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The intelligence and scholarship of junior high school students Moore, James August 1939

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-1223 I M B I i i G l I C E MW o f OTIOB HIGH SCHOOL .SfOaJSIIifS ' f h e s i s safcrnittect for the Begre-e of i n the Department of x PHX&QSOPHY aM PSXSHQLOGY The University o f British- C o l t i n f o i a A p r i l , 1839. J&mes JW Moore Uhapter I. Chapter 1 1 . Chapter III. Chapter IV, Chapter ?. Chapter ¥I„ Chapter ¥11*. ( i d j J A K E S Q g U O I i g E l g S . _ ' . Page: dome H i s t o r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s of I n t e l l i g e n c e 1 kn O u t l i n e o f the H i s t o r y o f M e n t a l ' l e t t i n g 6 A C r i t i c a l s u r v e y of some Maseru u e f i n i t i o n s of I n t e l l i g e n c e •» » * , • . 16 Dome theories a s t o t h e fiature of I n t e l l i g e n c e 2S 1. The U n i t I'sctoa? i l i e o r y • Z'6 2. i-iie Twc f a c t o r Theory . o . „ . 24 », The Hulti-Jfeetor Theory , . . . 2 9 4. The u o n f i g u r & t i a n Hypothesis » . . SO oome iieseeroh. t r e a t i n g the delation Between I n t e l l i g e n c e ana scholarship &Z The scope o f the P r e s e n t stuay . 39 Am P u p i l a used i n the stuay 5. Intelligence Tests usea i n the study 42 0. f h e Orixorif-i o f s c h o l a r s h i p 42 i>. s t a t i s t i c a l Method ., » 43 iiie I n t e l l i g e n c e r.na scholarship o f Grade l£ s t u d e n t a - » «. « » . « 4o' A. M s t r l n u t i o i i o f I n t e l l i g e n c e • . 45 JB:. B l s t f i b U t i o n o f Age .» » • .» 46 0. Average s c h o l a r s h i p end I n t e l l i g e n c e . 46 x>. Achievement i n E n g l i s h and I n t e l l i g e n c e 49 i i * Achievement i n S & t h e i n a t i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e 50 ¥*. Achievement i n s o c i a l studies and I n t e l l i -G. Achievement; i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e and I n t e l l i -gence » «. o * 55 ( i i i ) TKBLE OP U QJffiBBf a, Page H. Achievement i n t r e n a i l ana I n t e l l i g e n c e 56 I * AeiixeTeiaent i n tips. Coiaaercial sah^ects and I n t e l l i g e n c e ' - * . * « 5? J, AcMevement =in the Tec h n i c a l subjects and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . * . 59 IS, AelaieTement • in,.Heme i&aonemics and I n t e l l i -gence .*• » » •« . »•• » 6£ general tloiicl u s i o n s as to the Helatt onship Between I n t e l l i g e n c e and Gr#de 12 Scholar-sJx^ Lx) « * # -ti « * * 6«!5 Ohapter V I I I , i l i e I n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p of Grade T i l l Students ». • . • > * 65 &„. D i s t r i b u t i o n of I n t e l l i g e n c e and the Av-erage s c h o l a r s h i p o f 'Grade .VIII. P u p i l s ' 65 B* The x i e l l a h i l i t y of teachers 1 Har&s • 67 Achievement i n finglisli and I n t e l l i g e n c e 68 3.* AcMeveaaent i n Ifethematles and I n t e l l i -gence * « , » . . » 69 B. Achievement i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and I n t e l l i -gence » « « » * 71 I5.- Achievement i n General science and I n t e l l - ' G. Achievement i n if ranch and I n t e l l i g e n c e 74 H, Achievement i n the OocEiercisl Subjects and I n t e l l i g e n c e 75 (iv) TABLE Off CQI'ITEBfa, ( c o n t i n u e d ) ~ Page I . Achievement i n t h e T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . 78 J . Achievement i n Home Economics and I n t e l l -i g e n c e * •» » * * * .: 80 K. Achievement i n Music and I n t e l l i g e n c e » 81 L.» Achievement i n A r t and I n t e l l i g e n c e . 82 M. G e n e r a l Summary o f Grade V I I I M u c a t i o n a . 1 Achievement i n E e l a t i o n t o I n t e l l i g e n c e 83 The I n t e l l i g e n c e and S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I s t u d e n t s ..  .. i . * « » 85 A . d i s t r i b u t i o n of Intelligence and Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I s t u d e n t s . 36 B . The H e l i a h i l i t y ox T e a c h e r s ? Marks . 88 u„ Achievement i n E n g l i s h and I n t e l l i g e n c e 88 JL>. Achievement i n I'aathematias and I n t e l l i -gence •*.! * *: ' - ... 90 i s . Achievement i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s and I n t e l l i -gence « . - • *. «. ». 91 i'V Achievement i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e and I n t e l l -i g e n c e . . V . w , *. 93 G. Achievement i n F r e n c h and I n t e l l i g e n c e 94 H. .. Achievement i n the T e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . ... . , 95 I . Achievement i n the Home Economics S u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . . 96 (v.) TABIB Off 00jH:ES3TB» ( c o n t i n u e d ) . , Page J . Achievement i n Mu s i c and I n t e l l i g e n c e 98 i i . Achievement i n A r t and I n t e l l i g e n c e „ 99 L. G e n e r a l Nummary o f Gro.de VII s c h o l a r s h i p i n H e l a t i o n to I n t e l l i g e n c e * . . 100 Cha p t e r A . The I n t e l l i g e n c e and S c h o l a r s h i p o f O r i e n -t a l s .» . * * « . . . 102 A. Some Kecent l i t e r a t u r e T r e a t i n g the I n t e l l -i g e n c e o f O r i e n t a l s . . . . . 102 B. . The Ifeture and Scope o f the Present Study 105 C. s t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e . . . . - 106 i i . The b i n d i n g s . . . . . . 107 • I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e b i n d i n g s . ... 108 Chapter A I „ summary and G e n e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s t a t i s t i c a l b i n d i n g s . . . ± * 110 A. summary o f the C o r r e l a t i o n he tare en T e a c h e r s 7 Marks and I n t e l l i g e n c e » . 110 5. The H e l i a h i l l t y o f T e a c h e r o T l&rks . 113 c. some f a c t o r s w h i c h Determine the Cor-r e l a t i o n hetv/een T e a c hers' Marks and I n -t e l l i g e n c e . . . . . 1 1 5 1* The Ifet u r e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . . 115 2.. The. H e l i a b i i i t y and V a l i d i t y of Mea-s u r e s o f Achievement and I n t e l l i g e n c e 116 '6» h e a d i n g A h i l i t y and P r e v i o u s T r a i n i n g 116 4* Home E n v i r o n m e n t . .. . . 117 5. The amotions and Temperament . . 118 TABL25 QW QOMT&ltjx. ~*~Tclni tinned) ** ( v i ) P a g e 6 « M o t i v a t i o n . „ ,. . . 1 1 9 J J . . s o m e I n f e r e n e e s o f t h i s H e s e a r c h f o r J5du.es> t i o n « » „ » «, 122 Section A . * P s y c h o l o g i c a l , - JSduoatipnal, S t a t i s t i c a l . 125 oec'tion S . d e l a t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e t o T e a c h e r s 1 M a r k s .. 135 o e e t i o n 0* S h e I n t e l l i g e n c e o f O r i e n t a l s » . 145 • . . { v i i ; ) LIS 5 Oi;' TABIijbla« Page 1. summary o f C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n between Average s c h o l a r s h i p ona I n t e l l i g e n c e • « . • 32 2. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Harks i n t h e El e m e n t a r y -school s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e 34 3. C o r r e l a t i o n o f 'feachera' Mar-he i n t h e Secondary S c h o o l s u b j e c t is with. I n t e l l i g e n c e , . . . . 35 4. C o r r e l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y K s r k s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e . 36 5. Ths OQJ: . u i f f e r e n c e i n the C o r r e l a t i o n between I n t e l l -i g e n c e and T e a c h e r s ' Marks . . . » . 37 6 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the I.Q. Among 027 Grade I X S t u d e n t s 45 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f age Among 327 Grade I X s t u d e n t s » 4-0 8. Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade 1A s t u d e n t s a t V a r i o u s ' 9. Per c e n t a g e o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y work a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s „ » . . » . . , 47 10. C o r r e l a t i o n o f w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade 11. A c h i e v e n e n t I n E n g l i s h a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s » 50 12. S o n - e l a t i o n o f Achievement i n l l a g l i s h w i t h I.Q. . 50 13.. Achievement i n l-iatherna t i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . 51 14. Achievement I n Algebra, a t V a r i o u s I . Q. h o v e l s . 51 15. Achievement i n A r i t h m e t i c a t V a r i o u s I.Q* L e v e l s . 52 1 6 . Achievement i n Geometry &t V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . 52 17. £he c o r r e l a t i o n o f G e n e r a l l t a t h e m & t i e s , A l g e b r a , A r i t h -m e t i c , and Geomebv$ v / i t l i I.Q. , . . . . 53 18. Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t the "Various I.Q. love1354 ( v i i i ) L I S T OF { c o n t i n u e d ) Page 19. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers* Marks i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and I.Q. * • . * * * * . * * 54 20. Achievement i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s 55 21. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s 7 Iferks i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e v / i t h I . Q, , . . . . . * . . 56 22. Achievement i n JPreneh a t V a r i o u s I*Q. L e v e l s . 57 23. c o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' iferks i n French w i t h I.Q.. , 57 24. Achievement I n Book-keeping. B u s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c , and T y p i n g a t V a r i o u s In t e l l i g e n c e - ) aievexo » . # . 59 25. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s 1 Marks i n the Commercial Sub-j e c t s w i t h I.Q. . '. 4 * . . , 59 2 6 . Achievement i n the Te c l i n i c a l S ufcjects a t V a r i o u s I n -t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s • . . ' . . . . 61 27. C o r r e l a t i o n ox T e a c h e r s 7 Marks i n the T e c h n i c a l Sub-j e c t s w i t h I.Q. 61 28. Achievement i n C o o k i n g and C l o t h i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l -i g e n c e L e v e l s . * * ». . , . . •.. 62 29. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Te a c h e r s ' Marks In Home Economics w i t h I.Q. . .. 63 30. j^istriDutioH o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and Ax-erage S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I I S t u d e n t s . • . . . - . 66 31. P e r c e n t a g e o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y vVork a t V a r i o u s I.Q. Revels . . . . . . . . . 66 32. C o r r e l a t i o n o f I.Q. w i t h Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade ( i x ) LIST Qjy TABLZii.. . *~~ {continued] Bage 33, C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Average Marks f o r Stfvember with, these of I v o r i i . . » « . . . 68 34« Achievement i n E n g l i s h at the Various I.Q. Levels „ 69 35. 0orre3.atj.on of Teachers' Marks i n E n g l i s h w i t h I.Q. 69 36. Achievement i n General Mathematics at Various I.Q. Levels * * .* * .* • ... •*• « . 70 37. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Marks I n General Mathematics w i t h I . Q. . . . . . . . . . 71 38. Achievement i n - S o c i a l Studies a t Various I.Q. L e v e l s Y2 39. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers 1 Marks i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s w i t h I.Q. - . . . • . • . . . . . . 72 40. Achievement i n General science at the Various I.Q. Levels * . ... • * • ... .. . »• * 73 41. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Marks i n General science w i t h I . Q. * .. ... - „ .. *. . 74 42. Achievement i n French a t Various I.Q. L e v e l s . . 75 43. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Marks i n French w i t h I.Q. 75 44. Achievement i n J u n i o r Business a t Various I.Q. Levels 76 45. Achievement i n Typing at Various I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s 77 46. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Iferks i n J u n i o r Business and Typing w i t h I.Q. . . . . . . . 77 47. Achievement i n Technical s u b j e c t s a t Various I n t e l l i -gence Levels . . . . . . 78 48. C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' Marks I n the Technical Sub-j e c t s w i t h I.Q. . :. .. . . . . 79 ( x ) L I S T OP gABL5a. c o n t i n u e d ) r&ge a 49* Achievement i n C o o k i n g and C l o t h i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l -i g e n c e L e v e l s , . •» ». . . 80 50. C o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' Marks i n Eoine economies with 51* Achievement i n M u s i c a t t h e V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s 81 52. Correlation o f 'Teachers 7 Marks i n Mu s i c with I.Q. . 02 53. Achievement i n Art a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . 54* C o r r e l a t i o n o f Te a c h e r s ' Marios i n A r t w i t h I„Q. . 83 55. D i s t r i b u t i o n o.f. Intelligence and Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade VII Students ,. * . * * . . 87 56. P e r c e n t a g e o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y tfork a t V a r i o u s I..Q... L e v e l s » . . ... . ... ... 87 57. C o r r e l a t i o n o f I.Q. w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I P u p i l s . . . . . , . • . 88 58. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers* Average Marks f o r Movewiber w i t h t h o s e f o r A p r i l . , . .. , , 8 8 59. Achievement i n E n g l i s h "at -Various I.Q«. L e v e l s « .. 89 60* C o r r e l a t i o n of .Teachers 7 Marks i n E n g l i s h with I.Q. 90 61. Achievement i n General Mathematics a t V a r i o u s I.Q, L e v e l s .. . . . . . . . . 9 1 62.. C o r r e l a t i o n o f l e a c h e r s ' Marks i n G e n e r a l M a t h e m a t i c s w i t h I..Q, . ... . . , • , . 91 63. Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s 92 • 64. C o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' Marks i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s with.. I.Q. LIST CI? TABLES, r e m i t Inued) , • " • Page •65. Achievement i n General Science at the Various I.;Q. Levels 93 66* Correlation of Teachers" Marks i n General Science with . I.O, .«, *. , . . . * • . i .. 94 67, Achievement i n trench at the Variou I.Q.. Levels »..• 93 68-. Correlation of Teachers T Marks i n French with I»Q, . 95 69., Achievement i n General Shop #ork at the Various I.Q, Levels * . ... , * * . . . 9 6 70. Achievement i n Cooking and Clothing at the Variou In-tell i g e n c e Levels . . ..• . . . . 97 71. Correlation of Teachers' Marks i n Home Economies with I.Q. . . * * * . • 97 72. Achievement i n Music at the Various I,Q» Levels . 98 73-. Correlation of Teachers' Marks i n Music with I.Q, . 99 74. Achievement i n Art at the Various I.Q. Levels . 99 75. Correlations of Teachers' Marks i n Art with .I.Q. . 100 76. Comparison of the Mean I..Q. of Oriental and White Boys having the same Average Scholarship . .. 108 77. Comparison of the Mean I.Q.. of Oriental and 'tfhite G i r l s having the Same Average Scholarship . , 108 78. Summary of the Correlations "between Teachers 1 Marks '. and Intelligence . . • <, . * . . I l l 79. Correlation of Teachers"' Average Marks i n November* with those i n A p r i l . . . . . . . 114 80. Correlation of Teachers' Marks i n Grade VIII General Science for October with those for December . . 114 . - c o n t i n u e d ) 81.* The I f f e e t o f M o t i v a t i o n o n t h e C o r r e l a t i o n " b e t w e e n . I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d t e a c h e r s 1 H a r k s i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e • U v l l , 3?a3^e (1) Tm liiESlL'IGSSCS and --UECLIESHI? of Chapter 1. Somo,. E i _ s t o r i e a l . Congestions of I n t e l l i g e n c e I v e n today,, some t h i r t y years a f t e r l i n e t gave the world h i s .famous i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , the word i n t e l l i g e n c e has no common o r d e f i n i t e meaning* Educators, who make frequent use o f the t e r m a r e t o o o f t e n vague and i n c o n s i s t e n t when ques-tioned a s t o i t s meaning-, ' When we t u r n to the p s y c h o l o g i s t s , amour; whom we might esrpeet some con f o r m i t y t m f i n d t h a t there a r e innume.rahle d e f i n i t i o n s and s e v e r a l major t h e o r i e s . t o e x -p l a i n i t s nature, i n the words o f B e r t r a M !ha.saell,. " e v e r y -h o d y — I s much more agreed as to who i s i n t e l l i g e n t than as t o "what c o n s t i t u t e s i n t e l l i g e n c e , . - B ^ ^ * Hence s > a "b r i e f - d i s c u s s i o n o f the tozsi i n t e l l i g e n c e and an o u t l i n e o f the t e s t i n g move-ment seems ^ . s e n t i a l "before emharking upon the major t o p i c s of our prehlam. The Greeks are u s u a l l y considered to hove developed the f i r s t d e f i n i t e ideas of p s y c h o l o g y and i t i s to them that we owe cur f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c ideas of i n t e l l i g e n c e * "We f i n d the "beginnings of t h e i r (the Greeks) c o n c e p t s I n the i d eg o f 'nous' as held "by Ansxagonao (500-428 U.C.