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Cultural factors which obstruct or facilitate casework in Pakistan. Malik, Mohammed Akram 1963

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CULTURAL FACTORS MICH OBSTRUCT OR FACILITATE CASEWORK IN PAKISTAN by MOHAMMED AKRAM MALIK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK In the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1963 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t , o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r . s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g , o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . D a t e "7 6~ C °) i i ABSTRACT Culturej as one of the powerful determinants of human behaviour and motivation, i s attracting.an i n -creased attention of s o c i a l work pr a c t i t i o n e r s and educators everywhere; the recent trend i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e shows. Two questions which seem to be of v i t a l i n t e r e s t to the protagonists of modern s o c i a l work, are: 1) How f a r the c u l t u r a l conditions of a country permit the growth, development and promotion of s o c i a l work profession? S o c i a l work, as an o f f s p r i n g of democracy, needs democratically governed environments to f l o u r i s h and f r u c t i f y . A culture unfamiliar with the concepts of equality, l i b e r t y and f r a t e r n i t y , can s c a r c e l y be conducive to the attainment of i t s objectives. R i g i d , t o t a l i t a r i a n and undemocratic s o c i e t i e s , intolerant of the f a c t of difference and enemies of the freedom of expression, are, inherently and basically; inagreeable and unsuitable to i t s genius and temper. i i ) How to f a c i l i t a t e incorporation and integra-t i o n of modern s o c i a l work profession with the dominant culture of the people (whose cause i t aspires to serve) so as to, i n consonance with basic p r i n c i p l e s , make i t acceptable and agreeable to them without any superimpositioni 5 Both these questions necessitate the better understanding of the various cultures with a view to i d e n t i f y those factors which i n any way help or hinder the practice of s o c i a l work. In t h i s thesis the writer has attempted to highlight some of the c u l t u r a l factors which, i n the l i g h t of his own knowledge, experience, understanding and observation, tend to (a) obstruct, or (b) f a c i l i t a t e his casework prac-t i c e i n his own country - Pakistan. To supplement and substantiate his observa-tion s , the methodology used by the writer includes some rep^ resentativa and pertinent case material gathered from the f i e l d of casework practice i n Pakistan, i n the capacity of, f i r s t as a student, Department of Social Work, Punjab Univer-s i t y , and l a t e r as a member of f a c u l t y , i n the same Department to supervise post-graduate students placed i n various f i e l d i i i work settings. The study has been confined to the analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the cases drawn from the casework f i e l d with a view to avoid making thesis unmanageable and bulky. Besides, i t i s i n the f i e l d of casework most e s p e c i a l l y that the influence of culture makes i t s e l f most pronouncedly f e l t , though i t s role i n the whole f i e l d of s o c i a l work cannot be .minimized. . • To f a c i l i t a t e a better understanding of the Pakistani culture a separate chapter has been added, high-l i g h t i n g e s p e c i a l l y the 1 I d e a l C u l t u r e 1 of Pakistan which stems from the basic teachings of Islam - the source of i n s p i r a t i o n and guidance f o r the people. In fact without such understanding the whole re l a t i o n s h i p of culture and s o c i a l work i n Pakistan would be u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , because, despite the fact that the 'real 1' culture by which the people l i v e , has hardly much to do with Islam, emotionally speaking,h i a ^ lit goes a long way to determine the^destinies and way of l i f e . This study has brought a number of a n a l y t i c a l features to l i g h t . 1) Most of the obstruction comes from the culture of sub-groups, dogmatic in t e r p r e t a t i o n of Islam, s t r i c t adherence to custom and conventions, the c o n f l i c t between the ''ideal*' and the -'-real.'" cultures of the people, and absence of any common frame of reference, etc. 2) The factors f a c i l i t a t -i ng are those which stem from the f l e x i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Islam which lends support to philanthropic and humanitarian ac t i v i t i e s . , emphasizes the values of equality, l i b e r t y and f r a t e r n i t y ^ and stresses the d i g n i t y and worth of man -providing, thus, an excellent s i m i l a r i t y to the basic concepts and values of s o c i a l work. The findings a4?r point to the need for the discretionary and f l e x i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l work tech-niques and p r i n c i p l e s , i n v i t i n g at times, an exploration of some new ways and means, f i t t e d to the culture, apart from those commonly used by the s o c i a l workers. V . A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S My s i n c e r e s t and h e a r t f e l t thanks are due t o the t h e s i s A d v i s o r and S u p e r v i s o r , Mr .Dixon, the D i r e c t o r , S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, U.B.C, f o r h i s constant encourage-ment and a s s i s t a n c e i n the comp l e t i o n of t h i s thesis.; My thanks are a l s o due t o Dr.Leonard Marsh, of the same i n s t i t u t i o n f o r h i s h e l p f u l suggestions i n s e l e c t i n g the t o p i c . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted t o Mr.Marriage, the f a c u l t y member of the School of S o c i a l Work, U.B.C, f o r the v a l u a b l e and i n t e l l i g e n t suggestions which he made a v a i l a b l e t o me a f t e r going through some p a r t s of t h i s t h e s i s . An o l d debt of g r a t i t u d e goes t o my beloved teacher, the l a t e Mr.Emerson Holcomb, the v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r from Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , U.S.A., i n the Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab U n i v e r s i t y . Mr.Holcomb who p r a c t i c a l l y f e l l martyr t o the cause of s o c i a l work i n P a k i s t a n , i n 1961, was one of the e a r l y p i o n e e r s of s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n i n P a k i s t a n . To him I owe much f o r my awareness of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n casework p r a c t i c e . I wish t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be d e d i c a t e d t o h i s memory as a token o f my g r a t i t u d e t o h i s humane and s c h o l a r l y p e r s o n a l i t y . Acadia Camp, M. A. M a l i k U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A p r i l 10, 1963. I . • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * » • ••••#,,*j 21* (1) -.ultoqi 9f i» SOW WlltWl ^ n » a n t e * * «f tk. ifc* »* t i * l ••••••••*•••••••••*•••••••*«•••*••••••••••*••«•••••«•••••••••••••• • W ^ i uu»«» a* • > * » e ' - ' . . ' . ^ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • # # l l PwriMMi i*ti<ff- f««tlifc#W» finding*. ••••••*••••••«••.••••••••••Ill A f p t « i t « A f&t&togpafjftgr** •••••••••••««•••••.•••••• »•••••••••••••••••••• .•••••••190 I N T R 0 D U C T I 0 N Motivation and J u s t i f i c a t i o n . 'Modern s o c i a l work1-'- as i t i s being taught and practised i n North America, the land of i t s b i r t h , i s a broad s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l movement touching many facets of i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e human l i f e . I t has a t y p i c a l value system, a code of et h i c s , generally accepted p r i n c i -ples and underlying assumptions, a body of systematic knowledge, s k i l l s and techniques. Properly speaking i t has a 'sub-culture* of i t s own, a s o c i a l philosophy and c e r t a i n desired objectives. It stands f o r something which i t deems highly e s s e n t i a l to the common good of society. There are some commonly held notions and b e l i e f s with which i t s ad-herents, as members of a professional group, i d e n t i f y , 1. The term rmodern s o c i a l work* is, being used to d i f f e r -entiate i t from ' t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l work*' which existed and s t i l l e x i s t s , i n one form or another, voluntary, charit a b l e , philanthropic or whatever you may wish to c a l l i t , i n many parts of the world. Stepping up of s o c i a l work to the status of a regular profession i s c e r t a i n l y a *modern* achievement. and which serve to guide how best "society i s to be org-anized and s o c i a l l i v i n g conducted3"l S o c i a l work, as such, i s an outgrowth of a h i s t o r i c a l necessity - an inevitable outcome of c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic and i n t e l l e c t u a l conditions p r e v a i l i n g i n the Western and North American countries. The sources from which i t originated are primarily three, i n the w r i t e r s opinion: 1. The C h r i s t i a n and the democratic t r a d i t i o n s of the West on which i t draws heavily for i t s values, et h i c s , basic p r i n c i p l e s , goals and onjectives. 2. The needs and demands of the Post In d u s t r i a l Revolution era which c a l l e d for a we11-organized and stupendous professional e f f o r t to cope with them. 3. The s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t of enquiry which gave i t an o b j e c t i v i t y of outlook, e f f e c t i v e tools of re-search, appropriate s k i l l s and techniques, and a better awareness and understanding of human motivation and behaviour. The newly emerging A s i a t i c nations which are stepping into the f i e l d of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and are planning to b u i l d up t h e i r countries oncthe Western pattern of the s o c i a l welfare state have much to learn from the accumulated wisdom, know-ledge and experience of modern s o c i a l work. Herein they w i l l 1. Boehm W. Werner. The teachings of value and ethics i n s o c i a l work education. S o c i a l work Curriculum Study XIIL, Page 17. Council of S o c i a l Work Education. N.Y. f i n d a u s e f u l and workable, i f not ready made, m a t e r i a l t o a s s i s t them i n s o l v i n g t h e i r m a n i f o l d , complex and d i v e r s e s o c i a l problems. While t h e r e i s no denying the f a c t t h a t they have much t o l e a r n from the experiences of the advanced c o u n t r i e s , i t i s h i g h l y improbable t h a t the newly d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the E a s t w i l l accept s o c i a l work " i n t o t o ! " The r e a s o n ' i s t h a t they have t h e i r own value systems, i d e o l o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s , t y p i c a l w e l f a r e i n s t i t u t i o n s aiming a t s o c i a l , moral, economic and i n t e l l e c t u a l u p l i f t of t h e i r people. These c u l -t u r a l v a r i a b l e s go a long way t o determine the q u a l i t y and nature of t h e i r s p e c i f i c needs and demands, and the type of i n d i v i d u a l human b e i n g and s o c i a l order they a s p i r e t o develop. I f a t a l l s o c i a l work i s t o p l a y i t s h i s t o r i c a l r o l e i n improving the l o t of under-developed c o u n t r i e s , i t must take i n t o account t h i s f a c t of d i f f e r e n c e . I t would seem admirable that i n s t e a d o f aiming a t c o n f o r m i t y and u n i v e r s a l sameness, s o c i a l work i s made an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the indigenous c u l t u r e ; otherwise i t s p o s i t i o n w i l l be v e r y much s i m i l a r t o the p l a n t i n g of a t r e e sampling i n a f o r e i g n land without t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s and p r o p e r t i e s of the s o i l . F o r t u n a t e l y both the European and North American s o c i a l work t h i n k e r s and i n t e r p r e t e r s are f u l l y a l i v e t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s both i n e d u c a t i o n and p r a c t i c e . While s t r e s s i n g the need f o r agreement on c e r t a i n 4 fundamentals and for unity of the profession throughout the world, they have never lost sight of the fact that under the impact of culture, religion, philosophy and aspiration of the people, there w i l l definitely emerge a different pattern of social work. There i s a strong plea for f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability in the application of.principles and techniques while working with people of different social and cultural background. A U.N. consultant on social work education, Helen R. Wright,1 who had been in India for many years addressing the International social work conference 2 remarked: \ "While much in the principle of Western social work is applicable in India, these are also situations where their application becomes d i f f i -cult. One i s the western exposition of theory reflects the culture and philosophy of i t s own thinkers. . There i s a need for the development of indigenous literature which has i t s own ref-erence in the ideas and thoughts of the country's own writers and philosophical thinkers. The student needs to drink from the well of his own country to feel the strength, to have a spiritual relationship with and ^ an. intellectual grasp of the thinkers of his own country i n order to understand the principles of social work as a part of social heritage and not.as an alien importation." A representative of the United Kingdom^ serving as a consultant in Indonesia speaking in the conference emphasised the importance of attitudes and awareness of a country's own values and standards. He noted the importance of humility, 1. Wright R. Helen. Similarities and differences in social work education as seen in India and North America; Inter-national social work 2nd January, 1959. 2. Fox, W.G. t r r h e Role of Foreign Expert." International Social , Work 2 July, 1959,.Pages 9-10. 5 the need t o r e c o g n i z e the r i g h t of a group o r community t o r e j e c t the i d e a s of the c o n s u l t a n t even though the con-s u l t a n t t h i n k s i t would be t o the country's advantage to accept them, and the need t o accept the r i g h t of the ' l e a d e r s 1 t o q u e s t i o n the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and value t o t h e i r country of c o n c e p t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the West. He advocated t h a t the f o r e i g n c o n s u l t a n t should base h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p on a t r u e acceptance - not s u p e r f i c i a l t o l e r a n c e - of the p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and p e r s o n a l Standards of b e haviour of h i s adopted c o u n t r y . He c o n s i d e r e d the process of t u n i n g i n t o the wave l e n g t h of a community, a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l work. The p r i n c i p l e o f , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , which i s an a r t i c l e of f a i t h i n a l l s o c i a l work t e a c h i n g and p r a c t i c e , has been wi d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l , group and community has the r i g h t t o choose i t s own way of l i f e , make d e c i s i o n s and f o l l o w i t s g o a l s . Stereotyped r i g i d i t y and con-f o r m i t y t o set p r i n c i p l e s and procedures r e g a r d l e s s of c u l -t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s has no where been emphasised. There i s gen-e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r e i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l : "A knowledge and s e n s i t i v i t y t o the goals which major r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l groups are t r y i n g t o a t t a i n - what each group sees i t s e l f t r y i n g to do to enhance f u l f i l l m e n t -i s required."1 In f a c t t recent researches ort the impact of culture on human behaviour have heightened the significance of c u l t u r a l factors i n s o c i a l work theory and prac t i c e . The impact has been f e l t so greatly that s o c i a l work educationists and prac-t i t i o n e r s have been compelled to re-examine and re-define the goals, purposes and a c t i v i t i e s of s o c i a l work i n the l i g h t of t h i s new awareness. There i s now an increasing tendency to study man i n h i s c u l t u r a l contact rather than to concentrate wholly on psycho-dynamics of human behaviour and motivation, as most of them had been doing under the Freudian influence. To the writer, t h i s heightened awareness of c u l -t u r a l factors augers well f o r the future of s o c i a l work educa-t i o n and practice in.newly developing countries of the East. The general tendency among the people of these countries has, so f a r , been to r e s i s t whatever comes to them by the way of the West, however good and use f u l i t may be. Like a burned c h i l d who dreads f i r e , everything new and a l i e n smacks of some conspiracy and i n t r i g u e . The emphasis on incorporating s o c i a l work i n t o the dominating culture of each country w i l l tend to diminish fear of any superimposition and domination of foreign culture from the minds of people, No greater and nobler service to the cause of s o c i a l work can be done than to present i t as a broad and f l e x i b l e 1. Woods, S i s t e r Francis Jerome: C u l t u r a l Values of American Ethnic Groups (N.Y.Haiper-& Brothers. 1956.) humanitarian movement capable of making reasonable and approp-iate adjustments to various s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l conditions pre-v a i l i n g i n those parts of the world where i t s h a l l be operating. This necessitates a sympathetic, patient and i n t e l l i g e n t under-standing of the c u l t u r a l factors which f a c i l i t a t e or obstruct i t s working i n each country. In t h i s thesis the writer w i l l be making an attempt to pinpoint some of the c u l t u r a l factors which f a c i l i t a t e or obstruct the job of a s o c i a l worker i n his own country -PAKISTAN - a newly developing country i n Asia with a d i s t i n t -t i v e culture of i t s own; aspi r i n g to b u i l d up a progressive welfare state, as i t s leaders and thinkers have, from time to time, declared. The climate of opinion - s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s - i s most favourably disposed towards s o c i a l welfare as a national objective. Rapid i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and growth of population, together with complexity., d i v e r s i t y and magnitude of socio-economic problems^has necessitated the use of the trained s o c i a l worker by the Pakistan Government which i s taking much i n i t i a t i v e i n the programs of r e l i e f and welfare. There are at present three s o c i a l work i n s t i t u -tions imparting professional t r a i n i n g to the post-graduate students at the un i v e r s i t y l e v e l to f u l f i l l the need f o r trained s o c i a l workers i n the country: 1. The Department of So c i a l Work Punjab University, Lahore, which was established f i r s t i n 1954, with United Nations assistance. This i s the oldest i n s t i t u t i o n i n Pakistan.., with Dr. (Miss) R i f f at 8. Rashid as i t s Head. The Department imparts two years post graduate t r a i n i n g to M.A. degree i n s o c i a l work. 2. The School of S o c i a l Work Dacca, East Pakistan, established i n 1959. 3. The Department of S o c i a l Work, Karachi University, West Pakistan, established i n 1961. The concept of professional s o c i a l work, with these three i n s t i t u t i o n s working vigorously to enhance teaching stan-dards i s beginning to emerge. Although the profession i s r e l a -t i v e l y new, i t i s developing rapi d l y . The writer's own contact with professional s o c i a l work dates back to the year 1958 when he was admitted to the Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University, Lahore, to obtain a degree of M.A. He q u a l i f i e d i n the. year 1960, securing f i r s t c l a ss f i r s t , and i n the year 1961, he was given a teaching job, as a l e c t u r e r i n the i n s t i t u t i o n from which he had graduated. For one year he has been teaching casework and group work to f i f t h year students of s o c i a l work (equivalent to B.S.W., here i n the U.B.C. School of S o c i a l Work). While as a student he had the opportunity, to work i n two f i e l d work settings: 1) Bostal I n s t i t u t i o n for juvenile delinquents, Lahore, used by Punjab University f o r f i e l d placement i n group work; 2) Model Chest C l i n i c f o r T.B. patients used f o r casework f i e l d placement. Later, when he joined the S o c i a l Work Department, Punjab Univers-i t y as a member of the f a c u l t y , he was entrusted with the respons-9. i b i l i t y of supervising a group of both 5th and 6th year students i n f i e l d work i n three welfare agencies: 1) Public Health School (for t r a i n i n g Lady Health V i s i t o r s ) Cum Maternity and C h i l d Welfare Centre. 2) Government I n s t i t u t i o n for the Welfare of the Bl i n d . 3) Model Chest C l i n i c for T.B, patients. The writer's thesis which he submitted to the Department of S o c i a l Work, University of the Punjab, Lahore., i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r a Master's degree i n s o c i a l work, pertained to a special class of occult art p r a c t i t i o n e r s commonly known as Astrologers, Palmists and S p i r i t u a l Healers''' i n Pakistan. His object was to explore the factors which led to the growth of these a n t i - s o c i a l professionals who,were doing incalculable harm to the s p i r i t -u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l development of the country. The study provided the writer with an opportunity to delve deep into the philosophy of l i f e by which the common man l i v e s i n Pakistan, and enabled him to c o l l e c t revealing and i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t u a l information pertaining to numerous f a t a l i s t i c whims and superstitious practice which pervade his entire l i f e ; which k i l l h is i n i t i a t i v e , i n s t i l fear and doubt; f e t t e r 1. MALIK, M.A.: Astrologers, Palmists, S p i r i t u a l Healers. Unpublished Master's thesis submitted to the Department of Social Work, Punjab University, 1960. 10. i n t e l l e c t u a l growth; serve as a spoke i n the wheel of s o c i a l progress and l i m i t and impair his motivation, capacity and opportunity to use s o c i a l welfare services. The study also helped him to understand a very s i g n i f i c a n t factor, that while the ' r e a l 1 culture of some of the sub-groups i n Pakistan presented marked difference to the ft values and objective of modern s o c i a l work, the "ideal or dominating" culture which stems from the teachings of Islam, the State r e l i g i o n of Pakistan, the source of i n s p i r a t i o n and guidance f o r the people - provided an excellent s i m i l a r i t y to the basic concepts and values of s o c i a l work. It pointed to the fact that Islam and modern s o c i a l work agreed on funda-mentals and broad p r i n c i p l e s to a great extent, and so f a r as the r e l i g i o n i s concerned the climate i s , undoubtedly, exc e l l e n t l y favourable to the speedy development and promotion of s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s i n Pakistan, Thus, while working as a s o c i a l , work student, a trainee, a researcher, a teacher and a supervisor i n various agencies, the writer with his Western orientation to s o c i a l work^came across numerous situations where the influence of Pakistani culture, 'ideal 1'" or ' r e a l 1 made i t s e l f pronounced, for or against, i n various forms. 11. II Objectlyes of the Study One may conceive that the thesis i s meant fo r no other purpose than to satiate the writer's i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y on the subject. I t may be true to some extent,, but t h i s does not r e f l e c t e n t i r e l y what he aspires to achieve. For him the thesis i s a means to an end, and not an end i n i t s e l f . Above a l l , the writer aspire to achieve the following primary and secondary objectives: a) His primary objective i s to make a modest attempt to assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c u l t u r a l factors as they obstruct or f a c i l i t a t e the development, growth and promotion of s o c i a l work profession i n countries other than North America - p a r t i c u l a r l y Pakistan. b) Among the secondary may be l i s t e d the following: 1) To contribute something to the great cause of f a c i l i t a t i n g incorporation of the s o c i a l work profession into the dominating culture of the masses of Pakistanj and thus pave the way for making i t a popular movement. 12. To i d e n t i f y , i n however small a way, some dangers which might creep up due to an indiscriminate a p p l i c a t i o n of social, work techniques and p r i n c i p l e s in. Pakistan. To point out the d i r e c t i o n i n which the dangers l i e i n the l i g h t of the writer's own knowledge and experience. To help c l e a r the misunderstanding which exists i n some quarters of uninformed c r i t i c s of modem s o c i a l work i n Pakistan by showing that there i s nothing i n i t repugnant to the s p i r i t of Islam; rather i t i s a part of i t s teachings and ideology. Moreover, s o c i a l work-, with i t s f i r m b e l i e f i n the p r i n c i p l e of self-determination, allows every nation to meet i t s needs i n whatever s p e c i f i c form i t deems proper. To help s o c i a l work planners and policy makers i n Pakistan to achieve a deeper under-standing of the impact of culture on the l i v e s of people before planning f o r t h e i r welfare. To impress upon the North American s o c i a l workers (who might be increasingly c a l l e d upon by the A s i a t i c countries to work as consultants i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare) 13. the nee.d f o r developing a sensitive awareness to the indigenous cultures. 7) To a s s i s t the future researcher on the subject. I l l Methodology: Focus and scope, outline of plan, the sources of data, e t c . A) -Focus and Scope of the study. The writer's main focus i s to explain the significance of c u l t u r a l factors with s p e c i a l reference to the casework method. He has not brought under discussion the socio-economic or psychological f a c t o r s . Nor the s o c i a l work method as a whole has been dealt with. The reason f o r h i s c u l t u r a l and casework focus are as follows: 1) A treatment of the s o c i a l work method as a whole would make the thesis very comprehensive, bulky and unmanageable. 11) The writer's s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the f i e l d of casework teaching and practice and the study i s bound to help him i n the long run i n h i s teaching career. I l l ) The writer has with him some representative case material drawn primarily from his own knowledge and experience to substantiate his views i n concrete terms. ' • 14. IV) On the other hand, culture, as one of the most dynamic forces i n shaping and moulding human behaviour, c a l l s f o r an increased understanding of i n d i v i d u a l motivation and capa c i t i e s . V) It i s i n the f i e l d of casework most es p e c i a l l y , that the influence of culture makes i t s e l f most pronouncedly f e l t ; although i t s role i n the whole f i e l d of s o c i a l work cannot be minimized. However, i n order to give the study a broader base, a wider perspective, to enhance better understanding, the writer has planned to discuss the subject f i r s t i n general terms, emphasizing the implications of the c u l t u r a l concept, i n s o c i a l work as a whole, and then coming down to s p e c i f i c issues involving casework which presents the ce n t r a l theme of the study. For t h i s purpose the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g which the writer has selected i s his native country - Pakistan, where, i n the course of his educational and teaching careers he was able to i d e n t i f y the pertinent material. B) Outline of the Study. Chapter I. 1) Review of the c u l t u r a l concept as determinant of human behaviour and motivation, i t s implica-tions f o r s o c i a l work,. i n general, and 15. casework i n p a r t i c u l a r . S o c i a l worker's point of view. Chapter II Part One: I) Culture i n popular and technical sense. II) Its d e f i n i t i o n and components. ' III) Its sal i e n t features. Part Two: I) Casework and h i s t o r i c a l survey of i t s evolution. II) The concept of s o c i a l functioning and c u l t u r a l role theory. Chapter III I) Pakistani culture - i t s components r* at cross-roads - the national trend - a' com-promising approach - why Islamic way? II) The i d e a l culture of Pakistan - i t s basic philosophical concepts - metaphysical, p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l system - a r t , l i t e r a t u r e and recreation - knowledge, philosophy and history - system of prayers, r i t e s and ceremonies - the basic values - a compar-ative study of the basic values of Pakistan and North American cu l t u r e s . III) Islam and modern s o c i a l work. 16. IV The analysis of case material. a) the factors which obstruct. b) the factors which f a c i l i t a t e . II) Findings and conclusions. III) Suggestions and recommendations. Ifee Sources of data and information. . 