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The ethics of the Spectator and the Tatler Doherty, Sheila Martin 1933

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THE ETHICS OP THE SPECTATOR AID THE T A T L E E  Sheila  A Thesis  Martin  submitted  Doherty  for  the  Degree  of  MASTER OF ARTS i n the  Department of English  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May,  1933  I. II,  III,  Introduction,  Page  1*  Page  3»  O b j e c t o f t h e S p e c t a t o r and T a t l e r - General E t h i c a l Theory.  Page  18,  E t h i c a l Theory Application,  Page  36,  Page  72.  I d e o l o g i c a l Background the S p e c t a t o r a n d t h e Tatler.  of  ;  IV. V.  Conclusion,  -  Practical  Introduction. In t h i s study an endeavor w i l l be made t o estimate the value  o f the e t h i c a l t e a c h i n g  Spectator  and T a t l e r .  contained  I n order  i n the essays o f the  to a r r i v e a t a j u s t  i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f i r s t  opinion  p l a c e t o c o n s i d e r the  i d e o l o g i c a l background o f the time i n which the e s s a y i s t s were w r i t i n g .  The f i r s t  p a r t of the study t h e r e f o r e w i l l be  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n which was t a k i n g  place  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e towards moral i s s u e s and w i l l i n c l u d e a summary of the t e a c h i n g s  of Hobbes, the P l a t o n i s t s -  Whichcote, More and Cumberland-Locke, Shaftesbury, the D e i s t s and M a n d e v i l l e  Berkeley,  which i n f l u e n c e d the w r i t i n g s of  Addison and S t e e l e , In t h e second p l a c e the avowed purpose of Addison and S t e e l e and the general  e t h i c a l theory which i s expressed i n  the essays must be c o n s i d e r e d .  The second s e c t i o n of the  paper t h e r e f o r e w i l l be devoted t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e motives which these e s s a y i s t s advanced f o r u n d e r t a k i n g task of i n s t r u c t i n g the p u b l i c and w i l l  the  i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i on  of the e s s a y i s t s ' a t t i t u d e towards e t h i c a l problems i n general. In the t h i r d p l a c e the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e i r theory t o e x i s t i n g moral i s s u e s must be d e a l t w i t h .  The  third the  section  particular  s h o u l d have for  of the  debt,  schools  paper t h e r e f o r e  questions  i n which the  been i n t e r e s t e d - - p r i s o n  the  treatment  e d u c a t i o n f o r women^ m a r r i a g e , d r i n k i n g and d u e l l i n g , to  contrast  free their  Swift  and F i e l d i n g and w i t h t h e  informative writers In conclusion i t  judgment task  of  like  manner i n w h i c h  which they  had u n d e r t a k e n .  ethical  of  the  instruction.  servants,  education,  gaming,  Here i t  reformers  will  the  like of  be  with  the  Defoe,  uncritical  Brown and M i s s o n .  w i l l be n e c e s s a r y  the  an e v a l u a t i o n  charity  observations  Ward,  or  punishment,  and s u g g e s t i o n s  of p r a c t i c a l  with  imprisonment  prostitution,  ideas  and s u g g e s t i o n s  yet  of  concerned  e s s a y i s t s were  thinking.  ideas  he  reform,  criminal law^corporal  and a l m s h o u s e s ,  necessary  will  to  give  essayists  This  judgment  p e r i o d i c a l essay a s a  a  general  fulfilled will  the  involve  medium f o r  II. I d e o l o g i c a l Background o f the Spectator  and T a t l e r .  One of the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e i g h t e e n t h century was a general The  interest i n philosophical speculation.  p u b l i e a t i on of Bacon's I n s t a u r a t i o Magna i n 1620 had  awakened i n the minds of men an i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n t i f i c theories regarding fruit  the nature o f man and the u n i v e r s e .  of t h e Renaissance had reached a n advanced  maturity.  The  stage o f  The b i r t h of s c e p t i c i s m and r a t i o n a l i s m w i t h i t s  consequent d e s t r u c t i o n of the accepted C h r i s t i a n b a s i s of b e l i e f had f o r c e d men to seek i n reason a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r moral codes.  Right  and wrong f o r the l a r g e  could no l o n g e r be based on o b j e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y . i n reason the b a s i s of t h e i r e t h i c a l  majority Men sought  teachings.  Hobbes was the f i r s t of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k e r s t o d e s t r o y the accepted e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s . t r a d i t i o n a l morality changing conception slow breaking The  i s definite.  H i s break w i t h  F o r a time, however, the  o f m o r a l i t y was t o show i t s e l f i n a  down of the o l d e r  ideas*  Cambridge P l a t o n i s t s i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s  the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n which was t a k i n g p l a c e a t t i t u d e to moral i s s u e s .  represent  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  Most of the P l a t o n i s t s would have  scorned the idea t h a t t h e y were l a y i n g the f o u n d a t i o n profound and u n i v e r s a l s c e p t i c i s m .  for a  They were merely t r y i n g  4.  t o meet  Hobbes  weapons; they the  but  were,  on h i s  it  was  i n the  own g r o u n d a n d d e f e a t  by t h e i r  end,  non-compromising Hobbes,  it  is  to  very use  place  the  him w i t h h i s  o f t h e s e weapons  victory  i n the  that  hands  true,  h a d not  repudiated  the  for  a l l time  by m a k i n g  conformity  r e l i g i o n the  reigning  sovereign  happened  fancy  question  obligatory  consent  to  one  for  idea  every  he w a s ,  religion.  as  w i t h whatever  subject.  were His  tions.  inextricably  code  bound up  o f m o r a l i t y was  Good i s t h a t  appetites  and d e s i r e s .  is e v i l .  Ho common r u l e  the nature are used Reality relative selfish.  of  objects  solely as  such  to  harmful  to h i m .  1.  Hobbes,  The o b j e c t  intellectual  the  Right  things  Pt.  hate  and  sanc-  egotistic of  man's  and  aversion  c a n be t a k e n good and  and w r o n g a r e Man i s  which w i l l  He shuns t h o s e  1904.  another  p e r s o n who e m p l o y s  and d e s i r e s ,  T h e r e c a n be no  Leviathan,  object  . The t e r m s  is  non-moral.  a mere  of his  the  those  to  on r e l i g i o u s  and e v i l  themselves.  own l i f e . 1  is  i n r e l a t i o n to  He d e s i r e s his  r e d u c e d to  of good  to  together.  not based  which  human i n t e r e s t s  ennoble  In g i v i n g  settled  For him p r e v a r i c a t i o n  F o r h i m m o r a l i t y was  calculation.  he w o u l d have  and i n c o n f o r m i n g o u t w a r d l y  he f o u n d no i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . peace  of  rationalists.  Thorough g o i n g m a t e r i a l i s t religious  own  things  "utmost  i .  Ch.  from evil them.  only  naturally  e n r i c h and which  are  ayme" n o r "summum  G,  bonum" s u c h as is  the  l e a d when h i s  moral p h i l o s o p h e r s  desires  A more s e c u r e must be those  basis  outlined.  w h i c h were  are at  of p r a c t i c a l  suitable life  s p o k e n of*  A man  a n end."*"  The a p p e t i t e s  n a t u r e when a m a n ' s  have  morality,  of man a r e  he  felt,  fundamentally  to  man i n t h e  o r i g i n a l state  was  "solitary,  poor,  nasty,  of  brutish  p and s h o r t " • right  and w r o n g .  virtues. the  If  force.  must  case  of  The l a w s  t h e y do n o t  established. sovereign  to be  r e l i g i o n the  become  losses  are  a.  C i t e d 8nrl *y,' F , p . 64.  3.  Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n ,  4.  Ibid.  Pt.  p  is  the  the  law.  determining and  eternal  commonwealth  takes  place  favor  Good f o r t u n e of God.  Riches are of a man i s  1904.  Ch.  if  Ill  honorable. his  price,  i . C h . 10,  p.  1.5. ^8.  takes  lasting  fortune  is  and  Poverty  is  that  to  is  1^.  & TTistorv o f E n g l i s h P h i l o s o p h y ,  Ch.  is  the  Hobbes h i m s e l f  standard.  -,  positive  of moral values  The v a l u e  Hobbes. L e v i a t h a n ,  contract  application.  of the  1,  social  of d e f i n i n g t h e i r  measurement  4  until  between  cardinal  i n d e e d immutable  establishment  dishonorable.  dishonorable.  two  the  sovereign  operative  power  sign  the  be k e p t w i t h i n t h e  When t h i s  the  i s no d i f f e r e n c e  i d e n t i f i e d with  a purely materialistic honorable as  there  of n a t u r e a r e  has t h e  F o r the  state  F o r c e and f r a u d a r e  men a r e  m o r a l code  As i n the  but  In this  say,  a s much as w o u l d be g i v e n  for  his  power.  It  is  there-  1• fore  a variable  not  Benevolence egotistical friends,  anabsolute  is  also  standard.  feels  measured by a m a t e r i a l i s t i c  M a n , when h e i s  an i n c r e a s e  those  who a r e n o t  peace.  2  his  of h i s  friends  importance because  the  i n the  study  he e v o k e d  much o f  this  the  s t o r m of mind  to  own p o w e r ;  assist  when he  bestows b e n e f i t s  his assists  to  purchase  theory  issue.  itself,  the  he  takes the  first  of  ethical  theory  to  the  basis  century. a large  central doctrine  Their attitude regarded  he d e f i n e s ,  into  religion,  of t h e  influenced  R e l i g i o n , Whichcote  life  of  a place  It  is  extent  o r d i n a r y man.  B e n j a m i n W h i c h c o t e who i s  Religion  he has  development  thought  c r i t i c i s m which  took  movement.  the  philosophical  of the  Platonists  of  followers  a s t o r m of c r i t i c i s m w h i c h was  •••With H o b b e s ' s  divine  he  able  and  /  A l t h o u g h Hobbes h a d few  of  standard.  the  says,  soul  is  rationalistic  note  1,  Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n .  2.  Cited 2, p.  holds, the  of man".  mental  s t e p towards  the  as  as  is the is  of  ably  expressed  originator  " i n t r o d u c t i o n of The f i r s t  disintegration.  Selby-Bigge, S.A., 2 9 8 , from H o b b e s ' s  p.  the  the  operation  and i n t e l l e c t u a l .  i . C h . 10,  of  by  fundamental.  of  H e r e he He i s  i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to Pt.  the  the  sounding medieval  58.  B r i t i s h M o r a l i s t s 18?7. V o l . e s s a y " O f Human N a t u r e " . t  conception ever,  is  of  his  religion  is  faith.  The p o i n t w h i c h i n t e r e s t s  conception of unalterable  ethics.  us  most,  The m o r a l p a r t  and f i n a l .  Discuss  how  of  doctrine  as  Platonists,  carries  the  moral f i e l d .  In his  you  1 will  the  ethical  part  Henry More, doctrine to  of  another  of W h i e h c o t e  accept  r e l i g i o n remains. of the  i n t o the  r e a s o n as t h e  ultimate  and a n t i c i p a t e s  i n a way  t o have  influence  a great  He c o n t r a d i c t s and p l e a s i n g  Hobbes*s  is  He a d m i t s  congruous  to  with  one's  results  exist. duties  of v i r t u e  These to  these  moral law,  the  objective  idea  befits  s w e e t n e s s by t h e  If  of the  the  measure  grateful,  principles  to  is  he  include the  and  maintains, definite  a  classifica  intellectual  be m o r a l he  must  and i m m u t a b l e m o r a l l a w s .  o f g o o d and e v i l , we a p p r e h e n d  a rational creature. exercise  grateful  o f human  Certain  man and t o  man i s  who was  pleasant  But Hobbes, cause.  question  century.  that whatever  the  God, to  itself.  conform to  as  is  the  tion  tually  good  being.  axioms  power  statement  that  Shaftesbury  on t h e w r i t e r s  a conscious  ethical of  optimist  g o o d and t h e r e f o r e  actions.  has c o n f u s e d  the  judge he begs t h e  refusal  of  We s a v o u r  our b o n i f o r m f a c u l t y ,  The intellec-  its which  2 faculty  is  1.  Sorley,  a.  Ibid.,  not  p. pp.  the  intellect  77. 87-88.  itself  but  super-intellectual.  8.  I n h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the "boniform f a c u l t y " More a n t i c i p a t e s Shaftesbury's "moral sense". an a b s t r a c t mathematical  Benevolence  formula.  he condenses  into  I f i t be good, he says  that one man s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d w i t h the means of l i v i n g w e l l i t i s m a t h e m a t i c a l l y c e r t a i n that two  should be s u p p l i e d and so on.  benevolence  i t i s doubly good that  T h i s p r i n c i p l e of  i s r a t i o n a l and expresses an a b s o l u t e good  i t s essence i s apprehended by the i n t e l l e c t . judges that benevolence  because  The i n t e l l e c t  i s good but man does not a c t on t h i s  knowledge u n t i l he i s prompted by the o p e r a t i o n of h i s b o n i form  faculty. Cumberland, another of the P l a t o n i s t s , i n h i s De Legibus  Naturae  carries s t i l l  f u r t h e r the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the  accepted s t a n d a r d of m o r a l i t y .  The supreme moral standard,  he says, i s the common good of a l l .  He has avoided Hobbes's  e g o t i s t i c a l norm but he has s e t up i n i t s p l a c e a standard which i s quite as m a t e r i a l i s t i c . Locke, one o f the severest c r i t i c s to c r e a t e an abhorrence  of Hobbes, d i d much  of Hobbes's m a t e r i a l i s t i c  ethics.  M o r a l i t y , Locke t h i n k s , i s the proper s c i e n c e and business of mankind.  T h e r e f o r e he s e t s h i m s e l f the t a s k o f con-  s i d e r i n g the nature of good and e v i l .  The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n  1.  172.  ~~  2.  Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding. p. 35I. ed. A. C; E r a s e r , l b 9 4 .  Sidgwick, Henry,  O u t l i n e of the H i s t o r y of E t h i c s , p.  ~ ~—  —  Vol. 2 ,  of  his  search i s  s i m i l a r to  that  o f the  end he b a s e s p r a c t i c a l m o r a l i t y on t h e and t h e  final  life."*"  He d o e s  go a s t e p f u r t h e r into three  civil  of  and t h e  law  than the  of Hobbes, h i s  theory  Despite of  of Hobbes»s  accepted  forces  ness  o f man  ultimately  for his  theory  His acceptance  of  is  as  "perhaps  lowest  the was  "abstract  teaching.  him to to  deny the  the nature  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the  o r i g i n a l s i n causes  human n a t u r e  It  attitude  benevolence  d e r i v e d f r o m the c o n c e p t i o n o f  i n Hobbes's  intellectual  Shaftesbury,  reasonableness  Locke»s  when, that  severe is  based  on  His b e l i e f  in  o f man  good-  is  original  s i n which  state  nature.  of  stigmatize  b r a n d man a s  beings".^  p u p i l , who f i r s t  of a b s t r a c t  future  an  natural  him t o  "mean and i m p o t e n t " and t o of  in a  he a d m i t s  his  the  of God  o p i n i o n o r r e p u t a t i o n have  a modified conception moral tenets  In  Platonists  categories,  equal a u t h o r i t y with d i v i n e law. criticism  government  s a n c t i o n by r e w a r d s and p u n i s h m e n t s  by d i v i d i n g m o r a l law law  Platonists.  benevolence"  made  the  the  1.  