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Leadership in a voluntary association : an exploratory study of leadership in the British Columbia Parent-Teacher… Cushing, Honor Emily 1963

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LEADERSHIP IN A VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATION An Exploratory Study of Leadership i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation HONOR CUSHING Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1963 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for • extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r . s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of SaCttQ?. <^o(Zft The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date £3 i i i ABSTRACT The voluntary association i s a characteristic mani-festation of social l i f e i n North America, and has always been regarded as a force for the preservation of democracy. The leadership of the voluntary association appears to be a crucial element i n the survival of this form of organization, yet previous studies suggest that the voluntary association may no longer have the same significance for contemporary society as i t did i n the early history of the continent. This study i s an exploration of the leadership of one voluntary organization i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation. These leaders were asked how they perceived the goals and purposes of the organization, to which they give their time and energy. Thirteen members of the Board of Directors were interviewed to obtain information concerning the extent of their p a r t i c i -pation; why they joined the organization; their family constellations; where they l i v e ; and their perception of the contributions they make to the organization. Interviews were arranged with members of the Board selected on an arbitrary basis, with the permission and the cooperation of the President and the Board of Directors. The information that was obtained was used as the background material of the study. The limitations of the case study method are noted and the reader cautioned to examine the data c r i t i c a l l y . The findings of this study support the conclusions of other empirical investigations: with changes i n other sectors of society and increased specialization of function, the role of the voluntary association i n contemporary l i f e appears to be blurred and requiring examination. Some of the possible reasons for these developments are outlined, and the relationship of the leaders to the voluntary association i s explored. F i n a l l y the thesis suggests some questions for consideration and indicates some areas which might be investigated i n future studies. i v I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n and my thanks t o Dr. C h a r l e s McCann o f the Sc h o o l o f S o c i a l Work o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and t o Dr. Leonard Marsh, D i r e c t o r o f Research, who gave me so much encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e . I am g r a t e f u l f o r the i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n shown me by Mrs. G. A. B i n n s , P r e s i d e n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n , and by the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , and f o r the h e l p and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I r e c e i v e d from Mrs. Grace A l l a m , E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f the F e d e r a t i o n . TABLE Oi" CONTENTS Page Chapter 1. The V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n and  Contemporary S o c i e t y P a t t e r n s o f l e a d e r s h i p i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i -a t i o n s , a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n . V a l u e s o f a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a de m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . Membership p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l t y p e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s 1 Chapter 2. P l a c e and Method o f Study H i s t o r i c a l development o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F e d e r a t i o n . Method o f st u d y . 19 Chapter 3. F i n d i n g s o f the Study Apathy i n the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Why do p a r e n t s j o i n a P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n . When do p a r e n t s j o i n a P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n . F i r s t p e r c e p t i o n o f p a r e n t - t e a c h e r g o a l s . L a t e r p e r c e p t i o n of the g o a l s . Who are the members of the Board of D i r e c t o r s . L e n g t h o f time spent i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . E l e c t i o n t o the Board 31 Chapter 4. Problems o f L e a d e r s h i p i n the F e d e r a t i o n Some a b s t r a c t concepts o f l e a d e r s h i p . L e a d e r s h i p and the F e d e r a t i o n . Development o f l e a d e r s h i p i n the F e d e r a t i o n . The c h a l l e n g e f o r the f u t u r e 51 Appendices: A. I n t e r v i e w Schedule B. B i b l i o g r a p h y CHAPTER I THE VOLTJNTARY ASSOCIATION AND CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY Voluntary associations of a l l kinds have always f l o u r i s h e d i n North America, and the q u a l i t y of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s has been l i n k e d by many observers with the s u r v i v a l of democracy.^ By means of these associations of people banded together to perform a service to t h e i r fellows, c i t i z e n s l e a r n the art of self-government, "the sense of meaningful p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the f e e l i n g of worth as an i n d i v i -dual, and a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the goal and p o l i c i e s p which a f f e c t our l i v e s " . We appear to take our voluntary associations f o r granted, as an understood manifestation of democratic s o c i a l l i f e . Arnold Rose, i n h i s presentation of a theory 1 De Tocqueville, A l e x i s , Democracy i n America, A l f r e d Knopf, New York, 1 9 5 3 , I I (The Henry Reeve Text as r e v i s e d by Francis Bowen and edited by P h i l l i p s Bradley); see also Charles Beard, The American Commonwealth ( 1 9 1 1 ; » I I * 2 Cohen, Nathan E., " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n the Backbone of Democracy," i n The C i t i z e n Volunteer, ed. Nathan E. Cohen, Harper, New York, I 9 6 0 , p. 32. 3 Rose, Arnold M., Theory and Method i n the S o c i a l  Sciences. U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1 9 5 4 . Rose d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between "expressive groups" 2 of the function of voluntary associations i n contemporary social structure, bases his discussion on the hypothesis that voluntary associations have three important functions i n the support of democracy. F i r s t , he says, they distribute power among a larger portion of the citizenry instead of allowing i t to be concentrated i n the government, second, they provide a sense of satisfaction with modern democratic processes because they help the ordinary c i t i z e n to see how these processes function i n limited circumstances, and third, they provide a social mechanism for continually i n s t i t u t i n g social changes. It i s the groups he describes as "social influence" groups which i n his opinion play a v i t a l role i n the democratic state. 1 Many people work as volunteers with only limited understanding of the purpose and values of the programme to which they are giving their support. Their participation i s not as meaningful, perhaps, as i t would be i f they used the opportunity to achieve an understanding of their demo-cratic rights and responsibilities. It can be argued that the volunteer, to be most effective to himself and to his who act only to express or satisfy the interests of their members i n relation to themselves, and "social interest groups" whose goal l i e s outside their organization and whose a c t i v i t i e s are directed outwardly i n a desire to achieve some condition or change i n a segment of society as a whole. 1 Ibid., p. 52. 3 association, must understand the basic goals and purposes of the organization to which he gives his time and energy. Cohen has noted, for example, that "voluntary associations can serve important ends only i f they axe clear about their role i n relation to the needs of a democratic society". 1 Patterns of Leadership i n a Voluntary Association It seems evident that a crucial element i n the relationship between the voluntary organization and this democratic society i s that of leadership. An appropriate area of study then i s that.of the patterns of leadership i n the voluntary association. This thesis w i l l attempt to answer the following questions: What are the characteri-stics of the leaders? From what part of the community do they come? How did they attain leadership, and what i s their perception of this role? This study w i l l examine these patterns i n a voluntary organization i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, and the data w i l l be supplemented by a comprehensive survey of the literature on leadership. The B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation i s a province-wide organization of parents and teachers, founded i n the year 1915 i n the c i t y of Victoria, B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1959-60, the point of greatest growth, the 1 Cohen, op. c i t . . p. 37* membership stood at fifty-two thousand. Since that year there has been a slow decline, and this year at March 3 1 , 1 9 6 3 , the membership was thirty-seven thousand. Before presenting the study design, a review of the salient facts from the literature w i l l be presented, with the purpose of underlining the significance of this important facet of community l i f e . A Review of the Literature An overview of the literature on the subject of the voluntary association on this continent suggests that this type of organization i s peculiarly characteristic of the social structure of North America. Local associations ranging from informal groupings to large and powerful professional associations are numerous and i n some ways one of the most expressive features of our society. In recent years the most spectacular growth has been shown by national organizations of both the federated and the corporate type. Although the voluntary association i s not exclusively a North American phenomenon, the proliferation of such associations was the basis for the classic observation by Alexis de Tocqueville after his v i s i t to the United States i n 1 8 3 1 : "In no country i n the world has the principle of association been more successfully used, or applied to a greater multitude of objects than i n North America. Americans of a l l ages, a l l conditions, and a l l dispositions 5 c o n s t a n t l y f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s . " 1 I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , some c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r r e d i n J t h e s t r u c t u r e o f f a m i l y l i f e i s n e c e s s a r y . I n o u r i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , k i n s h i p a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s a n d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r e s t s , p e r h a p s h a v e b e c o m e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t s e g r e g a t e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r a n d f r o m o t h e r i n t e r e s t s . I n t h e a r e a o f k i n s h i p a n d o c c u p a t i o n , p e o p l e h o p e f u l l y a c h i e v e s u c c e s s a n d h a p p i n e s s b y t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s . O t h e r i n t e r e s t s t e n d t o b e s e g r e g a t e d f r o m f a m i l y a n d j o b , i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r s o c i e t i e s w h e r e k i n s h i p , c a s t e a n d c o m -m u n i t y g r o u p s m a y d e t e r m i n e m a n y o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t s f o r t h e p i n d i v i d u a l . When t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t a c h i e v e s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n o t h e r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t i n e i t h e r h i s i s o l a t e d c o n j u g a l f a m i l y o r i n h i s j o b , h e m a y t u r n t o t h e a s s o c i -a t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t i n g r e a t n u m b e r i n b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z e d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . 1 d e T r o c q u e v i l l e , o p . c i t . . p . 106. 2 F l o y d D o t s o n s a y s t h a t a m o n g t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s we d o n o t f i n d t h e w h o l e s a l e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f " p r i m a r y " b y " s e c o n d a r y " g r o u p s w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n t d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h i s i m p l i e d i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a c c o u n t o f u r b a n l i f e . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r o l e o f i n f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y b e t w e e n f a m i l y a n d k i n g r o u p s , h a s b e e n c o n s i s t e n t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . S e e F l o y d D o t s o n , " P a t t e r n s o f V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n A m o n g U r b a n W o r k i n g C l a s s F a m i l i e s , " A m . S o c . R e v i e w . 16, N o . 5 ( 1 9 5 D , PP. 687-693. 6 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n as a s o c i o l o g i c a l type perhaps derive from i t s functions f o r the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Since i t pursues s p e c i f i c i n t e r -e sts, i t always, according to Barber, has at l e a s t some e x p l i c i t purpose,"*' whether to f u r n i s h a c t i v i t i e s f o r members as an end i n i t s e l f or to pursue a goal outside the organi-z a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to maintain or create some normative 2 condition or change. There are a great number of r e l a t i v e l y l e s s important i n t e r e s t s i n our s o c i e t y that are not deter-mined by kinship or community groups, and therefore the i n d i v i d u a l has considerable choice i n the matter of which he s h a l l pursue. I t i s i n t h i s sense that membership i n p a r t i -c u l a r associations i s voluntary. According to Barber, "voluntary membership i s never simply psychological w i l l i n g -ness, but rather i s always patterned by a complex of s o c i a l , s t r u c t u r a l and value considerations ... the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s which define the d i f f e r e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of voluntary membership have important consequences f o r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n behaviour i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . " ^ 1 Barber, Bernard, " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Mass Apathy i n Associations," Studies i n Leadership, ed. A l v i n W. Gouldner, Harper, New York, 1950, p. 480. 