Girls B a s k e t - b a l l Court—-posts set i n s i c k e t s . (Numb e r s 4 and 5 a r e c o n v e r t i b l e i n t o t e n n i s c o u r t s d u r i n g s e a s o n s ?/hen b a s k e t b a l l i s n o t p l a y e d , )  6.  D o u b l e H a n d b a l l C o u r t s — O n e s i d e f o r b o y s and t h e other f o r g i r l s . This consists of p l a i n handball backstops twenty feet wide, twelve feet h i g h , w i t h a six-foot wire extension.  7.  Boys* B a s k e t - b a l l C o u r t s — p o s t s  8.  Boys' V o l l e y - b a l l Court—-posts set i n sockets. (lumb e r s 7 and 8 a r e c o n v e r t i b l e i n t o t e n n i s c o u r t s . )  9.  B o y s ' Gymnasium Frame U n i t s e l e c t e d f o r b o y s ' gymnas i u m frame i s one h o r i z p n t a l b a r , one c l i m b i n g - p o l e , one c l i m b i n g - r l a d d e r , two s e t s f l y i n g - r i n g s ,  r  1  set  in  sockets.  10.  High S l i d e for Boys, w i t h sand.  11.  Sand-Box f o r Boys,  12.  S o c c e r p o s t s * made o f 6 x 6 - i n c h p o s t s . Size of f i e l d i s r e d u c e d t o 50 x 80 y a r d s , w h i c h has p r o v e d s a t i s factory for school playground purposes. Hockey i s p l a y e d on t h i s f i e l d .  13.  Jumping-pit,  14*  Wire-cage Backstops for  filled  equipped w i t h l a n d i n g - p i t  filled  e q u i p p e d a s Number 1.  with  shavings. baseball*  141 the hours unless  of duty,  the  the  instructors  s t o r m has l a s t e d  a r e a s k e d n o t t o go home  for a considerable  and t h e g r o u n d s h a v e b e e n r e n d e r e d u n f i t of  the program.  to the keep  f o r the  I n some c i t i e s , w o r k e r s a r e  o f f i c e i f r a i n makes i t  the p l a y g r o u n d open.  l e n g t h of time c a r r y i n g on  r e q u i r e d t o go  impossible f o r the d i r e c t o r s  I n such i n s t a n c e s ,  staff  are h e l d , or the workers spend the time r e p a i r i n g P r o v i s i o n s .for s a f e t y in not  the p r o t e c t i o n  ,1:  o f t h e d i r e c t o r and t h e  The p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s  responsible  f o r the  reported ated  c a r e s h o u l d be  standpoint liability  and the  for defects  than weekly.  o f the  of the  of the  caretakers  i m m e d i a t e l y and d e f e c t i v e  detected  until  it  safe-  person^-  s h o u l d be Apparaand  at  s h o u l d be  a p p a r a t u s s h o u l d be  o r i n some o t h e r way made n o n - u s a b l e  is  city.  daily i f possible,  Any d e f e c t s  taken  Gare  i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s grounda.  s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d  any r a t e not l e s s  equipment.  from t h e s t a n d p o i n t  c h i l d r e n , b u t a l s o from the  al liability  meetings  of c h i l d r e n attending playgrounds.  only of primary importance  t y o f the  tus  and,health.—Great  to  elimin-  c a n be  re-  paired. E v e r y p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e measure f o r t h e o f h e a l t h and t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f a c c i d e n t Such p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d I n c l u d e the  1. 2. 5. 4. 5. 6. _/7.  of p a r t i c u l a r  s h o u l d be  enforced.  e n f o r c i n g o f a l l the laws o f  s a n i t a t i o n and o f a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n . p r o v i s i o n s are  preservation  Some o f t h e  following  importance:  The p l a y g r o u n d s h o u l d be s p r i n k l e d t o e l i m i n a t e d u s t L a v a t o r i e s s h o u l d be k e p t c l e a n . S a n i t a r y d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s s h o u l d be. p r o v i d e d . S h o w e r s t a k e n b y c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d . T o w e l s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d b y more t h a n one p e r s o n . F a c i l i t i e s f o r w a s h i n g hands s h o u l d b e - p r o v i d e d . C i r c l e games where t h e r e i s "hand h o l d i n g " s h o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d .  142  • '  .  8. C h i l d r e n who a r e o b v i o u s l y i l l s h o u l d he e x c l u d e d from t h e p l a y g r o u n d . 9.. S m a l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p l a y i n p r o t e c t e d a r e a s . 1 0 . S w i n g s s h o u l d be f e n c e d . 1 1 . D a n g e r z o n e s f o r t h e g i a n t s t r i d e s h o u l d be m a r k e d . 1 2 . D a n g e r z o n e s f o r h a r d b a s e b a l l s h o u l d be m a r k e d . • 1 3 . D a n g e r z o n e s f o r h o r s e s h o e games s h o u l d be m a r k e d . 1 4 . S a n d b o x e s s h o u l d be k e p t c l e a n . 1 5 . S o f t l a n d i n g - p i t s should, be p r o v i d e d u n d e r a l l a p p a r a t u s where c h i l d r e n c l i m b . 1 6 . S o f t l a n d i n g - p i t s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s l i d e s 1 7 . T h e r e s h o u l d be no u n s u p e r v i s e d l o a f i n g - p l a e e s . 1 8 . A p p a r a t u s s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d f r e q u e n t l y . 1 9 . A l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e u s e o f t h e apparatus.!  Discipline  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d . — S e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i s one o f  great objectives playgrounds discipline  i n training for citizenship.  have n o t  contributed  in particular  I n many  e f f e c t i v e l y to e i t h e r  or g o o d . c i t i z e n s h i p i n g e n e r a l .  the  instanc selfOne  writer: says: T h e r e h a v e b e e n many i n s t a n c e s on p l a y g r o u n d s when g o o d n e s s has n o t b e e n i n t e r e s t i n g . Take, f o r example, the. s i t u a t i o n Where t h e ' b u l l y ' o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d e n t e r s the p l a y g r o u n d . The d i r e c t o r s e n s i n g t r o u b l e • d r o p s v/hat he i s d o i n g and d e v o t e s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o this particular individual. He g e t s h i m i n t o a b a s k e t b a l l game p r o v i d e s h i m w i t h a good b a l l and maybe he e v e n r e f e r e e s t h e game. ' I t i s e s s e n t i a l , ' he s a y s , ' f o r i f I do n o t do t h i s , . t h e r e w i l l be t r o u b l e . ' B u t t h e weakness h e r e I s i m m e d i a t e l y s e e n : because o f t h e t r o u b l e s o m e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e ' b a d c i t i z e n ' he gets a l l the a t t e n t i o n . The ' g o o d c i t i z e n * on t h e p l a y g r o u n d who k e e p s t h e r u l e s , l o o k s out f o r h i m s e l f . This t r e a t m e n t on t h e p l a y g r o u n d c a u s e s t h e v e r y s i t u a t i o n we want t o a v o i d — n a m e l y , m a k i n g b a d c i t i z e n s h i p p r o f i t able. Make g o o d n e s s I n t e r e s t i n g . 3 u s t make i t profitable t o be l a w - a b i d i n g . L e t I t be known t h a t t h e more l a w a b i d i n g a c h i l d i s , t h e more p r i v i l e g e s he may h a v e , and t h e l e s s l a w - a b i d i n g , t h e l e s s p r i v i l e g e s he may have,^ Smoking,  improper conduct,  g u a g e s h o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d , n o r s h o u l d , t h e  rough t r e a t m e n t o f any p r o p e r t y 1  Nash,  op. c i t . ,  2  ibid,  328.  327  or the use o f improper l a n - .  be a l l o w e d .  C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be  143  taught to take a p e r s o n a l p r i d e the p l a y g r o u n d  i n the  c a r e o f the  i n general,  the  field  of c h i l d r e n  for  competitive  apparatus,  h o u s e s and the  school  '•"buildings. Olassif ication erence- has  b e e n made t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  groups for  the purpose o f p l a n n i n g  such groups.  It  individuals  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n throughout the  for  athletic  country.  classification  Table X V I I .  is best.  s t r e n g t h or a c a p a c i t y None o f t h e s e has M o s t o f them a r e  safety. are is  entirely  to set Carried  the purpose o f  One o f t h e  end has  equalization certain  certain  on.  Finally,  Another  include  1 i n f r a , 144.  classification. value.  definite these  use. objec-  objectives is  i n games f o r w h i c h t h e y  objective  of  classification  Classification  tends c a n be  one o f t h e  of  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  to  a  of a b i l i t y w i t h i n which competition  is  o r g a n i z i n g groups w i t h i n the  be p o s s i b l e  in  objects of a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of playing a b i l i t y .  limits  is given  for playground  which r e a l i z e s  first  strength,  age-height-  to prove i t s  complicated  i n the  used  have a t t e m p t e d t o u t i l i z e  C h i l d r e n should not p a r t i c i p a t e  objectives for  too  not p h y s i c a l l y s u i t e d . the  for  and a n y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  may be u s e d .  being  the  pro?  Many methods  An example of t h i s  been used s u f f i c i e n t l y  Classification tives,  index  Probably  for  obtaining  A l l o f them have e l e m e n t s o f  Other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  1  difficult  tests.  c o m p e t i t i o n s are  and l i k e w i s e e l e m e n t s o f w e a k n e s s . welght  the  the purpose o f  efficiency  age  play activities  consider  for  homogeneous g r o u p s f o r p h y s i c a l  of c h i l d r e n i n t o  specific  i s now n e c e s s a r y t o  blem of c l a s s i f y i n g  activities.—Ref-  last,  but  not  the p r o v i d i n g  the of  classification  e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i n the  least,  the  opportunities so t h a t i t  activity  may  program.  TABLE  XVII  AGE-HEIGHT-WEIGHT -CLASSIFICATION  FOE  Age Height Weigh !t. : Yrs,..Mos. Inche£ Pounds5 Below Below Below 9-6 50 61 9-6 619-11 50 64 10-0 6510-5 51 67 10-6 526810-11 53 70 11-0 71 11-5 54 75 11-6 557611-11 56 80 12-0 ' 578112-5 58 85 12-6 8612-11 59 89 13-0 609013-5 61 94 13-6 95 13-11 62 100 14-0 10114-5 63 106 14-6 •10714-11 64 112 15-0 11315-5 65 117 15-6 11815-11 66 122 16-0 12316-5 127 16-6 128 16-11 67 130 17-0 131 17-5 133 17-6 13417-11 68 135 18-0 13618-5 138 18-6 13918-11. 69 141 19-0 . O v e r ' : •; Over and over 69 141  COMPETITIVE  -  Rating 1 2 3 4 ,  5 • 6 7 8 9  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Example:  ACTIVITIES.  Sum o f Rating  Rating  Class  1 2 3 4 Below  12  5  A  6 7 12-20  B  21-29  G  30-37  D  38-47  E  48-57  F  8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  57  and over  19 20 21  Boy A g e 15 y e a r s 2 m o n t h s . . R a t i n g f o r a g e . . . . . 1 3 H e i g h t 63 i n c h e s . . . . . . . R a t i n g f o r h e i g h t . . 1 1 W e i g h t 119, p o u n d s . . . . . . R a t i n g f o r w e i g h t . . 1 4 Sum o f r a t i n g . . . . . . . . 3 8 "Class  G  145 P l a y g r o u n d h o n o u r - p o i n t s y s t e m s . - - T h e h o n o u r - p o i n t s y s t e m has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a l a r g e number o f p l a y g r o u n d s y s t e m s t h e p a s t few y e a r s ,  during  and r ' e c r e a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e s have d e v i s e d  v a r i o u s methods  o f g r a n t i n g p o i n t s a n d awards f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and achievement  i n a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s .  is  no s t a n d a r d  system i n use.  However, t h e r e ;  Some p l a n s a r e s i m p l e , f o r  they  a r e b a s e d on a few a c t i v i t i e s and on a l i m i t e d number o f . p o i n t s , whereas  others are  keeping. while  elaborate,  Some a r e r e s t r i c t e d  necessitating to the  considerable  i n d i v i d u a l boy or  record  girl,  o t h e r s i n v o l v e g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n or a c h i e v e m e n t ,  many c i t i e s , p o i n t s a r e g r a n t e d  in  to playgrounds r a t h e r than  to  individual children. The Valley,  P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f Wyoming  Pennsylvania, gives points  activities  d u r i n g ' the  for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n various  summer p l a y g r o u n d s e a s o n .  In this  com-  p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e t y p e o f p r o g r a m , no a d d e d p o i n t s a r e g i v e n for  w i n n i n g or f o r s p e c i a l e x c e l l e n c e .  points  i s as  Nat.  of awarding  follows;! ACTIVITY  (A) :fuB) (G) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) , j-MJ (N) (0) (P)  The b a s i s  1 0 . OF POINTS  P e t Show 1 S a f e t y L e a g u e Member 1 Beautifying Playground 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Circus 2 Harmonica Contest 3 Wood C a r v i n g 2 Safety P a t r o l Duties • >• 2 Making F l o a t s 2 M a r d i Gras Parade 2 Making l a n t e r n s 2 Marching I n L a n t e r n Parade 1 T r a c k Meet 2 P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Tests 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a y or Pageant 2 Indian Council 2 Baseball Pitching 1 TOTAL ~"2T~ RSc. Ass'n.,  Correspondence Course, Lesson V I , 19.  A g o l d m e r i t badge i s a w a r d e d t o a l l g i r l s and b o y s e a r n i n g t w e n t y - f i v e o r more p o i n t s , a s i l v e r m e r i t badge t o a l l g i r l s and b o y s e a r n i n g t w e n t y t o t w e n t y f i v e p o i n t s and a b r o n z e m e r i t badge t o a l l g i r l s a n d boys e a r n i n g f i f t e e n to twenty p o i n t s . I n s t r u c t o r s are r e q u i r e d to f i l l out a form showing t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h e a c h c h i l d has p a r t i c i p a t e d and t h e number o f m e r i t p o i n t s e a r n e d . M e r i t badges a r e a w a r d e d o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t shown on these f o r m s . 1  One s y s t e m , Beach, for  California,  achievement  system i s record  i n use  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d s o f l o n g  awards a l l p o i n t s  on t h e p l a y g r o u n d .  t h a t some o f t h e p o i n t s  f o r s e r v i c e s rendered A s p e c i a l feature  of  a r e g i v e n on t h e b a s i s  o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n i t i a t i v e and g o o d s p o r t s m a n s h i p  the p l a y i n g season. entitled I  that i s  E a c h boy o r g i r l  t o r e c e i v e a n emblem.  or  this of  the  during  e a r n i n g 500 p o i n t s " i s  The s y s t e m i s  o u t l i n e d below.  Attendance 1 h r . i n A . M . or P . M . m e r i t s 1 p o i n t i n one d a y a p o s s i b l e ' For b r i n g i n g others a  II.  s  h  2 points l  g  h  L e a d e r s h i p and. S e r v i c e Team, c a p t a i n s . Supplying Monitors Making c o u r t s O r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( c l u b teams) O t h e r s s e r v i c e s on g r o u n d s up t o  H I  a  s  1  0  10 15 15 10 10  Teams - C l u b s and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s P l a y g r o u n d teams 25 •Champion p l a y g r o u n d teams . 50 I n t e r r ? p l a y g r o u n d teams 50 Champion i n t e r - p l a y g r o u n d teams 60 Membership i n a c t i v e c l u b s 25 E f f o r t a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n on teams and i n clubs 25 R e p r e s e n t i n g p l a y g r o u n d i n a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as m e e t s , p l a y s and p a g e a n t s , as h i g h as 50  IV  Decathlon E v e n t s t a k e n from Badge T e s t s by D i r e c t o r  7  .  or  II II  rr II  chosen  I n i t i a t i v e — o r i g i n a l i t y i n organizing . . . a c t i v i t i e s ( a w a r d e d a t end o f summer) .Hat. R e c . A s s ' n . ,  II  ir  Correspondence,.Course,  25-50 50 Lesson V I , 19.  