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Saeva Indignatio in Donne, Hall and Marston Webster, Linda 1965

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SAEVA INDIGNAT10 IN DONNE, HALL AND MARSTON  by  LINDA WEBSTER  B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1963  A THESIS, SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1965  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference  and  study,  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may  be granted by the Head of my Department or by  his representatives.  I t i s understood that,copying or publi-  cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission*  Department of  English  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada D  a  t  e  May,  ii  ABSTRACT OF THESIS,  The formal s a t i r e of the late English Renaissance i s a complex phenomenon, modelled upon the c l a s s i c a l genre but also profoundly Complaint*  influenced by medieval homily and  It i s connected with other l i t e r a r y vehicles f o r  s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and i s a means of protesting against change, embodying the struggle between hierarchy and mobility that marks the  period.  Types are represented  in a realistic  manner and assigned parts i n miniature dramas unified by the presence of a narrator, by imagery and often by a thesis statement.  C r i t i c a l theories about the d e r i v a t i o n of the  term " s a t i r e " and the nature of the genre helped the form, tone and organization of these  to shape  poems.  This study focus es on the major writers of Elizabethan formal s a t i r e , Donne, H a l l and Marston, and examines t h e i r r e l a t i v e merits.  Donne is easily the most  complex and the greatest poet, but the problem of. which i s the most e f f e c t i v e s a t i r i s t has yet to be resolved.  Donne  creates "humourous" and b r i l l i a n t l y sardonic portraits of types and with exhaustive  d e t a i l l o c a l i z e s the s a t i r i c  scene i n Elizabethan London. kind of metaphysical  However, his satires are a  poetry, concerned with f i r s t  and the narrator's psychological processes.  principles  iii Intense s u b j e c t i v i t y and metaphysical subtlety are perhaps better suited to l y r i c and devotional verse than to s o c i a l s a t i r e , i n spite of the poet's mastery of the art of caricature.  Hall's s t y l e , lending an Augustan quality to  Virgidemiae, i s the measure of the differences among the writers.  Hall's assimilations of c l a s s i c a l sources, modified  Neo-Stoicism, intense conservatism and references to a Golden Age and academic retreat fuse together i n a witty and amusing s a t i r i c creation marked by the quiet i n s u l t , the p o l i t e sneer, contempt for the targets.  Marston's use of language  foreshadowsi c e r t a i n important trends i n the early Jacobean drama.  Although he i s sometimes incoherent i n his e f f o r t s to  combine s a t i r i c a l rage and the pose of the malcontent  with  moral exhortation, Marston produces an impressive, ultimately unified structure and v i s i o n of man dominated by his animal nature. In conclusion, Donne i s the superior poet, H a l l the most e f f e c t i v e s a t i r i s t , while Marston writes the most dramatic works, and only his lack of a r t i s t i c control prevents him from surpassing his contemporaries'  satire.  iv  CONTENTS Chapter  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.  Page  INTRODUCTION  '  THE SATIRICAL TEMPER OF ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND . .  1 3  ELIZABETHAN FORMAL SATIRE . . . . . . . . . . .  10  DONNE  17  HALL MARS TON THE ENGLISH SATYRS WORKS CONSULTED  53 79 107 .110  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  Joseph Hall's Virgidemiae (1597) and John Marston's Certaine Satyres. published with The Metamorphosis of Pigmalions Image (1598), are, apart from Thomas Lodge's A F i g f o r Momus  (1595) and John Donne's unpublished s a t i r e s , the f i r s t formal verse s a t i r e s i n English.  This study w i l l attempt to  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between c l a s s i c a l verse s a t i r e and the Elizabethan mode, to analyze the vogue f o r formal s a t i r e i n the l a s t decade of the sixteenth century and, l a s t l y , to examine Donne, H a l l and Marston i n r e l a t i o n to one another and so determine purposes, techniques and achievements.  their  In order to do t h i s ,  a c r i t i c a l standard must be formulated to distinguish s a t i r e from other l i t e r a r y genres and to evaluate the l i t e r a r y worth of s a t i r i c a l writing. S a t i r e i s motivated, at least by implication, by a set of abstract values, a conception of existence that the s a t i r i c world does not s a t i s f y .  The l i t e r a r y creation need not  2  explicitly  affirm a moral standard, a c r i t e r i o n , but i t s very  grotesqueness suggests that i t i s a deviation from a norm i n the reader's mind and i n the author's consciousness against which the values presented i n the text are measured.  Therefore,  the p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i a of Donne, H a l l and Marston w i l l be considered. The dramatic speaker and his tone and manner are examined, since they are major elements  i n the s a t i r i c  impact.  The analysis of image patterns attempts to arrive at a d e f i n i t i o n of the nature of e v i l and of the particular s a t i r i c targets i n these poems.  The metaphors f o r vice and f o l l y , the dominant  images i n each s a t i r i s t , w i l l be discussed, since i n them is compressed the essential s a t i r i c e f f e c t .  F i n a l l y , since, of  a l l arts, s a t i r e i s perhaps the most concerned with s o c i a l questions, something of a h i s t o r i c a l dimension i s useful f o r the understanding of Donne and h i s contemporaries.  For this  reason, the i n i t i a l chapter is devoted to a discussion of certain d i s t i n c t i v e characteristics of the Elizabethan age.  3  CHAPTER  II  THE SATIRICAL TEMPER OF ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND  The  s a t i r e of the l a t e E n g l i s h Renaissance  i s not  i s o l a t e d phenomenon, but a development of the c l a s s i c a l medieval t r a d i t i o n s of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m .  S a t i r e holds  a d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r t o nature, her f o r c e s , men ways, while m a i n t a i n i n g that experience  and up  their  i s seen and d e p i c t e d  as i t i s . The s a t i r i c world i s exaggerated yet  and  an  and  distorted,  r e t a i n s some resemblance t o the author's environment.  t h i s way,  the s a t i r i s t emphasizes the immense gap between the  s o c i e t y i n which he w r i t e s and the i d e a l o r d e r .  Superstition,  p r e j u d i c e , dogmatism, h y p o c r i s y , p e r s o n a l v i c e and f o l l y s o c i a l abuses are analyzed. expresses  In  and  The w r i t e r of s a t i r e o f t e n  a n o s t a l g i a f o r a l o s t Golden Age,  an i d y l l i c  p a s t o r a l e x i s t e n c e when s i m p l i c i t y and v i r t u e r e i g n e d , opposed to thegrotesque, degenerate  satiric  completely  world.  E l i z a b e t h a n " s a t y r e " i s given impetus by s o c i a l and economic changes and r e l i g i o u s and  profound  political  c o n f l i c t s that undermined the medieval w r I d - p i c t u r e , which even as e a r l y as the f i f t e e n t h century was  l o s i n g i t s cohesion,  and provided ample m a t e r i a l f o r the preacher, the m o r a l i s t , the s o c i a l economist  and the s a t i r i s t . ' ' "  The  s a t i r i c a l temper  H a l l e t t Smith, E l i z a b e t h a n Poetry; A Study i n Conventions. Meaning and E x p r e s s i o n (Cambridge [lass7], 1952), p. 198. 1  4 is b a s i c a l l y conservative, h o s t i l e to change.  Thus, the  weakening of r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and economic hierarchy, the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of society and the development of a pragmatic, m a t e r i a l i s t i c philosophy seemed to confirm the Idea of the decay and degeneration  of man and nature.  The increase i n  foreign trade, agrarian reorganization, the growth of London as a metropolitan market and the emergence of a new class, the bourgeoisie, with the ideas of individualism and free enterprise, represented  the forces of mobility, of f l u i d i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y .  The s a t i r i s t mirrors the older f e e l i n g , codified i n the sumptuary laws, that man's place i n society, his r e l a t i o n to himself and p to the universal order, should be defined and permanent and protests against the forces of materialism. Stock s a t i r i c targets are increased consumption and display of foreign goods, luxury, blurring of class d i s t i n c t i o n s , r i s i n g prices, monopolies, enclosures, a l l summed up i n the contrast between t r a d i t i o n a l English manorial culture and Italianate, courtly c i v i l i z a t i o n . A s k e p t i c a l attitude towards experience  i s shown i n the  satires of Donne and Marston, i n the drama of Webster, Marston and i n the dark comedies and the tragedies of Shakespeare. The opposition between man's actual condition and his s p i r i t u a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , the themes of mutability, the degeneration of man, the decay of the world and i t s approaching end, combined to create a sombre picture of l i f e and a sardonic, melancholy, 2  Smith, p. 204.  5 b i t t e r and s a t i r i c s p i r i t  i n many t h o u g h t f u l men i n the l a s t  decade of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The d i s c o v e r y o f change and  decay i n the f o r m e r l y a p p a r e n t l y i n c o r r u p t i b l e and immutable heavens and the Copernican astronomy and c l a s s i c a l assumptions almost immediate  emphasized  of the degeneracy  the p a t r i s t i c  of man and the  c o l l a p s e of the p h y s i c a l universe."^  The s t r o n g moral and d i d a c t i c s t r a i n of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e appears  i n forms borrowed  l a r g e l y from the c l a s s i c a l  authors, f o r example, epigrams, s a t i r e s , C h a r a c t e r s , e p i s t l e s , m e d i t a t i o n s and essays.  E n g l i s h f o r m a l verse s a t i r e  usually  takes the form o f a monologue or d i a l o g u e w r i t t e n i n d e c a s y l l a b i c c o u p l e t s , enclosed w i t h i n a f a i r l y r i g i d framework.  r h e t o r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l  T h i s d e s i g n i n v o l v e s a s a t i r i c observer and o f t e n  an adversary, a s e t t i n g , however vaguely sketched, and a t h e s i s , the examination of some aspect o f man's i r r a t i o n a l behaviour. The s a t i r i s t uses  innumerable d e v i c e s , s m a l l dramas, proverbs,  metaphors, f a b l e s , anecdotes, b r i e f sermons, debates, apostrophes, s l a n g , t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s s u b j e c t . " 4  Attempts t o  reproduce d i r e c t , c o l l o q u i a l speech as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e are contrasted w i t h learned words and r e f e r e n c e s .  The j u x t a p o s i t i o n  S,ee L . C. K n i g h t s , "Seventeenth Century Melancholy," The C r i t e r i o n . X I I I (1933), 97-112; George W i l l i a m s o n , " M u t a b i l i t y , Decay, and Seventeenth-century Melancholy," ELH, II.. (1935)? 133; Don Cameron A l l e n , "The Degeneration of Man and Renaissance Pessimism," S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y . XXXV (1938), 212. 3  M. C. Randolph, "The S t r u c t u r a l Design o f the Formal Verse S a t i r e , " P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . XXI (1942), 373-  6 of unlike things i s a t a c t i c to shock and surprise, not to excite laughter but to compel attention.  A dramatic character,  the "persona," serves as the author's mask, and either narrates or plays a leading role i n the poem, which i s often very l i k e a series of dramatic scenes.  Figures incarnating the abuse  that i s being attacked are introduced with identifying d e t a i l , shown i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c action and f i n a l l y exposed and judged. Thus, formal verse s a t i r e i s connected with drama and with formal d i a l e c t i c .  It sometimes resembles  a kind of Socratic  dialogue, either a conversation between two persons or a monologue where the second actor i s present but allows the protagonist to speak f o r him, or i t may be simply a monologue. , Formal s a t i r e i s also related to the Cynic d i a t r i b e , a discourse castigating vice, and to the English t r a d i t i o n of the " f l y t i n g , " a s p i r i t e d exchange of invective, the speakers appearing to improvise their arguments as the s i t u a t i o n develops. S.. H. Henderson f e e l s that the Renaissance  satirists  are not only trying to preserve the old order where possible, but are moralists who preach a s t r i c t code of ethics, f o r the most part strongly rooted i n orthodox C h r i s t i a n i t y , but which 5 borrowed much from the pagan writers.  S t o i c doctrine, adapted  by men l i k e Guillaime du V a i r , Antoine Muret and Justus Lipsius to the needs of Christians, was of a l l the  classical  philosophies the most acceptable to the English c u l t u r a l and ' "Neo-S;toic Influence on Elizabethan Formal Verse SLatire," Studies i n English Renaissance L i t e r a t u r e , ed. W. F. McNeir (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1962), p. 58. "  7 religious heritage.  It emphasizes personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and moral preaching, inward fortitude and outward s t r i v i n g i n the search f o r the good l l f e . ^  The Roman formal verse  s a t i r i s t s were sources of Stoic thought, most obvious i n Juvenal and Persius, and the Juvenalian indignant, ferocious, scathing attacks on abuses and the earnestness and seriousness of Persius are closer to the tone of English Renaissance  satire  than i s the urbanity of Horace, with the possible exceptions of Wyatt and Lodge.  The Elizabethans adopt the pose of the  Cynic philosopher or preacher, since i t allows freedom and license i n expression, or that of the S t o i c s a t i r i s t , since i t stresses moral rebuke.  Thus, as mentioned e a r l i e r , the  Cynic-Stoic t r a d i t i o n of s a t i r e and d i a t r i b e , the " f l y t i n g " and the native preaching t r a d i t i o n combine to form a sharp instrument which purports to arraign man f o r his vices and follies. The outburst of s a t i r e seemed to lead so inevitably to " f l y t i n g s " and l i b e l s that the authorities attempted to suppress  i t . The Order of Conflagration, an edict issued  by the archbishop of Canterbury  and the bishop of London,  the censors of the l e t t e r - p r e s s , and entered i n the Stationers* Registers on June 1, 1599? reaffirmed and strengthened existing r e s t r i c t i o n s on the press.  It stipulated that Hall's  Satyres. Pigmalion with certaine other S.atyres. The Scourge 6 Henderson, p. 62.  8 of V i l l a n y e . Sixe Snarling Satyres. Caltha Poetarum. Davies Epigrams. Marlowe's Elegyes. of marriage and wwinge. The ioyes of marriage  T  1  XV  and the books of the Nashe-Harvey controversy  were to be called i n and burnt.  No satires or epigrams were to be  printed i n the future, while the printing of English h i s t o r i e s and plays was dependent upon the authority of the Privy Council. However, according to the entry i n the Registers f o r June 4, 1599,  Hall's Satyres and Caltha Poetarum were spared.  The  authorities were attempting to discourage e r o t i c l i t e r a t u r e and to check libelous t o p i c a l references.  The edict was  not  intended to regulate a r t i s t i c expression, but simply to curb subversive and immoral l i t e r a t u r e .  In Elizabethan England  d i s c i p l i n e within the church and state was by most c i t i z e n s .  expected and  accepted  Furthermore, censorship, as i n a l l s o c i e t i e s ,  could never have complete effectiveness, as i t r e l i e s on the vigilance and thoroughness of censors and the cooperation of readers.  Patronage by nobles and wealthy merchants was  no  doubt a more direct Inducement for conformity of opinion among 7  authors than any o f f i c i a l regulations.  The edict was, however,  perhaps one reason for the channeling of s a t i r e into dramas l i k e Marston's The Malcontent. The Fawne. What you W i l l . The Dutch Curtezan. Jonson's "humour" plays, Volpone. The Alchemist. Shakespeare's As You Like I t . Twelfth Night. 7 E. H. M i l l e r , The Professional Writer i n Elizabethan England: A Study of Nondramatic L i t e r a t u r e , (CambridgeJjMass.1  1959), P. 182.  1  J  9  Measure for Measure and Troilus and Cressida and the works of Webster and Dekker.  Hall and Donne both wrote prose  Characters which contain s a t i r i c elements.  A strong s a t i r i c a l  mood pervades Donne's Elegies, eptbhalamions and l y r i c s .  The  Elizabethans saw the s a t i r i c i n the shadow of the pastoral, i n the obverse of the heroic and i n the extravagance of love g  poetry.  Indeed, the vehicles for the r e a l i s t i c and "humourous"  spirit that informs much of late Elizabethan l i t e r a t u r e — prose satire, verse satire, "humour" comedy, prose Character— have a fundamental resemblance.  Behind them a l l is the  allegorical and r e a l i s t i c representation of the Seven Deadly Sins and their followers which is as old as the medieval pulpit and the medieval homily.  g  9  Smith, Elizabethan Poetry, p. 207.  ^ J . B. Leishman, ed. The Three Parnassus Plays (1598-1601) (London, 1949), p. 45.  10  CHAPTER I I I  ELIZABETHAN FORMAL SATIRE The d i f f e r e n c e s between E l i z a b e t h a n and c l a s s i c a l f o r m a l s a t i r e are l a r g e l y the r e s u l t  of the h o m i l e t i c and  preaching t r a d i t i o n that was emphasized  i n the second  "Complaint" employs the technique of d i r e c t rebuke." " 1  complainant  i s the spokesman f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  chapter. The  ethos,  C h r i s t i a n i t y , which m o d i f i e s h i s awareness of l i f e by r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and the s p i r i t  o f c o r r e c t i v e chastisement, producing a  moral e a r n e s t n e s s , sometimes s e v e r i t y , and an impersonal p o i n t of  view.  Complaint  He d e l i b e r a t e l y avoids p r o v o c a t i v e , d i r e c t o f t e n expresses  itself  terms because i t i s concerned  allusions.  i n c o n c e p t u a l and a l l e g o r i c a l  w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of groups,  o r g a n i z a t i o n t y p e s , the abuse r a t h e r than the abuser, i n s h o r t , • with man's p e r e n n i a l f r a i l t i e s .  Man i s a f a l l e n being who  must and c a n work out h i s s a l v a t i o n . of  b a l l a d s , dramas and n a r r a t i v e s .  T h i s mode takes the form Excluding i t s manifestations  i n a l l e g o r y , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y d i r e c t , simple and l o o s e l y  2 structured.  The emphasis i s on a d i d a c t i c purpose, the  Raymond MacDonald Alden, The Rise of Formal S a t i r e i n England Under C l a s s i c a l I n f l u e n c e , i n U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a S e r i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , L i t e r a t u r e and Archaology, V I I , No.2 ( [ P h i l a d e l p h i a ^ ] 1899, r e p r i n t e d 1962), p. 4 5 . 1  2 John P e t e r , Complaint and S a t i r e i n E a r l y E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (Oxford, 1956), pp. 9-10, 59.  11 c o r r e c t i o n of v i c e .  Thus, E l i z a b e t h a n w r i t i n g assumes c u r a t i v e  as w e l l as p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , a tone of reprobation as w e l l as o c c a s i o n a l l y one of r e f l e c t i o n .  Complaint i s s u i t e d t o the  p r i n c i p a l subjects of E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r e , r e l i g i o u s and  political  concerns, the body p o l i t i c made up of various "estates." Let us examine the s t y l i s t i c "decorum" of E l i z a b e t h a n "satyre."  Two  obvious c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a c e r t a i n amount  of d e l i b e r a t e o b s c u r i t y and harshness of d i c t i o n , grammar and metre.  The  convention that s a t i r e i s obscure, whether or not  a c t u a l l y obeyed, i s r e l a t e d to the E l i z a b e t h a n r h e t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n , to the c l a s s i c a l s a t i r i c a l t r a d i t i o n as understood by E n g l i s h w r i t e r s , and to the l i t e r a r y influences of the period.  R h e t o r i c i a n s , such as Puttenham i n h i s Arte of Poesie,  consider that an obscure s t y l e i s to be reserved f o r weighty matters since i t demands and challenges the reader's powers of concentration.  full  The f i r s t E n g l i s h c r i t i c s , however,  do not concern themselves much with the question of dark 3  writing. Because of i t s extreme a l l u s i v e n e s s , s a t i r e i s one of the most q u i c k l y out-dated  l i t e r a r y forms.  In order to  protect h i m s e l f when s t r i k i n g at powerful f i g u r e s or i n s t i t u t i o n s , the s a t i r i s t has found i t necessary to use d e l i b e r a t e ambiguity, commenting on abuses whenever he has the opportunity, whether 3 A. S t e i n , "Dome's Obscurity and the E l i z a b e t h a n T r a d i t i o n , " ELH, X I I I (June, 194-6), . . 98.  12  or not his digressions make the basic t r a i n of thought obscure. In the period with which this paper i s concerned, the medieval t r a d i t i o n of s e m i - a l l e g o r i c a l types, while s t i l l i n evidence, was giving way  to the presentation of figures familiar to the  s a t i r i s t ' s contemporaries. of the  1590's  However, the i n t e l l e c t u a l climate  fostered the attitude that the best l i t e r a t u r e  is "dark," appreciated by only the most learned and readers, a chosen few. manuscript  acute  "Coterie l i t e r a t u r e , " c i r c u l a t i n g i n  form, was a manifestation of this d i s d a i n of popular  taste and a reaction to the dissemination and cheapening of the moods and idiom of Petrarchan poetry brought about by the invention of printing and the growth of the reading  audience.  Base subject matter demands a base s t y l e , as Spenser remarks i n Mother Hubberds Tale ( 4 3 - 4 4 ) .  Thus, the nature  of the s a t i r i c persona i n Elizabethan formal s a t i r e i s an important reason for the genre's harshness and obscurity. The doctrines of Scaliger and Donatus, deriving the term " s a t i r e " from the mythological wood god, half-goat, half-man, the rude, simple and frank observer who  comments upon the  degeneration of mankind, and connecting the form with the vigorous, abusive s p i r i t of the early Greek comedy, are the basis for nearly a l l Elizabethan theories of s a t i r e . ^ Arnold Davenport, ed. The Collected Poems of Joseph H a l l (Liverpool, 1 9 4 9 $ , p. xxv. 4  5 Peter, p. 1 1 3 . ^ Oscar James Campbell, Comicall Satyre and Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 5 - 6 , 24-34.  !3 It suggests a semi-dramatic s e t t i n g , an uncouth, perhaps r u s t i c and  obscene, n a r r a t i v e s t y l e .  o n l y a f f i r m the  Any  alternate derivations  concept of s a t i r e as a development o f  a r c h e t y p a l form i n which s a t y r s r e c i t e d verses Drant d e r i v e s an A r a b i c  of rebuke.  the term from v a r i o u s sources apart  from " s a t y r " :  word f o r a g l a i v e or sharp c u t t i n g instrument, the  s u l l e n and  melancholy god,  "satura," "satiated." appropriate  S a t u r n , and  coarse d i c t i o n are  t o the s a t y r ' s n a t u r e , s i n c e he  t r a n s i t i o n s of thought and expressing  the L a t i n a d j e c t i v e  Harsh metre and  l e n s t o b r i n g man's moral u g l i n e s s  i s "a d i s t o r t e d  i n t o true f o c u s . " ^  Abrupt  between speakers are means o f  " g a l l , " or contempt f o r s o c i e t y .  t r a d i t i o n , while not rough and  an  The  P i e r s Plowman  i n v o l v i n g o b s c u r i t y , a l s o encourages a  harsh s t y l e , embodying simple t r u t h and  rugged  g honesty r a t h e r than p o l i s h e d w i t .  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c persona  i n E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r e , however, i s no longer straightforward ostentatious  an arrogant,  often  erratic figure.  The  complainant's d i s g u s t  d e s p a i r w i t h the world c o n t i n u e s ,  but  i s no longer  infenned narrator  and  c h i d e r of v i c e s , but  a p l a i n , modest  necessarily  by the C h r i s t i a n ethos o f c h a r i t y and h u m i l i t y . i s o f t e n s a t u r n i n e , under the domination of the  The planet  7  A l v i n Kernan, The Cankered Muse: S a t i r e of the Renaissance (New Haven, 136.  1959),p.  8 Smith, E l i z a b e t h a n P o e t r y , p.  216.  and  English  14 with power f o r e v i l and to spread incurable disease. and Marston both invoke "Melancholy" as t h e i r muse.  Hall The  s a t i r i c persona, for example, that of Marston, sometimes exhibits c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the malcontent, one who  was  popularly believed to be a f f l i c t e d with "melancholy adust," a mental and physiological condition t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated 9 with Saturn. The s a t i r i s t ' s attitude towards his subject i s r e f l e c t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n HaEL and Marston, i n medical and punitive imagery. The speaker i s a whipper, a scourger, or a physician.  an executioner,  a surgeon  His object i s to mutilate, destroy or purge 10  a victim, criminal or patient.  Generally, such imagery is a  metaphor f o r philosophical abstractions, but sometimes, again i n Marston, i t suggests a vengeful  or s a d i s t i c pleasure i n  using s a t i r e to do physical harm, r e f l e c t i n g traces of a primitive b e l i e f i n the power of incantational and Rosalind  magical verse, as  i n As You Like It refers to the f o l k - b e l i e f i n the  I r i s h practice of rhyming rats to death (III.ii.186-188).  Such  an attitude finds a nebulous p o s i t i o n somewhere between scorn and moral earnestness. The s a t i r i s t s • i n s i s t that t h e i r art is r e a l i s t i c . ^ ^ Lawrence Babb, The Elizabethan Malady: A Study of Melancholia i n English Literature from 1580 to 1642 (East Lansing, 1 9 5 D , P. 57. M. C. Randolph, "The Medical Concept i n English Renaissance S a t i r i c Theory: Its Possible Relationships and Implications," Studies i n P h i l o l o g y XXXVIII (1941), 148. 1 0  T  Campbell, Comicall S.atyre, p.  31  15 T h e i r l a c k o f s t y l i s t i c ornamentation corresponds t o A t t i c , Senecan or a n t i - C i c e r o n i a n prose and l a t e E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean dramatic blank v e r s e , a l l r e f l e c t i n g the Baconian concepts o f experiment, d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , and the need f o r accurate communication o f immediate i n d i v i d u a l experience r a t h e r than e x p r e s s i o n o f g e n e r a l i d e a s . Leishman remarks that  " i n the E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r i s t s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s almost  completely absent, and we have page a f t e r page o f d e t a i l e d , r e a l i s t i c descriptions of particular f o l l i e s and o f the p e r p e t r a t o r s t h e r e o f .  and 'abuses'  On those o c c a s i o n s when,  without any p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t before him, an E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r i s t indulges i n g e n e r a l i n v e c t i v e , he n e a r l y always  gabbles  like  12 a t h i n g most b r u t i s h , unable To conclude t h i s  t o endow h i s purposes w i t h words."  chapter, are the i m i t a t i o n s o f  c l a s s i c a l s a t i r i s t s and epigrammatists, the development o f r e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g about London l i f e , the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s w i t h the immediate l i t e r a r y past expressed  break  i n burlesques o r  parodies o f o l d e r forms, simply techniques used by a c o t e r i e of d i l e t t a n t e s and by ambitious young men t o amuse t h e i r f r i e n d s and impress the court w i t h t h e i r b r i l l i a n c e and  13 unconventionality?  Or a r e they an e x e r c i s e i n a c l a s s i c a l  l i t e r a r y convention? These p o s s i b i l i t i e s both seem t o c o n f l i c t 1? Leishman, ed. The Three Parnassus P l a y s , p. 46. John Wilcox. "Informal P u b l i c a t i o n of Late S i x t e e n t h Century Verse S a t i r e , " Huntington L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y , X I I I  (1950), 196.  16  with the idea of socio-economic protest, r e f l e c t i o n and serious discontent with the age.  Inconsistencies i n the satires are  caused by a sometimes imperfect fusion of c l a s s i c a l and native English elements.  Homiletic elements are assimilated i n Donne's  "S.atyres," which do not claim to effect correction of abuses. H a l l and Marston, on the other hand, at various points i n their work affirm a d i d a c t i c i n t e n t i o n . But are these statements merely l i p - s e r v i c e to the t r a d i t i o n of moral reprobation or do they indicate an aim that is seriously pursued? motivation for s a t i r e that which the writers claim? Elizabethan "satyre" " s a t i r e " or is i t invective?  Is the Is These  questions have, I think, meaningful answers only i n connection with examinations of the i n d i v i d u a l s a t i r i s t s .  17 CHAPTER  'IV.  DOME  The  s a t i r e s o f Donne a r e a s e r i e s o f "humourous" and  b r i l l i a n t l y sardonic portraits e l e m e n t i n t h i s poet," " 1  the absurd,  The marked  Horatian  t h e u r b a n e d e t a c h m e n t and s e n s e o f  shown, f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e l i g h t n e s s o f t o u c h  which he'.describes analyzes  of types.  with  t h e b o r e i n t h e f o u r t h " S a t y r e " and  man's p e r v e r s e  industry i n striving  f o ruseless or  e v i l ends, c o n f l i c t s w i t h a h a b i t o f i n t e n s e i n t r o s p e c t i o n , a s e n s e o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , d o u b t s and q u e s t i o n i n g s . combines t h e t e c h n i q u e s characteristic  o f d i r e c t r e b u k e and r e f l e c t i o n .  c r e a t i v e mood a p p e a r s t o be t h e r e f l e c t i v e  o f mind, e v o l v i n g towards S.toic s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , restless one. and  Donne His state  but i t i s a  and d y n a m i c c o n d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a s t a t i c and s e r e n e  He i s i n f l u e n c e d s t r o n g l y by t h e m e d i e v a l h o m i l e t i c t r a d i t i o n s w i t h t h e i r emphasis on  metaphysical  allegorical transcendent,  v a l u e s , y e t t h e n a r r a t o r o f t h e "S.atyres"  exhibits  a compromising, non-dogmatic c u r i o s i t y towards the world o f experience,  particularly  i n "Satyre  I I I , " a search f o r the  t r u e r e l i g i o n and a h i s t o r y o f man's s p i r i t u a l s t r i v i n g s a l m o s t c e a s e s t o be s a t i r e  except  which  f o rthe caricatures  T h i s p o i n t i s d i s p u t e d by E . G. L e w i s , The Times S u p p l e m e n t . S e p t . 27, 1934, p. 655.  Literary  18 illustrating  the theme.  The emphasis on skepticism implies a suspicion of r a t i o n a l processes.  It is not the mind, however, that Donne  attacks, but the misdirected use of the mind.  The approaches  and attitudes of the skeptic are methods to expose  conventions  and corrupt practices that hinder the r e a l i z a t i o n of the t r u t h . Melancholy is aroused by r e l i g i o u s doubts, by the new  astronomy,  seeming to confirm the theory of the world's decay and degeneration,  by an ambivalent attitude towards sex, relieved  by abusing love, the beloved, and the lover i n himself, by f r u s t r a t i o n of hopes of advancement and by the need for action, to have an important  role to play i n the world.  Vigorous  external expression of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n through reproof and r i d i c u l e is>a r e l i e f for discontent and a r t i s t i c  irritation.  Scepticism, however, seems only to increase the poet's  spiritual  unrest: . . . . On a huge h i l l , Cragged, and steep, Truth stands, and hee that w i l l Reach her, about must, and about must goe; And what the h i l l s suddennes r e s i s t s , winne so; Yet s t r i v e so, that before age, deaths t w i l i g h t , ~ Thy Soule rest, for none can worke i n that night. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c virtues and vices of the are those of much of Donne's work.  "Satyres"  He applies the i r r e g u l a r ,  contorted rhythms of Elizabethan s a t i r e to some of his love l y r i c s , for example, "A Ieat Ring Sent," although the satires are the most obviously rough of his poetry. The Poems of John Donne, ed. Herbert J . C. Grierson, 2 v o l s . (Oxford, 1912), I, 157. Subsequent citations from Donne i n my text w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n .  19 They are the f i r s t E n g l i s h formal i n d e c a s y l l a b i c or  "heroic" couplets.  satires written  These poems c i r c u l a t i n g  i n manuscript were perhaps i n f l u e n t i a l i n forming the of o b s c u r i t y and  m e t r i c a l harshness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  E l i z a b e t h a n formal s a t i r e .  Donne i s a conscious master of  harshness, e s p e c i a l l y i n " S a t y r e s "  IV and V, which i s s u i t e d  t o the genre i n that i t i m p l i e s a s o c i a l comment and o f "contemptus mundi." form of these verses Donne a l s o avoids order  patterns  An assumed c a r e l e s s n e s s  an a t t i t u d e  f o r the  external  expresses contempt f o r s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s .  p a r a l l e l i s m and  to g r a t i f y a p e r s o n a l  monotonous r e g u l a r i t y i n  taste f o r discordant  e f f e c t s aand  3 abrupt rhythms.  The  technique, i n a d d i t i o n , a d v e r t i s e s  poet's acquaintance w i t h the Persius.  One  classical satirists,  i s made aware of the presence of an  highly perceptive  p e r s o n a l i t y i n the  the  particularly individualistic,  " S a t y r e s " through the  of abrupt syntax, i r r e g u l a r metre, s t a r t l i n g analogies  and  use a  dramatic, r h e t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e . Sound may certain attitudes.  give o p p o r t u n i t i e s Structures  f o r i r o n y by  of sound i n the  evoking  "Satyres"  t h e i r very l a c k of c o n v e n t i o n a l  a e s t h e t i c appeal u s u a l l y  r e i n f o r c e the  and  emphasis on ideas  on v i s u a l l y  Images that denote a r a t i o n a l l y perceived Donne h a r d l y  perceived  o b j e c t or  ever uses sound t o i m i t a t e the sense.  meaning i s paramount and A. S t e i n , "Donne and  the  by  concept. Rather,  c o n f l i c t between sound and  sense  the C o u p l e t , " PMLA, L V I I (1942),  686.  20 generally results i n the accenting cf the sense, stressing the weight and importance of the subject.  It is almost as  i f Donne has attempted to create poetry where "thought i t s e l f may stand out unadorned by fantasy," that i s , by superfluous 4 ornament.  Donne shares Bacon's d i s l i k e of Ciceronian  eloquence, words rather than matter, "delicate learning." He attempts to convey accurately the f l u x of thought and feeling.  Thus, the demands of l o g i c and customary pronunciation  wrench the metre and modulate the basic pattern, the five-stress decasyllabic l i n e .  D i c t i o n i s generally harsh and concrete,  c o l l o q u i a l but low-pitched. Rhythms frequently mirror the natural manner of everyday speech and also suggest the e r r a t i c processes of thought.  The poet sometimes writes i n a compressed,  assymetrical manner (iii.75-88); at other times he uses a loose, intimate s t y l e or combines the two manners (v.35-63).  Syntactical  variations are part of the attempt to create a sense of the spontaneous flow of ideas, a form of expression closer to actual experience than that of the sonneteers and poet-lawyer of "Satyre I I . " Dialogue i s a frequent device (i.95-104; iv.73-87, 143-144).  The "Satyres" are b u i l t upon the unit of the verse  paragraph, rather than upon the couplet, elaborate stanzas shaped by the tones and rhythms of direct conversation. Donne's prosody i s the chjef means by which he creates broken, unbalanced structures. 4  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n scansion  Anon., "The Oxford Donne," TL£_, Feb.6, 1930,  p. 96.  21 challenge the reader, for the meaning often depends upon 5  metrical v a r i a t i o n s . come together.  Two unstressed s y l l a b l e s sometimes  The chief prosodic innovation is the frequent  use of s t r e s s - s h i f t i n the f i f t h foot, thus providing a 7  feminine rhyme which i s invariably matched with a masculine. The systematic introduction of s t r e s s - s h i f t s speeds up the rhythm and emphasizes  the s a t i r i s t ' s meaning.  The rhythm i s o  reversed? a new rhythm i s set up by a t t r a c t i o n . combinations of consonants occur.  Harsh  E l i s i o n s are another device.  Many elidable combinations are very l i g h t l y articulated; others receive enough stress to be considered extra s y l l a b l e s . Dramatic extra syllables show the influence of Elizabethan dramatic blank verse, and add to the a i r of direct speech. Other additional syllables are attracted by s t r e s s - s h i f t s . Trochaic rhythms and runover lines are c u l t i v a t e d . A tendency to be d i f f i c u l t to understand at times, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the "Satyres," results i n part from an extreme compression of word, thought and syntax.  Concise and economical  expression i s achieved when one metaphor does the work of several images and by the use of parenthetical remarks. poet habitually avoids gradual l o g i c a l transitions and on Stein, FMLA. LVII (1942), 676-696. 5  6  7  8  See i i . 6 3 ,  91;  i i i . 4 2 , 86; iv.190-191,  See i . 5 7 ; v.17, See i . 6 9 ; i i . 3 9 ;  223.  88. i i i . 8 8 , 92; i v . 2 3 1 ; v.185".  1  The  22 occasion separates subject and verb.  Yet the poems are based  on a r i g i d l o g i c a l structure, showing the pervading influence of formal d i a l e c t i c ( i i i ) , scholastic l o g i c ("Elegie XI") and l e g a l training ( i i . 4 9 - 5 7 ) .  This tight r a t i o n a l control  by concentrating emotion makes i t more intense. Furthermore, Donne does not write f o r impatient minds. His work is coterie l i t e r a t u r e , addressed learned readers.  only to "witty" and  "Wit" i n the late Elizabethan and Jacobean  eras i s dependent upon formal and conceptual b r i l l i a n c e i n seeking and co-ordinating hidden likenesses among disparate phenomena.  Dr. Johnson's c r i t i c i s m of metaphysical  poetry  is that "heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together," Q  that a fusion does not occur.  This remark, of course, applies  to a l l incoherent and d i s u n i f i e d writing, not only to the excesses of the metaphysical school.  Verbal ingenuity is not  incompatible with the most serious purpose.  Donne i s a master  of the metaphysical conceit, which at i t s best expresses  emotion  through i n t e l l e c t u a l images and fuses intense passion and widereaching thought i n the union of apparently incongruous images or ideas. experience.  His i n t e l l e c t u a l play i s part of his emotional When T. S. E l i o t speaks of "a direct sensuous  apprehension of thought, or a recreation of thought into f e e l i n g , 9 Samuel Johnson, "Cowley," Lives of the English Poets, ed. George Birkbeck H i l l (Oxford, 1905), I , 20. T. S. E l i o t , "The Metaphysical Poets," Selected Essays, new ed. (New York, 1950), p. 246. 1 0  23 he means that separate and isolated fragments are seen as parts of a whole.  of existence  Imaginative experience for Donne  has i t s source and foundation i n the i n t e l l e c t and abstract ideas are perceived i n concrete terms. "Wit" is a l l i e d to profound seriousness, thereby intensifying a poem's impact.  11  It exercises a c r i t i c a l function upon the emotions and gives  12 detachment to the feelings expressed i n the poetry.  Donne  does not segregate the sublime from the commonplace.  In his  poetry t r i v i a l a f f a i r s are recognized as parts of the same experience as love and death.  Contrasting elements occurring  close together fuse into a single effect i n order to express a p a r t i c u l a r mood, which may be i n f i n i t e l y complex ( i . 7 - 8 ) . A l l of the poet's many moods are i m p l i c i t i n any one, and so find their natural expression i n paradox.  In the "Satyres," however,  the style i s more irregular with fewer sharply contrasting elements producing a single e f f e c t , "dissonance," than i n Donne's other works because of the degree of habitual roughness and tendency towards l e v e l l i n g of stresses that was mentioned  1^ e a r l i e r . -' The Petrarchan t r a d i t i o n of i d e a l i z a t i o n and extravagant 1 1  75-76.  See i i i . 1 6 , 60, 68-69; iv.1-4, 201-203; v.9-12, 57-63,  12  George Williamson, "Donne and the Poetry of Today," A Garland f o r John Donne. 1631-19^1. ed. Theodore Spencer (Cambridge ,[Mass ^], 193D , P. 162. ^  J . B. Douds, "Donne's Technique of Dissonance," PMLA,  LII (Dec. 1937),  1052.  24 adoration of the beloved, with i t s d i c t i o n , imagery and metrical techniques, is rejected ( i i . 1 7 ) .  The s a t i r i s t revolts  against s u p e r f i c i a l i t y , f a c i l i t y , and an inflated l i t e r a r y s t y l e , e s p e c i a l l y when used for subjects exalted above t h e i r proper condition, and mocks attitudes, tastes and conventions that have become empty patterns without true a r t i s t i c v i t a l i t y . He, for example, is a leader i n the movement against mythology. A conventional  element is introduced, perhaps from pastoral  or Petrarchan love poetry, but is then rapidly and v i o l e n t l y modified  by a discordant association or conclusion.  A reference  to the Greek sage Heraclitus furthers the s a t i r i c purpose ( i v . 1 9 7 ) . "Macrine" must be very ridiculous indeed to cause the weeping philosopher  to laugh.  The myth of Circe i s applied to the  effect of the s i n i s t e r "Makeron" upon the narrator  (iv.129-131).  "Satyre V" begins with the t r a d i t i o n a l invocation to the Muse, applied to the s a t i r i s t ' s apprehension of decay and death.  The  •Satyres" abound i n r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l and acute analysis of men's motives.  Donne's r e f l e c t i v e tendency translates the  abstract into the p a r t i c u l a r , although s a t i r e , while i t is r e a l i s t i c , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y also appears objective, concerned with the external world, that i s , society organized  and  distorted by the writer's concept of l i f e , rather than with the s a t i r i s t ' s own rather than inward. of his own  psychological processes.  It focuses, outward  Donne makes poetic c a p i t a l out of interests  time, defining emotions by i n t e l l e c t u a l p a r a l l e l s  from astronomy, geometry, chemistry and geography and  expressing  25 ideas i n philosophical, t h e o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c terms. 14 Allusions to events and p o l i t i c a l issues of the day, such as the granting of monopolies to court favourites (iv.105-107) occur.  The L a t i n form of the type names, some of which are  possible personal references (v.87), is the only departure from the l o c a l i z a t i o n of the scene i n Elizabethan London. A remarkably consistent dramatic character is developed i n these poems.  His sympathies are with a minority group  under "the Statutes curse"(iv,10), Roman Catholics i n late sixteenth-century England.  He is a melancholic scholar,  indignant at society and the individuals within i t . 15 isolated figure  y  This  broods about human l i f e i n general and  morbidly dissects i t s u g l i e s t aspects, putrefaction, excrement, worms and dus t : All How Are For  men are dust; much worse are S u i t e r s , who to mens lust made preyes? 0 worse then dust, or wormes meat, they do eate you now, whose selves wormes s h a l l eate. (v.19-22)  The speaker must appear the opposite of the pride and hypocrisy he condemns.  He i s not a t o t a l skeptic , but maintains  virtue  as a goal towards which man must s t r i v e ( i i i . 5 , 7 9 - 8 1 ) . the frank, unassuming man  1 4  1  168,  of the Piers Plowman t r a d i t i o n  See i.80-82; i i . 5 9 - 6 0 ; i i i . 1 7 - 2 4 ; iv.189-190;  5 See i . 1 - 1 2 , 47-48; iv.67-68,  1 6  He is (iv.242)  v.85.  155-159.  See i i . 2 5 - 3 0 , 41; i i i . 3 5 - 4 0 ; iv.104-105, 109-110, 134-135, 201-203, 222.  26 In his search for s t a b i l i z i n g self-knowledge he turns within himself, l i k e the Stoic " v i r bonus" ( i i i . 1 7 5 - 1 7 9 ) .  Introspection,  however, merely encourages anatomizing of the world and himself (iv.156-157)» not a measured, serene a t t i t u d e . The narrator has no i l l u s i o n s about the power of s a t i r e to change a man's conduct. 17 purpose or a b i l i t y .  He does not have any corrective  Nevertheless, satire i s a noble and  l o f t y a r t . His works have "knowne merit," and some "wise man?! may esteem them "Canonicall" (iv.241-244).  "Satyre V,"  addressed to Donne's employer, the Lord Keeper, S i r Thomas Egerton, i s a p e t i t i o n f o r reform and, l i k e "Satyre I I I , " an exhortation to v i r t u e .  It treats " a l l who i n extreme/Are wreched  or wicked"(5-6). Each s a t i r e i s a miniature drama with a setting, plot, characters and action.  The dramatic s i t u a t i o n s , s a t i r i c pose,  d i c t i o n and imagery a l l emphasize the contrast between sacred and profane values.  