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Influence of slash burning on the establishment and initial growth of seedlings of Douglas-fir, western.. 1964

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INFLUENCE OF SLASH BURNING ON THE ESTABLISHMENT AND INITIAL GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS OF DOUGLAS-FIR, WESTERN HEMLOCK, AND WESTERN REDCEDAR A study of the effect of simulated slash burn on soil blocks from some sites of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone by ALEXANDER JABLANCZY For. Eng., Technical College of Prague, 1932 Cand. of Science, Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, 1954 Professor of Silviculture, Sopron University, 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Biology and Botany We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1964 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per- m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i - c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r mission. Department of B i o l o g y and Botany The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date M a E C h 1 5 ' 1 9 6 k i i ABSTRACT Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out with con- trolled burning and with seedling growth correlated to soil chemical changes. The surface of soil blocks from three sites of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone were burned at two intensities and planted separately with seeds of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar. Growth data were recorded periodically and dry weights of the seedling crops were ob- tained to determine treatment differences. The burning procedure showed the insulating and cooling effects of the vaporizing soil moisture. The burning slightly increased germination of Douglas-fir and western hemlock, generally promoted fungal population, and initiated different chemical changes in the soil on each site. Dry matter production, for a l l species combined, varied with treatment for each site in the following decreasing order: Swordfern site - severely burned, moderately burned, unburned control;- Moss site - unburned control, moderately burned, severely burned; Salal site - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Comparisons of dry matter production on control blocks with that in nature indicated that the removal of blocks from the natural environment had significantly changed the original conditions. In consequence, new ar t i f i c i a l sites were created. Consistent evidence of the rhizosphere effect was produced on soil pH by seedlings, especially by Douglas-fir. Dormancy was successfully broken in a l l plants and there was evidence of different responses in photo- periodism with each species. i i i The highest dry matter production was directly related to increased soil pH, to increased partial cation saturation, and to increased concentra- tion of available phosphorus but to a decreased cation exchange capacity. Cation exchange capacity was inversely related to the availability of nutrients. Decrease of cation exchange capacity proved to be a beneficial effect of f ire. In this experiment, where the ash was not supplied as usual in a slash burn, the increased base saturation resulted from the decreased cation exchange capacity. As compared with field samples in August 1959, total nitrogen was lower in a l l blocks in June 1960. Nitrogen increased in the following year in a l l variants of the Swordfern site and somewhat in unburned control blocks of the Moss and Salal sites. The Swordfern site benefited from burning by accelerated mineralization, which substituted for the deprived seepage. Fire caused the least damage to this habitat. The Moss site suffered heavily by burning, which reduced humus, the main source of nutrition. The unburned blocks were benefited by fast decomposition of humus in the greenhouse. The Salal site's thick raw humus benefited from moderate burn, which removed part of the humus and acted as a fertilizer on the remainder. Severe burning was most harm- ful on this site by the destruction of the large part of humus. Rich soils, usually with seepage water, are less damaged by fire than poor soils with strong drainage. It is mainly because in rich soils organic matter is at least partly incorporated into the mineral horizon and acts readily after fire especially for nitrogen supply. V. J . Krajina ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Of the many people who assisted in this study, Dr. V. J. Krajina is most deserving of special appreciation. The experimenter is also thank- ful to the National Research Council of Canada (N.R.C. Grant No. T-92) and to the Senate of the University of British Columbia for financial aid. The following agencies generously allowed the help of their staff and facilities for the tasks of sample collection, seed preparation, burn- ing, growing the seedlings, drying and weighing the crop and analysis of soil samples: British Columbia Research Council, Vancouver, B. C, for electronic equipment; Department of Biology and Botany, U. B. G., for green- house premises and laboratory; Faculty of Forestry, U. B. C, Research Forest in Haney, B. C. and seed laboratory; Department of Metallurgical Engineering, U. B. C, laboratory; Canada Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Station, Vancouver, B. C, Soil Laboratory; Canada Department of Forestry, Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver, B. C. The author is indebted for many helpful suggestions to a l l members of the Candidates Committee and to the professors who in some way contributed throughout the three-year period: Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, Dr. V. J. Krajina, Dr. G. S. Allen, Dr. R. J. Bandoni, Dr. J. E. Bier, Dr. J. D. Chapman, Dr. J. S. Clark, Dr. P. G. Haddock, Dr. C. A. Rowles, Dr. J. H. G. Smith and Dr. D. J. Wort. Respectful thanks are due, for help in developing the burning method, to Messrs. J. Gerencse'r and M. Salamon; the latter also assisted in drying and weighing procedures. The writer would like to acknowledge the technical help in soil analyses by Mr. G. Leskd and in statistical work by Messrs. J. Sod's and L. Magasi, and lastly the faithful per- formance of tiresome field and greenhouse work by his son, A. Jablahczy, Jr. A c r i t i c a l review of the original text by Drs. V. J. Krajina, T. M. C. Taylor and W. B. Schofield was a great help to the writer. Further suggestions for organization of the text, by Mr. E. B. Peterson, are also gratefully acknowledged. i v CONTENTS Chapter P a K e I . INTRODUCTION H i s t o r i c a l background 1 Views on the e f f e c t of f i r e 3 Objectives of the experiment 8 I I EXPERIMENTAL MATERIAL AND METHODS Area of c o l l e c t i o n 9 Sample blocks 16 Seed 18 Burning the sample blocks 18 Sowing the t r e e seed 27 M i c r o - c l i m a t o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and i r r i g a t i o n 28 Seedli n g p o p u l a t i o n 29 Breaking of dormancy 30 Seedling growth and dry matter production 31 Accompanied v e g e t a t i o n on blocks 33 Seedlings from f i e l d 34 S o i l chemical analyses * 34 Note on s o i l p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s 35 Photographs and s e e d l i n g c o l l e c t i o n s 36 S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s « 36 I I I . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Changes i n composition of the accompanied v e g e t a t i o n 37 Establishment of seedlings 41 S u r v i v a l of seedlings 45 F i r s t s p r i n g growth ; 47 Summer growth 52 Autumn growth 56 Stimulated w i n t e r growth 59 Second s p r i n g growth 60 S i z e and weight of harvested seedlings 61 Phases of s e e d l i n g growth 64 Changes of s i t e s by modifi e d c o n d i t i o n s 69 Chemical s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 71 E f f e c t of chemical s o i l p r o p e r t i e s on dry matter production 86 D i s c u s s i o n of f i n a l r e s u l t s 89 V Chapter Page IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS E f f e c t of burning 90 Changes i n accompanied v e g e t a t i o n 92 See d l i n g establishment 93 Seedli n g growth 94 Chemical s o i l p r o p e r t i e s 98 A d d i t i o n a l observations 100 Major conclusions 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 APPENDIX - 1. Tables, I t o XXXII 112 I I . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s 158 I I I . Accompanied v e g e t a t i o n 165 IV. Methods of s o i l chemical analyses .............. 181 V. P l a t e s , I to XXX 190 t o f o l l o w p a g e v CHART OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED IN FIGURES I AND TABLES] I - II - ..nr- SITE SW ST^ SWORDFERN SITE M ST - MOSS SITE SL ST - SALAL SITE TREE SPECIES D - DOUGLAS - FIR • H - WESTERN HEMLOCK C - WESTERN REDCEDAR BURNING RATE TREATMENT S - SEVERELY BURNED M • MODERATELY BURNED U - UNBURNED CONTROL SEEDLING GROWTH ON EACH BLOCK AND AVERAGE FOR A GROUP OF FOUR BLOCKS M vi LIST OF FIGURES Number To follow page 1. Location of the experiment 9 2. Monthly temperatures and humidity at two meteorological stations in the Haney Forest • 10 3. Soil block in metal container 16 4. Layout of seedling blocks and soil blocks in the greenhouse .... 28 5. Distribution of a r t i f i c i a l light for breaking dormancy 28 6. Weekly temperatures in the greenhouse during the experiment .... 29 7. Weekly relative humidity in the greenhouse during the experiment • • • 29 ""8. March of temperature during a slash burn 30 9. March of temperature during laboratory burning for the block surface • 30 10. March of temperature during laboratory burning for a depth of two inches 30 11. March of temperature during laboratory burning for a depth of four inches ..... 30 12. Standard petri dish germination tests 41 13. Relative germination on seedling blocks, May 5, I960 42 14. Survival of four-week-old germinants, May 15, I960 45 15. Height of ten-week-old seedlings, July 1, I960 48 16. Height of four-month-old seedlings, August 20, I960 53 17. Height of eight-month-old seedlings, December 30, I960 56 18. Height of twelve-month-old seedlings at the end of the stimulated growth, April 20, 1961 59 19. Height of fourteen-month-old seedlings after the second spring growth, June 25, 1961 60 v i i 20.1. Swordfern site. Length of shoots and roots on removed seedlings, July 8, 1961 61 20.2. Moss site. Length of shoots and roots on removed seed- lings, July 8, 1961 61 20.3. Salal site. Length of shoots and roots on removed seed- lings, July 8, 1961 61 21. Group averages of shoot- and root-lengths by twelve seed- lings in each variant 61 22.1. Swordfern site. Total dry shoot- and root-weights of three seedlings removed from each block 6 l 22.2. Moss site. Total dry shoot- and root-weights of removed seedlings 61 22.3. Salal site. Total dry shoot- and root-weights of removed seedlings • 61 23. Summary of site averages for shoot- and root-weights 61 24. Comparison of site and weight of seedlings from unburn ed con- trol blocks and of natural seedlings in the sampled area. 61 25.1. Swordfern site. Periodic growth of seedlings in the experiment • 64 25.2. Moss site. Periodic growth of seedlings in the experiment ... 64 25.3. Salal site. Periodic growth of seedlings in the experiment .. 64 26. Average of periodic growth of the three species of each site.* 64 27. Relative dry weight production for each species in each treatment on a l l sites 64 28,1a. Swordfern site. Average, entire block. Changes of some chemical properties in the soil samples.... 85 28,1b. Swordfern site. Average for one-inch surface layer 85 28,2a. Moss site. Average for entire block... 85 28,2b. Moss site. Average for one-inch surface layer 85 28,3a. Salal site. Average for entire block 85 28,3b. Salal site. Average for one-inch surface layer. 85 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Number Page I. Characteristics of three places of sample block collection 113 II. Morphology of soils in sample collection ditches 114 III. Permanent numbers of growth sample blocks and soil sample blocks 115 IV. Highest temperatures recorded by some authors during the burning 116 V. Burning characteristics 117 VI. Productivity of growth blocks plotted against the burning rate and remains on surface 118 VII. Water used for irrigation and precipitation at the sample area .. 119 VIII. Adjustment per cent of germination on groups of four blocks ..... 120 IX. Average values of seedling development on each group 121 X. Fresh weight for each group 122 XI. Water content of seedlings 123 XII. Shoot/Root ratio of seedlings 124 XIII. Size of two-year-old wild seedlings 125 XIV. Weight of twelve wild seedlings and their water content 126 XV. Dry weight of twelve seedlings from unburned sample blocks and from the field 127 XVI. Seasonal changes of growth in blocks. (Three sites) 128 XVII. Field and block samples 131 XVIII. Soil pH values of field and block samples 134 XIX. Deviation of soil pH in growth blocks and corresponding sample blocks 137 XX. Determination of cation exchange capacity. Example 139 ix Number Page XXI. Magnesium and calcium determination. Example 140 XXII. Calcium and potassium determination. Example 141 XXIII. Phosphorus determination. Example 142 XXIV. Organic matter determination. Example 143 XXV. Nitrogen determination. Example 144 XXVI. Exchangeable cations and some other nutrients, surface layer and entire sample block 145 XXVII. Analysis of charcoal, Ae layer and concretion material 148 XXVIII. Chemical properties of unburned blocks and the differences of these from burned blocks in I960 and 1961 149 XXIX. Changes in chemical characteristics from I960 to 1961 151 XXX. Changes in phosphorus content as related to soil pH and the productivity 152 XXXI. Values and per cent changes of chemical soil properties which are directly related to the productivity of corresponding seedling blocks. (Three sites) 154 XXXII. Statistical significance between treatments for average size of each seedling and for dry matter production of each seedling block 157 LIST OF PLATES Number I. Ditches for sample block collection. II. Unburned sample blocks in the greenhouse, March, I960. I l l , Burning process in the Metallurgical Laboratory. IV. Burned surface of Swordfern site samples. V. Burned surface of Moss site samples. VI. Burned surface of Swordfern site samples. VII. Burned surface of Salal site samples. VIII. Four-week-old Douglas-fir seedlings before thinning. IX. Six-week-old Douglas-fir seedlings after thinning. X. Four-week-old western hemlock seedlings on severely burned samples before thinning. XI. Six-week-old western hemlock seedlings on unburned control samples before thinning. XII. Six-week-old western redcedar seedlings before thinning on severely burned samples. XIII. Cross-section of severely burned analyzed sample blocks. XIV. Cross-section of moderately burned sample blocks. XV. Cross-section of unburned control analyzed sample blocks. XVI. Cross-section of analyzed Salal site sample blocks. XVII. One-season-old seedlings from the experiment and from the sample areas at Haney. XVIII. Swordfern site samples with average growth of seedlings from each group at the end of stimulated early growth. XIX. Moss site samples with average growth of seedlings. XX. Salal site samples with average growth of seedlings. x i Number XXI. Part of the experimental lay-out and a close-up of an unburned Swordfern sample with chlorotic Douglas-fir seedlings. XXII, Chlorotic Douglas-fir seedling from the severely burned Moss site sample. XXIII. Purple-tinted western redcedar seedlings from the severely burned Salal site sample, and from the unburned control Swordfern site sample. XXIV. Chlorotic western redcedar seedlings on the severely burned Moss site sample and unburned Swordfern site sample. XXV. Swordfern site. Two blocks from each treatment, June 30, 1961. XXVI. Moss site. XXVII. Salal site. XXVIII. Severely burned sample blocks. Two blocks from each site. XXIX. Moderately burned sample blocks. XXX. Unburned control sample blocks. C H A P T E R O N E - I N T R O D U C T I O N Historical Background Holbrook's book, Burning an Empire ( 1 9 4 3 ) , is an excellent commen- tary of reasons why and how the attitude of North Americans toward forested land has changed. The author has this to say: "There were three basic fallacies that resulted in the economic difficulties . . . f i rs t , that the virgin timber could never be exhausted. Second, . . . that the cut-over lands would be taken up, every last acre, in a tremendous agricultural development that would produce richer returns than the original timber crop. Third, . . . was the firmly held belief, . . . that fire running through second growth timber was of no moment: the old brush fire fallacy." Economic development in North America, accompanied with an even more rapid rise of research in natural sciences, brought about a better understanding of forest resources and their destructive menace, the f ire . Greeley wrote in his foreword to Holbrook's book: "We are indebted to St. Holbrook for this vivid writing of a part of our history which is understood by few Americans and unknown to most of them." He further added that "the attitude of the pioneer toward woods burning was doubtless inevitable", and later, " . . . the woods were fired to clear land for farming; to create pasture". Greeley summarized his points in the proverb, "prevention of forest fires is three-fourths of forestry", and the recognition of the destructive power of forest fires soon resulted in an unfavorable attitude towards i t . This attitude was soon supported by a number of scientific results. Recent discoveries dealing with the changes in forest vegetation revealed a significant role of f ire . The role of fire was recognized as - 2 not necessarily destructive but certainly determinative. The fire hazard problems of cut-over areas and the difficulties in reforesting such lands have encouraged the use of controlled f ire . One may generalize now, that though an uncontrolled forest fire is disastrous; controlled slash burning is a useful tool for forest management in two ways. Primarily, the prevention or reduction of fire hazard, and secondarily the creation of conditions appropriate for the establishment of future stands, are the two purposes of deliberate and controlled burning applied to cut-over lands. The amalgamation of practical results in forestry with the findings of research workers has provided further knowledge in recent decades. There are, however, significant discrepancies in opinions. The available publica- tions exceed fifteen hundred, a large proportion of which has been written during the last two decades. The two most comprehensive books on the subject, namely: Forest Fire; Control and Use, by Davis (1959); and Ecological Effects of Forest Fires, by I. F. and C. E. Ahlgren (i960), were not yet available during the course of this experiment. The present study was aimed primarily at the problem of slash burn- ing, but the survey of literature could not be confined only to the reported slash burn observations or experiments. The number of such works is small. Burning of forest debris may be considered as a simulated forest fire since its effects are similar to that of a wild f ire . Knowledge gained from studies on forest fires was also util ized. - 3 Views on the Effect of Fire Three groups of authors can be distinguished according to their opinion on the effect of fire on forest site. 1. A general harmfulness is expressed by many workers. Show and Kotok (1924) believed that California forests had lost their productive capacity by repeated fires. Worley (1933) stated that in New Zealand fire decreases soil f er t i l i ty . Isaac and Hopkins (1937) wrote: "The harmful effects of the ordinary slash fire more than outweigh any beneficial effects i t may have on the productivity of Douglas-fir forest soil ." Crosbie (1940) called suggestions for burning "dangerous", and Hansen (1942) also stressed only the harmful aspects of forest fires. Hawley and Smith (1954) expressed a general opinion in their hand- book on silviculture, "very hot fires are always harmful". Lutz and Chandler (1949) suggested that "the majority of fires must be regarded as harmful, to the soil". Westveld (1949) emphasized the same opinion. Candy (1951) pointed out that fire is a cause of failure for conifers except the jack pine - subalpine type. He believed that fires in Western Ontario and the Maritimes introduced intolerant hardwoods. Krajina (1958) claimeian overall harmfulness of any form of burning in forests and urged that, "foresters should do everything possible to stop slash burning". He subsequently recommended a study of this problem on ecological basis to distinguish the degree of this harmfulness. His student, Mueller-Dombois (1959) observed that higher stocking occurred on the unburned plots than on the burned ones. 2. The general usefulness of forest fires, at least in controlled form, is supported by more workers than the opposite standpoint. - 4 The necessary removal of accumulated raw humus is one of the main concerns of many authors. Lovejoy (1920), Muller (1929), Suchting (1929) and Uggla (1958a,b) accepted the importance of fire as a reducer and activator of raw humus. Uggla expressed his opinion as follows: " . . . the ashes and carbonized remains and the l i t ter form a thin cover upon the undamaged humus layer. The alkalis of the ash can be absorbed by the humus cover in an easily acceptable form, the nitrogen metabolism is in - creased, and the conditions for most micro-organisms are ameliorated . . . . The root competition is reduced. The temperature at the surface wi l l rise on account of the increased ability of heat absorption of the black humus cover, which favours the germination of seeds." Biswell (1958), who changed his mind on the problem, accepted prescribed burning as "useful and essential" in forestry of the Southern United States. J . Viands et a l . (1955) quoted 28 authors with a positive approach towards controlled burning. Similarly, the Ahlgrens (i960) l i s t five workers advocating the general usefulness of fire for trees and 19 who were for i ts beneficial effect on herbaceous plants. Chaiken (1949), Lotti and Culley (1951), Lotti (1956), Wenger and Trousdell (1957), Lutz (1956) should be listed in favor of slash burn. Allen (1954) accepted the use of controlled burning in order "to maintain our Douglas-fir forests as nature did". Weaver (1955) wrote: "Fire under control is one of the most useful servants of civilized man." Tamm (1950) expressed and elaborated his opinion this way: "From Hesselman's intensive investigations, i t has been proved that a forest fire in numerous instances has a strongly activating effect on a mor covering. In particular, nitrogen conversion sets going actively and usually leads to nitrification. This process seems to benefit the early development of the young conifer seedlings but is by no means an essential factor for that. Parallel with the nitrogen con- version, a general decomposition process goes onj i t i s quite clear that a large part at least of the organic material, which has been laid down in a form which is relatively difficult to break up (H-layer), again undergoes conversion." The "Sloan Report" (1957) accepted controlled burning as a method for the forest management in British Columbia. The Pacific Northwest Experi- ment Station of the United States (1957), stated that "slash burn does not appreciably damage chemical, physical or biological properties of the soil". It noted that only a very small proportion of the burned areas used to be severely burned, and that such controlled burn greatly reduces fire hazard. Schmidt (1957) and Davis (1959) stressed that the large part of the present Douglas-fir forests on the Pacific Coast originated following wild fires and its absence on some places "can be attributed to a low fire frequency" (Schmidt). Gibson (1958) wrote about controlled burning on the Pacific Coast that i t "may be compared to medication". Garman (1955) supports the same view. The above-quoted opinions were not usually generalized by their authors, but were expressed in connection with some particular circumstances or regions. Nevertheless, these authors did not emphasize local or ecological influences. 3 . The third group are those with a specific approach to the prob- lem in which the investigator avoids any generalizations and tries to explain the effects as a result of different circumstances. It is noticeable that the large majority of those who employ this approach, correlates the severity of burning with the ecological conditions. Stobbe (1940) objected to burning, but stated that "on i l l drained soils, burning seldom is severe enough to cause great damage to the soil". He added that fire in these circumstances wi l l improve physical conditions - 6 of the so i l . Tamm (1950) found burning harmful on poor, sandy soils or in cases of the absence of immediate regeneration, but accepted i ts benefit on soils of better quality, where the risks of deterioration of the humus are less and the minerals, by their weathering, can deliver more nutrient substances to living organisms. Allen (1953) accepted that intense burnings deplete the soi l , but moderate burn is "not practically harmful". Tourney and Korstian (1956) stated that controlled burning is a "constructive agent" but the uncontrolled is "always harmful". Garman (1955) , Viands and Biswell (1955) , Chrosciewich (1959) , Gibson ( 1958) , Metz et a l . (1961) , Morris (1958) and many others expressed similar opinions on the changing effects of forest fires and slash burns. Hawley and Smith (1954) stated that "the most significant objection is based on psychological grounds". The same book emphasizes the importance of slash burning as a useful means of reducing fire hazard. Bennett ( i 9 6 0 ) who is otherwise in favor of slash burning, admitted that certain silvicultural and soi l losses may result. Davis (1959) cautiously accepted burning with many conditions, which may be summarized by the following three points: (l) Slash burn is a quick means of freeing the ground of large quantities of forest debris; (2) Slash burn creates heat effects to vegetation, fauna and the soi l , more of which is ki l led than consumed; (3) Slash produces residual mineral products that may have chemical effects upon the so i l . He explains his points by the following statement: "Through changes induced in micro-climate and vegeta- tion, fire has major effects in the interception, evapora- tion, transpiration, storage^ and movement of water in forest stands and soils." The general idea is expressed shortly this way; each situation must be specifically appreciated. He considers clear cutting of Douglas-fir as an excellent example of the inevitable application of slash burn. The Ahlgrens (i960) summarized the opinion of many authors as follows: "It is impossible to draw many general conclusions as to the ecological effects of f ire . Rather, each combina- tion of region, climate, forest tree association, soi l type, and plant species must be considered individually." Krajina has expressed his views on ecological effects of burning upon the forest soi l as follows: "An unburned soi l has normally a humus layer, allow- ing a slow water percolation, holding necessary nutrients for plant growth, and continuously controlling soi l temperature below i t . The nutrients are slowly released to the plants through humus decomposition speeded by solar radiation in clear-cut areas. On a burned site the humus is reduced to ash, and available nitrogen compounds are reduced or removed until replaced by bacteria. Bared soi l permits rapid water run-off and soil erosion. Blackened soi l surface absorbs intense solar radiation and limits the success of seedling survival. In many cases site quality is reduced either for a short or long period of time. As a rule burning affects better forest sites to a lesser degree than poorer sites. If slash accumulation is great, spot slash burning may be necessary," and concludes: "Original site quality i s more easily perpetuated on unburned sites, in the mesothermal climates of the Coastal Western Hemlock and Coastal Douglas-fir Zones, where humus is usually under permanent decomposition." Objectives of the Experiment The objective of this study was to correlate the regulated burning process with site conditions according to ecological classification. This objective was pursued through the examination of the effect of two intensities of simulated slash burning on germination, survival, growth, and crop of seedlings of Douglas-fir, western hemlock and western redcedar, on three sites of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The direct purpose of the experiment was to correlate dry matter production on each site to the intensity of burning, and to interpret these correlations with the chemical properties of the corresponding soi l samples. - 9 CHAPTER TWO - EXPERIMENTAL MATERIAL AND METHODS Area of Collection The area of collection lies in the University of British Columbia Research Forest, in the foothills of the Coast Mountains southeast of Pitt Lake and 35 miles east of the City of Vancouver (Figure l ) . The three plots used for sample collection are at 23°00' West Longitude and 49°20' North Latitude. The portion of the Forest that was involved in 'this work was destroyed by a fire in 1868 and has since regenerated to mixed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii). western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) forests (Griffith, I960). The area occurs in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Krajina, 1959), in which the most productive trees are: Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla. Thuja plicata, Picea sitchensis, and Abies amabilis. The two last species do not occur in plots selected for this experiment. The topography of the area is rugged with numerous rock outcrops. The soi l is of glacial t i l l origin and of a sandy-loam texture, varying in depth from a few inches of organic soi l , to more than three feet of depth of brown podzolic forest soils. A l l three places selected for the collection of sample soil blocks are located nearby experimental clear-cut areas where reforestation experi- ments are performed by the Faculty of Forestry of the University of British Columbia. Soils and plant communities of the three localities have been U - U.B.C. F - HANEY //loonlTN Blaney L 2000 F E E T - SAMPLE PLOTS - METEOR.STAT.. FIGURE 1. LOCATION OF THE EXPERIMENT A - UBC, VANCOUVER,BRITISH COLUMBIA & RESEARCH FOREST HANEY, B.C. B - SAMPLED PLOTS ( LILEI.JIN THE RESEARCH FOREST. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS o a - 10 studied and described recently by Lesko (1961) and Orloci (1961). Represen- tative data of the stands were recorded by Griffith (i960). Table I sum- marizes the data, and Figure 2 gives information on current temperature and humidity. The following is a general description of the three localit ies. 1. The orthic Polystichum (Swordfern) plant community "Thu.jetc— Polysticheturn muniti" (Orloci 1961), is the most productive type of the three. This site is supplied with seepage water and belongs to the "seepage communities" in the warm and dry subzone of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. The plant association of this site (designated as no. I) consists of the following species: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thu.ja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla. Rubus spectabilis, Polystichum muniturn, Dryopteris austriaca. Tiarella tr i fol iata, Galium triflorum, Plagiothecium undulatum, Mnium insigne. Mnium punctatum, Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, and many other species. The soils of the Swordfern site, developed from glacial t i l l , are generally well aerated and the accumulation of organic remains is restricted. The quickly decomposing l i t t er , incorporated into the upper layer of mineral soil (A h ), forms a mull-like moder about two inches thick. Almost a l l the profiles of this type are underlain by a more or less impervious layer of compressed t i l l , which causes a beneficial retention of water in the B horizon during the dry summer period. The new National System for Classification (N.S.S.C., I960) classi- fied this type of soi l as 4.38 gleyed Acid Brown Wooded (with some character- istics of a transition toward 4.58 gleyed Concretionary Brown Soils). t o f o l l o w p a g e 10 ADMINISTRATION BUILD. LOON LAKE 100 90 J 60 j 70 J UJ <-> 60 D_ ' 50 >- 2 AO j •••30 H ui ui g 90 UJ a ui 80 a: 3 70 < cc a. I ; f f 0 j 50 J AO J 30 A I I I I I I I I I I I I MEAN HUMIDITY I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Months Years |1960 1961 F I G U R E 2. MONTHLY T E M P E R A T U R E S A N D HUMIDITY AT TWO M E T E O R O - L O G I C A L S T A T I O N S IN T H E HANEY F O R E S T . - 11 2. The Moss type, denoted as no. II in the experiment, is represented by "Orthic Plagiothecium forest type" of the plant community called "Tsugetum heterophyllae plagiothecietosum undulati" (Orloci 196l). This community has a rich tree layer, a very simple herb layer, and a rich moss cover. The component species are: Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii. Thu.ja plicata, Acer circinatum, Pteridium aquilinum, Plagio- thecium undulatum. Eurhynchium oreganum, Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus loreus. The coarse textured, deep soi l is covered with a moderately thick, black organic mor layer of decomposed debris and moss rhizoids. The water movement is good, due to the coarse-textured soi l and a hardpan layer which often has a transitional orterde-layer, above i t . This soi l is classified as 3.31-Orthic Humic Podzol of the Humic Podzol Great Soil Group (i960). 3. The Salal site, designated as no. I l l , is represented by the Lithosolic Gaultheria forest type, "Pseudotsugeto-gaultherietum shalloni lithosolicum" (Orloci 196l). This site is characteristic for the rocky hilltops and steep slopes of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. It has a shallow organic soi l , with l i t t l e or no mineral soi l over the continuous diorite and quartz-diorite bedrock. Some crevices are f i l led with fine mineral soi l that gives support to the larger trees. The long roots of trees are spread on the rock surface. Seepage along the surface of the rock and the capacity of the moss and l i t ter to preserve the moisture, result in a fair moisture condition during the whole summer season. The plant community is represented in the tree layer by Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thu.ja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, in the lower layer - 12 by the occurrence of dwarfed Gaultheria shallon; further species are Holodiscus discolor, Vaccinium parvifolium. Pteridium aquilinum, Eurhynchium oreganum, etc. This soi l belongs to the Great Group -5*3 Lithosol (1958) and has been classified as Eluviated Acid Lithosol, nearest to 5.32 (Lesko 196l). The places of block collection are shown on Plate I and their soi l morphology is presented in Table II. A short description follows here. 1. The ditch for soi l block collection in the Swordfern type was located on the eastern edge of UBC-Sample Plot No. S- l , on a west-facing slope of 15 per cent. The ground was covered by dense, luxurious 3-foot-tall vegetation of western swordfern, Polystichum muniturn, leaving small place to Athyrium filix-femina. Eurhynchium oreganum, Pteridium aquilinum. Blechnum spicant. Mnium insigne. Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Dryopteris austriaca. Plagiothecium undulatum, Galium triflorum, Viola orbiculata, Trientalis la t i fo l ia , Tiarella tr i fol iata, Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium adenocaulon, Senecio vulgaris, Vaccinium parvifolium, Rubus vit ifol ius, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus spectabilis, Rubus leucodermis, Cornus nuttal l i i , Acer circinatum. Sambucus pubens, Oplopanax horridus and Betula papyrifera. The broken crown canopy on the edge of the clear cut provided about sixty per cent cover. The stoniness was less than 10 per cent, and only a small part of i t emerged on the surface, being always covered by mosses. The stones were larger and more angular than those in the Moss site. The very thin humus layer of organic debris showed rapid decomposi- tion and incorporation into the thick dark brown granular A, layer with fine transition to a frequent and distinct charcoal layer, apparently 80 to 90 years old. Charcoal occurred either in coarse blocks of about 1 to 2 cubic centimetres, or as disintegrated material which stained the layer. The coherence and moisture here were least of the three sites at the time of collection. The soi l is very weakly laterized as indicated by the accumulation of reddish concretions in the uppermost B-̂  horizon and by SiOg coatings on coarse sand in B^ horizon. The reddish brown and yellowish gray layers of the B horizon seldom form horizontal layers; they are often irregularly slanting, and both contain cobbles and easily disintegrating concretions. The upper brown part had more concretions and was more firmly cemented. The roots of trees uniformly occupied the whole profile. They seemed to extend horizontally in the upper parts of the B layer. 2. The soi l sample blocks from the Moss site were excavated from the vicinity of sample plot S-8, 25 yards southwest from the clear cut, under a stand with an 80 per cent crown closure. Douglas-fir, 6 to 13 inches in diameter, western hemlock, 3 to 17 inches, and western redcedar, 3 to 8 inches, occupied the selected area, with a number of recently fallen, 3 - to 20-inch trunks of these species. The area was covered by the following mosses: Plagiothecium undulatum. Eurhynchium oreganum, Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus; from the ferns, only Polystichum muniturn was present and in low vigor. Scattered, small-size shrubs were represented by Gaultheria shallon. Vaccinium parvifolium, V. alaskaense and Rubus vit i fol ius. The most common dicotyledons were Pyrola asarifolia and Linnaea boreal i s . Senecio vulgaris. - 14 Senecio silvaticus and Epilobium adenocaulon were also present. Red mushrooms of the genus Russula and many yellow slimy fungi covered the area. Surface stones were moss covered, and those in the soi l were smaller and fewer but more rounded than those in the Swordfern site. Under the continuous and luxuriant moss cover there was a one- to six-inch dark brown moss-rhizoid humus layer, containing the hidden l i t t er and other organic remains. There was no similar debris obvious on the living moss carpet. The moss-covered raw humus layer contained a large proportion of tree roots which were from one-half to one inch thick. Fewer roots occupied the uncemented parts of the B layer. The roots penetrated deeper than in the Swordfern site. Immediately under the humus layer, which was often mixed with 4 to 10 inches of red decayed remains of redcedar trunks, was a one-half-inch charcoal layer of lumps smaller than one cm. Twenty-five per cent of the area was covered with such layer. Fine powdery charcoal material was mixed with the humus material on about 35 per cent of the whole area. The eluviated layer (Ag) of the gray podzol material was found only on a small proportion of the excavated area. It was present usually below the charcoal layer or under the accumulation of decayed wood of redcedar. The thickness of the incoherent A g layer seldom exceeded one-quarter inch, being usually only one-eighth inch. On a few spots this layer reached a thickness of two inches. The A g layer occupied only 25 per cent of the area, much less than i t usually occurs in this type (about 50$). The B horizon had two distinctly coloured components; an upper red and a lower yellowish-gray material. Their boundaries were distinct, but never regular in depth. Cemented concretions were present in both, but much more compacted in the yellow layer, in which the compactness often reached a hardpan-like coherence. The red layer was sometimes absent. The moisture in the moss type was much more noticeable than in the Swordfern site at the time of collection; this made the coloration of the fresh profile more striking. 