UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some aspects of education in post-war Russia Shore, Maurice Joseph 1936

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IBS Bf SOME ASPECTS OF EDUCATION IH POST-WAR RUSSIA MAURICE JOSEPH SHORE THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I I THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , l?3b SOME ASPECTS OE E D U C A T I O I . i l POST-WAR RUSSIA. CONTENTS. 3?X*© X clC 6 « • • • « a • • « e • • e • • • • • • • * • • • PART I . C h a p t e r . I . E d u c a t i o n i n I n t e r p l a y w i t h H i s t o r i c a l and G e o g r a p h i c a l F a c t o r s i n the l i f e o f a Peop le I I . The S o v i e t S c h o o l : I t s Theory and B a s i s . . . . . . PART I I . I I I . P r i m a r y and Seconda ry S c h o o l s i n t h e U . S . S . R . Growth and D e v e l o p m e n t . . . I V . P r i m a r y and Seconda ry S c h o o l s i n the U . S . S . R . : Y» U n i v e r s i t i e s and O t h e r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t t u t i o n s i n the U . S . S . R . PART I I I . V I . A r t f o r C h i l d r e n i n the U . S . S . R B i b l i o g r a p h y LIST OF TABLES Table Page, I . The Soviet Labor School as distinguished from other schools bearing the same name . 2J] 'II* The System of Public Education in the U.S.S.R 28 III. Growth of Pre-Sehool Institutions for the years . . . X p 24J23 "to X^3^/3*^** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ^ >A-IV* Number of schools for the liquidation of i l l i t e r -acy 7 X927/28 to » » • « « » • • • • » • • » « » » • » » • . • • • • 4-2 V. Literacy of Population in U.S.S.R. in 1926-1931... VI • Distribution of Published Books according to various £iGXels ox X x "b 03?3."trxx*6»*««i*«t« »»•« • • • • • »««»••••«« VII. Number of Students and Teachers in various' types of of schools, courses&other Educ 0 Inst* far general education of adolescents and adults for 1927/28, "t 0 XP3^ 13^** • • • • • • • ' • • • ' • • • • - • • • • • • • • • " ^ • • • e « « « * * * * e e « « 43 VIII. Development of Primary and Secondary School educa-t i o n after the October Revolut ion. . . . . 46 LX. Percentage of Increase in Primary and Secondary School population as compared with the Preceding SuX* xxx T T » S « S ( R i f i « ( ( i t « t t « < i f » t « « i » « t i o » » i i i » s ( 4*J X. The Plan of the Programme^ of the Elementary Schools XI. Schematic Outline of the Curriculum in Nature for the Elementary School in U.S.S.R j>6 XII. Program of Drawing and Moulding in the Elementary . . S C J X O G X S XXI U * S « S « R a » « » o « « » * * 8 A » « » f * « « « « o « « « » « B « « 35^  XIII* Subjects of the Firs t Three Years in a Soviet . . . Second Grade School and number of hours assigned 60 XIV. The Curriculum of the Last Two Years: General Sub-* . jects and Special Subjects of the Specialised XV. Program of Physics in the 6th and ?th Years of the Soviet Second Grade School . . . . ~ftp&< XVI• structure of Soviet Universities and the Subjects in which they Specialize 7& I V LIST OF TABLES ( c o n ' t ) . X V I I . C h i l d r e n ' s I n t e r e s t s i n V a r i o u s F i e l d s o f A r t d i f f e r - w i t h t h e i r age 98 X V I I I . I n t e r e s t s o f C h i l d r e n i n V a r i o u s K i n d s o f F i l m s 98 X I X . C e r t a i n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i l d r e n ' s R e a c t i o n s to P l a y s i n the Thea t r e and Cinema as r e v e a l e d by P e d o l o g i c a l S tudy o f t he C e n t r a l House of C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c 9 9 c v„ PREFACE. I t was i n May, 1935, when D r . Ewing o f the V a n c o u v e r Normal S c h o o l had g i v e n a l e c t u r e on S o v i e t E d u c a t i o n t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t was drawn to my c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . As a s t u d e n t a t the 1935 Summer S e s s i o n o f the U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the w r i t e r h a d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f d i s -c u s s i n g t h e s u b j e c t w i t h F a c u l t y members of the U n i v e r s i t y De-p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h P r o f e s s o r s W i l l i a m G-. B l a c k and C.B. Wood. l a t e r f i n d i n g s have c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e r e I s a c e r t a i n l a c k of d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y on r e c e n t changes which have t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d i n the S o v i e t U n i o n . To f i 1 1 up t h e s e gaps, w i t h i n t h e frame o f t h i s work w i l l be f o u n d u t t e r l y i m p o s s i b l e . T h e r e i s a l s o no c l a i m f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of s u c h a d i f f i c u l t t a s k h e r e . The w r i t e r w i s h e s to acknowledge h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m G. B l a c k , o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y t o Dr, H.T.J. Coleman, Head of the Department o f P h i l o s o p h y f o r v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o n s t r u c -t i v e c r i t i c i s m , . The w r i t e r w i s h e s a l s o to acknowledge h i s g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. J . Wyman P i l c h e r f o r v a l u a b l e c o r r e c t i o n s and a d v i c e . D r . P i l c h e r ' s l e c t u r e s were i n d e e d a s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a v i . p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h to c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h i s work. He i s a l s o u n d e r h e a v y o b l i g a t i o n s to Mr* I . Omur o f Moscow, U.S.S.R. f o r s u p p l y i n g him wi th l a t e s t m a t e r i a l s , f r o m p r i m a r y s o u r c e s , and i n f o r m a t i on on e d u c a t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t . E x p r e s s i o n s o f t h a n k s are r e n d e r e d h e r e to M i s s M. L a n n i n g a n d M i s s A. S m i t h o f the U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r y ; to Mr. H. G r i f f i n o f V a n c o u v e r M o d e l S c h o o l f o r r e a d i n g the t a b l e s on N a t u r e a n d Drawing i n the S o v i e t S c h o o l , and to D r . W.G-. A l l a r d y c e o f K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l f o r r e a d i n g the t a b l e on P h y s i c s i n the S o v i e t S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l * M.J.S. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. A p r i l , 193ff. v i i PART I . E x p l a n a t o r y K o t e . To d e s c r i b e a n a t i o n a l s y s t e m of e d u c a t i o n , to u n f o l d t h o s e o f i t s s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w h i c h e x p l a i n i t s p e c u -l i a r i t y and so s e p a r a t e i t f r o m s ystems o f o t h e r n a t i o n s , i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Uo o n l y must one s t u d y how n a t i o n s l i v e , a nd t h i n k , b u t one must d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f o r c e s and f a c t o r s w h i c h g i v e t o e a c h n a t i o n i t s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s . I t i s t h r o u g h the s t u d y o f the se t h a t one may l e a r n how the s c h o o l , the embryo o f the g r o u p , h a s e v o l v e d . C h a p t e r I w i l l a t t e m p t to t r a c e some f a c t o r s i n Rus-s i a n h i s t o r y and t h e i r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; how t h e s e have i n -f l u e n c e d the c h a r a c t e r o f the p e o p l e and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s . W i t h t h i s i n mind, one w i l l view t h e S o v i e t s c h o o l d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I , n o t as a d e v i c e p u r e l y o f the S o v i e t , b u t as a n a t u r a l outcome r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l o n g s t r u g g l e o f o p p o s i n g f o r c e s , and c o n d i t i o n e d b y a p h y s i o -g e o g r a p h i c a l e nvironment • 2 CHAPTER I EDUCATION IN INTERPLAY WITH HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS IN THE L I F E OF A PEOPLE. INTRODUCTION. We a r e p a s s i n g t o d a y t h r o u g h one o f t h e g r e a t -e s t o f c r i s e s . N e v er has t h e w o r l d been so s h a k e n t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n s as by t h e G r e a t War of 1914. I n f a c t , n e a r l y two d ecades a f t e r the end o f the c a t a s t r o p h e , we a r e s t i l l u n a b l e t o p i c k up t h e t h r e a d s o f n o r m a l p r o g r e s s . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , i n t h e h i s t o r y o f any r a c e or n a t i o n a l i t y we can p o i n t to numerous examples of c r i s e s which have r o c k e d the p o l i t i -c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f o u n d a t i o n s of a s t a t u s quo. That t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e r e f l e c t e d and e x p r e s s e d i n edu©ational t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s , i s o b v i o u s to any s t u d e n t who has had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e the s e n s i t i v i t y o f e d u c a t i o n towards the p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h s o c i e t y i s c o n f r o n t e d * I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , ; to go d e e p l y i n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n t o d i s c o v e r the p a r t p l a y e d by s o c -i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g the form or c h a r a c t e r of an e d u c a t i o n a l system. L i k e w i s e , on r e a d i n g the h i s t o r y o f a p e o p l e one oan r e a d i l y f u r n i s h h i m s e l f w i t h many i l l u s -t r a t i o n s of the i n t e r p l a y between s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s and e d u c a t i o n , as a n i n s t r a m e n t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l and n a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . By a n a l y z i n g the v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l s y stems of t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d one c o u l d f u r n i s h . h i m s e l f w i t h new s u p p o r t on the m a t t e r . The changes which take p l a c e i n a n 3. e d u c a t i o n a l movement r e p r e s e n t a l o n g c h a i n o f c a u s e s and e f f e c t s i n a way t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r y c o n d i t i o n becomes t h e new or p r i m a r y c a u s e f o r a n o t h e r c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s i n e v i t a b l y s u b j e c t t o r a m i f i c a t i o n s , a n d to l o c a l v a r i a t i o n s but the r e s u l t wi 11 always be change and i m p r o v e -ment, f So numerous are the examples and f a c t s i n h i s t o r y f o r the s u p p o r t o f our c o n t e n t i o n s a bove, t h a t we may a c c e p t t h e i r t r u t h w i t h o u t f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i n d e t a i l . B e s i d e s , i t i s o u r v i e w t h a t a f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t i on would i n v o l v e a l o n g d i g r e s s i o n , w h i c h i s u n d e s i r a b l e . P r e s u m i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t we ar e on s a f e g r o u n d now t o p e r m i t o u r s e l ves t o embark upon the main t h e s i s of t h i s c h a p t e r , i t w i l l be our t a s k to d e m o n s t r a t e how t h e s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s i n R u s s i a n h i s t o r y w i t h t h e i r accompanying so c i a 1 and p o l i t i c a l " t h u n d e r s and l i g h t n i n g s " have t r a n s f o r m e d t h e l i f e a n d c h a r a c t e r o f the p e o p l e , a n d how -the l a t t e r , c o r r e s p o n d -i n g l y , have moulded e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s . Of c o u r s e , t h e s c o p e and o b j e c t i v e ' o f t h i s work do n o t p e r m i t us to dwel 1 a t g r e a t l e n g t h on any a s p e c t o f R u s s i a n n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . F o r t h i s , i f d e s i r a b l e , one may r e f e r t o any a u t h o r -i t a t i v e h i s t o r i c a l work. EDUCATION AND THE HISTORY OF A PEOPLE. The S l a v s a r e n o t a r a c e . They a r e a l i n g u i s t i c u n i t , o f w h i c h the R u s s i a n s may # See I . L . K a n d e l , C o m p a r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n , Houghton, M i f f l i n Co., 1933, f o r a wide d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s i n the c h a p t e r s on F r a n c e and E n g l a n d . 4. be c o n s i d e r e d as the g r e a t e s t and most s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l g r o u p . During, t h e p e r i o d o f t h e i r e a r l y e x p a n s i o n t h e S l a v s cams u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f much h i g h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n s a n d what t h e y b o r r o w e d from them soon o b l i t e r a t e d what e a c h group o f t h e u n i t had i n common w i t h the o t h e r s . The p u r e c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e o f the S l a v o n i c u n i t was t h e r e f o r e v e r y p o o r . The o n l y -element i n common was the S l a v o n i c l a n g u a g e , which was i n t e l l i g i b l e to a l m o s t a l l . 'The l a n g u a g e of the M a c e d o n i a n S l a v s was a c c e p t e d a s the " C h u r c h S l a v o n i c " and a s t h e l i t e r -a r y l a n g u a g e by t h e R u s s i a n s . Towards the m i d d l e of the E l e v e n t h c e n t u r y the N o r t h West o f modern R u s s i a was o c c u p i e d by S c a n d i n a v i a n g r o u p s — t h e Norsemen ( " V a r i a g i i " ) , A c c o r d i n g to the " S c a n d i n a v i a n T h e o r y " i t i s the S c a n d i n a v i a n s who were named and c a l l e d R u s s i a n s . - / I n s p i t e o f t h e c o m p l e t e m i l i t a r y c o n q u e s t , the N o r s e c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e was not deep or l a s t i n g . E x c e p t f o r a few p l a c e n a m e s , a l l t r a c e s o f N o r s e i n f l u e n c e d i s a p p e a r e d e n t i r e l y a f t e r 1000 A.D. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Norsemen were a f i r s t s t i m -u l u s to the g e n e r a l awakening o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d the p e o p l e . They were a b l e to d e v e l o p I n R u s s i a a c i v i l i z a t i o n s e p a r a t e d from Slavdom but i n w h i c h the N o r s e h e r i t a g e had b een c o m p l e t e -l y d i s s o l v e d . I n t h e T e n t h c e n t u r y s e v e r a l changes t o o k p l a c e w h i c h # The F i n n i s h name f o r Sweden i s R u o t s i . The A r a b h i s t o r i a n s d i s t i n g u i s h between the Rus and the S l a v s . ## I z b o r s k , w h i c h has been e x p l a i n e d as I s b o r g . 5 . u n a b u b t e d l y e x e r c i s e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e Russians,. The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e "Kingdom o f R u s s i a " ( " K n y a z e s t ^ o " ) , the m o n a r c h i c a l t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e k i n g ("knyaz"), the sub j u g a t i on o f minor S l a v o n i c g r o u p s , t h e e l i m -i n a t i o n o f t h e l o r s e k i n g on t h e n o r t h , the g r o w t h o f c i t i e s , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a n a r i s t o c r a c y s t r i v i n g t o s e p a r a t e i t s e l f f r o m t h e masses ("smerdov" } , — t h e s e changed e n t i r e l y the i n n e r s o c i a l s t a t u s o f the c o u n t r y a n d f r o m the e x t e r n a c r e a t e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r f u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n , economic n e c e s s i t y b e i n g p a r t l y a f a c t o r . S o c i e t y h a v i n g become, t h e n , more complex, a w r i t t e n lav/ was n e c e s s a r y t o r e g u l a t e the s o c i a l f a b r i c Thus the o l d e s t v e r s i o n of t h e R u s s i a n Law ( R u s l k a y a P r a v ^ d a ) a p p e a r e d a t t h a t t i m e w h i c h may be d u l y c o n s i d e r e d a s a CORPUS DE L I C T I r e f l e c t i n g the b e g i n n i n g and f e r m e n t a t i o n o f a c l a s s s t r u g g l e . The R u s s i a n Drang n a c h O s t e n and t h e i r s p e c t a c u l a r e x p l o i t s on the s h o r e s o f t h e B l a c k Sea r e s u l t i n g i n t h e a t t a c k on C o n s t a n t i n o p l e brought the a d v a n t a g e o u s t r e a t y be-tween the Kingdoms o f K i e v and B y z a n t y . The c u l t u r a l t i e be-tween R u s s i a a n d B y z a n t y b e i n g f o r m a l l y i n i t i a t e d , e v e r y t h i n g p o i n t e d t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e w h i c h f r o m now on began to e x e r c i s e a tremendous i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i r f u r the r na t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , a n d r e l i g i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t s . B u t on R u s s i a n s o i l B y z a n t i n e c i v i l i z a t i o n developed i n t o s o m e t h i n g e s s e n t i a l -l y d i f f e r e n t * I t was B y z a n t i n e i n i t s r o o t s but t h e b a r k and l e a v e s t o o k on a new growth, a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s p e c i f i c a n d p e c u l i a r but b e f i t t i n g t h e R u s s i a n s o u l , h e a r t , and c h a r a c t e r . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the a f o r e s a i d , l e t i t be u n d e r s t o o d 6 t h a t R u s s i a n s o c i e t y a t t h a t t i m e a n d f o r many y e a r s t o come c o n t i n u e d t o be e x t r e m e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , The I s o l a t e d i n -d i v i d u a l was the most p r o m i n e n t u n i t I n the s o c i a l p a t t e r n , by i t s p r e e m i n e n c e o b l i t e r a t i n g or r e m o v i n g i n t o i n s i g n i f i -c a n c e any form o f t r i b a l , c l a n , o r e v e n f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n . The R u s s i a n l a w , w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , can b e a r s t r o n g w i t n e s s to the f a c t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r i g h t to a l l forms of c o n t r a c t i n g , e v e n s e l l i n g h i m s e l f i n t o s l a v e r y , was s t r o n g l y p r o t e c t e d . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t f r o m h e r e we c a n t r a c e the a n t i t h e s i s ^ t h e s o u r c e of the v i o l e n t a n t i - i n d i v i d -u a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s i n modern R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . To r e t u r n t o our s u b j e c t , we may s a y t h a t no f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n e x i s t e d i n R u s s i a at t h a t time e x c e p t f o r weak attempts i n i t i a t e d by the monks i n c l e r i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s or m o n a s t e r i e s . S o c i e t y was too much o p p r e s s e d b y the r i s i n g Commercial C a p i t a l ( T o r g o v e y K a p i t a l ] , so a d m i r a b l y termed and e x p l a i n e d by P o k r o v s k y , 1 to have i t s mind on c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n s . R u s s i a n s o c i e t y c o n s i s t e d a t t h a t time o f two . main d i v i s i o n s , a n a c t i v e and p a s s i v e . The f i r s t c o n s t i t u t e d the k i n g , h i s f o l l o w i n g and the f r e e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n . The p a s s i v e formed t h e b u l k o f s l a v e s Uzholopi) and the r u r a l pop-u l a t i o n . The f i r s t were the d e s p o t s o v e r t h e l i f e and s o u l o f t h e , l a t t e r . When R u s s i a n s o c i e t y t o o k on a f u r t h e r mercan-t i l e development and the u p p e r c l a s s e s became s a t u r a t e d w i t h money and b l o o d e x t r a c t e d from t h e p a s s i v e d i v i s i o n , t h e f o r -mer b e g a n t o educ a t e d t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , g i v i n g them the r u d i m e n t s 1 . M . H . Po k r o v s k y , , R u s s i a n H i s t o r y I n t h e S h o r t e s t O u t l i n e , p a s s i m . ( O g i z , Moscow, 1 9 3 1 ) . o f a n e d u c a t i o n d i c t a t e d by c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n and economic u r g e n c y . I n the T w e l f t h c e n t u r y B y z a n t i n e i n f l u e n c e was deep-l y e n t r e n c h e d . As t h e k i n g s o f K i e v began d e v e l o p i n g an o r -g a n i z e s c u l t as l a t e as the eve of t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y , the R u s s i a n s t h e r e f o r e h a d no pagan c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of t h e i r own. ' Whatever was t h e i r s r e p r e s e n t e d an amalgam o f Horse, O r i e n t a l , B y z a n t i n e , G h a z a r , ^ and some o f n a t i v e S l a v o n i c e l e m e n t s . I n s p i t e of t h e s e f a v o r a b l e c o n -d i t i o n s B y z a n t i n e e d u c a t i o n a l p e n e t r a t i o n was r a r e , and l i m i t ed to. the h i g h e r u r b a n c l e r g y , a few members o f t h e d y n a s t y , and the u p p e r c l a s s e s . As t h e r e were no s c h o o l s , the l i b e r a l a r t s were unknown. The c h u r c h , which p r a c t i c a l l y m o n o p o l i z e d e d u c a t i o n , t r a n s m i t t e d t o the R u s s i a n s o n l y t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f B y z a n t i n e c u l t u r e w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s own w o r k i n g s . I t c o n s i s t e d i n c o m b a t i n g t h e m i l i t a r y and p r e - C h r i s t i a n m e n t a l i t y of the R u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y which was s t i l l t r y i n g to keep a f o o t - h o l d o f i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m the e n c r o a c h i n g c h u r c h dominance. W i t h the i n v a s i o n o f t h e T a r t a r s i n 1240, R u s s i a d e f i n i t e l y c e a s e d to e x i s t a s a p o l i t i c a l u n i t and d i s s o l v e d i n t o two main b r a n c h e s , the n o r t h - e a s t , the f u t u r e Muscovy, and the south-west, W h i t e R u s s i a and Ukraina-. '# Ghazar - G h a z a r s t a t e on the' C a s p i a n SeaT The c a p i t a l .was I t i l n e a r the modern A s t r a k h a n . B e f o r e the coming o f t h e Norsemen K i e v was a dependency of G h a z a r . The . Ghazar k i n g s and a r i s t o c r a c y a d o p t e d the J e w i s h f a i t h . E v e n t u a l l y they were overcome and d e s t r o y e d by t h e R u s s i a n s . ##'""The:'-Iranian-.vocabulary d i f f e r s f r o m the G r e a t R u s s i a n m a i n l y b y I t s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of P o l i s h words, many o f w h i c h a r e t h e m s e l v e s o f German o r i g i n . 8. The T a r t a r P e r i o d . ( X I I I - XIV c e n t u r i e s ) l e f t a deep i m p r e s s on R u s s i a n c u l t u r e and. c i v i l i z a t i o n . - By many h i s t o r -i a n s t h e " T a r t a r Yoke" i s r e p o r t e d as an i m p o v e r i s h i n g i n -•ftience. That t h i s i s g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d b e c a u s e of the ' o p p o s i t i o n of t h e R u s s i a n c h u r c h , which r e g a r d e d t h e T a r t a r s as " G o d l e s s c r e a t u r e s " , i s o b v i o u s . I n many r e s p e c t s , e s -p e c i a l l y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l and e conomic s p h e r e s , the T a r t a r s were g r e a t l y s u p e r i o r . So d i f f e r e n t were the T a r t a r s t h a t due to t h i s and t o t h e i r l o n g r e i g n , , t a e y have u n d o u b t e d l y i m p r e g n a t e d the R u s s i a n mind an d c h a r a c t e r w i t h " O r i e n t a l t r a i t s " . S t i l l t h e s e i n f i l t e r e d t r a i t s c annot s e r v e as a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e h a r s h ways of R u s s i a n l i f e ; more s t e r i l i t y and c r u e l t y c o u l d be f o u n d a t t h a t t i m e i n Germany, F r a n c e and B y z a n t i n e , R u s s i a ' s n e i g h b o u r s to the west and e a s t . A l t h o u g h t h e " T a r t a r y o k e " l e f t i t s i n f l u e n c e i n R u s s i a n l i f e the main c u l t u r a l f o r c e c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e B y z a n t i n e . The T u r k i s h o p p r e s s i o n o f the S e r b s and B u l g a r s c a u s e d a mass i m m i g r a t i o n of t h e l a t t e r to R u s s i a , A g r e a t number o f B y z a n t i n e e d u c a t e d S e r b i a n a n d B u l g a r i a n c l e r i c s s o o n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s a t the h e a d of t h e R u s s i a n c h u r c h . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the F i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a S e r b named C y p r i a n , became the M e t r o p o l i t a n o f Moscow, W i t h h i s name i s a s s o c -i a t e d t h e r e f o r m o f the R u s s i a n l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e . Few s t a n d -a r d s were s e t . u p i n l i t e r a t u r e a n d the p r o v i n c i a l s i m p l i c i t y gave .way to a h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e s t y l e p e r m e a ted w i t h a deep . r e l i g i o u s h u m i l i t y . l o t o n l y d i d c u l t u r a l l i f e c e n t r e I n t h e m o n a s t e r i e s o f "Mo-scow, K i e v , P s k o v , Novgorod, but i t . Is a l s o 9 . d u r i n g the '"Cyprian p e r i o d t h a t a g r e a t impetus was g i v e n t o a r t . R u s s i a n p a i n t i n g a t t h a t time was i n no way i n f e r i o r t o t h e h i g h e s t B y z a n t i n e a c h i e v e m e n t but i t f l o u r i s h e d m o s t l y In the m o n a s t e r i e s * O n l y a few names of p a i n t e r s were handed down by c o n t i n u o u s t r a d i t i o n b e c a u s e the o l d R u s s i a n p a i n t i n g was h o t an i n d i v i d u a l a r t . The names o f tithe . i n d i v i d u a l point-e r s were e f f a c e d f o r r e a s o n s t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i v e work o f t h e c h u r c h r e p l a c e d the o l d R u s s i a n i n d i v i d u a l i s m . A t the b e g i n -n i n g t h i s "G-olden Age" R u s s i a n a r t d e v o t e d i t s e l f e n t i r e l y to s a c r e d p a i n t i n g ( i k o n o p i s ) b ut l a t e r , u n d e r t h e E u r o p e a n i n -f l u e n c e , t h i s gave way to r e a l i s t i c p a i n t i n g ( z a i v o p i s ) . I n the m i d d l e o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were s t i l l no s c h o o l s i n Moscow. A l l l i t e r a r y and g e n e r a l know-l e d g e was t r a n s m i t t e d b y the c l e r g y . Books f o r r e a d i n g were few and the r e a d i n g p u b l i c c o n s i s t e d o f the c l e r g y and t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s o f u r b a n s o c i e t y . D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t p r i n t -i n g was i n t r o d u c e d to R u s s i a i n the S i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( t h e f i r s t p r i n t e d book a p p e a r e d i n Moscow i n 1 5 6 3 ) , o n l y books f o r t h e d a i l y u s e i n t h e c h u r c h e s were p u b l i s h e d * The most a m b i t -i o u s works were the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y of R u s s i a (Book o f D e g r e e s ) and the S a i n t s 5 C a l e n d a r . I n 1633 P e t e r M o j i l a founded, w i t h the b l e s s i n g s o f the Church, an Academy i n K i e v , which was d e s t i n e d t o become the mother o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n R u s s i a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s u b j e c t s which o c c u p i e d most o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e c l a s s i c s , p h i l o s o p h y and r h e t o r i c were a l s o t a u g h t . A q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y l a t e r Moscow i n v i t e d t h r e e monks fromKky 10. to t r a n s l a t e t h e lev/ T e stament f r o m Greek i n t o S l a v o n i c and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y two s c h o o l s were opened t h e r e w i t h monks as t e a c h e r s . S e c u l a r c i v i l i z a t i o n had i t s f i r s t s u c c e s s i n 1672 -when German p l a y e r s p r o d u c e d f o r the T z a r the f i r s t t h e a t r i c -a l p r o d u c t i o n e v e r g i v e n i n R u s s i a . A few y e a r s l a t e r roman-t i c f i c t i o n was i m p o r t e d f r o m the E a s t and West, c i r c u l a t e d i n m a n u s c r i p t i n v e r y e.lumsy R u s s i a n t r a n s l a t i o n , and f i n a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f a i r y t a l e s to s u i t the R u s s i a n r e a d e r . But a r e a l new page i n the h i s t o r y o f R u s s i a n c i v i l -i z a t i o n was opened by P e t e r the G r e a t who, on h i s r e t u r n i n 1698 f r o m E n g l a n d , h a d by d r a s t i c r e f o r m s d e s t r o y e d the R u s s i a n t h e o c r a t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n . Prom now on t h e s e c u i l a r i z a t i on o f the s t a t e was a c c o m p a n i e d by the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n o f c u l t u r e . The c h u r c h l o s t i t s g r i p on educ at i o n and i n s t e a d s e c u l a r s c h o o l s , m o s t l y t e c h n i c a l , were f o u n d e d . E v e n i n l a n g u a g e a r e f o r m t o o k p l a c e when R u s s i a n r e p l a c e d C h u r c h - S l a v o n i c as a l i t e r a r y medium. The l o n g war w i t h Sweden (1700 - 1721 } p r o d u c e d a change i n the f i n a n c i a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t u s o f the body p o l i t i c and a s h i f t i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the c o u n t r y . On the one hand, under the g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e o f P e t e r , one. c o u l d see the i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n of t h e R u s s i a n s t a t e , b u t , on t h e o t h e r , the economic growth r e s u l t e d i n a n u n l i m i t ed ex-p l o i t a t i o n of the p e a s a n t c l a s s . The s u b s e q u e n t c o n q u e s t o f the B l a t i c s t a t e s opened the d o o r f o r W e s t e r n influence„ e s -p e c i a l l y t h a t o f Germany, whose e f f i c i e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c s p i r i t , 11. t h r o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e German I m m i g r a t i o n e n c o u r a g e d b y P e t e r , began t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i n n e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y o f t h e Rus-s i a n government. P e t e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n was m a i n l y u t i l i t a r i a n and i n d u s t r i a l ; i t was not i n t e n d e d f o r the masses. A t t h e erd of h i s r e i g n t h e r e were o n l y one h u n d r e d and t e n ele m e n t -a r y s c h o o l s I n a l l o f R u s s i a . Some h i s t o r i a n s s u s p e c t t h a t a g r e a t number of them e x i s t e d o n l y on p a p e r l i k e "the " P e a r l S o u l s " of G o g o l . Even i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Moscow, opened I n 1755 d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f C a t h e r i n e I , t h e r e was not a t t e m p t t o o r g a n -i z e a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n u n t i l t h e time o f A l e x a n d e r I . D u r i n g the l a t t e r ' s r e i g n and t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r t z a r s who have f o l -l o w e d him p e r i o d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s were f o l l o w e d b y p e r i o d s o f d a r k r e a c t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e whole r e i g n o f N i c o l a s I was d i r e c t e d to b l o c k the f l o w o f new i d e a s i n t o R u s s i a . But f o r t u n a t e l y the R u s s i a n t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n d e f e a t e d i t s own ends. The e f f e c t was t o i n c r e a s e g r e a t l y the E u r o p e a n c h a r a c t e r o f the E m p i r e and c o n s e q u e n t l y the i n f i l t r a t i o n o f Western I d e a s . I n o r d e r to c h a r a c t e r i z e the d i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n w h i c h R u s s i a , i n i t s c o n t a c t w i t h f o r e i g n r a c e s , was t r y i n g t o a b s o r b , l e t us quo t e t h e g r e a t R u s s i a n s c h o l a r M i r s k y : R u s s i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n p a s s e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l p h a s e s . Under P e t e r and h i s f i r s t s u c c e s s o r s E u r o p e was the home o f h i g h e r t e c h -. n i q u e s , and h i g h e r f o r m s o f economic l i f e ; e d u c a t i o n was t e c h n i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l , and t h e c o u n t r i e s most i m i t a t e d were H o l l a n d , Sweden a n d Germany. The age was s e c u l a r a n d u t i l i t a r i a n , i n s p i r e d by a r e a l w i l l f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t and p r o g r e s s . I t was p r e p a r e d t o 12. a d m i t a r e a s o n a b l e C h r i s t i a n i t y b u t was f u n -d a m e n t a l l y u n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and n o n - m y s t i c a l . Under E l i z a b e t h and C a t h e r i n e I I E u r o p e be-came p r i m a r i l y the l a n d of el egance and p l e a s -u r e , o f t h e a r t s a n d o f l i t e r a t u r e . U s e f u l knowledge became t h e e x c u l s i v e p r o p e r t y o f s p e c i a l i s t s and F r e n c h the l a n g u a g e o f C i v i l -i z a t i o n , 2, The work o f the F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e r V o l t a i r e , E n g l i s h l i b e r a l i s m w i t h i t s House o f Commons, Adam S m i t h ' s economic i d e a s , B y r o n ' s W e l t s c h m e r z have a l l b e e n r e f l e c t e d I n t h e ed-u c a t i o n a l i d e a s and p o e t r y o f R u s s i a i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e new l i b e r a l i s m a c o n s e r v a t i v e body o f o p i n i o n was g r o w i n g i n t h e u p p e r and some o f the m i d d l e c l a s s e s o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y , s c h e m i n g l y d i r e c t e d f r o m h i g h e r q u a r t e r s who d e t e s t e d the Europe o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n . To quote a g a i n : T h i s " o f f i c i a l n a t i o n a l i s m " p l a c e d R u s s i a above E u r o p e , b e c a u s e the R u s s i a n p e o p l e h a d b e t t e r p r e s e r v e d the o l d v i r t u e s o f f a i t h a n d o b e d i e n c e than any o t h e r , and because the n a t i o n a l s p i r i t was a s p i r i t o f d e v o t i o n t o t h e monarchy and o f d e t e s t a t i o n f o r a l l I n n o v a -t i o n . The N a t i o n a l Church was r e s t o r e d t o honour a s the g u a r d i a n o f the p e o p l e ' s c o n s e r v a t i s m , "Orthodoxy, A u t o c r a c y and N a t i o n a l i t y " became the o f f i c i a l f o r m u l a e x p r e s s i n g the " R u s s i a n i d e a " , 3. No wonder t h a t t h e government t u r n e d f o r i n s p i r a t i o n t o Germany, a l a n d o f a b s o l u t i s m and m i l i t a r i s m w i t h a k i n d r e d t o u c h o f an i d e a l i s t i c s t a t e p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s f r o m Germany t h a t the R u s s i a n b u r e a u c r a c y b o r r o w e d a p o l i c y t r a n s p l a n t a b l e to the R u s s i a n s o i l f o r t h e f u r t h e r a n c e o f new c o l o n i a l a n d 2. D.C. M i r s k y , R u s s i a , A S o c i a l H i s t o r y , pp." 2 0 7 f f J (The C r e s c e n t P r e s s , London, 1931) 3. I b i d . 