UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Virgil and youth Loch, Margaret Stevenson 1933

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" V i r g i l and Y o u t h " T h e s i s p r e s e n t e d f o r the D e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f A r t s b y M a r g a r e t S t e v e n s o n L o c h , B . A . Department o f C l a s s i c s . e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O c t o b e r , 1933. 1. Table of Contents. Pages. 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 - 4 2. Hisus and Euryalus 4 - 1 5 3. P a l l a s 1 5 - 2 3 4. LaUBUs . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 - 2 9 5. C a m i l l a 29 - 36 6. Ascanius . .. . . . ... . 3° ~ 4 5 7. Miscellaneous . . . . 45 - 5 4 S e l e c t i o n from Eclogues 4 5 - 4 7 L a v i n i a 47 S i m i l e of the Top . . . . . . . . . . . 48 - 49 Pandarus and B i t i a s . . . .' 49 - 5 1 Dares and E n t e l l u s 5 1 - 5 2 M a r c e l l u s 52 - 54 8. Conclusion ^4 - 57 V i r g i l and Y o u t h . I t has been 3 a i d t h a t most p e o p l e , when aslced to quote V i r g i l ' s b e s t l i n e , w o u l d g i v e t h i s ; "sunt l a c r i m a e reruni et men tern m o r t a l i a t a n g u n t . " I t i s a l i n e w h i c h has c a p t u r e d the i m a g i n a t i o n o f many modern p o e t s , among them W o r d s w o r t h , Matthew A r n o l d , and T e n n y s o n . I t i s spoken by V i r g i l ' s h e r o Aeneas as he gazes up at w a l l p a i n t i n g s i n the i n t e r i o r o f a temple to Juno e r e c t e d by P h o e n i c i a n D i d o on the N o r t h A f r i c a n s h o r e . G r e a t h a d been the T r o j a n ' s amazement a t f i n d i n g d e p i c t e d t h e r e the s t o r y o f h i s c i t y ' s d o w n f a l l and t h e i m m o r t a l deeds o f h e r h e r o s . As he s t a n d s s c a n n i n g the m a t c h l e s s w o r k ; o f a r t , t h e r e c o m e - b a c k to h i s m i n d v i v i d memories o f the h o r r i b l e e x p e r -i e n c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h he had p a s s e d s i x y e a r s e a r l i e r . T h e r e was borne upon him a f r e s h an overwhelming sense o f b e r e a v e -ment. W i t h t e a r s i n h i s e y e s , he u t t e r s t h e s e words i n a . m o u r n f u l t o n e : " T e a r s a r e to human s o r r o w g i v e n , h e a r t s f e e l f o r m a n k i n d . " 1. Even the P h o e n i c i a n s had h e a r d o f T r o y ' s m i s f o r t u n e a n d , when e r e c t i n g a temple i n t h e i r new home, took the o p p o r t u n i t y o f e x p r e s s i n g sympathy f o r t h e i r former n e i g h b o r . 1 . T r a n s l a t e d by S i r C.Bowen, c i t e d by T y f e l l , " L a t i n P o e t r y " P . 1 4 6 . A 2 The " l a c r i m a e r e r u m " e x p r e s s e s a d e q u a t e l y t h e m e l a n c h o l y •which h a s "been o b s e r v e d by s c h o l a r s t o p e r v a d e V i r g i l ' s work. I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a j o y o u s s h o u t o f t r i u m p h r i n g i n g t h r o u g h h i s m a s t e r p i e c e , 4 * ^ h e l < A e n e i d " , t h e r e a r e u n m i s t a k a b l e s i g n s o f the p o e t ' s s e n s i t i v e n e s s to the p l a i n t i v e n o t e w h i c h n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y accompanies a t r i u m p h a l c r y . " A l l h i s emotions seem t o have f u s e d o r m e l t e d i n t o t h a t i m p e r s o n a l and i n d e f i n a b l e m e l a n c h o l y , the sound o f w h i c h s i n c e h i s day has grown so f a m i l i a r i n our e a r s , w h i c h i n v a d e s the s a n e s t and the s t r o n g e s t s p i r i t s , and seems t o y i e l d t o n o t h i n g except s u c h a l o v e , o r s u c h a f a i t h , as can g i v e or p r o m i s e h e a v e n . " The. t r a g i c s i d e o f V i r g i l ' s work i s e v i d e n t even i n the s t o r y o f A e n e a s . I t i s o n l y a f t e r f a c i n g t h e d e e p e s t d i s -a p p o i n t m e n t s - log's" o f w i f e , d e a t h o f f a t h e r , the s c o u r g e o f p e s t i l e n c e , s h i p w r e c k , the d i s l o y a l t y o f comrades - t h a t t h e T r o j a n h e r o i s a b l e to f u l f i l l h i s d e s t i n y . Y e t t h e p o e t must o f n e c e s s i t y endow hini w i t h a w i l l o f i r o n and a c e r t a i n amount of immunity to t h e sorrows o f l i f e , f o r i s he n o t the t r a d i t i o n a l f o u n d e r o f the Roman s t a t e ? . W h i l e Aeneas i s V i r g i l ' s most g o d - l i k e c h a r a c t e r , he i s a t t h e same t ime h i s l e a s t human. T h e r e f o r e i t i s t o numerous m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s we t u r n when we w i s h t o see most c l e a r l y the p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n to m a n ' s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t f a t e . 1. M y e r s , " E s s a y s C l a s s i c a l " 3 I t seems t h a t V i r g i l l a v i s h e s h i s sympathy upon t h e p o r -t r a i t u r e o f young w a r r i o r s s l a i n i n b a t t l e . Such t e n d e r r e g a r d has he f o r t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e y o u t h s t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s reminded more t h a n once o f the s i m i l a r i t y "between V i r g i l ' s a t t i t u d e toward y o u t h and t h a t o f J e s u s o f N a z a r e t h . T h e r e i s the same c o m p a s s i o n a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f y o u t h ' s f o o l - h a r d i n e s s , a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , an u n w a v e r i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a l l t h a t i s b e s t i n i t . The p o e t e x p r e s s e s e a r n e s t l y the d e s i r e t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e memory o f c e r t a i n y o u t h f u l c h a r a c t e r s s i m p l y f o r t h e sake o f r e m i n d i n g f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f t h e i r b r a v e d e e d s . But t h e r e i s a n o t h e r and d e e p e r r e a s o n f o r h i s f r e q u e n t a l l u s i o n t o t h i s t y p e o f c h a r a c t e r , n a m e l y , a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d . What r e l a t i o n have gods t o man i f t h e y a r e p o w e r l e s s to p r e v e n t the p o u r i n g f o r t h of b e a u t i f u l young l i v e s on t h e g r i m f i e l d o f b a t t l e ? . Is t h e r e some omnipotent P u r p o s e u n d e r l y i n g t h e U n i v e r s e w h i c h g u i d e s the d e s t i n y o f each i n d i v i d u a l ? . Is man r e p a i d f o r b e i n g v i r t u o u s ? ., One f e e l s t h a t i t i s s u c h p e r p l e x i n g q u e s t i o n s as t h e s e w h i c h i n t r i g u e V i r g i l ' s m i n d , as i n d e e d t h e y have i n t r i g u e d the minds of a l l t h i n k i n g p e o p l e e v e r s i n c e . In s h o r t , he f e l t the m a s t e r y o f d e a t h . We do n o t f e e l t h a t our p o e t has s o l v e d the m y s t e r y e i t h e r t o h i s own s a t i s f a c t i o n or to o u r s , but he s u c c e e d s i n d o i n g a g r e a t e r t h i n g - b r i n g i n g the r e a d e r to a mood o f p e n s i v e t h o u g h t f u l n e s s and s e n d i n g h i s mind g r o p i n g a f t e r a s o l u t i o n to some o f the w o r l d ' s most t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g p r o b l e m s . 4 T h e r e a r e f o u r d i s t i n c t e p i s o d e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h r e e o f t h e t w e l v e books o f ^ $ h e ' c A e n e i d " , a l l o f them d e v o t e d to y o u t h f u l c h a r a c t e r s , w h i c h a f f o r d e x c e l l e n t examples o f the p o e t ' s s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o the p a t h o s o f y o u t h . When c a r e f u l l y examined, t h e y r e v e a l , not o n l y V i r g i l ' s i n t e r e s t i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s p r o b l e m s , b u t a l s o h i s a b i l i t y to u n d e r s t a n d the s o u l of y o u t h . He u n d e r s t a n d s a l l the weak-n e s s e s to w h i c h young p e o p l e a r e s u b j e c t - c a p r i c i o u s n e s s , t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s , and l o v e of p r a i s e . T e t he sees beyond these f a u l t s t o the d a u n t l e s s h e a r t w i t h i n . B e c a u s e t h e s e e p i s o d e s d i s c l o s e a l l t h e t e n d e r n e s s of t h e p o e t toward c h i l d h o o d and e a r l y manhood and womanhood, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f them makes an i d e a l b a s i s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s u b j e c t i n h a n d . The f i r s t o f the e p i s o d e s r e f e r r e d to above c o n c e r n s two young T r o j a n w a r r i o r s , N i s u s and E u r y a l u s by name, who h a d a r r i v e d s a f e l y in I t a l y w i t h Aeneas and h i s p a r t y . Some two h u n d r e d and s e v e n t y - f i v e l i n e s o f Book IX a r e s e t aside t o r e l a t e t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e y underwent i n c a r r y i n g out a scheme to cut t h r o u g h the enemy's camp. V i r g i l m e n t i o n s the two young men i n an e a r l i e r book as t a k i n g p a r t i n the games h e l d at the tomb o f A n c h i s e s . T h i s e a r l i e r i n c i d e n t i n the l i v e s o f the two young men g i v e s some h i n t as t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s and i s o f i n t e r e s t i n i t s e l f , t h o u g h V i r g i l does n o t c o n n e c t i t d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e e p i s o d e i n Book I X . (1) (1) T y r e l l s u g g e s t s t h a t Book^fTwas added as an a f t e r t h o u g h t to g i v e symmetry to t h e whole work. T h i s w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r the d i s c o n n e c t i o n . 5 The two were c o m p e t i n g i n a f o o t r a c e . N i s u s was w e l l i n t h e l e a d , when he s u d d e n l y s l i p p e d and f e l l to the g r o u n d , l o s i n g a l l chance of w i n n i n g . In t h i s r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e p r e d i c a m e n t , he d i d not f o r g e t h i s c l o s e f r i e n d , E u r y a l u s , who was h o l d i n g t h i r d p l a c e i n the r a c e . He d e l i b e r a t e l y pushed h i m s e l f i n f r o n t o f the r u n n e r who was s e c o n d , c a u s i n g the l a t t e r t o f a l l , and g i v i n g E u r y a l u s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f w i n n i n g . N i s u s ' t r e a t -ment o f S a l i u s , the second r u n n e r , was u n s p o r t s m a n l i k e a c c o r d -i n g t o our s t a n d a r d s , but V i r g i l s u c c e e d s i n c o n v e y i n g t o the r e a d e r the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t was m e r e l y a b o y i s h t r i c k . He p l a c e s t h e emphasis upon the f a c t t h a t N i s u s remembered h i s f r i e n d even though he h i m s e l f h a d met w i t h m i s f o r t u n e . As the p o e t r e l a t e s the i n c i d e n t , one s c a r c e l y n o t i c e s K i s u s ' u n f a i r -ness . I t i s the s t r e n g t h o f the f r i e n d s h i p between the two y o u t h s t h a t i s o u t s t a n d i n g . "Ron tamen E u r y a l i , non i l l e . o b l i t u s amorum: nam eese o p p o s u i t S a l i o p e r l u b r i c a s u r g e n s , i l l e autem s p i s s a i a c u i t r e v o l u t u s h a r e n a . " The i m p r e s s i o n s o f N i e u s and E u r y a l u s t o be g l e a n e d from t h e i n c i d e n t j u s t r e t o l d a r e deepened and b r o a d e n e d i n Book I X . Here V i r g i l p i c t u r e s the p a i r s t a n d i n g as guardsmen a t one o f t h e g a t e s i n t h e d e f e n s i v e w a l l r e c e n t l y r a i s e d by the T r o j a n s . They a r e s t i l l f i r m f r i e n d s and h a v e b o t h e n t e r e d w h o l e -h e a r t e d l y i n t o the s p i r i t o f the camp. " h i s amor unus e r a t , p a r i t e r q u e i n b e l l a r u e b a n t " ' 2 ..' As t h e y s t a n d i n t h e i r p l a c e s , s i d e by s ide. , t h e y c o n v e r s e w i t h one a n o t h e r and t h e p o e t has w r i t t e n what he i m a g i n e s t o be t h e i r exact w o r d s . So s k i l f u l l y has he h a n d l e d t h i s l . B k . V 11 .334-336. 