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Literary heritage of Panteleymon Romanov, 1883-1938 Gattinger, Anna 1966

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LITERARY HERITAGE OF PANTELEYMON ROMANO?  1883 - 1933  by ANNA  GATTINGER  B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  IN THE DEPARTMENT OF  '  SLAVONIC STUDIES  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1966.  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s requirements Columbia, for  in p a r t i a l  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of  I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  freely  thesis for  available for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be representatives.  i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  financial  for  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n  Department o f  Slavonic  Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada  Date  the  British  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department o r by h i s It  f u l f i l m e n t of  April,  1966.  i  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e s t a b l i s h o t h e  importance of Panteleymon Romanov i n S o v i e t  literature.  Even though Romanov began w r i t i n g many y e a r s before  t h e R e v o l u t i o n , he became known as an a u t h o r  only  a f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n when he p u b l i s h e d " C h i l d h o o d " , h i s f i r s t work, i n 1920.  L i t t l e success a t t e n d e d  this  effort.  However, l i k e any t r u e a r t i s t he was n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g m e r e l y t o g a i n fame, but more t o e x p r e s s h i s p h i l o sophy of l i f e . He adopted the r e a l i s t i c w r i t e r s of t h e 19th  s t y l e of the c l a s s i c a l  C e n t u r y and a p p l i e d i t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s  c r e a t e d by t h e R e v o l u t i o n and p o s t - R e v o l u t i o n a r y  period.  Thus he m i r r o r e d t h e l i f e around him. At t h e time of WarCommunism, 1917-1921, when most of t h e w r i t e r s were engaged i n p o l i t i c a l and i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e t o d e f i n e t h e p a t h t h a t the new l i t e r a t u r e was t o t a k e , Romanov wrote s e v e r a l volumes of humorous s h o r t s t o r i e s on how t h e p e a s a n t s g r e e t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l changes.  By r e w r i t i n g these humorous s t o r i e s i n  a s e r i o u s v e i n , he i n c o r p o r a t e d them i n t o h i s g r e a t e s t work under t h e t i t l e  "Rus'".  H i s s t o r i e s about t h e younger members of s o c i e t y and  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward l o v e , were a l s o v e r y  popular.  I n t h e s e s t o r i e s on l o v e Romanov wa±e£e t h e new a t t i t u d e t o wards sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between young p e o p l e , the p o s i t i o n  ii  of t h e unmarried mother, and t h e new f a m i l y l i f e the sacrament of the church. theme a r e : "The  without  H i s best s t o r i e s on t h i s  "Without C h e r r y Blossom", "The §ig  Family",  R i g h t t o Love" and t h e n o v e l "The New Commandment".  These were a l l w i d e l y read and d i s c u s s e d among t h e Komsomols and npn-Komsomols a l i k e . Towards the end of t h e N.E.P. p e r i o d , Romanov became more i n t e r e s t e d ' i n t h e s o c i a l conduct of t h e o l d intelligentfsjLa as a p p l i e d t o i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the new government.  One of h i s best known s t o r i e s of t h i s p e r i o d  i s "The R i g h t t o L i v e " which d e a l s w i t h a n o n - P a r t y w r i t e r who t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o conform t o t h e demands of t h e Party.  Romanov has developed t h i s theme f u r t h e r i n h i s  n o v e l "Comrade K i s l y a k o v " .  I n these two n o v e l s , Romanov  e x p r e s s e d h i s r e g r e t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s d i d not have h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s , energy, and w i l l power t o f i g h t f o r t h e i r  poli-  t i c a l and human r i g h t s . Romanov has o f t e n been r e g a r d e d  as#controversial  w r i t e r b o t h by t h e S o v i e t and t h e emigree c r i t i c s .  The  l a t t e r accused Romanov of s l a n d e r i n g t h e morals of t h e o l d i n t e l l i g e n l s i a , w h i l e most of t h e former accused him of being  b l i n d t o t h e growth of t h e S o v i e t masses because he  had n o t a c c e p t e d t h e R e v o l u t i o n . In studying l i t e r a r y l i f e  i n the f i r s t decade of  the S o v i e t government, one can say t h a t Romanov and h i s works  iii  o c c u p i e d a s i n g u l a r p o s i t i o n o f importance i n S o v i e t l i t e r a ture.  Romanov's s t y l e being easy and o l d - f a s h i o n e d appealed  t o t h e masses.  The humorous i n c i d e n t s i n h i s s t o r i e s , u n l i k e  those of Zoshchenko or 0'Henry, f o l l o w one another c o n t i n u o u s ly.  Romanov a l s o d i f f e r s from Zoshchenko i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  of h i s h e r o e s .  Whereas Zoshchenko emphasises  the i n d i v i d u a l  c h a r a c t e r s , Romanov, on t h e c o n t r a r y , develops,:., t h e i m p o r t ance of the p e o p l e , as a whole.  He can t r u l y be r e g a r d e d as  a popular s o c i o l o g i c a l w r i t e r . A f t e r t h e R e v o l u t i o n , Romanov took t h e p o s i t i o n of an independent u n t i l 1936.  c r e a t i v e w r i t e r and he m a i n t a i n e d i t as such  He i n s i s t e d on h i s freedom  t o w r i t e what h i s  c o n s c i e n c e d i c t a t e d and he never changed h i s p o s i t i o n .  For  t h i s r e a s o n a c o n f l i c t between h i m s e l f and t h e S o v i e t government was i n e v i t a b l e .  A f t e r t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n of h i s work,  "Comrade K i s l y a k o v " i n 1930, t h e doors t o t h e p u b l i s h i n g houses were c l o s e d f o r Romanov.  However, t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r -  v e n t i o n of B u k h a r i n , t h e ban was l i f t e d i n 1936 when some of his  s h o r t s k e t c h e s about h i s e x c u r s i o n t o the Molotov a u t o -  m o b i l e f a c t o r y i n N i z h n i - N o v g o r o d were p u b l i s h e d . When Romanov d i e d i n 1938 o f h e a r t d i s e a s e , t h e r e was no o b i t u a r y n o t i c e from t h e W r i t e r s  1  Union.  Thus a  b r i g h t s t a r faded from t h e g a l a x y of S o v i e t l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h out any l i t e r a r y astronomer n o t i c i n g i t .  Even today none of  iv  h i s w o r k s i s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e U.S.S.R. a n d h e i s n o t c o u n t e d among t h o s e who have made a w o r t h y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o S o v i e t letters.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  T h i s t h e s i s has been w r i t t e n under t h e highlyi n s p i r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n of p r o f e s s o r assistance  V. R e v u t s k y , whose  and c r i t i c i s m throughout t h e course o f p r e p a -  r a t i o n of t h i s work was i n v a l u a b l e .  I s i n c e r e l y thank  Mr. Revutsky f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank t h e l i b r a r i a n I n t e r l i b r a r y Loan Department operation  f o r her assistance  i n obtaining reading m a t e r i a l .  of-ffye  and c o -  COflEPKAHHE  AdcTpaKT  i  AKHOJieflxeneHT  v  I II III |  BBe,n;eHHe  1  BHorpacbHHecKaH cnpaBKa  11  IlpOH3Be^eHHH POMaHOBa B xpOHOJIOTHMeCKOM ... nopaflKe  16  ^ © T C T BO  17  PycB  20  PaccKa3H  35  BonpocH nojia  0$  HoBaa GKpHxajit  71  tfeaoBeHecKaH  ,5yma  IlpaBo Ha xH3Hb napTHftHOCTH ToBapnm  VLXVL  KHCJIHKOB  mejiKOBHx nyjiOK Pycb H C.G.C.P IV  3aKJiK>HeHHe  BHdJtHorpa(|)Hfl  c  82 npodaeMa dec88  HJIH  Tpn napt,i  95 117 121  126  1  I BBE^EHHE  KaK OHa  CTajia  1917 HOH  HH  TpyflHoft  erne T p y ^ H e e  6huia.  npn  ro^a dHJia B C T p e n e H a  jopora  HOBOM  rmcaTejieH  CoBeTCKOM  ^aBJieHHeM q a p o K o f i  MHoroTOCJieHHHe HanpaBJieHHH rracaTejieH  xoTeaH  CTBO  pa3jiHHHbMy.  KaaccHHecKoro  COHJIO HyxHHM  ueH3ypH.  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HO TaK KaK JleHHH 3aCTaBHJI HpOJieTKyjI&TOBE[eB npHHHTb TaKoe petneHHe OT HMeHH KoMMyHHCTHMecKoK napTHH, T O UeHTpajibHHH KOMHTeT 3TO  C H H T a j HeodxOflHMHM CMHTMHTb,flOH 6 K O T O p o H  napTHH  BMemaTejibCTBo B j i H T e p a T y p y ,  KOTopoft  noiiecTHB  o6emaji padOHHM H C K y c c T B a  TaKoe  CMarneHHoe  no^Hyio  ^ettCTBHe  cTaTb©  TaHBajia  Ha KOHTpojiHpoBaHHH Bcex otfjiacTeE  CTpaHH.  3ajD[aH,  OHa  nepBoe  flecaTHJieTHe  xoponio n o H H M a ^ a  6UJI8L K O H T p o j i n p o B a T b  Bee  HHe  CTpaHH.  nOCJie  peBOJirouHH, OHa  B  xo3flKcTBa  TpaX^aHCKOtt  H  Pe3yjibTaTOM  .OTOTO  paa flaaa  cBodo^y  KJIH  pa3BHTHa  XH3HH  COCTOHHHH  c  ycnexoM.  p K O H O M H necKHH,. KOH~,,..  BOHHH,  BOCCTaHOBJie6UJIO  oco3HaHHH,OKa3ajracb HOBaa  MHMecKaa no/THTHKa n a p T H H , odtaBjieHHaa JfeHHHHM B  TH8.  He  x o 3 H f t c T B a nojo; adco.nioTHHM KOHTpoJieM n a p T H H T a i a c e e  B03MOXHUM.  oSiflCHaeT-  TaKOM odmnpHOM o6%eue  6KJI n o j i H T H i e c K H f t  MHpOBOH H  KanHTajia H  KoMMyHHCTHHecKaa napTHa, B  OTO  2  napTHH He Hac-  odmecTBeHHoft  odJiacTH Hapo^Horo  Ee nepBocTeneHHoft 3a^ane{i TpOJIb  T O , H T O npn  CBO6O,5H.  BpeMH  KOMMyHHCTHnecKaa  nepe.5 HeB nocae  BCTaBuiHx  1  napTHH B DTO  MTO  B  B "HpaB^e ', B  rapaHTHio H X  ca Ten,  GTeneHH,  MeaKHx  Bpes/ra,  He-  OKOHO-  1924 ro,ny,  KOTO-  nacTHHX npeanpHa-  saHajiacb BonpocoM yKpen-  jieKHR  coBeTCKoro pexHMa  vs C B O H X  enje oneHb HeycTOflHHBHMH.  codcTBeHHHx paflOB, KOToptie  6bum  ByflyHH B TanoM caadoM nojioxeHUH, napraa,  BO MHOTHX OfiJtaCTHX ,(HanpHUep OKOHOMHHeCKOM, aflMHHHCTpaTHBHOM,  KyjtbTypHOM)  xya3HHM cneimajiKCTaM". HKM  H  #0BepaTb flejio Tan  BHHyscneHa dHJia  K^accoBHM  y,nejiaa CBoe  rjiaBHoe  K  TpaJibHoM, OHa  3aHflJia no3HIJHK>  nocpeaHHKa  jiHTepaTypHtiMH  rpynnnpoBKaMH rpynnnpoBKaM?  CHJICH  K  EtH, K  K O T O P H M npHMHKa^tH B e e  CTOBmi).  BHKMaHHe  CTpaHti, KOMMyHHCTHMecKaa  npodaeMaM  oneHb ocTopoxHa no OTHomeHHK  3THM  HasuBaenuM  - JieBuuvi  vs  Ha  6HTB  He8-  npaBtiMH.  se  KTO  OTHO-  Bo rjraBe jieBHx CToa;ra IIpojieTKyjibTOBnpoaeTapcKHe rpynnH  HandojibmeH nacTbio  npaBHX. 1 1  dHJta  Hano-  (Ky3HHqa,  TpedoBaaH " d J i a r o c j r o B e H H f l " n a p T H H vs no^jcepxKy  OHH  "nonyTMHKH  napTHH  j^Byua raaBHHMH  Mescny  npaBHTe^bCTBa, TaKHM o6pa30M T p e d y a npuBujiSiierHH npoTHB  DKOHOMHH6C—  CTapaacb  /iHTepaType.  "dyp-  vs  rpynnH  npaBHX  flpyrne jiHdepajibHHe rpynnnpoBKH,  RJIK  ceda vs dopaeb  6bixn n n c a T e j i H  KOTopHe  -  HaeTaHBajiH  HeorpaHH^eHHoH cBodofle xy^oxHHKa i r a c a T b TaK, KaK ,n.HKTOBajiH e.T>o  co3HaHne vs coBecTb, d e 3 B c a K o r o K O H T p o a a napTHH vs npaBHTejibCTBa. IlHcaTe^H TepaTypH,  vs  napraa  dHJiH T e " d y p x y a 3 H H e c n e i j H a j i H C T H " BHHyx^eHa  dHJia. ^ o B e p a T b  yKa3HBa;r,  poe". ^  B  CBOHX  KOMMyHHCTH  OCTOPOXHO  ,He  HTO  "CTPOHTB  pa3BHTne  JSVS-  vs  npo-  Ha TpedOBaHHa IlpojieTKyjibTOB-  "noKOHMHTb co B c e M C T a p H M , d y p x y a 3 H H M " ,  KpaTHO  MTO  KOTOPHM  1 1  KyjibTypHOH X H 3 H H CTpaHH.  flOJixeHHe ueB  "nonyTHHKH  -  JleHHH  HOBoe T p y j i H e e ,  MeM  caM  Heo^Ho-  pa3pymaTb cTa-  decHHCJieHHHX B H C T y m i e H H a x * J l e H H H y K a 3 H B a a Ha T O ,  flOJixHti no^xo^HTb K CTapHM H H T e ^ j i H r e H T a M yuejso vs  TOJIBKO  noMoraa  HM  "paciuHpaTb C B O H Kpyro3op", H O  VS  6  VHHTbCfl y H H X . KTO  xe  dHJiH n n c a r e j i H -  TOBUH T & K HeHaBH^SJIH H  nonyTMHHH,  K O T O P H X npo.neTKy.zib-  H3THaTb c  KOTOPHX OHH CTapajIHCb  jiHTepa-  TypHoro nojia .neaTejibHOCTH? dtucH HHTejuieKTyajiti,  3TO  HHMH nncaTejiflMH nojiHTH^ecKHe  B nepno^  B3rjra^H.  peBOJiioijHH.  B HHX  HOBOE  BOCTB  C T p o r a a HH^HBH^yajibHocTb  coBeTCKOfi BJiacTH.  jmjfam c o r ^ a c H o B3raflaM HyxjajajiHCb PHJI eme  ci>e3fle  3aaaMa  4  CBOE) CTOpOHy "  napTHH,  OT  oHMnaTHfi .no  H  napTHH,  OT-  noaKTHHecKaa HeycTofiHH-  xienajiii H X no^o3pHTe^bHBiMH Hx  HTO  T e p n e ^ H ToabKo noTOMy,  3TOMy  no  xoTa  11  Bonpocy  TaKHM  odpa30M,  3aCTaBHTb HX nHCaTb  ^TO  JleHHH  TOBO-  y nodescseHHHx" KyjibTypa H KOMiiy-  6HX& n p H B ^ e ^ b H X  B riOJIb3y  Ha  KOMMyHH3Ma.  OpyXHeM KPHTHKH 3 a C T a B b T © J I H T e p a T O p O B , BHUie^IUHX H BHXo^amHx H3 C T a p b i x cjioeB, c o s ^ a T b Ban " H o i i M y H H 11 CTHMecKyio JiHTepaTypy nyxHMH pyKaMH . nepepadoTaftTe BCeX 3THX UHJIbHaKOBblX, HBaHOBHX, POMaHOBHX, H H K H T H H H X B CTpoHTejieM K O M M y H H C T H H e c K o r o odiuecTBa. Be3Ha^;e2CHiix He n e p e p a d a T H B a t f T e . 3 T H M MecTO y r o T O B jieHo 3a r p a H H u e H . . . . " 5'  TaKOBo dtuio y K a 3 a H H e p e ^ a K U H H "npaBflBi" Jpyraa nyTMHKaM rue  HMejiH pa3JiHMHise  OHH  OHa "do^biue neM y oTBeTCTBeHHBix padoTHHKOB  njioxaa,Bee xe HHCTOB".  TaKaa  .KHTepaTypHOM ontiTe.  B HX  Ha XI  napTHH.  Bee  pacxo^H^HCb  OHH  pnqaHHa H  K O T o p t i e 6UJIH yxe npocfceccHOHajib-  B  cHHCxo^HTejibHoM no JIHTHKH  nepBoe ^ecaTH^eTHe  doJibmeBHKH,  MapcKHft,  npHHHHa  dHBuiHe TorMia  coBeTCKoM BO  3HH0BbeB, KaneHeB H #p.)  pa30BaHHHe  JHOJUH, KOTopbie  (fceBpaae, 1925  B  BJiacTH  roaa.  napTHH  K  B J i a c T H dHJia Ta, H T O  noMHO-  (ByxapHH, T P O U K H K , JlyHa-  dBura caMH .neficTBHTejibHo o d -  x o p o m o noHHMajiH,  MTO  KyjibTypHfciK n p o u e c c ,  7  K a K H H KaKOfi flpyroit, Hejib3a 3acTaBHTb ^BuraTbca Bnepea H3naaneu 3aKOHa  H  BMemaTejibCTBOM n a p T H H ,  npoaeiapcKne nHcaTeaH. BopHJiH HOH  OHH,  -  MOXST  JIHT epaT ypu  *  K a K D T O T O TpedoBaan  TaKoe HacHJibHoe BMemaTejibCTBo, - ro-  yHHHTOXHTb BeaKoe ocHOBaHHe xyfloxecTBeH-  3TO  " .... <5HJIO 6H rpydenmeM omndKOH, - T O B O P H T "npaBjota" - nO^ 'HfleftHHM B0 3fleHCTBHeM H TIOJIHTHHeCKHM pyKOBO^OTBOM Ha,H XyjOXGCTBeHHOH JtHTepaTypOH HOHHMaTb MexaHHHecKoe nepeHeceHHe Ha DTy odJiacTb Bcex Tex opraHHsaipioHHbix Mep H MeTO^OB, KOTopae MH odHHHo npHMeHaeM H npoBo^HM B odJiaoTH Henocpe^CTBeHHofi IIOJIHTHKH. TaKOfi OpraHH30BaHHHH KOMMyHH3M 6UJI 6u onaeHeHmHM dropoKpaTH^ecKHM H3MtimaeHHeM, cnpco)dHHM 3arydHTb Hamy JIHT epaT ypy.... Ha^o BCHHecKH dopoTbca c oryjibHOHi de3napj;oHHOH TpaBjieft 'nonyTaHKOB ... ° 1  W  1  M  11  A . B . JlyHaMapcKHH, KaK KOMMHccap Hapo^Horo ,Odpa30BaHHa' (ilpocBenjeHHa) c 1917 ^o 1929 r o ^ a , dy^ynn can nncaTejieM, xopomo noHHMaji Hyaena nHcaTeaeH TOM  H  3Haji, KaK HyxHo odxo^HTbca c *TaK—  pyKOBCHHTb HHTejurcireHipieH, KOTOpaa ocTaaacb padoTaTb B  H  CoBeTCKOM CoBD3e nocjie peBoaiouHH. OflHHM H3 HenOCpe^CTBeHHHX H aKTHBHHX "nonyTMHKOB",  6UJI  BHflaiomHHca JTHTepaTypHHH  KPHTHK  "3amHTHHKOB , H  20-X roaoB  H  pe^aKTop xypHaaa "KpacHaa H O B B " , AjieKcaH^tp KoHCTaHTHHOBHH  BbpoHOKHH.  B  aHBape, 1921 ro,na, no npHKa3y n a p T H H ,  BOPOHCKHH  6%iJi nepeBe^eH B MocKBy H HasHaseH pe^aKTopoM' xypHajra "KpacHaa HOBb". r^a  OH  DTOM  n o c T y #o cpe^HHH 1927 ro^a,  dtui, OTCTpaHeH napTHen 3a ero yxo,n. O T MapKCHCTCKOK  HenoJib3ya HOTO  npopadoTaji Ha  CBoe nojioxeHHe pe^aKTopa T a K o r o Kpyiraoro  xypHajia,  BOPOHCKHH  MHOTO  noMoraji nncaTejiaM -  KO-  JIHHHH.  JiHTepaTyp"nonyTHHKaM",  8  noMemaa  H KpHTHKya H X  padoTy  B  xypHaae,  IIHCaTejia  B03MOXHOCTB IIO3HaKOMHTB  MHTaTejieM.  B  H  ero  C  npOH3BefleHHa  HH^HBH^ya^BHyio H e 3 a B H C H M O C T b TBop^ecTBa nHcaTe^efi. CTaTte  "A.  BopoHCKHM  Bopc-HCKHft -  HMeji T O  HOCTB  "... yra#aTB  Tejie,  BHjiBHHyTb, n o ^ e p x a T B ,  3am,Hmaa H X B C B O H X peTHBbix  KPHTHKOB  ^aBajio  eny  c T a T B a x O T KjieBeTH  - HanocTOBueB,  BO3MOXrraca-  coBeTCKoro  3amHTHTB TajiaHTJIKBOTO  - MTO B O P O H C K H M -  MTO  Ha^HHaiomeM  xy^oxecTBeHHoe #apoBaHHe B  nncaTeaa - "nonyTHHKa",  B CBoeft  OTMenaeT,  K P H T H K " , A . J^eMeHTBeB  oco(5oe nyBCTBo, KOTopoe  MaCCOBHM  CMe.no OTCTaHBaji  BHCTynjieHHax, BOPOHCKHR  CBOHX  #aBaa  TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M  Reji&ji jodpoe Reno,  BparoB  H  j;ei!cTBOBaBuiHx  or He ;  B Mepy  "AOKTHHH,  HorasiH,  oSyxoM, orjroS^eM, neu nonajio", npojtojrxaeT .HeMeHTBeB. ? KaK 20-e ro^H OppMH  y x e 6UJIO y K a 3 a H O  npoxo^Hjio  STofl  KJiaccoBoft  B  ycJiOBnax  HOTO H  B  1923  CTpaHH,  Me/[HOdypxya3HHX  Hanajia  TaK  He  ro^y,noMorjio  xosaficTBa  xe  jiHTepaTypfci  xecTOKoK  dopBdti.  dopBdH B coBeTCKofi  no Mepe p a 3 B H T H a c o B e T C K o r o  'H.3H.a  Bume, H T O pa.3BHTHe  odnjecTBa TOJIBKO  HO BMecTe  c  K^accoBoft  JTHTepaType  H DKOHOMHKH.  nepBoro  H  TeM H oxHBjieHHio  npoHHKaTB H B coBeTCKyio  rpydo npeKpaTHJica.  Coro3a  ero pemeHHM,  BBe,neHHe  dypxya3HHx  TeH^eHUHft B OKOHOMHKe H H^eOJIOTHH,  narajieTHero  CoBeTCKoro  yC^OXHa^HCB  BoecTaHOBJieHHio p a 3 p y m e H -  ruiaHa  B CBOH  C OKOHMaHHeM  H pemeHHem  pyKH, eflejiaTB  KOTopaa  jiHTepaTypy.  : H O , B 1929-rojny OCTOPOXHBIM nozxoz  BHe3anHO  B  K  CTapoM HHTeajiHreHUHK  H3IIa, odtaBjieHHeM  CTajtHHa,  B3HTB  napTHK) o p y ^ n e M  T.e. B H e M e ^ j i e H H o e peBOJirounoHHoe  cy^Bdy BonjiomeHHa  npeodpa30BaHHe  9  CoBeTCKoro odmecTBa  B  KomiyHHCTHHecKoe.  X e p T B O t t K0JI.JieKTHBH3aU,HH,  3auHH . M  IlepBHM  KTO  no  HX  nyTH.  3aMHTHHa, XH3HB  TOJIbKO  xepTBoK "dOJIbffleBH-  H  n  3aTpaBH^iH Ha3BaTb  B COB6TCKOM  dtiJiH  EpoJieTapcKHM nncaTejiflM dtuia aaHa  TpaBJiH B c e x Tex,  caMoydHttCTBOM,HJIH  3aMOJiMajiH  H  OHH  HHTeJIJIHreHUHH  CTSJIH  naa xepTBOfi OTOS 6ojibineBH3aaHH"  nncaTe^H - "nonyTHHKH". 6e3rpaHHMHafl CBodo.ua  a  KpecTbHHe  KTO  OTKa3tiBajiCH  HTTH  EceHHHa, MaaKOBCKoro, IlHJiiiHHKa,  HeCKOJIbKHX,  KOTOptie  HJIH nOKOH^HJIH  noKHHyjiH CoBeTCKHfi Coio3,HjrH  CoM3e.  K noc^e^Het! KaTeropHH  HaBcerfla  OTHOCHTCH  pa3dnpaeMHfi Haum nncaTejib naHTejieftMOH CepreeBHM PoMaHOB.  10 FOOTNOTES  E r n e s t J.Simmons, Through the g l a s s of S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1956, p. 6. P r a v d a , March 25, P r a v d a , June 17,  1920, 1921,  p. p.  2. 7.  ^ o voprosu o " L i t e r a t u r n o y p o l i t i k e P r a v d a , F e b r u a r y 11, 1925, p. 2. ^ I b i d . , p.  Partii",  2.  V a r e y k u s , I . , "0 nashey l i n i i v L:.Khudozhestvennoy l i t e r a t u r e i o p r o l e t a r s k i K h p i s a t e l i a R h " , Pravda, February 18, 1925, p. 5. 'G.A.Voronskaja i A.G.Dementijev, " A . V o r o n s k i y , L i t e r a t u r n o - c r i t i c h e s k i e s t a t j i " , S o v i e t s k i y P i s a t e l , Moskva, 1963, p. 25.  11  II EHOrPA<S>HqECKAH CTIPABKA CepreeBHH PoinaHOB  IlaHTe/teHMOH B  ceMte  flepeBHK Ham  fleTCTBo  GBOG  HHH.  MemaHHHa,  MejiKoro  noMoraji  oTijy  npn  padoTHHK  CBOK  aBTodHorpadbHH,  CKOpOflHTb,  MaaeHbKOM  noaeBtix  jnecaTHHax  50  -  3eMJiH,  T a K H T O MHe  xyTopKe He^ajieKO  -  nacTO  "y  padoT.  oTija  OT  aBTop 6UJI  PoMaHOB  BcnoMHHaeT npHxoflHJiocb  B  naxaTb,  CKOTHHy." *  HanajibHoe  yMeHHKOM,  IIJIOXHM  ro,ny  IleTpoBCKOM, TyabCKoM rydep-  nojiymx  odpa30BaHHe  yHHJiHme, n o T O M n o c T y n H J i B TyjibCKyio  CKOM  ero  BpeMa  BO  H CTepeHb  GBoe  1884  B  Oreii, ero 6bui de,aHHH MemaHHH, n o o T O M y  O^HH  H  cene  npoBea Ha  OH  KapnaHbe.  nacTO  B  poanjica  KaK B  yHHJrame,  BHHMaHHe cocpejn;oTaHHBajtocb  TaK H  B  PonaHOB  B  cejib-  O H 6un  rHMHa3HK>. rHMHa3HH ,  T a K KaK B e e  H a TOM, K a K HayHHTbca  nHcaTb  KHHTH. IlO OKOHHaHHH THMHa3HH $aKyjibTeT cjiymajt BaJIO,  OH IIOCTynHJI  MOCKOBCKOTO yHHBepcHTeTa. uenr&Ji,  JteKitHH H doabme CHJHUlb ( H a y p O K a x )  Ho H  KaK C T a T b  H BH3HBaeiI4,B  H a iOpHJUHMeCKHH  3,aecb  OH M e H b m e  iracaTejieM.  BOOdpaxeHHH  " . . .  BH-  BCe KapTHHH  JiOMauiHeH 2CH3HH, ptldHOH JIOBJIH, O X O T H , n p H p O ^ H . " 2 - B C H O M H HaeT  PoMaHOB B c B o e H IlHcaTb  andape, Ha3HH CTaTbH  Ha  aBTodnorpa$nH.  Haaaji  Hep,iaKe."  3  PoMaHOB e m e B a e T C T B e ,  Ho  O H npHHHMaJt y n a c T H e  Bcer,sa T e p n e j i H  H3 O T O T O  HH^ero He  "Ha xyTope, BHIHJIO.  B rHMHa3HHecKHx xypHajiax,  "dpHacKO  B  cjre^CTBHe  B  B  THM-  HO e r o  nojiHoM de3,a;ap-  12  ^  HOCTH."  nyTH  Ho  ero He  DTO  BHpaxeHHH CBOHX  nyBCTB.  He dpatfyjia, a  TaKOBaa,  pa30HapoBHBajto.  HHTepecoBajra  Ero  #eHCTBHTe7ibHHH, X H B O H  yMe/IH H a x O ^ H T i . H B H ^ H p a T b  KOTOPHH  flCHOCTbW  H3  no  pyccKoro  nejioBeKa,  XHBymHa  XH3HH  B  BeKaMH H e p T H ,  a^bHOCTb,  KOToptie  xaoca  pyCCKHe  2CH3HH.... H  HCKaTb KaK  XH3HH,  IIHCaTeJIH  CTajI  H3yHaTb  T.e. Te ero n p o H H t i a ,  ero,  OTJiHHaioT  apyrnx Hapo^oB."  cpe^H  Tenia,  He  Maiepnaji  "BeJIHKHe,  C TaKOH npOCTOTOH H KHHraM H  npo,no.nxaji  OH  ocodyro  KaK  HHKJABH,Hy—  5  OH npoxo,nHT ncnxojiorHMecKyio mKOJiy TmaTejibHoro H3yneHHH  THnaxa  jmiXt  HBjiHeTca  xapaKTepoB  H  nncaTejieM  nacTHOcTH  B  CBOHX  jtK^eH.  ncHXOJioroM B npoH3Be^eHHHx  nosTOMy  nonyjiapHOM  cMHCJie c J i o B a .  B  MecTO y^eaaeT ncnxo-  6ojibmoe  OH  IlaHTejieftMOH PoMaHOB  JIOrHH xeHUlHHH. OH KHx  MHOTO  le  npoH3Be.ff.eHHa  HHTaeT  Ee^eHHH,  nHTaeTca  nncaTe^eM  pyccKHx  •naroT H X  TaK  HSBTH  H  npoHHKHyTb B  HHX  p y C C K H X KJiaCCHKOB H ^ a x e  MTO6H  HayHHTbca  BapaxaTbea  Tatea  odmne  Te  n p o c T H M H , HCHHMH  B  H  TBopnecTBa  nepTa,  "BenHo  xHBymHMH '.  apKo,  c  HX  ,aeOH  1  BallHCaBaeT  TaK xe  KOTopae  Be;ra-  npoH3-  neTKo,  KpaTKo  H nOHaTHO. "  ... a  MHTaa B9JIHKHX MHCJIHTSJiefi H Xyj[OXHHKOB  cKopo  yBH^e^t,  HTO  Moa X H 3 H B  COCTOHT  CJIOBa,  He H3  O^HOH flOpOTH, a H3 MHOTHX H MHOTHX flOpOT, KOTOp a e C B a 3 a H t i o ^ H a c ^ p y r o t i e,zr,HHCTBOM odmaro H C T O M H H K a . . . . H B Reno n y c T H J i T O , HTO a n e p e x H B a j r , MTO n p o x o ^ H J i o n e p e s MeHa, KaK n e p e 3 o^Hy H3 M a c T H i ; orpoMHoro ueaaro - Hapo.ua."  6  Ob  Hapo^oB ' ? 1  PoMaHOB.  H OH  DTOM  Hapofle, KOTopaft  pyccKOM  riHuieT B  CBOHX  xopomo 3Ha;i  doJibuiHx H  POCCHK  H  ee  " o T J i H M a e T c a OT  MajiHX n p o H 3 B e ^ ; e H H a x Hapofl,  OH  xopomo  apyrnx ITaHT.  3Haa  13  H xeHlUHH , KpeCTBHH  THIIH p V C C K H X MyXHHH  PoMaHOBa peajiHCTHMecKKfi,  CTHJIB  HHor,a;a  HHM,  H  CTHJIB  ,naxe rpydHft,  CTapofi  ocKopdjieHHe.  ro^y,  1926  B  qoaKT  TOT vs.  HJIBH  npHHfl^a  3TO,  K a K JIHHH06  MTO  B  npoH3Be^eHHHx  c#ejiajio HXj B CBoe BpeMa^oneHB can  no^TBepx^aeT H  *ITO  CTpaHHu.ii ,  B  MHHMO  -  .nerKO Haxo^HM HyxHoe. " &  KOTOPHX  caMtiM qoaKT,  Tpy3fleB nnuieT,  ' sarajsoHHtiM KapTHHKaM'  IIPHMHTHBHHM  npHny^JiHBHx onepTaHHAx  HyxHoe  nyxHK. 3a  pyccKHfi  xeCTOKO KpHTHKOBaH CO  6iiJl  KOTOpaH  npocTOfi, Hapoa-  B cBoeft cTaibe "ynpauaa Kodiuia" nowemeHHoM B xyp-  PonaaHOBa "no^odnti  HaKTH  H3HK  CiiBaeT rpyduft  HHTeJIJIHreHI^HH t  Hajte "3Be3^a",  Ho  KaK  H3HK POMaHOB  npOCTOHapQ^HHM  CTOPOHHI  H HHTeJIJIHreHUHK).  rpy3^eB,  KOTOPHJ?  nonyjiapHHMH.  TOM  B  PoMaHOBa  MOXHO  DTOT  xe CTaTBe nnmeT,  tJTO M  naHTe^efiMOH P O M & H O B B HacToamee Bpesia O ^ H H H3 caMiix HHTaeMHx aBTopoB, ecJiH H H caMHfi MHTaeMHfi.  ... O T jnodHTejieft PoMaHOBa HeT OTdoa. Ha PoMaonepejiB. KaK Ha IHajranHHa. "PycB" H "BonpocH nojra". "Bonpocti nojia" H "PycB". "  HOBa  9  nepBHH p a c c K a 3  ro^y HO  B  "PyccKoH  padoTaeT  PoMaHOBa,"0Teq *e^op',' noaBHJica  MBICJIH .  C 1907  H  H a ^ CBOHM  poMaHOM "PycB , 11  cocToamys) H3 Tpex nacTeH. TeTa,OH  padoTaeT a#BOKaTOM  ca JiHTepaTypofi.  B  ro^;a,oH  1917  ynopHO  KOTOPHM  H  Btipoc  noDTOMy HMeeT Majio  r o ^ y OH  oeTaBJiaeT  1911  nocJie^OBaTejiBB  ononero  nocjie oKOHnaHHa ropn^HMecKoro vs  B  $aKyjiB-  Bpea/ieHH 3aHHMaT&-  3 T y CBOIO npo<J>eccHio  H  HaMHHaeT 3aHHMaTBca nocToaHHOtt JiHTepaTypHOft fleaTeji&HOCTBio. B 1920  VORY  Btmura H3 neMaTH ero  Hiiejia dojiBmofi HHCJieHHtie  ycnex.  nepBaa  B caeflyiomHe  KHnra  VORU  paccKa3H, H3odpaxaiomHe dtiT  "JHeTCTBo", KOTopaa  noaBaaraTca  nepBHx  e r o MHoro—  JieT coBeTCKoK  BJiacTH, B ^acTHocTH, noBe,ueHHe HHTeaanreHnHH no OTHomeHHio K Pfl£ pacoKa30B nocBameHH  BJiacTH.  coBeTCKOfi MOJio^exH. "HoBaa  cKpHxaab"  MopajiH  H dtiTa HOBOS  B 1 9 2 8 rofly BHme^ H 3 n e n a T H ero poMaH "nepBHH  saBeT ', KaK 1  OH  B nepe-  HasHBaeTca  Ha aHr^HficKHM H3HK, a B 1 9 3 0 ro,ny BHmea ero nocjie^HHi!  Bo^e  poMaH "ToBapnm nepeBo^e. Top  HJIH  npodJieMaM  6UJI  mnxca  B  KHC^HKOB"  mm "Tpn napn mejiKOBHX nyjioK" Toxe B  H ee aB-  DTa ero nocjreflHHH KHHra 6una KOHdpHCKOBaHa  B cnncKH  3aHeceH  peadH^HTamHH.  MejiKO-dypxya3HHx nncaTejief!, H y x a a r o -  /^Bepn pe^aKqHfi  GHJIH Ha^o-sro 3aKpHTH  AJLH  PoMaHOBa. B uae 1 9 3 0 ro^a, ra3©TH n p a B # a " H "H3BecTHH" opraHHn  30BaJIH 3 K C K y p C H H  eH, KOTopue  B HHflyCTpHajIfcHHe paftOHH CTpaHH  GHJIH Ha cnncKe  RJIK  dHJI BKJIiOHeH B 3 T y DKCnejJHUHH). HMeHH  B  MojioTOBa  peadHJiHTaqHH.  Tex nKcaTeji-  PoMaHOB TaK xe  OH nOCeTH^ aBTOMOdHJbHblH  B HnxHeM HoBropo^e. Pe3yjibTaTOM 3T0ft  1 9 3 6 rofly, noHBHjiCH ero p a c c K a 3 1)  flJIfl  saBoa  noe3,5KH,  B T p e x nacTax noa Ha3BaHHeM  MecTO pox^eHHA coBeTCKoro T H n a <5op^a 3aBo.ua.  2)  HH^ycTpHajibHbit! ropofl.  3)  COBeTCKHft <2>opfl.  B 1 9 3 8 ro#y PoMaHOB y M e p  OT  dojie3HH  cep^a.  IIpOH3Be^eHHa PoMaHOBa HaCHHTHBaiOT  1 2 TOMOB,  B KOTopne  BXOJHT TaK Xe H TPH HbeCH, TpH pOMaHa, OjEtHa nOBeCTb H MHOXeCTBO  K0P0TKHX paCCKa30B.  15  FOOTNOTES ^Pantelerymon Romanov, ORon.jki, Ra.sskasy, I s d a t e l s t v o Gramatu Draugs", R i g a , 1 9 2 9 , p. 5* J j b i d . , p.  3  Ibid.  P. 9 .  Ibid.  p.  Ibid.  P. 9 .  Ibid.  p. 8 .  7I b i d .  p. 8 .  5  g 1^.  7.  2  10.  I l i a Grus'ftev, "Upriamaja K o b y l a " , Zvesda, Moskva, 1926, b i d . , p.  15.  16  III  nP0H3BE£EHHH POMAHOBA B XPOHOJIOrH^ECKOM nOPH^KE  "T^eTCTBo"  1920  r.  "Pycb"  1924 r.  "PaccKaaH  1917-1927  "BonpocH nojia"  1925-1926  ".HoBan CKpHxa^b"  1927 r .  11  "MeaoBenecKafl "npaBO  1928 r.  flyuia"  H a scH3Hb" vuivi. UTpo6Jieua. n  1928  r.  1930  r,  1936  r.  decnapTHftHOCTH"  "ToBapHm KHCJIHKOB" HJIH"TPH napH niejiKOBbix HyjiOK  " P y c t " H GGCP.  11  17  " £ETCTBO « riepBtiM  SojtbuiHM npoH3Be^;eHHeM PoMaHOBa dHJia  "^eTCTBo", BHrne^maa H3 nenaTH B 1920 r o ^ y .  noBecTt  DTO npoH3Be^;eHHe  HBJIH6TCH,KaK dn npe#;KBepHeM e r o rjiaBHoro npoH3Be,neHHH "Pycb". B Hefi PonaHOB pa3BepTHBaeT He B  TOJIbKO TeneHHH  K O T O P H H 6bui  UeHTpOM OdUieCTBeHHOH XH3HH POCCHH, HO H OIIOpOH BJiaCTH Tpex  rofla c odHJiHeM  CTO  MyBCTByeTCH  HHTaTejieM  npoxoflflT  CMOHH  BpeMeH  KapTHH npHpoflH JiiodoBHO-H^HJiatHHecKaH 3 a -  CTaporo dapcKoro dHTa,  XH3HH  OTTOHOK  DTO  B  KOToporo  XH3HH  rpycTH od yxoaamen onoxe.  