UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Potassium in relation to transpiration in the tomato Le Gallais, Donald Richmond 1941

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1941_A4 L3 P6.pdf [ 7.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105244.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105244-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105244-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105244-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105244-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105244-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105244-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105244-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105244.ris

Full Text

POTASSIUM IB" RELATION TO TRANSPIRATION IN THE TOMATO BY Donald Richmond Le G a l l a i s  A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o The Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of HORTICULTURE  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia SEPTEMBER, 1941  TABLE OP CONTENTS Introduction . Review of L i t e r a t u r e .  . . . . . . . . . .  Object of Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2 7  M a t e r i a l s and Methods I. The N u t r i e n t S o l u t i o n s  . . . .  . . . .  I I . Growing the P l a n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7  . . . . 10  I I I . The T r a n s p i r a t i o n Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' IV. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Green, Dry.and Ash Weights  13  . . . . 14  V. E x t r a c t i o n of t h e P l a n t Sap and D e t e r m i n a t i o n of i t s P h y s i c a l Chemical Constants  ..........  16  V I . A n a l y t i c a l Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19  V I I . F u r t h e r T r a n s p i r a t i o n Tests . . . . . . . . . . . < . 25 Results I. G e n e r a l Appearance of the P l a n t s IX v ^AjnSjlysis  of k^eeds  IV. The F u r t h e r  X} ISC IX 33X0 XX  «  «  «  . . . . . . . . . .  » <» • * « * © « © » # « ® « © «  T r a n s p i r a t i o n Tests  »  •  •  27  «  c  e  e  c  «  '  B  #.o8  . . . . . . . . . .  S  i  c  e  «  »  «  .  6  «  e  «  i  41  t  1  4  Xji'b©3T3"fcLlX6 G1 "t ©d. B « e • a « e « « • * e e • • « © « « « « 53 >  J  Acknowledgements Append  e « »  • • . • . •  « e©  . 58 . . . 59  2  POTASSIUM IB" RELATION TO TRANSPIRATION IN THE TOlfATO  INTRODUCTION  .  Potassium is-one of the most abundant of the elements found i n p l a n t s , y e t comparatively tion.  l i t t l e i s known of i t s exact f u n c -  U n l i k e the other major e s s e n t i a l elements - carbon,  hydrogen, oxygen,A. c a l c i u m , magnesium, phosphorus and sulphur. p o t a s s i u m has not been found 3,s a p a r t of any of the v a r i o u s organic  compounds o c c u r i n g i n p l a n t s .  s o l u b l e forms as i t can be completely water (15).  I t seems t o occur inremoved by washing w i t h  I t i s a l s o the most r e a d i l y t r a n s l o c a t e d of the  e s s e n t i a l m i n e r a l elements i n the p l a n t a s h ( 9 ) .  Even though  i t s - s p e c i f i c r o l e ha,s not been determined i t i s d e f i n i t e l y known to be a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l , as i n i t s absence normal growth does not occur.  The many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e p o r t e d  show  t h a t p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y r e s u l t s i n impairment of many a s p e c t s of p l a n t growth. I t was n o t i c e d t h a t p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t tomato p l a n t s , used i n n u t r i t i o n experiments c a r r i e d on by Department of H o r t i culture students, n u t r i e n t ones d i d . and D a r b i s h i r e Naudin.  tended t o w i l t b e f o r e  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u l l  A s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n was noted by T i n c k l e r  (32) i n t h e i r experiment on Stachys tuber i f e r a  They noted t h a t l a t e on a v e r y h o t day the potassium,  d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s were w i l t e d whereas a l l the comparable p l a n t s s u p p l i e d w i t h p o t a s s i u m were e r e c t and t u r g i d .  These observ-  a t i o n s stiggested t h a t i t would be w o r t h w h i l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e more f u l l y the I n f l u e n c e  of potassium on t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  Loss of water by t r a n s p i r a t i o n i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e  interest  2 and  importance t o those who work' w i t h p l a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  the d r y a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s ,  A l a r g e amount of water i s l o s t  from the s o i l through p l a n t s i n t h i s way, the amount v a r y i n g w i t h the d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s of p l a n t s , the l o c a t i o n and the season. For t e r r e s t i a l p l a n t s of any g i v e n s p e c i e s the r a t e of t r a n s p i r a t i o n p e r u n i t of weight or of l e a f a r e a i s not cons t a n t "but v a r i e s , "being i n f l u e n c e d "by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s ; A. C l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a s , 1. Radiant energy, or the i n t e n s i t y of s u n l i g h t , 2. Temperature,. 3. R e l a t i v e H u m i d i t y , 4. A i r c u r r e n t s or wind; E. S o i l f a c t o r s a s , 5. The degree of a e r a t i o n of the r o o t s , 6. The wa-ter content of the s o i l , 7. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s o l u t e s ' i n the s o i l , 8. The m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s i n the s o i l ; and  C. i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s a s , 9. S t r u c t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y of the  l e a f , 10. The stage of growth of the p l a n t , and p o s s i b l y 11. The  c o m p o s i t i o n of the p l a n t sap (20). The  c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a r e l a r g e l y "beyond c o n t r o l , t h e s o i l  f a c t o r s can o f t e n be brought under c o n t r o l , and the i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s , though l a r g e l y h e r e d i t a r y , a r e i n f l u e n c e d by n u t r i t i o n which i s c o n t r o l l a b l e , and i n some cases by p h o t o p e r i o d can a f f e c t the growth phase o f some p l a n t s .  which  The f a c t o r s  to be i n f l u e n c e d by p o t a s s i u m i n the above o b s e r v a t i o n s  likely on  w i l t i n g would be 7, 8 , 9 and 11. REVIEW OP LITERATURE The e f f e c t upon t r a n s p i r a t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n - o f u t e s i n the s o i l s o l u t i o n .  the s o l -  Not much work has been done on t h i s , "but the work done seems q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e .  Bouyoucos ( l ) i n h i s work on wheat  3 s e e d l i n g s grown i n complete n u t r i e n t water, sand and s o i l t u r e s showed t h a t t r a n s p i r a t i o n per gram of dry matter  cul-  de-  creased w i t h r i s e i n d e n s i t y of the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n w h i l e a c t u a l dry matter produced i n c r e a s e d .  This was  the  t r u e f o r the  h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s o n l y , as "below a v a r y i n g lower d e n s i t y t r a n s p i r a t i o n decreased w i t h decrease i n d e n s i t y . t r u e f o r corn and bean s e e d l i n g s .  The  same h e l d  Hoagland (10) w o r k i n g on  b a r l e y observed t h a t when p l a n t s of uniform, development were t r a n s f e r r e d to n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s of d i f f e r e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , a g r e a t e r t r a n s p i r a t i o n took p l a c e from s o l u t i o n s of lower •centration.  con-  Meyer (19) i n h i s work on the c o t t o n p l a n t found  t h a t t r a n s p i r a t i o n per u n i t of l e a f area or of f r e s h or of dry weight of top p r o g r e s s i v e l y decreased i n amount w i t h ive  i n c r e a s e i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  i n the s o i l , NaCl, NalTO^, KG1,  of any  progress-  of the f o l l o w i n g s a l t s  GaCl2 and Ca(ITOg )g.  of these three workers are i n g e n e r a l agreement, and  The r e s u l t s i t seems  to be an e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t , w i t h i n extreme l i m i t s , the i n crease i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n  of s o l u t e s , e x c l u d i n g t o x i c substances,  i n the s o i l s o l u t i o n r e s u l t s i n a decrease i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n ! This f a c t i s the p r o b a b l e e x p l a i n a t i o n i n p a r t a t l e a s t of the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by Lawes (16) i n 1850 i n 1895. ing  and ~by Maercker  (17)  Lawes found t h a t the a d d i t i o n of a f e r t i l i z e r c o n s i s t -  of p o t a s s i u m s u l p h a t e , magnesium s u l p h a t e ,  sodium c h l o r i d e  and mono-calcium phosphate decreased the amount of water r e q u i r e d to produce a u n i t of dry matter i n wheat, peas and c l o v e r , but not i n beans.  Maercker i n v e s t i g a t e d the  influence  of crude p o t a s h s a l t s , such as k a i n l t and c a r n a l l i t , on  the  consumption of water by mustard p l a n t s grown i n u n s e a l e d p o t s  of s o i l i n which the amount of water was kept c o n s t a n t . found t h a t as' compared w i t h the p l a n t s grown i n s o i l  Pie  without  p o t a s h those h a v i n g p o t a s h r e q u i r e d l e s s water as the amount of p o t a s h was i n c r e a s e d .  The e f f e c t was much more pronounced i n  the s o i l c o n t a i n i n g 27 per cent of i t s water c a p a c i t y than i n t h a t c o n t a i n i n g 60 p e r cent.  Because h i s pots were not s e a l e d  to prevent -loss of water from the s u r f a c e of the s o i l , h i s f i g u r e s show t o t a l water l o s s , not merely t r a n s p i r a t i o n a l l o s s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s the experiment shows g r e a t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n of water w i t h i n c r e a s e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n . The e f f e c t upon t r a n s p i r a t i o n of the m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s i n the s o i l " . B e s i d e s the e f f e c t of t o t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o l u t e s i n the s o i l s o l u t i o n there i s the separate i o n s which go t o make up t h a t t o t a l .  e f f e c t of the i n d i v i d u a l  The r e s u l t s of Lawes and  of Maercker' are p r o b a b l y a l s o p a r t l y due t o the e f f e c t s of these i n d i v i d u a l i o n s as w e l l as t o t o t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Investig-  a t i o n s on the i n f l u e n c e upon t r a n s p i r a t i o n of the m i n e r a l  nut-  r i e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y ¥, P and K, have a l s o been r e l a t i v e l y s c a r c e , and those done show c o n s i d e r a b l e disagreement i n r e s u l t s . Sachs (28) i n 1859 observed t h a t the a d d i t i o n of KUO^, (ifH^)gSO^, or gypsum t o the s o i l decreased the amount of t r a n s p i r a t i o n compared w i t h t h a t of a s i m i l a r p l a n t i n c o n t r o l s o i l . S i m i l a r l y the a d d i t i o n of NaCl or ( E H ) g S 0 4  water c u l t u r e decreased t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  4  to a d i s t i l l e d  He a l s o observed t h a t a  s m a l l amount of H1TO added t o a d i s t i l l e d water c u l t u r e caused 3  a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n , b u t a s m a l l amount of KOH caused r e t a r d a t i o n of t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  B u r g e r s t e i n (2) i n 1876  5  r e p o r t e d t h a t a c i d s a c c e l e r a t e d t r a n s p i r a t i o n and t h a t a l k a l i e s r e t a r d e d i t , t h i s "being i n agreement w i t h Sachs.  He a l s o r e -  p o r t e d t h a t s o l u t i o n s of c a l c i u m n i t r a t e , potassium n i t r a t e , p o t a s s i u m phosphate, potassium carbonate, ammonium n i t r a t e , magnesium s u l p h a t e , ammonium sulphate, and sodium c h l o r i d e were found t o i n c r e a s e t r a n s p i r a t i o n up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t .  These  t e s t s were not reduced to one v a r y i n g f a c t o r as these workers did  not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s e p a r a t e e f f e c t s of con-  centration.  The same a l s o a p p l i e s to Reed.  Reed (26) i n 1910 w o r k i n g on wheat grown i n s o i l and i n s o i l - e x t r a c t s found t h a t i n the case of l i m e and of sodium phosphate t r e a t m e n t s the tra.nspira.tion showed m a t e r i a l i n c r e a s es, whereas treatments w i t h p o t a s s i u m s a l t s decreased i t , w h i l e the e f f e c t of sodium n i t r a t e treatment was somewhat v a r i a b l e u s u a l l y o p e r a t i n g however to cause a decrease i n t r a n s piration;  He found i n c o n t r a s t to Sachs and B u r g e r s t e i n t h a t  i n o r g a n i c a c i d s r e t a r d e d t r a n s p i r a t i o n w h i l e the e f f e c t s of o r g a n i c a c i d s were somewhat v a r i a b l e .  Reed a l s o s t a t e s t h a t  potassium always showed i t s i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t and c a l c i u m i t s a c c e l e r a t i n g e f f e c t on t r a n s p i r a t i o n whether the p o t a s s i u m or c a l c i u m were combined w i t h C I , NO^,  or  SO^.  Bouyoucos ( l ) i n 1911 added e x a c t l y the same amount of complete n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n t o f i f t i e t h normal s o l u t i o n s of v a r i o u s s a l t s , and used these i n water and sand c u l t u r e s of wheat s e e d l i n g s .  The order of magnitude  of the e f f e c t was  the same i n b o t h types of c u l t u r e s f o r a l l the s a l t s . s o l u t i o n c u l t u r e the r e l a t i v e t r a n s p i r a t i o n was  not  In the  inhibited i n  6 t h i s order:  (1TH ) C0 > MgS0 >MgClg> ICgGOj > ( E H ) S 0 > KNO- > 4  2  5  4  4  2  4  G a ( N 0 ) > lalTO > GaClg > NagHP0 > KgliPC^; ^while i n the sand • 3  2  3  c u l t u r e i t was  4  reduced thus:  (NH ) S 0 > (NH ) g C 0 > }igS0 > 4  2  4  4  3  4  C a ( l T 0 ) > M g C l > KN0 > CaClg > K C 0 > Na HP0 > K H P 0 . 