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A study of the acceleration programme at West Vancouver Senior High School Cullis, Harry E. 1963

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A STUDY OF THE ACCELERATION PROGRAMME AT WEST VANCOUVER SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL HARRY E. CULLIS B.Sc. Hons U n i v e r s i t y of Durham, 19^0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C^\, C*v"7*S <^y The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ABSTRACT The West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme was s t a r t e d i n 1955 under the d i r e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f E d u c a t i o n . I t was p a r t of an experiment c a r r i e d out i n three separate s c h o o l s , t o see i f some of the top academic students c o u l d complete the r e g u l a r High School c u r r i c u l u m , Grades 9-12, i n three i n s t e a d of f o u r y e a r s . The 'above average students' were grouped i n t o s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n which both a c c e l e r a t i o n and en-richment took p l a c e . In t h i s context, the 'above average students' were those students whose I.Q. was 113 or b e t t e r and who had achieved c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h r e s u l t s i n the academic s u b j e c t s E n g l i s h , Mathematics, S o c i a l S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e . The q u e s t i o n asked was: Have the a c c e l e r a t e d students at West Vancouver Senior High School a t t a i n e d an academic standard i n t hree years as h i g h as that a t t a i n e d by a matched group of r e g u l a r programme students i n four y e a r s ? The experimental group c o n s i s t e d of two d i v i s i o n s o f a c c e l e r a t e d students at the Grade 12 l e v e l , who covered the l a s t f o u r years of the r e g u l a r High School programme i n three y e a r s , completing i t i n 1958. The c o n t r o l group i i was drawn from the two top d i v i s i o n s of the r e g u l a r Grade 12 students who were of comparable a b i l i t y to the a c c e l -e r a t e d s t u d e n t s , and who would probably have been on the " A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme" had i t commenced one year e a r l i e r . The marks used f o r comparison purposes were those obtained i n the 1958 i n t e r n a l E a s t e r examinations. The two groups were matched f o r I.Q. and the comparison c a r r i e d out on a s u b j e c t b a s i s . In Mathematics a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the marks o b t a i n e d was found i n favour of the a c c e l e r a t e d group. In P h y s i c s , French and L a t i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. I t was concluded t h a t i n general the a c c e l e r a t e d students achieved an academic standard i n three years as h i g h as the r e g u l a r programme students achieved i n f o u r y e a r s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I - THE PROBLEM AND ITS PLACE IN THE EDUCATION OF THE GIFTED . . . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . The Problem. , . . . The West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme. O u t l i n e of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . A Survey of the L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerning the E d u c a t i o n o f the above average student . Post World War II p r o v i s i o n s f o r the above average student. . I m p l i c a t i o n s at the High School l e v e l . . . Why the Problem i s Important . . CHAPTER II - THE DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT . . . The Students under i n v e s t i g a t i o n Source of Data . Matching procedures. . . Treatment of the Data. . . . . . . .. . . . CHAPTER I I I - THE RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . Achievement i n Mathematics . . . . . . . . Achievement i n P h y s i c s , French and L a t i n . Achievement i n E n g l i s h . Summary of R e s u l t s . . CHAPTER IV - SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY . . APPENDIX - Tables VI - XIX g i v i n g the Data and the Determination of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e Between the Means f o r the marks ob t a i n e d i n Each Subject f i e l d . . . LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I - I. Q. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Students i n the Experimental ( A c c e l e r a t e d Group) and the C o n t r o l (Regular Group) f o r Mathematics and P h y s i c s . . . . 27 II - Number of Students i n the Matched Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 I I I - Det e r m i n a t i o n of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e Between the Means f o r Mathematics SI. . . . . . i . . 31 IV - Dete r m i n a t i o n of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e Between the Means f o r L a t i n 92 and French 9 2 . . . * . 32 V - Determination o f the S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e between the Means f o r the three E n g l i s h Examinations. 33 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS PLACE IN THE EDUCATION OF THE GIFTED INTRODUCTION The ' g i f t e d c h i l d ' i s "one who shows c o n s i s t e n t l y -remarkable performance i n any worthwhile l i n e of endeavour."^ T h i s i s a broad d e f i n i t i o n and i n c l u d e s not o n l y the i n t e l -l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d , but a l s o those who show great promise i n music, a r t , w r i t i n g , drama, mechanical s k i l l s and s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p . I t extends the g i f t e d group from 2% - 5fo of the student p o p u l a t i o n who are i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d to approximately 20%. Are the s c h o o l s c h a l l e n g i n g the g i f t e d student to develop his c a p a b i l i t i e s to the f u l l , whether they be i n t e l l e c t u a l or n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l ? Many e d u c a t i o n -i s t s and p a r e n t s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n t h i n k the schools are n o t . For the purpose of t h i s study i t i s assumed that every p u p i l has the r i g h t to the k i n d of e d u c a t i o n which w i l l h e l p him to develop f u l l y h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . There-f o r e , as s t a t e d by the committee that undertook the School and C o l l e g e Study of General E d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , "to develop an e d u c a t i o n s u i t e d to the e x c e p t i o n a l needs Robert J . H a v i g h u r s t , John Hersey, M o r r i s M e i s t e r , W i l l i a m H. Cornog and Lewis M. Terman, "The Importance of E d u c a t i o n f o r The G i f t e d " E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . The F i f t y - s e v e n t h Yearbook of The N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I . (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958), p. 19. 2 and c a p a c i t i e s of our a b l e s t students i s one of the n a t i o n ' s p most urgent problems." T h i s statement i s e q u a l l y t r u e f o r Canada as i t i s f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the growing awareness of the needs of the g i f t e d students on the North American c o n t i n e n t . In 1955, a l e t t e r was sent to the parents of the more able students i n three B r i t i s h Columbia School D i s t r i c t s . I t s t a t e d that the P r o v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n wished to c a r r y out an experiment i n a few c e n t r a l areas i n the P r o v i n c e , to see i f c e r t a i n of the f a s t l e a r n i n g students c o u l d complete the r e g u l a r High School c u r r i c u l u m Grades 9-12 i n l e s s than f o u r y e a r s . One area chosen was P e n t i c t o n , which i s l a r g e l y a g r i c u l t u r a l , and which i s served by one J u n i o r - S e n i o r High S c h o o l . The other two areas were Oak Bay, V i c t o r i a and West Vancouver, b o t h r e s i d e n t i a l c i t y suburbs w i t h separate J u n i o r High and Senior High Schools. At ?/est Vancouver, two d i v i s i o n s were formed from the b e t t e r students of the 1955 Grade 9 group and these attended the Senior High School. S e l e c t i o n was made c h i e f l y on the b a s i s of i n t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e -ment. The f i r s t a c c e l e r a t e d group was not o p e r a t i o n a l u n t i l almost Christmas so that i t was handicapped by a l a t e s t a r t . T h i s programme of a c c e l e r a t i o n i n v o l v e d keeping the 2The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , B r i d g i n g the Gap between School and C o l l e g e . ( E v a l u a t i o n Report No. 1. New York: The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , 1953), P. 3 . 3 students t o g e t h e r as a c l a s s and having them take, i n the main, the same b a s i c s u b j e c t s . During the f i r s t three years o f the experiment, the four year courses c o v e r i n g Grades 9-12 were: re-designed to f i t i n t o a three year span. In 1959 Grade 13 was added, and students were f r e e t o remain at s c h o o l f o r t h i s e x t r a year or proceed to U n i v e r s i t y . The number remaining at school was 25 i n 1959 and 3° i n i960. The problem which presented i t s e l f was to e v a l u a t e the ' A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme' and. p o s s i b l y i n the l i g h t of such an e v a l u a t i o n to seek improvements. THE PROBLEM E v a l u a t i o n of the programme appeared d i f f i c u l t because no i n i t i a l c o n t r o l group was set up a g a i n s t which the progress of the a c c e l e r a t e d student c o u l d be measured. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was apparent that when the f i r s t group of a c c e l e r a t e d students reached the Grade 12 l e v e l they would be competing a c a d e m i c a l l y on equal terms w i t h r e g u l a r students one year t h e i r s e n i o r . T h i s o c c u r r e d i n 1958, the t h i r d year of the experiment. In t h a t year a comparison of academic attainment appeared p o s s i b l e between the a c c e l e r -a t e d and r e g u l a r s t u d e n t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n asked was: Have the a c c e l e r a t e d students at West Vancouver Senior High School a t t a i n e d an academic standard i n t h r e e years as h i g h as t n a t a t t a i n e d by a matched group of r e g u l a r programme students i n f o u r y e a r s ? It should be emphasized that the year 1958 was the o n l y year i n which such a comparison was p o s s i b l e . Only then were there two comparable groups o f h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , the one completing the l a s t four years o f High School i n three years, and the other completing High School i n the r e g u l a r f o u r year p e r i o d . As a means of a t t a c k i n g t h i s problem the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was used, namely, That t h e r e was no tr u e d i f f e r e n c e i n academic s t a n d i n g , as measured by school achievement t e s t s , between the a c c e l e r a t e d students at the end of t h e i r t hree year High School Programme, and a matched group of r e g u l a r students at the end of t h e i r f o u r year High School Programme. THE WEST VANCOUVER ACCELERATION PROGRAMME The West Vancouver " A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme" i s something of a misnomer. In order to make q u i t e c l e a r what i s meant by the term " A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme" as used, i n t h i s t h e s i s , the terms a c c e l e r a t i o n , enrichment, s p e c i a l grouping and above average student must be d e f i n e d . A c c e l e r a t i o n : Passow s t a t e s "Any m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a r e g u l a r program can be co n s i d e r e d a c c e l e r a t i o n i f i t enables the student t o progress more r a p i d l y and to complete a program i n l e s s time or at an e a r l i e r age than 5 normal. " 3 Laycock says a c c e l e r a t i o n "assumes t h a t the g i f t e d c h i l d should have the same c u r r i c u l u m as average p u p i l s hut that he can absorb i t at a f a s t e r r a t e . " ^ For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s a c c e l e r a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : A c c e l e r a t i o n i s p r o g r e s s through a standard e d u c a t i o n a l programme as taken by the m a j o r i t y of students, at r a t e s f a s t e r or at ages younger than c o n v e n t i o n a l . Enricliment: A c c o r d i n g t o Laycock, enrichment i s based on the view "that the g i f t e d c h i l d needs a d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m from the average. " 5 C u t t s and Moseley s t a t e "the purpose of enrichment i s not to r e p l a c e the c u r r i c u l u m but to add to i t . " ^ Those who work w i t h the g i f t e d i n the C l e v e l a n d Major Work C l a s s e s have formu-l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n , "enrichment i s the best t h i n g we know about t e a c h i n g to meet the i n d i v i d u a l needs 3A. Harry Passow, "Enrichment of E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . The F i f t y -s eventh Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I . (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958) p. 2 1 2 . ^Samuel E. Laycock, G i f t e d C h i l d r e n , (Toronto: The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1957) P. H . 5 I b i d . , p. 3 2 . ^Norma E. C u t t s , N i c h o l a s Moseley, Teaching  the B r i g h t and G i f t e d . ( P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., 1957) P. 7 1 . 6 of these ( g i f t e d ) students."7 F u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n shows th a t the r e g u l a r course of study as set up f o r the average c h i l d , was the b a s i s of the C l e v e l a n d Major Work C l a s s e s . The enrichment was l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the t e a c h e r . For t h i s t h e s i s enrichment w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Enrichment r e t a i n s both the normal r a t e of p r o g r e s s through the grade s t r u c t u r e and the s t a n d a r d c u r r i c u l u m designed f o r the average, and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t e a c h i n g procedure which m o d i f i e s or adds to the standard c u r r i c u l u m seeking always to meet the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l students. S p e c i a l Groupings: T h i s i n v o l v e s s e p a r a t i n g the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n from t h e i r slower class-mates e i t h e r f o r a l l or p a r t of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s e f f e c t e d by grouping students homogeneously i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , or s p e c i a l s c h o o l s , by 'streaming, 1 by honour c l a s s e s or by s p e c i a l seminars. The Above Average Student: W o r c e s t e r ' s 0 d e f i n i t i o n of the above average student as a c h i l d w i t h 7Dorothy E. N o r r i s , "Programs i n the Elementary Schools," E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . The F i f t y - s e v e n t h Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , P a r t - I I . (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958) p. 2 2 5 . ^D. A. Worcester, The E d u c a t i o n of C h i l d r e n  of Above Average M e n t a l i t y . ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska, 1955) P. 1. 7 an I.Q. of 115 or more w i l l be taken as a rough guide. U s i n g the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t Test of i n t e l l i g e n c e and assuming a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t h a mean, and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 100 and 16 r e s p e c t i v e l y , a p p r o x i -mately 17% of the student p o p u l a t i o n f a l l s i n t o t h i s category. T h i s agrees c l o s e l y w i t h the percentage of the student p o p u l a t i o n on the West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Pro-gramme. However, t h i s percentage has been d e c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y over the years as the student p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d , and the number on the programme kept a p p r o x i -mately the same. Students on the " A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme" w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as 'above average students' and not as ' g i f t e d ' s t u d e n t s . C e r t a i n l y the a c c e l e r a t e d students c o n s t i t u t e a much, l a r g e r group than the 2f0 - 5% n o r m a l l y c l a s s e d as i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d . F u r t h e r , as s e l e c t i o n i s based c h i e f l y on I.Q. and academic achievements, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e the l a r g e r group of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who are 'those who show remarkable performance i n any worthwhile l i n e o f endeavour.' The A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be c o n s i d e r e d to c a t e r to the 'above average s t u d e n t , 1 d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : The 'above average s t u d e n t 1 i s one whose average I.Q. as measured by two'Dominion Tests'9 i s 113 or b e t t e r and who has 9Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l Sesearch, Ontario C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, Group Test  o f L e a r n i n g C a p a c i t y . ( B r i t i s h Columbia E d i t i o n -Advanced Form B) P r i n t e d by The Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 8 c o n s i s t e n t l y achieved an A or B grade i n the academic s u b j e c t s E n g l i s h , Mathematics, S o c i a l S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e . From the beginning o f the experiment a c c e l e r a t i o n was not c o n s i d e r e d the complete answer f o r the e d u c a t i o n of the above average student. Rather, the aim was to develop a programme s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r these students, so t h a t they c o u l d proceed at t h e i r n a t u r a l pace. I n s o f a r as the n a t u r a l pace o f such students i s f a s t e r than average, a c c e l e r a t i o n must occur. I n s o f a r as the normal courses have been adapted and i n c e r t a i n cases re-designed to meet the needs o f these students enrichment i s p r a c -t i s e d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s have not p e r m i t t e d the f u l l development of s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a , but p r o g r e s s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n has been continuous. The main l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s the f i n a l Departmental Examinations, which are based on the r e g u l a r courses and which even the a c c e l e r a t e d students must w r i t e f o r s c h o l a r s h i p purposes. A separate s c h o l a r s h i p examination might w e l l remove t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . In the f i r s t year of the programme (Regular Grade 9) there a,re two d i v i s i o n s of a c c e l e r a t e d s t u d e n t s . T h i s permits the formation of two a c c e l e r a t e d streams i n the second and t h i r d y e a r s , the one t a k i n g e x t r a s c i e n c e and the other e x t r a language. U s u a l l y two languages