}, who f i r s t usoci the term i n a t e c h n i c a l sense * T :fr> nH.ous" for the Greeks was synonymous w i t h a h a t r a c t r e a s o n * Demokritos seems t o have p i e c e d the (1) Lortrend i o i s s e l i , n$kw.t C o n s t i t u t e s I n t e l l i g e n c e , " Ifetion (London), 192S, v o l . 33, P. 330. (2) Joseph Pe t e r - " i l a r l y C o n c e p t i o n s and Tests o f I n t e l l i -gence," 1925, Page 11. (2) d i f f e r e n t ; m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the body. He p l a c e d d e s i r e - i n the l i v e r , anger I n the h e a r t , ana thought I n the b r a i n . I t r emained, however, f o r P l a t o (427-347 B.CJ and A r i s t o t l e (384-322 B.C.) t o make the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the advancement o f p s y c h o l o g y . f h e c e n t r a l t o p i c o f t h e P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y seems t o have been h i s famous t h e o r y o f i d e a s , w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d I n the i t e p u h l i e . P l a t o p o s t u l a t e d e s o u l o r mind ( p s y c h s ) w h i c h was concerned with the c o n t r o l o f the body and t h e g a i n i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g o f knowledge,, He d i v i d e d the s o u l i n t o two p a r t s , an irs?ation.«l sou;. t w h i c h was concerned w i t h d e s i r e , and a r a t -i o n a l s o u l , to w h i c h he a t t r i b u t e d r e a s o n * He l o c a t e d t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l i n the head-. The n o b l e r part, .of the i r r a t i o n a l s o u l was s i t u a t e d i n the h e a r t and c o n t r o l l e d the more w o r t h y emotions s u c h as c o u r a g e . The b a s e r p a r t o f t h e I r r a t i o n a l s o u l he pieced below the diaphram, and t h i s was t h o u g h t to r e g -u l a t e the u n d e s i r a b l e p a s s i o n s . P l a t o b e l i e v e d t h a t knowledge was made up o f sensation, and i d e a s which were i n n a t e I n t h e s o u l . T h i s t h e o r y o f i n n a t e i d e a s seems t o have p e r s i s t e d , top some c x t e n t s oven t o the p r e s e n t Say i n tho assuiaption o f the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f souls,. P l a t o b e l i e v e d t h a t we a r e nearer r e a l i t y in c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g t h a n we a r e i n sense p e r c e p t i o n . I n h i s w r i t i n g s he p l a c e d much more emphasis on. the i n t e l l e c t -u a l p r o c e s s e s t h a n upon the f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s . T h i s em-(3) p h a s i s u ndoubtedly has p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the h i s t o r y o f p s y c h o l o g y . A r i s t o t l e c o n t i n u e d the emphasis on the i n t e l l e c t u a l pro-c e s s e s . However* w h i l e P l a t o thought o f the s o u l as a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y which was i n n a t e , A r i s t o t l e thought o f the mind as a method o f r e s p o n s e , a f u n c t i o n rather than a m a t e r i a l o b j e c t . He p o s t u l a t e d t h r e e l e v e l s o f b e h a v i o r , t h e n u t r i t i v e , the a p p e t i t i v e , and t h e r a t i o n a l . A r i s t o t l e a s s i g n e d a s o u l to each o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . He r e f e r s to t h e h i g h e s t s o u l as the " e n t e l e c h y " o f t h e body. F o r P l a t o , s e n s a t i o n s had l a r g e l y the f u n c t i o n o f awakening i n n a t e i d e a s ; b u t A r i s t o t l e saw t h a t knowledge c o u l d be g a i n e d by the senses when they were c o n t r o l -l e d by r e a s o n . A r i s t o t l e ' s d i v i s i o n o f m ental f u n c t i o n s i n t o " c o g n i t i v e powers' 1 (knowledge and reason') and '^active, powers" ( f e e l i n g , d e s i r e and a c t i o n ) s u r v i v e d u n t i l the t h r e e f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Kant,, i n t o i n t e l l e c t , f e e l i n g and w i l l . A r i s t o t l e added f u r t h e r to. p s y c h o l o g y by making a c a r e f u l study o f s e v e r a l mental f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y memory, i m a g i n a t i o n , and a s s o c i a t i o n . The Greek word "nous" was t r a n s l a t e d by the L a t i n " i n t e l l -e c t u s " and soon became l i m i t e d to the c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s . A l l , o f t h e s e p r i m i t i v e v i e w s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e l a r g e l y n e g l e c t e d the p roblem o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; a n e g l e c t which has p e r s i s t e d i n the p o p u l a r v i e w p o i n t even to the. p r e s e n t day. Rene D e s c a r t e s (1596-1650) "s t a n d s a t the P ° r t a l s ? f modern p h i l o s o p h y and psychology. "(3) D e s c a r t e s soon, d e c i d e d " t h a t i t (o) T .. _ * Baldwin, " H i s t o r y o f P s y c h o l o g y , " V o l . 1, 1913. ?. 131 (4) was n e c e s s a r y to abandon many o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f the a n c i e n t s . He d i s c a r d e d ^ a l l o f the souls, e xcept t h e r a t i o n a l s o u l . P e r -haps h i s c h i e f achievement i n p s y c h o l o g y was h i s t r e a t m e n t o f the r e l a t i o n between body and. mind. D e s c a r t e s r e g a r d e d t h e s e as b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n c t ; mind and body became s u b j e c t to e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t l a w s . The most i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i e w s o f John Locke (1632-1704) a r e to be found i n h i s ! fSssay C o n c e r n i n g Human Under-s t a n d i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1690. He d e n i e d a b s o l u t e l y the t h e o r y o f i n n a t e i d e a s and s t a t e d t h a t the mind began as a b l a n k sheet o r " t a b u l a r a s a . " L o c k e b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l knowledge was to be g a i n e d through s e n s a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n . A l t h o u g h he o b j e c t e d to the i d e a o f f a c u l t i e s he seems to have used the term "power" i n much the same s e n s e . F a c u l t y psycholo/ry, d e v e l o p e d by C h r i s t i a n Von W o l f f (1679-1754), was c h i e f l y c oncerned w i t h c l a s s i f y i n g t h e " f a c u l t i e s o f the s o u l . " The members o f t h i s s c h o o l b e l i e v e d , t h a t i f they found the f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any type o f mental a c t i v i t y , they bad e x p l a i n e d t h e a c t i v i t y . Some o f the c u r r e n t t e x t b o o k s i n p s y c h o l o g y seem to c o n t i n u e t h i s tendency o f a v o i d i n g the e x p l a n a t i o n o f m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s . Immanuel K a n t 1 o (1724-1804) i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l con-t r i b u t i o n s a r e to be f o u n d i n " A n t h r o p o l o g y i n i t s P r a c t i c a l A s p e c t s , " p u b l i s h e d i n 179S. .'-'e f a v o r e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l study o f the mental p r o c e s s e s and human b e h a v i o r r a t h e r than t h e o r e t i -CP.1 s p e c u l a t i o n about the s o u l . K a n t a l s o made the famous three-f o l d d i v i s i o n o f mental p r o c e s s e s i n t o i n t e l l e c t , f e e l i n g and w i l l . H e r b a r t ( l 7 7 6 - 1 8 / i l ) i s g e n e r a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g (5) w r i t t e n 'he f i r s t r e a l t e x t books i n p s y c h o l o g y - - T e x t Boole o f Psychology (1816) and Psychology as Science (1824-25)» He made many c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s of m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s and d i d much to d i s p r o v e f a c u l t y p s y c h o l o g y . He seems to have been the f i r s t to i n t r o d u c e mathematics i n t o p s y c h o l o g y . Herbart '"exhibited the n o t uncommon case i n s c i e n c e , i n w h i c h i n a d e q u a t e d a t a a r e t r e a t e d w i t h e l a b o r a t e mathematics, the p r e c i s i o n o f which c r e a t e s the i l l u s i o n that the o r i g i n a l d a t a a r e as ex a c t a s the method o f treatment*. 4^ ( P h i s tendency may w e l l be b o r n i n mind when c o n s i d e r i n g much o f the modern work with, i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s . ) H e r b a r t r e g a r d e d the mind m e r e l y a s ' t h e ;p.laee where ideas', -interact* o r as a s t o r e h o u s e o f i d e a s . Urns the mind i t -s e l f makes no r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to I n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s . Ideas 'were always p r e s e n t i n the mind and hence t h e r e was no r e a l f o r g e t t i n g , ( o f . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s ) ^ 4 > S. .£ B o r i n g , "A H i s t o r y o f rheperi mental Psychology,'1* 1929, P. 249. (6 ) Chapter I I . An O u t l i n e o f the H i s t o r y o f M e n t a l T e s t i n g The modern i n t e r e s t i n i n t e l l i g e n c e was p r o b a b l y f i r s t s t i m u l a t e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y by a s c i e n t i f i c i n -t e r e s t i n the f e e b l e m i n d e d . In 1797, I t a r d (1775-1838) began the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g o f a f e e b l e m i n d e d c h i l d i n h i s work w i t h the W i l d Boy o f Aveyron. I t a r d l a b o u r e d d i l i g e n t l y f o r f i v e y e a r s b u t , on f i n d i n g be c o u l d n o t r e s t o r e the boy to n o r m a l i t y , gave up the work i n d e s p a i r . lie a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h a t h i s t r a i n i n g had been w o r t h w h i l e i n t h a t i t had made the boy l e s s o f a burden to s o c i e t y . E. Seguin (1812-1880), a p u p i l o f I t a r d , c o n t i n u e d the work o f t r a i n i n g the f e e b l e m i n d e d and founded the f i r o t s c h o o l devoted e n t i r e l y to t h i s -ourpose. He d e v i s e d many s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ' f o r t h i s work. One o f t h e s e was the Seguin ..-Form .Board w h i c h has s i n c e been found to be one o f the b e s t non-language i n t e l l -i g e n c e ' t e s t s and has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the P l n t n e r - P a t t e r s o n S c a l e o f P e r f ormance T e s t s . The e a r l y .Interest i n and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t e n t i o n to the problems o f t h e .feebleminded,' undoubtedly p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e r o l e i n t h e development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h the- work o f B-i-netv The f i r s t and g r e a t e s t o f the e a r l y E n g l i s h w o r k e r s i n the f i e l d o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g was S i r F r a n c i s G a l ton ( 1 8 2 2 - I 9 l l ) t He b e g i n s h i s book " H e r e d i t a r y Genius' 1 (1869) w i t h f o l l o w i n g sentence: " I p r o p o s e to show i n t h i s book t h a t a. man' s n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s a r e d e r i v e d by i n h e r i t a n c e , under e x a c t l y the same l i m i t a t i o n s - as a r e t h e f o r m and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the whole . o r g a n i c world. nv°/ Thus we s e e t h a t O a l t o n was i n t e r e s t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I n t h i s h o o k h e p r o p o s e s a s c a l e f o r .measuring g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e "based upon t h e G a u s s i a n d i s t r i b -u t i o n . H i s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y a r e t o b e f o u n d i n , " I n q u i r e s i n t o Human. F a c u l t y , * w h i c h ap-p e a r e d I n 1 8 8 3 . H e r e S i r P r a n c i s G a l t o n showed a k e e n i n t e r e s t i n s e n s o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t " w o u l d on t h e w h o l e b e h i g h e s t -among.'' t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ablest.'"-(-6} n e worked o u t a s e r i e s o f s e n s o r y t e s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e f i e l d o f w e i g h t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , lie I n v e n t e d t h e w e l l - k n o w i G a l t o n w h i s t l e f o r t e s t i n g p i t c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . . He made some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s o f difference® i n m e n t a l i m a g e r y . G a l t o n w o r k e d o u t t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e t h e o r y o f m e n t a l t e s t i n g and d e v i s e d a c t u a l t e s t s b a s e d - upon t h i s .view. He b e l i e v e d t h a t s e v e r a l a b i l i t i e s , «hich c o u l d b e m e a s u r e d , w o u l d c o r r e l a t e w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d so c o u l d b e use d , t o p r e d i c t t h e l a t t e r . A l t h o u g h - h i s s e n s o r y t e s t s h a v e s i n c e b e e n f o u n d t o h a v e l i t t l e v a l i d i t y f o r t e s t i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e o f n o r m a l p e o p l e , t h e y r e p -r e s e n t t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t to m e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e i s a q u a n t i t -a t i v e manner*' He made a n o t h e r m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n i n d e v i s i n g s e v e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s f o r h a n d l i n g data*.' G a l t o n i s t h e r e a l f a t h e r o f m e n t a l t e s t i n g a n d a l l t h a t h a s d e v e l o p e d o u t o f i t . G a l t o n ' s m o s t f a m o u s p u p i l , C a r l P e a r s o n ( 1 8 5 7 - )'•$..' S i r P r a n e i s G a l t o n , " H e r e d i t a r y G e n i u s , * ' 1 8 6 9 , P. 1 , S i r F r a n c i s G a l t o n , " I n q u i r i e s i n t o Human • F a c u l t y , * 1 8 8 3 , "!\ 29 . ( B ) c a r r i e d on the work i n the s t a t i s t i c a l f i e l d . . He i s p a r t i c u l a r -l y famous f o r t h e well-known pro duct-moment method f o r c a l c u -l a t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s which he p u h l i s h e d i n 1896, ( 7 ) Bbbinghaus (1850-1909) was the f i r s t o f the German con-t r i b u t o r s i n the f i e l d o f mental t e s t i n g . I n 1885 he p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s o f h i s r e m a r k a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on memory. T h i s marks the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f the " h i g h e r mental p r o c e s s -es. " I n 1897 Bbbinghaus p r e s e n t e d the r e s u l t s o f h i s t e s t i n g o f G-erman School c h i l d r e n . ( 8 ) He used t h r e e t e s t s , r a p i d c a l c u -l a t i o n , memory f o r d i g i t s , and h i s famous c o m p l e t i o n t e s t , He f o u n d a marked c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the s c o r e s on b i s comp-l e t i o n t e s t and i n t e l l i g e n c e as e s t i m a t e d by t e a c h e r s . T h i s c o m p l e t i o n t e s t * w hich u n d o u b t e d l y i n v o l v e s the h i g h e r mental f u n c t i o n s . , has p r o v e n to be one o f the most r e l i a b l e t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e * E m i l K r a e p e l i n (1956- ), a p u p i l o f ¥undt, was l e d to c o n s i d e r the problem o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . He c o n s t r u c t e d a number o f t e s t s which a r e well-known i n the- f i e l d o f mental and p h y s i c a l measurements. Among t h e s e we might mention: r o t e memory, c o m p u t a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f d o u b l e cutaneous sensa-t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o f b r i g h t n e s s , -and s t r e n g t h o f g r i p . A. Oehra*. a p u p i l o f bothwtipdt and K r a e p e l i n , p u b l i s h e d TT) 0. Pearson': " R e g r e s s i o n , ~ l ' I e r e d i t y etc*'* r ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ — — P h i l . Trans, Boy, Soc.,. 