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Literary heritage of Panteleymon Romanov, 1883-1938 Gattinger, Anna 1966

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LITERARY HERITAGE OF PANTELEYMON ROMANO? 1883 - 1933 by ANNA G A T T I N G E R B.A., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ' SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1966. In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that pe rmiss ion f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion Department o f Slavonic Studies The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date A p r i l , 1966. i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to e s t a b l i s h o t h e importance of Panteleymon Romanov i n Soviet l i t e r a t u r e . Even though Romanov began w r i t i n g many years before the R e v o l u t i o n , he became known as an author only a f t e r the Rev o l u t i o n when he published "Childhood", h i s f i r s t work, i n 1920. L i t t l e success attended t h i s e f f o r t . However, l i k e any true a r t i s t he was not i n t e r e s t e d i n w r i t i n g merely t o gain fame, but more to express h i s p h i l o -sophy of l i f e . He adopted the r e a l i s t i c s t y l e of the c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s of the 19th Century and a p p l i e d i t t o the c o n d i t i o n s created by the Re v o l u t i o n and post-Revolutionary p e r i o d . Thus he mirrored the l i f e around him. At the time of War-Communism, 1917-1921, when most of the w r i t e r s were engaged i n p o l i t i c a l and i n t e r n a l s truggle t o define the path that the new l i t e r a t u r e was t o take, Romanov wrote s e v e r a l volumes of humorous short s t o r i e s on how the peasants greeted the p o l i t i c a l changes. By r e w r i t i n g these humorous s t o r i e s i n a serio u s v e i n , he incorporated them i n t o h i s greatest work under the t i t l e "Rus'". His s t o r i e s about the younger members of s o c i e t y and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward l o v e , were a l s o very popular. In these s t o r i e s on love Romanov wa±e£e the new a t t i t u d e t o -wards sex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between young people, the p o s i t i o n i i of the unmarried mother, and the new f a m i l y l i f e without the sacrament of the church. His best s t o r i e s on t h i s theme are: "Without Cherry Blossom", "The §ig Family", "The Right to Love" and the novel "The New Commandment". These were a l l widely read and discussed among the Komso-mols and npn-Komsomols a l i k e . Towards the end of the N.E.P. p e r i o d , Romanov became more i n t e r e s t e d ' i n the s o c i a l conduct of the o l d intelligentfsjLa as a p p l i e d to i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the new government. One of h i s best known s t o r i e s of t h i s p e r i o d i s "The Right to L i v e " which deals w i t h a non-Party w r i t e r who t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o conform to the demands of the P a r t y . Romanov has developed t h i s theme f u r t h e r i n h i s novel "Comrade K i s l y a k o v " . In these two novels, Romanov expressed h i s regret that i n t e l l e c t u a l s d i d not have her o i c q u a l i t i e s , energy, and w i l l power to f i g h t f o r t h e i r p o l i -t i c a l and human r i g h t s . Romanov has often been regarded a s # c o n t r o v e r s i a l w r i t e r both by the Soviet and the emigree c r i t i c s . The l a t t e r accused Romanov of slandering the morals of the o l d i n t e l l i g e n l s i a , while most of the former accused him of be-ing b l i n d to the growth of the Soviet masses because he had not accepted the R e v o l u t i o n . In studying l i t e r a r y l i f e i n the f i r s t decade of the Soviet government, one can say that Romanov and h i s works i i i occupied a s i n g u l a r p o s i t i o n of importance i n Soviet l i t e r a -t u r e . Romanov's s t y l e being easy and old-fashioned appealed to the masses. The humorous i n c i d e n t s i n h i s s t o r i e s , u n l i k e those of Zoshchenko or 0'Henry, f o l l o w one another continuous-l y . Romanov a l s o d i f f e r s from Zoshchenko i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s heroes. Whereas Zoshchenko emphasises the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s , Romanov, on the co n t r a r y , develops,:., the import-ance of the people, as a whole. He can t r u l y be regarded as a popular s o c i o l o g i c a l w r i t e r . A f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n , Romanov took the p o s i t i o n of an independent c r e a t i v e w r i t e r and he maintained i t as such u n t i l 1936. He i n s i s t e d on h i s freedom to w r i t e what h i s conscience d i c t a t e d and he never changed h i s p o s i t i o n . For t h i s reason a c o n f l i c t between hi m s e l f and the Soviet govern-ment was i n e v i t a b l e . A f t e r the c o n f i s c a t i o n of h i s work, "Comrade K i s l y a k o v " i n 1930, the doors to the p u b l i s h i n g houses were closed f o r Romanov. However, through the i n t e r -v e n t i o n of Bukharin, the ban was l i f t e d i n 1936 when some of h i s short sketches about h i s excursion to the Molotov auto-mobile f a c t o r y i n Nizhni-Novgorod were pu b l i s h e d . When Romanov died i n 1938 of heart disease, there was no obituary n o t i c e from the W r i t e r s 1 Union. Thus a b r i g h t s t a r faded from the galaxy of Soviet l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h -out any l i t e r a r y astronomer n o t i c i n g i t . Even today none of i v h i s w o r k s i s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e U.S.S.R. a n d h e i s n o t c o u n t e d a m o n g t h o s e w h o h a v e m a d e a w o r t h y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o S o v i e t l e t t e r s . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This t h e s i s has been w r i t t e n under the highly-i n s p i r i n g s u p e r v i s i o n of professor V. Revutsky, whose ass i s t a n c e and c r i t i c i s m throughout the course of prepa-r a t i o n of t h i s work was i n v a l u a b l e . I s i n c e r e l y thank Mr. Revutsky f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n and cooperation. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank the l i b r a r i a n of-ffye I n t e r l i b r a r y Loan Department f o r her assi s t a n c e and co-operation i n obtaining reading m a t e r i a l . 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CTapaacb 6HTB He8-TpaJibHoM, OHa 3aHflJia no3HIJHK> nocpeaHHKa Mescny j^ Byua raaBHHMH jiHTepaTypHtiMH rpynnnpoBKaMH - JieBuuvi vs npaBtiMH. K T O se OTHO-CHJICH K 3THM r p y n n n p o B K a M ? Bo rjraBe jieBHx CToa;ra IIpojieTKyjibTOB-EtH, K KOTOPHM npHMHKa^tH Bee npoaeTapcKHe rpynnH (Ky3HHqa, Hano-CTOBmi). O H H TpedoBaaH "dJiarocjroBeHHfl" napTHH vs no^jcepxKy npaBHTe^bCTBa, TaKHM o6pa30M T p e d y a npuBujiSiierHH RJIK ceda vs dopaeb n p o T H B npaBHX. HandojibmeH nacTbio rpynnH n p a B H X 6bixn n n c a T e j i H -" n o n y T M H K H 1 1 vs flpyrne jiHdepajibHHe rpynnnpoBKH, K O T o p H e H a e T a H B a j i H Ha HeorpaHH^eHHoH cBodofle xy^oxHHKa i r a c a T b TaK, KaK ,n.HKTOBajiH e.T>o co3HaHne vs coBecTb, de3 B c a K o r o K O H T p o a a napTHH vs npaBHTejibCTBa. I l H c a T e^H - " n o n y T H H K H 1 1 vs dHJiH T e "dypxya3HHe cnei jHaj iHCTH" JSVS-T e p a T y p H , KOTOPHM napraa B H H y x ^ e H a dHJia. ^ o B e p a T b pa3BHTne vs npo-flOJixeHHe KyjibTypHOH XH3HH CTpaHH. Ha TpedOBaHHa IlpojieTKyjibTOB-ueB "noKOHMHTb co BceM CTapHM, dypxya3HHM", JleHHH caM Heo^Ho-KpaTHO yKa3HBa ; r , HTO "CTPOHTB HOBoe T p y j i H e e , MeM pa3pymaTb cTa-poe". ^ B CBOHX decHHCJieHHHX BHCTymieHHax*JleHHH yKa3HBaa Ha TO, MTO KOMMyHHCTH flOJixHti no^xo^HTb K CTapHM HHTe^jiHreHTaM yuejso vs OCTOPOXHO ,He TOJIBKO noMoraa HM "paciuHpaTb CBOH Kpyro3op", HO VS 6 VHHTbCfl y H H X . KTO xe dHJiH nncarejiH - nonyTMHHH, KOTOPHX npo.neTKy.zib-TOBUH T&K HeHaBH^SJIH H KOTOPHX OHH CTapajIHCb H3THaTb c j i H T e p a -TypHoro nojia .neaTejibHOCTH? 3TO dtucH HHTejuieKTyajiti , KOTopt ie 6UJIH yxe npocfceccHOHajib-HHMH nncaTejif lMH B nepno^ peBOJiioijHH. Bee OHH HMejiH pa3JiHMHise n o j i H T H ^ e c K H e B 3 r j r a^H. B HHX OHH pacxo^H^HCb OT oHMnaTHfi .no OT-pnqaHHa HOBOE coBeTCKOfi BJiacTH. TaKaa noaKTHHecKaa HeycTofiHH-BOCTB H CTporaa HH^HBH^yajibHocTb xienajiii HX no^o3pHTe^bHBiMH jmjfam cor^acHo B3raflaM n a p T H H . Hx T e p n e^H ToabKo noTOMy, ^TO HyxjajajiHCb B HX .KHTepaTypHOM ontiTe. no 3TOMy B o n p o c y JleHHH TOBO-PHJI eme Ha XI ci>e3fle n a p T H H , HTO xoTa 11 y nodescseHHHx" KyjibTypa H njioxaa,Bee xe OHa "do^biue neM y oTBeTCTBeHHBix padoTHHKOB K O M i i y -HHCTOB". 4 3aaaMa n a p T H H , TaKHM odpa30M, 6HX& n p H B ^ e^b HX Ha CBOE) CTOpOHy H 3aCTaBHTb HX nHCaTb B riOJIb3y KOMMyHH3Ma. " OpyXHeM KPHTHKH 3aCTaBbT© JIHTepaTOpOB, BHUie^IUHX H BHXo^amHx H3 C T a p b i x cjioeB, cos^aTb Ban " H o i i M y H H -CTHMecKyio JiHTepaTypy nyxHMH pyKaMH11. nepepado-TaftTe BCeX 3THX UHJIbHaKOBblX, HBaHOBHX, POMaHOBHX, HHKHTHHHX B CTpoHTejieM KOMMyHHCTHHecKoro odiuecTBa. Be3Ha^;e2CHiix He nepepadaTHBatfTe. 3THM MecTO y r o T O B -jieHo 3a r p a H H u e H . . . . " 5' TaKOBo dtuio y K a 3 a H H e pe^aKUHH "npaBflBi" B (fceBpaae, 1925 roaa. Jpyraa npHHHHa cHHCxo^HTejibHoM no JIHTHKH napTHH K no-nyTMHKaM B nepBoe ^ecaTH^eTHe c o B e T C K o M BJiacTH dHJia Ta, HTO MHO-rue doJibmeBHKH, dHBuiHe TorMia BO BJiacTH (ByxapHH, TPOUKHK, JlyHa-MapcKHft, 3HH0BbeB, KaneHeB H #p.) dBura caMH .neficTBHTejibHo od-pa30BaHHHe JHOJUH, KOTopbie xopomo noHHMajiH, MTO KyjibTypHfciK npouecc, 7 K a K HH KaKOfi flpyroit, Hejib3a 3acTaBHTb ^BuraTbca Bnepea H3-naaneu 3aKOHa H BMemaTejibCTBOM n a p T H H , KaK DTOTO TpedoBaan npoaeiapcKne nHcaTeaH. TaKoe HacHJibHoe BMemaTejibCTBo, - ro-BopHJiH OHH, - MOXST yHHHTOXHTb BeaKoe ocHOBaHHe xyfloxecTBeH-HOH JIHT epaT ypu * 3TO " .... <5HJIO 6H rpydenmeM omndKOH, - TOBOPHT "npaBjota" - nO^ 'HfleftHHM B0 3fleHCTBHeM H TIOJIHTHHeCKHM pyKO-BO^ OTBOM Ha,H XyjOXGCTBeHHOH JtHTepaTypOH1 HOHHMaTb MexaHHHecKoe nepeHeceHHe Ha DTy odJiacTb Bcex Tex opraHHsaipioHHbix Mep H MeTO^ OB, KOTopae MH odHHHo npHMeHaeM H npoBo^HM B odJiaoTH Henocpe^CTBeHHofi IIOJIHTHKH. TaKOfi OpraHH30BaHHHH WKOMMyHH3MM 6UJI 6u onaeHeHmHM dropoKpaTH^ecKHM H3MtimaeHHeM, cnp-co)dHHM 3arydHTb Hamy JIHT epaT ypy.... Ha^o BCHHecKH dopoTbca c oryjibHOHi de3napj;oHHOH TpaBjieft 'nonyTaHKOB1... 11 ° A . B . JlyHaMapcKHH, KaK KOMMHccap Hapo^Horo ,Odpa30BaHHa' (ilpo-cBenjeHHa) c 1917 ^ o 1929 ro^a, dy^ynn can nncaTejieM, xopomo noHHMaji Hyaena nHcaTeaeH H 3Haji, KaK HyxHo odxo^HTbca c *TaK— TOM H pyKOBCHHTb HHTejurcireHipieH, KOTOpaa ocTaaacb padoTaTb B CoBeTCKOM CoBD3e nocjie peBoaiouHH. OflHHM H3 HenOCpe^CTBeHHHX H aKTHBHHX "3amHTHHKOB H, "nonyTMHKOB", 6UJI BHflaiomHHca JTHTepaTypHHH KPHTHK 20-X roaoB H pe^aKTop xypHaaa "KpacHaa HOBB", AjieKcaH^tp KoHCTaHTHHOBHH BbpoHOKHH. B aHBape, 1921 ro,na, no npHKa3y n a p T H H , BOPOHCKHH 6%iJi nepeBe^eH B MocKBy H HasHaseH pe^aKTopoM' xypHajra "KpacHaa HOBb". OH npopadoTaji Ha DTOM nocTy #o cpe^HHH 1927 ro^a, KO-r^a dtui, OTCTpaHeH napTHen 3a ero yxo,n. OT MapKCHCTCKOK JIHHHH. H e n o J i b 3 y a CBoe nojioxeHHe pe^aKTopa TaKoro Kpyiraoro JiHTepaTyp-HOTO xypHajia, BOPOHCKHH MHOTO noMoraji nncaTejiaM - "nonyTHHKaM", 8 noMemaa H KpHTHKya HX padoTy B xypHaae, TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M #aBaa B03MOXHOCTB IIO3HaKOMHTB IIHCaTejia H ero npOH3BefleHHa C MaCCOBHM MHTaTejieM. B CBOHX B H C T y n j i e H H a x , BOPOHCKHR CMe.no OTCTaHBaji HH^HBH^ya^BHyio He3aBHCHMOCTb TBop^ecTBa nHcaTe^efi. B CBoeft C T a T t e "A. Bopc-HCKHft - KPHTHK" , A . J^eMeHTBeB OTMenaeT, MTO BopoHCKHM HMeji TO oco(5oe nyBCTBo, KOTopoe ^aBajio eny BO3MOX-HOCTB "... yra#aTB xy^oxecTBeHHoe #apoBaHHe B Ha^ HHaiomeM rraca-Tejie, BHjiBHHyTb, no^epxaTB, 3amHTHTB TajiaHTJIKBOTO coBeTCKoro nncaTeaa - "nonyTHHKa", - MTO BOPOHCKHM - Reji&ji jodpoe Reno, 3am,Hmaa HX B CBOHX cTaTBax OT KjieBeTH BparoB H or; He B Mepy peTHBbix KPHTHKOB - HanocTOBueB, j ;ei!cTBOBaBuiHx "AOKTHHH, HorasiH, oSyxoM, orjroS^eM, neu nonajio", npojtojrxaeT .HeMeHTBeB. ? KaK y x e 6UJIO yKa3aHO Bume, HTO pa.3BHTHe jiHTepaTypfci B 20-e ro^H n p o x o^Hjio B ycJiOBnax x e c T O K o K K^accoBoft d o p B d t i . OppMH STofl KJiaccoBoft d o p B d H B c o B e T C K o f i JTHTepaType yC^OXHa^HCB no Mepe p a 3 B H T H a coBeTCKoro odnjecTBa H DKOHOMHKH. BBe,neHHe 'H.3H.a B 1923 ro^y,noMorjio He TOJIBKO BoecTaHOBJieHHio pa3pymeH-HOTO xosaficTBa C T p a H H , HO B M e c T e c TeM H oxHBjieHHio d y p x y a 3 H H x H Me/[HOdypxya3HHX TeH^eHUHft B OKOHOMHKe H H^eOJIOTHH, K O T o p a a Hanajia TaK xe n p o H H K a T B H B coBeTCKyio jiHTepaTypy. : HO,B 1929-rojny OCTOPOXHBIM nozxoz K CTapoM HHTeajiHreHUHK BHe3anHO H rpydo npeKpaTHJica. C OKOHMaHHeM H3IIa, odtaBjieHHeM n e p B o r o n a r a j i e T H e r o ruiaHa H pemeHHem CTajtHHa, B 3HTB cy^Bdy CoBeTCKoro Coro3a B CBOH pyKH, eflejiaTB napTHK) o p y^neM BonjiomeHHa ero pemeHHM, T.e. B HeMe^jieHHoe peBOJirounoHHoe n p e o d p a 3 0 B a H H e 9 CoBeTCKoro odmecTBa B KomiyHHCTHHecKoe. KpecTbHHe CTSJIH XepTBOtt K0JI.JieKTHBH3aU,HH, a HHTeJIJIHreHUHH xepTBoK "dOJIbffleBH-3auHHM. IlepBHM KTO naa xepTBOfi OTOS n6ojibineBH3aaHH" H dtiJiH nncaTe^H - "nonyTHHKH". EpoJieTapcKHM nncaTejiflM dtuia aaHa 6e3rpaHHMHafl CBodo.ua TpaBJiH B c e x Tex, KTO OTKa3tiBajiCH HTTH no HX nyTH. OHH 3aTpaBH^iH EceHHHa, MaaKOBCKoro, IlHJiiiHHKa, 3 a M H T H H a , TOJIbKO H a 3 B a T b HeCKOJIbKHX, KOTOptie HJIH nOKOH^HJIH XH3HB caMoydHttCTBOM,HJIH noKHHyjiH CoBeTCKHfi Coio3,HjrH HaBcerfla 3aMOJiMajiH B COB6TCKOM CoM3e. K noc^e^Het! KaTeropHH OTHOCHTCH H pa3dnpaeMHfi Haum nncaTejib naHTejieftMOH CepreeBHM PoMaHOB. 10 FOOTNOTES Ernest J.Simmons, Through the g l a s s of Soviet  L i t e r a t u r e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1956, p. 6. Pravda, March 25, 1920, p. 2. Pravda, June 17, 1921, p. 7. ^ o voprosu o " L i t e r a t u r n o y p o l i t i k e P a r t i i " , Pravda, February 11, 1925, p. 2. ^ I b i d . , p. 2. Vareykus, I . , "0 nashey l i n i i v L:.Khudozhestvennoy l i t e r a t u r e i o p r o l e t a r s k i K h p i s a t e l i a R h " , Pravda, February 18, 1925, p. 5. 'G.A.Voronskaja i A.G.Dementijev, "A.Voronskiy, L i t e r a -t u r n o - c r i t i c h e s k i e s t a t j i " , S o v i e t s k i y P i s a t e l , Moskva, 1963, p. 25. 11 I I EHOrPA<S>HqECKAH CTIPABKA IlaHTe/teHMOH CepreeBHH PoinaHOB p o a n j i c a B 1 8 8 4 ro,ny B ceMte M e j i K o r o MemaHHHa, B cene IleTpoBCKOM, TyabCKoM rydep-HHH. GBOG fleTCTBo OH npoBea Ha MaaeHbKOM xyTopKe He^ajieKO OT flepeBHK K a p n a H b e . Oreii, ero 6bui de,aHHH MemaHHH, n o o T O M y a B T o p Ham nacTO n o M o r a j i oTijy BO BpeMa n o a e B t i x p a d o T . "y oTija 6UJI O^HH p a d o T H H K npn 5 0 jnecaTHHax 3eMJiH, - BcnoMHHaeT PoMaHOB B CBOK a B T o d H o r p a d b H H , - TaK HTO MHe nacTO npHxoflHJiocb n a x a T b , H CKOpOflHTb, H C T e p e H b C K O T H H y . " * GBoe H a n a j i b H o e o d p a 3 0 B a H H e nojiymx PonaHOB B c e j i b -CKOM yHHJiHme, noTOM n o c T y n H J i B TyjibCKyio rHMHa3HK>. OH 6un IIJIOXHM y M e H H K O M , KaK B yHHJrame, TaK H B rHMHa3HH , TaK KaK B e e e r o BHHMaHHe cocpejn;oTaHHBajtocb H a TOM, K a K H a y H H T b c a n H c a T b K H H T H . IlO OKOHHaHHH THMHa3HH OH IIOCTynHJI H a iOpHJUHMeCKHH $ a K y j i b T e T MOCKOBCKOTO y H H B e p c H T e T a . Ho H 3,aecb OH M e H b m e cjiymajt JteKitHH H doabme uenr&Ji, KaK C T a T b i r a c a T e j i e M . " . . . B H -BaJIO, CHJHUlb ( H a y p O K a x ) H BH3HBaeiI4,B BOOdpaxeHHH BCe KapTHHH JiOMauiHeH 2CH3HH, ptldHOH JIOBJIH, O X O T H , n p H p O ^ H . " 2 - BCHOMH-H a e T PoMaHOB B c B o e H a B T o d n o r p a $ n H . I lHcaTb Haaaji PoMaHOB e m e B a e T C T B e , " H a x y T o p e , B a n d a p e , Ha H e p , i a K e . " 3 Ho H3 OTOTO HH^ero He BHIHJIO. B THM-Ha3HH OH npHHHMaJt y n a c T H e B rHMHa3HHecKHx x y p H a j i a x , HO e r o C T a T b H Bcer,sa T e p n e j i H "dpHacKO B cjre^CTBHe nojiHoM de3,a;ap-12 HOCTH." ^ Ho DTO ero He p a 3 0 H a p o B H B a j t o . OH npo,no.nxaji H C K a T b n y T H BHpaxeHHH CBOHX n y B C T B . Ero H H T e p e c o B a j r a He T e n i a , KaK T a K O B a a , He dpatfyjia, a #eHCTBHTe7ibHHH, XHBOH M a i e p n a j i XH3HH, KOTOPHH yMe/IH H a x O ^ H T i . H BH^HpaTb "BeJIHKHe, p y C C K H e IIHCaTeJIH C TaKOH npOCTOTOH H flCHOCTbW H3 x a o c a 2 C H 3 H H . . . . H CTajI H 3 y H a T b no KHHraM H B XH3HH pyccKoro n e j i o B e K a , T.e. Te ero n p o H H t i a , XHBymHa BeKaMH H e p T H , KOToptie OTJiHHaioT ero, KaK ocodyro HHKJABH,Hy— a ^ b H O C T b , c p e ^ H apyrnx Hapo^oB." 5 OH npoxo,nHT ncnxojiorHMecKyio mKOJiy TmaTejibHoro H3yne-HHH jmiXt T H n a x a H x a p a K T e p o B j t K ^ e H . n o s T O M y IlaHTejieftMOH PoMaHOB H B j i H e T c a n n c a T e j i e M n c H X O J i o r o M B nonyjiapHOM cMHCJie c J i o B a . B nacTHOcTH B CBOHX n p o H 3 B e ^ e H H H x OH 6ojibmoe MecTO y^eaaeT ncnxo-JIOrHH xeHUlHHH. OH TaK l e n H T a e T c a n p o H H K H y T b B T a t e a T B o p n e c T B a Be;ra-KHx p y c c K H x n n c a T e^eM H H SB T H B HHX T e odmne n e p T a , K O T o p a e ,ae-•naroT HX npoH3Be.ff.eHHa n p o c T H M H , HCHHMH H " B e n H o xHBymHMH 1 ' . OH MHOTO HHTaeT p y C C K H X KJiaCCHKOB H ^ a x e B a l l H C a B a e T c HX n p o H 3 -E e ^ e H H H , MTO6H H a y H H T b c a B a p a x a T b e a TaK x e a p K o , n e T K o , K p a T K o H nOHaTHO. " . . . MHTaa B9JIHKHX MHCJIHTSJiefi H Xyj[OXHHKOB CJIOBa, a c K o p o yBH^e^t, HTO Moa XH3HB COCTOHT He H3 O^HOH flOpOTH, a H3 MHOTHX H MHOTHX flOpOT, K O T O -p a e CBa3aHti o ^ H a c ^ p y r o t i e,zr,HHCTBOM odmaro H C -T O M H H K a . . . . H B Reno n y c T H J i TO, HTO a n e p e x H B a j r , MTO npoxo^HJio n e p e s MeHa, KaK n e p e 3 o^Hy H3 M a c T H i ; orpoMHoro ueaaro - Hapo.ua." 6 Ob DTOM p y c c K O M Hapofle, KOTopaft " o T J i H M a e T c a OT apyrnx Hapo^oB 1' ? H riHuieT B CBOHX doJibuiHx H MajiHX npoH3Be^;eHHax ITaHT. PoMaHOB. OH xopomo 3Ha;i POCCHK H e e H a p o f l , OH xopomo 3Haa 13 THIIH pVCCKHX MyXHHH H xeHlUHH , KpeCTBHH H HHTeJIJIHreHUHK). CTHJIB PoMaHOBa peajiHCTHMecKKfi, H3HK npocTOfi, Hapoa-HHM , HHor,a;a ,naxe rpydHft, KaK CiiBaeT rpyduft p y c c K H f i nyxHK. 3a CTHJIB H npOCTOHapQ^HHM H3HK POMaHOB 6iiJl xeCTOKO KpHTHKOBaH CO CTOPOHHI CTapofi HHTeJIJIHreHI^HH t KOTOpaH npHHfl^a 3TO, KaK JIHHH06 ocKopdjieHHe. B cBoeft cTaibe "ynpauaa Kodiuia" nowemeHHoM B xyp-Hajte "3Be3^a", B 1 9 2 6 ro^y, HJIBH Tpy3fleB nnuieT, *ITO CTpaHHu.ii PonaaHOBa "no^odnti IIPHMHTHBHHM ' sarajsoHHtiM KapTHHKaM' , B MHHMO -npHny^JiHBHx onepTaHHAx KOTOPHX .nerKO Haxo^HM HyxHoe. " & Ho TOT caMtiM qoaKT, MTO B npoH3Be^eHHHx PoMaHOBa MOXHO HaKTH H y x H o e vs. c#ejiajio HXj B CBoe BpeMa^oneHB nonyj iapHHMH. DTOT qoaKT no^TBepx^aeT H can rpy3^eB, KOTOPHJ? B TOM xe CTaTBe nnmeT, tJTO M naHTe^efiMOH POM&HOB B HacToamee Bpesia O^HH H3 caMiix HHTaeMHx aBTopoB, ecJiH HH caMHfi MHTaeMHfi. ... OT jnodHTejieft PoMaHOBa HeT OTdoa. Ha PoMa-HOBa onepejiB. KaK Ha IHajranHHa. "PycB" H "Bo-npocH nojra". "Bonpocti nojia" H "PycB". " 9 n e p B H H p a c c K a 3 PoMaHOBa,"0Teq *e^ op',' noaBHJica B 1 9 1 1 ro^y B "PyccKoH MBICJIH H . C 1 9 0 7 ro^;a,oH ynopHO H nocJie^OBaTejiB-HO padoTaeT H a ^ CBOHM poMaHOM "PycB11, KOTOPHM Btipoc B ononero cocToamys) H3 Tpex nacTeH. nocjie oKOHnaHHa ropn^HMecKoro $ a K y j i B -TeTa,OH padoTaeT a#BOKaTOM vs noDTOMy HMeeT Majio Bpea/ieHH 3aHHMaT&-ca JiHTepaTypofi. B 1 9 1 7 r o^y OH oeTaBJiaeT 3Ty CBOIO npo<J>eccHio H HaMHHaeT 3aHHMaTBca nocToaHHOtt JiHTepaTypHOft fleaTeji&HOCTBio. B 1 9 2 0 VORY Btmura H3 neMaTH ero n e p B a a K H n r a "JHeTCTBo", KOTopaa Hiiejia dojiBmofi y c n e x . B caeflyiomHe VORU noaBaaraTca e r o MHoro— HHCJieHHtie paccKa3H, H3odpaxaiomHe dtiT n e p B H x JieT coBeTCKoK BJiacTH, B ^ acTHocTH, noBe,ueHHe HHTeaanreHnHH no OTHomeHHio K B J i a c T H . Pfl£ pacoKa30B nocBameHH npodJieMaM MopajiH H dtiTa HOBOS coBeTCKOfi MOJio^exH. B 1 9 2 8 rofly BHme^ H3 nenaTH ero poMaH "HoBaa cKpHxaab" HJIH " n e p B H H saBeT 1', KaK OH H a s H B a e T c a B nepe-Bo^e Ha aHr^HficKHM H3HK, a B 1 9 3 0 ro,ny BHmea ero nocjie^HHi! poMaH "ToBapnm KHC^ HKOB" mm "Tpn napn mejiKOBHX nyjioK" Toxe B nepeBo^e. DTa ero nocjreflHHH KHHra 6una KOHdpHCKOBaHa H ee aB-Top 6UJI 3aHeceH B c n n c K H MejiKO-dypxya3HHx nncaTejief!, H y x a a r o -mnxca B peadH^HTamHH. /^ Bepn pe^aKqHfi GHJIH Ha^o-sro 3aKpHTH AJLH PoMaHOBa. B uae 1 9 3 0 ro^a, ra3©TH n npaB#a" H "H3BecTHH" opraHH-30BaJIH 3KCKypCHH B HHflyCTpHajIfcHHe paftOHH CTpaHH flJIfl Tex nKcaTeji-eH, KOTopue GHJIH Ha cnncKe RJIK peadHJiHTaqHH. PoMaHOB TaK xe dHJI BKJIiOHeH B 3Ty DKCnejJHUHH). OH nOCeTH^ aBTOMOdHJbHblH saBoa HMeHH MojioTOBa B HnxHeM HoBropo^e. Pe3yjibTaTOM 3T0ft noe3,5KH, B 1 9 3 6 rofly, noHBHjiCH ero p a c c K a 3 B Tpex nacTax noa Ha3BaHHeM 1) MecTO pox^eHHA coBeTCKoro THna <5op^a 3aBo.ua. 2) HH^ycTpHajibHbit! ropofl. 3) COBeTCKHft <2>opfl. B 1 9 3 8 ro#y PoMaHOB yMep OT dojie3HH cep^a. IIpOH3Be^eHHa PoMaHOBa HaCHHTHBaiOT 12 TOMOB, B KOTopne BXOJHT TaK Xe H TPH HbeCH, TpH pOMaHa, OjEtHa nOBeCTb H MHOXeCTBO K0P0TKHX paCCKa30B. 15 FOOTNOTES ^Pantelerymon Romanov, ORon.jki, Ra.sskasy, I s d a t e l s t v o Gramatu Draugs", Riga, 1929, p. 5* 2 J j b i d . , p. 7. 3 I b i d . Ibid. 5 I b i d . I b i d . 7 Ibid. P. 9 . p. 1 0 . P. 9 . p. 8 . p. 8 . g I l i a Grus'ftev, "Upriamaja Kobyla", Zvesda, Moskva, 1926, 1^. b i d . , p. 15. 16 I I I nP0H3BE£EHHH POMAHOBA B XPOHOJIOrH^ECKOM nOPH^KE " T ^ e T C T B o " 1 9 2 0 r . "Pycb" 1 9 2 4 r . "PaccKaaH11 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 2 7 "BonpocH nojia" 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 6 ".HoBan CKpHxa^b" 1927 r . "MeaoBenecKafl flyuia" 1 9 2 8 r . " n p a B O H a scH3Hb" vuivi.nUTpo6Jieua. 1 9 2 8 r . d e c n a p T H f t H O C T H " " T o B a p H m KHCJIHKOB" HJIH"TPH 1 9 3 0 r, napH niejiKOBbix HyjiOK 1 1 "Pyct" H GGCP. 1936 r . 17 " £ETCTBO « riepBtiM SojtbuiHM npoH3Be^;eHHeM PoMaHOBa dHJia n o B e c T t "^eTCTBo", BHrne^maa H3 nenaTH B 1920 ro^y. DTO npoH3Be^ ;eHHe HBJIH6TCH,KaK dn npe#;KBepHeM ero rjiaBHoro npoH3Be,neHHH "Pycb". B Hefi PonaHOB pa3BepTHBaeT K a p T H H y yxo,n,amero dHTa, KOTOPHH 6bui He TOJIbKO UeHTpOM OdUieCTBeHHOH XH3HH POCCHH, HO H OIIOpOH BJiaCTH B T e n e H H H Tpex CTO JieTHfl*. Ilepe^ HHTaTejieM npoxoflflT CMOHH BpeMeH rofla c odHJiHeM JIHPHn e eKHX KapTHH npHpoflH JiiodoBHO-H^HJiatHHecKaH 3 a -pHCOBKa npa3^H0M XH3HH CTaporo dapcKoro dHTa, B XH3HH KOToporo MyBCTByeTCH OTTOHOK rpycTH od yxoaamen onoxe. DTO npoH3Be^eHHe HHTaeTca, KaK CKasKa o npouiJioM, THXOH XH3HH. npOHHTaB eTO, HHTaTeflB "HaMfleT B Heft KJIWH K IIOHHMaHHIO xapaKTepoB MHOTHX H3 ero repoeB "PycH1'," - TOBOPHT B. TaflajmH B CBoeM npe^HCJioBHH K cdopHHKy paccKa30B "To/iydoe njiaTbe". * Ho MHTaTejib TaKxe Haf-LneT B Hen dojibmoe CXO^CTBO C npoH3Be^eHHaMH JI. TojicToro ("j^eTCTBo H OTponecTBo") vs T. AKcaKOBa ("^eTCTBo vs O T p o n e c T B O EarpoBoro BHyKa"), HTO y K a 3 H B a e T Ha TO, HTO DTO n p o H 3 -Befleroie dHJio HannoaHO PoMaHOBHM nois HenocpeacTBeHHHM BJiHHHHeM padoT 3THX BejtHKHX XyflOXHHKOB CJIOBa. TaKHM Odpa30M, MOXHO CKa3aTb, HTO OTO dn/ia He caMOCTOHTejibHaa p a d o T a PoMaHOBa, KaK rracaTejia, a KaK du nepe^eJiKa npoH3Be^;eHHM TOJICTOTO VS AKcaKOBa, npHcnocadJTHBaa HX K ycjiOBHHM poMaHOBCKoro BpeMeHH. Tor^a, KaK y TojrcToro vs AKcaKOBa HCHO nOKa3aHH CHJIbHHe CBH3H nOMeilJHHbeH yca^bdtl C KpenOCTHHM dHTOM, TO yca^bda PoMaHOBa yxe nepexHBaeT KpH3HC yirapaiomero noMemHHbero dHTa, OTxoflflmero Kjiacca, KaK TaKOBoro. IloMemHHbH yca^bdn CTajH, 18 Kan du ocKOJiKaMH ropo^cKoM XH3HH yxe noTOMy, MTO noMemHK He CH#e;i .HOMa, a 3aHHMa^ CH KaKoK-JtHdo cnyxdoft B ropo#e. B "^eTCTBe" PoMaHOB erne He BbipadoTaji cBoero codCTBeH- . HOTO CTHJIH, nooTOMy 3 T 0 npoH3Bej;eHHe HOCHT KOMrrajiHTHBHBifi xapaKTep. Ho, npecjie,ii;yfl JiHpHnecKyio CTopoHy CBoero npoH3Be,neHHfl ,PoMaHOB CTPOHT ero Ha xeHCKHx xapaKTepax. H ^axe HeKOTopae MyxcKHe xa-p a K T e p a (.nflflioiiiKa) H 3 o d p a x e H H c Mpe3MepHHM .nodpoflyuiHeM, MTO erne do^trae yBejiHHHBaeT JtHpHnecKHM x a p a K T e p DTOTO npoH3Be^;eHHa. TaKHM odpa30M,rjiaBHLiM #0CTHxeHHeM " J t e T C T B a " , KaK TO^BKO-MTO y n o M H H a j i o c b , HBJIHIOTCH napLi JiHpHHecKHx onncaHHft., 19 FOOTNOTES V.Gadalin, Panteleymon Romanov Rasskasy. I s d a t e l 1 -stvo Knizhnaja l a v k a p i s a t e l e y , Riga, 1930, p. 6 . 20 " p y c h " HaHdojibiiiHM npon3Bej;eHHeM PoMaHOBa aBJiaeTca ero ponaH "Pycb" Ha^ KOTOPHM OH padoTaji doJibiiie naTHa.2i.uaTH JieT H KOTopoe TaK H ocTajiocb He saKOHMeHHHM. OH Hanaji nncaTb ero erne B 1907 ro,ny. OHO pa3pocnocb H3 poMaHa B ononeio HaijHOHajibHoro xapaK-Tepa. 3Ta padoTa COCTOHT HS Tpex nacTeM vs oxBaTHBaeT nepe^-BoeHHyio POCCHK, nepHOfl ITepBOH MnpoBott BoiiHH, /• peBOJiiouHio H rpax^aHCKyra BOHHy. nepBaa nacTb poMaHa dHJia BnepBHe HanenaTaHa B 1923 rofly. A B T O P onHCHBaeT B HeM ncnosceHHe KpecTbaH, n o M e m n -KOB, KynqoB H HHTejuiHreHUHH nepe# riepBott MHPOBOH BOHHOH. KaK dH onpaB^HBaa CBOH 3aMHcejt onncaTb DTO nojioaceHHe B POCCHH^ POMaHOB rOBOpHT , HTO " ElHCaTb KapTHHy BeJIHKOH PeBOJIKUHH, HaHHHaH C OaMOH PeBOJIIOUHH, 3HaHHT TOBOpHTb O C JteflCTBHH, MHHya npH-MHHy. " 1 I IPHHHHOH se PeBo/iioqHH, KaK OTO BH^HO H3 nepBofi HaCTH, KBHJICH TOT paCKO/I MeXRY KpeC^HHCTBOM H ITOMeiUHKaMH , KOTOPHH C TOJUaMH pa3pocca„^B do^bmyio nponacTb. IIoMemHKH H KpecTbaH© noTepa/rn BcaKoe odmeHHe £pyr c flpyroM H 3JSO6& HaKonJiajxacb c odeHx C T O -poH. KpecT&aHe, no npaBy, 3jsvsisvich Ha CBOHX noMemHKOB-rocnofl, HTO Te CH^ejtH Ha "THcane jsecmun" 3ewjsvs, KOTopyio OHH He B COC-ToaHHH dHJiH odpadaTHBaTb, a OHH, KpecTbaHe, BHHyx^eHH dH.nH Kop-MHTbCa C O^ HOH flecaTHHH. "^opT HX B03bMH, y HHX no Tncane ^ecaTHH, - TOBOPHT B0 3MymeHHBiH 3axap, - R& eme OTXBaTHJiH cede Jiynmne KycoHKH, a TyT no O^HOH He xBaTaeT, a.nyTb pyKy 21 npoTHHyji - Tede K M H p o B O M y , . . . " Kor^a DTO 3eMjiK>-T0 . n e j i H J i H ? . . . - cnpaniHBajx c He^oyMeHHeM <3>OMa.... -" KaKyro 3eM^ w? - c n p o c H ^ , cep;n;HTO o r j i H H y B m H C b . . . 