Ibid. Vol. I. p. 364. C h r i s t i a n i t y r e g u l a t e s and s y s t e m a t i z e s t h e d i c t a t e s o f common s e n s e i t does r u n c o u n t e r t o them or m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r them L o c k e f o u n d . Stephen, L e s l i e . E n g . i n the 18th C e n t u r y . 19E7. V o l . I . p . 1G0.  £»  Ibid.  3*  Locke.  Vol. I.  p.  474.  E s s g y C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g . V o l .  2.  10  pivotal  point  universal w o r l d as  good f a r as  surely the divine."  and to  "To l o v e  promote  is within  height  the  public,  interest  our p o w e r " ,  o f goodness  the  of  to  the  study  whole  he m a i n t a i n s ,  and makes  that  "is  temper w h i c h  is  1  In h i s Locke's  of a theory.  c o n c e p t i o n o f m o r a l i t y he b r e a k s  opinion regarding  command.  M o r a l i t y he  moral  sanctions  says antedates  all  away f r o m  based  2  on d i v i n e  r e l i g i o n and  is  3 entirely  independent  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e equipped  of  it.  and by w h i c h he  of  is  Truth  Ethics  conceives towards  n a t u r a l t o man b u t o r Good w h i c h i s  t h e n becomes  nothing  morality  there  an a n t i p a t h y equity  and  to  is  a matter  more t h a n p e r f e c t "Essay  of  are degrees  Aesthetics.  i n morals while taste  of  acceptance  than  Beauty.  Misconduct perfect  i n morals.  on E n t h u s i a s m " .  injustice  r i g h t V i r t u e  n o t h i n g more n o r l e s s  n o t h i n g more t h a n b a d t a s t e is  Shaftesbury  n a t u r a l m o r a l s e n s e w i t h w h i c h man i s  and w r o n g and a n a f f e c t i o n itself  For  To be Vol.  I.  is  virtue good  1.  Characteristics.  p.  2.  " T h e r e i s no more o f r e c t i t u d e and p i e t y i n a p e r s o n thus r e f o r m e d (by rewards and punishments) t h a n t h e r e i s meekness o r g e n t l e n e s s i n a t i g e r s t r o n g l y c h a i n e d o r i n n o c e n c e and s o b r i e t y i n a monkey u n d e r d i s c i p l i n e of the w h i p . " ( O h a r a c t e r i s 1 1 cs' V o l . I i p . 267.) (See- a l s o I b i d . " M o r a l i s t s " V o l . 2, p p . 55-57.)  27.  t  3»  E s s a y i n I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y , 1929. " S h a f t e s b u r y " . Emma P e t e r s S m i t h .  4.  Shaftesbury, and M e r i t , 1 8  Characteristies. v o l . 1. p. 25?.  u.  23.  "Essay concerning  Virtue  11  humored and c u l t u r e d i s without  culture  is  to  Shaftesbury's wide  influence  be r i g h t *  To be m a l e v o l e n t  suffers  This  i n the  from a tendency  attitude  eighteenth  was t o  a facile  was t o  bitterness  Panglass  is  another  Berkeley, influence  w h i c h men's denies  whose  to  Christianity sanctions.  virtue  not  the traditional  mere f a s h i o n .  opinion that of the  It  the  standard is  that  depends.  on  He  C h r i s t i a n i t y and m o r a l i t y  other.  Christianity  is  necessary  Virtue is  in herself  extremely  enhances  her beauty  by p r o v i d i n g c e r t a i n m o r a l  F o r the  i n a future  votaries eternal  C h r i s t i a n i t y advances  of  virtue  state. the  beautiful.  C h r i s t i a n i t y promises  For those  prospect  of  who  2*  Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . p . 31k* • ' • S t e p h e n , L e s l i e , E n g l i s h Thought V o l . 2, p . 44*  scorn  everlasting  S h a f t e s b u r y , Gha r a c t e r i s t i c s . "Moralists". S e c . 2. See a l s o " W i t and H u m o r " . Pt. I l l ,  192?.  looseness  i n Candide.  1.  3.  sub-  optimism V o l t a i r e  p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l h e a l t h  one  The  had been formed under  adheres to  Shaftesbury's  virtue.  rewards  thought  Morality is  are independent  a  Shaftesbury.  of Locke,  of m o r a l i t y .  extreme  towards  exert  century.  of t h o u g h t w h i c h gave r i s e t o c r i t i c i s e with  and  be bad.'**  theory  generalizations.  versive  to  Pt. I,III, S e c . 4.  Vol.  VII,  i n the 18th C e n t u r y . — — - — — -  12.  punishment.  I n the d e i t y  Berkeley  human s o u l  of w h i c h the d e i t y  he b e h o l d s  virtues  Man,  then•,  mortality  which t e s t i f y  lift  the "comfortable"  to i t s divine  is assuredly  this  Berkeley  thought,"  assurance  than a man—the  most  sorrows  attainable.  cries,  mind t o r t u r e d w i t h  original. divinity  of future imof l i f e .  " I f i t were  "I had r a t h e r  s t u p i d and s e n s e l e s s a n extreme  In the  archetype"  The i m p r i n t o f  h i m above t h e l i t t l e  man p e r f e c t i o n  reasonable  i s the " e v e r l a s t i n g  has a c e r t a i n d i g n i t y .  w h i c h he b e a r s ,  sees p e r f e c t i o n .  For not f o r  be a n o y s t e r  of animals innate  than a  desire  at  2 that  p e r f e c t i o n which In direct  Locke,  contrast  Shaftesbury  It  2  *  Platonists,  advanced by  marks a  reaction  ^  4  Benevolence  (May 14,  G u a r d i a n 8 9 . (June  23,  i s no  V i r t u e , i s not  a c q u i r e d moral v i r t u e s are  "the p o l i t i c a l o f f s p r i n g which  begot upon p r i d e " . G u a r d i a n 55.  of the  M a n , he h e l d ,  of t h e p a s s i o n s " . These  .  the ideas  Mandeville»s theory  is acquired.  n o t h i n g more t h a n  1.  the theories  the optimism of Shaftesbury.  more t h a n a " t h e a t r e natural,  with  to obtain  and B e r k e l e y were  Bernard M a n d e v i l l e . against  i t despairs  Mandeville  scorns  flattery also.  It  I7I3) 1713)  3.  R o g e r s , A . K . . , M o r a l s i n R e v i e w , 1927. p . 258. See a l s o M a n d e v T l T e , '"Fable of~B1 e e s , I724, 3rd e d . "Inquiry into O r i g i n o f Moral V i r t u e s " , V o l . I . p , 37,  4.  M a n d e v i l l e , Fable of Bees. " I n q u i r y Moral V i r t u e T V o l . I. p. 37.  into  Origins of  13»  arises,  he m a i n t a i n s ,  t h e n and c o n f i r m us If  the  ideas  tional thinkers that  school  abhorrent. this of  o p i n i o n we h a v e  o f M a n d e v i l l e were  of t h e  eighteenth  of t h i n k e r s  and were  of the  were w e l l  head.^  the  century,  the  the  one whom a l l  conven-  e v e n more  r e l i g i o n which  a great extent  Tillotson.  1  ourselves"*  opinion of  D e i s t s was  natural  "streng-  of  f o r m u l a t e d by L o r d  influenced to  I n h i s works  to  anathema t o  known as t h e  Anglican divine,  s p e a k s as  their  good  our own d e s i r e  The m a i n t e n e t s o f t h e  Cherbury  Collins as  i n the  school advocated  writings  s i m p l y from  Herbert by  the  Of T i l T o t s o n  English free-thinkers  own  indeed T i l l o t s o n sets f o r t h  an  4 uniquivocal his  argument  assertion against  of the  rationalist  transsubstantlation  r e v e l a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d not  be  come a t  p r i n c i p l e , and  in  discountenanced  by the t e s t i m o n y  any  of  senses. 1,  Mandeville.  2.  ( l Y T h e r e i s one supreme G o d , •(.2) He ought t o be w o r s h i p p e d . ( 3 ; V i r t u e and p i e t y a r e t h e c h i e f p o i n t s i n . D i v i n e worship. our s i n s and r e p e n t t h e m . (3) D i v i n e g u i d a n c e d o t h d i s p e n s e r e w a r d s and p u n i s h ments i n t h i s l i f e a n d a f t e r it* E s s a y s i n I n t e l i e q t u ' a i • H i s t o r y , p . 28.  3.  Stephen,  4*  Ibid.  p.  Vol. I.  Vol. I. 78.  p.  p. 137.  79,  (2nd  ed.  1733)  the  14  It  was t h e  work  drew down on the  heads  ventional  thinkers.  maintains  that  proceeds alone. above  to  of  is  show t h a t  Nothing  the  deist  the  of  the  of  should follow he  the changing  ideological  century  is  necessary  the  masters  of  the  On t h e  whole  the  con-  Mysterious  he  certitude  and  demonstration  maintains, warmly,  rewards  essays,  consciously  abstract  to  some  of t h e  extent by the  is  how e v e r „• was t o  preclude  of  are at  implications  divine  one w i t h of  Stephen,  the  accept  r e l i g i o n to Locke's  "Vol. I .  p.  to  from  of  of  the work  of  theory  Steele.  have  outline  The  the  been  of  in-  Shaftes-  Christianity,  acceptance divine  of  The  shun a l s o  mere u t i l i t y . categories  his  sanctions.  and L o c k e . they  philo-  day.  formal the  and  part  c o l o r e d by  seem t o  without  three  106.  early  and T a t l e r .  of t h e  Platonists  Shaftesbury's  end he r e d u c e s to  guidance  morality  theoretical  are  general  T h e i r adherence  conception  the  Spectator  in their writings  bury' s theory.  inclined  the  or u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,  them  of  e s s a y - r - A d d i s o n and  philosophical speculations  to  of  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the work of  a student  The e s s a y i s t s fluenced  of  conception  background  periodical  a study  sophers  1.  not  of  f o u n d a t i o n of a l l  gospels,  the  the  wrath  which  reason.*'"  survey  they  the  Christianity  assent  i n the  "Poland, h o w e v e r ,  the d e i s t s  In his  reason  A discussion a  of  ultimate for  They are than the  Here  in more  single  15  Christian authority--the  authority  Civil  r e p u t a t i o n must he  law  haps  and t h e  Addison is  law  of  r e a l l y following  a marked emphasis  on "good  of  divine  alone.  considered.  Shaftesbury  t a s t e . " as  law  when h e  Per-  places  a norm f o r human  conduct. Locke's writings than those to  of a n y  of the  '• 1 '•  education  a r e more o f t e n other  '  and p u n i s h m e n t  quoted  moralists.  '2  , to  in their  work  In t h e i r  superstition,  attitude  wit  and  3 judgment,  ideas,  questions^  as w e l l  his  followers.  devout  abhor  treatment as to  domestics,  many e t h i c a l  From L o c k e  Hobbes»s m a t e r i a l i s t i c In Shaftesbury*s  insistence  on a  dependency  of t h i n g s "  belief  that  things  Their attitude is  theism  "consistent  A d d i s o n and S t e e l e ' s  evils  of  to  are  Spec.,  2.  Ibid.  3.  Spec.,  62.  4.  Spec.,  78  168.  be  i n the  13.  and 80.  to  to the  of t h e  poor, belief  Thoughts  and A p r i l  basis  of  universe—their  to  7,  disposed.  existing  i n his  teaching.  on B d . , p .  11)  (May 30  its  and a m u t u a l  m a i n k i n d l y and w e l l  Locke,  ( F r i d a y , May  are  optimism w i t h  found p a r t  i n an ordered  benevolence,  Tat.,  they  ethics.  and u n i f o r m d e s i g n  to  grammatical  too t h e y l e a r n e d  determined i n part by t h e i r  1.  questions  or universal  belief  are  even  1711)  46,31.  O n l y men o f the  vulgar  himself,  slavish  and d e s p i s e  however,  instruments everything to  p r i n c i p l e s would  for  the if  of a h i g h e r will  be g r e a t l y  Locke's  love  "the  s o o n be f o u n d "  it  is  attitude  must a l s o  to  distinguish  o f human n a t u r e  written  of  of  not  of emotion  quite  made  benevolence.  belief  in a spirit  of  and  theory regarding  have  As a m a t t e r between  and t h e  by A d d i s o n .  the  influenced of  fact  Berkeley's necessity  of  it  the is  papers  often  on t h e  r e l i g i o n and  B o t h seem t o w o r s h i p  God  because  diametrically  opposed  humanity. Mandeville's the  ideas  disturbance  of  theory  the  V i r t u e " where  is  in his  Mandeville.  of  course  and must h a v e  Mandeville himself "Enquiry into  he r i d i c u l e s  and " p o l i t n e s s  of  essayists  of m i n d .  their theories  1.  question  the  measure  sheer waste  conception of Hobbes's  difficult  to  this  Shaftesbury's  i n some d e g r e e .  of  right  The e s s a y i s t s h a v e  essayists  those  only  c o r r u p t i o n of m a n k i n d .  Berkeley's  dignity  are  over  disturb  and h u m a n i t y I n h e r e n t i n human n a t u r e  modified  original  evils  if  agitated.  superiority  Man must n o t  good",  t o r n between  universal  multitude.  "apparent  up t h e i r m i n d s c o n c e r n i n g They are  affect  Steele's  the  caused  shows Origin  "ingenious  his of  Bees.  V o l . I.  p.  scorn Moral  sophistry"  expression".""*  Fabler o f  them some  40.  of  17.  The d e i s t s papers.  are  They a r e  who h a v e  Shaftesbury  matter  of the  men, the  essayists  Spectator  o f a p p e a r i n g w i s e r t h a n the  method  outlines  Shaftesbury better  remarks,  rest  to  makes  reading  the  this  the  of  s i m i l a r to  of  the  1.  186.  that  Essay.on Enthusiasm.  that  a  jest  i n the  Herein l i e s  papers  often  Spectator  the  It  of  thinness  Oct.  3,  1711  essayists  is  mighty the  writing  of  any are  d i s c u s s i o n of  a b e a u and a c o q u e t t e of t h e  a  and T a t l e r w h i c h  extenuation  the  which  Following  decides  may have when m o r a l i s s u e s  of H o n o r P a p e r s ,  a heart  amends f o r  Spec.,  holds  reform is  of much o f A d d i s o n a n d S t e e l e ' s  The C o u r t  disection  in his  attitude  a sheer p l e a s u r e . weaknesses  of  a n d more f o r c i b l y t h a n a s p e r i t y .  adherence  cerned.  butt  1  The e s s a y i s t s  Horace,  continual  i l l educated  a "vanity  mankind".  the  moral  make  conthe  ample  teachings.  18  • III.' • Object  of the  Spectator  General  As i t i n the  has  Ethical  been p o i n t e d  opening years  of  the  in abstract  and s c i e n t i f i c  standards.  The d i s c u s s i o n s  the  changing s o c i a l  bound t o  influence  influence  was  comparison  felt  the  theoretical  regarding  moralists,  structure  essays  of the  century, tic  moralists.  caught  movement,  relation  as  were  between  obsessed  morality  of d i s c u s s i o n .  Virtue,  a very  dedicated libels, tions  1.  writers  the  V o l . 2.  the  s e e n by a the  of  the  of  the  rationalis-  m o r a l s and e t h i c s ,  aptly  common  of a l l  topics had  description  scurrilous  vulgar  c l a i m e d m o r a l i t y as  The  morals  remarked,  W r i t e r s of  and o f t e n  Introd.  of  problem of e t h i c s .  Writers  morality.  were  eighteenth  s t a g e were  word.  as  this  the works  throes  as M a n d e v i l l e  of e n t e r t a i n i n g  on men and manners  Mandeville.  with  and t h e  fashionable  t h e i r muse t o  of  i n the  morals and l i f e ,  and l i t e r a t u r e ,  become  were  That  most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  The w r i t e r s  they  moral  as w e l l  as we have  p o p u l a r w r i t e r s — A d d i s o n and S t e e l e — w i t h scientific  engaged  of s o c i e t y  more p o p u l a r w r i t e r s . exemplified  thinkers  c e n t u r y \-vere  speculations  is well  of t h e  the  eighteenth  of  Tatler.  Theory.  out  a n d economic the  and  observa-  a parent  for  1?  their  s c u r r i l o u s works.  robust their  Ned Ward and t h e dubious  when he tire  says  the  offspring. that  his  that  popular  literature  century  entirely  ductions  of  upon m o r a l i t y t h a t  abusive  that  determine  observations  we may n o t  at  early  their  a little  may d i v e r t ,  they were  only pretenders  sincerity  century writers i s a necessary  to  part  often  of  be  others  the  profess  precaution  foist  more  honest  instruct  and A d d i s o n i n s i s t e n t l y  tion with  the  pamphleteers  to  or  of the of  of the  t i m e I n  for  Both  reiterate  3.  Spectator,  ~  of the  451.  (Aug.  7,  I712)  works  Steele  d i s c l a i m any of the first  moral  connec-  satiric numbers  a r e f o r m e r but  S e r i o u s and C o m i c a l .  -  can  the  Ward, Ned. L o n d o n S p y , p . 2. M a n l e y , M r s . ' S e c r e t M e m o i r s o f New A t a l a n t i s . 1 7 0 9 . p . 2. ~" ' ' Amusements  we  their  1>  I76O. p . 2.  he i s  moralist.  eighteenth  Tatler  B r o w n , Tom.  that  of  at  t h e v/ork of  and S t e e l e .  one  pro-  us  the  2.  states  the  show  early  b e f o r e we c o n s i d e r  they  the  claimants.  a moral purpose  although  at  r e q u i r e d before  and u n c e a s i n g l y  essays,  of  eighteenth  the t i t l e  " r i b a l d r y and B i l l i n g s g a t e "  Steele  authors  A glance  pronness  periodical essayists—Addison  of t h e i r  the  of t h e  own w o r d .  reading w i l l  the  take  t h e s e men and women w i l l  A remark concerning  purpose  the  M r s . Manley t r i e d to  Tom Brown i s  1  of the  s ome of  An i n t e n s i v e  the  was  reader.  Thus we s e e  once  It  of  scorns  2nd  9th  ed.  ed.  20  to  be an i n q u i s i t o r .  He w i l l  make i t  his  habit  to  observe  X upon t h i n g s inforces to  and t o  this  scourge  forebear  statement  vice  people.  i n the  and f o l l y  Spectator.  as t h e y  With p a r t i c u l a r i n t r i g u e s  Later Addison r e -  appear  His i n t e n t i o n i n the  is  multitude.  and c u c k o l d o m s he w i l l  not  be  2 concerned. The p u r p o s e instruction  of t h e  of t h e  newly  d e c o r u m and n i c i t i e s century  essay  of  It  Its  scholarly.  a n c i e n t s were the It  elect.  polite  was w r i t t e n  for  the  its  common i n t e r e s t .  valent .  were  to  gods.  the  essay  from the  1.  Tatler,  2.  Spectator,  14.  abstract  was  however,  The t o n e  of  material  was  the  essay  The e s s a y i s t s l i b r a r y to  (April  the  to  the to  market consider  e s s a y was  9,  I7II)  to  The o l d L a t i n  not,  indeed,  market p l a c e .  1709)  for  interest.  be a m b r o s i a f o r  were  truths.  from the  be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h t h e i r E n g l i s h  (May 1 2 , 34.  subject  conversational.  Ho l o n g e r was t h e  intellectual  leisurely  l i b r a r y r a t h e r than f o r  of  the  a  It  the  seventeenth  commonalty c o u l d have no  matters  quotations  in  form of  pages.  The new p e r i o d i c a l e s s a y ,  f a m i l l a r - - t h e .style  The  been  A l l u s i o n s and q u o t a t i o n s  place.  be  have  middle c l a s s  i n the  sown t h r o u g h i t s the  to  living.  had chosen f o r  In i t  seems  conscious  had been c a s t  meditation. t o n e was  essayists  equithe to  take  They w e r e  21  to  transfer  it  dexterously  from t h e  l i b r a r y to the  and c o f f e e  house.  "I h a v e , "  out  closets  and l i b r a r i e s , s c h o o l s  of the  dwell  s a i d A d d i s o n , "brought  i n c l u b s and a s s e m b l i e s  houses." was t o  At these  displace  the  gatherings false  F r e n c h r o m a n c e s and t h e  tea  at  tea  the  and i n  common s e n s e  glamor w h i c h the  often  philosophy  and c o l l e g e s  tables  to  coffee  o f the  restoration  obscene works  table  essay plays,  of M r s . Aphra  p Behn and M r s . M a n l e y had s u p p l i e d t o That  the  essay  viciousness  of  d i d not at  once  the  supplant  t h e lew A t a l a n t i s  is  new r e a d i n g the  class.  attractive  testified  by L a d y M a r y  3 W o r t l e y Montague In the project  somewhat  d e d i c a t i o n of  with his  to the the  p a p e r he d e c l a r e s  and t o  unmask c u n n i n g , v a n i t y of these  simplicity  vices  is  to  of  T a t l e r Steele  usual reforming vigor.  of the  place  prejudice  expose  the  the  enters  former. on t h e  The g e n e r a l false  and a f f e c t a t i o n .  arts In  purpose of  life  the  t h e p a p e r w i l l recommend g e n e r a l  i n d i s c o u r s e and  behavior.  1.  Spectator  2.  See S p e c t a t o r 4. The e s s a y A d d i s o n s a y s i s t o f u r n i s h t e a - t a b l e t a l k among r e a s o n a b l e woman. S c o t t says t h a t t h e queen r e a d i t e v e r y m o r n i n g at b r e a k f a s t . S w i f t , H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l T r a c t s - E n g l i s h . ed. T. Scott. "Remarks on B i s h o p F l e e t w o o d ' s Sermon", p . 270*  3.  M o n t a g u e , L a d y M.W. N o v . 12, 1709.  10.  ( M a r c h 12,  I7IO-II)  Letters.  L e t t e r to M r s . Hewett.  22.  In the the  d e d i c a t i o n of  more m o d e r a t e t o n e  aside  the  pretentions  s a y s he w i l l polishing  confine  whatsoever  to  be  and  Isaac  activities  felt  This  to  to the  the  Brushing  the  Spectator  c u l t i v a t i o n and be  accomplished  and by recommending  or ornamental to  t o u c h was n e e d e d .  society.  Pleasure  must  romance-nurtured public  were  reason Addison points  "enliven morality with wit  morality".  that  evident.  purpose w i l l  useful  For this  endeavor  t o L o r d J o h n Somera  Bickerstaffe  tanowledge  instruction i f  temper w i t w i t h t o have  his  may be e i t h e r  satisfied.  he w i l l  of  purpose a l i g h t  accompany  Spectator  of A d d i s o n i s  o f human l i f e .  by p r o m o t i n g v i r t u e  For t h i s  the  and  that  to  B o t h S t e e l e a n d A d d i s o n seemed  1  definite  out  ;  m o r a l r e f o r m was n e e d e d .  They  p often the  speak  "desperate  "intemperance,  a g e t h e set  of t h e  lust,  "torrents  themselves  announces t h a t  of  up a s  injustice  prejudice  of  In the  territories  1>  Spectator.  10.  ( M a r c h 12,  I711)  2.  Sp_e£tator,  10.  ( M a r c h 12,  1.711)  3.  G u a r d i a n , 7 5«  4.  Tatler,  5...  Spectator,  159.  (April 58,  Britain.-^  6, 15,  (May 7,  I713) 1710) 1711)  folly? the  B o t h seem  Spectator  and i g n o r a n c e  the  (June  and  and i r r e g u l a r i t y o f  "banish vice  Great  vice  and v i c e " .  reformers.  he w i l l of  state  S t e e l e s a y s he  to  Addison out  of  will  fl  • 23, correct  the  depraved  sentiments  outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n s this  corruption.  spectator that the  Steele  Guardian.  consider  as  stated  it  passions  intention  Ironsides:*  He h a s ,  vice  the  The r e a l  1  and N e s t o r  which  of  o f m a n k i n d by•.•examining. the •  with  less  defend  himself.  s i n k the heels of  substance  the  "little  foibles  of vice  his  or  of. t h e of  paper  he  papers  of  Steele's  to  of  that  vices  offer  price  moral d i s c u s s i o n s  however,  shows  garniture"  the  firmly,  a  they  with seems  not  to  upon r e d  deal  more the  fundamental  "an i n f a l l i b l e  a p e n n y " 3 he of  cure  usually entertain-  sentimentality.  There  is  also  discussions; evidently  another  Of t h e  nature  conscious.  1.  Spectator,  2.  Guardian 8 7 .  3 . Spectator,  1 6 .  1 3 4 .  phase  He g i v e s  20,  (August  essayists  moral  o f these lucurbrations  (March 19, (June  of the  a clue  1 7 1 0 - 1 1 )  I713)  3,  I 7 I I )  to  to  to  and more w i t h  a penny w o r t h  in  consideration  t h a n man*s of  been  to  is  "with r e f l e c t i o n s  men t h a n t h e i r  for  obliged  and he a t t e m p t s says  the  more t r u t h  o r i g i n a l purpose  On t h e w h o l e ,  Despite  and f o l l y  sacrifices  is  of  superfluities  weaknesses.  ment  His intention,  dignity  been  him n e v e r t h e l e s s  and t o p k n o t s " .  the  with  to  but  to  have  • ' r i d i c u l o u s and a c c o m p a n i e d  •••••• 2'The •w•' ••••'•••• • eakening o f h i s  been c l e a r  seems t o  vigor  gallantry". have  rise  of B i c k e r s t a f f  however,  he c o n f e s s e s ,  is  which give  this  Steele  side  of  his  d i s c o u r s e s when he d i s c u s s e s  b e a u at  the  drunkeness is  theatre. he d o e s  s i m p l y as  It  the w o r l d a l s o against  vice  not  a well  enormities.  concern h i m s e l f at  i n the  that  contempt  of  of  there  of  this  a drunken  point.  he c r i t i c i z e s  attitude  he d e c l a r e s  the  presence  r e a l moral i m p l i c a t i o n s  b r e d man t h a t  is  but  W i t h the  the  it.  of It  such  the w e l l  b r e d man o f  t o be no  defence  Simplicity  of 2  behavior,  he h o l d s ,  A g a i n he u r g e s themselves  is  is  in public  on t h e  Steele's  at  of  of good  lies.  are not  real  became perish. finally  adhered to  spirit  not  the  became  Pharisaism. Tatler  3.  2.  Tatler  12.  3.  Tatler  168.  to  breeding"  their of  the  principle  act  of  always  may be that  concern.  d e c o r u m and a t  called.  A d d i s o n and  of f o r m .  (May 7, (May 6,  I70?) I710)  are  length  eighteenth  Art  eventually  I m a g i n a t i o n was  alone remained.  170.9)  about  Here they  let  Morals  degenerated  of m o r a l f o r m a l i s m the  ( A p r i l 16,  with  age•  formalism.  structure  The n o t e  1.  possession  i n a r t t h e men o f t h e  o n l y f o r m but  A lifeless  breeding.  The m o r a l i l l s w h i c h f e s t e r  I n m o r a l s as w e l l a s century  lose  occasion to which they  society  one w i t h t h e  to  of g o o d  o r i n p r i v a t e , 3 but  "perfection  emphasis  the r o o t s  perfection  his. readers never  "due d e c o r u m " o n a n y It  the  into  essayists  sound i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s . good  breeding  agreeable  w o u l d he a n o b l e  Steele declares  whieh t r a n s g r e s s e d  decorum. extreme  It  His conception and s i g n i f i e s  if  nothing c o u l d pass  i n the  of  improvement  slightest  decorum i s  n o t h i n g beyond  the  for  bounds  neo-classical  a regard for  in  in  of the  outward  decency. When S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h d i s c u s s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g  d i s t i n c t i o n between  R i c h a r d s o n and t h e  morality  s a y s has  the  typically  Fielding  has  the  protagonists often  masking t h e i r  Fielding for  despite  the  their real  the  subject  morality  of F i e l d i n g .  classical  typically  this  he  of  R i c h a r d s o n he  attitude  towards  morals.  romantic  attitude.  apparent  self-righteousness  vice  and w e a k n e s s  scorns formal righteousness. outward decorum of h i s  Richardson  under  He c a r e s  hero as  draws  are  hypocrisy. not at  l o n g a s he  is  all  good  2 at  heart. The e m p h a s i s  of the  p a r a l i e l e d by t h e i r remedy m o r a l s . debauchees  are  essayists  belief  that  a r e y o u r men o f w i t .  the  seal  of approbation  li  Spectator  2.  Raleigh,  104. S i r W.  is  (June  placed  29,  Steele  on t h e  brow  Rakes  and  and  free  feels of  13th  ed.  is  should  the  1711)  English Novel.  6. p p . 172-173.  Athiests  Tacitly  decency  grandeur  occurred.  fashion.  thinkers  Ch.  exterior  No s u c h t h i n g has y o u r men o f  on,exterior  1929.  that  if  26.  religious secret its  a n d somewhat  longings  to  folbles-~all  atheists  insists  the  aristocracy—its  he w e l l .  Rakes  thinkers w i l l  hooped p e t t i c o a t s he  ape the  will  and f r e e  p u r i t a n i c a l middle c l a s s  pass  a n d amber h e a d e d  courtier, to  this  established  the  being.  even  a feeling will  is  of w e l l  no d o u b t  still  have  polish  of g e n t i l i t y *  Tatler  papers  necessary. vice. clad  a desire  may have  this  bosom o f a man of shirt  front  canes.  as  like  For t h i s  reason  should  have If  1  middle c l a s s w i l l if to  culture.  S i m p l i c i t y without  and  of f a s h i o n  denomination of g e n t l e m a n .  But  its  debauchees,  this  inconspicuous  of a gentleman.  they  formal  Spectator  and  This refinement  knowledge  abundantly  acquire  happens  acquire the  A l l men who r e a d t h e  V i r t u e may r e s t  ruffled  out  follies  t r a d e r and s c h o l a r  equal pretensions principle  the  and  with  is  apt  behind the r a n k as  to  is  copy  worstered  behind  But e v e n s o l i d  the virtue,  2 as  Chesterfield  i s not  remarked,  polished.  What  is  e s s a y i s t s and s t r a i g h t w a y it  may p a s s  as  a strange  1.  Tatler  2.  Chesterfield.  1747)  much of  virtue without proceed to  its  lustre  if  decorum? a s k  shine the  brass  it the  that  gold.  M a n d e v i l l e was n o t acquired  loses  207.  f a r w r o n g when he s a i d  conception  (August  of m o r a l i t y .  5,  1710)  Letters.  1901.  Letter  the w o r l d had  Men have  6  (March  come  6,  27.  to  think  o f m o r a l i t y as  politeness to  the  respect  That  the  seems  to  which  they  will  and a l l that  evident advance  therefore  ethical  the is  due t o  themselves,  d i d have  after for  compliance  the  species"  to  i n broad o u t l i n e  the  "high  regard  reasons  periodical  essays.  consider the i r  general  before  we examine  c o u l d be h a r r a f u l i n a n y w a y . insist  upper s t a t i o n s humanity  on the  dignity  It  its  had no  a n d those  together  i n the  contingencies  and a p p o i n t s  purpose  simplified  deal  blind  their  them t o  essayists  of the  1.  Mandeville.  Fable  2.  Mandeville.  vol.  3.  See  Spectators  to  237,  p. 881,  It  social the  of B e e s . 2,  is  xv. 404.  the their  the  in  This  there  of in  the respect  a  w o r l d which d i r e c t s  outlook.^  adherence  those  posts.  that  everything  existing  have  Everywhere  between  lower  with a belief  government  apprehension  o f human n a t u r e ,  man and b e a s t ,  wisdom i n t h e  The  the  o p i n i o n w h i c h men are t a u g h t t o  d i s t i n c t i o n between  to  any  of  m o r a l purpose  a consideration of  writing  rules  application.  papers they  for  the  1  a definitely  A d d i s o n and S t e e l e u n l i k e M a n d e v i l l e that  to  o f h o n o r w h i c h have  he n e c e s s a r y  theory  particular  laws  essayists  he  a strict  divine all  t o a c e r t a i n use also  did a  and  great  conditions.  philosophical dicta  V o l . 2,  p.  xii.  of  2.8'-;  Shaftesbury  as w e l l  seem s a p p e d t h e i r  ethical  moral standards  oft-derided virility. little  operatic  ameliorate  t h e i r acceptance  of  b l i n d e d themselves even e a s i e r  work of work  to  of  M  Swift  lack  the  could for  the whole  state  the  teachings  any v i g o r  of  apparently  but  c o u l d do  comfortable  belief  of a f u t u r e will  was  state  of  be r i g h t e d .  falls  Here  exception  of  the  of b o t h p h r a s e w r i t e r s of  A g e n e r a t i o n h a d to his  poor i s  common s e n s e the  truest the  pass  of  manner  social before  dictum that  test  early  the  of  eighteenth  the  L o r d maketh  p o o r and m a k e t h r i c h .  1. •  Expressed admirably i n Pope's right"*,-' • • •  2.  C i t e d George, p . 108.  line  the  the and  conditions Johnson  a decent  civilization.  The w r i t e r s  the  the  and d i f f e r e n t  appreciation  they  1  rewards  i n line with  With the  By  made  and i n a l e s s e r productions  the  fundamental  Their belief  essayists  of  d i d n o t comprehend.  actuality.  all. things  left  no  teachings the  may  and  that  voice  conditions  generation.  