147 VI  Good s p o r t s m a n s h i p - — c i t i z e n s h i p . A w a r d e d a t end o f summer t o t h o s e g i r l s and. b o y s who have i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e d i r e c t o r shown s p e c i a l e v i d e n c e o f s e r v i c e , g o o d s p o r t s m a n s h i p and f i n e qual-r i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p on t h e p l a y g r o u n d . Emblems a r e a w a r d e d a t end o f summer.- -.  50 p o i n t s  1  E x p e r i e n c e w i t h these m e r i t p o i n t systems that a w e l l devised plan w i l l first  place  increase  i t has a b e a r i n g  serve  activities.  I n the  second p l a c e ,  children a continuity of interest  intendents are  The g e n e r a l  of recreation  t h e most d e s i r a b l e  s h o u l d money p r i z e s  frequently  the  is likely  to  of  establishes  for  i n a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s . t h e awards g i v e n a r e  consensus  o f o p i n i o n among  i s t h a t r i b b o n s and b a d g e s as  incentives  In  i n the v a r i o u s types  it  The r e a d e r w i l l n o t i c e t h a t intrinsic value.  several purposes.  on d i s c i p l i n e , as i t  t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  indicates  without super-  awards  t o a c t i v i t y , t h a t i n no ease  o r m e r c h a n d i s e p r i z e s be g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n ,  b u t t h a t - - o c c a s i o n a l l y i n e x p e n s i v e m e d a l s as a form o f h i g h g r a d e a w a r d c a n be s a f e l y The s e r v i c e b u r e a u . - - T h e  given. theory o f the bureau i s t h a t  there  s h o u l d be one c e n t r a l p l a c e i n e v e r y community where a l l available  information i n regard  and f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e  entire  to t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l  community w o u l d be  the  activities  concentrated.  The r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d s h o u l d be r e a d y t o g i v e maximum s e r v i c e t o t h e homes o f t h e  community.  the b a c k y a r d p l a y g r o u n d and i t s able at  a l l times,  c e r n i n g home  Pamphlets d e a l i n g w i t h  c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d be  avail-  and i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e c o n -  games.  Again,  t h e r e c r e a t i o n b o a r d may c o n t r i b u t e  ^ l a t . E e c . Ass » n . , Correspondence  to the  Course, 2 3 .  school  148 r e c r e a t i o n a l program. to  Costumes and stage scenery may  the school f o r p l a y s and l i s t s  of p l a y s may  be  loaned  be made a v a i l -  able to school groups f o r various p a t r i o t i c and  c i v i c celebra-  tions. However, because of the great v a r i e t y of demands, i t i s to  the g e n e r a l community t h a t the g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e can be  dered. for  of p l a c e s f o r v a c a t i o n s ;  p i c n i c grounds;  providing  supplying i n f o r m a t i o n concern-?  supplying playground  b a l l s , bats and nets f o r p i c n i c s ; to  finding places  the p l a y a c t i v i t i e s of s e l f - o r g a n i z e d groups;  lists ing  A few- of the s e r v i c e s are the f o l l o w i n g :  ren-  equipment such as  supplying a s p e c i a l d i r e c t o r  handle games and s p o r t s f o r p i c n i c s ;  making a v a i l a b l e r e c -  r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r v i s i t i n g delegates to  conventions.  P u b l i c i t y . — K e e p i n g the p u b l i c informed about the work qf the., c i v i c r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s more than propaganda;i n the long run:the. r e c r e a t i o n board w i l l not p r o f i t by "press agent" method.  O c c a s i o n a l l y a s t o r y of human i n t e r e s t  w i l l be of value, but.too many sentimental s t o r i e s may the confidence  of the people  are being conducted.  However, many types of p u b l i c i t y may  these should be overlooked,  of a l a r g e community,  l o c a l newspaper c o n s t i t u t e s one  recreation.  There are two  The  first  none of  In the f i r s t p l a c e , the  of the most important  channels  types o f newspaper s t o r i e s ,  these should be kept d i s t i n c t i n the mind of the of  prove  e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of  organized r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  publicity.  shake  i n the s u b s t a n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s which  of value to the r e c r e a t i o n board  for  the  and  superintendent  type i s that of the current news  s t o r y , a b r i e f account of an event which i s going to happen or  149  w h i c h has happened on t h e day o f t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e  news-  p a p e r . • T h i s t y p e o f news i t e m s h o u l d d e a l c h i e f l y w i t h  dramas,  musical a f f a i r s ,  dances,  l e a g u e s and t o u r n a m e n t s .  type Is that- o f the f e a t u r e  s t o r y f o r w h i c h most  p e r i o d i c a l l y provide considerable  m a t e r i a l s u c h as s l i d e s and m o v i n g p i c t u r e s ,  the  stories.  d i r e c t o r w i t h members o f t h e  m o s t v a l u a b l e t y p e of p u b l i c i t y ; the  newspapers  space.  A n o t h e r w o r t h w h i l e method o f p u b l i c i t y  c u r r e n t news i t e m s and f e a t u r e  The s e c o n d  is  to use  visual  i n connection with  Personal contact of  c i t i z e n body i s  of course  the  s u c h c o n t a c t may be nade by  i n d i v i d . u a ! i n s t r u c t o r i n h i s d a i l y r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s or  t h r o u g h the .appearance  of r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s  s u c h as c i v i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , organizations.  before  groups  i m p r o v e m e n t c l u b s , -and s i m i l a r  150  CHAPTER I X THE TRAINING OF DIRECTORS The  success o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l program depends l a r g e l y  upon l e a d e r s h i p .  No r e c r e a t i o n a l program can he e f f e c t i v e w i t h -  out an adequate number o f t r a i n e d and p a i d l e a d e r s t o p l a n and administer i t .  Volunteer  l e a d e r s a r e a l s o needed i n the form  of groups o f c i t i z e n s , t e a c h e r s  s  o r d i r e c t o r s i n t r a i n i n g , who  s u p p o r t the p a i d l e a d e r s and who h e l p i n the development o f t h e program,  l e a d e r s h i p i s more important  than equipment and f a c i l -  i t i e s ; w i t h o u t i t t h e v a l u e o f p l a y f o r c h a r a c t e r "building and for  citizenship i s lost.  The p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r . — P l a y g r o u n d l e a d e r s h i p has become a profession.  M u n i c i p a l b o d i e s conducting  playground programs  a r e a s k i n g t h a t the workers they employ s h a l l have had d e f i n i t e t r a i n i n g q u a l i f y i n g them t o serve as l e a d e r s i n t h i s profession.  important  Many c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , , s c h o o l s o f p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e o f f e r i n g courses i n the t r a i n i n g o f p l a y g r o u n d w o r k e r s .  So important  has t h e  problem o f w e l l - t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p become t h a t the N a t i o n a l Recr e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n has e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n for  c o l l e g e graduates and i s a l s o conducting  School  a summer s c h o o l  where workers a l r e a d y i n the f i e l d may come t o g e t h e r t o secure the most u p - t o - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s ever-?expanding field,  1  Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s i s the f a c t t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n has i s s u e d a correspondence course f o r summer p l a y g r o u n d workers c o n s i s t i n g o f t e n l e s s o n s w i t h seven  1 5 1  accompanying p a m p h l e t s . successfully  complete  The s e l e c t i o n quired  to  Certificates  the  awarded  t o t h o s e who  course.  of playground workers.—  fill  are  A p p l i c a n t s s h o u l d he  out  some t y p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k . 1 i n g i s a suggested a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k .  re-  The f o l l o w - ?  RECREATION DEPARTMENT CITY OF ——-.Application Blank • • • • • • X « • * e»  N a m e . . . * A d d r e s s . . . * A g e . . . . P h o n e NOi . . . . P o s i t i o n A p p l i e d A r e Y o u a C i t i z e n o f Canada? . Of What S c h o o l s o r C o l l e g e s A r e Y o u a G r a d u a t e ? ( I f n o t a g r a d u a t e , s t a t e how l o n g i n a t t e n d a n c e ) . Have Y o u Taken a S p e c i a l Course o f T r a i n i n g f o r  for... .  Playground  Do Y o u H o l d a T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ? Experience: On P l a y g r o u n d General * I n o t h e r work w i t h c h i l d r e n — each) Can Y o u T e a c h t h e F o l l o w i n g S u b j e c t s ? ( S t a t e " y e s " o r " n o " t o kindergarten, including F r e e Games, i n c l u d i n g Games..... . S t o r y T e l l i n g . . . . . * . . Running.... Circle Use o f S a n d B o x . . . , . . . . . . . ; . . , . * * . Singing...... B a l l Games, i n c l u d i n g Gymnastic. . D r i l l . B a s e b a l l . . . . B a s k e t b a l l . . . . . . F o l k l h Dancing*. , . . . * . . . . . . V o l l e y B a l l . . . M i s c e l l a n e o u s . . . . M a n u a l .Training} I n c l u d i n g Use o f Gymnasium .Basketry. . . . R a f f i a . . . . . . . •  • • *S «  » a  ® © ©  each) Are you F a m i l i a r w i t h the F o l l o w i n g ? ( S t a t e "yes" or "no" to F i r s t A i d to the I n j u r e d . General Recreation A o t i v i t Organized A t h l e t i c s , i n c l u d i n g ies including Leagues.»...* Teams............. Clubs.*....Dramatics....... T r a c k and F i e l d E v e n t s . . . . . . . . . . N e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t e r s . S o c i a l and S e t t l e m e n t Work* References: ITQIUQS  • « • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .A.cLcL3r©s s ©s • • • • • « • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Qualifications ant  of the p l a y g r o u n d  than p r o f e s s i o n a l  personality  training  director.—  are  and c h a r a c t e r a n d h i s  the  1  Nash,  oproit.,  195.  import-  individual's traits  natural  The B u r e a u o f R e c r e a t i o n o f t h e  E v e n more  aptitudes.  Chicago Board o f  of  152  E d u c a t i o n o n one o c c a s i o n made a s t u d y o f t h e o p i n i o n s and d e s i r e s o f the  c h i l d r e n ?/ho a t t e n d e d  q u e s t i o n s a s k e d was t h e  following:  the p l a y g r o u n d .  Among  the  "What k i n d o f a p l a y l e a d e r  would y o u have on the p l a y g r o u n d ? " A summary o f t h e  replies  follow:  The f i r s t t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s deemed;most d e s i r a b l e i n a playground i n s t r u c t o r were: •1. K i n d 140 6 . To bp y o u n g 78 2. Knows Games ." 128 7 . To be j o l l y 77 5. Is a t h l e t i c 102 8 . To be f a i r 64 4, Is i n t e r e s t e d 94 9 . To know " F i r s t A i d " 58 5. To p l a y w i t h c h i l d r e n 85 1 0 . Good game t e a c h e r 53 1  A s e c o n d t e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t as t h e y i n d i c a t e t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f the c h i l d r e n are shrewd a t recognizing important q u a l i t i e s . 11. To be s t r o n g 51 1 6 . To h a v e k n o w l e d g e 58 12. To be p a t i e n t 49 o f work 13. likes children 47 1 7 . H e a l t h y 50 14. To be a c t i v e 43 1 8 . Experienced 28 15. To be s t r i c t 4 3 19« To t e a c h new games 25 1 20. To be s y m p a t h e t i c 25 ;  Dr. Elbert K . Fretwell, University, directors  o f Teachers C o l l e g e ,  Columbia  i n commenting on the q u a l i t i e s o f p l a y g r o u n d  states:  I t i s e a s y t o s e t down some o f t h e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s .•.ad? a - l e a d e r as t h e y e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s ! i n what he d o e s . T-kis l e a d e r o f b o y s and g i r l s i s : 1 . S i n c e r e , a n d b e l i e v e s i n t h e w o r k he i s d o i n g . 2 . E n t h u s i a s t i c , c o n t a g i o u s l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , about w h a t he i s d o i n g . 3 . C l e a r as t o t h e ends t o be a t t a i n e d a n d m a s t e r o f t h e m a t e r i a l and methods t o a t t a i n t h e s e e n d s . 4. Firm without being f i e r c e . A GENUINE LEADER 1. Secures the c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t o f h i s group to d e t e r m i n e y/hat t h e y c a n do and how t h e y c a n do i t . 2 . S e l e c t s and d e v e l o p s l e a d e r s , and d e v e l o p s the a b i l i t y on t h e p a r t o f a l l t o c h o o s e a l e a d e r w i s e l y * 3. Stimulates creative a b i l i t y of individuals, tog e t h e r w i t h t h e d e s i r e t o w o r k f o r t h e good o f t h e g r o u p . 4 . P l a n s c l e a r l y , f o r e s e e s what w i l l h a p p e n , u t i l i z e s l e a d e r s h i p o f o t h e r s , i s l o y a l to h i s group.  1  N a t . Rec. A s s ' n . ,  The C o n d u c t o f P l a y g r o u n d s . P a m p h l e t , 3 ,  153  5 . Knows t h a t w h a t he does has i t s c h i e f i m p o r t a n c e i n what i t c a u s e s o t h e r s t o d o , 6. Respects h i m s e l f , 7 . l o o k s f o r , e x p e c t s , demands, t h a t t h e f i n e q u a i l * t i e s o f h i s g r o u p show t h e m s e l v e s , and a t t i m e s he i s e v e n s e e m i n g l y b l i n d t o some f a u l t s , 8 . M o d i f i e s games q u i c k l y t o meet e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 9 . S t i r s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f h i s g r o u p , and a p p e a l s to t h e i r dramatic sense, . 1 G , S a y s and a c t s ? D o ' i n s t e a d o f D o n ' t l ? 1 1 . R e c o g n i z e s t h a t 'Do Good' i s g r e a t e r s t i m u l u s t o b o y s and g i r l s t h a n ,'Be G o o d , f 12. B u i l d s morale through a c t i v i t y . 1 3 . Has a s e n s e o f h u m o u r . T  1  Training for recreational leadership.— recreational field ranks for  to-day  The g r e a t n e e d i n  is for trained leadership,  o f employed w o r k e r s and v o l u n t e e r s .  t r a i n i n g people  The number o f  the  centers  the  supply.  A broad e d u c a t i o n a l background i s d e s i r a b l e  c h i l d nature,  the  fitting  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s inadequate;  demand f o r t r a i n e d w o r k e r s e x c e e d s  reational workers.  both i n  f o r a l l - r o u n d l e a d e r s h i p @nd f o r  them t o assume p o s i t i o n s  the  for  rec-  A g e n e r a l knowledge o f p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y ,  v o c a t i o n a l guidance,  literature,  gogy i s v a l u a b l e f o r a l l those e n t e r i n g the  civics,  field.  and p e d a -  Furthermore  4  a c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f m u s i c a n d drama i s a l s o a v a l u a b l e asset.  A w o r k e r ' s k n o w l e d g e and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u s i c ,  and a r t  will  be o f i n e s t i m a b l e a s s i s t a n c e  b r o a d e r a n d more e x p r e s s i v e To meet t h e  drama  i n his planning of a  program.  i m m e d i a t e n e e d f o r w o r k e r s w i t h some  train-  i n g i n the l e i s u r e time f i e l d ,  t h e r e has b e e n a r a p i d d e v e l o p -  ment d u r i n g t h e p a s t  i n short-rtime  to arouse the  few y e a r s  interest  of volunteers  institutes  i n t h e community  designed recreation-  a l p r o g r a m and t o g i v e them t h e g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g necessary. 