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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The combined junior-senior high school and its general adaptability to the small centres of British Columbia English, John Frederick Kerr 1933

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' U .B .C . LIBRARY! C A T ft>T> LEs ^ . . f j - i f e ^ | | ACC. TO. ~ - ~ ^ ^ ^ J .. THE COMBINED JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL AID ITS GENERAL ADAPTABILITY TO THE SMALL CENTRES OF 'BRITISH, COLUMBIA, "by John F r e d e r i c k K e r r E n g l i s h A.Thesis submitted f o r the Degree of . . MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department O f ' ' ; ^^C^J PHILOSOPHY The University, of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 . T A B L E ; OF , C O S T E I N S CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . OHAPJEER .CHAPTER CHAPTER • r - - — — ~ - - P age; 1. I I . S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n F o r e i g n E d u c a t i o n a l Systems G e n e r a l l y v— - - P a g e 9 . I I I . The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Movement. i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . — — — P a g e S 3 . (1) H i s t o r i c a l B e g i n n i n g s . . ( 2 ) Types o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s v f o u n d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( 3 ) The P h i l o s o p h y o f The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . . ' (4) C e r t a i n F u n c t i o n s and C h a r a . e t e r i s t i c s o f J u n i o r H i g h 0 S c h o o l s . ' ( 5 ) C r i t i c i s m s o f and O b j e c t i o n s t o t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n . CHAPTER*;;; ; i v . Y . VI. A S u r v e y o f The Combined J u n i o r -S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . • Page 45 P i v i s I o n D i v i s i o n ( I ) (2) D i v i s i o n (3) S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . S t a t e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of, E d u c a t i o n . S a r i oils E d u c a t i o n a l A u t h o r i t i e s . The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Movement i n Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . • Page 8 9 . The • J u n i o V - S e ^ i b r / ' i t i g h " . S c n o ' o l and I t s P o s s i b i l i t i e s ' - i n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . — — . . Page 102, (1) The Combined S c h o o l and t h e S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t . ( 2 ) The J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia."' (3) The Combined S c h o o l and t h e Hew , Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . (4) P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e F u r t h e r E x t e n s i o n o f t h e Combined S c h o o l . V I I A Type J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l - T h e ; Kamloops . J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l - P a g e TABLE OF COlTEgTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) CHAPTER V I I I . C o n c l u s i o n . Page 145. B i b l i o g r a p h y • — • — • - — - Page 148. I l l u s t r a t i o n s and Tables •^i&>l'. Table: - The Intermediate School i n F o r e i g n School S y s t e m s - - — ~ pages 21-22 Fig . 2 Graph: Percentage i n c r e a s e i n enrollment of the Secondary Schools throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s , d u r i n g p e r i o d 1890-1926 _ .—. pages 25. Fig.B Graph;: The growth o f the J u n i o r High School i n the: U n i t e d S t a t e s 1910-1930--—page 28T ;FIg.4; Map : I l l u s t r a t i n g ' those States, i n whiich : : . 1 Schools, are -• 'found: I n g r e a t e s t numbers"---- r---page 60. F i g 5. Graph: Per G e n t of schools of, r e g u l a r • and reorganized types I n 1926-28-30, ••Fig,.6: Graph; Per Gent o f a l l p u b l i c s c h o o l p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n r e g u l a r and re organ.! zed schools • p e r i o d T929^30:--^-'-^---^-^^--------page; 80. Fig.'? • .Graph:* Per Cent; of p u p i l s i n the l a s V f o u r : years i n r e g u l a r and reo r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s , p e r i o d l 9 2 9 - 3 0 : - - ^ r ^ - r - - - - - - - - - - - - -page 80. . 'F ig . '8. :Graph;:; The growth b'f -"the- J u n i o r High ••School../: i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1923-1932. page 101. Fig.9 , I l l u s t r a t i o n : , Grade Groupings and Method of P u p i l Transference T — - — — — - - p a g e 128. ' Fig,10 I l l u s t r a t i o n : Method ,of A r t i c u l a t i n g the' .work of-..the.- J u n i o r High'School v/ith of :the S e n i o r - - - — ^ - - - - - - - — • — — - - page' 141. F i g , 11 S l t i e p r i n t : P l a n ofjthe KamloopS J u n i o r - S e n i o r H x ^ T S c n o o l -~-J.~. .— — — A p u e n d i x . THE: COMBINED JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL •>•.,- y..O-- I-.,--': AND ITS GENERAL ADAPTABILITY TO THE SMALL CENTRES OP BRITISH COLUMBIA. C H A P T E R . ! . INTRODUCTION : S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n commences at t h e dawn o f a d o l e s c e n c e a n d c o m p r i s e s t h a t p e r i o d o f a p u p i l ' s t r a i n i n g as c a r r i e d on i n t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e and H i g h S c h o o l . I t c o v e r s r o u g h l y a s p a n o f s i x y e a r s commencing a t e l e v e n o r t w e l v e y e a r s and e n d i n g at e i g h t e e n . C e r t a i n d e f i n i t e aims and methods c h a r a c t e r i z e S e c o n d -Vary E d u c a t i o n a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m E l e m e n t a r y on t h e one JharLd and C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g on t h e o t h e r . W h i l e t h e r e a r e o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s among f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ' as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and who s h a l l have i t , t h e r e a r e many f e a t u r e s i n common. I t h a s a l w a y s , u n t i l r e c e n t t i m e s , h e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c e r t a i n s e l e c t i v i t y n o t o n l y i n E u r o p e b u t i n • d e m o c r a t i c A m e r i c a as w e l l . O n l y w i t h i n t h e p a s t two decades has -l-nteTest.-ein t h e s e m a t t e r s b y t h e masses o f p e o p l e s b e e n n o t i c e -a b l e . l t i s now g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l n o r m a l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s may p r o f i t a b l y r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s a t l e a s t , b e y o n d ; t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p e r i o d r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l i n view.' The a t t i t u d e o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n f o r E n g l a n d , a c o u n t r y u s u a l l y somewhat c o n s e r v a t i v e i n e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s , i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : " A l l p u p i l s s h o u l d p r o c e e d t o some f o r m o f p o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n * . . I t . i s no l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n - o f who s h o u l d e n j o y t h e . b e n e f i t s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . . W h a t i t means i s t h a t t h e s e c o n d s t a g e s u c c e d s t h e f i r s t b e c a u s e c h i l d m n a r e r i p e , f o r , i t , n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e t h e i r p a r e n t s - h a v e t h e means t o pay f o r i t . A l l go f o r w a r d . . S e l e c t i o n b y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n takes the place of s e l e c t i o n by elimin-a t i o n . * ( l ) . Again i n regard to France we note: "The cours complementaire, a form of advanced primary i n -s t r u c t i o n , revised i n 1920^ now covers two years. The aim i s to provide a means whereby a c h i l d may remain i n the elementary school and obtain a sort of abbreviated high school course. The curriculum i s the same as that of the Advanced Primary School. The decree stresses again the importance of making the curriculum s u i t the occupations and industries of the regions. I t i s an ef-f o r t to make elementary education more p r a c t i c a l . " ( 2 ) . The creed of the American educational system (and might w e l l be our own) i s expressed as follows: "Every c h i l d born or adopted by thi s Republic has by v i r -tue of that f a c t the r i g h t to have developed through education whatever of talent he may posses without re-ference to the q u a l i t y , quantity or type of that talent under conditions favourable to such development; and that he s h a l l have assured to him the opportunity to go as f a r as h i s a b i l i t y and ambition and character w i l l permit i n order that he may l i v e h i s l i f e more than he otherwise c o u l d . H (S). The tendency to "democratize education" and provide "education-a l opportunity" f o r a l l i s the p r e v a i l i n g note i n the above ex%rpts. The same sentiment might be found i n the educational l i t e r a t u r e of any modern country. "In Russia," according to Roman, "the greatest single merit of the whole Soviet regime i s i t s e f f o r t and sincere desire to have the masses educated." (4). The same might be said of I t a l y , Modern Republican Ger-many, and c e r t a i n of the Central European Countries. It i s (1) !*Hadow Report" issued i n 1926 by E n g l i s h Board of Educa-tion , compiled by S i r . W. H. Hadow, Chairman of Committee. (2) Roman, "The New Education i n Europe',' Prance, p. 172. (3) A quotation from an address by J . B. Hayden, i n O f f i c i a l Report Dept. of Superintendence - Proceedings of National Educational Association at Cleveland, Ohio, 1929. (4) Roman,aThe New Education i n Europe" Russia, p. 364. f i t t i n g and j u s t i f i a b l e therefore that some attention should have been paid to the reorganization of the P r o v i n c i a l educa-t i o n a l systems i n Canada generally and i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n p a r t i c u l a r within recent times. Within the past seven years our system of Secondary Edu-cation i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been remodelled to meet the changing concepts of Psychology and Pedagogy. The Survey of our whole educational programme, as i t was i n force i n 1924, began i n that year and a Report of the investigations, most thorough i n every respect, was published i n 1925. ( l ) . I t i s rather remarkable how many of the recommendations have been put into e f f e c t d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y as a r e s u l t of this Survey. Two recommendations, to date, have been o f prime i m -portance i n the reorganization of our educational system. In 1926 Junior High or Middle Schools, s i m i l a r to nAmerican Three-year Junior High School, were formally introduced to become a part of our educational system and i n the following year a Course o f Study was published s e t t i n g f o r t h the aims of the new i n s t i t u t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia has been the f i r s t of the Provinces to adopt the Junior High School as a t r a n s i t i o n school between the Elementary and Senior High schools. Cer-t a i n other Provinces have dabbled with the idea and have made curriculum changes but have not fixed upon the Junior High School as a segregated i n s t i t u t i o n . (2). Again i n 1930, The Four-Year High School Course, leading to Junior "Matriculation, (1) Weir-Putnam Survey Report, Published 1925. (2) See C h a p t e r T . pages 89-91. normal Entrance and High School Graduation, came into force and, when properly a r t i c u l a t e d , w i l l have a very salutary e f f e c t up-on high school education i n t h i s Province. This departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l three-year scheme was i n l i n e "with the methods followed i n the most e f f i c i e n t educational systems i n Europe and North America. t t ( l ) . Secondary Education w i l l , therefore, include, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Junior and Senior High School periods. To date eleven Junior High Schools have been established. Five of these are i n the c i t y of Vancouver while the remaining s i x are in various points i n the smaller e i t i e s ; four combined with the l o c a l Senior High School. In Vancouver, the Junior High School idea would seem to be f i r m l y established and here i t exists as a segregated i n s t i t u t i o n . The future does not seem so b r i g h t f o r the Junior High School as a separate unit i n the smaller centres. In only two cases i s i t found apart from the Senior High School and these i n small centres of population where i t i s functioning at considerable cost inasmuch as the two schools must function under two administrative heads; have two sets of equipment and otherwise e f f e c t compromises. (2). I t i s the purpose of t h i s Thesis to attempt to demonstrate the advantages of a Junior High School combined with a Senior High School i n the smaller centres of population, not only from t l ) Foreword - 1930 New Programme of Studies f o r High and Technical Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. (2.) Data secured from Public Schools Report. an economic point of view but also from an educational and ad-mi n i s t r a t i v e standpoint. The writer believes that i n large c i t i e s the Junior High School should be separate from the Senior High School and such i s the case generally throughout the United States. There are approximately s i x thousand Junior High Schools of various types throughout the Union, ( l ) . According to Professor If. Spaulding, "separate j u n i o r and senior high schools tend i n the main 1 to be c i t y schools. Junior-senior high schools are found predominant i n small communities and commun-i t i e s of moderate s i z e . Undivided six-year schools are t y p i c a l l y r u r a l and v i l l a g e schools."' (2). As we have few large c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and as our population, outside of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, i s found in towns and small c i t i e s with contributing areas ranging from 1500 to 8000 i n population some organization other than the separate Junior High School should be encouraged. The wr i t e r believes that the Junior-Senior High School of six-years should be the predominant type i n t h i s Province f o r the smaller centres and that separate Junior High Schools should not be organized. I f the Junior High School i s to become a popular and im-portant uni t i n our educational system i t must reach a greater number of pupils than i t does at present. There are now ap-proximately t h i r t y thousand pupils enrolled i n Grades SEVEN, EIGHT and NINE. Of these there are roughly s i x thousand i n Junior High Schools. Eighty per cent, of the pupils of the (1) Approximate number i n 1932. (2) Harvard Teacher's Record, October, 1932, p. 171. Junior High School grades are, therefore, s t i l l c arrying on under the t r a d i t i o n a l school system. Twenty thousand (1) pupils, outside of Vancouver, are attending school i n the smaller centres of population, where the expense of e s t a b l i s h -ing a Separate Middle School with s p e c i a l teachers and s p e c i a l equipment such as i s required i n the modern Junior High School w i l l be too great. As a r e s u l t many thousands of pupils w i l l be denied the admitted advantages of the Junior High School and this condition w i l l continue to exist i n d e f i n i t e l y i f School Boards wait to acquire the necessary funds. On the other hand, i t w i l l be merely a matter of time before more accommodation of one type or another w i l l be required i n most of the growing centres of population. The Separate Junior High School w i l l be frowned upon because of the greater i n i t i a l expense, the more elaborate equipment required and higher per capita cost of operation. The Solution, i n the opinion of the writer, l i e s i n combining the Junior High u n i t with the already e x i s t i n g Senior High School which combination w i l l provide a l l the advantages that the separate I n s t i t u t i o n s do^at much l e s s cost. The Junior-Senior High School i s l a r g e l y what the name implies; an i n s t i t u t i o n having two d i v i s i o n s under one adminis-t r a t i v e head, with two s t a f f s to some extent separate and d i s -t i n c t and using d i f f e r e n t methods and s t r e s s i n g c e r t a i n aims according to the best recognized procedures f o r each school; yet using the same physical equipment as well as c e r t a i n sp e c i a l teachers. The Six-year Undivided School has p r a c t i c -(•'l->-Approximate figures used. a l l y the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t w i t h o u t s t a f f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Some A u t h o r i t i e s do n o t i n d i c a t e any d i f f e r e n c e between t h e J u n i o r - S e n i o r s i x - y e a r S c h o o l and the S i x - y e a r S c h o o l . ( 1 ) . The w r i t e r , i n t h e i a f c a r C h a p t e r s , w i l l r e f e r t o the s i x - y e a r S c h o o l i n s o f a r as i t may p o s s e s s i n i t s j u n i o r d i v i s i o n s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . A s the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s s i m i l a r to the A m e r i c a n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t the f o r m e r " i s d e s i g n e d t o f i t C a n a d i a n c o n d i t i o n s , " t h e w r i t e r w i l l r e f e r to the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l a s a n I n s t i t u t i o n common to U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i k e w i s e t h e combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High. S c h o o l w h i c h h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d on a v e r y wide s c a l e i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e S t a t e s ( 2 ) i s s i m i l a r t o the few a l r e a d y o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s P r o v i n c e and enough so to w a r r a n t the w r i t e r i n r e f e r r i n g to and c i t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n such s c h o o l s i n s o f a r a s t h e y may h a v e a Rearing upon t h e p r o b l e m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . I n c o n c l u d i n g t h e I n t r o d u c t o r y p o r t i o n of t h i s T h e s i s the w r i t e r w i s h e s t o r e f e r to the N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d -u c a t i o n (3) w h i c h has been g o i n g on i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s i n c e 1929 and w h i c h was t e r m i n a t e d i n J u n e 1932. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the p r o m i n e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s l e n t t h e i r (1) Many S t a t e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s do not a p p e a r t o make any marked d i s t i n c t i o n . (2) C o m m u n i c a t i o n , d a t e d December 1932, f r o m U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n g i v e s t h e number o f combined S c h o o l s as 3287 i n 1930 out of a total of 512.9 J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f a l l k i n d s . ( 3 ) A u t h o r i z e d by C o n g r e s s t o e x t e n d o v e r a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d -was c o n d u c t e d by D r . 18u J . C o o p e r , U n i t e d S t a t e s Commis-s i o n e r o f E d u c a t i o n . 8 8 a i d i n a n a t i o n w i d e S u r r e y . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as a w h o l e , was d i r e c t e d by P r o f e s s o r L e o n a r d K o o s ( l ) who i s a much q u o t e d a u t h o r i t y on J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n g e n -e r a l l y . P r o f e s s o r F r a n c i s T . S p a u l d i n g o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y (&•) h a d s p e c i a l c h a r g e o f t h e p r o j e c t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l movement upon s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . H e , i n a n a b b r e v i a t e d summary o f h i s f i n d i n g s , p u b l i s h e d i n The H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s R e c o r d , O c t o b e r , 1952, makes t h e f o l l o w -i n g s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s * . "The s i x - y e a r p l a n j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and t h e > u n -d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s p r o v e to be the most c o m p r e h e n -s i v e l y o r g a n i z e d o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s c h o o l s s t u d i e d . . . . . . T h e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s p r o v i d e more e x t e n -s i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s c h o o l s f o r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l u n i t s , f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , f o r the m a i n t e n a n c e o f h i g h s t a n d a r d s i n the a p p o i n t m e n t o f t e a c h e r s and f o r the o f f e r i n g o f a b r o a d l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e programme o f s t u d i e s . C o n s i d e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s m o r e o v e r , the j u n i o r - s e n i o r and u n d i v i d e d s c h o o l s e x h i b i t marked s u p e r i o r i t y i n the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e f o r a l l t h e i r major f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t o n c e . They t e n d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n o t h e r s c h o o l s to h a v e d e v e l o p e d a l l t h e s e f e a t u r e s c o n c u r r e n t l y , r a t h e r t h a n to have b u i l t up c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s to t h e n e g l e c t o f o t h e r s . " ( 3 ) . The above q u o t a t i o n h a s r e f e r e n c e t o the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l as o r g a n i z e d i n the s m a l l e r c i t i e s . ( 4 ) . I t would seem to the w r i t e r t h a t the many a d v a n t a g e s f o u n d i n the A m e r i c a n S i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s w o u l d w a r r a n t t h e i r encouragement and f u r t h e r s t u d y as to t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . (1) P r o f e s s o r Koos o f U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , a u t h o r o f "She J u n -i o r H i g h S c h o o l ) ' a n d o t h e r works on S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . (2) P r o f e s s o r F r a n c i s S p a u l d i n g o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y - a u t h o r -i t y on t h e S m a l l J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . (3) Page 174 - O c t o b e r , 1932 - H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s R e c o r d . ( 4 ) See page 5 o f I n t r o d u c t i o n . CHAPTER: I I , SEGOMDARY SCHOOLS I N FOREIGN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS GENERALLY• Many o f t h e p r a c t i d e s now common i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n "^the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada o r i g i n a t e d i n E u r o p e , p a r t i c u l a r l y F r a n c e , Germany and t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s , and to some e x -t e n t t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . I t does n o t seem a m i s s t o the w r i t e r t h a t a b r i e f s u r v e y o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n as f o u n d " a b r o a d " s h o u l d notbtiii.tiuJG*--:tWa t h i s T h e s i s . T h e r e a r e not l a c k i n g c r i t i c i s m s o f some o f o u r modern e d u c a -t i o n a l movements t o the e f f e c t m a i n l y t h a t we h a v e gone too f a r o r been o v e r h a s t y i n m o d e r n i z i n g o u r c u r r i c u l a and t h a t we have s a c r i f i c e d some f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s so as to be modern and c o n s i s t e n t i n a d e m o c r a t i c e n v i r o n m e n t . E x a m i n a t i o n , how-e v e r , o f the f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e we i n A m e r i c a d i f f e r i n c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s i n g e n e r a l method o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d o b j e c t i v e s t h e r e a r e on t h e o t h e r hand some v e r y p r o n o u n c e d s i m i l a r i t i e s c o v e r i n g t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , a c c o r d i n g to I n g l i s t "The C o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r S e c o n d a r y E d u -c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s i s one o f t h e most e f f e c t -i v e means o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n any one c o u n t r y . " ( l ) . Roman i n h i s P r e f a c e to "The New E d u c a t i o n i n E u r o p e " p o i n t s o u t t h a t : "The w o r l d c a n n o t a f f o r d to be i n d i f f e r e n t to what i s t r a n s p i r i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s o f E u r o p e . The j o y s and s o r -rows o f a l l n a t i o n s a r e i n t i m a t e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h e ( l ) " P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , * P r o f e s s o r A l e x a n d e r I n g l i s , page 2 0 3 . • • 10." a t t i t u d e s , f o r c e s and a s p i r a t i o n s t h a t a r e b e i n g g i v e n new r e l e a s e s i n t h e m i n d s and p h y s i q u e o f t h e coming y o u t h . " ' ( l)_. t h e w r i t e r , t h e r e f o r e , f e e l s t h a t c e r t a i n o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i t h a v i e w t o showing t h a t o u r p r o g r e s s b o t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h i n the p a s t twenty y e a r s h a s been q u i t e i n k e e p i n g w i t h p r o g r e s s g e n e r a l l y a l o n g l i n e s r e c o g n i z e d i n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s . A s a t r a n s i t i o n a l " s c h o o l between t h e E l e m e n t a r y and H i g h e r s c h o o l s , t h e M i d d l e S c h o o l , t h e c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e A m e r i c a n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , i s f o u n d i n a l l E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s and J a p a n . I t i s a lways v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e H i g h e r S c h o o l s o r A d v a n c e d D i v i s i o n s sometimes o c c u r r i n g w i t h them a s one u n i t w i t h t h e same s t a f f and equipment and may b e l i k e n e d to o u r combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o r s i x - y e a r s c h o o l w h i c h c o v e r s t h e same p e r i o d o f e d u c a t i o n . The t r a n s i t i o n a l s c h o o l i s r e f e r r e d to i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e as the H i g h e r P r i m a r y s c h o o l , Lower S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l , Lower M i d d l e s c h o o l , Modern s c h o o l and R e a l s c h o o l . I n most E u r o p e a n c o u n -t r i e s p u p i l s do n o t a t t e n d the M i d d l e s c h o o l "en masse"' as a l o g i c a l s t e p f r o m t h e Common s c h o o l o f s i x y e a r s . C e r t a i n s o c i a l and economic b a r r i e r s p r e s e n t f o r c e n t u r i e s and not e a s i l y e r a d i c a t e d h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e masses g e n e r a l l y f r o m t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e M i d d l e and H i g h e r s c h o o l s . W i t h i n modern t i m e s however t h e s e s e l e c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s have not been so e f -f e c t i v e , t h e b a r r i e r s h a v e b e e n d e s t r o y e d a n d a t t e n d a n c e f o r a ( l ) "The Hew E d u c a t i o n i n E u r o p e , " D r . E . W.» Roman, page X I . o f P r e f a c e to Second E d i t i o n o f above t e x t . 11. further period a f t e r completion of the elementary school i s r a p i d l y increasing as i t i s i n America. In tiie following sections ,the w r i t e r w i l l point out cer-ta i n outstanding differences or tendencies which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the European intermediate and secondary schools generally from those i n America. These are very general tendencies, ( l ) SCIENCE Iff RELATION TO EDUCATION. ""In the educational reforms of Western Europe there i s no r e l a t i o n between Creative Education and the Science of Educa-t i o n . "* ( l ) . Professor Freeman defines Creative Education as Man emphasis upon constructive a c t i v i t y , upon i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n -ing, and upon self-expression or s e l f - a c t i v i t y as contrasted with conformity to external demand." (.21). Since the War there has been a renewed i n t e r e s t i n many phases of secondary educa-t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y among those countries involved i n the War. These new tendencies or movements "seem inspired by new: p h i l -osophies of l i f e and education developed since th.e War and es-s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s i n q u a l i t y . U t i l e many of these tend to seek support from the findings of Science, they can scarcely be said to r e s t on a s c i e n t i f i c foundation. 1 1 (3). Certain States i n Europe d i s t r u s t Science as applied to Education because of the fear that i t s a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l hinder "freedom of develop-ment"- or retard the "Integrating of p e r s o n a l i t y . " According to Counts: . "Nowhere i n Europe i s there confidence i n the s c i e n t i f i c method which i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the present genera-ti o n of American students of E d u c a t i o n . " 1 4 } . In America our progress, as w e conceive i t as such, i n modern times at least,has been based l a r g e l y upon the findings of Ex-perimental Psychology and Pedagogy* (2 } DIVISIONS Off EDUCATION. Elementary education and secondary education are not de-liminated to the extent they are i n America by c e r t a i n adminis-(1) "The Relation of Creative Education to the Science of Edu-cation i n Foreign Schools" by Professor S". Counts, Col-umbia University i n B u l l e t i n of National Educational Assoc-i a t i o n , 1929, page 200. (2) ^Creative Education and The Science of Education i n America" by Professor F. N. Freeman, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, i n Bul-l e t i n of National Educational Association, 1929, page 201. (3) i b i d , page 200. (4) i b i d , page 201. t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s . In Germany and France and i n most European countries elementary and secondary education are combined i n two or three systems. There does not seem to be any d e f i n i t e point at which elementary education leaves o f f and secondary education commences. There i s a gradual development from the lower stages to the higher stages. Tiie p u p i l chooses h i s school and proceeds through, i t stage by stage. To understand e i t h e r elementary or secondary education a cross section must be taken at c e r t a i n stages. There are more schools and a pupil r a r e l y attends more than one type a f t e r nine years of age. The cnoice of schools i s determined at about nine years of age. ( l ) . (3) SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMENCES EARLIER. The p u p i l commences school somewhat e a r l i e r i n Europe and the secondary school c u r r i c u l a i n the usual d i f f e r e n t i a t e d form i s begun e a r l i e r than i n America. I t i s generally agreed that s i x years devoted to the elementary end i s s u f f i c i e n t to master the tool subjects. "A mass of evidence goes to prove that an elementary course of s i x years i s adequate»" (2). One of the reasons f o r the introduction of the middle school i n America was to commence secondary education e a r l i e r with i t s greater scope and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d courses i n keeping with European pract-ices as well as the r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c evidence and experience on the part of American Educators*, ( l ) . (4) SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIVISIONS MORE MANIFEST' IN EUROPE. European schools are designed f o r groups. Certain groups are excluded from c e r t a i n schools and these schools are not f o r the masses. There i s not the attendance i n secondary schools i n Europe that we f i n d In America, although the number tends to ~ Increase i n a l l countries. The method i s s e l e c t i v e by elimina-t i o n or exclusion i n France and Germany, whereas i n America s e l e c t i o n i s by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of courses or c u r r i c u l a to meet in d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . ( l ) . (5) THE CURRICULUM CONTRASTS. The Curriculum i s much more f l e x i b l e i n American secondary schools than i n European. The p u p i l i n Europe chooses h i s school. In America he chooses h i s course. Within the type of school selected the curriculum i s the same f o r a l l . The e l e c -tiv e system i s not very common as compared with the American system. Any e l e c t i o n of subjects i s usually postponed u n t i l the l a t e r years of the student's l i f e . ( l ) . U ) EUROPEAN EDUCATION TENDS TO, MORE INTENSIVE THAN AMERICAN. The period of formal education i s y i n both America and (2) "Junior High School Education," 0. 0. Davis, page 68. (1) See footnote No.I, page 13. E u r o p e g e n e r a l l y f r o m s i x to e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . The r e -s u l t s o f t h e s y s t e m d i f f e r . The t r a i n i n g i n E u r o p e a n s c h o o l s may be s a i d to be i n t e n s i v e whereas t h e A m e r i c a n i s e x t e n s i v e . The E u r o p e a n s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f P r a n c e , Germany and G r e a t B r i t a i n , h a v e t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g more t h o r o u g h a n d more s y s t e m a t i c d u e , t o some e x t e n t , t o the g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n and the g r e a t e r s e l e c t i o n o f t h e p u p i l s . On the o t h e r hand t h e t r a i n i n g i n A m e r i c a n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s r e a c h e s a g r e a t e r number o f p u p i l s i n p r o p o r t i o n to the p o p u l a t i o n . M o r e -o v e r , the t r a i n i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y , I n i t i a t i v e and a d a p t a b i l i t y g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n f o r e i g n s c h o o l s tends to o f f s e t the c r i t -i c i s m o f s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . ( l ) » "The s o u n d n e s s o f any s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n must be j u d g e d by the q u a l i t y o f i t s a v e r a g e p r o d u c t , by what i t i s a b l e to do f o r t h e a v e r a g e m a n . " ( E ) . C ? ) CO-EDUCAT ION . G o - e d u c a t i o n i s t h e e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n the p r a c t i c e i n E u r o p e . I n A m e r i c a o u r p u b l i c s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a r e s o l e l y c o -e d u c a t i o n a l . The e d u c a t i o n o f g i r l s i n E u r o p e h a s been c a r r i e d on m a i n l y i n s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t t o a much l e s s e r e x t e n t than b o y s . Ifhere c o - e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n p u t I n t o p r a c t i c e the p r o p o r t i o n o f boys to g i r l s i s a b o u t f o u r to o n e . The t e n d e n c y is . to p r o v i d e s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s w i t h a m o d i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m . I n G-ermany and F r a n c e t h i s i s the t e n d e n c y . I n the S c a n d a n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s c o - e d u c a t i o n i s p o p u l a r and the same may be s a i d o f G-reat B r i t a i n e x c e p t i n the G r e a t P u b l i c S c h o o l s . I n R u s s i a t h e new movement c a l l s f o r e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r b o t h s e x e s and the same f o r I t a l y . I n J a p a n a f t e r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p e r i o d t h e r e Is no s u c h t h i n g as c o - e d u c a t i o n . ( l ) . The f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s h a v e been a t t e m p t s a t c o n t r a s t i n g the o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n as f o u n d i n E u r o p e a t l a r g e and'^Afaerica. T h e r e a r e , on the o t h e r h a n d , c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e o f common i n t e r e s t i n E u r o p e and I n A m e r i c a where J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d on a l a r g e s c a l e . I n p o i n t i n g o u t t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h o s e s e c t i o n s marked ( a ) i n d i c a t e q u o t a t i o n s r e f e r r i n g to E u r o p e a n p r a c t i c e s (1) " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " P r o f e s s o r C. 0 . D a v i s , c h a p -t e r T , and " P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n " by A l e x a n d e r I n g l i s , c h a p t e r V I . (2) " E d u c a t i o n a t the C r o s s r o a d s , " M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , G r e a t B r i t a i n , and q u o t e d I n S c h o o l and S o c -i e t y i n an a r t i c l e by S i r M i c h a e l S a d l e r on " P r o g r e s s and P i t f a l l s i n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n " A p r i l 1930, V o l . X X X I , N o . 797, page 4 5 2 . 14. a n d t h o s e marked ( b ) r e l a t e to c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o c e d u r e s I n A m e r i c a . 1. ( a ) " E u r o p e a n systems t e n d to t e r m i n a t e the common s c h o o l a t t h e end o f s i x y e a r s ; * Cl)» (b) Where J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h i s I s l i k e w i s e the p r a c t i c e a n d o u r s y s t e m becomes t h e 6 - 3 - 3 o r some o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t d u r i n g the s e c o n d a r y p e r i o d w i t h the s i x y e a r s o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l a s a c o n s t a n t . 2 . ( a ) "-'To p r o v i d e some k i n d o f t r a n s i t i o n a l s c h o o l f o r t h e t h r e e y e a r s , t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n . " ( l ) . ( b ) Where J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s i s the p r a c t i c e - to b r i d g e t h e gap d u r i n g the a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d a s i t e x t e n d s f r o m e l e v e n o r t w e l v e y e a r s to f i f t e e n o r s i x t e e n y e a r s . 3 . ( a ) T o make the work o f t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s c h o o l r e a l i s t i c a n d v i t a l to the p u p i l s p u r s u i n g i t . " ( l ) . ( b ) One o f t h e c h i e f o b j e c t s o f o u r J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s y s t e m i s to r e v i t a l i z e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r so as to s t i m u l a t e the f l a g g i n g I n t e r e s t o f t h e p u p i l a t and d u r -i n g t h e p e r i o d o f a d o l e s c e n c e . 4 . ( a ) T o g i v e to p u p i l s o p p o r t u n i t y to t e s t t h e i r a p t i t u d e s a n d make s e l f - d i s c o v e r i e s . " T o g i v e t o p u p i l s o v e r v i e w i n many f i e l d s of k n o w l e d g e . T o p r o v i d e a p r a c t i c a l , m o r a l and c i v i c t r a i n i n g f o r a l l p u p i l s . " • T o l a y p r e v o c a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h o s e who e x p e c t - to e n t e r i n d u s t r y a n d t r a d e , and to f u r n i s h them w i t h a modicum o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . " ( l } . ( b ) The above i s s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g , q u o t e d f r o m one programme o f S t u d i e s w h i c h p o i n t s o u t t h a t among o t h e r p u r p o s e s . t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l must p r o v i d e ; "Abundant f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p r o g r e s s i v e d i s c o v e r y and e x p e r i m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n o f p u p i l s * i n t e r e s t s , a p t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v i n g e s p e c i a l l y : (l) E x p l o r a t o r y a c -t i v i t i e s i n v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s ; (2) G e n e r a l and s u r v e y c o u r s e s in the m a j o r academic f i e l d s ; ( 3 ) F l e x -i b i l i t y in c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; (4) I n d i v i d u a l d i a g n o s i s and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . * ( 2 ) ( 1 ) " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " C . 0 . D a v i s , page 83 e t s e q ( 2 ) "Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s " B . C . 1927-30' 15. 5 . ( a ) "To p r o v i d e s p e c i a l t y p e s o f work f o r r e t a r d e d p u p i l s and t h o s e w i t h s h o r t s c h o o l c a r e e r s b e f o r e t h e m . " ( b ) A g a i n we q u o t e f r o m a c o u r s e o f s t u d y * "Adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i n v o l v -i n g e s p e c i a l l y ; ( l ) E n r i c h e d c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r -r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s ; ( 2 ) O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r a d u a l c u r r i c -u l u m d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; ( 3 ) F l e x i b i l i t y i n methods o f p r o -m o t i o n ; (4) P r o v i s i o n f o r v a r y i n g r a t e s o f p r o g r e s s ; and (5) V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h o s e who must l e a v e s c h o o l e a r l y ( 2 ) . > (40) , r T o p r o v i d e f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g p u p i l s to a d v a n c e d s e c o n d -. a r y s c h o o l s a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n o r s i x t e e n . " ( I ) . ( b ) One i d e a o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s to k e e p p u p i l s a t s c h o o l t h r o u g h the a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d w i t h t h e I d e a t h a t t h e y w i l l t h e n p r o c e e d to the advanced d i v i s i o n s i n the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p r o p e r l y a d j u s t e d and n o t d r o p out as e d u c a t i o n a l m i s f i t s . 7 . ( a ) "To p r o v i d e a s i x t y - m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d w i t h much c l a s s work and l i t t l e home s t u d y , as w e l l as a l o n g e r s c h o o l d a y . " ( b ) One o f the f e a t u r e s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l is- the p r o -v i s i o n o f s t u d y p e r i o d s . The o b j e c t b e i n g t h a t w i t h the l o n g e r day p u p i l s s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d to spend t i m e i n home work b u t r a t h e r work u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r a t s c h o o l where t h e r e may be the n e c e s s a r y g u i d -a n c e a n d f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n a n d r e f e r e n c e . 8 . ( a ) "To s e e k to g i v e a rounded e d u c a t i o n to e a c h p u p i l i n w h a t e v e r t y p e ot g r a d e o f s c h o o l he may be f o u n d . " ( l ) . ( b ) " I n E u r o p e a n systems g e n e r a l l y t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f s c h o o l s f o r d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f p u p i l s o f the a d o l e s -c e n t a g e . " ( l ] I n A m e r i c a we h a v e o n l y the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l and i t s c o n t i n u a n c e i n the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . The r o u n d e d e d u c a t i o n i s , h o w e v e r , the a i m w i t h i n the one t y p e o f s c h o o l by p r o v i d i n g f l e x i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c u r r i c u l a w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s . 