1) Library research which made available the material pertaining the c u l t u r a l determin-ants of human behaviour and s o c i a l casework, the main sources of information are: i ) S o c i a l work and casework magazines and pe r i o d i c a l s . . • i i ) Books on the thoery of s o c i a l work, i i i ) Books on casework (Perlman1's most e s p e c i a l l y ) , i v ) The s o c i a l work curriculum study reports ( a l l the volumes), v) Proceedings of conferences on s o c i a l work, v i ) The UNESCO publication edited by Margaret Mead. v i i ) Encyclopaedias of s o c i a l sciences, v i i i ) Selected books on c u l t u r a l anthropology, Chapter 1) 17. s o c i a l psychology and sociology. , The material r e l a t i n g Pakistani culture i s taken from: i ) The writer t :s d i r e c t f i r s t hand knowledge and experience with his own cu l t u r e . This i s a p r i v i l e g e which every man enjoys by vi r t u e of his being a member of a p a r t i c u l a r group, i i ) The study of the writing of three prominent r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l thinkers of Pakistan: 1) Dr.Sir Mohammed Iqbal, the poet-philosopher of the East. 2) Maulana Ab-ul-Ala Modoodi 3) Mr.Ghulam Ahmad Parvez. i i i ) The study of the Al-Quran. i v ) Correspondence with his close friends Professor Mohammed Usman, Government College, Lahore, and Mr.Majid Ahmad Taseer, who gave sagnificant information regarding some aspects of Pakistani c u l t u r e . Pertinent case i l l u s t r a t i o n s drawn from the writer's own knowledge and experience depending primarily on his memory. But since i t i s 18. something which he personally experienced and l i v e d with, he has every confidence and right to claim f o r i t s v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Limitations. The case i l l u s t r a t i o n s though s i g n i f i c a n t and pertinent are not as varied, rich,, profuse and exhaustive as the w r i t e r wished them to be to elucidate such a comprehensive subject as the one selected by him. The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s from his being away from the c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g he i s w r i t i n g about. He i s unable to p r o f i t from and make use of the vast and varied experience by quoting from the observations of others. The thesis had to be f i n i s h e d hurriedly i n a packed academic schedule of his post-graduate work i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. There i s northing f o r the writer to grumble about. The paucity of time and pressure of work i s a common problem f o r a l l . What, however, made his po s i t i o n p a r t i c u -l a r l y precarious was his delayed a r r i v a l from Pakistan. A f a r less time therefore could be devoted to the wr i t i n g of the thesis which prevented him making i t as i l l u s t r a t i v e as he wanted i t to be. However, he hopes that the thesis i s just a pioneering e f f o r t on his part which may insp i r e him, or anyone else, l a t e r , to deal with the subject more comprehensively. CHAPTER I Cultural- Concept of Human Behaviour and Motivation 19 CHAPTER I I) C u l t u r a l Concept of Human Behaviour and Motivation. In recent years s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and c u l t u r a l anthropologists have pressed forward the concept of culture so convincingly and vigorously that i t gives one the impression that i n shaping and moulding human character and destiny, culture i s perhaps the greatest force to reckon with. This new and dynamic approach, based on painstaking researches into diverse patterns of culture, p a r t i c u l a r l y the old ones, i s quite e n t h r a l l i n g because i t gives a big jerk to many of our pre-conceived, long-cherished and deep-rooted notions concerning . human behaviour and motivation. By analysing the role of culture i n the l i f e of various groups and communities and supplementing t h e i r views with a wide range of facts and figures, and s t a t i s t i c a l data, the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have ventured to give a c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n and Interpretation to many of the phenomena i n human existence as contrasted with previously advanced b i o l o g i c a l , psychological and s p i r i t u a l i nterpreta-t i o n s . A great many facts about man's many—sided l i f e , when . viewed from a c u l t u r a l perspective, take on a new meaning. The human personality structure, f o r from being permanently fixed at b i r t h , as once erroneously believed., i s now seen to be profoundly conditioned, shaped, moulded and modified by i t s experiences i n a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment. The older view of the nineteenth century, psychologists that. 20 ''human nature* Is universal and a purely, b i o l o g i c a l endowment i s now being recognized as i n v a l i d . The present concept des-cribes i t : "A complex array of attitudes, learned habits, behaviour patterns, and acquired aspirations that are not inborn but are the resu l t of c u l t u r a l l y sanctioned learning and environ-mental conditioning."1 Indeed, i t i s a l l very i n t e r e s t i n g as well as re-vealing, how a l l - i n c l u s i v e and all'-embracing culture i s ; to what extent i t takes the place of what used to be referred to as b i o l o g i c a l j psychological and s p i r i t u a l 'truths 1', to what extent i t permeates,: not only v a r i e t i e s of our action patterns but also motivational behaviour, sense perception, value judg-ment, hopes and aspirations and even emotions such as love, jealousy, anger and hate. Examples have been given of how differences or s i m i l a r i t i e s arouse various reactions to the b i r t h of male and female c h i l d r e n , to death, to sex a c t i v i t y , to material wealth and amount of overt emotional behaviour. Emotional expressions apparently common to a l l s o c i e t i e s are the occurences of tears i n paid and sorrow, and of laughter as a sign of joy or happiness but Otto Kelinberg has c i t e d an example, "how, among Samurai women of an American Indian t r i b e i t was a moral offence to weep on the news that t h e i r husbands or sons have f a l l e n i n b a t t l e . They were 1. Owen F.John Dr. Contribution of Sociology to S o c i a l Work Indian Journal of S o c i a l Work Vol.XX No.l June 1959, Page.1. 21. required to.show signs of joy on hearing the news. To betray any natural feelings under the circumstances was a grave breach of decorum.".^ • The same author quotes another i n t e r e s t i n g example. Every culture i n f l i c t s punishment on murderers i n one way or other, but among native A u s t r a l i a n t r i b e s , he t e l l s us, the feelings of a mother when her son has been k i l l e d can be assuaged by adopting the murderer.^ The b i o l o g i c a l argument f o r r a c i a l superiority has been demonstrated as unsatisfactory because of the great v a r i a -tions i n the c u l t u r a l l e v e l of the same r a c i a l groups at d i f f e r e n t times i n history, as well as of d i f f e r e n t sub-groups within the same race. The whole human race i s one species, and a l l a t t r i b u t i v e l a b e l l i n g of races as ' i n f e r i o r * , 'barbaric*, 'incapable of progress* or * s i n f u l * , i s f a l l a c i o u s . "NO one item of man^s t r i b a l s o c i a l organization, of his language, of his l o c a l r e l i g i o n i s c a r r i e d i n the germ c e l l " , says Ruth Benedict. "Man i s not committed i n d e t a i l by his b i o l o g i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n to any p a r t i c u l a r variety of behaviour.''^ I t i s a mistake to regard any one people as any more or any less i n t e l l i g e n t than another because high and low or mediocre i n t e l l i g e n c e may be shaped to f i t any c u l t u r e . ^ 1. Kelinberg Otto; S o c i a l Psychology. Henry Holt, N.Y. Page 193 2. Kelinberg Otto; Op. C i t . , Page 194. 3. Benedict Ruth; Patterns of Culture. Houghton M i f f l i n Company The Riverside Press, Cambridge. Page 12. 4. Cuber F. John; Sociology. Page 32. . ; Differences i n the stages of the development of various s o c i e t i e s and nations have been explained as due to h i s t o r i c a l ^ economy and environmental f a c t o r s . That one nation marched forward and the other was l e f t behind i s no proof of the l a t t e r ' s i n f e r i o r i n t e l l e c t . I t i s merely an ' h i s t o r i c a l accident'. The existence of a great variety of customs and practices, b e l i e f s and t r a d i t i o n s are only "variant arrangements of human l i f e " • grown out of convenience and the d i s t i n c t i v e l i f e experiences of d i f f e r e n t nations. To brand some nations 'barbaric* or ' u n c i v i l i z e d ^ on the basis of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t way of l i v i n g i s , . 1 1 . . . . a sort of r a t i o n -a l i z a t i o n which may be employed i n order to j u s t i f y economic exp l o i t a t i o n , to re- e s t a b l i s h feelings of self-importance, and because there i s something to be gained by i t . " ^ The profundity with which culture influences the persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t has been manifested i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I t i s pointed out that i t i s from his c u l t u r a l experiences that he acquires his needs and i n t e r e s t s , h i s fears and hopes. He derives from i t meanings of things; the d e f i n i t i o n of what i s l o g i c a l and natural, what i s moral and immoral and what i s normal and abnormal.' Many of our basic human needs which we take for granted 1. Benedict Ruth; Op. G i t . Page 32. 2. Kelinberg Otto; Op. C i t . Page 400. 23. as being innate or 'Instinctive 1", when viewed i n c u l t u r a l context, make a revealing study. According to the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s culture pre-determines the d i r e c t i o n and the patterns within which b i o l o g i c a l and i n s t i n c t i v e needs or drives can be acceptable, met and expressed. Hunger and sex, f o r instance, (which are among the primary and basic human needs) when viewed i n a c u l t u r a l l i g h t , change t h e i r complexion. A l l human beings get hungry but an orthodox Pakistani Muslim w i l l prefer to go hungry, even die of hunger, rather than eat pork; but t h i s i s not true of North American people f o r whom pork i s a delicacy. C u l t u r a l influences have been found determining varying attitudes towards the importance of the sex r e l a t i o n , the emotions attached to i t , the values attached to ch a s t i t y , standards of attractiveness i n the sex partner, the methods of acquiring a mate, the manner of rearing c h i l d r e n and the need f o r haying c h i l d r e n . Sometimes sex may be e n t i r e l y sub-ordinated to c u l t u r a l requirements such as pursuit of re l i g i o u s asceticism. °° ' . Motherhood, or 'maternalidrive* f o r which so much un i v e r s a l i t y has been claimed has been repudiated by the cus-' toms of i n f a n t i c i d e and by the. examples that a l l women do not love t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Parenthood i s said to be determined mainly by the values which culture attaches to children rather than by 24. innate b i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . 1 ; Even i n regard to what i s c a l l e d ''conscience1" -"the s t i l l small voice of God" - about which there i s a con-ception that i t i s inherent and inborn* The evidence provided by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s has indicated that i t i s a culturally patterned behaviour. A comparative study of various ancient and modern cultures made to t h i s e f f e c t t e s t -i f i e s that t h e i r 'conscience* spoke i n d i f f e r e n t voices at d i f f e r e n t times, and even at the same time by d i f f e r e n t sub-groups i n the same cu l t u r e . Though there are some s t r i k i n g uniformities i n the moral creeds of a l l cult u r e s . Normality or abnormality of behaviour, which s-eme-•^fe-i-me-s- was formerly ascribed^ almost i n a l l cases^ to organic or psychological disorders, i s now being increasingly explained with reference to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . The concept of abnorm-a l i t y has been found varying from one society to another. Behaviour resembling paranoia i s normal f o r the Kewakital t r i b e , withdrawal from r e a l i t y i s permitted to a Budhist, homosexual and trance states are accepted i n many communities.^ Explaining neurotic behaviour, Dr.Horney observes, t fNeurosis are generated not only be i n c i d e n t a l i n d i v i d u a l ex-periences, but also by the s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l conditions under which he l i v e s . In fac t the c u l t u r a l conditions not only lend 1 2 Kelinberg; Op. C i t . Page 115. Kelinberg; Op. C i t . Page 521. 25 weight and colour to the i n d i v i d u a l experiences but i n the last analysis determine t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r form."! Crime and delinquency which are said to be the re s u l t of something inherently bad i n man, have also been c u l t u r a l l y defined. They are r e l a t i v e to the pr e v a i l i n g c u l t u r e . An act regarded as a crim i n a l offence i n one society may be meritorious and even virtuous, i n the other. Ethnological material r i c h i n examples has been put forward to prove t h i s . P a t r i c i d e and matricide are among the most heinous crimes i n society, but under the influence of c e r t a i n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s ^ Fujian notion of the virtue of an early death k i l l i n g a parent may be a pious act. Homosexuality i s no crime among the Siberian Chuckchee, and what we would c a l l s t e a l i n g , ceases to Occur i n a community with no notion of private property.2 The role of culture i n regulating, c o n t r o l l i n g and determining human behaviour has been presented recently with a renewed stress. The c u l t u r a l values by which a man l i v e s and orders his l i f e give meaning and consistency to his behaviour. Without them the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l d r i f t i n a capricious and chaotic world. His behaviour w i l l appear inexplicable and unpredictable. He w i l l be a v i c t i m of c o n f l i c t i n g l o y a l t i e s , not knowing what action or behaviour pattern i s desirable or acceptable i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n ; 1. Horney Karen Dr. The Neurosis Personality, of our Time. N.Y., W.W.Norton and Company Inc. Page 30. 2. Kelinberg Otto; Op.Git. Page 525. 26. and i n t h i s welter of confusion, created by normative ambiguity, he w i l l f a i l to d i s t i n g u i s h between right and wrong. The c u l t u r a l values are "modes of organizing conduct", says Robin M. Williams 1*',.".... meaningful, a f f e c t i v e l y invested p r i n c i p l e s that guide human action."1 They are the c r i t e r i a by which goals are chosen. They help to grow we11-integrated and coherent pers o n a l i t i e s with a c l e a r cut sense of i d e n t i t y and self-image. An i n d i v i d u a l faced with c r i s e s of evaluation might develop a s p l i t or pathological behaviour. Boehm, i n that volume of curriculum studies which deals with the teachings of values and ethics i n s o c i a l work education, speaks of two ways i n which values function primar-2 i l y i n human l i f e . 1) The super ego formation of the i n d i v i d u a l . The values with which the person sel e c t s , approves or disapproves h i s own behaviour and that of others are major components i n the psycho-analytic concept of super-ego or 'conscience* L. Stein D. Herman and Cloward A. Richard. 'Social Perspec-tive on Behaviour*"1: William M. Robin. Value orientations i n American Society. The Free Press Publishers. Glencoe, I l l i n o i s . Pages 288-289. 2. Boehm W.W. The Teachings of Values and Ethics i n S.W. Education. S o c i a l work curriculum studies. The Council on S o c i a l Work Education. Volume XIII. Page 33. i n r e l i g i o u s terminology. Hence, g u i l t , s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n and intra-personal c o n f l i c t s are a l l dependent on values to which he has chosen to adhere, or among which he i s t r y i n g to make,a choice.- • 2) In group s o l i d a r i t y - the holding, cherishing and defending.of values i s one of the forces which bind people together i n groups, communitie and p o l i t i c a l states. 4 In small groups, the development of informal codes; i n primitive communities, formalized law and public opinion, a l l represent selected values which unite or activate people. . . . II) Its Implications f o r S o c i a l Work i n General. In the foregoing pages the writer has endeavoured to present the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s point of view about the dVteirmina t i o n of human behaviour and motivation. It i s not f o r him to pass judgment f o r or against any aspect of t h i s c u l t u r a l con-cept. Any such attempt w i l l be beside the issue and beyond the scope of the present discussion. His major objective i n presenting t h i s broad and comprehensive background i s to d e l i n -eate how sweeping, all-embracing and dynamic i s the influence of culture on a l l aspects of human character and destiny. With t h i s background i n mind we w i l l now proceed to discuss what . a l l t h i s means f o r s o c i a l work practice i n general, and case-work practice i n p a r t i c u l a r . But before we proceed to do 28. so, i t seems worthwhile to describe f i r s t , b r i e f l y , what i s the nature of s o c i a l work profession. a) The Nature of S o c i a l Work. The encyclopaedia of s o c i a l sciences defines s o c i a l work as, "... a process through which various resources are brought i n a judicious and h e l p f u l way to meet i n d i v i d u a l , group and community, needs."! In other words i t i s a prof-essional service aiming at "helping people to help themselves" through undertaking a series of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Since, however, s o c i a l work i s a very, broad term s i g n i f y i n g many things at a time, i t w i l l , perhaps, be better to describe i t than attempt to define i t . Boehm^ the d i r e c t o r of the s o c i a l work curriculum study project, answering the question, "What i s the nature of s o c i a l work?" examines the term from the point of view of i t s .ultimate g o a l s , : i t s functions, i t s a c t i v i t i e s , perspective and focus. The ultimate goal of s o c i a l work i s to enhance, restore and improve s o c i a l functioning wherever the need f o r . such a c t i v i t i e s i s e i t h e r s o c i a l l y or i n d i v i d u a l l y perceived. S o c i a l functioning encompasses those a c t i v i t i e s which are d i r -ected 'at the study of man i n society with a view to improving his s o c i a l l i v i n g , to enable him to lead a f u l l e r and more s a t i s f y i n g l i f e and to help him to become a s o c i a l l y more useful member of society, f o r his own good as well as f o r society's 1. Encyclopedia of S o c i a l Sciences: "S o c i a l Work". 29. good. In the l a s t analysis, both i n d i v i d u a l good and s o c i e t a l good are c l o s e l y i n t e r l i n k e d . The functions of s o c i a l work f a l l into three cat-egories: restoration of impaired capacity; provision of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l resources; and prevention of s o c i a l dysfunctioning. Individual, singly or i n groups on one hand, and the s o c i a l environments on the other, are seen as acting and i n t e r a c t i n g on one another. S o c i a l work as a helping profession i s viewed as having an obligation to i n t e r -vene when i n the l i g h t of an assessment of the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l factors involved some dysfunctioning Is perceived. S o c i a l work, with the help of a number of professional a c t i v i t i e s aims at preventing s o c i a l dysfunctioning and bring-ing about improvement i n the s i t u a t i o n . The- a c t i v i t i e s of s o c i a l work are spread over d i f f e r e n t i n t e r r e l a t e d professional methods - casework, group-work and community organization, administration and research. They can be grouped into four categories: Assessment of the problem, planning f o r the solution of the problem, implement-ing of the plan and evaluating the outcome. The perspective of s o c i a l work i s the understanding of the i n t e r a c t i o n between man and his environment. This i s a thing which s o c i a l work shares with most other helping professions, most e s p e c i a l l y law and medicine, but the d i s t -inguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s o c i a l work profession i s i t s focus on s o c i a l and human rela t i o n s h i p s , i . e . how people 30. get along with others and how they perform t h e i r c u l t u r a l  r o l e s . 1 b) C u l t u r a l Concept and S o c i a l Work. From the study of i t s ultimate goals, functions, various a c t i v i t i e s , perspective and focus, i t w i l l be evident that the c e n t r a l themeof s o c i a l work i s man and his r e l a t i o n -ship with his environment, most e s p e c i a l l y his s o c i a l environ-ment. As such, the importance of the subject or subjects which i n any way contribute to the understanding of human behaviour and s o c i a l relationships can hardly be over-estimated. On i e v e l of generality, the knowledge of culture, p a r t i c u l a r l y cultures other than one's ownj broadens the s o c i a l perspective of the student of s o c i a l work. It enables him to step out of his ivory tower and see beyond the bonds of his narrow s h e l l ; thereby outgrowing any smugness or parochialism which might threaten his practice as a s o c i a l worker. The awareness that there are other ways of looking upon things too, which in e v i t a b l y grows out of the study of d i f f e r e n t cultures, fosters the understanding, goodwill and appreciation f o r the point of view of other people which i s basic to the s o c i a l worker's b e l i e f i n the acceptance of the ri g h t of others to think, believe and act according to t h e i r own c u l t u r a l values. 1 Boehm W. Werner, DL 1, The S o c i a l Work Curriculum and i t s Implications f o r Family Casework. Octi.1959. V o l . XI No.8. Page 428. 31. A comparative study of various cultures helps the s o c i a l worker to understand the s o c i a l behaviour of the people with whom he works. "Behaviour which might otherwise be i n -explicable i n those whom we meet takes on new meaning" says Teicher, " i f viewed i n the perspective of the c u l t u r a l concept, practices that may seem queer become understandable. We are enabled to recognize that d i f f e r e n t customs do not exist because of d i f f e r e n t climates, or d i f f e r e n t destiny. Differences among various groups are based on the fact that t h e i r culture, • t h e i r blue-print f o r l i v i n g i s d i f f e r e n t . " ! On p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , c u l t u r a l variables needs to be taken into account i n policy making, planning, provision of services and i n meeting the needs of various communities, most es p e c i a l l y of the minority communities within the bigger society. This i s important f o r the general welfare, otherwise p o l i c i e s and plans w i l l be unacceptable, meet resistance and sharp reaction. An example of t h i s may be found i n the following incident i n Pakistan, where a housing project f a i l e d simply because the authorities had f a i l e d to appreciate the c u l t u r a l values of the people who were to move there. The houses they b u i l t did not provide adequate privacy. The female f o l k , who observed s t r i c t purdha ( v e i l ) , were exposed to the eyes of the male members of the adjacent houses. The knowledge of the culture bf various heterogenous groups i n the community i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t for the 1. Teicher I. Morton: Culture and S o c i a l Casework. S o c i a l Casework. 1958. 32. s o c i a l worker i n community organizations engaged i n working f o r inter-group harmony and bridging the gulf between con-f l i c t i n g and mutually warring h o s t i l e groups. A. programme of peaceful co-existence i n which a l l the groups can p a r t i c i -pate equally, without lo s i n g t h e i r , i d e n t i t y and surrendering t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e way of l i f e , can be implemented successfully only i f the s o c i a l worker has a genuine understanding of the c u l t u r a l variables of the d i f f e r e n t groups. Ignorance, or lack of awareness, as to how the rest of humanity thinks, l i e s at the basis of a l l the mis-understanding and apprehensions which divide heterogenous groups and nations of mankind. S o c i a l workers have a special role to play i n t h i s context: They are creative i n t e r -mediaries - communicative agents - whose major contribution l i e s i n the f i e l d of inter-personal and inter-group r e l a t i o n -ships. By opening channels of communication and imparting the right type of information they can d i s p e l doubts, reduce tension, promote understanding and goodwill among warring and mutually c o n f l i c t i n g groups of mankind. This task can best be accomplished by the s o c i a l workers who are properly orientated towards the ways of l i f e of the d i f f e r e n t groups whom they want to serve. One of the objectives of s o c i a l work i s to help people bring about desirable s o c i a l changes, to help them conform f a i r l y c l o s e l y to t h e i r i d e a l c u l t u r a l values, or to modify t h e i r behaviour to f i t i n t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . 33. He i s not a conformist, but as a community representative, he has a tremendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and an important job to prepare c u l t u r a l l y mature and s o c i a l l y responsible men and women. He i s engaged i n the task of re-eduction and re-s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l because every society endeavours, to create the type of personality appropriate to i t s s o c i a l requirements. Indeed, t h i s Is e s s e n t i a l f o r smooth functioning and operation of any s o c i a l system;. In the words of Boehm, t h i s may be termed, "to enhance, restore and improve people's s o c i a l functioning."! Now, unless the s o c i a l worker knows and i d e n t i f i e s what these i d e a l c u l t u r a l values are, and what are the strengths and weaknesses of a community, how can he help people make adequate and constructive s o c i a l adjustments? Culture not only creates problems but also solves them. The s o c i a l worker needs to be aware of t h i s mechanism; i f at a l l he i s to enhance, restore and improve s o c i a l functioning. How the knowledge of community values enabled a worker to make constructive suggestions to help people make s o c i a l l y desirable decisions could be appreciated from the following s i t u a t i o n : A community development worker i n Pakistan r e a l i z e d that a budget committee was divided over the issue of giving r e l i e f to a refugee group that some members resented having i n the community. He helped the members sort out the r e l a t i v e I. Boehm W.W.j The S o c i a l Casework Method i n S o c i a l Work Edu-c a t i o n : S o c i a l Work Curriculum Study; Council of So c i a l Work Education Vol.X Page 80. 34. strength of the values, involved. He referred to such values as that of brotherhood, equality, h o s p i t a l i t y , good neighbourliness, charity - the values which the community held dear to i t s heart - and thus enabled them to make a demo-c r a t i c a l l y just decision. At times the worker has to help the i n d i v i d u a l , group or community to deepen commitment to values from verbal to action level.and motivate them to l i v e up to what they believe. On such occasions he has to search for a standard of behaviour provided by the culture of the c l i e n t . I t i s not within the s o c i a l worker's province to introduce r a d i c a l changes, propose innovations, or replace old values by new ones. It i s f o r s o c i a l reformers and l e g i s -lators to do so. His job i s to a s s i s t t h e i r ta.skr.by helping them understand c u l t u r a l dynamics and s o c i a l implications involved i n a move for s o c i a l or l e g i s l a t i v e action. He pro-ceeds by undertaking f i e l d research and securing s t a t i s t i c a l data pertaining to the community views and attitudes about the proposed innovations or changes, and then i n t e r p r e t i n g the data i n the l i g h t of the community c u l t u r a l values. He hands over his findings and recommendations to the community leaders f o r t h e i r benefit i n planning and:policy making. Maybe, on the basis of his c l i n i c a l and professional experience, i f he finds that i t i s useful for a community to hold f a s t to some of i t s old b e l i e f s and customs because they lend security to the people or can be constructively u t i l i z e d f o r the benefit of 35 the people, he may favour t h e i r preservation. His interest i n culture i s not on a t h e o r e t i c a l basis to quench his t h i r s t for c u r i o s i t y , but f o r the p r a c t i c a l s ignificance which i t has i n the l i f e of his c l i e n t . Culture i s not a conglomeration of unrelated customs, b e l i e f s , values, arts and morals. It i s an integrated'whole, the parts of which are i n harmony with each other. One aspect of i t cannot be changed without e f f e c t i n g the whole. 1 A. s o c i a l worker as an agent of s o c i a l change, should have a f a i r l y good knowledge of the various parts of culture to a s s i s t , guide and d i r e c t the process of change and prepare?people to learn the technology of l i v i n g . He should know that passing a law to abolish a custom just w i l l not work. Changes i n the material arrangements must be accomplished or preceded by changes i n the attitudes, i n the thinking style and outlook of the people; otherwise i t w i l l create ' l a g s 1 , c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t s and widespread and vi o l e n t repercussions r e s u l t i n g i n the b i r t h of fresh problems. An attempt to solve one s o c i a l problem might give r i s e to a host of others. The knowledge of culture alone can help to integrate the present, the past and the future to bring about a peaceful revolution without upsetting the balance of the entire s o c i a l structure. Again^ the worker who a s s i s t s a. community to adapt 1 Teicher I. Morton, Phd. The Concept of Culture. S o c i a l Casework. Oct.1958 V o l . XXXIX No. Page 450. 