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Some further studies on the etiology of haematuria vesicalis (red water) in cattle Hill, William Henry 1932

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SOME FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF HAEMATURIA VESICALIS (BED WATER) II CATTLE by William Henry H i l l A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of ANIMAL HUSBANDRY -o-THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1?32. ( i ) I CONTENTS. Introduction I D e f i n i t i o n 1 H i s t o r i c a l 1 Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n  Europe. 1 America........ 2 Australasia 2 A f r i c a « 2 Asia 2 Conditions of Occurrence  General 2 Local Conditions 3 A l t i t u d e . . . 3 Climatic Conditions 3 Table I - Temperature 4 Table I I - P r e c i p i t a t i o n 5 Table I I I - Total P r e c i p i t a t i o n 6 Table IV - Sunshine 7 Graph I - Temperature, P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Sunshine... -8 Geographical Location.... » 9 Geological Conditions. , 9 S o i l Types 9 Browse (Native and Cultivated) 10 B l o t i c Conditions 10 Wat er Supply 10 Discussion of Local and General Conditions. Species of Plants 11 Stage of Growth of Plants 11 Climatic Conditions... 11 Nature of S o i l 11 He corded Theories of Causation  Bacteria and ihangi. 12 Protozoan Paras i t es. 12 Metazoan Parasites. 12 Pentastomes. 12 N u t r i t i o n a l and Metabolic Origin 13 Mineral and Plant Poisoning 13 Cii) Contents (Oontd). Experimental Reproduction. By Infection 13 By Ingestion Bracken and Bracken Spore Feeding ...» 13 Oxalic Acid and Oxalates 14 Sorrel Feeding 15 Plant Extracts 15 Local Surveys  Plants 15 S o i l , Water, etc 15 Economic 15 Treatments, 16 Oharacteristic Symptoms and Factors  Lesions i n the Bladder 17 Blood i n Urine. 18 Reaction of Urine 20 Blood Conditions • • 20 Age of Animals Affected. 20 Table V - Age When Affected 21 Experimental Data.  Survey of Affected Area 21 Source of Materials..... 22 Methods of Analysis.. * 22 Analysis of Materials. 22 So i l s 22 Table YI - Reference Description of S o i l s . . . 22 Table YII - S i l i c a and Organic Content of S o i l s 22 Table Y I I I - Ratio of Magnesium and Phos-phorus to Calcium i n S o i l s . . . . . 25 Table IX - Ratios between Calcium and Iron and Aluminium i n S o i l s . . 28 Feeding Stuffs 30 Table X - Reference Descriptions of Mixed Hays 30 Table XI - Mixed Hays - Ash, S i l i c a , Iron and Aluminium 31 Table XII - Oat Hay - Ash, S i l i c a , Iron and Aluminium 33 Table X I I I - Mixed Hays - Calcium, Magnes-ium, Phosphates, Sulphates and Manganese 33 Table XIV - Oat Hays - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphates, Sulphates and Manganese 35 ( i i i ) ! Contents (Cont'd). Waters. fable XT - Heferenoe Description of Waters..... 36 Table XVI - Mineral Content of Waters 36 Urines. T^ble XVII -Urines - S.G., S i l i c a and pH 37 Bladder  'Table XVIII - Mineral Content of Bladder 38 Coral Rock Flour 3? Table XIX - Coral Rock f l o u r - Anafcrsis 39 Table XX - Coral Rock ^lour and Coral Compara-t i v e Composition 39 General Discussion of Results 40 P r a c t i c a l Considerations and Recommendations 40 Summary 41 Conclusions 41 Acknowledgements. 42 Bibliography 43 Appendix. 56 -0-0-0-SOME FURTHER STUDIES 01 THE ETIOLOGY OF HAEMATURIA YESIOALIS (BED WATER) I I CATTLE. INTRODUCTION Haematuria V e s i o a l i s (70) (71), (Bed Water (93)) i s also variously known as S t a l l r o t der Rinder (70), Hematurie chronique des bovides (70), Chronic Haematuria (31)(32)(6b) (83), Enzootic Haematuria (38) (66), Chronic Haemorrhagie C y s t i t i s (17) (66), V e s i c a l Haematuria (66), Bovine Haematuria (37); these are a l l descriptive names for a sp e c i f i c disease which occurs i n adult c a t t l e and i s d i s -t i n c t i v e l y characterized by the presence of red blood corpuscles i n the urine. This blood apparently originates from lesions formed i n the mucous membrane of the bladder. I t would appear, i n uncomplicated cases, that the primary pathological conditions are almost e n t i r e l y confined to t h i s organ ( l 6 ) (33) (51) (76). and that the frequent pass-ing of bloody urine, whieh may occur at intermittent or f o r prolonged periods, i s a secondary condition. This loss of blood leads to anaemia and a progressive course of emaciation whieh f i n a l l y r e s u l t s i n the death of the affected animal. The disease occurs i n many countries, but i s confined to f a i r l y w e l l defined l o c a l areas, under s i m i l a r a g r i -c u l t u r a l conditions. Many theories have been advanced as to i t s cause and several curative treatments suggested, but none, so f a r , e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The consensus of opinion of recent investigators McKee and McKee (93), Grauer (51), Bruce (14), Craig (33), Dickinson and B u l l (38), favours the proposition that the causation of the disease i s probably due to f a u l t y n u t r i a t i o n a l conditions; therefore, i t i s to t h i s phase of the problem that the present inves t i g a t i o n has been directed, p r i n c i p a l l y by the applica t i o n o f chemistry to a serious problem i n animal husbandry* -1-SOME FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF HAEMATURIA VESICAL IS (EED WATER) I I CATTLE, DEFINITION. The disease may generally be described as one affect-ing mature ca t t l e , e s p e c i a l l y dairy cows, and i s character-ized by the passage of unaltered red blood c e l l s i n the urine. The c o l l o q u i a l name of "Red Water" has been given to t h i s disease, as well as several others, on account of the presence of blood i n the urine. The symptoms, course, and anatomical changes have already been c l e a r l y and completely defined by others (Hoare (66)) ,(Hutyra and Marek (70)),(Hadwen (54) (57), (Kalkus (76)), et a l . HISTORICAL. In Europe the disease has been recognized f o r nearly a century, and referred to by Anderson (1842) (6). Hubner, (1842) (69), Vaes (1843) (122), Yigney (1845) ( l 4 ) ; i t has been known f o r f i f t y years or more i n A u s t r a l i a , and d e f i n i t e attention was drawn to i t by T.H. Williams (125) i n 1894. I t has been investigated and recorded within the l a s t quarter of a century i n New South Wales by J.B. Cleland (24) (25), i n 1911; i n Ireland by Craig and Kehoe (1917) (32); also i n England, Wales and Scotland (33); i n New Zealand by J. Kerrigan (1925) (83); i n Canada i n 1907 by Bowhill (112); by Kalkus (1913) (76), i n Washington, U.S.A.; by Case (20) i n Hawaii (1911); by Kearney (82) i n A f r i c a (1912). The disease has caused a considerable number o f f a t a l i t i e s i n c a t t l e , and i s s t i l l a source of loss i n many regions; so that although the disease i s h i s t o r i c a l l y old i t presents a perennial economic problem to the farmer i n the affected areas, because history, to date, has neither recorded the cause nor an e f f e c t i v e permanent remedy. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. Europe. The disease has been reported to occur i n Baden (Hink (65))Anacker), the Black Forest i n Germany (71), i n the Elbe region of France (56) (71); i n Belgium (Lienaux (87)); In I t a l y (Moussu ( 9 9 ) ) ; i n Austria (71); - 2 -Geographical D i s t r i b u t i o n (Cont'd)  Europe. i n Bulgaria ( 7 1 ) ; i n the Suck Valley d i s t r i c t i n County Roscommon i n Ireland (Craig and Kehoe (31)- i n Carnarvon-shire and Merionethshire i n Wales (Roberts) ( 1 0 9 ) ; i n Cornwall i n England and the North of Scotland ( C r a i g ) ( 3 3 ) . The disease occurs i n c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s of the Russian Carpathians. (Klobouk) (84). America. References to the disease confine i t t o the State of Washington (Kalkus)(7fc>) and Oregon (Simms) ( l l 6 ) i n the United States of America; to the Hawaiian Islands ( i n the south island) (Case ) ( 2 0 ) ; to the Fraser Valley d i s t r i c t and portions of the Islands i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n Canada (Hadwen, Bruce (14)), and possibly Frazerburg and Latchford Bridge, Ontario, Canada, (Bruce) (14), (Grauer)(51); Antioquia (Columbia) (Scharrer) ( 1 1 3 ) . Australasia. The disease i s known i n the Mount Gambier and Mount Schank d i s t r i c t s of South Austra-l i a . (Dickinson and B u l l ) ( 3 8 ) : i n the Illawarra d i s t r i c t of New South Wales (Cleland)(24j; i n Murchison and Inangahua d i s t r i c t s , i n the South Island, West Coast d i s t r i c t of New Zealand, (Kerrigan) ( 8 3 ) • A f r i c a . A reference has been made to i t s occurrence i n A f r i c a i n mature catt l e i n the lake Kivu d i s t r i c t i n Belgian Congo (Van Saceghem)(123), and i n the limuru d i s t r i c t , Kenya, B r i t i s h East A f r i c a (Kearney) ( 8 2 ) . Asia. In Formosa i t i s reported as affec t i n g native c a t t l e (Miyamoto) ( 9 8 ) . Cases of the disease were detected i n h i l l b u l l s used f o r experimental work at Muktesar (India) (Malkani ) ( 7 2 ) . Therefore, the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s disease i s wide enough to embrace