any r e a l  time.  of  ethical  Shaftesbury's  periodical  of D e f o e  poets  their  by t h e i r a s s u r a n c e  the  of  teachings  social  and p u n i s h m e n t s where  works  i n the  eunuchs w i t h - s w e e t  for which they  work o f  belief  i n a c o n d i t i o n much l i k e  B y and l a r g e  to  reasons  their  C h r i s t i a n i t y i n c o m p a t i b l e as t h e s e a t t i t u d e s  orthodox  their  as  century  provision  2 felt  He b r i n g e t h  "whatever  D . M . , E n g l a n d i n J o h n s o n ' s Day, " " ~ ~  that  low  is,  is  1928.  and  29.  and l i f t e t h  up."  Thus,  was H i s c o n c e r n r a t h e r to dine of  than t h e i r s  This  i n the main i s  in fact  to  the  lower  classes  fact  charity  that  an e s s e n t i a l  nature.  is  part  a natural of h i s  greater  which  for  the  before  bears  benevolence, of  estimation. idea that  part  the  poor  destitute the  fire  t h e good  however,  is  which  the  of  He does  the  dignity  The  of human  and c o n s t i t u t i o n "there  is  than that  no p a r t tender  b r o a d and d i l u t e d  approaches creates  of of  it  concern  o f m a n k i n d . ""*"  raises t h e benefactor  u n i v e r s a l benevolence  not  nature  bene-  c h a r i t y w h i c h ,cheers t h e  His conception here  poor  a gentleman.  and h a p p i n e s s the  towards  of a gentleman's  frame  satisfaction  Shaftesbury—the  benevolence  become  says complacently,  I observe w i t h it  of  the  in general.  theory  "When I l o o k i n t o t h e  my own m i n d / " he  volence  left  Addison's attitude  c h a r i t y and b e n e v o l e n c e  His  they  care  Charity.  deny t h a t  is  the  on f a i t h a n d t o warm t h e i r h a n d s  Divine  and,  t h i n k i n g that  i n his  giver,  own  Shaftesbury's  i n man t h a t  temper  2 which'is like  divine..  a rich  stuff  put  together,  "as  look i l l  1.  Tatler  2.  Shaftesbury, p . 27.  That  all  is  for  where  the  flowers  the  best.  That l i f e  and g r o u n d a r e  so  w i t h s u c h i r r e g u l a r work a n d c o n t r a r y apart  117.  but mighty w e l l  ( J a n u a r y 7,  and n a t u r a l i n  is  oddly  colors  the  I709-IO)  Characteristics.  "Enthusiasm", Y o l .  I,  30.  piece". *" .  •  -  The  • .  inequalities  of  life  Addison f e l t  O r d e r a n d d i s t i n c t i o n must be the  upper s t a t i o n s , "great  bosoms  by t h e i r  their  i n the  tincture  them.  may b e t t e r  h u m a n i t y and c o n s i d e r a t i o n to  their  condition hereafter their  has thought  are how  just  s u p e r i o r s make them h a p p y  with which Providence  fit  own  make  t h o s e who  a n d by a  in  of  their  T h o s e b e n e a t h them s h o u l d c o n s i d e r  and s u b m i s s i o n t o blessings  Those  seeds  of h u m a n i t y " — i n  s u p e r i o r i t y easy and acceptable  beneath  necessary.  world.  remembering t h e generous 2  kindness--the should  kept  were  they  deference in  to  those  dis-  3 ' t i n g u i s h them.  There  n o d d e d a p p r o v i n g l y when Snape's  little  Steele  •reality  depressed their  This  Providence, so  then the  If if  evils  3. 4.  Spectator Spectator  a natural  the w o r l d / i s  a n d so  quoted  "become  and t h e i r  outcome  that  Addison  from D r .  exalted poverty  in is  goodness in  nothing  vainly,  of A d d i s o n ' s  under t h e c a r e in vain,  everything  w h i c h are a p p a r e n t  e x p l a i n e d away. 1. Shaftesbury, p . 14. Tatler  is  n a t u r e does  often  2.  also  preferment".  attitude,  mental tone.  i n fortune 4  doubt  later  s e r m o n — T h u s do t h e p o o r  by b e i n g  stated  is  in  the  is  of a if, for  general beneficent  as  Panglass  the  w o r l d must  best, be  The i c e must be s k a t e d over l i g h t l y e l s e Characteristics. "The M o r a l i s t s " . V o l . 2,  117. 218. 294.  (November (February  9, 6,  I7II) 1711-12)  ' 31*  suddenly be  it w i l l  c o l d and Social  pletely. mind  conditions,  affairs.  however some  c o u l d n o t be  9  time  with the  or o t h e r  remarked, of  the  beneath  the as  poor. Swift  industrious  Irish  starvation. trenchment of  will  i g n o r e d com-  impinge  quite  i n keeping w i t h the  dictates  to  to  general  relieve  "a n o b l e  the  so t h a t lend  necessities  or country however,  out  heart  the  of which  it  to  m i g h t be  sell  all  scrape  (June 16,  to  and little  poor,  them f r o m r u i n and  expected  speak  poor.  makes  would  be t h e  from the  resuper-  Income,  B o t h Hobbes a n d M a n d e v i l l e  kind  o f the  i n s m a l l sums to save  in  and  he m i g h t e m p l o y t h e  some v a i n e x p e n s e — a l a r g e s s  a plentiful  and  benevolence  mind h a t h at  society  tradesmen t o  A l l that of  human n a t u r e  T h e r e w o u l d be no n e e d t o did,  a man o f a man o f  suitable  thing  on t h e  for  T h e r e w o u l d be no n e e d ,  money h e c o u l d s a v e  fluity  a suitable  towards  superiority—to  a part".  starve,  way  tendency  common i n t e r e s t  to  w o u l d be  thing  i n every  Berkeley  give  It  then--a  reason,  hearted As  flowing water  dark.  They would at  substance  line  The d e e p  o f a g e n t l e m a n and man o f h o n o r - - a s t u d e n t ,  public  of  break.  scornfully  1.  Guardian 83.  2.  S w i f t , H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l T r a c t s " S u b s t a n c e o f what was s a i d by D. o f S t . Tempel S c o t t e d . Vol. VII. p. 171.  of  1713) Irish. P's".  the  32  general  attitude  greater  i n d i c a t i o n t o a man of h i s  Hobbes p o i n t s fying  his  towards  out,  charities.  than the  own d e s i r e s  There  c a n be  no  own power a n d n o b i l i t y  knowledge  that  besides  satis-  he may m a g n a n i m o u s l y d i s p e n s e  benefits  • '.l to  others.  built  . " P r i d e and V a n i t y " ,  more h o s p i t a l s  Addison is life his  he  says  spirits  the  but  than a l l  the  cheerful  this  i n d i g n a t i o n which  the  virtues  most c o m p l a c e n t  s i n k below  When we c o n t r a s t  says M a n d e v i l l e ,  the  Swift  felt  There i s  no  Man s h o u l d n e v e r  i n c l i n a t i o n to  attitude  together."  of men.  life.  "have  with the  be w e l l  pleased.  bitterness  and e x p r e s s e d  1et  and  i n the  fourth  4 book o f h i s  Gulliver* s Travels  we f i n d  of  one  pectability  the  and o c c a s i o n a l  Steele's  attitude  ano t h e r s o u r c e . on a d e t a c h e d in  the  keys to  to  Addison's  common s e n s e .  began h i s  career  often  is  Steele's  as  the  Selby-Bigge,  2.  Mandeville. Fable o f the Bees. Schools", V o l . I. p. 294,  3.  Spectat or  4.  Irish Tracts. vol. v i l . p .  See  207,  res-  14,  based finds  from  fundamentally its  mainspring  dominant n o t e  " O f Human N a t u r e " .  (Augus t  sprang  of  a moralist with the  1.  143.  tracts,  maddening  conditions  attitude  s e n t a m e n t a l i s m w h i c h was  character, Steele  Irish  insensitiveness.  social  A d d i s on's  and i n h i s  Vol.  p.  2,  "Essay  his  writing  298.  on C h a r i t y  I7II)  "Modest P r o p o s a l " .  T.  Scott  ed.  33-  of  The C h r i s t i a n H e r o .  the  s c o r n o f no l e s s  Hew A t a l a n t i s extreme  she  T h i s work c a l l e d  a person than Mrs. Manley.  speaks  religious  down on h i s  of  him as  t h o u g h he  pays  one who  head  In  the  "affected  to  nor obliges  nobody  be  but  ' 1 when he c a n h e l p this  it  1 8  .  The s e n t i m e n t a l i s m e n g e n d e r e d  c o n v e r s i o n l e d him t o  s t r u c t i o n of to  replace  It  was a l s o This  essay, avoid  a sentimental  drama o f  to  a i d i n the  general  idea  a theatre  which  easily  moved.  remarks,  and p a i d a h a l f received  romanticists  w h i c h he f e e l s  at  the  deplores  the  fact  that  weeps a t  the  theatre.  into  thereby  crown f o r  delights  "sight  of  of  drama was  restoration period.  the  the  age.  periodical  His  H a v i n g gone  he w i s h e d  he  type  con-  r e a c h some who w o u l d  ridiculed vice.  was  which he there  the  i n the  r e f o r m a t i o n of  S t e e l e c a r r i e d over he m i g h t  Gibber  This  licentious  hoping that  the  drama.  the  however,  Like  join with  by  the  sensibility,  t o the  "pleasing  t o be l e f t i n the  virtue  the w o r l d s c o r n s  t h eat r e ,  he  melancholy"  undisturbed.  "exalted  passion"  in distress".  He  any woman who  " T h u s , " he r e m a r k s s a d l y ,  "she  2 loses In the  the  enjoyment  essays t h i s  of  that  most  sentimentalism  of V a l e n t i n e  laudable is  quite evident. C l a r i n d a and  Witness  the  stories  1.  Manley, Mrs. New A t a l a n t i s , 1 7 0 9 . 2nd e d . p p . 187-193* See a l s o G u a r d i a n b3 f o r " S w i f t ' s a t t a c k on M r s . M a n l e y (Epicine).  2.  Spectator  338.  and U n i o n ,  concern—pity."  Chloe,  34e  t h e nu.ptu.als  of  Jenny D i s t a f f  and the d e s c r i p t i o n  of  Lady  Lizzard. Charity,  he r e m a r k s  i n the  good w i l l and b e n e v o l e n c e assistance  and r e l i e f  which disposes  of m a n k i n d . "  heart with a conscious own r e w a r d .  feeling  Now a n d t h e n , "profitably  s t i r up i n h i s  heart  a spirit  perhaps  scene  of  the  another's.  He r e g a r d s  housed  i n these  frolic  part  passion" be  the  It  sad".  In t h i s  institutions  one l a n g u i s h i n g  love  is a  its  day  objects" that  if  one  can  Bedlam  meditation—the  and f e e l s  the  manner he  of b e n e v o l e n c e .  "miserable  of  hospitals  which the  are  "gay,  "superfluous  u n d e r p a i n a n d agony  might  relieved. Whether  to  being.  o f m a n k i n d " w o u l d c u r b but  some  us to  Charity f i l l s  1  of w e l l  one d a y ' s the  a "hahit  he r e m a r k s , he s p e n d s  making h i m s e l f  is  Guardian, is  the  or not  eyni cal  children  of the  this  attitude  sentimental  attitude  is  preferable  o f M a n d e v i l l e , who c o n s i d e r s  poor the g r e a t e s t  and most  extensive  the of  all  2 the  temporal  point  to  be c o n s i d e r e d .  he d i s c u s s e s better  of  blessings  sentiment.  which derive  Budge11 s c o r e s Men whose  them a r e r e l i e v i n g  1.  G u a r d i a n 166.  2.  Mandeville.  not  (September 21, Fable  from s o c i e t y ,  of B e e s .  against  bleeding  p.  gets  when the  themselves.  I7I3) V o l . 2,  a  Steele  pity  t h e p o o r but  is  301.  35  He d e n i e s Men,  he  Shaftesbury's  theory  t h i n k s , must a t t a i n t o  which w i l l enable  them t o  very unfavorably with the reformers  like  particular  abuses.  Care s h o u l d be be e n a b l e d t o poor t o  benevolence In the  Defoe  of  rich?  the  following  A d d i s o n and S t e e l e ' s  the  attitude  impotent  ignoble  An attempt w i l l o f the  poor.  Guardian  31.  The r e s t  of  practical  to existing  with  conditions.  Y/hat n e e d i s the  should  there  for  tears  and  application moral issues  of will  be made t o show how and why  periodical essayists  w i t h the work of t h e p r a c t i c a l r e f o r m e r s .  1.  compares  of t h e p r a c t i cal  existing  recipients  section the theories  it  The r e f o r m e r s d e a l  maintain themselves. the  o f mind  themselves."**  theory  attitude  They w o u l d r e c t i f y  become  .be e x a m i n e d .  sensible  the  upon  essayists'  and S w i f t .  t a k e n of  interdependence.  a certain strength  depend s o l e l y  Whatever we t h i n k o f t h e  the  of mutual  compares  unfavorably  • IT, . Critical It  is  attitude  evident  from t h e  previous d i s c u s s i o n that  of t h e p e r i o d i c a l e s s a y i s t s  follows  closely  D.espite  the  however  Theory - P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n .  9  the  general  essayists'  there  is  feeling  snobbery.  the g e n e r a l  ideas  essayists  general  to  beneficence,  the moral i s s u e s  of the  a great  p a p e r s shows t h a t  interest  i n general  papers are remarkably l a c k i n g  suggestions  the  Y / i t h few  exceptions  made l i t t l e preserves  Steele  it  is  and d i s t r e s s  to  because  to  in  i n which  although  resolve Steele  itself is  His l i f e  affability i n any  Therefore, into  if  ideas. have  His nature  has b r o u g h t  this  a c r i t i c i s m of  o f t e n touched by t h e i s more  poverty generous  him n e a r e r to. t h e  s e n t i m e n t a l as t h e y a r e ,  Addison's discreet  the  Addison i n p a r t i c u l a r  of u n c o n c e r n .  His d i s c u s s i o n s ,  preferable  times  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s seem t o  w h i c h he b e h o l d s .  than A d d i s o n ' s . people.  actual  i m p r e s s ! o n upon them.  seems  or n o t  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of these  an a t t i t u d e  discussion  i n the w o r k  writing©  and d e c o r u m t h e for  theory.  i n the papers are a p p l i e d  r e a d i n g of the  evince  Shaftesbury's  i n t e r l a r d i n g of h i g h e r m i d d l e  expressed  e s s a y i s t s were A careful  benevolence  The q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s w h e t h e r  a n y p r a c t i c a l way the  of  of  i n their works—especially  of A d d i s o n — a considerable class  outline  towards  the.  silences.  are  37*  The most  s t r i k i n g instance  insensibility the  subject  diary  for  to social  had been g i v e n  for  to  points  regulating  law.  physical until  1702,  this  phase  out j, a b i l l  the  King's  one h a d s u f f i c i e n t into  and m o r a l time  made u n t i l t h e  s  the  An e n t r y  essayists'  concerning  in Lutterell's  shows c l e a r l y how l i t t l e of s o c i a l was  reform.  ordered to  i n the matter  Little  thought  On t h i s  be b r o u g h t  prisons; for  it  to  prisons,  little  but  day, in no  pass both  interest  improvement I n d e e d  was  of Howard.  essayists.  r e m a r k e d on t h e likens  their silence  continued to excite  The c o n d i t i o n o f t h e known t o  periodical  c o n d i t i o n of the  of F i e l d i n g . time  the  Bench and F l e e t  interest  The l o a t h s o m e  the  is  of p r i s o n c o n d i t i o n s .  November 3 ,  Lutterell  evils  of  have been u n -  l e d Ward as e a r l y a s  The women's  gaol  to a subterranean boozing ken.  Here s n a i l s  leave  traces  enjoy  their  of  I7OO h a d  the prisons.  slimy  state  p r i s o n s c o u l d not  on t h e w a l l s  and s p i d e r s as b i g as  undi sturbed repose.  bumble  Here f i l t h l i e s  he  bees  heaped up  1  on a f l o o r of  the  which s t i n k s  poultry  He d e s c r i b e s flocking  1.  Ward, 1924.  like  a stable.  c o u n t e r he compares  these  creatures  inhabitants  " i l l - l o o k i n g vermin".  s w a d d l e d up i n t h e i r  r o u n d a n y newcomer l i k e  Ned. London Spy. p. 89.  to  The  cannibals.  Casanova  rags,  "Garnish*  Society,-London,  38.  garnish']"  they  "Liberty!  liberty!"  coffins  one  d e a d have beneath  cry,  on t h e  as  In t h i s  1  other w i t h  under the  like  a rabble  dogs,  ground. and y e t  i n an i n s u r r e c t i o n c r y i n g  hole  men l i e  p i l e d up  a s much s p a c e Some l i e  some  like  for  on t h e  like  e a c h as  benches,  potatoes  the  others  roasting  in  p the  ashes Fifty  nearly  the  about: t h e years same  fire.  l a t e r F i e l d i n g i n Amelia presents picture  ground Booth beholds whose w i f e  he n o t i c e s for  If  of h i s  girl  a loaf.  our e n t i r e  knowledge  of  e s s a y we s h o u l d have prisons  Spec t a t o r l e d t h e way date.  seem a t  any time  Another  As  Ward, Ned. p . 