npoH3Be^eHHe HHTaeTca, KaK CKasKa o npouiJioM, T H X O H  npOHHTaB  xapaKTepoB  JieTHfl*. Ilepe^  JIHPHneeKHX  pHCOBKa npa3^H0M  XH3HH.  yxo,n,amero dHTa,  KapTHHy  MHOTHX  eTO, H3  "HaMfleT  HHTaTeflB  IIOHHMaHHIO  B Heft KJIWH K  e r o repoeB "PycH '," 1  TOBOPHT  B. TaflajmH  CBoeM npe^HCJioBHH K cdopHHKy paccKa30B "To/iydoe njiaTbe". * MHTaTejib TaKxe Haf-LneT JI. TojicToro OTponecTBO Befleroie 3THX OTO  B  ("j^eTCTBo H  Hen dojibmoe OTponecTBo")  EarpoBoro BHyKa"),  BejtHKHX XyflOXHHKOB CJIOBa. dn/ia He caMOCTOHTejibHaa  ycjiOBHHM  poMaHOBCKoro  HCHO nOKa3aHH CHJIbHHe TO  HTO  dHJio HannoaHO PoMaHOBHM  du nepe^eJiKa npoH3Be^;eHHM K  CXO^CTBO vs  padoTa  TOJICTOTO  BpeMeHH.  Ha  Odpa30M,  PoMaHOBa, VS  TO,  HTO  Tor^a,  KaK  dHTa, OTxoflflmero Kjiacca, KaK TaKOBoro.  vs  npoH3-  DTO  BJiHHHHeM padoT CKa3aTb,  a  rracaTejia,  C  vs  HX  AKcaKOBa  KpenOCTHHM  yirapaiomero  HTO KaK  npHcnocadJTHBaa  y TojrcToro  yca^bdtl  KpH3HC  MOXHO  KaK  AKcaKOBa,  CBH3H nOMeilJHHbeH  yca^bda PoMaHOBa yxe nepexHBaeT  npoH3Be^eHHaMH  HenocpeacTBeHHHM  TaKHM  Ho  T. AKcaKOBa ("^eTCTBo  yKa3HBaeT  nois  C  B  dHTOM,  noMemHHbero  IloMemHHbH yca^bdn CTajH,  18  Kan du ocKOJiKaMH ropo^cKoM  yxe noTOMy,  XH3HH  MTO  noMemHK  He CH#e;i  .HOMa, a 3aHHMa^CH KaKoK-JtHdo cnyxdoft B ropo#e. B "^eTCTBe" PoMaHOB erne He BbipadoTaji cBoero codCTBeH- . HOTO  CTHJIH,  nooTOMy  Ho, npecjie,ii;yfl CTPOHT paKTepa  npoH3Bej;eHHe  3T0  JiHpHnecKyio  CTopoHy  CBoero  ero Ha xeHCKHx xapaKTepax. (.nflflioiiiKa)  H3odpaxeHH  c  HOCHT  npoH3Be,neHHfl ,PoMaHOB  H ^axe HeKOTopae MyxcKHe xa-  Mpe3MepHHM  do^trae yBejiHHHBaeT JtHpHnecKHM x a p a K T e p  TaKHM odpa30M,rjiaBHLiM  #0CTHxeHHeM  ynoMHHajiocb,  napLi JiHpHHecKHx  HBJIHIOTCH  KOMrrajiHTHBHBifi xapaKTep.  .nodpoflyuiHeM,  DTOTO  "JteTCTBa",  MTO  erne  npoH3Be^;eHHa. KaK  onncaHHft.,  TO^BKO-MTO  19  FOOTNOTES  V . G a d a l i n , Panteleymon Romanov R a s s k a s y . I s d a t e l s t v o K n i z h n a j a l a v k a p i s a t e l e y , R i g a , 1930, p. 6. 1  20  " p y c h " HaHdojibiiiHM npon3Bej;eHHeM PoMaHOBa aBJiaeTca ero ponaH "Pycb" TaK  Ha^  KOTOPHM  OH  padoTaji doJibiiie naTHa.2i.uaTH JieT  ocTajiocb He saKOHMeHHHM.  H  OH  H  KOTopoe  Hanaji nncaTb ero erne  B  1907  ro,ny.  O H O pa3pocnocb H3 poMaHa B ononeio HaijHOHajibHoro xapaK-  Tepa.  3Ta  BoeHHyio  padoTa  POCCHK,  COCTOHT  nepHOfl ITepBOH MnpoBott BoiiHH,  rpax^aHCKyra BOHHy. B  1923 rofly.  KOB,  dH  KynqoB  ABTOP H  onpaB^HBaa  Tpex nacTeM vs oxBaTHBaeT nepe^-  HS  H  nepBaa nacTb poMaHa dHJia BnepBHe HanenaTaHa onHCHBaeT  HeM ncnosceHHe KpecTbaH,  B  nepe# riepBott  HHTejuiHreHUHH CBOH  /• peBOJiiouHio  3aMHcejt onncaTb  DTO  MHPOBOH  nojioaceHHe  noMemn-  KaK  BOHHOH. B  POCCHH^  C  OaMOH  POMaHOB rOBOpHT , HTO " ElHCaTb KapTHHy BeJIHKOH PeBOJIKUHH,  HaHHHaH  PeBOJIIOUHH, 3HaHHT TOBOpHTb O C JteflCTBHH, MHHya n p H -  MHHy. " 1 IIPHHHHOH  se PeBo/iioqHH, KaK  OTO  BH^HO  nepBofi HaCTH, KBHJICH  H3  TOT paCKO/I MeXRY KpeC^HHCTBOM H ITOMeiUHKaMH , KOTOPHH C TOJUaMH pa3pocca„^B do^bmyio nponacTb. BcaKoe odmeHHe £pyr c poH. HTO  KpecT&aHe, no  flpyroM  IIoMemHKH H  3JSO6&  n p a B y , 3jsvsisvich Ha  Te CH^ejtH Ha "THcane jsecmun"  ToaHHH dHJiH odpadaTHBaTb, a MHTbCa C O^HOH  "^opT  OHH,  H  KpecTbaH© noTepa/rn  HaKonJiajxacb c o d e H x CBOHX  CTO-  noMemHKOB-rocnofl,  3ewjsvs, KOTopyio  OHH  He  B  COC-  KpecTbaHe, BHHyx^eHH dH.nH Kop-  flecaTHHH.  H X B03bMH, y H H X no Tncane ^ecaTHH, - T O B O P H T B0 3MymeHHBiH 3axap, - R& eme OTXBaTHJiH cede Jiynmne KycoHKH, a TyT no O ^ H O H He xBaTaeT, a.nyTb pyKy  21  "  n p o T H H y j i - Tede K M H p o B O M y , . . . Kor^a D T O 3eMjiK>-T0 . n e j i H J i H ? . . .  "  orjiHHyBmHCb... 3axap. Ra. B O T 3 T y , H T O H M no TMCHH© n p H u u i o c b , a H a n no  -  c He^oyMeHHeM <3>OMa.... " KaKyro 3eM^w? - c n p o c H ^ , cep;n;HTO ^eeaTHHe. " - Kor.ua Haiuero d p a T a Ha KOHBnme - O T B e n a j i 3,nodHO 3 a x a p . " 2 H  KaK  da  myTJHBO,  CMarnaab  .upajra,  CeHbKa OTBeTHJi  xenon 6huw  .npyrHM  Kor.ua!  BOT  3axapa,  He^oBOJifcCTBo  3HaHHT,  MH,  -  "  HTO  3JiodHoe  cnpaniHBajx  3aHaTiil  . . .  -  BOT H a c H Od^eJIHJIH. " ^ ncnoxeHHe de^HOCTH 3acTaBJiHJio  Be3BHXo^Hoe  CTynaTb nepes nopor 3aK0Ha BH^a,  nycTOBajia,  3eMJiH  HTO  H  nepe3  TpaBa  H X CKOTHHa rojio^ajia H norndajia. KpeCTBHHe  Odpa30BaHHOCTH, ^eftcTBOBaTt  ropo.ua  H3  pa3dnpaTi>CH J i a f l  HX,  "HafiTH B  M T O , RS.H. T O T O , JIHHHH) 3 a K O H a "  COCTOHHHH  DTOTO  MHpoBOMy.... OH  3axapy.  OBaHHa  B  y  HX  noBo^y  ^aBHOOTbio y d H T b  TO  1861  ecTb  ro#y,  KJIOMOK  T O H M TaKxe:;:  aajiH  BOJIIO. Kax^ony  B  HJTXHO  "BeCTH Teda  MoxeT." ^  KOTopott  MOT  E C H H T H He  -  3aK0H Bo  K  TOBOPHT  yHaoJiea-  Bpena  noMeiijHKH ^ a j i n HM^ T a K  dyMara,  M.Qr.#H  HacTaB-  H  dapHHa,  "flaBHOCTb".  T O H He/flaBaM  OTnymeH H a T a K Ha3tiBaeMyK3 ^epeBHe,  3eMJIK>  K CHHy B T e n e H H H C T O J i e T H i * . B  KaK  crofla  B e e xe  ynHJi  MyxHKOB O H  ^aBHOOTbK) JiaBOHHHK no.npa3yMeBaeT  KpecTbaH  Myio,^"BojibHyro", OH  o^Hoft  3eMjiH O T O T u a  KpenomeHHa  odpa30BaHHe,  H OnpOBeprHyTb  OH T e d a  nojn;  uajioe  MTOdH B3HTB  c^e^aTb,  Tor^a,  3 a K 0 H 0 B H,n03TOMy,He.  Ha c o d p a H H a x  3aK0Hax.  B  rHHJia,  Hx a a B O H H H K , K O T o p u H npHineji  K O T o p u H HMeji X O T H  H  Jiyrax  36MJTH,  BBH^y H X desrpaMOTHOCTH H He-  H e 3HajIH  3aKOHonpaBHO.  rpaHHUH n o M e m n ^ f i  Ha  nepe-  HX  pac-  HastiBae-  roBopHaocb,  ECJIH O H H xoTejiH o,a;Hy a e c a T H H y  MTO  ocTaBaTbca 3eMjin,  c  22  KOTopoH  OHH  HHBeHTapn  cymecTBOBaTb.  .EOJIXHH  He nojiynnjiH.  OHH  ca^oBajiH, roBopHJiH, y r p o x a j i H , HO XO^HJIH  nepea  HX  B  MOJiHJiHCb,  CBSTHJIH  Bo^y  .nona H  KOTopyro HM  TaK ycep,n.HO odemajiH B n e p K B K .  HHMero "  Bajra  He a e j i a j r a ,  ^a  H  He 3HajiH,  H  dpH3rajiH  H  eio  oxH,najiH noMomH  HTO  HO,B H  TO  xe  H  BCTpeTHB  xe noceB  Ha  " y  pa3-  Bora,  OT  BpeMajCaMH  KaK HyxHO ,a.ejiaTb.  H  onaTb  OHH  codnpajiHCb  3aBajiHHKax, p a c c y x s a j i H ,  Ha 3enjiB3.  CTaBHJiH  CBOH  npOBOJIHB CBeTJIHH fleHb BocKpeceHHH XpncTOBa, ... rranieT aBTop, (.OHH) Bue3xajiH B n o j i e C O X O H , . . . H nepeKpecTHBinHCb H a B O C T O K , dpocajiH B 3eMJiH) ocBameHHHe ceiieHa BeceHHero noceBa.... " * .. .  3aKOHHHB cHaejiH  no.tt.Hxaioin.yK> cKOTHHy  ^o-  MJTXHKH  He n o ^ B H r a j i o c b Bnepe^.  p.exQ. H X  BajiHBmHeca  OHH  .aeHer, HH  3a nocjie,a.HHe .HeHbra cBenKH  uepKBS^noKynajiH  CBHTHMH,  HH  Ilpn TanoM nojioxeHHH jeji,HM Taxejio  cBoero 3aTpy;n;HHTejibHoro nojioxeHHa.  6biJio B H M T H H3  OHH  odpa30BaHHs,  HH  ABTOP  nnmeT,  B03jie  KypnjiH  c  Hbeft-JiHdo xaTu,  rpydnft TadaK  cnjieBH—  H  HTO  HacTynHJi n p o M e x y T O K de3,zi;eaTejibH0CTH. noceB, nocaaHJiH KapTomKy H ot&jm xaaTb c e H O K o c a , X O T H .no Hero ocTaBajiocb eme nojiTopa necana. " MyxHKOB  OHH  KOHHHJIH  6  CHHTaa, HHKa  B  HTO  TO  e3,i.ax Ha  OHH  HcnojiHHJiH C B O H  BpeMa, noaeBHe  e^HHCTBeHHHK fljia H  Kor^a padoTH Bceft  MOCT OHH  B  JJOJIT,  OHH  .nepeBHe p a 3 B a j i H B a j i c a H  flepeBHH. KOJio.tt.e3b 3aTaHyjica 3ejieHOH cToajra  yjiHijH  BOJH, B KOTOPOH 3aCTpeBaJIH JIOW&RK. A MyXHKH TO  M  npn nepe-  pHCKOBajiH nojioMaTb H O T H Jioma.tt.aM;  rpo3HJi pnH^eMHeH; nocjie ,nox,tt.a,no cpe^HHe  jiHCb Ha  jrpyroro npasfl-  floxH^ajiH  H  zejio  Jiyxn  xajioBa-  T O , H T O H M jtejiaTb Henero.  XoTb du Ky3HeiJC,  jiomHHe  THHOH  o d m e c T B e H H H e jjejia H T O - J I H jjejiaTb - c K a 3 a j i - a T O K KOJio.tt.e3io He nojrie.zi;en4 M O C T H K B yx TaKofi CTaji, H T O n e p T a M B dnproJibKH TOJibKO  23  Ha neu nrpaTb. - M J i y x a eme 3 T a n o n e p e K B c e M a e p e B H H , H e T H a H e e n o r n d e j i H , - n p n d a B H J i K T O - T O .npyroft. " 7  "  Ha  npejuioxeHHa cpe^H  OTH  MTO  jiyxa-TO K c p e ^ H H e  jieTa  3a Hee d e c n o K O H T b c a ,  3a  HUM HeCKOJIBKO TOJIOCOB JiKflett,  Hamejica  "cana  Ra em©  TH  ^pyrax  HHX  H  BticoxHeT"  H e K JiyMiiieny,  CKOJIbKO H H nOMHHJIH M y x H K H , j e p e B H H OHa dHJia n H T b ^ e c H T , noMomn,  uepKOBb, H  nooTOMy  KOTopaa  Bcjiej  TO y H H X He KaK y  a K xyfliueMy.  OCTaBaJiaCb  JieT H a 3 a ^ . "  CTO  HeT HajcodHOC-  B p e M H - T O Ha H e e T p a T H T b .  CKa3a.7IH, MTO X H 3 H B  MTO B e e H ^ e T  oTBeTHJi,  KOTOPHH  BHHOM OHH H e 3HaJIH, Ra H H e CTapaJIHCb  dfcUI 3T0My  doxbeii  OHTHMHCT,  $  H  y3HaTb.  "...  TaKOK) x e , KaKOK  Bee OTH  H3 rofla  H e npHxo,n;HJia.  KTO xe  TORU  rotf,OHH  B  x^ajrn  OHH  XOAHJIH  BCTpeMaJiH H n p o B o x a J i H n p a s ^ H H K H , a c H H M H H B p e M e H a  MeMTajiH o T e x K p a a x ,  r ^ e niojm XHJIH x o p o m o  B  ro^a  uano.  H padOTajiH  TaM, MHJIHM, B e e x o p o m o , - CKa3a^i K T O - T O B T O J i n e , seMJiH c B e x a a , CHJibHaa, p a d o T H He n p o c H T . A npaMO p y d a T ^ e c , n o c K p e d y T ejioBtiMH cyMbHMH, H B t i p o c T a e T P O X B , MTO MeJIOBeKa He B H f l a T b . " - H B e e T a M y H H X e c T b , r o T O B e H b K o e ; B .necax o p e x n B C H K H e , HVORU. Y H a C T y T CaflH Ha^O p a 3 B H B a T b , Ra C M O T p e T b s a HHMH, Ra y x a x H B a T b . . . . - . . . TaM B e e r o T O B o e r o c n o ^ b n o c t u i a e T , ncxHTpaeTc a , H Ha Bcex X B a T a e T . . . . " 9 "  11  Ho  c p e ^ H H H X dbi-TiH y x e H T e , KOTOPBIX H H T e p e c o B a j i  xe  Kax^wK nojiyMaja He xcneji  HHVKTO  de^eH  MejioBeK  HOCTB  H  He nojiynaji  padOTaTb  Ha  MeaoBeKa  JIH O ^ H H  Ha coce^a.  ceda, K  dojibiue  H3 O T O T O  K a K eMy x o M e T c a .  CBodo^e  H  CKOJIBKO  .npyroro, BH^HO,  npe,nnoMHTa.n: HMeTb  Bee xe,OH  HeduJi,  padOTaTb  CTpeMJieHHe  H  Bonpoc,  MTO  CBOIO  faKOBo  T a K KaK K a K dti  codCTBeH-  HCTopHMecKoe  He3aBHCHM0CTH JIHMHOCTH. r  Ho . B KOHHe KOHUOB.MyXHKH Tpy^HO  HaMTH,  flOrOBOpHJIHCb,  O KOTOPHX " R10RVL r O B O p a T " •  TaKHe  MecTa  HO, K T O - T O H 3 H H X T a K  xe cjiiimajiH,  H  H  Tex necTax He Tan yx xopomo, Tan  B  jieca"," 3 B e p n yin^n", "pndy  "BHpy&'HJiH  mioxo  MTO  cTajiH  JiroflH  BH^epxHBaeT."  Eojibiue,  rojioj;aTi>.  /Jpyrne xe  ^  OTpaBHJiH"  dn  BaTtca H e padoTaa H H e crHiiaa cnHHy".  yx CTapan,  3eujLH  pyccKaa  OTHM  BpeMeHeM  Ha Bora  aoBajiHCb  jieHb.  TaK  Ho  jieT, nonojib30-  IIHTB  B  DTOM  K a K nepe^eja  He  3eMJiH  HX  BHHa,  nponcxo^H/r  H  ypoxan  HCTomajiacb,  (SHJIH  njioxne  H  OHH  Ho,HecMOTpa Ha  JieHHBne,  coMyBCTBHe MTO  OT  Tpy^a  dHJiH # e j i a T b  dHJiH B e c T H  nOMemHKOB npHXOflHJIO  -  HeBexecTBeHHne, HCKpeHHee  npoaBjiaeT  MHTaa D T y K H H r y  yHHxajia H X  BMeCTO  J;OCTOHHCTBO,  MyBCTByeTca,  MHJIOCTHBOtt ^OJIXHH  CHHC-  dHJin  dn  3eMJie^ejiHa.  RJIR  OT JHOfleff,  caMHx  nerpaMOTHHx,  cBoe  TaKHe  aBTop  T O M , MTO nOMefflHKH,  KOTopaa  CKHe noMemHKH KOHija HHH  B e e xe  MTO MOXHO O X H ^ a T b  DTHX  dHJin  K HHM.  ;iyM.iiiHM MeTOj^aM HO  cocToaHHH  KpecTbaHe  cyeBepHne,  Ayua.Jl O  xo^HTeJibHocTH, HX  MTO  flodpoxejiaHHe  H  POMaHOB  HayMHTb  TO,  xa-  Ha cy^bCy.  " - Cy^bda, MHJIHH, cy^bda, - roBopHJi O # H H H3 H H X , exejiH Tede B MeM HHdyjib He cyjubda, TaK xoTb T H jidoM pa3deKca, B e e paBHO HHMero He dy^eT. " - Tocnojcb n o B e ^ e j r O T T p y ^ o B C B O H X H O T 3eMJiH KopMHTbca, - n o f l T B e p x ^ a ^ j;pyroH, - H ri\e T H pcunaca, TaM H y M H p a M . " H  rpydHe,  OTO  Kax^Hft doajica, M T O 6 H TaK M H O T O H e padOTaTb Ha ^pyrax.  MacTO, T O A  He xoTeaocb padOTaTb.  HO  naTH jieT He  CTpamHO xoTejiocb pa3-  M  doraTeTb,  TaM CTajo  H  TOBOPHT,  xoTe/iH,xoTH  K a K JUORK  ceda,  KOTOpHe  KOTopne  r p y d n x , deGTOJiKOBHx  19-ro HaMa^a M  20-ro  COTHH  c ycnexoM.  K riOJIHOMy  pa3opeHHio  Bee  JieT  MyxHKOB.  BeKOB,caMH  xo3aficTBO  HHMero  He  B  dojibiue H  H OdHHmaHHB.  He B XHJIH PyccocToadojibme  HpKHM  no  npuMepc-M T a K o r o pacnaaa, Korjia-TO MorymecTBeHHoro KJiacca, B3HTt> repoa p o M a H a HHTeHbKy BoeKKOBa.  MOXHO  cjraBHJicfl  ^ajieKo 3 a npe;n;ejiaMH cBoeft  rocTenpHHMCTBOM  CBOHM  OTen; ero Kor^a-TO BOJIO-  B noMe Kor^a-TO cnpaBjia;iHCb npa3j;HHKH H  CTH.  " ... JJiJiHHHiifi pa;* O K O H no $aca,n;y ... eBeTHJica BCK) HOHb #o paccBeTa.... BecHHCJieHHiie r o c T H H M H , ejiH H BecejiHJiHCb TaK, K a K HHrj;e.... " BcnoMHHajiH H MocKOBCKy» M a c ^ e H H a y , H 6JIHHH, H T P O K K H , H ropaMyio, MOJioflyio xMejibHyio JirodoBb, OT KOToppfi ocTajiHcb .gajxeKHe, KaK •nerKHfi T y M a H , HexHbie BocnoMHHaHHa• " 12 11  Ho  npomjiH  BOT  BHX  TORH  Bee H3MeHHJiocb.  H  yeaned CTajiH noaBJiaTbca  "Cpe^n odHTaTejieft po.no-  TaKHe, KOTopiie, - spo^e H3BecTHoro  MHTeHbKH BoefiKOBa, - BejiH cTpaHHyro, odocodJieHHyro xHSHb". Tor.ua, KaK JJMHTpHft  yxe B03BpamajiHCb .noMott H3  KpecTbaHe  3  iiepKBH,  HflbHM BoefiKOB ...  11  i  eme  cnajr  B cBoeM  KadHHeTe Ha  ranpoKOM  ^HBaHe....  Jiexa^ noKptiBiiiHCb c rojioBoft npocTHHeft O T Myx. A K p y r o M Hero - H a c T y j i b a x , Ha nojiy, ,naxe Ha nncbMeHHOM OTO^e, - B KaKOM—TO BHXpeBOM COCTOHHHH BajlHJlKCb  OH  pa3dpocaHHHe M a c T H ero TyajieTa. " 14 v  x e H3 DToro BHflHo, 3T0T  KVLXCH  B  KaKOM  cocToaHHH  MOJio^oK MeaoBeK.  BCT.aBaTb paHbiue  MHOTO  B  KOTOPOM  HaueMaji BCTaTb  nepecTaHaBJiHBa^ Ha mecTb MacoB yTpa. OTO  dtuio  BcTaHeT BOJIH  H  CJIHUIKOM  yx paHO,  B 8 MacoB H OH  pa3  3aHHMaTbca n p o f l y K T H B H O H  H  cede p a c n H c a H H e ,  OH  nopajibHoro pacna,a;a Haxo-  TaK  MTO  OH  ^ajibuie.  oderaaji caM cede padOTOH. B  OT  Kenan  MeTtipe Maca y T p a ,  noTOM onaTb pemaji, MTO  ycneeT JleHb  c^ejiaTb  ^HeBHtix sadoT.  " ^ a c H npodn^H noJiOBHHy . n e c a T o r o .  Bee,  B c e r ^ a dtiJia  onaTb n p H f l a s a j i c a TOMy daaxeHHOMy CHy,  xj^aji ero B p e u e H H O  OH  ecjin  CHJibHee  KOTOPHM  OH  ero  ocBodo-  36  H B T O T xe MoiieHT H 3 - n o ^ n p o c T H H H H c n y r a H H o BHcyHyjiacb cnyTaHHaa r o j i o B a . 3TO H 6UJI cau Bjiazeneu, yca/j;bdH c T b i c a n e H j t e c a T H H 3eMJiH, . H M H T P H H HJIBHM, HJIH MHTeHbKa B o e f t K O B , KaK ero 3BajiH B o d m e c T B e . " - 3jj;paBCTByHTe, - o n a T b n p o c n a j i ! " - dopMOTaji M H T e H b K a c e d e no^; H O C , c n y c K a a CBOH HOTH Ha noji. " - EejiaJi 6u a B e e - T a K H nocJiymaTb, HTOdti K T O - H H d y ^ b o d i H C H H J i MHe, - p a c c y x ^ a j i OH caM c c o d o f t , - B neat T y T .nejio: c n e T t i p e x n a e o B H a n a j i , a Tenepb y x e H a noJioBHHy flecaToro ctexaa. Be^b cKOJibKO p a 3 TBepjiHJi D T O H HeyKJiroxefi flype, HacTacbe, HTO-  "  6H OHa  6ysnjia  B n o JioxeHHtiM Mac.  Hy, H T O  xe...  c n e i n H - H e c n e u i n , B e e paBHO Becb ,a;eHb HCnopneH. - H M H T e H b K a s a j i o x H B p y K H 3a r o j i o B y , c paccTpoeHHHM B H ^ o i i . j i e r na .HHBaH. " 15 Tenepb  OH,  BJiaflejieq  a e c H T H H 3eMJiH, x o 3 a H H  THCHHH  6e3rpaMOTHy© K y x a p K y ,  nac.  H  MoxeT  yraaaTb,  BCTaeT B  Kax^HH  BoceMb,  cBoeft  c  OHa  TO  npaBOM H  cepflHJiea H  Sy^HJia  nac.  - HeuiTO  odBHHHJi  CBOHX  cjiyr  HacTacbio H  3a  OHa  HTO  He  T a K KaK  OH  yraaaeuib ... "To  pa36epeiffi?"  de3jiadepHy» nyTaHHijy H  Ha  onpe.nejieHHbiH  BCTaBaTb,  HeuiTO MOJI  TyT  KyxapKy  B  OTBenajia eiiy,  COH3BOJIHT  HajjeaJica  flOMa,  ^  6  npHBejj;a  padoT-  jBopoBoro  He/j;opa3yMeHHe, M H T e H b -  Heycnex  B  cBoeM  XH3HH:  - BOT Tede H p a e n n c a H H e , - BOT Tede H neTbipe n a c a . - B 0 3 s i y m a j i c a OH. Ra H y , H T O Tan, p a 3 B e C 3THM Hapo^OM MOXHO HTO-HHdyflb Hajia,HHT b . 0, r o c n o . n H , Hy H co3/j;aHHaI - . . . n p H 3 H B a j i OH K  Bory.  yxe  "17  B naTHft HJIH mec TOH p a 3  npn^aBaa HOBoe  pa3HHH  HepeuiHTejibHOCTbK) H  "  OH  B  B ^eBHTb,  HHKa MHTpodpaHa B Ka  HacMeuiKOH  K o r j ; a dapHH  aeHb  OHa e r o  HTOSHH  .  OTOMy dojibmoe  xoTeji  3HaneHHe,  p a c n H c a H H e , XH3HB Hajia/jHTca  pacnHcaHHH pyKofi H  MecTa nocTaBKTb  nomeji  3aBTpaKaTb.  nepeneHHTb  KaK 6u caiia  Ero  Hajj;eacb,  codon.  HOBbie u[H$pti,  cBoe  OH  exe^HeBHHM  Ho  pacnHcaHHe, cnejiaB  HTO He  HaH/ja H a  de3Hajj;exHo  MaxHyji  3&HaTHeM n o c j i e  3aB-  27  TpaKa "OT  yxoaHTfe  6UJIO  BHeraHeft XH3HH H . n e f i c T B H T e j i b H o e T H "  CeCCMHC^eHHHM, K  KOTopoS  q*)HJIOCO$CKHM MSMTaHHHM  HeH3dexHoft  MHCJIH  nocne  "npoTHB  TpedoBajia  OT  HyxHO H  TaKoM $H.ioco$CKOfi  ycTpoeHHa  c xjopm.  no  B  A  paccyx^eHHax 20  XH3HH,"  pacnopaxeHHa  odpasoBaHHa,  odiqeHHa  CBOHM  COBepiIieHHOft XH3HH,  TOft  npoBO^H^ u.e.&HH' .neHb  OH  odtiMHO HaMHHa/t p a d o T y  KaK 3 T o r o  "o  - H npn^aBajicH  B3HB HHTB  9  Hero pacnopaxeHHM.  ;  MHTpo^aH  1  18  yenmieime  H&XOAVUI  OH  n e p e 3 n e T t i p e c T a HJIH n a T E C O T  deccMHCJieHHoro  Hero  XO3HMCTBOM,  BpeMH x,najiH OT  Ho  OBOJIBHHH."  3aBTpaKa,  HeroflOBaHHH  BOflCTBa  npnjeT JieT  HeaoBenecTBO  nyTeM  paa  KanaBy cajja". r^e  "3a  H  KOTO-  .neaaMH,  pyKo-  e r o JJBOpOBHe^ B 0TO  He/^oscnaBuiHCb  CBoero  xo3HHHa,  cBoeft codcTBeHHoft HHHUHaTHBe.  oxH^aTb, OH H H K o r ^ a He MOT  yro^HTb  CBoeMy  dapHHy. noKa BonpocH,  CBoe Ha  OH  ero  B  noczre  OH  decnopn^oK,  ^aBa^o  TOJIBKO  HHM,OH  Bee  xe  Ha  B  HTO  OHH  HeJoT.na.zi CBoefi  BHHMaHHa."  3eM^H  "...  nocTeneHHo MTO  caMHM neM T O  HM  21  CMHTaa  npn y3KO B C e H3.ttHffl-  Ha nojn>30BaHHe "ode3^ojreHHO-  OH Ha3HBajt K p e c T b a H ,  He^BHXHMyjo  ^Bope.  MejuJieHHo, H O  CMHTajiocb  nycTyeT,  pacnajajica,  TaKOM c o c T o a H H H n o T O M y ,  B o p o B a ^ H adJioKH y H e r o ,  Ha e r o po^oByio  a .HOM  rpa3b  3anycTeHHe.  H  HanoJiOBHHy  HenpoxoflHMaa  He3aCJiyXHBaiomHM  My d o j i t i u H H C T B y " , KaK  Hero  xou  nponiJioM H a n p a B ^ e H H H XH3HH O T O  JIHHHHM H nOOTOMy  uapnji xaoc  #ejiax  H3ropo,nH JiOMa^HCb,  ydtiTOK,  3 c e 6uxo  pasBajiHBajiea....  ero  B  MHpoBtie  3>HJTOCO<J)CKH pemaji  HejsaKOHHHJi, 3eMJia y  Kax^oro ,n;ox,na d t i a a  Xo3aftcTBO  no  H  JiHHHott X H 3 H H ,  odpasoBaHHe  ^Bope 6un  paccyxflaji  a BosMyma^ca  sadnpajiHCb  codcTBeHHOCTb:  3a pudoft,  TeM, nocarajiHCb  Ha MecTe npojioMaHHoro  28  mieTHH co cTopoHbi ^epeBHH aMdapHHK. B  Kor^a  COCTOHHHH  TyT ycneji  OH  THeBa  vac xe eMy  HHX  JIIO^eH.  GHJIO  BHPOCTH,  .xajiody Ha  H noflaTb  npHiiiJia uuojib,  HeH3BecTHO. " 2 3  peniHJi HeMe^jieHHo  .HMHTPHK HJIBHH  BOflHTeaio asopHHCTBa TOT  Ha e r o 3eMJie jjepeBeHCKHH  CTOHJI  HTO OH  exaTb  K  Ho  KpeCTbHH.  CBOHX  npejj-  xoneT HaKa3HBaTb de33amHT-  ". Koro OH xoneT Ka3HHTb ? Tex xe yrHeTeHHHx, KOTOptIM OH OT^aJI BCR) MHCJIb CBOeH KHOCTH H BeCb xap ee, nepejj; Ken Ha HeM C S M O M J I C X H T HCTopHnecKaa BHHa. " 2  4  B DTOT MOMeHT OH XOpOUIO OC03HaBaJI, HTO BHHa TO dHJia He KpeCTbHH, a H X , noMeaiHKOB. Ho MHTeHbKa BoeMKOB dHJi He O,HHH paccyxaeHHHMH. ero.  Ero coee,HH -  MoxeT dbiTb  CTOHHHH,  HO  OHH  3acTOH  co/j;epxajiH  XHSHH  Ha ocHOBe KOToporo  BO3BpaTHo, ceTOBajiH XH3HH  CBOH  jjBopH  B  BO M H O T O M  HeiiHoro  H  Jiynuie  JiyHiueM  co-  pacna,zt, KaK coHHajibHoro KJiacca,  jjepxajiacb  Bee  dHJiH He  MeHTaMH  OHH  COTHH  CHjj;ejiH  JieT, nyBCTBOBajica Te-  B CBOHX  jjoMax,  MenTajiH  doraToM, ^oBOJibHoH XH3HH, KOTopaa ymjia de3-  T O H npeKpacHoi!,  yjiynmeHHa  H HX  POCCHH  nepb co Been ocTpoToft. o  noMemHKH  CO CBOHMH  y  H a CBOK)  HHX  cyjj;bdy,  HejxBaTajio  CHJIH  HO  .nejiaTb HTO-JiHdo jjJia  BOJIH.  " Tenepb Bee dojibiiie CH^ejiH no C B O H M yrjiaa/r. - c e T y e T naBeji HBaHOBHH TyTOJibMHH. - Bee CTajio de^Hee H cepee. H 3 H o c H J i a c b JIH 3eMJia HJIH nepeueHHJica Hapo/j;, H O H e CTajio y x 6HJIOH UIHPOTH, xjiedocoJibCTBa H pa/jyDJHH . Jj;ejia H e IIIJIH, HMeHHa p a 3 B a j i H B a j i H C b , / j e H e r dujio Majio, H yxe Hejib3a CTajio p a ^ o B a T b c a KaxflOMy cjiynaHHO 3aexaBiueMy T O C T K H KopMHTb e r o . . . . " 2-5 Bee  OHH  Bee  dnJIH  c  OXOTOH  corjiacHH  ynacTBOBajiH B TOM, HTO  B  odcyxaeHKH  HyxHo depenb  OTB  JieneHHHx BonpocoB,  OTenecTBo  H  npaBoc-  29  jiaBHyio B e p y , caiiHx HH  HHX  no,a;,n,epxHBaTb HaunoHajibHyio cjiaBy  HyxHO  Ha CHHH  RJIK  JIHSO n o j i o x H T e j i b H o e  dtiJio npocTO ....  Bee  odmero  a  doabuie  codoft  H  Bpax^oH  CTpaHH.  BonpocoB  -  6uno n a p T H H ,  HBaHOBHH,  OT^ejIbHbie  yTonHTb  6HJIH T O T O B H  HTO-  "...  B  napTHH....  c n o p H J i H Mexfly  jioxKe  B  y ..  CTapHHy  "B  KOToptie  HO  jjejiaTfe  xeaaHHe  LTaBeji  TOBOPHT  OKOJIO  Bojibme 6biJio BonpocoB, HBHOH  yjiynmeHHa  Tenepb,  A  XH3HH nOHBHJXHCb B o n p o c H ,  c  npoaBJiajiocb  MOMeHT He  5©^OB,  BO,HH OJJ;HH  apyroro. Ho 0/J;HO H3  HHX  nojjHHHeHHeM  Boe  n a p T H H pa3^ejiHJiHCb  DTH  6HJIO  coxpaHeHHe  3a  Bcero  cTaHeT dtuio  npoTHB  oanoro  3THX  "npaBocjraBHoro  HeBexecTBa. jieHHH  H  3TO,  -  Tor^a  a  M H  .»  KaK  Bcero  CTaporo H  dpaTCKaa  Tenemie  xe  j^axe  ^ecnoTH3Ma  KJiacc.  B nepByio  Ha-  H  HJieHH M O J i c s o r o  3apoxflaromHHCH H O B H H  ypaBHeHHe H  Bee,  JUpyroe  H  IIOKO-  "Pa3pym^e  OHepejjb,  JiiodoBb M e x a y  c  TeneHHio  oTOMy  OHH.  KaK H a c a e a n e  cKOBHPHHTe  saBeTOB,  - GoxpaHHTe  "  TeneHHio n p H H a f l j i e x a j i H  DTOMy  dyaeT  B H i n e y K a 3 a H H o r o BH/JHO,  npaBocjiaBHOtt HTO  dtiJia H a  jia HM  noMa3aHHHKa",  K  TeneHna.  -  BceMH  ...  ,  Hapo^;-  29  H3BecTH0, HTO  noKoaeHHa.  3aJHcKopeHeHHe  oaMOflepxaBHoro  a  C Bonpoc  K  pa3HOHHHIJ(H,  Bee H  3aBeTOB,  rjiaBHHx  noMa3aHHHKa". ^  B e K , . . . " 2'8 - yTBepxjj;aJiH  30JIOTOH  flBa  CTapux, n p a B o c j i a B H H x  "©.HHHOH B o a e  npHHajj;jiexajiH HJieHH CTaporo  Ha  Bepti  UIOBHHH3Ma, n o M o r a a  qepKOBb  HedojibmoM  OKcnaoaTHpoBaTb  no/iHTHnecKHH Bonpoc  decnoHOHJiH a B T o p a .  npaBocjiaBHaa  CTopoHe  HTO  Maccy  H3  HCTOPHH  CKOMnpoMeHTHpoBaaa c e d a  r p y n r i H HMymnx,  HeHMymnx,  npec.nejj;oBaTb  KaK  flpyrne  HTO  OTHM  caMHM  OHa n p H H a a a  p e JIHTHO3HHe  H  TeM,  noMora-  CTopoHy  ydexjjeHHa  H  30  apyrne HauHOHajibHocTH. PaccMaTpHBaa ranti noMeajHKOB MTO B e e O H H ^eHHBHe,  CKa3aTb,  MejiaHxojiHHeoKHx Hsodpaxaa  ceTOBakHft  aBTop  HX,  6UJI  B  H  y d e x j e H , MTO  HOBeHHe, KaK HaqnoHajtbHtiM ran yxo^ameft PoMaHOB HauHOHajibHue  CKH©  xe  B DTOM  xapaKTepH.  To/icToro, ToHMapoBa,  cTapoM  O H H xoTa  BeaHKHx  c OdJiOMOBHM  HHKOJiaa PooTOBa  roHMapoBa;  H3 p o M a H a  X^ecTaKOBa  MepTaMH  JiaTb,  3TO  Bee  B HHX  nncaTejieft IlyaiKHHa,  H3  dojibuioe cxoj?-  OMeHb  " B o f e a H Mnp" T o j i o T o r o  "PeBHSopa"  c xeHmHHoM  Porojia,  H  H3  de33adoTHHft HaroBopHTb  noTOMy flpSBHOCTb  " fl JirodJiK) B O C T O K , . . .  MTO  B  HanoMHHaeT  coMeTaHHH  n©MopHHa H3 " T e p o a  ^axe OHernHa  jierKOMHCJieHHHft,  pa3B^eMbca  HO  BajieHTHH EaarnH yx OMeHb  mero B p e M e H n " JfepMOHTOBa HJIH  IlymKHHa.  H30dpaxaeT pyc-  ToroJia.  MHTeHbKa BoeHKOB PoMaHOBa HMeeT CTBO  Ha H C M S 3—  POCCHH.  H xajiKHe,  pyccKHx  noJiHHe  'MeMTaTejiH.  O H H odpeMeHH  npoH3B©fl©HHH oM©Hb yatejio  y 3 H a T b Hacji©JHHKOB  MOXHO  nycTHe  cynbdy,  Bee  MOXHO  xapaKTepH,  cnadoBOJibHHe  Ha xH3Hb  poMaHe  OTOM  na-  "EBreHHft OHerHH ' 1  MSJIOBSK,  Maccy  HHr^e  c  JiBdanusH n o r y -  HejienocTeft.  T a K He M y B C T B y -  9 T C a CTapOCTb H 3eMJIH, K a K Ha BOGTOKe. r o B o p H T EjiarHH. - J l e x a T b B cTenn nofl 3Be3jiaMH, e c T b p y K a M H xnpHyK) d a p a H H H y H H e M y B C T B O B a T b ^ B H x e H H a B p e M e H H . . . . " 30 BOT  Bee  ero  xejiaHHa  aejia, Ty cpe^y  H  /Lpyraa KOHdp^HKTa Mex.ny ^eBymKa,  HpHHa,  BJieM©HHH  fljia  dyaymero.  KyjibTypy  B  RJIH  KOTopoM  TeMa 3aTpoHyTaa raydOKHM  TSKOM  XH3HH  OH p o f l H a c H  B OTOM  H  noKHHyji xeHy, BHpoe.  npoH3Be^eHHH  MyBCTBOM JiiodBH H  BBiHyxaeHHaa x H T b  OH  noBepxHOCTHHM.  B ^epeBHe,  MOJio^exH H © m e MeHbme M O ^ O ^ H X  - GTO  r^e  Majio  reua.  Mojicnaa  ocTa^ocb  noisemHKOB, Hanuia  pa3-  31  MHTeHbKy  B o e M K O B a onenh  HeyKJiioxecTbro K  Oji'tra  IleTpoBHMa KaK  .naBHo  MejioBena,  caMbie K C K p e H H u e  HeMy dtuiH  Ba.  npHB.zteKaTe.7ibHHM c e r o  IleTpoBHa x e ,  ^BopaHCKoro  3adaBHHM H  npe^BOflHTejiH  OTKPHTO  H  Ee MyBCTBa  odmecTBe.  cymecT-  jtodpoxejiaTejibHiie HeBHHHoro  H  xena  Hauijia e r o OMeHb  HedHBajioro B  3acTeHMHBoeTb»  naBJia  KOKeTHHMajia  c  HHM,  dti xejiaa e r o cnpoBoiSHpoBaTb "  B H HHTepecHHH" MajibHHK... - c K a 3 a ^ a OHa, B ^ p y r noBepHyBniHCb K HeMy H dJiH3K0 BTJIH.HHB a n c b B e r o rjia3a.... rioTOMy MTO eme He 3HaeTe MHororo H3 Toro, MTO B B a c e c T b . . . . - fl x o M y , MTOdH B H KO MHe n p n e x a j i H . . . - c K a 3 a / i a Ojibra rieTpoBHa. " - fl BaM C K a x y K o e - M T O . . . xeHnjHHa JIK>6HT CHJiy H 11  HOBH3Hy....  "  MHTeHbKa p a c T e p a j i c a HHMero  TO  OT  TaKoro  HCKaji rjia3aMH  Ojibry  HeoxH^aHHO H a T K H y j i e a Ha  mHHaM, H O  K p a c H B O f i xeHmHHH H  HpHHy H  dHJI CUHHaKOBO  MHTaTejib  MyBCTByeT,  0,HHOB H H  pemHji, B M e c T e  Ho  FleTpoBHy.  MHTeHbKa  HeflOCTOHH HH IUHH OH  Bu30Ba  OH coBepmeHHo noTepHJi paBHOBecne H  CKa3aTb.  decnoKoftHO  31  BMecTo Hee  6UJI T a i c ^ x e  OMeHb  H  OH  jyMaeT,  MTO  MTOdH O T ^ e J i a T b C H  c BajieHTHHOM,  yexaTb  Ha  OH  Btipa3HJiacb HOB  jinpHKa  HaMHHaeT  cBoe  podaMH H cojiHua,  Haii J i y r a M H ,  KaK  PoMaHOBa  HH  coBepmeHHo  OT  ode>Hx  B o n n c a H H H HM  npoH3Be,a;eHHe  c  xeH-  KaBKa3.  KaKOM n p y r o M  B  xeH-  H3  pyccKoft  DTOTO  e r o npoH3Be,neHHfi, npnpojiH.  o n n c a H H a HacTynaroweH  PoMa-  BecHH  cypoBott  " - UocJie BJiecK  "Pycn",  B  KaK  OH  cMymeH.  Heodxo^HMo TaK^-xe OTMeTHTb JiHpHMecKyio CTOpOHy npoH3Be^;eHHH.  MOT  BpeMa  CHJIbHO npHBJieMeH K o d © H M  MTO  flpyTOH.  Bee  He  CHexHoft 3HMH, C e e MeTejiHMH, c y r 3aHOcaMH, npnuiJia, H a K O H e q , B e c H a . " 32  3aTonjieHHbie  KOTOPHM  BeceHHeM  cte^aeT  CHer,  Bo,noft  nojia,  COCHOBHM  dop  yTpeHHHfi TyMaH Haii p e K o t t ,  BeTpn-  32  HH©  MOHaCTHpB  MejIBHHHH, j p e B H H H  rojiydnx  dJiecK TaK  BeceHHHx  Hedec  -  nocjiejjoBaTejibHo, TaK HPKO,  xeHHH n e p e f l BEMH  npe^CTaeT  CO CT&pHHHtlMH  dafflHHMH H  B e e DTO onncaHo  jneMcTBHTejibHO  TaK KpacoHHO,  HanpaxeHHH  H T O n p n najioM  HpKHH  pyccKaa  Bobdpa-  KapTHHa c  o paCKOIIIHHMH  3a  BecHoM  JiecaMH, cae^yeT  nJIO^OpOflHHMH nOJIHMH H ydOTHMH JieTO  H  oceHB  co BceMH  HHMH O T T e H K a M H H IIOJieBHMH p a d O T a M H , XHK,  co B e e n  HHTb  TaK  H  e r o de/jHocTBio TaK  Me^JieHHO H  pyccKoro  Hapo,na  H X npHpojjHHMH  KOTOpue  H KyjiBTypHoK  ycep/jHO.  BtipaxaeTea  BecB  jepeBHHMH.  TOJIBKO p y C C K H H My-  OTCTajiocTBio,  B OTOH  Kpacon-  jinpHKe  M O T HCIIOJI-  pyccKoM  PoMaHOBa.  naTpnoTH3M  npHpoflH JlnpHKa  DTa y B a 3 a n a c fleficTBHTejiBHO r a y d O K O HauHOHajiBHHMH n y B C T B a M H a B T o p a . B CBOHX H y B C T B a x , B CBOett n p H B H 3 a H H O C T H K 3eMJie, B 3HaHHH p y c c r a x KpecTBHHCKHx  odHHaeB,  CBH3aH  c sepeBeHCKoK  JIK>dOBB  K J^epeBeHCKOH  "  "  TocKa  CKOM  cBoen  XH3HBK>.  jriodBH K npHpo,E.e, POMaHOB 6UJI TeCHO B O T , KaK  can  PoMaHOB  oiracHBaeT  CBOK  I H 3 H H  - JIiod/iK) D T H T H x n e c y M e p K H 3aTHxaiotaeH MHpHOM jj;epeBeHCKOH XH3HH, cnoKOHHyro K B e n e p y r j i a f l B p e K H , H B e n e p H H e C M f l r s e H H H e 3ByKH H n e p B u e pe^KHe 3Be3^H B BeceHHHx H e d e c a x . - B r o f l H I O H O C T H , dHBa/io, H a n p a x e H H O xHBeuiB D T O H c y M e p e n H o f i THinHHoft npHpojj;H, B/j;Hxaeui6 B e e n rpyjj;BK) a p o i t a T p a c u B e T u i e M c n p e H H , c B e x e c T B noJiHTOH 3eMjiH B u;BeTHHKe, H H a n p a x e H H o n p n CJiyuiHBaeuiBCfl KO B c e M 3aTHxaiom,HM 3 B y K a M , KaK— d y ^ T O doHCB n p o n y c T H T B H e n p o n y B C T B O B a H H O H Kaxjcyio MHHyTy C B o e M X H 3 H H . . . . " 3 3 B  H  B  o  DTOM, KOHeHHO,  HaBcer/ja  XH3HH.  ymejrmeM  HyBCTBytKTCH MOJIOJJ;OCTH  TaKXXe  aBTopa  H  dOJIBfflHe CHMnaTHH CTHXHH  .aepeBeH-  33  FOOTNOTES Panteleymon Romanov, Rus,', p a r t I , p. 0 . 