Each poem treats one aspect of this theme,  s a t i r i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of society and thus illuminating the other four vignettes. The constancy of the protagonist is opposed to the inconstancy of his antagonists, swayed by m a t e r i a l i s t i c standards, varying s l i g h t l y from poem to poem, enslaved by fashion ( i ) , lechery ( i , i i ,  i i i ) , love of gain and  position ( i i , i v , v) and a corrupt Court (iv). Imagery reinforces the contrast between eternal and 1 7  See ii.109-111j  i i i . 1 - 4 ; iv.69-70,  237-241.  27 transient values.  Motifs recur within i n d i v i d u a l satires and  from satire to s a t i r e .  The images are highly concrete;  the  abstract and the grossly material, especially i n the l a s t three "Satyres," are interlinked i n v i s u a l metaphors. sensual is seen as a bridge to the s p i r i t u a l .  The  Religions  i n the s a t i r i c world are merely d i f f e r e n t "lecherous humors" (iii.53).  Donne makes vice repulsive by introducing coarse,  physical d e t a i l s .  Man's b e s t i a l i t y may  misuse of reason.  Water has both a p i c t o r i a l and a s p i r i t u a l  significance.  lead to s i n and  the  It is l i f e - g i v i n g at "the rough streames calme  head" ( i i i . 1 0 4 ) , but drowns "Soules, which more chuse mens unjust / Power from God (iii.109-110).  claym'd, then God himselfe to t r u s t "  Images are drawn from the offences with which  the s a t i r i s t is concerned, fashions, p r o s t i t u t i o n , fraud, and applied to r e l i g i o u s and philosophical concepts (v.68-75). In the f i r s t over sheer wit.  "Satyre" r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l predominates  It i s interspersed with references to the  snobbery, lust and vanity that the s a t i r i s t condemns i n Court and London l i f e .  The speaker i s a r e t i r i n g scholar who is  occasionally persuaded to venture out of h i s study to observe the conditions that arouse his indignation. apostrophizing a person who The  He begins by  embodies a l l that i s s a t i r i z e d .  "fondling motley humorist" (1), the "fond" or f o o l i s h  sycophant and f l a t t e r e r of r i c h and powerful men, the fool's "motley," judges men  attired i n  by appearance (27-32).  28 But the s c h o l a r , anxious  t o give good a d v i c e , evokes an age  i n which v i r t u e was simple, bare and unchanging: Mans f i r s t b l e s t s t a t e was naked, when by sinne Hee l o s t t h a t , y e t hee was c l o a t h ' d but i n beasts s k i n , (45-46) D e l i b e r a t e l y f u s i n g the m e t a p h o r i c a l and l i t e r a l meanings of  "naked," he a s s o c i a t e s s a t i r i c a l comment on f a s h i o n s w i t h  condemnation o f the morals this particular gallant  o f the time and o f the l e c h e r y o f  (37-40).  The s a t i r i c pose o f the  crabbed, b i t t e r c r i t i c o f s o c i e t y , s e t apart from the r e s t of mankind, i s assumed when the n a r r a t o r says  "And i n t h i s  coarse a t t i r e , which I now weare, / With God, and w i t h the Muses I c o n f e r r e " ( 4 7 - 4 8 ) .  There i s a s u g g e s t i o n of the shaggy  s a t y r , o r at l e a s t of the roughly c l a d hermit or c a r e l e s s l y dressed m e l a n c h o l i c .  Pompous f i g u r e s a r e conjured up, an  e l a b o r a t e l y armed "Captaine" and p r o f i t e e r  (17-18), "a b r i s k e  perfum'd p i e r t C o u r t i e r " (19) and "a v e l v e t J u s t i c e " ( 2 1 ) , a grotesque, motley  throng.  To judge people on the b a s i s o f  appearances i s a form o f s u p e r s t i t i o n , shared by o v e r - p r e c i s e , hypercritical  " p u r i t a n s " ( 2 7 ) , a term which i s i r o n i c i n t h i s  context, s u g g e s t i n g l a c k of p u r i t y , s u p e r f i c i a l i t y ,  emptiness  and e s s e n t i a l s e l f i s h n e s s . The  second p a r t o f "S,atyre I " i s a fast-moving,  vivid,  panoramic and dramatic view o f E l i z a b e t h a n London, the environment t h a t i n the person o f the "humorist" penetrates t o  29 the scholar i n his study.  The dialogue (83-104) that breaks  up the oration adds to the intensity and immediacy of the situation.  The narrator, by the very fact of his presence i n  this world, has sinned (65-66).  The walk i s simultaneously a  survey of c i v i l i z e d society and a Dantean underworld (67-112).  journey  S a t i r i c asides e a r l i e r were directed at l u s t ,  impoverished nobles marrying c i t y heiresses, merchants' daughters  (57-58), and astrology. The f i r s t and l a s t of these  targets are associated with the extravagant dress of " s u b t i l e witted antique youths" (62).  The whole i s applied to the  underlying drama of the scholar and the "humorist."  Flattery  and patronage at court are joined with another a l l u s i o n to fashions.  A reference to the habit, newly introduced to London  i n Donne's time, of smoking exaggerates foppery (87-88). f o o l is attracted to "silken painted" fops (72) to "grave" men  The  and indifferent  (79).  The "Satyre" begins and ends with images of r e s t r a i n t , the need f o r control over the passions.  The "wise politique  horse," the'Elephant" and the "Ape" (80-81) are not only animals performing or exhibited i n London about the time the poem was written but b e s t i a l metaphors f o r the sensual The s p i r i t u a l man,  man.  on the other hand, has a pastoral role  (93).  He knows that the young man w i l l not heed his counsel (53-64), but accompanies him i n any case, eager to strengthen him  (100).  The fop deserts the narrator (107), as the l a t t e r had anticipated  30 (15),  only to return abjectly (111). I r o n i c a l l y , the "humorist," e a r l i e r opposed to the  "constant company" (11), a f t e r having been thrown out the /door (110) by h i s mistresses' new lovers, "constantly a while must keepe his bed"  (111).  But the continence of this state,  as well as i t s duration, i s enforced, and therefore no sign of v i r t u e .  The s a t i r i c hero has not been influenced by the  advocate of t r u t h and s i m p l i c i t y . "S-atyre I I " is b a s i c a l l y directed against poets and lawyers.  Distortions of language are equated with moral  aberrations.  The s a t i r i c commentator's hate towards " a l l this  towne" (2) i s modified  by an ambiguous " P i t t y " (4).  He s a t i r i z e s  the extravagances of love poetry, p a r t i c u l a r l y the fashion for sonnet sequences, the drama, with i t s mechanical writers and actors, and plagiarism.  The structure i s r i g i d l y l o g i c a l .  After condemning a l l poor writing, associated with famine and invasions, pestilence ( 6 - 7 ) , a condemned man (11) and witchcraft ( 1 7 ) , and bewailing the presence of a host of p r o l i f i c scribblers (23-24), the s a t i r e i s focussed upon the worse and more s p e c i f i c s i n of plagiarism (25-26).  Paradoxically, stolen  poetic craft becomes the t h i e f ' s own: For i f one eate my meate, though i t be knowne The meate was mine, th' excrement is his owne: (29-30) Donne moves to the discussion of a s p e c i f i c figure, "Coscus," the lawyer-poet who alone arouses the speaker's "just offence" (40).  The narrator claims to forego moral  31 rebuke of grave s i n s and t o concentrate upon a "humourous" character.  But h i s a t t i t u d e i s not simply "almost  light-  18 hearted t o l e r a n c e of S i n . "  The growth of the s a t i r i c  i s l i k e p u t r e f a c t i o n , the progress of a d i s e a s e and development (41-42). twigs" (46),  Speech f o r him Is l i k e  a means of. s e c u r i n g h i s prey.  target  animal  "nets, or l i m e The  chaotic effect (57-60).  of the l e g a l j a r g o n suggests the d i s o r d e r of t h i s world Then, by an abrupt t r a n s i t i o n , the speaker "Coscus,"  addresses  "When s i c k e w i t h P o e t r i e , and possest with muse / Thou  wast, and mad, f o r g a i n , who  I hop'd" ( 6 1 - 6 2 ) .  But men  who  p r a c t i c e law o n l y  combine l e g a l p r a c t i c e w i t h usury t o cheat  p r o d i g a l h e i r s out of t h e i r e s t a t e s ( 7 9 - 8 0 ) , are worse than "imbrothel'd strumpets" ( 6 4 ) . a t t a c k i n g those who  The  images of p r o s t i t u t i o n ,  s e l l t h e i r s o u l s f o r s e c u l a r g a i n , are  a p p l i c a b l e t o both r o l e s o f the adversary, as a poet, one of those "who lawyer.  w r i t e to L o r d s , rewards t o get" ( 2 1 ) ,  and as a  A s e r i e s of h i s a c t i o n s shows that f r a u d , a compound  and s p i r i t u a l s i n based  on the d e s i r e f o r wealth and power, i s  a more s e r i o u s v i c e than of "carted whores" (73)?  "Bastardy,"  "Symonie" or "Sodomy" ( 7 4 - 7 5 ) , which are recognized as and  indeed, are t h e i r own  punishment ( 3 9 ) .  speech f o r immoral purposes. who  He  evil,  "Coscus" uses  talks i d l y , l i k e prisoners  swear that they are only kept i n j a i l f o r " s u r e t i s h i p "  l i e s to h i s c l i e n t s and t o the judge. P e t e r , Complaint  and S a t i r e , p.  A m o d i f i c a t i o n of 135.  (68),  32  G r i e r s o n ' s reading of l i n e s 7 1 - 7 2  suggests  t h a t as the  "wedge"  or ingot must shape i t s e l f t o the mould or "blocke," the dishonest  lawyer must s t r a i n or "wring" the meaning of h i s  words to make h i s case a c c e p t a b l e t o the  " b a r r e , " the  I f the hyphen i s dropped between "bearing" and  court.  "like," a 19  metaphor comparing the t a r g e t to beasts In h i s world,  of burden appears. '  "Coscus" t h r i v e s , s a t a n i c (80)  and  dominant s S h o r t l y (as the sea) hee w i l l compasse a l l our l a n d ; From S c o t s , t o Wight; from Mount, t o Dover s t r a n d .  (77-78)  L e g a l procedure and advances.  The  terminology  are used to c o n s o l i d a t e h i s  l e n g t h of h i s "parchments" i s s t r e s s e d by  comparison with other voluminous w r i t i n g s (87-96). the v e h i c l e f o r j u s t i c e and Although  i n the f i r s t  v i c e and l i t t l e  two  l e a r n i n g , i s perverted  The  word,  (97-102).  poems there i s much condemnation of  p o r t r a y a l of v i r t u e , the speaker upholds the  values of s i m p l i c i t y , t r a d i t i o n and  constancy.  I n the  closing  passage of "Satyre I I " he laments the d e c l i n e of the r i c h man's sense of duty, the breakdown of a s t a b l e , s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y . For him,  moderation i n the use  of p o s s e s s i o n s , a s u f f i c i e n c y  but not a s u p e r f l u i t y of a l l m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , i s the b a s i s for  a good l i f e .  This i d e a l , however, i s only a f o r l o r n hope  i n a s o c i e t y r u l e d by  1  XIV  9  "Coscus," even i f the n a r r a t o r i s not  L. S. Cobb, "Dome's 'Satyre I I , ' 7 1 - 7 2 , " E x p l i c a t o r . (March 1956), 40.  33 endangered by " t n huge statute lawes" (111-112). 1  There remains  the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s own words being twisted and misinterpreted. "Satyre I I I " would seem to be a product of the period i n Donne's l i f e between 1593 and 1599 when he was investigating the r i v a l claims of the Roman Catholic Church and the various Protestant churches to be closest to the primitive Church. Unrest i n t h i s poem apparently has nothing to do with the shattering effects of s c i e n t i f i c discoveries about the nature of the universe, but i s the manifestation of a personal skepticism caused partly by the attempt to recapture a vanished s p i r i t u a l unity and partly by the attempt to decide which, i f any, of the contending r e l i g i o u s factions represented the true Church.  The poet doubts human knowledge with i t s uncertainty.,,'  concern with the material, s h i f t i n g values and the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of accepted s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s .  The search f o r r e l i g i o u s certainty;'  leads him, i n the framework of an e s s e n t i a l l y h i s t o r i c a l , f a c t u a l , controversial conception of r e l i g i o n , c a r e f u l l y to compare the various doctrines. This "Satyre" i s central i n theme.  It i s not a s a t i r e  i n the Elizabethan t r a d i t i o n , but i s , rather, a hortatory epistle. honest  The r e l i g i o u s problem i s shown as i t appears to an  quester of the t r u t h .  The poem i s one of the e a r l i e s t  appeals f o r tolerance and candid scrutiny of r e l i g i o u s differences.  The r e f l e c t i v e , moralizing s t r a i n predominates.  34 Unlike the other "Satyres," this poem i s a soliloquy i n meditative i s o l a t i o n , with a change i n a t t i t u d e , not s a t i r i c exposure of the grotesque and the r i d i c u l o u s , as i t s f i n a l goal.  The protagonist counsels with himself, not attempting  to correct abuses, but exploring his own mind i n an effort to resolve a s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t .  The poem's a c t i o n is the  evolution of the writer's thought, a d i a l e c t i c a l process i n the course of which c e r t a i n revelations are made and a ceaseless search for order through the multiple aspects of experience -  is pursued.  Donne's "wit" becomes the instrument  discussion of the ultimate purpose i n human l i f e .  of a Satiric  touches come from the caricatures of those who refuse to leave "easie wayes and neare" (14) to reach r e l i g i o u s truth, or who make a choice on narrow, sectarian lines (43-67). S t r u c t u r a l unity i s achieved by the working out of the theme, the character of the narrator, and the consistency of tone.  There i s an intense eagerness to reach the t r u t h  upon which the soul's s a l v a t i o n depends, a deep contempt f o r indifference, i n t h i s "Satyre."  The s a t i r i c orator's emotion  is complex, f o r his pity checks his "spleene," yet "brave scorn" (1) prevents him from showing compassion f o r worldly men.  He can neither laugh, nor weep, and doubts that  "railing"  is an e f f e c t i v e medicine ( 4 ) . He sets himself a series of questions  (5-15) and then answers them, distinguishing between  secular "courage of straw" (28) and s p i r i t u a l courage. The f i r s t Mblinded," or pagan, age (7) espoused v i r t u e f o r the sake of  35 "earths honour" ( 9 ) .  I r o n i c a l l y , C h r i s t i a n s , with an  opportunity to reach "heavens joyes" ( 8 ) , may lose them to pagans of " s t r i c t l i f e " (12-13) I f they do not l e a r n to fear the foes of mankind, "the foule D e v i l l " ( 3 3 ) , the world, since i t i s i n a state of degeneration i t s joys, which without  (37-39), the f l e s h (40) and  the " f a i r e goodly soule" (41), that  man loathes, are the companion of death. To fear damnation "great courage, and high valour i s " (16).  As i n the previous  "Satyres," Donne elaborates on statements with detail.  exhaustive  Sea-voyages, perhaps r e f e r r i n g to the Cadiz expedition  and the Islands voyage on which the poet s a i l e d , merely expose one to "leaders rage, to stormes, to shot, to dearth" (19). To "ayd mutinous Dutch" ( 1 7 ) , to "dive seas, and dungeons of the earth" (20), to explore the "frozen North" (22) and to bear the " f i r e s of Spaine, and the l i n e " (24) are customarily regarded  as brave, and are undertaken "for gaine" ( 2 6 ) . But  a l l these acts, as well as the pugnacious insistence that a l l the world defer t o the beloved  (26-28) and suicide, as a denial  of the o b l i g a t i o n to grapple with moral problems on earth, are cowardly.  God made man to "stand / S e n t i n e l l i n his worlds  garrison" ( 3 O - 3 D .  His task, therefore, i s to seek "true  religion" (43). The narrator examines the possible places where the "true r e l i g i o n " may be found.  He moves through a series of  negative p o s s i b i l i t i e s , discovering only a confused  v a r i e t y of  36 warring creeds.  Religious adherence is determined i n the  s a t i r i c environment by circumstances  and caprices.  The imagery  is alrgely sexual, based on an extended conceit, the comparison of man's love of God to various "Lecherous humors" ( 5 3 ) . The Roman Catholic searches for his f a i t h at Rome because he knows that "shee was there a thousand yeares agoe," l i k e a ragged woman who is beloved because she was splendid at an e a r l i e r time ( 4 3 - 4 8 ) .  The men of Geneva, Dutch Schismatics, C a l v i n i s t s ,  see the true r e l i g i o n as a woman who i s p l a i n and devoid of ornament (49-54).  Some uphold the established r e l i g i o n because  of the influence of authority (55-62), l i k e an obedient ward who accepts the wife of his guardians' choice; atheists are l i k e cynics who, seeing that some women are impure, reject a l l marriage (62-64); the man accepting a l l creeds, l i k e the lecher, has e c l e c t i c tastes (65-68). Religious truth must constantly be pursued* . . . unmoved thou Of force must one, and forc'd but one allow; And the right . . . (69-71) The basic appeal is to t r a d i t i o n , to h i s t o r y , to the of one's forebears (71-73).  precedent  Yet this attitude seems to contradict  the p o s s i b i l i t y of paternal advice causing damnation (11-15) and unthinking conformity (55-62).  The s a l v a t i o n of man's  immortal soul i s , by implication, more important than the vices attacked i n the other "Satyres."  The narrator refuses t o consider  37 the non-essential differences among r e l i g i o u s sects, but bases his judgments on the metaphysical abstraction of absolute "truth," the one transcendant r e a l i t y as opposed to the incidental trappings of r e l i g i o n that bind those he s a t i r i z e s . Man,  above a l l , must exercise reason and persistence i n a  painful quest f o r "truth" ( 8 6 - 8 8 ) : Hee's not of none, nor worst, that seekes the best. To adore, or scorne an image, or protest, May a l l be bad; doubt wisely; i n strange way To stand inquiring r i g h t , i s not to stray; To sleepe, or runne wrong, i s . On a huge h i l l , Cragged, and steep, Truth stands, and hee that w i l l Reach her, about must, and about must goe; And what the h i l l s suddennes r e s i s t s , winne so; Yet s t r i v e so, that before age, deaths t w i l i g h t , Thy Soule rest, f o r none can worke i n that night.  (75-84)  The involved grammar and slow, labouring rhythms express the immense effort necessary to reach truth.  Donne translates  abstractions into concrete terms i n an attempt to establish something permanent,, and unified behind the s h i f t i n g and dissolving world of appearances,  a violent extracting of order  from the diverse elements of experience ( 6 7 - 6 8 ) . a subjective thing, a state of mind.  "Truth" i s  Since no system i s  certain, the speaker can use doubt constructively i n his search for truth.  It i s approached i n the devious ways (81)  necessary by the imperfections of human reason.  made  The metaphorical  description of the approach to truth, i n the a l l e g o r i c a l  38 t r a d i t i o n , l o c a l i z e d on "a huge h i l l " ( 7 9 ) , shows a keen awareness of man s psychological processes. r  of accurately expressing  It i s a means  at the same time the skeptic despair  of knowledge and the b e l i e f i n doubt as a valuable technique. The narrator i s convinced that truth i s to be found, but fears that men w i l l cease struggling and sleep on the side of the h i l l (83-85).  Dualism and paradox are i n e v i t a b l e :  . . . i n strange way To stand inquiring r i g h t , i s not to stray;  (77-78) S i m i l a r l y , one learns that . . . mysteries Are l i k e the Sunne, dazling, yet plaine to a l l eyes.  (87-88) There i s i n this poem no ultimate r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the f l e s h and the s p i r i t .  The emphasis i s on the  eternal war between the b e s t i a l and angelic elements of human nature.  The desire to know i s an unrelenting agony, f o r the  poet cannot base his choice on any of the t r i v i a l reasons of the s a t i r i c characters.  He t r i e s to resolve by i n t e l l e c t u a l  means a s p i r i t u a l dilemma, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between reason and f a i t h , and between the s p i r i t u a l and secular powers. Man's laws must not hinder the soul's free search for r e l i g i o u s truth (93-95)•  One cannot r e l y f o r s a l v a t i o n upon the d i c t a  of "a P h i l i p , or a Gregory, / A Harry, or a Martin" (96-97)? a  39 neat antithesis between Roman Catholic and Protestant kings and s p i r i t u a l leaders.  God's law must be followed, even i f  i t c o n f l i c t s with human l e g a l codes.  Material and secular  power is a potential threat and temptation that blinds men to constant and immutable s p i r i t u a l values, causing them, l i k e "Coscus" ( i i ) and l i k e the o f f i c e r s of "Satyre V," to use human law i n order to g r a t i f y their own desires and to ignore (100-102).  the supremacy of divine law  The water imagery i n the closing passage (103-110) looks forward to the l a s t two point for a l l f i v e poems. imagery occurs (1-2,  "Satyres," and acts as a f o c a l  E a r l i e r i n "Satyre I I I " water  20-22).  The f i n a l s e c t i o n expands on a  conceit comparing secular power to a rough stream issuing from the "calme head" (104) of s p i r i t u a l t r u t h . l i k e men,  at the peaceful source.  But i f men  height for the "tyrannous rage" (106)  Flowers t h r i v e ,  abandon the  of secular desires and  torments, they are destroyed* So perish Soules, which more chuse mens unjust Power from God claym'd, then God himselfe to t r u s t .  (109-110)  Thus, the sense of urgency, a l l the arguments, only lead back to the s i t u a t i o n which gave r i s e to them.  By i t s  very nature, the question cannot be resolved. Perfection, the certain knowledge of "true r e l i g i o n " and the comprehension of divine truth, cannot be achieved i n a f i n i t e  world.  40 Frustration, non-satisfaction,  is  inevitable.  The  chief  d e c i s i o n s that are reached are i n favour of continued  indecision.  The poem, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  expresses  is  i n no sense a f a i l u r e .  It  through imagery, metre, d i c t i o n and d i a l e c t i c a s t a t e of mind and analyzes  an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional  from every a n g l e .  "Satyre I I I " a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s  reaction  a criterion  that can be a p p l i e d t o Donne's other works. "Satyre I V , " the longest of the formal s a t i r e s , reference  and roughest  in  i s l i n k e d to the t h i r d . " S a t y r e " by a  to " M i s t r e s s e T r u t h " ( I 6 3 ) .  I f the poem has any  c l e a r p l a n or dominant, u n i f y i n g  idea,  language and dress of t r a v e l l e r s  and c o u r t i e r s ,  it  i s the grotesque  -L'with the m o t i f of the informer and 'sycophant,. a "Purgatorie,  such as f e a r ' d h e l l i s " ( 3 ) .  doing penance f o r a great s i n .  n e i t h e r , he puns, had he " s u i t to the f i n e s  intertwined The s e t t i n g  The speaker  He has gone to C o u r t ,  he was not motivated by p r i d e , d e s i r e  He r e f e r s  versification  is  although  t o see or t o be seen;  t h e r e , nor new s u i t e t o shew"(7).  