13. c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n s . . From t h a t time two movements began t o p l a y t h e i r p a r t i n R u s s i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e : S l a v o p h i l i s m and W e s t e r n i s m . B o t h h a d many p o i n t s of c o n t a c t but d i f f e r e d on t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t o f o r i e n t a t i o n , . The R u s s i a n monarchy a c c e p t e d the f o r m e r . Tempora m u t a n t u r , et nos mutamur. r As l o n g a s E u r o p e was, l i k e R u s s i a , a l a n d o f p r i v i l e g e d a b s o l u t i s m , R u s s i a h a d no d i f f i - ' c u l t y i n b e i n g E u r o p e a n . But s i n c e two g r e a t r e v o l u t i o n s , t h e F r e n c h and the i n d u s t r i a l , h a d p r o d u c e d a new E u r o p e , E u r o p e a n i d e a l s c e a s e d to be a c c e p t a b l e t o the r u l i n g c l a s s e s , new E u r o p e a n t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d no l o n g e r be i n t r o -duced, i n t o a c o u n t r y where l a b o u r was s e r v i l e , i g n o r a n t a n d o p p r e s s e d . R u s s i a r e m a i n e d on t h e l e v e l she had r e a c h e d by 1800* But f o r c e s were m a t u r i n g u n d e r th e a r c h a i c c r u s t t h a t w o u l d i n - ; , e v i t a b l y brea& i t . 4 * From the p r e c e d i n g , on would c o n c l u d e ;tha t i n t e l l e c -t u a l l y R u s s i a borrowed h e a v i l y f r o m f o r e i g n e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , f r o m the E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y on R u s s i a began t o p r o d u c e i t s own Newtons, B y r o n s , e t c . F i r s t , l e t us name Lomonosor (1711-1765), a c h e m i s t , the f a t h e r o f R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e . He l e f t many s u c c e s s o r s i n the r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s , a s t h e c h e m i s t Z i v i n and the m a t h e m a t i c i a n T o b a c h e v s k y . To enumerate h e r e the l e n g t h y l i s t o f R u s s i a n w r i t e r s , p o e t s , and s c i e n t i s t s w o u l d be f o r . v a r i o u s r e a s o n s i m p o s s i b l e a n d u n d e s i r a b l e . We w i l l a t t e m p t , however, to d e s c r i b e t h e emergence of a new c l a s s w h i c h was d e s t i n e d t o p l a y a p r o m i n e n t p a r t i n t h e e v e n t s t o come. Sue t o sp e c i f i c R u s s i a n c o n d i t i ons a s l i g h t a c c o u n t o f ' w h l e h , w i t h i n t h e s p a c e of t h i s work has b een g i v e n , a new. 4. I b i d . 14. " I n t e l l i g e n t s i a " was i n t h e p r o c e s s of c r e a t i o n * I t was an amalgam of two s o c i a l g r o u p s : f i r s t , e d u c a t e d young n o b l e s as p e r s o n i f i e d i n T u r e g e n e v who were u n a b l e to a d j u s t t h e m s e l v e s t o the b u r e a u c r a t i c r e g i m e , and, s e c o n d , the e n t h u s i a s t i c " r a z n o c h i n s t s y " , a s r e p r e s e n t e d b y the i n f l u e n t i a l l i t e r a r y . c r i t i c . B e l i n s k y , sons o f p r i e s t s , s m a l l o f f i c i a l s a n d "samoutcky" who were t r y i n g t o e a r n t h e i r l i v i n g by j o u r n a l -ism and p r i v a t e t u i t i o n . The r a n k s o f t h e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o l e t a r i a t were c o n s t a n t l y r e c r u i t e d f r o m a r t i s t s and a c t o r s whose s o c i a l s t a t u s was t h a t o f s e r v a n t s f o r t h o s e " i n power t o b e F . The " r a z n o c h i n s t s y " were t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e coming u p h e a v a l s , u n t i l the l a n d l e s s p e a s a n t s a n d the i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s became c l a s s c o n s c i o u s f o r t h e g r e a t s t r u g g l e : . A l e x a n d e r I I a b o l i s h e d s e r f d o m i n 1861. L e t us s e e what t h e government d i d to improve the l o t and the e d u e a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e " f r e e s l a v e s " . We may summarize by s t a t i n g t h a t . t h e . f r e e d s e r f s formed a c l a s s , a " s o s t o y a n i e " , d i s t i n c t l y marked o f f b y law a n d r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l r i g h t s f r o m the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . A f t e r t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n , the T z a r and h i s m i n i s t e r made.only weak a t t e m p t s a t p r o m o t i n g u n i v e r s a l e l e m e n t a r y ed-u c a t i o n . When t h e Zemstvos ( e l e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l a s s e m b l i e s ) b e g a n t o promote a n d o r g a n i z e e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n i n r u r a l Russia., the government p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r s c h o o l s a s e x p e n s i v e and i n e f f i c i e n t , a n d so i n many e a s e s t h e y c e a s e d to e x i s t . 15. n e v e r t h e l e s s , even here the r e d u c i n g o f i l l i t e r a c y had c r e a t e d o n l y a new c l a s s o f " s e m i - i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " composed o f s c h o o l -m a s t e r s , a c c o u n t a n t s , c l e r k s ( v o l o s t n o i p f i sa r ) many o f whom j o i n e d the r a n k and f i l e o f t h e " r a z n o c h i n s t s y " • The e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t he peasan t s c r e a t e d a n o t h e r p r o b l e m . The communal v i l l a g e c o u l d e x i s t no l o n g e r . D e s i g n -ed a t f i r s t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the o l d f a i t h and the a v o i d a n c e o f a l a n d p r o b l e m , i t had n o t o n l y d e f e a t e d I t s own c l a i m s but even made t h i n g s worse and more c o m p l i c a t e d . The l a n d hunger o f t he " B e z z e m e l n i k i " and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l u n r e s t prompted the R u s s i a n government to promote peasant e m i g r a t i o n i n t o S i b e r i a . F u r t h e r e x p a n s i o n , the a n n e x a t i o n and " R u s s i f i c a t i o n " o f the P a c i f i c m a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s t a k e n f rom C h i n a , t h e com-p l e t i o n i n l ^ O J o f t he F a r E a s t e r n R a i l w a y , b rought the R u s -s i a n c o l o n i z a t i o n schemes i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e l a n d o f the " R i s i n g S u n " , J a p a n . But here R u s s i a ' s i m p e r i a l a m b i t i o n s were f r u s t r a t e d * The l a c k o f a nea r m i l i t a r y b a s e ; the S l a v o -p h i l o r i e n t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y s low a d o p t i o n o f Western m i l i t a r y t e c h n i q u e ; the t remendous i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f t he c o u n t r y by f o r e i g n c a p i t a l and the c r e a t i o n of a new u rban p r o l e t a r i a n c l a s s ; the a c t i v i t y o f the e n t h u s i a s t i c r a z -n o c h i n s t s y a l l p l a y e d havoc i n the s t r a i n and s t r e s s o f the w a r . The war was l o s t * EDUCATION AND THE STRUGGLE FOR SELF & 0 V E R H M E 1 C T . The R e v o l u t i o n o f 1905 had f a i l e d but had n o t been i n v a i n . A g r e a t e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n f i r e d the p e a s a n t s , the lb* workers and other social classes, described elsewhere in this work. Experienced leaders, as might be expected, immediately resumed the struggle when the opportunity arose. Educationally the Revolution of 1905 brought anotha* renaissance exemplified by the Zemstvos and the Co-operative Movement which tried to educate the peasant. But this ed-ucational expansion was followed by another government re-action which again effectually checked the process of i t s growth. Nevertheless, we must not forget the great educat-ional work accomplished, under indescribable conditions, by many educational workers, pioneers in the flew School movement• A necessarily short account wi l l be given here of those s in-cere men and women who sacrificed themselves on the altar of enlightenment and education. The names of many w i l l never be known: individuals and groups of the intel l igentsia who sacrificed everything worth while for individual happiness to the cause of educa-tion for the common men. unnamed as they are, they w i l l always serve as an inspiration to the numberless educational workers In Russia and other countries who t o i l under adverse conditions. "THE HOLY CAUSE". Many of those workers took active part in Tzarist educational institutions of wide repute. Take, for example, the Russian secondary schools, well equipped and splendidly manned, which were world famed. They provided, however, an education; for the few, the e l i t e , an education possible only 17. f o r s e l e c t e d groups-. Great c r e d i t must t h e r e f o r e te g i v e n to the educa ted R u s s i a n you ths who , i n s p i t e o f t he p r i v i l e g e s a t t a c h e d to a s econda ry s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , have remained t rue to the t o i l e r s and the t i l l e r s o f t he s o i l , t h o s e m i l l i o n s who were kep t i n d a r k n e s s and i g n o r a n c e . That t h i s d e v o t i o n o f y o u t h was the r e s u l t o f the s e l f s a c r i f i c i n g gu idance of the i d e a l i s t i c t e a c h e r s i s o b v i o u s . How v i v i d and t o u c h i n g a r e , t h e r e f o r e , the words o f a n A m e r i c a n s c h o l a r who i n s p e a t -i n g o f e d u c a t i o n I n th.e modern day once w r o t e : E d u c a t i o n has t h u s now become the c h i e f p rob lem o f the w o r l d , i t s o n l y h o l y cause* The n a t i o n s t h a t see t h i s w i l l s u r v i v e and those t h a t f a i l t o do so w i l l s l o w l y p e r i s h There must be r e - e d u c a t i o n of the w i l l and o f the h e a r t as w e l l a s o f the i n t e l l e c t , and t h e i d e a l s o f s e r v i c e must s u p p l a n t those o f s e l f i s h n e s s and g r e e d , N o t h i n g e l s e can save u s * * * That innumerab le R u s s i a n e d u c a t o r s a t p r e s e n t , as w e l l as i n t h e p a s t , are w o r k i n g on the " c h i e f p r o b l e m o f t h e w o r l d , i t s on^-y #holy cause" w i t h a d e v o t i o n w h i c h i s u n s u r -passed i n h i s t o r y i s w e l l known. Karnes l i k e L u n a c h a r k y , S h a t z k y , K r u p s k y , P i s t r a k , E l o n s k y , and many o t h e r s , a re now on the l i p s o f many s t u d e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n . Any accoun t and d i s c u s s i o n o f R u s s i a n e d u c a t i o n must, i n a s e n s e , i n t e r p r e t i t as an unpreceden ted movement, p l a n n e d , soaped and g u i d e d by the w o r k e r s whose names a r e ment ioned a b o v e . THE P R E S E M . A few remarks on t h i s t o p i c i n our u n f o l d e d drama, w i l l , we t h i n k , s u f f i c e h e r e . The F i r s t R e v o l u t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n Feb rua ry 1 9 1 7 . The r e p u b l i c a n regime o f K e r e n s k y f o l l o w e d . j>,- G-. S t a n l e y H a l l , The L i f e and C o n f e s s i o n s o f a ~ P s y c h o l o g i s t * 18. . By t h i s t i m e the s t r a i n o f the w a r was t e l l i n g upon the p o p -u l a t i o n . To e d u c a t i o n and s c h o o l s the government p a i d scan t a t t e n t i o n . The c o n t i n u a n c e o f t he w a r , e n f o r c e d upon the R u s -s i a n peop le b y the A l l i e s , and the r e s u l t i n g hunger and food r i o t s made the s u f f e r i n g s o f the p e o p l e u n b e a r a b l e . The i n -e f f i c i e n t K e r e n s k y government was c o u r a g e o u s l y a t t a c k e d b y the deep f o r c e s o f a p ro founde r r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement, the " s o c -i a l r e v o l u t i o n " . I n the K e r e n s k y government was o v e r -th rown and the S o v i e t government was e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s p l a c e . On O c t o b e r 2 ? t h , 1917* the S o v i e t government announ-ced i t s e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . The work was i n t e r r u p t e d b y the c i v i l war , the p e r i o d of m i l i t a n t communism,, e tc* The program was f u r t h e r d e f i n e d by f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n s i n 1?26, 192?, 1931, 1933 and so o n . I t w i l l be o u r p r o b l e m , i n the te rms o f our t h e s i s , t o touch upon these changes and e d u c a t i o n a l r e o r g a n -i z a t i o n s i n the c h a p t e r s f o l l o w i n g . EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS. T h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h v e r y b r i e f l y f o r obv ious r e a s o n s . F i r s t , many p o i n t s r e l a t i n g to t h i s s u b j e c t were touched on i n the p r e v i o u s pages o f t h i s c h a p t e r . S e c o n d , a g l anc e at the map o f R u s s i a w i l l enab l e one, wi th out n e c e s s a r -i l y g o i n g i n t o d e t a i l s , to i n f e r the bond e x i s t i n g between e d u c a t i o n and g e o g r a p h i c a l f a o t o r s . R u s s i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a r e , more t h a n those o f any o t h e r c o u n t r y , a p r o d u c t o f i t s p h y s i o g e o g r a p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d . By i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n i t was a l w a y s b e -tween S c y l l a and C h a r y b d i s , E a s t and West , Europe and A s i a . 19. F o r ages R u s s i a spent much b l o o d upon c o s t l y e f f o r t s t o r e a c h "Warm Wate r s " and t h e i r f a i l u r e c o n s t i t u t e s s t i l l one o f t he g r e a t e s t hand i caps o f the U . S . S . R . We are accustomed to t h i n k i n g o f Canada as a l a n d "of enormous p r o p o r t i o n s , ye t R u s s i a i s two and one h a l f t i m e s as l a r g e as Canada . I n f a c t , R u s s i a c o n t a i n s o n e - s e v e n t h o f the t e r r a c o g n i t a . The R u s s i a n s t eppes and t u n d r a , because o f s i m i l a r i t i e s , can e a s i l y be p i c t u r e d by any Canad ian who has l i v e d w i t h i n the A r c t i c C i r c l e , a t F o r t C h u r c h i l l on the Hudson or on the W e s t e r n P r a i r i e s . C o n s i d e r the v a r i o u s r a c e s , g roups and n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n h a b i t i n g these gloomy R u s s i a n r e -g i o n s and we c a n r e a l i z e how t h e c h a r a c t e r and the s o c i o -e d u e a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n e v i t a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t he n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e f a c t o r s . B e i n g s e c l u d e d from the w o r l d and l e f t to t h e m s e l v e s , the R u s s i a n s have a l w a y s a c t e d a c c o r d i n g to a p a t t e r n , w h i c h o f t e n l o o k s g r o t e s q u e to any o u t s i d e r . She s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e d a c o m p l e x i t y w h i c h has r e f l e c t e d on e d u c a t i o n and g i v e n t o i t s e x t e r n a l p a t t e r n a d u a l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , h a l f A s i a t i c and h a l f E u r o p e a n . A f t e r deeper s t u d y one can c o n c l u d e , however , t h a t i t i s based on r e a l i s m w h i c h i s Wes t e rn and E u r o p e a n . 20 CHAPTER I I THE SOVIET SCHOOL: ITS THEORY AND BASIS I n our f i r s t c h a p t e r we m e r e l y g l a n c e d at an a n a l y s i s o f the s e v e r a l ma in f a c t o r s i n i n t e r p l a y w i t h n a t -t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n * I f i n our d i s c u s s i o n o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l f a c t o r s we were s u c c e s s f u l i n a v o i d i n g the a c c e p t a n c e o f a d e f i n i t e r u l i n g o r t h e o r y , as o f g e o g r a p h i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m , o r m a t e r i a l i s m , o r p e s s i m i s m ; l i k e w i s e , i f i n ou r d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s we have sugges t ed the v i e w tha t i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l s t r a g g l e a n a t i o n i s not the c r e a t u r e o f a b l i n d d e s t i n y , — w e have a c c o m p l i s h e d our pu rpose* Thus , i n the u n f o l d e d m i g h t y s o c i a l drama the n a t i o n f i n a l l y came out p u r i f i e d , imbued w i t h nob&le exp e r i e n c e and • • JL i n s p i r e d by a g r ea t i d e a l f o r s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t / W i t h t h i s i n mind l e t us embark upon a d i s c u s s i o n o f some a s p e c t s o f one o f the main a g e n c i e s f o r s o c i a l p r o g r e s s , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a D i l i z a t i o n - = t h e s c h o o l . THE NATIONAL AMP REVuLOT1uNARY CONCEPTS OF THE SOVIET  EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM* We f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n c o v e r i n g the f i r s t p o i n t o f o u r subheading by q u o t i n g one o f t he g r e a t e s t a u t h o r i t i e s i n c o m p a r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n , D r . i s s a c L . K a n d e l • ft We r e g r e t t he n e c e s s i t y o f o m i t t i n g the d is cuss i o n „of the ~ s e v e r a l p e r i o d s l i k e the World War, the F i r s t R e v o l u t i o n , the K e r e n s k y P e r i o d , t h e O c t o b e r R e v o l u t i o n and i t s s u b -d i v i s i o n s , and how these have i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t i o n ; x h i s wou ld r e q u i r e a work i n i t s e l f . A s h o r t t r ea tmen t would sound s u p e r f i c i a l and vague . 21. a sys tem o f e d u c a t i o n may "be d e f i n e d as n a t i o n a l i f i t p r o v i d e s a w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d and c a r e f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e g r a d a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n -a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f r e e and open to a l l and m a i n -t a i n e d a t p u b l i c expense . i f a r t i c u l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s be em-p l o y e d as a t e s t , t hen o n l y the S o v i e t and A m e r i c a n sys tems c o u l d be pronounced t r u l y n a t i o n a l * * M o r e o v e r , i n the l i g h t o f a d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h w i l l f o l l o w i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , one w i l l have to assume t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h i s c o u n t r y do n o t b e g i n t o r e a c h those deve loped i n t h e U . S . S . R . t o d a y . We a r e , however , i n a f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h i s f a u l t does not r e s t w i t h our e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s o r e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but i t i s found w i t h i n ano t h e r r e a l m on w h i c h edue at i o n i s l a r g e l y dependen t . I n o r d e r to secure the r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r o f edue at i o n as w e l l as o f o ther f i e l d s o f S o v i e t a c t i v i t y , a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t i s made t o f a s h i o n t h e i r development i n the l i g h t o f c e r t a i n c o n t r o l l i n g i d e a s . I n the words o f P r o f e s s o r George S . C o u n t s : F i v e g r e a t c o n c e p t s occupy such a dominant p o s i t i o n i n the r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement t h a t no l i s t c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as comple te w i t h o u t them, xhese a r e : d i a l e c t i c m a t e r i a l i s m , c o l l e c t i v i s m , e q u a l i t y o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s , e q u a l i t y o f s e x e s , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . ^ ' F o r the sake o f b r e v i t y and a s suming a l s o t h a t the l a s t f o u r c o n c e p t s a r e e a s i l y comprehended and t h e r e f o r e do n o t r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n , we w i l l a t t empt t o e l u c i d a t e the f i r s t c o n c e p t , namely d i a l e c t i c m a t e r i a l i s m , the one s p e c i f i c a l l y 1 . I . L . K a n d e l , Compara t ive E d u c a t i o n , Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , New Y o r k , 1 9 3 3 , p . 8 4 . 2. George S» Gfcunts, The S o v i e t C h a l l e n g e to A m e r i c a , John Day C o . , New Y o r k , 1931 , p . 1 9 . 2 2 . c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S o v i e t g e n e r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y . C o n f e s s i n g , however , o u r meagre knowledge on t h i s s u b j e c t and i t s newest i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , we are f o r c e d t o a c c e p t i n f u l l v a l u e the e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n t© i t "by the same a u t h o r i n the f o l l o w i n g quotat i o n : 'The R u s s i a n Communists r e j e c t the a n c i e n t d u a l i s m o f mind and body, s p i r i t and m a t t e r , God and N a t u r e , and s t o u t l y a f f i r m t h e i r f a i t h i n the e s s e n t i a l u n i t y o f a l l t h i n g s To them m a t t e r i s t he f o u n d a t i o n o f a l l e x i s t e n c e , and the e x t e r n a l w o r l d r a t h e r t han t h e d a t a o f i n -d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s the fundamenta l r e a l i t y . . . . . . . A l l phenomena a re m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f one b a s i c subs tance i n p r o c e s s and t h a t even l i f e and mind a r e but f u n c t i o n s o f c e r t a i n e x t r e m e l y d e l i c a t e and complex forms o f m a t t e r There i s no God, no s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m , no w o r l d o f pure s p i r i t . I n the words o f En g e l s , " M a t t e r i s no t a p r o d u c t o f mind but mind i t s e l f i s o n l y the h i g h e s t p r o d u c t o f m a t t e r " . * A p p l i e d to the e v o l u t i o n o f c u l t u r e d i a l e c t i c ma te r i a l i sm g i v e s the economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y . "The u l t i m a t e cause and g r e a t moving power o f a l l i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c e v e n t s i s the economic development o f s o c i e t y and i t s changes i n the modes o f p r o d u c t i o n and e x c h a n g e . " i On p e r c e i v i n g t h i s , l e t us b e g i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f the S o v i e t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f tv© d i v i s i o n s i n the p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n , a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the S o v i e t t h e o r i s t s . TORTURE AND INSTRUCTION. The S o v i e t pedagogy d i s t i n g u i s h e s between two d i v -i s i o n s i n the p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n , a d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h has f a i l e d to be r e c o g n i z e d i n the E n g l i s h l anguage and consequen t -l y has not the exac t e q u i v a l e n t s . Two t e r m s , namely n u r t u r e 3* I b i d . , pp 19 f f . : " ' ' ~ ~ — 23 and i n s t r u c t i o n , a r e u sed a r b i t r a r i l y f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n o f the two e d u c a t i o n a l p h a s e s . I n the words o f P i n k e v i t c h : N u r t u r e , may be r ega rded as the p r o l o n g e d a c t i o n of one o r more pe r sons upon ano the r f o r the purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g h i s n a t i v e b i o l o g i c a l l y and s o e i a l l y u s e f u l q u a l i t i e s . And by the same a u t h o r : I n s t r u c t i o n , may be d e f i n e d as the s y s t e m a t i c and p r o l o n g e d a c t i o n o f one o r more pe r sons upon a n o t h e r f o r the purpose o f c r e a t i n g i n h im a com-p l e t e and d e f i n i t e o u t l o o k upon the w o r l d . 5 • Now t h i s " a c t i o n " o f the doub le e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s m a i n l y due to the t e a c h e r who may be an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n , o r any i n s t i t u t i o n or o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e x e r c i s e s an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . -But t h i s i s o n l y a p a r t o f the s t o r y . As i t d e v e l o p s we meet ano the r f a c t o r wh ich a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s i t s p a r t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . EDUCATION AND ENVIRONMENT. The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h l i e o u t s i d e the sphere o f p e d a g o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e . F i r s t we may r e f e r to e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and the p e r i o d o f i n f a n c y , when the c h i l d l i v e s h i s l i f e beyond the r e a c h o f the s c h o o l and i s i n f l u e n c e d by s t i m u l i , w h i c h f rom a n e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t a r e o f t e n d e t r i m e n t a l . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a g rowth may be accumula ted n e g a t i v e t o the f u t u r e a c t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Second , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p h y s i c a l env i ronment e x -p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n m u l t i p l e w a y s . C h a r a c t e r and l o c a t i o n o f d w e l l i n g , food and c l o t h i n g , - p e r i o d s o f i l l n e s s , — a l l a f f e c t t he a t t i t u d e o f t h e c h i l d and h i s r e s p o n s e s even when a Tl P i n k e v i t c h , . A l b e r t P . , The New E d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t ~~ _ -_j.Republic^ J o h n Day C o . , 1?29, p . 3. 5 • I b i d . , p . 4, 24. . m a s t e r - t e a c h e r " touches the k e y b o a r d " , T h i r d l y , we may agree w i t h H u n t i n g t o n who, i n h i s i l l u m i n a t i n g book " C i v i l i z a t i o n and C l i m a t e ! ' , con tends " t h a t the phase of r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r w h i c h e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n e r g y , i n i t i a t i v e •and the power o f achievement i s c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i f -f e r e n c e s i n the p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t " . S o i l , w a t e r , a i r , l i g h t and warmth , p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s a re a l l s o u r c e s o f s t i m -u l a t i o n upon the men ta l and p h y s i c a l g rowth o f the c h i l d . And l a s t bu t n o t l e a s t , i s the s o c i a l env i ronment w h i c h c r e a t e s and m o d i f i e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l p e r s o n a l i t y of man. How m a n i f o l d a r e the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ! Take, f o r example the f a m i l y . How" b e n e f i c i a l i s the i n f l u e n c e o f the h a r m o n i o u s l y f u n c t i o n i n g f a m i l y and how d e g e n e r a t i n g i s the i n f l u e n c e o f t he f a m i l y i n a s t a t e of d i s i n t e g r a t i a.nl Of no l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e the community , the group w i t h I t s f o l k w a y s and mores , the t h e a t r e , and t h e c h u r c h . I t i s the l a t t e r , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s t h e o r y , w h i c h has i n the pas t c o o p e r a t e d most l a b o r i o u s l y w i t h the s t a t e i n p r o m o t i n g t h e i r common i n t e r e s t s — t h o s e o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s . THE SCHOOL AID STATE. ' As the contemporary s t a t e i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t s the s t a t e a l w a y s s t r i v e s f o r the supremacy of the c l a s s w h i c h f o r the time i s i n power . The t e a c h e r ( t h e i n d i v i d u a l or i n s t i t u t i o n ) works i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y and f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y f o r the purpose o f p r e p a r i n g c i t i z e n s f o r f u t u r e l i f e . T h e r e f o r e , as l o n g as t h e s c h o o l s e x i s t , t h e y w i l l n e v e r be f r e e f rom p o l i t i c s . Says P i n k e v i t c h : The p resen t R u s s i a n s t a t e s w h i c h i s t r a n s i -t i o n a l between c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m , p l a c e s p o l i t i c a l p o w e r i n the hands o f the w o r k e r s and the p e a s a n t s . The R e v o l u t i o n was made, and i t s p r i n c i p l e s a re now b e i n g e n f o r c e d by the p r o l e -t a r i a t . I t i s q u i t e n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s s h o u l d b r i n g i n t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d the c u l t u r a l problems o f the l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s and the w o r k i n g p e a s a n t r y . 0 ' THE SCHOOL AND THE CHURCH. The s o v i e t pedagogy i s e m p h a t i c a l l y opposed to any bond between the c h u r c h and e d u c a t i o n because the f o r m e r s u p -p o r t s a regime r o o t e d i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the p o o r e s t e l e -ment o f the p o p u l a t i o n and a l s o because o f i t s e x p l i c i t " c u l t -i v a t i n g i n t h e c h i l d r e n a s l a v e - l i k e s e r v i l i t y " . THE ALMS. OF EDUCATION. The f i r s t t a s k o f the communist s t a t e c o n s i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , I n d e v e l o p i n g a new i d e a l o g y , a new o u t l o o k on the w o r l d . Such a g i g a n t i c e n t e r p r i s e r e q u i r e s the e n l i s t m e n t o f , t h e whole mechanism of the p r o l e t a r i a n s t a t e , and t h e aim, o f e d u c a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s ; The a i m o f t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n i n the U . S . S . R . i s to b r i n g up f i g h t e r s f o r the w o r k e r s cause and b u i l d e r s o f the S o c i a l i s t i c s t a t e ; men who have an a l l round deve lopmen t , a re w e l l i n f o r m e d , s k i l l e d , p h y s i c a l l y s t r o n g and h e a l t h y , f i l l e d w i t h c o l l e c t i v i s t i c h a b i t s and the j o y of l i v i n g . ? •• C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s the a i m o f the s c h o o l w o r k e r ( s h k o l n y r a b o t n i k ) to i n c u l c a t e i n the g r o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n s o c i a l i s t i c i d e a s and there by to m u l t i p l y the rank and f i l e o f the f i g h t e r s f o r a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . But how c o u l d t h i s be a c c o m p l i s h e d ? C e l a va sans d i r e , t h r o u g h the S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , b . I b i d . , p . 24 f . . .... ~ I* P i n k e v i t c h , A l b e r t P . , "Development o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n and P e d a g o g i c a l Thought i n R u s s i a " , Edue . O u t l o o k , May 1931 , v o l . V , p . 1 ? ^ . 