83.  2.  Ibid.  to  t o come f r o m t h e  of  the  was  the  impinge  no  idea  time.  felony  F u r t h e r on  of the  come  Casanova  in the  misery  about  conditions  at  the  which  T a t l e r and  on t h e i r h o p e f u l question  committed  terrible*  pages o f  Had t h e  existing  social  London Spy.  87.  a small  social conditions  r e f o r m m i g h t have  important  1.  p.  it  disorder  The f i l t h a n d d i s o r d e r a r e  periodical  earlier  for  On t h e  and an o l d man who h a d been  c e n t u r y were  i n the  in frantic  commitment  eighteenth  existed  and v i c e .  from a s e c o n d s t o r y window.  a ragged  stealing  disease  a man p r o s t r a t e d  on h e a r i n g  had t h r o w n h e r s e l f  of f i l t h ,  very  the  Society,  at  an  d i d not  complacency. time  i n which  London,  1924.  39-  the  Spectator  concerning essayists  and T a t l e r  imprisonment f o r do n o t  who: h a d ..ample the  debtors*  feels  that  riches  of  the  consider with  prisons,  become  the  i n just  It  is  being  Wastrels  society.**  i n the If  -  shameless  law  suffering of  defamation assault.  of t h e  a man s q u a n d e r s  creditors away h i s  brought  For this  upon h i m s e l f .  T h e r e must have to  its  debase  the  call  hands  his  and s e i z e  as  be  foundations.  the the  power  of  defence  of  i n an has  S t e e l e had some  b e e n many men l i k e  and u n t h i n k i n g l y a c c e p t e d  their  must  e v i l w h i c h he  themselves  in  speaks  i n the  fortune  attitude  He  insolent He  very  for  of  laws.  Society  t h e -law. s h o u l d p l a c e  him s u f f e r  families  been  places  a r e a menace t o  hands  B o o t h who r e f u s e d  existing  the  Steele,  condition  i n poverty.  i m p r o v i d e n t manner l e t  justification.  the  the  men who have  guilty  only r i g h t that  vengeance  of  law  This question  The c r e d i t o r may r i g h t l y  without  persons without protected.  observing  pov^er w h i c h t h e  creditors.  debtors  are  debts.  the  any t h o r o u g h n e s s .  approves  most d e b t o r s  of  small  opportunity for  and have  favorably  e s s a y s w e r e w r i t t e n was  to  support  William their  their right  the  2 assistance  of  another  paper  himself  partly  1.  Speetator  2.  Tatler  180.  a n y man who w o u l d f o o t i n w h i c h he vindicates 82.  (June (June  3,  speaks his 4,  of  their the  attitude 1711)  1710)  bills.  shopkeepers, towards  In Steele  debtors.  If  40  the  s m a l l tradesmen are  n o t meet  their  pense  a great  is  imprisonment  not  p a i d he s a y s ,  obligations.  To l i v e  injustice.  for  he d o e s  A c o m p a r i s o n of h i s  attitude  the weakness  position  Defoe, against  of h i s  man, he s a y s , of  the  plantations those  with the  attitude  of  Defoe  that  the  debt  makes  apparent.  only unjust  but  p a r d o n s and a c t s  imprisoned f o r  ex-  however.  felt  impractical. the  open f o r him by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o  or c o u r t  can-  upon  not c o n s i d e r  who has c o m m i t t e d a c r i m e may have  p r i s o n set  their  consequent  w i t h h i s u s u a l common s e n s e ,  d e b t o r s were n o t  themselves  i n l u x u r y at  The e v i l s  s m a l l debt  they  must  lie  of  clemency;  i n a gaol  laws A  doors the  while  from which  1 l i k e h e l l there prison  because  is  no r e d e m p t i o n .  of h i s  his  bills?  for  a trifle—perhaps  get  clear  fourteen has  advanced  2.  of the  the  a debtor  how w i l l he e v e r  seized  a shilling.  shillings  is  cast  be a b l e  by t h e M a r s h a l s e a  s p o n g i n g house he  fifteen  paid his  Defoe•s  1.  Many a man i s  of  That  debts  If  Before  the  even i f ,  i n the  meet  officers  debtor  i s u s u a l l y made  to  into  can  pay  meantime,  he  debt. conditions after  e y e s may be t r u e . before  the  time  That of the  the  S o u t h Sea c r a s h had opened  opinions l i k e Spectator  his  had been  and T a t l e r  shows  Lee, W i l l i a m . L i f e a n d Newly D i s c o v e r e d W r i t i n g s o f D a n i e l D e f o e , 1869. V o l . I I . p . 10 (.December 2 « , 1?177 ~ " See a l s o H o x a n a , J o h n D . M o r r i s and C o . , P h i l a d e l p h i a  I 9 0 3 . B k . I I . p . 94. Lee, V o l . II. p. 26l.  (May 2,  I724)  41  that  the  essayists  more p e n e t r a t i o n . imprisonment debt  might  For a long  of d e b t o r s  had been a t t a c k e d  as e a r l y a s  1688,  of  was  considered the  impractical.  the  Majestie  i m p r i s o n i n g a man f o r  debts,the  petition points  serviceable  citizens•  It  also  Character  guiltless.  the state  the  of  Prison  the  for  the g e n e r a l  for  of a  forward  Imprisonment  lowers  the  P e t i t i o n to  had brought debt.  with  Imprisonment  remarkable  out,deprives  i m p r i s o n i n g men o t h e r w i s e  question  t i m e men h a d s e e n t h a t  by M y n s h u l i n h i s  I n 1662  K i n g ' s Most E x c e l l e n t tion  have  quessmall  many  morale  by  1  Law Concerning essayists  also  other d e f e c t s  maintain a discreet  Britain,  observes  taken  of  the  other  n a t i o n upon e a r t h " .  that  the  the  liberty  Tatler,  matters  There  point  another i n the  legal  system  silence.  more h a p p y i n t h e of  the  to  reached this  the  The kingdom o f  subject  In consideration  o t h e r n a t i o n s - had not  also  "is  and p r o p e r t y 2  dealing with criminal is  i n the  care  than  of t h e  an a d v a n c e d  o p i n i o n may be  fact stage  laws  read  the  statement  1.  Cambridge H i s t o r y of  2*  Tatler  3.  The F r e n c h t r a v e l l e r , M i s s o n , had commented on t h i s i n h i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r r a n g e d n o t e s on B r i t a i n . M i s s o n , M e m o i r s , 1719. p. 120.  English Literature, ~  of  in  defensible.-^  be remembered when we  T a t l e r commending, t h e  any  Britain  V o l . 17,  p.  101. fact  42.  and. n o t e  at  system.  The l a w s w h i c h a r e f o u n d r e c o r d e r i n t h e  hooks were the  not  the  heartless  same t i m e  always  occasional  recorded, as  the  as  some  that  which exists  The  expressed  Hence i t was  assault  went  that  is  a crime  free  while  i n England.  make  to  of hangings  Many were  hanged f o r  criminals  escaped  By I 7 5 I t h e  do es n o t trivial  sentence  point  of  from  eighteenth Much  A l t h o u g h i n some t o take  cases  a man's  century  brutal  sheep-stealing  are  was  a  a common hardened  o t h e r n a t i o n s who •2 be h a n g e d . Brutality in  of  seem t o have offences  by pleading  view  atti-  differed  The E n g l i s h , he s a y s , delicacy  been  The  H a n g i n g , a s M i s s o n r e m a r k s , was  1  laws a n d l a u g h at the • • • i t such a mighty matter  case  time  eighteenth  to the  the  suggest.  the  are  t o have  o p i n i o n o f the  i n the  comparatively  hanging m a t t e r .  not appear  at  legal  statute  b r u t a l i t y which  property.  it  i n the  Notwithstanding  i n Locke's writings.  to  justifiable,  purse.  defects  c a s e s might  existed  today.  i m p o r t a n c e was a t t a c h e d  punishment  severe  of t h e  crime which  is well  is  of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n does  towards  homicide  apparent  rigorously enforced.  incidents  tude  century  the  been uncommon.  while  many r e a l  benefit  had d e f i n i t e l y  of  clergy.  changed.  In  1.  W i n g f i e l d S t r a t f o r d , Esme. History of B r i t i s h C i v i l i z a t i o n , 1928. V o l . 2, -p. 63O.  2.  Misson, Memoirs,  p. 160»,...:. •••  43.  that  year  last  resort  hi.bitory  Johnson s a i d of  that  authority  sanctions.  death  and t h e  s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d most  Thus i n 1753  operative  the  shown i n p r o c e e d i n g s  accused  crimes the  law  institutions w h i c h he he  of England  of a l l  levels  at  is apparently  persons  justly  claims  other c o u n t r i e s . other times  the  extreme  proof  tenderness  of  capital  a s u p e r i o r i t y to In the  against  p i l l o r y i n g not  the  F i e l d i n g i n "The Case  E l i z a b e t h Canning" could remark that against  of  as  the  diatribes  c r i m i n a l procedure  system  but a  particular  2 judge—Sir That  Francis  a change  was  brought  the  periodical  It  is  attitude  due  might  have  H e r e as  law  c e n t u r y may n o t  strange  selves  i n the  failed  to  have  a r e apt  nevertheless advance  comment  the  time.  1.  Rambler,  2.  C i t e d George,  to  of  114.  (April P.M.  20,  the  moralizing question  severe it  of  of  prison  reform  beginning  consider  punishment  0f  at  the  or a s  to have  imbeen.  men who c o n s i d e r e d t h e m social  glaring  The o m m i s s i o n i n t h e  capital  b r i n g about  been a s  that  guard  on t h e  at  the  i n the  done much t o  Criminal  as we t o d a y  towards  i n no way t o  essayists.  an e a r l i e r d a t e .  practical  i n the  a b o u t was  reform they  eighteenth  Place.  flaws  opinion should which did  Spectator  exist  and T a t l e r  1731)  Johnson's England,  p.  have  119.  of  at  44.  a n y t h i n g h u t a commendatory r e f e r e n c e is  the  existing  laws  significant.  Sorporal Punishment.  Against advanced  and as of  c o r p o r a l punishment  s t a n d when he  Excessive  flogging  inoperative  Steele  discusses  i n the  the  schools  taxes a d e f i n i t e  anything  classed  is  ancient  subject  such penalties  the  a  as  The e n f o r c e m e n t  but does not  An i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t  stolen  be  hangings  seem t o  extent.  ducking s t o o l w i t h  shrewish  b y thar  of t h e s e p u n i s h -  to, any g r e a t  for  forms  pence.3  p i l l o r y i n g and p u b l i c  punishment  wives.  point  have  Even a  4  s h o u l d be n o t e d  S w i f t i n h i s "Advancement o f R e l i g i o n * d e f i n e s the law " a s t h a t i n s a t i a b l e g u l f o f i n j u s t i c e and o p p r e s s i o n " . W r i t i n g s on R e l i g i o n and the C h u r c h , e d . Temple S c o t t , 1  Bonn's L i b r a r i e s , 18^8.  2.  V.  3.  Misson, p.  4.  Tatler  V o l . I. "p. 3 0 .  infra.  221.  395* (September  7,  2  yet  street  o f c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t might  p l a c i d Augustans  just  e s s a y s ; and  of twelve  decorous A d d i s o n mentions the  l a u g h as •  value  d e c r i e d by l a t e r w r i t e r s  bothered the  Fo o t h e r  t o be w h i p p e d t h r o u g h t h e  w h i c h were n o t uncommon. ments  education.  u s u a l p u n i s h m e n t f o r t h o s e who h a d  u n d e r the  Under the  '  of  and  he b r a n d s b o t h a s inhuman  c o r p o r a l punishment a r e n o t e d i n t h e  hangman was t h e  '  subject  as a form o f d i s c i p l i n e .  Misson remarks that  1.  to  1710)  45.  here.  Although  barbarity  the e s s a y i s t s  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f severe  ment f o r a l m o s t humanity pathos  t r i v i a l faults  i n the treatment  o f the a f f e c t i o n  "You w i l l thize  w i t h every  bird  dogs a n d b e a r s  ••  they  t h e number o f i n n o c e n t  f o r men.  I  sympa-  Words f a i l h i m  cocks,  bulls,  met a n u n t i m e l y d e a t h t o p r o v i d e  When h e s i t s  a n i m a l must have  sorrow  down to d i n e o f f a haunch o f of t h e s i l e n t  l e t drop i n i t s extremity.-'  c h o k e s when he i s s e r v e d w i t h  he t h i n k s  of i t s " t r a g i c a l  strength  t h e man he f e e l s  everything  He l a u d s  f o r h i s d i v e r s i o n only.-'  1.  T a t l e r 112.  (December  2.  T a t l e r 134.  (February 16,  3.  Ibid.  4.  Tatler  5.  Guardian 6.  (March 1 8 , 1 7 1 3 )  6.  Tatler  (December  112*  S i r Harry  who h a s a u n i v e r s a l b e n e v o l e n c e  (September  assures  h o r s e w h i c h he s c o r n s t o  which has l i f e .  68.  So t o o he  He s h u d d e r s t o e a t i t when  end".'*  L i z z a r d as a f r i e n d t o the race t o i t s utmost  t e a r w h i c h the  pork which h i s host  him has been whipped t o d e a t h .  is  animals.  you that 1  with  2  v e n i s o n he t h i n k s w i t h  put  speaks  for distressed  i n his misfortune."  w h i c h have  s t r o n g l y on  Steele  "when I t e l l  of;  corporal punish-  insist  of a n i m a l s .  he f e e l s  l a u g h , " he s a y s ,  when he c o n s i d e r s  sport  b a r e l y mention the subject  27, 1709) I7O9-IO)  15,1709)  27, I7O9)  Noble towards  46.  These remarks i n t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d deserve when we c o n s i d e r t h e treatment  maltreatment  essayists  thought  is  shed i n d e f e n c e Here t o o  of  subject  of b e a s t  speaks  is  of h i s  of  species  1.  contempt?  i n 1716  received  Spectator  of  the  sentimental, in  many a t e a r  i s an a d v a n c e  Flogging  the is  upon t h a t  of  any form of  i n the  of negroes  is  army,  reviling  a r e a l l made  an u n u s u a l p a p e r .  whi ch t h e  p e n of A d d i s o n .  Here A d d i s o n e x p r e s s e s later  indigna-  abuses w h i c h e x i s t e d  C h r i s t i a n masters.  c a n a man have with  the  speak  be somewhat  f i r m l y opposed to  there  treatment  of their  Addison,  brutal  the  investigation.  Spectator the  comment  fowl.  attitude  Defoe  comes f r o m t h e  treaty  and  c r i m i n a l s , f1ogging  In the  years  of the  c o r p o r a l punishment.  public  hands  d i s p l a y when t h e y  c o r p o r a l punishment y e t  Defoe's  essayists.  brutal  taken  the  often r e c e i v e d ,  of animals appears to  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  the  of r e f e r e n c e s  w h i c h human c r e a t u r e s  t i o n which the  little  paucity  little  for  the paper  What c o l o r o f e x c u s e ,  Are they definitely  less  part  of  advanced  opinion.  1711)  are? 1  Five  Assiento  t e m p o r a r y monopoly o f  6,  asks  our  human t h a n we  an E n g l i s h company by t h e  (November  paper  received at  Oddly enough t h i s  treating this  from Spa i n t h e  215.  negroes  This  the  47.  slave no one  trade with  the  seemed t o  Spanish c o l o n i e s .  q u e s t i o n the  The way f o r A d d i s o n ' s  morality of  the  been she  slave  trade  extravagance and moving  slaves  succeeded  this  Whatever  she  Oronooko*  succeeds  time  traffic. been  her  i n d e s c r i b i n g the  i n h e r romance  of her tale  pre-  intention  horrors  Despite  i n painting  of  the a vivid  picture.  Defoe's of  that  o p i n i o n o f c o u r s e may have  pared by M r s . Behn's romantic pen. may have  Even at  constructive  recommendations  a s u s u a l make the  seem r a t h e r w e a k . trades  man.  slaves  i n the  L i k e A d d i s o n he  of v i e w  is  that  d e p l o r e s the  A m e r i c a n colonies."*" If  the  d i s c u s s i o n i n the  His point  treated with kindness.  