3axap. " Ra. BOT 3 T y , HTO HM no TMCHH© n p H u u i o c b , a H a n no ^eeaTHHe. " - Kor.ua Haiuero d p a T a Ha KOHBnme .upajra, BOT K o r . u a ! - OTBenaji 3,nodHO 3axap. " 2 H KaK da CMarnaab 3JiodHoe He^oBOJifcCTBo 3axapa, CeHbKa OTBeTHJi m y T J H B O , HTO " - MH, 3HaHHT, .npyrHM xenon 6huw 3 a H a T i i l . . . -BOT H a c H Od^ eJIHJIH. " ^  B e 3 B H X o ^ H o e ncnoxeHHe de^HOCTH 3acTaBJiHJio HX nepe-CTynaTb nepes nopor 3aK0Ha H n e p e 3 r p a H H U H n o M e m n ^ f i 36MJTH, B H ^ a , HTO 3eMJiH nycTOBajia, T p a B a Ha J i y r a x r H H J i a , Tor^a, KaK HX CKOTHHa rojio^ajia H norndajia. BBH^y HX desrpaMOTHOCTH H He-O d p a 3 0 B a H H O C T H , KpeCTBHHe He 3HajIH 3aK0H0B H,n03TOMy,He. M.Qr.#H ^ e f t c T B O B a T t 3 a K O H o n p a B H O . Hx a a B O H H H K , K O T o p u H npHineji crofla H3 ropo.ua H K O T o p u H HMeji XOTH uajioe o d p a 3 0 B a H H e , B e e xe MOT p a 3 d n p a T i>CH B 3 a K 0 H a x . Ha c o d p a H H a x MyxHKOB OH ynHJi H H a c T a B -J i a f l HX, MTO, RS.H. T O T O , MTOdH B3HTB 3eMJIK> y HX dapHHa, HJTXHO "HafiTH JIHHHH) 3aKOHa" H O n p O B e p r H y T b " f l a B H O C T b " . E C H H TH He B COCTOHHHH DTOTO c ^ e ^ a T b , TO H He/flaBaM n o B o^y " B e C T H T e d a K M H p o B O M y . . . . OH T e d a o^Hoft ^aBHOOTbio y d H T b MoxeT." ^ - TOBOPHT OH 3axapy. nojn; ^aBHOOTbK) JiaBOHHHK no.npa3yMeBaeT 3aK0H yHaoJiea-OBaHHa 3eMjiH OT O T u a K CHHy B T e n e H H H CTOJieTHi*. Bo B p e n a pac-KpenomeHHa K p e c T b a H B 1861 ro#y, noMeiijHKH ^ a j i n HM^ TaK H a s t i B a e -Myio,^ "BojibHyro", TO ecTb KJIOMOK d y M a r a , B KOTopott roBopHaocb, MTO OH OTnymeH H a TaK Ha3tiBaeMyK3 BOJIIO. ECJIH OHH xoTejiH o c T a B a T b c a B ^ e p e B H e , TO HM TaKxe:;: aajiH Kax^ony o,a;Hy aecaTHHy 3eMjin, c 22 KOTopoH OHH .EOJIXHH cymecTBOBaTb. HH odpa30BaHHs, HH .aeHer, HH HHBeHTapn OHH He nojiynnjiH. Ilpn TanoM nojioxeHHH jeji,HM Taxejio 6biJio BHMTH H3 cBoero 3aTpy;n;HHTejibHoro nojioxeHHa. MJTXHKH ^ o -ca^oBajiH, roBopHJiH, yrpoxajiH, HO p.exQ. HX He n o^BHrajiocb Bnepe^. OHH XO^HJIH B uepKBS^noKynajiH 3a nocjie,a.HHe .HeHbra cBenKH H CTaBHJiH H X nepea CBHTHMH , MOJiHJiHCb, CBSTHJIH Bo^y H dpH3rajiH eio CBOH pa3-BajiHBmHeca . n o n a H no.tt.Hxaioin.yK> cKOTHHy H oxH,najiH noMomH OT Bora, KOTopyro HM TaK ycep,n.HO odemajiH B n e p K B K . HO,B TO x e B p e M a j C a M H OHH H H M e r o He aej iajra, ^ a H He 3HajiH, HTO H KaK HyxHO ,a.ejiaTb. " . . . BCTpeTHB H npOBOJIHB CBeTJIHH fleHb BocKpeceHHH XpncTOBa, ... rranieT aBTop, (.OHH) Bue3xajiH B n o j i e c COXOH, . . . H nepeKpecTHBinHCb Ha BOCTOK, dpocajiH B 3eMJiH) ocBameHHHe ceiieHa BeceHHero noceBa.... " * 3aKOHHHB xe noceB OHH onaTb codnpajiHCb B03jie Hbeft-JiHdo xaTu, cHaejiH Ha 3 a B a j i H H K a x , p a c c y x s a j i H , KypnjiH rpydnft TadaK H cnjieBH— Bajra Ha 3enjiB3. A B T O P nnmeT, HTO " y MyxHKOB HacTynHJi npoMexyTOK de3,zi;eaTejibH0CTH. OHH KOHHHJIH noceB, nocaaHJiH KapTomKy H ot&jm xaaTb c e H O K o c a , XOTH .no Hero ocTaBajiocb eme nojiTopa necana. " 6 CHHTaa, HTO OHH HcnojiHHJiH CBOH JJOJIT, OHH floxH^ajiH jrpyroro npasfl-HHKa B TO BpeMa, Kor^a MOCT B .nepeBHe pa3BajiHBajica H npn nepe-e3,i.ax Ha noaeBHe padoTH OHH pHCKOBajiH nojioMaTb HOTH Jioma.tt.aM; e^ HHCTBeHHHK fljia Bceft flepeBHH. KOJio.tt.e3b 3aTaHyjica 3ejieHOH THHOH H rpo3HJi pnH^eMHeH; nocjie ,nox,tt.a,no cpe^HHe yjiHijH cToajra Jiyxn BOJH, B KOTOPOH 3aCTpeBaJIH JIOW&RK. A MyXHKH TO H zejio xajioBa-jiHCb Ha TO, HTO HM jtejiaTb Henero. M XoTb du o d m e c T B e H H H e jjejia HTO-JIH jjejiaTb - c K a 3 a j i Ky3HeiJC, - a TO K KOJio.tt.e3io He nojrie.zi;en4 MOCTHK B jiomHHe yx TaKofi CTaji, HTO nepTaM B dnproJibKH TOJibKO 23 H a neu nrpaTb. " - M J iyxa eme 3 T a n o n e p e K BceM aepeBHH, HeT H a H e e n o r n d e j i H , - npndaBHJi KTO-TO .npyroft. " 7 Ha OTH npejuioxeHHa cpe^H HHX Hamejica OHTHMHCT, KOTOPHH o T B e T H J i , MTO jiyxa-TO K cpe^HHe j i e T a " c a n a B t i c o x H e T " nooTOMy HeT HajcodHOC-TH 3a H e e d e c n o K O H T b c a , Ra em© H B p e M H - T O Ha H e e T p a T H T b . Bcjiej 3a HUM HeCKOJIBKO TOJIOCOB CKa3a.7IH, MTO XH3HB TO y HHX He KaK y ^ p y r a x JiKflett, MTO B e e H^eT He K JiyMiiieny, a K xyfliueMy. KTO x e dfcUI 3T0My BHHOM OHH He 3HaJIH, Ra H He CTapaJIHCb y 3 H a T b . " . . . CKOJIbKO HH nOMHHJIH M y x H K H , j e p e B H H OCTaBaJiaCb TaKOK) x e , KaKOK OHa dHJia n H T b ^ e c H T , CTO JieT H a 3 a ^ . " $ H B e e OTH TORU OHH x^ajrn d o x b e i i noMomn, K O T o p a a He npHxo,n;HJia. H3 rofla B rotf,OHH XOAHJIH B u e p K O B b , BCTpeMaJiH H n p o B o x a J i H n p a s ^ H H K H , a c HHMH H BpeMeHa ro^a H MeMTajiH o T e x K p a a x , r ^ e niojm XHJIH xopomo H padOTajiH uano. " TaM, MHJIHM, Bee x o p o m o , - CKa3a^i KTO-TO B T O J i n e , -seMJiH c B e x a a , C H J i b H a a , p a d o T H He n p o c H T . A npaMO p y d a T ^ e c , n o c K p e d y T ejioBtiMH cyMbHMH, H B t i p o c T a e T P O X B , MTO MeJIOBeKa He B H f l a T b . " - H B e e TaM y HHX e c T b , r o T O B e H b K o e ; B .necax o p e x n B C H K H e , HVORU. Y HaC T y T CaflH Ha^O p a 3 B H B a T b , Ra CMOTpeTb s a HHMH, Ra y x a x H B a T b . . . . 1 1 - . . . TaM Bee r o T O B o e r o c n o ^ b n o c t u i a e T , n c x H T p a e T -c a , H Ha B c e x X B a T a e T . . . . " 9 Ho c p e ^ H HHX dbi-TiH y x e H T e , KOTOPBIX H H T e p e c o B a j i B o n p o c , CKOJIBKO x e Kax^wK nojiyMaja H He nojiynaji JIH O^HH dojibiue .npyroro, TaK KaK HHVKTO He xcneji p a d O T a T b Ha c o c e ^ a . H3 OTOTO BH^HO, MTO KaK dti d e ^ e H MejioBeK HeduJi, Bee x e , O H npe,nnoMHTa.n: HMeTb CBOIO codCTBeH-HOCTB H p a d O T a T b H a ceda, KaK eMy x o M e T c a . f a K O B o H C T o p H M e c K o e CTpeMJieHHe M e a o B e K a K CBodo^e H He3aBHCHM0CTH JIHMHOCTH. r Ho . B KOHHe KOHUOB.MyXHKH flOrOBOpHJIHCb, T a K H e M e c T a Tpy^HO HaMTH, O KOTOPHX " R10RVL r O B O p a T " • HO, K T O - T O H3 HHX T a K xe cjiiimajiH, MTO H B Tex necTax He Tan yx xopomo, Tan KaK JUORK "BHpy&'HJiH jieca"," 3Bepn yin^n", "pndy OTpaBHJiH" H TaM CTajo mioxo H JiroflH cTajiH rojioj;aTi>. Eojibiue, TOBOPHT, naTH jieT He B H^ e p x H B a e T . " ^ /Jpyrne xe xoTe/iH,xoTH dn IIHTB jieT, nonojib30-BaTtca He padoTaa H MHe crHiiaa cnHHy". CTpamHO xoTejiocb pa3-doraTeTb, HO He xoTeaocb padOTaTb. Ho B DTOM He HX BHHa, OTO yx CTapan, p y c c K a a jieHb. TaK KaK nepe^eja 3eMJiH nponcxo^H/r MacTO, TO Kax^Hft doajica, MTO6H TaK MHOTO He padOTaTb Ha ^pyrax. A 3eujLH OTHM BpeMeHeM HCTomajiacb, ypoxan (SHJIH njioxne H OHH xa-aoBajiHCb Ha Bora H Ha cy^bCy. " - Cy^bda, MHJIHH, cy^bda, - roBopHJi O#HH H3 HHX, -exejiH Tede B MeM HHdyjib He cyjubda, TaK xoTb TH jidoM pa3deKca, B e e paBHO HHMero He dy^eT. " - Tocnojcb noBe^ejr OT T p y ^ o B CBOHX H OT 3eMJiH KopMHTbca, - n o f l T B e p x^a^ j;pyroH, - H ri\e TH pcunaca, TaM H yMHpaM. " H Ho,HecMOTpa Ha TO, MTO K p e c T b a H e dHJin T a K H e H e B e x e c T B e H H n e , rpydHe, JieHHBne, c y e B e p H n e , Bee xe aBTop npoaBjiaeT HCKpeHHee coMyBCTBHe H flodpoxejiaHHe K HHM. MHTaa DTy KHHry MyBCTByeTca, MTO POMaHOB Ayua.Jl O T O M , MTO nOMefflHKH, BMeCTO MHJIOCTHBOtt CHHC-xo^HTeJibHocTH, KOTopaa yHHxajia HX J;OCTOHHCTBO, ^OJIXHH dHJin dn HayMHTb HX ;iyM.iiiHM MeTOj^aM 3eMJie^ejiHa. HO MTO MOXHO OXH^ a T b OT JHOfleff, KOTOpHe HHMero He B cocToaHHH dHJiH #ejiaTb RJIR caMHx c e d a , KOTopne COTHH JieT XHJIH OT T p y ^ a DTHX n e r p a M O T H H x , r p y d n x , deGTOJiKOBHx MyxHKOB. Pyc-CKHe noMemHKH KOHija 19-roMHaMa^a 20-ro BeKOB , c a M H He B c o c T o a -HHH dHJiH B e c T H cBoe xo3aficTBO c ycnexoM. Bee dojibiue H dojibme nOMemHKOB npHXOflHJIO K riOJIHOMy pa3opeHHio H OdHHmaHHB. HpKHM no npuMepc-M T a K o r o pacnaaa, Korjia-TO MorymecTBeHHoro KJiacca, MOXHO B3HTt> repoa poMaHa HHTeHbKy BoeKKOBa. OTen; ero Kor^a-TO cjraBHJicfl CBOHM rocTenpHHMCTBOM ^ajieKo 3a npe;n;ejiaMH cBoeft BOJIO-C T H . B noMe Kor^a-TO cnpaBjia;iHCb npa3j;HHKH H " ... JJiJiHHHiifi pa;* OKOH no $aca,n;y ... eBeTHJica BCK) HOHb #o paccBeTa.... 11 BecHHCJieHHiie r o c T H H M H , ejiH H BecejiHJiHCb TaK, KaK HHrj;e.... " BcnoMHHajiH H MocKOBCKy» M a c ^ e H H a y , H 6JIHHH, H T P OKKH, H ropaMyio, MOJioflyio xMejibHyio JirodoBb, OT KOToppfi ocTajiHcb .gajxeKHe, KaK •nerKHfi T y -M a H , HexHbie BocnoMHHaHHa• " 12 Ho BOT npomjiH TORH H Bee H3MeHHJiocb. "Cpe^n odHTaTejieft po.no-BHX yeaned CTajiH noaBJiaTbca TaKHe, KOTopiie, - spo^e H3BecTHoro MHTeHbKH BoefiKOBa, - Bej iH cTpaHHyro, odocodJieHHyro xHSHb". i 3 Tor.ua, KaK KpecTbaHe yxe B03BpamajiHCb .noMott H3 iiepKBH, JJMHTpHft HflbHM BoefiKOB 11 ... eme cnajr B cBoeM KadHHeTe Ha ranpoKOM ^HBaHe.... OH Jiexa^ noKptiBiiiHCb c rojioBoft npocTHHeft OT Myx. A KpyroM Hero - Ha c T y j i b a x , Ha nojiy, ,naxe Ha nncbMeH-HOM OTO^e, - B KaKOM—TO BHXpeBOM COCTOHHHH BajlHJlKCb pa3dpocaHHHe MacTH ero TyajieTa. " 14 vxe H3 DToro BHflHo, B KaKOM cocToaHHH nopajibHoro pacna,a;a Haxo-KVLXCH 3T0T MOJio^oK MeaoBeK. OH MHOTO pa3 oderaaji caM cede BCT.aBaTb paHbiue H 3aHHMaTbca npoflyKTHBHOH padOTOH. OH Kenan cede p a c n H c a H H e , B KOTOPOM HaueMaji BCTaTb B MeTtipe Maca y T p a , nepecTaHaBJiHBa^ Ha mecTb MacoB yTpa. noTOM onaTb pemaji, MTO OTO dtuio CJIHUIKOM yx paHO, MTO OH ycneeT c^ejiaTb Bee, ecjin OH BcTaHeT B 8 MacoB H TaK ^ajibuie. JleHb B c e r ^ a dtiJia CHJibHee ero BOJIH H OH onaTb npHflasajica TOMy daaxeHHOMy CHy, KOTOPHM ocBodo-xj^aji ero BpeueHHO OT ^HeBHtix sadoT. " ^acH npodn^H noJiOBHHy .necaToro. 36 " H B TOT xe MoiieHT H 3 - n o ^ n p o c T H H H H c n y r a H H o B H c y H y j i a c b c n y T a H H a a r o j i o B a . 3TO H 6UJI cau Bjiazeneu, yca/j;bdH c TbicaneH j t e c a T H H 3eMJiH, .HMHTPHH HJIBHM, HJIH MHTeHbKa BoeftKOB, KaK ero 3BajiH B o d m e c T B e . " - 3jj;paBCTByHTe, - o n a T b n p o c n a j i ! " - dopMOTaji M H T e H b K a c e d e no^ ; HOC , c n y c K a a CBOH HOTH H a n o j i . " - EejiaJi 6u a B e e - T a K H nocJiymaTb, HTOdti K T O - H H d y ^ b odiHCHHJi MHe, - p a c c y x ^ a j i OH caM c codoft , - B neat T y T .nejio: c n e T t i p e x n a e o B H a n a j i , a Tenepb y x e Ha noJioBHHy flecaToro ctexaa. Be^b cKOJibKO pa3 TBepjiHJi DTOH HeyKJiroxefi flype, HacTacbe, HTO-6H OHa 6ysnjia B n o JioxeHHtiM Mac. Hy, HTO xe... T e n e p b cneinH -He c n e u i n , Bee paBHO Becb ,a;eHb H C -nopneH. - H MHTeHbKa sajioxHB p y K H 3a r o j i o B y , c . paccTpoeHHHM B H^oii.jier na .HHBaH. " 15 OH, BJiaflejieq THCHHH a e c H T H H 3eMJiH, xo3aHH flOMa, HajjeaJica H a 6e3rpaMOTHy© K y x a p K y , HTOSHH OHa e r o Sy^HJia B onpe.nejieHHbiH nac. H OHa c npaBOM H HacMeuiKOH OTBenajia eiiy, HTO OHa He MoxeT y r a a a T b , Korj ; a dapHH COH3BOJIHT B C T a B a T b , TaK KaK OH BCTaeT Kax^HH aeHb B p a3HHH n a c . HeuiTO MOJI yraaaeuib ... "To B B o c e M b , TO B ^ e B H T b , - HeuiTO TyT pa36epeiffi?" ^ 6 npHBejj;a cBoeft HepeuiHTejibHOCTbK) H K y x a p K y H a c T a c b i o H j B o p o B o r o padoT-HHKa MHTpodpaHa B de3jiadepHy» n y T a H H i j y H He/j;opa3yMeHHe, M H T e H b -K a cepflHJiea H odBHHHJi CBOHX c j i y r 3a H e y c n e x B c B o e M XH3HH: " - BOT T e d e H p a e n n c a H H e , - - BOT T e d e H neTbipe n a c a . - B03siymajica OH. Ra H y , HTO Tan, p a 3 B e C 3THM Hapo^OM MOXHO HTO-HHdyflb Hajia,HHT b . 0, r o c n o . n H , Hy H co3/j;aHHaI - . . . npH3HBaji OH K Bory. "17 OH y x e B naTHft HJIH mecTOH pa3 x o T e j i n e p e n e H H T b c B o e p a c n H c a H H e , n p n ^ a B a a OTOMy dojibmoe 3 H a n e H H e , KaK 6u Hajj;eacb, HTO cnej iaB HOBoe pacnHcaHHe, XH3HB Hajia/jHTca c a i i a c o d o n . Ho He HaH/ja Ha pacnHcaHHH M e c T a nocTaBKTb HOBbie u[H$pti, OH de3Hajj;exHo MaxHyji pyKofi H nomeji 3aBTpaKaTb. Ero exe^HeBHHM 3&HaTHeM nocjie 3aB-27 T p a K a 6UJIO yxoaHTfe " 3 a KanaBy cajja". r^e OH H&XOAVUI yenmieime "OT BHeraHeft XH3HH H .nef icTBHTejibHoeTH" 18 - H npn^aBajicH CBOHM CeCCMHC^eHHHM, q*)HJIOCO$CKHM MSMTaHHHM "o TOft COBepiIieHHOft XH3HH, K KOTopoS H e a o B e n e c T B O npnjeT JieT nepe3 neT t i p e c T a HJIH n a T E C O T nyTeM HeH3dexHoft OBOJIBHHH." 1 9 B3HB HHTB TaKoM $H.ioco$CKOfi MHCJIH nocne 3 a B T p a K a , OH npoBO^H^ u.e.&HH' .neHb B paccyx^eHHax H HeroflOBaHHH "npoTHB deccMHCJieHHoro ycTpoeHHa XH3HH," 20 KOTO-paa T p e d o B a j i a OT Hero odpasoBaHHa, pacnopaxeHHa .neaaMH, p y K o -BOflCTBa XO3 H MCTBOM, odiqeHHa c xjopm. A e r o JJBOpOBHe^ B 0TO BpeMH ; x,najiH OT Hero pacnopaxeHHM. He/^oscnaBuiHCb CBoero x o 3 H H H a , MHTpo^aH odtiMHO HaMHHa/t p a d o T y no cBoeft c o d c T B e H H o f t H H H U H a T H B e . Ho KaK 3 T o r o HyxHO H oxH^aTb, OH HHKor^ a He MOT yro^HTb CBoeMy dapHHy. n o K a OH p a c c y x f l a j i H no 3>HJTOCO<J)CKH pemaji MHpoBtie BonpocH, B ero JiHHHott XH3HH, B ero #ejiax uapnji xaoc H 3 a n y c T e H H e . CBoe o d p a s o B a H H e OH HejsaKOHHHJi, 3eMJia y Hero HanoJiOBHHy nycTyeT, Ha ^Bope 6un d e c n o p n^oK, H3ropo,nH JiOMa^HCb, xou p a c n a j a j i c a , noczre Kax^oro ,n;ox,na d t i a a H e n p o x o f l H M a a r p a 3 b Ha ^Bope. "... Xo3aftcTBO ^ a B a ^ o TOJIBKO y d t i T O K , a .HOM MejuJieHHo, HO nocTeneHHo p a s B a j i H B a j i e a . . . . 3ce 6uxo B TaKOM c o c T o a H H H n o T O M y , MTO npn nponiJioM H a n p a B ^ e H H H XH3HH OTO CMHTajiocb HM caMHM neM TO y3KO JIHHHHM H nOOTOMy He3aCJiyXHBaiomHM B H H M a H H a . " 21 CMHTaa BCe H3.ttHffl-HHM,OH Bee x e HeJoT.na.zi CBoefi 3eM^H Ha nojn>30BaHHe "ode3^ojreHHO-My d o j i t i u H H C T B y ", KaK OH Ha3HBajt K p e c T b a H , a BosMyma^ca TeM, HTO OHH BopoBa^H adJioKH y H e r o , sadnpajiHCb 3a pudoft , n o c a r a j i H C b H a e r o po^oByio He^BHXHMyjo c o d c T B e H H O C T b : H a M e c T e npojioMaHHoro 2 8 mieTHH co cTopoHbi ^epeBHH CTOHJI Ha ero 3eMJie jjepeBeHCKHH aMdapHHK. Kor^a OH TyT ycneji BHPOCTH, GHJIO HeH3BecTHO. " 2 3 B COCTOHHHH THeBa .HMHTPHK HJIBHH peniHJi HeMe^jieHHo e x a T b K npejj-BOflHTeaio asopHHCTBa H n o f l a T b .xajiody Ha CBOHX K p e C T b H H . Ho TOT vac xe eMy npHiiiJia uuojib, HTO OH xoneT HaKa3HBaTb de33amHT-HHX JIIO^eH. ". Koro OH xoneT Ka3HHTb ? Tex xe yrHeTeHHHx, KOTOptIM OH OT^aJI BCR) MHCJIb CBOeH KHOCTH H BeCb xap ee, nepejj; Ken Ha HeM CSMOM JICXHT HCTopHnec-Kaa BHHa. " 2 4 B DTOT MOMeHT OH XOpOUIO OC03HaBaJI, HTO BHHa TO dHJia He KpeCTbHH, a HX, noMeaiHKOB. Ho MHTeHbKa BoeMKOB dHJi He O,HHH CO CBOHMH MeHTaMH H paccyxaeHHHMH. Ero coee,HH - n o M e m H K H dHJiH He BO MHOTOM Jiynuie ero. MoxeT dbiTb OHH co/j;epxajiH CBOH jjBopH B HeiiHoro JiyHiueM co-CTOHHHH, HO 3acTOH XHSHH H HX pacna,zt, KaK coHHajibHoro KJiacca, Ha ocHOBe KOToporo POCCHH jjepxajiacb COTHH JieT, nyBCTBOBajica Te-nepb co Been ocTpoToft. Bee OHH CHjj;ejiH B CBOHX jjoMax, MenTajiH o TOH npeKpacHoi!, doraToM, ^oBOJibHoH XH3HH, KOTopaa ymjia de3-BO3BpaTHo, ceTOBajiH Ha CBOK) cyjj;bdy, HO .nejiaTb HTO-JiHdo jjJia yjiynmeHHa XH3HH y HHX HejxBaTajio CHJIH BOJIH. " Tenepb Bee dojibiiie CH^ejiH no CBOHM yrjiaa/r. - c e T y e T naBeji HBaHOBHH TyTOJibMHH. - Bee CTajio de^Hee H cepee. H3HocHJiacb JIH 3eMJia HJIH nepeueHHJica Hapo/j;, HO He CTajio yx 6HJIOH UIHPOTH, xjiedocoJibCTBa H pa/jy-DJHH . Jj;ejia He IIIJIH, HMeHHa pa3BajiHBajiHCb, /jeHer dujio Majio, H yxe Hejib3a CTajio pa ^ o B a T b c a KaxflOMy cjiynaHHO 3aexaBiueMy TOCTK H KopMHTb ero.... " 2-5 Bee OHH c OXOTOH ynacTBOBajiH B odcyxaeHKH OTB JieneHHHx BonpocoB, Bee dnJIH corjiacHH B TOM, HTO HyxHo depenb OTenecTBo H npaBoc-29 jiaBHyio B e p y , HyxHO no,a;,n,epxHBaTb HaunoHajibHyio cjiaBy 5 © ^OB, HO y .. HHX c a i i H x HH H a CHHH MOMeHT He npoaBJiajiocb x e a a H H e jjejiaTfe HTO-JIHSO n o j i o x H T e j i b H o e RJIK o d m e r o yjiynmeHHa C T p a H H . " B C T a p H H y B e e dtiJio npocTO .... A T e n e p b , TOBOPHT LTaBeji H B a H O B H H , " . . . B XH3HH nOHBHJXHCb B o n p o c H , a OKOJIO B o n p o c o B - OT^ejIbHbie n a p T H H . . . . Bojibme 6biJio BonpocoB, doabuie 6uno n a p T H H , KOToptie cnopHJiH Mexfly codoft c HBHOH Bpax^oH H 6HJIH TOTOBH y T o n H T b B j ioxKe BO,HH OJJ;HH apyroro. Ho Boe DTH n a p T H H pa3^ejiHJiHCb H a flBa rjiaBHHx TeneHna. 0/J;HO H3 HHX 6HJIO 3a c o x p a H e H H e CTapux, n p a B o c j i a B H H x s a B e T O B , c nojjHHHeHHeM B c e r o "©.HHHOH Boae noMa3aHHHKa". ^ K oTOMy TeneHHio npHHajj;jiexajiH HJieHH CTaporo n o K o a e H H a . " - GoxpaHHTe B e e , H Ha-c T a H e T 30JIOTOH BeK,..." 2'8 - yTBepxjj;aJiH OHH. JUpyroe xe T e n e m i e dtuio n p o T H B 3THX 3 a B e T O B , 3aJHcKopeHeHHe B c e r o CTaporo H j^axe o a n o r o " n p a B o c j r a B H o r o noMa3aHHHKa" , KaK H a c a e a n e ^ e c n o T H 3 M a H H e B e x e c T B a . K DTOMy TeneHHio npHHafljiexajiH HJieHH M O J i c s o r o IIOKO-jieHHH H pa3HOHHHIJ(H, KaK 3apoxflaromHHCH HOBHH KJiacc. "Pa3pym^e Bee 3TO, a o a M O f l e p x a B H o r o cKOBHPHHTe B nepByio OHepejjb, - ... , - H Tor^a d y a e T y p a B H e H H e H d p a T C K a a JiiodoBb Mexay BceMH H a p o ^ ; -a M H . » 29 C B H i n e y K a 3 a H H o r o BH/JHO, HTO n o / i H T H n e c K H H B o n p o c H Bonpoc npaBocjiaBHOtt Bepti decnoHOHJiH a B T o p a . KaK H3 HCTOPHH H 3 B e c T H 0 , HTO npaBocjiaBHaa q e p K O B b CKOMnpoMeHTHpoBaaa c e d a T e M , HTO dtiJia Ha C T o p o H e HedojibmoM rpynriH HMymnx, OTHM caMHM noMora-jia HM O K c n a o a T H p o B a T b M a c c y HeHMymnx, HTO OHa n p H H a a a C T o p o H y UIOBHHH3Ma, noMoraa npec.nejj;oBaTb flpyrne pe JIHTHO3HHe ydexjjeHHa H 30 apyrne HauHOHajibHocTH. PaccMaTpHBaa ranti noMeajHKOB B OTOM poMaHe MOXHO CKa3aTb, MTO Bee OHH ^ e H H B H e , cnadoBOJibHHe x a p a K T e p H , noJiHHe MejiaHxojiHHeoKHx ceTOBakHft Ha xH3Hb H cynbdy, nycTHe 'MeMTaTejiH. Hsodpaxaa H X , a B T o p 6UJI ydexjeH, MTO Bee OHH odpeMeHH Ha HCMS 3— HOBeHHe, KaK HaqnoHajtbHtiM ran yxo^ameft cTapoM POCCHH. PoMaHOB B DTOM npoH3B©fl©HHH oM©Hb yatejio H30dpaxaeT pyc-CKH© HauHOHajibHue x a p a K T e p H . OHH xoTa H x a j i K H e , HO B HHX Bee xe MOXHO y3HaTb Hacji©JHHKOB BeaHKHx pyccKHx nncaTejieft IlyaiKHHa, To/icToro, ToHMapoBa, ToroJia. MHTeHbKa BoeHKOB PoMaHOBa HMeeT OMeHb dojibuioe cxoj?-CTBO c OdJiOMOBHM r o H M a p o B a ; BajieHTHH EaarnH yx OMeHb HanoMHHaeT HHKOJiaa PooTOBa H3 poMaHa "Bofea H Mnp" TojioToro B coMeTaHHH c MepTaMH X^ecTaKOBa H3 "PeBHSopa" Porojia, n©MopHHa H3 "Tepoa na-mero BpeMeHn" JfepMOHTOBa HJIH ^axe OHernHa H3 "EBreHHft OHerHH1' IlymKHHa. 3TO jierKOMHCJieHHHft, de33adoTHHft MSJIOBSK, JiBdanusH nory-J i a T b , pa3B^ e M b c a c xeHmHHoM H H a r o B o p H T b Maccy HejienocTeft. " fl JirodJiK) BOCTOK,... noTOMy MTO HHr^e TaK He M y B C T B y -9TCa CTapOCTb H flpSBHOCTb 3eMJIH, KaK Ha BOGTOKe. -roBopHT EjiarHH. - J l e x a T b B cTenn nofl 3Be3jiaMH, ecTb pyKaMH xnpHyK) dapaHHHy H He MyBCTBOBaTb ^BHxeHHa B p e M e H H . . . . " 30 BOT Bee ero xejiaHHa dyaymero. RJIH TSKOM XH3HH OH noKHHyji xeHy, aejia, Ty cpe^y H K y j i b T y p y B KOTopoM OH pof lHacH H BHpoe. /Lpyraa TeMa 3aTpoHyTaa B OTOM npoH3Be^eHHH - GTO reua. KOHdp^HKTa Mex.ny raydOKHM MyBCTBOM JiiodBH H noBepxHOCTHHM. Mojicnaa ^eBymKa, HpHHa, BBiHyxaeHHaa x H T b B ^ e p e B H e , r^e Majio ocTa^ocb p a 3 -BJieM©HHH fljia MOJio^exH H ©me MeHbme MO^O^HX noisemHKOB, Hanuia 31 MHTeHbKy BoeMKOBa onenh npHB.zteKaTe.7ibHHM c e r o 3 a c T e H M H B o e T b » H HeyKJiioxecTbro MejioBena, .naBHo HedHBajioro B odmecTBe. Ee MyBCTBa K HeMy dtuiH caMbie K C K p e H H u e H jtodpoxejiaTejibHiie H e B H H H o r o cymecT-Ba. Oji'tra IleTpoBHa x e , xena ^BopaHCKoro npe^BOflHTejiH naBJia IleTpoBHMa Hauijia e r o OMeHb 3adaBHHM H OTKPHTO KOKeTHHMajia c HHM, KaK dti xejiaa e r o cnpoBoiSHpoBaTb -" - BH HHTepecHHH" MajibHHK... - cKa3a^a OHa, B^pyr noBepHyBniHCb K HeMy H dJiH3K0 BTJIH.HH-Bancb B ero rjia3a.... rioTOMy MTO eme He 3HaeTe MHororo H3 Toro, MTO B Bac e c T b . . . . 11 - fl xoMy, MTOdH BH KO MHe npnexajiH... - cKa3a/ia Ojibra rieTpoBHa. " - fl BaM CKaxy Koe-MTO... xeHnjHHa JIK>6HT CHJiy H HOBH3Hy.... " 31 MHTeHbKa p a c T e p a j i c a OT T a K o r o Bu30Ba KpacHBOfi xeHmHHH H He MOT HHMero CKa3aTb. OH coBepmeHHo noTepHJi paBHOBecne H Bee BpeMa decnoKoftHO HCKaji rjia3aMH Ojibry FleTpoBHy. Ho BMecTo Hee OH KaK TO HeoxH^aHHO HaTKHyjiea Ha HpHHy H 6UJI Taic^xe OMeHb cMymeH. MHTeHbKa dHJI CUHHaKOBO CHJIbHO npHBJieMeH K od©HM xeH-mHHaM, HO MHTaTejib MyBCTByeT, MTO OH jyMaeT, MTO OH coBepmeHHo HeflOCTOHH HH 0,HHOB HH flpyTOH. H MTOdH OT^eJiaTbCH OT ode>Hx xeH-IUHH OH pemHji, BMecTe c BajieHTHHOM, yexaTb Ha KaBKa3. Heodxo^HMo TaK^-xe OTMeTHTb JiHpHMecKyio CTOpOHy DTOTO npoH3Be^;eHHH. B "Pycn", KaK HH B KaKOM npyroM H3 e r o npoH3Be,neHHfi, Btipa3HJiacb jinpHKa PoMaHOBa B onncaHHH HM pyccKoft npnpojiH. PoMa-HOB HaMHHaeT cBoe npoH3Be,a;eHHe c o n n c a H H a HacTynaroweH BecHH " - UocJie cypoBott CHexHoft 3HMH, C ee MeTejiHMH, c y r -podaMH H 3aHOcaMH, npnuiJia, HaKOHeq, BecHa. " 32 BJiecK cojiHua, 3aTonjieHHbie BeceHHeM Bo,noft nojia, yTpeHHHfi TyMaH Haii J i y r a M H , KOTOPHM cte^aeT CHer, COCHOBHM dop Haii peKott, BeTpn-32 HH© MejIBHHHH, jpeBHHH MOHaCTHpB CO CT&pHHHtlMH dafflHHMH H HpKHH dJiecK rojiydnx B e c e H H H x H e d e c - Bee DTO o n n c a H o TaK K p a c o H H O , TaK nocjiejjoBaTejibHo, TaK HPKO, HTO npn najioM H a n p a x e H H H Bobdpa-xeHHH nepefl BEMH n p e^CTaeT jneMcTBHTejibHO p y c c K a a KapTHHa c o paCKOIIIHHMH J i e c a M H , nJIO^OpOflHHMH nOJIHMH H ydOTHMH jepeBHHMH. 3a BecHoM c a e^yeT JieTO H o c e H B co BceMH HX npHpojjHHMH K p a c o n -HHMH OTTeHKaMH H IIOJieBHMH p a d O T a M H , KOTOpue TOJIBKO p y C C K H H My-XHK, co Been e r o de/jHocTBio H KyjiBTypHoK O T C T a j i o c T B i o , MOT HCIIOJI-HHTb TaK Me^JieHHO H TaK ycep/jHO. B OTOH j inpHKe pyccKoM npHpoflH H p y c c K o r o Hapo,na B t i p a x a e T e a B e c B naTpnoTH3M P o M a H O B a . JlnpHKa DTa y B a 3 a n a c fleficTBHTejiBHO r a y d O K O HauHOHajiBHHMH n y B C T B a M H a B T o p a . B CBOHX H y B C T B a x , B CBOett npHBH3aHHOCTH K 3eMJie, B 3HaHHH p y c c r a x K p e c T B H H C K H x o d H H a e B , B c B o e n jriodBH K npHpo,E.e, POMaHOB 6UJI TeCHO CBH3aH c sepeBeHCKoK XH3HBK>. BOT, KaK can PoMaHOB o i r a c H B a e T CBOK JIK>dOBB K J^epeBeHCKOH I H 3 H H " - JIiod/iK) DTH THxne c y M e p K H 3aTHxaiotaeH MHpHOM jj;epeBeHCKOH XH3HH, cnoKOHHyro K Benepy rjiaflB peKH, H BenepHHe CMflrseHHHe 3ByKH H nepBue pe^KHe 3Be3^H B BeceHHHx Hedecax. " - B rof lH IOHOCTH , dHBa/io, H a n p a x e H H O xHBeuiB DTOH cyMepenHofi THinHHoft npHpojj;H, B/j;Hxaeui6 Been rpyjj;BK) apoitaT pacuBeTuieM cnpeHH, cBexecTB noJiHTOH 3eMjiH B u;BeTHHKe, H H a n p a x e H H o n p n -CJiyuiHBaeuiBCfl KO BceM 3aTHxaiom,HM 3ByKaM, KaK— dy^TO doHCB nponycTHTB He n p o n y B C T B O B a H H O H Kaxjcyio MHHyTy CBoeM XH3HH.... " 33 B DTOM, KOHeHHO, HyBCTBytKTCH TaKXXe dOJIBfflHe CHMnaTHH H T o c K a o H a B c e r / j a ymejrmeM MOJIOJJ;OCTH a B T o p a H CTHXHH . a e p e B e H -CKOM XH3HH. 3 3 FOOTNOTES Panteleymon Romanov, Rus,', part I , p. 0 . 2&3 I b i d , p. 7 7 . Op. c i t . . p. 77, ^ I b i d . , p. 7 9 . I b i d . 7&8 9 I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . 12 13 I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . 1 ^ I b i d . 16 17 18&19 I b i d , I b i d . I b i d . p. 1 7 2 . p. 7 8 . P. 1 7 9 . p. 1 8 0 . p. 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 . P. 1 9 . p. 2h. p. 2 5 . p. 2 5 - 2 6 . p. 2 7 . P. 2 9 . p. 3 0 . 2 Q I b i d . . p. 31 . 2 1 I b i d . , p. 32, 2 2 I b i d . , p. 33. 2.~\ I j b i d . , P. *+3. 2 i f I b l d . . p. 2 * * 9 . 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 250. 26 O P . c l t . j p. 250. 27 I b i d . . p. 251. °Op. c i t . , p. 251. 2 9 I b i d . . p. 60'. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 57.. 35 " PACCKA3U " B CBOHX KOPOTKHX paCCKa3ax FlaHTeJieHMOH POMaHOB CTOHT O^HHOKO cpe/jH KMopHCTHHecKHx r tHcaTe/ieH nocjiepeBOjnoijHOHHoro nepHOfla. B HHX codpaH MaTepnaji H3 dtiTa jnofleft coBeTCKOH nepe-XOJJHOH DIIOXH. TGMOH 3THX p a c c K a s o B HBJiaeTCH coneTaHHe ojieMeHTOB Tpa^HUHOHHoro yKJiafla ciapon POCCHH c HOBHM, erne HeocpopMHBniHMCfl dtlTOM COBeTCKOTO OdqeCTBa, CTOJIKHOBeHHe 3THX 3 JieMeHTOB B dfclTy, B ncHxojiorHH, B A3HKe repoeB.. OCTPHH K)MOp POMaHOBa OCBefflaeT TeiiHHe CTOpOHBI COBeTCKOTO npaBHTejiBCTBa, H H e o d p a 3 0 B a H H O C T B H pacTeptfHHOCTB: Mace nepe/j; T p e -dOBaHHHlMHOBOH BJiaCTH. no Bonpocy OTHomeHHa IIOJIOB, KOTOPHH dHJi,B oro BpeMH, nOMTH CaMHM dOJIBHHM BOnpOCOM COBeTCKOTO OdffleCTBa, POMaHOB onH-cuBaeT JiK>jj;eH xHBymnx de3 jiiodBH, noflMeHaiomHx npoHHyio Tpa,2HUHOHHyK ceMettHyio XH3HB rpydtiMH dpn3HOJIOrH HecKHMH CBH3HMH. B p a c c K a 3 a x PoMaHOBa, B M e c T e c nexoBCKHM JIHPH3MOM ,apKO BH,HHH rpydtie nepTH ero HaTypajiH3Ma. B CBoeM npe^HCJioBHH K cdopHHKy paccKa30B PoMaHOBa, B. Tjiajj;KOB roBopHT, HTO " nncaTejiB BHJJ;HMO, 3aja;BixaeTCH B aTMoedpepe nero-TO rpydoro, acHBOTHoro, H, He .aaBan npnMHx OTBeTOB, OH OCTPO CT3.BHT BOnpOC BO BCeM HX C/IOXHOCTH H Kascaofl CBoeH CTPOKOH TOBOPHT, HTO 3j;ecb MHoroe cnyTaHO, HTO npe/jcTOHT d o l m a n H ynopHan padoTa Haa yCTpoeHHeM IIOJJIHHHO KpaCHBOH XH3HH, npH3HaHHOft n033HeH H He.lOBeHHOCTBK). 11 1 TeMa OTHOiueHHH ITOJIOB BOJiHOBajia He TOJIBKO PoMaHOBa, a H MHOTHX spyrnx BejiHKHx H MajiHx nncaTejieft POCCHH, HanHHan nyuiKHHCKOH TaTBflHO'M H flo HauiHx flHeH. XOTH PoMaHOB H n n c a j i p a c c K a 3 H o aiodBH, Bee xe HX y Hero oneHB Majio. E r o Jiynmne paccKa3Bi CBH3aHH c Maccoft 36 Ha yjiHue, B onepe^H, na BOKsajie, B noea^e, Ha pBiHKe. 