p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the countries of the world which u t i l i z e the bovine species for a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. CONDITIONS OF OCCURRENCE General. The disease i s described as occurring i n Germany with s t a l l - c o n f i n e d c a t t l e , during or a f t e r a dry summer, and when grazed on high-lying wooded pastures ( 7 1 ) • In Bulgaria i t i s a disease of the high-lying land, from 2 , 3 0 0 to 7 , 0 0 0 feet above sea l e v e l . In France haematuria _ 3 -Conditions of Occurrence (Cont'd)  general. occurs i n low-lying d i s t r i c t s ( 7 1 ) , and i n h i l l y country with patchy land ( 5 6 ) . In Ireland " i t would appear to he associated with farms where much land i s badly cultivated or has gone out of c u l t i v a t i o n " (Craig and Kehoe) ( 3 1 ) ( 3 2 ) . In A u s t r a l i a " i t has been found that 'red water' occurs chie f l y , on those farms situated about the old volcanoes, Mount Gambier and Mount Schank" but may be "found on some farms outside the Influence of the old volcanoes" (Dickin-son and B u l l ) ( 3 8 ) ; i n lew Zealand on land once covered with beeoh species of trees, which "when t i l l e d the land runs very rapidly into bracken fern." "In general the land-has not been improved by the addition of a r t i f i c i a l manures." (Kerrigan) ( 8 3 ); i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t appears on land "newly cleared" "or i n p a r t i a l l y cleared lands" i n which the " f i e l d s were very sour" (Hadwen)(56). " I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a disease of bench land upon which the bracken fern i s a prominent plant" (Srauer) ( 5 1 ) • It seems generally established that the habitat of t h i s disease i s on high benoh lands, growing bush or trees, which has recently been brought under c u l t i v a t i o n for pasture and other purposes, with possible adjacent bush lands. The s o i l , unless thoroughly f e r t i l i z e d and c u l t i -vated after being broken, i s usually sour or aoid i n nature. Local Conditions. The l o c a l conditions of the affected farms, i n the Eraser Valley area, conform to those found i n other parts of the world where the disease i s , or was, prevalent. A l t i t u d e . The altitude at which red water farms occur appears to be from 40 feet to 350 feet above sea l e v e l . Climatic Conditions. The c l i m a t i c conditions i n the affected area are reflected i n the following records of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and sunshine, based upon report for 19J0 on Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia ( 3 7 ) . 13 E H CD Sf PH CD O c3 <H O EH o bo •fl 60 •rH w ION (S3 © rH o IIA O CD O •<fr !> o fe o o -P P i <I> CO o 60 5 LA rH r| CD o3 rl CO s fl o •H -P 03 •P 09 kO PA jtA O O J S3 •rl 03 CO c6 ON PA OJ <3-o ON IA N O NO O NO IA O N f A OO f A «5f FA CD • 60 03 &U U Pi CD r> O N <4 f A C O fA ON ON ON f A O oo «A NO O N O N IA C O NO fA rH O IA CO LA PA NO NO o N O t A CM LA tA O 04 I •H H , rH M •rl O -fl 03 o ps N O o NO OJ LA O IA f A fA C O LA t A N O CM NO O N LA O N rH O O f A JA fA © • 60 63 03 U © I *A f A f A LA rH LA 3 O f A ft © fl ON 'it o ON (A LA H NO NO oo LA PA LA C O O J O N PA NO f A © 60 03 03 U rl r>» © r* O N « 4 CM rH rH O O oo o LA CM ON o N O NO N O O N CM © LA CO LA fA N O co o LA CM C O o NO LA NO o NO LA LA OJ LA 5 C O OJ I a B £ 0 3 © CD <D-P fe^CQ NO NO N O o NO «5f LA C O f A O N fA fA © • bora CS rl rli>S © t>CM NO o NO LA CM «A rH C O CM I g o fl m © O N C O fA f A O LA P » LA f A N O NO O N LA LA O N f A f A o LA LA f A NO N O O N LA LA C O •si-f A ON fA NO fA © * 60 63 C3 rl rl >* © > O N «a| CM C O PA ON PA •A f A CQ fl o © 60 cr} ©rH m , >r-i +> |<$<3$ CO) to ra-n i I • co e ->•» f A A ' » CM vO o vO • o A CM A • ON A o NO • o f A • A f A A CM • C O ON • A C O • I A -=t rH CO • I A A • ( A o ION © • CM ON O O • f A • •<* vO • C O C— C O • CM f A rH « A ON • O N N O • C M C M • A C M • irH t> o fas k irv I A • O O ON • ** O O A • O O O f A • rH NO f A A CO ON • f A N O f A • O O O O • FA o O O • • © 40 bo o 1 • © «A "S> vO • o OO • vO vO • vO c-~ IA • NO rH ON • f A t> A • • A O A • N O • A • 1 +J f A Pi INN. CD • C O J * * H I A « f A CM • •*+ ON • f A o CM • CM ON f A • CM Hl f A • f A CM • f A A vO « CM VO NO • f A • H SPP-<aj O • CM rH O • O CM CO • rH vO • o I A rH • rH O rH • O ON " A • rH o • o CM • rH >5 CM SS • ra JO NO OO • rH ON o • o NO f A • rH ( 1 CM O • rH ON rH • O C O rH • rH CO o • o rH FA • I rH CO JON [CM © o • ** CM ON • CM r-i vO • CM o • rH O • rH N O rH • CM rH N O • C M C O rH • C M O N • C M CD [ • o • e~ VO * C-<A • A O • CVJ ON CO • rH ON • C M rH - C O • CM vO CO • C M f A rH • ; FA ?H |CM P) * <4 [CM ON • vO OO • f A P A C A • f A VO O • I A CM rH • CM vO O • A ON f A • f A CM • A I A • f A a Lo r l ICM .23 • 3 (CM CVJ • • A OO vO • H ON • rH O S • O O O O • CM CM f A • f A f A • f A f A • f A rH A • • jOs i£> 1 • © l i f \ ft J • O vO • o O . o • * t SO • • f A 00 CM • rH rH rH • A OJ •<* • ON f A • A • lrH Il |» «T> INN ON rH • OJ OO • f A O r-l • -CO o o • f A f A • A A • CM A • IT-A • C M "* rH • S23 IN o H M 02 l E j |03 IH (bp I 00 £eej « © • bora S U H p* D A < 1 •H r l <~*M r t O © • D h "\ aj f A U © © • horn 0} S © 4 00 JH 0 © &+a 03 15 52j a J-CD • FTP CO ® to © t> e-~ to © o o > 03 © a W O 00 «H jQ - P © r H 05 > ^ - 6 -M m EH CO @ f—k H O M FH <t? E H M PH M O PH rH EH O EH O IA) ON[ r-i O o cu, a o tA O N r-H N O • ET-N A o N O • o tA 1 [ o N O • o IA O N OJ O N rH O N • o HA K \ O • IA 1 I rH * IA C M CO OJ O N H N O O • rH tA O • H tA t 1 IA c -• oo OJ t> OJ O N H C " -rH • tA IA oo • O N tA O N • (A N O O N • O N PA N O OJ O N iH CT~ tA • H A N O « fA IA N O O O • H N O C M O • tA C M tA C M O N H O N • rH N O N O O N • O N O N • O N O O N • N O C M C M O N r-l (A • rA N O O N N O • rH N O rH C-• N O rH O N * OJ IA K \ C M O N rH PA OJ • cr-rH N O • O N tA N O • tA N O LA C M • © IA CM C M O N rH N O • A A N O CO • tA C M A • C O A 1 I rH C M O N rH PA tA • CO O IA * N O C— rH tA * O O t 1 O C M O N rH c— IA • N O O O rA • o e» • O O N O o • H LA Station N •H ta m <& $ M o & •H H rH «ri •A o r< > r. f3 & o •P o u c o 3 S4 CO s (S l-H - 7 -H a EH CO O W W & EH M CU PH tA CO H e- • S3 tA H 5=c PA © "tf O OO OJ rH H OJ Hi NO r-i • tA Hi ON CM © rA PA p • A > tr\ C- • o tr- t A IA A IAfe A • tA •p r-i NO ON • o O ON CM o r-i o rH r-i HI O r-i Pf c— c- CM HI ON © OJ PA ON 00 •A CO r-i r-l H r-i r-i • tr\ 50 tA OJ tA PA • S3 ON O NO <A OJ r-i PA CM CM CM Pi OS C-7 r-i •A NO r-i PA r-i CJ ON tA !3 OJ OJ IA CM OJ IT) © fl H ON ON ON PA IA H CM ON rH r-i CM CM r-i o\ ^ IA tA NO tA PA • r-l CM CM CO ON r-i M CO NO PA O CO o CM tr-r-l H HI r-i r-i • i A h CO ON CM • ON O NO IA ON HI Hi Hi rH r-i « NQ US CM NO Hi • © NO GO OO CO fe c -• l A fl IA r-i CO • s? O O ha HI Hi CM fl m G N © « 1 © > © fl •rl •H bora 6 0 O ra 63 h O 03 u GJ "H to rH P> O rt Pi u +> +3 «8 © fl U © © 03 CO ftp > PA a © > CO p- -p «*J CM P> > <l ri 1 <«J CO - 8 -- 9 -L o c a l Conditions (Cont'd), I t may be deduced from the above data that the climate of the a f f e c t e d area has a m i l d w i n t e r and a cool summer w i t h a moderate annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Showing a y e a r l y average p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 3>j>.8l inches, w i t h 1627.5 hours of b r i g h t sunshine per year, and a mgan monthly temperature of 49°F,, w i t h i n a range of 94 F. and 8 P. The temperatures above the average occur w i t h i n the n e r i o d between A p r i l and October; the highest hours of sunshine, above the average, are experienced between the middle of March and the middle of September; the l a r g e s t measure, above t h e average, of p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s between the middle o f September and the "beginning o f March. Geographical L o c a t i o n . The disease occurs p r i n c i -p a l l y i n the area known as the Eraser V a l l e y d i s t r i c t , c o n s i s t i n g of the uplands bordering on the n o r t h and south s i d e s of the Fraser Hiver, encompassed on the west by Vancouver and by H a t z i c on the east i n respect t o the north s i d e of the r i v e r and on the south s i d e as f a r east as Rosedale and south t o the United States boundary, but not i n c l u d i n g the d e l t a lands. I t i s recorded, as o c c u r r i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s : Surrey, Langley, Mats qui, C h i l l i w a c k , Maple Ridge and the L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t , which a r e a l l i n the above mentioned area and w i t h i n a distance o f approximately seventy miles i n l a n d from the P a c i f i c coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The disease has a l s o been reported as occurring on Bowen, Galiano, S a l t Springs and Vancouver Islands, which are a l l adjacent to the mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. G e o l o g i c a l C o n d i t i o n s . The a f f e c t e d sections of the F r a s e r V a l l e y are described g e o l o g i c a l l y as composed p r i n c i p a l l y of g l a c i a l d r i f t , o v e r l a i n i n places by small thicknesses of marine deposits, ?;hi