26 . THE CORES AND THE SYNTHETIC THEME. The S o v i e t pedagogy i s i n agreement w i t h John Dewey tha t the s c h o o l i s a s o c i e t y i n m i n i a t u r e , —the mic rocosm o f a macrocosm. The S o v i e t pedagogy does not suppor t the t h e s i s t h a t the macrocosm, the e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y , can be changed t h r o u g h the s c h o o l . The m i c r o c o s m , o r the s c h o o l , or t ha s o c i e t y i n m i n i a t u r e , c o u l d not become the embryo o f a f u t u r e s o c i a l i s t i c o r d e r because as a p a r t i t canno t l i v e an i n d e p e n d -ent l i f e a p a r t from the w h o l e . The s i t u a t i o n i s changed , how-e v e r , when the envi ronment and s o c i e t y a t l a r g e a re s a t u r a t e d w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n , w i t h the v i c t o r y o f the t o i l e r s . V i g -o r o u s l y l i f e " f l o w s " then i n t o the s c h o o l and the s c h o o l " f l e w s " i n t o l i f e . THE SOVIET LABOR SCHOOL. The s c h o o l , t h e r e f o r e , r e f l e c t s t h e l i f e o f the e x -i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h i n l o c o p a r e n t i s i n t e r p l a y s w i t h i t s c h i l d * i t s own f l e s h and b l o o d , f o r the common o b j e c t i v e , the p r e s e r v a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n , s e c u r i n g and i m p r o v i n g o f t h e v i c t o r i e s o f the R e v o l u t i o n . (Peb iede R e v o l u t z i i . ) The essence o f the s c h o o l i s s o c i a l i sm and l a b o r . Such a s c h o o l c o u l d e x i s t o n l y i n a s o e i e t y w h i c h b a s e s i t s e l f on the i d e a l s o f s o c i a l i s m and u s e f u l l a b o r . Such a s o c i e t y and i t s s c h o o l must a l s o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the tremendous p a r t p l a y e d by the p r o d u c t i v e n a t u r a l f o r c e s i n the p r o m o t i o n o f p r o g r e s s and advancement• The c e n t r a l theme of the S o v i e t s c h o o l i s l a b o r . To make t h i n g s c l e a r e r l e t us use the o l d method o f compar i son 27 and c o n t r a s t j and p r e s e n t here the S o v i e t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what a l a b o r s c h o o l i s , as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s c h o o l s s i m i l a r i n name. F i r s t , i t d i f f e r s i n a i m , — q u o a n i m o . Second , the S o v i e t s c h o o l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s a t t a c h i n g g r e a t impor tance to the s t u d y o f the s o c i a l r o l e o f l a b o r . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e may i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a i m and a t t i t u d e to l a b o r of the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s . R e s p i c e f i n e m l TABLE I The S o v i e t L a b o r S c h o o l as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r s c h o o l s b e a r i n g the same name. D i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to a im* A . B . C . D . R e a c t i o n a r y " D e m o c r a t i c " P e t t y b o u r - P r o l e t a r i a n b o u r g e o i s i e b o u r g e o i s i e g e o s i e and communis t s . pseudo-A t t i t u d e s s o c i a l i s t s t o w a r d s l a b o r : L a b o r i s g i v e n the game p l a c e as o t h e r methods N e v e n d o r f L a y , s h a r -r e l m o r n , G-ansberg. L a b o r o c c u -p i e s s p e c i a l No, p l a c e as method and s u b j e c t o f t e a c h i n g . E n t i r e work o f s c h o o l i s based on p r o -d u c t i v e work o f p u p i l s . H e r s h e n - -s t e i n e r , E r t l i , S i k i n g e r , P o b s t . N o . Dewey S e i d e l . O e s t r e i c h , K a n e r a u , K r o p o t k i n , R o b i n . No No, No, P r a c t i e a l -t h e o r e t i a a l W o No s t u d y o f ' soc i a l r o l e Ojl ^ a b o r ^ l s -c e n t r a l theme. # A f t e r P i n k e v i t c h , The New E d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c . ( John Day C o . , New Y o r k , I 9 2 9 . No, R u s s i a n communis ts : K a l a s h n i k o v , B l o n s k y and o t h e r s . 2 8 . The fundamenta l scheme f o r o r g a n i z i n g the c u r r i -cu lum o f the S o v i e t l a b o r s c h o o l i s a t h r e e f o l d concep t o f n a t u r e , l a b o r , and s o c i e t y . These c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as " p r o d u c t i v e e n e r g i e s " o r " p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s " . The s y n -t h e t i c theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a l l these c o r e s i s human l a b o r . A d i s c u s s i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be g i v e n i n the c h a p t e r on p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f the S o v i e t l a b o r s c h o o l w i l l be b rough t out i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n on the f o l l o w -i n g p a g e . As o n l y a few m i n o r changes have t a k e n p l a c e r e c e n t l y a t a b l e showing the g e n e r a l scheme o f the sys tem w i l l s u f f i c e f o r our p u r p o s e . TABIE I I . The System o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n the T J . S . S . R . # Above 22 y r s . R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e s and H i g h e r c o u r s e s . 17 t o 22 y r s * 15 to 17 Second y r s . D i v i s i o n o f Secon d a r y S c h o o l s and S o v i e t P a r t y Wor- A d - S c h o o l o f k e r s u l t Second S p e c i a l Courses 12 t o 15 F i r s t y r s . D i v i s i o n V b c a - S c h o o l t i o n a l o f Work S c h o o l i n g App S c h o o l F a c - School Grade o f u l - o f P e a s a n t - t i e s s e c - S o v i e t l o u t h ond P a r t y o f Secon d a r y r en t i c e s h i p S c h o o l Grade S c h o o l o f F i r s t Grade f A f t e r P i n k e v i t c h , The New E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t R e p u b l i c ( John Day C o . ; New Y o r k , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 5 5 * 2 9 . TABLE I I . ( c o n t . ) 8 to 12 y r s . P r i m a r y S c h o o l A d u l t S c h o o l o f S c h o o l P o l i t i c a l of L i t e r a c y . F i r s t Grade 3 to 8 y r s . K i n d e r g a r t e n and P r e - S c h o o l Ins t i t u t tons S c h o o l o f L i q u i d a t i on o f I l l i t e r a c y . Under 3 y r s • N u r s e r y — . s : g E d u c a t i o n of C h i l d r e n E d u c a t i o n o f and Y o u t h A d u l t s . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. The f o l l o w i n g are the main and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s g o v e r n i n g the sys tem o f the S o v i e t s c h o o l s , as t hey a r e g i v e n i n the l a t e s t o f f i c i a l announcement . a . The a ims o f the s c h o o l a r e u n i f o r m , i . e . com-mun i s t e d u c a t i o n o f p u p i l s i n a l l g rades and the p a s s i n g o f the p u p i l s from grade to grade (from the p r i m a r y s c h o o l to t h e ' i n c o m p l e t e s econda ry and thence t o the comple te s e c o n -d a r y school ) . b* The s c h o o l s a r e m a i n t a i n e d by the s t a t e and a r e f r e e f o r a l l p u p i l s . c . The s c h o o l s combine g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g and a c q u a i n t the p u p i l s w i t h the s i m p l e implements o f l a b o u r and w i t h the main b ranches o f i n d u s t r y . d . A p a r t from i n s t r u c t i o n g r e a t a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g p a i d by the S o v i e t governments to s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and e d u c a t i o n w i t h a v i ew t o t r a i n i n g the young g e n e r a t i o n and make them c o n s c i o u s and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the work o f S o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n . 8 . P r i m a r y and Secondary S c h o o l s i n U.S.S . R . ( V o r k , Moscow, 1?35) P P . 18 f . 30* T h i s e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s must he o r i e n t e d toward the t h r e e e lements o f the complex , l a b o r , n a t u r e and s o c i e t y , w h i c h p r e s e n t a u n i t y , a wholesome s t r u c t u r e as g i v e n i n M a r x ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . By e d u c a t i o n we mean t h r e e t h i n g s : f i r s t , men ta l e d u c a t i o n ; s e c o n d , p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g as g i v e n i n s c h o o l s by means o f g y m n a s t i c s and m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g ; and t h i r d , t e c h n i c a l e d u c a -t i o n w h i c h i n t r o d u c e s the p r o s p e c t i v e w o r k e r to the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l t he p r o c e s s e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and at the same t ime g i v e s to c h i l d r e n a p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e use o f v a r i o u s w o r k i n g t o o l s . 9 But t he main t a s k o f communist e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r e -pare the f u t u r e communist c i t i z e n . It i s because the s c h o o l i s Jtept so c o n s t a n t l y i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h i t s env i ronment— " the c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c env i ronment o f t o d a y " — t h a t S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n succeeds i n s e t t i n g up the i d e a l agency f o r m o u l d -i n g i t s c i t i z e n s i n t o b u i l d e r s o f s o c i a l i s m . E d u c a t i o n a l o n e cannot a c h i e v e t h i s ; l i k e w i s e , envi ronment w i t h o u t e d u c a t i o n i s p o w e r l e s s to a t t a i n i t . The S o v i e t s c h o o l has t h e r e f o r e u n d e r t a k e n to educate i t s f u t u r e l e a d e r s and c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f " c o n d i t i o n i n g " by s u r r o u n d i n g them w i t h an e n -v i r o n m e n t , p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l , m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , t o w h i c h they c a n r e spond i n o n l y one way* The S o v i e t e d -uc at i o n a l p o l i c y p r e s e n t s a m a r v e l o u s c o n s i s t e n c y i n a u n i f i e d S R p r o c e s s from env i ronment t o e d u c a t i o n , and v i c e v e r s a . From such an i n t e r p l a y o f f o r c e s a new s o c i e t y i s bound to emerge. The new men o f t h a t s o c i e t y w i l l t h i n k and a c t d i f f e r e n t l y . I n a w o r d , t hey w i l l be men w i t h a new m i n d . 9* Quoted i n P i n k e v i t c h , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 3 . 351. As d e s c r i b e d by P r o f e s s o r Thomas Woody, The new c i t i z e n b e l i e v e s i n , and can j u s t i f y by M a r x i a n d i a l e c t i c t he d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e Communist P a r t y , o r as i s g e n e r a l l y s a i d , the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the P r o l e t a r i a t . He i s m i l i - t a n t i n h i s defense and advocacy o f i t . he must be an a c t i v i s t . Though i t seems a paradox a t f i r s t g l a n c e , he i s to be c l a s s c o n s c i o u s ; ye t he i s to become, a t t he same t i m e , a c l a s s l e s s m i n d . H e b e l i e v e s I n u n i v e r s a l l a b o r » h o l d s the l a b o r e r i n h i g h r e g a r d , and the e x p l o i t e r i n g r e a t e s t con tempt . H i s mind must be s e c u l a r (domina ted by s c i e n c e ) and a t h e i s t i c , p o l i t i c a l , c o . l l e c t i v i s t i c and n o n - n a t i o n a l l s t i c , and p o s i t -i v e l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l . He must be h e a l t h y i n the p h y s i c a l s ense , a sound mind i n a sound b o d y . He i s to be a s e x l e s s m i n d , i . e . r e c o g n i z i n g no p r e f e r e n c e s based on s e x . He who p o s s e s s e s these i s the new man. x u * PRO AND -CON.. I t i s not our t a s k here to p r e d i c t the f a i l u r e or sucees s o f t h a t m i g h t y c h a l l e n g e w h i c h the S o v i e t has g i v e n to the w o r l d . Whether t h e Communists succeed o r f a i l i n t h e i r e f f o r t s depends on many o ther f a c t o r s , the d i s c u s s i o n o f w h i c h i s c e r t a i n l y beyond the s cope of t h i s w o r k . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however , f o r anyone , to c o n t e m p l a t e the S o v i e t e x -per iment w i t h o u t f e e l i n g p ro found e m o t i o n s . I t i s because t h e r e were l i b e r a t e d new f o r c e s t h a t have a l t e r e d and a re s t i l l c h a n g i n g the p s y c h o l o g y of t h e masses , m i l l i o n s o f humans i r r e s p e c t i v e o f r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n and geo -g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , t h a t we may e x p e c t an unp receden ted u p -h e a v a l i n m a n k i n d f s m u l t i - s t r u c t u r e . And , as we r e a d the s t o r y o f man, a q u e s t i o n h o r r i b l e and f r i g h t f u l a r i s e s i n ou r m i n d s : Who c o u l d be more inhuman to man t han man h i m s e l f ? 10. Thomas,Woody, New M i n d s : New Men? ( M a c r a i l l a n C o . , New Y o r k , 1 9 J 2 ; , p . 4 2 . PART I I  E x p l a n a t o r y H o t e . C h a p t e r s . I l l and I T d e a l w i t h t h e S o v i e t p r i m a r y and seconda ry s e h o o l s . The g rowth o f the S o v i e t s c h o o l has p roceeded a t a r a t e w h i c h has no p a r a l l e l o r p r e c e d e n t . E a c h u n p r e c e d e n t e d g rowth c a l l s f o r d e s -c r i p t i o n , a n d t h e t a b u l a t i o n o f many f a c t s and f i g u r e s , i f we are to a p p r e c i a t e i t s d e p t h and v i g o r . A l s o , t h e r e have t a k e n p l a c e o n l y r e c e n t l y many changes i n S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n a l thought and p r a c t i c e t h a t may e a s i l y have escaped the a t t e n t i o n o f t he f o r -e i g n s t u d e n t • I t i s o u r hope , t h a t t he se c h a p t e r s w i l l t h row some l i g h t u p o n t h e s e newer developne n t s . The d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w i l l c u l m i n a t e w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l new and i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e S o v i e t h i g h e r e d -u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 33* CHAPTER I I I PRIMARY AID SECONDARY SCHOOLS I N THE U . S . S . R . GROWTH AID DEVELOPMENT. GENERAL DESCRIPTION. D u r i n g the l a s t decade n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n S o v i e t R u s s i a has grown to sueh p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t the U . S . S . R . has b e -come one o f the l e a d i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s may g i v e a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f 1 the g r o w t h and p r o g r e s s i n e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t c o u n t r y : 1914-15 l ? 2 ? - 2 6 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 . P e r c e n t a g e o f peop le a b l e t o r e a d and w r i t e . . . . . . . . . . ZZ%(l^lJ>) JZ% Number o f p u p i l s i n P r i m a r y and Seconda ry Schools .7 , 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 1 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 26,000,000 Number o f s t u d e n t s i n u n i v e r s i t i e s , t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s , w o r k e r s c o l l e g e s , f a c t o r y s c h o o l s and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l t r a d e s c h o o l s 390,000 6 3 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 5 2 7 , 0 0 0 T h u s , out o f a p o p u l a t i o n o f o v e r 170 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , about 4 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s go t o s c h o o l s . I n a d d i t i o n , many o t h e r s t a k e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s and a t t e n d v a r i o u s c i r c l e s of a supp lemen ta ry n a t u r e . 2 . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s l a t t e r f a c t Number o f p e o p l e i n o the r c o u r s e s . . • • 1 0 ,000 , 0 0 0 . and v a r i o u s c i r c l e s . T l P r i m a r y and Secondary E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U . S . S . R . ( V o s k , Moscow, I 9 3 5 . ) 2 . I b i d . 34 Correspondence c o u r s e s . . • . . . . . . 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 O u t s i d e o f our scope o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e purpose ot t h i s c h a p t e r "but i m p o r t a n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a re the f i g u r e s g i v e n f o r p r e - s c h o o l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A s t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n s , c r e c h e s , e t c . , a re the f i r s t step-s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l a d d e r and l i k e w i s e the entracfb chamber o f t h e p r i m a r y s c h o o l , a g e n e r a l t a b l e i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r g r o w t h and development f o r the y e a r s 1924-1925 - I93Q - I93I w i l l be g i v e n h e r e : TABLE I I I Growth o f P r e - S c h o o l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( k i n d e r g a r t e n , c r e c h e s , e t c . ) f o r t h e y e a r s 1924-25 - 1930-193l.^* l e a r s I n s t i t - C h i l - I n s t i - O h i l - I n a b s o l u t e I n 7. t o p r e -u t i o n d r e n t u t i o n d r e n . number c e d i n g y r . (7* r e l a t i o n t o I n s t i - G h i l - I n s t i - O h i l -1920-21 a c c e p - t u t i o n d r e n t u t i o n d r e n t e d as 100) 1924/25 1139 60, 196 2 4 . 1 24 .5 1925/26 1369 72,685 29.0 29.6 230 12,489 2002 2007 1926/27 1666 86,509 35.3 35-2 297 13,824 21.7 19.6 192J/28 2132 104,38b 45.1 42.5 466 17,877 23 .0 20.9 1928/29 2517 129,259 53-3 52.6 385 24,873 18.1 23.8 1929/30 3358 173,548 71.1 70.7 841 44,289 33.4 34.3 1930/31 6574 366,236 139.2 1 4 9 . 2 3216 192,688 95.8 311.0 I B E PRIMARY A I L SECONDARY SCHOOL DURING. THE WAR AWL BEFORE THE  REVOLUTION. The d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h the government met i n embark-i n g upon i t s e d u c a t i o n a l r e fo rms were m a n i f o l d . Three o f them 3. A f t e r Mass E d u c a t i o n i n U . S . S . R . , ( O g i z , Moscow, I933) S e c t i o n V , p . 8 4 . 35 must be emphas ized here f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y and g e n e r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . 1. D i f f i c u l t i e s r e s u l t i n g f rom t h e d e p l o r a b l e l e g a c y i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n f rom the o l d R u s s i a . 2. - M a t e r i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , as l a c k o f s c h o o l s , b u i l d -i n g s , a p p l i a n c e s , e t c . 3» The need f o r l a r g e money i n v e s t m e n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n i n a c o u n t r y exhaus ted b y the Grea t War, r e v o l u t i o n s , and subsequent c i v i l w a r s ; i n t e r v e n t i o n s , f a m i n e s , e t c . 4 I n 1914-15 t h e r e were 106,400 p r i m a r y and secondary s c h o o l s w i t h 7,800,000 p u p i l s on the t e r r i t o r y o f the p r e sen t U . S . S . R . Of t h e s e 7,250,000, or 92 p e r c e n t . , r e c e i v e d p r i m -a r y and 570j000, o r 7.2 per c e n t . , s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . Ob-v i o u s l y o n l y o n e - t h i r t e e n t h ( l / l j ) o r 7 .8 p e r c e n t . oa» 7*8 p*B=s^fFb. o f the c h i l d r e n who went to. p r i m a r y s c h o o l went on t o s econda ry e d u c a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l type of p r i m a r y s c h o o l f o r t h e masses was the p a r i s h school-* w i t h , two and sometimes t h r e e y e a r s T t r a i n i n g . The program o f s t u d i e s l a i d s t r e s s on the t h r e e R ' s a n d r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . C o n s i d e r t h a t these s c h o o l s were i nadequa te i n number, o f t e n f a r away f rom the v i l l a g e o r t o w n , and t h a t a l a r g e pe rcen tage o f the c h i l d r e n l a c k e d f o o d , c l o t h i n g , e t c . , and you w i l l g a i n a u s e f u l p i c t u r e o f the d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n . 4. ••Op. c i t . , p . 2. 5* C h a p t e r I , p a s s i m . 36. I n the o u t l y i n g and v e r n a c u l a r d i s t r i c t s the i l l i -t e r a c y was i n d e s c r i b a b l e . The pe r cen t age^ was h i g h e r t h a n 80 p e r c e n t , f a r M o r d © v i a , 98 pe r c e n t , f o r Y a k u t i a , 99 p e r c e n t , f o r Chechnya . These f i g u r e s speak f o r t h e m s e l v e s and no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y . R e g a r d i n g secondary e d u c a t i o n , ^ w i t h a l l r e s p e c t f o r the h i g h s t a n d a r d a c h i e v e d , i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o c h i l d r e n o f the w e l l - t o - d o and o f s t a t e o f f i c i a l s . The compulse r y e x p e n s i v e u n i f o r m , the h i g h to. i t i o n f e e s , and o t h e r expenses i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the sp e c i a l s o c i a l s t a t u s a t t a c h e d to a secondary educ a t i o n , made i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t and o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e f o r p e o p l e even w i t h moderate means to j o i n the r anks o f the "gymazeety" o r t he " r e a l e e s t y " , e t c M o r e o v e r , a l a r g e number o f t h e s e s c h o o l s had t h e i r doo r s open f o r the o f f s p r i n g o f the n o b i l i t y o n l y . I n 1913 L e n i n w r o t e : n e a r l y f o u r f i f t h s o f c h i l d r e n and you ths i n R u s s i a a re d e p r i v e d o f e d u c a t i o n . W i t h the s o l e e x c e p t i o n o f R u s s i a nowhere i n Europe i s t h e r e to be found so savage a c o u n t r y where the masses o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a re t o such a n e x t e n t robbed o f e d u c a t i o n , l i g h t and k n o w l e d g e . °* . W i t h the s l o g a n "to: take and to o v e r t a k e " ( " n a g n a t i i p e r e g n a t i " ) the S o v i e t government d e c l a r e d war on t h i s i g n o r -ance and embarked upon a new e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f w h i c h f o l l o w s . 6. Op. c i t . , p . 3 . 7 . C h a p t e r I , p a s s i m . 8. Quoted i n On* c i t , , p . 3, f rom " L e n i n , C o l l e c t e d W o r k s " , R u s s i a n ' E d i t i o n , ¥ o l . X ? l , p . 4 0 0 . 37« THE SOVIET POLICY I N THE MATTER OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY  EDUCATION. A c c o r d i n g to many s o u r c e s ? t h e p o l i c y w h i c h t h e g o v -ernment a c c e p t e d w i t h r e g a r d to p r i m a r y and secondary e d u c a t i o n may he o u t l i n e d a s f o l l o w s : 1 . C o m p u l s o r y , f r e e , g e n e r a l , and p o l y t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n o f b o t h sexes up to the age o f 1 7 . 2*. A u n i f o r m , s e c u l a r , c o - e d u c a t i o n a l l a b o r s c h o o l . 3 . S u p p l y a t t he expense o f the s t a t e t o a l l p u p i l s o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s c h o o l a D - p l i a n c e s . T h i s p o l i c y c o u l d not be i n t r o d u c e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n . Many b a r r i e r s had to be surmounted ^ b e f o r e the minimum program c o u l d be r e a l i z e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t he g o v -ernment t o o k immediate s t e p s f o r the l i q u i d a t i o n o f I l l i t e r a c y among the p e o p l e , i l l i t e r a c y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d the g r e a t e s t obstadte t o the s o c i a l i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n . UNIVERSAL EDUCATION. I n I93O the C o u n c i l o f the P e o p l e ' s Commissars pub-l i s h e d a number o f d e c i s i o n s : 1 . I n I 9 3 O - 3 I , i n a l l p a r t s o f the U . S . S . R . u n i v e r -s a l c o m p u l s o r y e d u c a t i o n - ( n o t l e s s t h a n f o u r forms o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l ) s h a l l be i n t r o d u c e d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n (boys and g i r l s ) between the ages o f 8 and 1 0 . I n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h i s a l l c h i l d r e n o f t h i s 9 . K a n d e l , Thomas, H a r p e r , C o u n t s , W i l s o n . , Dewey, G-rowther, .. p r i m a r y s o u r c e s a l r e a d y ment ioned and those w h i c h w i l l f o l l o w . 1 0 . C h a p t e r I I , p a s s i m . 1 1 . C h a p t e r I, p. 1 9 . 3 8 . age n o t a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l s s h a l l he a d m i t t e d t o s c h o o l i n the autumn o f 1 9 3 0 . As from 193©~3l the s t u d y o f t h e who le c u r r i c u l u m o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l ( the f i r s t f o u r forms o f the l a b o u r s c h o o l ) t o be o b l i g a t o r y f a r a l l p u p i l s o f t hese schools: i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r a g e . 2* Compul so ry e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 11 and 15 w i t h a c c e l e r a t e d t u i t i o n t o be i n t r o -duced i n I 9 3 0 - 3 I . 1 2 • Measures were t a k e n towards the r e a l i z a t i o n o f seven y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n o f w o r k e r s i n i n d u s t r i a l towns and f a c t o r y d i s t r i c t s ; a s p e e d i n g up i n the e d u c a t i o n a l program f» r a s e v e n - y e a r p r i m a r y s c h o o l i n the d i s t r i c t s o f a l l - r o u n d c o l l e c t i v i s a t i o n . The most r e m a r k a b l e measure was t h a t " the p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n f o r whom e d u c a t i o n i s c o m p u l s o r y s h a l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l . . . . " . " " - ' To i n s u r e the m a t e r i a l s i d e o f the e d u c a t i o n a l program an a p p e a l was made, f o l l o w e d by a r emarkab le r e s p o n s e , t h a t the w o r k i n g masses as r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e economic t r a d e u n i o n s , and o t h e r p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , take p a r t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t he a u t h o r i t i e s pu r sued t h e i r p o l i c y w i t h g r e a t v i g o r , e q u a l i n f o r c e o n l y to the d r i v e f o r the c o u n t r y ' s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e development o f r e s o u r c e s . POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION. As e d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t s t a t e i s bound up w i t h p r o -d u c t i v e l a b o r , measures were a l s o t a k e n t o c r e a t e a m a t e r i a l b a s i s f o r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Agreements were t h e r e f o r e made 1 2 . O p . c i t . , p p . 4 f f . and P r o c e e d i n g s o f the X V I Congress o f the G . P . S . U . (Moscow, I93O) . 1 3 . I b i d . 1 4 . C h a p t e r I I , p a s s i m * 3?. w i t h f a c t o r i e s , s t a t e f a rms , and t r a c t o r s t a t i o n s , to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . To make s u c h t r a i n i n g s t i l l more c o n c r e t e and b r o a d e r from an e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i c a l museums, l i b r a r i e s , e t c . , were a t t a c h e d tt) many s c h o o l s and the c i n e m a ^ was a l s o u t i l i z e d . FURTHER CHANGES AH3) DEVELOPMENT. I n the c o n c l u d i n g pages o f o u r f i r s t c h a p t e r we p r o -mised to t o u e h upon the changes ' i n e d u c a t i o n w h i c h were r e c e n t -l y i n t r o d u c e d b y the S o v i e t i n o r d e r to remedy the e x i s t i n g d e f e c t s . I t was n a t u r a l t h a t s u c h a g i g a n t i c t a s k shou ld here and t h e r e l a g i n e f f i c i e n c y and t h a t i n the m i d s t o f g e n e r a l e n t h u s i a s m work s h o u l d be per formed d e t r i m e n t a l to t h e educ -a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . I n a n a l y s i n g the s i t u a t i o n the C e n t r a l Com-m i t t e e o f the Communist P a r t y o f f e r e d severe c r i t i c i s m w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p r i m a r y and s econda ry s c h o o l . We w i l l quote some p a r t s o f the c r i t i c i s m o f the s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as r emedies p r o p o s e d . The C e n t r a l Committee c o n s i d e r s t h a t what i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y wrong w i t h the s c h o o l s a t t he p r e -sen t moment (1931) i s t h a t t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m does n o t p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l knowledge and t h a t the t a s k s e t be fo re the s c h o o l s o f t u r n i n g out p u p i l s t h o r o u g h l y v e r s e d i n the p r i n c i p l e s o f S c i e n c e s ( p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , ma thema t i e s , gram-mar and c o m p o s i t i o n , geography and so f o r t h ) , so t h a t t h e y c o u l d e n t e r c o l l e g e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , i s no t b e i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c a r r i e d o u t . As a r e s u l t , the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l e d u -c a t i o n i s i n many c a s e s r educed t o f o r m a l i t y and does no t p r e p a r e the c h i l d r e n to t ake t h e i r p l a c e as f u l l y d e v e l o p e d b u i l d e r s o f so c i a l i s m who eomr b i n e t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e and m a s t e r - t e c h n i q u e • * I n o t h e r w o r d s , t he C e n t r a l Committee c r i t i c i z e d t h e 15 • C h a p t e r V I , p a s s i m . • " 16. P r i m a r y and Seconda ry E d u c a t i o n i n the U . S . S . R . ( V o s k , Moscow, 1?35), jbp. 8 f . 40 s c h o o l a t i t s most impor t an t p o i n t , a p o i n t w h i c h makes t h e S o v i e t l a b o r s c h o o l d i s t i n c t and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f rom s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n o the r c o u n t r i e s . The S o v i e t l a b o r s c h o o l must l e a d to s o c i a l l y u s e f u l l a b o r . I t must produce a man no t o n l y grouded i n t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge but a l s o v e r y w e l l grouded i n the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e a c t u a l a p p l y i n g o f knowledge a c q u i r e d . .How c o u l d the s c h o o l be made so s y n t h e t i c t h a t i t s p u p i l s s h o u l d a c h i e v e t h i s most c h e r i s h e d S o v i e t o b j e c t i v e ? There i s a g r e a t danger t h a t one phase may be exagge ra t ed a t t he expense o f the o t h e r . ?here i s a l s o a second danger t h a t n e i t h e r phase may be a c h i e v e d because o f o v e r s t o c k i n g , o v e r -b u r d e n i n g o r o v e r t a x i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A t h i r d danger w h i c h has p r o v e n to be so c r i t i c a l i n o t h e r e d -u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e s , even i n many advanced c o u n t r i e s , i s t he " i n f l a t i n g " o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . '•%at the s i t u a t i o n was even worse t h a n d e s c r i b e d above and a l s o tha t many n e w l y baked pedagogues t o o k t o " f r i -v o l o u s p r o j e c t monger ing i n m e t h o d o l o g y " , t r y i n g t o a c h i e v e ends t h r o u g h methods n o t v e r i f i e d ' i n p r a c t i c e . m a y be judged f rom measures adop ted to f i g h t t h e s e d e f e c t s . I n 1932 (Augus t 5 and September 25} the CPSU ( C e n t r a l Committee o f P e o p l e ' s Commissars f o r the S o v i e t u n i o n ) p roposed the f o l l o w i n g : . . . . . . . t o a r r a n g e f o r a s c i e n t i f i c M a r x i s t s t u d y o f the s y l l a b u s i n w h i c h p r o v i s i o n must be made f o r a d e f i n i t e c y e l e o f s y s t e m a t i z e d knowledge ( n a t i v e t o n g u e , m a t h e m a t i c s , p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , geography , h i s t o r y ) . . . . . . . « To draw up measures f o r t h e p r e -p a r a t i o n o f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t m e t h o d o l o g i s t s . . . . . . . . . . T o get t h e p r o p e r r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s VI t o I ? . On these see C h a p t e r Y under the c a p t i o n s o f "Academic Degrees" and " S c i e n t i f i c C e n t r e s " . 