UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some further studies on the etiology of haematuria vesicalis (red water) in cattle Hill, William Henry 1932

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1932_A4_H5_S6.pdf [ 10.65MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105290.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105290-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105290-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105290-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105290-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105290-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105290-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105290-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105290.ris

Full Text

SOME FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF HAEMATURIA VESICALIS (BED WATER) II CATTLE by W i l l i a m Henry H i l l  A Thesis submitted f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of ANIMAL HUSBANDRY -o-  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1?32.  (i)  I  CONTENTS. Introduction  I  Definition  1  Historical  1  Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n Europe. America........ Australasia Africa Asia  1 2 2 2 2  «  Conditions of Occurrence General L o c a l Conditions Altitude... C l i m a t i c Conditions Table I - Temperature Table I I - P r e c i p i t a t i o n Table I I I - T o t a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n Table IV - Sunshine Graph I - Temperature, P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine... Geographical L o c a t i o n . . . . » G e o l o g i c a l Conditions. , S o i l Types Browse (Native and C u l t i v a t e d ) B l o t i c Conditions Wat er Supply  -8 9 9 9 10 10 10  Discussion of Local and General Conditions. Species of P l a n t s Stage of Growth o f P l a n t s C l i m a t i c Conditions... Nature of S o i l  11 11 11 11  He corded Theories of Causation B a c t e r i a and ihangi. Protozoan Paras i t es. Metazoan P a r a s i t e s . Pentastomes. N u t r i t i o n a l and Metabolic O r i g i n Mineral and Plant Poisoning  12 12 12 12 13 13  2 3 3 3 4 5 6 7  Cii) Contents (Oontd). Experimental Reproduction. By I n f e c t i o n By Ingestion Bracken and Bracken Spore Feeding Oxalic Acid and Oxalates S o r r e l Feeding Plant E x t r a c t s L o c a l Surveys Plants S o i l , Water, etc Economic Treatments,  13 ...» 13 14 15 15 15 15 15 16  O h a r a c t e r i s t i c Symptoms and F a c t o r s Lesions i n the Bladder 17 Blood i n Urine. 18 Reaction of Urine 20 Blood Conditions • • 20 Age of Animals A f f e c t e d . 20 Table V - Age When A f f e c t e d 21 Experimental Data. Survey of A f f e c t e d Area 21 Source o f M a t e r i a l s . . . . . 22 Methods o f A n a l y s i s . . * 22 Analysis of Materials. 22 Soils 22 Table Y I - Reference D e s c r i p t i o n of S o i l s . . . 22 Table Y I I - S i l i c a and Organic Content o f Soils 22 Table Y I I I - Ratio of Magnesium and Phosphorus t o Calcium i n S o i l s . . . . . 25 Table IX - Ratios between Calcium and I r o n and Aluminium i n S o i l s . . 28 Feeding S t u f f s 30 Table X - Reference D e s c r i p t i o n s o f Mixed Hays 30 Table X I - Mixed Hays - Ash, S i l i c a , I r o n and Aluminium 31 Table X I I - Oat Hay - Ash, S i l i c a , Iron and Aluminium 33 Table X I I I - Mixed Hays - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphates, Sulphates and Manganese 33 Table XIV - Oat Hays - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphates, Sulphates and Manganese 35  !  (iii) Contents (Cont'd). Waters. f a b l e XT - Heferenoe D e s c r i p t i o n o f Waters..... 36 Table XVI - M i n e r a l Content of Waters 36 Urines. T^ble XVII -Urines - S.G., S i l i c a and pH  37  Bladder XVIII - M i n e r a l Content o f Bladder 38 Coral Rock F l o u r 3? Table XIX - C o r a l Rock f l o u r - Anafcrsis 39 Table XX - Coral Rock ^ l o u r and C o r a l Comparat i v e Composition 39 'Table  General D i s c u s s i o n of Results  40  P r a c t i c a l Considerations and Recommendations  40  Summary  41  Conclusions  41  Acknowledgements.  42  Bibliography  43  Appendix.  56  -0-0-0-  SOME FURTHER STUDIES 01 THE ETIOLOGY OF HAEMATURIA YESIOALIS (BED WATER) I I CATTLE. INTRODUCTION Haematuria V e s i o a l i s (70) (71), (Bed Water (93)) i s also v a r i o u s l y known as S t a l l r o t der Rinder (70), Hematurie chronique des bovides (70), Chronic Haematuria (31)(32)(6b) (83), Enzootic Haematuria (38) (66), Chronic Haemorrhagie C y s t i t i s (17) ( 6 6 ) , V e s i c a l Haematuria (66), Bovine Haematuria (37); these are a l l d e s c r i p t i v e names f o r a s p e c i f i c disease which occurs i n a d u l t c a t t l e and i s d i s t i n c t i v e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e presence o f r e d blood corpuscles i n t h e u r i n e . This blood apparently o r i g i n a t e s from l e s i o n s formed i n the mucous membrane o f the bladder. I t would appear, i n uncomplicated cases, t h a t the primary p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s are almost e n t i r e l y confined t o t h i s organ ( l 6 ) (33) (51) ( 7 6 ) . and that the frequent passing of bloody u r i n e , whieh may occur at i n t e r m i t t e n t o r f o r prolonged periods, i s a secondary c o n d i t i o n . This l o s s of blood leads t o anaemia and a p r o g r e s s i v e course o f emaciation whieh f i n a l l y r e s u l t s i n the death of the a f f e c t e d animal. The disease occurs i n many c o u n t r i e s , but i s confined to f a i r l y w e l l defined l o c a l a r e a s , under s i m i l a r a g r i cultural conditions. Many t h e o r i e s have been advanced as t o i t s cause and s e v e r a l c u r a t i v e treatments suggested, but none, so f a r , entirely satisfactory. The consensus o f opinion o f recent i n v e s t i g a t o r s McKee and McKee (93), Grauer (51), Bruce (14), C r a i g (33), Dickinson and B u l l ( 3 8 ) , favours t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the causation o f t h e disease i s probably due t o f a u l t y n u t r i a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; therefore, i t i s to t h i s phase of the problem that t h e present i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been d i r e c t e d , p r i n c i p a l l y by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f chemistry t o a s e r i o u s problem i n animal husbandry*  -1-  SOME FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF  HAEMATURIA VESICAL IS (EED WATER) I I CATTLE, DEFINITION.  The disease may g e n e r a l l y be described as one a f f e c t ing mature c a t t l e , e s p e c i a l l y d a i r y cows, and i s characteri z e d by the passage of u n a l t e r e d red blood c e l l s i n the urine. The c o l l o q u i a l name o f "Red Water" has been g i v e n t o t h i s disease, as w e l l as s e v e r a l others, on account o f the presence o f blood i n t h e u r i n e . The symptoms, course, and anatomical changes have already been c l e a r l y and completely defined by others (Hoare (66)),(Hutyra and Marek (70)),(Hadwen (54) (57), (Kalkus ( 7 6 ) ) , et a l . HISTORICAL. In Europe the disease has been recognized f o r nearly a century, and r e f e r r e d to by Anderson (1842) (6). Hubner, (1842) (69), Vaes (1843) (122), Yigney (1845) ( l 4 ) ; i t has been known f o r f i f t y years o r more i n A u s t r a l i a , and d e f i n i t e a t t e n t i o n was drawn t o i t by T.H. W i l l i a m s (125) i n 1894. I t has been i n v e s t i g a t e d and recorded w i t h i n t h e l a s t quarter of a century i n New South Wales by J.B. C l e l a n d (24) (25), i n 1911; i n I r e l a n d by C r a i g and Kehoe (1917) (32); also i n England, Wales and Scotland (33); i n New Zealand by J . K e r r i g a n (1925) ( 8 3 ) ; i n Canada i n 1907 by B o w h i l l (112); by Kalkus (1913) (76), i n Washington, U.S.A.; by Case (20) i n Hawaii (1911); by Kearney (82) i n A f r i c a (1912). The disease has caused a considerable number o f f a t a l i t i e s i n c a t t l e , and i s s t i l l a source o f l o s s i n many regions; so t h a t although the disease i s h i s t o r i c a l l y o l d i t presents a p e r e n n i a l economic problem t o t h e farmer i n the a f f e c t e d areas, because h i s t o r y , t o date, has n e i t h e r recorded t h e cause nor an e f f e c t i v e permanent remedy. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. Europe.  The disease has been reported to occur i n Baden (Hink (65))Anacker), the Black Forest i n Germany (71), i n the Elbe r e g i o n o f France (56) (71); i n Belgium (Lienaux ( 8 7 ) ) ; I n I t a l y (Moussu ( 9 9 ) ) ; i n A u s t r i a (71);  -2-  Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n (Cont'd) Europe. i n B u l g a r i a ( 7 1 ) ; i n the Suck V a l l e y d i s t r i c t i n County Roscommon i n Ireland (Craig and Kehoe (31)- i n Carnarvons h i r e and Merionethshire i n Wales (Roberts) ( 1 0 9 ) ; i n Cornwall i n England and the North o f Scotland ( C r a i g ) ( 3 3 ) . The disease occurs i n c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s of the Russian Carpathians. (Klobouk) (84). America.  References to t h e disease confine i t t o the State of Washington (Kalkus)(7fc>) and Oregon (Simms) ( l l 6 ) i n the United States of America; to the Hawaiian Islands ( i n the south i s l a n d ) ( C a s e ) ( 2 0 ) ; t o the F r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t and p o r t i o n s o f t h e Islands i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n Canada (Hadwen, Bruce (14)), and p o s s i b l y Frazerburg and Latchford Bridge, Ontario, Canada, (Bruce) (14), (Grauer)(51); Antioquia (Columbia) ( S c h a r r e r ) ( 1 1 3 ) . Australasia.  The disease i s known i n t h e Mount Gambier and Mount Schank d i s t r i c t s of South Austral i a . (Dickinson and B u l l ) ( 3 8 ) : i n the I l l a w a r r a d i s t r i c t of New South Wales ( C l e l a n d ) ( 2 4 j ; i n Murchison and Inangahua d i s t r i c t s , i n the South Island, West Coast d i s t r i c t of New Zealand, ( K e r r i g a n ) ( 8 3 ) • Africa.  A reference has been made to i t s occurrence i n A f r i c a i n mature c a t t l e i n the l a k e K i v u d i s t r i c t i n Belgian Congo (Van Saceghem)(123), and i n t h e limuru d i s t r i c t , Kenya, B r i t i s h East A f r i c a ( K e a r n e y ) ( 8 2 ) .  Asia.  In Formosa i t i s reported as a f f e c t i n g native c a t t l e (Miyamoto) ( 9 8 ) . Cases of the disease were detected i n h i l l b u l l s used f o r experimental work at Muktesar (India) ( M a l k a n i ) ( 7 2 ) .  Therefore, the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s disease i s wide enough to embrace p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the countries of the world which u t i l i z e the bovine species f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. CONDITIONS OF OCCURRENCE General. The disease i s described as o c c u r r i n g i n Germany w i t h s t a l l - c o n f i n e d c a t t l e , during or a f t e r a dry summer, and when grazed on h i g h - l y i n g wooded pastures ( 7 1 ) • In B u l g a r i a i t i s a disease of the h i g h - l y i n g land, from 2 , 3 0 0 t o 7 , 0 0 0 feet above sea l e v e l . In France haematuria  _3Conditions general.  of Occurrence (Cont'd)  occurs i n low-lying d i s t r i c t s ( 7 1 ) , and i n h i l l y country w i t h patchy land ( 5 6 ) . I n Ireland " i t would appear t o he associated w i t h farms where much land i s badly c u l t i v a t e d or has gone out o f c u l t i v a t i o n " (Craig and K e h o e ) ( 3 1 ) ( 3 2 ) . In A u s t r a l i a " i t has been found that 'red water' occurs c h i e f l y , on those farms s i t u a t e d about the old volcanoes, Mount Gambier and Mount Schank" but may be "found on some farms outside the Influence of the old volcanoes" ( D i c k i n son and B u l l ) ( 3 8 ) ; i n lew Zealand on land once covered with beeoh species of trees, which "when t i l l e d the land runs very r a p i d l y into bracken f e r n . " "In general the landhas not been improved by the a d d i t i o n of a r t i f i c i a l manures." ( K e r r i g a n ) ( 8 3 ) ; i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t appears on land "newly c l e a r e d " "or i n p a r t i a l l y cleared lands" i n which the " f i e l d s were very sour" (Hadwen)(56). " I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a disease of bench land upon which the bracken fern i s a prominent p l a n t " (Srauer) ( 5 1 ) • It seems g e n e r a l l y established that the habitat of t h i s disease i s on high benoh lands, growing bush or t r e e s , which has r e c e n t l y been brought under c u l t i v a t i o n f o r pasture and other purposes, w i t h p o s s i b l e adjacent bush lands. The s o i l , unless thoroughly f e r t i l i z e d and c u l t i vated a f t e r being broken, i s u s u a l l y sour or aoid i n nature. Local Conditions. The l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the a f f e c t e d farms, i n the Eraser V a l l e y area, conform t o those found i n other parts of the world where the disease i s , or was, prevalent. Altitude.  The a l t i t u d e at which red water farms occur appears to be from 40 feet to 350 f e e t above sea l e v e l . C l i m a t i c Conditions.  The c l i m a t i c conditions i n t h e affected area are r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g records of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and sunshine, based upon report f o r 19J0 on Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia ( 3 7 ) .  