ch were l a i d down during g l a c i a l r e t r e a t s o f t h e P l e i s t o c e n e time. "The g l a c i a l d r i f t s o i l s occur on the uplands which were formerly, and are s t i l l , i n l a r g e part, h e a v i l y timbered. They are mostly sandy or sandy loam s o i l s . The upland areas are being g r a d u a l l y brought under c u l t i -v a t i o n i n p l a c e s where the valuable p a r t o f the f o r e s t has been removed i n lumber operations." (Johnson (74)). The topography of the land i s u s u a l l y o f a r o l l i n g nature w i t h o c c a s i o n a l f a i r l y l e v e l areas. S o i l Types. The type of s o i l may be classed, g e n e r a l l y , as coarse, sandy loam vary-ing from a l i g h t brown t o a dark chocolate c o l o u r . I t i s u s u a l l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . The t e x t u r e i s o f t e n open and - 1 0 -Local Qonditions (Cont'd). read i l y leached and drained n a t u r a l l y . Browse (Native and Cul t i v a t e d ) . The nat ive tree and herbage growth con-s i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y of alder (alnus glutinosa, medi c.), second growth f i r (Abies balsamea, L. M i l l . ) , b i r c h (Betula occi-dentalism Hook), vine maple (Acer circinatum, Pursh.),cedar (Thuja Occidental i s , 1 .) ,bracken (Pteris a o u i l i n a ) , willow (Salix species), hazel (Corylus americana, Walt.), broadleaf maple (Acer glabrum, T. & G,), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis, (L.) Car.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides, Marsh.) The prev a i l i n g pasture herbage consists of timothy (Phleum pratense), June grass o r Canada bluegrass (Poa com-pressa), white clover (Trifolium repense), red clover ( S r i f o l i u m hybrldum), Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), perennial rye grass ( Lolium perenne). red top (Agrostis alba), meadow fescue (Festuca e l a t i o r ) , Yorkshire fog or Velvet Grass (Holcus lanatus). Biot-io Conditions. The plant communities dominant i n the affected areas are f i r e or burn indicators as would be expected to occur from logged and burnt off lands, whereas the plant indicators among the pasture plants are those usually associated with over-graz-ing (Clements ( 2 6 ) ) . It i s also to be noted that the majority of herbage plants are acid-loving indiv i d u a l s . Water Supply. The water supply on the majority of red water farms, i n the Eraser Valley, i s obtained from seepage wells verying from 12 feet t o about JO feet i n depth,", with somesmall creeks, surface water supplies and a few deep artesian wells (Grauer ( 5 1 ) , Mackenzie (94)). Discussion of Local and General Conditions. Generally the factors affecting the mineral content of hays and pastures have been c l a s s i f i e d by Orr (I0l)(l02), Richardson et a l (108), under the following headings. The factors upon which differences depend are: ( l ) Species of Plants. 12 J Stage of Growth of Plants* ( 3 ; Climatic Conditions. (4) Nature of S o i l . -11-Disoussion of Local and General Pond It ions (Cont'd). ( 1 ) Speoies of Plants. It has been d e f i n i t e l y established that there i s an inherent difference in the mineral or inorganic compositions of different species of plants. The legume plants usually contain a large excess of calcium over phosphorus, whereas there i s generally an excess of phosphorus over calcium found i n the gramineous plants. ( 2 ) Stage of Growth o f Plants. It i s a w e l l known fact that certain progressive changes i n composition of plants are incident to advance-ment i n maturity. Although ripening may a l t e r the r e l a t i o n -ships of the d i g e s t i b l e nutrients i t has been found that the percentage of ash remains about the same, although they may be variable. Plants consumed as hay may be lower i n t h e i r ash content than those consumed as pasture (Hopoer and l e s b i t t ( 6 8 ) ) . ( 3 ) Climatic Conditions. With variable seasonal climatic conditions there i s a change i n the amount of s a l t s i n the soil solutions, which i s reflected by a v a r i a t i o n i n the composition of a given species of plant, from season to season. These variations depend p r i n c i p a l l y upon:-(c) The r a i n f a l l . The amount of sunshine during the growing season of the plant has a marked influence on the ash content of hays and pastures. During periods of drought the amount of min-eral substances i n plants decreases, e s p e c i a l l y the calcium and phosphorus s a l t s w i l l be low. The ash content of plants varies with the s o i l moisture. The amount of r a i n f a l l i s the most important of a l l factors that influence the chemi-cal composition of grass (Archibald ( 8 ) ) , Holtz ( 6 7 ) ) . (4) Nature of S o i l . Work tone by lawes and Gilbert (1856-1900) ( 8 6 ) showed that "the mineral composition of the mixed herbage i s very d i r e c t l y dependent on the supplies available within the s o i l . Indeed the composition of the supply available within the range of the roots." -12-Discussion of Local and General Conditions (Cont'd),. Orr ( l O l ) concludes that "the chemical composition of pasture and the value of that composition to the needs of the grazing animal, give a new method of estimating the n u t r i t i v e value of the pastures; correlations of certain d e f i n i t e n u t r i t i o n a l disorders with d e f i n i t e d eficiencies; correlations of the excellence of pasture with the proper balance of the nutrients whose amounts can be accurately determined by a chemical analysis." And i t i s "now recog-nized that animals are more l i k e l y to suffer from lack of inorganic s a l t s , or of organic substances of unknown com-po s i t i o n which are required i n comparatively small amounts, than from an i n s u f f i c i e n c y of protein and fat-forming' sub-stances and that the d e f i c i e n c i e s of mineral elements l i m i t the rate of growth and production, and also they affect the health of the c a t t l e . " A summation of the l o c a l conditions and factors, as they would affect d i r e c t l y the q u a l i t y and chemical compo-s i t i o n of the feeding s t u f f s and i n d i r e c t l y the n u t r i t i o n a l problems of t h i s area, presents strong evidence i n support of the considered opinion of several workers (McKee and McKee ( 9 3 ) , Craig ( 3 3 ) , Dickinson and B u l l ( 3 8 ) et a l ) that Red Water i s a deficiency disease. RECORDED THEORIES OF CAUSATION. Previous investigations have advanced many theories i n explanation of the causation or etiology of t h i s disease, but so f a r none of them have been f u l l y substantiated. I t has been suggested that the disease may be due to: (1) Bacteria, and Fungi infections by (14), (.51), ( 7 0 ) possibly the anaerobic disease-producing classes. ( 2 ) Protozoan Parasites, such as coccidiosis of the bladder (14), (31), ( 7 0 ) , a disease caused by the mult i p l i c a t ion of a very small protozoan parasite i n the tissues of the affected animals, which may be peculiar t o c a t t l e , also fluke worms and certain nematodes ( 7 1 ) • ( 3 ) Metazoan Parasites, F i l a r i a or Distomata ( 3 1 ) (70) , a thread-like parasite of the genus entozoa which often i n f e s t s animals. (4) Pentastomes, (Cleland) ( 2 3 ), or Linguatulida, a group of worm-like p a r a s i t i c arthropods which sometime l i v e i n the bodies of the herbivorous animals. -13-Recorded Theories of Causation (Cont'd). (5) N u t r i t i o n a l and Metabolic Origin. The poor quality of fodder, such as a diet of coarse pasture grasses occurring at high alt i t u d e s i n wooded regions; to. the lack of albumen i n the food ( 7 1 ) ; mineral def i c i e n c i e s i n the herbage available to the animals (51). (6) Mineral and Plant Poisoning produced either by " t h e chemical action or the mechanical i r r i t a t i o n of various t o x i c p r i n c i p l e s or s p e c i f i c chemical constituents of plants ingested or derived from the s o i l habitat upon which the plants are grown, such as oxalic acid and oxalates (14), (71); s a l i c y l a t e s (14); various i r r i t a t i n g poisons ( 7 0 ) ; acid plants (14); bracken plants and spores (14), ( 2 0 ) ; blackberry (Recumbent), wat er celery (Oenanthe) clover aftermath (14). EXPERIMENTAL REPRODUCTION. (a) By Infection. The experiments of Hadwen (55)(59) to reproduce the disease by i n f e c t i o n or contagion, i n which a number of calves were kept i n contact with diseased c a t t l e , and attempts to infect them, f i r s t by blood inoculation; secondly, by ingestion; t h i r d l y , by inoculating urine; fourthly, by introducing portions of a diseased animal's bladder into that of a healthy one, also siphoning a diseased animal's urine into a healthy animal's bladder, a l l gave no direct evidence that the disease i s of a contagious or infectious nature. Craig and Kehoe (j5l) confirm the con-clusion that the disease has not been transmitted experi-mentally by inoculation with blood or urine, and B u l l , Dickinson and Dann (loA) report negative results obtained by i n j e c t i n g into normal cows the ground up lesions from red water bladders. (b) By Ingestion. ( l ) Bracken and Bracken Spore Feeding. The prevalence of bracken (Pteris aquilina) i n Red Water areas has led many to suspect t h i s plant or i t s spore t o be a causation factor i n t h i s disease. The experiments of Bruce (12) ( l j ) , by feeding large amounts of bracken to c a t t l e did not cause poisoning i n the animals or reproduce the symptoms of Red Water. -14-(b) By I n g e s t i o n (Cont'd). ( l ) Bracken and Bracken Spore Feeding (Cont'd) Bracken spores, i n large q u a n t i t i e s , fed i n m i l k t o a c a l f , "by Hadwen (5&) f o r e i g h t y - e i g h t days did not i n d i c a t e any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms and the animal, when k i l l e d , at the end o f the experiment, showed organs i n normal c o n d i t i o n . (£) O x a l i c Acid and Oxalates. Hadwen ( 5 6 ) ( 5 7 ) i n 1914 propounded the theory that p l a n t s c o n t a i n i n g o x a l i c a c i d were the cause of Haematuria i n C a t t l e . He c a r r i e d out a s e r i e s of ex-periments by i n j e c t i n g l a r g e doses o f calcium oxalate c r y s t a l s i n t o the bladder o f c a t t l e and by feeding o x a l i c acid by mouth, and reported r e s u l t s to sub-s t a n t i a t e h i s theory. However, the experiments of Kalkus and lawyer ( 7 7 ) ( 7 8 , 7 9 , 8 0 , 8 l ) i n feeding o x a l i c a c i d t o h e i f e r s , f o r over a period of f i v e years (1924 to 1 9 2 9 ) i n an attempt to produce red water were negative. In 1 9 2 9 , these experimentors started f e e d i n g calcium oxalate d a i l y to h e i f e r s . However, to date these animals have shown no i n d i c a t i o n of Sed Water. The r e s u l t s obtained by workers i n A u s t r a l i a (Dickinson and B u l l ( 2 9 ) ) as reported i n 1930 "appear to have d e f i n i t e l y excluded o x a l i c a c i d as being the i r r i t a n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the production of l e s i o n s i n the bladder," c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Red Water. Also C r a i g ( 3 3 ) i n 1 9 3 0 , reviewing the subject, s t a t e s that he i s unable to confirm the observation of Hadwen. On the other hand, another approach t o t h i s theory i s suggested by Datta (35) who b e l i e v e s that Haema-t u r i a V e s i c a l i s i s a r e s u l t of f a u l t y metabolism, and that i t i s due t o the e l a b o r a t i o n of o x a l i c a c i d i n the system. An excess of o x a l i c a c i d i n the blood and urine presupposes the removal of calcium from the t i s s u e s and body f l u i d s . The reductions i n the calcium con-tent of the t i s s u e s may e x p l a i n the absence of any tendency o f t h e bladder l e s i o n s t o heal, thus r e s u l t -ing i n the f i n d i n g of l a r g e amounts o f c l o t t e d blood i n the b l a d d e r . So that a 0 and i t i o n o f profuse and u n c o n t r o l l e d bleeding i s said t o be produced and i s - 1 5 -By Ingestion (Cont'd). due to a calcium deficiency brought about by the oxalates. (3) Sorrel Feeding. The disease was not produced by feeding s o r r e l to cows by Craig and Kehoe ( 3 0 ) . (4) giant Sxtracts. Hadwen (1914) (56) experimented with extracts of three plants, namely, bleeding-heart(Dicentra), deer-grass (Achlys t r i p h y l l a ) and alder (alnus glutinosa, Medic.) by i n j e c t i o n into rabbits and guinea-pigs. The doses produced no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms of Bed Water. LOCAL SURVEYS. (1) Blants. During the Summer of 1929 Groh (53) made a botanical survey of the lower Eraser Valley. The preliminary report of th i s survey confirms other previous workers' observation that bracken "has shown more consistent association with the occurrence of the disease than any other plant." Two samples of hay were secured, one from a. non-Red Water area and the other sample from a Red Water farm. They were analyzed botanically and i t i s reported by Shutt (1930) (115; "the r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis are therefore pretty largely negative as regards known injurious species unless bracken can be shown to have any bearing on the matter." (2) Soils., Water, Etc. In conjunction with the above survey samples of s o i l , herbage, well water, blood and urine from diseased ca t t l e were collected and analyzed (115). The data obtained being rather meagre, no positive conclusions could be drawn from.this investigation. ( 3 ) Economic. An economic survey has been made during the past two years by MacKenzie (94) which was made in conjunction with the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a treatment of ground coral rock and sodium bicarbonate. The effects of t h i s treatment as previously reported by Grauer (51) have been satisfactory i n a number of cases. TREATMENTS. Many drugs together with various tonics and so-called cures have been propounded and administered as treatments for the disease, without permanent recoveries being so f a r recorded. Hadwen (54) i n 1911 reported that "the most useful drug so f a r has been calcium lactate; t h i s drug undoubted-l y raises the c l o t t i n g property of the blood, and thus helps c l o t t i n g i n the c a p i l l a r i e s of the bladder." In a l a t e r report Hadwen (56) (1914) states that i n France that "affected animals recovered a f t e r a few doses of soda bicarbonate. Bruce (14) has used a course of treatment consisting of f i r s t administering a dose of s a l t s (magnesium sulphate), the animal being t i e d up, s t a l l fed, and given potassium acetate one-half ounce, twice a day, i n i t s drinking water, t h i s being supplemented with a mixture of calcium lac t a t e , three drams, sodium bicarbonate, three drams, f e r r i c s u l -phate, 1 dram, fed twice a day on the tongue or i n the feed. However, t h i s treatment appears to give only temporary r e l i e f . In respect to the treatment consisting of feeding the mixture of coral rock f l o u r and sodium bicarbonate re-ferred to above, i t seems advisable to record at t h i s time some of the history leading up to i t s f i r s t recorded use as a Red Water treatment. It i s understood that Dr. E.A. Bruce, Animal Pathologist, stationed at Agassiz, B.C., ad-vocated i n an address on Red Water given before a North Western Veterinary Association, meeting i n Vic t o r i a , B.C., i n 1926, the use of an a l k a l i n e treatment for t h i s disease. Among those who followed out t h i s suggestion was a Dr. A. Hendricksen. He t r i e d i t as a substitute f o r air-slacked lime, mixed with sodium bicarbonate, i n treat-ing Red Water cases. Dr. J.G. Jervis of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia attended t h i s meeting. He adopted the idea and subsequent-l y the Animal Husbandry Department of t h i s University obtained a quantity of the eoral rock f l o u r , and mixed one part with two parts of sodium bicarbonate. It was d i s -tributed to a lazge number of farmers, i n the affected Fraser Valley area, with encouraging re s u l t s . A report of t h i s project has been prepared by Mr* J . Cameron Mackenzie, a co-worker at t h i s University (94). The physiological effect of the a l k a l i n e treatments fed may be due to the changed buffer reaction of the - 1 7 -Treatments (Cont'd). animal's body f l u i d s , assisted by the probable blood-coagu-l a t i n g a c t i o n of the calcium. Douris and Pl e s s i s (39)report that the feeding of ce r t a i n inorganic and organic calcium s a l t s to the animals has a marked effect on the coagulation of t h e i r blood. Palmer et a l (104) have found a marked re-lati o n s h i p between plasma bicarbonate and urinary a c i d i t y following the administration of sodium bicarbonate. Sherman (114) quotes Meltzer as stating that "Calcium i s capable of correcting the disturbances of the inorganic equilibrium i n the animal's body, whatever the d i r e c t i o n of the deviations from the normal may be. Any abnormal effect which sodium potassium, or magnesium, may produce, whether the abnormality be i n the d i r e c t i o n of increased i r r i t a t i o n or of decreased i r r i t a b i l i t y , calcium i s capable of re-establishing the normal equilibrium." The coagulation of blood i s controlled i n a large measure by prothrombin, a ferment which brings about f e r -mentation of f i b o i n from fiboinogen of the blood. Roderick (lio) concludes that the f a i l u r e of blood c l o t t i n g i n c a t t l e , fed a ratio n high i n sweet clover hay, i s due to a deficiency of prothrombin. It is possible that the feeds fed t o the red water animals may produce a condition i n their system creating a deficiency of t h i s ferment. CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS AID FACTORS. (a)Lesions i n the Bladder. The formation of the lesions of the bladder as a l -ready described and observed by previous workers, may be the r e s u l t of ingested i r r i t a n t s d i r e c t l y absorbed or elaborated i n the animals' system. The l o c a l i t y of these lesions would indicate i n a measure t h e i r mode of formation, however only a few workers mention t h e i r location. Hadwen (1917) (51) says "as a general r u l e the lesions are