4 1 . c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s above a l l on the s t u d y and the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f e x p e r -i e n c e g a i n e d hy p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s . . . . . . . . T o s e t up a body o f i n s t r u c t o r s i n the sys tem o f n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . . , . i n o r d e r t h a t the t e a c h e r may r e c e i v e r e g u l a r p r a c -t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s d a i l y w o r k a t s c h o o l . To draw up a scheme f o r the i n c r e a s e o f t h e . p a y o f the t e a c h e r s . . . t o draw up a s c a l e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t e a c h e r ' s p a y . . . a c c o r d i n g to q u a l i f i c a t i o n and q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g . . . t o d e v e l o p by a l l p o s s i b l e means s o c i a l i s t c o m p e t i t i o n and shock w o r k , g i v i n g e v e r y . . e n -couragement t o b e s t ( u d a r n i k s ) t e a c h e r s . * I n o r d e r to g a i n f u l l i n s i g h t i n t o the development o f S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n f o r the l a s t decade we w i l l have to d i v i d e ou r d i s c u s s i o n i n t o s e v e r a l p a r t s , n a m e l y , 1. L i q u i d a t i o n o f I l l i t e r a c y , on w h i c h the r e g i s -t r a t i o n i n c e r t a i n k i n d s o f p r i m a r y and seconda ry s c h o o l s i s l a r g e l y dependent• 2. Book P u b l i s h i n g , w h i c h w i l l show t h e a c t u a l g r o w t h o f c u l t u r e i n t e r e s t e d pe rsons and a l s o the degree o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the g r o w t h o f t h e s tuden t p o p u l a t i o n i n the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s , c o u r s e s o f p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . 3. The growth o f the p r i m a r y and seconda ry s c h o o l s , s t uden t p o p u l a t i o n , e t c . LIQJJISATIOH QE I L L I T E R A C Y . A c c o r d i n g to l a t e s t f i g u r e s 1 ? t h e r e were 8,7.52,910 s t u d e n t s i n 269,878 s c h o o l s i n 1930-31 i n compar i son w i t h 1,305 ,114 s t u d e n t s i n 41,445 s c h o o l s f o r the l i q u i d a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y i n 1927-28. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l c l a r i f y the 1 8 . Op. c i t . 19. Mass E d u c a t i o n i n U . S . S . R . ( O g i z , Moscow, 1933) S e c t i o n V E 4 2 , s i t u a t i o n * TABLE I T Number o f s c h o o l s f o r t h e l i q u i d a t i o n of i l l i t e r a c y 20 and t h e i r s t u d e n t s f o r the y e a r s 1927-28 t o 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 . * Y e a r s E o t a l U r b a n R u r a l N u m b e r S t u d e n t s Number S t u d e n t s l umber S t u d -° £ o f e n t s . s c h o o l s s c h o o l s s c h o o l s 4 5 6 1927/28 41 ,445 1,305 ,114 6 ,141 207,57.0 55*304 1,097,544 1926 / 2? 4 8 , ? 6 4 1 ,648 ,591 10,830 302,866 38 ,134 1,345,725 1929/30 172,?75 6,277,453 38,373 1 ,046,679 134,602 5,230,774 1930/31 269,878 8,752,910 62,772 1,506 ,661 207,106 7 , 2 4 6 , 2 4 9 W i t h these f i g u r e s i n m i n d , l e t u s a c q u a i n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h the p e r c e n t a g e i n l i t e r a c y f o r the l a s t few y e a r s s i n c e the l a u n c h i n g o f the F i v e Y e a r P l a n . The s t e a d y g rowth i n the p r o v i s i o n o f s c h o o l s p a r a l l e l e d w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g r e g i s -t r a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e g rowth i n the g e n e r a l l i t e r a c y o f p o p u l a t i o n as w i t n e s s e d f rom the t a b l e on page 4 3 . As the f i g u r e s i n t h i s t a b l e show, the l i t e r a c y o f the p o p u l a t i o n , f o r w h i e h s t a t i s t i c a l f i g u r e s were o b t a i n a b l e , has n e a r l y d o u b l e d i n the f i v e y e a r s m e n t i o n e d . The p e r c e n t a g e i n l i t e r a c y f o r the same y e a r s and p o p u l a t i o n has r i s e n , f o r t he u r b a n 10.3 p e r c e n t , and f o r the r u r a l 26*8 per cen t* BOOK PUBLISHING. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (TABLE 71 on p . 44) w i l l e x p l a i n 20* A f t e r Mass E d u c a t i o n i n the S . S . S . R . ( G g i z , Moscow, 1933), S e c t i o n ¥11* p . 115* 43 TABLE V. L i t e r a c y o f P o p u l a t i o n be tween 16-50 y e a r s o f age a c c o r d i n g t o the 1926 .census and s t a t i s t i c a l f i g -P i u r e s f o r I93O and 1 9 3 1 . % o f l i t e r a c y i n % o f l i t e r a c y o f b o t h sexes each sex Y e a r P o p u l a t i o n L i t e r a t e U r b a n R u r a l T o t a l M a l e Female ( i n t h o u - ( i n t h o u - Urban sands) sands) and R u r a l 1926 717,425 3?8,276 7?.7 49.1 55.5 72.6 40.1 1930 801,783 539,295 83.9 62.1 67.3 82.6 53.O 1931 814,328 646,248 9O.O 75.9 79.4 t he g e n e r a l deve lopment I n the number o f p u b l i s h e d books as w e l l as t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to f i e l d s or s p e c i a l i t i e s . I n s t u d y i n g these t a b l e s one s h o u l d judge the pe rcen tage o f books p u b l i s h e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s f o r the same y e a r as w e l l as t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n I n the same branch! d i s t r i b u t e d from 1924 up t o 1931. 1 One must be w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l development o f many o t h e r f a c t o r s i n S o v i e t l i f e t o make due accoun t f o r t hese v a r i a t i o n s . U n -f o r t u n a t e l y the d e s c r i p t i o n o f these f a c t o r s f a l l s beyond the scope o f t h i s w o r k . The e f f o r t s f o r the l i q u i d a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s c h o o l s f o r t h a t purpose has r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f l i t e r a c y among the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h demand f o r l i t e r a t u r e as w i t n e s s e d 2 1 . A f t e r Mass E d u c a t i o n i n S . S . S . R . ( O g i z , Moscow, I 9 3 3 ) S e c t i o n V I I , p . 1 2 4 . 4-4. CM t\J H 54 J4' © •P *H iH <H O CQ <cJ H -0 •H <H to o •H 54 cd S» o no a •H •cJ ?4 O o o « « to to 54 •H 03 © o PQ © •s •H r-l rQ • o o •H •H 54 ra •H .c— CM O N H vs. O <!> ra 4° •aj H N O CM ON H I A CM O N CM O N H CO -I-O Q5 03 +3 I o © I o © co +4 «S H 03 « H G M • © - P OS 54 <D •P •H r l N O r-t KNiH t-4 CO CM • • • * « • A C—rANQ O ur\H vO CM H ^3 CM ^- c - O O IA CM IACM CM N O K\CM CM ^ CMNO I H tACM H O C O O N K \ CM ^ • • * • • • fc-O CM -sr I Lf\t-*CM CM t-i iH t A CM CM H O N K M A CM O CM K \ N Q CM N O ^ O C - H l t—co o H ir\ K \ rAr-4QQ CM CH! CM O N ft NO C - N O « • GO r-S C—IANQ « » o H NO CM C — i A ^ H CO O N CM f NYr-4 CM U \ I 0 « \ l C — < A O r - i CM CM H UN! rH IA • e , <A « e |: t - C M N\CQ ..«. • o ON! rH N O IT" «-4 J i*4 CM ON t A N N H C M L Q irsKMAJCM K N N O rH r-i ON! •A 3N SNJ CM CM O N O NO O CO NO Cxi O - H K \ C O C~- O N M 00 CM O CM C"»0O O N r-4 O C—OQ 00 o O O N t A O N l A O C O t A I I A C - N Q ^ - rH CM 9 O ON O 1-4 sO CM KNj CM ft1 H s . l-p ; •H © p i IfH © ' 4 3 ^"^ Yd IH ra H ra « » ! H CM ® o •rj C(3 • o eg © 1^ ^ -p rod,© K cd © ^ =8 +3 © i-4 cd o 'A U o A.- -o o . . (73 CO • • e *>0 o « 43 • *H © d © » h +3 0 © cd O «H © o fn ^ *rt O © «H <H ^5 <M « += O M O » « • cd © © H cd o CM G*«r-41-4 CM CM l A • • • o e « • | ON<=i- r-i O C—C—ON l A r l r-4 H N O r-4 K \ N O ITS O N CM U \ N O O 1A<X3 O O si- ON<3* ONvO ^ C — C O * t r-4 6 , . © •» 6 0 CM H O N O O o r-l O o ON O l A O N N O O O O N j i A O ^ C J I A O K \ C*s«vO N N O K \ Q CM K \ K \ N O CM 1ACM CM ^ CM rAr-4 H O D CM o c o o NO CM N O CM H r l C ~ 0 fA^O fACO IA>4- CM ^  CM H H 3D O v£t CO t - . N O oo ^  H • » 0 ® « S 9 oo O N O N C * » - O O rr« ! A r-4 r-4 'H H © 43 ^3 d cd O U B H - © . 43 1 ^ N .CQ I 'tH CO & cd « « r-4 CM ' H Hi ° • tj| © u 03 p! +=> M cd © 54 <D 43 r-4 «H O Hi O ^ • o o CO CO » « O 4=» r-4 'r-i g by 43 * •S § o cd • 54 o O <H 54 tN F4 O ©d © •P 54 cd d 54 -P © cd -P 54 <H © -P • -H * H 54 H o © cd <H ^ -P <d -P © M O &4 l A l A Hi M o •r4 -P O • (13 CO ( A I A O N o © ra o •r-l o 9 « -CO ; CO « CO -rl Pi o •i4 43 . cd o i d ra ra © •p <4 » CM CM 4 5 . i n t he s teady growth o f mass l i t e r a t u r e . The i n t r o d u c i n g o f the p r i n t e d word to wide masses , h i t h e r t o i l l i t e r a t e , awaken-1 C O IA O N M 3 1 1 O N LT\ O C O (d H f A -9 CO C O CM o o - .0 Pi CO CM CM CM cd © H i CQ CD 44 r A C O CM P> * i o o t A H © 44 o H P. co - p Uu IA • O ' t A t A o i A CM v.O M o o » CM O N O N si- H © to rA. H t » • • •> to 44 © tr-OO c - O N HO Pi CO - P • H >a H C O ' . IT- O O H H O N CM rA CM •H O pj v O <A - P o -5 O 4 4 <A * r-i C O © o 44 to to <d „ o C O C O , 9- q O t O e 8 1 OO <! <H cd Pi to 1 1 CM '^t o •H 44 O N 00 Pi - P C— t A CO 4= © pJ 8 ••1 r<N H © Pi • « !> o H • t J H > ^ » © CO * >i o © i A tr-* r<\ i - i •d O N rH o © .0';; C O " CM r-i UTS o CO H rH . . CO CO'; ' IA O N C - CO « d o • O P CO • r-i r-i r-i o r A o <d Pi Pi © CO.' CM M ••.. cd co .CO Pi CO u C\T rA H cd <H cd d e N» o. © o M - H N O t A » H t-H PH O I I CO 00. C O O N HC i=> © Pi e - o H O f-Cj o *• < d Pi -p t-i O N •A t A 13 • P - H CO CO +3 © .*• (A ^ H H Pi © CO rd CO H i <3 rH Cd • © CO I « &i R O CEj 4*i U P o O N H O t r - 9 cd d « U d CO ! "H CM t A t A O N co » d t o o o Pi - P P N0 O O N ® CO H • Is o M iH d H CO U to 9 © t-i . to 44 Cd CQ O Pi CO •A H O Pi cd © pi CM •A c— t A •H © Pi -H pf Pi O VJ3 O ^ © p © (A OO C - H Pi CO KS CM O C— O Irs • r-i H CM CM • H m P f l p o J U cd cd C M K \ cd © O N C O C O o O N r-S © 44 O N r-i d CO CO rH cd E-i o O O N r-i t A •5 •£ ri • P c o : . G r -o o o ' » - - : in Hi CD - H <P & • T-i, CO CO p Pi CO d doo CO 1 o CM o rH cd - P - P CM Pi d •H * H ; t A m CO - H 1 H P +3 o t A • - P H CM CM CM u <rH CO CM © O Pi O N H r-S O N O r H Pi U CM CM J A © Pi CO cd P < » fH © fc-ob O N C 5 a ^ cd CM c3 CM rC\ 9 P +^ (D O N O N C r , O N f A £3 O JH r-i HI r-i CM compl i ance w i t h i t s p o l i c y f o r mass e d u c a t i o n , and a l s o w i t h the new demand, the S o v i e t government opened a number o f schools and cou r se s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n o f a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s * The t a b l e on t h i s page w i l l i l l u s -t r a t e t h e s t e a d y g rowth o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . EDUCATION FOR ADOLESCENTS  AND ADULTS. Erom 1,414 s c h o o l s w i t h a t o t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n o f 123,027 s t u d e n t s i n 1927-28 t h e r e has grown up a sys tem o f 2 ,471 s c h o o l s w i t h an enrcHmenat o f 271 ,030 s t u d e n t s i n I 9 3 0 - 3 I . The number o f t e a c h e r s employed f o r the same p e r i o d i n t he se s c h o o l s has i n c r e a s e d f rom 8 , 094 t o 1 6 , 3 7 8 . 46 That many s t u d e n t s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s , c o u r s e s , e t c . , have c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n beyond the l e v e l o f t h e s c h o o l s men t ioned i s o b v i o u s from t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s g i v e n here* O t h e r w i s e we c o u l d n o t e x p l a i n t h e m i r a c u l o u s growth o f t h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l among a p o p u l a t i o n h i t h e r t o i g n o r -an t , backward and i l l i t e r a t e * THE GROWTH OF PRIMARY AND•SECONDARY SCHOOLS. The g rowth o f these s c h o o l s can be judged from the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . TABLE V I I I Development o f P r i m a r y and Seconda ry E d u c a t i o n a f t e r the Oc tobe r R e v o l u t i o n . Y e a r s P e r c e n t age o f P u p i l s i n b o t h I n P r i m a r y I n Secondary P u p i l s (1914— P r i m a r y and . S c h o o l s . S c h o o l s 100) Seconda ry I n P r i - I n S e c -S c h o o l s mary ondary ( I n t housands ) S c h o o l s S c h o o l s . 1914/15 7 , 8 0 0 , 6 7,236 564 ,6 100 100 1920/21 9 , 7 8 1 , 2 9 ,20 6 ,8 5 7 4 , 4 127*2 101.7 1928/29 12 ,074 ,8 1 0 , 4 6 8 , 4 1 ,606 ,4 144 .7 284.5 1930/31 17,656 ,2 15 ,609,1 2,047 ,1 215*7 362.6 1932/33 21,813,4 18,179 ,4 3 ,634 251.2 643.6 1934/33 25,600 18 ,862 ,9 6 ,746 ,1 260 .0 1200.0 24* A f t e r Mass E d u c a t i o n i n S . S . S . R . ( O g i z , Moscow, 1933) S e c t i o n I , p.6* F i g u r e s f o r 1932-33 and 1934-35 from P r i m a r y and Seconda ry E d u c a t i o n i n U . S . S . R . " ( V o s k , Moscow, I935), p . 10 47 TABLE IX P e r c e n t a g e o f I n c r e a s e I n P r i m a r y and Secondary S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n as compared w i t h t h e P r e c e d i n g 25. Y e a r s Number o f P e r c e n t a g e o f Number o f Pe rcen tage P u p i l s i n i n c r e a s e as P u p i l s i n o f i n c r e a s e P r i m a r y compared w i t h Secondary as compared S c h o o l s the p r e c e d i n g S c h o o l s w i t h the pre-- k I n t housands ) y e a r . ( I n thousands ) c e d i n g y e a r . 1928/2? 10,468,4 100 1,696,4 1?30/31 15,669,1 149.1 2,047,1 100 127 .4 1932/33 18,17?,4 116 .5 3,634, 177.5 1934/35 21,000 115.4 6,700 - 184.4 "26" F i g u r e s o b t a i n e d from o the r S o v i e t s o u r c e s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those g i v e n a b o v e . Tne i n c r e a s e i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s f o r t h e y e a r s 1931-34 i n c l u -s i v e , t o t a l l e d 2,700,000 o r I25.5 p e r c e n t . I n the i n c o m p l e t e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l (5-7 c l a s s e s ) t h e e n r o l l m e n t has i n c r e a s e d b y 1,600,000 o r 307 p e r c e n t . , and i n the 00mplete s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s (8-10 c l a s s e s ) by 150,000 o r 358 p e r c e n t • . PEDAGOGICAL",, ADMINISTRATIVE AND DISCIPLINARY MEASURES. In c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the d e c i s i o n s adopted by the C e n -27 t r a l Committee o f the Communist P a r t y on September 5 , 1931, ' s p e c i a l measures were taken f o r r a i s i n g the s t a n d a r d o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . The most fundamenta l measure was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f model s c h o o l s . These were opened i n e v e r y d i s t r i c t , p l a c e d i n more f a v o u r a b l e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , and p r o v i d e d w i t h the 25. O p . c i t . , p . 11. 26. Op . c i t . , p . 11. 27. Op. c i t . , p p . 12, f f . 48. b e s t t e a c h e r s . These s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d the s t i m u l u s and o p p o r -t u n i t y f o r t he masses o f t e a c h e r s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n to l e a r n i n p r a c t i c e "how to b u i l d up the p o l y t e c h -n i c a l s c h o o l " . A t p r e s e n t ( l ? 3 5 ) t he r e a re about 2,600 model s c h o o l s i n R . S . F . S . R . a l o n e . They c l a i m t o . b e models i n r e s p e c t t o t e a c h i n g , d i s c i p l i n e and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l me thods . The most d i f f i c u l t p rob l em was t o f i n d t e a c h e r s f o r the s c h o o l s , a p r o b l e m i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p r o b l e m was s o l v e d i n s e v e r a l w a y s : 1. Many t e a c h e r s were s e n t f rom towns t o r u r a l d i s -t r i c t s where t hey were needed m o s t . 2 . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a mass movement among y o u t h f o r j o i n i n g t e a c h e r s t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s . 3* The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l s h o r t t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s f o r t e a c h e r s . 4. V o l u n t a r y h e l p g i v e n by the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n town and c o u n t r y , e t c A c c o r d i n g t o l a t e s t f i g u r e s ^ t he re were i n the U.S .S® R . i n 1?32, 623,257 t e a c h e r s a s compared w i t h 336,021 i n 1927• We w i l l t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to S o v i e t e x p e n d i t u r e s o n e d u c a t i o n . The c o s t o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n has r i s e n u n u s u a l l y h i g h i n the l a s t few y e a r s . 2 9 I n the U . S . S . R . i t has r i s e n f rom 7,000,000,000 r u b l e s i n 1933 t o 8,400,000,000 i n 1934. I n R . S . F . S . R a l o n e the e x p e n d i t u r e i n 1934 was 3,600,060,000 28. Mass E d u c a t i o n i n the U . S . S . R . , ( Q g i z , Moscow, 1?33) ,passim. 29* Op1, c i t . , p p . I 3 - I 9 * 49. as compared w i t h 1 ,300 ,000,000 i n 1931. I n 1934 t h e e x p e n d i -t u r e f o r e d u c a t i o n amounted to 31 r u b l e s 21 copecks p e r head o f the p o p u l a t i o n as compared w i t h I I r u b l e s 87 copecks i n 1 9 3 1 . The c o s t o f each p u p i l was 69 r u b l e s i n 1934 as com-p a r e d w i t h 31 r u b l e s i n I93I i n the p r i m a r y s c h o o l , and 177 r u b l e s as compared w i t h 102 f o r t h e same y e a r s i n the s econd-a r y s c h o o l s . W i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l c o m p u l s o r y e d -u c a t i o n the e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s met new d i f f i c u l t i e s on a c c o u n t o f the s c a r c i t y o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s . A c c o r d i n g l y , thousands o f new s c h o o l s had to be b u i l t f o r t he accommodation o f a l l , i n c l u d i n g the c h i l d r e n o f the "hewers o f wood and drawers o f w a t e r " . A c c o r d i n g to l a t e s t f i g u r e s ^ ° the c a p -a c i t y o f t h e s c h o o l s i n 1934 e q u a l l e d 120 m i l l i o n c u b i c met res as compared w i t h 60 m i l l i o n c u b i o met res i n 1927. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f I93I-34 6,757 new s c h o o l s were b u i l d i n the R . S . F . S . R . I n the U.S.S.R . budget f o r 1935 p r o v i s i o n was made f o r s c h o o l accommodat ion o f 500,000 p u p i l s * F o r the Second F i v e Y e a r P l a n (1933-1937) .2 ,180,000,000 r u b l e s were a s s i g n e d f o r the b u i l d i n g o f s c h o o l s i n the U n i o n . D e s p i t e t h e s e e f f o r t s the number o f s c h o o l s i s no t s u f f i c i e n t to g i v e the p r o p e r accommodat ion f o r a l l p u p i l s i n p r i m a r y and secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s p r o b a b l e , t h a t i f the b u i l d i n g o f s c h o o l s c o n t i n u e s a t the same pace f u l l accommodat ion w i l l be a c h i e v e d by 1945. I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the a f o r e s a i d , l e t u s m e n t i o n t h e p u b l i c c o n t r i b u t i o n ^ 1 towards the b u i l d i n g o f s c h o o l s , e t c . 30. Op. c i t . "~ 31. Op. c i t . 50 A few ( 1935) w i l l be enumerated h e r e : 1. 7>5OO»OO0 r u b l e s i n the B l a c k S o i l r e g i o n . 2 . 4 , 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 r u b l e s i n the Gorky r e g i o n . 3 . 2^,300,000 r u b l e s i n the L e n i n g r a d r e g i o n . 4 . 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 r u b l e s i n the B a s h k i r Autonomous R e p u b l i c , e t c . On Spetember 1 ° , 1 9 3 3 , the' C o u n c i l o f P e o p l e ' s Commissars o f the R . S . F . S . R . r e v i s e d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s p r e v i o u s -l y adop ted by the C e n t r a l Committee o f CPSU, oo n e e r n i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f the S o v i e t p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y p o l y t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l . ^ R e c o g n i z i n g the s o c i a l v a l u e o f p u p i l s ' s e l f g o v -ernment w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as a h e l p to s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , measures were t a k e n w i t h a v i e w to t i g h t e n i n g s c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e and to c o n c e n t r a t i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the hands o f the s c h o o l mas-t e r and t e a c h e r s . T h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t d i s c i p l i n e was to be s t r e n g t h e n e d by p u n i t i v e measures but by d e v e l o p i n g i n the p u p i l s a s t r o n g sense o f d u t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , an i b y e n -c o u r a g i n g methods o f s o c i a l i s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n . The method o f shock work and s o c i a l i s t c o m p e t i t i o n i s u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n the u n i o n . C o m p e t i t i o n s t ake p l a c e between i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s , g r o u p s , s c h o o l s , m a s t e r s , s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , e t c • The ques t ions on w h i c h t h e y compete a re d i s c i p l i n e , s t u d y , c u l t u r e , e t c • The c o m p e t i t o r s draw up a s o c i a l i s t oo n t r a c t w h i c h i s checked at g i v e n i n t e r v a l s , a n d , a t the end o f the t e r m , the e x t e n t to w h i c h i t was c a r r i e d out by b o t h s i d e s i s de t e rmined by a u t h o r i t i e s and sometimes the 3 2 . . Op. c i t . 51 r e s u l t i s a l s o checked p u b l i c l y . Money o r d e r s , r e d c h a l l e n g e b a n n e r s , and o t h e r p r i z e s a r e g i v e n as a r e w a r d , f rom s p e c i a l funds se t up by the government, to those who have f u l f i l l e d t h e i r p l e d g e s * There a r e s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a t t a c h e d t o and w i t h i n the S o v i e t s c h o o l s , w h i c h p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n p r o m o t i n g communist e d u c a t i o n among p u p i l s . A v e r y s h o r t e x -a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e w i l l p r o b a b l y s u f f i c e here . 1. The s c h o o l c o u n c i l , an o r g a n i z a t i o n e x e r c i s i n g p r o l e t a r i a n c o n t r o l o v e r s c h o o l work* The c o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e l o c a l S o v i e t , t r a d e u n i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w o r k e r s , l o c a l p a r t y and 1oung Communist League , f a c u l t y committee^ c o l l e c t i v e farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p i o n -e e r s de tachment , and p a r e n t s m e e t i n g s . The q u e s t i o n s d i s c u s s e d by the C o u n c i l are t h o s e w h i c h p e r t a i n to s c h o o l l i f e , the s c h o o l ' s e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k , ' and g e n e r a l e f f o r t s and measures d i r e c t e d towards the i m p r o v e " ment o f the s c h o o l s e d u c a t i o n a l and m a t e r i a l s t a t u s . The S c h o o l C o u n c i l meets f o u r t i m e s a y e a r , h e a r s the r e p o r t s o f headmasters and t e a c h e r s and passes r e s o l u t i o n s on a l l qr e s t i o n s d i s c u s s e d . 2 . P a r e n t M e e t i n g s — c a l l e d a t l e a s t t w i c e a y e a r . 3. A i d Commit tee , e l e c t e d a t p a r e n t m e e t i n g s , h e l p s to f i n d the n e c e s s a r y means f o r the f e e d i n g o f the c h i l d r e n o f the s c h o o l , o r g a n i z i n g summer camps, e t c . 5 2 . 4. P u p i l s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 5 . P i o n e e r de t achmen t s . 6. Young Communist L e a g u e . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h r o u g h these o r g a n i z a t i o n s the S o v i e t s c h o o l w i l l he drawn i n t o the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the c o u n t r y and w i l l be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to i n t e g r a t e w i t h t h e " S o v i e t i z e d " e n v i r o n m e n t . S u m m a r i z i n g t h i s c h a p t e r , we w o u l d say t h a t the S o v i e t s c h o o l has deve loped and t a k e n shape o n l y i n t h e l a s t decade . I t s g rowth quant i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y has been so u n p r e c e d e n t e d t h a t we doubt i f any o t h e r n a t i o n a l sys tem o f e d u c a t i o n has e v e r n p roceeded a t s u c h a r a p i d p a c e . Beyond doubt the e d u c a t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e of t h a t c o u n t r y has a l s o d i s -c o v e r e d new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the m i g h t y f o r c e — e d u c a t i o n . I n embark ing upon the e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k the S o v i e t government, a c c e p t e d the fundamenta l human movement towards a b e t t e r l i f e f o r a l l a s one w h i c h must permeate the s c h o o l s y s t e m . On one hand, imbued w i t h a g r e a t i d e a l the s c h o o l p roceeded w i t h such might and f o r c e t h a t i t i s u t t e r l y impos -s i b l e t o g i v e accoun t o f a l l i t s phases and i t s s t e a d y g rowth and e x p a n s i o n . O n the o t h e r hand , t he c l o u d s o f p a s s i o n w h i c h e n v e l o p e v e r y t h i n g done and o f f e r e d by R u s s i a c r e a t e the danger t h a t t he l e a s t s e n s a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f g r e a t e r v a l u e may e a s i l y escape our a t t e n t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r has been an a t tempt t o p r e s e n t the f e a t u r e s and f i g u r e s most i n d i c a t i v e o f t he growth and deve lop ment o f the S o v i e t s c h o o l as i t has p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f t h r o u g h 53 primary and secondary sources to one to whom the ingenuous and sincere character and aspirations of the Russian people are familiar* 54 CHAPTER I T PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS . CURRICULTM. E v e r y S o v i e t s c h o o l has i t s own s y l l a b u s f o r the y e a r . I t i s based on the g e n e r a l programme ado p ted by the P e o p l e ' s Commissar o f E d u c a t i o n ; but the d e t a i l s a r e drawn up b y each t e a c h e r f o r h i s c l a s s and i n l a r g e s c h o o l s by the ass : t a n t headmaster o f t he e d u c a t i o n a l s e c t i o n w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f the h e a d m a s t e r . THE POLYTECHNIGAL SCHOOL. The S o v i e t s c h o o l s t r e s s e s , as t h e c e n t r e o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l l y u s e f u l l a b o r . The p o l y t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e o f the s c h o o l i s thus d e f i n e d by K r u p s k a y a : T h i s does no t mean a s c h o o l i n w h i c h one s t u d i e s s e v e r a l t r a d e s , but r a t h e r a s c h o o l where c h i l d r e n l e a r n to u n d e r s t a n d the essence o f the l a b o r i n g p r o c e s s e s , the subs t ance of l a b o r a c t i v i t y of t he p e o p l e , and the c o n d i t -• i o n s o f sue cess i n w o r k . I t i s a s c h o o l where c h i l d r e n l e a r n to know t h e e x t e n t o f the i r powers .1» CHRRICULTM .OUTLINE. I n c h a p t e r I I of t h i s w o r k we have shown how the c o u r s e o f s t u d y , i n s t e a d of b e i n g o r g a n i s e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a s h i o n , by s u b j e c t s , i s d e v e l o p e d round c e n t r a l themes . The f o l l o w i n g scheme g i v e s the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c u r r i c u l u m . 1. P i n k e v i t c h , A l b e r t P . , The New E d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c , ( J o h n Day C o . , New Y o r k , 192°), p. 200. 5 5 . TABLE X. The P l a n o f the P rog ram o f the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . Grade Na tu re L a b o r S o c i e t y , 1« Seasons Immed ia t e ly s u r r o u n d - F a m i l y and i n g l a b o r l i f e o f s c h o o l , b o t h v i l l a g e and c i t y f a m i l y . 2 . A i r , w a t e r , s o i l N a t u r e and ca re o f c u l t i v a t e d p l a n t s and a n i -m a l s w h i c h s u r -round man. L a b o r l i f e o f v i l -l a g e or c i t y b l o c k i n w h i c h c h i l d l i v e s . 4® E l e m e n t a r y o b s e r - E c o n o m i c s o f v a t i o n s ( i n f o r - l o c a l r e g i o n , m a t i o n ) i n p h y -s i c s and c h e m i s t r y , n a t u r e o f l o c a l r e - . g i o n ; l i f e o f human b o d y . Geography o f R u s s i a S t a t e economy o f and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . R u s s i a n R e p u b l i c L i f e o f human b o d y , and o t h e r c o u n -t r i e s . S o c i a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s o f v i l l a g e and c i t y . P r o v i n c i a l , s o c -i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , P i c t u r e s o f pas t o f o n e T s own c o u n t r y . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f s t a t e i n R u s s i a and o t h e r c o u n -t r i e s . P i c t u r e s o f pas t o f human-i t y . T h i s p l a n i s d i v i d e d i n t o a l a r g e r number o f themes and t o p i c s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the c o u r s e o f s t u d y . To d e s c r i b e t h e c o u r s e i n f u l l w o u l d be a t a s k beyond the scope o f t h i s c h a p t e r . We w i l l l i m i t o u r s e l v e s , t h e r e f o r e , t o the d e s c r i p -t i o n o f one o r more s u b j e c t s as g i v e n i n some o f the l a t e s t programmes o f s t u d y . ^ O m i t t i n g much o f the d e t a i l , we w i l l l i m -i t o u r s e l v e s to the s h o r t e s t o u t l i n e o n l y . T h i s w i l l s u f f i c e t b 2 . I b i d . , p . 3 0 5 . 3 . Cou r se s o f s t u d i e s i n the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s f o r the e lemen-t a r y s c h o o l s i n Moscow, I 9 3 5 - 3 6 . D e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e s g i v e n i n the pages f o l l o w i n g and i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . 55 a -g i v e a f a i r l y c l e a r v iew o f the s i t u a t i o n . On t h e s u b j e c t o f Mature we f i n d t h e a ims a i d o b -j e c t i v e s a re as f o l l o w s : 1. D e p a r t i n g f rom p r i m i t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f l i f e , n a t u r e , and n a t u r a l phenomena so c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c o f the p e r i o d o f c h i l d h o o d , one must remove the m i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s and p r i m i t i v e c h a r a c t e r ; w iden the h o r i z o n o f p u p i l s w i t h new knowledge o f f a c t s i n l i v i n g and i n o r g a n i c nature*, 2. T O d i s c o v e r , on the b a s i s o f c o n c r e t e mat-i a l , the s i m p l e l a w f u l development i n n a t u r e ® 3» To i l l u s t r a t e t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l -i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n , man 's conques t o f n a t u r a l f o r c e s and e l e m e n t s , 4 . To awaken the i n t e r e s t f o r t he s t u d y o f n a t u r e and to arm the c h i l d r e n w i t h c o n s t r u c t i v e h a b i t s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n o f the n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s , .ii N a t u r e ^ , t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as a m i g h t y weapon by m i l l i o n s o f c h i l d r e n , - - t h e a t h e i s t i c w a r r i o r s and f u t u r e w o r k e r s f o r s o c i a l i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n . ^ . The a im o f d r a w i n g and m o u l d i n g i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i s to g i v e the p u p i l s t hose s k i l l s and h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r 4 . P rog ram o f S t u d i e s i n Mature f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , (Moscow, 1935)» p« • f The t e rm f o r Na tu re i n R u s s i a n i s " y e s t e s t v o z n o n i e " v /h ich means "knowledge o f n a t u r e . " 5. I b i d . . I A B L E J C I . ASchematie Outline of Curriculum in nature in Elementary Schools. 6 ' Grade I. (First Year). A. Autumn. Changes in nature ana in man's activity. Intro-ducing the Autumn weather calendar. Distinction of the most familiar trees in the region. Autumn colors of loaves, familiarity with tree seeds and herries. Preparation of food for do-mestic and useful birds. Migratory birds. Winter preparations of wild ani-mals. Preparation of mater-ials for winter wort and class decoration. Three excursions to the forests and f i e l d s . B. Winter. further changes in nature, occupations and activity. Domestic animals and their protection from the cold. Feeding of birds in winter. A minimum of excursions and observations. Grade II. (Second Year) A. Gardens or Park. Final touches on the summer projects (Grade I). Use of vegetables. Significance of vegetables as food for the t o i l e r s . Weeds, how to destroy them. Insects— struggle with. Minimum ex-cursions or observations. Fruits, uses of, care of and the struggle with the enemies of fruit trees as the caterpillar, rabbit, etc. Some birds—friends of the garden. A minimum of excursions and obser-vations. Grade III. (Third Year) Grade IV. (Fourth Xearl. B. Domestic Birds and Animals. •Lhe cat and the dog—their similarity with some animals of the forest. The dog of the north. Other kinds of dogs. The cow, the horse, the pig. Domestic birds. How a l l these were domesti-cated by man. A minimum of excursions. A. Soil and Its Useful Minerals. The several important layers of s o i l (upper layer espec-i a l l y ) . Heat and cold. Ex-pansion and contraction of solids, 'i'he formation of soil and lime. Salt and i t s formation. Coal and gas. Metals; brass, iron, gold, silver, etc. The importance of minerals and metals for the country's industriali-zati on A. Animal l i f e . Invertebrates: appearance and mode of l i f e . Fishes--vertebrates, appear-ance and mode of l i f e . Fishing and the fishing in-dustry. Amphibions and reptiles: appearance and mode of l i f e . Birds—verte-brates. Their a b i l i t y to f l y and mode of l i f e . Mammals and their mode of l i f e . Apes aril monkeys: appearance and mode of l i f e . lantern slides and films for the illustration of above. B. Yfater. B. The Structure and Work of Water above and under ground. the Human Body. Evaporation and i t s results. The appearance of man in cora-The destroying power of water.parison with other animals. Exploitation of water by man The soma and the viscera. (Dneprostroy, etc.). The The importance of nutrition. three stages of water. A min- How do humans breathe? imum of excursions and exper- Blood and i t s significance. iments. Urination and Alfication. The brain and the nervous system. Sight and hearing. The absurdity of the r e l i g -ious teaching of the god-like appearance and oreation of man. A minimum of prac-t i c a l work. C . Spring. Observation of spring changes in nature: lengthening of theday, melting of snow, etc.; thework of water, sand, lime, etc. First arrival of birds and building of nests; i n -sects—origin and l i f e ; ani-mals in spring. The appear-ance of buds, flowers; the growth of spring vegetables. A minimum of excursions and ob-servations. C. The lake and River. The coming of spring and the corresponding changes. Further observations as con-tinuation of preceding grade, l i f e in the lakes and rivers. Water plants and animals. The gnat and the mosquito— methods of struggle with. Aquarium making and develop-ment of. A minimum of ex-cursions and observations. C. Air. : Air-gas; how to detect it . Winds. Causes; and the construction of a weather-vane . Winds and tlielr worjc in nature. Air and its com-position. A minimum of ex-periments, most simple, in-doors and outdoors. D. Summer project. D. Summer Project. D. The Manifestation of Elec-Free drawing of animals living Collection of branches of trioity in nature, in water; insects in the garden, most important trees. Col- Storm: thunder and lightning, etc. The making of an herbarium.lection of stones and metals The construction of a light-Taking care of plants and gather-for future study in Grade III. ning conductor, ing seeds in the school garden or elsewhere. b. Ibid. pp. 4-1? 