187: A (1896) P. 255-318. ( y^Bbbinghaus, I I . * Uber e i n e neue J^ethode -zur P r u f u n g g e i s t i g e r P a h i g k e i t i n und i h r e Andvendung b i e S c h u l k i n d e r n , Z e i t -e c h r i f t f u r angewandte P s y c h o l o g i e ; V o l ; 1 3 i 189?j P. *01-459. (9 ) t e s t s a s e a r l y as 1889. He made the e a r l i e s t e xperiments w i t h mental c o r r e l a t i o n . H i s t e s t s measured s e v e r a l mental c a p a c i t i e s , namely, p e r c e p t i o n , memory, a s s o c i a t i o n , and mo t o r f u n c t i o n s . In 1891, P u n s t e r b e r g p u b l i s h e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f v a r i o u s t e s t s t h a t he made on s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The b e s t known o f the German p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o r k i n g i n the f i e l d o f mental t e s t s i s S t e r n , who was g r e s t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the v/ork o f B i n e t , He seems to have been l i e f i r s t to i n t r o d u c e the i d e a o f a r a t i o between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and mental age i n a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s b e f o r e the German f'ongress o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n 1912. X h i s i d e a o f a r a t i o i»as l a t e r p o p u l a r i z e d by "Jerman under the name i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o r I . Q,. Phe German c o n t r i b u t i o n may be summarised by s t a t i n ; ? t h a t they d e v i s e d a l a r g e number o f s e p a r a t e t e s t e which have s i n c e been used i n many t e s t b a t t e r i e s . J, "'."eKeen Cat t e l l ( i 8 6 0 - ) may be c o n s i d e r e d the f a t h e r o f the t e e t i n s ' movement i n America. He seems to have been t h e f i r s t to use the f a m i l i a r term "mental t e s t , " i n 1890. ( 9 ) He combined p h y s i c a l and mental t e s t s and emphasized the s t a n d a r d -i z a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e . The r e s u l t s o f h i s t e s t s on o v e r one hundred freshmen were p u b l i s h e d i n 1 8 9 6 . H e used t e s t s such as: rone t i o n time* l e n g t h o f a f t e r images, memory, imagery, r a t e o f p e r c e t i o n and movement, a c c u r a c y o f movement, s e n s i t i v i t y to p a i n , keeness o f e y e s i g h t and h e a r i n g , c o l o r v i s i o n , c o l o r p r e -f e r e n c e , and perception o f p i t c h and w e i g h t , (9) J. l foKeeh' Gat t e l l , ' '"^mteSi YewW and F e a ^ r emeri t s, v H i n d , V o l . 15, p. '373-380. (10) C a t t e l l and -Farrand,, " P h y s i c a l and M e n t a l Measurements o f the S t u d e n t s o f C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 3, 1896, P. 618-648, do) Another o f the e a r l y American workers i n the f i e l d o f mental t e s t s v&.s J . J a s t r o w who i n 1890 began t e s t i n g s t u d e n t s in p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s . v ' h i s t e s t s were l a r g e l y o f sensory a c u i t y and b i l a t e r a l movements. J a s t r o w began the f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e t e s t i n g i n 1893, when he a p p l i e d h i s tent's to a l l v o l u n -t e e r s at. the Columbia E x p o s i t i o n i n Chicag o . " In 1891 J3oas s t u d i e d about 1500 s c h o o l c h i l d r e n " o f Wor-c e s t e r . . He t e s t ed them f o r v i s i o n , h e a r i n g and memory and com-pared h i s r e s u l t s w i t h t e a c h e r s ' e s t i m a t e s o f t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e , D u r i n g 1893-4 J.» A. G i l b e r t made an e x t e n s i v e study o f the mental and p h y s i c a l development o f schefol c h i l d r e n . (12) He fro-olied h i s t e s t s to some I S O O c h i l d r e n o f 3-3ew Haven and compar-ed h i s r e s u l t s with, t h e i r " g e n e r a l a b i l i t y " a s e s t i m a t e d by t e a c h e r s . l i e a p p a r e n t l y found a c o r r e l a t i o n between e s t i m a t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e and some ty p e s o f sense d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Pe a l s o f ound a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n b'i-aeen memory and e s t i m a t e d i n t e l l -igence*' C l a r k 'wlBsler, i n 1901, -oublished an a n a l y s i s , by the Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n method, o f r e s u l t s o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l (2 3) t e s t s i n O a t t e l l ' a l a b o r a t o r y . " He used the s t u d e n t s ' average mark i n c o l l e g e s t u d i e s as a c r i t e r i o n o f "generf.il a b i l i t y . " T h i s was t h e f i r s t study i n -which c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d w i t h m a t h e m a t i c a l p r e c i s i o n . D i f f e r e n t p a i r s o f t h e p s y e h o l o g -t i l ) «T. J a s t r o w , "Soffit* - A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c T e s t s on / . C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s - - A P r e l i m i n a r y S u r v e y , " American J o u r n a l U« J; 0f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 4 (1891-1892), P. 420. J . A. G i l b e r t , "Researches on t h e h e n t a l and P h y s i c a l , .development o f School C h i l d r e n , " S t u d i e s o f Y a l e P s y c h o l o g -^ ' i c s l L a b o r a t o r y , Vol,. 2, 1894, P . 40 C. ' I s s l e r , "The C o r r e l a t i o n o f P e n t a l and P h y s i c a l T e s t s , " P s y c h o l o g i c e l Review, Ponograph Supplement, V o l . 3, K*o. 6, 1901. • ( 1 1 ) i c a l t e s t s allowed c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o i n — . 2 9 to .39, o n l y s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than a chance r e l a t i o n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t the p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' t e s t s must be t e s t s o f s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s . Phys-i c a l t e s t s showed some c o r r e l a t i o n ornong themselves b u t were o n l y s l i g h t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . Cor-r e l a t i o n between p a i r s o f c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s were q u i t e s i g n i f i -c a nt r a n g i n g from- .11 to .'75 b u t the r e l a t i o n between c o l l e g e marks and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s was n e g l i g i b l e . 1'his study un-dou b t e d l y did. much to c o n v i n c e American p s y o h o l o g i ~-ts t h a t t h e i r t e s t s o f s e n s a t i o n , imagery,, memory e t c . \\7ere o f l i t t l e v a l u e and p r e j u d i c e d them a g a i n s t the whole t e s t i n g movement. "\Vhil e we p r o b a b l y owe to S a l ton and C a t t e l l the g r e a t e s t debt f o r t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n o f mental t e s t i n g , the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f A l f r e d B i n e t (1856-1911) s t a n d s supreme f o r i t s g e n e r a l o r i g i n a l i t y and the f a c t t h a t he s y n t h e s i z e d the growing raove-ra en t i n t o h i s now well-know* s c a l e . '»(^) B i n e t founded the f i r s t ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a b o r a t o r y i n Prance a t the Sorbonne i n 1889.. I n 1885 he founded the famous p s y c h o l o g i c a l j o u r n a l , "L'Annee P s y c h o l o g i q u e , " and Vie remained one o f i t s p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t o r s up to the time o f h i s death i n 1911. I n 1896 B i n e t and H e n r i p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e on i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y . They d e c i d e d to t e s t t e n mental f u n c t i o n s : memory, the n a t u r e of mental images, imagination., a t t e n t i o n , the f a c u l t y o f corn-p r e h e n s i o n , s u g g e s t i b i l i t y , a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , moral s e n t i m e n t s , m uscular f o r c e and f o r c e o f w i l l , motor s k i l l , and j udgmen t o f v i s u a l sps.ce ( co up d * o e i l } , ^ 1 5 ) „ _ _ _ „ H i i r i b a l l Young, "'l'he h i s t o r y o f [ ,'ental T e s t i n g , " Pedagog-i c a l Seminary, 1923, V o l . x z x l , P.11. (15) B i n e t A. and .Henri V., "La P s y c h o l o g i e I n d i v i d u e l l e , * L'Annee Psychology, que, V o l . 2, 1896, V. 435 (12) In 19C2 B i n e t p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s o f h i s e x t e n s i v e t e s t -i n g o f h i s two daughters under t h e t i t l e , "The Experimental Study o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , " and t h i s work undoubtedly, had a c o n s i d -e r a b l e e f f e c t on h i s I n t e r t e s t s , he investigated a wide var-iety o f s u b j e c t s i n h i s s e a r c h f o r a test- o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . Some o f thes e -sere, -memory, imagination, s u g g e s t a b i l i t y , d e s c r i p -t i o n o f o b j e c t s and p i c t u r e s . , m o r a l i t y , -attention* a d a p t a t i o n , d i s t r a c t i o n , p h y s i c a l a e a s u r em en t s, c e p h a l i c measurements, hand-w r i t i n g , , end p a l m i s t r y . I n 1904 the F r e n c h M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n v i t e d B i n e t to j o i n a committee to study backward c h i l d r e n . One o f the major problems was t h a t o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between l a c k o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and mere l a z i n e s s . B i n e t a t t a c k e d t h i s p r o b l e m v i g o r o u s l y -:.nd i n 1905 he p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r ? t I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t seals.. B i n e t seems to have been i n d e b t e d to two o f h i s countrymen, B l i n and h i s p u p i l Daraaye, who a r e seldom mentioned i n a c c o u n t s o f the t e s t i n g movement. . R l i n ' s p a p e r o f 1902 was e n t i t l e d , "Les U e b i l i t e s •"-entales, n K ' w h i l e i n 1903 Damaye wrote, " S s s a i de d i a g n o s t i c e n t r e l e s etats de U e b i l i t e .mentale. B l i n worked out a number o f t e s t s to measure g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , w i t h a s c a l e f r o T zero to f i v e f o r measuring the l e v e l o f success i n T:R«b. h i s r e s u l t , t h e r e f o r e , was expressed i n terms o f a "score" r a t h e r than a "mental, age". The tests, which, were g i v e n Tl6) B l i n , "Les D e b i l i t e s T.'enb'nies7~"^evu™e de Psych'ia trei, AUR. 1902. (17) Damaye, "Essai de diagnostic e n t r e l e s e t a t s de d e b i l i t e ment:jle, " T h e s i s a t P a r i s , S t e i n h c i l , 1903 (13) t o some ."50 a b n o r m a l c h i l d r e n * sere p r a i s e d b y B i n e t and be u n d o u b t e d l y u s e d some o f them i n h i s own s c r l e . Binet* s 1905 s c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f 30 t e s t s a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r of d i f f i c u l t y , It -/as s t a n d a r d i s e d on a b o u t 50 c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t o f t h e t e s t was expressed i n t e r m s o f t h e number o f i t e m ?/hich a p u p i l s u c c e s s f u l l y p a s s e d . The 1908 s c a l e was p u b l i s h e d u n d e r the t i t l e , r'The Develop ment of I n t e l l i g e n c e i n Children, «(3-8) i t c o n s i s t e d o f 58 t e s t s a r r a n g e d to c o r r e s p o n d to a g e s f r o m 3 to 1 3 y e a r s i n c l u s i v e . I t was i n t h i s s c a l e t h a t B i n e t i n t r o d u c e d t h e t e r m " m e n t a l a g e " a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a c h i l d by means o f i t . T h i s s c a l e * 7»hile a n i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h a t o f 1905 h a d s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t 'v.eakn e s s e s : ( l ) i m p e r f e c t s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n , ( 2 ) i n -e q u a l i t y i n t h e number o f t e s t s a t t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s , ( 3 ) the d i r e c t i o n s f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g and s c o r i n g w e r e n o t o b j e c t i v e , B i n e t c o m p l e t e l y r e v i s e d t h e s c a l e i n 1911 o v e r c o m i n g some o f t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s . B i n e t ' o tests p r o v e d a g r e a t s u c c e s s and were s o o n t r a n s -l a t e d and r e v i s e d i n a numb o r o f -""ays.. O o d d a r d p u b l i s h e d a t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s c a l e i n 1908 and t h e f o l i o v d n g y e a r he t r a n s l a t e d B i n e t * s 1908 s c a l e . i n 1911 B u h l m a n p u b l i s h e d a r e v i s e d B n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e 1 9 0 8 s c a l e . I n t h e same y e a r P a l l i n p u b l i s h e d a. s i m i l a r r e v i s i o n . - P e r r a r i t r a n s l a t e d the 1908 s c a l e i n t o I t a l i a n . Terman and C h i l d s p u b l i s h e d a t e n t a t i v e r e v i s i o n o f t h e 1908 s c a l e i n 1 9 1 2 . I n 1 9 1 6 Terman p u b l i s h e d t h e fan©tie S t a n -f o r d K e v i s i o n o f t h e B i n e t - S i m o n S e a l a. Hi® w ork m a r k s a, Ms-( 1 8 ) B i n e t a n d S i m o n , "Le d e v e l o p pern en t " de I 1 i n t e l l i g e n c e chess " 1 es enfants,, * L'Annee B s y c h o l o g i one V o l . 14, 1 9 0 8 , P.1-94. (14) t i n c t advance I n . the t e s t i n g movement s i n c e he wo rice d o u t h i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n a much more thorough manner, lie i s r e spon-s i b l e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e term " i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t " o r I.Q-,. ( p r o b a b l y f o l l o w i n g S t e r n ' s s u g g e s t i o n o f 1912), In 1915, Y e r k e s , B r i d g e s and Ha r w i c h p u b l i s h e d " A P o i n t S c a l e f o r M e a s u r i n g P'ental A b i l i t y . " They used, t h e o r i g i n a l B i n e t Tests b u t r e a r r a n g e d them i n o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y and r e -v i s e d t h e system o f s c o r i n g . T h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e t e s t has never p r o v e n as p o p u l a r as the S t a n f o r d R e v i s i o n . Another r e v i s i o n i s the h e r r i n g S c a l e o f 1922 ivhich i s s i m i l a r to t h e B i n e t type o f t e s t but a l l t e s t i t e m s a re d i f f -e r e n t . The method o f s c o r i n g and o f c a l c u l a t i n g meats! age a l e o d i f f e r s from, t h a t o f B i n e t . I t i s somewhat s i m i l a r to the S t a n f o r d .Revision and. c o r r e l a t e s v e r y h i g h l y v.l t h i t . The l a t e s t , and by f a r the most comprehensive, o f the i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s t h e "Sew R e v i s e d S t a n f o r d -Binet T e s t s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1937 by Terman -and M e r r i l l . I n t h i s new r e v i s i o n the a u t h o r s present two complete s c a l e s d i f f e r i n g I n c o n t e n t b u t e q u i v a l e n t to one ano t h e r . Bach form o f the new r e v i s i o n c o n t a i n s 129 t e s t s as compared w i t h the 30 t e s t s i n the o r i g i n a l B i n e t s c a l e . I t c o v e r s a much w i d e r range than any p r e v i o u s t e s t — f r o m a mental age o f 18 months to. 22 y e a r s 10 months. This r e v i s i o n r e q u i r e d some ten y e a r s to complete and !he p r o v i s i o n a l scales were s t a n d a r d i s e d upon more than 3000' s u b j e c t s . An at t e m p t was made to eliminate some o f the verbal t e s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e l o w e r l e v e l s . The f i r s : , s c a l e to use t e s t s which d i d n o t r e q u i r e the use (15) o f language was "The P i n t n e r - P a t t e r s o n S c a l e o f Performance T e s t s " p u b l i s h e d i n 1917. ,t p r e s e n t , t h e r e are many type?:; o f performance t e s t s but, on the vvhole, they have n o t proven v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t the h i g h e r .