2&3  I b i d , p. 7 7 . Op. c i t . . p. 77,  ^ I b i d . , p. 7 9 .  7&8  Ibid.  p. 1 7 2 .  Ibid.  p. 7 8 .  9Ibid.  P. 1 7 9 .  Ibid.  p. 1 8 0 .  Ibid.  p. 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 .  Ibid.  P. 1 9 .  12  13 I b i d .  Ibid. 1  ^Ibid.  16  p.  2h.  p. 2 5 . p. 2 5 - 2 6 .  Ibid,  p. 2 7 .  17 I b i d .  P. 2 9 .  18&19 I b i d .  p. 3 0 .  2 Q  Ibid..  p.  31.  2 1  I b i d . , p.  32,  2 2  I b i d . , p.  33.  2.~\  I j b i d . , P.  *+3.  I b l d . . p.  2**9.  ^ I b i d . , p.  250.  2 i f  2  26 OP.  clt.j  p.  250.  27  I b i d . . p. °Op.  251.  c i t . , p.  2 9  I b i d . . p.  3 0  I b i d . , p.  251.  60'. 57..  35  " PACCKA3U " B  CBOHX  KOPOTKHX paCCKa3ax FlaHTeJieHMOH POMaHOB CTOHT  cpe/jH KMopHCTHHecKHx r t H c a T e / i e H  O^HHOKO  nepHOfla.  B H H X codpaH MaTepnaji H3 dtiTa jnofleft coBeTCKOH nepe-  DIIOXH.  TGMOH  Tpa^HUHOHHoro  yKJiafla  XOJJHOH  dtlTOM B  nocjiepeBOjnoijHOHHoro  ciapon  HBJiaeTCH  c  POCCHH  HeocpopMHBniHMCfl  3 JieMeHTOB B  dfclTy,  repoeB..  B A3HKe  OCTPHH K)MOp POMaHOBa OCBefflaeT Heodpa30BaHHOCTB H  npaBHTejiBCTBa, H  coneTaHHe ojieMeHTOB  erne  HOBHM,  OdqeCTBa, CTOJIKHOBeHHe 3THX  COBeTCKOTO  ncHxojiorHH,  3THX paccKasoB  TeiiHHe  CTOpOHBI  COBeTCKOTO  nepe/j;  pacTeptfHHOCTB: M a c e  Tpe-  dOBaHHHlMHOBOH BJiaCTH. no nOMTH  CaMHM  cuBaeT  OTHomeHHa IIOJIOB, K O T O P H H  Bonpocy  BOnpOCOM C O B e T C K O T O  dOJIBHHM  JiK>jj;eH x H B y m n x  ceMettHyio  XH3HB  PoMaHOBa,  B  c  jiiodBH, noflMeHaiomHx  nexoBCKHM  JIHPH3MOM , a p K O  npe^HCJioBHH  CBoeM  OdffleCTBa,  K  B  BpeMH, onH-  Tpa,2HUHOHHyK paccKa3ax  rpydtie  BH,HHH  cdopHHKy  oro  POMaHOB  npoHHyio  dpn3HOJIOrH H e c K H M H C B H 3 H M H .  rpydtiMH  BMecTe  HaTypajiH3Ma.  de3  dHJi,B  nepTH  ero  paccKa30B PoMaHOBa,  B. Tjiajj;KOB roBopHT, H T O  " nncaTejiB rpydoro,  BHJJ;HMO, 3aja;BixaeTCH B aTMoedpepe n e r o - T O acHBOTHoro, H , He .aaBan npnMHx O T B e T O B , OH OCTPO CT3.BHT BOnpOC BO BCeM HX C/IOXHOCTH H Kascaofl CBoeH C T P O K O H T O B O P H T , H T O 3j;ecb MHoroe c n y T a H O , H T O npe/jcTOHT d o l m a n H y n o p H a n p a d o T a H a a y C T p o e H H e M IIOJJIHHHO KpaCHBOH XH3HH, npH3HaHHOft n 0 3 3 H e H H He.lOBeHHOCTBK). 1 11  TeMa  OTHOiueHHH ITOJIOB BOJiHOBajia He  spyrnx  BejiHKHx H  MajiHx  TaTBflHO'M H flo HauiHx Bee  xe  HX  y Hero  nncaTejieft  flHeH.  oneHB  XOTH  Majio.  PoMaHOBa, a  TOJIBKO  MHOTHX  H a n H H a n nyuiKHHCKOH  POCCHH,  PoMaHOB  H  H  nncaji  paccKa3H  E r o Jiynmne p a c c K a 3 B i  CBH3aHH  o  aiodBH,  c Maccoft  36  Ha  yjiHue,  B  onepe^H, na B O K s a j i e , B noea^e, Ha pBiHKe.  MecTa, rj;e  c o d n p a j i H C b RUNS.  Bcex  KJiaccoB,  coHHajibHtix  cnoeB  HacejieHHH TOTO  BpeMeHH.  Tenepb odpaTHMea PoMaHOBa  CKa3bi  TOMOB.  HO MH  MH  He  B  pa36epeM  K  TaK  £OCTaTOMHOe  poBaTb c$epy poMaHOBCKoro HHTepeca.  KaK  3omeHKO TeM,  MTO  Pa3dnpaTb Bee p a c -  HX  HaMHCJiHeTCH  KOJIHMeCTBO^  MTOdbl  ceMb  npOHJIJIIOCTpH-  ^acTO PoMaHOBa cpaBHHBaioT c  3omeHKo no e r o »MopHCTHMecKHM paccKa3aM. OT  6BIJIH  VRe 6URK HHTepecH B c e x  oaMHM p a c c K a s a M .  COCTOHHHH,  3TO  Ho PoMaHOB OTJiHMaeTca  no^nepKHBaeT HapoflHyro  Maccy,  KaK odmyio  e^HHH-  u.y, Tor.ua KaK 3omeHKO y^ejineT CBoe BHHMaHHe OT^ejtbHHM jnmaM, K O TOPHX OH  Ha3HBaeT  M H o r a e H3  CBOHMH  COdCTBeHHHMH HMeHaMH.  B orjiaBJieHHHx  CSOPHHKOB  ero  HOCHT  paccKa30B  PoMaHOBa  TaKne  "MeJiKHH napoii;", "HepacnopH^HTejibHHfi  MOXHO  3arjiaBHH, Hapcn",  KaK  3aMeTHTt>,  "JJipyxHHtt Hapo,n",  "TepnejiHBHH  Hapo^",  "PyccKan j y u i a " , "Becco3HaTejibHoe CTajJto", "T/iac napo^a". TOBOpHT  O  T O M , M T O pOMaHOBCKHMH  noBTopaiomaHCH  B pn^e  PaccKa3  BpeMH  BoeHHoro  HBJIHeTCH  Bee O H H  d e 3HMHHHaH  Hapo^"  MOTHBa.  KOMMyHH3Ma*  npejucTaBjineT codoM  JJeftcTBHe  PoMaHOB  nponcxoiiHT  cpa3y xe  B  KJiaccHMecKHft  ^epeBHe  HaMHHaeT  c  ... npnuiJia dyMara H3 B O J I O C T H O T O c o B e T a c npHKa30M B03HT& ^ p o B a Ha rocy^apcTBeHHHM 3aBoj;. " - KaxitHH rpax,naHHH jjoJixeH c B e 3 T H no m e c T H B O 3 O B , c K a 3 a j i n p e ^ c e ^ a T e j i b H a codpaHHH. "  - A e x e j i H He noBe3em6, MTO KTO-TO H3 3a^HHX pflflOB. - OTCHAHID^ a noTOM B RBoe  — TaK...  "  "  3a  OTO  dy^eT?  -  cnpocKJi  CBe3enib.  - D T O 3HaMHT Ha MaHep dapniHHH B H X O ^ H T ? - CKa3aji O.HHH TOJIOC. - He H a MaHep dapujHHH, a Ha MaHep noBHHHOCTH. "  BO  $aKTa,  "  "  MaCCa,  ero p a c c K a 3 0 B l  "/LpyxHHft  odpa3en. poMaHOBCKoro  repOHMH  MTO  eme *  MTO  37-  TaKHM o 6 p a 3 0 M H a n H H a e T c a r o p a n e e Bonpoca BajiHCb HTO  Be3TH  MOJI  opajiH  Ha codpaHHH.  #poBa  H  co Bcex  myMHoe o d c y x , n e H H e  Bee K p H H a j r a , n e p e r o B a p H B a j i n c b codpaHHe  " - He noBe3eM.  rojioca  H  CTopoH.  dad CBOHX  npe^ee^aTejib  odpamaa BHHMaHHa H a yrpo3bi n p e ^ c e ^ a T e j i a ,  3aKpbi.n c o d p a m i e  CTajra  XBajIHT  H X eflKHOe  pemeHHe H e B e 3 T H  HX, HTO MOJI OHH  OTCTaHBaTb  CBOH  fleCKaTb  xyropa  canoxHHK, 3aBOfl,  3adecnoKOHjracb  o niTpadpe 3 a  BbirjiajtbiBaTb H3 C B O H X  n o ^ c M a T p H B a T b H n o ^ c J i y m H B a T B , H T O ,nejiajiK c o c e ^ H .  Pacnpenb-TO B c e r ^ a "  c  ".HpyxHbiM Hapo,n" H B M e C T e M o r y T '  O H H CTajiH O C T O P O X H O  JTHM H3 H H X C T a j i n o T H x o H b K y Hafi".  -  pacxoflHTbca n o  J i p o B a H a Ka3eHHtiK  JHOAH B JtepeBHe  BBinoJiHeHHe H a p a ^ a .  ceHeii,  ,  npaBa.  Ho H a y T p o He  3  ^oBOJibHHe c B o e M nodejtoft. npoxojr,amHft B D T O B p e M a H3 c o c e ^ H e r o  ycjibimaB  3anparafi."  Ho JIIO^H, KaK dbi H e * .  B^BofiHe.  y r p o 3 0 H ^ H T O H M npHM^eTca B O 3 H T B  ,a;oMaM,  H OTKasbi-  3 a K a H H H B a e T C H ijpyxHbiM n p o T e c T O M ,  flbaBOJiy...  K  OTOTO  3anparaTb  CBOJO  H  Kax-  nowaRh " H a B c a K H f l c a y -  MOXHO.  B ^ p y r K T O - T O n p o d e x a j i n o yjiHne H K p n K H y j i : - Ax, JlbaBoiibi, - c HHXHeM c a o d o f l H T O n o e x a j i H . . . K T O ? - R& B e e . C H a n a j i a 3axapKa—KOMMyHHCT, a noTOM O ^ H H n o o^HOMy erne n e j i o B e K n a T b . A TyT KaK y B e f l ^ j i H , H T O O H H y x K M o c T H K y ncu/besxaioT, y B c e x B o p o T a pacTBopHJiHCb H npaMo H a 3 a n p a x e H K H X Jiotna,2j;ax B e e BbiKaTHjiH, CJIOBHO Jiouia^H T a K B 3 a n p a x K e H po^HJiHCb. .. 4  Ho B e ^ b 3 T O x e dbiJiH K p e c T b a H e dH,  H T O B e e DTO c o B c e M He K a c a e T c a  Bee  pemHJiH B n e p a H a c o d p a H H H H e B e 3 T H  HOj ycjibiiuaB, "  H T O HHXHaa  HHXHeM c j i o d o a b i .  BepxHeM c j i o d o ^ H ,  cjiodo.ua n o e x a j r a  H B 3TOT x e caMbifi MOMeHT B o p o T a  H Ka3ajiocb  T a K KaK O H H  ii;poBa H a Ka3eHHbift 3aBO.ii;. BbinojraaTb  CBOA  B c e x flBOpOB H a  Hapajt  38  BepxHeM cjiodo/j(e, pacTBopHBuiHCb Ha ode no J I O B H H K H , xJiormyjiH c pa3Maxa od CTeHKH H , KaK Ha napajje, roJioBa B rojioBy, H noHecjiHCb joroHaTb HHXHIOK> cjiodo/j;y. " 5  B  DnH30^e PoMaHOB noKa3HBaeT npoTHBopenHa Mexay odniHM Ha-  3TOM  MepeHHeM H TeM, H T O O H H .nejiajiH.  ^eM flpyxHee O H H pewajiH Ha cod-  paHHH He jjejiaTb, TeM jipyxHee O H H  IIOTOM  noKa3HBaeT OHH H3  KaK aBJieHHe  KOMH3M  B  B  .nejiajiH.  OTOM  PoMaHOB  KOJiJieKTHBH3Me. Ha cjioBax, Bee  dtiJiH 3a T O , MTodu He .sejiaTb, a B jjeHCTBHTejibHOCTH y Kaxfloro CTpax 3a ceda  6HJI  HHX  H  HeaoBepne coce^y.  TaKHM odpa30M, rjiaBHoft nepToB  paccKasa, B03dyx,aaio-  DTOTO  mero cMex y HHTaTejia, aBJiaeTca npoTHBopeHHe  CBOHM  codCTBeHHHM  peuieHHHM.  B paccKa3e "KynKa Pa3d0HHHK0B , aBTop n  BHBOJECHT  Ty xe ncH-  xojior-HK) MaccH KpecTbHHCTBa, KOTopue flejiaroT Bcer^a npoTHBonojioxHoe CBOHM  pemeHHHM.  AeHcTBHe npoHcxcaHT  B  flepeBHe  Kor^a noMemHMbH ycaj;bdbi ocTajiHCb de3 Haj^3opa rpadHJiH Bee, H T O nona^ajiacb nojj; pyKy.  H  B  nocjieBoeHHoe BpeMa,  Korjja JIK>JJ;H TamHJiH H  K o r ^ a xe Bee dujio pa3Bopo-  BaHO, Tor^ta KpecTbaHe KjiajiH BHHy Ha MecTHyio BJiaeTb, HMeHya H X "KyHKOK pa3dOHHHKOB". BOT  H  B  STOT  pa3, cn^ejiH KpecTbaHe KpyxKOM  OBHHHHHKa H Be JIH pa3TOBOp O BOT  3aBejiacb  HO,  paHO  TaK  KaK  HJIH  KynKa  TOM,  "HTO  eme  pa3dofiHHKOB Ha .nepeBHe  coce^Hefi jjepeBHH,' neM oijia penb.  IIOMHHT OH  Bora.  B  ocTaHOBHJica,  OTO  xaTbi  BeCb HapOJj; npOTHB, TOJIbKO H  no3^HO, HM n p H H ^ e T c a OTBenaTb 3 a  Hapojj;  OKOJIO  de3odpa3HHHaK>T" CBOH  ^,  de3odpa3Ha,  BpeMa n p o e 3 x a j i Ky3Heu. H3  nojiceji  K  KpecTbaHaM  H  cnpocHJi  o  "  OH  JUja. B O T od H O B O M pa3dofiHHKax. " 7 OTOMy,  yflHBHJica  paccKa3HBaTb, JIH  Bora  ero  TaojHJiH B e e ,  H  3eMJiro. des  Bee  3TO  BCHKHX  xajibCTBy "A  B  ^epeBHe  y  flejiajiH  ^enpeTOB.  3arOBOpHJIH,  HTOdbl  defla."  meCTBO, "  " "  Boe^HHO,  no  3Jio^;eH", OHH  H3  CTaji 3adn-  de3  HOMOB,  HaMeny  Toxe -  BCe  Ha3tiBajiH  HX  " K o r ^ a nepBBift  uepeflejiH/iH  Hana/ibCTBa  pa  Ha-  3d oMHHKaMH.  pa3  T a K O H UiyM nOJtHHJIH,  ToabKO HTO  8  CTenaHHHa, TO  uajiouy  HX  H  yaHBHJiHCb TaKOMy H a r j i o M y  Ky3Heqy, TaK  jepeBHH  no^ pyny.  HM  BncejiajiH  H  DTHX  "nan  doraneM,  OTdHpaTB,  Ho, K o r ^ a Ky3Hen AH^pea  od  OTOM  JIIO^H CTajiH  KpecTbHHe  - roBopHJiH OHH  Jiro^en  nona^aaocb  HTO  jiro^eM coeeimeM ^ e p e B H H  y Hac",  npocTO  OHH  roBopnM,  necTHnx  noxBajnui  OTdnpajiH HMymecTBo  MOHHH  H  HTO  HaMajibCTBe  OHH B C e  H3  ero  cnpocn/i, ^OMa  OTBeTHJIH,  H  KTO  pa3Ji;eJiHJi  HTO  Bhirnaji  xe  fleCKaTb  3eMJiio H  apeH^aTopa,  HX  pacTamHJi  "npHUIJIOCb  ero  HMy-  BHce/raTb".  - MTO cuejiaeui^TO... H He T O , H T O B u c e j i H J i H , a erne H pacTamH/iH B e e RO n o c J i e f l H e S menKH. Bee n e p e 3 HHX, n e p e a OKa^aHHHx: d e p H T e , r o B o p a T , a T O J i p y r H M o T J t a ^ H M . Hy, H 3 B e c T H O , KaxJiHH n y n a e T , H T O p a 3 B e e paBHO pa3d e p y T , T a K y x Jiynme M H B 0 3 b M e n , neM ^ p y r a e no/rb3yioTc a . . . . Ca^HK dHJi y O T O T O AH,Hpea C T e n a H H H a , T a K B e c b e r o Ha r j r a 3 a x y H e r o o d T p a c J i H , c B e T K a M H o d o p B a j i n . - KTO x 3TO? - K T O . . . T p a c j i H - T O , KOHenHO B e e . . . Ra Bep,h B e e H 3 - 3 a HHX, H 3 - 3 a pa3doftHHKOB: OHH CJiyX nyCTHJIH, HTO KTO T P H C T H He dy,neT, TOMy H3 H M y m e c T B a a p e H j ; a T o p c K o r o n p n j e j i e x e H H n e r o He \ n o c T a H e T c a . Hy, T y T , KOHeniHO Rejio, T a K BCe npHHHJIHCb d y 3 0 B a T b , HTO T0.7ILKO T p e C K VLRBT. - 3 f l o p o B O , - CKa3a;i Ky3Hen.. - A y H a c cjryx npomejr, H T O B H d y ^ T O caMH n o x e j i a j m H 3eMjiro JiejiHTb H Bee. - KaKoe TaM - c a M H i Bee n p o T H B 6b\im.\ H MH T a K C M O T P H M , H T O H H K H e p T y H X #e;io He noKneT, n o T O M y H T O p a 3 B e c b H a p o j ; - n p o T H B , T y T y x H H n e r o He cuejiaemb... " 9  PaccKa3  3TOT  KOTopnfi  flOHxeH  KOHHaeTca dyaeT  Ten,  HTO  Bee  deryT  c J i y x H T b ' "RJIH n o c T p o f t K H  JioMaTb K/iyda.  capaM H  y HBaHHXH,  Kor.ua  jioMajiH  40  eapaM,  OTOT  Kaxflbift  TO  CTapajica  yTamHTB jjocKy  dpeBHO  HJIH  fljia  ceda.  - 3, - Kyjj;a dpeBHO I I O B O J I O K ! .... - icpHnaji n p e ^ c e ^ a T e j i i CToaBuiHH Ha B M C O K O M .nHe, "BpocB c e H n a c , cyKHH C H H ! . . . He OTpHBaJf n e T J i n ! BtiHHMaM c e n n a c B e e H3 KapMaHal... JIoMaeM jj;jia odmero no JIB 30BaHHa, a T H cede TauiHuiB, de'cpBecTHHH. " 10 H  B  3TOM paccKa3e BHjj;eH  KOMH3M  codcTBeHHtix  uiKypHHHecTBOM  xJiadaHHOCTH yMa  H  npoTHBopenHa Mexfly pa3roBopaMH,  nocTynKOB,  XHTPOCTH  B  TpyflHoe  oToro paccKa3a TaK^xe aBJiaeTca  THBOM KHM  DTOH3M,  DTO  TOT  jierKO  BCeMOrymHH HHCTHHKT Bbixoa  Haxoj^HT  B  B paccKa3e de3pa3jiHMHe  padonnx  onncHBaeT, KaK  KOTOPHH  ^ocMOTpejiH KOTOPOM  dHJio  dyKBH  XHJIH  TOBOPHJIH,  yxe  Mo-  BpeMa.  codCTB6HHHX npoTHBopenHH,  XHBOTHOTO C a M O C O X p a H e H H a , KOTOpHH  Ho. 3a",  TOMy  PoMaHOB  .aejiy, KOTopoe  BHCMeHBaeT TynocTB  HM  nopynajiH iiecTax.  jaHO pacnopaxeHHe cjioMaTB noJioBHHy  dHJi Ha  " a " nocjie  JIBOJJ;H.  pac-  paMKax MopajiBHoro sanoHa. "JIOM  K  H  r j i y d o K H M HHflHBH,?yajiHCTHHec-  HepacnopaflHTejiBHocTB BjiacTH Ha  diopoKpaTH3M H  TpnjiHBa,  nocjieBoeHHoe  KOTopaa He 3aMenaeT  TynocTB,  TynocTH  KOMH3M  uncJipH  "3"  ^OM  pa3pyuieH. cTajiH  H  .nejiaTB  H  PoMaHOB  Ho.3a,  Ho  H  RJIR  padonne  JioMaTB JJ;OM  He-  Ho. 3,  n e p e n y r a H H B i M H HejjoyMeBaiomHM xHJibuaM  B  padonne  HTO  " - B odmeM nopajiKe, B^BHjj;y T o n j i H B H o r o KpH3Hca npnKa3aHO pa3odpaTB Ha /j;poBa. " H H,  K o r j t a npoe3xaBfflHH  OHH  jj;ejiajiH, 11  11  no yjinue  H3B03HHK  TO O ^ H H H 3 padonnx  ocTaHOBHjica  H  cnpocHJi,  OTBeTHJi:  - ... H3 T o n j i H B H o r o K p H 3 H c a B H X O ^ H M ; yMHbie T O J I O B H , H a n a j i B C T B o Hauie; B O T xopouiHH JJ;OM H cBexyeM. - Hy jj;aBan d o r . " - OTBeTHJi H3B03HHK. - "MoxeT noTenJieM c a e j i a e T e . A T O DTaKHH X O J I O ^ I , c o B c e M  HTO  41  HH K n e i i y . . . " - IIocTpoHTb Tpy^HO,  " H  BOT,  Korjja  Kpmna  JIOCB,  dHJia  KOHL, n o o T O M y  6biJi KaMeHHHH KaKoM-TO  yxe  c  MejioBeK  cxenb  jjejio  CHHTa H  xHTpoe.  He  padonne  H e n p H r o / j H H H jjJia  "  12  yjHBJiajiHCb, HTO  TonjiHBa,  JionaTb  nycToM  cocejj[HHH,  DTO  nojrbexaji  TO  T e x H H H e c K H M 3HanKOM H a qoypaxKe,N T o r ^ a  6UJIO n p H K a 3 a H O  HTO  a  BHIHCHH-  JJOM.  - Ax T H , MaTb H e c T H a a ! " - T O B O P H T O/J;HH H3 padonnx, - A a (3HJIO H rJiRReji H a H e e , H a d y K B y T O , flyMaji H H n e r o , MajieHbHaa jj;ioxe n o K a 3 a j i a c b . B O T B e ^ b Bpe/j;Haa K a K a a , - C K a x n n o x a j i y M c T a . " I  "  3  KpoMe  paCCKa3e,  3T0M 11  -  TynocTH,  ...  xyeM."  ysraue B  14  BpeMeHH,  de3pa3JiHHHa H  POMaHOB C CapKa3MOM TOJIOBH,  HanajibCTBO  paccKa3e  DTOM  odmnft  Ha  de3co3HaTejibHoro  Hame,  Tan^xe  decnopajjoK,  BHCMeHBaeT BOT  HH3fflHe  padonnx  HaMeK H a  cocTaBJiaeT  B  BJiaCTH.  xopouiHH JJOM H  nyBCTByeTca  KOTOPHH  OTHomeHHa  cioxeT  CBe-  ycjioBHa pac-  OTOTO  C Kci 33, * 3TH  Xe  MOTHBH  TynOCTH,  HeopraHH30BaHHOCTb  BbiBejj;eHH  Hapofl",  nejioBeK",  B  ".HOCTOHHHH  "ByKBe  'H'"  mndbpoBaTb  nepe/j; C  HOBa "Tjiae  Hapojta".  a  3 rOH3M,  qejioe  Kypbep  cTa^o",  "ByKBa  ynpexjieHHe  'H'". pac-  He^ioxeT  ocTaHaBjiHBaeT ca  B  IIOJIHOM  Ha-anHCbio " B H X O ^ " .  "Padaa 3TH  KopoBa",  paccKa3H  O/J;HH . n p y r o r o .  3peHHa  HHTepecHH paccKa3H  "CBaTaa  cjie/jyioT  PoMaHOBa H3j[;aTejibCTBa  npo^ojixeHHe THHy  Ha3Banna,  KaK  MeJl CJIOBaM,  "Hepacnpe,2.ejiHTejibHHH  "Be3co3HaTejibHoe  coi^HajiorHHecKOH T O H K H  " T p H KHTa",  coHHHeHHH  paccKa3ax  PoMaHOB.nona3HBaeT,  ooKpameHHoro  HeaoyMeHHH  B  npOTHBOpeHHa  xeHmHHa",  ,npyr  "He/rpa"  3a  "BoceMi, nyjjoB ' 1  jrpyroM  1929 rofla,  BO  H  BTOPOM  1  B  nepBoe  BpeMa  nocjie  H  TOMe  cocTaBJiaKT  IlepBHH p a c c K a s ^ ' T p n K H T a ^ p n c y e T  jj;epeBeHCKoro caMoynpaBJieHHa  PoMa-  Kap-  peBOJiiouHH.  42  "Kan KOMHTeT."  -  TO/ibKO npomeji  TaK H a n H H a e T c a  cjiyx,  MyxHKH  cennac x e BBidpajin  paccKa3.  3TOT  A B KOMHTeT H 3 d p a j i H T p e x n e j i o B e K : HHKOJiaa - c a n o x H H K a , C T e n a H a H JiaBOHHHKa., " HHKOJiaa BHdpajiH 3 a T O , H T O O H OMeHb flojiro r o B o p H T b MOT H BH^yMHBaTb T O , H e r o xo H e r o H H K T O H e BBijiyMBiBaji. " C T e n a H a BBidpajiH 3 a T O , M T O y H e r o flyma dBuxa y x OMeHb xopomaa... " JlaBOMHHKa BBldpaJIH n p O C T O OT XOPOIUHX My-BCTB. OT DTHX xe MyBCTB BiiSpajiH dti H noMe^HKa, M T O 6 H n o K a 3 a T b , MTO O H H 3Jia He n o M H H T , H O He peuiHJiHCb... H noTOMy o c T a H O "  BHJIHCb H a JiaBOMHHKe. ^ajibHeMmen  B  HHKOJiafi p a d o T a j i HH  pa3BepTBiBa©TCH - p a d o T a  rojiOBoK  H H3HKOM,  C KOMHTeTOM, HH C OdmeCTBOM.  H^cen H OH B c e r ^ a eMy  " 15  roBopnjiH  3adHBaji  KOMHTeTa.  DTOTO  HHKor^a He o d c y x ^ a a v  HeTO  njiaHBi  CBOH  KaXJiBlM ReHh 6BIJIH HOBBie  o T e x , o KOToptix  roBopHJi B M e p a . o .npyroM,  o T O M , MTO BMepa O H roBopHJi c o B c e M  Kor^a T O OH  OTBeMaji: 11  - HeuiTo B e e ynoMHHuib, - . . . x o p o m o a H o d o B c e M .HyMaro. " 16 OH  xoTeji  HeMe^JieHHO n p e B p a T H T b  y B a c O,HHO  .nepeBHio  HaneTHJi O T K P H T B  "iiiKOJiy RRK B 3 p o c / i b i x ,  CTOJiapHyio  MHMecKHe n y p c H ,  HapoitHHSt ROU, T e a T p "  H T.JI.  CnpOCHJIH,  TRe OH BO^MeT  JjeHbTH RRR B C e T O  Reno,  arpoHO-  MacTepeKyw,  HOjKor.ua  DTOTO,  OH  B CTOJiHijy.  ero MyxHKH  OH OTBeTHJI c  yBepeHHOCTbio: "  - EpyH.ua. n o KoneMKe c p B c e x UIKOJia RRB B3pOCJIHX. " '?  codepeM, B O T T e d e  H  l  BJiaroflapa  c B o e H xopouieM  MTodBi dfciJio B c e M x o p o m o .  npocbdioM H a c n e T HJIH K o p o B y nacTO  JiecKy  oHHOMy,  BBiH^Baji  HJIH  H3-3a  DTOTO  HacMeT  O H He M o r  ityuie,  Bcer/j;a  B e e npnxo^HjiH  KOPOBBI.  0TKa3aTb  CTenaH  cTapajica,  K HeMy  c  ,  .HaBaa 3anncKy H a Jiec  jcpyroMy,  3anncKH Ha T y x e KopoBy. CKaxeM,  taKHM odpa30M, OH nByM HJIH TpeM My-  43  XHKaM.  " Kor.ua p a 3 r o B o p 3axo,HHji o  11  TOM, M T O 6 H .nejiHTb n o MemHHBio 3eMjno, C T e n a H n e p B H H npHcoejj;HHajiea K OTOMy, roBopa, MTO H e c n p a B e f l j i H B O oflHOMy Bjia,neTb THCHHefi fleCHTHH, KOTfla y MyXHKa H n f l T H HeT. Hp. Kor.ua p a 3 r o B o p 3axo£HJi o T O M , H T o d i i B D T O B O C K p e c e H b e H a n a T b .nejiHTb, C T e n a H y CTaHOBHJiocb x a j i b noMeniHKa - Toxe n e j i o B e K , H OH TOBOPHJI, HTO Jiynuie no,nox,naTb. " 18 CBOHM  CTajIH  flodpoj^yniHeM CTenan .nomeji .no T o r o ,  B e e ero  HeHaBH^eTb. JIaBOHHHK He 3aHHJICH XOSflfiCTBeHHOfi  Bee  HTO  dojibiue  HaCTblO K O M H T e T a H  H a p o B H j i RJIK ceda, a He RJIB. .npyrnx.  no-  BOT, K T O - T O  TpedOBajI KOHTpOJia Ha^ JiaBOHHHKOM.  " npaBHJibHO. Be^H B jiaBKy. 3OBH .nbHHKa RAR KOHTPOJIIO. " npHiujiH B JiaBKy, CTajiH npoBepaTb. OKasajiocb, H T O B KaccoBoft KHHre , B r p a $ e , rr.jtte C T o a T pydjin H KonefiKH, 3anHcaH0 ' n o c T y r o u i o T P H c B H H b H . BjiHscHHe K . ^ b a n K y H a r a y j i H TOJIOBH K K H H r e . . . n p a B H J i b H O , H T O - J I H ? - cnpafflHBajiH 3aflHHe. " 19 1  " "  B MH  OTOM  H  paccKa3e  onaTb  BH,HHH  TeMH p e 3 y j i b T a T a M H ,  pa3pyuiajiHCb, JieHHe,  HTO  HeyMeHHe  a KyjiaKH  npoTHBopenHa Mexjjy xopouiHMH n j i a H a -  KOTopbie  noJiynaioTca. y  HaxHBajiHCb.  POMaHOB BHBO^HT  K p e c T b a H nepejj;  KOToptie  paccKa3e  BHBO^HT  BnenaT-  caMoynpaBJieHHa.  Heodpa30BaHHocTb B cocToaHHH  "Padaa K o p o B a " PoMaHOB n p H B o j p i T n p n M e p  - K T O 3 a T O , HTodu de^HeftuiHM... H e .naBaTb? KpHKHyJI JiaBOHHHK. C p a 3 y Bbipoc nejiHM jiec pyK...- A BBI T O nero n o ^biMaeTe? - c n p o c H J i H y de^HeftiuHx, KOTopHe Toxe no^HajiH p y K H • - HaM, CTajio diiTb, He Ha.no. " 20  H  noHaTb  r o c y j ^ a p c T B e H H H x OTHOiueHHft.  Hna H a cxcne. "  dojibiue  HecOCTOaTejIbHOCTb,  He M o r y T H He  HOBbie t|)opMH odmecTBeHHoM XH3HH H cBoeM  noJiynaeTca  3a^aneM peBOJironHOHHoro ;  KpecTbaH,  HHTaTejia  KaTaCTpO$HHeCKyiO  B .npyrnx p a c c K a s a x a B T o p 3anyraHH0CTb  KpecTbaHe Bee  B  roJiocoBa-  44  Pa3o6paB BBimeyKa3aHHtie p a c c K a s a H3odpaxeHHH  PoMaHOBa K p e c T & / m e  wecTBeHHOH  caMocTOHTejibHocTH.  OKpyxaiomHe  COCHTHH,  Bo B c e x B o n p o c a x  odHBaTejin  H  OHH  He  B  XH3HH  COCTOHHHH  B  od-  OCMBICJIHTb  flasce  .oeHCTByioT n o H H C T H H K T y ,  OHH  HTO  HecnocodHBi K  BJiacTH H  noHHMaioT H O B O M  He  MBI BBIHCHHJIH,  doHTcn de3  ee.  BCHKOH  I OneHb  JIOTHKH. xa^HOCTb,  JiHHHaa Bee  y  HTO  H a C T O TOJIHKOM KopucTb  3TH  H  K HX  HBJIHeTCH MejiOHHan  JjeHCTBHHM  HHJJHBHj^yaJIH3M«  BtiBejj;eHBi PoMaHOBtiM B  $aKTH  HHTaTeJIH HeBOJIBHO B0 3HHKaeT  MHCJIb, HTO  ero  paccKa3ax  TaK,  HHJHBHJj;yaJIH3M,  3TOH3M, xa-^HOCTb HBJIHKTCH HeOTpBIBHOR HaCTbK) XHBOTO HeJIOBeKa CTper. M a m e r o c a K HHflHBHjj;yajibHOft H e 3 a B H C H M o c T H H 3KOHOMHHecKoMy yjiynuie•J  HHB  COBeTCKOe  2CH3HH.  npnpojj;HHe dnpaa  y  HejioBenecKHe  K p e c T b H H Bee  cymecTBOBaHHa.  KOJixo3a.  HaM  B  H  Ho  jjejioBOH OH  a T b , TaKHM o d p a s o M DTOTO  HBjineTCH  BBIMOPHB  rojioflOM  -  codcTBeHHOCTH  aKTHBHOCTH, a OXOTHO  pacxojKJ^eHHe  jjpyrnx  CJIOB  padOTaTb TBICHH  ycTynHTb oropo.ii;,  Bcerjja o c T a e T c a  c  O  TOM, Ha  HTO  JJ;JIH  conpoTHBJieHHe  conpoTHBJiaio-  Koposy,  B  He  erne  dojibtue T o r ^ a ,  K  Kor^a  cjiyxaM; B  cTpaHe  Kyp  H  JirodHT OT dBi  jj;eMcaeji-  Pe3yjibTaTOM  .neftcT B H 6 M .  JUpyrHM HHTepecHBiM M O T H B O M B p a c c K a 3 a x PoMaHOBa de3CMHCJieHHoe ^ o B e p n e  KpecTba-  CTopoHe  cjieAOBajio  flencTBHe.  /j;jia  H .J^afrb  HejiKHft HH,HHBH,nyajiHCT  TOBOPHT  noflTaJiKHBaa  neM  MHOTO  dujio  3TH  KOJiJieKTKBH3aHHH, O T -  rojiojjy,  c  flOJirao  3aKopeHejiBiM  Bcerjia  yHHHTOXHTb  HBHJiOcb n a c c H B H o e  STOTO  npaBHTejibCTBo  TaKH,  H XOHeT  nocpe^CTBOM  dtuiH y M e p e T b  KOHu;e KOHU.OB,  onaTb  XOTejIO  nacTHBie HH^HBHjj;yajibHHe c p e j i C T B a  HeMHoro nacTHOH  npoaBJiaTb CTBHH.  HX  TOTOBBI  KpecTbHH,  XOTH  T.JJ;.  KanecTBa  Pe3yjibTaTOM  OHH  ''B p a d o T e .  uiHxca  IipaBHTejIbCTBO  ^oBepne  K  cjiyxaM  nyBCTByiOTca  HBJiaeTca  yBejiHHHBaeTCH  DKOHOMHHecKHe  He-  45  jj;ocTaTKH.  ITpoflflH nepe3 BoftHy,  Korjj;a B P O C C H H HHMero He  peBOJiKLiHio,  npoH3Bo;j;HjrocB, a  OKOHMaHHH BOMHbl JIIO^H BCTpeTHJIH TOJIOfl,  riO  ripn TaKOM nojioxeHHH jiioflH BepHJiH B e e n  rpax^aHCKyio  H  TOJIBKO pa3pyxy,  cjiyxaM  noTpedjinjiocB. DnH^eMHK).  d e r a j i n OT  H  MecTa B apyroe, cTaHOBHJiHCB B oMepe^B H  MacTO CTOHJIH  3Han sa M e n .  CBOHX  H  06  nnmeT P o n a H O B B  OTOM H  odemajiH BiijJtaTB 3a  3TO  B O T TenepB KajiouiH, roBopHT, BBiflaBaTB CKopo LTpH^enK nojiynaTB - 3HaMOK saM npe^tHBHTe. - HeTy? - Hy H Kajiom H e T y . " 2 1  sanHCblBaTBCH H a TpynoByio  noca^Baji  CKasaHO TOJIBKO  Ha  TO,  noBHHHOCTB.  "Be3  JIWJJH ^ p y x H O  MTO  ^HH  KTO He  HH  Bee  HBIM Hapojj;"  B  xe  MHOTO  MTO  KOTOPOM  KTO-TO  CKa3aji:  dy/j;yT....  JiioaeM c o d p a a o c B ,  dexa/iH OTOM  Be^B  6UJIO  neM-TO H e r p o M K H f i TOJIOC  3axBaTHBajiH  HTOdBI HX HeJodOUI/IH 3HaHKOM.  3HaMOK 3a  KOTOPHH  JHOJ;H noBepH/in H  nepedoK  yMacTHe  TenepB ^e/iaTB  MOTHB  C 3THM  PoMaHOB p a c c K a 3 B i B a e T ,  jionaTKH, B KOHtce  B T p y ^ o B o i i noBHHHOCTH.  3HaMKOM.  BCTpeMaeTCH B p a c c K a 3 e KaK  "HepacnopaflHTejiBJIIOJJ;H no  cjiyxaM  TeMeHHH H e c K O J I B K H X MHHyT odpa30BajiH ^JiHHHyio OMepejj;& OKOJIO  B onepeflH,  yxojsnmero 3aBe^yiomero Mara3HHOM^ "  JUOAVL  HeJ3Haa 3aMeM H  CTajiH  B  sanep-  T o r o My3HKajiBHoro M a r a 3 H H a B Ha^ex^e noJiyMHTB MBIJIO. npocTOHB nejmM Mac  n  KOMy ocTaBaTBCH He^xoHeTCH". 2 2  codHpajiHCB, Ha  nojiyMHjiH  3HajI,  3TOT  TaK  Kajioiu-To H H  XOTeJIH dBITB B n e p e f l H d p H r a ^ H , padoMero  "3HaMOK  H, K o r ^ a o p r a H H 3 a T o p  nejioBeKy c K B a p T H p a , T O  no  nosa^H CKa3a^:, MTO  HO  paccKa3ax  yMacTHe B Tpyjj;oBofi noBHHHOcTH*  6UJI coBceM HeodocHOBaHHBiff pa3roBop, HO  rpynnH  He  CSMH  r p y n n a jiro^eK, o d c y x f l a B i u H x T a H H C T B e H H O C T B 3HaMKa,  KaK  . "  CHHOTO  B paccKa3e "3HaMOK" PoMaHOB onHCBi-  "HepacnopHflHTejiBHtiM Hapojj;".  BaeT,  BoMny,  yBH,neB  ponTaTB.  - Kadu Hapcn-TO dBiJi pacnopnjj;HTejiBHHft, ceftnac noiii/in d t i ,  46  pacnpofcujiH TOJIKOM, K o r ^ a o T o n p y T , HTO BH^aBaTt 6yjj;yT, H H e CTOHJIH d u 3pH u e j i u H n a c . - B O T MynaioT, n p o K J i H T u e , Hapofl,.., . . . - *Iae u e j i u K n p o c T O H J i H . . . a OH>H BUIHJIH H noni/iH, c e d e .  Hapoji cKa3ajr  KTO-TO cayxaM  HO BUM  HepacnopajHTejibHHH...  BH^ane  KocHan MaccH,  "cBodoay" PH^a  KOMHHeCKHX  3  apyroro BTOM  p y c c K H H Hapo,a;,  MOTHBOB.  jjaeT  pyccKoM  MHoroHHCJieHHOH  KOTOPDH  y x e BTopoft  PonaHOBy  KyjIbTypHyK)  H/iaiocTpHpyeT  TOBapa.  HOBue  OTCTaJIOCTb  B paccKa3ax  "POJJ;HOH  pa3  T©MU  nana  RJLB.  nejioro  pyccKofi  MaCCH,  H3UK"  "Tepnejra-  H  Hapojj;". B  paccKa3e  BoeHHyio K a p T H H y exaBuiHe  TpaHcnopT, BeHHO  Ha BOKaa^e,  HHdy,Hb  HSUK",  pa3pymeHHHH  uHBHJibHue  flOdpaTbCH  KOToporo  BOHHOH,  Maccy.  .HOMOH.  Heab3H  HeHmHHBi y x a c a a H C b  Ho  dbiJio  DTOMy  PoMaHOB  r ^ e du/io u e j i o e  Bocco3,naeT Mope  SCeHMHHH, C T a p H K H H  He B C O C T O H H H H  cMemaTb  TOJinoM  H H C KaKHM  co/maTH, dujin  CTapyxH.  B noe3M, BHCe/t  jjpyrHM  H3HKy, H O c o j i ^ a T H H X y T e m a j i H ,  H3HKOM. roBopa HTO,  - JI,a B U y x B c e x po/jHTejieB noMHHyjiH", - r o B o p n a a CTapyniKa. " Be3 oToro Hejib3H - OTBenajiH e n c o j m a T H . " Asaneu pyraTbCH-TO, . . . - H T O T e d a 3 a H3HK H T O JIH THHy/iH" HacTaHBajia CTapymKa. " - A Ky.ua x d e 3 p y r a H H HHHne c y H e m b C H " , - O T B e n a / i H coajJiaTH, n  HTodu  "pOJiHOtt  MOJI, " n p H B H K H e m b " . "  npo-r  duji n e p e ^ B H r a T b 3 T y  Bee OHH xoTejiH nonacTb K BOT H a ^ 3TOH  nocjie-  Jiro^eM -  c MemKaMH, B K O T O P U X  OKH^aBIDHX HX JJ|OMa J f e T e H ,  flBHxymyioeH  H3HK",  "PO,HHOH  c <f>poHTa JJOMOH,  JHyKTH AJLH  KaK  HJIH  3a O^HO n o K o a e H H e ,  PoMaHOB x o p o m o BHH  TOTO  HeKyjibTypHocTb  Ha3HBaeMott,  2  H JIK>/J;H C T a j i H p a c x o , H H T b C H npHCJiyniHBaHCb K  B TOJine  o  "  47  "  Ho  TJTT, Korjj;a B e e ropjio npo/jepeuiB, Tor^a npoTKHeuifeCH. " 24  CTapymna  HacTaBJiHJia c o a ^ a T BMecTO p y r a H H  HaHBHo  "coTBopHTb", ,aa n e p e K p e c T H T f c C H "  TOJIBKO H  JiHTBy  MO  nepejj; a o p o r o n .  BMecTO rocno^H d J i a r o e j i O B H Hjj;eT , c o J i f l a T H . " - DTO d p a T RJIH B c e r o r o -  - DTO y H a c O T B e n a j r a eM  11  Mvnofi, - aomajjtb JIH nojj;orHaT&, B BaroH JIH npo6 H T B C H , - Be3jj;e T e d n noHHMaiOT. " 25 H  TyT  HTO  yxe  Hamejica Becejiiifl H  "HHocTpaHiibi  KOToporo  pyccKHe  pyraKTCH.  HBiiiett  " - HeMqeB  BOKpyr 11  Hero  KTO "  BOT  no  Mil yHHJiH  JjajieKO  Macce.  #0  H  TOBOPHT  TO  H3HKOM,  HGJIB3H IIOHHTB, ecjiH  HameMy,  BaC He  HOTOM  OHH  TOBOPHT,  TaK  flOUIJIH."  OHH  npHMO jWBy  Te  26 _ odBHCHHJI  H  jjaOH  CT  npojjojixaji:  dHJi  cojmaTH,  CJiHina M a T e p H H e  cjioBa,  MOTJIH j j a x e  y3Ha-  OTKy^a:  C a p a T O B C K H e , c K a x e M , T e B e e c o 3JIOCTBIO jjyioT, HTOd OH Te.dn KorjJ[a HHdyj;B OT jj;odporo cep/Jiua n y j i B H y j i - H H 3a H T O . . . . A o p j i o B C K n e , K n p H M e p y , H H C H H O T O M a T e p H o r o c j i o B a He n y c T H T de3 T O T O , H T o d t i MHJIHHKOM TB6H He odo3BaTB, ajiH eme a . "28 K  OTOM  HacneT OToro".  KOTOPHH  - H H T O , dpaTeu. T H MOM, cKOJibKO Me C T H O C T e n H o d t e x a j i H a c B o e M B e K y , Be3j^e c B o e r o d p a T a y 3 H a e m b , MHOM p a 3 , d H B a j i o , BCTpeTHiub K a K o r o - H H d y j j ; b , jnyMaenb - H H O C T p a H e u : M a H x e T H D T H H B e e n p o n e e , KaK n o j i o raeTCH. A p a 3 r o B o p H J i C H n o jiymaM, HJIH Ha damMaK eMy c a n o r o M H a c T y n n j i , - TJIHJJ;HUIB, 36MJIHKOM 0 K a 3 a j i C H . - MTO y x , H a c T O H m e e . n p H p o j j H o e , HHKaKHMH MaHxeTaMH He BuxHBeuiB. 