36 to new changes or involve i t i n the process of i t s own welfare has to be acquainted with the c u l t u r a l factors so as to know wherein motivation l i e s . For instance i n Pakistan, ?where the common man i s strongly motivated by r e l i g i o n , the worker should know that any appeal f o r fund r a i s i n g , w i l l f a l l f l a t i f i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y motivated through r e l i g i o n . The female workers i n the communities have often experienced that the best way to induce women f o l k i n Pakistan to attend a womerit!s gathering, i s through arranging Mehfal-ai-Milad (sp e c i a l r e l i g i o u s meetings to commemorate the birthday of the Prophet). The workers have often u t l i z e d these arrange-ments to d e l i v e r t h e i r message. Another common observation i n Pakistan, i s that women, p a r t i c u l a r l y young g i r l s , seldom go out alone to attend any function other than r e l i g i o u s , at night hours. A worker who arranges a meeting ignoring t h i s f a c t , often f a i l s to hold one. Even v i s i t s by a young female worker at night time to the community meets with disapproval. Dr.Teicher i n his i l l u m i n a t i n g a r t i c l e 'The concept of C u l t u r e ' 1 , has alerted s o c i a l workers to the importance of symbols and r i t u a l s , and the symbolic nature of many of our a c t i v i t i e s . Symbols express our values. He has referred, f o r instancej to the value of ^bigness' i n American culture, where people boast of everything b i g . The biggest car, the biggest b u i l d i n g , the biggest agency, the biggest corporation, 1. Teicher I. Morton: The Concept of Culture. S o c i a l Casework Vol.XXXiX No.8, Oct.1958, Page 450. 37. and so on* He has also mentioned the value of white c o l l a r occupations and how the ch i l d r e n are urged to prepare themselves accordingly, even though they might earn more money as br i c k -layers. The symbol of the "white c o l l a r " c a r r i e s more weight than d o l l a r s and cents. The writer, pn the basis of his own experience, would l i k e to point out that even the study of the super-s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and practices of a community has great s i g n i f i c a n c e . In his research t h e s i s 1 submitted by the writer to the S o c i a l Work Department, Punjab University, Pakistan, he has mentioned how, once i n a new town, away from his home, i n order to b u i l d up good r e l a t i o n s , he happened to send a basket f u l l of white jasmine flowers to his neighbour who was f e e l i n g indisposed. To his great surprise t h i s ges-ture of goodwill met with strong denunciation. Later, i t came to the writer's knowledge that the sending of jasmine flowers to a patient i n that community, i s interpreted as an ill-omen, i n d i c a t i n g a wish for his hasty death, 1. Malik M.A. Astrologers, Palmists and S p i r i t u a l Healers i n Pakistan. A study project submitted to the Department of S o c i a l Work, .Punjab University, Xahore, as a p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirement of Master i n So c i a l Work i n I960. 38. Another thesis on Infant M o r t a l i t y 1 submitted, by a student of the same University, indicated that one of the major causes of the infant mortality i n Lahore C i t y , the c a p i t a l of West Pakistan, was that 70 percent of the mothers took t h e i r babies to the s p i r i t u a l healers rather than to q u a l i f i e d do©tors. A s o c i a l worker need not know every b i t of a c u l t u r e . It i s not possible f o r him. He must, however, be aware of c e r t a i n broad c u l t u r a l bases that underlie the practice and theory of s o c i a l work. He must have enough sensitive under-standing which comes from a knowledge and appreciation of the various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of other cultures. Ruth Benedict sums up t h i s thought i n her c l a s s i c book 'Patterns of Culture*': "No man can thoroughly p a r t i c i p a t e i n any culture unless he has been brought up and has l i v e d accordingly to its.forms, but he can grant to other cultures the same:signifi-cance to t h e i r participants which he recognizes i n his own....** To sum up, i t seems worthwhile to stress agin, that any worker should be f a m i l i a r with broad l i n e s of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l development i n the country i n which he i s working and should have a working knowledge of the c u l t u r a l conditions and i n s t i t u t i o n s which make up the environment of the people' he serves. 1. Kishwar: '''-Infant Mortality* and i t s Causes. An unpub-li s h e d thesis i n the S o c i a l Work Dept., Punjab u n i v e r s i t y j ,1960. 2. Benedict Ruth: Op.Cit Page 21. 3 9 III) .Implications of the Concept for Casework Practice,  i n P a r t i c u l a r * . A. knowledge of the various c u l t u r a l patterns and insight into c u l t u r a l dynamics are v i t a l to casework theory and p r a c t i c e , most e s p e c i a l l y , i n that they supplement both the knowledge and s k i l l necessary to the e f f e c t i v e administra-t i o n of casework services. Further, i t i s necessary, not only for the understanding of the c l i e n t as a person, but also f o r the very process of casework. A study of his own culture and a healthy appreciation of the culture of the c l i e n t tends to make a s o c i a l caseworker more objective and detached i n his outlook. It leaves the c l i e n t free to make the most comfortable c u l t u r a l adaptation. Failu r e to appreciate the c l i e n t ' s culture may unwittingly lead the caseworker to impose his own c u l t u r a l standards on him. The concept of culture has increased our understanding of man i n his bio-psycho-socio-cultural being. It has augmented our picture of his" t o t a l personality* and his psycho-analytic approach to human behaviour and motivation so captured the imagination of most caseworkers that they almost overlooked the significance of man's c u l t u r a l environments. The general ten-dency on the part of caseworkers was to twist every b i t of evidence to f i t Freud's psychological i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of human behaviour. This one-sided approach was inadequate i n the correct assessment of the c l i e n t ' s t o t a l personality which, r i g h t l y speaking, could only be assessed when viewed i n his 40. s o c i a l s e t t i n g . The c u l t u r a l concept provides caseworkers with the '-missing l i n k 1 . The knowledge of culture enables the s o c i a l worker i n general, and the caseworker, i n p a r t i c u l a r , to make i n t e l l i -gent predictions about human behaviour. The more accurate pur knowledge about the culture of a person, the more d e f i n i t e and the more s p e c i f i c w i l l be our predictions. The a b i l i t y to make predictions on the basis of culture -is at the root of human interaction,,since so many of our relationships depend on f u l f i l l m e n t by the i n d i v i d u a l of the expectations we have of them. 1 For example, i f we know the puritanic charact«:rr| of Pakistan culture, we can preduct with a great degree of certainty that an orthodox Muslim woman w i l l not l e t herself bjf medically examined by a male doctor, even i f she were dying. An orthodox Muslim keeping f a s t w i l l not be i n v i t e d to a luncheon party during the holy month of Ramzan ( f a s t s ) . The knowledge of a c l i e n t ' s culture helps a case-worker to b u i l d up good inter-personal relationshops. A lack of such understanding might cause suspicion, c o n f l i c t , antagonism and h o s t i l i t y . It i s not correct to say that good relations between caseworker and c l i e n t have the strength to overcome c u l t u r a l differences. The question i s , how to i n i t i a t e these relationships? Relationships not based on a proper understanding of the culture of the other person have 1. Teicher I. Morton: Op. G i t . Page 450. .41. weak foundations; and t h i s j perhaps, i s one reason why i n t e r - c u l t u r a l matrimonial relationships often end i n di s a s t e r . Quite analogous to t h i s agreement i s the question of the mutual and r e c i p r o c a l acceptance of the c l i e n t and the caseworker. A psychologist might interpret non-acceptance as the phenomenon of negative transference. But non-acceptance may be c u l t u r a l l y determined phenomenon too.' Such as class consciousness, caste system, various taboos, competitiveness, individualism, and a host of socio-economic b e l i e f s . For instance, i n India, the r i g i d i t y of the caste system may be a strong hindrance i n the mutual acceptance of c l i e n t and case-worker. A Brahman - a person of superior caste - w i l l not touch an untouchable, not t o speak of paying home v i s i t s . Death may be preferred to acceptance or seeking of any help from the person of.low b i r t h . The communication process which plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n a l l phases of casework practice, i n v e s t i g a t i o n , diagnosis, planning and treatment, i s constantly influenced by the c u l t u r a l elements. In t h i s connection the importance of language, which i s a vehicle of communication and an element of culture, can hardly be over-estimated. I n a b i l i t y to understand or speak the language of the c l i e n t i s a serious b a r r i e r to communication of knowledge and information, feelings and attitudes, and a pos i t i v e loss to the development of workable client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p s . "One of the simplest techniques of establishing 42 rapport with a c l i e n t of another ethnic group i s to use his native language. 1 , 1 The c l i e n t expresses his negative or p o s i t i v e feelings only to the members of his own l i n g u i s t i c or ethnic group. He becomes very reserved when talking to the foreigner, and also f a i l s to convey his r e a l feelings i n a language other than his own* Some words have special connotations i n the language of some sub-groups. It pays to have a true understanding of them i n order to assess the nature of in-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the sub-culture of teenagers and adult groups f o r instance, i n the area of Punjab, Pakistan, to hurl f i l t h y abuse on one another, i s a mark of intimacy, love and frankness; Abusive language i s used to address wives, and even parents i n some families i n the same connotation. A s o c i a l worker unfamiliar with t h i s connotation may be misled into drawing wrong i n -ferences. Where i t i s taboo to discuss c e r t a i n topics i n a society i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to communicate and exchange knowledge and information. Sex, f o r instance, i s one topic on which a hush pr e v a i l s i n Pakistan society, not only i n the 1. Woods Jerome Francis S i s t e r : C u l t u r a l Conditioning of Mental Health. S o c i a l Casework Vol.XXXlX No.8. June 1958, Page 328. 43. home environment with children but also i n high academic 1 i n s t i t u t i o n s . _ A s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y i s experienced i n the f i e l d work settings. To t a l k of sex with a woman c l i e n t 2 i s next to impossible. The experience of male workers i s 1. Mr.Emerson Holcomb, a v i s i t i n g professor from Washington State University i n the Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University, experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s -cussing issued involving sex i n casework material. G i r l students of post-graduate l e v e l i n the writer's own c l a s s , once objected to the open discussion of sex i n class room as i t v i o l a t e d c u l t u r a l values of Pakistan. Mr.Holcomb, l i k e a true s o c i a l worker, sensitive to the significance of c u l t u r a l values,.. used more guarded language thenceforth. 2. As a Student of s o c i a l work, Punjab University, the writer was referred the case of a middle-aged T.B, female patient who was the mother of eight c h i l d r e n . The writer had i intended, i n his treatment plan to recommend family planning but the crux of the problem was how to broach the subject. Once he attempted to explain the matter but both he and his c l i e n t f e l t embarassed. The matter was l a t e r referred to a female co-worker who conveyed the needed information with the help of a lady health v i s i t o r , as she h e r s e l f , was an unmarried g i r l . The writer, however, had a very d i f f e r e n t experience while working with a female c l i e n t i n the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital, Essendale, where his female c l i e n t on the very f i r s t interview, t o l d the writer about her extra-marital excursions. This may be p a r t l y due to the per-sonal idiosyncracy of the patient and p a r t l y due to the c u l t u r a l differences between Pakistan and North America which, according to Jerome Woods, "allows a comparatively high degree of expression even of personal and intimate matters." Jerome: Op. C i t . Page 20. 44 that t h e i r female c l i e n t s , due to fear of parents, husbands or guardians, shyness,, or r i s k involved i n exposing family secrets, do not come out with t h e i r true feelings or f a c t s . Some c u l t u r a l factors also s l i p i n . .Forebearance, patience, coritenment, submission to fate or husband's w i l l , reticence i n the face of misfortunate or tyranny of in-laws, are prized very highly among women. Suppression or repression of f e e l -ings-, emotions and sentiments of hatred, h o s t i l i t y and love are e x t o l l e d even bypopular l i t e r a t u r e , songs and s t o r i e s . An unwed mother i s an almost unheard of thing i n Pakistan. Pre-marital relationships are hedged, with strongest taboos. The b i r t h of a c h i l d out of wedlock i s the mightiest crime of a l l - x'a freak of nature 1. One can well imagine what might happen to a s o c i a l worker oriented to t h i s culture i f he were assigned to work i n an agency where unwed mother's are kept! 1 1. Prostitutes and c a l l g i r l s are also s o c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y high unacceptable human being. A female fellow student of the writer, who, as part of her f i e l d work t r a i n i n g , was placed i n a T.B. c l i n i c located i n the v i c i n i t y of a red-light area i n Lahore C i t y , the c a p i t a l of West Pakistan, explained to him how she f a i l e d to pay a home v i s i t to her prostitute c l i e n t , as that would have brought her s o c i a l disgrace. Expressing her feelings she admitted that she had not been able to overcome her 'inborn' hatred of prostitutes despite her b e l i e f i n s o c i a l work p h i l o -sophy of the d i g n i t y and work of man. An unmarried, q u a l i f i e d fiemale s o c i a l worker, personally known to the writer, employed i n that C l i n i c , obtained a transfer to another c l i n i c . This i s an example of how the role of culture i n the client-worker r e l a t i o n s h i p becomes revealing. 45 How c u l t u r a l factors a f f e c t a caseworker's treatment plan can be understood from the fact that some cultures provide a large number of choices, while other provide very few to select from i n working out the problems of s o c i a l adjustment. "The p r i n c i p l e of ^'self-determination*- can be exercised only by an i n d i v i d u a l " , says William G i o s e f f i , to whom choices are open. 1 A major subject of inte r e s t f o r s o c i a l work students and practioners i n t h e i r treatment e f f o r t s , i s to "enhance the persorfe motivation, capacity and opportunity to restore or refashion his role performance."2 N O W an t h i s depends, to a great extent, on the forces operating i n the c u l t u r a l environment of the c l i e n t about which the caseworker should have a sensitive awareness.^ 1) • Motivation refers to the-willingness.of the c l i e n t to involve himself i n the process of achieving e f f e c t i v e role performance. This i s indicated by his i n t e r e s t , e f f o r t to reach out f o r help, readiness to mobilize his own resources, explaining what he wants, how he f e e l s , and becoming t h i s an active agent i n r e l a t i o n to his problem. Though motivation depends p a r t l y , on the degree of discomfort" and hope generated by the worker, the influence of culture i n t h i s respect can hardly be over-estimated. 2) ' Capacity refers to his a b i l i t y to r e l a t e , to communicate, to perceive his r o l e , to judge etc. Now a l l t h i s depends to a great extent, on the emotional, i n t e l l e c t u a l and physical make-up of a person. But t h i s i s also subject to the influences of his c u l t u r e . 3) Opportunity refers to the material means and resources of s k i l l of the agency and community. But opportunities available to the c l i e n t are i n v a r i a b l y influenced by the Culture i n which he l i v e s . Some c u l t u r e s , for instance, provide more opportunities and a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r making choices, while others provide l e s s . 46. Therapeutic goals of the worker are fixed by c e r t a i n desirable conditions and acceptable modes of behaviour. For instance, i n the case of a c l i e n t with behaviour disorder the worker needs a c r i t e r i a to suggest to the c l i e n t on which he shouldset his behaviour in. order. Some ideas, notions, value judgments, norms of moral wholeness, always remain before him as goals. The question i s from where to get these norms and standards? This necessitates the study of the culture of the c l i e n t . The knowledge of the c l i e n t ' s c u l t u r a l values enables the worker to i d e n t i f y r i g i d i t y , immaturity, abnormality, deviation or poor s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the c l i e n t *s behaviour. It also helps him to sense when he i s seeking help i n under-standing the values of others or i n c l a r i f y i n g h i s own p o s i t i o n . The curriculum study on the Teaching of Values and Ethics i n s o c i a l work exemplifies that how a mental patient, long estranged from his r e l i g i o u s group was hospi t a l i z e d i n a state of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n characterized by an absence of any values.. A student of s o c i a l work i n the h o s p i t a l , a l e r t to t h i s aspect of his condition, sensed that i n r e a l i t y he was longing to see a r e l i g i o u s advisor and f a c i l i t a t e d his doing so. This helped the c l i e n t recover from his mental and s p i r i t u a l breakdown 1 Boehm: Pumphery: The Teaching of Values and Ethics i n s o c i a l work. S o c i a l work curriculum s t u d y C o u n c i l on S o c i a l work eduction. NEw York. 1959. 47 The roles which a man performs as a member of a family or a society, and on whose successful performance depends his s o c i a l , psychological, emotional and even physiological well-being, receive t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n from c u l t u r e . Roles are -" c u l t u r a l l y determined patterns of behaviour."^ Theyare the s o c i a l expectations which every member of the society must learn from his. c u l t u r e . It i s maintained that at the root of many problems of s o c i a l or personal adjustment l i e some stress s i t u a t i o n caused by c o n f l i c t , confusion, inadequacy or impairment of role performance. What roles a man plays i n his s o c i a l environment and how he does play them - are a matter of major concern for the s o c i a l caseworker, because on t h i s depends the question of his c l i e n t ' s adequate or inadequate s o c i a l functioning. A break-down i n role performance or a dysfunctioning i n role r e l a t i o n -ship, i n e v i t a b l y gives b i r t h to a "casework problem" i n v i t i n g intervention on the part of the worker. Unless he knows what expectations the culture of the c l i e n t attaches to the roles involved, how can he help his c l i e n t cope more e f f e c t i v e l y with his r o l e - r e l a t e d problem? A l l t h i s necessitates a 1 Roher I. Sutherland and J u l i a n I. Woodward: Introductory Sociology (New York. Lippincott, 194G) PP. 250-53. 48. a proper orientation to the culture of the c l i e n t . An understanding of the c l i e n t ' s culture i s , therefore, an i n t e g r a l part of the s o c i a l worker's professional knowledge and s k i l l . ^ IV. The S o c i a l Worker's Point of View. For the purpose of study and analysis the writer has stressed above the c u l t u r a l determinants of human behaviour and t h e i r implication f o r the s o c i a l work practice. It seems worthwhile to point out here that though there seems a good deal of wisdom i n what the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s say, t h i s does not contain the whole wisdom. We, as s o c i a l workers, need to be on our guard against ' c u l t u r a l determinism* and over-stressing of c u l t u r a l aspects of human development and be-i . haviour at: the expense of physical, i n t e l l e c t u a l , psychological and s p i r i t u a l aspects. Teicher has aptly remarked: "The discovery of the concept of culture may well be recognized as one of the greatest of a l l man's discov-e r i e s . But at the same time we should not forget that culture i s not a cosmic cre a t i o n - i t i s man-made. Man i s not only the creature of his culture, he i s also the creator of i t . " 2 1. The 'role theory* which i s gaining speedy recognition i n casework practice since Boehm*s publication of the Curriculum Study has further enhanced the value of understanding the c u l t u r a l concept f o r caseworkers. In Chapter II t h i s concept w i l l be discussed more elaborately i n r e l a t i o n t o casework. 2. Teicher I. Morton. Op. C i t . Page 450 49. Margaret Mead who rather overstressed the significance of culture i n determining sex roles (at the cost of b i o l o g i c a l f actors) was once faced with an impertinent question, whether she ever found a human male d e l i v e r i n g a baby?''" The concept of culture presents only one aspect of the picture and i t does not r e f l e c t the s o c i a l worker's point of view who has before him the objective of understanding the whole man i n his t o t a l environment. His concept of man i s H o l i s t i c which stresses the e s s e n t i a l Unity and oneness of human person-a l i t y , acting as a t o t a l organism, with bio-psycho-socio-s p i r i t u o and c u l t u r a l elements so i n t e r - l i n k e d and fused that can only be abstracted f o r purpose of s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s . This con-cept does not divide man int o water-tight compartments. What happens to the 'soma'1: also happens to the 'psyche', and also to his s o c i a l s e l f . It t e s t i f i e s to the fact that every man i s , i n c e r t a i n respects (a) l i k e a l l other men (b) l i k e some other men (c) l i k e no other man,^ a) He i s l i k e other men because some of the deter-minants of his personality are universal to the species. ; He shares the common features i n the b i o l o g i c a l endowment of a l l * men, i n the physical environment he inhabits and i n having s i m i l a r basic needs. I. Teicher I. Morton. Op. C i t . , Page 451 Klucholm Clyde & Murray A.Henery: Personality i n Nature, Society and Culture, New York. A l f r e d A.Knopf 1958,P.5. 2 50. b) He i s l i k e some other men because he i s a member of some human group or s o c i a l c l a n whose norms, values and common c u l t u r a l t r a i t s he incorporates i n his personality. c) .He i s l i k e no other man because each i n d i v i d u a l has his unique i n t e l l e c t u a l and temperamental endowments and peculiar l i f e experiences which d i f f e r e n t i a t e him from the rest of human beings. If c u l t u r a l environment were the only motivating force i n moulding human behaviour, then a l l human beings would have been more or less i d e n t i c a l l y stamped coins of t h e i r c u l t u r a l mint - which, of course, they are not. The s o c i a l worker's concept of human behaviour can best be summed Up i n the following words of Rerlman: "A person at any stage of his l i f e not only i s a "product 0 of nature and nurture but i s also and always " i n process" of being i n the present and becoming i n the future."1 1. Perlman H.H.: S o c i a l Casework: A Problem Shing Process The University of Chicago Press, I l l i n o i s . U.S.A. I CHAPTER I I (Part One) WHAT IS CULTURE? 51 CHAPTER II (Part One) WHAT IS CULTURE? I. Culture i n the Popular and Technical Sense. One of the greatest discoveries of the s o c i a l sciences i s the phenomena termed "culture" which i s fundamental to the understanding of human behaviour, both i n d i v i d u a l and group. . / The popular usage of the term culture i s made when we r e f e r to one person as ^cultured* and to the other as 'uncultured*. Here the term i s conceived i n an evaluative sense. S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s do not use the term i n that sense. Technically speaking culture "... i s the continually changing pattern of learned behaviour and the products of learned behaviour which are shared by and transmitted among the members of the society."1 An analysis of the above des-c r i p t i o n of culture w i l l indicate that: 1. Human behaviour i s learned and transmittable through learning processes from one generation to another. 2. It i s patterned and not a conglomeration of unrelated thoughts and acts. 3. Some patterns of human behaviour are uniformly shared by a l l the members of the society. 1. Cuber F. John: Sociology - A,Synopsis of P r i n c i p l e s . Appleton Century Inc. N.Y. Culture and Society PP.49-55. 52. 4. The products of culture e x i s t both i n the form of material objects and intangible thought habits l i k e attitudes and knowledges.. 5. They are constantly changing. II The D e f i n i t i o n and the Components of Culture. . The d e f i n i t i o n of culture which has been most widely accepted i s that by E.B.Tylorl "...culture i s that complex whole which includes knowledge, b e l i e f , a r t , law, morals, customs and any other c a p a b i l i t i e s and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Culture i n t h i s sense i s the complete way of l i f e of a people embracing a l l that they do (norms), think (ideas), and have (material): . 1) Ways of Doing: Laws, rules, regulations, customs, .. folkways, mores, taboos, fashions, r i t e s , etc.' 2) Ways of Thinking: Religious b e l i e f s , s c i e n t i f i c t r uths, legends, language and l i t e r a t u r e , super-stitions., aphorisms, proverbs, f o l k l o r e s , e t c . 3) Having: Technology and material objects, master-pieces of a r t , architecture and buildings, f a c t o r i e s , inventions, etc. 1. Tylor E..B. : Primitive Culture. John Murray,. London, 1865. 53. Some S a l i e n t F e a t u r e s o f C u l t u r e . 1. C u l t u r e i s a p e c u l i a r i t y o f m a n : a n i m a l s d o n o t h a v e i t . 2. A l l p e o p l e h a v e c u l t u r e : a l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f m a n k i n d h a v e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . 3. A l l c u l t u r e s h a v e u n i f o r m i t i e s a n d v a r i a b i l i t i e s . a ) U n i f o r m i t i e s e x i s t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t e v e r y s o c i e t y h a s h a d some k i n d o f f o r m a l i z e d a r r a n g e m e n t s t o r e g u l a t e s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s , some f o r m o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , some s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m t o g o v e r n r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n man a n d s o c i e t y , some f o r m a l m e d i a o f e x p r e s s i o n ( l a n g u a g e , a r t e t c * ) b ) V a r i a b i l i t i e s e x i s t i n s e x - m a r r i a g e -f a m i l y b e h a v i o u r , r e l i g i o n , g o v e r n m e n t s y s t e m , e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t s a n d i d e a s , l a n g u a g e a n d a r t , t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v i c e s e t c . c ) U n i f o r m i t i e s s t e m f r o m t h e i n h e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d / o r n e e d s o f man a s a s p e c i e s : V a r i a b i l i t i e s s t e m f r o m d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l e n v i r o n -m e n t e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e human m i n d o r w h a t i s c o m m o n l y t e r m e d " h i s t o r i c a l a c c i d e n t " . 4. A l l c u l t u r e s h a v e a s y s t e m o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e s ( i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y a r e t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r p e c u l i a r L. T h e m a t e r i a l o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s m o s t l y t a k e n f r o m C u b e r F . J o h n : S o c i o l o g y - A S y n o p s i s o f P r i n c i p l e s A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t , New Y o r k . 