3 . Soil blocks were collected from the Salal site 15 yards southeast from the clear cut, UBC-Sample Plot Ko. S-4, on a southeast slope of 25 per cent. The area was surrounded on the south and east by an old stand. Eight living redcedar, 3 to 6 inches in diameter, seven Douglas-fir, 4 to 8 inches, and four hemlock trees, 6 to 8 inches, were on the plot. A 20-inch- thick rotten western redcedar trunk occupied the middle of the area. It was densely covered with moss and yielded large amounts of disintegrating red decaying woody humus. No slash or other disintegrating material was apparent in the continuous moss carpet of the following species: Eurhynchium oreganum, Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus. A few seedlings of Betula papyrifera were found. Dwarfed Gaultheria shallon occurred sporadically. Epilobium adenocaulon, Viola orbiculata, Holodiscus discolor, and Hypocheris radicata completed this poor plant community. The shallow, predominantly organic soil of the area was lying on an irregular, mostly convex, smooth bedrock. Under the 3 - to 9-inch organic layer, mineral soi l seldom over one-half inch in thickness covered the hard, sometimes slightly weathered rock surface. The black, wet, sticky raw humus layer was covered by moss vegeta- tion and f i l led with the root systems of trees. Douglas-fir succeeded only - 16 in depressions where the accumulation of the mineral soi l was greater. No trees larger than 4 inches could otherwise develop on shallow mineral so i l . Douglas-fir is dying out early i f i t cannot reach such mineral so i l . In the past 80 years a new organic soi l started to develop, and has accumulated great amounts of organic nutrients. The new experimental clear cut in 1951, however, shows the process of erosion and desiccation. The charcoal remains from the last forest fire formed a distinct half-inch layer on 75 per cent of the explored area immediately over the mineral soi l , or mostly on the bedrock. The disintegrated charcoal is mixed with raw humus. An eluviated layer (A g) was formed below the charcoal, on only about 25 per cent of the area, where the presence of mineral soil allowed such formation. It never reached a thickness of one inch. Despite the preceding dry summer period, during nighttime, the bare rock surface was moistened by the seepage water from the surrounding parts. Sample Blocks The t in cans for holding the experimental soil-sample blocks measured 9 by 9 inches inside and were 14 inches t a l l . The surface area of a can measured 80 square inches and the volume was 1080 cubic inches (Figure 3). Each can was provided with six drainage holes of one-quarter inch diameter. The excavation of consistent prisms was impossible in the Swordfern site and in many cases in the Moss site. There was no difficulty to cut out perfect blocks from the Salal site. In those cases when the soil material J to follow I : 9in. B FIGURE 3. SOIL BLOCK IN METAL CONTAINER A - SURFACE GRID PATTERN OF FIFTY SEEDS, . B - SIX HOLES AT THE BOTTOM FOR DRAINAGE AND TWO ON THE FRONT FOR MEASURING TEMPERATURE. - 17 was friable, shallow prisms were put in by two or three layers. The upper 3 - to 4-inch layer was kept in one piece in every case. The blocks were cut out from the walls of a ditch 25 inches wide and 25 inches deep. The blocks were turned out on a board from which i t was slowly slipped into the cans. The working method had to be accommodated to the site and even to the minor variations of the soi l consistency. From the Swordfern site, a 12-foot-long ditch was dug out. From the area of 80 square feet, 120 cu. f t . of soil was removed and 46 prisms were collected with an amount of 27 cu. f t . soil material. On the Moss site, a ditch 18 by 5 feet was opened with a total surface of 100 sq. f t . , and 200 cu. f t . of soil was removed, because of the great losses due to the presence of stones. The 46 collected prisms measured about 28 cu. f t . On the Salal site a 30 by 30 foot surface was piled off from the rock to get 48 blocks, which hardly f i l l ed half the depth of the cans. Here only 60 cu. f t . of soil was removed, and the collected amount was estimated as 15 cu. f t . This was the only place where earthworms were found in the course of the soi l sample collection. Lutz and Chandler (1946) stated that earth- worms occur in the range of 5 .8 to 8 .3 pH. In this case the pH of the mineral soi l where two earthworms were found showed values 4 .10 to 4 .25 (Table XVIII,A). The forest floor, both the living plants and the dead components, was handled with care so that a l l plants, including mosses, were in a natural condition (Appendix III). For chemical analyses, soi l samples were taken from a l l three profiles down to the depth of collected prisms. Seed Seed was acquired from the area of sample blocks. The cones were collected in the last week of September from about fifteen trees for each species. The cones were air-dried three weeks at room temperature and ex- tracted and dewinged by hand. For storage,stratification and germination tests, thermostats of the laboratory of the Faculty of Forestry were used. For germination tests, Petri dishes with vermiculite were used for one hundred seeds for each species (Figure 12). The final test on April 8 was started simultaneously with the sowing on seedling blocks in the greenhouse to furnish standard data for germination on blocks. The previous tests showed that stratification for 93 days changed the germination capacity as follows: Douglas-fir from an i n i t i a l 36% to 90% western hemlock from an i n i t i a l 75% to 68% western redcedar from an i n i t i a l 78% to 28$ The test in wood-ash indicated an indifferent effect, +2.6% on Douglas-fir; -48.6$ reduction on hemlock; and -82.2% on redcedar. Burning the Sample Blocks Burning with i ts results is discussed in this section in detail. The regulation of burning was studied merely to learn how to produce two grades of uniformly repeatable burning for each site with equivalent effects. The literature on burning could not give proper information for delimitation and for controlling the burning rates. The adjectives "severe", - 19 "moderate", and "light" are used without strict distinctions (Table TV). From the three authors who distinguished burning rates by the effect on forest floor, only Bentley and Fenner related these categories to temperature con- ditions. (Tarrant 1956a; Morris 1958; Bentley and Fenner 1958). Only two authors were found who recorded time in their observations (Heyward 1938; Uggla 1957). It was necessary to decide: (l) what intensity and duration of fire to apply; (2) what source of heat to use; and (3) how to ensure the uniformity of burning on a large number of replicas. To provide some experience, a routine slash burning was visited by the experimenter on September 13, 1959. (A description of the process follows.). A slash burn was in progress on a clear-cut area, at the University Research Forest in Haney, along the eastern road connecting the Administration Building with Loon Lake. The air temperature was 55-60°F; the humidity 60 per cent; the sky was clear and afternoon cloudy. The forest floor was moist from the previous week's precipitation. The area of the three-year-old clear cut was covered with the Sword- fern and the Skunk cabbage plant communities. More than five-foot-tall vege- tation of Epilobium angustifolium, Rubus parviflorus, R. speetabilis. R. leucodermis, Sambucus pubens, and Acer circinatum covered 50 per cent of the area. Three-quarters of the area was covered with remains of the removed stand, forming slash about 2 to 4 feet high, and in some places forming piles as high as 10 feet. By volume, half of the fuel material was larger than 4 inches in diameter, up to a thickness of 20 inches. On the two acres of clear cut to be burned on that day, ten cords of fuel was estimated. This - 20 material had been piled into thirty piles of a diameter of about 20 feet and height about 5 feet. Twenty-five per cent of the area was covered by slash piles. The piles were located near old stumps, where the accumulation of organic material was the greatest, exceeding 10 inches. A crew of ten men, led by a forester, successively built up the piles and ignited them, five to eight at once, and cleaned up a 60-foot-wide insulating belt along the edge of the adjoining 30-year-old Douglas-fir stand. After two hours of preparation, the f irst ignition started at 10 A.M., and the last ended at 4:30 P.M. Before the ignition one gallon of crude o i l was poured on the heap of slash. The burning was rapid and reached its peak of flame intensity in one or two minutes. The flames exceeded 15 - 20 feet. The heavy burning went on for 30 to 45 minutes, until the pile collapsed, to start the second phase of glowing combustion. This less rapid stage lasted from twenty minutes to hours or even days under the ash and charcoal. The burned area from the previous day s t i l l showed glowing embers. Half the humus layer was destroyed. The ash mostly from wood material made one-half to one-inch layers, on 25 per cent of the whole area. The forest floor was examined in a few places about 10 - 15 minutes after the end of the "high flaming phase". Three inches under the glowing fuel, protected by heavy ash, the moist humus could be touched by bare hand. This layer had temperature below 120-130°F (50-55°C). The burning consumed a l l fine slash. It left only about two-thirds of the thick wood and destroyed about one inch of the humus, on 30 per cent of the area. Aerial organs of the living vegetation were ki l led on half of the area. - 21 In order to produce distinguishable results on sample blocks, two grades of temperature were chosen for the experiment. For the peak of the severe burn 2000°F (1100°C) was chosen, and for the moderate a temperature of 1200°F (650°C). These temperatures were measured 1 cm. beneath the surface. For duration, thirty minutes was chosen for severe burning and fifteen minutes for moderate burning. A control in calculation of rates of burning was given by the des- truction of organic layer and by changes in the mineral soi l (Tarrant 1956a; Morris 1958; Bentley and Fenner 1 9 5 8 ) . The severe burn was meant to destroy most of the organic material and had some effect on the mineral soi l particles. The moderate burn destroyed only a part of the humus and did not affect the mineral so i l . After the cans of the soi l blocks were permanently marked with numbers, 84 of them were randomly selected for burning; 42 for severe and 42 for moderate burn; 42 remained as unburned controls. Fourteen from each site type were equally treated; 12 for seedlings and 2 for soil analysis (Table III). To imitate the routine practice, applied for controlled burning in B. C , each block was watered with an equivalent to one inch of precipita- tion. One inch of precipitation means here 80 cu. i n . of water, which equals 1 .38 quarts of dist i l led water ( 1 .31 l i ter) for each block. Three attempts were made in 1959 to produce controllable heat. First , 250-watt incandescent, infra-red bulbs were used in a four-unit set. A maximum temperature of 1000°F (538°C) was reached in one hour from a dis- tance of one inch. This insufficient method had to be abandoned. A Kerokill flame-thrower weedkiller, heated with kerosene, was also - 22 tried. This instrument failed because of its irregularity. A natural gas burner in the U. B. C. Metallurgical Laboratory proved to be most reliable. This burner, regulated with an electric fan, was able to produce temperatures up to 4000°F. It produced the required effect from a distance of eleven inches for the severe burn, and from fifteen inches for the moderate burn. The heating capacity of the natural gas was often fluctuating, however, by as much as l200°F (93°C). The burning of the 84 blocks was carried out from February 27 to March 27, I960 (Plate - III). For measuring temperature, thermo-couple gauges were used with an electronic Leeds & Northrup Co. potentiometer. For the upper measurements in the soil surface, Chromel-Alumel wire, Type K, was used, suitable for a range of 600°F (3l6°C) to 2300°F (1240°C).1 For measurements taken at depths of 2 and 4 inches below the soi l surface, Iron-Constantan wire, Type J , was em- ployed, suitable up to 800°F (427°C). 1 Both types of wires had varnished fibreglass insulation. A few mercury thermometers were also used in lower regions, where the temperature did not exceed 300°F (149°C). The metal can was set on a brick base and coated with metallurgical furnace bricks extending a few inches over the upper edge of the can. To protect the metal from the heat effect, a protective coat was applied. Four one-quarter-inch asbestos sheets, four-inches-wide matching the 9-inch length of the can, were driven between the metal wall and the soi l block. Similar sheets of asbestos were used on the top of the brick coat and on the stand to 1 A change in temperature of 5°F (2.78°C) corresponds to 0.100 millivolt in Chromel-Alumel thermo-couple and to 0.150 millivolt in Iron-Constantan. support thermo-couple gauges, and to facilitate handling. Three pairs of thermo-couples were installed: two Chromel-Alumel wires on the surface; two Iron-Constantan wires, two inches under the sur- face; and two identical to the previous at four inches below the surface. The two sensors in each pair were located 3.5 inches apart at the same level. The two sensors on the surface were enclosed in 14-inch-long ceramic pro- tective sleeves. The four lower measuring units were driven into the can horizontally, through 1 cm. holes and protected with double-bore ceramic i n - sulators. Their sensors were free. No foreign extension wire was used, because the distance between the can and the potentiometer was less than 8 feet. The measuring units were connected with the potentiometer by means of a multiple pole switch gear, which allowed reading at every two to five minutes for a l l six junctions. Usually 50 to 60 measurements were taken with severe burn, and 20 to 30 with moderate burn. The room temperature and soi l temperature were recorded each time and the potentiometer was adjusted accordingly. The general march of temperature during the burn in nature and in the experiment, is depicted in Figures 8 to 11. There were many sources of error which caused variations in burn- ing effects and required, therefore, modification of time, (l) The moisture content varied in the different blocks at the time of burning, because of differences of soi l and organic substances by sites and the individual varia- tions in sample blocks; (2) The irregular temperature and humidity of air at the places of storage and burning resulted in differences in desiccation; (3) The burner did not produce a perfectly uniform flame each day in spite - 24 of controlled air mixture; (4) The changes to the mineral soil from severe burning were not obtainable on the Moss and Salal blocks, because of the great amounts of organic matter. The above reasons forced modification of the time of burning. Adjustments were based on the measured temperatures and on the degree of destruction of organic matter. The following rates were used on the different sites (Figure 9), in terms of 'surface' temperature 1 cm. below the ground surface: Swordfern site: Moss site: Salal site: From the burning records the following data were compiled: maximum and average temperature on the surface during the most intensive 20 or 10 minutes of burning for the severe or moderate; average temperature for depths of 2 and 4 inches; and depth of the burned-out or destroyed layer, as a loss from the soi l block (Table V). The sinking of the surface, expressed as a loss of the surface material, includes both destruction of humus by burning and compaction by shaking during transportation. This latter mechanical loss was estimated at about half an inch for Swordfern blocks, and three- quarters of an inch for Moss site blocks. Salal blocks had no such losses because of their elasticity and shallowness. The different results in four blocks within a group are apparent in -Table VI expressed in order of intensity. Table VI shows also the surface characteristics for different burning rates and intensities. No direct severe burning moderate 11 severe burning moderate " severe burning moderate 11 1750°F for 30 minutes 1200°F " 1 5 " 1850°F " 3 5 " 1550°F " 15 " 1750°F " 3 5 " 1000°F » 15 " - 25 consistency is shown between the values. Only the destruction, expressed by loss in inches, indicated some relationship to the burning force. The blocks with insufficient moisture were those with over-burned rates, excessively deep penetration of heat, and with deeply destroyed humus layer. As examples of the latter, blocks 1, 6, 10 and 11 from Moss site; and blocks 1, 7, 8, 10 and 11 from Salal site should be mentioned. The percentage of sample blocks covered with noticeable remains of burning showed the following results: Site and Burning Rate 10 to 50$ mineral soi l surface scorched 25 to 75$ surface covered with ash 10 to 60$ surface covered with charcoal Swordfern site severe 71 79 50 moderate 29 71 52 Moss site severe 50 64 79 moderate 29 64 93 Salal site severe 0 64 100 moderate 0 57 93 Severe burning produced more scorched mineral aggregates and more ash than moderate burning. Moderate burning, however, produced more charcoal than severe burning. Formation of coke was observed in four cases on seedling blocks (Table VI), and on a Moss soi l sample block, due to high and rapid burning, accompanied with lack of oxygen (Plates - VI, X, XII). No usual ash-produc- ing slash material was involved or added. This is why only 1 to 2 m i l l i - meters of ash were present instead of the one or more inches of ash associated with an actual slash burn. - 26 The remarkable differences in the productivity, consistent for a l l replicas and for each species, proved that the two burning rates applied were uniform in their effects within their own ranges and represented two dif- ferent grades of burning. Not only did the surface temperature prove to be directly a decisive factor, but also the rate of penetration of fire into the mineral layer. The mineral soil to a depth of about 3 inches was affected by high temperature (500 to 700°F) only on the bare Swordfern blocks. The condensation of water vapor reported in the literature (Uggla 1958) was observed in most cases by the "sweating" cables of thermo-couple wires and on glass thermometers. The condensation of vapor was so rapid in the shallow Salal site blocks, that at the start of burning water drained from the bottom of the cans. A temperature decrease was also observed quan- titatively in a number of blocks at a depth of 4 inches. In 24 cases from a l l 84 ( 2 9 $ ) , the thermo-couple sensors recorded a continuous decrease in temperature. This drop went on for about 10 minutes, showing lower values than at the start, up to a maximum difference of 0.150 millivolts, which is equivalent to 5°F (2 .78°C) . This procedure was measured in 21$ of the cases with the Swordfern site and the Salal site, and in 43$ of the cases with the Moss site. The best water retention capacity of the Moss site l ikely re- sulted in the development of a belt of condensation. The intensive vaporiza- tion of soi l water heated from above utilized heat from cool parts lying underneath before i t started to condense again. The endothermal process of vaporization absorbed some heat from the soi l . This is why the temperature at about 4 inches of depth seldom exceeded 100°F (38°C) in Swordfern and 200°F (93°C) in Moss site. The shallow Salal site was often overheated, however. - 27 The measured decrease of temperature caused by vaporization furnished new evidence to corroborate the findings of many authors about the thermo-dynamic role of moist humus (Hesselman 1916; Lutz and Chandler 1946; and Uggla 1958a). Sowing the Tree Seed After burning, the blocks were arranged on benches in the green- house. The excess upper rims of cans were cut except for a small rim that prevented escape of irrigation water. Holes from the heat gauges were closed. Labels were put on the cans, showing the number, site, burning rate and species of each block (Figure 4) . The shorter blocks were elevated to give a uniform surface level for a l l blocks. Fifty stratified seeds of each species were seeded on each block. Soil sample blocks preserved for chemical analysis were not seeded (Table III). The seeds were regularly spaced on the moistened soil surface (Figure 3 ) . The outer rows of the seeded square were lg inches away from the can wall. Wide-headed nails were used to mark the places for the seed on clean soi l surface, and a pattern with 1 cm. holes was used to place seeds on the rough surface. The seeds were gently pressed into the soil to pro- vide a 5 mm. cover for Douglas-fir and a 1-2 mm. cover for the other two species. The seeds were pushed into the rhizoid region of the moss cover. Any vegetation which hindered the sowing was slightly trimmed. The moisture of the surface was maintained with moistened towel paper. The ash layer, which was never thicker than 2 mm., quickly dis- appeared through infiltration by water into the so i l . By the end of April there was no visible ash on the blocks. - 28 Micro-Climatological Conditions and Irrigation On Ap r i l 19, I960, a Stevenson screen was installed with a Friez hygrothermograph. Temperature and humidity data are presented i n Figures 6 and 7. Meteorological conditions from stations near the sample collection are shown i n Figure 2. * To avoid intense insolation i n the greenhouse, the blocks were shaded with newspaper sheets i n A p r i l . On April 29th the glass roof of the greenhouse was coated with whitewash. Routine heating and ventilation con- ditions i n the greenhouse were maintained. During the c h i l l i n g period, from November 7, I960 to February 9, 196l, special measures were introduced for heating and ventilation. Position of cans within the four-block group of each variant was changed weekly i n Ap r i l and May, to avoid differences i n s o i l temperature. To improve the uniformity of heat conditions, a peat-moss insulation of metal cans was applied at the end of May, I960. The south side was marked on each can to ensure the seedlings the same compass position after any change i n arrangement, and to identify the surface with the sketch. The addition of lighting from August 18, I960, to September 23, f a i l e d to prolong the growing season of a l l seedlings. This late-summer a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t was supplied with six 150-watt incandescent bulbs, operating each day from 7:00 to 9:00 P.M. On completion the blocks were transferred to their f i n a l premises for the winter c h i l l i n g and accelerated spring growth (Figure 4). to follow page 28 5 i SALAL SITE SAMPLES 1 " SALAL SITE I L J • I I *'c" • • • • r* • • • • • u »• • V? n 77? • • «liB • • « • \s\\N\s\ I MOSS SITE I SWORDFERN SITE I SAMPLES MOSS SITE SWORDFERN SITE SOUTH SAMPLES TH - THERMO-HYGROGRAPH FIGURE 4 . LAYOUT OF SEEDLING BLOCKS AND SOIL BLOCKS IN THE - GREENHOUSE. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. t o f o l l o w p a g e 230 220 (89) (86) 130 250 130 130 0 230 0 240 220 © 240 0 130 (86) (88) (70) (92) 130 125 130 170 125 170 180 © 240 0 250 250 O 230 © 190 (102) (105) _ - (104) (96) 170 175 170 SOUTH ® 500-WATT INCANDESCENT BULB (90) VERTrCAL DISTANCE OF THE B U L B - C M 230 INCIDENT LIGHT INTENSI TY - FOOT CANDLES F I G U R E 5. DISTRIBUTION OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT FOR BREAKING DORMANCY. - 29 Irrigation with dist i l led water had to ensure the nutritional re- quirements in an equal distribution for each block, regardless of i ts plant population or different soi l properties. The irrigation was also, in this case, a substitute of vertical seepage for eluviation of ash and other nutrients after the burn. Table VII compares the amount of water used for irrigation to the meteorological averages for many years and to the records of the current year. Two-litre Erlenmeyer flasks were used with a suction- pump outlet for irrigation. The volume of flasks was adjusted in terms of precipitation inches. The irrigation was performed every second evening. Seedling Population On May 5* I960 additional planting was necessary to supplement the population on some blocks to ten, to guarantee at least five plants after thinning. Douglas-fir did not require any replacements. Western hemlock needed four additional germinants for the Moss site and one for the Salal site. Western redcedar was transplanted thus: 27 on Swordfern site; 36 on Moss site; and 28 on Salal site. There was no relationship, in the need for transplants, with the treatment. Half of the supplied seedlings remained until the end of the experiment. In thinning, the dying, crippled, chlorotic seedlings were selected for removal. Then those with damaged leaders, and finally those with double leaders were removed. Subsequent thinning removed many of the replacements because original seedlings were preferred. The number of plants on a block changed chronologically as follows: 1. April 9 to 17, I960 - germination - 50 seeds and their germinants 100 90 u : if) U i 80 UJ or o UJ o 70 • u ) cc •D 60 UJ 50 0. Z u l AO I I I A I I I Chil l ing 1— I — f Weeks Months. Years B412345I123411234 A| M 1960 12345 1234 12345 1234 N 1234 12345112341123411234112345 M M 12341 1961 FIGURE 6 . WEEKLY TEMPERATURES IN THE GREENHOUSE DURING THE EXPERIMENT. Weeks Months Years FIGURE 7. WEEKLY RELATIVE HUMIDITY IN THE GREENHOUSE DURING THE EXPERIMENT. o o o T J D IQ 5) - 30 2. May 5 - regulation - (western hemlock and western redcedar) (substituted to 10) 10 germinants 3. May 14 (Douglas-fir) ) June 14 (western hemlock and western ) - redcedar) ) thinning to - 5 seedlings 4. January 22, 1961 (Douglas-fir) February 11 (western hemlock and western redcedar) ) ) ) thinning to 3 seedlings Breaking of Dormancy On November 7, I960, when a l l the seedlings ceased their growth and the Douglas-fir and western hemlock developed buds, the heating system in the greenhouse was turned off and windows were opened to produce a natural chilling period of 90 days. On February 9, 1961, the greenhouse windows were closed and the regular heating apparatus connected. There was only one week, that of from January 23 to 30, 196d), when the temperature dropped below 40°F, and only one day, January 28, when i t dropped to 33°F. On February 9, 1961, ar t i f i c ia l light was introduced. Ten 500-watt incandescent bulbs, Type GE, were used each day from 5:00 P.M. until 1:00 A.M. The distance of bulbs from the block surfaces varied to produce equal light for a l l blocks. The light intensity on each block was checked with a Brockway exposure-meter, Model S, Sekonic Studio. The average illum- ination under the bulbs was 220 to 250 foot candles. The minimal intensity on the edges was 125 foot candles. The vertical distance of bulbs from the block surface ranged from 70 cm. to 105 cm. (Figure 5). The art i f i c ia l light was concluded on May 5, after 85 days. The eight hours of ar t i f i c ia l light resulted in the breaking of dormancy and a vigorous growth of a l l three species. v to follow page 30 F C 1200 o r-o CD 100QJ GROUND SURFACE 30 TIME - MINUTES FIGURE 8. MARCH OF TEMPERATURE DURING A SLASH BURN, ADAPTED FROM E. UGGLA. to follow page 30 F C I90a o o 1500 in UJ - u> cc UJ a UJ 1000 DC 5 - CC UJ a. UJ 500 6Q - o SEVERE BURN SEVERE BURN SWORDFERN SITE — \ MOSS SITE SALAL SITE I 10 " i 1 1 1 r~ 15 20 30 35 AO TIME- MINUTES 50 60 FIGURE 9. M A R C H O F T E M P E R A T U R E DURING L A B O R A T O R Y BURNING F O R T H E BLOCK S U R F A C E . A V E R A G E S O F F O R T E E N BURNINGS F O R E A C H S I T E A N D BURNING R A T E . to follow page 30 F , C 1A00_ o "Wo 1000 m UI Ui a: O UJ a i uJ cc 2 UJ Q- ui 500. 60, 0_ © • o in o |—o - o SEVERE BURN - SWORDFERN SITE — MOSS SITE SALAL SITE, SEVERE BURN SEVERE BURN V (MODERATE BURN 7/ MODERATE BURN — ^^v. \ ' --'^ \. / MODERATE BURN \ ' • - ., * " — ' ^ i : . / V < 10 15 20 1^ 30 T A0 I GO 60 TIME-MINUTES FIGURE 10. MARCH OF TEMPERATURE DURING LABORATORY BURNING FOR A DEPTH OF TWO INCHES. AVERAGES OF FORTEEN BURNINGS FOR EACH SITE AND BURNING RATE. to follow page 30 F C 400_ & 3 0 0 o UJ o uJ DC 3 < 200 UJ Q. uJ 100_ 60. o o o o o S W O R D F E R N S I T E • ' M O S S S I T E ' S A L A L S I T E 1 S E V E R E B U R N i • ' ' / \ S E V E R E B U R N . ' / // // / / ' S E V E R E B U R N •>» v. — ~ ~ M O D E R A T E B U R N 0 1 1 • 1 1 ' G 1 0 1G 2 0 3 0 3G T I M E - M I N U T E S 1 1 4 0 GO 6 0 FIGURE 11. MARCH OF TEMPERATURE DURING LABORATORY BURNING FOR A DEPTH OF FOUR INCHES. AVERAGES OF FORTEEN BURN- INGS FOR EACH SITE AND BURNING RATE - 31 Seedling Growth and Dry Matter Production A register was prepared for each block to record characteristics and changes on the block. After reduction of seedlings to five, each seedling was labelled and i t s place marked on a sketch. The following t a l l i e s with subsequent analyses were carried out during the experiment: (a) Account of germination (1) A p r i l 16, I960 - test of early germinants, (2) May 5, I960 - germination test after complete germination (Figure 13), (3) May 15, I960 - t a l l y of t h r i f t y germinants (Figure 14); (b) Account of growth i n the f i r s t growing season (1) July 1, I960 - evaluation of f i r s t spring growth (Figure 15), (2) Aug. 20, i960 - evaluation of the summer growth (Figure 16), (3) Dec. 30, I960 - evaluation of the first-year growth (Figure 17 and Table X); (c) Account of growth i n the second year (1) A p r i l 20, 1961 - evaluation of stimulated early growth (Figure 18), (2) June 25, 1961 - evaluation of second spring growth (Figure 19), (3) July 8 and 20, 1961 - measuring and weighing the completed plant crop after the f i n a l removal (Figures 20 to 23). In Section (a), the number of germinants and their quality were examined. The germination capacity was calculated and compared or related to the burning conditions on each site for each species. The third assessment selected a l l sound germinants and related their number to the standard germination capacity. A l l injured or defective germinants were removed after the count, and the type of damage was recorded. During thinning, the root systems of the removed seedlings were examined, and top-root ratios by length were determined. The second section (b) recorded seedling growth i n the f i r s t year. - 32 During measurement each seedling was individually handled. Height of the stem, length of largest needles, and the number of branches were counted and color of foliage was expressed in the f irst evaluation. For Douglas-fir the type of branching and for western redcedar the length of largest branch were also recorded. Notes were made on other features such as bud form and color. The second evaluation (Aug. 20, I960) added to the previous charac- teristics, stem diameter 1 cm. over the ground to the nearest l / l O mm., total length of branches and stem characteristics. The secondary and tertiary branches on hemlock were counted. The third assessment at the end of the first-year growing season examined the previous characteristics, and the lammas growth. The third section (c) covers development in the second year. The growth started with the breaking of dormancy about the middle of February, 1961, with redcedar, March 15 with hemlock, and March 25 with Douglas-fir. The f irst detailed measurements of a l l seedlings were taken on April 20, 1961, after the last thinning to three seedlings. The f irst and second assessments in the second growing season (1961) measured only height growth, bud development and changes in colour of foliage in the two phases, winter and spring growth. The second tal ly on June 25, 1961, recorded final growth of seedlings already resting and growth curves were prepared. On removal, the seedlings were washed, shaken to get rid of excess water, and the root was removed. Simultaneously with the snipping of roots at the point of the root neck, the diameter and the length of shoot and root were measured in millimetres. Root weight was taken to the nearest hundredth of a gram. The root and top parts were sealed in paper bags with wire staples for room temperature drying for about ten days. The plants were oven dried in the paper bags for 24 hours at 80°C (180°F). The dried plant parts were weighed again separately on a Mettler Optical Balance, Model K-7, to the nearest hundredth of a gram. Root and top, and total dry weight of the plant was computed. For calculation i t was decided to group together the absolute measurements and averages for a given characteristic, e.g., height or weight for a l l the seedlings from a single block, since these plants of the same species and common origin received the same treatment on the same soil block in uniform micro-climatic conditions. This provided block averages for measurements or block sums for weights. For any treatment, then, affecting one species, one site and one burning rate, four such block averages or sums are available, because there are four replicates of each species, site, and treatment combination in the experiment, resulting in 108 such block units. Accompanied Vegetation on Blocks The original vegetation was preserved on a l l blocks and described. The mosses, ferns, herbaceous plants and woody plants were identified by V. J . Krajina; fungi by R. J . Bandoni (Appendix III). On May 20 and July 15, I960, further descriptions reported the re- maining vegetation. A third description of vascular plants was carried out in December. This vegetation did not change until the end of the experiment. Fungal vegetation was counted in addition to the above on November 25, I960 and February 10, 1961. - 34 Seedlings from Field To obtain information on seedling development in nature, wild seed- lings of the three species were collected from the places of sample block collections. Thrifty seedlings coming from germination in the spring of I960 were excavated, and used for measurements (Tables XIII and XIV). A number of seedlings from the field were also preserved for herbarium records (Plate - XVII). Soil Chemical Analyses To relate the findings of plant growth and dry matter production to the changes in the soil nutrient balance, a series of soi l analyses was undertaken. The plan was to analyze soil blocks without seedlings, in order to follow chemical changes due to fire alone. Two sample blocks from each variant were preserved for this purpose (Table III), and were treated equally to the other seedling blocks. In June, I960, when the incorporation of ash was completed and when the growth of seedlings started, one-third of each soil sample block was cut off vertically. Tables XVII - B, C, present descriptions of layers of the sectioned blocks. The remaining two-thirds of each block was closed again, with the replaced metal wall. Plates XIII to XVI show such soi l cross- sections. When the experiment was concluded in June, 1961, samples from the same layers were taken again. Soil pH values were measured from the surface layer and from the central part of a l l seedling blocks of average production (Table XVIII - C). After air-drying, the soil samples were sifted by Tyler Standard - 35 Screen, Scale No. 10 (9 meshes - 1.98 mm.) to select coarse particles. The following chemical properties were examined by standard methods (Appendix IV), for each sample in two replicates: soi l pH, cation exchange capacity, per cent organic matter, per cent nitrogen, miliequivalents for 100 grams for calcium, potassium and magnesium cations, and p.p.m. for phosphorus. Per cent saturation for the named cations was computed, and organic matter per nitrogen expressed. More than 120 samples were analyzed from 60 soil samples. Parallel results from the same layers, taken in the following years, were compared and related to the corresponding item from the field collection. A l l the avail- able information from analyses was grouped by burning rates and related to the values of plant production. Note on Physical Soil Properties The character of the experiment did not make possible proper soi l physical observations. Only some obvious marks and phenomena were available to compare present conditions to those generally accepted in the literature. The usually observed postfire results of heat and burning were present on the sample blocks and described quantitatively. The formation of ash, charcoal and aggregates of the mineral soi l particles was recorded along with coke production in a few cases. The consistent watering eliminated the disadvantage of a possible increase of percolation rate and decrease of water-holding capacity of the soil after burning. The improved aeration l ikely promoted decomposition, resulting in a beneficial increase of nitrogen transformation. Photographs and Seedling Collections The lay-out and the march of the experiment were recorded by a number of photographs, mostly coloured. At the end of seedling growth in Apri l , 1961, a series of black and white photographs was taken. A more complete series in color was taken on June 30, on completion of the experiment, when a l l the possible combinations were recorded. Color changes on foliage were also recorded. From the large number of photographs, some are presented on the Plates (Appendix V). During the experiment, the thinned seedlings, along with those col- lected on experimental plots in the forest, were preserved in a herbarium. Some herbarium sheets are presented on Plate XVII. Statistical Analysis The effects of two burning rates and of unburned control variants were compared to each other for sites and species. Analysis of variance and t-tests were used for each site and species for the two series of final measurements. In the f irst series heights of individual seedlings served as the basic data, and in the second, dry weight of the total crop on each block was considered. Height data were analysed because i t allowed con- sideration of individual variation, but i t was impossible to obtain weight data for individual seedlings because of the interwoven and broken root systems (especially with redcedar). An example of the steps in the analyses is given in Appendix II for each series (height and weight). Table XXXII gives the levels of sig- nificance between treatments for each species on each site when height and weight comparisons are made. CHAPTER THREE - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Changes in Composition of the Accompanied Vegetation The original plant cover on soi l blocks was described after collec- tion (Appendix III) and i t remained relatively unchanged during the f irst winter in the greenhouse (Plate - II). Burning in March, I960, destroyed the vegetation on burned blocks and the plant cover on unburned blocks was sheared to facilitate sowing. Appendix III presents the species for each site. Species occurring only on some blocks are marked with the number of the block. The description shows that the original vegetation on May 20 was well preserved on unburned blocks, except that mosses died during the f irst winter. Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Hylocomium splendens and Plagiothecium undulatum were gradually surpassed by Funaria hygrometrica. Some temporary regeneration of Plagiothecium undulatum was noticeable. The plant cover on burned blocks was composed mainly of newcomers (mosses, liverworts, ferns and angiosperms). Only a few species with deep roots or rootstocks survived the burning. The severely burned blocks had no survivorsj the moderately burned blocks in many cases supported root suckers of Rubus species and Gaultheria shallon on both Swordfern and Salal blocks. The Moss site did not produce root suckers and its shallow-rooted, shrubby plants did not survive burning. In one case, Pteridium aquilinum sprouted on a severely burned Swordfern block from deep roots - an indication that i t may survive even severe burning. A great number of fungi soon occupied nearly a l l burned block sur- faces, except the severely burned Swordfern site and a few blocks of the Salal site, which had a very strong charcoal cover. No fungi occurred on - 38 unburned blocks. When a l l ash material disappeared from the block surface in May, I960, new plants appeared. In the f irst half of May a slimy cover of uniden- tif ied algae was noticeable on many blocks. Only 7 per cent of Swordfern and Moss blocks had algae, but 59 per cent of the Salal blocks. The predominance of undecomposed organic material l ikely supported algae on Salal blocks. No relationship to the treatment was noticed. The vegetation was trimmed again on July 15, I960. Before this reduction and shearing, a third survey of vegetation was carried out (Appendix II - 3). Plants listed in the previous enumeration were not repeated. (See also the Plates.). The second after-burn description on July 15 showed the following plants established on the burned soi l surface; Senecio sp., Populus tricho- carpa, Salix scouleriana, Alnus rubra, Funaria hygrometrica and Leptobryum pyriforme. On some blocks Polytrichum .juniperinum, or on others Marchantia polymorpha, were present. The difference, in the composition of vascular plants, between the burned and the unburned blocks was maintained as before. Fungi appeared only on burned blocks. The greenhouse mosses gradually invaded the surface of a l l blocks. After the July plant identification there was no noticeable change in plant cover. The vegetation on blocks was left undisturbed; only intru- sive species, such as Oxalis, Hypochaeris, Begonia and some exotic ferns were removed. The growth of accompanied plants was controlled only where i t interfered with development of the tree seedlings. The changes in moss cover were recorded f irst on August 18, I960. - 39 The burned and the unburned blocks of the Swordfern site were already covered by 65 to 85 per cent of the surface area, and the burned Moss site and Salal site blocks by 45 to 80 per cent. The unburned blocks of the Moss site were covered by a complete mat of old dead moss, and the Salal site was 35 per cent covered with dead moss and 65 per cent with new mosses. The post-fire light-demanding mosses such as Funaria hygrometrica, Leptobryum pyriforme. Polytrichum .juniperinum, and liverwort Marc nan tia polymorpha gradually dominated a l l blocks. The. evaluation of the autumn fungus flora is presented in Appendix III - 4. Fungi of the genus Boletus were present on ten severely burned blocks, and on two moderately burned blocks (14 per cent). On December 5, whitish and yellowish 5-6 cm. colonies of two uniden- tif ied Eumycetes developed on nine burned blocks (11 per cent). For the f irs t time, four unburned blocks in the Moss site (28 per cent) and four in the Salal site (28 per cent) supported the same fungus vegetation (Appendix III - 5). At the conclusion of the growing season, the plant cover of the blocks was compared to the July condition (Appendix III - 6). The previous striking differences between the unburned and burned blocks and between sites already disappeared. The invaders occupied a l l the space between seedlings. Fungus flora prevailed on the following proportion of a l l burned blocks: Swordfern 81 per cent, Moss 79 per cent, Salal 57 per cent. Unburned blocks had fungi on 71, 29 and 42 per cent of the blocks, respectively. During the rapid growth of seedlings in the 1961 prevernal period, most associated vegetation was suppressed or removed with the final thinning of seedlings, and the plant cover had l i t t l e further indicator value. - 40 In early February, 1961, probably due to the effect of hastened spring growth, a new fungal flora was apparent, mostly on severely burned blocks and less on moderately burned and unburned surfaces. Many of the Swordfern site blocks were infested, but very few of the other two sites. The distribution is shown in Appendix III - 7. The following percentage of blocks supported fungi: Swordfern 78 per cent, Moss 45 per cent, and Salal 14 per cent of the burned blocks; while Swordfern 14 per cent, Moss 0 per cent, and Salal 14 per cent of the unburned blocks. Contrary to general opinion (Johnson, 1946; Tarrant, 1956b, 1957; and Pac. N. W. Exp. St. , 1957), in this experiment fungal vegetation pre- vailed on burned blocks. The unburned control blocks were slightly occupied by fungi in the second year. The consistent charcoal surface and the severe- ly burned Swordfern site were free from fungi at the beginning. In July, I960, many burned blocks were invaded by fungi. The Ahlgrens (i960) quoted four authors who reported stimulation of some Discomycetae and Agaricaceae. The f irst fungi (Eumycetes) appeared on unburned Moss and Salal blocks in December, I960, and formed at that time greater infestation than on burned blocks. The number of species was remarkable as was the number of speci- mens on each block. Twenty species were identified and the number of speci- mens varied from two to twenty on each block. At the f irst Craterellus, Coprinus, Spicaria, Lamprospora, Patella albospadica and Myxomycetes were present on many of the burned blocks. Peziza, Agaricus, Boletus, Telephora and Craterellus species were characteristic from July, I960. At last in February, 1961, Polypoms, Craterellus, Stereuro, and Galera species appeared mostly on burned, and scarcely on unburned blocks. - 41 No decrease in mycorrhizal l i f e was noticed on burned blocks, as stated by some authors (Pac. N. ¥ . Exp. St. , 1957). On the contrary, abundant mycorrhizae were found on a l l good seedlings in the second year. No similar observations were made in the f irst year. Establishment of Seedlings, May 5, I960 Seeds which had been stratified for 93 days were sown 50 to each block; on April 9, Douglas-fir and western hemlock, and on April 10, western redcedar. The germination started on April 13 with Douglas-fir, April 15 with western hemlock and April 17 with western redcedar. To produce comparative data for the evaluation of germinative capacity, simultaneous standard germination tests were carried out with 50 seeds from each species in the greenhouse (Figure 12) . In this test Douglas- f i r produced in six days 78 per cent germinative capacity, western hemlock in eleven days 68 per cent, and western redcedar in three days a 28 per cent germinative capacity. The above values were considered as standard germina- tive capacities for each species. The actual values reached on soi l blocks were counted as percentages of these basic values. When the germination was concluded by April 23, a count of a l l ger- minants was carried out. The second account on May 5 recorded the final re- sults, shown in Table VIII and in Figure 13. Douglas-fir seeds nearly approached the standard results of ger- mination, with the exception of the unburned Salal site blocks (49 per cent); western hemlock showed fair ly good results on Swordfern and Salal sites, but failed on Moss site (55 per cent); and western redcedar had the lowest ger- mination (30 to 39 per cent). t o f o l l o w p a g e Al A. IN VERMICULITE B.IN ASH l±J a UJ a. 60 6CL A0l 20~ Q2 60~ AO] 2oL 3 80_ 60L AOl 20l 0 DOUGLAS -FIR WESTERN HEMLOCK 'WESTERN REDCEDAR DOUGLAS -FfR 1960 A PR 8 9 10 li 12 13 1A 15 1617 18 19 20 21 22 232A 25 FIGURE 12. STANDARD PETRI DISH GERMINATION TESTS . Burned blocks gave a better germination than unburned ones. Thirty-seven per cent of the Swordfern site burned blocks had higher values than the standard 78 per cent germinative capacity of Douglas-fir. On the Moss site 25 per cent, and on the Salal site 12.per cent had better results than the standard. With western hemlock, one severely burned block from the Salal site, and one from the Moss site had better results in germination than the standard tests. Pickering (1910) investigated the effect of heat at 392°F (200°C) which inhibited seed germination through a production of non-acid, nitrogenous materials. Wilson (1914) found a delayed germination in soi l affected by a heat of 347°F (175°C). No such effects were observed in this experiment. In the final average, burned blocks had better germination re- sults than the unburned ones (Figure 13). The physical character of the surface influenced the germination to some degree. The dense moss surface of the unburned Moss site blocks re- duced the results noticeably with hemlock and redcedar. The homogeneous surface of the Swordfern blocks proved to be the most successful medium for germination. The presence of ash and charcoal did not show a uniform effect on germination. Ash slightly promoted germination of Douglas-fir on the Sword- fern and Moss site blocks, and did the same with hemlock on the Swordfern site blocks. On the contrary, ash hindered germination of redcedar on the Swordfern and Moss site blocks. These results are consistent with those shown in petri dishes (Figure 12), where ash strongly reduced the germina- tion capacity of western redcedar. The Salal site gave no correlative DOUGLAS-FIR WESTERN HEMLOCK WESTERN REDCEDAR 150 100 J o 50 J < z cc o 0 _J 100 50 J UJ o cc o Uf t— CO 3 S.i o o 50 1 0_J SWORDFERN SITE S M U Li-n -TLn -OJT f l J l N MOSS SITE S M U TJ4 SALAL SITE S M U J l Jul FIGURE 13. RELATIVE GERMINATION ON SEEDLING BLOCKS, MAY 5,19 60. GERMINATION CAPACITIES ARE ADJUSTED TO STANDARD VALUES FOR EACH SPECIES: D - 78, H - 68, C - 28 •/. • SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. - 43 results and had great range of variations. Charcoal showed some positive effect on germination. Many authors observed the effect of ash on seed germination. Baker (1950) found reduced germination on concentrated ash. Gayle and Gilgan (1951) stated that Douglas-fir seed had high germination capacity on leached surface. Muri (1955) found that ash slightly affected germination. This experiment also supports the fact that, although concentrated ash affects germination, leached surface has l i t t l e effect. The concentrated ash increased germina- tion with Douglas-fir by 2.6 per cent, but reduced i t with hemlock by 48.6, and with redcedar by 82.2 per cent. Only 8.2 per cent of a l l 1236 Douglas-fir germinants was found un- thrifty. The unburned Swordfern and Moss blocks had the smallest number of such dying and curved germinants (2.1 and 0 per cent), and Salal blocks had the highest percentage of such defects (10.8 per cent). Damping-off occurred with nine Douglas-fir germinants, less than one per cent. These occurred mostly on burned blocks. Western hemlock and redcedar germinants had no noticeable defects. No effect of stratification was apparent. The percentage of defective two-week-old Douglas-fir seedlings on May 5, I960 was as follows: Severely Moderately Unburned bumed burned control Average blocks blocks blocks Swordfern site 9.4 13.3 2.1 8.4 Moss site 8.7 9.3 0 6.0 Salal site 4.6 14.1 16.9 10.8 Average 7.6 12.2 4.4 8.2 The number of cotyledons was counted and those with more than a - 44 normal number of leaflets were recorded. Fourteen evenly distributed Douglas- f i r germinants from 1236 ( l . l per cent) had eight cotyledons instead of five or seven. Thirty-four hemlocks had four cotyledons instead of three, which represented 4 per cent of a l l the 846 germinants. None of the 176 redcedar germinants had more than the normal two cotyledons. There was no correlation between the number of cotyledons and the treatment. Franklin (1961) found the following number of cotyledons: Douglas- f i r , 5 to 8 and rarely 9 or 10; western hemlock, 3 and rarely 2 to 4; western redcedar, 2 and seldom 3. Hypocotyl and root length, in millimeters, on May 5> I960, was as follows: Hypocotyl Root average range average range Douglas-fir 32 25 - 38 43 32 - 75 western hemlock 12 6 - 1 8 18 6-30 western redcedar 12 6 - 1 8 12 6 - 1 8 Franklin (1961) found the following data for the hypocotyls: Douglas-fir, 15 to 35 mm.; western hemlock, 6 to 15 mm.; and western red- cedar, 6 to 16 mm. Only about 5 to 10 per cent of Douglas-fir germinants had dormant plumules or were coated in the seed shell, by May 5. More than a half of western hemlock germinants, however, had a resting plumule at that time. None was apparent with redcedar. On both Swordfern and Moss sites the one-month-old Douglas-fir seed- lings penetrated deeper in unburned control blocks than on burned blocks. Hemlock and redcedar had deeper root penetration in burned blocks than in the - 45 unburned variants. The distribution of nitrogen supply may have been respon- sible for this variation. Survival of Seedlings, May 15, I960 The second check of four-week-old germinants was performed on May 15, I960 (Figure 14)• The actual numbers of thrifty plants were related, in per cent, to the standard germinative capacity of the species. The following example shows the method of calculation: Swordfern site—block no. 11 had 42 sound germinants from 50 seeds. This number represents 84 per cent actual survival, and 108 per cent adjusted by the 78 per cent standard germinative capacity of Douglas-fir seeds. This method allowed a common basis to compare the three species, with different germinative potential. There are yet no strict relationships in the results. The severely burned surface resulted in somewhat more thrifty germinants only with Douglas- f i r on the Swordfern and Salal site blocks. Hemlock showed the best results on the unburned Swordfern blocks and on the severely burned Salal blocks. Redcedar had the worst results on Salal blocks, particularly on the severely burned group. In general, the sequence of growth is as follows in decreasing order: For the sites: Swordfern, Moss, Salal, with Douglas-fir and redcedar; Salal, Swordfern, Moss, with hemlock; For the burning rate: severe, moderate, unburned; For the species: Douglas-fir, hemlock, redcedar. Twenty per cent of the 1236 Douglas-fir germinants were defective; 29 per cent of the 854 hemlock; and 25 per cent of the 176 redcedar. These DOUGLAS - FIR \ WESTERN HEMLOCK 150 — 100 - ' J • 50 < 1 o - — STOO <->,\ - cc £ 50 j Q * - £ i,o — i Q -5 too - -50 - 0 - SWORDFERN SITE S M U i l n , fin MOSS SITE S M U A b l ITU a SALAL SITE S M U 3 FIGURE U. SURVIVAL OF FOUR-WEEK - OLD GERMINANTS , MAY 15.1960. ADJUSTED VALUES TO STANDARD GERMINATION CAPACITIES. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. o D cn defective seedlings were equally distributed on blocks, regardless of site or burning rate. Douglas-fir proved to be the hardiest and hemlock the most sensitive for i n i t i a l survival. Hemlock had the most irregular development. A l l the blocks were thinned to ten germinants, including those added on redcedar and some on hemlock blocks. A l l uninjured removed seed- lings were preserved for the herbarium. The height and root length of re- moved seedlings was measured. Douglas-fir, after one month, had active growing tips, with from zero to seven lateral buds. The length of shoot (S) and root (R) averaged in millimetres was as follows: Severely burned blocks Site I II III 30 25 30 40 35 45 Moderately burned blocks 25 25 30 35 35 35 Unburned control blocks 25 35 30 R 45 50 40 The root length (equal to root penetration) in Douglas-fir was noticeably larger on the unburned Swordfern and Moss blocks than on burned blocks. Seedlings on the burned Salal site were taller than on the burned Swordfern and Moss sites. These evidences refer to a nutritional increase in the upper layers of so i l . The remaining seedlings of western hemlock had active leader tips, and carried up to seven lateral buds. The length of shoot and root averaged in millimetres was as follows: - 47 Site I II III Severely burned blocks S R 25 30 25 25 30 25 Moderately burned blocks S R 25 35 25 30 30 40 Unburned control blocks 25 25 30 R 25 30 40 Seedlings on the Salal site were generally taller and penetrated deeper. Western redcedar had a fa ir ly uniform development. A l l the seed coat was shed by three weeks and a l l tips were active. Its measurements in millimetres are presented as follows: Site I II III Severely burned blocks 25 20 25 •R 50 45 22 Moderately burned blocks 32 20 23 R 40 50 35 Unburned control blocks 25 23 24 R 43 40 38 The smaller size of seedlings on the Moss site and the somewhat deeper penetration of roots on burned Swordfern and Moss blocks are notice- able. The leading position of the severely burned Swordfern blocks is a l - ready evident. First Spring Growth, July 1, I960 Douglas-fir was reduced to five seedlings per block on May 15; western hemlock and redcedar were reduced f irs t to ten per block on May 27, then to five per block on June 14. The f irst account of growth on July 1, I960 examined five seedlings on each block and twenty seedlings for each - 4a group of four blocks. (Plates VIII to XII). The height (H), needle length (N), number of branches (B^), per cent of seedlings with long branch (B^) were counted; and the stage of bud formation and changes in colour of foliage were checked. For redcedar i n - stead of length of needles, diameter of the foliage cylinder (C) was measured. Per cent of seedlings with long branches on hemlock was not counted because of their uniform quality (Figure 15). Results on the Swordfern and Moss sites for Douglas-fir and western hemlock already forecast the consistent relationship between the site and burning rate. Severely burned blocks on the former had averages two to three times as large for Douglas-fir and hemlock as the unburned control blocks. On the contrary, unburned blocks of the Moss site averaged much higher result than the severely burned blocks with Douglas-fir. Western redcedar general- ly , and hemlock on the Moss and Salal blocks, had not yet distinct trends of variations. The most uniform values within a variant appeared with redcedar. The t a l l plants had long needles, large stem diameter, and more numerous and longer branches; the smaller plants had small values of a l l other characteristics. The following discolorations and growth irregularities were ob- served: Douglas-fir: Swordfern site, on severely burned block - 11, the large seedling 5 had dotted needles and curved stem; block - 13, seedlings 4 and 5 had spirally deformed stems; on unburned block - 33, a l l five seedlings had a yellowish pale coloration. DOUGLAS-FIR 10 5 j o _: WESTERN HEMLOCK S o WESTERN REDCEDAR , 1 0 J 2 5 UJ J x 0 _ J 10- J 5 0 SWORDFERN SITE S M U Jl 2 J MOSS SITE S M U A SALAL SITE S M U FIGURE 15. HEIGHT OF TEN-WEEK-OLD SEEDLINGS, JULY 1,1960. AVERAGE OF FIVE PLANTS ON EACH BLOCK AND OF TWENTY FOR EACH GROUP. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. - 49 Moss site, on unburned block - 42, seedling 5 had dotted needles. Salal site, on severely burned block - 3, seedlings 2, 3, 5 were yellowish pale coloured; on moderately burned block - 27, a l l five large seed- lings had curved stem; on unburned block - 37, seedling 4 had red cotyledons. The above l i s t shows a nutritional irregularity on ten seedlings from a total of 120 (8 per cent), six of which were on unburned Swordfern and Moss blocks. A l l six curved stems occurred with the over-nourished tallest seedlings on burned blocks. Seven mal-nourished small seedlings were grown on unburned blocks, the four smallest of them on Swordfern site blocks. western hemlock: Swordfern site, unburned blocks - 41, 38, 35 and 30, each had two pale seedlings; 40 per cent of a l l (8 from 20); Moss site, unburned block - 20 had a l l five seedlings pale; 25 per cent of a l l ; Salal site, unburned block - 41 had seedlings 2, 3 and 4 with pale foliage (3 from 20); 15 per cent of a l l . Pale colour appeared only on unburned blocks regardless of the size of seedlings, and averaged 27 per cent of a l l hemlock seedlings. The symptom of deficiency culminated again with Swordfern site. Hemlock was much more sensitive to discoloration than Douglas-fir. western redcedar: Swordfern site, on severely burned blocks, 10 seedlings had purplish colour (50 per cent); on moderately burned blocks, 8 seedlings (40 per cent); on unburned blocks, no seedling changed colour. Forty-five per cent of a l l redcedar seedlings on the burned Sword- fern blocks had changed to a purple colour, while none of those on unburned blocks changed. Moss site, on severely burned blocks, 15 seedlings had purplish colour (75 per cent of a l l ) ; on moderately burned blocks, 10 from 20 (50 per cent); on unburned blocks, seven seedlings had changed colour (28 per cent). The burned Moss site blocks had 62.5 per cent of redcedar seedlings with purplish colour, and the unburned block of the same site had only 15 per cent. Salal site, on burned blocks, no change was observed. on unburned block - 34, seedlings 2, 4, 5 had purple colour and red tips (15 per cent). Redcedar had l i t t l e discoloration on unburned blocks except the Salal site. Its discoloration on burned Swordfern and Moss was remarkable. The distribution of discolored seedlings computed for species and site in per cent was as follows: (a) by species: (b) by site: burned blocks unburned blocks burned blocks unburned blocks D H C 3 12 27 ! Z 18 I II III 16 21 22 22 12 Average 16 13 13 2*1 18 Isaac and Hopkins (1937) found a luxuriant growth of shallow- rooted Douglas-fir seedlings on burned areas in the f irst year after burning. - 51 The same seedlings turned chlorotic in the second year. It was the opposite in this experiment with discoloration. A l l three sites averaged a higher number of discolored seedlings on unburned blocks than on the burned ones. The smallest average number of such seedlings appeared on the burned Salal blocks (2.5 per cent). Most seedlings were actively growing as far as the activity of leader tips is concerned. A few weak Douglas-fir seedlings, however, ceased their growth in the middle of June, and formed a 2 mm. brown-scaled bud for a two-month rest period. The following resting seedlings were found on un- burned Swordfern and Salal blocks: Swordfern: Salal: Block 37, seedlings 4, 5 Block 36, seedling 1 40, a l l five seedlings 33, a l l five seedlings total 12 total 1 On the Swordfern unburned group, 60 per cent of the seedlings were dormant by the end of June, I960; on the Salal unburned group, 5 per cent; and none on the Moss site. Root development was examined on June 14 when hemlock and redcedar seedlings were removed for thinning. There was no such possibility for Douglas-fir after May 15, when the thinning to five was performed, because of large root systems which could not be removed without damage to other seedlings. In the following l i s t the top measurements are presented in m i l l i - metres for shoots (S) and roots (R) of the removed, uninjured two-month-old seedlings, on June 14, I960: - 52 western hemlock: Severely burned blocks Site I II III western redcedar: I II III 45 32 32 22 28 40 R 35 30 40 50 45 40 Moderately burned blocks S R 40 40 35 35 45 40 35 40 30 50 30 38 Unburned control blocks S R 35 25 35 35 40 45 25 45 30 42 28 40 Hemlock showed the most shallow penetration in Swordfern and in Moss blocks. Redcedar had generally deeper roots. There is l i t t l e or no difference with different burning rates. Redcedar seedlings developed juvenile needles on the main axis in the f irst year, but the lateral branches develop, instead of needles, normal scale leaves in the f irst year. The injured seedlings, however, develop again branches with juvenile needles from their dormant lateral buds. The second year leader is generally scaly. Weak seedlings continue their juvenile type of leader growth, even during the second year of l i f e , when their lateral branches are already scaly. On some thrifty seedlings, few juvenile needle shoots also burst from dormant buds on the lowest part of the stem in the f irst year. These branches, however, do not continue in development any more. Summer Growth, August 20, I960 By the f irst half of August most seedlings ceased their spring growth and developed terminal buds for a resting period. Only a few weak - 53 Douglas-fir seedlings started their rest one month sooner. Redcedar had ceased its growth but by the end of August commenced a more rapid, late summer growth; Douglas-fir slowed down its growth during the second phase; hemlock was the most continuous in i ts growth at any time. On August 20, the following data were recorded: height of the seed- ling above the ground (H); length of developed needles (N), with exception Of redcedar, number of primary branches (B^); length of the largest branch (Bg), stem diameter (D). Total length of a l l primary branches was also measured for Douglas-fir in millimetres. Number of secondary and tertiary branches were counted on hemlock seedlings. Bud development, colour of foliage, and stem form were recorded for a l l three species. Damage of the seedlings and the spreading of invaded moss cover were assessed. Douglas-fir and hemlock, on the Swordfern site severely burned blocks, had three to four times as high values, in the length of seedlings, as the unburned control blocks. Moderately burned blocks were intermediate, but closer to the severely burned blocks. Similarly, Douglas-fir and red- cedar on the Moss site blocks reached their definite sequence, showing 30 per cent higher values in height on unburned blocks than on severely burned ones. Moderately burned blocks were again intermediate, but closer to the control blocks. On the Salal site a l l three species were superior on moderately burned blocks. Redcedar on the Swordfern site had similar re- sults on the burned groups, both of which exceeded the unburned blocks in height growth. Hemlock seedlings on the Moss site blocks had the most un- certain results, where the poorest growth was on unburned blocks and the best on moderately burned. Figure 16 gives a graphical comparison for height growth. FIGURE 16. HEIGHT OF FOUR - MONTH - OLD SEEDLINGS. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. AUG. 20,1960. AVERAGES AS BEFORE. The compilation of the total length (TL) of a l l primary branches (B), including main stem (H), of Douglas-fir seedlings, resulted in the following numerical relationship. The total length is equal to ten times the length of the largest branch (B,,) with i 20 per cent error. TL = H + 2B = 10 x Bg - 20%. Terminal buds occurred by mid-August with Douglas-fir, mostly on the Salal site and on the unburned Swordfern site. Apparently the smallest and the tallest seedlings entered the resting stage sooner. The groups averaged the following percentages of developed dormant buds with Douglas-fir seedlings, by August 20, I960. Severely Moderately Unburned burned burned control blocks blocks blocks Swordfern site 35 50 80 Moss site 70 5 5 Salal site 20 22 70 Average 48 £2 In.western hemlock, 30 per cent of the seedlings developed buds on the unburned Swordfern blocks and 15 per cent on the unburned Salal blocks, which of both had the smallest seedlings. There was no definite sign of a resting stage in redcedar but there was a noticeable slowing of growth. The pale colour of Douglas-fir foliage, suggesting nutritional de- ficiency, was present in 45 per cent of the unburned blocks of the Swordfern site and in 10 per cent of the unburned and moderately burned Salal site. The smallest seedlings were mostly affected by this deficiency. Hemlock seedlings did not change in colour after July 1, but red- cedar showed the largest percentage of discolored seedlings, as follows: - 55 Swordfern site Moss site Salal site Average Severely- burned blocks 10 45 14 23. Moderately burned blocks 10 5 22 i i Unburned control blocks 20 The above distribution shows a definite trend to increased dis- coloration with burning, and mildest effects on the Swordfern, and strongest on the Moss site. This trend corresponds already to the definite lowest rating of severely burned Moss site blocks. Crooked stems occurred with Douglas-fir mostly on the Salal site with the largest seedlings, e.g. block 27, with a l l five seedlings. The least number of crooked seedlings were on the Swordfern site. The following l i s t shows the percentage of seedlings with tertiary (3), secondary (2) or only primary (l) branches: Severely burned Moderately burned Unburned control blocks blocks blocks Branching level 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Swordfern site 55 45 90 10 90 10 0 Moss site — 65 35 - 75 25 15 50 35 Salal site — 60 40 — 20 80 22 SO 20 Average — 60 42 - 60 40 40 42 20 In the above chart the best growing group shows the highest number of seedlings with tertiary branches, and the weakest group contains the high- est number of seedlings only with primary branches. The moderately burned Salal group with 80 per cent of tertiary-branched seedlings predicts a~ best final result for moderately burned blocks. The 90 per cent of seedlings with only primary branches on the unburned Swordfern blocks predicts the low- est average for these blocks in the final account of productivity. The absence of seedlings with only primary branches on burned Swordfern blocks shows their superior trend. The Mosssite had s t i l l reverse values to the final sequence by treatment. Autumn Growth, December 30, I960 A l l seedlings of the three species had a second growth during the late summer and early autumn of the f irst year. This summer growth, which corresponds to the Lammas growth in nature, generally ceased by the end of September. Some Douglas-fir seedlings, however, did not conclude their growth until December due to the ar t i f i c ia l light applied from August 18 to September 23. The following data were recorded on December 30, I960: height (H); number of primary branches (B)j stem diameter (D)j and percentage of seed- lings with Lammas growth on leaders (L). These items are discussed in Table IX and Figure 17. Bud characteristics and their degree of development, colour of foliage, and apical dominance were also recorded. The results on height, branch number and stem diameter are slight- ly changed from the previous survey. On the Swordfern site redcedar was best on severely burned blocks, next on moderately burned and poorest on the control blocks. On the Moss site blocks the sequence remained unchanged. Salal site blocks made changes with Douglas-fir and redcedar to form their final sequence in productivity with the best results on moderately burned and the worst on severely burned blocks.  - 57 Lammas growth occurred most often on Douglas-fir on the unburned blocks. Hemlock had most Lammas growth on the unburned Swordfern and Salal blocks. Redcedar showed the most Lammas growth on the Swordfern site and on the Salal site with severe burning, and on the unburned and moderately burned Moss site. Generally Douglas-fir produced Lammas growth on 31 per cent, hem- lock on 5 per cent, and redcedar on 23 per cent of seedlings. Only redcedar produced Lammas growth in connection with better growth. Douglas-fir showed a slight positive correlation to the unburned conditions. Hemlock had l i t t l e Lammas growth and i t was evenly distributed on seedlings of various treat- ments. Some leaders on Douglas-fir were surpassed by over-growth of laterals. The following percentages of Douglas-fir seedlings were recorded without apical dominance. Severely Moderately Unburned burned burned control blocks blocks blocks Swordfern site 20 10 15 Moss site 10 10 15 Salal site - - 5 On the Swordfern and Moss sites, the treatments which resulted in the tallest growth produced more seedlings with dominant laterals. The Salal site had only one seedling without apical dominance, and i t was one with exceptionally large growth (seedling 2 on block 39J its height was 145 mm., more than twice as much as the average of the group, 65 mm.). Hemlock and redcedar seedlings did not lose apical dominance. In recording of foliage coloration, three grades were chosen; dark (d), normal (n), and pale (p). ' Percentages of seedlings for each item - 58 are shown in the following l i s t : Severely burned blocks n Douglas-fir: I . Site II. " III. 11 western hemlock: I . Site II. » III. " western redcedar: I. Site II . " III. " 85 40 5 15 -60 - 70 25 - 100 - 50 50 - - 100 - 100 - - 100 - - 25 75 Moderately burned blocks d n p 100 - 50 50 - 65 35 - 30 70 - - 60 40 - 75 25 - 100 - - 100 - 25 50 25 Unburned control blocks i n t 100 - 45 55 42 42 35 65 100 - 40 55 16 - 70 30 - 100 - - 100 - Douglas-fir produced no pale seedlings in any treatment of the Swordfern and Moss sites, nor on the moderately burned Salal site. Generally small seedlings had pale colour, except that few of the smallest seedlings on the unburned Swordfern site were dark green, identical to the best seed- lings on severely burned blocks (Plate XXI). Hemlock foliage had the best colour on unburned blocks, and the worst on severely burned ones, where no seedlings were dark green in colour (Plate XXI). Salal site produced the highest per cent of pale seedlings. Redcedar showed the most discoloration. Only moderately burned Salal blocks produced some dark green seedlings (25 per cent). The typical discoloration on Salal site severely burned blocks and on the Swordfern site unburned blocks was the most conspicuous in the experiment. The pale seed- lings had a purplish rosy tint, sometimes changing into whitish gray colour (Table XVI, Plates - XXIII, XXIV). - 59 Stimulated Winter Growth, April 20, 1961 The stimulated growth replaced the natural spring growth (Figure 18). On April 20, 1961, 90 per cent of the Douglas-fir seedlings had buds, and a number of them were bursting again for the second growth. Hemlock and red- cedar seedlings were in continuous growth until the end of May (Figures 2 5 , 26). The growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, in one month period of stimulated growth, showed values from 27 to 36 per cent of the previous integrated growth. Only the unburned control Salal site was higher with 41 per cent. Low results were shown on the Moss site (28 to 30 per cent) and the over-all average of growth was 33 per cent for Douglas-fir. Western hemlock in a six-week period had averages from 27 to 34 per cent, except the lowest 20 per cent on the severely burned Salal site, and the high values on the unburned control blocks, from 40 to 52 per cent. Average for hemlock was 34 per cent. Western redcedar in a two-month period had a wide range of increase from 24 to 60 per cent, both extremes on severely burned blocks. Its in - crease on the Moss site averaged at 53 per cent. Average for the growth with redcedar was 43 per cent of the previous year's growth. Unburned blocks showed higher values of growth in the second year than the burned blocks for both hemlock and redcedar. The severely burned Salal site blocks had the lowest per cent of growth with hemlock and red- cedar (20 and 24 per cent). Redcedar had the highest increase and Douglas-fir the lowest, on both Swordfern site and Moss site. On the Salal site the sequence was reversed. The changing values of growth in the second year had l i t t l e effect DOUGLAS-FIR WESTERN HEMLOCK WESTERN REDCEDAR 60 _ 40 20 J 0 ,60 u , i 40 i T— I 20 X 0 60 " 40 -I 20 0 _ SWORDFERN SITE S M U -in •I MOSS SITE S M U SALAL SITE S M U FIGURE 18. HEIGHT OF TWELVE - MONTH - OLD SEEDLINGS AT THE END OF THE STIMULATED GROWTH, APR, 20,1961. AVERAGE OF THREE SEEDLINGS IN EACH BLOCK AND OF TWELVE FOR EACH GROUP. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. - 60 on the sequence of productivity, which remained consistent except with hem- lock, which changed places between the severe and control blocks on the Salal site and a l l treatments on Moss site blocks (Plates - XVIII to XX). Second Spring Growth, June 25, 1961 The spring growth in the experiment replaced the usual summer growth in nature, though in a restricted manner. Final measurement of seedlings on blocks took place when the Douglas-fir seedlings developed their second bud in June, 1961. Hemlock and redcedar seedlings had no conspicuous rest period after the provoked bud bursting. Some Douglas-fir seedlings after their rest in April did not start a new growth. On the Swordfern site unburned control blocks, 92 per cent of a l l seedlings did not commence second growth. Three severely burned blocks and one moderately burned block each had one slow seedling with average size (25 and 8 per cent). On the Moss site, 16 per cent of seedlings on severely burned blocks and control blocks, and 25 per cent on moderately burned blocks had slow seedlings. Here the severely burned group was the worst. Nearly a l l seedlings on Salal site blocks started a second growth except 8 per cent on the severely burned and unburned blocks. These were both of below average growth. On the average, 22 per cent of a l l the 108 Douglas-fir seedlings did not burst for the stimulated second growth, with the highest value on the Swordfern site (41 per cent), and the lowest on the Salal (5 per cent). Figure 19 presents the average height of the three seedlings on each block. Plates XXII to XXIV show examples of discoloration caused by FIGURE 19. HEIGHT OF FORTEEN - MONTH - OLD SEEDLINGS AFTER SECOND SPRING GROWTH, JUNE 20 1961. AVERAGES AS BEFORE. SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. - 61 nutritional deficiency. Despite the reduced growth rate of the best growing seedlings (e.g. on severely burned Swordfern blocks), the over-all sequence of productivity by treatment did not change. The sequence of height values approached the final pattern of productivity in a l l respects. The final order of decreasing productivity developed for a l l three species was as follows: Swordfern site: severe - moderate - unburned Moss site: unburned - moderate - severe Salal site: moderate - unburned - severe Size and Weight of Harvested Seedlings, July, 1961 By the f irst week in July, 1961, a l l seedlings gradually turned to a resting stage. Douglas-fir and hemlock developed buds on a l l their growing tips and redcedar formed its densely scaled pseudo-buds. Figures 20 and 21 present the average size of shoot and root for the three seedlings of each block. Tables X, XV, and Figures 22, 23 show the fresh and dry weight of the two parts and the whole plant. The moisture con- tent and the shoot/root ratio were calculated from these values. Plates XXV to XXX present concluding pictures of the experiment. The productivity of each so i l block is expressed as the total oven- dry weight of the three harvested seedlings from each block. The computed total for each group gives the total weight of twelve seedlings on the four replicas. Both fres"h and dry weight values showed a uniform sequence with the height. Statistical comparison was made on final results of production for a l l combinations of variants, by both the size of seedlings and weight of ROOTS ON REMOVED SEEDLINGS, JULY 8,1961. t o f o l l o w p a g e 61 to follow page 61 FIGURE 20.3. SALAL SITE - LENGTH OF SHOOTS AND ROOTS ON REMOVED SEEDLINGS, JULY 8,1961. to follow page 6 60 .50 '40 J 30 : x o . UJ x 20 .10 SHOOT o ROOT 10 20 30 40 _: o •r 50 60 70 80 _I 90 ; FIGURE SWORDFERN SITE D H - C SMU SMU SMU MOSS SITE D H C SMU SMU SMU UJ SALAL SITE D H ' C SMU SMU SMU 21. GROUP AVERAGES OF SHOOT - AND ROOT - LENGTHS BY TWELVE SEEDLINGS IN EACH VARIANT . SEE CHART OF SYMBOLS. FIGURE 2 2 . 