most marked at i t s i n f e r i o r part." Craig (33) states that " i n the urinary bladder the lesions are scattered over the mucous membrane, p a r t i c u l a r l y along the f l o o r . " In chronic eases, according to Hadwen (57), Dickinson and B u l l (38) cancer has been found t o have developed i n the bladder, as a result of i r r i t a t i n g effect of the causal agent. In an investigation of the lesions resulting from i n -gestion of s i l i c a , Policard (105) concludes that particles of s i l i c a dioxide (SiOg) are attacked by the c e l l u l a r juices and the re s u l t i n g f i b r o s i s with i t s degenerated cytoplasm i s r i c h i n s i l i c a . M i l l s ( 9 6 ) also dealing with the action of si l i c e o u s materials on animal tissues, states - 1 8 -Chara.oterlst lo Symptoms and Factors (Cont'd). that "Siliceous spicules, when introduced into the tissues of animals, are slowly hut d e f i n i t e l y dissolved, proving conclusively that s i l i c a i s soluble i n the tissue f l u i d s of animals." The l o c a l action of u r i c acid upon the tissues has been studied by Ghini ( 2 1 ) who observed that the i n j e c t i o n of uric acid or urates i s followed by inflammation of the tissues, s i m i l a r to foreign body effect and a chemical i r r i t a t i o n , with the formation of morbid growth resembling granulation t i s s u e . Coumarin ( 1 , 2 - benzopyrone) when applied d i r e c t l y to mucous membrane i s extremely i r r i t a n t (B.P. C. 1 9 2 3 ) . Cou-marin isawidely d i s t r i b u t e d substance i n the vegetable kingdom, besides being found i n the Tonka bean (Dipteryx odorata, Willd.) i t i s present i n Melilotus species (Leguminosae), several grasses, and i n some members of the Compositae family of plants. It i s present i n plants as a glucoside, which i s decomposed by a ferment present i n the plant. It i s only s l i g h t l y soluble i n water, but dissolves more r e a d i l y i n alkaline solutions, and i s reprecipitated from them by acids. There i s a p r o b a b i l i t y that i n a mixture of legumes, grasses and weeds that there may be s u f f i c i e n t coumarin ingested by an animal over a long period of time, to have a cumulative effect, and to cause serious i r r i t a t i o n to the mucous membrane of the bladder. (b) Blood i n Urine. The presence of blood i n t he urine i s probably the most d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sumptom of Bed Water d i s -ease. Assuming that the cause may be a result of the i n -gestion of material which exerts a t o x i c or i r r i t a n t effect upon the bladder epithelium, with the resultant formation of the bleeding lesions; then there are many possible agencies which might be considered. According to Brundage ( 1 5 ) the in d i c a t i o n of blood i n the urine would suggest the ingestion of Cyclamin, solamin, and other saponin substances, H e l l v e l l a i c acid and p h a l l i n . Plants containing saponins are t o x i c , as they are powerful protoplasmic poisons so they are strongly i r r i t a n t . The common corncockle (agros-temnia githago L.) contains a saponin which i s absorbed by the subcutaneous tissue and intestines ( A l l a n ( 3 ) ) Ewart (4-3) suggests that saponin-containing plants are responsible for c e r t a i n stock diseases. lauder ( 8 5 ) also states that "santonin imparts a blood red colour to the urine." Authenrieth ( 1 0 ) describes the behavior of santonin i n the organism, and the appearance of a red pigment i n the urine after administration to a subject. -19-Characteristic Symptoms and Factors (Cont'd). I t i s w e l l known that several of the inorganic ele-ments that may he ingested with the animals' food w i l l act as i r r i t a n t s . These may exert an injurious effect by ab-sorption i n the body f l u i d s , through the p r i n c i p l e of osmosis. This process may so modify the c e l l s of some p a r t i c u l a r body organ as to disturb i t s normal function i n metabolism and ultimately cause inflammation. For instance, lead has a cumulative action i n the animal system, eventu-a l l y producing chronic poisoning and may exert an indepen-dent influence upon the blood, upon n u t r i t i o n and upon the muscular and nervous structure of the animal. The presence of blood i n the urine i s a t y p i c a l symptom of lead poisoning (Underbill (121)). Aluminium s a l t s are considered as being t o x i c to plants, animals and man, by exerting an i r r i t a n t influence upon the protoplasm. The condition of poisoning i n animals i s indicated by the presence i n the urine of albumin and blood ( l 2 l ) . Vanadium poisoning, sometimes called Vanadiumism, (Dutton (40)), belongs to the nitrogen and phosphorus group, having under c e r t a i n conditions feebly basic and strong acid properties. In cases of poisoning the urine may con-t a i n albumin, c&sts and blood (Underbill (121)). Some of the s a l t s of heavy metals, e.g., lead, s i l v e r , mercury, copper, zinc and manganese (110), when coming i n contact with the protein of c e l l walls form metal albumin-ates, which are insoluble, or soluble only i n excess of albumin. Metal SO4 + Ez Albumin Metal Albuminate +2H2 +SO4 The resul t i n g i r r i t a n t effect i s ascribed to the acid lib e r a t e d with the solution of the heavy metals, as a class, hydro l y t i c d i s s o c i a t i o n usually occurs, with a marked a c i d i t y of the s o l u t i o n . ZnCl 2 + 2H20 = Zn (0H) 2 + 2 HCl. The majority of met a l l i e poisons are eulminative, and are eliminated through p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the excretory channels of animals. In ruminants ingested eulminative poisons are immensely diluted i n the rumen, i t being d i s -tributed evenly on rumination and generally absorbed with a slow elimination. The metals are considered as t y p i c a l i r r i t a n t s and may have a l o c a l i r r i t a n t effect as w e l l as a general effect which may be produced after absorption. - 2 0 -Oharacteristic Symptoms and Factors (Cont'd). (c) Reaction of Urine. The reaction of the urine of normal herbivorous animals i s usually a l k a l i n e . There seems to be a different opinion respecting t h i s factor i n respect to the urine of Red Water c a t t l e . Hadwen (57) states "the reaction of the urine i s generally strongly al k a l i n e , but i n a few instances the reaction had become neutral owing to the excessive amounts" of blood contained i n i t ; " Craig (33) records that "the reaction was usually a l k a l i n e , occasionally acid;" Bruce (14) i s inclined to consider the urines of affected animals as being abnormal and usually to be acid i n reaction, when tested with phenolphthalein, as an indicator; B u l l ( l 6 ) states th at they have not found urines from "red water" farms are more acid than normal. In 1229, t h i r t y samples of fresh urine from affected cows were examined for the hydrogen-ion concentration. I t was found that no sample had an acid reaction (Shutt and Hob ins on (115)). An exam-ination, i n 1931,by the author, of s i x samples of urines from t y p i c a l red water cows showed an hydrogen-ion concen-t r a t i o n i n d i c a t i v e of an a l k a l i n e reaction. (d) Blood Conditions. Investigations have been made, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia by Allardyce et a l ( 2 ) , of the Blood Normals for Cattle for normal animals and some for patholo-g i c a l animals, and by Fleming et al ( 4 4 ) f o r animals affected with Red Water i n various stages. The findings were, however, negative; i n no case were s i g n i f i c a n t variations of the blood constituents apparent from those of normal c a t t l e . The analyses, reported by Shutt and Robinson (115), of samples of blood sera from diseased and unaffected animals indicate that t h e i r calcium and phosphor-us content are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other and that there i s no lack of either of these elements i n the blood of redwater animals. Hadwen(54)(57) states that " i n the early stages the blood appears normal. The f i r s t sign i s a v a r i a t i o n i n the size of the red c e l l s ; t h i s i s followed by the usual changes seen i n secondary anaemia. The c l o t t i n g property of t h e blood i s generally low." Blood examinations made, by Craig (33), when the haematuria was severe gave evidence of secondary anaemia i n a varying degree; the haemoglobin content was reduced, and the red blood corpuscle count was low. (e) Age of Animals Affected. The consensus of opinion of various observers of Red Water affected c a t t l e would indicate that the disease usually -21-Oharacteristio Symptoms and J?aotors (Cont'd). makes i t s appearanoe when the animals are of adult age, the usual range heing from f i v e to ten years old, hut occasionally appearing i n younger animals. The following table gives a resume of some of the recorded opinions as to the age of the affected animals. TABLE Y. Age When Affected Usual Range Years Occasional Years Observer 5 to 6 2 Bruce (14) 5 and over under 5 Kerrigan (83) 9 to 11 4 to 6 Craig & Kehoe(31,32; 8 to 12 3 or 6 Craig (33) 2 to 14 2 Hadwen (54,37) 3 to 6 1 McKee & McKee (93) The p r i n c i p a l reason f o r reviewing the foregoing data was to obtain an inventory of the knowledge already possessed concerning t h i s disease; and to c r i t i c a l l y examine and to evaluate t h i s accumulated information as possible evidence i n reference to the causation of the disease. A considerable number of references have been examined i n order to develop a bibliography r e l a t i n g t o the disease, so that a thorough survey of the f i e l d could be made to d i s -cover the extent to which the problem had already been i n -vestigated. It was realized early i n t h i s investigation that very l i t t l e work had been prosecuted i n respect to the s o i l s i n Red Water areas or to the feeding s t u f f s fed to Red Water animals, so that by the data that follows some of the questions r e l a t i v e to t h i s l i n e of attack w i l l be recorded and discussed. EXPERIMENTAL DATA. (a) Survey of Affected Area. During the F a l l months of 1931 a survey was made of a number of t y p i c a l Red Water farms i n conjunction with the economic survey made by MacKenzie (94). During these -22-Experimental Data (Qont Tci) . v i s i t s , samples of s o i l s , grass and oat hays, and water were eolleoted. 