1 Nash,  op. c i t . .  320.  154 A t the p r e s e n t  time,  the  interest  kind gives promise of further  i n t r a i n i n g courses of  this  development w i t h i n the next  few  a r e b y no means l i m i t e d t o v o l u n t e e r s ,  and  years. institutes  many e m p l o y e d w o r k e r s s u c h as l i b r a r i a n s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s a n d playground leaders tensive  courses  are  are a t t e n d i n g the  institutes.  o f t e n used i n t r a i n i n g p r o s p e c t i v e employed  workers,' or i n g i v i n g a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t o ready entered  the s e r v i c e .  Such courses  t i c a l and t e c h n i c a l i n t h e i r s c o p e , apparatus, ics,  Shortstime i n -  problems of d i s c i p l i n e ,  t h o s e who haye a l -  are n e c e s s a r i l y p r a c -  d e a l i n g w i t h the use o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  athlet-  i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o l k d a n c i n g , and t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e  r e a t i o n a l program.  .  '  The t r a i n i n g s c h o o l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s by the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c l e a g u e prepare  trained leaders  The c o u r s e s  maintained  of Baltimore i s designed  f o r the v a r i o u s departments  f o r 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 were as  rec-  to  of i t s work.  follows:  P l a y g r o u n d . - - F o r l e a d e r s o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r 10 y e a r s o f age. T h i s c o u r s e e x t e n d s o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s . Junior C l a s s . T h i r t y periods of study. October 1st to " " June 1 s t ; t h r e e h o u r s w e e k l y , S a t u r d a y s , 9 t o 12 A . M . Theory 5 hrs. Games 10 h r s . Playground technique 5 hrs. Storytelling 15 h r s . H a n d i c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s 15 h r s . D r a m a t i z a t i o n 10 h r s . K i n d e r g a r t e n games 10 h r s . Health 10 h r s . F o l k dances 10 h r s . Music __5 h r s . Total 90 h r s . T w e l v e p e r i o d s o f p r a c t i c e and o b s e r v a t i o n o f f i e l d - - t h e s e p e r i o d s t o be a r r a n g e d . F i f t y - t w o p e r i o d s o f a s s i s t a n t s h i p , J u l y and A u g u s t j 5 hours d a i l y , morning, afternoon or e v e n i n g . Senior ^ Class.— T h i r t y p e r i o d s o f s t u d y , October 1st to June 1 s t ; 3 h o u r s w e e k l y , S a t u r d a y s , 9 t o 12 A . M . Theory 10 h r s . D r a m a t i z a t i o n 10 h r s . Constructive Play 15 h r s . Health 10 h r s . K i n d e r g a r t e n games 10 h r s . Music 5 hrs.  155  F o l k dances 10 h r s . Games 10 h r s . Storytelling 10 h r s . Total "¥0" h r s . l e c t n r e s - r r - F i v e l e c t u r e s w i l l he s c h e d u l e d t h r o u g h t h e y e a r , t o he a n n o u n c e d . Attendance i s r e q u i r e d both by Juniors and S e n i o r s . Diplomas are awarded to s t u d e n t s . G r a d u a t e s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r p o s i t i o n s as p l a y l e a d e r s a n d w h e n e v e r v a c a n c i e s o c c u r w i l l be g i v e n p o s i t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to a b i l i t y . Graduate Glass.rrr- Twenty p e r i o d s '" 1 s t ; p e r i o d s t o be a r r a n g e d . a c c o r d i n g to r e g i s t r a t i o n .  o f s t u d y , November 1 s t t o May T h i s c l a s s t o be a r r a n g e d  A t h l e t i c — r F o r A s s i s t a n t l e a d e r s o f a d o l e s c e n t s o v e r 14 y e a r s of age. T w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s o f t h e o r y , O c t o b e r 1 s t t o May 1 s t , Monday 7 : 3 0 t o 8 : 3 0 P . M . T w e n t y - f i v e p e r i o d s o f p r a c t i c e , O c t o b e r 1 s t t o May 1 s t , Monday, 8 : 3 0 t o 1 0 : 0 0 P . M . F o r l e a d e r s o f c h i l d r e n o v e r 10 y e a r s o f a g e : Twenty-five p e r i o d s o f p r a c t i c e , O c t o b e r 1 s t t o May 1 s t , S a t u r d a y , 9 : 3 0 to 11:30. A . M .  The r e q u i r e m e n t s  are  as  follows:  For P l a y g r o u n d Course ""Junior Class Three y e a r s H i g h S c h o o l or i t s E i g h t e e n y e a r s o f age Physical fitness Senior Class  equivalent  Those c o m p l e t i n g t h e J u n i o r y e a r w i t h c r e d i t s r e e l i g i b l e for t h i s course. Graduate C l a s s Those h a v i n g r e c e i v e d d i p l o m a s a r e e l i g i b l e for t h i s course. a  For  A t h l e t i c Course E n t r y f o r t h e s e c l a s s e s i s as f o l l o w s : A. Class, for Assistant leaders of adolescents, is open t o a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s o f t h e e v e n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s of the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c League, and t o s p e c i a l s t u d e n t s whose f o r m e r t r a i n i n g i s judged i t s e q u i v a l e n t . B , C l a s s j f o r L e a d e r s o f c h i l d r e n o v e r 10 y e a r s o f a g e , i s a n o r m a l t r a i n i n g c l a s s open t o a d v a n c e d workers o f the P l a y g r o u n d A t h l e t i c League, The t r a i n i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n a l w o r k e r s , w h e t h e r  or v o l u n t e e r , ferences  s h o u l d be a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s .  and r o u n d t a b l e  "**lee, o p . c i t . ,  Institutes,  d i s c u s s i o n s — a l l methods  130  employed  which  con-  increase  t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r k e r i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s he i s which stimulate l o o k are  his interest,  conducting,  and w h i c h g i v e h i m a b r o a d e r  out-  invaluable.  D i r e c t o r s who a r e  specialists.—  ,few years of i n t e r e s t  W i t h the growth d u r i n g the  i n s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s has  past  come a n i n -  c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s p e c i a l i s t s  i n various types of a c t i v -  ities.  o f the development  cial  These w o r k e r s are  features  o f the programs  community c e n t e r s . devote  their  i n charge  specialists  music,  storytelling, folk  supervising, recreation  . work and water  t h a t are  following interests:  neighborhood work, h a n d i c r a f t , athletic  spe-  on a number o f p l a y g r o u n d s  Some o f t h e  time to the  of  for  and  employed drama,  dancing,  i n d u s t r i a l workers,  girls'  sports.  One o f t h e m a j o r  tasks of s p e c i a l i s t s  h e l p the  regular  cialists  are making p o s s i b l e  i n t o the program.  leaders.  i s to t r a i n  By d e v e l o p i n g l e a d e r s , the  Furthermore,  and  t h e s e spe-r  d r a w i n g o f many community such s p e c i a l i s t s  are  groups  conducting  a n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l type  o f w o r k b y means o f w h i c h s p e c i a l  rec-  r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are  being introduced  sec-  tions  H i t h e r t o , i n most c o m m u n i t i e s ,  o f the  community.  i n t o the v a r i o u s  s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were c o n s p i c u o u s by t h e i r A l l o c a t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s . - - p l i c a t e d problems which face leadership  committees  complicated because of the s c h o o l are  rarity.  One o f t h e most com-  today i n connection w i t h  o f p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s o n s c h o o l days i s  s e l e c t i o n o f the p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s . fact  r e l a t i v e l y short;,  the  It  is  the  particularly  t h a t playground hours  and hence s u p e r v i s i o n o f  s c h o o l p l a y a c t i v i t i e s does n o t p r o v i d e f u l l - t i m e  after after-  employment.  157 The p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s h o u l d he a f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r . suggestions  f o r the  Three  s o l u t i o n o f the problem are hereby g i v e n :  1. I f the p o s i t i o n o f the a f t e r - s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r c a n be c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e d i r e c t o r s h i p o f a n e v e n i n g community c e n t e r , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o have a p e r s o n s t a r t h i s a c t i v i t i e s a t 2 - P . M . and c o n t i n u e u n t i l .10 P . M . - f r e q u e n t l y c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e same s c h o o l b u i l d i n g o r a t l e a s t i n t h e same c o m m u n i t y . 2. A t t h e o t h e r t i m e s , i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r one o f t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r s o f t h e s c h o o l t o come a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d o r t h i r d p e r i o d i n t h e m o r n i n g and teach, t h r o u g h u n t i l s i x , t h u s m a k i n g a f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n . 3. A t h i r d s o l u t i o n m i g h t be t h a t w h e r e b y a r e g u l a r t e a c h e r o f t h e s c h o o l r e m a i n e d on t h e p l a y g r o u n d f o r a n h o u r a f t e r s c h o o l - - s a y f r o m t h r e e t o f o u r — and was a s s i s t e d b y a p a r t - t i m e h e l p e r who w o u l d be on t h e g r o u n d from t h r e e t o s i x . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g h o u r makes i t p o s s i b l e t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e a c t i v i t i e s on t h e p l a y g r o u n d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l education program.1 Efficiency  rating  f o r promotion.— R e c r e a t i o n a l workers  naturally interested i o u s methods a r e i n g the b a s i s  i n m a t t e r s o f s a l a r y and p r o m o t i o n .  i n use  i n the d i f f e r e n t  for promotion of workers.  ment o f D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n , .uses t h e  c i t i e s for  Var-  determin-  The R e c r e a t i o n  following point  are  Depart-  system:  Points: A . 50- Program. The w o r k e r p e r f o r m i n g i n a p r o p e r manner t h e amount o f w o r k r e q u i r e d b y t h e o f f i c e o r s u p e r visors. B . 20- Personality. I n t e r e s t i n work; a t t i t u d e towards t h e d e p a r t m e n t , s u p e r v i s o r s and o t h e r w o r k e r s ; e x e c u t i v e a b i l i t y ; i n i t i a t i v e ; w i l l i n g n e s s t o d e v e l o p an . a d d i t i o n a l p r o g r a m and t o do more w o r k t h a n r e q u i r e d . C. 15- O r g a n i z a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p o f ac--t i v i t i e s ; i n c l u d i n g v o i c e , m a n n e r i s m s and d i r e c t i n g ability, D. 10- Personal H a b i t s . P e r s o n a l appearance at c e n t e r , conduct o u t s i d e the department; r e l i a b i l i t y ; tardiness; absence w i t h o u t l e a v e ; attendance a t s t a f f meetings and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . 'Nash,  op. c i t . ,  321  158 E.  5 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s Q u a l i t i e s . K e e p i n g up t o d a t e r e p o r t s an$ o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k r e q u i r e d ; o r d e r l i n e s s and c l e a n •"•i.^liriess" o f 7 p l a y - c e n t e r s . Impression of p r i n c i p a l , teache r s , n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s .  I n a P e n n s y l v a n i a c i t y , 10 p o i n t s a r e g i v e n f o r p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , 10 f o r p u n c t u a l i t y , 10 f o r a t t i t u d e , 50 f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d 40 f o r p r o g r a m . E i g h t y i s c o n s i d e r e d the minimiun s t a n d a r d . 1 C o n c l u s i o n . — There i s g r e a t need f o r a d e q u a t e l y for  the p l a y g r o u n d system o f Vancouver,  are  selected  trained  At present,  f o r s u c h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as a t t r a c t i v e  academic t r a i n i n g , and a t h l e t i c  ability.  directors  personality,  I n most c a s e s ,  w o r k e r s have p r o v e d t o be v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y most o f t h e s e l e a d e r s  leaders  these  as l e a d e r s ;  but  have h a d v e r y l i t t l e s p e c i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l  t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r work and use  t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as  stepping  stones o n l y . In order permanent  to e s t a b l i s h a s t a f f  i n nature,  o f d i r e c t o r s more o r  c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s are  necessary:  first,  t h e y must be g i v e n f u l l - t i m e employment t h e y e a r - r o u n d ; the  s a l a r i e s m u s t be a t l e a s t  elementary prepared age  school teachers;  for a transfer  of t h i r t y - f i v e  cate,  o f and  they reach  the  o f t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n  s h o u l d be a s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n  normal s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , completion of i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n board,  s e r v i c e as a v o l u n t e e r  director,  one y e a r o f  An i n t e n s i v e course Eec. A s s ' n . ,  for  certificourses  satisfactory  and a n a s s u r a n c e o f an  inten-  t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g i n the v o c a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g the young.  I!at.  the  years.  directors  g i v e n through the  of  t h i r d l y , t h e y m u s t be c a p a b l e  The minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s prospective  secondly,  up t o t h e minimum s c h e d u l e  to s c h o o l t e a c h i n g a f t e r  less  f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l workers might The C o n d u c t o f P l a y g r o u n d s ,  7.  159  c o n s i s t of three branches,  namely:  a b e g i n n e r ' s course  before  s e r v i n g as a v o l u n t e e r d i r e c t o r , a s e c o n d a r y c o u r s e b e f o r e  com-  m e n c i n g w o r k i f a p p o i n t e d a s a p a i d , d i r e c t o r , and a s e r i e s  of  advanced courses g i v e n a n n u a l l y f o r p a i d d i r e c t o r s a f t e r ,year's  service.  I n some p h a s e s o f t h e s e c o u r s e s t h e men and  women c o u l d be s c h e d u l e d t o g e t h e r meet s e p a r a t e l y .  and i n o t h e r phases t h e y would  The s u b j e c t m a t t e r  s h o u l d c o n s i s t of sueh  t o p i c s as h a v e b e e n o u t l i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r ; s u c h as a r e  a  i n c l u d e d i n the  a l Recreation Association.  that  Correspondence Course o f the  is,  Nation-  160 CHAPTER 2 FINANCING PIAYGROUND A C T I V I T I E S The v a l u e o f p l a y as a medium o f wholesome  recreation,  as a means o f p r o m o t i n g g o o d c i t i z e n s h i p , as a method o f ing  c h i l d delinquency,  reduc-  as a d e t e r r e n t t o c h i l d a c c i d e n t s ,  today recognized- by the p u b l i c .  One w r i t e r  is  says:  The e c o n o m i c v a l u e o f s u c h p r o g r a m s i s d e m o n s t r a b l e when one i t e m a l o n e i s c o n s i d e r e d . The c a r e o f one d e l i n q u e n t c o s t s t h e community a p p r o x i m a t e l y § 6 0 0 a y e a r . The s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s throughout the c o u n t r y c o s t approxi m a t e l y $25 a n n u a l l y f o r e a c h c h i l d s e r v e d . When p l a y g r o u n d s a r e f o u n d t o r e d u c e d e l i n q u e n c y f r o m 60 t o 90 p e r c e n t , i t w o u l d seem good b u s i n e s s f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o s p e n d i t s money f o r s o u n d p r e v e n t i o n r a t h e r t h a n " d o u b t f u l cure.! So d e f i n i t e States  are  the b e n e f i t s  o f p l a y t h a t the U n i t e d  Chamber o f Commerce, an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h a r d - h e a d e d  p r a c t i c a l business programs  throughout  men, the  i s a c t i v e l y sponsoring country.  