1 . SWORDFERN SITE - TOTAL DRY SHOOT - AND ROOT - WEIGHTS OF THREE SEEDLINGS REMOVED FROM EACH BLOCK. THE TETRAMEROUS COLUMNS DE- NOTE WEIGHT OF TWELVE SEEDLINGS FROM FOUR BLOCKS. o — o o ~o Q ID MOSS SI TE - TOTAL DRY SHOOT - AND ROOT - SEEDLINGS. SEE PREVIOUS FIGURE. WEIGHTS OF REMOVED FIGURE 22.3. SALAL SITE - TOTAL DRY SHOOT SEEDLINGS. SEE PREVIOUS FIGURE- AND ROOT - WEIGHTS OF REMOVED o o o T J D IQ A CO t o f o l l o w p a g e co < cc o o UJ 160 _ 140 J 120, J 100 J 80 _ 60 40 »_:20 o o X C O Q O § 2 0 40 " 60 J SWORDFERN SITE D H C SMU SMU SMU MOSS SITE I D H C SMU SMU SMU SALAL SITE D H C SMU SMU SMU FIGURE 23 SUMMARY OF SITE FOR SHOOT - AND -AVERAGES (FROM TABLES 22-1,2,3) ROOT - WEIGHTS., t o f o l l o w p a g e 61 SW ST D H C M ST D H G SL ST D.JH C 75 50 J 25 j UNBURNED BLOCKS FOREST PLOTS j 80 COMPARISON OF SIZE AND WEIGHT OF SEEDLINGS FROM UNBURNED CONTROL BLOCKS AND OF NATURAL SEEDLINGS IN THE SAMPLED A R E A . EACH COLUMN REPRESENTS TWELVE SEEDLINGS. - 62 crop on blocks (Appendix II and Table XXXII). The total dry weight of the seedling crop best represents the re- sults of treatments. In most cases the tests of significance based on stem height agree with those based on weight. Only on the Moss and Salal sites did hemlock and redcedar have divergent values in the levels of significance when treatments were compared by height and by weight. Statistical evaluation showed the following differences for the crop of dry material on each site and for each species by the differences in treat- ment (Figure 27): 1. Swordfern site. The production on both severely and moderately burned blocks was highly significantly larger than that on unburned control blocks. There was no significant difference between the production of two burning rates, moderately burned blocks being close to those severely burned. A l l three species had similar results in the statistical analysis. 2. Moss site. The production on both severely and moderately burned blocks was highly significantly smaller than that on unburned control blocks with Douglas-fir, and significantly smaller with western hemlock. There was no significant difference between the production of the two burning rates, severely burned being the lower. Western redcedar had no significant dif- ference. Its values, however, showed the same sequence as the other two species. 3. Salal site. The production of moderately burned blocks was sig- nificantly higher than that on the severely burned blocks with both Douglas- f i r and western hemlock. Western redcedar had a highly significant dif- ference. There was no significant difference between the production on un- burned and burned blocks, the unburned blocks being between the two burned variants. - 63 The water content of plants was expressed as percentage of dry matter and presented for the groups in Table XI. The data was not instructive be- cause of the various moisture content in blocks at the time of harvesting. Especially water content in roots was extremely various. There was some indication that Douglas-fir and hemlock had lower water content than redcedar. No significant consistency was shown in the water content by treatment, though the severely burned variant had the high- est averages. Generally roots contained twice as much water than aerial organs with Douglas-fir and western hemlock; and more than twice as much with western redcedar. The total dry production in grams and the water content for each species averaged as follows: Douglas-fir western hemlock western redcedar Average The average seedling weight for Douglas-fir was 18.9 g.; for hem- lock, 19.7 g.J for redcedar, 16.2 g.; and the average for a l l three species, 18.3 g. The three kinds of shoot/root ratio are compared in Table XII. On the Swordfern site, the smallest seedlings have the highest values; on the Moss site the tallest seedlings have the highest values. In both cases they are on unburned blocks. On Salal blocks again the best seedlings had the highest values; in this case on moderately burned blocks. dry weight water content water per cent of dry weight 2 0 4 2 . 6 8 3 7 7 9 . 1 4 1 8 5 2 1 3 9 . 0 2 3 8 3 5 . 4 4 180 1 7 5 3 . 1 8 4 4 2 1 . 1 2 2 5 1 5 9 3 4 . 8 8 1 2 0 3 5 . 7 0 2 0 3 The range of values of shoot/root ratio is very wide and irregular, as follows: by length Shoot/root ratio by fresh weight by dry weight Douglas-fir western hemlock western redcedar 0.41, 0.93 0.56, 0.94 0.27, 0.70 1.04, 1.64 1.41, 2.09 1*71. 2-54 2.04, 2.58 2.65, 3.41 1.4?, 3-75 Total 0.27. 0.94 1.04. 2.54 1.49. 3.75 Based on data by dry weight, the shoot/root ratio had generally highest values on unburned blocks and lowest values on severely burned blocks, regardless of the productivity rate. This fact is shown on Figures 22 and 23 also, where the proportion of roots to aerial organs appears highest in un- burned group and lowest on severely burned groups. Generally Douglas-fir showed the smallest S/R ratios, which indicates that i t needed the largest root system as compared to i ts aerial organs. Hemlock was the opposite in this experiment. started by bud bursting and ending by formation of a new bud (Table XVI). 1. Douglas-fir seed was sown on April 9, I960. Germination began on April 13 and was completed by April 20. Init ial growth was finished by the end of June for 60 per cent of the seedlings on unburned Swordfern site blocks (33, 37, 40). By the middle of July a l l seedlings were dormant for one or two weeks after which they burst again into a summer growth (Lammas growth). The summer growth on large seedlings continued until the end of August, when gradually up to September 10 a l l the largest seedlings formed buds. From August 18 to September 23 a moderate amount of art i f ic ia l light Phases of Seedling Growth The growth periods distinguished in this study refer to phases to follow page 64 2 O 50 40 1 30 20 10 0_ 40 j 30 x 2 20 LU X 10 0_ 40 J 30 1 20 10 j MONTH PERIOD DOUGLAS-FIR WESTERN HEMLOCK WESTERN REDC :DAR INITIAL SUMMER- N REST 1961 SEVERELY BURNED MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL SEVERELY BURNED MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL SEVERELY BURNED MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL M STIMULATION M SPRING FIGURE 25.1. SWORDFERN SITE. PERIODIC GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS IN THE . .EXPERIMENT. ' to follow page 64 UNBURNED-CONTROL 50 40 : -30 1 20 J io i o J , -40 2 ° 30 i j — o 20 Ui X 10 d o. 40 30 ; 20 j WESTERN HEMllOCK WESTERN REDCEDAR MODERATELY BURNED; SEVERELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL, MODERATELY B SEVERELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL MODERATELY B FIGURE 25.2. MOSS SITE. PERIODIC GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS IN THE EX PERIMENT. to follow page 64 5 0 "J 40 1 .30 : .20 10 0_ 40 J 2 o 30 o 20 10 40 1 30 20 10 1 MONTH PERIOD DOUGLAS-FIR WESTERN HEMLOCK WESTERN REDCEDAR INITIAL SUMMER N REST 1961 MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONTROL SEVERELY BURNED MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CONT SEVERELY BURNED MODERATELY BURNED UNBURNED-CON1 SEVERELY BURNED M M | J S T I M U L A T I O N S P R I N G FIGURE 25.3. SALAL SITE. PERIODIC GROWTH OF SEEDLINGS IN TE EX' PERIMENT. to follow page 64 M O D E R A T E L Y B U R N E C U N B U R N E D - C O N T R O L F I G U R E 2 6 . A V E R A G E O F P E R I O D I C G R O W T H O F T H E T H R E E S P E C I E S F O R E A C H S I T E - R G U R E 2 7 . R E L A T I V E D R Y W E I G H T P R O D U C T I O N F O R E A C H S P E C I E S IN E A C H T R E A T M E N T O N A L L E A C H C O L U M N R E P R E S E N T S T O T A L D R Y W E I G H T O F T W E L V E S E E D L I N G S , [ F O U R T H R O W I N T A C H SITE D E N O T E S W E I G H T O F T W E L V E N A T U R A L S E E D L I N G S F R O M E A C H S A M P L E D A R E A . - 65 was added, with the result that 35 per cent of the largest seedlings on the severely burned Swordfern blocks (5, l ) and 70 per cent of the largest seed- lings on the four unburned Moss blocks grew throughout September. Sixty per cent of the smallest seedlings on unburned Swordfern blocks (33, 37, 40) also continued growth in September, but by the end of December a l l seedlings were dormant. Douglas-fir seedlings burst last of the three species in the seventh week of art i f ic ia l light in the last third of March. (The art i f i c ia l light was on from February the 9th until May 5, for 85 days.). By the middle of Apri l , 1961, a l l seedlings; except those on unburned Swordfern blocks and except one on unburned Salal block (49), developed terminal buds which soon burst for the second growth period of the second year. The last growth in the experiment ended by the end of June, when a l l seedlings developed terminal buds. Based on the march of growth of Douglas-fir seedlings, the follow- ing distinctions developed: (a) the severely and moderately burned Swordfern blocks and the unburned Moss blocks supported five growing phases during the sixteen months of the experiment, a l l of which ended with terminal bud forma- tion; (b) the severely and moderately burned blocks of Moss site and a l l three variants of Salal site supported four phases of development, the third late autumn growth of the former group being absent; (c) the unburned Swordfern blocks, supporting the weakest seedlings in the experiment, showed only three growing phases, two in the f irs t year and one in the second. On the graphs of Figures 25-1 and 2 the third phase does not appear in September and October, I960, in curves for burned variants on Swordfern and for unburned on Moss site, because there was such a small growth spread over a long period of time that i t could not be shown graphically. 2. Western hemlock seed was sown on April 9, I960, and germinated from April 15 to May 1. On May 5 a supplementary planting of 3 per cent was added, but these seedlings were later eliminated by thinnings, so they did not affect the results. Hemlock was the only species in which seeds continued to ger- minate for eight months. The growth of hemlock was continuous until December, I960. There was reduced growth in August, but no terminal bud formation at that time. Only the smallest seedlings formed terminal buds on unburned blocks, in the following proportions: on the Swordfern site blocks (38, 35), 25 per cent of a l l seedlings produced terminal buds; Moss site block 20 with one seedling, 5 per cent; and Salal site blocks (35, 31) 45 per cent of seedlings. These small seedlings mostly burst for a second growth in September, except for 15 per cent of the smallest ones on Swordfern (38, 35) and on Salal (41) blocks. Hemlock seedlings responded by the f ifth week after the onset of art i f ic ia l l ight, bursting a l l terminal buds from March 10 to 20. The growth in the second year was continuous until the end of May when a l l seedlings developed terminal buds. In hemlock seedlings, three phases of growth were recognized during the experiment, but only with two terminal bud formations. Less than half of the small seedlings on unburned blocks formed terminal buds between the two growth phases in the f irst year. The inferior production of hemlock seed- lings on unburned blocks.in the f irst year is apparent in Figures 25-1, 2, 3. 3. Western redcedar seed was sown on April 10, I960, and germinated from April 17 to 20. Because of the low germination, 50 per cent additional plant- ing was necessary on May 5, to guarantee ten seedlings per block. No - 67 difference was observed in the subsequent individual development of original and transplanted seedlings. Three periods of growth were distinct on redcedar seedlings by their height measurements; two in the f irst year, and one in the second. Instead of the usual scale-coated bud, western redcedar develops for i ts resting period only sturdy tips with a dense cluster of needle scales. Such pseudo- buds, representing dormancy, developed on a l l seedlings by January, 1961. Few seedlings showed pseudo-buds at the end of August, I960, except those on the severely burned blocks of the Moss site where 5 to 10 per cent of the seedlings had such resting tips. The Salal blocks, where redcedar had the best height growth, showed an average of 80 per cent with pseudo-buds on September 9, I960. Furthermore, 80 per cent of seedlings on moderately burned Salal blocks had such tips, and these seedlings were the tallest for redcedar at that time. Western redcedar seedlings were the f irst to break dormancy, as soon as in the f irst week after the illumination, and by February 10 to 20 a l l seedlings had new slender-growing tips. After a more or less continuous growth until June, the resting tips appeared again on most seedlings. 4. Based on average height of seedlings computed for sites and species in each group of treatment, a set of curves of growth was constructed (Figures 25-1, 2, 3 and 26). The curves show four periods of growth with a three-month resting period in winter. The first-year spring growth and summer growth correspond to the usual seasonal periodicity of growth. These two periods were divided in most seedlings by a bud which remained for a one- to two-week period. Breaking of the dormancy pushed forward spring bursting to February - 68 and created an ar t i f i c ia l period of growth until about the end of April when Douglas-fir developed terminal buds, resting for a week or so. Hemlock and redcedar grew uninterruptedly until the end of June when they entered into a resting state that concluded the experiment. The curves represent a uniform effect of treatment within each site for a l l species. This consistency within each site suggested the construc- tion of a summary graph (Figure 26). On the Swordfern site, the height growth was always lowest on un- burned blocks for a l l species. The growth was highest on the severely burned blocks and mediocre on moderately burned blocks. Only redcedar had the best growth on moderately burned blocks until the middle of the summer of I960 (Figure 25-1). On the Moss site, Douglas-fir and redcedar showed the following order: highest, unburned; mediocre, moderately burned; lowest, severely burned. This sequence was shown by hemlock also in the second year. Hemlock had in the f irst year lowest growth on unburned blocks* (Figure 25-2). The Salal site showed the least consistent trend, where only the moderately burned blocks consistently showed the highest height growth. The severely burned blocks surpassed the unburned blocks during the f irst summer with Douglas-fir and redcedar. Hemlock had the lowest results with unburned blocks until the period of stimulated growth (Figure 25-3). Severely burned blocks dropped their growth with hemlock at the spring of the second year, as in the Moss site. The integrated growth of a l l species for each site showed a con- sistent order of growth, except on the Salal site where the severely burned blocks had higher values than the moderately burned blocks until the spring - 69 of the second year (Figure 2 6 ) . Changes of Sites by Modified Conditions At the conclusion of the experiment in June, 1961, ninety-four second-year natural seedlings were l i fted from the vicinity of sample ditches (Plate - XVII). The seedlings were measured and weighed in a uniform fashion to those in the experiment (Tables XIII, XIV). The gravimetric values were computed for twelve seedlings to get comparable values to those in the ex- periment. Their comparison to experimental results is presented in Table XV and Figure 24. Comparisons of seedling production in the field and on unburned blocks in the greenhouse showed an increase in dry weight due to the green- house conditions. While the increase with the Swordfern site averaged nine times, i t averaged 483 times with the Moss site. The length of one-year-old wild seedlings in this collection was larger than those reported in literature, but equal to those in the experi- ment. Franklin (I96l) reported an average of 40 mm. length for Douglas-fir (range - 20 to 85), and 18 mm. for western hemlock (range - 10 to 25). Table XIII shows for Douglas-fir an average of 48 mm. (range - 44 to 60), and for hemlock 31 mm. (range - 21 to 43). The shoot/root ratio by dry weight fluctuated between 1.84 and 3.39, being as inconsistent as those in the experiment. The highest values were shown by redcedar (3*71, 6.31, 3.39) and the lowest ones by Douglas-fir (1.84, 2.23, 1.85). In nature, Douglas-fir forms proportionally the smallest aerial matter to the root, and redcedar the largest. The latter does not need such a large root system to develop a large crown in a seedling. - 70 In the experiment, Douglas-fir revealed the same proportion of root system. Western redcedar developed proportionally larger roots in the experiment than in nature, but western hemlock formed smaller roots in the blocks than in the forests. Since the unburned control blocks were watered only with disti l led water and kept in the greenhouse, i t is obvious that only the changes in the environment could be responsible for the above increased plant production. The following conditions were changed for a l l three sites: mild and continuous temperature, moisture and light was introduced to prolong the growing season, and probably an increase in the organic l i fe in the so i l . The high snow cover causing saturation with cold water, and the mid-summer desiccation period were excluded by regular irrigation. In reverse to the above beneficial effects, only the Swordfern site was damaged by disruption of i ts major nutritional supply, the lateral seepage of water. The Swordfern site enriches i ts soi l with nutritional solution from overlying rich organic remains (Krajina). In the experiment, on the contrary, instead of a natural continuous enrichment, the watering with disti l led water gradually depauperated the soi l blocks by vertical leaching. The other two sites with richer organic remains in raw humus could have had an increased decomposition and biological l i f e , and from the presence of nutrients which would normally be carried away by lateral seepage. Especially hemlock on the Moss site benefited from the organic nutrients. Douglas-fir, being more dependent on nitrates than on the f irst products of decomposition, had less increase than the other two species. The Swordfern site had the lowest increase of a l l (9 times), because of i ts loss of lateral seepage, especially for Douglas-fir only 3.4 times. The loss by lateral seepage was l ikely offset by the increased micro- bial activity and other listed advantages of the greenhouse conditions (Table XV). The new experimental conditions formed new semi-artificial sites, which do not occur in nature. "Hydroponic" effects were ceased for the Swordfern site, and a general increase in decomposition was introduced which especially enriched the Moss site. This experiment provided evidence that natural sites cannot be taken into a greenhouse without changing them. It was also seen that the initiated changes would proceed in each case in a special direction. Chemical Soil Properties Tables XVII - A,B present soi l samples used for analysis. Field samples from 1959 represent average layers of each soi l type. There is no perfect uniformity between the field soi l samples and the individual soi l blocks, nor between the soi l sample blocks and seedling blocks. There is a fair similarity, however, between the samples taken from each block at the commencement and the conclusion of seedling growth in I960 and 1961 (Plates - XIII - XVI). Despite the above difficulties, there was a fair consistency in the productivity of variants for a l l species, and also a fair relationship of soil properties and their changes to the productive capacity of the corres- ponding seedling blocks. The treatment with the largest crop showed best nutritional potential in many soi l properties (Table XXXI and Figure 28). In some cases the quantity of a nutrient was related to the productivity; - 72 in others the change of some values in the succeeding years or the deviation which was apparent between the treatments were correlated with differences in productivity. A l l soil samples were analyzed in two replications from May 9 to July 7, 1961. In addition, selected seedling blocks of average productivity were examined for pH values from each combination. For the final evaluation, the value of the upper surface layer and the average of the whole system were used (Table XXVI). For each layer the average of the two results from the analysis was used, and the block average was computed in proportion to the thickness of each layer. Soil pH Soil pH values are presented in Tables XVIII - A,B,C. The field values (1959) averaged 5.18 for the Swordfern site, 4.68 for the Moss site, and 3.60 for the Salal site. There was a remarkable increase downward, which was especially large in the Swordfern site (5.55). The general trend in the soi l pH, as compared to field values, is shown for unburned blocks as follows: 1959 I960 1961 series: field 1 2 1 2 I. Swordfern site: surface block 4.60 5.18 5.30 5.56 4.85 5.48 5.25 5.47 5.30 5.88 II. Moss site: surface block 3.45 4.68 4.10 4.94 4.18 4.75 4.25 4.99 4.75 5.26 III. Salal site: surfac e block 3.60 3.60 3.75 3.72 4.20 4.07 4.00 4.16 4.28 4.37 There is a change to higher values with time as a result of green- house conditions which encouraged decomposition. Only the Swordfern site - 73 showed a slight decrease in the f irst series in 1961. Burning usually also decreased acidity. On the humus-less Sword- fern site moderate burning raised these values more than the severe burning in the sample of the f irst block series. On the Moss and Salal sites severe burning always raised the pH more than on moderate burn. The changes in the surface were higher than in the lower layers. Only the Salal site on its severely burned block surface had a decrease of -.10. The above results provide further evidence that fire increases soil pH, and that moderate burn results in a higher increase than severe, in soils without organic accumulation. The ashing of organic matter and the decomposi- tion of soil minerals by heat can reduce acidity (Lutz, 1956; Forest Soil Comm., 1957). Tarrant (1953 and 1954) stated that heat in the range of 600° to 900°F (300° to 500°C) changes pH, but higher temperatures do not result in further changes. He found significant differences between the changes of pH of unburned, slightly burned, and severely burned soils. The unburned had an acidity of 4.4, the slightly burned was lowered to 7.1, and the severely burned to 7.2, for both undisturbed forest soils and clear-cut areas in the Douglas-fir Region. He noted: "Highly acid soil can better withstand chemical effects of burning." Uggla (l958^a) in Sweden reported an increase of 2 to 4 pH values in the F layer, which by three and a half months later had decreased again by 0.6 value. Six years later, the pH value of the H layer was higher than in the F layer. Metz and his co-workers (1961) observed in North Carolina the following changes of pH values: from 4.2 to 4.3 and 4.8 in the upper two-inch - 74 layer; and from 4.5 to 4.6 and 4.7 in the two- to four-inch layer. Beaton (l959 ;b) found an increase in the 0 horizon by 2.4 values. The Ahlgrens (i960) l isted twenty-one authors reporting different decreasing changes in soi l acidity after f ire . They found only five publica- tions which reported no significant change in acidity after forest fires. Table XIX gives values of soil pH from the 1961 samples of the soi l blocks and compares them to the corresponding values of the average seedling blocks at the same time. There is a consistent and highest increase in soi l pH with the Douglas-fir blocks especially in the Moss site (+.94)• The average with Douglas-fir was a 0.60 increase, versus 0.15 increase for the other two species. Plotting soil pH against burning rate, the highest increases by root effect are shown on severely burned surfaces and the lowest on the moderately burned ones. The relationship is consistent for the block averages only with the Salal site. From the unburned blocks, Swordfern pro- duced the highest average pH increase, despite the smallest seedling growth there. On the Moss site, on the contrary, the most productive unburned blocks showed the lowest increase in pH, due to seedling roots. In relation to mild conditions in temperature and soi l moisture, Waksman asserted (1936) that CO,, production in the soil atmosphere increased with the increase of temperature up to 32°G (90°F). Straight-line relation- ship of changes in pH and (oxidation - reduction potential) was recently emphasized also by Starkey (1959). The increase in soil pH by burning, by greenhouse effect and by the presence of plant roots was a result of various changes such as increased - 75 decomposition of soi l minerals, the ashing of organic remains, and increased bacterial l i f e (Lutz, 1956). In this experiment the amount of ash was insig- nificant in comparison with natural conditions, where large masses of wood material are incinerated. Wilde (1958) stressed the chelating effect of organic anions pro- duced by root excretion (e.g. carbonic acid) and sloughings of epidermal tissues. Increased activity in soil was assumed by Starkey (1959), who also stated that the changes in pH and may be influenced by organic matter originating from roots and other microbial products, called the rhizosphere effect. Cation Exchange Capacity Cation exchange capacity (T) is reported in Tables XX and XXVI. The changes by time and the deviations by burning rate are shown in Tables XXVIIIand XXIX. The values generally decreased with time, with the exception of a slight increase on Swordfern site unburned block (+1.48), and a large increase (+6.32) on the severely burned Moss site. The changes in cation ex- change capacity were inversely related to pH values and to the productivity. The largest decreases on the severely burned Swordfern site block (-3.42) and on the unburned Moss block (-2.90) were accompanied, in both cases, with highest productivity; low production was shown with a pronounced increase on unburned Swordfern (+1.48) and on severely burned Moss blocks (+6.32). The same consistency was valid for the Salal blocks (best - 3-75, lowest - 13*07)* The lowest values of cation exchange capacity were found with the eluviated layer (Ae), especially in the Moss site (8.78 me/100 g.), and the highest starting values (76.00 me/100 g.) were in the Moss site, both in the field sample. - 76 The moderate burning always resulted in a decrease of the cation ex- change capacity i f compared to those of unburned blocks in both years. Severely burned blocks, however, were not consistent in this respect, showing values greater than the unburned blocks, e.g. Swordfern site in I960 and Salal site surface in 1961. Tarrant (1956,b) asserted that light burning had no appreciable effect on base exchange capacity, but severe burning strongly reduced i t . Wilde (1958) stated that base exchange capacity is closely related to the content of ligninlike substances. Raw humus has a base exchange capacity from 40 to 100 m.e. per 100 g.j mull humus seldom more than 30; and that of the pure organic matter may exceed 200 m.e. per 100 g. This fact implies that any destruction of organic matter wi l l result in lower base exchange capacity. Lutz and Chandler (1946), referring to Robinson (1936), pointed out that organic colloids have a base exchange capacity of about 250 to 450; whereas inorganic colloids have only 16.4 to 110,2 m.e. per 100 g. Tryon (1948) stated that hardwood charcoal increases, but coniferous charcoal decreases, the base exchange capacity. Lutz and Chandler (1946) stressed the direct correlation between the fineness of clay particles and the cation exchange capacity and believed that broken oxygen bonds may play a role in its changes. We can conclude that excessive heat probably so changed the fineness of clay particles that the change resulted in a decrease of exchange capacity. Tarrant and Wright (1955) observed larger height growth of Douglas-fir seedlings after burning on clay loam soi l than on sandy clay loam; both being larger than the growth on unburned so i l . The authors did not find explanation for the differences. Perhaps the change of cation exchange capacity, related to clay content, - 77 was responsible. Major Exchangeable Cations and Their Saturation From the basic cations such as hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, potas- -H- ++ + sium, sodium, aluminum and iron, the three metals - Ca , Mg , K - were studied in this experiment (B), and expressed in m.e. per 100 grams of soi l (T). Base saturation for these three cations was expressed, I [ | | _̂ g _ B x _ Exchangeable cations of Ca Mg K x T cation exchange capacity ' and presented in Tables XXI, XXII and XXVI. There is no consistency in the changes of the three detected nutri- ents; a general trend with their computed values, however, can be seen. The sum of the cations of three nutrients increased with time in the Swordfern site sample, and decreased in the other two site samples for both the surface and block values. This difference can be explained by the more effective burning in the mineral layer of Swordfern site. The mineral horizons of the two other soils were only slightly affected by burning, because of the presence of a protecting organic accumulation. There was no consistent relation found between the amounts of ex- changeable cations plotted against the burning rate. These were somewhat higher on the most productive unburned Moss variant and on the moderately burned Salal variant than on other samples or in the corresponding field samples. Swordfern site had the highest values in the field sample, followed by the low-productive unburned variant. The saturation of the three elements had a direct bearing on produc- t ivi ty , and a direct parallelism with soi l pH. Its marked changes by both rate of burning and time followed in many cases the productivity (Tables XXVIII and XXIX). The increase of base saturation of calcium, magnesium and potassium was highest on the severely burned Swordfern block and on unburned Moss block; both the most productive variants in their group. This was true in the second year with the surface of the Swordfern and Moss sites; and in both years (i960 and 196l) with both sites for their entire blocks. The highest saturation with Salal site was detected on the surface in 1961. For the en- tire block i t was equal in both years. Within each treatment (Table XXXI), an increased saturation accom- panied highest production on severely burned Swordfern and unburned Moss site blocks. The lowest saturation was also indicative of lowest production, e.g. severely burned Moss and Salal site blocks. The concentration of calcium and potassium is generally believed to increase after fire (Ahlgrens, I960), due to the remaining ash. Pickering (1910) found increased solubility of salts in soi l affected by heat lower than 100°C. Magnesium has not been studied well in comparison to other elements. In this experiment there was less increase observed in these three bases, because of the absence of considerable ash supply. The total amount of bases (B) generally was decreased by burning (Table XXVI), except in the sur- face layers of the Salal site blocks where i t was increased by the burning. In this experiment the increased saturation of the three metal cations was due to the strongly reduced base exchange capacity, which was more easily saturated by even a smaller amount of bases than their original higher exchange capacity. Overstreet and Dean (1953) quoted Jenny and Ayres, who in 1939 attempted to correlate the availability of cations of potassium, sodium and calcium with their equivalent percentage in the exchange complex of the soi l , that i s , with the degree of saturation. This procedure resulted in more satisfactory correlations than the earlier attempts when the availability of an ion was correlated with its concentration in the exchange complex. Phosphorus The available phosphorus, expressed in p.p.m., is presented in Tables XXIII and XXVIj and its changes in Table XXX. Its values generally increased with time, except on the severely burned Salal block where i t de- creased remarkably (-20 p.p.m.) in the block profile. On the surface, how- ever, decrease was shown not only in Salal blocks, but also on the two burned Moss blocks and moderately burned Swordfern block. The changes with time and burning rate showed the following rela- tionships to the productivity (Table XXXI). On the Swordfern site the largest increase by the severe burning (166.6 per cent) was associated with the highest productivity, and the lowest value of 3 p.p.m. with the lowest productivity. On the Moss site in the change with time the largest increase on the surface in Moss block was associated with the highest productivity, +12.9 per cent. In the block value the lack of any increase was accompanied by the lowest crop on the severely burned block. In the deviation by burn- ing, the maximal difference of severely burned blocks resulted in the lowest productivity (-5 p.p.m.). On Salal blocks maximal change was recorded with time on the moderately burned, most productive block, and by the rate of burn- ing, the highest and lowest values also followed the same sequence in produc- t iv i ty . The above results show that the changes of available phosphorus by treatment and time have, in most cases, direct correlation to the soi l pH - 80 and the production of the corresponding seedling blocks. It i s generally thought that phosphorus content is increased after a forest f ire. Isaac and Hopkins (1937) could not find any increase, nor did Fowells and Stephenson (1933). Lutz (1934 and 1956), on the contrary, found an increase in New Jersey and Alaska but observed no increase in the Pitch Pine Region. Similarly, Vlamis et a l . (1955) found a marked increase of phosphorus in ponderosa pine sandy loam, but no significant change in loam. LeBlanc (1956) could not find any change in phosphorus content in Quebec spruce soils. Tarrant (1956,b), however, reported a general increase of the acid soluble F^Ojj ^ r o m a H burned areas. Kivekas (1939), Tryon (1948), Lunt (1951), Austin and Baisinger (1955), Uggla (1958b) a l l report an increase of this important element. Beaton (1959ib) found insoluble calcium compounds which decreased the availability of phosphorus. The Forest Soil Committee of the Douglas-fir Region (1957) reported improved availability of phosphorus by increase of soi l alkalinity. Organic Matter and Nitrogen Both the organic matter and nitrogen revealed an i n i t i a l decrease from their f ield values and the burned blocks from their values on the un- burned variants. Only surface layer of the Salal site blocks had an i n i t i a l higher content of organic matter (Tables XXIV, XXV and XXVI). Organic matter per cent usually decreased by time, except on unburned and moderately burned Swordfern blocks. Severe burn resulted in heavy loss of organic matter, even in the second year. Neither the per cent values of organic matter nor of nitrogen showed fully consistent correlation to the productivity of the corresponding variants. Only the highest contents on the severely burned Swordfern and on - 81 the unburned Moss were correlated with the highest production of these variants. The ratio of the per cent organic matter to the per cent nitrogen did not show a consistent relationship to the productivity except again on the Swordfern site. Severe burn on the Swordfern site resulted, in 1961, in the largest decrease of this ratio associated with high production, and the highest increase on the severely burned Moss site did the reverse. Nitrogen did not appear to be a cr i t ical factor of the seedling development in this experiment, except on the control unburned Swordfern blocks versus the severely burned variants of the same site. The change of nitrogen concentration on unburned blocks and its relation to the field conditions with nitrogen were noticeable in this experiment. The content of nitrogen in June, I960, was about 50 per cent lower in a l l sites than in the field samples in 1959. The blocks increased nitrogen content during I960 at the surface in a l l sites and in the entire block profile of the Swordfern site (Table XXVI, Figure 28). Unburned con- trol variants showed higher increase in nitrogen content than burned variants, especially on their surface layers. The above facts refer to an increased nitrification which was here associated with mild greenhouse microclimatological conditions and regular adequate irrigation. The nitrogen transformation was not recorded in this experiment, but the measurements of total nitrogen, the trend of i ts changes in time, the increased soi l pH, i ts ratio to the amount of organic matter, the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency on foliage, the dry matter production as - 82 related to the aforementioned, and the changes in vegetation offered some data comparative with the findings reported in literature. Waksman (1936), using several references, stated that mild tempera- ture up to about 32°C (90°F) promotes CCv, production in the soi l atmosphere by raising bacterial l i f e . Waksman presents a table (p. 39) in which he shows increased nitrogen liberation in a two-month-long incubation in differ- ent humus types. Moss material is especially resistant to decomposition in nature."