~ge l e v e l s (above the ages o f 12 to 14 7 /ears). One o f the most i m p o r t a n t developments i n '.he h i s t o r y o f mental t e s t i n g has been the r i s e o f the group t e s t . I n t h i s type o f t e s t , the s u b j e c t s a r e examined i n groups r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l l y . On the e n t r a n c e o f t h e u n i t e d ~tat.es i n t o the • 7 o r l d '-"ar i n 1917, a "committee o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s was s u c c e s s f u l i n p e r s u a d i n g t h e m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s a s to the value o f i n -t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g . T h i s committee d e v e l o p e d the f i r s t succes?w f u l group t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e which -was known a s the Army Alpha* A n o t h e r form, t h e Army B e t a , v/as a group performance t e s t . The Army A l p h a was a d m i n i s t e r e d to some 1,700,000 men and gave a tremendous i m p e t u s to the -Ahole t e s t i n g movement. In r e c e n t y e a r s ' a n amazing number o f group t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e have been developed. Borne o f the b e t t e r knovai group t e o t s are: National I n t e l l i g e n c e Testis, Bearbora I n t e l l i g e n c e ?.eale# Det-r o i t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s , O t i s I n t e l l i g e n c e -'ests, Bagger by Delta 1, Army A l p h a , Terman Group T e s t o f P e n t a l A b i l i t y , B i l l e r B e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t , H a i r s tono P s y c h o l o g i c a l Bxamination- t Thorndilce I n t e l l i g e n c e l a m i n a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t , The 1 .3.P.. I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e CAVD, Kuhlman; /aider son I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s , Trabue B e n t i m e t e r s , .lie By e r a Fen-;, t a l Be a s u r e , snd the P r i n c e t o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l .'est. (16) C h a p t e r I I I . A C r i t i c a l Survey o f Some Hod era, - d e f i n i t i o n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e 'ihe d i s c o v e r y r-nd e a r l y development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , as o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r v/as l a r g e l y a h i t o r miss a f f a i r . The e a r l y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n was w i t h o u t the advantage o f any co-upreherirtive o r c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f the n a t u r e of intelligence.. "As a m a t t e r o f f a c t g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e has r i g h t l y been assumed to e x i s t and n s y c h o l o g i «to have gone about t h e measurement o f an i n d i v i d u n l T s g e n e r a l a b i l i t y without / a i t -(19 ) i n g f o r an ad e qua t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f i n i tion. " N ' However, as the t e s t i n g movement continued t© g a i n momentum., r j s y c h o l o g i s t s hocnme increasing concerned as to the n a t u r e o f the ' ' a b i l i t y " which they v.-ere measuring. This l e d p s y c b o l o i . s t s to seek the s o l u t i o n o f t h e i r problem by means o f symposia. I n 1910 s e v e r a l famous B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s combined t h e i r e f f o r t s i n o r d e r to c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between the n a t u r e o f i n s t i n c t and t h a t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . Tn 19 ?! , t h e erabaras sment was f e l t by American t e s t e r s and a g a i n a sympo S1" -im was t h e r e s u l t . w " F o u r t e e n of the l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , took p a r t . A g a i n i n 1923. a n o t h e r symposium on i n t e l l i g e n c e was h e l d a t O x f o r d . v ~ A' L e t us exam-ine., i n a somewhat c r i t i c a l manner, some o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s w h ich have been oroposed. ^« P i n t n e r , " I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g , " 1931, P. 4 5 . Symposium, " I n t e l l i g e n c e and I t s Measurement," J o u r n a l o f , x Did."Psych., V o l . X I I , 1921, P. 123-147,195-216. [21) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1923. The f i r s t attempt a t an adequate d e f i n i t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e was probably t h a t o f Ebbinghaus i n 1697. After a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f how men d i s t i n g u i s h themselves,, he d e c i d -ed t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n s i s t e d o f " b r i n g i n g to-gether a mul t i -tude o f independent c o n c o m i t a n t impressions i n t o a u n i t a r y , meaninful, o r i n any'way p u r p o s i v e whole."(22) Guided by t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Ebblnghaus c o n s t r u c t e d h i s famous completion t e s t , which i s s t i l l one o f the b e s t s i n g l e t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c h i e f c r i t i c i s m o f h i s v i e i v t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n s i s t s essen-t i a l l y i n "combining" i s i t s u n i t a r y c h a r a c t e r . A p e r s o n may have excellent a b i l i t y a t c ombining i n the f i e l d o f music w h i l e he may have l i t t l e o r no a b i l i t y a t c o m b i ning i n some" o t h e r f i e l d s . I t i s l o g i c a l t h a t B i n e t , th e o r i g i n a t o r o f the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l tests., should, have some v i e w s as to the nature o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , however, on o.-.amining h i s w r i t i n g s we f i n d t h a t he does n o t p r e s e n t any comprehensive o r s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n 1905, B i n e t p r e s e n t e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n : "There i s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t seems bo us, one fundamental organ, on organ who oe d e f e c t i v e n e s s o r a l t e r a t i o n has t h e most i m p o r t -once f o r p r a c t i c a l l i f e : t h i s i s judgment." F u r t h e r , he s t a t e s t h a t memory i s d i s t i n c t from judgment. L e t us now ex-amine B i n e t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s t e s t s . "The t e s t e to which we (22) H. Ebbinghaus, Zeit. Psychologic, XIII, 1897, P. 401, as -quo t o d by C. Soearman, 'ilia .Mature o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1923., •- B. 3B (23) A. B i n e t and Th. Simon, ''Methodes nouvelles pour l e d i a g -n o s t i c du niveau i n t e l l e c t u e l des anormoux, " L'Annee B s y c h o l o g i q u e , V o l . X I , 1905, P . P 9 5 . shall have r e c o u r s e seem c a p a b l e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o three d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : ft.) T e s t s o f memory; (2) T e s t s of i n t e l l -i g e n c e which'are p a r l y done w i t h the help o f language; ( 3 } Tests o f s e n s o r i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . " ^ - ' Thus we see t h a t B i n e t complete-l y I g n o r e s h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n , o f h i s t e s t s . I n 1.909 he d e f i n e s i n t e l l i g e n c e i n a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t manner. H i s d e f i n i t i o n then emphasised t h r e e phases o f behav-i o r : ( i j The tendency to take and maintain a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n (2) adaptability, { 3 } s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . Thus i t would seem t h a t . B l u e t i s u n a b l e to f i n d a c o m p l e t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . • Let.us now t u r n to S t e r n ' 5 d e f i n i t i o n . " I n t e l l i g e n c e i s a g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y o f sn I n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s l y to a d j u s t h i s t h i n k i n g to new problems and c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e . t i V ; A c r i t -i cism that i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i s why i n t e l l i g e n c e s h o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d to new s i t u a t i o n s . I t would a l s o seem t h a t ' i n t e l l i g e n c e i s ' r e q u i r e d to meet s u c c e s s f u l l y , o l d s i t u a -t i o n s , as they .recur. further., i t seems v e r y d o u b t f u l i f any s i t u a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y new o-; e n t i r e l y o l d b u t i s r a t h e r a mix-t u r e o f b o t h . As a f i n a l o b j e c t i o n j t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t e l l s us n o t h i n g about the n a t u r e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e b u t merely d e s c r i b e s i t s employment, E x a c t l y the same c r i t i c i s m may be l e v e l l e d a t V/ell h ' d e f i n i t i o n - : " I n t e l l i g e n c e means p r e c i s e l y the p r o p e r t y o f so r e c o m b i n i n g o u r b e h a v i o r - p a t t e r n s MO to a c t b e t t e r i n no v e l s I t u a t i o n s . !1 ^  ~ u ' X*24~j Tbi"dT~~I\ 257T" _a (25) \7. S t e r n , "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Methods o f T e s t i n g I n t e l l i g -ence, 4' T r a n s l a t e d by G. M. W i p p l e , 1914, P.3. (26) I i . ' " e l l s , " I l e n t a ! Adjustments-," 1917. I n 1921, a f t e r s e v e r a l m i l l i o n p e r s o n s h a d been t e s t e d f o r intelligence., American p s y c h o l o g i s t s t u r n e d t h e i r . a t t e n t i o n to. the p r o b l e m o f d e f i n i t i o n . S e v e n t e e n o f the l e a d i n g i n v e s t -i g a t o r s w e r e i n v i t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a syrup© slum and f o u r t e e n of t h e s e r e p l i e d . H e r e a t l e a s t we m i g h t e x p e c t some d e g r e e s of C o n f o r m i t y . O o l v i n s a y s , f fan I n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s i n t e l l i g e n c e i n so f a r a s h e h a s 1 e a r n e d , o r can l e a r n to a d j u s t h i m - e l f to h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . " - ^ 7 ) I f we a c c e p t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n we a r e f o r c e d to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e l o w e r animals a r e q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t , s i n c e some o f them a r e v e r y w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , P u r t h e r , p s y c h i a t r i s t s and t e a c h e r s h a v e r e p o r t e d many c h i l d r e n who were p o o r l y a d a p t e d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t b e c a u s e o f s u p e r i o r i n t e l l i g e n c e , Henman s a y s , " i n t e l l i g e n c e i n v o l v e s two factors-,---the c a p -a c i t y f o r k n o w l e d g e a n d the k n o w l e d g e p o s s e s s e d . "(23} w e a c c e p t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n we a r e f o r c e d to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s n o t i n n a t e and can b e d e f i n i t e l y i m p r o v e d s i n c e t h e " k n o w l e d g e p o s s e s s e d 1 ' c a n b e i n c r e a s e d . V i n t n e r g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g a s h i s d e f i n i t i o n : " I h a v e a l w a y s t h o u g h t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l to a d a p t h i m s e l f a d e q u a t e l y to r e l a t i v e l y new s i t u a t i o n s i n l i f e . H ( 2 - ) <p Aj_ s d e f i n i t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f 8 t e r n a n d i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same c r i t i c i s m - . T h o r d i k e s t a t e s t h a t ^ ,!we may d e f i n e i n t e l l e c t i n g e n e r a l (27) S. S. CoTvTn,'' ''InTelligence and I t s Pes^r^ment: - a Symposium, " Jo urn. 13d. Psy.» V o l . PH., 1921 >\ 136. (28) V. A. C, Heniftan,. I b i d . P. 195. (29) Iv. P i n t n e r , I b i d . P. 139. ^ T h o r n d i k e uses the t e r m i n t e l l e c t a s a synonym f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e ( 20) as t h e power o f good" r e s p o n s e s f r o m th e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t r u t h { <3Q) - ' o r f f i C t , : t " The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i a i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the term "good r e s p o n s e s . " Thorndike c e r -t a i n l y cannot i n c l u d e a l l p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f response (e . g . p h y s i c ? ! r e s p o n s e s ) because no i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t a t t e m p t s to e v a l u a t e these.. The smae c r i t i c i s m may ho l e v e l l e d a t the d e f i n i t i o n o f Buckingham who b e l i e v e s t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e I s "the a b i l i t y to s e t e f f e c t i v e l y under g i v e n c o n d i t i o n s . " B o t h o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s seem to make the e r r o n e o u s assump-t i o n t h a t e . l l r e s p o n s e s a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l * Msny t y p e s o f r e s -ponses a r e r e q u i r e d f o r e f f e c t i v e "behavior. I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a r e c o n cerned w i t h the l i m i t e d f i e l d o f i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s p o n s e . P o r ferman, "en I n d i v i d u a l i s i n t e l l i g e n t i n p r o p o r t i o n as he i s a b l e to c a r r y on a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g . " v ' Thus he would e l i m i n a t e f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l t y p e s of b e h a v i o r w h i c h d e a l w i t h c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s and hence i n t e l l i g e n c e becomes ex-t r e m e l y limited... f r eeman t a k e s t h e o p p o s i t e v iew when he s t a t e s "1 c o n c e i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e to be a somewhat more i n c l u s i v e cap-a c i t y t h a n i s i m p l i e d when i t i s used EU; a name f o r our p r e s e n t t e s t s . " He b e l i e v e s t h s t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s the srnn o f about s e v e n t e e n i t e m s w h i c h s h o u l d i n c l u d e t r a i t s such as temperament end m o r r l c h a r a c t e r * Por Preeman t h e n , i n t e l l i g e n c e seems to become synonymous w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y . , One o f the b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h a t o f P e t e r s o n , who (SI) B. R. Buckinghcm, I b i d . P. SOO (SB) I . H. Serman" I b i d . P. IE8 (SS) P. II. Preeman, I b i d . . P. 18S (21) s t a t e s t h a t * Ji i n t e l l i g e n c e seems t o l e a b i o l o g i c a l mechanism by w h i c h the e f f e c t s o f a c o m p l e x i t y o f s t i m u l i a r e brought t o g e t h e r and' g i v e n a somewhat u n i f i e d e f f e c t I n behavior»" L e t u s now t u r n t o thr o e o f t h e st a t e m e n t s g i v e n i n t h e American symposium w h i c h a r e r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g . Rural s a y s , " i t seems t o me t h a t the q u e s t i o n as to the net-are o f I n t e l l i g e n c e can h a r d l y be debated a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . " 1 ' The statement o f Haggerty i s very s i m i l a r ; " i n nry thinlciafe the word I n t e l l i g e n c e does n ot denote a s i n g l e m e n t a l p r o c e s s c a p a b l e o f e x a c t a n a l y -se) t i c d e f i n i t i o n . " P r e s s e y remarks t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s time I s used I n work w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , he i s n o t v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n as to what l i e c o n c e i v e s (37 ) I n t e l l i g e n c e to he. v ' One o f the most, obvious c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h e i r complete l a c k o f conformity,, A second objection that m i g h t be r a i s e d i s t h a t none o f t h e w r i t e r s quoted b r i n g s any f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f h i s p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint. A t h i r d c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t they p r o v i d e us w i t h a b s o l u t e l y no h e l p i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e s t s , f o r t h e y t e l l us n o t h i n g about •what t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l a r e t o be i n c l u d e d . For example, a r e we to i n c l u d e t e s t s o f memory i n our i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t b a t t e r y ? On t h i s q u e s t i o n the a u t h o r i t i e s seem to be about e v e n l y d i v i d e d - . The Army, the O t i s , the P r e s s e y , and the I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y t e s t s e x c l u d e s p e c i f i c memory pr o b l e m s . The B i n e t t e s t s and i t s many r e v i s i o n s c o n t a i n memory i t e m s . Peterson,"" I b i d . P.' 198. (55) B . R U E I I , I b i d . P. 14-2-. (56) II.3. H a g g e r t y , I b i d . ?. £12. (27) 3, L. P r e s s e y , I b i d . P. 144. (22) JSven t h e same a u t h o r i t y i s n e t a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t i n t h i s m a t t e r . T h o r n d i k e I n c l u d e s memory i n h i s M a t r i c u l a t i o n t e s t s c u t e x c l u d e s I t f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l t e s t a , f o r which he was some-w h a t r e s p o n s i b l e * f e r m a n i n c l u d e s memory i n h i s i n d i v i d u a l t e s t a b u t e x c l u d e e I t from h i s g r o u p t e s t s . . P e r h a p s B e r n a r d i s n o t f a r f r o m t h e t r u t h whon he remarks t h a t , " w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r t r i e d t o c u l t i v a t e I n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t t r i e d • t o m e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e . , , n o b o d y seems t o know p r e c i s e l y what i n -t e l l l g e r i c e i s . ^ 1 Tssj - i i a l l a r d , • " M e n t a l f e i t s , " 1920,. X 22. (23) Chapter x'l. pamo t h e o r i e s as t o the Mature o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . A f t e r a e a r e f t i l and somewhat c r i t i c a l , s u r v e y o f the def -i n i t i o n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e proposed by l o a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s we f i n d - t h a t they t e l l us l i t t l e s h o u t i t s t r u e n a t u r e , domo o f the l e a d e r s i n the f i e l d o f m e n t a l t e s t i n g have s t a t e d t h a t I t i o n o t o n l y umiacos^aary hut thft i t i s f u t i l e to t r y t o d e t e r -mine the n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . ^ Even Terman seems t o f a l l w i t h i n t h i s group when he a t y t e s , " t o demand, aa c r i t i c s ox the B i n e t method have some t i m e s done, t h a t one who would measure i n t e l l i g e n c e s h o u l d f i r s t p r e s e n t a complete d e f i n i t i o n o f i t l AC)} I s q u i t e u n r e a s o n a b l e * " % The a t t i t u d e o f B o b e r t a g i s even more dogmatic* "She knowledge o f the essence of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s n a t u r a l l y a t h i n g t h a t m e r i t s p r o f o u n d r e s e a r c h ; I never-t h e l e s s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f the e x a m i n a t i o n would n o t p r o f i t by them-."