5  2  2  3  2  Hans teen-Cranner (8) I n 1914,  3  2  4  2  4  w o r k i n g on wheat, oats  and  rye s e e d l i n g s grown f i r s t i n 'normal Hnop's n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n and then t r a n s f e r r e d to d i l u t e s i n g l e s a l t s o l u t i o n s , r e p o r t e d t h a t the c a l c i u m i o n was  found to e x e r t a r e t a r d i n g I n f l u e n c e  on water a b s o r p t i o n and an a c c e l e r a t i n g e f f e c t on t r a n s p i r a t i o n , w h i l e p o t a s s i u m i n i s o m o t i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n s s t i m u l a t e d water a b s o r p t i o n and r e t a r d e d t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  K i s s e r (14) i n  1927  r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s i n g e n e r a l agreement w i t h these i n h i s work on wheat p l a n t s t r e a t e d i n somewhat the same "way.  Since b o t h  these I n v e s t i g a t o r s used v e r y d i l u t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s s a l t s employed, i t would seem t h a t the r e s u l t s were l a r g e l y due to  to s p e c i f i c i o n e f f e c t s upon t r a n s p i r a t i o n and  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n e f f e c t s shown-by Bouyoucos and G h i l d e r s and Cowart (3) i n 1935  not  Hoagland.  grew-young apple t r e e s i n  sand c u l t u r e s u s i n g f u l l n u t r i e n t , minus P, minus K, minus  PK,  and minus ¥> n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s based on Knop' s f o r m u l a .  They  found t h a t the t r a n s p i r a t i o n per u n i t of l e a f a r e a was  greater  for  the minus.P and the minus PK treatments  n u t r i e n t , w h i l e I t was  than f o r the  full  l e s s f o r the minus K and much l e s s f o r  the minus N than f o r the f u l l n u t r i e n t . James (12) i n 1930,  and N i g h t i n g a l e , Schermerhorn and  Bobbins (23) i n 1930 p u b l i s h e d papers d e a l i n g w i t h p l a n t s t r u c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to p o t a s s i u m , but n e i t h e r of these papers threw any d e f i n i t e l i g h t on the r e l a t i o n of t h i s s t r u c t u r e to t r a n s -  7 piration. B e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h i s experiment no papers were found on t h e r e l a t i o n of potassium t o the c o m p o s i t i o n of the p l a n t sap i n relation to transpiration. OBJECT OE EXPERIMENT The purpose of the f q l l o w i n g experiments was  1. t o d e t e r -  mine by a c t u a l measurement whether or not potassium d e f i c i e n t tomato p l a n t s t r a n s p i r e d more p e r u n i t of weight than d i d comparable f u l l nutrient plants;  2. t o compare the e f f e c t of  p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y on t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n tomato p l a n t s  with  t h a t of a' phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y ? and t h a t of a combined phosphorus and potassium d e f i c i e n c y ;  3. t o see i f the e f f e c t of  p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y on t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n the tomato h e l d good for- another type of p l a n t , f o r example, the r a d i s h ;  4. t o see  i f there was any r e l a t i o n between s e v e r a l of the p h y s i c a l chemi c a l c o n s t a n t s of the p l a n t sap of the p l a n t s t e s t e d and t h e i r transpiration;  5. t o see i f there was any r e l a t i o n between the  c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n of the p l a n t a s h and the t r a n s p i r a t i o n . These experiments were c a r r i e d on a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a t Vancouver, B. C. d u r i n g the summers of 1936 and 1937,  and the 1940 - 41 term.  MATERIALS AND METHODS L*  332£ N u t r i e n t S o l u t i o n s . Hoagland's n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s of osmotic p r e s s u r e 0.72  atmospheres were made up as f o l l o w s .  The stock s o l u t i o n s were  made up as i n d i c a t e d i n Table I . I n each case the amount of C h e m i c a l l y Pure s a l t i n d i c a t e d was d i s s o l v e d i n a convenient  8 amount of d i s t i l l e d water.  In the case of the i r o n s o l u t i o n s ,  however, one -gram of s a l t was d i s s o l v e d i n water and made up t o 100 c c .  I n the case of s o l u t i o n s No, 1 and No. 4, where two  s a l t s were used i n the one s o l u t i o n , each s a l t was f i r s t solved separately.  dis-  The two s o l u t i o n s were then mixed and made  up to a volume of one l i t e r . Table _1 No.  Material  Amount  1.  67 g rams MgS0 '7H 0 4  2.  3  2  NaN0 MgS0  5.  2  Ca(N0 ) KH P0  4.*-  The S t o c k S o l u t i o n s  4H 0  2  2  4  3  4  - NaH P0 2  7H 0 2  H0  4  2  100  it  207.5  11  50  ti  57  11  100 50  n  1  ii  PeP0  7.  KC1  27.5  11  8,  NaCl.  21.5  II  9.  Ferric  H0 2  tartrate  1 '.  D i s s o l v e s e p a r a t e l y , mix and d i l u t e t o 1 l i t e r . D i s s o l v e and d i l u t e t o 1 1, 11  11  11  II  u  11  D i s s o l v e s e p a r a t e l y , mix  11  6.  4  Directions  •'and d i l u t e t o 1 l i t e r . D i s s o l v e and d i l u t e t o 1 1.  11  11  . 100 cc  " 1 1  1  11  11  11  1. 11  11  " 100 cc  The n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s were made up from the s t o c k s o l u t i o n s i n the p r o p o r t i o n s i n d i c a t e d i n Table I I . The p o r t i o n s of s t o c k s o l u t i o n s were not mixed t o g e t h e r f i r s t  and t h e n d i l u t e d , b u t  were added t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of water w h i c h was then made up t o 4 l i t e r s .  T h i s was done t o a v o i d p r e c i p i t a t i o n of  the s a l t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r o f the i r o n .  I n the 1937 experiments  s t o c k s o l u t i o n No. 9, f e r r i c t a r t r a t e , was used i n p l a c e of No.  9 Table F u l l nutrient  Half f u l l  The N u t r i e n t  -  deficient  Potassium d e f i c i e n t  1  25  ii  2  12  "  4  "  11  'i  «  "  "  "  "  "  " •  ii  " 3  "  6 or 9 1  c c . of Stock S o l u t i o n No.  11  "  "  "  "  26  "  "  "  "  6  "  "  "  ."  "  3  6  "  "  "  "  "  5  4  " "  "  " .  11  4 " 2  11  6  22 c c . of Stock S o l u t i o n No. 4 26  "  "  12  "  "  "  "  4 Phosphorus d e f i c i e n t  Solutions  22 cc. of Stock S o l u t i o n No.  11  nutrient  and h a l f p o t a s s i u m  II  »  11  /"  " 2 " 5  II  "  "  »  6 or  22 c c . of Stock S o l u t i o n No. 11  26  "  12  "  "  "  II  II  ii  zj_  "  "  II  1  " 2 "  7  II  q  Combined phosphorus  22 c c . of Stock S o l u t i o n No. 4  and p o t a s s i u m  26  "  deficient  12  "  4  H  " ! L  II  " «  II  "  II  "  2  II  8  II  g  10 6, f e r r i c phosphate.  This time to a v o i d p r e c i p i t a t i o n of the  i r o n , the f e r r i c t a r t r a t e was not mixed i n w i t h the other n u t r i e n t s "but was a p p l i e d s e p a r a t e l y a t a l t e r n a t i n g times w i t h the r e g u l a r n u t r i e n t treatment.  For t h i s purpose 1 c c . of  s t o c k s o l u t i o n No. 9 was d i l u t e d t o 1 l i t e r .  Tap water was  used i n these d i l u t i o n s as the experiment was r e l a t i v e , not absolute,  and i t was thought a t the time t h a t the tap water i n  Vancouver was s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e e of d i s s o l v e d substances t o cause no i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the n u t r i e n t treatment. II.  Growing the p l a n t s .  ( l ) Tomatoes 1936. The A i l s a C r a i g v a r i e t y of tomato was used. planted  Seeds were  i n two s m a l l f l a t s of t h o r o u g h l y washed sand on May 30.  Two weeks l a t e r f e e d i n g w i t h n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s was commenced and  c o n t i n u e d twice each week.  F l a t I was g i v e n f u l l  nutrient  t  s o l u t i o n and f l a t I I was g i v e n p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t solution.  -The p l a n t s were l e f t out of doors and watered when  n e c e s s a r y w i t h t a p water.  Four weeks from the time of p l a n t i n g  the s e e d l i n g s were t r a n s p l a n t e d clay pots.  t o t h o r o u g h l y c l e a n e d 4 Inch  The p l a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o three s e r i e s based on  n u t r i t i o n a l treatment as f o l l o w s . S e r i e s A - f u l l n u t r i e n t , 3 p l a n t s ; S e r i e s B - h a l f f u l l n u t r i e n t and h a l f p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t , 2 p l a n t s ; and S e r i e s C - p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t , 3 p l a n t s . The p l a n t s f o r s e r i e s A and B were t a k e n from f l a t I , and those for  s e r i e s C from f l a t I I .  Each p l a n t was g i v e n 100 c c . of  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n twice each week and water when needed.  This  treatment was c o n t i n u e d f o r about one month a f t e r t r a n s p l a n t i n g By the end of t h i s time blossoms were f o r m i n g and the t r a n s p i r -  11 'ation t e s t was made commencing on J u l y 30. (2) Tomatoes 0.937  0  The Bonny Best v a r i e t y of tomato was used. p l a n t e d i n May i n f l a t s of well-washed sand.  Seeds were The p l a n t s were  l e f t out of doors and watered w i t h t a p water when necessary. On June 12, the t r u e l e a v e s "being w e l l s t a r t e d , the s e e d l i n g s . were t r a n s p l a n t e d to f o u r separate s m a l l f l a t s and watered w i t h n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n as f o l l o w s ;  Flat I - f u l l nutrient,  F l a t I I - p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t , F l a t I I I - phosphorus  deficient,  and F l a t IV - combined phosphorus and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t . From then on the p l a n t s were watered w i t h n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n i n s u i t a b l e amounts each two or three days.  I n between times they  were watered w i t h the i r o n s o l u t i o n . About two weeks l a t e r 10 f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s - S e r i e s 1, and 10 p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s - S e r i e s . 2 , were t r a n s p l a n t e d to l a r g e cans of sand.  The r e m a i n i n g p l a n t s i n these f l a t s  ( I and I I ) were l e f t there and g i v e n the same n u t r i e n t t r e a t ment as. those i n the cans.  On J u l y 13 7 p l a n t s from each of  f l a t s I and I I were t r a n s p l a n t e d t o s m a l l e r cans of sand, and from then on those f r o m . F l a t  I r e c e i v e d phosphorus d e f i c i e n t  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n - S e r i e s 3, w h i l e those from F l a t I I r e c e i v e d combined phosphorus and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n - S e r i e s 4. . The 4 f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s r e m a i n i n g i n F l a t I were a l s o t r a n s p l a n t e d t o s m a l l e r cans o f sand.  These c o n t i n u e d t o  r e c e i v e the f u l l n u t r i e n t treatment and formed S e r i e s 5. At t h i s t i m e , J u l y 13, one month a f t e r the commencement of d i f f e r e n t i a l n u t r i e n t f e e d i n g , the p l a n t s i n F l a t I I I - phosphorus d e f i c i e n t , and those i n F l a t IV - combined  phosphorus  12  and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t , were showing s t r o n g d e f i c i e n c y symptoms.  These p l a n t s were o n l y about t h r e e inches h i g h as com-  pared t o the f u l l n u t r i e n t and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s which were about nine inches h i g h .  F i v e of the b e s t p l a n t s  from-each of f l a t s I I I and IV were t r a n s p l a n t e d t o s m a l l cans. From t h i s time on the phosphorus d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s - S e r i e s 6, were g i v e n f u l l n u t r i e n t t r e a t m e n t , and the combined phosphorus 'and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s - S e r i e s 7,, were g i v e n p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t treatment.  On August 7, almost two months a f t e r  f e e d i n g w i t h n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s was commenced, blossoms were forming,  and the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t was s t a r t e d .  (3) Radishes 1937. The F r e n c h B r e a k f a s t v a r i e t y of r a d i s h was used. 23 the seeds were p l a n t e d i n two f l a t s of sand.  On June  About three  weeks l a t e r , J u l y 12, the r a d i s h e s we re t r a n s p l a n t e d t o l a r g e f  cans of sand.  From t h i s time on 10 were g i v e n f u l l  nutrient  treatment - S e r i e s I , and another 10 were g i v e n potassium d e f i c i e n t treatment - S e r i e s 2.  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s 2 r a d i s h  p l a n t s were t r a n s p l a n t e d t o s m a l l cans s e v e r a l days l a t e r and g i v e n p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t t r e a t m e n t , thus becoming p a r t of S e r i e s 2.  The p l a n t s were watered .with the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s  about t w i c e a week and in. between times w i t h the i r o n s o l u t i o n . On August 7, about one month a f t e r f e e d i n g w i t h the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s was- commenced, the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t was s t a r t e d a t the same time as t h a t of the tomatoes. (4) The Cans. The l a r g e cans used i n these experiments were about s i x i n c h e s i n diameter and about seven inches i n h e i g h t , and  13 enameled on the i n s i d e .  The s m a l l e r cans were about f i r e  inch-  es i n diameter and about f i v e inches i n h e i g h t , and enameled i n s i d e and out.  A h o l e about h a l f an i n c h i n diameter was  punched i n the bottom of each can f o r d r a i n a g e .  Over t h i s h o l e  was p l a c e d a s m a l l metal cap about h a l f an i n c h deep.  T h i s was  to r e c e i v e the c o r k stopper when.the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t was made.  The sand used i n these experiments was i n a l l cases  f i r s t screened and then t h o r o u g h l y washed. I I I . The T r a n s p i r a t i o n T e s t s . (1) Tomatoes 1936. As t r a n s p i r a t i o n was determined by l o s s of weight i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e a l the c o n t a i n e r s c o m p l e t e l y . means of melted parawax.  T h i s was done by  Care was taken not t o l e t the h o t wax  come ' d i r e c t l y i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the stems of the p l a n t s . h o l e i n the bottom of the p o t was plugged.  The  Before being sealed  each p o t was w e l l watered and a l l excess Y/ater was a l l o w e d t o drain off.  The. p o t s were then s e a l e d , weighed, a-nd s e t out i n  the open b u t i n the shade f o r 21 hours from 2:00 P.M. J u l y 30 to 11:00 A.M. J u l y 31.  The p o t s were then reweighed i n the  same order and s e t out f o r 23 h o u r s , t h i s time i n the sun, t i l l 10:00  A.M. August 1 , when they were weighed f o r the f i n a l time.  (2) Tomatoes and Radishes 1937. As cans were used i n these exxoer iments o n l y the tops were s e a l e d and not the whole c o n t a i n e r , as was the case w i t h the p o t s i n 1936.  