are taken i n the f i r s t year, which may be chosen from L a t i n , French, and sometimes German. The second language may "be 9 dropped i n c e r t a i n cases, and Home Economics, I n d u s t r i a l A r t s or A r t taken i n s t e a d . H e a l t h and Pe r s o n a l Development and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n are taken hy a l l students d u r i n g the f i r s t two y e a r s . In the second and t h i r d year the t h r e e separate s c i e n c e s may be completed w i t h one language, or two s c i e n c e s w i t h two languages or i n e x c e p t i o n a l c i r -cumstances, one s c i e n c e w i t h t h r e e languages. The number of majors taken i s u s u a l l y f i v e and sometimes s i x . A l a r g e number of the students w r i t e f o r Departmental s c h o l a r s h i p s at the end of Grade 12. For a complete understanding of the programme, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of the separate s u b j e c t f i e l d s would have to be g i v e n , but t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Summarizing, i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme i s the grouping o f the above average students i n t o s p e c i a l c l a s s e s so t h a t both e n r i c h -ment and a c c e l e r a t i o n may take p l a c e . OUTLINE OF THE STUDY The h i s t o r y of the e d u c a t i o n of the above average student i s f i r s t s t u d i e d . The purpose here i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , such a study enables the West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme to be viewed i n i t s proper s e t t i n g . Secondly, the weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s of the programme 10 can be determined i n the l i g h t of past experience. In Cha.pter I I the methods used f o r a t t a c k i n g the problem are given. The r e s u l t s of the comparison of the academic achievements of the a c c e l e r a t e d students and the r e g u l a r programme students are set out i n Chapter I I I . F i n a l l y , the main p o i n t s are summarized and the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn i n Chapter IV. The t a b l e s which form the b a s i s of the t h e s i s are produced i n f u l l i n the Appendix. A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE P l a t o conceived h i s i d e a l s t a t e as be i n g l e d by p h i l o s o p h e r - k i n g s , who possessed the g r e a t e s t measure of r a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . The P l a t o n i c c o n c e p t i o n of t a l e n t became f i r m l y r o o t e d i n Western c i v i l i z a t i o n w i t h the advent of the Renaissance. T y p i c a l of the strong i n f l u e n c e of Renaissance humanism i n ed u c a t i o n are the E n g l i s h Grammar School and the French Lycee. The stand was taken " t h a t n o t h i n g good e n t e r s i n t o the human world except i n and through the f r e e a c t i v i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l men and women, and. that e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e must be shaped to acc o r d w i t h t h a t t r u t h . " 1 0 In p r a c t i c e E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n 1 0 S i r Percy Wunn, Edu c a t i o n : i t s d a t a and  f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s , (London: Edward A r n o l d and Co., 1930) P. 5 . 11 has recognized the special needs of the more able students f o r more than a century. The emphasis has been on special gfoupings of those students usually into separate schools, where special c u r r i c u l a and teaching methods have been designed for them. The provisions for these students have increased over the years and were extended by the 1 9 ^ Education Act to provide free Grammar School education for approximately the top twenty percent of the school population. When immigrants flooded into America towards the end of the nineteenth century an important role of education was the a s s i m i l a t i o n of new Americans into the national society. This role of education continued to be an important one, but the emphasis s h i f t e d to that of producing 'the whole man1 and the 'well rounded i n d i -v i d u a l . ' Nevertheless, cer t a i n attention was paid to the more rapid learner and an account of t h i s i s given by Tannenbaum, from which the following information was o b t a i n e d . 1 1 As early as 1868 with the St. Louis programme the academically able were allowed to complete t h e i r f i r s t eight years of schooling in a shorter time, without skipping over any parts of the subject sequence. This ^Abraham J. Tannenbaum, "History of Interest i n The Gifted," Education for the Gifted, The F i f t y -seventh Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II. (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The University of Chicago Press, 1958) pp. 22-38. 12 was an example of the s o - c a l l e d system of f l e x i b l e promotions of which the be s t known was the "Cambridge Double-Track P l a n " developed i n 1891. The 1920's can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p e r i o d when s c h o o l s s u b s t i t u t e d s p e c i a l groupings f o r a c c e l e r a t i o n . S t r a i g h t a c c e l e r a t i o n of the more able student through the normal course of s t u d i e s was thought to n e g l e c t the c a p a c i t i e s of such students f o r broader and deeper under-s t a n d i n g s . H o l l i n g w o r t h 1 s experiments i n New York C i t y convinced her f o l l o w e r s t h a t c r e a t i n g an e n r i c h e d programme f o r the g i f t e d i n the elementary grades was more s u i t e d to t h e i r needs than t e l e s c o p i n g the c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b j e c t matter. As a r e s u l t of these experiments, New York C i t y o r g a n i z e d s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n s e l e c t e d elementary schools and Los Angeles s t a r t e d i t s 'opp o r t u n i t y c l a s s e s . ' In the 1930's and the war years, there was a swing away from enrichment i n s p e c i a l groupings t o en-richment i n the r e g u l a r classroom. Tannenbaum w r i t e s "Support f o r the b a t t l e to keep the g i f t e d i n the r e g u l a r classroom came from s p e c i a l i s t s i n c h i l d study who con-s i d e r e d i t impossible to e f f e c t homogeneous grouping even on the b a s i s of a b i l i t y a l o n e . " 1 2 In r e t r o s p e c t i t i s 12lbid.. p. 33-34. 13 e v i d e n t t h a t keeping the g i f t e d i n the r e g u l a r classroom p l a c e d an almost impossible t a s k on the classroom teacher. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONCERNING THE EDUCATION OF THE ABOVE AVERAGE STUDENT Two great c o n t r i b u t o r s to the s c i e n t i f i c study of the g i f t e d were Terman and H o l l i n g w o r t h . Terman and h i s S t a n f o r d a s s o c i a t e s commenced t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s i n 1921 u s i n g about 1,50° C a l i f o r n i a c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s were continued f o r more than t h i r t y y e a r s . Three of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s as summar-i z e d by Terman and Oden were: 1. "The school records i n general have been s u p e r i o r at a l l edu-c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , but a good many of the s u b j e c t s have f a i l e d to achieve i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . Of the numerous causes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such f a i l u r e , one of the most important has been the absence of e d u c a t i o n a l procedures adapted to c h i l d r e n of excep-t i o n a l a b i l i t y . " 2. "The p r o g n o s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of a s u p e r i o r I.Q. has been e s t a b -l i s h e d beyond a l l q u e s t i o n . " 3. " F i n a l l y , we have suggested a number of ways i n which the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n can be more f u l l y r e a l i z e d by home and school t r a i n i n g . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n we have e s p e c i a l l y emphasized the importance of 1^ c u r r i c u l u m enrichment, s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , v o c a t i o n a l guidance, and a g r e a t e r amount of s c h o o l a c c e l e r a t i o n . " 1 3 H o l l i n g w o r t h was a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t and educator who began her work w i t h s u p e r i o r c h i l d r e n i n 1916. Much of her work c o n s i s t e d of experiments w i t h the " S p e c i a l Opportunity C l a s s e s , " at P u b l i c School 165, and the 'Terman C l a s s e s ' at P u b l i c School 5°°> both i n Few York.1**" The c l a s s e s were made up of c h i l d r e n of I.Q. 130 and above, as f a r as p o s s i b l e homogeneously grouped. She s t a t e d " r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the s p e c i a l c l a s s does not produce as p e r s o n a l i t y handicaps, e i t h e r c o n c e i t , poor h e a l t h or s o c i a l i n a d a p t a b i l i t y . . . . The s p e c i a l c l a s s does s o l v e the problem of how to p r o v i d e both a p p r o p r i a t e work and a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l c ontact w i t h c l a s s m a t e s . " 1 ^ H o l l i n g w o r t h ' s work was concerned w i t h elementary school c h i l d r e n , and i n g e n e r a l , h a l f of the school day was devoted to p r e s c r i b e d elementary school s u b j e c t s and the remaining h a l f to enrichment a c t i v i t i e s . 