3TO 6BIJIH MecTa, rj;e codnpajiHCb RUNS. Bcex KJiaccoB, VRe 6URK HHTepecH Bcex coHHajibHtix cnoeB HacejieHHH TOTO BpeMeHH. Tenepb odpaTHMea K oaMHM paccKasaM. Pa3dnpaTb Bee pac-CKa3bi PoMaHOBa MH He B COCTOHHHH, TaK KaK HX HaMHCJiHeTCH ceMb TOMOB. HO MH p a 3 6 e p e M £OCTaTOMHOe KOJIHMeCTBO^ MTOdbl npOHJIJIIOCTpH-poBaTb c$epy poMaHOBCKoro HHTepeca. ^acTO PoMaHOBa cpaBHHBaioT c 3omeHKo no ero »MopHCTHMecKHM paccKa3aM. Ho PoMaHOB OTJiHMaeTca OT 3omeHKO TeM, MTO no^nepKHBaeT HapoflHyro Maccy, KaK odmyio e^HHH-u.y, Tor.ua KaK 3omeHKO y^ejineT CBoe BHHMaHHe OT^ejtbHHM jnmaM, KO-TOPHX OH Ha3HBaeT CBOHMH COdCTBeHHHMH HMeHaMH. B orjiaBJieHHHx CSOPHHKOB PoMaHOBa MOXHO 3aMeTHTt>, MTO MHorae H3 ero paccKa30B HOCHT T a K n e 3arjiaBHH, KaK "JJipyxHHtt Hapo,n", "MeJiKHH napoii;", "HepacnopH^HTejibHHfi Hapcn", "TepnejiHBHH Hapo^", "PyccKan jyuia", "Becco3HaTejibHoe CTajJto", "T/iac napo^a". Bee OHH T O B O p H T O T O M , MTO pOMaHOBCKHMH r e p O H M H HBJIHeTCH d e 3HMHHHaH MaCCa, noBTopaiomaHCH B pn^e ero p a c c K a 3 0 B l PaccKa3 "/LpyxHHft Hapo^" npejucTaBjineT codoM KJiaccHMecKHft odpa3en. poMaHOBCKoro MOTHBa. JJeftcTBHe nponcxoiiHT B ^epeBHe BO BpeMH BoeHHoro K O M M y H H3Ma* PoMaHOB c p a 3 y xe HaMHHaeT c $aKTa, MTO " ... npnuiJia dyMara H3 BOJIOCTHOTO coBeTa c npHKa30M B03HT& ^poBa Ha rocy^apcTBeHHHM 3aBoj;. " - KaxitHH rpax,naHHH jjoJixeH c B e 3 T H no m e c T H BO3OB, -cKa3aji npe^ce^aTejib Ha codpaHHH. " - A exejiH He noBe3em6, MTO 3a OTO dy^eT? - cnpocKJi KTO-TO H3 3a^HHX pflflOB. " - OTCHAHID^ a noTOM B RBoe CBe3enib. — TaK... " - DTO 3HaMHT Ha MaHep dapniHHH BHXO^HT? - CKa3aji eme O.HHH TOJIOC. " - He Ha MaHep dapujHHH, a Ha MaHep noBHHHOCTH. " * 37-TaKHM o 6 p a 3 0 M H a n H H a e T c a r o p a n e e H myMHoe odcyx,neHHe OTOTO B o n p o c a H a c o d p a H H H . Bee KpHHajra, n e p e r o B a p H B a j i n c b H O T K a s b i -BajiHCb Be3TH #poBa H c o d p a H H e 3aKaHHHBaeTCH ijpyxHbiM n p o T e c T O M , HTO MOJI " - He noBe3eM. K flbaBOJiy... d a d CBOHX 3 a n p a r a f i . " 3 , -opajiH r o j i o c a co B c e x CTopoH. npe^ee^aTejib 3aKpbi.n c o d p a m i e c y r p o 3 0 H ^ H T O HM npHM^eTca BO3HTB B^BofiHe. Ho JIIO^H, KaK dbi H e * . odpamaa BHHMaHHa H a yrpo3bi npe^ c e ^ a T e j i a , CTajra pacxoflHTbca n o ,a;oMaM, ^oBOJibHHe c B o e M nodejtoft. npoxojr,amHft B DTO BpeMa H3 c o c e ^ H e r o x y r o p a c a n o x H H K , ycjibimaB HX eflKHOe pemeHHe He B e3TH J ipoBa H a Ka3eHHtiK 3aBOfl, XBajIHT HX, HTO MOJI OHH fleCKaTb ".HpyxHbiM Hapo,n" H BMeCTe MoryT' O T C T a H B a T b CBOH n p a B a . Ho H a y T p o JHOAH B JtepeBHe 3 a d e c n o K O H j r a c b o niTpadpe 3a He BBinoJiHeHHe H a p a^a. OHH CTajiH OCTOPOXHO BbirjiajtbiBaTb H3 CBOHX c e H e i i , n o ^ c M a T p H B a T b H n o ^ c J i y m H B a T B , HTO ,nejiajiK c o c e ^ H . H K a x -JTHM H3 HHX CTaji noTHxoHbKy 3 a n p a r a T b CBOJO nowaRh " H a BcaKHfl c a y -H a f i " . Pacnpenb-TO B c e r ^ a MOXHO. " B^pyr KTO-TO n p o d e x a j i n o yjiHne H K p n K H y j i : - Ax, JlbaBoiibi, - c HHXHeM c a o d o f l H TO n o e x a j i H . . . -K T O ? - R& B e e . CHanajia 3axapKa—KOMMyHHCT, a noTOM O^HH no o^HOMy erne nejioBeK n a T b . A T y T KaK y B e f l^jiH, HTO OHH y x K MocTHKy ncu/besxaioT, y B c e x B o p o T a pacTBopHJiHCb H npaMo Ha 3anpaxeH-KHX Jiotna,2j;ax B e e BbiKaTHjiH, CJIOBHO Jiouia^H TaK B 3anpaxKe H po^HJiHCb. .. 4 Ho Be^b 3TO x e dbiJiH K p e c T b a H e HHXHeM cjiodoabi. H Ka3ajiocb d H , HTO B e e DTO coBceM He K a c a e T c a BepxHeM c j i o d o ^ H , TaK KaK OHH Bee pemHJiH B n e p a Ha c o d p a H H H He B e3TH ii;poBa Ha Ka3eHHbift 3aBO.ii;. HOj ycjibiiuaB, HTO HHXHaa cjiodo.ua n o e x a j r a BbinojraaTb CBOA Hapajt " H B 3TOT x e caMbifi MOMeHT B o p o T a B c e x flBOpOB Ha 38 BepxHeM cjiodo/j(e, pacTBopHBuiHCb Ha ode no JIOBHHKH, xJiormyjiH c pa3Maxa od CTeHKH H, KaK Ha napajje, roJioBa B rojioBy, H noHecjiHCb joroHaTb HHXHIOK> cjiodo/j;y. " 5 B 3TOM DnH30^e PoMaHOB noKa3HBaeT npoTHBopenHa Mexay odniHM Ha-MepeHHeM H TeM, HTO OHH .nejiajiH. ^eM flpyxHee OHH pewajiH Ha cod-paHHH He jjejiaTb, TeM jipyxHee OHH IIOTOM .nejiajiH. B OTOM PoMaHOB noKa3HBaeT KOMH3M KaK aBJieHHe B KOJiJieKTHBH3Me. Ha cjioBax, Bee OHH dtiJiH 3a TO, MTodu He .sejiaTb, a B jjeHCTBHTejibHOCTH y Kaxfloro H3 HHX 6HJI CTpax 3a ceda H HeaoBepne coce^y. TaKHM odpa30M, rjiaBHoft nepToB DTOTO paccKasa, B03dyx,aaio-mero cMex y HHTaTejia, aBJiaeTca npoTHBopeHHe CBOHM codCTBeHHHM peuieHHHM. B paccKa3e "KynKa Pa3d0HHHK0Bn, aBTop BHBOJECHT Ty xe ncH-xojior-HK) MaccH KpecTbHHCTBa, KOTopue flejiaroT Bcer^a npoTHBonojioxHoe CBOHM pemeHHHM. AeHcTBHe npoHcxcaHT B flepeBHe B nocjieBoeHHoe BpeMa, Kor^a noMemHMbH ycaj;bdbi ocTajiHCb de3 Haj^3opa H Korjja JIK>JJ;H TamHJiH H rpadHJiH Bee, HTO nona^ajiacb nojj; pyKy. Kor^a xe Bee dujio pa3Bopo-BaHO, Tor^ta KpecTbaHe KjiajiH BHHy Ha MecTHyio BJiaeTb, HMeHya HX "KyHKOK pa3dOHHHKOB". BOT H B STOT pa3, cn^ejiH KpecTbaHe KpyxKOM OKOJIO xaTbi OBHHHHHKa H Be JIH pa3TOBOp O TOM, "HTO BeCb HapOJj; npOTHB, TOJIbKO BOT 3aBejiacb KynKa pa3dofiHHKOB Ha .nepeBHe H de3odpa3HHHaK>T" ^, HO, paHO HJIH no3^HO, HM npHH^eTca OTBenaTb 3a CBOH de3odpa3Ha, TaK KaK Hapojj; eme IIOMHHT Bora. B OTO BpeMa npoe3xaji Ky3Heu. H3 coce^Hefi jjepeBHH,' OH ocTaHOBHJica, nojiceji K KpecTbaHaM H cnpocHJi o neM oijia penb. " JUja. BOT od HOBOM HaMajibCTBe roBopnM, od DTHX pa3dofiHHKax. " 7 OH yflHBHJica OTOMy, n o x B a j n u i n e c T H n x Jiro^en OTOM j e p e B H H H CTaji paccKa3HBaTb, HTO B ero ^epeBHe JIIO^H CTajiH "nan 3Jio^;eH", 3adn-JIH Bora H TaojHJiH Bee, HTO n o n a ^ a a o c b HM no^ pyny. OHH de3 u e p e -MOHHH OTdnpajiH HMymecTBo y doraneM, BncejiajiH HX H3 HOMOB, flejiH/iH 3eMJiro. Bee 3TO OHH flejiajiH Boe^HHO, no uajiouy HaMeny Hana/ibCTBa H des BCHKHX ^enpeTOB. KpecTbHHe yaHBHJiHCb TaKOMy HarjioMy H a -xajibCTBy jiro^eM coeeimeM ^epeBHH H Toxe Ha3tiBajiH HX pa 3d oMHHKaMH. "A y Hac", - roBopHJiH OHH Ky3Heqy, - " K o r ^ a nepBBift pa3 ToabKO 3arOBOpHJIH, HTOdbl OTdHpaTB, TaK BCe TaKOH UiyM nOJtHHJIH, HTO npocTO defla." 8 Ho, Kor^a Ky3Hen cnpocn/i, KTO xe Bhirnaji HX apeH^aTopa, AH^pea CTenaHHHa, H3 ero ^OMa H pa3Ji;eJiHJi 3eMJiio H pacTamHJi ero H M y -meCTBO, TO OHH BCe OTBeTHJIH, HTO fleCKaTb "npHUIJIOCb BHce/raTb". " - MTO cuejiaeui^TO... H He TO, HTO BucejiHJiH, a erne H pacTamH/iH Bee RO nocJieflHeS menKH. Bee nepe3 HHX, nepea OKa^aHHHx: depHTe, r o B o p a T , a TO JipyrHM oTJta^HM. Hy, H3BecTHO, KaxJiHH n y n a e T , HTO pa3 Bee paBHO p a 3 -depyT, TaK yx Jiynme MH B03bMen, neM ^ p y r a e no/rb3yioT-c a . . . . Ca^HK dHJi y OTOTO AH,Hpea CTenaHHHa, TaK Becb e r o Ha rjra3ax y H e r o odTpacJiH, c BeTKaMH odopBajin. " - KTO x 3TO? " - K T O . . . T p a c j i H - T O , KOHenHO B e e . . . Ra Bep,h Bee H3-3a H H X , H3-3a pa3doftHHKOB: OHH CJiyX nyCTHJIH, HTO KTO T P H C T H He dy,neT, TOMy H3 HMymecTBa a p e H j;aTopcKoro npn j e j i e x e HHnero He \nocTaHeTca. Hy, T y T , KOHeniHO Rejio, TaK BCe npHHHJIHCb dy30BaTb, HTO T0.7ILKO TpeCK VLRBT. - 3flopoBO, - CKa3a;i Ky3Hen.. - A y Hac cjryx npomejr, HTO BH dy^TO caMH noxejiajm H 3eMjiro JiejiHTb H B e e . - KaKoe TaM - caMHi Bee n p o T H B 6b\im.\ H MH TaK CMOTPHM, HTO HH K HepTy HX #e;io He noKneT, noTOMy HTO pa3 Becb H a p o j ; - n p o T H B , T y T yx HHnero He cuejia-emb... " 9 PaccKa3 3TOT KOHHaeTca Ten, HTO Bee d e r y T JioMaTb capaM y HBaHHXH, KOTopnfi flOHxeH d y a e T cJiyxHTb ' "RJIH n o c T p o f t K H K/iyda. H Kor.ua jioMajiH 4 0 O T O T eapaM, T O Kaxflbift C T a p a j i c a yTamHTB jjocKy H J I H dpeBHO fljia c e d a . - 3, - Kyjj;a dpeBHO I I O B O J I O K! .... - icpHnaji n p e^ce-^aTejii CToaBuiHH Ha B M C O K O M .nHe, "BpocB c e H n a c , cyKHH C H H ! . . . He OTpHBaJf n e T J i n ! BtiHHMaM c e n n a c Bee H3 KapMaHal... JIoMaeM jj;jia odmero no JIB 30BaHHa, a T H cede TauiHuiB, de'cpBecTHHH. " 10 H B 3TOM paccKa3e BHjj;eH K O M H 3M npoTHBopenHa Mexfly pa3roBopaMH, uiKypHHHecTBOM codcTBeHHtix n o c T y n K O B , K O M H 3M TynocTH H pac-xJiadaHHOCTH yMa H X H T P O C T H B TpyflHoe n o c j i e B o e H H o e B p e M a . Mo-T H B O M oToro paccKa3a TaK^xe aBJiaeTca r j iydoKHM HHflHBH,?yajiHCTHHec-K H M D T O H 3 M , T y n o c T B , KOTopaa He 3aMenaeT c o d C T B 6 H H H X n p o T H B o p e n H H , DTO TOT BCeMOrymHH HHCTHHKT XHBOTHOTO C a M O C O X p a H e H H a , KOTOpHH jierKO Haxoj^HT Bbixoa B paMKax MopajiBHoro sanoHa. B paccKa3e "JIOM Ho. 3a", PoMaHOB BHCMeHBaeT TynocTB H de3pa3jiHMHe p a d o n n x K TOMy .aejiy, KOTopoe H M nopynajiH .nejiaTB H diopoKpaTH3M H HepacnopaflHTejiBHocTB BjiacTH Ha i i e c T a x . PoMaHOB onncHBaeT, KaK dHJio jaHO pacnopaxeHHe cjioMaTB ^ O M Ho.3a, RJIR TpnjiHBa, K O T O P H H yxe dHJi Ha noJioBHHy pa3pyuieH. Ho p a d o n n e He-^ocMOTpejiH dyKBH "a" nocjie uncJipH "3" H cTajiH JioMaTB JJ;OM Ho. 3, B K O T O P O M X H J I H JIBOJJ;H. nepenyraHHBiM H HejjoyMeBaiomHM xHJibuaM p a d o n n e TOBOPHJIH, HTO " - B odmeM nopajiKe, B^BHjj;y T o n j i H B H o r o KpH3Hca npn-Ka3aHO pa3odpaTB Ha /j;poBa. " H H, Kor j ta npoe3xaBfflHH no yjinue H 3 B 0 3 H H K ocTaHOBHjica H c n p o c H J i , H T O O H H jj;ejiajiH, T O O ^ H H H 3 p a d o n n x OTBeTHJi: 11 - ... H3 TonjiHBHoro KpH3Hca B H X O ^ H M ; yMHbie T O J I O B H , HanajiBCTBo Hauie; B O T xopouiHH JJ;OM H cBexyeM. 11 - Hy jj;aBan d o r . " - OTBeTHJi H3B03HHK. - "MoxeT n o T e n J i e M c a e j i a e T e . A T O DTaKHH X O J I O ^ I , c o B c e M 41 HH K n e i i y . . . " " - IIocTpoHTb Tpy^HO, a c x e n b jjejio He x H T p o e . " 12 H BOT, Korjja Kpmna yxe dHJia CHHTa H padonne yjHBJiajiHCb, HTO DTO 6biJi KaMeHHHH KOHL, nooTOMy HenpHro/jHHH jjJia T o n j i H B a , TO nojrbexaji K a K o M - T O MejioBeK c TexHHHecKHM 3HanKOM H a qoypaxKe,N T o r ^ a BHIHCHH-JIOCB, HTO 6UJIO n p H K a 3 a H O JionaTb cocejj[HHH, nycToM JJOM. " - Ax T H , MaTb H e c T H a a ! " - TOBOPHT O/J;HH H3 p a d o n n x , - A a (3HJIO H rJiRReji H a Hee, H a dyKBy TO, flyMaji -H H n e r o , MajieHbHaa jj;ioxe n o K a 3 a j i a c b . BOT B e^b Bpe/j;Haa KaKaa, - CKaxn n o x a j i y M c T a . " I 3 KpoMe T y n o c T H , de3pa3JiHHHa H de3co3HaTejibHoro OTHomeHHa padonnx B 3T0M p a C C K a 3 e , POMaHOB C CapKa3MOM BHCMeHBaeT HH3fflHe B J i a C T H . 11 - ... ysraue TOJIOBH, HanajibCTBO Hame, BOT xopouiHH JJOM H CBe-x y e M . " 14 B DTOM p a c c K a 3 e T a n ^ x e nyBCTByeTca HaMeK H a y c j i o B H a BpeMeHH, Ha odmnft d e c n o p a j j o K , KOTOPHH c o c T a B J i a e T cioxeT OTOTO p a c -C Kci 33, * 3TH Xe MOTHBH TynOCTH, npOTHBOpeHHa MeJl CJIOBaM, 3 rOH3M, HeopraHH30BaHHOCTb BbiBejj;eHH B p a c c K a 3 a x "Hepacnpe,2.ejiHTejibHHH H a p o f l " , ".HOCTOHHHH nejioBeK", "Be3co3HaTejibHoe c T a ^ o " , " B y K B a 'H'". B " B y K B e ' H ' " P o M a H O B .nona3HBaeT, KaK qejioe ynpexjieHHe He^ioxeT p a c -mndbpoBaTb o o K p a m e H H o r o H a 3 B a n n a , a K y p b e p ocTaHaBjiHBaeT c a B IIOJIHOM HeaoyMeHHH nepe/j; Ha-anHCbio "BHXO^". C coi^HajiorHHecKOH TOHKH 3peHHa H H T e p e c H H p a c c K a 3 H P o M a -HOBa " T p H KHTa", "Padaa KopoBa", " C B a T a a xeHmHHa", "BoceMi, nyjjoB 1' H " T j i a e H a p o j t a " . 3TH p a c c K a 3 H cjie/jyioT ,npyr 3a j r p y r o M BO BTOPOM TOMe coHHHeHHH PoMaHOBa H3j[;aTejibCTBa "He/rpa" 1929 rofla, H c o c T a B J i a K T n p o^ojixeHHe O/J;HH . n p y r o r o . IlepBHH p a c c K a s^'Tpn KHTa 1^ p n c y e T Kap-THHy jj ;epeBeHCKoro c a M o y n p a B J i e H H a B nepBoe BpeMa nocjie peBOJiiouHH. 42 "Kan TO/ibKO npomeji c j i y x , MyxHKH cennac x e BBidpajin K O M H T e T . " - TaK H a n H H a e T c a 3TOT p a c c K a 3 . " A B KOMHTeT H3dpajiH Tpex n e j i o B e K : HHKOJiaa - c a n o x -HHKa, C T e n a H a H JiaBOHHHKa., " HHKOJiaa BHdpajiH 3a TO, HTO OH OMeHb flojiro roBopHTb MOT H BH^yMHBaTb T O , H e r o xo Hero HHKTO He BBijiyMBiBaji. " C T e n a H a BBidpajiH 3a TO, MTO y H e r o flyma dBuxa yx OMeHb x o p o m a a . . . " JlaBOMHHKa BBldpaJIH npOCTO OT XOPOIUHX My-BCTB. OT DTHX xe MyBCTB BiiSpajiH dti H noMe^HKa, MTO6H noKa3aTb, MTO OHH 3Jia He n o M H H T , HO He peuiHJiHCb... H noTOMy ocTaHO-BHJIHCb H a JiaBOMHHKe. " 15 B ^ajibHeMmen pa3BepTBiBa©TCH - p a d o T a DTOTO K O M H T e T a . HHKOJiafi p a d o T a j i rojiOBoK H H3HKOM , H H K o r ^ a He o d c y x ^ a a CBOH njiaHBi HH C KOMHTeTOM, HH C OdmeCTBOM. v HeTO KaXJiBlM ReHh 6BIJIH HOBBie H^cen H OH B c e r ^ a 3adHBaji o T e x , o KOToptix roBopHJi B M e p a . K o r ^ a eMy r o B o p n j i H o TOM, MTO BMepa OH roBopHJi coBceM o . n p y r o M , TO OH OTBeMaji: 1 1 - HeuiTo Bee ynoMHHuib, - . . . xopomo y Bac O,HHO Reno, a H o d o BceM .HyMaro. " 16 OH x o T e j i HeMe^JieHHO n p e B p a T H T b .nepeBHio B CTOJiHijy. OH HaneTHJi OTKPHTB "iiiKOJiy RRK B3poc/ibix, CTOJiapHyio MacTepeKyw, a r p o H O -MHMecKHe nypcH, HapoitHHSt ROU, T e a T p " H T . J I . HOjKor.ua ero MyxHKH CnpOCHJIH, TRe OH BO^MeT JjeHbTH RRR BCeTO DTOTO, OH OTBeTHJI c yBepeHHOCTbio: " - EpyH.ua. n o KoneMKe c p Bcex codepeM, BOT T e d e H UIKOJia RRB B3pOCJIHX. " l'? B J i a r o f l a p a cBoeH xopouieM ityuie, C T e n a H Bcer/j;a c T a p a j i c a , MTodBi dfciJio BceM x o p o m o . H3-3a DTOTO Bee npnxo^HjiH K HeMy c , npocbdioM H a c n e T JiecKy HJIH HacMeT KOPOBBI. .HaBaa 3anncKy Ha Jiec HJIH K o p o B y oHHOMy, OH He M o r 0TKa3aTb jcpyroMy, taKHM odpa30M, OH nacTO BBiH^Baji 3anncKH Ha T y x e K o p o B y. CKaxeM, nByM HJIH TpeM My-4 3 XHKaM. " Kor.ua p a 3 r o B o p 3axo,HHji o TOM, MTO6H .nejiHTb n o -MemHHBio 3eMjno, C T e n a H n e p B H H npHcoejj;HHajiea K OTOMy, roBopa, MTO HecnpaBeflj iHBO oflHOMy Bjia,neTb THCHHefi fleCHTHH, KOTfla y MyXHKa H nflTH HeT. 11 Hp. Kor.ua p a 3 r o B o p 3axo£HJi o TOM , H T o d i i B DTO B O C K p e c e H b e H a n a T b .nejiHTb, C T e n a H y CTaHOBHJiocb xajib noMeniHKa - Toxe n e j i o B e K , H OH TOBOPHJI, HTO Jiynuie no,nox,naTb. " 18 CBOHM flodpoj^yniHeM CTenan .nomeji .no T o r o , HTO B e e ero CTajIH H e H a B H ^ e T b . JIaBOHHHK He 3aHHJICH XOSflfiCTBeHHOfi HaCTblO KOMHTeTa H B e e dojibiue HapoBHji RJIK ceda, a He RJIB. .npyrnx. BOT, KTO-TO n o -TpedOBajI KOHTpOJia Ha^ JiaBOHHHKOM. " npaBHJibHO. Be^H B jiaBKy. 3OBH .nbHHKa RAR KOHTPOJIIO. " npHiujiH B JiaBKy, CTajiH npoBepaTb. OKasajiocb, HTO B KaccoBoft KHHre , B rpa$ e , rr.jtte C T o a T pydjin H KonefiKH, 3 a n H c a H 0 ' n o c T y r o u i o T P H c B H H b H 1 . " BjiHscHHe K.^banKy HarayjiH TOJIOBH K KHHre... " npaBHJibHO, HTO-JIH? - cnpafflHBajiH 3aflHHe. " 19 B OTOM p a c c K a 3 e o n a T b BH,HHH npoTHBopenHa Mexjjy xopouiHMH n j i a H a -MH H TeMH p e 3 y j i b T a T a M H , KOTopbie n o J i y n a i o T c a . KpecTbaHe Bee dojibiue pa3pyuiajiHCb , a KyjiaKH HaxHBajiHCb. y HHTaTejia noJiynaeTca B n e n a T -JieHHe, HTO POMaHOB BHBO^HT KaTaCTpO$HHeCKyiO H e c O C T O a T e j I b H O C T b , HeyMeHHe KpecTbaH nepejj; 3a^aneM peBOJironHOHHoro c a M o y n p a B J i e H H a . B .npyrnx p a c c K a s a x ; a B T o p BHBO^HT Heodpa30BaHHocTb H 3 a n y r a H H 0 C T b K p e c T b a H , KOToptie He MoryT H He B cocToaHHH n o H a T b HOBbie t|)opMH odmecTBeHHoM XH3HH H rocyj^apcTBeHHHx OTHOiueHHft. B cBoeM p a c c K a 3 e "Padaa KopoBa" PoMaHOB npHBojpiT npnMep r o J i o c o B a -Hna H a cxcne. " - KTO 3a TO, HTodu de^HeftuiHM... He .naBaTb? -KpHKHyJI JiaBOHHHK. Cpa3y Bbipoc nejiHM jiec pyK...- A BBI TO nero n o -^biMaeTe? - cnpocHJiH y de^HeftiuHx, KOTopHe Toxe no^HajiH p y K H• - HaM, CTajio diiTb, He Ha.no. " 20 44 Pa3o6paB BBimeyKa3aHHtie p a c c K a s a MBI BBIHCHHJIH, HTO B H 3 o d p a x e H H H PoMaHOBa K p e c T & / m e H o d H B a T e j i n H e c n o c o d H B i K o d -wecTBeHHOH c a M o c T O H T e j i b H o c T H . OHH He B COCTOHHHH OCMBICJIHTb OKpyxaiomHe COCHTHH, He noHHMaioT HOBOM BJiacTH H flasce d o H T c n e e . Bo Bcex Bonpocax XH3HH OHH .oeHCTByioT no H H C T H H K T y , de3 BCHKOH I JIOTHKH. OneHb HaCTO TOJIHKOM K HX JjeHCTBHHM HBJIHeTCH MejiOHHan xa^ H O C T b , JiHHHaa K o p u c T b H HHJJHBHj^yaJIH3M« B e e 3TH $aKTH BtiBejj;eHBi PoMaHOBtiM B e r o p a c c K a 3 a x TaK, HTO y HHTaTeJIH HeBOJIBHO B0 3HHKaeT MHCJIb, HTO HHJHBHJj;yaJIH3M, 3TOH3M, xa-^HOCTb HBJIHKTCH HeOTpBIBHOR HaCTbK) XHBOTO HeJIOBeKa CTper. M a m e r o c a K HHflHBHjj;yajibHOft He3aBHCHMocTH H 3KOHOMHHecKoMy y j iynuie-•J HHB 2CH3HH. COBeTCKOe IipaBHTejIbCTBO XOTejIO H XOHeT yHHHTOXHTb 3TH npnpojj;HHe H e j i o B e n e c K H e K a n e c T B a n o c p e ^ C T B O M KOJiJieKTKBH3aHHH, OT-d n p a a y K p e c T b H H Bee HX nacTHBie HH^HBHjj;yajibHHe c p e j i C T B a JJ;JIH c y m e c T B O B a H H a . Pe3yjibTaTOM STOTO HBHJiOcb n a c c H B H o e conpoTHBJieHHe ''B padoTe. OHH TOTOBBI dtuiH yMepeTb c r o j i o j j y , neM padOTaTb /j;jia KOJixo3a. B KOHu;e KOHU.OB, BBIMOPHB rojioflOM MHOTO TBICHH conpoTHBJiaio-uiHxca KpecTbHH, npaBHTejibCTBo flOJirao dujio ycTynHTb H .J^afrb K p e c T b a -HaM XOTH H e M H o r o nacTHOH codcTBeHHOCTH - oropo.ii; , Koposy, Kyp H T.JJ;. H onaTb TaKH, 3aKopeHejiBiM HejiKHft HH,HHBH,nyajiHCT He JirodHT n p o a B J i a T b jjejioBOH a K T H B H O C T H , a Bcerjja o c T a e T c a B C T o p o H e OT jj;eM-CTBHH. Ho OH B c e r j i a OXOTHO TOBOPHT O TOM, HTO cjieAOBajio dBi c a e j i -a T b , TaKHM o d p a s o M noflTaJiKHBaa j j p y r n x Ha flencTBHe. Pe3yjibTaTOM DTOTO HBjineTCH pacxojKJ^eHHe CJIOB c .neftcT BH6M. JUpyrHM HHTepecHBiM MOTHBOM B paccKa3ax PoMaHOBa HBJiaeTca de3CMHCJieHHoe ^ o B e p n e K cjiyxaM; ^oBepne K cjiyxaM yBejiHHHBaeTCH erne dojibtue T o r ^ a , Kor^ a B c T p a H e n y B C T B y i O T c a DKOHOMHHecKHe He-45 j j ;ocTaTKH. ITpoflflH nepe3 BoftHy, peBOJiKLiHio, H rpax^aHCKyio BoMny, Korjj;a B POCCHH HHMero He npoH3Bo;j;HjrocB, a TOJIBKO noTpedjinjiocB. riO OKOHMaHHH BOMHbl JIIO^H BCTpeTHJIH TOJIOfl, pa3pyxy, DnH^eMHK). ripn TaKOM nojioxeHHH jiioflH BepHJiH B e e n cjiyxaM H derajin OT CHHOTO MecTa B apyroe, cTaHOBHJiHCB B oMepe^B H MacTO CTOHJIH CSMH He 3Han sa M e n . 06 OTOM H nnmeT PonaHOB B CBOHX p a c c K a 3 a x "3HaMOKn H "HepacnopHflHTejiBHtiM Hapojj;". B paccKa3e "3HaMOK" PoMaHOB onHCBi-B a e T , KaK rpynna jiro^eK, odcyxflaBiuHx TaHHCTBeHHOCTB 3HaMKa, KOTOPHH odemajiH BiijJtaTB 3a yMacTHe B Tpyjj;oBofi noBHHHOcTH* KTO-TO CKa3aji: . " BOT TenepB KajiouiH, roBopHT, BBiflaBaTB CKopo dy/j;yT.... LTpH^ enK nojiynaTB - 3HaMOK saM npe^tHBHTe. - HeTy? - Hy H Kajiom HeTy. " 21 3TO 6UJI coBceM HeodocHOBaHHBiff pa3roBop, HO JHOJ;H noBepH/in H dexa/iH sanHCblBaTBCH H a T p y n o B y i o n o B H H H O C T B . H, Kor^a o p r a H H 3 a T o p OTOM r p y n n H noca^Baji Ha TO, MTO TaK MHOTO JiioaeM c o d p a a o c B , B e^B 6UJIO CKasaHO TOJIBKO no nejioBeKy c K B a p T H p a , TO neM-TO HerpoMKHfi TOJIOC nosa^H CKa3a^ :, MTO "Be3 Kajioiu-To HH KOMy ocTaBaTBCH He^xoHeTCH". 2 2 JIWJJH ^pyxHO codHpajiHCB, Ha nepedoK 3axBaTHBajiH jionaTKH, XOTeJIH dBITB BnepeflH d p H r a ^ H , HTOdBI HX HeJodOUI/IH 3HaHKOM. B KOHtce p a d o M e r o ^HH Bee nojiyMHjiH 3HaMOK 3a y M a c T H e B T p y ^ o B o i i n o B H H H O C T H . HO HH KTO He 3HajI, MTO TenepB ^e/iaTB C 3THM 3HaMKOM. 3TOT xe MOTHB BCTpeMaeTCH B paccKa3e "HepacnopaflHTejiB-HBIM Hapojj;" B KOTOPOM PoMaHOB p a c c K a 3 B i B a e T, KaK JIIOJJ;H no cjiyxaM B TeMeHHH HecKOJIBKHX MHHyT odpa30BajiH ^JiHHHyio OMepejj;& OKOJIO sanep-Toro My3HKajiBHoro M a r a 3 H H a B Ha^ex^e noJiyMHTB MBIJIO. npocTOHB nejmM Mac B o n e p e f l H , HeJ3Haa 3aMeM H yBH,neB yxojsnmero 3aBe^yiomero Mara3HHOM^ JUOAVL CTajiH ponTaTB. " - Kadu Hapcn-TO dBiJi pacnopnjj;HTejiBHHft, ceftnac noiii/in dti, 4 6 pacnpofcujiH TOJIKOM , K o r ^ a o T o n p y T , HTO BH^ a B a T t 6yjj;yT, H He CTOHJIH du 3pH uejiuH n a c . - BOT MynaioT, npoKJiHTue, Hapofl,.., ... - *Iae uejiuK npocTOHJiH.. . a OH>H BUIHJIH H noni/iH, c e d e . Hapoji H e p a c n o p a j H T e j i b H H H . . . " 2 3 cKa3ajr KTO-TO B TOJine H JIK>/J;H CTajiH pacxo,HHTbCH npHCJiyniHBaHCb K HO BUM cayxaM o BH^ane TOTO HJIH apyroro TOBapa. K o c H a n H e K y j i b T y p H o c T b BTOM MHoroHHCJieHHOH p y c c K o M M a c c H , Ha3HBaeMott, p y c c K H H Hapo,a;, KOTOPDH y x e BTopoft p a 3 nana "cBodoay" 3a O^HO n o K o a e H H e , jjaeT P o n a H O B y HOBue T©MU RJLB. n e j i o r o PH^a KOMHHeCKHX MOTHBOB. KyjIbTypHyK) OTCTaJIOCTb pyccKofi MaCCH, PoMaHOB xopomo H/iaiocTpHpyeT B p a c c K a 3 a x "POJJ;HOH H3UK" H "Tepnejra-BHH Hapojj;". B paccKa3e "PO,HHOH H S U K " , PoMaHOB Bocco3,naeT n o c j i e -BoeHHyio KapTHHy Ha BOKaa^e, r ^ e du/io uejioe Mope Jiro^eM - co/maTH, exaBuiHe c <f>poHTa JJOMOH, uHBHJibHue c MemKaMH, B KOTOPUX dujin npo - r JHyKTH AJLH OKH^aBIDHX HX JJ|OMa J f e T e H , SCeHMHHH, CTapHKH H CTapyxH. T p a H c n o p T , pa3pymeHHHH BOHHOH , He B COCTOHHHH duji n e p e^BHraTb 3 T y BeHHO flBHxymyioeH Maccy. Ho Bee OHH xoTejiH n o n a c T b B noe3M, HTodu KaK HHdy,Hb flOdpaTbCH .HOMOH. K BOT Ha^ 3TOH TOJinoM BHCe/t "pOJiHOtt H3HK", KOToporo H e a b 3 H dbiJio cMemaTb HH C KaKHM j jpyrHM H3HKOM. HeHmHHBi y x a c a a H C b DTOMy H3HKy, HO coji^aTH HX yTemajiH, r o B o p a HTO, MOJI, " n p H B H K H e m b " . " - JI,a BU y x Bcex po/jHTejieB n o M H H y j i H " , - r o B o p n a a CTapyniKa. " Be3 o T o r o Hejib3H n - OTBenajiH en cojmaTH." Asaneu p y r a T b C H - T O , ... - HTO T e d a 3a H3HK HTO JIH THHy/iH" -HacTaHBajia C T a p y m K a . " - A Ky.ua x d e 3 p y r a H H HHHne c y H e m b C H " , - OTBena/iH coajJiaTH, -47 " TJTT, Korjj;a Bee ropjio npo/jepeuiB, Tor^a TOJIBKO H npoTKHeuifeCH. " 24 Ho CTapymna HaHBHo HacTaBJiHJia coa^aT BMecTO pyraHH MO JiHTBy "coTBopHTb", ,aa nepeKpecTHTfcCH nepejj; a o p o r o n . " - DTO y Hac BMecTO rocno^H dJiaroejiOBH Hjj;eT 1 1, -O T B e n a j r a eM coJiflaTH." - DTO dpaT RJIH B c e r o r o -Mvnofi, - aomajjtb JIH nojj;orHaT&, B BaroH JIH npo-6HTBCH, - Be3jj;e Tedn noHHMaiOT. " 25 H TyT yxe Hamejica Becejiiifl H dHBajibifi cojij^aT, KOTOPHH TOBOPHT, HTO "HHocTpaHiibi cjiadH HacneT OToro". BOT OHH TOBOPHT TO H3HKOM, KOToporo pyccKHe He noHHMaiOT, noDTOMy HGJIB3H IIOHHTB, ecjiH OHH H pyraKTCH. " - HeMqeB Mil yHHJiH no HameMy, TaK Te npHMO jWBy j j a -JIHCb. MH, TOBOPHT , JjajieKO #0 BaC He flOUIJIH." 26 _ odBHCHHJI OH CT HBiiiett BOKpyr Hero Macce. H HOTOM npojjojixaji: 1 1 - H HTO, dpaTeu. TH MOM, cKOJibKO Me CT HOC Ten H o d t e x a j i Ha cBoeM BeKy, Be3j^e c B o e r o dpaTa y3Haemb, MHOM pa3, dHBajio, BCTpeTHiub KaKoro-HHdyjj;b, jnyMaenb - HHOCTpaHeu: M a H x e T H DTH H Bee nponee, KaK n o j i o -r a e T C H . A pa3roBopHJiCH no jiymaM, HJIH Ha damMaK eMy canoroM HacTynnji, - TJIHJJ;HUIB, 36MJIHKOM 0Ka3aji-CH. - MTO yx, HacTOHmee. npHpojjHoe, HHKaKHMH MaHxeTaMH He BuxHBeuiB. 27 MHorne cojmaTH, CJiHina MaTepHHe cjioBa, MOTJIH jjaxe y3Ha-BaTB, KTO dHJi O T K y ^ a : " CapaTOBCKHe, cKaxeM, Te Bee co 3JIOCTBIO jjyioT, HTOd OH Te.dn KorjJ[a HHdyj;B OT jj;odporo cep/Jiua nyjiBHyji - HH 3a HTO .... A opjioBCKne, K npH-Mepy, HH CHHOTO MaTepHoro cjioBa He nycTHT de3 TOTO, HTodti MHJIHHKOM TB6H He odo3BaTB, ajiH eme K a K . " 2 8 B OTOM p a c c K a 3 e PoMaHOB ncunepKHBaeT, HTO HHKaKan o,a;exjj;a He B COCTOHHHH npHKpHTB TOB Heodpa30BaHH0CTH, KOTOpaH TaK TJiydOKO CH^ejia B npHpojj;e pyccKoro HeJioBeKa. Odpas "PO^HOTO H3HKa" cone-TaeTCH y PoMaHOBa, KaK CHMBOJI H KaK HPOHHH. B Hen PoMaHOB CHM-48 B0JiH3HpyeT Ty Heod-BaTHyto," HeKyjibTypHyio "MaTytiiKy Pycb", KOTopyio MOXHO dtuio y3HaTb jj;axe nox MaHxeTaMH H a K p a x u a j i e H H o H p y d a n i K H . DTO, MOJI, pyccKaa npHpo^a, K O T o p a a niarayj ia flajieKO Bnepe^;, HTO flaxe neumi 3aBH/jyK>T. B OTOM H 3BynHT r o p b K a a u p o H H a Haa OT-CTa/xocTbK) POCCHH. /Ipyraa npodJieMa H e K y j i b T y p H o c T H pyccKoro n a p o^a, 3 a -T p o H y T a a PoMaHOBtiM, DTO HenHCTonjiOTHOCTb H rpa3b c KOTopoft Hanaji d o p o T b c a eme rieTp T , 3acTaBjiaa CBOHX d o a p MHTbca H CTPHHB BOJIOCH. OHa dHJia TaK xHByna B pyccKOM Hapo^e, HTO 3a 200 jieT oneHb Majio n o ^ B e p r j i a c b H3MeHeHHaM. B paccKa3e "TepnejiHBufi Hapojj;" PoMaHOB KaK pa3 H aTTaKyeT DTy npodJieMy HeHHCTonJioTHocTH. "Etuia odtaBjieHa He,a;ejia dopbdbi c rpa3bio", TaK H a n H H a e T CBOK paccKas PoMaHOB. JI OJJ;H JJIOJIXHH dtuiH H T T H B daHio MHTbca. H BOT oxH,naa CBoen o n e p e / J t H , HTodti BOSTH B daHK, JIK>JJ;H Be^yT TaKoft p a 3 r o B o p : " - T e n e p b MHTB eme Bcex 3aTeajra, BOT KaTopra-TO, - cKasaji KTO-TO. - Be,n;b DTO HTO 3a no,zi;jiocTb: TOHHT Hapo£ CHJIKOM aa H TOjibKO. " 29 B flajibHeHtuen Hjj;eT p a s r o B o p o TOM, HTO BIUH-TO MOJI 3aeJiH, a BOT B daHK xo^HTb He x o n e T c a . H e K O T o p u e H3 HHX npnuiJiH TOJibKo n o T O M y , HTO 3jj;ecb OHH nojiynaT MHJIO. KaxfliiM H3 HHX TOBOPHT T a K , KaK dbi H3BHHaacb nepe^t CBOHM coce,noM. A IIOTOM OHH CT&JIK HpoHHHecKH no,a;-myHHsaTb na/j; nponaraHflHCTCKHMH caHHTapHHMH cBe^eHHaMH, HTO MOJI " - OT BmeM, rosopaT, dy#TO THCP p a s B O f l H T c a . . . -CKa3ajI K T O - T O . - CjiaBa Tede, r o c n o^H, BCK> xH3Hb -c HHMH XO^HJIH - HHnero, a Tenepb, B,npyr, Ha-no;j;H, pa3Bejica. - OT BUIH T H $ , a OT Kjiona xojiepy o d - b a B J i a i o T . . . - MTO x DTO, Kaxflyio Hejejno 6ejihe uennTb 'pja. C T H -paTb? ... " 30 49 CKOJIBKO HPOHHH H CKOJIbKO npaB^HBOCTH B DTHX CJIOBax. BCK XH3Hb JIKflH XHJIH C KJIOIiaMH H CO BlliaMH H BOT Tenepb 3aCTaBJIflK)T HX oc-BOdOflHTbCfl OT DTHX napa3HTOB. K a K HeBHpa3HMO OTCTajIOH 6blJia Macca pyccKoro Hapo/j;a. HeBOJibHo BcnoMHHaioTCfl cjioBa HeKpacoBa " T H H d o r a T a a TH H odHjibHaa TH H y d o r a a TH H de3CHjibHaa MaTymKa P y c b 1 1 BeKaMH OHa dHJia y d o r o H H de3CHJibHoff, BIUHBOH, odyTofi B jianTax, de3rpaMOTHOH, JieHHBoM, 3adHT0M H 6e3BOJibHOH. XOTH MHororo yxe a o d H J i c a p y c c K H H Hapo,n;, HO BO JIH HeT H eme, KaK BH^HO, jjojiro npn-^ e T C H HM XHTb B H e B O J i e . ^pyroH Bonpoc, BHJJiBHHyTHH PoMaHOBtiM B e r o p a c c K a s a x -DTO Bonpoc A B y x noKOJieHHH, KaK B ropoae, TaK H B j j e p e B H e . T o r ^ a KaK CTapuiee noKOJieHHe Bee eme .nepxajiocb OTXHBa»ffiHx TpajjHUHH, TaK apKO onHcaHHHx PoMaHOBHM B e r o rjiaBHOM npoH3BejteHHH "Pycb" - DTO B e p a B u e p K O B b , B MOJIHTBH H CTapne TpaflHHHH, TO MOJiojjoe noKOJieHHe y x e MeMTajio o ManiHHax, o HOBHX MeTOj;ax B p a d o T e , KaK H a saBo^ a x , TaK H H a n o j i a x . B "OdeTOBaHHofl seMJie" PoMaHOB n p o T H B O C T a B J i a e T jjBa no-KOJieHHH KpeCTbHHCTBa. IIOJiyMHBmH 3eMJII0 nOCJie peBOJIK)D[HH^ KpeCTbHHe B n e p B n e BBHUJIH H a n o c e B B n p e K p a c H H H BeceHHHtt fleHb. "3eMJiH J i e x a -jia n e p e ^ HHMH , c BH.ny n o K o p H a a , odemawmaa, HO OHH xopomo 3HajiH DTy n O K O p H O C T b . " 31 K a K H B npouiJine rojjH BHmJiH OHH C COXOH, js,a CBHTOH BO^OH. CTapHKH HanajiH p a c c y x f l a T b o TOM, KaK OHH dtuio eiiie c n o c T a HanHHajiH n p H r o T O B J i H T b c a , fla no BCHKHM npHMeTaM c o o d p a x a T b , Kor^ a HyxHo n a x a T b H Kor/ja c e a T b . A dadti B DTO BpeMa CTaBHJiH HKOHy H a Bosy, .aoeTaBajiH 50 npocc|)HpKH, xa CBenH HTodw nepea HanajioM no/ieBBix padoT Bory noMOJiHTbcfl, no6pH3raTB ee CBHTOM BO,HOH H Torja HajjeaTBca Ha TO, HTO Bor nouijieT. Ho MOJio^exB cMOTpejia Ha Bee DTO, Kan Ha cTapbie nepe-XHTKH H HeHyxHiie npHHy^JiHBocTH H MenTajia o TOM, KaK 6u xopouio 6HJI0 nycTHTB MamHHy no DTOMy nojiio. " - 3x, MauiHHy 6u cuoRa xopomyio, -roBopHJiH OHH, - pa3 npoexaTB, - TOTOBO. TyT 6u RO caMoro HyTpa ee B 3 B o p o n a j i H , noHeBojie poflHJia 6H. " 32 3THM PoManoB noKa3HBaeT, HTO MOJio^exB He codnpaaacB B ^a/iBHeMiueM naRembcn Ha CBHTyio Bo^y, Ra Ha MOJIHTBH, a MeHTajia yxe o MaiiiHHax, XHMHnecKOM yjiodpeHHH H Ha^eHJiacB Ha CBOIO CHJiy 3HaHHK. 