and  recreational  Another w r i t e r  states:  The e x p e n d i t u r e s r e p o r t e d b y 658 c o m m u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n 1927 w e r e o v e r 32 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . During t h a t y e a r 56 c i t i e s r e p o r t e d d o n a t i o n s o f l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes v a l u e d at over 2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The d a i l y a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e a t p l a y g r o u n d s i n 535 c i t i e s t o t a l e d 1 , 2 2 0 , 609 w i t h a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n c e n t s per c h i l d per d a y . 2  In a l programs penditures  order the  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f i n a n c i n g following studies  may be made: a s u r v e y o f e x -  for playground a c t i v i t i e s  a comparison of Vancouver w i t h other  i n representative cities  on t h e  same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s ;  for  p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s ; and a s t u d y o f s u g g e s t i o n s  ^Fawler, of  o f v a r i o u s methods o f for  in  support rais-  activities.  op. c i t . ,  47.  R o g e r s , G . S . , P l a y g r o u n d Handbook, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 7 . 2  cities;  continent  the  i n g money f o r s p e c i a l  a study  recreation-  Chamber o f Commerce  161 Expenditures  f o r playground  activities.—  with p o p u l a t i o n s approximating  Worth, American c i t i e s ,  that of 'Vancouver, have been  s e l e c t e d f o r a comparison of the expenditures f o r playground activities.  Data on these c i t i e s i s presented  1  In the t h i r t e e n c i t i e s  i n Table 27/111.  2  of the continent which have been  s e l e c t e d , the t o t a l expenditures are found  to be:  (1) s a l a r i e s  of d i r e c t o r s only, $450,696; (2) t o t a l s a l a r i e s and wages $721,690; (3) grand  t o t a l $1,337,180.  by the number of c e n t e r s , the average p e n d i t u r e s as f o l l o w s :  In d i v i d i n g these c i t y i s found  totals  to have ex-  (1) f o r d i r e c t o r s only, §34,668;  (2)  t o t a l s a l a r i e s and wages $55,514; (3) grand' t o t a l $102,860. The  expenditures f o r Vancouver are found to be as f o l l o w s :  (1)  f o r d i r e c t o r s only $4,000; (2) t o t a l s a l a r i e s and wages $..4,000; (3) g r a n d - t o t a l $32,585., average  I f Vancouver i s compared with the  c i t y i n the same p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s , the d e f i c i e n c y  from  the standard of expenditures i s found t o be as f o l l o w s : (1) for d i r e c t o r s only §30,669; (2) t o t a l s a l a r i e s and wages $51,515; (3) grand t o t a l $70,275.  In order that Vancouver might be on a  par with such a p r o g r e s s i v e c i t y as Oakland.Its p r o v i s i o n should be as f o l l o w s :  (1). f o r d i r e c t o r s only $108,489; (2) other.,  s a l a r i e s and wages $71,907; (3) grand  t o t a l $180,397.  In t h i s connection, a few f a c t s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n are aa f o l l o w s :  (1) Ottawa has about h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n of  Vancouver but has a t o t a l expenditure f o r playground almost  double  activities  that of Vancouver; (2) Winnipeg has a p o p u l a t i o n  of 42,000 l e s s than that of Vancouver but provides almost times as much as Vancouver f o r playground ^Recreation, op. c i t - . 6 6 - 9 5 . ^infra,  162.  activities;  three  (3.) Toronto,  162  CD O  CO'  P  •H O  O  p  Cd uu %  P o p o •H CO  '•i-' f'SS >0 *==ri *sHi F=3 F=5 ° 0 *s=i  p ro  p., trr-*  •O  LO o | co o ^ cn H H i D o j to-to o <£> » o LC oJ, ~? ^ x| H to o> CO O i H o (O colco 03 O V "erf r-\ O CD 0 ! a s LO Q i £ > O I H coi •>*>«»•»«»»•».»•,.,„«,. j ^ V LO W C2 CO -4< C-i < - to LO o in GO -tflts 02 to o 0.! H -i ca CO C"  ^" H  CP.  G ' tr;  @  O  M  v  r~I  H  o  J  tO  LO LO M ©  cd  ©  <&  O  O i CO CO  co co r-i ca  r-i  to mi  S>  #  «.  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CO  &  LO  cs LO ^  ca co  O  co co r-l  cd  CO pi O f t © H Hfc:Ol  CO CO o  LO  r-l  ca ca  CO CN3  <>' O O CO ^)( CO 0> r-i O r - i LO r-TcO* H  CO CO <cH C 0  tifl  cd  CO t s H CX) U J r-| r-n LiO L p - O i -siI ^ *> CM © ca O CO LO L O O  c  1  EH  H  O  • LO  o  PS  •  cd -p  P  CM Pi  03 r>- EV.H «o--^ ( O R er#  co  H  ca  P-. rp =3 II! e%  PH  p  P  rH cd  o to  •r-i  163 to  equal  Vancouver's  i t i e s , would provided ratio  need  ratio  to provide  t h e sum  t h e sum  t h e sum-  of §259,917;  of expenditure  provide  of expenditure  o f $78,806;  (4) M o n t r e a l ,  f o r playground  of $146,637;  f o r playground  activ-  i n 1934 she  to equal  a c t i v i t i e s * would  i n 1934 she p r o v i d e d  Vancouver's need  to  t h e sum o f  $200,442. From a n e x a m i n a t i o n evident funds than  that  Vancouver  f o r playground half  that  continent. to  that  creased  o f t h e above  i s below  Canadian  materially  of l i k e  ability  cities,  the t o t a l  i t i s  i n the expenditure  In fact,  cities  I f the f i n a n c i a l  of other  standard  activities.  of the other  statistics,  her p r o v i s i o n  of  i s less  p o p u l a t i o n on the  of Vancouver  i t i s time  that  o f her expenditures  i s comparable Vancouver I n f o r playground  activities. Financial various  support  methods 1.  of  the c i t y  departments viding of  f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l  of financing  The b u d g e t  of the c i t y .  annual  support  i s a great  board  will  the will  suffer  older boards be n e c e s s a r y  As a r u l e ,  plan, Under  danger  this  such  as a r e s u l t f o r funds.  the r e c r e a t i o n  the matter will  namely,  a system  of the severe Great  pressure  I f the r e c r e a t i o n  board  are  programs:  plan,  of the city;  under  There  as a r e a l l the r e s t  f o r the playgrounds  t h e b u d g e t - f i x i n g body  There  recreational  plan.  i s on a budget  program.—  board  of the of pro-  be a t t h e o p t i o n the city  that  the r e c r e a t i o n ,  competition from  council.  with  t h e community  i s t o be  adequately  supported. 2. vision  Special  establishing  mill  rate.  a minimum  Many fixed  cities mill  have  rate  a charter  pro-  for recreational  164  , purposes.  I f t h i s i s the oase, p r o v i s i o n should he made so  that the amount thereby r a i s e d may  f o r emergency use or expan-  s i o n be increased by a p p r o p r i a t i o n .  The m i l l r a t e at the p r e -  '•V's'ent time v a r i e s over the continent from two to eleven m i l l s • f o r combined park and playground expenditures. r  3.  Joint, budget p l a n .  Where the parks board and the  s c h o o l board u n i t e on a p l a n f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , a j o i n t budget plan'the s c h o o l board might  should be arranged.  Under t h i s  finance the s c h o o l playgrounds  on  s c h o o l days and the e i t y parks board on non-school days. Important  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n b u d g e t i n g . — No problem '-weighs more  • h e a v i l y upon the d i r e c t o r of r e c r e a t i o n and h i s board than that of f i n a n c i n g the work.  The f i n a n c i n g of municipal r e c r e a t i o n  i n v o l v e s two main f a c t o r s — t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a budget, and the a c t u a l r a i s i n g of the funds f o r which the budget  calls.  Budget-  i n g Is e s s e n t i a l i n p l a n n i n g the expenditures of a municipal r e c r e a t i o n a l system., i n order that disbursements may  be made  only when funds are assured to cover the necessary expenditures. Frequently, members of a board of d i r e c t o r s are Interested i n c e r t a i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s .  Budgeting provides a  method f o r s e c u r i n g the a c t i v e i n t e r e s t  of such members i n r a i s -  ing funds f o r those a c t i v i t i e s .  Furthermore, budgeting neces-  s i t a t e s a c a r e f u l st.udj? of the year's work and a thorough knowledge of the program; I t helps remove the temptation to appeal for funds on the b a s i s of a g e n e r a l , i n d e f i n i t e , projected program.  Rather, i t ensures the c a r r y i n g on of the work on a care-  f u l l y planned b a s i s .  F i n a l l y , - i t promotes p u b l i c confidence i n  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n a l program.  165 Individuals should  have  budget  for a  city  and  ,that  a  long five  should  funds  are  have  planning.  the  of work  cost  or  enlarged  shrinkage. members  of  allowance  ed  revenue  and  usually an  is also  materials  and  A  budget  of  other  anticipated  the  for various estimate items  cannot  be  activities  i s necessary activities.  observe  be  of  budget  systems. good  program  fiscal  carefully of  the  out-  work  make  a  the  organization  conservative  activities.  actual to  as  probable  to  out  the  The  cent. for  planned, i n the service,  conduct  except  estimate  anticipat-  expenditures  of  and  percentage  ©pposed- t o  t e n per  may  available.  f o r u n c o l l e c t e d pledges  includes cost  on  a  of  program  rentals, the  definite  work. basis  service.  t o show The  Is  funds  activities  worked  to  w i t h i n the  scope  revenue  to  necessary  and  the  municipal  o f a new  the  five the  where  planning  that  the  regarding  Failure  should  producing  estimate  This  important.  recreational  wise  from  is  keeping  year  probable  varies  and  so  for  i t s merits.  of r e c r e a t i o n a l  allowances  revenue  guage  beginning  f o r the  the  may  t o keep  according to  due  It  administration  It  the  f o r r e d u c t i o n of  Again,  helpful  of  determined,  made, w i t h  new  and  should  confidence  over-estimated.  essential  estimate- of  of  budget  making  i n advance  and  other  of proper be  of development  citizens  of budget  lined  be  the  activities  Such persons  their  first  program  •An  into  number  Well  modified  program  d i s a s t r o u s to a  the  should  that  for recreational  i n mind.  public  of budget  year,  of  the  i n v o l v e d cannot  proved  budget  ten year  importance  The  be  or  take  fundamentals  a  terra program  program, 'in order The  the  making  i n the  account  budget of the  the  cost  recreation  of  related  board  166 would  Include  which  a r e shown  The  costs  ed  i t s own i t e m s  of cost  i n the accounts  common  to several  a c c o r d i n g t o the time  and a l s o  items  of the other  civic  "boards  of cost departments.  or departments  and e f f o r t  expended  are distribut-  on t h e v a r i o u s a c -  tivities. Frequent estimated ditures being to  income  i n order  carried  carry  statements  should  b e made  and e x p e n d i t u r e s w i t h  actual  income, and  t o make  the program t o have  more  once  than In  sure  on i n such  desirable  which  periodical  a way t h a t  to appeal  the  municipal recreational  The  Board  the  City  of Playground  analysis  follows:  proximately are  well  vices.  the  30 p e r c e n t  subject  f o r support  annual  o f Oakland,  a n n u a l l y submits  program.  program  shows  self-supporting.  statement, from  California. a budget  1  to  provision  The O a k l a n d  of a city  of r a i s i n g  significant features,  such  t o be r a i s e d  as  program a r e ap-  ( 2 ) The e x p e n d i t u r e s  a c c o r d i n g t o the needs  of the various  has been  financial  model t o a r e c r e a t i o n  of revenue  three  of the r e c r e a t i o n a l  financial  as a u s e f u l  Amount  a typical  activities  Directors  (1} B r a n c h e s  (3) Large  play  i t i s un-  o f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s and income  of the table  distributed  recreational serve  year,  sufficient  Council. An  as  be  often.  be f o u n d  the items  the f i s c a l  expen-  o f funds i s  t h e income w i l l  t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c  i fthat  XIX w i l l  illustrates  the expenditure  o f work t h r o u g h  a year,  Table  that  comparing  board  made f o r  statement  ser-  the  should  i n budgeting f o r  Vancouver.  by t a x a t i o n . —  money f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  Opinions  purposes  by  on t h e taxation  167 TABLE X I X A TYPICAL FINANCIAL FOR Board  MUNICIPAL  of Playground  ,  ACCOUNTS July1,  STATEMENT  RECREATION  D i r e c t o r s , Oakland,  FOR 1955  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  California 1  t o June. 5.0.,. 1 9 5 4  '....„.-...,  Receipts Council Appropriation "" " E a r n i n g s - - G o l f Course L i o n s Swimming Pool Camps Lake M e r r i t t Night Tennis Miscellaneous ' > Sale of Service Previous years delinquent taxes--"brought forward  #  .5,697,26  Total  $  Disbursements Payroll Athletic Supplies L i g h t , Power, H e a t Water Fares and T r a v e l i n g Expenses U p k e e p and. O p e r a t i o n A u t o m o t i v e E q u i p m e n t Insurance phone S e r v i c e Postage Laundry Tools Printing Janitorial Supplies Christmas Pageant Other Operating Expenses Camp S u p p l i e s M a i n t e n a n c e j Improvements and R e p a i r s , B u i l d i n g s and Grounds •Maintenance a n d R e p a i r s , Equipment  Total  247,413.19  165,800.10 9,817.14 3,805.12 13,655.59 729.06 2,381.52 1*106.59 2 9 JL # 5 S  458.94 946.41 277.88 649,37 570,99 1,720.15 4,086*78 6,725.95 29,593.29 4,798.72  .$  1. B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d (1933-34), Oakland,  180,910,00 28,389.60 3,912.90 12,780.32 8,694.79 1,405.35 2,225*44 3,397.53  D i r e c t o r s , Annual C a l i f o r n i a , " ^  247,413.19  Report, '  168 will differ;  the only b a s i s of d e c i d i n g the sums to he r a i s e d  i n t h i s way i s the r e p o r t s of what c i t i e s are spending where adequate p r o v i s i o n s are being made f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  In the  western part of the United .States where the need i s l e s s  than  i n many of the e a s t e r n s t a t e s , the amount expended y e a r l y f o r combined a c t i v i t i e s of park and playground per capita,-*-  i s about two d o l l a r s  Among the c i t i e s spending t h i s amount" are Denver,  S e a t t l e , San F r a n c i s c o , l o s Angeles,  Colorado Springs, Long  Beach, Pasadena, Pomona, Santa Monica and Oakland.  I t may be  that the l a r g e r c i t i e s w i l l be able t o cut down t h i s amount per c a p i t a , but no one can say, as none of the l a r g e eastern c i t i e s has y e t e s t a b l i s h e d an adequate program which reaches any large percentage  of the c h i l d r e n , l e t alone one which reaches the .  adults. Various suggested  estimates are o f f e r e d f o r the f i n a n c -  ing of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  'fhe n a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n Asso-  c i a t i o n suggests the annual amount of three d o l l a r s per c a p i t a , to finance the expenditures f o r o p e r a t i o n and maintenance only.^ Some estimates would place.one per cent of the t o t a l assessed v a l u a t i o n of the c i t y i n park and playground  property, while  other estimates would p l a c e t h i s estimate as high as f i v e per cent.  