27 MHorne  BaTB,  cojij^aT,  noHHMaiOT, noDTOMy  He  MH, TOBOPHT ,  JIHCb.  B  cjiadH  dHBajibifi  K  paccKa3e  PoMaHOB n c u n e p K H B a e T ,  COCTOHHHH n p H K p H T B  TOB  Heodpa30BaHH0CTH,  CH^ejia  B  npHpojj;e p y c c K o r o HeJioBeKa.  TaeTCH  y  PoMaHOBa,  KaK  HTO  CHMBOJI H  KaK  HHKaKan KOTOpaH  Odpas HPOHHH.  o,a;exjj;a He TaK  TJiydOKO  "PO^HOTO H3HKa" B Hen  B  PoMaHOB  coneCHM-  48  B0JiH3HpyeT Ty Heod-BaTHyto," HeKyjibTypHyio y3HaTb jj;axe nox  dtuio  MOXHO  p y c c K a a npHpo^a,  DTO,  MOJI,  flaxe  neumi  3aBH/jyK>T.  B  "MaTytiiKy Pycb", KOTopyio  MaHxeTaMH H a K p a x u a j i e H H o H p y d a n i K H . KOTopaa niarayjia  OTOM  H  flajieKO  Bnepe^;,  HTO  3BynHT r o p b K a a u p o H H a Haa  OT-  CTa/xocTbK) P O C C H H .  /Ipyraa npodJieMa H e K y j i b T y p H o c T H TpoHyTaa  PoMaHOBtiM, D T O  dopoTbca  eme  rieTp  dHJia T a K xHByna  OHa  no^Beprjiacb  CBOHX  doap  MHTbca  H  HTO  3a 200  jieT o n e H b Majio  pyccKOM H a p o ^ e ,  B  rpa3b c KOTopoft Hanaji  HenHCTonjiOTHOCTb H  3acTaBjiaa  T,  pyccKoro n a p o ^ a , 3 a -  CTPHHB  H3MeHeHHaM.  B paccKa3e "TepnejiHBufi Hapojj;" PoMaHOB KaK pa3 DTy npodJieMy HeHHCTonJioTHocTH. rpa3bio", T a K HTTH  B  HanHHaeT CBOK  daHio MHTbca.  H  BOT  d a H K , JIK>JJ;H Be^yT TaKoft "  "Etuia odtaBjieHa He,a;ejia dopbdbi c  paccKas P o M a H O B . oxH,naa C B o e n  H  TOjibKO.  "  onepe/JtH,  HTodti  BOSTH  B  29  Hjj;eT p a s r o B o p o  flajibHeHtuen  3jj;ecb  H3BHHaacb  OHH  CBOHM  HTO  H e K O T o p u e H3  KaxfliiM  nojiynaT MHJIO.  nepe^t  TOM,  coce,noM.  A  BIUH-TO HHX  H3  IIOTOM  MOJI  3aeJiH, a  -  OT  BmeM, r o s o p a T ,  dy#TO  CKa3ajI K T O - T O . - CjiaBa Tede, r o c n o ^ H ,  BOT  B  npnuiJiH TOJibKo n o T O M y ,  HHX OHH  TaK,  TOBOPHT CT&JIK  THCP p a s B O f l H T c a  KaK  dbi  HpoHHHecKH no,a;-  myHHsaTb na/j; nponaraHflHCTCKHMH caHHTapHHMH cBe^eHHaMH, "  dtuiH  JIIOJJ;H JJIOJIXHH  pa3roBop:  daHK xo^HTb He x o n e T c a . HTO  aTTaKyeT  H  - T e n e p b M H T B eme Bcex 3aTeajra, BOT KaTopra-TO, - cKasaji KTO-TO. - Be,n;b DTO H T O 3a no,zi;jiocTb: T O H H T Hapo£ CHJIKOM aa  B  BOJIOCH.  ...  HTO  -  BCK> xH3Hb -c H H M H X O ^ H J I H - HHnero, a Tenepb, B,npyr, Ha-no;j;H, pa3Bejica. - O T BUIH T H $ , a OT Kjiona x o j i e p y o d - b a B J i a i o T . . . - MTO x D T O , Kaxflyio Hejejno 6ejihe uennTb 'pja. C T H paTb? ... " 30  MOJI  49  CKOJIbKO n p a B ^ H B O C T H B DTHX CJIOBax.  CKOJIBKO HPOHHH H  JIKflH XHJIH C KJIOIiaMH H CO  BOdOflHTbCfl OT DTHX n a p a 3 H T O B . M a c c a p y c c K o r o Hapo/j;a.  Tenepb 3aCTaBJIflK)T  BlliaMH H BOT  K a K HeBHpa3HMO  XH3Hb  BCK  oc-  HX  6blJia  OTCTajIOH  HeBOJibHo BcnoMHHaioTCfl c j i o B a HeKpacoBa  "  TH TH TH  doraTaa odHjibHaa ydoraa  H H H  T H H de3CHjibHaa MaTymKa BeKaMH  OHa dHJia y d o r o H  H  Pycb  de3CHJibHoff,  de3rpaMOTHOH, JieHHBoM, 3adHT0M  H  aodHJica  HeT  ^eTCH  p y c c K H H Hapo,n;,  HM  XHTb  11  HO  BO JIH  odyTofi  BIUHBOH,  6e3BOJibHOH. H  eme,  BH^HO,  ^ p y r o H B o n p o c , BHJJiBHHyTHH PoMaHOBtiM DTO  Bonpoc A B y x noKOJieHHH, KaK  KaK  C T a p u i e e noKOJieHHe  Bepa yxe  MeMTajio  TaK  H  Ha  o  B  KpeCTbHHCTBa.  BnepBne  BBHUJIH  Ha n o c e B  nepe^ HHMH,  H  CTapHKH HanajiH npHroTOBJiHTbca,  Kor/ja c e a T b .  BH.ny  c  nOKOpHOCTb. KaK  H  o  "OdeTOBaHHofl  KOJieHHH  DTy  TaK  H  paccKasax  jjepeBHe.  B  rjiaBHOM  CTapne  Tor^a  HOBHX  MeTOj;ax  TaK  npoH3BejteHHH "Pycb" -  TpaflHHHH, B  TO  MOJiojjoe  padoTe,  KaK H a  -  DTO  noKOJieHHe saBo^ax,  nojiax.  B  jia  ero  MOJIHTBH H  ManiHHax,  ropoae,  B  ero  B  Bee eme .nepxajiocb OTXHBa»ffiHx T p a j j H U H H ,  PoMaHOBHM B  uepKOBb,  B  jjojiro npn-  HeBOJie.  B  apKO onHcaHHHx  jianTax,  MHororo yxe  XOTH  KaK  B  " B  A  PoMaHOB  IIOJiyMHBmH B  npoTHBOCTaBJiaeT  jjBa  no-  3eMJII0 nOCJie peBOJIK)D[HH^ K p e C T b H H e  npeKpacHHH  noKopHaa,  BeceHHHtt  odemawmaa,  HO  fleHb. OHH  Jiexa-  "3eMJiH xopomo  3HajiH  31 npouiJine  paccyxflaTb fla  seMJie"  no  rojjH o  BCHKHM  dadti B  DTO  TOM,  BHmJiH O H H KaK  OHH  C  COXOH,  dtuio  eiiie  npHMeTaM c o o d p a x a T b , BpeMa  js,a c  CBHTOH nocTa  BO^OH.  HanHHajiH  K o r ^ a HyxHo  CTaBHJiH HKOHy H a  naxaTb  B o s y , .aoeTaBajiH  50  npocc|)HpKH, xa CBenH HTodw nepea HanajioM no/ieBBix padoT Bory noMOJiHTbcfl, no6pH3raTB ee HTO  CBHTOM  T o r j a HajjeaTBca Ha  BO,HOH H  TO,  Bor nouijieT. Ho MOJio^exB cMOTpejia Ha Bee D T O , Kan Ha cTapbie nepe-  XHTKH  HeHyxHiie npHHy^JiHBocTH  H  MenTajia o  H  KaK 6u xopouio 6HJI0  TOM,  nycTHTB MamHHy no DTOMy nojiio. " - 3x, MauiHHy 6u cuoRa xopomyio, roBopHJiH ee  OHH,  - pa3 npoexaTB, -  B3BoponajiH,  PoManoB noKa3HBaeT,  ^a/iBHeMiueM naRembcn  Ha  3TOH  MOJio^exB He codnpaaacB  HTO  Ha CBHTyio Bo^y, Ra Ha  o MaiiiHHax, XHMHnecKOM yjiodpeHHH  3HaHHK.  H  odeTOBaHj^K  CHJiy  CBOIO  H X BepHHMH noMomHHKaMH  3eMJie, a He c B a T a a Bo^a Ra  paccKa3e  B  a MeHTajia  MOJIHTBH,  Ha^eHJiacB Ha  0dpa3pBaHHe H MexaHH3auHH 6yRyr  B  caMoro HyTpa  RO  noHeBojie poflHJia 6H. " 32  3THM  yxe  TyT 6u  TOTOBO.  MOJIHTBH.  nejioBeK ' PoMaHOB npHBOflHT npHMep 1  "CBOH  CTOJiKHOBeHHH RByx noKoJieHHM  ropo,ne.  B  CHH  H  oTeu,  repoaMH  HBJIHIOTCH  paccKa3a.  DTOTO  AjieKceM MaKaptiH, Ha 3aB0Jj;e,  CTapuiHH  MacTep  HexopouiHx oTHouieHHax c  6UJI B  HyryHOJiHTeMHoro nexa  KOMCOMOJiBnaMH  OTOTO  nexa.  O H H ynpeKajiH ero B rpydoM oTHomeHHH K padOHHM, B oTopBaHHOcTH O T MaCC, B HH^CHBH^tyajIbHOCTH H COdCTBeHHHHeCKOM TeH^eHUHH, TaK KaK OH HMeji  RByx Kopos  H  dpajn na  nacTHhie  ROM  3aKa3ti.  KaK pa3  B  DTO  OH noJiyHHJi nncBMO OT CHHa, ynHBuieroca B MocKBe H a HHxeHepa. nHca/i,  HTO  OH  e^eT Ha npaKTHKy  Hejj;ejiH Ha .zjBe.  H,  HTO  7 AjieKcea MaKaptina  no  flopore,  BcntixHyjia  DTHM COnJIflKaM KOMCOMO JIBIjaM. ero  He  ocTaBHT.  TOT  3aejj;eT A O M O M  Ha^ex^a,  HHxeHep, MoxeT nocTynHTB Ha saBOfl 3,n;ecB, Tor.ua yx  BpeMH  OH  HTO  ero  noKaxeT  BeflB OH Xe CBOH HeJIOBeK H B odn^e  CHH,  51  nepe3  Ho H  OTeq  qaMH H  ayMajiH CTaa  ManapHHa. TaK  KaK  j[Ba  coBepmeHHO  n o M o r a T L HM, H  Kor^a  CHH  ero  OHa H e  no  una no a  npHe3,ae  pa3HOMy. OTiiy.  He  C K a 3 a j i eMy,  KpenocTHaa,  CHHa B n a c H H J i o c B ,  HTO  CHH ncHpyxHJica  KOMCOMOJIB-  3TO HTO  oneHB  AjieKcea  K p H n a T B Ha  M a K a p H H xMypo H  AjieKceM  TO  odHflejio  Henero  eMy  c  CHH  C  MaTB,  odH^ofi  OTBeTHJi "  - *lTO X e D T O , H. y x 'He X 0 3 a H H B CBOeM flOMe? . . . HOBHe X 0 3 H e B a 3aBejIHCB? T O - T O OHH H a X 0 3HHHHHajIH, H T O OIIHTB (3e3 xjiefia CHJJHM, a C K o p o B O B c e n o ^ o x H e M , n o T O M y , KaK B K p e n o c T H o e n p a B O , Ha B a c padoTaTB... - T a K d u c p a 3 y H r o B o p H J L , - C K a 3 a j i CIIOKOHHO CHH, - Tor.ua d n a 3Haji c KeM a .nejio HMero. - H T O "TaK d n e p a 3 y H r o B o p H J i " ? . . . HTOI d:Bi T H T o r j ; a 3Haji? - c n p o c H J i 03ajj;aHeHH0 H T p e B o x -  HO  OTeii;.  - A B O T , r o B o p i o , T o r ^ a 6u 3HaJi, K T O TH. - KTO . . . padoHHH - T H - T O padoHHH? - cnpocHJi A H T O H , . . . OTna. T H - n a c T H H K , a ne p a d o n n K . DTO eme xopomo, ecjiH n a c T H H K , a T O , MoxeT d H T B , H n o x y x e H T O ... 7 T e d a Bca ncHxoJiorHa - KyjiauKaa. T H s e e B oflHHOHKy. " 33 3TO CHH 3a  ;  OT TO,  KoneMKy  oneHB  KOToporo HTO  OH  OH  BCK  JJ;O jj;pyroH.  ocKopdHJio AjieKcea oxH^aji  noMomn H  MaKapuny.  H3MeHHTB H H T e p e c H  ceMBH .ajia  B  "HOBOH cKpHxajra"  HJIH H H T e p e c H "HOBOH  fla  cKpHxajin",  OH He  MOT  HHTepecoB  nocTaBJieH. B o n p o c ,  KOJiJieKTHBa'? pemaeT,  ycep,HHo K OTijy  noHaTB  HTO  codCTBeHHHH ero  KyjiaKOM  KonHJi  H  dnjio  TOTO,  ontiy  coBepmeHHO KaK  MOT  CHH  rocy^apcTBa.  3,necB, KaK  BaxHee  H H T e p e c H ceMBH  HTO  MOJIO^OH H H x e H e p ,  B a x n e e , neM H H T e p e c H e r o FIpHBefleHHHe  TaK  OTHomeHHe CHHa  HenoHHTHO AjieKcew  Ero  saraHTH, H a 3 H B a e T  C B O K XH3HB p a d o T a j i TaKoe  MaKapHna.  AHTOH,  -  KaK  H  Cepren  H  B  H H T e p e c H MOJIO^BIX KOMcoMOJi&qeB s a B o HHflHBH^yajiHcTa-OTqa.  npHMepH H3  paccKa30B  HCTOHHHKOM KOMH3Ma MJIK HHX CJiyxaT  MaCCOBaa  PoMaHOBa  roBopaT,  HTO  de3C03HaTejIBHOCTB,  52  npoTHBopeHHe  KOCHOCTB,  cTpax  oroH3M,  nepej[  noneMy KanecTBa  Been  c j i o B a , MejiKHif HH,n,HBHjj;ya JIH3M,  H  HOBHM.  PoMaHOB n p H n H C H B a e T  Bee  "PycB vs. CCCP",  CTaTbe  cBoen  nHcaTejiBCKOH  cBoeft  rjiaBHbie  nepTH p y c c K o r o  CTOPOHH,  KOTOpbie  K  HBjiaroTca  -  naccHBHOCTB,  noneMy  Bceny  OCTaTBCfl  cHa ,2.oJiBme neM  pyccKHH xapaKTep  B  ero  Bee  IIOHTH  6e3pa3jiHHHe  xapaKTepu  IIOHTH  no  H3yHHT  "  ...  nOJIH-  K nepeMeHe  npHBtiHKa  HocaT  BOKpyr  BepHTB  odtacHeHHe  B  HHX.  PyccKaa  cojiepxaHHro, p a c c K a 3 H  PoMaHOBa  xH3HeHHbix  ycjiOBHH,  cy,SB6y...  "  PoMaHOBa,  ero  JSJSH T O T O ,  npejj;cTaBHTejiaMH H e c M O T p a Ha  onpe^ejieHHoro OTOJ  repon  TOJIBKO  MOTHBa  juia  TOTO  peaKUHH ycneeM"  "Eme  paHHHx  KopoTKne  ^5  CTaHOBHTca  noroBopKa  Bcer.ua de3H MaHHbie, B s a T b i e H3  TOJinu  npH-  nepTaMH  CTHXHffHyio MejjjiHTejiBHocTB  poMaHOBCKHe x a p a K T e p n  T  PoMaHOB  jjecaTHjieTHe,  TepoH  CKa3a.  caMoro  c  Bee ^ p y r n e Hau,HOHajiB-  J^HTCa K HJIJIIOCTpaUHH KOMHHeCKHX MOMeHTOB.  HX  OH  nojioxeHHH  B  . . . caMHMH BH^aiomHMHca e r o  BHiueyKa3aHHoe  npoHCxcaameMy  conpoBoxjjaeT  "  cBoefi nejiH H  IlpoHHTaB  KO  s a H H J i c a uejiBio  OdpeKJIH p y C C K H H H a p o ^  3aKjiioHeHHio, H T O  HeyBepeHHOCTB  acHO  HTO  34  H3ynafl XOJ^HT  MHCJIB,  vs o c o d e H H O e r o oTpHiiaTejiBHtie  xapaKTepa  THnecKoro JieTaprHHecKoro HOCTH."  fleaTejiBHOCTH  1936 r o ^ y nofl  HanHcaHHOH B  ^aBJieHHeM p e a d H J i H T a i p i H , PoMaHOB B H C K a 3 H B a e T Hanajia  OTpHijaTejiBHHe  DTH  repoaM?  CBOHM  B  xe  flejia  paccKa30B.  vs Bcer/j;a  3THX  HJIH  CBO-  paccKa30B HTO6H  cnejiaTB  jrpyroro pac-  PoMaHOBa x H 3 H e H H i i vs npaBjj(HBo  yde^H-  TeJIBHbl.  Xopomo npHHyxaeHHo  BJiajj;ea npneMaMH  npocTO,  ynoTpedJiaa  KOMIIO3HJJ;HH,  nojJtJiHHHO  PoMaHOB nnraeT  HapcHHHH  H3UK.  He-  53  FOOTNOTES  Panteleymon Romanov*, " G o l u b o j e p l a t j e " , R a s s k a s y , " K n i z h n a j a l a v k a p i s a t e l j a " , R i g a , 1930, p. 8.  2Panteleymon Romanov, • Polnoe s o b r a n i e  Isdatelstvo  sochineniy, "Nedra", Moskva, 1929, vol.11, p . 19k-.  Ibid.  p. 196.  Ibid.  P. 199.  6&7 I b i d .  p. 176.  8I b i d .  p. 177.  Ibid.  P. 179.  Ibid.  p. 180.  Ibid.  p. 30.  k&5  10  12  Ibid.  13 I b i d . ih  p. 33.  Ibid.  P. 32.  ^Ibid.  P. 85.  ?Ibid.  p. 86.  15  l 6 & 1  p. 32.  Ibid.  pp. 89-90.  19I b i d .  PP. 92-93.  l 8  5^  20  P. Romanov, "Ogonjky" R a s s k a s y . v o l . LXV, I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", R i g a , 1929, p. 107.  21  P. Romanov, R a s s k a s y . v o l . I I , I s d a t e l j s t v o Moskva, 1929, p. 13. 2 2  23  "Nedra",  I b i d . . p. ] > . • Ibid.« p. 80.  2 i +  I b i d . . p. 91.  ^ I b i d . , p. 92.  2  I b i d . . p. 93.  . 0 p . c i t . . 93. 27  2 8  Ibid..  2 9  I b i d . . p. 161.  3  9^.  °Ibid.. pp. 165-166.  3 1  i b i d . . p. 55.  3 2  I b i d . . p. 56.  33  _ P. Romanov, "Voprosy p o l a " , R a s s k a s y . Knigoisdatelj s t v o " L i t e r a t u r a " , R i g a 1927, v o l XV, p. 128. 3*+&35p Romanov, "On t h e V o l g a " , S c r i b n e r , New Y o r k , 19 V f , p. 2kh. ' #  55  "  B Ha  CBOHX  B o n p o c b i noJiA  paccKa3ax  "  o JiiodBH, PoMaHOB O C T P O  KPH3HC HHTeJIJIHreHTHOM MOpaJIH,  3Toro  nepHO#a.  yKa3tiBaeT  BH3BaHHblM npOTHBOpeHHHMH  B He3anHOM n e p e x o ^ e  OT  i p a ^ H U H O H H o M MopajiH  K  aMopaabHocTH, a B T o p xoneT £ O K a 3 a T b , Kanoft HeyeTOHHHBOCTbio nojibsyeTCH HaBa3aHHaa  Mopajib.  JiaBaftTe p a 3 d e p e M pajiH,  B KOTOPHX  cpe^H  C T y ^ e H M e c K o M MOJiojuexn,  He3aMyxHaa  OH  MaTb  D T O T nepno^;  B  aiodBH,  MOH,  BHKTH  3aMyx H GioxeT  MHTca  co  TaTOM  OTOTO  CBodOflHaa  /nodoBb  noKa3HBaeT,  dtuia  xeHmHHa  Bee  xe  CTpeMHjiacb  TpaflHUHH,  TO  eCTb  3aHHMa/ia  dpaKa. B  B  Mo^e.  HecMOTpa Ha  HTO  npoHHoft  K  JIIOdHTb H dHTb  JlKdH-  CeMbK. jjeByiiiKa cTy,neHTKa  paccKa.3a TaKOB: BpepBHM x e  3HaKOMCTBa  CBOHX  HacMemjiHBo.  dbiJia  xaxflajxa  cTpacTeM.  ee  Benep  OHa  O T f l a e T c a eMy.  Cxo^acb c  depeMeHHocTb.  H a c T o a m e M JiiodBH, H O  "MTO  TH  3HaKo— Pe3yjibOTHM  repot!  OKa3ajica  TOJIbKO $H3HHeCKHM  y^OBJieT-  xoHeiu#"  eme  "KpacHBBie o d c T o a T e j i b C T B a ?  DTO  Ham  -  cnpauiHBaeT  RJIH. T e d a  OH  ee  He^ocTaTOH-  nODTHHeCKH? " fleByuiKa  OHa  OTMeHe u e p K O B H o r o  DTOHCTOM, KOTOpBlM H H T e p e C O B a j I C a  BopeHHeM  HO  H  od  noJioxeHHH, KOTopoe  11  HMeTb  CTyjieHTOM H  TOM  MO-  HOBBie OTHomeHHa n o j i o B  nepeMyxH  CTapoB  OTOTO  CTyjJieHTOM, ^ e B y i n K a rpydHM  "Be3  pyccKaa  CeMeftHOM XH3HH n o  o  nepnoa,  6UJI yflajieH  Bor  PaccKas CBodofly  bpodeHHO no^MepKHBaeT  DTOT  PoMaHOBa o  HecKOJibKO p a c c K a 3 0 B  He  B  OT^a^tacb.  COCTOaHHH  OHa  Morjia  sadHTb  3adHTb  nnmeT  Te  HenpHJiHHHne o d c T o a T e j i b C T B a ,  rpydOCTH H  nncbMo  de3TaKTHOCTH  cBoeM nojj;pyre,  y  TOTO,  KOTopoft  OHa  KOMy  HO OHa  cnpamn-  56  BaeT,  OHa  KaK  nyBCTBOBajia  jiiodHMouy M y x M H H e . p,enh,  HecMOTpa Ha  HyBCTBOBa/ia  OHa  Kor.ua OHa  ceda,  ceda  TO,  BpepBtiM p a 3  OT^ajiacb  6biJi n p e K p a c H i i f t BeceHHHft  HTO  B H H O B a T o M , KaK  dti OHa c^ejiajia  nocTHfl-  H o e #e/io. " Ha OKHe  B MoeM odwexHTMH C T O K T dyTti/iKa d e 3 ropjmiuKa H B Heft" 3 a B H J i a a , c o p B a H H a a B e T K a c n p e H H . fl n p H H e c j i a e e B ^ e p a /J;OMOH....  H Kor^a a  Ha  CMOTPIO  dyTbiJiKy,  oTy  TaK H a n H H a e T OHa CBoe nncbMO  K  njiaMeT  M e c T H , He  no  coBecTH  B  CBoe  3a  noHaTHoe, OHa  nepBoe  nepenyTaHHoe  cTpa^a/ia  OT  TOTO,  KOMHaTe,  rpa3HoM  co  CTOPOHH  ee  Mepe3  Mynnjio  Jiiojj;efl,  cpeflH OHa  C ee  roBopHT,  HHTepecyeTca HOK  flpyrne  CTaptie KO  dypxya3HHe  11  H  Bee  DTO  HH Bee  nepexHTKH. aBJiaeTca  H3-3a  * He  yrpH3eHHa TaKoe  He-  OTJJtaBajia  OTBeTa.  de3  DTOTO BceMH  BcaKofi  JiacKH  OH BbinpoBOflHji pas-  CBOHMH  MTO  y Hee  dojib-  ^yMaioT coBepmeHHo n o  OHH  eM  flyMajm,  jj;eHb  npHxcunjiocb  Tpyjj;HO  MTB  c o B e p m e H H o .npyroS B3rjia.ii; H a x H 3 H b .  CTy^eHMecKaa  BceMy npeKpacHOMy 11  HMBJIH  HHCTOTOH.  Bcero  cTy/jeHTKH  JIK>6BH,  KpacoTOft,  OHa  JiiodBH OHa npejj;cTaBJiajxa, KaK  noHHMaHHem o  HH  B TeiraoTe,  nocne  H  JiiodBH.  MTO  o&e-KRoVi H H  HeMy OHa c a M a He  o  KOToptie  OT  ;  KpoBaTH  JJieHb c B o e f t n e p B o f t  Hoe H a H B H o e npe,ncTaBjieHHe pa3HOMy.  (  tujia jtoMott ORna. c o  OHa  Ho  CTpa^aeT  MTO  "  ee n e p B a a $ H 3 H M e c K a a JiradoBb c j i y n H J i a c b  Me/ioBeKa.  CMacTba.  naaKaTb.  OHa T O B O P H T ,  H Bee ie MTO-TO  ee,  rpa3HoM  nepHbift XOJJ; H  H  no/j;pyre.  "na^eHHe".  MTO  Ha  MOJiojj;oro  OMapoBaHHaMH. npa3^HHKa  fleBHHeit  noTepaHHoM  MHe x o n e T c a  CTpaxa  yHHBepcHTeT.e  M0Ji0Jj;ex6B JiacKaMH, DTO  HH  HexHOCTHMH,  OTOjjBHHyTO H  HedpexHOCTb, KaK  dti  HapyuiHTb  epe^H  ecTb  TOJibKO  He  npHJiHH— KaK  npe3peHHe  MOJio/j;exH.  He^-HanHcaHHHft  MOpajIbHblM 3aKOH. - TOBOpHT O H a . RJIH H a c He c y m e c T B y e T JiiodBH; y Hac  HH  3adpomeHO,  HenHCTOTa,  3aKOHOM  coBceM  07  n o j i o B H e CHouieHHH.. .. A T O T , K T O xoneT H a i t T H B JiiodBH dojiBiue, neM $H3HOJiorHHecKoe y,zi;oBjieTBopeHHe, B t i c M e H B a e T C H , KaK flyiueBHO-dOJi&HoM n e j i o B e K . " 2 B  ^ajibHefiuieM OHa  njioxoro Horo. daxe  HacTpoeHHH. OH  c  BOPOTHHKOM.  ee  K HeMy?  dHJi yMHHM C T y ^ e H T  OH  TJIOCTB  3TO  B Heu  dn  KaK  coBMemajracB  cepBe3HHMH  H  KOTOPHH j e M C T B y e T nomjiee,  neM  BpeMH,  HO  eM  Ha  nporyjiKy.  Ha  KBapTHpy. "  TOJIBKO  B  VLRH n o  OHa  noMjj;eM KO  MHe  KBapTHpy,  noTepaJi ByuiKoM.  BpeMH  Hajj;exj;H nojiyMHTB B  cBoefi  - nomJinft  .noporoft.  HO  OHH  ^ajieKO  yxe  Ronvoe  ee  c  HHM  K  cede  OT-  BOBTOPHX 4  MOJIOflOfi  ynoBOJiBCTBHe c  Ha-  cnacTJIHBOM  npnrjiacHJi  BonepBHx. A Ha yjinne. "  3aKOHMHJICH. CBoe  "OH  BeMep yjj;ajiocB n o H T H OH  C doJiB-  Ero  CTy/j;eHTa  a X H B y He  3TO dHTB  ^ajiBHeMraeM p a 3 r o B o p e  nouieji  KaK  peKH MOCKBH  MTO 3TO? D T H K e T ? HeT H H K a K o r o o T H K e T a . ceMMac OMeHB n p e K p a c H o 3TOM pa3TOBOp Ha  cpe^n  OAHH  .zipyroft  ceda  CMHTajia  BeceHHnS  depery  Ha  KaxJj;an  3Hajia e r o  3TOT  ciojj;a - cKa3aji OH. HeT, a He noH,ny.  cepte3HHe  dHJi B ^ e f t c T B H T e j i B H o c T H .  OH  cBHJj;aHHe.  xe  MTO  H a H e p B H CBOHM X B a C T O B C T B O M ,  n p H B J i e K a j i a jj;eByuieK H c HHM  Ho  MejioBeKa:  MHCJIHMH; H  py-  B3jiQxMOMeHHtie  pyKOBo^HTejieM  flBa  ocodeH-  CHHeM  B  B^yMMHBHe,  dHJIH ero cMHTajica  H  H  .HJiHHHbie,  npHBJieKJio  dHTB  KaxflHft  canorax  B  Hero  V  HeT H H M e r o  n o c T O H H H O npHTJiaxHBaji p y K o f i .  UiyTHHK,  Ha  y Hero  OH  B H y T p e H H e M CHJIOM  HMeTB  MTO  odHKHOBeHHHft C T y ^ e H T ,  TOJIBKO  CTy^eHTOB.  xoMeT  HBJiaeTCH npHHHHofi: e e  KTO  KOTopbie  rjia3a.  moft  TOTO,  OHa T O B O P H T ,  paccTerayTHM  BOJIOCH, Tor^a  onncHBaeT  MeJIOBeK  He  O T O H HaHBHofi js,e-  noccopHJiHCB H  paccTajiHCB.  58  Ho paccTaBniHCb c HUM, OHa nonyBCTBOBajia yxacHoe E H He xoTejiocb  oaHHonecTBo.  H y  BC^HHHH B e n e p .  HHH  Morjia yxe  npo Hee H  3adtui  Hee HeJdHJio  OHa  Benep.  npoBecTH  ocTaBaTbCH  peurajia  cajjjHJiea  o^Hoft  B  npeKpae-  /rpyroro, c KeM  HH^-KOTO  6u OHa  Ha KBapTHpy.  IIOHTH K HeMy  3a ynedy,  TaKoft  OH  yjJCHBJieH ee B03Bpa-  H 6HJI  TOM. ECJIH y Hee He 6UJIO TOTO $ H 3 H O J i o r H H e c K o r o xejiaHHfl c HHM, HTO y H e r o , noneMy OHa nomjia  ejJtHHHTbca  py?.  PoMaHOB  He BticKa3HBaeT  a  caMa roBopHT,  MOTJia 6hl  Ho  yMTH  noc/ie^HHH M o u e H T ,  B caMHH  ,naxe  HeMy.  OHa oxHjjajia J i a c K H ,  MeH.T, HO OHa BHJJtejia B neu MOXHO  cKopee  oBJiajjeTb  OHa  HTO  nonejiyeB  OT H e r o B DTOT  TOJIBKO x H B O T H o e x e j i a H H e TaKoe  ocTaBJiaeT  HO HTO-TO npHTar-HBa/io e e K  HexHocTH, .  eio°.  Ha KBapTH-  3TO B CBoeM p a o c K a 3 e ,  Bonpoc oTKpjbiTHM.  repoHHa  K HeMy  co-  noBe,aeHHe  caMua,  MO-  - i<aK  jnodoBHHKa <5HJIO eft  OTTajiKHBaiofflHM.  oneHb  " M H , xeHmHHBi", -  roBopHT  OHa,  -  "^axe  npn  cBodcn.-  HOH JIIO6BH MH H e MOXeM CMOTpeTb HeCTHO H a JJjeHCTBHTejibHtiH qoaKT. Ran H a c $ a K T Bcer/ja B KOHqe r j i a B H , a B H a n a j i e e e MH n p e B j i e n e H H caMHM MyxHHHoft, ero MHCJIHMH, e r o cnocodHocTHMH, e r o jJtyuiOH, e r o J i a c K a MH. " 5 Bee  3TO B M e C T e  C <$)H3HHeCKHM aKTOM nOJIOBOTO CHOmeHHH  xeHin.HHe c n a c T b e BOH  ToabKO  HHHy. ee  CTpaHe.  nacTO  Torjja  xepT-  ECJIH xe OHa a B J i a e T c a OHa n p e 3 H p a e T  H ceda  H  a B J i a K T c a IIPHHHHOH pa3jia,aa B c e M b e  Myx-  H  ^axe  H B Hame BpeMa H H e TOJIBKO B POCCHH HO H B Hauieft  Ee x e H C K H e  OHa oTJjaJiacb nocTapajica  e e XH3HH.  dpH3HHecKoro a K T a ,  DTH dpaKTH  pacna^a  H noaHOTy  npHHOCHT  nyBCTBa  eMy, a H3-3a  6HJIH  ocKopdJieHH He  TOTO, HTO^,  KaK MOXHO C K o p e e  nocjie  H 3 - 3 a TOTO, HTO  coBepuieHHoro  BHCJiaTb e e H3 K O M H a T H ,  a K T a , OH  H T o d H ero  59  TOBapKmH H e 3 a c T a j i H  HX B K O M H a T e .  OH d e c n o K O H J i c a  TOJIBKO 3 a  ceda H 3a TO, MTOdti TOBapnmH He y3HajiH o ero n p c n e j i K a x . He  dHJio. HH n y B C T B a ,  ee  RUR CBOHX  HH jiiodBH, HH  flBepb,  OH  ,naxe He c K a 3 a j i  . " Ma  H e c K a 3 a a n flpyr ^pyry HH c j i o B a cMOTpejiH J5pyr Ha .npyra".  TaK  3aKOHHHJiacb n e p B a a  CMOTPH H a TOM,  OH  Hcnojib30Bajt  en  xopouiero  TIpocjioBa.  jj;axe He CTy,aeHTKH.  He  Bee x e OHH n y B C T B O B a j i H H e j i o B K O C T b B  flejiaJIH.  PaccKa3 MepeMyxH . 1 1  nepBoro  H  JiiodoBb HOBOH c o B e T C K O H  cBodOAHyro j i w d o B b ,  HTO OHH  "Be3  K HeM.  Hyxjj;, K a K OH 6H DTO cuejiaji c KaKoM jrndo BembK).  ee nepe3 3aaHK)io  Epxaa  coscajieHHH  Y Hero  paccKa3a  "Eojibiuaa  ceMba",  OH H a r r a c a H B TOM o n f l T b nnuieT  npojiojixeHHeM  xe c T H j i e .  nncbMo  paccKa3a  repoHHa  TOR c n y c T a  c B o e f t no,zipyre.  cjiyHHJiocb  6opb6iI  CO CTapHMH Tpa^HUHHMH H npHUIJia K 3aKJIK)HeHHK), HTO HeKOTopbie  TpyflHyio niKOJiy  3THX T p a ^ H U H H dblJIH He^OCTOHHBI C O X p a H e H H f l . Ona  Benepa  OHa  OTHaaHHe. HHTb? ciojj;a  nnuieT  CBoeH  no/jpyre, HTO C K o p o n o c j i e  y3Hajia, HTO OHa dHJia d e p e M e H H a a . HTO HyxHO  dtiiiq Rejiath  TOTO  poKOBoro  Ee o x B a T H J i y x a c H  B TaKOM n o j i o x e H H H ?  OHa dHJia C T y j j ; e H T K a s M o c K O B C K o r o  yHHBepcHTeTa.  KaK  nocTy-  OHa  npnexajia  H3 jj;epeBHH, H T O d u n o J i y n H T b odpa30BaHHe, a BMecTO DTOTO OHa  npHHeceT Bee  TOBOPHT OHa.  OHa n p o u u i a  3a OTOT TOR  MHoroe  H3  c HeM,  aBJiaeTca  no3op c B o e M c e M b e H B c e M jj;epeBHe.  x e , pemaeT  exaTb  /JOMOH H n p H 3 H a T b c a  B STOM OTnaaHHH  B ee n o J i o x e H H H  OHa,  cBoen  MaTepH. npH~e3scaa M H o r n e H3 OHH  B  jjepeiBHio, OHa eme n o .nopore n o n y B C T B O B a j i a ,  ee c B e p c T H H K O B dnjiH HejjodpojjyiiiHO  cMOTpejiH H a H e e , KaK H a n e j i o B e K a ,  HTO  HacTpoeHH npoTHB H e e .  KOTOPHH ocMejiHJica  noKHHyTb  60  CTaptie  Tpa/jHUHH.  Topyio OHa  OHa roBopHT, H T O  B C T p e T H J i a no  no3,nopoBaTbca,  jjopore H  OHa 3aMeTHJia  Bsr^Ue x e H H Ky3Heua,  BO  C KOTOPOH  HeHaBHCTB K  OHa  TaK  xoTejia  KO-  pa/j;ocTHo  cede.  " Korj^a K T O - J i H d o d p o c a e T  H a T e d a T S K O K B3TJIEM H e H a B H C T H , T O TBI, ,aaxe 6es BCHKOH BHHH, cxHMaeuibCH B c e d e H H BO H T O . " 6  nnuieT  OHa  CBoeM  no/j;pyre.  npHHjJiH co JJHH e e  OTte3^a  KypHHEie HMH  B03Jie  B 0 3Jie n o p o r a , BHJJ[H  Bee  3/j;ecb HHHero He H 3 M e H H J i o c b .  BbidpoiueHHHe  noMOH,  KOTopue  cBoeft  eme  HTO  Te  dHJiH  xe  Baaajiocb  BHJiHBajiH npnMO  r e p o H H H , PoMaHOB noKa3UBaeT  KOTopyio j j a x e  peBOJHouHa  repoHHH  KOTopan  npexjj;eBpeMeHHO  c  nopora.  jj;ejiajio  H  H3  BHjj;ejia T H x e j i y w ,  Hee  de3pajj;ocTHyio  yHHHTOxajia  TOJIBKO  CTbHKH,  T a K KaK H y x H o dujio  xeHCKyio  HTO-TO  He  peuiHTb  B nopaflKe.  BpeMa MHOTO jJiesyuieK,  HH^neMy He  npHroflHbi,  xH3Hb  KpacoTy,  3ajJtyMHBaTbca  ee  cBoen  KpecTbHHKH, ee  ^OCTOHH-  Hajj;  XIOR  OHa  Kpecy/jbdy  cepjueM.  cTajia  3aMenaTb,  cTajia  HaMeKaTb Ha T O ,  K O T o p t i e I-OTOBH H a n / x e B a T b  KpoMe n o 3 o p a  cy^bdon  codCTBeHHyio c y f l b d y H  Hepe3 H e c K O / i b K O flHeK MaTb e e duJio  B Jinue  padoHHH HHCTpyMeHT.  dyflymeit X H 3 H H , KOTopyio O H a H o c H j i a  Jionepbio  T y ' c T a r n a i i H i o " j^e-  He M o r j i a H3MeHHTb.  Ho eM He .aojiro npHinJiocb  DTO  3aMeTHJia,  3^ecb  xaTbi, TO^ce desjj;oHHoe B e ^ p o B e e  MaTepn,  B  cBoefi Rjme  DTO  ycTa  peBHH,  CTBO  B  fl n o n y B C T B O B a j i a T O de3BHxo^Hoe n o / i o x e H H e K p e c T b a H CKOH X H 3 H H , K O T O p a H BeHHO CTOHJia He nOflBHXHO H a TOM x e caMOM M e c T e . Te x e caMbie IIOMOH, T e x e T p a n K H H a B e p e B K e , KOTopbie du JIH . a e c a T b , naTHa^qaTb jieT TOMy Ha3ajj;. " ?  11  Hepe3  c nenajibio  jj;0M0H^0Ha  ceMbe.  no3op H a  HTO  C  Ha B e e . BCK>  XH3Hb,  ee HTO OHH  61  AOHh,  KOTopoft IIo  Myxen. Topan He  npomaraT  Jiro^H He  KOTopufl  HH.  BPHJJ;  HMeTb  B03MoxHOCTb  ocTaTbca  dapoft  70"HeHb,^mf  CHJibHH H  RjiH Ma-repn dtuio  AOMb npnxHJta p e d e H K a d e 3  ee  Ha  ynedy,  "H  He  HO  Bcer^a  on/no HOMaMH  OHa  MTO  OHa  He  H  ^yMa^a o jyMaio o  depeMeHHaa,  6ujia  npHHOCH n o 3 o p y MHe."  MaTb  jo;eByniKH dujio  CHJIBI BOJTH d o p O T b C f l  Hatna duJiH  -  XHBaHHfl,  TaK  B  KOTOPBIX  B  HacToamee  Ha  repoHHa  no  OHa  HH3KHM  ee  CBoero ona  MHCJIH  HH  KOTopoMy OHa ^ a j i a  3Jj;ecb  He  ropofl  MoxeT JJ;OMB  MTO  cjiyHHTbca.  "/Jje/iaft  MTO  xoHem^  y  MaTepn  He^cBaTHJio  OHa pemaeT  no3opa.  Mepe3 MHOxecTBo  OHa  H H ^ K T O  He  A Ha>-6dopoT  HCKaTb  MHCJIH  noMomn  M T O D T O dBiJio B  TpajiHUHaMH,  cymecTBo, pemaeT  CTyfleHTKaM BejiHKOJienHO.  T O M ,  B  nepe-  no^efiCTBOBajiH  ydHTb  coodmHJia ^ B y M  BO  .HOHepH.  jJiymeBHtix  B odmexHTHe H  ynpeKaji  dec-  B KOTOpoM OHa XHJia  codnpajiacb  O H H  OT  nepBBie  MexJ^y . C T a p H M H  HOBaa Mopajib He  H H  Kor^a  .Ee  MocKBy.  B  OHa B 0 3 B p a m a e T c a  ocyx^aji,  ono3opHJia xeHCKyro M e c T b .  eft,  npH3Hajiac&  npecTynjieHHeM,  T O M , M T O OHa  xH3Hb.  B  rxe  c B o e M n o j i o x e H H H , T O O H H o d t a B H J i H eft, ee  aonb  cpejj;e,  CBOH)  pa3^BaHBajiHCb  oxH^aTb poxfleHHa p e d e H K a .  HH"~KTO  o T O M ,  B  npoxojj;HT  CTapaa,  H e e T a K , K a K MBicJib o  dtiJiH  xH3Hb  BCIO  dBiJia B o c n H T a H a H HOBOM MOpajIbK,  BpeMa.  pa3  noflyMaTb  CBOIO  Kor,ua  oTBeTHjia efi,  B0 3 B p a m a e T e a  OT  #opore  KaK  H  OHa  flecaTb  C DTHMH Tpa.HHH.HHMH H OHa O T K a 3 a J i a C b  ocBodo^HTbCH  rocnHTajie.  cauaM  8  Heft  C  ecjiH  K O -  9  JJjia xeHmHHH, npoxHBiueH necTHe  MTO  Tede."  TO  n y C T H B  3a-  ^eBa,  aepeBHe  B  Tpy^Ho  xe  Myxa.  T O M ,  3aMyx,  BBIATH  CBOIO  He  cTapaa  Tpa^HUHH  TaK  eme  OHa dBiaa  Myxa dBuro B  de3  jeBofi* . D T H  neM  MTO  H  OHa dBiJia y x e  pedeHKa  npnxHTb  Ho  Jier  ^Ba^LiaTb naTb  dy^eT  JIH  3a  MaTb OHa d e c n o K O H j i a c b  pyccKoM TpajtHUHH  CTapoM  noToponHTCH.  xyxe,  yxe  6HJIO  KaK  HM.  MTO  OHa  BceM noMorajiH  eft,  o  62  c paflocTtio H HeTepneHHeM oxH/j;ajiH pox^eHHH pedeHKa.  O H H KaK dti  TOpflHJIHCb TeM, MTO . . . Moe noJioxeHHe dnjio KaK 6u K H B O A npHMep nodejnj najj; npeapaecyflKaMH CTapoft MopajiH H O H H odtaBHJiH O T O KaK " HopiiajibHoe nojioxceHHe, c n o c o d H o e B O 3 MyTHTb TOJibKO y3KO orpaHHHeHHHx dypxyeB". 1 0  11  11  C  DTOTO  MOMeHTa O H a nonyBCTBOBajia,  MTO  OHa " . . .  noKOHMHJia c  THpaHHeS CeMbH Ha/4 JIHHHOCTbK), TOH TeMHOtt, r p H 3 H O f i THpaHH. . . . " y MeHH ecTb Tenepb .npyraa, dojibiuaa ceMba, ceMba B c e r o M e j i o B e M e c T B a , cBa3b c K O T O P O K a c e M M a c MyBCTByio TaK acHO, TaK omyTHTejibHO. " H 3#ecb PoMaHOB, KaK H B ero a p y r n x npoH3Be/j;eHHax, noflmmaeT Bonpoc 3aMeHbi ceMbH KO JiJieKTHBOM. nocTynoK,  odmecTBO  TO H  0TKa3ajia eM  KaK c e i i b a OTBeprjia ee 3a ee  BcaKoft n o M o m n  BO  T p y ^ n o e fljia Hee BpeMa,  B  ee H a nopyKH, noMorjio eft saKOHMHTb yHHBepcHTeT  Bsajio  CTaTb Ha T B e p ^ i i M nyTb  odmecTBOM cero^Ha. 3aMyscHHx MaTepeS  Torza,  M3HH.  3TH  see npodJieMH BCTaioT nepe/j; HamHM  Kaxflbift ro/j; n o a B j i a e T c a Bee dojibiue H dojibiue HeHarnett CTpaHe.  B  OTCKjra  BHJJIHO,  KaK aKTyajibHH  aBjiaioTca Te npodJieMH, KOTopne PoMaHOB noflHHMaji copoK JieT TOMy H a 3a^  B  KOMMyHHCTHMecKOM o d m e c T B e . . MH  c  OTHOM  y3HaeM /j;ajibuie, M T O Hauia repoHHa cjiynaHHO BCTpeTHJiacb  ee pedeHKa.  O H a no3HaKOMHJia" n  oTua c  Mepe He CTajia ynpeKaTb ero 3a ero nocTynoK, nopTHJi ee M 3 H b .  