0dpa3pBaHHe H MexaHH3auHH 6yRyr HX BepHHMH noMomHHKaMH Ha 3TOH odeTOBaHj^K 3eMJie, a He cBaTaa Bo^a Ra MOJIHTBH. B paccKa3e " CBOH nejioBeK1' PoMaHOB npHBOflHT npHMep CTOJiKHOBeHHH RByx noKoJieHHM B ropo,ne. CHH H oTeu, HBJIHIOTCH repoaMH DTOTO paccKa3a. AjieKceM MaKaptiH, CTapuiHH MacTep HyryHOJiHTeMHoro nexa Ha 3aB0Jj;e, 6UJI B HexopouiHx oTHouieHHax c KOMCOMOJiBnaMH OTOTO nexa. OHH ynpeKajiH ero B rpydoM oTHomeHHH K padOHHM, B oTopBaHHOcTH OT MaCC, B HH^CHBH^tyajIbHOCTH H COdCTBeHHHHeCKOM TeH^eHUHH, TaK KaK OH HMeji RByx Kopos H dpajn na ROM nacTHhie 3aKa3ti. KaK pa3 B DTO BpeMH OH noJiyHHJi nncBMO OT CHHa, ynHBuieroca B MocKBe Ha HHxeHepa. TOT nHca/i, HTO OH e^eT Ha npaKTHKy H, HTO no flopore, 3aejj;eT AOMOM Hejj;ejiH Ha .zjBe. 7 AjieKcea MaKaptina BcntixHyjia Ha^ex^a, HTO ero CHH, HHxeHep, MoxeT nocTynHTB Ha saBOfl 3,n;ecB, Tor.ua yx OH noKaxeT DTHM COnJIflKaM KOMCOMO JIBIjaM. BeflB OH Xe CBOH HeJIOBeK H B odn^e ero He ocTaBHT. 51 Ho n e p e 3 j[Ba una n o npHe3,ae CHHa B n a c H H J i o c B , HTO CHH H O T e q ayMajiH coBepmeHHO n o pa3HOMy. C H H n c H p y x H J i c a c KOMCOMOJIB-qaMH H C T a a n o M o r a T L HM , a He O T i i y . 3TO oneHB odHflejio A j i e K c e a M a n a p H H a . H Kor^ a CHH CKa3aji eMy, HTO eMy H e n e r o KpHnaTB Ha M a T B , TaK KaK OHa He ero K p e n o c T H a a , TO AjieKceM MaKapHH xMypo H C o d H^ofi OTBeTHJi " - *lTO Xe D T O , H. yx 'He X 0 3 a H H B CBOeM flOMe? . . . HOBHe X03HeBa 3aBejIHCB? T O - T O OHH HaX0 3HHHHHajIH, HTO OIIHTB (3e3 xjiefia CHJJHM, a CKopo BOBce no^oxHeM, n o T O M y , KaK B K p e n o c T H o e n p a B O , Ha B a c p a d o T a T B . . . - TaK d u c p a 3 y H r o B o p H J L , - CKa3aji CIIOKOHHO CHH, - Tor.ua d n a 3Haji c KeM a .nejio HMero. - HTO "TaK d n epa3y H r o B o p H J i " ? . . . HTOI d:Bi TH T o r j ; a 3Haji? - c n p o c H J i 03ajj;aHeHH0 H TpeBox-HO OTei i ; . - A BOT, roBopio, T o r ^ a 6u 3HaJi, KTO T H . - KTO . . . p a d o H H H - TH-TO padoHHH? - cnpocHJi AHTOH, . . . O T n a . -T H - nacTHHK, a ne p a d o n n K . DTO eme x o p o m o , ecjiH nacTHHK , a T O , MoxeT d H T B , H n o x y x e HTO ... 7 T e d a B c a n c H x o J i o r H a - K y j i a u K a a . TH s e e B oflHHOHKy. " 33 3TO oneHB o c K o p d H J i o A j i e K c e a M a K a p H n a . Ero c o d C T B e H H H H CHH ; OT KOToporo OH oxH^aji noMomn H saraHTH, Ha3HBaeT e r o KyjiaKOM 3a TO, HTO OH BCK CBOK XH3HB p a d o T a j i TaK ycep,HHo H KonHJi ontiy KoneMKy JJ;O jj;pyroH. T a K o e OTHomeHHe CHHa K OTijy dnjio coBepmeHHO HenoHHTHO AjieKcew M a K a p u n y . OH He MOT n o H a T B TOTO, KaK MOT CHH H3MeHHTB HHTepecH ceMBH .ajia HHTepecoB r o c y ^ a p c T B a . 3,necB, KaK H B "HOBOH c K p H x a j r a " n o c T a B J i e H . B o n p o c , HTO B a x H e e - H H T e p e c H ceMBH HJIH H H T e p e c H KOJiJieKTHBa'? MOJIO^OH H H x e H e p , AHTOH, KaK H Cepren B "HOBOH c K p H x a j i n " , p e m a e T , HTO H H T e p e c H MOJIO^BIX KOMcoMOJi&qeB saBo-fla Baxnee, neM H H T e p e c H e r o HHflHBH^yajiHcTa-OTqa. FIpHBefleHHHe npHMepH H3 paccKa30B PoMaHOBa r o B o p a T , HTO HCTOHHHKOM KOMH3Ma MJIK HHX CJiyxaT MaCCOBaa de3C03HaTejIBHOCTB, 52 KOCHOCTB , n p o T H B o p e H H e flejia H cjioBa, MejiKHif HH,n,HBHjj;ya JIH3M, o r o H 3 M , cTpax nepej[ B e e n HOBHM. n o n e M y x e PoMaHOB n p H n H C H B a e T Bee DTH OTpHijaTejiBHHe K a n e c T B a CBOHM r e p o a M ? B c B o e n CTaTbe "PycB vs. CCCP", HanHcaHHOH B 1936 ro^ y nofl ^aBJieHHeM p e a d H J i H T a i p i H , PoMaHOB BHCKa3HBaeT MHCJIB, HTO OH c c a M o r o H a n a j i a cBoeft n H c a T e j i B C K O H fleaTejiBHOCTH saHHJica uejiBio H3yHHT " ... rjiaBHbie n e p T H p y c c K o r o x a p a K T e p a vs o c o d e H H O ero oTpHiiaTejiBHtie CTOPOHH, KOTOpbie OdpeKJIH p y C C K H H H a p o ^ OCTaTBCfl B nojioxeHHH nOJIH-THnecKoro JieTaprHHecKoro cHa ,2.oJiBme neM Bee ^ p y r n e Hau,HOHajiB-HOCTH." 34 H3ynafl p y c c K H H x a p a K T e p IIOHTH j j e c a T H j i e T H e , PoMaHOB npH-XOJ^HT K 3aKjiioHeHHio, HTO " . . . caMHMH BH^aiomHMHca e r o nepTaMH HBjiaroTca - n a c c H B H O C T B , 6e3pa3jiHHHe K n e p e M e H e xH3HeHHbix y c j i O B H H , H e y B e p e H H O C T B B cBoefi nejiH H npHBtiHKa BepHTB B cy,SB6y... " ^5 IlpoHHTaB BHiueyKa3aHHoe o d t a c H e H H e P o M a H O B a , C T a H O B H T c a acHO n o n e M y e r o x a p a K T e p u H o c a T CTHXHffHyio MejjjiHTejiBHocTB p e a K U H H KO Bceny n p o H C x c a a m e M y B O K p y r HHX . P y c c K a a n o r o B o p K a "Eme y c n e e M " c o n p o B o x j j a e T IIOHTH Bee poMaHOBCKHe x a p a K T e p n e r o paHHHx p a c c K a 3 0 B . no cojiepxaHHro, paccKa3H PoMaHOBa K o p o T K n e vs Bcer/j;a CBO-J^HTCa K HJIJIIOCTpaUHH KOMHHeCKHX MOMeHTOB. T e p o H 3THX p a c c K a 3 0 B Bcer.ua de3HTMaHHbie, BsaTbie H3 TOJinu TOJIBKO JSJSH TOTO, HTO6H cnejiaTB HX npejj;cTaBHTejiaMH o n p e ^ e j i e H H o r o MOTHBa juia TOTO HJIH jrpyroro pac-C K a 3 a . H e c M O T p a Ha OTOJ r e p o n PoMaHOBa xH3HeHHii vs npaBjj(HBo y d e^H-TeJIBHbl. Xopomo BJiajj;ea npneMaMH KOMIIO3HJJ;HH, PoMaHOB nnraeT He-npHHyxaeHHo n p o c T O , y n o T p e d J i a a nojJtJiHHHO HapcHHHH H3UK. 53 FOOTNOTES Panteleymon Romanov*, "Goluboje p l a t j e " , Rasskasy, "Knizhnaja l a v k a p i s a t e l j a " , Riga, 1930, p. 8. 2 • Panteleymon Romanov, Polnoe sobranie sochineniy, I s d a t e l s t v o "Nedra", Moskva, 1929, vol.11, p. 19k-. I b i d . k&5 6&7 I b i d . I b i d . 8 I b i d . I b i d . 10 I b i d . I b i d . 12 I b i d . 13 I b i d . ih I b i d . 15 ^ I b i d . l 6 & 1 ? I b i d . l 8 I b i d . 19 I b i d . p. 196. P. 199. p. 176. p. 177. P. 179. p. 180. p. 30. p. 32. p. 33. P. 32. P. 85. p. 86. pp. 89-90. PP. 92-93. 5^  20 P. Romanov, "Ogonjky" Rasskasy. v o l . LXV, I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", Riga, 1929, p. 107. 21 P. Romanov, Rasskasy. v o l . I I , I s d a t e l j s t v o "Nedra", Moskva, 1929, p. 13. 2 2 I b i d . . p. ]>. • 2 3Ibid.« p. 80. 2 i + I b i d . . p. 91. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 92. I b i d . . p. 93. . 2 70p. c i t . . 93. 2 8 I b i d . . 9^ . 2 9 I b i d . . p. 161. 3°Ibid.. pp. 165-166. 3 1 i b i d . . p. 55. 3 2 I b i d . . p. 56. 33 _ P. Romanov, "Voprosy p o l a " , Rasskasy. K n i g o i s d a t e l -j s t v o " L i t e r a t u r a " , Riga 1927, v o l XV, p. 128. 3*+&35p# Romanov, "On the Volga", S c r i b n e r , New York, 19 V f , p. 2kh. ' 55 " Bonpocbi noJiA " B CBOHX p a c c K a 3 a x o JiiodBH, PoMaHOB OCTPO y K a 3 t i B a e T H a KPH3HC HHTeJIJIHreHTHOM MOpaJIH, BH3BaHHblM npOTHBOpeHHHMH 3 T o r o n e p H O # a . B He3anHOM n e p e x o ^ e OT i p a ^ H U H O H H o M MopajiH K aMopaabHocTH, a B T o p xoneT £ O K a 3 a T b , Kanoft HeyeTOHHHBOCTbio nojibsyeTCH H a B a 3 a H H a a Mopaj ib. JiaBaftTe pa3depeM HecKOJibKO paccKa30B PoMaHOBa o MO-p a j i H , B KOTOPHX OH b p o d e H H O no^MepKHBaeT HOBBie OTHomeHHa nojioB c p e^H C T y ^ e H M e c K o M MOJiojuexn, o TOM n o J i o x e H H H , KOTopoe 3aHHMa/ia H e3aMyxHaa MaTb B DTOT n e p n o a , od OTMeHe u e p K O B H o r o dpaKa. B DTOT nepno^; Bor 6UJI yflajieH H CBodOflHaa /nodoBb dtuia B Mo^e. P a c c K a s "Be3 n e p e M y x H 1 1 n o K a 3 H B a e T , HTO H e c M O T p a H a CBodofly aiodBH, p y c c K a a xeHmHHa Bee x e CTpeMHjiacb K npoHHoft CeMeftHOM XH3HH n o C T a p o B TpaflHUHH, TO e C T b JIIOdHTb H dHTb JlKdH-MOH, BHKTH 3aMyx H HMeTb CeMbK. GioxeT OTOTO paccKa.3a TaKOB: jjeByiiiKa cTy,neHTKa 3HaKo— MHTca c o CTyjieHTOM H BpepBHM x e Benep OHa OTflaeTca eMy. P e 3 y j i b -TaTOM OTOTO 3HaKOMCTBa dbiJia e e depeMeHHocTb. Cxo^acb c OTHM CTyjJieHTOM, ^eByinKa xaxflajxa H a c T o a m e M JiiodBH, HO Ham r e p o t ! OKa3ajica r p y d H M DTOHCTOM, KOTOpBlM HHTepeCOBajICa TOJIbKO $H3HHeCKHM y ^ O B J i e T -BopeHHeM CBOHX c T p a c T e M . "MTO TH eme xoHeiu#" - cnpauiHBaeT OH e e HacMemjiHBo. "KpacHBBie o d c T o a T e j i b C T B a ? DTO RJIH. T e d a H e ^ o c T a T O H -HO nODTHHeCKH? " fleByuiKa M o r j i a s a d H T b T e HenpHJiHHHne o d c T o a T e j i b C T B a , HO OHa He B COCTOaHHH 3adHTb r p y d O C T H H de3TaKTHOCTH TOTO, KOMy OHa OT^a^tacb. OHa nnmeT n n c b M o cBoeM nojj ;pyre, y KOTopoft OHa c n p a m n -5 6 B a e T , KaK OHa n y B C T B O B a j i a c e d a , Kor.ua OHa BpepBtiM pa3 OT^ajiacb jiiodHMouy MyxMHHe. HecMOTpa Ha TO, HTO 6biJi npeKpacHiif t BeceHHHft p,enh, OHa HyBCTBOBa/ia c e d a B H H O B a T o M , KaK dti OHa c^ejiajia nocTHfl-Hoe #e/io. " Ha OKHe B MoeM odwexHTMH CTOKT dyTti/iKa de3 ropjmiuKa H B Heft" 3 a B H J i a a , c o p B a H H a a B e T K a cnpeHH. fl n p H H e c j i a e e B ^ e p a /J;OMOH.... H Kor^ a a CMOTPIO Ha oTy dyTbiJiKy, MHe x o n e T c a naaKaTb. " * TaK HanHHaeT OHa CBoe nncbMO K no/j ;pyre. OHa TOBOPHT, MTO OHa He njiaMeT no n o T e p a H H o M fleBHHeit M e c T H , He C T p a ^ a e T OT yrpH3eHHa c o B e c T H 3a CBoe n e p B o e "na^eHHe". H ( B e e i e ; M T O - T O T a K o e H e -n o H a T H o e , n e p e n y T a H H o e Mynnjio e e , HeMy OHa caMa He OTJJtaBajia OTBeTa. OHa c T p a^a/ia OT TOTO, MTO ee n e p B a a $H3HMecKaa JiradoBb cjiynHJiacb B rpa3HoM KOMHaTe, Ha rpa3HoM KpoBaTH B T e i r a o T e , de3 BcaKofi JiacKH c o CTOPOHH MOJiojj;oro Me/ioBeKa. H n o c n e B c e r o DTOTO OH BbinpoBOflHji e e Mepe3 nepHbift XOJJ; H OHa tujia jtoMott ORna. co BceMH CBOHMH p a s -OMapoBaHHaMH. JJieHb cBoeft nepBoft JiiodBH OHa npejj;cTaBJiajxa, KaK jj;eHb npa3 ^ H H K a H C M a c T b a . Ho flpyrne cTy / j e H T K H flyMajm, MTO y Hee d o j i b -Hoe HaHBHoe npe,ncTaBjieHHe o JiiodBH. OHH ^yMaioT coBepmeHHo no pa3HOMy. C e e noHHMaHHem o JIK>6BH, eM npHxcunjiocb Tpyjj;HO M T B cpeflH Jiiojj;efl, KOToptie HMBJIH coBepmeHHo .npyroS B3rjia.ii; H a xH3Hb. OHa roBopHT, MTO C T y ^ e H M e c K a a M0Ji0Jj;ex6B yHHBepcHTeT .e coBceM He H H T e p e c y e T c a HH KpacoTOft, HH J iacKaMH, HH HexHOCTHMH, HH npHJiHH— HOK o&e-KRoVi HH HHCTOTOH. Bee DTO OTOjjBHHyTO H 3adpomeHO, KaK CTaptie d y p x y a 3 H H e n e p e x H T K H . H e d p e x H O C T b , H e n H C T O T a , npe3peHHe KO BceMy npeKpacHOMy a B J i a e T c a KaK dti 3aKOHOM e p e ^ H MOJio/j;exH. 11 H Bee DTO H3-3a C T p a x a HapyuiHTb He^-HanHcaHHHft MOpajIbHblM 3aKOH. - TOBOpHT O H a . 11 RJIH Hac He cymecTByeT JiiodBH; y Hac ecTb TOJibKO 0 7 nojioBHe CHouieHHH.. .. A T O T , KTO xoneT HaitTH B JiiodBH dojiBiue, neM $H3HOJiorHHecKoe y,zi;oBjieTBopeHHe, B t i c M e H B a e T C H , KaK flyiueBHO-dOJi&HoM n e j i o B e K . " 2 B ^ajibHefiuieM OHa onncHBaeT TOTO, KTO HBJiaeTCH npHHHHofi: ee n j i o x o r o H a c T p o e H H H . OHa TOBOPHT, MTO y Hero HeT HHMero o c o d e H -H o r o . OH TOJIBKO odHKHOBeHHHft C T y^ e H T , B c a n o r a x H B CHHeM p y -d a x e c p a c c T e r a y T H M BOPOTHHKOM. V H e r o .HJiHHHbie, B3jiQxMOMeHHtie BOJIOCH , KOTopbie OH nocTOHHHO npHTJiaxHBaji pyKofi. Ho MTO x e T o r ^ a npHBJieKJio e e K HeMy? 3TO dHJIH ero B^yMMHBHe, c e p t e 3 H H e r j i a 3 a . OH dHJi yMHHM C T y ^ e H T H cMHTajica pyKOBo^HTejieM c p e ^ n C T y^eHTOB. B Heu KaK d n coBMemajracB flBa M e j i o B e K a : OAHH C d o J i B -moft BHyTpeHHeM CHJIOM H c e p B e3HHMH MHCJIHMH; H .zipyroft - nomJinft UiyTHHK, KOTOPHH j e M C T B y e T Ha HepBH CBOHM X B a C T O B C T B O M , " OH xoMeT dHTB nomjiee, neM OH dHJi B ^ e f t c T B H T e j i B H o c T H . E r o Ha-TJIOCTB npHBJieKajia jj;eByuieK H KaxJj;an CMHTajia c e d a c n a c TJIHBOM HMeTB c HHM cBHJj;aHHe. OHa 3Hajia e r o KaK CTy/j;eHTa y x e Ronvoe B p e M H , HO eM TOJIBKO B 3TOT B e c e H H n S BeMep yjj;ajiocB noHTH c HHM Ha n p o r y j i K y . VLRH n o d e p e r y p e K H MOCKBH OH npnrjiacHJi e e K c e d e Ha KBapTHpy. " noMjj;eM KO MHe Ha K B a p T H p y , a XHBy He ^a j ieKO OT-ciojj;a - cKa3aji OH. HeT, a He noH,ny. MTO 3TO? D T H K e T ? HeT HH KaKoro oTHKeTa. 3TO B o n e p B H x . A BOBTOPHX ceMMac OMeHB n p e K p a c H o dHTB Ha yjinne. " 4 Ha 3TOM pa3TOBOp Ha BpeMH 3aKOHMHJICH. HO MOJIOflOfi MeJIOBeK He noTepaJi Hajj;exj;H nojiyMHTB CBoe ynoBOJiBCTBHe c OTOH HaHBHofi js,e-ByuiKoM. B ^ajiBHeMraeM p a 3 r o B o p e OHH n o c c o p H J i H C B H p a c c T a j i H C B . KaxflHft nouieji cBoefi .noporoft . 58 Ho paccTaBniHCb c HUM, OHa nonyBCTBOBajia yxacHoe oaHHonecTBo. EH He xoTejiocb ocTaBaTbCH o^Hoft B TaKoft n p e K p a e -HHH BC^HHHH B e n e p . H y Hee HeJdHJio HH^-KOTO /rpyroro, c KeM 6u OHa Morjia npoBecTH Benep. OHa peurajia IIOHTH K HeMy Ha KBapTHpy. OH yxe 3adtui npo Hee H cajjjHJiea 3a ynedy, H 6HJI yjJCHBJieH ee B03Bpa-T O M . ECJIH y Hee He 6UJIO TOTO $H3HOJiorHHecKoro xejiaHHfl co-ejJtHHHTbca c HHM, HTO y Hero, noneMy OHa nomjia K HeMy Ha KBapTH-py?. PoMaHOB He Bt icKa3HBaeT 3TO B CBoeM paocKa3e, a o c T a B J i a e T Bonpoc oTKpjbiTHM. Ho r e p o H H a caMa roBopHT, HTO OHa MOTJia 6hl yMTH ,naxe B caMHH noc/ie^HHH M o u e H T , HO HTO-TO npHTar-HBa/io e e K H e M y . OHa oxHjjajia J i a c K H , H e x H o c T H , . nonejiyeB OT Hero B DTOT MO-MeH.T, HO OHa BHJJtejia B neu TOJIBKO x H B O T H o e xej iaHHe c a M u a , - i<aK MOXHO c K o p e e oBJiajjeTb eio°. T a K o e noBe,aeHHe jnodoBHHKa <5HJIO eft oneHb OTTajiKHBaiofflHM. " MH, xeHmHHBi", - r o B o p H T O H a , - " ^ a x e npn c B o d c n . -HOH JIIO6BH MH He MOXeM CMOTpeTb HeCTHO Ha JJjeHCTBH-TejibHtiH qoaKT. Ran H a c $aKT Bcer/ja B KOHqe r j i a B H , a B Hanaj ie e e MH n p e B j i e n e H H caMHM MyxHHHoft, ero MHCJIHMH, e r o cnocodHocTHMH, e r o jJtyuiOH, e r o J i a c K a -MH. " 5 Bee 3TO BMeCTe C <$)H3HHeCKHM aKTOM nOJIOBOTO CHOmeHHH npHHOCHT xeHin.HHe c n a c T b e H n o a H O T y e e XH3HH. ECJIH xe OHa a B J i a e T c a x e p T -BOH T o a b K O dpH3HHecKoro a K T a , T o r j j a OHa n p e 3 H p a e T H c e d a H M y x -H H H y . DTH dpaKTH n a c T O a B J i a K T c a IIPHHHHOH pa3jia,aa B ceMbe H ^ a x e e e p a c n a ^ a H B Hame BpeMa H He TOJIBKO B POCCHH HO H B Hauieft C T p a H e . Ee x e H C K H e n y B C T B a 6HJIH ocKopdJieHH He H 3-3a TOTO, HTO OHa oTJjaJiacb e M y , a H 3 - 3 a TOTO, HTO^ , n o c j i e c o B e p u i e H H o r o a K T a , OH n o c T a p a j i c a KaK MOXHO C K o p e e BHCJiaTb e e H3 KOMHaTH, HTodH ero 59 TOBapKmH He 3 a c T a j i H HX B KOMHaTe. OH d e c n o K O H J i c a TOJIBKO 3a ceda H 3a TO, MTOdti TOBapnmH He y3HajiH o ero npcnejiKax. Y Hero He dHJio. HH n y B C T B a , HH jiiodBH, HH coscajieHHH K H e M . OH Hcnojib30Bajt e e RUR CBOHX Hyxjj;, KaK OH 6H DTO cuejiaji c KaKoM jrndo BembK). TIpo-E p x a a ee nepe3 3aaHK)io flBepb, OH ,naxe He c K a 3 a j i e n xopouiero c j i o B a . . " Ma He cKa3aan flpyr ^pyry HH c j i o B a H jj;axe He cMOTpejiH J5pyr Ha .npyra". TaK 3aKOHHHJiacb n e p B a a JiiodoBb HOBOH c o B e T C K O H C T y , a e H T K H . He CMOTPH Ha cBodOAHyro j iwdoBb, Bee x e OHH nyBCTBOBajiH HejioBKOCTb B T O M , HTO OHH flejiaJIH. P a c c K a 3 "Eojibiuaa ceMba", a B J i a e T c a npojiojixeHHeM p a c c K a 3 a " B e 3 M e p e M y x H 1 1 . OH HarracaH B TOM xe c T H j i e . TOR c n y c T a repoHHa n e p B o r o p a c c K a 3 a onflTb nnuieT n n c b M o cBoeft no,zipyre. 3a OTOT TOR M H o r o e cjiyHHJiocb c H e M , TOBOPHT OHa. OHa npouuia TpyflHyio niKOJiy 6opb6iI CO CTapHMH Tpa^HUHHMH H npHUIJia K 3aKJIK)HeHHK), HTO HeKOTopbie H3 3THX Tpa^HUHH dblJIH He^OCTOHHBI COXpaHeHHfl. Ona nnuieT CBoeH no/jpyre, HTO CKopo nocj ie TOTO p o K O B o r o B e n e p a OHa y3Hajia, HTO OHa dHJia d e p e M e H H a a . Ee oxBaTHJi y x a c H O T H a a H H e . HTO HyxHO dtiiiq Rejiath B TaKOM nojioxeHHH? KaK n o c T y -HHTb? OHa dHJia CTyjj ;eHTKasMocKOBCKoro yHHBepcHTeTa. OHa n p n e x a j i a ciojj;a H3 jj;epeBHH, HTOdu noJiynHTb odpa30BaHHe, a BMecTO DTOTO OHa n p H H e c e T no3op c B o e M ceMbe H BceM jj;epeBHe. B STOM OTnaaHHH OHa, Bee xe, pemaeT e x a T b /JOMOH H npH3HaTbca B ee noJioxeHHH c B o e n M a T e p H . npH~e3scaa B jjepeiBHio, OHa eme no .nopore n o n y B C T B O B a j i a , HTO M H o r n e H3 ee c B e p c T H H K O B dnjiH HejjodpojjyiiiHO H a c T p o e H H n p o T H B H e e . OHH cMOTpejiH H a H e e , KaK H a n e j i o B e K a , KOTOPHH ocMejiHJica n o K H H y T b 60 CTaptie Tpa/ jHUHH. OHa roBopHT, HTO BO Bsr^Ue xeHH Ky3Heua, KO-Topyio OHa BCTpeTHJia no jjopore H C KOTOPOH OHa xoTejia TaK pa/j;ocTHo n o 3 , n o p o B a T b c a , O H a 3 a M e T H J i a HeHaBHCTB K c e d e . " Korj^a KTO - J i H d o d p o c a e T Ha T e d a TSKOK B3TJIEM H e H a B H C T H , TO TBI, ,aaxe 6es BCHKOH BHHH, cxHMaeuibCH B c e d e HH BO HTO. " 6 nnuieT OHa CBoeM n o / j ; p y r e . npHHjJiH j j ; 0 M 0 H ^ 0 H a c nenajibio B cBoefi Rjme 3 a M e T H J i a , HTO co JJHH ee O T t e 3 ^ a 3/j;ecb HHHero He H 3 M e H H J i o c b . 3^ecb dHJiH Te x e KypHHEie HMH B 0 3 J i e xaTbi, TO^ce desjj;oHHoe Be^po Bee eme Baaajiocb B 0 3Jie n o p o r a , B b i d p o i u e H H H e n o M O H , K O T o p u e BHJiHBajiH npnMO c n o p o r a . BHJJ[H Bee DTO 1 1 fl n o n y B C T B O B a j i a TO de3BHxo^Hoe no/ ioxeHHe K p e c T b a H -CKOH X H 3 H H , KOTOpaH BeHHO CTOHJia He nOflBHXHO H a TOM x e c a M O M M e c T e . Te x e caMbie IIOMOH, Te x e T p a n K H Ha B e p e B K e , KOTopbie du JIH . a e c a T b , n a T H a ^ q a T b jieT TOMy Ha3ajj;. " ? Hepe3 y c T a cBoeft r e p o H H H , PoMaHOB noKa3UBaeT T y ' c T a r n a i i H i o " j^e-peBHH, KOTopyio jjaxe peBOJHouHa He M o r j i a H3MeHHTb. B Jinue cBoen M a T e p n , repoHHH BHjj;ejia THxej iyw, de3pajj;ocTHyio xH3Hb K p e c T b H H K H , K O T o p a n npexjj ;eBpeMeHHO y H H H T O x a j i a xeHCKyio K p a c o T y , ee ^OCTOHH-CTBO H jj;ejiajio H 3 Hee TOJIBKO padoHHH H H C T p y M e H T . Ho eM He .aojiro npHinJiocb 3 a j J t y M H B a T b c a Hajj; c y ^ b d o n K p e -C T b H K H , TaK KaK HyxHo dujio p e u i H T b ee codCTBeHHyio c y f l b d y H cy / j b d y dyflymeit XH3HH, KOTopyio O H a H o c H j i a XIOR c e p j u e M . Hepe3 HecKO/ibKO flHeK MaTb ee c T a j i a 3 a M e n a T b , HTO C ee Jionepbio duJio HTO-TO He B n o p a f l K e . OHa c T a j i a HaMeKaTb Ha TO, HTO B DTO BpeMa MHOTO jJiesyuieK, KOToptie I-OTOBH Han/xeBaTb Ha B e e . OHH HH^neMy H e npHrof lHbi , KpoMe n o 3 o p a c e M b e . no3op Ha BCK> X H 3 H b , 61 KOTopufl Jiro^H He npomaraT H M . KaK MaTb OHa d e c n o K O H j i a c b 3a C B O I O AOHh, KOTopoft 6H J I O y x e ^ B a^LiaTb n a T b Jier H OHa dBiaa eme He 3a-Myxen. IIo CTapoM pyccKoM TpajtHUHH OHa dBiJia y x e c T a p a a ^ e B a , K O -T o p a n HH. B P H J J ; J I H d y ^ e T HMeTb B03MoxHOCTb B B I A T H 3aMyx , ecjiH OHa He noToponHTCH. Ho n p n x H T b p e d e H K a de3 Myxa dBuro B flecaTb p a 3 x y x e , neM o c T a T b c a d a p o f t jeBofi* . D T H T p a ^ H U H H B aepeBHe dtiJiH 70"HeHb ,^mf CHJibHH H RjiH Ma-repn dtuio TaK x e T p y ^ H o noflyMaTb o T O M , M T O e e AOMb npnxHJta p e d e H K a de3 Myxa. n y C T H B C B O I O aonb B ropofl H a y n e d y , OHa Bcer ^ a ^yMa^a o T O M , M T O C Heft MoxeT cjiyHHTbca. "H He on/no HOMaMH H jyMaio o T e d e . " 8 H Kor,ua J J ; O M B npH3Hajiac& eft, M T O OHa 6ujia d e p e M e H H a a , T O MaTb o T B e T H j i a e f i , M T O "/Jje/iaft M T O xoHem^ H O He npHHOCH no3opy MHe." 9 JJjia xeHmHHH, npoxHBiueH B C I O C B O H ) xH3Hb B cpejj ;e, rxe d e c -n e c T H e jo;eByniKH dujio cauaM H H 3 K H M n p e c T y n j i e H H e M , y M a T e p n He^cBaTHJio CHJIBI BOJTH dopOTbCfl C DTHMH Tpa.HHH.HHMH H OHa OTKa3aJiaCb OT .HOHepH. Hatna r e p o H H a B0 3 B p a m a e T e a B M o c K B y . .Ee nepBBie M H C J I H duJiH - ocBodo^ H T b C H O T C B o e r o no3opa. OHa pemaeT HCKaTb noMomn B r o c n H T a j i e . n o # o p o r e o n a npoxojj;HT Mepe3 MHOxecTBo jJiymeBHtix n e p e -XHBaHHfl , TaK K a K ee M H C J I H p a 3 ^ B a H B a j i H C b MexJ^y . C T a p H M H Tpaj iHUHaMH, B KOTOPBIX OHa dBiJia B o c n H T a H a H HOBOM MOpajIbK, B KOTOpoM OHa XHJia B H a c T o a m e e B p e M a . H H C T a p a a , H H HOBaa Mopajib He no^efiCTBOBajiH H a H e e T a K , K a K MBicJib o T O M , M T O OHa c o d n p a j i a c b y d H T b c y m e c T B o , KOTopoMy OHa ^ajia x H 3 H b . OHa B 0 3 B p a m a e T c a B odmexHTHe H pemaeT oxH^aTb poxfleHHa p e d e H K a . K o r ^ a OHa coodmHJia ^ B y M CTyfleHTKaM o cBoeM n o j i o x e H H H , T O O H H o d t a B H J i H eft, M T O D T O dBiJio BejiHKOJienHO. H H " ~ K T O ee 3Jj;ecb He o c y x ^ a j i , H H ^ K T O He ynpeKaji B T O M , M T O OHa ono3opHJia xeHCKyro M e c T b . A Ha>-6dopoT O H H B O BceM n o M o r a j i H eft , 6 2 c paflocTtio H HeTepneHHeM oxH/j;ajiH pox^eHHH pedeHKa. OHH KaK dti TOpflHJIHCb TeM, MTO 11 ... Moe noJioxeHHe dnjio KaK 6u K H B O A npHMep nodejnj najj; npeapaecyflKaMH CTapoft MopajiH H O H H odtaBHJiH OTO KaK " HopiiajibHoe nojioxceHHe, c n o c o d H o e BO3-MyTHTb TOJibKO y3KO orpaHHHeHHHx dypxyeB". 11 1 0 C D T O T O MOMeHTa O H a nonyBCTBOBajia, MTO O H a " . . . n o K O H M H J i a c THpaHHeS CeMbH Ha/4 JIHHHOCTbK), TOH TeMHOtt, rpH3HOfi THpaHH. . . . " y MeHH ecTb Tenepb .npyraa, dojibiuaa ceMba, ceMba B c e r o M e j i o B e M e c T B a , cBa3b c K O T O P O K a c e M M a c MyB-CTByio TaK acHO, TaK omyTHTejibHO. " H 3#ecb PoMaHOB, KaK H B ero apyrnx npoH3Be/j;eHHax, noflmmaeT Bonpoc 3aMeHbi ceMbH KO JiJieKTHBOM. Torza, KaK ceiiba OTBeprjia ee 3a ee n o c T y n o K , 0TKa3ajia eM BO BcaKoft n o M o m n B Tpy^noe fljia Hee BpeMa, T O o d m e c T B O B s a j i o ee H a nopyKH, noMorjio eft saKOHMHTb yHHBepcHTeT H CTaTb Ha TBep^iiM nyTb M 3 H H . 3TH see npodJieMH BCTaioT nepe/j; HamHM odmecTBOM cero^Ha. Kaxflbift ro/j; noaBjiaeTca Bee dojibiue H dojibiue He-3aMyscHHx MaTepeS B Harnett CTpaHe. OTCKjra BHJJIHO, KaK aKTyajibHH aBjiaioTca Te npodJieMH, KOTopne PoMaHOB noflHHMaji copoK JieT TOMy Ha-3a^ B KOMMyHHCTHMecKOM o d m e c T B e . . MH y3HaeM /j;ajibuie, MTO Hauia repoHHa cjiynaHHO BCTpeTHJiacb c OTHOM ee pedeHKa. O H a nno3HaKOMHJia" oTua c CHHOM, HO H H B KaKott Mepe He CTajia ynpeKaTb ero 3a ero nocTynoK, HJIH 3a T O , MTO OH H C -nopTHJi ee M 3 H b . CBOHM cnoKoftcTBHeM, CBoeft yBepeHHOCTbio, OHa ycTHflHJia ero de3 BcaKHx TparnnecKHx ynpeKOB. OHH paccTaroT^a B xoponiHx OTHonieHHax H y nee HeT OTMaaHHa HJIH 3aMeraaHHOCTH, a TBepjj[aa dy/j;ymHOCTb " H MyBCTByio HeodtacHKMyio BHyTpeHHKK) CHjiy, uejibHOCTb H cBodoay. " 1 2 TaK 3aKaHMHBaeT reponna GBOM paccKa3, KOTopaa yBepeHa B cede, 63 B c B o e dyjiymee H dy.nyffl.ee cBoero p e d e H K a , y K O T o p o r o HeT oTua. 3T H jj;Ba p a c b K a 3 a PoMaHOBa HMeioT MHOTO o d n i e r o c n p o -H3Be^eHHeM BepecaeBa "HcaHKa". B paccKa3e "IIpaBo Ha jnodoBb", PoMaHOB BHCKa3tiBaeT uReio, HTO Kaxflbift nejioBeK HMeeT n p a B o H a jnodoBb. Ho y u e T b npaBHJibHO H C -n o j i b s o B a T b DTO n p a B o H yMeTb JiiodHTb, DTO coBepmeHHO .npyroe Reno, B H T b He cnepxaHHHM B jiiodoBHOH M o p a j i H , o n e H b ruioxo, H O dHTb rjiynnM H^ e a j i H C T O M , DTO TaK see r u i o x o . HTOdH ^ O K a s a T b npaBHJibHOCTb CBoeM Hjj;eH PoMaHOB d e p e T j5Ba^u[aTHriHTHjieTHH)K) jj;eByuiKy, K O T o p a a RO C H X nop H H K O T O ne jirodnjia H He dHJia jnodHMOH. OHa eme H H p a 3 y He H c n t i T a j i a T O T O c n a c T b a JiiodBH, K O T o p o e Bee .npyrae HcntiTHBajiH BOKpyr H e e , OT n o j i p o c T K O B RO n o -XHJIHX moReR. XO T H OHa dnj ia HHTeji J iHreHTHaa .neByiiiKa, xopomo n o c -T p o e H a , npHHTHO B t i r j in^ejia, Bee xe^ H H O ^ H H MyxHHHa He H H T e p e c o B a j i c a eio c e p b e 3 H O . OHa HHKorjj;a He myTHJia, HHKorjj ;a He c M e a j i a c b , HHKor.ua He npoHBJiaJia H T P H B O H xH3Hepa,nocTHOCTH nepejj; MyxHHHOH. OHa Ryuajia, H T O MyxHHHa de3 B c e r o O T O T O .HOJixeH BH/jeTB B xenrnHHe jJceHCTBHTejibHyK) n;eHH0CTb H BHyTpeHHHe K a n e c T B a , K O T o p u e .HOJIXHH flaTb eft H e o c n o p H M o e n p a B o Ha JiiodoBb. T a K O B u dnjiH ee noHaTHH o JiiodBH. Kor ^ a OHa dnjia Ha Beceji i ix BenepHHKax H HMejia B03MoxHOCTb r o B o p H T b c MOJIO^HM Hej ioBeKOM, TO OH RO T O P O oKynaj i cjiymaa ee ueR-JieHHHH, oepbe3HHM p a 3 r o B o p . OHa roBopHJia TaK, KaK 6BI HHTajia j i e K -UHIO. OpocjiymaB TaKoft p a 3 r o B o p - J i e K U H i o , MOJIOJJOH nej ioBeK dojibme yx HHKorjjja He^BosBpamajica K Heft . Jhoyroft ee H e ^ o c T a T O K GHJI, DTO ee KOMHnecKaa n p H n e c K a . OHa K H K o r ^ a He 3aBHBajia BOJIOC , H H K o r ^ a He KpacHJia r y d , H H K o r j ; a He ny/j;pHJia CBoe JIHU.0. riODTOMy, no c.c.paBHeHHio c /jpyrHMH, OHa BHrjiajjejia 64 oneHB npocro, de3XH3HeHHO H C T a p o M o ^ H o . Bee inyTHJiH Ha,n Heft Ha p a -d o T e , HO OHa D T O T O He 3aMenajia. Kor ^ a eM roBopHJiH ^ByxcMHCJieHHtie i n y T K H , OHa npHHHMajia H X 3a HHCTyw n p a B ^ y D T H M caMHM BBi3HBaa c a e x C B O H X KOJiJier. Tor^a OHa jj ;yMajia, HTO " ECJIH dti OHH TOJIBKO 3HajIH, KaH eft XOHeTCH O C B O d O -^ H T B C H OT DTOTO H e f l O C T a T K a 3 a C T e H H H B O C T H , K O T o p a a dnjia TaK C H j i b H a , HTO OHa He B C O C T O H H H H dHJia n o -dopoTfc e e . " 13 Ho Bee DTH e e He/j;ocTaTKH H dtuiH npHHHHoft T O T O , HTO ityxHHHH He ^;o-T p a r H B a j i H C b JXO H e e . PenyTaqna ee H O B K H H O C T K dHJia T a n cHJi&Ha, H T O uyxHHHBi. ^ y M a j i H , HTO OHa He c n o c o d H a H H Ha K a K H a n y B C T B a . Ho B fleMcTBHTejiBHOCTH e e BHyTpeHHHe n y B C T B a npeBBimajiH n y B C T B a e e noJj;pyr, H O H H K T O O T O T O He 3Haji . Ee 3acTeHHHB0CTB H C K P O M H O C T B CTOHJIH Ha KaxaoM e e m a r y H OHa CTajia H X H e H a B H ^ e T B. Bepa xopomo noHHMajia , HTO B DTO BpeMa " . .. Bee c T a p t i e cbopMH H odpa3u.H X H S H H 6BIJIH OTMeHeHBi, H , HTO CBOdOflHaa JHOdOBB dblJia 3aKOHHOft, DTO d H J i , TaK CKa3aTB, n p O T e C T npOTHB CTapOH nO,2IHHHeHHOCTH H MOXeT dHTB BO 3BpaT K 3jj;opoBoft n p o c T O T e . " I 4 Bee DTO Bepa noHHMajia oneHB xopomo H ^ n o H H M a a ) He doaJiacB D T O T O . Ho ee/ Bee ace, n y r a j i a n a K a a - T O H e n o H H T H a a eft B H y T p e H H a a T p e B o r a . Cjiyiuaa paccKa3H C B O H X no,a;pyr od H X ejiynaftHHx 3HaKOMCTBax, HJIH BpeMeHHOft aCH3HH C MyXHHHaMH, KOTOPHX OHH He JIIOdHJIH, a n p o c T O XHJIH c HHMH n o T O M y , HTO DTO HM j i o c T a B j i a JIO yjj;oBo JIB CT BHe, Bepa j j y M a -Jia, HTO TaKaa XH3HB He odoromaeT, a, HaodopoT, ode^HaeT nyBCTBa. Ho ecjiH Bee DTO jtejiajiH flpyrne H HaxoflHJtH B DTOM y n o B O J i B C T B H e , jiyMajia O H a , TO OHa He^ojiacHa C T o a T B B C T o p o H e OT npoTeKaromeft MHMO H e e X H 3 H H . OHa pemHJia eodpaTB Bee C B O H CHJIH H nodopoTB B c e d e O T -BpameHne K JiiodBH H OTHomeHHft flByx n o J i o B . 