2 Gordon, C. Wayne and BaJbchuk, Nicholas, "A Typology of Voluntary Associations," Am. Soc. Review. 24- (1959), pp. 22-29. 3 Barber, op. c i t . . p. 480. A written c o n s t i t u t i o n i s t y p i c a l of the voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n . This states the purpose of the group and the ways i n which the organization w i l l be set up to accomplish t h i s purpose. A set of o f f i c e s defines the delimited o b l i -gations and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of those who f i l l them. These o f f i c e r s are elect e d by the members who a l l have a voice and vote i n the e l e c t i o n because each and every member i s assumed to have an equal i n t e r e s t . Three basic f a c t s emerge i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of empirical data about p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organi-zations. F i r s t , there are, as we have noted previously, countless numbers of such as s o c i a t i o n s . Second, there are a large number of people who have no memberships i n any as s o c i a t i o n at a l l . The evidence from a nationwide survey i n 1955 i u which memberships i n trade unions were excluded, shows that only t h i r t y - s i x per cent of the adult population were found to belong to voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 Third, there e x i s t s i n any given a s s o c i a t i o n an active minority p and an i n a c t i v e majority. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of associations has been ascribed to various f a c t o r s . The change of func t i o n of the family, 1 This survey was c a r r i e d out by the National Opinion Research Centre of the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago: Wright, Charles R. and Hyman, Herbert H., "Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n Memberships of American Adults," Am. Soc. Review. 23, No. 3 (1958), p. 287. 2 Barber, op. c i t . . p. 486. 8 the church and the state, and the relative loss of control of these major institutions over the individual i s cited as one reason.•*" Others have been the democratic and protestant principle of .the freedom of individual choice, the a r t i -culation of minority groups, the increased division of labour, and the growing secularization of the population. Goldhamer notes that i n effect, we are never i n any exclusive sense members of a society at large, but rather we are •5 members of a variety of social groups within the society. The more differentiated the members of the community are, A the more associations they tend to have. The proliferation of associations appears to be most typical of the urban community with i t s wide variety of occupations and i t s diversity of occupational, economic and p o l i t i c a l interests. In a large urban community, i t has been suggested 1 Scott, John C , "Membership and Participation i n Voluntary Associations," Am. Soc. Review. 2 2 , No. 3 ( 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 3 1 5 . 2 In the NORC survey (fn. 1, p. 7) i t was observed that one of the groups with a low rate of membership i s the Catholics. Hausknecht comments that " i t i s f a i r to say that members of this group tend to inhabit.a more restricted world than members of other religious groups." Hausknecht, Murray, The Joiners. The Bedminster Press, New York, 1962, p. 1 2 0 . See also O'Dea, Thomas P., American Catholic  Dilemma: An Inquiry into the Intellectual L i f e . Sheed and Ward, New York, 1958. 3 Goldhamer, Herbert, "Voluntary Associations i n the United States," Paul K. Hatt and Albert Reiss, eds., Cities  and Society. The Pree Press, Gleneoe, 1 1 1 . , 1951, 1957, P. 5 9 2 . 4- Loc. c i t . 9 by Goldhamer that persons having common interests probably could not come together easily to pursue these interests without some degree of formalization of their relationships. Members of these organizations tend to associate with one another only i n respect to r e l a t i v e l y narrow segments of their t o t a l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s , i n contrast to the type of total participation or associations characteristic of the ,family or the small community.1 Indeed, the association i n our heterogeneous so-called modern society may represent a reconstituted small community. Values of a Voluntary Organization for a Democratic Society Underlining the significance of this f i e l d as an area of study i s the relationship between the voluntary association and the values of a democratic society. For example, one value for this society of the voluntary associ-ation l i e s i n i t s function of offering opportunity for expression of opinion. It i s no longer possible for citizens to meet together i n town meetings for the discussion of common problems. In place of this more direct method of making our wishes known, we now depend on government by representatives of the people. Under such conditions, i t i s important that people be able to direct their elected representatives i n accordance with their wishes. Goldhamer 1 Goldhamer, op. c i t . . p. 595» 10 stresses the point that citizens require a method of securing organized expression on issues as they arise. "Such expres-sions do not represent merely the statement of a position i n regard to an issue, hut also demand, hacked by whatever means of pressure are available to the organization, that the issue be settled i n accordance with i t s desires." 1 The voluntary association i s a way of providing equal opportunity to study problems that concern us, and are the expression of a gen-uinely public opinion. Membership Participation Also justifying the significance of this subject for investigation i s the status of the non-participant. This has been a matter for research among sociologists who have questioned the statement by Charles and Mary Beard: the non-participant (in voluntary associations) i s "a pariah ... of questionable a b i l i t y to serve ... an object p of curiosity, i f not of suspicion." Studies i n metro-politan areas indicate that there are large numbers of people who do not have a single a f f i l i a t i o n i n a voluntary organi-zation. Kommarovsky reported i n her study of Hew York City that " i n the bulk of the city's population, the unaffiliated 1 Goldhamer, op. c i t . . p. 594. 2 Beard, Charles and Mary, The American Commonwealth, cited i n Weber, Max, Essays i n Sociology. Oxford University Press, New York, 1946, p. 309. 11 persons co n s t i t u t e a majority" ."*• She came to the conclusion that c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n were generally found to p e r s i s t even when other f a c t o r s held constant. In a study of family p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary organizations, Anderson found evidence to connect p a r t i c i -p a tion with s o - c a l l e d status s e l f - r a t i n g s . Families of low socio-economic status d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e or take leadership r o l e s , not only because the community does not confer these r o l e s upon them, but because they themselves accept an i n f e r i o r status and act accordingly. Their self-judgements as to t h e i r own s o c i a l status are c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d to measures of t h e i r actual s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Much of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e r t i a i n our s o c i e t y may be r e l a t e d to 2 these s e l f - a t t i t u d e s . Scott found that the number of persons p a r t i c i -p ating i n voluntary associations tends to be h i g h l y exag-gerated by the p u b l i c . In h i s research, he found that t h i r t y - e i g h t per cent of the persons sampled had no member-ship i n a voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n . He found even higher percentages of n o n - a f f i l i a t i o n among persons i n lower s o c i a l c l a s s , i n manual occupations, among people of Catholic 1 Kommarovsky, Mirra, "The Voluntary Associations of Urban Dwellers," Am. Soc. Review. 2, No. 6 (1946), p. 690. 2 Anderson, W. A., "Family S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l Status Self-Ratings," Am. Soc. Review. 11, No. 3 (1946), p. 253. 12 a f f i l i a t i o n , and with only elementary school education. He concluded that even i n a h i g h l y urbanized s o c i e t y such as the United States, i n which secondary types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r e s t s are maximized, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary associations i s f a r from being a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon.1 Wright and Hyman found that not only i s there a sizeable group of Americans who are not members of any voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n , but that only a minority belong to 2 more than one such organization. They found that the higher the status of the respondents, the greater the percentage of memberships i n formal organizations. Home owners were more l i k e l y to be members than were home renters, and t h i s was also found to be true i n Scott's study. There appeared to be no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e between the membership rates of urban dwellers and r u r a l farm non-residents. They found two s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , home ownership and family status, which seemed to be r e l a t e d to voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n member-ships. Men and women with c h i l d r e n were found to be members more often than c h i l d l e s s couples. I t may be possible that c h i l d r e n lead t h e i r parents i n t o neighbourhood community p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A t h i r d matter f o r concern i s the f a c t of the 1 Scott, on. c i t . . pp. 315-326. 2 Wright and Hyman, op. c i t . , pp. 284-294-. 13 active minority which exists no matter what interest any particular association represents. Minority attendance i n associations persists despite attempts to choose a time and place for meetings which conflicts least with the job and family obligations of the members. Even when by-laws are enacted imposing sanctions for non-attendance, such rules appear to be honoured more i n the breach than i n the observance. One of the reasons for this which has been dis-cussed by Barber i s that our social structure does more than segregate our peripheral interests from family and job obligations. "It defines them as being of less importance than family and job." 1 There seems to be a culturally prescribed preoccupation with such obligations which tend to l i m i t interest even i n associations which are especially meaningful for the individual. Structural Types and Organizational Patterns In addition, says Barber, the internal structure of the voluntary association i t s e l f contributes to the tendency toward the inactive majority. With i t s formal organization and division of function among i t s members, i t i s possible for the minority to achieve the interests of 1 Barber, OP. c i t . . p. 486. 14 the association with very l i t t l e participation on the part of the majority. 1 In discussing the values of democratic associations, Barber gives a luc i d description of the organizational 2 pattern of the voluntary association. The typical pattern according to this authority, i s a democratic one, with formal authority residing i n the whole membership. The democratic :organization states the ethical d e s i r a b i l i t y of voluntary a f f i l i a t i o n and membership rights open to a l l , without regard to sex, race, occupation, nationality, social class," religious creed or p o l i t i c a l attachment. It makes provision for the active participation of a l l members, that i s , for their frequent attendance at meetings, their taking part i n discussion, their working on committees and holding office at some time; i n short for their participation i n the formulation and realization of policy. The fundamental democratic instrument i s the decision by vote, i m p l i c i t l y guaranteed as a right by most democratic associations. The democratic association, continues Barber, i s further characterized by frequent and regular election of off i c e r s , short terms of offi c e , and the rotation of any 1 Barber, op. c i t . . p. 487• 2 For an amplification of this discussion see Barber, Bernard, "Participation and Mass Apathy i n Associations," i n Studies i n Leadership, ed. Alvin W. Gouldner, Harper,. New York, 1950. 15 given o f f i c i a l position among as large a number of members as possible, where the association i s divided into many-branches, i t i s considered desirable to have r e l a t i v e l y large l o c a l autonomy; that i s , the flow of power i s up from the local groups to the central ..co-ordinating group. In the large association, where national conventions are held, the democratic election of delegates to the convention i s valued as a means of achieving t o t a l group influence on the policy of the association. In order to have effective control over the exe-cutive, Barber continues, members have the right to be c r i t i c a l and to require that they furnish regular, complete and detailed reports on i t s implementation of policy and on a l l financial transactions. The c r i t i c a l member has his opportunity to transmit his dissident opinion to the whole membership through the medium of the convention, where the right of free speech i s guaranteed, and i n the o f f i c i a l publication of the association. In even the smallest democratic association, according to Barber, the executive must deal with certain problems. There exists the need to take action i n the interests of that association, and i n the democratic group i t i s the active minority that takes the responsibility. Members who desire to avoid responsibility, partly because of their preoccupation with other interests and partly 16 because they are quite wil l i n g to have the active minority discharge the major concern for the interests of the association, grant authority to the occupants of the exe-cutive roles to pursue specialized executive functions. The existence of an inactive majority often requires the 1 active minority to take more power than i s formally granted to i t under a democratic constitution. However i t i s expected to j u s t i f y this to the membership. In the democratic association, Barber suggests that "to conform with the value that equal participation requires rotation of officers, the formal rules provide for regular election of o f f i c i a l s for short terms.""