54. n e e d s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s ) . T h u s some c u l t u r e s s t r e s s s p i r i t u a l j o t h e r s m a t e r i a l , a n d s t i l l o t h e r s i n t e l l e c t u a l o r p h y s i c a l v a l u e s s u c h a s v a l o u r , c o u r a g e , y o u t h , b o d i l y c h a r m , e t c . A l l c u l t u r e s p r e s e n t a s o r t o f m i x t u r e o f many c u l t u r e s . No m a t t e r how h o m o g e n o u s a c u l t u r e may a p p e a r , n o t m o r e t h a n a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f i t i s i n d i g e n o u s , a n d t h e g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s t h r o u g h c o n t a c t a n d i n t e r a c t i o n . A l l c u l t u r e s h a v e t w o t y p e s o f p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s i ) T h e ' r e a l 1 p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r e p r e s e n t s w h a t t h e p e o p l e a c t u a l l y d o , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f what t h e y a r e i d e a l l y s u p p o s e d t o d o , o r what t h e y t h e m s e l v e s b e l i e v e t h e y s h o u l d d o . i i ) T h e ' i d e a l 1 ' p a t t e r n s w h i c h s e t m o d e l s o f examp]ary c o n d u c t w h i c h a r e h e l d u p a s s t a n d a r d s o f p e r -f e c t i o n . T h e y p r e s e n t w h a t one ' s h o u l d d o ' v a n d . ' o u g h t t o d o r i f o n e w e r e t o b e h a v e i d e a l l y . T h e s e i d e a l p a t t e r n s e x i s t t o s e r v e a s a c h e c k u p o n r e a l p a t t e r n s e v e n t h o u g h t h e c h e c k , a t t i m e s , d o e s n o t seem t o b e e f f e c t i v e . B u t i n g e n e r a l t h e y h a v e o r i g i n a t e d s i g n i f i -c a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e members o f t h e s o c i e t y . A l l c u l t u r e s h a v e some s o r t o f f o r m a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s -s y s t e m s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s r t o w h i c h p e o p l e f e e l l o y a l b e c a u s e t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e j u d g e d t o embody t h e u l t i m a t e 55 values, that these people have i n common. They come into existence to meet; the needs of the people through s o c i a l l y acceptable ways. The family, school, r e l i g i o n , government, economic systems, are the most basic and important i n s t i t u t i o n s of a society. -Of a l l , however, the family has been regarded as the most s i g n i f i c a n t force i n shaping and moulding human behaviour because: i ) It i s a formal arrangement f o r the g r a t i f i c a t i o n of sex-impulses and the procreation of c h i l d r e n . i i ) Being culture-career, i t i s the medium through which culture i s transmitted from generation to generation and the childr e n learn to perform t h e i r prescribed r o l e s . i i i ) I t meets the s o c i a l , economic and emotional needs of i t s members. i v ) It imposes informal means of control on the behaviour of i t s members and thus s o c i a l i z e s them. v) I t not only procreates c h i l d r e n but also pro-vides models f o r t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Most chi l d r e n , i n almost a l l cultures grow up i n a family with a father and a mother and usually with brothers and s i s t e r s . Way's . of thinking and f e e l i n g towards other people, developed i n the early formative years, i n i n t e r a c t i o n with the people around, play a dominant role i n l a t e r attitudes and personality make-up. Mother may become 56. the symbol of a l l women, while father may represent a l l men. l a t e r attitudes towards men and women are thus strongly influenced by these early r e l a t i o n s h i p s . This i s why the family i n v i t e s the greatest attention of the s o c i a l workers and the psychologists every-where. A l l cultures are subject to change under s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l pressures caused by technological developments, increased mobility, i d e a l o g i c a l movements and the impact of one culture upon the other. A l l changes i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t leading to some sort of s o c i a l disorganization. I t seldom happens that a l l the components of a culture undergo a uniform change. The changes i n the material objects f a r excel the changes i n the habits, attitudes and customs of the people. These creates ' c u l t u r a l lag 1' - a sort of gap caused by an unequal movement of the various parts of c u l t u r e . The younger generation i s usually quicker to make adaptations than the older. This makes f o r c o n f l i c t between the progressive and the conservative forces - between those who want to move with the times and those who want to hold fast to the old patterns of behaviour. Some of the necessary concomitant of t h i s c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t are: the di s i n t e g r a t i o n of family l i f e ; 5 7 . wide-spread s o c i a l a n d personal maladjustment, breakdown of the informal means of co n t r o l , c r i s i s of evaluation, degeneration of f a i t h , absence of any consistent l i f e s t y l e , role confusion and c o n f l i c t , and a loss of the sense of i d e n t i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . 9 . A l l cultures have prescribed roles and a hierarchy of status ascribed or achieved: Role refers to the a c t i v i t i e s and tasks which an i n d i v i d u a l i s expected to perform by v i r t u e of his membership i n s o c i a l groups and his p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . These a c t i v i t i e s are patterned and prescribed by s o c i a l norms such as law, custom, t r a d i t i o n , convention and others. Role i s thus a s o c i a l function assumed by the person or ascribed to him by the society. I t i s binding on him as a member of a group. The culture (or sub-groups i n the culture) defines how the d i f f e r e n t roles necesjsary to group l i f e are to be performed by an i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of his age, sex, race, occupation, r e l i g i o n and other groups to which he belongs. A c h i l d i s expected to play a role that i s quite d i f f e r e n t from that of an adult. There i s a role f o r males and a different role for females. Husband, wife, father, mother, son or daughter, s i b l i n g , community member, employee, employer, teacher, student, are some of the major roles C-J i n any society. 58. 2. Charac te r i s t i c s of Ro le s. 1. Role Expectations: Each role has c e r t a i n expectations attached to i t . A person i s expected to perform c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s considered appropriate f o r h i s role i n the l i g h t of his c u l t u r a l norms which prescribe role behaviour. There may be discrepancy between actual role performance and c u l t u r a l expectations of the r o l e . This discrepancy, whether i t i s due to lack of understanding, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , negligence or deliberate action, i t creates the problem of personal adjustment and endangers the s o c i a l functioning of the i n d i v i d u a l . 2. Role Perception: refers to the way the role i s viewed eithe r by the person performing the role or by the r e c i p r o c a l person. Personality, c l a n , c u l t u r e and caste may a f f e c t the perception of the r o l e . Views and values of the reference group may also a f f e c t role perception. 3. A Role has Counterpart: A role must have a counterpart. It cannot be performed alone. For example, the role of hus-band indicates a r e c i p r o c a l role of wife, of employer, employee. This premise i s the basis of the following component of r o l e s . .4. Reciprocity: Refers to the relationships of r e c i p r o c a l roles which are affected by the c l a r i t y of the d e f i n i t i o n of the r o l e . I f the role of mother i s not c l e a r , then the role of the c h i l d i s also not c l e a r . 5. Interrelatedness of Roles: Refers to the repercussions 59. and effects of change i n performance of one role upon performance of other r o l e s . For instance, improvement or d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a person's performance as a worker may af f e c t his performance as husband and wife. 6. Role Network: Provides a view of the c l i e n t as an int e r a c t i n g unit i n a system of ro l e s . It refers to a l l the c l i e n t ' s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . So impact of stress on any role may have repercussions of varying degrees upon a l l of the other r o l e s . B) A status i s a p o s i t i o n i n a society or group. .It i s ascribed when granted by society or f i x e d by b i r t h , such as the p o s i t i o n which one holds by virtue of age or being a male or a female. I t i s acquired when achieved by vi r t u e of competence, knowledge and s k i l l , such as marital, educational or professional, etc. There are some status which are i n i t i a l l y ascribed but changeable, such as n a t i o n a l i t y , r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c a l , e t c . C) Role - Status, Role and Status are quite inseparable, and the d i s t i n c t i o n between them i s of academic in t e r e s t only, There are no roles without status or status without r o l e s ! . A status i s more or less an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r o l e . A r o l e , on the other hand represents the dynamic aspect of a status. Roles and status both exert great influence on human 1. Ralph L i t o n : The Study of Man. New York, Appletori Century Croft, 1936 Page 114. l i f e and action. They enable people to move r e l a t i v e l y smoothly by defining and teaching what they should expect: from others and what others should expect from them. A confusion i n roles and a s h i f t i n status under the impact of s o c i a l changes leads to s o c i a l problems and breakdown i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Below, we ref e r to some of the s o c i a l problems which owe t h e i r o r i g i n to a c o n f l i c t , confusion or impairment i n r o l e s . D) Role-related Problems:-1 1) Role Impairment : Refers to the i n a b i l i t y of ind i v i d u a l s to perform a given role adequately due to lack of s k i l l or knowledge, temperamental or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l incongruity, impairment due to i l l n e s s , mental inadequacy or f a u l t y ego structure. Impairment due to any of these reasons may lead to impairment of other roles i n the network. Thus, i t may be both 'cause 1 and ^effect 1* of stress leading to anxiety-provoking s i t u a t i o n f o r the person involved. 2) Role Confusion: May be the re s u l t of lack of c l a r i t y i n role d e f i n i t i o n , c o n f l i c t i n mutually incompat-i b l e r o l e s , or ro l e - r e v e r s a l brought about by rapid s o c i a l changes and c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . As a r e s u l t , some people are never c e r t a i n just what i s expected of them and just what they can expect from others. There i s uncertainty about the roles of mother, father, husband, wife, son, daughter, employee, employer, and so on. Such role con-,-flict may be a major factor i n generating anxiety. . 1. Bernard J . S o c i a l Problems at Mid-Century. Holt Rinehart Wilson. Pages 40-50. 61. "Rolelessness" can also be the most anxiety-producing s i t u a t i o n of a l l . There are no suitable roles f o r them. They are l e f t out. They do not belong. The plig h t of older members of society i n some cultures, f o r example, has been characterized as one of just such "rolelessness"* 3 ) Role V i o l a t i o n ; May be caused by deviation from the s o c i e t a l norms, values, and l e g a l provisions furnished by society through censure, r i d i c u l e , disapproval, excommunica-t i o n , prosecution or imprisonment. Crime, f o r instance, i s a role v i o l a t i o n and the person who vi o l a t e s constitutes a s o c i a l problem. In view of the great significance which roles play i n creation of problems both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l , "the concept of r o l e " has assumed major proportions i n recent thinking i n the s o c i a l sciences, e s p e c i a l l y i n sociology, s o c i a l psychology and s o c i a l work. In the second part of t h i s chapter, while t r a c i n g the evolutionary development of s o c i a l casework, we s h a l l be discussing the significance of the 'role concept* i n casework pr a c t i c e . CHAPTER. II (Part Two) 62. CHAPTER II (Part Two) A) What i s S o c i a l Casework? Helping people out of trouble i s the oldest form of s o c i a l service since man started l i v i n g i n s o c i a l groups. A l l of us have given help, and i n turn, have been helped by others, out of sheer human, s p i r i t u a l or s o c i a l necessity, i n hours of need. But a l l t h i s i s not s o c i a l casework, i n a professional sense. What distinguishes and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s s o c i a l casework, as a method of practice, from the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l service i s , primarily, the presence of the following f a c t o r s : 1. In t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l service the emphasis was on doing things 'for 1' others. In casework, as a method of pr a c t i c e , the emphasis i s on doing t h i s 'with* others. 2. The t r a d i t i o n a l approach emphasized the 'problem 1 regardless of the'person' involved. Casework oh the other hand, " i s not concerned with problem per se, but sees problem i n r e l a t i o n to the person who i s affected by i t . " ! 3. The t r a d i t i o n a l service to the needy was done i n -discriminately, without any systematic or orderly planning. The casework service, on the other hand, i s a well-planned, conscious, systematic and orderly way of helping the 'person' with the 'problem'. 1. Boehm W.W., The S o c i a l Casework Method i n S o c i a l Work education; S o c i a l Work Curriculum Study: Council of S o c i a l Work Education Vol.X Page 15. 63 The ramifications of these apparently three simple factors went on multiplying as the knowledge and insight of s o c i a l workers about man and his s o c i a l environment increased. And t h i s gave b i r t h to a f u l l - f l e d g e d s c i e n t i f i c profession c a l l e d S o c i a l Casework, with a whole body of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge about the nature of the problem and the person involved ( c l i e n t ) , together with the problem solving processes employed by a professional representative (Case-worker) at a given place (Agency). B) .Historical Survey of the Evolution of Casework. 1. S o c i o l o g i c a l Phase: S o c i a l casework has passed through various stages of development and i n each stage i t has re-f l e c t e d the p r e v a i l i n g thought currents of the time. I t s e a r l i e s t stage i s spoken of generally as the s o c i o l o g i c a l phase because i t embodied the s o c i o l o g i c a l conviction of the i n d i v i d u a l as determined by the kind of s o c i a l order i n which he l i v e s . Changes i n his outlook, his s i t u a t i o n , his way of doing things were a l l predicted upon changing the s o c i a l conditions. Thea pre-occupation of s o c i a l caseworkers at t h i s stage was with s o c i a l conditions external to the i n d i v i d u a l . Manipulation of the environment was the accepted mode. I f a family was i n di s t r e s s because a wage;--earner had l o s t his job, e f f o r t s were made to secure work f o r him. If a c h i l d was not attending school, the obvious thing to do was to get him to school and keep him there. 64 I f a husband did i n j u s t i c e to his wife, the force of the law was to be invoked. Everything had i t s 'cause 1 and the 'cause 1 so often lay/ i n the environment. Changing of s o c i a l environment was the-ready answer to every problem. 11. Mary Richmond's Contributions: The f i r s t systematic and s c i e n t i f i c attempt to study man i n r e l a t i o n to his s o c i a l environment was made by Mary Richmond i n 1917, when she published her book S o c i a l Diagnosis. Here f o r the f i r s t time was a philosophy and d e f i n i t e technique of casework which afforded caseworkers the use of a technical expression, "a frame of reference". I t undertook to gain a f u l l know-ledge of the i n d i v i d u a l and the family by a thorough-going enquiry into the past history and the present s i t u a t i o n . Investigation was f o r the purpose of establ i s h i n g facts of personality and the sit u a t i o n upon which a diagnosis was made. The end of diagnosis was treatment, which con-s i s t e d of a plan that took into consideration the entire family which was the basic s o c i a l unit of our society. She defined s o c i a l work as "Consisting of those processes which develop personality through adjustment consciously effected, i n d i v i d u a l by i n d i v i d u a l , between men and t h e i r s o c i a l environments Her emphasis was on the development of personality through e f f e c t i n g a conscious and comprehensive adjustment of man to his s o c i a l surroundings. Her d i s t i n c t i v e approach 65 t o t h e c a s e w o r k m e t h o d i s h e r e m p h a s i s o n , " b a c k t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l b y way o f h i s s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t A l t h o u g h s h e d i d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s t u d y o f t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e c l i e n t , h i s f a m i l y l i f e , h i s r e l a t i v e s , s c h o o l a n d c o m m u n i t y l i f e , " T h e C a s e w o r k o f R i c h m o n d " * , s a y s H a m i l t o n , " w a s n a r r o w l y s o c i a l * ' ^ I t h a d a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n p s y c h o - s o c i a l - c e n t r e . H e r w r i t i n g s came a t a t i m e w h e n s p y c h o - a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g h a d n o t b e g u n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c o u r s e o f c a s e w o r k . T h e k n o w l e d g e a b o u t human m o t i v a t i o n a n d b e h a v i o u r was l i m i t e d . I l l ) F r e u d ? ; s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . A f t e r W o r l d W a r I I , F r e u d ^ s t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d h i s p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o b e h a v i o u r a n d m o t i v a -t i o n , r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d s o c i a l c a s e w o r k p r a c t i c e . A t t e n t i o n w a s rtow t u r n e d t o t h e i n n e r l i f e o f t h e c l i e n t . W h a t a s s u m e d s i g n i f i c a n t i m p o r t a n c e w e r e f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s a s t h e s e r e f l e c t e d t h e d e f e n s i v e r e p -r e s s i o n s , t h e c o n f l i c t s , a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s , r e a c t i o n s o f t r a n s f e r e n c e , s e n c e o f g u i l t , e t c . I n s t e a d o f f o c u s i n g o n s o c i a l h i s t o r y a n d l e n g t h y d e t a i l s o f p a r e n t s , g r a n d p a r e n t s , b i r t h s , d e a t h s , s c h o o l i n g a n d c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t s , t h e r e d e v e l o p e d t h e t e c h n i q u e o f 1. R i c h m o n d M a r y : W h a t i s S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . R u s s e l l S a g e F o u n d a t i o n , N.Y., 1922. P P 98-99. 2. P a r a d J . H o w a r d : E g o P s y c h o l o g y a n d D y n a m i c G a s e w o r k : G o r d o n H a m i l t o n : A T h e o r y o f P e r s o n a l i t y : F r e u d ' s C o n t r i -b u t i o n t o s o c i a l w o r k . F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , P a g e 13. 66. permitting the c l i e n t to reveal his feelings and attitude towards these events i n an atmosphere of "free association". Many of these feelings and attitudes were expressions of c o n f l i c t s deep within the c l i e n t ' s unconscious s e l f which required help i n bringing them to the surface, facing them and then going on to a l t e r t h e i r basis or to go on l i v i n g with them more comfortably than before. The Ego concept began to be- increasingly applied i n analysis and assessment of the c l i e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s to cope with his problems and adjust to his environment. "Ego concept, or ego psychology, beginning with Freud's formulations, has sharpened diagonstic procedures; given caseworkers a healthy respect f o r the phenomena of resistance, helped develop d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment approaches, and given us new tools to b u i l d up strengths i n the personality and to support constructive defenses."! S o c i a l workers had been taught early to regard human behaviour as purposive, as symptomatic, but i t i s only the psycho-analytic concept of Freud which f u l l y explained the hidden aspects of man's unconscious motives. In the opinion of Perlman,2 Freud*s major contribu-tions to s o c i a l work - and perhaps to a l l humanistic endeavours were threefold: 1) his discoveries of the powers 1. Hamilton: Op. C i t . Page 23. 2. Perlmah: Freud's Contribution to S o c i a l Welfare. S o c i a l Service Review. 1957. Vol.31 PP.192-202. of the unconscious mind; 2) his discovery of the importance of childhood experiences, and 3) his discovery of c e r t a i n v i t a l therapeutic means. 1. Freud pointed out that man's unconscious mind i s a power house of i n s t i n c t u a l drives and impulses pushing to f i n d expression i n s a t i s f y i n g experience, and at other times, pushing to avoid or blot out what i s experienced as f r u s t r a t i n g or dangerous. Our conscious mind i s subject to interference by the unconscious forces. The purpose behind a l l and any behaviour i s man's need to s a t i s f y h i s hunger - whether for food, love, status - and to discharge his energies i n ways that y i e l d him a sense of pleasure rather than f r u s t r a t i o n . As we come to understand more deeply the purposiveness of behaviour and the role of unconscious forces, the door to many mysteries of human behaviour are opened to us. We begin to see the psycho-dynamics beneath the surface symptom, and come to grapple with some of the problems of ''cause' rather than those of ' e f f e c t * . : 2. Freud's second great contribution i s the discovery of the v i t a l importance of the experiences of childhood i n the formation of the character and personality. The parent-c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p through a l l phases of his development, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the Oedipal phase,- has a far-reaching e f f e c t on his development into a mature, well-adjusted and happy human being. Freud set down c l e a r l y that neurosis i s the. product of a c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n with his s o c i a l environment. 6 8 . The small world of 'home'1 with a l l the- experiences of everyday l i f e builds or destroys the c h i l d ' s inner security, his self-esteem, his forward s t r i v i n g s and his image of s e l f . This renewed and deeper understanding of the c h i l d ' s need f o r love;.and a f f e c t i o n has helped s o c i a l workers to s t r i v e , not only for the physical well-being of the c h i l d , but f o r his emotional well-being too. 3. Freud's t h i r d contribution i s the discovery of the science and a r t of therapeutic communication. He was the f i r s t to point out that i f the patient's unconscious was brought into communication with his conscious and r a t i o n a l mind, and was helped to understand the motivation and mechanism of i t s working, he could become master rather than vic t i m of his unconscious desires and fears. The method which he suggested to restore, improve and e s t a b l i s h the i n t e r n a l communication system of the patient was that of "free a s s o c i a t i o n " - the encouragement to his patients of an uninhibited expression of the memories, fears, wishes^ f e e l i n g s , thoughts and attitudes which are l y i n g buried beneath the heavy blocks of unconscious mind. From t h i s over-simplified account i t i s not to be infe r r e d that no c l i e n t ever received material assistance. Material assistance was s t i l l given, but the emphasis of the caseworker was upon the development of the c l i e n t to organize his own capacities i n order to use material help most e f f e c t i v e l y . 69. During t h i s phase, s o c i a l casework was defined by Swithon Bower "as an a r t i n which knowledge of the science of human rel a t i o n s h i p and s k i l l i n r e l a t i o n s h i p are used to mobilize capacities i n the i n d i v i d u a l and resources i n the community, appropriate f o r better adjustment between the c l i e n t and a l l or any part of his t o t a l s i t u a -t i o n , "1 This phase i n s o c i a l casework has, however, been referred to as the phase of "psychiatric deluge". Freud*s fi n d i n g about the unconscious workings of the human mind so captured the imagination of most caseworkers that they almost overlooked the significance of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environments while diagnosing and preparing treatment plans with the c l i e n t . Every l i t t l e movement of the c l i e n t was interpreted from the psycho-analytical point of view and some unconscious motive attached to i t . " I t was one of the aberrant features of the attempt to carry psycho-analytic p r i n c i p l e s and techniques, primarily concerned with the neurotic into casework that treatment" says Hamilton, "become preoccupied with the inner l i f e as almost to lose touch with outer r e a l i t y and the s o c i a l factors with which s o c i a l workers were most familiar."2 1. Bower Swithon O.M.I: The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n of S o c i a l Casework Part I I I , S o c i a l Casework. 1947, Page 417. 2. Op. C i t . Page 23. 70. IV) C u l t u r a l Concept and S o c i a l Casework. In recent years a new development has taken place which affected the whole f i e l d of social' work, p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l casework. Anthropologists, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the c u l t u r a l anthropologists who have studied the l i f e of con-temporary primitive peoples, have been producing an enormous l i t e r a t u r e of the influence of custom, habit, and forms of s o c i a l organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n s upon the behaviour of human beings. Sociologists who studied modern society were equally impressed with the role of custom, habit and form of s o c i a l organizations. Culture, which consists of ways of doing things, ideas, attitudes, habits, behaviour, and the material objects attached to these, came to be regarded as the a l l important aspect of human existence and a determinant of a l l human behaviour^ This emergence of a new element on the horizon c a l l e d f o r a better and wider understanding of c u l t u r a l factors as they influence man i n his s o c i a l l i v i n g . Caseworkers were constantly c a l l e d upon to d i s t i n g u i s h between factors which impinged upon the c l i e n t ' s personality and his s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n from c u l t u r a l environments and those imbedded within his psychological make-up. The convincing force and logic with which the concept of culture as a determining force i n human behaviour was presented deeply influenced the thinking of s o c i a l caseworkers and gave casework a new d i r e c t i o n and 71. dimensions. The c u l t u r a l phenomena and anthropological thinking began to be incorporated i n t o the philosophy and practice of casework. The objectives and goals of s o c i a l work and caseworth were also re-examined and re-defined. In the f i r s t volume of the Curriculum Study, "Objectives of the s o c i a l work Curriculum of the Future", the goals and objectives of s o c i a l work are expressed: " S o c i a l Work seeks to enhance the s o c i a l function-ing of in d i v i d u a l s , singly and i n groups, by a c t i v i t i e s focused upon t h e i r s o c i a l relationships which constitute the in t e r a c t i o n between man and his environments. These a c t i v i t i e s can be grouped into three functions: restoration of impaired capacity; provision of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l resources; and prevention of s o c i a l dysfunction."1? In the tenth volume of the Curriculum Study, which deals s p e c i a l l y with the casework method, s o c i a l casework i s defined: "Soc i a l casework i s a method of s o c i a l work which intervenes i n the psycho-social aspects of a person's l i f e to improve, restore, maintain or enhance his s o c i a l function-ing by improving his role performance."2 1. Boehm Werner W. Objectives for the S o c i a l Work Curriculum of the Future (Vol.1 S o c i a l Work Curriculum Study); Council on S o c i a l Work Education, N.Y., 1959, Page 54. 2. Boehm Werner W. The S o c i a l Casework Method i n S o c i a l Work Education, Pahe 97. 72. Helen Perlman a l s o d e f i n e d casework i n the , l i g h t of c u l t u r a l concept, "... a process .... t o h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s cope more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e i r problems i n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . " ! ' C) i ) The Concept.-.of " S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g " , and  " C u l t u r a l Role Theory". (a) S i n c e more and more f r e q u e n t l y t h e r e have appeared r e f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e t o " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g " and " c u l t u r a l r o l e " , i t seems worth-while t o e x p l a i n the o r i g i n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of these con-c e p t s i n some d e t a i l . We have mentioned above how the f i n d i n g s of c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s c a l l e d upon s o c i a l workers t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which impinge upon the c l i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and those imbedded w i t h i n h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up. T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d the search of a u n i f i e d concept of human behaviour which c o u l d adequately e x p l a i n the c l i e n t ' s problem of p e r s o n a l a d j u s t -ment. The matter was brought under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the C o u n c i l f o r S o c i a l Work Ed u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m Study, d i r e c t e d by Werner W. Boehm. The study recommended t h a t " S o c i a l F u n c t i o n i n g i s the concept which can g i v e a u n i f i e d view of human behaviour as i t encompasses the t o t a l p i c t u r e of man, not as an i s o l a t e d phenomena, but as a b i o - p s y c h o - s o c i o -c u l t u r a l b e i n g , a c t i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h other members of 1. Perlman, Op.Cit. Page 4. 73 his species i n his s o c i a l environment - most e s p e c i a l l y as a 'role performer*, g i f t e d with unique b i o l o g i c a l endow-ments and psychic energy. The roles which he plays by vir t u e of his membership i n s o c i a l groups, most e s p e c i a l l y family, therefore, came to be of c r u c i a l importance i n undertaking s o c i a l diagnosis and preparing treatment plans i n casework method and problem solving process. A unit role consists of both the outer (socio-c u l t u r a l ) and the inner (ego) structure of the personality, and both together have to be considered i n assessing the potentials hindering or enhancing the s o c i a l functioning of the i n d i v i d u a l . In the opinion of V i c t o r i a Olds: "The psychological strength of the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e f l e c t e d i n the adequate performance of c u l t u r a l r o l e s ; and on the other hand, his emotional or personality make-up makes his role performance successful i n one s i t u a t i o n and unsuccessful i n another." ^ The interrelatedness of the outer and inner forces i n a u n i t role i s so that the term ''role concept 1 i s being used interchangeably and synonymously with the concept of s o c i a l functioning i n l i t e r a t u r e . 