o bo •fl 60 •rH  w (S3 ©  rH O  CD  o  rH rH  fA ON  IA  OO  CO  ON  ON  O •<fr  ON  PA  fA  r|  IA  ON 'it  fA  o  rH  fA  O IA  CO  o  ON  o  ON  C O  NO  NO  PA NO  NO  NO  NO  NO  NO  O NO  NO  LA  «A  CM  ON  ON  o  LA  (A LA  N O  tA  H  NO  CM  NO  NO  ON  LA  LA  CM  CM  ©  CO  LA  CO  IA  5  kO  O  oo  ON  o  co  oo  fA  o  60 L A  rH  NO  O  OJ <3-  CO  13  ON  IIA  o o  Pi <I>  ON  ION  !> o fe  -P  CO  NO  NO  fA  NO NO  N O  NO  NO  LA NO  o  CO LA  fA  fA  fA  fA  O LA  LA  o  P »  LA  LA  fA NO  fA NO  NO  N O  EH  CD  IA  o3  CD  rl  o  o  LA  OJ LA  fA LA  CM LA  ON  rH  tA  oo  ON  NO  PA  ON  jtA  fA  tA  rH  O  OO fA  O  OO  o  o  LA  LA  LA  LA  LA  LA  CO  CM «A  CO  CO  NO  PA LA  LA LA  «5f  CO  OJ LA  LA  LA  ON  o  ON  NO  NO  •si-  Sf PH  CD O  OJ  3  fA  5  fA  PA  ON fA  ON  NO  •A  c3  <H O EH  CO  s fl o  •H -P 03 •P 09  «5f  S3 •rl 03 CO  c6  CD • 60 03 &U U Pi CD r> O N  <4  fA  JA fA  04  FA  OJ  ©  I  •H  H  ,  rH M •rl O  •  60 63 03 U  ©  -fl 03 o ps I *A  fA  ON  ON  fA  PA  fA  NO  O  fA  fA  ft ©  fl  ©  60 03 03 U  rl r>» © r* O N  « 4 CM  C O  OJ  a I  B  £03©  fA  rH  CO  CM  PA  fA  fA  CQ  © • bora  rl rli>S ©  CS  CD <D-P t>CM fe^CQ  I  g  o fl m©  © * 60 63  C3 rl rl >* © >  ON  «a| CM  ©  fl  60 cr} o  m  ©rH , >r-i +> |<$<3$ CO)  ' » CM vO  ni I • co e >•» f A  •  ION  ©  •  irH  t>  o  fas  k  •1  "S> vO •  • vO  •*+  ON  •  • fA  CM  CM  •  ON  ?H |CM  •  *  <4 [CM a Lo r l ICM  CVJ • •A  •  (CM  •  • jOs i£> 1 • © lif\ ft J  ON rH •  • lrH  Il |» «T> INN  M 02 E j |03  IH (bp  00 £eej  CM  CM  ©  •  bora  O fA • rH  ON •  NO  CO  c-~  rH ON • fA  t> A •  ON fA •  CM  Hl fA • fA  vO • o  IA rH • rH  rH • O  (  CM  o  CM •  CM  o  O  CM  • rH  • rH  CM  A O •  CO  C-  e~  *  VO  <A •  CVJ  rH  O  O S  OO  O vO •  •  O  .  O  o •  o  OJ  O  r-l  OO • fA  1 •H rl  •CO ©  CM  CM  • fA  o  fA  • fA  •  o  U ©  ©  •  horn 0}  ©  S  ON "A • rH  CO  rH • rH  rH  •  IA  -=t  IA A  CM CM  CM  •  A  O  O  o OO  •  •  FA  A  NO  •  •  A  A vO  «  CM  • rH  •  o CO o  rH  •  rH  FA  •  o CO  •  CM  CM  rH  vO CO •  fA rH •  CO  •  CM  vO O • A  ON fA • fA  CM  CM  fA  fA fA • fA  •  rH  CM  • rH rH  A  A A  A  A  •  • IT-  A IA • fA  rH A •  fA • A  "* rH •  • CM  to  4  00 JH 0©  &+a  03  15  52j a  CD • FTP  ®  CO  to  © t> e-~ J-  ;  FA  •  OJ •<* • ON  ©  o o  >  I  ON  CM  CM  CM  CM  o  rH •  -  •  VO NO • fA  NO  •  00 CM  *t  •  • fA  fA • fA  •  SO  •  lS U H p* <~*M D rtO D I h "\ «A < aj f A  rH •  •  CM  CM  CM  H ON  CO  •  O  •  rH •  • rH  OO vO •  OO  NO  •  VO O • IA  fA •  ON rH • O  ON  PA CA • fA  NO  O  ON  vO OO • fA  •  rH  CO  A  O • rH  1  ON NO  ON • fA  fA  IA • NO  ON •  A  fA rH « A  r-i  vO •  ON •  **  •  S23 IN o H  o  •  o [  C—  NO fA • rH  •  © o  [CM  CO • rH  ON o  NO OO • rH  CO JON  CM  rH O • O  •  SS • ra JO  .23 3  vO  J**  SPP<aj O  P)  o  A fA  CO •  CO  CM •  A  CM  • H  CD  OO  fA  IA «  CD •  >5  o  •  **  OO • vO  H  fA  A  A  •  fA  OO  •  OO  Pi INN.  CO  ON  irv IA •  «A  +J  •<* vO •  •  o  NO •  CO  • © 40 bo o 1 • ©  fA  •  CM  • ON A  A  OO  •  A  o  ON  (A  o  CM  o vO •  A  to ra-  ©  W  00 jQ  03 a O  «H - P  © r H 05 > ^  -6-  o tA ON  r-H  NO • NA  o tA  ON  K \  ET-  ON  OJ  ON  rH  CO OJ  ON  H CO  t> OJ  @  •  o HA NO  O  •  rH  C"-  rH •  ON  H  f—k  o  tA  1  NO •  [  O •  1  I  IA  o NO  •  o IA rH  * IA CM  tA O • H tA  t  1  IA oo  ON •  •  (A  ON  tA  IA c•  oo OJ NO ON • ON  PA  H NO  CT~  NO  OJ  O M FH  ON  iH  <t? EH  M  PH  M O  m  PH rH  H  O  o cu,  a  EH  CM ON  CM ON  r-l  K \ CM ON  EH  O EH  rH  CM CM ON  NO  fA IA  H  O • tA  NO  CM  ON  NO ON •  ON •  ON •  •  ON  (A  ON NO •  •  rA NO  PA OJ • cr-  CO  O  c— IA •  NO OO  NO  rH • ON  tA  m <&  $  ON *  OJ IA  CM •  tA  © IA  CM  A  CO  •  1  I  CO  tA  A  O IA *  rH tA *  NO  C—  t  1  OO  rA  NO  •  •  o e»  OO  o •  H LA  r<  >  & •H H rH «ri •A o  rH  NO • NO  M o  N •H ta  NO CM  LA  NO  •  rH  •  rH  NO  •  rH C-  NO  •  PA tA  rH  O NO  NO  rH  CM ON  «  rH  rH  CM ON  OO •  NO  A A  Station  M  O IA) ON[ r-i  tA  CM  tA • H A  r.  f  3  & o •P o u c o  3  S4 CO  s  (S l-H  -7-  S3 ©  CO  rH  p  •  > o  fe  •  •p o  o  Pf  ©  CO  rA  tr\ tr-  H  "tf  Hi  OJ NO  tA  Hi  ON  CM  IA  CA  NO  ON  tA  r-i O rH  ON  c— OJ  c-  r-i  • CO  O  W  EH  tA  <A  OJ  Pi  OS  !3  OJ  S3  r-i  IT)  H  a  50  W  & EH  tA  r-i  PA  C-7  r-i  PA rH  •A  r-i tr\  •  •A  NO OJ  ON  ON  ON CM  H CM  tA  ON r-i  CM  ^  IA PA CM  tA  CM  r-l  ON  CM CM  CM  NO  r-i  CM  IA  r-i  O  PA  OJ  IA  •  r-i  NO  O  ON  H  tA  HI  H  •  IA A  00 r-i  CJ  r-i  CU  PH  OJ  PA  o\  M  CM  ON  A  o HI  r-i  PA r-l  r-i  PA  CM  ON  ©  fl  •  ePA OO  • ©  tA  H 5=c O OJ  H  tA  tA  •  CO ON r-i  M  CO o  NO  •  h  CO  «  fe  NO  CM  NO  •  fl  s? ha  fl  G  •rl  +3 CO  r-i  Hi  CM IA Hi  NQ  Hi  NO  O  HI  ©  tr-  HI  ON  ON  IA O HI  CO  O  PA  CM H  r-l  GO  OO  r-i  CO  O Hi  r-i iA  •  ON rH  r-i US  • CO c-  lA  •  CM  N •H  ra to  «8  ftp  ©  «  1  63 rH  h  O O  bora  ©  P>  > PA «*J CM  fl U  a © P> >  ©  60O  03 u  rt ©  <l  GJ "H  Pi  > CO ri  m  © fl  >  u +> © 03  1  p- -p  <«J  CO  -8-  -9-  Local Conditions  (Cont'd),  I t may be deduced f r o m t h e above d a t a t h a t the c l i m a t e of t h e a f f e c t e d a r e a has a m i l d w i n t e r and a c o o l summer w i t h a moderate a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Showing a y e a r l y average p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 3>j>.8l i n c h e s , w i t h 1627.5 hours of b r i g h t s u n s h i n e p e r y e a r , and a mgan monthly temperature of 49°F,, w i t h i n a range of 94 F. and 8 P. The t e m p e r a t u r e s above t h e average o c c u r w i t h i n the n e r i o d between A p r i l and October; t h e h i g h e s t hours o f sunshine, above t h e average, are e x p e r i e n c e d between the m i d d l e of March and t h e m i d d l e of September; t h e l a r g e s t measure, above t h e average, o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s between t h e m i d d l e o f September and the "beginning o f March. The d i s e a s e occurs p r i n c i p a l l y i n the a r e a known as t h e E r a s e r V a l l e y d i s t r i c t , c o n s i s t i n g of the uplands b o r d e r i n g on the n o r t h and south s i d e s of the F r a s e r H i v e r , encompassed on t h e west by Vancouver and by H a t z i c on t h e east i n r e s p e c t t o the n o r t h s i d e of t h e r i v e r and on t h e s o u t h s i d e as f a r east as Rosedale and s o u t h t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s boundary, but not i n c l u d i n g the d e l t a l a n d s . I t i s recorded, a s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s : S u r r e y , L a n g l e y , Mats q u i , C h i l l i w a c k , Maple Ridge and the L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t , w h i c h a r e a l l i n t h e above mentioned a r e a and w i t h i n a d i s t a n c e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y seventy m i l e s i n l a n d f r o m the P a c i f i c c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i s e a s e has a l s o been r e p o r t e d as o c c u r r i n g on Bowen, G a l i a n o , S a l t S p r i n g s and Vancouver I s l a n d s , w h i c h a r e a l l a d j a c e n t to the mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Geographical  Location.  Geological Conditions.  The a f f e c t e d s e c t i o n s of the F r a s e r Valley are described g e o l o g i c a l l y as composed p r i n c i p a l l y o f g l a c i a l d r i f t , o v e r l a i n i n p l a c e s by s m a l l t h i c k n e s s e s of marine d e p o s i t s , ?;hi ch were l a i d down d u r i n g g l a c i a l r e t r e a t s o f t h e Pleistocene time. "The g l a c i a l d r i f t s o i l s occur on the u p l a n d s w h i c h were f o r m e r l y , and are s t i l l , i n l a r g e p a r t , h e a v i l y timbered. They are m o s t l y sandy or sandy loam s o i l s . The upland a r e a s are b e i n g g r a d u a l l y brought u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n i n p l a c e s where the v a l u a b l e p a r t o f the f o r e s t has been removed i n lumber o p e r a t i o n s . " (Johnson ( 7 4 ) ) . The topography of the land i s u s u a l l y o f a r o l l i n g nature w i t h o c c a s i o n a l f a i r l y l e v e l areas. S o i l Types.  The type of s o i l may be c l a s s e d , g e n e r a l l y , as c o a r s e , sandy loam v a r y i n g from a l i g h t brown t o a dark c h o c o l a t e c o l o u r . I t i s u s u a l l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . The t e x t u r e i s o f t e n open and  -10-  L o c a l Qonditions (Cont'd). r e a d i l y leached and drained n a t u r a l l y . Browse (Native and C u l t i v a t e d ) .  The nat i v e tree and herbage growth cons i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y of a l d e r (alnus g l u t i n o s a , medi c.), second growth f i r (Abies balsamea, L. M i l l . ) , b i r c h ( B e t u l a o c c i dentalism Hook), vine maple (Acer circinatum, Pursh.),cedar (Thuja Occidental i s , 1 . ) , b r a c k e n ( P t e r i s a o u i l i n a ) , w i l l o w ( S a l i x species), h a z e l (Corylus americana, Walt.), broadleaf maple (Acer glabrum, T. & G,), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis, (L.) Car.), cottonwood (Populus d e l t o i d e s , Marsh.) The p r e v a i l i n g pasture herbage c o n s i s t s o f timothy (Phleum pratense), June grass o r Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa), white clover ( T r i f o l i u m repense), red c l o v e r ( S r i f o l i u m hybrldum), Orchard grass ( D a c t y l i s glomerata), p e r e n n i a l rye g r a s s ( Lolium perenne). red top ( A g r o s t i s a l b a ) , meadow fescue (Festuca e l a t i o r ) , Yorkshire fog or Velvet Grass (Holcus l a n a t u s ) . Biot-io Conditions.  The plant communities dominant i n the a f f e c t e d areas are f i r e or burn i n d i c a t o r s as would be expected to occur from logged and burnt o f f lands, whereas the p l a n t i n d i c a t o r s among the pasture p l a n t s are those u s u a l l y associated w i t h over-grazing (Clements ( 2 6 ) ) . I t i s a l s o to be noted that the m a j o r i t y of herbage p l a n t s are a c i d - l o v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . Water Supply. The water supply on the m a j o r i t y of red water farms, i n the Eraser V a l l e y , i s obtained from seepage w e l l s verying from 12 f e e t t o about JO feet i n depth,", w i t h somesmall creeks, surface water supplies and a few deep a r t e s i a n w e l l s (Grauer ( 5 1 ) , Mackenzie (94)). D i s c u s s i o n of Local and General Conditions. Generally the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the mineral content of hays and pastures have been c l a s s i f i e d by Orr (I0l)(l02), Richardson et a l (108), under the f o l l o w i n g headings. The f a c t o r s upon which d i f f e r e n c e s depend are: (l) 12 J (3; (4)  Species of P l a n t s . Stage of Growth o f P l a n t s * C l i m a t i c Conditions. Nature of S o i l .  -11Disoussion o f Local and General Pond It ions (1)  (Cont'd).  Speoies of P l a n t s .  I t has been d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d that there i s an inherent d i f f e r e n c e i n the mineral or inorganic compositions of d i f f e r e n t species of p l a n t s . The legume plants u s u a l l y contain a large excess o f calcium over phosphorus, whereas there i s g e n e r a l l y an excess of phosphorus over calcium found i n the gramineous p l a n t s . ( 2 ) Stage o f Growth o f P l a n t s . It i s a w e l l known fact t h a t c e r t a i n progressive changes i n composition of p l a n t s are i n c i d e n t to advancement i n maturity. Although r i p e n i n g may a l t e r the r e l a t i o n ships of the d i g e s t i b l e n u t r i e n t s i t has been found that the percentage of ash remains about the same, although they may be v a r i a b l e . P l a n t s consumed as hay may be lower i n t h e i r ash content than those consumed as pasture (Hopoer and lesbitt (68)). ( 3 ) C l i m a t i c Conditions. With v a r i a b l e seasonal c l i m a t i c conditions there i s a change i n the amount of s a l t s i n the soil s o l u t i o n s , which i s r e f l e c t e d by a v a r i a t i o n i n the composition of a given species of p l a n t , from season to season. These v a r i a t i o n s depend p r i n c i p a l l y upon:-  (c) The  rainfall.  