imposed on Roman C a t h o l i c s  i n c u r r e d by one who, l i k e  is  the n a r r a t o r ,  (8-10),  attended a ceremony  for a jest: . . . S o ' i t p l e a s ' d my d e s t i n i e ( G u i l t y of ray s i n of g o i n g , ) to thinke me As prone to a l l i l l , and o f good as f o r g e t f u l l , as proud, as l u s t f u l l , and as much i n d e b t , As v a i n e , as w i t l e s s e , and as f a l s e as they Which d w e l l at C o u r t , f o r once going that way.  (11-16)  41 His  torments i n the company :bf the bore are a punishment  for this s i n (50-51? 137-140).  The Court i t s e l f , however, i s  a prison, a kind of h e l l where "the great chamber" is hung with "the seaven deadly sinnes" (232), secular desires and accomplishments, from which the narrator f i n a l l y manages to escape. The antagonist i s a caricature of the G a l l i c i z e d or Italianate Englishman (84), a man who s a i t h , speakes a l l tongues" (35)•  "hath t r a v a i l ' d , and  His appearance i s outlandish,  stranger than animals bred by the sun on the Nile's slime, than anything i n "Noahs Arke," than anything Adam named, than any object of antiquarian research, than the famed "Africks Monsters" or S i r Walter Raleigh's description of "Guianaes rarities."  His conversation i s more unbearable than "Pedants  motley tongue, souldiers bumbast, / Mountebankes drugtongue" or  "the termes of law" (40-41).  speech has disintegrated.  Like his j e r k i n , this person's  It i s "no language" (38), only  "complement" (44), stranger than "strange meats."  The food  metaphor debases the faculty that separates men from beasts. Language i s used to cheat and deceive, to . . . win widdowes, and pay scores, Make men speak treason, cosen subtlest whores, Out-flatter f a v o r i t e s , or o u t l i e either Jovius, or S<urius, or both together. (45-48) When the g i f t of tongues i s thus abused, one i s no longer a man, but a "thing" (18, 20,  35).  42  In the course of the "humourous" dialogue, the protagonist, l i k e "Hamlet" with "Osric," mocks the court follower's affected speech at every turn, but the object of r i d i c u l e i s either too obtuse and self-centred to understand, or, because of his desire to ensnare the protagonist, unwilling to take offence.  For instance, the double-edged  compliment upon the bore's l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l labels i t as an anachronism, useful to the builders of the tower of Babel. When the adversary  chatters about his love of court l i f e  and  wants to t a l k of kings (74), perhaps to ascertain the narrator's attitude towards the government, the speaker refers him to the keeper of the tombs at Westminster Abbey, another man profits by talking (74—80).  who  This advice inspires a pseudo-  sophisticated protest about the "base, Mechanique, coarse" conversation of Englishmen.  (81)  The c o l l o q u i a l but affected use  of "your" i s d e l i b e r a t e l y misinterpreted by the narrator. Refusing to leave, the sycophant changes the subject and rehearses news of various scandals  i n a mechanical manner:  He takes my hand, and as a S t i l l , which stales A Sembriefe, 'twixt each drop, he nigardly, As l o t h to enrich mee, so t e l l s many a l y e . (94-96) Stock complaints,  such as the use of cosmetics  (108), lechery  (101, 128), extravagance (127) and corruption i n government (101-102, 121), are mingled with references to monopolies (103-107), the Armada, the "losse of Amyens" (114), the conduct  43 of the wars (122), the granting of o f f i c e s i n perpetuity (123-125) and o f f i c i a l s ' cooperation with pirates for gain' (125-126).  The "thing" i s no longer l i k e an i t c h or a blunt  instrument, but l i k e a sore or a razor-sharp object.  He  f o r c i b l y administers medicine which sickens his "Patient" (109-110).  The discourse, l i k e the "parchments" of "Coscus"  ( i i . 8 7 ) , is of an unnatural length (111-114).  Like Circe's  charms, i t has an e v i l , hypnotic e f f e c t , turning men  into  beasts (129-130).  informer  The spy or t r a i t o r who has turned  on suspected Roman Catholics carries the pox with him.i . . . mee thought I saw One of our Giant Statutes ope his jaw To sucke me i n ; for hearing him, I found That as burnt venome Leachers do grow sound By giving others their soares, I might growe Guilty, and he free . . .  (I3I-I36)  The s a t i r i c commentator rids himself of h i s "crosse" (140), this creature's company and conversation, by lending a crown (150), but he cannot forget the horrors of the Court, greater and more numerous than those of h e l l (157-160). In the passage i n which the narrator r e c o l l e c t s his experiences  " i n wholesome s o l i t a r i n e s s e " (155)  and weighs  their s i g n i f i c a n c e , he disengages himself from the forces of corruption that dominate the s a t i r i c world and reasserts that his mistress is "Truth" (160-164), ^attempting to r i d himself of "Low  feare" (160).  l i k e the a r t i f i c i a l wax  The tone becomes grimmer.  The Court i s  gardens exhibited by I t a l i a n puppeteers  44 (169-173), l i k e a bladder "puft" (164) and swollen with vanity (167-168) and l i k e the stage, where " a l l are players" (185).  The bore of the f i r s t h a l f of the poem i s the " n a t u r a l l "  product of this unnatural environment (173-174).  The lover of  truth refuses to carp, as the bore does and as d u l l writers do, on " t r i v i a l l houshold trash" (98).  E a r l i e r i n the poem,  reasons are given for this attitude: To teach by painting drunkards, doth not last Now; Aretines pictures have made few chast; No more can Princes courts, though there be few Better pictures of v i c e , teach me vertue; (69-72) Although the "Satyre" glances at the usual targets, "rais'd men"  (162), frivolous pursuits, gluttony, lechery (175-176),  extravagant dress (180-181), f l a t t e r y (182), the gallant (197-218) and the bully (219-228), i t i s not a detailed document of  abuses: . . . who e'r lookes (For themselves dare not goe) o'r Cheapside books, S h a l l finde t h e i r wardrops Inventory. . . . (185-187) In t h i s atmosphere, everything i s f a l s e .  witV. are bought (191-194).  Beauty and  Courtship becomes a r i t u a l equated  with piracy and hunting (188-190, 195).  Worldly and sacred  considerations are completely confused; thus, religious imagery is applied to preparation f o r an appearance at Court (199-203). The perfect symmetry of the c i r c l e i s reflected i n physical d e t a i l s , not i n any s p i r i t u a l awareness (204-208).  Finally,  45 the reader overhears the speech of courtiers, a series of meaningless  "protests" (212) or " i l l words" (223).  "Glorius,"  l i k e a professional f o o l , plaguing others with his jests, "commands l i k e law" at Court "228), from which the s a t i r i c observer retreats, trembling l i k e "a spyed Spie" (237). The water of 'Satyre I I I " reappears i n the preachers who are "Seas of Wit and Arts" (238), compared to "the bladder of our court" (168), bursting with vanity.  The narrator  appeals to eloquent divines to preach against the vices and f o l l i e s he has seen, f o r his own words are not capable of drowning the sins of the Court.  He i s "but a scarce brooke"  (240), capable only of washing the stains away.  The last  few  l i n e s , curiously enough, seem to contradict the preceding statement.  The speaker claims that his modesty causes him to  disparage his writings, which he hopes w i l l have s c r i p t u r a l authority for perceptive readers.  Two  elements of the s a t i r i c  personality are i n c o n f l i c t , but the very ambiguity of the narrator's p o s i t i o n emphasizes the confusion of a world controlled by the words of the "thing" and the babble of the Court, an Inferno that t e r r i f i e s the bold dramatic  speaker.  The f i f t h and last i s the least b r i l l i a n t of the "Satyres," but i n i t Donne exhibits the nervous and  angry 20 temper which might have made him a superlative s a t i r i s t . The theme, as i n "Satyre I I , " is- the law, i n this case o f f i c e r s Grierson, ed. The Poems of John Donne, I I , x i .  46 who take advantage their c l i e n t s .  of suitors rather than lawyers who defraud  The s a t i r i c narrator f i r s t addresses h i s Muse,  then "Suiters, who to mens lust / Are made preyes" (2Q-21), next, the "greatest and f a i r e s t Empresse" (28),  S i r Thomas  Egerton, who as Lord Keeper was concerned with the  abuses  connected with the Clerkship of the Star Chamber (31),  again,  suitors (38-78), and l a s t l y , an unnamed man who has f r u i t l e s s l y bribed corrupt o f f i c i a l s . interrupt the t i r a d e .  None of these persons  They are simply objects at which the  commentator can direct h i s r e f l e c t i o n s .  The speaker establishes  the mood. He w i l l not be writing i n j e s t , but with indignation: What i s hee Who Officers rage, and Suiters misery Can write, and jest? (7-9) His subject i s a most "enormous sinne" (34-). The protagonist's anger i s directed more toward the o f f i c e r s than toward the wretched s u i t o r s .  The metaphor of  seas and streams f o r power, both temporal and divine, resumes the image pattern of the third and fourth "Satyres."  The  central conceit i s based on the contrast between the microcosm and the macrocosm: . . . man i s a world; i n which, Officers Are the vast ravishing seas; and Suiters, Springs; now f u l l , now shallow, now drye; which, to That which drownes them, run: These selfe reasons do Prove the world a man, i n which, o f f i c e r s Are the devouring stomacke, and Suiters The excrements, which they voyd. . • (13-19)  47  God's law dwells at the stream's  head, but o f f i c i a l s who  the power delegated t o them by God f a i r e s t Empresse" ( 2 8 ) , who  or by the  abuse  " g r e a t e s t and  i s ignorant of her s e r v a n t s '  behaviour, such and drown those who  appeal t o h i g h e r c o u r t s :  . . . powre of the Courts below Flow from the f i r s t maine head, and these can throw Thee, i f they sucke thee i n , t o misery, To f e t t e r s , h a l t e r s . . . (45-48) Suitors  can swim a g a i n s t the stream by complaining and  exhuast  i n v a i n ( 4 8 - 5 3 ) , u n t i l they are f o r c e d t o bridge  themselves  the seas w i t h fees and b r i b e s ( 5 3 - 5 5 ) .  But the gold i s swallowed  up with no advantage t o the s u i t o r ( 5 5 ,  90-91).  The pattern.  images of excrement and dust form a second  Metaphors of p r o s t i t u t i o n are s t i l l  another  recurring link  i n the c h a i n : . . . Oh, ne'r may F a i r e lawes white reverend name be  strumpeted, (68-69)  But when t h i s f e r v e n t p l e a i s made, law has  a l r e a d y been  degraded:  Shee i s a l l f a i r e , but yet hath f o u l e l o n g n a i l e s , With which she s c r a c h e t h S u i t e r s ; In bodies Of men, so i n law, n a i l e s are t h e x t r e m i t i e s , So O f f i c e r s s t r e t c h t o more t h e n Law can doe, As our n a i l e s reach what no e l s e p a r t comes t o . 1  (74-78)  The money used  f o r i n e f f e c t u a l b r i b e r y was  by q u e s t i o n a b l e means.  i t s e l f obtained  A f t e r having t a k e n money from o t h e r s ,  48 the suitor i s himself tricked  (79-85).  Thus, the standard of law and justice i s not questioned, but i n this world i t i s completely d i s t o r t e d .  In the "Satyres"  the righteous ideal is constantly contrasted with i t s perversion by man's f o l l y and greed f o r material wealth and power. is an opposition between law and her instruments.  There  The conceit  of the "Angels" (57-63) emphasizes the difference between divine and human j u s t i c e .  God's justice is free; although his  angels mediate between himself and mankind, suppliants do not pay fees.  Earthly metallic "Angels" are not meant by God to  have a role d i f f e r e n t from that of the s p i r i t u a l beings.  But  once more there i s no hint that non-material values w i l l become established i n the world of the "Satyres." At t h i s point, the c r i t e r i a f o r s a t i r e should be applied to Donne.  Has he written unalloyed invective, or  possibly simply philosophical broodings?  Does- he achieve the  s a t i r i s t ' s degree of detachment and create a state of mind balanced between amusement and contempt?  Much c r i t i c i s m  praises Donne's formal satires very h i g h l y .  R. M. Alden  remarks that Donne writes i n a compact, a l l u s i v e style which i s , i f not d i s t i n c t l y imitative, more l i k e that of c l a s s i c a l  21 s a t i r e than that of any e a r l i e r English w r i t i n g .  Arnold  S/tein, on the contrary, does not think that c l a s s i c a l p a r a l l e l s show Juvenalian s p i r i t and tone. 2 1  2 2  A l v i n Kernan  Alden, Rise of Formal S a t i r e , p. 88. A. Stein, "Donne and the S a t i r i c S p i r i t , "  266-282.  ELH,XIr. (Dec; 1944),  49 believes the "Satyres" to be the most consistent and ordered of the Elizabethan formal s a t i r e s , ^ nd John Peter considers 2  a  that Donne approaches Pope's c l a r i t y and i n c i s i v e wit more 24 closely than any pre-Augustan except Dryden. The presence of the speaker, i n each s a t i r e defending the s p i r i t u a l values of s i m p l i c i t y , truth and constancy, creates a degree of organic unity and provides a standard against which the worth of the s a t i r i c environment judged.  can be  The "Satyres" are b u i l t , to a large extent, on a  single thematic principle of organization, the dominance of temporal values and the opposition between the material and 25 the s p i r i t u a l .  The s a t i r i c persona shows himself conservative,  as he laments the passing of the old order i n which each  man  had his d i v i n e l y appointed place. In these poems Donne embodies i n v i v i d language a sardonic disdain f o r the f o l l i e s and crimes of humanity. Using mockery, the s a t i r i c orator expresses disillusionment at man's f a i l u r e to r e a l i z e h i s s p i r i t u a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . Moreover, the dramatic ( i ) and d i a l e c t i c a l ( i i i ) qualities culminate i n an effect of imaginative b r i l l i a n c e and i n t e l l e c t u a l energy, sheer exhuberance i n experimenting with verbal e f f e c t s . In spite of sharp condemnation of s o c i a l and individual vices, 3 Kernan, The Cankered Muse p.118. 2  T  OA  Peter, Complaint and S a t i r e , p. 134.  ^ N. J . C. Andreasen, "Theme and Structure i n Donne's Satyres," Studies i n English L i t e r a t u r e , III (1963), 59. 2  50 there is a marked delight i n f a n c i f u l play with words, rapid movement and v i v i d , i n t e l l e c t u a l humour.  Metaphysical "wit"  is the instrument for s a t i r i c comment on l i f e .  Occasionally  one finds "wit" i n the siense of a detached enjoyment of the r i d i c u l o u s , perhaps most i n evidence i n the s a t i r i c sketches of the f i r s t and the fourth "Satyres."  The s a t i r i s t  infallibly  singles out and exaggerates the most absurd c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of his target, leaving the reader to f i l l i n the outlines. example, the fopling (i.67-78), is described natural, restrained and objective manner.  For  i n an easy,  One  is hardly  aware of the subtle s a t i r i c thrust, the deft i n s e r t i o n of social criticism (i.57-58).  I l l u s t r a t i o n s are sometimes genial  and comic, meant to arouse laughter rather than indignation 26  (i.83-86). (ii.63-73),  Most often they are b r i l l i a n t and shocking and they are always pertinent (iv.69-72, 88-90).  Thus, to a large extent, Donne avoids invective and maintains a certain degree of aesthetic distance. man  A f u r i o u s l y angry  could not write these verses: . . . Towards me did runne A thing more strange, then on Niles slime, the Sunne E'r bred; or a l l which into Noahs Arke came; A thing, which would have pos'd Adam to name; Stranger then seaven Antiquaries studies, Then Africks Monsters, Guianaes r a r i t i e s . Stranger then strangers . . . (iv.17-23) Nevertheless, *  intense s u b j e c t i v i t y and metaphysical  Stein, "Donne and the S a t i r i c S p i r i t , " ELH, XI (Dec.1944),  270.":. .  51 subtlety are perhaps better suited to the l y r i c and devotional verse than to s a t i r e , although s o c i a l types are objectively drawn.  The ingenious comparisons  and involuted phrases refer  back to the s a t i r i s t ' s personality instead of radiating outward to illuminate a s o c i a l world created by the poet's vision.  In these works the creative process seems to be one  of contraction rather than expansion, or more precisely, an ambiguous a l t e r n a t i o n of both.  H a l l e t t Smith considers  that the author of the "Satyres" i s too impressed imaginatively with the degeneration of the world to make much 27 of an art of s a t i r i z i n g i t .  Leishman, I think, is nearer  the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the formal satires when he says that Donne i s playing a dramatic r o l e , associated with detachment and fundamental skepticism, i n an attempt to  28 escape from melancholy and depression.  Although Donne's  imagination i s obsessed with the idea of the world's decay, this subjective orientation does not, contrary to C. L. Lewis's opinion, deprive the "Satyres"of f i t f u l glimpses of "cheerful 29 normality" and "occasional grandeur."  Grierson notes both  the skeptical s p i r i t and the search for absolute p r i n c i p l e s : E l i z a b e t h a n Poetry, p. 227. 27  28 The Monarch of Wit: An A n a l y t i c a l and Comparative of John Donne (London. 1951). P. 39.  Study  52 Alike i n his poetry and i n his prose, Donne's mind seems to want the high seriousness which comes from a conviction that truth i s , and i s to be found. A s p i r i t of scepticism and paradox plays through and disturbs almost everything he wrote, except at moments when an intense mood of f e e l i n g , whether love or devotion, begets f a i t h , and silences the s c e p t i c a l and destructive wit by the power of v i s i o n rather than by i n t e l l e c t u a l conviction.3° "Satyre I I I , " i n my opinion, i s an example of one of these moments, not of the transcending  of skepticism, but of the  union of doubt with an assurance of the ultimate r e a l i t y of absolute t r u t h .  Donne's l o f t y idealism, which appears even  i n the four portrayals of an i r r a t i o n a l s a t i r i c world, i s part of an other-worldly  attitude concerned primarily with  s p i r i t u a l rather than mundane l i f e , related to the medieval preaching  tradition.  These works., however, are much too  individual i n tone to be classed i n any p a r t i c u l a r l i t e r a r y category.  C. S. Lewis, English Literature i n the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama. The Oxford History of English L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . I l l (Oxford, 1954), p. 469. y  3° Grierson, I I , x.  53  CHAPTER  V  HALL  Hall's extensive borrowing from other authors his  and  "bookish" imagination usually produce assimilations of  c l a s s i c a l and other sources;  he remarks  . . .now my rimes r e l i s h of the Ferule s t i l l , Some nose-wise Pedant saith . . • He fuses references to c l a s s i c a l myth i n an e f f o r t to give his  readers puzzles to solve.  The author of Virgidemiarvm,  Slxe Bookes claims to be the f i r s t English s a t i r i s t , that i s , the f i r s t English writer of Juvenalian formal s a t i r e ("Prologue": 1.1-4), although Lodge and Donne already had written i n the c l a s s i c a l form.  H a l l , however, combined  smoothness and vigour to a greater degree than any e a r l i e r English s a t i r i s t .  His humour, which is rare, i s largely  based on exaggeration and disproportion. For example, the braggart " l a s t l y to sealsvp a l l that he hath spoke, / Quaffes a whole Tunnell of Tabacco smoke" (IV.iv.40-41).  His "wit"  The Collected Poems of Joseph H a l l . Bishop of Exeter and Norwich, ed. A. Davenport (Liverpool. 1949) P. 54-. Subsequent c i t a t i o n s from H a l l i n my text w i l l be to this edition. 1  2  Alden, Rise of Formal S a t i r e , p.  101.  54 is restrained, almost Augustan, rather than metaphysical. Indeed, Pope called Virgidemiae "the best poetry and truest satire i n the English language. "3 The s t y l e i s , on the whole, smooth and polished. couplets are usually end-stopped,  The  a technique which tends to  d i s c i p l i n e and refine the impact of the s a t i r i c attack, and thus give i t a certain detached a i r . H a l l states i n A Postscript 1D the Reader that he avoids verse that "as i t male well afford a pleasing harmony to the eare, so can i t yeeld nothing but a flashy and loose conceyt to the iudgement" (75-77)*  The style i s usually marked by an absence of  Elizabethan conceits and by a tendency to use concrete words wherever possible, working from particular images and examples to general conclusions. It i s a l l u s i v e , i n d i r e c t , involving abrupt dramatic s h i f t s and e l l i p t i c a l  apostrophes.  The rhythm i s occasionally broken by incomplete l i n e s . Archaic verb-endings i n "-en" and p a r t i c i p l e formations with "y" create a faint impression of crudeness and r u s t i c i t y , but not of obscurity. To s a t i s f y those who  conceive of s a t i r e as necessarily  rough, the s a t i r i s t pens the f i r s t d i a t r i b e of book four, modelled upon "the soure and crabbed face of Iuuenals." The idea of s a t i r e as a rude, harsh and "darkesome" c r i t i c i s m  ^ John Nichols, L i t e r a r y Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1812), V, 654.  55 of humanity d e l i v e r e d by goat-men i s i n t r o d u c e d i n "His Defiance  t o Enuie The ruder Satyre should goe rag'd and bare: And show h i s rougher and h i s h a i r y h i d e : Tho mine be smooth, and deckt i n c a r e l e s s e p r i d e .  (76-78)  V i r g i d e m i a e lias an e x a l t e d m i s s i o n : And i f thou canst not t h i n e h i g h f l i g h t r e m i t , So as i t mought a lowly Satyre f i t , Let lowly S a t y r e s r i s e a l o f t to thee: T r u t h be thy speed, and T r u t h thy P a t r o n bee. ("Prologue": 1.21-24) The P o s t - s c r i p t , appended to the that  " i t i s not f o r euery one  "byting S a t y r e s , " explains  t o r e l l i s h a t r u e and  S a t y r e , being of i t s e l f e besides the n a t i u e and b i t t e r n e s and t a r t n e s of p a r t i c u l e r s , both hard and harsh o f s t i l e " ( 1 - 3 ) .  First,  naturall  in-bred of c o n c e i p t ,  the speaker dares  "boldly  auouch t h a t the E n g l i s h i s not  a l t o g e t h e r so n a t u r a l l to a  Satyre as the L a t i n " (59-60).  Furthermore, readers w i l l  t r o u b l e themselves to i n t e r p r e t matter phrased f a s h i o n (79-82).  r a t h e r than purposely  The  i s d e s c r i b e d as  but i t i s a l s o c a l l e d  s a t y r s cannot achieve  ancients"  " p l a i n e , with hope of p r o f i t ,  obscure onely f o r a bare names sake"  Thus, Virgidemiae  r e c k l e s s e " (DE 3 0 ) ,  i n an obscure  L a s t l y , the s a t i r i c purpose i s "a f u r t h e r  good," causing the work t o be  (86-89).  