2 . B k . l X 1.182. • -I ••! c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t when i t i s ended the r e a d e r has a d e f i n i t e i m p r e s s i o n of t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d . A t t h e o u t s e t we a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t I-Tisus i s the e l d e r o f the two. E u r y a l u s i s s t i l l a b o y -1 1 or a p u e r p r i m a s i g n a n s i n t o n s a i u v e n t a " , T - hut he i s n e v e r t h e l e s s the bosom f r i e n d o f the o l d e r y o u t h . N i sue h a s been d o i n g some h a r d t h i n k i n g w h i l e s t a n d i n g a t h i s c o m r a d e ' s s i d e , and a d d r e s s e s h i m t h u s : : " D i n e hunc a r d o r e m m e n t i b u e a d d u n t , E u r y a l e , an s u a c u i q u e deus f i t d i r a c u p i d o ? " 2. A f t e r t h i s t h o u g h t f u l u t t e r a n c e ( w h i c h i s t y p i c a l l y V i r g i l i a n i n t h a t i t i n v o l v e s a p r o f o u n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem) he u n f o l d s to h i s f r i e n d the p l a n w h i c h had been t a k i n g shape i n h i s m i n d . T h i s p l a n c o m p r i s e d a d a r i n g a t t e m p t t o p a s s t h r o u g h the enemy's camp, w h i c h was p i t c h e d j u s t o u t s i d e t h e T r o j a n r a m p a r t s , and g a i n the r o a d to P a l l a n t e u m . Aeneas h a d l e f t the p r e v i o u s day on a d i p l o m a t i c m i s s i o n to t h a t town, w h i c h s t o o d on t h e s i t e o f Rome. In h i s a b s e n c e , t h e g a r r i s o n h a d been a t t a c k e d by a l a r g e f o r c e o f I t a l i a n s and was n o t i n a p o s i t i o n to h o l d out a g a i n s t them v e r y l o n g . N i s u s hoped to e l u d e the enemy's g u a r d by making h i s way t h r o u g h t h e i r encampment under c o v e r o f n i g h t and c a r r y word to Aeneas of the impending d a n g e r . A f t e r h i n t i n g a t h i s p r o p o s e d e x p l o i t he remarks to E u r y a l u s " I f the c o u n c i l l o r s p r o v i d e f o r you as I s h a l l ask them to do - as f o r m y s e l f t h e g l o r y o f the deed i s enough - I s h a l l make the a t t e m p t . " 1 . B k . l X 1 , 1 8 1 . 2. B k . I X 1 1 , 1 8 4 - 5 3 . 3 k . l X , L L 1 9 4-6 He r e a l i z e s t h e r i s k t h a t he i s about to t a k e , and w i s h e s t o s a t i s f y h i m s e l f t h a t h i s young f r i e n d w i l l s u f f e r no n e g l e c t i n the event o f h i s d e a t h . The r e a d e r has a l r e a d y o b t a i n e d some f a i r l y d e f i n i t e i d e a s about H i s u s 5 c h a r a c t e r . He i s p a t r i o t i c to t h e p o i n t o f s a c r i f i c i n g h i s l i f e f o r the w e l f a r e of h i s c o u n t r y m e n , h e p o s s e s s e s a c o u r a g e o u s s p i r i t , and he d i s p l a y s an a l m o s t f a t h e r l y t h o u g h t f u l n e s s f o r h i s comrade i n .arms. T h e r e i s no h e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t o f E u r y a l u s i n answer-i n g h i s c o m p a n i o n , a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r 8 s p r o p o s a l has t a k e n h i m by s u r p r i s e . He r e b u k e s h i s f r i e n d i n no u n c e r t a i n terms f o r not c o n s i d e r i n g him as a p a r t n e r i n t h e v e n t u r e . " s o l u m t e i n t a n t a p e r i c u l a m i t t a m ? " . 1. • I t n e v e r o c c u r s to h i m to q u e s t i o n H i s u s about the d e t a i l s o f h i s p l a n or to examine i t s f e a s i b i l i t y . I n s t e a d he r e m i n d s him o f the courage h i s f a t h e r had shown i n the f a c e o f danger and of h i s own conduct t h r o u g h o u t the r e c e n t e x p e d i t i o n . He c o n c l u d e s w i t h a f i n e f l o u r i s h : " e s t h i e , e s t animus l u c i s c o n t e m p t o r , et i s t u m q u i v i t a bene c r e d a t e m i , quo t e n d i s , h o n o r e m . M 2 T h e r e i s no u n c e r t a i n t y about h i s a t t i t u d e . One w o u l d be t e m p t -ed to l o o k upon t h e s e l a s t two l i n e s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f the n o b l e s t i n t e n t i o n s e v e r o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e mind o f man i f i t were n o t f o r f o u r l i t t l e words w h i c h the p o e t u s e s t o d e s c r i b e E u r y a l u s j u s t b e f o r e he s p e a k s ; "magno laudum p e r c u s s u s amore E u r y a l u s 8 ' 3 1.B k . l X p . 200. 2. Blc. I X , 11,205-6. 3 . B k . l X , 11,197-8. T h i s p h r a s e sheds a n o t h e r l i g h t upon the l a d ' s t h o u g h t s , E u r y a l u s i s n o t more t h a n e i g h t e e n y e a r s o l d . He does not r e a l i z e the s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as N i s u s does "but he sees i n i t a chance to make a name f o r h i m s e l f . He might not have u t t e r e d s u c h g l i b s t a t e m e n t s about " d e s p i s i n g the l i g h t " i f he had s t o p p e d to c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y t h e s t e p w h i c h he was c o n t e m p l a t i n g . E u t s u c h i s t h e i m p e t u o s i t y o f y o u t h . H i s u s pays no heed to the o u t b u r s t but r e m i n d s h i m g e n t l y t h a t h i s aged m o t h e r - " g e n e t r i x v e t u s t a " - w i l l be l e f t b e h i n d w i t h no one to c a r e f o r h e r . He a l s o i n t i m a t e d t h a t he would l i k e to be a s s u r e d o f someone's p a y i n g the l a s t r i t e s to h i s d e p a r t e d shade i f m i s f o r t u n e b e f e l l h i m . T h i s e a r n e s t p l e a d i n g o n l y s e r v e s to add f u e l to the f l a m e . E u r y a l u s becomes more d e t e r m i n e d t h a n e v e r t o g o . "causae nequiquam n e c t i s i n a n e s nec mea iarn m u t a t a l o c o s e n t e n t i a c e d i t : a d c e l e r e m u s . " 1. I t i s u s e l e s s to a r g u e w i t h the f i e r y s p i r i t e d y o u t h , so the t w a i n s e t out t o g e t h e r to f i n d " P r i n c e A s c a n i u s " , (2) who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the camp i n the absence o f h i s f a t h e r A e n e a s . H i s u s must have r e g r e t t e d m e n t i o n i n g h i s scheme to E u r y a l u s , f o r , b e i n g the e l d e r , he f e l t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i m . P e r h a p s i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r h i m t o s e p a r a t e h i m s e l f from h i s f r i e n d l o n g enough t o i m p a r t h i s d a r i n g p r o j e c t t o A s c a n i u s . 1. E k . l X 11 ,219-221. (2) B k . I X , 1 ,223. A s c a n i u s i s r e f e r r e d to as " r e x " f o r the f i r s t t i m e . 9 P e r h a p s he p l a c e d i m p l i c i t f a i t h i n h i s own a b i l i t y t o i n f l u -ence the y o u t h to r e m a i n b e h i n d . Knowing h i s i m p u l s i v e n a t u r e , he must have a n t i c i p a t e d h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e u n f o l d i n g o f t h e p l a n . Whatever h i s r e a s o n s f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r o p o s a l w i t h E u r y a l u s , t h e m i s c h i e f was now done. A s c a n i u s i s f o u n d i n the C o u n c i l R i n g w i t h t h e c h i e f w a r r i o r s and e l d e r s , d i s c u s s i n g ways and means o f d e f e n d i n g the s t r o n g h o l d on the f o l l o w i n g d a y . H iBUS b u r s t s i n upon the c i r c l e and e x p l a i n s c a r e f u l l y h i s p r o p o s e d v e n t u r e . A l e t e s , one o f the c o u n c i l l o r s , " h i e a n n i s g r a v i s atque a n i m i maturus ••(^JA^e^T) : i s the f i r s t to r e c o v e r from s u r p r i s e and makes a f i t t i n g r e p l y . In d o i n g s o , he makes one o f the f i n e s t t r i b -u t e s to y o u t h w h i c h c a n be f o u n d i n a l l l i t e r a t u r e : " d i p a t r i i , quorum semper sub numiue T r o i a e s t , non tarnen omnino T e n c r o s d e lere p a r a t i s , cum t a l e s animos invenum et tarn c e r t a t u l i s t i s p e c t o r a . " ( l ) He goes on to say t h a t he i s a t a l o s s to t h i n k o f any reward w o r t h y o f s u c h d e e d s , t h e n he u t t e r s the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s , and one can i m a g i n e t h a t i t i s not A l e t e s , b u t V i r g i l who i s speaking^ from y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e : " p u l c h e r r i m a primum d i inoresque dabunt v e s t r i . " A s c a n i u s , on h i s p a r t , i s q u i c k to p r o m i s e N i s u s t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e h o n o r s and speaks o f m a k i n g E u r y a l u s , "mea quern s p a t i i s p r o p i o r i b u s a e t a s " , h i s boon companion. The answer w h i c h E u r y a l u s makes to A e n e a s ' son i s i n t e r e s t i n g , b e c a u s e 1. Bk.IX,11,247-250. (2) B k . IX, 11,253-4. 10 i t brings to l i g h t a hitherto unnoticed q u a l i t y i n the speaker*'© character. After thanking Ascanius, he asks one favor of him, that he promise to take care of h i s old mother i f she i s l e f t without a son. He explains that he i s undertaking the escap-ade e n t i r e l y without her knowledge and does not mean to inform her of his intentions because he cannot bear her tears: " n o x e t tua t e s t i s dextera, quod nequeam lacrimae perferre parentis." (1) This does not seem to be the same ardent lad speaking who had l a t e l y brushed aside a l l arguments used to deter him. Indeed his f r i end had reminded him of h i s mother, but he gave no heed. Dr.Henry i n h i a comments upon t h i s passage says, "Euryalus i s not put forward as an example of f i l i a l a f f e c t i o n " (2) His argument i n support of this statement i s that the youth did not think of his mother u n t i l Hisue reminded him of her. But / when Hisus had spoken of her, Euryalus had given no thought to the matter. It was only a f t e r he had heard his companion explain the ; scheme again to the c o u n c i l l o r s and a f t e r he had seen how serio u s l y these men took i t that he thought of his parent. Surely the poet meant us to f e e l that Euryalus was sincere i n h i s regard for his mother. The sentiments expressed can scarce be taken otherwise. Is i t not possible that he was just now beginning to r e a l i z e the seriousness of the a f f a i r and his thoughts turn f i r s t of a l l to his mother? . (1) Bk.lX, 11, 288 -9. (2) Henry "Aeneidea" Vol.Ill P . f f O 11 H i s l o v e o f a d v e n t u r e and l o v e o f fame come to t h e f o r e p r e v -i o u s to h i e a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s m o t h e r . T h i s seems e n t i r e l y -n a t u r a l , f o r he i s v e r y y o u n g . On t h e o t h e r hand i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s l o v e f o r h i s mother was l e s s s t r o n g t h a n h i s o t h e r e m o t i o n s . The a c t i o n s o f the two w a r r i o r s t h r o u g h o u t the r e s t o f the e p i s o d e a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . I t i s H i s u s who t a k e s the l e a d , and i t i s E u r y a l u s whose r e c k l e s s ».v:l a r d o u r l e a d s t o the u n t i m e l y d e a t h o f b o t h . As t h e y p a s s t h r o u g h t h e r a n k s o f the R u t u l l a n f o e , "sornno v i n o q u e s o l u t i " , e a c h works g r e a t h a v o c w i t h h i s sword. F i s h i s n o t i c i n g t h a t h i s companion i s becoming " n i m i a caede a t q u e c u p i d i n e f e r r i " , r e m i n d s h i m t h a t dawn i s a p p r o a c h i n g and. t h a t t h e y must h a s t e n to f i n d t h e i r way out o f the enemy's t e r r i t o r y . E u r y a l u s , however, cannot r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o g i r d h i m s e l f w i t h j some o f the s p o i l s w h i c h l i e about h i m . He t h e r e f o r e l i n g e r s to f i t a s w o r d b e l t h u r r i e d l y on h i s s h o u l d e r s and don a m a s s i v e h e l m e t . A t . t h i s p o i n t , t h e p o e t g i v e s us a k e y n o t e to f u t u r e o c c u r r e n c e s by i n c l u d i n g one l i t t l e w o r d , "nequiquam": "haec r a p i t atque u m e r i s nequiquam f o r t i b u s a p t a t . " ( l ) As t h e y o u t h s a r e l e a v i n g the enemy's camp, t h e y a p p r o a c h unawares a detachment o f L a u r e n t i n e horsemen who, as a l l i e s , a r e drawing n e a r t h e camp o f the L a t i n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e y a r e s p o t t e d by t h i s p a r t y and i t i s the g l i n t o f E u r y a l u s ' helmet i n t h e m o o n l i g h t t h a t has a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n . " E u r y a l u m immemorem"! V o l c e n s , the l e a d e r o f the mounted men, (1) B k . l X I.304 12 commands them to h a l t , but t h e y s t o p f o r n o t h i n g . B e f o r e the t r o o p s know what i s h a p p e n i n g , t h e y d i s a p p e a r among the t a n g l e o f the n e a r e s t t h i c k e t . The d a r k n e s s o f the n i g h t i s deepened t h e r e t o b l a c k n e s s , f o r the a r e a i s m a t t e d w i t h b r i e r s and s t u b b y o a k s . The horsemen l o s e s i g h t , o f them, b u t t h e y l o s e s i g h t of one a n o t h e r . " E u r y a l u m t e n e b r a e ramorum onerosaque p r a e d a i m p e d i u n t f a l l i t q u e t i m o r r e g i o n e v a r i u m . H i s u s a b i t ; iamque imprudens e v e s e r a t h o s t e s . " ( l ) B o t h f o r g e t e v e r y t h i n g except the immediate d a n g e r , and d a s h b l i n d l y a h e a d . E u r y a l u s i s hampered by h i s a c c o u t r e m e n t s a n d , d e s p e r a t e w i t h f e a r , he v e r y soon m i s t a k e s t h e i l l - d e f i n e d p a t h . K i s u s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w i t h a l l h i s h e e d l e s s n e s s , s u c c e e d s i n g r o p i n g h i s way out o f the u n d e r g r o w t h and r e a c h i n g s a f e t y . He g i v e s no thought t o t h e p l i g h t o f h i s comrade u n t i l h i s f o o t t r e a d s on s a f e g r o u n d . He too has been s e i z e d w i t h y p a n i c . E o r the f i r s t t i m e , he t h i n k s of h i s own w e l f a r e b e f o r e t h a t o f h i s f r i e n d , W h i l e we would l i k e to t h i n k t h a t N i s u s n e v e r f o r g e t s h i s f r i e n d even i n the f a c e o f g r a v e d a n g e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s we know, as V i r g i l knew, t h a t the i n s t i n c t o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y t h e most d e e p - s e a t e d o f any human t r a i t . The amazing t h i n g , t h e n , i s , not t h a t he tempor-a r i l y f o r g e t s h i s companion, but t h a t he does not c o n t i n u e h i s mad f l i g h t u n t i l he r e a c h e s h i s d e s t i n a t i o n . I n s t e a d , h i s f i r s t i m p u l s e when he has r e a c h e d s a f e t y i s t o l o o k f o r h i s f r i e n d . He can see him nowhere. W i t h o u t any h e s i t a t i o n , ( s i m u l ) , he r e t r a c e s h i s s t e p s t h r o u g h the wood, i n t e n t on f i n d i n g h i s l . B k . IX H . 