The amount o f sunshine during the growing season of the p l a n t has a marked i n f l u e n c e on the ash content of hays and pastures. During periods of drought the amount o f mine r a l substances i n plants decreases, e s p e c i a l l y the calcium and phosphorus s a l t s w i l l be low. The ash content of plants v a r i e s with the s o i l moisture. The amount of r a i n f a l l i s the most important of a l l f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e the chemical composition of grass ( A r c h i b a l d ( 8 ) ) , Holtz ( 6 7 ) ) . (4) Nature of S o i l . Work tone by lawes and G i l b e r t (1856-1900) ( 8 6 ) showed that "the mineral composition of the mixed herbage i s very d i r e c t l y dependent on the supplies a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the s o i l . Indeed the composition of the supply a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the range of the r o o t s . "  -12-  Discussion of L o c a l and General Conditions (Cont'd),. Orr ( l O l ) concludes that "the chemical composition of pasture and the value of that composition t o the needs of the g r a z i n g animal, give a new method of estimating the n u t r i t i v e value of the pastures; c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e n u t r i t i o n a l disorders with d e f i n i t e deficiencies; c o r r e l a t i o n s of the excellence o f pasture with the proper balance of the n u t r i e n t s whose amounts can be accurately determined by a chemical a n a l y s i s . " And i t i s "now recognized that animals are more l i k e l y to s u f f e r from l a c k of inorganic s a l t s , or of organic substances of unknown comp o s i t i o n which are required i n comparatively small amounts, than from an i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f p r o t e i n and fat-forming' substances and t h a t the d e f i c i e n c i e s of mineral elements l i m i t the r a t e of growth and production, and a l s o they affect the health o f the c a t t l e . " A summation o f the l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and f a c t o r s , as they would a f f e c t d i r e c t l y the q u a l i t y and chemical compos i t i o n o f the f e e d i n g s t u f f s and i n d i r e c t l y the n u t r i t i o n a l problems of t h i s area, presents strong evidence i n support of the considered o p i n i o n of s e v e r a l workers (McKee and McKee ( 9 3 ) , C r a i g ( 3 3 ) , Dickinson and B u l l ( 3 8 ) et a l ) that Red Water i s a d e f i c i e n c y disease. RECORDED THEORIES OF CAUSATION. Previous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have advanced many t h e o r i e s i n explanation of the causation or e t i o l o g y of t h i s disease, but so f a r none of them have been f u l l y substantiated. I t has been suggested that the disease may be due to: (1) B a c t e r i a , and Fungi i n f e c t i o n s by (14), (.51), ( 7 0 ) p o s s i b l y the anaerobic disease-producing c l a s s e s . ( 2 ) Protozoan P a r a s i t e s , such as c o c c i d i o s i s o f the bladder (14), (31), ( 7 0 ) , a disease caused by the mult i p l i c a t ion of a very small protozoan p a r a s i t e i n the t i s s u e s o f the affected animals, which may be p e c u l i a r t o c a t t l e , a l s o f l u k e worms and c e r t a i n nematodes ( 7 1 ) • ( 3 ) Metazoan P a r a s i t e s , F i l a r i a or Distomata ( 3 1 ) (70), a t h r e a d - l i k e p a r a s i t e of the genus entozoa which o f t e n i n f e s t s animals. (4) Pentastomes, ( C l e l a n d ) ( 2 3 ) , or L i n g u a t u l i d a , a group of worm-like p a r a s i t i c arthropods which sometime l i v e i n the bodies of the herbivorous animals.  -13Recorded Theories of Causation  (Cont'd).  (5) N u t r i t i o n a l and Metabolic O r i g i n . The poor q u a l i t y of fodder, such as a d i e t of coarse pasture grasses occurring at high a l t i t u d e s i n wooded regions; to. the l a c k of albumen i n t h e food ( 7 1 ) ; mineral d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the herbage a v a i l a b l e to the animals (51). (6) Mineral and Plant Poisoning produced e i t h e r by " t h e chemical a c t i o n or the mechanical i r r i t a t i o n of various t o x i c p r i n c i p l e s or s p e c i f i c chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s of p l a n t s ingested or derived from the s o i l h a b i t a t upon which the p l a n t s are grown, such as o x a l i c acid and oxalates (14), (71); s a l i c y l a t e s (14); various i r r i t a t i n g poisons ( 7 0 ) ; acid p l a n t s (14); bracken plants and spores (14), ( 2 0 ) ; blackberry (Recumbent), wat er c e l e r y (Oenanthe) c l o v e r aftermath (14). EXPERIMENTAL REPRODUCTION. (a) By I n f e c t i o n . The experiments of Hadwen (55)(59) to reproduce the disease by i n f e c t i o n o r contagion, i n which a number o f calves were kept i n contact w i t h diseased c a t t l e , and attempts to i n f e c t them, f i r s t by blood i n o c u l a t i o n ; secondly, by i n g e s t i o n ; t h i r d l y , by i n o c u l a t i n g u r i n e ; f o u r t h l y , by i n t r o d u c i n g p o r t i o n s of a diseased animal's bladder into t h a t of a healthy one, a l s o siphoning a diseased animal's u r i n e i n t o a healthy animal's bladder, a l l gave no d i r e c t evidence t h a t the disease i s of a contagious or i n f e c t i o u s nature. C r a i g and Kehoe (j5l) confirm the conc l u s i o n that the disease has not been transmitted e x p e r i mentally by i n o c u l a t i o n w i t h blood or u r i n e , and B u l l , Dickinson and Dann (loA) report negative r e s u l t s obtained by i n j e c t i n g i n t o normal cows the ground up l e s i o n s from red water bladders. (b) By Ingestion. ( l ) Bracken and Bracken Spore Feeding. The prevalence of bracken ( P t e r i s a q u i l i n a ) i n Red Water areas has led many t o suspect t h i s plant or i t s spore t o be a causation f a c t o r i n t h i s disease. The experiments of Bruce (12) ( l j ) , by feeding l a r g e amounts o f bracken to c a t t l e d i d not cause poisoning i n the animals or reproduce the symptoms of Red Water.  -14(b) By I n g e s t i o n  (Cont'd).  ( l ) B r a c k e n and B r a c k e n Spore F e e d i n g (Cont'd) Bracken spores, i n large q u a n t i t i e s , fed i n milk t o a c a l f , "by Hadwen (5&) f o r e i g h t y - e i g h t days d i d not i n d i c a t e any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms and the animal, when k i l l e d , at the end o f the experiment, showed organs i n normal c o n d i t i o n . (£) O x a l i c A c i d and  Oxalates.  Hadwen ( 5 6 ) ( 5 7 ) i n 1914 propounded the theory t h a t p l a n t s c o n t a i n i n g o x a l i c a c i d were the cause o f Haematuria i n C a t t l e . He c a r r i e d out a s e r i e s o f experiments by i n j e c t i n g l a r g e doses o f c a l c i u m o x a l a t e c r y s t a l s i n t o the b l a d d e r o f c a t t l e and by f e e d i n g o x a l i c a c i d by mouth, and r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s to substantiate his theory. However, t h e experiments of K a l k u s and l a w y e r ( 7 7 ) (78, 79, 80, 8 l ) i n feeding o x a l i c a c i d t o h e i f e r s , f o r over a p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s (1924 to 1929) i n an attempt to produce red w a t e r were n e g a t i v e . In 1929, t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t o r s started f e e d i n g c a l c i u m o x a l a t e d a i l y to h e i f e r s . However, t o d a t e t h e s e a n i m a l s have shown no i n d i c a t i o n o f Sed Water. The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by workers i n A u s t r a l i a ( D i c k i n s o n and B u l l ( 2 9 ) ) as r e p o r t e d i n 1930 "appear t o have d e f i n i t e l y excluded o x a l i c a c i d as b e i n g t h e i r r i t a n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f l e s i o n s i n the b l a d d e r , " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Red Water. A l s o C r a i g ( 3 3 ) i n 1 9 3 0 , r e v i e w i n g the s u b j e c t , s t a t e s t h a t he i s unable t o c o n f i r m the o b s e r v a t i o n o f Hadwen. On t h e o t h e r hand, a n o t h e r approach t o t h i s t h e o r y i s suggested by D a t t a (35) who b e l i e v e s t h a t Haemat u r i a V e s i c a l i s i s a r e s u l t o f f a u l t y metabolism, and t h a t i t i s due t o the e l a b o r a t i o n of o x a l i c a c i d i n the system. An e x c e s s o f o x a l i c a c i d i n the b l o o d and u r i n e presupposes the removal of c a l c i u m from the t i s s u e s and body f l u i d s . The r e d u c t i o n s i n the c a l c i u m content of the t i s s u e s may e x p l a i n the absence o f any tendency o f t h e b l a d d e r l e s i o n s t o h e a l , thus r e s u l t ing i n t h e f i n d i n g o f l a r g e amounts o f c l o t t e d b l o o d i n the bladder. So t h a t a 0 and i t i o n o f p r o f u s e and u n c o n t r o l l e d b l e e d i n g i s s a i d t o be produced and i s  -15By Ingestion (Cont'd). due to a calcium d e f i c i e n c y brought about by the oxalates. (3) S o r r e l Feeding. The disease was not produced by feeding s o r r e l t o cows by Craig and Kehoe ( 3 0 ) . (4) giant S x t r a c t s . Hadwen (1914) (56) experimented w i t h extracts o f three p l a n t s , namely, b l e e d i n g - h e a r t ( D i c e n t r a ) , deergrass (Achlys t r i p h y l l a ) and a l d e r (alnus g l u t i n o s a , Medic.) by i n j e c t i o n into r a b b i t s and guinea-pigs. The doses produced no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms of Bed Water. LOCAL SURVEYS. (1) B l a n t s . During the Summer o f 1929 Groh (53) made a b o t a n i c a l survey o f the lower Eraser V a l l e y . The p r e l i m i n a r y report of t h i s survey confirms other previous workers' observation that bracken "has shown more consistent a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the occurrence of the disease than any other p l a n t . " Two samples of hay were secured, one from a. non-Red Water area and the other sample from a Red Water farm. They were analyzed b o t a n i c a l l y and i t i s reported by Shutt (1930) (115; "the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are therefore p r e t t y l a r g e l y negative as regards known i n j u r i o u s species unless bracken can be shown t o have any bearing on the matter." ( 2 ) Soils., Water, E t c . In conjunction w i t h the above survey samples of s o i l , herbage, w e l l water, blood and u r i n e from diseased c a t t l e were c o l l e c t e d and analyzed (115). The data obtained being rather meagre, no p o s i t i v e conclusions could be drawn f r o m . t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ( 3 ) Economic. An economic survey has been made during the past two years by MacKenzie (94) which was made i n conjunction with the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a treatment of ground coral rock and sodium bicarbonate. The e f f e c t s of t h i s treatment as p r e v i o u s l y reported by Grauer (51) have been satisfactory i n a number o f cases.  TREATMENTS. Many drugs together with various t o n i c s and s o - c a l l e d cures have been propounded and administered as treatments f o r the disease, without permanent recoveries being so f a r recorded. Hadwen (54) i n 1911 reported that "the most u s e f u l drug so f a r has been calcium l a c t a t e ; t h i s drug undoubtedl y r a i s e s the c l o t t i n g property of the blood, and thus helps c l o t t i n g i n the c a p i l l a r i e s of the bladder." In a l a t e r report Hadwen (56) (1914) s t a t e s that i n France that " a f f e c t e d animals recovered a f t e r a few doses of soda bicarbonate. Bruce (14) has used a course of treatment c o n s i s t i n g of f i r s t administering a dose of s a l t s (magnesium sulphate), the animal being t i e d up, s t a l l f e d , and given potassium acetate one-half ounce, twice a day, i n i t s d r i n k i n g water, t h i s being supplemented with a mixture of calcium l a c t a t e , three drams, sodium bicarbonate, three drams, f e r r i c s u l phate, 1 dram, fed twice a day on the tongue or i n the feed. However, t h i s treatment appears t o give only temporary relief. In respect t o t h e treatment c o n s i s t i n g o f feeding the mixture of coral rock f l o u r and sodium bicarbonate referred t o above, i t seems advisable to record at t h i s time some of the h i s t o r y leading up to i t s f i r s t recorded use as a Red Water treatment. I t i s understood that Dr. E.A. Bruce, Animal P a t h o l o g i s t , stationed a t Agassiz, B.C., advocated i n an address on Red Water given before a North Western V e t e r i n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , meeting i n V i c t o r i a , B.C., i n 1926, the use of an a l k a l i n e treatment f o r t h i s disease. Among those who followed out t h i s suggestion was a Dr. A. Hendricksen. He t r i e d i t as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a i r - s l a c k e d lime, mixed with sodium bicarbonate, i n t r e a t ing Red Water cases. Dr. J.G. J e r v i s of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia attended t h i s meeting. He adopted the idea and subsequentl y the Animal Husbandry Department of t h i s U n i v e r s i t y obtained a quantity of the e o r a l rock f l o u r , and mixed one part w i t h two parts of sodium bicarbonate. I t was d i s t r i b u t e d to a lazge number of farmers, i n the affected Fraser V a l l e y area, with encouraging r e s u l t s . A report of t h i s p r o j e c t has been prepared by Mr* J . Cameron Mackenzie, a co-worker at t h i s U n i v e r s i t y (94). The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of the a l k a l i n e treatments fed may be due to the changed b u f f e r r e a c t i o n of the  -17-  Treatments (Cont'd). animal's body f l u i d s , a s s i s t e d by t h e probable blood-coagul a t i n g a c t i o n o f the calcium. Douris and P l e s s i s (39)report that the feeding of c e r t a i n inorganic and organic calcium s a l t s to the animals has a marked e f f e c t on the coagulation of t h e i r blood. Palmer et a l (104) have found a marked r e l a t i o n s h i p between plasma bicarbonate and u r i n a r y a c i d i t y f o l l o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of sodium bicarbonate. Sherman (114) quotes Meltzer as s t a t i n g that "Calcium i s capable of c o r r e c t i n g the disturbances of t h e inorganic e q u i l i b r i u m i n the animal's body, whatever the d i r e c t i o n of the d e v i a t i o n s from the normal may be. Any abnormal e f f e c t which sodium potassium, or magnesium, may produce, whether