Somewhere between these' two estimates, probably close to  f i v e per cent, w i l l be found the f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g the prov i s i o n which should be made. In a d d i t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  purposes  made by the parks boards, numerous s c h o o l boards expend l a r g e sums f o r p h y s i c a l education.  I n c e r t a i n c i t i e s , these boards  "%ash, OP. c i t . , 160. % a t . Rec. Ass 'n., Schedule f o r the A p p r a i s a l of Community Recreation, pamphlet, 29.  169  have  power  three of  to raise  to six-tenths  taxable  services source  the present  of civic  to  This  undertaking about  f o r the people  ies. the It  easiest,  most  i s the goal  committees funds gram  bats,  similar  i s matched  In  city,  this  burden  Alabama,  by e f f o r t s and  program of  municipal from  that  cities  treasur-  t a x funds i s  e f f e c t i v e way shows  expended  t o do i t .  recreational where  sufficient  f o r an adequate  be r a i s e d  by p r i v a t e  o f t h e money, f o r  pro-  effort.  balls,  f o r i n d i v i d u a l playgrounds i s  of those  playgrounds  Whatever  i s raised  by t h e m u n i c i p a l  when a community  that  the municipal  from  council  part  for  emergency  o f t h e money  i n many  must  than  Columbia.  comes  by the c i t y  chief  the p r o v i n c i a l  followed  playgrounds  However,  associations.  dollars  for social  out a n  an adequate  experience  material  i n the v i c i n i t y  from  between  a n d most  t h e money  and h a n d i c r a f t  raised  value  financial aid  be  means.-- Most  which  Birmingham,  will  recreation  work.  of r e c r e a t i o n ,  that  carrying  of B r i t i s h  permanent,  toward  should  i s now  run, financing  are not supplied  In  or  community  In the long  any h e a v i e r  i n part  i n providing  by voluntary  organized  come  co-operation  recreation  for  carry  o f the government  closer  of revenue  f o r t h e unemployed. - I t i s hoped  governments  money  must  government  provincial  Raising  of from  The p r o p e r t y : . t a x — t h e  I t i s obvious  program  of recreation  bring  on t h e b a s i s  of the assessed  the sources  are limited.  at present.  government.  this  per dollar  revenue—cannot  recreational  program  time,  i n Vancouver  borne  the  of a m i l l  playgrounds  property.  At  that  f o r school  wants  park such  by up  parent-teacher to twenty  and r e c r e a t i o n improvements  board. as a  170 wading  pool  or a community  raises  half  the necessary  center,  the neighborhood  sum a n d t h e b o a r d  group  supplies  the remain-  der . In  r a i s i n g money  should  always  uency.  That  budgets  by o u t r i g h t  est  look  building or  this  c o mmunit y  tickets  share  contributions, i s informed  of support  membership  i s not quite  and i t o f t e n  is  sound  in  the a c t i v i t i e s  the  i n that  This as  employed  well  using  constit-  raise  their  stimulates  and l a s t i n g .  inter-  T h e means o f  membership  that  a way  campaigns  f o r community years  city-wide must  by  appeals  as t o t h e middle forms  must class  a right  a personal  organizers  be made  to idea  interest  has b e e n  o f community  I n a community  not just  of.  belongs.  f i n a n c i a l- drives  efforts.  be r e a c h e d ,  he  buying  The m e m b e r s h i p  to feel  t o which  as  i s a source  on t h e s u b s c r i b e r  is likely  f o r promoting  of g i v i n g  show, b u t i t s o m e t i m e s  of an agency  a l l available  i n an organization  confers  i n recent  public  assumes  this  i s through  dues  a person  and s i m i l a r  entire  possible,  of the organization.  The.technique  funds  or a g e n c i e s  o f a permanent  since  as p a i n l e s s  talent  i n the control  widely  whenever  committees  c a mpa i g n s .  t o a home  prestige,  should,  which  type  Paying recreation  to the establishing  i s , they  and s u p p o r t  for recreation,  project,  a section  t o t h e man  and t h e w e a l t h y .  chest  of i t .  i n overalls It also  means  o f p u b l i c i t y and e d u c a t i o n i n . r a i s i n g  fund s. There  a r e many  can  be r e s o r t e d  the  burden  temporary  and i n c i d e n t a l  t o i n r a i s i n g money.  of giving  and even  conceal  These  m e t h o d s 'which  methods  the act either  minimize under the  171 garb  o f b u y i n g and s e l l i n g  Some o f t h e m t h r o w the  "benefit" It  technique  o r i n some f o r m  the p l e a s a n t atmosphere  and t h u s  serve  a double  has been s u g g e s t e d o f money r a i s i n g  that  of entertainment. of s o c i a b i l i t y  arour  purpose.  some  of the e s s e n t i a l s  of tl:  are the following:  ( a ) The d o i n g o f good w o r k . ( b ) The k e e p i n g o f y o u r c o n t r i b u t o r s and o t h e r s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n f o r m e d as t o what i a b e i n g done. ( c ) I n t e r e s t i n g a f e w i n d i v i d u a l s deeply a n d g e t t i n g the s t r o n g e s t people I n t h e community behind t h e w o r k. (d) T r a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r s i n t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f t h e w o r k a n d m a k i n g t h e s t o r y human, n o t a b s t r a c t . ( e ) W o r k i n g I n c e s s a n t l y o n money r a i s i n g i n e v e r y - department throughout t h e y e a r . ( f ) B u d g e t i n g y o u r w o r k and w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e b u d g e t . ( g ) S t a r t i n g f i v e t i m e s a s m u c h money r a i s i n g e f f o r t as y o u t h i n k heeded t o r a i s e t h e budget v o t e d , ( h ) K e e p i n g money i n t h e b a n k a t l e a s t one m o n t h a h e a d i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e amount o f p l e d g e s on hand. (I) Closing every year without a d e f i c i t Since methods  of-helping  of c i t i e s , centers.  especially  of a c t i v i t i e s  structors.  the  possible,  other  groups  are conducting the  of c h a r g i n g fees f o r c e r t a i n  i n o r d e r t o meet t h e s a l a r i e s  of i n -  method, where n e i g h b o r h o o d  assoc-  a r e o r g a n i z e d t o h e l p a d m i n i s t e r t h e c e n t e r s and s u p p o r t  twenty-five  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n p a y dues w h i c h  c e n t s , one d o l l a r ,  o r some  t h e y themselves d e s i g n a t e .  tainments funds  where p r i v a t e  As an a u x i l i a r y  m o v e m e n t , members  which  are not always  t o f i n a n c e t h e w o r k a r e i n u s e i n a number  These methods c o n s i s t  classes  iations  t h e above methods  and s i m i l a r  enterprises,  to help i n the financing  may be  o t h e r annual a m o u n t  Through s u b s c r i p t i o n s , these  associations  of the centers.  One  enter-  raise  writer  states: The  Community R e c r e a t i o n S o c i e t y  'lee,  op. c.it. , 203.  of P l a i n s f i e l d ,  New  172 Jersey, has arranged the fees for i t s community center on the f o l l o w i n g b a s i s : f o r c l a s s e s i n a r t c r a f t , dressmaking, m i l l i n e r y , basketry, p u b l i c speaking, l i t e r a t u r e and drama t i c s , the fee i s $1*50 per term. For q u o i t s , cards and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s the fee i s $1.00. A large p r o p o r t i o n of the Chicago centers meet more than h a l f of t h e i r oxra. expenses. The fees range from a few cents a year f o r some a c t i v i t i e s to 25 cents an evening, depending to some extent upon the a c t i v i t y and to a l a r g e degree upon the neighborhood i n which the school center i s l o c a t e d • A l l a c t i v i t i e s c a r r y some s m a l l f e e . 1 Conclusion.—The i z e d and  f a c t that a r e c r e a t i o n a l program i s w e l l organ-  effectively carried  out does not guarantee that ample  funds w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e . hearted support  I t i s obvious  that the whole-  of the p u b l i c must be obtained so that the nec-  essary funds w i l l be found.  The  only means of reaching t h i s  g o a l i s to have the p u b l i c i n t e l l i g e n t l y informed merits of the r e c r e a t i o n a l program and  both as to  the sums necessary ade-  quately t o finance the program. The reader has seen evidence  of Vancouver's backwardness  i n a p p r o p r i a t i n g funds for r e c r e a t i o n . Advantages should taken of temporary measures f o r r a i s i n g funds; should lead to more municipal support tivities,  be  such measures  i n the f u t u r e .  Many ac-  e s p e c i a l l y those of the adult group, could b e . l a r g e l y  self-sustaining,  where neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s r a i s e  funds  by v a r i o u s means, the municipal a u t h o r i t i e s could match these w i t h equal c o n t r i b u t i o n s , l a s h a s s e r t s t h a t : A c i t y ' s greatness depends not upon the l e n g t h of i t s s t r e e t s or.the s i z e of i t s water system but upon the t r a i n i n g f o r h e a l t h and c i t i z e n s h i p i t i s g i v i n g to the c h i l d r e n . I f t h i s be sOj then a c i t y c o u n c i l would be very wise to encourage a l l forms of r e c r e a t i o n . H a t . -Rec. Ass 'n., The Conduct of Community Centers, Nash, op. c i t . , 162* (pamphlet, 9.  173  CHAPTER 2 1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The f o l l o w i n g on a s t u d y o f t h e A:  c o n c l u s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  material presented  are  i n the p r e v i o u s  based  chapters.  Vancouver's Recreational D e f i c i e n c i e s . 1.  Thirteen, c i t i e s  of the  continent with  a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t o f Vancouver were s e l e c t e d w i t h Vancouver,  The c o m p a r i s o n showed t h a t ,  V a n c o u v e r . ' s p r o v i s i o n s were d e f i c i e n t i n t h e (a)  21 s u p e r v i s e d  nine directors  directors (e) • grounds the  nine playgrounds  school year  l o n g summer  on t h e  average,  following  respects;  14 s a l a r i e d l a d y d i r e c year,  3 0 v o l u n t e e r men  directorsj  open f o r t h e f u l l ^ y e a r ,  four p l a y -  t h e summer o n l y , two p l a y g r o u n d s o n l y and e i g h t p l a y g r o u n d s  open f o r  open f o r  the  season;  (d) $ 3 0 , 6 6 9 f o r #70,275 f o r t o t a l 2.  employed f u l l  a n d 20 v o l u n t e e r l a d y  open f o r  comparison  playgrounds;  ( b ) 28 s a l a r i e d men d i r e c t o r s , tors,  for  populations  the s a l a r i e s  of d i r e c t o r s  o n l y and  expenditures.  V a n c o u v e r was a l s o compared w i t h c e r t a i n l a r g e  Can-  a d i a n c i t i e s , n a m e l y M o n t r e a l , O t t a w a , T o r o n t o and W i n n i p e g . Ottawa, w i t h about  half  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , has  g r e a t e r number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and has a l m o s t the e x p e n d i t u r e s  for playground a c t i v i t i e s .  p o p u l a t i o n of 42,000 l e s s three times almost  double  Winnipeg, w i t h a  t h a n t h a t o f V a n c o u v e r , has  almost  t h e number o f s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s and p r o v i d e s  t h r e e t i m e s t h e amount  activities.  a  i n expenditures  for playground  T o r o n t o , w i t h a l i t t l e more t h a n t w i c e t h e  population  174  Vancouver,  of  playgrounds penditures more  than  times  has  and  times  number  ^  O r g a n i z a t i o n and  terested  A  be  in  carrying  for of  the  out  this,  rather  very  close  school  board.  This  imately be  the  than  on  the  be  parks  executive officer  p l a n has  major  recreational  c e n t e r about  recreational  5.  should  centers  center the  the  organizations  The  and  steps  on  or  play  a general- board  the  school board.  by  parks the  be  of  each  waich  of the  board  cities  divided In  chosen  and  the  noted  recreation. into  approx-  •  d i s t r i c t , should should  district.  program  to  of the  be From  entire  supervised.  support  recreational  bodies i n -  the•responsibility  administration  a  neighborhood  called,  s h o u l d be  been adopted  of Vancouver  recreational  be  the  districts.  To  seven  activities.  board  recreational  s h o u l d be  with  provides s i x times  placed  major  4.  major  of r e c r e a t i o n  12  minor  and  has  ex-  program,  The  major  district  should  3.  the  Montreal,  of a l l civic  c o - o p e r a t i o n between  City  in  a d o p t i o n o f some p l a n o f c o - o p e r a t i o n  v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e i n . the  found  grouped  Finally,  i t i s advantageous'that  central  a  being  the  program  a  program  of that  In a'city,  recreation  the'amount  p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver,  playground  effect  as  activities.  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  t a k e n toward  entire  Failing  times  Administration.  meeting  i n the  2.  eight  number o f s u p e r v i s e d  the  i n expenditures f o r playground  should the  the  times  of supervised playgrounds  amount  1.  four  provides almost  the :  than  for playground four  the  more  work  of  should  the  recreation  be  encouraged  be  responsible  board, i n each  voluntary of  the  districts.  parks  board  should  f o r the  program  175 oi' r e c r e a t i o n o f 6. the  and  the  pre-school  i s e s s e n t i a l that  the  school  playground  school and is  It  are  the not  the  program  time  has  to  for  ho  and  0:  to  school  There to  the  teachers;  authorities.  services  equipment,-  the  At  by  i t  providing  because  of  i s no  need  for  offer  a program  the  both of  unthe  reerea-  r e c r e a t i o n board  only  i n those  r e c r e a t i o n boards.  should  communities  It  should  recreation  promote  where  lend  there  proare  i t s constant -  boards.  Facilities.  the  Every  play  exception  The of  5. operate  playground conjunction 4.  grounds  for  the  present  so  as  to  as  with As  and  operate the  the for  the  for aa  the a  the At  constructed  arises,  at  should  attending of  and  the  Robson,  summer  other  operated  school.  should  should  season  with  be  population  alone. continue Robson  r e c r e a t i o n a l center  small  the  re-  only.  in  School. playgrounds  c h i l d r e n i n the  i t i s proposed and  be  paries b o a r d ,  Nightingale  Heather  the  playgrounds  major  pre-school present,  city  pre-school  Oeperley  Florence  need  the  pupils  Ceperley  playgrounds  should  of  playgrounds  serve  Kitsilano  districts. be  ground  Kitsilano,  constructed  tional-  school  center  constructed  be  the  provide  school-age.  c h i l d r e n and  these  and  should  children.  a l l municipal  2.  to  by  paries b o a r d  facilities  1. as  the  The . p r o v i n c i a l  municipal  support  duplicate  expenses.  school-age 7.  grams  and  the  children*  board  c h i l d r e n of  aside  supplies  necessary-overhead board  the  plant,  been set  more p l a y g r o u n d s ,  tion  for  a v a i l a b l e the  economical  school  adults  that  Granville  major such  Parks.  should recreaplay-  176 A  5. as who  the  number  play  have  centers  left  quate,  as  use  should  be  library, be  population, with  during  the of  made  each  of  for  these, for  school the  the  youth  nearby this  park  age  r e c r e a t i o n may  gymnasium,  operated  operate  Including  day  program  the  should  group.  be  ade-  plant.  Such  auditorium  carrying  out  and  of  the  various  activities.  Directors. It  gram depends staff  of  largely  are  the  or  less  (b)  The  salaries  of  tors, are  the view  of  better  in later The  must  be  the  given at  fact  that  life  to  school  d i r e c t o r s should  be  matriculation  (b)  A  normal  school  (c)  i'he  One  (e)  In  establish certain  completion the  board  year  of  assurance  to  the  minimum  be  playground  the  direc-  performance  prepared  for  a  of trans-  of  training  as  follows:  and  preparation  certificate.  