*" It seems to be necessary, however, to make some arrangement so that at least a few of the o f f i c i a l s who have served for a long time and have special knowledge of the history of the association remain i n some office on the executive. How-ever carefully the constitution i s drawn up, i t seems f a i r to say that general statements of policy w i l l probably never cover a l l possible contingencies. If the executive must act to adjust the purposes of the association to the circumstances of the external situation, i t seems reasonable to suppose that o f f i c i a l s with long tenure w i l l help to maintain a long term view i n terms of the relevance of the 1 Barber, op. c i t . . p. 492. 17 new problems to the purpose of the organization. When we examine the empirical studies of voluntary organizations, i t becomes apparent that there are two types of organizational structure, corporate and federated. "The fundamental basis for the distinction between these two types i s the locus of ultimate authority within the organi-zation. In organizations having corporate structures, the national headquarters exercises supervisory powers over the component units, while i n federations, the a f f i l i a t e s retain a large measure of autonomy.""'' Lipset stresses the importance of the h i s t o r i c a l origins of an association as giving the clue to the structural type. Organization may be from the top down, where the group which origi n a l l y starts the association organizes other individuals or branches into a larger structure, and organization through the successive but autonomous formation of one group after p another. According to Lipset, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s for democracy are much greater i n the second type of associ-ation because a ready made opposition i s b u i l t into the organization.^ That i s , the greater the number of 1 S i l l s , David L., The Volunteers, The Free Press, Glencoe, 111., 1957, p. 10. 2 Lipset, Seymour Martin, "The P o l i t i c a l Process i n Trade Unions: A Theoretical Statement," i n Morroe Berger, Theodore Abel and Charles H. Page, eds., Freedom and Control i n Modern  Society. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., New York, 1954, p. 105. 3 Loc. c i t . 18 independent sources of power and status, the greater the p o s s i b i l i t y that a l t e r n a t i v e f a c t i o n s w i l l e s t a b l i s h opposition to the incumbents of the leadership p o s i t i o n s . Truman, i n h i s study of pressure groups, notes that i n an organization where subcentres of power are f o r -mally acknowledged, the problem of cohesion i s more l i k e l y to a r i s e and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r n a l dissension are greater. He adds that a l o o s e l y federated structure can l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y mould p u b l i c opinion or influence the course of government because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of pre-senting a united f r o n t i n t h i s type of organization. For these reasons the h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation are of some importance i n understanding the structure of t h i s organi-z a t i o n . I t seems appropriate, therefore, to describe b r i e f l y the h i s t o r i c a l beginnings of the Federation. This w i l l be taken up i n the Chapter which follo w s . 1 Truman, David B., The Governmental Process. Knopf, New York, 1951» p. 118, c i t e d i n S i l l s , op. c i t . . p. 7. CHAPTER I I PLACE AND METHOD OF STUDY The Historical Development of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent- Teacher Federation The history of the development of the present structure of the B.C.P.T. Federation i s one of organization through successive but autonomous formation of one local association after another, f i n a l l y co-ordinated by the organization of a central board with formal constitution and by-laws. No local associations are organized unless by the express wish of the members, so there i s a considerable measure of self-government; on the other hand, associations once they are organized, are bound by the directives of the Board of Directors. This chapter traces the history of the growth of the organization from one association to a Federation of over f i f t y thousand members, and the method of study employed to attempt to discover some facts about i t s leadership. The f i r s t l o c a l association of the organization now known as the Br i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation was formed i n the year 1 9 1 5 during the f i r s t world war. News of an organization known as the Parent-Teacher 2 0 Association* operating i n the United States, gave i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a s i m i l a r p r oject i n B r i t i s h Columbia. During t h i s year two groups, one i n Vancouver and one i n V i c t o r i a , gathered information from associations i n the states of Washington and C a l i f o r n i a about the work of t h i s organization whose objectives were to promote the welfare of c h i l d r e n and youth, i r r e s p e c t i v e of race, colour or c r e e d . 1 B r i t i s h Columbia, using the c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws of C a l i f o r n i a and Washington to guide the group here, set about launching associations i n t h i s province. By the end of the year 1916 several associations had been organized, the f i r s t one meeting appropriately enough i n the h i s t o r i c Craigflower school i n V i c t o r i a . In the year 1917» a c e n t r a l organization was formed, known as the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t Parent-Teacher Federation, i n order that problems a f f e c t i n g more than one a s s o c i a t i o n could be dealt with more e f f e c -t i v e l y . In 1 9 2 2 a c e n t r a l p r o v i n c i a l Board was formed at a conference i n Vancouver which was attended by two hundred and eighty-three delegates from s i x t y associations throughout the province. By I960, the membership had r i s e n to f i f t y - t w o thousand i n over s i x hundred and f i f t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 I am indebted to a h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, w r i t t e n by Mrs. A. E. Delmage, H i s t o r i a n and L i f e Member of the Federation, and published by the B r i t i s h . Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation. 21 S t r u c t u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the F e d e r a t i o n The "basic u n i t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r e n t -Teacher F e d e r a t i o n i s the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n . L o c a l a s s o c i -a t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d i n s c h o o l s o p e r a t i n g under the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t , o r r e c e i v i n g g r a n t s from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n , o r from the government o f Canada, o r o p e r a t i n g under the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s o f the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . L o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s pay a p e r c a p i t a f e e t o the F e d e r a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f i t s members, and t h i s f e e i n c l u d e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , membership i n the Canadian Home and S c h o o l and P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n , which i s the N a t i o n a l body, as w e l l as i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n . A P a r e n t - T e a c h e r C o u n c i l i s a c o n f e r e n c e body which p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n a c i t y , d i s t r i c t o r community, t o u n i t e i n the p u r s u i t of common o b j e c t i v e s . A C o u n c i l has no l e g i s l a t i v e powers, pays no f e e s t o the P r o v i n c i a l o r N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n s , and may be o r g a n i z e d o n l y by a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the Board o f D i r e c t o r s . The c o n s t i t u t i o n and by-laws which govern a c o u n c i l must be approved by the F e d e r a t i o n . A R e g i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d thus by the a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f the Board. I t i s a geographic a r e a c o m p r i s i n g one o r more s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s , w i t h the purpose o f e l e c t i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the Board who 22 w i l l act as a l i a i s o n between the Federation and these Associations. A Region pays no fees to the Provincial or National Federation, and the elected representative of a region i s a member of the Board of Directors of the Federation. The Constitution of the Federation also provides for an Executive Committee whose duty i t i s to carry out any commitments made to i t by the Federation or by the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee may transact ) 1 routine business, and may make suggestions or recommendations to the Board. This committee meets at least six times a year, and the by-laws of the Federation clearly define the offices of the Board which are to be represented on i t . 1 The Board of Directors of the Federation consists of the Chairmen of the fourteen standing committees, Chairman of the Magazine Board, Chairman of Council Presidents, the Honorary President, three Vice-Presidents, the President, the immediate Past President, and the Secretary Treasurer. In addition, each of the Regional Representatives from the eighteen Regions of the province are members of the Board of Directors. With the exception of the Honorary President, who since 1926 has always been 1 Constitution. By-Laws and Standing Rules. B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, Vancouver, 1961, p. 6. 23 the elected President of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, these forty officers of the Federation are elected biennially. The Board has the power to f i l l any vacancies by appointment except when such a vacancy occurs within a period of six weeks prior to the f i r s t day of the Annual Convention, i n which case the office i s declared open for el e c t i o n . 1 The Board of Directors i s required to meet at least four times a year, and has the duty to f i l l by appointment annually offices which are not covered by the By-Laws. The office of Chairman of the Constitution and By-Laws committee and that of Finance Chairman, as well as three National Representatives must be appointed from members of the Board. The policies of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation are determined by the members of the Associations throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, through their delegates whom they appoint to represent their associations at the Annual Conventions. These delegates i n turn elect the Provincial Officers and direct the appointment of National Representatives, who, i n conference with the representatives from the Home and School and Parent-Teacher Federations from each province, fashion the policies of the 1 By-Laws of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher  Federation. A r t i c l e X, Section 5» 2 4 Canadian Home and School and Parent-Teacher Federation; Thus the policies which govern the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and Home and School Associations throughout Canada, are not superimposed by any outside person or group of persons, but are established by democratic process i n which the individual Parent-Teacher member has a voice i n the decisions made by the Federation through his elected and appointed representatives. The. Statement of P o l i c y 1 for the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation i s based on resolutions which have been passed at the Annual Conventions of the Federation, as well as the recommendations submitted i n a Brief to the Royal Commission on Education i n 1959 • The Brief included . a l l resolutions pertaining to education that had been adopted at previous conventions i n the years 19551 1956, and 1957, as well as answers to a questionnaire based on questions and topics submitted by members, associations, committees and other groups within the Federation structure. A l l recommendations i n this Brief which were drawn from answers to this questionnaire originated i n replies which were v i r t u a l l y unanimous. The recommendations i n the Brief, therefore, were f e l t to express the views of the Majority 1 Statement of Policy (1961) and Resolutions Review  (1957-1961). published by the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, Vancouver, 1961* 25 of the members of the Federation. It has been found i n empirical studies of voluntary-organizations that beyond a certain point the size and interests of a democratic association compel i t to employ full-time officials."*' The Parent-Teacher Federation i s no exception, and Article XII of the By-laws of the Federation makes provision for the appointment of an Executive Secretary, who does not hold office and has no vote. However, i t appears to be f a i r to assume that the Executive Secretary p must have a large degree of ego-involvement i n her work. In addition, the office establishment provides for two full-time and one part-time employee. The " B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher" i s the o f f i c i a l magazine of the Federation and i s published five times each year i n Vancouver. It contains material reflecting the various areas of interest of the Federation, serves as a medium of exchange of news between associations, and publishes progress reports of committees, as well as dealing with many aspects of education i n the province. As can be observed readily from a review of the policy, the interests and scope of a c t i v i t y of the B r i t i s h 1 Barber, on. c i t . . p. 492. 2 Personal communication. 