not  (II.vii.14):  the h e i g h t s  "rude, and  "smooth" (DE  of the "Roman  78).  56 Some say my Satyrs ouer-loosely flow, Nor hide their g a l l inough from open show: Not r i d l e - l i k e obscuring their intent: But packe-staffe plaine v t t r i n g what thing they ment: ("Prologue": I I I . 1-4) The e v i l s exposed, the narrator remarks, "deserue a keener s t i l e " than his ( V . i . l 6 ) t The Satyre should be l i k e the Porcupine, That shoots sharpe quils out i n each angry l i n e , And wounds the blushing cheeke, and f i e r y eye, Of him that heares, and readeth g u i l t i l y . (V.iii.1-4) The f i r s t three books, Of Tooth-lesse Satyres. are concerned with l i t e r a r y , academic and moral abuses. The byting Satyres deal with more serious e v i l s i n a stronger tone of invective.  They are presented as a reaction to  c r i t i c i s m of the e a r l i e r poems as too academic.  The speaker  laments that his "sixe Cords beene of too loose a twine" and begs h i s audience to be patient: Stay t i l l my beard s h a l l sweepe myne aged brest. Then s h a l l I seeme an awfull S a t y r i s t : (IV.i.168-169) "The Conclusion of a l l " announces that the l a s t three books are to be violent and vigourous i n s t y l e , written i n "crabbed oke-tree rinde." These satires are mysteries the reader must decipher i n order to unearth a "secret meaning." As i n the "Bpologues" t o the Tooth-lesse Satyrs, the s a t i r i c observer establishes himself as a l i n k i n the l i t e r a r y  57 tradition: . . . from the ashes of my quiet s t i l e Hence f o r t h may r i s e some raging rough Lucile« That may with Eschylus both f i n d and leese The snaky tresses of t h Eumenides: Meane while, s u f f i c e t h mee, the world may say That I these vises loath'd another day, (V.iii.13-18) !  H a l l enlarges and adapts passages from the c l a s s i c s to the  needs of his time.  The only l a t e r s a t i r i c sources  mentioned are the works of Ariosto and the "base french Satyre" referred to i n the Post-script.  Complexity of  l i t e r a r y a l l u s i o n i s the distinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of this poetic technique.  The machinery of c l a s s i c a l mythology  takes on a metaphorical significance i n that i t allows the poet simultaneously to emphasize the continuity between h i s world and the past and to judge the s a t i r i c targets by juxtaposing them with the heroes and v i l l a i n s of antiquity. 4  H a l l has been accused of simply paraphrasing L a t i n models, but any such conception ignores the significance of the doctrine of "imitation." is defended  The use of c l a s s i c a l philosophers  i n his Characters (1608):  As one therefore that i n worthy examples hold imitation better than invention, I have trod i n t h e i r paths, but with an higher & wider Edmund Gosse, The L i f e and Letters of John Donne. Dean of St. Pauls (London, 1899), I, 36.  58 step; and out of their Tablets have drawn these larger portraitures of both sorts.5 The beginning of Virgidemiae I l l . i v is the most a r t i f i c i a l . Nevertheless, after the author has created a s p e c i f i c a l l y Roman atmosphere, he proceeds to draw a v i v i d picture of the English scene.  There are a number of sustained, d e l i b e r a t e  imitations, but only i n a few cases are c l a s s i c a l adaptations the e s s e n t i a l framework of a poem. The d i v i s i o n of Hall's material indicates an awareness of the f a l l a c y i n the S t o i c view that a l l sins are of equal importance, as are a l l virtues, and i n the corollary that only two classes of men e x i s t , the good and the e v i l .  Moral  indignation aroused by contemporary subjects i s expressed i n an i n d i v i d u a l style which at i t s best involves several elements, not simply the transformed  Juvenalian influence  but the tendency towards e t h i c a l analysis of the English l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , the moral sense of the preacher the s a t i r i c a l s p i r i t , contempt f o r the targets. his "Characterismes  and  Introducing  of Vices," H a l l comments that "the  fashions of some evils are besides the odiousnesse, r i d i c u l o u s ; "A Premonition, of the T i t l e and Vse of Characters," Heaven vpon Earth and Characters of Vertves and Vices, ed. Rudolf Kirk, Rutgers Studies i n English, No.6 (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1948), p. 144. J  A. S t e i n , "Joseph Hall's Imitation of Juvenal," Modern Language Review, XLIII (July 1948), 322.  59 which to repeat, is to seeme b i t t e r l y merry."'  7  In his  " b i t t e r l y merry" way, the s a t i r i s t remains well within the t r a d i t i o n of Complaint.  In the s a t i r i c world, endurance i s  the only possible philosophy of l i f e , and so the poet counsels a modified Neo-Stoicism, emphasizing the virtues of r e s t r a i n t and control. of e v i l i n society. His  It i s one answer to the presence  H a l l , however, i s not a philosopher.  8  Neo-Stoicism i s simply a means of reinforcing his C h r i s t i a n  heritage.  He i s the "English" and "Christian Seneca," and  the Stoic pride i n human reason i s not acceptable to a C h r i s t i a n writer.  Man's reason i s unreliable:  And now when Nature giues another guide, To humane kind that i n his bosome bides: Aboue i n s t i n c t , h i s reason and discourse, His beeing better, is his l i f e the worse? (IV.iii.80-83) The s a t i r i s t i s sympathetic to the Stoic suppression of the passions, but prefers continence to complete lack of emotion. One must, f o r example, condemn s i n i n an environment w here wrong has "maistered the r i g h t " ( I I . i i i . 9 ) and "damned vice is shrouded quite from shame / And crown'd with Vertues meed, immortall Name" ("Prologue":  1.13-14).  H a l l associates  virtue with simplicity and longs f o r "the time of Gold" ( I l l . i ) , 7  ' Kirk, "Characterismes of Vices,"  "The Prooeme," p.170.  Audrey Chew, "Joseph H a l l and Neo-Stoicism," PMLA. LXV (Dec.1950), 1133. 8  60  the ideal that makes the world of Virgidemiae blacker by comparison.  Corruption implies a f a l l from a primeval state  when men l i v e d according to Nature's laws of goodness, j u s t i c e , duty and honour ( I I . i i i . 1 - 6 ) and without the f a l s e trappings of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  The divine order was  when "as Nature made the earth, so did i t l i e "  obeyed (V.iii.38).  Man has become so "depraued" that he has l o s t the "natiue vertue" with which " a l l brute and sencelesse things" are endowed ( I V . i i i . 6 2 - 6 7 ) .  9  The philosophy of l i f e H a l l advocates i s b a s i c a l l y that of moderate Calvinism.  The virtues he espouses are the  Stoic ideals of prudence, f o r t i t u d e , justice and temperance; the vices he lashes are fear, discontent, greed and e l a t i o n . A strong ascetic element appears i n his ideas of personal conduct, yet he s a t i r i z e s " p i n e f u l l penurie" ( V . i i . 8 2 ) as well as luxury.  Ripe, mature, s e l f - c o n t r o l i s desirable:  Curius is dead, and buried long since, And a l l that loued golden Abstinencet (IV.v.7-8) ' Hall's purely l i t e r a r y work i s mainly s a t i r i c a l . Its dominating theme i s the need to abandon fashionable f o l l i e s and return to the virtuous ways of antiquity, to be content with what one has and i s . Virgidemiae upholds t r a d i t i o n and opposes change and enthusiasm.  The active l i f e is the  S,ee K i r k , "Of the Unconstant," p.  180.  61 virtuous l i f e , f o r work i s an instrument f o r s o c i a l stability.  The conservative moralist emphasizes that only  i n performing the duties and f u l f i l l i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s attached  to one's a l l o t t e d station i n a s t r a t i f i e d society  can true peace of s p i r i t be achieved.  This view of l i f e  results i n a stress upon s o c i a l functions and contempt f o r individual ambitions  (IV.vi.36-49)  I wote not how the world's degenerate, That men or know, or l i k e not t h e i r estate:: (IV.vi.1-2) Man's unhappiness and restlessness spring from his unruly desires (III.i.42-45). Thus, the ideal state i s that of indifference to the world.  True n o b i l i t y comes from within:  Brag of thine owne good deeds, f o r they are thine, More than his l i f e , or lands, or golden l i n e . (IV.iii.94-95) Pride i n material things i s e v i l . preserve fame by anything  It i s useless to t r y to  other than virtuous deeds:  Thy monument make thou thy l i u i n g deeds, No other tombe then that, true vertue needs. (III.ii.13-14) Virgidemiae  attributes faults to possibly i d e n t i f i a b l e  persons under the guise of c l a s s i c a l type names, most of which are i n the I t a l o - c l a s s i c a l form.  The poems also  mark the f i r s t use i n English of blank names or i n i t i a l s  62 (IV.v; V . i i ) .  Individual references, however, for example, the  o r i g i n a l of "Labeo,""^ are absorbed significance.  i n a context of universal  "Labeo" becomes the archetypal p r o l i f i c and  obscene hack writer.  The satires are l o g i c a l analyses of  s o c i a l conditions, concerned with various forms of degeneracy. Their structure i s episodic, introducing purely incidental satire to i l l u s t r a t e general s i n s .  The s a t i r i s t  often begins  i n an impassioned—however conversational—tone, with a question,an  apostrophe  ( I I . i ) or a wish (IV.v). The  theme i s enunciated and then dramatized stock s i t u a t i o n s .  i n a number of  Some of the orations, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  the l a t e r books, are sustained r h e t o r i c a l arguments, f o r example, the advice to "PontIce" to prove h i s own worth instead of boasting of his ancestors' fame ( I V . i i i ) . f i n a l couplet i n many cases sums up the s a t i r i c  A  criticism.  eL  At other times, the conclusion i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y extensive portrait (IV.iv; V I . i ) , a passage of exhortation ( I I . i ) , 1 "\ 14 r e f l e c t i o n ~ or narrative. Many of the poems, especially >  i n the Tooth-lesse Satyrs, are simply v e r s i f i e d Characters (III.viO . !  1 0  The dramatic speaker i s present at a l l times, and  See I I . i ;  See I I . i i ; IV. i i i ; IV.iv; 1 1  1 2  See I . i i i ;  1 3  See I V . i ;  1 4  See I I . i i i ;  IV.i.37-44;  IV.iv.14-15;  II.iii; II.v; I l l . i v ; IV.vii; V . i i . II.v; I l l . i ;  IV.ii;  VI.i.1-20. III.vii; IV.i;  IV.v.  IV.vi. III.vii;  IV.v;  V.ii.  63 he i n s i s t s i n the Post-script that he does not wish to harm individuals.  He says, "I . . . may safely professe to be  altogether g u i l t l e s s e i n my selfe to the intention of any g u i l t i e person who might be blemished by the likelyhood of my conceiued application, therupon choosing rather to marre mine owne verse than anothers name" (44-49). He i s a scourger and surgeon.  On the very t i t l e  page the image of a scourge appears, since Vlrgidemi,arvm is the genitive form of a L a t i n word meaning "a harvest of rods."  The s a t i r i c commentator i n the "Prologue" to the  second book presents himself as the righteous successor to Diogenes: Or bene the Manes of that Cynick spright, Cloth'd with some stubburn clay & led to l i g h t ? Or do the relique ashes of his graue Reuiue and r i s e from their forsaken caue? That so with gall-weet words and speeches rude, Controls the manors of the multitude? (1-6) He i s inspired by "scornful rage" and a " s c o r n f u l l Muse." Furthermore, he w i l l indulge his scorn f o r the most powerful i n s t i t u t i o n s (IV.vii.1-4). verse gives him pleasure:  The effect of his stinging  15  Go to then ye my sacred Semones. And please me more, the more ye do displease; (IV.i.80-81) The satires are offered as products of the narrator's "hote-  ' See "The Authors charge to his Satyres"; Postscr. 21-22.  IV.i.74-75;  64 bloodes rage," since he is the agent of Nemesis, Whose scourge doth follow a l l that done amisse: That scourge I beare, albe i n ruder f i s t , And wound, and s t r i k e , and pardon whom she l i s t . ("Prologue": 11.10-12) This personage employs the methods of torture as well as those of sanative castlgation.  In "The Conclusion of a l l , "  he announces that victims are expected to submit w i l l i n g l y to punishment.  Yet he does not imply that his diatribes and  verbal lashings w i l l effect either general or individual reform.  Men are eager to confess the g u i l t of everyone but  themselves: Who l i s t complaine of wronged f a i t h or fame When hee may s h i f t i t to anothers name? (IV.i.43-44) The reader i s reminded that "silence i s safe, when saying s t i r r e t h sore / And makes the s t i r r e d puddle stinke the more" (VI.i.173-174).  The pose of detached superiority  results i n a protest that the speaker scorns danger or r e t a l i a t i o n s from the persons he s a t i r i z e s (IV.1.82-89). The work is prefaced by "His Defiance to Enuie."  The tone  is highly i r o n i c a l when he claims that he w i l l confine himself to attacking plebians after making one more a l l u s i o n to people of importance (IV.iv.10-17). He announces his adherence to the t r a d i t i o n of Juvenal:  65 Renowmed Aguine« now I follow thee, Farre as I may f o r feare of ieopardie; And to thy hand yeeld vp the Iuye-mace, From crabbed Persius. and more smooth Horace;  (V.i.7-10)  The dramatic speaker, however, has characteristics of the p l a i n man and preacher of the Complaint t r a d i t i o n and of the Stoic " v i r bonus" as well as of the satyr and scourger.  He i s the good man compelled to write s a t i r e by  the debauchery of a time "when a l l , saue tooth-lesse age or infancie, / Are summon'd to the Court of Venerie" (IV.i.108-109).  He exclaims  P u l l out mine eyes, i f I s h a l l see no vice, Or l e t me see i t with detesting eyes. (V.i.5-6) His "spight" i s "not vnkindly," that i s , not unnatural. Although his poems, i t i s asserted, tax only the l i v i n g , not the e v i l dead, the narrator apologizes f o r writing s a t i r e (V.i.21-22).  He has rejected the stock l i t e r a r y themes i n  favour of satires inspired by "Trueth and holy Rage."  Their  stated purpose i s to unmask "the vgly face of v i c e " and " i n carelesse rymes, / Check the mis-ordred world, and lawlesse times" (I.i.23-24).  In the "Prologue" to the f i r s t book  the narrator denies that he i s motivated by envy* Enuie Enuie Enuie Truth  waits on my backe, Truth on my side: w i l l be my Page, and Truth my Guide. the margent holds, and Truth the l i n e : doth approue, but Enuy doth repine. (5-8)  66 These statements, however, are qualified by the i r o n i c coupling of the speaker's  "deuout" loathing of vices with  the actions of the hypocrite who i n the eare" ( Y . i i i . 2 0 ) .  "rounds Poules p i l l e r s  His aggressive, belligerent stance  is somewhat l i k e that of "the Male-content," who  "speakes  nothing but Satyrs and L i b e l s , and lodgeth no guests i n his  16 heart but Rebels." Virgidemiae closes with an i r o n i c assertion that s a t i r e i s no longer necessary ( V I . i ) .  The speaker praises  the timess Then l e t me now repent mee of my rage, For writing Satyres i n so righteous age: (21-22) "The Authors charge" commits his "playning Orphanes" to  17 oblivion.  If the "luck-lesse Rymes" are for a time Ignored,  t h e i r eventual impact upon the world w i l l be greater, since the envy, hatred and love of the s a t i r i s t ' s  contemporaries  w i l l not cause the meaning of his verses to be weakened, distorted, or t h e i r very existence to be threatened: For when I die, s h a l l Enuie die with mee And lye deepe smothered with my Marble-stone, Which while I Hue cannot be done to dye, Nor, i f your l i f e g i n ere my l i f e be done, W i l l hardly yeeld t'await my mourning hearse. But for my dead corps change my l i u i n g verse.  (13-18)  1 6  Kirk, p.  179.  Compare John Marston, "To the Worlds Mightie Monarch, Good Opinion"; "To euerlasting Obliuion." Citations from Marston i n my text are to The Poems of John Marston. ed. A. Davenport (Liverpool, 1961). 1 7  67 Hall's imagery depends largely f o r i t s effect upon contrasts between the sublime and the vulgar: So pride aboue doth shade the shame below: A golden Periwig on a Black-mores brow. (V.ii.4-3-44) Metaphors are drawn primarily from v i s u a l impressions, and frequently involve references to animals.  "Labeo" reading  Virgidemiae i s described i n this manner: His angry eyne looke a l l so glaring bright, Like th'hunted Badger i n a moonelesse night, (VI.i.11-12) Animal images occur i n connection with an opposition between darkness and l i g h t ( I V . i i . 6 8 - 7 0 ; IV.vi.23-29), with predatory qualities (IV.v.63-64), with corruption (V.ii.42) and with death (IV.v.21-22, 8 8 ) .  On the other hand, beast metaphors  are associated with i n t u i t i v e apprehension of the natural order ( I V . i i i . 6 8 - 7 1 ) . These poems, l i k e those of Donne and Marston, use d i r t , excrement, putrefaction and disease as metaphors f o r 1R  vice.  Corrupt growth i s an appropriate symbol f o r the  degeneration of the countryside: The marble pauement hid with desart weede, With house-leeke, t h i s t l e , docke, & hemlock-seed. (V.ii.59-60) See I I . i i i . 1 0 - 1 4 ; 158-160; IV.v.67-68.  II.iv.9-12;  III.ii.21-24; I V . i .  68 Lechery i s associated with f i l t h , "loathsome smoke," "Acherons steemes, or smoldring  sulphur dust" (IV.i.154-155)•  " S p i t f u l l mothes, and f r e t s , and hoary mold" (IV.ii.14) threaten " L o l i o ' s " possessions.  The t r i c k s of the usurer  involve "fusted hoppes" and "mo'ld hrowne-paper" (IV.v.117-118). The peasant's cottage i s ingrained with smoke and soot, suggesting the inhabitants' misery* . . . a s i l l y cote, Whose thatched spars are furr'd with s l u t t i s h soote A whole inch thick, shining l i k e Black-moors brows Through smok that downe the head-les b a r r e l blows. (V.i.59-62) This kind of imagery i s used to describe "the hypocrite," who is "a rotten sticke i n a darke night, a Poppie i n a corne f i e l d , an i l l tempered candle, with a great snuffe, that 19 i n going out smels i l l . " and bloated  Rich men are generally diseased  (II.ii.62):  . . . I see some rotten bed-rid Syre, Which to out-strip the nonage of his heire, Is cram'd with golden broaths, and drugs of price, And ech day dying l i u ' s , and l i u i n g dies, (V.ii.7-10) H a l l can also suggest t a c t i l e q u a l i t i e s ; f o r example, " G a l l i o ' s " manners are imaged f o r t h rather than portrayed i n direct narrative:  Kirk, @>. 172  69 A l l soft as i s the f a l l i n g thistle-downe, Soft as the fumie b a l l , or Morrians crown;  (IV.iv.74-75) Clothes define the man i n the s a t i r i c world.  The grotesque  dress of gallants i s compared to the nakedness, "ruder hide" 20 or "home-spun Russet" of an e a r l i e r age. " L o l i o " appears i n "rough Pampilian,"  The parsimonious  "white Carsy hose,  patched on eyther knee" and a "knit night-cap" (IV.ii.19-24). This imagery is one way of contrasting the s o l d i e r and the plough-man: The sturdie Plough-man doth the s o l d i e r see, A l l scarfed with pide colours to the knee, Whom Indian p i l l a g e hath made fortunate, And now he gins to loath h i s former state: Now doth he i n l y scorne his Kendall-greene, And his patch't Cockers now dispised beene.  (IV.vi.36-41)  "Zoylus" feigns i l l n e s s i n order to display "his wrought night-cap, and laune Pillow-bere" (VI.i.112).  Thus, elaborate,  miserly and simple apparel become metaphors for vice and virtue. Virgidemiae evokes a world where a l l good Is measured by gain, a p r o f i t society: If Mammon selfe should euer Hue with men, Mammon himselfe shalbe a C i t i z e n . (IV.v.129-130)  20  S,ee III.i.62-69; III.vii.25-46; IV.iv.46-51.  70 The narrator asks Whom cannot g i f t s at l a s t cause to relent, Or to win fauour, or flee punishment? (V.i.79-80) A man's prestige i s dependent upon what he owns, be i t gentle b i r t h or f i n a n c i a l means, not upon his personal v i r t u e . Values are d i s t o r t e d .  There i s a cleavage between appearance  and r e a l i t y : A l l i s not so that seemes; sor surely than Matrona should not be a Curtizan. Smooth Chrysalus should not bee r i c h with fraud, Nor honest bee h i s owne wiues baude. (V.ii.25-28) The general decay of the times i s manifested  i n that of  learning, resulting i n the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s o c i a l order. These are the f i r s t English satires i n which l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s a major element.  As i f to stress t h e i r  importance,  H a l l places h i s l i t e r a r y and academic satires at the beginning of the book.  Debasement of l i t e r a t u r e and l i t e r a r y taste  r e f l e c t s moral corruption. H a l l attackes obscenity ( I I . i ) : Now i s Pernassus turned to the stewes: And on Bay-stockes the wanton Myrtle growes. Cytheron h i l l ' s become a Brothel-bed, And Pyrene sweet, turnd to a poysoned head Of cole-blacke puddle: whose infectuous staine Corrupteth a l l the lowly f r u i t f u l l plaine. (I.ii.17-22) The popularization of tragic poetry ( I . i v ) causes him to exclaim  71 Shame that the Muses should be bought and sold, For euery peasants Brasse, on each s c a f f o l d . (I.iii.57-58) The s a t i r i s t attacks the immense amount of bad l i t e r a t u r e , i n f a c t , simply paper-wasting ( I . i i . 2 7 - 3 4 ;  I I . i ) , that i s  directed towards the vulgar ( I . i x . 1 1 - 1 2 ) .  Academics suffer  hardships and wisdom is despised: Each home-bred science percheth i n the chaire, Whiles sacred arts grouell on the groundsell bare. Since pedling Barbarismes gan be i n request, Nor classicke tongues, nor learning found no r e s t . (II.iii.23-26) The  "ouer-learned age" breeds s u p e r f i c i a l glibness and  learning ( V I . i . l 2 9 - l 6 0 ) : 0 age well thriuen and w e l l fortunate, When ech man hath a Muse appropriate, (VI.i.233-234) The  "well knowne. daintines of the time" hinders the broadcasting  of unpleasant truths: Ye Antique Satyres, how I blesse your dales, That brook'd your bolder s t i l e , t h e i r owne d i s p r a i s e , And wel-neare wish; yet ioy my wish is vaine, I had beene then, or they were now againel For now our eares beene of more b r i t t l e mold, Than those d u l l earthen eares that were of o l d : (V.iii.5-10) The s a t i r i s t deplores writer^'; f i n a n c i a l dependency and abasement i n sycophantic dedications (I.i.11-14).  self-  He attacks  72 not simply lasciviousness, corruption and but also lack of restraint and decorum. guided by reason (I.iv.15-17).  over-production Poets should be  In h i s satires upon indecent  poetry, H a l l glances at s p e c i f i c poets, such as Marlowe ( I . i i i ) and Nashe ( I . i x . 3 5 ) »  and assumes that the writers of "ribald  rymes" are as shameless as t h e i r verses  (I.ix.21-24).  Many  of the important genres of Elizabethan l i t e r a t u r e are discussed, rhymed t r a g i c poetry poetry  ( I . i i i ) , unrhymed heroic  ( I . i v ) , "de casibus" tragedy ( I . v ) , attempts to write  quantitative verse i n English ( I . v i ) and sonnet sequences(I.vii). The "Academicall"  satires are a survey of the various  professions, focussing on greed as the motivation i n a l l walks of l i f e .  