'Through the oourtesy and assistance of Dr. J.B. J e r v i s some samples of fresh red-water urines were ob-tained, and also one specimen of an infected bladder. .(b) Source of Ma t e r i a l s . The samples of s o i l s , hays,and waters referred to above were a l l composite samples and representative of the material available on the respective farms upon which they were obtained. Some s o i l s were also obtained through the co-operation of Dr. E.A. Bruce of Agassiz, ,B.G. (o) Methods of Analysis. The s o i l and feed samples were prepared as usual f o r analysis of t h i s class of material, ihe methods of analy-s i s used for the s o i l s and feeds were e s s e n t i a l l y those adopted by the Association of O f f i c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Oheraists ( 9 ) . The methods of analyses employed f o r the waters were those approved by the American Public Health Association (4); the urines were examined p r i n c i p a l l y by methods as outlined by Hawk and Bergeim (62). (d) Analyses of Materials. ( l ) S o i l s , consisting of twenty-four samples, nine-teen of these were obtained from Red Water farms and f i v e from disease-free farms i n the Eraser Valley. TABLE 71. Reference Description of Soils Red Water Farms. Laboratory So. Description L o c a l i t y 1 B Brown Sandy Aldergrove 2 B Light Gray Olayey Rosebank Is. Chilliwack. 3 B Brown Sandy Mount Lehman 4 B Sandy Loam Abbott sf or d 6 B Sandy Loam Abbot t s f o r d 2 S Light Sandy Goglan - 2 3 -Bxperimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE 71. (Cont'd) Laboratory No. Description L o c a l i t y 3 S Sandy Loam Port Haney 4 S Sandy Loam Whonnoek $ S Chocolate Loam Abbott sford 6 S Light Brown Sandy Sardis 7 S Light Sandy Loam Sardis 8 S Chocolate Loam JTorfcLangley 9 S Clay Loam Mount Lehman 10 S Bed Clay Loam Abbott sford 11 S 12 S Clay Loam S i l t y Glen Valley Milner Non-Bed Water Farms. 13 S Clayey Loam Haney 14 S 1 Gray S i l t y Ess on dale 14 S 2 Peaty Essondale 15 S Peaty Steveston 16 S Brown Sandy Goquitlam A l l samples were thoroughly a i r dried and the materi-a l then passed through a 20-mesh per inch selve used f o r analysis. The determinations being made on the acid s o l -uble portion, using hydrochloric acid (S.G. 1.115) as the solvent. A l l figures given are on the moisture free basis and stated as percentage by weight. -24-Brperimental Data (Cont'd) TABLE ¥11. S i l i c a and Organic Content of S o i l s ,  Bed Water Farms. Laboratory Number Total Insoluble Matter S i l i c a ( S i 0 2 ) I g n i t i o n Loss Nitrogen ( N ) 1 B 79.11 — 11.79 0,20 2 B 75.18 — 12.60 0.30 3 1 77.89 — 11.29 0.18 4 B 72.63 — 16.85 0.21 6 B 72.91 — 16.44 0.35 2 S 78.16 0.34 12.15 0.21 3 S 74*69 0.38 11.36 0.16 4 S 72.01 0.28 17.68 0.24 5 S 75.73 § . 4 2 13.97 0.21 6 § 79.43 0.31 8.12 0.16 7 S 80.32 0.30 6.47 0.11 3 3 74.67 0.38 15.08 0.24 9 S 73.16 0.82 16.09 0.35 10 S 74.64 0.82 14.60 0.28 11 s 78.07 0.52 12.18 0.30 12 S 72.86 0.82 12.19 0.20 Average * 75.83 0.49 13.05 0.23 lange 72.01-80.32 0 .28-0.82 6.47-17. 68 .0.11-0.35 ^Not inelud ing B Series -25-Experimental Data (Gont fd) TABLE VII.(Cont'd) S i l i c a and Organic Content of S o i l s * Non-Red Water Farms. Laboratory Number Total Insoluble Matter S i l i c a ( S i 0 2 ) Ignition Loss Nitrogen (N) 13 s 62.05 0.21 25.57 0.70 S 14 S 71.66 Q.65 14.69 0.32 P 14 S 52.46 0.37 42.54 1.20 15 S 70.57 0.55 1?.?5 O.67 16 S 75.15 0.29 17.15 0.36 Average 66.38 0.41 33.95 0.65 Range 52.46-75.15 0.21-0.65 14.69-42. 54 0.32-[ 1.20 ifrom the above data for Red Water farm s o i l s i t w i l l be noted that the t o t a l insoluble matter, representing c h i e f l y the insoluble s i l i c a t e s andcertain forms of or-ganic matter, i s comparatively high; the soluble s i l i c a , i n the form of soluble s i l i c a t e s i s s l i g h t l y higher i n some instances than might be normally expected; the i g n i t i o n l o s s , composed p r i n c i p a l l y of organic matter, carbonates, free and i n t e r s t i t i a l water, and other v o l a t i l e constitu-ents, i s low. These conditions are to be expected i n view of the character of the s o i l s , which a l l tend to be of a sandy nature containing only small amounts of humus. TABLE T i l l . Ratio of Magnesium and Phosphorus to Calcium i n S o i l s i»a&orat ory Number 1 oaioium Oxide (0a0) Magnesium Oxide ( % 0 ) ma » Phosphates (P205) MgO CaO P2O5 OaO 1 B 1.01 1.39 0.34 1.38 0.33 2 B 1.31 1.16 0.45 0.89 0.27 - 2 6 -Experimental Data (Cont'd) TABLE VIII.(Cont'd) Ratio of Magnesium and Phosphorus to Calcium i n So i l s Red Water Farms. Lab. l o . Calcium Oxide (CaO) Magnesium Oxide OfeO) Phosphates CP2O5) MgO OaO P2O5 OaO 3 B 0.98 1.21 0.29 1.24 0.30 4 B 0.79 0.98 0.24 1.23 0.30 6 B 0.84 1.10 0.14 1.30 0.17 2 S 0.75 0.73 0.06 0.97 0.08 3 s 1.73 1.6o 0.13 1.41 0.12 4 S 0.87 0.36 0.08 0.42 0.09 5 S 0.68 0.41 0.40 0.59 0.59 6 S 0.99 0.53 0.27 0.53 0.27 7 S 1.69 0.51 0.12 0.30 0.07 8 S o.6o 1.81 0.42 3.04 0.70 9 S 0.81 1.09 0.09 1.34 0.11 10 S 8.78 0.54 0.13 0.69 0.17 11 3 1.00 1.02 0.09 1.02 0.09 12 S 0.89 1.62 0.07 1.82 0.08 Aver-age 0.94 1.00 0.21 1.13 0.23 Range o.6o-1.69 O.36-1.81 0.07-0.45 0 . 3 0 -3.04 0.08-0.70 - 3 7 -Experimental Data (Cont'd) TABLE YIII. (Cont'd) Hatlo of Magnesium and Phosphorus to Caleiam i n S o i l s Non-Bed Water Farms* Lab. iro. Calcium Oxide Magnesium Oxide Phosphates (P2O5) MgO C'a'O P1O5 OaO 13 S 0 . 8 ? 1.42 0.39 1 .59 0 . 4 4 S M S 0.95 1.99 0.12 2.09 0.13 P 14 S 1.13 0*94 0 . 2 2 O.83 0 . 1 9 15 s 1 . 0 1 1 .45 0 . 2 0 1 . 4 4 0.19 16 S 0.72 0 . 4 9 0.13 0.6? 0.18 Aver-age 0.94 1 . 2 6 0 . 2 1 1 . 3 2 0 . 2 3 Bangs O .56-1.13 0 . 9 4 -1 . 4 5 0 . 1 2 -0.39 0.67-2.93 0 . 1 3 -0.44 The lime content of the s o i l s i s not abnormally low, and i t s r e l a t i o n to the magnesium content i s within a safe range. An excess of magnesium i s considered t o x i c to higher p l a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the Ca-Mg fiatio i s greater than three. (Loew (80)). The phosphates are deficient when compared with the minimum of 0 .4 per cent f o r acid s o i l s , found, by Truog (120), to be required for t h i s element i n crop production. Harris (60) quotes the re s u l t s of several workers to show that the phosphorus content of acid s o i l s i s generally low and l a r g e l y unavailable for use by plants. The explanation i s offered that acid s o i l s convert any c a l -cium phosphate that may be present into soluble compounds which are either washed out or are f i x e d i n an insoluble form by the formation of ir o n and aluminium phosphates. This deficiency i s evidently one of the l i m i t i n g factors for the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the other minerals by the plants grown on these s o i l s , i t i s most probable that the addition of the proper phosphatic f e r t i l i z e r s to these s o i l s would not only increase the percentage of phosphorus but also of the calcium content i n the plants grown on them. -28-Exp eriment al Pat a ( Oont * d). TABLE IX, Ratios between Calcium and Iron and Aluminium in Soils. Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho. Calcium Oxide Iron Oxide Aluminium Oxide f2°3 A 1 2 0 3 JTe20j+Al20^ pH CaO OaO OaO IB 1.01 4.74 5.45 4.71 5.42 10.13 5.50 2B 1.31 4. 92 6.46 3.76 4.94 8.70 5.54 3B 0.98 4.65 6.19 4.75 6.06 11.08 5.53 4B 0.7? 5.15 8.65 6.60 11.00 17.61 4.53 6B 0.84 3.65 8.62 5.68 13.41 1?.09 4.66 23 0.73 4.8* 5.86 6.50 7.83 14.33 5.58 3S 1.13 5.5i 7.25 4.90 b.40 11.29 4.12 43 0.8? 4.45 7.52 5.18 8.67 13»85 4..80 5S 0.68 4.2J 7.24 6.27 10.72 16.97 4.62 6S 0.99 4.8j 5.86 4.87 5.88 10.75 5.13 7S 1.6? 4.8^ 4.77 2.86 2. 82 5.67 4.09 8S 0.6O 5.2: 6.23 8.75 9.9? 19.21 3.83 ?S 0.81 5.03 7.11 6.23 8.78 15.01 4.07 10S 0.78 4^9* 7.17 6.36 9.1? 15.55 4.67 l i s 1.00 3.35 6.07 3.35 6.07 9.42 3.?? 12S 0.89 4.7^ 10.19 5.35 11.45 16.81 4.00 Aver Age 0.94 4.56 6.?1 5.38 8.16 13.46 4.67 Rang 8 0 .60-1.69 3.35 5.53 - 5.45^ 8.65 2.86-8.75 2.82 13.41 - 5.67-19.09 3.83 5.58 -29~ Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABIE IX.