2 6 Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation encompasses almost every phase of community interest i n the welfare of children, and the leadership of this organization i s of paramount impor-tance. Before discussing the findings of this exploratory study, however, l e t us consider i t s design and method. Method of.Study Data for this study were collected through a variety of sources, primarily the scheduled interview. (See Appendix A.) It was hoped to discover by this method of exploration what were the special characteristics the officers of the Federation held i n common. We wondered how they perceived the goals of the Federation, and i f they f e l t that these goals were being reached. 1 We wanted to find out what pathways they had taken to leadership i n this province-wide organization. The decision was made to focus attention on the members of the Board of Directors who l i v e i n the Greater Vancouver Area, f i r s t because of the closer contact they have with the headquarters of the Federation, and second because i t was not possible i n the time at the disposal of the writer to interview members of the Board who li v e i n places distant from Vancouver. It was further decided a r b i t r a r i l y to.exclude the Regional representatives, of whom four l i v e i n the Greater Vancouver area. In effect 27 the form of sampling may be characterized as a selected sample. It should be pointed out that the sample was selected on the basis of an arbitrary decision, and there-fore may not be representative i n the s c i e n t i f i c sense. However the study i s an exploratory one, and the decisions thus a r b i t r a r i l y made as to the sampling were based on factors of time, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the respondents, and the fact of the special responsibilities of officers of the Federation who l i v e i n the Greater Vancouver area. These officers are i n theory able to attend every meeting of the Board of Directors, every meeting of any committee to which they belong or which they chair, and they can be reached easily by other of f i c e r s , by members of their committees, and by the Executive Secretary, either by telephone or i n person. Officers of Councils or Local Associations are free to consult these officers informally and at short or no notice. A review of the minutes of a single Board meeting w i l l , to the sensitive observer, give a clue to the heavy burden of responsibility that f a l l s upon those officers of the Federation who l i v e within commuting distance of the Federation office and who are linked by telephone to such a large proportion of the membership. With this rationale for our decision, then, we 28 i n t e r v i e w e d , w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n o f the P r e s i d e n t and the Board .of D i r e c t o r s o f the F e d e r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g t h i r t e e n members of the Board: P r e s i d e n t F i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t Chairmen of the f o l l o w i n g s t a n d i n g committees: Chairman o f the Magazine Board A u d i o - V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n . „ '• Community I n f l u e n c e s L e i s u r e Time A c t i v i t i e s P a r e n t E d u c a t i o n . . Programme Promotion P u b l i c a t i o n s P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s R e s o l u t i o n s S a f e t y The P r e s i d e n t i s , ex o f f i c i o , a member of a l l committees, and the f i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , who by the terms o f .the By-laws, A r t i c l e V I I I , i s r e q u i r e d " t o serve, i n such c a p a c i t i e s as may be d e s i g n a t e d by the F e d e r a t i o n , the Board,, o r the. E x e c u t i v e Committee" i s e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t e d to be a member o f the Fina n c e Committee. 1 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t o f the chairmen o f the seventeen s t a n d i n g committees, o n l y t h r e e l i v e o u t s i d e the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . At the time t h i s survey was conducted, two o t h e r s who l i v e d i n Vancouver or i t s e n v i r o n s were not a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w . There were two v a c a n c i e s 1 S t a n d i n g R u l e s r e Finance Committee, C o n s t i t u t i o n . By-Laws and S t a n d i n g R u l e s . Vancouver, 1961, p. 6« 29 on the Board which have since been f i l l e d by appointment. The method used i n this exploration, then i s the case study method, and i t s limitations are well-known to the social s c i e n t i s t . 1 However the case study can give a more detailed picture of "the social r e a l i t y beneath the 2 formal organization", and the objective and s k i l l e d inter-viewer may be able to minimize some of the major limitations of this method, therefore i t s use may be j u s t i f i e d on these grounds• This study attempted to obtain factual information concerning time spent i n the organization, family constel-lations, educational attainment of the members, as well as subjective data involving opinions and attitudes. In this l a t t e r area a special effort was made to obtain the informant's opinion and i t was made clear that the purpose 1 For example, i t i s d i f f i c u l t not to generalize on the basis of the small sample of interviews. Young, i n her discussion of the limitations of this method says that individual recollections are open to errors of perception, memory, judgement and unconscious bias, with a special tendency to overemphasise unusual events. She adds that the case study method i s subjective, the replies may-be s e l f - j u s t i f i c a t o r y , and they include an element of wish-fulfilment. On the other hand, the investigator tends to see what he i s looking for, he usually wants to help the subject, and the case situation generally offers a complex of variable. See Young, Pauline V., PhD., S c i e n t i f i c Social Surveys and Research. Prentice-Hall, New York, 1939, pp. 248-250. 2 Loc. c i t . 3© of the interview was to obtain information rather than pursue any specific point of view. That some non-conscious factors may have been operating as conditioning elements, must, however, be noted, and the reader i s cautioned to examine the data c r i t i c a l l y . In the following chapter we w i l l turn to a presentation and discussion of the findings. CHAPTER JIT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY In the previous chapters we have discussed the place of the voluntary association i n contemporary society and the structural characteristics of the particular voluntary association which we are investigating. Let us now turn our attention to the leaders of the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation and their characteristics. How were they f i r s t recruited as members of this organi-zation? How did they f i r s t appraise the purposes and goals of this organization? Did these perceptions change, and i f so, how do they now perceive the objectives? What do they consider to be their contribution to the goals of the Federation? Apathy i n the Voluntary Organization The discussion i n the f i r s t chapter leads,us to believe that membership i n voluntary associations i s by no means a universal phenomenon. Even i n the so-called "golden age" of the nineteenth century, Barber t e l l s us that "despite the widespread myth that voluntary p a r t i c i -pation was complete ... writers of the nineteenth century ... assigned to New England towns attributes they never 3 2 possessed.""*' Apathy i s not a new characteristic of the voluntary association. At f i r s t glance one might come to the conclusion that the B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, with i t s l o f t y and a l t r u i s t i c goals, would be the type of association that would have a prior claim on the time and energies of parents, especially i n view of the value that education holds i n the consciousness of many parents today. However, gja. examination of the participation of parents i n l o c a l Parent-Teacher Associations i n one Parent-Teacher Council i n B r i t i s h Columbia seems to indicate that even i n an organization with such high purpose and potential for social action, participation i s on a r e l a t i v e l y small scale. In the Parent-Teacher Council comprising the Associations organized i n the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t , a lower mainland municipality adjacent to the c i t i e s of Vancouver and New Westminster, twenty-four elementary schools are represented. The total number of elementary schools i n this school d i s t r i c t i s thirty-two, with an enrollment of thirteen thousand five hundred students. The to t a l number of students registered i n schools i n which a Parent-Teacher Association i s organized i s eleven thousand, five hundred. The total membership i n Parent-Teacher associations i n 1 Barber, op. c i t . . p. 484. 3 3 Burnaby i s two thousand, four hundred and twenty-seven. The number of parents.belonging to the Parent-Teacher Association i s twenty per cent of the number of students registered at those schools, and eighteen per cent of the to t a l school population. The highest percentage of parents to students i n any one association i s th i r t y - s i x per cent, and the lowest i s eight per cent. This i s even below Kommarovsky's findings for the c i t y of New York. In some schools parents have organized Parents* Groups, which operate as auxiliaries to the schools to which they are attached, rather than as part of a larger policy-making body, and we are not here concerned with these groups. Why Bo Parents Join a Parent-Teacher Association One of the questions this study attempted to examine was: why do parents attend their f i r s t Parent-Teacher meeting? Although i t i s probable that a reasonably wide range of motives i s responsible, i n our sample we found that the feeling of duty and responsibility played the major part i n the decision to join. Nine parents said that they attended their f i r s t meeting because they f e l t they had an obligation to take an in t e l l i g e n t interest i n the school careers of their children. One had become interested i n Parent-Teacher work through work i n the church, and ultimately organized 34-an association i n the school i n which his child was registered. One said that she attended her f i r s t meeting at the invitation of a neighbour, not knowing what to expect, but looking for-ward to meeting friends i n a new neighbourhood. Two members had themselves been educated i n Europe and i n England, and went to their f i r s t meeting primarily to try to find out i n what way the Canadian system of edu-cation differed from their own experiences, but also because they f e l t that one could learn more quickly about the institutions and culture of a country by joining i t s volun-tary organizations. Two parents attended Parent-Teacher meetings i n the f i r s t instance because of e x p l i c i t pressure . to do so brought to bear upon them by their children. In addition to these reasons, there i s one common one, the wish to meet the teachers to whom they have entrusted the care of their children, and i n fact the f i r s t meeting of the year soon after the beginning of the f a l l term i s frequently set up for this purpose. However, one might speculate whether this i s not a reflection of a middle class value, the expectation of the "good parent", who whether she belongs to a Parent-Teacher Association or not, w i l l find means of f u l f i l l i n g this expectation. As can be seen i n other studies of voluntary organizations, that portion of society which i n theory could benefit most, i s least represented on the membership r o l l s . 55 When Do the Parents Join the Parent-Teacher Association Another area examined was that of the relationship between i n i t i a l involvement i n Parent-Teacher a c t i v i t i e s and the age of the chi l d . Of the thirteen members interviewed, ten attended their f i r s t meeting when the oldest ch i l d i n the family was f i r s t enrolled i n Grade One. When asked: "What age was your eldest child when you attended your f i r s t Parent-Teacher meeting?", some of the answers were: "I expected to join the P.T.A. as soon as my child entered Grade One"; "My mother had belonged to Home and School i n Ontario and I naturally expected to do the same"; "I wanted to find out what the schools were doing, so as soon as my child entered school, I got some friends together and we organized a P.T.A."; "I f e l t i t was a moral obligation to attend P.T.A. meetings"; "I assumed that I had a duty to attend P.T.A. meetings". Three of the members were charter members of the Parent-Teacher Association i n the schools their children attended, and each was involved i n the organizational process. One member attended her f i r s t meeting when her child was s t i l l i n kindergarten. She related that she had moved to.a school d i s t r i c t i n which there was a kinder-garten so that her child could benefit from this experience. We might conclude that not only do people who rise to positions of leadership i n an organization f e e l a commitment 36 to devote time to community a c t i v i t i e s , and a responsibility to their children, but they appear w i l l i n g to devote this time and energy to discharging this responsibility. F i r s t Perceptions of Parent-Teacher Goals However, i f we look at the f i r s t appraisal of the Parent-Teacher Association by these members, we can see that for many the goals of the Federation were perceived only dimly i f indeed they were perceived at a l l . As we saw i n Chapter I, i f members are to participate i n the a c t i v i t i e s of an association i n a way that offers rewards both to themselves and to their organization, they should have a clear perception of the goals and purposes of that organi-zation. The avowed purpose of the Parent-Teacher Federation i s "To promote the welfare of children and youth", as stated i n A r t i c le I of the Constitution, but on the basis of this selected sample these members tended to regard this as referring to their children i n the school which they were attending, or at most, a l l the children attending that school. The purchase of a refrigerator seems to have a tangible and immediate value; the long term goals which appear nebulous i n the extreme cannot have the same appeal for the majority of parents. The idea of working for a l l children i s not always seen at f i r s t as the purpose. As we w i l l see, i t i s frequently only as the member's a c t i -v i t i e s reach out beyond