CBOHM  cnoKoftcTBHeM,  HJIH  H  3a  HO  HH  TO,  B  MTO  KaKott  OH  CBoeft yBepeHHOCTbio, OHa  ycTHflHJia ero de3 BcaKHx TparnnecKHx ynpeKOB. xoponiHx OTHonieHHax  CHHOM,  y nee HeT OTMaaHHa  HJIH  O H H paccTaroT^a B 3aMeraaHHOCTH, a  TBepjj[aa dy/j;ymHOCTb " H MyBCTByio HeodtacHKMyio BHyTpeHHKK) CHjiy, uejibHOCTb H cBodoay. " 1 2 TaK 3aKaHMHBaeT reponna  GBOM  paccKa3, KOTopaa yBepeHa  B  cede,  HC-  63  B  dyjiymee  cBoe  3TH  dy.nyffl.ee c B o e r o p e d e H K a ,  H  y  jj;Ba p a c b K a 3 a PoMaHOBa HMeioT  HeT  KOToporo MHOTO  oTua. c npo-  odniero  H 3 B e ^ e H H e M B e p e c a e B a "HcaHKa". uReio,  B p a c c K a 3 e "IIpaBo H a jnodoBb", PoMaHOB B H C K a 3 t i B a e T Kaxflbift n e j i o B e K  HTO  nojibsoBaTb B H T b He  HMeeT  npaBo H  DTO  cnepxaHHHM  yMeTb  see  JiiodHTb,  dHJia jnodHMOH.  KOTopoe XHJIHX  Bee  TpoeHa,  RO  H H p a 3 y He  OHa eme  nop  CHX  npHHTHO B t i r j i n ^ e j i a ,  Bee  OT  He  npoHBJiaJia H T P H B O H xH3Hepa,nocTHOCTH nepejj;  n;eHH0CTb H npaBo  Ha  de3  JiiodoBb.  JieHHHH, UHIO.  T a K O B u dnjiH OHa  oepbe3HHM  OpocjiymaB  dnjia  pa3roBop.  TaKoft  HHKorjjja He^BosBpamajica  Jhoyroft e e OHa  K H K o r ^ a He  B xenrnHHe  noc-  HHTepecoBajica  cMeajiacb,  HHKor.ua  OHa  Ryuajia,  jJceHCTBHTejibHyK)  B e n e p H H K a x H HMejia  B03MoxHOCTb  o  flaTb  JiiodBH.  T O O H RO T O P O o K y n a j i OHa  xopomo  MyxHHHOH.  .HOJIXHH  noHaTHH  Becejiiix  no-  RO  HeocnopHMoe  roBopHJia  pa3roBop-JieKUHio,  TaK,  KaK  ee  ueR-  HHTajia  jieK-  cjiymaa 6BI  MOJIOJJOH n e j i o B e K  dojibme  yx  K Heft.  He^ocTaTOK  3aBHBajia  ny/j;pHJia C B o e JIHU.0.  Ha  nojipocTKOB  He  JiiodBH,  eft  KOTopue  ee  HejioBeKOM,  c MOJIO^HM  HHKorjj;a  O T O T O .HOJixeH BH/jeTB  BHyTpeHHHe K a n e c T B a ,  Kor^a roBopHTb  Bcero  myTHJia,  jirodnjia  cnacTba  MyxHHHa He  O^HH  cepbe3HO.  MyxHHHa  rjiynnM  depeT  ne  KOTO  .neByiiiKa,  eio  HTO  OHa HHKorjj;a He  xe^ H H  HH  HcntiTajia TOTO  OHa d n j i a H H T e j i J i H r e H T H a a  XOTH  dHTb  HO  CBoeM Hjj;eH PoMaHOB  .npyrae H c n t i T H B a j i H BOKpyr H e e ,  moReR.  ruioxo,  oneHb  HC-  Reno,  .npyroe  coBepmeHHO  DTO  npaBHJibHOCTb  j5Ba^u[aTHriHTHjieTHH)K) jj;eByuiKy, K O T o p a a He  npaBHJibHO  ruioxo.  HTOdH ^ O K a s a T b  H  Ho y u e T b  Ha jnodoBb.  jiiodoBHOH M o p a j i H ,  B  DTO TaK  H^eajiHCTOM,  npaBo  GHJI, D T O  ee  B O J I O C , H H K o r ^ a He  riODTOMy, no  KOMHnecKaa KpacHJia r y d ,  npHnecKa. HHKorj;a  c.c.paBHeHHio c /jpyrHMH, OHa  He  BHrjiajjejia  64  oneHB  npocro,  doTe,  HO  inyTKH,  DTOTO  Bee  He/j;ocTaTKH  uyxHHHBi. ^ y M a j i H ,  noJj;pyr,  HO HHKTO  Ee OHa  Heft H a  pa-  caMHM BBi3HBaa  DTHM  caex  HTO  CTajia "  . ..  dtuiH  H  HTO  OHa  He  Bee  dHJia T a n  HOBKHHOCTK  H H Ha  cnocodHa  He ^;o-  ityxHHHH  HTO  cHJi&Ha,  KaKHa n y B C T B a .  B H y T p e H H H e n y B C T B a npeBBimajiH n y B C T B a  ee  O T O T O He  Ho ee  3Haji.  3acTeHHHB0CTB H HX  npHHHHoft T O T O ,  PenyTaqna ee  JXO H e e .  fleMcTBHTejiBHOCTH  H  npaB^y  T o r ^ a OHa jj;yMajia,  ee  DTH  TparHBajiHCb  B  Ha,n  E C J I H dti OHH TOJIBKO 3HajIH, KaH eft X O H e T C H O C B O d O ^ H T B C H OT DTOTO H e f l O C T a T K a 3 a C T e H H H B O C T H , KOTopaa dnjia TaK C H j i b H a , H T O OHa He B C O C T O H H H H dHJia n o dopoTfc e e . " 13  "  HTO  inyTHJiH  K o r ^ a eM r o B o p H J i H ^ByxcMHCJieHHtie  HHCTyw  3a  Bee  CTapoMo^Ho.  3aMenajia.  He  OHa npHHHMajia H X  KOJiJier.  CBOHX  Ho  OHa  de3XH3HeHHO H  CKPOMHOCTB  Bepa  HeHaBH^eTB.  xopomo  CTOHJIH Ha  KaxaoM  noHHMajia,  HTO  B  ee DTO  mary BpeMa  c T a p t i e cbopMH H odpa3u.H X H S H H 6BIJIH OTMeHeHBi,  H, HTO CBOdOflHaa JHOdOBB dblJia 3aKOHHOft, DTO d H J i , T a K C K a 3 a T B , n p O T e C T n p O T H B C T a p O H nO,2IHHHeHHOCTH H MOXeT dHTB  Bee ee  /  Bepa  DTO  Bee  BO 3BpaT K  3jj;opoBoft n p o c T O T e .  noHHMajia o n e H B x o p o m o  ace, n y r a j i a  naKaa-TO  Cjiyiuaa paccKa3H XHJIH  Jia,  c  HHMH  HTO  ecjiH Bee OHa,  noTOMy,  TaKaa DTO  HTO  XH3HB He jtejiajiH  BpameHne  OHa  pemHJia  HM  H  eodpaTB  CBOH  flByx  HX  DTOTO.  ejiynaftHHx  3HaKOMCTBax,  JIIOdHJIH, a  nyBCTBa.  ynoBOJiBCTBHe,  OT npoTeKaromeft MHMO  noJioB.  npocTO  yjj;oBo JIB C T B H e , Bepa j j y M a -  DTOM  CHJIH H  Ho  TpeBora.  a, H a o d o p o T , o d e ^ H a e T  HaxoflHJtH B  Bee  K JiiodBH H OTHomeHHft  od  KOTOPHX OHH He  B CTopoHe  CToaTB  doaJiacB  BHyTpeHHaa  j i o c T a B j i a JIO  odoromaeT,  flpyrne  T O OHa He^ojiacHa  XH3HH.  DTO  4  )  no,a;pyr  CBOHX  I  H ^ n o H H M a a He  H e n o H H T H a a eft  HJIH BpeMeHHOft aCH3HH C MyXHHHaMH,  "  nodopoTB  B  cede  Ho  jiyMajia Hee OT-  65  Cjiynaft, n o c T S B H T B H a n p o d y cKopo.  oneHb  Heft.  Ho H e y c n e j i  GJie3aMH.  Korjia  K Heft  3 a H C K H B a T b c d j r a x e H H a OTHoaieHHft  OH j j O T p o H y T b c a  DTO e r o oneiih  noflBepHyjica  B rioe3,ne OT n o f l p y r n ,  OH Hanaji  UOJIOROU n e j i o B e K .  no^ceji c  OHa B0 3Bpamajiacb  ee p e m e H H e ,  JJ;O H e e , KaK OHa p a 3 p a 3 H J i a c b O H CTaji  nepenyrajio.  ycnoKaHBaTb  ee  H  npo-  CHTb H3BHHeHHH T O B O p H , HTO H. pe;j[KO B C T p e n a K H a c T o a m y i o , n e c T H y i o xeHfflHHy, OT DTOTO H caM CTa/I MeJIOHHilft H nOfflJIBlft" - rOBOpHJI OH e f t . . . - " H T O npej^cTaBaaiOT codoft c e r o a H e u m H e ReByuiKH KOMcoMOJibCKHx opraHH3au.HH HJIH HHTejiJIHreHUHH?  11  ...  OHH CMOTPHT H a Bemn, KaK H a dpH3HOJiorHHecKHft  npoqecc....  '  TaKHM o d p a s o M HX KpHTHft  ^ymeBHHft p a 3 r o B o p .  ^oexajiH  Bepy  JJ;O c B o e f t  flOMoft.  CTaHUHH.  KOTopuft  c o B c e M H e 3aMenajia  pa3BepHyjioeb B OT-  P a s r o B a p H B a a ^ O H H HejsaMeTHJiH, K a K OHH Mojio/joft  Ona dHJia oneHb  Hamejica MyxMHHa,  rpySoe 3HaKOMCTBo  nejioBeK  npejj;jioxHJi  c n a c T J i H B a Ryua.fi, HTO  yBHjj;eji  B Heft  B new jiHueMepHOCTH  11  BHyTpeHHHe"  npoBojjHTb  HaKOHeij-TO ueHHOCTH.  H JJJBOHKOTO noRxoRa.  HaHBHo^ n o  ^ e T C K H jBepHJia ewy B c e , HTO OH TOBOPHJI.  npHMeHaeT  T y x e T e x H H K y H,aeajiH3Ma H HaHBHoft j j ; o s e p H H B o c T H ,  poft OH nojib3yeTca B BHBejj;eHHH x a p a K T e p a  Ona  OHa  3/j;ecb P o n a H O B KOTO-  ApKa^na He3HaMOBa B " T o B a -  pnme K H C J i a K O B e " . y BOPOT c B o e r o Roua Bepa n p H r j i a u i a e T C B o e r o KOTopuft npe^cTaBHJica eft, KaK IllBapii, eMy o c T a T b c a npHMyce. j^ejia,  npejjjiaraeT  H a nauiKy n a a , KOTopuft OHa npHHHJiacb n p H r o T O B j i a T b H a  Ho ee n o B e ^ e H H e ,  ee j e j i o B H T O C T b  KOTopBift  B CBOK> KOMHaTy H  cnyTHHKa,  ydHJiH  ee H e n p e p u B H H f t pasroBop n p o c e p b e 3 H t i e y IllBapua  secb  HHTepec  y H e r o n p o a B j i a j i c a c H a n a j i a HX 3 H a K O M C T B a .  K oToft  fleByuiKe,  O H H npocH/jejiH  B-^nBoeM B KOMHaTe RO RByx nacoB HOHH H He o d M e H a a H C b jj;axe  none-  DO  jiyeM.  Kor/j;a O H HexHO  odocHOBaHHaH H a ^ e x ^ a H  H a T O , HTO DTOT  e e 3a e e yMCTBeHHtie  neHHT  no  rjia^HJi e e p y K y ,  roBopHT  TaK  BopHJia,  Te.M dojibiue  MHOTO,  HTO  O H CKynaji  noHHMaeT e e  Hjieaji  3 a e e BHyTpeHHHft  "Kanoe  e e He ocTaHOBHinB*"  HTO  B03HHKajia H e -  nejioBeK  HOJICHOM  cnocodHOCTH,  A O H xyuaji,  OTHoiueHHio K JiiodBH.  TO y Hee  HecnacTBe,  16  neii  H  HTO  dojibiue  OHa  ro-  OHa  c Heft.  " Koraa  OHa c K a 3 a j i a eMy o e e yejj;HHeHHH H e e BHCUIHX B3rjiHj;ax Ha J i K d o B B , O H n o n y B C T B O B a j i , HTO y Hero H c n e 3 J i H B e e e r o x e j i a H H H . . . . " 17  OBJiajj;eTb  es.  KoppeKTHHH odmecTBe cero^HH "  OH, HeoxH/j;aHHO XJJIE  TOH pa3roBopa  BHCOKoyBaxaeMHx H#eT  cedn^npHHHJi  cepBe3HHft,  KOTOPBIM odBiHHO y n o T p e d J I H e T C H  c Heft, RSM.  CKynHBift,  O H CTaji  B  odBHCHHTB eft, H T O XH3HB  dHCTpHMH maraMH H H T O B Heft  HeT  MecTa JJJIH  G HaCTOHIUHM TeMnOM XH3HH MyXHHHBI H XeHlIIHHH  yejpraeHHH.  paC-  xo^yiOT dojibffle, neM O H H c o x p a H H W T ; y H H X o c T a e T C H TOJIBKO flOCTaTOHHO D H e p r H H ^JIH OdBIKHOBeHHBIX X H B O T HBIX B0 3dyxJj;eHHft: r ^ e x e T o r ^ a T O BO3BHineHHoe, o KOTOpOM T H rOBOpHfflB? " 18 cnpauiHBaji Ha HTO ee  OHa O T B e T H j i a  e e IllBapu..  xeHiijHHy  TOJIBKO,  OHa dBiJia TOJIBKO  KaK H a c a M K y . caMKa,  BHyTpeHHHMH K a n e c T B a M H ,  BeKOB. jieHHH,  OHa  JiiodBH,  "  ee,  JiiodBH,  H  apTHCTH Ha npoTHxeHHH npejj;cTaB-  CTpyKType.  H T O D T O H e dBiJia n p e ^ C T a B H T e j i B H H n a  H^eajiBHoft  CMOTPHT  xeHitiHHBi B e e a p T H C T H n e c K O M  KOTopan  CTajia  .HesyiiiKa HMejia HHCTyIO, HaHBHyio #ymy, K O T o p a n CTpaCTHO  MyxHHHBi  B O T D T O K a K pa3 H n y r a j i o  KOTopyio B o c n e B a j i H  a H e B e e cfeH3HOJiorHHecKofi  a BHcmeft  H T O Torjj;a  a He x e H i u n n a c e e BHeiuHefi K p a c o T o f t  noHHMajia u e H H o c T B  IllBapij; n o H H J i ,  eMy,  cBodo^Hoft  pe^KOCTBio.  dHJia c n o c o d H a  H de3KOpBICTHO.  . . . TOJIBKO T a K a a x e n a r o T O B a cjiejj;oBaTB CBoeMy Myxy Ha ccHJiKy B C H S H P B , o n a r o T O B a H a B e e x e p T B H . B D T O H n p o c T O f i ^eByuiKe c npnMHHH BojiocaMH dBiJio n o x o -  3Ta JHO6HTB  67  p o n e H O T O coKpoBHme aiodBK, K O T o p o e onpaB^HBaeT XH3HB.. Te, K T O H c n t i T a j i Ha cede TaKyso /irodOBB 3 H a K T , HTO X H 3 H B , OCBeffleHHaa T a K O H JHOdOBBK), dfclJia jj;eMcTBHTejiBHO HandojiBiuHM nyjJtoM Ha 3eMJie. " ^  J Ho TaKOH de3KOpUCTHOH jjajica.  JHOdOBBK) HH  MyxHHHu CMOTpejiH  yMeHHe  BeceaoH,  6HTB  Ha  TOJIBKO  XHTB  KTO,  B HaCTOflffl.ee B p e M a , He  BHeuiHOCTB  de33adoTHO  H  T a K x e He^HHTepecoBaacfl HjjeajiaMH JiiodBH.  yMeTt  xeHiijHHH, H a pa3BJieKaTB.  npocH/jeB  OHa oxHJia  H, KaK  ee UlBapn.  c HeM RO RByx  nacoB yTpa, O H paccTajica n o q e j i o B a B ee B Jiod. TaKoe OTHOineHHe MyxHHHH n o f l e n c T B O B a j i o Ha Bepy, aeKapcTBO.  Hyx-  KaK  dti, noxopomejia.  y Hee noHBHjiacfc. KaKaa T O C H J i a . KaKan c H J i a , o T K y a a . . . OHa H e Morjia noHHTB.... Bepa n y B C T B O B a a a , H T O OHa n p e B p a T H j i a c B B apyroe c y m e c T B O , neM OHa dMJia JJ;O O T O T O . . . . " 0  "  2  riepBHH  noHHJia  CMHCJI  JiiodBH H  T O T , K T O HMeeT  npaBo  H a jiiodOBB,  no-  npaBo Ha  XH3HB  p a 3 B e e XH3HH OHa  OHa  BcnoMnHJia,  HTO "  TOJIBKO  . . .  JiynaeT  OHa EH  dti/ia  KO  yBepeHa,  Ka3ajiocB,  TOM,  npaBo  OHa 3acjiyxHJia  KOTopaa  OTO  BpeMeHH^ o n a dHJia  aBTOMaTHHeCKHM  oKpyxaiomeMy.  ^yuia,  Hosan  HTO  " 21  H T O RO H a c T o a m e r o  flBHraBfflHMCfl  Bceny  Ha XH3HB.  MexaHH 3M0M,  coBepmeHHO  B  MHPT  H a jiiodOBb.  de3XH3HeHHHM  yCTajiafl H  H0| B O T T a K HeoxH^aHHo^y  yBHjjejia  H  Hee HOBOM  odteK-  de3pa3JIHHHafl  K a K dti p o ^ H a a c B npeKpacHOM  CBeTe. Ho B c e O T O O K a 3 a j i o c B  cnycTH. K  UlBapu,  ee npHnecKe,  MHCJIH  dHJia  K  MOT  3acTaBHTB  e e Mejc/xeHHOMy  p a 3/j;paxajiH e r o ,  TOJIBKO  ero.  He  H HTodH (  TOJIBKO c K a 3 K 0 H , ceda  B .lajiBHeHuieM  n p H B H K H y T B K e e ripaMtiM  roBopy.  xoTa  OH  He  K O T o p a n MHHyjia He/jejiK)  H  Ee HeBHHHocTB 3Haji,  flaBaTB  eft  HTO  H  BOJiocaM^  cepBe3HOCTB  OHa K p e n K o  nojiro-  dojiBiue naRexR,  Ha  68  ero  JIK)6OBB  yxo/ja  Hee.  OT  HHMero He  OH  HeM  B  dn  He  nHcaji  eft,  efl,  HTO  OTBenaTB ee  MTO  nncbMo, o d t a c H H H npHMHHH ero  ett  OH  BHMTH.  MOT  qoopwe e e  jiiodoBb OHa "  H  HanHcaji  OH  nHcaji  OH  MOTJIO  npHcyTCTBHH  B  Heft,  K  OH  6HJI y d e x f l e H ,  JiiodoBb  caMooTBepxeHHa,  K  uexRj  HHMH  ceda o n e H b n j i o x o  nyBCTBOBaji Ha ee  MTO  ee  B  H/Jie^jiHCTHMecKHe H a c T p o e H H H . HeMy,  nyrajia  BHCKa3HBajiacb  KOTopaa  ero,  TaK  KaK  3a  CBOKJ  TpedoBajia noJiHoro BJiajj;eHHa ero MyBCTBaMH.  T B O H JiiodoBb He pa3peiuaeT T e d e c M O T p e T b H a Beii?H M e c T H O . . . . T H dyfleiiib T p e d o B a T b OT n e H a n o c T o a H C T B a H c a M o o T p e n e H H H , H T H £OJixHa n o H H T b , MTO OTO n p o c T a a r j i y n o c T b . . " 22  lilBapu, BHyraaj nepecTaTb  HeMejjjieHHo  eM  ocTaBHTb  paccKa3HBaTb KaxflOMy  JIffidBH, OCBOdOflHTbCH OT  o  HSHBHOCTH  HeBHHHO —3adoT/iHBHH  CBOH  CBoeM ye^HHeHHH  H  O  CBOHX  B3r;ia/j;, H#eajiax  H HaMaTb XHTb B COOTBeTCTBHH C  peajIbHOCTbK) BpeMeHH. 11  Ifee OMeHb  xajih T e d a " , - n n c a j i .UlBapu,, - "noTOMy He c o 3 H a e m b , K S K H M H B p a r a M H flJia T e d a a B j i a i o T c a T B O H npeKpacHne KaMecTBa. " 23 MTO  3TO  TH  nncbMO UlBapua dHJio ajia Bepti, KaK r p o M O B o f i y^ap cpe/j;H a c H o r o  IHfl.  Te Ha^ex^H  Ha  Hjj;ea/ibHyio a r o d o B b ,  eme HecKOjibKO MacoB TOMy BCTajia  CTeHa ojjHHOMecTBa  B TOM, MTO OHa /imdoBb  H  i pyxHyjincb  S;-e3pajj;ymHa.  He.Morjia B o c n p H H a T b ,  coBpeueHHoM  B0 3Jiio6/xeHHoro  Ha.3a£,  HH  c  MOJiojj;exH. Hew  KOTopne  flpyrHM,  OHa  H  OHa  nHTajia  nepe,n H e S  B  cede  onaTb  Ee Tparejj;Ha saKJironaeTca  T a K Ha3HBaeMyio, cBodo/j;HyK>  He xoTejia pa3jiejiaTb CBoero  noDTOMy  OHa  ocTaBajiacb  O^HHOKOM.  69  FOOTNOTES  1  Panteleymon Romanov, R a s s k a s y , "Without c h e r r y blossom" E r n e s t Benn, London, 1930, p. 13. Text t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h i n t o R u s s i a n by the s t u d e n t herself.  2 I b i d . , p. 17. I _ b i d . , p. 18.  3  Op. c i t . , p. 18. . ^ I b i d . , p. 26. ^P.Romanov, R a s s k a s y , "The b i g f a m i l y " , E r n e s t Benn, London, 1930. ^ I b i d . , p. 36.  1 Q  8  I b i d . . p. 37.  9  I b i d . , p. 38. I b i d . , p. !+3.  -^Op. c i t . , p. 1 2  ^3.  I b i d . , p. 52.  ^ Romanov, P., R a s s k a s y , "The r i g h t t o l o v e " , E r n e s t Benn, London, 1930? p. 129. 3  l^f I b i d . , p. 131. I b i d . , p. 137.  16  p.  ,  Ibid.  p.  m-8.  Ibid.  p.  1^9.  ^Ibid.  p.  1^1•  2 0  Ibid.  P.  155.  2 1  Ibid.  p.  156.  2 2  Ibid.  p.  167,  l 8  2  Ibid.  ?  3 o . c i t . . p. P  167,  71  11  POMSH B  HO BAH  CicpHxajib"  "HoBaa  x y p H a j i e " H O B H H MHP".  aBJieHHe  B  H3BecTHa  n o 3 x e DTO  Ha3BaHneM  "HOBHH PoMaH  H3HKH,  B  TOM  "HoBaa  CicpHxajib"  H O B O H , . cMeinaHHOH  pa3jiHHHH  no  B  cBoeMy  DTOM  GepreS H JIioflMHJia.  CoBeTCKoro  OT  OTCTajioH p y c c K O H (3HJIH rjiaBHHM HHa^ K p e C T b H H e  JIOCTOHHHM  Ha  CTpoa.  MopajibHOKHCJiaKOB ' 1  BnepBbie  CTaBHT  jirojieH, H  no  KOTopsie  o6pa30BaHHio.  C e p r e n <5HBIIIHH K p e c T b a H H H ,  Cxoaacb  cpe^ti,  noHHMaHHa  fljia  o  ,HBa  pa3JiHH-  JUDSBH  B  coBMecTHOft X H 3 H H ,  HHTepecoB, K O T o p a a KaxjJHH H 3  Heo6xojj;HMa jjjia  HHX  CTapaJICa  JIKVIMH-  ycjioBHax He  OHH  npoHHon  TOJIbKO  BH-  DToro odte^HHeHHa. OJJHH H3  MejioBeK,  npoHCxoxfleHHio  npoTHBonojioxHHX  ofimefi O C H O B H  ("ToBapHiq  JCBe coiUHajibHHx  COBMeCTHOH XH3HH JJByx JHOJieH. HrpaTb  ropa3,ao  a H r j i H H C K H H , nojx,  ceMeHHOH XH3HH JiByx  ' C T a p o M HHTejiJiHreHii.HH.  TOH  Ha  a B J i a e T c a doJibuiHM  PoMaHOBa  couHajibHOMy  HBIX o d p a 3 0 B a H H a , ^ B a  HMejiH  Maao  <5HJIO n e p e B e ^ e n o  npoH3Bejj;eHHH, a B T o p  npodjieMy  HOBoro,  oneHb  u  no3xe)..  H3  H H C Jie H  rojj;y  1927  nocJie^Hee-no-  H  poMaHa  DTOTO  B  3aBeT .  noaBHJica  jia  nepBoe  3arpaHHiiy H  n c H x o J i o r H H e c K H M npon3BefleHHeM  TepoH p o M a H a  B nenaTH  npe,nnojioxeHKH, HTO  EcTb  npoH3Be^eHHe nonajio  eBponeMcKHe  Apyrne  ero  Cyjjbda  BpeMa.  1927.  noaBHJica  dujio  3TO  CoBeTCKOM Coi03e. B HacToamee  CKPHHAJIb"  rjiaBHHx x a p a K T e p o B , ^epeBHe,  pa3roBopoM BepHJIH  B  rue  KpecTbaH. TO,  yBaxenna.  o  He  HTO BHUI©  yMeromHH aodHBaTb D T H necTH H  sadoTa  C e p r e f i , pojJtHJica H JHodHBaHHH x j i e d a H HMea H H ^ K a K o r o  BCeTO Ha  3eMJie  BHPOC  B  ,neHer  odpa30Ba-  6UJIH  JjeHbTH.  aeHbra, 6HJI "HacToamHM" n e j i O B e K O M , OTen,  C e p r e a 6HJI TaKHM x e  KOCHHM,  72  Kan  ocTajibHHe.  vs B e e  KanecTB  -  Kor.ua Ceprefi  1 1  paHO noMyBCTBOBaji, neM y O T t j a ,  AOMaiiiHeH  O^HHM  Bee  dHJio  3TO  2  TOJIHKOM  uiHMOMy xejiaHHio nojiyMHTB odpa30BaHHe. nocTynnji B rHMHa3Hio. MarasHH.  KHHXHHE  RISK MTeHHfl  flpyron,  B  Bpax^edHOCTB  H  ero TBepjj;oMy  K  Gepreft,  "H  coBepmeHHo  XH3HH  Ha  KpecTBHHCKOH jj;e-  na cede nyxaocTB  B p e M a HcntiTBiBaji  CTHXHH" .  CKPOMHOH  nepHJi  oneHB HeflOBOJieH.  6HJI  HHTepec ero  MTO  Biime MejioBenecKHx  GHJIH  CJIOBOM " O H Bee  Ha  xeHHJica  npH^aHoro, OTeu. ero  de3  fleH&rn  Hero  RUH  JiiodBH vs n e c T H o c T H .  ^eHtrn . 1 BymKe  H  H  riocjie cejiBCKOft  HecoKpy-  IHKOJIH,  OH  A nocjie raMHa3HH noMomHHKOM npoaaBua B  3 ^ e c b OH  HcnojibsoBaji  Bee  CBoe cBodoaHoe B p e M a  KHHr.  Kor.ua HacTynnjia peBOJirouiia, Cepreft yiueji Ha cppoHT, MTOdn dopoTBCH npoTHB  pa.zt  peBojiioEiHH,  jieHBTH,  c  MTO  dppoHTa OH  ropojjKa.  JIH  KpoMe H H X  "ecTB  dHJi H3dpaH  y3HaB od  nepeja; HHM,  HO  HeHaBH^ieTB  Ten  KOTopaa noKa3ajia  OH  MJieHOM  TBepjjo  tlljia  JIKJ^HM,  .zrpyraa  no  CHJia".  ero  j;ejio  3a  CTajiH  .nepeBHH  peBOJnou.HH.  eme rpaxaaHCKaa  ode3yMeBniHe  Ceprett C0K)3a B  KpyroM ijapHJia  TpyjjHoe.  H  OT  ye3xaeT  CTpaxa B  CJIHaHHa  MocKBy,  3aBeay»m.HM  MocKBe, Cepren  JIKUTH.  KJiyda  "...  C deCKOHeMHHM  r^e  pa3pyxa, HO  t  OH  MyBcTBOBaji  3a  BottHa vs euy  rojio/j;,  HaKOHen^  padoMeM  nOTOKOM  TOTfla  rpadHjiH  KOTopHe TOJIBKO  XO^HJIOCB OCTaBJIHTB HCnOJIKOM H y X O ^ H T B Ha (jbpOHT.  OMeHB  dHJi  BO3BpameHHH  HcnoJiKOMa npHcjbpoHTOBoro ye3flHoro  KpecTBaHe  DTOM,  CTOHJI  ero.  erne vs  OH  HaxHBBi j j e H e r .  vs H©HecTHOH  KOCHOCTH  padoTaeT  H  DTO  DTO  BpeMH DTO  CTa-  npndHJIO  c M e p T B vs  onvsReuvsn,  Bee  OHH  MacTO  KOHMHJIOCB.  npej^ceflaTejieM  MOJiojexH.  npocp-  ECHBa nepBHe  KaKoe-TO onBaHeHHe  JHO^ett...  3aHCKHBaTB  OT  Mecann CBoero  73  "  H  B c e r s a nocjie  y  Hero  Ho ero ojjHHOKaa  KOTopott  d u OH MOT  dn noHHuaTb  Morjia  xH3Hb  KOMHaTe dHJia cKyHHoH.  yKTHOH  OH  CTOJIHIIH,  Maccon 3  MHCJIH  c  conpHKocHOBeHHH c  XHBOTO  dHBaji o c o d e H H H H H P H J I H B oHeprHH, H C H O C T H H dojjporo c T p e M J i e H H a H,HTH Bnepejj. "  flejiHTb  ero  uejib  B ruioxo  odcTaBJieHHOft,  Eny xoTejiocb HMeTb no^pyry  CBOH  pajiocTH,  duji  KOTopne  coBceM  eMy.  nyxjjHM  BHBaa BenepaMH  XH3HH.  Ha cueHe  dHJiH H e I I O X O X H H a  ycnexH  CBOH  BH^eji 3CH3Hb, T a K H a 3 H B a e M o r o ,  KOTopHft  H  ero  TeaTpax  B  "pa3dHToro  XH3HH  B  OH  KJiacca",  BHjjeji xeHmHH, TaK KaK  Tpyuiy.  xeHy,  HapflJ^HHe HJiaTbH H HMejIH K p a c H B H e  .HyMaji,  TOHKHe,  jjyiua  OTHX  OH  zyu&ji,  OH  3HaeT  TpyniH. EMy  HTO TaKHe  xeHmHHH c n o c o d H H  TOJIbKO  dojibiiiaa  juia Hero HeH3Be,naHHOH.  HM BCJiefl.  B e r o rjia3ax dnjiH  DTO  .naxe  OT  caMoro  Kor.na  dHJia H  Ho O H H , o n a T b  B COCTOHHHH dHJI n o d o p O T b  3THX  /  4  o KOTOPOH  He ITOXOXa H a JIIOdOBb  ero DTOH flpyrne  OJHHOKOH  XH3HH  XH3HH.  Bce xe  MyxHHHH npoxojiHJiH  OH ocTaHaBJiHBajica  KOTopne  KaK  TOHKaa  nooTaMH..."  T y JiiodoBb,  3aBHCTb H  e r o TaMHHe MHCJIH,  ceda.  B  nacTb  Hero c x o p o m o ojjeTHMH aeBymKaMH,  MHMO  He  jaTb  oneHb codjia3HHTejibHHM  H T O KaKan-TO  Ka3ajtocb,  BceMH  BocneTa  COBCeM  H3 KHHT H K O T O p a H  DTO dHJio  ocTaeTca  peji  ayMaji Cepreft, -  OHH  p y K H , OH  "Beab  djraropo^HHe n y B C T B a .  -  sceHmHH,  XH3HH,  KOTopaa  H  dblJIH O.H,eTH B T O H K H e , H T O O H H HMeKT  He-  H  CMOT-  TOCKa. OH  CTapajica  6u BHJie3ajiH H a p y x y  COd Jia3HHTeJIbHHX, nOJIHHX  cnpaTaTb H  OH  SaBHCTH  MHCJieH. HO OH  TaK  jierKOH  BOT,  TOCKOBaji. noxoflKoM  HaKOHeil, DTO  H  H OH BCTpeTHJICH  C XeHIUHHOH, n o KOTOpOH  dHJia Jlro^MHJia. - B H C o K a n , M O J i o a a n xeHfflHHa c  KpacHBHMH  T O H K H M H "pyKaMH.  CHanajra  y  H e r o dHJio  74  HVBCTBO HeJIOBKOCTH H HeyMeHHH C Heft TOBOPHTI. Ha  Ho  TeMH.  cKopo DTa  HeyBepeHHOdb  BHpaxeHHH B ero  XO,HH;IH n p e K p a c H H e  KHft H3HK yflHBHJi JIioflMHJiy, Tan CToro "MyxHKa" H OHa  3aMeTHJia,  HHTeJiJiHreHTHHH H3HK." TOHKHM  MyBCTBaM,  jioft H ero BeKa.  OHa  He  -  OH  rpaMMaTHnec-  y Hero 6HJI " . . .  MTO  Ha-  oscHjj;a^a O T O T O O T  npo-  npaBHJibHHft,  yjj;HBJiHJiacB> 3HaHHHM Cepren H  KOToptie OH npoHBJiH/i K H e f i .  ero  Cepreft yBJieKCH JlH)JJ[MHB jjpyroro  nojiyHHJi cnocodHocTb H O B H X , H e H 3 B e c T H H X euy  TOHKHX  npocBeTJieHHbix".  CTBeHHoft H He/joeTynHoft".  Ero  Cepreft BH/jeji HOByro, paHbiue eMy nan  Ero  pa3roBope.  nyBCTBa K Heft odpamajiH n o c T e n e H H o ero  "...  omymeHHft  5  cjioBa caMH  HCHe3Jia H  KaK OHa  HeO$HHHa^BHHe  6  OHa  Kasajracb  eMy  BjieKJio K JlroflMHJie, TaK HeflocTyrrayio  nejiopaHbiue  " TaHHKaK  B Heft  j&yiuy xeHWHHH H y x o r o  Hero Kpyra. " H Kasc^oe He3aMeTHoe npndJinxeHHe K Heft Mepe3 DTy 3 a B e c y H e j i o c T y n H o c T H , K O T o p a a d t u i a Mex^y HHM H jnocTaBJiHJio eMy H e 3 H a K O M o e paHbiue HacJiaxczteHHe H n o ^ t e u B c e x CHJI." 24  em,  Cepreft y^HBJiHJiCH T B e p ^ o c T H x a p a K T e p a JIio^MHJia n p o H B j i a j i a  KOTopue  HCKpeHHHH JitofioBb H 6biJm  BHCUIHM  JIKUXMHJIH H  BHeniHe nepe/j; C e p r e e M .  ee  3aKajieHHOCTH,  Ho  RJIH.  JIK>JJ[MHJIH  noTpedHOCTb ee XH3HH flJiH apyroro M e J i o B e K a ,  CMaoTbeM Ha  seMJie,  KOToporo Hejib3H dHJio K y n H T b  HH  TBepflOCTbK) HH 3aKaJieHHOCTbK). "  c M a c T b e , K a K o e TOJibKO ^ o c T y n H o , Cepreio, - " O T O T O , KorjJta T B O H XH3HB b K a x e T c a H y x H a , o n e H b HyxHa. H BOT OT^aTb e e rje/iHKOM, de3 ocTaTKa, KaK BejiKMaftmyro n e H H o c T b , a He KaK HeHyxHOCTb, - B O T O M c n a c T b e . "• 8 -  CaMoe  dojibiuoe  roBopHJia OHa  TaKoft B3rjiHfl JIK^MHJIU Ha xH3Hb OMeHb noHpaBHJiCH Ceprero, X O T H H He noHHJi ero  CMHCJia.  OH  75  Gepren vs  XOTH  rpaxflaHCKoe  vs Ha.MHHa.ioT HOByio,  cxoaaTca  OHH  6HJI x e H a T  Ha  Tpyuie,  c  JIKUIMH JIOH .  cynpyxecTBo  coBMecTHyio  ne noMeniajio  OTO  CHanajia  Bce  JIio^MHJia BtiJia d e c H O H e H H o c n a c T jiHBa c CepreeM. caMOr-yflOBJieTBopeHHe BMecTe  CepreeM.  c  Bce  flymoHi xeHmHHa,  JiiodoBb  .Hoporaa ueHa  JSJSR  3a  Ho  TpedoBajia  eMy  TOM,  " . . . KO  Be&b  cnacTbe." H3  ee  TO#  Ji»6oBb  K  MoeS  MenTofi  dHJio",  dHJia c H j i b H e e  MHe  9  Ho  H  KOTopyio OHa  oTjajia  Jlymy 3a .cymy, dHJia  oneHb  OTO  H  BocxHmajiacb  -  Ha  roBopnjia  cBeTe.  npH3HaHHeM  ero  JiiodoBb K  OHa eMy,  Tor/j;a  Ceprea  -  padoTe.  "HTOSH  JiiodoBb  dy^eT BHCinee  OTO  dHJi He3,aopoBHH cTHMyji JIIO,HMHJIH, pojiHBmHHca B npomjiOM.  OHa He  xoTejia  dHTb o n a T b  odMaHy-  MyXHHHOH.  3anepmHCb  JlioflMHJia dHJia  CHJIH  JIioaMHJia  nocTOHHHO  o  Hjj;eH  HOBne  H  XH3HH  CBoeft  B  H  He  HTO  HOBne,  K  Cepreio  TO  JiBHxeHHio  ea." ^  CHJIH  KOTOPHH  T a K O M y BHBo^y  ecJiH n e j i o B e K iieHHHe  Bnepe/j.  #pyroH,  K  HyscHH dHJiH  padoTaTb.  H  codcTBeHHOft  KTO-TO  BpeMa  c CepreeM  JIKJ^H,  TOJina, c  cnacTJiHBa npoBojiHTb  BpamaTbca  HMejta  HyxeH  CMHCJI  TOM,  posJiaTb  KOMHaTe,  OH. npHBHK  KOTOPHMH  HHH  T e J i o M , HO  OTa HHTejuiHreHTHaa  JlKJ^MHJie n e p e c H J i H J i a  Bcero  pasonapoBaHHH  ECJIH  HTO  nyBCTBOBajia  Ceprea.  ero  HTO  HTO  HanaTb  xopomo.  IUJIO  OHa  TOJIB-KO  CBOK> ^ymy,  .nymy.  ero  JlioMimx& H a c j i a a e n a j i a c b o  He  eMy  K o r a a OHa dHJia  Torjja-,  Cepreio,  JIBCTHJIO  jiiodHJia e r o .  Cepreio, .Jlro/iMHJia  TOJIBKO  OHa o T j j a j i a c b  oneHb  OTO  Tan  H-  xH3Hb.  He  B  OHH  jjaBajiH  EMy npnmjia XH3HH, jiaBaji OH  MHCJIB  "...  dn  O  TOM,  nooTOMy  efi  npHmeji H3  cocToaHHH,  HOBiie  eMy  oTy  ei!  CHJiy  paccyscne-  no cBoett npnpojJte,  vsjsevs, K O T O P H M H M o x e T n o j i b 3 0 B a T b c a  Bce  76  MejioBeneoTBO, a He  H e n o B e K , TO B  CHHH  TaKOM nejioBeKe HeT cod-  CTBeHHOM CHJIH XH3HH. Cepreft pemaeT, HOCTBIO  c  ojj;HOMy  nejioBeKy.  MTO OH  MoxeT  ydex^aeTca,  OT#aBaTB ceda nojineM nonbwe  MTO  TeM doji&ine ero XH3HB viRer Ha3a^;.  /IK^MHJIOM,  Bemn fljia KBapTHpH, npHrjiainajia CTBHH  He  OH  KOTOPHX  OH  XHBCT  JIioflMHJia nonynajia  ,npy3eft  B  TOCTH,  Cepreft MyBCTBOBaji ceda nyxHM  H  JiHmHHM, OHa dHJia  CBOHX  B  npncyT-  HenpnBeTJiHBa c ,npy3&aMH Ceprea H ,n;axe cKpbiBajiacb O T H H X . OHa MacTO xajioBajiacb Ha padoTaTB.  T O , MTO  OHa cjieno  eft Ha.noe.7iH  npeBpamajiacB  fle/iajiH XH3HB Ceprea HeBHHOCHMoft.  JHO,HH,  padtiHio  B  H  MTO  OHa ycTajia  Bemeft, KOToptie  CBOHX  O H He npHraauiaji yxe jno^eft K  cede jj;oMoft, a caM yxo^HJi K ,npyrHM, r^e O H H nnjiH, ejiH, .Hrpaan Ha rapMomKe H nejiH necHH. Cepreft HaMaji MHpax - jj;oMa  HHX  Jtpyry. MHpoB  XHTB  .HByMa xH3HaMH,  Ha padOTe.  H  3TH  ^Byx  B  npoTHBonojiox-  £Ba irapa dtuiH Bpax^edHti .zrpyr  riooTOMy nepe,n CepreeM cTaji Bonpoc: KaKoft H3 OH  flOJixeH  6u H3dpaTB  6UJI  RJIH  CBoeft XH3HH?  flByx  DTHX  Cepreft npnxo-  JJHT K ydeXfleHHH), MTO XHTB C JlKflMHJIOft OH He B COCTOaHHH, TaK KaK HX H  B3rjajj;u Ha  XH3HB  oTHomeHHa Mexjty  yx pacxo^H^HCB.  CJIHIIIKOM HHMH  CHanajia HCKpeHHOCTB  H  pa3pyma.racB  IIoDTOMy, Bca  yBa#ajiH.  H  npaB^a 3aMeHH/iHCB uejioft  HX  XH3H&  CymecTBOBaBmaa BepeHHueft  dOH3HB OTKpOBeHHOCTH, CKpHTHOCTB, CTpax, COBeCTB n e p e j  JIXH  -  KOJIJieKTH —  BOM. 3a  TaKy»  XH3HB, eme He TaK  TOBapHmeft, KOToptie, nonaB KpyroB  B  ropo^;,  HHTe^JinreHHHH, 3aBe;iHCB  .naBHq,  Cepreft ocyx^aji  COIIIJIHCB X H T B  MarKoft  Mede^BB,  C  CBOHX  xeHmHHaMH H3  TaKHM odpa30M,  77  noTepajiH  3aKajieHHOCTB H n p e H e d p e x e H H e  Tor/ia Cepreft cHHTaji TaKOH  O T O H3MeHoK  Ho  x e 2CH3HbK>.  Hjja K BHeuiHHM  A Tenepb  peBOJirouHH.  OH He o T p n u a j i  TOTO,  dJiaraM.  HTO  can  OH  XHJI  JIio/iMHJia  "... dHJia JiyniiieH H 3 xeHMHH H 3 O T O T O Kpyra. EH JiiodoBb K H e u y d t u i a HCKJiwHHTejibHOH, c a M O O T B e p -  XeHHOH, JiiodoBb  de33aBeTHOH.  Ka3ajiocb, B  Hanajie  JiiodoBb CTpaCTHOM xeHmHHH,  peBHHBoM M a T e p n .  OHa Hecjia  B c e aodpo/jeTejiH  H X 3HaKOMCTBa Bce ;  B  OTH KanecTBa  cede, '  H  xeHmHHn".  JIK>/J;MHJIH npejjcTaBJiajiH  Ceprea HTO-TO*HOBoe, He^ocaraeMoe, 3ara^oHHoe, n o c T H H b H pa3ra.21.aTb.  eMy  POCTH  H  KaK HHTejurareHTHaa  TOHKe, rp03HJIO T H d e ^ b K , de3  odmeHHa  HeBOJibHO "  c Maccon,  3ajj;aBaji  cede  H T O x e jiynme: Mexfly n o J i a M H , B C H K O f i nO0 3 H H  B  OTOH  H  coiiHajibHoro odajecTBe,  3ajtOXHyTbCa  c POCTOM  PoMaHOB  B HHTHMHOH  OTII.OB,  B  coijHajiHCTHHecKyio o n o x y ?  npHBojiaT "  B  Ceprea  3TO H c n y r a j i o  ceMbH?  CTSBHT  XH3HH  flByx  HTO  ECJIH  "  OH  JiK^eH B c o u H a J i H C T H H e c -  B c e xBajiaT  npHMepHHX  "no JIOXHTe JIbHHM  OTO TaK,  cnpaiHHBaeT  c H X ocHOBHHMa n p H H i i n n a M H ?  sadJiyxjieHHe H y H e r o  HHjjHBH/iyajibHoro  onaTb  OTOM  CJIOXHOM  Myxen  aBJieHHeM*'  ceda  CepreM,  Bce O T H B o n p o c H BO3HHKaeT  Bonpoc:  He a B J i a e T c a JIH o d m e c T B e H H o e B o c n H T a H H e , B H ^ B H H y T o e B H e p B H e KOMMyHH3MOM, e C T e C T B e H H H M Tpedo.BaHHeM JIHHH O C T H , cTpeMamefica C H H T B C c e d a n y T H MajieHbKoM c e M b H , H T o d n C T a T b Bceu;ejio HJieHOM dojibinoH c e M b H ? . . . ripH B c e M  H  12  npodJieMy  HO MOXHO JIH H X p a C C M a T p H B a T b  Ceprea  noMorajia  B 3aMHHyTOCTH JJ[BOHX jno^efi,  CTpaHH.  