The h o l e i n the bottom of each can was plugged  w i t h a cork stopper.  B e f o r e s e a l i n g , the cans were, w e l l  watered and d r a i n e d .  A t the time of s e a l i n g , a p i e c e of g l a s s  14 t u b i n g about three i n c h e s l o n g , 5/16  i n c h i n n e r diameter, and  f i t t e d with- a, s m a l l c o r k s t o p p e r , was p l a c e d i n each can p r o :  j e c t i n g through the wax s e a l .  T h i s tube was used to p e r m i t  a d d i t i o n of water d u r i n g the experiment.  A f t e r s e a l i n g the  cans were weighed and s e t out i n the open. -As i t took about two hours t o weigh a l l the cans, the w e i g h i n g was done a t n i g h t when the water l o s s through t r a n s p i r a t i o n was a t i t s l e a s t . The p l a n t s were always weighed i n the same order and as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e a t the same r a t e so t h a t time i n t e r v a l between any two s e t s of weighings would be the same, w i t h i n a few minutes, f o r a l l the p l a n t s . 10:20 P.M.,  On August 7 the w e i g h i n g was s t a r t e d a t  on August 8 a t 8:20  and on August 9 a t 1%20.  It  was planned to take weighings e a r l y i n the morning, b u t i t was found t h a t the weight of dew on the p l a n t s was g r e a t e r than the l o s s I n weight due to t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  I t was a l s o planned t o  c o n t i n u e the experiment one or two days l o n g e r but r a i n i n t e r vened and the experiment was t e r m i n a t e d .  On the morning of  August 9 50 grams of water were added to each tomato p l a n t i n s e r i e s 1, 2, and 5.  The balance used i n these experiments i s  shown i n one of the photographs appended to t h i s paper. IV. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Green, Dry, and Ash Weights. At the t e r m i n a t i o n of the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t s , the h e i g h t s of the p l a n t s were measured.  The p l a n t s were then cut and the  green w e i g h t s of t o p s and r o o t s were determined s e p a r a t e l y . I n the 1936 experiment, however, b e f o r e the p l a n t s were c u t , water was added t o the p o t s t o a l l o w those p l a n t s which were s l i g h t l y w i l t e d to become t u r g i d a g a i n .  The tomato p l a n t s  15 were c u t a t the s u r f a c e of the wax, j u n c t u r e of* the l e a v e s and r o o t .  the r a d i s h p l a n t s a t the  The 1936 tomato p l a n t s were  weighed to 0.1 gram, w h i l e the 1937 p l a n t s were weighed to  0.5  gram on the "balance used i n the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t s , as -a more s e n s i t i v e "balance of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e was not a v a i l a b l e a t the time.  Most of the s m a l l e s t p l a n t s , however, were weighed to  0.1 gram on a s m a l l hand b a l a n c e . 1937  A f t e r the top of each of the  tomatoes was weighed, the l e a f y p o r t i o n s were pinched o f f  and the weight of the stem and p e t i o l e s was  determined.  A f t e r the tops had been weighed, the r o o t s were washed as f r e e as p o s s i b l e from sand, the excess water was  squeezed  out,  the r e m a i n i n g excess m o i s t u r e was a l l o w e d t o d r y o f f , and the . r o o t s were then .weighed, 1936 0,1  gram, and 1937  tomatoes and 1937 r a d i s h e s to  tomatoes t o 0.5  gram.  In the case of the  r a d i s h e s o n l y the e d i b l e , and not the f i b r o u s p o r t i o n  was  weighed. A l l the r o o t s , and a l l the tops except those used f o r p l a n t sap e x t r a c t i o n , were d r i e d to c o n s t a n t weight i n an oven a t -105°C.  The w e i g h t s were t a k e n to 0.1 gram.  100°  As the oven c o u l d  take o n l y a l i m i t e d number of samples i n w e i g h i n g t i n s a t one time, a l l the samples were d r i e d as soon as p o s s i b l e i n paper bags a t about 70°G. f o r about f i f t e e n h o u r s , t h i s b e i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o p r e s e r v e them. A l l the tops of the 1937 p l a n t s , except those used f o r p l a n t sap e x t r a c t i o n , were then ashed i n an e l e c t r i c m u f f l e f u r n a c e a t 600° - 650 G.  Above t h i s temperature the ash. tended t o f u s e  w i t h the c r u c i b l e .  B e f o r e b e i n g p l a c e d i n the m u f f l e , f u r n a c e ,  however, the d r i e d m a t e r i a l wa.s c h a r r e d over a Bunsen flame  16 under the hood.  I r o n t a r t r a t e s o l u t i o n (3b, 9) was found use-  f u l f o r marking the c r u c i b l e s .  The s o l u t i o n was a p p l i e d w i t h  a p o i n t e d match s t i c k t o the warmed c r u c i b l e s .  When s t r o n g l y  heated the mark became dark y e t i t c o u l d be removed w i t h "Dutch C l e a n s e r " i f d e s i r e d . 0.001  The a s h weights were taken t o  gram on a s e n s i t i v e a n a l y t i c a l b a l a n c e .  were ashed and the w e i g h t s were r e c o r d e d .  The r a d i s h r o o t s  The a s h i n g of the  1937 tomato r o o t s was commenced b u t d i s c o n t i n u e d as i t was found t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the a s h weight was sand which c o u l d not be r e a d i l y e l i m i n a t e d or a l l o w e d f o r a t t h a t time. In d e t e r m i n a t i n g the d r y weights an attempt was made t o comp l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e the sand.  T h i s was not s u c c e s s f u l b u t i t  was found l a t e r , t h a t the weight of the sand l e f t was, a t t h e mostj, l e s s than 0.1 gram. V. E x t r a c t i o n of the P l a n t Sap and D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f I t s P h y s i c a l Chemical C o n s t a n t s . S i x tomato p l a n t s from each of s e r i e s 1 and 2, f o u r p l a n t s from each of s e r i e s 5 and 4, two p l a n t s from s e r i e s 5, and s i x r a d i s h p l a n t s from each of s e r i e s 1 and 2 were used i n these experiments.  The methods used were based on those g i v e n i n  " B i o c h e m i c a l L a b o r a t o r y Methods" by Morrow ( 2 1 ) , Chapter I I P h y s i c a l Chemical Constants of P l a n t Saps, ( l ) E x t r a c t i o n o f the Sap. T h e . p l a n t s (tops o n l y ) s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s experiment were cut f i r s t .  A f t e r each one was c u t and weighed i t was p l a c e d  w i t h crumbled s o l i d carbon d i o x i d e on s, b o t t l e of convenient size.  T h i s was t o f r e e z e the t i s s u e s , thus making the e x t r a c -  17 t i o n of sap e a s i e r ? and a l s o to preserve "be p l a c e d i n /the r e f r i g e r a t o r .  them t i l l they c o u l d  I n the tomato s e r i e s 1, 2, and  5 each p l a n t was put i n a separate b o t t l e , i n s e r i e s 3 and 4 two p l a n t s were put i n one b o t t l e , and i n the r a d i s h s e r i e s 1 and 2 three p l a n t s were put i n one b o t t l e .  As soon as a l l  these p l a n t s were b o t t l e d the b o t t l e s were taken t o the l a b o r a t o r y (about three m i l e s from where the p l a n t s were grown) and p l a c e d , i n the r e f r i g e r a . t o r . The f r o z e n t i s s u e was ground i n a, s m a l l hand meat g r i n d e r . At a l l times i n the p r o c e s s e v e r y t h i n g was kept as c o l d as possible.  I n the tomato s e r i e s 1, 2, and 5, each p l a n t was  ground s e p a r a t e l y , and i n s e r i e s 3 and 4 the p l a n t s were ground i n groups of two.  In the r a d i s h e s the s i x p l a n t s of s e r i e s 1  were ground t o g e t h e r , as were those of s e r i e s 2.  A f t e r each  p l a n t or group was ground, the g r i n d e r was r i n s e d o f f and p l a c e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r w h i l e the ground t i s s u e was b e i n g pressed.  The ground t i s s u e was wrapped i n two paper  towels  w h i c h had been w e t t e d and then squeezed i n the p r e s s . . The wrapped t i s s u e was p l a c e d i n a s m a l l c y l i n d e r ica,l m e t a l cup of about two and t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  inches i n diameter and i n h e i g h t ,  such as i s used as a s m a l l cheese mould.  There were f o u r  small  h o l e s i n the bottom and s e v e r a l around the s i d e of the cup.  A  s m a l l m e t a l p l a t e of the same diameter as the cup was p l a c e d on the top of the wrapped t i s s u e , and a c y l i n d r i c a l b l o c k of wood was p l a c e d on top of the p l a t e .  This cup was s e t i n a screw  p r e s s , w h i c h was t h e n screwed down as t i g h t l y as p o s s i b l e .  The  expressed j u i c e was c o l l e c t e d i n a m e t a l pan p l a c e d Under the cup, and immediately b o t t l e d and p l a c e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r .  18 (2) D e t e r m i n a t i o n of Percentage of T o t a l S o l i d s and E l e c t r i c a l Resistance.* » The j u i c e was next c l e a r e d by c e n t r i f u g i n g f o r h a l f an hour a t about 1700 r . p. m.  The c l e a r e d j u i c e was p l a c e d i n "50 c c .  c y l i n d e r s and brought to 20*0. i n water b a t h .  The percentage  of t o t a l s o l i d s was then determined by means of a B r i x s c a l e hydrometer  (used u s u a l l y f o r sugar s o l u t i o n s ) .  While s t i l l a t  the same temperature and i n a water b a t h the r e l a t i v e c a l r e s i s t a n c e of the j u i c e was determined.  electri-  The j u i c e was then  r e p l a c e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r . (3) D e t e r m i n a t i o n of F r e e z i n g P o i n t D e p r e s s i o n . For t h i s experiment a Beckman thermometer and the s t a n d a r d f r e e z i n g p o i n t d e p r e s s i o n apparatus was used.  The procedure  used was as t h a t g i v e n i n Morrow (21) f o r the determinationr.df the H y d r o p h y l l i c C o l l o i d Content,  About 10 - 12 grams of p l a n t  sap was weighed out e x a c t l y t o 0.001 gram and p l a c e d i n the apparatus.  The p o i n t t o w h i c h the sap underccol-ed  p o i n t a t w h i c h i t f r o z e were r e c o r d e d .  and the  The i c e was then a l l o w -  ed t o m e l t and enough f i n e l y ground succrose t o make e x a c t l y a m o l a l s o l u t i o n was added and d i s s o l v e d .  A g a i n the tube was  p l a c e d i n the f r e e z i n g m i x t u r e and the p o i n t to which the s o l u t i o n u n d e r d o o l e d r and t h a t a t which i t f r o z e were r e c o r d e d . The exact amount of succrose t o add i n each case was determined by c a l c u l a t i o n , g i v e n t h a t 3.422 grams of succrose i n 10.000 grams of water g i v e s a m o l a l s o l u t i o n .  The amount of water  p r e s e n t I n the sap i n each case was c a l c u l a t e d from the exact weight of sap used and the percentage of m o i s t u r e of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r sample, which was determined by s u b t r a c t i n g the p e r c e n t -  19 .  age• of t o t a l . B b l i d s readingr'fromllOO. VI.  A n a l y t i c a l Methods. In 1941 a m i n e r a l a n a l y s i s was made of the ash of the tops  of the 1937 tomatoes, s e r i e s 1 - 5 f o r potassium, sulphur. only.  inclusive.  Tests were r u n  sodium, c a l c i u m , magnesium, phosphorus and  The a s h of the . r a d i s h tops was a n a l y s e d f o r potassium-  Some tomato and r a d i s h seeds were a n a l y s e d f o r potassium,  ( l ) Making the HC1 E x t r a c t . ' . The a s h was p l a c e d i n e v a p o r a t i n g d i s h e s on a h o t p l a t e and moistened  w i t h d i s t i l l e d water.  3 c c . of c o n c e n t r a t e d C P .  h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d was added and a l l o w e d t o b o i l g e n t l y f o r a few minutes.  Then a 10 c c . p o r t i o n of E/2 HC1 was added and..,  when i t had b o i l e d p a r t l y away, another 10 c c . p o r t i o n of the IT/2 a c i d was added.  A f t e r a few minutes of f u r t h e r b o i l i n g ,  t h e ' s o l u t i o n was decanted graduate  through a f i l t e r i n t o a 100 c c .  c o n t a i n i n g about 20 c c . of d i s t i l l e d water.  I n de-  c a n t i n g , the r e s i d u a l carbon and sand i n the s o l u t i o n was c a r e f u l l y r e t a i n e d i n the e v a p o r a t i n g d i s h .  T h i s r e s i d u a l matter  was  e x t r a c t e d t h r e e more times w i t h 10 c c . l o t s of the l\f/2 HC1.  The  sand l e f t i n the e v a p o r a t i n g d i s h was then d r i e d and weigh-  ed t o 0.001 gram.  This was s u b t r a c t e d from the f i r s t a s h  weight t o g i v e the c o r r e c t e d a s h weight.  D i s t i l l e d water was  added through the f i l t e r s t o the s o l u t i o n I n the graduates. "When the s o l u t i o n was c o o l , the volume was made up t o 100 c c . for  tomato s e r i e s 1 and 2, and to' 50 c c . f o r s e r i e s 3, 4, and  5.  I n the case of the r a d i s h e s l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e d a,nd l e s s  l/2  I-IC1 was used and the volume was. made up t o o n l y 25 c c .  20 The a c i d e x t r a c t s were then poured i n t o c o n v e n i e n t s i z e d b o t t l e s , w e l l s t o p p e r e d , and p l a c e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r .  200  tomato seeds and 100 r a d i s h seeds were weighed, ashed, and ext r a c t e d w i t h H01 as above b u t u s i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l e r amounts of a c i d .  The volume was made up t o 10 c c .  ( 2 ) , E s t i m a t i o n of Potassium. The method used was -'that of S h e r r i l l (29) s l i g h t l y modified.  10 c c . of the unknown was p i p e t t e d i n t o a 15 c c . gradu-  a t e d tube.  One drop of p h e n o l p h t h a l e i n was added.  A concen-  t r a t e d s o l u t i o n of IfeOH was added drop by drop t i l l t h e unknown was made a l k a l i n e , then g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d drop by drop till  the s o l u t i o n became c o l o r l e s s a g a i n .  The volume was then  made up t o 12. c c . and the g e l a t i n o u s p r e c i p i t a t e formed was f i l t e r e d o f f through a s m a l l f i l t e r .  10 c c , of the f i l t r a t e  was added t o 15 c c . of sodium c o b a l t i n i t r i t e i n a S h e r r i l l p o t a s h c e n t r i f u g e tube.  5 c c . of s t a n d a r d (15.83 grams of KOI  per l i t e r ) were t r e a t e d i n the same way.  As 10 c c , of the  standard' f i l t r a t e gave too heavy a p r e c i p i t a t e f o r comparison w i t h the unknown, o n l y 1, 2, 3, or 4 c c . of t h i s were d i l u t e d to 10 c c . and t h e n used.  The p r e c i p i t a t e o f t e n tended t o s t i c k  t o . t h e s i d e s of the c e n t r i f u g e tube' and i t was n e c e s s a r y t o use a rubber p o l i c e m a n t o remove-It.  I t would then s e t t l e i n the  narrow graduated stem a,s i t should.  