65 Cjiynaft, n o c T S B H T B H a n p o d y ee pemeHHe, n o f l B e p H y j i c a oneHb c K o p o . OHa B0 3Bpamajiacb B rioe3,ne OT n o f l p y r n , K o r j i a K Heft no^ceji UOJIOROU n e j i o B e K . OH Hanaji 3aHCKHBaTb cdjraxeHHa OTHoaieHHft c Heft. Ho He y c n e j i OH j j O T p o H y T b c a JJ;O H e e , KaK OHa pa3pa3HJiacb GJie3aMH. DTO e r o oneiih n e p e n y r a j i o . OH CTaji y c n o K a H B a T b ee H n p o -CHTb H3BHHeHHH T O B O p H , HTO 11 H. pe;j[KO B C T p e n a K H a c T o a m y i o , necTHyio xeHfflHHy, OT DTOTO H caM CTa/I MeJIOHHilft H nOfflJIBlft" - rOBOpHJI OH eft... - " HTO npej^cTaBaaiOT codoft c e r o a H e u m H e Re-ByuiKH KOMcoMOJibCKHx opraHH3au.HH HJIH HHTejiJIHreHUHH? . . . OHH CMOTPHT Ha Bemn, KaK H a dpH3HOJiorHHecKHft n p o q e c c . . . . ' TaKHM o d p a s o M HX rpySoe 3HaKOMCTBo pa3BepHyjioeb B OT-KpHTHft ^ymeBHHft p a 3 r o B o p . P a s r o B a p H B a a ^OHH HejsaMeTHJiH, KaK OHH ^ o e x a j i H JJ;O cBoeft C T a H U H H . Mojio/joft nejioBeK npejj;jioxHJi npoBojjHTb Bepy flOMoft. Ona dHJia oneHb c n a c T J i H B a Ryua.fi, HTO H a K O H e i j -TO Hamejica MyxMHHa, KOTopuft yBHjj;eji B Heft 11 B H y T p e H H H e " u e H H O C T H . Ona c o B c e M He 3aMenajia B new j iHueMepHOCTH H JJJBOHKOTO noRxoRa. OHa HaHBHo^ no ^ e T C K H jBepHJia ewy Bce, HTO OH TOBOPHJI. 3/j;ecb PonaHOB npHMeHaeT T y x e T e x H H K y H,aeajiH3Ma H HaHBHoft jj ; o s e p H H B o c T H , KOTO-poft OH nojib3yeTca B BHBejj;eHHH x a p a K T e p a ApKa^na He3HaMOBa B " T o B a -pnme K H C J i a K O B e " . y BOPOT c B o e r o Roua Bepa npHrjiauiaeT C B o e r o c n y T H H K a , KOTopuft npe^cTaBHJica eft, KaK IllBapii, B CBOK> KOMHaTy H n p e j j j i a r a e T eMy o c T a T b c a Ha nauiKy n a a , KOTopuft OHa npHHHJiacb n p H r o T O B j i a T b H a n p H M y c e . Ho ee noBe^ e H H e , ee HenpepuBHHft pasroBop n p o c e p b e 3 H t i e j^ejia, ee j e j i o B H T O C T b ydHJiH y IllBapua s e c b H H T e p e c K oToft fleByuiKe, KOTopBift y Hero npoaBjiajica c H a n a j i a HX 3HaKOMCTBa. OHH npocH/jejiH B-^nBoeM B KOMHaTe RO RByx nacoB HOHH H He odMeHaaHCb jj;axe n o n e -DO j i y e M . Kor/j;a OH HexHO rjia^HJi e e p y K y , TO y H e e B03HHKajia H e -odocHOBaHHaH H a ^ e x ^ a H a TO, HTO DTOT HOJICHOM nej ioBeK noHHMaeT e e H neHHT e e 3a e e yMCTBeHHtie cnocodHOCTH, 3a e e BHyTpeHHHft Hjieaji n o OTHoiueHHio K JiiodBH. A OH xyuaji, HTO " K a n o e HecnacTBe, HTO OHa roBopHT TaK MHOTO, HTO e e He ocTaHOBHinB*" 16 H n e i i dojibiue OHa ro-B o p H J i a , Te.M dojibiue OH CKynaji c Heft. " Koraa OHa cKa3ajia eMy o e e yejj;HHeHHH H e e BHCUIHX B3rjiHj;ax Ha J i K d o B B , OH n o n y B C T B O B a j i , HTO y Hero H c n e 3 J i H B e e ero x e j i a H H H . . . . " 17 OBJiajj;eTb e s . OH, HeoxH/j;aHHO XJJIE cedn^npHHHJi CKynHBift, cepBe3HHft, K o p p e K T H H H TOH p a 3 r o B o p a c Heft, KOTOPBIM odBiHHO y n o T p e d J I H e T C H B o d m e c T B e BHCOKoyBaxaeMHx RSM. OH CTaji odBHCHHTB eft, HTO XH3HB cero^ H H H#eT dHCTpHMH maraMH H HTO B Heft HeT MecTa JJJIH y e j p r a e H H H . " G HaCTOHIUHM TeMnOM XH3HH MyXHHHBI H XeHlIIHHH p a C -xo^yiOT dojibffle, neM OHH c o x p a H H W T ; y HHX o c T a e T C H TOJIBKO flOCTaTOHHO D H e p r H H ^JIH OdBIKHOBeHHBIX X H B O T -HBIX B0 3dyxJj;eHHft: r^ e x e Tor^a TO BO3BHineHHoe, o KOTOpOM TH rOBOpHfflB? " 18 cnpauiHBaji ee IllBapu.. OHa OTBeTHjia e M y , HTO Torjj;a MyxHHHBi CMOTPHT H a xeHiijHHy TOJIBKO , KaK H a c a M K y . BOT DTO KaK pa3 H n y r a j i o e e , HTO OHa dBiJia TOJIBKO c a M K a , a He xeHiunna c e e BHeiuHefi KpacoToft H e e BHyTpeHHHMH K a n e c T B a M H , KOTopyio B o c n e B a j i H a p T H C T H Ha n p o T H x e H H H B e K O B . OHa noHHMajia u e H H o c T B xeHitiHHBi B e e a p T H C T H n e c K O M n p e j j ; c T a B -j i e H H H , a He B e e cfeH3HOJiorHHecKofi C T p y K T y p e . IllBapij; noHHJi, HTO DTO He dBiJia n p e ^ C T a B H T e j i B H H n a cBodo^Hoft JiiodBH, a BHcmeft H^eajiBHoft JiiodBH, K O T o p a n CTajia pe^KOCTBio. 3Ta .HesyiiiKa HMejia HHCTyIO, HaHBHyio #ymy, K O T o p a n dHJia c n o c o d H a JHO6HTB CTpaCTHO H de3KOpBICTHO. " . . . TOJIBKO T a K a a x e n a r o T O B a cjiejj;oBaTB CBoeMy Myxy H a ccHJiKy B CHSHPB , o n a r o T O B a H a B e e x e p T B H . B DTOH n p o c T O f i ^eByuiKe c npnMHHH BojiocaMH dBiJio n o x o -67 poneHO TO coKpoBHme aiodBK, K O T o p o e onpaB^H-BaeT X H 3 H B . . Te, KTO Hcnt iTaj i Ha cede TaKyso /irodOBB 3 H a K T , HTO X H 3 H B , OCBeffleHHaa TaKOH JHOdOBBK), dfclJia jj;eMcTBHTejiBHO HandojiBiuHM nyjJtoM Ha 3eMJie. " ^ J Ho TaKOH de3KOpUCTHOH JHOdOBBK) HH KTO, B HaCTOflffl.ee B p e M a , He Hyx-jjajica. MyxHHHu CMOTpejiH TOJIBKO Ha BHeuiHOCTB xeHiijHHH, Ha ee yMeHHe 6HTB BeceaoH, XHTB de33adoTHO H yMeTt p a 3 B J i e K a T B . UlBapn. TaK x e He^HHTepecoBaacfl HjjeajiaMH JiiodBH. n p o c H / j e B c HeM RO RByx nacoB yTpa, OH paccTajica n o q e j i o B a B ee B Jiod. TaKoe OTHOineHHe MyxHHHH n o f l e n c T B O B a j i o Ha Bepy, KaK a e K a p c T B O . OHa oxHJia H, KaK dti, noxopomejia. " y Hee noHBHjiacfc. KaKaa TO CHJia. KaKan cHJia , o T K y a a . . . OHa He Morjia noHHTB.... Bepa n y B C T B O B a a a , HTO OHa n p e B p a T H j i a c B B apyroe c y m e c T B O , neM OHa dMJia JJ;O OTOTO.... " 2 0 riepBHH p a 3 B ee XH3HH OHa noHHJia CMHCJI JiiodBH H OHa BcnoMnHJia , HTO " . . . TOJIBKO T OT, KTO HMeeT npaBo Ha jiiodOBB, no-JiynaeT n p a B o Ha XH3HB. " 2 1 OHa dti/ia y B e p e H a , HTO OHa 3acjiyxHJia OTO npaBo Ha XH3HB H Ha jiiodOBb. E H K a 3 a j i o c B , HTO RO H a c T o a m e r o BpeMeHH^ o n a dHJia de3XH3HeHHHM o d t e K -T O M , flBHraBfflHMCfl aBTOMaTHHeCKHM MexaHH 3M0M, y C T a j i a f l H de3pa3JIHHHafl KO B c e n y oKpyxaiomeMy. H0| BOT TaK HeoxH^aHHo^y Hee KaK dti p o ^ H a a c B H o s a n ^yuia, K O T o p a a yBHjjejia MHPT B coBepmeHHO HOBOM n p e K p a c H O M C B e T e . Ho Bce OTO OKa3aj iocB TOJIBKO c K a 3 K 0 H , K O T o p a n MHHyjia He/jejiK) cnycTH. UlBapu, He MOT 3 a c T a B H T B c e d a npHBHKHyTB K ee ripaMtiM BOJiocaM^ K ee n p H n e c K e , K ee Mejc/xeHHOMy roBopy. Ee HeBHHHocTB H cepBe3HOCTB MHCJIH TOJIBKO p a 3/j;paxajiH e r o , xoTa OH H 3Haji , HTO OHa K p e n K o nojiro-dHJia e r o . H(HTodH B .lajiBHeHuieM He flaBaTB eft dojiBiue naRexR, Ha 68 e r o JIK)6OBB K Heft, OH HanHcaji ett nncbMo, o d t a c H H H npHMHHH ero yxo/ja OT H e e . OH n H c a j i eft, HTO OH 6HJI y d e x f l e H , MTO uexRj HHMH HHMero He MOTJIO d n BHMTH. OH nyBCTBOBaji ceda o n e H b njioxo B e e n p H c y T C T B H H H He MOT O T B e n a T B H a e e H/Jie^jiHCTHMecKHe H a c T p o e H H H . OH nHcaj i e f l , MTO ee JiiodoBb K H e M y , K O T o p a a BHCKa3HBajiacb B HeM B qoopwe e e c a M o o T B e p x e H H a , n y r a j i a e r o , TaK KaK 3a CBOKJ jiiodoBb OHa TpedoBajia noJiHoro BJiajj;eHHa ero MyBCTBaMH. " TBOH JiiodoBb He pa3peiuaeT T e d e cMOTpeTb H a Beii?H M e c T H O . . . . TH dyfleiiib T p e d o B a T b OT n e H a n o c T o a H -C TB a H c a M o o T p e n e H H H , H TH £OJixHa n o H H T b , MTO OTO n p o c T a a r j i y n o c T b . . " 22 lilBapu, BHyraaj eM HeMejjjieHHo o c T a B H T b CBOH HeBHHHO —3adoT/iHBHH B3r;ia/j;, n e p e c T a T b paccKa3HBaTb KaxflOMy o CBoeM ye^HHeHHH H O CBOHX H#eajiax JIffidBH, OCBOdOflHTbCH OT HSHBHOCTH H HaMaTb XHTb B COOTBeTCTBHH C peajIbHOCTbK) BpeMeHH. 11 Ifee OMeHb xajih T e d a " , - n n c a j i .UlBapu,, - "noTOMy MTO TH He c o 3 H a e m b , KSKHMH B p a r a M H flJia T e d a aBjiaioTca TBOH npeKpacHne KaMecTBa. " 23 3TO nncbMO UlBapua dHJio ajia Bepti, KaK rpoMOBofi y^ap cpe/j;H a c H o r o I H f l . Te Ha^ex^H H a Hjj;ea/ibHyio arodoBb, K O T o p n e OHa nHTajia B cede eme HecKOjibKO MacoB TOMy Ha.3a£, i pyxHyjincb H nepe,n H e S o n a T b B C T a j i a CTeHa ojjHHOMecTBa H S;-e3pajj;ymHa. Ee Tparejj;Ha saKJironaeTca B TOM, MTO OHa He.Morjia B o c n p H H a T b , TaK Ha3HBaeMyio, cBodo/j;HyK> /imdoBb c o B p e u e H H o M MOJiojj;exH. OHa He xoTejia pa3jiejiaTb CBoero B0 3Jiio6/xeHHoro HH c Hew flpyrHM, noDTOMy OHa o c T a B a j i a c b O^HHOKOM. 69 FOOTNOTES 1 Panteleymon Romanov, Rasskasy, "Without cherry blossom" Ernest Benn, London, 1930, p. 13. Text t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h i n t o Russian by the student h e r s e l f . 2 I b i d . , p. 17. 3 I _ b i d . , p. 18. Op. c i t . , p. 18. . ^ I b i d . , p. 26. ^P.Romanov, Rasskasy, "The big f a m i l y " , Ernest Benn, London, 1930. ^ I b i d . , p. 36. 8 I b i d . . p. 37. 9 I b i d . , p. 38. 1 Q I b i d . , p. !+3. -^Op. c i t . , p. ^ 3 . 1 2 I b i d . , p. 52. ^ 3Romanov, P., Rasskasy, "The r i g h t to l o v e " , Ernest Benn, London, 1930? p. 129. l^f I b i d . , p. 131. I b i d . , p. 137. 16 I b i d . ? p. , I b i d . l 8 I b i d . ^ I b i d . 2 0 I b i d . 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 I b i d . p. m-8. p. 1^ 9. p. 1^ 1• P. 155. p. 156. p. 167, 23o P. c i t . . p. 167, 71 11 HO BAH CKPHHAJIb" 1927. POMSH "HoBaa CicpHxajib" n o a B H J i c a B n e n a T H B 1927 rojj;y B xypHajie "HOBHH MHP". 3TO dujio e r o n e p B o e H n o c J i e ^ H e e - n o -aBJieHHe B CoBeTCKOM Coi03e. Cyjjbda DTOTO poMaHa oneHb Maao H 3 B e c T H a B HacToamee B p e M a . EcTb n p e , n n o j i o x e H K H , HTO ropa3,ao no3xe DTO npoH3Be^eHHe nonaj io 3arpaHHiiy H <5HJIO n e p e B e ^ e n o Ha Apyrne e B p o n e M c K H e H3HKH, B TOM HHC Jie H Ha a H r j i H H C K H H , nojx, Ha3BaHneM "HOBHH 3 a B e T u . PoMaH " H o B a a CicpHxajib" a B J i a e T c a doJibuiHM M o p a j i b H O -n c H x o J i o r H H e c K H M npon3BefleHHeM PoMaHOBa ( " T o B a p H i q KHCJiaKOB 1 ' n o a B H J i c a no3xe).. B DTOM npoH3Bejj;eHHH, a B T o p BnepBbie CTaBHT npodj ieMy HOBOH , . cMeinaHHOH ceMeHHOH XH3HH JiByx jirojieH, KOTopsie pa3jiHHHH n o c B o e M y couHajibHOMy npoHCxoxfleHHio H n o o6pa30BaHHio. TepoH poMaHa GepreS H JIioflMHJia. Cepren <5HBIIIHH K p e c T b a H H H , JIKVIMH-j ia H3 'CTapoM HHTejiJiHreHii .HH. JCBe coiUHajibHHx c p e ^ t i , ,HBa pa3JiHH-HBIX o d p a 3 0 B a H H a , ^Ba n p o T H B o n o j i o x H H X noHHMaHHa o JUDSBH B yc j ioBHax H O B o r o , C o B e T C K o r o C T p o a . C x o a a c b fljia coBMecTHOft XH3HH, OHH He HMejiH TOH ofimefi OCHOBH HHTepecoB, K O T o p a a Heo6xojj;HMa jjjia n p o H H o n COBMeCTHOH XH3HH JJByx JHOJieH. KaxjJHH H3 HHX CTapaJICa TOJIbKO BH-H r p a T b OT D T o r o o d t e ^ H H e H H a . OJJHH H3 rjiaBHHx x a p a K T e p o B , Ceprefi, pojJtHJica H BHPOC B O T C T a j i o H p y c c K O H ^ e p e B H e , rue s a d o T a o JHodHBaHHH x j i e d a H ,neHer (3HJIH rjiaBHHM p a 3 r o B o p o M K p e c T b a H . He HMea H H ^ K a K o r o o d p a 3 0 B a -HHa^ K p e C T b H H e BepHJIH B T O , HTO BHUI© BCeTO Ha 3eMJie 6UJIH JjeHbTH. MejioBeK, yMeromHH aodHBaTb DTH aeHbra, 6HJI "HacToamHM" nej iOBeKOM, JIOCTOHHHM necTH H yBaxenna. OTen, Ceprea 6HJI TaKHM x e KOCHHM, 7 2 Kan vs Bee ocTajibHHe. H RUH H e r o fleH&rn GHJIH Biime MejioBenecKHx K a n e c T B - JiiodBH vs n e c T H o c T H . O^HHM CJIOBOM "O H Bee nepHJi Ha ^ e H t r n 1 1 . 1 Kor.ua Ceprefi xeHHJica Ha CKPOMHOH KpecTBHHCKOH jj;e-BymKe de3 npH^aHoro, OTeu. ero 6HJI oneHB HeflOBOJieH. " H Gepreft, paHO noMyBCTBOBaji, MTO HHTepec ero XH3HH coBepmeHHo B flpyron, neM y O T t j a , Bee BpeMa HcntiTBiBaji na cede nyxaocTB H Bpax^edHOCTB AOMaiiiHeH CTHXHH" . 2 3TO dHJio TOJIHKOM K ero TBepjj;oMy H HecoKpy-uiHMOMy xejiaHHio nojiyMHTB odpa30BaHHe. riocjie cejiBCKOft IHKOJIH, OH nocTynnji B rHMHa3Hio. A nocjie raMHa3HH noMomHHKOM npoaaBua B KHHXHHE M a r a s H H . 3^ecb OH H c n o j i b s o B a j i Bee CBoe cBodoaHoe BpeMa RISK MTeHHfl K H H r . Kor.ua HacTynnjia peBOJirouiia, Cepreft yiueji Ha cppoHT, MTOdn d o p o T B C H n p o T H B KOCHOCTH vs H©HecTHOH HaxHBBi jjeHer. OH dHJi TOTfla pa.zt peBojiioEiHH, K O T o p a a n o K a 3 a j i a Ten JIKJ^HM, KOTopHe TOJIBKO rpadHjiH j i e H B T H , MTO KpoMe HHX " e c T B erne vs .zrpyraa CHJia". no BO3BpameHHH c dppoHTa OH dHJi H3dpaH MJieHOM HcnoJiKOMa npHcjbpoHTOBoro ye3flHoro ropojjKa. y3HaB od DTOM, K p e c T B a H e ero .nepeBHH CTajiH 3aHCKHBaTB nepeja; HHM, HO OH CTOHJI TBepjjo 3a j;ejio peBOJnou.HH. 3a DTO OHH C T a -JIH HeHaBH^ieTB ero. tlljia eme rpaxaaHCKaa BottHa vs euy MacTO npn-XO^HJIOCB OCTaBJIHTB HCnOJIKOM H y X O ^ H T B Ha (jbpOHT. BpeMH DTO dHJIO OMeHB T p y j j H o e . KpyroM ijapHJia p a 3 p y x a , rojio/j;, onvsReuvsn, cMepTB vs ode3yMeBniHe OT C T p a x a JIKUTH. HO t HaKOHen^ H DTO Bee KOHMHJIOCB. Ceprett y e 3 x a e T B MocKBy, r^ e OH padoTaeT npej^ceflaTejieM npocp-C0K)3a H 3aBeay»m.HM KJiyda padoMeM M O J i o j e x H . ECHBa nepBHe M e c a n n B MocKBe, Cepren " . . . MyBcTBOBaji KaKoe-TO onBaHeHHe OT C B o e r o C J I H a H H a C deCKOHeMHHM n O T O K O M J H O ^ e t t . . . 73 " H B c e r s a nocj ie XHBOTO c o n p H K o c H O B e H H H c Maccon y H e r o dHBaji o c o d e H H H H HPHJIHB oHeprHH, HCHOCTH MHCJIH H dojjporo cTpeMJieHHa H,HTH Bnepejj. " 3 Ho ero ojjHHOKaa xH3Hb B r u i o x o odcTaBJieHHOft, He-yKTHOH KOMHaTe dHJia cKyHHoH. Eny xoTejiocb HMeTb no^pyry XH3HH, c KOTopott d u OH MOT flejiHTb CBOH p a j i o c T H , CBOH ycnexH H KOTopaa Morjia dn noHHuaTb uejib ero X H 3 H H . BHBaa BenepaMH B TeaTpax CTOJIHIIH, OH BH^eji 3CH3Hb, TaK H a 3 H B a e M o r o , " p a 3 d H T o r o K J i a c c a " , KOTopHft duji nyxjjHM eMy. Ha cueHe H B XH3HH OH BHjjeji xeHmHH, K O T o p n e c o B c e M dHJiH He IIOXOXH Ha ero x e H y , Tpyuiy. TaK KaK OHH dblJIH O.H,eTH B T O H K H e , HapflJ^HHe HJiaTbH H HMejIH K p a c H B H e p y K H , OH .HyMaji, HTO OHH HMeKT T O H K H e , djraropo^HHe n y B C T B a . "Beab T O H K a a jjyiua OTHX sceHmHH, - ayMaji Cepreft, - B o c n e T a BceMH n o o T a M H . . . " 4 O H zyu&ji, HTO T a K H e xeHmHHH c n o c o d H H j a T b T y JiiodoBb, o KOTOPOH OH 3HaeT TOJIbKO H3 KHHT H KOTOpaH COBCeM He ITOXOXa H a JIIOdOBb T p y n i H . DTO dHJio oneHb codjia3HHTejibHHM B ero OJHHOKOH XH3HH. EMy Ka3ajtocb, HTO KaKan-TO dojibiiiaa n a c T b DTOH XH3HH Bce xe o c T a e T c a juia Hero HeH3Be,naHHOH. Kor.na flpyrne MyxHHHH npoxojiHJiH MHMO Hero c xopomo ojjeTHMH aeBymKaMH, OH o c T a H a B J i H B a j i c a H CMOT-peji HM BCJiefl . B e r o r j i a 3 a x dHJia H 3aBHCTb H T O C K a . DTO dnjiH e r o TaMHHe MHCJIH, KOTopne OH C T a p a j i c a c n p a T a T b .naxe OT caMoro c e d a . Ho OHH, o n a T b / KaK 6u BHJie3ajiH H a p y x y H OH He B COCTOHHHH dHJI n o d o p O T b 3THX COd Jia3HHTeJIbHHX, nOJIHHX SaBHCTH MHCJieH. HO B O T , H a K O H e i l , H OH BCTpeTHJICH C XeHIUHHOH, n o KOTOpOH OH TaK TOCKOBaji . DTO dHJia J l ro^MHJia. - B H C o K a n , M O J i o a a n xeHfflHHa c j i e r K O H noxoflKoM H KpacHBHMH TOHKHMH "pyKaMH. CHanajra y Hero dHJio 74 HVBCTBO HeJIOBKOCTH H HeyMeHHH C Heft TOBOPHTI. Ha HeO$HHHa^BHHe T e M H . Ho cKopo DTa H e y B e p e H H O d b HCHe3Jia H cjioBa caMH Ha-XO,HH;IH n p e K p a c H H e BHpaxeHHH B ero p a 3 r o B o p e . Ero r p a M M a T H n e c -KHft H3HK yflHBHJi JIioflMHJiy, Tan KaK OHa He oscHjj;a^a OTOTO OT n p o -CToro "MyxHKa" H OHa 3aMeTHJia, MTO y Hero 6HJI " . . . npaBHJibHHft, HHTeJiJiHreHTHHH H3HK." 5 OHa yjj;HBJiHJiacB> 3HaHHHM Cepren H ero TOHKHM M y B C T B a M , KOToptie OH npoHBJiH/i K H e f i . Cepreft yBJieKCH JlH)JJ[MH-jioft H ero nyBCTBa K Heft odpamajiH n o c T e n e H H o ero B jjpyroro nejio-BeKa. "... OH nojiyHHJi cnocodHocTb HOBHX, H e H 3 B e c T H H X euy paHbiue omymeHHft - TOHKHX n p o c B e T J i e H H b i x " . 6 OHa K a s a j r a c b eMy " TaHH-CTBeHHoft H He/joeTynHoft". Ero BjieKJio K JlroflMHJie, TaK KaK B Heft Cepreft BH/jeji HOByro, paHbiue eMy HeflocTyrrayio j&yiuy xeHWHHH H y x o r o nan Hero Kpyra. " H Kasc^oe He3aMeTHoe npndJinxeHHe K Heft Mepe3 DTy 3 a B e c y H e j i o c T y n H o c T H , K O T o p a a dtuia Mex^y HHM H em, jnocTaBJiHJio eMy He3HaKOMoe paHbiue HacJiaxczteHHe H n o ^ t e u Bcex CHJI." 24 Cepreft y^HBJiHJiCH T B e p ^ o c T H x a p a K T e p a JIKUXMHJIH H e e 3aKajieHHOCTH, K O T o p u e JIio^MHJia npoHBjiajia BHeniHe nepe/j; C e p r e e M . Ho RJIH. JIK>JJ[MHJIH HCKpeHHHH JitofioBb H noTpedHOCTb ee XH3HH flJiH apyroro MeJioBeKa, 6biJm BHCUIHM CMaoTbeM Ha seMJie, KOToporo Hejib3H dHJio KynHTb HH TBepflOCTbK) HH 3aKaJieHHOCTbK). " - CaMoe dojibiuoe c M a c T b e , K a K o e TOJibKO ^ o c T y n H o , -roBopHJia OHa Cepreio, - "OTO TO, KorjJta TBOH XH3HB b K a x e T c a HyxHa, o n e H b HyxHa. H BOT OT^aTb ee rje/iHKOM, de3 ocTaTKa, KaK BejiKMaftmyro n e H H o c T b , a He KaK HeHyxHOCTb, - B OTOM c n a c T b e . "• 8 TaKoft B3rjiHfl JIK^MHJIU Ha xH3Hb OMeHb noHpaBHJiCH Ceprero, XOTH OH H He noHHJi ero CMHCJia. 75 OHH c x o a a T c a vs Ha.MHHa.ioT HOByio, coBMecTHyio x H 3 H b . XOTH Gepren vs 6HJI x e H a T Ha Tpyuie, OTO ne noMeniajio eMy H a n a T b r p a x f l a H C K o e c y n p y x e c T B o c JIKUIMH JIOH . CHanajia B c e IUJIO xopomo. JIio^MHJia BtiJia decHOHeHHo c n a c T jiHBa c CepreeM. OHa n y B C T B O B a j i a caMOr-yflOBJieTBopeHHe H- JiiodoBb TOJIBKO Torjja-, Koraa OHa dHJia B M e c T e c C e p r e e M . OHa oTjjajiacb eMy He TOJIB-KO TeJioM, HO H flymoHi Bce OTO o n e H b JIBCTHJIO Cepreio, HTO OTa H H T e j u i H r e H T H a a x e H m H H a , T a n jiiodHJia ero. Ho 3a CBOK> ^ymy, KOTopyio OHa o T j a j i a Cepreio, .Jlro/iMHJia T p e d o B a j i a e r o .nymy. Jlymy 3a .cymy, dHJia o n e H b .Hoporaa ueHa JSJSR Ceprea. JlioMimx& Hacjiaaenajiacb H BocxHmajiacb npH3HaHHeM Ceprea o TOM, HTO e r o J i»6oBb K JlKJ^MHJie nepecHJiHJia e r o JiiodoBb K p a d o T e . " . . . Be&b MoeS MenTofi d H J i o " , - r o B o p n j i a OHa eMy, - "HTOSH JiiodoBb KO MHe dHJia cHjibHee B c e r o Ha c B e T e . Tor/j;a OTO dy^eT BHCinee c n a c T b e . " 9 Ho OTO dHJi He3,aopoBHH cTHMyji JIIO,HMHJIH, pojiHBmHHca H3 e e pasonapoBaHHH B npomjiOM. OHa He x o T e j i a dHTb o n a T b odMaHy-TO# MyXHHHOH. ECJIH JlioflMHJia dHJia c n a c T J i H B a n p o B o j i H T b BpeMa c CepreeM 3anepmHCb B CBoeft K O M H a T e , TO Cepreio HyscHH dHJiH JIKJ^H, TOJina, c KOTOPHMH OH. npHBHK B p a m a T b c a H p a d o T a T b . OHH jjaBajiH eMy HOBiie CHJIH H HOBne Hjj;eH K JiBHxeHHio Bnepe/j. EMy npnmjia MHCJIB O TOM, HTO JIioaMHJia He HMejta codcTBeHHOft CHJIH XH3HH , " . . . n o o T O M y ei! nocTOHHHO H y x e H KTO-TO # p y r o H , KOTOPHH j iaBaji dn efi o T y CHJiy XH3HH H CMHCJI ea." ^  K TaKOMy BHBo^y OH npHmeji H3 paccyscne-HHH o TOM, HTO ecJiH nejioBeK He B c o c T o a H H H , no cBoett npnpojJte, posJiaTb H O B n e , iieHHHe vsjsevs, KOTOPHMH MoxeT n o j i b 3 0 B a T b c a B c e 76 MejioBeneoTBO, a He CHHH H e n o B e K , TO B TaKOM nejioBeKe HeT cod-CTBeHHOM CHJIH XH3HH. Cepreft pemaeT, MTO OH He MoxeT OT#aBaTB ceda noji-HOCTBIO ojj;HOMy n e j i o B e K y . OH ydex^aeTca, MTO neM nonbwe OH XHBCT c /IK^MHJIOM, TeM doji&ine ero XH3HB viRer Ha3a^;. JIioflMHJia nonynajia Bemn fljia KBapTHpH, npHrjiainajia CBOHX ,npy3eft B TOCTH, B npncyT-CTBHH KOTOPHX Cepreft MyBCTBOBaji ceda nyxHM H JiHmHHM, OHa dHJia HenpnBeTJiHBa c ,npy3&aMH Ceprea H ,n;axe cKpbiBajiacb OT HHX. OHa MacTO xajioBajiacb Ha TO, MTO eft Ha.noe.7iH JHO,HH, H MTO OHa ycTajia padoTaTB. OHa cjieno n p e B p a m a j i a c B B padtiHio CBOHX Bemeft, KOToptie fle/iajiH XH3HB Ceprea HeBHHOCHMoft. OH He npHraauiaji yxe jno^eft K cede jj;oMoft, a caM yxo^HJi K ,npyrHM, r^e OHH nnjiH, ejiH, .Hrpaan Ha rapMomKe H nejiH necHH. Cepreft HaMaji XHTB .HByMa xH3HaMH, B ^Byx n p o T H B o n o j i o x -HHX MHpax - jj;oMa H Ha padOTe. 3TH £Ba irapa dtuiH Bpax^edHti .zrpyr Jtpyry. riooTOMy nepe,n CepreeM cTaji Bonpoc: KaKoft H3 DTHX flByx MHpoB OH flOJixeH 6UJI 6u H3dpaTB RJIH CBoeft XH3HH? Cepreft npnxo-JJHT K ydeXfleHHH), MTO XHTB C JlKflMHJIOft OH He B COCTOaHHH, TaK KaK HX B3rjajj;u Ha XH3HB CJIHIIIKOM yx pacxo^H^HCB. IIoDTOMy, Bca HX XH3H& H oTHomeHHa Mexjty HHMH pa3pyma.racB H yBa#ajiH. CymecTBOBaBmaa CHanajia HCKpeHHOCTB H npaB^a 3aMeHH/iHCB uejioft BepeHHueft JIXH -dOH3HB OTKpOBeHHOCTH, CKpHTHOCTB, CTpax, COBeCTB nepej KOJIJieKTH — BOM. 3a T a K y » XH3HB, eme He TaK .naBHq, Cepreft ocyx^aji CBOHX TOBapHmeft, KOToptie, nonaB B r o p o ^ ; , COIIIJIHCB XHTB C xeHmHHaMH H3 K p y r o B HHTe^JinreHHHH, 3aBe;iHCB MarKoft Mede^BB, TaKHM odpa30M, 77 n o T e p a j i H 3aKajieHHOCTB H n p e H e d p e x e H H e Hjja K BHeuiHHM d J i a r a M . Tor/ia Cepreft cHHTaji OTO H3MeHoK peBOJirouHH. A Tenepb OH can XHJI TaKOH x e 2CH3HbK>. Ho OH He o T p n u a j i TOTO, HTO JIio/iMHJia " . . . dHJia JiyniiieH H3 xeHMHH H3 OTOTO Kpyra. E H JiiodoBb K H e u y dtuia HCKJiwHHTejibHOH, c a M O O T B e p -X e H H O H , d e 3 3 a B e T H O H . JiiodoBb CTpaCTHOM xeHmHHH, JiiodoBb peBHHBoM M a T e p n . OHa H e c j i a B cede, ' K a 3 a j i o c b , B c e aodpo/jeTejiH xeHmHHn". H B Hanajie H X 3HaKOMCTBa ; B c e OTH K a n e c T B a JIK>/J;MHJIH npejjcTaBJiajiH jjjia Ceprea HTO-TO*HOBoe, He^ocaraeMoe, 3ara^oHHoe, KOTopoe eMy xoTejiocb n o c T H H b H pa3ra.21.aTb. K a K H H T e j u r a r e H T H a a xeHmHHa, OHa n o M o r a j i a eMy POCTH H p a c n i H p a T b c a . Ho B c e OTO Tenepb ocTaHOBHJiocb Ha OJJHOH TOHKe, rp03HJIO T H d e ^ b K , 3ajtOXHyTbCa B 3aMHHyTOCTH JJ[BOHX jno^efi, d e 3 odmeHHa c Maccon, c POCTOM CTpaHH. 3TO H c n y r a j i o Ceprea H OH HeBOJibHO 3ajj;aBaji c e d e Bonpoc: " HTO x e jiynme: c o B p e M e H H o e ynpouieHHe OTHomeHHH Mexfly noJiaMH, BruiOTb n o H T H /jo nojraoro H3THaHHa BCHKOfi nO0 3 H H H pOMaHTHKH H 3 HHX HJIH H a c a x j i e H H e HJieajibHoS JiiodBH H yKpenj ieHHe ceMbH? " 12 B OTOH npodJieMe Ceprea, PoMaHOB C T S B H T npodJieMy HHjjHBH/iyajibHoro H c o i i H a j i b H o r o siecTa B HHTHMHOH XH 3HH flByx JiK^eH B c o u H a J i H C T H H e c -KOM o d a j e c T B e , CepreM p a c c y x ^ a e T , HTO B c e xBajiaT npHMepHHX M y x e n H OTII.OB, HO MOXHO JIH HX p a C C M a T p H B a T b "no JIOXHTe JIbHHM aBJieHHeM*' B coijHajiHCTHHecKyio o n o x y ? ECJIH OTO T a K , cnpaiHHBaeT c e d a CepreM, TO HTO x e cjiynHJiocb c HX ocHOBHHMa npHHiinnaMH? Bce OTH B o n p o c H npHBojiaT Ceprea B sadJ iyxjieHHe H y H e r o o n a T b BO3HHKaeT Bonpoc: " He a B J i a e T c a JIH o d m e c T B e H H o e B o c n H T a H H e , B H ^ B H H y T o e BHepBHe KOMMyHH3MOM, eCTeCTBeHHHM Tpedo.BaHHeM JIHH-H O C T H , cTpeMamefica CHHTB C c e d a nyTH MajieHbKoM c e M b H , H T o d n C T a T b Bceu;ejio HJieHOM dojibinoH c e M b H ? . . . " 13 ripH BceM OTOM CJIOXHOM npouecce y n e H H a KOMMyHH3Ma, y 78 Ceprea H a n H H a e T c a p a 3 ^ B o e H H e JIHHHOCTH. OH T e p a e T c a B DTOH TS O P H H c e e (JjopsiaMH H T p e d o B a H H a M H B e r o c o d c T B e H H O f i XH3HH H C T p e d o B a -HHHMK H acejiaHHHMH j j y x o B H o r o MHpa e r o H H T e j u i H r e H T H o M , jnodameH x e H H . Bo B e e n STOM Cepreft C T a p a e T c a HafiTH "HoByio C K p n x a j i B " B eme HeodocHOBaHHOM o d m e c T B e . K a K x e npej jcTaBjiHeT c e d e JIio^MHJia c y n p y x e c K y i o XH3HB C <J)H3HHeCKH 3^0P0BBIM, HO flyxOBHO 3anyTaBUIHMCa M y x e M , KOTOPOTO OHa d e 3 r p a H H H H O JiiodHT? O d p a T H M c a K e e npouuioMy. OTeu, JIBJJMHJIH 6un ynpaBJiHKiffl.HM HMeHHaMH d o r a - r u x moReH. OHa Btipocjia H nojiyHHJia CBoe o d p a 3 0 B a H H e B M e c T e c .neTBMH x o 3 a e B . Ho KaK JSOHB y n p a B J i a i o m e r o , OHa p a c c M a T p K B a j i a c B HMH , KaK nejioBeK HH3iuero K J i a c c a . "TpyaoBaa HHTejiJiHreHrjHH", - r o B o p H T OHa Cepreio, - " B c e r f l a p a c c M a T p H B a a a c B DTHMH J I K ^ J H , KaK HeHTO HH3iiiee, noTOMy, HTO Huej ia TOJIBKO T O , HTO s a p a d a T H B a j i a . " 14 T a K o e oTHomeHHe K H e n c o CTOPOHH HMymnx oneHB o c K o p d H J i o caMOJiiodHe JIK>/J;MHJIH H OHa peniHJia n o K H H y T B DTy c p e / j y . OHa n o c T y n n j i a B TeaTpa/i&Hyio r p y n n y n p o T H B xej iaHHa CBOHX p o a H T e j i e n . Ho 3a HeHMe.HHeM T a a a H T a , OHa He HMejia y c n e x a H npocKHTaBinHC& TOJJ; n o npoBHHutHHM, B0 3BpaTH/iacb flOMOH. HOTOM npHniJia peBOJiiouHa H Bce H3MeHHJioci>. JIiojiMHJia HauiJia CBoe npH3BaHHe B aJIMHHHCTpaTHBHpK 1! p a d O T e . " - PeBOJiioHHH H a y n H J i a MeHH O T C T a H B a T B CBoe n p a B o Ha XH3HB". - roBopHT OHa Cepreio. - "H T e n e p B y x e He HHxe Tex, K O T o p u e Kor^ a TO B rjiydHHe jj;yiiiH n p e H e -d e p e r a j i H MHOM. H n o n y B C T B O B a j i a n p e j i e c T B dopBd&i 3a CBoe n e c T O B XH3HH. H y MeHa TenepB e c T B r o p ^ o c T B , ropjj;ocTB n e j i o B e K a , CBOHMH pyKaMH . n o d a -Baromero x j i e d . . . . H MHe ^ o c T a B a a e T 3Jiyio p a ^ o c T B jj;aTB n o n y B C T B O B a T B HeKOToptiM JIIO^HM, HTO T e n e p B H Mory npened/^peraTB HMH, KaK OHH MHOIO HeKorjja n p e -H e d ^ p e r a j i H . . . . " B 3THX CJIOBax JIlOJj;MHJIH 3ByHHT MeCTB H Heroj ; o B a H H e npOTHB JIKJ^eH 79 npouiJioro, K O T o p i i e O T B e p r j i H eg, KaK HM paBHyio H no BHHe KOTO-ptix eft T e n e p t HVXHO dHJio p a d o t a T b . 3TO dbiJiH TaK-xe H c a o B a , KOTOPHMH JIioflMHjia n p H K p i i B a j i a CBOIO BHyTpeHHKK) nycTOTy. OHa pa-d o T a^a He n o T O M y , HTO eft DTO H p a B H a o c b , a noToky, HTO DTO dHJia H e o d x o f l H M o c T b AJia c o x p a H e H H a CBoeft XH3HH. 7 Hee 6HAO TaK xe TBepaoe pemeHHe ,n;oKa3aTb TeM, KTO odMaHyji ee Ha^ex^H B e e MO-JIOflOCTK, HTO OHa HMeJia CHJiy BOJIH TBepflO CTaTb Ha CBOH C O d C T B e H -Htie HOTH.. Hoy cbaKTHHecKH ;padoTa He #aBajia eft TOTO ^yxoBHoro y j O B j i e T B o p e H H a , K O T o p o r o TaK C T p a c T H o x o T e ^ a e e xeHCKaa H a T y p a . " - H CTajia Ha HOTH, MeHa ijeHaT H y B a x a r o T , KaK p a d o T H H n y , MHe njiaTaT 3a DTO .neHbrn. Ho Bee TO, HTO e c T b BO MHe, o T d p a c H B a e T c a npn DTOM, KaK He oTHocameeca K aejiy, KaK HHKOMy HHJ na HTO He HyxHoe. £axe He O T d p a c H B a e T c a , a n p o c T O XH3Hb-TO MOa HHKOMy He H y X H a . . . HyXHa TOJIbKO Moa p a d o n a a C H a a . " 16 B DTOM ee BncKa3i>iBaHHH 3ByHHT T O C K a H Heyj;oB3ieTBopeHHOCTb ee xeHCKHx nyBCTB, nycTOTa ee xeHCKoro cep^qa. OHa TOCKOBajia o XeHCKOM npH3BaHHH - dblTb XeHOft H MaTepbK, JIHdHTb H dHTb /IK)dHMOft. 