*" In this experiment the increase of soi l pH over the cr i t ica l value of 4 supports an indication of accelerated decomposition, caused by burning and the greenhouse effect. Increased nitrification after forest fire was observed by a large number of workers. Sushkina (1933) in Russia, Fowells and Stephenson (1933) and Tarrant (1956;,c) in North America, Kivekas (1939) in Finland, and Uggla (1957) in Sweden, amongst many others, experimentally proved this fact. Hesselman (1916) observed in Sweden an increased nitrification, denitrification and nitrate reduction after forest fires. Svenhufruid (1929) proved that 25 per cent of NĤ  produced in burning of peat can be absorbed by the so i l . Barnette and Hester (1930) found generally an increase of nitrogen. On the other hand, they estimated for i t an annual loss of about 27 lb . per acre, in New Jersey. Heyward and Barnette (1934) discovered a 14 per cent increase of nitrogen to a depth of four and six inches. Lutz (1934) reported a slight loss in New Jersey; Osborn (1931) reported loss of nitrogen in Africa in the clayey and loamy upper two-inch layer; but Greene (1935) found one and a half ^Nemec, A. 1951. Personal communication in Prague. - 83 times more nitrogen in the upper six-inch layer after fire in the Mississippi longleaf pine Region. Finn (1934) performed an experiment in boxes, in which the covering organic material was burned. He found a reduction of nitrogen after the burn. Hesselman (1937) observed a release of volatile nitrogen. Kivekas (1939) found an increase of amino-acid nitrogen to protein and amide nitrogen. The total nitrogen proved to be reduced, but not to a cr i t ica l level to plants. Isaac and Hopkins (1937) could not find any significant change in nitrogen in the Douglas-fir Region, nor did Chapman (1942) in the West Mississippi Region. Lutz and Chandler (1946)> dealing with the problem of available nitrogen, pointed out that the immediate loss of nitrogen after fire does not mean;necessarily a decrease in available nitrogen. (They recorded an original average of 0.1 to .15 per cent of nitrogen in the six-inch surface layer of a brown soil and 0.05 to 0.20 per cent in gray-brown podzolic soi l ) . Garren (1943) observed increase of nitrogen after fires on Southeast, as did Lunt (1951) in the Northeast White Pine Zone. Rideout (1949) detected an increase in ammonia and a loss of nitrates by leaching associated with severe burning. Austin and Baisinger (1955) observed 67 per cent loss of nitrogen in the 12-inch top-soil layer, 75 per cent of which was recovered in two years. Tamm (1950) stated that fire stimulates nitrification on heavy humus. Duchaufour (1954) suggested to burn the superficial humus layers and sow immediately to reap the benefit of increased soi l activity and to prevent leaching. Metz et a l . (1961) experimentally proved that organic matter in the mineral soi l wi l l increase after the f ire . They observed in North Carolina an increase with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and soil pH in the surface four inches. Wright and Tarrant (1957) - 84 observed increased microbiological activity in the severely burned soil with a large population of bacteria and actinomycetes. Charcoal, Eluviated Layer and Concretions The charcoal remains, the Ae layer, and concretionary formations did not form sufficient continuous layers in the blocks for chemical analysis. Field samples were collected in 1959 and were analyzed in 1961 (Table XXVII). 1. Charcoal remains from the forest fire had chemical properties similar to the overlying surface layer, with pH and cation exchange capacity; but their saturation of Ca, Mg and K ions was higher in the Swordfern site (33.4) and much lower in the Salal site than that of the overlying layer. In the Swordfern site saturation of charcoal was about 50 per cent higher than that of the surface layer. Nitrogen content in the organic matter was strikingly smaller in charcoal than in the Ah layer, especially in the Sword- fern type, with a ratio of 53 to 551. Content of phosphorus is about 70 p.p.m. in the upper layer in the Moss and Salal sites; charcoal in both these sites contained 49 p.p.m. In the Swordfern site charcoal had 32 p.p.m., whereas the surface layer had no detectable free phosphorus content. Of the earliest workers on this problem, Hesselman (1916), Fritz (1930), and KivekSs (1939) believed that charcoal in the soil favoured bac- terial l i f e . Salisbury (1925) observed that charcoal increased nitrate and carbonate content of the soil and reduced acidity. Tryon (1948) studied the effect of charcoal in forest soils and reported a change in moisture balance, increase in nitrogen content and a decrease in the base exchange capacity with coniferous charcoal. He did not accept, however, the beneficial effect of charcoal on bacterial l i f e . Swenson (1939) and Tryon (1948) also a t tr i - buted a significant role to charcoal in the moisture balance of the upper so i l . - 85 Davis (1959) also believed in the beneficial presence of charcoal after f ire . Beaton (l959„-b) found that charcoal may absorb phosphate ions. Charcoal is probably a useful nutritional source in the Swordfern site. On the Moss and Salal sites, however, where base saturation of char- coal is as low as 5 and 6 per cent for the three cations, i t has less nutri- tional value. 2. The eluviated Ae layer had lower pH values than the surface layer and the charcoal in the Swordfern and Salal sites. The Moss site, however, showed an eluviated material with higher pH than both overlying layers. The sequence of the pH value was as follows in a nearly uniformly decreasing order: Swordfern - Moss - Salal, which is consistent with the similar sequence of pH for the entire used soi l profile. Cation exchange capacity of the eluviated material is always only a fraction of that of the overlying layers. The smallest decrease, about 10o per cent, was shown in the Swordfern site. The studied three mineral cations were present in a greatly decreased proportion in the eluviated layer forming low saturation in the Swordfern and Salal sites, but increased in the Moss site, where the cation exchange capacity was extremely low. The content of nitrogen in the eluviated material is far below that of the surface layer. Phosphorus dropped below the values of the upper layers with the Salal and Moss sites and was strikingly low in the Moss site, 20 p.p.m. 3. Concretionary material from the Swordfern B layer showed chemical properties very similar to the proper B layer, being slightly lower in saturation of the three cations and in phosphorus content. to follow page 85 U J L O CL Z +3 < L U U C C L U a. T B S 0 N P ION EXGH. CAPACITY CATIONS OF Ca.Mg.K SATURATION OF SAME ORGANIC MATTER NITROGEN ' PHOSPHORUS DRY WEIGHT OF TWELVE SEEDLINGS 1960 1961 B 0 N PW 1 9 59 FIGURE 28.1a. SWORDFERN SITE - AVERAGE,ENTIRE BLOCK CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN.THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY ; MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE CORRESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS. to follow page 85 FIGURE 28.1b . SWORDFERN SITE - AVERAGE FOR ONE INCH SURFACE LAYER CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE CORRESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS to follow page 85 FIGURE 28.2a. MOSS SITE - AVERAGE FOR ENTIRE BLOCK CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE-COR RESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS. t o f o l l o w p a g e 8 5 o o qo — ' f y - U ° UJ c_> cr UJ CATION EXCH.CAPACITY CATIONS OF Ca.Mg.K SATURATION OF SAME ORGANIC MATTER NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS W- DRY WEIGHT OF TWELVE SEEDLINGS 1960 1961 B 0 N PW 1 9 59 FIGURE 28.2b. MOSS SITE - AVERAGE FOR ONE INCH SURFACE LAYER CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE CORRESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS. to follow page 85 FIGURE 28.3a. SALAL SITE - AVERAGE FOR EN TfRE BLOCK CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE CORRESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS to follow page 85 cc n UJ co a. z UJ ^ _J ° 52 U J o cr U J a. T B S 0 N P - CATION EXCH. CAPACITY - CATIONS OF Ca.Mg.K - SATURATION OF SAME - ORGANIC MATTER - NITROGEN - PHOSPHORUS W - DRY WEIGHT OF TWELVE SEEDLINGS 1 1960 1 1961 B 0 N i 959 FIGURE 28.3b. SALAL SITE - AVERAGE FOR ONE INCH SURFACE LAYER CHANGES OF SOME CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN THE SOIL SAMPLES AND DRY MATTER PRODUCTION OF THE CORRESPONDING SEEDLING BLOCKS - 86 Effect of Chemical Soil Properties on Dry Matter Production Table XXVI presents the chemical properties of soi l sample blocks for the surface layer and the average for the whole profile in three subse- quent years. In Tables XXVIII, XXIX and XXX deviations between the unburned control blocks and their burned variants are shown for each year, and the changes are computed for each treatment from I960 to 1961. The deviations by treatment and the changes by time are expressed in percentage. Table XXXI shows those selected data from the above-mentioned tables which are directly correlated to the productivity of the corresponding seedling blocks. The selected highest concentration of a nutrient and/or its increase was associated with highest productivity, and the lowest concentra- tion and/or i ts decrease was correlated to the lowest productivity. The following chemical soi l properties and their changes showed direct correlation to the productivity of the variant. 1. In the Swordfern site the highest production of the severely burned variants was associated with a high value of soi l pH in 1961 for the block average, the highest base saturation of the three cations in the block for I960 and in the surface layer for 1961, and the highest concentration of phosphorus generally. The lowest organic matter per nitrogen ratio was generally characteristic (^). The unburned control variants had the lowest production in the Swordfern site. This treatment resulted in the lowest pH for the block in 1961, a low base saturation for the block in I960, and the lowest concentra- tion of phosphorus for the block in 1961, indicating the absence of lateral leaching. Organic matter per nitrogen ratio for the block was high in 1961. - 87 Productivity of the moderately burned variants of the Swordfern site was close to that of the severely burned variants. Results are consistent with the generally highest pH values, high base saturation for the block in 1961, and high phosphorus concentration for the block in I960. The deviation of values of burned variants from values of the un- burned control variants also shows some parallels. In the most productive severely burned variant, base saturation had the greatest increase in time for the surface layer and greatest deviation from the unburned specimen for the block in I960 and for the surface in 1961. The decrease in organic matter per nitrogen ratio was general. The increase of deviation from unburned type for phosphorus was generally highest. The lowest production on unburned variants was indicated by an ex- treme decrease of base saturation by time and increase of organic matter per nitrogen ratio for the block. In the Swordfern site nitrogen obviously had a limiting role in plant production during the experiment. On the severely bumed Swordfern blocks was produced the highest crop for a l l species. Similar acceleration of plant growth by heat effect was reported by many authors: Pickering, 1910; Seaver and Clark, 1912; Wilson, 19H; Hensel, 1923; Shirley, 1932; Greene, 1935; Tarrant and Wright, 1955; and Lutz, 1956. This experiment corroborated the findings, reported by Tamm (1950), that burning benefits mineral soils with higher concentration of nutrients better than poor soils. Here the soil of the Swordfern site was more benefited by severe burning than that of the Moss or Salal site. 2. In the Moss site, unburned variants showed the highest productivity. The highest pH for the block in I960, the highest base saturation for the - 8 8 block in I960 and for the surface in 1961, and the lowest organic matter per nitrogen ratio for the surface in I960 are probably responsible. The severe- ly burned variant, on the contrary, had the lowest base saturation for the block, generally the highest organic matter per nitrogen ratio, and the low- est phosphorus concentration for the block in 1961. The deviations of values showed consistency with the production for severely burned variants, where the pH, organic matter per nitrogen ratio and phosphorus declined in I960, and where the base saturation for 1961 showed the largest decrease along with a decrease of phosphorus in the block average. The increase of chemical values by time was highest for the unburned variant with base saturation and phosphorus generally. The severely burned variant showed the greatest decrease in both base saturation and phosphorus concentration in I960 for the surface layer. The moderately burned variant, which had mediocre productivity on the corresponding blocks, produced by burning marked positive deviations in phosphorus content and nitrogen ratio, and their soi l pH in I960 dropped for the block average. On the Moss site, base saturation of the three cations appeared to be the major 1i mi ting factor, especially at the beginning of plant growth in I960. 3. On the Salal site blocks, moderately burned variants had the highest productivity and the severely burned blocks had the lowest. Table XXXI - C shows the most favourable conditions on the moderately burned variant, for a l l three groups of data, except nitrogen which was not decisive in this entirely organic type of so i l . - 89 The s e v e r e l y burned v a r i a n t , corresponding to the lowest produc- t i v i t y , had the lowest i n i t i a l pH and low base s a t u r a t i o n f o r the block i n 1961. The n i t r o g e n r a t i o was unfavourable i n the s u r f a c e i n 1961. Changes from 1960 to 1961 were a l s o most unfavourable f o r both base s a t u r a t i o n and organic matter per n i t r o g e n r a t i o . Burning somewhat r a i s e d base s a t u r a t i o n f o r the block average i n 1961, The unburned v a r i a n t improved i t s s a t u r a t i o n and n i t r o g e n r e l a t i o n - ships w i t h time. For t h i s reason s e v e r e l y burned and unburned v a r i a n t s changed t h e i r places i n second year (Figure 25-3). In the S a l a l s i t e , base s a t u r a t i o n of the three detected c a t i o n s and the decrease of a c i d i t y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i g h production. The moderate burning r a t e of t h i s experiment was s u i t a b l e to produce the most favourable changes because i t reduced the excessive accumulations of organic matter without the extremes of the severe burning r a t e . D i s c u s s i o n of F i n a l R e s u l t s . During the whole experiment i t became evident t h a t a l l three m o d i f i e d s i t e s responded to f i r e i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I t remains to discuss the reasons. The Swordfern s i t e , deprived of i t s seepage water, by which i t becomes the most productive s i t e of the C o a s t a l western hemlock zone, b e n e f i t e d by burning which induces r a p i d m i n e r a l i z a t i o n supplying elements, normally brought here by seepage water. Nitrogen f i x i n g organisms, present i n t h i s s i t e ( K r a j i n a , personal communication), r e a d i l y supply n i t r o g e n compounds burned out by f i r e . The decreased c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y corresponded to an i n c r e a s e of c a t i o n s a t u r a t i o n s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to - 89a p l a n t growth. Therefore, the unburned c o n t r o l blocks developed the s h o r t e s t p l a n t s , whereas the burned blocks produced t a l l e r p l a n t s . Thus, f i r e causes the l e a s t damage to t h i s m o d i f i e d s i t e , and i t became even b e n e f i c i a l , at l e a s t f o r the f i r s t two years. However, i t should be s t i l l t e s t e d i n s i t e s where seepage water remains i n a c t i o n . The Moss s i t e , which i s without seepage water a l s o i n nature, b e n e f i t e d i n the greenhouse by r a p i d decomposition of raw humus. This f a s t decomposition acted best i n unburned c o n t r o l blocks where the humus i s r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k and u n d e r l a i n by deep g l a c i a l d r i f t s o i l , c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c f o r t h i s s i t e . This f u l l a c t i o n of r a p i d decomposition under the greenhouse environment which s u p p l i e d r e q u i r e d n i t r o g e n compounds and other n u t r i e n t s was impeded by burning which decreased the thickness of the humus. In moderately and e s p e c i a l l y s e v e r e l y burned blocks shortage of n i t r o g e n supply causes the p l a n t s to grow l e s s . Thus f i r e causes serious damage to t h i s s i t e . The S a l a l s i t e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t h i c k raw humus h o r i z o n developed on shallow outcrop s o i l s , b e n e f i t s from a moderate burn at l e a s t f o r the f i r s t two years a f t e r the burn. This p a r t i a l burning of raw humus rel e a s e s minerals that act as a f e r t i l i z e r and e n r i c h the n u t r i e n t supply from the remainder of the humus l a y e r . When a l l the humus i s burned, there i s l e f t very l i t t l e n i t r o g e n and other n u t r i e n t supply; thus t r e e growth i s g r e a t l y impeded. In unburned c o n t r o l blocks growth p o t e n t i a l s remain the b e s t , although they cannot be demonstrated i n the two year experiment. In the S a l a l s i t e moderate burning i s b e n e f i c i a l f o r a two year growth, whereas severe burning i s most d e s t r u c t i v e f o r the h a b i t a t . - 90 CHAPTER FOUR - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This thesis describes an experiment in which, after a controlled burning of original soil blocks, seedling growth was correlated to the burn- ing and to the chemical changes in corresponding soi l sample blocks. The surface of 84 soi l blocks, collected from three different sites of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone, was burned at two intensities in the laboratory in March, I960. The three sites were: Swordfern site, Moss site and Salal site. Forty-two unburned control blocks were also added for com- parison. Four replicas of each combination of three sites and three treat- ments were seeded in Apri l , I960, with Douglas-fir, western hemlock, or western redcedar. The blocks supporting seedlings and those reserved for soi l analysis were regularly irrigated with dist i l led water. Seedlings from 50 seed on each seedling block were gradually thinned to three plants. Breaking of dormancy hastened growth in the winter of 1960-61. The germination, growth and the changes in accompanied vegetation were periodically recorded. At the conclusion of the experiment in June, 1961, final size and the dry weight of seedlings were studied on each block to determine treatment differences. Relationships to soil chemism were de- termined from soi l samples taken in 1959 from the area of block collection, and in June of i960 and 196l from unseeded soil sample blocks. Effect of Burning 1. To imitate slash burning a heat of about 1800°F for 35 minutes was accepted for severe burn and about 1250°F for 15 minutes for moderate burn. These rates were applied at the surface of soi l blocks irrigated with an equivalent of one inch of precipitation before burning. It was observed that different rates of burning could produce similar heat effects on different soils. The severity of burning could not always be related to the destruction of organic remnants. Soils with a thin organic layer, or without such layer, can lose a l l organic material from the surface at the slightest burn. On the contrary, on soils with heavy organic accumulation the most severe burn wi l l not destroy a l l raw humus. Burning can be distinguished into light, moderate and severe in two ways. A useful indicator for the grade of burning for humus-less soils is the change of the mineral soil surface. The degree of destruction on the other hand is a good indicator for soils with heavy organic accumulation. The only safe determinant of any burning process, however, i s the tempera- ture and the duration. 2. The use of a natural-gas burner and recording by means of thermo- couple elements at three different levels in the burned blocks were satis- factory methods for the controlled repetitions of two burning rates. 3. The recorded temperatures indicated that the mineral soi l was more severely affected in the bare Swordfern site than in the ether two "organic soils". Two to three inches of the Swordfern site were strongly affected by severe burning (500 to 700°F). On the Moss site only the upper one-inch mineral layer was affected by severe burning. In the Salal site, mineral soil was never reached by an excessive higher temperature. 4. The experiment showed that an insulating sweating zone was formed in the heated so i l . Evidence was found that the loss of latent heat in the soi l moisture during vaporization decreased soi l temperature below the sweating zone by as much as 5°F during the f irst five to ten minutes of - 92 burning, in 29 per cent of a l l cases. It was also observed in the shallow Salal blocks that the thermo-dynamic effect of vaporization exerted a downward force on the water. 5. In addition to the ash and charcoal, a third product, coke, was also produced on the organic surface. On the mineral soil surface, aggregates which never covered more than 20 per cent of the block surface were formed, but they never formed a harmful coherent layer. When the productivity of sample blocks was plotted against the corresponding burning rates, destruction and remains, a uniform consistency was found within each site for a l l three species. Severe burn produced slightly more ash and moderate burn produced somewhat more charcoal in com- parison with each other. Changes in Accompanied Vegetation 1. Algae appeared on 59 per cent of Salal blocks and 7 per cent of Swordfern and Moss blocks in May, regardless of the treatment. 2. Fungi occupied only burned blocks in the f irst year and in the second year invaded the unburned blocks to a lesser extent. In February, 1961, 4 6 per cent of burned blocks and 9 per cent of unburned blocks s t i l l supported fungi. Eumycetes were established, however, in December, I960, in larger proportion on unburned blocks (28 per cent) than on burned blocks ( l l per cent). In the f irst year a l l three sites were equally infested with fungal flora. In December, the Swordfern site had the highest and Salal site the lowest number of fungi on burned blocks. In February, 1961, the sequence - 93 was reverse. 3. The burned surfaces were sooner invaded by new mosses than those supporting old dying mosses. There was no noticeable difference otherwise, in the invasion of unburned or burned surfaces. 4. Pteridium aquilinum survived severe burning and flushed from a deep rhizome. 5. Burned blocks were mostly invaded by dicotyledons among the woody plants, such as Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, and Salix scouleriana. Establishment of Seedlings 1. A germination test on moist pure ash from slash produced evidence that the germination capacity of Douglas-fir was increased by +2.6 per cent, hemlock was reduced by -48.6 per cent and redcedar by -82.2 per cent. Probably the chemical effect of concentrated ash lye on the seed coat was responsible for the result. 2. No consistent difference in germination was observed on blocks as a result of burning, and no general correlation of germination was found with results to the final production. Only the severely burned Swordfern site blocks already showed their final superiority with both Douglas-fir and redcedar in both germination and survival. Severe and moderate burning generally resulted in somewhat better results in germination with Douglas-fir and hemlock than the unburned variants. Redcedar had somewhat lower results on burned surface. The evenness of the seedbed and the adequate position of seed in a moist medium seemed to be more important than the material of the ground. 3. In size, colour and vigour of germinants, no difference was observable during the f irst month. - 94 4. No effect of the reported soi l sterilization by heat was obvious on burned blocks versus unburned control. On the contrary, Douglas-fir germin- ants on May 5 had much higher proportion of defective specimens by infection on burned variants than on unburned blocks. Less than one per cent damping- off occurred on the burned blocks. Hemlock and redcedar germinants were a l l sound. In one-month-old plants 20 to 29 per cent of each species were de- fective regardless of the treatment. The presence of fungi on burned blocks showed an early infection. 5. Root penetration of one-month-old Douglas-fir seedlings was deeper in unburned blocks than on burned ones, with both sites - Swordfern and Moss. Hemlock and redcedar, on the contrary, penetrated deeper in burned blocks than in unburned control variants, for both mentioned sites. 6. The establishment of seedlings after one month of growth, in terms of per cent of plants to the standard germination, showed highest average (54) with severely burned blocks. The moderately burned and the control variants averaged nearly an equal value (46.5 and 45.5). The individual values, however, were inconsistently spread over a wide range. Seedling Growth 1. The three sites employed in this experiment produced three different rates of growth, which were consistent for each site with a l l three species for both seedling size and dry plant production. The growth in size and weight at the end of a two-year growing period was as follows (Figures 19 to 23, and Table XXXII): a. Swordfern site had highest production on severely burned blocks, - 9 5 close to this on moderately burned and highly significantly lowest on unburned control sample blocks in both size and weight. b. Moss site had highly significantly higher production in both size and weight on unburned control blocks than.on burned blocks with Douglas-fir, and the same relation by weight on a significant level with western hemlock. Western redcedar followed the same sequence with treatment, though without significant differences by weight. , c. Salal site produced highest crop on moderately burned sample blocks, mediocre on unburned control and lowest on severely burned blocks. The dif- ference in size and weight between the moderately burned and severely burned variants was significant for Douglas-fir and hemlock, and highly significant for redcedar. The unburned variant was not significantly different from the other two treatments by weight. The poor height growth of hemlock on unburned blocks in the f irst year growth was due to its particular habit for developing branches rather than height growth in the first year. Plotting the number and rank of branches, the sequence of variants shows identical trend as that of the height variants with the other two species. In this experiment the heat effect of severe burning was beneficial on the almost bare Swordfern site and harmful on the other two sites with organic accumulation. Moderate burning gave the highest results on the Salal site where i t only reduced and activated the thick raw humus. The experiment gave evidence to the findings of many authors that high temperature improves the nutritional capacity of mineral so i l . This experiment produced evidence to support the belief that burn is more harmful on poor soils than on rich soi l (Tamm, 1 9 5 0 ) . Here the - 96 Swordfern site soi l was improved by burning and the Moss site was deteriorated. The experiment corroborated the statement that severe fire is extremely harm- ful for purely organic so i l . 2. The differences in the rate of growth in relation to the treatment were also obvious in the case of Douglas-fir by a different number of phases of growth. Douglas-fir showed five distinct growing phases on a l l blocks of the burned Swordfern site, on unburned Moss blocks and on the moderately burned Salal site. It showed only three phases on the unburned control Sword- fern site. In a l l other cases four phases were observed. The correlation is consequent with the final grade of production. The development of Lammas growth had a slight correlation with the treatment on Douglas-fir where the unburned variants produced a higher proportion of such formations than the burned samples, regardless of the quality of growth. Hemlock and redcedar grew uniformly in three growing phases.1 Hem- lock produced the least Lammas growth (5 per cent), whereas redcedar showed Lammas growth mostly on the best growing seedlings regardless of treatment. Bud dormancy and its response to breaking were correlated to the species but not to the treatment. 3. The shoot/root ratio (S/R) showed some consistency on a weight basis. That ratio was higher on unburned variants than on burned blocks, regardless of the growth. 4. Water content of the harvested seedlings was somewhat higher in seedlings from severely burned blocks than in the other two variants. 5. A remarkable qualitative feature was shown in the discoloration of seedlings during the experiment. The changes in colour were l ikely caused by nutritional deficiency and were inconsistent with the size of - 97 seedlings. The f irst chlorotic Douglas-fir seedlings were observed in July, I960, on some of the unburned Swordfern site and severely burned Salal site blocks. There were, however, a few pale seedlings found among the best pro- ducing severely burned Swordfern site and moderately burned Salal site blocks as well. Hemlock had at the same time a high proportion of chlorotic seed- lings on a l l unburned blocks, especially on the Swordfern site. Redcedar had much purplish discoloration on a l l severely burned Swordfern site and Moss site blocks, but none or very l i t t l e on the unburned controls. The Salal site supported a small number of seedlings with discol- oration, a l l of which were on unburned variants. At the early stage of the experiment, nitrogen deficiency was probably the reason for discoloration. During the winter dormancy a general purple tint of a l l redcedar seedlings was conspicuous, when nitrification l ikely slewed down. At the commencement of the second-year growth, after the breaking the dormancy, single cases of deficiency were shown on Douglas-fir seedlings, mostly on unburned Swordfern and severely burned Moss site blocks. Hemlock seedlings were generally pale on burned Moss and Salal site blocks. The "Magnesium bar" emerged only in one case with hemlock on un- burned Salal site in February, 1961. Douglas-fir and redcedar were mostly affected by discoloration of their old leaves, which refers to a deficiency in mobile nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. Hemlock often had discolora- tion also on young organs referring to deficiency in mobile nutrients such as calcium. - 98 Chemical Soil Properties and Productivity 1. The changes of chemical soi l properties after burning were immediate changes and continuous chain reactions, which were detectable until the end of the experiment. The effect of heat acted in two ways: f irs t , i t destroyed organic material, initiated physico-chemical processes in the raw humus and left ashes behind; secondly, i t changed the mineral soi l both physically and chemically, and introduced profound pedogenic processes. The amount of ash was low in this experiment because of the lack of slash material. 2. The experiment suggested that the main beneficial effect is not the ash production but the chemical and biological changes which are initiated by the heat in the mineral and organic so i l . The destruction of organic accumulation appeared to be harmful; but i f i t removed only part of the accumulation, then rather beneficial. The effect of heat on mineral soil had generally beneficial effects for soi l chemism probably by the improved solubility of salts and by accelerated nitrification. The direct effect of heat did not influence layers below about 4 inches in the severe burn and below about 2 inches in the moderate burn. 3. The combination of the effect of burning upon organic accumulation and on the mineral soi l resulted in the following chemical changes in the three sites. a. The Swordfern site suffered l i t t l e by the destruction of its in - significant unincorporated organic material, but its mineral soi l was strongly affected by heat. This site was the richest in nutritional value, although by removal i t was depauperated by the loss of lateral seepage. The fire here acted beneficially, increasing soil chemical properties related to productivity such as pH, base content, saturation, phosphorus and nitrogen content. b. The Moss site lost in severe burning a l l of its accumulated nutri- ents by the destruction of raw humus, mainly nitrogen without sufficient beneficial effect of heat upon its poor mineral so i l . On the unburned samples an accelerated pedogenic process was induced by consistently mild conditions in the greenhouse. As a result, the nutritional capacity of un- burned control samples, expressed mainly by base saturation, surpassed the capacity of burned blocks. c. On the Salal site, burning destroyed part of the raw humus. In the extreme case of the Salal site, very l i t t l e or none of the mineral soi l was present. Severe burning destroyed too much of the humus, the only substance supporting plants. Moderate burn left a sufficient proportion of the raw humus for available nutrients, raised base saturation and introduced accel- erated pedogenic processes in the remaining parts. This variant proved to be the most successful. The excessive raw humus of the unburned control blocks could not yet enter into a proper process of nitrification and de- composition. 4. There was no remarkable deficiency in the organic matter and in nitrogen, except on the unburned Swordfern site blocks. The destruction by burning was soon more than offset by an increased nitrification. Temporary deficiencies with hemlock and redcedar were recovered in the second year. 5. The experiment corroborated the positive effect of burning on soi l pH. 6. The major factor in chemical changes was shown in the decrease of - 100 cation exchange capacity which was inversely correlated with the productivity for each site. It was not associated with the intensity of burn but rather to the initiated increased pH and decomposition, 7. The concentration of the three studied metallic cations (CaMgK) was not related to the nutritional value of so i l . It became determinative in combination with the cation exchange capacity, which controlled base satura- tion, probably the major factor of plant production. 8. The degree of saturation of the three mineral cations increased with severely burned Swordfern and unburned Moss blocks which had the highest production. The same saturation showed the lowest values on the worst un- burned Swordfern, and severely burned Moss and Salal blocks. This correla- tion supports findings concerning the limiting capacity of the degree of base saturation. 9. Phosphorus concentration was increased by burning on the Swordfern (167 per cent) and Salal sites. On the Moss site the severely burned, less productive variant had the lowest value (3 p.p.m.). 10. The charcoal samples from field collection showed that its chemical properties are related to the overlying organic layer. The presence of char- coal seems to be useful not only for its high water-holding capacity but also for its nutritional value, especially for the most dry Swordfern site. Additional Observations In the experiment some results, which were not directly related to the subject matter, were used for basic information or comparison. 1. The three sites used in the experiment proved to be different in many respects and reacted differently to the uniform treatments. This fact corroborates the necessity of site classification accepted in other studies of the Department of Biology and Botany of U. B. C . , and points to a demand of different silvicultural treatments by forest management. The importance of lateral seepage in the Swordfern site and the chief nutritional supply in the raw humus on the Moss site were evident in this experiment. 2. Strong effects of greenhouse conditions combined with changes caused by the removal of soi l blocks from the natural environment resulted in the formation of new art i f i c ia l sites, regardless of subsequent treat- ments. The Swordfern site was depauperated of i ts main source of nutrition, the lateral seepage: the Moss and Salal sites were, on the contrary, sup- ported by an accelerated decomposition of their inactive organic remains. Soil pH was increased by the greenhouse effect by a value of 0.7. 3. Soil pH was consistently raised by the chelating effect of seed- ling roots. Douglas-fir had the most prominent effect with an average of 0,6 pH value of increase, and both hemlock and redcedar by 0.15. The rhizosphere effect was highest for a l l species on the Moss site, especially for Douglas-fir with a value of increase of 0,94 pH. 4. Earthworms were found in the Salal site in mineral soil on the surface of the bedrock, at a low soi l pH of 4.10 to 4.25. 5. Seed stratification for 93 days increased Douglas-fir germination from 36 per cent to 90 per cent. Western hemlock had an i n i t i a l germina- tive capacity of 75 per cent, which decreased by stratification to 68 per cent. Without stratification hemlock decreased germinative capacity to 54 per cent. A few stratified hemlock seeds germinated subsequently for five months in some seedling blocks. The unstratified western redcedar had a germinative capacity of 78 per cent which dropped, i f not stratified, to 74 per cent and i f stratified, to 28 per cent. 6. A direct correlation was shown between the different features of growth, such as height, diameter, needle length, bud size, branching, and the dry matter weight of seedlings. The height, therefore, was a fa ir ly reliable characteristic for growth, especially with Douglas-fir and western redcedar. The height of western hemlock seedlings in the f irst year was not as much correlated with their general development as with their branching habit. The best hemlock seedlings produced more branches and foliage than t a l l leaders. The formation of Lammas growth was not related to the general rate of seed- ling development. Only redcedar formed more Lammas growth on the best grow- ing seedlings. Thirty-one per cent of Douglas-fir seedlings, five per cent of hemlock and twenty-three per cent of redcedar produced Lammas growth. Irregular, often spiral or curved stems of Douglas-fir and hemlock seedlings were associated with the most rapidly growing over-nourished speci- mens. 7. This experiment produced evidence of a successful method of break- ing dormancy by chilling and art i f i c ia l light in a range of 125 to 250 foot candles. The three species revealed different photo-periodic responses. Redcedar commenced growth in the second week of the illumination, hemlock in the fourth, and Douglas-fir in the seventh. The whole period of bursting covered about seven weeks from February 10 to March 31. 8. , The shoot/root ratio of Douglas-fir seedlings was generally smaller than with the other two species. Douglas-fir developed a proportionally larger root system to its aerial organs than the other two species, and western hemlock the smallest. 9. There was an indication that Douglas-fir had the lowest water - 103 content (185 per cent) and redcedar the highest (251 per c e n t ) . On the aver- age, water content of roots was twice as high as that of the a e r i a l organs. 10. Only 1.1 per cent of a l l 1236 germinants of D o u g l a s - f i r had more than the usual f i v e - t o - s e v e n cotyledons. Western hemlock showed on 4.4 per cent of germinants four cotyledons, i n s t e a d of three. A l l 176 redcedar ger- minants had two cotyledons. The range of the lengths of hypocotyl of Douglas- f i r from t h i s r e g i o n was higher than that presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . F r a n k l i n (1961) measured 15 to 35 mm.; here 25 to 38 mm. was recorded. No such d i f f e r e n c e was found w i t h the other two s p e c i e s . 11. In the f i r s t year redcedar developed needles which were u s u a l l y r e p l a c e d by needle-scales i n the second year, except on weak seedlings where needles remained. Branches were already covered w i t h s c a l e s i n the f i r s t year. I f the leader t i p was damaged, needle-covered branches were produced from l a t e r a l dormant buds on the stem; these grew only one year. Major Conclusions 1. The Swordfern s i t e b e n e f i t e d from burning by a c c e l e r a t e d m i n e r a l i - z a t i o n , which s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the deprived seepage. F i r e caused the l e a s t damage to t h i s h a b i t a t . 