The "Morall" criticisms are concerned with  private behaviour, personal humours, fashions and r e l i g i o n . The m u l t i p l i c i t y of stock figures gives an impression of great v a r i e t y .  Targets are the wealthy man who contemns  scholars ( I I . i i ) , lawyers ( I I . i i i ) , doctors ( I I . i v ) , simoniacs ( I I . v ) , private tutors ( I I . v i ) , alchemists astrologers  ( I I . v i i ) , t a i l o r s ( I V . i i . 6 3 - 6 5 ) , usurers  merchants (IV.v.111-114) and landlords ( V . i j Vainglory  (IV.iii.34-39), (IV.v.),  V.iii).  ( I l l . i i ) , the decline of h o s p i t a l i t y ( V . i i ) and  ostentatious piety or wealth ( I l l . i v ) are also s a t i r i z e d . The s a t i r i s t c r i t i c i z e s f a n t a s t i c dress, drunkenness ( I l l . v i ) , excessive personal ornamentation (III.v) and elaborate food  ( I I I . i i i . 1 7 - 2 6 ) . Other targets are avarice,  73 lechery (IV.i.92-161), murder (IV.1.55*58), marrying r i c h widows i n order to inherit t h e i r lands (IV.i.61-65), pride ( I V . i i i ) , cockfighting and gambling ( I V . i i i . 1 8 - 2 3 ) , gluttony (IV.iv.18-21), t r i v i a l pursuits (IV.iv.86-95), bribery (IV. v.1-16), t r a v e l l e r s ' tales (IV.vi.58-73) and extravagance (V.iv).  He scorns Roman Catholics ( I V . v i i ) . The range of characters and subject-matter  reveals  an extensive and varied knowledge of most aspects of the l i f e of the time, that of the peasantry (V.i.59-122), of c i t y merchants ( I I I . i i i ) , of the country gentry ( V . i i ) , of household servants  (V.ii.49-50), of tavern dwellers  (V.ii.100-102) and, above a l l , of scholars and gallants. The difference between the Tooth-lesse  and the byting Satyres.  21 except for the f i r s t satire of the fourth book,  i s not so  much i n the s t y l e , i n spite of the s a t i r i s t ' s declarations to that e f f e c t , as i n the material.  The l a t e r books are  aimed more d i r e c t l y than the f i r s t three at the major s o c i a l and economic abuses of the period, caused by the sweeping s o c i a l and agrarian revolutions.  The narrator does not  approve of the desire f o r novelty, the discontent of the man who thinks "happy a l l estates except his own" (IV.vi.49), cries  21  0-Nature: was the world ordain'd for nought, But f i l l mans maw, and feede mans i d l e thought: (III.i.56-57) See above, p.54.  He  74 The satires are p a r t i c u l a r l y b i t t e r about s o c i a l climbers, old " L o l i o , " who scrapes and drudges to make h i s son a gentlemen ( I V . i i ) and "Lolio's sonne," who buys h i s g e n t i l i t y , l i k e "the Ambitious," who "hath projected a plot to r i s e , and woe be to the friend that stands i n his way. He s t i l l haunteth the Court, and h i s unquiet s p i r i t haunteth him; which having fetcht him from the secure peace of h i s  22 Country-rest, sets him new and impossible taskes."  The  "vpstart" carpet-knight ( I V . i v . l ) , f o r these reasons, denies h i s humble o r i g i n s : He findes recordes of his great pedigree, And t e l s how f i r s t h i s famous Ancestor Did come i n long since with the Conquerour. (iv.ii.134-136) The heir of " V i l l l u s the welthy farmer" (V.lv) has the expensive tastes of the impoverished fops who congregate at St. Paul's ( I I I . v i i ) .  Like "the U n t h r i f t , "  "he ranges 23  beyond his pale, and lives without compasse."  J  In short,  the ambitious or inconstant man " i s an importunate suter, a corrupt c l i e n t , a violent undertaker, a smooth Factor, but untrusty, a restlesse master of h i s owne; a Bladder puft up with the wind of hope, and s e l f e - l o v e .  He i s i n the  common body, as a Mole i n the earth, ever unquietly casting;  22 Kirk, p. 192. 2 3  Kirk, p. 193.  75 and  i n one word, i s nothing, but a confused  pride,  covetousnesse. Questions  heape of envy,  24 11  of p u b l i c concern are g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e 25  a t t e n t i o n , f o r example, the enclosure movement. ' g l i t t e r i n g Hals" (V.ii.18)  "Faire  conceal famine and misery.  E s t a t e s are depopulated: Would i t not vexe thee where t h y syres d i d keepe, To see the dunged f o l d e s of dag-tayled sheepe, And ruined house where h o l y t h i n g s were s a i d , Whose f r e e - s t o n e wals the thatched roofe v p b r i a d , (V.i.115-118) Other abuses of the time do not escape n o t i c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , rack-renting (V.i.51-58), the engrossing  "concealed  l a n d " (V.i.37-38) and  of corn ( I V . v i . 2 3 - 2 7 ) .  The a t t r a c t i o n s o f  l a t e s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y London are d e s c r i b e d . to Of Or Or  Men pay  view some t r i c k e strange Moroccoes dumbe A r i t h m e t i c k e , the young Elephant, or two-tayI'd s t e e r e , the r i g ' d Came11, or the F i d l i n g F r e r e . CIV.ii.93-96)  P o l i t i c a l events, such as the E n g l i s h blockade on trade with S p a i n ( I V . i i i . 3 0 - 3 1 ) ,  are used f o r s a t i r i c a l purposes.  P r i d e i s embodied i n the b u i l d i n g of the Es cur i a l , that "vaine bubble of I b e r i a n p r i d e " ( V . i i . 3 7 - 4 2 ) , and the Spanish  attempts t o invade England  Kirk,  "Of the Ambitious,"  S e e ' I V . i i . 123-128;  (V.iii.84-87).  p. 193.  V.i; V.iii.  76  The poems are often witty and amusing. Hall excels in animated character drawing.  His idealized view of the  Golden Age is localized by homely details that reveal keen observation of men and their activities  (III.i.2$-27).  General sins are illustrated with sharp and often b r i l l i a n t portraits.  Examples are "Virginius" (IV.iv.108-123), "Matho"  and "Cyned" ( I V . v . 6 7 - 7 0 ) , "the hunger-staru'd  Appurtenance"  ( 7 . i i . 8 9 - 9 8 ) and the f i n a l s a t i r i c thrust, "old C a t i l l a "  (VI.289-304).  Scenes are vividly painted, such as the one  in which a factor tends his bed-rid master with great care, having been deceived into expecting a rich legacy: So lookes he like a Marble toward rayne, And wrings and snites, and weeps, & wipes againe, Then turnes his backe and smiles & lookes askance, Seasoning againe his sowred countenance, (VI.i.103-106)  The dramatic elements, however, are often undermined by the author's rhetorical and declamatory tendencies, encouraged by the excellence of the heroic couplet as a vehicle for aphorisms and revealed in statements like this one: l o to the weale where manie Lawiers bee, For there is sure much store of maladie. (II.iii.15-16) This weakness is shown most clearly on the one occasion when Hall does not attempt to fully adapt classical references  77 and i l l u s t r a t i o n s to Elizabethan England  (IV.i).  26  The  portrait of the "close adultresse" (IV.i.144-157) lacks the force of the tableau of shrewish wives who . . . make a drudge of their vxorius mate, Who l i k e a Cot-queene freezeth at the rocke, Whiles his breach't dame doth man the forren stock. (IV.vi.l6-l8) H a l l , l i k e Donne, expresses i n formal verse satires a contempt for the misuse of human a b i l i t i e s i n the singleminded devotion to m a t e r i a l i s t i c values c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s a t i r i c world, related to the degeneration of language manifested i n the decline of l i t e r a t u r e .  The poet searches  for truth, but i n the sense of unmasking hypocrisy rather than that of pursuing an absolute r e a l i t y . individual tone.  He speaks i n an  The reader of Virgidemiae i s aware of an  academic commenting on the outside world, unlike Donne's perceptive observer with his curious mixture of detachment and involvement or Marston's narrator, immersed i n a sea of corruption.  The values Hall's persona represents are  contrasted with "each single-sold squire" ( I I . i i . l 8 ) .  His  c r i t e r i a are e x p l i c i t l y set forths Mong'stall these sturs of discontented s t r i f e , Oh l e t me lead an Academicke l i f e , To know much, and to thinke we nothing know; Nothing to haue, yet thinke we haue enough, ^ S t e i n , "Joseph Hall's Imitation of Juvenal," MLR, XLIII (1948), 321.  78 In s k i l l t o want, and wanting seeke f o r more, In weale nor want, nor wish f o r g r e a t e r s t o r e ; Enuye ye Monarchs w i t h your proud excesse At our low S a y l e , and our hye Happinesse.  (IV.vi.82-89) Although H a l l does not communicate such an intense awareness of  a distinct  p e r s o n a l i t y as Donne and Marston do,  achieves a h i g h degree of s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y through imagery, thematic p a t t e r n s and the c r i t e r i a life,  antique s i m p l i c i t y and v i r t u e .  The  he organizati  of the academic  satirist  does not  doubt these values i n s p i t e of h i s c o n v i c t i o n that he i s living a flood  i n a degenerate  age, but he evokes a world  of v i c e and f o l l y has  i n which  overcome them, represented  by  the "spurious seede" (VI.i.239) of the p r e s s , s p r i n g i n g up over a l l the l a n d . England  and  He  catches the f l i e s  of E l i z a b e t h a n  by means of i r o n i c a l exaggeration f i x e s them i n  amber, adapting the genre of f o r m a l s a t i r e t o h i s own  time.  79  CHAPTER  VI  MARSTON  M a r s t o n s f o r m a l verse s a t i r e s , C e r t a l n e S a t y r e s 1  (1598) and The Scourge of V i l l a n i e , r e g i s t e r e d on September 8 of the same year, d e r i v e the monologue or d i a l o g u e form  and  the technique of i r o n i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n from H a l l as w e l l as from f i r s t - h a n d examination  of the c l a s s i c a l  satirists.  Although n e i t h e r H a l l nor Marston i n d i c a t e s any  direct  knowledge o f the " S a t y r e s , " the i n t e n s e , v i v i d l y  dramatic  tone of C e r t a i n e Satyres and the Scourge resembles works r a t h e r than V i r g i d e m i a e . s u b t l e an i r o n i s t  as Donne.  The  1  Donne's  Marston, however, i s not s n a r l i n g and  chastising  s a t i r i c persona becomes a f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d convention i n the M a r s t o n i a n s a t i r e s , which i n c l u d e no criticisms.  "Tooth-lesse"  I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a r i s e from the attempt  the s c o u r g i n g and s c o r n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s , e i t h e r i d e n t i f i a b l e persons  t o fuse  possibly  or r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s or s p e c i f i c types,  w i t h the e l a b o r a t e moral e x h o r t a t i o n , the pose of h u m i l i t y and modesty, of the w r i t e r of homily and Complaint. o p p o s i t i o n i s concentrated  i n these  The  lines;  A. S t e i n , "The Second E n g l i s h S a t i r i s t , " Modern Language Review. XXXVIII (194-3), 273-278. x  80 Preach not the S t o i c k e s patience t o me, I hate no man, but mens i m p i e t i e . My soule i s v e x t , what power w i l l ' t h d e s i s t ? Or dares to stop a sharpe fangd S a t y r i s t ? I h o ' l e coole my rage? who'le s t a y my i t c h i n g But I w i l l plague and torture whom I l i s t ?  fist  2  Indeed, Marston c o n s t a n t l y d r i f t s straightforward,  toward one of two extremes,  powerful i n v e c t i v e ,  or  philosophical  m e d i t a t i o n ; the c l o s i n g passages of the s e v e n t h , e i g h t h and e l e v e n t h " S a t y r e s " of the Scourge i l l u s t r a t e tendency. moralist, dramatic  There i s a c o n f l i c t  between the  the  latter  speculative  expounding S t o i c and M a c h i a v e l l i a n i d e a s , and the poet.  The n a r r a t o r of the formal s a t i r e s " g a l l " by the use of t o r t u r e d ,  his  contorted d i c t i o n and s y n t a x ,  sometimes o v e r s t r a i n e d and t a s t e l e s s elisions,  expresses  imagery and r h e t o r i c ,  abrupt p h r a s e s , r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n s  between s u b j e c t s  and speakers and uneven rhythms, probably suggested by passages i n the b y t i n g S a t y r e s and by E l i z a b e t h a n dramatic b l a n k verse.  H a l l achieves g r e a t e r  compression i n meaning and '  form, o f t e n managing to c o n f i n e the sense t o the  couplet,  and Donne approaches more c l o s e l y the f u s i o n of form and content than does Marston. villainy  In g e n e r a l , the scourger  of  i s l e s s uniform i n s t y l e than e i t h e r of h i s  predecessors.  His verse i s f r e e r ,  less regular,  less  compact  The Poems of John M a r s t o n . e d . A . Davenport ( L i v e r p o o l , p. 106. Subsequent c i t a t i o n s from Marston i n my t e x t w i l l be t o t h i s e d i t i o n .  1961),  A l d e n , Rise of Formal S a t i r e ,  p.  132.  81 than H a l l ' s , with fewer closed couplets, more i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of accent and some unrhymed l i n e s (SV v.18).  The s a t i r i s t  claims that h i s style i s " l o f t i e r " than the usual s a t i r i c verse: 0 how on tiptoes proudly mounts my Muse, Stalking a l o f t i e r gate then Satyres vse. Me thinkes some sacred rage warmes a l l my vaines, Making my spright mount vp to higher straines Then wel beseemes a rough-tongu'd Satyres part, But Art curbs Nature, Nature guildeth Art. (SV ix.5^10) He also asserts that he i s not influenced by e a r l i e r writers i n the genre (SV vi.99-100). his  Although he i s reticent about  s t y l i s t i c goal and, unlike H a l l , does not suggest that  the English language  i s unsuitable f o r any conception of  the s a t i r i c form, Marston explicitlyyproclaims h i s detestation of "too much o b s c u r i t i e , & harshnes, because they p r o f i t no sence" i n his a r t i s t i c manifesto, "To those that seeme i u d i c i a l l perusers."  He " w i l l not deny there i s a seemely  decorum to be obserued, and a peculiar kinde of speech f o r a Satyres l i p s " which he "can w i l l i n g l i e r conceiue, then dare to prescribe," but the "substance"—the matter—not the "shadow"—the f o r m — i s to be "rough." satirists  The c l a s s i c a l  are obscure only because they speak of "priuate  customes" of their time.  Nevertheless, i n spite of his  boasted "plainnes," Marston continually experiments with rhythms ("Ad Rithmum"), unusual words—archaisms,  alchemic,  82 c a s u i s t i c and s c h o l a s t i c t e r m s — a n d  imagery t o produce  verse that i s crabbed and c o n t o r t e d w i t h thought. " 4  His  attempts, however, o f t e n degenerated i n t o a b s u r d i t y , u n l i k e the e f f e c t s c r e a t e d by s i m i l a r  imagery i n Hamlet. King Lear  and Antony and C l e o p a t r a and s i m i l a r d i c t i o n i n Donne's s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s l o v e p o e t r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n passionate p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s q u i s i t i o n s l i k e The M a r s t o n i a n s t y l e has been c a l l e d chilblained,"  "The E x t a s i e . "  "clumsy and  and a p e r c e p t i v e c r i t i c remarks that i t can  be d e s c r i b e d as "a kind o f growing p a i n which language  was  bound t o s u f f e r as i t passed from the manner o f Spenser t o the manner of Donne." Neo-S.toic elements are as important i n Marston's works as they are i n V i r g i d e m i a e .  C e r t a i n e S a t y r e s . the Scourge and  a l l the dramas w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of Eastward Ho dramatize the breakdown of the accepted order of Nature (S.V iv.24; v i i ? 9 )  and express a v i s i o n o f l i f e as dark and  d i f f i c u l t , a violent  c o n f l i c t between r e a s o n and p a s s i o n i n  which p a s s i o n i s most o f t e n the v i c t o r . the formal s a t i r e s give no h i n t  Crime e x i s t s , but  of the r e s o l u t i o n of e v i l  Una E l l i s - F e r m o r , The Jacobean Drama: An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  3rd ed., r e v i s e d (London, 1953), P» 83.  ^ P e t e r Ure, "John Marston's 'Sophonisba : A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , " Durham U n i v e r s i t y J o u r n a l , n.s., X, No. 3 (194-9), 82. 1  Theodore Spencer, "John Marston," The C r i t e r i o n . XIII  584.  (1934),  83 through e x p e r i e n c i n g the s u f f e r i n g i t causes. committing man  By  wilfully  a s i n or o m i t t i n g t o c o n t r o l h i s b o d i l y a p p e t i t e s  becomes unable t o hear the voice of God, Right Reason,  the d i c t a t e s of which are e s s e n t i a l f o r s a l v a t i o n .  Man  d i f f e r s from a l l other created beings on e a r t h i n t h a t he possesses a r a t i o n a l s o u l , capable of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a f f e c t i n g h i s s a l v a t i o n f o r good or i l l essential to i t ,  from those not  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between good and e v i l  contemplating i t s e l f and God.  One  and  When the passions are s t r o n g ,  o v e r r u l i n g t h i s reasonable f a c u l t y , they cause e v i l misery.  matters  d o c t r i n e of Renaissance  and  psychology i s that  normally the p a s s i o n s a c t i n response t o the reason, through the medium of the animal s p i r i t s , the l i n k i n g agents between the s p i r i t u a l essence and the m a t e r i a l substance of However, passions may  man.  sometimes be i n i t i a t e d by the i m a g i n a t i o n  or s t i m u l a t e d by p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s without the i n t e r v e n t i o n  7 of the reason.  The person dominated  by passions i s  " s p r i g h t l e s s e , sence or s o u l e hath none, / S i n c e l a s t Medusa turn'd him t o a stone" (SV v i i . 4 4 - 4 - 5 ) . I n man  there i s a  c o n t i n u a l warfare between the r a t i o n a l and the s e n s i t i v e , the human and the b e s t i a l , the i n t e l l e c t u a l and the p h y s i c a l . Usage i n v i c e d u l l s the w i l l t o r e s i s t : Now here-vpon our I n t e l l e c t u a l l , Compact of f i r e a l l c e l e s t i a l l ,  7  Babb,  The E l i z a b e t h a n Malady, p. 12.  84  I n v i s i b l e , immortall, and diuine, Grewe straight to scorne his Land-lordes muddy slime. And therefore now is closely slunke away (Leauing his smoakie house of mortall clay) Adorn'd with a l l his beauties lineaments And brightest iemms of shining ornaments. His parts diuine, sacred, s p i r i t u a l l Attending on him, leauing the sensuall Base hangers on, lusking at home i n slime, Such as wont', to stop port Esqueline. CSV v i i i . 1 8 9 - 2 0 0 ) The reasonable powers.  soul must continually r e s t r a i n the sensitive  Man's greatest enemies l i e within himself, so he  must s t r i v e f o r self-knowledge and thereby gain self-mastery. The central concept of Neo-Stoicism i s "synteresis," "the spark," the function or department of conscience  that  o  should guide conduct.  God as a f i r e i s equated with s p i r i t ,  soul, mind and reason, a l l of which are compressed i n the term " i n t e l l e c t u a l l . "  A vestige of the divine f i r e remains  i n man, making him p o t e n t i a l l y able to achieve perfection and communion with God. However, the C h r i s t i a n writer sees manu as a f a l l e n being who does not naturally prefer the good and is not naturally inclined to be ruled by reason (SV i v . 1 0 9 113).  Marston even suggests that the human condition,  involving a physical body, necessarily obscures the voice of Right Reason.  Man w i l l , i n the distorted s a t i r i c world,  either obey normal animal impulses "that s o i l e our soules, and dampe our reasons l i g h t " (SV v i i . 1 8 3 ) ,  or turn to  Anthony Caputi, John Marston. S a t i r i s t (New York, 1961), P. 59.  85 perversions worse than simple sensuality: Sure I nere thinke those axioms to be true, That soules of men, from that great soule ensue, And of h i s essence doe participate As't were by pypes, when so degenerate, So aduerse i s our natures motion, To his immaculate condition: (SV vii.188-193) The Scourge ultimately preaches the C a l v i n i s t position;  man,  who on earth i s entirely b e s t i a l , i s redeemed only by the grace of God.^  Stoicism helps man keep his equilibrium i n  a world of upheaval, but controlled patience and are not adequate for l i f e  endurance  (SV iv.145-160). The concept of  virtuous or vicious behaviour as not determined by free w i l l , however, i s consistent neither with earnest moral exhortation nor with the b e l i e f that the mind i s capable of reform.  I f the i n d i v i d u a l i s not personally responsible  for his actions, how can he be attacked for his vices? Therefore, i n other passages Marston assumes that physical characteristics and temperament do not control "the inward d i s p o s i t i o n , " although they may a particular way  i n c l i n e a person to act i n  (SV i.11-13).  Readers of Certaine Satyres and the Scourge encounter the conventional classicisms—pagan d e i t i e s , personal type names, dialogue and dramatic settings.  The author combines  dramatic narrative, direct rebuke and r e f l e c t i o n i n the See SV iv.115-122, 141-144, l 6 l - l 6 6 ; 173-214. y  viii.110-117,  86 chastisement of a decaying s o c i e t y . essentially a string of portraits illustrate  general  vices.  of attack followed This the  The s a t i r e s a r e  and s c e n e s u s e d t o  The f r a g m e n t s e x h i b i t a p a t t e r n  by r e f l e c t i o n a n d m o r a l  exhortation.  a l t e r n a t i o n b e t w e e n e x p o s u r e and m e d i t a t i o n  determines  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l poems and o f t h e w h o l e w o r k .  Marston, l i k e H a l l , Certaine  Satyres  and i n t h e f i r s t  S c o u r g e he l i m i t s titles.  p r e f i x e s mottos t o h i s s a t i r e s .  The t i t l e  himself  and t h i r d  poems o f t h e  t o t h e themes s u g g e s t e d by t h e  t h e s i s i s r e s t a t e d w i t h i n "Cras."  " S a t y r a N o v a " and t h e s i x t h and e l e v e n t h  patterns, the character  In  s a t i r e s of the  S c o u r g e u n i t y depends upon i n t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . to thematic  In  In addition  and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e  d r a m a t i c s p e a k e r and h i s use o f language a r e d e v i c e s  to  secure a c e r t a i n degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . The m a l c o n t e n t e d n a r r a t o r o f C e r t a i n e the Scourge i s p a r t l y a convention,  partly a  Satyres  and  manifestation  o f t h e a u t h o r ' s t e m p e r a m e n t , and p a r t l y a p r o d u c t o f conditions  of the time  (SV.  i i . 104-109).  Renaissance , the "anatomising"  I n the late  o f man a n d s o c i e t y t r a n s f o r m e d  " m e l a n c h o l y , " a sombre d i s p o s i t i o n a l w a y s p r e s e n t nature,  i n t o a diseased  b i t t e r n e s s , an obsession  i n human with  especially  sexual vice.  identified  with the malcontent, i s a n a t u r a l s a t i r i s t ,  he s e n s e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f  vice,  The m e l a n c h o l y man, f r e q u e n t l y  t h e p o t e n t i a l e v i l he sees  since  displayed  87 i n society at large,and his own  impulses  give strength  and vigour to the violent disgust his b i t t e r d i s p o s i t i o n arouses i n him.  