13Lewis M. Terman and M e l i t a H. Oden, "The S t a n f o r d S t u d i e s of the G i f t e d , " The G i f t e d C h i l d . The American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . Ed. Paul W i t t y , (Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1951) pp. k5-k6. l % I i r i a m C. P r i t c h a r d , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n s of L e t a S. H o l l i n g w o r t h to the Study of the G i f t e d , " The  G i f t e d C h i l d . The American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . Ed. Paul W i t t y , (Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1951) PP. ^7-35. 15lbid., p. 54. 15 The s t u d i e s of Terman and H o l l i n g w o r t h were the f o r e r u n n e r s of a spate of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the e d u c a t i o n of the g i f t e d student. From the volumes of r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h a c c e l e r a t i o n Passow has l i s t e d the major i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and f i n d i n g s , a n d concluded "The weight of experimental evidence tends to support the p o s i t i o n o f academic gains through a c c e l e r a t i o n of the g i f t e d student at a l l l e v e l s . Research i n t o the e f f e c t s o f a c c e l e r a t i o n on s o c i a l and emotional adjustment has' g e n e r a l l y demonstrated no s e r i o u s d e t r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s . " 1 7 POST WORLD WAR II PROVISIONS FOR THE ABOVE AVERAGE STUDENT From 1950 onwards an upsurge of i n t e r e s t i n the g i f t e d was apparent. America had entered a s c i e n t i -f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l e r a , which presented problems whose s o l u t i o n was v i t a l to worl d l e a d e r s h i p . Confronted with the c r i t i c a l demands of a changing world, the s p e c i a l problems of educating the g i f t e d were re-examined. Charges of the ' c u l t of m e d i o c r i t y , ' of the ' c o l o u r l e s s mean,' of f a i l u r e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between i d e n t i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l l e a d i n g to conformity, and equal Harry Passow, "Enrichment of E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . The F i f t y -s e v enth Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I . (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958) pp. 215-219. 17ipid., p. 214. 16 e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y l e a d i n g to d i v e r s i t y , were l e v e l l e d at the e d u c a t i o n a l system. Much work was done i n the Elementary Schools hut our main i n t e r e s t l i e s i n Secondary School Programmes, and these o n l y w i l l he con-s i d e r e d h e r e . The Ford Foundation, through The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n which was set up i n 1951, f i n -anced a v a r i e d programme aimed at a t t a c k i n g the problem. The f i r s t p r o j e c t was a j o i n t undertaking by the t h r e e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l s Andover, Exeter and L a w r e n c e v i l i e , 1 8 and the three U n i v e r s i t i e s Harvard, P r i n c e t o n and Y a l e . ° The purpose was "to p l a n the l a s t two years of secondary school and the f i r s t two years of c o l l e g e as a continuous p r o c e s s , c o n c e i v e d as a whole."^9 Included i n the com-m i t t e e ' s r e p o r t was the s u g g e s t i o n that new c u r r i c u l a r arrangements be made, whereby able students c o u l d complete secondary school and c o l l e g e a year sooner than u s u a l . A second p r o j e c t was the Programme f o r E a r l y 20 Admission to C o l l e g e . • Twelve c o l l e g e s undertook to l8The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , B r i d g i n g the Gap between School and C o l l e g e , E v a l u a t i o n Heport No. I. (New York: The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , 1953) PP. 17-19. 1 9 i M d . . pp. 17-18. 20The Fund for the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , They Went to C o l l e g e E a r l y , E v a l u a t i o n Heport No. 2. (New York: The Fund for the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , 1957). 17 admit as freshmen, students under seventeen who had f i n i s h e d t h e i r sophomore or j u n i o r years i n High, School, hut who had not completed work for a diploma. A t h i r d p r o j e c t known as the Advanced Placement Programme 2 1 began i n 1951 as a c o - o p e r a t i v e venture between twelve c o l l e g e s and twelve secondary s c h o o l s . T h i s programme has shown, f a r g r e a t e r growth than the E a r l y Admission Programme. Sin c e 1955, when the C o l l e g e Entrance Board took over a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the programme, i t has expanded e i g h t -f o l d . In i960, 10,331 students took the examinations f o r Advanced Placement and 567 c o l l e g e s now accept students op on t h i s b a s i s . S p e c i a l c o l l e g e - l e v e l courses have been d e v i s e d f o r h i g h s c h o o l use, and students who s a t i s -f a c t o r i l y pass examinations set by the C o l l e g e Entrance Board are g i v e n advanced s t a n d i n g at C o l l e g e . Most h i g h s c h o o l s have found t h a t these courses have p r o v i d e d an unexpected s t i m u l u s to the student body as a whole. For i n s t a n c e , the Westminster Schools i n A t l a n t a , Georgia, a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o l l e g e - l e v e l work found i t n e c e s s a r y to extend a b i l i t y grouping down through a l l grades. 23 The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the West Vancouver 2 1 T h e Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , Decade of Experiment. 1951-1961. (New York: The Fund f o r the Advancement of Education,1961) p. 88. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 88. 2 3 l b i d . , p. 89. 18 A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme lias a l s o extended a b i l i t y grouping down through the grades. T h i s programme i s s i m i l a r to the Advanced Placement Programme i n that c e r t a i n students complete Grade XIII one year e a r l i e r than normal and pro-ceed s t r a i g h t to second year u n i v e r s i t y . A f o u r t h p r o j e c t i s underway i n San Angelo, T e x a s . 2 ^ A f e a t u r e of t h i s p l a n i s the p a r a l l e l develop-ment of t h r e e c u r r i c u l a from the f i r s t to the t w e l f t h grade — f o r the g i f t e d , the average, and below average s t u d e n t s . T h i s appears to be the way i n which the West Vancouver Programme i s d e v e l o p i n g . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , of o u t s t a n d i n g importance t o the e d u c a t i o n of above average students i s the p r o -v i s i o n of s u b j e c t courses ordered and designed to meet t h e i r needs and a b i l i t i e s . The Fund for the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n d e c i d e d "to support the p r e p a r a t i o n of new courses i n p h y s i c s , chemistry, and b i o l o g y . "25 E x t r a -o r d i n a r y advances have been made i n c u r r i c u l u m reform i n the s c i e n c e s and mathematics but l i t t l e as yet has been done i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and humanities. A word of warning appears necessary here. I f attempts are made 2^The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , A Report f o r 1957-1959. (New York: The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , 1959) PP. 39-kO. 25The Fund f o r the Advancement of E d u c a t i o n , Decade of Experiment. 1951-1961. (New York: The Fund f o r the Advancement of Education, 1961) p. 88. 19 to d e s i g n s i n g l e courses to meet the needs of both average and above average h i g h school s t u d e n t s , such courses might w e l l end i n meeting the needs of n e i t h e r group of s t u d e n t s . Even i n the s c i e n c e s no attempt has been made to meet the needs of these two groups of students and c e r t a i n l y t h e i r needs are d i f f e r e n t . In B r i t i s h Columbia at the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , programmes f o r the above average student are being pro-v i d e d at P e n t i c t o n , T r a i l and Vancouver. The Vancouver Programme i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c c e l e r a t i o n and enrichment on a s u b j e c t b a s i s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federa-t i o n Gifted. C h i l d Committee has s t r e s s e d the need f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the present experiments, so t h a t , i n the l i g h t of the f i n d i n g s , a p p r o p r i a t e and c h a l l e n g i n g programmes may be p r o v i d e d f o r a l l above average c h i l d r e n i n the p r o v i n c e . * D IMPLICATIONS AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL I t appears e v i d e n t from t h i s study of the programmes developed f o r the above average student at the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l t h a t : 1. S p e c i a l grouping i s p r e f e r r e d to separate a c c e l e r a t i o n or 2 6 E l s i e 11. P a i n , " A c c e l e r a t i o n and the G i f t e d C h i l d , " The B. C. Teacher. V o l . 38, No. 2, November, 1958. pp. 71-73. 20 enrichment, and that a c c e l e r a t i o n and. enrichment are e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of such s p e c i a l groupings. 2. S p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a s hould be and are b e i n g designed f o r these stu d e n t s , both at the High School and the U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . 3. 