the abnormality be i n the d i r e c t i o n o f increased i r r i t a t i o n or o f decreased i r r i t a b i l i t y , calcium i s capable of r e e s t a b l i s h i n g the normal e q u i l i b r i u m . " The coagulation of blood i s c o n t r o l l e d i n a large measure by prothrombin, a ferment which brings about f e r mentation of f i b o i n from fiboinogen of the blood. Roderick (lio) concludes that the f a i l u r e of blood c l o t t i n g i n c a t t l e , f e d a r a t i o n high i n sweet c l o v e r hay, i s due t o a d e f i c i e n c y of prothrombin. I t i s p o s s i b l e that the feeds fed t o the red water animals may produce a c o n d i t i o n i n t h e i r system c r e a t i n g a d e f i c i e n c y of t h i s ferment. CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS AID FACTORS. (a)Lesions i n the Bladder. The formation of the l e s i o n s of the bladder as a l ready described and observed by previous workers, may be the r e s u l t of ingested i r r i t a n t s d i r e c t l y absorbed or elaborated i n the animals' system. The l o c a l i t y of these l e s i o n s would i n d i c a t e i n a measure t h e i r mode of formation, however only a few workers mention t h e i r l o c a t i o n . Hadwen (1917) (51) says "as a general r u l e the l e s i o n s are most marked at i t s i n f e r i o r p a r t . " Craig (33) s t a t e s that " i n the u r i n a r y bladder the l e s i o n s are scattered over the mucous membrane, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the f l o o r . " In chronic eases, according to Hadwen (57), Dickinson and B u l l (38) cancer has been found t o have developed i n the bladder, as a r e s u l t of i r r i t a t i n g e f f e c t of the causal agent. In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e l e s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from i n g e s t i o n of s i l i c a , P o l i c a r d (105) concludes that p a r t i c l e s of s i l i c a dioxide (SiOg) are attacked by the c e l l u l a r j u i c e s and the r e s u l t i n g f i b r o s i s w i t h i t s degenerated cytoplasm i s r i c h i n s i l i c a . M i l l s ( 9 6 ) also dealing with the a c t i o n of s i l i c e o u s m a t e r i a l s on animal t i s s u e s , s t a t e s  -18Chara.oterlst lo Symptoms and Factors  (Cont'd).  that " S i l i c e o u s s p i c u l e s , when introduced i n t o the t i s s u e s of animals, are slowly hut d e f i n i t e l y d i s s o l v e d , proving c o n c l u s i v e l y that s i l i c a i s soluble i n the t i s s u e f l u i d s of animals." The l o c a l a c t i o n o f u r i c a c i d upon t h e t i s s u e s has been studied by Ghini ( 2 1 ) who observed that t h e i n j e c t i o n of u r i c acid or urates i s followed by inflammation o f the t i s s u e s , s i m i l a r t o f o r e i g n body e f f e c t and a chemical i r r i t a t i o n , with the formation o f morbid growth resembling granulation t i s s u e . Coumarin ( 1 , 2 - benzopyrone) when applied d i r e c t l y t o mucous membrane i s extremely i r r i t a n t (B.P. C. 1 9 2 3 ) . Coumarin i s a w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d substance i n the vegetable kingdom, besides being found i n the Tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata, W i l l d . ) i t i s present i n M e l i l o t u s species (Leguminosae), s e v e r a l grasses, and i n some members o f the Compositae f a m i l y of p l a n t s . I t i s present i n plants as a glucoside, which i s decomposed by a ferment present i n the p l a n t . I t i s only s l i g h t l y s o l u b l e i n water, but d i s s o l v e s more r e a d i l y i n a l k a l i n e s o l u t i o n s , and i s r e p r e c i p i t a t e d from them by a c i d s . There i s a p r o b a b i l i t y that i n a mixture of legumes, grasses and weeds t h a t there may be s u f f i c i e n t coumarin ingested by an animal over a long period of time, to have a cumulative e f f e c t , and t o cause serious i r r i t a t i o n t o the mucous membrane of the bladder. (b) Blood i n Urine. The presence o f blood i n t he urine i s probably the most d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sumptom o f Bed Water d i s ease. Assuming that the cause may be a r e s u l t of the i n g e s t i o n of m a t e r i a l which exerts a t o x i c or i r r i t a n t e f f e c t upon the bladder epithelium, w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t formation o f the bleeding l e s i o n s ; then there are many p o s s i b l e agencies which might be considered. According to Brundage ( 1 5 ) the i n d i c a t i o n of blood i n t h e u r i n e would suggest t h e i n g e s t i o n o f Cyclamin, solamin, and other saponin substances, H e l l v e l l a i c a c i d and p h a l l i n . P l a n t s containing saponins are t o x i c , as they are powerful protoplasmic poisons so they are strongly i r r i t a n t . The common corncockle (agrostemnia githago L.) contains a saponin which i s absorbed by the subcutaneous t i s s u e and i n t e s t i n e s ( A l l a n ( 3 ) ) Ewart (4-3) suggests that saponin-containing plants are responsible for c e r t a i n stock diseases. lauder ( 8 5 ) also states that "santonin imparts a blood red colour t o t h e u r i n e . " Authenrieth ( 1 0 ) describes t h e behavior of santonin i n the organism, and t h e appearance of a red pigment i n the urine a f t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o a subject.  -19C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Symptoms and Factors  (Cont'd).  I t i s w e l l known t h a t s e v e r a l of the inorganic e l e ments that may he ingested w i t h the animals' food w i l l act as i r r i t a n t s . These may exert an i n j u r i o u s e f f e c t by abs o r p t i o n i n the body f l u i d s , through the p r i n c i p l e of osmosis. This process may so modify the c e l l s o f some p a r t i c u l a r body organ as t o d i s t u r b i t s normal f u n c t i o n i n metabolism and u l t i m a t e l y cause inflammation. For instance, lead has a cumulative a c t i o n i n the animal system, eventua l l y producing chronic poisoning and may exert an independent i n f l u e n c e upon the blood, upon n u t r i t i o n and upon the muscular and nervous s t r u c t u r e of the animal. The presence of blood i n the urine i s a t y p i c a l symptom of lead poisoning ( U n d e r b i l l (121)). Aluminium s a l t s are considered as being t o x i c to p l a n t s , animals and man, by e x e r t i n g an i r r i t a n t influence upon the protoplasm. The c o n d i t i o n of poisoning i n animals i s i n d i c a t e d by the presence i n the urine of albumin and blood ( l 2 l ) . Vanadium poisoning, sometimes c a l l e d Vanadiumism, (Dutton (40)), belongs to the n i t r o g e n and phosphorus group, having under c e r t a i n conditions f e e b l y basic and strong acid p r o p e r t i e s . In cases of poisoning the urine may cont a i n albumin, c&sts and blood ( U n d e r b i l l (121)). Some o f the s a l t s of heavy metals, e.g., lead, s i l v e r , mercury, copper, zinc and manganese (110), when coming i n contact with the p r o t e i n o f c e l l w a l l s form metal albuminates, which are i n s o l u b l e , or soluble only i n excess of albumin. Metal SO4 + Ez Albumin Metal Albuminate +2H2 +SO4 The r e s u l t i n g i r r i t a n t e f f e c t i s ascribed to the acid l i b e r a t e d with the s o l u t i o n o f the heavy metals, as a c l a s s , hydro l y t i c d i s s o c i a t i o n u s u a l l y occurs, with a marked a c i d i t y of the s o l u t i o n . ZnCl  2  + 2H 0 2  =  Zn  (0H)  2  + 2  HCl.  The majority of met a l l i e poisons are eulminative, and are eliminated through p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the excretory channels of animals. In ruminants ingested eulminative poisons are immensely d i l u t e d i n the rumen, i t being d i s t r i b u t e d evenly on rumination and g e n e r a l l y absorbed with a slow e l i m i n a t i o n . The metals are considered as t y p i c a l i r r i t a n t s and may have a l o c a l i r r i t a n t e f f e c t as w e l l as a general e f f e c t which may be produced a f t e r absorption.  -20-  O h a r a c t e r i s t i c Symptoms and Factors  (Cont'd).  (c) Reaction of Urine. The r e a c t i o n o f the urine o f normal herbivorous animals i s u s u a l l y a l k a l i n e . There seems to be a d i f f e r e n t opinion r e s p e c t i n g t h i s f a c t o r i n respect t o t h e urine of Red Water c a t t l e . Hadwen (57) s t a t e s "the r e a c t i o n o f the urine i s g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g l y a l k a l i n e , but i n a few instances the r e a c t i o n had become n e u t r a l owing t o the excessive amounts" o f blood contained i n i t ; " Craig (33) records that "the r e a c t i o n was u s u a l l y a l k a l i n e , o c c a s i o n a l l y a c i d ; " Bruce (14) i s i n c l i n e d to consider the u r i n e s of affected animals as being abnormal and u s u a l l y t o be acid i n r e a c t i o n , when t e s t e d w i t h phenolphthalein, as an i n d i c a t o r ; B u l l ( l 6 ) s t a t e s t h at they have not found urines from "red water" farms are more a c i d than normal. In 1229, t h i r t y samples o f f r e s h u r i n e from a f f e c t e d cows were examined f o r the hydrogen-ion concentration. I t was found t h a t no sample had an a c i d r e a c t i o n (Shutt and Hob ins on (115)). An exami n a t i o n , i n 1931,by the author, of s i x samples of u r i n e s from t y p i c a l red water cows showed an hydrogen-ion concent r a t i o n i n d i c a t i v e of an a l k a l i n e r e a c t i o n . (d) Blood  Conditions.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been made, at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by A l l a r d y c e et a l ( 2 ) , of t h e Blood Normals f o r C a t t l e f o r normal animals and some f o r patholog i c a l animals, and by Fleming et a l ( 4 4 ) f o r animals a f f e c t e d w i t h Red Water i n various stages. The f i n d i n g s were, however, negative; i n no case were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s of the blood constituents apparent from those o f normal c a t t l e . The analyses, reported by Shutt and Robinson (115), of samples o f blood sera from diseased and unaffected animals i n d i c a t e that t h e i r calcium and phosphorus content are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other and that there i s no l a c k of e i t h e r of these elements i n t h e blood o f redwater animals. Hadwen(54)(57) s t a t e s that " i n the e a r l y stages the blood appears normal. The f i r s t sign i s a v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e of t h e red c e l l s ; t h i s i s followed by the usual changes seen i n secondary anaemia. The c l o t t i n g property of t h e blood i s g e n e r a l l y low." Blood examinations made, by Craig (33), when the haematuria was severe gave evidence of secondary anaemia i n a varying degree; the haemoglobin content was reduced, and t h e red blood corpuscle count was low. (e) Age of Animals A f f e c t e d . The consensus of opinion of various observers of Red Water a f f e c t e d c a t t l e would i n d i c a t e that the disease u s u a l l y  -21-  O h a r a c t e r i s t i o Symptoms and J?aotors (Cont'd). makes i t s appearanoe when the animals are o f adult age, u s u a l range heing from f i v e to t e n years o l d , hut o c c a s i o n a l l y appearing i n younger animals.  the  The f o l l o w i n g table gives a resume of some of the recorded opinions as to the age of the a f f e c t e d animals. TABLE Y. Age When A f f e c t e d Usual Range Years Occasional Years 5 to 6  2  Observer Bruce (14) (83)  5 and over  under 5  Kerrigan  9 to 11  4  to 6  Craig & Kehoe(31,32;  8 to  12  3  or 6  Craig  2 to  14  3 to 6  (33)  2  Hadwen (54,37)  1  McKee & McKee (93)  The p r i n c i p a l reason f o r reviewing the foregoing data was to o b t a i n an inventory of the knowledge already possessed concerning t h i s disease; and to c r i t i c a l l y examine and to evaluate t h i s accumulated information as p o s s i b l e evidence i n reference to the causation of the disease. A considerable number of references have been examined i n order to develop a b i b l i o g r a p h y r e l a t i n g t o the disease, so that a thorough survey of the f i e l d could be made to d i s cover the extent to which the problem had already been i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t was r e a l i z e d e a r l y i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n that very l i t t l e work had been prosecuted i n respect to the s o i l s i n Red Water areas or to the feeding s t u f f s fed to Red Water animals, so that by the data that f o l l o w s some of the questions r e l a t i v e to t h i s l i n e of attack w i l l be recorded and discussed. EXPERIMENTAL DATA. (a) Survey of A f f e c t e d Area. During the F a l l months of 1931 a survey was made of a number of t y p i c a l Red Water farms i n conjunction w i t h the economic survey made by MacKenzie (94). During these  -22-  Experimental Data (Qont ci) . T  v i s i t s , samples o f s o i l s , grass and oat hays, and water were e o l l e o t e d . 'Through the oourtesy and assistance o f Dr. J.B. J e r v i s some samples of f r e s h red-water urines were obtained, and also one specimen of an i n f e c t e d bladder. .