This personage, l i k e "Malevole,"  "Macilente,"  "Jaques" and "Bosola," r a i l s at classes, the world i n general, and contemplates the vanity and transitory nature of existence itself.  In the extreme form he becomes a "humourous"  character with the p r i v i l e g e of verbally r e v i l i n g others, a professional cynic and f a n t a s t i c meditator.  The formal s a t i r e s ,  i n spite of the character of "Bruto" (CS i i . 1 2 7 - 1 % ) , are narrated by p r e c i s e l y such a person, one who misunderstood and undervalued  feels himself  by his fellows, unjustly  deprived of the power and influence his superior qualities merit and so embittered.  Malevolence and e v i l , criminal  passions and actions, the malign planet Saturn, are frequently associated i n Elizabethan l i t e r a t u r e with melancholy.  Indeed, the melancholic s 1  astuteness and morose  mental industry increase his power to do e v i l .  Two  concepts  of melancholy, however, appear i n the writings of the period; i t i s , f i r s t , a particular set of physical and mental characteristics determined by physiological conditions, sometimes exaggerated into a d i s e a s e . ^  In this sense, the  state is betrayed by despondency, t a c i t u r n i t y , misanthropy, envy, jealousy, suspicion, stubbornness, inconsistency and i r r a t i o n a l fear and sorrow. 1 0  The term suggests, i n the second  Babb, The Elizabethan Malady, p. 30.  88 p l a c e , the  p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sober  p h i l o s o p h i c man, powers.  the f o s t e r i n g of i n t e l l e c t u a l and  T h i s dualism l i e s behind the  of Marston's n a r r a t o r . i s a haughty one,  "dissembling  and  imaginative shifts"  His Muse, l i k e t h a t of H a l l ' s s a t y r ,  "Ingenuous Melancholy," invoked i n the  "Proemlvm i n l i b r u m primum."  L i t e r a r y melancholia  is  simply  a t a c t i c t h a t the n a r r a t o r adopts i n h i s s e l f - a p p o i n t e d t o expose the f o o l s and f i n i s h e d h i s t a s k , he (SV x i . 3 ) .  The  knaves o f h i s w o r l d .  exorcises  When he  " d u l l sprighted  s a t i r i c c y c l e i s completed.  and  serenity.  H i s spokesman i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  t u r b u l e n t , does not  suggest constancy  b l u s t e r , uncompromising i n t o l e r a n c e and does not depend upon p o p u l a r i t y . of popular o p i n i o n i n the my  concept  of  as a scourge, but u n l i k e H a l l , h i s manner,  despairing  I present  has  Melancholy"  Marston, l i k e H a l l , i s i n f l u e n c e d by the the s a t i r i s t  mission  He  and  insolence  and  i n s i s t e n c e that  proclaims  prefatory piece,  "To  merit  his disdain Detraction  Poesie":  S.pight of d e s p i g h t , and I am my s e l f e , so i s my  rancors poesie.  The  persona i s rough, honest, sickened  and  b e s t i a l i t y around him  and  compelled t o speak out against  villanie, (23-24)  at the  rottenness  a h e r o i c scourge of v i c e , "impietie."  The  satirist  attempts to fuse the t r a d i t i o n s of the J u v e n a l i a n angry  man,  89 the satyr, the surgeon and the preacher and deliverer of homilies i n a narrator who  i s by turns amused, haughty, a  furious punitive agent and an earnest healer of souls. Above a l l , he i s an outspoken, blunt exposer of unpleasant truths.  1 1  "Reprofe" is i n v o k e d .  12  "Epictetus," the S t o i c  philosopher referred to i n the "Preface" to The Fawne as the author's  "bosome f r i e n d , " delivers Certaine Satyres,  but i n the Scourge gives way  to the coarse, savage  "Theriomastix"—"Beast-scourge"—and  "W.  Kinsayder."  l a s t name seems to be a pun on "Mar-stone."  The  "Kinsing," 13  a word which is recorded only i n Hall's epigram on Marston, may  s i g n i f y , as Gosse, Kernan and Spenser suggest,  J  an  operation to castrate unruly dogs and dock t h e i r t a i l s . 14 This Interpretation i s , however, only a conjecture. concept, nevertheless, is appropriate to the dramatic violent nature, who i n his s a t i r e s .  The speaker's  performs a similar operation upon mankind  The frequently recurring symbolism of  barking, snarling dogs connects the Scourge with the Cynic philosophers. Indeed, the "Cynicke worke" contains a See CS iii.93-100; iv.1-4; SV: "In Lectores prorsus indignos"* 16, 3 5 - 3 6 ; "Proem, i n l i b . I": 9-20; ii.1-18, 70-71, 142-143; I i i . 1 2 5 - 1 2 7 ; v.109-110. 1 1  1 2  See CS: i i i . l ; SV:  "Proem, i n l i b . I l l " ;  ix.l.  1 3  See  1 4  Leishman, ed. The Three Parnassus Plays, p. 241.  "Satyra Nova."  90 "Cynicke Satyre" delivered by a "Cynick dogge."  The speaker  takes pleasure i n tormenting and punishing his victims  (CS v.179-181): My pate was great with c h i l d , & here t i s eas'd, Vexe a l l the world, so that thy selfe be pleas'd. (SV vi.111-112) In the "Proemivm i n librum prlmum" of the Scourge there i s a suggestion of physical torture rather than of sanative castigation: I beare the scourge of iust Rhamnusia. Lashing the lewdnes of B r i t a n i a . . . . my vexed thoughtfull soule, Takes pleasure, i n displeasing sharp controule.  (1-8)  However, i n addition, the targets' physical reactions an inner catharsis.  manifest  The "Rhamnusian whip" (CS i v . l ; v.5)  is a violent purge, sap-green, yielded by the berries of the buckthorn, Rhamnus catharticus  The narrator purges  16 (SV iv.81-82), scourges,  wields a razor (SV v.118) and  exposes "the hidden e n t r a i l e s of ranke v i l l a n i e . / T e a r i n g the vaile from damn'd Impietie."  He has many s a t y r i c a l  qualities and refers to satyrs, demanding whether abuses s h a l l remain shrouded i n hypocrisy  15  Randolph, "The Medical Concept i n English Renaissance S a t i r i c Theory: Its Possible Relationships and Implications," Studies i n Philology. XXXVIII (1941), 148. 16  See SV i i i . 1 5 0 ; i x . 5 4 , 129-130.  91 . . . Whilst my s a t y r i c k vaine S h a l l muzled be, not daring out to straine His tearing paw? No gloomie Iuvenall Though to thy fortunes I disastrous f a l l . (SV iii.193-196) What i s the s a t i r i c commentator's "natiue straine"? He is deeply interested i n philosophical speculation.  Like  H a l l ' s , these are satires i n which personal references  can  be found, although the narrator protests that he does not attack i n d i v i d u a l s . In "To him that hath perused  me,"  the postscript to the Scourge. he declares that he i s "'free from endeuoring to blast any priuate mans good name."  In  many passages the moral intention of "this sharpe, yet well meant poesie" is asserted.  A "milde Muse" (SV i i . 9 7 )  compels the poet to attack universal e v i l s .  He i s a  saviour of mankind, "a second Theseus" (CS i i i . 1 0 0 ) , no "icye S a t u r n i s t . " no "northerne pate" (SV i i . 1 9 ) .  In  "To Detraction" he reveals an awareness of his l i m i t a t i o n s ; his i s a "setled censure" (20).  He c a r e f u l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  between greater and lesser vices, as Donne does i n "Satyre I I " (SV i i i . 8 1 - 8 4 ) .  Although the whole society is corrupt, the  speaker recognizes that hypocrisy and self-righteousness are the most monstrous sins (CS i.125-136; SV x.126-130) and that he himself i s guilty of the faults he condemns. c r i t i c i s m occurs i n Certaine Satyres Scourge  ("Proem, i n l i b . II"J 1-6).  Self-  (ii.11-14) and i n the The scourger unmasks,  92 u n v e i l s and probes  i n t o the cankered  spots of human s o c i e t y .  Images of s t r i p p i n g away f a l s e f r o n t s are a r e c u r r i n g m o t i f , based upon the s a t i r i c d i s c r e p a n c y between the substance the shadow.  and  S c u r r i l i t y , envy and malice are d i s c l a i m e d .  18  1 9  The dramatic n a r r a t o r i s preoccupied w i t h the popular r e a c t i o n to h i s poetry (SV iv.169-170) and makes the f i r s t who  deliberately  s a t i r e of the Scourge obscure  to s u i t  those  i g n o r a n t l y t h i n k that such a s t y l e i s a mark of a  refined taste.  He  i s concerned  about m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  h i s words: . . . 0 indignitie To my r e s p e c t l e s s e f r e e - b r e d p o e s i e . (SV vi.99-100) Since the world  i s "damn'd," the scourger i s aware that i t  i s impossible or at l e a s t extremely d i f f i c u l t t o reform f a l l e n human nature and that a "bold-fac'd S a t y r e " might as w e l l c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o "meaner g u l l e r y , " f o r i t i s as easy t o "draw N i l u s r i u e r d r y , / As d e n s e the world f o u l e i m p i e t i e " (CS il.105-106,  from  159-160). But even although  he knows they w i l l have no e f f e c t , he p e r s i s t s i n w r i t i n g satires.  1 7  42-43;  The  "Proemium" t o the l a s t book of the Scourge  See CS i.135-136; i i . 3 0 - 3 2 , 158; "Proem, i n l i b . I " : 18;  SV:  "In L e c t o r e s " :  "Proem.in l i b . I l l " :  1 ft  22.  See CS i.123-124; SV i.11-12; ii.12-14; v.40-47; vi.71-72; v i i . 1 3 - 1 6 , 90-91, 139-14-2. 1 9  See CS iv.167-1695 SV  xi.1-12.  1 7  93 advertises one more attempt to remove s i n : 0 that a Satyres hand had force to pluck Some fludgate vp, to purge the world from muck: Would God I could turne Alpheus riuer i n To purge this Augean oxstaule from foule s i n .  (17-20)  The s a t i r i c commentator i s entrusted with "a sacred cure / To salue the soules dread wounds" (SV iv.114-115), the noble purpose that is announced i n the prefatory lines to the t h i r d book of the Scourge: In serious i e s t , and iesting seriousnes 1 striue to scourge poluting beastlines. In spite of this claim to be concerned  (1-2)  about the moral  well-being of others, the. speaker again and again announces his contempt f o r the vulgar and complains that his work i s exposed to the gaze of i d i o t s (SV vi.105-110).  The pose of  the virtuous avenger at times verges on comedy, as when he snarls, "Let Custards quake, my rage must f r e e l y runne" (SV i i . 4 ) .  The o v e r - s h r i l l tones of t h i s versa perhaps reveal  an insecurity about the narrator's moral right to attack others and a need to convince himself of the potency of h i s s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m , that he i s indeed a "barking S a t y r i s t , " before whom a l l should tremble.  He i s  inconsistent--sometimes  arrogant, dedicating his book "to his most esteemed, and best beloued S e l f e , " while at other times he longs f o r the  94 cloak of "euerlasting Obliuion."  Pride i n "darke reproofes"  alternates with the attitude that i t i s madness to waste hours i n "idle rime" and that deficiencies i n the work are to be excused because  of sickness or the public's ignorance  (S.V x.69-79). His attitudes towards other poets and towards l i t e r a r y devices f l u c t u a t e .  In "Ad Rithmum," f o r example,  rhyme is praised, but w i l l be disdained i f i t interferes with the poet's " l i b e r t i e " (26).  H a l l abandons minor s a t i r i c  targets f o r major ones, but Marston rejects the other writer's topics as t r i v i a l and hackneyed (SV i i i . 105-120).  Petty sins  are well punished, while vice i n high places is triumphant (CS. v):  • Ay me, hard world for S a t y r i s t s beginne To sette vp shop, when no small petty sinne Is l e f t vnpurg'd . . . (SV ii.44-46)  Nevertheless,  Marston covers much of the same ground as h i s  predecessor.  The speaker remarks i n the address, "In  Lectores," that he writes f o r the "diuiner wits, c e l e s t i a l l soules, / Whose free-borne mindes no kennel thought controules" (81-82). s p i r i t s appear?  But where i n the satires do these choice  The narrator admits that i n the s a t i r i c  world verses such as his are not l i k e l y to be  appreciated:  These notes were better sung, mong better sort, But to my pamphlet, few saue fooles resort. (SV iv.169-170)  95 Although p a s s i v i t y i s beyond the reach of the speaker's angry violence of s p i r i t , h i s attitude of moral reproof c r y s t a l l i z e s into a kind of Stoic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . the last poem of the Scourge  In  he pretends to no moral purpose  whatsoever: Here ends my rage, though angry brow was bent, Yet I haue sung i n sporting merriment. (239-240) In Marston's formal satires dense language and remarkably consistent, s t r i k i n g imagery express disgust with the animal nature of man.  This idiom i s a powerful  mixture of bawdry and philosophy, although sometimes perversely and nearly always badly expressed.  Vice and  f o l l y are associated with images of physical torment, bodily processes—sexual and excremental—and  decay, d i r t ,  putrefaction, the desecration of lovely and noble things. Men have become beasts and insects (SV v i i ) : . . . 0 these same buzzing Gnats That sting my sleeping browes, these Nilus Rats, Halfe dung, that haue their l i f e from putrid slime, (SV vi.65-67) In the world of the satires "beasts f o r f i l t h are d e i f i e d " (SV i i i . 1 0 4 ) .  E v i l infects the ''world A r t e r i e s " with  "corrupt blood" (SV iii.160-161).  Grossly physical words  and images are used i n serious contexts, such as the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the nature of carping c r i t i c i s m by the  96 spaniel who -"perfumes the roome, / With h i s t a i l e s (SV ix.31-32).  filth"  Humanity i s a m i l l i n g crowd of forms without  substance, of faces showing no signs of individual i n t e l l i g e n c e , a "vIzard e d-b i f r ont ed-Ianian rout" (CS i . 4 ) of "ambitious Gorgons. wide-mouth'd Lamians. /Shape-changing Proteans, damn'd Briareans" (CS v.1-2)  s p i l l i n g over into  every corner of the s a t i r i c world. "Opinion," the abuse of reason resulting from the habit of making judgments based upon incorrect sense impressions, to which Pigmalions Image and Certaine Satyres i s dedicated, i s the chief cause of the grotesqueness  and horror of the s a t i r i c v i s i o n .  It i s  the source of false values and therefore a corrupting influence: Shame to Opinion, that perfumes his dung, And st'reweth flowers rotten bones among, lugling Opinion, thou inchaunting witch, Paint not a rotten post with colours r i c h . (SV x.63-66) v  "Detraction," to which the Scourge is dedicated, frustrates the progress towards perfection by subverting, t a i n t i n g and s o i l i n g good works before they can mature.  It is the  "foule canker of f a i r e vertuous action, / V i l e blaster of the freshest bloomes on earth."  The Neo-Stolc Lipsius  associates "Opinion" with earth, the contrary of f i r e and the usual source of sense impressions, the threat to reason. Caputi, p. 68.  2i  97 Marston's imagery l a r g e l y depends upon t h i s a n t i t h e s i s between f i r e  and e a r t h i n h i s c r e a t i o n of a world dominated by  ''Opinion*' and " D e t r a c t i o n . "  The f i r e - e a r t h symbolism i s  a s s o c i a t e d with the f i g u r e of a conduit, pipes human s o u l s , conceived provides  a f as p l a n t s , t o God, the f o u n t a i n t h a t  t h e i r nourishment.  p o l l u t e d and clogged ineffectual.  connecting  When t h i s  clear spring i s  with s l i m e , man's reason i s rendered  The s a t i r i c  p r o t a g o n i s t must purge the s l i m e  t o r e e s t a b l i s h contact w i t h God, as he s t a t e s i n the  "Proemium  21 i n librum tertium." i s a l s o set up. his"spirit for  An o p p o s i t i o n between f i r e  and a i r  The n a r r a t o r p r o t e s t s i n "To D e t r a c t i o n " that  i s not h u f t vp with fatte fume / Of s l i m i e A l e , "  "'Opinion" p u f f s the s o u l d , which becomes a "windie  bubble" (SV v i . 4 ) , g a l l a n t s scorned  and "but a spunge" (SV v i i . 5 8 ) .  The  i n "In L e c t o r e s " are " p u f f i e youthes"  This image i s used to express the s a t i r i c  (42).  f u r y i n these  lines:  I cannot h o l d , I cannot I indure To view a b i g womb'd f o g g i e clowde immure The r a d i a n t t r e s s e s of the q u i c k n i n g sunne.  (SV The  s a t i r i c world i s dusky (SV i i . 2 3 ) ,  watry foggs, t h a t f i l l  the i l l - s t u f t  ii.1-3)  covered i n mists "of  list  i e l o u s euen of b l i n d e darke" (SV v.11-12).  / Of f a i r e  Desert,  V i c e i s symbolized  by the absence of l i g h t :  21  See SV I i . 3 9 - 4 3 , 70-71, 80; i i i . l 6 0 - l 6 l ; vi.21-22; v i i . 1 8 8 - 2 0 2 ; v i i i . 1 8 5 - 2 0 0 ; ix.28-29; xi.206-207.  98 Who sayes the sunne i s cause of vgly night? Yet when he vailes our eyes from his f a i r e sight, The gloomie curtaine of the night i s spred. (SV iv.125-127) Corpulence and i n f l a t i o n are associated and i d e n t i f i e d with degeneracy, since '"to be huge, i s to be deadly sicke" (SV i i . 1 1 8 ) .  The task of the barber-surgeon narrator i s to  relieve "the goutie humourssof these pride-swolne dayes" (SV x i . 9 ) . In this atmosphere, a l l appearances are f a l s e . Certaine Satyres treats, f i r s t , negative e v i l , the empty appearance of good, f l a t t e r e r s , lovers, courtiers, Puritans i n the roles of citizens and usurers, and s o l d i e r s , second, positive e v i l masquerading as good, Puritans, f l a t t e r e r s , the malcontent, t h i r d , e v i l both i n fact and appearance. After attacking Hall's c r i t i c i s m of the l i t e r a t u r e of the time, the poet expands on the picture of a world i n which a l l values are inverted (CS v ) . He ends on the i r o n i c note, as H a l l does i n the s i x t h book of Virgidemiae. that the world has become so virtuous that there is no need  for  satire (139-166). In the f i r s t book of the Scourge. "Satyres" one to three are a general attack on various aspects of immorality, especially l u s t .  "Satyre I" i s a panoramic survey of s a t i r i c  types which i l l u s t r a t e s the motto, "Fronti n u l l a f i d e s " — "there i s no trusting to appearances."  The next poem, a  99  similar review of society, j u s t i f i e s the writing of s a t i r e and l i s t s the topics proposed for discussion i n the works that follow.  In the t h i r d s a t i r e the speaker reaches the  heights of indignation.  "Cras" (iv) portrays those  who  w i l l repent tomorrow and closes the book on a d i d a c t i c note, an examination of philosophical and theological concepts.  The next look is made up of the f i f t h , s i x t h  and seventh s a t i r e s .  The f i r s t and l a s t , as well as the  beginning of "Satyre VIII," which opens the third book, develop more f u l l y the vices exposed i n the e a r l i e r  group,  such as the domination of wealth and guile (v), man's bestiality (vii)  and the loss of reason when sensual  desires are dominant ( v i i i ) . section i s occupied by "Hem  The central portion i n this nosti'n" ( v i ) ,  digression attacking those who,  a structural  the author claims, have  misinterpreted h i s Pigmalion. related to the main s a t i r i c theme i n that l i t e r a r y corruption, another abuse of man's r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s , r e f l e c t s and encourages moral decline. The last passages i n the seventh and eighth satires are d i d a c t i c and r e f l e c t i v e .  Book I I I , after "Satyre VIII,"  is i n a somewhat l i g h t e r vein.  "Here's.a toy to mocke an  Ape indeede" (ix) unmasks the apishness of man, ridiculous nature of the creature.  the  "S.atyra Nova" i s another  digression, a sustained, somewhat petulant attack upon H a l l ,  100 added i n the second e d i t i o n (1599).  The f i n a l s a t i r e  p a r a l l e l s the opening one i n that i t i s a survey of the age.  "Humours" presents a string of caricatures of g a l l a n t s —  dancers, theatre-lovers, fencers, bores, lechers, fops,—and closes, l i k e the other two books, with moral exhortation. The speaker appeals to young men to recover "Synderesis." He has moved from fury to contempt, r e f l e c t i o n and some kind of resolution. Marston i s concerned with morals, humours, manners, fashions and classes of mankind. "In Lectores" follows the precedent set by H a l l of prefacing verses with a l i t e r a r y manifesto, defining the nature and mission of s a t i r e and discussing the degeneration of the l i t e r a t u r e of the time. In Marston s 1  satires H a l l symbolizes something  resembling  the figure of "Labeo" i n Virgidemiae, the bad writer who spreads his venom abroad, "belching lewd termes gainst a l l sound l i t t r a t u r e " (SV i i i . 1 7 6 ) .  Distortions of language  are a major cause and manifestation of the abuse of reason (S.V v i i . 8 4 - 9 9 ) .  The general decay of the times  extends to "Englands yeomanrie" m i l i t a r y caste (SV v i i i . 7 2 - 8 3 ) . monopolies  (SV i i . 1 3 9 ) and to the References are made to  (SV iv.83-86; v i i . 3 3 ) , the cheating of heirs  (SV i i . 5 6 - 6 3 ; i i i . 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) , usury (SV iv.73-80; vii.62-75) and lawyers (SV vii.80-99).  Other targets are Puritans  (SV i i . 9 2 - 1 0 6 ; ix.105-119) and Roman Catholics (SV I i . 7 2 - 9 0 ) .  101 The is  t r a d i t i o n a l a n t i - c l e r i c a l and a n t i - f e m i n i s t c r i t i c i s m reiterated.  their  These s a t i r e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y b i t t e r i n  i n v e c t i v e against the lower c l a s s e s , peasants and  artisans.  The most s u b s t a n t i a l s u b j e c t , however, i s l u s t ,  normal and abnormal.  The s a t i r i s t d e p i c t s an age  When euery signe can b r o t h e l r i e a f f o r d . When l u s t doth s p a r k l e from our females eyes And modes t i e , i s rousted i n the s k i e s .  (SV ii.107-109)  The  lover frequently i s a s a t i r i c target, a conventional  f i g u r e e x h i b i t i n g the f a m i l i a r m e l a n c h o l i c  t r a i t s (CS.  iii.51-74).  The i d l e and l u x u r i o u s l i f e  erotic l i f e ;  wine and c e r t a i n foods, such as e r i n g o e s , eggs,  potatoes, considered  of courts i s ami  o y s t e r s and marrow p i e s (SV i i i . 6 8 - 7 4 ) , are t o be a p h r o d i s i a c s .  Lust  i s a disease of body  and mind, d e s t r o y i n g v i r t u e and happiness. reason, f l e s h conquers s p i r i t man's nature  When i b overpowers  and the subhuman element i n  conquers the human.  Marston c r e a t e s the v i s i o n of a world world  gone mad, a  i n which " C i r c e s magick charme" turns men i n t o  maggots (SV v i i . 7 0 - 7 1 ) and " s t i l l the s e n s u a l l haue preheminence" (SV x i . 2 3 4 ) .  The o b s e s s i v e concern w i t h the  f l e s h , drawing f o r t h e v i l from dark c o r n e r s , r i p p i n g o f f v e i l s and t e a r i n g up e n t r a i l s , produces a b i z a r r e , e c c e n t r i c ,  102 sometimes h y s t e r i c a l and incoherent, but always strongly i n d i v i d u a l note.  The desire f o r recognition and the s e l f -  dramatization as a dreadful scourge c o n f l i c t with the wish f o r o b l i v i o n i n these poems.  There i s a mixture of contempt  for the reader, f o r the vices that are being unmasked and for the speaker.  