'Advanced Placement* i s p r e f e r r e d to ' E a r l y Admission.' With r e f e r e n c e to the West Vancouver e x p e r i -ment, i t has been shown that above average students have been grouped i n t o s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , so that both e n r i c h -ment and a c c e l e r a t i o n may take p l a c e . However, i t has not been p o s s i b l e to develop s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a f o r these s t u d e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r e g u l a r courses have been f r e e l y adapted to meet t h e i r s p e c i a l needs. F u r t h e r , the students are encouraged to s t a y at sc h o o l f o r t h e i r Grade 13 year and are doing so i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers. T h i s arrangement i s i n accord w i t h the evidence presented above, namely, that 'Advanced Placement 1 i s p r e f e r r e d to ' E a r l y A dmission. 1 WHY THE PROBLEM IS IMPORTANT P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower's Science A d v i s o r y Committee s t a t e d i n May, 1959 "yet we recognize t h a t i n a democracy we should p r o v i d e each i n d i v i d u a l w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop h i s own t a l e n t s to the f u l l e s t . I t would be d i f f i c u l t to t h i n k of anything l e s s democratic 21 than a system t h a t s a c r i f i c e s i n any way the s t i m u l a t i o n of the b r i g h t student, e i t h e r to l e a r n more or to pro-gress f a s t e r through the p r e s c r i b e d work."2'' Canadian and American s c h o o l s have operated on the p r i n c i p l e of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l " l o c k s t e p . " A l l students have tended to s t a y i n step through t h e i r twelve years of s c h o o l i n g r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r a b i l i t y . The emphasis has been on time served r a t h e r than e d u c a t i o n accomplished. D i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a and g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y are n e c e s s a r y i n the s c h o o l s to accommodate the wide d i f f e r e n c e s of i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y among students of the same age. A growing awareness of t h i s problem i s now apparent on the North American c o n t i n e n t . T h i s problem must be met f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1. "People are h a p p i e s t when they use t h e i r a b i l i t i e s i n ways which they enjoy and which t h e i r s o c i e t y f i n d s v a l u a b l e . " 2 " 27President Eisenhower•s Science A d v i s o r y Committee, E d u c a t i o n f o r the Age of S c i e n c e . (London: U n i t e d S t a t e s Information S e r v i c e , 1959) P. 21 . 2 8_oDert J . Havighurst, John Hersey, M o r r i s M e i s t e r , W i l l i a m H. Cornog and Lewis M. Terman, "The Importance of E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n  f o r the G i f t e d , The F i f t y - s e v e n t h Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I I . (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1958) p. 9 . 22 2. F a i l u r e to extend the able students to the f u l l extent of t h e i r a b i l i t y i s a waste of human resources which no n a t i o n can a f f o r d , f o r such students w i l l be tomorrow's l e a d e r s . 3. The s t r e n g t h of democracy l i e s i n r e s p e c t f o r , and b e l i e f i n , the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l . The development of each i n d i v i -d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y to t h i n k f o r h i m s e l f i s a prime f u n c t i o n of a l l e d ucation. Separate grouping of the more able students i s necessary i n s o f a r as such grouping s t i m u l a t e s and sharpens independent thought. The West Vancouver ' A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme' i s one s m a l l e f f o r t aimed at meeting the needs of the above average student. An i n t e r i m r e p o r t on the A c c e l -e r a t e d C l a s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was made i n 195^ a f t e r the programme had been i n o p e r a t i o n one y e a r . 2 ^ I t was then too e a r l y to draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s and t h i s was not attempted. A f t e r s i x years of o p e r a t i o n enough d a t a may be a v a i l a b l e t o permit a p r e c i s e e v a l u a t i o n t o be made. 2 9 F . P. L e v i r s , " I n t e r i m Report on A c c e l e r a t e d C l a s s e s , " Department of E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956. (Mimeographed) CHAPTER II THE DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT THE STUDENTS UNDER INVESTIGATION The students under i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of two d i v i s i o n s of a c c e l e r a t e d students at the Grade 12 l e v e l , who were, i n 1958, completing the l a s t four years o f the r e g u l a r High School Programme i n three y e a r s . They were the f i r s t group of students to complete the West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme. The s c h o o l d i v i s i o n s were homogeneously grouped on the o a s i s of i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement. Accord-i n g l y , f o r the purpose of t h i s study the c o n t r o l group of students was drawn from the two top d i v i s i o n s of the r e g u l a r Grade 12 students who i n 1958 were completing t h e i r High School Progfamme. In g e n e r a l , these students were of comparable a b i l i t y t o the a c c e l e r a t e d students, and would pr o b a b l y have themselves been on the " A c c e l e r -a t i o n Programme" had i t commenced one year e a r l i e r . SOURCE OF DATA The marks used f o r comparison were those o b t a i n e d i n the 1958 i n t e r n a l E a s t e r examinations. The 2k examinations were of two and a h a l f hours' d u r a t i o n and f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the p a t t e r n of the June Departmental Examinations. The examinations were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n order to determine which students would w r i t e the Pro-v i n c i a l Department of E d u c a t i o n examinations and which students would he passed, on the recommendation of the s c h o o l . Both the a c c e l e r a t e d and r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , t h e r e f o r e , wrote the same examinations under the same c o n d i t i o n s . The examinations took p l a c e i n the l i b r a r y , gymnasium and other l a r g e r rooms of the s c h o o l , and were c a r e f u l l y s u p e r v i s e d . No more than two examinations were w r i t t e n each day, one i n the morning and one i n the a f t e r n o o n . Mathematics was the o n l y e x c e p t i o n to these arrangements. In t h i s case, because the v a l i d i t y of the E a s t e r examination was doubted (some e x t r a q u e s t i o n s had been added f o r the a c c e l e r a t e d students) a separate one hour t e s t was given, and the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d used f o r the purpose of t h i s study. The marking of the examinations was c a r r i e d out by the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s . In P h y s i c s , French and L a t i n the a c c e l e r a t e d and r e g u l a r students had not been separated completely f o r i n s t r u c t i o n purposes i n t h e i r Grade 12 year. N e i t h e r were they separated f o r marking 25 purposes. In Matheniatics and E n g l i s h the a c c e l e r a t e d c l a s s e s were taught as separate d i v i s i o n s , and marked as separate d i v i s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the same marking pro-cedures were used f o r each group. Moreover, the s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s were not aware that these marks would be used as a b a s i s f o r comparing the achievements of the r e g u l a r and a c c e l e r a t e d s t u d e n t s . MATCHING PROCEDURES The I.Q. of each student was a s c e r t a i n e d from the 'Dominion Tests'3° g i v e n to a l l students i n the s c h o o l i n 1 9 5 ^ ^ d 1 9 5 7 . Because there was a s t r o n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the two t e s t s the average of the two s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by each student was used. The problem which arose was to o b t a i n groups matched for I.Q. f o r each of the s u b j e c t f i e l d s . Because most of the s u b j e c t s were e l e c t i v e s and o n l y a l i m i t e d number of students took any one s u b j e c t the number i n any one group was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The method used was as f o l l o w s . The I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the students ranged from 1 1 3 to lk8 and t h i s was d i v i d e d i n t o twelve i n t e r v a l s . Working i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order from the mark l i s t s , the s u b j e c t marks o b t a i n e d by the a c c e l e r a t e d students were f i r s t r ecorded f o r each I.Q. i n t e r v a l . 