^ 1^ As l o n g aa such a n a t t i t u d e p e r s i s t s among m e n t a l t e s t e r s l i t t l e s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s , beyond o u r p r e s e n t Inadequate t e s t s , c a n be e x p e c t e d . ' F o r t u n a t e l y s a few p s y c h o l o g i s t s have g i v e n the pr o b l e m p r o f o u n d s t u d y and have p r0 2 5 0 3 e d comprehensive t h e o r i e s a a t o the n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i -gence, iipearraan and f h o r n d i h e have c a r r i e d o u t the o u t s t a n d i n g r e s e a r c h I n t h i s f i e l d - . A b r i e f ' o u t l i n e • o f s e v e r a l o f t h e major t h e o r i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d , 1:. 5he U n i t f a c t o r f n e o r y I'he u n i t f a c t o r t h e o r y , o r wha'c spearman h?;o c e i l e d the "monarchic d o c t r i n e , " assume?; t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e c o n s i s t s o f T2§Tl\TTr^e^^^ * (40) Ii, 11. Serman, "lieseureiaent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , " 1016, P. 44. (41) 0. B o b e r t a g , Annoe Ps,,chologiquo, ¥ol. A7I.II 1912, ?. 274. one unitary faculty o r a b i l i t y . T h i s f a c t o r i s s t r o n g i n tl i o "intelligent and weslt I n the s t u p i d . The whole t e s t i n g movement, a t l e a s t i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s was c e r t a i n l y based upon t h i s theor; Both Bbbinghaus end Binet. seem to have followed t h i s d o c t r i n e , f o r the former r e g a r d e d I n t e l l i g e n c e as a C o m b i n i n g " a b i l i t y and the- l a t t e r regarded i t as the f a c u l t y o f judgment. I f we g i v e a .aeries of t e s t s i n v o l v i n g mental f u n c t i o n s (such as s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s . , completion, ar i t h m e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n , varbs.1 d i r e c t i o n s * memory, e t c . ) to. a l a r g e group o f p e o p l e , t h i s theory demands v e r y h i g h correlations throughout,, s i n c e the same g e n e r a l a b i l i t y i s involved* However., a l l o f the a v a i l a b l e d a t a shows t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s are p o s i t i v e but are n e i t h e r v e r y h i g h n o r v e r y low*, A n i l e t h e unit, f a c t o r t h e o r y i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n p o p u l a r usage and t o some extent i n e d u c a t i o n , i t has l a r g e l y bean abandoned by p s y c h o l o g i s t s , however, some phases o f the westalt t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ( t o he p r e s e n t e d l a t e r ] seem to have a unitary c h a r a c t e r . 2..ti The. ^o r.gaQtQ^B|h^EgL The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the t r u e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s t h e worJfc o f O a r l spearman who has devoted a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y t o i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on t h i s problem. Spearman r e c e i v e d h i s early psychological t r a i n i n g u nder rfundt and Muller. I n 1907 he became head o f the department o f psychology a t u n i v e r s i t y College, London. He rerasin^u i n t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l he crime t o America I n 1931. He i s the f o u n d e r o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t B r i t i s h s o h o o l o f psychology, w h i c h has been c a l l e d "She F a c t o r S c h o o l " i n " P s y c h o l o g i e s o f 1930". ( 2 5 ) - i n 1 9 0 4 , j u s t one y e a r b e f o r e B l u e t ' s f i r s t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e , 3pearman- p u b l i s h e d s monumental a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , "Sen* e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O b j e c t i v e l y D e t e r m i n e d a n d Measured„"^ H e r e he makes a c r i t i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e I n t h e f i e l d o f i n t e l l i g e n c e e n d / p o i n t s o u t t h a t , w h i l e n umerous a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made to jlaeasure i n t e l l i g e n c e , no one h a s p r e s e n t e d a n y c o m p r e h e n s i v e t h e o r y t o e x p l ? ; i n I t s n e t - o r e , S p e a r m a n iflsae £ eoxaprehensitre a n a l y s i s o f e x i s t i n g d a t a by tho method o f c o r r e l a t i o n . - . - He w a s .the- f i r s t t o r e a l i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e f o r p s y c h o l o g y . He d e v i s e d a new s i m p l e r method f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t and a l s o m e t h o d s f o r c o r r e c t i n g e r r o r s i n i t . f u r t h e r , h e showed hoi? m a t h e m a t i c a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t , o f m e n t a l t e s t r e s u l t s c o u l d be u s e d t o a t t a c k one o f t h e most I m p o r t a n t problems i n p s y c h o l o g y , namely, t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . - * Spearman found, t h a t I f a number o f s i n g l e t e s t s o f m e n t a l a b i l i t y a r e a p p l i e d , t o a l a r g e g r o u p o f p e r s o n s , c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e al?/ays p o s i t i v e but n e v e r v e r y h i g h n o r v e r y low.. i!o e x p l a i n t h i s , -Spearman p o s t -u l a t e d a f a c t o r o f g o n e r s ! a b i l i t y , c a l l e d g , w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m p e r s o n t o p e r s o n b u t o p e r a t e s t o some e x t e n t i n e l l m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s , , l i e f u r t h e r assumed t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s g e n -e r a l a b i l i t y i / r g, a' p e r s o n a l s o p o s s e s s e s a l a r g e number o f h i g h l y s p u e i e l i : ; e d a b i l i t i e s , c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d &. One o r more o f t h e s e s p o c i a l i a e a a b i l i t i e s a r e c a l l e d i n t o o p e r a t i o n I n a n y m e n t a l f u n c t i o n * f h i s d o c t r i n e h a s come -to be known a s t h e t w o - f a c t o r t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e * "Oarl Bpeorman, " G e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O b j e c t i v e l y Determined and Measured." Amer. J o r n . o f P s y , V o l . l a , P P . 2 0 1 - 2 8 5 , 1 9 0 4 . (26.) But spearman d i d n o t s t o p 'with m e r e l y p r o p o s i n g B i s theory. By a f u r t h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l analysis o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s Between s i n g l e m e n t a l t e s t s he found, that t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e g o v e r n i n g the si2e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t obtained. He found t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s tended toward a d e f i n i t e m a t h e m a t i c a l a r r a n g e -ment which, c o u l d be expressed' by a f o r m u l a . This f o r m u l a i s known as the t e t r a d e q u a t i o n and may be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : where r stends f o r tho c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and a 5p,b&q i n d i c a t e the a b i l i t i e s ( t e s t , s o h o o l HP.rks e t c ) t h a t a r e c o r r e l a t e d , jpearmon has been able; to fahow by s. m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o o f t h a t 4 when t h e t e t r a d e q u a t i o n h o l d s (and o n l y when i t h o l d s ) throughout a t a b l e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s , t h e n t h e a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o fere independent p a r t s . "Q?he one p o r t l i a s been c a l l e d the ' g e n e r a l fact o r - * and denoted by t h e l e t t e r g; i t i s so named because, a l t h o u g h v a r y i n g f r e e l y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l i t remains the same f o r any one i n -d i v i d u a l i n r e s p e c t of a l l o o r r e l e t e d a b i l i t i e s . The second p a r t has been c a l l e d t h e T s p e c i f i c f a c t o r ' and denoted by the l e t t e r s. I t not o n l y v a r i e s f r om i n d i v i d u a l to I n d i v i d u a l , but f o r any one i n d i v i d u a l , f r o m each a b i l i t y to a n o t h e r . The proof ox t h i s o i l - i m p o r t a n t ma t a e n i a t i c a l theorem has gradually e v o l v e d through s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f completeness, cud may now be regarded as complete."''""1"" •Xheso two f a c t o r s a r e operatives i n every mental p r o c e s s but they need n o t be e q u a l l y i n v o l v e d . I n soma case g w i l l be 0. ripeprraan, Tho A b i l i t i e s of &an, 1927, 75. ' '- • ' in) p r e d o m i n a n t w h i l e i n o t h e r s s w i l l • he - of- .ma-jor - i m p o r t a n c e . Iro r t h e c l a s s i c s .Spearman f o u n d t h a t g was 1 6 t i m e s a s i m p o r t -a n t a s s,'while f o r music s w&s 4. t i m e s a s prominent a s ,g.. Ac-c o r d i n g t o t h e Spearman t h e o r y , t h e s u c c e s s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t by p o o l i n g a l a r g e number o f . d i f f e r e n t items,, t h e s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s more o r l e s s n e u t r a l i z e one a n a t h a i - and h e n c e t h e r e s u l t i s m a p p r o x i m a t e m e a s u r e o f Spearman c o n t i n u e s w i t i i a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the" n a t u r e o f g. He i s . i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e , t h a t -g c o r r e s p o n d s t o a g e n e r a l , f a n d o f ' c e r e b r a l e n e r g y * b u t a d m i t s t h a t t h e r e i s , , a s y e t , no p r o o f , tlpearman s t a t e s . t h a t f r a t a a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y v i e w p o i n t , g may be t h e g e n e r a l p l a s t i c i t y o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m , t h e s t a t e o f t h e e n d o c r i n e '.glands± -or many . o t h e r p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . . S p earman and h i s p u p i l s h a v e dan© a t r e m e n d o u s amount of-i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e w a y s I n w h i c h g a n d s m a n i f e s t them-selves-. I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t s uch a t h e o r y s h o u l d be the -sub-j e c t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r a v e r s y * To f o l l o w t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s b f t h i s l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n I s e n t i r e l y bsyo&d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s p a p e r . ' I l l s m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o o f was c r i t i c i z e d because o f some o f h i s a s s u m p t i o n s * These a s s u m p t i o n s seem t o have been p r o v e n i n - the l a t e s t f o r m u l a t i o n o f th-s theory*.- Brov/n a n d Thomson ^ 4"^ t o o k o b j e c t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y i n 1321 and p r o p o s e d a s a m p l i n g t h e o r y i n i t s p l a c e . H owever, x i i o m s o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t h i s s a m p l i n g t h e o r y a c e s n o t r u l e o u t g e n e r a l a b i l i t y [M) ». ''i^bran-, and ±L Shomaon-, rfhe E s s e n t i a l s o f M e n t a l Mes surements..,. 1 0 2 1 . (£8) "because whore the samples are l a r g e t h e r e w i l l he f a c t o r s conraon to a l l a c t i v i t i e s . i C e l l e y ^ f i n d s .evidence f o r a g e n e r a l f a c t o r hut i s i n c l i n e d to i n t e r p r e t i t d i f f e r e n t l y from spearman. The most i m p o r t a n t substantiation o f Spearman1 s theory-has'come from the work o f L a s h l e y i n h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on the b r a i n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h f o r t h e o r i e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e do n o t seem t o have been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o g -n i z e d . L a s h l e y s t a t e s , "the r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t s l e n d s u p p o r t t o the t h e o r y w h i c h c o n c e i v e s i n t e l l i g e n c e as- s g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y , i n the same measure that t h e y op3Dose t h e o r i e s o f r e s t r i c t e d r e f l e x conduction. The c a p a c i t y t o f orm and to r e t a i n a v e r i e t y o f maae h a b i t s and o t h e r l e e s well-defined h a b i t s seems r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , depend-e n t upon the absolute q u a n t i t y o f c o r t i c a l t i s s u e f u n c t i o n a l and Independent.of any q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the c o r -U0iC. I n c o n c l u d i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the t w o - f e c t o r t h e o r y , one may s t a t e t h a t i t o f f e r s the b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f the n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e that hps y e t been proposed. T h i s t h e o r y seems to be most I n accord w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l , education-a l r and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s . P u r t h e r , i t i s the only t h e o r y f o r w h i c h a mathematical p r o o f has been a t t e m p t e d . «re owe to Spearmen, more t h a n t o anyone e l s e . 0 u r preso-nt i d e a s as to the n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . " H i s (tfpeprraan 1a) achievement, which (45) T. 1. i i e l l e y , C r o s s r o a d s i n the mind"of i i a n , 1928 (46) i l . S. L a s h l e y , B r a i n Mechanisms and Intelligence, 19£9 i \ 17S. (£9) i s one o f the most remarkable i n the whole h i s t o r y o f psycho-. l o g y , has g i v e n >n e n t i r e l y new s i g n i f i c a n c e t o mental t e s t s and indeed to the s t u d y o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s g e n e r a l l y . " ( 4 7 } 3. She M u l t i - g a o t o r Theory. The c l e a r e s t and most comprehensive f o r m u l a t i o n o f the m u l t i - f a c t o r t h e o r y ( o r what Spearman has c o l l e d the -'anarchic d o c t r i n e " } i s t h a t o f T h c r n d i k e . H i s t h e o r y seems t o have undergone some m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n c e i t was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d . I n . 