57. knowledge- and perceptions in concrete form. Drawing and mould-ing are given as systematic independent subjects according to a definite program, not merely as an auxil l iary method in the 7 course of other subjects. In the preparatory classes drawing, moulding and labor occupations are the best means for the all-round devel-opment of the ch i ld . They are instrumental in the development of his organs of reception, response and his creative a b i l i -t ies; they supply the chi ld with various means and powers to reflect his l i f e experiences in various ways and materials; they introduce the chi ld to the nature and use of the most common materials; they strengthen the power of observation and orientation in relat ion to form and color of objects; they develop sk i l l s and abi l i t i es in ease and handling of simple instruments; and they also inculcate in the pupils habits of cultural labor, such as order, organization, co l -lectivism in work, etc. Drawing, moulding and labor occupations are nearly related to each other. They are in substance, the child's inventive act iv i ty , in which by means of various materials he expresses his impressions of l i f e . Therein.lies their unity so emphasized in the new program. With a child of seven the desire to do, to mould 8 things out of different materials is s t i l l very great. There-fore, one third of the total time allotted to drav/ing is given 8. Gfi Crosswell, T.R. "amusement of 2000 Y/orcester school children", Pedagogical Seminary, 6:314, 1899, Also, For bush, W.S. , Manual of Play, Macrae Smith, Phi la-delphia, 1914, p. 16. 59-TABLE X I I . Grade I. Program In Drawing and Moulding f o r Elementary Schools. ?• Grade II Grade I I I Grade IT A.. Free hand drawing (8 hrs) A.. Free hand (on themes selected by c h i l d r e n Same themes a f t e r c l a s s - d i s c u s s i o n ) Some of the themes: 1. I n t e r e s t -ing moment i n ch i l d r e n ' s l i f e d uring v a c a t i o n . 2. F i r s t day at s c h o o l . J . Summer works i n a Kolchoz. 4. V i l l a g e or c i t y . 5 . F i r s t snow. fa. October de-monstration. 7» Ifey demonstra-t i o n , e t c . observation and nature (12 hrs.) Some objects: 1. dishes, 2. playthings, 3 . Toothbrush, toothpaste, etc.. 4. Amia-p-ium—etf e r w + -a-quar- , . .rami; 0ox and iT^ittL^iTi ^rr.eBt 5-Trees-Mras-etc pot, e t c . observation.(Group objects) 1. F r u i t s and vegetables 2. Two apples of d i f f e r e n t size and c o l o r , 3 . Box, open and closed,_4. Paint box and brush-I r e ^ m i n a r y l x e r ^ s . s . ^ t r o - ^ 7 ^ 1 W 2£"<"™" (8 hrs.) B. duction to various methods f o r M x i n g of simple co^ o r f F u f ^ t f U ^ ° f ° , 0 l ° r ' S b ^ 3 the use of brush. Composition ther Extension ? ™ ? f \ ^ e s a m e c°l°r. Ornamental J, of patterns: c i r c l e , square, e t c . wort d S 1 Rawing. 1'ables as: What the' - - - * " o r J ! :* c i t y gives to the Kolshoz and Work with three c o l o r s , e t c! £.. Thematic drawing, (on easy t o p i c s o f comprehension f o r c h i l d r e n of t n i s age). Decorative work (12 hrs.) Some. 2 l e t t e r i n g . Fables (Strengthen your study, etc.) l e t t e r i n g and I t s D. Moulding (4 hrs.) "Introduction to m a t e r i a l s . Free moulding (on themes s e l -ected by c h i l d r e n a f t e r c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n ) . Moulding or sep-arate vegetables, f r u i t s , e t c . E. S k i l l s and h a b i t s . E. S k i l l s and h a b i t s . 1. Draw simple objects (apple, 1. Kelationship between si z e s egg, b a l l , e t c . ) . 2. D i s t i n g - i n drawing. 2. Horiz o n t a l and u i s h and name c o l o r s . J . Use v e r t i c a l l i n e s Brush on ornament without use of c o l o r s . 4. p e n c i l . 4. Place drawing on etc paper.according to form and s i z e , of page, e t c . vice versa c o l o r i n g . C. Thematic drawing. (14 hrs)£. Thematic drawing (12 hrs.) £, STome o f the themes: 1. A F r u i t Some of the themes: 1. Sovchoz garden. 2. Impressions of an — c a t t l e . 2. Our new buildings, excursion. 5 . The morning of J . I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r s t o r i e s . 4. a student ( o r g a n i z a t i o n v s . Cumber i n d u s t r y . 5 . I l l u s t r a t i o n chaos). 4. Games i n a garden, to K r i l o f f ' s f a b l e s . 6. Ity room. 5 . A holiday i n the c i t y . fa. My7. A v i a t o r . 8 . F i r s t of l i a y — Family. 7. I l l u s t r a t i o n f o r a International Holiday, poem or a s t o r y . D. Moulding (4 hrs.) F r u i t s , vegetables, Kolchoz Market. (Wagon of vegetables etc.) 3 . Mixing of Same as Grade D. Moulding (4 hrs.) Gathering of vegetables i n a Kolchoz: Domestic animals. Wild animals, etc. S k i l l s and Habits. Same with more p e r f e c t i o n , e t c . Thematic drawing. Some of the themes; 1. Parade of pi>-.neers on International Youto Day. 2. I l l u s t r a t i o n to s t o r i e s of Pushkin, "The .Rope and t h i s Worker BaldaJ 1 "The Bsher and the F i s h . " J . January the 9 t h . 4. A Railway Bridge. 5 . The Rainbow, fa, A Storm, e t c . . S k i l l s and Habit s. Same with more per f e c t i o n , e t c . E. S k i l l s and habits (con't.) ?. op. c i t . pp. 9—18 58 . a t t h i s a g e , to f r e e c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n . The r e m a i n i n g two t h i r d s o f the t o t a l t ime a r e g i v e n to so c a l l e d " o r g o n i z a t i o n -a l , r d r a w i n g — " t o u n i t e the c h i l d r e n on common, c o l l e c t i v e w o r k , common themes, o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r c r e a t i v e n e s s and a c t i v i t y i n ' a d i r e c t i o n d e s i r a b l e t o u s . " I s a f o r e s a i d , we are concerned here w i t h the most s i m p l e a n a l y s i s o f the new c u r r i c u l u m . To go more d e e p l y i n t o t h i s s u b j e c t w o u l d r e q u i r e a volume and more . We w i l l a t t empt t h e r e f o r e , to g i v e the f i n a l touches to our d e s c r i p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , the s tudy o f d rawing and mou ld ing c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : A . Themat ic d r a w i n g . B. F ree d r a w i n g . C . Drawing o f s e p a r a t e o b j e c t s and g roup o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g to o b s e r v a t i o n and from n a t u r e . D . The composing o f most s i m p l e p a t t e r n s f o r the p r a c t i c a l a c q u a i n t a n c e o f c h i l d r e n w i t h the b a s i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s of c o l o r . E . P o s t e r work and l e t t e r i n g . F . M o u l d i n g . The c o u r s e o f study f o r . the second grade s c h o o l , as drawn up by the S t a t e S c i e n t i f i c C o u n c i l , r e p r e s e n t s a s y n -t h e s i s or complex a round (a) n a t u r e (b) l a b o r ; and (c) s o c i e t y . As the complex f o l l o w s the same deve lopmenta l l i n e s as f o r the e l emen ta ry s c h o o l s , w e . w i l l a t t emp t , o n l y th rough t'he f o l l o w -i n g t a b l e s , to p r e s e n t a gene ra l scheme of s u b j e c t s i n the 1 0 . B i h k e v i t c h , A l b e r t S . , Op. G i t . , p p . 306-308; and K a n d e l , , ' I .L*. , Compara t ive E d u c a t i o n , (Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , IBw Y o r k , 1933) p p . 784 -86 . 60 l a s t two y e a r s o f the secondary s c h o o l . From t h e r e we w i l l p r o c e e d to the d e s c r i p t i o n of one s u b j e c t , namely, p h y s i c s i n a S o r i e t s econd grade s c h o o l * TABLE X I I I S u b j e c t s o f the F i r s t Three Y e a r s i n a S o v i e t Second Grade and Number of. Hours A s s i g n e d . . S u b j e c t s V Y e a r V I Y e a r V I I Y e a r T o t a l fo r the who le cour se S o c i a l S c i e n c e 4 4 4 408 R u s . L a n g & L i t . 5 5 4 476 M a t h e m a t i c s 4 4 5 442 N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 3 4 4 372 C h e m i s t r y 1 2 2 170 P h y s i c s 4', ' 4 4 408 Geo g raphy 2 2 2 204 F o r . Languages 3 3 3 306 Lab or 3 3 3 306 P l a s t i c A r t 2 2 •2 204 S i n g i n g & Mus ic & r h y t h m i c s 2 1* I i 170 P h y s i c a l C u l t u r e 2 I t . ' I * 170 The c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e l a s t £i»-e y e a r s i s d i v i d e d b e -tween g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s and the s u b j e c t s of the s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r -s e s — p e d a g o g i c a l , c o o p e r a t i v e and S o v i e t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The whole work o f the s c h o o l i s d i r e c t e d by the dom-i n a n t d r i v e - - s o c i a l l y u s e f u l a c t i v i t i e s . To s t r e n g t h e n the p o l y t e c h n i z a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l s two measures a re u r g e d : 1 1 . A f t e r K a n d e l , I . L . , Compara t ive E d u c a t i o n , (Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , New Y o r k W?) P» 782 .61. (a ) t h a t the f a c t o r y , farm or o t h e r economic a c t i v i t y be made the l a b o r a t o r y o f each s c h o o l (b) t h a t the former worke r w i t h t e a c h e r H M q u a l i f i c a t i o n s be a p p o i n t e d t o the t e a c h i n g s t a f f , CQ -P O © -r-a •3 CO H cd P i (D PI CD Ci5 CO r4 cd © •p ro cd © 44 •p <H 6 r-i P* CJ •H P i P1 o © 44 E-I CM HI DO © CO P i p< o o •d © N •H H cd o ffl. p< co © 44 P <H O CO p © © 4? ; H cd •rH O © ft CO CO 4 s O © •f-S 43 CO 'fi: cd •ri o © P J CO EH O E-i w CO P o © •r-9 rQ P* CO CM CO rA CO I A CM H N O CM OS CM © Pi CO o Pi 'H d co O -H | o l> • H r-i r d cd O rH •M O bO o o 44 ttf) © cd CO © « fn cd o I A UN © Pi © •H O CO rH cd « H o o •CO o OO IA t-CM Hi ON CO CM ON CM • I > r d • Pi r-i O O «H O 50 44 -H O CO I © Pt P4 c S K> OO K\ CO I A CM rH ON CM ON CM J -P Pi 44 o •H CO Hi * H Pi > •d rH © cd -p > O Pi -H © P a cd Pi u © © P i 5$ & CM CO K\ CO rA H ct> « OO I A CO i A I A r H I A N O I A rH CM CO IA I A I A H I A I A rH H ON ON iA CM LA CM ON CM ON CM I U © Pi <A CM ON CM LA CM ON CM L A CM O N CM P J Pi o O O O O O -H O >H O O CO CO H CO H • > - i> Pi • H Pi - H - H •ri •P •H r H O fH O r d © >dS3 d ( © P) -H o o o d © cd co t> Pi -H P tiO+s o -p © «aj cd O cd "H I* •- • o Cd 43 CO Pi © © • H P cd Pi <3 © Pi P • H Pi co cd cd cd •H -H t> a •H >d M r d 5^ >d CM CM - P •H H i c 8 ft CO CM N O •J3 CM CM CM O I A o I A O O o CM CM r H CM <H r-i r H H CM I A CM r H r H H I A r A CM I A CM CM CM CM >s O P l CO « H O © CO © P d P) CO CO cd - P 3 o •H 'ft P i p •H !>* :5b <4 « 8 r-i 4-3 P i P i 'cd H P CO cd o PI o cd CO O H i •H © P i ' H •ri • P Ti ha • 44 d a CO « CO CO p p © >» P i cd PJ !>» .Cd cd 44 44 o r H •H 44 o PM P4 to « I A 03 P J Pi d •ri P cd o rg © •H P cd Pt cd PH. o O IH H rH . © r d Pi Pi © - P CM 62. I n number o f hours a s s i g n e d p h y s i c s o c c u p i e s the s e c -ond p l a c e on the c u r r i c u l u m a f t e r R u s s i a n . The f o l l o w i n g d i s -c u s s i o n w i l l a t t e m p t to p resen t the impor tance a t t a c h e d to t h i s s u b j e c t i n the S o v i e t secondary s c h o o l a i d a l s o i t s method o f 13 p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m . I t i s assumed t h a t g r adua t e s o f the i n c o m p l e t e s e c o n d -a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e c e i v e knowledge no t o n l y i n a p a r t of p h y s i c s , but a l s o a d e f i n i t e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l fundamenta l b ranches o f the s u b j e c t . To use R u s s i a n t e r m s , " the s u b j e c t o f p h y s i c s o f the i n c o m p l e t e secondary s c h o o l s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t the f i r s t c o n c e n t r e . " The s e l e c t e d p a r t s o f p h y s i c s f o r the f i r s t ' c o n c e n t r e * s h o u l d n o t be p r e s e n t e d a t random but s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . The a i m of t e a c h i n g p h y s i c s i s to p r o v i d e w i t h such knowledge on the s u b j e c t as w i l l s e r v e as a p o w e r f u l weapon i n the hands of the f u t u r e b u i l d e r s o f s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . The " E n g e l s " sys t em o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n o r d e r o f i n -c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , i s sugges ted f o r the s tudy o f p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . The o r d e r would b e : mechan ic s , h e a t , e l e c -t r i c i t y , l i g h t . M o r e o v e r , the t e a c h e r shou ld a lways p r e s e n t h i s s u b j e c t i n a way w h i c h can be u n d e r s t o o d by the p u p i l and w h i c h w i l l awaken h i s i n t e r e s t . S o , i n ' m e c h a n i c s , fo r example , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d not b e g i n w i t h the t e a c h i n g o f the s i m p l e and l e s s c o n c r e t e concept o f m o t i o n b u t w i t h t h e concep t o f w e i g h t and i t s a c t i o n on 15.« I . I . S o c a l o v and o t h e r s , P h y s i c s , Note f o r t e a c h e r s . . - (Moscow, 1935), p a s s i m . 63» on solids, gases, etc. Second, the dialectic principle of unity in theory and practice should serve as a constant guide in the Soviet pedagogy. Applied to the teaching of physics the dialectic principle ; treats i t from three aspects: (a) The connection between physics and technique. (b) The accentuation of technical achievements by the j . laws of physics. (e) The conditioning of the general advancement of the science of physics by economic interests in their his tor ical development. If this "principle of unity in practice and theory" should lack expression in the programme of the f i r s t "concentre", the teacher can give it additional stress and further emphasis i in his method of presentation. The practical work in the shops ri and factories; compulsory excursions and v i s i t s to industrial plants, etc . , a minimum of which i s prescribed in the programme wi l l be instrumental in the ap plication of this principle to the teaching of physics. The mathematical aspect is of minor importance in the ! presentation of physical problems at this stage. The formulae should help in the solution of problems of the simplest, most real and most concrete character. The aim of physics is to teach physics. The following i s an attempt to present schematically the program of physics as given in the 6 and ? years of the unified labor school. » cd , co ui O ro a o • H CO • H f> • H R i- l r-l N M A C M CM <sf a • • • o • • • • » - H • • • • • < +3 <> » • • • cd KN LT\,CM CM vO NO CM CM CM K \ t-i r-l H oo c-» ra a o o , P tO cd 54 ra ra cd ra to a o •ri ra • H 5> • H R ra •cf o <H © o a co a & § a • H o5 CO O £j += r-l HI 03 CO a a J4 o ba to tiD ^ a a a ^ •ri »H .r-i O • p +3 H - p cd H i-t cd ^ © © O 03 CO W ^  cq |rj H » ra a • HI © • © +3 »»d to • o • a += • CO • H 54 • O f i A a ^ Q 0 O © 54 - H ^ ©,4=> +3 a as ra ra © 54 CH © co + = 0 a * H <H CO • H a o a a • a • CO 9 • a • o © a a © a o •ri • P O P< >a»H "4 ! o a • H O 54 * H '+= - P © O © -H H ?4 H <*4 • 43 • a • © • 54 • S4 9 " O • -ri 54 1 -P 2 0 S"H. © - P •a a © r-i > co a • H * H © © © CO EH H • M a o •ri ra 54 d o »a • o • «rl • 4* • o • i d • 'Cf a -H ra •H a •P «H © 4 s 03° a co a a a o ra o o ra o o *r4 ^ - P - H « H - H O T-I 5 4 c 3 c o r a - p 5 4 S 4 r a +» f-4 54 54 © +3 +» 54 o o p a© o a © (DiD O W O (D 6 H cd M o3 .H H M o +3 o 54 a © t=*-P © t-i © '54 >*r4 pj cn 4 3 <X> O o • H o 'ri U += o © r4 &a CM CM K Y H . r-4 CM e 9 •• ® 9 ® e « 9 ' 9 " 0 «' CD 9 9 * « • * » 9 CM ra N \ © W K \ H l<N ON C~ ^ C\l CJ K \ U T \ ^ M 3 tr«» K \ l f \ O N 0 O d CO o • •ri 54 • 4 3 • * .cj .« • » CO © •.•>©-&: S :ra * H © 54 id ~-P © O 0 CO s> rQ a © p 1-4 a H © .0 ra • o -i-3 a +3 • H - H © a i>ooa t ,co cd a. jnia 54 © O CiJ r-i CO > O +3 H a © © a © a o © •ri © 54 co a pi •ri r-i CQ 5> "H cd •ri a ,© += • H > cd 54 * co »tci » «i4 * d . &• « -r-l » r-4 « 9 «-« ^ » e « • » « • a • • 0 3 * 9 • e • ra • * Q) « 0 • CO • • • o3 • * • UO * « ra 0 • re) © « © a : H • 54 cd yd a O co ra ra ^  0) 0 ra © o H a J4' <H o © o •r-i ,d ra p, a 54 ra o a © -H © © © o a - i 3 ft 54 54 M - P © CO fH (4 «aj «i| • -r-l © © 54 54 ra to ra ra © 'H 'CS H iH 54 a * ^4 - P 04 ra a o H 54 P i i ^ © a t-i a a cd • © • • 54 a cd -P o H © * H 54 cd p a P © ,d 54 cd- O -t> o © a -H <D © a P» 54 cd © •ri ra a « » • » • » • >» » » • tto • . « J4 0 • » (Q « « « £| « « « [3^ • • • I • » « 4 3 • • ra cd • • a © • « ra t£| • • a e 9 cd * 9 9 Si t-i • • O M • fl 9 « O ® K*» © 'ri 54 W H CO © 5 4 Pi <H ^ © a > O a " H ' H >3 • K \ 54 O N O O r-i cd • 54 • o • cd • H • 9 a • cd • •.a o ra co cd cd r-i V4 ' . ^ M (2» &4 CM N W R 9 • © © 9 cd « 9 • * • 54 54 9 0 a • • O O ' 9 « a 9 ® e 9 0 • H H 9 « cd cd 9 • 9 4 3 4 3 • a • 0 0 0 a © « a&< & 0 a 0 ra • H © • « . •r4 © ra 54 CO © a a © 54 54 cd . r a • H a a cd !> 0 0 © © (3 ra 54 g .a O N H I O N ft P J •r-4 1-4 « H 6 5 . Compar ing t a b l e X Y g i v e n on the p r e c e d i n g page w i t h the t a b l e as g i v e n by K a n d e l 1 - ^ the re appears t o be a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f hours devo ted t o p h y s i c s i n the r e s p e c t i v e g r a d e s . A c c o r d i n g to K a n d e l , the t o t a l number o f h o u r s 7 ' i n p h y s i c s i s I 3 6 w h i c h i s 27 hours p e r y e a r more t han the f i g u r e g i v e n h e r e . O b v i o u s l y , from 1933 o n , changes took p l a c e i n the c u r r i c u l u m and i n the hours a s s i g n e d to the v a r -i o u s s u b j e c t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o b a b l y would r e v e a l many o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s on the m a t t e r . I t w i l l be w e l l , we t h i n k , t o c l o s e o u r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h some n o t e s on the t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c s i n the h i g h e r grades ( E i g h t h , N i n t h and T e n t h Y e a r s ) o f the Secondary s c h o o l . The a ims and o b j e c t i v e s o f the second " c o n c e n t r e " i n p h y s i c s a r e : 1 . The c o m p l e t i o n , e n r i c h m e n t , and deepening o f sys t em-a t i c knowledge i n the s u b j e c t a c q u i r e d by the s t u d e n t s i n the i n c o m p l e t e s econda ry s c h o o l . 2 . On the b a s i s o f p l anned e x p e r i m e n t s , t o l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s ( o b o s n o v a t i ) f o r a t h e o r y o f p h y s i c a l phenomena, h e l p f u l to o n e ' s acqu i rement o f a M a r x i a n - L e n i n i s t i c w o r l d v i e w . 3 . To e x p l a i n the ach ievements o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h a s c i e n t i f i c p h y s i c a l s t u d y o f n a t u r a l 1 6 . phenomena. 1 5 . K a n d e l , 1 . 1 . : Compara t ive E d u c a t i o n (Houghton M i f f l i n , . New Y o r k , 1 ? 3 3 ) , p . 7 8 2 . f S c h o o l y e a r b e i n g o f 36 weeks d u r a t i o n . 1 6 , i&M;, p . 1 ? . 66 A s ment ioned e l sewhere , i t w o u l d he beyond the scope o f t h i s w o r k to d e s c r i b e a c u r r i c u l u m i n f u l l , Eo g i v e a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n wou ld i m p l y r e p e t i t i o n o f what has been s a i d by o t h e r s and i n s t a n d a r d t e x t s . We have adopted a form o f e x p o s i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g a s h o r t g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o r schemat i c t a b l e , as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n a p a r t i c u l a r sub-j e c t i s g i v e n as a n i l l u s t r a t i o n . 57. CHAPTER V . TOO VERS I TIES AND HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE SOVIET REPUBLIC LOOKING BACKWARD. The f i r s t R u s s i a n u n i v e r s i t y was opened i n Moscow i n 1 7 7 5 . Thus w h i l e u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g began i n I t a l y i n t h e E l e v e n t h c e n t u r y and i n France i n t h e T w e l f t h c e n t u r y , i n R u s s i a i t o r i g i n a t e d seven c e n t u r i e s l a t e r . The D e r p t U n i v e r s i t y was opened by the Swedes i n the S e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , c l o s e d i n the midd l e o f the E i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e - o p e n e d by the R u s s i a n government i n 1802 , a n d r e -named Y u r y e v U n i v e r s i t y i n 1 8 9 2 . The K a z a n and K h a r k o v U n i v e r s i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 8 0 4 . The P e t e r s b u r g P e d a g o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e was opened i n 1879 and l a t e r r e o r g a n i z e d as the P e t e r s b u r g U n i v e r s i t y . When the F e b r u a r y R e v o l u t i o n broke out i n 1917 > out o f a t o t a l o f 91 h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s there were 1 2 ' u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the t e r r i t o r y o f the p r e sen t R . S . F . S . R . SOME OBJECTIVES OF THE OLD UNIVERSITIES . As the u n i v e r s i t i e s were opened by T z a r i s t governments t h e i r a i m was the t r a i n i n g o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s . The d o m i n a t i n g f a c u l t y was t h a t o f l aw and i t had the g r e a t e s t number o f s t u d e n t s . - O the r f a c u l t i e s c o m p r i s i n g the u n i v e r s i t i e s were the p h y s i c o - m a t h e m a t i c a l , h i s t o r I c o - p h i l o l o g i c a l and the m e d i c a l . UNREST I N ; , T H E , U N i y E R S I T I E S . I n t h e " N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e s i t u a t i o n i n the 6.8. u n i v e r s i t i e s was i n t o l e r a b l e , '^here was g r e a t u n r e s t among s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d by r e p r e s s i v e measu re s . Many . r e s t r i c t i v e measures were d e c i d e d upon and c a r r i e d ou t , the most n o t o r i o u s b e i n g the r e s t r i c t i o n o f the number o f s t u d e n t s i n any u n i v e r -s i t y to 300 and t h e r a i s i n g o f the f e e s ( I 8 5 O ) ; I n c a r c e r a t i o n and f o r c i b l e e n r o l l i n g o f s t u d e n t s i m p l i c a t e d i n the d i s t u r b -ances a s common s o l d i e r s i n the army ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 1 ) . S a i d L e n i n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s : The government was f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t was su r rounded by in f l ammable m a t e r i a l and t h a t the t i n i e s t s p a r k , a - p r o t e s t a g a i n s t i n c a r c e r a t i o n , was enough t o cause c o n f l a g r a t i o n . l o w , t h a t i s s o , then i t i s c l e a r t ha t exempla ry punishment must be a p p l i e d ; hundreds o f s t u d e n t s must be f o r c i b l y e n r o l l e d a s ^ s o l d i e r s J L e t them have a c o r p o r a l f o r a V o l t a i r e Jr±* A f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n i n 1905 the T z a r i s t government e x i l e d many prominent p r o f e s s o r s because t h e l a t t e r d i d not w i s h t o be governed by the p o l i c y o f g o v e r n m e n t - s u b s i d i z e d B l a c k -Hand r e d s , a n o t o r i o u s r e a c t i onary u n i o n ( T o h e r n o s o t e n t z y ) • A c c o r d i n g to f i g u r e s r e c e n t l y i s s u e d , the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the s t u d e n t body i n R u s s i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1913 was c o n -s t i t u t e d as f o l l o w s : From B u r e a u c r a c y , n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y . . 4 5 . 6 % From merchan ts and f a c t o r y owners . .35.2°/. From t rade s m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 *5i° From f o r e igne r s • . • • • 3 From w o r k e r s and peasan t s 1.57= f- The u t t e r a n c e o f S k a l o z u b i n G r i h o y e d o v T s famous s a t i r e , ' . 'Misfor tune from Wisdom" ("Gorye Ot Oma'-') 1 . L e n i n , C o l l e c t e d Works , V o l . IV (Moscow, Second R u s s i a n e d i t i o n ) , p . 2 1 . 2 . U n i v . i n the U . S . S . R . (Vosk , Moscow, 1 9 3 5 ) . 6? THE OCTOBER REVOLUTION AND THE U N I V E R S I T I E S . I n the new c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e d by the October R e v o l u t i o n the u n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d no t r e t a i n the o l d o r d e r and t r a d i t i o n s . From the v e r y b e g i n n i n g the S o v i e t government p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r p o l i c y a s f o l l o w s : a* A l l t h a t was v a l u a b l e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y - was to be r e t a i n e d . b . The u n i v e r s i t i e s were t o be r e o r g a n i z e d i n the l i g h t o f new c o n d i t i o n s i n the S o v i e t s t a t e , i n accordance wi th , the i n t e r e s t s o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . c« New s e t s o f s t u d e n t s and new s e t s o f p r o f e s s o r s were t o be t r a i n e d i n o r d e r to ensure the s u c c e s s o f the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The most impor t an t measures w e r e : f r ee e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u s i o n of s t u d e n t s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e board o f u n i v e r s i t i e s ; d u t i e s of the u n i v e r s i t i e s t o be a l s o t h e s p r e a d i n g o f e d -u c a t i o n among the t o i l i n g masses , g r a n t i n g . o f s p e c i a l s t i p e n d s to s t u d e n t s of p r o l e t a r i a n and poo r peasant o r i g i n ; a i d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of W o r k e r s ' F a c u l t i e s whose t a s k would be the t r a i n i n g o f the b e s t men of the w o r k i n g c l a s s and the poor p e a s -a n t r y for - the u n i v e r s i t i e s » D u r i n g the c i v i l war and the p e r i o d o f m i l i t a n t com-munism the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n went on a t a s low p a c e . I n 1922 more e n e r g e t i c s t e p s were t a k e n i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n and i n 1925 the m a i n c o u r s e o f the development o f the e x t e r n a and t h e i n t e r n a o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s was c o m p l e t e l y mapped out and t o o k f i r a 1 shape . From he re we come to a p e r i o d o f e x p a n s i o n w h i c h i n the h i s t o r y o f S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n i s c a l l e d the P e r i o d o f R e -c o n s t r u c t i o n . THE PERIOD:OF RECONSTRUCTION. On the eve o f the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P e r i o d there were 136 u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w i t h 163 , 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s as compared w i t h 91 u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w i t h 124 ,700 s t u d e n t s i n t h e P r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a . W i t h the b e g i n n i n g o f the R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P e r i o d when the s t a t e embarked upon I t s p l a n to l a y the t e c h n i c a l f o u n -d a t i o n s o f s o c i a l i s m , p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s o f the e n t i r e n a t -i o n a l economy had to be r e o r g a n i z e d . The main p rob lem was the t r a i n i n g o f f r e s h c o n t i n g e n t s o f s p e c i a l i s t s . S p e c i a l t e c h -n i c a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l and o t h e r f a c u l t i e s were to be opened and put on a w o r k i n g b a s i s . Out o f the t w e l v e u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h e x i s t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the r e v o l u t i o n on the t e r r i t o r y o f the U . S . S . R . , f o r t y - f i v e u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s were e s t a b -l i s h e d and r e o r g a n i z e d f o r p u r s u i n g s p e c i a l i t i e s such as t e c h -n i c a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , medic a l , e t c . The s u c c e s s o f s o c i a l i s t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e need o f m a s t e r i n g new i n d u s t r i e s , the development o f t h e i n e x h a u s t i b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f the c o u n t r y c r e a t e d the n e c e s s i t y o f t r a i n -i n g an enormous new body of r e s e a r c h and s c i e n t i f i c w o r k e r s * New u n i v e r s i t i e s w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , opened i n many o f the o u t -l y i n g d i s t r i c t s o f the f e d e r a t e d r e p u b l i c s . A t the e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s new c o l l e g e s were e s t a b -l i s h e d . Space does n o t p e r m i t u s to g i v e a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e r e f o r e o n l y a few o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t w i l l be m e n t i o n e d . 71 A t Moscow u n i v e r s i t y a new c h e m i c a l c o l l e g e was opened; c h e m i -c a l and g e o l o g i c a l c o l l e g e s were opened a t L e n i n g r a d U n i v e r s i t y ; ae ro -dynamic and s o i l c o l l e g e s at t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f K a z a n ; new c o l l e g e s were opened a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f S a r a t o v ; i n 1934 new h i s t o r i c a l f a c u l t i e s were opened a t Moscow and L e n i n g r a d and i n I 9 3 6 new h i s t o r i c a l f a c u l t i e s w i l l l ie opened i n many o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s . 'NUMBER,.Off UNIVERSITY STUjDENTS AT PRESENT. There are a t p r e s e n t i n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c 25 u n i v e r -s i t i e s and 721 o t h e r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t o f 4 7 0 , 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s . Of t h i s t o t a l t h e 25 u n i v e r s i t i e s have 2 2 , 0 0 0 s t u d e n t s as compared w i t h 0 ,500 i n 1 9 J 0 . 2 UNIVERSITIES PGR NATIQNAL MINORITIES. I n pursuance o f the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y l a i d dov/n by L e n i n , t he S o v i e t government opened new u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the r e g i o n s i n -h a b i t e d by n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t i e s . The government has a l s o opened, whereve r a d v i s a b l e , f a c u l t i e s devo ted to the s t u d y o f m i n o r i t y l anguage and c u l t u r e a t the o l d e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g may g i v e a g e n e r a l i d e a o f what i s and has been done i n the f i e l d . A d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t , w o u l d be beyond our s c o p e . A t the b e g i n n i n g the work encoun te red g rea t d i f f i c u l t i e s : L a b o r a t o r i e s and s tuden t h o s t e l s had t o be b u i l t ; p r o f e s s o r s and l e c t u r e r s had to be i n v i t e d from d i s t a n t p a r t s o f the U n i o n ; i t was a l s o d i f f i c u l t to get s t u d e n t s from an i l l i t e r -a t e p o p u l a t i o n . ( I n 1926 ? 