3TO dujiH ee ecTecTBeHHiie x e j i a H H a , TaK KaK OHa dHJia B o c n H T a H a B o d m e c T s e H Tpa^nnnax, r^e xeHtcrHHa dbiJia xo3aftKoft flOMa, npHHHMajia r o c T e f t , cMOTpejia 3a BocnHTaHHeM ^eTeft - DTO dtiaa ee raaBHaa 3aaa-n a . 3apadaTHBaTb cpe^CTBa X\JIB XH3HH, 6una. 0da3aHH0CTb MyxHHHH. PeBOJnonna oTHaaa Bee DTH ee flyxoBHHe t jeHHOcTH, DTHM caMHM KaK dii odHaxaa ee B DTHX KanecTBax. Odcyx^aa Bonpoc c C e p r e e M o HOBOM oTHomeHHH Mex^y no-jiaMH, JIio,HMHJia^  c r o p e n b i o B roJioce^ TOBOPHT O TOM, HTO HOBHR cTpoft HaMepeHHO y d H B a e T B xenmHHe Bee jiynuiee - arodoBb H KpacoTy, OT-HHMaeT y Hee ceMbio H . BMecTO Bcero DTOTO. ^ aeT eft paBHonpaBHe. 80 " - BeRb BH H&MepeHHO KfleTe K TOMy, MTO6H yHHMTOXHTb, B H T p a B H T b H3 XH3HH MeJIOBeKa CaMOe n p e n p a c H o e , neii OH XHJI cTOJibKO BeKOB... BH XOTHTe yHHMTOXHTb JlK)60Bb , K p a C O T y , KaK BH yHHHTOXHJIH y x e p e j i H r H K . " " H x&nhme OHa TOBOPHT - BH onycTomn^H xH3Hb, OT-HHJIH. y H e e Bee KpacKH, yHHMToxnjiH ceMbio. MTO y Bac o c T a e T c a ? H MTO BaM B xeHiijHHe T e n e p b o c T a e T c a , . . . " - H ^ejiaeT 3aKJiiOMeHHe - Ho rjiaBHoe, - BH y H H M T O -XHJIH JHOdOBb. Ty JIKdOBb, BHffle KOTOpoft HeT HHMero H a 3eMJie,... BH Be&h yHHMToxnjiH T y JiiodoBb, KOTO-paa no^HHMaeT M e a o B e K a OT XHBOTHOTO Ha H e a o c a r a e -Myio BHCOTy Me^oBeMHOCTH, K O T o p a a pox#aeT B HeM caiiyio TOHKyro noo '3H».. . . BH npHiiiJiH, KaK BapBapti H CMejiH H a CBoeM n y T H MHoroe H3 TOTO, MTO Me JioBeMecT — EQ xpaHHao, KaK Bbicmna ueHHocTH B npo,nojixeHHH MHO-THX BeKOB. " H3 D T O H , HeMHOTO £JIHHHOH U.HTaTH, MOXHO 3aK^K)MHTb, MTO CJIOBaMH JlK^MHJIH TOBOpHJI HHTe JIJIHTeHT —K^eaJIHCT PoMaHOB, yBHfleBUIHH CBOHMH rj[a3aMH yHHMTOxeHHe MejioBeMecKHx u e H H o c T e n , K O T o p n e OH CMHTaji BHCIIIHMH. n o c T a B H B CBOHX repoeB B T a K H e pasjTHMHHe COU.HajIbHHe rpynnn, PoMaHOB KaK 6u HcnHTHBaJi CHTiy c5ypxya3HO-KHTejiJiHreHTCKofi MopajiH B ycjioBHax nepexoflHoro nepno^a. OH T a K - x e n o K a 3 a j i , MTO BHCOKaa Mopajib He^ocTHraeTca noayMeHHeM o(5pa30BaHHa, a B o c n H i H -B a e T c a n p n onpe^e^ieHHHx y c n o B H a x XH3HH . OTcro^a MH ^ejiaeM BHBO^, MTO rjiaBHOH T p a r e ^ n e t t jnodBH OTHX flByx repoeB 6uno HX rjiydoKoe pasjiHMHe K y j i b T y p H o r o BO c n H T a H H H , pa3JiHMHHX BJiHaHHM c p e^H, p a 3 -jiHMHoro K p o B ^ H o r o npoHcxox^eHHa. Ceprea, c paHHeft IOHOCTH, npHBHK K He3aBHCHMocTH H ^BHxeHHK) Bnepe,a;; JIioflMH^a HCKajia npe^aHHoS JIIOSBH H HOMauiHero onara He B3Hpaa Ha c^oxHBuiHeca conna^bHiie y CJIOBHH •. 81 FOOTNOTES 1&2Panteleymon Romanov, Hovala S k r l z h a l . j , I s d a t e l s t v o " L i t e r a t u r a " , Riga, 1928, p. 5k. 3 I b i d . , p. 17. ^ I b i d . , p. 18. -.. I b i d . , p. 22. ^ I b i d . , p. 36. 7 I b i d . . p. 2k. 8 I b i d . , p. 27. 9 I b i d . . p. 86. 1 Q I b i d . . p. 88. 1 : L I b i d . . p. 16. 1 2Ibid.« p. 117. 1 30p. c i t . , p. 117-118, Ik Ib^d., p. 23. 1^0p. c i t . . p. 2k. ^ I b i d . , p. 26. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 38-39. 82 11 MEJIOBEMECKAfl jyiUA " PACCKA3 1928. CioxeT DTOTO p a c c K a 3 a 3aKJiK>MaeTca B TOM, MTO no^pyra, n o c T a B / i e H H a a B noj ioxeHHe padoTOjtiaTejibHHn'H, npHHHMaeT y c e d a duBmyio dapHHK - CBOIO n o^pyry. y"3HaB, MTO T a He HMeeT HH M e c T a -X H T e j i b C T B a , HH p a d o T H , HH c p e ^ c T B , n p e ^ j i a r a e T efi o c T a T b c a x H T b c HeM H H c n o j r a a T b a o j i x H o c T b p a d o T H H q H , B KOTopott OHa cettMac Hyxflaaacb. Pa3BepTHBaa cioxeT OTOTO p a c c K a 3 a , PoMaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T , KaK p B y T c a H yHHMTOxaioTca C T a p u e , K a 3 a j i o c b dbi HepyuiHMBie, MyBCTBa flByx sceHiUHH, n o BHemHHM o d c T o a T e j i b C T B a M nocTaBJieHHtix B n p o T H B o -nojioxHbie no3HUHH. Cocpba H n K O J i a e B H a , TOJIBKO-MTO pac#HTaBiuaa CBOHJ n p n c j i y r y , Mamy, dbiJia o n e H t o r o p n e H a OTHM, TaK KaK HafiTH apyryio n p n c j i y r y dHJio OMeHb T p y^HO. B TaKoft HecMacTHHH MOMeHT ee XH3HH pa3^ a j i c a 3a ^Bepbio 3BOHOK. Koraa Cocpba HnKOJiaeBHa OTKpHJia .HBepb, TO OHa y B H ^ e j i a n e p e ^ codott HHmeHCKH o ^ e T y i o , x y ^ e H b K y w xeHttjHHy, B KOTopott OHa y3Hajia CBOIO npexHioio noflpyry H p H H y . " 3TO 6UJI JiyMiuHH .npyr ee MOJIO^OCTH , e^HHCTBeHHuM apyr e a ,nyuiH. H p H H a , T O H K a a , H e o d H K H O B e H H a a nyma, nepe,n KOTOPOH Bcer.ua x o T e j i o c b p a c K p t i T b CBOIO jiyray, xeHiuHHa c HexHeHuiHM KPOTKHM c e p ^ q e M , K O T o p o e , K a 3 a n o c b , n e j i H K O M O T p a x a a o c b B ee o r -POMHHX r p y c T H u x H npaB^HBBix r ^ a 3 a x . " * BOT 3Ta xeHmHHa, coBceM He n o ee* Bjrae, a Mepe3 BHeiiiHHe, OT Hee HejsaBHcamHe o d c T o a T e a b C T B a ^ n p e B p a T H J i a c b B HHmero M e j i o B e K a , de3 jjOMa, de3 c e M b H , d e 3 c p e ^ C T B c y m e c T B O B a H H a . CeMba e e H e H 3 B e c T -HO r,ne, Myx e e , d e n o r B a p f l e f t e K H H ocfiHuep, paccTpe^taH, a 3HaKOMbie T e n e p b C T o p o H a T c a e e , KaK onHneMHH. H BOT DTa n o ^ p y r a dBiaa ee 83 nocjiejjHHfl Hajj;eKfla. BHCJiymaB H p H H y , Co<$>ba HHKOJiaeBHa p a c c K a s a J i a o c e d e , HTO eft xopomo x H B e T c a , H HTO Myx ee r o c y j j a p c T B e H H H H nejioBeK H HTO y Hee HeT H e j j o c T a T K O B . OHa CKa3ajia H p H H e , HTO H a c T a j i e e MOMeHT OTnJiaTHTb eft 3a Bce, HTO OHa H e e c e M b a caejiajiH fljia CO(£>bH. " Kor^a TH dHJia d o r a T a , MHe Bcerj^a dHJio j jocaflHO, HTO a HHHen He M o r y T e d e OTruiaTHTb 3a TB o e OT-HomeHHe KO MHe H 3a oTHOineHHe TBoeft MaMH, KOTO-p a a dHJia ^JIH MeHH BTopoft M a T e p t i o , H de3 B a c a , K p y r j i a a c n p o T a , K O H e n H o , /jaBHO dbi noradJia. " 2 Coijiba noBejia n o ^ p y r y B cnajibHio H CTajia eM noKa3HBaTb CBOH ^opoTHe n j i a T b a , CBoe T O H K o e d e j i b e , K O T o p u e OHa npHMepajia n e p e ^ 3epKajioM Ha C B o e n XHPHOH H BbixojieHHOH $ H r y p e . C o $ b a , RO n e r o Dr o H C T H H H a H Majioco3HaTejibHa n o OTHomeHHio K n o j i o -xeHHK c B o e M nojj;pyrH. " C o $ b a HHKOJiaeBHa B3rjiaHyjia B sepKajio H yBHjjejia CBOK BHXOJieHHyw (J>Hrypy xopomo OReroti xeHfflHHH H pa^OM c codoft HHmeHCKyio imrypy n o j i p y r H B n p o c T t i x rpa3HHX dauiMaKax c pe3HHKofi. 3 OHa He noHHMajia, K a K o e BnenaTJieHHe Bce DTO, Bce e e d o -r a T C T B a npoH3Bo,n,HJiH Ha e e n o f l p y r y . " C H T H H r o j i o f l H o r o He pa3yMeeT n, KaK r o B o p H T p y c c K a a n o c j i o B H u a . K K o r ^ a Co$ba paccKa3aJia en, HTO y Hee n p o n a j i a JioacKa, noTOMy HTO ee n p n c j i y r a npnTJiamajia CBOHX no/j;pyr n a naff K c e d e , TO HpHHa noTepajia He TOJIBKO Benin, HO flopornx eft jno^eM H eM caMoK rpo3Hjia noTepa e e c o d c T B e H H O H KH3HH . H JJ;JIH H e e Ka3ajiocb c o B c e M HejienHM, HTO Co$ba y c T p a H B a j i a cKaH^aji H3 -3a n p o n a x n OJHOM JIOXKH. DTHM PoMaHOB noKa3HBaeT, RO n e r o d e c H y & T B e H H a dHJia 84 H, HaKOHeu;, OHH CTajiH npn/JiyMHBaTB, n a n y c T p o H T B HpHHy Ha p a d O T y . TaK KaK y Hee He dHJio nacnopia, TO eft dHJio Tpy^HO ^ o c T a T b p a d O T y , a de3 p a d o T H eft He ^a^yT K B a p r a p n . OHH npHxojuaT K pemeHHio, MTO MpHHa o c T a H e T C H XHTB y CO*BH Ha n p a B a x n p H C J i y r a . Tor/Jta OHH dyayT o n a T B BMecTe H CMacT JIHBH . HpHHa dy/j;eT HMeTb pado-T y H M e c T O , r ^ e OHa d y ^ e T XHTB de3 C T p a x a , a Coc&Ba HHKOJiaeBHa d y ^ e T HMeTb n p n c j i y r y , c KOTopoft OHa d y ^ e T odpama.T&ca, KaK c cecTpoft. HpHHa dHJia eft, B CBOIO o n e p e ^ b , OMeHB dJiaro^apHa 3a TO, MTO npHHHJia TaKoe y M a c T H e B e e JIHMHOH cyjj[bde, " H e H c n y r a j i a c B d e c -n a p T H f t H O C T H " , ^ H, KaK BHJ4HO "cy^Bda MHe nocjiajia aHreJia x p a H H T e -JIH B TBOeM JIHUe, H H 6e3yMHO, HeBHpa3HMO CMaCTJIHBa. " 5 Ho npoimio TOJIBKO nHTb JJiHeft, KaK ode noapyrn noMyBCTBoBa-JIH Hejienoe n o J i o x e H n e B oTHOiiieHHax /j;pyr K flpyry. HpHHa dHJia OMeHB decnoMomHa B p a d O T e ejiyxaHKH, OHa He y n e j i a n p H r o T O BJIHTB nnmy H HaKpbiBaTB CTOJI. GO$BH HHKOJiaeBHa paccTpoHJiacB H dHJia OMeHB He #ejiHKaTHa c HpHHoft H3-3a TOTO, MTO Ta He y n e j i a npnroTOBHTB cajiaT. BHJIH npHTJiaaieHH TOCTH H CocpBe HHKOJiaeBHe npHuuiocB caMoft B n o c -neinHOCTH C T p n n a T B Ha K y x H e . Korjj;a npnuiJiH TOCTH H dHJi no/j;aH yxHH, HpHHa MyBCTBOBajia ceda coBepmeHHo Hejieno CH/JCH n a K y x H e , Kor^a B cTO/ioBoft dHjra TOCTH H OHa He Morjia npncoenHHHTBc a K HHM. MeM ^ajiBuie HpHHa xHJia c CocJ)Beft HHKOJiaeBHoft, T e n dojiBine OHH T a r o T H J i H C B ,npyr jjpyroM. CHaMajia HpHHa doajiacB. xo3SHHa, a noTOM CTaji Ha Hee ^eftcTBOBaTB BeMHo pa3/j;paxeHHHft, rpoMKHft H pe3-KHft r o j i o c GocpBH. Kor.ua o d a xo3aeBa yxo^HjiH H3 norny, TO HpHHa MyBCTBOBajia odJierMeHHe H y c n o K o e H H e . 85 O c T a B a a c b Bce dojibnie vs dojibiue oflHHOKoft, HpHHa n o 3 H a K O -M H J i a c B c AHHyniKOH, npHCJiyroft H3 c o c e / j H e r o j j o M a . OHa n a c T O CXOJJH-j iacb c AHHyuiKoM, T a n K a K eft dBiJio n p n a T H o cjiyinaTb ee JiacKOBBie H cnoKofiHbie c j i o B a . Ho ee /j ;pyxda c AHHyinKoft n p H H e c i a eft dojibnie H e n p H a T H o -C T e f t . Go$bH HHKOJiaeBHa BocnKTaB y x e B H y T p n c e d a H e y / j ; o B J i e T B o p e H -HOCTB p a d o T O H HpHHbi, Bce dojibuie H dojibme pa3JJcpaxajiacb ee n p n c y T -C T B H e M H B c e MeHbiue H MeHbrae r o B o p H j i a c H e H . HacTO HpHHa cHjjejia ojma. H a K y x H e , T o r a a KaK Co(£>ba HHKOJiaeBHa aej ia j ia BHA, HTO OHa d i i J i a 3 a H a T a B K O M H a T a x . E y f l y H H HeyjjoBJieTBopeHHoft p a d o T o f t HPHHBI, Cotfba HHKOJiaeBHa He nJiaTHjia eft 3apnjiaTBi . ^ e H b r a , KOTopBie OHa d p a j i a y n y x a flJia n p n c j i y r n , O H a n s p a c x o ^ o B a j i a HX Ha HOBBie n j i a T b a H uiJianH. yBHjieB, HTO HpHHa H a n a j i a apyxdy c AHHyuiKOft, Co$ba HHKO-jiaeBHa CTaj ia n o ^ 0 3 p e B a T b , HTO y H e e c T a j i n " n p o n a ^ a T b " JIOXKH H d p o u i K H , XOTH O H a HX n o c j i e H HaxojJiHJia. 3TO nojj;o3peHHe o n e H b OCKOP-dHJio H p H H y . OHa H e B o o c T o a H H H dBiJia flOJibuie O G T a B a T b c a B jsovse cBoeft nojj;pyrH. O c T a B H B eft 3artHCKy, HpHHa ymjia K AHHyume. TaKOB cioxeT DTOTO p a c c K a 3 a . OH H a n n c a H TaK n p o c T O , TaK noHaTHO ,20 MaJieftuiHx aeTaJief t . HTO x e ueHHoro H H H T e p e c H o r o B DTOM paccKa3e? G OJJHOH CTOpOHEI HyXHO 3aMeTHTb, KaK yMejio POMaHOB pa3-odJiaHHJi .npyxdy JiByx n o / j ; p y r , KOTopiie 0Ka3ajiHCb B npoTHBonoJioxHHx XH3HeHHBIX Od CTOaTeJIbCTBax . C jJtpyroft CTopoHH, , PoMaHOB T a K x e yuejso n o K a 3 H B a e T , K a K B IICHXHKe 9 T H X XeHMHH HaHHHaiOT 3apOXflaTbCH H y B C T B a H MBICJIH, C B O H -CTBeHHBie HX noJ ioxeHHaM. DTH n y B C T B a THHyjra H p H H y , dBiBtuyio o d p a -8 6 30BaHHyio daptiHio, B C T o p o H y AHHYHIKH , n p n c j i y r H , KOTopoM OHa caMa aBJiaeTca T e n e p b . " PoMaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T , HTO AHHyuiKa, n p n Bceft cBoeft de,3HOCTH, HMeeT dojiBiue c o x a j i e H H a H CHMnaTHH, neM CO$BH. PoMaHOB BtiCKa3HBaeT MUCJIB o TOM, HTO p a d o T a O^HOTO K a n e c T B a c o 3 -^ a e T B H y T p e H e e ejjHHeHHe IIOMHMO HX c o n H a j i B H o r o n p o n c x o x a e H H a . Cotpba x e CTajia flodBineM MeinaHCKoft THHH , KOTopyio M a a n o B -CKHH H . n p y r n e a B T o p t i rpoMHJiH Tan d e c n o m a ^ H o B CBOHX npoH3Be/j;eHHax. HyxHO T a n - x e 3 a M e T H T B , HTO p a c c K a 3 H a H H H a e T c a T e M , HTO CocJiBa HHKOJiaeBHa p a c H H T t i B a e T CBOB CTapyio n p n c j i y r y 3a ro, HTO OHa . npHHaJia y c e d a AHHyuiKy. 3Ta x e AHHymKa npHHHMaeT y n a c T H e H B pa3BH3Ke OTOTO p a c c K a 3 a . TaKHM odpa30M, AHHyuiKa a B J i a e T c a HCXOJJ;HHM nyHKTOM KOH-dpjiHKTa Mexay " d a p H H e M " H "npHCJiyroft",. KOTOPHH BHBeJieH PoMaHOBHM oneHB TOHKO H p e a j i H C T H H e c K H B H3MeHaiofflefica ncnxHKe o d e n x r e p o H H B . 87 FOOTNOTES ^Panteleymon Romanov, Rasskasy, I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", Rig a , 1928., v o l . XL, p. 1 0 7 . 2 I b i d . . p. 108. 3 I b i d . , p. 109. LL I b i d . , p. 110. I b i d . , p. 111. 88 " nPABO HA KH3H'b " HJIH n p o d J i e u a d e c n a p T H f t H o c T H nOBECTb DTO npoH3Bejj[eHHe, no cBoet! T e n a T H K e , HBJineTCH n p e ^ -uiecTBeHHHKOM poMaHa "ToBapHm KHCJIHKOB" . KaK B TOM , TaK H B DTOM rjiaBHOtt TSMOH H B j i n e T c a K p a x C T a p o f i MopajiH H n p H c n o c o d J i e H e -n e c T B o CTapoM HHT e JIJIHreHu,HH K HOBOH B J i a c T H . K a K MH y x e 3HaeM, DTO dH/ia JiiodHMaH TeMa P o M a H O B a . Omyman n o c T O H H H o e , CTHXHHHO6 juaBJieHHe HOBHX ycjioBHft XH3HH B c T p a H e , C T a p a a HHTejiJiHreHu,HH cTapaeTCH BceMH c n o c o d a M H n p n c n o c o d H T b C H K DTHM ycjioBHHM co-IIHajIbHO-KOMMyHH/^eCKHX H3MeHeHHfi, KOTOpHe OHH He nOHHMaJIH H He B COCTOHHHH dujiH n o H H T b . repoR DTOTO npoH3BefleHHa decnapTHHHHfi n n c a T e j i b JleoHHJj C e p r e e B H H O c T a H K H H , T o x e H H n e r o He MoxeT n o H H T b . OH TOJibKO jotyMaeT, HTO " ECJIH TH MO CHX nop cymecTByem* Ha CBeTe, SHanHT, TH dJiaronojiyMHo npocKOHHJi n e p e s peBOJironHio, H T e n e p b HMeenib npaBO H a xH3Hb, TaK CKa3aTb, 3a aaBHOCTbio JieT..." 1 CHH HHcneKTopa Hapo^HHx ynHJiHin., O c T a HKHH pacTepnjicH nocjie p e -BOJIIOHHH H BO B c e x a H K e T a x CKptiJi CBoe npoHcxox^eHHe H CBOO o d p a -30BaHHe. B nepnojc peBOJironHH H BoeHHoro KOMMyHHSMa^ O c T a H K H H ycTpo-HJICH jj;ejiaTb "HeftTpajibHoe odmenojie3Hoe j iejio" 2 H BHXHjtaji noKa d y p a peBOJIKUHH yTHXHeT H OH npHCOe^HHHT CH K MHpHOMy CTpOHTe Jib CT By CTpaHH. y H e r o HHKorjj[a HejdHJio xejiaHHH dopoTbcn, TaK KaK OH He 3Haji npoTHB KOTO d o p o T b c n H s a HTO eMy d o p o T b c n . OH n p o c T O dHJi HeflTpajIbHHM. Ho c Tex n o p npomjio y x e MHOTO BpeMeHH H MHoroe H3-8 9 MeHH/iocB, HO OcTaHKHH RO CHX nop xHBeT B C T p a x e 3a CBOIO JlOXb B a H K e T a x . OH d o H T c a /jaxe KOMMeHjjaHTa aoMoynpaBJieHHa H Bee BpeMa C T a p a e T c a 6HTI> C HHM B x o p o m n x OTHOiiieHHax. JleoHH^ OcTaHKHH co BpeMeHeM nojiyHHJi mTaTHyio jtojixHOCTb cenpeTapa B O#HOM H3 x y p H a j i o B . IIOTOM OH Hanaji n n c a T t C T a T b H ,HJIH DTOTO x y p H a j i a . XoTa HHKTO , H H M e r o eMy H He r o B o p H J i , Bee x e K a n a a -TO T p e B o r a He noKHjjajia e r o c e p / j u a . OH MyBCTBOBaji c e d a KaK dH BHHO-B a T H M , MTO BOT y x e ^ e c a T b JieT npoinjio co ^ H a peBOJHOU,HH, a OH dHJi, B e e eme, decnapTHftHHM. Ejj;a O^HHM y T p o M B T p a M B a e Ha p a d o T y , OH ycjiHmaji OT 3Ha-K O M o r o nHcaTe 'jia, MTO B ra3eTe dHJia H a n e M a T a H a c T a T t a Tpedyromaa OT Bcex n n c a T e j i e f t c T a T b KOMMyHHCTaMH, a KTO He C T a H e T "TOM - KptmiKai" .3TOTO COOdmeHHH dHJIO .ZIOCTaTOMHO , MTOdH OcTaHKHH d p o c H j i c a B naHHKy. IToMeMy e r o o x B a T H j i a T a K a a naHHKa, OH H caM He 3Haji. Kor .ua OH caM npoMHTaji C T a T b » , TO OH y B H ^ e ^ , MTO B Heft HHMero o c o d e H H o r o He TOBO-PHJIOCB. H (Bce x e ,OH Becb jjeHb He MOT ocBodonHTbca OT 3aKpaBineftca T p e B o r a . K a K O B a x e dHJia .zteftCTBHTejibHaa npHMHHa T p e B o r n O c T a H K H H a H MHOTHX flpyrnx n H c a T e j i e f t - n o n y T M H K O B ? H3 HCTOPHH pa3BHTHa j i H T e p a -T y p H B COBeTCKOM COH)3e HaM H 3 B e C T H 0 , MTO B 3TO BpeMa PATHl-OBUaM dHJia jaHa C B o d o ^ a BecTH KaMnaHHio n p o T H B nonyTMHKOB c uejibK 3 a c T a -BHTb HX nojiHOCTbio no^MHHHTbca .HHKTaType oToft opraHH3an.HH HJIH x e coBepmeHHoro HX H3raaHHH H3 jiHTepaTypHott j j e a T e j i b H o c T H . JleoHH/j OcTaHKHH 3Haji od 3TOM nojioxeHHH B n H c a T e j i b C K H x K p y r a x H eMy Ka3a~ J i o c b , MTO e r o n p a B o n a xH3Hb H H a T B o p M e c T B o ^ n p H T a K H x o d c T o a T e j i b -CTBaX^ dHJXO OMeHb 3HdKO. 3Haa CBoe noJioxeHHe H e y B e p e H H o c T H , JleoHHj OcTaHKHH HHcaji 90 Tan, HTodBi /rpyTHe He n o a y M a j i n , HTO OH diiJi n p o T H B peBOJiiouHH, 0JJ;HHM CJIOBOM, OH n p H c n o c a d J i H B a j i c a . H B cBoen npHcnocodJieHHnecTBe OH flomeji RO M e x a H H n e c K o r o noBTopeHHa Ten o peBOjnoiiHH. " CoBepmeHHO He BH.II.HO jiHua!" - roBopHT eMy rjiaBHHii pe^aKTop Py/jaKOB. -" Bce TeMH y Bac TOJIBKO O peBOJiK>n,HH H O padonnx, HO Kor^a He BHflHmi Bamero JtHua, TO BocnpHHHMaeinfe OTO KaK <$>ajibin, noTOMy HTO T e n e p b "TaK H y x H o " n H c a T b . . . . noneMy OTO B,npyr Bce mary He CTynaT de3 TOTO, HTO-dH o peBOJiKin-ra HJIH o padonnx He H a n H c a T b ? " - y^ H B -jiajica Py^ a K O B . - "PeBOJiioiiHOHHoe xyaoxecTBeHHoe npo-H3Bejj;eHHe MOXHO nncaTb, HH cjioBa He ynoMHHaa o c a -MOH peBOJIIOIJHH. " 3 TaKoe TpedoBaHHe peaaKTopa oneHb y^HBHJio OcTaHKHHa. OH nHcaji erne .no peBOJiiouHH, HO eMy HHKor/ja flaxe B rojioBy He npHxo^HJio, HTodti OT e r o nHcaHHfl KTO jindo TpedoBaji n e r o - T O ocodeHHoro. " ... ECJIH dH JJ;O peBoJIIOH,HH ero cnpocnjiH, neMy BH cjiyxHTe? OcTaHKHH c a c -HHM JIHUOM OTBeTHJi 6 k : - H c j i y x y Boodme KyjibType H yjjoBJieTBopeHHio OCTeTHHeCKOH nOTpedHOCTH." 4 Hocjte CBoero pa3roBopa c pejiaKTopoM PyaaKOBtiM, OcTaHKHH meji JO;OMOH H paccyxflaji, HTO " - PoccHa yx TaKaa HecKacTHaa CTpaHa, HTO OHa HHKorfla He yBHJUHT HacToamefi cBodo^H. H KaK OHH He noMMyT, HTO, 3 a n e n a T U B a a MepTBofi nenaTbio HCTOHHHKH TBopnecTBa, OHH ocTaHaBJiHBaioT H ydHBaioT K y j i b T y p y ? . . . FJejj;b, n o j j y -MaitTe, HHrjie, KpoMe C C C P , HeT npe^BapHTejibHOH ueH3y-pwl Kor^a n n c a T e j i b He yBepeH B TOM, HTO eMy H e c e T 3aBTpamHHH ,neHb, pa3Be MOXHO npn taraix ycjioBnax x^aTb necTHOro, OTKPHTOTO cji.OBa? Bce CMOTPHT Ha OTO TaK: Bee p a B H O , dyjiy HTO—HHdyjib' rracaTb, Jinmb dbi npouuio. OTCKfla pox^aeTca U.HHH3M, npo^axa CBOHX ydex,aeHHH 3a cyn. " 5 B cJioBax OcTaHKHHa MH CJIHIIIHM Hamero a B T o p a , onaTb no^HHMaiom,ero CBOH TOJIOC o TOM, HTO HeT c B o d o^H RJIH TBopnecTBa, HTO KyjibTypa POCCHH, nocTpoeHHaa H BNxojB^JieHHaa dopuaMH e e cBodo,n,H, KaK IlymKHH, rpHdoe^oB, HepHHmeBCKHH, 7J[ocToeBCKHH, ToroJib, TOJICTOH H MHorne 91 .Hpyrne BejiHKHe MHCJiHTejm^xepTBOBajiH JIHHHOH XH3HBIO H c B o d o a o i i RJIH c o x p a H e H H a T B o p n e c K O H CBOSO^H, dHJia Tenepb B OKOBax H eft r p o 3 H J i a cnepTb. Bo B c e x CBOHX n p o H 3 B e ^ e H H H x PoMaHOB, n e p e 3 y c T a CBOHX r e p o e B , BHCKa3tiBaeT T p e B o r y 3a yHHHTOxeHHe cBodoflH MHCJIH H 06e3JIHHHBaHHH HHTeJIJIHreHTHOTO HeJIOBeKa. " ripeac^e n n c a T e j i H d o p o j r a c b 3a CBOH y d e x ^ e H H H , HTHJIH H X , KaK C B f l T H H f o . . . A KaKOBH T e n e p b ydex^eHHH ITH-c a T e j i e n ? " 6 GnpamHBaeT JleoHHjj; O c T a H K H H . B HHHeuiHHx y c j i o B H a x , r o B o p H T OH, n n c a T e j i b TOTOB n p o a a T b CBOIO H^ero 3a T a p e j i K y c y n a . H DTO Bce H3-3a C T p a x a C M e p T H , KOTOPOH JIIO/JH <3HJIH TaK H a n y r a H H . "Be^b un apyr jj;pyra 6OHMCH." ^, TOBOPHT O c T a H K H H . 3aMenaHHe pe/j;aKTopa o TOM, HTO B CTaTbnx O c T a H K H H a nHeT JiHua" npHBejio e r o K caMoncHxoaHajiH3y. EtpH DTOM OH BHHCHHJI, HTO OH Bepnji B oejib ^ p y r n x , HO caM K DTOH uejra ne CTpeMHjica. OH Bcer^ a XOTeJI TOJIbKO yjIOBHTb, HTO' "HM" dHJIO HyXHO H dHTb HM TOJIbKO 110MO-fflHHKOM B flocTHxeHHH HX uejiH. OJJ;HHM CJIOBOM, OH npHcnocadJIHBaJICH K co3^aBmHMca ycJIOBHHM. H B cBoeM npHcnocodjieHSHecTBe noTepajt B Macce CBOIO JiHHHOCTb "KaK uejiyio e^HHHEty." & Ho d y ^ y n n j j o d p o c o B e c T -HHM H 3acTeHMHBHM nej ioBeKOM, OcTaHKHH He Mor nepeHocHTb CBoero nde3JiHHHfl", de3H,neHHOCTH, doH3Hb 3a CBoe cymecTBOBaHHe H npHcno-c o d J i e H B H e c T B a . HH3HB .HJIH Hero c T a j i a H6BHHOCHMOH. OH 3Haji, HTO Bee DTO cJiyHHJiocb "... OT Toro, HTO OH noTepHJi .aaHHyio eMy n p n p o -jJtoft BenHyio cymHOCTb. Tenepb OH, KaK xaJiKHft no.ieHffl.HK, B c e u e j i o 3a-BHCHT OT jjpyrHx H flpoxHT':: ecjiH OHH ,aa,nyT eMy p a d o T y , OH d y a e T xHTb. A ecjiH He xazyT..® OH jjyMaji, HTO OH n o n a j i He " H a T y flOpory" H HTO JSH3Hb HBJIHeTCH TOJIbKO "HHHTOXHHH MHp BeHHOCTH". Bce, HTO eMy T e n e p b o c T a B a j i o c b , .uyaaji OH, DTO flodpoBOJibHO yftTH 92 H3 XH3HH " . . . MTOdH ItpeKpaTHTb 3T0 HeflOCTOHHOe MeJIOBeKa JIXHBOe c y m e c T B O B a H H e " . ^ Ho yxo,UH H3 XH3HH, OCTa HKHH H a n n c a j i IIHCBMO CBOHM COTpyj^HHKaM X y p H a J i a , B KOTOPOM OH OdBHHHeT HX B T O M , MTO OHH XHByT BO JIXH , n p H T B o p M e c T B e , yrojiHHHecTBe " CaMaa r j i a B H a a Bauia jioxb B TOM , - nnineT O c T a H K H H , - MTO BH H3 6j iH3opyKOH T p y c o c T H nepejj onoxoM OT-peKjiHCb OT C B o e r o nojiJiHHHoro J i H u a , OT c B o e M CyiUHOCTH, H3 60H3HH, MTO OHa " H e noH.neT". H T e n e p b BH de3JiHU.He, paBHOJJcymHHe no^eHmHKH, BHnoJi-HHMUHe 3a xjied n y x n e 3ana3H , He HMeiomnx K BameM CyiKHOCTH HHKaKOrO OTHOmeHHfl. " H 3TO (5HJIO OMeHb T a x e j i o e odBHHeHHe J^JIH Bcex npHcnocodJieHneB H, KOHeMHO, MJlfl KOMMyHHCTHMeCKOtt n a p T H H , KOTOpafl nocTaBHJia H H T e j I -jiHreHUHio B T a K o e n o J i o x e H H e . B x y p H a j i e "Ha JiHTepaTypHOM nocTy" Ho.21, 1928 r o j j a , B OT^ejie " H a n o c T O B C K H H ^ HeBHHK", MH Haxo/jHM TaKyro KpHTHKy n o n o B o -My DTOTO npoH3BejieHHa P o M a H O B a : " n. PoMaHOB BHJ;HT pajjOM c OcTaHKHHHM H B c e x MacTeff H Kaj iHdpoB TOJibKO 3ydpa rB03jj;eBa /ja n p o J i e T a p c K o r o n o o T a 3Be3^;eBa, y K O T o p o r o 1TaKoft BHJI, KaKofi dHBaeT y CHHa JiHpeKTopa 3aBe,neHHH, n p n HSBecTHH, MTO MHOTO y n e H H K O B , e r o TOBapnmeM, n p e ^ n o j i a r a e T c a yBOJiHTb; DTO cpejiH HHX BH3HBaeT n e p e n o j i o x , HO H a Hen STO HHHSK He MOXeT OTpa3HTbCH.' " ... HanpacHO n. PoMaHOB B M e c T e c npo JieTnosTOM 3Be3jj;e> B'HM n p e ^ n o j i a r a e T , MTO npodJieMa n p H c n o c o d J i e H e M e c T B a c o B c e M He K a c a e T c a n p o j i e T a p c n o M JiHTepaTypH. K c o x a -JieHHio, 3TO He T a K , H n p o JieT a p e KHM nncaTej i f lM n p n x o ^ H -TCH B CBOHX pHJJiax HCKOpeHHTb y p a - OnTHMH3M HeKOTO — p n x uianK0 3aKHJj;aTejiett. Od OTOM n. PoMaHOB MoxeT H He 3HaTb. Ho KaK n. PoMaHOB He 3aMeTHJi PHJJ;OM c n p n -c n o c o d J i e H n e M OcTaHKHHHM HecKOJibKo j ;ecffTKOB n H e a T e J i e i t -nonyTMHKOB, H 3 KOTOpHX KaxJJHH HMeeT c s o e JIHUO, CBOK) ocotfeHHyio nHcaTejibCKyio HH/j;HBH/j;yajibHOCTb, KOTopbie, H a K O H e q , B3HTHe BMecTe, B HejioM npejicTaBJiaioT codoft coBepmeHHo ocodeHHyio JiHTepaTypy, OTJinnaiomyiocfl KaK OT JJiOpeBOJHOHHOHHOM dypxya3HO -HBopHHCKO-poccHttcKoft, TaK H OT coBpeMeHHOH d y p x y a s H O - e B p o n e H c K o M H aMepHKaHCKOtt J i H T e p a T y p H , KOTopyio, HecMOTpa Ha 3HaHHTe JibHtie OTJIHMHH, MOXHO o d t e j i K H H T b B M e c T e c n p o J i e T a p c K o K j iHTepaTypoft no,n oduiHM Ha3BaHHeM c o B e T C K o M , TaK KaK H T a H jj;pyraa HBJIHKJT-93 CH npOH3BOj;HUMH OT COU.HaJIHCTHHeCKOH peBOJIKECHH B POCCHH, HO ORHQ. - B ee npHMOM H Henocpe/ j c T B e H -HOM npejioMJieHHH, flpyran B KOCBeHHOM H d o a e e y c j i o x -HeHHOM. IIOCTaBHTb B UeHTp BHHMaHHH O c T a H K H H a H He3aMeTHTb HH J l e o H O B a , HH Be. H B a H O B a , HH CeltdbyjuiH-Hy, HH Eadean, HH Ojiemy, HH CejibBHHCKoro. HH AceeBa, HH ManKOBCKoro, HH, HaKoneu;, caMoro c e d a ; " 12 A B T O P BHiueyKa3aHHOH u[HTaTH y K a 3 H B a e T , HTO Tpare^HH nHcaTejiett -nonyTMHKOB ropa3.no c e p b e 3 H e e T p a r e j j H H npHcnocod/ i e H u e B , TaK KaK OHH He M o r y T H He XOTHT noHHTb npouecca couHajiHCTHHecKOH peBO-JIK>H.HH. TaKHM o d p a 3 0 M , pa3peuieHHe npodJieMti d e c n a p T H H H o c T H , ro-BOPHJIH HanocTOBu;ti, 3aKaK>naeTCH He B caitoydHHCTBe,a^B npHdJiHxeHHH K fleHCTBHTeJibHocTH B T B o p n e c K o n p a d O T e , T.e. n H c a T e / r b - n o n y T H H K ^ojixeH, HaKOHeu., n o c T a B H T b CBOH cnocodHocTH, CBOH H^ e n Ha yenyrn coiiHajiHCTHHecKOMy CTpoHTejibCTBy ; HHane y HHX HeT npaBa Ha xH3Hb B DTOM o d u j e c T B e . 94 FOOTNOTES •'•Panteleymon Romanov, Rasskasy, I s d a t e l j s t v o "Gramatu Draugs", Riga, 1928, vol.XL, p. 53. ^ I p j d . ? p. 63 . 3 & I f I b i d . . P. 6 1 . ^ I b i d . , p. 69 . 60p. c i t . . p. 69 . 7Op. c i t . , p. 6 l . 8 I b i d . , p. 85 . 9 I p _ i d . , p. 93 . 1 Q I p i d . . p. 97 . 1 1 I b i d . , P. 99 . 12 U.L. "OP. Romanove" Na l i t e r a t u r n o m posty, v o l . 