9 . ( a ) "By p r o v i d i n g f o r p u p i l s between the ages o f t e n y e a r s and f i f t e e n a programme o f s t u d i e s t h a t e x t e n d s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e , e n r i c h e s d e c i d e d l y , the c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and i n c l u d e s s u c h s u b j e c t s a s ; (1) " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " G . 0 . D a v i s . , page 83 e t s e q . ( 2 ) "Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s B . C . 1 9 2 7 - 3 0 " 16. 9. (a) ( l ) Vernacular language and l i t e r a t u r e . (a) Ancient and modern foreign languages. (3) Contemporary h i s t o r y and current events. (4) P r a c t i c a l knowledge of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , - c i t -i z e nship. (5) Arithmetic and the elements of algebra, geometry and bookkeeping. (6) Nature study and natural h i s t o r y . (7) Introductory science i n biology, physics and chem-i s t r y . (8) Geography i n i t s broadest sense. (9) Writing* directed to p r a c t i c a l ends. • (10} Drawing, related to p r a c t i c a l ends. (11) Singing, centering about national anthems and f o l k songs and appreciation of music. (12) Personal and public hygiene and physical education. (13) P r a c t i c a l a r t s appropriate to the l o c a l i t y and the pupils undertaking them. (14) Vocational arts suited to the needs of the time, the place and p u p i l s . " ( l ) . (b) The curriculum of any American Junior High school w i l l be found to include elements of a l l or any of the above l i s t e d courses and the Programme of Studies f o r B r i t i s h Columbia likewise approximates these. Certain countries, i n the opinion of the writer, deserve s p e c i a l mention i n that t h e i r respective systems of education have been almost reorganized within recent years. England, a country with i t s "inherent conservatism" (2.) has been slow to bring about reforms i n education which would a f f e c t the masses, has taken a very deliberate step i n the democratization of edu-cation. Russia, one of the l a r g e s t countries i n the world but one of the most backward educationally, has since the Revolu-ti o n (3) attempted to stamp out i l l i t e r a c y e n t i r e l y by a wide sweeping educational programme. (4). I t a l y , ruled by a d i c t a -(1) "Junior High School Education," C. 0. Davis, page 83 et seq,. (2) "Comparative Education,"' Professor Peter Sandiford, page 188 (3) The Russian Revolution which began i n 1916. The Educational Reforms began to be put into practice a few years l a t e r . (4) "The New Education i n Europe," 3?. ¥. Roman, page 368. 17. t o r s h i p and a l s o one o f the most i l l i t e r a t e c o u n t r i e s In E u r o p e , h a s b r o u g h t i n , u n d e r the F a s c i s t Reg L o m e , r e f o r m s w h i c h e n a b l e a l l c h i l d r e n to r e c e i v e a good g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n b u t w h i c h p l a c e s r e s t r i c t i o n s o n . t h o s e who s h a l l p r o c e e d to t h e h i g h e r s c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g Is a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f e a c h o f the t h r e e c o u n t r i e s i n the l i g h t o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l movements. ENSIAND " I n E n g l a n d t h e r e h a s a l w a y s b e e n a m a n i f e s t r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f the S t a t e t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a r e a l p u b l i c system" o f e d u c a t i o n . " ( l ) . I n 1902 L o c a l E d u c a t i o n A u t h o r i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and p r i m -a r y , s e c o n d a r y and h i g h e r s c h o o l s were b r o u g h t u n d e r the c o n -t r o l o f a s i n g l e a u t h o r i t y . ( 2 ) . T h i s A c t was the f i r s t s t e p toward the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p u b l i c s y s t e m o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . Some y e a r s l a t e r f i n 1 9 1 8 ; t h e F i s h e r A c t p r o v i d e d g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s and b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s w i t h a l a r g e r num-b e r o f c o u r s e s f o r the g r e a t mass o f p u p i l s who had n o t as y e t had t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s made a v a i l a b l e to them. ( 3 ) . I n 1926 the Hadow R e p o r t embodied a s u r v e y i n d i c a t i n g the p r o g r e s s t h a t h a d been made s i n c e the p a s s i n g o f the F i s h e r A c t . ( 4 ) . T h i s r e -p o r t f u r t h e r recommended t h a t "A g e n e r a l s y s t e m o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , d i v e r s i f i e d i n t y p e , s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a l l n o r m a l c h i l d r e n o v e r the age o f e l e v e n p l u s . " ( 5 ) . Among t h e ( l ) " P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n " A l e x a n d e r I n g l i s . p . 2 4 6 . C2) E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1902 w h i c h a b o l i s h e d S c h o o l B o a r d s . ( 3 ) E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1918, known a l s o as the F i s h e r A c t . (4) "The Hadow R e p o r t and A f t e r , " b e i n g a n a c c o u n t o f the f i n d -i n g s o f a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d u n d e r t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f S i r . W. H . Hadow o f the C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee o f the B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , E n g l a n d 1926.' ( 5 ) The P r e f a c e o f "The Hadow R e p o r t and A f t e r , " page 8 . 18. many recommendations we n o t e : (1) " A l l c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p r o c e e d n o r m a l l y to some f o r m o f p o s t - p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . (2) A l l s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n o v e r the age o f e l e v e n p l u s s h o u l d be termed " S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s " and t h a t a l l s e c -o n d a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as o f e q u a l i m p o r t -a n c e . ( 5 ) The c o u r s e s I n p o s t - p r i m a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d v a r y a c c o r d -i n g to the age up to w h i c h the m a j o r i t y o f the p u p i l s t a k i n g them r e m a i n a t s c h o o l , and a c c o r d i n g to the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s a n d a b i l i t i e s o f the c h i l d r e n . (.4) W h i l e the c o u r s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n p o s t - p r i m a r y s c h o o l s s h o u l d n e v e r be v o c a t i o n a l , the t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s u b -j e c t s o f the c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be p r a c t i c a l i n the b r o a d e s t s e n s e and b r o u g h t d i r e c t l y i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e f a c t s o f e v e r y day l i f e . The c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c -t i o n s h o u l d be u s e d to c o n n e c t the s c h o o l work w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s a r i s i n g from the s o c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f the p u p i l s . ( 5 ) I n the new t y p e s o f p o s t - p r i m a r y s c h o o l s w e l l - e q u i p p e d rooms f o r handwork, a r t and p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d , b e c a u s e o f the s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f t h e c u r -r i c u l u m , on a s c a l e i n a d v a n c e o f t h a t u s u a l i n s e c o n d -a r y s c h o o l s . " ( l ) . I t i s v e r y e v i d e n t f r o m a s u r v e y o f t h i s r e p o r t t h a t the a t t i -tude o f E n g l a n d has: b e e n v e r y m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d d u r i n g t h e p a s t decade o r s o . The R e p o r t embodies much t h a t i s s i m i l a r to Amer-i c a n aims i n b o t h J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s , and i s s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y b e i n g put i n t o p r a c t i c e . RUSSIA -I n R u s s i a g r e a t s t r i d e s have been made toward the e d u c a t i o n of the m a s s e s . T h i s has b e e n one o f t h e major p r o j e c t s o f the S o v i e t Regiome, f o r , p r i o r to the R e v o l u t i o n / t h e c o u n t r y was n o t o r i o u s l y i l l i t e r a t e * The new p r o v i s i o n s c a l l f o r t "A r e g u l a r s c h o o l w i t h a f o u r - y e a r c o u r s e f o r c h i l d r e n o f e i g h t to e l e v e n y e a r s o f a g e . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a s c h o o l o f the s e c o n d g r a d e t h a t embraces a f i v e - y e a r -c o u r s e w h i c h i s d i v i d e d i n t o a f i r s t d i v i s i o n o f t h r e e and a s e c o n d o f two y e a r s . E c o n o m i c p o v e r t y makes n e c e s -( l ) " T h e Hadow R e p o r t and A f t e r , " page 66 e t s e q . sary the temporary and shorter courses-. In time i t i s hoped to ra i s e the required age to seventeen years f o r a l l . * t l ) . Among the aims of public education In which the secondary phase i s included we note the following obj ec t i v e s : t l ) "To correlate general education with productive work and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l work. (•2.) The establishment of the closest" possible contact between s o c i a l and vocational education. (3) To est a b l i s h , together with actual continuity between each of the grades.of the school education, a c e r t a i n completeness i n each of the grades, In the sense that they"provide knowledge and p r a c t i c a l h a b i t s . (4) To give them (the pupils) a r e a l representation, of the world; to e s t a b l i s h sound hygiene and working-habits, and to t r a i n them to help themselves." (2). As to the actual content of the various courses the w r i t e r has no exact knowledge but the general trend of educational thought i s obvious from the above exerpts and i s i n l i n e with modern developments: i n the more progressive countries. ITALY I t a l y , now for some years under a dic t a t o r s h i p , does not aim to t r a i n Its youth or i t s people to l i v e under democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s . 13). According to Fascism "the school i s the most potent instrument of . c i v i l i s a t i o n . In the school, the s p i r i t and the soul of the people should be formed." (4). Pupils enter the f i r s t stage of the secondary school at about eleven years of age. This i s of three years' duration and i s a state supported school intended f o r those whothrough lack of a b i l i t y of means (cannot go on to the higher schools. In this t l ) "The Hew Education i n Europe, "' P. ¥'. Roman, page 366. et seq. (2.5 Ibid., page 363. (.3.) Ibid., page 351. (4) Ibid., page 351. v : V , \ 2 0 y . • s c h o o l c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s t a u g h t i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a r e c a r r i e d on and i n a d d i t i o n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , p r a c t i c a l a r t s , h y g i e n e , ( l } » a n d c i t i z e n s h i p as u n d e r s t o o d i n the F a s c i s t S t a t e . The a i m o f t h i s m i d d l e S c h o o l i s l a r g e l y v o c a t i o n a l , b e i n g "to p r e p a r e and s p e c i a l i z e p u p i l s i n the f i e l d s o f com-m e r c e , a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y . " ( 2 ) . I n the I t a l i a n M i d d l e s c h o o l the a i m i s a v o c a t i o n a l one but w h i c h a t the same t i m e a l l o w s f r e e d o m o f development a l o n g v a r i o u s l i n e s and i n c u l c a t e s many o f the f e a t u r e s f o u n d i n o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s as w e l l a s i n o u r own, i n t h . f 0 l l o w i n S c o s t i v e i s g l T e n s e t t i n g f o r t h a few o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e most r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s and J a p a n , i n so f a r a s e d u c a t i o n i n the I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s i s c o n c e r n e d and r e l a t e d to the s c h o o l s above and b e l o w . SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS 'Z;The M i d d l e S c h o o l I n E u r o p e a n C o u n t r i e s , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , Is a p o p u l a r and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e are c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and schemes 'of: o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t t h e r e a r e many f e a t u r e s I n common between t h e M i d d l e S c h o o l s o f E u r o p e a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' , I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g , t o n o t e t h a t . I n t h o s e c o u n t r i e s where- t h e e d u c a t i o n a l : systems have b e e n r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h a t ' ample p r o v i s i o h has b e e n made f o r p u p i l s o f t h e M i d d l e S c h o o l s t a g e , ' (1) f , The New E d u c a t i o n i n Europe'/ P . W:. Roman, page 344. (2) I b i d . , page 3 4 5 . 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THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT Iff THE .UNITED STATES. ( l ) H i s t o r i c a l B e g i n n i n % a . The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y young I n s t i t u -( I ) " t i o n i n A m e r i c a . W h i l e E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s h a d f o r some t i m e embodied c e r t a i n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h we now f i n d i n o u r s y s t e m s t h e I n s t i t u t i o n as we Know i t i s v e r y l a r g e l y an A m e r i c a n c r e a t i o n . D u r i n g a p e r i o d p r i o r to t h e dawn o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was a g r o w i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e w a s t e and g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a programme o f e d u c a t i o n b a s e d on an e i g h t y e a r p e r i o d o f E l e -mentary s c h o o l t r a i n i n g f o l l o w e d by a f o u r y e a r c o u r s e i n a H i g h S c h o o l o f an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g i n H i g h s c h o o l s s h o u l d have begun a t l e a s t two y e a r s e a r l i e r , a t a b o u t the t ime o f t h e dawning o f a d o l e s c e n c e . The g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n P s y c h o l o g y and P e d a g a c -i c a l s c i e n c e c a u s e d measurements to be made b y s c o r e s o f s c i e n t i s t s i n e d u c a t i o n and e v i d e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d to show t h a t the 8 - 4 p l a n was i l l - f o u n d e d and was t h e r e s u l t o f a n a c -c i d e n t o r t r a d i t i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d * The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t , f u r t h e r showed t h a t i n a h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n wide v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e r e s t s and c a p a c i t i e s were i n e v i d e n c e and t h a t i t was t h e d u t y o f an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m to p r o v i d e i n some manner f o r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and to meet them b y means o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e g u i d a n c e , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o u r s e s , t - - s p e c i a l l y (1) D e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d about 1910 8 q u a l i f i e d teachers i n especially equipped b u i l d i n g s i n order t h a t the a d o l e s c e n t s h o u l d have the o p p o r t u n i t y to b e t t e r d i s -cover and develop h i s c a p a c i t i e s and t a l e n t s . Thus the Junior High School came into being and took form as an i n t e r m e d i a t e school, a b s o r b i n g two g r a d e s f r o m t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l and the f i r s t grade of the t r a d i t i o n a l H i g h School ultimately to form a three year School as a popular type of t r a n s i t i o n a l school. I f any exact date may be set as the beginning of t h i s movement the year 1893 may be selected. Eor i n that year the Committee of Ten ( l ) under the leadership of President E l i o t of Harvard University appointed by the National Educational Assoc-i a t i o n to investigate educational conditions, as a r e s u l t p r i -marily of Dr. E l i o t ' s conviction that something was wrong, re-ported, i n part: (1) wThat a l l the p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s now taught i n the Senior High should be begun i n the grades before the High S c h o o l . " (2) " P o r purposes of general education one s u b j e c t i s as good as a n o t h e r , and the choice of s u b j e c t s i s ta."matter, ©f -.. eemgarat Ive i n d i f f - e r e n c e " (3) " i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y secondary s c h o o l l i m i t e d to four years and founded on the present elemen-tary school s u b j e c t s and methods .In the opinion of the committee several s u b j e c t s now reserved f o r the high school such as algebra, geometry, natural science, f o r -eign languages, should be begun e a r l i e r than now The secondary school period s h o u l d begin two years e a r l i e r leaving s i x years f o r the e l e m e n t a r y school period." (4) "The secondary schools as a w h o l e do not exist f o r the purpose of preparing boys and g i r l s f o r college. Their m a i n function i s to prepare them f o r l i f e " . . . . . . . ( 2 ) . (1) This Committee had authority to arrange rta conference of the school and college teachers of each p r i n c i p a l subject which enters into the programmes of secondary schools i n the United States and into the requirements f o r admission (2) Certain conclusions of the Committee of Ten - "Junior High Education", C. 0. Davis, pages 17-18. F i g . 2 . i i 1. r—r-T 1 1 [ e r e e n 0 e 8 i r. H i k r 0 ft -1 ;E e H - o f - fjhje S©eo B J C t — _ b jo 0 ft s t b 0 ! 0 a It t h e B JJ fc|a jt-es --&y^iag-i-u ,y B J . .Ml ri -» o n n 1 o b n e h y T 0 a 1 U V to 1 p c. 1 l i u X i I M0. .. i _ < i ' i / / —t p , -] (X i / 1 T— j i / _, |_i J i / ZL ! / i t — / r r r T T fa a ^ r ! -—1 ' ' I 10 • J 1 /  -i 0- - / i / l i 1 / i _ — —< >» - i - -- - -2« -- -i Q. . i i - — h — — r f i — • •Ji >a -« P3 >- -.V T f to 1 ! oj r /« ac * ii Tt T~ I 1 1 I • 26 i • T h i s r e p o r t recommended t h e e x t e n s i o n o f a s i x - y e a r p l a n f o r the H i g h S c h o o l s w i t h a c o n s e q u e n t r e d u c t i o n to s i x y e a r s f o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p e r i o d . I n 1899 the Committee on C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e R e q u i r e m e n t s , a p -p o i n t e d by the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , s t a t e d : " I n o u r o p i n i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the l a s t two g r a d e s t h a t now p r e c e d e t h e h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s h o u l d be i n c o r -p o r a t e d i n i t " . * . . . . i ( l / Erom 1900 to 1910 numerous c o m m i t t e e s made numerous r e -p o r t s and were p r e t t y w e l l unanimous i n recommending " a com-p l e t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f o r m o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m on the b a s i s of a s i x - s i x p l a n . " ( 2 ) . No m e n t i o n a p p e a r s to have b e e n made o f s u b d i v i d i n g the recommended s i x - y e a r p e r i o d o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t o s u b -d i v i s i o n s o f t h r e e y e a r s e a c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s f r o m 1910 on s u b d i v i s i o n s o f t h e s u g g e s t e d s i x - y e a r o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r e d i n v a r i o u s f o r m s and the most p o p u l a r and most g e n e r a l l y f o u n d was t h e s i x - y e a r p l a n d i v i d e d i n t o two e q u a l d i v i s i o n s o f t h r e e y e a r s e a c h - f o u n d i n one o r s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s w i t h v a r i e d s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Committee on t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n was formed to c a r r y on e x p e r i m e n t s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s n a t i o n - w i d e i n e x t e n t . I t v e r y g e n e r a l l y a p p r o v e d o f t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h r e e - t h r e e . • I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t h a t a t Columbus, O h i o , (1) P a r t o f R e p o r t o f Committee on C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e R e q u i r e -ments , " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " C . 0 . D a v i s , p . 2 0 . (2) i b i d , page 2 1 . - 27. • il and B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , t h e f i r s t t y p i c a l t h r e e - y e a r J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s were o r g a n i s e d , ( l ) . i  The g r o w t h o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s s i n c e t h e n has been r a t h e r phenomenal b u t a l s o c o n f u s i n g . I t would a p p e a r t h a t any s c h o o l s y s t e m w h i c h p r o v i d e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r f o r the needs o f g r a d e V I I and g r a d e V I I I may be s a i d to have a J u n i o r i H i g h s c h o o l , We f i n d 6 ( - 2 - ) 4 ; 6 ( - 3 - ) 3 ; 6 ( - l - ) 5 ; 6 ( - 2 - 2 - ) 2 ; S ( - l ~ 2 - ) 3 ; 6-6 s c h o o l s , e t c . , a l m o s t e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e a r r a n g e - i ment n o t o n l y i n d i f f e r e n t S t a t e s b u t w i t h i n the S t a t e . T h e r e does n o t seem to be any d e f i n i t e scheme o f s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n . J: E a c h Community works o u t i t s own s o l u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to i t s r e - \ q u i r e m e n t a and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h to the o u t s i d e r , who i s i n t e r - \ e s t e d i n J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s . , p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y o f j the v a r i o u s o p i n i o n s p r e v a i l i n g among l o c a l J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l e x p e r t s . A c c o r d i n g to s t a t i s t i c s f o r the p e r i o d e n d i n g 1917 -i t has been v a r i o u s l y e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were two h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y - t w o J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s i n o p e r a t i o n . ( 2 ) . I n 1923 the U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n s t a t e s : " J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s a r e numbered by t h e h u n d r e d s . F i v e h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y - f i v e c i t i e s h a v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2500 and o v e r r e p o r t s u c h s c h o o l s . I f a l l c i t i e s h a v i n g s u c h s c h o o l s h a d r e p o r t e d t h e r e would no d o u b t be s e v e r a l h u n d r e d more t o a d d to t h i s l i s t . J u s t how many t h e r e a r e i n p l a c e s o f l e s s t h a n 2500 i n p o p u l a t i o n i s not I known, b u t t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t s e v e r a l h u n d r e d . ( 3 ) . I (4) f I n 1925 t h e r e were e i g h t h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y - n i n e s e g r e g a t e d j J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s and a b o u t f o u r t e e n h u n d r e d J u n i o r - S e n i o r \ (1) " P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n - / - A l e x a n d e r I n g l i s , p.292.. \ ( 2 ) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l " , Thomas B r i g g s , page 3 2 . ! (3) R e p o r t o f U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n as quo ted i n ; " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , " G . 0 . D a v i s , page 2 7 . . j' (4) See E i g . 5 . showing growth o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s from !; 1910 to 1932. I 28. F i g . 3 . -„-. • - •  i ' l . ! - "i i i I " I . ' - -j- ' Xlia.^il _L<L J 5 qbs do a . -Sim's '• s r - — \--. — — \ : 1 ! u_ --59^0-^-1—-ir—— j—t- , , 1 : 1—, __ : ._ . - - - 1 ( ^ 0 - 1 — p i . , _, _ : = = = : c i i r : = : = = : : = = = : = = = = : : = = = = --U.-0OO-: U f ~ - •LJ— - r - | J-L-j •' - 4 - — 1 - — — : — — :— . — —.—J , - _ 3 V G Q - ! -J : . i _ • - J^ ooi).;__ __: r - - r - r — . 1 I I I l. "-- • _J_ ~ . 1_ _j L • - • • • f l » M e<Wr-|—-L-L-]-—j—, Lj-u , Siibes.. iron ' J _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -_ - : — • -.—ysaa.—.—_.____. _____ •_„_ ••• - —icOO- — "-J r-i 1—H <—• r-• - — " : 1——— -__1&©J6__J , _ _ ^ _ _ L _ L _ —__J_™JL- __L__ 1 - —loco- - -1 M — _ 1— 11 • :_ ^ . . _-_50fc_ _ _ _ _ _ . _ ^ J _ _ _ . . -.yetf-i ./;«>_ ,3/8, M M • ji ••"Z-f _ • : + -J ' > • • • 1 ' T- 1 - ' " ______ J. i = | z ~ = i | ~ : ~ = ~ | ~ _ _ ^ZZp^_j_ /|*| : '^3<>-1 I I - _ J _ 1 '• 29. ( s i x - y e a r ) s c h o o l s . ( l ) A t the t ime o f w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e c l o s e to s i x t h o u s a n d s c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s embodying the p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h the mod-e r n A m e r i c a n J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s f o u n d e d . T h i s i s r a t h e r r e -m a r k a b l e when i t i s remembered t h a t i n 1910 the movement h a d j u s t begun. I t w i l l be n o t i c e d a l s o t h a t the g r o w t h i s n o t con f i n e d to l a r g e c i t i e s , . b u t i n s m a l l e r c e n t r e s and r u r a l com-m u n i t i e s the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r h i g h . . s c h o o l o f s i x y e a r s p r e d o m i n a t e s a l o n g w i t h a n o t h e r phase the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l w h i c h has many o f the f e a t u r e s o f a J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l and t h e s e n o t c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m the S e n i o r d i v i s i o n s . (2) Types o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s f o u n d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . When the new scheme o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n f i r s t began t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m changed from the t r a d i t i o n a l 8 - 4 p l a n to the r e -l a t i v e l y s i m p l e 6-6 d i v i s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . P r i o r to 1910 a few s c h o o l systems were o r g a n i z e d on t h i s b a s i s . " B e g i n n i n g w i t h 1910, o r a l i t t l e e a r l i e r , emphasis s h i f t e d f r o m the c l e a r c u t 6-6 p l a n to t h e p l a n o f r e f o r m w i t h i n the r e f o r m . u ( 2 ) . S u c h c o m b i n a t i o n s a s the f o l l o w i n g began to a p p e a r : A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e v a r i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t s came i n t o b e i n g to meet (1) D a t a f r o m U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u of E d u c a t i o n 1925, as q u o t e d i n "The J u n i o r High; S c h o o l ' * , K o o s , page 8» (2) , f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , 1 1 D a v i s , page 2 3 . the v a r i o u s l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s : e x i s t i n g o v e r a w i d e a r e a . No doubt t h e n o v e l t y o f r e f o r m a n d the i d e a o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n were f o r c e s w h i c h p l a y e d a p a r t i n p r o d u c i n g t h e v a r i e d t y p e s w h i c h , i n a l l c a s e s ,have c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e up to the p r e s e n t t i m e . Of the above schemes, the s i x - t h r e e - t h r e e a n d the s i x - s i x b o t h t h e J u n i o r - S e n i o r and u n d i v i d e d s c h o o l s a r e the most i m p o r -t a n t . I n 1932, a c c o r d i n g t o S p a u l d i n g " P r e s e n t t e n d e n c i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o u r the s i x - t h r e e - t h r e e a n d s i x - s i x p l a n s . T h e " g r a d e c o m b i n a t i o n s u n d e r t h e s e p l a n s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e m a j o r t y p e s o f r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s : s e p a r a t e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , u n d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s and combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . " ( Of t h e s e t y p e s the s e g r e g a t e d J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s a r e f o u n d in. the l a r g e r c i t i e s ; J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s a r e f o u n d i n t h e s m a l l e r c e n t r e s , whereas the u n d i v i d e d a i x - y e a r s c h o o l i s a t y p i c a l r u r a l and v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t i o n » The p o p u l a r i t y o f these l a t t e r t y p e s w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s may be assumed f r o m e v i d e n c e s e c u r e d f r o m the B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , i n w h i c h M r . C a r l A . J e s s e n i s q u o t e d as s t a t i n g : - "Among the s m a l l e r s c h o o l systems o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e s i x - y e a r o r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s d e v e l -o p i n g v e r y r a p i d l y . These s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s h a v e more t h a n d o u b l e d d u r i n g the b i e n n i u m 1 9 2 6 - 2 8 . ° ( 2 ) . W h i l e no a c t u a l f i g u r e s a r e q u o t e d "by S p a u l d i n g i n the Summary o f the F i n d i n g s o f the N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n (3) o v e r t h e (1) w T h e H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s 1 R e c o r d , * a n a r t i c l e on the " R e o r g a n -i z e d S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , " by J?. I'. S p a u l d i n g , page 171. (2) " B i e n n i a l S u r v e y o f E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " 1 9 2 8 -3 0 , C h a p t e r on S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n p r e p a r e d by C a r l A . J e s -s e n , S p e c i a l i s t i n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . (3) A , fSummary!' as p u b l i s h e d i n the H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s 1 R e c o r d , • V o l . 2., Ho.- 4 , d a t e d O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 2 . p e r i o d f r o m 1929-1932 t h e r e can he l i t t l e doubt t h a t the Com-b i n e d S c h o o l s have c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e more than any o t h e r type o f r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l . \.1]» A t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to these p l a n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s but a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g r e a t p o s -s i b i l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l o m b i a where t h e r e a r e few c i t i e s o f any s i z e . T h i s c o n d i t i o n w o u l d seem to w a r r a n t the e n c o u r a g e -ment o f the Combined s i x - y e a r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l and p o s s i b l y the s i x - y e a r u n d i v i d e d s c h o o l r a t h e r than any o t h e r scheme o f d i v i s i o n . 3 . The P h i l o s o p h y o f The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l a d a p t s i t s programme to t h e needs of t h e a d o l e s c e n t boy and g i r l . Our modern s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r m i n e v e r y l a r g e l y what t h e s e needs a r e a n d the s c h o o l seeks to c a t e r to t h e s e i n s o f a r as c i r c u m s t a n c e s j u s t i f y The o r g a n i z a t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n d e r t h e 8 - 4 s y s t e m does n o t p e r m i t the c a r r y i n g out of s u c h an i d e a l . The aims o f e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r i l y d i f -f e r e n t and u n t i l the a d v e n t o f the j u n i o r h i g h o r i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l t h e r e was no means o f a r t i c u l a t i n g o r b r i d g i n g the gap between t h e two s y s t e m s . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i n the 8-4 p l a n h a s always been c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y g r e a t wastage i n e d u c a -t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n m a l a d j u s t m e n t , l a c k of i n t e r e s t and p u p i l s ( l ) A term u s e d by P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g and o t h e r s w i t h r e f e r -ence to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l * 32. d r o p p i n g out o f s c h o o l a l t o g e t h e r . I t h a s been v a r i o u s l y e s t i -mated t h a t d u r i n g the t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d f r o m g r a d e V I to g r a d e IX s i x t y out o f e v e r y one h u n d r e d p u p i l s l e a v e s c h o o l . Not o n l y i s the p u p i l m o r t a l i t y h i g h a t t h i s s t a g e b u t much o f the s t o r m and d i s t r e s s i n the f i n a l g r a d e s o f the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l a r e a r e s u l t o f i m p r o p e r g u i d a n c e and a d j u s t m e n t i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . The young J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t h e r e f o r e has. become t h e l i n k between the o l d e l e m e n t a r y and the o l d t r a d i t i o n a l S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . I t s a i m i s to r e v i v e i n t e r e s t g e n e r a l l y d u r i n g the time when t h e r e i s t h e g r e a t e s t n e e d , d u r i n g the f i n a l y e a r s o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and i n s u c h a way as to c o - o r d i n a t e the work w i t h the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . The r e v i t -a l i z i n g p r o c e s s has to be b r o a d i n scope and t h o r o u g h i n f u n d a -m e n t a l s . New m a t e r i a l s a r e i n j e c t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l a ; o p p o r -r u n i t i e s a r e o f f e r e d f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n i n new subj ec t m a t t e r d e s i g n e d to d i s c o v e r the l a t e n t t a l e n t s o f t h e p u p i l s ; to r e -v e a l to h i m the e d u c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g o f h i s a p t i t u d e s and to g i v e h i m , t h r o u g h i t s g u i d a n c e - p r o g r a m m e , a v i s i o n o f the v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n w h i c h h i s a p t i t u d e s , when d i s c o v e r e d and t r a i n e d , may f i n d p r o p e r and u s e f u l e m p l o y -ment. I t w o u l d a p p e a r then t h a t the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i n v o l v e s more t h a n a mere p h y s i c a l a d j u s t m e n t o f g r a d e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l s y s t e m . A s an i n s t i t u t i o n i t must p a r t a k e o f b o t h the e l e m e n -t a r y and a d v a n c e d h i g h s c h o o l i n o r d e r t h a t t h i s a b r u p t t r a n s i -t i o n a l change w i l l be a v o i d e d by g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c i n g : t h e p u p i l to new; f i e l d s o f l e a r n i n g a s w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g c e r -t a i n m a t e r i a l s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s as i n t e g r a t i n g f a c -t o r s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l w i l l d e -mand new f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n t r o d u c t o r y s c i e n c e , f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c a l a r t s f o r "both b o y s and g i r l s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r e -v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , accommodation f o r h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , gym-n a s i u m and l i b r a r y , as w e l l as f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a w e l l o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l a n d c i v i c programme o f a c t i v e j u n i o r - c i t i z e n -s h i p - a l l f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r e v e a l i n g to t h e p u p i l the b e n t o f h i s p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p l a c i n g h i m i n the p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e . E a c h o f t h e t h r e e s c h o o l u n i t s h a s i t s p l a c e i n any w e l l -o r d e r e d s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n and e a c h h a s i t s d u t y to p e r f o r m w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s . A c c o r d i n g to one programme o f s t u d i e s the r e s p e c t i v e obj e c t i v e s may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : ( l ) "The E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p o i n t o f v i e w toward i t s p u p i l s i s en masse t o the end t h a t a l l may r e c e i v e a u s a b l e knowledge o f t h e common b r a n c h e s and a s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i a l and c i v i c s t r u c t u r e o f o u r d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . " ' ' ( 1 ) . (2-) "The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p o i n t o f v i e w i s the i n d i v i d -u a l to t h e end t h a t e a c h p u p i l may"be s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e mass- and be p l a c e d , not b l i n d l y o r c a p r i c i o u s l y , b u t i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n h i s p r o p e r g r o u p . " ( l ) . (3) "The S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p o i n t o f v i e w i s the group to t h e end t h a t the p u p i l s o f each g r o u p may r e c e i v e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m t h e y have c h o s e n . " • ( l ) . 4. C e r t a i n F u n c t i o n s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i e s o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l has- c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t i v e f u n c t i o n s to p e r f o r m to j u s t i f y i t s p l a c e i n the s y s t e m o f s c h o o l s . I n ( l ) " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l M a n u a l " - S t a t e of W a s h i n g t o n , page 9 . 54. t h e f o l l o w i n g pages the most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e w i l l b e d e a l t w i b r i e f l y , i n s o f a r as they h a v e a j o i n t b e a r i n g upon J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1. RETENTION OF PUPILS IH SCHOOL. I t h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g pages ( l ) t h a t l a r g e numbers o f p u p i l s have d r o p p e d o u t o f s c h o o l d u r i n g the p e r i o d f r o m g r a d e V I to I X . T h i s i s s t i l l the c a s e i n commun-i t i e s where the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l h a s not been v e r y e x t e n s i v e -l y d e v e l o p e d . T h e r e i s a l s o a marked d e c r e a s e a f t e r the 9 t h g r a d e ... p o s s i b l y a c a s e o f t h e s u r v i v a l o f the f i t t e s t . I t would a l s o a p p e a r t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t l o s s i s d u r i n g the 9 t h y e a r i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t c o m p u l s o r y s c h o o l age l a w o p e r a t e s up u n t i l the end o f the 1 5 t h y e a r i n most o f t h e S t a t e s . ( 2 ) . A c -c o r d i n g to K o o s : " W h i l e no c a r e f u l t h i n k e r w i l l i g n o r e the enormous i n f l u -ence upon t h i s e l i m i n a t i o n , o f f a c t o r s t h a t l i e o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l , t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n t h a t o u r t y p i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t a c -c o u n t a b l e f o r i t . " (3). T h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e to show t h a t i n the u p p e r g r a d e s o f the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to r e m a i n w h i l e t h e f i r s t g r a d e o f t h e S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l a p p e a r s to be too d i f f i c u l t o r i n v o l v e s too sudden a change due to the v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s . A c c o r d i n g to D a v i s , i n the 7 t h and 8 t h g r a d e s , t h e c a u s e s o f e l i m i n a t i o n a r e : ( l ) "Too l i t t l e a d a p t a t i o n o f the work to the needs o f ( l ) pages S 3 - 2 4 . v 2 J P r a c t i c a l l y a l l S t a t e s have a c o m p u l s o r y age l i m i t o f 15 y e a r s , (3) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , " P r o f e s s o r L . V . K o o s , page 2 2 . i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s * ( 2 ) Too l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f s c h o o l work w i t h o u t o f s c h o o l i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r i e n c e s . (3) Too l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n o f p u p i l s 1 s e n s e o f p e r s o n -a l i t y . " - ( 1 ) . W h i l e i n the 9 t h g r a d e o r f i r s t y e a r o f the H i g h s c h o o l D a v i s i n d i c a t e s the c a u s e s to h e : (1) "Too a b r u p t a change i n s c h o o l work and i n the demands made upon the p u p i l s . (2) The u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f the t y p i c a l 9 t h g r a d e c o u r s e f o r many t y p e s o f p u p i l s . ' 1 (2). These c a u s e s o f e l i m i n a t i o n a r e b o r n e o u t by Koos as w e l l as fey o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s and a r e common t h r o u g h o u t t h e s y s t e m . One o f the f u n c t i o n s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s to c o u n t e r a c t t h i s l o s s . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e to show t h a t the J u n -• i o r H i g h s c h o o l h a s a c c o m p l i s h e d c o n s i d e r a b l e ; ! to d a t e and w h i l e , as Koos r e m a r k s , " t h a t t h e r e i s an a l m o s t t o t a l a b s e n c e o f c o n -c l u s i v e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l " t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e enough to show a f t e r a l l f a c t o r s h a v e been t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; t h e r e has been a n i n c r e a s e i n e n r o l m e n t where J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s h a v e been e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h a t boys a r e b e i n g h e l d more t h a n b e f o r e . f o r t h i s was and i s where the g r e a t e s t e l i m i n a t i o n o c c u r r e d . The c a u s e o f r e t e n t i o n i s the p r o v i s i o n o f a wide r a n g e o f c u r r i c -u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ; to keep up t h e i n t e r e s t , and by e d u c a t i n g the p a r e n t s to see the a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . ( 3 ) . &£Mm<MZ OP TIMB-. P u p i l s u n d e r the 8-4 o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada spend a l o n g e r time i n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l than i s com-(1) " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n " , C . 