CepreM p a c c y x ^ a e T ,  H T O x e cjiynHJiocb  OHa  c o B p e M e H H o e ynpouieHHe OTHomeHHH BruiOTb n o H T H /jo nojraoro H 3 T H a H H a H pOMaHTHKH H 3 H H X HJIH H a c a x j i e H H e  H  TO  xeHmHHa,  Bonpoc:  npodJieMe Ceprea, siecTa  KOTopoe eMy xoTejiocb  B c e O T O Tenepb ocTaHOBHJiocb Ha OJJHOH  JiiodBH H y K p e n j i e H H e  HJieajibHoS  KOM  Ho  pacniHpaTbca.  jjjia  " 13  npouecce y n e H H a KOMMyHH3Ma, y  78  Ceprea c  ee  HanHHaeTca pa3^BoeHHe  (JjopsiaMH H  HHHMK  H  Bo  xeHH.  TpedoBaHHaMH B  acejiaHHHMH j j y x o B H o r o Been  Cepreft  STOM  TepaeTca  B  DTOH  c o d c T B e H H O f i XH3HH  H  C  OH  JIHHHOCTH. ero  MHpa  ero  TSOPHH  TpedoBa-  H H T e j u i H r e H T H o M , jnodameH  CTapaeTca  "HoByio  HafiTH  CKpnxajiB"  B  HeodocHOBaHHOM o d m e c T B e .  eme  KaK <J)H3HHeCKH  xe  npejjcTaBjiHeT  3^0P0BBIM,  HO  flyxOBHO  de3rpaHHHHO  JiiodHT?  ynpaBJiHKiffl.HM  HMeHHaMH d o r a - r u x  odpa30BaHHe  BMecTe  OHa  c  -  sapadaTHBajia."  14  HMH,  noTOMy,  oTHomeHHe K  nocTynnjia  B  TeaTpa/i&Hyio  no  npoBHHutHHM,  H3MeHHJioci>.  ynpaBJiaiomero,  "TpyaoBaa  paccMaTpHBaaacB  HTO H u e j i a Hen co  TOJIBKO T O ,  C T O P O H H HMymnx  npoTHB xejiaHHa  OHa He HMejia  B0 3BpaTH/iacb  "Bcerfla  flOMOH.  JIiojiMHJia HauiJia C B o e  ycnexa  HOTOM  npH3BaHHe  CBOHX H  HTO oneHB  cpe/jy.  OHa  poaHTejien.  n p o c K H T a B i n H C & TOJJ;  npHniJia peBOJiiouHa H B  6un  nojiyHHJia C B o e  OHa peniHJia n o K H H y T B D T y  rpynny  HeHMe.HHeM T a a a H T a ,  H  C  KOTOPOTO OHa  HH3iuero K J i a c c a .  Cepreio, -  r o B o p H T OHa  TaKoe  KaK JSOHB  Ho  XH3HB  OTeu, JIBJJMHJIH  OHa B t i p o c j i a  KaK nejioBeK  caMOJiiodHe JIK>/J;MHJIH H  3a  npouuioMy.  .neTBMH x o 3 a e B .  ocKopdHJio  Ho  ee  moReH.  KaK HeHTO H H 3 i i i e e ,  DTHMH J I K ^ J H ,  JIio^MHJia c y n p y x e c K y i o  3anyTaBUIHMCa M y x e M ,  OdpaTHMca K  paccMaTpKBajiacB  HHTejiJiHreHrjHH",  cede  Bce  a J I M H H H C T p a T H B H p K 1!  padOTe. "  B  3THX  - PeBOJiioHHH H a y n H J i a MeHH O T C T a H B a T B C B o e n p a B o H a X H 3 H B " . - roBopHT OHa Cepreio. - "H T e n e p B y x e He H H x e Tex, K O T o p u e K o r ^ a T O B rjiydHHe jj;yiiiH n p e H e d e p e r a j i H MHOM. H n o n y B C T B O B a j i a n p e j i e c T B dopBd&i 3a CBoe n e c T O B X H 3 H H . H y MeHa TenepB e c T B r o p ^ o c T B , ropjj;ocTB n e j i o B e K a , C B O H M H p y K a M H . n o d a Baromero x j i e d . . . . H MHe ^ o c T a B a a e T 3Jiyio p a ^ o c T B jj;aTB n o n y B C T B O B a T B H e K O T o p t i M JIIO^HM, H T O T e n e p B H Mory n p e n e d / ^ p e r a T B HMH, KaK O H H MHOIO HeKorjja n p e Hed^perajiH.... " CJIOBax  JIlOJj;MHJIH  3ByHHT  MeCTB H  Heroj;oBaHHe  npOTHB  JIKJ^eH  79  K O T o p i i e O T B e p r j i H eg,  npouiJioro,  ptix eft T e n e p t  He n o T O M y ,  dHJio p a d o t a T b .  HTO  eft  3TO  HpaBHaocb,  DTO  TBepaoe pemeHHe ,n;oKa3aTb TeM, JIOflOCTK, HTO HOTH..  KTO  BHHe  no  dbiJiH TaK-xe  a noToky, Hee  7  odMaHyji  Hoy cbaKTHHecKH padoTa ;  KOToporo  TaK  ee  KOTOcaoBa,  OHa  pa-  HTO  DTO  dHJia  6HAO  TaK  xe  ee  Ha^ex^H B  He #aBajia eft  CTpacTHo  H  nycTOTy.  OHa HMeJia CHJiy BOJIH TBepflO CTaTb Ha  yjOBjieTBopeHHa, "  paBHyio H  AJia c o x p a H e H H a CBoeft X H 3 H H .  HeodxoflHMocTb  Htie  HM  JIioflMHjia n p H K p i i B a j i a CBOIO BHyTpeHHKK)  KOTOPHMH  doTa^a  HVXHO  KaK  xoTe^a  CBOH  TOTO  ee  MO-  COdCTBeH-  ^yxoBHoro  xeHCKaa  HaTypa.  - H C T a j i a Ha H O T H , MeHa ijeHaT H y B a x a r o T , KaK p a d o T H H n y , MHe njiaTaT 3a DTO .neHbrn. Ho Bee T O , HTO e c T b BO MHe, o T d p a c H B a e T c a npn DTOM,  KaK He oTHocameeca K a e j i y , KaK HHKOMy HHJ na HTO He HyxHoe. £axe He O T d p a c H B a e T c a , a n p o c T O XH3Hb-TO MOa HHKOMy He H y X H a . . . HyXHa TOJIbKO Moa padonaa B  DTOM  CHaa."  16  ee BncKa3i>iBaHHH 3ByHHT T O C K a  H  ee  Heyj;oB3ieTBopeHHOCTb  xeHCKHx nyBCTB, nycTOTa ee xeHCKoro cep^qa. OHa TOCKOBajia o XeHCKOM npH3BaHHH - dblTb XeHOft H MaTepbK, JIHdHTb H dHTb /IK)dHMOft. 3TO  dujiH ee ecTecTBeHHiie  odmecTse rocTeft, na.  H  Tpa^nnnax,  cMOTpejia  3a  xejiaHHa,  odHaxaa ee  oTHaaa Bee B  DTHX  BocnHTaHHeM ^eTeft X\JIB  ee  DTH  XH3HH,  flyxoBHHe  jiaMH, JIio,HMHJia^ c r o p e n b i o  HHMaeT  y Hee  dHJia B o c n H T a H a  B  -  dtiaa ee r a a B H a a  DTO  3aaa-  0da3aHH0CTb MyxHHHH.  6una.  tjeHHOcTH,  DTHM  caMHM  KaK dii  KanecTBax.  Odcyx^aa Bonpoc c C e p r e e M o  HaMepeHHO y d H B a e T  KaK OHa  r^e xeHtcrHHa dbiJia xo3aftKoft flOMa, npHHHMajia  3apadaTHBaTb cpe^CTBa  PeBOJnonna  TaK  B  B  roJioce^  xenmHHe  ceMbio H . BMecTO  oTHomeHHH  HOBOM  TOBOPHT  O  TOM,  Bee jiynuiee - arodoBb B c e r o D T O T O . ^aeT  HTO H  Mex^y n o -  HOBHR  KpacoTy,  cTpoft OT-  eft paBHonpaBHe.  80  " - BeRb BH H&MepeHHO K f l e T e K T O M y , M T O 6 H yHHMTOXHTb, B H T p a B H T b H3 XH3HH MeJIOBeKa npenpacHoe, neii OH XHJI cTOJibKO BeKOB...  CaMOe BH KaK BH  XOTHTe yHHMTOXHTb JlK)60Bb , K p a C O T y , yHHHTOXHJIH y x e p e j i H r H K . " " H x&nhme OHa T O B O P H T - B H onycTomn^H x H 3 H b , O T HHJIH. y H e e B e e K p a c K H , yHHMToxnjiH ceMbio. MTO y Bac o c T a e T c a ? H MTO BaM B xeHiijHHe T e n e p b ocTaeTca,... " - H ^ejiaeT 3aKJiiOMeHHe - Ho rjiaBHoe, - BH y H H M T O XHJIH JHOdOBb. Ty JIKdOBb, BHffle KOTOpoft HeT HHMero H a 3eMJie,... B H Be&h yHHMToxnjiH T y JiiodoBb, K O T O paa no^HHMaeT M e a o B e K a O T X H B O T H O T O Ha HeaocaraeMyio BHCOTy M e ^ o B e M H O C T H , K O T o p a a pox#aeT B HeM caiiyio TOHKyro n o o ' 3 H » . . . . B H npHiiiJiH, KaK BapBapti H CMejiH H a CBoeM n y T H MHoroe H3 T O T O , MTO Me JioBeMecT — E Q xpaHHao, KaK Bbicmna ueHHocTH B npo,nojixeHHH MHO-  THX BeKOB. " HeMHOTO £JIHHHOH  DTOH,  H3  U . H T a T H , MOXHO 3aK^K)MHTb,  JlK^MHJIH  TOBOpHJI HHTe JIJIHTeHT —K^eaJIHCT  rj[a3aMH  yHHMTOxeHHe MejioBeMecKHx  BHCIIIHMH.  nocTaBHB  rpynnn,  PoMaHOB KaK  MopajiH  BaeTca MTO  Mopajib npn  jiHMHoro  HcnHTHBaJi  onpe^e^ieHHHx  KyjibTypHoro KpoB^Horo  He3aBHCHMocTH  JIIOSBH H  repoeB B  TaKHe  CHTiy  H  HOMauiHero  y CJIOBHH •.  ycnoBHax  jnodBH O T H X BOcnHTaHHH,  OH  TaK-xe  CMHTaji  COU.HajIbHHe  o(5pa30BaHHa,  Ceprea,  c  JIioflMH^a  a  HX  BJiHaHHM  MTO  BocnHiH-  ^ejiaeM  OTcro^a MH  pa3JiHMHHX  Ha  OH  noKa3aji,  flByx repoeB 6uno  ^BHxeHHK) Bnepe,a;; B3Hpaa  KOTopne  CBOHMH  c5ypxya3HO-KHTejiJiHreHTCKofi  XH3HH.  npoHcxox^eHHa.  o n a r a He  yBHfleBUIHH  pasjTHMHHe  He^ocTHraeTca noayMeHHeM  rjiaBHOH T p a r e ^ n e t t  pasjiHMHe  K  6u  ueHHocTen,  ycjioBHax nepexoflHoro nepno^a.  B  BHCOKaa  CBOHX  PoMaHOB,  CJIOBaMH  MTO  BHBO^,  rjiydoKoe  cpe^H,  pa3-  paHHeft  IOHOCTH, npHBHK  HCKajia  npe^aHHoS  c^oxHBuiHeca  conna^bHiie  81  FOOTNOTES  1&2Panteleymon Romanov, H o v a l a S k r l z h a l . j , I s d a t e l s t v o " L i t e r a t u r a " , R i g a , 1928, p. 5k. I b i d . , p. 17.  3  ^ I b i d . , p. 18. -.. I b i d . , p. 22. ^ I b i d . , p. 36. I b i d . . p. 2k.  7  1 Q  8  I b i d . , p. 27.  9  I b i d . . p. 86. I b i d . . p. 88.  1 : L  I b i d . . p. 16.  12  Ibid.« p. 117.  13  0 p . c i t . , p. 117-118,  Ik  I b ^ d . , p. 23. 1  ^0p. c i t . . p. 2k.  ^ I b i d . , p. 26. 1 7  I b i d . , p. 38-39.  82  MEJIOBEMECKAfl jyiUA "  11  PACCKA3 1928. CioxeT nocTaB/ieHHaa  B nojioxeHHe  duBmyio d a p H H K XHTejibCTBa, c  HeM H  HcnojraaTb  pByTca  flByx  aojixHocTb  sceHiUHH,  no  BHemHHM  TOM,  OTOTO  CTapue,  Ta  He  npe^jiaraeT  padoTHHqH,  cioxeT  yHHMTOxaioTca  H  y"3HaB, MTO  cpe^cTB,  HH  Pa3BepTHBaa  B  no^pyra,  MTO  padoTOjtiaTejibHHn'H, npHHHMaeT y  no^pyry.  CBOIO  padoTH,  HH  Hyxflaaacb. KaK  -  3aKJiK>MaeTca  paccKa3a  DTOTO  B  efi  KOTopott  paccKa3a,  Ka3ajiocb  odcToaTejibCTBaM  HMeeT  ceda MecTa-  HH  xHTb  ocTaTbca  cettMac  OHa  PoMaHOB  noKa3HBaeT,  dbi HepyuiHMBie,  nocTaBJieHHtix  MyBCTBa  npoTHBo-  B  nojioxHbie no3HUHH. Cocpba Mamy, dbiJia  HnKOJiaeBHa, TOJIBKO-MTO  oneHt  oropneHa  dHJio OMeHb T p y ^ H O . 3a  ^Bepbio  yBH^ejia OHa  3BOHOK.  nepe^  B TaKoft  KaK  HecMacTHHH  Koraa Cocpba  HafiTH MOMeHT  apyryio ee  npncjiyry,  CBOHJ  npncjiyry pa3^ajica  XH3HH  H n K O J i a e B H a OTKpHJia .HBepb,  c o d o t t HHmeHCKH o ^ e T y i o ,  y 3 H a j i a CBOIO  "  TaK  OTHM,  pac#HTaBiuaa  npexHioio noflpyry  xy^eHbKyw  xeHttjHHy,  TO  B  OHa  KOTopott  HpHHy.  3TO 6UJI JiyMiuHH .npyr e e M O J I O ^ O C T H , e^HHCTBeHHuM apyr e a ,nyuiH. H p H H a , T O H K a a , H e o d H K H O B e H H a a nyma, nepe,n K O T O P O H Bcer.ua x o T e j i o c b p a c K p t i T b  CBOIO jiyray, xeHiuHHa c HexHeHuiHM K P O T K H M cep^qeM, KOTopoe, Ka3anocb, nejiHKOM OTpaxaaocb B ee orP O M H H X r p y c T H u x H npaB^HBBix r ^ a 3 a x . " * BOT  OT de3 HO  Hee  HejsaBHcamHe  jjOMa, r,ne,  Tenepb  3Ta  de3  Myx  ee,  xeHmHHa,  coBceM  no  ee* B j r a e , a  odcToaTeabCTBa^npeBpaTHJiacb  ceMbH,  de3  cpe^CTB  denorBapflefteKHH  CTopoHaTca  He  ee,  KaK  cymecTBOBaHHa. ocfiHuep,  onHneMHH.  H  Mepe3  B HHmero  CeMba  paccTpe^taH, a BOT  DTa  no^pyra  BHeiiiHHe, MejioBeKa,  ee  HeH3BecT-  3HaKOMbie dBiaa  ee  83  nocjiejjHHfl Hajj;eKfla. BHCJiymaB H p H H y , HTO  eft  HTO  y  xopomo  Hee  MOMeHT  xHBeTca,  H  Co<$>ba HHKOJiaeBHa p a c c K a s a J i a  HeT H e j j o c T a T K O B .  O T n J i a T H T b eft  Myx  HTO  3a B c e ,  ee  o  cede,  rocyjjapcTBeHHHH nejioBeK  OHa  CKa3ajia  HTO  OHa H  HpHHe,  ee  ceMba  HacTaji  HTO  caejiajiH  H  ee  fljia  CO(£>bH. Kor^a  "  dHJia  TH  doraTa,  MHe B c e r j ^ a  dHJio  jjocaflHO,  a HHHen He M o r y T e d e O T r u i a T H T b 3 a T B o e O T HomeHHe KO MHe H 3a oTHOineHHe TBoeft MaMH, K O T O p a a dHJia ^ J I H MeHH BTopoft M a T e p t i o , H de3 B a c a , K p y r j i a a c n p o T a , K O H e n H o , /jaBHO dbi noradJia. " 2 HTO  Coijiba noBejia ^opoTHe  CBOH  3epKajioM  Co$ba,  CBoen  Ha  RO  njiaTba,  "  XHPHOH  dejibe,  BbixojieHHOH  H  noKa3HBaeT,  nero  DroHCTHHHa H  RO  eM noKa3HBaTb  CTajia  H  OHa n p H M e p a j i a  KOTopue  nepe^  $Hrype. decHy&TBeHHa  nero  Majioco3HaTejibHa  no  dHJia  OTHomeHHio K  nojio-  nojj;pyrH.  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Co$ba y c T p a H B a j i a  HO  y  HTO  flopornx  Hee  no/j;pyr  eft  cKaH^aji H 3 - 3 a  na  naff  jno^eM H  H JJ;JIH H e e  JioacKa,  nponajia K  cede,  eM c a M o K  Ka3ajiocb  nponaxn  TO  OJHOM  coBceM JIOXKH.  84  HaKOHeu;,  H,  Ha  ^ocTaTb K  TaK  padOTy.  padOTy,  pemeHHio,  dy^eT  Hee  He  eft  BMecTe  OHa d y ^ e T  npncjiyry,  c  dHJia  eft,  npn/JiyMHBaTB,  nacnopia,  dHJio  padoTH  de3  onaTB  r^e  HMeTb  y  CTajiH  MpHHa o c T a H e T C H  MTO  MecTO,  H  a  dyayT  Tor/Jta O H H Ty  KaK  OHH  H  XHTB  He  ^a^yT  XHTB  y  nan  ycTpoHTB  eft  TO  dHJio  KBaprapn.  HpHHa dy/j;eT  de3  a  KOTopoft  npHxojuaT  npHCJiyra.  CMacT J I H B H . CTpaxa,  Tpy^HO  OHH  CO*BH Ha n p a B a x  HpHHy  HMeTb pado-  Coc&Ba HHKOJiaeBHa  odpama.T&ca, KaK c  OHa d y ^ e T  cecTpoft. HpHHa  npHHHJia TaKoe  MTO  napTHftHOCTH",  JIH  ^  yMacTHe H,  TBOeM JIHUe, H  B  Ho  npoimio  HaKpbiBaTB  CTOJI.  #ejiHKaTHa  c HpHHoft  neinHOCTH  nHTb  oTHOiiieHHax  /j;pyr  OHa He  H3-3a  Ha  Ta He  "  dec-  xpaHHTe-  5  ode noapyrn noMyBCTBoBaflpyry.  dHJia OMeHB  HpHHa  npHroTOBJIHTB  paccTpoHJiacB  MTO  TO,  HcnyrajiacB  CMaCTJIHBa.  ynejia  CocpBe HHKOJiaeBHe  TOCTH H  CTpnnaTB  TOTO,  K  "He  nocjiajia aHreJia  JJiHeft, KaK  G O $ B H HHKOJiaeBHa  npHTJiaaieHH  BHJIH  HeBHpa3HMO  ejiyxaHKH,  padOTe  B  B  JIHMHOH cyjj[bde,  ee  6e3yMHO, TOJIBKO  JIH Hejienoe n o J i o x e H n e  decnoMomHa  B  OMeHB dJiaro^apHa 3a  BHJ4HO " c y ^ B d a MHe  KaK H  CBOIO o n e p e ^ b ,  B  ynejia  H  nnmy  H  dHJia OMeHB He  npnroTOBHTB cajiaT.  npHuuiocB caMoft  B  noc-  KyxHe.  Korjj;a npnuiJiH T O C T H H dHJi no/j;aH y x H H , H p H H a MyBCTBOBajia  ceda coBepmeHHo Hejieno H  OHa  He  Morjia MeM  OHH  TaroTHJiHCB  noTOM  KHft  npncoenHHHTBca  ^ajiBuie  KyxHe, K  HpHHa xHJia  ,npyr jjpyroM.  Kor^a  B  cTO/ioBoft dHjra T O C T H  HHM.  c CocJ)Beft  CHaMajia  HHKOJiaeBHoft,  GocpBH.  MyBCTBOBajia  Kor.ua  odJierMeHHe  H  oda  dojiBine  rpoMKHft H  xo3aeBa yxo^HjiH H3 norny,  ycnoKoeHHe.  Ten  HpHHa d o a j i a c B . x o 3 S H H a ,  Ha Hee ^eftcTBOBaTB BeMHo pa3/j;paxeHHHft,  CTaji  rojioc  CH/JCH n a  TO  a  pe3-  HpHHa  85  OcTaBaacb MHJiacB jiacb  c AHHyniKOH,  c AHHyuiKoM,  cnoKofiHbie  ee  /j;pyxda  p a d o T O H HpHHbi,  CTBHeM  Bce  H  Ha KyxHe,  diiJia  3aHaTa  Cotfba  Toraa  MeHbrae KaK  KOMHaTax.  B  npncjiyrn,  flJia  yBHjieB,  jiaeBHa  XOTH  dHJio H p H H y .  DTOTO  Co(£>ba  eft  c  no3HaKOCXOJJH-  JiacKOBBie  H  paccKa3a.  ceda Hey/j;oBJieTBopeH-  HeH.  HacTO HpHHa BHA,  HTO  cHjjejia OHa  p a d o T o f t HPHHBI, KOTopBie OHa  HOBBie n j i a T b a  Ha  npncyT-  H  dpajia  uiJianH.  c AHHyuiKOft,  Co$ba H H K O -  cTajin  "npona^aTb"  JIOXKH  y Hee  3artHCKy,  OH HanncaH  ^eHbra,  HX  ee  apyxdy  o o c T o a H H H dBiJia  O c T a B H B eft  dojibnie H e n p H a T H o -  pa3JJcpaxajiacb  3apnjiaTBi.  HaxojJiHJia.  H  eft  HeyjjoBJieTBopeHHoft  HpHHa H a n a j i a  nojj;o3peHHe o n e H b  3TO flOJibuie  HpHHa  TaK  H OCKOP-  O G T a B a T b c a B jsovse  ymjia  npocTO,  K AHHyume. TaK  noHaTHO  TaKOB ,20  aeTaJieft. HTO  xe  G  OJJHOH  ueHHoro  H HHTepecHoro  CTOpOHEI HyXHO  JiByx  no/j;pyr,  B  DTOM  paccKa3e?  3aMeTHTb, KaK yMejio  KOTopiie  0Ka3ajiHCb  B  POMaHOB  pa3-  npoTHBonoJioxHHx  Od C T O a T e J I b C T B a x . C jJtpyroft C T o p o H H , ,  B  ee  HHKOJiaeBHa a e j i a j i a  EyflyHH  nocjie  OHa H e B  odJiaHHJi . n p y x d y XH3HeHHBIX  dojibme  OHa nspacxo^oBajia  HTO  OHa HX  c B o e f t nojj;pyrH.  MaJieftuiHx  HpHHa  OHa n a c T O  cjiyinaTb  BHyTpn  roBopHjia  CTajia n o ^ 0 3 p e B a T b , HTO  dpouiKH,  yxe  dojibuie H  H H K O J i a e B H a He n J i a T H j i a  nyxa  cioxeT  dBiJio n p n a T H o  jjoMa.  c AHHyinKoft n p H H e c i a  Bce  MeHbiue H  ojma.  y  K a K eft  HHKOJiaeBHa B o c n K T a B  Go$bH  HOCTB  coce/jHero  n p H C J i y r o f t H3  Tan  oflHHOKoft,  cjioBa. Ho  CTeft.  dojibnie vs dojibiue  Bce  IICHXHKe 9 T H X  CTBeHHBie H X  PoMaHOB T a K x e  XeHMHH HaHHHaiOT  noJioxeHHaM.  DTH  yuejso n o K a 3 H B a e T ,  3apOXflaTbCH HyBCTBa  n y B C T B a THHyjra H p H H y ,  H MBICJIH, dBiBtuyio  KaK CBOH-  odpa-  8 6  30BaHHyio  daptiHio,  aBJiaeTca T e n e p b . "  CTopoHy  B  AHHYHIKH,  PoMaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T ,  cBoeft d e , 3 H O C T H , HMeeT dojiBiue PoMaHOB ^aeT  BtiCKa3HBaeT  BHyTpeHee  MUCJIB  ejjHHeHHe  .npyrne  H  aBTopti  HyxHO  o  TOM,  HTO  3aMeTHTB,  HTO  xe  AHHyuiKy.  OTOTO  oneHB  H  KOTopyio  CBOHX  co3-  npncjiyry  MaanoB-  npoH3Be/j;eHHax.  HaHHHaeTca  AHHymKa npHHHMaeT  odpa30M, AHHyuiKa a B J i a e T c a  Mexay " d a p H H e M " TOHKO  KanecTBa  T e M , HTO  3a ro,  HTO  ynacTHe  H  OHa . B  paccKa3a.  TaKHM dpjiHKTa  3Ta  B  CO$BH.  nponcxoxaeHHa.  THHH,  paccKa3  CTapyio  neM  O^HOTO  conHajiBHoro  decnoma^Ho  npHHaJia pa3BH3Ke  padoTa  rpoMHJiH Tan  Tan-xe  n p n Bceft  CHMnaTHH,  MeinaHCKoft  CBOB  ceda  H  caMa  K O T o p o M OHa  AHHyuiKa,  flodBineM  CocJiBa HHKOJiaeBHa p a c H H T t i B a e T y  HTO  coxajieHHa  IIOMHMO H X  Cotpba x e C T a j i a CKHH  npncjiyrH,  H  "npHCJiyroft",.  peajiHCTHHecKH  B  HCXOJJ;HHM  KOTOPHH  nyHKTOM  KOH-  BHBeJieH PoMaHOBHM  H3MeHaiofflefica ncnxHKe o d e n x  repoHHB.  87  FOOTNOTES  ^Panteleymon Romanov, R a s s k a s y , I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", R i g a , 1928., v o l . XL, p. 1 0 7 . 2  I b i d . . p.  108.  3  I b i d . , p.  109.  LL  I b i d . , p.  110.  I b i d . , p.  111.  88  " nPABO HA KH3H'b " HJIH n p o d J i e u a  decnapTHftHocTH  nOBECTb npoH3Bejj[eHHe, n o cBoet!  DTO  uiecTBeHHHKOM DTOM  poMaHa  rjiaBHOtt  HBjineTca  TSMOH  CTapoM  necTBo  "ToBapHm  juaBJieHHe  HOBHX  cTapaeTCH BceMH  ycjioBHft  nncaTejib  OH  dujiH  CHH  BJiacTH.  Omyman cTpaHe,  TaK H  K a K MH  yxe  BO B  jj;ejiaTb  Bcex  CTHXHHHO6  C T a p a a HHTejiJiHreHu,HH K  DTHM  CTpaHH.  co-  ycjioBHHM  He nOHHMaJIH H He B  npoH3BefleHHa decnapTHHHHfi  DTOTO  OcTaHKHH, Toxe  ynHJiHin., O c T a H K H H  aHKeTax  nepnojc  H  CKptiJi  peBOJironHH H  "HeftTpajibHoe  peBOJIKUHH yTHXHeT  3HaeM,  MoxeT  H H n e r o He  noHHTb.  HTO  HHcneKTopa Hapo^HHx H  B  npHcnocodJieHe-  nocTOHHHoe,  npncnocodHTbCH  repoR  TOM,  B  MopajiH H  H3MeHeHHfi, KOTOpHe OHH  JleoHHJj C e p r e e B H H  30BaHHe.  3Haji  CTapofi  HOBOH  B  KaK  npe^-  E C J I H T H MO C H X n o p cymecTByem* Ha CBeTe, SHanHT, dJiaronojiyMHo npocKOHHJi n e p e s peBOJironHio, H T e n e p b HMeenib npaBO H a xH3Hb, T a K CKa3aTb, 3a aaBHOCTbio JieT..." 1  BOJIIOHHH  HJICH  XH3HH  noHHTb.  TOJibKO jotyMaeT, "  Kpax  PoMaHOBa.  cnocodaMH  IIHajIbHO-KOMMyHH/^eCKHX COCTOHHHH  KHCJIHKOB".  H H T e JIJIHreHu,HH K  dH/ia JiiodHMaH T e M a  DTO  T e n a T H K e , HBJineTCH  OH  CBoe  pacTepnjicH nocjie  npoHcxox^eHHe  H  BoeHHoro KOMMyHHSMa^  odmenojie3Hoe  npHCOe^HHHT  TH  jiejio"  2  H  CBOO  peodpa-  ycTpo-  OcTaHKHH  BHXHjtaji  noKa  dypa  CH K MHpHOMy CTpOHTe Jib CT By  y H e r o HHKorjj[a HejdHJio xejiaHHH dopoTbcn, TaK KaK OH He  npoTHB K O T O d o p o T b c n  H  sa  HTO  eMy  dopoTbcn.  OH  npocTO  dHJi  HeflTpajIbHHM. Ho  c  Tex  nop  npomjio  yxe  MHOTO  BpeMeHH H  MHoroe  H3-  89  MeHH/iocB, B  HO  aHKeTax.  BpeMa  O c T a H K H H RO C H X nop xHBeT B C T p a x e OH  doHTca  CTapaeTca  3 a CBOIO JlOXb  KOMMeHjjaHTa aoMoynpaBJieHHa  /jaxe  6HTI> C H H M B x o p o m n x  H  OTHOiiieHHax.  JleoHH^ O c T a H K H H co BpeMeHeM nojiyHHJi mTaTHyio cenpeTapa  BaTHM,  H3 x y p H a j i o B .  XoTa  HHKTO,  IIOTOM  MTO B O T y x e ^ e c a T b  OH  O H MyBCTBOBaji  JieT npoinjio  jtojixHOCTb  Hanaji n n c a T t  HHMero eMy H He r o B o p H J i ,  He n o K H j j a j i a e r o c e p / j u a .  TpeBora  Bee  O#HOM  xypHajia.  DTOTO  TO  B  Bee  C T a T b H ,HJIH Bee x e  ceda  Kanaa-  KaK dH BHHO-  co ^ H a peBOJHOU,HH,  a OH dHJi,  eme, d e c n a p T H f t H H M . Ejj;a O ^ H H M  K O M o r o nHcaTe'jia,  Bcex nncaTejieft .3TOTO  B  TpaMBae  MTO B r a 3 e T e  cTaTb  COOdmeHHH  IToMeMy  yTpoM  Ha p a d o T y ,  dHJia H a n e M a T a H a  npoMHTaji  CTaTb»,  PHJIOCB.  H Bce x e  KOMMyHHCTaMH, a K T O H e C T a H e T  TaKaa  naHHKa,  T O OH y B H ^ e ^ ,  (  ,OH B e c b  OH  OT 3 H a -  Tpedyromaa  B naHHKy.  K o r . u a O H caM  MTO B Heft H H M e r o o c o d e H H o r o  jjeHb H e  MOT  ocBodonHTbca  K a K O B a x e dHJia .zteftCTBHTejibHaa  H  flpyrnx  nHcaTejieft-nonyTMHKOB?  B COBeTCKOM COH)3e HaM H 3 B e C T H 0 ,  no^MHHHTbca  npHMHHa T p e B o r n O c T a H K H H a H3 H C T O P H H  pa3BHTHa  MTO B 3TO BpeMa  .HHKTaType  c o B e p m e H H o r o H X H 3 r a a H H H H3 jiHTepaTypHott OcTaHKHH Jiocb,  3Haji o d 3 T O M  MTO e r o n p a B o  CTBaX^ dHJXO OMeHb  He TOBO-  3aKpaBineftca  OT  oToft  jiHTepa-  PATHl-OBUaM  dHJia j a H a C B o d o ^ a BecTH KaMnaHHio n p o T H B n o n y T M H K O B c uejibK BHTb H X nojiHOCTbio  OT  KptmiKai"  "TOM -  caM H e 3 H a j i .  H  TpeBora.  TypH  cTaTta  dHJIO .ZIOCTaTOMHO , MTOdH O c T a H K H H d p o c H j i c a  e r o oxBaTHjia  MHOTHX  ycjiHmaji  OH  3acTa-  o p r a H H 3 a n . H H HJIH x e  jjeaTejibHocTH.  nojioxeHHH B n H c a T e j i b C K H x  Kpyrax  n a xH3Hb H H a T B o p M e c T B o ^ n p H  TaKHx  JleoHH/j H eMy K a 3 a ~ odcToaTejib-  3HdKO.  3Haa CBoe noJioxeHHe H e y B e p e H H o c T H , JleoHHj O c T a H K H H HHcaji  90  Tan, HTodBi  /rpyTHe  0JJ;HHM CJIOBOM, OH  flomeji  RO  OH  He  noayMajin,  HTO  OH  npHcnocadJiHBajica.  H  diiJi n p o T H B peBOJiiouHH, B  cBoen npHcnocodJieHHnecTBe  noBTopeHHa Ten o peBOjnoiiHH.  MexaHHnecKoro  " CoBepmeHHO He BH.II.HO jiHua!" - roBopHT eMy rjiaBHHii pe^aKTop Py/jaKOB. " Bce TeMH y Bac TOJIBKO O peBOJiK>n,HH H O padonnx, H O Kor^a He BHflHmi Bamero JtHua, TO BocnpHHHMaeinfe OTO KaK <$>ajibin, n o T O M y H T O T e n e p b " T a K H y x H o " n H c a T b . . . . noneMy OTO B,npyr Bce mary He CTynaT d e 3 T O T O , H T O dH o peBOJiKin-ra HJIH o padonnx He H a n H c a T b ? " - y ^ H B jiajica P y ^ a K O B . - "PeBOJiioiiHOHHoe xyaoxecTBeHHoe npoH3Bejj;eHHe M O X H O nncaTb, H H cjioBa He ynoMHHaa o c a MOH  peBOJIIOIJHH.  "  3  TaKoe TpedoBaHHe peaaKTopa oneHb nHcaji  erne  HTodti  OT  ECJIH HHM  dH  .no ero  peBOJiiouHH, H O  HHKor/ja flaxe  jindo TpedoBaji  nHcaHHfl K T O  ero c n p o c n j i H ,  JJ;O peBoJIIOH,HH  JIHUOM  eMy  OTBeTHJi 6 k :  -  H  OCTeTHHeCKOH nOTpedHOCTH."  cjiyxy  Boodme  B  rojioBy  BH  He  OH  npHxo^HJio,  o c o d e H H o r o . " ...  nero-TO  neMy  OcTaHKHHa.  y^HBHJio  cjiyxHTe?  KyjibType  H  OcTaHKHH c a c -  yjjoBJieTBopeHHio  4  Hocjte CBoero p a 3 r o B o p a c pejiaKTopoM PyaaKOBtiM, OcTaHKHH meji  JO;OMOH H  paccyxflaji,  HTO  " - PoccHa y x TaKaa HecKacTHaa CTpaHa, H T O OHa H H K o r f l a He yBHJUHT HacToamefi cBodo^H. H KaK O H H He noMMyT, HTO, 3 a n e n a T U B a a M e p T B o f i n e n a T b i o H C T O H H H K H TBopnecTBa, O H H ocTaHaBJiHBaioT H ydHBaioT K y j i b T y p y ? . . . 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"5 B cJioBax OcTaHKHHa CBOH  TOJIOC  POCCHH,  o  TOM,  MH  HTO  nocTpoeHHaa  H  CJIHIIIHM  HeT  Hamero  cBodo^H  BNxojB^JieHHaa  aBTopa,  RJIH  onaTb  TBopnecTBa,  dopuaMH  ee  rpHdoe^oB, HepHHmeBCKHH, 7J[ocToeBCKHH, T o r o J i b ,  no^HHMaiom,ero HTO  KyjibTypa  cBodo,n,H, KaK TOJICTOH  H  IlymKHH,  MHorne  91  .Hpyrne  BejiHKHe MHCJiHTejm^xepTBOBajiH JIHHHOH  coxpaHeHHa TBopnecKOH CBOSO^H,  RJIH  rpo3HJia  cnepTb.  repoeB,  CBOHX  Bo  Bcex  dHJia Tenepb B OKOBax H  eft  npoH3Be^eHHHx PoMaHOB, n e p e 3  CBOHX  TpeBory  BHCKa3tiBaeT  cBodoaoii  XH3HBIO H  ycTa  yHHHTOxeHHe c B o d o f l H MHCJIH  3a  H  06e3JIHHHBaHHH HHTeJIJIHreHTHOTO HeJIOBeKa. ripeac^e n n c a T e j i H d o p o j r a c b 3a H X , K a K C B f l T H H f o . . . A KaKOBH caTejien? " 6  "  GnpamHBaeT nncaTejib  jj;pyra  npoaaTb  TOTOB  CTpaxa  3a  JleoHHjj; O c T a H K H H .  B HHHeuiHHx y c j i o B H a x ,  KOTOPOH  JIIO/JH <3HJIH T a K H a n y r a H H .  6OHMCH." ^ ,  TOBOPHT  OcTaHKHH.  Bepnji  B oejib  K  ^pyrnx,  flocTHxeHHH  HO  HX  caM "HM"  H  B  CBOIO  JiHHHOCTb "KaK  HHM  3acTeHMHBHM n e j i o B e K O M ,  de3JiHHHfl",  DTO  HH3HB  cJiyHHJiocb " . . .  jJtoft BenHyio cymHOCTb. BHCHT  OT  jjpyrHx  xHTb. A ecjiH He flOpory" Bce,  HTO  H  HTO eMy  H  EtpH DTOM  xazyT..®  OH  un  H3apyr  BHHCHHJI,  OH  n  HeT  HTO Bcer^a  OH  CTpeMHjica.  TOJIbKO 110MO-  npHcnocadJIHBaJICH  Mor  dy^ynn  nepeHocHTb  Toro, HTO  H6BHHOCHMOH. OH  KaK  noTepHJi  eMy  O H jjyMaji, H T O  ocTaBajiocb,  CBoero  OH  npHcno-  3Haji,  HTO  npnpo-  .aaHHyio eMy  xaJiKHft no.ieHffl.HK, B c e u e j i o  ,aa,nyT  OH  padoTy, nonaji  .uyaaji O H ,  DTO  B  jjodpocoBecT-  CBoe cymecTBOBaHHe H  cTajia  ecjiH O H H  Ho  JSH3Hb HBJIHeTCH TOJIbKO "HHHTOXHHH MHp Tenepb  Bce  "Be^b  dHTb HM  e^HHHEty." &  Tenepb O H ,  flpoxHT'::  ne  dHJIO HyXHO H  O c T a H K H H He  .HJIH H e r o OT  DTO  CTaTbnx O c T a H K H H a  B  D T O H uejra  de3H,neHHOCTH, doH3Hb 3a  codJieHBHecTBa. Bee  K  H  OH,  cBoeM npHcnocodjieHSHecTBe n o T e p a j t  uejiyio  Macce  n  HTO  OJJ;HHM CJIOBOM,  uejiH.  co3^aBmHMca y c J I O B H H M .  H  TOM,  caMoncHxoaHajiH3y.  XOTeJI TOJIbKO yjIOBHTb, HTO' fflHHKOM B  o  roBopHT  cyna.  CMepTH,  JiHua" npHBejio e r o  K  TapejiKy  CBOIO H^ero 3a  3aMenaHHe pe/j;aKTopa  OH  C B O H y d e x ^ e H H H , HTHJIH T e n e p b ydex^eHHH ITH-  dyaeT  OH He  "Ha  Ty  BeHHOCTH".  flodpoBOJibHO  yftTH  3a-  92  H3 XH3HH " . . . MTOdH I t p e K p a T H T b cymecTBOBaHHe".  ^  Ho  yxo,UH H3  CBOHM COTpyj^HHKaM X y p H a J i a ,  OHH X H B y T BO "  3T0 HeflOCTOHHOe MeJIOBeKa JIXHBOe XH3HH, OCTaHKHH  B KOTOPOM OH OdBHHHeT HX  JIXH , n p H T B o p M e c T B e ,  MTO  r j i a B H a a Bauia jioxb B T O M , - nnineT O c T a H K H H , B H H3 6 j i H 3 o p y K O H T p y c o c T H n e p e j j onoxoM O T peKjiHCb OT C B o e r o nojiJiHHHoro JiHua, OT cBoeM CyiUHOCTH, H3 60H3HH, MTO OHa " H e noH.neT". H T e n e p b B H de3JiHU.He, paBHOJJcymHHe no^eHmHKH, BHnoJiHHMUHe 3a xjied n y x n e 3ana3H , H e HMeiomnx K BameM MTO  (5HJIO OMeHb T a x e j i o e  KOHeMHO,  H  o d B H H e H H e J^JIH Bcex npHcnocodJieHneB H ,  MJlfl KOMMyHHCTHMeCKOtt n a p T H H , KOTOpafl nocTaBHJia H H T e j I -  jiHreHUHio B T a K o e B  My  B TOM,  yrojiHHHecTBe  CyiKHOCTH H H K a K O r O OTHOmeHHfl. "  OT^ejie  IIHCBMO  CaMaa  -  3TO  Hanncaji  noJioxeHHe.  xypHajie  "Ha JiHTepaTypHOM nocTy" Ho.21, 1928 r o j j a ,  " H a n o c T O B C K H H ^HeBHHK", MH  B  Haxo/jHM TaKyro K p H T H K y n o n o B o -  npoH3BejieHHa P o M a H O B a : " n. PoMaHOB BHJ;HT pajjOM c OcTaHKHHHM  DTOTO  H B c e x MacTeff H K a j i H d p o B TOJibKO 3 y d p a rB03jj;eBa /ja n p o J i e T a p c K o r o n o o T a 3Be3^;eBa, y K O T o p o r o 1 TaKoft BHJI, K a K o f i d H B a e T y CHHa JiHpeKTopa 3aBe,neHHH, n p n HSBecTHH, MTO M H O T O y n e H H K O B , e r o TOBapnmeM, n p e ^ n o j i a r a e T c a yBOJiHTb; D T O c p e j i H H H X BH3HBaeT n e p e n o j i o x , H O H a Hen S T O H H H S K He  MOXeT OTpa3HTbCH.' " ... HanpacHO n. PoMaHOB B M e c T e c npo JieTnosTOM 3Be3jj;e> B'HM n p e ^ n o j i a r a e T , MTO n p o d J i e M a n p H c n o c o d J i e H e M e c T B a c o B c e M He K a c a e T c a n p o j i e T a p c n o M JiHTepaTypH. K coxaJieHHio, 3TO He T a K , H n p o JieT a p e K H M n n c a T e j i f l M n p n x o ^ H TCH B CBOHX pHJJiax H C K O p e H H T b y p a - OnTHMH3M HeKOTO — p n x uianK0 3aKHJj;aTejiett. Od O T O M n. PoMaHOB MoxeT H He 3HaTb. Ho KaK n. PoMaHOB He 3aMeTHJi PHJJ;OM c n p n c n o c o d J i e H n e M OcTaHKHHHM H e c K O J i b K o j ; e c f f T K O B n H e a T e J i e i t n o n y T M H K O B , H 3 KOTOpHX KaxJJHH HMeeT c s o e JIHUO, CBOK) ocotfeHHyio nHcaTejibCKyio HH/j;HBH/j;yajibHOCTb, KOTopbie, H a K O H e q , B3HTHe BMecTe, B HejioM npejicTaBJiaioT codoft coBepmeHHo o c o d e H H y i o JiHTepaTypy, OTJinnaiomyiocfl KaK O T JJiOpeBOJHOHHOHHOM d y p x y a 3 H O - H B o p H H C K O - p o c c H t t c K o f t , T a K H O T coBpeMeHHOH d y p x y a s H O - e B p o n e H c K o M H aMepHKaHCKOtt J i H T e p a T y p H , KOTopyio, HecMOTpa Ha 3HaHHTe JibHtie OTJIHMHH, M O X H O o d t e j i K H H T b B M e c T e c n p o J i e T a p c K o K j i H T e p a T y p o f t no,n oduiHM Ha3BaHHeM c o B e T C K o M , T a K K a K H T a H jj;pyraa HBJIHKJT-  93  CH npOH3BOj;HUMH  OT COU.HaJIHCTHHeCKOH peBOJIKECHH  B P O C C H H , H O ORHQ. - B ee npHMOM H H e n o c p e / j c T B e H HOM npejioMJieHHH, flpyran B KOCBeHHOM H d o a e e y c j i o x -  HeHHOM. IIOCTaBHTb B UeHTp BHHMaHHH O c T a H K H H a H He3aMeTHTb H H J l e o H O B a , H H Be. H B a H O B a , H H CeltdbyjuiH-  Hy, H H Eadean, H H Ojiemy, H H CejibBHHCKoro. H H AceeBa, H H ManKOBCKoro, H H , HaKoneu;, c a M o r o c e d a ; " 12 BHiueyKa3aHHOH  ABTOP  nonyTMHKOB He  OHH  JIK>H.HH. BOPHJIH  K  ropa3.no  MoryT  TaKHM  odpa30M,  HaKOHeu.,  noHHTb  odujecTBe.  nHcaTejiett  npHcnocod/ieHueB,  TaK  -  KaK  npouecca couHajiHCTHHecKOH peBO-  pa3peuieHHe  He  B TBopnecKon nocTaBHTb  H T O Tpare^HH  TparejjHH  HanocTOBu;ti, 3aKaK>naeTCH  coiiHajiHCTHHecKOMy DTOM  cepbe3Hee  H He XOTHT  fleHCTBHTeJibHocTH  ^ojixeH,  u[HTaTH y K a 3 H B a e T ,  npodJieMti B  decnapTHHHocTH,  caitoydHHCTBe,a^B npHdJiHxeHHH  padOTe,  T.e.  cnocodHocTH,  CBOH  nHcaTe/rb-nonyTHHK CBOH  CTpoHTejibCTBy HHane y H H X HeT ;  ro-  H^en  npaBa  Ha  yenyrn  Ha x H 3 H b  B  94  FOOTNOTES  •'•Panteleymon Romanov, R a s s k a s y , I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", R i g a , 1928, v o l . X L , p. 53. ^Ipjd.  ?  p. 6 3 .  I b i d . . P. 6 1 .  3 & I f  ^ I b i d . , p. 6 9 . 0p.  6  7  c i t . . p.  Op. c i t . , p. 6 l .  8  I b i d . , p. 8 5 .  9  I p _ i d . , p. 9 3 .  1 Q  I p i d . . p. 9 7 .  1 1  I b i d . , P. 9 9 .  12  69.  U.L. " O P . Romanove" Na l i t e r a t u r n o m p o s t y , v o l . 3 ,  No. 2 1 ,  Moskva, 1928,  p. 3*+7  95  " HJIH  TOBAPHUI KHCJIHKOB " Tpn napu uiejiKOBtix  nyjiOK  HecMOTpn na T O , H T O " P y c b " a B J i a e T c a  HandojiBinHM npo-  H3Be^eHHeM PoMaHOBa H e TOJIBKO no odBeMy, H O H no B p e M e H H , H  no HHCJiy ,zieHCTBy»mHx  JIHH., Bee  PoMaHOB H 3 B e c T 8 H B J i H T e p a T y p e  H e K a K a B T o p ."PycH ',  a KaK  poe OTOnpraa3Be^eHHe xe  oxBaTHBaeT  KOTO-  1  a B T o p nppH3BeaeHHH o duTe H O MopajiBHux npodJieMax, a ocodeHHO B3aHMooTHomeHHH jiB^eti jieTHe  c HO BUM  npaBHTejitcTBOM  B nepBoe jjecaTH-  GoBeTCKoK B J i a c T H . PoMaH "ToBapnm KncJiaKOB" Buuiejx H 3 n e n a T H  H  CBOHM  co,nepxaHHeM Ha^ejiaji T a K M H O T O tiiyMy,  dHJi KOHcpHCKOBan, a flJia ero a B T O p a Ho B C K o p e H O BUM  OTOT  poMaH n o n a j i  3aKpuJiHC&  HanenaTaTb npHxojj;HT  Bee flBepn K n e n a T H .  nyjioK".  C B o e npoH3Be^eHHe  K peuieHHK n e n a T a T b  O T o r o npjj63Bejn;eHHa.  B  ycjioBHax  odmecTBeHHoro  noBe^eHHa  nojt  Kefyxajtoob TO  aBTop  no MoeMy JiHHHOMy  cooTBeTCTByeT  B cBoeM poMaHe  ecJiH  CoBeTCKott B J i a c x n ,  e r o 3arpaHHU,eH.  He coBceM  B npare  PoMaHOB peniHJi H T T H  KaKHM IHJIH 3aMaTHH H nnjiBHaK, T O e c T B ,  ydex^eHHK) O T O Ha3BaHHe  npodJieMy  H T O O H HeMe^JieHHO  3 a r p a H H n . y H duji H a n e n a T a H  H a s B a H H e M "Tpn napu mejiKOBux  Tei|xe nyTeM,  1930 ro^y  B  cMucjiy  co,ztepxaHHa  "ToBapnm RncjiaKOB" a B T o p  CTapoK H H T e j u i H r e H H H H  B ee  cTaBHT OTHO-  IIieHHH C HOBOH BJiaCTBR). KaKOB xe cioxeT  OTOTO  poMaHa?  TjiaBHUH repot! HnnoJiHT  KncjiaKOB, symeBHO H MopajiBHO pa3jioxHBiiiHfica n e j i o B e K , BceMH cpejj[CTBaMH, flaxe 3a cneT  djiaronojiynna C B O H X  cTapaeTca  coTpy^HHKOB  96  H  apy3en,  HO  xeaaeT  K  6HTB npnsHaHHM  KOMMyHHCTaMH H  "cBoero". 3HaHHio.  OH  copa MOT  HeHaBHflHT  6ecnoMomHocTi>  KadHHeTe  B  HaftTH  cBoeM  " . . .  OH  Bcex,  H  jjHpeKTopa  nuianH,  e r o BiJiany no/j;  BHfleji  BH^e/i  HOBOH  KTO  HeHaBH^HT  ocodeHHo  OH  MHTKOCTI.,  CoBeTCKOH  npHcnocodHTbca  nojiyHHTb Ha nyTH  CTOHT  HHTejiaHreHiiHK)  pacTepHHHOCTb. My3ea,  KOTOPBIH  no^aji ee  He  BexJiHBOCTb,  caHax/jH npo<f>ec-  BcTpeTHB  duji  TaK H a n y r a H , H,  xoTa  HTO  ne  OH  npocpeccopy.  n p o $ e c c o p e Bce HenpneMJiKMHe  B  TaKOMy npn-  ee  3a  CTpam-  OH  3BaHHe K  BO3HeHaBH,neji ero  KHCJIHKOB  Kpecjion,  BJiacTH•  nyx^tie  H  C TOHKH 3peHHH KOMMyHHCTa H n p O J i e T a p H a O T T e H K H ( H H TeajiHreHinHH - A.T.) c T a K O H acHOCTbio, KaK d y ^ T O OH caM dtiJi KOMMyHHCTOM H n p o j i e T a p H e u . " *  C^eaaB  CBOH BilBOfl O  HeXH3HeCHOCOdHOCTH HHTejdJIHreHIJ[HH,  KHCJIHKOB  npHXO^HT K 3aKJXH)HeHHK), HTO flJIH TOTO, HTOdfcl COXpaHHTb XH3HeCIIOCOdHOCTb  B  TaKHX THXeJIHX yCJIOBHaX  BHpadoTaTb  B  rndHyrnHx H  He  o  cede H  cede  TaKyio  TBep^ocTb,  nyBCTBOBaTb  sadHTb  XH3HH  ceda  HyXHO  HTOdH y u e T b  BHHOBaTHM.  o Hyx.21.ax j j p y r n x ,  HJIH^ r o B o p a  Ha.no  3aKajiHTbca.  nepecTynaTb  HyxHO j j y u a T b no  nepe3  TOJIbKO  .Hpyrossy H e ;  npo-  aBjiaTb JiiodBH K dJiHXHeMy. xoneui^xHTb jjJia c e d a H nyBCTBOBaTb B H y T p e H H e e p a B H O B e c n e , T O HyxHO 3 a x a T b yum H He/orJia^HBaTbca Kaxayio MHHyTy Ha O T H X rHdHymnx, noTOMy H T O Tor,na d y ^ e T He x H 3 H b , a O,HHO M y n e H H e H HpaBCTBeHHaa HHTKa."  "ECJIH  2  OT  3TOH H p a B C T B e H H O H  nBITKH  CTapaJICa  O C B O d C H H T b C a He  TOJIbKO  K n c a a K O B , HO H c a n o CoBeTCKoe n p a B H T e j i b C T B O , KOTopoe d e 3 BcaKoro  MopajibHoro yrpH3eHHa  coBecTH  nepecTynnjio  nepe3 TpynH  MHJIJIHOHOBj naBUIHX X e p T B a M H n H T H J i e T K H .  KaKOBO  xe  dmio npouuioe  OTOTO  neaoBeKa?  CBoe odpa-  97  ;  RO peBOJirouHH H  30BaHHe HHxeHepa-nyTenua KncjiaKOB nojiynnji eme ' dHJi cnacTJiHB B cBoeft padOTe.  B  CBOH  CTyjjeHHecKHe ro,HH OH  O H npnMHKaji  HMeji HHKaKHX onpeaejieHHHx noJiHTHnecKHx B3rjia,noB. K  He  rpynne, TaK Ha3HBaeMHx, coHyBCTByiomHx CTy^eHTOB. O H X H B O coHyBCTBOBa/i fleaTejibHOCTH Bcex nepe^oBHx n a p T H t t , . . . O H npeacTaBJiaji c e d e r e p o e B peBOJirouHH MyHeHHKaMH, KOTOpue H^yT Ha nCHBHT, pHCKyH XH3HbK).... H XOTH OTO COMyBCTBHe dHJIO HHCTO nJiaTOHHHeCKOe, Bee xe OHO BocnHTHBa/io B Heu HeHaBHCTb KO BcaKOMy HaCHJIHK) Ha^ HeJIOBeHeCKOH X H 3 H £ , K > , . . . " 3  "...  TaKOBH dHJin HaHBHtie B3TJIHJJ;H MOJioaoro cTy^eHTa KHCJiaKOBa. c npHxoflOM peBOJirouHH OH KOTOpiIX OH HHTejren.  yBHjieji Tan-xe H .zrpyryio  CHHTajI MyneHHKaMH. OHH  Ho  cTopoHy repoeB,  D T H isyneHHKH npeBpaTHJIHCb  B  My-  yxe He yianpajiH caMH, a C B O H M HacHJineM yMepTB JIHJIH  jjpyrnx. "  - Hapofl, npo/ieTapnaT, K O T O P H H dHJi T a K TporaTejieH, noKa ero HacHJioBajiH ^pyrne K J i a c e n , eoBceM, nepecTaji dHTb TporaTejibHHM H n p e K p a c H H M , Korjua caM cTaji HaCHJioBaTb D T H Kjiaccii H 3aaBjiHTb o CBoeM cymecTBOBaHHH caMHM Henocpe^CTBeHHHM odpa30M, T.e. Hanaji X O ^ H T B B K o c o B o p o T K a x H c a n o r a x BO B e e y n p e x ^ e H H a H 3aHHMaTb MecTa." 4  KncJiaKOB yxacHyjica TaKHM noBopoTOM .nejia. BHTB,  HTO  OH,  HHxeHep-nyTeeu;, pyKOBo/iHBHiHft  Ha p a d o T e , jjojixeH Tenepb A HTOdtl He dHTb nOR  nop. KOHTpojib  RO  OTOTO  OTOH  cede n p e ^ c T a apMHefi JHo^eS  padoneM M a c c H .  KOHTpOJieM MaCCH, HyXHO dHJIO H T T H BMecTe c  DToft MaccoM.  Ho H T T H  03HaHajio, H T O  OH  pnx OH  CTaTb  He MOT  OH  BMecTe c O T O M padonefi M a c c o f t ,  flOJixeH  dy.ueT BHCTynaTb H  JiojixeH dy^eT npH3HBaTb K HacHJiHW.  npHHHHnoB.  XoTa peBOJiiouHa dHJia yxe  Ha dnjia eme  B  nojiHOM p a 3 r a p e .  Ho  TOBOPHTB DTO  6HJIO  3aK0HH6Ha, H O  rpaxaaHCKaa  ^Jia KHCJiaKOBa penn, B  KOTO-  npoTHB e r o rpaxjjaHCKaa  BoMHa TaK  xe  BOH-  Ha-  pyniHJia "ocHOBHHe npHHUHnn HHTejiJiHreHTCKoti H/ieojiorHH:' ' CnpaBe^-  98  JIHBOCTb  de3 pa3JIHHHH KJiacCOB ' . . . . " , KOTOpHMH 5  BCex  flJia  Ka/icH KncjiaKOB B C B O H CTyfleHnecKHe ro^H.  Hanajiacb KJiaccoBaa dopbda Ha  XH3HB  H  C  rpax^aHCKOti  yBJie-  BOHHOH  Kjiac-  3 T H COSHTHH  CMepTb.  COBOK dopbdH rJiydOKO OCKOpdHJIH KHCJiaKOBa H OH peniHJI IIOKHHyTb CBoe JiiodHMoe jiejio KHxeHepa-nyTeMua H 'nepex^aTb noKa DTa CTHxna 1  HacHJiHH KjiaccoB ycnoKOHTca.  OH CKPHJI  CBOK)  HacToamyio npoqoeccHio  H, nepe3 cBoero 3HaKOMoro, nocTynnji Ha padoTy B HCTopHHecKKH My3efl.  MHTaTe/ib 3HaK0MHTea c  KHC/IHKOBUM,  KaK co cjiyxamHM  DTOTO  My3ea. MTO  xe dHJio  3a  ynpexfleHHe  Majica co3HflaTejibHHM T p y n p M ?  DTOT  My3eft H  jiynniero noHaTHa  RJLR  KTO B  HeM  DTOTO  Bonpoca  3aHH-  HyxHo pasodpaTb KaTeropHH padoT, Ha KOToptie PoiiaHOB pa3^ejiaji Tpyfl coBeTCKHx  Jiiofleft.  OH  dHJio pa35eJiHTt Ha  MOXHO  riepBoft  H  roBopHT,  TPH  caMOH  MTO  nocjie peBOJiicmHH padoTy  KaTeropHH:  HH3KOH  padoToH  "jjJia  BcaKoro MHpHoro  HH—  TejuiHreHTa" dHJia Ta padOTa, "rjie HyxHo dHJio aKTHBHo npoBoflHTi peBOJHoucHio , T O ecTb ydHBaTb jnoneft Ha cftpoHTax, HJIH xe, n y T e u 11  6  odiiaHa, BecTH  MaccH  BTOPOA xaHHMecKoe  Ha ydnticTBo.  padoTofi, yxe dojiee BHcmero KaMecTBa, dHJio Me-  HcnoJiHeHne npHKasoB napTHH H npaBHTejibCTBa B odJiacTH  cTPOHTeJibcTBa Hapo^Horo xo3aHcTBa. TOMy  MTO peBOJiiouHH 3 a c T a j i a  ero  Ha  "MejioBeK npocTO cjiyxHT, no-  DTOM  MecTe.  Ho  O H caM  HHKOTO  He HacHJiyeT, He oTHHMaeT HMyiqecTBa, He ca'xae'T B TiopbMy, He npn3HBaeT paeTca.  CJIOBOM H  npHMepoM  HaodopoT,  OH  K  yKpenjieHHio peBOjnoijHH, -  jjaxe noMoraeT  CBOHM...."  He CTa-  CJIOBOM  ^  H TpeTHfi pa3pafl padoin, CToamnn Ha nepBOM  MecTe,  Ta padOTa, KOTopaa HHMero He HMejia odmero c peBOJifoutHeH.  DTO  OHa H H  99  B  KaKOH c T e n e H H He  TaKaa padOTa dHJia padoTa  peBOJirouHH.'  co/jeHCTBOBajia  CTapHHH." ®  "... DTO  no oxpaHe  ynpexJieHHHX  HPKO  HJiJiiocTpHpyeT  H e c M O T p n Ha  npaBHTejibCTBOM.  n o j u e p x H B a j i a c L peBOJiiou.HOHHHM B  Ho  DTO, DTO  naMHTHHKOB H C K y c c T B a  H  aBTop:  " - PadoTaiomHe 3^ecb MOTJIH rop/jHTBCH Ten, H T O O H H H H B Majiefimen CTeneHH He nocTynnjiHCb CBoeft HHTejuiHreHTC K O H coBeeTbK, He oMpanHJiH Tenen nponuioro, KOTopoe DHajio TOJIbKO MyneHHKOB 3a BejiHKHK Haeaji Bceodmero paBeHCTBa BHCIUHX Hanaji cnpaBe^JiHBOCTH c OTpnuaHHeM BCHKOrO HaCHJIHfl C MBefi dH CTOPOHH H pa,n.H KaKHX dH uejieft O H O H H H C X O ^ H J I O . PadOTan B D T H X ynpex^eHKHX, O H H yxe cMejio MOTJIH T O P ^ H T B C H , H T O H H B MajieSmen CTeneHH He npHJIOXHJIH CBOefi p y K H HH K KaKHM HaCHJIHHM.. H noTOMy, ecTecTBeHHo, cMOTpejiH c;H©KOToPHM npe3peHHeM Ha Tex, KOMy npHXCOHJIOCB npHHHMaTB XOTH dH H KOCBeHHOe y n a c T H e B HacHJiHH B j i a c T H . Tor^a KaK O H H H H - T O J I B K O He npHJioxHjra K DTOMy C B O H X p y K , H O flaxe padoTajin Ha^ coxpaHeHHeM T O T O , H T O peBOJiioiiHH paspymajia." ® K  TpeTBeft  KOB.  KaTeropHH H  HoMemaH KncJiflKOBa  npojieTapnaT  HTO  npojieTapnaT  ee jjaxe HeHaBH/jeji OCTaBHB CBOK)  nepBHx  a  BHJIH JIBe  MyHHJia coBecTB  ero  BO) B T O P H X  CTpaHH;  a  padoTajr  TOT  dHJio  Ho,  KHCJIH-  dpaKT,  ^pyrHM  He HHTepecoBajica  TaK  HTO  cjpaKTOM  cTapHHoft,  KaK CHMBOJI  nponuioro.  HeOXHflaHHO H  dn npe/jnojiaraTB,  y B H , O H He HaxojiHJi  KOTOpHe H^aBajIH  HTO  CBoero  eMy nOKOfl t BO  o T O M , H T O O H CKPHJI CBOIO c n e u H a j i B H o c T B ;  ero apyxda c FIojiyxHHHM,  jiHjia rjia3a apyrHM.  dbiJi  H yCTpOHBUIHCB  cnoKoifeHM.  npHHHHH,  OTO  yHHHTOxHTb,  My3ee, M O X H O  B  jjojixeH dH dHTB  CnOKOHCTBHH.  He TOJIBKO  npO$eCCHI0  dJiaronojiynHO c padOToM KHCJIHKOB  B HCTOPHH  KOTOPOM  aBTop n c a n e p K H B a e T ^Ba  nepBBiM  cTapajicn  H  B  CTapHHH,  rojiH.  H H H e r o H e noHHMaji  aBjineTCH T O , OH  My sen  B  nocjie-peBOJHOLiHOHHHe  dpaKTa B  HO  npHHa^jiexaji My3en,  KHCJIHKOB  HOBHM  npejjnojiaraji,  .nnpeKTopoM My3en, HTO  M030-  ero jrpyxda c  nojiyxHHHM paccMaTpHBaJiacB ero coTpyaHHKaMH, KaK npe^aTejiBCTBo OTHOBieHHK  K HHTe JIJIHreHUHH  .  no  100  Bee OHH,  KaK H 3Ty  B3HJIH  dHJIH H3  p a d O T H H K H My36fl  cam K H C J I H K O B , padoTy  HHTejIJIHreHUHH H  doflJiHCfc) j^HKTaTypti n p o / i e T a p n a T a .  He n o T O M y ,  T B o p H T b HJIH n o M o r a T t  CTapofl  y HHX  MTO  dtuio  HOBOMy n p a B H T e j i b C T B y  xejiaHHe  Bee  OHH  padoTaTB, pa3-  B BoccTaHOBJieHHH 3.TO  pyraeHHoro CTBeHHHfl  cnocod  c o x p a H e H H H CBoeM X H 3 H H .  dHJi TaKOB, MTO noJiynajiH  OHH  KapTOMKy. yMHpaTb ^JIH  "KTO  He p a d o T a e T ,  3apnjiaTy,  TOT  KBapTHpy H ,  He e c T . "  H  rjiaBHoe,  rojioay  c  Tepnejio HX  Kor^a  HX  BpeMH  B 11  TOJIBKO  cjiyxamne  CBOHX  xopomo  My3ee,  npcnoBOJiBCTBeHHyio  dHJio 6u  oneHB  rjiyno  padoTaTB  noTOMy,  noKa  MTO  noKa H X  eme  eme  HyxaajiocB  TepnejiH.  dHJio y x e  Ho  caMOM  .nejie  OHH  TOJIBKO  B  HX  BpeMH,  TO  He,najieKO.  C T a p o E HHTejuiHreHUHH TOJIBKO  a Ha  npaBHTejiB-  3Han  CBoe  npHTBopnjiHCB,  OTCHXHBajtH  CBoe  KaHUeJIHPHHX.  - K a K xe MOXHO r o p e T B H T B o p M e c K H p a d o T a T B , C K a 3 a j i AHJj;pefl HBaHOBHM monoTOM, - Kor.ua B e e o d p a m e H H e B J i a c T H TOJIBKO K p a d O H H M , Bee .HJIH p a d o M H x , a H a c KaK dy/j,To H e T . MH H T O x e , yxe norpedeHH? Hac T O J I B K O 3acTaBjiHK>T p a d o T a T B , d e 3 BCHKOH- Haflex^tH H a dy^ymee. P a d o T a T B MOXHO . 3aCTaBHTB,  a  TBOPHTB HeJIB 3H.  "  10  3^ecB a B T o p y K a 3 H B a e T Ha d e c n p o ^ y K T H B H y r o CHX HOP HBJIHeTCH  JiHreHUHH H OHH  CoBeTCKoe  3HajiH, MTO  dy.neT H3jiHiiiHeft,  padoTajiH,  OHH  xe  3HaHHHx.  cjiyxda  nojioxeHHe,  Bee  OHH  cnocodHOCTHx H  neM  B  COBeTCKOM B J i a C T H .  CTBO  RO  PadoTan  noTOMy, ^^©- MTodti 0 T K a 3 a T B C H  TOJIBKO  e^HH-  npojieTapnaTa  jio3yH.r  Be^t  nepexHB peBOJirouHH), #yMajra O H H ,  Ho  MTO  Hapo,HHoro xosafiCTBa, a noTOMy HTO^dHJi  BOHHOH  ocodeHHO  XHJIH.  Ho  padoTy,  KOTopan  eme  THnHHHHM HBJieHHeM  CpeHH COBeTCKOtt H H T e J I -  cpe/iH  PeBOJiwuHH OTHHJia  OHa He  rincaTeJieM. jjajia  HM  HH-—KaKoit Ha.nex.HH H a  y  HHX  dynymee.  H  Bee,  101  He HMen see dy/iymero,  He  OHH  npoHBJiHTB HH/i<aK0H T B o p H e c K o E "  TBopHTb,  MOTJIH  6H/IH He  B  COCTOHHHH  HfleH.  B E M pe3yjibTaT . . . B e e MH TOJibKo ^ejiaeM flejiaeM.... MTO ^ e j r a e M , a H a caMOM xejie H H M e r o He neji&eu, X O T H 3aHHTH c yTpa j;o no3^HeM HOMH. KascjjHH p a e c y x j j a e T : 'Eyay p a d O T a T b P O B H O HaCTOJIbKO, MTOdH He CeCTb B T i o p b M y . OTcroaa de3pa3/iHMHe y ncHaBJiHiomeH' M a c T H H H T e JI JIHreHiiHH KO BceMy. H - H  BHfl,  BOT  MTO  1  11  TaKOBO  HacTpoeHHe C T a p o K HHTejuiHreHUHH  dHJio  ocTajiacb  eme  B  Bee  XHBHX.  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HKOBCKoro "JIiodoBb IIlKadpajiioda" HanncaHHaa HM  JieTapnaT  My3e8  BOJIHH COBpeMeHHO-  3aXJieCTHBaJIH  flpKHM npHMepoM T a K H x aTTaK MoxeT  HH  DTOT  B HeM napHJi eme n p e x H H H nopnflOK padoTH K a s e H H o r o  peXJieHHH. padoTH  cede  MTO  Bee  dHJio  eme  no  cTajiH s a M e n a T b , no  BceMy  BpeMH peBOJuouHH  cTapoMy. MTO  npo-  cppoHTy Hapo^Hor'o  MOXHO  dHJio  eme yflTH  102  c  JiroijHH,  jjpyroe  ocTaBajiHCb  My  B  is n e p e x j i a T b ,  nona  Te  (  He  see,  yenoKOHTca  odmero  HHnero  My3ett,  UHOHHHH  yBOJieH H  6bui  c Jia  /  ToatKo  codpaHHe  HasHaneH  ^HpeKTopoM B He  a  cTaTbH  c  peBOJirouHeH He H M e » T . "  HOBHH  roBopam.He,,\TO  Bemeft H  padOTHHKaMH My3ea, HO  jj;axe o p r a H H 3 0 B a H a " J l e r K a a K a B a j i e p n a " KOTopaa HajieTajia Ha  nepepwBa  ca  B  My3ee  noaBHJica  HHCTKH,  KHCJIHKOB  nojipyxHJiea  CKaa  aneMKa,  raji H , Mysea ceda  ero  KncjiaKOB  Ha  o H e M , KaK  BHHOBaTHM  nepea.  KOTopaa  cjiejiH-  EbiJia  jpipeKTopoM. B  ro/jbi,  STH  BpeMa  ode^eHHoro  OTHOineHHio Btino JiHeHHa n j i a H a H HaMeKaeT Ha  CHCTeMa  KOHTpojia  sa  co3HBaTb-  Ha^BHraionrHeca KOTOPHH  HC-  KaK  TO,  /ipyr  HanajiH nacTO  npeanyBCTBya  codpaHHax,  BTaHyji  nepHHe ero  B  ceda  oneHb  o nepeHocHHKe. 3TO  CTapoM HHTejiJiHreHiiHH.  juajio OH  My3ea, KHCJiaKOB  K O T O P H S npoBojiHJia  6HJIH c n p a B e ^ J I H B H ,  HHMH.  BO  dJIH3KO C JtHpeKTOpOM  nyBCTBOBaji  npe^nojioxeHHa  ^yMajiH  MHeHHe o  noKoa.  BMecxe  My3ea.  HO, nOJipyXHBtUHCb TaK HaxojjHJi c e d e  He peBOJiio-  KOMcoMOJibneB  .inpeKTopoM My3ea,  c  Ha-  CTapHH jjHpeKTop  caMHM  PadoHHH KoMHTeT H  C B O H njiaHH n e p e o d o p y a o B a H H a  He  H3  3a  3,aecb PoMaHOB  BpeMeHH.  cjiyxaiHHx.  codpaHHa  TynH  H  dHJia o p r a H H 3 0 B a H a n a p T H H H a a  TmaTejibHO  Jiro^eit.  is y n p e x ^ e . H H a  no  npoBepKy  padonero  nojib.soBaHHa  .HpyroM.  npoH3Bo,a;cTBa  ycTpaHBajia  H  dHJi  OTO  Etuia  ^  KOMCOMOJibueB,  aneSKa  RO  RIORTS " C H -  pad.pHHx, 3aKOHHHBtuHfi padiJsaK.  H3  noaBHJiacb  My3ee  3a  CTapux  KOToptie  xecTOKoK KpHTHKe  is  3HaneHa peBH3Hfl M y 3 e a , . K O T o p a a B u a c H H J i a , H T O  peBo-  CTHXHH  ynpex/ieHHa,  3 a T p o H y T H M H , no/iBeprjiHCb  noaBHJiHCb TaK xe  ra3eTax.  RKw&e  Ha  cettHac yxe He 'dHJio c n a c e H H a .  TO  nop  CHX  B  MecTa  O^HOTO  eMy  nejioBKO. HTO  H3-3a  OH  CTaptie OTOTO  KOMcoMOJib-  cjiyxainne  OH  nyBCTBOBaji  noBoji; H3MeHHTb  HanHHaji n p e 3 H p a T b  npe/inojio-  ee,  csoe KaK  KJiacc,  103  KOTOpHH  OpraHHHeCKH  dHJI  CriOCOd JIBHHHBCTBO, KaK 3TO CfleJiaJI  noTepaTb Bce  TOHHHH  H  CHJIHB  1  XHJIH  . . . He  OTH cTapae HHcJiyxHTB H  cdjinxaTBCH  yMepeTB  c HanaJiBCTBOM HR a -  ®-  K H C J I H K O B onpaB/iHBJi  0  j;ejio  MTO "  .  eme  .  dHJi B C O C -  O H  HTOdH He H3MeHHTB C e d e H He dHTb npHHaCTHHM  1c  ti  O H , KHCJiaKOB.  npHHLiHrra, K O T O P H M H  3aKOHy HHTejiJiHreHUHH  BJiaCTBIO,  X H 3 H B , H a npH-  O H ocyxaaji H X 3a H X HacTOHHHBocTB  TejiJiHreHTH,. CBoeMy  Ha HOBVK)  HecnOCOdHHM  KyjitTypa,  H  - ... BO  raaBy  yrjia  CBOKJ  H3MeHy H H T e j u i H r e H U H H T e M ,  K O T O P O H OH K o r j c a - T O cTaBHjia  CBodo^y  c j i y x n j i , KOTopan  MHCJIH H p a c m n p e H H e  npaB  16 JIHHHOCTH,  KaKOBa necTH  - ... "  x e dHJia H a a o d H O C T B  y ^ e p j i a H dHJia norpedJieHa CJiyxHTB  jjejiy?  juaBHO  Ha  HUIHH B C B O G M  flniHHT o n H C H B a e T  yxe nepecTaJi  TejiH K o j i x o 3 a ,  KOPOTKOM  paccKa3e  "PHHarH '.  KOTopae  3a r j i a 3 a  ocyxaajiH  KOJIXO3HHKOB, H O npnMjia  H a codpaHHe  BeKH.  A MTO K a c a e T C H  0 TaKOM n p H c n o c o d J i e H H H HHTeJIJIHreHiiHH y K a 3 H B a e T  C K H M nncaTejiB  coBeTB HeM  1  O H H CO BceM  XHTB  npeace/ia-  c o r j i a m a j i H C b , HTO  npejjjiaraji..  HM  KaK y x e dHJio y K a 3 a H O  TBep^HX  Ero  MepTBOMy  HHTejiJiHreHLiHH, T O O H , K H C J I H K O B ,  MecTHo.  OH  aaBHO  ydex^eHHH H Bcerjia  JiHHHoe H a c T p o e H H e  meji  BHiue,  n o JIHHHH  3aBHcejio  Bceraa  ^to  KncjiaKOB  He HMeji  HaHMeHBiuero  CBOHX  conpoTHBJieHHa  O T MHeHHa j j p y r n x .  B  pe3yjiB  T a T e T a K O H H e p e m H T e j i B H o c T H ^ OH C T a p a j i c a n p n c n o c a d J i H B a T B C H K D T H M MHeHHHM. " . . . y H e r o dHJia CriOCOdHOCTB B03dyxJieHHO BHdaJITHBaTB BCK  jiyiny TOMy, K T O B aaHHyio  npoTHB KOM.  TOTO,  MHHyTy K a 3 a j i c n  K T O dHJi JIJIH Hero  K H C J I H K O B x o p o m o noHHMaji,  eMy xoponiHM  B jtaHHHH MOMeHT HexopomHM HTO Handojiee  njioxoM  nejioBeKOM. nejioBe-  nepTOH  xapaK-  104  Tepa  Hejic-Beica H B J I H S T C H e r o pa3,zr.BoeHHOCTb, HepemHTejibHocTb  ero xH3HeHHOH .noporn.  BHdope  TaKoe  pa3aBoeHHocTH MoxeT 6urb oneHb narydHHM  HBJieHHe  Ho BBe^eHHe  riHTHJieTHero  njiaHa  OHHTB  Meinajio eMy  BCTajiH Tenepb, K o r ^ a KJiaccoBan dopbda CTaaa CHJibHee "  H  CHJibHee.  nejiOBeKa  nero.  MJIH  yTBepjiHTben  B  - Be^b  3a  pa3ropaTbcn  Bce  r  - KoMMyHHCTfci npHTecHHBT K y j i a K a , KHCJIHKOB.  HTO  BonpocH HecnpaBe^JiHBocTH ocodeHHo ocTpo  CHMnaTHax.  CBOHX  TaK xe xopomo noHHMaji,  OH  B  TO,  HTO  - pa3MHauiHJi  xe HejienocTb - TecHHTb  OTO  OH  p a d o T a e T RJIH c e d n ,  H  xopomo p a d o T a e T . Ra., H a B e p H o e , O T O npocTO xopomne, CTapaTejibHbie KpecTbHHe, a HH^aKHe KyjiaKH. /laftTe x e MHe B0 3M0XH0CTb p a c n o p n x a T b cBoefi jiHHHOCTbio. He JiejiaMTe H3 MeHH pada. " ^® Ho  Kor^a  3anepTOH  y3HaBaji  OH  KHCJiHKOBa  H3de,  KyjiaKOB, K O T O P U © HyiO X H 3 H B ,  Bnepeji." I Ba no  KJiaccoBOH  noBo/iy  HTO  3Haji  OH  padoBjiajcejibiiH ymJiH, a  TO  Kor,aa  HOBaa  B  "PycH  11  CBGTa,  KOMMyHHCTa  B03MymeHHe  yxac H  cBH3b ee,  Ha HX  KyjIbTypH,  BCHKOTO  B H C K a 3 i i B a j i C H PoMaHOB  dopbdH  HMen TecHyio  TBopnecTBe,  KyjiaKH c o x r j i H  B  npoTHB  C 3BepHHHM y n o p C T B O M OTCTaHBaiOT CBOK)  "...  TaK KpHTHHecKH  9  KaK  oxBaTHBaji  JIHUieHHyK) BCHKOTO  TbHHCTBa.  KHe.  ra3eT,  HS  B  jtepeBHe H  c jiepeBHeM,  KpecTbHHHH  ycTaMH  KHCJIHKO-  Kpec-  n o K a 3 a B paHbme B  PoMaHOB CTpajjaji H 3 - 3 a  MecTO  ^BHXeHHH  KO JI jieKTHBH3au.HH H  3Bepn-  TOTO,  HTO  cBoeM OJHHH  npHmjiH Jipyrnej eme doJiee x e c T O -  HMeji  XOTH  czray jnecHTHHy  seMjra,  BJiacTb OTodpajia BCK> 3eMJi», .naxe He ocTaBJian JJJIH KypnctH.  Ee OTdnpajiH  noTOMy,  .HejiafiTe H3 MeHH xe HaKOHeii  pada",  nejioBeKy  COdCTBeHHOCTbK).  HTO  nejioBeK padOTaji xopomo ^ J I H KPHHHT  cedn.  PoMaHOB, ycTaMH KHCJiHKOBa,  CBOdoay p a c n o p a x a T b C H caMHM codott  H  "He JiafiTe cBoett  105  TaKaa jiHKOBa, OH  KaK e r o HHTepnpeTHpyeT  xoTeji  yfie^HTB ace  ceda  B TOM, HTO e r o coBecTB B TOM, HTO OH  CTapofi  Bee  CTapaHHa,  c riojiyxHHHM, K n c j i a K O B  coTpy^HHKOB,  CBOHX  H MopajibHoro  co3HaeTca,  HO  OH  TaK-xe  e r o BHcmHtt c y j i b a ,  Bee  0TKa3ajica  OH  H e npHHHJiH e r o .  HTO  OTomeji,  OH  HaMeKaeT  OH H n y B C T B y e T  ceda  OT  pa3roBo-  B  nyx^HM  cziejiajica  IlojiyxHH  Ha T O , H T O  c H H M J i y n m e , neM  OT  OToro  BCTpeHH TeTa,  KanecTB, n o n a ^ a a  najieHHa.  flpyra,  HPKHM  ApKa^na  C HeJIOBeKOM,  a OH  xHBoe  npHMepoM  Bonpoc,  BCTpeHH OH xoTejiocb  oTOMy  H dojibiue  CTy^eHnecKHx  OH He  BHJiejI  JieT.  C RHefi  KaK OHa  ocodeHHo  ero  TmaTejibHO  npHMeT  npHrjiameHHeM  JirodoBnaa  IloJiyHHB  nncb-  BocxHmajica  HjteeM  OKOHHEHHa  H KaK o u e H H T .  saHaJica  HX  odonx  CBOHM  CBOHX  B c e T H JIXH  yHHBepcH-  n o 3 H a K O M H T b a c e r o MOJIOJIOS xeHOH.  npoH3BecTH H a H e e BnenaTJieHHe  c^ejiaji  Bcex  ero  aBjiaeTca  H e 3 H a M O B a , KHCJiaKOB He  KOTOpOTO  r o p e j i xejiaHHeM  Bee dojibme  jiHiuaeTca  eymecTBo dHJio 3aHHTO MHCJIBK o d O T O H xeHmHHe.  TepecoBaji  OH  o d C T a H O B K e ^ B y j i H H H a , KHCJiaKOB  c MOJIOJIOH x e H O H e r o J i p y r a  HCTOPHH  3TO  nepe-  flpyrHMn".  JiyniuHx BHyTpeHHHx  ero  CTapajica  OH  pa3^BaHBajica.  HHTejiJinreHLtHH, a KOMMyHHCTH eme  ffiHBa B  MO  nooTOMy  flejiaji.  KHCJiaKOB  n o K a eMy H e TOBapnm, X O T H "c  paBHOBecna.  ^ymeBHoro  K S  ecTb  BHBo^Hjia K H C -  . . . H co C T o p o H H dHJio BH,Z[HO e r o B c e r ^ a H a n p a x e H H o e , d e c n o K O H H o e JIHHO nejioBeKa, K O T O P H H o p o d e j i , n o T e p a J i c a RO nocjxejtHeM cTeneHH, H e c M O T p a H a nocToaHHtie y c H j r a a co3jaTt. B c e d e BHyTpeHHKio TOHKy o n o p H . . . " 20  H e c M O T p a Ha  fljia  PoMaHOB,  HafiTH BHyTpejjJSe p a B H O B e c n e ,  OH c o M H e B a j i c a "  pe  KJiaccoBaa, de3CMHCJieHHaa d o p b d a  E r o HH-  B jteHb  TyajieTOM.  cocToaTejibHoro  H a JTXHH B p e c T o p a H ,  Bee  HX  E M y oneHb cjiyxamero. H3-  106  pacxo^oBaB aa OTOT  yxHH  Anx  Mecflut.  CH  H a uejiHft  XH3HH  H H nepefl  CBoero  noKOHJio T O J I B K O  Tex  nop,  KeM, M T O 6 H HaMaTb c o x H T e j i b C T B O  y T a M a p H MoaceT noaBHTbca p e d e H O K ,  CXOflCTBO C HHM,  KHCJIflKOBHM.  aeHer H dojibme  MopajibHyio o n o p y ,  HBB  .npyxdy MejioBeKa, K O T O P H H  CBoero  #pyra,  H^eajiax  MnjiJiepa,  MeM K H C J I H K O B .  rpaSHHMH  TaK j i o B e p a J i c a e M y .  IIoTepaB  canoraMH HCKpeHOH nnji,  eji y  npHTBopajica d H T b TOJibKO njiaTOHHMecKHM j t p y r o M e r o  c HHM p a 3 r o B o p  xeHH, Be/i od  KHCHHKOB pacTonTaji  no^JiocTb  CBOIO  Ha KHHopexnccepa  CBa3eft,  KOTOPHH  OT ApKajJjHH,  yde^HBlUHCb  n o K a T a M a p a H e odMeHajia e r o  BCK  c xeHOft etc  JiaJibHeftiuHx OTHoraeHHHx c Tamapoft^dec-  B ero  T O , MTO  KOTopHft HMeji dojibme  ocTaBHJia eMy  OToro y x H H a K H C J I H K O B He o c T a H O B H J i -  T a M a p a H e MoxeT HMeTb .neTeft, K H C J I H K O B npo/iojixaji  MTO RO  TaMapoft.  .neHbra, K O T o p H e xeHa e r o Flocjie  MeM H H H n e p e j i  jjpyra,  MOxeT HMeTb  Bee  o pejiHTHH,  a noTOM c n a j i  H viReax,  o npaB^e,  c ero  o npaBax MejioBeKa, MopajibHoe  xeHoft.  na^eHHe  KHCJiaKOBa dHJIO TaK HH3K0, MTO OH Jj;axe H e 3aM6MajI H He MyBCT BOBajI, dHJia caMaa HH3Kaa n o / u i o c T b ,  Bee, M T O O H jj;ejiaji,  MTO  H a KOTopyio dHJi  cnocodeH HHTejuiHreHTHHft MejiOBeK. Tenepb  OH  B c e r j i a n p H x o ^ H j i jioMoft pa3/j;paxeHHHft H OTMajiMH-  B a j i c a Ha B e e B o n p o c n xoTa  xeHH.  O H coBepmeHHo H e HMeji  cepjiHjica,  O H dtui  ocHOBaHHa.  GBa3aBuiHCb  K Heft,  Ho K o r j t a  T O eMy x o T e j i o c b npH3HaTbca  rndJia H OH caM He B cocToaHHH dHJi c n a c T H HyTb Ha  eft " c n a c K M e H a , a  3TO.  K  Heft,  c TaMapoft, OH  MTO O H HMeji xeHy H MTO euy B e e BpeMa HyxHo dHJio JiyMaTb  o Heft H HaftTH npHMHHH flJiH p a 3 B O £ a . xajiocTb  rpydHM H HecnpaBe^jiHBHM  O H 3Haji,  MTO  radHy".  ero  radejib  H onaTb  y Hero  noaBJiajiacb  eft B T O M , MTO e r o ^yuia ee.  EMy x o T e j i o c b  y Hero  HejxBaTajio  HaMajiacb c T O T O  MOMeHTa,  KPHK-  MyxecTBa Kor^a  107  "cpajibuiHBKy". CTBa  OToro  C  BepHoK  K  Touy,  decKopucTHOH  KHTejiHM  HHane.  -©HPtT  HaKOHeq-To  "Tenepb  cTBHTejibHO  " . . . fl n o T e p a j i  rndejiH  CBOHM  H X ^OBepne  ceda,  HTO  ycBOH/i MeTOflH  OH  ero  Ha3tiBajiH  nyBCTBOBaji,  dHJia  flyiua  KHCJiaKOBa.  HTO  TOBapHmeM,  OTH  JIKUJH  K HeMy". 22  XH3HH  nepBoe  CBoett  npoHcxo^a  TH  MHP  dtuiH  Tor/j;a, TO  H3  flpyr,  ApKa/jHH  noTOMy,  HTO  npn-  ero ^efionpaBjjaTb  CTaji  3aHHMaTbca  KHCJiaKOB  HJIH  HHHi^HaTopoM  duji  OH  coBepmeHHo  flpyrae  ApKajjHa  TaHHH  xopomo  6HJIH  TpyxeHHKa,  dopbde  y x CJIHIUKOM  B3rjia,i.H  Ha  H  H  HHTejuiHreHiiHa,  H3-3a  coHHajibHue ee  H  KOTopaa  KanecTBa, KycKa  H/iea-  K j i a c c a , neM  npaBa  cnpaBe/j;jiHBOCTb  H T O d e 3 npaB/jH  3a OTH  TparejjHio  dojibiiiHM  coanajibHoro  npaBjta  padoTaromero  MopajibHoK  noTepneji  BH/JiBHraji jiHHHOcTb  EMy K a 3 a j i o c b ,  B  cBoeS  He3HaMOB,  jtpyroro  KaK KHCJIHKOB  nejioBeKa.  naccHBHoro  KHCJiaKOBa  HTO y H e r o H e T  H3-3a  coBepmeHHo  cyinecTBOBaTb He MoxeT.  peBojiioHHH B  y Hero  MecTO,  KanecTBaMH  Koraa,  a HH^KaK  npH3HaioT  OH  KaK H a jia,noHe.  K a K KHCJiaKOB n o r n d a / i  flOBepna  npodJieMBi.  H,  npHcnocodjreHHa.  TO e r o  KHCJiaKOB,  TaKOBH  21  x o T e j i o c b BceMH cHJiaMH  H  H pacnojioxeHHe  HeycTOHHHBocTH,  JIHCTOM.  "  fleHbraMH:  e r o HOBOM KBapTHpu npe^cTaBHji  TOBapHmeM,  ero  Torjja,  B  BcaKyio  HHKaKHMH  nejioBeKa...  OdmeCTBeHHOH padOTOfi, HTOdH ^OKa3aTb H M , npo  B  Bee n y B -  noTepaJi  OH  noKynaeTCH  He  HTO  xH3Hb  CBOK  K a K "TOBapHma", T O y K H C J i a K O B a n o n y B C T B O B a j i c a  cnacTba.  JIHB  ueHHOCTaM.  H ayxoBHoft  jjoMoynpaBJiaiofflHM  flOMa  OH,  JiiodBH d J i H 3 K o r o  dbiJiH npHHHHbi MopajibHoft  HaKOHeu;,  npeBpaTHJi  H  jjyMaji  MOMeHTa,  nejioBenecKHM  K BHCUIHM  nyBCTBHTeJibHocTb K  npocpeccHH  CBoeM  OTKa3ajicfl OT  OH  na  BHCOIHMH  cnpaBeJIJIHBOOdHJia JJO  npeBpaTHJiacb xjieda,  de3 scaKOK  108  HHUHaTHBH, BepH, KaK H  de3  a de3 ee  MH  H/j;eH.  BCHKOM  Bepn  He  noHHMaeM, -  rc-BopHT A p K a ^ n M , T  a  -  Hanajiacb  He  HMejia  HHTejuiHreHUHa, n p n BejiHHCKOM dHJia H  HH^TcaKOH  MopaJib-  de3HpaBCTBeHHOCTb  TaKyio  OHa  HHTejijiHreHiiHa, KOTopaa  RJLR C o B e T C K o E B J i a c T H , He  ceHMac  Hofi o n o p H .  ^  H/ieH,  pyccKaa  He^dHJio dy.Hym.ero.  KOHMHJiacb n p n J l e H H H e . " 23  padOTajia  cBoen  HMefl  HMejia  ApKa/iHH H a 3 H B a e T  MopajibHHM  BHposJj;eHHeM. 3TO - MopajibHoe B H p o x , n e H H e . . . . B o r ymeji H S Hauiefi XH3HH, H o c T a j i o c b TOJibKo O ^ H G dopameeca 3 a C B o e c y m e c T B O B a H H e x H B O T H o e . " 24 XOTH  ApKajj;nfl  pajibHO  pa3JioxHjiacb,  HaH.neT  y KHCJiaKOBa T O T O  BpeMa. PHT  "...  HHH  Mex^y  ^acT  HH  MTO  Jiio^bMH,  ycjiOBHax BMepa  noTOMy.,  MTO  ero  c KHCJiaKOBHM OH  B  KaK  ceda,  KOTO  XH3HH...." OTKa3ajica  A  Te,  ejjHHHny, .HOJIXHH o d t e ^ H H H T b c a odmeMejioBeMecKyro TBep.no  BepHJi  TaK  HCTHHa  ecTb  K Heft,  B  TO,  eme  MTO  MTO  H  My3ea.  B  He HMea  B  npe-  H  3Haji  TOJib-  pa3Bepy  cede  ceda,  HHKS—  KaK  npaB^y,  npoHecTH Haiuy  HenoBeKe  ^yma MejioBeKa.  He  .npyra n o j i y x H H a  coxpaHHTb  MOT  DTy o n o x y B  Teda  JIK>,HH n o T e p a j i H  Maccon,  MTodn  "...  