1. Olds V i c t o r i a : Role Theory and Casework. A Review of Lit e r a t u r e , S o c i a l Casework Vol. XLIII, N.Y., 1962. 74. 4) Contributions of the Theory to Casework. 1) The theory i s the f i r s t to define a 'Casework problem'*' i n terms of s o c i a l dysfunctioning. What we c a l l a 'casework problem* ...... " i s a breakdown i n an individual's capacity to carry out his s o c i a l role i n a personally and s o c i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g manner."^ In fa c t a l l the problems of society are usually the problems which concern the breakdown of r o l e s . The person who i s a c l i e n t comes to the caseworker at a time of mal-adjustment i n one of his v i t a l s o c i a l r o l e s . He finds himself under an unusual s t r a i n of enxiety because he f a i l s to achieve a more e f f e c t i v e l e v e l of s o c i a l function-ing as expressed through and manifested by his i n a b i l i t y to perform assigned s o c i a l r o l e s . He f e e l s bewildered, confused, l o s t , blocked, out of harmony with his role as a husband, wife, member of a family group, society or trade union, due to lack of w i l l competence, perception of expectations, confusion and c o n f l i c t i n various roles due to physical, mental, emotional or environmental reasons, etc.2 2) The Theory translates i n t o more precise con-ceptual terms, the concept psycho-social, i n s o c i a l casework. It also highlights the usefulness of both c u l t u r a l concept and ego concept (to which i s assigned the function of perceiving, I ; ', 1. Boehm, W.W., "The Terminology of S o c i a l Casework" i n So c i a l  Service Review, March, 1954. 2. Perlman, H.H., S o c i a l Casework a Problem Solving Process University of Chicago. Press Chicago 1957, Page 24. 75. integrating and executive).^ The Theory attempts to show the i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and his environment by l i n k i n g psychological, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l elements. According to Carole Meyer, s o c i a l r o l e , "has become one of the most useful integrative concept i n s o c i a l work." " I t isthe mediator between s o c i e t a l requirements and the i n d i v i d u a l behaviour" as Olds described i t . 2 3) The thoery i s u s e f u l i n c l a r i f y i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g various components of behaviour, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s i t u a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l determinants of behaviour, because, as Helen Perlman observes, "a person's behavibus i s both shaped and judged by the expectations he and his culture have invested i n the status and the major s o c i a l role he c a r r i e s . " ^ The theory thus provides the worker with an i d e n t i f i a b l e behaviour pattern. It i s the task of the caseworker to d i s -cover t h i s pattern, thus making i t possible to predict with some degree of accuracy how the c l i e n t w i l l perform i n any given r o l e . 4) It enables the caseworker to assess the potentials enhancing or endangering his c l i e n t ' s s o c i a l functioning with a greater measure of accuracy. 1. Boehm W.W. Op. C i t . Page 94. 2. Carole H. Meyer. Op. C i t . P.572. S o c i a l Casework Vol.XL No.l, 1959 3. Olds, V i c t o r i a : Role Theory and Casework, A Review of the Lrterature, S o c i a l Casework Vol.XLIII, No.l Jan.1962. 76, 5) It provides a manageable unit f o r diagnostic assessment and the basis f o r thw understanding of s o c i a l funcrioning and s o c i a l dysfunctioning i n terms of role performance. 6) It provides the material f o r defining and c l a r i f y i n g c l i e n t ' s problem by giving insight into the nature, quality and extent of his role impairments, and thus making i t amenable to casswork treatment. 7) It further points the focus and goa, which casework treatment should keep i n view. 8) It provides an e f f e c t i v e t o o l to evaluate the res u l t s of casework treatment. For instance i f there i s an improve-ment and enhancement i n c l i e n t ' s role performance, the treat-ment i s successful, otherwise not. 9) It i s us e f u l , both i n evaluating the functioning of the family as a s o c i a l unit and i n understanding the i n t e r -dependence of family members and dynamics of family r e l a t i o n -ship. 10) Lastly, an understanding of ro l e - r e l a t e d problems i s es p e c i a l l y important because i t has helped the s o c i a l workers i n general and the caseworkers i n p a r t i c u l a r to appreciate the significance of culture i n moulding and shaping human behaviour. As Stein and Cloward remark, "The concept of role i n terms of age, sex, occupation and other fa c t o r s , takes on 77. f l e s h and blood meaning as one sees with fresh insight how, culturally-induced role perceptions a s s i s t or play havoc with successful functioning of the personality."! 1. Stein, D.H. and Cloward A. Richard: S o c i a l Perspectives on Behaviour. The Free Press Publishers, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s . Chapt.XIII. CHAPTER I I I (Part One) PAKISTANI CULTURE 78 CHAPTER III (Part One) PAKISTANI CULTURE 1. Pakistani Culture - A Curious Mixture. It i s always d i f f i c u l t to define the culture of a country. The task becomes a l l the more d i f f i c u l t when one attempts to do so with regard to a country l i k e Pakistan, composed of heterogeneous elements. A perlplexing feature of her national l i f e i s the peculiar geographical location of her two wings, separated by over one thousand miles with India intervening. S u p e r f i c i a l l y viewed, there i s nothing common between the two wings. They are inhabited by di f f e r e n t r a c i a l , ethnic and l i n g u i s t i c groups. Even within each separate group there i s an endless variety of c u l t u r a l sub-groups which makes the confusion worst confounded. A correct appraisal of the si t u a t i o n w i l l indicate that there i s no uniform pattern of Pakistani c u l t u r e . What we f i n d i s a curious mixture of strange contradictions; a senseless con-glomeration of old and new, m u l t i p l i c i t y of diverse customs, habits and t r a d i t i o n s , mutually c o n f l i c t i n g and incompatible. 7 9 . The Real Culture - i t s components But although i t i s true that Pakistan has no a l l -embracing cu l t u r e , i t w i l l be untrue to say that she has no culture at a l l . To come to an understandable grip we need to study the problem from two angles: 1) the ''Real* and 2) the 'Ideal* cultures of Pakistan. 1) The Real Culture presents the peculiar l i f e experiences through which the various sub-groups inhabiting t h i s region of the world passed, as a re s u l t of t h e i r i n t e r -action with v a r i e t i e s of cultures, both from within and from without - Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. Some of these cultures may be mentioned as,below:-i ) The Aryan or the Hindu Culture as found i n the ancient h i s t o r i c a l r e l i c s such as tools of war and c u l t i v a -t i o n , places of worship, brass and earthen wares, ornaments, jewellery and coins excavated from Harapa, Mohenjodoro and Tadila - the seats of ancient cultures. A r e f l e c t i o n of these old days could be seen even today i n v a r i e t i e s of superstitious r i t e s and customs, f o l k lores, songs, regional dances, public f e s t i v a l s , caste system, tomb worship, etc., which form part of the l i f e of the people of Pakistan. i i ) The Persian and the Moughal Cultures as re f l e c t e d i n the a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , language, poetry, proverbs, music, painting, h i s t o r i c a l monuments and buildings, designs of architecture, caligraphy, dress, d i e t , f u r n i t u r e , e t c . 80. i i i ) The Islamic Culture as r e f l e c t e d i n the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and practices, philosophic, moral and s p i r i t u a l values, places of worship, r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s , marriage customs, greetings, family laws and inheritance, purdah system, welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s etc. Islamic culture which came to t h i s part of the world through Persian and Afghanistan influenced, more or less the various segments of the society, mostly the masses and the middle classes, i n form rather than i n s p i r i t , primarily and as i t exists i n Pakistan i t presents a hodge-podge of the multifarious cultures with which i t came into contact. i v ) The Western Culture which influenced Indo-Pakistan sub-continent during one century of the B r i t i s h Rule, continues to influence the l i v e s of the people i n a variety of ways through: a) The B r i t i s h constituted education system and English schools. b) The English l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the language which continues to be the medium Of i n s t r u c t i o n i n colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and also the o f f i c i a l language i n courts and government o f f i c e s . c) The p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l , economic and adminis-t r a t i v e set-up patterned on the B r i t i s h l i n e s . d) The Western commercial goods and commodities. e) Magazines and newspapers. f ) The Western and the American movies. g) Exchange students and v i s i t o r s . 81 It i s hard to assess the degree and extent of the impact of the Western culture on the l i v e s of the people. Its influence i s f a i r l y deep and widespread, almost on sections of the society, but i t has made the deepest impact on the upper s t r a t a . The r i c h gentry, the high C i v i l and M i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , college and u n i v e r s i t y students - mostly the c i t y dwellers. The influence seems to express i t s e l f , pre-eminently, i n the choice of education i n English schools, use of language, dress, h a i r s t y l e s , table manners, movies, recreations, modern appliances and luxury goods, etc. Some change, as a resu l t of i t s impact., i s also v i s i b l e i n the sex attitude and the marriage behaviour of the educated classes. Co-education i s becoming a common feature and romantic marriages are also not rare. Purdah system i s f a s t dying out, and women are increasingly coming out of t h e i r homes to work i n hospital s , schools and o f f i c e s . Thei.r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l welfare i s also on the increase. The women;!:s organizations comprised mostly of the wives of high government o f f i c i a l s and a r i s t o c r a t s are h e c t i c a l l y busy i n bringing women out of the old rut. This i n t e r a c t i o n with", the Western culture and large scale mobility from the t u t a l to the urgan areas following the wake of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has accelerated the tempo of s o c i a l changes, the inevitable r e s u l t of which i s an onset of wide-spread c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t attended by a host of fosesh problems 82. of frightening dimensions with which the Government of Pakistan i s at present grappling. 2. Pakistan at the Gross-Roads. One of the biggest problems, on which depends the very survival of Pakistan, i s that of ' c u l t u r a l integration 1*, i . e . how to bridge the yawning gap between the two d i s t a n t l y located wings of the country? How to weld, the various s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and economic sub-groups in t o one harmonious whole? Pakistan i s i n search of a uniform pattern of l i f e , an all-embracing culture which could give i t s people a sense of 'we1* f e e l i n g , oneness and d i r e c t i o n . The two ways of l i f e open before the people are: the Islamic way and the Western way of l i f e . A t h i r d i s being presented by a handful of Pakistani writers who have organized themselves under the name of the Progressive Writers. They f i n d the panacea f o r a l l the e v i l s i n Pakistan i n the communistic way of l i f e . 3. The National Trend. The bulk of people, out of the population of a hundred m i l l i o n , being Muslims by f a i t h , has strong emotional attachment with Islam, and fervently desires to order i t s l i f e according to i t s p r i n c i p l e s . It i s apprehensive as well as appreciative of the Western cult u r e . The apprehensions stem mostly from one source: that the Western culture fosters sex freedom and encourages moral l a x i t y among the younger generation. The 83. appreciation, which i s both genuine and deep, i s f o r i t s immense love f o r s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, patriotism, democracy, high business morality, s o c i a l etiquettes, high sense of hygiene and c l e a n l i n e s s , d i s c i p l i n e and punctuality. From the l a s t h a l f century almost a l l the great s o c i a l thinkers, reformers and educationists ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Siir Sayyed Ahmed Khan, the founder of Muslin University, Aligarh, and Dr. S i r Mohammed Iqhal, the poet-philosopher of the East and the man who f i r s t presented the concept of Pakistan as only r e a l i s t i c and reasonable solution to the tangled p o l i t i c a l mess of the undivided India) have been advocating to follow the West i n knowledge and democracy but not i n l i b e r t y i n sex and gross materialism. 4. A Compromising Approach. The present leadership of Pakistan, i n deference to the wishes of the people has placed Islam's way of l i f e as i t s national objective, but favours a more l i b e r a l i n t e r -pretation of Islam which presents a sort of compromise with the Western cul t u r e . Some of the reformatory steps raised by i t i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l , economic and educational welfare, point to t h i s s p i r i t of Compromise. A new f i e l d i n which the leadership i s keenly interested, i s that of Social Welfare. Here too, i t i s hopefully looking to the West fo r guidance. The r i s i n g number of s o c i a l work i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the country i s i t s g l a r i n g example. 84. 5 . Why I s lamic Way ? The great emphasis, both by the people and the Government of P a k i s t a n , on the I s l a m i c way of l i f e , has some ver y genuine and r e a l reasons, besides the se n t i m e n t a l and the emotional (which are r e a l too, i n a se n s e ) . Some of them may be mentioned below: 1) One of the arguments (and, perhaps, the st r o n g e s t o f a l l which c o n v i n c e d the Muslim masses t o r a l l y round the demand of P a k i s t a n ) was t h a t t h e r e l i v e d two n a t i o n s i n u n d i v i d e d I n d i a ; Hindus and Muslims, with two d i s t i n c t l y separate c u l t u r e s . The Muslims wanted a separate homeland where they c o u l d order t h e i r l i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o the I s l a m i c concept of s o c i a l and economic j u s t i c e . T h i s they were unable t o do i n an u n d i v i d e d I n d i a dominated by Brahmanical s o c i a l and economic order c h a r a c t e r i z e d f o r i t s r i g i d c a s t e system, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e t c . 2) Since the concept of I s l a m i c c u l t u r e became the b a s i s of the demand f o r P a k i s t a n and the Muslim m a j o r i t y areas i n the Ea s t and the West of I n d i a , i n s p i t e of t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e , became p a r t of P a k i s t a n , the onl y f o r c e which now holds t o g e t h e r these two w i d e l y separated wings of the cou n t r y , i s the common bond of I s l a m i c b r o t h e r -hood. A weakening of t h i s bond w i l l be a sure way t o break-down and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , and, perhaps, the t o t a l c o l l a p s e of the e n t i r e c o untry, without which i t has no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r separate existence. 3) Islam i s a strong bulwark against the communistic threat which faces Pakistan, due to peculiar economic, p o l i t i c a l and geographical s i t u a t i o n . Being firm believers i n the oneness of God, the a t h e i s t i c philosophy of communism f a i l s to catch the fancy of the people. Communism, as such, w i l l never be able to set i t s foot on Pakistani s o i l as long as the love of Islam continues to dominate t h e i r l i v e s . The weakening of t h i s love w i l l make them f a l l an easy prey to the communistic propaganda of a rosy picture of economic equality, which nowhere e x i s t s . 4) There exists a po s i t i v e b e l i e f among Muslims that Islam i s not, i n a narrow sense, a r e l i g i o n , a c o l l e c -t i o n of stereotyped r i t e s and ceremonies, a metaphysical b e l i e f , but i t i s a broad and dynamic i d e o l o g i c a l movement embracing a l l aspects of human l i f e ; moral, s p i r i t u a l , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic. They take i t as panacea for a l l t h e i r e v i l s and always seek guidance from i t f o r the solution of t h e i r personal and s o c i a l problems. It serves f o r them the frame of reference, the c r i t e r i a of judging right and wrong, good and e v i l etc. And although there e x i s t s a l o t of difference among the various r e l i g i o u s sects as to the i n t e r -pretation of Islam about various problems facing the nation, there are, however, some fundamentals on which there i s a good deal of consensus and general agreement. 86. II) The 'Ideal* Culture of Pakistan. Below the writer i s making a modest attempt to present some of the sa l i e n t features of the Islamic culture (to which the writer refers as the 'ideal 1' 1 culture of Pakistan) with special reference to i t s b e l i e f and value system, p o l i t i c a l , economic, moral and s o c i a l order. The contents of t h i s thesis are based upon the writer's study of the three modern great interpreters of Islam i n Pakistan-*-: 1) the late Dr.Sir Mohammad Iqhal Bar. at Law;2) Moulana Abul-ala-Moodoudi; 3) Ghylam Ahmad Parveez. 1. Dr. S i r Mohammad Iqhal (1874-1938 the great philosopher-poet who gave the Concept of Pakistan to Muslin India. Most of his philosophical message i s delivered through fasc-inating Persian and Urdu poetry. A c o l l e c t i o n of his lectures delivered i n English language i s published under the caption, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought i n Islam. The majority of his poetic works have been trans-lated i n English, German, French, Russian and Arabic. The Western writers and philosophers who influenced his thought most were Goethe. Kant, Schopenhauer, Neitsche. His concept of ' s e l f ' , f o r which he i s known, i s a strong plea for individualism which keeps intact i t s e n t i t y i n spite of surrendering a part of i t s freedom but never losing i t s e l f e n t i r e l y i n a group or s o c i a l m i l i e u . 2. Moulana Ab-ul-Ala-Moodoudi. one of the greatest l i v i n g interpreters of Islam not only i n Pakistan but also i n the whole of the Muslim world, a p r o l i f i c writer of approxim-ately one hundred books on Islam. He i s perhaps, the f i r s t to attempt to present Islam as a broad i d e o l o g i c a l movement i n a systematic and coherent way. He, however, i s of the view that Islam i s a d i s t i n c t l y separate way of l i f e and contemplates no compromise with any other culture on the fundamentals. He i s the leader of the Islamic Party i n Pakistan, which aspires to run government on the Islamic p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic pattern. His concept of l i f e i s a complete submission to the w i l l of God - los i n g one*-s ' s e l f into the ' S e l f of God. . 87. Ghulam Ahmad Farveez - a strong advocate of the l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Islam. He believes that Islam gave only broad general rules f o r human guidance and l e f t a l l nations and countries to shape t h e i r l i v e s i n what-ever mould they l i k e i n the l i g h t of those broad rules of conduct. 88. r 2) Its Basic Concepts. The i d e a l culture of Pakistan stems from the teachings of Islam as contained i n the Muslim holy book, A l Quran, and interpreted by the Prophet of Islam. The s p i r i t of t h i s teach-ing could be summed up i n the following four guiding philosoph-i c a l concepts: 1) The Unity of God which implies that not only God exists but i s One, u n p a r a l l e l , and the fountain head of a l l wisdom. He i s the Creator of the Universe, i n which He operates through immortal eternal laws. He' i s a c t i v e l y concerned with a l l His Creation, p a r t i c u l a r l y with Man, whom He has sent as His Vice-Regent on the earth to carry out His W i l l supplemented and equipped with three g i f t s : i,) material means; i i ) I n t e l l e c t u a l endowments, and i i i ) guidance through rev e l a t i o n . The l a s t mentioned forms the basis of the second philosophical concept of Islam to which we r e f e r below. 2) The Unity of a l l r e l i g i o n s which implies that truth i s not a monopoly and close-preserve of any one nation. A l l . nations were given Divine guidance through the messengers of God who were sent to lead mankind to the right path: to love t h e i r fellow beings, to shun e v l l e and do good, to order t h e i r l i v e s according to His W i l l and not according to the dictates of t h e i r carnal desires which disturb balance i n l i v i n g , cause bloodshed and perpetrate s o c i a l , economic and 89. p o l i t i c a l i n j u s t i c e s . However, a f t e r the death and depart-ure of these messengers and prophets of God, the nations forgot or misinterpreted the o r i g i n a l message and the true s p i r i t of t h e i r teachings was l o s t . This necessitated the tSirth of successive prophets with the same mission. The Prophet of Islam i s one such prophet sent to guide mankind i n the l i g h t of divine guidance. He i s a man and not God. The message he delivered i s si m i l a r to the message delivered by his predecessors with one difference, that i t i s more comprehensive and exhaustive and covers al<l aspects of human l i f e . And since i t i s complete i n a l l respects, i t i s the final,and with that comes the end of the i n s t i t u t i o n of prophethood. . Human beings should continue to seek guidance and i n s p i r a t i o n from i t . The message, however, does not do away with the need of exercising human reason. I t supplements and complements i t by providing broad general codes of human l i v i n g so that "reason without love and intuition"-'- does not run amuck and prove s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . 3) The Unity of Mankind which means that a l l human beings i r r e s p e c t i v e of caste, creed, class or colour, are the members of the family of God. They come from the same stock and are the ch i l d r e n of the same father; hence they are e n t i t l e d to the same love, respect and decent dealings. Equality, l i b e r t y and f r a t e r n i t y i s one of the key notes of Islamic s o c i a l 1. This i s one the the most favourite themes of Iqhal^s poetry. 9 0 . teaching. That a l l human beings are equal i n the eyes of law i s a provision which i s equally applicable to the high and the low, the r i c h and the poor, the black and the white, the Muslim and the non-muslim. The right of j u s t i c e i s extended to a l l men regardless of t h e i r o r i g i n , b i r t h , r a c i a l , geographical, s o c i a l or economic status. 4 ) The Unity of Matter and S p i r i t . The dichotomy of human l i f e into two parts, the s p i r i t u a l and the material, finds no place here. The demands of f l e s h are as r e a l as the demands of soul. The physical, material and economic well-being i s as important as man's s p i r i t u a l , moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l well being. Both go hand i n hand. Consequently there i s no scope fo r otherworldliness, ascesticism, mysticism, etc. But at the "same time i t does not allow the love of matter and economic pursuits to so dominate and supersese as to suppress the c a l l of s p i r i t and k i l l what Iqhal c a l l s , .'love - the. l i f e force of humanity'. In his view, Islam, f a r from i n h i b i t i n g the normal i n s t i n c t u a l and b i o l o g i c a l impulses of the human organism, and denying matter i t s proper place i n human l i f e , wants to keep i t under the supervision of moral and s p i r i t u a l forces l e s t humanity freezes i t s e l f into death* From these four fundamental concepts has been drawn a b e l i e f system and code of p r a c t i c a l l i v i n g f o r the Muslim society which c l e a r l y define the relat i o n s h i p between man and universe, man and state, and man and man, as conceived by the 91. type of the culture Islam presents: 1) The Be l i e f System as i t conceives man's r e l a t i o n -shop to the Universe, as follows: i ) Human l i f e i s purposefully and meaningfully related to the Universe which i s moral and s p i r i t u a l i n essence. i i ) The highest object of man's earthly existence i s to seek love of God by ordering his l i f e according to His W i l l conveyed through the good o f f i c e s of his messengers. i i i ) Man i s partly g i f t e d , p a r t l y , with freedmon of w i l l to accept or rej e c t His message and make choices. There i s no coersion and compulsion i n r e l i g i o n . i v ) Man i s , however, accountable for his b e l i e f s and actions on the day of resurrection and judgment when each in d i v i d u a l w i l l be c a l l e d upon to render account of what he did during his earthly sojourn, and on the basis of his in d i v i d u a l performance he w i l l be rewarded or punished. v) Good actions, rather than wealth, r a c i a l superiority, worldly power or prestige e n t i t l e a man to God's grace. As such, man's place i n the society should be judged by his deeds, rather than by his s o c i a l and economical status. 2) The P o l i t i c a l System i ) The sovereignity belongs to God who i s the Supreme law Giver. 9 2 i i ) Man i s God's Viceregent on the Earth and his purpose i s to administer worldly a f f a i r s according to His W i l l . i i i ) The State i s an instrument to convey the W i l l of God .and to help and f a c i l i t a t e people i n ordering t h e i r l i v e s according to Divine W i l l . i v ) The Viceregency i s given to a l l believers and not to any single i n d i v i d u a l or group. There are no s p e c i a l prerogatives, no divine rights of Kings. v) The believers can, however, delegate the right conferred on them, to a group of representatives and t h e i r leader to exercise i t on t h e i r behalf. v i ) The leader should be a knowledgeable person, f u l l y conversant with the wisdom of divine law. In his personal l i f e he should be a just, s e l f l e s s , honest and pious man - a l i v i n g , v i s i b l e symbol of the philosophy he professes and pro-claims. v i i ) He i s there to exercise and administer j u s t i c e according to the Divine W i l l , and not according to his own desires. v i i i ) The elected body and the general public w i l l be keeping s t r i c t v igilance on how wisely and honestly he conducts the a f f a i r s of the State and administers j u s t i c e , i n conformity with the divine intents of the Divine Law, and on the basis of i t any support or obedience w i l l be given or withheld from him. 93. i i x ) The leader of executive head of the State, together with elected representatives (even the entire body pf the public i n general), i s not e n t i t l e d to change a single provision of the Law where the Divine Verdict i s c l e a r . For instance the Verdict about p r o h i b i t i o n (alcoholic drinks and drug addiction) i s c r y s t a l c l e a r i n the Book. No act of l e g i s l a t i o n by whatsoever authority can v i o l a t e t h i s provi-sion and make drinking lawful. So i s the case with gambling, usury, and many other s o c i a l and economic e v i l s . x) L e g i s l a t i o n is, possible and permissible only i n r e l a t i o n to those areas of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l l i f e where the Divine Law i s uncommitted, vague, open to interpreta-t i o n or s i l e n t . On such occasions the matter should be referred to the general body of the Muslims and Ijmah ( p l e b i s c i t e ) should be held. The l e g i s l a t o r s and the j u r i s t s are there to cover the d e t a i l s and prepare the by-lawsbased upon the inferences and generalizations. The decision making authority rests with the general body i n t h i s respect. x i ) Certain s p i r i t u a l truths and moral values are fundamental, basic, immutable and eternal to which Muslim society must adhere to, however much i t has to s a c r i f i c e or suffer. I t i s f o r upholding and preservation of these values and p r i n c i p l e s that the whole society l i v e s . These values and p r i n c i p l e s govern the relat i o n s h i p of the muslims with muslims, muslims and non-muslims, i n t h e i r private and public l i f e , i n national 94. and international dealings. Some of them may be mentioned, as below:-Keeping oner's promise; Standing by pacts and t r e a t i e s ; Safeguarding t r u s t s ; Wishing f o r others what one wishes for himself; j u s t i c e and f a i r play with friends and e n e m i e s ; Respect f o r others K property and honour; Protection of women, c h i l d r e n , crops and places of worship i n the event of wars, which should be defensive; Speaking out truth, even i f i t hurts one's self interest or national i n t e r e s t ; Revenge i n proportion to the injury (the foregive-ness i s preferenced); Honesty and f a i r play i n business; Protection of a l l rights of the minorities at any cost, etc. There are not a few places where the Muslim national and economic i n t e r e s t and the Islamic p r i n c i p l e s of justice f i n d no common meeting ground. x i i ) The executive head of the State can be sued i n the court by a common man. No one i s above law. Even a 'King can do wrong. x i i i ) The State, apart from maintaining law and order i s responsible f o r meeting the minimum basic human needs of the c i t i z e n s . 