3 8 4 - 6 . 13 comrade. He has just re-entered, the danger zone when he hears the clash of arms and espies Euryalus surrounded by the foe. What can he do to help h i s friend? What i s h i s best move? He decides to f i g h t from ambush. Poising his spear, he prays fervently to fcatona, asking her to guide i t . It proves f a t a l to one of the enemy's number. A second dart i s equally e f f e c t i v e . Volcens, becoming thoroughly angered at t h i s " g u e r r i l l a warfare" raises his sword to despatch Euryalus. On seeing t h i s move, Nisus loses a l l s e l f - c o n t r o l and rushes into the enemy's midst, shouting, "me, me adsum, qui f e c i , i n me convertite ferrum, 0 R u t u l i ; me a fraus omnis; tanturn infelicem nimium d i l e x i t amicum." (1) "He but loved his hapless friend too well"! A l l thought of his own personal safety i s now scattered to the winds. A less generous soul would have cursed the lad who had accompanied him unbidden. Nisus i s "Great Heart" indeed 1 Volcens remains unmoved by llisus' passionate words and promptly slays Euryalus ("Candida pectora rump i t " ) "So doth the purple floweret, dying, droop, Smit by the ploughshare. So the poppy f r a i l On stricken stalk i t s languid head doth stoop, And bows o'erladen with the drenching h a i l . " (2) The dauntless soul of Nisus swells with revenge. Obsessed with the desire to draw the blood of Volcens, he charges w i l d l y at the slayer of his beloved Euryalus. Hone can stay him. His sword reaches i t s mark, (1) Bk.lX 11 .427-430, (2) Bk.lX H . 4 3 5 - 7 . Trans, by . .E.P.Taylor. '• • "et moriens animam a b s t u l i t h o s t i . " (1) This done, he f a l l s on the l i f e l e s s form of his f r i e n d . "Then, pierced, he sinks upon his comrade s l a i n , And death's long slumber puts an end to pain," ' ' (2.) ' Had V i r g i l been a C h r i s t i a n , he would have penned l i n e s about hiBUS s i m i l a r to these of John Oxenham: "Great Heart i s dead, they say -What i s death to such a one as Great Heart? One sigh, perchance, for work unfinished here -Then a swift passing to a mightier sphere, New joys, perfected powers, the v i s i o n clear, And a l l the amplitude of heaven to work The work he held so dear. A soul so f i e r y sweet can never die But l i v e s and loves to a l l e t e r n i t y . " It was V i r g i l ' s express wish that Nisus and Euryalus be remembered "as long as the house of Aeneas dwelt on the immovable rock of the C a p i t o l . " L i t t l e did he r e a l i z e that the p a i r would be immortal f i f t e e n hundred years a f t e r that house had crumbled to dust and ruin. Throughout the centuries they have been characters i n world l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s l i k e l y that they w i l l r e t a i n that p o s i t i o n . As long as human nature remains unchangeable, so long w i l l they be v i t a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Euryalus, with his love of fame, his impetuosity, his daring, embodies the s p i r i t of thoughtless youth. Hisus, with his cool bravery, h i s patriotism, and, above a l l , his a f f e c t i o n for his f r i e n d , demonstrates the d i v i n i t y of the human soul. "Greater love hath no man than t h i s , that a man lay down his l i f e for hi s friends." V i r g i l has perpetuated these characters i n the (1) B k . l X , 1 . 4 4 3 . ( 2 ) Bk.lX ,11.445-6 Trans-.by E.E.Taylor '. 15 minds of countless m i l l i o n s who never saw the glory of his "beloved Rome. "Si quid mea carmina possunt,'." ^ V i r g i l i s indebted to Homer for the concept of the HiSUB and Euryalus story, as he i s for many another incident. It i s modelled upon the story of Diomedes and Ulysses, who entered the Trojan camp as spies. When the two episodes are compared, one r e a l i z e s how much more intensely human V i r g i l ' s characters are than the Greek poet's. Diomedes and Ulysses impress one as being inhumanly strong and ruthless men-at-arms. They are responsible f o r murdering the witless Dolon and k i l l i n g scores to e f f e c t the rape of a team of horses. They are not youths, but men in the prime of l i f e who have l o s t a l l youthful i d e a l -ism and consequently do not hesitate to commit any offence i n order to gain t h e i r ends. It i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of V i r g i l to replace them by two noble young souls whose plundering and k i l l i n g i s not so offensive because i t i s the r e s u l t of rash-ness, not deliberate intent to rob; whose friendship i s the flowering of man's noblest quality, love for h i s fellow. One i s not surprised to f i n d a c e r t a i n editor r e f e r r i n g to the incident of Hi BUS and Euryalus as "one of the crowning i n -stances of V i r g i l ' s power of appealing to human s e n s i b i l i t y . " (2 In the tenth book, V i r g i l records the untimely death of two other youths whose names may be linked together, not because of friendship between them, but because of the s i m i l a r way in which Pate treated them. They were both very young -1. Bk.lX 1.446: 2. Papillon & Haigh,Notes,P.295 tl nec multum diserepat aetas" (1) and handsome "egregi i i forma"-(2) as well as courageous to a f a u l t . Both were "born leaders, and proved th e i r mettle by boldly dashing into the midst of the opposing party, thus encouraging t h e i r comrades to foilow them In f a c t , they had a great deal i n common, but d i f f e r e d i n respect to one important thing, namely, the i r allegiance, P a l l a s being an a l l y of Aenas, Lausus of Turnus. Thus i t come about that the two are f i e r c e l y s t r i v i n g against one another when they are introduced to the reader: As the story i s related, the young warriors are not permitted by Juppiter to come to grips with one another on the b a t t l e -f i e l d . Each i n turn i s to face a more experienced warrior, indeed an almost invulnerable warrior, for the one i s destined i to f a l l by the hand of Turnus, the other by that of Aeneas himself. According to the degree of the fates, Pallas i s to face h i s doom before his youthful opponent. Y/ho i s P a l l o r , the youthful a l l y of the Trojans? He i s the son of Greek Evander, king of a colony of Arcadians who had s e t t l e d at Pallanteum, located on the s i t e of future Rome. Aeneas had v i s i t e d this venerable monarch with the desire of making him his a l l y and f e l t amply rewarded for his trouble when the old king promised him a l l the assistance he could give. Because of h i s advanced age, Evander could not follow Aeneas himself, but he generously offered to send his son hinc P a l l a s inst a t et urguet, Hinc contra Lausus (3) (l)Bk.X,l.434 (2) 1.435 (3) 11. 433=4-34. 17 P a l l a s as the leader of the Arcadians. P a l l a s , "being an only son and a worthy descendant of h i s i l l u s t r i o u s ancestors, was the "spes et s o l a t i a " of his father. •• (1) One of V i r g i l ' s most touching scenes occurs here, when the king, h i s royal dignity forgotten, gives way to a father's tears on the event 01 nis son's departure. In supplication, Evander raises h i s hands to heaven and implores the gods to grant him continued l i f e i f the lad i s to return safely, but to end his days immediately i f some unutterable fate awaits the boy. So overcome with emotion i s the king that he f a l l s f a i n t i n g at h i s son's feet. Throughout this scene, our atten-tion i s fix e d upon the g r i e f - s t r i c k e n father, but we f i n d our-selves forming unknowingly a mental picture of the boy who presumably i s worthy of such intense father-Jove. He must be refined i n temperament, we think, yet stout of heart. Fortunately, as we read on, we are not required to a l t e r these ideas. P a l l a s proves himself worthy of the tendereet regard. This, then, i s the Pallas who finds himself i n the thick of the fi g h t as soon as he disembarks near the mouth of the r i v e r . His Arcadians, being unaccustomed to f i g h t i n g on foot, f i n d that they can make no headway against the Rutulians, who are used to the rough ground. P a l l a s sees, to h i s dismay, that h i s comrades are being forced into the sea by their antagonists. In a very courageous ef f o r t to r a l l y t h e i r lagging enthusiasm, he rushes to the fore and ru t h l e s s l y deals one f a t a l blow a f t e r the other upon the surprised Rutulians. (1) B k . V l l l , 1.514 18 So ashamed are the Arcadians to see t h e i r youthful prince rec k l e s s l y , yet g a l l a n t l y f l i n g i n g himself almost against the sword-points of the enemy that they quickly r a l l y . The rare f o r t i t u d e displayed by P a l l a s while restoring the f i g h t i n g strength of h i s following a t t r a c t s the attention of mighty Turnus, the formidable chief of the Rutulians. We marvel at the thought of the remarkable display of s k i l l which the young warrior must have given to a t t r a c t the attention of one as experienced i n warfare as Turnus. Hot only does Turnus notice him, but he determines to meet him in single combat. Heedlessly pushing aside the f i g h t i n g men, and ordering them to cease b a t t l e , he approaches the spot where Pallas i s stand-ing. The l a t t e r gazes wonderingly at the huge bulk of the giant Rutulian, but shows no sign of fear. Instead, he addresses him with dignity: •'aut s p o l i i s ego iam r a p t i s laudabor opimis, aut let o i n s i g n i ; s o rti,pater aeguus utrique est."(1) Perhaps these words remind us too strongly of Euryalus and h i s wantonness; nevertheless they reveal the indomitable courage of the lad P a l l a s . As Turnus bears down upon him, P a l l a s hurls a spear with a l l his strength, but i t merely grazes the shoulder of the older warrior. Then Turnus, taking careful aim, drives h i s shaft with such force that Pal l a s ' s h i e l d i s c l e f t and his heart pierced by the same merciless s t e e l . The brave young warrior f a l l s to the ground at Turnus' feet, struggling i n the throes of death. Turnus, placing h i s foot upon the body, (l)Bk.X, 11.449-450. 19 d e f i a n t l y states that he i s sending back Pallas to his father as he deserved to be sent back, and, l i k e a brut a l savage, tears from the slim waist a magnificently embossed bel t which he proudly fastens upon himself. So adorned, he passes on to deal with other opponents who appear to be too active. The Arcadians slowly and t e a r f u l l y place the body of Pallas upon his own broken s h i e l d and carry i t from the scene of b a t t l e . When news i s brought to Aeneas of Pallas' death, the Trojan hero i s seized with a burning desire to draw the blood of Turnus. As he mows his way through l i n e upon l i n e of foe-men, there corneal to h i s mind v i v i d memories of his v i s i t at Pallanteum: "Pallas, Evander, i n . i p s i s omnia sunt oculis; mensae, quas advena primas Tunc a d i i t , dextraeque d a t a e . " ^ Such thoughts spur him on to further action. In a wild f i t of : rage, he slays every I t a l i a n he meets and gives no quarter. Evidently the Trojan leader had r e a l i z e d the worth of Evander's son, and, when he heard of his delath, was unable to r e s t r a i n his passion. It i s with an understanding heart that V i r g i l writes the verses r e l a t i n g the g r i e f of Evander at the approach of Pall a s ' funeral procession. Rushing out from the City to meet the mourners, the old monarch throws himself upon the bier, and utters these words in a voice choked with sorrow: "Pallas, not such thy promise to thy s i r e , Warely to trust the War-God i n the fray. I knew what ardour would thy soul i n s p i r e , The charms of fame, and battle's f i e r c e desire."