0 ^ o f the K a z a k s t o n ( p o p u l a t i o n ) 7 2 . were i l l i t e r a t e ) . I n s p i t e o f a l l t hese d i f f i c u l t i e s the u n i v e r s i t y o f Samarkand i n the Uzbek o f S . S . R . was opened I n 1933 and i n 1935 i t numbered more than 1,000 s t u d e n t s , o f w h i c h more t h a n h a l f b e l o n g e d t o l o c a l n a t i o n a l i t i e s . The i n s t r u c t i o n i s I n the Uzbek language i n 71°/. o f s u b j e c t s t a u g h t . I n 1918 the C e n t r a l A s i a t i c u n i v e r s i t y was opened i n T a s h k e n t • I n 1929 f o u r t e e n independent h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d from t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . From 57, o f Uzbek s t u d e n t s i n the b a s i c f a c u l t i e s and 3Of. i n the w o r k e r f a c u l -t i e s i n 1927 -28 , t h e r e were bQf. and 40^ i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f a c u l t i e s i n I 5 3 5 . I n s o c i a l o r i g i n , t h e s t u d e n t body was drawn 40$, from the w o r k i n g c l a s s and 40f, from poor p e a s a n t r y . I n a d d i t i o n , on p r o f e s s o r , e l e v e n a s s i s t a n t s and t w e l v e t e a c h -e r s o f the u n i v e r s i t y i n 1935 were U z b e k . The Kazan U n i v e r s i t y , the a lma mater o f a number o f g r e a t men o f s c i e n c e , w h i c h was n e v e r t h e l e s s one o f the most r e a c t i o n a r y u n i v e r s i t i e s i n R u s s i a , i s now a t r a i n i n g c e n t r e f o r t he n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n the newly c r e a t e d T a t a r S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c . There i s a s p e c i a l c h a i r o f t h e T a t a r language and l i t e r a t u r e and s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s a l s o p a i d t o the c r e a t i o n and improvement o f a T a t a r s c i e n t i f i c t e r m i n o l o g y . The S a t a r s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r n a t i v e tongue and t h e i r number now (1935) make up 2.1% o f the g e n e r a l s tuden t p o p u l a t i o n as compared w i t h 1 3 . 7 % ' i n 1 9 3 0 . W i t h the work d e s c r i b e d above , the S o v i e t s a re r e a l i z -i n g t h e i r most s a c r e d i d e a l s to f i l l the u n i v e r s i t y w i t h sons 73 and daughters of the proletariat and to create an intel l igent-sia among the national minorities. IfflPRQTEMENT IN THE STANDARD OF LIVING AND THE EDUCATIONAL  LEVEL. A few years ago the universities had di f f icul ty in enrolling students. The prospective candidates had to "be trained in special courses or rabfacs (workers* faculties) attached to the universit ies. The situation has lately changed. Due to improvement in the standard of l iv ing , great advances in education have been made by youths who obtained a secondary education and entered the universit ies. Lately, in order to improve upon the students* preparation, the seven years course of the secondary school has been changed to ten. Nevertheless, the workers' faculties s t i l l prepare the more capable toi lers and collective farmers for the universities. The increase in the number of students el igible for university Study and con-sequently the increase in university registration was f i r s t noticed in 1934-35* In 1?34 the social origin of students in the universities was as follows: 4 Workers and workers' y o u t h . . . . . . . . . .A5»9% Collective farmers... k»3f° Individual peasants 6,0% Teachers, children of specialists and t o i l e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 . 9 % Others » » • • » • « « » • » • » » • • • • • • • » • • • • » • • • •29 THE TEACHING STAFF. The number of professors and their assistants in the 4.- Ibid. 74. U . S . S . R . i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000. A c o n s i d e r a b l e s h i f t i n t h e s o c i a l o r i g i n o f the employed p r o f e s s o r s has t a k e n p l a c e : o f the above number 18$ o f p r o f e s s o r s , 48$ o f l e c t u r e r s , and 30$ o f a s s i s t a n t s have g radua ted from S o v i e t u n i v e r s i t i e s . I n the l a s t few yea r s a lone s i x t y new p r o f e s s o r s g radua ted from the S o v i e t u n i v e r s i t i e s . The overwhe lming m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o f e s s o r s o f Moscow U n i v e r s i t y a re o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame. F o r obv ious reasons o n l y a few w i l l be men t ioned h e r e : A c a d e m i c i a n Z e l i n s k y , who has p u b l i s h e d o v e r 300 s c i e n t i f i c works on o r g a n i c c h e m i s t r y ; A c a d e m i c i a n T r u m k i n , renowned l e c t u r e r i n e l e c t r o - c h e m i s t r y ; P r o f essor A r b u z o v who c r e a t e d a s c h o o l o f h i s own i n the c h e m i s t r y o f o r g a n i c c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p h o s p h o r u s . Others o f e q u a l fame are t e a c h i n g at t he U n i v e r s i t i e s o f .Leningrad, V o r o n e c h , e t c . , as P r o f e s s o r s Rakonsky , Z a r a d o v s k y , L a n d s b u r g , and many o t h e r s . AIMS AND ..OBJECTIVES OF. THE SOVIET STATE UNIVERSITIES . The f o l l o w i n g i s an o u t l i n e o f o b j e c t i v e s as g i v e n i n the U n i v e r s i t y Sta tu tes : ' ' 1 . To t r a i n q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s f o r g e n e r a l s c i e n -t i f i c r e s e a r c h work and a l s o t e a c h e r s f o r the h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s• 2 . To t r a i n h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c f o r c e s f o r i n -dependent s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h and p e d a g o g i c a l work i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s and h i g h e r e d -u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i shment s . 3. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h work i n acco rdance w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n 5 . I b i d . 73« and the concrete peculiarities of the region in which the university is situated* 4 . The spread of scientif ic , technical, and social-pol i -t i c a l knowledge among the &&&ad masses of the toilers in order to raise their industrial and" po l i t i ca l act iv i ty and cultural l eve l . Regarding the preparation of science teachers, the universities "are to train research workers, qualified teachers and to equip them with the scientif ic method of research and with the Marxist-Leninist methodology". AIMS AID OBJECTIVES'-OF THE HIGHER PRQFES SI PETAL INSTITUTIONS. The technical, agricultural , medical, chemical, etc. colleges and institutio.ns prepare and train engineers, agrono-mists, doctors and various specialists for the many branches of the Soviet economic structure. It is here that most atten-tion is paid to the various subjects needed for the speciality I with so much stress on general subjects as needed to support the special ones. REORGANIZATION OF UNIVERSITIES ACCORDING TO FACULTIES. In 1 9 3 2 , by a special decree of the A l l Russian Central Executive Committee, the universities were reorganized on the basis of faculties with various special sections* The follow-ing table may elucidate our point* (on p. 7 & ) . METHODS OF TEACHING AND STUDY. ^ The curriculum, methods of teaching are planned by the professors and take final shape at meetings of the0teaching f- See some ch. III . 7 6 . TABLE XVI THE STRUCTURE OF SOVIET UNIVERSITIES AND THE SUBJECTS THEY SPECIALIZE. # F a c u l t y I . M a t h e m a t i c s and M e c h a n i c s I I . P h y s i c a l I I I . C h e m i o a l IV. B i o l o g i c a l S u b j e c t s a n d S p e c i a l i t i e s . V. S o i l S c . and Geography V I . H i s t o r i c a l (1) M a t h e m a t i c s , (2) o x a l y t i c a l m e c h a n i c s (3) a e r o - d y n a m i c s , (4) h y d r o - d y n a m i c s , (5) th eo r y o f e l a s t i c i t y , (6) astronomy (7) g e o g r a p h y a n d g r a v i m e t r y . (1) T h e o r e t i c a l p h y s i c s , (2) e x p e r i m e n t a l and t e c h n i c a l p h y s i cs ( t h e r m o p h y s i c s , p h y s i c s o f m e t a l s , e l e c t r o - v a c u u m p h y s i c s , the p h y s i c s o f v i b r a t i o n ) . (1) O r g a n i c c h e m i s t r y , (2) i n o r g a n i c chemis-t r y , (3) a n a l y t i c a l c h e m i s t r y , (4) p h y s i c a l c h e m i s t r y , ( 5 ) c o l l o i d c h e m i s t r y , (6) e l e c t r o -c h e m i s t r y . ( I ) B i o - c h e m i s t r y , (2) a n t h r o p o l o g y , (3) phy-s i o l o g y o f l a b o r , (4) p h y s i o l o g y o f a n i m a l s , (5) z o o l o g y a n d c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy o f i n -v e r t e b r a t e s , (6) g e n e t i c s and s e l e c t i o n of a n i m a l s , (7) h y d r o - b i o l o g y , (8) i c h t h y o l o g y (9) h i s t o l o g y , (10) dynamics of development, ( I I ) t h e anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y o f p l a n t s , (12) m i c r o b i o l o g y , (13) geobotany, (14) gene-t i e s a n d s e l e c t i o n of p l a n t s , (15) morphology, and s y s t e m y t i s m of h i g h e r p l a n t s , (16) a g r o -c h e m i s t r y , (17) c i t o l o g y . (1) S o i l - s c i e n c e , (2) p h y s i c a l geography, (3) p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f c o u n t r i e s . (1) H i s t o r y of p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y , (2) a n c i e n t h i s t o r y , (3) h i s t o r y o f middle a g e s , (4) h i s t o r y o f t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e U.S. S..R. #. T a b l e c o m p i l e d a f t e r U n i v e r s i t i e s i n U.S.S.R. (Vosk, 1935), p a s s i m . 77. ¥o f i g u r e s and e x a c t d a t a c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r the F a c u l t y o f A r t s on s u b j e c t s as p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y , p h i l o -l o g y , e t c . There a r e a number o f i n d e p e n d e n t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n -a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e s t u d y o f above. The w r i t e r r e f r a i n e d f r o m r e p e a t i n g what has been d e s c r i b e d i n s t a n d a r d works. He hopes t o e n l a r g e upon i t , w i t h newer f i n d i n g s , a t the f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y . a r e p l a n n e d by t h e p r o f e s s o r s and t a k e f i n a l shape a t m e e t i n g s o f the t e a c h i n g s t a f f o f the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . Methods of t e a c h i n g a r e a d a p t e d w i t h r e g a r d to the n a t u r e o f the s u b j e c t and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , but the b a s i c method i s t h a t o f l e c t u r e s f o l l o w e d by p r a c t i c a l work. On the a v e r a g e t h e l e c t u r e s take up n e a r l y 30$ o f t h e t i m e a l l o w e d f o r the s y l l a b u s . T h i s p e r c e n t a g e can be i n c r e a s -ed o r d e c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g to s i t u a t i ons and r e q u i r e m e n t s . About a n o t h e r t h i r d i s t a k e n up by group s t u d y , when s t u d e n t s g a t h e r i n g r o u p s a n d s t u d y the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of l e c t u r e s u nder the g u i d a n c e o f a s s i s t a n t s wit h whom t h e m a t e r i a l i s e l a b o r a t e l y s t u d i e d . The r e m a i n i n g p a r t of t h e s t u d e n t ' s t i me, a f t e r he has a c q u i r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y knowledge and the h a b i t o f i n d e p e n d -ent work, i s d e v o t e d t o h i s p r i v a t e work and s t u d y i n the r e a d i n g room, s p e c i a l s t u d y room, or l a b o r a t o r y , the l a t t e r b e i n g o f most p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . I n the more advanced c o u r s e s t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r a c t i c a l work i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h . When a s t u d e n t r e a c h e s t h i s s t a g e he i s a p p o i n t e d to a r e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , f a c t o r y or m i l l , o u t s i d e t h e u n i v e r s i t y , where a t f i r s t he i s engaged i n r e s e a r c h work o f a n a u x i l i a r y n a t u r e 78 . and l a t e r i n d e p e n d e n t t a s k s . H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h i s , he s u b m i t s h i s r e s u l t s to the c h i e f i n c h a r g e who p a s s e s h i s judgment on the accomplishments,, ACADEMIC DEGREES: SCIENTIFIC WORKER AND CANDIDATE OF SCIENCES. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the r e g u l a r t e s t s d u r i n g the y e a r and g e n e r a l p r o f i c i e n c y p l u s e x a m i n a t i o n s a t t h e e n d of the w i n t e r and s p r i n g terms d e t e r m i n e whether a s t u d e n t i s t o be promoted o r to r e c e i v e h i s degree« When g r a d u a t i n g f r o m t h e u n i v e r s i t y the s t u d e n t must w r i t e and d e f e n d a d i s s e r t a t i o n i n t h e n a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h , w h i c h i s g i v e n to him f o r p r e p a r a t i o n a y e a r b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n . T h i s i s done a t a n e n l a r g e d s e s s i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r department t o w h i c h s p e c i a l i s t s and i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e i n v i t e d . The g r a d u a t e i s t h e n g i v e n a d i p l o m a w i t h t h e t i t l e o f S c i e n t i -f i c "Worker. The h i g h e r t i t l e i s C a n d i d a t e of S c i e n c e s . The p r o -c e d u r e i s a s f o l l o w s : the most c a p a b l e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n -c l i n e d to t a k e up a s c i e n t i f i c v o c a t i o n a r e r e t a i n e d i n the s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s which a r e u s u a l l y a t t a c h e d to u n i v e r s i t i e s . The U n i v e r s i t y of Moscow, f o r example, i n c l u d e s a b o u t t h i r t y s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s . The s t u d e n t s of t h e s e i n s t i t u t e s a r e c a l l e d a s p i r a n t s . - The t r a i n i n g o f t h e a s p i r a n t c o n s i s t s o f s e v e r a l pha s e s : (a) S t u d i e s . The a s p i r a n t has to t a k e a number o f c o u r s e s not i n c l u d e d I n the u n i v e r s i t y s y l l a b u s but which a r e n e c e s s a r y t o e n r i c h h i s knowledge. These c o u r s e s nay be i n 79. tlie f o r m o f l e c t u r e s or c o l l e c t i v e s t u d y under p r o p e r g u i d a n c e , (b) S c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h work. S i m u l t a n e o u s l y the a s p i r a n t p r e p a r e s c e r t a i n t hemes of s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h I n -c l u d e d i n t h e s y l l a b u s of the s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e . The t h i r d y e a r i s d e v o t e d to a c o m p l e t e d s c i e n t i f i c work and• d e f e n d i n g a d i s s e r t a t i o n . ( c ) D i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m . The study of M a r x i a n p h i l o s o p h y i s e s s e n t i a l t o an a s p i r a n t " t o h e l p him to m a s t e r and s t u d y the p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n c e i n t h e l i g h t o f the M a r x i s t -L e n i n i s t t h e o r y e n a b l i n g him to expose the i d e a l i s t i c and v u l -g a r m a t e r i a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s a i d c r i t i c a l l y to t e s t modern b o u r g e o i s s c i e n c e . " (d) S c i e n t i f i c a s s e m b l i e s . The a s p i r a n t i s e n c o u r -a g e d by a l l means t o t a k e p a r t i n s c i e n t i f i c t a l k s and c o n v e r -s a t i o n s by r e a d i n g p a p e r s o r b y b r i n g i n g h i m s e l f i n t o t o u c h w i t h o t h e r s c i e n t i f i c w o r k e r s i n o r d e r to b r o a d e n h i s s c i e n -t i f i c o u t l o o k . I f the a s p i r a n t i n t e n d s to t e a h h he i s d i r e c t e d to take a c o u r s e i n pedagogy and m e t h o d o l o g y o f the p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . S u c c e s s f u l a s p i r a n t s a r e g r a n t e d the t i t l e of Can-d i d a t e o f S c i e n c e s * T h e r e were 1,500 a s p i r a n t s i n t h e S o v i e t u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1934. I n r e g a r d to s o c i a l o r i g i n about 75^ were e i t h e r w o r k e r s or c o l l e c t i v e f a r m e r s . They came to the u n i v e r s i t y s t r a i g h t f r o m the m i l l s , f a c t o r i e s , o r c o l l e c t i v e f a r m s . The S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e e x p r e s s e s p r i d e i n t h i s f a c t and m e n t i o n s t h e names o f many who have a c q u i r e d w o r l d fame. O n l y a few names 80. m i l be g i v e n h e r e so as t o v e r i f y our s t a t e m e n t above. A.P. H e l f o n d , p r o f e s s o r o f m a t h e m a t i c s , t h i r t y y e a r s o l d , who, i n 1929, when he was a t the S c i e n t i f i c Workers t r a i n -i n g c o u r s e , s o l v e d G i l b e r t ' s t r a n s c e n d e n c y p r o b l e m and o b t a i n e d w o r l d f ame 0 A.N. Kholmgorov, c o m p l e t e d h i s c o u r s e i n 1929; through h i s works on the t h e o r y o f p r o b a b i l i t i e s he has become a most p r o m i n e n t w o r l d m a t h e m a t i c i a n . 0. Kh. E a s h a y , a T a t a r , w o r k e d as a h o r s e d r i v e r and p o r t e r , now p r o f e s s o r o f c h e m i s t r y a n d d i r e c t o r o f Kazan U n i -v e r s i t y . S . I . D v a t c h k o v s k y , f o r m e r l y a c o a l m i n e r , now p r o -f e s s o r o f the Gorky u n i v e r s i t y . I t i s a S o v i e t c l a i m t h a t o a s e s l i k e t h e s e c o u l d happen o n l y i n a s y s t e m of e d u c a t i o n l i k e t h e i r s and nowhere e l s e . SCIENTIFIC CENTRES. R e c e n t l y many of the R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e s were changed i n t o s o - c a l l e d S c i e n t i f i c C e n t r e s . T h i s i m p l i e s , t h a t w h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t o f the U n i v e r s i t y , t h e y a r e g i v e n c e r t a i n i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r d e e p e r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h and the r i g h t to a s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h o t h e r s c i e n t i f i c b o d i e s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r common s c i e n t i f i - e x p l o r a t o r y work. Of t h e s e , t h e most p r o m i n e n t a r e the P h y s i c a l I n s t i t u t e and the M a t h e m a t i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Moscow U n i v e r s i t y , P r o f e s s o r L a n d b e r g a n d P r o f e s s o r M a n d e l s t a m of t h e above i n s t i t u t e s have d i s c o v e r e d t h e phenomenon o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n a l d i f f u s i o n o f l i g h t . P r o f e s s o r A k u l o v d i s c o v e r e d the law of o n i s o t h r o p y a n d 81. i n t r o d u c e d h i s method o f s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s hy magnet making p o s s i b l e t h e r e b y t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c r y s t a l l i c s t r u c t u r e of m e t a l s . There a r e o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v -e r i e s , t h e number of w h i c h i n the l a s t few y e a r s has grown co n -s i d e r a b l y . We hope, t h a t t h e few m e n t i o n e d w i l l s u f f i c e f o r o u r p u r p o s e . THE UNIVERSITIES AND MASS EDUCATIOK. We w i l l t u r n our a t t e n t i on now to a p o i n t o f utmost i n t e r e s t , i . e . , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i on o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f mass e d u c a t i o n . The s p r e a d i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge among the masses cons t i t u t e s one o f t h e mo st i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of the educ a t i o n a l work o f the S o v i e t u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r p e r s o n n e l . G r e a t w o r k i s done i n t h e f i e l d o f mass educ a t i o n i n S o v i e t R u s s i a which m e r i t s our d e s c r i p t i o n . On. t h i s m a t t e r ..'.some-light .may be thrown by a . b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t i n C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . To c i t e one c a s e : d u r i n g an e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e p l a n n e d and mapped out by the a p p r o p r i a t e u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s s e v e r a l s e n i o r p r o f e s s o r s and t h e i r a s s i s t a n t s made a s h o r t t o u r o f e x t e n s i o n work i n the o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s of the Pro v i n e e These educ a t i o n a l i s t s have g i v e n up, t e m p o r a r i l y , th e c o m f o r t s a n d p l e a s a n t atmosphere of a u n i v e r s i t y campus i n o r d e r t o b r i n g j o y and c u l t u r e t o t h e people„ who a r e i n need o f such e s s e n -t i a l s a n d to whom we owe i t , a s a s o c i a l d u t y . To show t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n the s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i on a t t a c k e d t h e s e " i n n o v a t i o n s " m o t i v a t i n g s u c h b e h a v i o u r by an e a r n e s t d e s i r e to " r e t a i n the p r o f e s s o r s a n d t e a c h e r s i n the l e c t u r e 82. rooms f o r s t u d e n t s who pay the u n i v e r s i t y and t u i t i o n f e e s " . To s a y t h a t s u c h a n u n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e , e s p e c a i l l y f r o m the . c o u n t r y ' s f u t u r e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a a n d s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s , d e s e r v e s t h e s e v e r e s t c o n d e m n a t i o n w o u l d be a m i l d way to e x p r e s s i t . T h a t a l i k e a t t i t u d e c o u l d be t a k e n b y a s i m i l a r body at o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s u n d e r our methods a n d ways o f s o c i a l t h i n k i n g and b e h a v i o u r does n o t w h o l l y excuse the o f f e n d e r s . To r e t u r n to our s u b j e c t : u n d e r t h e S o v i e t s e v e r y u n i v e r s i t y has a s p e c i a l s e c t i o n f or e d u c a t i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c work among t h e masses. We have touc hed p r e v i o u s l y on the work done and a c c o m p l i s h e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e b a s i c and w o r k e r s r f a c u l t i e s f or t r a i n i n g s c i e n t i f i c f o r c e s f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t o i l e r s and f a r m e r s . To r a i s e the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of t h e l e a d i n g w o r k e r s on t h e farms s e v e r a l u n i v e r s i t i e s have a l s o opened c o l l e c t i v e f a r m u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e i r r e g i ons. The r e -s u l t s o f t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s have been so m a g n i f i c e n t tha t t h i s wo r k has been extended to r e g i o n s n e v e r b e f o r e t o u c h e d . A n o t h e r phase o f mass e d u e a t i o n i s t h e u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n work. The L e n i n g r a d U n i v e r s i t y , w h i c h has a s p e c i a l s e c t i o n f or such work, may s e r v e a s a g ood i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r our p u r p o s e . T h i s s e c t i o n , w h i c h has on i t s s t a f f 147 s c i e n -t i s t s , o r g a n i z e s p o p u l a r l e c t u r e s i n L e n i n g r a d and i t s o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s . I n t h e c o u r s e o f l a s t y e a r (1935) t h e s e s c i e n t i f i c w o r k ers d e l i v e r e d 283 l e c t u r e s on geography, 109 l e c t u r e s on c h e m i s t r y , 105 on biology and p h y s i o l o g y , 74 on g e o g r a p h y a n d g e o l o g y , e t c . A l t o g e t h e r a b o u t 100,000 t o i l e r s a t t e n d e d t h e s e l e c t u r e s . I n a d d i t i on, s p e c i a l l e c t u r e s (100 l e e t u r e s i n 1935) 8 3 . were o r g a n i z e d f o r secondary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s o f the h i g h e r g r a d e s . S i m i l a r worlc was done by the <g~ Moscow U n i v e r s i t y . Bow i n the S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e doors of the u n i v e r s i t y a r e w i d e op en to the c h i l d r e n o f the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the pop-u l a t i o n * Moreove r , the p r o s p e c t i v e s i iden ts a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a l l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y to enable them to make use o f t h i s r i g h t * T h i s does not mean, however , tha t every to i l e r or every member o f h i s f a r a i l y who makes an a p p l i c a t i o n i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d m i t t e d to t h e u n i v e r s i t y . I n f a c t , e v e r y e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , e v e r y f a c u l t y has i t s p l a n and i t s quota o f s t u d e n t s , beyond w h i c h no s t u d e n t s w i l l be a d m i t t e d . The bes t s t u d e n t s a r e c h o s e n , t h e r e f o r e , and o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s b e i n g e q u a l , p r e f e r a n c e i s g i v e n t o i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s , t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d members o f o t h e r classes p l a c e d on equa l fo o t i n g * The f o l l o w i n g a r e the c o n d i t i ons wh ich make i t p o s -s i b l e f o r the p o o r e s t t o i l e r to a v a i l h i m s e l f o f h i s r i g h t s to a u n i v e r s ! t y educ a t i o n : ' a . f r e e u n i v e r s i t y educ a t i o n . b . s t i p e n d s . c . f r e e l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . d . f r e e use o f l i b r a r i e s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , and s t u d y rooms. e» f r e e m e d i c a l s e r v i c e and a t t e n d a n c e . f 0 d i n i n g rooms, s p o r t s , e t c . About 80$ o r 90$ a re p r o v i d e d w i t h s t i p e n d s , o t h e r s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The amount o f s t i p e n d s de -6. I b i d . , p p . 1 8 f f . 8 4 . pen&s on the p r o g r e s s made b y the s t u d e n t and the number o f y e a r s spen t a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y ; a t the h i g h e r courses the s t i -pends a re h i g h e r . The amount o f t h e s t i p e n d v a r i e s f rom 80 to 200 r o u b l e s a month f o r s tudent s and f r o m 200 to 300 r o u b l es a month for a s p i r a n t s . These amounts a r e s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y a l l m a t e r i a l needs o f the s t u d e n t s or a s p i r a n t s , and enab le them to devote t h e i r f u l l t ime to s t u d y . S t u d e n t s l i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y h o s t e l s , two or t h r e e to one room. The h o s t e l s a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a l l c o n v e n i e n c e s . I f a s tuden t i s m a r r i ed he i s p r o v i d e d w i t h l a r g e r l i v i n g qu a r t e r s and he c a n send h i s c h i l d t o t h e h o s t e l k i n d e r g a r t e n , e t c . The s t u d e n t q u a r t e r i n Moscow, c a l l e d S t romynka , has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 ,000 who l i v e i n h o s t e l s . Student s who are i n poo r h e a l t h a r e p l a c e d under s p e c -i a l c a r e and c o n d i t i o n s , eq.ua 1 to those p r e v a i l i n g i n s a n a t o r -i u m s . Some o f them a r e sen t f o r a c u re to r e s t homes or s ana -t o r i u m s , and the c o s t i s c h a r g e d to t h e s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e f u n d . S o c i a l work c o n s t i t u t e s a v e r y impor tan t p a r t sup-p l e m e n t i n g the u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . I t i s a l w a y s borne i n mind t h a t t h e S o v i e t s t u d e n t , a s a f u t u r e sp e c i a l i s t o r s c i e n t i f i c w o r k e r , w i l l have to t a k e p a r t i n the s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i t i s h i s d u t y to f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h the p r a c t i c a l work of such cons t rue t i o n w h i l e he i s a t the u n i v e r -s i t y . To p r o v i d e t h e s t u d e n t w i t h the p r o p e r gu idance f o r h i s so c i a l work many i n d u s t r i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c i r e l es , s o c i e t i e s and c l u b s , w h i c h a r e i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p a r t y or t r a d e u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a r e a t t a c h e d t o the u n i v e r s i t y . The 85. s t u d e n t s t a k e a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e above o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d s p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e c r e a t i v e s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y as a w h o l e . 8^a. PART I I I E x p l a n a t o r y Mote W i t h t h e tremendous development: o f s c h o o l s , t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y a n d g e n e r a l improvement i n t h e economic s t a n d a r d o f t h e masses, l e i s u r e b e g i n s t o o c c u p y a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e . I t I s t h e d u t y o f t h e s t a t e t o see t h a t i t s c i t i z e n s o c c u p y t h e i r h o u r s , f r e e f r o m economic p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h s o c -i a l l y u s e f u l o c c u p a t i o n s o f a h i g h e r v a l u e and w o r t h y a s p i r -a t i o n , ' ^ h e r e i n l i e t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r and the h a p p i n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e . A e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and p r o -d u c t i o n , t h e development and f o s t e r i n g of t a l e n t from among the masses o f the p e o p l e i s one o f t h e main o b j e c t i v e s o f the S o v i e t . A c c o r d i n g l y , the f o l l o w i n g pages w i l l a t t e m p t t o i l l u s t r a t e some phases o f t h e S o v i e t WQrk i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . 86 . CHAPTER VI ART EDUCATION EOR CHILDREN IN THE . SOVIET REPUBLIC. OBJECTIVE. Why a r t e d u c a t i o n , i n the a p p r a i s a l o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s i n S o v i e t R u s s i a , s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d a s p e c i a l c h a p t e r , we hope w i l l be u n d e r s t o o d f r o m what w i l l a p p e ar i n t h e pages f o l l o w i n g . On the o b j e c t i v e s o f a r t e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n we may-quote f r o m o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s : A r t e d u c a t i o n i s an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f t h e communist educ a t i on which e n d e a v o r s to c r e a t e a t h o r o u g h l y d e v e l o p e d , harmonious p e r s o n a l i t y c a p -a b l e of a p p r e c i a t i n g and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r t , and p o s s e s s i n g a d e f i n i t e amount o f a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e a n d a d e v e l o p e d a r t i s t i c t a s t e . A c c o r d i n g t o S o v i e t pedagogy a r t e d u c a t i o n must c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g , o f mass e d u c a t i o n i n a s t a t e where a l l a r e g i v e n a n e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the de-v e l o p m e n t o f t a l e n t and n a t u r a l g i f t s . To a f f o r d t o e v e r y g i f t e d c h i l d the p o s s i -b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g i t s t a l e n t to the utmost i s one o f the b a s i c t a s k s o f a r t educ a t i on. • , To t h e same e f f e c t we r e a d r e c e n t l y i n t h e New Y o r k T i m e s : To b r i n g a l l knowledge and a l l a r t to h e r c h i l d r e n f r o m the B a l t i c Sea to the P a c i f i c was one of t h e G a r g a n t u a n t a s k s s e l f - i m p o s e d by the S o v i e t f r o m the b e g i n n i n g . On h e r program i t was s u b o r d i n a t e d o n l y to t h e s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n -a l s t a b i l i t y and economic p r o g r e s s . Now t h a t t h o s e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g v i g o r o u s l y p u r s u e d , 1. P r e s s and I n f o r m a t i o n Department o f voks (Moscow, 1935),p. 1. 2. I b i d . 87. she has begun to p r o s e c u t e the c u l t u r a l cam-p a i g n w i t h e v e r y means a t h e r command; f r o m r a d i o b r o a d c a s t t o t r a v e l l i n g puppet show. She a l s o u s e s t h e s e v e h i c l e s to s p r e a d the S o v i e t p h i l o s o p h y and i n c r e a s e S o v i e t m o r a l e . F o r t h e f i r s t time, a g r e a t S t a t e I s spend-i n g s u b s t a n t i a l sums i n an attempt to a c t on t h e t h e o r y t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s more t h a n s c h o o l . The S o v i e t i s s p r e a d i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n among a l l the c h i l d r e n o f a l l the p e o p l e , p r a c t i c a l l y f r o m t h e c r a d l e to f u l l m a t u r i t y , but e s p e c i a l l y among the young, the f u t u r e t o i l e r s and l e a d e r s . A c c o r d i n g to S o v i e t i d e o l o g y , a r t e d u c a t i o n i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n a s t a t e which s t r i v e s t o d i s p e n s e w i t h mere r o u t i n e a n d m e c h a n i c a l d u l l n e s s i n l i f e as imposed by c a p i t a l -i s t c i v i l i z a t i o n . W i t h t h s coming o f a g r e a t e r l e i s u r e the masses must be t r a i n e d how t o f i l l t h e i r f r e e time w i t h v a l u e s A r t e d u c a t i o n i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r the f u t u r e t o i l e r s b e c a u s e l e i s u r e and r e l a x a t i o n , w i t h the e conomic p r o g r e s s o f t h e c o u n t r y , a r e t a k i n g i n t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of the d a y i n r e -l a t i o n to the w o r k i n g h o u r s ; and t h e s e h o u r s o f r e c r e a t i o n can be f i l l e d w i t h j o y and b e a u t y when c h i l d r e n , the c i t i z e n s o f tomorrow, p o s s e s s c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e a c q u i r e d o n l y t h r o u g h a r t e d u c a t i on. To r e c a p i t u l a t e , Wide d i s s e m i n a t i o n of t h e c u l t ur e o f a r t , the d i s c o v e r y of a r t i s t i c a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e u t m o s t s t i m u l a t i o n of, t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , c r e a t i o n of p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r c u l t u r a l r e c r e a -t i o n : - — s u c h a r e the p r i n c i p a l t a s k s o f a r t ed-u c a t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . A r t e d u c a t i o n must be s p o n s o r e d f r o m e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , and, 3. E u n i c e F u l l e r B a r n a r d , " C u l t u r e f o r L i t t l e I v a n " , The lew Y o r k Times Magazine, J a n u a r y 19, 1936. p . 