0 . D a v i s , page 60 e t s e q . (2) I b i d , page 61 . (3) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , " L . K o o s , page 27. mon i n most other countries. In the l a t t e r years of the e l e -mentary school there i s a great deal of d u p l i c a t i o n of the work already done i n grades f i v e and s i x and much time i s spent i n reviewing material which i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant from an edu-cational standpoint and which i s irksome and uninteresting to both the p u p i l and the teacher. There i s then neither the time nor the opportunity to introduce new materials and no new forms of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d education appear to any extent u n t i l a f t e r the eighth grade. Such a plan that makes a p u p i l mark time i s wasteful. The introduction of the Junior High school does away with these undesirable features i n the system. The new methods c a l l f o r promotion by subject and the grouping of pupils i n homogeneous sections so that each and every p u p i l w i l l work to capacity. Economy of time i s not gained altogether by a short-ening of the school period, by promotion by subject, or by elim-ination of materials no longer regarded as e s s e n t i a l , but l a r g e l y by "depressing into the lower grades cer t a i n content formerly regarded f o r High school or by introducing new and more v i t a l content from other sources." ( l ) . The enrichment of the work of grades VII and VIII i s the important feature of ec-onomy of time. Junior High schools throughout are based l a r g e l y upon this and are from this standpoint, at l e a s t , e f f e c t i n g a considerable economy of time. 5 . REPOSITION Off INDIVIDUAL DIEEBREHGES. Individual differences are extremely marked i n any demo-( l ) "The Junior High School," J-.. V. Koos, page 3 4 . c r a t i e s c h o o l s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e wide v a r i a t i o n s i n a g e , p h y s i -V • • calBf mental-., c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t ^ a p t i t u d e s as w e l l as s e x . I t i s one o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d d u t i e s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l to r e c o g n i z e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s and make p r o v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g l y . J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s a r e d o i n g t h i s b y : -( a ) o f f e r i n g a l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s u b j e c t s on the c u r r i c u l u m . ( b ) g r o u p p r o m o t i o n s , i f g r o u p e d h o m o g e n e o u s l y . ( c ) p r o m o t i o n b y s u b j e c t o r g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s . ( d ) b r i g h t e r p u p i l s c a r r y i n g more subj e c t s t h a n the o t h e r s . ( e ) s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y methods to s e c u r e b e t t e r t r a i n i n g . 1:. y' T h i s f u n c t i o n o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s a f t e r the p r e c e d i n g t o p i c . From the s t a n d p o i n t o f e x p l o r a t i o n the so c a l l e d t r y - o u t subj e c t s a r e on the c u r r i c u l u m f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . To quote B r i g g s , "Of a l l the f u n c t i o n s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t h a t w h i c h s e e k s to a i d p u p i l s i n d i s c o v e r i n g t h e i r own c a p a c i t i e s ; l i m i t a t i o n s ; i n t e r e s t s , p o w e r s , i s the most i m p o r t a n t . t t ( l ) • I t a l o n e j u s t i f i e s the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i f c a r r i e d out p r o p e r -l y . The g u i d a n o e programme i n the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s to be t a k e n i n the b r o a d e s t s e n s e o f e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e and s h o u l d i n c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , m o r a l g u i d a n c e and s o c i a l g u i d a n c e . U To g a i n t h i s end e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e must p r o v i d e a wide v a r -i e t y o f c o n t a c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s so o r g a n i z e d as to meet the many i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I n a b r o a d s e n s e g u i d a n c e i n v o l v e s a s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s d e s i g n e d to p e r m i t the p u p i l to e x p l o r e , t r y - o u t and r e a l i z e some o f h i s own c a p a c i -t i e s and i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as to a p p r e c i a t e h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s (1) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , " T . H . B r i g g s , page a.£ (2) " P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , " A l e x a n d e r I n g l i s , p . 7 1 8 . and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s In l i f e . E s p e c i a l l y i s the foregoing im-portant during the adolescent years f o r here, regardless of a l l that can be done i n reorganizing the educational system, a l a r g e r number of pupils w i l l leave school than at any other stage. This does not mean that provision should be made f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n Junior High schools generally. It i s the place to discover and uncover the l a t e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The period of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n should come a f t e r . 5 . BETTER TEACHING:- A M D SCHOLARSHIP. By providing teachers i n Junior High schools who are spec-i a l i s t s with a College t r a i n i n g there w i l l be a greater tendency to improve i n s t r u c t i o n generally than was possible i n these same grades under the t r a d i t i o n a l organization. This s p e c i a l i z e d tr a i n i n g becomes rather a necessity with the wider curriculum o f f e r i n g s . Teachers under the new- conditions w i l l teach v e r t -i c a l l y rather than h o r i z o n t a l l y and they w i l l know what i s going on i n the grades below as well as i n those above. Departmental-i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n do and w i l l tend to r a i s e the stand-ard i n every phase of secondary education. Along with the improvements i n teaching procedure there should be a corresponding improvement i n scholarship on the part of the p u p i l . I t i s hoped that by receiving i n s t r u c t i o n under s p e c i a l teachers and by supervision under them during the period of preparation within the school day that better habits of study w i l l be inculcated. There w i l l be a tendency to reduce i n d i f -ference and disinterestedness which w i l l prevent a large number of pupils from f a i l i n g . This change i n attitude due to the new and more i n t e r e s t i n g s u r r o u n d i n g s w i l l p r o d u c e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s and more o f them. Ike g e n e r a l a v e r a g e w i l l be h i g h e r as f a r as the s t a n d a r d o f work done i s c o n c e r n e d ; The new and v i t a l s u b -j e c t s i n j e c t e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m a t the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l age w i l l p u t new l i f e i n t o f l a g g i n g s t u d e n t s . 5 . C r i t i c i s m s o f and O b j e c t i o n s to the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l O r - g a n i z a t i o n . The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s no l o n g e r an e x p e r i m e n t a l t y p e o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . I t i s a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n i n the A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h o c c u r r i n g i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . The f a c t t h a t , d u r i n g the t w e n t y y e a r s s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n ) o v e r f i v e thousand d i f f e r e n t forms o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l h a v e been put i n t o p r a c t i c e i s e v i d e n c e enough as to i t s g e n e r a l p o p u l a r i t y and u s e f u l n e s s as a n e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t . ¥ i t h t h i s enormous g r o w t h , c e r t a i n c r i t i c i s m s have d e v e l o p e d and o b j e c t i o n s to t h e i n s t i t u t i o n h a v e been put f o r t h . Some o f t h e s e a r e m e n t i o n e d by B r i g g s and a r e q u o t e d a s f o l l o w s : (1) "The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l programme i s too i n d e f i n i t e . (2) T h e r e i s a l a c k o f s u i t a b l e t e x t s f o r J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . ; ( 3 ) T h e r e i s a l a c k o f p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s and a d -m i n i s t r a t o r s . ( 4 ) T h e r e i s a l a c k o f p r o p e r b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p m e n t . ( 5 ) T h e r e i s o p p o s i t i o n from e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i j j a l s and t e a c h e r s who h a v e been s l i g h t e d when n o t g i v e n a p l a c e i n the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . ( 6 ) The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l w i l l p r o d u c e two gaps i n the s y s t e m i n s t e a d o f one a s under the t r a d i t i o n a l 8 -4 . scheme... (7) D e p a r t m e n t a l t e a c h i n g i s bad f o r p u p i l s o f the a d o l -e s c e n t a g e . (•8) The s e g r e g a t i o n o f p u p i l s o f the a d o l e s c e n t age f r o m t h o s e y o u n g e r and o l d e r i s n o t i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e s e p u p i l s . (9) The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s ^ o s t m o r e . (10) The J u n i o r H i g i i s c h o o l may make a g a i n s t d e m o c r a c y . " ( l I t i s n o t the p u r p o s e o f t h i s T h e s i s to comment on t h e s e c r i t -i c i s m s to any l e n g t h . The o b j e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h i n d e f i n i t e programmes o f s t u d y , l a c k o f s u i t a b l e t e x t s , p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s , and o p p o s i t i o n from e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , a r e a l l f e a -t u r e s o f a n e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h a r e bound to o c c u r b u t w h i c h time and e x p e r i e n c e w i l l e r a d i c a t e . T h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n about the e x t r a c o s t o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s . By t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e g r e a t e r expense w i l l be i n v o l v e d . A t the same t i m e , h o w e v e r , g r e a t e r a d v a n t a g e s a c c r u e and the u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t s f a r o u t -w e i g h t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t . That d e p a r t m e n t a l t e a c h i n g i s not good f o r p u p i l s a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l depend upon how much d e p a r t -m e n t a l t e a c h i n g t h e r e i s . I t s h o u l d be g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e d i n g r a d e V I I i n c r e a s i n g as the s u c c e s s i v e g r a d e s a r e r e a c h e d . E d -u c a t i o n a l A u t h o r i t i e s a g r e e g e n e r a l l y t h a t , where f e a s i b l e , g r a d e s V I I , V I I I and I X s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d f r o m the o t h e r g r a d e s . The C r i t i c s b e l i e v e t h a t a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d e v e l o p s among J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s i f they a r e h o u s e d w i t h y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n b u t when s u c h p u p i l s a r e w i t h o l d e r they tend to h a v e more i n t e r e s t i n b o t h the c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f the s c h o o l * L a s t l y t h a t the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l may make a g a i n s t democracy i s r a t h e r a n i l l founded c r i t -i c i s m . I t would seem t h a t the v e r y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l aims a t p r o m o t i n g a n a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r a l l forms o f d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s among the p u p i l s a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e o f t h e i r • e d u c a t i o n ; — ( l ) 1 1 The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , " T . H . B r i g g s , 43:.. . 6 . F a c t o r s C o n s i d e r e d i n O r g a n i z i n g J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A c c o r d i n g to a s t a t e m e n t r e c e i v e d b y the w r i t e r f r o m the U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , t h e r e were f i v e thousand one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - n i n e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h -o u t the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 9 3 0 . Of t h e s e one thousand e i g h t h u n d r e d and f o r t y - t w o were s e p a r a t e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s and the r e m a i n i n g number t h r e e thousand two h u n d r e d and e i g h t y - s e v e n were combined w i t h S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s . ( l ) . S i n c e 1930 no doubt the number h a s i n c r e a s e d f o r b o t h types o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g p o i n t s out i n the R e p o r t o f the N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n t h a t the s e p a r a t e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s tend i n the m a i n to be c i t y s c h o o l s and the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t o be types i n s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s and communit ies o f moderate s i z e . ( 2 ) . . The c i t y s c h o o l s a r e f o u n d to be o r g a n i z e d on the 6 - 3 - 3 p l a n g e n e r a l l y , whereas the 6-6 scheme i s the p r e d o m i n a t i n g f o r m e l s e w h e r e . What p r o b a b l e f a c t o r s have d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r o r not the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l was to be s e p a r a t e o r combined? The s i z e o f the community o r c i t y and the c o n t r i b u t i n g p u p i l a r e a as w e l l as the w e a l t h o f t h e d i s t r i c t h a v e no doubt been the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t f o r the s m a l l e r c e n -t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n the s e g r e g a t e d J u n i o r H i g h i s not p r a c t i c a l . (1) C o m m u n i c a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , D e p t . of I n t e r i o r a t W a s h i n g t o n , D . G . , December, 1932. (2) "Summary o f the F i n d i n g s of the N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f E d u c a -t i o n , " by P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g , p u b l i s h e d i n H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s ' R e c o r d , O c t o b e r , 1932, page 171. I n t h e ' J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l C o u r s e o f S t u d y f o r Hew Y o r k S t a t e we note the f o l l o w i n g w i t h r e g a r d to s i z e o f community and the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l : " I n c o m m u n i t i e s h a v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f l e s s than 1 0 , 0 0 0 t h e r e a r e c o g e n t r e a s o n s why J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s c a n n o t be o r g a n i z e d as s e p a r a t e u n i t s i n s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s so e f f e c t i v e l y as i n the same b u i l d i n g w i t h the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l * " ( l ) . I n P e n n s y l v a n i a the g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y h a s b e e n f o r ; c i t i e s r a n g -i n g f r o m 5 , 0 0 0 to 30„Q00 to f a v o u r the s i x - y e a r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l u n i t where the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l e n r o l m e n t i s not l a r g e enough to j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e u n i t s » Where" the combined e n r o l m e n t i s u n d e r s i x h u n d r e d p u p i l s the combined s c h o o l i s much more a d v a n t a g e o u s . ( 2 ) . P r o f e s s o r G . V . B e n n e t , some f i f t e e n y e a r s ago p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s e p a r a t e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y found i n c i t i e s - o v e r 5000 and t h a t the combined s c h o o l s were found i n the s m a l l e r l o c a l i t i e s . ( 3 ) . P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g , i n more r e c e n t t i m e s , h a s a l s o f o u n d t h a t throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s where l e s s t h a n one thousand p u p i l s were e n r o l l e d i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r a d e s (Seven t h r o u g h Twelve) the most e f f e c t i v e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n was the s i n g l e u n i t - the J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . We may c o n c l u d e t h e r e -f o r e t h a t where the p o p u l a t i o n of a d i s t r i c t o r community ranges f r o m , s a y , 2,500 to 1 0 , 0 0 0 the Combined s c h o o l i s t h e (1) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n Hew Y o r k S t a t e , "! 1928, G. K. W i l e y , A s s t . C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , page 2 4 . ( 2 ) " R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n u n d e r S t a t e S u p e r -v i s i o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a , " W i l l i a m H . B r i s t o w , P u b l i s h e d i n " S c h o o l L i f e " May 1929, page 1 7 3 . (3) "The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , ": C l a u d e V e r n o n B e n n e t , page 9 1 . (4) P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m P r o f e s s o r 3T. S p a u l d i n g , May, 1932. preferable type and that f o r the l a r g e r centres the separate school should be encouraged. The separate Junior High school may be dismissed without further reference. In the larger c i t i e s i t may be the i d e a l form of unit where there i s a large pupil population and where the i n i t i a l and current costs are not a serious drain on the taxpayers. But i n both the United States and Canada there are thousands of centres under 10,000 i n population where a separ-ate i n s t i t u t i o n would not be fe a s i b l e both on account of the size of the l o c a l i t y and also the cost i n i t s many aspects. What are the factors which have been so potent i n estab-l i s h i n g the combined Junior-Senior High school i n such numbers i n the United States during the past ten years? At this point they may be suggested as being as follows: (1) Less, expensive to operate. (2) More economical use of plant. (3) More economical use of equipment. (4) More economical use of teaching s t a f f . ( 5 ) More economical administration. (6) Better a r t i c u l a t i o n with other school u n i t s . ^7) Better organization of extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A 8 ) More comprehensively organized. On the surface the following factors would appear to be the im-portant influences which have been at work i n developing the Junior-Senior High school. In Chapter IV the re s u l t s of a Survey made by the w r i t e r of the combined Junior and Senior High schools are set f o r t h and the advantages that have accrued are f o r c i b l y pointed out by P r i n c i p a l s , State Superintendents and various other author-i t i e s on secondary education. 44. SUMMARY AND C0HCIU5I0KS The J u n i o r High School , w h i l e possessing some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the European Middle School, came about a c t u a l l y as the r e s u l t of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the f i e l d s of Education and Psychology.The J u n i o r High School has had a phenomenal growth over the twenty year p e r i o d s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n which should he ample proof of i t s e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e as an e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t * I t i s found i n v a r i o u s grade-combinations and i n a l l types of communities but the 6-6 and 6-3-3 forms are the most common and most adaptable. The c r i t i c i s m s most f r e q u e n t l y met w i t h are those r e s u l t i n g l a r g e l y from experimental c o n d i t i o n s . Any defects w i l l be overcome as more experience i s gained i n the objects and 1aims of the s c h o o l . 45.' CHATTER Tf. A SURVEY OP THE COMBINED JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN THE UNITED STATES D I V I S I O N ( I ) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e to P r i n c i p a l s o f J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . A s u b s t a n t i a l l i s t o f Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e a t W a s h i n g t o n . S i x t y s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d a t random o v e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s , two o r t h r e e f r o m e a c h S t a t e , and to the P r i n c i p a l s a q u e s t i o n -n a i r e was s e n t . R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d f r o m t h i r t y - s i x P r i n c i p a l s o r 60$. A copy o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o l l o w s i m -m e d i a t e l y . 46, (Copy o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent, out to P r i n c i p a l s o f S i x - y e a r Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . ) L i s t o f s c h o o l s o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h i s p l a n o b t a i n e d f r o m - B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n , Department of I n t e r i o r , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . gusstraoim&iRE-( S e c t i o n 1 ) What i s the p o p u l a t i o n o f y o u r c i t y o r town? //' .  I n w h i c h o f the f o l l o w i n g types o f community i s y o u r s c h o o l l o c a t e d : F a r m i n g ; I n d u s t r i a l ; R a i l w a y C e n t e r ; R e s i d e n t i a l . t u n d e r l i n e ) ¥hat was the m a i n r e a s o n f o r r e o r g a n i z i n g y o u r s c h o o l s so t h a t t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l was i n t r o d u c e d ? What r e a s o n s made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the J u n i o r H i g h D i v i s i o n s to be combined w i t h the S e n i o r H i g h D i v i s i o n s to f o r m the s i x - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? Do y o u t h i n k t h a t c i t i e s u n d e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n p o p u l a t i o n a r e b e t t e r a d v i s e d to h a v e the Combined S c h o o l ? | S e c t i o n 2 ) l h a t a d v a n t a g e s h a s the Combined S c h o o l o v e r the s e p a r a t e J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l u n i t s ? U ) _ p x . -$hat do y o u t h i n k a r e the m a i n d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the Combined S c h o o l ? ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t * ) (6) ( S e c t i o n 3 ) 1. Have y o u two s e p a r a t e s t a f f s o r one s t a f f t e a c h i n g a l l o f the g r a d e s f r o m 7 to 12.? 2. Do y o u r e q u i r e t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s who t e a c h j u n i o r g r a d e s i n the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l h o l d a degree i n A r t s o r S c i e n c e ? 3. I f n o t , i s i t the p o l i c y to t a k e t e a c h e r s f r o m the e l e m e n t -a r y s c h o o l s o f y o u r l o c a l i t y i n t o the J u n i o r H i g h s e c t i o n ? 4. Do y o u f i n d t e a c h e r s who h a v e t a u g h t f o r some y e a r s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s y m p a t h e t i c toward t h e J u n i o r H i g h o r g a n -i z a t i o n ? 5. Do y o u t h i n k the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l r e q u i r e s b e t t e r t e a c h e r s than the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ? 6. Do y o u t h i n k t h a t weaknesses a r e more a p p a r e n t among J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s than among S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ? ( S e c t i o n 4 ) 1. What a d v a n t a g e s , as o b s e r v e d by y o u r S e n i o r H i g h s t a f f , h a v e become e v i d e n t ( s i n c e the J u n i o r High, s c h o o l was i n t r o d u c e d ) o v e r t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l w h i c h f o r m e r l y p r e p a r e d g r a d e s 7 and 8 f o r S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l work? ( f o r example) 3. 2. Do y o u f i n d p u p i l s who have p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l weak i n ( l ) S p e l l i n g (2) F u n d a m e n t a l s o f E n g l i s h Grammar (3) F u n d a m e n t a l s o f A r i t h m e t l c (4) ¥ r i t -i n g . (5) Geography (6) T h o r o u g h n e s s and A c c u r a c y (7) G e n e r a l N e a t n e s s , G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , do y o u f i n d t h a t the subj e c t s r e c o g n i z e d as f u n d a m e n t a l a r e n o t s t r e s s e d enough i n t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l ? ( q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t ' ) ( S e c t i o n 5 ) 1. Do y o u f i n d the s i x h o u r day, o r l o n g e r s c h o o l d a y , an a d -v a n t a g e to b o t h J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s ? _ 2. What i s the l e n g t h o f t h e c l a s s p e r i o d s i n y o u r s c h o o l ? 3 . I f y o u a r e u s i n g a 6 0 m i n u t e p e r i o d , do y o u d i v i d e the p e r -i o d i n t o a t e a c h i n g and s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y s e c t i o n ? 4. Do y o u u s e a homogeneous o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s s y s t e m o f g r o u p -i n g o f p u p i l s i n g r a d e 7 and l a t e r y e a r s ? 5. Do y o u f i n d that a homogeneous g r o u p i n g i n g r a d e s 7 and 8 h a s any b e a r i n g on the p u p i l ' s c h o i c e o f o p t i o n s i n the l a t e r g r a d e s o f the s c h o o l ? , • . • .  ( S e c t i o n 6 ) 1. Have y o u n o t i c e d t h a t p r a c t i c e s , h a b i t s , e t c . , c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s g e n e r a l l y , a r e b e i n g c o p i e d by the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s mho a r e h o u s e d i n the same b u i l d i n g w i t h them? 2. Do y o u f i n d any e v i d e n c e t h a t p r a c t i c e s , t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , e t c . , common to J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s , a r e l i k e l y to be i n t r o -duced i n t o t h e u p p e r g r a d e s when a l l s i x g r a d e s a r e housed i n the same s c h o o l ? 3 . A r e p u p i l s more w i l l i n g to t a k e p a r t i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r they h a v e p a s s e d t h r o u g h the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s ( S e c t i o n 7 ) 1. Do y o u t h i n k t h a t the Combined S c h o o l o f f e r s b e t t e r f a c i l -i t i e s f o r A r t i c u l a t i o n t h a n the s e p a r a t e s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n ? 2. I f t h e r e a r e o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f y o u r s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e does not c o v e r , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e these i f c o n v e n i e n t . S e c t i o n 1. 1. T h i r t y - s i x p r i n c i p a l s o f Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? I n p o i n t o f s i z e t h e r e was c o n -s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the l o c a l i t i e s r e p o r t i n g as i s shown b y the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . o v e r 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 - — - r — — — 5 100,000 to - 5 0 , 0 0 0 —— - — — 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 to 1 0 , 0 0 0 — - — — — 5 1 0 , 0 0 0 to 5,000-— — — — — 5 5 , 0 0 0 to 1,000—— — - 1 5 u n d e r 1 , 0 0 0 — > — - — -~.»~7 T o t a l — - - -36 The J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l would a p p e a r to be a p o p u l a r i n -s t i t u t i o n where the p o p u l a t i o n f o r s m a l l c i t i e s r a n g e s f r o m 10,000 to say 2,500. I t i s to be n o t e d however t h a t c i t i e s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s i z e h a v e s u c h s c h o o l s . The N a t i o n a l S u r v e y R e -p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a s many a s two t h o u s a n d p u p i l s a r e t a u g h t i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s . P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n o b s e r v i n g J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s s a y s : ttIn a community h a v i n g more t h a n one thousand p u p i l s i n i t s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l g r a d e s a s i n g l e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s l i k e l y to be b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n a s e p a r a t e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and a s e p a r a t e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , though a s t h e e n r o l m e n t i n c r e a s e s the j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l may become so u n w i e l d y b e c a u s e o f i t s l a r g e s i z e t h a t i t w i l l have to be d i v i d e d . * 2.. P o u r t y p e s o f community were s e l e c t e d by the w r i t e r as b e i n g the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The t h i r t y - s i x s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g r e p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s : P o p u l a t i o n N o . r e p o r t i n g . Type o f Community N o . r e p o r t i n g . F a r m i n g c e n t r e - — > - - — — - - - - 1 9 I n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e — — .12 5 0 . Type o f Community No. r e p o r t i n g . ( c o n t r R e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e - - >__._.—-~7 R a i l w a y c e n t r e • — - — •—.---5' T o t a l — • — — 4 3 L e s s d u p l i c a t i o n s — — - - - - - — » - 7 36 • A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e p r o m i n e n c e to the f a r m i n g and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s t h e r e i s no r e a s o n to t h i n k t h a t the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i s more s u i t a b l e fo any one type more t h a n a n o t h e r . The s i z e o f the l o c a l i t y i s the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r . 3 . The r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l were a s f o l l o w s : R e a s o n s . F r e q u e n c y . E x p e c t e d to g i v e p u p i l s b e t t e r t r a i n i n g — - • — — - - - 3 5 P e o p l e were c o n s c i o u s o f i t s v a l u e - > - « - - - - — . - - — 1 5 E x p e c t e d to b r i d g e the gap between g r a d e s V T I I and I X more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y — . - — — - - - - - - - - - 1 4 B e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r a d e s V I I and V I I I — — — - - - - - 1 0 New b u i l d i n g s were r e q u i r e d - - — „.,.-....-.—,„„ , ,10 E x p e c t e d to keep p u p i l s a t s c h o o l l o n g e r - - - »=.,„„„„„_9 To p r o v i d e b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s — . - - 7 A d v i s e d to do so by S t a t e D e p t . o f E d u c a t i o n — — - 4 E x p e c t e d to c r e a t e g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s - — 3 R e c o g n i z e d v a l u e o f a u n i f i e d programme o f s t u d i e s » r - - — . — 3 Many of the above r e a s o n s a r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h o s e u s u a l l y found i n t e x t books on the s u b j e c t . I t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f t h e s e l o c a l i t i e s were t h o r o u g h l y c o n s c i o u s o f the a d -v a n t a g e s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e r e o r g a n i z e d p r o -gramme was u n d e r t a k e n . The p r i n c i p a l s o f the S e n i o r d i v i s i o n s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y p o i n t e d out the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the J u n i o r H i g h programme p a r t i c u l a r l y when combined w i t h the S e n i o r s c h o o l 4. The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l was combined w i t h the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : Reasons . F r e q u e n c y , F o r economy-—-™ • -• — • — - - • 29 To make b e t t e r use o f the f a c i l i t i e s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n the S e n i o r s e c t i o n — - - - — - - — 3 4 C e r t a i n s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s c o u l d be employed f o r b o t h s c h o o l s - - - - - - - - - ---——21 S m a l l "enrolments ' i n t h e s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s • — — — 1 0 C l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l ----.---IO To a v o i d the b r e a k a t the 9 t h g r a d e • - - — 6 S c h o o l p l a n t l e n t i t s e l f to t h i s p l a n - 4 The above were q u i t e o b v i o u s r e a s o n s f o r c o m b i n i n g the two s c h o o l s . E c o n o m y , w i t h a t l e a s t the same e f f i c i e n c y as the s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s t ?\s^~ the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r : , a l w a y s to be c o n -s i d e r e d i n t h e . s m a l l e r and l e s s p r o s p e r o u s c o m m u n i t i e s . 5 . I n r e s p e c t to the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f c i t i e s u n d e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n p o p u l a t i o n a d o p t i n g the J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n the r e p l i e s were a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s l y i n f a v o u r . They a r e as f o l l o w s : F a v o u r a b l e — 29 not i n f a v o u r — — • — — — -4. : no a n s w e r - - - . - - - - - - - — . - - — _ - 3 . . , , T o t a l - — - — - - - - — - 3 6 Tw.o o f t h o s e who were opposed were p r i n c i p a l s o f l a r g e combined s c h o o l s and f o u n d the p r o b l e m s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e somewhat d i f f i c u l t and c o n c l u d e d t h a t where p o s s i b l e the two s c h o o l s s h o u l d be s e p a r -a t e . S e c t i o n 2. 1. T h e r e were many a d v a n t a g e s i n d i c a t e d i n showing t h a t t h e Combined s c h o o l was p r e f e r a b l e to the s e p a r a t e J u n i o r and S e n -i o r H i g h s c h o o l s . They were quo ted a s f o l l o w s : 52.: A d v a n t a g e s F r e q u e n c y G-reater economy —: - - - - . — _ — • ---26 B e t t e r u s e o f b u i l d i n g f a c i l i t i e s — - - — — — '——-20. Use o f s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s i n both, s c h o o l s - - - - - . ; — — 1 5 A v o i d s d u p l i c a t i o n o f equipment • - — — — 1 3 The h o l d i n g power i s g r e a t e r i n combined s c h o o l s - - — - - 1 0 .'••Wider v a r i e t y o f e l e c t i v e s p o s s i b l e — - — — — I Q B e t t e r a r t i c u l a t i o n - - - - - - - - — • 8 Lower p e r c a p i t a c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n - — — _---_„7 B e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n - heads o f d e p a r t m e n t s — - - - ,-----6 L e s s expense f o r s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s - - - - - - •-- 6 P u p i l s g e t a n e a r l i e r t r a i n i n g i n the whole s y s t e m - — — 5 . . . S t i m u l u s to J u n i o r H i g h p u p i l s to copy S e n i o r H i g h — — 5 A more i n t e g r a t e d programme- — , — _ 5 A v o i d s the b r e a k between g r a d e s IX and — 5 E l i m i n a t e s one p r i n c i p a l - • - .- — . . — — 5 S e n i o r h i g h p u p i l s a p p r e c i a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - - - - —-—4 B e t t e r e d u c a t i o n f o r l e s s money- , —>4 S t a b i l i z e s the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l - — — —____3 I n c r e a s e s the s c h o o l s p i r i t — - - — — - — - — . _ . — « . g 2.. The d i s a d v a n t a g e s were g i v e n a s : S e v e n t h g r a d e p u p i l s too y o u n g - •- ----14 L e s s c o n t a c t between p u p i l and t e a c h e r - - - - - - — — — - — — 8 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t - - - - - - .-_ — -——-.-6 Age gap too b i g - • — >-------6 J u n i o r H i g h p u p i l s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s - - , - — 8 D i s c i p l i n a r y problems. • * •—•—-4 S a l a r y d i f f i c u l t i e s a p p e a r - - • — -3 7th and 8th g r a d e s s l i g h t e d - • — - •— -.--.-.-.4 Do n o t know o f a n y - — — • — = — • • — — . —-7 Depends on the p r i n c i p a l — - - - - - - - — — - ~ . —3 D i f f i c u l t f o r t e a c h e r to a d a p t h e r s e l f to d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s — - - — . — — -—-—— - - - . - . - . - . - • 5 . Younger p u p i l s a r e l o s t s i g h t o f — ™_—-4 Seven q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not know o f any d i s a d v a n t a g e s . To the w r i t e r none o f the d i s a d v a n t a g e s were s e r i o u s and c o u l d i n a l l c a s e s be overcome. The age gap between the g r a d e Y I I and the grade X I I p u p i l s i s not a h a n d i -cap i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l . The y o u n g e r p u p i l s g a i n by c o n t a c t s w i t h those i n the upper y e a r s whenever they come t o g e t h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , a t A s s e m b l y , The c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s h o u l d be a l t o g e t h e r s e p a r a t e . 53. S e c t i o n 5 . C e r t a i n s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d , t h a t the J u n i o r and S e n i o r s t a f f s were not d i f f e r e n t i a t e d y e t they c l a s s i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s as J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . The s m a l l e r s c h o o l s h a d no s t a f f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n r e p l y i n g was as f o l -lows : -One s t a f f t h r o u g h o u t - - - - - - - ™ - - — • > - - - — — 1 4 Two s t a f f s — - — - — • — • - - - - - - - - — - — . — - - 1 3 No r e p l y - - - - - - — — — _ — . 9 T o t a l - - - - - - - — — -~36 I n r e g a r d t o q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s the m a j o r i t y o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e p o r t e d a g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y to demand a d e g r e e i n A r t s o r S c i e n c e . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s no m e n t i o n was made a s to t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , b u t i n the s m a l -l e r s c h o o l s t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t e d w i t h the i d e a t h a t they might have to t e a c h anywhere f r o m g r a d e V I I to g r a d e X I I . P r o m o t i o n from e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s was the p r a c t i c e i n many l o c a l i t i e s . S i x t e e n s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h i s to be the c a s e , w h i l e twenty i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was the e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n the r u l e u n l e s s the a p p l i c a n t s had s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p r o c e d u r e s . The m a j o r i t y o f the r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y s y m p a t h e t i c toward the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . However, i n s t a n c e s were m e n t i o n e d showing t h a t i n c e r t a i n c e n t r e s e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s were p r e j u d i c e d b e c a u s e they h a d not been a p p o i n t e d to p o s i t i o n s on J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s t a f f s . F o u r t e e n s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l r e -q u i r e d b e t t e r t e a c h e r s , w h i l e twelve r e p l i e d t h a t s t a n d a r d s 54. were no d i f f e r e n t than f o r e i t h e r the e l e m e n t a r y o r S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . The term " b e t t e r " was meant to r e f e r to t e a -c h e r s w i t h a b r o a d v i e w p o i n t and s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a d o l e s c e n t s . S e c t i o n . 4. I n r e g a r d to the a d v a n t a g e s and r e s u l t s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l as v i e w e d by S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s e c t i o n s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may be q u o t e d as f o l l o w s : Replies_ . _ J^A^A™*!. • P u p i l s a r e b e t t e r t a u g h t i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s -—•—-15 More men t e a c h e r s now i n p r o p o r t i o n — - - - - - - - — — — 6 B e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n - - - - - - ™ - — - — — - - - • ~ — -6 P u p i l s h a v e more i n i t i a t i v e t h a n f o r m e r l y — - — — - — — — 8 W i d e r s o c i a l t r a i n i n g — — — • ••— > — 3 S u b j e c t s b e t t e r t a u g h t by s p e c i a l i s t s — - • . „ - — - - — — 9 A. good t h i n g f o r p u p i l s to get. used to d e p a r t m e n t s e a r l y - - - • - — — — — 7 P u p i l s b e t t e r a b l e to make c h o i c e o f o p t i o n s — - - 6 More i n d e p e n d e n c e i n a t t a c k on w o r k - - - — - — - - — — - - - - — 8 B e t t e r t r a i n i n g f o r H i g h S c h o o l d i s c i p l i n e — % B e t t e r methods o f t e a c h i n g - -•- — > — — • — — — - . 7 These r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s were s a t i s -f i e d w i t h the t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n o f the p u p i l s r e c e i v e d . I n o r d e r to o b t a i n f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to t h e a d v a n t -ages the w r i t e r asked f o r g r e a t e r d e t a i l w i t h r e f e r e n c e to a c t -u a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s were i n d i c a t e d and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a l l e d f o r an e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the weaknesses i n these p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s a r e summarized b e l o w . Weaknesses . No. Y e s . KTo r e p l y . T o t a l . S p e l l i n g 12 6 18 36 5 5 . (could). Weaknesses. Y e s . Ho r e p l y . T o t a l . 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W i t h r e s p e c t to the l e n g t h o f p e r i o d s o f the s c h o o l day the s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d a s f o l l o w s : 11 s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d u s i n g 45 m i n u t e p e r i o d s . g « in n QO U I » Q H' « • t!= 4.Q U 1 s c h o o l " , t ; . 50 i l " 7 s c h o o l s d i d not r e p l y . I n those s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g a s i x t y m i n u t e p e r i o d , the p e r i o d was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a t e a c h i n g and a s t u d y p e r i o d . In o t h e r c a s e s a f u l l p e r i o d was a l l o w e d f o r s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y w i t h any member of the s t a f f i n c h a r g e . 4 . Of the s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g on homogeneous and h e t e r o g e n e o u s & g r o u p i n g s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n u s i n g one o r the o t h e r Vfas about 5» e q u a l . The l a r g e r s c h o o l s t e n d e d to s t r e s s homogeneous g r o u p i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e f a c t t h a t a f a i r l y l a r g e e n r o l m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s p l a n to become o p e r a t i v e . Homogen-eous g r o u p i n g i n the l o w e r g r a d e s a p p e a r e d to have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p u p i l s 1 c h o i c e o f o p t i o n s i n the l a t e r g r a d e s . Twenty s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d no e f f e c t , w h i l e s e v e n m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s u c h a. p l a n h a d a b e a r i n g upon the c h o i c e o f o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t s i n the u p p e r y e a r s . S e c t i o n 6. 1. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s h a v e a c e r -t a i n e f f e c t upon S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s i n the same b u i l d i n g b u t i n no c a s e d i d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e i n what manner. F i f t e e n s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s d i d i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e e i g h t i n d i c a t e d no e f f e c t , and t h i r t e e n d i d n o t r e p l y to the q u e s t i o n . 2 . On t h e whole J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s seem to be more w i l l -&. i n g to take p a r t i n s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s than was c u s t o m a r y 3. u n d e r the t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m . The s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d as f o l -lows t 25 i n d i c a t e d i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . 2 " 1 1 n n e g a t i v e . 9 d i d n o t r e p o r t . The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were m e n t i o n e d i n w h i c h t h e r e was a q u i c k e n e d i n t e r e s t i n the S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l : 57. D r a m a t i c s — — .— — I n t e r e s t i n clubs- — - . . . - . 7 School p u b l i c a t i o n s - - . „6 P u p i l , self-government — . „ „ _ » « _ 5 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n school d i s c i p l i n e — — 5 S e c t i o n 7. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l schools reported unanimously i n favour of the advantages of a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the combined s c h o o l . SXT1MARY AID CONCLUSIOITS The T h i r t y - S i x schools r e p l y i n g t o the questionnaires represented the Combined School as an a l t o g e t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y type of school o r g a n i z a t i o n * The m a j o r i t y of the schools were l o c a t e d i n centres ranging i n p o p u l a t i o n from 10,000 t o 1,000. Economy i n m a t e r i a l s as w e l l as i n teac h i n g power,with the same e f f i c i e n c y as the l a r g e separate j u n i o r h i g h schools was the predominating note .The disadvantages i n d i c a t e d were not important. P r i n c i p a l s seemed t o be s a t i s f i e d t h a t the p u p i l s obtained an e x c e l l e n t a l l around development i n both the c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r ; f i e l d s * 58, A SURVEY OF THE COMBINED JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN THE UNITED STATES DIVISION (2) A short questionnaire was sent to the State Superintendent of each of the F o r t y - E i g h t States.She q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked f o r an o p i n i o n of the Sombined School and f o r any l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o the subject . R e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from F o r t y - f i v e S t a t e O f f i c i a l s or 93.7^ r e p l i e d , ' I n s e v e r a l instances B u l l e t i n s were r e c e i v e d o u t l i n i n g the e n t i r e J u n i o r High School programme and these have been r e f e r r e d t o b r i e f l y . Immediately f o l l o w i n g i s the questionnaires' (Copy o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n , a p p l y i n g t o S t a t e ) ( S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e ) ( S i x - y e a r J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h ) ( S c h o o l * ) :' :&^^Qmy^mio^^$^ioU H*IGH: BCHriGXT 1; : - : Kamloops , B . C . Canada.•.,.•....,... . . O c t o b e r 1932. • D e a r S i r : I am w r i t i n g you at t h i s t i m e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Comhined J u n i o r - S e n i o r S i x - Y e a r S c h o o K G r a d e s V I I - X I I ) . 1 u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i n y o u r S t a t e y o u have d e v e l o p e d t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . I am a n x i o u s t o know how s u c c e s s f u l t h i s scheme has b e e n and what t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e . I s h o u l d l i k e t o o b t a i n any l i t e r a t t i r e y o u r Department may have on t h e s u b j e c t . Y o u r own o p i n i o n v/ould be v e r y much a p p r e c i a t e d * T h e r e a r e a few s c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t have t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n but the. whole scheme i s s t i l l l a r g e l y i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l stage. ' Note: S t a t e s coloured i n orange are those i n which the Combined Schools are f o u n d i n greatest numbers. STATE 61. OPINIONS and NOTES awe. f i n d t h e J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h . S c h o o l o f s i x __grades v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y and i t i s e c o h o m i e a l i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e r e i s a s u p e r v i s i n g P r i n c i p a l , t h e s c h e d u l e o f r e c i t a t i o n s c o v e r s a l l g r a d e s and t e a c h e r s and: the, e n t i r e programme o f s t u d i e s i s taught"by, t h e same: t e a c h e r s on t h e department p l a n a l l t h e , way .' t h r o u g h t h e s i x g r a d e s . The p u p i l s b£ t h e • . J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s are t o some e x t e n t made t o f e e l t h a t t h e y are a s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t s c h o o l , t h a t i s , , t h e r e seems t o be i n o u r b e s t s c h o o l s a j u n i o r as 11 "as a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s p i r i t a n d ; ; : ^ i l e , t h e y ; a ¥ e : t a u g h t b y t h e same t e a c h e r s and m i n g l e i n t h e s p o r t s and i n some o f t h e . e x t ^ & ? . c ^ . r r i - c t i l a r . a c t i v i t i e s , y e t i n t h e J u n i o r : 'grades''' they.caas b a r r e d from f o o t b a l l and t h e g i r l s f r o m b a s k e t b a l l . I n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme t h e y a r e t a u g h t t h e s e skills:.'..'and. a r e t h u s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e r e a l game l a t e r . " "What c a n be s a i d o f t h e 6-3-3 p l a n g e n e r a l l y c a n be s a i d o f t h e J u n i o r - S e h i b r p l a n ; . ; inasmuch as t h e l a t t e r i s made p o s s i b l e b y t h e 6-3-3 law" • * * * T h e a c t u a l e n r o l l m e n t i n G-rades 7,8 and 9 o f any j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s h o u l d be f i f t y o r m o r e . ( Det>t . o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n # 5 1938) (Dept • o f E d u c . ***Where. o t h e r g r a d e s a r e h o u s e d i n t h e same B u l l e t i n # 5 1932) b u i l d i n g i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o have the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e s g r a d e s as d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e as p o s s i b l e . ' ( D e p t . o f Educ. ' * * * W h e r e t h e s i x g r a d e s o f j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h B u l l e t i n # 9 1932) s c h o o l s are o r g a n i z e d i n one s c h o o l as a S i n g l e u n i t t h e r e must be at l e a s t f i v e f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e s i x g r a d e s . ALABAMA S t a t e S u p t . o f E d u c a t i o n " 1932 ARIZONA;.... •••"•"'•••,'-""._• -'• :-.'••.••"• W '""• State" ""Supt. o f . No i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o J u n i o r H i g h P u b l i c S c h o o l s was f u r n i s h e d . One o f t h e l a r g e s t I n s t r u c t i o n S t a t e s w i t h a v e r y s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n . 1932. T h e r e a r e n o t many g r a d e d s c h o o l s a n d . J h e . - 1 • .• . . •. • J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l programme p r o b a b l y i s n o t v e r y h i g h l y developed'.'. 62. STATE _ OPINIONS and - NOTES ARKANSAS • ' S t a t e High. S c h o o l " A r k a n s a s i s p r i m a r i l y a n a g r i c u l t u r a l S u p e r v i s o r 1952 s t a t e and f o r t h i s r e a s o n we do n o t have " *" '. ™~~~ " "many l a r g e h i g h s c h o o l s . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s the S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n he,s b e e n p r o m o t i n g t h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l ( J u n i o r - S e n i o r D e p a r t m e n t s ) and l a s t y e a r o v e r s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l s i n t h i s s t a t e were s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s . As t h e s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l has d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t a t e our e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i t has c o n v i n c e d u s o f many o f l i t s advantages among w h i c h might he l i s t e d : 1) C l o s e r a r t i c u l a t i o n "between t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s . 2) B e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i n t h e s e v e n t h a n d e i g h t h g r a d e s . •5) l o n g e r r e c i t a t i o n p e r i o d s i n t h e s e v e n t h and e i g h t h : g r a d e s , 4) I n c r e a s e d h o l d i n g power o f t h e s c h o o l h e c a u s e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e and e v e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 5) Economy i n c o s t o f o p e r a t i o n , s i n c e an a u d i t o r i u m , o n e gymnasium and one s e t o f l a b o r a t o r y equipment s u f f i c e f o r j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l d e p a r t m e n t s . • T h e r e a r e o t h e r advantages but t h o s e enumerated above s e e m , t o u s , t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t ^ CALIFORNIA S u p t . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n 1932. "We have i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r t y - f i v e s i x - y e a r _ o r . j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . ' The c h i e f advantages i n t h e s i x - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n may be b r i e f l y enumerated as f o l l o w s : 1) The l a r g e r e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e s i x - y e a r u n i t makes p o s s i b l e more d i v e r s i f i e d o f f e r i n g s and a r i c h e r programme i n c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 2) A r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e two t h r e e - y e a r l e v e l s i s e f f e c t e d . 3) The i n t e g r a t i o n o f r e a d i l y e f f e c t e d . The c h i e f p r o b l e m w h i c h c o n f r o n t s t h e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s i x - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p u i l s i n t h e two l e v e l s . ' The p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e j u n i o r -t h e c u r r i c u l a i s more STATE •63. OPINIONS ana NOTES CALIFORNIA Coont T ) s e n i o r h i g h - s c h o o l s , a r e p r a c t i c a l l y i n 1 ' ~ agreement t h a t t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h t h e y . c o n s i d e r most d i f f i c u l t i s t h a t o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n a way t h a t w i l l p r e v e n t t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s f r o m e x e r c i s i n g d o m i n a t i o n o r i n f l u e n c e w h i c h a f f e c t t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s a d v e r s e l y ? . (The names o f f o u r p r i n c i p a l s were g i v e n w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y be c o n s u l t e d . Two o f t h e s e r e p l i e d and t h e i r r e p l i e s have b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e f i r s t ' p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r a l o n g w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s ) . COLORADO S t a W?leT ) t . o f "The f i o h n n l q i i i Sfaoation 1932: , lM_&"_£8 S^'tbT.^S*'4' p l a n f o r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . CONNECTICUT S e n i o r S u p e r v i s o r "At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e number o f t h i s t y p e S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n o f s c h o o l has i n c r e a s e d u n t i l we now have 1932.' t h i r t e e n . These s c h o o l s a r e v e r y s a t i s f a c t -o r y f o r t h e s m a l l community where t h e town cannot a f f o r d t o b u i l d two s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . I n one o f t h e l a r g e c i t i e s i n C o n n e c t i c u t , n a m e l y , E a s t H a r t f o r d , t h e s i x - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e one u s e d . The p r i n c i p a l and t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s t h e b e t t e r t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n because- i t h e r e .are no d i f f i c u l t a r t i c u l a t i o n v' p r o b l e m s : between t h e n i n t h " , a n d " t e n t h g r a d e s , 'v Ivly own o p i n i o n i s t h a t t h e s i x - y e a r ( j u n i o r -s e n i o r ) o r g a n i z a t i o n has some v e r y d e f i n i t e advantages.We do n o t c o n s i d e r t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t a l any l o n g e r b u t a r e s u r e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s a r e e n t i r e l y s a t i s f aetory 'J DELAWARE ~ ™ " A s s t ' i n charge o f "Thp o-p-n~i~ S e c o n d a r y schools o f n ^ s L o ^ v ^ o n ^ f P f a e t i c a 1 ^ a l l -tQ'xo " touoonuary s c h o o l s s e t u u on t l i p <?ir U^jt y e a r ( j u n i o r - s e n i o r ) b a s i s .We f i n d t h i s r a t h e r advantageous i n t h e s m a l l s c h o o l s STATE 6 4 . OPDflOIS- and NOTES DELAWARE( o o n t 1 ) ( e n r o l l m e n t s , r n n n i n g f r o m 100 tO 600 "because t h e s p e c i a l i s t s : who, must "be, employed, f o r t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l c a n j u s t as w e l l worlc t h r o u g h the, s i x g r a d e s j t h u s o f f e r i n g "better o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e 7 t h . and 8 t h . g r a d e s and a l s o e n a b l i n g us t o employ more s p e c i a l i s t s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . We a l s o f i n d t h a t we c a n u s e t h e . equipment w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s c i e n c e , a g r i c u l t u r e , h o m e e c o n o m i c s , manual t r a i n i n g and t h e l i k e , t o much b e t t e r advantage, t h a n we c o u l d i f we h a d o n l y . f o u r g r a d e s i n t h e s c h o o l . The r e a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c t o t h e good e f f e c t s o f t h e s y s t e m i s p r a c t i c a l l y lOOfo f a v o u r a b l e 1 . 1 ; FLORIDA .• S t a t e S u p e r v i s o r " i wish, t o s a y t h a t we have a g o o d l y number o f H i g h S c h o o l s o f s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s w h i c h we d e s i g n a t e as .".' -. '.- . 1 9 3 2 . •., ... j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . ' The arrangement i s p r o v i n g h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l w i t h the. a v e r a g e s i z e s c h o o l i n t h e S t a t e and i s t h e most p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e a v e r a g e community i n F l o r i d a . The l a r g e r c i t y systems seem t o p r e f e r t h e 6 - 3 - 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n . The advantages as I see them a r e t h e p o s s i b l e s u p e r i o r h o l d i n g power o f t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e b r e a k between g r a d e s s e v e n and t w e l v e . A n o t h e r ' advantages i s t h a t i n t h i s t y p e o f s c h o o l no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s made as b e t w e e n t h e t r a i n i n g and s a l a r y o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e ^ :- - j u n i o r and s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s * ' A n a d d i t i o n a l advantage o f t h e s m a l l s c h o o l i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t numbers o f c l a s s e s i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t f i e l d s t o g i v e a t e a c h i n g l o a d i n one f i e l d f o r any i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g a t e a c h e r T s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o v e r many s u b j e c t f i e l d s a n d , t h e r e b y e n a b l i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s t o s e c u r e b e t t e r t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s TJ B u l l e t i n P u b . b y * * * " T h e s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l D e b t . o f P u b l i c i n c l u d e s g r a d e s s e v e n t o t w e l v e . : I n a j u n i o r -I n s t r u c t i o n 1930. s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s 7,8 and 9 must be a d m i n i s t e r e d as a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l u n i t and (page 14.) g r a d e s 10,11 and 12 as a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l u n i t . " T h i s same b u l l e t i n goes on t o s t a t e STATE OPINIONS and . NOTES FLORIDA! co-it'•)••'• T h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e a J o i n t o r g a n i z a t i o n • •'••„•• and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e two u n i t s , w i t h a - D r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s common t o t h e t w o , b u t • a n i n t e g r a t e d s y s t e m must he m a i n t a i n e d . .(page I5--)'This t y p e o f s c h o o l I s n o t a d v i s e d u n t i l t h e e n r o l l m e n t i n e i t h e r t h e . . J u n i o r o r S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l a p p r o a c h e s o r exceeds 5 0 0 . A j o i n t J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i s a d v i s e d u n t i l t h e combined e n r o l l m e n t i n g r a d e s s e v e n t o t w e l v e a p p r o a c h e s 3.000. ( I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t when t h e e n r o l l m e n t exceeds 1000 t h e two s c h o o l s s h o u l d be i n s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s ) . fl^piA ^ "The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f b . a . e H i g n S c h o o l G e o r g i a i s on t h e S u p e r v i s o r 1952. l a r g e c i t y fche p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n 7-4- p l a n . A few o f our systems have t h e 6 - 3 - 3 p l a n . " (fp^ently.. t h e combined s c h o o l >ia)» m Georgi i s n o t common IDAHO S t a t e S u p t . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n —. 1932 Idaho E d u c . D i r e c t o r y " l a m h e a r t i l y i n f a v o u r o f . t h i s p l a n ( j u n i o r -s e n i o r combined s c h o o l ) and have n o t e d t h a t i t meets w i t h marked s u c c e s s i n d i s t r i c t s t h a t __are. l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s t r u c t i o n and equipment'.' " t w e n t y - o n e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s were i n o p e r a t i o . i n 1931-32.\ S e v e r a l o f t h e s e were, combined 1 9 o l - 3 2 ( p a g e l 0 ) w i t h s e n i o r d i v l s i ons' ILLINOIS. S u p e r v i s o r o f • "The whole movement i n . t h e d i r e c t i o n o f J u n i o r , H i g h S c h o o l s 1 9 5 2 . H i g h S c h o o l s has b e e n r a t h e r s l o w i n I l l i n o i s . S t i l l t h e r e a r e severa3. p l a c e s i n t h e S t a t e o u t s i d e o f C h i c a g o where a j u n i o r h i g h , s c h o o l i s m a i n t a i n e d ( i n c l u d i n g g r a d e s 7,8 and 9) a l t h o u g h s u c h a s c h o o l i s n o t f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e S t a t e law o r S t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s ' ! " I d o n o t know o f -any p l a c e w h e r e t h e y have a j u n i o r - s e n i o r o r s i x - y e a r s c h o o l i n I l l i n o i s ' . ' " I n ray judgment t h e development o f a s e p a r a t e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n s m a l l towns i s a m i s t a k e n and e x p e n s i v e i d e a and my t h o u g h t has STATE 66. OPINIONS and NOTES I L I I N Q I S ( c o n t T ) The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l S i t u a t i o n i n I l l i n o i s . C i r c u l a r 249,1931 "been t h a t i n s m a l l towns where t h e y have t h e d e s i r e t o e x t e n d s o m e t h i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e 7th» and 8 t h . g r a d e s , i t w o u l d be w i s e r t o o r g a n i z e a s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . T h i s might n o t w o r k so w e l l and p r o b a b l y w o u l d n o t i n t h e l a r g e c i t i e s 1 / ( I n 1931 t h e r e were t h i r t y - s e v e n j u n i o r • h i g h s c h o o l s c o m p r i s i n g g r a d e s 7,8 and 9.' The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e were i n Cook C o u n t y . , A g r e a t many s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t a t e have d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d work i n 7 ' a n d 8 w i t h a f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e f o l l o w i n g . ) INDIANA >r o f S c h o o l " Y o u ask f o r I n s p e c t i o n . 1 9 5 2 . a e n i o r " h i g h schoo£^ian;Zly'l my o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g , t h e j u n i o r -n o t e t h a t i t D e p t . o f I n d i a n a ( A s s o c i seems t o be t h e p r a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n I n d i a n a where t h e e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l . I n ; f a c t i t meets w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e f a v o u r i n I n d i a n a up t o t h e p o i n t where t h e s i x - y e a r s w o u l d e n r o l l f i v e o r s i x h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s , a n d i s common down t o t h e s m a l l e s t h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e S t a t e t E d u c a t i o n " I n d i a n a was a p i o n e e r S t a t e i n t h e development U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . H o w e v e r , i t was n o t ate a j u n i o r - s e n i o r s c h o o l b u t a t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n P r o f e s s o r ) o f t h e 7 t h . and 8 t h . g r a d e s i n t o t h e same 1932 . b u i l d i n g w i t h t h e s e n i o r h i g h g r a d e s . T h e r e .was no change i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m and o b j e c t i v e s . o f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s was b e f o r e t h e : ' days o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h school 7 . ' A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Handbook f o r I n d i a n a s c h o o l s .1930 (page " " " " " " " " " " ( p a g e 56) " I n 1927 t h e r e were t w e n t y - f i v e r e c o g n i z e d j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . The p r a c t i c e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t h i g h s c h o o l s are n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d 1 . ' 52) "The f u n c t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i x -y e a r s c h o o l c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h o s e o f t h e are 293 A t p r e s e n t s c h o o l s i n the state'. ' ime as j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h t h e r e ^ . 1 j u n i o r - h i g h s c h o o l , r e c o g n i z e d s i x - y e a r ( A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e SE s c h o o l s ) "The s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l i s b a s e d u p o n a n i n t e l l i g e n t s u r v e y o f t h e c a p a c i t i e s and needs o f t h e c h i l d r e n and a s t u d y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t meet t h e s e n e e d s . T h e c o u r s e s i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s h o u l d be * t r y - o u t T and e x p l o r a t o r y . The i n s t r u c t i o n s h a l l be d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d ' . ' STATE 67. OPINIONS and NOTES IOWA S u p t . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n 1952 "We 'have•••'•a-'•'number o f s c h o o l s t h a t a r e , o r g a n i z e d on t h e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p l a n . I n s u c h c a s e s t h e s e v e n t h , e i g h t h and n i n t h g r a d e s make up t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and t h e t e n t h , e l e v e n t h and t w e l f t h g r a d e s , t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The worlc i s d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d b y h a v i n g e a c h t e a c h e r h a n d l e t h e s u b j e c t s w h i c h she i s b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h . A f t e r t h e y o u n g e r • p u p i l s have become a d j u s t e d t o t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n i t has w o r k e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l and has not n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e d a l a r g e r t e a c h i n g f o r c e ' . My o p i n i o n i s b a s e d u p o n t h e t r i a l o f t h e p l a n as a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f s c h o o l s ' ! KANSAS S t a t e H i S u p e r v i s gh S c h o o l " K a n s a s has about 115 r e c o g n i z e d j u n i o r h i g h o r ,1952. s c h o o l s . Some, o f t h e s e a r e combined w i t h s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s as s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s * P e r s o n a l l y , I f u l l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s i x - * y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w o r k i s a most d e s i r a b l e - t y p e - o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n some l o c a l i t i e s . L o c a l i t i e s where t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n • m a y be u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f one p r i n c i p a l ,one f a c u l t y and one programme r e a l l y make f o r economy a n d b e t t e r - t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h o u t , b e t t e r r e a c t i o n s from t h e p u p i l s and i m p r o v e d c o u r s e s o f s t u d y . T r u l y , I am v e r y much i n f a v o u r o f t h i s t y p e o f s c h o o l where i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e a l i z e it ' . ' KENTUCKY H i g h S c h o o l • S u p e r v i s o r The H i g h S c h o o l : C u r r i c u l a t August ,195.0. "We have about 160 s i x - y e a r h i g h , s c h o o l s _growing'J i n t h i s S t a t e ( j u n i o r - s e n i o r and t h e number i s ( T n ^ c u r r i c u l a i n d i c a t e s t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s w h i c h a r e t o be t a u g h t i n t h e s e v e r a l t r o e s o f s c n o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e S t a t e . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s s u c h as t h e f i v e - t e a c h e r t y p e and t h e f o u r - t e a c h e r t y p e ) T h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l i s v e r y l a r g e l v g o v e r n e d b y l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o as Home E c o n o m i c s . , A g r i c u l t u r e o u t I o n s such E t c . ) STATE 68. OPINIONS and 'NOTES MAINE , . v •. j v.- < •, ,':;••"•.••.,•"•' • '."- \ •'•"• Agent f o r See"« "We f i n d t h a t the- s x x - y e a r ( g u n i o r - s e n i o r ) E d u c a t i o n 1952. h i g h s c h o o l i s v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y f r o m an : " ~~" e c o n o m i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t o f view'. 1 H i g h S c h o o l " A J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l may f o r m . a p a r t o f a M a n u a l - p a r t l - 1 9 3 2 ) H i g h S c h o o l and may t h u s ."De m a i n t a i n e d , on ( f o r S t a t e o f t h e ' S - S 1 p l a n w i t h a S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l M a i n e , ) d i s t i n c t o r as a p a r t o f a s i x - y e a r school ' . ' "The J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i s d e f i n e d as • • -•• (page 16) a s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w h i e h t h e j u n i o r . and: s e n i o r g r o u p s •form- a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . U s u a l l y t h i s w o u l d r e s u l t i n a s i x -y e a r h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n ' ] H i g h S c h o o l "The•movement t o w a r d a c o n t i n u o u s s i x - y e a r M a n u a l - p a r t 1 - 1 9 2 9 0 o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l i s ( f o r S t a t e o f r a p i d l y g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e . T h i s p l a n has Maine-.) 'many a d v a n t a g e s . E o r many h i g h s c h o o l s o f o u r S t a t e t h e s i x - y e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e r s a w i d e r use o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l m a c h i n e r y , (page 22) more e f f e c t i v e employment o f t h e t e a c h i n g f o r c e t h r o u g h d e p a r t m e n t a l , i n s t r u c t i o n s . . g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p e r h a p s most s i g n i f i c a n t o f a l l , a c o n t i n u o u s programme o f s t u d i e s t o g e t h e r , w i t h g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . . . . . . . . . . T h e j u n i o r p e r i o d c a l l s f o r ' c o n s t a n t ' a n d T t r y - o u t ' s u b j e c t s , t h e f o r m e r r e q u i r e d o f a l l and e s s e n t i a l as t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f a d v a n c e m e n t , t h e l a t t e r t o be • u n d e r t a k e n b y • a l l n o r m a l p u p i l s but. w i t h l a t i t u d e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g p r o g r e s s . P r o m o t i o n b y s u b j e c t i s d e s i r a b l e i n t h e s i x - y e a r , school ' . ' , (page 34)"The s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l p l a n seems p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l a d a p t e d . t o t h e medium, s i z e d s c h o o l s y s t e m . . . . T h e u p p e r e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s a r e p l a c e d where t h e y may h a v e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs most e f f e c t i v e l y s e r v e d , ' A l l t h e advantages o f the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l are c o n s e r v e d b y t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t . . A l a r g e r t e a c h i n g s t a f f i s j u s t i f i e d . . d e p a r t m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s more p r a c t i c a l . . . A w i d e r range o f c o u r s e s i s p o s s i b l e . . . B y means o f i t s w i d e r programme ,more numerous a c t i v i t i e s and e a r l i e r , c o n t a c t s t h e p u p i l s a r e h e l d .. p a s t t h e ' d r o p p i n g o u t ' p e r i o d between t h e s e v e n t h and t e n t h g r a d e s ? STATE OPINIONS and NOTES HASSACHUSETTS -, S u p t . o f S c h o o l s , MICHIGAN S u p t . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n . 1 9 3 2 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f D i v i s i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y I n s p e c t i o n ,1950 MINNESOTA . •: C u r r i c u l u m f o r S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s August , 1931. - (1) •. " I n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l s c h o o l s t h e s i x - y e a r j u n i o r and s e n i o r c o m b i n a t i o n has worked " v e r y w e l l indeed*' F o r t h e g e n e r a l h i g h , s c h o o l , however ,1 am n o t so s u r e , i n f a c t , . - -. •"•.._-•. I am'.well a s s u r e d t h a t t h e 6 - 5 - 5 scheme, has p r o v e d more f l e x i b l e and o n " t h e whole a more e c o n o m i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l h i g h s c h o o l . . . ! b e l i e v e , we s h a l l c o n t i n u e t o improve and d e v e l o p t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e h i g h s c h o o K j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ) as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f 'the 6 - 3 - 3 p l a n " (The above has p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to. t h e C i t y o f B o s t o n . T h i s S t a t e i s one o f t h e s m a l l e s t i n a r e a but i n p o p u l a t i o n ran3cs .6th. among t h e S t a t e s o f t h e U n i o n . One - w o u l d t h e r e f o r e e x p e c t t h a t t h e - J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l w o u l d be a s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n ) _"From t h a t my we c o n t a c t , I c a n s t a t e s u c h s c h o o l s w i t h t h e f i e l d have a l a r g e number o f , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s m a l l e r c i t i e s o f t h e S t a t e . ' •••We b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s i x - y e a r t y p e o f h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r t h e combined j u n i o r and. s e n i o r h i g h s^chooIs,In t h e - s m a l l e r . ; ^-c i t i e s has many o u t s t a n d i n g a d v a n t a g e s . , Among t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s w o u l d "come t h e more / e c o n o m i c a l u s e o f shop and l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s v / h i c h i n - a combined j u n i o r -s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . s i t u a t i o n may be u s e d b y . b o t h . g r o u p s .•. I t i s my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s v e r y p r a c t i c a l i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e combined j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t i s l e s s t h a n 600 t o 8 0 0 . I n t h e l a r g e r s c h o o l s where each u n i t has 4-00 o r 500 e n r o l l e d t h e a d v a n t a g e s a r e n o t so g r e a t 1 / ( E x i s t i n g , s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s b e g i n n i n g 1914 were t o have two s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s j u n i o r . and s e n i o r o f t h r e e y e a r s e a c h *) "The programme o f s t u d i e s f o r s e n i o r h i g h STATU 70. OPINIONS and NOTES ifHOESOTAC c o n t T ) " ' s c h o o l s must be b u i l t u p o n and c o o r d i n a t e — — p e r f e c t l y w i t h t h a t o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p e r i o d . . ' . . . W h i l e t h e r e i s , a g r a d u a l change o f emphasis i n t h e aims o f t h e s e two p e r i o d s , t h e r e s h o u l d be no l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y as p u p i l s p r o g r e s s f r o m one s t a g e t o a n o t h e r o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n 1 . ' (The c o n t i n u i t y o f s u c h a programme i s b e s t c a r r i e d out i n a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s u p e r v i s e d b y one p r i n c i p a l and t a u g h t by one and t h e same s t a f f . ) MISSISSIPPI , •: . , S t a t e S u p t . o f "We have t h r e e forms, o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n E d u c a t i o n ,1952 9 i n our S t a t e i n e l u d i n g t h e j u n i o r - s e n i o r 1 • , •.... o r s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . T h i s p l a n i s b e c o m i n g more p o p u l a r i n - o u r S t a t e e a c h y e a r and i s p r o v i n g v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , O n e o f t h e c h i e f advantages i s t h a t i t p e r m i t s d e p a r t m e n t a l work i n t h e 7th-.-.y8th and 9 t h . g r a d e s and g i v e s p u p i l s i n t h e s e g r a d e s b e n e f i t o f t h e s u p e r i o r i n s t r u c t i o n ,as. t h e h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e g r a d e s as w e l l as t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r years'. ' MISSOURI H i g h S c h o o l "The s i x - y e a r ( j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ) h a s S u p e r v i s o r ,19521' b e e n somewhat d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s S t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s m a l l c e n t e r s . T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a f t e r a s i x -y e a r s c h o o l has b e e n o r g a n i z e d . I t p r o v i d e s economy i n t i m e as w e l l as i n m o n e y . I t •provides f o r b e t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I n s e v e r a l p l a c e s t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s are r a t h e r marked.Many b e l i e v e i n h a v i n g most a c t i v i t i e s a p a r t , w h i l e o t h e r o f f i c i a l s c o n s i d e r t h e b e s t r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d when t h e r e i s a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two d i v i s i o n s ' . ' NEVADA • Su-ot. o f P u b l i c "We do h a v e a few s c h o o l s i n t h i s S t a t e t h a t I n s t r u c t i o n , 1952; ; at tempt t-o-combine t h e - w o r k o f t h e J u n i o r -" s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s . T h e r e a r e p o s s i b l y t h r e e o r f o u r s c h o o l s •working' on t h i s p l a n . We have v e r y few laws r e l a t i n g t o t h e j u n i o r h i g h school' . ' STATE .71. •' OPINIONS and NOTES NEW JERSEY •  • - . : . A Manual f o r •." .  " I n d i s t r i c t s m a i n t a i n i n g a s m a l l h i g h Secondary Schools,school i t i s a ' m a t e r i a l economy t o assemble :' : 1952. j n :ohe p l a n t grades ;seven to twelve.. .In '. ;•• .•: • - • ' the' s i x - y e a r s c h o o l the programme of s t u d i e s . i s . operated as one u n i t , i m one plant.,hy one f a c u l t y and under o n e / p r i n c i p a l ; . . .The; s y s t e m r i s unwieldy In,, a l a r g e school.The maximum should not exceed 800 p u p i l s i n seven t o twelve .When i t does separate; j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h schools • should he organized 1. 1 ^ ' :NEW' MEXI00 ' Or g a n i z a t i o n and "There are no i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e J u n i o r -A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s e n i o r high school type i n New Mexico. J u n i o r and Senior There are two c l a s s e s of J u n i o r S i g h Schools: High Schools ,1931..The u s u a l three y e a r type i n the 6-3-3.plan B u l l e t i n No,I* and t h e . f o u r year j u n i o r h i g h school i n the 6-4-4 scheme',' NEW YORK , • Supervisor of " I n the l a r g e centres the 6-3-3 i s c a r r i e d J u n i o r High Schools) out i n three separate i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n " • 1932.'Rochester t h e r e Is a movement t o swing over to t h e s i x - y e a r scheme. The type of school e s t a b l i s h e d depends upon the type of centre w i t h respect to size'.' The J u n i o r High "In regard t o housing the 7th,8th. and 9th. /School I n ifef Grades '-'they should be housed i n Separate York S t a t e . - b u i l d i n g s ' where • p b s s l b l e but \where i t i s ( B u l l e t i n 1928.) not p r a c t i c a l to. do t h i s , t h e s e grades should :be housed w i t h t h e s e n i o r h i g h school: In communities w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s than 12,000 and more than 4,500 a j u n i o r -s e n i o r h i g h school, should be e s t a b l i s h e d . . . (•: page 263) ?/here the p o p u l a t i o n i s l e s s than 4,500 and where there are a t l e a s t 100 p u p i l s , ...... i n grades; 7;, 8 and 9, a j u n i o r h i g h school. should be e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r i n co n j u n c t i o n , w i t h the s e n i o r h i g h or elementary school'! ( page 82) "The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the comments and suggestions as found i n the 1928 b u l l e t i n on j u n i o r h i g h schools'! "Each,curriculum i s we 11 a r t i c u l a t e d ..a sequence of subjects i s n o t i c e a b l e 72. FEW. YORK( e o n t 1 ) • ^ throu-ghout...-there,;.are r e q u i r e d andj*. . e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s . . . t h e v a r i a b l e s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e i n number b e g i n n i n g a t o r i n t h e e i g h t h y e a r * . . t h e e i g h t h y e a r i s a n e x p l o r -a t o r y y e a r . . . . t h i s i s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s and c o m p r e h e n s i v e programmes a r e p l a n n e d and a d h e r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n i n g . y e a r s . . . . t h e a s s e m b l y p e r i o d i s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h t h e s i x y e a r s as i t i s a most o p p o r t u n e t i m e f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l t o come b e f o r e h i s s c h o o l . : The programme t h r o u g h the s i x y e a r s aims t o g i v e . e a c h p u p i l t h r o u g h thiel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f homogeneous g r o u p i n g , g u i d a n c e , d i r e c t e d s t u d y , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a n i n d i v i d u a l method o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p u p i l s by s u b j e c t - t h a t . knowledge w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o grow t h r o u g h h i s work i n t o t h e . f u l n e s s o f h i s : m e n t a l s t a t u r e fJ NORTH.; PAEOTA OHIO H i g h S c h o o l ":In O h i o we-have d e v e l o p e d the. s i x - y e a r h i g h S u p e r v i s o r , 1 9 , 5 2 . s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e . The f i r s t ; th^ee y e a r s ; a r e of ; t h e j u n i o r h i g h , <: s c h o o l p l a n and a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r t h e t r a i n i n g o f a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s . W e a r e v e r y w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s t y p e o f s c h o o l and f e e l t h a t i t i s b e y o n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e . Some o f t h e advantages o f t h e s i x - y e a r ( j u n i o r - s e n i o r ) o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e : l ) E c o n o m y o f o p e r a t i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e u s e - o f e q u i p m e n t , a u d i t o r i u m and gyimiasium. , ; 2.)iBetter h o l d i n g pov/er o v e r t h e danger p l a c e s , - .-. 3 ) B e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t e a c h e r s t o i n s t r u c t i n t h e i r major s u b j e c t s . 4 ) B e t t e r t r a i n e d . p u p i l , m o r e r o u n d e d i n a s o c i a l -.- way,'" ( 1 ) " Ohio H i g h S c h o o l " I n O h i o t h e r e a r e 21 s c h o o l s w i t h o v e r 750 S t a n d a r d s (1929 , • p u p i l s j 14 s c h o o l s , w i t h o v e r 1000 p u p i l s ; and E d i t i o n ) 2 s c h o o l s w i t h o v e r 2000 p u p i l s ' l STATE 73. OPINIONS and NOTES OHIO ( e o n f ) " I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l , • - ' I f . . - s u f f i c i e n t l y prpjrided.'