the confines of the l o c a l 37 association to Council and Federation that the v i s t a widens. In our sample, for instance, seven thought that the Parent-Teacher Association i n their schools were fund-raising organizations, auxiliaries to the school, which raised money hy various devices such as fashion shows, carnivals and bridge tournaments, to be spent, often following a suggestion from the principal of the school, i n the purchase of items which were not provided by the School Board. In this manner were purchased supplementary teaching aids, stage curtains, lunch room equipment record players, and so on. Because Parent-Teacher Associations did some of these things i n the depression era, the idea that this i s s t i l l the purpose of a Parent-Teacher Association seems to linger on, and i n many schools i s s t i l l the practice. Opinions on the merits of fund-raising i n general were certainly divided among the Board members that were inter-viewed, and i t appears that the question i s not yet settled s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Three members of our sample said they had no pre-conceived ideas about the purpose or a c t i v i t i e s of the Parent-Teacher Association which they joined. The Federation was connected only vaguely i n their minds with the lo c a l organization. One member thought that the association was a l i a i s o n between the home and the school; one member believed firmly i n the necessity of voluntary participation 38 i n such associations as part of the continuing struggle to maintain a democratic society. Only one appeared to have a re a l l y clear and v i v i d comprehension of the goals of the Federation, and she joined the association i n her school i n the f u l l knowledge of the value and necessity for our society of the voluntary organization, both as a democratic in s t i t u t i o n and as an aid to personal growth. Later Perceptions of the Goals An attempt was made i n this study to determine whether the participants' perception of the organization changed with the passing of time; to identify the nature of the change i f any, and to examine the factors contributing to these changes. When we asked the question: "What do you see the purpose of the Federation to be now?", some of the answers we received were: "I was asked to be a Council Delegate; this was the f i r s t office I held i n my local P.T.A. I soon realized that the P.T.A. was interested i n more important things than buying dishes for the school. I think the present goal of the Federation i s to help establish a relationship between parents and teachers so that they can learn each other's role i n relationship to the child. It should be also an organization for training for leadership." This member f e l t that the most important issue before the Board of Directors at the present time was the present state of education i n the Province. I 3 9 Another member replied to the question i n this way: "Money raising used to "be the goal of the P.T.A., and i t s t i l l can be a strong cohesive force i n a local associ-ation. Now the money raised by P.T.A.'s i s more l i k e l y to be used for. bursaries and scholarships. Keeping watch on the education system i s our main job." A third said the goal was clearly stated: to promote the welfare of children and youth, but the value of the Federation was as a cooperative effort of a large group to deal with problems where individual effort would be of no av a i l . Two members said that they thought the organization was a training f i e l d for work i n the larger community, a "springboard" as one person put i t , "training for citizenship" said another. "We need organizations l i k e the P.T.A. to help us keep the freedom of a democratic society; a society based on the family unit." The question was asked: "what do you think of the Federation i n terms of a group for social action?" There was divided opinion on this question. Six members saw the Federation as an instrument for social action i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare. 1 One member said that i t could be a 1 The Committee on Child Welfare Services published i n 1961 a comprehensive report on Child Welfare Services, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, entitled, Child Welfare Work Kit for use by social action study groups. This fact may have i n f l u -enced the respondents. 40 social action group, but that i t had not yet reached that point i n i t s development; three saw i t s main purpose as policy making, especially i n the f i e l d of education, and three saw i t as an instrument to promote good relationships between parents and teachers. l i v e members s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned the f i r s t time they attended the Annual Convention as the time when their ideas concerning the purpose and scope of the Federation's a c t i v i t i e s began to change. The Convention i s an event that often gives a new delegate a new perspective, and succeeds i n drawing former delegates back again. The theme of the meeting i s focussed on some issue with a broad yet relevant meaning for Parent-Teacher members. At this time the Resolutions prepared by lo c a l associations and by the Board are presented, discussed, and voted upon. Discussions and addresses and reports are on a scale rather different from the usual experience i n a P.T.A. meeting, and the impact of the interested participation of five hundred other delegates under the dynamic leadership of the Board members is. d i f f i c u l t to r e s i s t . As has been noted i n other studies, one of the chief values of a voluntary organization i s as an instrument i n the struggle to maintain our democratic forms of govern-ment, but only one person expressed this point of view i n just this way clearly and e x p l i c i t l y . It was implied i n 41 the r e p l i e s of s i x others, and could he i n f e r r e d i n some of the responses of the remainder. Therefore i t would appear that the members^ who were interviewed a l l had some appreci-a t i o n of t h i s aspect of a voluntary organization. Prom looking on the Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n as a group connected with an i n d i v i d u a l school, and having few i f any l a r g e r i m p l i c a t i o n s , these members, i t seemed l a t e r , perceived the Federation as an organization which could i n i t i a t e s o c i a l a ction i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare. A l l concluded that fund r a i s i n g could never be e n t i r e l y abolished and the fol l o w i n g reasons were c i t e d : f i r s t , funds are necessary to run an a s s o c i a t i o n , buy stationery, send delegates to conventions so that t h e i r perceptions may be broadened, and to provide bursaries and scholarships; second, f u n d - r a i s i n g provides a concrete focus f o r the a c t i v i t y of members of an a s s o c i a t i o n who would otherwise have no i n t e r e s t i n membership. Who Are the Members of the Board of Direc t o r s As we have seen i n the second chapter, the formal structure of the Parent-Teacher Federation i n such that i n the actual operation of an organization of t h i s s i z e i n a geographic area encompassing the whole province of B r i t i s h Columbia, the problem of representative p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the leadership group i s a formidable one. The Board of Direct o r s meets four times a year, and expenses of Board 42 members from d i s t a n t p o i n t s i s met as f a r as p o s s i b l e by the F e d e r a t i o n . C e r t a i n expenses o f the R e g i o n a l Repre-s e n t a t i v e s are a l s o a charge upon the funds of the F e d e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g an a l l o c a t i o n t o d e f r a y the c o s t s o f v i s i t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e i r v a r i o u s r e g i o n s . However, i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r Board members l i v i n g i n remote p a r t s o f the P r o v i n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the immense amount o f work n e c e s s a r y t o r u n an o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d . The scope o f the a c t i v i t y i s wide and demands many hours of time which i s g i v e n f r e e l y by these v o l u n t e e r s , but the c h i e f burden f a l l s i n e v i t a b l y upon those members of the Board who l i v e i n the urban a r e a w i t h i n commuting d i s t a n c e of the F e d e r a t i o n o f f i c e . There-f o r e the v e r y f a c t o f r e s i d i n g i n the urban a r e a p l a c e s a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Board members who f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , and t h e i r commitments t o o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t . E s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t , as i t developed i n t h i s s t u d y , i s the s i z e o f the f a m i l y and the age o f the younger c h i l d r e n . We asked the q u e s t i o n , "How o l d are your c h i l d r e n now, and how o l d were t h e y when you f i r s t became a Board member?" Of the t h i r t e e n members i n t e r v i e w e d , two were men, and t h e i r b u s i n e s s o b l i g a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n appeared t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n F e d e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . However, even i n these f a m i l i e s , 43 there was only one c h i l d i n the home, and t h i s c h i l d was almost grown up; that i s , i n both cases the c h i l d i n the home was attending High School. Of the eleven other members, one had four c h i l d r e n , of which only three were now l i v i n g at home. This member f e l t that the only reason that she had been able to give as much time as she wished was because she had the f u l l - t i m e services of a maid. She and three other members s t i l l had ch i l d r e n at home who were i n elementary school: these c h i l d r e n were ages seven, eight, nine and eleven. No f a m i l i e s of members included any pre-school c h i l d r e n , and i n f i v e f a m i l i e s a l l the c h i l d r e n had passed t h e i r eighteenth birthday and i n some cases were no longer at home. In any case, no family had more than four c h i l d r e n , three f a m i l i e s had three c h i l d r e n , seven f a m i l i e s had two c h i l d r e n , and two f a m i l i e s had one c h i l d . The members with c h i l d r e n s t i l l y i n elementary school set l i m i t s on the amount of time they were w i l l i n g to devote to Federation a c t i v i t i e s because of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they f e l t to t h e i r f a m i l i e s . In response to the second part of the question, i t was found that only the minority had c h i l d r e n eight years o l d or younger when they f i r s t took a p o s i t i o n on the Board. Eight members had not become Board members u n t i l a f t e r t h e i r youngest c h i l d was twelve years o l d . Only one, the member with the services of a maid, went on the Board 44 while one of her c h i l d r e n was s t i l l a pre-schooler. One exception to the pattern i s the member who had a baby a f t e r she went on the Board, but the remaining members had c h i l d r e n between s i x and eleven years, a l l i n elementary school. To i l l u s t r a t e the amount of time that can be spent i n the service of the Federation, the a c t i v i t i e s of one member who has one c h i l d s t i l l at home, i n Grade 12, i s i l l u m i n a t i n g . 1 This Federation o f f i c e r has been a Parent-Teacher member f o r t h i r t e e n years. During that time she has helped to organize two new associations i n her children's schools, taken o f f i c e on the executive of each, and has held a membership i n a t h i r d a s s o c i a t i o n . Although she never served on a Parent-Teacher Council, she i s now i n her seventh year as a member of the Board of D i r e c t o r s ; she has been a member of the executive committee of the Board f o r three years, and she has been appointed National repre-sentative f o r three terms. She has served as chairman of eight committees; she has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n at l e a s t nine Regional Conferences, f i v e Workshops, and she has been O f f i c i a l Representative of the Board to nine conferences and meetings held by other organizations; f o r example, the B. C. Safety Conference; 1 This example i s not intended to portray the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n of Parent-Teacher a c t i v i t y , but i s c i t e d only f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes. 6 4 5 the School for Alcohol Studies at U.B.C., and the Television Workshop at U.B.C. She has been a delegate to eight Group Development Workshops at the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, held j o i n t l y by the Parent-Teacher Federation and the Extension Department of the University. She has worked at two Parent's Institutes, three Adult Education Conferences, and at least one Border Conference, which i s held i n co-operation with the Washington Congress of Parents and Teachers, alternating between a c i t y i n Washington and i n Br i t i s h Columbia. She has been an active and working member of sixteen special committees of the Board, and she has been a member of five standing committees of the Board. Membership on only one standing committee i n one year entailed planning a workshop on programming with films i n conjunction with the National Film Board and the Vancouver Public Library, preparing a programme booklet for local associations, attending a National annual meeting of the National Federation i n Saskatoon, attending a l l Board meetings and Executive Committee meetings, v i s i t i n g l o c a l associations as speaker, resource person or in s t a l l a t i o n o f f i c e r . She has organized one association on the lower mainland, and assisted councils and local associations with planning programmes, workshops, and schools of instruction for o f f i c e r s . This member has two children, the elder married 4 6 and the younger i n h e r f i n a l y e a r a t H i g h S c h o o l . She f e e l s f r e e t o devote t h i s much time t o the F e d e r a t i o n , and she f e e l s s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i t . She made the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n h e r o p i n i o n , v o l u n t a r y membership i n t h i s o r g a n i -z a t i o n was o f more v a l u e t o the member th a n was the member's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n . L i k e twelve o f the o t h e r members i n t e r v i e w e d , t h i s o f f i c e r a l s o b elonged t o o t h e r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n our sample, one member belonged t o five o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s and was chairman of one, t h r e e belonged t o f o u r o t h e r s , t h r e e belonged t o t h r e e o t h e r s , one belonged t o two o t h e r s , t h r e e belonged t o o n l y one o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n , and one belonged t o no o t h e r s . The g r e a t e r number of o t h e r o r g a n i -z a t i o n s t o which the member belonged, the g r e a t e r the pos-s i b i l i t y t h a t he had an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e i n a t l e a s t one of them. The f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l achievements of the members of the F e d e r a t i o n appear t o have l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s s e s s i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . However a l l the members i n t e r -viewed had completed Grade t w e l v e . F i v e had degrees from a u n i v e r s i t y , and f o u r had had two y e a r s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l edu-c a t i o n (such as normal s c h o o l ) i n a d d i t i o n t o Grade t w e l v e . F our had n o t had any f u r t h e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a f t e r com-p l e t i n g grade t w e l v e . I n t e l l i g e n c e and e d u c a t i o n d i d not appear t o be p r i m a r y a s p e c t s o f l e a d e r s h i p on the b a s i s o f 47 these d a t a . The l e n g t h o f time spent i n P a r e n t - T e a c h e r a c t i v i t y appeared t o he o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . A c e r t a i n body o f knowledge i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o p e r f o r m e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s w e l l , and t h i s i s o f t e n a c q u i r e d s l o w l y . The g o a l s o f the F e d e r a t i o n , as we have seen, are p e r c e i v e d more c l e a r l y a f t e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a working member. I n a d d i t i o n , many are r e l u c t a n t t o take o f f i c e on the Board w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a re s t i l l young. Length of Time Spent i n the O r g a n i z a t i o n I n our sample o f t h i r t e e n , s i x members had worked i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a t some l e v e l f o r a p e r i o d o f between s i x t e e n and twenty-one y e a r s . One o f these s i x members i s the P r e s i d e n t , who has spent twenty-one y e a r s i n the a s s o c i a t i o n , e l e v e n o f them on the Board o f D i r e c t o r s . These s i x members p r o v i d e the background o f e x p e r i e n c e which comes from l o n g t e n u r e , which we saw was n e c e s s a r y f o r the c o n t i n u i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . Three o f the members have been i n the a s s o c i a t i o n f o r p e r i o d s o f between e l e v e n and s i x t e e n y e a r s ; o f t h e s e , two have been members o f the Board f o r o n l y one y e a r and one has been a member f o r ni n e y e a r s . One has spent t e n y e a r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h r e e have spent n i n e y e a r s ; o f these t h r e e , one has been on the Board f o r seven y e a r s , one f o r t h r e e y e a r s and one f o r two y e a r s . In summary, one member has h e l d s i x o f f i c e s on the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , 4 8 t h r e e have h e l d f o u r o f f i c e s , f i v e have h e l d t h r e e o f f i c e s , and f o u r were e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d t o the Board f o r the f i r s t t i m e . There i s then, good r e c r u i t m e n t t o the Board. As we have seen i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , the By-laws p r o v i d e f o r the r o t a t i o n o f o f f i c e r s , and l i m i t the time t h a t a member may h o l d the same o f f i c e t o f o u r y e a r s , t h a t i s , two two-y e a r terms. E l e c t i o n t o the Board o f D i r e c t o r s That t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l p a t t e r n f o r a t t a i n i n g the p o s i t i o n o f a member o f the Board seems t o be c l e a r . There was wide v a r i a t i o n i n the i n t e r v a l o f time between j o i n i n g the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n and g o i n g on the Board. S i x members i n our sample d i d not take o f f i c e as a D i r e c t o r u n t i l more t h a n t e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e y had f i r s t j o i n e d a P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n ; f o u r had been members f o r from s i x t o e i g h t y e a r s , and t h r e e had had l e s s than f o u r y e a r s membership b e f o r e t h e i r appointment o r e l e c t i o n . Many s e r v e d on Committees o f the Board b e f o r e becoming Board members, thus p r e p a r i n g themselves f o r e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e . T h i s appears t o be a good l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g d e v i c e , and Board members l o o k f o r p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e i r own a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e i r committees. Two members o f our sample had Board Membership c o n f e r r e d upon them a u t o m a t i c a l l y by v i r t u e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as C o u n c i l P r e s i d e n t s . T h i s r u l e i s no l o n g e r i n force; only the Chairman of Council Presidents has a place on the Board, and this i s an elective o f f i c e . If a member i s active i n her Parent-Teacher Council, her progress toward Board membership may be slower than i f she by-passed the Council entirely. Pour members i n our sample had never held a Council o f f i c e , although as president of a local associ-ation she may have attended Council meetings and gained some fam i l i a r i t y with i t s a c t i v i t i e s . The Board has the power to f i l l vacancies, as provided for i n Art i c l e X, section 5 of the By-laws. Two members were appointed to f i n i s h an unexpired term of office, because of their association with the committee involved. Members of the Board may be nominated by lo c a l associations, by members of the Board of Directors, and by Life Members. In this way a Board member can provide for a promising candidate an opportunity to try for election to the Board. Pour of this group were nominated by Board members and subsequently elected at the Annual Convention. No one had been nominated by a Life Member. This honour i s given to members upon recommendation of the Board or of an Association, for exceptionally meritorious service to parent-teacher work, over a minimum of fi f t e e n years, and l i f e members on the whole are not as actively interested as younger members. Ve have seen that there are many avenues open to positions of leadership i n the Parent-Teacher Federation. 50 I n the next c h a p t e r we w i l l attempt t o r e l a t e these f i n d i n g s t o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t h a t have "been made o f the l e a d e r s h i p p r o c e s s , and t o d i s c u s s Board membership o f the F e d e r a t i o n i n the l i g h t o f these c o n c e p t s . CHAPTER IV PROBLEMS OP LEADERSHIP IN THE FEDERATION In the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s s t u d y the r o l e o f the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i n contemporary s o c i e t y was exa-mined. I n t h i s c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r c o n c e p t i o n s o f l e a d e r -s h i p w i l l he d i s c u s s e d , the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study w i l l he reviewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the l e a d e r s h i p o f t h i s type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l e a d e r s h i p f o r the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n w i l l he a s s e s s e d . F i n a l l y , an attempt w i l l he made t o suggest some areas worthy o f f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some A b s t r a c t Concents o f L e a d e r s h i p I t has been suggested by A r n o l d Rose t h a t the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n has the p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y f o r making a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . 1 A s s o c i a t i o n membership, says Rose, p r e s e n t s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o " a c q u i r e as much power i n the community or the n a t i o n as 2 h i s f r e e t i m e , a b i l i t y and i n c l i n a t i o n s p e r m i t him t o " . 1 Rose, A r n o l d , Theory and Method i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1954-, p. 69. 2 L o c . c i t . 52 He adds that through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such an a s s o c i a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l may "become aware of how processes fun c t i o n ... how things are done i n at l e a s t the l i m i t e d sphere i n which they operate."'1" I f members can l e a r n to use these processes, then perhaps i t follows that the voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n has implications f o r leadership. In order to understand the relevance of the q u a l i t y of leadership i n the voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n , we w i l l f i r s t examine some of the abstract concepts of leadership as i t i s presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Leadership i s often thought of as a s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e of p e r s o n a l i t y , a t r a i t that some persons possess and others do not, or at l e a s t a q u a l i t y that some achieve i n high degree and others s c a r c e l y at a l l . The r e s u l t s of research seem to i n d i c a t e that leadership q u a l i t i e s , s o - c a l l e d , vary i n d e f i n i t e l y as the needs of the group vary. Viewed i n r e l a t i o n to the i n d i -v i d u a l , leadership may be regarded not as an a t t r i b u t e of p e r s o n a l i t y but as a q u a l i t y of r o l e within a p a r t i c u l a r and s p e c i f i e d s o c i a l system. Viewed i n r e l a t i o n to the group, leadership may be regarded as a q u a l i t y of i t s s t r u c t u r e . Without leadership, says Gibb, "there i s no focus about which a number of i n d i v i d u a l s may c l u s t e r to form a group ... here defined as two or more people i n a 1 Rose, op. c i t . . p. 6 9 » 53 state of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . " 1 "Leadership depends on at t i t u d e s and habits of dominance i n c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s and submissive behaviour p i n others." C e r t a i n l y there i s a d i v i s i o n of labour within a group that i s accepted by a l l i t s members. Gibb concludes that coherence occurs because of the common understandings or c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s as to how the members of the group should behave.^ The concept of leadership as a c u l t u r a l norm plays a considerable part i n the emergence of a leader. Ross, i n her study of c o n t r o l and leadership i n women's groups, found that group norms c o n t r o l l e d female p a r t i c i -p a tion i n voluntary fund-raising organizations, where fa c t o r s of f e e l i n g s about o b l i g a t i o n s were paramount, but l i k e Gibb, concluded that leadership was s p e c i f i c to a s i t u a t i o n . Temperament appears to be a f a c t o r i n the emer-gence of the leader. According to Frank, leadership i s a dynamic emotional r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which the p e r s o n a l i t y of the leader or i e n t s the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the followers so that they are d i r e c t e d toward him by reason of the 1 Gibb, C e c i l , " P r i n c i p l e s and T r a i t s of Leadership," Journal of Abnormal and S o c i a l Psychology. 42 (1947), p. 2?1. 2 Warren, H. C,, Dictionary of Psychology. Houghton-M i f f l i n , Boston, 1934. 3 Gibb, op. c i t . . p. 268. 54 r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n between one who dominates and those who wish t o be dominated by h i m , 1 I n o t h e r words, h o l d i n g a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n appears t o f u l f i l u r gent p e r s o n a l i t y needs o f the l e a d e r . While Frank f e e l s t h a t the l e a d e r must arouse an e m o t i o n a l response, a t the same time he says t h a t " l e a d e r s h i p has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and b u i l t i n t o the v e r y f a b r i c of s o c i a l l i f e , so t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s p e r -v a s i v e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y , w i t h l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r any 2 c o n t r a r y i d e a s or f e e l i n g s t o be e x p r e s s e d o r r e c e i v e d . " H i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t o n l y the a g g r e s s i v e l e a d e r , who wishes t o dominate, can and w i l l emerge and f i n d a c c e p t a n c e . The r a r e i n d i v i d u a l o f o r i g i n a l c r e a t i v e power, whom we might h o p e f u l l y wish t o r u l e us, does not need t o e x p l o i t o t h e r s f o r the f u l f i l m e n t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . P a u l P i g o r s i n h i s c l a s s i c study o f l e a d e r s h i p , d e f i n e s i t as i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e , e x e r c i s e d i n a s i t u -a t i o n , and d i r e c t e d , t h r o u g h the communication p r o c e s s , toward the a t t a i n m e n t o f a s p e c i f i c g o a l o r g o a l s . L e a d e r s h i p may a l s o be thought of as a concept a p p l i e d t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r s o n a l i t y and environment t o d e s c r i b e the s i t u a t i o n when one, o r a t the most a v e r y few, 1 Frank, Lawrence K., "The Dilemma o f L e a d e r s h i p , " P s y c h i a t r y . I I , No. 3 (August 1939), p. 344. 2 L o c . c i t . 3 P i g o r s , P a u l , L e a d e r s h i p o r Domination. Harrap, London, 1935, c i t e d i n Gibb, op. c i t . . p, 26?. 55 personalities are so placed i n the environment that his, or their w i l l , feeling, and insight direct and control others i n the pursuit of a cause. 