(2) (1) 3k.x 11.515-16. (2) Bk.Xl. 11.152-155,trans.by E.P.Taylor 20 What wonderful understanding of the human heart V i r g i l hadI How frequently young people with t h e i r boundless enthusiasm break the hearts of the i r elders'. Evander finds l i t t l e com-f o r t i n the thought that P a l l a s died a glorious death. He wishes to l i v e just long enough to hear of Turnus' death, then "bear the news to Pallas' shade below." Indeed we learn i n the course of the story that i t i s only a matter of time u n t i l mighty Turnus w i l l himself die a warrior' s death. As V i r g i l pictures him rudely flaunting the b e a u t i f u l l y wrought bel t which he had seized as s p o i l from the l i f e l e s s youth, he writes these l i n e s : "nescia mens hominum f a t i sortisque futurae, et servare modum, rebus subbata secundis. Turno tempus e r i t , magno cum optaverit emptum intactum Pallanta, et cum s p o l i a i s t a diemque oderit." . . (1) The day does come when Turnus curses h i s booty. It comes when ' he and Aeneas are engaged i n a l i f e and death struggle for supremacy. The powerful Daunian has l o s t h i s weapon and i s almost on the point of surrendering. In a l a s t mighty e f f o r t to redeem himself, he grasps a huge boulder and f l i n g s i t at the wary Trojan. The clumsy m i s s i l e misses i t s mark completely and Turnus sinks exhausted to the ground. Helpless, he pleads with Aeneas to take p i t y on his old father Daunus, and asks that he be restored, either a l i v e or dead, to his native c i t y . Aeneas hesitates a moment or two, moved, no doubt, by Turnus' concern for h i s father, and i s ac t u a l l y on the point of sparing him,(Bk.Xll,L.940) when the bright gems of the belt which the (I)'•• Bk.X. LL 501-505. 21 I t a l i a n i s wearing on his shoulder catch his eye. The Trojan recognizes immediately the ba l d r i c belonging to P a l l a s . Then there returns to him a l l the wrath which had surged up within him at news of the lad's death. "tune hinc s p o l i i s indute meorum er i p i a r e mihi? P a l l a s te hoc vulnere, Pallas inmolat et poenam scelerato ex sanguine sumit • " ^  -j.) Mad with fury, he drives his blade through Turnus' body. The happenings related in the l a s t paragraph are not recorded i n the "Aeneid" u n t i l the very end. It i s most i n t e r -esting to f i n d the name of P a l l a s mentioned i n the closing l i n e s of Book X l l . Since there are many l i t t i e inconsistencies i n the "Aeneid", we would not have been surprised i f V i r g i l had not referred to the stolen belt of P a l l a s a f t e r Book X. It seems that the poet was p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with the youth whom Turnus slew. Perhaps he considered that of a l l the ' deaths for which the Rutuiian had been responsible, t h i s was the most heinous. Perhaps he wished us to notice that Aeneas did not forget.Pallas. Perhaps he had something e n t i r e l y different i n mind, namely, the problem of the soul's immort-a l i t y , for he assured us that P a l l a s was immortal i n t h i s sense at least - the memory of his virtuous l i f e l i v e d on i n the minds of men., -The P a l l a s incident d i f f e r s from the HiBUS and Euryalus incident i n that i t was created to afford a pathetic s i t u a t i o n , rather than an opportunity for character analysis. V i r g i l gives us very few d e f i n i t e d e t a i l s about the boy P a l l a s . He ^ l ) B k . X l l . LL 947-949. 22 gives just enough, to leave us with the impression that he i s a youth of great promise and that i s a l l . He places the emphasis upon the fact of h i s death. He gives us a glimpse of Pallas' flower-like form, then takes us quickly to the death scene in which the noble youth meets an opponent over whom i t i s im-possible f o r him to triumph. The g i a n t - l i k e Turnus i s so much older and stronger than P a l l a s that he crushes him as a l i o n would an antelope. Then the poet gives us Aeneas' reaction to the news of P a l l a s ' death and t e l l s us of the a r r i v a l at Pallanteum of the mourners. F i n a l l y he t e l l s us how Aeneas avenged the death of his youthful confederate. It i s the fact that so youthful a warrior f e l l that interests V i r g i l . Pallas had entered the fra y f u l l of eagerness to distinguish himself. Why could he not have been permitted to do t h i s without having to f o r f e i t h is l i f e ? What cruel fate w i l l e d that he should die so soon? He had l i v e d a virtuous l i f e . Was this his reward? If so, i s there any purpose i n l i f e at a l l ? Some such thoughts as these f i l l e d the poet's mind. We f i n d that V i r g i l delves f a i r l y deeply into Philosophy when he attempts to s e t t l e the doubts which a s s a i l h i s mind. One does not suppose that he s e t t l e d them to his own s a t i s -f a c t i o n , f o r the same questions trouble men's minds today. Of course we read i n t e n t l y any l i n e s which suggest that he i s s t r i v i n g to face them. Such l i n e s occur in this episode when Pallas i s ready to try his s k i l l against Turnus. As he raises his arm to hurl h i s spear, he prays fe r v e n t l y to Hercules, asking him to guide h i s weapon. Hercules hears the prayer, but 2^ i s powerless to help P a l l a s , for "Pate" has decreed that he must face death. The god i s troubled so much that Jove notices his p l i g h t and remarks to him: "stat sua cuique dies; breve et inreparabile tempus omnibus est vitae; sed famam extendere f a c t i s , hoc v i r t u t i s opus" "For each h i s appoint ed day i s sure; short and unreviewable for a l l i s the span of l i f e ; but to make fame l i v e on by deeds, that i s the task of valour." These l i n e s indicate that there are very few things about which V i r g i l i s ce r t a i n . He f e e l s that man's l i f e follows a plan made by some power beyond h i s control; he r e a l i z e s that the human span, however long, i s but short when compared with the h i s t o r y of mankind as a whole; f i n a l l y , he believes that i t i s man's deeds, and his deeds alone, which l i v e a f t e r him, In spite of a l l t h i s philosophizing, the poet i s l e f t with one great question unanswered: why does the hand of fate f a l l heavily upon the young? He never answers t h i s . One wishes that he himself could have been granted a few more years of existence i n which to devote himself to the study of philosophy. We know that he intended to do just this a f t e r he fi n i s h e d h i s great epic. As "fate" w i l l e d i t , he was not per-mitted to accomplish his purpose. If he had undertaken the study of philosophy, the outcome would have been a t r e a t i s e , not on "Old Age" but on "Unfinished Lives." Toward the end of Book X, there i s recorded the death of Lausus, the young Etruscan who had been leading the I t a l i a n (l)Bk.X , L L 4 6 7 - 4 6 9 Trans, by T.E.Page forces against P a l l a s when, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , Turnus aggressively brushed him aside. As has been mentioned, the chief difference between Pa l l a s and Lausus was that they were f i g h t i n g on opposite sides; they were, on the other hand, equally brave, equally f a i r , and of the same age. There i s no doubt that V i r g i l i s just as sympathetic with the one as with the other. Yet there i s an a i r of a r t i f i c i a l i t y present i n the Lausus story which i s absent i n that of P a l l a s . This point w i l l be explained i n another connection: here i t i s necessary only to r e c a l l the d e t a i l s of the incident. Lausus was the son of Mezentius, a former Etruscan tyrant who had rule d his own people so unwisely that he had been forced to give up his throne. Old Evander mentioned him as being a depraved character and hoped that the gods would punish him for h i s misdeeds. "Quid nemorem infandas caedes, quid facta tyranni Effera? Di c a p i t i ipsius generique r e s e r v c n t i " ( i j L i t t l e did the king r e a l i z e how quickly and how thoroughly his wish was to be carr i e d out. Mezentius f l e d to Turnus, who gave him protection. When he i s introduced to the reader, both he and h i s son had joined the I t a l i a n cause. Whatever bad qual-i t i e s the father of Lausus may have had, he displayed a certain n o b i l i t y of character i n the circumstances about to be dis-cussed. He loved his son with a l l the depth of a father's love and, as the story proves, the boy was devoted to him. Any man, whether he be a tyrant or not, has redeeming q u a l i t i e s i f he inspires and holds the a f f e c t i o n of his son. (1) B k . V l l l , L482 •iff.. M e z e n t i u s , b e i n g a b o l d and e x p e r i e n c e d w a r r i o r , i s i n the v a n of the I t a l i a n array. So dangerous i s he t h a t he has a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of t h e T r o j a n l e a d e r . The two come t o g r i p s , Aeneas b e i n g u n s c a t h e d , M e z e n t i u s r e c e i v i n g a v e r y s e v e r e wound. L a u s u s , who i s s t a t i o n e d n o t f a r from h i s f a t h e r , sees the p l i g h t o f the o l d e r man, and i n an i n s t a n t d a r t s u n d e r n e a t h the u p r a i s e d arm o f Aeneas and i s s u c c e s s f u l i n s t a y i n g the f a t a l b l o w . M e z e n t i u s i s thus g i v e n an o p p o r -t u n i t y to r e t i r e w h i l e L a u s u s and h i s comrades shower Aeneas w i t h s p e a r s . . r The T r o j a n s t a n d s f i r m amid t h e "tempest o f w a r " , a n d , when t h e a i r c l e a r s f o r a moment, he speaks to L a u s u s as he w o u l d have spoken t o A s c a n i u s i f he had caught him i n the same p r e d i c a m e n t ; "Quo m o r i t u r e r u i s , m a i o r a q u e v i r i b u s audes? f a l l i t t e i n c a u t u m p i e t a s t u a t " ^ y "Why a r e you r u s h i n g to y o u r doom? Why do you d a r e a deed too g r e a t f o r y o u r s t r e n g t h ? Y o u r l o v e f o r y o u r f a t h e r i s b e t r a y -i n g y o u , r a s h y o u t h . " The n e x t words o f V i r g i l a r e s i g -n i f i c a n t : "nec minus i l l e e x s u l t a t demens." (3) N a t u r a l l y enough, no mere words can c o o l the p a s s i o n o f L a u s u s . He has gone too f a r and must now f i g h t to the d e a t h . H i s s t r e n g t h i s u s e l e s s a g a i n s t t h e power o f A e n e a s , j u s t as the s t r e n g t h o f P a l l a s was o f no a v a i l a g a i n s t t h a t o f T u r n u s , and he m i g h t have r e a l i z e d t h i s i f he had t a k e n time to t h i n k b e f o r e he a c t e d . No doubt the words w h i c h a r e put i n t o the ( l ) L k , X , L L , 8 l l - 8 l 2 / " (3 ) B k . X , L,8l2 , mouth of Aeneas embody the poet's own thoughts. One f e e l s that V i r g i l would l i k e to prevent, i f possible, the mad onrush of youth, but he knciws from experience that youth would not l i s t e n . S t i l l he sees something to admire i n Youth's recklessness, even though i t does mean a waste of human resources. "The Fates are spinning the l a s t threads f o r Lausus." With one mighty sweep, Aeneas buries h i s sword's h i l t i n the youth's body. "'But the f a i r guerdon when we hope to f i n d , ••And think to burst out i n sudden blaze, Comes the b l i n d Bury with the abhorred ' shears And s l i t s the thin-spun l i f e . " With a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c touch of tenderness, V i r g i l mentions that the sword's point pierces the tunic which Lausus' mother had c a r e f u l l y woven f o r him. The moment he has k i l l e d Lausus, Aeneas i s arrested by the look on the face of the dying lad. In a beautiful passage famed for i t s pathos, V i r g i l describes the sudden change from savage violence to wondrous compassion which takes place i n Aeneas. "At vera ut vultum v i d i t morientis et ora, Ora modis Achisiades p a l l e n t i a miris Ingemuit miserans gravl t e r dextramque tetendit, et mentern patriae s u b i i t p i e t a t i s imago, quid t l b i nunc, miserande puer, pro laudibus i s t i s quid plus Aeneas tanta dabit indole dignum?" / v .(1)Quotation-from "Lycidas" by John Milton."(2)Bk.X,LL821-826. 