(Cont'd) Ratios between Calcium and Iron and Aluminium i n S o i l s . Ion-Red Water Farms. Lab. l o . Calcium Oxide Iron Oxide Aluminium Oxide F2O3 AI2O3 FegO^+AlgO^ pH uau UaO uau l^S 0.89 5.31 8.25 5.97 9.27 15.22 5.66 USj. 0.95 5.18 8,06 3.45 8.48 13.94 <r.33 14 S 2 1.13 2.63 6.38 2.33 5.64 7.97 U08 15S 1.01 3.60 5.95 3.56 5.89 9.46 5.04 lbS 0.72 3.21 6.20 4.46 8.61 13.07 5.28 Aver-age 0.94 3.98 6.97 4.35 7.58 11.93 *.*8 Rang! • 0.89-1.13 2.63-5.31 6.20-8.25 2.33-5.97 5.64-9.27 7.97-15. 22 3. 66 5.28 The hydrogen ion concentration values indicated that a l l these Red Water s o i l s are a c i d i c and the r a t i o s between the calcium, i r o n and aluminium would suggest that the cause of the a c i d i t y of these s o i l s probably due to the existence of i r o n and aluminium compounds which are held absorped by the s o i l c o l l o i d s (Spurway (117)) and associa-ted with the s i l i c a t e s . The s o i l conditions, found on these Red Water farms, are undoubtedly the result of the influence of two im-portant c l i m a t i c factors, namely, r a i n f a l l and temperature. The leaching of calcium, thus causing an acid reaction of the s o i l and the probable formation of insoluble s a l t s of phosphates with manganese and i r o n . According to Teakle \117A) a s o i l w i th a pH below 6.0 w i l l hold i t s phosphorus i n combination with manganese. Holtz (6?) i n h i s work on the s o i l series of Western Washington, which are similar s o i l s to those found i n the Fraser Valley area, makes a sig n i f i c a n t statement i n respect to the feeds grown on these s o i l s , that i n some instances "cows remained normal u n t i l they were turned out on v i r g i n eut-over-land pasture where within a year's time they developed Red Water." - 3 0 -EXPerimental Data (Cont'd). (2) Feeding Stuffs. A l l samples were collected from various parts of the mows, thoroughly mixed, a i r dried, and ground to a uniform fineness. As bracken has been prominently mentioned and observed associated with Eed Water farms, a sample was ob-tained and examined i n a s i m i l a r manner to the feeding s t u f f s . This plant was found more or less present i n a l l samples of hays. The figures given are on the moisture free basis and i n percentages by weight. TABIE X. Reference Description of Mixed Hays. Red Water Farms. Lab. l o . Description Locality Grown OlH T imot hy &G 1 ov er Aldergrove x 02H Timothy and Clover Goglan 1 03H Mixesd Grasses Port Haney 0 4 % Orchard Grass, Red Clover and Per-ennial Rye.Grass. Whonnock 04H 2 Red Clover Whonnock 05H Grasses and Clover Abbott sford Q6H Timothy and Clover Sardis X 0?H Timothy and Clover Sardis 1 08H Clover Fort Lamgley X 09H Mixed Grasses Mount Lehman 010H Red Clover, A l s i k e Timothy, Perennial Rye Grass Abbott sford S 01 IH Mixed Grasses Glen Valley 0 1 2 ^ Grasses and Clover (193© Crop) Milner 012H 2 Grasses and xClover (1931 Croo) Milner -31-Experimental Sat a (Cont'd). TABLE X, (Cont'd) Reference Description of Mixed Hays. Non-Bed Water Farms. Lab. No. Description L o c a l i t y Grown 013H Grasses and Clover Haney 014% Grasses and Glover Essondale 014Hg Pasture Clippings Ess on dale 015H Mixed Grasses St©veston 01B Bracken f e r n Point Grey S Oat Hay also obtained from these farms* TABLE XI. Mixed Hays.  Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho. Total Ash Sand Soluble S i l i c a ( s i o a ) Iron (Fe 2 0 3 ) Aluminium (AI2O3) 01H 5.88 0.14 1*17 0.11 0.57 02H 5.09 0.24 1.91 0.09 O.67 03H 5.6b 0.49 2.39 0.11 0.16 04Hx 5 .53 0 .09 1.34 0 .08 0.68 0 4 % 5.10 0.16 0.69 0 .06 0.08 031 7.24 0.15 1,40 0.21 1.76 06H 7 .78 0.89 2. 08 0.18 0.31 07H 8.23 0.45 0 .76 0.16 1.41 08H 7.13 0.23 0.93 0.11 1.54 091 5.66 0.61 1.51 0 .09 0.78 010H 7.21 0.09 0.91 0.06 0.04 -32 Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XI. Mixed Hays.  Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho. Total Ash Sand Soluble S i l i c a (SiOo) Iron (EegOp Aluminium U i 2 o 3 ) 011H 5.51 0.15 1.02 0 .06 0.04 012% 6 .50 0.91 0.89 0 .07 0.04 012 H 2 6.33 0 .60 1,08 0.05 0.03 Average 6.35 0.37 1.29 0.10 0.58 Range 5 . 0 ? -8.23 0.09-0.91 0.69-2.3? 0.05^ 0.21 0 . 0 3 -1*76 Hon-Red Water Farms. 013H 5.40 0.18 1.44 0.08 0.06 014% 6.68 1.30 0.86 0.07 0.14 014% 4 .72 0.10 0.64 0.08 0.08 013 H 7.16 1.85 0.92 0.07 0.11 Average 0.86 0.96 0 .07 0.10 Range 5.40-7.16 0.10-1.85 0 .64-1.44 0 .07-0.08 0 . 0 6 -0.14 Bracken. 01B 6.9? 0 .07 0.6? 0 .03 0.02 - 3 3 -Experjmental Data (Cont'd). TABLE I I I . Oat Hay-Bed Water Farms. Lab. l o . Total Ash Sand Soluble S i l i c a (S102) Iron (FegO^) Aluminium (AI2O3) 010 • 4.31 0.22 1.28 0.14 0.12 020 4.87 0.55 1.58 0.08 0.42 060 5 .36 0.46 1.66 0.15 0.16 070 7.40 0.88 2.6tS 0.18 0.83 080 7.86 0.75 2.23 0.28 0.?6 010 0 6.56 0.6o 1*23; 0.17 0.11 Average 6.06 0.58 1.77 0.17 0.43 Sang© 4 . 3 1 -7.86 0.22-0.88 1 .23-2.66 0 .08-0.28 0.11-0.96 I t i s t o be noted that the soluble s i l i c a i s compara-r i v e l y high and that the aluminium content seems abnormal on the Bed Water farms, t h e i r range being wider than those on non-Red Water farms. In view of the opinions already quoted these two constituents may be s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n t h i s disease. TABLE X I I I .  Mixed Hays.  Bed Water Farms. Lab. Ho. Calcium (OaO) Magnesium (MgO) Phosphates (p 2 o 5 ) Sulphates (sop Manganese (M113O4) 01H 1.17 0.48 0,41 0.13 0.0104 02H 0.66 0.26 0.30 0.17 0.0098 03 H 0.60 0.25 0 . 4 3 0.20 0.0078 04% 0.53 0.35 0.40 0.17 0.0074 04H2 0.91 0.35 0 .34 0.18 0.0085 -34-Experimental Bata (Cont'd). TABLE XIII.  Mixed Hayg. Bed Water Farms* iiao. l b . Ca±cium (OaO) Magnesium ( % 0 ) Phosphates U? 2 05) Sulphat es (S0 3) 1 Hang an -I ese CMh304) 05H 1,6? 0.55 0.53 0 .26 0.0050 §6H 1,2? 0.42 0.68 0.37 0.0052 0?H 2,03 0.52 0.51 0.30 0.0O49 o a i 1.39 0.54 0.52 0.17 0.0084 0?H 0.98 0.46 0.35 0.26 0.0181 01OH 1,47 0.57 0.51 O.23 0.0075 011H 0.73 0.45 0.40 0.25 § 8 0114 012% 0.99 0.59 0,40 0.18 0.0083 0 1 2 % 1*01 0.51 0.45 0.22 0.0123 Average 1,12 0.46 0.44 0.25 0.0096 Range 0.53-2.03 0.25-0.5? 0.30-0.68 0 . 1 7 ' 0.37 0.0049-O.0181 lon-^Red Water farms. 013H 0.74 0.37 0.39 0.2| 0.0148 014% 0.96 0.54 0.50 0.45 0.0107 014H2 0.48 0.43 0.41 0 .26 0.0294 015H 1.33 0.78 0.52 0.44 0 .0161 Average 0,88 0.53 0.45 0 .36 0.0177 Range 0.48-1.33 0.37-0,78 0.39-0,52 0.26-0.45 0.0107-0.02?4 Bracken. @1B 0.37 0.44 0 .61 0.58 0.0114 -35-Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XIV.  Oat Hays.  Red Water Farms. Lab. Ho. Calcium Ma (OaO) anesium (MgO) Phosphates (3?2§5) Sulphates Manganese (SO3) (Mn?04) 01 0 0.04 0.24 0.35 0.18 0.0076 02 0 0.23 0.21 0.40 0.16 0.0029 06 0 0.83 0.33 0.49 0.20 0.0055 07 0 0.51 0.35 0.65 0.13 0.0068 08 0 0.58 0.34 O.63 0.19 0.0091 010 0 0.41 0.40 0.59 0.16 0.0068 Average 0.43 0.31 0.52 0.17 0.0064 Range 0.23-0.83 0.21-0.40 0.35-O.65 0.13-0.20 0.0029-0.0091 The calcium content of the feeding stuffs grown on Red Water farms i s comparatively high and has a wider range than on the disease-free farms, the manganese content i s d i s t i n c t l y lower i n the majority of cases. The physiologi-c a l effect of t h i s s l i g h t deficiency may be of importance, as manganese i s now considered an essential element of plant growth and functions i n the synthesis of chlorophyll. It occurs i n the ash of oxi d i z i n g enzyms and so probably a s s i s t s i n the process of oxidation i n animal n u t r i t i o n . (3) Waters. These samples were composite ones taken from a l l sources of supply used by the animals on the respective farms. The figures are stated i n parts per m i l l i o n . - 3 6 -Experimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XV. Referenoe Description of Waters. Red Water Farms• Lab. l o . Source Lo c a l i t y of Farm 001 W Surface and w e l l Cog lan 002 W Well near barn Coglan 003 W Running Streams Port Haney 004 I s Well Whonnock 005 W Well Abbott sford 006 W Well Sardis 007 w Well Sard is 0010 w Piped Spring Abbott sford Ion-Red Water Farms. 9013 W Piped H i l l s i d e Spring Haney TABLE XVI. Mineral Content of Waters. Red Water Farms. Lab. l o . Total Solids Magnesium (MgO) S i l i c a (SiO?) Chiorine C01) Sabohates (S0 3) 001 W 44 .0 7.1 3 .5 4.6 3.5 0.3 002 W 200.0 30.3 29. b 13.4 lb.b 5.8 003 W 77.0 5.7 4.6 9.2 3.4 3.4 004 W 45 .0 5.7 2.6 5.8 4.2 1.1 005 W 74.0 14.3 4 .3 12.4 5.1 1.0 006 W 72.0 11.4 4 .5 12.4 2.6 0.1 0o7 W 72.0 21.1 3.4 7.0 2.9 1.0 3010 W 46 ,0 5 . 3 1.1 4.2 3.6 0.3 ivemge 12.6 6.7 8.6 5 .2 1.6 - 3 7 -Ixperimental Data (Cont'd). TABLE XVI. Mineral Content of Waters. Uon-Red Water Farms. Lab. l o . Total So l i d s Calcium (CaO) Magnesitim (MgO) S i l i c a ( S i 0 2 ) Chlorine (CI) Sulphates (S0 3) D013W 6 b . 0 7.4 3 . 9 9 . 8 2.4 1.4 , The above analyses of the water supplies of these farms indicate that none of them are of a highly mineralized character, and do not contain any element In quantities that might be considered detrimental to the c a t t l e using them. (4) Urines. The samples of urine were obtained by catheterizing the animals, and preserved by the addition of a small quantity of toluene. TABLE XVII. Urines. Red Water Animals. (Grams per l i t r e ) . Laboratory lumber Spec i f i c Gravity S i l i c a ( S i 0 2 ) pH 1 U 1 . 