(b) Source of M a t e r i a l s . The samples o f s o i l s , hays,and waters r e f e r r e d t o above were a l l composite samples and representative o f the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on the r e s p e c t i v e farms upon which they were obtained. Some s o i l s were also obtained through the co-operation o f Dr. E.A. Bruce o f Agassiz, ,B.G. (o) Methods of A n a l y s i s . The s o i l and feed samples were prepared as u s u a l f o r a n a l y s i s of t h i s c l a s s of m a t e r i a l , i h e methods of analys i s used f o r t h e s o i l s and feeds were e s s e n t i a l l y those adopted by the A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Oheraists ( 9 ) . The methods of analyses employed f o r t h e waters were those approved by the American P u b l i c Health A s s o c i a t i o n ( 4 ) ; the u r i n e s were examined p r i n c i p a l l y by methods as o u t l i n e d by Hawk and Bergeim ( 6 2 ) . (d) Analyses of M a t e r i a l s . ( l ) S o i l s , c o n s i s t i n g of twenty-four samples, nineteen of these were obtained from Red Water farms and f i v e from d i s e a s e - f r e e farms i n the Eraser V a l l e y . TABLE 71. Reference D e s c r i p t i o n o f S o i l s Red Water Farms. Description  Locality  1 B  Brown Sandy  Aldergrove  2 B  L i g h t Gray Olayey  Rosebank I s . Chilliwack.  3 B  Brown Sandy  Mount Lehman  4 B  Sandy Loam  Abbott sf or d  6 B  Sandy Loam  Abbot t s f o r d  2 S  L i g h t Sandy  Goglan  Laboratory So.  -23-  Bxperimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE 71. (Cont'd) Laboratory No.  Description  Locality  3 S  Sandy Loam  Port Haney  4 S  Sandy Loam  Whonnoek  $ S  Chocolate Loam  Abbott sford  6 S  L i g h t Brown Sandy S a r d i s  7 S  L i g h t Sandy Loam  Sardis  8 S  Chocolate Loam  JTorfcLangley  9 S  Clay Loam  Mount Lehman  10 S  Bed Clay Loam  Abbott s f o r d  11 S 12 S  Clay Loam Silty  Glen V a l l e y Milner  Non-Bed Water Farms. 13 S  Clayey Loam  Haney  14 S 1  Gray S i l t y  Ess on dale  14 S 2  Peaty  Essondale  15 S  Peaty  Steveston  16 S  Brown Sandy  Goquitlam  A l l samples were thoroughly a i r d r i e d and the materia l then passed through a 20-mesh per inch s e l v e used f o r a n a l y s i s . The determinations being made on the acid s o l uble p o r t i o n , using h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d (S.G. 1.115) as the solvent. A l l f i g u r e s g i v e n are on the moisture free b a s i s and s t a t e d as percentage by weight.  -24Brperimental Data (Cont'd) TABLE ¥ 1 1 . S i l i c a and Organic Content o f S o i l s , Bed Water Farms. Laboratory Number  Total Insoluble Matter  Silica  (Si0 ) 2  Ignition Loss  Nitrogen (N)  1 B  79.11  —  11.79  0,20  2 B  75.18  —  12.60  0.30  3 1  77.89  —  11.29  0.18  4 B  72.63  —  16.85  0.21  6 B  72.91  —  16.44  0.35  2 S  78.16  0.34  12.15  0.21  3 S  74*69  0.38  11.36  0.16  4 S  72.01  0.28  17.68  0.24  5 S  75.73  §.42  13.97  0.21  6 §  79.43  0.31  8.12  0.16  7 S  80.32  0.30  6.47  0.11  3 3  74.67  0.38  15.08  0.24  9 S  73.16  0.82  16.09  0.35  S  74.64  0.82  14.60  0.28  s  78.07  0.52  12.18  0.30  12 S  72.86  0.82  12.19  0.20  Average *  75.83  0.49  13.05  0.23  lange  72.01-80.32  0.28-0.82  10 11  ^Not i n e l u d ing B S e r i e s  6.47-17. 68 .0.110.35  -25-  Experimental Data (Gont d) f  TABLE VII.(Cont'd) S i l i c a and Organic Content of S o i l s * Non-Red Water Farms. Laboratory Number 13  s  Total Insoluble Matter  Silica (Si0 )  Ignition Loss  2  Nitrogen (N)  62.05  0.21  25.57  0.70  S  14 S  71.66  Q.65  14.69  0.32  P  14 S  52.46  0.37  42.54  1.20  15 S  70.57  0.55  1?.?5  O.67  16 S  75.15  0.29  17.15  0.36  Average  66.38  0.41  33.95  0.65  Range  52.46-75.15  0.21-0.65 14.69-42. 54 0.32[ 1.20  ifrom the above data f o r Red Water farm s o i l s i t w i l l be noted that t h e t o t a l i n s o l u b l e matter, representing c h i e f l y t h e i n s o l u b l e s i l i c a t e s a n d c e r t a i n forms of o r g a n i c matter, i s comparatively high; the soluble s i l i c a , i n the form of s o l u b l e s i l i c a t e s i s s l i g h t l y higher i n some i n s t a n c e s than might be normally expected; the i g n i t i o n l o s s , composed p r i n c i p a l l y of organic matter, carbonates, f r e e and i n t e r s t i t i a l water, and other v o l a t i l e c o n s t i t u ents, i s low. These c o n d i t i o n s are to be expected i n view of t h e character of the s o i l s , which a l l tend to be of a sandy nature containing only small amounts of humus. TABLE T i l l . R a t i o of Magnesium and Phosphorus t o Calcium i n S o i l s i»a&orat ory Number  oaioium Oxide  1  Magnesium Oxide (%0)  ma »  P2O5  (P205)  MgO CaO  Phosphates  OaO  1 B  (0a0) 1.01  1.39  0.34  1.38  0.33  2 B  1.31  1.16  0.45  0.89  0.27  -26-  Experimental Data (Cont'd) TABLE VIII.(Cont'd) Ratio of Magnesium and Phosphorus to Calcium i n S o i l s Red Water Farms. Lab. lo.  Calcium Oxide (CaO)  Magnesium Oxide  Phosphates  3 B  0.98  1.21  0.29  1.24  0.30  4 B  0.79  0.98  0.24  1.23  0.30  6 B  0.84  1.10  0.14  1.30  0.17  2 S  0.75  0.73  0.06  0.97  0.08  3 s  1.73  1.6o  0.13  1.41  0.12  4 S  0.87  0.36  0.08  0.42  0.09  5 S  0.68  0.41  0.40  0.59  0.59  6 S  0.99  0.53  0.27  0.53  0.27  7 S  1.69  0.51  0.12  0.30  0.07  8 S  o.6o  1.81  0.42  3.04  0.70  9 S  0.81  1.09  0.09  1.34  0.11  10 S  8.78  0.54  0.13  0.69  0.17  3  1.00  1.02  0.09  1.02  0.09  12 S  0.89  1.62  0.07  1.82  0.08  Average  0.94  1.00  0.21  1.13  0.23  Range  o.6o1.69  O.361.81  0.070.45  0.30-  0.080.70  11  OfeO)  CP2O5)  MgO OaO  3.04  P2O5  OaO  -37-  Experimental Data  (Cont'd) TABLE YIII.  (Cont'd)  Hatlo of Magnesium and Phosphorus to Caleiam i n S o i l s Non-Bed Water Farms* Lab. iro.  Calcium Oxide  Magnesium Oxide  Phosphates (P2O5)  MgO C'a'O  P1O5  OaO  0.8?  1.42  0.39  1.59  0.44  S M S  0.95  1.99  0.12  2.09  0.13  P 14 S  1.13  0*94  0.22  O.83  0.19  15 s  1.01  1.45  0.20  1.44  0.19  16 S  0.72  0.49  0.13  0.6?  0.18  Average  0.94  1.26  0.21  1.32  0.23  Bangs  O.561.13  0.941.45  0.120.39  0.67-  0.13-  13 S  2.93  0.44  The lime content of the s o i l s i s not abnormally low, and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the magnesium content i s w i t h i n a safe range. An excess of magnesium i s considered t o x i c to higher p l a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e Ca-Mg fiatio i s greater than t h r e e . (Loew ( 8 0 ) ) . The phosphates are d e f i c i e n t when compared w i t h t h e minimum o f 0 . 4 per cent f o r a c i d s o i l s , found, by Truog (120), t o be r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s element i n crop p r o d u c t i o n . H a r r i s (60) quotes the r e s u l t s of several workers t o show that t h e phosphorus content of a c i d s o i l s i s g e n e r a l l y low and l a r g e l y u n a v a i l a b l e f o r use by p l a n t s . The e x p l a n a t i o n i s offered that acid s o i l s convert any c a l cium phosphate that may be present i n t o s o l u b l e compounds which are e i t h e r washed out o r are f i x e d i n an i n s o l u b l e form by t h e formation o f i r o n and aluminium phosphates. This d e f i c i e n c y i s e v i d e n t l y one of the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s f o r the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the other minerals by the plants grown on these s o i l s , i t i s most probable that the addition of the proper phosphatic f e r t i l i z e r s to these s o i l s would not only i n c r e a s e the percentage o f phosphorus but also o f the calcium content i n the p l a n t s grown on them.  -28-  Exp eriment a l Pat a ( Oont * d). TABLE IX, Ratios between Calcium and Iron and Aluminium i n S o i l s . Red Water Farms. Lab. Calcium Oxide  Ho.  Iron Aluminium 2°3 Oxide Oxide CaO 4.74 5.45 4.71 f  A1 0 2  3  JTe 0j+Al 0^ 2  2  pH  OaO 5.42  10.13  5.50  8.70  5.54  OaO  IB  1.01  2B  1.31  4. 92  6.46  3.76  4.94  3B  0.98  4.65  6.19  4.75  6.06  11.08  5.53  4B  0.7?  5.15  8.65  6.60  11.00  17.61  4.53  6B  0.84  3.65  8.62  5.68  13.41  1?.09  4.66  23  0.73  4.8*  5.86  6.50  7.83  14.33  5.58  3S  1.13  5.5i  7.25  4.90  b.40  11.29  4.12  43  0.8?  4.45  7.52  5.18  8.67  13»85  4..80  5S  0.68  4.2J  7.24  6.27  10.72  16.97  4.62  6S  0.99  4.8j  5.86  4.87  5.88  10.75  5.13  7S  1.6?  4.8^  4.77  2.86  2. 82  8S  0.6O  5.2:  6.23  8.75  ?S  0.81  5.03  7.11  10S  0.78  4^9*  lis  1.00  12S Aver Age Rang 8  5.67  4.09  9.9?  19.21  3.83  6.23  8.78  15.01  4.07  7.17  6.36  9.1?  15.55  4.67  3.35  6.07  3.35  6.07  9.42  3.??  0.89  4.7^  10.19  5.35  11.45  16.81  4.00  0.94  4.56  6.?1  5.38  8.16  13.46  0.601.69  3.35 5.53  8.65  5.45^  2.868.75  2.82 - 5.6713.41 19.09  4.67  3.83 5.58  -29~  Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABIE IX.(Cont'd) R a t i o s between Calcium and Iron and Aluminium i n S o i l s . Ion-Red Water Farms. Lab. lo.  Calcium Oxide  Iron Aluminium F2O3 AI2O3 FegO^+AlgO^ pH Oxide Oxide uau UaO uau  l^S  0.89  5.31  8.25  5.97 9.27  15.22  5.66  USj.  0.95  5.18  8,06  3.45 8.48  13.94  <r.33  1.13  2.63  6.38  2.33 5.64  7.97  U08  15S  1.01  3.60  5.04  0.72  3.21  3.56 5.89 4.46 8.61  9.46  lbS  5.95 6.20  13.07  5.28  Average  0.94  3.98  6.97  4.35 7.58  11.93  *.*8  2.63-  6.208.25  2.33- 5.645.97 9.27  7.9715. 22  3. 66 5.28  14 S  2  Rang!• 0.89-  1.13  5.31  The hydrogen i o n concentration values i n d i c a t e d that a l l these Red Water s o i l s are a c i d i c and the r a t i o s between the calcium, i r o n and aluminium would suggest that the cause of the a c i d i t y of these s o i l s probably due to the e x i s t e n c e o f i r o n and aluminium compounds which are held absorped by the s o i l c o l l o i d s (Spurway (117)) and a s s o c i a ted with the s i l i c a t e s . The s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , found on these Red Water farms, are undoubtedly the r e s u l t of the i n f l u e n c e of two important c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s , namely, r a i n f a l l and temperature. The leaching of calcium, thus causing an acid r e a c t i o n o f the s o i l and the probable formation of i n s o l u b l e s a l t s o f phosphates with manganese and i r o n . According t o Teakle \117A) a s o i l w i t h a pH below 6.0 w i l l hold i t s phosphorus i n combination with manganese. H o l t z (6?) i n h i s work on the s o i l s e r i e s of Western Washington, which are s i m i l a r s o i l s to those found i n the Fraser V a l l e y area, makes a s i g n i f i c a n t statement i n respect t o the feeds grown on these s o i l s , t h a t i n some instances "cows remained normal u n t i l they were turned out on v i r g i n eut-over-land pasture where w i t h i n a year's time they developed Red Water."  -30-  EXPerimental Data (Cont'd). (2) Feeding S t u f f s . A l l samples were c o l l e c t e d from various parts of the mows, thoroughly mixed, a i r dried, and ground to a uniform f i n e n e s s . As bracken has been prominently mentioned and observed associated w i t h Eed Water farms, a sample was obtained and examined i n a s i m i l a r manner to the feeding s t u f f s . This plant was found more or l e s s present i n a l l samples of hays. The f i g u r e s given are on the moisture f r e e b a s i s and i n percentages by weight. TABIE X. Reference D e s c r i p t i o n o f Mixed Hays. Red Water Farms. Description T imot hy &G 1 ov er  L o c a l i t y Grown Aldergrove x  02H  Timothy and C l o v e r  Goglan  03H  Mixesd Grasses  Port Haney  04%  Orchard Grass, Red Clover and Pere n n i a l Rye.Grass.  Whonnock  Red Clover  Whonnock  05H  Grasses and Clover  Abbott sford  Q6H  Timothy and C l o v e r  Sardis  X  0?H  Timothy and Clover  Sardis  1  08H  Clover  Fort Lamgley X  09H  Mixed Grasses  Mount Lehman  010H  Red Clover, A l s i k e Timothy, P e r e n n i a l Rye Grass  Abbott sford  01 IH  Mixed Grasses  Glen V a l l e y  012^  Grasses and Clover (193© Crop) Grasses and Clover (1931 Croo)  Milner  Lab. l o . OlH  04H  2  012H  x  2  Milner  1  S  -31-  Experimental Sat a (Cont'd). TABLE X, (Cont'd) Reference D e s c r i p t i o n o f Mixed Hays. Non-Bed Water Farms. Description  L o c a l i t y Grown  013H  Grasses and Clover  Haney  014%  Grasses and Glover  Essondale  014H  Pasture Clippings  Ess on dale  015H  Mixed Grasses  St©veston  01B  Bracken f e r n  Point Grey  Lab. No.  g  S Oat Hay also obtained from these farms* TABLE X I .  Lab. Ho.  Total Ash  Mixed Hays. Red Water Farms. Soluble Silica Iron Sand (sioa)  (Fe 0 ) 2  3  Aluminium (AI2O3)  01H  5.88  0.14  1*17  0.11  0.57  02H  5.09  0.24  1.91  0.09  O.67  03H  5.6b  0.49  2.39  0.11  0.16  04Hx  5.53  0.09  1.34  0.08  0.68  04%  5.10  0.16  0.69  0.06  0.08  031  7.24  0.15  1,40  0.21  1.76  06H  7.78  0.89  2. 08  0.18  07H  8.23  0.45  0.76  0.16  0.31 1.41  08H  7.13  0.23  0.93  0.11  1.54  091  5.66  0.61  1.51  0.09  0.78  010H  7.21  0.09  0.91  0.06  0.04  -32  Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE X I . Mixed Hays. Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho.  Total Ash  Sand  011H  5.51  012%  Soluble Silica (SiOo)  Iron (EegOp  0.15  1.02  0.06  0.04  6.50  0.91  0.89  0.07  0.04  012 H 2  6.33  0.60  1,08  0.05  0.03  Average  6.35  0.37  1.29  0.10  0.58  Range  5.0?-  0.090.91  0.692.3?  0.05^  0.21  0.031*76  8.23  Aluminium Ui o ) 2  3  Hon-Red Water Farms. 013H  5.40  0.18  1.44  0.08  0.06  014%  6.68  1.30  0.86  0.07  0.14  014%  4.72  0.10  0.64  0.08  0.08  013 H  7.16  1.85  0.92  0.07  0.11  0.86  0.96  0.07  0.10  0.101.85  0.64-  0.070.08  0.06-  0.03  0.02  Average Range  5.407.16  1.44  0.14  Bracken. 01B  6.9?  0.07  0.6?  -33-  Experjmental Data (Cont'd). TABLE I I I . Oat HayBed Water Farms. Lab. lo.  