11. 4. Op. c i t . o f a h i g h e r and w o r t h i e r n a t u r e . 88. c o n s e q u e n t l y , i t o c c u p i e s a prominent p a r t i n p r e - s c h o o l ed-u c a t i o n . ART EDUCATION I I THE KINDERGARTEN. I t i s i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t h a t the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e c h i l d ' s a r t e d u c a t i o n a r e l a i d . P l a y i s the p r i n c i p a l f o r m o f a c t i v i t y i n t h e l i f e o f a c h i l d o f 3 to 7 y e a r s o f age. But p l a y i n g i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n s o b t a i n e d by t h e c h i l d f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l i f e . Note what a r e the p o s -s i b l e i m p r e s s i o n s o f a c h i l d o b t a i n e d f r o m a r t images i n a book, m u s i c , p i c t u r e , puppet p l a y and t h e cinema. As t h e s e means o f a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e n e c e s s a r i l y o o n t r i b u t e to t h e c h i l d ' s de-velopment , t h e y must f o r m an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the k i n d e r g a r t e n pro gram. Consequent l y the program i n the f i e l d o f p l a y i n g i n c l u d e s : 1 . S t u d y i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a r t f a c t o r s , g i v e n above,on the c h i l d , 2 . Toys and p l a y equipment and methods o f g u i d a n c e i n games. 3 . Methods o f i n t r o d u c i n g wha t the P r o e b e l i a n s would c a l l the " G i f t s and O c c u p a t i o n s " , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r t i s t i c s t o r y - t e l l i n g and o t h e r a r t f a c t o r s . One o f the b a s i c forms of a r t e d u c a t i on o f t h e p r e -s c h o o l c h i l d i s music a l r h y t h m i c a l work which c o n s i s t s i n s i n g -i n g , l i s t e n i n g t o music and r h y t h m i c e x e r c i s e . S i n g i n g i s c o n -d u c t e d w i t h due r e g a r d to t h e age a n d i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d a c c o r d i n g to p r o j e c t e d themes, as s o n g s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c e l e -b r a t i o n s , songs a s s o c i a t e d with, phenomena o f n a t u r e , comic stags , e t c . 89, I n l i s t e n i n g to m u s i c the c h i l d r e n a r e t r a i n e d how t o l i s t e n ; t h e y a r e t h e r e b y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h m u s i c a l f r a g m e n t s o f v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r and t h e y g r a d u a l l y b e g i n t o d i s t i n g u i s h the b a s i c forms and c h a r a c t e r . Fragments from t h e works o f B e e t h o v e n , M o z a r t , S c h u b e r t , Sc human, Rimsky-Itorsakov, T s c h a i k o v s k y , and K a l i n n i p o v a r e u s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e , as w e l l as the works o f the modern c h i l d r e n ' s composers: A l e x a n d r o v , K r a s o v , and Rouchwerger. The t r a i n i n g i n s i m p l e s t f o r m of r h y t h m i c mot i ons a l s o o c c u p i e s an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e and t e a c h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l m u s i c a l r h y t h m i c a l e d u c a t i on a r e employed f o r t h i s work. I n the f i e l d o f p i c t o r i a l a r t , work i s c o n d u c t e d a s f o l l o w s : 1. F o s t e r i n g the a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n a n d t a s t e i n the c h i l d . An e f f o r t i s made t o i n t r o d u c e a harmonious u n i t y i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n so t h a t f u r n i t u r e , murals, t o y s and m a t e r i a l s might a s s u r e the development o f a r t i s t i c t a s t e i n t h e c h i l d . 2 . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i on by the c h i l d i t s e l f . The work o f t h e t e a c h e r s i s to h e l p d e v e l o p i n the c h i l d c r e a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e so t h a t the c h i l d s h o u l d c o n s t r u c t t h i n g s b y i t s own c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . The methods of p i c t o r i a l work i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n a r e b a s e d upon b l e n d i n g the e l e m e n t s of p l a y , i n d u s t r i a l a r t , and p i c t o r i a l work. 9 0 . In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d r e n and to a s s u r e t h e c r e a t i v e c h a r a c t e r of the p r e - s c h o o l e x e r c i s e s the f o 11 owing i n n o v a t i o n s have been i n t r o d u c e d l a t e l y : 1 . C h i l d r e n ' s r a d i o - l i s t e n i n g h o u r — t h e r e p e r t o r y p rogram o f a r t i s t i c r e c i t a t i on drawn up by the P r e - S c h o o l S e c t o r of t he C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n . 2 . Puppet t h e a t r e , s i m p l i f i e d and c o n d u c t e d by t e a c h e r s and even by c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l a g e . Thousands o f s e t s o f p u p p e t s a n d s c r e e n s f o r puppet t h e a t r e s a r e t u r n e d out and easy p l a y -l e t a d a p t e d t o the puppet s e t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d by the P u p p e t Workshop of t h e C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n . 3 . T a b l e - p u p p e t - t h e a t r e , to be p l a y e d by l i t t l e c h i l d r e n , has been i n t r o d u c e d l a t e l y . 4» S p e c i a l f i l m s f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s u c h as f i l m s on the monkey ("Adventures o f a Monkey"), on t h e b e a r cub f r o m the Z o o l o g i c a l P a r k , ("A C l a s s B r e a k f a s t " ) , and t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f Tanya, a boy o f bad h a b i t s ("The D i r t i e s t C h i l d " ) . 5. P i c t u r e s of customary s u r r o u n d i n g s o f c h i l d r e n , d i r e c t l y i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n - - t h e p e r f o r m a n c e b e i n g g i v e n b y a s p e c i a l f i l m f i e l d - b r i g a d e c o n -s i s t i n g o f a p e d o l o g i s t , a m u s i c i a n , a s t o r y -t e l l e r , and a cinema o p e r a t o r . The shows l a s t j no l o n g e r t h a n 2 0 m i n u t e s . 9 1 . C o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n s i o n i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e d above i s t a k i n g p l a c e t o d a y . ART IH THE SCHOOL. A r t e d u c a t i on i n s c h o o l i s c o n d u c t e d m a i n l y i n two f i e l d s : A. M u s i c • B. P i c t o r i a l A r t . A. M u s i c , The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s a r e i n c l u d e d : c h o r a l s i n g i n g , , r h y t h m i c s , l i s t e n i n g to mu s i c ( a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h m u s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ) , m u s i c a l l i t e r a c y . C h o r a l s i n g i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o mu s i c a r e p a r t s o f the program o f t h e f i r s t g r a d e s o f the elementary s c h o o l . R h y t h m i c m o t i o n i s complete i n the t h i r d g r a d e . M u s i c a l n o t e r e a d i n g b e g i n s w i t h s e c o n d s e m e s t e r of t h e s e c o n d g r a d e . I n the f i r s t and s e c o n d g r a d e s the c h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t v a r i o u s songs t h a t f o r m p a r t o f p l a y i n g , d a n c i n g , e t c . D u r i n g the "music l i s t e n i n g " hour, songs o f more complex form and c o n t e n t t h a n thos e t h e y s i n g t h e m s e l v e s a r e p l a y e d . I n the t h i r d and f o u r t h g r a d e s c h i l d r e n a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y songs and v a r i o u s f o r m s o f d a n c i n g m u s i c . I n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l the m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l i s gro u p -ed a r o u n d themes, as " F o l k m u s i c " , "Songs o f s t r u g g l e and con-s t r u c t i o n " , Hi.I. G l i n k a " , " P . I . C h a i k o v s k y " , " P o s t - O c t o b e r m u s i c i n the U.S.S.R.", e t c . On gradua t i o n from the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l the s t u d e n t i s exp e c t e d to p o s s e s s t he f o l l o w i n g a b i l i t i e s : 1 . To s i n g f r o m n o t e s . 2. To l i s t e n i n t e l l i g e n t l y t o mus i c , w i t h d i s c e r n -ment o f the elem e n t s of m u s i c a l s p e e c h . 9 2 3 . To know the l i f e , creation and period of a given composer and certain traits of his style. Music teachers are trained in the Musical Education Department of Conservatories of Music, in Musical Technicums and also in the Musical Pedagogical Technicums. SCHOOLS OE MUSIC FOR GIFTED CHILDREN. There are 102 schools of this type in the Soviet Re-public. Instruction in this school includes v io l in , piano, cel lo , and theory of music. During the f ir st two ye ars a general course in musi-cal education is given. Beginning: wi th the third year special subjects of musical theory are introduced. In the senior year accompaniment and ensemble classes are intro™jluced. Graduates of these schools may continue their musical educati on in the secondary musical school, in the musical peda-gogical technicum, and then in the higher musical school—the Conservatory and Higher Musical Institutes. At the Moscow Con-servatory there has been organized a "Meisterschule", where mus-icians continue with their studies in piano, v io l in , cello, harp, singing, etc* B . P ic tor ia l Art . This work comprises a systematic course aiming to give the c hildren a definite amount of know-ledge in drawing. Pictor ia l work is obligato ry in the f i r s t seven grades. In the elementary school teaching is done by the teacher. In the secondary school the work is directed by an artist—pedagogue. 93. Much, a t t e n t i o n i s d e v o t e d to g r a p h i c l i t e r a c y , — t h e a b i l i t y to draw o b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y i n t he d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s f r o m d i f f e r -ent" angles.. The aim o f e l ementary a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s to t e a c h the p u p i l s to d e p i c t a c c u r a t e l y any o b j e c t s w i t h p e n c i l and i n c o l o r s . The programs and m e t h o d i c a l m a t e r i a l s a r e drawn up by the P i c t o r i a l S e c t o r o f t h e C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n , the members o f w h i c h v i s i t c l a s s e s , a r r a n g e e x h i b i -t i o n ^ d i s p l a y s and g i v e w r i t t e n a n i o r a l a d v i c e to t e a c h e r s . F o r t h e d e e p e n i n g o f t h e wor k and f u r the r r e a l i z a t i o n a n d a p p r e c -i a t i on, p e r i o d i c e x c u r s i ons a r e o r g a n i z e d to museums, e x h i b i t i o n s , m e e t i n g s w i t h a r t i s t s , e t c . Fo r f u r t h er p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f p i c t o r i a l a r t , v a r i ous p i c t o r i a l c i r c l e s a r e o r g a n i z e d as a h e l p to the r e g u l a r c l a s s h o u r s . S p e c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e s a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r the p r e p a r a t i on of P i c t o r i a l C i r c l e l e a d e r s a t t h e K r u p s k a y a A r t C e n t r e a t Mo scow and i n many o t h e r c i t i e s . A RTISTIC SELF-EXPRESSION. C h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c s e l f - e x p r e s s : i o n c i r c l e s a r e o r g a n -i z e d i n the s c h o o l and t h e i r expenses a r e c o v e r e d by t h e s t a t e o r the T r a d e U n i o n . Reviews of c h i l d r e n ' s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n c i r -c l e s o f a g i v e n town or d i s t r i c t a r e h e l d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . These r e v i e w s and Olympics a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n and e n j o y the s u p p o r t o f t h e s t a t e and i t s m a n i f o l d e duca t i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d i n -d u s t r i a l organ i z a t i ons. They a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i n s p i r i n g m i l l i o n s o f c h i l d r e n to a r t i s t i c s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . 94. THEATRICAL SELF-EXPRESSI OF. The work on c h i l d r e n ' s t h e a t r i c a l s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s c a r r i e d on a l o n g the same l i n e s . The T h e a t r i c a l S e c t o r o f the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n o r d e r s s p e c i a l p l a y s w h ich a r e d i s t r i b u t e d among the t h e a t r i c a l c i r c l e s * The s e n i o r d r a m a t i c c i r c l e s o f t h e s c h o o l p r o d u c e , how e v e r ; f r a g m e n t s o f e n t i r e p l a y s f r o m c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e and d r a m a t i z e d v e r s i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l works o f f i c t i o n . MUSICAL WORK OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL. M u s i c a l and c h o r a l c i r c l e s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n a d d i t i o n to m u s i c a l l e s s o n s i n c l a s s . The aims o f the se c i r c l e s a r e : 1* To r a i s e t h e 1 e v e l o f m u s i c a l c u l t u r e . 2 . To o r g a n i z e t h e l e i s u r e t i m e o f s c h o o l p u p i l s and p i o n e e r s . 3« To p r e p a r e p u p i l s and p i o n e e r s f o r the o r g a n i z a -t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e s c h o o l , i n t h e home, p l a y g r o u n d , e t c . The r e s u l t o f th i s wo rk i s the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i -t a t i v e growth o f t h e m u s i c a l c i r c l e s and g r o w t h o f a r t i s t i c s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n among c h i l d r e n . OTHER CIRCLES FOR CHILD BEET'S SELF-EXPRESSION. A l o n g the same l i n e s and wi t h s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s v a r -i o u s c i r c l e s a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r l i t e r a r y s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , p i c t o r -i a l s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , r h y t h m i c c i r c l e s ( r h y t h m i c s , g y m n a s t i c m o t i o n , a r t g y m n a s t i c s ) , e t c . GAMES. Because o f g r e a t a t t e n t i o n d e v o t e d i n the S o v i e t U n i o n to c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a p a r a g r a p h o r two, d e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f s p a c e , 95. w i l l "be d e v o t e d t o i t h e r e * I n a l l s c h o o l s and c h i l d r e n ' s c l u b s t h e r e a r e c i r c l e s o f p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e * S p e c i a l c i r c l e s o f " Z a t e m i k i " a r e o r g a n -i z e d whose work c o n s i s t s i n o r g a n i z i n g games. The most p o p u l a r games a r e group games, mass games, t a b l e games, mass d a n c i n g , mass d r a m a t i c games, e t c . I n t h e s e c i r c l e s the c h i l d r e n a r e t r a i n -ed to a i d t h e p e d a g o g i c a l l e a d e r s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of mass games a t t h e c h i l d r e n c e l e b r a t i o n s a t s c h o o l s a n d on the p l a y -g r o u nds . Such c e l e b r a t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d s e v e r a l t i m e s a y e a r . These a r e h e l d i n p a r k s o f c u l t u r e and r e s t , c h i l d r e n ' s s t a d -iums , a n d p i o n e e r camps. There i s a n e x t e n s i v e n etwork of c o u r s e s f o r t h e s e c i r c l e l e a d e r s . These cour s e s a r e a t t e n d e d b y many f a c t o r y and o f f i c e w o r k e r s i n t h e i r s p a r e t i m e . F u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s r e -c e i v e t h e i r wages d u r i n g the e n t i r e s t u d y p e r i o d . ARTISTICALLY GIFTED (HPLDFEN M E STUDIED AND ANALYZED. The S o v i e t R e p u b l i c p a y s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to t h o s e c h i l d r e n who m a n i f e s t s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n a n y f i e l d o f a r t . F o r t h a t p u r p o s e the P e d a l o g o - P e d a g o g i c a l Department o f the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n engages i n the s t u d y o f a r t i s t i c a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r en - - f u t u r e p a i n t e r s , s c u l p t o r s , m u s i c i a n s , w r i t e r s , e t c . F i r s t , the works o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e a n a l y s e d by s p e c i a l i s t s and a f t e r due r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s the department p r o c e e d s to the i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y of t h e c h i l d . L e t u s l e a r n t h e s t e p s t a k e n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y . 1 . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out w i t h r e g a r d t o the c h i l d ' s 96. a • H e r e d i t y , . b 0 C h i l d h o o d h i s t o r y , c c S p e c i a l a n d l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s * d, Sphere o f i n t e r e s t s and c u l t u r a l a s p i r a -t i o n s of t h e c h i l d i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s o f a r t , s c i e n c e, p u b l i c l i f e , e t c . 2. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f c h i l d o b t a i n e d f r o m s c h o o l . 3e An e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l study o f c h i l d ' s m e n t a l development and s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s , e m o t i o n a l d e p t h and c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . L e t us q u o t e t h e a u t h o r i t i e s on t h i s s u b j e c t : ' I n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h the l e v e l o f development o f a g i v e n a r t i s t i c t a l ent i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d t h e P e d a g o g i c a l Department o f the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n h a s e l a b o r a t e d a s e r i e s o f t e s t s . A f t e r h a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n a t h o r o u g h s t u d y o f t h e t a l e n t I s made and the c o n -c l u s i o n i s drav/n a s to p e d a g o g i c a l s t e p s to be t a k e n f o r i t s f u r t h e r d evelopment: whether e a r l y p r o f e s -s i o n a l i s m i s a d m i s s i b l e , to, what e x t e n t t h e c h i l d n e eds s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n above the g e n e r a l s c h o o l , what p a r t i c u l a r p e d a g o g i c a l c a r e s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d to t h e c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y a n d i n t h e s c h o o l , and so f o r t h . A d v i c e i s t h e n g i v e n a c c o r d i n g l y to t h e p a r e n t s and. t o the t e a c h e r s o f the schoo l . * * When e x c e p t i o n a l g i f t s a r e a p p a r e n t , t h e C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i on s e c u r e s f o r s u c h c h i l d r e n s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i e l d of a r t and c r e a t e s e s p e c i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r development of t a l e n t . Such c h i l d r e n a r e t r a n s f e r r e d to m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s and g i v e n s u b s t a n t i a l s t a t e s c h o l a r s h i p s . They a r e g i v e n s y s t e m a t i c i n s t ' r u c t i o n i n t h e s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n ' s s t u d i o a t the A r t S e c t o r o f th e C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n where prominent 9 7 . a r t i s t s f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n -f o r m a t i o n g i v e n "by t h e P e d o l o g i c a l Department about 150 c h i l d r e were examined i n the c o u r s e of f i v e months i n 1935. Amoiy-them many were f o u n d to be g i f t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i n e a r t s . Due to a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e the S o v i e t educa t i o n -a l i s t s f o u n d i t p o s s i b l e to draw c o n c l u s i o n s a s to t h e (1) de-v e l o p m e n t o f a r t i s t i c g i f t s i n c h i l d r e n , (2) g e n e r a l p e d a g o g i c p r i n c i p l e s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l work w i t h a r t i s t i c a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d -r e n . IP-HE EFFECT OF ART OH CHILD KEN. I t i s most u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y of t h i s c h a p t e r , p r e v e n t s u s f r o m a de-t a i l e d d i s c u s s i on on t h e s u b j e c t . We w i l l , a c c o r d i n g l y , l i m i t o u r s e l v e s to g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . I n o r d e r to l e a r n the e f f e c t o f a r t on c h i l d r e n we must b e a r i n mind the r e a c t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d to t h e a t r i c a l p e r -f o r m a n c e s , moving p i c t u r e s , e t c . As contemporary s c i e n c e (ped-o l o g y , c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y ) i s n e a r l y s i l e n t on the s u b j e c t , t h e P e d o l o g o - P e d a g o g i c a l Department of t h e C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d -r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i on r e s o r t e d to i n v e s t i g a t i on methods. Armed w i t h n e c e s s a r y equipment a n d t e s t s , and h a v i n g on i t s s t a f f t r a i n e d p e d o l o g i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p h y s i c i a n s , t h e above department p r o c e e d e d . . . . t o s t u d y the a t t i t u d e of c h i l d r e n towards v a r i o u s forms a p a r t , to s t u d y the e f f e c t o f s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t s , i . e . , how t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d by c h i l d r e n o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , what t h e i r e m o t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e i s on t h e c h i l d . 6 6. Op. c i t . , p . 23. 98, As e a c h c h i l d r e n ' s t h e a t r e and cinema has i t s own p e d o l o g i s t who s t u d i e s d a i l y t h e s e r e l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s and p r o b l e m s , r e -s u l t s c o u l d be c o m p i l e d and c l a s s i f i e d . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s w i l l s p e ak f o r t h e m s e l v e s . TABLE X Y I I I n t e r e s t s o f c h i l d r e n i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s of a r t d i f f e r w i t h t h e i r a g e . f Age P e r i o d I n t e r e s t . E a r l y age O l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d o l e s c e n t s A d o l e s c e n t s Games and " m i n o r n forms o f a r t a s s i n g i n g , d r a w i n g and m o d e l i n g . T h e a t r i c a l s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and t h e a t r e a t t e n d i n g . Y i s i t i ng museums. D i m i n i s h i n g o f i n t e r e s t f o r the cinema and i n c r e a s e f o r t h e t h e a t r e . TABLE X Y I I I I n t e r e s t s o f c h i l d r e n i n v a r i o u s k i n d s o f f i l m s . # Age H i s t o r i c a l S c i e n c e , t r a v e l & R e v o l u t i o n a r y L ove-f i l m s t e c h n i c a l d e v e l o p - h e r o i s m & theme m e n t f i l m s . e l s r i i war f i l m s , f i l m s , 11-12 yrs. 6$ 13-14 " 20$ 15-16 » 2il% 32$ 28 7o # C o m p i l e d a f t e r A r t E d u c a t i o n i n U.S.S. R. (Vosk, Moscow, 1935) p a s s i m . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e may i n d i c a t e the r e a c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a t d i f f e r e n t p l a y s : TABLE X I X . C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n t o p l a y s i n the t h e a t r e and c inema as r e v e a l e d b y a p e d o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S o v i e t R e p u b l i c , ; / Age A p p r o x i m a t e R e a c t i o n s . Up to 10 y e a r s E x t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s and move-ments ; unexpec t ed r e a c t i o n o f the c h i l d s p e c -t a t o r e n t i r e l y i r r e l e v a n t to s i t u a t i o n . S t o r y and p l o t n e a r e s t to c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t i o n . B e g . 13 y e a r P e r c e p t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f the he roe s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the b e g i n n i n g o f a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g o f the c h i l d . 14 to 15 y e a r s B e g i n n i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n o f t he p r o d u c t i o n , s c e n i c d e s i g n s and q u a l i t y o f a c t i n g . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i t was p o s s i b l e to draw up an age d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e g a r d i n g performances f o r c h i l d r e n . A t p r e s e n t e v e r y p l a y w r i g h t and p r o d u c e r t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the age p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the: young s p e c t a t o r . CHILDREN'S THEATRE. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of c h i l d r e n ' s t h e a t r e s was understood from the b e g i n n i n g o f t he r e v o l u t i o n . The Moscow Theat re f o r c h i l d r e n was opened i n 1 9 2 1 . The L e n i n g r a d J u v e n i l e Thea t re was opened i n 1 9 2 2 . These have become a model f o r many o t h e r s a l l o v e r the c o u n t r y . I n 1930 t h e r e were t w e n t y - s i x and i n 1935 f i f t y - s e v e n c h i l d r e n ' s t h e a t r e s I n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c . # C o m p i l e d by the w r i t e r . 100. The j u v e n i l e t h e a t r e s c a t e r to c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age f rom 10 t o l b y e a r s . F o r p r e - s c h o o l and j u n i o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t h e r e i s a ne twork o f puppet t h e a t r e s , f i f t y - f o u r i n number ( 1 9 3 5 ) • Among the b e s t a re the C e n t r a l Puppet Thea t r e a t the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n under the d i r e c t i o n o f Honoured A r t i s t o f t h e R e p u b l i c G . V . O b r a s t s o v , and the L e n i n g r a d Puppet Thea t re a t the L e n i n g r a d J u v e n i l e T h e a t r e , u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n of Honoured A r t i s t o f the R e p u b l i c E . S . De imen . C h i l d r e n a r e no t a d m i t t e d t o the work i n these t h e a t r e s f o r t h e y are s t r i c t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l . F o r them the re a re o r g a n -i z e d semi -ama teu r t h e a t r e s a l l ove r the c o u n t r y w h i ch r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b s i d i e s f rom the n a t i o n a l budget and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . There i s a v e r y r e a s o n a b l e a d m i s s i o n charge and t h e r e i s no box o f f i c e s a l e o f t i c k e t s . I n the c o u r s e o f f i f t e e n y e a r s the r e p e r t o r y o f the j u v e n i l e t h e a t r e s has i n c r e a s e d t r e m e n d o u s l y . The p l a y s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o genre and s t r u c t u r e , c o m p r i s i n g dramas, h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s , comedies , p l a y s o f a d v e n t u r e . The most p o p u l a r p l a y s a r e : K r o h n ' s " R i f l e N o . 49216" , ~ " A u l G i d g e " , " F a r Away" , and " B r o t h e r " ; S h e s t a k o v ' s " T r e a s u r e " ; S c h w a r t z ' s " T i m o t h y ' s M i n e " ; and M a k a r o v ' s " R e b e l s " . The r e p e r t o r y of t h e j u v e n i l e t h e a t r e s i n c l u d e s d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l j u v e n i l e and a d u l t l i t e r a t u r e , a s "Don Q u i x o t e " r " U n c l e Tom's C a b i n " , "Free F l o n d r i o n s " , Numerous f o l k and c l a s s i c s t o r i e s a re a l s o d r a m a t i z e d , sueh as works o f P u s h k i n , A n d e r s e n , Grimm b r o t h e r s and so f o r t h . To h e l p the s c h o o l i n the s t udy o f l i t e r a t u r e p l a y s o f O s t r o v s k y , 101. G o g o l , M o l i e r e , G a l d e r o n and S c h i l l e r a r e p r e s e n t e d . D e s p i t e a l l e f f o r t s t h e n u m e r i c a l growth o f the t h e a t r e s l a g s beh ind the g rowth o f the demand. To f i l l t h i s gap the Commissa r i a t o f E d u c a t i o n o r d e r e d a l l t h e a t r e s t o g i v e mat inee performances ' a c c o r d i n g t o the approved r e p e r t o r y a t r educed r a t e s , jJO p e r c e n t , o f t h e u s u a l c h a r g e . We w i l l a t tempt to g i v e here a s h o r t s k e t c h o f the. ma t inee r e p e r t o r y . 1 . R u s s i a n c l a s s i e s t G o g o l , G r i b o y e d o v , Q s t r o v s k y , ( " P r i v a t e S e t t l e m e n t " , L u c r a t i v e P l a c e " , "From P o v e r t y to A f f l u e n c e " ) , Suchovo K o h i l i n ' s " K r e t -s h i n s k y ' s Wedd ing" , Maxim G o r k y ' s "Lower Depths" and ' E n e m i e s " . 2 . F o r e i g n c l a s s i c s s Shakespeare , M o l i e r e , S c h i l l e r , B e a u m a r c h a i s , G o l d o n i . j5. Contemporary S o v i e t p l a y s ; Veshnevsky " F i r s t C a v a l r y " ; Furmonov "Chap.aev"; K e r s h o n "Bread" and "The Wondetfull A l l o y " ; A f i n o g e n o v " F e a r " ; Z a r k h i " J o y S t r e e t " ; S l a v i n " I n t e r v e n t i o n " ; P o g o d i n "My F r i e n d " and A r i s t o c r a t " ; B r u s t e i n "To be C o n t i n u e d " . Othe r i n n o v a t i o n s i n the t h e a t r i c a l f i e l d a r e the t r a v e l l i n g t h e a t r e s o f c o l l e c t i v e s and s t a t e farms, p e d a g o g i c a l s e c t i o n s at the t h e a t r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f p e d o l o g i s t s and pedago-gues (because " c h i l d r e n ' s t h e a t r e s as a r t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u -t i ons cannot e x i s t w i t h o u t a c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the s c h o o l * 1 ) , a t h e a t r i c a l t eehn icum f o r the t r a i n i n g o f a c t o r s . B e s i d e s s e v e r a l such s c h o o l s a t N o v o s i b i r s k and A r c h a n g e l , such a s c h o o l was opened l a s t yea r a t the L e n i n g r a d J u v e n i l e Thea t re 102. and i n J anua ry a t h e a t r i c a l t e chn icum i s t o he opened a t the S t a t e C e n t r a l J u v e n i l e Thea t re i n Moscow. CHILDREN'S CONCERTS. C o n c e r t s s t i m u l a t e t h e m u s i c a l development o f a c h i l d h u t t h e y must he c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e r t s , o f i n t e r e s t t o c h i l d r e n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e r t s i s conduc ted hy the M u s i c I n s p e c t i o n Commiss ion o f t he P e o p l e ' s Commissa r i a t o f E d u c a t i o n and by the C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a -t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l w o r k , however , i s e n t r u s t e d , f o r example i n Moscow, t o the Moscow S t a t e C o n s e r v a t o r y o f M u s i c , to t h e m u s i c a l t echn icums and s c h o o l s , to t h e c o n c e r t b r i g a d e s o f the House o f A r t E d u c a t i o n o f the c i t y o f Moscow, to the C h i l d r e n ' s T h e a t r e , and t o the Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f the S t a t e J u v e n i l e T h e a t r e . I n the p r o v i n c e s the c o n c e r t work i s managed by c o n c e r t b u r e a u s , t e c h n i c u m s , s c h o o l s and cons e r v a t o r i e s o f mus-i c . The program i n c l u d e s : Haydn, M o z a r t , .Beethoven, S c h u b e r t , Schuman, G r i e g and a number o f R u s s i a n composers a s G l i n k a , R i m s k y - K o r s a k o v , M o u s s o r g s k y , -Borodin, T s c h a i k o v s k y , B a l a k i r e v , L iadov® A number o f contemporary S o v i e t composers a re a l s o i n c l u d e d : S h e c h t e r , C h e m b e r d j i , B i e l y , D a v i d e n k o , K o v a l , Shes t a k o v i t c h , K n i p p e r , M y a s k o v s k y , e t c . The program i s b u i l t on themes o f i n s t r u m e n t a l and v o c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f a c e r t a i n com-p o s e r as " A r t i n M u s i c " , "Dance i n M u s i c " , " F o l k s t o r i e s i n R u s s i a n M u s i c " , " F o l k s t o r i e s i n Western M u s i c " , e t c . The Moscow P h i l h a r m o n i c gave twenty c o n c e r t s a t t ended by 20,000 c h i l d r e n from Oc tobe r l?j54 t i l l J u l y 1935, The c o n -c e r t b r i g a d e o f the Moscow House of C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n 103 d u r i n g the same p e r i o d gave 210 c o n c e r t s a t t ended by 35,000 c h i l d r e n . The Moscow C h i l d r e n ' s Thea t r e gave t w e l v e c o n c e r t s d u r i n g the autumn p e r i o d o f . 