2? One editor has this comment upon the f i r s t two l i n e s quoted above: "The wild pathetic rVthm of the l i n e s i s unsurpassed in i t s suggestive beauty by anything that even V i r g i l has written" (1) Aeneas i s sensitive to the pathos of the s i t u a t i o n , and i s overcome with p i t y for the youth so suddenly bereft of l i f e . The word •'Anchisiades» i s c l e v e r l y inserted by the poet here to indicate that i t i s Aeneas' love f o r his own father that i s the keynote of his sympathy f o r Lausus. Not only does Aeneas promise to give every honour of b u r i a l to the cox-pse of his youthful antagonist, but he chides the I t a l i a n s for d a l l y i n g and himself l i f t s the body of Lausus from the ground. V i r g i l could not have shown Aeneas' feelings more p l a i n l y than i n this l a s t act of the hero. To think that he was so over-come with emotion that he stooped to l i f t the body of an opponent from the gory batt l e f i e l d ' . One r e c a l l s i n e v i t a b l y the picture of Turnus standing with his foot upon the breast of the dead Pallas and eagerly tearing from the slender waist a gaily-decked beltV The thought of Turnus brings one back to the statement previously made, that there is a certain amount of a r t i f i c i -a l i t y about the Lausus incident. V i r g i l * s main purpose i n composing the l i n e s was to contrast the b r u t a l i t y of Turnus as displayed i n the Pallas incident and the humanity of Aeneas as displayed i n th i s one. The story of Lausus seems to offset as i t were the story of P a l l a s . As Dr.Henry puts i t , Lausus (1) P a p i l l o n and Haigh, Text,P.337 28 i s the "gounterpart" of P a l l a s . This s c h o l a r l y commentator al s o makes the observation that i t i s e s s e n t i a l to the conduct of the poem that Lausus should "be k i l l e d by Aeneas. In view of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s spoken by Aeneas as he gazes down at the p r o s t r a t e form of the young Etruscan seem s t i l t e d ; "hoc tamen i n f e l i x miseram solabere mortem Aenea magni dextra c a d i s " (1) In r e a l i t y , the i n c i d e n t i s the f i r s t of s e v e r a l which V i r g i l uses f o r the purpose of c o n t r a s t i n g s h a r p l y the characters of Turnus and Aeneas. I t might almost be s a i d that the main cha r a c t e r i n i t i s Aeneas, not Lausus at a l l . I t i s not necessary to giv e f u r t h e r space here to the po i n t above mentioned, f o r i t does not concern us, S u f f i c e i t to mention that the f s t o r y f u r n i s h e s ample proof o f . V i r g i l ' s very deep concern over mankind's most p u z z l i n g problem, pre-mature death. There are traces here of that same melancholy n o t i c e d before, that same awareness of the p a t h e t i c waste of b e a u t i f u l young manhood. This i s n o t i c e a b l e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the words spoken by Aeneas to Lausus j u s t before the former f l i n g s the death-bearing dart and i n the almost miraculous change of heart which Aeneas experiences when he no t i c e s the look on the white face of the dying youth. Aeneas i s human-i z e d i n t h i s scene as i n no other. I t i s worth while to take note of the f a c t that i t i s V i r g i l who humanizes Aeneas, t r i t e though the f a c t may be. The legendary Trojan hero was a (l)B k . X LL 829-830 . 29 s e m i - b a r b a r o u s p e r s o n a l i t y , V i r g i l , b e c a u s e o f b i s own u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f l i f e , s o f t e n s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y , c i v i l i z e s i t , by endowing the h e r o w i t h the most d i v i n e of m a n ' s q u a l i t i e s -sympathy f o r h i s f e l l o w men, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the n o b l e y o u t h among them. T h e r e s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e group o f young w a r r i o r s who s u f f e r e d p r e m a t u r e d e a t h i n b a t t l e V i r g i l ' s "most s t r i k i n g and o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r " , C a m i l l a . T h i s E t r u s c a n Amazon i s the o n l y female c h a r a c t e r whom V i r g i l p a i n t s i n d e f i n i t e and e n d u r i n g c o l o r s . P o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e , the name C a m i l l a e n t e r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n t o any d i s c u s s i o n o f V i r g i l i a n l i t e r -a t u r e . M o r e o v e r , h e r s t o r y i s t o l d i n s u c h a way t h a t she seems a l i v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , w h i l e P a l l a s and Lausus a r e m e r e l y t r a g i c f i g u r e s . I t i s thought by s t u d e n t s o f V i r g i l t h a t the s t o r y o f C a m i l l a , l i k e t h a t o f H i s u s and E u r y a l u s , was o r i g i n -a l l y w r i t t e n as a s e p a r a t e e p y l l i o n and was i n s e r t e d i n t o the A e n e i d as an a f t e r t h o u g h t . YJhile i t s l e n g t h i n d i c a t e s t h i s , y e t t h e s t o r y does not seem a t a l l out o f p l a c e . On the o t h e r h a n d , i t a p p e a r s as a d e l i g h t f u l o a s i s i n a b a r r e n d e s e r t of b r u t a l w a r f a r e , In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , the w o r l d o f l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d have l o s t one o f i t s most r o m a n t i c f i g u r e s i f V i r g i l had n o t made the i n c i d e n t an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the e p i c . \7e f i n d i n the s t o r y o f C a m i l l a V i r g i l ' s most d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f c h i l d l i f e , The g i r l i s j u s t an i n f a n t when she becomes a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the A e n e i d . Her f a t h e r Metabus was a d e t h r o n e d t y r a n t who had h e l d sway i n one o f the L a t i n towns. On b e i n g d r i v e n out from t h e c i t y , as M e z e n t i u s had 30 been driven out from E t r u r i a , lie took his infant daughter with him, While f l e e i n g his pursuers, he was compelled to cross a wide r i v e r i n order to escape capture. His f i r s t impulse was to leap into the stream, but he was deterred by the thought of h i s small daughter. " I l l e innare parans, i n f a n t i s amore tardatur, caroque oneri timet. Quickly he devised a daring scheme whereby he could get her safely across. He swathed her to the middle of his spear shaft, then flung the weapon across the r i v e r ' s g u l f . As fate would have i t , the j a v e l i n ' s point found a safe resting-place i n the soft grassy turf of the farther shore. 1,1 etabus himself swam the r i v e r and, catching up the spear with i t s precious burden, quickly disappeared among the woodland. There among the h i l l s he l i v e d the rest of his l i f e , caring for Camilla as best he could, and t r a i n i n g her to be a f a i t h -f u l handmaid of Diana the. huntress. .. "utque pedum primis infans v e s t i g i a p l a n t i s i n s t i t e r a t , iaculo palmas armavit acuto, spiculaque ex umero parvae suspendit et arc'um. " (2) In these surroundings Camilla grew to womanhood and, remaining f a i t h f u l to the early t r a i n i n g which she had received from her father, she spent her days scouring the h i l l s of Lafcium for g a m e . . . . . . . . In the story thus f a r , the most interesting feature i s the strong a f f e c t i o n displayed by Metabus for h i s infant -daughter. In only one other instance has V i r g i l , i n his (l)Bk.Xl .LL549-V50:-. (2) Bk. XI vLL 570 - 573. 31 i n i m i t a b l e way, d e s c r i b e d the l o v e o f a f a t h e r f o r h i s d a u g h t e r , n a m e l y , i n the case o f . J u p p i t e r and V e n u s . I t i s a l m o s t u n r e a s o n a b l e to compare the two i n s t a n c e s , f o r the one i s much more r e a l i s t i c t h a n the o t h e r . However, inasmuch as t h e y b o t h d i s p l a y the p o e t ' s t e n d e r n e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare them to some e x t e n t . Of t h e two, the s t o r y o f C a m i l l a and h e r f a t h e r i s by f a r the most i m p r e s s i v e . Metabus r i s k e d h i s l i f e to save t h a t of h i s c h i l d w h i l e J u p p i t e r s i m p l y i n d u l g e d the whim o f h i s p e t u l a n t , y e t l o v e l y d a u g h t e r . Myers a p t l y w r i t e s i n h i s e s s a y on our p o e t , "Y/here has V i r g i l more s u b t l y m i n g l e d m a j e s t y w i t h sweetness t h a n i n the l i n e s w h i c h p a i n t h e r happy n u r t u r e among the woodlands where h e r f a t h e r was a b a n i s h e d Icing?" ( l ) We a r e n o t s u r p r i s e d to f i n d C a m i l l a " e x u l t i n g l i k e an Amazon" i n the f o r e f r o n t o f the I t a l i a n l i n e s . " B e l l a t r i x , non i l i a c o l o c a l a t h i s v e M i n e r v a e femineas a d s u e t a manus, sed p r o e l i a v i r g o d u r a p a t i , cursuque pedum p r a e v e r t e r e v e n t o s . " She has p e r s u a d e d T u r n u s to l e a v e h e r i n charge of the f o r c e s w h i l e he t a k e s to the h i l l s i n an e f f o r t to ensnare Aeneas. When she made t h e r e q u e s t , T u r n u s was t a k e n a b a c k , but the maiden and h e r band o f f o l l o w e r s , a l t h o u g h they had n e v e r b e f o r e engaged i n open w a r f a r e , had n e v e r t h e l e s s c r e a t e d an a d m i r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n f o r t h e m s e l v e s . W e l l aware o f the u n u s u a l courage i m p l i e d i n the mere a s k i n g o f such a r e q u e s t , T u r n u s l e a v e s h e r , w i t h h e r chosen companions and a band o f (1) E. W . H . M y e r s , "Es s ays C l a s s i c a l " , P . I 30 ( 2 ) B k . V l l , LL-,8 0 f-8 0 7 32 Volecian warriors to guard the walls of old Latinus' c i t y from the onrush of the Trojans, Fearlessly Camilla leads her comrades i n attacking the Trojans. She herself causes warrior a f t e r warrior to f a l l , defeating even Ornytus, t e r r i b l e i n h i s armour of b u l l ' s hide and helmet c l e v e r l y devised from a wolf's-head. She outran the steed of the d e c e i t f u l Aunus, and brought that warrior to earth in spite of his &&€-cltfU"l attempt to entrap her. So she continued to take her t o l l among her enemies. "Quotque eraissa manu contorsit spicula virgo, tot Phrygii cecidere v i r i . " (1) V i r g i l delights i n comparing her to the legendary Amazonian queens, Hippolyte and Penthesilea. Modern readers, however, must in e v i t a b l y c a l l to mind the immortal story of the Maid of Orleans. In spite of her enviable f i g h t i n g a b i l i t y , Camilla i s doomed to f a l l by the hand of a craven. A crafty Trojan warrior, Arruns by name, plans to watch her every move, being careful to keep out of her sight himself, u n t i l he sees a chance of s t r i k i n g her when she i s off her guard. He succeeds in doing p r e c i s e l y t h i s . The interesting point i s the reason fo r the maid's want of caution. In the course of the onslaught she catches sight of a Cybelean p r i e s t who i s adorned i n a l l h i s p r i e s t l y raiment. His amour, hi s robes, and his weapons gleam with gold and precious stones. The splendor of his raiment catches her woman's eye and she becomes oblivious to (l)Bk.Xl.LL,6 7 6 - 6 7 7 . 33 everyone but him. V i r g i l , q u a i n t l y remarks that she might have been obsessed w i t h a d e s i r e to adorn temples w i t h . b e a u t i f u l s p o i l s , or perhaps she wished to see h e r s e l f arrayed i n golden splendor, but i n any case she pursued him as a huntress pursues her p r i z e . We s t r o n g l y suspect that C a m i l l a i s very human a f t e r a l l and that her woman5 s love f o r f i n e r y i s the cause of her undoing. That she was undoubtedly fond of i t , we know from V i r g i l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of her i n Book V l l : "ut r e g i u s ostro v e l o t honos leves umeros., ut f i b u l a , crinem auro internec.tat. " (1) Is i t p o s s i b l e that V i r g i l had h i s female readers i n mind when he a t t r i b u t e d t h i s one weakness to the otherwise superb Camilla? In any case, t h i s enables the r e s t of us to maintain o u r . s e l f - r e s p e c t when we read the s t o r y , f o r we become aware of the f a c t that t h i s otherwise unusual woman had at l e a s t one weakness'. Whatever the cause of her d e s i r e , C a m i l l a covets the p r i e s t ' s armour. "totumque incauta per agmen f errineo praedae et spoliorum ardebat armore. " (2) Seeing h i s chance ,• Arruns f l i n g s a well-aimed spear which f i n d s i t s r e s t i n g p l ace i n the breast of the brave, though heedless maid. Powerless, she droops, l e t s f a l l the r e i n s , and tumbles to the ground. "vitaque cum gemitu f u g i t i n d i g n a t a sub umbras." (3) ( l ) B k . v l l ,11,815-816. (2)Bk.XI,LL, 781-2. (3)Bk.xl ,1,831. "Her s o u l , c hafing i n d i g n a n t l y , f l e d to the shades," - i n d i g -nant, because i t had been so young and vigorous and was now doomed to an endless p e r i o d of i n a c t i v i t y . The word "indignata might w e l l be used to de s c r i b e the departure of a soul from any young body. Indeed the whole phrase i s t y p i c a l of V i r g i l ' treatment of youth. Is i t not s i g n i f i c a n t that he repeats the l i n e j u s t quoted at the very end of Book X l l ? I t r e f e r s there of course, to the soul of. Turnus, who, though not a youth, had not passed the prime of l i f e when he was k i l l e d by Aeneas. I t matters not whether the term be a p p l i e d to C a m i l l a or Turnus or Lausus, As the poet sees i t , a l l had been denied, the opportunity of l i v i n g l i f e to the f u l l . So the soul of each, " i n d i g n a t a " , "maesta", q u i t s the body which i s f r i g i d i n death.. Modern l o v e r s of V i r g i l are not the only ones who f i n d C a m i l l a a s t r a n g e l y c a p t i v a t i n g c h a r a c t e r . Dante, who made h i s f e llow-poet and fellow-countryman h i s i d e a l , imagined that V i r g i l was h i s guide through the realms of the Blessed. When he supposedly met the Mantuan, Dante spoke w i t h him about t h e i r n a t i v e I t a l y . Immediately the name of C a m i l l a sprang to the l i p s of the Roman. I t was not L a v i n i a he mentioned, she who shared i n founding the great race of Romans, but C a m i l l a , the h untress, the Amazon. Surely t h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n that she stood out i n Dante's mind as one of the most v i v i d c haracters which V i r g i l describes i n the l a s t h a l f of h i s epic Ho doubt t h i s l o n e l y , yet amazingly l o v e l y 'young personage would f i r e the imagination of any poet. V i r g i l must have . • 35 enjoyed wr i t i n g her l i f e - s t o r y ; i n f a c t , the number of lines given to i t would indicate that he was carried away by the glamour of i t a l l . Yet he does not lament over her death as he does over the loss of Nisus and Euryalus, Pallas and Lausus.. Here are tne only two passages which can be compared at a l l to the b e a u t i f u l l i n e s describing Euryalus' death, and the pathetic passage which describes Aeneas' reaction after he had kill e d . Lausus. Both are put into the mouths of goddesses, but, l i k e the l i n e s just referred to, they reveal to a certain extent the poet's inter e s t i n his characters: "veilem haud correpta f u i s s e t m i l i t i a t a l i , conata lacessere Teucros." (1) "heu niniium, virgo, nimium crude!e l u i s t i supplicium, Teucros conata lacessere bello'." (2) The f i r s t passage was spoken by Diana when she became aware of Camilla's intentions to enter the f i g h t i n g f i e l d . The l a s t i s taken from the lament of Diana's messenger over the death of Camilla. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that i n each case the word "lacessere" i s repeated. As one editor remarks, this "emphasizes the wanton rashness of Camilla." There i s not (3) . the same in t e n s i t y . o f sentiment i n these passages as m the l i n e s describing the feelings of Mercury when Pallas prayed to him i n vain for guidance, f o r example. Could i t be poss-i b l e that i n the poet's estimation Camilla deserved her fate more than the young men? After a l l , she was a woman meddling i n the a f f a i r s of men. For th i s reason the poet might have (l)Bk.Xl 8 L L 5 8 4-586. (2)Bk.XI . L L 8 4 1 - 8 4 2 . (3)T.E.Page,Notes,P.-36 had more genuine sympathy with the young men than with h i s heroine. There s t i l l remains the fact that the sketch of the armed maid i s drawn with more d e f i n i t e l i n e s than that of any of the young men discussed thus f a r , with perhaps one exception, na,mely, Uisus. Readers of the "Aeneid" w i l l never cease to re j o i c e i n i t , f o r i t adequately relieves a dreary background of blood and slaughter. Like the Laurentians, young and old, who thronged the streets of Laurentum when Camilla rode past, and stood gazing at her open-mouthed> "prospectat euntem a t t o n i t i s inhians animis." ' ' ' (1) we are dazed by the b r i l l i a n c e of V i r g i l ' s most o r i g i n a l character. It i s only the b e a u t i f u l , tragic figure of Dido which can overshadow the warrior-maid, Camilla. A study of V i r g i l and Youth would not be complete unless some thought were given to the hero's son, Ascanius. Yet one does not enter wholeheartedly into an analysis of this person-a l i t y , for Ascanius i s colourless compared with the other-characters discussed thus f a r . Doubtless V i r g i l found i t d i f f i c u l t to make the hero's son an inte r e s t i n g figure because he was hampered by t r a d i t i o n i n portraying him. Ascanius, or Julus as he i s sometimes c a l l e d , i s an Indispensable character in the story, a part of the background as i t were, just as Aeneas himself i s . He i s not a glamorous figure inserted to hold the attention of the reader for a few f l e e t seconds, as (l ) B k . V l l . L L 813-814 • •- . • 37 Lausus or Camilla. He appears at the very beginning of the play and remains i n the background of every succeeding act as an uninteresting minor character. Because V i r g i l had to follow c e r t a i n well-defined t r a d i t i o n s i n describing Ascanius, he was forced to treat him i n a d i f f e r e n t way from his other youths. In spite of the fact that comparatively few li n e s are devoted to him, he i s mentioned i n every one of the twelve books i n some connection. Most of the passages which have reference to him are only two or three l i n e s i n length, while the very longest comprises only t h i r t y l i n e s . Since this i s true, a study of Ascanius necessitates a piecing together of odd l i n e s i n an e f f o r t to glean from them some de f i n i t e idea as to the youth's pers o n a l i t y . At the very outset, we expect to f i n d some reference to the small boy who f l e d with h i s father, mother, and grand-father from the ruins of Troy. There i s just one reference to him on t h i s occasion, but since that i s one of the most be a u t i f u l passages i n V i r g i l , i t cannot well be omitted. Aeneasi had decided to leave the burning c i t y with h i s family. He c a r r i e d his aged father on h i s back, took his small son's hand i n h i s , and t o l d h i s wife Creusa to follow him at a short distance: "dextrae.se parvus Julus im p l i c u i t sequiturque paiirem non passibus aequis." (1) This i s a passage which touoh.es the heart of every reader of V i r g i l . Yet, how simple i t is'. Certainly the tender human touch of the poet i s discernible here as in various other (l)'Bk.ll.LL 723-724. " L i t t l e Julus took firm clasp of my hand and accompanied his father with .unequal footsteps." passages, but i t i s not t h i s alone which causes the reader to pause here. It i s the poet's a b i l i t y to reconstruct in the reader's mind a complete picture of the scene, even though the fewest possible d e t a i l s are given. In other words, V i r g i l , l i k e a l l immortal poets, discovered the power of suggestion and employed i t s k i l f u l l y here and elsewhere. We see not only the father and son walking hand i n hand, but we see also the look of trustfulness on the face of the small boy as he gazes up into his father's strong features and s l i p s his small hand into h i s . We see the father's face softened by a tender smile as he looks down upon the sweet face of h i s c h i l d . Such a passage as this stands i n direc t contrast- to the solemn narrative which i s the strong f i b r e , as i t were, running throughout the whole story. The entire epic might be compared to a huge tapestry, r i c h l y dark i n colouring,, but relieved here and there by soft bright spots of rose and wine-red, and cream. The patches of l i g h t , b e a u t i f u l i n themselves, serve to add depth and d i s t i n c t i o n to the d u l l background. We assume that Ascanius was seven or eight years o l d when he l e f t Troy. Since the "Aeneid" does not deal i n d e t a i l with the wanderings of the Trojans from the time they l e f t Troy to the i r landing at Carthage f i v e years l a t e r , Ascanius, -when we next see him, has grown to vigorous boyhood. He i s now a lad of twelve or thirteen, and, as we expect,- i s interested in everything that i s going on. When his father leaves his ship and goes to present g i f t s to Queen Dido, he sends Achates back to fetch Ascanius, so that he might witness a l l the ceremony. "Aeneas (neque enim patrius consistere mentem passus amor') ,rapidum as. navis' praemi'ttlt .Achaten, Ascanio ferat haec ipsumque ad moenia ducat; omnis i n Ascanio c a r i stat cura parentis" (1) The strong attachment of father to son here manifested i s an aspect of character which V i r g i l very frequently brings to th fore. It i s a point which merits special study i n i t s e l f . I i s s u f f i c i e n t here to note that the poet has not forgotten Ascanius and that he imagines him no longer a c h i l d , but a growing boy. While the Trojans winter at Carthage, Aeneas and his party f i n d time, to engage in a few amusements. On one occas-ion they make arrangements with Dido f o r a hunting party. After a l l d e t a i l s are se t t l e d , Aeneas and Dido with their respective attendants set out on horseback for the f o o t h i l l s on a bright autumn morning. Ascanius, boy-like, i s very much excited at the prospect of going on a r e a l hunting expedition In no time he i s r i d i n g f a r ahead of the rest of the party, scanning the countryside f o r game. Not being able to see any-thing s u f f i c i e n t l y large or f i e r c e to at t r a c t his attention, he begins to wish f o r the sight of a foaming boar or a tawny l i o n : "At puer Ascanius medius i n v a l l i b u s a c r i gaudet equo, iamque hos cursu, iam pr a e t e r i t i l l o s , spumantemque dari pecora i n t e r i n e r t i a votis optat aprum aut fulvum descend ere monte leonem." ( 2 ) (l)Bk.I,LL 64-3-646. (2) Bk.1V ,LL 156-159. 40 How s k i l f u l l y V i r g i l has conveyed to us t h e a d v e n t u r o u s s p i r i t o f boyhood'. We have s e e n t h a t he u n d e r s t o o d c h i l d h o o d and e v e n , b a b y h o o d ; . now we see h e r e t h a t he has caught the. s p i r i t o f h e a l t h y b o y - l i f e . How l i k e a boy to r u s h ahead of everyone e l s e and s c o u t f o r h i m s e l f . How l i k e him to s c o r n s m a l l game and w i s h f e r v i d l y f o r a sudden e n c o u n t e r w i t h a f i e r c e l i o n ' . Aeneas ma.de a f i n a l d e c i s i o n to l e a v e C a r t h a g e i n s p i t e o f t h e e n t r e a t i e s o f the p a s s i o n a t e D i d o , He s a i l s from t h e r e to S i c i l y , where games a r e c e l e b r a t e d a t the tomb of A n c h i s e s . T r u e to h i s n a r r a t i v e , V i r g i l does not f o r g e t the y o u t h f u l J u l u s , f o r we f i n d him l i s t e d as a l e a d e r of the young horsemen - t h e c a d e t s , as i t w e r e . He happens to . occupy a p o s t a t the end off the c o l u m n , but V i r g i l i m a k e s s u r e t h a t w e know what a f i n e a p p e a r a n c e he makes i "Extremus formaque a n t e omnia p u l c h e r J u l u s . " (1) I t i s w h i l e the T r o j a n p a r t y i s encamped at A n c h i s e s ' tomb t h a t A s c a n i u s f i r s t g i v e s p r o o f o f r e a l i z i n g h i s r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y as A e n e a s ' son and k i n g - t o - b e o f the new T r o j a n s e t t l e m e n t . The T r o j a n women have s e t f i r e to the s h i p s i n the h a r b o r and the whole camp i s i n an u p r o a r . A s c a n i u s , p r e -o c c u p i e d by h i s d u t i e s on the s p o r t ' s f i e l d , s u d d e n l y n o t i c e s t h e smoke r o l l i n g upwards i n g r e a t c l o u d s . He dashes i n g r e a t h a s t e to the h a r b o r and c o n f r o n t s the r e f r a c t o r y women, s h o u t i n g t h u s : "non hastern i n i m i c a q u e c a s t r a A r g i v u m , v e s t r a s spes u r i t i s , En 5 .ego v e s t e r A s c a n i u s ! '•" (2) • ( l ) B k . V , L 570. (2) B k . V . L L 671-673., He hopes "by h i s very presence to avert panic,- "but, since his father rides up almost immediately behind him, he i s not given an opportunity. We are l e f t wondering as to just how much influence the lad might have exerted. For the meantime, he is overshadowed by his father. It i s noticeable, however, that Ascanius, a f t e r this incident, assumes more and more respons-i b i l i t y as a prince of royal blood. When the party f i n a l l y reaches I t a l y , Aeneas chooses a camping s i t e and f o r t i f i e s i t strongly. Preparing to face the Rutuliahs as best he can, he leaves the camp i n charge of h i s council with the understanding that Ascanius i s to act as his personal representative. A l l instructions given, he s a i l s up the r i v e r to Pallanteum i n search of a l l i e s . It i s in his absence that Hisus and Euryalus make their heoric attempt to get a message through the enemy's l i n e s to him. It w i l l be remembered that Ascanius' name appears f a i r l y often in the f i r s t part of that e p y i l i o n . He i t i s who f i r s t notices the p a i r approaching the council r i n g . He urges the youths to attempt the proposed enterprise; i n fact, he shows great eagerness i n promising them rewards. We note with interest that he addresses Euryalus as a youth of his O W B J age: These words sound strangely d i g n i f i e d to be uttered by a boy of f i f t e e n . It seems that there i s an attempt here on the part of the poet to make the lad appear older than he r e a l l y toto accipio et comitem casus complector i n omnes." (1) i s. (1) Bk.lX, LL 275-277. 42 This i s s t i l l more evident in the two l i n e s which occur below those above quoted: "ante annos animumque gerens curamve v i r i l e m , multa p a t r i mandata dabat portanda." (i) Thee© r e f e r to the bearing of Ascanius as he withdraws from the council and p r i v a t e l y gives Hisus a message to carry to his father. As one commentator remarks, these l i n e s have almost an apologetic a i r . The boy has very suddenly become a man, and i s now acting the part of a prince to perfection. In f a c t , he i s given the name of "prince",("regem",L.223) here for the f i r s t time. It i s apparent that the poet i s now tryi n g to portray him i n more d e f i n i t e colors then heretofore. In r e a l i t y , i t i s only i n this ninth book that he i s brought into any degree of prominence. We s h a l l soon discover whether or not he i s to be numbered among V i r g i l ' s immortal youths. During h i s father's absence from camp, Ascanius has his f i r s t opportunity to t r y h i s s k i l l at arms. On the morning after the murder of 1-Iisus and Euryalus, Turnus breaks his agreement with Aeneas and attacks the Trojan camp. Ascanius, unnoticed by anyone, qui e t l y takes a place on the battlements and bides h i s time. Presently he catches sight of the huge frame of Numanus , Turnus' brother-in-law, watches his pompous flaunting of himself i n front of the Trojans, and hears his loud boasts. He i s throwing taunts mercilessly, going so far as to c a l l the Phrygians women. "0 vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges."(2) (1)Bk.IX,LL 3 I I - 3 1 2 . (2) Bk.lX, L 6 l 7 Ascanius cannot "brook this vainglorious speech. Drawing his bow, and praying at the same "-time* he l e t s f l y his arrow. It pierces the temples of the braggart. Ascanius, exulting i n his v i c t o r y , i s now thoroughly possessed by the war-god's fury. Before any harm can come to Julus, the scene changes. Apollo has witnessed the boy's deedt and, r e a l i z i n g the nec-e s s i t y of preserving the l i f e of t h i s "dis genite et geniture deos," intervenes. Disguising himself as Ascanius' bodyguard, the god descends to earth, and advises the youth to withdraw from the f i g h t - "parce, puer, b e l l o . " The Trojan leaders recognize the god and immediately p u l l Ascanius, now eager for the fray, to a place of safety. There i s something grotesque about this incident when compared with the s t o r i e s of any of the other youths i n whom we are interested. This i s the f i r s t time that Julus i s allowed to show any i n i t i a t i v e , and then to think that he i s c a r e f u l l y withdrawn i n the very heat of the battle'. We are disappointed, to say the l e a s t . We cannot blame the poet for t h i s outcome, for he dared not expose Ascanius to any danger. The boy must be g l o r i f i e d , for he i s to be the future ruler of Latium. He must be mentioned because he i s Aeneas' royal son. Yet he must be kept out of harm's way for the sake of the future h i s t o r y of the race. Taking these things into consider-ation V i r g i l handles the incident t a c t f u l l y . The boy has no • longer the charm of childhood and he i s not old enough to assume r e a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , yet V i r g i l endows him with the q u a l i t i e s which make for leadership. He i s fe a r l e s s , 44 diplomatic, and sympathetic with the sorrows of others. This i s the be3t that can he expected of him. V i r g i l does not have the opportunity of making him another P a l l a s . MeKail ade-quately sums up these thoughts i n the following statement: "As i n Book Eight he i s eclipsed by P a l l a s , and i n Book Ten by Lausus, so he i s here by Euryalus; t h e i r beautiful and tragic figures leave l i t t l e scope f o r the boy who i s sedulously kept out of a l l chance of danger." (l) V i r g i l gives us one or two f i n a l glimpses of Julus i n Book X l l . There i s rather a touching fondness of Aeneas and his son f o r each other displayed here. When Aeneas accepts the challenge of Turnus, the boy i s very much upset about the coming combat between Aeneas and his r i v a l , so much so, i n f a c t , that Aeneas t r i e s to comfort him: "turn socios maestique me turn solatur J u l i . " (2) Later when Aeneas rides f o r t h to make terms of peace with Latinus, Ascanius i s by his side. " i t juxta Ascanius, magna e spes a l t e r a Rornae . " (3) The terms of peace are of course broken almost as soon as they are made, and the skirmish begins afresh. Exerting a l l hi s energy i n leading on his men, Aeneas i s taken off his guard and receives a deep wound. He i s carr i e d to his tent, where an aged doctor removes the arrowhead from the wound and dresses i t . Being greatly refreshed, Aeneas i s preparing to take the f i e l d a second time. He pauses while donning h i s armour to f l i n g a mailed arm about the neck of hi s son. (l)McKail.Intro.to Bk.lX. (2)Bk.Xll , L 1 1 0. (3)Bk.Xll,L,168. 4 5 Hurriedly k i s s i n g the boy, he bids him follow his example i n future years when he has grown to manhood; "tu f a c i t o , mox cum matura adoleverit aetas, s i s aiemor, et te animo repetentem exempla tuorum et pater Aeneas et avunculus excitet Hector." (1) This i s the l a s t time Ascanius i s mentioned i n the "Aeneid". We are l e f t with the impression that he ie s t i l l a very young lad. We are not convinced that he i s a l l that V i r g i l t r i e s to make him i n Book IX; yet we must be s a t i s f i e d with the assur-ance that he i s "the second hope of the Roman Empire." • A discussion of the l i f e and deeds of the boy Ascanius concludes the series of main topics which come within the scope of t h i s essay. One hesitates to add anything more because of the possible danger of losing the main threads of the argument thus far; but, on the other hand, one feels that the subject i s not quite complete. There are a number of comparatively minor passages in the "Aeneid" and the "Eclogues", a l l of them describing in. some way youth or i t s a c t i v i t i e s , which seem t r i v i a l beside the episodes of Camilla and Pallas, but yet contain some of the most exquisite lines i n the whole of V i r g i l ' s wri tings. Eor this reason, i t seems f o l l y to omit them. They are widely scattered, and w i l l not be mentioned in any p a r t i c u l a r order. An attempt w i l l be made to group them according to poetic beauty, though i t i s almost impossible to do even t h i s , for each i s superb in i t s own way. For shere beauty of metrical form, there i s no passage i n V i r g i l which surpasses an excerpt from the Eighth Eclogue. ( i ) B k . x n , L L 438-440.- : It i s taken from the f i r s t h a l f of the poem, which t e l l s the disappointment of a young lover at being j i l t e d by hi s loved one. The l i n e s deal with the lovers reminiscences of t h e i r f i r s t meeting as children. "saepibus i n nostris parvam te roscida mala -dux ego vester eram-vidi cum matre legentem, a l t e r ab undecimo turn me iam acceperat annus iam f r a g i l e s poteram ab te r r a contingere ramos, ut v i d i , ut p e r i i '. ut me malus a b s t u l i t error! 11 (1) The passage i s an imitation of Theocritus, but the Latin i s unmistakably V i r g i l i a n . It has the s i m p l i c i t y and the fresh-ness which characterizes the best of the Roman poet's work. In comparing t h i s passage with the similar one i n Theocritus i t i s found that the following touches are V i r g i l ' s own: "parvam te", "roscida mala", and the two l i n e s beginning " a l t e r ab undecimo" and "iam f r a g i l e s poteram". If the lines are deprived of these words, a l l the pathetic tenderness i s gone. The pathos i s heightened by the rVthm of the l i n e s , A which i s p l a i n t i v e and melancholy. These l i n e s received the highest praise from Macaulay and V o l t a i r e . Here i s an extract (1) -.Eclogue V l l l , LL 38-42. " Twas i n our c r o f t s I sav; thee, a g i r l thy mother beside, Plucking the apples dewy, myself thy p i l o t and guide: Years I had numbered eleven, the twelfth was beginning to run. Scarce was I able-to reach from the ground to the branches that snapped. Ah, when I saw how I perished', to f a t a l f o l l y was rapt'." Trans.by S i r C.Bowen,cited by T y r e l l , " L a t i n Poetry",P.146 47 from one of the former's l e t t e r s : "I think that the f i n e s t l i n e s i n the L a t i n language are those which begin 'saepibus in n o s t r i s ' . I cannot t e l l you how they struck me. I was amused to f i n d that V o l t a i r e pronounces this passage to be the finest i n V i r g i l . " (1) As regards pure beauty of d i c t i o n , one hesitates to quote any one example from V i r g i l . So many of his l i n e s are graced with simple, yet p e c u l i a r l y e f f e c t i v e words. This quality more than any other convinces the reader of the poet's genius. As has been remarked before, V i r g i l discovered the power of suggestion and used i t to best advantage. There i s a very short passage describing the I t a l i a n maid Lavinia which i s exceptionally f i n e . Though i t contains only six l i n e s , i t i s the longest passage devoted to her. The reader assumes before t h i s that she i s b e a u t i f u l , but i t needs only some three l i n e s from V i r g i l to s e t t l e the point; "accepit vocem lacrimis Lavinia matris flagrantes perfusa genas, cui plurimus ignem subiecit rubor, et calefacta per ora c u c u r r i t . Indum saiiguineo v e l u t i v i o l a v e r i t ostro s i quis ebur, aut mixta rubent ubi l i l i a muita alba rosa: tales virgo dabat ore colores. *• (2) It i s true that one figure which V i r g i l uses here, namely, "Indum ebur", i s d i r e c t l y borrowed from Homer: yet what could be more be a u t i f u l than the comparison which V i r g i l himself added? "As when some hand hath s u l l i e d Indian ivory with bloodred st a i n , or when white l i l i e s blent with many a rose seern red. » (3) It i s P e r f e c t l y simple, but f u l l of suggestive power. ( l ) L i f e and Letters of Lord Macaulay"!,371.(2)Bk.Xll,LL.64—69 (3) Translated by Pap i l l o n and Haigh. There i s a short simile i n Book Vil-"- which r e f l e c t s V i r g i l ' s appreciation of youth's eagerness while at play. The f i g u r e i s used, strangely enough^to describe the actions of Amata, who i s the aged wife of the I t a l i a n king, Latinus. She has just r e a l i z e d the hopelessness of the I t a l i a n cause and, goa,ded by frenzy, she i s raging through the streets of the town l i k e a Bacchante. V i r g i l compares her dizzy movements to the whirls of a top flung from a cord by boyish hands. The actual comparison of the gyrations of a human being to the c i r c l i n g of a top was made by Homer, Whether or not V i r g i l borrowed the idea i s of l i t t l e importance, for i t bears un-mistakable signs of his genius. Here i s V i r g i l ' s passage;. "ceu quondam torto volitans sub verbere turbo, quern pueri magno i n gyro vacua a t r i a circum i n t e n t i -ludo exercent; i l l e actus habena curvatis f e r t u r s p a t i i s ; stupet i n s c i a supra impubesque manus, mirata v o l u b i l e buxum; dant animos plagae: non cursu segnioc i l l o per medias urbes agitur populosque feroces," (1) (1) B k . V l l , LL 378-384-. "As spins a top beneath the whirling lash, driven i n great c i r c l e s round some empty court by boys a l l rapt i n their play; i n c i r c l i n g course i t moves beneath the throng, while over i t in c h i l d i s h wonder stands the beardless, troop, amazed at the spinn-ing boxwood, as t h e i r lashes lend i t l i f e - with no less swiftness f l i e s Amata through crowded streets and warlike throngs." Trans.by P a p i l l o n & Haigh. 49 Homer's passage just contained a "bare simile., comparing the t w i r l i n g of a man's "body to the spinning of a top. V i r g i l elaborates upon this simile by mentioning the boys who f l i n g the top and describing t h e i r eager p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the sport. He deserves just as much cr e d i t for doing this as the Greeks do for copying the clumsy c y l i n d r i c a l p i l l a r s of the Egyptians and developing from them the b e a u t i f u l l y balanced Doric and Ionic columns. Ti b u l l u s has a passage involving the same figure d i s -cussed above. For the sake of comparison, i t i s quoted here: "namque agor, ut per plana citus sola verbere turben, quern celer assueta versat ab arte puer." ( 1 ) What i s i t that makes V i r g i l ' s l i n e s so much more impressive? What words does he employ to put the breath of l i f e into them? We f i n d on close examination that he merely adds a few very simple d e t a i l s . When we read his l i n e s , instead of v i s u a l -i z i n g just a boy hurl i n g h i s top to the ground, we picture a c i r c l e of boys, "intent! ludo", f l i n g i n g down their tops, then, with heads together, bending over to watoh them spin-ning. We can almost hear their shouts. We have a l l seen such a scene many times and we r e j o i c e inwardly at the thought of ruddy, boyish faces a l i g h t with eagerness. Again V i r g i l ' s a b i l i t y to suggest i s unmistakable. There are two short episodes which deserve mention here because they show V i r g i l ' s understanding of certain r e l a t i o n -ships and q u a l i t i e s of youth which are not treated elsewhere. ( l ) T i b u l l u s , I.5.3. 