2. The Moss s i t e s u f f e r e d h e a v i l y by burning, which reduced humus, the main source of n u t r i t i o n . The unburned blocks were b e n e f i t e d by f a s t decomposition of humus i n the greenhouse. 3. The S a l a l s i t e ' s t h i c k raw humus b e n e f i t e d from moderate burn, which removed pa r t of the humus and acted as a f e r t i l i z e r on the remainder. Severe burning was most harmful on t h i s s i t e by the d e s t r u c t i o n of the l a r g e p a r t of humus. 4. R i c h s o i l s , u s u a l l y w i t h seepage water, are l e s s damaged by f i r e than poor s o i l s w i t h strong drainage. I t i s mainly because i n r i c h s o i l s organic matter i s at l e a s t p a r t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the m i n e r a l h o r i z o n and acts r e a d i l y a f t e r f i r e e s p e c i a l l y f o r n i t r o g e n supply. BIBLIOGRAPHY - 104 Ahlgren, CE. 1959* Some effects of fire on forest reproduction in north- eastern Minnesota. 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Sttchting, H. 1929. Die Bekampfung des Humus der Waldbbden. Zeitschr. Forst. Jagdwesen 61:349-363. (Cited by Chrosciewich, 1959). Svenhufruid, E.G. 1929. Suon polltoviljekyksen selvittelijU. Suom. Suovilj. Yhd. julkaisija 10. Helsinki. (Cited by Ahlgrens, I960). Swenson, G.W. 1939. Base exchange capacity and moisture equivalent re- lationships of charcoal in forest soils. Unpublished Master's thesis, Yale Univ., School of Forestry. (Cited by Ahlgrens, I960). Tamm, 0. 1950. Northern coniferous forest soils. (Transl. M.L. Anderson). The Scrivener Press, Oxford. 253 pp. Tarrant, E.F. 1949. Douglas-fir site quality and soil f e r t i l i t y . Jour. Forestry, Vol. 47:716-720. . 1953. Effect of heat on soil color and pH of two forest soils. U.S. Dep't. Agr., For. Serv., Res. Note No. 90. 5 PP« . 1954. Effect of slash burning on soil pH. U.S. Dep't. Agr., For. Serv., Res. Note No. 102. 5 pp. . 1956 a. Effect of slash burning on some physical soil properties. For. Sci., Vol. 2, No. 1:18-22. . 1956 b. Changes in some physical soil properties after prescribed burn in young ponderosa pine. Jour. Forestry, Vol. 54:439-441. . 1956 c. Effects of slash burning on some soils of the Douglas- f i r region. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., Vol. 20, No. 3:4o8-4ll. __________ and E. Wright. 1955* Growth of Douglas-fir seedlings after slash burning. U.S. Dep't. Agr., For. Serv., Res. Note No. 115. 3 pp. Tourney, J.W. and C.T. Korstian. 1947(1956,a). Foundation of silviculture upon an ecological basis. John Wiley 0 Sons, Inc., New York. 486 pp. Transilla, M. 1962. On the influence of prescribed burning on the temper- ature and humidity conditions of the soil. Abstract of address to the Scientific Session of C. Ag. M. -III. Toronto, July 3, 1962. 6 pp. Truog, E. 1953. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Univ. Wisconsin Press. 469 PP. Tryon, E.H. 1948. Effect of charcoal on certain physical, and biological properties of forest soils. Ecol. Monogr. 18:81-115. (Cited by Beadle, 1940). Uggla, E. 1957. Mark-och luftemperaturer vid. hyggesbranning. (Sartryck ur). Norrlands skogsvardsforbunds tidskrift nr IV:443-500. Uggla, E. 1958 a. Ecological effects of fire on north Swedish forests. Almquist and Wiksells Boktryckeri A.B. Uppsala. 18 pp. . 1958 b. Skogsbrandfalt i Muddus national park. Acta Phyto- geographica Suecica 4l:5-ll6. Uppsala. Vincent, A.B. 1956. Balsam f i r and white spruce regeneration on the Green River Watershed. Canada, Dep't. North. Aff. # Nat. Res., For. Res. Div., Tech. Note No. 40. 24 pp. Vlamis, S., H.H. Biswell, and A.M. Schultz. 1955* Effects of prescribed burning on soil f e r t i l i t y in second growth ponderosa pine. Jour. Forestry 53(12):905-909. Waksman, S.A. 1936. Humus Origin, Chemical Composition and Importance in Nature. The Williams $ Wilkins Comp. Baltimore. 494 pp. Waksman, S.A. and R.L. Starkey. 1931. The soil and the microbe. John Wiley # Son, New York. (Cited by Lutz-Chandler, 19**6). Weaver, H. 1952. A preliminary report on prescribed burning in virgin ponderosa pine. Jour. Forestry 50(9):662-667. . 1955. Fire as an enemy, friend, and tool in forest management. Jour. Forestry 53(7):499-504. Wenger, K.F. and Trousdell, K.B. 1957* Natural regeneration of loblolly pine in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. U.S.D.A. Prod. Res. Rpt. 13, 78 pp. Wilde, S.A. 1958. Forest soils. The Ronald Press Comp., New York. 537 pp. Wilson, G.W. 19l4. Studies of plant growth in heated soil. Biochem. Bull. 3(l0):202-209. (Cited by Ahlgrens, I960). Worley, F.P. 1933. Forest fires in relation to soil f e r t i l i t y . Nature (London) 131:787-788. (Cited by Ahlgrens, i960). Wright, E. and R.F. Tarrant. 1957. Microbiological soil properties after logging and slash burning. U.S. Dep't. Agr., For. Serv., Res. Note No. 157. 5 PP. APPENDIX I Tables I - XXXII - 113 Table I. Characteristics of the three places of sample block collection. After G r i f f i t h (i960). Sword- Name and Number of Site fern Moss Salal i n the Present Study- I II III Number of Permanent Sample Plots by U.B.C. - Forestry Faculty S-l S-8 S-3 Number of Plots, used by Lesko-Orloci E-67 E-65 Elevation - feet 690 ' 1100 1360 Aspect sw SE S Slope - per cent 13 8 25 Topography Low Central Ridge slope slope top Site Index - Douglas-fir - feet 180 (177)^ 140 80 ( 9 4 ) ^ Aver. Age - Douglas-fir - 1951 76.1 76.5 61.8 Basal Area - sq. f t . 470.1 430.2 186.4 Aver. Height - Douglas-fir - Dom. Codom. - feet - 1951 156.3 122.5 65.4 Number of Trees per Acre Douglas-fir 210 200 570 western hemlock 60 227 180 western redcedar 60 187 330 Total 330 614 1080 Basal Area i n Square Feet Douglas-fir 424.7 301.2 120.2 western hemlock 38.4 104.9 38.6 western redcedar 7.0 24.I 27.6 Total 470.1 430.2 186.4 Composition by B.A. - per cent Douglas-fir 90.4 70.0 64.5 western hemlock 8.1 24.4 20.7 western redcedar 1.5 5.6 14.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 l / Quoted from studies by Lesko and Orloci (l96l). - 114 Table II. Morphology of soils in sample collection ditches. S it e 1 Soil Group A sp ec t 1  Sl op e S to n in es s II P. C II Horizons and Layers Concretions S it e 1 A sp ec t 1  Sl op e S to n in es s II P. C II 0 organ- ic Ah humic miner- al Ach char- coal Ae eluv- iated B 2 Brown B3 lellow B2 B3 S it e 1 A sp ec t 1  Sl op e S to n in es s II P. C II c ̂ -occurrence; range--inches diameter-inches I - Sw or df er n gleyed Acid Brown Wooded Soils, .4.38 W 10 15 80$ 1 10 100$ 2-6 80$ I l 20$ 1 8 80$ 5 100$ 15+ dark brown 2,3 yellowish gray I 2 - II  -  M os s Orthic Humic Podzol, 3.31 W 0-5 10 100$ (under moss) 1,6 25$ 10 25$ 5,2 90$ 2,15 80$ 10,20+ reddish brown 2,5 yellowish friable or com- pacted H n) Eluv. SE 20 0 100$ 75$ 25$ 30$ H CE) Acid CO Litho- 1 sol, 1,8 1,2 2,5 - - -M M 5.32 8 H - 115 Table III. Permanent numbers of seedling blocks and soi l blocks. Burning rate Purpose of sample blocks Douglas- f i r seeding Western hemlock seeding Western redcedar seeding Soil analysis (not seeded) I -- Swordfern site: Severely 13 11 19 10 7 6 20 2 burned 5 1 12 3 14 21 Moderately 18 22 24 23 27 16 15 28 burned 17 8 9 25 4 26 Unburned 37 29 41 30 39 31 34 32 control 33 40 38 35 42 36 II - Moss site: Severely 2 9 8 1 5 10 7 3 burned 30 4 6 27 28 11 Moderately 15 22 18 16 25 23 19 24 burned 38 37 29 14 17 26 Unburned 36 32 20 41 34 31 39 35 control 42 12 21 33 40 13 III - Salal site: Severely 2 1 3 13 14 8 6 12 burned ' 5 9 7 4 11 10 Moderately 27 18 25 16 28 21 15 24 burned 20 23 22 17 26 19 Unburned 29 36 38 35 32 39 42 40 control 30 37 31 41 34 33 Total number 36 36 36 18 soil blocks Grand total seedling blocks - 108 - 116 Table IV. Highest temperature during the burning. Observation Degrees of temperature -Fahrenheit (Centigrade) CO $ -P CQ Investigator Place Year <u CO I § CO 2 cd 3 Below the surface - inches i ® o g H N fe . § & O CQ 1 2 3 4 6 co a u a Hoffmann, J. V. Pacific Northwest 1924 850 (454) 120 (49) 60 (16) Elpatievsky, M. P. et al Russia 1934 1382 (750) 217 (100) 185 (80) 86 (30) Isaac, L. A. & H. C. Hopkins Pacific Northwest 1937 1841 (1000) 608 (320) Heyward, F. Longleaf- pine Region, U. S. A. 1938 274 (135) 30 Beadle, N.C.W. New South Wales, Australia 1940 482 (250) 245 (118) 131 (55) 95 (35) Uggla, E. Sweden 1957 2100 (1150) 1000 (540) 140 (60) 104 (40) 59 (15) 45 Bentley and Fenner severe burn California 1958 1150 (620) Bentley and Fenner slight burn California 1958 250 (120) Present study simulated severe burn U.B.C. Laboratory (Vancouver) 1959 2000 (1100) 1800 (985) 780 (416) 200 (93) 35 Present study simulated moderate burn U.B.C. Laboratory (Vancouver) 1959 1250 (675) 170 (77) 60 (16) 15 - 117 Table V. Burning characteristics. Burning Temperature Depth of block maxi- aver- maximum be- af- No. Site and Use time mum age at depth fore loss ter grade the the (min.) at surface 2" 4" burn burn Fahrenheit degrees inches 4 Sw.j Dg.-f. 30 severe 1705 1560 578 90 [ 12.75 .75 12.00 4 w. h. 30 it 1720 1552 178 77 13.00 1.00 12.00 4 w.rc. 30 it 1785 1675 210 105 13.00 .75 12.25 Average 30 ti 1730 1596 322 ?1 13.00 .75 12.25 1 S o i l anal. 30 severe 1770 1740 150 70 I 12.25 1.00 11.25 1 Reserve 30 n 1950 1920 190 — 13.50 .50 13.00 4 Sw.j Dg.-f. 15 moderate 1095 1007 121 62 12.50 .75 11.75 4 w.h. 15 n 1208 1100 112 61 12.75 .75 12.00 4 w.rc. 15 it 1290 1149 111 62 12.50 .75 11.75 Average 15 n 1198 1085 115 62 12.50 .75 11.75 1 S o i l anal. 15 moderate 900 630 250 65 12.25 1.00 11.25 1 Reserve 15 n 1500 1300 _ — 11.50 .50 11.00 4 Moss; Dg.-f. 35 severe 1858 1812 248 175 12.75 1.50 11.25 4 w.h. 40 n 1862 1762 868 145 12.50 1.50 11.00 4 w.rc. 35 n 1875 1825 IO45 164 12.75 2.00 10.75 Average 35 tt 1865 1800 720 161 12.75 1.50 11.25 1 S o i l anal. 40 severe 1630 1500 1420 200 [ 12.75 1.75 11.00 1 Reserve 40 tt 1970 1850 160 150 12.75 2.00 10.75 4 Moss; Dg.-f. 15 moderate 1510 1340 208 65 [ 12.50 1.50 11.00 4 w.h. 15 tt 1620 1445 200 66 12.50 1.50 11.00 4 w.rc. 15 ti 1550 1442 320 86 12.00 1.50 10.50 Average 15 II 1560 1409 242 72 12.50 1.50 11.00 1 Soi l anal. 15 moderate 1250 1160 110 70 12.25 1.25 11,00 1 Reserve 15 II 1560 1490 230 190 11.75 1.75 10.00 4 Sal- 35 severe 1805 1715 1285 185 6.25 2.50 3.75 a l ; Dg.-f. 4 w.h. 40 II 1802 1705 1320 412 5.75 2.25 3.50 4 w.rc. 40 it 1720 1602 1320 530) 5.75 2.50 3.25 Average 35 I! 1775 5022 1308 342 6.00 2.50 3.50 1 S o i l anal. 40 severe 1930 1840 1510 210 6.50 2.50 4.00 1 Reserve 40 n 1660 1610 340 180 6.00 2.50 3.50 4 Sal- 15 moderate 1060 970 442 60 5.00 1.50 3.50 a l ; Dg.-f. 4 w.h. 15 tt 1070 1010 228 61 4.75 1.25 3.50 4 w.rc. 15 tt 887 810 140 70 5.00 1.50 3.50 Average 15 it 1005 930 270 64 5.00 1.50 3.50 1 S o i l anal. 15 it 1060 950 100 70 5.25 1.50 3.75 1 Reserve 15 II 1350 1320 260 150 5.50 2.00 3.50 - 118 Table V I . Productivity of blocks plotted against the rate of burning and re- mains on surface. Blocks are arranged in decreasing order of pro- ductivity in each group. C o n - tr o l uoxrrex^H OJ O l O l C o n - tr o l j p o x g O S o N O c- OI CO CO CO CO IO r-i rH CO CO CO -4 CM Os -4 CO CO CO CO CO it e  CO -p uoxq.-BTSH ri r-i II r-i * r-i ite  yeooaHtrn i—1 H -4 H r-i r-i CO r-i OI CO CO r-i CO t u s v C O - * -4-4 co co -4" 4 CO -4 OI CO S a la l CO xi uang -4COH O l H -4 O i co -4 OI CO r-i S a la l o s p o x g CO t> O CO r-i O l Oi OJ LO O l N O C— Ol OJ H r-i Os sO i—j CO rH O l O l O i • uoxq.'e-raH CO ri CO ri CO H H 0) IBOOJ'Bqo H r-i r-i r-i CO CO t—i OI r-i OI CO O l r-i CO q s v CO -4 -4 -4 CO -4 -4 CO Oi CO O l CO CO u j n g CM CO r-i -4 CM CO H -4 CO H CM CO Jiooig O N m H OJ cs -4 C - CO CO cS -4 CO i-j O r-i r-i H cs 1 H rt O UOT^ 'BT . S H r-H r-i r-i O f-. O -P j p o x g sO O l CM O l CO CO - T H CM CM CO -4 H Q co CO CO -4 r-i CD uoxq.BXSH ri OJ II CM II O l <D -P P ft) XBOoaBLio CO CO CO -4 CO H CO CO r-i O l CO CO •ri CQ f-. CO u s y OJ CO CO CO co co -4- co -4 -4 -4" CO CQ T3 O u\ing -d- OJ H co CO rH CM -4 r-i O l CO -4 M os  Jjooia P- V\ OJ CO CO H OJ CO CO O N O -4 H N H H LO CO ! > s O Oi CM H CM . uoxq.«x sH II CO X co X co H H CO XBooJceqc Cvl CO CO -4 -4 CO CO -4 CO CO CO CO u CO q s v CO OJ -4 CO r-i -4 OI CO Ol -4 ~4 -4-> CO uang OJ CO r-i -4 -4 OJ CO r-i CM CO -4 H CO j p o i g oi 2f O N o CO cs * CO sO O - r-i OJ CS LO O CO r—j r-i CM r-l CS C o n - tr o l uoxq-Bisy CO CO CO C o n - tr o l s p o t s C— O N CO O CO Oi CO -4 r—1 O CO tO - T CO CO CO O N r-i CM sO CO CO -4" CO CO -P i - l CO uoxq.BiaH ri Oi ri OI II oi v3 CQ •p (0 Yeoojreiio CO -4 CO -4 r-i -4 -4 CO CO H -4 O l g u CO usv Oi Oi -4 -4 CO -4 CO -4 CO CO CO H CO o uang CO -4 OI rH CO OJ -4 r-i H O l CO -4 o rd  ^ o o i g CO O l CO C -OJ H r-i LO C s -4 CO Oi CM O i l>-sO sO ~4 Ol H OJ ? CO uoxq.'Biaa ri r-i II r-i X r-i • CO I H leooaBiici CO -4 CO -4 CO -4 CO CO H CO -4 -4 CO > OI r-i CM -4 Ol r-i -4 CO CO r-i -4 CO CO CO uang -4 CO OJ r-i r-i Oi CO -4- -4 O l CO r-i JTOoig CS C O O O i O N r-i r-i H CS r-i -4 O - s O Ol r-i CS B u r n in g  D o u g la s- fi r  w e st e r n  h em lo ck  w e st e r n  r e d - c e d a r  CO Ol CO Tl O O -P CQ CO o o -P r-i r-i Xi to o •H -P r-i CQ O -P +3 i r \ XI CM to •H I r-i CQ O o g to 3 ' CO L T \ S CM u CD o U Tl •P CQ co O IO IO Ol S . o o O _ LO CO CM S CO -p »v CO CO U -P CO to u c fl° t O Xi to s o LO 0 XI CO CQ CO CO u o c •H J3 -P •cj I I >» +5 •H CQ fl CO -p fl •H fn CO So" •d V ^ X ! 3 to CP <£} V •ri O CO O H CQ Xi O Ct) CO o C H CO O G CO & CO CQ 5 c •ri CQ ct) 0) O CO T3 O +3 •p >J •ri -P o •8 O fl o •rl - -P & r! 55 M O I ^ l>» -P CO '!> !> -H O -P 0 O 1 ̂  r-i Tl Cfl O o CO o o CQ CO -P S CO TS II « * CO H O X I 5 • a o cS co - 119 Table VII. Water used for irrigation and precipitation at the sample area Amount of Actual Averages in watering precipitation the forests Month in in the for experiment forests 12 years inches of precipitation I960: I960: 1946 to 1957 March 2.00 6.67 9.80 April 1.00 6.58 5.62 May- 5.25 8.46 3.50 June 4.00 3.13 4.72 July 3.75 - 2.81 August 3.00 7.03 3.10 September 3.50 3.33 4.17 October 3.75 10.98 9.04 November 3.75 9.02 11.34 December 7.00 7.02 14.43 Sub-total 37.00 62.22 68.53. 1261: 1961: January 7.50 20.10 12.22 February 7.00 23.12 10.58 March 7.00 9.86 9.80 April 4.75 6.37 5.62 May 1.75 5.64 3.50 Sub-total 28.00 65.09 41.72 TOTAL 65.00 127.31 110.25 Notes: Field data of precipitation are taken from records of the Meteorological Station at the Administration Building, Haney Research Forest. Averages for 12 years represent data for the same region, from the period 1946 - 1957. Table V I I I . Adjusted per cent germination on groups of four blocks, Hay, I960. S M u Species Mean burning rate I . Swordfern site Douglas-fir 100 92 90 94 western hemlock 69 84 68 77 western redcedar 52 32 32 39 Mean 78 69 " 63 70 I I . Moss site Douglas-fir 88 97 92 92 western hemlock 78 57 31 55 western redcedar 41 37 29 36 Mean 69 64 51 61 I I I . Salal site Douglas-fir 95 86 49 77 western hemlock 98 84 70 84 western redcedar 27 32 32 30 Mean 73 67 50 63 Total mean 73 67 55 65 - 121 Table IX. Average values of seedling development on each group of twenty- seedlings, December 30, I960. Severely burned 1 blocks 1 Moderately burned blocks Unburned blocks Species • H B D L I H B , D L H B D L I. Swordfern site D 1 265 11 4 . 0 40 H 256 16 3 . 2 — C » 162 9 2 .5 10 205 9 3.5 20 228 15 3.0 147 8 2.1 5 82 1 1.5 75 73 6 1.4 10 65 4 1 .4 5 II. Moss site D S 204 8 3 . 2 20 H 241 16 3 . 1 - C 1 50 4 1.1 D 1 136 4 2.0 H 1 181 11 2.3 -C 1 153 8 2.6 55 233 10 3 . 4 15 251 15 3 . 3 10 126 7 2 . 0 10 III. Salal site 213 10 3.2 5 298 18 3.6 - 283 11 3.6 80 352 14 4 . 5 65 233 15 3 . 3 - 154 8 2 . 2 1 ° 150 5 2 .3 40 167 11 2 .4 30 158 8 2 .7 35 Legend: H - height, cm.; B - no. of primary branches; D - stem diameter, mm.; L - per cent of seedlings with lammas growth. - 122 Table X. Fresh weight of twelve seedlings on each group, July 8, 1961. Severely burned blocks Moderately burned | Unburned blocks | blocks S R P S/R S R P S/R| S R P S/R grams I. Swordfern site D H C D H C 318.40 288.72 177.60 D [154.39 H 1174.90 C 1 76.20 70.98 94.43 97.75 194.50 159.25 230.63 112.80 114.03 94.05 68.10 66.58 137.97 512.90 447.97 408.23 267.19 288.93 170.25 139.08 161.01 235.72 1.64 1.79 0.77 217.75 264.87 159.95 171.60 149.37 172.55 389.35 414.24 332.50 II. Moss site 1.371211.60 1.53 185.40 0.81I165.48 153.35 111.11 212.43 364.95 296.51 377.91 1.25 1.73 0.92 1.38 0.78 31.38 56.87 53.70 J417.77 1.67 422.04 222.95 III. Salal site 1.04 1.41 0.71 192.05 268.02 316.00 118.50 134.35 321.90 310.55 402.37 637.90 1.621147.35 2.00[187.55 0.988215.70 23.34' 54.72 1.32 27.15 84.02 2.09 21.15 74.85 2.54 201.00 618.77 1.28 187.72 609.76 2.25 245.47 468.42 0.91 106.05 253.40 1.39 95.32 282.87 1.97 173.67 389.37 1.24 Legend: S - aerial part; R - root; P - plant. - 123 Table XI. Water content of seedlings expressed as per cent of dry matter. Computed from the weight of twelve seedlings in each group. Variant Severely burned Moderately burned Unburned control Douglas-fir: Per cent -p o •p o o CO - P I Site ' II " III » Total I Site II " III » Total I Site II " III " Total 242 292 382 150 155 22k 150 179 200 213 190 281 307 263 281 138 145 149 144 185 194 190 187 298 228 m 258 107 155 15-2 148 156* 172 203. 178 western hemlock: I Site 291 268 305 •p o II « 304 297 245 o « III » 379 267 298 Total m 287 265 -p I Site 142 128 149 o o II » 136 143 156 CO III » m m 167 Total 141 133 152 •£ I Site 181 171 184 c II » 182 184 . 178 III " 210 166 198 Total 185 170 184 western redcedar: I Site 420 367 267 •+*' o o II » 443 451 393 III » 464 222 410 Total 393 393 -p I Site 156 170 148 w o rj II » 158 146 157 CO III " 162 160 184 Total 159 15_9 167 - P I Site 259 246 174 cd II » 264 258 244 III " 282 237 254 Total 280 245 241 O t E d o o o • • • V*) VJl VJl 00 O N o O H H • • • H H -p- H M M • • • £ - -3 H vO.p-.p- O O O • • a - J CO 00 O - O H O IV) H • • • vO O ON 00 o w • • • 00 VO ON H H M CO P. P o o o • • • VJl sO 00 M f - H H H H • • • M vO VO -p- - J NO IV) IV) M • • • IV) NO VO VJJ -O H o a o o o o • • • IV) O N -j V J I O H H • « • 00 VJl VO H M M • o • -3 O N IV) O VJl O N O O O • • • •p- NO ON O O O H H • • • - J ONVJO CO -0 00 • • • NJ-^M N O IV) J> o o o • • » V J I CO vO N O VJl VO O IV) H • • • N O IV) IV) H V J I o> H VO |V) • • a —3 O —3 • P - VO IV) H H If co ca co H- c+ CO O CC O O O O • • • -p- CO CO VJl - 0 O O H H • • • - O —-3 O N - 0 N O - P - H IV) IV) • • • VJl NO IV) -<] VO .p- o o o • • • VO 00 O N V J I H V J I O H H • • » NO - 0 IV) r o v o V J I H M M • • • O N 00 o H - J p- o o o • • • M VJl •P*" -vi O N H M M H • • • VJl O VO • P - NO M VO VO M • • • -O .p- VJl VJl H 00 H f ft CD co H- c+ CD Species CD o _ CD cr >i H CD O H o «<| co cr P CD P- o p. CD •1 P> c+ CD t«r ^ CO a* H o o CD a. P cr H CD H H H CD C§ c+ CT O) cr o o Ct- CD co cr X CD H C*S cr <+ o o • c+ p c+ H- o o Hi CO CD CD a- H • co cr P p. 4 _ <! cr CD «<S co C*" P. CD s: CD H-cm cr p. o Ci . I ' - N 00 N O o H cr M • P - - 125 Table X I I I . Size of two-year-old wild seedlings from the sample areas, June 2, 1961. Species o g U -ri CD H £} XI CD CD S3 CQ Length Root Stem f irst year second year whole range mm. S/R ra- tio u co 0 - P CO CO -p & CO co si •rJ " M CO c CO CO 3 H mm. S I +5 CD C P, CO O O H CO > CO CO O CO CO Q CQ CD s rd I . Swordfern site Douglas-fir, shaded 8 67.37 46.12 34.50 80.62 70, ?5 1.19 1.00 17.87 87 0 Douglas-fir, on open 14 83.10 59.43 72.07 131.50 90, 180 1.58 1.50 27.36 43 4 western hemlock 7 61.00 43.00 42.43 85.43 65, 100 1.40 1.00 15.00 14 2 western redcedar 10 62.40 20.13 30.87 51.00 42, 67 1.22 0.40 — 0 1 Total 39 I I . Moss site Douglas-fir 10 86.2 44.8 29.6 74.4 52, 84 0.86 0.50 16.50 0 0 western hemlock 10 47.7 21.5 23.6 45.1 40, 54 0.95 0.25 13.70 0 0 western redcedar 5 44.6 — — 44.6 37, 55 1.00 0.25 — 0 0 Total 25 I I I . Salal site Douglas-fir 10 65.1 43.5 25.4 68.9 60, 85 1.06 0.55 20.9 0 0 western hemlock 10 42.9 27.6 23.3 50.9 32, 70 0.84 0.37 11.6- 0 0 western redcedar 10 37.4 — — 53.7 35, 75 0.70 0.30 - 0 0 Total 30 - 126 Table XIV. Weight of twelve wild seedlings and their water content from the sample areas, June 2, 1961. Species Fresh weight Dry weight Water content Shoot Root Plant S/R Shoot Root Plant S/R Shoot Root Plant grams grams P« sr cent Douglas-fir, 1.934 .600 2.534 shaded Douglas-fir, 14.418 2.298 L6.716 on open .617 western hem- 4.183 4.800 lock western red- 1.020 .210 1.230 cedar I. Swordfern site 3.221 .788 6.28[4.588 6.7811.467 4.861 .445 .427 1.216 1.84 145 40 110 1.580 6.168 2.91 272 45 171 .509 1.976 2.89 185 21 143 .142 .587 3.71 129 48 110 II. Moss site Douglas-fir 1.044 .264 1.308 3.95 | .505 .224 .729 western hem- .594 .108 .702 5.50 .238 .073 .311 lock western red- .408 .048 .456 8.50 .243 .038 .281 cedar III. Salal site Douglas-fir 1.134 .438 1.572 2.59 .583 .316 .899 western hem- .962 .204 1.166 4.72 .359 .165 .524 lock western red- .756 .150 .906 5.03 .419 .123 .542 cedar 6.31 1.851 2.82 3.39 107 18 79 150 48 126 68 25 64 .94 39 75 168 23 122 81 .22 67 - 127 Table XV. Dry weight of twelve seedlings from unburned sample blocks and from the f ield. Site, Species Unburned block Field Increase in dry weight (factor) grams Swordfern site: Douglas-fir 20.98 6.17 3.4 western hemlock 29.56 1.98 15.0 western redcedar 27.36 O.59 46.0 Sub-total 77.90 8.74 9.0 Moss site: Douglas-fir 228.20 0.73 368 western hemlock 219.26 0.31 710 western redcedar 136.27 0,28 487 Sub-to ta l 583.73 1.32 483 Salal site: Douglas-fir 83.67 0.90 93 western hemlock 94.95 0.52 182 western redcedar 109,83 O.54 367 Sub-total 288.45 1.96 H7 By species: Douglas-fir 333 7.80 43 western hemlock 344 2.81 122 western redcedar 273 1.41 194 TOTAL 950 12.02 79 - 128 Table XVI. Seasonal changes on blocks. In Column 3 blocks are arranged in de- creasing order of production. Index I denotes highest values, 4 the lowest. A. Swordfern site: S p ec ie s B ur ni ng  r at e Pe rm an en t no . B ur ni ng  i n d ex  Index of development Per cent of seedlings with resting apex Per cent of Dale seedlings G ro w th  ph as e,  nu m be r S p ec ie s B ur ni ng  r at e Pe rm an en t no . B ur ni ng  i n d ex  o Height growth o N O O N H o N O O N H • •p o o o N O O H . o CD H N O O N H • u H N O O N H 0) o N O O N H 1 o N O O N H . o CO a H N O O N H H •H u £? G ro w th  ph as e,  nu m be r S p ec ie s B ur ni ng  r at e Pe rm an en t no . B ur ni ng  i n d ex  O N > • •H L H 3 >> o N O IT I o N O cn o CO Q H § CM • U H N O to CO G ro w th  ph as e,  nu m be r 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 16 D ou gl as -f ir  CO u CO !> CO CO 11 5 13 1 Grc 4 3 2 1 sup 1 2,3 4 3,2 1 i 2 4 3 1 2 1 4 3 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 100 100 100 100 100 100 60 100 100 ?0 100 80 100 100 95 100 66 100 100 90 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 5 D ou gl as -f ir  CD •p B CO T l g 8 22 18 17 Grc 3 4 2 1 5UP 2 4,3 3,4 1 3 4 1 3 2 2 2 1 4 3 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 2 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 80 100 100 ?5 66 33 100 100 75 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 5 D ou gl as -f ir  H o U o o 37 29 33 40 Grc 3UP 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 40 100 100 100 60 0 0 0 15 100 100 100 80 ?5 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 25 25 10 0 0 0 0 15 5 3 w es te rn  he m lo ck  CO u CO CO 3 10 12 19 Grc 1 2 3 4 3UP 4 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 4 2,3 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 (100) 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 25 25 25 25 25 3 w es te rn  he m lo ck  CO -p nJ U CO T3 o a 25 9 24 23 Grc 3 2 4 1 3UP 4 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 2 1 2 4 3 2 1 2 4 3 2 (100) 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 25 25 25 25 25 3 w es te rn  he m lo ck  r-i O U •P a o o 41 30 38 35 Gr< 5UP 1 4 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 0 0 50 70 0 0 20 40 15 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 40 40 40 40 40 0 0 3 w es te rn  re dc ed ar  CD U £ CO CQ 21 14 7 6 Grc 4 2 3 1 pup 1 3 4 2 1 2 3 1 4 2 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 (40) 0 0 0 (10) 0 (100) 0 (100) 60 60 60 60 60 0 25 25 25 25 25 3 w es te rn  re dc ed ar  CO -P « CO i 27 16 26 4 Grc 1 o *— 3 4 >up 1 2 4 3 2 1 3 4 2 1 1 2 4 3 2 1 2 4 3 2 1 3 2 4 2 0 0 0 (20) 0 (100) 0 (100) 30 30 30 30 30 0 25 25 25 25 25 3 w es te rn  re dc ed ar  H O -P C O o 39 31 42 36 Gr< 3Up 1 1 4 3 2 3 2 1 3 4 3 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 (20) 0 0 0 (5) 0 (100) (100) 0 0 very dark 3 - 129 Table XVI. Continued. B. Moss site: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 100 100 66 100 15 15 4 3 2 4 2 1 2 100 100 66 100 0 0 9 1 4 2 3 3 3 100 100 100 100 15 0 30 4' 3 3 4 4 4 100 100 100 100 0 0 Gro up 3 3 ~3 3 3 100 100 0 85 100 0 10 5 37 4 4 l 2 1 1 100 100 100 100 0 15 2 3 4 1 2 2 100 60 66 100 0 22 1 1 2 4 3 4 100 100 100 100 0 38 3 2 3 3 4 3 100 100 66 100 15 Group 2 2 2 2 2 100 90 0 85 100 0 5 0 36 - 1 1 1 1 1 100 80 100 100 100 0 32 - 4 3 3 2 2 100 80 100 100 100 0 42 — 2 2 2 3 3 100 100 100 100 100 15 12 — 3 4 4 4 4 100 80 100 100 100 0 | aGrc up 1 1 1 1 1 100 85 100 100 100 0 0 8 4 4 1 1 1 2 100 100 15 50 25 6 2 3 3 2 2 1 • 100 100 0 50 25 27 3 2 4 4 3 4 100 100 0 50 25 1 1 1 2 3 4 3 100 100 15 50 25 Group 1 2 2 3 3 (100) 0 100 0 100 10 50 25 18 3 2 1 1 1 1 100 100 50 100 29 1 3 2 2 2 2 100 100 50 100 16 2 4 4 4 3 4 100 100 50 100 14 4 1 3 3 4 3. 100 100 50 100 Group 2 1 1 2 2 2 (100) 0 100 0 100 0 50 100 20 — 2 4 4 1 1 20 100 100 30 41 - 3 1 1 2 2 0 100 100 30 21 - 4 2 2 3 3 0 100 100 30 33 — 1 3 3 4 4 0 100 100 30 Group ? 3 3 1 1 5 0 100 0 100 30 0 0 5 2 1 3 1 1 1 80 10 3 2 1 2 2 2 80 28 4 3 2 3 3 3 80 - 11 1 4 4 4 4 4 80 Gro up 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 (100) 0 (100) 80 0 0 25 1 1 1 1 1 1 (40) 40 25 23 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 40 25 17 3 3 3 3 3 3 0 40 25 26 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 (100) 40 25 Group 2 2 2 2 2 (10) 0 0 (100) 40 0 25 34 - 4 1 1 1 1 (40j 25 31 - 2 2 2 2 2 0 25 40 - 3 3 3 3 3 0 25 13 — 4 4 4 4 4 0 25 Group 1 1 1 1 1 J i o ) 0 (ioo) 0 (100) 25 0 0 CD -P cd U CO i o u o o CO u CO > CO co CO -p S CO o u -p c o o CO u % CO CO CO -p CO u CO o u -P c o o 130 Table XVI. Continued. C. Salal site: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 u • H <H 1 10 CO H $ O a 0 u CD > CD CQ 9 5 1 2 Grc 3 2 4 1 u p 4 1 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 40 10 15 0 0 0 5 0 4 CD P CO ri CD Tf i 18 27 20 23 Gro 4 3 1 2 u p 1 2 4 3 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 1 3 4 1 2 1 3 4 1 2 1 3 4 1 100 100 100 100 100 20 5 100 80 100 100 ?5 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 4 H O c-. -P a o o 29 30 36 37 Gro u p 4 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 3 3 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 2 3 4 2 100 100 100 100 100 20 0 40 60 30 80 100 60 40 60 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 if w es te rn  h em lo ck  CD U CD > CD CQ 4 7 13 3 Gro 4 2 3 1 u p 4 1' 2 3 1 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 2 2 1 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 (100) 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 15 5 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 w es te rn  h em lo ck  CD -P CO U CD XS i 25 22 16 17 Gro 1 4 2 3 u p 3 1 2 4 3 2 1 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 (100) 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 15 5 100 100 100 100 100 3 w es te rn  h em lo ck  H O fn -P C o o 38 35 31 41 Gro u p 3 4 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 4 3 2 0 40 40 100 J ^ 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 30 10 0 0 3 | w es te rn  r ed ce da r CD U CD > CD CO 14 8 11 10 Gro 4 3 1 2 u p 1 2 3 4 3 4 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 2 3 4 3 (100) (60) (60) (55) 0 (100) 0 (100) 0 15 0 15 30 15 100 100 100 100 100 3 | w es te rn  r ed ce da r CD -P CO U CD Xi i 19 26 21 28 Gro 4 2 3 1 u p 4 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 1 1 3 4 1 2 1 1 3 2 4 1 1 3 2 4 1 (60) (80) (80) (100) (80) 0 (100) 0 (100) 0 0 15 15 15 10 very dark 3 | w es te rn  r ed ce da r H o o 32 39 34 33 Gro 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 1 2 3 4 2 (80) (20) (20) (40) - W 0 (100) 0 (100) 5 5 5 5 0 0 - 131 Table XVII - A. Field soi l samples from the collecting ditches, August, 1959. L ab el  | m ar k p Horizon or selection Occur- rence on the area Thickness or diameter Colour Consistency par- ticles to 1.98 per cent inches ML per cent I. Swordfern site—Gleyed acid brown wooded soi l , 4.38(1960) Aspect - South; Micro aspect - West Slope - Lower, 10$; Micro slope - 15 per cent; Stoniness - 20 per cent la 0 & Ah—shallow 70 2 dark brown friable 76.8 lb 0 & Ah—deep 30 5 brown friable 73.7 2 A charcoal 80 £ t o . | 1/8 dark gray lumpy, powdery 100.0 3 Ae 20 light gray loose 89.5 4 Bhfcc 90 10+ dark brown loose with 65.5 5 to 3 concretions 5a Bhfc 70 reddish brown cemented 72.6 5b Bfc 30 1 to 6 yellowish red cemented 62.6 II. Moss site—Orthic humic podzol, 3.31(1958) Aspect - Southwest; Micro aspect - West Slope - Central, 15$; Micro slope - 5 per cent; Stoniness - 10 per cent 6 0 & Ah 100 1' to 6 dark brown fibrous 100.0 7 A charcoal 25 1/8 to i 1/8 to | dark gray lumpy, powdery 100.0 8 Ae 25 light lo ose 91.4 9 Bhfcc 90 2 to 10 brown friable 66.4 10a Bhfc 80 2 to 6 yellowish red cemented 60.6 10b Bfc 20 2 to 5 yellowish gray cemented 57.6 III. Salal site—Eluviated acid lithosol, 5.32(1958) Aspect - Southwest; Micro aspect - Southwest Slope - Ridge top, 25$; Micro slope - 25 per cent; Stoniness - none 13 0 100 2 to 8 black sticky 100.0 14 A charcoal 75 \ to $ 1/B to h dark gray lumpy, powdery 100.0 15 Ae 25 gray loose 91.7 16 Bh—common type 30 1/8 to I dark brown loose 90.6 17 Bh—deep type 10 10+ brown loose 90.3 NOTE: Micro aspect and micro slope refer to the factual position of sample ditches. General topography is presented in Table I and soil mor- phology in Table II. - 132 Table XVII - B. Analyzed samples of soi l blocks extracted in June, I960, and July, 1961. (first series). Label mark Block Layer I960 1961 Horizon or Burning rate and Thick- ness selec- produc- t ivi ty tion inches Colour Consistency Fine par- ticles to 1.98 mm. per cent I. Swordfern site 20 1 5 0, Ah severe X X X 1.25 dark brown loose 80.3 2 6 Bh 4.00 reddish brown friable 68.2 3 7 Bhfcc 6.00 yellowish brown weak cemented 61.9 15 1 5 0,Ah,Ae moderate 4.00 dark brown loose 69.1 2 6 Bhfcc XX 7.25 yellowish brown with concre- tions 62.0 34 1 5 0, Ah unburned 1.50 dark brown loose 83.2 2 6 Bh X 3.00 brown friable 69.7 ̂ 3 7 Bhfcc 8.00 yellowish red with concre- tions 57.7 II. Moss site 7 1 5 Ah, Ae severe 1.00 dark brown loose 94.4 2 6 Bh X 3.00 reddish brown firm 76.5 3 7 Bhfcc 7.00 yellowish red with concre- tions 64.3 19 1 5 Ah, Ae moderate 1.00 dark brown loose 96.3 2 6 Bh XX 2.00 yellowish red firm 90.4 3 7 Bhfcc 8.00 brown firm 60.0 39 1 5 0, Ah unburned X X X 2.00 dark brown loose 89.0 2 6 Ah, Ae 2.00 grayish brown loose 67.0 3 7 Bh 4.00 reddish brown firm 57.8 4 8 Bhfcc 5.00 yellowish brown with concre- tions 49.7 III. Salal site 6 1 5 0 severe 1.00 black organic laininated 100.0 2 6 0, Ah X 3.00 black sticky 96.2 15 1 5 0 moderate 1.50 brown organic 100.0 X X X laminated 2 6 0, Ah 2.25 black sticky 97.9 42 1 5 0 unburned 3.00 brown organic fibrous 100.0 2 6 0, Ah XX 3.50 brown sticky 90.0 NOTE: Decreasing number of asterisks denotes decreasing final productivity in the experiment. - 133 Table XVII - C. Label mark Block Layer I960 1961 July, 1961. (second series) F i n e par- ticles to 1.98 mm. Horizon Burning rate Thick-ness or and selec- produc- tion t ivity inches Colour Consistency per cent I. Swordfern site 2 1 5 Ah, Ae severe 2.50 dark brown loose 78.6 2 6 Bh x x 10.50 yellowish red weak cemented 59.7 28 1 5 Ah, Ae moderate 4.00 dark brown loose 78.0 2 6 Bh X X 3.00 yellowish br. friable 68.8 3 7 Bfcc 4.00 yellowish red with concretions 68.2 32 1 5 0, Ah unburned 1.00 dark brown loose 86.3 2 6 Bh X 3.50 brown loose 62.4 3 7 Bhfcc 8.00 yellowish br. with concretions 62.7 II. Moss site 3 1 5 0, Ah severe 1.00 dark brown loose 92.0 2 6 Ae, Bh X 5.00 reddish brown firm 76.0 3 7 Bhfcc 4.75 yellowish red with concretions 59.6 24 1 5 0 moderate 1.25 dark brown loose, organic 100.0 2 6 Ah, Bh X X 2.00 reddish brown firm 64.1 3 7 Bhfcc 6.50 yellowish red with concretions 59.4 35 1 5 0, Ae unburned 1.25 dark brown loose 93.7 2 6 Ae, Ah X X X 3.50 brown loose 61.2 3 7 Bh 4.00 yellowish red firm 58.4 4 8 Bhfcc 3.50 yellowish br. with concretions 74.8 III. Salal site 12 l- 1 5 0 severe 1.00 brown organic laminated 100.0 2 6 0, Ah X 2.50 black sticky 100.0 24 1 5 0 moderate X X X 1.50 brown organic laminated 100.0 2 6 Ah 2.00 black sticky 100.0 40 1 5 0 unburned 2.00 brown organic laminated 100.0 2 6 Ah X X 4.00 black sticky 100.0 NOTE: Decreasing number of asterisks denotes decreasing final productivity in the experiment. - 134 Table XVIII - A. pH values of field samples, collected from the soil block ditches in August, 1959. (measurements in July, 196l). Horizon or layer Swordfern site Moss site Salal site Symbol Character Label mark pH Label mark pH Label mark pH 0, Ah Common upper layer la 4.6O 6 3-45 13 3.60 0, Ah Deep, exceptional lb 5.10 1 Achl Selected charcoal 2 4.70 7 3.45 14 3.75 Ae Selected podzol 3 4.35 8 4.05 15 3.70 Bhfcc Common enriched layer 4 5.3O 9 1*25 Bhfc Selected brown lumps 5a 5.40 Bfc Selected yellow lumps 5b 5.55 Bh Very shallow mineral layer 16 4.10 Bht Deep mineral soi l on bedrock 17 4.25 Average for the horizon (from underlined values) 5.18 4.68 3.60 Range of values 4.35, 5.30 3.45 ,5.05 Table XVIII - B. S o i l pH values of s o i l sample blocks i n June, I960 and 1961. (measurements i n July, 196l), (Example) m F i r s t Series Second Series Burning e of  .i vi ty  I960 sample 1961 sample Change in pH I960, sample 1961 sample Change in pH rate a a co 3 ty o CO u CO P H Label mark Depth (in.) pH Label mark Depth (in.) pH Label mark Depth (in.) pH Label mark Depth (in.) pH I. Swordfern site Unburned X 34,1 2 3 1.50 3.00 8.00 5.30 5.60 5.60 34,5 6 7 1.50 3.00 8.00 5.25 5.25 5.85 -.05 - .35 +.25 32,1 2 3 1.00 3.50 8.00 4.85 5.30 5.64 32,5 6 7 1.00 3.50 8.00 5.30 5.76 6.00 +.45 +.46 +.36 34 (fie! 12.50 .d valu 5.56 35.18) 34 12.50 5.47 -.09 32 12.50 5.48 32 12.50 5.88 +.40 Moderate X X 15,1 2 4.00 7.25 5.90 5.55 15,5 6 4.00 7.25 6.20 5.75 +.30 +.20 28,1 2 4.00 3.00 5.32 5.48 28,5 6 4.00 3.00 5.70 5.68 +.38 +.20 15 11.25 5.67 15 11.25 5.91 +.24 3 4.00 5.41 7 4.00 5.80 +.39 28 11.00 5.40 28 11.00 5.73 +.33 Severe X X X 20,1 2 1.25 4.00 4.80 4.80 20,5 6 1.25 4.00 5.20 5.65 +.40 +.85 2,1 2 2.50 10.50 5.86 5.45 2,5 6 2.50 10.50 6.00 5.84 +.14 +.39 3 6.00 5.10 7 6.00 5.60 +.50 2 13.00 5.53 2 13.00 5.87 +.34 20 11.25 4.96 20 11.25 5.57 +.61 Average 5.40 5.65 5.47 5.83 Decreasing number of the asterisk refers to decreasing productivity. - 136 Table XVIII - C. pH values of some seedling blocks of average productivity, July 6, 1961. (measurements in July, 1961). Blocks with Blocks with western hemlock Blocks with western redeedar Burning rate Label mark pH Label mark pH Label mark pH (depth: inches) Sur- face Cen- tre Block (depth: inches) Sur- la.ee, Cen- tre Block (depth: jinches,), Sur- f a c , e , Cen- tre Block I. Swordfern site Un- burned X 29 (12.50) 6.05 6.22 6.21 30 (12.50) 5.81 5.90 5.89 31 (12.50) 5.28 5.70 5.67 Moder- ate XX 17 (11.25)- 6.18 6.00 6.01 9 (12.75) 5.85 5.76 5.77 16 (11.00) 6.12 5.68 5.72 Severe X X X 1 (12.50) 6.20 5.80 5.83 12 (12.00) 5.68 5.80 5.79 14 (11.75) 6.15 5.65 5.69 Total 18.05 17.45 17.08 Av. 6.02 5.81 5.69 II. Moss site Un- burned X X X 42 (13.00) 4.71 5.90 5.81 41 (13.50) 4.15 5.10 5.03 40 (13.00) 4.17 5.52 5.42 Moder- ate XX 22 (11.00) 5.37 6.20 6.12 29 (12.50) 4.62 5.60 5.52 17 (11.00) 5.38 5.63 5.61 Severe X 9 (11.00) 5.96 6.15 6.13 1 (10.50) 5.40 5.42 5.42 28 (11.25) 5.15 5.60 5,56 Total 18.06 15.97 16.59 Av. 6.02 5.32 5.53 III. Salal site Un- burned XX 30 (5.00) 4.40 4.65 4.60 31 (4.50) 4.22 4.30 4.28 34 (4.50) 3.90 4.25 4.17 Moder- ate X X X 20 (3.00) 4.73 4.93 4.86 16 (4.25) 4.36 4.27 4.29 21 (3.50) 3.82 4.28 4.15 Severe X 5 (4.75) 5.56 4.75 4.92 7 (4.25) 4.80 4.42 4.50 11 (4.25) 4.95 4.36 4.49 Total 14.38 13.07 12.81 Av. 4.79 4.35 4.27 NOTE: The surface sample was collected from one inch upper layer and the central one from the mixture of the remainder. The average for block was comnuted accord- Table XIX. Deviation of s o i l pH i n seedling blocks from values of corresponding s o i l blocks; (measurements taken July 196l). I Swordfern Site II Moss Site III Salal Site Sample Un bu rn ed  co nt ro l Mo de ra te , bu rn ed  Se ve re ly  bu rn ed  To ta l Av er ag e Un bu rn ed  co nt ro l Mo de ra te , bu rn ed  Se ve re ly  bu rn ed  To ta l Av er ag e Un bu rn ed  co nt ro l Mo de ra te , bu rn ed  Se ve re ly  bu rn ed  To ta l Av er ag e Sequence X XX x x x x x x XX X XX x x x X 1 2 3 Surface Layer 4 Field sp. (1959) Soil sp. b l . (1961) 4.60 5.25 6.20 5.20 5-55 3.45 4.25 5.10 4.50 4.62 3.60 4.00 4.60 4.35 4.32 Seedl. b l . Douglas-fir 6.05 6.18 6.20 6.14 4.71 5.37 5.96 5.35 4.40 4.73 5.56 4.90 W. Hemlock 5.81 5.85 5.68 5.78 4.15 4.62 5.40 4.72 4.22 4.36 4.80 4.46 W. Redcedar 5.25 6.12 6.15 5.84 4.17 5.38 5.15 4.90 3.90 3.82 4.96 4.23 Deviation Douglas-fir + .80 -.02+1.00 +1.?8 + .59 + .46 + .27 +1.46 +2.19 + .73 + .40 + .13 + .21 + .74 + .24 W. Hemlock + .56 -.35 + .48 + .69 + .23 -.10 -.48 + .90 + .32 + .11 + .22 -.24 + .45 + .43 + .14 W. Redcedar 0 -.08 + .95 + .87 + .29 -.08 + .28 + .65 + .85 + .28 -AO -.78 +.6X - r 2 7 -,09 Average + .45 -.15 + .81 + .37 + .09 + .02 +1.00 + .37 + .17 -30 + .42 + .10 Table XIX. Continued. Block Average 1 2 3 4 Field sp. (1959) Soi l sp. b l . (1961) 5.18 5.47 5.91 5-57 5.65 4.68 4.99 5.08 5.17 5.08 3.60 4.16 4.53 4.23 4.31 Seedl. b l . Douglas-fir 6.21 6.G1 5.83 6.02 5.81 6.12 6.13 6.02 4.60 4.86 4.92 4.79 W. Hemlock 5.89 5.77 5.79 5.81 5.03 . 5.52 5.^2 5.32 4.28 4.29 4.50 4.35 W. Redcedar 5.67 5.72 5.69 5.69 5.42 5.61 5.56 5.53 4.17 4.15 4.49 4.27 Deviation Douglas-fir +.74 +.10 + .25 +1.09 + .36 + .82 +1.04 + .96 +2.82 +.94 + .44 + .33 + .69 fl .46 + .49 W. Hemlock + .42 -.13 + .22 + .51 + .17 + .04 + .44 + .25 + .73 +.24 + .12 -.24 + .27 + .15 + .05 W. Redcedar +.20 -.19 + .12 + .13 + .0.4: + .4? + .53 + .39 +1.35 +.45 + .01 -.38 + .26 -.11 -.04 Average + .45 -.07 + .20 + .19 + .43 + .67 + .53 f.54 + .19 -.10 + .41 + .17 00 - 139 Table XX - Determination of cation exchange capacity. (Example) Field samples i n 1959; analysis in May 196l Amount of s o i l - 20 grams. NaOH - 0.1184 Normalities of reagents: . H S04 - O.I98O Soi l sample Mark Burn- Site ing rate Layer H2S04 NaOH equival. to Col . 2 NaOH used to t i trate excess acid c c . Cat. ex. cap. m. equivalent per 20 g. not adjusted Col . ( 3 ) minus ( 4 ) per 100 g. adjusted to norm. (5 )x .592 1 2 3 4 5 6 l a I none Ah, shallow 50 84.40 1 6 . 7 5 6 7 . 6 5 40.05 50 84.40 1 6 . 5 0 6 7 . 9 0 4 0 . 2 0 lb Ah, deep 25 42.20 2 . 5 0 3 9 . 7 0 2 3 . 5 0 25 4 2 . 2 0 3 . 2 0 3 9 . 0 0 2 3 . 0 9 2 Charcoal 50 84.40 4 5 . 2 0 3 9 . 2 0 2 3 . 2 0 50 84.40 4 3 . 6 5 40.75 24.12 3 A 25 42.20 2 1 . 6 0 2 0 . 6 0 1 2 . 1 9 e 25 42.20 • 2 1 . 0 0 2 1 . 2 0 1 2 . 5 5 4 Bhfcc 25 4 2 . 2 0 1 0 . 5 0 3 1 . 7 0 1 8 . 7 7 25 42.20 9 . 5 0 3 2 . 7 0 1 9 . 3 6 5a Concretion 35 5 9 . 0 8 1 1 3 . 2 0 4 5 . 8 8 2 7 . 1 6 5b 11 25 42.20 7 . ^ 0 3H.80 2 0 . 6 0 25 5 7 . 2 5 2 6 . 3 0 3 0 . 9 5 1 9 . 7 8 6 II none 0 80 135 .04 6 . 9 5 1 2 8 . 0 9 7 5 . 8 3 80 135:. 04'. 7 . 3 5 1 2 8 . 6 9 7 6 . 1 8 8 Podzol 25 42.20 2 6 . 7 0 1 5 . 5 0 9 . 1 8 25 4 2 . 2 0 2 8 . 0 0 14.20 8.41 9 Bhfcc 25 42.20 1 0 . 1 5 3 2 . 0 5 1 8 . 9 7 25 4 2 . 2 0 9 . 8 5 3 2 . 