95. 3) The Economic System. 1) A l l men are e n t i t l e d to equal opportunities and economic benefits of t h e i r earnings. There i s no monopoly of the p r i v i l e g e d groups and classes. There i s no l i m i t set on the amount of wealth which a man can possess through legitimate means and personal endeavour. The State - under no pretext - can encroach upon the right s and properties of the i n d i v i d u a l . The private ownership i s recognized. A limited power i s invested with the State authority to c a l l whatever s a c r i f i c e i t deems necessary from i t s c i t i z e n s i n the event of extreme emergencies: war, famine, etc. 2) There are, however, some l i m i t s , both moral and l e g a l , imposed on the ways and means of production, d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption of wealth. a) Legal means aim primarily at the ' j u s t 1 rather than the 'equal 1 d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth, but assuring at the same time that wealth continues to c i r c u l a t e i n society and does not concentrate i n the hands of a few. b) A l l means of production which involve usury, gambling, speculation, hoodwinking, hoarding, monopolising, black marketing, sale of in t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s , e x p l o i t a t i o n of labour sex are prohibitedto the c i t i z e n s . c) A l l wealth i s d i s t r i b u t e d among the k i n s f o l k a f t e r a man's death. To sons goes two-thirds, to daughters one-third, parents one-sixth, wife one-eighth, e t c . 96. i i i ) A l l hoarded wealth i n the form of money, gold, jewellery, standing crops, c a t t l e heads, e t c . i s subject to two and one half percent compulsory annual I tax c a l l e d £akat (poor due). This i s exclusively f o r welfare purposes and d i f f e r e n t from other taxes and revenues of the State. i v ) A l l consumption of wealth f o r immoral purposes, which include gambling, p r o s t i t u i o n , alcoholism, unproductive wastage, e x p l o i t a t i o n of sex or cruelty to man i s prohibited. 2) Moral Limits. No amount of l e g a l regimentation and l e g i s l a t i v e actions can put an end to man's hunger and lust f o r i l l - b e g o t t e n wealth; his avaricious and a c q u i s i t -ive tendencies to become r i c h through f a i r and f u t i l e means so long as he does not develop some e t h i c a l standards and inner cont r o l s . A synthetical approach of l e g a l and moral means to solve economic problems has been suggested. And while the possession of wealth and material means has been accredited with God's grace and the production and creation of wealth through honest means, have been appreciated as godly act, l e s t i t s use corrupt man, e f f o r t s .have been made through a f f e c t i n g changes i n t h e i r outlook to make wealth an instrument of good rather than e v i l i n the hands of the wealthy. Thus wealth has been presented as a means to an end and not an end i n i t s e l f - the end i s the winning and buying of God's grace by putting i t to humanitarian use and making i t available f o r the welfare of the fellow beings. Some other ways i n which wealth has been made subordinate to human di g n i t y and worth are as follows: i ) Stress on ch a r i t y , .aims giving, s a c r i f i c e , e t c . i i ) . Disapproval of display or show of wealth for vanity, 1 pride and power. i i i ) S i m p l i c i t y i n dress, havits and manners, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the common man rather than with the selected a. few has benn highly appreciated. i v ) P r o h i b i t i o n to use of s i l k e n , gorgeously decor-ated and lady- l i k e dresses. There i s also p r o h i b i t i o n to use golden ornaments and jewellery for men. v) Good actions, high thinking, piety and noble deeds as the basis of dig n i t y and wo^Sth of man. v i ) Dignity of labour. There i s great moral pressure exerted on the employers and masters to treat^equally and f a i r l y and with just and prompt payment of t h e i r wages.1 The S o c i a l Order:. 1 ) Whereas inequality and wealth and economic status i s regarded as 'natural*, inequality i n s o c i a l status and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of men on the basis of r a c i a l , geographical and economic differences i s held to be 'unnatural* and ' a r t i f i c i a l * . There i s great stress on equality, l i b e r t y and 1. Some j u r i s t s are of the view that on the basis of these moral exhortations, some l e g i s l a t i o n can be made suitable to the needs of the age and the society. 98 f r a t e r n i t y as the basis of a l l human relationships, p a r t i -c u l a r l y among the believers. The aim i s to create a s o c i a l l y c l a s s l e s s society. 11) Intermarriages among various r a c i a l and ethnic groups, within the r e l i g i o u s order and also, outside i t with the Christians and the Jews, are permitted. I l l ) Marriage and family l i f e i s the only basis of sex r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i t s object i s procreation of c h i l d r e n . IV) Chastity, both among men and woman, i s the highest s o c i a l v i r t u e . A l l sex relationships out of wedlock i n any form, are s t r i c t l y prohibited and declared as abominable sin l i a b l e to severe punishment. V) To check the incidence of premarital r e l a t i o n -ship and the b i r t h of i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n , the free mixing of the members of both sexes, from puberty to old age, i s prohibited. The whole culture, i n t h i s respect i s highly p u r i t a n i c . VI) Sex i s d i s c i p l i n e d , c o n t r o l l e d and channelized, but not i n h i b i t e d or suppressed. V l l ) Talking of sex i n public i s taboo. In general the elders should desist to indulge i n indecent t a l k i n the presence of c h i l d r e n , but sex education i s not pro-h i b i t e d . The Quran and the Prophet both discussed sex issues f o r teaching purposes. 99 V l l l ) The family system i s pa t r i a r c h a l i n structure. The father, the male member, i s the head of the family. In general withinthe family environment the husband and wife are inter-conriected with mutual rights and obliga-tions, {and have c l e a r l y defined roles and duties to perform, but f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes the husband, who i s the bread winner and protector, has been placed at the head of the family. IX) . Iribringing up male and female c h i l d r e n much stress i s l a i d on i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the members of t h e i r own sex. The male role and the female are not to be confused. The culture as a whole i s very emphatic about hi g h l i g h t i n g differences i n sex a t t r i b u t e s , manners and be-havroury including differences i n dress and physical appearance. X) The parents are responsible f o r bringing up t h e i r c h i l d r e n u n t i l the grow to take care of themselves. S i m i l a r l y , the children are responsible to look a f t e r t h e i r parents when they grow old. Tender care and love for ch i l d r e n and respect and obedience f o r parent, are prized very highly. XI) The parents are to decide f o r t h e i r immature chi l d r e n , but a f t e r they a t t a i n puberty, both the male and the female, are free to exercise t h e i r own judgment 1/ i n the matters r e l a t i n g to the choice of marriage p a r t n e r s , l o c a -t i o n , career, r e l i g i o n , etc. The parents need to be consulted but not necessarily obeyed i n these rejapects. P a r t i c u l a r l y , 100 the parents * d i r e c t i v e s running counter to the divine instructionx are not to be obeyed at any cost. XII) Husband's primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s towards his own wife and chi l d r e n and the parents come next to them* To divorce one's wife under parent suggestion i s an abominable s i n . Indeed, any disruption i n the family l i f e , from whatever quarter, i s condemned, and whatever strengthens family t i e s and builds up good relationship between the pa i r i s usefu l and good. XIII) Divorce i s permitted only when a l l the e f f o r t s f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and compromise have been exhausted. It i s to be pronounced three d i f f e r e n t occasions i n point of time. Some say at the in t e r v a l , o f one month or so. The right of divorce rests with the husband but he can stipulate to his wife at the time of marriage i f she demands. XIV) Polygamy i s permitted under c e r t a i n conditions. A man can mar,£y up to four women, provided he can do j u s t i c e to a l l , says the Book. The objective of t h i s permission i s said to be to solve the problem of surplus women during war, when many men die and many women are l e f t without a husband. I t i s further maintained that i t i s a sort of leg a l f a c i l i t y , i f at a l l one must marry, due to c e r t a i n pressures, without divorcing the f i r s t wife. The ultimate object i s to r i d the society of extra-marital relationships, p r o f l i g a c y , p r o s t i t u t i o n and the bi r t h of i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n . The provision on polygamy 101. i s subject to int e r p r e t a t i o n , and consequently every Muslim country has l e g i s l a t e d i t to meet i t s own requirements."'" IV. A r t . Literature and Recreation. 1) A l l a r t i s t i c and aesthetic vocations which stimulate sex and sensual pleasure, propagate obscenity and appeal to man's baser motives through any media: works of ar t , painting, drama, architecture, song, statue making, modelling, songs, dancing, movies, etc. are prohibited. 2.) Men's recreations should be t y p i c a l l y mascu-l i n e , dominated by a c t i v i t i e s expressive of t h e i r physical strength and feats of bravery. Women may have t h e i r own recreations not involving display of t h e i r physical charms to men. 3) Statue making and image carving, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of prophets, saints and great men, involving any type of hero worship, i s s t r i c t l y prohibited. It i s a sort of i d o l worship, which i s against the s p i r i t of a monotheistic r e l i g i o n 1. The Pakistan Government, taking benefit of the Quranic order that a l l the four wives should be dealt with j u s t l y and equitably, as f a r as i s humanly possible, has pro-mulgated a new family Ordinance, i ) the f i r s t wife i s barren and bore no c h i l d ; 2) she i s permanently i n v a l i d ; 3) she herself permits i t ; 4) the husband gives adequate security for the maintenance of his f i r s t wife and children; 5) the Court, taking a l l or some of these facts i n view, finds that the reasons are genuine. However, hardly one per cent of the people i n Pakistan practise polygamy. It i s not obligatory. It i s 2f optional. 102 4) A l l a r t , to be t r u l y great, should s t i r noble sentiments, symbolize good l i f e , i nspire man f o r l o f t y achievements and submit him to pay homage to One God. V. Knowledge, Philosophy and History. 1) A l l knowledge i s a means to recognize and reach God - the Highest Truth. Three branches of knowledge repeatedly mentioned i n the Book, are: (1) Study of nature; (2) Study of S e l f (Man); (3) History. A l l these are the l i v i n g v i s i b l e proof of God's existence. (1) Study of Nature through universal Laws inevitably leads to the Law Giver (God); (2) Man i s primarily an Ideological being. He i s dominated by the love of some 'ideas 1' which mould and shape his destiny i n a l l stages of human hi s t o r y . . (3)History i s an interplay of moral forces. Behind the r i s e and f a l l of a l l nations there are some Moral Laws, which, i f thought about, could be summed up i n a few words to which the Book refers as "Transgression of God's Limits". These laws have been pointed out to be as import-ant f o r keeping balance and equilibrium i n man's s o c i a l existence as the laws of Hygiene are fo r his b i o l o g i c a l existence. (4) The philosophy of l i f e advocated i s neither pessimistic nor o p t i m i s t i c . It i s a m e l i o r i s t i c 1. The g i s t of t h i s section has been taken primarily from Khowaja Ghulam-u-Sayyedian's book, "The Educational Philosophy of Iqhal" and Dr. Rafi-u-Don's book, "The Philosophy of Future" Ph.Feroz & Sons. Lahore, Karachi. 103. VI. System of Prayers, R i t e s , Ceremonies t etc. 1) Daily f i v e time prayer and one xmonth fasts are incumbent on a l l men and women. Prayer has s p i r i t u a l as well as s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Its object i s to purify the soul, stimulate one to do good deeds, inculcate love for fellow beings and fos t e r equality, unity and brotherhood among the believers. 2) There are no r i t e s and ceremonies for bi r t h and death, except i ) performance of Haj (pilgrimage to Mecca) once i n a l i f e , i f one can a f f o r d i t , and s a c r i f i c e of animals on the same occasion; i i ) performance of c i r -cumcision; i i i ) pork f l e s h , a l l sorts of strong drinks and ca r r i o n are prohibited. 3) There i s no priesthood. 4) The Mosque i s both a place of worship and a Community Centre f o r discussing Community problems. Its other purpose i s to impart education. 104. A Comparative Study of the Ideal C u l t u r a l Values of  American and Pakistani Society. 1, Value Orientations i n American Society* Robin M. Williams i n his i l l u m i n a t i n g a r t i c l e on f ,Value Orientations i n American Society"! has outlined c e r t a i n major value-configurations i n American culture to which he c a l l s the " i d e a l types, subject to numerous exceptions ..... neverthless serving as working models against which variations and contradic-tions can be c l e a r l y seen." The outstanding are as follows: 1. Science and secular r a t i o n a l i t y , 2. Nationalism - Patriotism. 3. Individual Personality. 4.. Material comfort. 5. "Achievement" and "Success" 6. " A c t i v i t y " and "Work". 7. Progress as contrasted to stagnation. 8. E f f i c i e n c y and P r a c t i c a l i t y . 9. Moral o r i e n t a t i o n . 10. Humanitarian Mores. 11. Equality and Freedom. 12. External Conformity. 13. Racism and Related Group-Superiority Themes. 1. William M. Robin: "Value Orientation i n American Society" published Stein and Cloward: S o c i a l Perspectives on  Behaviour. The Free Press, Publishers, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s . Pages 288-314. 105. 2) Value Orientations i n Pakistani Society. On the pattern provided by R.M.Williams, the writer i s attempting to conceptualize the outstanding values of Pakistani Society as i n f e r r e d from the i d e a l or Islamic culture of Pakistan:-1. S p i r i t u a l - Secular; Moral - Material Combination. 2. Ideological basis of group organization. 3..Anti- r a c i a l i s m and anti-caste system. 4. Individual - group interdependence. 5. Equality, brotherhood and controlled freedom. 6. S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t i n contrast to pleasure-seeking. 7. "Success" i n terms of moral and s p i r i t u a l gains -not material. 8. Humanitarian Mores. 9. Piety, s i m p l i c i t y and humility, as against pride, superiority or love of display. 10. Chastity, both f o r men and women. 11. Respect f o r elders and strong family f e e l i n g s . i 106. I i i i i ) Islam and Modern S o c i a l Work. Modern s o c i a l work i s not an innovation altogether. It has i t s roots implanted deep i n the philosophy of r e l i g i o n . When the holy Christ said, 'Love they neighbour as thyself, and the holy prophet of Islan exhorted his followers, 'Do unto others what you wish others to do unto you'', both were advocating s o c i a l work philosophy. In f a c t , love of fellow being has always been an a r t -i c l e of f a i t h for a l l great r e l i g i o n s , and love of God i t s e l f has been held subservient to i t . Some r e l i g i o n s went beyond t h i s l i p s e r v i c e . They presented a well-developed system of s o c i a l security, and a workable pro-gramme for the solution of complex s o v i a l problems of diverse nature. Islam, f o r instance, while o f f e r i n g p r a c t i c a l solutions to innumerable socio-economic problems i n i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way, has a well organized and practicable system of s o c i a l security i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of Zakat which, f a r from being an indiscriminate and spontaneous d i s t r i b u t i o n of ch a r i t y , i s a systematic and planned method of solving the problems of poverty, beggary and unemployment. It i s a sort of annual tax om the property of the wealthy sections of the community placed at the disposal of the community or State to be u t i l i z e d purely f o r the benefit of a l l variety of the 'needy' which include disabled people, orphans and widows, the unemployed and the under-debt, t r a v e l l e r s and finan-c i a l l y wrecked persons. Other r e l i g i o n s too devoted t h e i r f u l l and wholehearted attention to a l l e v i a t e human suffering to eradicate s o c i a l e v i l s 106. a and eliminate poverty, hunger and d i s t r e s s , through t h e i r own systems of c h a r i t i e s , alms-giving and 'poor r e l i e f * . S e l f l e s s service to mankind regardless of caste, creed and colour, and t o l -erance and reverence f o r human l i f e , was recognized by a l l r e l i g i o n s not merely a s o c i a l necessity but also a s p i r i t u a l necessity and was constantly streesed on promises of f a i r reward i n the form of s p i r i t u a l elevation, union with God, blessings i n t h i s world and paradise i n the world hereafter. Not only t h i s , a l l great s p i r i t u a l leaders of mankind were great s o c i a l workers themselves. They never confined themselves only to the 'passive chanting of prayers i n the lap of dust 1, but they p r a c t i c a l l y and a c t i v e l y hurled themselves into the battle f i e l d of l i f e while siding with the c r e s t f a l l e n souls and thus s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r comfort, t h e i r health, t h e i r happiness and even t h e i r l i v e s -almost everything on the a l t a r of the service of t h e i r fellow-beings. They were those who enkindled the f i r e of love f o r the poor and the destitute i n the hearts of the r i c h and the fortunate, who gave s o c i a l awakening to t h e i r people, taught them the decent w#s of c o l l e c t i v e l i v i n g , k n i t t e d together the ir r e c o n c i l a b l e elements of society into one harmonious whole, bridged the yawning gaps which divided man and man, and presented to the world a stable s o c i a l system based upon mutual co-operation and respect - one i n which the strong was made custodian of the weak and i n which love, sympathy, fello w - f e e l i n g , sense of 'belonging 1 and *wer f e e l i n g triumphed over cut-throat competition, selfishness, and exp l o i t a t i o n of the weak by the strong. The object of t h e i r coming into the world was not to give lessons on the laws of Science and Physics but to teach 107 man, through practice and precept, how to develop s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -ships and get along with other people. The philosophy underlying 'group-work1' and 'community development and organization'" which repudiates the diabolic p h i l -osophies of l i f e which advocate 'survival of the fi t t e s t ' ' , 'Laissez f a i r e ' , 'Gospel of Mamon* and 'acquisitive i n s t i n c t * , was preached practised and f u l l y implemented by these great teachers and lovers of mankind. Nay, i t were rather they who f i r s t propounded i t . Even the philosophy of 'casework*, with i t s emphasis on the democratic p r i n c i p l e of the dignity and worth of the i n d i v i d u a l i s r e l i g i o u s i n o r i g i n which holds man as the measure of a l l things - the highest common factor i n the arithmetic of l i f e . "He who saved a single l i f e " , says the Holy Quran, "saved the whole humanity"; and so we see th i s philosophy being well interpreted i n the frequent consolation v i s i t s of s p i r i t u a l leaders to the houses of the poor and sick, widows and orphans. The idea that a s i n f u l or a crimi n a l i s a s p i r i t u a l l y sick person and deserves our care and sympathy just i n the same way as a physically sick person, i s not modern i n o r i g i n . It i s given to us long, long ago by these great benefactors of humanity who would pick up down-trodden pearls of humanity besmeared with mud and wash them up with milk of human kindness and restore them to t h e i r d i g n i f i e d place i n the rosy bead of s o c i a l organization* They loved whom the whole work around despired, the most detestable, the most s i n f u l and the most hateful among mankind, deserved t h e i r love and care more because i t was f o r him that they were commissioned. (It i s more precious inthe eyes of the Maker, i f broken). 108 From philosophic aspect, the modern s o c i a l work has nothing new to contribute. It i s just an old wine i n new b o t t l e s . I f i t s aimi i s to develop huinanitarian outlook and strengthen s o c i a l sense,, t h i s purpose can well be served by 'true* r e l i g i o n . I have used the word 'true* advisedly, because the r e l i g i o n as i t i s being preached and practiced by i t s followers everywhere, i s not a r e l i g i o n i n true sense, i t i s i t s t r a v e r s i t y . The 'true 1' r e l i g i o n as mentioned above i s one which in s p i r e s 'love* f o r a l l and malice towards none, and which declares, " a l l creatures as members of the family of one God", and therefore, e n t i t l e d to the same love, courtesy and considera-t i o n which govern the r e l a t i o n of persons belonging to a decent and cultured family. Such a r e l i g i o n can alone provide a sound psycho-l o g i c a l basis f o r the unity and brotherhood of man. The Pakistani are fundamentally a r e l i g i o u s community. They have, fortunately, with them a r e l i g i o u s order which, i f properly interpreted, understood and practised, can prove a f e r t i l e ground f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of humanitarian outlook and growth of s o c i a l attitudes and thus serve as an impetus fo r the speedy success of s o c i a l welfare movement i n Pakistan. The writer does not know from what source other people derive t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a l i f e of service and dedication, but Pakistanis usually derive t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n from the r e l i g i o u s ideology of Islam which i s essen-t i a l l y humanistic and international i n s p i r i t , and which rejects snobbery and the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of man on basis of caste, colour, race and geography, and affirms s o c i a l equality and human brother-hood. On p r a c t i c a l side, i t s socio-economic programes which prohibit usury and gambling, f o r b i d monopoly and hoarding, impose Zakat and *Khums*, or der *Waqaf' (bequeathing a part of property 109 f o r charitable purposes), propose an all-embracing system of inheritance and present a well regulated procedure of prayers, i f revived and f u l l y implemented, i n l e t t e r and s p i r i t , can help to create l i v i n g conditions highly conducive to the development of s o c i a l work, theory and pra c t i c e . What they need to learn, however, from the modern s o c i a l work, the writer believes, i s s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l s and techniques, an enquiring attitude, s c r u t i n i z i n g i n t e l l e c t , a systematic and well planned method of working, a faculty f o r d i s p a s s i o n a t e d i a g n o s i s and analysis of facts - a fa c u l t y which has immensley increased man's power to control his environments but which unfortunately i s hope-l e s s l y lacking i n the a c t i v i t i e s of r e l i g i o u s communities. The greatest service which the modern s o c i a l work has rend-ered i s that i t has pressed the t i t a n t c constructive force of science to the service of humanity, and thereby 'humanized1' and 's o c i a l i z e d ' i t . But for i t Science would have f a i l e d to play i t s constructive tole i n solving many a complex and i n t r i d a t e problems of s o c i a l l i f e . The is o l a t e d e f f o r t s of r e l i g i o n , however well-meaning, too would have borne no f r u i t a l r e s u l t s . To the abstract idealism of r e l i g i o n , i t has given a pragmatic bearing. So, while i t has '^humanized' Science on one hand, i t has 'pragmatized1'7 r e l i g i o n on the other. More than that, modern s o c i a l work i s i n fact a daring experiment and a creative attempt of welding science and r e l i g i o n together into one harmonious whole, apparently two contradictory, antagonistic and r i v a l systems of l i v i n g . The Philosophy under-l y i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s as we have seen i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s i n s p i r i t but the techniques and s k i l l s employed are thoroughly 110. s c i e n t i f i c and modern i n o r i g i n . Here thus we f i n d , i n the f i e l d of modern s o c i a l work, at least for the f i r s t time,, a mixture of Science and Religion from which the people of Pakistan who are i n search of a composite ( s p i r i t u a l and rat i o n a l ) approach to human problems, can, undoubtedly and f e a r l e s s l y , p r o f i t much. CHAPTER IV (Part One) A N A L Y S I S O F C A S E M A T E R I A L 111. PART I. This part of Chapter IV i s being assigned to the study and analysis of the c u l t u r a l element i n the case-work materia 1 drawn from the w r i t e r 1 s own experience; f i r s t as a student. Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University; and l a t e r , as a member of the fac u l t y , i n the same Department, to supervise post-graduate students placed i n various f i e l d work settings. The purpose i s to l i n k the analysis with the ove r a l l purpose of the th e s i s , i e . to i d e n t i f y the c u l t u r a l factors which f a c i l i t a t e or obstruct casework practice i n Pakistan. The writer understands that the number of cases being presented here for i l l u s t r a t i o n i s to small to generalize, but i t can c e r t a i n l y give a f a i r l y good idea as to how c u l t u r a l factors a f f e c t casework practice i n his home setting. In view of the li m i t a t i o n s mentioned by the writer i n the introduction, t h i s , perhaps, i s the best that could be reasonably accomplished by him. 112 The method employed i n the study i s as follows: i ) A b r i e f introduction to the case, i i ) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n , analysis and int e r p r e t a t i o n of the salient ' c u l t u r a l 1 factors (not psycho-socio-somatic), as they (a) obstruct^, or (b) f a c i l i t a t e " ^ casework practice i n Pakistan. 1. By 'obstruction* we mean hereby anything r e l a t i n g to casework which hampers and hinders i ) casework practice i n general i i ) the app l i c a t i o n and use of casework p r i n c i p l e s and techniques, i i i ) the cl i e n t 8 s motiviation capacity and opportunity to seek and use casework help i n reshaping, restoring and improving his role performance - the ultimate goal and purpose of casework as a problem-solving process. 2. By ' f a c i l i t a t i o n ' we mean here anything r e l a t i n g culture which help or enhances i ) casework practice i n general, i i ) the application and use of casework techniques and p r i n c i p l e s , i i i ) the c l i e n t ' s motiviation, capacity, and opportunity, i n pa r t i c u l a r . 113. i ) Case No.l. This i s the case of Mrs.K., a twenty f i v e year old T.B. patient i n the Model Chest C l i n i c , Lahore C i t y , the c a p i t a l of West Pakistan. The Medical Superintendent who referred to the case to l d the writer that the c l i e n t had made l i t t l e or no improvement since she f i r s t reported to the Clnic f o r treatment some f i v e years ago. The Lady Health V i s i t o r , who was asked to introduce the writer to the c l i e n t , described him as a 'Social Worker'!-' i n i t s English usage. Mrs.K., was a Purdah observing lady. Her whole body was covered with v e i l except hands, and she was peeping through i t s goles. She was t o t a l l y i l l i t e r a t e . She spoke the Urdu language with a peculiar accent which indicated that she was a refugee from Central India who migrated to Pakistan a f t e r part-i t i o n . She was married to Mr.K., at the age of 18, according to the wishes of her parent; had one male c h i l d aged 5 years, and was separated from her husband because her in-laws, who l i v e d 1. In Pakistan we have yet to coin a simple and concise equiva-lent to 'Social Worker' easy to be understood by the layman i n his own language. The two equivalents "Mashrati Karkun" and "Smaji Karkun 1 1 commonly used now, are derivatives from Persian and Sanskrit languages and are more d i f f i c u l t to be pronounced or understood than t h e i r English equivalent. In the absence of any suitable word, a ' s o c i a l worker' i s commonly c a l l e d 'doctor' by laymen i n the medical se t t i n g . There i s no equivalent of 'Caseworker' at a l l i n the Pakistani language. 114. i n an extended kinship family, had made l i f e miserable for her. And when she f e l l v i c t i m to T.B., they, instead of consulting a physician, tokk her to a s p i r i t u a l healer, and conducted her to the C l i n i c only when her condition began to deteriorate,. Her husband who was also i l l i t e r a t e and worked as a wage earner, was a puppet i n the hands of his mother. He had neither the means nor courage to l i v e apart from his parent. Whatever he earned he gave to his mother. Moved by her miserable condition, her father brought her back to his own home where she' was l i v i n g for the l a s t f i v e years. Her father was an Astrologer who earned his l i v i n g by t e l l i n g the fortunes of other people. He had predicted about her fortune as well, t e l l i n g her that she would be dying an early death. A few days p r i o r to the r e f e r r a l Mrs.K.'s father died and t h i s seemed to worsen her condition. Mrs.K. rs parent l i v e d i n one of the worse slum areas i n Lahore C i t y . i i ) (a) The Cu l t u r a l Factors which Obstructed Casework Practice. Analysis of the case history presents the following culture-related problems which obstructed the writer's p r a c t i c e : 1) The R i g i d i t y of Purdah System. The women of some c u l t u r a l sub-groups i n Pakistan, i n t h e i r e f f o r t to conform s t r i c t l y to the ver d i c t of t h e i r r e l i g i o n , do not expose t h e i r faces even i n cases of dire need and extreme emergencies. This 1. Purdah-system i s very common among the women of middle classes i n urban areas of Pakistan. But i n r u r a l areas where 85% pop-ul a t i o n l i v e s , the women do not observe t h i s type of Purdah. 