1903 he s t a t e s t h a t "the mind i s a h o s t o f h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r -i z e d and Independent f a c u l t i e s . . " I n 1914 he w r i t e s t h a t the mind must be r e g a r d e d "as a m u l t i t u d e o f f u n c t i o n s each of w h i c h i n v o l v e s c o n t e n t as w e l l as form, and so i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to o n l y a few o f i t s f e l l o w s , to the o t h e r s w i t h g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r d e g r e e s o f remoteness.." I t was, however, I n 19B7 t h a t T h o r n d i k e p u b l i s h e d the c l e a r e s t f o r m u l a t i o n o f the t h e o r y I n h i s book, "The Measurement o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . " Here he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a p e r s o n ' s t o t a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s made up o f an innumerable number o f s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s . The q u a n t i t y o f an I n d i v i d u a l T s i n t e l l i g e n c e i s due t o the number ox con-n e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e n e r v o u s system. "More, e x a c t l y our h y p o t h e s i s i s a s f o l l o t y s : L e t 0 r e p r e s e n t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r m i n g one c o n n e c t i o n o r a s s o c i a t i o n or bond between a n Idea o r any p a r t or a s p e c t o r f e a t u r e t h e r e o f and a sequent i d e a or movement o r any p a r t or a s p e c t o r f e a t u r e t h e r e o f . Then i f i n d i v i d u a l s I , , I * , I 3 , I * , e t c . , d i f f e r i n g i n the number o f O's w h i c h t h e y p o s s e s s but a l i k e i n o t h e r J47J d. U. P l t i g e i , A Hundred Y e a r s o f P s y c h o l o g y , P. 310, 19S5 (48) E. L. Thomdike, Educational P s y c h o l o g y ( P i r s t E d i t i o n ) , 2. 39, 1903 (49) J ^ j J * t h o r n d i k e , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , Vol. 3, P. 366, r e s p e c t s , are s u b j e c t e d to i d e n t i e r l e nvironments, tii e amount ox degree ox i n t e l l e c t w h i c h any one o f them m a n i f e s t s , and the e x t e n t to w h i c h he m a n i f e s t s 1 h i g h e r * i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s -es than th e o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , w i l l be c l o s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the number o f O's w h i c h he p o s s e s s e s . " ^ JPurther, Thorndike b e l i e v e s t h a t the s c o r e s on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i l l be p r o -p o r t i o n a l to the number o f C T s , He a l s o p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i n -d i v i d u a l s who e x h i b i t the h i g h e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s w i l l a l s o p o s s e s s the l a r g e s t number o f O's. t h o r n d i k e does n o t deny the e x i s t e n c e o f Spearman's two factoz'S g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c but s t a t e s the.t they are unnec-e s s a r y . I f t h e r e i s . a g e n e r a l f a c t o r t h e n t h i s would merely mean t h a t some o f the O's a r e common o r n e c e s s a r y t o a l l i n -t e l l e c t u a l t a s k s . T h o r n dike b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s t h e o r y i s more g e n e r a l t h a n t h a t o f iipearman. The c h i e f o b s t a c l e to T h o r n d i k e ' s t h e o r y l i e s i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e o b t a i n e d by L a s h l e y , "There i s no ev-i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s b e l i e f i n i d e n t i t y o f nervous elements. On the c o n t r a r y , i t i s v e r y d o u b t f u l i f the same neurons or synapses are i n v o l v e d even i n two s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n s t o the same s t i m u l u s . Our d a t a seem to prove t h p t the s t r u c t u r a l elements a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . " 4. The C o n f i g u r a t i o n H y p o t h e s i s . The G e s t a l t s c h o o l o f p s y c h o l o g y have developed a concep-t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h we may c a l l the c o n f i g u r a t i o n hy-p o t h e s i s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s s c h o o l , i n t e l l i g e n c e i s the a b i l i t y (50) A . L. T h o r n d i k e , e t ~ a l . , The lier.surement of' I n t e l l i g e n c e , P. 415, 1927. (51) 11. rf. L a s h l e y , B r a i n Mechanisms and i n t e l l i g e n c e P. 173, 1929. to 0012131116 the v a r i o u s elements o f s i t u a t i o n I n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n . A p e r s o n i s i n t e l l i g e n t o r u n i n t e l l i g e n t a c -c o r d i n g as he has many or few ways o f r e l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e * I n -t e l l i g e n c e d e v e l o p s by g a i n i n g new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , 11 The t h e o r y seems t o I n v o l v e t h e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t each i n c r e m e n t o f i n t e l l -i g e n ce i n the i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e s a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t o r -g a n i z a t i o n f r o m the l a s t . T h i s would o u t l a w the, c u r r e n t con-c e p t i o n s o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s I n i n t e l l i g e n c e * and the at t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s the growth o f i n t e l l i g e n c e upon a c o n t i n -uous s c a l e . I t i m p l i e s a l s o a d i s t i n c t type o f n e u r o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . " This' school., a d m i r a b l e a s i t may be i n some . f i e l d s , , seems to have brought o n l y c o n f u s i o n i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . . Some o f the G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g i s t s (Benussi and Meinong) b e l i e v e t h a t a l l shape p e r c e p t i o n i s due t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , f e r t h e i m e r , E o h l e r , and Kofflca.* on t h e o t h e r hand, b e l i e v e t h a t s h a p e - p e r c e p t i o n i s n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a c l e a r and comprehen-s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f what t h e G e s t a l t s c h o o l mean by the t e r m i n t e l l i g e n c e * (32) Chapter V. Some Res e a r c h T r e a t i n g the R e l a t i o n between I n t e l l i g e n c e and S c h o l a r s h i p S i n c e about 1900 t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t I n comparing i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s w i t h s c h o o l g r a d e s . How-ev e r , the c h i e f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s f i e l d d a t e s from about 1920 and the advent o f t h e g e n e r a l use o f t h e group t e s t o f i n t e l l -i g e n c e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted t o a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f some o f the r e s e a r c h t r e a t i n g the r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p as measured by t e a c h e r s ' marks. Mo attempt w i l l be made t o t r e a t the l i t e r a t u r e e x h a u s t i v e l y , f o r t h i s would r e q u i r e a l a r g e volume i n i t s e l f * A c o n s i d e r a b l e s a m p l i n g o f the p u b l i s h e d r e a s e a r c h w i l l , ho*wever 8 be a t t e m p t e d . Table I summarizes the r e s u l t s of 157 s t u d i e s w h i c h p r e s e n t 863 c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks and I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s . A complete l i s t i n g o f the S t u d i e s i n v o l v e d w i l l be found i n S e c t i o n B o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y , TABLE I Summary o f C o e f f i c i e n t s ,of C o r r e l a t i o n between, Average  S c h o l a r s h i p and I n t e l l i g e n c e . Humber o f S t u d i e s iramber o f r ' s Mean r e l e m e n t a r y grades 10 109 i526 Secondary g r a d e s 36 356 *401 H n i v e r s i t y 111 398 .413 A l l , - 157 863 .422 The s t u d i e s summarized i n Table I r e p r e s e n t a .tsamendous v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s . The number o f cases upon which the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e based v a r y from v e r y few to s e v e r a l thousand. I n s e v e r a l I n s t a n c e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e not v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t because the number o f cases i n v o l v e d i s too few. I n many o f (32) the s t u d i e s the - r o b a b l e E r r o r s were not p r e s e n t e d . A g r e a t v a r i e t y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , b o t h i n d i v i d u e l ?na group, were used. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n range f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y zero t o t h a t of..91 (as r e p o r t e d by B u r t ) . The t a b l e does i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s . I t w i l l be c l e a r t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e h i g h e r (.526) i n the e l e m e n t a r y grades t h a n i n the secondary and u n i v e r s i t y grades (about .40). I t w i l l a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r secondary s c h o o l s i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c e l w i t h t h a t o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The g e n e r a l mean o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and teachers'' marks o f .422 i s c o n s i d e r -a b l y below t h a t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ana achievement t e s t r e s u l t s ( p.rz) w h i c h St.. John r e p o r t s as .56 a f t e r summarizing some 320 r's.. T h i s i s to be e x p e c t e d s i n c e achievement and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y the same manner* 2able I I p r e s e n t s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' marks I n the elementary s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e as r e p o r t e d i n the s t u d i e s o f S e c t i o n B o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y . I t 'presents the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the d a t a b u t does n o t p r e t e n d t o be e x h a u s t i v e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e q u i t e l o w . I t w i l l be seen, t h a t i n g e n e r a l , t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h depend i n p a r t upon a b i l i t y i n r e a d i n g show a more s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n t h a n those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g does n o t p l a y an i m p o r t -ant p a r t . Table I I I p r e s e n t s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n of t e a c h e r s 1 marks i n the secondary s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e s s r e p o r t e d i n the s t u d i e s o f s e c t i o n B o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y . I t (53) U. tf. S t . John, E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement i n d e l a t i o n t o I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1930, P. 38. Correlation ox l y n c h e r s ' Marks i n the fllementsry S c h o o l - . Er/hjeets w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e ~ S u b j e c t hiunber o f r T s Mean r R e a d i n g •7 .48 • E n g l i s h 15 .368 S p e l l i n g 4 .305 D i c t a t i o n 1 .52 A r i t h m e t i c 20 .324 Geography 5 *324 H i s t o r y 8 ' • . .47 W r i t i n g .41 • d r a w i n g 1 Woodwork 11 .186 C o o k i n g 6 .315 Sewing — ; .. 8 .14 g i v e s the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the d a t a h u t i s I n no way e x h a u s t i i v e . The s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d a r e "by no means homogeneous and the r e -l i a b i l i t y o f some o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d i s open t o ques-t i o n because i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s o f good s t a t i s t i c a l p r a c t i c e were n o t f o l l o w e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e nowhere v e r y high., b e i n g h i g h e s t f o r p h y s i c s (.56) and l o w e s t f o r shorthand (.072). I t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e d e c i d e d l y more s i g n i -f i c a n t i n the case o f the t r a d i t i o n a l academic s u b j e c t s t h a n i n the case o f some o f the newer s u b j e c t s s u c h a s t y p i n g , book-k e e p i n g , s h o r t h a n d , m u s i c , d r a w i n g and manual a r t s . A n o t h e r comparison might be made. Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g p l a y s a c o n s i d e r a b l e r o l e show a v e r y much h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n '(55) w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e t n a n do s u b j e c t a which, i n v o l v e some measure o f manual d e x t e r i t y , TABLE I I I . . C o r r e l a t i o n . , o f T e a c h e r s 1 -Marks i n the Secondary S c h o o l  S u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e S u b j e c t Humber o f r ' s Mean r . E n g l i s h 20 .442 Grammar . 7 .490 Math e m a t i c s 18 .357 Algebra 8 .463 Geometry 1 •"a/I A r i t h m e t i c I • • r<V3 G e n e r a l S c i e n c e 15 .453 C h e m i s t r y 37 .574 P h y s i c s 1 *5D Commercial S u b j e c t s 1 . A H. Typing 1 .092 Bookkeeping 1 : .22 Shorthand 1 .072 H i s t o r y 20 fl t£ tf-; F r e n c h Z .355 L a t i n 5 .446 S p a n i s h 1 .15 Music 1 .29 Drawing 1 .097 Manual A r t s 2 .158 J Table 17 p r e s e n t s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y marks w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . W h i l e e g r e e t d e a l o f r e s e s r c h has been done on the c o r r e l a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l u n i v e r s i t y average w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , l e s s has been done w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s * The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e somewhat h i g h e r t h a t they were f o r the secondary s c h o o l s u b j e c t s but perhaps t h i s may be due to t h e f a c t t h a t f e w e r r ? s are av e r a g e d . Some o f the c o e f f i c -i e n t s - a r e based upon n u m e r i c a l grades d i r e c t l y , o t h e r s have been w e i g h t e d f o r time devoted to the s u b j e c t s , and o t h e r grades have been transmuted i n t o v a r i o u s n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s o f t e n c a l l e d "honor p o i n t s . " The c o r r e l a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r f o r the s c i e n c e s t h a n f o r t h e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . TAILS IT* C o r r e l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y Marks w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Subject"-- luutber o f r ' s Mean r . E n g l i s h M a t h e m a t i c s 3 4 .632 .503 f o r e i g n Language 1 .313 i ? r e n e h 2 .,425 S p a n i s h 2 .57 Ser-man 1 .50 S c i e n c e 1 .448 P h y s i c s 2 .64 Zoology 1 .78 Botany 1 . 72 B i o l o g y 2 .515 C h e m i s t r y 2 ,56 Geology 1 .65 P s y c h o l o g y 7 .549 • H i s t o r y 4 .552 E d u c a t i o n 1 .66 I t may seem s t r a n g e t o s t a t e t h a t i n s p i t e o f the l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s which have been conducted i n t o the r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t e a c h e r s 1 marks t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , v e r y few i n v e s t i g a t o r s seem t o have thought i t w o r t h w h i l e t o t r e a t the data f o r boys and g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y . Table. V. shows the r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s w h i c h made t h i s s e p a r a t i o n , f u r t h e r d a t a c o u l d be o b t a i n e d The Sex. D i f f e r e n c e i n T< TABLE 7, The C o r r e l a t i o n between (37) i n t e l l i g e n c e and , I n v e s t i g a t o r Type o f S c h o o l Boys 1 r G i r l s 1 r H a r t s o n , l . D . " ( 1 9 3 2 ) tt U n i v e r s i t y * It n . 1 0 1 . 5 0 3 . 4 7 3 . 4 5 9 . 4 9 8 . 5 5 1 J o n e s . 3 . ( 1 9 3 2 ) ft « .29 (5 year Average) . 4 3 (5 j-e pa-Aver age ) Termon, X* 11. et a l (1923) -« rr rt .54 .48 ,42 .63 .67 .49 Madeen, I.In " (1920) II High' School ' n u tt' .27 .42 . 3 8 -,36 . 3 7 . 3 6 .50 .51 Boor, tf. ]?. (19.22) 7? . 2 8 2 .277 St; John, 0 . Iff. " (1930) n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l 1! . 3 9 .39 .44 . 4 8 . 5 2 . 