3 , No. 21 , Moskva, 1928, p. 3*+7 95 " TOBAPHUI KHCJIHKOB " HJIH Tpn napu uiejiKOBtix nyjiOK HecMOTpn na TO, HTO "Pycb" a B J i a e T c a HandojiBinHM npo-H3Be^eHHeM PoMaHOBa He TOJIBKO no odBeMy, HO H no B p e M e H H , KOTO-poe OTOnpraa3Be^eHHe o x B a T H B a e T H no HHCJiy ,zieHCTBy»mHx JIHH., Bee x e PoMaHOB H3BecT8H B J i H T e p a T y p e He KaK a B T o p ."PycH1', a KaK aBTop nppH3BeaeHHH o duTe H O MopajiBHux npodJieMax, a ocodeHHO B3aHMooTHomeHHH jiB^eti c HO BUM npaBHTejitcTBOM B nepBoe jjecaTH-j ieTHe GoBeTCKoK B J i a c T H . PoMaH "ToBapnm KncJiaKOB" Buuiejx H3 n e n a T H B 1930 ro^y H CBOHM co,nepxaHHeM Ha^ejiaji TaK MHOTO tiiyMy, HTO OH HeMe^JieHHO dHJi KOHcpHCKOBan, a flJia ero a B T O p a 3aKpuJiHC& Bee flBepn K n e n a T H . Ho B C K o p e OTOT poMaH n o n a j i 3arpaHHn.y H duji H a n e n a T a H B npare nojt HO BUM H a s B a H H e M "Tpn napu mejiKOBux nyjioK". PoMaHOB peniHJi H T T H Tei|xe nyTeM, KaKHM IHJIH 3aMaTHH H nnjiBHaK, TO ecTB, ecJiH Kefyxajtoob H a n e n a T a T b C B o e npoH3Be^eHHe B y c j i o B H a x CoBeTCKott BJiacxn, TO a B T o p npHxojj;HT K peuieHHK n e n a T a T b e r o 3arpaHHU,eH. no MoeMy JiHHHOMy ydex^eHHK) OTO Ha3BaHHe He c o B c e M c o o T B e T C T B y e T cMucjiy co,ztepxaHHa O T o r o npjj63Bejn;eHHa. B cBoeM poMaHe "ToBapnm RncjiaKOB" a B T o p cTaBHT npodJieMy o d m e c T B e H H o r o n o B e ^ e H H a CTapoK HHTejuiHreHHHH B e e OTHO-IIieHHH C HOBOH BJiaCTBR). KaKOB xe cioxeT OTOTO poMaHa? TjiaBHUH repot! HnnoJiHT KncjiaKOB, symeBHO H MopajiBHO pa3jioxHBiiiHfica nejioBeK, c T a p a e T c a BceMH cpejj[CTBaMH, flaxe 3a cneT djiaronojiynna CBOHX coTpy^HHKOB 96 H a p y 3 e n , n p H c n o c o d H T b c a K HOBOH CoBeTCKOH B J i a c T H • O H CTpam-HO x e a a e T 6HTB npnsHaHHM KOMMyHHCTaMH H nojiyHHTb 3BaHHe "cBoero". OH HeHaBHflHT B c e x , KTO CTOHT Ha nyTH K TaKOMy npn-3HaHHio. O H o c o d e H H o HeHaBH^HT HHTejiaHreHiiHK) 3a e e B e x J i H B O C T b , MHTKOCTI., 6ecnoMomHocTi> H pacTepHHHOCTb. B c T p e T H B caHax/jH npo<f>ec-copa B KadHHeTe j j H p e K T o p a My3ea, KOTOPBIH duji TaK H a n y r a H , HTO ne MOT HaftTH c B o e M nuianH, KHCJIHKOB BO3HeHaBH,neji ero H , x o T a OH BHfleji ero BiJiany no/j; K p e c j i o n , He no^aji ee n p o c p e c c o p y . " . . . OH BH^e/i B npo$eccope Bce HenpneMJiKMHe H nyx^tie C TOHKH 3peHHH KOMMyHHCTa H n p O J i e T a p H a OTTeHKH ( H H -TeajiHreHinHH - A.T.) c TaKOH acHOCTbio, KaK d y ^ T O OH caM dtiJi KOMMyHHCTOM H n p o j i e T a p H e u . " * C^eaaB CBOH BilBOfl O HeXH3HeCHOCOdHOCTH HHTejdJIHreHIJ[HH, KHCJIHKOB npHXO^HT K 3aKJXH)HeHHK), HTO flJIH TOTO, HTOdfcl COXpaHHTb XH3HeCIIOCOd-HOCTb B TaKHX THXeJIHX yCJIOBHaX XH3HH HyXHO 3 a K a j i H T b c a . Ha.no B H p a d o T a T b B c e d e TaKyio TBep^ocTb, HTOdH y u e T b n e p e c T y n a T b nepe3 rndHyrnHx H He nyBCTBOBaTb c e d a BHHOBaTHM. HyxHO j jyuaTb TOJIbKO o cede H s a d H T b o Hyx.21.ax j j p y r n x , HJIH^ r o B o p a no .Hpyrossy ; H e npo-aBjiaTb JiiodBH K dJiHXHeMy. " ECJIH xoneui^xHTb jjJia c e d a H nyBCTBOBaTb B H y T p e H H e e p a B H O B e c n e , TO HyxHO 3 a x a T b yum H He/orJia^HBaTbca Kaxayio MHHyTy Ha OTHX rHdHymnx, noTOMy HTO Tor,na d y ^ e T He xH3Hb, a O,HHO MyneHHe H HpaBCTBeHHaa H H T K a . " 2 OT 3TOH H p a B C T B e H H O H nBITKH CTapaJICa OCBOdCHHTbCa He TOJIbKO K n c a a K O B , HO H c a n o CoBeTCKoe npaBHTejibCTBO, KOTopoe de3 B c a K o r o MopajibHoro yrpH3eHHa coBecTH n e p e c T y n n j i o nepe3 TpynH MHJIJIHOHOBj naBUIHX X e p T B a M H n H T H J i e T K H . KaKOBO xe dmio npouuioe OTOTO neaoBeKa? CBoe odpa-97 ; 30BaHHe HHxeHepa-nyTenua KncjiaKOB nojiynnji eme RO peBOJirouHH H ' dHJi cnacTJiHB B cBoeft padOTe. B CBOH CTyjjeHHecKHe ro,HH OH He HMeji HHKaKHX onpeaejieHHHx noJiHTHnecKHx B3rjia,noB. O H npnMHKaji K rpynne, TaK Ha3HBaeMHx, coHyBCTByiomHx CTy^eHTOB. " . . . OH XHBO coHyBCTBOBa/i fleaTejibHOCTH Bcex nepe^oBHx n a p T H t t , . . . O H npeacTaBJiaji cede repoeB peBOJirouHH My-HeHHKaMH, KOTOpue H^yT Ha nCHBHT, pHCKyH XH3HbK).... H XOTH OTO COMyBCTBHe dHJIO HHCTO nJiaTOHHHeCKOe, Bee xe OHO BocnHTHBa/io B Heu HeHaBHCTb KO BcaKOMy Ha-CHJIHK) Ha^ HeJIOBeHeCKOH XH3H£,K>, . . . " 3 TaKOBH dHJin HaHBHtie B3TJIHJJ;H MOJioaoro cTy^eHTa KHCJiaKOBa. Ho c npHxoflOM peBOJirouHH OH yBHjieji Tan-xe H .zrpyryio cTopoHy repoeB, KOTOpiIX OH CHHTajI MyneHHKaMH. D T H isyneHHKH npeBpaTHJIHCb B My-HHTejren. OHH yxe He yianpajiH caMH, a CBOHM HacHJineM yMepTB JIHJIH jjpyrnx. " - Hapofl, npo/ieTapnaT, KOTOPHH dHJi TaK TporaTejieH, noKa ero HacHJioBajiH ^pyrne KJiacen, eoBceM, nepecTaji dHTb TporaTejibHHM H n p e K p a c H H M , Korjua caM cTaji Ha-CHJioBaTb DTH Kjiaccii H 3aaBjiHTb o CBoeM cymecTBOBa-HHH caMHM Henocpe^CTBeHHHM odpa30M, T.e. Hanaji XO^HTB B KocoBopoTKax H canorax BO Bee ynpex^eHHa H 3aHHMaTb M e c T a . " 4 KncJiaKOB yxacHyjica TaKHM noBopoTOM .nejia. O H He MOT cede npe^cTa-BHTB, HTO OH, HHxeHep-nyTeeu;, pyKOBo/iHBHiHft RO OTOTO apMHefi JHo^eS Ha padoTe, jjojixeH Tenepb CTaTb nop. KOHTpojib OTOH padoneM M a c c H . A HTOdtl He dHTb nOR KOHTpOJieM MaCCH, HyXHO dHJIO H T T H BMecTe c DToft MaccoM. Ho H T T H BMecTe c OTOM padonefi Maccoft, ^Jia KHCJiaKOBa 03HaHajio, HTO OH flOJixeH dy.ueT BHCTynaTb H TOBOPHTB penn, B KOTO-pnx OH JiojixeH dy^eT npH3HBaTb K HacHJiHW. DTO 6HJIO npoTHB ero npHHHHnoB. XoTa peBOJiiouHa dHJia yxe 3aK0HH6Ha, HO rpaxjjaHCKaa B O H -Ha dnjia eme B nojiHOM pa3rape. Ho rpaxaaHCKaa BoMHa TaK xe Ha-pyniHJia "ocHOBHHe npHHUHnn HHTejiJiHreHTCKoti H/ieojiorHH:' ' CnpaBe^-98 JIHBOCTb flJia B C e x de3 pa3JIHHHH KJiacCOB ' . . . . " 5, KOTOpHMH y B J i e -Ka/icH KncjiaKOB B CBOH CTyfleHnecKHe ro^H. C rpax^aHCKOti BOHHOH Hanajiacb KJiaccoBaa dopbda Ha XH3HB H CMepTb. 3 T H COSHTHH Kjiac-COBOK dopbdH rJiydOKO OCKOpdHJIH KHCJiaKOBa H OH peniHJI IIOKHHyTb CBoe JiiodHMoe jiejio KHxeHepa-nyTeMua H 'nepex^aTb1 noKa DTa CTHxna HacHJiHH KjiaccoB ycnoKOHTca. OH CKPHJI CBOK) HacToamyio npoqoeccHio H, nepe3 cBoero 3HaKOMoro, nocTynnji Ha padoTy B HCTopHHecKKH My3efl. MHTaTe/ib 3HaK0MHTea c KHC/IHKOBUM, KaK co cjiyxamHM DTOTO My3ea. MTO xe dHJio 3a ynpexfleHHe DTOT My3eft H KTO B HeM 3aHH-Majica co3HflaTejibHHM TpynpM? RJLR jiynniero noHaTHa DTOTO Bonpoca HyxHo pasodpaTb KaTeropHH padoT, Ha KOToptie PoiiaHOB pa3^ejiaji Tpyfl coBeTCKHx Jiiofleft. OH roBopHT, MTO nocjie peBOJiicmHH padoTy MOXHO dHJio pa35eJiHTt Ha T P H KaTeropHH: riepBoft H caMOH HH3KOH padoToH "jjJia BcaKoro MHpHoro HH— TejuiHreHTa" dHJia Ta padOTa, "rjie HyxHo dHJio aKTHBHo npoBoflHTi peBOJHoucHio11,6 TO ecTb ydHBaTb jnoneft Ha cftpoHTax, HJIH xe, nyTeu odiiaHa, BecTH M a c c H Ha ydnticTBo. BTOPOA padoTofi, yxe dojiee BHcmero KaMecTBa, dHJio Me-xaHHMecKoe HcnoJiHeHne npHKasoB napTHH H npaBHTejibCTBa B odJiacTH cTPOHTeJibcTBa Hapo^Horo xo3aHcTBa. "MejioBeK npocTO cjiyxHT, no-TOMy MTO peBOJiiouHH 3acTajia ero Ha DTOM MecTe. Ho OH caM HHKOTO He HacHJiyeT, He oTHHMaeT HMyiqecTBa, He ca'xae'T B TiopbMy, He npn-3HBaeT CJIOBOM H npHMepoM K yKpenjieHHio peBOjnoijHH, - CJIOBOM He CTa-paeTca. HaodopoT, OH jjaxe noMoraeT CBOHM...." ^ H TpeTHfi pa3pafl padoin, CToamnn Ha nepBOM M e c T e , DTO Ta padOTa, KOTopaa HHMero He HMejia odmero c peBOJifoutHeH. OHa HH 99 B KaKOH c T e n e H H He co/jeHCTBOBajia peBOJirouHH.' Ho H e c M O T p n Ha D T O , TaKaa padOTa n o j u e p x H B a j i a c L peBOJiiou.HOHHHM npaBHTejibCTBOM. D T O dHJia padoTa B " . . . ynpexJieHHHX no oxpaHe naMHTHHKOB H C K y c c T B a H CTapHHH." ® D T O HPKO HJiJiiocTpHpyeT aBTop: " - PadoTaiomHe 3^ecb MOTJIH rop/jHTBCH Ten, H T O O H H H H B Majiefimen CTeneHH He nocTynnjiHCb CBoeft HHTejuiHreHT-C K O H coBeeTbK, He oMpanHJiH Tenen nponuioro, KOTopoe DHajio TOJIbKO MyneHHKOB 3a BejiHKHK Haeaji Bceodmero paBeHCTBa BHCIUHX Hanaji cnpaBe^JiHBOCTH c OTpnuaHHeM BCHKOrO HaCHJIHfl C MBefi dH CTOPOHH H pa,n.H KaKHX dH uejieft OHO H H H C X O ^ H J I O. PadOTan B D T H X ynpex^eHKHX, O H H yxe cMejio MOTJIH T O P ^ H T B C H , HTO H H B MajieSmen CTeneHH He npHJIOXHJIH CBOefi p y K H HH K KaKHM HaCHJIHHM.. H noTOMy, ecTecTBeHHo, cMOTpejiH c;H©KOToPHM npe3peHHeM Ha Tex, KOMy npHXCOHJIOCB npHHHMaTB XOTH dH H KOCBeHHOe y n a c T H e B HacHJiHH B j i a c T H . Tor^a KaK O H H H H - T O J I B K O He npHJioxHjra K DTOMy C B O H X p y K , HO flaxe padoTajin Ha^ coxpaHeHHeM T O T O , H T O peBOJiioiiHH paspymajia." ® K TpeTBeft K a T e r o p H H H npHHa^jiexaji My3en, B K O T O P O M padoTajr K H C J I H -K O B . HoMemaH KncJiflKOBa B My sen C T a p H H H , aBTop n c a n e p K H B a e T ^Ba dpaKTa B nocjie-peBOJHOLiHOHHHe rojiH. nepBBiM OTO dbiJi T O T dpaKT, HTO npojieTapnaT H H H e r o He noHHMaji B H C T O P H H CTpaHH; a ^ p y r H M cjpaKTOM aBjineTCH T O , H T O npojieTapnaT He TOJIBKO He HHTepecoBajica cTapHHoft, H O OH ee jjaxe HeHaBH/jeji H c T a p a j i c n yHHHTOxHTb, KaK CHMBOJI nponuioro. OCTaBHB CBOK) npO$eCCHI0 H yCTpOHBUIHCB T a K HeOXHflaHHO H dJiaronojiynHO c padOToM B My3ee, MOXHO dHJio dn npe/jnojiaraTB, H T O KHCJIHKOB jjojixeH dH dHTB c n o K o i f e H M . Ho, y B H , OH He HaxojiHJi C B o e r o CnOKOHCTBHH. BHJIH JIBe npHHHHH, KOTOpHe H^aBajIH eMy nOKOfl t BO n e p B H x ero MyHHJia coBecTB o T O M , HTO OH CKPHJI CBOIO c n e u H a j i B H o c T B ; a BO) B T O P H X ero apyxda c FIojiyxHHHM, H O B H M .nnpeKTopoM My3en, M 0 3 0 -jiHjia rjia3a apyrHM. KHCJIHKOB npejjnojiaraji, H T O ero jrpyxda c nojiyxHHHM paccMaTpHBaJiacB ero coTpyaHHKaMH, KaK npe^aTejiBCTBo no OTHOBieHHK K HHTe JIJIHreHUHH . 100 Bee padOTHHKH My36fl dHJIH H3 CTapofl HHTejIJIHreHUHH H Bee OHH , KaK H cam KHCJIHKOB , doflJiHCfc) j^HKTaTypti n p o / i e T a p n a T a . OHH B3HJIH 3 T y p a d o T y He n o T O M y , MTO y HHX dtuio xejiaHHe p a d o T a T B , T B o p H T b HJIH n o M o r a T t HOBOMy n p a B H T e j i b C T B y B BoccTaHOBJieHHH p a 3 -3.TO pyraeHHoro BOHHOH Hapo,HHoro xosafiCTBa, a noTOMy HTO^dHJi e^HH-CTBeHHHfl c n o c o d c o x p a H e H H H CBoeM XH3HH. Be^t jio3yH.r npojieTapnaTa dHJi TaKOB, MTO "K T O He p a d o T a e T , TOT H He e c T . " P a d o T a n B My3ee, OHH noJiynajiH 3apnjiaTy, KBapTHpy H , r j i a B H o e , npcnoBOJiBCTBeHHyio K a p T O M K y . nepexHB peBOJirouHH), #yMajra OHH , dHJio 6u oneHB r j i y n o yMHpaTb c rojioay TOJIBKO noTOMy, ^^©- MTodti 0 T K a 3 a T B C H p a d o T a T B ^JIH COBeTCKOM BJ iaCTH. Ho OHH B e e x e xopomo 3HajiH, MTO C o B e T C K o e npaBHTejiB-CTBO T e p n e j i o HX TOJIBKO n o T O M y , MTO n o K a eme H y x a a j i o c B B HX c n o c o d H O C T H x H 3HaHHHx. noKa HX eme TepnejiH. Ho TO B p e M H , K o r ^ a HX c j i y x d a dy.neT H3jiHiiiHeft, dHJio y x e He,najieKO. 3Han CBoe n o j i o x e H H e , cjiyxamne C T a p o E HHTejuiHreHUHH TOJIBKO n p H T B o p n j i H C B , MTO OHH p a d o T a j i H , a Ha caMOM .nejie OHH TOJIBKO OTCHXHBajtH CBoe BpeMH B CBOHX KaHUeJIHPHHX. 1 1 - KaK xe MOXHO r o p e T B H T B o p M e c K H p a d o T a T B , -CKa3aji AHJj;pefl HBaHOBHM monoTOM, - Kor.ua Bee odpameHHe BJiacTH TOJIBKO K padOHHM , Bee .HJIH p a d o M H x , a H a c KaK dy/j,To H e T . MH HTO xe, y x e n o r p e d e H H ? Hac TOJIBKO 3acTaBjiHK>T p a d o T a T B , de3 BCHKOH- Haflex^tH Ha dy^ymee. P a d o T a T B MOXHO . 3 a C T a B H T B , a TBOPHTB HeJIB 3H. " 10 3^ecB a B T o p y K a 3 H B a e T Ha d e c n p o ^ y K T H B H y r o p a d o T y , K O T o p a n eme H RO CHX HOP HBJIHeTCH THnHHHHM HBJieHHeM CpeHH COBeTCKOtt HHTeJI-JiHreHUHH H o c o d e H H O cpe/iH rincaTeJieM. PeBOJiwuHH OTHHJia y HHX B e e , neM OHH XHJIH. Ho OHa He jjajia HM HH-—KaKoit Ha.nex.HH Ha dynymee. 101 He HMen see dy/iymero, OHH He MOTJIH T B o p H T b , 6H/IH He B COCTOHHHH npoHBJiHTB HH/i<aK0H T B o p H e c K o E H f l e H . " - H BOT BEM pe3yjibTaT . . . Bee MH TOJibKo ^ejiaeM BHfl, MTO flejiaeM.... MTO ^ejraeM, a H a caMOM xejie HHMero He neji&eu, XOTH 3aHHTH c yTpa j;o no3^HeM HOMH . KascjjHH p a e c y x j j a e T : 'Eyay p a d O T a T b POBHO HaCTOJIbKO, MTOdH He CeCTb B T i o p b M y . 1 OTcroaa de3-pa3/iHMHe y ncHaBJiHiomeH' M a c T H HHTe JI JIHreHiiHH KO B c e M y . 11 H TaKOBO dHJio HacTpoeHHe C T a p o K HHTejuiHreHUHH B DTH ro,m>i, K O T o p a a o c T a j i a c b eme B XHBHX. Bee OHH MTO-TO j e j i a j i H , 3aHHMajiHCb KaKOH-TO p a d O T O H , a H a CaMOM ^eJie OHH CTapaJIHCb TOJIbKO OTCpOMHTb CBOft CPOK TK>pbMH • B TO B p e M H , naK doJibuiHHCTBo ynpexaeHHii dHJin y x e OHHmeHH OT dypxya3HHX ojieMeHTOB CTapoft HHTejiJiHreHi^HH H 3aHHTH n p o j i e T a p -CKHMH CneilHaJIHCTaMH, HJIH, KaK aBTOp C CapKa 3MOM T O B O p H T , MTO OHH "HcnnTHBaJiH Ha c e d e ' BTopxeHHe yjiHUH1 " , TO DTOT My3e8 CT0HJ1, KaK O C T P O B , "KOTOpOTO He 3aXJieCTHBaJIH BOJIHH COBpeMeHHO-C T H " . 13 B HeM napHJi eme n p e x H H H nopnflOK padoTH K a s e H H o r o y n -p e X J i e H H H . B HeM THUlHHa H MHCTOTa dHJIH eme 3aKOHOM. 3TH CTOpOHH padoTH B My3ee dHJin y x e a T T a K O B a H H B coBeTCKott J i H T e p a r y p e . flpKHM npHMepoM TaKHx aTTaK MoxeT cjiyxHTb KHHO-cneHapHft BJI. Ma-HKOBCKoro "JIiodoBb IIlKadpajiioda" HanncaHHaa HM B 1927 rojiy. C u e H T p a j i b H o r o B x o ^ a My3en CTOHJI eme uiBeHuap H JiecTHHun dHJIH eme ycTJiaHH MHTKHMH KOBpaMH. JJ]aMH roBopHJiH n o cppaHny3CKH, a M y x n H -HH ujeJioBajiH HM p y M K H . O^HHM CJIOBOM, Bee dHJio eme no c T a p o M y . Ho B j i p y r H 3^ecb cjiyxamne cTajiH s a M e n a T b , MTO n p o -J i e T a p n a T CTaji pemHTejibHO H a c T y n a T b n o B c e M y cppoHTy Hapo^Hor'o x o 3 H t t C T B a . Tor.ua, KaK BO BpeMH peBOJuouHH MOXHO dHJio eme yflTH 102 c O^HOTO M e c T a Ha j j p y r o e is n e p e x j i a T b , n o n a y e n o K O H T c a CTHXHH p e B o -JiroijHH, TO cettHac yxe He('dHJio c n a c e H H a . Te y n p e x / i e H H a , KOToptie RO CHX n o p o c T a B a j i H C b He 3aTpoHyTHMH, no/iBeprjiHCb xecTOKoK KpHTHKe B r a 3 e T a x . noaBHJiHCb TaK xe is cTaTbH roBopam.He , , \TO RIORTS "CH-RKw&e B My s e e , H H n e r o odmero c peBOJirouHeH He H M e » T . " ^ Etuia Ha-3HaneHa peBH3Hfl My3ea, . K O T o p a a B u a c H H J i a , HTO OTO dHJi He peBOJiio-UHOHHHH My3ett, a codpaHHe C T a p u x Bemeft H Jiro^eit. C T a p H H j jHpeKTop 6bui yBOJieH H HasHaneH HOBHH H3 pad.pHHx, 3aKOHHHBtuHfi padiJsaK. BMecxe c ^ H p e K T o p o M / B My3ee noaBHJiacb a n e S K a KOMCOMOJibueB, K O T o p a a c j i e j i H -Jia He ToatKo 3a padOTHHKaMH My3ea, HO H 3a caMHM j p i p e K T o p o M . EbiJia jj;axe o p r a H H 3 0 B a H a "JlerKaa K a B a j i e p n a " H3 KOMcoMOJibneB B STH ro/jbi, KOTopaa H a j i e T a j i a Ha npoH3Bo,a;cTBa is ynpex^e.HHa BO BpeMa o d e ^ e H H o r o nepepwBa H y c T p a H B a j i a n p o B e p K y no OTHOineHHio Btino JiHeHHa nj iaHa H H C -nojib.soBaHHa padonero B p e M e H H . 3,aecb PoMaHOB HaMeKaeT H a T O , KaK TmaTejibHO dHJia o p r a H H 3 0 B a H a n a p T H H H a a CHCTeMa KOHTpojia /ipyr s a . H p y r o M . B My3ee noaBHJica PadoHHH KoMHTeT H HanajiH n a c T O c o 3 H B a T b -c a codpaHHa cjiyxaiHHx. KHCJIHKOB n p e a n y B C T B y a Ha^BHraionrHeca nepHHe T y n H H H C T K H , noj ipyxHJiea c . i n p e K T o p o M M y 3 e a , KOTOPHH BTaHyji e r o B CBOH njiaHH nepeodopyaoBaHHa My3ea. HO, nOJipyXHBtUHCb TaK dJIH3KO C JtHpeKTOpOM My3ea, KHCJiaKOB He HaxojjHJi c e d e n o K o a . Ha c o d p a H H a x , KOTOPHS npoBojiHJia KOMcoMOJib-C K a a a n e M K a , KncjiaKOB nyBCTBOBaji c e d a o n e H b n e j i o B K O . OH n p e / i n o j i o -r a j i H , e r o n p e ^ n o j i o x e H H a 6HJIH c n p a B e ^JIHBH, HTO CTaptie cjiyxainne M y s e a ^yMajiH o H e M , KaK o n e p e H o c H H K e . H3-3a OTOTO OH nyBCTBOBaji c e d a BHHOBaTHM nepea. HHMH. 3TO juajio eMy noBoji; H3MeHHTb c s o e MHeHHe o CTapoM HHTejiJiHreHiiHH. OH HanHHaji n p e 3 H p a T b e e , KaK KJiacc, 103 KOTOpHH dHJI OpraHHHeCKH HecnOCOdHHM Ha HOBVK) X H 3 H B , H a npH- . CriOCOd JIBHHHBCTBO, KaK 3TO CfleJiaJI O H , KHCJiaKOB. O H dHJi B COC-TOHHHH noTepaTb Bce npHHLiHrra, KOTOPHMH eme XHJIH OTH cT a p a e HH-TejiJiHreHTH,. O H ocyxaaji HX 3a HX HacTOHHHBocTB cJiyxHTB H y M e p e T B CBoeMy 3aKOHy HHTejiJiHreHUHH . . . He c d j i n x a T B C H c HanaJiBCTBOM H BJiaCTBIO, HTOdH He H3MeHHTB C e d e H He dHTb npHHaCTHHM H R a -ti 1 c ®-CHJIHB . 1 0 KHCJIHKOB onpaB/iHBJi CBOKJ H3MeHy HHTejuiHreHUHH T e M , MTO j;ejio H KyjitTypa, KOTOPOH OH Korjca - T O c j i y x n j i , KOTopan " - ... BO raaBy y r j i a c T a B H j i a C B o d o ^ y MHCJIH H p a c m n p e H H e n p a B 16 JIHHHOCTH, - ... " aaBHO y ^ e p j i a H dHJia norpedJieHa Ha B e K H . KaKOBa x e dHJia H a a o d H O C T B CJiyxHTB MepTBOMy jjejiy? A MTO K a c a e T C H n e c T H HHTejiJiHreHLiHH, TO OH, KHCJIHKOB , juaBHO y x e n e p e c T a J i XHTB M e c T H o . 0 TaKOM n p H c n o c o d J i e H H H HHTeJIJIHreHiiHH y K a 3 H B a e T c o B e T -CKHM nncaTejiB HUIHH B CBOGM KOPOTKOM p a c c K a 3 e " P H H a r H 1 ' . B HeM flniHHT onHCHBaeT KOJIXO3HHKOB , K O T o p a e 3a r j i a 3 a ocyxaajiH n p e a c e / i a -TejiH Kojixo3a, HO npnMjia H a c o d p a H H e OHH CO BceM corjiamajiHCb, HTO OH HM n p e j j j i a r a j i . . KaK y x e dHJio yKa3aHO BHiue, ^to KncjiaKOB He HMeji CBOHX TBep^HX ydex^eHHH H B c e r j i a meji no JIHHHH HaHMeHBiuero c o n p o T H B J i e H H a Ero JiHHHoe H a c T p o e H H e Bceraa 3aBHcejio OT MHeHHa j j p y r n x . B pe3yjiB T a T e TaKOH HepemHTejiBHocTH^ OH C T a p a j i c a npncnocadJiHBaTBCH K DTHM MHeHHHM. " . . . y Hero dHJia CriOCOdHOCTB B03dyxJieHHO BHdaJITHBaTB BCK jiyiny TOMy, KTO B aaHHyio MHHyTy K a 3 a j i c n eMy xoponiHM nejioBeKOM. npoTHB TOTO, KTO dHJi JIJIH Hero B jtaHHHH MOMeHT HexopomHM nejioBe-KOM. KHCJIHKOB xopomo noHHMaji, HTO H a n d o j i e e njioxoM n e p T O H xapaK-104 Tepa Hejic-Beica HBJIHSTCH ero pa3,zr.BoeHHOCTb, HepemHTejibHocTb B BHdope ero xH3HeHHOH .noporn. OH TaK xe xopomo noHHMaji, HTO TaKoe HBJieHHe pa3aBoeHHocTH MoxeT 6urb oneHb narydHHM MJIH nero. Ho BBe^eHHe r iHTHJieTHero njiaHa OHHTB Meinajio eMy yTBepjiHTben B CBOHX CHMnaTHax. BonpocH HecnpaBe^JiHBocTH ocodeHHo ocTpo BCTajiH Tenepb, Kor^a KJiaccoBan dopbda CTaaa p a 3 r o p a T b c n Bce CHJibHee H CHJibHee. r " - KoMMyHHCTfci npHTecHHBT K y j i a K a , - pa3MHauiHJi KHCJIHKOB. - Be^b OTO xe HejienocTb - TecHHTb n e j i O B e K a 3a TO, HTO OH p a d o T a e T RJIH cedn, H xopomo p a d o T a e T . Ra., H a B e p H o e , OTO npocTO xopomne, CTapaTejibHbie KpecTbHHe, a HH^aKHe K y j i a K H . /laftTe xe MHe B0 3M0XH0CTb pacnopnxaTb cBoefi jiHHHOCTbio. He JiejiaMTe H3 MeHH pada. " ^® Ho K o r ^ a OH y3HaBaj i HS r a 3 e T , KaK KyjiaKH c o x r j i H KOMMyHHCTa B 3anepTOH H 3 d e , KHCJiHKOBa o x B a T H B a j i yxac H B03MymeHHe n p o T H B KyjiaKOB, KOTOPU© "... C 3BepHHHM y n o p C T B O M OTCTaHBaiOT CBOK) 3 B e p n -HyiO X H 3 H B , JIHUieHHyK) BCHKOTO C B G T a , KyjIbTypH, BCHKOTO ^BHXeHHH Bnepeji." I 9 TaK KpHTHHecKH BHCKa3iiBajiCH PoMaHOB ycTaMH KHCJIHKO-Ba no noBo/iy KJiaccoBOH d o p b d H B j tepeBHe H KO JI jieKTHBH3au.HH Kpec-TbHHCTBa. HMen TecHyio cBH3b c jiepeBHeM, H n o K a 3 a B paHbme B cBoeM TBopnecTBe, HTO OH 3Haji ee, PoMaHOB CTpajjaji H 3 - 3 a TOTO, HTO OJHHH padoBjiajcejibiiH ymJiH, a H a HX MecTO npHmjiH Jipyrnej eme doJiee xecTO-KHe. Kor,aa B "PycH11 KpecTbHHHH HMeji XOTH czray jnecHTHHy seMjra , TO HOBaa BJiacTb OTodpajia BCK> 3eMJi», .naxe He ocTaBJian JJJIH KypnctH. Ee OTdnpajiH noTOMy, HTO nejioBeK padOTaji xopomo ^JIH cedn. "He .HejiafiTe H3 MeHH pada", KPHHHT PoMaHOB, ycTaMH KHCJiHKOBa, JiafiTe xe HaKOHeii nejioBeKy CBOdoay pacnopaxaTbCH caMHM codott H cBoett COdCTBeHHOCTbK). 105 T a K a a KJiaccoBaa, de3CMHCJieHHaa d o p b d a BHBo^Hjia K H C -j i H K O B a , KaK e r o H H T e p n p e T H p y e T PoMaHOB, K S ^ y m e B H o r o paBHOBecna. OH xoTeji HafiTH BHyTpejjJSe p a B H O B e c n e , nooTOMy OH C T a p a j i c a n e p e -yfie^HTB c e d a B TOM, HTO e r o c o B e c T B e c T b e r o BHcmHtt c y j i b a , Bee ace OH c o M H e B a j i c a B TOM, HTO OH flejiaji. " . . . H co C T o p o H H dHJio BH,Z[HO e r o Bcer^a H a n p a -x e H H o e , d e c n o K O H H o e JIHHO nejioBeKa, KOTOPHH o p o d e j i , n o T e p a J i c a RO nocjxejtHeM cTeneHH, H e -cMOTpa H a nocToaHHtie ycHjraa co3jaTt. B c e d e BHyTpeHHKio TOHKy o n o p H . . . " 20 H e c M O T p a Ha Bee C T a p a H H a , KHCJiaKOB pa3^BaHBajica. OH 0TKa3ajica OT CTapofi HHTejiJinreHLtHH, a KOMMyHHCTH eme He npHHHJiH e r o . B pa3roBo-p e c riojiyxHHHM, KncjiaKOB co3HaeTca, HTO OH OTomeji, cziejiajica nyx^HM fljia CBOHX coTpy^HHKOB, HO OH T a K - x e HaMeKaeT Ha TO, HTO IlojiyxHH noKa eMy He TOBapnm, XOTH OH H n y B C T B y e T c e d a c HHM Jiynme, neM " c flpyrHMn". ffiHBa B o d C T a H O B K e ^ByjiHHHa, KHCJiaKOB jiHiuaeTca B c e x CBOHX JiyniuHx BHyTpeHHHx KanecTB, n o n a ^ a a Bee dojibme H dojibiue B c e T H JIXH H M o p a j i b H o r o najieHHa. HPKHM npHMepoM oTOMy aBjiaeTca e r o JirodoBnaa HCTOPHH c MOJIOJIOH xeHOH e r o J i p y r a CTy^eHnecKHx JieT. IloJiyHHB n n c b -MO OT O T o r o flpyra, A p K a ^ n a He3HaMOBa, KHCJiaKOB He BocxHmajica HjteeM BCTpeHH C HeJIOBeKOM, KOTOpOTO OH He BHJiejI C RHefi OKOHHEHHa yHHBepcH-T e T a , a OH ropeji xejiaHHeM no3HaKOMHTba c e r o MOJIOJIOS xeHOH. Bee e r o x H B o e eymecTBo dHJio 3aHHTO MHCJIBK od OTOH xeHmHHe. Ero HH-T e p e c o B a j i B o n p o c , KaK OHa e r o npHMeT H KaK o u e H H T . B jteHb HX B C T p e H H OH o c o d e H H o TmaTejibHO saHaJica CBOHM T y a j i e T O M . EMy oneHb x o T e j i o c b npoH3BecTH H a H e e BnenaTJieHHe cocToaTejibHoro c j i y x a m e r o . 3TO OH c^ejiaji npHrjiameHHeM HX o d o n x H a JTXHH B p e c T o p a H , H3-106 pacxo^oBaB aa OTOT yxHH B e e .neHbra, KOTopHe xeHa e r o ocTaBHJia eMy Anx XH3HH H a uejiHft Mecflut. Flocjie OToro yxHHa KHCJIHKOB He o c T a H O B H J i -CH HH n e p e f l MeM H HH n e p e j i KeM, MTO6H HaMaTb c o x H T e j i b C T B O c xeHOft etc CBoero j j p y r a , TaMapoft . B e r o JiaJibHeftiuHx OTHoraeHHHx c Tamapoft^dec-noKOHJio TOJIBKO TO, MTO y T a M a p H MoaceT noaBHTbca p e d e H O K , KOTOPHH MOxeT HMeTb CXOflCTBO C HHM, KHCJIflKOBHM. yde^HBlUHCb OT ApKajJjHH, MTO T a M a p a He MoxeT HMeTb .neTeft, KHCJIHKOB npo/iojixaji CBOIO no^JiocTb RO T e x n o p , noKa T a M a p a He odMeHajia e r o H a K H H o p e x n c c e p a MnjiJiepa, KOTopHft HMeji dojibme aeHer H dojibme CBa3eft, MeM KHCJIHKOB. IIoTepaB BCK MopajibHyio o n o p y , KHCHHKOB p a c T o n T a j i r p aSHHMH c a n o r a M H H C K p e H -HBB .npyxdy MejioBeKa, KOTOPHH TaK jioBepaJica e M y . OH n n j i , eji y C B o e r o # p y r a , npHTBopajica dHTb TOJibKO njiaTOHHMecKHM jtpyroM e r o xeHH, Be/i c HHM p a 3 r o B o p o pejiHTHH, o npaB^e, o npaBax MejioBeKa, od H^eajiax H viReax, a noTOM cnaji c e r o xeHoft. MopajibHoe na^eHHe KHCJiaKOBa dHJIO TaK HH3K0, MTO OH Jj;axe He 3aM6MajI H He MyBCT BOBajI, MTO Bee, MTO OH jj;ejiaji, dHJia caMaa HH3Kaa no/ u i o c T b , H a KOTopyio dHJi cnocodeH HHTejuiHreHTHHft MejiOBeK. T e n e p b OH Bcerjia npHxo^Hji jioMoft pa3/j;paxeHHHft H OTMajiMH-Bajica Ha Bee Bonpocn xeHH. OH dtui rpydHM H HecnpaBe^jiHBHM K Heft, x o T a OH coBepmeHHo He HMeji ocHOBaHHa. GBa3aBuiHCb c TaMapoft , OH cepjiHjica, MTO OH HMeji xeHy H MTO euy Bee BpeMa HyxHo dHJio JiyMaTb o Heft H HaftTH npHMHHH flJiH pa3BO£ a . Ho Korjta y H e r o noaBJiajiacb x a j i o c T b K Heft, TO eMy xoTejiocb npH3HaTbca eft B TOM, MTO e r o ^yuia rndJia H OH caM He B cocToaHHH dHJi cnacTH e e . EMy x o T e j i o c b KPHK-H y T b eft "cnacK M e H a , a radHy". H o n a T b y Hero HejxBaTajio MyxecTBa H a 3TO. OH 3Haji, MTO e r o radejib HaMajiacb c TOTO MOMeHTa, K o r^ a 107 OH OTKa3ajicfl OT CBoeM npocpeccHH H n p e B p a T H J i CBOK xH3Hb B "cpajibuiHBKy". C O T o r o MOMeHTa, jjyMaji OH, OH n o T e p a J i Bee n y B -CTBa K BHCUIHM n e j i o B e n e c K H M u e H H O C T a M . " . . . fl n o T e p a j i BcaKyio n y B C T B H T e J i b H o c T b K T o u y , HTO He noKynaeTCH HHKaKHMH fleHbraMH: K BepHoK d e c K o p u c T H O H JiiodBH dJiH3Koro n e j i o B e K a . . . " 21 T a K O B H dbiJiH npHHHHbi MopajibHoft H ayxoBHoft r n d e j i H K H C J i a K O B a . H , K o r a a , HaKOHeu;, jjoMoynpaBJiaiofflHM e r o HOBOM K B a p T H p u n p e ^ c T a B H j i KHCJiaKOBa KHTejiHM flOMa KaK "TOBapHma", TO y KHCJiaKOBa n o n y B C T B O B a j i c a n p n -JIHB c n a c T b a . H a K O H e q - T o e r o Ha3tiBajiH TOBapHmeM, a HH^KaK H H a n e . " T e n e p b OH n y B C T B O B a j i , HTO OTH JIKUJH npH3HaioT e r o ^ e f i -cTBHTejibHO CBOHM TOBapHmeM, H xoTejiocb BceMH cHJiaMH onpaBjjaTb -©HPtT HX ^ O B e p n e H pacnojioxeHHe K HeMy". 22 OH CTaji 3aHHMaTbca OdmeCTBeHHOH padOTOfi, HTOdH ^OKa3aTb HM, HTO y Hero HeT TaHHH n p o c e d a , HTO e r o flyiua dHJia KaK H a jia,noHe. KHCJiaKOB xopomo ycBOH/i MeTOflH n p H c n o c o d j r e H H a . Torjja, KaK KHCJiaKOB n o r n d a / i H3-3a c B o e S MopajibHoK HeycTOHHHBocTH, TO e r o flpyr, ApKa/jHH He3HaMOB, n o T e p n e j i TparejjHio flOBepna B CBoett XH3HH n o T O M y , HTO OH duji y x CJIHIUKOM dojibiiiHM H / i e a -JIHCTOM. npoHcxo^ a H3 coBepmeHHo j t p y r o r o coanajibHoro Kjiacca, neM KHCJiaKOB, y Hero dtuiH coBepmeHHo flpyrae B3rjia,i.H Ha coHHajibHue npodJieMBi. Tor/j;a, KaK KHCJIHKOB BH/JiBHraji jiHHHOcTb H e e npaBa n a nepBoe MecTO, TO HJIH ApKajjHa 6HJIH npaBjta H cnpaBe/j;jiHBOCTb BHCOIHMH K a n e c T B a M H n e j i o B e K a . EMy Ka3ajiocb, HTO de3 npaB/jH H cnpaBeJIJIHBOO-TH MHP cyinecTBOBaTb He MoxeT. H H T e j u i H r e H i i H a , KOTopaa dHJia JJO peBojiioHHH HHHi^HaTopoM B dopbde 3a OTH KanecTBa, n p e B p a T H J i a c b B n a c c H B H o r o T p y x e H H K a , padoTaromero H3-3a KycKa x j i e d a , de3 scaKOK 108 H H U H a T H B H , de3 BCHKOM H/j;eH. He HMefl cBoen H / i e H , OHa He HMejia B e p H , a de3 B e p n He^dHJio dy.Hym.ero. pyccKaa H H T e j u i H r e H U H a , KaK MH e e noHHMaeM, - rc-BopHT ApKa^nM, - H a n a j i a c b n p n BejiHHCKOM H KOHMHJiacb n p n JleHHHe." 23 ^ T a H H T e j i j i H r e H i i H a , K O T o p a a dHJia H p a d O T a j i a ceHMac RJLR C o B e T C K o E B J i a c T H , He HMejia HH^TcaKOH MopaJib-Hofi o n o p H . TaKyio de3HpaBCTBeHHOCTb ApKa/iHH H a 3 H B a e T MopajibHHM BHposJj;eHHeM. 3TO - MopajibHoe B H p o x , n e H H e.... Bor ymeji H S Hauiefi XH3HH, H o c T a j i o c b TOJibKo O^HG dopameeca 3a C B o e c y m e c T B O B a H H e x H B O T H o e . " 24 XOTH ApKajj;nfl H 3Han, MTO o c T a B m a a c a H H T e j u i H r e H U H a MO-pajibHO p a 3 J i o x H j i a c b , Bee x e y H e r o dHJia H a a e x ^ a H a TO, MTO OH HaH.neT y KHCJiaKOBa TOTO j t p y r a , KOTOPHX dH/io TaK Majio B H a c T o a m e e BpeMa. n p e f l C T a B J i a a KHCJiaKOBa c B o e M x e H e , KaK j jpyra^ A p K a ^ H f t TOBO-P H T " . . . MTO caMoe p e^Koe Tenepb, n p n ocKyAHeHHH BHCIUHX o T H o m e -HHH Mex^y Jiio^bMH, DTO - ,npyr, T . e . MejioBeK, KOTOPHH T e d a He n p e -^ a c T HH n p n KaKHx ycjiOBHax XH3HH...." 25 A p K a ^ H K , KOHeMHO, He 3Haji MTO KHCJiaKOB TOJibKo BMepa O T K a 3 a j i c a OT C B o e r o .npyra n o j i y x H H a T O J i b -KO noTOMy., MTO e r o CHajiH c .HOJIXHOCTH .nnpeK.Topa My3ea. B p a 3 -roBopax c KHCJiaKOBHM OH yKa3HBaji H a TO, MTO JIK>,HH n o T e p a j i H Bepy B c e d a , KaK OTJ^ejibHyio ejiHHHny, a XHJIH Maccon, He HMea B c e d e HHKS— KOTO B H y T p e H H e r o M H p a . A T e , KTO eme MOT c o x p a H H T b c e d a , KaK ejjHHHny, .HOJIXHH o d t e ^ H H H T b c a " . . . MTodn npoHecTH Haiuy npaB^y, odmeMejioBeMecKyro H C T H H y CKBO 3B DTy o n o x y H c n a c T H ee" OT r H d e j i H . . . " ApKa^Hfi TBep.no BepHJi B TO, MTO B H e n o B e K e HeJib3a ydHTb HCTHHH, T a K KaK H C T H H a e c T b ^yma M e j i o B e K a . H p a H o HJIH no3j;Ho / nej ioBeK BO 3BpaTHTCa K Heft, nOMyBGTBOBaB TOCKy OT HHMTOxeCTBa BHeiUHHX RejL 109 npH XHBOTHOM cymecTBOBaHHH. OH BepHJi B TO, HTO .HBHraTejieM XHSHH dHJia JiiodoBb, a He dopbda. ApKa^HH roBopnji, HTO yxac cymecTBOBaHHH dHJi B TOM, HTO npojieTapnaT yTBepxflaji, HTO TOJIBKO H X H^en HMeioT npaBo Ha cymecTBOBaHHe H HTO dyflymee npHHa^jiexHT TOJIbKO HM. Cjiymaa OTH BBicKa3HBaHHa jrpyra, KHCJIHKOB jnyMaji, HTO OT Hero Benjio "MepTBoM HHTejiJiHreHiUHHott", KOTopaa BMecTO no^BHra Bnepe^ iuarHyjia jjajieKO Hasajot. $aHaTHHecKHM Hja;eajiH3M ApKa^HH TaK xe Beji ero K rndejiH, KaK H MopajibHan de3HpaBCTBeHHocTb. KHCJiHKOBa. ApKa,n,HH cjieno RO-Bepnji cBoen xeHe,, npe/inojiaraa, HTO ona ero JiiodHT, H HTO ona He HapyniHT BejiHKHx Tpa^HiiHH pyccKofi xeHiHHHH npouijioro - dHTb BepHOH. "... BejiHKa dHJia no,E,BHxHHHecKaa cjiaBa pyccKott xeHmHHH H MoxeT CJiyHHTCH TaK, HTO MOH MajHOTKa yBHjIHT BHCUiyK) IjeJIb B HeceHHH 3TOTO KpecTa:. xHTb co CTapHM MyxeM, y KOToporo nepejioMjieH .nyxoBHHH no3BOHOHHHK, H cBoeK TenjioTOH flaTb eMy 3aMeHy yTpaneHHoro...." 