3°Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Group Test  o f L e a r n i n g C a p a c i t y . ( B r i t i s h Columbia E d i t i o n -Advanced Form B) P r i n t e d by the Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 26 The s u b j e c t marks of the r e g u l a r students were then recorded i n a s i m i l a r manner t a k i n g the same number of cases i n each I.Q. i n t e r v a l . In some s u b j e c t s the matching was almost exact as shown f o r Mathematics i n Table I. In other s u b j e c t s complete matching was not p o s s i b l e but was c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e enough for a u s e f u l comparison to be made. T h i s i s shown f o r P h y s i c s i n the same T a b l e . In E n g l i s h kO Language, E n g l i s h U0 L i t e r a t u r e , E n g l i s h 91, Mathematics 91, P h y s i c s 91, French 92 and L a t i n 9 2 s a t i s f a c t o r i l y matched groups were ob t a i n e d as shown i n Table I I . The I.Q. d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the matched groups i n French 92, L a t i n 92, E n g l i s h kO Language, E n g l i s h kO L i t e r a t u r e and E n g l i s h 91 are g i v e n i n Tables X, X I I , XIV, XVI, and XVIII r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the Appendix. TREATMENT OF THE DATA In each s u b j e c t f i e l d the mean of the marks ob t a i n e d by the a c c e l e r a t e d and r e g u l a r groups was found, and the d i f f e r e n c e t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e . To do t h i s i t was necessary to a s c e r t a i n the standard e r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the two sample means. It s h o u l d be noted that the two d i v i s i o n s of the a c c e l e r a t e d s t udents were homogeneously grouped. In E n g l i s h the top 27 TABLE I I.Q. DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL (ACCELERATED GROUP) AND THE CONTROL (REGULAR GROUP) FOR MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS MATHEMATICS PHYSICS I.Q. A c c e l e r a t e d Regular A c c e l e r a t e d Regular 146-148 1 2 143-145 1 1^0-142 2 137-139 1 1 1 134-136 2 2 3 2 131-133 4 4 3 3 128-130 6 6 3 3 125-127 5 5 2 3 122-124 8 8 5 4 119-121 5 5 3 2 116-118 4 4 1 1 113-115 1 1 1 Number of cases 36 36 23 23 TABLE II NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN THE MATCHED GROUPS GIVEN FOR EACH SUBJECT Subject Number of Students* E n g l i s h 40 (Language) 20 E n g l i s h 40 ( L i t e r a t u r e ) 20 E n g l i s h 91 X ? Mathematics 91 36 P h y s i c s 91 23 French 92 22 L a t i n 92 14 *same f o r bot h experimental and c o n t r o l groups 28 a c c e l e r a t e d c l a s s took d i f f e r e n t examinations i n the E n g l i s h kO and E n g l i s h 91 examinations. For t h i s reason, t h e i r marks were omitted, and o n l y the marks of the lower a c c e l e r a t e d d i v i s i o n who took the same examination as the r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , were used. In Mathematics where the number of cases was g r e a t e r than t h i r t y , the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was found u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p : 3 1 D = J 0 M_2 +. G M 2 2 = / g l 2 + J ^ 2 where M_ i s the Standard E r r o r of the mean of the f i r s t sample. Mg i s the Standard E r r o r of the mean of the second sample. D i s the Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the two sample means, are the s i z e s of the two samples. In a l l other s u b j e c t s the problem concerned s m a l l independent samples. For such cases, when two 31_;enry E « G a r r e t , S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology  and E d u c a t i o n . (New York: Longman Green and Company, 1958) p. 214. 29 samples are s m a l l , a b e t t e r estimate of the t r u e standard d e v i a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d by 'po o l i n g ' the sums o f the squares of the d e v i a t i o n s taken around the means of the two groups, and computing a s i n g l e standard d e v i a t i o n . ^ 2 The formulae f o r computing the 'pooled' s t a n d a r d d e v i a -t i o n SD and f o r the Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e S E D are as f o l l o w s . J SD = / £ ( X 1 - M l ) 2 + r (*2 - M 2 ) 2 J (Nj - 1) + ( N 2 - 1) (SD when two s m a l l independent samples are pooled) SEj) = SD / N l + N2 J Vz (SE of the d i f f e r e n c e hetween the means i n sm a l l independent samples) where X^ and X 2 are the scores of the two samples. and M 2 are the means of the two samples. N-j^  and N 2 are the s i z e s o f the two samples. 3 2 Ibid... p. 224. 33rbid # > p < 22k. CHAPTER I I I THE RESULTS The r e s u l t s were t r e a t e d i n three s t a g e s . F i r s t , the comparison between the two groups was c a r r i e d out f o r Mathematics where a sampling technique f o r l a r g e samples was p o s s i b l e . Secondly, the three s u b j e c t s P h y s i c s , French and L a t i n were c o n s i d e r e d where a sampling technique f o r s m a l l independent samples was used. L a s t l y , the comparison was made f o r the t h r e e E n g l i s h examinations where the problem was a g a i n one o f sm a l l independent samples, but f o r which o n l y the marks of the lower a c c e l e r a t e d d i v i s i o n c o u l d be used. ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS The mean and the standard e r r o r f o r the sc o r e s o b t a i n e d by each group i n the s p e c i a l t e s t g i v e n were f i r s t determined. These are s h o w i n Table I I I . The sta n d a r d e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means, and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o were then a s c e r t a i n e d and are g i v e n i n the same T a b l e . 31 TABLE I I I DATA FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS FOR MATHEMATICS 91 A c c e l e r a t e d Group Regular Group Number of cases 36 36 Mean of s c o r e s 17 .58 15.08 Standard D e v i a t i o n 4.46 5.44 Standard E r r o r o f the D i f f e r e n c e 1.17 C r i t i c a l r a t i o 2.14 For the .05 l e v e l of confidence the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s I . 9 6 . The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o b tained was 2 .14;  t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was s i g n i -f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . The complete d a t a i s g i v e n i n Tables VI and VII i n the Appendix. ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS, FRENCH AND LATIN In P h y s i c s the mean of the scores o b t a i n e d by each group agreed e x a c t l y , being 112. C l e a r l y the  d i f f e r e n c e between the means was not s i g n i f i c a n t . In French the mean of the sc o r e s obtained was 119 f o r the a c c e l e r a t e d group and 127 f o r the r e g u l a r group. To determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e 32 between the means the two small samples were pooled, and the standard d e v i a t i o n , the standard e r r o r o f the d i f -f e r e n c e between the means and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o c a l c u -l a t e d . These are giv e n i n Table IV. For k2 degrees of freedom at the . 05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 2 . 0 2 . The c r i t i c a l  r a t i o o b t a i n e d was 0 . 7 7 ; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . In L a t i n the means of the scores o b t a i n e d was 59 f o r the a c c e l e r a t e d group and 63 f o r the r e g u l a r group. As f o r French, the two smal l samples were pooled and the same data determined. These are a l s o g i v e n i n Table IV. TABLE IV DATA FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS FOR LATIN 92 AND FRENCH 92 LATIN 92 FRENCH 92 A c c e l e r a t e d Regular A c c e l e r a t e d Regular Group Group Group Group Number of cases Mean of s c o r e s Ik 59 lk 63 22 119 22 127 Pooled Standard D e v i a t i o n Standard E r r o r of D i f f e r e n c e C r i t i c a l r a t i o 1 3 . 5 5 . 1 0 . 7 8 4 . 6 1 0 . 4 0 . 7 7 33 For 26 degrees of freedom at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confi d e n c e the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 2 . 0 6 . The c r i t i c a l  r a t i o o b t a i n e d was O . 7 8 ; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . The complete d a t a and c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r P h y s i c s , French and L a t i n are g i v e n i n Tables V I I I -X I I I i n the Appendix. ACHIEVEMENT IN ENGLISH In E n g l i s h 40 Language, E n g l i s h 40 L i t e r a t u r e and E n g l i s h 91 "the two s m a l l samples were pooled as b e f o r e and the standard d e v i a t i o n , standard e r r o r of d i f f e r e n c e between the means and the c r i t i c a l r a t i o found. These are giv e n i n Table V. TABLE V DATA FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS FOR THE THREE ENGLISH EXAMINATIONS E n g l i s h 40 E n g l i s h kO E n g l i s h 91 Language L i t e r a t u r e Group A B A B A B Number of cases 20 20 20 20 13 13 Mean of s c o r e s 56 65 109 135 115 Ikk P o o l e d Standard D e v i a t i o n 8 . 5 8 1 7 . 8 1 8 . 1 Standard E r r o r of 5 . 6 D i f f e r e n c e 2 . 7 2 7 . 1 C r i t i c a l r a t i o 3 . 3 4 . 7 4 . 1 . NOTE: A - A c c e l e r a t e d Group B - Regular Group 34 The d i f f e r e n c e between the means was found to  he s i g n i f i c a n t i n each of the t h r e e cases at the .01  l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e . The complete d a t a and c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r the three E n g l i s h examinations are g i v e n i n Tables XIV -XIX i n the Appendix. SUMMARY OF RESULTS In Mathematics a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the scores obtained was found i n favour of the a c c e l e r a t e d group. In P h y s i c s , F r e n c h and L a t i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. In the three E n g l i s h examinations a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence was found i n favour of the r e g u l a r programme stu d e n t s . However, i n E n g l i s h i t should be noted t h a t the scores of the top a c c e l e r a t e d group were not i n c l u d e d i n the comparison made. CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme was s t a r t e d i n 1955 under the d i r e c t i o n of The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n . I t was p a r t of an experiment c a r r i e d out i n three separate s c h o o l s , to see i f some of the top academic students c o u l d complete the r e g u l a r High School c u r r i c u l u m , Grades 9 - 1 2 , i n l e s s than four y e a r s . Although a c c e l e r a t i o n was the b a s i s o f the experiment as put forward by the Department, the s c h o o l s were gi v e n freedom to work out t h e i r own programme. In the West Vancouver A c c e