115 faces even i n cases of dire need and extreme emergencies. This hinders t h e i r motivation, capacity and opportunity to seek and use casework help. In Mrs.K.'-s case i t became d i f f i c u l t f o r the writer to e s t a b l i s h positive working relationships and devel-op free communication, at least, i n the beginning phases. Another d i f f i c u l t y posed by t h i s s i t u a t i o n was to ask Mr.K., f o r o f f i c e v i s i t . The women i n Pakistan, p a r t i -c u l a r l y the purdah observing, are not used to v i s i t i n g offces a l l by themselves. There are some who do not yet go out alone anywhere, unless they are escorted by the male members of the family. Besides, i t i s not always possible for men to forego t h e i r wages to bring women f o l k to the o f f i c e of the Worker. Women, moreover, f e e l i l l - a t - e a s e in- o f f i c e environment. They f e e l shy or a f r a i d to go there. I f the Worker leaves i t to the C l i e n t to come and meet him, she may never turn up, and the Worker may have to close the case. The home v i s i t also poses a problem at times. The Worker cannot f i n d privacy to interview the C l i e n t i n c l o s e l y congested home environment, with everybody around them. To seek privacy, on the other hand, provokes suspicion, e s p e c i a l l y when the Cl i e n t i s a young g i r l and the Worker i s a male. Unless the members of the family and the people around know the nature of the job of the S o c i a l Worker f u l l y w ell, and know him personally too, the repeated v i s i t s of a well-dressed man to the home of a female C l i e n t might be mis-interpreted by the enemies of the family, detrimental to i t s welfare. The true reason i s not known 116 but i t i s a fact that ' scandlemongering* £ i s very common i n ce r t a i n communities i n Pakistan, Of course, much depends on the ingenuity, s k i l l , resourcefulness, relationships and personality of the worker but there i s no denying the fact that a sensitive awareness of the culture of the people i s very important. 2) Language d i f f i c u l t y while communicating and c o l l e c t i n g information, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the i l l i t e r a t e and uneducated section of the public which sometimes f a i l s to understand the terminology of the caseworker with high University education and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l background. This d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t s the c l i e n t ' s capacity and opportunity to make much use of casework services. 3) Extended Kinship family system i s widely prevalent among a l l sections of public, both i n urban and r u r a l areas of Pakistan. It i s supported and sustained by custom as well as by r e l i g i o n , This system has both strengths and weaknesses. Its strengths are the economic and emotional security which i t affords.to i t s members. But among the weaknesses i s the dependency of the younger generation on the 'superior wisdom'' of t h e i r elders which k i l l s t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e and freedom of choice, and stunts t h e i r emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l growth. Due to c u l t u r a l patterns the younger ones have to value the words of t h e i r elders. It i s used to being t o l d by i t s seniors what i s right and what i s wrong. The important decisions 117. i n the family (including marriage) are made by parents. The family budget i s run by mothers i n whose 1 feet the paradise l i e s 1 ' . That the parent when they grow old need to be spoken to 'sweetly and s o f t l y * , and properly looked a f t e r i s enjoined by the Quran. Those who give up t h e i r aged parents a f t e r they get married are popularly branded as 'hen-pecked husbands1'. An excessive love for the parent of the opposite sex i s interpreted as symbolic of unresolved oedipal complex by the psycho-analysts, but i n Pakistan or India, where such love i s prized very highly as a virtuous act, we may have to look- for ' c u l t u r a l reasons'. Undoubtedly an excessive love and respect f o r the parents creates the problem of adjustment f o r the newly-wed bride who has to l i v e under the same roof with her in-laws. She has either to submit passively before t h e i r supremacy, or remain i n a state of perpetual c o n f l i c t with them. The condition of the husband i s usually very p i t i a b l e on such occasions. He i s torn between con-f l i c t i n g l o y a l t i e s . Behind many cases of divorce, separation or marital c o n f l i c t there l i e s the hand of the mother-in-law whose cruelty has become proverbial. Interestingly enough, before giving the hand of t h e i r daughter for marriage, the parents of the g i r l look f i r s t to the type of mother-in-law she i s going to have, rather than the type of husband she i s going to marry. Usually the 'good' boys whose parents are dead are preferred. The p o s i t i o n of the s o c i a l worker i n t h i s family si t u a t i o n i s often very c r i t i c a l , he finds himself between the d e v i l and the deep sea, exposed to h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m from both sides. An uncouth 118. student of s o c i a l work who wanted to help a young husband to develop a •.'•mature outlook' towards his wife, and thereby t r i e d to enhance his role performance, was badly abused by an angry mother who f e l t threatened that the worker was i n some sort of conspiracy with her daughter-in-law to overthrow her. A c e r t a i n section of the Pakistani population i s not used to democracy and i t confuses them when a democratic approach of self-determination i s suggested. In Mrs.K.'s case, the factor which most affected her motivation, capacity and opportunity to involve herself and make use of her own resources, was her f a i l u r e to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her own actions, to employ her own i n t e l l i g e n c e , wisdom and judgment. Dependent on her mother excessively as she was, she thought that i t was not her job to decide, think and make choices. She developed a s i m i l a r dependency on the worker, expecting him to do f o r her whatever he thought was the best. To give her own views, to argue, to t a l k of her own preferences i n the presence of the elders and the more learned, does not become a g i r l . It i s nothing short of an obstinacy. Culture does not approve i t . 4. I n t e r - f a m i l i a l or Inter-group Feuds. Another c u l t u r a l f a c t o r which obstructed the c l i e n t ' s opportunity for e f f e c t i v e role performance was that she was the v i c t i m of i n t e r - f a m i l i a l feuds which continue f o r generations together among some sub-cultural groups i n Pakistan. Somewhere i n the past the forefathers of the c l i e n t had maltreated and divorced a woman of the in-laws, and t h i s they had not yet forgotten and forgiven. Now i t was t h e i r turn to avenge themselves on Mrs.K.'s family by maltreating 119. and divorcing her. The opportunities f o r her r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were considerably narrowed down by th i s larger i n t e r - f a m i l i a l dispute. 5. Superstitious whims and F a t a l i s t i c B e l i e f s . A majority of the ignorant and i l l i t e r a t e people of Pakistan, both i n r u r a l and urban areas, are firm believers i n superstitious things and occult practices. A study project submitted by a student of Fanjab University on 'Infant Mortality * indicated that 77.8 per-cent of parents whose infants died, did not go to a doctor but consulted s p i r i t u a l healers when the deceased infants f e l l i l l . ^ The family under consideration, p a r t i c u l a r l y , belong to a c u l t u r a l sub-group who had a fi r m b e l i e f i n pre-destination and superstitions. The father of Mrs.K., was an Astrologer. His forefathers descended from the Joshi Caste of Hindu Brahmins who had embraced Islam but s t i l l retained many of t h e i r old b e l i e f s and customs. A powerful c u l t u r a l factor which operated against her recovery was her firm b e l i e f that she was pre-destined to die as predicted by her father. This loss of hope and passive accept-ance of her fate prejudiced her motivation and w i l l to co-operate i n the process of her seIf-improvement. This attitude of f a t a l i s t i c resignation inculcated by her sub-culture, almost brought her to the verge of death. 1. B i l g i s Kishwar: A study of Infant Mortality i n Moballah Ganj; Moghapulpura, Lahore. Submitted by the author to the Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirement of the degree of M.A. i n 1958. 120. 6. Prolonged and deep mourning at the death or demise of a near and dear one, i s not only approved but also encouraged and appreciated. The mourning period f i x e d by r e l i g i o n i s ten days, but custom extends i t to forty days. An early resort to the normal functioning by the immediate r e l a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the wife and c h i l d r e n , i s in d i c a t i v e of a lack of love f o r the departed one, and an object of remorse by the distant r e l a t i v e s . The longer one i s mourned the more loved one he was. Mrs.K. *s prolonged and deep mourning at her fatherms death may be attributed to her intense r e a l i z a t i o n of the loss of a love-object, but i t had c u l t u r a l meanings too. And a l l t h i s seemed to af f e c t her capacity to improve her role performance i n her s o c i a l functioning and the u t i l i z a t i o n of casework services. 7. A strong attachment to the home environment i s one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the most of the Pakistani people. The ancestral home, the l o c a l i t y i n which the parent, friends and even foes, l i v e however dilapidated, d i r t y and devoid of the amenities of l i f e , has an emotional appeal. They would not abandon i t for a l l the comforts of a foreign environment. Mrs.K.*s parental home was located i n one of the d i r t i e s t slums of Lahore C i t y . It was one apartment house devoid of l i g h t , a i r and v e n t i l a t i o n . In the opinion of the doctor the family needed to s h i f t to some other place i n the in t e r e s t of the c l i e n t ' s health. An arrangement f o r a better home could be made i n a b i t better l o c a l i t y by renting the ancestral home, but the family preferred death to any s h i f t i n g over to any other place. Strong c u l t u r a l 121 factors were operating to r e s t r i c t the c l i e n t ' s opportunities f o r Improvement i n her s o c i a l functioning. The matter was dropped. To sum up, then, the c u l t u r a l factors which obstructed (partly) casework practice i n Pakistan with reference to the case mentioned above, as 1) The r i g i d i t y of Purdah-system. 2) Language and communication. 3) Extended-Kinship family (to some extent). 4) I n t e r - f a m i l i a l or Inter-group feuds. 5) Superstitious whims and f a t a l i s t i c b e l i e f s . 6) Mourning customs, and 7) Strong attachment to parental environment. (b) The factors which f a c i l i t a t e d . 1) Relative nature of Pyrdah i n Islam. As Mrs.K. became more and more aware of the writer's role i n the doctor's team and the nature of his relationships became known to her, she stopped to observe purdah from him. The writer's home v i s i t s also began to be favourably received by the other members of the family. This was made possible partly by helping them to under-stand the r e a l intent of Purdah i n Islam, which i s r e l a t i v e to the nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p , 2) Extended Kinship family with a l l i t s drawbacks i s not always an hindrance i n casework help. It gves s o c i a l , economic, and emotional security to the people i n times of c r i s i s and breakdown. The s o c i a l workers i n Pakistan have often found i t a useful i n s t i t u i o n f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of t h e i r c l i e n t s provided they become successful i n e s t a b l i s h i n g meaningful relationships with the other members of the family involved and 122. help i n developing 'empathy* among them. The chi l d r e n are the most to be benefited because they usually get substitute mother or father figure i n case of the absence of some one. or both parents from home. Under the given s i t u a t i o n , i n the absence of any substitute i n s t i t u t i o n one can well imagine what would have been the fate of Mrs.K.and her c h i l d . 3) Be l i e f i n God's W i l l . Predestination i n i t s most r e l e n t l e s s , degrading form, finds no place i n Islamic teaching, i n the writer's opinon^. I t , however, does encourage a resigna-t i o n to the " W i l l of God" and refers to i t a sign of deep f a i t h i n Him. But i t has nothing to do with fatalism which precludes man's right to make choices between the desirable or undesirable a l t e r n a t i v e s . In psychological sense i t i s a sort of "accept-ance of f a c t " which serves as a defence against mental breakdown i n the face of i r r e t r i e v a b l e losses and reconcile with what had happened. A proper i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this Muslin attitude towards irreparable losses (death, defeat, deprivations or material losses) a t t r i b u t i n g such happendings to the W i l l of A l l a h often helps the c l i e n t i n Pakistan to overcome the traumatic events and shocking sit u a t i o n s . In the case of Mrs.K., for instance, t h i s understanding did help her, p a r t l y , to overcome the severe shock of her beloved father's death, which was v i r t u a l l y going to k i l l her. ; , 1. Malik, M.A.: Fate and Free W i l l i n Islam, page 31. A chapter i n the writer's unpublished Thesis, opt. c i t . 123 4) One of the sub-cultural factors which obstructed Mrs.K.'s opportunities f o r successful r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was the i n t e r - f a m i l i a l feud going on between her parent and her husband's family. A si t u a t i o n l i k e t h i s c a l l s f o r something more than pure family casework. A frequent demand i s made on the caseworker to apply group work techniques, and also, perhaps, to do a sort of community work. This i s a kind of s i t u a t i o n where the families themselves are under strong pressures and nothing sub-s t a n t i a l can be achieved only by focusing on the c l i e n t ' s immediate family. The c u l t u r a l sub-group to which these families belong need also be given consideration, i f the c l i e n t ' s opportune-i t ies f o r role performance have to be enhanced. Two things which f a c i l i t a t e d casework practice under t h i s s i t u a t i o n were: 1) A combination of casework and group work techniques. Both the families were brought under a favourable climate (which was provided by the death of the c l i e n t ' s father) to s e t t l e t h e i r differences and resolve t h e i r disputes through democratic d i s -cussion and exchange of views. 2) What helped most was the int e r p r e t a t i o n of values of t h e i r own r e l i g i o n which advocates brotherly love, tolerance, foregiveness, burying down old eggs, and showing of goodness i n exchange of e v i l . The help of an e l d e r l y man i n the community, known fo r his piety, was sought to s e t t l e the dispute i n con-formity to the s p i r i t of brotherhood. 5) Religious events and special ceremonial occasions such as marriage, b i r t h and death, have emotional significances f o r the 124. people everywhere. In Pakistan such cccasionshave been found i d e a l to reconcile old family feuds and make up for the wrongs done to one another. Everyone, i n t h i s atmosphered surcharged with emotion, i s quick to forgive and forget. And i t i s said that a l l differences end up with death; the death of a s i g n i f i c a n t member of the family i n Mrs.K.'s parental home, provided the writer with an opportunity to bring the two mutually h o s t i l e familyxgroups together and reconcile t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . This r e c o n c i l i a t i o n enhanced the opportunities f o r the c l i e n t ' s e f f e c t i v e role performance Culture, i t i s said, not only creates problems, but also helps solve them. A noteworthy thing i n t h i s problem solving process i s that while the sub-group cu l t u r e , dogmatic interpreta-t i o n of the people's r e l i g i o n , a s t r i c t adherence to custom and tr a d i t i o n s etc., were there to create obstacles, a balanced and proper int e r p r e t a t i o n of the people's ' i d e a l * culture f a c i l i t a t e d the worker's task i n conformity to the objective of s o c i a l case-work, to restore, reshape and improve the c l i e n t ' s role performance i n his s o c i a l functioning. To sum up, the c u l t u r a l factors which f a c i l i t a t e d 'partly* (the writer would l i k e to c a l l i t so because culture forms only a part of casework diagnosis and treatment process) casework practice i n the given case are as follows: 1) Relative nature of Purdah system i n Islam 2) Extended Kinship family, to some extent. 3) Proper i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b e l i e f i n God's W i l l . 4) Moral and s o c i a l values advocating love, brother-hood, tolerance, foregiveness etc. 5) Emotional climate created by re l i g i o u s events and ceremonial occasions. 125. Case No. 2. Mrs.R., a 38 year old T.B.patient, was referred to the writer by the Medical Superintendent, as one of the oddest patients i n the Model Chest C l i n i c . He t o l d the writer that the patient had eight children and was again pregnant. She had reported to the C l i n i c some six years ago and every time she approached recovery she delivered a c h i l d and then relapsed. He suggested that she and her husband needed to understand the significance of familyx planning. The s o c i a l h i s t o r y c o l l e c t e d by the writer indicated that she needed control not only on health but also on economic grounds. Her husband was a p o l i c e constable drawing meagre pay, hardly enough to make both ends meet. Their eldest son was studying i n college. He was being financed by his maternal uncle. But recently the Uncle married and stopped assistance. The academic career of the boy was i n danger. The treatment plan to a s s i s t the family was, as a pre-liminary, prepared as follows: 1) To help the family understand the significance of family planning i n the int e r e s t of the c l i e n t ' s health as well as f o r the t o t a l welfare of the family. 2) To help the boy get monetary assistance from the Police Department which had a special fund for stipends to the sons of low paid P o l i c e employees f o r educational purposes. (a) The C u l t u r a l Factors which obstructed the implementation of the plan were as follows: 126 (1) The Attitude towards family planning. Mr.R., the husband of the patient, belonged to that school of Muslim thought which does not believe i n family planning or b i r t h c o n t r o l . The followers of t h i s school base t h e i r argument on a verse from the Holy Quran which exhorted Muslims "not to murder t h e i r o f fspring f o r fear of poverty". Those who support family planning argue, on the other hand, that the verse occured i n d i f f e r e n t context and that family planning i s not a 'murder1'. The p o s i t i o n of Islam on the problem as a whole appears to be non-committal. The protagonists and the antagonists both r e l y on interpretations and inferences. But those who believe that Islam i s against the proposition would not accept i t however much one might argue. (2) Sex Information. A discussion onthe subject posed another problem. Family planning involves information on sex. To t a l k with the husband was not d i f f i c u l t , but what about Mrs.R.? The help of a female co-worker was sought, but she being an unmarried g i r l h e r s e l f , f e l t en-harassed.-"- The help of a q u a l i f i e d Lady Health V i s i t o r i n the C l i n i c was ultimately sought f o r to impart the necessary information to the c l i e n t * But a l l our efforts proved a f a i l u r e . The c l i e n t became pregnant again during the writer's stay i n the c l i n i c . The c l i e n t ' s motivation and involvement i n the planning 1. It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to state here that an Indian delegate to Family Planning Conference i n 1960, i n Lahore, t o l d the audience that the Family Planning Movement faced s t i f f resistance i n Delhi because i t used unmarried female University students as volunteers to educate the married women. This was due to the disregard of the c u l t u r a l factors inmotivation of the people. 127. for her own welfare was obstructed by c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . (3) Status Differences. To get monetary assistance from the Police Fund to educate his son, Mr.R., was encouraged to present an ap p l i c a t i o n i n his Department. Here the 'bureau-c r a t i c culture' and o f f i c i a l red-tapism stepped i n and frustrated his e f f o r t s . A low-paid employee standing at the lowest end of the h i e r a r c h i a l order did not muster courage to meet his boss to expedite the matter. It was found that the s o c i a l worker's p r i n c i p l e of self-help did not serve the purpose. The case kept pending and the boy who f a i l e d to pay his dues i n time faced re-moval from the college r o l l s . The writer met the o f f i c e r con-cerned and explained the s i t u a t i o n and got the case decided i n the favour of the c l i e n t . The culture r e s t r i c t e d the opportunities and the capacities of the c l i e n t and on that account the worker had to make use of d i r e c t intervention. The a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of self-help suffered a set-back here more due to the c u l t u r a l than the administration reasons. The d i s t i n c t i o n between high and low, r i c h and poor, young and old, i s over-stressed by the t r a d i t i o n a l culture as against the 'ideal'" which tends to o b l i t e r a t e a l l such d i s t i n c t i o n s . Those who stand at the lower end of the ladder, do not present t h e i r legitimate demands to those placed at the top. They are used to receive help as a '"gift* rather than as a ' r i g h t ' . On the other hand some people a t the helm of a f f a i r s are overly status conscious, and want to keep people dependent upon them. The r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of self-help under 128 these circumstances may mean denial of casework help. . A frequent use of d i r e c t intervention and environmental manipula-t i o n has to be made to widen the opportunities of the c l i e n t r e s t r i c t e d by the 'Bureaucratic C u l t u r e 1 . In the case referred to above, the c u l t u r a l factors which obstructed casework practice were as follows: 1) The attitudes of a Muslim Sect towards family planning. 2) The taboos against sex education. 3) The Status differences. 4) The Bureaucratic Culture. 129 Case No.3. Mrs.R. (Case No,2), one day t o l d the w r i t e r , when he was on a home v i s i t , t h a t i n her neighbourhood there l i v e d a middle-aged r e s p e c t a b l e women who, she thought, seemed to be s u f f e r i n g from the s i m i l a r k i n d of d i s e a s e she was s u f f e r i n g from. On the w r i t e r ' s f u r t h e r enquiry she s a i d t h a t her f a m i l y had q u i t e r e c e n t l y moved i n t o t h e i r neighbourhood. Asked whether she had suggested the lady v i s i t the C l i n i c , Mrs.R., r e p l i e d t h a t she d i d , but the l a d y d i d not pay much a t t e n t i o n t o her su g g e s t i o n s . The w r i t e r met the lady w i t h the help of Mrs.R. T h i s i s Mrs.J., a f o r t y f i v e y e a r o l d woman belonging t o a r e s p e c t a b l e Sayyed^ f a m i l y . The w r i t e r , on the f i r s t meeting suggestedSi'she pay v i s i t t o the c l i n i c t o get h e r s e l f m e d i c a l l y examined. She was found t o be an a c t i v e case of T.B. The s a l i e n t p o i n t s i n her case h i s t o r y a re as f o l l o w s : 1) Her husband, a month back, q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o her wishes, married a Sweepress and wanted her t o l i v e w i t h her under the same r o o f , which she d i d not ac c e p t , and l e f t the home alo n g w i t h h e r f o u r c h i l d r e n under p r o t e s t . 2) She d i d not know what T.B. was. To her the d i s e a s e she s u f f e r e d was j u s t *a l i t t l e cough and f e v e r * . 1. The Sayyeds are b e l i e v e d to be the descendants of the Holy Prophet of Islam, and, by v i r t u e " o f t h e i r b i r t h and l i n e a g e , they are u n i v e r s a l l y r e s p e c t e d by the Muslims. The t r u e Sayyeds are almost n o n - e x i s t e n t i n P a k i s t a n 130. 3) She l i v e d on cha r i t y which her children c o l l e c t e d from the homes of the r i c h people i n the l o c a l i t y . The contribution was generously made because the people thought that she was a Sayyed woman (a descendent of the Prophet). 4) She inherited a big share from her father's patrimony which she would not claim from her only brother f o r custom expected s a c r i f i c e from s i s t e r s . a) The c u l t u r a l factors which obstruct. 1) Misuse or Abuse of Polygamy. The r e a l trouble l i e s not so much with the institution of polygamy as with i t s abuse or misuse. The permission to marry up to four women was given by Islam, provided one could, as fa r as i t i s humanly possible, deal equally and j u s t l y with a l l of them. 1 Some husbands, i n conformity with the instructions of t h e i r r e l i g i o n t r y to be as just as possible, while others put a l l the eggs i n one basket, and thus commit grave i n j u s t i c e . It was not possible f o r the worker to consider with the c l i e n t any alternative plans to remove t h i s c u l t u r a l stress on her l i f e , as the environment provided few a l t e r n a t i v e s . The law r e s t r i c t i n g the abuse bf polygamy was not yet promulgated i n Pakistan. b) The factors which partly f a c i l i t a t e d the c l i e n t ' s role performance were: 1) Helping Mrs.J. to reconcile with her c u l t u r a l role as the second wife of her husband. 2) Helping her husband to deal as equitably and j u s t l y as he could according to the laws of Islam by providing necessary 131. provisions f o r her and her ch i l d r e n , etc. 2) Gaste System. Mis.J., had a very high sense of caste supe r i o r i t y . To l i v e with a low caste Sweepress under the same roof was unacceptable to her. The husband could not provide her with a separate house on f i n a n c i a l grounds, but fortunately a way out was found. Mrs.J., had quite a handsome share i n her father's patrimony which she did not claim, partly due to her love f o r her only brother, and p a r t l y because custom expected s a c r i f i c e from a s i s t e r . A proper i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of her right i n her father's property, bestowed by r e l i g i o n , and the dire need she f e l t for her own and her children's welfare, who were begging i n the streets, helped her to put up her legitimate claim. This met most of her f i n a n c i a l requirements and proper r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n . 3) Religious Mendicancy. There i s a type of professional beggar i n Pakistan who derives sanctions from r e l i g i o n f o r t h e i r behaviour, perhaps, because r e l i g i o n advocated charity and alms to the needy people, Mrs.J., thought that begging was a r e l i g i o u s l y s a n c t i f i e d act, and th i s was why she f e l t no harm i n sending her c h i l d r e n begging. Her own concept of s o c i a l work was determined by her sub-cultural a t t i t u d e . She accepted things to be done f o r her rather than with her. She wanted the worker to c o l l e c t alms fo r her as her c h i l d r e n were going. The concept of self-help was foreign to the group to which she belonged* I t took the worker a f a i r l y long time to impress upon 132. her t h a t her r e l i g i o n and dominant c u l t u r e do not admit a b l e -bodied beggars, and the Prophet of Islam s t r i c t l y forebade h i s own descendents from begging, and he h i m s e l f worked f o r h i s l i v i n g , A change of a t t i t u d e was p a r t l y made p o s s i b l e by t h i s i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , 4) R e f e r r a l Method. A n o t a b l e t h i n g i s the s t r i k i n g departure from the accepted procedure of r e f e r r a l which was made not by a d o c t o r or Agency, but by a c l i e n t o u t s i d e the Agency s e t t i n g ; T h i s provoked a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y , and the w r i t e r had t o defend h i m s e l f a g a i n s t h i s c l a s s mates when the matter was brought under d i s c u s s i o n i n the c l a s s room by h i s casework t e a c h e r and f i e l d work S u p e r v i s o r , P r o f . Emerson Holcomb. Although i t was suggested t o the w r i t e r t h a t other methods c o u l d have bean used f o r the r e f e r r a l , i n g e n e r a l , i t was re c o g n i z e d t h a t , i n view of the ignorance of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c as t o t h e i r r i g h t s and duty and c e r t a i n c u l t u r a l i n h i b i t i o n s t o c l a i m f o r l e g i t i m a t e h e l p , the procedure adopted by the w r i t e r c o u l d not be c a l l e d an u n p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t . Moreover, the r e f e r r a l o r request c o u l d be made by any informed member of the p u b l i c , f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e , neighbour, e t c . and i n t h i s case i t was made by Mrs.R., the neighbour of Mrs.J., who, on the b a s i s of her own experience knew what casework s e r v i c e s meant. 