Total Ash  Sand  Soluble Silica  4.31  0.22  (S102) 1.28  0.14  0.12  020  4.87  0.55  1.58  0.08  0.42  060  5.36  0.46  1.66  0.15  0.16  070  7.40  0.88  2.6tS  0.18  0.83  080  7.86  0.75  2.23  0.28  0.?6  010 0  6.56  0.6o  1*23;  0.17  0.11  Average  6.06  0.58  1.77  0.17  0.43  Sang©  4.317.86  0.220.88  1.232.66  0.080.28  0.110.96  010  •  Iron (FegO^)  Aluminium (AI2O3)  I t i s t o be noted that the s o l u b l e s i l i c a i s comparar i v e l y high and that the aluminium content seems abnormal on t h e Bed Water farms, t h e i r range being wider than those on non-Red Water farms. In view of the opinions already quoted these two c o n s t i t u e n t s may be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s disease. TABLE X I I I . Mixed Hays. Bed Water Farms. Lab. Ho.  Calcium Magnesium (OaO) (MgO)  Phosphates (p o ) 2  5  Sulphates (sop  Manganese (M113O4)  01H  1.17  0.48  0,41  0.13  0.0104  02H  0.66  0.26  0.30  0.17  0.0098  03 H  0.60  0.25  0.43  0.20  0.0078  04%  0.53  0.35  0.40  0.17  0.0074  0.91  0.35  0.34  0.18  0.0085  04H  2  -34-  Experimental Bata (Cont'd). TABLE XIII. Mixed Hayg. Bed Water Farms* Magnesium Phosphates (%0) U? 05)  iiao. lb.  Ca±cium (OaO)  05H  1,6?  0.55  0.53  §6H  1,2?  0.42  0.68  0.37  0.0052  0?H  2,03  0.52  0.51  0.30  0.0O49  oai  1.39  0.54  0.52  0.17  0.0084  0?H  0.98  0.46  0.35  0.26  0.0181  01OH  1,47  0.57  0.51  O.23  0.0075  011H  0.73  0.45  0.40  0.25  § 8  012%  0.99  0.59  0,40  0.18  0.0083  012%  1*01  0.45  0.22  Average  1,12  0.51 0.46  0.44  Range  0.532.03  0.250.5?  0.300.68  0.25 0.17' 0.37  0.0123 0.0096  2  lon-^Red Water  Sulphat es 1 Hang an (S0 ) I ese CMh304) 0.26 0.0050 3  0114  0.0049O.0181  farms.  013H  0.74  0.37  0.39  0.2|  0.0148  014%  0.96  0.54  0.50  0.45  0.0107  0.48  0.43  0.41  0.26  0.0294  015H  1.33  0.78  0.52  0.44  0.0161  Average  0,88  0.53  0.45  0.0177  Range  0.481.33  0.370,78  0.390,52  0.36 0.260.45  0.58  0.0114  014H  2  0.01070.02?4  Bracken. @1B  0.37  0.44  0.61  -35-  Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XIV. Oat Hays. Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho.  Calcium (OaO)  Maanesium (MgO)  Phosphates (3?2§5)  Sulphates Manganese (SO3) (Mn 04) ?  0  0.04  0.24  0.35  0.18  0.0076  02 0  0.23  0.21  0.40  0.16  0.0029  06 0  0.83  0.33  0.49  0.20  0.0055  07 0  0.51  0.35  0.65  0.13  0.0068  08 0  0.58  0.34  O.63  0.19  0.0091  010  0.41  0.40  0.59  0.16  0.0068  Average  0.43  0.31  0.52  0.17  0.0064  Range  0.230.83  0.21-  0.35O.65  0.130.20  0.0029-  01  0  0.40  0.0091  The c a l c i u m content o f the f e e d i n g s t u f f s grown on Red Water farms i s comparatively high and has a wider range than on the d i s e a s e - f r e e farms, the manganese content i s d i s t i n c t l y lower i n the m a j o r i t y of cases. The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of t h i s s l i g h t d e f i c i e n c y may be of importance, as manganese i s now considered an e s s e n t i a l element of plant growth and f u n c t i o n s i n the s y n t h e s i s of c h l o r o p h y l l . I t occurs i n the ash of o x i d i z i n g enzyms and so probably a s s i s t s i n the process of o x i d a t i o n i n animal n u t r i t i o n . (3) Waters. These samples were composite ones taken from a l l sources of supply used by t h e animals on the r e s p e c t i v e farms. The f i g u r e s are stated i n parts per m i l l i o n .  -36-  Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XV. Referenoe D e s c r i p t i o n of Waters. Red Water Farms• Lab. lo.  Source  L o c a l i t y of Farm  001 W  Surface and w e l l  Cog l a n  002 W  Well n e a r barn  Coglan  003 W  Running Streams  Port Haney  Well  Whonnock  005 W  Well  Abbott sford  006 W  Well  Sardis  007 w  Well  Sard i s  Piped Spring  Abbott s f o r d  004 I  s  0010 w  Ion-Red Water Farms. Piped H i l l s i d e Spring  9013 W  Haney  TABLE XVI. M i n e r a l Content of Waters. Red Water Farms. Lab. lo.  Total Solids 001 W 44.0  7.1 30.3  4.6  29. b 4.6 2.6  13.4  C01) 3.5  Sabohates (S0 ) 3  0.3  9.2  5.8 3.4  5.8  4.2  1.1  4.3  12.4  5.1  1.0  11.4  4.5  2.6  0.1  21.1  3.4  12.4 7.0  2.9  1.0  5.3  1.1  4.2  3.6  0.3  12.6  6.7  8.6  5.2  1.6  200.0  003 W  77.0  004 W 005 W  45.0  5.7 5.7  74.0  14.3  006 W  72.0 72.0  46,0  3010 W ivemge  3.5  Chiorine lb.b 3.4  002 W  0o7 W  Magnesium S i l i c a (MgO) (SiO?)  -37Ixperimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XVI. M i n e r a l Content o f Waters. Uon-Red Water Farms. Lab. lo.  Total Solids  D013W  6b. 0  Calcium (CaO) 7.4  Magnesitim S i l i c a Chlorine Sulphates (MgO) (S0 ) (CI) (Si0 ) 1.4 , 9.8 2.4 3.9 3  2  The above analyses of the water s u p p l i e s of these farms i n d i c a t e t h a t none of them are of a h i g h l y mineralized character, and do not contain any element In q u a n t i t i e s that might be considered d e t r i m e n t a l to the c a t t l e using them. (4) Urines. The samples of urine were obtained by c a t h e t e r i z i n g the animals, and preserved by the a d d i t i o n o f a small quantity of toluene. TABLE XVII. Urines. Red Water Animals. (Grams per l i t r e ) . Laboratory lumber  Specific Gravity  Silica (Si0 ) 2  pH  1 U  1.0093  0.128  8.03  2 U  1.0160  0.088  7.99  3 U  1.0288  0.078  7.73  4 U  1.0348  0.269  7.94  5 U  1.0164  0.277  8.33  Average  1.0210  0.168  8.01  Range  1.00931.0348  0.0780.277  7.738.33  The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of these samples v a r i e s w i t h i n a wide range, but the f i g u r e s are comparable to those obtained by B u l l , Dickinson and Dann(l6A), t h e i r data are summarized as f o l l o w s : -  -38-  Experimental Data (Cont'd). Normal C a t t l e : - Mean 1.033(Range 1.015 to 1.047) Red Water C a t t l e :- Mean l.G28(Range 1.014 to 1.043; The s i l i c a content may "be s i g n i f i c a n t when considered i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the s i l i c a content o f the herbage produced on the Red % t e r farms. Forbes et a l (46) (48) i n t h e i r work on the mineral metabolism of the m i l c h cow, have demonstrated the existence of an extensive metabolism of s i l i c a ; and the r e t e n t i o n of t h i s element, from r a t i o n s cont a i n i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of timothy hay, being s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e , s i l i c a being found i n considerable q u a n t i t i e s i n the u r i n e , but not i n weighable amounts i n m i l k . The hydrogen i o n concentration of these urines show them a l l to be w i t h an a l k a l i n e r e a c t i o n . B u l l et a l (l6A) report t h a t the pH of Red Water urines was u s u a l l y between 7 . 6 and 8.1, and the pH of the normal urines was u s u a l l y between 7 * 7 and 8.1; the data recorded by Shutt and Robinson (115) give the f o l l o w i n g ranges:Red Water C a t t l e from 7.15 to 8.40 Normal C a t t l e from 7.15 to 8 . 6 4 . So that the f i g u r e s recorded above may be considered normal i n respect t o t h i s r e a c t i o n . (5) Bladder. This specimen was obtained from a cow which had been a f f e c t e d w i t h the disease f o r some considerable time. A p o r t i o n showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e s i o n s was d r i e d t o constant weight and ashed. The f i g u r e s given are on the moisture free b a s i s and are s t a t e d as percentage by weight. TABLE X V I I I . Mineral Content o f Bladder. Original  Ash 3.14  8.57 15.53 41.58 13.48  These data are i n t e r e s t i n g because the s i l i c a content may be s i g n i f i c a n t , but no d e f i n i t e conclusions can be made u n t i l compared w i t h the disease f r e e m a t e r i a l .  -39-  Ixperimental Data (Oont'd). TABLE XIX. Qoral Book f l o u r . Laboratory Number  1 G  Moisture Loss on i g n i t i o n Silica (Si 0 ) Mixed Oxides (R2Q3) Sulphates (SO3) Oalcium Oxide (CaO) Magnesium Oxide (MgQ) Nitrogen (NH3)  0.26 44.63 0.34  2  °»36  0.30  50.66  3.55 0.045  TABLE XX. Comparative Composition C o r a l Rock f l o u r and C o r a l . C o r a l Rock Red Coral| Black Coral flour ( T r e s s l e r (119) 85.801 Saleium CarbonatetOaQQ^) 86.974 90.04 6.770 Magnesium Garbonate(MgC05) 6.804 7.01 1.400 Calcium Sulphate(CaS04) 1.271 0.51 0.800 f e r r o u s Oxide (f©0) 1.720 Mixed Oxides (R2O3) 0.56 Phosphoric AcidCPgOc)) 1.559 1.331 S i l i c a (S102) e t c . ) 0.34 S i l i c a (S10 ) 0.26 Moisture 99.450 Too.04 96.930 2  The c o r a l rock f l o u r i s probably of marine o r i g i n , I t was examined f o r the presence of calcium carbonate i n the fozm of aragonite by the t e s t s discovered by W. Meigen as reported by Clarke (22), who s t a t e s that i n studying the formation o f s h e l l limestone or c o r a l rock, i t i s desirable t o take account o f t h e fact that calcium carbonate e x i s t s i n at l e a s t two g e o l o g i c a l l y important modifications e a l c i t e and aragonite. M  I t i s probable t h a t the calcium carbonate contained i n t h i s m a t e r i a l i s valuable as a source of calcium i n the Coral Rock f l o u r - Soda Bicarbonate treatment.  -40Ixperimental Data (Cont'd). (e) General D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s . The experimental data obtained may he considered as f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the composition of the m a t e r i a l examined, although the r e s u l t s may he i n t e r p r e t e d as only suggestive of a probable explanation they may upon further i n v e s t i g a t i o n lead t o the causative f a c t o r of t h i s disease. The s o i l s may be rated as being of a poor q u a l i t y and need t o be improved by a proper system of c u l t i v a t i o n and f e r t i l i z a t i o n ; the composition of the f e e d i n g s t u f f s i s a r e f l e c t i o n on the s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e that the s i l i c a content of the feeds may be abnormal and be an important f a c t o r i n the c a u s a t i o n of t h i s disease, together with the high aluminium content. The manganese content may be considered as a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y as i t may f u n c t i o n i n the s y n t h e s i s of c h l o r o p h y l l and be present i n an inorganic form, which during the process o f metabolism w i t h i n the animal may cause abnormalcond i t ions. However, the data now presented by t h i s work may well be considered as a d e f i n i t e advance i n solving the problem, and i t i s hoped w i l l l e a d to f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s along similar lines. I t seems important t h a t the inorganic composition of a l a r g e number of samples of u r i n e s , and bladders should be examined; also the examination of the f l e s h and m i l k of diseased animals might be included, because i t i s b e l i e v e d that such i n f o r m a t i o n would throw considerable l i g h t upon t h i s problem. (f) P r a c t i c a l Pons id e rat ions and Recommendations. The f o l l o w i n g suggestions a r e o f f e r e d w i t h the b e l i e f that w i t h a change i n the p r a c t i c e and system of farming, i n the Red Water area of B r i t i s h Polumbia, there w i l l be a decided lowering of the i n c i d e n t of the disease. t l ) The c u l t i v a t i o n of pasture lands every two or three years, i n order to Improve the q u a l i t y of the pasturage; (2) To increase the f e r t i l i t y of pasture and hay lands by the use o f r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e phosphates, nitrogen and manure; (3) The production of more leguminous roughage f o r feeding d a i r y stock; (4) The growing of s i l a g e crops and supplementary green crops, such as rape, peas and vetches; (5) That b e t t e r methods of c u r i n g and handling of the hay and roughage crops be i n v e s t i g a t e d ;  -41Sxperimental Data (Cont'd), (6) The c o n t r o l of the growth of Bracken and other prevalent weeds, by burning, c u t t i n g and thorough c u l t i vation} (7) The use of s m a l l pasture paddocks be i n s t i t u t e d , prov i d i n g frequent change of l o c a t i o n , i n order to encourage b e t t e r q u a l i t y of pasture p l a n t s ; (8) The feeding of balanced r a t i o n s t o the d a i r y stock, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n being given to the p r o t e i n and mineral matter; (9) The encouragement of mixed farming i n preference t o the present one l i n e dairy farming; CONCLUSIONS, (1) The disease o f Red Water i s a l o c a l i z e d one, only affecting cattle; (2) The disease occurs on farms where the s o i l s are comp a r a t i v e l y low i n f e r t i l i t y ; (3) The s o i l s are of an a c i d nature, r e a d i l y leached, w i t h a tendency to be low i n phosphates, n i t r o g e n and organic matter; (4) The hays and other roughage are g e n e r a l l y low i n a v a i l a b l e mineral elements; (5) The herbage being s i g n i f i c a n t l y high i n s i l i c a and aluminium, and p o s s i b l y low i n manganese} (6) The probable causation of the disease i s one of a n u t r i t i o n a l • o r i g i n , e i t h e r from ingested i r r i t a n t m a t e r i a l or elaborated i n the animal's system during metabolism; (7) That f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a l work should be prosecuted i n respect t o the composition of the u r i n e s , bladders, f l e s h and m i l k of diseased animals, SUMMARY. (1) A complete statement o f the h i s t o r y of t h i s disease has been compiled; (2) I t s geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n has been o u t l i n e d ; (3) The l o c a l f a c t o r s and c o n d i t i o n s of occurrence of the disease have been f u l l y discussed.  -42-  Summary (Cont'd). (4) A d i s c u s s i o n o f the various recorded t h e o r i e s of causation i s presented; £3) An o u t l i n e o f t h e treatments found valuable i n cont r o l l i n g the disease has been given, w i t h a s p e c i a l reference t o t h e Coral Rock Flour-Soda Binarbonate remedy. (6) The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms, t h e i r p o s s i b l e and probable causes, have been f u l l y discussed. (7) A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s , feeding s t u f f s , waters and other m a t e r i a l s from Red Water and non-Red Water farms has been compiled and comparisons made between them. (8) Suggestions gations.  have been made concerning  further investi-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The author wishes to acknowledge h i s o b l i g a t i o n t o Dr. J.A. Amyot, Deputy M i n i s t e r , and t o Mr. H.M. Lancaster, C h i e f Dominion Analyst, o f the Department of National Health, Ottawa, Ontario, f o r k i n d l y consenting t o the use o f the f a c i l i t i e s of t h e Food and ^rugs Laboratories of that Department i n Tancouver, B.C.,- during t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and he i s g r e a t l y indebted to Dean F.M. Clement, Professor H.M. King, and Dr. D.G. L a i r d , o f the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l advice and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s problem. To Dr. J.G. J e r v i s , Dr. E.A. Bruce and Mr. J.C, MacKenzie, f o r t h e i r services i n the c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s f o r a n a l y s i s ; to Mr. H.O. Tomlinson f o r h i s valuable suggestions and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ; and t o t h e v a r i o u s farmers v i s i t e d , f o r t h e i r important a i d i n generously supplying m a t e r i a l s and information; and t o the numerous correspondents f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n r e p l y i n g t o the author's enquries concerning various phases of the problem; a l l o f which has c o n t r i b u t e d m a t e r i a l l y t o the progress of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  -43-  BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1. Abbott, J.B., Conner, S.D., and Smalley, H.R. S o i l A c i d i t y , N i t r i f i c a t i o n , and t h e T o x i c i t y of Soluble S a l t s of Aluminium. Purdue Univ. A g r i c . Bxpt. Sta. B u l l . No. 170:329374. 1913. 2. A l l a r d y c e , J . , Fleming, R.H., Fowler, F.L. and Clark, R.H. Blood Normals f o r C a t t l e , Some P a t h o l o g i c a l Values. Can. Jour. Res. 3*120-124. 1930. 3. A l l e n ' s Commercial Organic Analysis.(Davis and S a d t l e r ) V o l . 7:124-130. ( J . & A. C h u r c h i l l , London). 1913. 4. Am. Publio Health Ass'n. Standard Methods f o r t h e Examination o f Water and Sewage. 1-74. 2nd Ed. (Am. P u b l i c Health Ass'n. New York.) 1913. 3 . Ames, J.W., and Schollenberger, C.J. Liming and Lime Requirement of S o i l . Ohio A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 306:279-396. 1916. 6. Anderson, A S i n g u l a r Disease i n a Cow. The V e t e r i n a r i a n . 13:27-30. 1842. 7. A r c h i b a l d , E.S. Re d % t er Inve s t i gat i o n . Ann. Rept. D i r e c t o r Dept. A g r i c . Canada. 41-42.1930. 8. A r c h i b a l d , J.G. The Ohemical Composition o f Grass from P l o t s F e r t i l i z e d and Grazed Intensely i n 1929. Jour. A g r i c . Res. 41:491-501. 1930. 9. Assoc. of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Chemists. O f f i c i a l and Tentative Methods of A n a l y s i s . 1916, 1920, and 193© E d i t i o n s . 10. Authenreith, W. (Trans. Warren, W.H.) The Detention o f Poisons and Powerful Drugs. 4th E d i t i o n . (P. B l a k i s t o n ' s Son & Co. P h i l a d e l p h i a ) 1915. 11. A v r i l , C o n t r i b u t i o n a 1'etude de l a Cyst i t e du B e t a i l . Thesis - Lyon.  hemorragigue  Rev. i n Rec. Med. Vet. 106:167-168 and 696.  1929.  44B l b l i o g r a p h y (Cont'd). 12. Brae©, E.A. Astragalus Campestris and Other Stock Poisoning P l a n t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Dept. A g r i c . Canada. B u l l . 88:7-12. 1927. 13. Bruce, E.A. P l a n t Poisoning. Ann. Sept. Vet. D i r . Gen. Dept. A g r i c . Canada. 21. 1926. 14. Bruce, E.A. P r i v a t e Communication. Anim. Path. Bes. S t a . Agassiz, B.C. Canada. 1931. 15. J3rundage, A.H. A Manual of Toxicology. (D. Appleton & Co., lew York) 1926. 16. B u l l , L.B. P r i v a t e Communications. D i r . Govt. Lab. Bact. and Path. Adelaide h o s p i t a l , S. A u s t r a l i a . 1931-1932. 16A. B u l l , L.B., Dickinson, C.G., and Dann, A.T. Enzootic Haematuria (Haematuria V e s i c a l i s ) o f C a t t l e i n South A u s t r a l i a . Unpublished paper f o r F i f t h P a c i f i c Science Congress, 1932. 17. Cadeap.M. C y s t i t e chronique hemmorragique. Jour, de Med. Vet. 65:31 Mai. 1913. 18. C a r l y l e , E.G. Manganese i n Texas S o i l s and i t s R e l a t i o n t o Crops. Texas A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . 432:1-37. 1931. 19. Carr, R.H., and Brewer, P.H. Manganese, Aluminium, and Iron Ratio as Related to Soil Toxicity. Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chem. 15:634-637. 1923. 20.  Case, L.N. Red Water i n C a t t l e . Rept. D i v . Anim. Ind., Hawaii.  199-204. 1911.  21. C h i n i , V. The l o c a l A c t i o n o f U r i c Acid upon the Tissues. K r a n k h e i t s f o r s c h 8:301-307. 1930. Abst. i n Chem. Abst. 25:4621. 1931.  -45Bibllography  (0ont*d).  2 2 . Clarke, F.W. The Data of Geochemistry, U.S. Geol. Survey B u l l . l o . 695:549-551.  1920.  2 3 . Cleland, J.B. A u s t r a l i a n Med. Gaz. 70. 1911. 24. Cleland, J.B. Haematuria. Jour. Trop. Vet. Sc.  6:125t  1911.  25. Cleland, J.B. A Hote on the Occurrence of Pentastomes i n Australian Cattle. Hept. Govt. Bur. Micro-biology H.S. Wales, 120-122. 1912. 26.  Clements, F.E. Plant Indicators. 1920.  27. C o c h e r i l . C o n t r i b u t i o n a 1'etude des hematuries toxlques chez l e s Bovides. Thesis - P a r i s . Rev. i n Rec. Med.  Vet.  106:168.  1930.  28.  Conner, S.D. S o i l A c i d i t y as A f f e c t e d by Moisture Conditions of the S o i l . Jour. A g r i c . Res, 15: No, 6. 321-329. 1918. 29. Council f o r S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research, Australia. Haematuria (Red Water) i n C a t t l e . 4th Ann. Kept. 22.  30.  1930.  Craig, J.F. and Kehoe, D. Jour. Comp. Path, and 'i'her. March, 1921.  31. C r a i g , J.F., and Kehoe, D. Chronic Haematuria of C a t t l e i n Ireland. Jour. Dept. A g r i c . and Tech. I n s t r . f o r I r e l a n d . 22:Ho.4. 375-377. 1923. 32. C r a i g , J.F., and Eehoe, D. Chronic Haematuria i n C a t t l e . Jour. Dept. A g r i c . and Tech. I n s t r . f o r Ireland. 25: Ho.2. 1926.  -46-  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Gont'd). 33. C r a i g , J.F. Chronic Haematuria of C a t t l e , ( w i t h d i s e u s s i o n ) Vet. Rec. 10:No.4.  68-71, 8 7 - 8 8 .  1930.  34. Damon, S.R. Food I n f e c t i o n s and Food I n t o x i c a t i o n . ( B a i l l i e r e , T i n d a l l and Cox, London)  1928.  35. Datta, S. A C r i t i c a l Review of the L i t e r a t u r e upon Endemic Bovine Haematuria w i t h the E l a b o r a t i o n of a Theory Concerning i t s E t i o l o g y (.Haematuria V e s i c a l i s ) Ind. Vet. Jour. 8:10. 1931. 36. Davidson, J . , and Capen, R.G. The Determination of Manganese i n Plant M a t e r i a l s by the Periodate Method. Jour. Assn. Off. A g r i c . Chem. 12:310-311. 1929. 37. Denison, F.N. Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ann. Rept. Dept. A g r i c . B.C. 7, 12 and 22. and P r i v a t e Communication, 1931.  1930.  38. Dickinson, C.G. and B u l l , L.B. Enzootic Haematuria of Bovines. Jour. Counc. Sc. and Ind. Res. A u s t r a l i a . 2: No.  4.  39. Douris, R., (Blood) Calcium (Compt.  232-238.  1929.  and P l e s i s , M. Coagulating A c t i o n of Inorganic and Organic Salts. rend. Soc. B i o l . 105:75 7-759., 1930.  Chem. Zentr. 1:2220. 1931.) Abst. i n Br. Chem. Abst. 1088.  1931.  40. Button, Re Vanadiumism. Jour. Amer. Med. Assn. June 3, 1911, quoted by Browning, P.E. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Rarer Elements, 3rd Ed. p.110. 1914. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.) 41. Eckles, C.H., Becker, R.B., and Palmer, L.S. A M i n e r a l D e f i c i e n c y i n the Rations of C a t t l e . Univ. Minn. A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 229. 1-49. 192o.  -47B i b l i o g r a p h y ( Qont'd). 42. Emmert, E.M. The E f f e c t of S o i l Eeaction on the Growth of Tomatoes and l e t t u c e and on t h e Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Manganese Content of the S o i l and Plants. Ky. A g r i c . Expt. S t a . Res. B u l l . No. 314:1-83. 1931. 43. Ewart, A.J. The Poisonous A c t i o n of Ingested Saponins. Counc. Sc. Ind. Res. A u s t r a l i a . B u l l . 50:1-28. 1931. 44. Fleming, R.H., Fowler, F.L., and Clark, R.H. Haematuria V e s i c a l i s . Can. Jour. Res. 3:125-129. 1930.  45.  Forbes, E.B. The Balance Between Inorganic A c i d s and Bases i n Animal N u t r i t i o n . Ohio A g r i c . Expt. S t a . B u l l . No. 207:23-52. 1909.  46. Forbes, E.B., Beegle, F.M., F r i t z , CM., Morgan, I.E. and Rhue, S.N. The Mineral Metabolism of the M i l c h Cow. ( F i r s t Paper) Ohio A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 295:323-348. 1916. 47. Forbes, E.B., Beegle, F.M., F r i t z , CM., Morgan, I.E. and Rhue, S.N. The M i n e r a l Metabolism o f the M i l c h Cow. (Second Paper) Ohio A g r i c . Expt. S t a . B u l l . No. 308:451-481. 1917. 48. Forbes, E.B., Halverson, J.O., Morgan, L.E., Schulz, J.A., Mangels, , C.E., Rhue, S.N., and Burke, G.W. The M i n e r a l Metabolism of the M i l c h Cow. (Third Paper) Ohio A g r i c . Expt. S t a . B u l l . No. 330:91-134. 1918. 49. ForJses, E.B., Halverson, J.O., Morgan, I.E., Schulz, J.A., Wells, E.B., Hunt, CH., and Winter, A.R. The U t i l i z a t i o n of Calcium Compounds i n Animal Nutrition. Ohio A g r i c . Expt. S t a . B u l l . 347:1-99. 1921.  -48-  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Cont'd). 50. Gortner, H.A. O u t l i n e s of Biochemistry. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., lew York) 51.  52.  53.  Grauer, P.W. Haematuria V e s i c a l i s 1930.  - Thesis, Univ. B r i t . C o l .  Greaves, J.B., and H i r s t , C.T. The M i n e r a l Content o f Grains, Utah A g r i c . Sxpt. S t a . B u l l . So. 2 1 0 : 1 - 3 8 .  19 2 9 .  Groh, H. Kedwater Disease o f O a t t l e . Ann. Hept. Div. Bot. Dept. ^ g r i c . Canada. 14-15. 1930.  54. Hadwen, S. Bed W ter i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Ann.-Kept. Vet. D i r . Gen. and L i v e Stock Comm. Dept. A g r i c . d a . 136-144. 1911. a  G  a n a  55. Hadwen, S. Haematuria. Ann. Rept. e t . D i r . Gen. Dept. - % r i c . Canada. 74-79. 1913. 5 6 . Hadwen, S. A Study of Haematuria i n Prance and Other Countries. Ann. Hept, Vet. D i r . <*en. Dept. A g r i c , Canada. 119-12 9. 1914. v  57.  Hadwen, S. Bovine Haematuria. Jour. Am. Vet. Med, Assn, 51:1,3. 4; Ho. 6 ; 822-830. 1917 5 8 . Hadwen, S. Bovine Haematuria. Jour, Comp. Path, and Ther. 31:64. 1918. 59.  Hadwen, S. Haematuria, Ann. Kept. Vet. D i r . Gen. Dept. g r i c . Canada. 10-11, 40-41. 1930. 6 0 . H a r r i s , J.E. Soil Acidity. Mich. A g r i c . C o l l . ^ x p t . Sta. B u l l . l o . 19:1-15. 1914. A  -49-  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Cont'd). 61. H a r t w e l l , B.L., and Pember, F.R. Aluminium as a F a c t o r I n f l u e n c i n g the E f f e c t of Acid S o i l s on D i f f e r e n t Crops. J©ur. Am. Soc. Agron. 10:No. 1. 45-47. 1918. 62. Hawk, P.B. and Bergeim, 0 . P r a c t i c a l P h y s i o l o g i c a l Chemistry. 9 t h Ed. (P. B l a k i s t o n ' s S o n & Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a ( 1926. 63. Henry, W.A., and Morrison, F.B. Feeds and Feeding. 19th Ed. (Henry and Morrison Co., Ithaca, N.Y.) 1928. 64. H i l t o n , G. Red Water i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Ann. Rept. Yet* D i r . Gen. Dept. A g r i c . Canada. 10-11. and 40-41. 1930. 65.  Hink, liber S t a l l und Weidrot des Rindyichs. Lydtins t i e r a r x t l i c h e MitteHunger. 22:183.  66. Hoare, E.W. A System o f Veterinary Medicine - General Diseases. 2: 1915. 66A. Holcomb, R. The Calcium and Phosphorus Content o f Some Quebec Hays. Sc. * g r i c . 10:28-34. 1929. 67. H o l t z , H.F. E f f e c t of Calcium and Phosphorus Content o f V a r i ous S o i l Series of Western Washington upon the Calcium and Phosphorus Composition o f Oats, Red Clover, and White Clover. Wash. A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . Ho. 243:1-45. 1930. 68. Hopper, /T.H., and N e s b i t t , L.L. The Ohemical Composition of Some North Dakota Pasture and Hay Grasses. H. Dakota A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 2 3 6 : 1 - 3 8 . 1930. 6 9 . Hubner, Ueber Blutharnen beim Rind. Rec. de Med. Vet. 19:173. 1842. 70. Hutyra, F., and Marke, J . Pathology and Therapeutics of the Diseases of Domestic Animals. 1:981-982. 1912,(and 3 : 1 9 2 6 ) .  -50  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Cont'd). 71. Imperial A g r i c u l t u r a l Bureaux. A P r e l i m i n a r y Hote on Chronie Haematuria (Haemat u r i a Vesicalis) i n Gattle. Vet. B u l l . l : N o . l , 94-95. 1931. 7 2 . Imperial I n s t i t u t e of V e t e r i n a r y Research. Muktesal, I n d i a . Ann. Rep. D i r e c t o r . 