for  they  treatment  Spectator of a  maltreatment  These n e g r o e s  were  practical  treated  should  less  of be  harshly  2 t h e y w o u l d w o r k more f a i t h f u l l y , I n a n age  such as  t h i s — a n age  s t i l l strong—Defoe scoundrel. CharitySehools and 11ms Houses.  A social siderable for  the housing  would p r o b a b l y be r a t e d a s  1>  Lee,  2.  Colonel  Y o l . 3,  o f thought of  p.  Jacque.  and  the  efficiently.  i n which sentimentality  problem to which the  amount  cheerfully  a  is  rapacious  e s s a y i s t s gave a c o n -  was t h e  question  p o o r and i n d i g e n t .  of  institutions  Steele  especially  47. J o h n D. M o r r i s a n d C o . ,  Philadelphia,  48  did  all  i n his  maintenance In the  power t o u r g e  of  the  people  to  contribute  f o u n d a t i ons w h i c h e x i s t e d  G u a r d i a n he m e n t i o n s w i t h  of h e r o i c c h a r i t y ' — " r e s t r a i n t s  (prisons)  "instructions  "food  and r a i m e n t  t h o s e who have befriend  the  t h e i r way t o he  says,  for  the  themselves  aged"  for  the  poor" (charity (alms h o u s e s ) .  indulged i n i l l i c i t  alms as  an o b l a t i o n to  time• exemplary-  wicked"  schools) He u r g e s  1  who  Locke and K i n g s l a n d H o s p i t a l s .  should give  the  passions  abandoned and m i s e r a b l e w r e t c h e s the  the  commendation some  instances  for the  at  to  to  find The  expiate  rich, the i r  2 own c r i m e s .  A little  and l a m e n t s t h e his  appeal.  answer t o attempt  to  fact  He h a s  his  later that  he d i s c u s s e s  there  r e c e i v e d no c o - o p e r a t i o n .  a tax  on the  vices  I n a n o t h e r p a p e r he u r g e s benevolence" objects  of  same  f o r the  the  The  c r i t i c i s m of  o f people exercise  a l l e v i a t i o n of  t h i s benevolence  question  has b e e n no r e s p o n s e  p l e a has b e e n a s e v e r e  put  the  of of  to  only his  quality. "noble  incurables.  he h i m s e l f m e n t i o n s  The  fitting  in  A  "pathetic  terms".  suggested that  I n the  the  1.  G u a r d i a n 79.  2.  Guardian  17.  3.  Guardian  26.  4.  Guardian  79.  Spectator  a i l i n g r i c h might  (June 11,  1713)  he has  already  contribute  to  the  49.  support  of t h e  however,  a i l i n g poor.  forms  t h e . most  Donations f o r  insistent  charity  burden of  the  schools,  essayist's  theme. It have  is  not  strange  forwarded  the  that  cause  the  of the  periodical  c h a r i t y schools  daily lucubrations.  Charity schools  of  Is  much d i s c u s s i o n .  charity poor  schools  by d i r e c t  Mandeville  and o t h e r v i s i b l e  says,  against  them,  the  means  he  a  adds,  should  i n the i r  h a d become  s u b s c r i p t i o n had become  Anyone who s p e a k s  essayists  the  subject  passion  for  of r e l i e v i n g  the  "distraction". is  considered a  2 hard hearted, Before schools note  is  ungenerous  if  not  atheistical  A d d i s o n and S t e e l e ' s a t t i t u d e discussed,  however,  it  would  some  observations  made a t  condition  of destitute  c h i l d r e n and t h e  poor.  A consideration  of  easier  to  value  estimate  the  the  existing o f the  I n t h e L o n d o n Spy ffard m e n t i o n s  time  the  quarters  g l a s s house  Jacque  Defoe  gives an excellent  1.  Spectator  2.  Mandeville. Fable of Charity Schools", p.  3.  Ward.  p.  472.  36.  Bees.  303*  charity  interesting  concerning  crew  the it  suggestions. of  their  diminutive  winter  o f the  Colonel  life  of  I712)  "Essay  to  the  c h i l d r e n of  M i n o r i e s I n  picture  (September 1,  be  essayists'  whom he met m a r c h i n g t o i n the  towards  c o n d i t i o n s w i l l make  tatterdemalions i n the  wretch.  on C h a r i t y and  these  • 50.  little  outcasts  up t o  villainy.  destitute in the  the  arid, p o i n t s I n Roxana,  children.  streets  than those  he c o n s i d e r s  the  c h i l d might  lie  Any h e l p l e s s  who w e r e  same book Defoe  the  parishes  are  they  it  u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n  the  Sometimes  too,  of a p a r i s h i n which  p a r i s h e s were  other  out how t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e  f o r c e d to  that  provide  are allowed  to  fate  of  starving  was n o t b o r n f o r to  care  born within t h e i r  indicates  bred  for  children  bounds."*'  In  e v e n c h i l d r e n f o r whom receive  starve  at  scant  nurse,  care. sometimes  2 to  grow  c r o o k e d and l a m e d f o r want  who o b s e r v e d t h e stressed  the  are a l l o w e d vagrants. thieves. assist  Worse s t i l l  impotent the  fatherless  they  up as  ?/ork h o u s e s  poor,  society.  that  t o grow  T h o s e who oppose of  c o n d i t i o n of t h e s e c h i l d r e n  fact  these  of a t t e n t i o n .  should  vagrants  they  If  they  they w i l l remain murderers and  and c h a r i t y  schools,  c h i l d r e n to  exist  says Defoe,  on t h e i r  cloathing  and d i s t r e s s e d  continually  be e d u c a t e d . -  may become  "relieving,  Those  and  own  will  labor.^  instructing"  c h i l d r e n " are  enemies  to  4  E v e n the  j o c u l a r Ned Ward h a s  1.  Defoe. Roxana, 1903. p . 3 0 .  2.  Ibid,  3.  Dee V o l . 3 , p p . 134-159.  4.  Dee V o l .  p*  J o h n D. M o r r i s and C o . ,  22.  3, p.  a word of p r a i s e  59.  for  the  Philadelphia,  51.  charity points  school out  to  f o u n d e d b y Edward V I . his  friend,  these l i t t l e  "blew-jackets and k i t e - l a n t h o r n ' d education  and  are  qualifications. any  serious  times  show  Charity  later  lips  c r i t i c i s m and h i s forth  schools  the  school,  children in  caps"  receive  provided for according  From t h e  1  In t h i s  most  of Mandeville  unequalled their  alone  comes  f u l m i n a t i o n though amusing  objectionable  he c o n s i d e r s  their  an to  he  side  a caprice  of h i s  at  philosophy.  or f a s h i o n  like  and a n y t h i n g  else  •• 2 hooped p e t t i c o a t s . keep the  poor from working  villainy. is  Charity  Any time  s o much t i m e  educate the  lost  that to  are  society.  c h i l d r e n o f the  downright  accessory  poor people  t h i n g w h i c h we want them t o them f o r  schools  to  the growth  spend a t  their  poor?  Education i s  have because  labor which i s  their  it  the  of  books  We n e e d l a b o r e r s .  4  which  Why last  incapacitates  "proper  province"  5 and a t  w h i c h t h e y have no r i g h t  On t h e  whole,  such g e n e r a l  the  interest  1.  ?/ard.  L o n d o n Spy*  2.  Mandeville. Fable Schools". Vol. I.  3.  Ibid.  4.  Ibid.  p.. p.  306.  329*  to  grumble  question of c h a r i t y t h a t A d d i s o n and p. of p.  and r e p i n e . schools  Steele  was  could  of  scarcely  124. Bees. 513.  "Essay  on C h a r i t y  and  Charity  52  have was  avoided mentioning i t . congenial  necessity  to  b o t h men.  of e d u c a t i o n  interested  him i n t h e  generosity  c o u l d not  tions  w h i c h have When i t  his  long  is  the  a  silence  means  poor.  feels  they  subject. have  suffer  been h i g h e r  Steele's  of c h a r i t y  regarding social an influence  glory  reform.  the d e g r a d i n g  of e d u c a t i o n .  life  for  Thus t h e y  lowliness  them  remarks, of  posterity.  have  the d o n o r ' s  something receiving  1.  G u a r d i a n 105.  2.  S p e c t a t o r 294.  "so  ills  charity which  had wanted even  in  In another  o f L o n d o n who h a d of  St.  Actions  Paul's  of t h i s  kind,  a p p r o b a t i o n he  1713)  ( F e b r u a r y 6,  1711-12)  says, this  this paper  given  school  t r a n e e n d a n t " i n them t h a t  mere p u b l i c  ( J u l y 11,  they  is  Steele  from the  f o r the  station.  the w r i t i n g master cost.  swiftest  Education  a r e c ompensated  of t h e i r  his  children  H a d t h e s e c h i l d r e n , he  instruetions  at  the  breaks  schools  and t h e  poor r e c e i v e  a certain citizen  boys  condi-  Charity  age  and v i r t u o u s  S t e e l e mentions  ten  hearted  Addison  of manners.  which w i l l repay  kind  educate  have  by the  over  b o r n o r more r i c h l y endowed  to  i n the  would  schools  of the  from t h e i r p o v e r t y .  the  subject  belief  large  f o r good  c h i l d r e n of the  benefits  firm  the  remained untouched  They a r e t h e  the  this  a moral c o r r e c t i v e  produce an honest  that  schools  Addison's  question  of p r e v e n t i n g  bound to  from  been mentioned*  he c o n s i d e r s have of  as  Apart  to  Steele instead should  53.  become t h e  recipient  of h i s  first  congratulations  i n the  «i company o f  the  angels.  B o t h A d d i s o n and S t e e l e ' s schools  are  i n line with  the  opinions regarding  general  T h e y compare f a v o r a b l y w i t h t h e siders  that  blessings of  jfreatment  there  of  of  many t h o u s a n d s  In the household  room f o r  education,  year breeds  Servant s  is  of  youths  up t h o u s a n d s  later  is  w h i c h he t h i n k s  paper  Steele  puts  subject.  not master  a proper master he must  impartiality.  These  and h i s  form h i s  3.  Spectator  107.  ( J u l y 3,  Spectator  137.  (August  gallows*' in a i n the  outlines In a  quite  in  keeping  He, says S t e e l e ,  i n w o r d s and  who  can never  B e f o r e he c a n a s p i r e t o  s  the  opinions con-  own p a s s i o n s  equanimity  Preface  Steele,  ruin  every  should r e c e i v e . ^  of decorum.  2.  Fur other opinions body's, b u s i n e s s " ;  on t h e  servants  household,  opinions are  (February 25 Colonel  observations  p o s i t i o n of  servants  T a t l e r I38. to  Defoe who c o n -  n a t i o n and w h i c h  S i r Roger's  1.  4.  of t h e  for another. acquire  time.  of w h i c h has been t h e  i n definite  of himself  of t h e  of unhappy c h i l d r e n f o r t h e  of  with Addison's standard  master  copious  lack  considered with  cerning this  is  o p i n i o n of  p e r i o d i c a l essay the  p i c t u r e w h i c h he draws treatment  the  thought  charity  be  be a  actions.  4  1709-10)  Jacque. I711) 7,  1711)  see D e f o e ' s " E v e r y b o d y ' s b u s i n e s s noSwift, " D i r e c t i o n to Servants".  5 4 e  The a t t i t u d e is  sensible.  time*  It  In t h e i r  of  A d d i s o n and  gives  voice  papers, they  to  curriculum to suit  deplore  b r u t a l methods  made u s e  of at  Steele's modern.  the  he s a y s ,  enquire  the  l a i d deeper urges  that  i n w o r l d l y matters  i t would  foundations  be much t o  of  and s u r e r t h a n t h e y a different  type  of  are.  no a p t i t u d e  required to  pursue  some  as w e l l boys  the  gentlemen's  sons  be  to  attitude  he f e e l s  attitude.  W i l l Wimble,  the  product  an u n s u i t a b l e  1.  Guardian  9 4 .  (June  set  2 9 ,  have of  some for his  trade.  towards  the  his  of  also  often  depends  purpose  to  could not  be  r e a s o n he  be g i v e n  to training.  the  T h e i r time  is  other task. trade? sons  Why  Many a  brought  S i r Roger's education.  Sir  up w i t h  Under the  pressure  education  of  need o f a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  I7I3)  on  L a t i n and G r e e k a r e  studies.  i n and knowledge  traditional  for  educated  Andrew F r e e p o r t w o u l d l i k e  of  the  the  They  b y t h e grammar s c h o o l  classical  of t h e s e  an i n t e r e s t  of  decidedly  For t h i s  1  education  who have  They might  the  our f o r t u n e s  Many y o u t h s  not  needs.  on t h e c u r r i c u l u m s o u n d  profit  are  a broadening of  Individual  c h i l d r e n who c a n n o t  wasted.  opinions  o f d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h were  our success  education, if  education  time.  comments  Since  towards  the advanced  advocate  traditional the  Steele  curious  for  friend,  It would  be a l l  is to  55°  the good i f Their  sons  the might  fession which, "is  great  beneath  f a m i l i e s would f o r g e t  t h e n be  as  Steele  their  of  essayists Steele is  the  confident  schools  creature  he  beseeching  their  honest  inexorable  of  e y e s and k n e e l to  at  speaking with the  he  voice  in later  The a t t i t u d e B e h i n d them t h e y  lash.  letters  is  He  with seen  c a r r i e d away by s e n t i m e n t . many a n lash.  tears  Is  ingenuous With  they  on t h e i r t e n d e r  It  the  on d i s c i p l i n e .  pale  throw up  knees  be f o r g i v e n t h e f a l s e  s c h o o l a r e whipped l i k e  sauciness  of  l a s h i n g s w h i c h he has  s o r r o w and s i l e n t  w o r d i n making L a t i n v e r s e . say  the  s a y s anyone may s e e  blockhead  types  of e d u c a t i o n by the  e x p i r i n g w i t h shame u n d e r t h e  looks  amusement,  pronouncements w h i c h  no b o y c a n be a l l u r e d t o  administered i n the schools In the  pro-  training.  the custom  that  or a  Surely different  most n o t a b l e  When he s p e a k s  1  a trade  make r e g a r d i n g e d u c a t i o n a r e t h o s e  deplores  blows." *  for  remarks, with c e r t a i n  quality".  c h i l d r e n need d i f f e r e n t Some  educated  their pride.  to  an  quantity  no w o n d e r , h e goes on t o  of common s e n s e , malefactors  that  boys  essayists  is  not  a new  had a w e l l d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y .  (August  1.  S p e c t a t or I37.  2.  S p e c t a t o r 168. ( S e p t e m b e r 12, 1711) See a l s o T a t l e r 15. (May 14, 1?09)  30,  who  a c q u i r e an impudent  years."*" of the  of  1711)  one. In t h e i r  a  56.  w o r k t i m e and a g a i n In placing  these  they  ideas  echo  the  pronouncements  before  the  public  of  Locke.  S t e e l e d i d a good,  service. At the  t h e t i m e when t h e  idea  of  periodical  c o r p o r a l punishment  had been d i s c a r d e d i n t h e o r y . footsteps, masters the  condemns  1  He b r a n d s  Locke,  following  instrument  chastisement  written  a disciplinary  c o r p o r a l punishment.  who know no o t h e r  lash.  as  e s s a y s were  of  He  measure  i n Ascham's  scorns  punishment  by the  r o d as  than  "a  lazy  and s h o r t " method of c o r r e c t i o n .  C o r p o r a l punishment,  holds,  evils—sensual  strengthens  and p a i n .  It  is  who w o u l d have In his S t e e l e was by the  as  1750  the  attempt  of a l l  discipline  good  to  i n advance  the  Solomon's  not  "wise,  l a s h was  getting  the root  of h i s Host  milder councils  oft  quoted  discipline  schools.  4  Boswell  carefully  1.  Lee.  2.  Locke.  3.  Locke.  4.  Cubberly.  of  the  be  Scriptures,  severe  humane D r . J o h n s o n , as  noted,  Schoolmaster.  believed  Locke  discipline for-  clung  E v e n as i n most  to late  of  Thoughts  on E d u c a t i o n ,  p.  46.  Thoughts  on E d u c a t i o n ,  p.  51.  of E d u c a t i o n ,  the  painstaking  children could  96.  History  I.  that  p.  Brief  Bk.  of  school masters,  r e m a r k on d i s c i p l i n e .  continued to  Even the  In p r a c t i c e  o f the  those  men".^  these t h e o r i e s  times.  pleasure  be u s e d b y  and i n g e n i o u s  popularize  common.  to  he  p.  244.  