The tubes were then  c e n t r i f u g e d f o r 5 minutes a t step 20 on the c e n t r i f u g e r h e o s t a t . A s t a n d a r d was always i n c l u d e d i n each l o t of tubes p u t i n t h e centrifuge.  The-potassium was e s t i m a t e d by comparison w i t h the  standard. (3) E s t i m a t i o n of Sodium.  21 The procedure f o l l o w e d was that, of W a l l (53),  A l l the  t e s t s f o r s e r i e s 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were r u n a t the same time, • I n t h i s t e s t the sodium i s p r e c i p i t a t e d as the u r a n y l z i n c acetate.  The u r a n y l r a d i c a l i s then converted i n t o u r a n y l  potassium f e r r o c y a n i d e . moved.  Phosphate i n t e r f e r e s and must he r e -  Calcium, magnesium, s t r o n t i u m , "barium, i r o n and p o t a s s -  ium do not i n t e r f e r e . . Phosphate i s most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y removed by p r e c i p i t a t i o n as magnesium ammonium phosphate. Reagents. 1. Z i n c u r a n y l a c e t a t e .  10 gm. u r a n y l a c e t a t e  . i n . 50 c c . of " b o i l i n g water c o n t a i n i n g 2 c c . of g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d j and 30 gm. Z i n c a c e t a t e i n 50 c c . of " b o i l i n g water t a i n i n g 1 c c . of g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d .  con-  M i x the " b o i l i n g s o l u -  t i o n s , heat a g a i n t o b o i l i n g and l e t stand o v e r n i g h t .  Filter  ( i f there i s any sediment) and mix the f i l t r a t e w i t h an e q u a l volume of 9b% a l c o h o l .  L e t stand f o r 48 hours a t 0° C.  The  reagent i s s t a b l e a t room temper8.tu.re b u t i s b e s t Icept i n darkness,  2, Magnesium n i t r a t e - 13 grams p e r l i t e r (magnesium  c h l o r i d e - 10.5 l i t e r was used i n s t e a d ) . ium h y d r o x i d e .  4. 9b% a l c o h o l .  3. Concentrated ammon-  5. 20%' potassium f e r r o c y a n i d e .  0.1271 grams HaCI i n 100 c c . (lcc.=, 0.5 mg. Ha) was used as a standard. Procedure. c e n t r i f u g e tube.  2 c c . o f a s h s o l u t i o n was p i p e t t e d i n t o a. 15 c c , 2 c c . of magnesium c h l o r i d e was added a.nd the  tube was p l a c e d i n a, water b a t h and heated t o 100° C. of  Then 2 c c .  c o n c e n t r a t e d ammonium h y d r o x i d e was added a.nd t h e tube was  corked and l e t stand o v e r n i g h t .  The tubes were then c e n t r i -  fuged f o r 5 minutes a t step 20 on the c e n t r i f u g e r h e o s t a t . 2cc. a l i q u o t was p i p e t t e d i n t o another c e n t r i f u g e tube, care  A  22 b e i n g . t a k e n not t o d i s t u r b t h e p r e c i p i t a t e of magnesium ammonium phosphate. for  The tubes were heated i n a b o i l i n g water b a t h  15 - 20 minutes t o d r i v e o f f the excess ammonia.  The s o l -  u t i o n was a c i d i f i e d w i t h 1 or 2 drops of g l a c i a l a c e t i c ' a c i d , and 4 c c . of the a l c o h o l i c z i n c u r a n y l a c e t a t e reagent was added.  The m i x t u r e was s t i r r e d or shaken t i l l p r e c i p i t a t i o n began  A f t e r s t a n d i n g f o r one hour or l o n g e r , the tubes were c e n t r i fuged f o r 5 minutes as b e f o r e .  The supernatant f l u i d was de-  canted and the tubes were s e t u p s i d e down on f i l t e r paper t o .drain. paper.  The mouth of t h e c e n t r i f u g e tube was wiped w i t h f i l t e r The p r e c i p i t a t e was then washed t w i c e w i t h 5 c c . of 95%  a l c o h o l , f o l l o w e d by c e n t r i f u g i n g and d r a i n i n g each time as before. to  The pr.ecipita.te was d i s s o l v e d i n water and t r a n s f e r r e d  a 100 c c . graduate.  4 drops of g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d a.nd 2 cc  (6 drops i s s u f f i c i e n t ) of p o t a s s i u m f e r r o c y a n i d e reagent was added and the s o l u t i o n was made up t o volume-,' The. s o l u t i o n s were w e l l s t i r r e d and compared w i t h a. sta.nda.rd c o n t a i n i n g 0,5 mg. of sodium.  1 c c , of s t a n d a r d was t r e a t e d as the unknowns  from the p o i n t of a c i d i f y i n g w i t h a c e t i c a c i d and a.dding the alcoholic zinc uranyl acetate. When the a l c o h o l i c z i n c u r a n y l . a c e t a t e i s added to the unknown the a l c o h o l may p r e c i p i t a t e some ammonium and magnesium salts.-  These do not a f f e c t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a r e ea.siEy  s o l u b l e i n water. (4) E s t i m a t i o n of C a l c i u m . The method used was s i m i l a r to t h a t used by W a l l (33) and i s based on t h a t of McCance and Shipp ( 1 8 ) .  T h i s element was  determined by p r e c i p i t a t i o n as the o x a l a t e and t i t r a t i o n of the  23 l a t t e r w i t h p o t a s s i u m permanganate.  5 c c . of the ash s o l u t i o n  were p i p e t t e d i n t o a 15 cc. graduated c e n t r i f u g e tube. of a 0.02^  s o l u t i o n of phenol r e d was  s o l u t i o n of ammonia was  added and a  0.2  cc.  concentrated  s l o w l y r u n i n w i t h constant shaking  or  stirring t i l l  the c o l o r changed from orange through y e l l o w to  p u r p l i s h red.  T h i s ammonia should be o f such a s t r e n g t h t h a t  l e s s than 0.6  cc. of i t i s r e q u i r e d to n e u t r a l i z e the  Next j u s t enough g l a c i a l a c e t i c was  solution.  added drop by drop, w i t h  shaking, to make the s o l u t i o n b r i g h t y e l l o w . • Water was . to' b r i n g the t o t a l volume up to 6.5  cc.  Then 1.5  run i n  cc. of a  s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n of ammonium o x a l a t e were added to p r e c i p i t a t e the c a l c i u m . t u r e was  Thus 5 cc. were d i l u t e d to 8 cc.  The mix-  a l l o w e d to stand f o r 1 hour and then c e n t r i f u g e d f o r  5 minutes a t step 20 on the c e n t r i f u g e r h e o s t a t . natant f l u i d was  The  super-  poured o f f i n t o a c l e a n t e s t tube and kept  (corked) f o r the e s t i m a t i o n of magnesium.  The p r e c i p i t a t e was  d r a i n e d and washed w i t h 5 c c . of 1% ammonia. then c e n t r i f u g e d a g a i n , decanted and d r a i n e d .  The m i x t u r e  was  To the washed  r e s i d u e i n the c e n t r i f u g e tube 1 c c . or more of 4 N s u l p h u r i c a c i d was  axlded, and the tube was p l a c e d i n a b o i l i n g water b a t h  f o r a few minutes. s o l u t i o n was tube was  When the p r e c i p i t a t e was  d i s s o l v e d the  t r a n s f e r r e d to a s m a l l beaker or s m a l l f l a s k .  The  r i n s e d and the r i n s i n g s were added to the beaker.  The  beakers were s e t on a hot p l a t e and the s o l u t i o n was w h i l e hot w i t h p o t a s s i u m permanganate. permanganate was  near N/50  The  titrated  n o r m a l i t y of the  i n the one case and near N/lOO i n  the o t h e r . . In each case the permanganate was  standardized with  sodium o x a l a t e j u s t b e f o r e t i t r a t i n g the unknowns.  The  titra-  24 t i o n was c a r r i e d t o a f a i n t p i n k end p o i n t .  The end p o i n t was  q u i t e sharp* (-.one drop made the d i f f e r e n c e ) and q u i t e permanent. Tests on s e r i e s 1 and 2 were r u n a t one time and on s e r i e s 3, 4 and 5 a t another time.  '• .  (5) E s t i m a t i o n of Magnesium. 0.3 c c . of the supernatant l i q u i d from the c a l c i u m e s t i m a t i o n were p i p e t t e d i n t o a 15 c c . graduated  c e n t r i f u g e tube and  d i l u t e d t o 4 c c . 1 c c . of 2%> ammonium phosphate and 2 c c . of c o n c e n t r a t e d ammonia were added, and the m i x t u r e , a f t e r "being shaken was l e f t t o stand o v e r n i g h t .  The tubes were then c e n t r i -  fuged f o r 7 minutes, d r a i n e d and washed w i t h 5 c c . of 10% ammonia, r e c e n t r i f u g e d and d r a i n e d i n the usual'way.  The p r e -  c i p i t a t e was next d r i e d b y p l a c i n g the c e n t r i f u g e tube i n a b o i l i n g water b a t h .  To the magnesium phosphate  (precipitate)  1 c c . of IT/10 h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d was added and 5 c c . of water. Care was taken a t t h i s p o i n t t o ensure t h a t the p r e c i p i t a t e . h a d a l l gone i n t o s o l u t i o n b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g to the next Eor the s t a n d a r d , 1 c c . of a s o l u t i o n of potassium  stage. di-hydrogen  phosphate c o n t a i n i n g 0.1 mg. of phosphorus per c c . was p l a c e d i n a t e s t tube t o g e t h e r w i t h 1 c c . of l / l O HC1 and 4 c c . of water.  To a l l tubes was then added 1 c c . of Deniges ammonium  molybdate, f o l l o w e d by 0.5 c c . of 20% sodium s u l p h i t e , and 0.5 cc. of f r e s h l y prepared "0,2% hydro qui none.  The c o n t e n t s of the  tubes were mixed, a l l o w e d t o stand f o r h a l f an hour and then matched i n the c o l o r i m e t e r .  T h i s procedure was found by t e s t  w i t h known amounts of magnesium t o g i v e a s l i g h t l y h i g h v a l u e , but s i n c e i n t h i s experiment  r e l a t i v e , not a b s o l u t e r e s u l t s  were r e q u i r e d , t h i s s l i g h t l y h i g h v a l u e d i d no't: seriously,, a f f e c t  25 the r e s u l t .  S e r i e s 1 and 2 were r u n i n one l o t and s e r i e s 3,  4 and 5 i n -one l o t . (6) E s t i m a t i o n of Phosphorus. The procedure f o l l o w e d was as t h a t f o r magnesium from the p o i n t where the magnesium has "been p r e c i p i t a t e d as magnesium phosphate and then d i s s o l v e d .  E i r s t though, 1 cc. of the  unknown was p i p e t t e d i n t o a graduated tube.  One drop of phen-  o l p h t h a l e i n was added, f o l l o w e d by enough HaOH t o make a l k a l i n e , - , and then enough g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d to render the s o l u t i o n c o l o r l e s s a g a i n . "The volume was ma.de up t o 5 cc.  The  p r e p a r a t i o n "of the standard and the a d d i t i o n of the reagents t o develop c o l o r was done as under ' E s t i m a t i o n of Magnesium' from the p o i n t mentioned. (7 ) E s t i m a t i o n of Sulphur. The method used was based on t h a t of R i c h a r d s  and W e l l s (27)  5 c c . of unknown i n a graduated tube was p l a c e d i n a b o i l i n g water b a t h .  Once i t s temperature had r i s e n t o near 100°C. 5 c c .  of a 2% s o l u t i o n o f barium c h l o r i d e was added. continued  H e a t i n g was  f o r a few minutes and the volume was made up t o 10 c c .  5 cc. of a standard  c o n t a i n i n g 1000 p.p.m. (5 mg.) of SO4 was  t r e a t e d i n the same way. w i t h the standard  Sulphur was e s t i m a t e d by comparison  i n b l a c k bottom cups i n the c o l o r i m e t e r .  VII. Further T r a n s p i r a t i o n Tests. Since i n d i v i d u a l tomato p l a n t s w i t h i n each s e r i e s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e , f u r t h e r measurements were attempted i n the greenhouse d u r i n g the l a t e f a l l and e a r l y w i n t e r o f 1940.  F i r s t a number of shoots were taken from  two l a r g e p l a n t s and p l a c e d i n water.  Some others were p l a c e d  26 i n moist sand.  Although tomato shoots are supposed t o r o o t  q u i t e readi-ly i n water or moist sand, these d i d not.  Had these  shoots r o o t e d i t might have "been p o s s i b l e to show whether or not the great v a r i a t i o n i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e w i t h i n a n u t r i e n t s e r i e s was due to h e r e d i t y . Next twelve s m a l l tomato p l a n t s growing i n a f l a t of s o i l were t r a n s p l a n t e d to dark water c u l t u r e j a r s .  The r o o t s were  washed f r e e of s o i l and each p l a n t was weighed to 0.1 gram before and  transplanting.  The p l a n t s were s e t i n cork stoppers  the space between the stem and the cork was f i l l e d  parawax.  with  The p l a n t s were l e f t i n tap water one week a.nd the  water l o s s was measured each one or two days.  One week l a t e r  the weight of the p l a n t s was a g a i n taken as f o l l o w s .  The t o t a l  .weight ( j a r + water, p l a n t , cork + wax +• water a d h e r i n g t o i t and  to the p l a n t r o o t s ) was r e c o r d e d .  The p l a n t w i t h the cork  was t r a n s f e r r e d t o another j a r of water, and the j a r f water was weighed.  Then, s i n c e the weight of the cork •}• wax + water  a d h e r i n g to i t and to the p l a n t r o o t s was a l r e a d y known from when the experiment was s e t up, i t was p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e the weight of the p l a n t . The p l a n t s were p a i r e d o f f , those h a v i n g n e a r l y t h e same t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e s b e i n g t o g e t h e r , and the d i f f e r e n t i a l nutr i e n t treatment was begun, one p l a n t of each p a i r r e c e i v i n g f u l l n u t r i e n t and the other potassium d e f i c i e n t c u l t u r e s o l utions.  T r a n s p i r a t i o n l o s s e s were r e c o r d e d f o r a few da.ys  more, b u t then due to s e v e r a l n i g h t s of low temperature, l a c k of a e r a t i o n 'of the r o o t s , and p o s s i b l y t o the fungus growth on the r o o t s , the p l a n t s s t a r t e d to l o s e weight a.nd d e c l i n e .  The  27 c u l t u r e s were kept going f o r some time l o n g e r "but the p l a n t s f a i l e d t o r e c o v e r and the experiment was d i s c o n t i n u e d . RESULTS Z.'  General Appear a, nee of the P l a n t s . In g e n e r a l appearance  the f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s and the p o t -  assium d e f i c i e n t ones were v e r y much the same? the potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s b e i n g j u s t as h e a l t h y as the f u l l ones i n the case of b o t h r a d i s h e s and tomatoes.  nutrient  This s i m i l a r -  i t y i s shown i n the photographs appended t o t h i s pa,per.  The  l e a v e s of some of the r a d i s h p l a n t s i n each s e r i e s were damaged by s l u g s . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s r e f e r t o the 1937 tomatoes a t the time of c u t t i n g .  The f u l l n u t r i e n t a,nd potassium d e f i c i e n t  p l a n t s , b o t h had good c o l o r .  At the time of c u t t i n g , a l l the  p l a n t s i n these two s e r i e s ( l and 2) were i n blossom and the second c l u s t e r of blossoms was f o r m i n g . ing  i n some of the f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s .  F r u i t s were j u s t formAs none of these  tomatoes were i n a.ny way pruned, a l l these p l a n t s ( s e r i e s 1 and 2) had two or t h r e e w e l l developed shoots a r i s i n g from the a x i l s of  the f i r s t l e a v e s .  Series 5 also received f u l l  nutrient  treatment b u t was l e f t i n the s h a l l o w f l a t and o n l y t r a n s p l a n t ed .from i t to s m a l l e r ca,ns two weeks l a t e r than was s e r i e s 1. These p l a n t s had good c o l o r but were not- so b i g as those t r a n s p l a n t e d t o the la.rge cans.  