5 5 Taxamlnc, II. (1933) 11 .83 .87 Mean r .410 .510 from " a l l . g i r l s " ' o r " a l l bqye" i n s t i t u t i o n s h u t i n es much as e d u c a t i o n a l methods v a r y p r o f o u n d l y f r o m one s c h o o l to a n o t h e r i t was n o t t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o i n c l u d e t h e s e . I t w i l l be c l e a r l y seen t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r g i r l s are c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r "buys. I n o n l y t h r e e out o f the f i f t e e n p a i r s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d So the boys a c h i e v e a h i g h e r r a t i n g than g i r l s ; and i n each o f these c a s e s the d i f f e r e n c e i s l e s s t h a n the P r o b a b l e l i r r o r i n v o l v e d i n the c o e f f i c i e n t i t s e l f . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean r ' s i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , the g i r l s ' - m e a n r he i n g about 25J& h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e boys* I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t however, t h a t i n many eases good s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e was n o t f o l l o w e d . The number o f c a s e s i n v o l v e d i n some o f the s t u d i e s was too few t o g i v e v e r y s i g -n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s * WOT example s i x o f Madsen's c o r r e l a t i o n s were -based on f e w e r t h a n f i f t y c a s e s . P r a c t i c a l l y no d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e as t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s * I t w i l l be c l e a r t h a t t h i s phase o f the c o r r e l a t i o n problem m e r i t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n * ; I t would seem from the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the p u b l i s h e d d a t a t h a t s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s a r e b e t t e r adapted to g i r l s t h a n t o boys*. (39) - - Chapter-YI, The Scope o f the Pi's s e n t Stud;/. The v a l u e o f a d d i n g f u r t h e r t o the l i t e r a t u r e i n f i e l d of the. c o r r e l a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p , w h i c h seems a l -r e a d y overburdened, may n o t be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . The author b e l i e v e s t h a t the p r e s e n t s t u d y maJces a d i s t i n c t c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e f i e l d , 1* Many o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d I n t h e l i t -e r a t u r e a r e m i s l e a d i n g because the number o f cases i n v o l v e d i s too few. To be s i g n i f i c a n t a c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n must be a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s , and more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y f o u r t i m e s , the p r o b a b l e e r r o r * 2Trom t h e f o r m u l a e i t w i l l be.seen t h a t the P r o b a b l e Error o f r - .67445 ( l - r s ) S " p r o b a b l e e r r o r o f a c o r r e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s a s H., the number of cases d e c r e a s e s . The p r o b a b l e e r r o r becomes i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t as M approaches z e r o . Por t h i s r e a s o n , c o r r e l a t i o n s should be viewed w i t h c a u t i o n when based upon fewer t h a n .100 c a s e s ex-c e p t where the c o e f f i c i e n t i s q u i t e h i g h . Out of t h i r t y s t u d -i e s s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m t h o s e o f S e c t i o n B o f the b i b l i o -graphy 15 were based upon fewer t h a n 100 c a s e s . 12 o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s were based upon fe w e r t h a n 75 c a s e s . .While 8 of the c o e f f i c i e n t s employed fewer t h a n 50 c a s e s and 2 were based upon fewer t h a n 30 e a s e s . Such r e s e a r c h v i o l a t e s the c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e . 2. i^any o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e n o t based upon homogeneous d a t a . Even those s t u d i e s i n w h i c h the number o f , (54) cases i s v e r y l a r g e a r e o f t e n open t o q u e s t i o n . SJOOK TBTFBook, ./. P. The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s , 1922, ?. 103-105. {40} \7orked-~out--the-correlation "between mental t e s t s c o r e s and ccademic $rf-d.es o f some 6000 h i g h s c h o o l seniors snd o b t a i n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,282*.05 f o r boys ana .277-.04 f o r g i r l s . B i c e ^ 5 5 ^ s e l e c t e d a t random 124 s e n i o r s from one o f the t y p i c a l h i g h s c h o o l s c o v e r e d by Book^s s u r v e y and o b t a i n e d en r o f .47--.05. Book's c o r r e l a t i o n i s d e c i d e d l y below t h a t o f o t h e r s t u d i e s i n the h i g h s c h o o l f i e l d . T h i s i s d o u b t l e s s due t o i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the methods o f measuring s c h o o l achievement. There would u n d o u b t e d l y ba wide v a r i a t i o n i n s t a n d a r d s and e l i a b i l i t i e s o f s c h o o l marks g i v e n In the 320 s c h o o l s r e p r e s -e n t e d I n the s u r v e y . I n o t h e r words h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s too low because I t i s based upon d a t a w h i c h i s not homogeneous, 3. Many o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e r e n d e r e d v a l u e l e s s s i n c e t h e y do n o t p r e s e n t the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s o f t h e i r c o e f f i c -i e n t s . 4. blostj i f not a l l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e a r e open to q u e s t i o n because they do n o t p r e s e n t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e i r c r i t e r i a o f t e a c h e r s ' marks. B e f o r e c o r r e l a t i n g any two v a r i a b l e s such as I.Q. and t e a c h e r s ' marks, s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e demands t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f each o f th e s e measures be known. I t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t most of t h e s t a n d a r d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s (betvveen .8 and .95). But what o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s 1 marks? A c a r e f u l s e a r c h through the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e has f a i l e d to r e v e a l a s i n g l e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y i n Thin~lHeir7^'^ snd Scores Made on I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s , M a s t e r o f A r t s T h e s i s a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , June 1920." Quoted by Book,P. 104 which r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t e a c h e r s 5 marks were c l e a r l y presented« 5. Pew i n v e s t i g a t o r s have thought I t w o r t h w h i l e t o d e t e r -mine s e p a r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys and g i r l s . Ihu data o f the l a s t c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n sex d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s phase o f the c o r r e l a t i o n p r o b l e m needs t o be t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case o f t h e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s . 6. . / h l l e a g r e a t many s t u d i e s have been made t o determine t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p i n u n i v e r -s i t i e s and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s too few have d e a l t w i t h one o f th e key i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system, namely, the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n has been founded t o f u l -f i l l c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r noeds a t t h i s s tage o f e d u c a t i o n and oc-c u p i e s a prominent p l a c e i n the modern e d u c a t i o n a l system. I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , i m p o r t a n t t h a t tho j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l he the s u b j e c t o f f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s . 7. There i s a d i s t i n c t need for f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o d e t e r -mine the c o r r e l a t i o n o f achievement i n the s e p ^ r ^ t e s u b j e c t s w i x i i i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s I s e s p e c i a l l y n e c e s s a r y i n the com-m e r c i a l , the t e c h n i c a l , ana the home economies s u b j e c t s , ouch c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r adequate e d u c a t i o n a l guidance o f the s t u d e n t . 0. A c a r e f u l s e a r c h t h r o u g h the. a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s o n l y one c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y u s i n g Canadian s c h o o l s . i h i s i s 'the (56) s t u d y o f v*. L i n e >• nd J . o. G l e n u s i n g c h i l d r e n i n the pub-l i c s c h o o l s o f T o r o n t o . I t i s o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e t h a t a eom-(56J L i n e , ; i . ana fclen, *J. s., some H o l a u i o n s h i p s Between I n -t e l l i g e n c e and Achievement i n P u b l i c S c h o o l , J o u m . Educ. Res e a r c h , 1935, v o l . 28, 582-588. p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y "be under t a k e n i n Vancouver t o determine liow onr r e s u l t s compare w i t h those o f o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The p r e s e n t problem i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o determine the r e l a -t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e end e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i n the junior h i g h s c h o o l grades. k tells used., i n the Study. y A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2000 s t u d e n t s ( e v e n l y d i v i d e d as to s e x ) , who a t t e n d e d Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , Vancouver, d u r i n g the y e a r s 1937-28 and 1938-39* were used i n t h i s s t u d y . The s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s a l a r g e one and i s p r o b a b l y c l o s e l y r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e o f the c i t y a t l a r g e * P r a c t i c a l l y a l l n a t i o n a l i t y groups were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s t u d y but the d a t a on o r i e n t a l s w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r . Jh I n t e l l l g e n p e ^ e j ^ ^ T ^ ^ i n ^ J K t e _ 8 t u d ^ As a c r i t e r i a o f i n t e l l i g e n c e b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and group t e s t s were a v a i l a b l e . The group t e s t s which were used to determine the I.Q. o f p u p i l s isrespe: ( l ) Terman Group T o s t , (2) O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g Tests, (3) n a t i o n a l Intelligence T e s t , (4) . D e t r o i t T e s t . Individual i n t e l l i g e n c e r e s u l t s b?sed upon the S t a n f o r d He-vision o f the B i n e t t e s t were a v a i l a b l e i n some c a s e s . 0. The C r i t e r i a o f Scholarship„ T e a c h e r s 1 marks were used e x c l u s i v e l y a s a c r i t e r i a o f s c h o l a r s h i p . Achievement t e s t s were n o t used f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : ( l ) The s i m i l a r i t y i n the method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f b o t h i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t s l e a d s one to q u e s t i o n the v a l u e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ob-t a i n e d between them. (£} - The . number- o f achievement t e s t s w h i c h h a r e b e e n s t a n d a r d i z e d o n C a n a d i a n p u p i l a i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . • (z) 2or purpose o f e d u c a t i o n a l guidance i t i s Im-p o r t a n t t o know how a s t u d e n t s 1 s c h o l a r s h i p , w h i c h w i l l be measured by t e a c h e r s ' marks, w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . - I n the case o f Grade- I S s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s ' marks were available i n the f o r m o f p e r c e n t a g e s and l e t t e r g r a des. The pe r c e n t a g e s were used i n o b t a i n i n g most o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s . . The s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade 711 and V I I I s t u d e n t s was a v a i l a b l e I n t h e f o r m o f l e t t e r g r a d e s . The l e t t e r grades u s e d were . A,33,0+,C,G~,D,E„ A was a s s i g n e d t o t h e t o p 6p, B t o t h e nex t ^4/ y s and B's t o the next- 40£>, D t o the n e x t B4#>.a and E t o the l o w e s t &p* T i m s a s e v e n p o i n t s c a l e w i t h a n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n was obtained* To d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t s * g e n e r a l average i n a l l s u b j e c t s the f o l l o i Y i n g n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e l e t t e r grades. A-5, B=£, Cf~31/3, C*=5, 0~ K£ 2 / 3 , D=2, E = 1 « The n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s were t h e n added and the mean o r "numerical average" obtained» I n ob-t a i n i n g the " n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e " t h e marks i n E n g l i s h and Math-e m a t i c s were d o u b l e d s i n c e more s c h o o l time was devoted to these subjects.. The p r o b l e m was t o de t e r m i n e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s between i n t e l l i g e n c e and t e a c h e r s 7 marks . The I?e a r s o n Pro due t -lIoujj.it method was used to determine a l l c o r r e l a t i o n . P. S t a t i s t i c a l i.^ethqcU (44) The f o r m u l a used, to c a l c u l a t e p r o b a b l e e r r o r was as f o l i o ? / Proba bk E r r o r of T = ^A^Sd' ^ T TFT To i n t e r p r e t t i i e s i z e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d , we s h a l l u s e t h e - s t a n d a r d s g i v e n b y liugg.-B e l o w . I S o r .20, " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n c e , " f r o m ,15 o r .EO t o ,S5 o r .40., "present b u t low,5' I'Tovd .36 o r .40 t o ..60 o r .60, "markedly p r e s e n t . " Above .60 ©r .70., "high**' There- i s good r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p u p i l s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y f o r m e d a homogeneous g r o u p a n d y e t w a r e c l o s e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , a n d r a c i a l l y o f t h e c i t y a s a w h o l e . TB¥Fh. 0. iiugg," Ste'tiTtieai" Methods AppITed^o~3o^a t i o n, (45) C hapter VII. The I n t e l l i g e n c e and S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade IX s t u d e n t s . A. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . I t has been w e l l - e s t a b l i s e d by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t the I.Q. 1 s o b t a i n e d by o r i e n t a l s on v e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and group, are n o t r e l i a b l e because o f the language d i f f i c u l t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n the d a t a cn o r i e n t a l s has been s p e c i f i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e d from the g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y . T h i s d a t a w i l l he t r e a t e d i n a s e p a r a t a c h a p t e r . TABLE V I . PJ-J*$F£]^£P?LS£~^$.-ii'A-. .8>aen% ^F&de 1L S t u d e n t s . I.Q. dumber o f Boys . ^umber o f G i r l s T o t a l 1 3 5 — 1 4 5 3 1 125™-134 11 11 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 39 47 86 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 . 48 44 92 9 5 — 1 0 4 46 45 91 85—94 12 14 7 5 — 0 4 4 5 6 5 — 7 4 0 1 1 T o t a l s J.63 164 327 Table V i p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the I.Q.'s-of 163 boys and 164 g i r l s i n Grade IX. The t a b l e shows t h a t t h e r e a re p r a c t i c a l l y no sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n . The median I.Q. f o r g i r l s i s 109 w h i l e t h a t f o r boys i s 106. (46) B. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Age  Table VII p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f age, among the 327 Grade IX s t u d e n t s used i n t h i s s t u d y . The median age o f boys t a k e n a t A p r i l 1938 was 185 months w h i l e f o r g i r l s i t was 182 months. Thus i t w i l l be seen t h a t g i r l s tend to be somewhat younger i n t h i s grade, TABLE VII* D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Age among 327 Grade IX S t u d e n t s . Age i n Months A'umber o f Boys Humher o f G i r l s T o t a l 1 5 5 — 1 5 9 I 1 1 6 0 — 1 6 4 2 2 4 1 6 5 — 1 6 9 • 1 o 9 1 7 0 — 1 7 4 20 24 44 1 7 5 — 1 7 9 24 35 59 1 8 0 — 1 8 4 32 30 62 1 8 5 — 1 8 9 £8 59 190*--194 24 lH- 39 1 9 5 — 1 9 9 17 l l 28 2 0 0 — 2 0 4 7 ri. 10 2 0 5 — 2 0 9 5 7 210—214 £ 2 2 1 5 — 2 1 9 0 . 