training. of  of  Intensive  courses  given  under  the  recreation.  satisfactory of  up  positions.  teaching.  senior  (d)  i n nature,  younger  a l l d i r e c t o r s must  A  of  To  teachers.  suited p h y s i c a l l y for  (a)  auspices  recreational pro-  full-time  least  school  minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s  prospective  the  permanent  be  elementary  leadership,  2.  of  necessary: d i r e c t o r s must  In  success  Upon w e l l - t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p ,  She  (c)  fer  that  (a)  schedule  play  i s found  d i r e c t o r s more  conditions  for  operate  should  playgrounds  conjunction  the  rooms  1.  a  In  adult  that  the  recreational D:  the  school  order  a wider  basement  for  should  In  facilities  high  school.  playing"i'ields 6.  of  an  service  i n t e n t i o n to  as  a  volunteer  continue  in  the  director.  177 vocation E:  of t r a i n i n g  the young*  Program. 1.  physical  There  should  education  be g r e a t e r  c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  programs  of the  school-age  children. 2. more  A program  than  one a g e g r o u p  3. entire  of r e c r e a t i o n should  A program  year,  a t t h e same t i m e  include  4.  In unsuitable  5.  The p r o g r a m  a l l forms  weather,  offered to  i n t h e same  of r e c r e a t i o n should  and s h o u l d  n o t be  extend  place.  throughout  of seasonal  the program  should  the  activities. be  continued  indoors.  sports,  hobbies  should  and c u l t u r a l  be w e l l - b a l a n c e d and s o c i a l  providing for  activities  of various  kinds. F:  Finance.. 1.  values  I t i s necessary  o f a more a d e q u a t e 2.  raising ities tarily  funds.  should  , B y means  Many  b e made  give  recreation In  other  municipal  and  definite  equal  of temporary  measures,  measures f o r  the municipal  c o n t r i b u t i o n s funds  raised  authorvolun-  especially  those  of the adult  group,  self-sustaining.  carried  and  be t a k e n  of sueh  activities,  regular  words,  to the  organizations.  4. E v e n t u a l l y , should  t h e p u b l i c be e d u c a t e d  program.  should  match w i t h  by l o c a l 3.  should  Advantage  that  the p r o v i n c i a l  and m u n i c i p a l  governments  support  f o r a i l forms  of  municipal  or p r o v i n c i a l  auspices.  financial on under  the f i n a n c i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s  r e c r e a t i o n boards basis.  should  be p l a c e d  organized  of p r o v i n c i a l upon a  sound  178  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bowen, W . E . , and M i t c h e l l , E * D . The (Theory o f P l a y . New Y o r k : A . S . Barnes & C o . , 1923. Bowen, W . E . , and M i t c h e l l , S . D . The T h e o r y o f O r g a n i z e d Play. New Y o r k : A . S . B a r n e s & G o . , 1927. Carpenter, N i l e s . The S o c i o l o g y o f P i t y L i f e . New Y o r k , London.and Toronto: Longmans, G r e e n & C o . , 1 9 3 2 . C u b b e r l e y , E . P . P u b l i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( r e v i s e d and enlarged e d i t i o n ) . New Y o r k : Houghton" M i f f l i n C o . , 1929. C u r t i s , H . S. E d u c a t i o n Through P l a y . C o . , 1917.  New Y o r k :  Dewey,  New Y o r k :  John. Democracy and E d u c a t i o n . C o . , 1925,  Macmillan Macmillan  J o h n s o n , George E . E d u c a t i o n b y P l a y s and Games. New Y o r k : G i n n & G o . , 19W, "~~ Lee,  J 19277—-" . N o r m a l C o u r s e .i n• Pv l a,y .' New Y o r k :  Lee,  J.  May,  H . L . , and P e t g e n , D o r o t h y . A . S . B a r n e s & Co.* 1924.  Nash,  Play i n Education.  New Y o r k :  A.S.Barnes & Co.,  Macmillan C o . , 1923.  L e i s u r e and ~  i t s Use. !  New Y o r k ;  J a y B . The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P l a y r o u n d s and R e c r e a t i o n . New Y o r k : A . S . B a r n e s & C o . ,  f  R a i n w a t e r , C . E . The P l a y Movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1922. ""~ ~"~ T r u x a l , A . G . O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t iveness. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y : Bureau o f Publication", .1929. Y o u n g , K.  S o c i a l Psychology.  New Y o r k : P . S* G r o f t ,  1930.  179 Reports" Annual Report^ R e c r e a t i o n Department, Oakland: Playground D i r e c t o r s , 1933-34.  Board of  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . O i v i c Playgrounds i n Canadian C i t i e s o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n and overT Ottawa": Department of T r a d e and Commerce, 1 9 3 4 . -  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . S c h o o l Playgrounds i n Canadian C i t i e s o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 Population~"a,nd o v e r . Ottawa": Department o f T r a d e and Commerce, 1 9 3 4 , Eisenhardt, I . A n n u a l . R e p o r t , P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n ment. Vancouver: Parks Board, - 1934. Fowler, J . S . The D e n v e r P l a n . D e n v e r , C o l o r a d o : P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 2 9 . V o l . 1. MacCorkindale, H . N . Annual Report, City Schools. Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , 1934.  Depart-  Denver Vancouver:  R e c r e a t i o n Y e a r B o o k . Summary o f S t a t i s t i c s on Community Recreation. New Y o r k : N a t . R e c . A s s ' n . , May, 1934 and May, 1 9 3 5 . R a w l i n g s , W . S . A n n u a l R e p o r t s , P a r k s and P l a y g r o u n d s ^ , Vancouver: Board of Park Commissioners, 1911-15-25. R o g e r s , G . S . P l a y g r o u n d Handbook f o r Chamber o f Commerce S x e o u t i v e s T new r o n e : unamoer o r commerce u m t e a S t a t e s , C i v i c Development Department, 1929. Monographs Davis,  I.W. " A n I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the Conduct and F i n a n c i a l Support o f P l a y g r o u n d and R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n Selected States." Thesis. New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 1 .  Fox,  John J r . "The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f R e c r e a t i o n i n a C i t y w i t h a P o p u l a t i o n under 2 5 j 0 0 0 . " Thesis. New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 1 .  Nash,  J . B . " G o v e r n m e n t a l Powers a n d R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t i e s . " Doctor's Thesis. New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , . 1929. Vol. II.  National Reereation A s s ' n . Playground leaders".  " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e C o u r s e f o r Summer New Y o r k : Lessons 1 to 1 0 .  180  Pamphlets A.  Publications New Y o r k :  o f the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P i t y C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y and C o n d u c t o f Community Conduct o f  National Recreation ~~ 1  Association,  Recreation.  Delinquency. Centers.  Playgrounds.  Eighty-eight  Successful  Play A c t i v i t i e s .  Games a n d P l a y f o r S c h o o l M o r a l e . Home P l a y g r o u n d a n d I n d o o r How t o  Conduct a Referendum  Kennedy,  C.W., Character  Kilpatrick,  V a l u e s o f P l a y and  for F a i r s ,  Recreation.  Carnivals,  etc.  J . B . , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f . P l a y and R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s in a City.  P l a n n i n g Summer P l a y g r o u n d Playground Play  Campaign.  Wm. H . , P l a c e o f A t h l e t i c s i n M o d e r n E d u c a t i o n .  Money-Raising Stunts Nash,  Playroom.  Layout and  Programs.  Equipment.  Leadership.  R a i s i n g Money f o r P l a y and  Recreation.  Sand M o d e l i n g M a n u a l . Schedule School  for  t h e A p p r a i s a l o f Community  Play.  What We D i d o n a Summer  Playground.  Recreation.  Pamphlets B.  Other  fcont'd).  Pamphlets.  B e r g , H . 0. The S c h o o l a s t h e P e o p l e ' s C l u b h o u s e . D . G . : Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n , 1925. ~  Washington,  Ready, M a r i e M . S c h o o l P l a y g r o u n d s . United States of Interior"? Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n , 1934.  Department  Articles De G r o o t , E . . B . "What a r e t h e Chances f o r t h e S u r v i v a l o f A m a t e u r a n d Community R e c r e a t i o n i n a n Age o f Profes-r s i o n a l and C o m m e r c i a l R e c r e a t i o n . " American P h y s i c a l Education Review. October, 1925. Fitz,  J. "Hygiene o f I n s t r u c t i o n . " Proceedings N a t u r a l E d u c a t i o n A s s ' n . , 1898.  of  the  Newspapers lew York Sun.  New Y o r k ;  Vancouver P r o v i n c e * ' 19, 1935.  May 2 2 ,  Vancouver:  1924. May 2 0 ,  1930 and  September  SAN. DIEGO CO-OPERATIVE PLAN  1  Agreement. F o r C o - o p e r a t i o n B e t w e e n B o a r d And P l a y g r o u n d C o m m i s s i o n e r s A n d B o a r d Of E d u c a t i o n , S a n D i e g o , C a l i f . The B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d Commi s s i o n e r s i n j o i n t s e s s i o n a r r a n g e d f o r a committee t o "bring i n a p l a n for< t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e two b o d i e s i n the p r o m o t i o n o f p l a y , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and community r e c r e a t i o n . The c o m m i t t e e h e r e b y recommends t h e f o l l o w i n g a g r e e m e n t f o r a d o p t i o n : Purposes o f Agreement: "~ The B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d C o m m i s s i o n e r s and t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n e n t e r i n t o t h i s agreement because o f t h e i r j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o use p l a y as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n . I t a f f o r d s c h a r a c t e r and c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g . I t develops p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y and m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s . I t l e a d s to the f o r m a t i o n o f h a b i t s i n t h e use o f l e i s u r e t i m e t h a t make f o r happy a n d more a b u n d a n t l i f e . D e a l i n g w i t h t h e same c h i l d r e n , s p e n d i n g t h e same t a x p a y e r ' s money a n d r e q u i r i n g t h e same k i n d o f f a c i l i t i e s , i n t h e same l o c a t i o n s , t h e two a g e n c i e s a i m t o c o - o p e r a t e i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may n o t compete f o r t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , a n d I n o r d e r t h a t the grounds, b u i l d i n g s , equipment.and p e r s o n n e l u n d e r a n y c i t y d e p a r t m e n t may be so u t i l i z e d as t o a c h i e v e maximum s e r v i c e t o b o t h t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e a d u l t s d u r i n g and after school hours. W h a t e v e r i n c i d e n t a l d e f e c t s may be f o u n d i n t h e d e t a i l s of t h i s agreement, I t s p l a i n i n t e n t i s . to p r o v i d e a w o r k i n g b a s i s a n d t o e x p r e s s f a i t h i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e two b o d i e s t o w o r k t o g e t h e r on b r o a d l i n e s . Working  Arrangements: The B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d C o m m i s s i o n e r s and t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n s h a l l a n n u a l l y meet i n j o i n t s e s s i o n t o s e l e c t a Superintendent of Reereation. The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n s h a l l a l s o be t h e D i r e c t o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r the San D i e g o P u b l i c S c h o o l s , i n c l u d i n g H i g h , J u n i o r H i g h and E l e m e n tary. The s a l a r y ' o f t h i s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l be b o r n e e q u a l l y b y t h e two b o a r d s . T h a t w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s u p e r v i s i o n s h a l l be e x e r c i s e d i n b e h a l f o f a d u l t s as w e l l as s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and i n c l u d e a l l s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s j games * d r a m a t i c s , d a n c i n g , p a g e a n t s , f e s t i v a l s , evening r e c r e a t i o n centers i n school-buildings., exclusive o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e s c h o o l d e p a r t m e n t , shower b a t h s , d r e s s i n g rooms a n d p l a y g r o u n d s u p p l y r o o m . T h a t , on t h e f i r s t Monday i n J u n e , when t h e e l e c t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n s h a l l be up f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d C o m m i s s i o n e r s s h a l l meet w i t h t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n i n j o i n t s e s s i o n f o r the purpose o f s e l e c t ing this o f f i c i a l . A m a j o r i t y vote of each board s i t t i n g i n t h e . j o i n t s e s s i o n s h a l l be r e q u i r e d t o e l e c t . J o i n t meetings, o f t h e two. B o a r d s may be c a l l e d a t any t i m e b y e i t h e r , on n o t i c e o f t h e C h a i r m a n , r>rovided t e n d a y s ' n o t i c e i s g i v e n .  183 • *  1 DETAILS OF OAKLAND C0-OPSRATIVE PLAN The O a k l a n d P l a n i n v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s . The two h o a r d s a g r e e d some y e a r s ago t o c e n t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t i n one o f f i c e , t h e t i t l e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e t o be S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f O a k l a n d and D i r e c t o r o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e O a k l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s ; payment o f the s a l a r y o f t h i s o f f i c e t o be s h a r e d .  No r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e n t r u s t e d t o one b o a r d i s r e - d e l e g a t e d t o a n o t h e r b o a r d , s o t h a t - t h e r e ite no l e g a l h a n d i c a p i n t h i s p l a n . - When t h i s o f f i c e r . i s on a s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d , he i s re-? s p o n s i b l e to the board o f e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s ; and when on a m u n i c i p a l p l a y g r o u n d , he i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the B o a r d o f P l a y g r o u n d D i r e c t o r s . When c o n d u c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p a r k s , on p r o p e r t y l o a n ed b y i n d i v i d u a l s o r c l u b s , i n s t a t e o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s , o r on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s F o r e s t R e s e r v e , he i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t e v e r a g r e e m e n t has b e e n e n t e r e d i n t o b y t h e governing boards. EXECUTIVE STAFF S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n and D i r e c t o r of P h y s i c a l Education Oakland P u b l i c S c h o o l s ( S a l a r y s h a r e d b y t h e two b o a r d s ) P a i d by.Board of playground D i r e c t o r s { R e c r e a t i o n Department) A s s i s t a n t Superintendent of Recreation D i r e c t o r of Boys' A c t i v i t i e s Director of G i r l s Activities D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a l Dramatics Director of Industrial Recreation Office S t a f f 1  P a i d by,. B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n ( S c h o o l Department) ~ Supervisor of p h y s i c a l Edxxcation J r . & S r . h i g h s c h o o l girlfe Supervisor of p h y s i c a l Education J r . & S r . h i g h s c h o o l boys Supervisor of Physical Education Office Staff  PLAYGROUND ADiMINISTRATION B o t h . t h e m i n i e i p a l playgrounds-and the s c h o o l playgrounds operated e v e r y , d a y of the y e a r .  