The discrepancy between the narrator's  revulsion at the physical and h i s a t t r a c t i o n , even fascination, by i t , h i s unpleasant s a t i s f a c t i o n i n dwelling upon unclean 22  details,  can perhaps be explained as an i r o n i c comment  upon the speaker himself, but I think not.  The incongruity  i s central to the a r t i s t i c f a i l u r e s i n Marston. manifested  It i s  i n the grotesque attempt i n Antonio and Me11ida  to fuse romantic melodrama, s a t i r i c a l comedy and burlesque of conventional l i t e r a r y and t h e a t r i c a l modes.  A similar  effect i s created by the superfluous accumulation of h o r r i f i c d e t a i l s i n Antonio's Revenge (1602), delight i n sheer b r u t a l i t y .  the frank  The scourger depicts the  unnatural vices of "Luscus" (SV i i i . 3 4 - 5 2 ) i n the tone of one simply r e c i t i n g an unsavoury joke; but the habits of "Lucea" i n the same poem are offered as an example of the "brutish f i l t h " he w i l l not "cease to curse and ban" (126). The problem has given r i s e to a c r i t i c a l quarrel over Marston's claim that his Ovidian poem The Metamorphosis of Alden, p. 135.  1 0 3  Pigmalions Image i s s a t i r i c a l . accepted at face value?  Should his statement  be  Is Pigmalion "an i r o n i c piece of  2 3  studied excess"?  . Or did a revulsion against the physical  cause the author to declare that h i s work had a moral intent (SV  v i . 2 3 - 3 2 ) ?  Although Pigmalion is not, of course, a formal s a t i r e , i t contains, i n my opinion, the tensions between dwelling on lust and contempt f o r i t and for the readers that are found i n Certaine Satyres and the Scourge. The highly personal tone of the running commentary, the incidental s o c i a l s a t i r e i n references to "the subtile Citty-dame " and "the peeuish Papists" and the burlesque of the affected language of the sonneteers i n the hero's plea to the "sweet happy sheetes" d i f f e r i n kind from the conventional asides and, for example, the story of the country maid and Mercury i n Hero and Leander. And f i n a l l y , the pretense of t a n t a l i z i n g the reader i s drawn out to an inordinate length.  The tone s h i f t s from l i g h t  banter to mockery of the "gaping eares that swallow vp" the tale when the narrator excuses himself from saying more. The "loose l i n e s " are an intentional s l i p .  The  satiric  comment i s based upon the discrepancy between the imaginative world of lover and empirical r e a l i t y .  The conventions of  the Ovidian poem allow Marston to i l l u s t r a t e the fact that a romantic insistence on the ideal can only lead to absurdity: Douglas Bush, Mythology and the Renaissance T r a d i t i o n i n English Poetry. 2nd ed. (New York, 1963), p. 182.  104 I oft haue smil'd to see the foolery Of some sweet Youths, who seriously protest That Loue respects not a c t u a l l Luxury, But onely ioy's to d a l l y , sport, and i e s t : (109-112) The poet exploits the ironies latent i n the Pygmalion myth, the familiar dichotomy between shade and substance 168).  (6, 163-  The statue i s constantly compared to a l i v i n g woman,  the commentator's beloved (65-66) and the narrator's behaviour i s contrasted with that of "Pigmalion": 0 wonder not to heare me thus r e l a t e , And say to f l e s h transformed was a stone. Had I my Loue i n such a wished state As was afforded to Pigmalion. Though f l i n t y hard, of her you soone should see As strange a transformation wrought by mee.  (187-192)  The theme of the amorists who  are distracted with "busk-  points" i s developed further i n the formal satires (SV viii.94).  F i n a l l y , Pigmalion i s prefaced and followed by  pieces written i n the form of the verse s a t i r e s .  One must  conclude therefore, I think, that i n tone, attitude and subject-matter, although not i n form or organization, Pigmalion i s d i s t i n c t l y  satirical.  In the formal s a t i r e s , imagery, keen and vigorous 24 character sketches and exempla, s h i f t s i n s t y l e and mood and movements from r i d i c u l e and b i t t e r indignation to pleas See SV iv.167-170; v.103-106; ix.54.  105 for  reform are a l l devices to present a p a r t i c u l a r , usually  grim, v i s i o n . actions.  The targets condemn themselves  by their  Situations are taken from the l i f e of Elizabethan  England, such as the tableaux of simoniacs, usurers, lawyers and s o l d i e r s .  At times Marston draws i l l u s t r a t i o n s from  c l a s s i c a l mythology (CS_ v ) .  In the handling of these  elements,  however, the s a t i r i s t often models himself upon the worst i n H a l l , exaggerating the passages i n Virgidemiae that are written i n an a r t i f i c i a l , forced manner. Hall's mythological and l i t e r a r y allusions, when illuminated by h i s editor's commentary, have an i n t e l l e c t u a l content and a s t r u c t u r a l role in,the poetic argument.  The allusions i n Marston,  however, sometimes do not advance the conceptual movement of the s a t i r e . While Marston does objectify h i s emotions and point of view to a certain extent, he does not achieve the degree of aesthetic distance that a reader might desire.  He has  ' l i t t l e of Hall's Augustan quality, c l a r i t y of apprehension and expression.  A c r i t i c analyzes t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c :  The secret of Marston's temperament i s that he was an i d e a l i s t , and l i k e so many of his contemporaries, he was an i d e a l i s t whose idealism was b u i l t on i n s u f f i c i e n t f a c t s . When the facts h i t him i n the face the blow was severe, and i n order to conceal how much he was hurt, he pretended that he had known about them a l l along, that he had enjoyed them. . . . he only gives himself away by  106 the unnecessary violence with which he expresses himself. 5 2  Psychological speculations are outside the l i m i t s of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , but i t i s c e r t a i n l y true that Marston is more unrestrained i n his denunciations  of the corrupting influence  of lust and hypocrisy than H a l l or Donne.  The dominating  impression l e f t by his work i s one of bitterness and P6  violence.  However, as t h i s chapter has attempted to show,  the Scourge is not without order, nor does i t preach a purely destructive ethos, '  Marston does not have a set of values  based upon academic pursuits, ancient s i m p l i c i t y and decency, but the d e n i a l of the usefulness of good works and, to an extent, the power of the human w i l l , gives h i s works a v i v i d , dramatic q u a l i t y that is lacking i n Hall's reminders of a shadowy Golden Age  and c l a s s i c a l wisdom and approaches the  effect of Donne's formal s a t i r e s ,  J  26  S/pencer, "John Marston," The C r i t e r i o n . XIII (1934),  /  597.  '  A. Jose Axelrad, Un Malcontent Ellzabe'thain: John Marston (1576-1634)(Paris. 1955). p. 38.  27 Ure, "John Marston's 'Sophonisba's A Reconsideration," Durham University Journal, n.s., X, No.3 (1949), 90.  107 CHAPTER V I I  THE ENGLISH SATYRS  An order of merit has been assigned t o the E l i z a b e t h a n s a t i r i s t s by Morse S. A l l e n . t h i r d , surpassed  i n "interest  a b i l i t y " by Donne. about  1  11  by H a l l and  Marston  i s ranked  in "literary  T h i s vague e v a l u a t i o n says nothing  the s p e c i f i c a l l y s a t i r i c q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r works,  and w i t h the c l o s i n g of the s i x t e e n t h century and the coming o f the seventeenth, the s p i r i t harshaand impartial.  satirical.  of England was  becoming more  H a l l ' s s a t i r i c pose i s detached  and  H i s c r i t i c i s m of s o c i e t y i s p e r f e c t l y c l e a r  i n no danger of being misunderstood.  Marston,  hand, assumes the mask of the malcontent,  on the other  and h i s s u b j e c t i v e  s c o u r g i n g i s more f o r c e f u l than h i s predecessor's r a t i o n a l approach.  and  cool,  Yet when the s a t i r i s t h i m s e l f i s i n v o l v e d  i n the s u b j e c t of h i s d e n u n c i a t i o n s , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  result.  Donne u n i t e s the advantages and avoids the disadvantages both techniques i n " S a t y r e s " one, two  of  and f o u r , which combine  o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h s u b j e c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n and Donne's genius  1  intense i n t r o s p e c t i o n .  i s not d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y towards  The S a t i r e of John Marston  However, social  (Columbus, Ohio, 1920), p.115.  108 s a t i r e but towards s e l f - a n a l y s i s i n "Satyre I I I , " which i s the best of the f i v e poems but i s not s a t i r e except f o r the exempla that advance the t h e s i s . H a l l and Marston attempt 2 "synthetic obscurity."  i n t h e i r s t y l e s to produce  Thus, i n t h e i r works are found  r e f e r e n c e s which are u n d i g e s t e d , i s o l a t e d , unconnected the surrounding m a t e r i a l . n o t i c e a b l e i n Marston. m a t e r i a l t o t h e i r own taste.  This fault  with  is particularly  These s a t i r i s t s  adapt  classical  age and express contempt f o r popular  At the same time, they long f o r r e c o g n i t i o n by the  reading p u b l i c .  T h e i r dilemma i s whether to write f o r the  l e a r n e d or the u n l e a r n e d .  Donne quite f r a n k l y  himself to a l i m i t e d , c u l t i v a t e d  addresses  audience, and so i s able  to d e l i v e r a m o n o l i t h i c indictment of London s o c i e t y , lawyers, r e l i g i o u s s e c t s , the Court, o f f i c e r s and The f i v e  suitors.  " S a t y r e s " have more immediate impact  a l l s i x books of V i r g i d e m i a e . with i t s a r t i s t i c and wealth of f a s c i n a t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n about Marston's  than  restraint  the poet's  society.  works have a power s i m i l a r t o Donne's, but a l a c k  of a r t i s t i c c o n t r o l at times makes them d i f f u s e and transforms personal f e e l i n g into petulance. the f i r s t  Compare these  passages,  from the "Prologue" t o Book I, Virgidemiarvm.  the second from the "Proemivm i n l i b r u m primum" of the  and Scourge:  2 A. S t e i n , "Donne's O b s c u r i t y and the E l i z a b e t h a n T r a d i t i o n , " ELH, X I I I (June 1946), 105-  109 Goe And  d a r i n g Muse on with thy thanklesse do the v g l y f a c e of v i c e vnmaskes  taske,  Marston's n a r r a t o r s n a r l s a warning: Quake g u z z e l l dogs, t h a t H u e on putred s l i m e , Skud from the lashes of my y e r k i n g rime. Donne's "S,atyre I I I " begins  i n t h i s manner:  Kinde p i t t y chokes my Those teares t o i s s u e I must not laugh, nor Can r a i l i n g then cure To conclude, those  spleene; brave s c o r n f o r b i d s which swell my e y e - l i d s ; weepe s i n n e s , and be wise, these worne maladies?  Donne's works are s u p e r i o r as poems t o  of h i s contemporaries, but the f i n e balance  of moral  i n d i g n a t i o n and detached contempt shown i n Virgidemiae i s the most p u r e l y s a t i r i c a l achievement, c r e a t i n g a d i s t o r t e d world however, i n my  as a v e h i c l e f o r s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . o p i n i o n , has  been underestimated.  Marston, I f the  h y s t e r i c a l tone that h i s n a r r a t o r . adopts i n c e r t a i n moods were f u r t h e r modulated, the power manifested o r g a n i z a t i o n of b r i e f sermons and  In the  the d r a m a t i z a t i o n  g e n e r a l s i n s with a b a t t e r y of stock c h a r a c t e r s and evoking  a world  from which Right Reason has  been  would make the Scourge the most e f f e c t i v e of the formal  satires.  of situations,  banished, Elizabethan  110  LIST  OF VifORKS C O N S U L T E D  Books and Chapters i n Books  Adams, Robert Martin. Literary Openness.  Strains of Discord: New York, 1958.  Studies In  Alden, Raymond MacDonald. The Rise of Formal Satire i n England Under C l a s s i c a l Influence. University of Pennsylvania Series i n Philology. Literature and Archaology. V I I . No. 2 [[Philadelphia.] 1899. reprinted  1961.  Allen, Charles A., and George D. Stephens, eds. S a t i r e : Theory and Practice . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , 1962. Allen, Morse &.  1920.  Alvarez, A l f r e d .  The Satire of John Marston".  The S,chool of Donne.  Columbus,Ohio,  London,  1961.  Axelrad, A. Jose'. Un Malcontent Ellzabethaln: John Marston (1576-1634). P a r i s , 1955Babb, Lawrence. The Elizabethan Malady: A Study of Melancholia i n English Literature from 1580 to 1642. East Lansing, 1951. Bennett, Joan. Four Metaphysical Poets: Donne, Herbert. Vaughan. Crashaw. 2nd ed ., Cambridge £~ Eng.J, 1953. Boas, F. S..  An Introduction to Stuart Drama.  London, 1946.  Burke, F i d e l i a n . Metrical Roughness i n Marston's Formal S a t i r e . Washington, D. C , 1957.  Ill Bush, Douglas. E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n the E a r l i e r Seventeenth Century. 1 6 0 0 - 1 6 6 0 . 2 n d . ed., r e v i s e d . The Oxford H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . IV. Oxford, 1962. . Mythology and the Renaissance T r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y . 2nd ed.,New York, 1 9 6 3 . ' Campbell, Oscar James. Comical S a t y r e and Shakespeare's " T r o i l u s and Cress i d aT" S.an Marino, C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 8 . C a p u t i , Anthony. 1961.  John Marston. S a t i r i s t . I t h a c a , New York,  Donne, John. The Complete P o e t r y and S e l e c t e d Prose of John Donne, ed. Charles M. C o f f i n . New York, 1 9 5 2 . The Poems o f John Donne, ed. Herbert J . C. G r i e r s o n . 2 v o l s . Oxford, 1 9 1 2 . E l i o t , T. S. "John Marston," New York, 1 9 5 6 .  Essays on E l i z a b e t h a n Drama,  "The M e t a p h y s i c a l P o e t s , " new ed.,New York, 1 9 5 0 . E l l i s - F e r m o r , Una. The Jacobean Drama: 3 r d ed., revised', London, 1953* Fausset, Hugh L A n s o n . London, 1924. f  Ford, B o r i s , ed.  John Donne:  S e l e c t e d Essays,  An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  A Study i n D i s c o r d .  The Age o f Shakespeare.  Penguin Books, 1 9 5 5 .  Gosse, Edmund. The L i f e and L e t t e r s of John Donne, Dean of S t . Paul's. 2 v o l s . London, I899. • H a l l , Joseph. The C o l l e c t e d Poems of Joseph H a l l . Bishop o f Exeter and Norwich, ed. Arnold Davenport. L i v e r p o o l , 1949.  112 .. Heaven vpon E a r t h and Characters of Vertves and V i c e s , ed. Rudolf K i r k . Rutgers S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , No.6, New Brunswick, New J e r s e y , 1948. H a r r i s o n , G. B., ed. The Scourge of V i l l a n i e . by John Marston. London: The Bodley Head Quartos, No.13, 1925. Henderson, S,. H. "Neo-Stoic I n f l u e n c e on E l i z a b e t h a n Formal Verse S a t i r e , " Studies i n E n g l i s h Renaissance L i t e r a t u r e , ed. W. F. McNeir. Baton Rouge, L o u i s i a n a , 1962. Highet, G i l b e r t .  1962.  The Anatomy o f S a t i r e . P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y ,  Hunt, C l a y . Donne's Poetry: New Haven, 1954.  Essays i n L i t e r a r y  Analysis. '  Johnson, Samuel. "Cowley," L i v e s o f the E n g l i s h Poets, ed. George Birl&eck H i l l . 3 v o l s . Oxford, 1905. Kernan, A l v i n . The Cankered Muse: S a t i r e of the E n g l i s h Renaissance. Yale S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , V o l . 142. New Haven,  195^ Keynes, G e o f f r e y . A B i b l i o g r a p h y of Dr. John Donne. Dean of S a i n t P a u l ' s . 3rd ed.,Cambridge [ E n g . 1 9 5 8 . K i n l o c h , Tom. F. London, 1951.  The L i f e and Works of Joseph H a l l . 1574-1656.  Leishman, J . B. The M e t a p h y s i c a l P o e t s : Vaughan. Traherne. Oxford, 1934. .. Comparative  Donne. H e r b e r t .  The Monarch of Wit: An A n a l y t i c a l and Study of John Donne. London, 1951.  .., ed. The Three Parnassus P l a y s (1598-1601) London, 1949.  113 Lewis, C. 3. English Literature i n the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama. The Oxford History of English L i t e r a t u r e , Vol. I I I . Oxford, 1954. Marston, John. The Poems of John Marston. ed. Arnold Davenport. Liverpool, 1961. M i l l e r , Edward Haviland. The Professional Writer In Elizabethan England: A Study of Nondramatic L i t e r a t u r e . Cambridge ["Mass.j, 1959. Nichols, John. Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century. 6 v o l s . London, 1812. Peter, John. Complaint Oxford, 1 9 5 ^  and Satire i n Early English Literature,  Sharp, Robert L. From Donne to Dryden: The Revolt Against Metaphysical Poetry. University of North Carolina Press, 1940. Simpson, Percy.  Studies i n Elizabethan Drama.  Oxford, 1955.  S-mith, H a l l e t t . Elizabethan Poetry:: A Study i n Conventions. Meaning and Expression. Cambridge [ Mass .J, 1952. Spencer, Theodore, ed. A Garland f o r John Donne. 1631-1931. Cambridge [ M a s s . J ,  1931.  Swardson, H. R. Poetry and the Fountain of Light. Columbia, Missouri, 1962. Tate, J . 0. A. Reactionary Essays on Poetry and Ideas. York & London, 1936. T i l l y a r d , E. M. 1.  New  The Elizabethan World Picture. London, 1952.  114  White, Helen C. The M e t a p h y s i c a l Poets: A Study i n R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e . New York, 1936. W i l l e y , B a s i l . The Seventeenth Century New York, 1953.  Background.  W i l l i a m s o n , George. The Donne T r a d i t i o n : A Study i n E n g l i s h Poetry from Donne t o the Death of Cowley. Cambridge fMass,1,  1930.  L  .  The Proper Wit of P o e t r y .  J  Chicago, 1961.  Periodical Articles A l l e n , Don Cameron. "The Degeneration of Man and Renaissance Pessimism," S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y . XXXV (1938), 202-227. "Three Notes on Donne's P o e t r y With a S i d e Glance at O t h e l l o . " Modern Language Notes. LXV (1950),  102-106.  Andreasen, N. J . C. "Theme and S t r u c t u r e i n Donne's S a t y r e s . " S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . I l l (1963), 59-75. Beckwith, E . A. "On the H a l l - M a r s t o n C o n t r o v e r s y , " J o u r n a l of E n g l i s h and Germanic P h i l o l o g y . XXV (1926), 84-89. Bennet, R. E . "John Donne and E v e r a r d G u i l p i n , " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s . XV (1939), 66-72.  Review o f  Bewdley, M. "The R e l i g i o u s C y n i c i s m of Donne's P o e t r y , " Kenyon Review. XIV (1952), 619-646. B r e t t l e , R. E . "John Marston, D r a m a t i s t , S.ome New Facts about H i s L i f e , " Modern Language Review, XXII (1927), 7 - 1 4 .  115 • . "John Marston, Dramatist, at Oxford," Review of English Studies. I l l (1927), 398-405. . "Marston Born i n Oxfordshire," Language Review. XXII (1927), 317-319.  Modern  Chew, Audrey. "Joseph H a l l and John Milton," ELH, XVII (1950), 274-295. . "Joseph H a l l and Neo-Stoicism,» PMLA.LXV (Dec. 1950), 1130-45. Cobb, L u c i l l e S.. XV (1956), 8.  "Donne's 'Satyre I I , 4 9 - 5 7 . "E x p l i c a t o r . 1  . "Donne's 'Satyre I I , ' 71-72," Expllcator, XIV (March 1956), 40. Crofts, J . E. V. "John Donne," Essays and Studies by Members of the English A s s o c i a t i o n XXII (1937), 128-143. Cross, G. "Marston s_, 'Metamorphosis of Pigmalions Image': A Mock-Epyllion," Etudes Anglaises. XIII ( i 9 6 0 ) , 331-336. 1  Davenport, A. "Interfused Sources i n Hall's S a t i r e s , " Review of English Studies. XVIII (1942), 208-213. . "The Quarrel of the S a t i r i s t s , " Language Review. XXXVII (1942), 123-130.  Modern  . "Some Notes on References to Joseph H a l l i n Marston's S a t i r e s , " Review of English Studies. IX (1933) 192-196. Douds, J . B. "Donne's Technique of Dissonance," (Dec. 1937), 1051-61.  PMLA, L I I  116 E l i o t , T. S. "Reflections March 3 , 1917.  on Vers L i b r e , "  New Statesman.  Empson, W. "Donne and The Rhetorical T r a d i t i o n , " Review. XI (1949), 571-587.  Kenyon  Foakes, R. A. "John Marston s Fantastical Plays: Antonio and Mellida and Antonio's Revenge." P h i l o l o g i c a l Quarterly. XLI (1962), 229-239" 1  Grierson, H. J . C. "Donne's Satyres, I I , 71-73," Literary Supplement. March 6, 1930, p. 190. "Donniana," (April 1914), 237-239.  Times  Modern Language Review, IX  "John Donne and the Via Media," Language Review. XLIII (1948), 305-314.  Modern  Hagopian, J . V. "A D i f f i c u l t Crux i n Donne's Satyre I I . " Modern Language Notes. LXXIII (1958), 255-257. H a l l , V., J r . "Donne's 'Satyre II ' XV (1956), 24.  71-72,"  Explicator.  Harding, D. W. "Coherence of Theme i n Donne's Poetry," Kenyon Review. XIII (1951), 427-444. Harrison, G.B. "Donne's S a t i r e s , " May 24, 1937, p. 412.  Times L i t e r a r y Supplement.  Higgins, M. "The Convention of the Stoic Hero as Handled by Marston," Modern Language Review. XXXIX (1944), 338346. Jack, Ian. "Pope and 'the weighty b u l l i o n of Dr. Donne's S a t i r e s ' , " PMXA, LXVI ( 1 9 5 D , 1009-22.  117 Johnson, B.  "Classical Allusions  i n the P o e t r y of Donne,"  PMLA, X L I I I (Dec. 1928), 1098-1109.  Johnson, S.. F.  (June  "Donne's S a t i r e s . I , "  1953), 1.  Explicator.  Knights, L. C. "Seventeenth Century Melancholy," C r i t e r i o n . X I I I (1933), 97-112. Lewis, E. G l y n . "Donne's T h i r d S a t y r e , " Supplement. Sept. 6, 1934, p. 604.  255-258.  The  Times L i t e r a r y  _. Times L i t e r a r y Supplement. S e p t . 27,  John Donne,"  XI  1934,  p.655.  "The Question of T o l e r a t i o n i n the Works of Modern Language Review. XXXIII ( A p r i l 1938),  L i n d s a y , Jack. "Donne and Drant," August 28, 1934, p. 577.  Times L i t e r a r y Supplement.  "Donne's T h i r d S a t y r e , " Supplement. Sept. 20, 1934, p. 636.  Times L i t e r a r y  Mabbott, Thomas O l l i v e . "Donne's Satyre I I , 71-72," E x p l i c a t o r . XVI (Dec. 1957), 19. M i l e s , Josephine. "The Language of the Donne T r a d i t i o n , " Kenyon Review. X I I I (1952), 37-49. M i l l i g a n , B. " S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth Century S a t i r e against G r a i n E n g r o s s e r s , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , XXXVII  (1940), 585-597.  Nethercot, A r t h u r H. "The R e p u t a t i o n of John Donne as a Metrist," Sewanee Review. XXX (1922),463-474.  118 Anon. "The Oxford Donne," 6, 1930, p. 96.  Times Literary Supplement. Feb.  Pinkus, P. "Satire and S t . George," LXX (1963), 30-49.  Queen's Quarterly.  Presson, R. K. "Marston's Dutch Courtezan: The Study of an Attitude i n Adaptation," Journal of English and Germanic Philology. LV (1956), 406-413. Randolph, Mary C l a i r e . "The Biledical Concept i n English Renaissance S a t i r i c Theory: Its Possible Relationships and Implications," Studies i n Philology. XXXVIII (1941), 127-159.  Satire,"  "The S t r u c t u r a l Design of the Formal Verse P h i l o l o g i c a l Quarterly. XXI (1942), 368-384.  Salyer, S. M. "Hall's Satires and the Harvey-Kashe Controversy," Studies i n Philology. XXV (1928), 149-170. . "Renaissance Influences i n Hall's Mundus Alter et Idem." P h i l o l o g i c a l Quarterly. VI (1927), 321-334. Schoenbaum, S. 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