1 Like Gibb, Murphy i n his discussion of the com-ponents of leadership, proceeds from the hypothesis that leadership i s a function of the whole situation, and the leader meets a c r i t i c a l need, coming into being when he as an individual meets certain social needs of the group by releasing into the situation ideas which are accepted by the group because they indicate solutions of needs which 2 have been only dimly sensed. Therefore, he says, self confidence, and the confidence of the group are components of leadership, and when the situation includes elements i n which the s k i l l of the individual counts, the r e t i r i n g person may become dominant. However he emphasises the point that i n his opinion there i s no carry-over of com-ponents from one situation to another unless the situations contain identical elements. If we subscribe to a theory of groups composed of dynamic entities or personalities i n interaction, may we 1 Fisher, Margaret, Leadership and Intelligence. Bureau of Publications, Columbia University, New York, 1954, p.' 1. 2 Murphy, Albert J., "A Study of the Leadership Process," Am. Soc. Review, VI, No, 5 (October 1941), p. 674. 5 Loc. c i t . 56 assume that individual characteristics and actions change under the varying influence of factors i n the social field?; There are accepted ways of "behaving within the cultural framework which tend to determine the forces acting i n the group situation. Therefore i t would seem lo g i c a l that groups have a capacity to propel to leadership one or more of their number.1 The choice of a specific individual for the leadership role w i l l be more dependent upon the nature of the group and of i t s purpose than upon the personality of the individual, but i t w i l l be most dependent upon the relationship between the personality and the group at any particular moment. According to Gibb, there i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for saying that the qualities of personality which make for leadership exist i n a latent form when not being exercised 2 i n a social situation. Any qualities of personality common to leaders i n varying situations may also exist i n persons who never achieve leadership status. If individual acces-sion to the leadership role appears to be dependent upon the group goal, and upon the capacity of the individual to contribute to the achievement of that goal, then the corollary should also hold true, that there i s no leadership 1 Gibb, op. c i t . . p. 268. 2 Loc. c i t . 57 i n i s o l a t i o n . An i n d i v i d u a l i s not a l e a d e r u n t i l he i s engaged i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n toward some o b j e c t i v e g o a l seen by b o t h l e a d e r and f o l l o w e r . 1 J e n n i n g s c o n c l u d e s t h a t the 'why' o f l e a d e r s h i p "appears not t o r e s i d e i n any p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t c o n s i d e r e d s i n g l y , n o r even i n a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f r e l a t e d t r a i t s , but i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f which the i n d i v i d u a l becomes c a p a b l e i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g e l i c i t i n g such c o n t r i -2 b u t i o n f r o m him." When once the group a c t i v i t y has become dominated by an e s t a b l i s h e d and ac c e p t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p t e nds t o d i s a p p e a r and i s r e p l a c e d by do m i n a t i o n o r head-s h i p . The p o s i t i o n o f the l e a d e r , when m a i n t a i n e d through an o r g a n i z e d system and not by the spontaneous r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the group g o a l , may be a p o s i t i o n o f h e a d s h i p , a l t h o u g h the f a c t o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e l e a d e r s h i p . Indeed, i n many s i t u a t i o n s , headship and dom i n a t i o n are i n e f f e c t i v e w i t h o u t l e a d e r s h i p . A l t h o u g h many, l i k e P l a t o , f e e l t h a t the w i s e s t s h o u l d r u l e , the l e a d e r i n our s o c i e t y does not appear t o 1 Je n n i n g s , H e l e n H., L e a d e r s h i p and I s o l a t i o n . Longmans, London, 1943, c i t e d i n Gibb, op. c i t . . p . 271. 2 L o c . c i t . 58 need superior i n t e l l i g e n c e . Indeed, i n t e l l i g e n c e f a r superior to the group he leads might hamper h i s l e a d e r s h i p . 1 According to Gouldner, s u p e r i o r i t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e beyond a c e r t a i n degree, r e l a t i v e to a group, may prevent an i n d i -p v i d u a l from obtaining or holding onto leadership, but he tempers h i s conclusions with respect to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the leader and the average i n t e l l i g e n c e of the group. F i r s t , he says, the leader tends to have an i n t e l l i g e n c e higher than the average i n h i s group, and second, there i s a l i m i t to the s u p e r i o r i t y of i n t e l -ligence which a leader may possess. The most that can be s a i d , adds Gouldner, i s that access to leadership i s i n h i b i t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s with lower than average i n t e l -l igence, and that having higher than average i n t e l l i g e n c e than the group does not guarantee leadership. The whole question of i n t e l l i g e n c e as a component of leadership i s apparently s t i l l i n the realm of i n v e s t i g a t i o n although Gouldner c i t e s Maurice Krout to the e f f e c t that "the great men of the c i v i l i z e d world have been analyzed f o r us by competent psychologists on the basis of materials s u f f i c i e n t to determine brightness or i n t e l l i g e n c e . The r e s u l t s seem to show that 'great men', i n c l u d i n g outstanding leaders i n 1 Tannenbaum, Robert, et a l . , Leadership and Organization. McGraw H i l l , New York, 1961, p. 24. 2 Gouldner, op. c i t . , p. 3 3 . 3 Loc. c i t . 59 the public l i f e of Europe and America, range a l l the way from d u l l normal to genius.""** More important i s the relevance or significance of the leaders a b i l i t y for solving the problems of the group that he expects to lead. "Potentiality," says Gibb, "cannot be d i r e c t l y known, any-more than capacity can be known, except as i t can be inferred from expressed a b i l i t y . The group leader i s that person who i s able to contribute most to progress toward the common p goals." Leadership and the Federation How does the quality of i t s leadership affect the Federation? John Tsouderos, i n his investigations of the process of change i n voluntary organizations, drew some interesting conclusions with respect to the growth and decline of this type of association.^ B r i e f l y , he came to the conclusion that i n voluntary associations membership growth precedes the growth of income, but after the peak of t o t a l income has passed and the social group i s con-tracting, the association attempts to survive by continuing the process of formalization. 1 Krout, Maurice, Introduction to Social Psychology. New York, 194-2, p. 644, cited i n Gouldner, op. c i t . . p. 34. 2 Gibb, op. c i t . , p. 268. 3 Tsouderos, John E., "Organizational Change i n Terms of Selected Variables," Am. Soc. Review, 20 (1955), p. 207. 60 Tsouderos found t h a t the l a r g e r the membership grew, the s m a l l e r was the percentage o f the membership t a k i n g p a r t i n v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s n e c e s s a r y t o the smooth r u n n i n g o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 With the i n c r e a s e i n member-s h i p , the number o f s t a n d i n g committees i n c r e a s e d and i n consequence so d i d the f r e q u e n c y o f e x e c u t i v e committee meetings. As a r e s u l t , the hours o f s e r v i c e donated by the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s of the a s s o c i a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , and as these members are the l e a s t l i k e l y t o withdraw, the g r e a t e s t t u r n o v e r i s observed i n the p a s s i v e membership. We may conclude t h a t the d e v o t i o n o f the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s i s g r e a t e r and presumably t h e y are capable and e f f i c i e n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h the e x t r a burdens thus p l a c e d on them as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i n c r e a s e and membership d e c r e a s e s . From the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from the l e a d e r s of the F e d e r a t i o n , one c o u l d conclude t h a t the F e d e r a t i o n i s not w i t h o u t good l e a d e r s , but t h a t the l e a d e r s have a t a s k t h a t grows p r o g r e s s i v e l y l a r g e r and a p o o l o f v o l u n t e e r s t h a t grows p r o g r e s s i v e l y s m a l l e r . I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t s t u d e n t s of the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a c e the g r e a t e s t importance on the f a c t o r o f time: "To be e f f e c t i v e , a l e a d e r must f i r s t o f a l l be a b l e t o devote more 'time' t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h an i s e x p e c t e d o f the rank 1 Tsouderos, op. c i t . . p. 20?. 61 and f i l e . n l I n the F e d e r a t i o n , i t has been n o t e d t h a t a l l the members who were i n t e r v i e w e d were a b l e t o g i v e t h i s t ime, e i t h e r by r e a s o n o f h a v i n g d i m i n i s h e d h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s o r because o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o employ ho u s e h o l d h e l p . I n a d d i t i o n t h e y must have a v a l u e commitment t o the g o a l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As we have seen, the q u e s t i o n o f temperament looms l a r g e i n any d i s c u s s i o n o f the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t are n e c e s -s a r y f o r l e a d e r s h i p . Only one of the members i n our sample f e l t t h a t she had i n no way sought the l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s t h a t she had h e l d i n the F e d e r a t i o n . However even t h i s member f e l t t h a t she had made a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the purposes f o r which the F e d e r a t i o n s t a n d s . I t i s t r u e t h a t members of the Board o f D i r e c t o r s are l o o k e d upon as persons w i t h more p r e s t i g e , knowledge and i n f l u e n c e than members of the lower eche l o n s o f the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e o f former P r e s i d e n t s i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y l i v e i n the urban a r e a where t h e y may be c o n s u l t e d by F e d e r a t i o n members now i n o f f i c e . T h i s i s one way i n which the F e d e r a t i o n r e t a i n s the b e n e f i t s o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f those w i t h l o n g tenure i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 S i l l s , op. c i t . . p. 33; see a l s o Boss, A i l e e n , op. c i t . 62 However, as membership increases, so does the heterogeneous character of the organization, and the need for specialization i n the functions of the leadership group. According to Tsouderos, this results i n a decline i n the feelings of intimacy and frequency of interaction, and as a consequence the membership grows passive and further and further removed from the leadership. 1 With a growing membership i t i s more and more d i f f i c u l t to maintain f r e -quent face-to-face interaction, and the problems of communi-cation between the leadership and the membership increase. This problem of communication between the Federation and the local associations i s one that i s facing this organization at the present time. The decline i n membership i s troubling a l l the members of the Board, and i n the interviews with the members of our sample i t was apparent that a l l had given i t a good deal of thought. Such i s the concern f e l t by the Board that a committee to survey and evaluate the work of the Federation has been set up to investigate the problem. Although Tsouderos traced the growth and decline of the voluntary organization, he sug-gests two questions for consideration that he thinks need an analytical approach, and which he f e l t his research did not answer. F i r s t , Why do voluntary organizations have a 1 Tsouderos, op. c i t . . p. 209. 2 Loc. c i t . 63 tendency t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r membership t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t , and t h e n r e a c h a p o i n t o f maximum growth, and why does membership d e c l i n e a f t e r a p e r i o d o f time? Communication between the F e d e r a t i o n and the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i s an i n c r e a s i n g problem. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s problem i s not a new one, but has been p r e s e n t s i n c e the membership began t o i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y , i f we re v i e w our f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g e a r l i e r and l a t e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the go a l s and purposes by the members. A t h i r d f a c t o r which i s h a r d l y e x p l a i n e d by the t h e o r y o f e m o t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n p roposed by Frank, i s the need of the l e a d e r t o have some s k i l l s . " * S o c i a l s k i l l s would appear t o be a n e c e s s a r y a d j u n c t t o the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e , i n o r d e r t o be abl e t o d e a l w i t h l e a d e r s h i p i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Whether these s k i l l s are brought t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n by the l e a d e r s , o r whether t h e y develop these s k i l l s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , adequate l e a d e r s h i p i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s i z e o f the F e d e r a t i o n might l o g i c a l l y presuppose c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s " a p p r o p r i a t e t o 2 b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t e x t s . " Development of L e a d e r s h i p i n the F e d e r a t i o n The development o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the 1 S i l l s , op. c i t . . p. 33» 2 Hausknecht, Murray, The J o i n e r s . The Bedminster P r e s s , New York, 1962, p. 113. 