2 y s H a s od H3MeHe CBoeK xeHH c jrpysbaMH aoMa H ee deccoBecTHOK JIXH, OH yxacHyjica H ocTOJideHeji. OH caM HHKor^a jioxbio He saHH— Majica. "... H KaK-TO He 3Haji npaKTHKH JIXH . - r o B o p H T OH KHCJIH-KOBy B c B o e M O T H a a H H H , - a caM Jioxbio HHKorjja He nojib30Bajica." ^® H TOJibKO T e n e p b y Hero BO3HHKJIH coMHeHHa o TOM, HTO MoxeT dHTb HeT npaB/jH Ha c B e T e , HTO "oHa .saBHHM j^aBHo c r H H J i a " . B BHCHa3HBaHHax ApKa^tHa 3ByHHT de3Ha^exHocTB, d e 3 -BHxo^Hoe nojioxeHHe CTapoft HHT6JI JiHreHH.HH, odpeneHHOH Ha radejib . .iHKTaTypoH npojieTapnaTa. "-... EyJiymee npHHa^jiexHT apyrofi pace..., - roBopHT ApKa,HHH c Hen3MepHMoM TOCKOH, - Bejib pado-HHH - OTO .irpyraa paca, - paca HHnero odmero c HaMH He HMeio-110 m a n . . . " 29 B ApKaj(He PosiaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T TpareflHW nejioBeKa -H ^ e a j i H C T a , oflHHOKoro B raydHHe cBoero cep^qa, rHdHytnero IIOTO-M y , HTO OH He MOT BOCnpHHflTb CypOBOH .HeHCTBHTejIBHOCTH. DTHM caMHM PoMaHOB f KaK H M H o r n e jupyrHe a B T o p u TOTO B p e M e H H , fleJiaeT BHBO^, HTO B obmecTBe ^HKTaTypH npojieTapaaTa HeT MecTa AJIR O^HHOHeCTBa H H e 3 a B H C H M O C T H . KaK xe npejcTaBaaeT PoMaHOB xeHin.HHy B nepHOfl o$opMJie-HHH HOBOH CoBeTCKOH BJiaCTH? IIOKOJieHHe p y C C K O H xeHUJHHH, PO^HB-meftca B Hana/ie 20-ro C T o a e T H a H npoxHBmyio CBOIO IOHOCTB B M e c T e c peBOJiioiiHeH, pas^BOHJioct Mexay cTaptiMH Tpajj;HLi.HHMH naTpnapxajiBHoH CeMBH H T a K HeOXH^aHHO JUaHHOH eM JIHHHOH CBOdOflH. OHH OCTaJIHCB "MopaaBHO-rojiuMH", roBopHT a B T o p ycTaMH CBoero repoa. yme^ mn OT CTaporo H He aorHaB HOBOTO, OHH ocTajiHCB nocpe,KHHe jjoporn, He 3Haa KaK c e d a B e c T H H KaK no JIB 3 0 B a T B c a .naHHOH HM c B o d o a o H . EfclTB xeHOH H Jj;OMOX0 3aHKOH, pOXaTB fleTeH H BOCriHTHBaTB CeMBH), CHHTajiocBy flJia H e K O T o p n x xeHmHHj caMHM yHH3HTe/iBHHM npH HOBKX ycao-BHax CBodo^H. H roBopio, aaa HeKOToptix xeHujHH n o T O M y , HTO HX dujio He 3HaHHTeJIBHOe MeHBIIIHHCTBO Jjaxe B TOT nepHOfl COBeTCKOH B J i a C T H . IlpeflCTaBHTejiBHHij;eH TaKoro MeHBinHHCTBa H du/ia TaMapa. B Heft PoMaHOB coBOKynaaeT Bce OTpHuaTejiBHbie CTOPOHH GTOTO MeHBtiiHH-CTBa. TaKne,xeHmHHH, nojiyHHB cBodoayy CTapajiHCB BceMH CHjiaMH H cpejoiCTBaMH 3 a B o e B a T B CBoe n o a o x e H H e Ha O^HOM y p o B H e c MyxHHHoM. OTO 6UJI OTHacTH ee npoTecT npoTHB ee cxoaeTHero nopadomeHHa H d e c n p a B H a riepe^ MyxHHHOH. BBITB TOJIBKO xeHoM ApKanHa, TaMapa CHHTaaa yxacHtiM codtiTHeM B ee XH3HH. E H x o T e j t o c B ^ejiaTB TO xexo, I l l KOTC-pHM OHa Morjia 6u " n p o a B H T B c e d a " . " - Kanaa a d c o j n o T H a a n y o T O T a , - T O B O P H T TaMapa. -. . . B H y T p n BO MHe H H n e r o H e T , H DTO omyraeHHe MynHTejiBHO. XoneTca XOTB HeM-HHdy / iB ero 3a-r j i y m H T B . 11 30 H OHa 3arjiyniHJia D T y T o c n y T e M , HTO d e 3 pa3dopa OTjiaBajiacB M y x -HHHaM, KOTopbie BHJJcejm B HeM TOJIBKO xeHmHHy, a He XHBOTO n e j i o B e K a , nmymero C B o e r o n o j i o x e H H a B HX o d m e c T B e . '•*- n o r o B o p n co MHOH XOTB p a 3 T a K , KaK TOBOPHJI c ApKa/jHeM,..." 31 f yMOJiajia OHa K H C J i a K O B a , KOToptiH ,TaK x e BHJieji B HeM TOJIBKO xeHiHHHy flJia y ^ O B j i e T B o p e H H a CBOHX OpOTHHeCKHX C T p a c T e M . MaTepHajiBHHe H e j j o c T a T K H B C T p a H e B o c n n T a j i H B HeM 3aBHCTB K KpacoTe X H 3 H H , KOTopyw OHa BHJiejia B niejiKOBBix nyjiKax H d o r a T H X pecTopaHax. EM x o T e J i o c B n a p n x c K o M XH3HH, O KOTopoM OHa HMejia n o -H a r a e TOJIBKO H3 n i . e c , BticTaBJiaeMHx Ha cu.eHe. 3TOM n a p H x c K o M XH3HBB3 OHa y B J i e K a j i a c B , KaK y B j i e K a e T c a pedeHOK CKa30HHoM XH3HBK. T a K H e c n e K T a K J i H .KaK 6u noflJiHBajiH Macjia B ropamnM OTOHB e e H e -3jj;opoBoro BoodrpaxeHHa. OHa B3,m>ixajia H npoH3HOCHJia c TOCKOM : " - Boxe, H y KaK x o n e T c a XOTB Kyjja -HHdyjiB y c T p o H T B c a . . . - T a K Haj ioej ia ora c e p a a d e c n p o c B e T H O C T B . " - ... MeHa ( T a K - A.T..) y r a e T a e T H e c a M o c T o a x e j i B H a a XH3HB, K o r ^ a npHXOJiHTca 3a KaxjiHM pydJieM o d p a m a T B -c a K Myxy. " 32 Ee T a r o T H J i o TO co3HaHHe, HTO OHa MaTepnajiBHO 3aBHcejia OT CBoero M y x a . B CBoeM ReTCKoH HaHBHOCTH H dojiBHOM ynopcTBe, OHa OT-^aeTea K H H o p e x n c c e p y M n j u i e p y , KOTOPHM odemaeT c/iejiaTB HecKOJiBKO CHHMKOB , TaK KaK e r o " H H T e p e c o B a j i o " e e JIHH.0. B DTOM n p e j i n o j i o -xeHHH e e H C K a x e H H o e B o o d p a x e H H e y x e BH/j[ejio c e d a 3HaMeHHToM a p T H C T K o M B cJjHJiBMax Ha pojj;HHe H 3 a r p a H H i i e M . Ho MHJiJiep, HcnoJiB-112 30B8.B ee jjjia CBOHX JIHHHHX yTeineHHH, yc j ia j i ee .HOMOH, K3.B eft T P H n a p n mejiKOBHx nyjioK 3a ee " y c j i y r H " . HOjirpn BceM e e n a j e H H H , T a M a p a n o n y B C T B O B a j i a ceda yHHxeHHOH H ocKopdJieHHoH^ H 3 d p a B C M e p T b , KaK H a K a 3 a H H e H 3a c e d a H 3a MyxHHH. JfaBaa TaKOH T p a r H n e c K H f t KOHetx TaMape, PoMaHOB n o K a 3 H B a e T , HTO n y B C T B o n e c T H B p y c c K o S xeHiiiHHe cHjibHee ee Mopaj ibHoro n a a e H H a . C OKOHMaHHeM HDIIa H BBejieHHeM n a T H J i e T H e r o n a a H a B d p a H e H a n a j i a c b KO JI JieKTHBH 3aiiHa K p e c T b a H C T B a H doJibnieBH3au;Ha H H T e a j i n r e H U H H . B pa3roBope c K n c j i a K O B H M , flHpeKTop My3ea Floay-XHH roBopHT, H T O ^ K o r ^ a OH yBHjueji K a p T y n a T H J i e T K H ^TO y H e r o " c e p j t q e 3auijrocb" OT p a / i o c T H yBH/jeB TaKyio n e p e c T p o f t K y C T p a H H . " Ha/io BOT TOJIbKO H3 nop, BJiacTH MyxHKa B H d p a T b c a , CKB03b d a p a d a H e r o n p o n y c T H T b , B C T y n e H C T O J i o n b , HTOdH codCTBeHHHHecKyio KyjiaoKyro 3aKBacKy H3 Hero B H d H T b . . . . MH HX B c e x B TaKHe KJieiUH 3axMeM, HTO OHH B p,Ba c n e T a n o f l o x n y T.... A TaM MH CBOH " 3 e p H O B n e dpadpHKH 1' p a 3 B e , n e M . . . . " 3 3 H C T O P H H xopomo H 3 B e c T H O , CKOJibKo MHJIJIHOHOB c o B e T C K H x Jim/jen y M e p -JIO c HCKyccTBeHHHM o p r a H H S O B a H H e M r o J i o ^ a B r o ^ t i nepBoft n a T H J i e T -K H . A HTO K a c a e T c a "3epH0BHX $ a d p H K " , TO H RO CHX n o p OHH He padoTaioT . HajuiexaiuHM odpa30M.. PoMaHOB BHCKa3HBaj ica od OTHX $aHTOMax npaMHM, noHHTHHM a3HKOM, de3 MeTadpopHnecKoro HJIH / i p y -THX dpopM o d o p o T a JIHT epaT ypHoro a 3 H K a . 0 dOJIbmeBH3atIHH HHTejIJIHreHUHH POMaHOB r o B o p H T y c T a M H C B o e r o r e p o a K n c J i a K O B a , HTO " . . . ITpouBeTaeT K a 3 e H H o e T B o p n e c T B O , a jiHHHOCTb c ee HHHUHaTHBOH 3arHaHa B mejib. CTapaiOTca TOJIbKO O T O M , HTOdH KaK MOXHO dOJIbme HaCTpOHTb B c e r o . Ho, B0 3JiBHraa KaMeHHHe c T p o e H H a , coBep-meHHO yHHMToxaioT HejiOBenecKyio JiHHHOCTb H J i y m y . " 3 4 113 PoMaHOB paccMaTpuBaji noj iHTHKy n a p T H H coBepmeHHo H e B e p H o M , a c a i r a x KOMMVHHCTOB ynopHHMH cpaHaTHKaMH. Bee npHHnHnbi H e j i o B e n e c K O H XH3HH OHH 3aMeHHJIH npHHH,HnOM CHJIU, K O T O p a a ydHBaeT BCHKyK) C B O d O f l -Hyio MHCJifc B c T p a H e . HHTejuiHreHHHH n e p e c T a j i a c o n p o T H B J i a T b C H , KaK H caM aBTop. OHH 0TKa3ajiHCb OT codCTBeHHOH H # e H , K O T o p a a Beer.ua aBJia/iacb c B a T H H e f i B o a K o r o Mbicjiamero M e j i o B e K a . HM nepe/ioMajiH x p e d e T , KaK B DTOM c o s H a e T c a a B T o p . x p e d e T n e p e j i o M a H . OH rpo3HT n e p e j i O M H T b c a y qejiOH nojioBHHH H e j i o B e H e c T B a . Ha3UBaeMa " K n a c c o B a a JiHHHa" n a p T H H yHHHTOXHJia BO MHOTHX JIM^HX coMyBCTBHe , MejioBenecKyio cnpaBe/j;jiHBoeTb H xajiocTb. PoMaHOB jj;ejiaeT BHBO£, HTO n e j i o B e K , B c y m H o o T H , e c T b ^ o d p o e e y m e c T B O , HO KaKaa Jindo n o j i H T H n e c K a a JiHHHa /jeJiaeT e r o d e 3 x a j i o c T H H M XHBOTHHM, ydHBaioiiiHM ^ p y r o r o MejioBeKa TOJibKO H3-sa npHHunna. BOT nojiyxHH, B CymHOCTH, e C T b JIOdpHH HeJIOBeK, HO BOT " . . . K DTHM THdHyiHHM xepTBaM KJiaccoBOH no / iHTHKH y H e r o HeT HHKaKoS HejioBenecKOH x a j i o c T H , no/jOHTH K HHM n o H e j i O B e n e c K H . " 36 Hs Bcero BtniieyKasaHHoro CTaHOBHTca a c H O , n o n e M y DTOT poMaH duji TaK dHCTpo KOHdpHCKOBaH H HaBeer.ua Hcne3 c noJioK d n -dJIHOTeK H KHHXHHX Mara3HHOB. X O T a flJia POMaHOBa H 3aKpHJIHCb Bee .HBepn nenaTH, Bee xe &JIR Hero caMoro He rpo3HJia o n a c H O C T b , KaK .HJia MHOTHX jJipyrnx n H c a T e / i e f t - n o n y T H H K O B DTOTO B p e M e H H . 3a nocjie.ii-HHe BoceM6 JieT c B o e n XH3HH , PoMaHOB c T a p a j i c a n p H c n o c o d H T b c a K T p e d o B a H H a M n a p T H H B JiHTepaTypHott p a d o T e . Ho DTO eMy c o B c e M H e -y^ a j i o c b . OH He MOT nncaTb n o 3a/iaHHK) napTHH. OH He cyMeji n p H -cnocodHTbca, KaK DTO c^ejiaji e r o repoft K n c j i a K O B . 114 FOOTNOTES Romanov, Panteleymon, Tovarishch K i s l i a k o v H i Three p a i r s of s i l k s t o c k i n g s . I s d a t e l ' s t v o Imeni Chekhova, New York, 1952. p. 209. 2 I b i d . , p. 23*f. 3 I b i d . . pp. 111-112 L Op. c i t . , p. 112. < ^ I b i d . , p. 113. 6 I b i d . ? p. 75. 70p. c i t . . p. 75. 8 I b i d . , p. 76. 9 Op.cit.. p. 76. 10 I b i d . , p. 68. 1 10p;' :"-clt., p. 68.. 1 2 I b i d . . p. 77. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 78. lIf0p. c i t . , p. 78. 1 ^ I b i d . , p. 205. l 60p. c i t . . p. 205, 1 7 I b i d . . pp. 116-117, 1 8 I b i d . . p. 222. 1 9 I b i d . . p. 223. 2 Q I b i d . . p. 89. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 300. 22 I b i d . , p. 332. 2 3 I b i d . . p. 126. 2k I b i d . , p. 127. 2^Ibid.« p. iM-2. I b i d . . p. 2)+l. 2 7 I b i d . T pp. 27^-275. 2 8 I b i d " . . p. 361. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 360. 3°Ibid.. p. 181. 3 1 I b i d . . p. 182. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 283. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 166. 3 ^ I b _ i d . , p. 123. i b i d . , p. 129. 3 60p. c i t . , p. 223. 117 " POCCHH H C . . C . C . P . " B Mae, 1930 r o a a , r JiaB JIHTH3jn;aT H pe,aaKu.HK ra3eT "npaBaa" H "HsBecTHH1' B3HJIH H a n o p y K H nHcaTejreH-nonyTMHKOB c uejibio HX peadn-JIHTaiJHK. JUfl 9TOTO OHH yCTpOHJIH RJIK IIHCaTeJieH OKCKypCHK) B HH^yCTpH-ajibHBie paMoHH C o B e T O K o r o Coi03a. B 3Ty r p y n n y BXCHHJIH J leoHOB, IlHJibHHK, HBaHOB, 3o3yjiH, PoMaHOB, KaTaeB vs flpyrne. PoMaHOB 6bus n o c j i a H B HHXHHK HoBropo^ Ha C T p o H T e j i b C T B o aBTOModHJibHoro 3aBo,ia HMeHH M o j i o T O B a . Pe3yjiBTaTOM e r o noe3^KH 6hiisvs e r o TPH onepKa: " M e c T O poxfleHHH C o B e T c n o r o aBTOModHJibHoro 3aBo^ a " , "ABTOMJidHJibHHH 3aBo^ HMeHH M o j i o T O B a " H "CoLiHajiHCTHMec.KHH ropojn". 3TH T P H o n e p K a noHBHjiHCb B coBeTCKOH n p e c c e B 1936 ro , i y . OTCicaa BH/JHO, KaK flOJiro PoMaHOB odayMbiBaji B o n p o c CBoero nojioxeHHa, KaK nncaTejia, KaK OH flOJiro He pemajica CTaTb HHCTpyMeHTOM nponaraH^u napTHH. Ho Tpedo-BaHHa $H3HHecKoro cymecTBOBaHHa 3acTaBHJiH ero HanenaTaTb DTH onepKH. CBOH nepBHfi onepK PoMaHOB HanHHaeT TeM odtacHeHHeM, HTO nncaTb o TOM, HTO OH Bvsjsejs BO BpeMa cBoen noe3^KH B HHXHHM HoBropoji, 3HanHT noBTopaTb Bce TO, HTO yxe dHJio CKa3aHO B coTHax ^ p y r n x pac-CKa30B O COBeTCKOM CTpOHTeJIbCTBe . IlHCaTb Od DTOM, 3HaHHT ITOBTOpHTb yxe cKasaHHoe o Test:ne CTponTejibCTBa, o pacuiHpeHHH ruiaHOB KOHCTpyK-LIHH, Od 3!HTy3Ha3Me padOHHX. B 3TOM HeT OpHTHHajIbHOCTH, TOBOpHT PoMaHOB. TaKHe cjioBa He BBi3HBajiH dojibnie HHTepeca B HHTaTejie. " nncaTb TOJIbKO B TaKOM .nyxe, HTodn yKpenHTb CBoe jiHHHoe noJioxeHne, des BcaKoro HHTepeca K xyjioxe-CTBeHHOH npaB/j;e - a DTOTO .lejiaTb He B COCTOHHHH. " 1 roBopHT PoMaHOB. OH dHJi yBepeH B TOM, HTO nncaTejib jj;oJixeH nncaTb c TaKoM CHJIOH, HTodu HHTaTejib M o r BHjjjeTb nepe,n codon peajibHocTb, a He no^jj;ejiKy K HeM. RJSH DTOTO nncaTejib caM .soJixeH BepHTb B TO, 118 HTO OH n n m e T . Ero x y z t o x e c T B e H H a a p a d O T a ^oJixHa dBiTB ydejjHTejiB-Hoti flaxe RJIK T e x , KTO He xoneT BepHTB B e r o H#era. DTOTO MOXHO JJjOCTHHB TOJIBKO T O T^a, KOT/ia nHCaTejIb HMeeT BO 3MOXHO CTB C 0 3 ^ a B a T B HeoxHJiaHHBie MOMeHTBI. Ho " RJIH. Kax^oro xy/j;oxHHKa, KOTopBift K p H T H n e c K H OT-HOCHTCH K c B o e n p a d o f e , Hama o n o x a npejjcTaB-j iaeT 3aTpy^HeHHH #jia TaKoft padOTBi.... B H a c T o a m e e BpeMa OHHa Teia npnJioMHHHpyeT H 3anojiHaeT XH3HB -3TO T6Ma peKOHCTpyKIIHH HOBOTO MHpa. Ho T p a K T O — BaTB TaKyio TeMy B TaKOM c B e T e , H T o d u HHTaTejiB He B C T p e n a j i c a c daHajiBHBiMH BBipaxeHHaMH H 3HaK0MBiMH eMy odpa3aMH, co c j ioBaMH, Ha KOTopBie OH nepecTaji p e a r n p o B a T B , KaK Ha HOBOCTB - DTO oneHB Tpy,HHoe 3a^aHHe JJIH e r o xy^oxecTBa, K O T o p o e npe/j;Ha3HaHeH0 cjiyxHTB He TOJIBKO ^Jia HacToamero MOMeHTa, HO TaK x e JiJia dyaymnx noK@JieHHft. " 2 TaK p a c c M a T p H B a j i PoMaHOB xyjj;oxecTBeHHyjo p a d o T y n n c a T e j i a . OH roBopHT, HTO HHTaTejiB ydex/iaeTca B npaB,ne HHTaeMoro TOJIBKO Torjj;a, Korjj;a OH nyBCTByeT B n n c a T e j i e Ty e/jHHCTBeHHyio uejiB, K O T o p a a odteJiKHaeT e r o TBopnecKyio CHJiy. FlOCJie DKCKypCHH H a aBTOMOdHJIBHHfl 3aBO,H HMeHH MojIOTOBa B HHXHeM H o B r o p o,ne, PoMaHOB n n c a j i , HTO e r o y^HBHJio n e p e p o x ^ e H H e p y c c K o r o Hapo^a H3 n a c c H B H o r o , JieHHBoro, 6 e 3 p a 3 j i H H H o r o , B aKTHB-H o r o T p y x e H H K a . OH nnnieT, HTO OH H6BOJIBHO 3aMeTHJi, KaK p o x^ajiacB H O B a a p a c a pyccKoro Hapo^a. OH y^HBjiaJica TOMy, KaK, nojj; JiaBJieHHeM n a p T H H , H3MeHHJica x a p a K T e p pyccKoro Hapojj;a, KaK C T a p a a Poccna n e p e -poxjj;ajiac& B HOBBIM C o B e TCKHH G 0 1 0 3 . DTO nepepox^eHHe nponcxo^HJio He B T e n e H H H CTOJieTHft, KaK DTO yTBepx/iaic-T MHpoBBie n c H x o j i o r H , a B T e n e H H H O^HOH .zteKaflbi. " EyflyHH B HnxHeM H o B r o p o ^ e a nonyBHTBOBajj DTO B nepBBiS p a 3 c o Bceft CHJIOH p e a J i B H O C T H . " 3 n p n e 3 x a a B HHXHHM HoBropo/j; , PoMaHOB yBH/j;eji, KaK H3MeHajiocB JIHHO 119 p y c c K o M 3eMjiH. T a M , r j ie paH&iue dbiJiH MOHacTbipn, nonemnHbH yca,n,bdH, vp,e no B o j i r e Korjj;a-TO n JIH JIH dypjiaKH c 3ayHHBHHMH' n e c H H M n , BHPOCT-ajiH HOBbie 3aB0^ H , HOBtie n o c i p o M K H , npoxo^HJiH HOBLie c y ^ H a , pocjin HOBHe KOJIX03H, KOHeHHO nO,H dpyTaJIBHHM JiaBJieHHeM napTHH. POMaHOB HCHO y B H ^ e j i ,' HTO O K c n j i o a T a q n a Hapo,a;a OT/j;ejibHHMH JiHHHocTaMn sa-MeHHJiacb O K c n j i o a T a n n e n n a p T n n H rocyaapcTBa. Ho p&3HHqa c o c T o a j i a B TOM, HTO C T a p a a P O C C H H n p e ^ c T a B J i a j i a c o d o n connajibHHH n OKOHOMH-H e c K n t l 3 a c T o M , Tor.ua Kan CoBeTCKHtt Cow3 J i B H r a j i c a Bnepe,n, x o T a nopora DTOTO ^ B H x e H n a dtuia y c T J i a H a ero acepTBaMH. Ho pa3Be neTp 1 He jiejiaji TOTO x e c a M o r o , C T a p a a c b n p o d y ^ n T b P O C C H K H3 e e j i e T a p r n -n e c K o r o CHa? H e p e c T p o n K a x o 3 H H C T B a n n e p e ^ e j i K a H a u H O H a j i b H o r o x a p a K T e p a dHJia Tpyj jHon 3ajj;aHen RJIK n a c T H H x npejj;npnflTHH B ycjiOBHHx P O C C H H . ^JIH OTOTO n o H a j i o d n j i n c b J iHKTaTopn CHJIH I l e T p a riepBoro H C T a j i n H a . 120 FOOTNOTES •••Romanov, Panteleymon, "On the Volga", Rasskasy. S c r i b n e r , New York, 193'+, p. 2I+5. 2 I b i d . , pp. 2J+6-21+7. 3 I b i d . . p. 2hQ. 121 IV 3AKJHQHEHHE Kan yxe H 3 B e c T H 0 H3 aBTodHorpa<f)HH, PoMaHOB peuiHJi c T a T b H H c a T e a e M eme B .neTCTBe. n n c a T e j i b C K a n npodpecenH .aocTaJiacb eMy c dOJIbfflHM T p y ^ O M . IlOOTOMy, KaK OH CaM TOBOpHT 06 3TOM, OH H H K O T ^ a He 3aHHMaacH xypHajiH3MOM, TaK KaK D T O dHJia n e e r o J I H H H H r r a c b M a . H T O O H x o T e j i dojibnie B c e r o , D T O npaB^HBO o n n c a T b P O C C H K - e e n p n -poay n e e jno^eM. Ero Bcer/j;a 3aHHMaji Bonpoc, n o n e M y , B T a K o n d o -raToft n n p e K p a c H o n c T p a H e , dBiJio TaK M H O T O K O C H O C T H , H e B e x e c T B a , j ieHn n d e 3 p a 3 J i n n n f l K O BceMy oKpyxaiomeMy. ReoETb JieT n p n c M a T p n -B a e T C H PoMaHOB K jnoflHM, H 3 y n a H n x n e p T H n n c n x o j i o r o i o , C T a p a n c b H a f i i H n y c T a H O B H T b B H H X HannoHajibHbin x a p a K T e p p y c c K o r o Hapo,a;a. Bce, H T O O H 3aMenaji, O H TmaTejibHO 3 a n n c H B a j i . Pe3yj ibTaTOM D T H X 3anncen HBHJiacb e r o o n o n e a " P y c b " . B j^ o c T H x e n n n c B o e M nejin, PoMaHOB He H H T e p e c o B a j i c a TeMon H J I H cpadyJioH, K O T o p a a Morj ia dbi ,naTb euy C K o p n n y c n e x n 3 B a -H n e n n c a T e j i a . H a o d o p o T , PoMaHOB n n c a j i MejrjieHHo n odj jyMaHHo, KaK d n K o n a a c b B x a o c e X H 3 H H . OTCio^a n B H B O J J ; , H T O PoMaHOB He n n c a -Tejib - a H a j i H T H K , a. KaK dti C T a T H C T , 3anncHBaioiqHfi $ a K T H XH3HH. Y Hero oneHb Majio $HJioco(J)HHecKHx x a p a K T e p o B . . PeBOJiionHH 1917 r o j j a , KaK dH p a c K p n j i a nepejj; H H M H C T O H H K K T O T O M a T e p n a j i a , K O T O P H M O H n c K a j i TaK aoJiro n ycepjj ;HO. B3dyjj ;opaxeH-H H H peBOJiionnen Hapofl flaji cBodo/j;y ^e t tcTBHH C B O H M n y B C T B a M , K O T o p n e nOflaBJIHJIHCb BHyTpeHHHMH H BHeiUHHMH CHJiaMH Ha npOTHXeHHH B e K O B . PoMaHOB H a n n n a e T n n c a T b K o p o T K H e paccKa3H o n o B e ^ e H n n jnoflen jj;pyr c s p y r o M , od H X oTHomeHnn K H O B O H c o B e T C K o n B J i a c T K , od H X noHH— 122 MaHHH "cBOtfOflBl" , JJiaHHOtt HM peBOJIBUHeK. PoMaHOB OXBaTHBaeT Bee CTOpOHH XH3HH ( 6BIT , JIBfiOBb, MOpaJIb) H BCe CJIOH Hace/ieHHH. B O#HHX paccna3ax OH noKa3HBaeT BCB HejienocTb HejioBenecKoro n o -Bej^eHHH, 3aCTaBJIHH TSKHM 06pa30M, HHTaTeJIfl CMeHTbCfl Ha/j; OTOH He-jrenocTbfo, T o r^a KaK B flpyrax OH orractiBaeT de3BHxo^Hoe nojroxeHHe JIKJteM B HX OTHOUieHHHX C HOBOK B J i a C T b B , BBI3BIBaa COHyBCTBHe H He-rojj;oBaHHe HHTaTejia. P a c c K a 3 H PoMaHosa HanncaHBi B npocToM H GHJibHOfi $opMe c r j i y d o K H M npoHHKHOBeHHeM B r. <5HT . v Jiiojj;eH. C 1925 rOfla, POMaHOB CTaHOBHTCH nOCTOHHHBIM COTpyflHHKOM MHOTHX COB6TCKHX xypHajioB. Ero p a c c K a 3 w npKBJieKaioT HHTaTejibCKyro Maccy. Ero KopoTKHe, JiaKOHHnecKHe cppa3H, B KOTOPBIX nyBCTByeTca B / iHHHHe HOBOS onoxn H BBipaxeHHe 3KcnpecCHOHH3Ma, ^ejiaroT ero JIBSHMBIM nncaTejieM Maccti. MHTan poMaHOBCKHe p a c c K a 3 H , JIB,HH B HX repoflx y3HaBa/iH HJIH caMHx cedn HJIH CBOHX cocejj;eM H cMeaJiHCb H&II 3THMH OTKPHTHHMH. .Haxe Hyxflbie PoMaHOBy n o #yxy JiHTepaTypHbie KPHTHKH He MOTJIH He n p H 3 H a T b eTO XHBOft KOMH3M H ocTpyro Hao'jiB.na-TeJIbHOCTb. Ero He3aBHCHMocTb B cjiOBe H Bbidop TeM ero npoH3Be/j;e-HHH npHBJieKJIH Ha cedn ocTpyB KpnTHKy Tex, KTO 6HJI 3a yHHHTOxeHHe BCHKOH caMocToaTejibHott HfleH B TBopnecTBe. 3TH JIB/J;H O(5BHHHJIH ero B nojj;paxaTeJibCTBe KjiaccHKaM, B paBHO,nyiiiHH K nporpeccy HejioBenec-T Ba, B HCKaxeHHH $aKTOB Jj;eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH. Ho, HecMOTpa Ha ocTpyio KpnTHKy, Ha juaBJieHHe cBepxy, PoMaHOB ocTaBajica B e p H H M cBoeM uejiH - nncaTb /j;eKcTBHTejibHBie cpaKTBi B XH3HH, KaK OH HX BHjrejI H nOHHMaJI. OH HBJIHeT Cfl CUHHM H3 HaHJiyH-IUHX coBeTCKHx nHcaTejiei? yMewujHx onnctiBaTB p y c c K y B npnpofly c o BceK ee KpacoTofi H ee ocodeHHOCTKMH. 123 XOPOIIIO 3H3.H pyCCKHft H3HK POMaHOB CMeJIO BCTaBJIfleT B i CBOH p a c c K a 3 H Hapo,nHtie B n p a x e H H a , coMeTaa^ TaKHM odpa30M^odpa3 pOflHOTO fl3HKa, KaK CHMBOJI H KaK HpOHHK). Ha^-pflfly c KMopHCTHMecKHMH paccKa3aMH 3omeHKo, paccKa-3BI PoMaHOBa 3aHHMaK»T BBi^aiom.eecH MecTO H .aaxe npeBHiuaioT no^HeM-mne paccKa3H Hjtbtfpa H I l e T p o B a . K o M n n e c K H e MOMeHTH p a c c K a 3 0 B PoMaHOBa HBJiaioTCfl npo.noJixeHHeM OT Hanaj ia /jo KOHua H y HHX T p y f l -HO HaMTH KyJIbMHHaUHH, KaK 3TO MH Haxoj ;HM J 3offleHKO HJIH y O'TeHpn. PaccKa3H PoMaHOBa HBJIHKTCH npo/j;ojixeHHeM Jiynmnx T p a ^ H i i H H pyccKoM j i H T e p a T y p u , Hflymnx OT HBaHa $ e , i o p o B H H a T o p d y H O B a " C n e t i H H3 Hapo,n-HOTO d H T a " js,o AHTOHa naBj ioBHna H e x o B a . H e c M O T p a Ha .naBjieHHe Ha PoMaHOBa odpnnHajibHHX KpyroB n a p T H H H n p a B H T e j i b C T B a , KOToptie x o T e j i H 3acTaBHTb e r o d p o c n T b TeMH npoff l j ioro , n p e K T H B KOHTaKT c c o B e TCKOH .nencTBHTejibHOCTbio H oT,naTb CBOH TajiaHT Ha c j i y x d y c o u n a j i H 3 M a , PoMaHOB He MOT H3MeHHTb Tpajj;H-UHHM CBodo^Horo H C K y c c T B a H C T a T b HHCTpyMeHTOM nponaraH,HH n a p T H H . "PoMaHOB He TpycjiHB11 nnuieT rieTp IlHjibCKHH B cBoeM npe/j;HCJiOBHH K c d o p H H K y p a c c K a 3 0 B "Bonpocn n o j i a " . " OH He d o H T c a 3 H a K O M o r o , He CTpamnTCH C T a p o r o , He CMymaeTCH CBOHMH coBna^eHHHMH B noflMenaHHax H o d -p H C O B K a x . rioDTOMy OH He T1UHTCH H30dpeTaTb, He T o n o p i u H T c a , He K y p a j i e c H T . . . . 3Ta x e BHyTpeHHHH CBodcna, 3Ta C M e j i o c T b , O T a H e -3aBHCHMOCTB H c n a c j i a e r o OT p a e n p o c T p a H e H H o r o r p e x a coBpeMeHHoM JIHT epaT y p n CoBeTCKoM POCCHH: OH He TpaneH JiecTbio H He BKHOBST B y r o , K H H H e c T B e . " 1 3TO HBJ iaeTca BeJIHKOH 3 a c j i y r o n PoMaHOBa n e p e ^ j i H T e p a T y p o n , KaK HC-K y C C T B O . PoMaHOB n n c a j i TaK x e MHOTO O npodJieMax Mopaj ibHoro n o -p a f l K a , KaK C T a p o n , TaK H HOBOH H H T e j u i n r e H n H n . Bonpocn jnodBn H 124 B3aHM00TH0uieHHe noJioB B nepexo/iHHH nepnofl cepbe3H0 TpeBoxHJiH PoMaHOBa. B ero npoH3Bejj;eHHax O H H 3aHHMaioT ocodoe MecTO H no-DTOMy COCTaBJiaiOT OT^eJIBHHM UHKJI ero TeM. "uHCbMa XeHUlHHH11 » -BonpocH nojia", "Be3 HepeMyxn", "nepBaa JirodoBb", "Eojibiuaa ceMba", "TanHa" H a p y r n e , Bceu.ejio 3aHaTH TaftHOH xeHmHHH, ee cTpacTbio H npoTHBopeHHaMH): ee nociynKOB H BJieneHKH. 3TH npodJieMH c.TajiH ocodeHHO O C T P H M H nocne OKTadpbCKoM PeBOJiitmHH, Korjj;a pejinrna dHJia cHHTa c noBecTKH JiHa, o d t a B j i e H a cBodo,HHaa JiwdoBb, a ceMbio 3aMeHHjio rocyflapcTBO. D T H ero npoH3Be,neHHa HHTajracb MOJJ;HBIMH H CTapt iMH, napTHKHHMH H decnapTHHHHMH. O H H O C T P O odcyx/j;ajiHCb Ha c o d p a H H a x MOJioJiexH. Ho npodJieMBi MopajibHoro nopaflKa., KOToptie PoMaHOB CTaBHJi Ann p y c c K o r o odmecTBa B 20-e r o ^ H , HBJiaioTca TaK xe aKTyajibHHMH B HacToamee BpeMa.. MopajibHtie npdjreMH cpejj;H MOJIO^HXH ^ O C T H T J I H TaKHx nponopHHM, HTO H X pa3pemeHHeM 3aHHMaioTca Bee odmecTBeHHtie opra-HH3aHHH, paflHO-KOMMyHHKaqHa, nenaTb, niKOJia, uepKOBb H ,naxe napjieMeHT. TaKHM odpa30M conocTaBJiaa cpaKTH onHcaHHBie PoMaHOBtiM C CpaKTaMH HaCTOameft .HefiCTBHTeJIbHOCTH, MOXHO CKa3aTb, HTO POMaHOB jcteMcTBHTejibHO HMe/i ocHOBaHHe no^HHMaTb npodJieMy Tanoro odme-H e / i o B e H e c K o r o xapaKTepa. 125 FOOTNOTES Romanov, Panteleymon, Rasskasy, "Voprosy p o l a " , I s d a t e l ' s t v o " L i t e r a t u r a " , Riga, 1927. 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY Brown, Edward J . The P r o l e t a r i a n Episode i n Russian L i t e r a t u r e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1953* K oval j ova, V.A. and P a v l o v s k i y , A.I. Voprosy Sovietsko.j L i t e r a t u r y , I s d a t e l ' s t v o Academii Nauk, U.S.S.R., Moskva, 1958, v o l . V I I I . Leedin, V.L. P i s a t e l i , Autobiographies and portrets,-K h i g o i s d a t e l 1 s t v o "Sovremennye problemy", Moskva, 1928. Romanov, Panteleymon, Rus', part I , I s d a t e l ' s t v o "Nedra", Moskva, 1928, f o u r t h p r i n t i n g . Romanov, Panteleymon, Voprosy p o l a , Rasskasy, K n i g o i s d a t e l ' -stvo, " L i t e r a t u r e " , Riga, 1927. Romanov, Panteleymon, Goluboe p l a t ' e , Rasskasy, I s d a t e l ' -stvo "Knizhnaja lavka p i s a t e l e y " , R i g a , 1930. Romanov, Panteleymon, On the Volga, Rasskasy, S c r i b n e r , New York, 1931+. Romanov,' Panteleymon, Without cherry blossom, Rasskasy, Ernest Benn, London, 1930. Romanov, Panteleymon, "Nova.ia S c r i z h a l ' of New Kommandment, Novel, I s d a t e l ' s t v o " L i t e r a t u r e " , Riga, 1 9 2 8 . Romanov, Panteleymon, Tovarishch K i s l i a k o v or Three p a i r s of  s i l k s t o c k i n g s , Novel, P u b l i s h i n g House "Chechov", New York, 1952. Simmons, Ernest J . Through the Glass of Soviet L i t e r a t u r e , Columbia, New York, 1953. 127 Voronskaja, G.A. and Dementiev, A.G. A.Voronskiy. L i t e r a t u -r n o - k r i t i c h e s k i e s t a t i y , S o v i e t s k i y P i s a t e l ' , Moskva, 19&3. Z a v a l l s h l n , V., E a r l y Soviet W r i t e r s , "Panteleymon Romanov," P u b l i s h i n g House F.A.Preader, New York, 1957. H i s t o r y of Russian L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . I , part I , Moskow, U n i v e r s i t y Press, Moskow, 1958, Grusdev, I . "Upriamaya kobyla", Zvezda, No.6, Moskva, 1926. U.L. "0 P.Romanove", Na Literaturnom Posty, N o . l , Moskva, 1928. 110 p o l i t i k e P a r t i i v Oblasty Khudozhestvennoy L i t e r a t u r y " , Pravda J u l y 18, 1925. "0 nashey l i n i i v khudozhestvennoy l i t e r a t u r e i o p r o l e t a r -s k i c h p i s a t e l i a c h " , Pravda February 11, 1925. 

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