15.  1931.  73* Johnson, M.O. Manganese C h l o r o s i s of Pineapples: I t s Cause and Glont ro 1. Hawaii A g r i c . Expt. S t a . B u l l . l o . 52:1-38; 1924. 7 4 . Johnson, W.A, Geology of Fraser R i v e r D e l t a Map-Area. Geol. Sur. Dept. Mines, Canada. Memoir Ho. 135. 1-77. 1923. 7 5 . Jones, J.S. and B u l l i s , D.E, A Chemical Study o f Legumes and Other Forage Crops of Western Oregon. Ore. % r i c . C o l l . Expt. Sta. B u l l . Ho. 197:1-24. 1923.  7 6 . Kalkus, J.W. A P r e l i m i n a r y Report on t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Bovine Hed Water ( C y s t i t i s ) . West. Wash. Expt. S t a . B u l l . 112:1-27. 1913. 77. Kalkus, J.W. Red Water i n C a t t l e . 36th Ann. Rept. Wash. Expt. Sta. B u l l . 2 0 8 : 4 3 . 1926.  7 8 . Kalkus, J.W., and Sawyer, C E . Red Water i n C a t t l e ( C y s t i c Haematuria). 37th Ann. Kept. Wash. Expt. S t a . B u l l . 222:52. 1927.  7 9 . Kalkus, J.W., and Sawyer, C E . Red Water i n C a t t l e ( C y s t i c Haematuria). 3 8 t h Ann. Rept. Wash. Expt. Sta. B u l l . 229:44. 1928.  80.  Kalkus, J.W., and Sawyer, C E . Red Water i n C a t t l e (Oystic Haematuria) 39th Ann. Rept. Wash. Expt. Sta. B u l l . 237:45. 1929.  81. Kalkus, J.W., and Sawyer, C E . Red Water i n C a t t l e ( C y s t i c Haematuria). 4 0th Ann. Rept. Wash. Expt. Sta. B u l l 245:52-53.1930.  -51-  B i b l i o g r a p h y ( Oont Vd). 8 2 . Kearney, W. Haematuria. Ann. Sept. Dept. % r i c . B r . Bast A f r i c a . 176-177. 1917-1918.  83. Kerrigan, J . Chronic Haematuria A f f e c t i n g C a t t l e . N. Zeal. Jour. A g r i c . 33:No.2. 8 5 - 8 7 .  1926.  8 4 . Klobouk, A. Haematurie Oder verrucose Z y s t i t i s der Hinder. Prag. Arch. f . Tiermed. l l : P a r t B. 10. 1931. 8 5 . Lauder, G.D. V e t e r i n a r y Toxicology. ( B a i l l i e r e , T i n d a l l and Cox, London) 8 6 . Lawes, J.B., and G i l b e r t , J.H. Royal Soc. London. P h i l o . Trans. Ser. B. 139-210.  1912.  1900.  87. Lienaux, De l a pathologenie et de I ' e t i o l o g i e de I'hematurie chronioue des bovides. Ann. de Med. v e t .  54:185-198.  1905.  8 8 . Linton, R.G. Animal N u t r i t i o n and V e t e r i n a r y D i e t e t i c s . (W. Green and Son L t d . , Saifcurgh) 1927. 8 9 . Loew, 0. The E f f e c t of Calcium upon the P h y s i o l o g i c a l Function of Magnesium. Brnahr. Pflanze 27 :97-101, 121-122. 1931. (Abstr. Obem. Abstr. 25:5498. 1931.) 9 0 . Lutman, B.F.,and Walbridge, N.L. The Role o f Magnesium i n the Aging o f P l a n t s . Vermont. A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . No. 2 9 6 : 1 - 4 8 . 1929.  91. McCollum, E. ¥., and Simmonds, N. The Newer* Knowledge o f N u t r i t i o n . 3rd Ed. (McMillan Co., New York.) 1927. 92. McHargue, J.S. The Occurrence of Copper, Manganese, Zinc and N i c k e l and Cobalt i n S o i l s , P l a n t s and Animals, and Their Possible Function as V i t a l F a c t o r s . Jour. A g r i c . Res. 3 0 : No.2. 193-196. 1925.  -52-  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Cont'd). 95. McKee, J.R., and McKee, C.S. Red Water i n C a t t l e . B u l l . Vancouver Med. Assn. 5 : l o . 3 « 5 5 - 6 9 .  19E8.  94. MacKenzie, J.C. An Economic Survey o f Bovine Haematuria V e s i c a l i s i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The Occurrence o f the Disease and Results of a Method o f Treatment. Thesis. Univer. of B r i t . Columbia. 1952. 95. Mason, W.P. Examination o f Water 1-118. (John Wiley & Sons, lew York.) 95A., Mather, T.H. The E f f e c t Phosphorus and S i l i e a Sc. A g r i c .  1915.  of F e r t i l i z e r s upon the Forms of and the Amounts of Phosphorus, Hitrogen, i n Hays. 10:55-65. 1929.  96. M i l l s , R.G. The E f f e c t of Prolonged Exposure of the S i l i c e ous S p i c u l e s of a Fresh Water Sponge ( S p o n g i l l a F r a g i l i s ) to the A c t i o n of Animal Tissues. Am. Jour. Hyg. 13, 1:224-233. 1931. 97. M i t c h e l l , J.H., Warner, J.D., and Morrow, K.S. The M i n e r a l Content of Feeds, S o i l s and Waters of South C a r o l i n a . S. C a r o l i n a A g r i c . Expt. Sta. B u l l . l o . 252. 1928. 98. Miyamoto, T. U r o c y s t i t i s Haemorrhagica of l a t i v e C a t t l e i n Formosa. Jour. Japan Soc. Vet. S . 7 : l o . 3 . 1928. Abstr. Trop. Vet. B u l l . 1 7 : 6 4 . 1928. 0  99. Moussu, G. T r a i t e des Maladies du B e t a i l . 3rd Ed. 636-645. 1911. ( P a r i s , A s s e l i n et Horzeau). 100. Moussu, G. Haematuria. Rec. de Med. v e t .  92: l o s . 15 and 16.  19l6.  101. Orr, J.B. Minerals i n Pastures and Their R e l a t i o n t o Animal N u t r i t i o n . (H.K. Lewis & Co. L t d . , Aberdeen). 192?.  -53-  Bibliography lOonttd). 102. Orr, J.B. The R e l a t i o n o f the Chemical Composit ion o f Pasture t o i t s Feeding Value. Trans. Highland and -agric. Soc. Scotland. 1929. 103. Orr, J.B., and Holm, A. Mineral Content of Hatural Pastures. Imp. Boon. Advisory Oounc. 6th Rept. Sub.-Comm. 12-66. 1931. 104. Palmer, W.W., Salvesen, H., and Jackson, J r . H. R e l a t i o n s h i p between the Plasma Bicarbonate and Urinary A c i d i t y following Administration o f Sodium Bicarbonate. Jour. B i o . Chem. 45:101. 1920-21. 105. P o l i c a r d , A. H i s t r o c h e m i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the I n i t i a l Lesions of Experimental Pulmonary S i l i c o s i s . Gompt. rend. 193:197-199. 1931. A b s t r . B r . Chem. Abs.-A. 1084. 1931. 106.  P r e s c o t t , J.A. and P i p e r , O.S. The Volcanic S o i l o f Mount Gambler, South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. A u s t r a l i a . 53:196-202. 1929.  107. Richards, M.B. Manganese i n R e l a t i o n t o N u t r i t i o n . Biochem. Jour. 24:1572-1590. 1930. 108. Richardson, A.E.Y., Trumble, H.G. and Shapter, R.E. F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g t h e Mineral Content o f Pastures. Counc. Sc. and J-nd. Res. A u s t r a l i a . B u l l . Ho. 49. 1931. 109. Roberts, J . D i s c u s s i o n on Chronic Haematuria of C a t t l e . Vet. Rec. 69:87-88. 1930. 110. Roderick, L.M, The Coagulation o f the Blood, "Sweet Clover Disease i n C a t t l e " Am. Jour. P h y s i o l . 96:1413-1425. 1931. 111. Roger, J . L'oxalemie des Animaux domestique. Rec. de Med. v e t . 92: Hos. 17 and 18. 268-278. 1916.  -54Bibliography  (Cont'd).  112.  Rutherford, J.G. Red Water i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Ann. Rept. Yet. D i r . Gen. and L i v e Stook Comm. Dept. A g r i c . Canada. 39-40. 1911.  113.  Scharrer, R. V o r l a u f i g e MittedLung uber d i e Rinder. - Haematurie i n Antioquina (Columbien) S e h i v e i z . Arch. f. T i e r h l k . 72s475-477. 1930.  114. Sherman, H.C, Chemistry of food and n u t r i t i o n . 3rd Ed. (McMillan Co., Hew York. ) 193 0. 115.  Shutt, f.T., and Robinson, C.H. Red-Water C a t t l e Disease as Occurring i n C e r t a i n D i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ann. Rept. D i r . Chem. Dept. % r i c . Canada. 107-112.  1930.  116. Simms. B.T. P r i v a t e Communication. P r o f . Yet. Med. Ore. Sta. A g r i c . C o l l . U.S.A. 1931. 117. Spurway, C.H. S o i l A c i d i t y and the H y d r o l y t i c Ratio i n S o i l s . Jour. A g r i c . Res. 11: Ho. 12, 659-672. 1917. U7A.  Teakle, L.K.H. Phosphate i n the S o i l S o l u t i o n as A f f e c t e d by Reaction and Cation Concent r a t i o n . S o i l Science. 25:143-163. 1928.  118. Thorpe, E., et a l . D i c t i o n e r y of Applied Chemistry 5 : 5 7 5 , 579,  2:141.  1912.  1913.  (Longmans' Green & Co., New Y o r k ) . 119. T r e s s l e r , D.K., e t a l . Marine Products of Commerce. (Chemical Catalog Co. i n c . , New York)  1923.  120. Truog, E. Determining the Phosphorus Needs of the S o i l . Jour. Am. Soo. Agron. 15:110-117. 1923. 121. U n d e r h i l l , f.P. Toxicology or the E f f e c t s of Poisons. (P. B l a k i s t o n ' s Son & Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a . ) 1924.  -55*  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Cont*d). 122. Vaes, Harnblasenruptur beim Oehsen. Jour. v e t . de Beige. 182. 1843. 123. van Saceghem, D.R. Ohrnnio Haematuria of C a t t l e . P r i v a t e Communication to Imp. Bur. Anim. Health. 1931.  124. Walker, I . P r i v a t e Communication. Chief Vet. Res. Off., Vet. Res. Lab. Kenya Colony, B r . Bast A f r i c a . Jan. 1932. 125- W i l l i a m s , T.H. Garden and P i e l d . 20:244. 1894. 126.  Yoe, J.H. Photometric Chemical A n a l y s i s . Golorimetry. 1:273-279. (John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.)  1928.  -56-  03  © +»  Xi I A  O  r-4  O  P . O  r-l CQ  IA rH •  C O  i-4  tro  rH  O  NO  HI • O  co  o  o  i-4  CM  CQ 09 ©  - P  co*"-"*  p<o 03  CM  CM  O  r-4  rH  N O  A  o  o  O  IA  IA rH  IA  o o  O  PM  o  I CO  P4  s •H IA| A  O  A •  CM N O •  C O  C O  NO  •H CM  3 rH  03  n  u  CO Pfe)  l A j ON rH $3 C M ; • O  o ©  A  rH(i| rHN-/  A NO  •  SM  CM  A  rH  C O •  [NO  A CVJ  CM  •3  I A  A  rH rH •  IA  O  o  CO  N O  rH  OO  ON O  CO  o  o  A  IA  ON ST  i3  co I  NQ  o  CO  o  "5T  I A  U  CD  •H  .CO ©  © o  ox  CO •—'  a  ON P -  53 • H ^ - N  O rH CO O  00  i-4  o  rH  CM  I NO  rH  O  I A CO  o  rA CM  «A  rH  O  NO NO  IA CM  o  rH  IS IrH  !A  cvt  |NO  IA  c*  o  Io O INO  •A IA  I CO  IA "A  o  o  ON-*  CO CM  rH  CO  rH  o o  CM  IA  ON  © rH CO 03  00  o  «r4  03  o  o  CQ  63  CO W  09  03  O  03  W  O  O  \J0  00  W rH O  A |lA  lo  rH  •H «H rH 03 03  i  CO A  rH O  CM  CM  O  © P CO  o CM  o  o  I CO  ON  IA •  |  C O CM  IA  CM  CO  W  83  w  IA  IA O  o [03 03  CO W  H  w o  -57  CQ ©  - P  NJD  C O  QS'-N  Xl K\  OS  o  OJ  O  rA  o  O  o  O  o  KN  IT-  o  CM O  NO  o  OS  c-  o  rA  rA r-l  HI  r-l  r-i  ©.  o  O  O  O  O  O  o  o  OJ  r-i  "A vO  OJ  OJ  rA NO  Os  o  tA rA  r-i  o  o  o  o  o  O  rA  rA  o  l-i  NO  r-i  OJ  rA OJ  o  j O  93 CO  ffl  -p  O S ' - N  ,fl i A P-iO OQ  ' • o  OJ  o  .P4f l ^  LA  CM  ©  O  •  •  OS  OO NO  •  •  o  o  r-l  vO  r-l O  •  O  •  •  •  LA  • O  •  •  • j  rA  r-i  LA  •  •  O  c-~ H  O  S fl  KN O  sri  0  NO OJ  •  OJ  r-l  /"  rA OJ  OJ  o  • r-l  GO  • LA  • O  r-i  • O  r-l  •  r-l•  OO  • o  OJ  •  »  ©  r-l OJ  •  O  CO C O  •  "\  r-l  rH  O  o  •  ST OO  •  •  KS. rA  r-l  O  O  rA  OS vO  NO l-l  CO  o  O  •  r-l  •  r-l  CQ<—N  OS rA  © o  a3  • O  IA LfS  •  o  o  C-  o  r-l  o  LA o  OS  LA  o  ON O  NO  •  •  •  •  •  •  o  OJ  LA  O  o  Hi  "*  *  rA  OJ  » O  o  •  •  •  OJ  UN  o  •  rA  •  CO  o  • r-l  r-l LA  O vO  •  LA  •  O  •  •sr rA  • O  •  • r-i  o »  • o  N O  ON  •  LA O•  vO o o  •  LA  •  o  N - *  8  ON  o  •H  HI  N O  r-i  OJ  s  »  ON  r-i r-i  CO  LA  V  o  fl  C--  N O  o cd  t-4 O  •  ON  ••  c-  • r-l  O  r-l rA  vO  sO  r-l  O  o  OJ  OO  rH  o  sO  •  O  r-l  o  OJ  O  r-l rA  OO  O  OJ  •  •  O  *  • O  OS rA  • r-l  OJ  oo C O  tA  •  o  r-l  ON  CO  O  •  o  •  OO  •  o  c—  •  H  o oj  o  OJ  o  •  •H «H  o  r-103  • H ^ CQ  • — -  ©  r-l  o  •  r-i  •  •  •  c-  •  vO  •  OJ  rA ON  rA  OJ  rA  OJ  OO  o  o  •  OJ  i>>  - P  OO  •  •  •  o  1-1 LA  OJ CO  r-l  o  •  •  r-i  ON  •  o  •  03 CQ  r-l •H O CQ  W  • •  cO  w  o  •  o  r-l •H O  03  CQ - P  o3  c8  m  O  m  o  r-l •rl O  03  CQ  ta  !=*  +>  •w  O  c8  O CQ  W  O  c8  r-i -ri O  03  W  O  CQ  W  O  SQ  «  ON  ON O  oS  r-i •ri  c3  P» o3  r-i •ri  o r/3  s? 03  w  •H  •73 PP-  O C3 & Hi  fit  LA  o  CQ  N O  SO  O  NO  o  CQ W  c-~ o  c— o  0O  CO  o  oo o  CO  o  r-i  w  O  -58-  03 CO •P CO'"^ X ) K N  PfO  r-l CO  N O  r-l  •  O  H  OJ  •  o  N0  "A  •  o  H  •  o  H :©  CM  CO  O  •  o  O  •  •i •  ©  IA  rA  CM <M  CM  H O  co  •  O N  •  O  O  fA  >J3  H  •  Hi  CM ©  *4  • O• O•  «A  •  ©  •  03  0  14 CO  ^  03 CD -P  C3---N Xi A  PkO  CD  03  is  P-i  CD Ccj 1  OJ  S^-N  3  iA  O  •H  •  ON o  Q  O  o  o  •  H r-l  O  •  •  •  es  •  o  o  •  o  OX  tr1 NO  ©  c~-  ON «A  r-i  o  • ©•  o  •  o  r-l  3N A  CM  IA  r-i  A  O  O  ©  O  O  ©  ©  •  O N  •  0) CD  A CM  o  oo  r-i  KN O  3  OJ  ©  U  N O  C—  r-i O  •  o  A  •  IA  • o  co  NO  •  o  x*  A O  •  •  O  oo IA  • •  CM A  ©  ©  O  CO  A ON  •  ©  N O  o  •  A  •  r-l  N O  •  Hi Hi  • ©•  •  ' ©  '  CM O  ©  •  r-i ©  r-i IA  00 H  DO  ©  • ©• A •  A  ©  IA NO  ©  CM  A  O N  •  O  C O  ©  • ©•  ©  • ©•  IA  IA O  •  ©  rd ©  O  03  H  ©•  CM  M-w  CO <H O  •  GO  •  o  a  Q •H  •  r-i  CM CM  ©  <«5  •5")  03  •»  • •  •  i-J  /-—%  CO  •  KN O  03  •d  ©  **  A  P • CHQ X - N  O  CD  o  ** o  •  CM O  •  A  <-*  Hi  o  O  A  CD  • r-i•  o  r-i  r-i  ON A  CvJ NO  •A  ©•  •  o  **  IA  •  • r-i ©  ON O N  •  IA •  • ©•  r-i  ©  ©  US  N O  IA Hi  C O  • o•  r-i  •  ©  .  03 S=>5  r-i  1  •SB <D  !>  • H  •P CO  rl CO  P  a o  o  r-i  a^-N S3 • H  O CO  o o r-l*—'  • O  r-i•  o•  IA OJ  CM A  OJ  HI  O  r-i  • ©  o  r-l  ©  • r-l  •  lf\  O N  OO  CO  eo/^s o  CM  O  • H  iH « H •H CO 03  o  •  ©  •  ©•  ON O  •  •  •  o  •  CVI  ON  CO  Q  OO  CO  ©•  •  •  r-i  r-l CM  «J9  ©  ©  IA  • H•  •  v& OO  G O  r-i O  •  IA IA  •  • r-l  ©  Hi•  r-l  CIA  x*  A  N O  CM ON  • O• o •  o  lA  •  ©  r-l  §* 3  •H  • CO  o  Hi &  m  r-i  CO  •H O CO  o ©  •p  o  r-i O  >»  •H  © >»CA  W  CO  O  CO  CO  M  09  r-i  r-i  r-i r-i  CVI r-4  H  03  r-i  ©  m CVJ  r-i  r-i  IA feON  r-i Wr-i  CM  M  CM  r-i  ©  r-i  «rl  ©  cO ©  H •H CO  /—> >s C?  03  34  CO  W J f  r-i •H  © CO 09  *\  r A IA H r-l H © | 09  • o•  ©  ON  •  -P  +»  o o  ©  ON ON  O N CO  °,  £ a  o  r-i •H  w  O  W  to  H  CO  W «* H O  &  8  r>» OS  os  m  03  CM  09  k m m  A  us  W  "* «* rH r-i Al  r-l •H  M  O  O  Hi  r-i ©  I u m  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105290/manifest

Comment

Related Items