be  57»  governed  o n l y by  That  u  fear." * 1  Steele  s h o u l d have  advised  a b r o a d e r a n d more  I I  flexible  curriculum is  hands a d e s i r e  for  not  strange.  learning  on t h e  w h i c h had f o r m e r l y been e x c l u d e d essay i t s e l f  is  self-conscious  a response middle  j  t i o n and p o l i s h .  j  and s o c i a l , emergence  was  necessary  i n but  it.  desire  acquire  that  trade,  education than t h a t To the  which the  o p i n i o n of  periodical newly  knowledge, both  informapractical The  power was c r e a t i n g  need f o r a d i f f e r e n t  felt  classes  of the  t h e i r advancement.  and u n i v e r s i t i e s was  v o c a t i o n was  The  education,  into  on a l l  of those  The e d u c a t i o n w h i c h h a d been  grammar s c h o o l s  furnish.  the  part  from  the  to  to  new c l a s s  only an i n t e r e s t  whose  class  They f e l t  of t h i s  education.  to  T h e r e was  the  not  type  of  p r o v i d e d by  inadequate.  the  Men,  n e e d f o r a more  practical  Latin-Greek curriculum could  t h e s e men S t e e l e  gives  voice.  Education I.. of I Women j  The a t t i t u d e women i s  as  interesting  p u n i s h m e n t as large  part  alludes  of the  to the  1.  Boswell,  2.  Tatler  as t h e i r  towards  attitude  a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure.  addressed  proposed to  essayists  the world  "numberless  take i i . 205.  to  under h i s p.  183.  2  education  corporal  The e s s a y s were  of women.  c r o w d of care.  to  the  Steele  often  d a m s e l s " w h i c h he Women, he  thinks,  in  has can  of  58.  be more e a s i l y  improved' than men.  methods t o a d o r n not He f l a t t e r s his  only t h e i r  He w i l l  study the  best  p e r s o n s but t h e i r m i n d s .  h i m s e l f when he s e e s them i m p r o v i n g d a i l y  instructions.  by  1  He r e g r e t s treated  t h a t women i n E n g l a n d have h i t h e r t o been ... p l i k e Mohametan women. They may n o t be i n t e r e s t e d  i n l e a r n i n g as yet  but  that  is  because  t h e i r minds have  not been t u r n e d i n the  proper d i r e c t i o n .  however,  Steele's  subject  to  g l e a n from  whether  It  discursive  o r n o t he h a d any d e f i n i t e  is  difficult,  chats  on t h e  scheme f o r  their  instruction. I n one  of t h e  education is  Guardian papers the  q u e s t i o n of  c o n s i d e r e d i n a s e n s i b l e way.  t h e minds of women be c u l t i v a t e d men?  Steele  asks.  i n us  o n l y b e c a u s e we are  order  of beings  "the  Why s h o u l d n o t  as w e l l a s t h e  L e a r n i n g and knowledge  are  reasonable creatures,,  female  women's  minds o f perfections In  this  world is  on t h e  same l e v e l  Spectator  papers  Steele  with  3  the m a l e " . the  I n one o f t h e  opinion that  the  expresses  c o n d i t i o n o f a woman's mind i s much  4 more t o be r e g a r d e d t h a n t h e He f e e l s  nevertheless  1.  Spectator  92.  2.  Spectator  53.  3.  Guardian  155.  4.  Spectator  66.  that  management  the  feminine  of her person. arts  must r e m a i n .  5?.  Therefore  he  daughters,  lays  wives,  great  Lady L i z z a r d  mingle  Steele  expressed  and t h e  '  female  part  '  i n advance  of his  i n his  the  need of time.  had n o t d e v e l o p e d  to  the  any great  of  description  household  education  arts.  2  f o r women  A l t h o u g h ' . L o c k e - i n ••his  on E d u c a t i o n h a d i m p l i e d t h a t  same e d u c a t i o n as hoys  gentle  o f h e r f a m i l y who  •  on t h e  t e n d e r and  His idea  1  fully  diversions with  insistence  was  Thoughts the  is  intellectual  In h i s  on women a s  m o t h e r s and f r i e n d s .  womanly a c h i e v e m e n t of  stress  girls  should  receive  i d e a o f e d u c a t i o n f o r women extent.  E v e n as l a t e  as  I753 L a d y M a r y W o r t l e y Montague i n a l e t t e r t o h e r d a u g h t e r complained of the were  kept.  Every a r t ,  natural  reason.^  that  Swift  of  of  the  gross  she  will  indicate  o p i n i o n s h e l d at  unfinished 4  the  that  a subject  342,  the  of great  also  Steele  was  Swift's  disposition.  2.  See a l s o  3.  O c t o b e r 1 0 , 1753, c i t e d M. P. J o h n s o n ' s Day, p . 63*  4.  Swift..  i n advance  In  may be his  "On t h e E d u c a t i o n o f of  education  f o r women  The c h i e f  66.  33.  Essays.  their  with  attitude  controversy..  Spectator  stifle  S t e e l e *s a t t i t u d e  subject  Spectator  Literary  applied to  essay  1.  Spectator  is  time.  of the g e n e r a l  says  i n w h i c h women i n E n g l a n d  how f a r  and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  Swift  h a s become  said,  A comparison of  considered t y p i c a l  Ladies"  ignorance  George,  England  in  point  60.  of  discussion is  whether  or not  it  w e l l e d u c a t e d woman f o r a w i f e . generally selves  determined  side.  t h e arguments  I n the  first  so  by the  of a wife  to  reading apt  to  o f the  books,  with Defoe's. women o f  on t h e  set  forth  in  The f a c t of  His  is  that  Defoe  idea  of  the it  is  i n the  the habit  of  and d e v o t i o n ,  maintains custom.  that  is  favorably to  deprive  We r e p r o a c h faults  the  the  of  which  education  which  f r e e d o m f o r women i s  amusingly  1  slowly  seems  influenced  i n the  by a woman.  Women l i k e  the  Fortunate M i s t r e s s ,  Bk.  that  same w a y .  Duchess  I .  coming i n t o  f o r Steele's  strange  w r i t e r s were  1.  that  h a n d compares  received  women were  it  fact  place  and i m p e r t i n e n c e ,  more p r o m i n e n c e may a c c o u n t  opinions although  second  a barbarous  folly  Roxana,  negative  t o busy h e r s e l f  other  t h e y w o u l d be less guilty i f t h e y men r e c e i v e .  He t h e n  f o r c h i l d r e n and,  of housewifery  Like Steele,  with  is  brain.  attitude  education  he s a y s ,  I n the  those  t u r n a woman's  Steele's  sex,  except  a  says,  Consequently  b r e e d and c a r e  house.  choose  he  on the  the  propagation.  under t h e d i r e c t i o n of her husband, management  men.  he has met w i t h  is  to  question,  p l a c e we must f a c e  end of m a r r i a g e  the business  The  prudent  n e g a t i v e b y t h e women t h e m -  and almost''••universally  enumerates  great  i n the  is  p.  none  a  position  advanced of t h e  other  E n g l a n d was  ruled  of M a l b o r o u g h , M r s .  225.  6l.  Manley,  L a d y M a r y W o r t l e y Montague were  presence  felt.  That  u n d e c i d e d some f o r t y by F i e l d i n g ' s  the  attitude  years  somewhat  making  their  t o w a r d s women was  later,  however,  s a t i r i c a l treatment  is  still  made  evident  of M r s . A t k i n s o n  i n Amelia. Marriage I n the frequently  Spectator  and T a t l e r  and e a r n e s t l y .  In the  r e g a r d e d i n a c h i v a l r o u s way, gentle wives. Raillery  is  question.  as  woman a r e e d u c a t e d s t a t e f o r them i s reading public  state  Steele I n the  since  they  Tatler 185. See a l s o S p e c t a t o r  the  speak  1  are  are  the  too  in dignity  Whether  earnestness. the  classes".  cause  strongly  before  of the married  against  "higher  Towards  181,  protected.  of p l a c i n g  sanctity  protests  always  p r o p e r and becoming  undertook w i t h great  m a r r i a g e by the  choice.  of f a s h i o n .  The t a s k  o f p a r e n t s who mate t h e i r  tion for their  1.  out  o f women t h e  He c a n not  must be  a r e unbecoming t o t h e  marriage.  he t h i n k s ,  marriage  companions a n d  smaller vices  educated  T a t l e r Steele  de c o n v e n a n c e " ,  barity  or not  therefore  taken towards  and v i c e .  agreeable  o n l y u s e d when t h e i r These,  discusses  p a p e r s women are  T h e y a r e weak and t h e y  o f womanhood, must be l a u g h e d  his  Steele  attitude ".Mariages  of much u n h a p p i n e s s against  the  bar-  c h i l d r e n w i t h no c o n s i d e r a jointures  Guardian  73.  and  settlements  62  he  feels  e v e n more s t r o n g l y .  He d e p l o r e s t h e  fact  that  any  1 . woman s h o u l d h e  "set  The i n s i s t e n c e daughters  is  also  made i n d e p e n d e n t laid to  on t h i s  up at of  auction".  parents  on " p i n money" f o r  a n o t h e r cause or a t y r a n t  matter  i n the  d i s c r e d i t matrimony.  young m a r r i e d people  the  It  of s t r i f e .  A woman i s  over her husband.  p l a y h o u s e has a l s o has  The  stress  done much  implanted i n the  idea that  their  heads  of  t h e r e w i l l be no m u t u a l  2 confidence marriage, which  o r dependence he t h i n k s ,  is  cohabitation is The y o u n g p e o p l e  seriousness  who w i l l  whose  themselves  have  of marriage.  no i d e a  gaming and d r i n k i n g .  just  1.  Tatler  223.  2.  Tatler  199.  3.  Tatler  149*  4  *  S p e c t a t o r 268,  of  c o m p a n i o n , one joys,  one whose  chooses  A woman i n s t e a d o f and p r u d e n t  a wife his choosing throws  on a r e p r o b a t e whose f o r t u n e may a d d  4 ' magnificence  the  him i n i n d o l e n c e and pay f o r  a c o m p a n i o n who w i l l be a f f a b l e ,  to the  of  A man, i n s t e a d  her a c o n t i n u a l p l e a s u r e ,  away h e r h a p p i n e s s  or b a r g a i n i n  clause.  c a r e s and double h i s  dowry w i l l keep  hunting,  I n most e a s e s  who w i l l be an a g r e e a b l e  share h i s  d u t y w i l l be t o  state.  simply a contract  a necessary  or s a n c t i t y  choosing a wife  i n that  of  199.  her  trappings.  63, •  Against  this  set  up an i d e a l  the  subject.  public  of m a r r i a g e S t e e l e  of m a r i t a l b l i s s .  of  of  the  domestic  occasion  would attempt  C o n s t a n t l y he  C o n s t a n t l y he p l a c e s  pictures  makes u s e  idea  before  felicity.  i  his  discusses  reading  In the  of Jenny D i s t a f f ' s  to  Tatler  he  marriage  to'  2 Tranquillus  to  mention marriage  A g a i n i n a n o t h e r number of most t o u c h i n g  f a s h i o n the  the  in its  highest  terms.  same p a p e r he p r e s e n t s  death  scene  of  a fai thful  in  his  wife,  a l o v e d and most l o v i n g m o t h e r . ^ • M a r r i a g e , he p o i n t s  out,  s h o u l d be a c o n t i n u a l  and  interchanging  "mutual  endearments".  in this  holy state.  Amelia  found  Billy.  conversation as  it  will,  s h o u l d be  "Reciprocal compliance"  4  sacrifices  He t o o k a f i r m  such a wife  dearest  !•  T a t l e r 150^  2.  Tatler  79.  3»  Tatler  114.  4.  Tatler  192.  5»  Tatler  139,,  6.  T a t l e r 136.  the w e l l  or not  the  fashionable,  wife  Spectator  490  and  325.  6  duty  virtuous  for  beau monde  a p p e l a t i o n o f human l i f e .  also  a  those  animal" unfit  95.  See  is  being  stand against  beau m o n d e . L e t  fashionable  the  for  a "mere d o m e s t i c  of t h e  "kind offices"  How he w o u l d have l a u d e d t h e  and h e r t e n d e r  worthless  of  of  her  who the think  and husband The m a r r i e d  64.  atate  is  capable  one w h i c h a f f o r d s of.  Marriage should  placency. love  as much d e l i g h t  of h i s  wife  becomes  for  w h i c h he  for  nothing. marriage  a mistress  patience  flame.  Marriage rites.  i n w h i c h b o t h h u s b a n d and w i f e  forgiveness,  a human  of perpetual  him a v i t a l  is  t h a n a c o n s u m m a t i o n of t h e life  state  Man may b u r n •.with f e v e r  a force without  of  be a  as  It  bear.  It  subject  This  idea  Steele Steele  lays  most  developed  F u n e r a l L o r d Hardy rebukes Tom, he not  says,  enough  himself  thinks  of t h e  ness.  further  much of  Lady S h a r l o t  piety,  This attitude  Here  the  i n embryo Steele's  typical  of the  is  is  a  attitude  idea  into  Pamela, of the  of the  discussing .  .  .  .  I n The  of h i s  marriage  - j .  duties.  dramas.  night  love. and  The f e l i c i t y  which  he s a y s w i l l  come f r o m  and m a t e r n a l i t was  Ktygian darkness the  domestic  then  he  tender-  that should  forbearing Amelia. novel.  t o w a r d s women on t h e whole  sentiments  state  tolerance,  In  warmth  shows how i n e v i t a b l e  virtuous the  the  household cares  M i i l a m a n t d u r i n g her passage be r e b o r n a s  In his  becomes  more  on t h e w i f e l y  Tom f o r t h e  married state.  expects with  her f r i e n d s h i p ,  too  stress  the  is  .  the  com-  but  must b r i n g  and g o o d humor t o  is  emergent  1.  S p e c t a t o r 500. "I l o o k on my f a m i l y s o v e r e i g n t y , " says Philagamus.  2.  Steele. Plays. A c t 2, S c . i , p .  as  is  middle  class.  patriarchal  "The F u n e r a l , or G r i e f a l a M o d e " , 30.  &-5.  He d i d much, t o  d i s p e l l the  r e s t o r a t i o n idea  a m o n e t a r y t r a n s a c t i o n and a c o n v e n i e n t bauchery. helped to found  In his  establish  i n the  i n the  that  novels  pictures  Victorian  writings  of  cloak for  o f and f o r t h e  attitude  of m a r r i a g e de-  "gentle  sex"  submissive  he  t o w a r d s women w h i c h  R i c h a r d s o n a n d F i e l d i n g and  of the  as  is  later  and womanly women o f  fiction.  Prostitu^  o  n  *  Prostitution is Steele  discusses  siders  the  us a l l ,  the  p o i n t he  seventeen to  he  see  describes  censure."*"  his  In the  Spectator  V i ce and  place  the  con-  wickedness  offender  of mankind.  the  anguish  To  below  illustrate of  of heart  about  he  p a n d e r s and p r o c u r e s s e s  a s c a n d a l and d e s e r v e themselves  to  fall  men he r e g a r d s  them w i t h p i t y  i n those  he  felt  who t h e y  as  been those  thought  by  has  under  he c o n s i d e r s  o f young g i r l s who have  believing  he  f o r c e d to g a i n her l i v e l i h o o d  The p r o s t i t u t e s  o n l y crime i s  which  m e e t i n g w i t h a wench  He d e p i c t s  Y/hen he s p e a k s  by handsome  part  F o r female  They a r e  questions  i n d e s i r e s which a r e n a t u r a l  should not  virtuous  years.  prostitution.  pity.  indulgence  s u c h a young g i r l  no p i t y .  social  i n some d e t a i l .  says,  mercy o f t h e  this  o f the  q u e s t i o n of p u b l i c whores.  which a r i s e from to  one  with seduced whose loved  2 them.  1. 2.  Men s h o u l d have  Spectator Spectator  274. 205•  more p i t y and c o m p a s s i o n t h a n  to  66.  "stain  the  delible  life  o f a p o o r d e l u d e d young woman" w i t h  dishonor.  They  s h o u l d have  in-  more mercy t h a n t o wound  1 the  heart  of  a tender  p i t y when he r e a d s woman.  Chastity,  parent.  the he  letter  insists,  Steele written  is  moved w i t h  by an abused  s h o u l d be t h e  genuine  young  noblest  male  •• 2 qualification. To S t e e l e women a r e nature less  makes  them t h e  scrupulous part  dupes  seem to  feel  of p r o f l i g a t e that  custom to h e r  having  poisoned her  pleased. In the  men" who walk".  o f the  Their  the  fate  them t o s u b m i t 3  gallants.  Never  once  to  admirers w i t h her  glances  eyes b u b b l e  and  of the  does  as Ned Ward p o i n t e d  shop by h e r p r e v a i l i n g  very  more knowing  He b e w a i l s  forces  a woman c o u l d ,  tempt  she  trade  virtuous.  and p r e y  of mankind.  