..witli s p e c i a l l y (page 6 9 ) p r e p a r e d t e a c h e r s and ••with t h e b e s t ; f a c i l i t i e s , t o , h a v e a l l t h e advantages o f s e p a r a t e j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s except t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d t o t h e age o f .the s t u d e n t s . I t has the a d d i t i o n a l advantage o f making t h e b r e a k as s l i g h t as p o s s i b l e between g r a d e s 8 , 9 , and 10'i' (page 70)'When a s i x - y e a r combined s c h o o l i s a t t e m p t e d t h e r e s h o u l d be b r o u g h t i n t o t h e 7 t h . and 8 t h . g r a d e s t h e e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s and g u i d a n c e a d v i s e d f o r t h e s e p a r a t e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be c h o s e n w i t h c a r e t h a t t h e y may have , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g , a b i l i t y t o t e a c h t h e s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , t o g u i d e a d o l e s c e n t y o u t h , t o i n s t r u c t them i n t h e i r own p l a n e , t o promote e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l a n d group i n t e r e s t s ' . ' (page 70 ;)'There s h o u l d , m o r e o v e r be g e n e r o u s p r o v i s i o n f o r shop and l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e , l i b r a r y and gymnasium. These w i l l be s h a r e d b y b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r g r o u p s . C a r e must be t a k e n t h a t ' s e n i o r g r a d e s do n o t m o n o p o l i z e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f 1 0 t h e j u n i o r s ' . ' ' / OKLAHOMA H i g h S c h o o l B u l l e t i n #112-E June 1930 " I n some, communit ies i t w i l l be more e c o n o m i c a l t o o r g a n i z e t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e 6-6 p l a n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n c l u d e s t h e h i g h s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s o f s i x - y e a r u n i t s . D e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n s must be made f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s -of t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i n s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n Mere d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . " OREGON AQ-ucauion .1932. t o any extent'.' STATE 74, OPINIONS and NOTES PENNSYLVANIA : -\: > '. : S t a n d a r d s f o r t h e " A j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l r e q u i r e s t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s o f b o t h t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l S e c o n d a r y S e h o o l s . a n d t h e j t i n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . " B u l l e t i n # 59.1951 •' "~ " ~ ~ ~ ~ " A n y s c h o o l g i v i n g t h e work f r o m t h e 7 t h . t o t h e ..13th g r a d e s i n c l u s i v e s h a l l he c a l l e d a j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r s i x - y e a r s c h o o l ' / (page 50) "As r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d - h e e n c o u r a g e d t o r e o r g a n i z e on t h e j u n i o r o r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l " b a s i s . R e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s g o i n g f o r w a r d v e r y , r a p i d l y i n t h e l a r g e d i s t r i c t s a n d a s u f f i c i e n t number o f s c h o o l s have "been r e o r g a n i z e d i n t h e s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s t o i n d i c a t e t h e v a l u e s w h i c h c a n be s e c u r e d b y o r g a n i z i n g t h e s e d i s t r i c t s as s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h schools ' . ' (page 50) "Where i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h c o m p l e t e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p u p i l e n r o l l m e n t , t h e s i x - y e a r s c h o o l w i l l p r o v i d e a much more d e s i r a b l e s c h o o l u n i t t h a n t h e 8-4 p l a n .When-the s i x - y e a r , s c h o o l ,'_s-o r g a n i z e d i t w i l l b r i n g t o g e t h e r a l a r g e r s t u d e n t b o d y t h u s making p o s s i b l e a more complete d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e work i n f i n e a n d p r a c t i c a l a r t on a more c o m p l e t e b a s i s . " RHODE ISLAND C o m m i s s i o n e r o f " I n C e n t r a l F a l l s and N o r t h K i n g s t o n , J u n i o r E d u c a t i o n ,1952. a n d S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e ~~ " "same b u i l d i n g . They u s e t h e f a c i l i t i e s , w h i c h . t h e y have i n common and t h e p l a n i s . w o r k i n g i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Rhode I s l a n d , h o w e v e r , as a S t a t e h a s n o t a d o p t e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n v e r y e x t e n s i v e l y ' / , SOUTH CAROLINA ( No r e p l y was, r e c e i v e d f r o m t h i s S t a t e ) (One o f t h e o r i g i n a l and s m a l l e r S t a t e s w i t h a l a r g e Negro p o p u l a t i o n ) 75. S M E OPiniOHS and NOTES SOUTH DAKOTA l u ^ v f ^ n r S S ? ? l n W e 1 h T d e v e l o p e d j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h b u p e r v i s o r .1952. s c h o o l s m S o u t h D a k o t a t o any e x t e n t . We h a r e o n l y f i v e r e a l j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i r f i s c h o o l s i n t h e S t a t e ' ; TEHKSSSEE S u p e r v i s o r o f S e c o n d a r y Educ, _____ 1952. " T e n n e s s e e h a s o n l y a few s u c h s c h o o l s o r g a n i z e d . M o s t o f t h e s c h o o l s t h a t a r e ^ o r g a n i z e d - on t h i s b a s i s : are _.in S h e l b y County* ' : These s c h o o l s have b e e n o p e r a t i n g long, enough -t o show t h a t t h e y are e n t i r e l y ; s a t i s f a c t o r y . We might .say t h a t i t Is o u r " b e l i e f t h a t s m a l l s c h o o l s can he o r g a n i z e d on t h i s h a s i s t o a d v a n t a g e . G r a d e s 7 and 8 have e a r l i e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o u t i l i z e the l a b o r a t o r y and t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e s c h o o l and t o come I n c o n t a c t • w i t h b e t t e r t e a c h e r s t h a n t h e y o t h e r w i s e w o u l d . By b e t t e r t e a c h e r s I mean more e x p e r i e n c e d . t e a c h e r s . A l s o t h e y have a l o n g e r . d a y f o r study, and s u p e r v i s i o n , o n t h e p a r t - . o f t h e H i g h S c h o o l F a c u l t y * ! TEXAS • A s s i s t a n t t o "We have no s c h o o l s at p r e s e n t o r g a n i z e d as S t a t e S u p e r i n t e n - s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . I n my d e n t . o p i n i o n however i t Is r e a l l y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n 1952 . t h a t c a n be made most v a l u a b l e f o r our h i g h s c h o o l s i n towns up t o 15,000 p o p u l a t i o n , b u t the i d e a does n o t seem t o have t a k e n h o l d o r t h e r e a r e o b j e c t i o n s t h a t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r i n c i p a l s i n s u c h towns . deem i n s u r m o u n t a b l e . J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . a r e n o t v e r y p o p u l a r c h i e f l y b e c a u s e no s p e c i f i c t e x t b o o k s have b e e n p u t on t h e f r e e l i s t f o r t h e u s e o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s " UTAH S t a t e S u p e r v i s o r o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s , 1952. " E s s e n t i a l l y o u r s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n may be c a l l e d : t h e 6 - 5 - 5 t y p e , a l t h o u g h we have many __other d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s c h o o l s .The t e n d e n c y has b e e n t o keep t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l g r a d e s e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t he o t h e r u n i t s even t h o u g h i n some c a s e s t h e y may be i n • t h e same b u i l d i n g . T h e r e a r e p e r h a p s , s i x o r ' e i g h t s c h o o l s on t h e j u n i o r - s e n i o r p l a n . I n : my o p i n i o n ,1 t h i n k t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l STATE 76. OPINIONS and NOTES TJTAH( c o n t ' ) s h o u l d "be s e p a r a t e -from t h e . o t h e r g r a d e s . T h e r e a r e v e r y - f e w h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . who c a n do e f f e c t i v e work i n b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r d e p a r t m e n t s . I T h e t e n d e n c y i s one o f two e x t r e m e s , e i t h e r t o t e a c h t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s b y methods a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s o r t o u s e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e c h n i q u e f o r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s ' J VERMONT ' " • B o e r f l * n 7 ^ t r % " T h e ^OT-SenioT H i g h S c h o o l p l a n h a s b e e n i n B o a r d o f E d u c a . i o n , u s e m Vermont f o r some y e a r s . S t a t e a i d f o r 19-d.4..___ t h i s ' p r o g r a m m e was d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e y e a r 1931-32 s i n c e i t was f e l t t h a t t h e p u r -pose o f t h e p l a n h a d been a c c o m p l i s h e d ' / VIRGINIA S u p e r v i s o r o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c . , 1932 . 59 s c h o o l s t h a t might be c a l l e d j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . T h e o f t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e "There a r e combined a d v a n t a g e s as f o l l o w s : 1) A n o p p o r t u n i t y ; f o r b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d i n s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s " 2) S e c u r i n g f o r g r a d e s 7 and 8 , t e a c h e r s who a r e s p e c i a l i s t s i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . 3) P r o m o t i o n b y s u b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n b y g r a d e . The o n l y d i s a d v a n t a g e w h i c h seems t o e x i s t i s t h a t o f t h e tendency, t o h a v § h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who a r e i n c l i n e d t o p i t c h t h e i r t e a c h i n g obove t h e heads o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e l o w e r grades'/ WASHINGTON . .: H i g h S c h o o l "We have v e r y few s c h o o l s : w h i c h we might S u p e r v i s o r , 1932. d e s i g n a t e as s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . We have b e e n e n c o u r a g i n g r a t h e r s e p a r a t e d u n i t s so t h a t t h e same s y s t e m w o u l d have a j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and a s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s does n o t mean t h a t i n some c a s e s we have t h e same p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h u n i t s , n o r t h a t t h e f a c u l t i e s do n o t o v e r l a p somewhat i n a few c a s e s . We t h i n k t h a t i t t a k e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r t o work on t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l t h a n on the. s e n i o r ' / STATE 77. 0PI1IGHS and NOTES WASHING-TON( cbnt *'"')#The economies w h i c h a r e a p p a r e n t i n h o u s i n g "both t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s i n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l t h e same b u i l d i n g i n t h e s m a l l d i s t r i c t s M a n u a l „ 1932. c a l l f o r c e r t a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s I t Is e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e r e o r g a n i z e d programme o f s t u d i e s s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e 9 t h . g r a d e . The danger o f t h e s i x - s i x p l a n o f h i g h s c h o o l work i s t h a t i t becomes i n r e a l i t y a s i x -two - f o u r p l a n l a c k i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . I t i s w e l l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be t h e t y p e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n w h i c h i s p o s s i b l e i n t h e s i x - s i x arrangement t h r o u g h h a v i n g one p r i n c i p a l s u p e r v i s e t h e s c h o o l on b o t h l e v e l s . . . . E a c h p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d know t h o r o u g h l y t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e j u n i o r and t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , ' I t w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e and e c o n o m i c a l t h a t t e a c h e r s o f m u s i c , p r a c t i c a l a r t s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s , c a r r y work i n b o t h d i v i s i o n s . l t m a y . e v e n b e n e c e s s a r y f o r - o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s t o t e a c h t h e i r s u b j e c t f r o m t h e 7 t h . t o t h e 1 2 t h . y e a r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e t t e a c h e r s who work e q u a l l y w e l l - .with - a d o l e s c e n t and a d v a n c e d p u p i l s . . . . T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n s u c h a s c h o o l i s an e x c e e d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t mattery 1 WISCONSIN S t a t e S u p t . o f " T h i s d e p a r t m e n t i s a l l o w i n g a g r e a t d e a l E d u c a t i o n ,1952. o f l a t i t u d e t o t h e l o c a l s c h o o l systems i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e u p p e r g r a d e s . F o r t u n a t e l y o u r s t a t e law does n o t s e t up d e f i n i t e s t a n d a r d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t t h e l o c a l u n i t s a r e q u i t e f r e e t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h c l a s s g r o u p i n g s and t o adopt w i t h t h e a d v i c e o f o u r s u p e r v i s o r s w h a t e v e r p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n seems b e s t t o f i t t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s f r e e d o m we do have a g r o w i n g number o f s c h o o l s o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h e s o - c a l l e d 6-6 p l a n . O n l y i n t h e l a r g e c i t i e s do we have t h e 6 - 5 - 5 scheme i n o p e r a t i o n .On t h e b a s i s o f s u c h c o - o p e r a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , I s h o u l d s a y we a r e w i l l i n g t o recommend a -c o n t i n u a n c e o f our p l a n b u t our c u r r i c u l u m i s b a d l y i n need o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o meet t h e changes on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e . " STATE 7 8 , OP1IOOHS ..V; and HOTES WYOMING-C o m m i s s i o n e r o f "Wyoming has r e c o g n i z e d t h e 0ombined J u n i o r -E d u c a t i o n .1952. S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l o f s i x y e a r s f o r some t i m e v I am o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s t y p e o f s c h o o l i s v e r y a d a p t a b l e t o s m a l l , s e m i ' -r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s where t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s c a t t e r e d . I t has numerrotis - advantages as w e l l as t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b e t t e r p r e p a r i n g t e a c h e r s f o r g r a d e s 7 and 8 , b e c a u s e s u c h t e a c h e r s must meet t h e needs o f t h e t ipper s c h o o l g r a d e s as w e l l . I have f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s see t h e p r o b l e m more d i r e c t l y who t e a c h on a v e r t i c a l p l a n e , t h a t i s , g r a d e s 7 t o 12 , i n one s u b j e c t , r a t h e r t h a n h o r i z o n t a l l y i n any o t h e r g r a d e s , w i t h a d i f f e r e n t number o f s u b j e c t s . I w o u l d s a y t h a t t h e t r e n d s are t o w a r d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f more o f t h i s t y p e o f s c h o o l w i t h i n our S t a t e ' ] ; The M a j o r i t y o f t h e S t a t e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f E d u c a t i o n :'.'reported f a v o u r a b l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r ' H i g h S c h o o l , It. Would a p p e a r t h a t i n t h e o l d e r - . S t a t e s - . ; , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e E a s t ., t h e movement f o r " r e o r g a n i z a t i o n has . b e e n more .iaarked. >:; Economy i n ; s c h o o l equipment and i n t e a c h i n g power a r e t h e most o f t e n m e n t i o n e d f e a t u r e s o f t h e Combined S c h o o l . S t a t e Department O f f i c i a l s , i n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y e a s e , r e p o r t t h a t t h i s scheme o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i s : t h e ;mpst,'^Htis_?aBte^ c i t y and r u r a ' l community 79 A SURVEY Ol? THE COIffilHED JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL. IN THE .UNITED STATES: DIVISION (3) T l i i s s e c t i o n r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y to the f i n d i n g s of the. National Survey of Secondary Education i n the United States -1929-32. Opinions of c e r t a i n other a u t h o r i t i e s are a l s o c i t e d i n t h i s concluding d i v i s i o n . 80. 81. I n J u l y , 1929, a S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s began u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f the C o m m i s s i o n e r o f E d u c a t i o n f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ( l ) . T h i s c o v e r e d a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d and was b r o u g h t to a c l o s e i n J u n e , 1932. One o f the o b -j e c t s o f t h i s S u r v e y was to a s c e r t a i n 11 the e f f e c t s o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l movement upon s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 1 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t was c a r r i e d o u t by P r o f e s s o r E r a n c i s T . S p a u l d i n g o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , a n o u t s t a n d i n g a u t h o r i t y on t h i s phase o f e d u c a t i o n , and h i s f i n d i n g s have b e e n summarized by h i m i n the O c t o b e r number o f the H a r v a r d T e a c h e r s ' R e c o r d . More than s i x h u n d r e d s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t the U n i o n were c o n -s u l t e d d u r i n g the S u r v e y . The d e t a i l e d R e p o r t o f the S u r v e y Commission h a s , t o d a t e , n o t been p u b l i s h e d and the w r i t e r c o n s e q -u e n t l y must r e l y on t h e summary w h i c h h e h a s a t h a n d . (2.). R e -f e r e n c e has a l r e a d y been made to c e r t a i n p o i n t s r e l a t i n g to t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l .as a t y p e o f " r e -o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l . " A c c o r d i n g to P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l as a n e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t i n t h e A m e r i c a n S c h o o l s y s -tem has p r o d u c e d a v a r i e t y o f " g r a d e - g r o u p i n g s . " The type o f s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o d u c e d by t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l movement may be d e s c r i b e d most c l e a r l y i n terms o f the g r a d e - g r o u p i n g s commonly a d o p t e d i n r e o r g a n -i z e d s c h o o l s , the r e l a t i v e s i z e s o f t h e s e s c h o o l s and o f the c o m m u n i t i e s s u p p o r t i n g them, and t h e p r e v a i l i n g c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f the s c h o o l s as i n d i c a t e d by r e p o r t s o f d e -t a i l e d p r a c t i c e . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l systems have a d o p t e d e i t h e r a s i x - t h r e e - t h r e e o r a s i x -s i x p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l u s e o f the s i x -a n d conducted by:Pr .W. 0J.Coeper, io\ United States Commissloner of Education. " ^ S u r v l v ^ P ^ S ^ ^ * ! ^ p p e a r as Monograph 5 . o f the ...Survey S e r i e s and:whieh has not yet been p u b l i s h e d . 8 2 . t w o - f o u r p l a n . P r e s e n t t e n d e n c i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o r the s i x - t h r e e - t h r e e and s i x - s i x p l a n s * The g r a d e - c o m b i n a t i o n s u n d e r t h e s e p l a n s have r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e m a j o r types of. r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s : s e p a r a t e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , u n d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s , and combined j u n i o r -s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . ...Of . t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s , the l a s t r e -p r e s e n t s a compromise between the f i r s t two t y p e s , p r o -v i d i n g f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n between j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r u n i t s , y e t a l l o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f b o t h u n i t s w i t h i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l , (l.) D a t a g a t h e r e d i n 1930 show t h a t a s compared w i t h c o n -v e n t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d h i g h s c h o o l s , most r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s c h o o l s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f f o u r - y e a r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , s e p a r a t e , j u n i o r and s e n -i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t e n d i n the m a i n to be c i t y s c h o o l s . J u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s a r e found p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s and c o m m u n i t i e s o f m o d e r a t e s i z e * Un*-d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s and f o u r - y e a r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s a r e t y p i c a l l y r u r a l and v i l l a g e s c h o o l s . " ( 2 ) . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a l l o t h e r types o f s c h o o l s P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g p o i n t s out the g e n e r a l s u p e r i o r i t y o f a s c h o o l o r g a n -i z a t i o n b a s e d on the s i x - y e a r scheme. "Compared w i t h o t h e r r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s o f e q u i v a l e n t s i z e , the t h r e e - y e a r - p l a n j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and the u n d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s p r o v e i n g e n e r a l to be the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y o r g a n i z e d o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s c h o o l s s t u d i e d . I n e a c h o f the n i n e major f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a -t i o n t h e s e s c h o o l s tend to make a t l e a s t as e x t e n s i v e p r o -v i s i o n s as a r e f o u n d i n o t h e r s c h o o l s . The j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s and the u n d i v i d e d s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s p r o v i d e more e x t e n s i v e l y t h a n o t h e r s c h o o l s f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n ' of the s c h o o l u n i t s , f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c -u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e , " f o r the maintenance' . 'of '"high s t a n d a r d s i n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t e a c h e r s , and f o r the o f f e r i n g o f a b r o a d l y comprehen-s i v e p r o g r a m o f s t u d i e s . C o n s i d e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , m o r e o v e r , the j u n i o r - s e n i o r and u n d i v i d e d s c h o o l s e x h i b i t marked s u p e r i o r i t y i n the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w h i c h they p r o -v i d e f o r a l l t h e i r major f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t o n c e . They t e n d more f r e q u e n t l y than o t h e r s c h o o l s to have d e v -e l o p e d a l l these f e a t u r e s c o n c u r r e n t l y , r a t h e r than to have b u i l t up c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s to the n e g l e c t o f o t h e r s . " ( 3 ) (1) .: "The Reorganized, Secondary School", A Summary by Professb ,;;F.T,.SpauIding,.Haryard Teachers'Record,October 1932 . page 171. .• . \ 1 • . ' \ (2) i b i d page 171. (3) i b i d page 174, 83. P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g i n d i c a t e s a l s o t h a t l a r g e J u n i o r - S e n -i o r H i g h s c h o o l s tend to be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n the s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s p i t e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l -u I t has b e e n n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t l a r g e s c h o o l systems h a v e I n g e n e r a l a d o p t e d t h e s e p a r a t e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s u f f i c i e n t number o f l a r g e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n to p e r m i t a c o m p a r i s o n o f s e p a r a t e and combined s c h o o l s h a v i n g v a r i o u s t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t s up to a p p r o x i m a t e l y two t h o u s a n d p u p i l s . The r e s u l t s o f these c o m p a r i s o n s i n d i c a t e a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y on the p a r t o f the combined s c h o o l s — a - s u p e r -i o r i t y w h i c h i n c r e a s e s as the s i z e o f the s c h o o l s i n -c r e a s e s , i i o t m e r e l y i n t h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a r t i c u l a -t i o n between the j u n i o r and s e n i o r u n i t s , but i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n , . t h e i r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l programs o f s t u d i e s s t h e i r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programs f o r b o t h j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s , t h e i r p r o v i -s i o n s f o r g u i d a n c e , and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y programs f o r the s e n i o r u n i t s , the j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l y more c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s than t h o s e o f the s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s . The advauts.ge o f the j u n i o r - '. s e n i o r s c h o o l s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s i s t e n c y o f o r g a n i z a -t i o n i s even g r e a t e r than t h e i r a d v a n t a g e i n c o m p r e h e n -s i v e n e s s . As compared w i t h i n d i v i d u a l j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , f i v e and o n e - h a l f t imes as l a r g e a p r o p o r -t i o n o f j u n i o r - s e n i o r s c h o o l s a t t a i n median s t a n d i n g f o r t h e i r s i z e I n a l l f e a t u r e s o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z -a t i o n , and t e n t i m e s a s l a r g e a p r o p o r t i o n meet a s i m i l a r s t a n d a r d i n t h e i r s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " (1) . I n c o n c l u s i o n to the summary o f the f i n d i n g s the a u t h o r , s t a t e s : -" C o m b i n i n g the j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s i n e i t h e r a j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r a n u n d i v i d e d s i x - • y e a r s c h o o l seems to r e s u l t i n a t l e a s t t h r e e i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t s . The p r o x i m i t y o f the u n i t s a p p a r e n t l y c a u s e s each u n i t to s t i m u l a t e the o t h e r i n the a d o p t i o n o f d e s i r -a b l e p r o c e d u r e s . A d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l , the j u n l o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s may r e a d i l y make i n c o m b i n a t i o n c e r t a i n s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h n e i t h e r , -. ( l ) i b i d page 175. c o u l d - a s e a s i l y u n d e r t a k e a l o n e . J u n i o r and s e n i o r u n i t s w o r k i n g u n d e r a s i n g l e - s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n more r e a d i l y a c h i e v e u n i f o r m i t y o f p u r p o s e and o f s t a n d a r d s . W i t h i n any s y s t e m i n w h i c h a l l the s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l g r a d e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d to have the same g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s , and i n w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same methods and m a t e r i a l o f t e a c h i n g a r e employed i n t h e s e g r a d e s , the c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e grades; i n a s i n g l e s c h o o l seems l i k e l y on t h e whole to make f o r more e f f e c t i v e , o r g a n i z a t i o n , " ( l } , The e v i d e n c e i n f a v o u r o f the Combined s i x - y e a r s c h o o l l e a v e s l i t t l e doubt t h a t i t i s a most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t scheme o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The number o f s c h o o l s examined i n the c o u r s e o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t to w a r r a n t a v e r y d e -f i n i t e d e c l a r a t i o n on the p a r t o f the a u t h o r o f the Summary. I n a p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n answer to a q u e r y r e l a t i n g to t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the l a r g e Combined s c h o o l , P r o f e s s o r S p a u l d i n g makes the: f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : "A c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e t h i n g s a c t u a l l y done i n more t h a n f i v e h u n d r e d r e o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s l e a d s to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the t h r e e - t h r e e - j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n i s l i k e l y to be more c o m p r e h e n s i v e and more f l e x -i b l e t h a n any o t h e r s i n g l e type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h an e q u i v a l e n t e n r o l l m e n t . Under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , t h e l a r g e r s i z e of s e p a r a t e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s may a l l o w them t o be b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n a ' j u n i o r - s e n i o r s c h o o l . But the g e n e r a l tendency can be e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s . : When a community h a s fewer t h a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 p u p i l s i n i t s s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l g r a d e s ( s e v e n t h r o u g h t w e l v e ) , the most e f f e c t i v e t y p e o f o r g a n -i z a t i o n i s l i k e l y to be a s i n g l e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . I f i n s u c h a community the s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l p u -p i l s must be d i v i d e d between two s c h o o l s , t h e n a s e p a r a t e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and a s e p a r a t e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a r e l i k e l y to be more e f f e c t i v e t h a n two j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h u n d e r t h e s e p a r a t e s c h o o l arrangement s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n needs to be g i v e n to t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the u p p e r and l o w e r u n i t s . I n a community h a v i n g more than 1,000 p u p i l s i n i t s s e c o n d a r y - s e h o o l g r a d e s a s i n g l e j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s a g a i n l i k e l y to be b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d t h a n a s e p a r a t e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and a s e p a r — 85. a t e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , though as the e n r o l l m e n t i n c r e a s e s the j u n i o r - s e n i o r s c h o o l may become so u n w i e l d y b e c a u s e o f i t s l a r g e s i z e t h a t i t w i l l h a v e to b e d i v i d e d . When i t must be d i v i d e d two j u n i o r - s e n i o r s c h o o l s a r e l i k e l y to be more e f f e c t i v e than one j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and one s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . " ( l ) . P r o f e s s o r W. L . Cox, p r o f e s s o r o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n Mew Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e Combined s c h o o l : " I h a v e no v e r y s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l as compared w i t h the s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . I n t h e s m a l l community t h e r e i s an u n n e c e s s a r y expense to c a r r y two s e p a r a t e o r -g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e s u c h t h a t c h i l d r e n o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l age c a n r e a c h t h e c e n t r a l s c h o o l . Where s u c h i s not the c a s e I p r e f e r to h a v e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d a t c e n t e r s w h i c h t h e y c a n r e a c h r e a d i l y . I n l a r g e r communit ies t h e r e a r e b o t h a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s to the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l as compared w i t h the t h r e e - y e a r s c h o o l . Where t h e r e i s a d e q u a t e l e a d e r s h i p i n the p r i n c i p a l , as one i s . l i k e l y to f i n d i f the p r i n c i p a l has h a d p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t a r y and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ex-p e r i e n c e b e f o r e he u n d e r t a k e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the • s i x - y e a r s c h o o l , t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r m i t s a c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h g i v e s i t a v e r y r e a l a d v a n t a g e . U n d e r the v e r y h a p p y c o n d i t i o n s o f the Monroe J u n i o r -S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n R o c h e s t e r , and p r o b a b l y o t h e r s i x -y e a r s c h o o l s i n t h a t c i t y , many, p e r h a p s m o s t , o f the f a c u l t y h a v e h a d e l e m e n t a r y and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l e x p e r -i e n c e ; m o r e o v e r , they a r e a p p o i n t e d to the s t a f f v / i t h the knowledge: t h a t t h e y may b e e x p e c t e d to ! t e a c h anywhere 1 f r o m the 7 t h to the 12thfcgrades. To the degree t h a t the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s p i r i t , may i m p r e g n a t e and p e n e t r a t e the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a -t i o n i n a. s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r o r g a n i z a t i o n I am h e a r t -i l y i n f a v o u r o f the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . " ( 2 ) . P r o f e s s o r H . R. D o u g l a s s , i n h i s work on " O r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , 1 ' p o i n t s out t h a t i t i s a m i s t a k e to t h i n k t h a t the J u n i o r H i g h school , is. a l t o g e t h e r a d -a p t e d to the l a r g e c i t y systems b u t i n the s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s i t (1) P e r s o n a l Communicat ion f r o m P r o f e s s o r P . T . S p a u l d i n g loveraber 1932. ' ' (2) P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m P r o f e s s o r W . I . Cox:Hew Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y ; November 1932. 86. s h o u l d he combined as p a r t of a s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . a n d recommends t h a t communities w i t h fewer t h a n 250-300 p u p i l s i n t h e s e c o n d -a r y g r a d e s s h o u l d adopt t h i s f o r m o f s c h o o l . He c i t e s the a d -v a n t a g e s t o b e t - . "The common use o f equipment i n s u c h s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s a s Home E c o n o m i c s , Manual T r a i n i n g , M u s i c , A r t . " "Common u s e o f Qymnasium, A u d i t o r i u m , L i b r a r y * . A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . o f f i c e s . "One p r i n c i p a l - a s p e c i a l i s t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 1 "More c o m p l e t e d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n . " " B e t t e r a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r u n i t s . " "Complete a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t e a c h e r s i n b o t h s c h o o l s . H : " P r o m o t i o n by s u b j e c t i s e a s i e r . " " P u p i l s t e n d to r e m a i n i n s c h o o l l o n g e r , l e s s e l i m i n a t i o n i n g r a d e s V I I I , I X and X<» " P o s s i b i l i t y o f more c o u r s e s . " " B e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s t u d y p u p i l s . " 1 " B e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r homogeneous g r o u p i n g . 1 1 "More men t e a c h e r s u s u a l l y f o r a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s . " "Economy o f t i m e by e l i m i n a t i o n o f u s e l e s s m a t e r i a l . 1 1 : "A s a f e r and more e c o n o m i c a l t r a n s i t i o n f r o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l to s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l by g r a d u a l d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n . .. . . • i l ) . A S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s o f many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the combined o r g a n i z a t i o n w r i t e s . ttThe e x p e r i e n c e o f the s c h o o l s y s t e m w i t h the s i x - y e a r type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n has been a l t o g e t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l l the p u p i l s a r e a p a r t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h has no g o a l except the end.. The m a t e r i a l , o f the s c h o o l c a n be u s e d w i t h much g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y under t h i s p l a n . I n -deed the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l has no s p e c i a l w e a k n e s s e s , T h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g e n e r a l development and g r o w t h towards l e a d e r s h i p . A l l c o u r s e s a r e e a s i l y a r t i c u l a t e d ; . . . » . . a l l e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e e a s i l y f i n a n c e d . T h e r e i s no d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . " ( 2 ) . The a d v a n t a g e s o f the s c h o o l systems o r g a n i z e d i n C l e v e -l a n d u n d e r t h i s p l a n a r e s t a t e d to be the f o l l o w i n g : (1) ^ O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s " . '.;..: H i R . D o u g l a s s , page 4 et sect, ( 2 - ) : P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n from 0.S , H u b b a r d , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f . S c h o o l s , E r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a . : -. 87. " I t e l i m i n a t e s tiie gap i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . " " S e n i o r and j u n i o r g r a d e s a r e i n c l o s e r t o u c h , 1 1 "More and g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f equipment i n combined s c h o o l s . " ' . " P u p i l s s t a y a t s c h o o l l o n g e r * " "More e c o n o m i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . " " P r o v i d e s a l a b o r a t o r y f o r e x p e r i m e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n . " " P r o v i d e s more v a r i e t y i n the e x p l o r a t o r y c o u r s e s . " "Promotes c o n t i n u i t y o f c o u r s e s and c u r r i c u l u m . " " P e r m i t s a b e t t e r p r e v i e w o f S e n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . " " P r o v i d e s more e f f e c t i v e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f c o u r s e s . " " I t o f f e r s a b e t t e r t r a i n i n g i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o t h e r s . " " I t emphasizes t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f the p u p i l s , ' e x p e r i e n c e . " " I t c r e a t e s a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g among the t e a c h e r s . " " I t b r o a d e n s the t e a c h e r s ' minds and s y m p a t h i e s . " ' " I t g i v e s the t e a c h e r s more and l o n g e r c o n t a c t w i t h p u p i l s . " " I t h e l p s t e a c h e r s to see t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s ; " " I t p r o v i d e s an atmosphere w h i c h promotes g r o w t h . w ( l ) » In c o n t r a s t , the d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r e found i n the l a r g e s t s c h o o l s and r e l a t e to a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s , b u t " w h i l e b u i l d i n g c o n d i t i o n s b r o u g h t about t h e s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l as a temporary a r r a n g e m e n t , evidences; now i n d i c a t e s t h a t the a d v a n t -ages o f the s i x - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l o u t w e i g h the d i s a d v a n t a g e s . " The same a r t i c l e on the C l e v e l a n d s c h o o l s p o i n t s out t h a t : "The s i x - y e a r s c h o o l s o f f e r a r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y to e f f e c t c o n t i n u i t y i n c u r r i c u l u m b u i l d i n g and tends thus not m e r e -l y to b r i d g e b u t to e l i m i n a t e e n t i r e l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l gap between t h e u p p e r and l o w e r s c h o o l s . I t a f f o r d s r e a l g u i d a n c e a chance by k e e p i n g the p u p i l s u n d e r one e n v i r o n -ment l o n g enough to d i s c o v e r a p t i t u d e s and to d i r e c t t e n d -e n c i e s . . . . . . t h e b e s t r e s u l t s depend on s u f f i c i e n t e x p o s u r e . I t i s l a r g e l y a c a s e o f w h e t h e r d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y engendered by a s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e o f s i x y e a r s i n one s c h o o l o r t h r e e y e a r s i n e a c h of two s c h o o l s . . . . . . F u r t h e r the m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s v/ho l e a v e s c h o o l w i t h d r a w n e a r the end o f the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l p e r i o d o r a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . N e i t h e r the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l n o r the s e n i o r h i g h school* i s i n a p h e . S i x ^ T e a r S c h o o l i n C l e v e l a n d ^ P . P . W h l t i n g , S u n t . o f S c h o o l s . S c h o o l R e v i e w , A p r i l 1929.(pages 267-271)7 88. p o s i t i o n to meet i n any adequate f a s h i o n the needs of those who leave school e a r l y . Only i n a s i x - y e a r i n s t i -t u t i o n i s the s i t u a t i o n adapted to the needs of t h i s group.'1 ( l ) . The Summary of the f i n d i n g s of P r o f e s s o r P. ¥. Spaulding may be regarded as the most recent as. w e l l as the most authen-t i c source of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the J u n i o r High school s i t u a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The w r i t e r was r e f e r r e d to t h i s source of i n f o r m a t i o n on s e v e r a l occasions by other author i t i s s i n the f i e l d so t h a t the views set f o r t h i n t h i s Summary r e f l e c t the general o p i n i o n of prominent e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s throughout the country! 2)The continuous growth and i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the combined middle and s e n i o r h i g h schools i s an index to t h e i r worth i n p r a c t i c a l l y any type of community. SUMMARY AID COHCLUSIOIS The Survey of Secondary Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was brought to a c l o s e i n June 1952.' The Summary d e a l i n g w i t h the Reorganized School s t a t e d , i n very d e f i n i t e terms,the gen e r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Combined Six-Year School.' The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d on by P r o f e s s o r F.W.Spaulding covered a wide f i e l d and touched every State . H i s work may be looked upon as the most recent and authentic source of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase of education. (1) i b i d .' (2) Constant reference was made to the I n v e s t i g a t i o n s being c a r r i e d on by P r o f e s s o r Spaulding both by O f f i c i a l s of the Bureau of Education at Washington and by such , A u t h o r i t i e s as P r o f e s s o r Douglass and P r o f e s s o r H.MeEown« 89. CHAPTER V. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MOVEMENT IN CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. In the I n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s Thesis i t was mentioned th a t i n Canada,with the s i n g l e , exception of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia, the J u n i o r High school had not as yet taken r o o t . ( l ) Before proceeding to the a n a l y s i s of the J u n i o r High school problem i n t h i s province the w r i t e r wishes t o r e f e r b r i e f l y to the a t t i t u d e with, which other s e c t i o n s of Canada regard an ed u c a t i o n a l u n i t t h a t has already become an important f a c t o r i n the B r i t i s h Columbia and American school systems. E d u c a t i o n a l i s t s throughout Canada have not been b l i n d t o the f a u l t s of the ei g h t - t h r e e or e i g h t - f o u r p l a n . P r a c t i c a l l y every province, d u r i n g the past t e n years, has made marked changes.in c u r r i c u l u m o r g a n i z a t i o n t o the end t h a t e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l opportunity s h a l l p r e v a i l more than ever before f o r a l l c l a s s e s and types of p u p i l s . The changes th a t have been. *ffected,however, have been put i n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h i n the schools as they stand ,:.not through the a d d i t i o n of another u n i t such as the Intermediate or J u n i o r High s c h o o l . I n the Autumn of 1938 the w r i t e r obtained an expression of opi n i o n from the various Departments of Education as t o the p o s s i b l e and probable tendencies i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n / These opinions, emanating from h i g h departmental o f f i c i a l s , a r e quoted, verbatim as f o l l o w s : Province Opinions and Notes ALBERTA " I beg t o -§|ate that J u n i o r High (1) Chapter I . I n t r o d u c t i o n , page 3. 9 0 , D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n 1932. s c h o o l s h a v e been o r g a n i z e d i n the c i t y o f Edmonton f o r the p a s t f i f -t e e n y e a r s , b u t t h i s f o r m o f o r g a n -i z a t i o n i s g r a d u a l l y b e i n g abandoned h e r e . T h e r e has b e e n no movement toward t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v -i n c e o f A l b e r t a . " S A S m T C B - g f A g . •  D i r e c t o r "of R u r a l E d u c a t i o n 1932. " C o n s i d e r a b l e t h o u g h t has been g i v e n i u b o t h o f f i c i a l a n d o t h e r q u a r t e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s b u t t o d a t e n o t h i n g has been done i n t h i s r e -g a r d . S i n c e o u r s c h o o l s a r e l a r g e -l y one-roomed s c h o o l s i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t to work o u t plan3 except i n the l a r g e r c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a -t i o n . " MANITOBA. Deputy M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n 1932. ttThe s c h o o l systems o f W i n n i p e g and Brandon a r e o r g a n i z e d on the 6 -3-3 p l a n and o u r p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m i s r e a l l y b a s e d on t h i s p l a n . We a r e , u s i n g t h e t e r m " I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l " f o r g r a d e s Y I I , Y I I 1 a n d I X . " ONTARIO. C h i e f D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n 1932. " I may say t h a t n o t h i n g has been done, e x c e p t p r o p a g a n d a , toward t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s - - w h i c h we. p r o p o s e t o c a l l i n t h i s p r o v i n c e " I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l s . " A set. o f r e g u l a t i o n s Is b e i n g p r e -p a r e d a t the. p r e s e n t t i m e . " qiJEBBG^v D i r e c t o r o f P r o t e s t a n t " T h e r e i s no movement i n the u r o v -E d u c a t i o n 1932. i n c e o f Quebec i n the d i r e c t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s o r t h e s i x y e a r s c h o o l . " P r o v i n c e ' . O p i n i o n s and Motes. . Mm BRUlfSWICK. :.. \ C h i e f ~ " S u p e r i n t e n d e n t " T h e r e lias "been l i t t l e o r no a g i t a -1932. t i o n i n Sew B r u n s w i c k to adopt the 6-6 p l a n . w NOVA /SOQglA^' A s s t , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t " W i t h r e g a r d bo the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n 1932. movement, I g i v e y o u h e r e w i t h the s e c t i o n o f the E d u c a t i o n A c t p r o v i d -i n g a s m a l l g r a n t p a y a b l e to the t r u s t e e s o f a s c h o o l s e c t i o n e s t a b -l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g i n a s e p a r -a t e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g a J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l D e p a r t m e n t : 'When the t r u s t e e s o r c o m m i s s i o n e r s o f any s c h o o l s e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n u n d e r r e g u l a t i o n s p r e -s c r i b e d by t h e C o u n c i l i n a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s e p a r a t e and a p a r t f r o m any o t h e r s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i n the s e c t i o n , a department o r d e p a r t -ments f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f p u -p i l s o f Grades. V I I , V I I I and I X , • .-• and i n s u c h department o r d e p a r t -ments h a v e c a u s e d i n s t r u c t i o n to be g i v e n by f u l l - t i m e , competent t e a c h e r s to the p u p i l s o f Grades V I I , V I I I and DC., so a s to c o n s t i -t u t e a J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l d e t e r -mined to be s u c h u n d e r t h e r e g u l a -t i o n s o f t h e C o u n c i l , t h e n the C o u n c i l may pay out o f the P r o v i n -c i a l T r e a s u r y to s u c h t r u s t e e s o r c o m m i s s i o n e r s an a.nnual g r a n t not to exceed two h u n d r e d and f i f t y d o l l a r s f o r each s u c h t e a c h e r so employed; p r o v i d e d however t h a t the t o t a l amount o f s u c h grant, p a i d to any s u c h t r u s t e e s o r c o m m i s s i o n -e r s s h a l l n o t exceed i n any s c h o o l y e a r the sum of seven h u n d r e d and f i f t y d o l l a r s ; and f u r t h e r p r o v i d e d t h a t when g r a n t i s p a i d under t h i s s u b s e c t i o n , no g r a n t s h a l l be p a i d u n d e r the next p r e c e d i n g s u b s e c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , to d a t e no s c h o o l s e c -t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e h a s q u a l i f i e d f o r t h i s g r a n t . The g e n e r a l c u r r i c -92. P r o v i n c e . O p i n i o n s and N o t e s . u l u m committee i s now a t work i n Nova S c o t i a and t h e i r f i n a l r e p o r t w i l l c o n t a i n many recommendations i n the n a t u r e o f t a x t book p r e s c r i p -t i o n s t h a t may be u s e d i n Grades VII, VIII and IX.« PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n 1932. "I may s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e no J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s as s u c h i n t h i s p r o v -i n c e. I t would a p p e a r from these, r e p o r t s t h a t the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l p l a n has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r n o ^ a t t e n t i o n , w i t h the p o s -s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f two o r ' three c e n t r e s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n M a n -i t o b a and i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a , where i n the l a t t e r p l a c e a f t e r f u n c t i o n i n g f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s i t i s b e i n g a b a n d o n e d . No doubt the p r e s e n t e r a o f u n r e s t and f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s w i l l be a r e t a r d -i n g i n f l u e n c e f o r some time to come upon d e v e l o p i n g t h i s phase o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s t h r o u g h o u t the r e m a i n i n g p r o v i n c e s o f the D o m i n i o n , but s i g n s a r e not l a c k i n g to show t h a t i n c e r -t a i n i n s t a n c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e a l i v e to the p o s -s i b i l i t i e s o f the I n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l , and t h a t when c o n d i t i o n s r i g h t t h e m s e l v e s a programme s i m i l a r to t h a t o f J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a w i l l r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the hands o f the r e s p e c t i v e Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN B R I T I S H .COLUMBIA; I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as i n the r e s t o f Canada,, the e v i l s o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n b a s e d on a n e l e m e n t a r y p e r i o d o f e i g h t y e a r s f o l l o w e d by a H i g h s c h o o l of f o u r o r t h r e e y e a r s o f a t o t a l l y 93. d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e h a d l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d "by l e a d e r s i n the e d -u c a t i o n a l f i e l d . From time to t ime m i n o r changes i n c u r r i c u l a were made as the p o p u l a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the p e o p l e s l o w l y i n c r e a s e d , b u t numerous major p r o b l e m s had a c c u m u l a t e d f o r s o l u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c e a n d e q u i t a b l e b a s t s o f t a x a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , b e t t e r t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s , e t c . In A p r i l 1924 the Department o f E d u c a t i o n announced t h e i r d e -c i s i o n to u n d e r t a k e by means o f a Commission a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m o f t h e P r o v i n c e . The Department was s u p p o r t e d i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n by the T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , The P r o v i n c i a l P a r e n t T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n as w e l l as by the T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , ( l ) . Among the odd n i n e t e e n s u b j e c t s s u b m i t t e d by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was the q u e s t i o n of the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s i n the l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s o f the P r o v i n c e . (2). The Com-m i s s i o n e r s i n c h a r g e o f the S u r v e y a c c o r d i n g l y made a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and made recommendations r e -g a r d i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . I t i s g e n -e r a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d ' a n d M r . A . S . M a t h e s o n , the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l o f a J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i n t h i s P r o v i n c e , s t a t e s t h a t : " I t was. the R e p o r t and the recommendations o f the E d u c a t i o n S u r v e y C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e to i n t r o d u c e t h e new p l a n i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i t h o u t the f a v o u r a b l e recommendations o f the C o m m i s s i o n , i t would h a v e been e x -t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to h a v e moved e i t h e r the Department o f E d u c a t i o n o r t h e l o c a l S c h o o l B o a r d s . " ( 3 ) ( l ) "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t " by J . H . P u t -nam and Gf. -M. " t i e r . Page 1, I n t r o d u c t o r y C h a p t e r . (2 " i b i d " , page 2. (.3) P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h M r . A . S . M a t h e s o n , d a t e d F e b r u a r y , 1933. The f i r s t J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l to he e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was opened i n S e p t e m b e r , 1926, a t Pen t i c t o n , B v C , u n d e r the p r i n c i p a l s h i p o f M r . A . S . M a t h e s o n . P r i o r to t h i s time t h e r e had been c e r t a i n m i n o r t e n d e n c i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . As f a r bade as 1906 D r . E a t o n , t h e n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s f o r the P r o v i n c e , r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t p u p i l s were not b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e d f o r and a c c o r d i n g l y , by way o f e x p e r -i m e n t , h e o r g a n i z e d c e r t a i n s p e c i a l g r a d e 7 and 8 c l a s s e s ' , f i r s t i n the V i c t o r i a s c h o o l s , u n d e r Mr.. D . L . M a c L a u r i n , now A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , and l a t e r u n d e r M r . (J. Deane, a t p r e s e n t M u n i c i p a l I n s p e c t o r o f S c h o o l s . These c l a s s e s were d i s c o n t i n u e d on the d e a t h o f D r . E a t o n and the e x p e r i m e n t was d r o p p e d , ( l ) . I n 1922 a s o - c a l l e d " J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l " ' was e s t a b l i s h e d on the p r e m i s e s o f t h e K i n g Edward H i g h S c h o o l i n V a n c o u v e r a n d was p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r t h o s e who, f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , c o u l d not see t h e i r way c l e a r to complete a r e g u l a r H i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e . I t was a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l i n g e n -e r a l c h a r a c t e r . I n 1924 a s i m i l a r type o f s c h o o l was o p e r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the New W e s t m i n s t e r T e c h n i c a l H i g h S c h o o l , c h i e f l y f o r o v e r - a g e , a n d r e t a r d e d p u p i l s , i n c l u d i n g a l l c l a s s e s o f m i s f i t s . These were i n r e a l i t y o p p o r t u n i t y s c h o o l s and at the p r e s e n t time b o t h these s c h o o l s a r e d o i n g s p l e n d i d work a l -though not o p e r a t i n g a l o n g o r t h o d o x J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l l i n e s . ( 2 ) . The E d u c a t i o n a l S u r v e y R e p o r t p u b l i s h e d i n 1925 was the (1) "The Development o f the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l -u m b i a , " by C . S . D o b b i n s , a n M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1929, page 27. ( 2 ) " S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t , " page 397. 9 5 . r e a l s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r and gave impetus to the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i d e a i n B r i t i s h Columbia. . T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s i n the two c h a p t e r s on " C h i l d Development and The I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l " and "The Programme o f t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e S c h o o l , " s t a t e d c l e a r l y the f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the p h i l o s o p h y o f the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l and i t s programme. ( 1 ) » T h i s R e p o r t was w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e and the c r e a t i o n o f a J u n i o r H i g h s y s t e m c a p t i v a t e d the minds o f t h e t h i n k i n g element o f t h e p e o p l e . The S u r v e y Commission p o i n t e d o u t , a t c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h , the i n a d e q u a c i e s o f the 8 - 3 p l a n . The H i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e was, u n t i l 1930, (2.) p r e t t y much, a c u l t u r a l c o u r s e , p r e v o c a t i o n a l to the p r o f e s s i o n s and g e n e r a l l y u n s u i t e d to the m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s who w o u l d n e v e r , t h r o u g h l a c k o f d e s i r e o r o p p o r t u n i t y , go on to h i g h e r f i e l d s o f l e a r n i n g . The programme was b o t h i n f l e x i b l e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y unsound and t h e b r e a k between g r a d e s e i g h t and n i n e was s h a r p and w h o l l y u n s u i t e d to p u p i l s a t t h i s s t a g e . The wastage r e s u l t i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n was a l -a r m i n g l y h i g h when a c t u a l f i g u r e s were examined. T h e r e were no f a c i l i t i e s o r i n c e n t i v e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g s c h o o l l i f e w i t h com-munity l i f e o r home l i f e . I n s h o r t the H i g h s c h o o l o f the t ime was, i n the o p i n i o n o f the C o m m i s s i o n , f a l l i n g f a r s h o r t i n i t s e f f o r t s to meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the a v e r a g e p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g the H i g h s c h o o l . The M i d d l e s c h o o l was t h e r e f o r e recommended to remedy t h e s e I l l s and t h e S u r v e y Commission summarized t h e i r ( l ) C h a p t e r s Y and V I o f t h e " S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t . " U J The New Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r H i g h and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s was i s s u e d i n 1930 i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n d e t a i l the f o u r - y e a r H i g h s c h o o l programme. 96. suggestions as f o l l o w s t 1. That one or more "opportunity" c l a s s e s "be organized i n every l a r g e elementary school f o r the purpose of a c c e l e r -a t i n g retarded p u p i l s who are approaching the p e r i o d of e a r l y adolescence. 3.. That the p u b l i c school system of B r i t i s h Columbia provide elementary schools, f o r c h i l d r e n from, s i x to twelve years of age, middle schools f o r p u p i l s from twelve to f i f t e e n years of age, and h i g h schools f o r p u p i l s who remain i n school a f t e r reaching f i f t e e n y e a r s . 3. That the middle schools be organized where p o s s i b l e d i s -t i n c t from e i t h e r elementary or h i g h s c h o o l s , but com-bined w i t h one or the other of these where the number of p u p i l s makes such an o r g a n i z a t i o n necessary. 4. That wherever the number of teachers employed i n a middle school makes i t p o s s i b l e , o p t i o n a l courses be provided f o r p u p i l s * 5. That graduation diplomas be given to a l l p u p i l s who com-p l e t e a three-year middle school course. (1J. THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 1 VANCOUVER. Following.-the r e p o r t of the Survey Commission, Superin-tendent J . S. Gordon began a t once to p l a n f o r the introduc-t i o n of the J u n i o r High school i n Vancouver. In the Autumn of 1925 he made a d e t a i l e d report of c o n d i t i o n s i n Vancouver to the Vancouver School Board and t h e r e i n advised that arrange-ments be made, as soon as p o s s i b l e , r e s p e c t i n g c o s t s , s i t e s , etc., f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g one1 or more J u n i o r High schools i n Van-couver. Mr. '-Gordon, i n b r i n g i n g ' t h e question before the Van-couver School Board, expressed h i s opinions regarding the pos-s i b i l i t i e s of the Middle school i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: "The Middle s c h o o l , so h i g h l y recommended by Commissioners Putnam and Weir, and the adoption of which was advised by myself two years:-ago, has i n i t . great p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The proposal i s to change our e n t i r e school system from what may be described as the 8-3 plan to the 6-3-3 p l a n . As approximately 50% of a l l c h i l d r e n leave school on ( l ) "School Survey Report," page 110. 97. t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the 1 5 t h y e a r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the e d u -c a t i o n g i v e n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d he s u c h a s w i l l e n -a b l e them to make an easy s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l a d j u s t m e n t i n the community. To i n s u r e s u c h an e d u c a t i o n , i t i s man-i f e s t t h a t t h e y must not be g i v e n the same s t u d i e s e x a c t l y a s s t u d e n t s :who w i l l b e t a k i n g a f u r t h e r t h r e e y e a r c o u r s e i n one o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f h i g h s c h o o l s , and t h i s i s where the m i d d l e . s c h o o l comes to t h e i r a i d . I n i t the c o u r s e s a r e v a r i e d : and a n a t t e m p t i s made to s u i t the c u r -r i c u l u m to t h e needs o f the v a r i o u s g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n . I n b r o a d g e n e r a l o u t l i n e we may say t h e r e a r e the f o l l o w -i n g c o u r s e s : ( l ) F o r t h o s e who w i l l go to work a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1.6th y e a r . .-(2] F o r t h o s e who w i l l go on to a t e c h n i c a l h i g h s c h o o l . (3) F o r those who w i l l go to a c o m m e r c i a l h i g h s c h o o l . (4) F o r those who w i l l go to a g e n e r a l h i g h s c h o o l , and p o s s i b l y from t h e r e to the u n i v e r s i t y . The s u r e s t s a f e g u a r d a g a i n s t s e r i o u s m i s t a k e s , o r even f a i l u r e s i n i n t r o d u c i n g changes i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m , i s a knowledge o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t l i e i n the way. I w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , enumerate a s the c h i e f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c h a n g i n g f r o m t h e 8 - 3 p l a n to the 6 - 3 - 3 p l a n , t h e f o l l o w -i n g : , ' . . . • • • ( 1 ) D i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g a s u f f i c i e n t number o f . t e a c h e r s to t e a c h e f f e c t i v e l y a l o n g a l l the new l i n e s . (2) D i f f i c u l t y I n s e c u r i n g s c h o o l s p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d .. and e q u i p p e d f o r t h e new w o r k . (3) D i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g p e o p l e so c o n v i n c e d g e n e r -a l l y o f the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the new type o f s c h o o l t h a t the3^ w i l l f u r n i s h the a d d i t i o n a l money r e -q u i r e d - f i r s t to p r o v i d e b u i l d i n g s , s u i t a b l y p l a n n e d and e q u i p p e d * and s e c o n d , to o p e r a t e t h e s c h o o l s when e q u i p p e d . " ' ( l ) . JimOR;HI(m SCHOOLS' OUTSIDE W G Q W E R * I t h a s been m e n t i o n e d t h a t the f i r s t J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l was opened a t P e n t i c t o n i n 1926. The movement a f t e r w a r d s t o o k h o l d i n V a n c o u v e r where t h e r e a r e now f o u r l a r g e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s . The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l o p e r a t e s a t i t s b e s t when t h e r e ife a f a i r l y l a r g e p u p i l enrolment, b u t i t has b e e n demon-( l ) " T h e Development o f the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l -r ;;: i i m b l a : ? O'i- S . D o b b i n s , page 40. 98, s t r a t e d that i t can a l s o be s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d on i n the smaller centres* Mr. A. S, Matheson, the organizer of the Pen-t i c t o n J u n i o r High school, s t a t e s : ( a f t e r two years' experience w i t h i t ) "at P e n t i c t o u the J u n i o r High school was organized f o r a dual purpose, to meet a l o c a l need and to demonstrate the p r a o t i c a h i l i t y of the J u n i o r High school idea f o r communities of a s i z e comparable to that of P e n t i c t o n we believe, that the J u n i o r High s c h o o l i s adaptable, to the small town as w e l l as to the l a r g e r c i t y and that i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s not con-d i t i o n a l upon elaborate expenditures we have, then, endeav-oured to work out a J u n i o r High school scheme, s u i t e d to an en-rollment of about two hundred students and one which i s not pro-h i b i t i v e i n c o s t . " ( l ) . The J u n i o r High school at P e n t i c t o n i s an example of a combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school i n a D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h a popula tion. of approximately 4,600. Nelson, i n the South-East corner of the P r o v i n c e , opened a J u n i o r High school i n 1928.as a separate i n s t i t u t i o n from the Senior High school* I n the same year New Westminster introduced the J u n i o r High school programme i n t o i t s ' elementary schools to modify the work, o f grades Y I I and V I I I . At present the J u n i o r High school programme i s being f o l l o w e d i n three of the elemen-tary schools (2_) as w e l l as i n grade IX. In 1929 Kamioops opened a J u n i o r High school which was or-ganized to be combined w i t h the Senior High s c h o o l . In 1930 ( l ) "The Parent-Teacher Hews,« February 1930, an a r t i c l e by •A. S..-Matheson, f o r m e r - P r i n c i p a l of P e n t i c t o n J u n i o r High . •• ' School. 12) The C e n t r a l , L i s t e r - K e l v i n and Richard McBride Schools. 9 9 . f o u r more J u n i o r High, s c h o o l s a p p e a r e d a t K e l o w n a , Nanaima, Ocean P a l l s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y H i l l S c h o o l a t "Point G r e y . S i n c e 19.30 no new s c h o o l s have been put i n t o o p e r a t i o n , owing l a r g e l y to economic c o n d i t i o n s . SUMMARY A t the t ime o f w r i t i n g there- a r e , a c c o r d i n g to a communi-c a t i o n f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , e l even . . J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n , a s f o l l o w s . S e g r e g a t e d J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s . P o p u l a t i o n - 1951 Kelowna J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t F e l s o n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t P a i r v i e w J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t P o i n t G r e y J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t T e m p l e t o n J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . . a t Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s K e l o w n a . N e l s o n . V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r . 4 , 6 5 5 . 5 , 9 9 2 . a t K a m l o o p s . 6,167 a t Nanaimo. 6,745 Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . Nanaimo J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . , Ocean P a l l s J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , a t Ocean B a l l s . 2.,500 P e n t i c t o n J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t P e n t i c t o n . 4 , 6 4 0 U n i v e r s i t y H i l l J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l a t V a n c o u v e r . - - - - -K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l . a t V a n c o u v e r . •—-—• ( l ) The d i v i s i o n s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r have n o t been i n c l u d e d as t h e s e a r e - i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l R e p o r t , c l a s s i f i e d w i t h . t h e e l e -mentary s c h o o l c l a s s e s . t e ' A l l o f t h e above s c h o o l s may be r e g a r d e d as t h r e e - y e a r s c h o o l s . I n c e r t a i n c a s e s g r a d e I X i s i n c l u d e d w i t h the S e n i o r d i v i s i o n s but i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y t h i s arrangement i s a t r a n s i -t i o n a l p h a s e . ;(vi;):;;P'bp^ In-The- B u l l e t i n / o f The B r i t i s h ;:.''Y'CJ'O/iiirslbi.aVBoard .of; Health-^page .56. . . ; •^^;Br.itlsh•-G.oluinblsi^.^bli 'o.- ' Schools''Report - page L14-.^#&2->-) .-.-•'•loo.. The g r o w t h o f t h e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been a s f o l l o w s : Y e a r . , H o . p u p i l s e n r o l l e d . ,192.3-- - - - - - 8 3 . ) - 1 9 2 4 — — — — — — — — , . - - 1 2 5 . { The " H y b r i d J u n i o r 1925- -. — — — — - 1 6 1 . . J „ , . ' 1926 — - — 1 8 0 . ( H i g h S c h o o l P e r i o d . [ 1 ) 1927 4 4 1 . ) 1 9 2 8 - - — — •- — — — - — - 2 2 5 5 . £ The J u n i o r H i g h 1929 4 1 6 7 . ) (2) . 1 9 3 0 — - — — — 5186.£ S c h o o l P e r i o d P r o p e r . 1 9 3 1 - - - - " - - — • - — 5 8 1 0 . ) 1932- .-—531'6 { (3) STTMHARY :KK3 olblCIftS IOHS . • " " (Tito ,; -The J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l has n o t b e e n i n t r o d u c e d ' t h e o t h e r P r o v i n c e s o f t h e D o m i n i o n , The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l S u r v e y R e p o r t .was v e r y l a r g e l y , i f n o t a l t o g e t h e r , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s .•: b e g i n n i n g s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ;« W h i l e i n V a n c o u v e r i t has b e e n d e v e l o p e d on a f a i r l y l a r g e s c a l e , i n t h e s m a l l e r c e n t r e s i t i s f o u n d r e i t h e r s e p a r a t e o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l a n d w o u l d a p p e a r t o be making s l o w b u t s t e a d y p r o g r e s s : i n growth," . r (;ll;.;The; p e r i o d / . d u r i n g j u n i o r high, s c h o o l .>>' ; : : p $ E ^ Vancouver. .'A : s c h o p l ' v ;:,whipja;,:was' do.ii^.,y^3^.g-0'd4T#o3^;. ,but,,npt > .^alpng j u n i o r ; ' h i g h ' s c h o o l l i n e s , -(Survey R e p o r t ""page^3&7;)-*y^:''' -• (2^ , f A%t;er'[.Juhlor ;?5igh,S^h;o.g'Is>were : : def i n i t ; e l y ' : e s t a j l i s h e d . ' , 7 /• (3) D a t a s e c u r e d - f r o m M u b l i c S c h o o l s R e p o r t s ( 1 9 2 2 - 1 9 3 2 ) _ 101. F i g . 8 10E. CHAPTER 71, THE JUNIOR-SENIOR HISH SCHOOL AMD ITS POSSIBILITIES I I BRITISH COLUMBIA. In developing t h i s chapter the w r i t e r sent a questionnaire to f o u r J u n i o r - S e n i o r High schools and to two segregated J u n i o r High schools, ( l ) . A Report, compiled by the Research Committee of the B. C. Teachers' f e d e r a t i o n , and issued i n March, 1931, d e a l i n g w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of the J u n i o r High School Programme, has a l s o been r e f e r r e d to o c c a s i o n a l l y . ( 2 ) . As the whole J u n i o r High s c h o o l question i s s t i l l i n the experimental stage and as we have only a few combined schools, not to mention separate J u n i o r High schools, i n operation, we .have comparatively l i t t l e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l w i t h which to work.' • The above mentioned Report gave unmistakable evidence of t h i s . The J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school u n i t throughout the United States occurs i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers, and,.as opinions by t h i s time are. p r e t t y w e l l c r y s t a l l i z e d , I t i s comparatively easy to form an estimate of i t s value In that country. The w r i t e r assumes that c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y speaking are s i m i l a r to ours and that, i f the J u n i o r - S e n i o r High s c h o o l has been the success that our evidence would, l e a d us to think, we are warranted i n s t r e s s i n g the premise that a s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t i o n under very l i k e condi-tions should be an i d e a l u n i t i n t h i s P r o v i n c e . THE COMBINED SCHOOL AND SCHOOL SURVEY .REPORT. In Chapter VI of the Report of the Survey Commission con-(1) E i r e J u n i o r - S e n i o r High schools i n c l u d i n g Kami oops . (2) This Committe was. composed of a repre s en* at lye m ^ e r <u , J u n i o r High School P r i n c i p a l s covering the wnole p r o v i n c e . 103. siderable space i s devoted •' .  to the a d v i s a b i l i t y of Middle schools not.. only i n the C i t y of Vancouver but throughmit the Province. The Commissioners state: "The e s t a b l i s h i n g of an e f f i c i e n t Middle school as a sep-arate i n s t i t u t i o n or combined with an elementary or High school should be possible i n every City, every d i s t r i c t municipality, and i n any r u r a l school where two or more teachers are employed."(1) It- i s to be understood from this statement that, i n the l a r g e r and more populous centres, the Junior High school w i l l be segregated from the other schools. In the smaller places i t w i l l be combined with the already e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The writer believes that where these.latter units occur the com-bined Junior-Senior rather than the combined Junior-elementary schools should be the i d e a l . When combined with the High school, no matter how small t h i s l a t t e r school may be, f a c i l i t i e s are already i n existence, f o r aiding Junior High school work. A l l Senior High schools must now meet certa i n requirements i n science., laboratory f a c i l i t i e s and provide some form of gymna-sium and equipment fo r the same. They already have, moreover, a c e r t a i n number of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the various school subjects. A l l of these factors point to the combined Junior-Senior High school rather than the combined Junior-Elementary school, as the more e f f e c t i v e u n i t . In the Survey Report examples are given of the p o s s i b i l i -t i e s of the Middle school i n c e r t a i n and a l l types of l o c a l i t i e s . (1) "The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l S u r v e y Report'.' (page 108) 104. They are, f o r convenience, grouped as f o l l o w s : 1. The Middle school i n Towns .and C i t i e s . 2. The Middle school i n l a r g e Urban Centres. ' 3. The Middle school i n the populous Ru r a l Communities. 4. Middle s c h o o l education i n very s m a l l Rural Schools, ( l ) In regard to type So. 1, f o u r l o c a l i t i e s were mentioned; P r i n c e George (.2,500), P r i n c e Rupert (6,100), Kami oops (6,000), and Summerland M u n i c i p a l i t y ( l , 5 0 0 ) . ( 2 ) . I t was recommended by the Commission; that, the combined J u n i o r High school be e s t a b l i s h e d i n these c e n t r e s . Kamioops alone has f o l l o w e d along these l i n e s to date. The Report pointed out, w i t h respect to P r i n c e George, a s m a l l c i t y of 2,500, that the f o l l o w i n g advantages would ac-crue : 1. " P u p i l s from grade ¥11 up would get i n s t r u c t i o n i n shop-work and home economics. 2. The p o s i t i o n of p r i n c i p a l of the High and Middle school would be important enough and c a r r y w i t h i t s a l a r y enough to secure and r e t a i n a man of f i r s t - r a t e a b i l i t y . 3. P u p i l s of grades V I I and V I I I would have a new and more favourable environment-and a programme of work to s u i t t h e i r expanding i n t e r e s t s . 4. The increased s t a f f would make p o s s i b l e more s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n and a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n of work than i s now pos-s i b l e i n the High s c h o o l . This r e a l l y means that the p l a n would provide a b e t t e r education f o r grades V I I and V I I I than i s now given and i n a d d i t i o n a b e t t e r t r a i n i n g than i s now p o s s i b l e , i n the High school proper. 1 1 ( 3 ) . There are many centres i n the Province of corresponding s i z e and circumstances which would p r o f i t i n l i k e manner from the i n t r o -d uction of the J u n i o r High School. In s e v e r a l cases, as the w r i t e r w i l l i n d i c a t e i n the l a t t e r p o r t i o n of t h i s chapter, there are, under present c o n d i t i o n s , many elementary school classes housed i n High school b u i l d i n g s or v i c e v e r s a , a c o n d i t i o n unde-s l r e d by both i n s t i t u t i o n s . TlT~"3^hool Survey R e l ? o r t \ f r ( pages' 103-109 ) (2) Approximate f i g u r e s used. (3) ."School Survey Report," page 104. 105. I n the l a r g e U r b a n c e n t r e s , the s e p a r a t e J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l s were recommended where-••the p u p i l s o f g r a d e s ¥ 1 1 and T i l l can be a s s e m b l e d c o n v e n i e n t l y to make one K i d d l e s c h o o l w o r t h / w h i l e . xl!he c o m b i n i n g o f the s c h o o l w i t h ! the e x i s t i n g H i g h s c h o o l depends upon the number o f p u p i l s . I n the R u r a l commun-i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g to the R e p o r t : " I t w i l l p r o b a b l y b e found t h a t i n the R u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e the M i d d l e s c h o o l can be most c o n v e n i e n t l y combined w i t h the e x i s t i n g H i g h s c h o o l s . " (1) • T h e r e w o u l d : b e no change i n t h e programme o f s t u d i e s f o r these s c h o o l s as c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y u n l i k e to w a r r a n t extreme c h a n g e s . The J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l w i l l , o f c o u r s e , have d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o u r s e s to suit, the p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y . I t i s a c a s e o f a d a p t i n g the programme o f s t u d i e s to s u i t l o c a l n e e d s . In the s m a l l l o c a l i t i e s the recommendations a r e f o r c o n s o l -i d a t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e so t h a t e f f i c i e n t t e a c h e r s and f a -c i l i t i e s may be a t hand w i t h o u t too g r e a t a c o s t . The R e p o r t o f t h e Commission would seem to c o v e r p r a c t i c -a l l y every c o n c e i v a b l e c a s e , from the l a r g e c e n t r e s to the s m a l l r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . The e x p e r i e n c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s shows t h a t the combined s c h o o l s a r e p o s s i b l e i n the v e r y s m a l l l o c a l i t i e s ( 2 ) b u t , o f c o u r s e , t h i s i s a l s o where the g r e a t e s t f i n a n c i a l d i f -f i c u l t i e s o c c u r and where the i n g e n u i t y o f the s t a f f i s t a x e d to the u t m o s t . ( 2 ) C h a p t e r Jgr o f t h i s T h e s i s . 106. Questionnaires were sent to P r i n c i p a l s of f o u r Junior-Sen-i o r High schools, each being s i t u a t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t type of l o c a l i t y , as f o l l o w s : ( l ) . J u n i o r - S e n i o r Type Combined High School. of l o c a l i t y . L o c a t i o n . __ enrollment. K i t s i l a n o . R e s i d e n t i a l centre. Vancouver. (.2076) P e n t i c t o n . '-Farming centre. P e n t i c t o n . ( 389 ( Ocean P a l l s , I n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e . Ocean P a l l s . ( 88) (2) Hanaimo. ' Mining centre. Hanaimo. ( 481) Kami oops-. Railway c e n t r e . .Kami oops. ( 537) ,~,The reasons f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g J u n i o r High schools i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and t h e i r combination w i t h the Senior High s c h o o l , i n the second place, are given as f o l l o w s : the r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l l y that the people i n a l l of these centres had been edu-cated to the advantages of the J u n i o r High school, not only by means of the School Survey Report, but a l s o by school P r i n c i p a l s , Inspectors and other o f f i c i a l s . The School Boards i n a l l cases were won. over to the new Ideas because the many educational ad-vantages were made apparent"'and-becausewhile these new i n s t i -t u t i o n s would not be cheaper from a f i n a n c i a l viewpoint, they would give b e t t e r t r a i n i n g to the youth and gr e a t e r r e t u r n s f o r the money expended. The f a c t that a new b u i l d i n g was wanted and the school accommodation was not adequate at the time were also f a c t o r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g these schools. Economy has always been a gr e a t f a c t o r i n determining the type of sch o o l to be e s t a b l i s h e d and the f a c t that J u n i o r High ( l ) The same qu e s t i o n n a i r e as was sent to the American Schools-Pages ^L-H-°I, l a ) Data from " P u b l i c Schools Report" 1931-32. 107. schools were In the above cases combined w i t h s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e s that economy w i t h respect to common use of school equipment and the u t i l i z a t i o n of c e r t a i n s p e c i a l teachers was important. The r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e that i n the combined s c h o o l , as one might suppose, there i s much b e t t e r a r t i c u l a t i o n ; more economical use of s c h o o l p l a n t , as regards auditorium,, l a b o r a t o r i e s , l i b r a r y , etc. ; more economy i n u t i l i -z a t i o n of s p e c i a l teachers as i n A r t , P h y s i c a l Education; Music; a n o t i c e a b l e stimulus f o r b e t t e r s c h o l a r s h i p on the part of Jun-i o r High school p u p i l s ; a b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m and more c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y i n such an. o r g a n i z a t i o n than would be p o s s i b l e where the schools are separate, notwithstand-i n g the great extremes i n s i z e , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of• the f i v e Jun-i o r - S e n i o r High schools report that the above f a c t o r s enter i n t o the case. One school e n r o l l s 2 0 0 0 p u p i l s , another school 9 0 , y e t the advantages are apparent i n both cases, ( l ) . The l a r g e r , school w i l l have g r e a t e r scope and w i l l provide greater oppor-t u n i t i e s i n the matter of options and many forms of e x t r a - c u r -r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . That the J u n i o r High school Is adaptable to a l l types of l o c a l i t i e s was the o p i n i o n of Mr. A. S. Mathe-son when the J u n i o r High school was considered i n 1 9 2 6 . ( 2 ) . He s t a t e s t h a t : "Me b e l i e v e t h a t the J u n i o r High school i s adaptable to the s m a l l town as w e l l as to the l a r g e r c i t y and that i t s ef-(1) The K i t s i l a n o J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School,Vancouver and . T h e Ocean P a l l s - J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School, Ocean P a l l s . (2) Mr.A.S.Matheson was very l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f i r s t J u n i o r High School i n B r i t i s h Columbia at Penticton,B.C. i n September 1926.' 108. f e c t i v e n e s s i f not c o n d i t i o n a l upon elaborate expenditures We have, then, endeavoured i n P e n t i c t o n to work out a Jun-i o r , High s c h o o l scheme s u i t e d to an enrollment of 2,00 pu-p i l s and one not p r o h i b i t i v e i n c o s t . " ( l ) . This p l a n was worked out i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Senior High s c h o o l . Mr. Matheson s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t ; " l o t only were the a v a i l a b l e funds l i m i t e d but.we des i r e d to demonstrate, i f p o s s i b l e , that the J u n i o r High school movement i s not p r o h i b i t i v e i n cost and that smaller com-munities can a f f o r d to adopt the system i f care and judg-ment are e x e r c i s e d . " ( 2 ) . The disadvantages i n a l l cases seem to be dismissed w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n "none very marked." The age gap, as i n the case of the r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s of the American School p r i n c i p a l s , seems to be the main o b j e c t i o n a b l e feature.- In a l l cases t h i s i s overcome by p u t t i n g the younger p u p i l s i n a p a r t of the b u i l d i n g apart from the o l d e r p u p i l s . In two cases each school i s In a separate but a d j o i n i n g b u i l d i n g , i n two- others i n d i f f e r e n t wings of the same b u i l d i n g , i t would seem that •this p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y has been foreseen and has been care-f u l l y provided f o r i n a l l of the combined schools of t h i s Prov-ince . I t would appear from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that i n a l l centres where the p o p u l a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t o r y to the secondary school, i s under 10,000 not only i n . B r i t i s h Columbia but i n the United S t a t e s , that the combined school i s the most economical and at the same time the most comprehensive i n c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r work that can be introduced. Even i n centres where ( l ) "The P e n t i c t o n J u n i o r High School," A. 3. Matheson, B r i t i s h • ' Columbia Parent-Teacher News, -page 1, February, 1930. U ) i b i d . 