3 5 1 9 . 1 5 13 III none 0 70 1 1 8 . 1 6 5 . 7 0 112.46 6 6 . 5 8 14 Charcoal 60 1 0 1 . 2 8 4 . 3 0 9 6 . 9 8 5 7 . 41 15 Ae 25 42.20 1 8 . 2 5 2 3 . 9 5 14.18 25 4 2 . 2 0 1 9 . 1 5 2 3 . 0 5 1 3 . 6 5 16 Bh, shallow 25 42.20 1 .15 41.05 24.30 25 4 2 . 2 0 0 . 9 0 41.30 24.45 17 Bht, deep 25 42.20 2 3 . 9 0 1 8 . 3 0 IO .83 25 42.20 2 3 . 9 5 1 8 . 2 5 1 0 . 8 0 NOTE: - - factor 0 . 5 9 2 i s the product of the equation - f = 5 x 0 . 1 1 8 4 = 0 . 5 9 2 (normality of NaOH and adjustment to 100 grams) Table XXI. Magnesium and calcium determination. (Example) So i l block samples i n 1 9 6 1 ; analysis in June 1961 Amount of s o i l analyzed: 20 grams Normality of EDTA solution - 0 . 0 0 8 2 Soi l sample Mg oa Burn- EDTA Aliquot Mg*Ca from Col . ( 4 ) - ( 5 ) Mark Site ing Layer Table 'rate XXII c .c . m.e. per 100 g. 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 , 5 I U 0 + Ah 4 . 5 8 5 9 . 3 9 7 . 0 0 2 . 3 9 4.24 5 8 . 6 9 6 . 8 7 1 . 8 2 3 4 , 6 Bh 1.64 5 3 . 3 6 2 . 8 1 0 . 5 5 3 4 , 7 Bhfcc 0.48 5 O .98 0 . 6 2 O.36 0 . 4 4 1 5 , 5 M Ah + Ae 2 . 0 2 5 4.14 3 . 6 2 0 . 5 2 1 . 9 4 . 5 3 . 9 8 3 . 3 1 .. O.67 1 5 , 6 Bhfcc 0 . 5 3 5 1 . 0 8 0 . 7 5 0 . 3 3 0.48 5 O .98 O .69 0 . 2 9 2 0 , 5 S Ah 4.46 5 9.14 8 . 6 2 0 . 5 2 4 . 0 6 5 8 . 3 2 7 . 2 5 1 . 0 7 2 0 , 6 Bh 1.17 5 2.40 2 . 0 6 0 . 3 4 1 .12 5 2 . 3 0 1 . 6 0 0 . 7 0 2 0 , 7 Bhfcc 0 . 5 6 5 1 . 15 0 . 9 4 0 . 2 1 0 . 5 4 5 1 . 10 0 . 8 1 0 . 2 9 3 9 , 5 II U 0 + Ah 2 . 2 0 5 4 . 5 1 3 . 6 9 0 . 8 2 2 . 1 2 5 4 . 3 5 3 . 6 2 0 . 7 3 3 9 , 6 Ah + Ae 0 . 3 2 5 0 . 6 6 0 . 1 2 0 . 5 4 0 . 3 0 5 0.62 0 . 1 2 0 . 5 0 3 9 , 7 Bh 0.42'. 10 0 . 4 4 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 0 0 . 3 2 10 0 . 3 2 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 0 3 9 , 8 Bhfcc 0 . 4 4 10 0 . 4 5 0 . 3 1 0.14 0.40 10 0.41 0 . 3 1 0 . 1 0 • 1 9 , 5 M Ah + Ae 0 . 8 8 10 ? 0 . 9 0 1 .12 0 . 2 2 0 . 9 6 10 0 . 9 8 1 .12 0.14 1 9 , 6 Bh 0 . 7 2 5 1 .47 0 . 6 2 O .85 0 . 5 6 5 1 . 15 0 . 6 2 0 . 5 3 1 9 , 7 Bhfcc 0 . 6 3 10 0 . 5 1 0 . 5 0 0 . 0 0 0.52 10 0 . 4 3 0 . 4 4 0 . 0 0 7 , 5 S Ah;i-+' Ae 1 .13 5 2 . 3 2 1 . 8 1 0 . 5 1 0 . 9 6 5 1 . 9 8 1 . 7 5 0 . 2 3 ? 7 , 6 Bh 0 . 3 8 10 0 . 3 9 0 . 3 7 0 . 0 2 0.46 10 0 . 4 7 0 . 3 7 0 . 1 0 7 , 7 Bhfcc 0 . 3 3 10 ? . 3 3 0 . 3 1 0 . 0 0 0.40 10 ? .40 0 . 3 1 0 . 1 0 Mg+Ca = O .OO767 x 250 x 5 x EDTA used Aliquot or for 0 . 0 0 8 2 - (x) 9 . 5 8 7 5 EDTA Aliquot 1 0 . 2 5 EDTA Aliquot - 1 4 1 Table XXII. Calcium and potassium determination. (Example) So i l block samples i n i 9 6 0 (Perkin Elmer Fl.Phm; internal standard method) Determination in May 1 9 6 l . Soi l sample Calcium Potassium Read- Read- Burn- ing m. e./ ing m. e./ Mark Site ing Layer M i l l i - Graph 1 0 0 g. M i l l i - Graph 1 0 0 g. rate volts value Col . 3 volts value Col . 3 on p .p .m. x 1 . 2 5 on p.p.m. x 1 . 2 5 scale scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34 , 1 I U 0 + Ah 5 2 . 8 5 . 0 6 . 2 5 3 . 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 5 6 . 5 5 . 3 6 . 6 2 3 . 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 3 4 , 2 Bh 1 5 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 6 2 2 . 3 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 6 1 5 . 2 1 . 3 1 . 6 2 2 . 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 3 34 , 3 Bhfcc 2 . 0 0 . 2 0 . 2 5 1 . 2 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 1 5 , 1 M' 1 9 . 5 • 1 . 6 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 9 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 * Ah + Ae 1 9 . 0 • 1 . 5 5 1 . 9 4 2 . 6 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 * 1 5 , 2 8 . 2 0 . 7 0 0 . 8 7 1 . 8 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 0 * Bhfcc 7 . 5 0 . 6 0 0 . 7 5 1 . 9 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 * 2 0 , 1 S 5 2 . 6 4 . 7 5 5 . 9 4 3 . 4 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 * Ah 5 5 . 4 5 . 0 0 6 . 2 5 3 . 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 * 2 0 , 2 1 2 . 8 1 . 1 5 1 . ' 4 4 3 . 2 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 Bh 1 0 . 4 0 . 9 0 1 . 1 3 1 . 4 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 7 2 0 , 3 3 . 1 0 . 2 8 0 . 3 5 2 . 1 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 Bhfcc 3 . 0 0 . 2 7 0 . 3 5 3 . 2 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 3 9 , 1 II U 0 + Ah 2 5 . 0 2 . 2 5 2 . 8 1 8 . 8 0 . 5 0 0 . 6 0 2 9 . 5 2 . 5 0 3 . 1 2 1 3 ".'0 0 . 6 0 0 . 7 5 * 3 9 , 2 Ah + Ae 1 . 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 2 . 5 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 1 ; 4 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 2 . 3 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 3 3 9 , 3 Bh 0 . 7 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 6 2 . 5 0 . 1 3 0 . 1 6 3 9 , 4 0 0 0 1 . 7 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 2 Bhfcc 0 0 0 0.4 t t 1 9 , 1 M 2 1 . 4 1 . 7 5 , 2 . 1 9 4 . 2 0 . 2 2 0 . 2 7 * "Ah + Ae 2 3 . 5 . 2 . 0 5 2 . 5 6 3 . 7 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 2 * 1 9 , 2 6 . 6 0 . 5 0 0 . 6 2 2 . 5 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 * Bh 5 . 1 0.40 0 . 5 0 2 . 9 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 * 1 9 , 3 3 . 4 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 7 2 . 4 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 * Bhfcc 3 . 5 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 7 3 . 2 0 . 1 8 0 . 2 2 * 7 , 1 S 1 9 . 6 1 . 7 5 2 . 1 9 2 . 1 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 3 Ah + Ae 2 1 . 4 1 . 8 5 2 . 3 1 3 - 3 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 7 , 2 2 . 8 0 . 2 5 0 . 3 1 1 . 6 0 . 0 2 0 . 0 3 Bh 3 . 3 0 . 3 0 0 . 3 7 2 . 4 0 . 1 2 0 . 1 5 7 , 3 0 0 0 3 . 0 . 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 9 Bhfcc 0 0 0 2 . 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 3 * Determination i n June with samples i n I96I. - 142 Table XXIII. Phosphorus determination. (Example) Field samples in 1959; determination in June 1961, Soil sample weight = 5 grams Soil sample Mark Site Burn- ing rate Layer Photo- meter reading m. volts 1 2 3 4 l a I none Ah, shallow 67 4.4 44 68 4.4 44 lb Ah, deep 99 0.2 2 100 0 0 2 Charcoal 76 3.2 32 74 3.4 34 3 Podzol 81 2.4 24 Ae 83 2.2 22 4 Bhfcc 90 1.2 12 91 1.1 12 5 Concretion 94 .8 8 Bhfc 93 .8 8 6 II none 0 46 7.2 72 4B 6.8 68 7 Charcoal 63 4.9 49 63 4.9 49 8 Podzol 86 1.9 19 Ae 84 2.1 21 9 Bhfcc 94 0.7 7 95 0.7 7 13 III none 0 44 7.4 74 46 7.2 72 14 Charcoal 68 4.4 44 58 5.6 56 15 Podzol 75 3.2 32 Ae 74 3.4 34 16 Bh, shallow 11 15.5 155 11 15.5 155 17 Bht, deep 22 10.7 107 23 10.3 103 Graph value Phosphorus content Col. (3) x 10 p.p.m. Table XXIV. Organic matter determination. . (Example) Soi l block samples in I960; analysis, June 196l - 143 Soi l sample Burn- Mark Site ing rate Layer Soi l weight Equiv- alent ICCr 0 o F 2 S V 2 2 7 7 H 2 0 to Col.(3) Used F 2 S V 7 H 2 0 to t i trate the excess c c . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 , 1 I U 0 + Ah 0 . 0 5 10 1 9 . 8 0 ' 1 7 . 9 0 . 1 . 9 0 1 3 . 2 9 0 . 0 5 . 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 8 . 2 0 1 . 6 0 1 1 . 9 5 3 4 , 2 Bh 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 17.60 2 . 2 0 7 . 7 0 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 7 . 3 0 2 . 5 0 8 . 7 0 3 4 , 3 Bhfcc 1 . 0 0 10^ 1 9 . 8 0 8 . 9 0 1 0 . 9 0 3 . 8 1 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 1 . 3 0 8 . 5 0 2 . 9 7 1 5 , 1 M Ah + Ae 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 2 . 9 0 6 . 9 0 . 4 . 8 0 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 2 . 6 0 7 . 2 0 5 . 2 0 1 5 , 2 Bhfcc 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 6 . 2 0 1 3 . 6 0 4 . 7 5 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 7 . 0 0 1 2 . 8 0 4 . 4 5 2 0 , 1 S Ah 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 3 . 8 0 1 6 . 0 0 1 1 . 7 0 2 0 , 2 Bh 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 3.40 1 6 . 4 0 5 . 7 2 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 2 . 7 0 1 7 . 1 0 5 . 9 6 2 0 , 3 Bhfcc 1 . 0 0 101' 1 9 . 8 0 6 . 6 0 1 3 . 2 0 4 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 6 . 6 0 1 3 . 2 0 4 . 6 0 3 9 , 1 II U 0 + Ah 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 14.70 5 . 1 0 17.84 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 5 . 5 0 4 . 3 0 15.04 3 9 , 2 Ah + Ae 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 7 . 3 0 2 . 5 0 8 . 7 5 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 7 . 1 0 2 . 7 0 9 . 4 4 3 9 , 3 Bh 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 0 . 1 0 9 . 7 0 6 . 7 9 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 9.40 10.40 7 . 2 7 3 9 , 4 Bhfcc 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 7 0 1 1 . 0 0 8 . 7 0 6 . 0 8 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 7 0 1 3 . 1 0 6 . 6 0 4 . 6 2 1 9 , 1 M Ah + Ae 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 6 . 6 0 3 . 2 0 1 1 . 1 9 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 6 . 9 0 2 . 9 0 1 0 . 1 5 1 9 , 2 Bh 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 9 . 1 0 0 . 7 0 2.45 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 8 . 9 0 0 . 9 0 3 . 1 5 - 1 9 , 3 Bhfcc 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 0 . 6 0 9 . 2 0 6 . 4 4 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 0 . 2 0 9 . 6 0 6 .72 7 , 1 S Ah + Ae 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 6 . 3 0 3 . 5 0 12.24 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 5 . 6 0 4 . 2 0 14.69 7 , 2 Bh 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 7 . 6 0 2 . 2 0 7 . 7 0 0 . 1 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 17.40 2.40 8.40 7 , 3 Bhfcc 0 . 5 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 2 . 3 0 7 . 5 0 5 . 2 5 0 . 3 0 10 1 9 . 8 0 1 3 . 2 0 6 . 6 0 4 . 6 2 Per cent T - t Col . (4)- (5) Col. (6)xf organic matter for the sample Equations: % Organic matter i f 10 cc, M i l l i l i t r e of N - i ^ C ^ O x O.69 sample grams of K^C^Oy; % Organic matter = (19.8 - used c c . ) x 0.69 x .505 Col . 7 factor for 1 0 . gr. 0.1 gr. O.OS o-r. g. s o i l = 19.8 - used c c x 0.69 s o i l = 19«8 - used c c x I.38 s o i l = I9.8 - used c c x 6.90 sri-i 1 ' — 1 Q . ft _ u s e r ) r- . i~ -v "IX Table XXV. Nitrogen determination. (Example) Soil block samples in 1961; analysis June 1961. Normalities of reagents: E^SO^ - 0.2&78, NaOH - 0.1278 - 144 Mark Soil sample Site Burn- ing rate Layer Soil weight g. H?S04 (0.2878) NaOH equiv. to Col. (3) NaOH used to titrate excess acid Col. (4)- (5) cc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34,3 I U 0 0 Ah 1 10 22.50 19.60 2.90 0.52 1 10 22.50 19.65 2.85 0.51 34,6 Bh 5 10 22.50 18.30 4.20 0.16 5 10 22.50 17.00 5.00 0.18 34,7 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 20.70 1.80 0.06 5 10 22.50 20.65 1.85 0.06 13,5 M Ah 0 Ae 5 10 22.50 16.90 5.60 0.20 5 10 22.50 17.40 5.10 0.18 15,6 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 20.15 2.35 0.08 5 10 22.50 20.65 I.85 0.06 20,5 S Ah 5 10 22.50 l4.4o 8.10 0.51 5 10 22.50 13.50 9.00 0.49 20,6 Bh 5 10 22.50 17.50 5.00 0.18 5 10 22.50 18.50 4.00 0.14 20,7 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 18.50 4.00 0.l4 5 10 22.50 18.50 4.00 0.14 39,5 II U 0 0 Ah 5 10 22.50 13.20 9.30 0.33 5 10 22.50 12.30 10.20 0.36 39,6 Ah 0 Ae 5 10 22.50 20.65 1.85 0.06 5 10 22.50 20.35 1.15 0.04 39,7 Bh 5 10 22.50 20.15 2.35 0.08 5 10 22.50 19.85 2.65 0.09 39,8 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 20.40 2.10 0.07 5 10 22.50 19.85 2.65 0.09 19,5 M Ah 0 Ae 5 10 22.50 21.10 1.40 O.05 5 10 22.50 21.15 1.35 0.05 19,6 Bh 5 10 22.50 20.80 1.70 0.06 5 10 22.50 21.30 1.20 0.04 19,7 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 18.40 4.10 0.15 5 10 22.50 19.70 2.80 0.10 7,5 S Ah 0 Ae 5 10 22.50 18.05 4.45 0.16 5 10 22.50 18.00 4.50 0.16 7,6 Bh 5 10 22.50 17.50 5.00 0.18 5 10 22.50 18.20 4.30 0.15 7,7 Bhfcc 5 10 22.50 18.40 4.10 0.15 10 22.50 19.50 3.00 0.11 Equation - % N = T - t x (0.1278 x 1.4)/per 1 (for 1 g. soil) Col. (6)x fac- tor % N = T - t x (0.1278 x 1.4)/per 5 (for 5 g. soil) Factor for 1 g. = O.I7892 x T - t; Factor for 5 g. = 0.03578 x T - t Table XXVI. Exchangeable cations and some other nutrients in f ie ld samples and s o i l sample blocks. A. SURFACE LAYERS F in e p a rt i- cl es  u p  t o  1. 98  m .m . C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y 8 B Si + a 0 w •H •* : ti t-« a i or u s F in e p a rt i- cl es  u p  t o  1. 98  m .m . C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y •H O •H CQ 0) •H (0 to (0 cd "ho : V M q -p bO O 0 ft (0 r\ Sample F in e p a rt i- cl es  u p  t o  1. 98  m .m . pH C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y r-i as 0 faO id + "cd 0 +> r cd «M cd to O O CD 4̂ bO cd U S O H -P , _ i N si ft Fi ne  p a rt i- cl es  u p  t o  1. 98  m .m . C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y ft r t II milliequival .ent per Item Depth Year % 100 g. s o i l % ratio ppm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 l4 15 . . . I . Swordfern Site F ie ld , l a 2.0 1959 76.8 4.60 40.12 9.65 1.52 0.25 11.42 28.2 20.20 0.43 47 44 Unburned; 34,1 1.5 I960 83.2 5.30 24.95 6.43 1.95 0.19 8.58 34.4 12.61 0.25 50 23 .5 1961 Change 5.25 - . 0 5 37.61 +12.66 6.93 2.10 O.87 9.90 26.3 - 8.1 22.92 0.51 45 - 5 +30 Moderate; 15il 4.0 I960 69.1 5.90 17.28 1.97 0.52 0.12 2.61 15.1 4.99 0.08 62 16 .5 1961 Change 6.20 + .30 17.38 + .10 3.48 0.59 0.12 4.19 24.1 + 9.0 10.52 0.19 55 - 7 11 - 5 Severe; 20,1 1.25 I960 80.3 4.80 28.47 6.40 O.85 0.19 7.44 21.1 11.70 0.33 35 46 ,5 1961 Change 5.20 + .40 23.72 - 4.75 7.93 0.75 0.25 8.93 37.6 +I6.5 8.75 0.50 18 -52 62 +16 I Table XXVI. Continued. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 l4 15 II. Moss Site Field, 6 3.0 1959 100.0 3.45 76.00 2.62 0.41 O.25 3.28 4.31 69.34 1.07 65 70 Unburned; 39,1 ,5 2.0 I960 1961 Change 89.0 4.10 4.25 +.15 33.77 30.06 - 3.71 2.96 0.72 3.66 0.77 0.62 0.23 4.30 4.66 12.70 15.50 + 2.80 16.44 15.21 O.30 0.34 55 45 -10 31 35 + 4 Moderate; 19,1 ,5 1.0 I960 1961 Change 96.3 4.45 5.10 + .65 19.44 11.91 - 7.53 2.38 0.57 1.12 0.07 0.24 0.12 3.19 1.31 15.60 11.00 - 4.60 10.67 2.62 0.17 0.05 63 52 -11 80 45 -35 Severe; 7,1 ,5 1.0 I960 1961 Change 94.4 4.50 4.50 0 21.84 17.38 - 4.46 2.25 0.48 I.78 O.36 0.15 0.15 2.88 2.29 13.15 13.10 - 0.05 13.46 6.30 0.15 0.15 90 42 -48 61 55 - 6 III. Salal Site Field, 13 6.0 1959 100.0 3.60 66.58 6.06 1.66 1.20 8.92 13.3 60.97 O.87 70 73 Unburned; 42,1 "••5 3.0 I960 1961 Change 100.0 3,. 75 4.00 +.25 62.87 47.73 -15.14 5.55 1.64 5.90 1.32 0.79 0.27 7.98 6.49 12.7 13.6 + 0.9 82.56 87,26 O.30 0.43 275 203 -72 51 19 -32 Moderate; 15,1---• ,5 1.5 I960 1961 Change 100.0 4.05 4.60 +.55 61.57 36.56 -25.01 6.84 3.13 8.03 2.65 1.15 0.37 11.12 11.05 15.20 29.50 + 5.7 95.50. 95.15 -0.27 0.47 354 202 •A 51 119 62 -57 Severe; 6,1 ,5 1.0 I960 1961 Change 100.0 4.45 4.35 -.10 59.81 59.27 - .54 7.87 2.91 8.00 2.12 0.81 O.50 11.59 10.62 19.30 17.90 - 1.4 63.IO 60.88 O.30 O.30 210 202 - 8 95 61 -34 I Table XXVI. Continued. B. ENTIRE SAMPLE BLOCK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14| 15 I . Swordfern Site Fie ld sample 12.0 1959 67 5.18 22.57 2.02 1,05 0.09 3.16 14.00 10.33 0.17 60 16 Unburned, 34 12.5 I960 68 5.56 17.10 1.28 0.49 0.08 I.85 10.80 5.65 0.11 51 3 X 1961 5.47 18.58 1.85 0.52 0.25 2.62 14.10 8.05 0.14 57 8 Change -.09 +1.A8 +3.30 +6 +5 Moderate, 15 11.25 I960 65 5.67 15.88 1.22 0.28 0.12 1.62 10.20 4.73 0.07 67 6 XX 1961 5.91 14.55 1.71 0.41 0.11 2.23 15.30 6.38 0.11 68 4 Change + .24 -1.33 + 5.10 +1 -2 Severe, 20 11.25 I960 66 4.96 17.86 1.35 0.50 0.12 1.97 11.00 5.82 0.12 48 8 X X X 1961 5.57 16.44 1.99 0.13 0.15 2.27 13.80 4.92 0.19 26 13 Change + .61 -1.42 +2.80 -22 -5 I I . Moss Site Fie ld sample 1959 . • 74 4.68 32.16 0.70 2.96 0.15 3.81 11.84 20.80 0.33 63 21 Unburned, 39 13 .0 I960 61 4.94 21.19 0.50 0.16 0.20 0.86 4.00 8.15 0.12 67 7 X X X 1961 4.99 18.29 0.81 0.22 0.13 1 1  6.34 6.32 0.11 57 8 Change + .05 -2.90 • +2.34 -10 +1 Moderate, 19 11.0 I960 69 4.69 16.96 O.59 0.62 0.18 1.39 8.19 6.26 0.09 69 17 XX 1961 5.08 14.92 0.55 0.21 0.11 O.87 5.83 5.16 0.08 64 19 Change + .39 -2.04 -2.36 -5 +2 Severe, 7 11.0 I960 70 4.87 11.80 0.30 0.08 0.12 0.50 4.23 6.55 0.10 65 5 19 1 5.17 18.12 0.45 0.08 0.12 O.65 3.58 6.49 0.13 49 5 Change + .30 +6.32 -Q.65 -16 0 r I II . Salal Site • Field sample 6.0 1959 100 3.60 66.58 6.06 1.66 1.20 8.92 13.30 60.97 0.87 70 73 Unburned, 42 6.5 I960 95 3.72 56.13 3.77 1.22 O.63 5.62 10.00 61.84 0.29 21 59 1961 4.16 49.46 4.30 0.91 0.25 5.46 11.00 54.57 0.60 91 28 Change + .44 -6.67 +1.00 +70 -31 Moderate, 15 3-/5 I960 99 4.05 39.45 3.40 1.48 O.58 5.46 13.80 44.49 0.82 54 37 X X X 1961 4.53 36.70 3.94 1.20 0.24 5.38 14.60 47.31 0.30 158 57 Change + .48 -2.75 +0.8C fl04 +20 Severe, 6 4.0 I960 67 4.04 46.07 4.12 1.36 0.53 6.01 13.00 36.66 0.32 11 66 XX 1961 4.23 33.00 2.91 0.63 0.23 3.77 1.4  23.79 0.24 99 46 Change + .19 -13.07 -1.60 +88 -20 - 148 Table XXVII. Chemical properties of charcoal, A layer, and concretions from the f ie ld i n 1959? (Analysis in July I 9 6 I . ) Sample Fine, par- t ic les up to 1 . 9 8 mm. pH C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y C al ci um  M ag ne si um  P ot as si u m  + S + "cd 0 Sa tu ra ti on  of  Ca M gK  O rg an ic  m at te r N it ro ge n  0 N P ho sp ho ru s | Site and item Label mark C at io n ex ch an ge  ca p ac it y C al ci um  M ag ne si um  P ot as si u m  S at u ra ti on  of  Ca M gK  O rg an ic  m at te r N it ro ge n  P ho sp ho ru s | . Per cent • Milliequivalent 100 g. s o i l per Per cent Per cent Ratjo ppm Swordfern - (Ah layer) 16 74 5 . 1 0 23 .24 1 . 9 3 3 . 2 9 0.14 5 . 3 6 2 3 . 0 1 2 . 7 5 0.24 53 0 Charcoal 2 ' 100 4 . 7 0 23.66 6 .68 1 . 0 5 0 . 1 9 7 . 9 2 3 3 . 4 1 6 . 5 4 0 . 3 0 551 32 A y 89 ' 4 .35 1 2 . 3 7 1 .37 0 . 0 3 0 . 1 1 1 .51 1 2 . 2 2 .59 0.14 18 23 Concretion 5 73 ' 3 . 5 5 2 0 . 1 9 O.87 0 . 1 2 0.36 1 . 3 5 5 . 1 8 . 3 6 0 . 1 3 63 7 (B layer) 4 90 , 5.30 1 9 . 0 6 0..50 0 . 0 6 O..96 1 .52 7 . 7 8 . 7 1 0 . 1 2 72 11 Moss ( 0 layer) '6' 100 3 .45 7 6 . 0 0 2 . 6 2 ' 0 . 4 3 0 . 2 5 3 . 3 0 4 . 3 6 9 . 3 4 1 . 0 7 64 70 Charcoal 7 100 3 . 4 5 3 0 . 0 0 3 . 6 9 0 . 1 5 0 . 1 2 3 . 9 6 4 . 8 3 5 . 5 4 0 . 1 2 296 49 A e 8 91 4 .05 8 . 7 9 0 . 2 5 ' 0 . 7 5 0.1'5 1 .15 1 3 . 0 2 . 3 3 0 . 0 6 ' 39 20 Salal 1 (0 layer) 13 100 3 . 6 0 6 6 . 5 8 6 . 0 6 1 .66 1 . 2 0 8 . 9 2 1 3 . 4 6 0 . 9 7 0 . 8 7 70 73 Charcoal 14 100 3 . 7 5 5 7 . 4 1 2 . 6 9 0 . 3 2 0 . 5 5 3 . 5 6 6 . 3 5 9 . 5 8 O.36 165 49 A e 15 92 3 . 7 0 1 3 . 9 1 0 . 1 5 0 . 2 6 0 . 1 6 0 . 5 7 4 . 1 \ 3 . 7 2 0 . 0 7 53 34 NOTE; The surface layers and the B layer are shown for comparison. T a b l e X X V I I I . Chemical p r o p e r t i e s o f unburned b l o c k s (U) and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s from t h e s e t o moderately (M), and s e v e r e l y burned (S) b l o c k s i n i960 and 1961. ( D e v i a t i o n by tr e a t m e n t ) Item S i t e B u r- n i n g r a t e Value o f unburned b l o c k s ( U ) , d i f f e r e n c e t o the v a l u e s o f mod e r a t e l y burned (M), and s e v e r e l y burned (S) b l o c k s pH d i f f e r - ence p e r cent C a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y m.e. per 100 g. d i f f e r - p e r ence cent S a t u r a t i o n o f C^'Mg^'K d i f f e r - ence p e r c e n t O r g a n i c M a t t e r / N i t r o g e n r a t i o d i f f e r ^ ence p e r cent S e 1. u e n c e P r o d u c t i v i t y P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n S u r f a c e l a y e r I . S w o r d f e r n S i t e o o\ vO ON U M S U M S (5.30) +0.60 -0.50- (5.25) +0.95 -0.05 +11.3 - 9.4 +18.0 - 1.0 (24.95) -7.67 -30.7 +3.52 +14.1 (37.61) -20.23 -53.7 -13.89 -36.9 (34.4) -19.3 -56.1 -13.3 -38.6 (26.3) - 2.2 - 8.4 +11.3 +42.9 (50) +12 +24 -15 -30 (45) +10 +22 -27 60 K X j X X X | PCX B C X X H i g h e s t N H i g h e s t s a t . and N i t r o g e n I I . Moss S i t e o H H VO Ov H u M S U M S (4.10) +0.35 + 8.5 +0.40 + 9.8 (4.25) +0.85 +20.0 +0.25 + 5.8 (33.77) -14.33 -33.8 -11.93 -35.3 (30.06) -19.15 -63.7 -12.68 -42.1 (12.70) + 2.90 +12.8 - 0.45 + 3.5 (15.50) 4.50 -29.O - 2.40 -15.4 (55) + 8 +14, +35 +63. (45) + 7 +15- - 3 - 6 . x x x X X X x xx| L e a s t n i t r o g e n H i g h e s t s a t . xx| x I I I . S a l a l S i t e o VO ON H H vO ON U M S U M S (3-75) +0.30 + 8.0 +0.70 +18.6 (4.00) . +0.60 +0.35 +15.0 + 8.7 (62.87) - 1.30 - 2.0 - 3.06 - 4.8 (47.73) -11.17 -23.4 +11.54 +24.1 (12.70) +2.50 +19.6 + 6.60 +51.9 (13.60) +15.90 +116.9 4.30 +51.6 (275) +79 +28. -65 -23. (203) 0 0 - 1 .-0. xx X X X X H i g h e s t s a t . Table XXVIII Continued Entire block I. Swordfern Site o vo O N H H V O O N H U" M S U M S (5.56) +G.11 + 2.0 -0.60 -10.7 (5.47) +0.44 +0.10 + 8.0 (17.10) - 1.22 - + 0.76 + (18.58) - 4.03 - 2.14 7.1 4.4 -16.7 •11.5 (10.80) - 0.60 - 5.6 + 0.20 + 1.8 (14.10) + 1.20 - 0.30 8.5 2.1 (51) +16 - 3 (57) +11 r l i _ + 31.4 - 5.9 + 19.2 -54.3 x XX x xx X XX x xx Highest sat. and N Highest nitrogen II. Moss Site o V O O N H H V O O N H U M S U M S (4.94) -0.25 -0.07 (4.99) +0.09 +0.18 + 5.0 + 1.4 + 1.8 + 3.6 (21.19) - 4.25 - 9.49 (18.29) - 4.37 - 0.17 -20.1 -44.7 -23.8 - 9.2 ( 4.00) + 4.19 + 0.23 ( 6.34) - 0.51 - 2.76 +105 + 5.8 - 80.4 - 43.5 (67) + 2 - 2 (57) + 7 - 8 + 3.0 - 3.0 + 12.3 - 14.0 x xx XX X x xx XX X Highest sat, Lowest sat. III. Salal Site o vo O N H H V O O N H u M S u M (3.72) +0.33 +0.32 (4.16) +0.37 + 8.8 + 8.6 + 8.9 (56.13) -16.68 -10.06 (49.46) -12.76 -29.7 -17.9 -25.8 +0.07 + 1.7 -16.46 -33.2 (10.00) + 3.80 + 3.00 (11.00) + 3.60 0.40 + 3».0 + 30.O +32.7 + 3.6 (21) +33 -10 (91) +67 + 8 +157.1 - 47.6 + 73.6 + 8.8 XX x xx XX x xx Highest sat. Highest sat. and, nitrogen - 151 Table XXIX. Changes i n chemical characteristics from i 9 6 0 to 1 9 6 l . (Change by time) T "t* P m Cat. exch. % satur. Organic wi 0 4- 4" A •** and ning pH capacity of CaMgK Nitrogen Productivity Site rate m. equ. per 100 g. s o i l Ratio Sequ- Straight d i f f . p . c . d i f f . p .c . d i f f . p .c . d i f f . p .c . ence correlation Surface Sword-f U - 0 . 0 5 - 1.4 +12 .66 +50 .7 - 8.10 - 2 3 . 5 - 5 - 1 0 . 0 X decreased fern saturation M + . 3 0 + 5.1 + .10 + .1 + 9 . 0 0 +59.6 - 7 - 1 0 . 4 X X S + . 4 0 + 8 . 3 - 4 .75 - 2 5 . 7 +16.50 +78 .1 - 17 - 5 0 . 0 x xx increased saturation Moss U + . 15 + 3.6 - 3.71 -10 .9 + 2 . 8 0 +22 .0 - 10 - 1 8 . 1 x x x increased saturation M + . 6 5 +14.6 - 7.53 - 3 8 . 7 - 4 . 6 0 - 2 9 . 5 - 11 - 17 . 5 X X S ( 3 0 - 4.46 -20 .4 - 0 . 0 5 - . 0 . 3 8 — 48 — 53 .3 X decreased saturation Salal U + . 2 5 + 6 . 6 . - 1 5 . 1 4 - 2 4 . 0 + . 9 0 + 7 . 1 - 72 - 2 6 . 2 X X increased M + .55 +13.5 - 2 5 . 0 1 -4o .6 + 5 . 7 0 +37.5 -151 - 42 .6 5 S X X nitrogen S - . 1 0 - 2 .2 - .54 - 0 . 9 - 1.40 - 7.2 - 8 - 3 . 8 X Block Sword-r u — . 0 9 - 1 .8 + 1 .48 + 8 . 6 + 3 . 3 0 +30 .5 + 6 + 1 1 . 8 X lqwest fern • saturation M + .24 +• 4 . 2 - 1 .33 - 8 . 3 + 5.10 + 5 0 . 0 + 1 + 1 . 5 X X s + . 6 1 +12 .3 - 1 .42 - 7.9 + 2 . 8 0 +25 .4 - 22 - 45 .8 x x x increased nitrogen Moss U + . 0 5 + 1 . 0 - 2 . 9 0 - 1 3 . 6 + 2 . 3 4 + 5 8 . 5 - 10 - 14 .9 x x x increased saturation M + • 39 + 8 . 3 - 2 . 04 -12 .0 - 2 .36 - 2 8 . 8 - 5 - 7 . 2 X X S + . 3 0 + 6 . 1 + 6 .32 + 53.6 ~:~0.65 - 1 5 . 4 - 16 - 24 .6 X decreased saturation Salal u + .44 +11 .8 - 6 . 6 7 -11 . 8 + . 1 . 0 0 +10.0 + 70 +100.0 X X increased M + .48 +11 .8 - 2 . 75 - 7 . 0 + 0 . 8 0 + 5 . 8 +104 +192.5 x*x saturation S + . 19 + 4.7 - 1 3 . 0 7 - 2 8 . 0 - 1 .60 - 1 2 . 3 + 88 + 8 0 0 . 0 X decreased saturation Table XXX. Changes in phosphorous content as related to pH and the productivity. Item Swordfern Site pH Phosphorus » a > ft a 0) <D hO O CO M XI CO O ft I > • •rl 3 +> cr o co 0 co o >» ft -rl Moss Site pH 6 Phosphorus © a H ft co • > ft 4» a co a> bo o § h xi co o ft 8 i > • •rl 3 +> O1 O CO 3 co o >, ^ +> ft -rl Salal Site pH 10 Phorphorus 3 i i 4* 0 • CO <t> a 60 O • ft § u • Xi CO ft O ft L 12 I H a +> a* o co 3 (0 •d o •rl 13 Remark to Productivity 14 Surface Real value: Differ, to • n tt Real value: Differ, to • tt tt Block Real value: Differ, to • »i tt Real value: Differ, to • tt tt o OS H ON H ON H H vo ON A. DIFFERENCE BY BURNING RATE FROM THE UNBURNED CONTROL. u 5.30 23 4.10 31 3.75 50 M +0.60 - 6 - 26.0 +0.35 +49 +158.O +0.30 +69 +138.O S -0.50 +21 + 91.3 +0.40 +30 + 96.7 +0.70 +45 + 9.0 u 5.25 53 4.25 35 4.00 18 M +0.90 -4l - 77.3 +O.85 +10 + 28.5 +0.60 +44 +244.4 S -0.05 + 7 + 13.2 ¥0.25 +20 + 57.1 +0.35 +11 + 61.1 U 5.56 3 X 4.94 7 x xx 3.72 59 X X M +0.11 + 3 +100.0 X X -0.25 +10 +142.8 X X +0.33 -22 - 37.2 x xx S -0.60 + 5 +166.6 X X X -0.07 - 2 - 28.5 X +0.32 + .7 + 11.9 X U 5.47 8 X 4.99 8 x xx 4.16 28 X X M +0.44 - 4 - 50.O X X +0.09 +11 +137.5 X X +0.37 +29 +103.5 x xx S +0.10 + 5 + 62.5 X * X +0.18 - 3 - 37.5 X +0.07 +18 + 64.2 X Swordfern and Salal: Max. incr. Max. prod. Swordfern and Salal: Max. incr. Max. prod. Swordfern: Max. inc. - Max. prod. Min. value - min. prod. Moss: Max. deer. Min. prod. Swordfern and Salal: Max. incr. Max. prod. Moss: Max. deer. Min. prod. 1 H VJI ro o Table XXX. Continued. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 !3 14 i { B. CHANGE FROM i960 TO 1961. Surface i Real value: Field u, i960 4.60 5.30 43 23 3.45 4.10 70 31 3.60 3.75 73 50 Change from U I960 to 1961: M S -0.05 +0.30 +0.40 +30 - 5 +16 +130.4 - 29.4 + 36.3 +0.15 +0.65 0 + 4 -35 - 6 +12.9 -43.7 - 9.8 +0.25 +0.55 -0.10 -32 -57 -34 w64.0 -47.9 -35.7 Moss: Max. inc. - Max prod. Block - I Real value: Field u, i960 3.18 5.56 16 3 i I 4.68 4.94 21 7 3.60 3.72 73 59 Change from U I960 to 1961: M -0.09 +0.24 + 5 - 2 +166.6 - 33.3 X X X +0.05 +0.39 + 1 + 2 +14.2 +11.7 x xx X X +0.44 +0.48 -31 +20 -52.5 +54.0 X X X X X Moss: No. inc. - Min. prod. S +0.61 + 5 + 62.5 x̂ Sc +0.30 0 0 X +0.19 -20 -30.3 X Max. inc. -Max. prod. 1 Salal: Max. inc. Max. prod. VJO Table XXXI. Values and per cent changes of chemical soil properties which are directly related to the productivity of corresponding seedling blocks. (Asterisks denote productivity by decreasing number). A. Swordfern site. NOTE: Highest productivity is associated with high value and increase in pH,in saturation and in phosphorus content; and with low value of cation exchange capacity and of organic matter per nitrogen ratio; the Unburned control, x Moderately burned, xx Severely burned, x x pH Ca ti on  ex.  c ap ac it y m„ e. /l 00  g . Sa tu ra ti on  %  of  C a" Mg "K » Or ga ni c ma tt er  pe r ni tr og en  CO 0 U • o n Xi ' a. a. t o « o a. Xi PH pH Ca ti on  ex.  c ap ac it y m. e. /l OO  g . Sa tu ra ti on  %  of  C a. "M g" K«  Or ga ni c ma tt er  pe r ni tr og en  s. J§ 1 a, a t o « o a, Xi OL, pH Ca ti on  ex.  c ap ac it y m. e. /l OO  g . Sa tu ra ti on  %  of  C a" Mg «K ' Or ga ni c ma tt er  pe r ni tr og en  CO 0 u • o a X ! » o. a. t o « o a, Xi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Actual values 1959 field surf. whole 4.60 5.18 40.12 22.57 28.2 14.0 47 60 43 16 Actual concordant values I960 1961 Trend surf, block surf, block 5.47 low- est 37.61 18.58 high- est 57 high 3 low- est 5.90 5.67 6.20 5.91 high- est 17.28 15.88 17.38 14.55 low- est 15.3 high 6 high 5.57 high 23.72 16.44 low 11.0 37.6 high- est 35 48 18 26 low- est 46 8 62 13 high- est Concordant change in p.c. from I960 to 1961 Trend surf, block -1.4 -1.8 +50.70 +8.60 high- est -23.5 low- est +12 +5.1 +4.2 high -8.30 low +59.6 +50.0 high +1.5 +8.3 +12.3 high- est -25.70 -7.90 low- est +78.1 high- est -50 -45.8 low- est Concordant devia- tion in p.c. from unburned to burned I960 1961 surf, block surf, block - - +11.3 +2.0 +18.0 +8.0 -30.70 -7.10 -53.70 -16.70 +8.5 +100 +1.50 -36.90 -11*50 +1,8 +42.9 -60 -54 +91.3 +166.6 +13.2 + 62.5 Genera] trend lowest nutritional values highest nutritional values Dry weight of 12 seedlings of: lowest plant production near to highest plant production highest plant production Dgl.-fir w.h. w.r.c. Total 78 grams grams 21 highly significant 136 30 highly significant 157 27 highly significant 96 diff. to both treatments Total 389 grams 184 160 m Total 458 Table XXXI - Continued. Chemical soil properties versus productivity. B. Moss site. Note as before. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Actual values 1959 field surf. whole 3.45 4.68 76.00 32.16 4.31 11.84 65 63 70 21 Actual concordant values I960 1961 Trend surf. block surf. block 4 . 9 4 high- est 15.50 6.34 high- est 55 low- est 5.83 3.58 low- est 90 high- est 5 5 low- est Concordant change in p.c. from I960 to 1961 Trend surf. block -13.6 low- est +22.8 +58.5 high- est +12.9 +14.2 high- est +14.6 +8.3 high- est -29.5 -28.8 low- est +11.7 0.0 low- est +53.6 high- est -9.8 0.0 low- est Concordant devia- tion in p.c. from unburned to burned I960 1961 surf. block surf. block -5.0 -29.0 -80.4 +3 +15 +12 +158.0 +142.8 +137.5 -1.4 - 1 5 . 4 -43.5 +64 -28.5 - 3 7 . 5 G eneral trend highest nutritional values lowest nutritional values Dry weight of 12 seedlings of: highest plant production near to lowest plant production lowest plant production Dgl.-fir w.h. w.r.c. Total 583 grams 228 highly significant 219 significant 136 highly significant differences to both treatments grams 125 104 106 Total 335 grams 89 102 46 Total 237 V J l Table XXXI - Continued. Chemical soil properties versus productivity. C. Salal site. Note as before. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Actual values 1959 surf. 3.60 66.58 13.30 70 73 field block 3.60 66.58 13.30 70 73 Actual I960 surf. 119 concordant block 21 59 4.05 39.45 13.80 values 1961 surf. 98 4.60 36.56 29.50 62 59.27 202 block 91 5.91 14.55 14.60 57 Trend low-high high- low- high- high- high- high est est est est est est Concordant surf. +6.6 +7.1 +13.5 -40,60 +37.5 -43 -2.2 -7.2 -3.8 change in block +11.8 +10.0 +100 +11.8 +5.8 +54 -12.3 +800 p.c. from I960 to 1961 Trend high high- low- high- low- high low high- low- low- high-s est est est est est est est est Concordant I960 surf. +8.0 +138 deviation in block +8.8 -29.7 +38.0 p.c. from unburned 1961 surf. +15.0 -23.4 +116.9 0 +244 +24.1 to burned block +8.9 -25.8 +32.7 +103 -0.5 General trend highest nutritional values lowest nutri- tional values Dry weight of 12 seedlings of: near plant to lowest production highest plant production lowest plant production Dgl.-fir w.h. w.r.c. Total 289 grams 84 95 110 Total 450 grams 110 151 189 significant significant highly significant dif- ferences to severely burned variants grams 44 52 61 Total 157 Ov Table XXXII. Statistical significance between treatments for average size of each seedling and dry matter production of each block. (See Appendix II.) Differences between the treatments Site severely burned severely burned moderately burned Species moderately burned unburned control unburned control Seedling height Dry weight Seedling height Dry weight Seedling height Dry weight Swordfern site douglas-fir western hemlock western redcedar N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moss site douglas-fir western hemlock western redcedar N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. X X X X X X X X N.S. X" X N.S. N.S. X X X N.S. Salal site douglas-fir western hemlock western redcedar X X X X X X X X X N.S. X X X N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. x x Highly significant at the 0.01 level of probability. x Significant at the 0.05 level of probability. N.S. No significant difference. The analysis of variance for height values resulted in non-significant differences between individual seedlings in a l l cases except for redcedar on the Salal site. APPENDIX II Statistical Analyses Example of Analysis of Significance for Stem Heights (cm) of Douglas-fir Individual Seedlings on the Swordfern Site 1. Data for individuals Block Seedlings 1 2 3 4 Total Severely a 59 30 47 50 186 burned b 56 71 42 34 203 c . 4* 48 46 29 171 Sub-total 163 149 135 113 560 Moderately a 41 32 42 34 149 burned b 41 34 26 32 133 c 46 46 44 24 160 Sub-total 128 112 112 90 442 Control a 19 17 9 9 54 b 16 18 13 6 53 c 1? 14 8 6 47 Sub-total 54 49 30 21 154 TOTAL 345 310 277 224 1156 46.66 36.83 12.83 Number of individuals in each block Number of units in each treatment , Number of treatments 3 seedlings 4 blocks 3 burning rates, including the unburned control - 159 2. Correction factor C = = 37120.44 3. Data for blocks and treatments Individual seedling Block a b c Total 1 119 113 113 345 2 79 123 108 310 3 98 81 98 277 4 ?3 72 59 224 Total 389 389 378 1156 Treatment Severe 186 203 171 560 Moderate 149 133 160 442 Control 54 53 47 154 Total 389 389 378 1156 6.80 C = 882.92 6. Total sum of treatments 4. Total sum of individuals s s. = 38?2 + 38j 2 + 3782 _ c 5. Total sum of blocks S S b l = 3452 + 3102 + 2772 + 2242 9 = 5602 + 4422 + 1542 C = 7269.56 - 160 7. Total sum of errors SSer = (592 + + 472) - C = 9791.56 8. Analysis of variance Source of variation SS df MS F Individual, ISS 6.80 2 3.40 0.058 N.S. Block, TSS 882.92 3 294.31 5.048 Treatment, TrSS 7269.56 2 3634.78 6.235 * * Error, ESS 1632.28 28 58.30 Total 9791.56 35 At .01 level of probability F equals 5-45 At .05 level of probability F equals 3.34 9. t-test Standard error of estimate, Se = /58.30 = 7.635 Se 7 635 Standard error of treatment, S— = — = \ * • % = 4-408 / n Standard error of difference, S-r = S— x / n - l = S— x ' d x " x v Sj = 4.408 x 1.414 = 6.232 Per cent level difference between means for 28 degrees of freedom t.01 x S- = 2.763 x 6.232 = 17.22 * * t.05 x S-j = 2.048 x 6.232 = 12.76 * Comparison of treatments: severe to moderate 46.66 - 36.83 = 9.83 N.S. severe to control 46.66 - 12.83 = 33.83 * * moderate to control 36.83 - 12.83 = 24.00 * * Salal Moss Swordfern Site D ou glas-fir w estern hem lock w estern red - cedar D ou glas-fir w estern hem lock w estern red- cedar D ou glas-fir w estern hem lock w estern red- cedar S p ecies -3 VJi 05 • • • o o NO ON VJl O 0> ON V J I . . . O - p - o VJl M VJl ON J > < 3 . . . VJI - J ON o o w Estimate standard  error •p- ro Vn • • • O NO H co ro -P* • p - W M . . . NO -3 NO NO H H v o ro -P- . . . -0 - J -p- v n H H Treatment standard  error v n 4>- -0 • • » - O H M ON M ON O W 00 —3 V J I J> . . . o ro H V J I .p- M ON -P - O VJl VJO ON . . . VO 00 M O VO VO Difference standard  error 20.08  11 .3 9  15.91 11.38  14.49  19.50  17.22  i c\ A n  ± U .o U  14.66  • for 28  degrees of freedom  % lev el d ifferen ce H H H CO. £ - • • * - O - P - 00 NO i - oa H H •P" O 00 . . . V J I J> 4> H H O - 0 M . . . 00 00 - J - J ON ON . o VJl for 28  degrees of freedom  % lev el d ifferen ce M H H 00. V J I . . . ( M O W ON VJl v o 7.00  1.16  13.84  H VJJ NO . . • O V J I 00- O O VJO Severe to moderate com parison of treatm ents 10.35 13.16 15.75 2 3 .2 5  11.08  21.75 H M VO 0 0 - 0 VJO . . . O ON .00 NO - 0 VJJ Severe to control com parison of treatm ents 03-VJI -p - . . . NO O NO H NO 00 16.25 9.92 7.91 H M M - o -p - -p - . . . O H G NO - 0 O Moderate to control com parison of treatm ents * N .S . N .S . N .S . N .S. N .S . Severe to moderate com parison of treatm ents i CO * « * * Sj< # 5|< * * * Severe to control com parison of treatm ents N .S . N .S . • . CO CO . . >!< >!« & & * * * Moderate to control com parison of treatm ents PO CD Cfl £ its 3 o CO N> CD CD CO P- c+ H 03 H - C+ <g H - CO d - t r H - CD O V-fu 09 H c r c+ c r CD C+ c+ CD CD CO CD d - HJ c+ O >-i CD fo ft c+ CD c+ CD CD CS H c+ R co »-* H j £ o c+ >i H -O CD P3 o o t r HJ CO CO H - H * c+ OP CD ni an H j H - CL a fB CO 13 XS c+ CD di CD H> CO H j CD CD ts o CD CO H O N H Example of Analysis of Significance for Dry Weight of Douglas-fir on the Swordfern Site (each block represents total weight of three seedlings in grams) Data Weight for a block (grams) Block Severe Moderate Control X 1 57.03 31.76 9.13 2 55.70 31.32 7.33 3 38.52 40.42 2.81 4 32.66 32.91 1.71 Total 183.91 + 136.41 + 20.98 = 341.30 X 45.97 34.10 5.245 Number of units in each treatment 4 Number of treatments — 3 Correction factor c = = 9707.14 Total sum of squares (blocks) TSS = 2 ( 57.032 + + 1.712) - 9707.14 = 4053.18 Treatment sum of squares T r S S - 183.912 + 1?6 .41 2 + 20.982 _ c _ 3 5 1 0 < 5 5 4 Error sum of squares ESS = 4053.18 - 3510.55 = 542.63 - 163 6. Analysis of variance Source of variation SS df MS F TSS 4053.18 12-1 = 11 368.47 6.16 » TrSS 3510.55 3-1 = 2 1755.27 29.11 * * ESS 542.63 3.(4-1) = 9 60.29 At .01 level of probability F equals 8.02 At .05 level of probability F equals 4.26 7. t-test Standard error of estimate, Se = /60.29 = 7.65 Se 7 65 Standard error of treatment, S— = — = -' * n£x = 4.42 x x/n" 1 , 7 3 2 Standard error of difference, S-r = S— x Jn-l = S— x JT. ' d x v x v = 4.42 x 1.414 = 6.249 Per cent level difference between means for 9 degrees of freedom t.01 x S^ = 3-250 x 6.249 = 20.31 * * t.05 x S J J = 2.260 x 6.249 = 14.12 * Comparison of treatments: severe to moderate 45.98 - 34.10 = 11.88 N.S. severe to control 45.98 - 5.24 = 40.74 * * moderate to control 34.10 - 5.24 = 28.85 * * Salal Moss Swordfern Site D ouglas- w estern w estern D ouglas- w estern w estern D ouglas- w estern w estern Spec •fir hem lock red - cedar -fir hem lock red - cedar -fir hem lock red - cedar H-<T> co P H • • • row H N O O N 00 6.15 12.91 12.79 7.65 4.71 Estimate standard error • • • NO vn V J J P -0 -vl - J VO • • • VO .p- VJi 00 V I V 7 I ro ON-p-. . . ro ON ro Treatment standard error 5.050 10.900 O  " 7 Q O  7.  (7 7  P P O O Vn . • • f - u i O VO VO H ON O N O VO vO O N . . . oo ON ro 4? 0 4? -fO O N O Difference standard error VO Vo H 16.31 34.22 33.90 H VO M ro p o . . . j> yo 00 N O P • for 9  degrees of freedom  % lev el d ifferen ce M M H ro J>- P • • • H ONf- j r - Vo H 11.34 23 .80  23.57 14.12 o~\ o n  8.68 • o vn for 9  degrees of freedom  % lev el d ifferen ce VO M H ro -P- ON i> O 00 p •p- O P Severe to O 00 Vo -0 vn CO O N H - O vrt W 00 moderate com pai P H M O W ro ro V J O ro NO vo ro vo .p-p ro o Severe to com pai fO ->3 VO P Vo H VO fO VO - J vn CO- O N vn - J VO H +> control H-CO Q P P ro ro -3 oo ro H v o r o -O H OO Moderate CO O C D O N - O H O-O Vn H f - H P 00 00 00 O VM to control * N.S. T O  Q  N .S. N .S. N .S. N .S. Severe to moderate breatm ents N .S. N .S. N .S. . # CO * * * ' r ' i - •fc Severe to control breatm ents N .S. N .S. N .S. . * co * * * # # # Moderate to control APPENDIX III Accompanied Vegetation 1. Natural vegetation on sample blocks at the time of collection, August 30, 1959 Swordfern site blocks Bryophyta: Pteridophyta: Herbaceous Angiospermae: Woody Angiospermae: Eurhynchium oreganum, Mnium insigne, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Plagiothecium undulatum. Polystichum muni turn, Athyrium f i l i x - f emina. Pteridium aquilinum, Blechnum spicant, Dryopteris austriaca. Galium triflorum, Viola orbiculata, Trientalis la t i fo l ia , Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium adenocaulon, Tiarella tr i fol iata, Senecio vulgaris, Senecio sylvaticus. Rubus vit ifol ius, Rubus parviflorus, Sambucus pubens, Vaccinium parviflorum. Betula papyrifera. Moss site blocks Bryophyta; Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Hylocomium splendens, Plagiothecium undulatum. Pteridophyta; Polystichum muniturn. Herbaceous Angiospermae; Woody Angiospermae; Senecio sylvaticus, Senecio vulgaris, Linnaea borealis, Pyrola asarifolia, Epilobium adenocaulon. Vaccinium parviflorum, Vaccinium alaskaense, Rubus vit ifol ius, Gaultheria shallon. Salal site blocks Bryophyta: Herbaceous Angiospermae: Woody Angiospermae; Eurhynchium oreganum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus. Viola orbiculata, Holodiscus discolor, Hypochaeris radicata, Epilobium adenocaulon. Gaultheria shallon, Betula papyrifera. - 166 2. Vegetation on sample blocks nine months after the disruption of natural seepage and two months after burning, May 20, I960 Swordfern site severely burned blocks: 1, 5, 11, 13, Fungi: Spicaria and Coprinus sp. (5). with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Angiospermae: Rubus vitifolius (from root) ( l ) . 