These p l a n t s were not i n f u l l  blossom as were those of s e r i e s 1, and the secondary were o n l y a l i t t l e  shoots  developed.  The p l a n t s d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n appearance.  s e r i e s 3 and 4, were  These p l a n t s were s m a l l e r than  28 those of s e r i e s 5 , and much s m a l l e r 2.  The p l a n t s  than those of s e r i e s 1 and  of s e r i e s 3 were the s m a l l e s t .  The blossoms and  secondary shoots were s l i g h t l y more developed than those of s e r i e s 5 , s e r i e s 4 h a v i n g some blossoms open. the p l a n t s  I t i s seen  that  of s e r i e s 4 were a l i t t l e b i g g e r and more developed  than those of s e r i e s 3.  T h i s might be because they had been  i n a l e s s crowded and a much deeper f l a t . i e s 3 and 4 were s m a l l e r  The l e a f l e t s  and of a more y e l l o w i s h  than those i n s e r i e s 1, 2, and 5.  i n ser-  green c o l o r  The l e a f l e t s were a l s o some-  what c u r l e d , and showed a l i g h t p u r p l i s h c o l o r i n the under s i d e ; s e r i e s 4 showing a s l i g h t l y deeper p u r p l i s h t i n t than s e r i e s 3.  The lowermost l e a v e s i n these p l a n t s  ( s e r i e s 3 and  4) were t u r n i n g , y e l l o w i s h and had p a r t l y decayed brownish a r e a s . The r o o t s  of these p l a n t s were darker and l e s s h e a l t h y l o o k i n g  than those of s e r i e s 1 and 2. In s e r i e s 6 and 7 the new l e a v e s were of good s i z e and c o l o r , s i m i l a r to those of s e r i e s 1 and 2. p l a n t s were much s m a l l e r  N e v e r t h e l e s s the  and had not formed blossoms, .though  one p l a n t i n s e r i e s 6 had blossom buds.  I n most p l a n t s ,  secondary shoots had formed i n the a x i l s of the f i r s t  leaves.  These f i r s t l e a v e s had improved i n c o l o r b u t o n l y v e r y  little  i n s i z e s i n c e the change t o n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g phorus.  phos-  On the whole, s e r i e s 6 made more r e c o v e r y than d i d  s e r i e s 7 from the e f f e c t s of the phosphorus II. Analysis  deficiency.  o f Seeds.  200 tomato seeds were found t o average 3.5 mg. i n w e i g h t , and to c o n t a i n  0.024 mg. of potassium ( i . e . 0.69^ K) per seed,  w h i l e 200 r a d i s h seeds averaged 9.9 mg. i n weight and c o n t a i n e d 0.071 mg. of p o t a s s i u m ( i . e . p.72 % K) p e r seed.  Table  I I I A.  Height of Tops;  F r e s h and .  Dry Weight, Per Cent M o i s t u r e , and Per Cent Dry M a t t e r of Roots of a l l S e r i e s of Tomatoes and Radishes.  CM  •  o  co PH EH  s; p=t  o  E-f  03 EH  O EH  H H  H  •2 aS EH  pq  a a)  -p  a) a) f-i EH  I PH  FH  I  M M  I  sf  fzj P4 to P=H 1  <!  SH (D CO  o H  to  a)  u  tO rH H rH  to to (—i  to  CD  CM  to H  03  to H  !> sf CM  ID O  O to to CM  sf  CO C\i OJ rH  ;S  03  01 rH  tO  CO  co CM  CM  o  CO CD  H  CO  H CM  CO  CM  CM"  sf  to to 03 H  to to  O rH  sf  CM  to , to  CM to CQ H  O sf  to 0  tO  o>  to cv  1  !>  lO  1 1  CD  C\) t Q  O  to  <o  H  03  o H  o H  CO  CO  to  CD  to  CD  CM sf  O LO 1  •si tO  sf H s f to  to  to to CO CM  o  to  o  ID  " 0!  CD  O  CD  to o  to  t>  CO  •  o O  o  to  LO  o co  o  L Q tO CD CD  K  in  to  03  tO  to  CD  CD  CD  03  CO CD  CD  co  LO  O CD  o  to  CO  CD  H  o CD  to o  CD  to  to  sf CD  CD  Sf rH « • s f tO  CO  s f to  to sf  CD  to  •  to • <o sf  H CM CD  OJ  t>  03 ID  CD  to co CD CO  co  03  CO  CD  oi r -  to  o  f > LO  i>  CD  i n to  to  s f CM CD CD  co -co  CD  CD  Z>  CD  CD  CD  •  O  CD  • • to o  • to 03  . 03 e. to 03  Z>  s f tO  -  o  t> to  to  03  CO  ^f •  03 CD  s f CM • •  O  • •  tO H CD CD  CD !>  CD  •  CD  CM t -  O CD  CD CO  CM CD  O  O  sf  •  •  to Sf  • •  *  •  •  O  O  co rH •  • •  rH  H O  CD  to  O  o to •  o  o  O  to o  rH  o  to  o  CD  sf  H  O  CD  o  s)' O 03  CO  H  •  to 03  sf  i n to to to  to co  CT>  o co  to  CD to  CM I> CD £ -  o sf  H  to CO  CD  CM H  to H  o z> s f CM' 03 to  o  in 03  H  03  to  CO CD  LO  to CO rH  • •  s f i> CO sf  O  to H  to to  03  rH to  CO  to o to st" CM  to r03  O lO  co s f  o H  to  rH CD  CO H  •  0!  to CO rH  CO  H O CD CD  CD CD  CO  o  tO  CM to  o  CD 03  O CD  to to  1 1  CD £>  o o CD CD  rH to to  O ) LO  CD  •  to rH  o t» O sf  to to  lO  o  CO  •  o sf  o <o  o • H sf  CO  O rH s f to  o  o  tO 03  CO  1 1  < 0 rH to i n  to o  to to CO  C0  to  • •  CD  o  CO  o  o  CD  CO  O CD  CD  SH  a!  CD  H O CD CD  0  bO  a  HJ  CD  CD rt  si O  •H  K  -P  CQ O  O "el  m .  H^  Si  o  to • CO  60 a as  -p  m "H  o  K  o  CD  •P  o  • • CD t O  a a o •rH -P  a (H  •H  <H  td  sf  CM  u  •H  a  to to  •  rH H s f to  a  O  a  •H W>  (D  B  3 CQ Cli  K  <D  a n PM  H <H O SH <D  a  ri =1  cc u O -r-\  3*  .  - —  &i>a—-  a? +J id  > AH 4* -H 01  Ai © ^ 2  i>-  <^  <D  CQ  o  '2 •— & g i^J 43 T3 TO  0)  C5 a  Xi  I  ifl  3 d  -P  "; u  to OH -H +•> 10 a>  Si ^ JH to i ' a>, - a  o AH  a  P|  o U  P  ^  O >H  S S® ^^ O -r-4 O o -H •H V l  o  H  H  •p In a) a d a> a r4 A ,.q ' ?  a)  O  ^  g  CD  -H  o  ^  P  PH PH ,  d o PH O CQ  o  2  r4  +3 f?EJ ,  O  Table.. I l l B.  ..Fresh Weight of Tops, Per Gent  Leaf i n Tops-, and T r a n s p i r a t i o n i n a l l S e r i e s of Tomatoes and L a d i s h e s .  M  M 1  PH I  P4  •H H <B CO  01 0)  <!  w •  to  •d o>  u  3  -p S3 05 r-i PH  <H f-1 <D  -8  -C-  is. [if  £5  PH I  PH I  i  M M  S  i  S3  ft  M EH  LO  c-  o H  rH CNJ  to  CO  IO CO to H  to io to to  O to to H .  to J>  C7> r t - tO  j> CO  to rH  « i-t  m in  to  tw c\j  t r t i  «  COW  O  a> to  to  CNI  to  £> in  ^* o> to  -*  *H< CNI  o  "H<  to  u  1  o  a o  CO  CO  at to  to toa  | 1  H  (3  tH tH  c  •P  •  o  CNJ  CO  H to  ^<  CNJ  to  to ^  CJ>  to CNJ  CNJ  »  • to  • •  H  « • to o> >rf< to  to  1  to •St  to to  to  to to  o  o  w  r-i  to  ^  CNJ  C\)'tO  CNJ O.CNJ to CO - • ^ to  to  to  o co co to  a  CO to  « •  H tO  c-  o to  o EH  El •H  |  rH  03  CO Hi -p  c <D o  H PM  1 1 ' 1  -H-'  0  to  CO  H  to H  a  •H S3 O  •H -P  oj  «5 -H  > o  <D  a  •p •H O  •H <H tH <U o o  tH  CNJ CO  CXJ NO to  ON o o tft to  CO CNJ  CNJ  to to to CM  to  H to  o> i n o to  • <  • W)  ON CNJ  c-  to co' to CNJ  to to tO CNJ  0) bp S3  K  p o E-t  I*  o  to  CO  I—1 in  CNJ  o  to  i> m cin  rH'  co e>  r-i  CNJ  to  •  I  CNJ  I  1 ! £>  in H  to  o m  CO  <d<  H to to  co  fO  CO  CNJ  I  I  m l in col  cc  in  tn  tO  t>  in  o  O  r-i  O  H  o  •  to  CNJ  co  to to  m  to  CNJ  CNJ  to  CNJ  in  in  CNJ CNJ  CO  I-i  ^ i  B  CN!  CO CO  o  H  c-  a>  CO -tf  CO B  • ON 1-1  S3  o  CNJ  CNJ  to  CNJ  CO  CNJ  60 S3 tr) (H  S  H  SH  o S3  •d o  S3  >> H a>  !>  H -P K tu ^3  S3  •H  tu  SH  M  O  H  H  I  -P  CD  H 03 !>  CD  tH  05  ^3 H  . tD  <»  in  J>  o  05  c-  r-i  n  CNJ CNJ  O  CNJ rH  CNJ  O CO  £>  CNJ H  O  CNJ H  ho S3 cS P3  CO S3  •H  -p  S3 o  -H •P cS 54 •H Pf (Q  H  S3  P cS ^1 •P S3  +3  (U -d oS  a  ^3 CO  •H  03  o •H -P  EH  a H  a)  tH tH  MH  •sji i n  H CO  o  to • co to . r-i H  r-i  %  CO  H  •  CO  60  • B CO NO B CO H i n !> H c-  O N CNJ to CO O ON to E >  CNJ  to  to ON co  ON  tO  to  CO O ON  I  j> m  CO '  I  I  co co  « co  I  I  I  1 1  •  CO  l  s CD hO S3 03 P3  I I  I  ON  co  I I  CNJ  H  to O  CNJ  O .  H  m  H  CO  I I  ON  r-i to  m  • rH H  NO  H  •  CO  CO  • to to to  m •  to  » co  o  in  o in  in to  w  to to to  o co  o o to  to  t O E> •* t o CNJ  to  <tf  H  CNJ  CO  CNJ  H to  o  col  a  •H S3  o  H  tH MH 0  o  I 1  * ON to • • CO H to . • CO E - CNJ CNJ CNJ rH  i n :tO * • • o to o to CNJ to to to CNJ to t O  CNJ CNJ  a> a> c o o> t o  in to  o  •  CO CNJ  CO  CO  to to co •  O  to to  ^<  CO  o tO to  H to . to  to  CO  to o . . . C O -tf to CO  CNJ  tj"  • CO  CO  =  =  CO  S3 trj  •H  s  CO  p o H  o  Table  IV.  .Dry Weight, Per Cent M o i s t u r e s Per  Cent Dry M a t t e r , 'Ash Weight, and Per Cent Ash i n Dry Weight of Tops of a l l S e r i e s of Tomatoes and Radishes.  -  l  ft  1  I  ft  (d tt> a  H CD  O  H ft  B  CO  CD H  TH.  -HJ  B to • ft  i  CNI  ft  KM  ft  ft  -P  a  H u 1 ) a CO EH  ' CM  iH  t£)  C\2 to  r-i  OI r-i  rH  rH  to 01  CO o  CM  ON  t>  to  rH  to  rH  OI  rH  ON  o  CO  o  CO  r-i  r-i *  CO  oi  ON  1  r-i tf  OI ^F  CO  CO ON  to  to  to •  rH  •p H  CH O  <H tH  H  o  o  CNI  ON  CO  co  to  C--  w  CO  to  CNI 1 H  • •  S  rH  to t o CV CN!  CO  CO  D -  H CO ON  O  -Ht  rH  KF  CO  CNJ  CN]  •P  N  c - to CO  bo  a tri  p o EH  0 CO  to  CO O CO C  CO  01  t o «D CO  r-i  CO  o>  ^  CO  rH  ' oi en  o  r-i  C\! t o  CNI  CC  ON  ON  co t o  ON  CO  CO  ON  oi  £>  o>  H  •3 CO  to  ON  O  a>  Oi  CNJ  ^  H  to  ON  O  ON  H  co  u  CO  ON  ID bo  u  is  SI  S i  CD -P  CM • o  O  •  ON  o  M  a  p o EH  to  to  >H<  O V  DCO  CO  *H< ON  to  H  ON  to  CNJ  CO  ON  CO  ON  o  ON  1  H r-i o> o>  O  o  O  ON  rH  o  00  ON  ON  o  co co  ON  o ON  rH •  CO  o> co  ON  ON  CO  CO  O  •  4  CD  U  cS  bo  CO  ON  co co  60 cS  p O EH  CO  H  01  t o CO CNJ  CO  tF O  CO  rH CO OJ OI r-i  H  CNJ  o a> z> co CO  OI ON rH  tO £>  CO ON rH  to to  O rH  t>  rH rH  OI  tF CO CNI rH  CNI  CNJ  H CNI  o  CO  CNI  to  ON  H  ON  o  CO  O  OJ  co H  C£>  ON CO  ON  CNI rH  CNJ O  KF O H H  to to  CNJ rH  ON  CNJ rH  tO  H .rH  r-i  I I  CO  t I  I i  bO  a K  J-t  I I  r-i  ON  H H rH  ON  rH  01  co co co z> rH r-i  CO  CO  CNJ  CNJ  to to  co t o  ON  co c -  bO  o  to tO c-  to to tO % F OJ  o to •sF !>• rH C O  O CNI t o OJ rH  SI CO  ^1 s u <!l n  32 III.  The Tables of R e s u l t s . Prom t a b l e s I I I A, I I I B, and IV i t I s seen t h a t the  full  n u t r i e n t tomatoes ( s e r i e s l ) were on the average a l i t t l e  tall-  er and a l i t t l e h e a v i e r t h a t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g potassium deficient  ones ( s e r i e s 2 ) .  This was the o p p o s i t e to t h a t of  s e r i e s AB and C, i n which case the potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s were the s l i g h t l y  t a l l e r and h e a v i e r .  In per cent moisture  and per cent ash i n dry weight there was no important d i f f e r ence between the f u l l  n u t r i e n t p l a n t s ( s e r i e s AB and l ) and the  potassium d e f i c i e n t ones ( s e r i e s G and 2 ) . r a d i s h e s as w e l l as f o r the tomatoes.  T h i s h e l d f o r the  In a l l these cases the  per cent moisture I n the r o o t s was above t h a t i n the t o p s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the r a d i s h e s .  In these r a d i s h e s  there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n the average per cent ash i n dry weight of r o o t s .  ...  The p l a n t s ( s e r i e s B) h a v i n g h a l f of the p o t a s s i u m r e p l a c e d by sodium were found t o be c l o s e r i n the v a r i o u s measurements, e s p e c i a l l y i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n , to those h a v i n g the f u l l amount of p o t a s s i u m ( s e r i e s A) than t o those h a v i n g a l l the potassium r e p l a c e d by sodium  ( s e r i e s C).  S e r i e s A and s e r i e s B were group-  ed as one s e r i e s , AB, to compare with, s e r i e s C i n the ical  statist-  tests. From these t a b l e s i t i s a l s o seen t h a t the combined phos-  phorus and. p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s ( s e r i e s 4) were on the average a " l i t t l e t a l l e r and h e a v i e r than the phosphorus ficient  ones ( s e r i e s 3 ) , y e t a l i t t l e  l i g h t e r than the f u l l  de-  s h o r t e r and c o n s i d e r a b l y  nutrient controls (series 5).  These  s e r i e s (3, 4 and 5) were a l l v e r y much s h o r t e r and l i g h t e r than  33 the f u l l n u t r i e n t and potassium d e f i c i e n t tomato p l a n t s 1 and 2 ) .  (series  The per cent m o i s t u r e , whether i n tops or r o o t s , was  p r a c t i c a l l y the same f o r a l l f i v e s e r i e s .  The per cent ash i n  dry weight' was n e a r l y the same i n s e r i e s 3, 4 and 5, and appreciably  g r e a t e r i n these s e r i e s than i n s e r i e s 1 and 2.  The average r a t i o of t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n the shade t o t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n the sun was much the same f o r the tomato s e r i e s AB and C, 1 and 2, and 3 and 4.  I n the case of the r a d i s h e s ,  the s e r i e s 2 (-K) r a t i o was s m a l l e r  however,  than t h a t of s e r i e s 1  (F. H, ) .The t a b l e s show t h a t the phosphorus  d e f i c i e n t tomato p l a n t s  f e d w i t h f u l l n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n ( s e r i e s 6) made a g r e a t e r r e covery than d i d the combined phosphorus  and p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t  plants f e d with potassium d e f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n 7 ) , as shown i n these measurable plants  characters.  (series  Compared w i t h the  i n the other s e r i e s ( l , 2, 3, 4 and 5) these p l a n t s i n  s e r i e s 6 and 7 had the h i g h e s t per cent moisture i n tops and p e r cent a s h i n d r y weight of tops. the p l a n t s  I n these two c h a r a c t e r s  of s e r i e s 6 and 7 were p r a c t i c a l l y the same.  The  h i g h e r percentages of ash i n d r y weight of tops i n s e r i e s 3, 4 and 5, and i n s e r i e s 6 and 7 over s e r i e s 1 and 2 i s a s s o c i a t e d with progressively  s m a l l e r p l a n t s and c o n t a i n e r s ,  and e a r l i e r  stage of growth. The t r a n s p i r a t i o n r e s u l t s show t h a t the potassium d e f i c i e n t tomato p l a n t s  ( s e r i e s C and 2) l o s t c o n s i d e r a b l y  more water  through t r a n s p i r a t i o n than d i d the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u l l plants  ( s e r i e s AB-..and l ) .  nutrient  I n p l a n t s h a v i n g a phosphorus de-  f i c i e n c y ( s e r i e s 3 and 4 ) , however,, tra.nspira.tion was g r e a t l y  34 depressed.  P l a n t s i n the r e c o v e r y s e r i e s (6 and 7) a l s o showed  t h a t where p o t a s s i u m .alone was t i o n , t r a n s p i r a t i o n was ent c o n t r o l s .  The  d e f i c i e n t i n the n u t r i e n t s o l u -  Increased over t h a t i n the f u l l  nutri-  above statements on t r a n s p i r a t i o n a l s o h o l d  when, the t r a n s p i r a t i o n was  measured on the weight of l e a f y  p o r t i o n b a s i s i n s t e a d of on the weight of t o t a l top b a s i s , but the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s  (see t a b l e V I I ) were lower.  This  was  r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s i n per cent of l e a f i n t o t a l top weight, s i n c e the d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s , 2, 3, 4 and 7, had a h i g h e r centage of l e a f than had t r o l s e r i e s , 1, 5,and 6,  per-  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f u l l n u t r i e n t conFor the r a d i s h e s , t r a n s p i r a t i o n , l i k e  the other c h a r a c t e r s measured, was  on the average n e a r l y  the  same i n b o t h the f u l l n u t r i e n t and  the potassium d e f i c i e n t  plants. The p l a n t sap d a t a r e c o r d e d i n t a b l e V d i d not seem to be r e l a t e d i n any d e f i n i t e manner to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t r a n s p i r a tion .  