109. the schools might he separate the combined school i s recommend-ed on account of the scope and.range of t h e • c u r r i e u l a r o f f e r -ings . ' • -. Acc o r d i n g to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the combined schools ex-er t an i n f l u e n c e upon one another that i s b e n e f i c i a l to both. The r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e that when housed on the same premises the Senior- High school adopts c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J u n i o r High sch o o l s , namely, more use of L i b r a r y , d i r e c t e d study and s o c i a l i z e d processes. P u p i l s seem more w i l l i n g to take p a r t i n e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r experiences i n the Middle s c h o o l . The f o l l o w i n g are mentioned; A t h l e t i c s , Club work, and p u p i l self-government. The l o n g e r school day, i t would -seem,, i s an advantage to • the Senior High s c h o o l . I t cuts down the amount of home work and a l l o w s f o r more s u p e r v i s i o n a t s c h o o l . I t makes the Labor-a t o r y periods i n Science r e a l l y worth w h i l e . So f a r as the w r i t e r can a s c e r t a i n the lon g e r day produces no i l l e f f e c t s . , I t would appear that, c e r t a i n of the sm a l l e r schools outside of Vancouver co n s i d e r the fundamental su b j e c t s are not st r e s s e d as much as f o r m e r l y . The standards i n Geography, W r i t i n g and some cases A r i t h m e t i c and S p e l l i n g , appear to be f a l l i n g . I t has al s o been the experience, of the w r i t e r that p u p i l s are weaker i n (1) Geography and that W r i t i n g g e n e r a l l y i s poorer. I t i s al s o the opinion of the w r i t e r that, t h i s need not be so and w i t h more ex-(1) C e r t a i n P r i n c i p a l s t o o l : p a r t i c u l a r p ains t o p o i n t out these weaknesses. One Vancouver Junior.High School P r i n c i p a l - s t a t e s t h a t measurements c a r r i e d out by the ^ ^ "Bureau of Measurements" Vancouver do not support t h i s view,* 110 perience and, attention to the .adaptation of the programme of studies these "weaknesses: v^il l disappear* . , From the standpoint of articulation with other school : units the .combined school has a marked advantage.Where the Junior and,Senior high schools are separate,adjustments are more dif f icul t , to make.largely because the aims and objects of each school are not rightly understood by the other.' In the Combined school,where the administration is under one head, a l l diff icul t ies during the transition period are easily v overc 0 0 1 0 a n ( l pupils enter upon the work of grade X without a break in the continuity of their courses. The holding power is greater in the combined schools,according to the replies of;the questionnaires,but no actual figures have been given.(1) It Is probably too soon to give an accurate opinion,from the standpoint of statisties,as to the holding power® of either the separate or"combined" junior high school» Homogeneous grouping,in whole or in part, is generally the practice in the junior high schools of the Province.While,in some schools, a l l of the pupils are not grouped according to attainments some,namely those of low I.Q's , are segregated. Although,none of the questionnaires indicated that homogeneous grouping in grade VII was important from the viewpoint of educational and vocational guidance throughout the secondary school period the writer believes this to be the case. In his own school pupils-are carefully graded i n September and again at Christmas and,Easter, After the Easter Vacation, forms t l ) Data secured by the Research Committee of the B.C.Teachers' Federation on the ^ Application of The Junior High School Programmel7lndieate an Increase in holding power but actual figures were not available(Report of this Committee,page 11) ; are s m t home/by the p u p i l s to the parents o u t l i n i n g the Courses.-;f'or Grade T i l l . L a t e r .on,after a choice has "been made,: these forms * signed" byrtfie p a r e n t s , are returned t o the P r i n c i p a l . In making a d e c i s i o n , b o t h parents and p u p i l s very o f t e n seek the advice of the P r i n c i p a l or Glass Teacher but i n the majority, of cases courses have been chosen appropriate t o the a b i l i t y of~the p u p i l without the a c t i v e a i d of the school o f f i c i a l s . ' In the Combined Schools there v/ould appear to be a l a r g e r percentage of men teachers a v a i l a b l e f o r e u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a - c u r r i a u l a r work So f a r as ane may judge from the questionnaires r e c e i v e d the Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School i s proving to be eminently s a t i s f a c t o r y . l t appears to be a adaptable to any type of community•. as w e l l as t o p r a c t i c a l l y any enrollment. THE COMBINED SCHOOL AND THE HEW PROGRAMME OF STUDIES  FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS The purposes, of the J u n i o r High School i n B r i t i s h Columbia • are; c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h i n the Foreword ~of the Programme of S t u d i e s . For convenience they are quoted as f o l l o w s : 1, The p r o v i s i o n of a s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l environment f o r c h i l d r e n of the e a r l y adolescent period(approximately from 12 t o 16 years of age). To c a r r y t h i s out i n v o l v e s : (a) An- enlarged and extended background of experiences. , This means t h a t there should be :(1) Enriched c u r r i c u l a V ? and courses of 'study; (2)' l a b o r a t o r i e s , shops, l i b r a r i e s , assembly-halls,gymnasiums;(3) w e l l t r a i n e d teachers, sympathetic w i t h c h i l d r e n of the e a r l y adolescent stage;(4) methods of t e a c h i n g and s o c i a l c o n t r o l j u s t i f i a b l e i n the l i g h t of what present-day psychology has c o n t r i b u t e d t o our knowledge of t h e e a r l y adolescent. (b) Ample p r o v i s i o n f o r common i n t e g r a t i n g education. The ^'constant" subjects have t h i s aim.' More p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h and the S o c i a l Studies give that common back-ground of ideas and experience necessary f o r the a t -tainment of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y , (c) Increased o p p o r t u n i t i e s both, f o r the development of l e a d e r s h i p and f o r l e a r n i n g s o c i a l co-operation and democratic c i t i z e n s h i p . This should be e f f e c t e d through ( l ) an adequate programme of e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and (2) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such school du-t i e s as,' under guidance, i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r the p u p i l to assume.. 2,. To provide, i n such matters as c u r r i c u l u m , methods of teaching and s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l , a gradual and l e s s abrupt t r a n s i t i o n from elementary to secondary education. 3. To provide e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l opportunity. 4. To e f f e c t economy of time i n education, through (a) pro-v i s i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s most favourable f o r l e a r n i n g and (b) t h a t e l i m i n a t i o n of waste which should come from the adoption of a reformed and b e t t e r adjusted c u r r i c u l u m . The f o r e g o i n g represents an i d e a l . I t s complete r e a l i z a t i o n may be impossible i n many communities on ac-count of inadequacy of resources. In p a r t i c u l a r i t may be impossible to have the k i n d of school, p l a n t which i s described above. Much may be done, however, by means of expedients, provided that, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , the J u n i o r High school is. c o r r e c t l y conceived. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of J u n i o r High schools even under c o n d i t i o n s f a r short of the i d e a l w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be found to be b e t t e r than the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l school. (1) The w r i t e r b e l i e v e s t h a t these "purposes" can be c a r r i e d Into e f f e c t more advantageously where the J u n i o r High i s com-bined w i t h the S e n i o r High, school, and f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons 1. Where the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school i s i n opera-t i o n many more, s u b j e c t s are p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the whole student body and the p u p i l may p l a n ahead so that h i s course may have an assured c o n t i n u i t y which i s not always p o s s i b l e i n the separate school system. The p h y s i c a l equipment; such as l a b o r a t o r i e s , l i b r a r i e s , assembly h a l l s , (1) Quoted from the^Foreword' of the J u n i o r High School Programme of Studies f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.(1927-1930) 1 1 2> c gymnasium, would be Impossible to provide except i n the l a r g e centres but where s i x grades are assembled the pro-blem i s more e a s i l y solved and p o s s i b l e of f u l f i l m e n t In. the average community. In the combined school there are l i k e l y to be b e t t e r t r a i n e d teachers who may be u t i l i z e d to teach the s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s more r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d i n the combined s c h o o l . The " S o c i a l Con-t r o l " and "Methods of Teaching" are more e a s i l y - c a r r i e d out where there i s continued progression from grade seven to grade twelve than otherwise where a break occurs at. the end of grade nine as i n the separate s c h o o l . 2. The i n t e g r a t i n g s u b j e c t s , E n g l i s h , S o c i a l Studies and H e a l t h are more comprehensively organized where they form a con-tinuous u n i t from grade seven to grade twelve. There i s p r o g r e s s i v e growth without a s i n g l e break. In c e r t a i n schools there are department heads and the work i s super-v i s e d to make g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y and more c o - o r d i n a t i o n from year to year. 3. In the combined school there i s dec i d e d l y more opportunity f o r cuexperimehtat.ioh.oa and greater scope f o r the p u p i l ' s i n t e r e s t s * He has a b e t t e r opportunity to get a perspec-t i v e of the work i n the upper grades. He has the same teachers over a longer p e r i o d of years whom he gets to know and who. get acquainted w i t h him. I n the combined schools, according to Spaulding; ( a s a r e s u l t of the survey of the. 114. secondary school) "Kot merely i n t h e i r arrangement f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n between the J u n i o r and Senior u n i t s but i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e i r Senior High programmes of s t u d i e s , t h e i r e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r programmes f o r both J u n i o r and S e n i o r H i g h school .grades , t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s f o r guidance and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r y programmes f o r the Senior u n i t s , the J u n i o r - S e n i o r High schools r e p o r t a p p r e c i a b l y more comprehensive o r g a n i z a t i o n s than those of the separate schools • '•' (!)•• 4. There 'are more l i k e l y to be gre a t e r c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a -r c u r r i c u l a r o f f e r i n g s i n . t h e combined.schools w i t h the l a r -ger number of p u p i l s and l a r g e r and more s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f . C u r r i c u l u m d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s more e a s i l y arranged i n the: combined Schools. In the combined school there i s more f l e x i b i l i t y i n arranging promotions and r a t e of.progress, as i l l u s t r a t e d by reference to the Hanaimo J u n i o r - S e n i o r .High s c h o o l . 5. Prom the standpoint of developing l e a d e r s h i p and democra-t i c c i t i z e n s h i p there i s more, opportunity i n the combined s c h o o l s . The p u p i l s , during a., sojourn of . s i x years, grow to become a p a r t of the system. One P r i n c i p a l expresses the s o c i a l aspect of the case as f o l l o w s : "In the s i x - y e a r i n s t i t u t i o n there i s the s o c i a l advan-tage . The average i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s opportunity to as-s o c i a t e w i t h those o l d e r than he. He l o s e s h i s embar-, rassment. S i z e appeals to the adolescent. In p a r t i c -i p a t i o n exercises s i z e of the group to the adolescent, ' t a k i n g p a r t y i a o f the utmost importance*"(g) I n grade Y I I they acquire the rudiments by means of the c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the c l u b s . The J u n i o r High Stu-(1) "The. Reorganized Secondary School 7. 1 A Summary by P.T. Spaulding. Harvard Teachers'Record,October 193S,page 175) (2) "Advantages o f the Double Six'.' W.R,Hough . (School . R e v i e w , May, 1919).*/ 115. dent's C o u n c i l i s represented j o i n t l y w i t h the Senior High school C o u n c i l . The p u p i l i n the J u n i o r High school learns, to p a r t i c i p a t e and t h i s i s c a r r i e d over more r e a d i l y where the school i s organized as one u n i t . 6. The J u n i o r High school "provides a gradual and l e s s abrupt t r a n s i t i o n from elementary to secondary education." In j u s t the same manner the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school e l i m i n a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a break between grades I X and X which otherwise might and does occur i n the. separate school u n i t s . To quote one P r i n c i p a l : "There i s constant t r o u b l e between.......... .and the J u n i o r High (1) school which we a v o i d completely." The matter of a r t i c u -l a t i n g the u n i t s of our school system i s of the utmost importance. Without proper a r t i c u l a t i o n there is. p u p i l , wastage, and l a c k of harmony g e n e r a l l y between the i n s t i -t u t i o n s concerned. : The whole question has been summed up as f o l l o w s : "The J u n i o r High school was created ito-.span Jthe':.gap between the elementary and the S e n i o r High school. The J u n i o r High school, however, has given r i s e to new d i f f i c u l t i e s . Two breaks were created. The J u n i o r High school has changed more than the Senior, which g i v e s r i s e to the f o l l o w i n g problems of a r t i c u l a t i o n : 1. The S e n i o r High school teachers do not a p p r e c i -ate, the o b j e c t i v e s of the J u n i o r High school. 2. The p u p i l s , too .frequently f i n d a change i n the . teaching methods. 3. The J u n i o r High school s t a f f does not know c o l -l e ge standards a r e h e l d over the Senior High teachers. ( I ) A V a n c o u v e r J u n i o r - s e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l . 116. 4 . The Senior H i g h school does not make adequate pro-v i s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . ' 5 . The Senior High school does not provide adequate guidance. The g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i s the p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e or mind set of the S e n i o r High school teachers......Senior High.school teachers regard the J u n i o r High school as a place where p u p i l s , f r i t t e r away t h e i r time." (1) I n the combined school these problems are reduced to a min-imum. The constant contact between the two s t a f f s brings about a sympathetic understanding of the problems and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the worth of each school which i s u s u a l l y not r e a d i l y e f f e c t e d where the schools are .under d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . ?. The economy of time and a b e t t e r adjusted c u r r i c u l u m , which f a c t o r s are both present i n the J u n i o r High school system, are more ea.sily d e a l t w i t h where the s i x years of second-ary education i s a s i n g l e u n i t . The J u n i o r High school i n the smaller centres may not achieve the i d e a l set i n the.programme of s t u d i e s . I t could h a r d l y expect to reach t h a t standard but i t w i l l , i n combination w i t h the Senior d i v i s i o n s , have a b e t t e r oppor-t u n i t y of approaching the i d e a l . A P r i n c i p a l of a l a r g e J u n i o r - S e n i o r school of f i f t e e n hundred p u p i l s w r i t e s : "Of a l l those that I have t r i e d , i n s p i t e of the minor o b j e c t i o n s that there are of the 6-6 plan, to me i t i s the most s a t i s f a c t o r y because you have a school that i s most l i k e the s c h o o l that your own i d e a l s make i t . 1 1 (2) I f i t i s stranded as a s m a l l and segregated i n s t i t u t i o n i t (1) :"The A r t i c u l a t i o n of the J u n i o r and S e n i o r High School 1. 1 Newlon (2) Quotation from a communication r e c e i v e d from a P r i n c i p a l of a Combined School i n C a l i f o r n i a , ' w i l l be under the n e c e s s i t y of g e t t i n g along w i t h s u b s t i -t u t e s and makeshifts and i t i n e v i t a b l y must as lo n g as money f o r education i s grudgingly voted by the tax payer. Con d i t i o n s a t the moment demand the g r e a t e s t advantages f o r the s m a l l e s t amount of money and the combined school does t h i s more e f f e c t i v e l y than any other o r g a n i z a t i o n that has yet. been t r i e d out. POSSIBILITIES FOE THE FURTHER EXTENSION OF  THE COMBINED SCHOOL C o n d i t i o n s as they are at present seem to r e q u i r e many economies i n education. The v a r i o u s School Boards and C o u n c i l s throughout the Province are not a l t o g e t h e r sure as to what c o n s t i t u t e s economy. These bodies p r e t t y w e l l agree that the e a s i e s t way out of the d i f f i c u l t y i s t o e f f e c t wholesale s a l a r y reductions and to e l i m i n a t e a l l i n n o v a t i o n s i n education thereby s e t t i n g the Calendar back at l e a s t twenty y e a r s . Not only i s t h i s view e n t e r t a i n e d by our M u n i c i p a l O f f i c i a l s but a l s o by c e r t a i n prominent i n d i v i d u a l s who r e c e n t l y i n a Report recommended a h a l t i n our e d u c a t i o n a l programme thereby s a c r i f i c i n g a l l t h a t has been gained during the past decade.(1) The Four Year High School w i t h a l l I t s apparent advantages and only r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d would be scrapped . The J u n i o r High School (1) Impressions gained by reading the , rKidd Report1,1 as a r e s u l t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s c a r r i e d on by the Kidd Committee duri n g the year 1932. 118. / w o u l d " s u f f e r a l i k e f a t e . Our whole programme of Secondary Edu c a t i o n would be a n n i h i l a t e d i f a l l these i l l - a d v i s e d and s e l f i s h opinions were s e r i o u s l y considered,, To date no d r a s t i c steps have been taken apart from t h e u s u a l s a l a r y c u t s . The"serviees" g e n e r a l l y have been r e t a i n e d C l ) I n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r ' the m a j o r i t y of the people of t h i s P r o v i n c e appreciate the many e d u c a t i o n a l advantages we enjoy and w i l l not r e a d i l y recognize a " n i g g a r d l y economy which s t a r v e s the c h i l d t o save a d o l l a r s (.2) Our s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n continues t o grow s t e a d i l y and -the matter of s c h o o l accommodation i s : a v i t a l problem i n many p a r t s of the Province . S c h o o l Boards have been 'postponing b u i l d i n g operations f o r some years and something ; w i l l have to be done In the near f u t u r e . In answer to a query r e g a r d i n g school accommodation a High School Inspector '.-writes: ,-. " iV. CASE 1. "High s c h o o l class-rooms i n Elementary school '.'.". building'. 1 •'.; CASE 2'J/"An e x c e l l e n t b u i l d i n g but too s m a l l f o r - . e n r o l l m e n t .Two class-rooms i n basement.lCore accommodation v / i l l , be e s s e n t i a l soon? CASE 3, "A very poor b u i l d i n g and very much over-crowded? .-'.'••." •.': CASE 4, " A l l grade I I Classes i n Elementary school b u i l d i n g 'and t h i s l a t t e r s c h o o l about a mile away'.' (3) Out. O f : s i x l o c a l i t i e s t o which the w r i t e r ' s enquiry was d i r e c t e d /conditions i n f o u r were reported as above.' No doubt s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l g e n e r a l l y * The'population, of the ( 1 $ B y ^ S e r v i c e s " i s meant.: Commercial,, T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Courses and the extended programme of the Four Year Course.*' (•;2/)nSc.hooi'.;Survey''.RepbiH;,J. page 103. (-3)"An enquiry was d i r e c t e d t o . a High School Inspector r e s p e c t i n g school '.accommodation i n h i s d i s t r i c t . fOUT"cases" quoted ranged from 4000 to 6000. More accommodation w i l l be r e q u i r e d sooner or l a t e r . When that time.Comes a middle or J u n i o r h i g h school c l o s e l y . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the .already e x i s t i n g s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l would provide f o r a l l - t h e p h y s i c a l requirements and at the same time o f f e r much g r e a t e r e d u c a t i o n a l advantages: than, any other type of b u i l d i n g programme tha i , can be adopted, A separate j u n i o r h i g h school p r o p e r l y equipped and s t a f f e d would be impossible i n the many : and v a r i e d : c o n d i t i o n s throughout t h i s P r o v i n c e . I f economy i n education i s to be the watch word of school boards ,the combined j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h school w i l l provide such economy without s a c f i f i c i n g the i n t e r e s t s of t h i s and f u t u r e generations of our adolescent youth. Any scheme which disregards the r i g h t s of our boys and g i r l s t o have the best p o s s i b l e education i n order to save money i s not an economical scheme. But: " I f a middle school w i l l give an education b e t t e r adapted to the needs of the c h i l d and f i t him to be a b e t t e r c i t i z e n , i t i s economical.. I f a middle school w i l l reduce r e t a r d a t i o n i n the grades and prevent the n e c e s s i t y of having thousands of c h i l d r e n stranded f o r two or three years i n grade seven or grade eight * i t i s economics,!. I f a middle school will'reduce--the number of p u p i l s who now enter h i g h school to remain only one y e a r , i t i s economical. I f a middle school w i l l enable a m a j o r i t y of i t s graduates ?/ho do not go to a h i g h school t o make an e a s i e r and more speedy v o c a t i o n a l adjustment , i t i s . economical. I f a middle .school'-will enable a m a j o r i t y of . I t s graduates who enter a h i g h school to enter with'a more d e f i n i t e idea of t h e i r own powers and n a t u r a l bent and w i t h a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d h i g h school o b j e c t i v e , i t i s economical. I f a middle - s c h o o l . w i l l make i t more easy f o r a town or c i t y t o u t i l i z e i t s e x i s t i n g school accommodation i t i s economical; and f i n a l l y , i f . a. middle ' school, w i l l , make; i t p o s s i b l e t o reduce- the great number of h a l f - f i l l e d grade seven and grade eight c l a s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia c i t i e s now being taught by men i n r e c e i p t of large s a l a r i e s , i t w i l l be economical 1.' (1) (1) "School Survey Report',' :page 103. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ', 120. . ' ?If the separate Middle s c h o o l w i l l produce ed u c a t i o n a l economy the middle s c h o o l i n eombination w i t h a s e n i o r h i g h school w i l l produce a m a t e r i a l as w e l l as an ednc.atxon-a l economy.. Let us see how many, l o c a l i t i e s could reasonably adopt the Combined School from, the s t a n d p o i n t of size*' I n 1951 ? B r i t i s h Columbia ,according t o the census report,had a p o p u l a t i o n .of.694,263. This t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was d i s t r i b u t e d very' largly.'although not altogether,among the C i t i e s I ncorporated V i l l a g e s and D i s t i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s of the P r o v i n c e according t o the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; (1) C i t i e s over 100,000-- • — 1 ~ ~7~. 100,000-50,000-- 0 50,000-10,000- : 2 10,000- 5 , 0 0 0 — — — — 6 5,000- 1,000 • — 1 7 1,000 and l e s s — — — — 7 ( 2 ) Incorporated V i l l a g e s over 1,000 1 . " •• under 1,000--—-13 (3) D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t i e s over 100,000—0 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 — — — 0 .••.•.;.'•-•'.•. '•' 50 , 0 0 0 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 — — — 2 10,000- 5 , 0 0 0 — — — 5 5,000- 1,000 15 -'•/\. <, 1,000 and l e s s - — - 6 •.There^'&re^tlieH-*11- ioc8,lities''' :'ranglng r'frCm : l O ,000- 5,000 ' 11 11 " 52 " n " 5,000- 1,000 ::' T n ». 26 "•'. n " 1,000 and l e s s ? This makes a t o t a l of 69 organized c i t i e s , i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s and d i s t i c t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s -under 10,000i i n p o p u l a t i o n . 121. ,43 of 'these are over 10p^ and. v / i l l possess f a i t l y w e l l •J: e q i p p e d high, s c h o o l s . Only s i x : o f these 43 l o c a l i t i e s have . j u n i o r h i g h schools, f o u r of which have been combined under one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o form a j u n i o r - s e n i o r high s c h o o l . As .school accommodation, in. the m a j o r i t y of these s m a l l e r centres i s a l r e a d y t a x e d t o the l i m i t and as we have reason t o b e l i e v e .that there, w i l l be a s t e a d y , i f .not r a p i d • growth j i n population, g e n e r a l l y throughout the Province, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , a b u i l d i n g programme w i l l have, to be adopted i n c e r t a i n of these centres at no l a t e date. In the .opinion of the w r i t e r "the Middle School, organized w i t h the'" already e x i s t i n g S e n i o r High School w i l l more adequately meet the c o n d i t i o n s than..any other type of o r g a n i z a t i o n .';'. SUffiiAEY AND CONCLUSIONS The School Survey Report p o i n t e d out the many advantages which would f o l l o w from the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Middle Schools I n t o B r i t i s h Columbia . The Report took i n t o , c o n s i d e r a t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y every type of l o c a l i t y > I t recommended the C o m b i n e d Middle and High, Schools f o r the s m a l l e r centres. The answers^o the questionnaires i n d i c a t e that i n those centres where, an e d u c a t i o n a l u n i t bomprlsing both schools has been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e s u l t s are e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ..As t h i s P rovince contains many s m a l l e i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e .Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r Is the most f e a s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e plan.' ..CHAPTER 711 A TYPE JU3O0R-SEIIt5F HIGH SCHOOL . ' • The Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School. The Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school was opened i n Sept-ember, 1 9 2 9 . Por some years there bad been aver crowding i n the elementary s c h o o l s . C e r t a i n j u n i o r c l a s s e s were housed i n the basement o f the Senior High school b u i l d i n g and i t appeared that a d d i t i o n a l accommodation would be necessary. A progress-i v e School Board was then i n charge o f educational a f f a i r s and the, J u n i o r High school programme, which had a l r e a d y been adopt-ed In Vancouver and i n one or two s m a l l e r centres, was gone i n - -to thoroughly. The School Survey Report had a l s o , i n 1925, made recommendations along t h i s l i n e i n the f o l l o w i n g terms; .. "In the C i t y of Ehmloops there i s a High school w i t h 178 p u p i l s and seven teachers. In the High school b u i l d i n g are f o u r elementary c l a s s e s , o f which one i s a grade sev-en w i t h f o r t y p u p i l s . -. In the S t u a r t Wood School, are 101 p u p i l s o f grades seven": and e i g h t , one teacher having only twenty-five of these p u p i l s . In the L l o y d George school are seventy-one p u p i l s of grades, seven and e i g h t . In the C i t y elementary schools are 212 p u p i l s of grades seven and e i g h t . I f • t h e s e were consolidated w i t h the present High school p u p i l s there would be a combined middle and High school of 390 p u p i l s . By removing the elementary p u p i l s now i n the High school b u i l d i n g , to the seats va-cated by the pupils>of grades seven and eight and by b u i l d i n g a gymnasium, manual t r a i n i n g and household science rooms on a vacant l o t a d j o i n i n g the present High school ample accommodation could be made f o r the 390 p u p i l s . As e x t r a school accommodation i s required under the present e x i s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t h i s proposed-reorgan-i z a t i o n e n t a i l s no a d d i t i o n a l expense. In view of what has already been s a i d i t i s unnecessary to set f o r t h the many ed u c a t i o n a l advantages that would f o l l o w t h i s pro-cedure . " ( i ) ( D ^ T h e , B r i t i s h Columbia School Survey Report, pages(104-165) r j L ^ * 3 ft The School Board, a f t e r g i v i n g the matter due considera-t i o n , had a by-law submitted to the people c a l l i n g f o r the es-tablishment of a J u n i o r High school :to,be.combined w i t h the a l -ready e x i s t i n g S e n i o r .High, to the end that economy of equip-ment: and;/administration might and at /the same time achieve, the r e s u l t s which, i t was hoped would f o i - ' low on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Middle school.. The by-law c a r -/ri e d w l t b ;a good m a j o r i t y and the; J u n i o r High school a d d i t i o n with'•'&;:,ne*//AudItoritHa•,|.Q.itlg•. i t to the/Senior :High was ready f o r occupation i n September, 1929, a.nd the w r i t e r , who was appoint-ed to organise the new school a,nd co-ordinate i t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the Senior High s c h o o l , began h i s d u t i e s w i t h a combined s t a f f of eighteen teachers and an enrollment of.465: pupils,. The school has now been i n oper a t i o n f o r three and one h a l f y ears. The S t a f f has increased and s t a f f changes have occurred i n the/Junior "High school as we l l ' as i n the Senior. When, the J u n i o r High school, idea was f i r s t .mooted.It 'was-apparently agreed; t h a t c e r t a i n , elementary teachers should be advanced fr-om".-the elementary s c h o o l , provided such teachers had o n e . q u a l i f i -( * i ) c a t i o n F i r s t Glass C e r t i f i c a t e s i /This afterwards proved-, to be i l l advised. To attempt to succeed i n a J u n i o r High school without any experience• of J u n i o r High/methods and w i t h the char-a c t e r i s t i c narrow and r e s t r i c t e d viewpoint of the elementary school; I s c o u r t i n g d i s a s t e r . At the moment of w r i t i n g , twenty . (1)/From/among the teachers of the Elementary Schoels ,the w r i t e r had t o s e l e c t s i x ?;ho possessed the necessary . ••'•/'q/uall^ieatlons'"...'.-" 124. teachers' compose.;- p u p i l s .are... e n r o l l e d The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the school as i t now operates w i l l ' b e discussed under the f o l l o w i n g headings:, ; . 1 . . .Housing and Equipment. - E. The Scope and Arrangement of the Programme of S t u d i e s . S.vThe arrangement of I n s t r u c t i o n , as f o l l o w s : •(e) P r o v i s i o n f o r I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . 4 . P r o v i s i o n f o r admission and promotion of p u p i l s 5. E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Guidance measures. r>7. The Duties of • a S u p e r v i s i n g P r i n c i p a l . S. Organized Committees on School Procedure. 9. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s . 10. A r t i c u l a t i o n . The Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r High.school c o n s i s t s of,two main b u i l d i n g s j o i n e d together by an auditorium, as i n the f o l l o w i n g sketch* . HOffSIifOr AKD EQ,U1PMEHT J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l A u d i t o r i u m S e n i o r High S/ehool 125. The Old S e n i o r S i g h School B u i l d i n g c o n s i s t s of f o u r classrooms, one of these a typ i n g room, a L i b r a r y w i t h s e a t i n g capacity f o r seventy p u p i l s and a Staff'room :on the.upper f l o o r . On the lower f l o o r are f i v e classrooms, the P r i n c i j j a l 5 s O f f i c e and storeroom. : I n the ..basement, . i n one wing, i s a Home Economics Laboratory . w i t h cooking Laboratory and sewing rooms as separ-ate compartments. Hie Home Economics Rooms -are each equipped -for twenty-four g i r l s so that cooking.and sewing can be c a r r i e d on at the same time. I n the other wing of the basement i s : a Science Laboratory, w i t h a Chemistry Laboratory and P h y s i c s Lab-o r a t o r y , which i s a l s o used f o r J u n i o r High- school Science. The Science Laboratory a l s o includes a weighing room, a dark room and the Science teachers' p r e p a r a t i o n room. Each Laboratory ac-commodates f o r t y - f i v e p u p i l s . In the centre of the basement, se p a r a t i n g the wings, are the h e a t i n g p l a n t and the j a n i t o r s ' q u a r t e r s . The- J u n i o r High.School B u i l d i n g has s i x rooms, three on each f l o o r and each accommodates f o r t y p u p i l s . B u i l t i n l o c k e r s are provided i n the h a l l s i n the J u n i o r High where there i s a l s o a sm a l l S t a f f room and Nurse's, room.. I n the basement, at one. end, i s an A r t room and the remaining p o r t i o n i s used f o r Manual T r a i n i n g and Sheet. Metal work. The Auditorium i s used -for general: Assembly, Music I n s t r u c t i o n and P h y s i c a l Education f o r . g i r l s . Underneath the Auditorium i s the boys' Gymnasium and a storeroom f o r odds and ends. T h i s , then, i s a general 136. p l a n of t h e f s c h o o l , l i i e basements _are--used to the f u l l e s t ex-t e n t f o r the l a b o r a t o r i e s . , There, i s , unfortunately., no p l a y , room or l u n c h room. Very,few p u p i l s , , however, remain f o r lunch as p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the p u p i l s come from, the C i t y of Kamloops. In the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r , the basements are s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r l a b o r a t o r y work. They are w e l l l i g h t e d and heated and i n -the Science and Home Economic L a b o r a t o r i e s e l e c t r i c fans a i d . i n drawing o f f the fumes and I n c r e a s i n g the c i r c u l a t i o n of air*, "ffe do not use these, l a b o r a t o r i e s , f o r teaching purposes and the p u p i l s are never there.longer than one p e r i o d or double p e r i o d i n c e r t a i n cases. There Is no waste space i n the s c h o o l . The, p u p i l s use the L i b r a r y as a study h a l l and L i b r a r y and a l l pupils, have access to i t . The Science L a b o r a t o r i e s and Commercial room a r e used by both schools as are those f o r Home Economics. . . The Auditorium serves as a classroom f o r Music, P h y s i c a l Education and o c c a -s i o n a l l y f o r l a n t e r n s i i k e work as w e l l as f o r Morning Assembly f o r the whole s c h o o l . I t would have been impossible to have given the p u p i l s of these schools the. advantages o u t l i n e d w i t h -out the combined o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 J^PJ.:„§.QQ^  ARRANGEMENT QE THE, EMSRAMMB,J3JLgrUD^:-. • -Thirty-two s u b j e c t s are o f f e r e d i n the combined school. Commencing at. grade IX there i s a rough d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made i n t o M a t r i c u l a t i o n , Commercial and Technical courses.\ahd;;:-'rthe&a W&-:-C:':. '••'• ':>^-/,;. .'/;''•".\:'• , :" ; ' V '• \ • - • ; . •. .-127. r e s p e c t i v e group^-courses are r e f e r r e d to: as A. B. and C courses. The M a t r i c u l a t i o n ; Group at t h i s stage i n c l u d e s those who may at the end of t h e Four Tears w r i t e the J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n examination as w e l l as those p u p i l s who may ;wahb/Normal Entrance or the General High School Graduation s t a n d i n g . P u p i l s who have taken e i t h e r t he Commercial or T e c h n i c a l Course i n Grade IS:may t r a n s f e r to M a t r i c u l a t i o n /Grade 2 at the end of the .year provided t h e i r standing has • .1)(eefi-:',rs;.a;tis'f^et-9ry. .'' At the end of Grade X M a t r i c u l a t i o n . ) p u p i l s " decide whether they w i l l "become" candidates f o r J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , N o r m a l Entrance or High School Graduation 1^; : The Commercial C ourse has .been organized i n accordance N '•';•• w i t h t h e , s u g g e s t e d ; o i i t l i n e i n the lew Programme of Studies. ( 1 ) • I t covers a three year p e r i o d at the eiid of which p u p i l s were expected t o r e c e i v e a J u n i o r Business Diploma * U n f o r t u n a i e i : l y the Department, of Education has decided hot' t o - issue" t h i s award and sonseguently our p u p i l s must;be contented with" the / grad i n g they r e c e i v e at the hands of our Commercial Department.. If•••such p u p i l s w i s h High School. Graduation standing they 'may choose any courses o f f e r e d i n the school to b r i n g t h e i r C r e d i t s up t o the r e q u i r e d 120-The T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Course, covers the work of the f i r s t two-, years' of the Technical: Course as l a i d "down i n the Programme of. Studies..'.'(2) P u p i l s are. encouraged to; pursue •••further'• work., i n a Technical; School o r i f t h i s :is not p o s s i b l e to complete the ' r e q u i s i t e , number of C r e d i t s f o r High School Graduation." JTJ^^'WTogV^^^-' of Studies ~jmge\l£W~, ~~ : "~ "~ ~ ~ r ~ * ~ ~ * (2)/New Programme of Studies ,page 182. . . 1 2 8 / • • .'Fig..9 ••  Scheme showing Grade - G r o u p i n g s and Method off Pup i l T r a n s f e r e n c e . 71IA 7 I I I A Mat r i c u l a t i oh [Normal E n t r a n e H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a t i o n 7 I I B V I I I B 'Jbmmefeiaii 71IC 71IIC T e c h n i c a l and 7 o c a t i o n a l I X A TXB 1X0 XA i .  ... \ Y j^-—— " X I A ' . . i Xi.1 r • • • \ S e n i o r Matrie.' I——~——" " X I B P u p i l s l e a v e s c h o o l o r t r a n s f e r t o 4 t h . y e a r o f Gommercial C o u r s e at some o t h e r I n s t i t u t i o n . P u p i l s l e a v e s c h o o l ( o r ) t r a n s f e r t o h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n group i n g r a d e XIA ( o r ) e n t e r a T e c h n i c a l s c h o o l where more a d v a n c e d . c o u r s e s are g i v e n . 129. GENERAL PLAN OP OPTIONALJ3QUR3BS JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. Grade VII--- — Grade V I I I - - . A l l imp i l s take the same subjects. - - - - - O p t i o n a l subjects i n c l u d e ; (French, L a t i n , General Science, J u n i o r Business.) Grade ± X— - - - P r e l i m i n a r y M a t r i c u l a t i o n . P r e l i m i n a r y Commercial. P r e l i m i n a r y Tech-nic a l & V o c a t i o n a l L a t i n , French, . Typing, General Science. Shorthand. Bookkeeping. French. Manual T r a i n i n g . Home Economics. Shop A r i t h m e t i c . French ( g i r l s ) Physics (boys) Elementary Mech-a n i c s . E l e c t r i c i t y . SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, Grade. X---—— L a t i n , French. Typing. Chemistry, Physics.Shorthand Bookkeeping. Spanish. Manual T r a i n i n g . Home Economics. A r i t h m e t i c ( b u s i -ness ). Mechanics (boys) E l e c t r i c i t y l b o y s ) P h y s i c s . (boys) Chemistry French ( g i r l s ) Grade XI-L a t i n , French. Chemistry Physics. Geography. Shorthand. Bookeeping. Accounting. Business Spanish. S e c r e t a r i a l . P r a c t i c e . E n g l i sh Grade X I I - - - -L a t i n , French. Chemistry, P h y s i c s . Geography. 130. (AS ARRANGED FOFTl (Based on 6 day scheme PROGRAMME OF STUDIES 5 S r o p T T P ^ S ^ l ( H ' ^ C H 0 0 L - 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 ) of 36- 55 minute minute p e r i o d s . )*(1) GRADE. 711 abc Eng l i s h -S o c i a l Studies 6 Mathemat i c s - - — — - - 6 Hy g i e ne; Phy. E d. - • — 3 Music — • 2 Ar t — — F r e n c h — * - — - - — 3 P r a c t i c a l A r t s — — 4 , U n a l l o t t e d - — - - - - - - I GRADE V I H A .Pds. GRADE V I I IB —8 p e r i o d s . # (Two languages) t E n g l i s h - - — — - - - — 7 S o c i a l S t u d i e s - - — 6 Mathemat i c s - 6 Hygiene; Phy .Ed, — 3 • M u s i e - — — — — — — 2 French--------—--3 Ar t -: --3 Gen.Science ,—2 l a t i n 3 Praetica.1 A r t s 3 (One , language) T TT IT T U T TI IT I nu TT TT TT TT T I T IT T T I I I I T T ' T TT TT TT TT TI TT I TT TT TT II TT TT I I I IT TTIT TTIT I I I TT TT IT I I IT Pds: T E n g l i s h - • 7 S o c i a l Studies 6 Mathematics--- 6 Hygiehe;Phy .Ed. — 3 Mus i c---- -—• -----2 French' •— 3 Ar t • 3 ^Gen,. Sc i e n c e — • 2 $Jun»Bus i h e s s — - - - 3 ' P r a c t i c a l A r t s - — 3 * G-RADE VIIIC Pds (No language) 1 E n g l i s h - — - -7 S o c i a l Studies-6 M athematics— ;—6 Hygiene;Phy.Ed.3 •'Music • 2 A r t — - - - - - - — 3 . Gen.Science —4 P r a c t i c a l A r t s - 4 -.,' GRADE IX A--'-. P r e l i m i n a r y M a t r i c u l a t i o n . GRADE IS B P r e l i m i n a r y Commercials En g l i s h - - — -6 S o c i a l S t u d i e s - - — 4 Hygiene;Phy.Ed. — 3 A r t — — — — --3 French: 4 # l a t i n — -—4 #. G e n . S c i e n c e - — 4 ^ B o o k k e e p i n g — - - — 4 ;**Jun. B u s i n e s s — 2 $Mathematics 6 $ Mathematics—- 6 E n g l i s h - —-—--6 S o c i a l S t u d i e s — - 4 Hygiene;Phy.Ed.—3 Typing—••-—•— -5 Short hand —•—-4 F r e n c h — - — 4 GRADE IS C• P r e l i m i n a r y T e c h n i c a l . & E n g l i s h - — § S o c i a l Studies-4 Hygiene;Phy.Ed.3 (Shop A r i t h ( B o y s ) 3 . (Art (-girls )-• -3 French or ***• Physics 4. $ Mat hematics 6 * * J u n i o r Business-2 © P r a c t i c a l A r t s -7 *(1) See e x p l a n a t i o n ,page ( ) # Try-out Courses. $ Mathematics fo IS B Bookkeeping i s an ; i n t e n s i v e ) • Course I n J u n i o r Business, "~ ' ' """"'. @ EC C P r a c t i c a l A r t s i n c l u d e Manual Training;Sheet Metal; i n c l u d e Algebra,Geometry and A r i t h m e t i c . Draughting (Boys)  ,, i s a Constant".) Cooking;Sewing;Special Hygiene Classes by School -Nurse (..Girls)-E n g l i s h - s p e c i a l s t r e s s on S p e l l i n g and the usage of .correct E n g l i s h . ***Physics c h i e f l y f o r Boys; French C h i e f l y f o r G i r l s . * * J u n i o r Business & IS C 131 PROGRAMME.OP STUDIES (AS ARRANGED FOR ICAMLOOPS" pNPOPTHIGH SCHOOL 1932-33) (Based, on 6 d a y scheme 'of 36-55 minute p e r i o d s ) ( s e e page ( GRADE XA :**J.M. ;N;;,E.;H.SrG;9 Pds, V E n g l i s h - - - - - - - - - - — 6 .. S o c i a l S t u d i e s - — - 4 • /Hygiene-----.—_____2 - A l g e b r a - - - - - - - - - - 3 Geometry — 3 Bus .Arithmetic 2 F r e n c h - - - — — — — 4 L a t i n - •—4 P h y s i c s — — — - 4 i •; Che mi s t r y - — - — - — 4 / .. GRADE XIA ;»*J>My;H.E; ;H,S.G. - E n g l i s h — - - - - - - - — - 6 S o c i a l S t u d i e s - — - 4 Hygiene-----^-—'--2 /Algebra— — - 4 .Geometry--- •—--—4 Bus . A r i t h m e t i c — — 3 , # L a t i n - — — — — - - 4 #Fr e n c h — - -,- — - » 4 ,##Ohemistry'—-— 5 ^Physics •-- 4 #Geography •—4 .GRADE XB  Commercial Pds Engl i sh —• - 6 S o c i a l Studies4 Hyg iene-------2 Typing - - - - 5 S h o r t h a n d -Bus,Arithmetic2 Bookkeeping—-4 Bus,English 3 Spanish- -4 GRADE XIB Commercial E n g l i s h 6 S o c i a l Studles4 H y g i e n e — . - - — - 2 A c c o u n t i n g - - — 5 Bus.English & Bus.Practice--4 Spanish- <5 S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e 8 if if if if if if if £ $c if if Completed if $f if if if ?j: >|; if if if if if if ^ GRADE XG  *Te c l i n i c a l Pds, E n g l i s h - — - — 6 S o c i a l Studies-4 ,'. Hygiene--——--2 Algebra- 3 Geometry — - 3 Bus.Arithmetle4 French or Physics-4 P r a c t i c a l Arts-6 C h e m i s t r y — 4 5*; if if if if if if if if if >J; if if if if if Completed ;|c if $z if if >f if if ^ ;]< if if if if if GRADE X I I ( f i n a l year of Four Year Course) J.M, I.E. H.S.G. E n g l i s h - - - - - - - — 7 S o c i a l Studies.