3, 12, 19, 10, Fungi: None. with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. hemlock 7, 14, 21, 6, Fungi: None. with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometriea-protonema. redcedar 2, 20, Fungi: None. soi l samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. moderately burned blocks: 18, 22, 8, 17, Fungi: Craterellus sp. (18). with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Angiospermae: Rubus parviflorus (from root) (8). 24, 23, 25, 9, Fungi: Ascobolus carbonarius. Lamprospora sp. with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema (24). hemlock Angiospermae: Rubus vitifolius (from root) (23). 16, 26, 27, 4, Fungi: Lamprospora trachycarpa (27). with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. redcedar Angiospermae: Rubus vitifolius (from root) (27). 28, 15, Fungi: Patella melaloma (28). soil samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Angiospermae: Rubus vitifolius (28). unburned blocks: 33, 37, 29, 40, Fungi: None. with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Mnium insigne, Rhytidiadelphus loreus. Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Bryum sp., Pohlia bulbifera, Funaria hygrometrica-protonema, Polytrichum .juniperinum, Marchantia polymorpha. - 167 41, 38, 35, 30, with western hemlock 36, 31, 42, 39, with western redcedar 34, 32, soi l samples Pteridophyta: Athyrium filix-femina (37). Herbaceous Angiospermae: Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium adenocaulon, Galium triflorum, Trientalis lat i fo l ia , Tiarella trifol iata, Viola orbiculata. Woody Angiospermae: Rubus parviflorus (37), Sambucus pubens (40). Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Rhytidiadelphus loreus (dying), Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Mnium insigne, Bryum sp., Funaria hygrometrica-protonema, Marcnantia polymorpha, Hypnum circinale. Polytrichum .juniperinum. Pteridophyta: Athyrium filix-femina (38), Polystichum muniturn (30). Herbaceous Angiospermae: Epilobium adenocaulon, Galium triflorum, Senecio vulgaris, Trientalis la t i fo l ia , Viola orbiculata. Woody Angiospermae: Rubus vit i fol ius. Rubus parviflorus, Betula papyrifera, Vaccinium parviflorum, Sambucus pubens. Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Rhytidiadelphus loreus (dying), Mnium insigne, Marchantia polymorpha, Bryum sp., Polytrichum .juniperinum, Leptobryum pyriforme, Pohlia bulbifera, Eurhynchium oreganum, Atrichum undulatum. Pteridophyta: prothallia, Athyrium filix-femina. Dryopteris austriaca, Blechnum spicant, and Pteridium aquilinum. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Galium triflorum, Trientalis la t i fo l ia , Viola orbiculata. Woody Angiospermae: Betula papyrifera, Rubus parviflorus, Rubus vit i fol ius. Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Plagiothecium undulatum, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Mnium insigne, Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Leptobryum pyriforme. Pteridophyta: Polystichum muniturn, Athyrium f i l i x - femina. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio silvaticus, Galium triflorum, Tiarella tr i fol iata . Woody Angiospermae: Vaccinium parviflorum. - 168 Moss site (a) severely burned blocks: 2, 9, 30, 4, Fungi: Patella albospadica, Lamprospora sp. with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. 8, 1, 27, 6, Fungi: Patella albospadica. Lamprospora sp. with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. hemlock 28, 11, 10, 5, Fungi: Patella albospadica, Lamprospora sp. with western Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. redcedar Marchantia polymorpha. Pteridophyta: prothallia. 7, 3, Fungi: Myxomycetes (7). soil samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. (b) moderately burned blocks: 15, 22, 38, 37, Fungi: Patella albospadica, Spicaria sp., with Douglas-fir Lamprospora sp. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Bryum argenteum (15). 14, 16, 29, 18, Fungi: Patella albospadica, Arcyria cinerea, with western Lamprospora sp. (18). hemlock Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema, Bryum argenteum. 23, 26, 25, 17, Fungi: Lamprospora sp., Spicaria sp., Cribraria with western pyriformis (25), Arcyria cinerea (17). redcedar Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. 19, 24, Fungi: None. soi l samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. (c) unburned blocks: 36, 42, 12, 32, Fungi: Arcyria cinerea (36, 12). with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Plagiothecium undulatum (dying), Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Bryum argenteum. Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum, prothallia. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Pyrola asarifolia, Linnaea borealis. - 169 21, 33, 41, 20, with western hemlock 31, 40, 34, 13, with western redcedar 39, 35, soil samples Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Plagio- thecium undulatum. Rhytidiadelphus loreus. Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum, prothallia. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Pyrola asarifolia, Epilobium adenocaulon. Linnaea borealis. Woody Angiospermae: Vaccinium parvifolium (33). Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Plagiothecium undulatum, Scapania bolanderi. protonemata. Pteridophyta: Polystichum munitum (34). Herbaceous Angiospermae: Linnaea borealis (34), Pyrola asarifolia (UOTl Woody Angiospermae: Vaccinium parvifolium. V. alaskaense (13). Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Hylocomium splendens. Pteridophyta: None. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio silvaticus (39). Woody Angiospermae: Vaccinium parvifolium (39). Salal site severely burned blocks: 2, 5, 1, 9, with Douglas-fir 4, 3, 7, 13, with western hemlock Fungi: Myxomycetes. Lamprospora sp. (2, 5). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Fungi: Lamprospora sp. (4). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. 10, 14, 11, 8, with western redcedar Fungi: Spicaria sp. (14). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. 12, 6, soil samples Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. moderately burned blocks: 20, 23, 27, 18, with Douglas-fir Fungi: Arcyria cinerea, Lamprospora sp., Myxomycetes. Patella melaloma (18). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Pteridophyta: prothallia. - 170 22, 17, 25, 16, with western hemlock 26, 28, 19, 21, with western redcedar 24, 15, soil samples Angiospermae; Senecio vulgaris (18). Fungi; Spicaria sp., Arcyria cinerea (25), Inocybe sp. (17). Bryophyta; Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Pteridophyta: prothallia. Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon (16). Fungi: Arcyria cinerea (26, 28), Spicaria sp. (26). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Pteridophyta: prothallia. Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon (21). Fungi: Inocybe sp. (24), Patella melaloma (15). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Pteridophyta; prothallia. Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon (24). (c) unburned blocks: 29, 37, 36, 30, with Douglas-fir 31, 35, 38, 41, with western hemlock 33, 32, 39, 34, with western redcedar 42, 40, soil samples Fungi; None. Bryophyta; Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Funaria hygro- metrica-protonema . Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum. prothallia. Herbaceous Angiospermae; Epilobium adenocaulon (30), Hypochaeris radicata (36). Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon (29, 36). Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Hylocomium splendens, Funaria hygrometrica-protonema. Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum, prothallia. Woody Angiospermae; Holodiscus discolor (35), Gaultheria shallon, Betula papyrifera (35). Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Leptobryum pyriforme. Bryum cespitosum (39). Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum, prothallia. Herbaceous Angiospermae; Viola orbiculata (34). Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon. Fungi: None. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum (dying), Parmelia vittata (40). Pteridophyta: prothallia. Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon. - 171 3. Vegetation on July 15, I960 Swordfern site (a) severely burned blocks: 1, 5, 11, 13, with Douglas-fir 3, 12, 19, 10, with western hemlock 7, 14, 21, 6, with western redcedar 2, 20, soil samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica well developed, Pohlia bulbifera, Bryum argenteum. Pteridophyta: Equisetum arvense. Woody Angiospermae: Populus trichocarpa. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica well developed, Pohlia bulbifera, Bryum argenteum. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Pohlia bulbifera, Bryum argenteum. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris (14). Woody Angiospermae: Salix scouleriana (6). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum. (b) moderately burned blocks: 18, 22, 8, 17, with Douglas-fir 24, 23, 25, 9, with western hemlock 16, 26, 27, 4, with western redcedar 28, 15, soi l samples Fungi: Agaricus sp. (17). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum. Pteridophyta: Equisetum arvense (8). Fungi: Peziza sp. (23). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum. Marchantia polymorpha (25)» Pteridophyta: Equisetum arvense (9), Epilobium adenocaulon (25). Woody Angiospermae: Populus trichocarpa (24). Fungi: Peziza sp. (27). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum, Mnium insigne (4). Woody Angiospermae: Populus trichocarpa (16). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. Bryum argenteum. (c) unburned blocks: 33, 37, 29, 40, with Douglas-fir No change. - 172 41, 38, 35, 30, with western hemlock Bryophyta; Pogonatum alpinum, Pohlia bulbifera, Bryum sp» Pteridophyta; Pteridium aquilinum (38), Blechnum spicant (30). 36, 31, 42, 39, with western redcedar No change. 34, 32, soi l samples No change. Moss site (a) severely burned blocks: 2, 9, 30, 4, Fungi: Peziza sp. (2). with Douglas-fir Bryophyta; Pohlia bulbifera (2), Marchantia polymorpha (9). Herbaceous Angiospermae; Senecio vulgaris (30). Woody Angiospermae; Alnus rubra. 8, 1, 27, 6, y Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Riccardia sp. (8). with western hemlock 28, 11, 10, 5, Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Pohlia bulbifera. with western redcedar 7, 3, Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris. soi l samples (b) moderately burned blocks: 15, 22, 38, 37, with Douglas-fir 14, 16, 29, 18, with western hemlock 23, 26, 25, 17, with western redcedar 19, 24, soi l samples Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. Pohlia bulbifera (38). Herbaceous Angiospermae; Pyrola asarifolia (37)• Bryophyta: Pohlia elongata, P. bulbifera, Funaria hygrometrica. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Pyrola asarifolia (14). Fungi: Peziza sp. (25). Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris (26). Bryophyta: Bryum argenteum,. Funaria hygrometrica. - 173 unburned blocks: 36, 42, 12, 32, with Douglas-fir 21, 33, 41, 20, with western hemlock Bryophyta; Polytrichum .juniperinum, Funaria hygro- metrica, Leptobryum pyriforme• Woody Angiospermae; Rubus vitifolius (from rhizome) No change. 31, 40, 34, 13, with western redcedar Bryophyta: Leptobryum pyriforme, Bryum argenteum, Funaria hygrometrica. Pteridophyta: Pteridium aquilinum. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris. 39, 35, soi l blocks No change. Salal site severely burned blocks: 2, 5, 1, 9, with Douglas-fir Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. 4, 3, 7, 13, with western hemlock Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Aulacomnium androgynum (3). 10, 14, 11, 8, with western redcedar Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. Woody Angiospermae; Salix scouleriana. 12, 6, soil samples Herbaceous Angiospermae; Senecio vulgaris. moderately burned blocks: 20, 23, 27, 18, Herbaceous Angiospermae: Senecio vulgaris (18). with Douglas-fir 22, 17, 25, 16, No change. with western hemlock 26, 28, 19, 21, Herbaceous Angiospermae: Salix scouleriana (19). with western redcedar - 174 24, 15, soil samples No change. (c) unburned blocks: 29, 37, 36, 30, with Douglas-fir 31, 35, 38, 41, with western hemlock Bryophyta: Pohlia bulbifera, Funaria hygrometrica. Herbaceous Angiospeniiae: Senecio vulgaris (29). Bryophyta: Atrichum undulatum (31), Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum .juniperinum (41). 33, 32, 39, 34, with western redcedar Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum .juniperinum, Marchantia polymorpha (34). Herbaceous Angiospermae: Fragaria glauca (39). 42, 40, soi l samples No change. 4- Fungi of genus Boletus on November 25, I960 Swordfern site (a) severely burned blocks: 1 - with Douglas-fir 3, 12 - with western hemlock 14 - with western redcedar 20, 2 - soil samples (b) moderately burned blocks: 25, 24 - with western hemlock Moss site (a) severely burned blocks: 4 - with Douglas-fir 1 - with western hemlock 11 - with western redcedar (a) Salal site severely burned blocks: 13 - with western hemlock Fungi of the Eumycetes on sample block December 5, I960 Swordfern site severely burned blocks: l 21, 6 - with western redcedar moderately burned blocks: 8 - with Douglas-fir Moss site severely burned blocks: 2, 30 - with Douglas-fir 6 - with western hemlock 7 - soil sample moderately burned blocks: 22, 37 - with Douglas-fir 19 - soi l sample unburned blocks: 41 - with western hemlock 31, 34 - with western redcedar 35 - soi l sample Salal site severely burned blocks: 9 - with Douglas-fir 4 - with western hemlock unburned blocks: 35 - with western hemlock 32 - with western redcedar 40, 42 - soi l blocks - 176 6. Vegetation on December 15, I960. Only the changes in plant cover from July 15 are noted. Swordfern site (a) severely burned blocks: Fungi 1, 5, 11, 13, with Douglas-fir 3, 12, 19, 10, with western hemlock 7, 14, 21, 6, with western redcedar 2, 20, soil samples Polyporus variegatus, Agaricus sp., Thelephora sp. Bryophyta: Polytrichum .juniperinum, Bryum sp. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Viola orbiculata. Fungi: Thelephora sp., Polyporus variegatus, Agaricus sp. No change. Fungi: Thelephora sp. (b) moderately burned blocks: 18, 22, 8, 17, with Douglas-fir 24, 23, 25, 9, with western hemlock 16, 26, 27, 4, with western redcedar 28, 15, soi l samples Fungi: Agaricus sp., Thelephora sp., Polyporus variegatus. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Epilobium adenocaulon. Fungi: Agaricus sp., Thelephora sp. Herbaceous Angiospermae: Galium triflorum. Fungi: Agaricus sp. Fungi: Agaricus sp. (c) unburned blocks: 33, 37, 29, 40, with Douglas-fir 41, 38, 35, 30, with western hemlock Fungi: Craterellus sp. Bryophyta: Hylocomium splendens. Pteridophyta: Blechnum spicant. Fungi: Thelephora sp. Bryophyta: Atrichum undulatum. - 177 36, 31, 42, 39, with western redcedar No change. 34, 32, soil samples Fungi: Thelephora sp. Moss site (a) severely burned blocks: 2, 9, 30, 4, with Douglas-fir 8, 1, 27, 6, with western hemlock Fungi: Thelephora sp. Fungi: Thelephora sp., Agaricus sp. Pteridophyta: Equisetum arvense. 28, 11, 10, 5, with western redcedar Fungi: Agaricus sp. 7, 3, soil samples No change. (b) moderately burned blocks: 15, 22, 38, 37, with Douglas-fir 14, 16, 29, 18, with western hemlock Fungi: Thelephora sp. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum. Pteridophyta: Dryopteris austriaca. Fungi: Thelephora sp. 23, 26, 25, 17, with western redcedar No change. 19, 24, soil blocks Fungi: Thelephora sp., Agaricus sp. (c) unburned blocks: 36, 42, 12, 32, with Douglas-fir Pteridophyta: Dryopteris austriaca, Blechnum spicant. - 178 21, 33, 41, 20, with western hemlock 31, 40, 34, 13, with western redcedar Fungi; Thelephora sp. Bryophyta: Pohlia bulbifera, Leptobryum pyriforme. Pteridophyta: Blechnum spicant. No change. 39, 35, soil samples No change. Salal site (a) severely burned blocks: 2, 5, 1, 9, with Douglas-fir Fungi: Agaricus sp. Bryophyta: Eurhynchium oreganum. Woody Angiospermae: Gaultheria shallon. 4, 3, 7, 13, with western hemlock No change. 10, 14, 11, 8, with western redcedar No change. 12, 6, soi l samples Fungi: Thelephora sp., Agaricus sp. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica, Bryum argenteum. (b) moderately burned blocks: 20, 23, 27, 18, with Douglas-fir 22, 17, 25, 16, with western hemlock 26, 28, 19, 21, with western redcedar Fungi: Thelephora sp., Agaricus sp. Bryophyta: Bryum argenteum. Pteridophyta: Dryopteris austriaca. Fungi: Thelephora sp. Bryophyta: Bryum argenteum. No change. 24, 15, soil samples Fungi: Agaricus sp. Bryophyta: Funaria hygrometrica. Pteridophyta: Dryopteris austriaca. (c) unburned blocks: 29, 37, 36, 30, with Douglas-fir 31, 35, 38, 41, with western hemlock Bryophyta: Bryum argenteum. Pteridophyta: Blechnum spicant, Dryopteris austriaca, Athyrium filix-femina. Bryophyta: Bryum argenteum. 33, 32, 39, 34, with western redcedar Fungi: Agaricus sp. 42, 40, soi l samples Fungi: Thelephora sp., Agaricus sp. Bryophyta: Leptobryum pyriforme• 7. Fungi on February 10, 1961 Swordfern site (a) severely burned blocks: (b) (c) 5, H - with Douglas-fir - Stereum sp. 1, 11 - with Douglas-fir - Polyporus cinnamomeus 9, 10, 19 - with western hemlock - Stereum sp. 3, 12 - 11 11 n - Polyporus cinnamomeus 10 - 11 n it — Patella gilva 6, 7, 14 - 11 " redcedar — Stereum sp. moderately burned blocks: 18, 17, 8 -with Douglas-fir _ Stereum sp. 18 - with Douglas-fir - Craterellus sp. 8 - with Douglas-fir - Polyporus cinnamomeus 17 - with Douglas-fir - Humarina rufa 9, 23, 24, 25 - with western hemlock - Stereum sp. 4, 27 -with western redcedar — Stereum sp. unburned blocks : 29 - with Douglas-fir Craterellus sp. 38 -with western hemlock - Craterellus sp. 1 Polyporus perennis is reported commonly on burned-over soil; these specimens seem to f i t into. P. cinnamomeus best, however. Moss site severely burned blocks: 2 - with Douglas-fir - Stereum sp 2, 4, 9, 30 - with Douglas-fir - Galera sp. 6 - with western hemlock - Inocybe sp 5 - with western redcedar - Galera sp. moderately burned blocks: 17, 25, 22 - with Douglas-fir - Stereum sp 16 - with western hemlock - Stereum sp 26 - with western redcedar - Stereum sp 23 - with western redcedar - Galera sp. Salal site severely burned blocks: B, 11, 14 - with western redcedar - Galera sp. 12 - soi l sample - Galera sp. unburned blocks: 41 - with western hemlock - Galera sp. 40 - soi l sample - Galera sp. - 181 APPENDIX IV Methods of Soil Chemical Analysis Determination of pH pH measurements were taken on material finer than two mm. using a Beckman pH meter, Model N, in a paste-like soil-water mixture. Determination of Organic Matter Reagents 1 N potassium dichromate. Dissolve 49.04 gm. of reagent grade K^Cr^Oj in water and dilute to 1 l i t e r . 0.5 ferrous sulfate. Dissolve 140 gm. of reagent grade FeSO/fB^O in water, add 40 ml. concentrated HgSO,, cool, and dilute to 1 l i t er . Standardize this reagent each day by titrating against 10 ml. of N potassium dichromate, as directed in the method given below. - Barium diphenylaminesulfonate. Prepare a 0.16 per cent aqueous solution. - 0-phenanthroline ferrous complex (optional). Prepare 0.025 M solution of one of the phenanthroline ferrous complex indicators. - Sulfuric acid; not less than 96 per cent. - Phosphoric acid; 85 per cent, U.S.P. grade. Procedure Transfer a weighed quantity of soil (ground to pass a 0.5 mm. sieve) containing 10 to 25 mg. of organic carbon into a 500 ml. Erlenmeyer flask, and add 10 ml. of N potassium dichromate. Then add rapidly 20 ml. of concentrated sulfuric acid, directing the stream into the solution. Immediately swirl vigorously by hand for 1 minute and let the flask stand on a sheet of asbestos for about 30 minutes. Then add 20 ml. of water, and 0.5 ml. of phenanthroline ferrous complex indicator. Proceed with the titration as follows: add the ferrous sulphate solution until the solution is purple or blue, then add the ferrous sulphate in small lots of about 0.5 ml. until the color flashes to green with l i t t l e or no warning. Add 0.5 ml. of N potassium dichromate to restore an excess of - 182 dichromate and complete the titration by adding ferrous sulphate drop by drop to a light green end point. If more than 8 ml. of the available 10 ml. of potassium dichromate i s reduced, the determination should be repeated with less so i l . Percentage of organic matter in soil sample = (Mill i l i ters of 1 M (KgCr^) reduced) x 0.69 Weight of sample (gm) References Peech, M. et a l . Methods of soil analysis for soil f er t i l i ty investi- gations. U.S.D.A. circular No. 757. Determination of exchangeable cations and exchange capacity of soils - rapid micro methods uti l izing centrifuge and spectrophotometer. Soil Sc. 59:25-37. 1945. Cheng, K. L . et a l . Removing interfering metals in the versenate determination of calcium and magnesium. Soil Sc. 75:37-40. 1953. Busworth Chemical Company Technical Bulletin No. 2, The Versenes. Busworth Chemical Company, Feamingham, Mass. Mitchell. Spectrographic analysis of soils and plants. Macauly Institute for Soil Res. Commonwealth Bureau of Soil Sc. Tech. Comm. No. 44. Ch. 4. Determination of Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity Extraction Reagents Ammonium acetate 1 N, pH 7.0 - Prepare sufficient volume by mixing 70 ml. Nh OH, sp. gr. 0.90, and 58 ml. of 99.5$ HA per l i t er of solution desired. After cooling adjust to pH 7.0 and dilute with water to volume. HC1 concentrated. HNÔ  concentrated. 1:1 HC1 1 part cone. HC1 to part H0H. - 183 1:1 &2®2 P a r t r e a g e n t grade HgOg, 30% and 1 part HgO. L i (Internal Standard) 1250 gamma/ml. (see below). Apparatus 400 ml. beakers Filtrators Buchner funnels, 70 cm. Whatman 42 f i l ter paper, 7.0 cm. Graduate cylinders, 100 ml. 250 ml. Procedure Place 20 gm. of soil in a 100 ml. beaker, add 50 ml. NH.Ac. Stopper flask, shake for several minutes and allow to stand overnight. Transfer the soi l to a small buchner funnel fitted to a f i ltrator and f i l ter the solution into a 400 ml. beaker. Leach the sample with an additional 150 ml. NH.Ac using gentle suction (take about g hour) to complete leaching. Place the fi ltrate on a steam bath or hot plate and evaporate to dryness. Keep beaker covered. Add 5 ml. concentrated HN0„ and 1 ml. concentrated HC1 and evaporate to dryness. Add 5 ml. 1:1 ^ O ^ to destroy organic matter (add more i f necessary) and heat gently to avoid spattering. Add 5 ml. 1:1 HC1 and evaporate to dryness to dehydrate s i l i ca . Take up the residue with 2 ml. concentrated HC1, policing any adhering residue. Fi l ter into a 250 ml. volumetric flask and add 5 ml. of a 1250 gamma Li/ml. solution and make to volume. Designate this solution 'A ' . NOTE: If care is used in taking aliquots from solution A, i t may not be necessary to remove the siliceous residue by f i l tering. Determination of Exchange Capacity Reagents 95$ ethyl alcohol, U.S.P. Sodium chloride Antifoam spray NaOH 1 N Technical Standard 0.2 N HoS0. 2 4 Standard 0.1 N HaOH (C02 free) Methyl red indicator Apparatus 400 ml. beaker 100 ml. graduate, 25 ml. graduate 600 ml. Kjeldahl flasks Kjeldahl dist i l lation apparatus 2-50 ml. burettes (1 base burette) 500 ml. Erlenmeyer flask Procedure Leach the soil sample from step 1 with 80 ml. ethyl alcohol in small portions to remove excess acetate. Transfer soi l with the f i l t er paper to a Kjeldahl flask; add 400 ml. HgO, about 10 gm. NaCl and a spray of the antifoam agent. Add 25 ml. of 1 N NaOH and connect immediately to the disti l lation apparatus. D i s t i l l about 150 ml. into a flask containing 50 ml. 0.2 N H ŜO^ and methyl red. If the indicator in the acid starts to turn yellow immediately, add 10-20 more HJ50.. Titrate the excess acid with the 0.1 N NaOH. Calculate exchange capacity and express as m.e. per 100 gm. so i l . Determination of Exchangeable Cations Calcium Reagents (1) Stock lithium internal standard - 12,500 gamma Li/ml . Dissolve 7,6377 g. LiCl in l . L . (Dilute 1:10 to give 1250 gamma Li /ml . ) . (2) Stock calcium standard - 1250 gamma Ca/ml. Place 3.1215 g. reagent grade CaC0„ in a l . L . flask. Add sufficient HC1 to dissolve the CaC0_ and add sufficient excess to make the solution 0.1 N in HC1 (12.5 ml. cone. HC1 for l . L . std.). After the carbonate has dissolved make to l . L . (3) Flame photometer standards for Ca. Prepare a series of standards containing 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 gamma. Ca/ml. and containing 25 gamma Li /ml . (4) L i internal standard, 25 gamma Li/ml . This solution is to be used for diluting samples high in Ca and should be prepared exactly from the same L i stock solution used for the flame photometer standard. Apparatus Volumetric flasks, 500 ml. and 250 ml. 25 ml. Erlenmeyer flasks. Perkin Elmer flame photometer. Procedure Determine the calcium concentration of the samples as directed in the flame photometer manual. If the concentration is too high, dilute the sample with the 25 gamma Li /ml . solution. - 186 Potassium Reagents (1) Lithium internal standard solutions - as above. (2) Stock potassium standard, 1250 gamma K/ml. Dissolve 2.3836 gm. KCl per l i t er of solution. (3) Flame photometer standards for K. Prepare a series of standards containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 gamma K/ml. and 25 gamma Li /ml . As before, prepare twice the volume of the 0 and the highest standard. Apparatus As above. Procedure As above. Magnesium and Calcium Reagents (1) Standard MgCl2 0.2 N. Place 4.2165 g. MgCÔ  in a 500 ml. volumetric flask. Add 10 ml. of HC1 to dissolve the carbonate and add 15 ml. l /N NaOH to make the solution nearly neutral. (2) Standard MgCl2 0.02 N. Dilute the 0.2 N MgCl2 solution 1:10. (3) Standard EDTA. Dissolve di-disodium dehydrogen tetra-acetic acid (Versenate) in 2 l i ters (approx.) of H20. Add about 35 drops 0.1 N MgCl2 to make for a sharp end point. (4) Eriochrome black T. indicator. Prepare a solution of 1 g. of hydroxydamine hydrochloride in 25 ml. ethyl alcohol. Prepare the indicator as needed by adding 0.2 g. of eriochrome black T (1 - hydroxy - 2 - naphthylazo - 5 - nitro - 2 - naphthol - 4 - sulphonic acid sodium salt) and 5 ml. of this solution. (5) NH.C1 - NH.OH buffer solution. Dissolve 67.5 g. of NH.CI in 200 ml. it k 4 of water and mix with 570 ml. of cone. NH,OH. Dilute to l . L . The pH should be 10. k - 187 Apparatus 125 ml. Erlenmeyer flasks. 50 ml. burette. Procedure Pippette a 5 ml. aliquot of solution A into a 125 ml. Erlenmeyer flask. Add sufficient water to make the volume approxi- mately 40 ml. Place an additional 7 ml. of buffer in the solution; add 2-4 drops of the eriochrome black T indicator and titrate the solution until a clear blue end point is reached. Absorbed Phosphorus Reagents Ammonium floride - I N (approx.). Dilute 37 g. NH.F/liter. Keep in plastic bottle. 0.5 N HC1 - (approx.) 20.2 ml. cone. HCl/500 ml. Extracting solution - 0.03/N NH.F - 0.025 N HC1 30 ml. IN NĤ F + 50 ml. 0.5 N HCl/ l i ter. P.B. - Ammonium molybdate - HC1 reagent, boric acid saturated: Dissolve 100 g. reagent grade ammonium molybdate in 850 ml. HgO. Filter and cool. Make solution of 1700 ml. cone. HC1 in 160 ml. HJD. Cool. Add first solution to second slowly with constant stirring. Add approx. 110 g. reagent grade boric acid and dissolve. P.C. - Amino naphtol sulphonic acid: 2.5 g. of 1 part amino 2 parts naphtol and 4 parts sulphonic acid, 5.0 g. sodium sulfite (Na^O^). 146.25 g. sodium bisulfite (meta Na^gO,.); Mix ingredients and grind to fine powder in mortar. For usi dissolve 16 g. of powder in 100 ml. warm E^O. Add 2 g. reagent grade H o B ° o , f i l ter and allow to stand overnight. Store in dark glass ana. renew every two weeks. P standard - 100 ppm.: 0.4393 g. pure KH 2P0,/liter H„0 containing 100 ml. IN HC1. Prepare 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 ppm. standard solution by diluting the 100 ppm. standard solution with extracting solution. Procedure Extract - Shake 5 g. soi l into 125 ml. Erlenmeyer flask with 50 ml. extracting solution for one minute, and f i l ter . Take 5 ml. unknown solution + 5 ml. Ĥ O + ^ ml. P.B. + \ ml. P.C. and read with photo- electronic colorimeter in 30 minutes. Use 660 f i l t er . References Bray, Roger H. and L . T. Kurtz. 1945. Soil Sc. 99:39-45. Jackson, M. L . 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis, p.148-151. Prentice - Hall, INC. Englewood Cl i f fs , N. J . Nitrogen Determination Weigh out five g. of soi l and transfer using folded f i l ter paper to an 800 ml. Kjeldahl flask. Add approximately 30 - 40 ml. cone. H^SO,, 10 g. ( l tsp.) of a mixture of 10 parts anhydrous NaoS0. and 1 part CuSO./SiHgO. Mix ingredients by swirling the flask. Ada 2-3 selenized granules. Digest until the solution is clear and continue digestion for twenty minutes. Cool and then add gradually 300 ml. of tap HgO. Shake well. Cool again. Now add about 1 teaspoonful of glass beads and/or .5 g. of granulated Zn and an excess (90 ml.) of cone. NaOH solution (40$), pouring down the side of the flask to prevent mixing of solutions and loss of NH„. Connect to the dist i l l ing apparatus immediately and then swirl the flask gently to mix the contents. D i s t i l l into a 300 ml. Erlenmeyer flask containing 25-50 ml. of saturated boric acid solution, measured with a graduate (50 ml. of boric acid takes care of 95 mg. of N as N£L). Also add 4 drops of a mixed indicator of bromocresol green and methyl red. The tube from the dist i l l ing apparatus must extend below the surface of the acid to prevent loss of NH .̂ Collect approximately 150 ml. of the distil late and titrate the boric acid on the complex with standard N/l4 H^SO.. A blank should be run in every case as there is a slight correction. Subtract the blank from the total amount of acid required for the sample. ml. of acid x normality x .014 -,^ at™ . , , „ X 1 U U — X>i\l weight of sample where .014 represents the gms. N per ml. in a normal solution. - 189 Where the normality is N/14 the equation becomes ml. of acid x N/l4 X .014 n ~ .̂  n o a™ r t — 3 3 x 100 = ml. of acid x .02 - %N j g. If a 1 g. sample is used, say of alfalfa, the calculation simplifies to ml. of acid 0 . 1 = #N. Mixed Indicator Mix 10 ml. of 0 . 1 per cent bromocresol green in 95 per cent alcohol with 2 ml. of 0 . 1 per cent methyl red in 95 per cent alcohol. The color produced by this indicator in boric acid is bluish green. Titrate with standard acid until the blue color just disappears. One drop in excess wi l l turn the solution pink. If titrated to a faint pink, subtract 0 . 0 2 ml. from the reading. References Indus and Eng. Chem. 1 2 : 3 5 0 - 2 . 1920. Soil Sc. 5 9 : 4 7 - 5 2 . 1945. - 190 APPENDIX V Plates Coloured Photographs - by V. J . Krajina Plate I - by J . Soos Plate XVII - XX - by 0. Horvath I . Ditches for sample block collection: upper row - Swordfern site; center row - Moss site; lower row - Salal site. II. Unburned sample blocks in the greenhouse, March, I960: from left to right - Salal site, Moss site, Swordfern site. Salal site with dying Plagiothecium moss and surviving ferns and dicotyledons. III. Burning process in the Metallurgical Laboratory, March - Apri l , I960: Measuring of temperature on potentiometer with multiple pole switch gear for six outlets leading from the burned sample block. The sample block during burning, insulated with metallurgical bricks and asbestos sheets, equipped with two thermocouple junctions on the block surface in ceramic sleeves; and with four junctions at depths of two and four inches, driven into the block through the holes of the front wall of the can. Note the gas burner over the block and the oxygen regulator fan in the upper right corner. IV. Burned surface of Swordfern site samples: 3 - severely burned sample with ash was used for hemlock; 26 - moderately burned sample with slightly scorched mineral surface was used for redcedar. V. Burned surface of Moss site samples: 9 - severely burned sample with ash was used for Douglas-fir; 29 - moderately burned sample with charcoal, ash and coke was used for hemlock. VI. Burned surface of a Swordfern site group with ash and scorched mineral so i l . Aggregates on mineral soil and from organic remains: - 191 a - scorched mineral clods on the Swordfern site; b - same on the Moss site; c - coke formed from the organic matter of the Moss site. Scale about half size. VII. Burned surface of Salal site samples: 11 - severely burned sample with ash used for redcedar; 6 - sample with charcoal and charred wood used for soi l analyses; 28 - moderately burned sample with charcoal and ash; 26 - sample with charred wood both used for redcedar. VIII. Four-week-old Douglas-fir seedlings before thinning: 5 - severely burned Swordfern site sample; 36 - unburned control Salal site sample. Note the equally developed seedlings and the greater density on the f irst picture. IX. Six-week-old Douglas-fir seedlings after thinning to five: 29 - unburned control Swordfern site sample; 1 - severely burned Salal site sample. Note the equally developed seedlings regardless of surface differences. X. Four-week-old western hemlock seedlings on severely burned samples before thinning: 19 - Swordfern site sample; 1 - Moss site sample; 3 - Salal site sample. Note the equally developed seedlings on the three different seedbeds. Mineral aggregates are shown on the Swordfern block; mineral aggregates and coke on the Moss block and charred wood with charcoal on the Salal block. XI. Six-week-old western hemlock seedlings on unburned control samples before thinning: 30 - Swordfern site sample; 33 - Moss site sample. Note the equally developed seedlings and the different cover of the surface. XII. Six-week-old western redcedar seedlings before thinning on severely burned samples: 21 - Swordfern site sample; 11 - Salal site sample, with ten transplanted germinants. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. - 192 Note the scorched mineral soil on the f irst and the charcoal and coke on the second blockj the latter with fewer but larger original seedlings. Cross-section of severely burned analyzed sample blocks: 20 - Swordfern site sample; 7 - Moss site sample. Note the remains of old charcoal under the surface and the grey eluviated spots (Ae) on the right side of the Moss site block. Cross-section of moderately burned sample blocks: 15 - Swordfern site sample (analyzed); 24 - Moss site sample (reserve). Note the old and new charcoal and the compactness in the Moss block. Cross-section of unburned control analyzed sample blocks: 34 - Swordfern site sample; 39 - Moss site sample. Note the humic layer (Ah) in Swordfern block and the charcoal layer underlain with eluviated traces (Ae) in the Moss block. Cross-section of analyzed Salal site sample blocks: 6 - severely burned sample; 42 - unburned control sample. Note the loss in thickness from burning on the upper block and the vegetation with loose humus in the lower block. Some mineral constituent is also apparent in the upper horizon. One-season-old seedlings from the experiment and from the sample areas at Haney: Upper row - Douglas-fir: A, moderately burned Swordfern sample (17); B, Haney - Moss site plot; C, Haney - Swordfern site plot. Center row - western hemlock: D, unburned control Swordfern site sample (30, 35, 41); E, Haney - Swordfern site plot. Lower row - western redcedar: F, five-week-old plants from a l l three sites and a l l three treatments; G, Haney - Swordfern site plot; H, severely burned Salal site samples (8, 10); J , severely burned Swordfern site sample ( l ) . Swordfern site samples with average growth of seedlings from each group at the end of stimulated early growth (April 7, 1961). Arrangement from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centimetres. - 193 XIX. Moss site samples with average growth of seedlings from each group at the end of stimulated early growth (April 7, 1961). Arrangement from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centimetres. XX. Salal site samples with average growth of seedlings from each group at the end of stimulated early growth (April 7, 196l). Arrange- ment from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centimetres. XXI. Part of the experimental lay-out showing Douglas-fir and hemlock seedlings on the Swordfern site at right. Note the smallest seedlings of both species in the middle groups of unburned control blocks. In the middle of the picture the pale colour of hemlock is noticeable on the moderately burned Swordfern blocks (June 22, 1961). 40 - close-up of the unburned Swordfern sample with three chlorotic Douglas-fir seedlings. XXII. 2 - chlorotic Douglas-fir seedlings from the severely burned Moss site sample, from the group with lowest productivity on the Moss site (June 30, 196l). XXIII. 11 - purple-tinted western redcedar seedlings from the severely burned Salal site sample: 39 - unburned control Swordfern site sample. Both groups produced the lowest production in their sites (June 30, 1961). The moss is Funaria hygrometrica. XXIV. 11 - chlorotic western redcedar seedlings suffering from nutritional deficiency on the severely burned Moss site sample: 36 - unburned Swordfern site sample. Both are from the groups of lowest production. Note the purple discoloration of the seedling stems on the f irst picture (June 30, 1961). XXV. Swordfern site. Two blocks from each treatment with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western red- cedar at the bottom. The arrangement from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centimetres (June 30, 196l). XXVI. Moss site. Two blocks from each treatment with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western redcedar - 194 at the bottom. The arrangement from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centi- metres. (June 30, 196l). XXVII. Salal site. Two blocks from each treatment with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western redcedar at the bottom. The arrangement from left to right - moderately burned, unburned control, severely burned. Scale in centi- metres. (June 30, 1961). XXVIII. Severely burned sample blocks. Two blocks from each site with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western redcedar at the bottom. The arrangement by site from left to right - Salal site, Moss site, Swordfern site. Note the increase of height from Salal to Swordfern site. Scale in decimetres. (June 30, 196l). XXIX. Moderately burned sample blocks. Two blocks from each site with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western redcedar at the bottom. The arrangement by site from left to right - Salal site, Moss site, Swordfern site. Note the general uniformity of height for a l l sites. Scale in decimetres. (June 30, 196l). XXX. Unburned control sample blocks. Two blocks from each site with Douglas-fir in the upper row; western hemlock in the centre and western redcedar at the bottom. The arrangement by site from left to right - Salal site, Moss site, Swordfern site. Note the sequence from the highest growth with Moss site and lowest with Swordfern site for a l l three species. Scale in decimetres. (June 30, 196l).  II    VI A B C VII  IX — pi I S — ^ M i a f t R^> .-'SB 1 . : I       XVI XVII XVIII  XX      XXVI XXVII XXVIII XXIX xxx

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