0 0 9 3 0.128 8 . 0 3 2 U 1 . 0 1 6 0 0 . 0 8 8 7 . 9 9 3 U 1 . 0 2 8 8 0 . 0 7 8 7 . 7 3 4 U 1 . 0 3 4 8 0.269 7.94 5 U 1.0164 0 . 2 7 7 8.33 Average 1.0210 0.168 8 . 0 1 Range 1 . 0 0 9 3 -1.0348 0.078-0 . 2 7 7 7 . 7 3 -8.33 The s p e c i f i c gravity of these samples varies within a wide range, but the figures are comparable to those obtained by B u l l , Dickinson and Dann(l6A), t h e i r data are summarized as follows:-- 3 8 -Experimental Data (Cont'd). Normal Cat t l e : - Mean 1.033(Range 1.015 to 1.047) Red Water Cattle :- Mean l.G28(Range 1.014 to 1.043; The s i l i c a content may "be s i g n i f i c a n t when considered i n conjunction with the s i l i c a content of the herbage pro-duced on the Red % t e r farms. Forbes et a l (46) (48) i n t h e i r work on the mineral metabolism of the milch cow, have demonstrated the existence of an extensive metabolism of s i l i c a ; and the retention of t h i s element, from rations con-taining large quantities of timothy hay, being surprisingly large, s i l i c a being found i n considerable quantities i n the urine, but not i n weighable amounts i n milk. The hydrogen ion concentration of these urines show them a l l to be with an a l k a l i n e reaction. B u l l et a l (l6A) report that the pH of Red Water urines was usually between 7 . 6 and 8.1, and the pH of the normal urines was usually between 7*7 and 8.1; the data recorded by Shutt and Robinson (115) give the following ranges:-Red Water Cattle from 7.15 to 8.40 Normal Cattle from 7.15 to 8.64. So that the figures recorded above may be considered normal i n respect to t h i s reaction. (5) Bladder. This specimen was obtained from a cow which had been affected with the disease for some considerable time. A portion showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c lesions was dried to constant weight and ashed. The figures given are on the moisture free basis and are stated as percentage by weight. TABLE XVIII. Mineral Content of Bladder. Original Ash 3.14 8 .57 1 5 . 5 3 41.58 13.48 These data are interesting because the s i l i c a con-tent may be s i g n i f i c a n t , but no definite conclusions can be made u n t i l compared with the disease free material. -39-Ixperimental Data (Oont'd). TABLE XIX. Qoral Book f l o u r . Laboratory Number 1 G Moisture 0.26 Loss on i g n i t i o n 44.63 S i l i c a ( S i 0 2) 0.34 Mixed Oxides (R2Q3) °»36 Sulphates (SO3) 0.30 Oalcium Oxide (CaO) 50.66 Magnesium Oxide (MgQ) 3.55 Nitrogen (NH3) 0.045 TABLE XX. Comparative Composition Coral Rock f l o u r and Coral. Saleium CarbonatetOaQQ^) Magnesium Garbonate(MgC05) Calcium Sulphate(CaS04) ferrous Oxide (f©0) Mixed Oxides (R2O3) Phosphoric AcidCPgOc)) S i l i c a (S102) etc. ) S i l i c a (S10 2) Moisture Coral Rock f l o u r Red Coral| Black Coral (Tressler (119) 90.04 7.01 0.51 0.56 0.34 0.26 86.974 6.804 1.271 1.720 1.331 85.801 6.770 1.400 0.800 1.559 Too.04 99.450 96.930 The coral rock f l o u r i s probably of marine o r i g i n , It was examined f o r the presence of calcium carbonate i n the fozm of aragonite by the tests discovered by W. Meigen as reported by Clarke (22), who states that M i n studying the formation of s h e l l limestone or c o r a l rock, i t i s desirable to take account of the fact that calcium carbonate exists in at least two geo l o g i c a l l y important modifications -e a l c i t e and aragonite. It i s probable that the calcium carbonate contained i n t h i s material i s valuable as a source of calcium i n the Coral Rock f l o u r - Soda Bicarbonate treatment. -40-Ixperimental Data (Cont'd). (e) General Discussion of Results. The experimental data obtained may he considered as f a i r l y representative of the composition of the material examined, although the results may he interpreted as only suggestive of a probable explanation they may upon further inve s t i g a t i o n lead to the causative factor of t h i s disease. The s o i l s may be rated as being of a poor quality and need to be improved by a proper system of c u l t i v a t i o n and f e r t i l i z a t i o n ; the composition of the feeding s t u f f s i s a r e f l e c t i o n on the s o i l conditions. I t i s , however, possible that the s i l i c a content of the feeds may be abnormal and be an important factor i n the causation of t h i s disease, together with the high aluminium content. The manganese content may be considered as a possible factor, especially as i t may function i n the synthesis of chlorophyll and be present i n an inorganic form, which during the process of metabolism within the animal may cause abnormalcond i t ions. However, the data now presented by t h i s work may well be considered as a d e f i n i t e advance i n solving the problem, and i t i s hoped w i l l lead to further investigations along s i m i l a r l i n e s . I t seems important that the inorganic composition of a large number of samples of urines, and bladders should be examined; also the examination of the f l e s h and milk of diseased animals might be included, because i t is believed that such information would throw considerable l i g h t upon t h i s problem. (f) P r a c t i c a l Pons id e rat ions and Recommendations. The following suggestions are offered with the b e l i e f that with a change i n the practice and system of farming, i n the Red Water area of B r i t i s h Polumbia, there w i l l be a decided lowering of the incident of the disease. t l ) The c u l t i v a t i o n of pasture lands every two or three years, i n order to Improve the quality of the pas-turage; (2) To increase the f e r t i l i t y of pasture and hay lands by the use of rea d i l y available phosphates, nitrogen and manure; (3) The production of more leguminous roughage for feed-ing dairy stock; (4) The growing of silage crops and supplementary green crops, such as rape, peas and vetches; (5) That better methods of curing and handling of the hay and roughage crops be investigated; -41-Sxperimental Data (Cont'd), (6) The control of the growth of Bracken and other pre-valent weeds, by burning, cutting and thorough c u l t i -vation} (7) The use of small pasture paddocks be i n s t i t u t e d , pro-viding frequent change of location, i n order to en-courage better quality of pasture plants; (8) The feeding of balanced rations t o the dairy stock, p a r t i c u l a r attention being given to the protein and mineral matter; (9) The encouragement of mixed farming i n preference to the present one l i n e dairy farming; CONCLUSIONS, (1) The disease of Red Water i s a l o c a l i z e d one, only a f f e c t i n g c a t t l e ; (2) The disease occurs on farms where the s o i l s are com-parat i v e l y low i n f e r t i l i t y ; (3) The s o i l s are of an acid nature, rea d i l y leached, with a tendency to be low i n phosphates, nitrogen and or-ganic matter; (4) The hays and other roughage are generally low i n available mineral elements; (5) The herbage being s i g n i f i c a n t l y high i n s i l i c a and aluminium, and possibly low i n manganese} (6) The probable causation of the disease i s one of a n u t r i t i o n a l • o r i g i n , either from ingested i r r i t a n t material or elaborated i n the animal's system during metabolism; (7) That further in v e s t i g a t i o n a l work should be prosecuted i n respect to the composition of the urines, bladders, f l e s h and milk of diseased animals, SUMMARY. (1) A complete statement of the history of t h i s disease has been compiled; (2) I t s geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n has been outlined; (3) The l o c a l factors and conditions of occurrence of the disease have been f u l l y discussed. -42-Summary (Cont'd). (4) A discussion of the various recorded theories of causation i s presented; £3) An outl i n e of the treatments found valuable i n con-t r o l l i n g the disease has been given, with a special reference to the Coral Rock Flour-Soda Binarbonate remedy. (6) The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c symptoms, t h e i r possible and pro-bable causes, have been f u l l y discussed. (7) A detailed analysis of s o i l s , feeding stuffs, waters and other materials from Red Water and non-Red Water farms has been compiled and comparisons made between them. (8) Suggestions have been made concerning further i n v e s t i -gations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The author wishes to acknowledge his obligation to Dr. J.A. Amyot, Deputy Minister, and to Mr. H.M. Lancaster, Chief Dominion Analyst, of the Department of National Health, Ottawa, Ontario, for k i n d l y consenting to the use of the f a c i l i t i e s of the Food and ^ rugs Laboratories of that Department i n Tancouver, B.C.,- during t h i s investiga-t i o n ; and he i s greatly indebted to Dean F.M. Clement, Professor H.M. King, and Dr. D.G. Laird, of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, for t h e i r h elpful advice and interest i n t h i s problem. To Dr. J.G. Jervi s , Dr. E.A. Bruce and Mr. J.C, MacKenzie, for t h e i r services i n the c o l l e c t i o n of materials for analysis; to Mr. H.O. 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