are  MUNICIPAL PLAYGROUNDS — 11 UNITS Funds s u p p l i e d w h o l l y b y C i t y R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , SCHOOL PLAYGROUNDS — - 49 UNITS O p e r a t e d as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e b y funds s u p p l i e d , s h a r e s h a r e a l i k e , b y t h e S c h o o l and R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t s . 1.  imsn,  op.  cit.'  126-127.  and  OAKLAND. 0 0 - O P E R A T I Y E  PLAN  P a i d by Board o f Playground D i r e c t o r s ( R e c r e a t i o n Department) Funds s u p p l i e d through P i t y Budget Salaries Pay s a l a r i e s o f p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r s i n c h a r g e f r o m 9:3-0 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. on n o n - s c h o o l p l a y g r o u n d . h o u r s , a f t e r s c h o o l a n d summer vacations Playground Provide playground supplies f o r use d u r i n g playground hours, a f t e r s c h o o l a n d summer vacations  (cont'd)  P a i d by Boa®d of E d u c a t i o n (School Department), Funds s u p p l i e d . t h r o u g h County,.Budget Pay s a l a r i e s o f -playground d i r e c t o r s f r o m 3":15 to-5:15 P.M. on s c h o o l days  Supplies Provide playground supplies f o r use d u r i n g s c h o o l hours  Workmen F u r n i s h o n e - h a l f o f crew of F u r n i s h o n e ^ h a l f o f crew o f workmen f o r r e p a i r and workmen f o r r e p a i r and upkeep of grounds -keep o f g r o u n d s Space, and E q u i p m e n t P r o v i d e l a r g e s p a c e s on"muni-~ P r o v i d e s p a c e and equipment c i p a l u n i t s f o r school events, f o r s c h o o l y a r d s - — y a r d s to s u c h as t r a c k meets, p l a y days, be l a r g e enough f o r p l a y regattas, etc. . grounds Extra Staff Provide e x t r a s t a f f f o r conduct Provide j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e , of inter-* s c h o o l events, e n c l u d care of grounds, year round ing marking of grounds equips ment, o f f i c i a l s , e t c . RE GREAT ION AGO? I v T T I E S R e c r e a t i o n Department" ' S c h o o l Department E v e n i n g A c t i v i t i e s i n S c h o o l Gymnasiums Furnish supervisors for ' ~~ F u r n i s h l i g h t , h e a t , and conduct a c t i v i t i e s janitorial service :  !  Aquatic  F u r n i s h twelve-roared b o a t s on l a k e  "  Sports  F u r n i s h oars  and  supervision  C o s t u m e Room Operate and m a i n t a i n a " ~ ~ "TJostumes u s e d b y s c h o o l s costume room. Loan costumes w i t h o u t c o s t Educational Dramatics Furnish Director of ( i n c l u d i n g Pageants, Schools co-operate Educational Dramatics May D a y s , P l a y s , e t c . ) i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h and D i r e c t o r of F o l k training children Dancing and c o n d u c t o f activities Baseball Fields G i v e o u t p e r m i t s e a c h MonF u r n i s h s c h o o l f i e l d s whend a y m o r n i n g a t 8:30. Furever yards are adapted nish fields, field houses, showers, dressingrrrooms e t c . B o y s ' a n d G i r l s ' . Gamps M a i n t a i n e d by R e c r e a t i o n ~ Groups a r e o r g a n i z e d i n Department. Practically the s c h o o l s self-sustaining  u  ^|>E^fig-'|(-  . 185  OAKLAND CO-OPERATIVE PLAN ( c o n t ' d ) OTHER ACTIVITIES' Funds s u p p l i e d w h o l l y b y c i t y r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t  budget.  G o l f Course--— 1—-18 H o l e U n i t : An eighteen-rhole g o l f course I s ' a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t a n d i s made p r a c t i c a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g by a s m a l l f e e . F a m i l y Camps: F a m i l y camps a r e m a i n t a i n e d t o w h i c h f a m i l i e s . go f o r summer v a c a t i o n s . They a r e p r a c t i c a l l y s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g . Playgrounds i n the P a r k s : ( O p e r a t e d e v e r y day o f t h e y e a r . ) Through s p e c i a l arrangements w i t h the Board of Park D i r e c t o r s , f a c i l i t i e s f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n are i n s t a l l e d i n the p a r k s . Co-operation with Industries: The R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t f u r n i s h e s one f u l l - t i m e i n d i v i d u a l t o w o r k w i t h t h e I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o f O a k l a n d , a g r o u p o f some s i x t y i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h have o r g a n i z e d t h e i r v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l u n i t s i n a l l - y e a t program. Co-operation with United States Forest Service: I t i s through t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n t h a t the Department r e c e i v e s l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d i n the mountains f o r the conduct o f c h i l d r e n s and f a m i l y camps. 1  C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h P r i v a t e and S e m j - P u b l i o Groups: The R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t m a i n t a i n s a c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e a n d semip u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f u r n i s h i n g them i n many i n s t a n c e s w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r camping, f i r e p l a c e s f o r p i c n i c s , a t h l e t i c f i e l d s f o r t o u r n a m e n t s , "evening gymnasiums f o r leagues<, and a u d i t o r i m s w i t h kitchens for evening p a r t i e s . A l l of these organizations i n t u r n a s s i s t the R e c r e a t i o n Department t h r o u g h the l o a n o f t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , such, as a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , g y m n a s i u m s , a u d i t o r i u m s a n d swimming p o o l s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Home P l a y : The R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t m a i n t a i n s a d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f home p l a y . The d e p a r t m e n t f u r n i s h e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and b l u e p r i n t s f o r e q u i p p i n g b a c k y a r d playgrounds. T h i s s e r v i c e i s f u r n i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f v a r i o u s women's c l u b s a n d P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s . E v e n i n g Community C e n t e r s : (Operated e v e r y day o f the y e a r . ) o p e r a t e d by t n e R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p p ^ i i n g wholesome r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g period, S e r v i c e Department: The R e c r e a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t m a i n t a i n s a Se:» v i c e D e p a r t m e n t I n a d d i t i o n t o a l l t h e above f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t a i m s t o answer a l l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h may a r i s e w i t h i n t h e city. I t f u r n i s h e s b l u e p r i n t s , p l a n s , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a l l t y p e s o f a c t i v i t i e s ; and s u p p l i e s s l i d e s a n d m o v i n g - p i c t u r e r e e l s , a n d s p e a k e r s on a l l s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o l e i s u r e - t i m e t o p i c s . ' The • S e r v i c e - D e p a r t m e n t , i n addi^t i o n to t h i s , sends s k i l l e d workers to conduct p l a y a c t i v i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n o r f a m i l y g r o u p s whenever a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e number o f c i t i z e n s d e s i r e s u c h a s e r v i c e .  APPENDIX "0 THE  DENVER  6  1  PLAN  To c o - o r d i n a t e t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e v a r i o u s p i i b l i c agencies now p r o v i d i n g m u n i c i p a l r e c r e a t i o n a n d t o s h o w a way toward s y s t e m a t i c p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n i s the essence of t h i s p l a n T h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e t h e s c h o o l h o a r d , t h e l i b r a r y b o a r d and the a r t a s s o c i a t i o n . A p l a c e to p l a y w i t h i n the reach of every s m a l l c h i l d and an e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d i n e v e r y d i s t r i c t i s i t s ultimate goal. I t may n o t b e p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h i s g o a l f o r m a n y y e a r s ; t e m p o r a r y m e a s u r e s may b e n e c e s s a r y t o a r r i v e a t a p a r t i a l s u c c e s s ; m a n y y e a r s may p a s s b e f o r e i t s f u l f i l m e n t , b u t e v e r y s t e p i n r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d b e made t o w a r d t h i s goal* c  r  Under the p l a n a l l the mentioned p u b l i c agencies should concentrate t h e i r neighborhood a c t i v i t i e s a t major d i s t r i c t r e creational centers. F o r t h i s p u r p o s e t h e c i t y o f D e n v e r has b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o 33 d i s t r i c t s , each with a t h e o r e t i c a l radius o f x - m i l e , b u t i n r e a l i t y bounded by n a t u r a l l i n e s s u c h as railways, t r a f f i c t h o r o u g h f a r e s , r i v e r s , as f a r as p o s s i b l e . Each d i s t r i c t has a c o m p l e t e l y e q u i p p e d p l a y g r o u n d as i t s c e n t e r o f activities. A r o u n d t h i s c e n t e r a r e g r o u p e d a number o f s m a l l e r p l a y s p a c e s t h a t a r e s u b s i d i a r y t o the c e n t e r and a r e c o n t r o l l e d f r o m i t . In t h e c r e a t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t s , c a r e has been t a k e n t h a t r a c i a l g r o u p s a r e k e p t t o t h e m s e l v e s as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . , The m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r has been l o c a t e d i n the p a r t o f t h e d i s t r i c t w h e r e v e r i t was p r a c t i c a l t o do s o . Many o f the e x i s t i n g playgrounds c a n b e us.ed- f o r t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e centers. The f u r t h e r .equipment o f them s h o u l d be d o n e on a b a s i s o f a c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e o f f a c i l i t i e s a s f u n d s become a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r than an immediate rearrangement a t g r e a t expense. E a c h c e n t e r must be e q u i p p e d f o r p l a y , s p o r t s and cultural activities* I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o h a v e a l l t h i s on one t r a c t o f land b u t w h e r e e x i s t i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s and g r o u n d s , and p a r k f a c i l i t i e s a r e s e p a r a t e d , t h e c e n t e r c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o .two o r more u n i t s * §  The  i d e a l c e n t e r w i l l p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; (a) S m a l l c h i l d r e n ' s c o r n e r , w i t h sand boxes * swings, s l i d e s / toboggan h i l l s , apparatus, merryrgo-rounds and outr-door g y m n a s i a , f b ) Open s p a c e s f o r i n d o o r b a s e b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l a n d basketball. ' f c ) O u t d o o r swimming p o o l , a l s o t o be u s e d f o r s k a t - , ing. (d) Wading P o o l . (e) T e n n i s c o u r t s . ( f ) B a s e b a l l and f o o t b a l l fields.  1.  Fowler,  pp.  o,i.t.,  52  187  APPENDIX THE (g) (h)  The  DENVER P L A N  Q . (cont'd)  Horseshoe p i t c h i n g c o u r t s , handball courts, bowling f i e l d , croquet court, etc. Open l a w n s where s t o r y - t e l l i n g c a n be d o n e . The e n t i r e l a y o u t must be c a r e f u l l y s c r e e n e d f r o m c i t y s t r e e t s and n o i s e s . The p l a y g r o u n d s s h o u l d h a v e b e a u t i f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s and well-arranged flower gardens.  b u i l d i n g equipment i n c l u d e : f a ) Gymnasium f o r i n d o o r p l a y t o be u s e d b y y o u t h s and o l d a t r e g u l a t e d intervals* (b) I n d o o r swimming p o o l . (c) A b r a n c h l i b r a r y i n a s e p a r a t e wing. ( d ) Rooms f o r s t o r y - t e l l i n g a n d h a n d w o r k . ( e ) Rooms f o r a r t e x h i b i t s , m u s i c , r e a d i n g o f p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e , and f o r d r a m a t i c a c t i v i t i e s .  The m a j o r c e n t e r i s t o be i n c h a r g e o f a c a p a b l e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s o r who not only d i r e c t s a l l a c t i v i t i e s , but a l s o i n f o r m s t h e p e o p l e o f the d i s t r i c t as to the p r o g r a m t h a t i s b e i n g c a r r i e d out, a r o u s i n g and h o l d i n g the i n t e r e s t o f a l l groups. U n d e r t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r w i l l b e a s s i s t a n t s who not o n l y a i d i n the program at the major center, but a l s o provide t r a v e l i n g , p a r t - t i m e s u p e r v i s i o n of the a u x i l i a r y grounds. The a s s i s t a n t s a r e s e n t out t o c o v e r t h e s m a l l e r g r o u n d s a t r e g u l a r t i m e s , s u p e r v i s i n g the p l a y and o u t l i n i n g f u r t h e r p r o grams.  one  The q u e s t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e most p e r p l e x i n g *  of  the  playgrounds  has  been  The p r o v i s i o n o f g r o u n d i s n o t so d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e t h e c i t y owns a l m o s t a l l t h e s i t e s r e q u i r e d , a s i t i s s e e n b e l o w , b u t t h e q u e s t i o n o f s u p e r v i s i o n was a t r y i n g one. As a r e s u l t , t h e t r a v e l i n g s u p e r v i s i o n s y s t e m was w o r k e d o u t . Experience may p r o v e i t , i s i m p r a c t i c a l a n d some c h a n g e may be n e c e s s a r y , b u t a t p r e s e n t t i m e i t a p p e a r s t o be t h e most l o g i c a l . T h e - c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s program i n v o l v e s the a u t h o r i t y of t h e B o a r d Of E d u c a t i o n , the Commissioner of Parks, the L i b r a r y B o a r d , a l l o f w h i c h a r e o f f i c i a l arms o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , and the A r t A s s o c i a t i o n * One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f . e a c h o f - t h e s e a g e n c i e s , w i t h p e r h a p s a d d i t i o n a l c i t i z e n members, c o u l d be f o r m e d i n t o a commission of r e c r e a t i o n * T h i s commission of r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d a c t as an a d v i s o r y b o a r d i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e p r o g r a m and c o - o r d i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s agencies.  FIGURE V I I  DENVER COLORADO flreg  of'Pteygmuact'•Supervision  Proposed £xist/ny  Golf Br&ncf?  Courses Libraries  -  Mmt.ffadfin  DENVER PLANNING COMMISSION.  APPENDIX ". "IIGDSE GARY  GR-ATIGNAL  E  Till  P L A 1 - - - 0 R G A M ZATTON  Ctty  GHART  G a r y Indiana  Cottiicil  Boat A of  ~Pa.T C 01111)1t'ssion  LcVttOtl  Thy steal -d-ttOtv  Se.-m.i-pY-tva.te  A P P B 1 P I X ff  •FIGURE.132- '•• MILWAUKEE  Rii G R t AT 1 0 ¥ AL''PLAN- - -OR GAN IZ A T I O N  Cit-<J  CHART  MiltU4U"Kcc Wis  C CVttTlCl." 1  Cowmi'ssConers  of cation  Parens  D H is  1  i on  •fcl-ucatioti  191  APPENDIX GT .  FIGURE  BONG BEACH RECREATIONAL  PLAN—-ORGANIZATION  CHART  "Boe.-1-l "P\a.\rS"rou.«.-a. ant. K t ' i S n W ^  1= i«.to.<.ion.  S«p*T. O f  of  /yi^riccL p  tJ  s«.tia<V  "Ret* «•»**•*>•  •V  See/3* y>  1  Area  1  1  School "PH E t . V  C\vit  _ — —  , . — —  — ~~—.  =c>^—:  FIGURE _ x l MUNICIPAL RECREATIOFAL PLAIT PROPOSED BT DAVIS—ORGAHIZAriOH CHMT  6 due*  S kpe W n * endent  tree-tor TUbUfi  lfa.ro  193 APPENDIX I CHARACTERISTICS OF ACE GROUPS fas l i s t e d b y Department o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f  California)  Age Group I . K i n d e r g a r t e n , age 4 t o 6, i n d i v i d u a l - r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l j no w e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , b o y s and g i r l s t o g e t h e r * C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A g e ; S a n t a C l a u s age* G r e a t a c t i v i t y , l o v e , o f m o t i o n , t o y s , s i n g i n g , d o l l p l a y , r i n g games, b l o c k s , r h y t h m , • c o l l e c t i n g o b j e c t s , s t o r y - t e l l i n g , c o u n t i n g , etc* Time o f d r a m a t i c "make b e l i e v e " * • - < Age Group I I * School-—:2nd to 5 t h grade i n c l . , games, no w e i g h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n *  age 7 - 1 0 ,  group  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Age: " B i g Injun" age. Constructive, fighti n g , i m a g i n a t i v e , i n t e r e s t s p r e d o m i n a t i n g , "Know i t a l l " a g e . Sense o f sex g r o w i n g — - v e r y i n q u i s i t i v e — - n o i s y wants to i m i t a t e m e n — - l i k e s t o be t o u g h * Games o f c l i m b i n g , h u n t i n g , c h a s i n g , a n d r i v a l r y se'em t o p r e d o m i n a t e . D r i f t i n g from i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t o c o - o p e r a t i v e games. E l e m e n t s o f s k i l l and comp e t i t i o n appear. G i r l s free, a c t i v e games—-running climbing. Age Group I I I * S c h o o l - — 6 t h , 7 t h , and 8 t h g r a d e s , age 11 t o 1 5 , team games, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — - - 7 0 l b s . , 80 l b s , , 90 l b s . , 100 l b s . , 110 l b s . , 120 l b s . , u n l i m i t e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Age< Age o f l o y a l t y — — h e r o w o r s h i p - — t e a m p l a y - - - " g a n g " age* D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e " b e l o n g i n g i n s t i n c t " . Boys move i n . h e r d s : — - u n d e r l e a d e r . With c e r t a i n leaders tende n c y t o w a r d c r i m e - — l o v e t o show o f f . B o y s and g i r l s p a r t company f o r a time at t h i s age, "Tom Boy-' age f o r g i r l s , who d e v e l o p , s p i r i t o f t h e ' c l i q u e <>rather t h a n t h e t e a m . R a p i d d e v e l opment o f , s e x s e n c e . Time^awkwardness—-laziness, self-cons c i o u s n e s s f o r g i r l s and b o y s . Age Group . I V * H i g h S c h o o l — - a g e 14 t o 2 0 , team games, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 85 l b s . , 100 l b s . , 110 l b s . , 120 l b s . , 130 l b s . , u n limited. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Age: Desire for i n d i v i d u a l r e c o g n i t i o n . Time o f r a p i d g r o w t h a n d r e - o p e n i n g o f s e x n a t u r e . Age o f e x treme l o y a l t y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a p p l i c a t i o n . l a c k o f judgment combined w i t h f o r w a r d t e n d e n c i e s make t h e games and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s age h a r d t o control. " W i n a t any c o s t " l i a b l e t o be m o t t o o f the boy* The g i r l somewhat more m a t u r e t h a n t h e b o y . 1.  Nat. Rec. A s s ' n . , Playground Course, l e s s o n I I , passim.  Correspondence '  194 APPENDIX J L I S T OE GAMES AND PLAYS (by G r a d e s )  i  I Kindergarten ( I n a d d i t i o n to F r o e b e l ' s k i n d e r g a r t e n  games)  S i n g i n g and D a n c i n g Games — R i n g a r o u n d a r o s e y ; Farmer i n d e l l ; Oats, p e a s , beans and b a r l e y grow; M u l b e r r y bush; D i d y o u e v e r see a l a s s i e ; L o n d o n B r i d g e . R u n n i n g Games Gat and mouse ( s i n g i n g a l s o ) ; k e r c h i e f ; B l i n d man's B l u f f ; T a g .  Drop t h e  the  hand-  G o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y — Sand B o x ; B l o c k s . I I F i r s t Two G r a d e s (6 t o 8 y e a r s ) . S i n g i n g a n d D a n e i n g Games - - S u r v i v o r s o f t h e K i n d e r g a r t e n l i s t ; L o o b y L o o ; H i c k o r y d i c k o r y d o c k ; M a r c h i n g ; Roman s o l d i e r s ; K i n g of France. / D r a m a t i c s - - D r a m a t i z e , I n f o r m a l l y and i m p r o m p t u , f a i r y s t o r i e s , s c e n e s f r » m h i s t o r y , m y t h s ; Dumb Grambo; P l a y i n g S c h o o l . Dances ~ - S w e d i s h c l a p d a n c e ; . C a r o u s e l ; N i x i e p o l k a ; B l e k i n g "(Swedish) ; I see y o u ; G u s t a v S k a e l ( S w e d i s h ) ; Our l i t t l e g i r l s ; Seven p r e t t y g i r l s ; Seven j o l l y b o y s . Running^Games ^ - Cat^mouse; Drop t h e h a n d k e r c h i e f ; F o x and geese.; P u s s i n t h e c o r n e r ; B l a c k m a n ; Pom pom p u l l a w a y ; H i l l d i l l ; C r o s s t a g ; • I¥ood t a g ; F o l l o w my l e a d e r ; R o i l i n g h o o p s ; R o l l e r skating. Jumping Games ~ - Leap f r o g and . f o o t - a n ' - a - h a l f ;  Jump; Hop s c o t c h .  B a l l Games and N e a r B a l l Games — T e a c h e r b a l l ; C e n t e r c a t c h ; B a s e b a l l i n t h e f o r m o f P a s s i n g B a l l , T h r e e o l d e a t s , S c r u b games; K i c k i n g f o o t b a l l ; B e a n b a g b o a r d ; B e a n Bag games; R i n g t o s s ; Tops; M a r b l e s ; Jackstones. P u l l i n g , and,. P u s h i n g ; Games — B u l l i n t h e r i n g ; I n d i a n p u l l ( c a t c h and p u l l t u g o f w a r ) ; K i n g o f t h e r i n g ; O l d man i n t h e c a s t l e ; Tug o f w a r . C l i m b i n g — (Ladders, s l i d e s , r o p e s ) ; Hang t a g ; F e n c e t a g .  ropes,  poles,  rings,  tree with  1. N a t . R e c . A s s ' n . , Games and P l a y f o r S c h o o l " Morale,, pamphlet, 4 1 4 5 . " T  195 APPENDIX  J  Constructive Play — Sand Box; Clay modeling: F o l d i n g : C u t t i n g out; Drawing; Weaving; R a f f i a ; Bead work; Sewing; K n i t t i n g ; Whittling* Nurture  Play  Dolls;  Winter  rr~ S k a t i n g ; *  Summer  — : Wading;  House;  Pets;  Coasting;  Home  gardens,.  Sliding.  Swimming.  Ill  G r a d e s 3 , 4, 5, a n d 6. (8 t o 1 1 )  Dramatics— Informally Dumb Orambo; C h a r d e s .  dramatize  stories,  scenes  from  history;  Dances — T h e l i s t f o r preceding a g e ; S w e d i s h o x d a n c e ; I r i s h j i g ; S e v e n j u m p s ( D a n i s h ) ; Come l e t u s b e j o y f u l ( G e r m a n ) ; C r e s t e d hem ( D a n i s h ) S w e e t K a t e ; B o P e e p ; Greensleeves. R u n n i n g . Games --. T h r e e d e e p ; H i l l ing the c a s t l e ) ; P r i s o n e r s ' base: bags, c l u b s ) . Running.and H i d i n g Run: s h e e p r u n . Jumping scotch*  Games —  d i l l ; Stealing sticks (raidH i p ; Relay r a c e s ( w i t h bean  Games - - T h e l i s t  Leap  frog  f o rpreceding  and Foot-an'-a-half;  age; R e l i e v o ;  Jump r o p e :  Hop  B a l l Games a n d H e a r B a l l Games — E n d b a l l ; Newcomb; Dodgeball; Rounders; B a s e b a l l ; Three odd e a t s and s c r u b ; Long b a l l ; " i n d o o r baseball; Playground b a l l ; Soccer; Shinney; T i p c a t ( c a t t i e , p e g g i e ) ; Duck on a r o c k . Fighting bear.  Games - - ^ B o x i n g ;  Climbing  —  Wrestling;  Poison  snake*  Baste  (As above)  Constructive Play — C l a y m o d e l i n g ; F/eaving; R a f f i a B u i l d i n g huts'; S n o w h o u s e s , s n o w men.  Sewing;  Carpentry; Nurture  Play  «  Dolls'  01her Q u i e t  Games —  Nature  —  Play  Winter shoeing; Summer  —  the  House,  Home a n d s c h o o l  Checkers;  Dominoes;  Collections of leaves,  Skating; Gymnastic Swimming;  gardens«  Parchesi;  seeds,  Rowing; S a i l i n g ;  Jackstones.  flowers,  Hockey ( i n f o r m a l ) ; Coasting; stunts;. Ground tumbling. Toy Boats;  Pets,  stones.  S k i i n g ; Snow  Tennis/  196  APPENDIX  J  Sex D i f f e r e n c e s : — I n t h e age p e r i o d s s o f a r c o v e r e d , especi a l l y t h e e a r l i e r o n e s , sex. d i f f e r e n c e s s h o u l d b e a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e i g n o r e d , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o f c o u r s e some e x c e p t i o n s , as f o r i n s t a n c e f o o t b a l l a n d b o x i n g * Basket b a l l f o r g i r l s s h o u l d b e b y g i r l s ' r u l e s and- c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d *  IV.  Dramatics  ~  As a b o v e ;  G r a d e s 7, 8 ( a n d 9 ) ( 1 1 t o 14 y e a r s )  Plays*  Dances -- T h e i r c h o i c e o f p r e c e d i n g l i s t ; H i g h l a n d fling (boys); Guards; Kamariskaia; Gotlands Q u a d r i l l e (Swedish); The H a t t e r ( D a n i s h ) ; G a t h e r i n g p l a s c o d s ( E n g l i s h ) ; Bo P e e p ( E n g l i s h ) . R u n n i n g Games - - T h r e e d e e p ; S t e a l i n g Belay races; Foot-an'-a-half*  sticks;  P r i s o n e r s ' base;  R u n n i n g a n d H i d i n g Games - - C a p t a i n b a l l ; I n d o o r b a s e b a l l ; P l a y g r o u n d B a l l ; B a s e b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; Hand b a l l ; Soccer; Shinney; Quoits. Fighting  Play  -- B o x i n g ;  Wrestling; Hip,  C o n s t r u c t i v e P l a y ~* Sewing; C l a y m o d e l i n g ; C a r p e n t r y (making boats, b i r d houses, dog houses, k i t e s , checker boards, checker and c h e s s men); Making h u t s . Nurture Play — Home a n d S c h o o l animals; Pets and mascots. Other  Quiet  Games  —• Checkers;  gardens;  Parchesi;  Farming;  Care o f  Chess.  N a t u r e P l a y a n d E x c u r s i o n s -- l i s t o f b i r d s s e e n ; Collections of leaves, c l a s s i f y i n g t r e e s , seeds, flowers, stones, Hunting w i t h a c a m e r a ; H i k e s , w i t h c o o k i n g ; Map m a k i n g . Winter  —  List  f o rpreceding  age; Basket  Summer - - L i s t  f o rpreceding  age; G o l f .  ball.  S e a s o n s -r- M o s t o f t h e a b o v e games e x c e p t f o o t b a l l a n d s h i n n e y a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o awy s p e c i a l s e a s o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s p r e f e r ences s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d . M a n y r u n n i n g games c a n b e p l a y e d o n skates. Games f o r . M i x e d G r o u p s — §oys and g i r l s a t t h i s , a g e u s u a l l y p r e f e r t o p l a y s e p a r a t e l y , b u t i t i s o f t e n w e l l t o have them p l a y together under c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g games a r e recommended, f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ; D a n c i n g ; Crambo; C h a r a d e s ; Dramatics; Singing; V o l l e y b a l l ( g i r l s against boys); Tennis; B a s e b a l l ( s o f t ) ; T h r e e deep; H i k i n g ; B o a t i n g ; S k a t i n g ; P r i s o n e r s ' base; Long b a l l ; H i l l d i l l ; Drop t h e h a n d k e r c h i e f .  APPENDIX J V.  1  9  7  H i g h S c h o o l Boys  A t t h i s a g e ' t h e games become more s e a s o n a l and a r e i n g l y so d i v i d e d .  accord-  I n t h e F a l l — Exxgby; S o c c e r ; H a n d b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; L a c r o s s e ; F i e l d h o c k e y ; H i k e s : u s e b i c y c l e and camera i n n a t u r e study; Tennis; Golf; Quoits* g. Winter a. "Outdoor — S k a t i n g ; I c e h o c k e y ; shoeing; Cross country e x p l o r a t i o n ; frare and h o u n d s ; L a c r o s s e .  C o a s t i n g ; S k i i n g ; Snow G r o s s c o u n t r y r u n n i n g and  b. Indoor — H a n d b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; Captain b a l l ; Basket b a l l ; R e l a y r a c e s ; G y m n a s t i c s t u n t s ; Swimming, L i f e - s a v i n g ; B o x i n g and w r e s t l i n g ; W a l l s c a l i n g ; D r a m a t i c s ; C h a r a d e s , p l a y s and pageants. c. Dancing — S o c i a l dancing; V i r g i n i a r e e l ; Portland fancy; O t h e r s u r v i v i n g A m e r i c a n f o l k d a n c e s ; Come l e t us be j o y f u l ; B u t t e r f l y ( E n g l i s h ) ; I r i s h j i g ; H i g h l a n d F l i n g ; Czardas; Kamari s k a i a ; Beam s e t t i n g ( E n g l i s h M o r r i s d a n c e s ) ; R i g O ' M a r l o w ( E n g l i s h M o r r i s d a n c e ) ; F l a m b o r o u g h S w o r d d a n c e ( E n g l i s h ) ; Ox d a n c e ; The H a t t e r . Spring — B a s e b a l l ; Playground b a l l ; Handball; Volley b a l l ; L a c r o s s e ; H i k e s ; B i c y c l i n g ; Rowing; Tennis; G o l f ; Nature work.  3  e  1  4* Summer — S p r i n g l i s t ; S w i m m i n g ; Rowing;.. S a i l i n g ; C a n o e i n g ; Camping; i n c l u d i n g s i g n a l l i n g , c o o k i n g , making f i r e , b u i l d i n g a s h e l t e r , use o f axe, mountain c l i m b i n g . For a l l seasons — R i d i n g , W a l k i n g . VI.  High School  Girls  F a l l — B a s e b a l l ; V o l l e y b a l l ; F i e l d hockey; i n connection w i t h nature study.  Tennis;  Golf;  Walks  Winter a  «  Outdoor > -  Skating;  C o a s t i n g ; S k i i n g ; Snow s h o e i n g .  b. I n d o o r — V o l l e y b a l l ; C a p t a i n b a l l ; B a s k e t b a l l a l l ) ; R e l a y r a c e s ; Swimming; L i f e - s a v i n g ; D r a m a t i c s ; P l a y s and p a g e a n t s .  (not f o r Charades;  D a n c i n g — S o c i a l d a n c i n g ; V i r g i n i a r e e l ; P o r t l a n d f a n c y ; Come l e t us be j o y f u l ; B u t t e r f l y ( E n g l i s h ) ; L i t t l e man i n a f i x ( D a n i s h ) ; The H a t t e r ; T i n k e r s ' Dance ( D a n i s h ) - ; B l a c k nag ( E n g l i s h ) ; Mag on a t r e e { E n g l i s h ; F j a l e n a s p o l k a . . Spring -  r  Same as  Summer - - Same as  for boys, for  except  boys.  A l l Seasons — R i d i n g ; "Walking,  Lacrosse.  APPENDIX g R E C R E A T I O N A L PROG-BAM FOR I N D U S T R I A L WORKERS by Oakland, R e c r e a t i o n ' D e p a r t m e n t (The f o l l o w i n g p r o g r a m was arranged for 192 Activities (Regular) Ie Noon Hour P l a y . ( a t plant) A . A t h l e t i c Games Volleyball, baseball, tennis, quoits. Bo R a i n y Day Activities O c c u p a t i o n a l w o r k ; s u i t a b l e i n d o o r games II, Late Afternoons A. R e c r e a t i o n a l Activities Rowing; swimming, e t c * XXX e E v e n i n g s A, Activities 1. V o l l e y b a l l Educational Classes in 2 Basket B a l l a. E n g l i s h 3* S w i m m i n g b S o c i a l Problems 4. R o w i n g G Economics 5. I n t e r p r e t i v e a n d Folk a. P a r l i a m e n t a r y Law Dane i n g e, O t h e r s may be i n t r o d u c e d as the need a r i s e s S p e c i a l Eventa X& Sports Carnival (March) I I . F i e l d Day (June) - I l l © I n d u s t r i a l P i c n i c (September) Whole f a m i l y c o n s i d e r e d . I V . P a r t i e s and S o c i a l D a n c e s 6  To be g i v e n m o n t h l y a l t e r n a t i n g b e t w e e n p l a n t s w h i c h have a v a i l a b l e facilities. Director to co-operate with i n d u s t r i e s wishing to e n t e r t a i n s o l e l y f o r employees i n t h e i r p l a n t by helping to p l a n program. Tournaments • I. S c h e d u l e s A . Games 1. 2A  To be p l a y ^ e d according to season Grouping neighborhood plants s i t u a t e d within short distances. 3. C o m b i n i n g women's o u t d o o r c l u b s a n d industrial groups ( f o r g i r l s activities] P l a y Days 1  II.  A.  N e i g h b o r h o o d P l a y Days t o o f t o u r n a m e n t games t o be  be h e l d playged  q u a r t e r l y and finals o f f a t t h e s e meets.  Meetings I. I n d u s t r i a l A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n of Greater Girls Auxiliary A . E x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g t o be h e l d m o n t h l y t o p l a n v a r i o u s programs B . G e n e r a l m e e t i n g s t o be h e l d quarterly C. S p e c i a l m e e t i n g s a s n e e d s a r i s e  Oakland  and  discuss  and  1  Lee,  op  A  c i t . ,  33A  

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