HCTHHy C K B O 3 B  ApKa^Hfi  BO 3 B p a T H T C a  KTO  TOBO-  oTHome-  BHCIUHX  KOTOPHH  CBoero  Ha TO,  HacToamee  A p K a ^ H K , KOHeMHO, He  25  OT  OTJ^ejibHyio ejiHHHny, a XHJIH  BHyTpeHHero MHpa.  KaK  MejioBeK,  MO-  OH  KaK j j p y r a ^ A p K a ^ H f t  n p n ocKyAHeHHH  T.e.  yKa3HBaji  H a T O , MTO  dH/io T a K Majio B  KOTOPHX  c .HOJIXHOCTH .nnpeK.Topa  CHajiH  roBopax  HHTejuiHreHUHa  dHJia H a a e x ^ a  Tenepb,  - ,npyr,  DTO  n p n KaKHx  jtpyra,  pe^Koe  caMoe  y Hero  KHCJiaKOBa c B o e M x e H e ,  KHCJiaKOB TOJibKo  MTO KO  Bee x e  npeflCTaBJiaa  ocTaBmaaca  3Han, MTO  H  c n a c T H ee" O T r H d e j i H . . . "  HeJib3a ydHTb  p a H o HJIH n o 3 j ; H o  /  HCTHHH,  nejioBeK  n O M y B G T B O B a B T O C K y OT H H M T O x e C T B a BHeiUHHX RejL  109  npH  cymecTBOBaHHH.  XHBOTHOM  BepHJi B T O ,  OH  dHJia JiiodoBb, a He dopbda.  XHSHH  cymecTBOBaHHH  dHJi B  TOM,  HTO  ApKa^HH roBopnji,  TOJIbKO  Cjiymaa  HM.  OTH  H  HTO  yxac  HTO  npojieTapnaT yTBepxflaji,  H^en HMeioT npaBo Ha cymecTBOBaHHe  HX  .HBHraTejieM  HTO  HTO  TOJIBKO  dyflymee npHHa^jiexHT  BBicKa3HBaHHa jrpyra, K H C J I H K O B  jnyMaji,  HTO  OT Hero Benjio "MepTBoM HHTejiJiHreHiUHHott", KOTopaa BMecTO no^BHra Bnepe^ iuarHyjia jjajieKO Hasajot. $aHaTHHecKHM Hja;eajiH3M ApKa^HH TaK xe KaK  H  MopajibHan  de3HpaBCTBeHHocTb.  Bepnji cBoen xeHe,, npe/inojiaraa,  HTO  KHCJiHKOBa. ona ero  CJiyHHTCH  dHJia  JiiodHT, H  MajHOTKa  OH  Majica. B  yxacHyjica "...  nepejioMjieH  cBoeM  HeT npaB/jH Ha  H  ocTOJideHeji.  OH  OTHaaHHH, - a  y Hero  cBeTe,  caM  Jioxbio  BO3HHKJIH  HTO  .nyxoBHHH 2  -  roBopHT  coMHeHHa o  TOM,  HTO  KHCJIH-  MoxeT  dHTb  crHHJia".  ApKa^tHa 3ByHHT de3Ha^exHocTB, d e 3 -  BHxo^Hoe nojioxeHHe CTapoft  HHT6JI JiHreHH.HH,  .iHKTaTypoH npojieTapnaTa.  "-... EyJiymee npHHa^jiexHT  pace..., - roBopHT ApKa,HHH c Hen3MepHMoM OTO  OH  HHKorjja He nojib30Bajica." ^®  "oHa .saBHHM j^aBHo  B BHCHa3HBaHHax  -  3TOTO  caM HHKor^a jioxbio He saHH—  KaK-TO He 3Haji npaKTHKH J I X H .  H  TOJibKO T e n e p b  HHH  MoxeT  od H3MeHe CBoeK xeHH c jrpysbaMH aoMa H ee d e c c o B e c T H O K  ysHas  H  H  BepHOH.  cBoeK TenjioTOH flaTb eMy 3aMeHy yTpaneHHoro...."  no3BOHOHHHK, H  KOBy  dHTb  yBHjIHT BHCUiyK) IjeJIb B HeceHHH  KpecTa:. xHTb co CTapHM MyxeM, y KOToporo  JIXH,  -  RO-  ona He  HTO  no,E,BHxHHHecKaa cjiaBa pyccKott xeHmHHH  HTO MOH  TaK,  rndejiH,  ApKa,n,HH cjieno  HapyniHT BejiHKHx Tpa^HiiHH pyccKofi xeHiHHHH npouijioro "... BejiHKa  ero K  Beji  .irpyraa paca, - paca  HHnero  odpeneHHOH Ha radejib .  TOCKOH,  odmero c  apyrofi  - Bejib pado-  HaMH  He  HMeio-  110  man...  "  29  B ApKaj(He PosiaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T  oflHHOKoro  H^eajiHCTa, My,  HTO OH  H e MOT  HTO  H  CypOBOH  meftca  IIOKOJieHHe  BJiaCTH?  Hana/ie 2 0 - r o  B  fleJiaeT  AJIR  H He3aBHCHMOCTH.  CoBeTCKOH  HOBOH  DTHM  BpeMeHH,  TOTO  KaK xe npejcTaBaaeT PoMaHOB xeHin.HHy HHH  IIOTO-  .HeHCTBHTejIBHOCTH.  jupyrHe a B T o p u  MHorne  rHdHytnero  obmecTBe ^HKTaTypH npojieTapaaTa HeT MecTa  B  O^HHOHeCTBa  raydHHe cBoero cep^qa,  BOCnpHHflTb  caMHM PoMaHOB f KaK BHBO^,  B  TpareflHW nejioBeKa -  CToaeTHa  o$opMJie-  p y C C K O H xeHUJHHH, PO^HB-  npoxHBmyio  H  nepHOfl  B  CBOIO  IOHOCTB  c  BMecTe  peBOJiioiiHeH, pas^BOHJioct Mexay cTaptiMH Tpajj;HLi.HHMH naTpnapxajiBHoH CeMBH H  T a K HeOXH^aHHO JUaHHOH eM  "MopaaBHO-rojiuMH", OT  CTaporo  He  3Haa KaK  He aorHaB  H  EfclTB xeHOH  roBopHT  ceda  KaK  H Jj;OMOX0 3 a H K O H ,  no JIB 3 0 B a T B c a  pOXaTB  H  roBopio, a a a  H e 3HaHHTeJIBHOe MeHBIIIHHCTBO IlpeflCTaBHTejiBHHij;eH  TaKoro  CeMBH),  B TOT nepHOfl  COBeTCKOH  du/ia TaMapa.  MeHBinHHCTBa H  CTOPOHH  HTO  GTOTO  ycaodujio  HX  BJiaCTH.  B  Heft  MeHBtiiHH-  TaKne,xeHmHHH, nojiyHHB cBodoayy C T a p a j i H C B BceMH CHjiaMH  cpejoiCTBaMH OTO  BOCriHTHBaTB  yHH3HTe/iBHHM n p H H O B K X  PoMaHOB coBOKynaaeT Bce OTpHuaTejiBHbie CTBa.  H  fleTeH  cBodoaoH.  .naHHOH H M  H e K O T o p t i x xeHujHH n o T O M y ,  Jjaxe  yme^mn  ocTajiHCB nocpe,KHHe jjoporn,  OHH  CHHTajiocBy flJia H e K O T o p n x xeHmHHj caMHM  BHax CBodo^H.  OHH OCTaJIHCB  ycTaMH CBoero repoa.  aBTop  HOBOTO,  BecTH H  JIHHHOH CBOdOflH.  6UJI  CBoe n o a o x e H H e  Ha  O^HOM  ypoBHe  c MyxHHHoM.  OTHacTH ee npoTecT npoTHB ee c x o a e T H e r o nopadomeHHa  decnpaBHa  CHHTaaa  3aBoeBaTB  riepe^  yxacHtiM  MyxHHHOH. codtiTHeM  BBITB B  ee  TOJIBKO  XH3HH.  H  H  xeHoM ApKanHa, TaMapa EH  xoTejtocB  ^ejiaTB  TO  xexo,  Ill  KOTC-pHM OHa M o r j i a 6u  "npoaBHTB  ceda".  " - Kanaa a d c o j n o T H a a  n y o T O T a , - T O B O P H T TaMapa. ... B H y T p n BO MHe H H n e r o H e T , H DTO omyraeHHe MynHTejiBHO. XoneTca X O T B H e M - H H d y / i B ero 3arjiymHTB. 30 11  H  OHa 3arjiyniHJia  HHHaM, KOTopbie  DTy  Tocny  TaK,  de3  HTO  BHJJcejm B HeM TOJIBKO  nmymero C B o e r o n o j i o x e H H a pa3  TeM,  KaK T O B O P H J I c  KOToptiH ,TaK x e  BHJieji B  B  pa3dopa  xeHmHHy,  odmecTBe.  HX  ApKa/jHeM,..." 31  a He  yMOJiajia  HeM T O J I B K O xeHiHHHy  nejioBeKa,  XHBOTO  '•*- n o r o B o p n f  Myx-  OTjiaBajiacB  co  MHOH  XOTB  OHa K H C J i a K O B a ,  y^OBjieTBopeHHa  flJia  CBOHX OpOTHHeCKHX C T p a c T e M . MaTepHajiBHHe K  KpacoTe X H 3 H H ,  HejjocTaTKH  KOTopyw  pecTopaHax.  EM x o T e J i o c B  Harae  H3  TOJIBKO  ni.ec,  TaKHe  c n e K T a K J i H .KaK  OHa BHJiejia B napnxcKoM  BticTaBJiaeMHx  XH3HBB3 OHa y B J i e K a j i a c B ,  6u  TaK Hajioejia  ca  Kor^a  K Myxy. "  Ee T a r o T H J i o  TO  Ha  XOTB  B HeM 3aBHCTB  nyjiKax  doraTHX  H  K O T o p o M OHa HMejia  cu.eHe.  no-  3TOM n a p H x c K o M  pedeHOK CKa30HHoM X H 3 H B K . B  ropamnM  OTOHB  npoH3HOCHJia  OHa B3,m>ixajia H  Kyjja-HHdyjiB  c  He-  ee  TOCKOM:  ycTpoHTBca...  cepaa  decnpocBeTHOCTB. HecaMocToaxejiBHaa n p H X O J i H T c a 3a KaxjiHM pydJieM o d p a m a T B ora  " - ... MeHa ( T a K XH3HB,  niejiKOBBix  noflJiHBajiH M a c j i a  " - Boxe, H y KaK x o n e T c a  BocnnTajiH  XH3HH, O  KaK y B j i e K a e T c a  3jj;opoBoro BoodrpaxeHHa.  -  CTpaHe  B  - A.T..) y r a e T a e T  32  co3HaHHe,  HTO  OHa  MaTepnajiBHO  3aBHcejia  OT  CBoero  Myxa.  B CBoeM ReTCKoH HaHBHOCTH ^aeTea K H H o p e x n c c e p y M n j u i e p y , CHHMKOB,  TaK  xeHHH  HCKaxeHHoe  ee  KaK e r o  H  KOTOPHM  "HHTepecoBajio" BoodpaxeHHe  a p T H C T K o M B cJjHJiBMax H a pojj;HHe H  yxe  ee  dojiBHOM ynopcTBe, OHa  OT-  odemaeT c/iejiaTB HecKOJiBKO JIHH.0.  BH/j[ejio  3arpaHHiieM.  B  ceda Ho  DTOM  npejinojio-  3HaMeHHToM MHJiJiep, HcnoJiB-  112  30B8.B e e jjjia TPH  napn  TaMapa  CBOHX  JIHHHHX  nyjioK  mejiKOBHx  yTeineHHH,  3a e e  ycjiaji  KaK H a K a 3 a H H e  H  3a c e d a  H  3a MyxHHH.  KOHetx TaMape, PoMaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T , xeHiiiHHe  cHjibHee ee  MopajibHoro  .HOMOH, K3.B eft  HOjirpn BceM e e  "ycjiyrH".  n o n y B C T B O B a j i a ceda yHHxeHHOH H  ee  najeHHH,  JfaBaa  TaKOH  HTO nyBCTBo  TparHnecKHft  necTH B  pyccKoS  naaeHHa.  C OKOHMaHHeM HDIIa H BBejieHHeM n a T H J i e T H e r o n a a H a dpaHe  Hanajiacb  HHTeajinreHUHH. XHH  KO JI JieKTHBH 3 a i i H a  KpecTbaHCTBa H  B pa3roBope c KncjiaKOBHM,  B  doJibnieBH3au;Ha  flHpeKTop  My3ea Floay-  roBopHT, H T O ^ K o r ^ a O H yBHjueji K a p T y n a T H J i e T K H ^ T O y H e r o  "cepjtqe "  3auijrocb"  O T p a / i o c T H y B H / j e B TaKyio n e p e c T p o f t K y  3  JIO c HCKyccTBeHHHM o p r a H H S O B a H H e M HTO K a c a e T c a  p a d o T a i o T . HajuiexaiuHM $aHTOMax  npaMHM,  dpopM o d o p o T a 0  CBoero "  3  xopomo H 3 B e c T H O , CKOJibKo MHJIJIHOHOB  HCTOPHH  K H . A  CTpaHH.  Ha/io B O T TOJIbKO H3 nop, B J i a c T H M y x H K a B H d p a T b c a , CKB03b d a p a d a H e r o n p o n y c T H T b , B C T y n e HCTOJionb, HTOdH c o d C T B e H H H H e c K y i o KyjiaoKyro 3aKBacKy H 3 H e r o B H d H T b . . . . M H H X B c e x B T a K H e KJieiUH 3 a x M e M , HTO O H H B p,Ba c n e T a n o f l o x n y T . . . . A T a M MH C B O H " 3 e p H O B n e dpadpHKH ' p a 3 B e , n e M . . . . " 1  THX  CMepTb,  ocKopdJieHHoH^ H 3 d p a B  repoa  roJio^a  "3epH0BHX  $adpHK",  odpa30M..  PoMaHOB  noHHTHHM a 3 H K O M , JIHT epaT ypHoro  c o B e T C K H x Jim/jen y M e p -  B ro^ti  nepBoft  naTHJieT-  T O H RO C H X n o p O H H H e BHCKa3HBajica od OTHX  de3 M e T a d p o p H n e c K o r o HJIH / i p y -  a3HKa.  dOJIbmeBH3atIHH HHTejIJIHreHUHH  POMaHOB  roBopHT  ycTaMH  KncJiaKOBa, HTO  . . . I T p o u B e T a e T K a 3 e H H o e T B o p n e c T B O , a jiHHHOCTb c e e HHHUHaTHBOH 3arHaHa B m e j i b . CTapaiOTca TOJIbKO O T O M , HTOdH K a K MOXHO dOJIbme HaCTpOHTb Bcero. Ho, B0 3 J i B H r a a KaMeHHHe c T p o e H H a , c o B e p meHHO yHHMToxaioT HejiOBenecKyio JiHHHOCTb H J i y m y . "  3  4  113  PoMaHOB paccMaTpuBaji n o j i H T H K y cairax  napTHH coBepmeHHo H e B e p H o M , a  XH3HH OHH  3aMeHHJIH npHHH,HnOM CHJIU,  Hyio MHCJifc  B  H  cTpaHe.  caM aBTop.  aBJia/iacb  HHTejuiHreHHHH  0TKa3ajiHCb  OHH  OT  B  cosHaeTca  DTOM  rpo3HT n e p e j i O M H T b c a "KnaccoBaa  Ha3UBaeMa  nepecTajia  BHBO£,  HTO  aBTop.  HM  xpedeT  nepe/ioMajiH nepejioMaH.  H  BO  MHOTHX  xajiocTb.  cymHooTH, ecTb  B  MejioBeKa TOJibKO  ^odpoe  H 3 - s a npHHunna.  CymHOCTH, e C T b JIOdpHH HeJIOBeK, HO BOT " . . .  xepTBaM KJiaccoBOH n o / i H T H K H y H e r o HeT xajiocTH,  no/jOHTH K HHM  no  duji  TaK  eymecTBO,  dJIHOTeK H KHHXHHX M a r a 3 H H O B . .HBepn nenaTH, B e e .HJia M H O T H X HHe  XOTa  cBoen XH3HH,  OH He MOT KaK  nojiyxHH,  36 acHO,  noneMy  flJia  POMaHOBa H  DTO  DTOTO  nncaTb no c^ejiaji  BpeMeHH.  3a  PoMaHOB c T a p a j i c a n p H c n o c o d H T b c a  JiHTepaTypHott p a d o T e .  Ho  DTO  3a/iaHHK) n a p T H H .  ero  repoft  KncjiaKOB.  DTOT  dnBee  3aKpHJIHCb  xe &JIR Hero caMoro He rpo3HJia o n a c H O C T b ,  TpedoBaHHaM napTHH B  cnocodHTbca,  XHBOTHHM,  HaBeer.ua Hcne3 c noJioK  jJipyrnx n H c a T e / i e f t - n o n y T H H K O B  BoceM6 JieT  y^ajiocb.  H  BOT  HO  H H K a K o S HejioBenecKOH  HejiOBenecKH."  dHCTpo KOHdpHCKOBaH  JIM^HX  K DTHM THdHyiHHM  Hs Bcero BtniieyKasaHHoro CTaHOBHTca  poMaH  OH  PoMaHOB  KaKaa Jindo n o j i H T H n e c K a a JiHHHa /jeJiaeT e r o d e 3 x a j i o c T H H M ydHBaioiiiHM ^ p y r o r o  KaK  HejioBeHecTBa.  JiHHHa" n a p T H H yHHHTOXHJia  B  CBOdOfl-  conpoTHBJiaTbCH,  MejioBeKa.  y qejiOH nojioBHHH  nejioBeK,  BCHKyK)  codCTBeHHOH H # e H , K O T o p a a Beer.ua  coMyBCTBHe, MejioBenecKyio cnpaBe/j;jiHBoeTb jj;ejiaeT  npHHnHnbi H e j i o B e n e c K O H  KOTOpaa ydHBaeT  c B a T H H e f i B o a K o r o Mbicjiamero KaK  xpedeT,  Bee  ynopHHMH cpaHaTHKaMH.  KOMMVHHCTOB  eMy  KaK nocjie.iiK  coBceM  O H He cyMeji  He-  npH-  114  FOOTNOTES Romanov, Panteleymon, T o v a r i s h c h K i s l i a k o v H i Three p a i r s o f s i l k s t o c k i n g s . I s d a t e l ' s t v o Imeni Chekhova, New Y o r k , 1952. p. 209. 2  I b i d . , p. 23*f.  3  I b i d . . pp. 111-112  L Op. c i t . , p. 112. <  ^ I b i d . , p. 113. Ibid.  6  ?  p. 75.  7  0p. c i t . . p. 75.  8  I b i d . , p. 76.  9 O p . c i t . . p. 76. 10I b i d . , p. 68. 11  0p;' "-clt., p. 68.. :  1 2  I b i d . . p. 77.  1 3  I b i d . , p. 78.  lIf  0p. c i t . , p. 78.  1  ^ I b i d . , p. 205.  l6  0 p . c i t . . p. 205,  1 7  I b i d . . pp. 116-117,  1 8  I b i d . . p. 222.  1 9  I b i d . . p. 223.  2 Q  I b i d . . p. 89.  2 1  I b i d . , p. 300.  22 I b i d . , p. 332. 2 3  I b i d . . p. 126.  2k  I b i d . , p. 127. 2  ^Ibid.« p. iM-2. I b i d . . p. 2)+l.  2 7  Ibid.  T  pp. 27^-275.  2 8  I b i d " . . p. 361.  2 9  I b i d . , p. 360.  3  °Ibid.. p. 181.  3 1  I b i d . . p. 182.  3 2  I b i d . , p. 283. I b i d . , p. 166.  3 3  3  ^ I b _ i d . , p. 123. i b i d . , p. 129.  36  0 p . c i t . , p. 223.  117  " POCCHH H B Mae, H  "HsBecTHH ' 1  JIHTaiJHK.  1930  roaa,  9TOTO  "  r JiaB JIHTH3jn;aT H pe,aaKu.HK  B 3Ty  r p y n n y BXCHHJIH  IlHJibHHK, HBaHOB, 3o3yjiH, P o M a H O B , KaTaeB vs B HHXHHK  HoBropo^ Ha  HMeHH M o j i o T O B a . "MecTO  CTpoHTejibCTBo  flpyrne.  PoMaHOB 6bus  Pe3yjiBTaTOM e r o noe3^KH 6hiisvs e r o T P H onepKa:  3aBo^ HMeHH M o j i o T O B a " H "CoLiHajiHCTHMec.KHH ropojn". B  JleoHOB,  aBTOModHJibHoro 3aBo,ia  poxfleHHH C o B e T c n o r o aBTOModHJibHoro 3 a B o ^ a " ,  noHBHjiHCb  coBeTCKOH n p e c c e  PoMaHOB odayMbiBaji B o n p o c  1936 r o , i y .  B  OTCicaa  "ABTOMJidHJibHHH 3TH T P H o n e p K a  BaHHa $H3HHecKoro  nncaTb o  KaK flOJiro  BH/JHO,  CBoero nojioxeHHa, KaK nncaTejia, KaK  flOJiro He pemajica CTaTb HHCTpyMeHTOM nponaraH^u napTHH.  OH  Ho Tpedo-  cymecTBOBaHHa 3acTaBHJiH ero HanenaTaTb D T H onepKH.  nepBHfi  CBOH  "npaBaa"  OHH yCTpOHJIH RJIK IIHCaTeJieH OKCKypCHK) B HH^yCTpH-  ajibHBie paMoHH C o B e T O K o r o C o i 0 3 a .  nocjiaH  ra3eT  nHcaTejreH-nonyTMHKOB c uejibio H X peadn-  B3HJIH H a n o p y K H  JUfl  C..C.C.P.  T O M , H T O OH  o n e p K PoMaHOB  HanHHaeT TeM o d t a c H e H H e M ,  Bvsjsejs B O BpeMa cBoen noe3^KH  3HanHT noBTopaTb Bce T O , H T O yxe dHJio CKa3aHO  CKa30B O COBeTCKOM CTpOHTeJIbCTBe .  B  B HHXHHM  HTO  HoBropoji,  coTHax ^ p y r n x pac-  IlHCaTb Od DTOM, 3HaHHT ITOBTOpHTb  yxe cKasaHHoe o Test:ne CTponTejibCTBa, o pacuiHpeHHH ruiaHOB KOHCTpyKLIHH, Od 3!HTy3Ha3Me padOHHX. PoMaHOB.  B 3TOM HeT OpHTHHajIbHOCTH, TOBOpHT  TaKHe cjioBa He BBi3HBajiH dojibnie HHTepeca B HHTaTejie.  " nncaTb TOJIbKO B TaKOM .nyxe, HTodn yKpenHTb CBoe  jiHHHoe noJioxeHne, des BcaKoro HHTepeca K xyjioxeCTBeHHOH npaB/j;e - a D T O T O .lejiaTb He B C O C T O H H H H .  roBopHT PoMaHOB. c  TaKoM  yBepeH  HTodu HHTaTejib  CHJIOH,  a He no^jj;ejiKy  O H dHJi  K  HeM.  B TOM, HTO  Mor  RJSH D T O T O  "  1  nncaTejib jj;oJixeH nncaTb  BHjjjeTb nepe,n codon peajibHocTb,  nncaTejib caM .soJixeH BepHTb  B TO,  118  HTO  RJIK T e x ,  flaxe  Hoti  Ero  nnmeT.  OH  JJjOCTHHB  xyztoxecTBeHHaa KTO  TOJIBKO T O T ^ a ,  HeoxHJiaHHBie MOMeHTBI. "  He xoneT  padOTa  BepHTB  KOT/ia nHCaTejIb  ^oJixHa ero  B  dBiTB ydejjHTejiB-  H#era.  DTOTO  HMeeT BO 3MOXHO CTB  MOXHO  C03^aBaTB  Ho  RJIH. K a x ^ o r o xy/j;oxHHKa, KOTopBift K p H T H n e c K H O T K c B o e n p a d o f e , Hama o n o x a npejjcTaBj i a e T 3aTpy^HeHHH #jia TaKoft padOTBi.... B H a c T o a m e e BpeMa OHHa T e i a npnJioMHHHpyeT H 3 a n o j i H a e T XH3HB 3TO T6Ma peKOHCTpyKIIHH HOBOTO MHpa. Ho T p a K T O — B a T B TaKyio TeMy B TaKOM c B e T e , H T o d u HHTaTejiB He BCTpenajica c daHajiBHBiMH BBipaxeHHaMH H 3HaK0MBiMH eMy odpa3aMH, co c j i o B a M H , Ha KOTopBie OH n e p e c T a j i pearnpoBaTB, KaK H a H O B O C T B - DTO oneHB Tpy,HHoe 3a^aHHe J J I H e r o x y ^ o x e c T B a , K O T o p o e npe/j;Ha3HaHeH0 c j i y x H T B He TOJIBKO ^Jia HacToamero MOMeHTa, HO TaK x e JiJia dyaymnx noK@JieHHft. " 2 HOCHTCH  TaK OH  roBopHT,  Torjj;a,  paccMaTpHBaji  HTO  Korjj;a OH  odteJiKHaeT  HHTaTejiB  ydex/iaeTca  nyBCTByeT TBopnecKyio  ero FlOCJie  PoMaHOB xyjj;oxecTBeHHyjo  B  Horo  Hapo^a H3  napTHH,  B  OH  nnnieT, H T O  H3MeHHJica x a p a K T e p  poxjj;ajiac& He  naccHBHoro,  p y c c K o r o Hapo^a.  paca  B  HOBBIM  CoBeTCKHH  T e n e H H H CTOJieTHft,  TeneHHH O^HOH "  e/jHHCTBeHHyio  D K C K y p C H H H a aBTOMOdHJIBHHfl  TpyxeHHKa.  HOBaa  Ty  TOJIBKO  uejiB,  KOTopaa  KaK  OH  HTO  ero  JieHHBoro, OH  3aBO,H HMeHH MojIOTOBa  y^HBHJio  H6BOJIBHO  y^HBjiaJica  p y c c K o r o Hapojj;a, G0103.  DTO  DTO  B  KaK,  nojj;  CTapaa  KaK  nepepox^eHHe  aKTHB-  pox^ajiacB  3aMeTHJi, KaK TOMy,  JiaBJieHHeM  Poccna  nepe-  nponcxo^HJio  yTBepx/iaic-T MHpoBBie n c H x o j i o r H ,  a  .zteKaflbi.  B HHXHHM HoBropo/j;,  PoMaHOB  yBH/j;eji,  KaK  B  nepepox^eHHe  6e3pa3jiHHHoro,  EyflyHH B HnxHeM H o B r o p o ^ e a n o n y B H T B O B a j j nepBBiS p a 3 c o Bceft CHJIOH p e a J i B H O C T H . "  npne3xaa  nncaTejia.  CHJiy.  HHXHeM H o B r o p o , n e , PoMaHOB n n c a j i , pyccKoro  npaB,ne HHTaeMoro  B  nncaTejie  padoTy  DTO  B  3  H3MeHajiocB  JIHHO  B  119  pyccKoM  3eMjiH.  vp,e n o B o j i r e HOBbie  ajiH  HOBHe HCHO  3aB0^H,  HOBtie n o c i p o M K H , npoxo^HJiH  TOM, HTO C T a p a a  nopora  DTOTO  jiejiaji  necKoro  xapaKTepa POCCHH.  CTajinHa.  rocyaapcTBa.  npe^cTaBJiajia  Tor.ua Kan CoBeTCKHtt  ^BHxeHna  dtuia  TOTO xe caMoro, CHa?  HOBLie  HepecTponKa  dHJia T p y j j H o n ^JIH OTOTO  BHPOCT-  cy^Ha,  pocjin POMaHOB  Hapo,a;a OT/j;ejibHHMH JiHHHocTaMn s a -  napTnn H  POCCHH  yca,n,bdH,  necHHMn,  KOHeHHO nO,H dpyTaJIBHHM JiaBJieHHeM n a p T H H .  OKcnjioaTannen  3acToM,  nonemnHbH  dypjiaKH c 3ayHHBHHMH'  y B H ^ e j i , ' HTO OKcnjioaTaqna  HecKntl  He  paH&iue dbiJiH MOHacTbipn,  Korjj;a-TO n JIH JIH  KOJIX03H,  MeHHJiacb B  T a M , rjie  ycTJiaHa  CTapaacb  codon  Ho p&3HHqa  connajibHHH n OKOHOMH-  Cow3 J i B H r a j i c a Bnepe,n,  ero  acepTBaMH.  npody^nTb  noHajiodnjincb  CHJIH  neTp 1  jieTaprn-  HauHOHajibHoro  RJIK n a c T H H x npejj;npnflTHH JiHKTaTopn  xoTa  Ho pa3Be  P O C C H K H3 e e  xo3HHCTBa n nepe^ejiKa  3ajj;aHen  cocToajia  IleTpa  B ycjiOBHHx  riepBoro  H  120  FOOTNOTES  •••Romanov, Panteleymon, "On the V o l g a " , R a s s k a s y . S c r i b n e r , New Y o r k , 193'+, p. 2 +5. I  2  3  I b i d . , pp. 2 +6-2 +7. J  I b i d . . p. 2hQ.  1  121 IV  3AKJHQHEHHE K a n y x e H 3 B e c T H 0 H3 aBTodHorpa<f)HH, PoMaHOB peuiHJi HHcaTeaeM dOJIbfflHM He  eme  B .neTCTBe. IlOOTOMy,  KaK  OH CaM  3aHHMaacH xypHajiH3MOM,  TaK  KaK  HTO  Tpy^OM.  nncaTejibCKan  xoTeji  OH  dojibnie  jno^eM.  poay n ee  DTO  E r o Bcer/j;a  n npeKpacHon  raToft  Bcero,  cTpaHe, K O BceMy  dBiJio T a K  BaeTCH  PoMaHOB K jnoflHM, H 3 y n a H n x  Bce,  ycTaHOBHTb  HTO  3anncen HBHJiacb e r o  MHOTO  cpadyJioH,  nncaTejia.  Hne  Konaacb  dn  OH  oKpyxaiomeMy.  Tejib -aHajiHTHK, Hero  oneHb  ononea  KOTopaa  a. KaK  HHH  peBOJiionnen H a p o f l  nOflaBJIHJIHCb  spyroM,  od  flaji  BHyTpeHHHMH  PoMaHOB H a n n n a e T c  Morjia  nncaTb  dbi ,naTb  rojja, OH  euy  npncMaTpnCTapancb Hapo,a;a. DTHX  HHTepecoBajica CKopnn y c n e x  MejrjieHHo n  BHBOJJ;,  OTCio^a n  dti C T a T H C T ,  KOTOPHM  do-  "Pycb".  Majio $HJioco(J)HHecKHx  MaTepnajia,  npn-  HeBexecTBa,  Pe3yjibTaTOM  3anncHBaji.  PoMaHOB n n c a j i  XH3HH.  . PeBOJiionHH 1917 TOTO  ee  TaKon  B  JieT  ReoETb  rracbMa. -  POCCHK  nepTH n ncnxojioroio,  TmaTejibHO  HaodopoT,  B xaoce  JIHHHH  KOCHOCTH,  B j ^ o c T H x e n n n c B o e M n e j i n , PoMaHOB He TeMon H J I H  ero  c  eMy  OH H H K O T ^ a  B H H X HannoHajibHbin x a p a K T e p p y c c K o r o  3aMenaji,  OH  3TOM,  06  D T O dHJia n e  .aocTaJiacb  3aHHMaji B o n p o c , n o n e M y ,  de3pa3Jinnnfl  n  TOBOpHT  npaB^HBO o n n c a T b  jieHn n  HafiiH  npodpecenH  cTaTb  3Ba-  n  odjjyMaHHo,  H T O PoMaHOB He  KaK  nnca-  3anncHBaioiqHfi $ a K T H X H 3 H H .  Y  xapaKTepoB. KaK  ncKaji  cBodo/j;y  TaK  H X oTHomeHnn K H O B O H  aoJiro n y c e p j j ; H O .  ^ettcTBHH  H BHeiUHHMH KopoTKHe  dH p a c K p n j i a nepejj; H H M  CHJiaMH  CBOHM Ha  coBeTCKon  B3dyjj;opaxeH-  nyBCTBaM,  npOTHXeHHH  paccKa3H o n o B e ^ e H n n BJiacTK,  HCTOHHKK  KOTopne BeKOB.  jnoflen  jj;pyr  od H X noHH—  122  MaHHH "cBOtfOflBl" , JJiaHHOtt HM peBOJIBUHeK. CTOpOHH XH3HH (  6BIT  PoMaHOB OXBaTHBaeT Bee  , JIBfiOBb, MOpaJIb) H BCe CJIOH Hace/ieHHH.  B  O#HHX p a c c n a 3 a x OH  noKa3HBaeT B C B HejienocTb HejioBenecKoro n o -  Bej^eHHH, 3aCTaBJIHH  T S K H M 06pa30M, HHTaTeJIfl  jrenocTbfo, T o r ^ a KaK  B  flpyrax  OH  orractiBaeT de3BHxo^Hoe nojroxeHHe  JIKJteM B H X OTHOUieHHHX C HOBOK B J i a C T b B , rojj;oBaHHe HHTaTejia.  CMeHTbCfl Ha/j; OTOH He-  BBI3BIBaa COHyBCTBHe H  He-  P a c c K a 3 H PoMaHosa HanncaHBi B npocToM H  GHJibHOfi $opMe c r j i y d o K H M npoHHKHOBeHHeM B r. <5HT . v Jiiojj;eH. C 1925  rOfla, POMaHOB CTaHOBHTCH nOCTOHHHBIM COTpyflHHKOM  MHOTHX COB6TCKHX xypHajioB.  Ero p a c c K a 3 w npKBJieKaioT HHTaTejibCKyro  Ero KopoTKHe, JiaKOHHnecKHe cppa3H, B KOTOPBIX  Maccy.  B / i H H H H e H O B O S onoxn H  nyBCTByeTca  BBipaxeHHe 3KcnpecCHOHH3Ma, ^ejiaroT ero  JIBSHMBIM nncaTejieM Maccti.  MHTan poMaHOBCKHe p a c c K a 3 H ,  JIB,HH B  HX  repoflx y3HaBa/iH HJIH caMHx cedn HJIH C B O H X cocejj;eM H cMeaJiHCb H&II 3THMH OTKPHTHHMH.  .Haxe Hyxflbie PoMaHOBy n o #yxy JiHTepaTypHbie  KPHTHKH He MOTJIH He n p H 3 H a T b eTO  XHBOft  KOMH3M H  ocTpyro Hao'jiB.na-  TeJIbHOCTb. Ero H e 3 a B H C H M o c T b B cjiOBe H Bbidop TeM HHH  npHBJieKJIH  BCHKOH  Ha cedn ocTpyB KpnTHKy Tex, KTO  caMocToaTejibHott HfleH B TBopnecTBe.  3TH  ero npoH3Be/j;e-  6HJI 3a  yHHHTOxeHHe  JIB/J;H O(5BHHHJIH ero  B nojj;paxaTeJibCTBe KjiaccHKaM, B paBHO,nyiiiHH K nporpeccy HejioBenecT Ba,  B HCKaxeHHH $aKTOB  Jj;eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH.  Ho, HecMOTpa Ha ocTpyio KpnTHKy, Ha juaBJieHHe cBepxy, PoMaHOB ocTaBajica B e p H H M cBoeM uejiH - nncaTb /j;eKcTBHTejibHBie cpaKTBi B XH3HH,  KaK OH H X BHjrejI H nOHHMaJI.  OH HBJIHeT Cfl CUHHM H 3 HaHJiyH-  IUHX coBeTCKHx nHcaTejiei? yMewujHx onnctiBaTB p y c c K y B  ee KpacoTofi H ee ocodeHHOCTKMH.  npnpofly c o  BceK  123  XOPOIIIO  3H3.H pyCCKHft H3HK POMaHOB CMeJIO BCTaBJIfleT  B  i  CBOH p a c c K a 3 H Hapo,nHtie B n p a x e H H a , pOflHOTO  fl3HKa,  KaK  Ha^-pflfly 3BI  PoMaHOBa  mne  c  KMopHCTHMecKHMH  H IleTpoBa.  OT  PoMaHOBa  jiHTepaTypu,  HBaHa  $e,iopoBHHa  js,o AHTOHa n a B j i o B H n a H e c M O T p a H a .naBjieHHe  napTHH H  npaBHTejibCTBa,  npoffljioro,  Ha  cjiyxdy  TpycjiHB  " P o M a H O B He  11  cdopHHKy p a c c K a 3 0 B "  3TO  H  nnuieT  "Bonpocn  J  paccKa30B  KOHua H  y HHX  Tpa^HiiHH  TopdyHOBa  pyccKoM  " C n e t i H H3  odpnnHajibHHX  BeJIHKOH  Hapo,n-  3acTaBHTb  ero  KpyroB  dpocnTb  c o B e T C K O H .nencTBHTejibHOCTbio H PoMaHOB He MOT  TeMH  oT,naTb  H3MeHHTb Tpajj;H-  C T a T b HHCTpyMeHTOM nponaraH,HH n a p T H H . r i e T p IlHjibCKHH B cBoeM npe/j;HCJiOBHH K nojia".  O H He d o H T c a 3 H a K O M o r o , He CTpamnTCH C T a p o r o , He CMymaeTCH CBOHMH c o B n a ^ e H H H M H B noflMenaHHax H o d pHCOBKax. rioDTOMy OH He T1UHTCH H 3 0 d p e T a T b , He T o n o p i u H T c a , He K y p a j i e c H T . . . . 3Ta x e B H y T p e H H H H CBodcna, 3 T a C M e j i o c T b , O T a H e 3aBHCHMOCTB H c n a c j i a e r o OT paenpocTpaHeHHoro r p e x a c o B p e M e H H o M JIHT epaT y p n C o B e T C K o M POCCHH: OH He TpaneH JiecTbio H He B K H O B S T B y r o , K H H H e c T B e . "  HBJiaeTca  Tpyfl-  O'TeHpn.  3offleHKO HJIH y  Jiynmnx  PoMaHOBa  xoTejiH  counajiH3Ma,  CBodo^Horo H C K y c c T B a  /jo  no^HeM-  HexoBa. Ha  KOToptie  n p e K T H B KOHTaKT c  CBOH T a j i a H T UHHM  Haxoj;HM  HBJIHKTCH npo/j;ojixeHHeM  Hflymnx OT  MOMeHTH  Hanajia  paccKa-  3omeHKo,  .aaxe npeBHiuaioT  KoMnnecKHe  HBJiaioTCfl npo.noJixeHHeM  HOTO d H T a "  paccKa3aMH  3aHHMaK»T BBi^aiom.eecH MecTO H  HO HaMTH KyJIbMHHaUHH, KaK 3TO MH  PaccKa3H  odpa30M^odpa3  CHMBOJI H KaK HpOHHK).  paccKa3H Hjtbtfpa  PoMaHOBa  c o M e T a a ^ TaKHM  3acjiyron  PoMaHOBa n e p e ^  jiHTepaTypon,  1  KaK  HC-  KyCCTBO. PoMaHOB n n c a j i paflKa,  KaK  CTapon,  TaK H  TaK x e  MHOTO O n p o d J i e M a x  HOBOH H H T e j u i n r e H n H n .  MopajibHoro  Bonpocn  jnodBn  noH  124  B3aHM00TH0uieHHe noJioB B nepexo/iHHH nepnofl c e p b e 3 H 0 PoMaHOBa.  B e r o npoH3Bejj;eHHax  O H H 3aHHMaioT o c o d o e MecTO H n o -  DTOMy COCTaBJiaiOT OT^eJIBHHM UHKJI e r o TeM. -BonpocH n o j i a " , "TanHa"  "Be3  TpeBoxHJiH  HepeMyxn", "nepBaa  "uHCbMa XeHUlHHH » 11  JirodoBb", "Eojibiuaa  ceMba",  H a p y r n e , Bceu.ejio 3aHaTH TaftHOH xeHmHHH, ee cTpacTbio H  npoTHBopeHHaMH): ee n o c i y n K O B H BJieneHKH.  3TH npodJieMH c.TajiH  ocodeHHO O C T P H M H n o c n e OKTadpbCKoM PeBOJiitmHH, Korjj;a p e j i n r n a dHJia cHHTa c noBecTKH JiHa, o d t a B j i e H a  cBodo,HHaa JiwdoBb, a ceMbio 3aMeHHjio  D T H e r o npoH3Be,neHHa  rocyflapcTBO.  napTHKHHMH H decnapTHHHHMH.  OHH  HHTajracb MOJJ;HBIMH H C T a p t i M H ,  OCTPO  odcyx/j;ajiHCb Ha  codpaHHax  MOJioJiexH. Ho npodJieMBi MopajibHoro nopaflKa., KOToptie PoMaHOB CTaBHJi Ann  p y c c K o r o odmecTBa B 20-e  r o ^ H , HBJiaioTca TaK xe aKTyajibHHMH B  HacToamee BpeMa..  MopajibHtie npdjreMH cpejj;H M O J I O ^ H X H ^ O C T H T J I H  nponopHHM, H T O H X  pa3pemeHHeM 3aHHMaioTca Bee odmecTBeHHtie o p r a -  HH3aHHH, paflHO-KOMMyHHKaqHa, n e n a T b , napjieMeHT.  TaKHM odpa30M  niKOJia, uepKOBb H ,naxe  conocTaBJiaa cpaKTH onHcaHHBie  C CpaKTaMH HaCTOameft .HefiCTBHTeJIbHOCTH,  MOXHO CKa3aTb,  PoMaHOBtiM HTO  POMaHOB  jcteMcTBHTejibHO HMe/i o c H O B a H H e no^HHMaTb npodJieMy T a n o r o odmeHe/ioBeHecKoro  xapaKTepa.  TaKHx  125  FOOTNOTES  Romanov, Panteleymon, R a s s k a s y , "Voprosy p o l a " , Isdatel'stvo " L i t e r a t u r a " , Riga, 1927.  126  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Brown, Edward J . The P r o l e t a r i a n E p i s o d e i n R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1953* K o v a l j ova, V.A. and P a v l o v s k i y , A . I . Voprosy Sovietsko.j L i t e r a t u r y , I s d a t e l ' s t v o A c a d e m i i Nauk, U.S.S.R., Moskva, 1958, v o l . V I I I . L e e d i n , V.L. P i s a t e l i , A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s and p o r t r e t s , K h i g o i s d a t e l s t v o "Sovremennye problemy", Moskva, 1  Romanov, Panteleymon, Rus', p a r t I , I s d a t e l ' s t v o Moskva, 1928, f o u r t h p r i n t i n g .  1928.  "Nedra",  Romanov, Panteleymon, Voprosy p o l a , R a s s k a s y , K n i g o i s d a t e l ' stvo, " L i t e r a t u r e " , Riga, 1927. Romanov, Panteleymon, Goluboe p l a t ' e , R a s s k a s y , I s d a t e l ' stvo "Knizhnaja lavka p i s a t e l e y " , Riga, 1930. Romanov, Panteleymon, On t h e V o l g a , R a s s k a s y , S c r i b n e r ,  New York, 193+. 1  Romanov,' Panteleymon, Without c h e r r y blossom, R a s s k a s y , E r n e s t Benn, London, 1930. Romanov, Panteleymon, "Nova.ia S c r i z h a l ' of New Kommandment, Novel, I s d a t e l ' s t v o " L i t e r a t u r e " , Riga, 1928. Romanov, Panteleymon, T o v a r i s h c h K i s l i a k o v or Three p a i r s of s i l k s t o c k i n g s , N o v e l , P u b l i s h i n g House "Chechov", New Y o r k , 1952. Simmons, E r n e s t J . Through t h e G l a s s of S o v i e t L i t e r a t u r e , C o l u m b i a , New Y o r k , 1953.  127  V o r o n s k a j a , G.A. and Dementiev, A.G. A . V o r o n s k i y . L i t e r a t u r n o - k r i t i c h e s k i e s t a t i y , S o v i e t s k i y P i s a t e l ' , Moskva, 19&3. Z a v a l l s h l n , V., E a r l y S o v i e t W r i t e r s , "Panteleymon Romanov," P u b l i s h i n g House F.A.Preader, New Y o r k , 1957. H i s t o r y of R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . I , p a r t I , Moskow, U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Moskow, 1958, Grusdev, I . "Upriamaya k o b y l a " , Zvezda, No.6, Moskva,  1926.  U.L. "0 P.Romanove", Na L i t e r a t u r n o m P o s t y , N o . l , Moskva,  1928.  0 p o l i t i k e P a r t i i v O b l a s t y Khudozhestvennoy P r a v d a J u l y 18, 1925.  11  Literatury",  "0 nashey l i n i i v khudozhestvennoy l i t e r a t u r e i o p r o l e t a r s k i c h p i s a t e l i a c h " , P r a v d a F e b r u a r y 11, 1925.  

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