l e r a t i o n Programme, the above average students were grouped i n t o s p e c i a l c l a s s e s i n which both a c c e l e r a t i o n and enrichment took p l a c e . In t h i s c ontext, the 'above average' students were those students whose I.Q. was 113 or b e t t e r and who had a c h i e v e d c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h r e s u l t s i n the academic s u b j e c t s E n g l i s h , Mathematics, S o c i a l S t u d i e s and S c i e n c e 0 I t was p o s s i b l e i n the year 1958 to compare the academic achievement of the a c c e l e r a t e d students 36 and a matched group of r e g u l a r programme s t u d e n t s . The marks used f o r comparison purposes were those obtained i n the 1958 i n t e r n a l examinations, and the comparison was c a r r i e d out on a s u b j e c t b a s i s . One of the c o n c l u s i o n s reached was that the a c c e l e r a t e d students achieved an academic standar d i n th r e e years as h i g h as the r e g u l a r programme students ac h i e v e d i n fou r y e a r s , i n the s u b j e c t s Mathematics, P h y s i c s , F r e n c h and L a t i n . In E n g l i s h , where the scores o f the top a c c e l e r a t e d group were not i n c l u d e d , the r e g u l a r programme students achieved h i g h e r mean s c o r e s . I t might be t h a t , had i t been p o s s i b l e to i n c l u d e the E n g l i s h marks of the top a c c e l e r a t e d group, s i m i l a r r e s u l t s would have been ob t a i n e d i n E n g l i s h as i n the other s u b j e c t s . An i n t e r e s t i n g i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t many of the lower a b i l i t y a c c e l e r a t e d students d i d not achieve as w e l l i n E n g l i s h as the r e g u l a r students of s i m i l a r a b i l i t y . I t s hould a l s o be remembered t h a t t h i s e x perimental group of a c c e l e r a t e d students were the f i r s t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programme. T h e i r l a t e s t a r t was a s e r i o u s handicap. F u r t h e r , the r e g u l a r students adhered c l o s e l y to the Departmental courses of study and took examinations designed f o r these 3 7 courses, w h i l e the a c c e l e r a t e d students f o l l o w e d a f r e e r a d a p t a t i o n of these courses and took the same examina-t i o n s o n l y because no examinations had been s p e c i f i c a l l y d esigned f o r them. Those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the West Vancouver Programme c o n s i d e r e d that i t s success or f a i l u r e r e s t e d l a r g e l y on the f r e e a d a p t a t i o n of the r e g u l a r programme. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the t e r m i n a l Departmental examinations, were det e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n the degree of a d a p t a t i o n p r a c t i s e d . I t was thought that b e t t e r r e s u l t s p r o b a b l y would have been o b t a i n e d i f s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a had been designed t o meet the needs of these students, and a s u i t a b l e Departmental S c h o l a r s h i p Examination g i v e n . T h i s t h e s i s has been r e s t r i c t e d t o the academic achievements of the s t u d e n t s . For a complete e v a l u a t i o n of the programme many other f a c t o r s would have to be c o n s i d e r e d . F u r t h e r , a follow-up study of the achievement of these students at U n i v e r s i t y i s c a l l e d f o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the important c o n c l u s i o n has been reached t h a t approximately 1 7 $ of the student p o p u l a t i o n , namely, those students who have c o n s i s t e n t l y a c h ieved an A or B grade i n the academic s u b j e c t s E n g l i s h , Mathematics, S o c i a l S t u d i e s and Science and whose I.Q. i s 1 1 3 or b e t t e r as measured by the 38 •Dominion T e s t s , 1 - 5 4 " can, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of E n g l i s h where the d a t a was i n s u f f i c i e n t , s u c c e s s f u l l y complete High School one year e a r l i e r than normal without l o s s i n academic achievement. 3**Departmeht of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, Ontario C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Group Test  of L e a r n i n g C a p a c i t y . ( B r i t i s h Columbia E d i t i o n -Advanced Form B) P r i n t e d by the Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C. B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY Brandwein, Paul F. The Gift e d Student as Future S c i e n t i s t . New York: Harcourt Bruce, 1955. College Entrance Examination Board. Advanced Placement  Program. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Gutts, Norma E„ and Nicholas Moseley. Teaching the Bright  and G i f t e d . Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1957. Fund for the Advancement of Education. Bridging the Gap Between School and College. (Evaluation Report No. T) New York: The Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1953. Fund for the Advancement of Education. They Went to  College E a r l y . (Evaluation Report No. 2) New York: The Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1957. Fund for the Advancement of Education. Decade of  Experiment. 1951-1961. New York: The Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1 9 6 l . Fund for the Advancement of Education. A Report for  1957-1959. New York: The Fund for the Advance-ment of Education, 1959. Garrett, Henry E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York: Longman Green and Company, 1958. H a l l Theodore. G i f t e d : C h i l d r e n . The Cleveland Story. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 195 6 » Havighurst, Robert J., Eugene Sti v e r s , and Robert F. De Haan. A Survey of the Education of Gift e d  Children. Chicago? University of Chicago Press, 1955. " 4l Havighurst, Robert J . , John Hersey, M o r r i s M e i s t e r , W i l l i a m H. Cornog and Lewis M. Terman. "The Importance of E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n  f o r the G i f t e d . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958. Pp. 3 - 2 0 . H o l t , Bernard. "A P u p i l Assessment of the West Vancouver Senior High School Experiment w i t h A c c e l e r a t i o n . " Vancouver: Term Paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958. (Mimeographed.) Laycock, Samuel R, G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . Toronto: The Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1957. L e v i r s , F. P. " I n t e r i m Report on A c c e l e r a t e d C l a s s e s . " Department of E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 ° \ (Mimeographed) N o r r i s , Dorothy E. "Programs i n the Elementary Schools," E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . Pp. 2 2 2 - 2 6 2 . Nunn, S i r Percy. E d u c a t i o n : I t s Data and F i r s t P r i n c i p l e s . London: Edward A r n o l d and Co., 1930, P a i n , E l s i e R. " A c c e l e r a t i o n and the G i f t e d C h i l d , " The B. C. Teacher. 3 8 : 7 1 - 7 3 . November, 1 9 5 8 . Passow, A. Harry. "Enrichment of E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 . Pp. 1 9 3 - 2 2 1 . P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower's Science A d v i s o r y Committee. E d u c a t i o n f o r the Age of S c i e n c e . London: U n i t e d S t a t e s Information S e r v i c e , 1959. Pressey, S. L. E d u c a t i o n a l A c c e l e r a t i o n - A p p r a i s a l  and Basic Problems. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. P r i t c h a r d , Miriam C. "The C o n t r i b u t i o n s of L e t a S. H o l l i n g w o r t h to the Study of the G i f t e d , " The  G i f t e d C h i l d . Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, l 9 5 n Pp. 4 7 - 8 5 . Shannon, Dan. C. "What Research says about A c c e l e r a t i o n , " Phi D e l t a Kappan. 3 9 : 7 0 - 7 2 . November, 1957. Tannenbaum, Abraham J . " H i s t o r y of I n t e r e s t i n The G i f t e d , " E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1958. Pp. 2 1 - 3 8 . Terman, Lewis M. and M e l i t a H. Oden. The G i f t e d C h i l d  Grows Up. S t a n f o r d , C a l : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 194-7. Terman, Lewis M. and M e l i t a H. Oden. "The S t a n f o r d S t u d i e s of the G i f t e d , " The G i f t e d C h i l d . Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1951 . Pp. 20-46. Worcester, D. A. The E d u c a t i o n of C h i l d r e n of Above  Average M e n t a l i t y . L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska, 1955 . A P P E N D I X 44 TABLE VI MATHEMATICS 91 I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. A c c e l e r a t e d f Regular f 146-148 1 No. of A c c e l e r a t e d 143-145 140-142 Cases N, = 36 137-139 1 X 134-136 2 2 131-133 4 4 No. of Regular 128-130 6 6 125-127 5 5 Cases N 2 = 36 122-124 8 8 119-121 5 5 116-118 4 4 113-115 1 1 36 36 TABLE VII MATHEMATICS 91 DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS A c c e l e r a t e d 0 Regular 0 Scores f d f d f d 2 f d f d f d ^ 27 25 2 3 6 18 2 4 8 32 24 22 6 2 12 24 5 3 15 45 21 19 7 1 7 7 2 2 4 8 18 16 10 0 0 0 4 1 4 4 15 13 4 -1 - 4 4 12 0 0 0 12 10 7 -2 -14 28 5 -1 — ; : 5 5 9 7 0 - 3 0 0 5 -2 -10 20 6 4 0 -4 0 0 1 - 3 - 3 9 36 7 81 36 13 123 45 MATHEMATICS DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS ACCELERATED REGULAR Standard E r r o r CTj Standard E r r o r fj*2 ° 1 = ij l f &2 - ,Zf&) J N N <3"2 = t / l f c L 2 - ^ f d x 2 J N N 4.46 5 . 4 4 Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e D~ D g i v e n hy D 4 N, C l 2 + g 2 2 N 2 • J 4.46' ~ 3 6 ~ 5 . 4 4 ' 3 6 ~ C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - M 2 = 17.58 - 15.08 D 1 . 1 7 2 . 