5) I n h i b i t i o n s t o l e g i t i m a t e h e l p . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note here t h a t while i n her c u l t u r e "begging" was a s a n c t i f i e d a c t , t o put up l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s , t o f i g h t f o r one's r i g h t s , t o request a share i n the f a t h e r ' s p r o p e r t y , a l l t h i s was ' s i n f u l ' . 133 To go to a public dispensary for treatment and medicines was 'begging 1 and to c o l l e c t alms and charity from the r i c h people was her'right *^  because she was a Sayyed woman, the descendent of the Prophet. (a) A study of the case referred above w i l l indicate that the c u l t u r a l factors which obstructed casework practice were as follows: 1) Misuse or abuse of polygamy. 2) Caste system. .3) Supremacy of custom over r e l i g i o n ( i d e a l culture) 4) Religious Mendicacy. 5) C u l t u r a l i n h i b i t i o n s to request f o r legitimate help or to claim f o r one's r i g h t . (b) The factors which p a r t l y f a c i l i t a t e d were the proper i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Ideal Culture and thereby enabling the c l i e n t and the people around her to improve and enhance t h e i r role performance. 134 Case No.4 This i s the case of Miss K., a seventeen year old T.B. patient belonging to a Pathan family (noted f o r the jealous safeguard of the honour of t h e i r women fol k ) referred by the P r i n c i p a l Public Health School, Lahore, to a female student of the S o c i a l Work Department, supervised by the writer. The P r i n c i p a l explained that the g i r l was so s t r i c t l y confined to the four walls of the house that her father would not permit her to go out even for treatment purposes. He himself being a d a i l y wage-earner, was unable to accompany her to the C l i n i c . At home she had a c r u e l and relentless Step-mother who treated her l i k e a slave g i r l and oftened poisoned the ears of her husband (the c l i e n t * s father) against her. Once or twice with the help of a benign woman i n the neighbourhood she escaped out of the home to consult the C l i n i c and was found an active patient of T.B. Her Step-mother who came to know of t h i s 'escape1- misrepresented i t to her father. Since then she had never appeared i n the C l i n i c to con-tinue the treatment. The female student worker reported that the father of the g i r l objected to her home v i s i t s and would not l e t her meet her. Her thought that these unveiled University g i r l s are not 'good* g i r l s . They follow the Western ways and the fashionable manners, and remarked, "What are these g i r l s looking f o r i n the people's homes, haven't they husbands to manage them?" The student, being newly admitted i n the Department f e l t much dejected. A male student was suggested to as s i s t her. 135. He met the father and Miss K., a number of times at his workshop and succeeded i n establishing p o s i t i v e working relat i o n s h i p s . a) The Factors which obstructed. 1) Conservative and Fanatic Sub-groups. Here i n t h i s case there i s something more than the s t r i c t conformity to Purdah system. The father of Miss K. would not permit a female worker to pay home v i s i t s because she did not observe Purdah and studied i n the University - and a l l those who do so were 'bad 1 g i r l s , unworthy of developing a contact with his daughter. Another defect according to him was that she followed the Western ways and the modern manners. Sometime back these fanatics opposed female education. Although t h i s opposition has died down i n the urban areas, there are very many people i n the f a r - f l u n g r u r a l areas who s t i l l Oppose i t . This Pathan family had recently migrated from the v i l l a g e to c i t y l i f e and was the v i c t i m of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . He was an in t o l e r a n t c r i t i c of c i t y l i f e . 2) The Attitude towards the Female C h i l d . While a male c h i l d i s much loved, the g i r l s are usually neglected because they add to t h e i r worries and problems. The b i r t h of a female c h i l d i s s t i l l looked upon as the curse from God, despite the c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n from the Quran that the female c h i l d i s as much e n t i t l e d to love and care as the male. Instances are not rare where the parents ac t u a l l y pray for the death of t h e i r g i r l s . They are the victims of the worst 136 kind of discrimination i n many homes i n Pakistan. The best food, the best dress, the best education - everything best i s f o r the male c h i l d because he i s the future hope of the family, and the female c h i l d i s an other man's property (Paraya-Dhan). She i s given step-motherly treatment by her 'real*' mother. One can well imagine the fate of a g i r l with a Stepmother. The sit u a t i o n at times, involves the fundamental rights of human beings. 3) Suppression and repression of fe e l i n g s , emotions and sentiments of love, hatred and h o s t i l i t y are extolled by the t r a d i t i o n a l culture. A good woman i s an embodiment of patience, contentment and forebearance. Reticence i n the face of mis-fortune or.oppression and passive submission to the w i l l of parents and husband i s her prize v i r t u e . One wonders to what extent the women are g i f t e d to tolerate s o c i a l wrongs i n Pakistan. The culture seems to have made them 'masochistic 1. In her rel a t i o n s h i p with the worker Miss K., never came out with her true feelings and even f a c t s . She never heaved a sigh, never complained. This may be attributed to the fear, shyness, or r i s k involved i n exposing family secrets. But these again are c u l t u r a l l y inspired phenomena.. 4 ) Undemocratic Family l i f e . Most of the families i n Pakistan are quite undemocratic. The parent, p a r t i c u l a r l y the father, exercises almost unlimited power over the chi l d r e n . They are not supposed to int e r f e r e i n the parent's a f f a i r s * Decision 137. making i s u n i l a t e r a l . The only choice, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the female c h i l d , l e f t open i s to obey the w i l l of t h e i r elders, even i n such c r u c i a l matters as marriage the grown-up daughters are seldom consulted. This i s i n flagrant disregard of the c l e a r d i r e c t i v e s of the Quran which gives adult men and women complete freedom i n accepting or rejecting parental choice. Parents who obey the d i r e c t i v e , do so i n a ceremonial way, always expecting from t h e i r ' d u t i f u l 1 daughters that they w i l l be honouring t h e i r wishes and pledges. To sum up, the c u l t u r a l factors which obstructed p a r t l y , casework practice i n regard to t h i s case were: 1) conservative and fanatic sub-groups; 2) the attitude towards the female c h i l d ; 3) suppression and repression of feelings and emotions by culture, and 4) undemocratic family l i f e . A l l these things destroy the c l i e n t ' s motivations. Capacities and opportunities. He cannot reach out f o r help, cannot r e l a t e , cannot give vent to his emotions and cannot mobilize resources within or without. He i s a helpless plaything i n the hands of circumstances which toss him right and l e f t l i k e the dry leaves by the autumn winds, (b) The Factors which F a c i l i t a t e d . H o s p i t a l i t y . A c u l t u r a l f a c t o r which partly f a c i l i t a t e d the job of the worker was the t r a d i t i o n a l h o s p i t a l i t y of the Pathans. It i s said that t h i s c u l t u r a l sub-group would not deny h o s p i t a l i t y even to t h e i r blood-thirsty enemies i f they step into t h e i r homes. Mr.K., refused to permit the .female caseworker to pay a v i s i t to his home. This necessitated the use of two caseworkers 138. i n c o l l a boration - a female and a male. The female was already working with Miss K., and the make worker was suggested to work with Mr.K., the father of the c l i e n t , who fortunately became successful i n establishing working rela t i o n s h i p with him. In one of the interviews the male worker p o l i t e l y referred to Mr.K., how, being a noble Pathan^ he did not extend a b e f i t t i n g welcome to the female worker on her home v i s i t . Mr.K., f e l t sorry and next time the female worker paid a v i s i t she was greeted warmly. The two workers i n col l a b o r a t i o n helped Mr.K., to per-ceive his role as a father i n the l i g h t of the expectations of his id e a l c u l t u r e . The attitude of the other members of the family also improved considerably and thi s enhanced c l i e n t ' s s o c i a l functioning. 139 .Case No.5. The case of Mr.M., a Muslin p r i e s t with a long beard was referred to the student s o c i a l worker by the Medical Superintendent, Model Chest C l i n i c . He t o l d the worker that McM. did not use the p r e s c r i p t i o n and was i r r e g u l a r i n attendance. The facts c o l l e c t e d by the worker indicated that Mr.M. entertained serious doubts about the elements contained i n the allopathic medicine. The p r e s c r i p t i o n administered i n the l i q u i d form, acceding to him was mixed up with alcohol which i s prohibited by the r e l i g i o n . The i r r e g u l a r i t y i n the use of the p r e s c r i p t i o n and attendance was further caused by the advent of the holy month of Ramzan. He had to keep fasts and lead prayers i n the Mosque. His followers expected from him to be a pious man and on that depended his l i v e l i h o o d . . The c u l t u r a l factors which obstructed casework practice were as follows: 1. Dogmatism. A l l sorts of a l c o h l i c and i n -t o x i c a t i n g liquors are prohibited by Islam. But at the same time there are some reasonable relaxations and exceptions made. There i s not objection to taking l i q u o r under medical i n s t r u c t i o n . Similar exceptions are made f o r observing f a s t s . I t i s not i n -cumbent on the c h i l d , the old man, the sick parson, the t r a v e l l e r and the woman who has to feed the infant, to keep f a s t s . But i some orthodox people with r i g i d super-egos refuse to benefit from these relaxations and instead stress r i g i d conformity to the extent of self-punishment and martyrdom. 140. 2) Rigid Conformity under group pressures.' A consistent and r e p e t i t i v e feature of Pakistan culture i s that the freedom which r e l i g i o n bestows on the people by way of right , the custom takes away through i t s taboos and group pressures. The reverse of that i s , perhaps, equally true, when and where r i g i d dogmatism stereotyped behaviour and b l i n d worship of form takes precedence over the s p i r i t and i n t e n t i o n . Mr.K.| knew that he could benefit from the f a c i l i t i e s given by his r e l i g i o n , but his orthodox group of followers would not l e t him do so. His leadership, and thereby, his l i v e l i h o o d was threatened. 3) C u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . To eat, drink or smoke during the holy month of Ramzan (keeping f a s t s ) i s un i v e r s a l l y d i s l i k e d by the Muslims. Even the nonrmuslims., respecting the feelings of t h e i r compatriots, abstain from public eating, drinking and smoking. The Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University, i n appreciation of t h i s c u l t u r a l factor e s p e c i a l l y i n s t r u c t i t s students to desist from doing anything objectionable. But the student worker, coming as he did from a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l sub-group, showed negligence. This adversely affected his relations! with his athodox c l i e n t . 141 Case No.6. This i s the case of Mrs.A., a twenty seven year old refugee woman, mother of one s i x months old c h i l d . The Medical Superintendent who referred the case to the student worker explained that the c l i e n t was i n an advanced stage of T.B. amd her c h i l d was i n danger of catching i n f e c t i o n . In the i n t e r e s t of the health of both mother and c h i l d , he suggested that plans should be made with Mrs.A., fo r an early separation and placement of her c h i l d . The matter was discussed with Mr.A., and Mrs.A., who had no r e l a t i v e s i n the c i t y . At one time they gave t h e i r consent, amd asked the worker to look out f o r some suitable family who could temporarily take care of t h e i r c h i l d . The worker, i n spite of the lack of any c h i l d placement f a c i l i t i e s i n Lahore C i t y , searched out a reasonable woman who expressed keen desire to look a f t e r the c h i l d during the mother's i l l n e s s . She even went to the extent of giving written assurance to the parent that she would be handing back the c h i l d on t h e i r demand. Almost a l l arrangements f o r the placement of the c h i l d were completed to the mutual s a t i s f a c t i o n of the p a r t i e s . But when the time f o r the actual handing over of the c h i l d came, the mother refused to make delivery. The c h i l d l a t e r did f a l l v i c t i m to the disease eventually, as anticipated by the doctor, and Mrs.A., too met the same fate. The najor factor which adversely affected the motivation of the c l i e n t and obstructed casework help i n the given case i s the great significance which Pakistani culture attaches to motherhood. 142 1) Findings and Conclusions. In the preceding pages the writer has enumerated some of the c u l t u r a l factors which obstruct or f a c i l i t a t e casework practice i n Pakistan with the help of s i g n i f i c a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s . He has been c a r e f u l not to mention s o c i a l and economic factors which, i f added, might have presented a very bleak picture. But t h i s i s a topic by i t s e l f to be dealt with under a separate heading. Below i s summing up of the main conclusions derived from the study and analysis of the case material. It i s found that: 1) Major c u l t u r a l factors which obstruct casework practice are: Language d i f f i c u l t i e s , r i g i d purdah system, super- . s t i t i o u s b e l i e f s and practices, fatalism, mrouirning customs, un-democratic kinship family structure, unrestricted polygamy, the low status of female c h i l d , taboos on sex education, resistence to family planning, attitude towards authority, motherhood, family and group feuds, caste system, fanaticism and dogmatism, etc. Most of these obstructions stem from the culture of the sub-groups, dogmatic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l i g i o n , s t r i c t adherence to custom and conventions, the c o n f l i c t between the ' i d e a l 1 and the ' r e a l * cultures of the people, and absence of any common frame of reference etc. 2) Major c u l t u r a l factors which f a c i l i t a t e casework practice are those which stem from the f l e x i b l e i nterpretation of 143 the i d e a l culture which lends support to philanthropic and humanitarian a c t i v i t i e s , and emphasizes the values of equality, l i b e r t y and f r a t e r n i t y ; stresses the dignity and worth of man, conformity to moral and s p i r i t u a l laws, and invests meaning and purpose to human l i f e and existence. 3) The p r i n c i p l e s whose proper a p p l i c a t i o n . i s CxySj— obstructed at times, as sel -determination, self-help, acceptance, request and r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4) The techniques involved include the whole range of problemsj covering s o c i a l investigation, diagnosis and treatment processes. The d i f f i c u l t i e s , commonly experienced, relate to o f f i c e and home v i s i t s , interviewing, communication of f a c t u a l data, motivation, freedom of expression, repression of ideas, views, attitudes and feelings under c u l t u r a l pressures, and authoritative environment, limited number of choices, opportunities and desirable alternatives allowed by culture, the attitude toward help and the help-giver etc. - a l l or some of which, at times, c a l l f o r an exploration of new ways and means apart from the accepted ones. Some of them found h e l p f u l i n Pakistani s e t t i n g were: i ) The integrative use of group work and  casework techniques to s e t t l e i n t e r - f a m i l i a l disputes. i i ) The collaborative use of two caseworkers; one for the p r i n c i p a l c l i e n t , and the other f o r the secondary, or one for the male and the other for the female. i i i ) The use of s p i r i t u a l and r e l i g i o u s values to bring desirable changes i n the c l i e n t ' s a t t i t u d e . 144. iv ) Incorporation of concrete services and active assistance i n treatment plans rather than giving psychological support primarily. v) Emphasis on help rather than dogmatic and r i g i d adherence to set techniques at the expense of help. II) Suggestions and Recommendations. The thesis stresses the significance of the c u l t u r a l factors i n education and practice of s o c i a l work i n general and casework i n p a r t i c u l a r . But since i t i s written with a special purpose i n view to make i t useful f o r the Pakistani setting, the writer has some p r a c t i c a l suggestions and recommendations to make. 1) There i s a pressing need for conducting a comprehensive and systematic research on the culture of Pakistan which i s yet to be defined and which has yet to e s t a b l i s h i t s i d e n t i t y . Unfortunately, there i s not a single authoritative and authentic work on the subject i n Pakistan. Most of the material i s just fragmentary. Perhaps i t i s due to the fact that Pakistan i s a new-born country and everything there i s i n a melting pot and state of f l u x . It has yet to search f o r i t s own i d e n t i t y and unique i n d i v i d u a l i t y . However, the questifor national i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y goes side by side. A nation without culture i s a body without soul, subject to death, decay and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . The task for the search of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i s not to be undertaken by one man. A united and coordinate e f f o r t to form a uniform concept of the Pakistani culture i s needed on the part of the educationists, s o c i a l reformer, r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l leaders and s o c i a l worker. 145. U n t i l and unless there exists some uniformity of outlook on what i s desirable and undesirable, what are the demands and expectations of the culture, s o c i a l workers w i l l continue to f e e l handicapped, bewildered and confused. In the absence of any generally accepted frame of reference to help c l i e n t s , groups and communities to mover towards desirable goals and to incorporate s o c i a l l y accept-able values, they w i l l be groping i n the dark. 2) Re-interpretation of Islam i n the l i g h t of complex modern needs and the fast changing requirements of the times There i s a great need f o r I j t i h a d (reconstruction of Islamic thought and s o c i a l philosophy to meet the demands of the present age) as suggested by Dr.Iqhal, the philosopher-poet who v i s u a l i z e d the conce of Pakistan. Most of the available material on Islam i s primarily the product of dogmatic i d e o l o g i c a l thinking which addresses and applies i t s e l f more to the metaphysical than the p r a c t i c a l and the rea l problems facing the common man today. No planned e f f o r t i s being made to bring the r e l i g i o n nearer to the l i v e s of the people who are pre-eminently motivated by the r e l i g i o u s values. In the writer's opinion, the s o c i a l welfare aspect of the r e l i g i o n , with i t s emphasis on the dignity and worth of the in d i v i d u a l , noads p a r t i c u l a r l y to be stressed. During the writer*"s stay i n Canada he has p a r t i c u l a r l y been impressed by the magnificent role which the r e l i g i o u s organizations of the country - i t s churches are playing i n the f i e l d of health, education, c h i l d welfare, so c i a l and group a c t i v i t i e s , imparting s o c i a l awareness, e t c . 146 3) More and more selected and authentic c u l t u r a l material needs to be incorporated i n the teachings and curriculum of the s o c i a l work school and department. It i s not enough to introduce one or two courses on the Islamic concept. Constructive values of Islam need to be incorporated and fused into the entire s t r u c t u r a l framework of s o c i a l work education and practice so that s o c i a l work and the i d e a l culture of the people do not seem to flow as two parallel-running streams 4) There i s need to prepare a uniform code of ethics f o r s o c i a l workers i n Pakistan inthe l i g h t of t h e i r i d e a l c u l t u r a l values so that i t could serve as a guiding d i r e c t i v e f o r the b u i l d -ing up of t h e i r character. A code of ethi c s , i n f a c t , presents the concept of an 'Ideal S o c i a l Worker'. ..The type of person i t wishes to produce to f i t into a c u l t u r a l framework. 5) There i s a great need fo r the creation and production of indigenous l i t e r a t u r e i n s o c i a l work f o r teaching purposes. At present, we i n Pakistan, r e l y mostly on imported teaching material, p a r t i c u l a r l y from American setting. The s o c i a l work concepts and p r i n c i p l e s , as we have seen, are fundamentally the same i n Pakistan as they are i n any democratic country. However, the poeple who use s o c i a l services are Pakistani, and have a culture and outlook which are uniquely t h e i r own. I t seems theieEore l o g r a l and right to prepare s o c i a l work teaching materials from the Pakistani scene. There are some other reasons as well f o r t h i s thinking. The student i d e n t i f i e s more e a s i l y with t h e o r e t i c a l concepts and p r i n c i p l e s of good professional practice i f t h i s can 147. be done within the framework of a setting that i s f a m i l i a r and close to him. How can a Pakistani student appreciate the significance of the c u l t u r a l material drawn from American l i f e ? Much of the material i n imported books remains u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to the students and there i s much that needs to be scrutinized to make i t acceptable. , 6) Through the creation and production of the indigenous l i t e r a t u r e remains the primary duty of the teaching s t a f f , the co-operation of the former students of the s o c i a l work Department and schools i n Pakistan, working i n the f i e l d , also needs to be en-l i s t e d to c o l l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t case material based upon t h e i r f i r s t -hand knowledge and experience with the culture of the people. This material w i l l be h e l p f u l not only f o r the teaching but also f o r the research purpose. 7) The selected research t h e s i s , i n d i v i d u a l or group, produced by the students needs to be published and made available to the general public to help i d e n t i f y t h e i r s o c i a l problems and needs, The Department of S o c i a l Work, Punjab University, has made a modest beginning by publishing approximately ten such thesis so f a r . 8) S o c i a l workers should become acquainted, through lectures, discussions and readings of the s o c i a l c u l t u r a l patterns of major ethnic groups i n Pakistan. Departments of Social Work i n Pakistan can introduce a course or arrange f o r special seminars i n t h i s area. A research on the c u l t u r a l patterns of the various sub-groups i n Pakistan to f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l work and practice i s also needed. 148. 9) Language i s foremost i n communication with c l i e n t s , we cannot expect a l l s o c i a l workers to speak a l l the languages i n Bakistan but we can and should require some of our workers to acquire proficiency or understanding i n some of the major d i a l e c t s spoken by the various l i n g u i s t i c groups. Language w i l l help to bridge the gap between the worker and the people. 10) There i s a great need f o r t r a n s l a t i n g or writing some o r i g i n a l books i n both Urdu and Bengali. The two state languages of Pakistan. The t r a n s l a t i o n of some technical s o c i a l work terms and concepts i n simple Urdu and Bengali i s also the need of the day to help s o c i a l workers to communicate with the lay common man, 11) A more comprehensive research on the c u l t u r a l factors which obstruct or f a c i l i t a t e not only the f i e l d of casework but the whole f i e l d of s o c i a l work practice including group work, community development and organization, s o c i a l research and administration needs to be undertaken. Another f i e l d which needs to be explored i s the comparative study of s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s and the Islamic concept of s o c i a l work. In view of the significance and urgency of the researches v i s u a l i z e d , technical and f i n a n c i a l assistance of the national and inte r n a t i o n a l agencies wh^are interested i n furthering the cause of modern s o c i a l work, should be sought. 8 The wri t e r believes, that a thorough incorporation of the modern s o c i a l work with the indigenous culture i s the only sure guarantee of i t s enduring success and effectiveness. @fi 149. On t h i s depends the entire future of the successful implementation of s o c i a l welfare programmes i n Pakistan, which i s struggling hard to keep the wolf out. 150. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and Journals. Ackerman, Nathan W. Azad, Abul-Kalam Benedict, Ruth Benerjie, G.R. Dr. (Miss) Bernard, J . Boehm, W.W. Bowers Swithon, O.M.I Coleman, J.C. Carol H. Meyer Cuber F.J. Fox, W.G. Earnet V. H o l l i s and A l i c e L. Taylor The Psychodynamics of Family L i f e Basic Books, Inc., N.Y., 1958. Purdah i n Islam - Ashry Book Depo. Lahore, Pakistan. Patterns of Culture - Houghton M i f f l i n Company, R.P. Cambridge. Sctive Approach i n the Practice of S o c i a l Casework Indian Journal of S o c i a l Work Vol. XX No.6 June 1959. So c i a l Problems of Mid-Century - Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York. Objective f o r S o c i a l Work Curriculum of  the Future - Vol.1, S o c i a l Work Curriculum Study, Council of S o c i a l Work Education, New York, 1959. The S o c i a l Casework Method i n S o c i a l Work Education Vol.1 S o c i a l Work Curriculum Study, Council of Social Work Education, New York, 1959 The S o c i a l Work Curriculum and i t s implications f o r S o c i a l Casework - Family Casework, Oct.1959, Vol XL, No.8 P.428 The Nature and D e f i n i t i o n of S o c i a l Case-work, Part I I , S o c i a l Casework, Dec.1947, Page 417. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Li f e - Scott, Foresman and Company, Chicago, New York. Personality Dynamics and E f f e c t i v e Behavious S o c i a l Casework, Vol XL No. 1959. Sociology. A Synopsis of Pri n c i p l e s "The Role of a Foreign Expert" International S o c i a l Work I I . S o c i a l Work, July 1959 Pp.8-10. So c i a l Work Education i n United States -New York, Columbia University Press. 151. Hamilton, G. Hellenbrand, S h i r l e y C. Theory and Practice of Social Casework 2nd rev. (New York, Columbia University Press, 1951). H o l l i s , Florence Horney, Karen Iqbal, Mohammed Dr. Kelinberg,: Otto Kishna Bilques Kluckhon, C., and Murray, H.A. Modoudi, Abul-Ala, Moulana M. Elizabeth Olds, V i c t o r i a Owen, E. John Dr. Parad Howard Gordon Hamilton Perlaian, H.H. Cl i e n t Value Orientation: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment. S o c i a l Casework V o l . X L l l , No.4 A p r i l (196l) Pp. 163-169 So c i a l Casework i n Pr a c t i c e : Family Welfare Association of America, 122 East 22nd St. N.Y. The Neurosis Personality of our Time, N.Y. W.W.Norton Company Inc. Page 30. So c i a l Psychology - Henry Holt, N.Y., Page 193. Infant M o r t a l i t y . S o c i a l Work Dept. Punjab University. Personality i n Nature, Society and Culture 2nd rev. N.Y., A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1953. Purdah i n Islam, Maktaba, Jamiantai - Island., Icchera, Lahore, Pakistan. S o c i a l and,Cultural Factors i n Casework Diagnosis." S o c i a l Work Vol.4, No.3 July 1959 Hole Theory and Casework. Contributions of Socialogy to S o c i a l Work. Indian Journal of S o c i a l Work, Vol.XX No.l June 1959, Page I. Ego Psychology and Dynamic Casework. A Theory of Personality: Freud's contribution to S o c i a l Work, Page 13. So c i a l Casework - A Problem Solving Process. The University, Chicago Press. 152. Perlman, H.*H» Freud's Contribution to Soc i a l Welfare. S o c i a l Service Review 1957. Vol.31. Page 192 - 202 P i c k t h t a l l , Mohammed ... ......... Marmaduke The Glorious Koran. A Mentor Religious C l a s s i c . The New American Library. Richmond, Mary What i s So c i a l Casework, Russell Sage Foundations, N.Y., 1922. Pp.98-99. Ripple, L i l l i a n and Alexander, Ernestine "Motivation". Capacity and Opportunity as Related to the use of Casework Service -Nature of c l i e n t ' s problem." S o c i a l Service Review. Vol.XXX No.l March 1956:. Smalley, Ruth The Significance of the Family for the Development of Personality. S o c i a l Service Review. Vol.XXIV. No.l, March 1960 Stein and Cloward S o c i a l Perspectives on Behaviour. The Free Publishers, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s C h a p t . X l l l Teicher I. Morton Phd. The Concept of Culture. S o c i a l Casework Vol.XXXVl No.8, May 1950 Page 451. Tylor, E.B. Primitive Culture. John Murray, London, 1865. Willensky, X.H. and Lebeux N.C. Indu s t r i a l Society and Social Welfare. Russell Sage Foundation, N.Y. 1958. Woods, S i s t e r Francis Jerome C u l t u r a l Value of American Ethics Groups N.Y., Harper and Brothers, 1956. Wright,-R.Helen S i m i l a r i t i e s and Differences i n S o c i a l Work Education as seen i n India and North America. International S o c i a l Work I I . Jan.1959. ' * >V -k THESIS: MALIK, M.A. Astrologers, Palmistry and S p i r i t u a l Healers i n Pakistan: Unpublished thesis, S o c i a l Work Department, Punjab University 1960. HAWLEY, Margaret: Role, Stress and S o c i a l Casework Practice: Unpublished Thesis, U.B.S.1961 153. i THESIS (contd.) MORTON, Betty Marie: The Psychodynamics  and Treatment of the Male  Partner i n Marital C o n f l i c t  Cases. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 

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