64 F e d e r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i s o f p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n t o a l l thought-f u l members o f the Board of D i r e c t o r s . The s u b j e c t o f l e a d e r s h i p was d i s c u s s e d by the respondent i n e v e r y i n t e r -view. One s a i d she was most concerned about the " l a c k o f development of new l e a d e r s " , another thought t h a t the problem o f out-of-town p e o p l e i n l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s was a p r e s s i n g one, a t h i r d thought t h e r e was b e t t e r o p e r a t i o n o f a f f a i r s a t the Board l e v e l as a r e s u l t o f p a s t e f f o r t s i n l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , but t h a t more work had t o be done i n p r o v i d i n g l i n e s of communication from the Board down t o the l o c a l l e v e l . The Board o f D i r e c t o r s c o n t i n u a l l y e v a l u a t e s i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d o f l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , and goes t o g r e a t e f f o r t s t o arrange l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g programs. A Workshop f o r Board members i s h e l d a n n u a l l y t o d i s c u s s the F e d e r a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , and t o conduct p u r p o s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n s on communication, d e c i s i o n making and problem s o l v i n g . T o g e t h er w i t h the Department of E x t e n s i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the F e d e r a t i o n sponsors through i t s committees f o r Group Development, and o t h e r committees concerned, a P a r e n t s ' I n s t i t u t e and a Workshop on L e a d e r s h i p and S o c i a l A c t i o n i n one of i t s a s p e c t s . L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Workshops are t a k e n t o c e n t r e s throughout the P r o v i n c e ^ i n a d d i t i o n Workshops and S c h o o l s of I n s t r u c t i o n are sponsored by v a r i o u s c o u n c i l s f o r the members and e x e c u t i v e s o f l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n an e f f o r t t o develop 65 l e a d e r s h i p a t the l o c a l l e v e l . However c e r t a i n areas o f the P r o v i n c e have g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i c i e s of the F e d e r a t i o n t h a n o t h e r a r e a s , and t h i s appears t o he r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l c l a s s and s t a t u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A b r i e f e x amination o f the p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e o f the t h i r t e e n members i n our sample r e v e a l s the f a c t t h a t s i x of the t h i r t e e n have been o r are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r e e s c h o o l s i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, and seven o f the t h i r t e e n l i v e west o f Cambie i n middle c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . At l e a s t f i v e o t h e r members o f the Board who were not i n c l u d e d i n our sample a l s o l i v e w i t h i n t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s . A d i s -p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f the members o f the Board appear t o come from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l geographic a r e a o f the P r o v i n c e , an a r e a which presumably would have e x c e l l e n t edu-c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s c h i l d r e n i f t h e r e were no P a r e n t - T e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , because o f the importance o f the m i d d l e - c l a s s v a l u e o f e d u c a t i o n . The C h a l l e n g e f o r the F u t u r e Perhaps what i s needed to a r r e s t the d e c l i n e o f the membership i n the F e d e r a t i o n i s some new s a l i e n t i s s u e which r e q u i r e s a s p e c i f i c course o f a c t i o n . When a s s o c i -a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a c t u a l p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s f o r the s c h o o l s , the need f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y c o u l d be seen by any member as n e c e s s a r y , because s c h o o l boards d i d not have the funds t o p r o v i d e the e x t r a s . When o b j e c t i v e s are more nebulous 66 and ambiguous, t h e i r achievement does n o t p r o v i d e such c o n c r e t e s a t i s f a c t i o n s and membership i n t e r e s t s l o w l y d i s i n t e g r a t e s . Leaders perhaps ought t o t h i n k about ways t o g i v e the a p p a r e n t l y nebulous causes a more c o n c r e t e c h a r a c t e r i n o r d e r t o d i m i n i s h membership h e t e r o g e n e i t y and i n c r e a s e the v i g o u r o f a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i f e . Moreover, an a r e a r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r study i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and the o f f i c i a l a g e n c i e s , namely the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s , and the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. As the p u b l i c s c h o o l system has changed, the c o n t e n t has become more t e c h n i c a l , the management has become more e f f i c i e n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l , p u b l i c s u p p o r t i s becoming more adequate; and w i t h the acceptance o f e d u c a t i o n as a b a s i c v a l u e i n a de m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n on the one hand, and the Pa r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n on the o t h e r , appears t o have become more complex, C e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y undertaken by the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n have been t a k e n over by the s c h o o l system, and these two groups are i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a t e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t would appear, needs t o be examined, i t s f u n c t i o n s c l a r i f i e d , and new needs i d e n t i f i e d . L e a d e r s h i p and the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i -a t i o n can be c h a l l e n g e d by these changes, and new a c t i v i t y and a d a p t a t i o n i n terms o f f u t u r e a c t i o n may be i n d i c a t e d . .APPENDIX A INTERVIEW SCHEDULE I . How d i d you become a member of the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n ? a. Reason f o r j o i n i n g the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n . b. How were you r e c r u i t e d ? c. How d i d you become an e x e c u t i v e member f o r the f i r s t time? d. How many o f f i c e s d i d you h o l d i n the L o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n ? e. Were you an o f f i c e r i n the D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l ? How long? How many o f f i c e s d i d you h o l d ? f . How were you e l e c t e d t o the F e d e r a t i o n ? How l o n g have you been on the Board? How many o f f i c e s have you h e l d ? I I . Why are you i n P a r e n t - T e a c h e r work? a. How d i d you p e r c e i v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f your membership? b. D i d your view o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n change w i t h time? c. How do you p e r c e i v e the g o a l s now? d. How do you see your c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the F e d e r a t i o n ? e. Can you see any d i f f e r e n c e s between the p l a c e i t h o l d s now and i t s p l a c e i n the f u t u r e ? I I I . Who are the members of the F e d e r a t i o n ? a. How many c h i l d r e n ? What age were the y when you f i r s t j o i n e d the P a r e n t - T e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n ? . b. What age were your c h i l d r e n when you were e l e c t e d t o the F e d e r a t i o n ? c. What i s your e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t ? d. Do you b e l o n g t o o t h e r v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bass, Bernard M. Leadership. Psychology and Organizational  Behaviour. Harper, New York, I960. Berger, Monroe, Theodore Abel and Charles H. Page, eds. Freedom and Control i n Modern Society. D. Van Nostrand and Co.,.Inc., New York, 1954. B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation. Child Welfare  Work K i t . Child Welfare Services Committee, Vancouver, 1961. ; . Constitution. By-Laws and Standing Rules. Vancouver, 1961. ; . Statement of Policy. 1961 and Resolutions Review.-1957-1961. • Provincial F i l e . 1962-1965. . Reports Presented at the Board of Directors Meeting. January 51  and February 1. 1965. Boulding, Kenneth E. Conflict and Defense. Harper, New York, 1962. Cohen, Nathan E., ed. The Citizen Volunteer. Harper, New York, I960. DeImage, Margaret. History of the Parent-Teacher Movement  in B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia Parent-Teacher Federation, 1959* Fisher, Margaret. Leadership and Intelligence. Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, 1954. Gouldner, Alvin W., ed. Studies i n Leadership. Harper, New York, 1950. 69 H a t t , P a u l K. and A l b e r t J . R e i s s , J n r . C i t i e s and S o c i e t y . The R e v i s e d Reader i n Urban S o c i o l o g y . The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, 111., 1957 (1951). Hausknecht, H u r r a y . The J o i n e r s . The Bedminster P r e s s , New York, 1962. Rose, A r n o l d A. Theory and Method i n the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1954. S i l l s , D a v i d L. The V o l u n t e e r s . The Free P r e s s , Glencoe, 111., 1957. Tannenbaun, Robert, I r v i n g R. Weschler and F r e d M a s s a r i k . L e a d e r s h i p and O r g a n i z a t i o n . M c G r a w - H i l l , New York, 1961. T o c q u e v i l l e , A l e x i s D. Democracy i n America. The Henry Reeve Text as R e v i s e d by Fran c e s Bowen. A l f r e d A. Knopf, New York, 1953, V o l . I I . Warren, H. C. D i c t i o n a r y o f P s y c h o l o g y . H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , Boston, 1934. Weber, Max. E s s a y s i n S o c i o l o g y . O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1946. Young, P a u l i n e V. S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l Surveys and Res e a r c h . P r e n t i c e H a l l , New York, 1939. A r t i c l e s Anderson, W. A. "Fa m i l y S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and S o c i a l S t a t u s S e l f - R a t i n g . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 11, No. 3 (June 1946), pp. 253-258. B a v e l a s , A. and K. Lewin. " T r a i n i n g i n Democratic L e a d e r s h i p . " J o u r n a l of Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 37 (1942), pp. 115-119. B e r k o w i t z , L e o n a r d . " S h a r i n g L e a d e r s h i p i n Sm a l l D e c i s i o n -Making Groups." J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 48.(1953). Bushee, F. A. " S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a S m a l l C i t y . " American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . 51 (1945), pp. 217T226 70 C a r t e r , Launor, W i l l i a m Haythorn, and Margaret H o w e l l . "A F u r t h e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the C r i t e r i a o f L e a d e r s h i p . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 45 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , PP. 350-358. G a r t e r , Launor, W i l l i a m Haythorn, B e a t r i c e S h r i v e r and John L a i z e l l a . "The Behaviour o f Leaders and Other Group Members." J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 46 (195D, pp.- 589-595. Chapin, S t u a r t F. and John E . Tsouderos. "The F o r m a l i z a t i o n P r o c e s s i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s . " S o c i a l F o r c e s . 34 (1956), pp. 342-344. Dotson, F l o y d . " P a t t e r n s o f V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Among Urban Working C l a s s F a m i l i e s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review. 16 ( 1 9 5 D , pp. 687-693. Evan, W i l l i a m M. "Dimensions o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s . " . S o c i a l F o r c e s . 36 (1957), pp. 148 - 1 5 3 . F a n e u i , A l e x a n d e r . "A Typology o f Community L e a d e r s h i p Based on I n f l u e n c e and I n t e r a c t i o n W i t h i n the Leader Sub-system." S o c i a l F o r c e s . 34 (1956), p. 332. Frank, Lawrence K. "The Dilemma o f L e a d e r s h i p . " P s y c h i a t r y . 2 (1939), pp. 343-361. Freeman, Howard E., Edwin Novak and Leo. G. Reeder. " C o r r e l a t e s of Membership i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 22 (1957), pp. 528-533. Gibb, C e c i l A. "The P r i n c i p l e s and T r a i t s o f L e a d e r s h i p . " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 42 (1947), pp. 267-284. Gordon, Wayne C , and N i c h o l a s Babchuk. "A Typology o f V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 24 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 22-29. Kommarovsky, M i r r a . "The V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s o f Urban D w e l l e r s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 2 (1946), pp. 686-698. Murphy, A l b e r t J . "A Study o f the L e a d e r s h i p P r o c e s s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 6 (1941), pp. 674-68?. Rose, A r n o l d M. " V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s under C o n d i t i o n s o f C o m p e t i t i o n and C o n f l i c t . " S o c i a l F o r c e s . 34 (1956). 71 Ross, Aileen 3D. "Control and Leadership i n Women's Groups: An Analysis of Philanthropic Money-Raising A c t i v i t i e s . " Social Forces. 37 (1958), pp. 124-131. Scott, John G. Jnr. "Membership and Participation i n Voluntary Associations." American Sociological Review. 22 (1957), pp.. 315-326. Selznick, P h i l i p . "Approach to the Theory of Bureaucracy." American Sociological Review. 8 (194-3), pp. 47-54. Tsouderos, John E. "Organizational Change i n Terms of a Series of Selected Variables." American Sociological  Review. 20 (1955), pp. 206-210. > Wright, Charles R. and Herbert H. Hyman. "Voluntary Association Memberships of American Adults: Evidence from the National Sample Surveys." American  Sociological Review. 23 (1958), pp. 284-294. Zimmer, Basil G. and Amos H. Hawley. "The Significance of Membership i n Associations." American Journal of  Sociology. 65 (1959), pp. 196-201. 

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