50 One of these i s a story -which t e l l s of the love between two brothers. The p a i r , who were both very t a l l and powerful, had been stationed by Aeneas at one of the gates leading into the Trojan f o r t . There they stood guard " l i k e two t a l l pines." "abietibus invenes p a t r i i s et montibus aequos." (1) When the Rutulians unexpectedly attacked the camp, these two "beardless youths", Pandarus and B i t i a s by name, took i t upon themselves to open the gate which they were guarding and together meet the onrushing horde of I t a l i a n s . Because of t h e i r great strength, they were able to maintain their p o s i t i o n for some time. Turnus, hearing of the disturbance, set out to f i n d the two brothers who were causing such havoc amongst his troops. He slew B i t i a s as he approached the passage-way. Pandarus saw that fortune had now turned against him; se t t i n g h i s broad shoulders to the door, he forced i t shut. Unfortunately Turnus was l e f t inside the walls'. The Rutulian raged madly with a l l the fury of Mars. "Turn Pandarus ingens emicat et mortis fraternae fervidus i r a ef f a t u r . " (2) The death of B i t i a s had f i r e d the blood of Pandarus and he challenged Turnus single-handed. The gods did not favor him. With one mighty blow Turnus c l e f t his head i n twain. In t h i s incident we catch a glimpse of the inte n s i t y of brother's fondness for brother. More than t h i s , we are re-minded of the impetuosity of Euryalus and Lausus. Youth ever (l)Bk.lX,L 674. (2) Bk.lX,LL 735-737-51 g l o r i e s i n i t s strength "summis adnixus viribus"(L.744) and knows no fear. What a bold gesture to open the gates of the garrison to the enemy'. This act was the beginning of great slaughter among the Trojans and a l l but caused th e i r anni-h i l a t i o n . Who but "impubes invenes" would be g u i l t y of such indiscretion? The story of Dares and Entellus i a quite d i f f e r e n t from the one above, but i t i l l u s t r a t e s somewhat the same point. The scene i s the tomb of Anchises i n S i c i l y . At Aeneas5 command, funeral games were being held. A l l went well u n t i l i t came time for the boxing match. Dares, a youthful boxer, had made his reputation i n old Troy. So remarkable was i t that no one now wished to challenge him. P u l l of confidence he suggested that, since t h i s was true, Aeneas might give him the prize without further ado, Aeneas seemed disposed to comply with this request 'when suddenly a challenger appeared i n the person of aged En t e l l u s , a wrestler who had won fame in his youth for remarkable strength and endurance. Although he was now totter-ing with age, the muscles of his powerful srms were s t i l l hard from much exercise, Aeneas t i e d to the hands of both^, boxing-gloves of equal weight and they began to parry, " i l l e pedum melior motu fretusque iuventa, hie membris et mole valens: sed tarda trementi genua labant, vastos quatit aeger anhelitus artus." (1) Dares, being l i t h e and quick, evaded one of E n t e l l u s 9 strokes and the old veteran sank to the ground with the weight of his (l.)..Bk.v',LL 430-432. 52 own blow. This did not discourage him, however. He was soon on h i s feet again, "acrior ad pugnarn. « Now he battered the younger man with such a shower of blows that Aeneas had to intervene i n order to stop the contest. "sed finem imposuit pugnae fessumque Dareta e r i p u i t , mule ens d i c t i s . " (1) Aeneas "rescued" the beaten Dares and his friends carried him senseless from the p l a i n , leaving the v i c t o r ' s prize to E n t e l l u s . V i r g i l seems to take delight i n recording the defeat of the young athlete who had considered himself so worthy of the v i c t o r ' s prize that i t was not necessary for 'him to compete i n order to win i t . Dares i s one of the few youths i n the "Aeneid" who boasts of h i s might without giving proof of possessing i t . Even Pandarus and, B i t i a s , foolhardy though they were, won our admiration by displaying unusual courage. There i s l i t t l e to admire i n Dares; we f e e l , with the poet, that he deserved his fate. The l a s t of the minor incidents which w i l l be mentioned i s one of the most bea u t i f u l passages yet c i t e d . It i s taken from V i r g i l ' s masterpiece, Book VI of the "Aeneid", where i t occurs near the end. The few l i n e s to be discussed were not o r i g i n a l l y a part of the poem, but were inserted by the poet at the death of Augustus 5 nephew, young Marcellus. This young man had been adopted by Augustus and chosen as his successor. At the age of eighteen, he was married to Augustus' daughter, J u l i a . At the age of twenty, he was the (l)Bk.V,BL 463-464. 53 darl i n g not only of his mother and uncle, hut also of the Roman people as a whole. He was a gentle-natured lad who gave promise of developing into an i l l u s t r i o u s man. Unfortunately, as V i r g i l says, he was unable to a l t e r h i s fate; i n 23 B.C. at the age of twenty he f e l l prey to a malarial fever and i n spite of every care died at Baiae. Sidgwick has the following note on his death; "He was "buried amid the tears of Rome in the mausoleum of Augustus near the Tiber: and i t i s said that his mother fainted when V i r g i l r e c i t e d this splendid and pathetic passage i n the emperor's presence. The poet i s supposed to have added these l i n e s to the poem, which -was then probably already written: and he i s said to have received from Octavia 10,000 sesterces for each l i n e . " (1) Here are a few Of the l i n e s which moved the mother of Marcellus so strongly. They are spoken by the shade of Anchises i n :the lower world. "Heu pietas, heu p r i s c a f i d e s , invictaque b e l l o 6 u£ I* © 3? SL \ •• 9 * * • * » * • • * • * • • o « • • • Heu miserande puer, s i qua fata aspera rumpas, tu> Marcellus e r i s t Manibus date l i l i a p l e n i s , piirpur eos spargam f lores an imam que nepotis hi s saltern accumulem donis et fungar inani munere." • (2) Anchises imagines that he i s attending the funeral of Marcellus and t r i e s to convey to Aeneas the depth of fe e l i n g he would have on that occasion. Ho passage more f u l l of (1) Sidgwick ,Vo 1.11,P. 314. (2) Bk.Vl.LL 878-886 54 pathos could be found i n any l i t e r a t u r e , These l i n e s serve well as the funeral dirge of a l l the youthful characters whose premature death V i r g i l has recorded one a f t e r the other -.young men and women, noble i n character, and dauntless i n war. They passed away, being unable to "break th e i r fate", and l e f t parents and comrades weeping beside tombs erected a l l too soon. The mother who wept beside the grave of Euryalus, the aged father who flung himself upon the b i e r of P a l l a s , the warrior who was spurred on to renew the fight by the death of his son Lausus, the f a i t h f u l com-panions who c a r r i e d Camilla from the f i e l d cold i n death, the Roman Octavia who fainted at the mention of her son - a l l were plunged into the abyss of passionate g r i e f . A l l believed i n some t e r r i b l y powerful "Pate" out of whose clutches i t had been impossible f o r t h e i r young people to escape. They did not blame themselves for causing the wars i n which the majority of these unfinished l i v e s were cut short; they had no hope that God might have taken them from their midst to f u l f i l l more worthy purposes. They could not ask with Tennyson, "How know I what,had need of thee?" The famous Dr.Arnold of Rugby died before he was forty-seven. One of his biographers says: "When we see a l i f e of such immense p o s s i b i l i t i e s of usefulness and work cut short, i t i s very hard to believe that a l l i s well. We can only rest on such words as:'What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter'. We must believe that such souls are c a l l e d away to other labors i n some more perfect place., l e a v i n g behind an example f o r us to t r y to i m i t a t e . " This represents adequately the C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of view. What a sharp c o n t r a s t between t h i s and V i r g i l ' s f e e b l e words: "Heu miserande puer, s i qua f a t a asp era rump as. " To use the f i g u r e employed by Dr.H.T.J.Coleman i n an e x q u i s i t l i t t l e poem e n t i t l e d "Sorrow", we can see the shrouded form o Sorrow when we read these l i n e s , but, s t r a i n our eyes as we may, we cannot perceive that she i s weaving the rose of f a i t h She i s r a t h e r weaving a "chaplet of l o s t hopes and v a i n d e s i r e s . " "She stood beside me i n the f a d i n g l i g h t , Her h a i r was dusk of t w i l i g h t , and her eyes The f i r s t f a i n t s t a r s of the slow-coming night And the sad g l o r y of the p a l e moonrise. Upon her breast she wore a tender flower That b r a v e l y had withstood the ardent sun And the rude b u f f e t i n g s of wind and shower Only to hang- i t s head when day was done. For a b r i e f space her look on me i n c l i n e d ; No word she spoke, but I could hear her breathing In the s o f t whisper of the evening wind; And a l l the w h i l e her hands were wreathing A chaplet of l o s t hopes and v a i n d e s i r e s , Of f o i l e d ambitions, vanished e c s t a c i e s , And a s p i r a t i o n s withered by the f i r e s Of hate and cynic scorn; and then w i t h these . A s i n g l e rose she wove which made them seem No longer symbol of decay and death; Before my tear-dimmed eyes there shone a gleam Of springtime and of morn. That rose was f a i t h . " (1) (1} "Sorrow", b y H.T.J.Coleman. 56 Despite the fact that V i r g i l lacked.the C h r i s t i a n view of i m m o r t a l i t y , he approached i t more c l o s e l y than any c l a s s i c a l poet. This f a c t was noted very e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of the C h r i s t i a n Church/ w i t h the r e s u l t that the Roman poet was regarded as a prophet by the apostles of C h r i s t . In the Cathedral of Zamora h i s bust appears among the images of C h r i s t i a n seers. At Limoges-and Rheims as l a t e as the F i f t e e n t h Century, the f o l l o w i n g words were included i n a chant sung at the Christmas-tide: " 0 Haro, prophet of the G e n t i l e s , bear thou thy witness unto C h r i s t . " This aston-i s h i n g i n t e r e s t i n V i r g i l on the p a r t of the e a r l y church i s 'generally conceded to be a t t r i b u t a b l e to an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Fourth Eclogue which numbers V i r g i l among the prophets of C h r i s t 1 s b i r t h . This a l s o has been used as an explanation f o r that strange custom common among C h r i s t i a n s of the e a r l y c e n t u r i e s of using the "Aeneid" f o r purposes of d i v i n a t i o n . The p r a c t i c e was to open a copy of the poem at random and obtai n the "Sortee V i r g i l i a n a e " from the f i r s t l i n e that caught the eye. A f t e r reading the epic i n i t s e n t i r e t y , one wonders i f the poem i t s e l f d i d not i n s p i r e , at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , t h i s uncanny b e l i e f i n V i r g i l ' s magic. As has been p r e v i o u s l y noted, he manifests a sympathy f o r humanity i n the throes of hardship and sorrow approaching i n i n t e n s i t y the f e e l i n g s of Jesus h i m s e l f . Then there i s contained i n the poem that s t r a i n of melancholy which a, study of V i r g i l ' s treatment of youth r e v e a l s more c l e a r l y than a study of any other phase of h i s work. That V i r g i l prophesied C h r i s t ' s coming i s doubtful. That he shared h i s devotion to the cause of humanity i s i n d i s p u t a b l e . • Many l o v e r s of V i r g i l , both ancient and modern, have been i n t e r e s t e d i n V i r g i l ' s s e m i - C h r i s t i a n philosophy. Dante placed him among those whose one i n v o l u n t a r y f a u l t was that they were not b a p t i z e d . Glover, i n speaking of the p h i l o s -ophers of the c l a s s i c a l world, says, "Dark night enwraps t h e i r heads w i t h hovering gloom: V i r g i l i s t h e i r s o l i t a r y rearguard and i s on the very confines of the day." Again he remarks, "To minds touched w i t h the same sense of l i f e ' s problems which pervades the poetry of V i r g i l , the Gospel brought the r e s t and peace which they could not f i n d e l s e -where." In a mass of St.Paul there are a few stanzas which show true a p p r e c i a t i o n of V i r g i l ' s work and d i s c l o s e the one t h i n g which i t lacked i n order to make i t the epic of a l l humanity. In these verses, w r i t t e n by an unknown student of the poet, S t . P a u l , i t i s supposed, v i s i t s V i r g i l ' s mausoleum and being deeply impressed by the occasion, u t t e r s these words "Ad Maronis mausoleum Ductus f u d i t super eum Piae rorem lacrimae; 'Quern te,' i n q u i t . r e d d i d i s s e m S i te vivum invenissem Poetarum maximel ' " (1) (1) . "Ah». had I but found thee l i v i n g , What ne?? music wert thou g i v i n g , Best of poets and most dear'. " C i t e d by Comparetti, " V i r g i l i n the Middle Ages." B i b l i o g r a p h y . Comparetti, Domenico : " V i r g i l i n the Middle Ages" Swan Sannenschein & Co. , London, 1895. Glover, T..R. : " V i r g i l " Macmillan Co. New York, 1912. Henry, Dr.James : "Aeneidea" W i l l i a m and Norgate London, 1873. ffiackail, J.W. : " V i r g i l ' s "Aeneid" The Clarendon Press Oxford, 1930. M a c k a i l , J.W. : " V i r g i l and h i s Meaning to the World - of Today" Geo.G.Harrap & Co. , London Myers, P.W.H. "Essays C l a s s i c a l " Macmillan Co. London, 1904. Page, T.E. : " P . V e r g i l i Maronis Bucolica et Georgica" Macmillan Co. London, 1926. Page, T.E. "The Aeneid of V i r g i l " V o l s . 1 & 11. Macmillan Co. London, 1929. Papillon,T.L., and Haigh.A.E. ; "P. Y e r g i l i Maronis Opera" Vol. 1 & 11. Clarendon Press Oxford , 1892. S e l l a r , W.Y. : " V i r g i l " Clarendon Press Oxford , 1929. S i d g w i c k , A . : " P . V e r g i l i Maronis Opera" V o l . 1 1 . University press Cambridge, 1914, T a y l o r , E.F. : "The Aeneid of V i r g i l " (Translated into English) Vols. 1 & 11, J.M.Dent & Co., London, 1906. T v r r e i l ^ RA. V " L a t i n P o e T q * FAGL c m i 11 a n a , n d C o v L o n d o n ^ f <?O0 

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