—4 Hygiene--—•— 1 A l g e b r a - — —-4 < Geometry-—^--—-4 L a t i n - — • • -6 F r e n c h — - — - — — 6 Phys i c s — — - - - - - 5 . C h e m i s t r y - - - — — j | Ge ogr a p h y — — — —5 Note- P r a c t i c a l A r t s ; A r i t h m e t i c ; Typing* are -given , t o p u p i l s of the High School - Graduation group. J.M.-Junior M a t r i c u l a t i o n . H.E,-Normal Entrance. H.S.G,-High School Graduation. * T e c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l # P u p i l s may c3mo.se any two besides Chemistry which i s , v compulsory f o r a i l - a l s o p u p i l s may not take both physics and Geography. 132. THE ARRANGEMENT QJ? INSTRUCTION A. DepartmentalIzat1on. Departmentalized i n s t r u c t i o n should he introduced g r a d u a l -l y i n any sc h o o l system. To some extent our p u p i l s hare been prepared f o r t h i s i n grade ¥1 of the elementary school and pro-bably the same a p p l i e s i n most other centres - a p a r t i a l depart-m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n grades ¥ and ¥1. In the Kamioops J u n i o r High School d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i s somewhat advanced i n grade ¥11 owing to the previous i n t r o d u c t i o n of I t i n the elementary grades. There i s an increase a f t e r grade ¥11 g r a d u a l l y upwards through the s e n i o r grades. B. S i z e of c l a s s e s . In our school we f e e l t h a t we can teach up to 35 p u p i l s i n a c l a s s i n the J u n i o r High and 30 i n the.Senior High. At the present time, however, our average runs about 32. p u p i l s per c l a s s . The s e c t i o n s are somewhat s m a l l e r . C. The l e n g t h of School Sessions. During the f i r s t three years each day was d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t f o r t y minute p e r i o d s . Commencing 1932-33 we changed to a s i x - p e r i o d s i x day scheme which i s working our remarkably w e l l . We have thus e l i m i n a t e d the o l d type study p e r i o d which we found exceedingly u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Our periods are f i f t y - f i v e minutes i n l e n g t h ; each one, except i n A r t and P r a c t i c a l A r t s , aa?e d i -vided i n t o a r e c i t a t i o n and study p o r t i o n w i t h the teacher of the subject i n charge of the study p e r i o d . The p u p i l works 153. much "better a n d t h e teacher i s there to check, and give a s s i s t -ance i f necessary. Unless work i s assigned and checked system-a t i c a l l y the study p e r i o d i s r e a l l y more harmful:: than good f o r the p u p i l s not only do not work "but form, "bad h a b i t s of study and general c a r e l e s s n e s s . I n Bays-leal Education we use the 55 minute p e r i o d and w h i l e some might t h i n k i t too lo n g the exer-c i s e s are v a r i e d enough not to make the period irksome.'. In Husic the same a p p l i e s . There i s music a p p r e c i a t i o n , formal l e s s o n s i n reading music, community s i n g i n g and the study of musical Instruments. D. ,The Use of Standardized T'ests. Standardized t e s t s are being used more and more i n our school each year* Promotions are based on the r e s u l t s of i n t e l -l i g e n c e t e s t s as w e l l as on the r e g u l a r examinations held f o u r times each year. This past term a l l grade V I I and V I I I p u p i l s were graded on b a s i s of such t e s t s as w e l l as on examinations. Tests of mechanical a b i l i t y are given to the p u p i l s t a k i n g tech-n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l work. Standardized t e s t s are a l s o used i n the Commercial courses. Sample copies of the f o l l o w i n g were ob-ta i n e d f o r examination w i t h the idea of u s i n g them i n 1933-34:. On a l a r g e s c a l e : • . • **1 , N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Test.(Form 1-scale B.) **2,Terman Croup Test Mental A b i l i t y . ( F o r m B.) **3.stenquist Mechanical Aptitude Test. (Test 1) 4. Blackstone Stenographic P r o f i c i e n c y Test.(Form A.) 5. Rogers Test for'Diagnosing Mathematical A b i l i t y . 6. The Hughes P h y s i c s S c a l e s . 7. Rich's Chemistry Tests. ©.Whipple's High-School and College Reading Test. . These t e s t s were given to s e v e r a l c l a s s e s i n both schools. 134. Mi 'Provision f o r I n d i v i d u a l D i f ferenoes. P u p i l s on e n t e r i n g J u n i o r High, s c h o o l are graded homogen-eously. The r a t i n g of the elementary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and I..Q,.s are used as a has i s f o r grouping . ( l ) l n Havember or Dec-ember grade ¥11 p u p i l s and grade ¥111 p u p i l s are regraded to a. c e r t a i n extent. The c l a s s e s are grouped A , G, according to attainments. -•The G. c l a s s e s are given more time i n the. funda-mental s u b j e c t s and .emphasis, i s placed upon the type of i n s true t i o n given, very, l a r g e l y , f o l lowing, the suggestions l a i d down i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t : (2) 1. "A's w i l l g ain by i n s t r u c t i o n of an a b s t r a c t nature. G's w i l l g a i n by i n s t r u c t i o n , of a concrete nature. 2.. The A*s w i l l t h r i v e on comprehensive, and general questions.. The G's need d e f i n i t e and d e t a i l e d questions* 3. Assignments to A's: may take hut l i t t l e of the teacher's .time l o r the 0's the assignment must be d e t a i l e d and d e f i n i t e . 4. A n a l y z i n g and o u t l i n i n g w i l l be. of great a s s i s t a n c e to A.'a.-; such procedure i s more l i k e l y to confuse G's. 5. The A's w i l l take r e a d i l y to reference m a t e r i a l . G's are not apt to use reference m a t e r i a l . 6. The A's w i l l p r o f i t by t a k i n g notes. . The G's, i f they take notes at a l l , w i l l have to be d i r e c t e d i n advance as to choice of notes and manner of t a k i n g . 7. I n academic study the A's w i l l work on t h e i r own responsib-i l i t y ; the G's w i l l need constant s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance. '8. A's w i l l l e a r n r e a d i l y by g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . G's tepend more upon r u l e s given d i r e c t l y by the teacher,- upon, i m i t a t i o n and ' analogy. 9. The A f s i n reaching g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s through observation and i n d u c t i v e reasoning w i l l need but few primary i l l u s t r a t i o n s . . The. G's w i l l need many examples and much e x p l a n a t i o n and guidance i n order to reach a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a t a l l . 10. The A's w i l l apply the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as soon as they under-stand and c l a r i f y i t . The G's w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n mak-ing a p p l i c a t i o n s . 11. D r i l l w i l l p lay a much more prominent part i n the t r a i n i n g of G's than i n - t h a t of A's.... • (.1) The Terman Group Test of Mental A b i l i t y i s the one used by the Elementary School Principals!,' (2) This passage was taken from"Educational Psychology" by Trow, 1931. 135. 12. The teacher as c r i t i c -should extend to the A's an amiable but stubborn cynicism; to the G's sympathetic encouragement. 13. The A's w i l l ; not take k i n d l y to d r i l l and r e p e t i t i o n of any s o r t . The 0*3. seem o f t e n to s t i c k to the e x c l u s i o n of the mere I n t e l l e c t u a l phases of the work. 14. The A's a r e u s u a l l y b e t t e r a t p l a n n i n g than they are at exe-c u t i n g , the G's b e t t e r a t executing than a t planning."• Each teacher has. a copy of these recommendations and they are f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d a t S t a f f meetings. S p e c i a l groups of pu-p i l s are: given remedial work i n E n g l i s h and A r i t h m e t i c . More-over, the arrangement f o r supervised i n s t r u c t i o n ' d i i r i n g the long c l a s s p e r i o d i s used f o r i n d i v i d u a l a i d i n a l l c l a s s e s . , Promo-t i o n by subj'ect i s used to. a l i m i t e d extent but p u p i l s are r e -quired to reach a. d e f i n i t e standard i n a l l subjects g e n e r a l l y . . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the g r a d e . T i l p u p i l s receive t h e i r elemen-ta r y school t r a i n i n g i n Kamloops and are admitted to the J u n i o r High school on the r a t i n g by the elementary s c h o o l s t a f f s , as w e l l as. by. I. Q,,.s. Overage p u p i l s are taken and an.y others, who i n the opinion of the P r i n c i p a l s ' Committee., would p r o f i t by e n t e r i n g the J u n i o r High school.. W i t h i n the school, p u p i l s are promoted on the b a s i s of examinations as w e l l as on the c l a s s work of the year., -In d o u b t f u l cases the I . ^.'s. are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Promotion by groups of subjects i s also a com-mon procedure as i s also. " t r i a l u n t i l Christmas. w During May and June of each year s e l e c t i o n of Courses takes p l a c e . C o n s u l t a t i o n s are frequent between parents, p u p i l s and P r i n c i p a l i n grades T i l , T i l l and IX. 136. By the end of grade I X p u p i l s are expected to have made some d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n as to the course which they w i l l f o l l o w dur-i n g the remaining S e n i o r High school p e r i o d . Again i n grade X M a t r i c u l a t i o n i t becomes a matter of d e c i d i n g between J u n i o r M a t r i c u l a t i o n , Normal Entrance or, i n c e r t a i n cases, High School Graduation. Grade X T e c h n i c a l p u p i l s may a l s o go i n t o the t h i r d year of t h i s course i f t h e i r standing i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . A.few of these p u p i l s would normally continue t h e i r t e c h n i c a l course at some other I n s t i t u t i o n but c o n d i t i o n s do not,at the present time, a f f o r d much encouragement. The m a j o r i t y of our t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l p u p i l s leave school while a 'few remain t o complete another year i n any course which t h e i r s tanding permits them t o f o l l o w and which appeals to them, EDUCATIONAL AMD VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE In grades .VII, V I I I and I X p r o v i s i o n is. made f o r t h i s by the P r i n c i p a l and the c l a s s teachers i n the u n a l l o t t e d p e r i o d s . In grade IX J u n i o r Business and Occupations i s compulsory f o r a l l p u p i l s . A p o r t i o n of the time i s gi v e n to the J u n i o r B u s i - : ness Course as o u t l i n e d but most of the term i s given over to the study of .occupations,. I n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r t h i s i s one of the most .important Courses i n the school and should be a success anywhere when i t i s i n the. hands of a capable male Com-me r c i a l teacher. I t i s exceedingly popular w i t h and u s e f u l to the students,. The p u p i l s make extensive r e p o r t s out of c l a s s and c a r r y out i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on t h e i r own. Outside Speakers 137 are i n v i t e d to speak, from t M e to time,. I n the s t r i c t sense of the term we have no one. who' might be c a l l e d a c o u n s e l l o r . I t might be an improvement to have such an o f f i c e r . : THE. COMPOSITION 03? THE TEACHING- STAG'S /./;-There^ are,besides the P r i n c i p a l , t e n l a d y and t e n men teachers on the combined s t a f f of the Kamloops J u n i o r - Senior High School. In making-staff appointments recommendations are made* by the P r i n c i p a l t o The School .-Board•No .-teachers are \-. appointed w i t h o u t , a t l e a s t one year's experience elsewhere. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s members of the s t a f f are as f o l l o w s : S e n i o r High P r i n c i p a l Teacher No .1.: B.A TT IT Academic,Standing C e r t i f i c a t e Experience B.A.TCand.M.A.T """" — — - > 2 e 13 e .A. e 3 . "•• B.A. 4. B.A. '.-5^  M.A. 6. B.A. 7. Commereial Spec. *8. Commercial Spec. Academic Academic Academic 9 Academic 12 Academic 7 Academic 7 Academic 14 F i r s t Class 16 F i r s t Class 10 7 lU years 5 * " J u n i o r High Teacher No.1. B.A. *2 *3 • 4, *5. 6, *7, 9, 10, *11, *12, Academic Three years (Arts-) • F i r s t Class F i r s t year (Arts.) F i r s t Class 25 Academic years-(Arts) F i r s t Class Academic 4 3 B.A. Two B.A. Two y e a r s ( A r t S c h o o l ) F i r s t C l a s s 6 Three years(Art's7')' ' F i r s t Class . 14 B.A. Academic 3 F i r s t year ( A r t s ) F i r s t 6 B.Sc.CHome Economics) S p e c i a l 6 F i r s t C l a s s ( A r t s ) (Manual T r a i n i n g ) S pe c I a l 4 it TT T7 TT TT TT TT TI IT TT TT n TT TT: TT TI TI TT * These, teachers annually a t t e n d Summer School to improve t h e i r s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s ^ . 138. DUTIES OF A SUPERVISING- PRINCIPAL In a s c h o o l .the s i z e of the Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School the P r i n c i p a l ' s d u t i e s should "be mainly s u p e r v i s o r y . In the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r he should not "be expected to teach beyond three or f o u r periods per week* In s m a l l e r schools the amount of t e a c h i n g by the P r i n c i p a l w i l l be increased p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y .'The extent, of s u p e r v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n i n the classroom should be l i m i t e d to g i v i n g suggestions where' considered necessary but each teacher should be g i v e n a f r e e hand from the standpoint of methods used ',-p r o v i d i n g such methods are producing r e s u l t s . The w r i t e r does not b e l i e v e i n u n i f o r m i t y of methods. The P r i n c i p a l should n o t . i n t e r f e r e unless c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e i t . The w r i t e r r e q u i r e s each teacher t o make a statement,on a fqrm provided, of the work covered each week of the Term. By t h i s means he keeps In touch w i t h the progress made i n the v a r i o u s subjects, 1 Among the Duties c a r r i e d out by the w r i t e r , a s P r i n c i p a l of the Kamloops High School are the f o l l o w i n g : 1. To p r e s i d e at a l l meetings i n c l u d i n g the. General S t a f f Meeting h e l d on t h e F i r s t Monday of each month at which Minutes are taken by the S t a f f Secretary and f i l e d . a s w e l l a s a l l l Committee Meetings. 2. To a t t e n d a l l meetings of the School Board, ,( 3. To h o l d conferences w i t h t e a c h e r s , p u p i l s and parents. 4. To g e n e r a l l y c o n t r o l d i s c i p l i n e throughout the s c h o o l . 5. To c o l l e c t and t u r n i n to the S e c r e t a r y of the School Board c e r t a i n school Fees l e v i e d f o r t u i t i o n . 6. To organize the time t a b l e . 7. To make an i n s p e c t i o n of the school premises once a day. 8. To v i s i t each teacher at l e a s t twice a day i n the classroom, 9. To check the attendance c a r e f u l l y twice a day. 10. To c o n t r o l the r e q u i s i t i o n i n g of a l l s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d f o r the s c h o o l , 11, To make recommendations to the Board regarding s t a f f appointments. 139. ORGANIZED COMMITTEES Oif SCHOOL PROCEDURE. PERSONNEL OP COMMITTEES. General S t a f f Coram!tt-ea. Chairman - P r i n c i p a l . S ecretary-Treasurer ~ Senior Commercial Teachers. Senior High S t a f f Committee. P r i n c i p a l and Senior High S t a f f . J u n i o r High S t a f f Committee. P r i n c i p a l and J u n i o r High S t a f f . M a t r i c u l a t i o n Committee. P r i n c i p a l and M a t r i c u l a t i o n teachers only. General A t h l e t i c Committee. P r i n c i p a l . D i r e c t o r of Boys' Sp o r t s . D i r e c t o r of G i r l s ' S ports. P h y s i c a l Education I n s t r u c t o r i n J u n i o r High (Boys). P h y s i c a l Education I n s t r u c t o r i n J u n i o r High ( G i r l s ) . P r e s i d e n t of Boys' A t h l e t i c s . P r e s i d e n t of G i r l s ' A t h l e t i c s . Committee on Morning Assembly. P r i n c i p a l . V i c e - P r i n c i p a l . Committee on Te c h n i c a l and V o c a t i o n a l Education. P r i n c i p a l . Head of Science Department. Manual T r a i n i n g I n s t r u c t o r . Home Economics I n s t r u c t o r . Commercial teachers. Health. P r i n c i p a l . Teacher of Home Economics. School Nurse. M O . EXJR&.-GUBRIQULAR ACTIVITIES. The E x t r a - C u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s of the Senior High School are i n two d i v i s i o n s : A t h l e t i c and L i t e r a r y . The A t h l e t i c s are i n charge of an A t h l e t i c Committee and Include the f o l l o w i n g s p o r t s : 1. F o o t b a l l . 2. B a s k e t b a l l ( G i r l s and Boys) 3. Hockey. 4. Track ( G i r l s and Boys) Under L i t e r a r y are i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g - a c t i v i t i e s , each supervised by a member of the s t a f f : 1. Dramatics. 2. Music. 3. L i t e r a r y and Debating. 4.School Paper. In The J u n i o r High School the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s are organized i n the form of clubs .In a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g the Autumn and S p r i n g months,Track and F i e l d Sports are c a r r i e d on under the d i r e c t i o n of the J u n i o r High S t a f f . The Clubs which are now a c t i v e may be grouped as f o l l o w s : 1. A r t c l u b . (boys and g i r l s ) 2. P u b l i c Speaking and Debating 81ub. 3. K n i t t i n g and Crocheting cl u b . 4. Music c l u b . (boys and g i r l s ) 5. D i c k e n ? s dlub.(boys and g i r l s ) 6. Dramatic c l u b , (boys and g i r l s ) 7. Model dlub. 8. Draughting c l u b . 9. Home Economics c l u b . 10.Public H e a l t h c l u b . A D i s p l a y of Work i s h e l d during June of each year at which the p u p i l s of the J u n i o r High School preside .The work done d u r i n g the Club P e r i o d s as w e l l as other C u r r i c u l a r p u r s u i t s are d i s p l y e d t o the parents and others i n t e r e s t e d i n school a c t i v i t i e s , ' 141. Fig.10 so: OF m- em 5} 0;"'-'?. WITSJgSlTH 1QE 5 5 5 m a s fed TO m i #01-f /o \-/f\ 10 11 13 14 15 11 18 20 I n B t r u e t i o i i b~irh-d 142. PROVISION FOR ARTICULATION. S i n c e t h e New Programme of Studies f o r High Schools ap-peared In 1930 and the Revised J u n i o r High School Gourse was issued In September, 1932., a r t i c u l a t i o n throughout the system has been very much improved. The Report o f the Teachers 1 Fed-e r a t i o n had i n d i c a t e d c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s c i t e d by v a r i o u s . P r i n c i p a l s throughout- the P r o v i n c e . There are s t i l l , however, problems of adjustment which w i l l i n e v i t a b l y continue e s p e c i a l l y where the J u n i o r High schools are segregated i n s t i t u t i o n s and also'when p u p i l s come from non-Junior High school areas. A r t i c u l a t i n g the work of the elementary school w i t h that of the J u n i o r High school has not proved d i f f i c u l t . The end of the s i x t h grade seems to be the l o g i c a l place to make the break. The mastery of c e r t a i n t o o l s u bjects should be accomplished by t h i s time and ready f o r use i n the a c q u i r i n g of m a t e r i a l i n the J u n i o r High school. And according to rep o r t s from J u n i o r High schools there does not seem to be any complaint, p a r t i c u l a r l y when p a r t i a l d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n has been the p r a c t i c e i n grades V and V I . .The d i f f i c u l t y comes i n a r t i c u l a t i n g the work of the J u n i o r High school w i t h t h a t of the S e n i o r . The J u n i o r High school demands freedom from the S e n i o r . The l a t t e r depends f o r i t s p u p i l s upon the J u n i o r and i s j u s t i -f i e d i n making c e r t a i n demands. This d i f f i c u l t y of a r t i c u l a t i o n has been pointed out i n s e v e r a l cases but an a r t i c l e appearing under P r o f e s s o r Spaulding gives a very b r i e f account under the . 143. heading H¥hat may the S e n i o r High school demand of the J u n i o r High School." This a r t i c l e p o i n t s out very c l e a r l y the d i f f i -c u l t i e s , which are summarized as f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) 1. "The J u n i o r High school is. experimental l a r g e l y and wishes, f o r the purpose of c a r r y i n g out i t s experiments, to be f r e e from domination by the Senior High s c h o o l . The Sen- . i o r High, on the o t h e r hand, demands: s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and some semblance of method." 2. "'The J u n i o r High school accepts p u p i l s from the elementary school without question... It. expects the S e n i o r to do the same. The l a t t e r i n s i s t s upon more or l e s s f i x e d l e v e l s of achievement.": 3. "The Senior i n s i s t s upon s e l e c t i o n . " 4. "The teaching methods of the Senior are l o g i c a l ; the J u n i o r High p s y c h o l o g i c a l . " 5. "The f a i l u r e of the J u n i o r High to have, d e f i n i t e standards handicaps the S e n i o r High." 6. "The J u n i o r High t h i n k s every p u p i l should have the oppor- -t u n i t y of going as f a r as he can; the Senior High i s s t i l l -not so sure t h a t this, i s b e n e f i c i a l to the stat e or the p u p i l , " . 7. "The Senior High does not understand .and l o s e s patience w i t h the J u n i o r High and the opposite c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s . " The problem of a r t i c u l a t i o n can be solved i n the smaller l o c a l -i t i e s when one P r i n c i p a l and one s t a f f has the work organized. In the combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High school, as the w r i t e r has found i t , these misunderstandings are smoothed over by the con-s t a n t a s s o c i a t i o n of the two s t a f f s . A mutual a p p r e c i a t i o n of values i s e s t a b l i s h e d and a c o n t i n u i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s main-tained which i s w e l l nigh impossible i n the separate sc h o o l s . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The Kamloops J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School i s an example-of a Combined School i n one of the s m a l l c i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. (1')^Proceedings of the T h i r t e e n t h Annual Meeting of the ; Department of Secondary-School P r i n c i p a l s ' / o f the N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d at Cleveland ,Ohio, February 1929. (pages 286-299 ), The w r i t e r has o u t l i n e d i n a general way the p l a n said o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s c h o o l . He does not c l a i m that t h i s school f u l f i l s a l l the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School . But i t a t l e a s t represents a s a t i s f a c t o r y working model f o r an average school enrollment. The advantages,which are claimed by the w r i t e r and others who have had some experience w i t h t h i s type of o r g a n i s a t i o n , are many and would be impossible of achievement i n the sma l l e r l o c a l i t i e s where the two u n i t s are separate and under d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s 145. CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSION. • ' . Throughput-tne/coiirse.o 'Of t h i s Thesis i t has been assumed by the w r i t e r t h a t Secondary Education comprises both the Middle and Sen i o r school stages. In the most progressive European Countries the Middle School has been long e s t a b l i s h e d and very h i g h l y developed. W i t h i n recent years other European State s have r e v o l u t i o n i z e d t h e i r e d ucational systems and have made ample p r o v i s i o n f o r the many phases of the secondary s c h o o l . I n many cases the Middle School i s the i n t r o d u c t o r y stage of the complete secondary school c y c l e , t h e whole covering a p e r i o d from s i x t o nine y e a r s . The: who i e " 1 scheme ; might .correspond t o a w e l l organized s i x - y e a r j u n i o r - s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l combination of which the f i r s t three years i s the middle or f i r s t stage of the c y c l e and the l a s t three years the upper school or second stage of the c y c l e . The success of the Middle School i n Europe provided an i n c e n t i v e f o r the I n t r o a u c t i o n and pro g r e s s i v e growth'"of. the J u n i o r High School i n America , In the U n i t e d States the ever i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t In psychology and.pedagogy has.tended to produce s u i t a b l e adaptations of the. j u n i o r h i g h school,both i n form and content, to meet the ever changing s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the c o u n t r y , I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h e r e the j u n i o r h i g h school, has only j u s t begun,an attempt has been made t o p r o f i t by the mistakes as w e l l as by the successes which have been experienced not only i n the U n i t e d States but i n Europe as w e l l . 146. The w r i t e r has t r a c e d the growth of the J u n i o r High school i d e a i n the U n i t e d States from the time of i t s i n c e p t i o n u n t i l the present day. He has pointed out that the o r i g i o n a l suggestion was that of a middle school combined w i t h the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . The secondary school p e r i o d of s i x or seven years was then recognized and e s t a b l i s h e d . L a t e r , i n the l a r g e r centres p r i n c i p a l l y , t h e j u n i o r h i g h school became d e f i n i t e l y expressed-as a three-year i n s t i t u t i o n i n c o r p o r a t i n g the l a s t two grades of the elementary school w i t h the f i r s t grade of the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . L o c a l c o n d i t i o n s required- other grade-groupings but the three-year scheme has been g e n e r a l l y regarded as a standard. In the s m a l l e r c i t i e s and communities the idea of a secondary school of s i x years subdivided i n t o j u n i o r and s e n i o r d i v i s i o n s has commended i t s e l f . This type of school i s f a m i l a r l y known as a J u n i o r - S e n i o r h i g h school or s i x year school. S t a t i s t i c s , based on government r e p o r t s as w e l l as on surveys made by prominent e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s , show c o n c l u s i v e l y that the Combined.Junior-Senior High School has become the most popular as w e l l as the most e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the average community throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In supporting t h i s evidence the w r i t e r has accumulated data from a group of P r i n c i p a l s . The opinions of S t a t e Superintendents of p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the States have been quoted. F i n a l l y , The"Summary,Tof P r o f e s s o r F.T.Spauldings Survey of the Reorganized Secondary School has been r e f e r r e d to quite f r e q u e n t l y . The conclusions as to the advantages and economies 147. t h a t can be e f f e c t e d i n the Combined Ju n i o r - S e n i o r High fc>ee*J o r g a n i z a t i o n have most e n t h u s i a s t i c and d e f i n i t e , , In B r i t i s h Columbia,where a few of the Combined schools have already been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e p o r t s from P r i n c i p a l s and other o f f i c i a l s are no l e s s impressive* The w r i t e r has attempted to p o i n t out that- i n t h i s Province where the p o p u l a t i o n i s concentrated i n small cities;~and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the 6ombined school i s an i d e a l u n i t combining economy i n a l l i t s various aspects w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . In Chapter V I I the w r i t e r has I n d i c a t e d the p l a n and ope r a t i o n of h i s own school-the Kamloops Ju n i o r - S e n i o r High School. Apart from the advantages so f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d to a school of t h i s type o f f e r s u n l i m i t e d opportunity f o r experimentation .Although t h i s school has been i n operation f o u r years we are c o n s t a n t l y t r y i n g out new ideas and t h e o r i e s not only w i t h regard to o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n but a l s o w i t h respect t o methods of teaching and c l a s s room management. I t i s the w r i t e r ' s hope that some measure of success has been a t t a i n e d and that the Combined J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School has not merely j u s t i f i e d i t s existence but has made a r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the educational l i f e of t h i s community. 148. B;IBI,IQ,GBAPHY Brooks ,FvD,.,••: "-Tile Psychology of Adolescence'. 1; Houghton M i f f l l n C o . . C h i c a g o . — — 1929.^ it The roost a u t h o r a t i v e t e x t on the "P'/roblems of Adolescence which has yet appeared.The x 'Author•has. made a very thorough survey of :•'•,,/;";/ ''•••'.;,• the whole' f i e l d of Adolescent -.-Psychology sm& :,'•;.';.. has placed at the end. of each chapter, a '••"-.'"-':.-." s e l e c t e d l i s t , of references covering every ^ phase -of h i s s u b j e c t . Briggs ,T.II.•'.,. "The J u n i o r High School',' - Houghton M i f f l i n ; Co..,/.Boston, New. YorkTl920, One off the e a r l i e r t e x t s ' o n the Ju n i o r High ••.."••' - s c h o o l , I t I s a study of the development'.•of. the J u n i o r High school,claims and' o b j e c t i o n s , .'-. o r g a n i z a t i o n , curricula,methods of te a c h i n g , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u i l d i n g s t e t c . , Cloyd, D,ES•, "Modern Education In Europe and the Orient'.' The 'MacMillan- Co., New Y o r k — - - — — 1 9 1 7 . : An I n t e r e s t i n g account of the educational systetos'-of V-Sur'6pean Countries as w e l l as China and Japan. The .Author surveys• the • p r a c t i c a l workings of the s e v e r a l school systems . The.book does not i n d i c a t e the ' . s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s x i n d e r l y l h g any p a r t i c u l a r phases, of education. Bonnet, C v , "The/Junior High: School 1.; -Warwick and York, B a l t i m o r e ; . — — -1926 A f a i r l y d e t a i l e d account of the Ju n i o r High school movement .The au t h o r ' o u t l i n e s c u r r e n t ' p r a c t i c e s i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , , Cubberley ,S,P."An T n t r a d i t c t i o n to -the Study of Education'.' Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York,8hIcago-1925. A comDrehensive t e x t on, the_.whole' broblem .of -' Secondary Education In the un i t e d S t a t e s . , R e a l l y ' a" h i s t o r y of the growth and development . of Secondary Education, The Author i s a wid e l y recognized a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s . p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . 149. / Davis ,C.O., " J u n i o r High School Education'] • World Boole On. t Yonlcers-on-Hxidson.Hew York-1926. One of the'-"best known and most w i d e l y read hooks on the J u n i o r High Sehool.Many suggestions are; .made by the author regarding the v o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the J u n i o r H i g h s c h o o l . The author beliesres that the J u n i o r High school Is an inseparable. t>art o f the American School System. ; Dobbins; C.S. "The Development of the J u n i o r High School .. i n B r i t i s h Columbia.' U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Library.,Seattl-e-19B9'.: An;...M. A, The s i s out l i n i n g the e a r l y stages . of the J u n i o r High School movement i n , ;. B r i t i s h Columbia. •.••''•••' 'H.R. Douglass ,' T0rgahiz8,tion and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of ^ Secondary.. Schools'; G-inn and Co-.., Boston,lew York ';.-, — — - r - 1 9 2 8 . The; Author has assumed t h a t Secondary ; Education i n c l u d e s both the Junior and the Senior High School. The problems of Secondary Education .are the problems of both. I t contains .many u s e f u l references!,, H.R. Douglass, "Modern Methods i n High School Teaching',' Houghton M i f f l i n Co. ^ B o s t o n , Hew York.----1926. ! : ;The. book o u t l i n e s r t h e t a s k of a d j u s t i n g ; .,' education t o the needs of the Adblesceht'i A text, covering the hewer forms of te a c h i n g .technique. -Tnglis , A.. ""Principles'-of Secondary Education'.' Houghton. M i f f l i n Co.. j.BostonVlew Y o r k — — 1 9 1 8 A very, comprehensive t e x t i n d i c a t i n g the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g secondary education. The author.aims t o show that the m a t e r i a l s of the secondary school stage when s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d i n . t h e school,as a--social i n s t i t u t i o n , p r o d u c e t h a t a l l around development of character so e s s e n t i a l i n the c i t i z e n of today... 150, Johnston, C H . ) Newlon ,J.E. ("Junior-Senior High. School Admin i s t vat ion? P i c k e l l E.G. ) " S c r i b n e r s , Hew York. : 1922 This t e x t discusses the problems p e c u l i a r t o the s i x - y e a r s c h o o l . I t suggests P l a n s of school o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the s m a l l community. Koos,L.Y.... "The J u n i o r High School? Ginn and Co., Hew York. 192,7, One of the best books on t h e " J u n i o r High ••..:r s c l i b h l i . Eandel, I . - L . , " H i s t o r y of Secondary Education? Houghton M i f f l i n Co.,New York ,Boston,—1927. One of the best known t e x t s on the h i s t o r i c a l as_jpect of education, Nitobe,Inazo.,"Japan,Some Phases off her Problems and Development."' Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons,New York. 1931. A v e r y thorough account of Japan and the Japanese from the standpoint of a b r i l l i a n t Japanese student. The book i n d i c a t e s the many problems- of i t s people i n t h e i r s o c i a l , . p o l i t i c a l ^ e c o n o m i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l e v o l u t i o n , Pechstein,I.A."The Psychology of the J u n i o r High School and P u p i l ? McGregor A . L . , Houghton M i f f l i n Co., New York,Chicago.1924. The f a c t s of adolescence are presented i n t h i s book. These f a c t s are then a p p l i e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of such subjects as supervised study,homogeneous g r o u p i n g , s o c i a l r e c i t a t i o n , e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and guidance. Roman F . W . "The New Education i n Europe? E.P.Dutton and Co., New York,L o n d o n — 1930. The best t e x t off recent date on the h i s t o r y of European Education. The w r i t e r has " I. many years i n a c t u a l contact w i t h the school systems i n a l l the important c o u n t r i e s . 151. Putnam, J.H.,"Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h ana Columbia? Weir, CM. B.C.Government P u b l i c a t i o n 1925. An exhaustive survey of the e d u c a t i o n a l system of the Province as i t was i n 1925. The w r i t e r s i n d i c a t e chapter by chapter the p o i n t s at issue and make many and v a r i e d suggestions as to how the system may;- be improved. Gates A . I . "Psychology f o r students of Education? The MacMillan Co., lew Y o r k , — 1930. One of the best t e x t s f o r teachers that has been p u b l i s h e d t o date. I t avoids d e t a i l s and t e c h n i c a l i t i e s . I t s general t r e n d i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r a t h e r than academic. • Sa n d i f o r d P."Comparative Education? J.M.Dent and Sons,Ltd., London and Toronto 1927. This book contains s t u d i e s of s i x e d u c a t i o n a l systems of s i x co u n t r i e s of Europe, Each country r e c e i v e s due emphasis at the hands of an e x p e r t . I t i s an a n a l y s i s of the systems t o show the Various f o r c e s t h a t have been at work t o produce the type of c i v i l i z a t i o n p e c u l i a r t o each country. Spaulding,F.T."The Small J u n i o r High School? Har^mrd'/Hhlversitytpress^ Cambridge,Mass ,, 1927. , A Study of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and L i m i t a t i o n s "H of the J u n i o r High school i n the small centre, ! I t contains the r e s u l t s of a survey of a number of s m a l l schools i n the Hew England S t a t e s . He suggests the procedures p r a c t i c a b l e i n the small s c h o o l , T outon,F.C,"Junior High School Procedure? and S t r u t h e r s ,A.C , Ginn and Co, , Hew York,Boston- 1926. This book o u t l i n e s the best procedures i n school o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . 152. Van Denburg J.K,"The J u n i o r High School Idea'.1 Henry Ho l t and Co., Hew York • 1922 One of the e a r l i e r t e x t s on the J u n i o r High School i d e a . The chapters on the p r o j e c t method,the s o c i a l i z e d r e c i t a t i o n , p u p i l self.government and the use of examinations are very h e l p f u l . Trow,W.C, "Ed u c a t i o n a l Psychology'.' Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston,Hew York-1931. One of the l a t e s t and most comprehensive t e x t s on E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology.The Chapters on Intelligence,Emotions and P e r s o n a l i t y are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . PERIODICALS Bassette ,A.S. " J u n i o r High Schools i n Small Cities'.' American E d u c a t i o n a l D i g e s t , May 1927, Bristow.W.H. "Reorganization of Secondary Education Under State Supervision'.' School L i f e , V o l XIV.,Ho 9. May 1929. . Douglass,H.R. " P o s s i b i l i t i e s In The Six-Year School f o r The Small Town'.' Ed u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , Jan. 1923. Davis, CO., "Our J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the J u n i o r High School'.' School Review, March 1927. Counts ,G-.C., "The R e l a t i o n of Creative Education to the Science of Education i n Foreign Schools'.' Department of S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e , O f f i c i a l Report, Cleveland, Ohio, Feb., 1929.'. Ferguson,A.W., " A r t i c u l a t i o n of the J u n i o r and Senior High School'.' School Review, Sept,, 1923, F e r r i s ,E.H., "Wide V a r i a t i o n s i n P r a c t i c e i n Small J u n i o r High Schools',1 School L i f e , June 1927. F o s t e r , J.M. " J u n i o r High Schools i n V i l l a g e s " Education, V o l . 37. Gaumitz,¥.H,, " A r t i c u l a t i o n between the J u n i o r and Senior High School'.1 School L i f e , V o l . X I I I Ho.6 Feb.,1928 Hough,W.R., "Advantages of the Double Six'.' School Review, May 1919. Kandel I.L., "The State and Education i n Europe'.' Teachers'College Record, May 1930, Lyman,R.L., "The J u n i o r High Schools of Kansas City',' School Review, March 1928. Matheson,A.S ., "The P e n t i c t o n ^ J u i i i o r o H i g h School'.' Organ of the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. February,1930.(Parent-Teacher Hews). S a d l e r Michael','Progress and P i t f a l l s i n Secondary Education'.' School and S o c i e t y , A p r i l 1930. Simmonds , J . "The Six-Year School of Lewiston,Idaho'.' E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Supervision'.' V o l 2., 1916. Spaulding,F.T."The Reorganized Secondary School'.' The Harvard Teachers'Record,Vol2.Ho.4. October ,.1932. Spaulding,F.57."What May the Senior High School Demand of The J u n i o r High School? B u l l e t i n . o f the Department of Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s , of the n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,March 1929 Pub. at Cleveland, Ohio, Switzer,C .F., "Housing Grades Seven t o Bwelve'.' Education, 44. November 1923., Unzzcker,S ,R."TThat S i z e J u n i o r High School'.' School Review, Ho.36, May 1928. Whiting,E.V,, "The Six-Year Schools i n Cleveland'.' School Review, A p r i l 1929. BULLETIHS AND PROGRAMMES OF STUDY Lamb A.S., "Education i n Scotland" B u l l e t i n p ublished by S c o t t i s h Education Department. Blackwood and Sons,Edinburgh and London. 154. (2) "Recent Development of Secondary Schools In England and Wales'.1 Board of Education Pamphlet,Hb. 50. pub l i s h e d by H.M.Stationery O f f i c e at A d a s t r a l House ,Kingsway,London. (1927) (3) "The Hadow Report and After'.' n a t i o n a l Union of Teachers,Hamilton House,Mabledon Place,London,W.C.I. 1929) (4) "An I n t r o d u c t i o n to The Study of Education i n England and Wales'.' A Handbook f o r Students, Pub. by The Hew Education Fellowship,London 11 T a v i s t o c k Square W.C.I. (1931) (5) "The Twenty-Ninth Annual Report of the Vancouver C i t y Schools'.' Pub, by The Board of School Trustees, C i t y of Vancouver. (1931) (6) "The A p p l i c a t i o n of The Programme of Studies f o r The J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia?(1931} B u l l e t i n i s s u e d by O f f i c e of Teachers'Federation., 614-616 C r e d i t F o n c i e r Building,Vancouver, B.C. (7) "The B u l l e t i n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Board of He a l t h " . S p e c i a l Census lumber. March 1932, Vol.2 Ho,5. P r o v i n c i a l Dept. of S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a . B.C. (8) "fhe Programme of Studies f o r the High and T e c h n i c a l Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia". P u b l i s h e d by the Department of Education , V i c t o r i a B.C, (1930) (9) "The Programme of Studies f o r J u n i o r High Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia? (1927-1932) V i c t o r i a ,B.C. (10) "The J u n i o r High School Manual f o r the State' of Washington? Pub. by State Dept.of Education at Olympia ,Washington. (1931) (11) "Ohio High School Standards? Prepared by the D i r e c t o r of Education, Columbus,Ohio. (1929) (12) "High School Manual? State of Maine,' August a, Maine. 1929) (13) "A Manual For Secondary Schools? State of Hew Jersey, Trenton, 1932. (14) " O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Junior'and Senior High Schools? State of M i s s o u r i , Dept of Education, 1927). (15) "Curriculum f o r Secondary Schools? State of Minnesota,Dept. of Education, St P a u l , Minnesota , 1931). 155. "Courses of Study and Curriculum O f f e r i n g s i n J u n i o r High Schools I n Hew York State? State Dept .- of Education, Albany, HewYork. (1931) "Status of the J u n i o r High School P r i n c i p a l ? B u l l e t i n Ho.18 Education O f f i c e , Dept, of Interior",Washington,D,G .(1930) "The R u r a l J u n i o r High School? B u l l e t i n Ho.28. Education O f f i c e . D e p t , o f interior,WashTngton, D.C. (1929; "The R u r a l High School? B u l l e t i n , Ho .10. Education Office,Dept. of I n t e r i o r , Washington, D.C, (1925) " B i e n n i a l Survey of Education i n The U n i t e d States 1928-30?: B u i 1 e t i n ,Ho.20. Education Office.Dept. of I n t e r i o r , Washington, D.C. (1932) " B i e n n i a l Survey of Education i n She U n i t e d S t a t e s " or " S t a t i s t i c a l Summary of Education"(1925-26) B u l l e t i n Ho, 12. Education Office,Dept. of I n t e r i o r , Washington, D.C. .(1928) Communications from the State Superintendents of Education have been acknowledged i n D i v i s i o n 2, Chapter IT. Communications from the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education have been acknowledged i n Chapter:'T, 

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