N e i t h e r d i d the top / r o o t r a t i o s (not r e c o r d e d ) .  The  attempted measurement of the h y d r o p h y l l i c c o l l o i d content  was  unsuccessful.  the  The  sugar added to the sap a f t e r o b t a i n i n g  d e p r e s s i o n of the f r e e z i n g p o i n t , depressed the f r e e z i n g p o i n t s t i l l f u r t h e r but only to a degree which i s n o r m a l l y expected of a m o l a l s o l u t i o n of sugar. p r e s e n t was sugar.  T h i s showed t h a t the water  not bound but f r e e to make a m o l a l s o l u t i o n of  the  I f some of the water had been bound, the sugar s o l u -  would have been more c o n c e n t r a t e d than m o l a l , and the f r e e z i n g p o i n t would have been depressed to a greater expected of a m o l a l s o l u t i o n .  The  degree than t h a t  r e s u l t obtained  indicated  t h a t the tomato p l a n t sap at the time of t e s t i n g contained hydrophyllic  colloids.  no  35 Table -V  P l a n t Sap Data TOMATOES  Treatment Series  E.N.  - K 1 P.N. ! - P 2 :  1 6  6  Ho.,of Groups  6 -  6  % T o t a l Range Solids  4.6 4.1  Avg. Coef. of Var. i n %  4.4  ^ Moist.  Range Avg,  K -PK  4 i ! 2 .  4.7 | 4.7 4.6 j 4.6 3.8^ I 4.5 ! 4.65  3.2 7.8 2 -- 1 >40 95.9 95.4  96,2 95,3  95.6  95, 6  1,5 3-5  P.N. s  E.N.  - K  4  5  1  2  4  2  6,  6  2  2  1  1  3  Bo. of P l a n t s  Significance  RADISH  5.1 4.8  3,9 o«5  4.95  3.7  < 5%  4.3 4-3 >10^  j 1 95.4 ! 95.3  95.2 94.9  95.4 , 95.0  —  -  3,9  7.6 4-5<5fo !  96,5  --  --  95.4  96.1  11.3  11.7  6.27  5,90  96.1 96,3  i Range 'Resistance i n ohms Avg. Coef, of Var. i n % Significance  Range Osmotic Pressure i n atm, Avg. Coef. of Var. i n %. S i g n i f icance  14.1 13,8  17.8"^ 16,0 14.7 11^7  12.0 11,3  14.7  14,0  15.7  12.1  11.6  15'. 0  4.7  4.2  2.8  1o 1  !  2 —- i --- <1 % 6.14 5.30 5.66 5« S  5-3  3-4 >40%  5-4 < 2%  6.14 5.54 4.46* 5.54  6,63 5. 65  5.67 5,30  4.28 4.82  6.15  5.48  4.82  10.3  11.0  4.8  1  3-4  4-5  1 -- 2 >60  3-5 >10%  >20%  1 *Extreme v a l u e - beyond normal range.  36 Table . V I  M i n e r a l A n a l y s i s Data TOMATOES  Treatment  F.N,  Series  1  1  No. of P l a n t s % K in  4  Range  Ash  K  2  3  4  26.9 23,6 24,6  17.7 15,3 16.0  6.4  6.9  3.15 2.15 2.64  Avg,  F.N. - P 3  RADISH P.N. s -PK 4  5  3  2  2  14  4  15.5  12,6  30.3 a I..13v2  6.1  11.5  9,0 10,6  15,0 b j 9,3 j-11.3  1.3 4.1  13.6 14  -7  17.0  2.88 2.06 2.45  3.47 2.84 3.18  3,23 2.65 2.85  18.4  4.8  10.0  11.4  15.7 j 13.7 j 14.6  19.5 16.0 18.0  j 6.6  8.2  .Coef. Var. - %  '  j 1  -  j  14.8  i  Na In  Range  Ash  Avg.  Coef. Var. % % Ca in Ash  Range Avg.  Coef. Var. %  24.9 24.5 20.2 22.3 22,7 ' 23.1 10.4-  5.2  i 7,97 8.70 6 . 5 4 j 6.10 7.30 j 7,07  7,46 3.84. 5.72  —  3,79 b I I  16.1 b 12.6 a _  • l  % Mg ™ Ash  Range  4  K  Avg.  Coef. Var. % % P in Ash  ! 1 6.09 f« 15.47 5 7  | 12.2  Range Avg.  Coef. Var. % ^ S in  Range  Ash  Avg.  Coef. Var. %  1. 89 2.01 7.1  10.3 j 20.1 2.26 2.03 2.18 5 • [3  6.9? a 5.03 b -  31,8  -  0.78 0,66 0.74  0,73 0.65 0.69  7.9  6,0  _  1.04 0.94 1.00  _  3.94 3.08 3. 63  4.48 3.45 3.95  1.43 1.09 1 © 21  10.4  14.7  14.4  5.9  1.61  1.86 —  1  45.4  37 The s i g n i f i c a n c e recorded i n t a b l e s V and V I I i s the s t a t : i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e as p r o b a b i l i t y i n p e r cent.  of the means expressed  " I f the p r o b a b i l i t y i s v e r y  small  the assumption can be s a f e l y made t h a t the samples do not bel o n g to the same p o p u l a t i o n ,  i . e . , t h a t there i s some fund-  . amental d i f f e r e n c e between the v a r i a b l e s . "  (25)  A probability  of l e s s than 5 % i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t , w h i l e one of l e s s t h a n 1 % i s c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  The s t a t i s -  t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s here r e c o r d e d were made a c c o r d i n g t o the methods of P a t e r s o n (25) which are based on those of P i s h e r of Rothamstead. I t i s shown i n t a b l e V I - M i n e r a l  a n a l y s i s data - t h a t the  p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s c o n t a i n e d a. f a i r amount of potassium. Another p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t the p l a n t s w h i c h r e c e i v e d  no  sodium i n the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n had, as g r e a t a percentage of sodium i n the ash as d i d those which r e c e i v e d  the sodium.  The  d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s , 2, 3 and 4, showed a h i g h e r percentage of b o t h c a l c i u m and magnesium i n the ash than d i d the c o n t r o l s e r i e s , 1. Only two p l a n t s  of s e r i e s 5, the s m a l l f u l l n u t r i e n t  were a n a l y s e d , and as one of these (b) showed the ash  controls, character-  i s t i c s of s e r i e s 2 ( - K) w h i l e the other (a) showed the chara c t e r i s t i c s of s e r i e s 1 (F.N.) the r e s u l t s were not averaged, but r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y . s e r i e s 1, w h i l e p l a n t  Plant  (a) t r a n s p i r e d as d i d those .of  (b) w i t h o n l y h a l f the percentage of  p o t a s s i u m i n the ash t r a n s p i r e d as d i d the p l a n t s w h i c h had a s i m i l a r low percentage of potassium.  of s e r i e s 2,  38 R e l a t i v e D i f f e r e n c e s and S i g n i f i c a n c e TOMATOES FN Series  AB  - K  FN  - K  0  1 100  Wt. R t s . 100 127 Fresh C -- AB Signif, > 20 %  RADISH - K -PK 4  FNs  2  FN - P 3  105  50  2 1 >40 %  -PK - K . 7  FN  - K  5  - P FN 6  .1  2  72  100  100  29  100  92  5-3 4-3 ,<l£ >5^  5-4. >5^  6 -- 7 <1 %  1 -- 2 > 40 #  4 — —  Wt. R t s . 100 118 Dry C AB Signif. >50 % —  Wt. Top Fresh Signif.  100  122  C -.- AB >10 %  100  2 -- 1 >50 % 100  91  2 <1 %  1  100  a.  102  104  •Leaf 2 —  -Signif. Wt. Top Dry  100  119  C AB >40 % —  Signif. Transp, 100 gm. • Top Signif.  100 C  Transp. 100 gm. Leaf Signif. Ash Wt. Tops  1  <5 %  117  AB <5 % —  100 1 —  -  2  > < 5 % 100  121* 114  5-3  4-3  100 5-4  51 5-3 <1%  112  68 4-3 >1Q%  104  3-5  3-4  <1%  <5%  60  87  100 5-4 <5fo_  100 4-5 y\o%  100  5-3 4-3 5-4 >10^ > 7>0% >40^ 100  5-3 <ii  3-4 > 53  5-4 <ig  48  42  100  2 -- 1 5-3 >20 % .<2 <t *  3-4  1 <5 ' i  100  108  83  36  6 —  7  O  44  2  100  ~fC  54  100 —  86  58 . 83  62  88  100  erf /o  30  6 -- 7 <1 % 100  100  89  . 1 2 "> 20 % 100  109  2 1 > 50 %  104  7 -- 6 >10 %  100 6  1 30 j 100  7 < 1 %  100  116  7 — 6 > 10 % 100  113  100"  1 2 > 90 ^ 100  99  1 -- 2 )70 <% -  5-4 j • 7 — 6 > 5 % 100 j 1 0 0  28  100  104  39 Table' V I I  R e l a t i v e D i f f e r e n c e s and S i g n i f i c a n c e TOMATOES  Treatment  P IT  - K  Series  '1  2  % Ash.In Dry Wt.  100 ' 98  ' % K i n Ash  100 1 — <1  'Significance % Ha i n Ash  100  65 2 % 92  1 -- 2 >40 %  Significance •% Ca i n Ash  100 2 —  124 1  Significance 100  133  2  1  100  108  Significance % P i n Ash  2 -- 1 > 10' %  S i g n i f icance % S i n Ash  100 2 —  Significance  ,. E IT - P 3  - K -PK 4'  PHs  146  142  56  43  3-4 >1Q%  121  | 1  >30  109 1  1-3 <jy|  156 ' 159 4-3  -PK - K 7  P H  - K  5  - P P IT 6  1  2  140  172  163  100  105  100  36  122 a 61 b 2-4  1 ~- 2 ^ IL /j  <E£  j  108  3-4 3-1 >20^ >40/  >80/  ^ I g i n Ash  RADISH  144 b 4-2 >5/  3,-1  87 a 111 b 4-2  <lf  <if,  0  129  105  126 a 92 b 3-4 3-1 2-4 >30^ >io;€ >20% 36  34  3-4 )50%  33 3-4 >10^  * E x c l u d i n g the extreme v a l u e .  1-3 <\%  1-3  - .  80 b 2-4 -  --  <1%  28 <1<  -  -  51 b 2-4 <pj_  _  40 A g e n e r a l i n s p e c t i o n of t a b l e s I I I A, I I I B and IV, shows t h a t i n most cases the tomato s e r i e s 1 (P.N.) and 2 (~ K) had a smaller  c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n than had "the other s e r i e s ,  3, 4, 5, 6 and 7.  That i s , the l a r g e f u l l n u t r i e n t  plants,  and the l a r g e p a r t i a l l y potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s showed the greatest  uniformity  o f the v a r i o u s s e r i e s ,  •Table V I I - R e l a t i v e D i f f e r e n c e s  and S i g n i f i c a n c e - i s a,  summary of a l l the important r e s u l t s of these experiments. Where a d i f f e r e n c e  i n the means of two c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e r i e s i s  • s i g n i f i c a n t - i t i s marked i n r e d .  Thus i t can be seen a t a  glance t h a t i n the r a d i s h e s d i f f e r e n c e  i n the n u t r i e n t  treat-  ment r e s u l t e d I n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e except i n the case of p e r cent potassium i n the ash. I n the tomato s e r i e s AB and 0, no d i f f e r e n c e  I s s i g n i f i c a n t except t h a t of t r a n s p i r a t i o n  (no ash a n a l y s i s -was made).  7  I t ' i s seen t h a t the top weight of s e r i e s 1 (P.I>T. ) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than t h a t of s e r i e s 2 (- K) i n the tomatoes, w h i l e the p e r cent l e a f e,nd t r a n s p i r a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r s e r i e s 2.  In the ca.se of s e r i e s 3 (- P) and s e r i e s  4 •(- PK) the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i s t h a t of per cent  l e a f , i n which the v a l u e f o r s e r i e s 3 i s the g r e a t e r .  In many  c a s e s , one or b o t h of these s e r i e s (3 and 4) d i f f e r e d from the c o n t r o l s e r i e s , 5 (P.N.s).  I t should be noted that they (3 and  4) weighed l e s s • a n d ' t r a n s p i r e d t h e i r c o n t r o l , s e r i e s 5. a. s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  l e s s , p e r u n i t of weight, than  The r e c o v e r y s e r i e s , 6 and 7, showed i n weight b u t not i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n ,  though the t r a n s p i r a t i o n p e r u n i t of weight was g r e a t e r f o r s e r i e s 7, the p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t one.  41 In r e g a r d t o the a s h a n a l y s i s of the tomatoes, s e r i e s 2 " ' (-.K) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r percentage of c a l c i u m and magnesium, and a g r e a t e r , hut not s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r , percentage of phosphorus and sulphur. where no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s Series  Sodium i s the only case  appeared i n any s e r i e s .  3 (- P) and s e r i e s 4 (- PK) were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t i n percentage of any element i n the ash, h u t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n p e r cent potassium than s e r i e s 1 (P.IT. ) and  s e r i e s 2 (- K) r e s p e c t i v e l y , and g r e a t e r i n per cent  calcium, IV.  The F u r t h e r T r a n s p i r a t i o n  Tests.  A l t h o u g h t h i s experiment was d i s c o n t i n u e d , because the p l a n t s f a i l e d ' t o r e c o v e r from the e f f e c t s of too low greenhouse n i g h t temperatures, the growth'and t r a n s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t week i n tap water show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n from plant to plant.  The c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n of the d a i l y  t r a n s p i r a t i o n of 12 p l a n t s was 13.5 $, 18.6  and 19.3 €.  The  f i g u r e s f o r p e r cent increa.se i n growth (weight) d u r i n g  the  same week averaged 14.1 %, w i t h a range of 8.9 % to 22.6  and  a c o e f f i c i e n t of 28.8  When p l a n t s w i t h near the same  t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e were p a i r e d nutrient  culture  s o l u t i o n , w h i l e the other one was p l a c e d i n  potassium d e f i c i e n t culture difference  o f f , and the one p l a c e d i n f u l l  s o l u t i o n , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n f o r the f i r s t day was between the  50 % and the 60 % p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s , i . e . , not s i g n i f i c a n t .  42 DISCUSSION A number of workers now agree t h a t there i s an  abnormal  water requirement i n at l e a s t some potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y r e p o r t s of a c t u a l measurements of t h i s , excess t r a n s p i r a t i o n a l water l o s s are s c a r c e .  The r e s u l t s of the  experiments r e p o r t e d i n t h i s paper show f a i r l y c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t tomato, hut not r a d i s h p l a n t s , l o s e more water through t r a n s p i r a t i o n when they are d e f i c i e n t i n potassium than when they are normal or when d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus. Some c o n f i r m a t i o n of.these r e s u l t s i s seen i n the r e p o r t s of the f o l l o w i n g workers.  Morse ( 2 2 ) / i n r e p o r t i n g experiments  on soybeans.and m i l l e t grown i n pots of s o i l w i t h , and w i t h o u t added potash,•and a t three water l e v e l s , wrote "Of these pot experiments i t can be s a i d t h a t the presence of p o t a s h i n c r e a s ed the e f f i c i e n c y of the l i m i t e d supply of water i n d e v e l o p i n g the p l a n t s . "  Morse a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of  potash f e r t i l i z e r s his  i n d r y seasons as mentioned by H a l l (7) i n  d e s c r i p t i o n of the Rothamstead  experiments.  Morse c o n f i r m s the work of Maercker (pages 3-4).  (17) a l r e a d y  This work of mentioned  He found t h a t the f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t of p o t a s h on  water economy was more pronounced  i n the s o i l c o n t a i n i n g the  s m a l l e r percentage of i t s water c a p a c i t y . T i n c k e r and D a r b i s h i r e (32) i n t h e i r work on Stachys tuberi f e r a (as a l r e a d y mentioned - page l ) noted w i l t i n g of a l l the p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s at the end of a hot day, whereas comparable p l a n t s s u p p l i e d w i t h p o t a s h remained e r e c t and turgid,  H a r t t ( 9 ) , t o o , i n her work on sugar cane noted a  somewhat s i m i l a r case.  P l a n t s r e c e i v i n g about h a l f the f u l l  43 amount of p o t a s s i u m r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more water than p l a n t s , w i t h the f u l l amount of potassium, which were appreciably larger i n size. The r e s u l t s g i v e n i n t h i s paper are a l s o i n a c c o r d w i t h those of Reed ( 2 6 ) , Hansteen-Cranner a l r e a d y mentioned  (8) and K i s s e r  (14)  (pages 5-6), but not w i t h those of C h i l d e r s  and. Cowart ( 3 ) . E c k s t e i n , Bruno and T u r r e n t i n e summarising the r e s u l t s of other workers i n "Potash D e f i c i e n c y Symptoms" (5) have the • f o l l o w i n g to say i n t h i s matter.  "The u n f a v o r a b l e i n f l u e n c e  of p o t a s h d e f i c i e n c y on the water r e l a t i o n s h i p s of our c u l t i v a t e d p l a n t s , w h i c h i s due to an impairment of water a b s o r p t i o n and e s p e c i a l l y to an i n c r e a s e d e m i s s i o n of water, a l s o decreases the a b i l i t y of the p l a n t t o w i t h s t a n d drought.  This  u n f a v o r a b l e i n f l u e n c e of p o t a s h d e f i c i e n c y i s m a n i f e s t on hot days and a t noon, .....  Experiments on meadows have a l s o  f r e q u e n t l y shown t h a t i n dry y e a r s the p o t a s h d e f i c i e n t p l o t s are  the f i r s t to s u f f e r from drought."  And a l s o t h i s "Potash  d e f i c i e n c y e x e r t s an u n f a v o r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on the water a t i o n of the p l a n t .  utiliz-  A l a r g e r amount of water i s necessary to  produce one gram of d r y matter when potash i s d e f i c i e n t than when i t i s abundantly s u p p l i e d .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  t r a n s p i r a t i o n and p o t a s h n u t r i t i o n are the b i g g e s t f a c t o r s i n the  impairment of the water economy of the p l a n t when p o t a s h i s  deficient. In  The p o t a s s i u m i o n tends to reduce t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  the case of a l a c k of p o t a s h the water l o s s i s g r e a t e r , and  w i l t i n g , t y p i c a l of p o t a s h s t a r v a t i o n , r e s u l t s . " Cowie i n the same book (5) d e a l s w i t h the r e l a t i o n of  44 p o t a s s i u m t o "Leaf S c o r c h " , and r e f e r s t o the work of Wallace (34) and HOblyn ( l l ) on t h i s p o i n t .  " 'Leaf Scorch' ...occurs  under c o n d i t i o n s which a f f e c t the t r e e i n such a way that the amount of water t r a n s p i r e d from the l e a v e s i s g r e a t e r than the amount absorbed by the r o o t s .  The r e s u l t of t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s  t h a t the c e l l s round the margins of the l e a v e s are k i l l e d , p r o d u c i n g t y p i c a l scorched l e a v e s , w i t h a r e d u c t i o n of the t r a n s p i r i n g surface.  Experiments i n commercial orchards have  shown t h a t 'Leaf S c o r c h ' may occur on any s o i l where t h e p o t a s h s u p p l y i s inadequate f o r the needs of the t r e e .  ...... 'Leaf  S c o r c h ' c a n a l s o be produced by the continuous use of f e r t i l i z e r s c o n t a i n i n g no p o t a s h . marked i n hot d r y summers.  ..... 'Leaf S c o r c h ' becomes most .....  An important p o i n t which has  emerged from the c h e m i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o 'Leaf S c o r c h ' i s t h a t i n a l l cases examined i n the- f i e l d the scorched t r e e i s a low-potash t r e e and I s a.pparantly s u f f e r i n g from a d e f i c i e n c y of t h i s  element."  In o p p o s i t i o n t o the genera.l agreement w i t h the r e s u l t s reported  i n t h i s paper i s the work of Snow ( 3 0 ) . I n work on  s u n f l o w e r , toba,cco and bean p l a n t s i n s o l u t i o n c u l t u r e s , he found t h a t the t r a n s p i r a t i o n of plaints i n potassium d e f i c i e n t c u l t u r e s o l u t i o n s decreased a f t e r a time as compared w i t h the controls i n f u l l nutrient solutions.  However i t should be  noted t h a t whereas h i s p l a n t s were c o m p l e t e l y d e f i c i e n t i n potassium the p l a n t s i n t h i s experiment were only p a r t i a l l y def i c i e n t i n p o t a s s i u m as seen by the r e s u l t s of the a.sh a n a l y s i s . Confirmation,  i n l a r g e p a r t , of the r e s u l t s of the m i n e r a l  a n a l y s i s i s a l s o found i n the r e p o r t s of other workers.  Colbjr  (4) working on French prune t r e e s , and Johnston and  Hoagland  (13) working on tomatoes found low potassium content of the ash a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r c a l c i u m , magnesium and phosphorus  con-  t e n t as compared w i t h a h i g h e r p o t a s s i u m content of the p l a n t ash.  Fonder  (6) working on a l f a l f a a l s o found the lower  potassium content a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h i g h e r c a l c i u m content of the-plant.  T h i s was- the case i n the experiments here r e p o r t e d ,  except t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the case of phosphorus was  not  significant. The work of I l a r t t (9) on sugar cane a l s o supports t h i s , i n t h a t w i t h a medium, as compared to a h i g h , suppljr of potassium t h e r e was an increa.se of per cent c a l c i u m , magnesium, and phosphorus  i n the bla.des, h u t w i t h the lowest supply of  p o t a s s i u m the c a l c i u m and magnesium percentages were lower than i n the case of the medium supply. /This suggests t h a t i n r e g a r d to a p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y the degree of s t a r v a t i o n i s important, as a lower degree of s t a r v a t i o n may  give opposite r e s u l t s , i n .  r e l a t i v e percentages of calcium, and magnesium, to a g r e a t e r degree of s t a r v a t i o n , as compared to the c o n t r o l s .  This d i f f -  erence i n degree of s t a r v a t i o n might account, i n p a r t , f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s of t h i s w r i t e r to those of Snow men'tioned above, as i n t h i s case the potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s showed no e x t e r n a l d e f i c i e n c y symptoms, whereas those of Snow did.  L e t i t be noted t h a t Snow r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a n s p i r a t i o n  decreased a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of time ( p o s s i b l y as the d e f i c i e n c y became more s e v e r e ) .  H a r t t a l s o found t h a t the percentages of  c a l c i u m , magnesium and phosphorus  i n the potassium, d e f i c i e n t  p l a n t s , i n r e l a t i o n t o those i n the c o n t r o l s , v a r i e d w i t h the  age  of the p l a n t . The work of JIartt (9) a l s o showed t h a t the percentage of  sodium was  v e r y low i n the cases i n which i t was  w e l l as those i n which i t was r e s u l t s reported  not.  supplied  as  This corresponds w i t h  i n t h i s p r e s e n t paper,  the  From b o t h these  r e s u l t s i t can be concluded t h a t sodium d i d not  replace  potassium i n any f u n c t i o n measured i n these p l a n t s .  However,  M i l l e r (20) r e f e r s to s e v e r a l workers r e p o r t i n g t h a t sodium may  be  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r potassium to a c e r t a i n degree, but  entirely.  not  This p r o b a b l y h o l d s true f o r some but not a l l  plants. Of the s m a l l f u l l n u t r i e n t tomato p l a n t s , s e r i e s 5,  only  two were a n a l y s e d f o r m i n e r a l elements, the one w i t h the e s t and  the one w i t h the lowest t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e .  r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s were very,• i l l u m i n a t i n g . w i t h the h i g h e r  high-  The  The p l a n t  t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e , s i m i l a r to t h a t of  (b)  the  p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s , s e r i e s 2, had a low percentage of potassium, comparable to t h a t of s e r i e s 2. the one  On the other hand  (a) w i t h the lower t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e , s i m i l a r to t h a t  of the c o n t r o l p l a n t s , s e r i e s 1, had a percentage of potassium comparable to t h a t of the l a r g e f u l l n u t r i e n t c o n t r o l s , s e r i e s 1.  Why  a p l a n t r e c e i v i n g f u l l n u t r i e n t treatment should have  such a low percentage of potassium i s not c l e a r , but, whatever the r e a s o n , i t s h i g h t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e r e f l e c t s i t s low potassium content. These s m a l l f u l l n u t r i e n t p l a n t s were the c o n t r o l s f o r the phosphorus d e f i c i e n t s e r i e s .  The p l a n t s t r e a t e d w i t h a,  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n i n w h i c h phosphate was  r e p l a c e d by c h l o r i n e ,  47 showed the e f f e c t s of the d e f i c i e n c y w i t h i n three weeks. showed no a p p r e c i a b l e  i n c r e a s e i n growth a f t e r f e e d i n g  the phosphorus d e f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n s commenced. p l a n t s were so small?  Since  with  these  they c o u l d not p r o p e r l y he compared t o  l a r g e f u l l n u t r i e n t and potassium d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s w i t h to t r a n s p i r a t i o n .  They  regard  To get p l a n t s l a r g e enough so t h a t t r a n s -  p i r a t i o n c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y he measured, other normal p l a n t s were t r e a t e d w i t h f u l l n u t r i e n t and potassium d e f i c i e n t nutr i e n t s o l u t i o n s f o r one month and then d e p r i v e d  of phosphate.  I n b o t h cases •(- P and - PK) t r a n s p i r a t i o n , as w e l l as h e i g h t in and weight* •-^as much l e s s t h a n t h e comparable s m a l l f u l l  nut-  A  r i e n t p l a n t s t r a n s p l a n t e d a t the same time to s i m i l a r 'small s i z e d cans.  These phosphorus d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s were i n b o t h  cases (- P and - PK) about e q u a l l y low i n p e r cent phosphorus r e l a t i v e t o the l a r g e c o n t r o l s .  They were a l s o r e l a t i v e l y  low i n per. cent p o t a s s i u m , the - PK p l a n t s b e i n g the lowest. In b o t h cases these two s e r i e s , 3 and 4, were r e l a t i v e l y  high  i n p e r cent c a l c i u m compared t o b o t h the l a r g e and the s m a l l f u l l nutrient controls.  Y e t , t h i s h i g h c a l c i u m and low  p o t a s s i u m content was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low not h i g h t r a n s p i r a t i o n rate.  This i n d i c a t e s t h a t a ' d e f i c i e n c y of phosphorus i s dom-  i n a n t i n i t s e f f e c t s on t r a n s p i r a t i o n over a d e f i c i e n c y of p o t a s s i u m o c c u r i n g a t the same time.  I t a l s o appears t h a t a  d e f i c i e n c y of phosphorus r e s u l t s i n a d e f i c i e n c y of potassium. These r e s u l t s may, of c o u r s e , h o l d t r u e o n l y f o r tomato t o p s , and not f o r other p l a n t s . Prom an e x a m i n a t i o n of the m i n e r a l a n a l y s i s d a t a , i t i s seen t h a t the p l a n t s watered w i t h the p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n t  48 n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n , showed a s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e amount of potassium f o r p l a n t s supposodly r e c e i v i n g none i n the n u t r i e n t . solution. the  The answer must l i e i n the tap water used to d i l u t e  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s and t o water the p l a n t s .  thought a t the time, t h a t the Vancouver  I t was  tap water was  suffic-  i e n t l y pure to use i n p l a c e of d i s t i l l e d water f o r t h i s experiment.  I t seems, though, t h a t i t c o n t a i n s enough potassium,  at l e a s t i n the summer, to a l l o w a f a i r growth of tomatoes when' s u f f i c i e n t of the o t h e r n u t r i e n t s are p r e s e n t .  At t h a t i t  need not c o n t a i n v e r y much potassium, as Johnston and  Hoagland  (13) have found t h a t o p t i m a l growth of the tomato p l a n t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n a f l o w i n g s o l u t i o n w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5'"p'.p.m. of potassium.  Tap- water has been found  to c o n t a i n about 2 p.p.m. of potassium ( 2 3 ) , though of course, i t w i l l v a r y from, d i s t r i c t  to d i s t r i c t .  This e x p l a i n s , then,  why  the s e r i e s B tomato p l a n t s . I n which h a l f the potassium of  the  n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n was r e p l a c e d by sodium, t r a n s p i r e d as  much as the f u l l n u t r i e n t c o n t r o l s .  They were not a c t u a l l y  d e f i c i e n t i n potassium. Some p l a n t s , i n c l u d i n g the tomato, can make s a t i s f a c t o r y growth i n - c u l t u r e s o l u t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g even l e s s than 1 p.p.m. of•phosphorus a c c o r d i n g t o Tidmore (31).  But, s i n c e  phosphate  d e f i c i e n c y showed up v e r y q u i c k l y i n these experiments, the Vancouver  tap water has not enough phosphorus  to i n t e r f e r e  s e r i o u s l y w i t h such experiments. These experiments on the tomato have shown t h a t a p a . r t i a l d e f i c i e n c y of potassium r e s u l t s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e I n transpiration.  The exact r o l e , though, t h a t the potassium  49 p l a y s i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n unknown.  I t was  of water i n the p l a n t i s at present  hoped t h a t the "plant sap" experiments and  the " f u r t h e r t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t s " might throw some l i g h t t h i s , hut they d i d not.  on  However, s i n c e i n the " f u r t h e r t r a n s -  p i r a t i o n t e s t s " a t r a n s f e r of some normal p l a n t s t o a potassium d e f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n and some others to a f u l l n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n , d i d not r e s u l t i n any  significant difference i n  t r a n s p i r a t i o n , i t would seem t h a t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the p l a n t .and not the c o m p o s i t i o n of the n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n was  the cause  of the i n c r e a s e i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n the f i r s t experiment.  It  would seem, too, t h a t sodium had no e f f e c t upon t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n these experiments., Since no c e r t a i n e x p l a i n a t i o n can Toe g i v e n , one g i v e some s u g g e s t i o n s as to probable p o s s i b i l i t i e s . ample,, s i n c e the upper s u r f a c e s of'potash  (5),  have o n l y a v e r y t h i n l a y e r of wax  For  only ex-  d e f i c i e n t leaves  have a d u l l appearance because of the f a c t , a c c o r d i n g E c k s t e i n , Bruno and T u r r e n t i n e  can  to  t h a t the epidermal c e l l s or none at a l l , p o s s i b l y  the d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s l o s e more water through c u t i c u l a r t r a n s p i r a t i o n than do normal p l a n t s .  These-writers  also claim that  the stomata c l o s e v e r y s l u g g i s h l y when p o t a s h i s d e f i c i e n t , and t h a t the d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s cannot so r e a d i l y adapt thems e l v e s to dry weather and as can normal p l a n t s .  ..unfavorable  s o i l moisture conditions  These same w r i t e r s are not r e p o r t i n g  experiments of t h e i r own,  but are summarizing the r e s u l t s of  ether workers, m o s t l y German.  They have the f o l l o w i n g to  i n e x p l a i n a t i o n of the a c t i o n of potassium. "The  m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the water r e l a t i o n s h i p s brought  say  50 about by' p o t a s h d e f i c i e n c y are r e l a t e d to a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the s w e l l i n g power of the p l a n t ' s c o l l o i d a l m a t e r i a l s . i o n s , such as potassium, penetrate  e a s i l y i n t o the  Monavalent cells,  cause a s w e l l i n g of the s u r f a c e l a y e r of the plasma, and mote the a b s o r p t i o n of water by the p l a n t c e l l s . i o n s , such as c a l c i u m , on the other hand, p e n e t r a t e difficulty. of water.  pro-  Divalent with  great  They h i n d e r the a b s o r p t i o n and f a v o r the escape .....  The  enlargement of the opening of the stomata  when p o t a s h i s d e f i c i e n t , which i s regarded as one  of the  p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r the great l o s s of water from the p l a n t , i s due  to the f a c t t h a t because of the lower s w e l l i n g c a p a c i t y  of p l a n t m a t e r i a l and, the lower r e g u l a t i n g a b i l i t y i n the plasma demarcation l a y e r s , the c e l l p r e s s u r e  necessary f o r the  c l o s i n g of these c e l l s cannot be m a i n t a i n e d . " Since the d e t a i l s of the p r o c e s s of e x c e s s i v e t r a n s p i r a t i o n , i n p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n potassium, are unknown, f u r t h e r experiments are d e s i r a b l e w i t h b o t h tomatoes and plants.  other  To throw more l i g h t on the problem, the f o l l o w i n g  points., and p o s s i b l y a number of o t h e r s , need to be determined: ( l ) Whether the i n c r e a s e i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l s i s constant  o r . v a r i e s w i t h some of the c l i m a t i c  f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t r a n s p i r a t i o n (page 2)%  (2)  Whether the  i n c r e a s e i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l s i s g r e a t e r d u r i n g the day or n i g h t ; (3) Whether or not there i s any r e l a t i o n between s t o m a t a l movements i n the d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s as compared w i t h the c o n t r o l s and v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l cond i t i o n s ; (4) VJhether the water a b s o r b i n g  power of the r o o t  has  any r e l a t i o n to the i n c r e a s e d t r a n s p i r a t i o n of the potassium  51 d e f i c i e n t p l a n t s ; (5) Whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o o t p r e s s u r e have any r e l a t i o n to the problem; and (6) Yl/hether or not t r a n s p i r a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d f o r a l l degrees of p o t a s s i u m d e f i c i e n c y .  SIJMMARY Using Hoagland's n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n s under the  conditions  of t h i s experiment, the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . (1) Tomato p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n potassium, a t the time of blossoming, were found to t r a n s p i r e  tested  signific-  a n t l y more per u n i t of green weight of top than d i d comparable control  plants.  (2) Tomato p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n phosphorus, i n phosphorus  and  t o g e t h e r w i t h potassium, on the other hand,  t r a n s p i r e d much l e s s than comparable (3) T r a n s p i r a t i o n  controls.  of r a d i s h p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n  potassium was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of comparable  controls.  (4) Tomato p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n potassium and a l s o those . p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n "'phosphorus were found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n than the comparable  of l e a f to t o t a l top  controls.  (5) Ko c o n s t a n t or r e g u l a r r e l a t i o n was found between the t r a n s p i r a t i o n and the osmotic p r e s s u r e of the p l a n t sap of tomatoes. (6) Sodium does not appear to be a b l e to r e p l a c e  potassium  i n r e l a t i o n to i t s r o l e i n t r a n s p i r a t i o n i n tomato p l a n t s . (7) Tomato p l a n t s p a r t i a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n potassium were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n percentage of c a l c i u m and of magnesium than were comparable (8) Vancouver  controls.  tap water i n summer c o n t a i n s s u f f i c i e n t  potassium, but not s u f f i c i e n t phosphorus,  to pa.rtia.lly sunply  the needs of tomato and r a d i s h p l a n t s f o r a d e f i c i e n c y of these elements.  53 LITERATURE CITED (1)  Bouyoucos, G.  J. :  T r a n s p i r a t i o n of wheat s e e d l i n g s  as  a f f e c t e d by s o i l s , by s o l u t i o n s of v a r i o u s d e n s i t i e s , and by v a r i o u s chemical compounds. Agron.  3: 130-191.  (2) * B u r g e r s t e i n , A.:.  1911.  Jour. Amer. Soc.  (S 22,  A'7)  Untersuchungen uber d i e Bezidhungen der  I l a h r s t o f f e zur T r a n s p i r a t i o n der P f l a n z e n ber. . (3)  Akad. Y/iss. Wien. Math. Hat.  C h i l d e r s , IT. F. and  Co wart, F. E. :  Sitzungs-  CI. 83; 191.  The  1876.  photosynthesis,  t r a n s p i r a t i o n , and stomata of apple leaves as a f f e c - •' t e d by c e r t a i n n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s . Soc. (4)  Hort. S c i .  Colby, H. L.:  33:'160-163. 1935.  Proc.  (SB1,  Am. A  13)  E f f e c t of s t a r v a t i o n on d i s t r i b u t i o n of  m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t s i n 'French prune trees.grown i n solution cultures. (QK 1, P (5)  E c k s t e i n , 0.,  P l a n t P h y s i o l . 8: 357-394.  1933.  4) Bruno, A. and T u r r e n t i n e ,  J. W. : Potash  D e f i c i e n c y Symptoms. V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t Fur Ackerbau H. B. H. B e r l i n SW 11. 1937. i n c l . LIV p l a t e s . (6)  Fonder, J. F.:  (S 645, E  X I I +• 235  pp.  2)  V a r i a t i o n s i n potassium content of  a l f a l f a due  to stage of growth and s o i l  type  and  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of potassium, -and c a l c i u m i n p l a n t s grown upon d i f f e r e n t s o i l types. Agron. (7) * H a l l , A.. D, :  21: 732-750.  (S 22, A  7)  The Book of the Rothamstead Experiments. Ed.  2 r e v . by E. 1917.  1929.  Jour. Amer. Soc.  J. R u s s e l l , p 59, 87. London, J. Murray.  54 (8) * Hansteen-Cranner, B.:  Uber das V e r h a l t e n der K u l t u r - "  p f l a n z e n zu den Bodensalzen. 53 s 536-602. (9)  f l a r t t , C. E. s  I I I . Jahrb. Wiss. Bot,  1914.  Some e f f e c t s of potassium upon the growth  of sugar cane and upon the a b s o r p t i o n and m i g r a t i o n of a s h c o n s t i t u a n t s . 1934.  Plant Physiol.  9: 399-451.  (QK 1,- P 4)  (10) Hoagland, I). R. ; R e l a t i o n of the c o n c e n t r a t i o n a.nd r e a c t i o n of the n u t r i e n t medium t o the growth and abs o r p t i o n of the p l a n t . 1919.  (S l  (11) *Hoblyn, T.:  s  Jour. Agr. Res. 18; 73-117.  J 72)  The ,Journal of Pomology and F o r t . Science.  Bd.' IX, S. 303. 1931. . ^(SB 354, J 5) (12) James, W. 0.;  S t u d i e s on the p h y s i o l o g i c a l ' importance of  the m i n e r a l elements i n p l a n t s . I , The r e l a t i o n of potassium t o the p r o p e r t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of the leaf.  Ann. B o t . 44: 173-198.  1930.  (OK 1, A 47)  (13) Johnston, j j . S. and Hoagland, D. R. : Minimum potassium. l e v e l r e q u i r e d by tomato p l a n t s grown i n water c u l tures. (14) * K i s s e r , J. :  ..Soil S c i .  27; 89-109.  1929.  (S 590, S 6)  Untersuchungen uber den E i n f l u s der Nahrsa.lz  a„uf d i e Wasserabgabe Wasserautname, r e l a t i v e Sprossund Wurzelmass und d i e B l a t t a t r u k l t u r . , 3; 562-577.  Planta  1927.  (15 )*Kostytschew, S. and E l i a s b e r g , P.;  Uber d i e Porm der  Kaliumverbindungen i n lebenden Pflanzengeweben. Z. p h y s i o l . Chem.  Ill:  228-235. 1920.  55 (16) *Lawes,  B.;  An e x p e r i m e n t a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the  amount of water g i v e n o f f by p l a n t s d u r i n g t h e i r growth.  Jour. Hort. Soc. London.  (17) *Maercker, "M.:  5: 38.  1850.  Versuche uber d i e B e e i n f l u s s u n g des Wasser  verbrauchs der P f l a n z e n durch d i e K a l i r o h s a l z e . Jahrb. agr. .chem. Vers. S t a t . H a l l e , pp. 15-16. (18) McCance, R. A. and Shipp, H. L.:  The chemistry of f l e s h  foods and t h e i r l o s s e s on cooking. • Sp. Rep, Ked. Res. Coun. Ho. 187. 1933. (19) Meyer, B. S.;  E f f e c t of m i n e r a l s a l t s upon the t r a n s -  Amer. Jour. Bot. (20) M i l l e r , E. C. :  18: 79-93.  of the c o t t o n p l a n t .  1931. ' (QK 1, B  P l a n t Physiologjr.  xxxi  .McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Hew (QK711,'M5,  (21) Morrow, C. A. :  Sons Inc.  Saps.  345)  1201 pp, 2nd.  Ed,  York and London.  1938)  B i o c h e m i c a l L a b o r a t o r y Methods f o r  Students of the B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s .  Chapter  Ser.  (TX 555, M 3)  p i r a t i o n and water requirements  1938.  1895  Hew  York. 1927.  John W i l e y &  .(QK 861,-M 66)  I I . P h y s i c a l Chemical Constants of P l a n t pp. 75—89.  (22) Morse, E. W. : R e l a t i o n between water and potash i n p l a n t p r o d u c t i o n . Jour. Agr. Res. 35; 939-946.  1927,  (S 1, J 72) (23) N i g h t i n g a l e , G. T. , Schermerhorn, L. G. and Bobbin's, R.:  W.  Some e f f e c t s of potassium d e f i c i e n c y on the  h i s t o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and nitrogenous and hydrate c o n s t i t u a n t s of p l a n t s . S t a . B u l l . 499.,  1930.  Hew  carbo-  Jersey Agr.  Exp.  56 (24) P a r k e r ,  i \ W. and P i e r r e , W. H. :  The r e l a t i o n between  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of m i n e r a l elements i n a c u l t u r e medium and the a b s o r p t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of those elements by p l a n t s .  S o i l S c i . 25; 337-343.  1928.  (S 590, S 6) (25) P a t e r s o n , D. D.: Research,' Inc.  S t a t i s t i c a l Technique i n A g r i c u l t u r a l i x + 263 pp.  McGraw-Hill Booh Company,  Hew York and London.  (26) Reed, H. S.;  1939.  (HD 1425, P 3)  The e f f e c t of c e r t a i n chemicals upon the  growth and t r a n s p i r a t i o n of wheat s e e d l i n g s . Gaz.  49; 81-109.  (27 )* R i c h a r d s , Theo. W.  1910.  Bot,  (QK 1, B 3)  and W e l l s , R. C.J  Hephelometer, an  instrument f o r d e t e c t i n g and e s t i m a t i n g opalescent precipitates. (2  Sachs, J. :  Amer. Chem. J.  31: 235-243.  1904.  Uber den E i n f l u s der chenischen und p h y s i -  h a l i s c h e n B e s c h a f f e n h e i t des Bodens 'auf d i e Transp i r a t i o n der Pflcinzen.  Landw. V e r s u c h s s t . 1;  203.  1859. (29) S h e r r i l l , E.;  C e n t r i f u g a l method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g potash.  Jour. Ind. & Eng. (30) Snow, A. G. j r . :  11: 583-394.  1936.  The phosphorus content of the s o i l  22: 481-499.  1930.  1930.  (S 590, S 6)  sol-  Jour.' Amer.  (S 22, A 7)  Phosphate s t u d i e s In s o l u t i o n c u l t u r e s . 30: 13-33,  potassium.  (QK 1, P 4)  u t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n to p l a n t growth. Soc, Agron.  (TP 1, J 6)  T r a n s p i r a t i o n as m o d i f i e d by  Plant Physiol. (31) Tidmore, J. W.:  Chem. 13: 227. 1921.  Soil Sci.  57  (32)  T i n c k l e r , M. A. K. and D a r b i s h i r e , E. V . :  S t u d i e s on the  f o r m a t i o n of tubers and storage organs.  The i n f l u -  ence upon t r a n s l o c a t i o n of the p e r i o d of l i g h t the supply of potassium. ' -.  (OK 1, A  ( 3 3 ) W a l l , M. E . :  1,  27-51.  1933.  47)  Plant Physiol.  15J  537-545.  1940.  P:.4)  ( 3 4 ) W a l l a c e , T.: 1929,  47:  M i c r o d e t e r m i n a t i o n of some c o n s t i t u a n t s of  p l a n t ash. (QK  Ann, Bot.  and  S.  Long Ashton Research 47-58  and  1931,  S.  S t a t i o n Reports.  17-27.  ^ Papers thus marked were not r e a d i n the o r i g i n a l .  The  w r i t e r ' s knowledge of them i s based on e x t r a c t s and r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h have appeared i n the v a r i o u s other papers here l i s t e d .  The l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s at the of most of the r e f e r e n c e s are the L i b r a r y of Congress ( a l s o U. B. C. L i b r a r y ) c a l l numbers, by which the r e f e r e n c e s may  be q u i c k l y l o c a t e d .  end  58  This w r i t e r extends  thanks to Dr. G. H. H a r r i s , A s s o c i a t e  P r o f e s s o r of H o r t i c u l t u r e , under whose s u p e r v i s i o n  t h i s work  was done, f o r s u g g e s t i n g the t o p i c and f o r h i s advice out the course of the work.  through-  Acknowledgement i s a l s o g i v e n to.  Dr. A. P.- B a r s s , P r o f e s s o r and Head of the Department of H o r t i c u l t u r e , f o r h i s k i n d l y i n t e r e s t i n the work.  59  APPENDIX Photographs taken a t the time of the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t s i n August  .1)  (2)  1937.  The b a l a n c e s used i n the t r a n s p i r a t i o n t e s t :  The r a d i s h p l a n t s , Potassium D e f i c i e n t  and P u l l N u t r i e n t  (P S ) .  N o t i c e t h a t the - K t  are f u l l y as w e l l developed as the P N ones, are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  (- K ) ,  p l a n t s from each s e r i e s .  ops  These  60  (3)  Tomato p l a n t s , Potassium D e f i c i e n t - - s e r i e s 2 (- ) , K  and P u l l N u t r i e n t  - s e r i e s 1 (P N).  N o t i c e t h a t the - K  p l a n t s are as w e l l developed as the P'N ones.  (4)  Tomato p l a n t s .  N o t i c e t h a t those i n the c e n t e r , the  s m a l l f u l l n u t r i e n t c o n t r o l s - s e r i e s 5 - are the t a l l e s t and have the l a r g e s t l e a v e s , w h i l e the Phosphorus  Deficient  (- P) p l a n t s - s e r i e s 3 - on the r i g h t are the s m a l l e s t , and l i k e those on the l e f t , D e f i c i e n t i n b o t h and P o t a s s i u m (- PK) - s e r i e s 4 - have s m a l l e r  Phosphorus leaves.  61  7  (5)  Tomato p l a n t s  those on the l e f t  - the Recovery S e r i e s .  Notice that  (- P) - s e r i e s 6 - f e d w i t h f u l l  have made a g r e a t e r r e c o v e r y from phosphorus  nutrient  deficient  treatment than those on the r i g h t (- PK) - s e r i e s 7 - f e d w i t h potassium d e f i c i e n t n u t r i e n t s o l u t i o n have made from combined phosphorus  and potassium d e f i c i e n t treatment.  6 each s e r i e s i s shown.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105244/manifest

Comment

Related Items