1 9 3 4 , w h i c h were a t t ended by 6,000 c h i l d r e n , the program b e i n g c h i e f l y o f P o l o v i n k i n ' s w o r k s , w r i t t e n and adap ted f o r c h i l d r e n . The Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f the C e n t r a l J u v e n i l e Thea t r e gave s e v e n c o n c e r t s f o r the same p e r i o d a t t e n d e d by 2,000 c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n t o c l a s s i c a l mus ic the program i n c l u d e d t h e work o f the S o v i e t composer I . K o v n e r , The f i e l d b r i g a d e s o f the ment ioned i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r g a n i z e s i m i l a r c o n c e r t s a l l o v e r the c o u n t r y . CHILDREN'S,CIHEMA THEATRES. The f i r s t c inema t h e a t r e s f o r c h i l d r e n were e s t a b -l i s h e d i n 1?32 i n Moscow. I n 1932 t h e r e were f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n ' s c inema t h e a t r e s . I n 1933 the S o v i e t government a s s i g n e d a num-b e r o f c inema t h e a t r e s t o s e r v e c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t i m u l a t e d t h e i r g rowth and i n 1935 t h e r e were i n the S o v i e t R e p u b l i c one hundred c h i l d r e n ' s c inema t h e a t r e s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f f i l m s f o r c h i l d r e n began i n 1923 . A t p r e s e n t about s i x t y o f them are shown. S i n c e 1933 a s p e c i a l m o n t h l y c inema j o u r n a l f o r c h i l d r e n e n t i t l e d " P i o n e r i a " i s p u b l i s h e d by t h e S o v i e t f i l m C h r o n i c l e - . The p r i n c i p l e genre of c h i l d r e n ' s f i l m n i s based on s t o r i e s . There a r e , however , f i l m s o f a d v e n t u r e s , comedies , etc*- Othe r f i l m s d e a l c h i e f l y w i t h the l i f e o f c h i l d r e n : " C h i l d r e n i n our C o u n t r y be fo re t h e R e v o l u t i o n " , " C h i l d r e n i n the P e r i o d o f the C i v i l W a r " , " C h i l d r e n i n the R e v o l u t i o n a r y 104. Movement A b r o a d " , " L i f e and S t u d y i n the S o v i e t S c h o o l s " , " C h i l d r e n I n v e n t o r s " , e t c . I n the f o y e r o f t he se t h e a t r e s t h e r e i s a s ta^e f o r pe r fo rmances by the c i r c l e s o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , f o r puppet shows, c inema e x h i b i t i o n , and w a l l newspapers, . Some t h e a t r e s a re p r o v i d e d w i t h r e a d i n g rooms w e l l s t o c k e d w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e , p e r i o d i c a l s and games. A s p e c i a l s t a f f is a p p o i n t -ed to l o o k a f t e r t he se a c t i v i t i e s . HAL10 ffOK CHILDREN. Whoever i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the way c h i l d r e n ' s p r o -grams a re a r r a n g e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y may be i n t e r e s t e d to l e a r n ho?/ the same i s done i n R u s s i a . 'Ihe w r i t e r knows a number o f p a r e n t s who a r e c o n t e m p l a t i n g p a r t i n g w i t h t h e i r r a d i o s as a n e n t e r t a i n i n g f a c t o r because o f the d e t r i m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e o f some programs on t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The r a d i o s t a t i o n s o f tne R e p u b l i c a re d i v i d e d i n t o . A l l - O n i o n , R e p u b l i c a n , R e g i o n a l , P r o v i n c i a l , e t c . A t a l l these r a d i o s t a t i o n s t h e r e i s a C h i l d r e n ' s B r o a d c a s t i n g Department w h i c h o r g a n i z e s r a d i o - t r a n s m i s s i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . The C h i l d r e n ' s B r o a d c a s t i n g Department o f the A l l -U n i o n Rad io Committee t r a n s m i t s o v e r i t s most p o w e r f u l r a d i o s t a t i o n " C o m i n t e r n " b r o a d c a s t s f o r c h i l d r e n t h r ee t imes d a i l y , " G e t t i n g up E x e r c i s e s " , " P i o n e e r News", and the " L i t e r a r y and M u s i c a l H o u r " . A hese a r e o r g a n i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o age g r o u p s : p r e - s c h o o l , j u n i o r and s e n i o r age c h i l d r e n , the l e n g t h o f the program b e i n g 2 0 , 30 and 45 m i n u t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 0 5 . The purpose o f t he se c h i l d r e n ' s b r o a d c a s t s i s t o o r g a n i z e the f r ee t ime o f c h i l d r e n , to p r o v i d e a r t i s t i c e d u c a t i o n f o r them, and to h e l p the s c h o o l i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l w o r k . By i t s c o n -t e n t the b r o a d c a s t s are d i v i d e d as f o l l o w s : l i t e r a r y , m u s i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c - t e c h n i c a l , s o c i a l -p o l i t i c a l , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t . S o v i e t f i c t i o n , as w e l l as R u s s i a n and f o r e i g n c l a s s i c s are used a t t hese b r o a d c a s t s * ? • '•%e C h i l d r e n ' s B r o a d c a s t i n g Department o f the A l l - U n i o n Rad io Committee has a t i t s d i s p o s a l an o r c h e s t r a , a v o c a l ensemble , d r a m a t i c a c t o r s , j u v e n i l e w r i t e r s , composers , prominent a r t i s t s , e t c . . • v • . • A t p r e s e n t about 20 ,000 s c h o o l s have r a d i o i n s t a l l a -t i o n . The depar tment r e c e i v e s f rom i t s l i s t e n e r s about j?00 l e t t e r s d a i l y . I n a d d i t i o n t o i t M e t h o d i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h work i n the f i e l d o f c h i l d r e n ' s r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g i s c o n -duc t ed by the M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Department o f the C e n t r a l House of C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n . The M e t h o d o l o g i c a l D e p a r t m e n t - s t u d i e s the most e f f i c a c i o u s forms o f b r o a d c a s t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , the p r o c e s s o f r a d i o l i s t e n i n g , and p r a c t i c a l measures o f a s s i s t a n c e t o the Department o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g f o r children.**" STORY TKLLIB3-. ': The a r t o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i s g a i n i n g prominence i n S o v i e t s c h o o l l i f e . S t o r y t e l l i n g Is t a k i n g p l a c e i n c l u b s , l i b r a r i e s and i n s c h o o l s . There a re v a r i e d forms of s t o r y t e l l i n g , the p r i n c i p a l one b e i n g r e a d i n g the s t o r y from t e x t s , but k e e p i n g c l o s e to the f o r m o f a r t i s t i c r e a d i n g , and c r e a t i v e s t o r y t e l l i n g . The l o c a l s tudent i n e d u c a t i o n may be i n t e r e s t e d i n R u s s i a n works w h i c h are adapted f o r s t o r y t e l l i n g . A few 7 • Op. c i t . , p . 3 6 . 8 . Op. c i t . , p . 3 7 . 1 0 6 . w i l l be enumerated b e l o w : S h o l o k h o v ' s " V i r g i n S o i l U p t u r n e d " , F a d e y e v r s " D e b a c l e " , A l e x e i T o l s t o i ' s " P e t e r I " , P u s h k i n ' s "Copper Horseman" , T e r m o n t o v ' s "Song o f the Merchant K a l a s h m i -k o v " , f ragments from G o g o l ' s "Dealt S o u l s " , from D o s t o y e v s k y ' s "Whi te N i g h t s " a n d "Hetoshka H e z v a n o v a " , f rom T o l s t o i ' s "War and P e a c e " , from T u r g e n e v ' s "Hun te r s D i a r y " , and G o r k y ' s " C h i l d h o o d " and " I n S e r v i c e . " I n a d d i t i o n , g r e a t a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d l a t e l y to s t o r y t e l l i n g f rom f o l k l o r e and h i s t o r i c b i o g r a p h y and f rom m a t e r i a l s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . T h i s , however, i s not t h e f u l l s t o r y . Grea t a t t e n t i o n i s a l s o p a i d i n the R u s s i a n s c h o o l s to s t o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the c o u n t r y ' s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the development o f i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . B u t he re and t h e r e i n s u c h s t o r i e s problems o f an economic and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r must be touched upon ; d e s c r i p t l o n o f and c o m p a r i s o n w i t h f o r e i g n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e must be d e l i -c a t e l y h a n d l e d • Then , how can the above q u e s t i o n s be e x p l a i n e d and p o p u l a r i z e d so t h a t t hey shou ld become i n t e l l i g i b l e t o c h i l d r e n ? "The S t o r y o f the Grea t P l a n " , by the famous S o v i e t s c h o o l t e a c h e r M . I l i n , ^ i s known the w o r l d o v e r . A s e l e c t i o n from i t s c h a p t e r "The Two C o u n t r i e s " under the c a p t i o n "What Happens .When They Work Wi thou t a P l o w " , as a d m i r a b l y t r a n s l a t e d by P r o f e s s o r Counts o f Teacher s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , m e r i t s q u o t a t i o n s i n f u l l i n our c h a p t e r h e r e : # See a l s o M . I l i n , l e w R u s s i a ' s P r i m e r , ( l ew Y o r k , 1951) t r a n s l a t e d . b y George S . Counts and IT. l o d g e * ' 107 . M r . Fox a c q u i r e s money—one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . But money must n o t r ema in i d l e . M r . Fox l o o k s t h r o u g h newspapers , he c o n s u l t s hfe f r i e n d s , he employs a g e n t s . From morn ing t i l l n i g h t h i s agen t s comb the c i t y , l o o k abou t , and make e n -q u i r i e s . What i s to be done w i t h the money o f M r . Fox? F i n a l l y a b u s i n e s s i s f o u n d . H a t s I That i s wha t ' one cou ld make. H a t s go w e l l , p e o p l e get r i c h . There i s n o t h i n g to h e s i t a t e a b o u t . M r . Fox b u i l d s a new f a c t o r y . The same i d e a o c c u r s a t the same t ime to M r . Fox and M r . Grox and M r . Uox and t h e y a l l b e g i n to b u i l d h a t f a c t o r i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . W i t h i n h a l f a y e a r t h e r e are s e v e r a l new ha t f a c t o r i e s i n the c o u n t r y . Shops are f i l l e d t o the c e i l i n g w i t h hat boxes . S t o r e rooms a re b u r s t i n g w i t h them. Everywhere t he re a re p o s t e r s , s i g n s , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s ; HATS J HATS! HATS J A g r ea t many more h a t s - a r e made t h a n are needed - - tw iee as many, t h ree t i m e s as many. And the f a c t o r i e s c o n t i n u e to work a t f u l l s p e e d . And here someth ing happens t h a t n e i t h e r Mr* F o x , n o r M r . F o x , n o r M r . Hox , nor M r . Grox a n t i c i p a t e d . The p u b l i c s t o p s b u y i n g h a t s . M r . Hox l o w e r s h i s p r i c e s 20 c e n t s , M r . Crox 40 c e n t s , M r . F o x s e l l s h a t s a t a l o s s i n o r d e r t o ge t r i d o f t hem. But b u s i n e s s grows wor se and w o r s e . I n a l l o f t h e - p a p e r s a d v e r t i s e m e n t s appear:" you may have one he a d , but tha t does not mean a t a l l t h a t you s h o u l d wear o n l y one h a t . E v e r y A m e r i c a n s h o u l d have t h r e e h a t s . Bulj the h a t s o f M r . Fox* M r . Fox o f f e r s t o s e l l h a t s on a t h r e e - y e a r i n s t a l l m e n t p l a n . M r . Nox announces a s a l e ; o n l y f o r one day I The advantage o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y ! But t h i s does not h e l p . M r . Fox l o w e r s the wages o f h i s w o r k e r s one d o l l a r a week. M r . C r o x l o w e r s h i s wages two d o l l a r s a week. A g a i n b u s i n e s s grows worse and w o r s e . A l l a t once—STOPI M r . Fox c l o s e s h i s f a c t o r y . Two thousand w o r k e r s - a r e d i s c h a r g e d and p e r m i t t e d to go wherever they p l e a s e . The f o l l o w i n g day the f a c t o r y o f M r . Hox s t o p s . I n a week p r a c t i c a l l y a l l 108 . ha t f a c t o r i e s a r e s t a n d i n g i d l e . Thousands o f w o r k e r s a r e w i t h o u t w o r k . New machines grow r u s t y . B u i l d i n g s a r e s o l d f o r w r e c k a g e . A y e a r o r two p a s s . The ha t s bought f rom M r . F o x , P o x , and C r o x wear o u t . The p u b l i c once more beg ins to buy h a t s . Hat stores become empty. From the top s h e l v e s d u s t y c a r t o n s a r e t aken down. There are not enough h a t s . P r i c e s on ha t s go u p . . And now, not M r . F o x , bu t a c e r t a i n M r . Doodle t h i n k s o f a p r o f i t a b l e b u s i n e s s - t h e b u i l d i n g o f a ha t f a c t o r y . But the same i d e a a l s o e n t e r s the heads o f o the r w i s e and b u s i n e s s - l i k e p e o p l e -M r . B o o d l e , M r . F o o d i e , and M r . N o o d l e . And the o l d s t o r y b e g i n s ove r a g a i n . ? » • C l e a r l y enough, to a w e s t e r n mind t h i s sounds as i n -d o c t r i n a t i o n o r p ropaganda . The R u s s i a n s do not deny i t . P r o -paganda to them i s an e d u c a t i o n a l means o f e n l i g h t e n i n g the p e o p l e and o f e n a b l i n g them to a c h i e v e the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e - -the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new s o c i a l o r d e r where " a l l l i f e must be so o r g a n i z e d tha t no t o n l y a few l u c k y ones but a l l may f e e l t h e j o y o f l i f e " . M o r e o v e r , i t i s a R u s s i a n c o n t e n t i o n t h a t no t o n l y i s propaganda, i n one form o r a n o t h e r , p r e v a i l i n g i n e v e r y c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r y , but i t i s even o r g a n i z e d i n a way t h a t i s d e t r i m e n t a l t o s o c i a l w e l f a r and h a p p i n e s s . 9 . George S . Coun t s , T h e S o v i e t C h a l l e n g e to A m e r i c a , ( John Day C o . , l ? 3 l ) , p p . 1 4 - 1 6 . 109. CONCLUSION. W i t h o u t any h e s i t a t i o n , we may s t a t e t h a t the p e r i o d s i n c e t h e War w i l l stand, out i n the h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n as m a r k i n g t h e b e g i n n i n g of a new e r a . To t h i s the S o v i e t has c o n t r i b u t e d a s t i m u l u s which w i l l have f a r - r e a c h i n g r e s u l t s i n many phases o f human endeavor A l t h o u g h , as some c o n t e n d , i t i s a f a r c r y from t h e o r i e s prop oun ded, the a i m and o b j e c t i v e s e t , t o r e s u l t s a c t u a l l y g a i n e d , the a r e some v a l u e s i n the p r o c e s s o f r e a l i z a t i o n w h i c h m e r i t a n e a r n e s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i r s t , the S o v i e t has expanded t h e c o n c e p t o f n a t i o n -a l e d u c a t i o n i n terms of i t s p r o v i s i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l p r o -gram o f t h a t c o u n t r y i n c l u d e s tae p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n f r o m the c r a d l e u n t i l s e n e s c e n c e . For t h e c a r e o f the i n f a n t s , i t has o r g a n i z e d c r e c h e s , n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , e t c . I n the f i e l d o f p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n the a u t h o r i t i e s have p r o v i d e d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and v a r i e d s c h o o l s a c c o r d i n g to t h e needs and a b i l i t i e s o f the p u p i l s . They have taken measures f o r t h e l i -q u i d a t i o n of i l l i t e r a c y and a l s o have p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d v a n c e d s t u d i e s . I n t h e f i e l d of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , t h e y have opened wide t h e d o o r s o f h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s of l e a r n i n g f o r t h o s e who have a b i l i t i e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . A b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y a r e p l a c e d above m a t e r i a l s t a n d i n g and c l a s s p r i v i l e g e . I n e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , the S o v i e t i s s t i l l i n the s t a g e o f e l a b o r a t i n g a new pedagogy w h i c h must be e a r n e s t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r i r r e s p e c t i v e o f views and p r e f e r e n c e s . The new 110. M a r x i a n - L e n i n i s t i d e o l o g y and the s o - c a l l e d d i a l e c t i c m ater-i a l i s m c h a l l e n g e any s t u d e n t to whom the a s p i r a t i o n s o f ed-u c a t i o n a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e cause f o r the advancement of h u m a n i t y . I f as H.G-. W e l l s once s a i d " e d u c a t i o n i s a r a c e be-tween c i v i l i z a t i o n and c a t a s t r o p h e " , a l l e f f o r t s made e a r n e s t -l y on b e h a l f o f e d u c a t i o n mus t be s t u d i e d I n t h e i r t r u e l i g h t o b j e c t i v e l y , a n d i n an u n p r e j u d i c e d and u n b i a s e d way. A f t e r a l l , i n a c o u n t r y , w h e r e , p r i o r to t h e r e v o l u t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s were f o r the few, the S o v i e t has embarked upon a p o l i c y o f e d u c a t i n g a l l f o r a c i v i l i z e d l i f e o f j o y s and h a p p i n e s s . A l r e a d y the new theory, c o n t r i but ed by the b e s t Sov-i e t minds i s now a p r o d u c t , n o t o n l y of the R e v o l u t i o n , but a l s o o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y mind o f the new man o f t h e new o r d e r . Today, the new d o c t r i n e s a r e t h e t h o u g h t o f the S o v i e t p e o p l e . As e d u c a t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f v i t a l c o n c e r n to any ad-vanc e d c u l t u r e , the S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s the i n f l u e n c e o f educ a t i on i n a dynamic s o c i e t y . F r e -q u e n t l y we h e a r educ a t i o n a l i s t s a s s a u l t a d v e n t u r e r s and s c o u n -d r e l s who make e d u c a t i o n a v e h i c l e f o r the p r o m o t i o n o f v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . B u t , as P r o f e s s o r Counts s t a t e s i t , "to i n s i s t f u r t h e r t h a t the s c h o o l s h o u l d be p l a c e d beyond the r e a c h o f t h o s e f o r c e s which a r e c o n s t a n t l y remaking the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y i s q u i t e a n o t h e r m a t t e r " . We come now to the most c r i t i c a l p o i n t w h i c h a r o u s e d so much c o n t r o v e r s y and i n t e n s e o p p o s i t i o n f r o m s o - c a l l e d d e m o c r a t i c - t h i n k e r s . I t i s S o v i e t propaganda which a n t a g o n i z e s 1. "The A m e r i c a n Road to C u l t u r e " , (John Day Co., 1932) p.'181. 111. many who o t h e r w i s e v © u l d be t o l e r a n t . But what i s propaganda? L e t us c o n s u l t a d i c t i o n a r y f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f the c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t . We f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : 1. Any methods f o r the p r o p a g a t i o n ' o f d o c t r i n e s , p r i n c i p l e s , e t c . , r e l i g i o u s o r s e c u l a r . 2. A s o c i e t y a t Rome c h a r g e d w i t h t h e management o f m i s s i o n s o f the Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . I n o t h e r words, any s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i r e c t e d e f f o r t f o r t h e g a i n i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n f o r a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n can be c a l l e d p r o p a g a n d a . Says Edward L . B i r n a y s , . .... I s t h i s government by propaganda? c a l l i t i f y o u p r e f e r , government by e d u c a t i o n . But e d u c a t i o n , i n the academic s e n s e of the word, i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . I t must be e n l i g h t e n e d e x p e r t propaganda t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h r o u g h t h e h i g h - s p o t t i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s a n d the d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f im-JP 01* "fc H XI "fc IS SU© S « e e • e • • • • • • • • I t wi 11 be o b j e c t e d of c o u r s e , t h a t propaganda w i l l t e n d to d e f e a t i t s e l f , a s i t s mechanism becomes o b v i o u s to the p u b l i c . My o p i n i o n i s t h a t i t m i l n o t . The o n l y p r o p a g a n d a which w i l l t e n d t o weaken i t s e l f as the w o r l d becomes more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t , i s propaganda t h a t i s u n t r u e or u n s o c i a l . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s now i f the S o v i e t p ropaganda, as g i v e n i n s c h o o l s a n d - o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s s o c i a l , t e n d i n g f o r the common good and h a p p i n e s s , or i s i t s p r e a d f o r • the s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e "ego" o r o f v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s ? The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g pages as w e l l as views o f u n b i a s e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s r e v e a l s the s i n c e r e e f f o r t s t o 2. W e b s t e r ' s New Modern E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (ConsoTTidated Bo"oTE~ P u b l i s h e r s . C h i c a g o } 1 9 2 9 ) ; o t h e r d i c t i o n a r i e s g i v e s e v e r a l rnpre d e f i n i t i o n s w hich f o l l o w on t h e same l i n e s . 3. l O H ^ s y t L . B e r n a y s , Propaganda ( L i v e r i g h t Pub. Corpn., N.Y. 1933), pp. 108 and 114. 1 1 2 g i v e the new g e n e r a t i o n an e d u c a t i o n which wi 11 p r e p a r e f o r a n a l l - r o u n d s o c i a l l y u s e f u l l i f e . BIBLIOGHAPHY• 114 o BIBLIOGRAPHY Bagley., Vi»,G.s Determinism. • i n E d u c a t i o n , (Warwick Y o r k , 1925) • Ch. V I , She Army T e s t s and-the N o r d i c Propaganda« B a g l e y , Vv.0., E d u c a t i o n and Emergent Man, (Thomas K e l s o n , l . Y . , 19-34) ' Ch. X I , The F u n c t i o n s o f E d u c a t i o n I n P e r i o d s of R a p i d S o c i a l Changes,. Ch. X I I , The T a s k o f Educ " t i o n i n a Machine S l a v e C i v i l i -•. EatiOB.. E s p e c i a l l y , The S o v i e t e x p e r i m e n t w i t h A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n -' a l -theory, p* 178;* B a r n a y s , Edward L., Propaganda, ( L i v e r - i g h t Pub. Co., 1 9 3 3 ) 5 The "New Propaganda" i s a f o r m o f mass e n l i g h t e n m e n t o r e d u c a t i o n . . C harque, R. D. , S o v i e t E d u c a t i o n , (The H o g a r t h P r e s s „ London, 1 9 3 2 ) , A p o p u l a r d i s c u s s i o n o f S o v i e t e d u c a t i o n * C o u n t s , George S ., The A m e r i c a n Road to C u l t u r e , (John Day, A s y m p a t h e t i c c r i t i c i s m and l i b e r a l a n a l y s i s o f A m e r i c a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . C o u n t s , George S., The S o v i e t C h a l l e n g e t o A m e r i c a . ( J o h n Day, II.3U•, 19.31) An a u t h e n t i c r e p o r t on t h i n g s done i n R u s s i a . An a n a l y s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l " f i e l d i n R u s s i a based on s t u d y and s e v -e r a l v i s i t s t o t h a t c o u n t r y * C r o w t h e r , J.G., I n d u s t r y and E d u c a t i o n i n S o v i e t R u s s i a , (Wm. Heineman , London., 1931)» An a u t h o r i t a t i v e ' a c c o u n t o f t e c h n i c a l educ r.tion i n S o v i e t R u s s i a o D e s c r i b e s the e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s aiade to rneet the serious.; s h o r t a g e o f t r a i n e d i n d u s t r i a l p e r s o n n e l . Hap\6r, Samuel, C i v i c T r a i n i n g I n S o v i e t R u s s i a , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1930) Ch. X I I , G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n Under the S o v i e t s . B i b l i o g r a p h y pp » 39.2 ff» B r u c e Hopper, What R u s s i a I n t e n d s , ( J o n a t h a n Cape, London, 1S&1),.."" Ch. I., "The R u s s i a n Land a n d P e o p l e " - - e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t -i n g . We s u g g e s t , however * t h a t the a u t h o r e r r s i n r e g a r d t o "average R u s s i a n ^ b e w i l d e r m e n t by the f r e q u e n c y o f t h e u n e x p e c t e d i n h i s s t r a n g e f a t h e r l a n d " . The f a m i l i a r R u s s i a n p r o v e r b p r o v e s to the c o n t r a r y : -'Everything I s p r o b a b l e i n R u s s i a . " H u n t i n g t o n . E l l s w o r t h , The Human H a b i t a t , (D. van J T o s t r o r d .Co., 1932)» To u n d e r s t a n d t h e homo s a p i e n s one must know h i s h a b i t a t — human, g e o g r a p h y * I g n a t i e v and o t h e r s , R u s s i a n S c h o o l s and U n i v e r s i t i e s i n the World. W a r ( Y a l e u n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Hew Haven, 1929) E a r n e s t a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s i n t h e p r e - r e v o l u t l o n a r y Bussi&« L a s s w e l l , H a r o l d D., IVorid. P o l i t i e s and P e r s o n a l I n s e c u r i t y (McG-raw H i l l Book Co., N.Y., 1935} S t r e s s e s the R u s s i a n c h a r a c t e r of t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n — a s t r o n g argument f o r t h e i r parochialism© K a n d e l , I s a a c L » , The Dilemma o f Democracy, (The I n g l i s L e c -t u r e , 1934) C r i t i c i z e s the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . D e c r i e s t h e coninion i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e q u i l e t a r a n i s m . P r e -f e r s l T e c o i e u n i q u e E i n h e i t s e h u l e . K a n d e l , I , L . , C o m p a r a t i v e E d u c a t i o n , iHought on M i f f l i n , 1933) The s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s on R u s s i a b y P r o f * K a n d e l a r e v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g . P r o f . K a n d e l , a w e l l known l i n g u i s t , has drawn, however, .from s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s . Noted changes a l s o have t a k e n p l a c e i n R u s s i a n e d u c a t i o n s i n c e p u b l i c -a t i o n o f t h i s mrke Mai en sky-Mai e v l t c h , ed., R u s s i a , U . S. S. R. , A Complete Hand-book (Wm. F a r q u h a r Rays on, N. Y.» fr 1933) 1 b i a s e d a c c o u n t of: t i l i n g s done and a c c o m p l i s h e d i n R u s s i a . The e d i t o r c l a i m s to have p i c t u r e d "the a c t u a l t r a i n o f e v e n t s w i t h the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e d e g r e e o f - o b j e c t i v i t y . " M eyer, Adolph. E . , Modem Eu r o » e a n E d u c a t o r s ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc..., 1934) ~ A p o r t r a i t o f some Eur o p e a n p r o g r e s s i v e s c h o o l s and edu-cators-.. M i r s k y , D.S. , R u s s i a , A S o c i a l H i s t o r y , (The d r e s s e t P r e s s , London, 1931) The a u t h o r , a g r e a t R u s s i a n s c h o l a r has p r e s e n t e d h e r e a n u n e x c e l l e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t r e a t i n g tho s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f R u s s i a n national h i s t o r y . S t a l i n , J o s e p h , ana others., Prom t h s F i r s t to t h e Second Y e a r P l a n , A Symposium. ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , II. Y.) v a l u a b l e I n f o r m a t i o n on the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f R u s s i a n n a t i o n a l -economy. 116. P i n k e v i t c h , A l b e r t P., The Eev; E d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t . Republic,*. ( J o h n Bay.,- I.Y.,,. 1929) A s c i e n t i f i c d i s c u s s i o n o f p r e s e n t d a y e d u c a t i o n i n U.S.S.R. b y an eminent pre-war R u s s i a n e d u c a t i o n a l i s t , a t p r e s e n t p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Second S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a t Moscow-. W i l s o n , L u c y L.W., The Eew S c h o o l s o f Hew R u s s i a . (Vaneurd P r e s s , 1928) An a c c o u n t o f R u s s i a n e d u c a t i o n up t o 1927. D r . W i l s o n v i s i t e d R u s s i a on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s and g a i n e d f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t , Wo:ods.,. F r e d e r i c , A d o n i s , H e r e d i t y i n R o y a l t y . Ch-. XII,. R u s s i a . Woody, Thomas, Hew M i n d s : l e w Men? The Emergence o f t h e S o v i e t C i t l s e n ( M a c m i l l a n Co., JT.Y*, 19J2) A . r e l i a b l e , and modest s t a t e m e n t on e d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t U n i on.-W o o t t o n , B a r b a r a , P l a n o r Ho P l a n , ( V i c t o r G o l l a n g s Co., London, 1934) pp, 223-225* The. p h i l o s o p h y o f - " d i a l e c t i c m a t e r i a l i s m e x p l a i n e d i n s i m p l e t e r n s * The i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i t e s appears- i n s o c i a l l i f e i n t h a t e n s i o n , between .opposing • s o c i a l e l a s Bee. T h i s £rows u n t i l a b r e a k i n g p o i n t Is r e a c h e d w h i c h r e s o l v e s i n a new r r c e i a l g r o u p i n g . B o r i s o v a - P o t o s i f c a y a , B . I . , and o t h e r s , We Work T o g e t h e r , a P r i n e r f o r t h e U r b a n S c h o o l , (G-oupeiz, LIoscow, 1932') The s y n t h e s i s ' o f t h i s p r i w e r c e n t r e s around n a t u r e , l a b o r and s o c i e t y . F o r t h e u n i t i a t e d r e a d e r i t a l s o a r o u s e s t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t o f p r o p a g a n d a . K a n t o f r o v i t e h , K.I?., and o t h e r s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e . P r i m a r y S c h o o l s . . ( G n i l f k , Moscow1, Mass E d u c a t i o n i n U.S.S.R. (Moscow, 19^2) S t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on e d u c a t i o n i n the S o v i e t , laass E d u c a t i o n i n Tf;.8»,S. &«•• (Moscow;,, 1933) P o k r o v s k y , M.E*, " n s s i a x r H i s t o r y i n t h e S h o r t e s t O u t l i n e , ( O g i z , K o s k o v s k y R a b o e h i i , lloseow, l?3l) Volume II. A new h i s t o r y o f R u s s i a w r i t t e n b y a w e l l -known p r o f e s s o r ana h i s t o r i a n , c o n s i d e r e d t h e f a t h e r o f " J o r g o v e i c a p i t a l " , an h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t i c o u t l o o k borrowed f r o m t h e g r e a t R u s s i a n s c h o l a r Bogdonov.- The scheme f o r ' t h i s work was w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a r o v e d by L e n i n i n 1920. 117 P r i m a r y and Seconda ry S c h o o l s i n U . S . S . R . ( V o s k , Moscow, 1935) Hew f a c t s on R u s s i a n mass e d u c a t i o n . Q u o t a t i o n s from h i g h R u s s i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . Pragram o f S t u d i e s i n Drawing and M o u l d i n g i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , ( V o s k , Moscow, 1935) Program o f S t u d i e s i n Drawing f o r Secondary S c h o o l s , (Vosk , Moscow, 1935) Program o f S t u d i e s i n Nature f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , ( V o s k , Moscow, 1?35). S h a s t o v , A . C . , P e t r o v a , O . H . , A r c h a n g e l s k a y a , H . B . , and o t h e r s , D r a w i n g , M o u l d i n g , and O c c u p a t i o n a l L a b o r i n the P r e p a r a t o r y C l a s s e s f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , (Bubnov C e n t r a l House o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t E d u c a t i o n , Moscow, 1935) S o k o l o v , G a l o n i n , D . D . ' , and K r o v c h e n k o , : N . I . , Program and T e a c h i n g o f P h y s i c s i n Secondary S c h o o l s . (Moscow, . S t r e s s e s some phases o f the New S o v i e t Pedagogy . D e t a i l e d accoun t o f the program i n p h y s i c s . U n i v e r s i t i e s i n U . S . S . R . ( V o s k , 1935) D i s c u s s e s the changes w h i c h have t a k e n p l a c e i n R u s s i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s s i n c e 1 9 2 4 . C. GERMAN. H e r s e n S e r g i u s and Hans N i c o l a u s , F i f t e e n Y e a r s of S o v i e t Educat i o n , ( V e r l a g von J u l i u s B e l t z , B e r l i n — L e i p z i g . 1933) T r e a t s the development o f the S o v i e t s c h o o l sys tem and the changes i n the Communist e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y s i n c e the Oc tobe r R e v o l u t i o n up to 1932. D . FRENCH Bede , J e a n - A l b e r t , Le Probleme de l ' e c o l e Unique en F r a n c e . L a p r emie r e p a r t i e de l ' e c o l e Un ique e s t e d u c a t i o n pour l a v i e p a r l a v i e ; the work t o u c h e s a l s o on the r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f L ' e c o l e Unique to the German Grundsohule and the M a r x i a n s c h o o l . 

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