p o o r shop women whose impertinences  essentially  he  out,  and them  as  4  Spectator  seduce  S t e e l e speaks  "such unfortunate  The c h i l d r e n of  and u n r e c o g n i z e d . T h e c h i l d r e n , he s a y s , 1. G u a r d i a n 123. 2.  Guardian  3.  Spectator  4.  London Spy,  5.  Spectator  is  43. I53. p. 203.  72.  of the  females  "loose as f a l l  t h e s e men u s u a l l y grow up obligation  a matter  of  to  care  for  tribe into  of their  destitute  these  common h u m a n i t y — a n  . 67-*  o b l i g a t i o n not however, to  indicate  compel t h e  for  of r e l i g i o n but  any d e f i n i t e  unfeeling  t h e i r unlawful Steele's  that to  only  to  from h i s  concern f o r  clearly  by t h i s  trade.  attitude later  i n his  indulge  children. that  is  the  the  not  end of  for  a b a n d o n e d women.  should  be f o u n d f o r  the  London Spy,  idle  p.  to  compare  of  liable  some f o r t y  To p r o s t i t u t i o n  injured  time. but  society  virtuous but as  in  such  Prior  cases  inoperative finishing  and u s e f u l  and d i s s o l u t e .  and  magistrate  dealing with an  those  is  fury a  years  Fielding  Hot o n l y  innocent wives  Reputable  to  Steele*s  n o t h i n g more t h a n a  74.  creation."*"  was made  B r i d w e l l he c o n s i d e r s is  ready  seem  think l i k e the  It  upon  not  of h i s  t h e c u r r e n t method  of punishment.  Ward.  evils are  an a d v a n c e  c h i l d r e n does  s h o u l d be b u r n e d a l i v e  school  1.  care  apart  c o n t a m i n a t i o n of  s h o u l d be r e f o r m e d . means  taken  and  Journal.  passions  He d o e s  that  to  not,  danger  to which s o c i e t y  interesting  nearly a l l their  be  a l l women a s c r e a t u r e s  illegitimate  dangers It  a l l whores  feels  certainly  in prostitution a social  Covent-Garden  endangered by  he  t o women i s  w i t h t h a t which F i e l d i n g expressed  attributes who  the  method w h i c h m i g h t  of n a t u r e a n d answer t h e  He f a i l s  see  see  He d o e s  offspring.  attitude  laws  nature.  and promiscuous parents  of Red Ward who c o n s i d e r s  obey t h e  of  The  occupations question  68.  requires  discernment  is willing  to  give  and careful  consideration.  These  he  .  Duelling, The. q u e s t i o n Drinking  A false  duelling  p r o v o c a t i o n t h e y are  their reputations.^ prevent the  Steele considers  ^ , ' o f h o n o r , he s a y s ,  kind  slightest  of  men from  numbers  Until  settling  of h e l p l e s s  ready  If  some  of  it  would soon c e a s e .  they  p r i d e themselves  If  everyone  it  would  of  drawn up  by s i n g l e  Men f i g h t  a d u e l were  quickly lessen  are  c o u l d be a t t a c h e d  on b e i n g men o f  who f o u g h t  the  • ., the  to  to combat  continue the  only  h o n o r and  defend  10  practice  because courage.  to  stand  i n the  pillory  number o f  these  i m a g i n a r y men  honor.3 In h i s  all  laws  At  length.  draw swords t o  and o r p h a n s w i l l  increase. duelling  to  their disputes  stigma  some  . 4 . e x i s t s among men.  strict  widows  at  the  mentions  attitude  t h i n k i n g men o f h i s the  Drinking  duelling day.  r i d i c u l o u s duels  to m a i n t a i n a b a r r e n  dignity  towards  of mankind.  1.  Guardian  20.  2.  Guardian  129.  3.  Spectator  99.  4.  Brown, T .  at  one  their  lives  4  an o c c u p a t i o n b e n e a t h  p.  with  E v e n t h e amusing Tom Brown  Men who spend t h e i r d a y s  Observations.  is  i n w h i c h men r i s k  reputation.  Steele considers  Steele  121.  the  carousing  over  their to  c u p s l e a d , mere a n i m a l l i v e s .  be t o  above  kill  the  i n themselves  beasts themselves.  the  b u t l e r and s w i n e h e r d o f  Britain  a l l they  b e a s t s and i n f a c t  the  t o keep  to  emulate  endeavor  in their  the  seems  natures  very habits  says  Steele,  of "were  any t r u e E s q u i r e ' s i n G r e a t  and compare a c c o u n t s  gentleman  have  I w i l l undertake,  up i n so many h o u r s i n t h e appear the  T h e i r sole  o f what wash i s  p a r l o r and t h e  of t h e  pig-sty,  drunk  it  house g i v e s much more t o  would his  1 friends  than h i s hogs."  drunken beau, is is  Steele  immoral because  H e r e , as  speaks  it  is  g a m b l i n g was act lost  severely  prevalent  '  attacked at  rendering void securities i n games  or i n b e t t i n g  both t h e i r  become  the  gamester thought  is for  beauty  "veriest  Tatler  2.  Spectator  3»  Social England.  4.  Spectator  Women who g a m b l e ,  says  195. 50.  Steele,  Indeed  they  The mind  of a  female  She has no  P l a y when f o l l o w e d w i t h  p.  severe  or knowingly  trumps and m a t a d o r e s .  V o l . 5.  That  i n d i c a t e d by a  on t h e p l a y e r s  168.  140.  papers.  ' '  e v e r y k i n d g i v e n f o r money  i n nature".  anything e l s e .  1.  is  and t h e i r t e m p e r . 4  wasps  f i l l e d with  of  Drinking  '  i n the  the time  the  To A d d i s o n t e m p e r a n c e  2 •  life.  advanced f o r such p u r p o s e s . ^ lose  as t h e w e l l b r e d man.  indecorous.  a means o f p r e s e r v i n g Gaming i s  i n his d i s c u s s i o n of  assiduity  1.  70.  engrosses  t h e w h o l e woman.  for  A far greater  her.  debts  must  beyond h i s  must f i n d  something e l s e  Often  was  than t h i s  income pawns h i s to  gaming  one o f t h e  the  h o l d s no  pleasures  may r e s u l t .  All  o r by an e q u i v a l e n t . estate;  The man  the woman  m o r t g a g e when h e r p i n - m o n e y  she h a s n o t h i n g l e f t  speaking against It  evil  be p a i d i n s p e c i e  who p l a y s  gone.  Domestic l i f e  but h e r p e r s o n .  essayists  most f a s h i o n a b l e  In  1  d i d a good  is  service.  vices*  Free: • Thinking  One o f moral tone to  the  free  most  of the  obvious reasons  i n c r e a s i n g number o f  is  license.  the i r w i t  deists  seeking  of  Spectator  s h o u l d be d e n i e d t h e attempt  The f a c t  1.  Guardian  Steele  seems t o  g u a r d i a n he  2.  Spectator  3.  Guardian  liberty.  234. 3.  The  All  they  as  to  decency  A  n  the  belief  Discourse of Free  authority is  be s p e a k i n g w i t h  expresses  common b e n e f i t s  t h e i r m o r a l code  120.  attributed  <  t o r i d i e u l e the  that  the  thinkers.  c o n t r o l l e d by s u c h f o r m a l t h i n g s  T o l a n d and i n t h e  in  They t a l k a n d a c t w i l d l y and r e f u s e  Anthony C o l l i n s , the author o f  his  or free  for true  and common s e n s e . I n the  for a decline  c e n t u r y both A d d i s o n and S t e e l e  t h i n k e r s a r e not  desire have  the  that  thinking?  o f a i r and w a t e r of the  scorn  for  Scripture.^  based almost  entirely  on  71  religious  s a n c t i o n s makes t h e  "Phis s e c t w o u l d f r e e on t h e  mind.  It  reforming t h e i r vices.  and t h e  lives  but  fear  deists.  t i e s which r e l i g i o n  them f r o m the fear  the  terrors  of future  by g i v i n g  of a  judgment  encouragement  not  to  interesting  the to  essayists  rail  at  note  they  respected  that  the  deists  by  their  the  as a s e c t  Tillotson also  -7  whom C o l l i n s l a u d s a s  Interesting  thinkers with Discourse abstract  it  opinion of  p  is  imposes  x  Although is  men f r o m t h e  would f r e e  troubled conscience  essayists  to  of F r e e - T h i n k i n g put  1.  Guardian  85.  2,  Guardian  21.  3«  v.  18.  supra  use  father  compare t h e i r a t t a c k  Swift * s s a t i r i c  f o r the  the  o f the  pamphlet  of  D e i s m . I t  on t h e  free-  '"Mr. C — — n s * s  i n p l a i n E n g l i s h by way  Poor",  of  72.  Conclusion. The g e n e r a l and T a t l e r of the  time.  on e t h i c a l seems  life.  He i s  subjects  echo  into a  o f the  His attitude  is  situations  theory.  of A u g u s t a n  He i s  H i s sympathy  observations  the  comments, on s o c i a l  conditions  the  papers.  faulty  and h a s t y  discreet  silences.  rashness  to  sentiment•  Addison's  lays  him o p e n t o  The is  essayists  shown by t h e i r  evils  partial  a  complacency. the  to  clouds  From h i s which are  obvious that  than  certain or  colours  p e n come most to  be  judgments Where  found are  of in  pre-  Steele's precautions  comment©  blindness  indifference  the  consider  c r i t i c i s m Addison's  save h i m from any u n f a v o r a b l e  to  is wider  emotional response often  ideas  i n many ways  inclined to  his  ferable  his  foundation of  approaches  and c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s  His often  teachings  Addison  F o r h i m decorum i s  Steele*s attitude  with  moral  developed  c h u r c h the  typical  moralist•  H i s immediate  Spectator  breeding and adherence  more t h a n a p p e a r a n c e s .  Addison's.  i n the  of many o f t h e  established  romantic m o r a l i s t s .  motives  expressed  cons i s t e n t  make g o o d  a classical  the  theory  "Neither A d d i s o n nor S t e e l e  moral norm. of  a confused  i n c l i n e d to  principles good  is  ethical  to  social  conditions  to s o c i a l r e f o r m a n d t o  a r r i s i n g from imprisonment f o r d e b t ,  their  the  complacent  73.  attitude  to  corporal  punishment.  ment as to His  c r i m i n a l law,  the  narrowness  Steele's  attitude  a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure,  e d u c a t i o n f o r women i s attitude  abreast  towards marriage  Restoration writers  to the  is  of the  i n the  cerning  p r o s t i t u t i o n are marred by the  score  I n the  essayist's  essays  as  they  on t h e  scrutiny  shows  the  surface  evils  and  brilliant  but  of the  moral tone  essayists  which they  attacks  attitude  that  on w i t  J u d g i n g the  w o r k by no o t h e r  u n t h i n k i n g l y set  for  of on t h e  shown.  lamentably themselves.  out  A careful touched amusing  and a m o r a l i t y  results  is  pointed  barely  standard than t h e i r falls  con-  is well  of r e f o r m . they  ex-  thinking  themselves  task  the  attitude  overtone  c o u l d make no o b v i o u s  of the day.  purpose t h e i r achievement  he  of  T h e i r works a r e w i t t y ,  a reform based  on d e c o r u m and s e n t i m e n t the  day.  heavy  i n which free  t i m e and a g a i n had e n t e r e d of t h e i r w r i t i n g s  upon t h a t  o f the  evils  conservative  The p e r i o d i c a l e s s a y i s t s  advanced o p i n i o n .  H i s recommendations  The s m a l l e r s o c i a l  of decorum.  d i s c u s s e d the  novels.  on  corporal punish-  an advance  pressed  sentimentality.  to  views  educati onal curriculum,  and a f o r e s h a d o w i n g  domestic  of t h e i r  founded  i m p r e s s i o n on of  the  own avowed  short o f the  goal  Bibliography,, Ascham,  Roger, works,  1864,  Boswell, Brown,  Schoolmaster, G i l e s e d i t i o n V o l . 3, L o n d o n , J o h n R u s s e l  of Ascham's Smith,  B i f e of J o h n s o n , e d . Augustine Birrel, W e s t m i n s t e r , A . C o n s t a b l e and C o . , l 8 ? b .  Thomas, Amusements S e r i o u s and C o m i c a l C a l c u l a t e d f o r the M e r i d i a n o f London, Works, V o l . 3, 9 t h e d , London, P r i n t e d f o r A l . W i l d e , C . H i t c h , L . Hawes, J . F u l l e r , H . Wood f a l l , W. J o h n s t o n e , I . R i c h a r d s o n , S . Crowden, H . Woodgate, S. B r o o k s , T . C a s l o n a n d C . H e n d e r s o n , I76O.  C h e s t e r f i e l d , L e t t e r s 1 0 H i s Son o n t h e F i n e A r t o f B e c o m i n g a Man o f t h e W o r l d and a G e n t l e m a n . H. Y . T / i l l e y Book C o . , 1901. — — Cubberley, I, Defoe,  E. P . , B r i e f History of Education, Y . , Houghton M i f f l i n and C o . , 1922.  D n i e l , C o l o n e l Jacque, John D. M o r r i s a n d - C o . , P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1903. The F o r t u n a t e M i s t r e s s o r R o x a r a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , J o h n B. M o r r i s a n d Co., a  T?Ujr~°~  Essays i n I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y , "Philosophy of T h i r d E a r l or S h a f t e s b u r y " , E m m a P e t e r s N . Y . , H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1929* F i e l d i n g , Covent-Garden Yale U n i v e r s i t y George,  J o u r n a l , ed. C. E . Press, 1913.  Jensen,  M . D . , England i n J o h n s o n ' s Day, L o n d o n , Methune and C o . , 192b"»  G u a r d i a n , B r i t i s h E s s a y i s t s , e d . Lynam, V o l s . • ••' Il, L o n d o n , F . J . Dove, 1827. Hobbes,  Anthony Smith.  Leviathan, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1904.  10  and  Lee,  W i l l i a m , L i f e and R e c e n t l y D i s c o y e r e d W r i t i n g s of Daniel Defoe, 3 v o l s . London, J o h n ' . Camden H a t t e n , 1869.  Locke,  J o h n , A n E s s a y C o n c e r n i n g t h e Human U n d e r s t a n d i n g , ed. A , C. E r a s e r , 2 v o l s . •Oxford", C l a r e n d o n Press1844.  Locke,  J o h n , Some T h o u g h t s C o n c e r n i n g E d u c a t i o n , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , l899» •'  Lutterell,  N a r c i s s u s , R e l a t i o n of S t a t e A f f a i r s , OxfWaTtTniversity Press, I857.  I678-I714. 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S h a f t e s b u r y , A n t h o n y E a r l o f , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Men, M a n n e r s , O p i n i o n s , T i m e s , e d . J . M. ' ~~ Robertson, Z v o l s . London, Grant R i c h a r d s ,  1900.  Selby-Bigge, S . A . , B r i t i s h M o r a l i s t s (being s e l e c t ions f r o m w r i t e r s p r i n c i p a l l y of t h e eighteenth century), 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press,  1897.  Sidgwiek,  H . , Outline  o f t h e H i s t o r y of E t h i c s  N. T . M a c m i l l a n d a n d Sorley,  t  Co. Ltd., 1910„  W. R . , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h P h i l o s o p h y , Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1920.  Spectator, B r i t i s h Essayists, Vols. L o n d o n , F . . J . D o v e , I827.  4-9•  Steele,  R i c h a r d , P l a y s , M e r m a i d S e r i e s , ed. G . A . A i t k e n , L o n d o n , T . F i s h e r U n w i n , 1894.  Stephen,  S i r L e s l i e , A H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Thought i n the E i g h t e'cTnt; h~ C e n t u r y * 2 v o l s . Lond o n , J o h n Murray, 192?.  Swift,  J o n a t h a n , W r i t i n g s on R e l i g i o n and the C h u r c h , e d . Temple S c o t t , L o n d o n , George B e l l and S o n s , I 8 9 8 .  Swift,  Jonathan, H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i t i c a l Tracts E n g l i s h , e d . Temple S c o t t , L o n d o n , George B e l l and S o n s , 1901.  Swift,  J o n a t h a n , L i t e r a r y E s s a y s , e d . Temple L o n d o n , George B e l l a n d S o n s , 1907.  Swift,  Jonathan, G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , c r o f t D e n n i s , L o n d o n , George  1929. •  Tatler,  e d . G. RavenB e l l and S o n s ,  B r i t i s h E s s a y i s t s , vols 1-3. L o n d o n , J . F . D o v e , 1827.  W a r d , N e d , The L o n d o n S p y , London, Casanova S o c i e t y ,  Scott,  1924.  

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