1 4 For the .05 l e v e l the c r i t i c a l r a t i o i s 1.96. The c r i t i c a l r a t i o o b t a i n e d above i s grea t e r than 1.96; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s s i g n i -f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l i n favour of the a c c l e r a t e d group. 46 TABLE V I I I PHYSICS 91 I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. A c c e l e r a t e d f Regular f 146-148 2 143-145 1 140-142 2 0 NT = 23 137-139 1 1 1 134-136 3 2 131-133 3 3 128-130 3 3 125-127 2 3 122-124 5 4 119-121 3 2 116-118 1 1 N ? = 23 113-115 0 1 23 23 TABLE IX PHYSICS 91 DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS A c c e l e r a t e d Regular x l d d 2 x 2 d d 2 102 - 1 0 100 128 +16 256 98 -14 196 107 - 5 25 137 +25 625 134 +22 484 109 - 3 9 116 + 4 16 151 +39 1521 160 +48 2304 95 -17 289 115 + 3 9 MX = 2573 = 111 .9 162 +50 2500 118 + 6 36 23 111 - 1 1 80 - 3 2 1024 = 112 162 +50 2500 117 + 5 25 147 +35 1225 116 + 4 16 78 -34 1156 121 + 9 81 101 -11 121 106 - 6 36 125 +13 I 6 9 123 +11 121 Mp = 2583 = 112 .32 113 + 1 1 118 + 6 36 23 86 - 2 6 676 92 - 2 0 4oo = 112 97 -15 225 121 + 9 81 133 +21 441 111 - 1 1 106 - 6 36 63 49 2401 113 + 1 1 91 - 2 1 44l 75 -37 1369 121 + 9 81 96 - 1 6 256 117 + 5 25 94 -18 324 100 -12 144 82 -30 900 108 - 4 16 2 5 7 3 14641 2583 8059 kl PHYSICS 91 DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF TIDE DIFFERENCE BETY/EEN THE MEANS In t h i s case the d i f f e r e n c e between the means M_ - M 2 = 112 - 112 = 0 t = M l - M 2 = o D For kk df at the .05 l e v e l of confidence t = 2 . 0 2 . C l e a r l y the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . i 48 TABLE X FRENCH 92 I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. A c c e l e r a t e d Regular f f 146-148 0 1 14-3-145 0 140-142 1 137-139 1 1 134-136 2 2 N, = 22 131-133 2 1 1 128-130 5 5 125-127 3 1 122-124 3 5 119-121 2 4 N 2 = 22 116-118 3 2 113-115 0 0 22 22 TABLE XI FRENCH 92 DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS A c c e l e r a t e d Regular x l d d 2 x 2 0 d d 2 100 -19 361 187 +60 36OO 147 28 784 45 - 8 2 6724 71 -48 2304 164 +37 1369 Mi = 2608 = 118.6 109 - 1 0 100 71 - 5 6 3136 7569 123 + 4 16 214 +87 1 22 116 - 3 9 100 - 2 7 729 115 - 4 16 102 - 2 5 625 = 119 112 - 7 49 147 +20 400 152 +33 1089 110 -17 289 141 +22 484 92 - 3 5 1225 i 4 o +21 441 189 +62 3844 113 = 6 36 161 +34 1156 134 + 15 225 158 +31 961 Mo = 2803 = 1 2 7 . 4 116 - 3 9 149 +22 484 22 104 -15 225 114 - 1 3 I 6 9 95 - 2 4 576 105 - 2 2 484 = 127 140 +21 441 105 - 2 2 484 64 -55 3025 130 + 3 , 9 146 +27 729 153 +26 676 97 - 2 2 484 76 -51 2601 143 +24 576 144 +17 289 130 +11 121 87 +40 1600 2608 12100 2803 38423 kq FRENCH 92 DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS When two s m a l l independent samples are pooled the Standard D e v i a t i o n SD i s g i v e n hy: SD = j £ ( x l - l v i l T + Z(X2 - M 2 ) 2 1 x i  I v I i 2 J (Ni - 1) (Ni - 1 ) + ( N 2 - I) 12100 + 38423 = 3 4 . 6 J 42 For s m a l l independent samples the Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means S E D i s g i v e n by: S E T V = S D / ^1 + KJT = 3 4 . 6 f" 44 J N l N 2 J 2 2 z 1 0 . 4 C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - M 2 = 127 - 119 = O .77 SE_ 1 0 . 4 For 42 df at the . 0 5 l e v e l o f conf i d e n c e t = 2 . 0 2 . The t ob t a i n e d above i s l e s s than 2 . 0 2 ; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s not  s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . 50 TABLE XII LATIN 92 I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. A c c e l e r a t e d f Regular f 146-148 143-145 1 140-142 1 1 137-139 1 N_ = 14 134-136 2 1 X 131-133 1 1 128-130 2 1 125-127 4 2 122-124 2 3 N 2 = 14 119-121 1 3 116-118 1 113-115 TU T4" TABLE X I I I LATIN* 92 DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS A c c e l e r a t e d „ Regular d 2 x l d d^ x 2 d 67 + 8 64 45 -18 324 50 - 9 81 78 +15 225 53 - 6 36 51 - 12 144 Mi = 828 81 +22 484 64 + 1 1 66 + 7 49 58 - 5 25 = 414 = 5 9 . 54 - 5 25 81 +18 324 7 91 +32 1024 80 +17 289 = 59 5 6 - 3 9 69 + 6 36 49 - 1 0 100 55 - 8 64 Mo = 881 74 +15 225 56 - 7 49 56 - 3 . 9 76 +13 169 = 63 38 - 2 1 441 50 - 1 3 169 = 6 2 . 9 46 - 1 3 169 57 - 6 36 47 -12 144 61 - 2 4 828 2860 881 1859 51 LATIN 92 DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS When two s m a l l samples are pooled the Standard D e v i a t i o n SD i s gi v e n hy: SD = l(Xl _ M i ) 2 + £ ( x 2 _ M 2 ) 2 (Ni - 1) ~ ( N 2 - 1) 2860 + 1859 = 1 3 . 5 26" For s m a l l independent samples the Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means SEp i s g i v e n by: S E D = SD J N l + N2 = 1 3 . 5 I 28 N i N 2 J 1^2 5 . 1 C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - M 2 = k±0 = O .78 S E J J 5 . 1 For 26 df at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence t i s 2 . 0 6 . The t o b t a i n e d above i s l e s s than 2 . 0 6 ; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . 5 2 TABLE XIV ENGLISH 40 (LANGUAGE) I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. Accelerated Regular f f 137-139 1 1 No. of Accelerated 134-136 2 2 Cases Hj_ = 20 131-133 1 1 128-130 2 2 125-127 No. of Regular 122-124 6 6 Cases No = 20 119-121 4 4 116-118 3 3 113-115 1 1 20 20 TABLE XV ENGLISH 40 (LANGUAGE) DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS Accelerated Regular x l d d 2 x 2 d d 2 51 - 5 25 53 -12 144 Xi %2 Scores 50 - 6 36 80 15 225 50 - 6 36 49 -16 256 d - deviation from 66 +10 100 76 11 121 mean 52 - 4 16 75 10 100 63 + 7 49 68 3 9 Accelerated mean 64 + 8 64 58 - 7 49 63 + 7 49 82 17 289 Mj_ = 1113 = 55.7 56 0 0 73 8 64 20 65. + 9 81 0 0 = 56 56 0 0 67 2 4 Regular mean 55 - 1 1 54 -11 121 Mo = 1292 =64.6 . 42 -14 196 61 - 4 16 46 -10 100 54 -11 121 20 52 - 4 16 69 4 16 = 65 55 - 1 1 73 8 64 55 - 1 1 62 - 3 9 50 - 6 36 60 - 5 25 66 +10 100 64 - 1 1 56 0 0 49 - 1 6 256 1113 J. 907 1292 1890 53 ENGLISH kO (LANGUAGE) DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEE MEANS When two small independent samples are pooled the Standard D e v i a t i o n SD i s g i v e n hy: SD = I L ( x l - M l ) 2 + E(*2 - M 2 f J (N_ - 1) + ( N 2 - 1) 907 + 1890 = 8.58 38 For small independent samples the Standard E r r o r o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means SE_, i s g i v e n by: S E D = SD I N l + N2 = 8.58 f kO 4 N_N2 J ^00 = 2.72 C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - M2 = 8.9 = 3.3 S E D 2.72 For 38 df at the .05 l e v e l of confidence t = 2.02. The t obt a i n e d above i s gr e a t e r than 2.02; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s  s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l and favour s the r e g u l a r  group. 54 TABLE XVI ENGLISH 40 (LITERATURE) I. Q. DISTRIBUTION I. Q. Accelerated f Regular f 137-139 1 1 No. of Accelerated 134-136 2 2 131-133 1 1 Cases Ni = 20 128-130 2 2 125-127 122-124 6 6 No. of Regular 119-121 4 4 116-118 3 3 Cases N 0 = 20 113-115 1 1 20 20 TABLE XVII ENGLISH 40 (LITERATURE) DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS Accelerated Regular 0 x l d d^ x 2 d d 2 116 + 7 49 127 - 8 64 x A x 2 Scores 83 - 2 6 676 150 +15 225 100 - 9 81 129 - 6 36 Accelerated Mean 129 +20 400 174' +39 1521 105 - 4 16 141 + 6 36 M_ = 2175 = 108.8 103 - 6 36 127 - 8 64 20 110 + 1 1 140 + 5 25 = 109 128 +19 361 168 +33 1089 114 + 5 25 121 -14 196 91 - 1 3 169 132 - 3 9 Regular Mean 111 + 2 4 145 +10 100 129 +20 4oo 93 - 4 2 1764 M 2 = 2690 = 1 3 4 . 5 96 - 1 3 169 139 + 4 16 20 95 -14 196 109 - 2 6 676 = 135 105 - 4 16 161 +26 676 110 + 1 1 158 +23 529 90 - 1 9 361 115 - 2 0 400 104 - 5 25 135 0 0 131 +22 484 119 - 1 6 256 120 +11 121 107 - 2 8 2175 3591 2690 8466 55 ENGLISH 40 (LITERATURE) DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS When two small Independent samples are pooled the Standard D e v i a t i o n SD i s g i v e n hy: SD = Uxl - Ml)d + I ( x 2 - ^zf (Ni - 1) + (N2 - 1) J 3591 + 8466 = 17 .80 38 For s m a l l independent samples the Standard E r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means S E D i s g i v e n by: S E D = SD I N l + N 2 = 17 .8 j 40 J N XN 2 J "400 = 5 . 6 C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - - - M 2 = 26 = 4 .7 S E D ITS For 38 df at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence t = 2 . 0 2 . The t obtained above i s g r e a t e r than 2 . 0 2 ; t h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means i s s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l and favours the r e g u l a r group. 56 TABLE XVIII ENGLISH 91 I . Q . DISTRIBUTION I. Q. A c c e l e r a t e d Regular f f 134-136 2 2 • 131-133 1 1 N, = 13 128-130 2 2 125-127 4 2 122-124 4 3 N 2 = 13 119-121 3 116-118 113-115 13 13 TABLE XIX ENGLISH 91 DATA FOR DETERMINING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS Accelerated. Regular x_ d d 2 x 2 d d 2 106 - 9 81 92 - 2 3 529 137 +22 484 122 + 7 49 100 - 1 5 225 131 +16 256 119 + 4 16 128 +13 169 125 +10 100 94 -21 441 88 - 2 7 729 113 - 2 4 137 +22 484 1492 3567 144 0 0 116 - 2 8 784 172 +28 784 164 +20 400 134 - 1 0 100 109 - 3 5 1225 145 + 1 1 163 +19 361 140 - 4 16 159 +15 225 138 - 6 36 129 -15 225 155 +11 121 1868 4278 M, = 1492 = 114.8 = 115 M 2 = 1868 = 143.7 13 = 144 57 ENGLISH 91 DETERMINATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEANS When two small independent samples are pooled the Standard Deviation SD i s given hy: SD = I ( x l - M l ) + I ( x 2 - M 2V (N x - 1) + (N 2 - 1) 3567 + 4278 = 18.1 24 For small independent samples the Standard Error of the difference between the means SE D i s given hy: SEj) = SD I N l + N 2 = 18.1 I 26 J N XN 2 J 1 3 . 1 3 = 7 . 1 C r i t i c a l r a t i o t = M l - M 2 = 29 = 4.1 SEp 7 . 1 For 24 df at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence t = 2 , 0 6 . The t obtained above is greater than 2 . 0 6 ; therefore, the difference between the means i s s i g n i f i c a n t at this l e v e l and favours the regular  group. 

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