0 0 2 2 0 — 2 2 4 0 •j 1 T o t a l s 163 164 327 0. Average S c h o l a r s h i p ana I n t e l l i g e n c e . As stated i n the l a s t c h a p t e r t e a c h e r s 1 l e t t e r grodes i n - - - - • (47) the s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s v/ore c o n v e r t e d I n t o n u m e r i c a l vo.lues and the mean of.these w i l l be c a l l e d the numerical a v e r a g e . The range o f t h i s n u m e r i c a l average i s from 1 . 0 0 to 5 . 0 0 , TABUS " f i l l . Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade IX s t u d e n t s a t V a r i o u s I.Q,. L e v e l s . T n. Beys G i r l s A l l a. average Scho I a r s i i i p Average S c h o l a r s h i p Average S c h o l a r s h i p 1 3 5 — 1 4 5 3 3.95 1 4,3.0 4 3.99 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11 3 , 7 9 11 3.73 22 3 . 7 6 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 39 3,51 47 3.48 8 6 3.49 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 48 3.11 44 3.26 a 9 3.20 9 5 — 1 0 4 46 2.86 4 5 2.99 91 2,92 8 5 — 9 4 12 2.47 • 14 2.60 26 2.54 • 7 5 — 8 4 4 2.41 1 2 ..62 5 2.45 ' 6 5 — 7 4 " 0 1 1 . 7 3 1 1.73 •'• TABLE IX. Percentage o f P u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s I.Q. Boys G i r l s •Vi.l .. Hi - P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work Js. ft Doing s a t i s f a c t o r y Work Ii*.. p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y «ork 1 2 5 — 1 4 5 '4 1 0 0 $ 1 1 0 0 fo •4 1 0 0 p 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 1 1 1 0 0 $ 1 1 1 0 0 ft 22 . 1 0 0 c,i 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 3 9 8 9 . Tp 4 7 Q7.2% 86 BQA'p 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 4 8 7 9 . 6 ^ 4 4 S9.l£ 9 2 8 4 . 2 ^ 9 5 — 1 0 4 4 6 7 5 p 4 5 7 2 . 7p 9 1 7 3 .9# 8 5 — 9 4 JL^B 1 7 p 1 4 5 0 jc 2 6 3 5 p' 7 5 — 8 4 4 .;50 - % 1 0 fo o 4 0 f 6 5 — 7 4 0 •• X 0 , p 1 0 p • Table - -T-i-Z I - f-j ves the average s c h o l a r s h i p a t v a r i o u s I.Q,. l e v e l s . I t w i l l he c l e a r l y seen t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a very s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the n u m e r i c a l average w h i c h a pupil w i l l a t t a i n . Table IX. shows the perc e n t a g e o f pupils d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l work a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . A n u m e r i c a l av-erage o f £.70 o r b e t t e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . 3?rom t h i s t a b l e i t w i l l be seen t h a t an I.Q. o f 95 o r b e t t e r i s nec-e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l work:* 'ffith an I.Q. l o w e r t h a n 95 the chances f o r s u c c e s s i n Grade IX a r e about ono i n t h r e e . TABES X. C o r r e l a t i o n o f I».Q.. j?it.h Average S c h o l a r s h i p of .Grade, I X P u p i l s S u b j e c t s dumber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e Error Boys 163 .582 . .035 G i r l s 165 .519 .0.38 A l l 328 .551 .026 I t w i l l be seen f r o m T a b l e X t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f av-erage scholarship w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e quite s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s . I t might be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the c o r -r e l a t i o n f o r boys i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r g i r l s c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n the mean r o f .401 w h i c h was o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 356 r ' s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e (See Table I . Chapter •V.), i l a i iy s t u d i e s such as those o f s t a r c b J * ^ and B a n k e r ^ 0 9 ^ have shown t h a t t e a c h e r s ' marks a r e n o t v e r y r e l i a b l e * I n o r d e r (58) s t a r c h , - Uf E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology,"'Wcmillan UoTT -*ew York, 1919, P. 426-449 (59) Banker, H, J . , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Teachers' Marks," J o u r n a l o f Ecu R e s e a r c h , V o l . 16, ?. 159-171, 221-284, 1927. t c determine ^i^e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e teachers* marks used i n t h i s s t u d y the w r i t e r c o r r o l s t e d t h e p u p i l s T average s c h o l a r s h i p I n hovembei"' w i t h t h a t i n A p r i l , I t may o c c a s i o n some s u r p r i s e t o s t a t e t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .84 t . o i l (hoys .81 i .020., g i r l s .86 "t .013) was o b t a i n e d . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y h i g h and may o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by s t a t i n g t h p t t h e t e a c h e r s ' average marks used i n t h i s study were e x c e p t i o n a l l y r e l i a b l e , p r o b a b l y as r e l i a b l e as most i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s . D», Achievement,, i n E n g l i s h and I n t e l l i g e n c e ^ark_ Teachers gave p u p i l s I n Grade IX one mark i n g e n e r a l Eng-l i s h w hich i n c l u d e d , E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e t c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar, and s p e l l i n g . Table X I .shows the percentage o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t w i l l be seen t h a t g i r l s do s u p e r i o r work i n E n g l i s h a t all l e v e l s . Boys r e q u i r e an I.Q. o f 105 or b e t t o r t o do s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n t h i s s u b ( i e c t ; w h i l e about 50p o f the g i r l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s below 95 ore s u c c e s s f u l . Table X I I p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' marks i n E n g l i s h w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t w i l l be observed t h a t c o r r e l a -t i o n s s r o a l l q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , b e i n g somewhat h i g h e r f o r boys than f o r g i r l s * I t msy be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the c o r r e l a -t i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n the r o f .442 whi c h w?>s ob-t a i n e d on a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e (See Table III. Chapter V). Achievement in. £nglish at the Various I.Q. Levels. I.Q. Boys S i r ? .s A l l 7o h o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work /•3 Doing Ba t i s f a c t ory flork if. /& Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—144 3 100 p 1 100 £ 4 100 (/o X S O *** IL t!y 4r 12 83 p 11 100 $ 91 115—124 38 fly 9o 86 93 £ 105—114 48 5:6,2|B 45 37 93 71 jy 95—104 46 {7.G -i <?i 44 91 "31 \ 64 a 4/J 85--94 *] V. 8 $ 15 53 ^ 28 Under 85 4 0 # 2 6 16.6>$ TABLE XII. C o r r e l a t i o n ox Achievement i n E n g l i s h w i t h 1*0. .Number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e i r r o r Boys- 158 .590 »035 G i r l s 172 .526 .037 A l l 330 .537 .026 p. Achievement i n Mathematics and I n t e l l i g e n c e . T e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e f o r . g e n e r a l Mathematics and f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s : a l g e i b r a , a r i t h m e t i c , and geom-e t r y . The mark i n g e n e r a l mathematics was o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g the marks i n the t h r e e s e p a r a t e b r a n c h e s . Table i l l 11 shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t -ory 'work i n g e n e r a l mathematics a t the v a r i o u s I.Q* l e v e l s . I t w i l l be see n t h a t boys tend t o do s u p e r i o r work i n t h i s s u b j e c t j u s t as g i r l s d i d s u p e r i o r work I n E n g l i s h . G i r l s TABL3 X I I I Achievement i n Ha taenia t i c s a t v a r i o u s I,Q« L e v e l s * (51) I.Q. Boys' G i r l s A l l 70 xiomg S a t i s f a c t o r y fork 5*> Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work yo Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y ifork 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 2 100 1 100 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 2 4 12 100 9 78 21 90 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36 • 92 . • 33 97 69 94 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 35 83 29 93 64 87 9 5 — 1 0 4 36 78 17 53 5.3 70 Under 95 15 40 4 50 19 42 E A S E S ' X l l f , A c h l e v e B e a t ,in, AlgeTjra a t v a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . 1 n Boys )o Doing W7 S a t i s f a c t o r y Work G i r l s fo D o i n g Satisfactory Work A l l 6/o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work Li* 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 •115—124 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 9 5 — 1 0 4 Under 95 2 12 35 .34 36 15 100 100 91 85 70 47 1 9 |32 30 118 4 100 100 84 33 56 25 3 21 67 64 54 19 100 100 88 84 66 42 seem to r e q u i r e an I.Q. o f 105 or b e t t e r t o do s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n the. s u b j e c t , w h i l e boys succeed f a i r l y well with an I . Q. a s low as 95. The t a h l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p "between achievement i n g e n e r a l mathematics a 1:0. i n t e l l i g e n c e TABL3 XV. Achievement i n A r i t h m e t i c a t v a r i o u s I.Q, Levels. T A ~> (_', * Boys G i r l s A l l P B e i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work p B o i i i g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1,35—144 2 100 T u. 100 3 100 125—134 12 ' 100 9 78 2.1 90 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36 97' 33 88 69 93 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 34- 85 29 63 84 9 5 — 1 0 4 35 71 18 50 53 64 Under 95 15 27 4 50 19 32 TABLE XVI. Achievement i n Geometry at..Various L.Q. Levels* I.Q. Boys G i r l s A l l ?*; P Boing Satisfactory. Work B* p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work K. 'p B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—144. 2 100 1 100 3 100 1 1 5 — 1 3 4 12 t)p 10 50 22 73 115—124 36 86 - 32 78 68 82 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 35 86 29 79 64 83 9 5 — 1 0 4 35 77 17 53 52 69 Under 95 15 48 4 75 19 47 T a b l e s XIV, XV,i and ATI g i v e the achievement I n a l g e b r a , a r i t h m e t i c , , a n d geometry a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t w i l l be seen t h a t boys are s u p e r i o r to g i r l s a t a l l s t a g e s . The s u p e r i o r i t y o f boys i s most marked I n the esse ox geometry. T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due to the f a c t t h a t boys take m e c h a n i c a l drawing i n a d d i t i o n t o geometry and the t r a i n i n g I n the former .(S3) s u b j e c t a i d s them i n the l a t t e r , i n g e n e r a l , we may soy t h a t g i r l s r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q, o f 105 to do s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n the s e p a r a t e mathematics s u b j e c t s , w h i l e boys a r e s u c c e s s f u l w i t h an I.Q. o f 95 o r b e t t e r . TABLE ZVII.- • The C o r r e l a t i o n o f - G e n e r a l M a t h e m a t i c s , A l g e b r a . A r i t h m e t i c , em. Geometry'with I.Q." G e n e r a l Mathematics A l g e b r a A r i t h m e t i c Geometry Boys G i r l s A l l bumber r .. r. P.iS, r r •Jt\iG. 136 93 229 .576 .360 .488 .039 .061 .462 .446 .452 ..046 .056 .035 .569 .300 .458 .039 .063 ,035 .455 .112 . 316 .046 . 061 .040 T able A Y I I p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s of g e n e r a l mathematics r-Igebra, a r i t h m e t i c end geometry w i t h I.Q. I t w i l l be seen t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l p u p i l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t but are c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r i n geometry t h a n i n the o t h e r subjects. The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r g e n e r a l mathematics o f .480 i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n '. the r o f .357 o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 18 c o e f f i c -i e n t s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . (See Table I I I , Chapter - V ) . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d c u t t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys are d i s -t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n those o f t h e g i r l s , An e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e w i l l bo r e s e r v e d f o r a l a t e r p a r t o f the s t u d y . E." Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e , . Teachers * marks were a v a i l a b l e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d h i s t o r y , geography, and c i v i c s . These s u b j e c t s are combined i n b o t h t e a c h i n g and t e s t i n g , hence o n l y one mark wots a v a i l a b l e . Table A 7 I I I shows how achievement i n socis1 s t u d i e s (54) v a r i e s - w i t h . i.Q. i t w i l l be seen t h a t there i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement i n t h i s s u b j e c t . A minimum I.Q. o f 95 seems t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l work i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s . TABLE XVIII. Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i o s a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boys G i r l s ~ A l l I.Q. iu P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work i U )-3 Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y i'/ork p B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—L44 ' - 3 100 1 100 4 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12 92 11 91 91 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 38 95 46 •pO 84 92 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 48 85 48 39 96 87 9 5 — 1 0 4 46 7-6 45 67 91 71 Under 95 15 27 16 37 31 32 TABLE XIX. Ujorrel^tion of Teachers' Marks i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s ana I.Q. li umber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e mirror Beys 162 . 036 G i r l s 167 ..443 .041 A l l 329 .497 . 028 T a b l e XIX p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s 1 marks and I.Q. A c c o r d i n g to 2higg 7s s t a n d a r d s a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t " . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d ore d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . A c o e f f i c i e n t o f .332 was o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 20 r ' s f o r h i s t o r y found i n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h (Soe T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r V ) , I t should be pointed out t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s are d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r t o y s t h a n f o r g i r l s , £* ^chioVement i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e and Intplliftonqe. G e n e r a l Science I s s. compulsory s u b j e c t i n Orrdes V I I and Y l i l b a t i s o p t i o n a l i n Grade IS. However, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75$ o f t h e p u p i l s i n t h i s grade s e l e c t the s u b j e c t f o r t h e i r course f i i e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement a t the various I.Q. l e v e l s a r c to be found I n Table XX. I t v / i l l bo seen t h a t , c o n t r a r y to p o p u l a r o p i n i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e , , i n achievement i n science.. Again a minimum. I.Q,. o f 95 saems e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l work I n t h i s s u b j e c t . TABLE XX, Aghie_yeme-3t, i n G e n e r a l j c i g n c e a t the V a r i o u s I.Q,. Lex-els. Boys G i r l s- All i i . p h o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y */ork I , CP Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y >^orh i i . • /j ho i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 3 100 1 100 •A ££. 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12 100 9 100 21 100 1 1 5 — 1 2 0 36 95 34 88 70 91 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 36 82' 30 86 66 84 9 5 — 1 0 4 39 62 '•18 61 57 61 Under 95 15 j 7 j 29 32 The c o r r e l a t i o n s between T e a c h e r s 7 marks and I.Q. a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table X X I . I t w i l l be seen that a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t , " according to Rugg's s t a n d a r d s . The c o e f f i c -ient o f .627, o b t a i n e d f o r beys, i s the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks and I.Q,. that was found i n the Grnde I I s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t the cor-(56) r e l a t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r hoys than f o r . g i r l s , i co-e f f i c i e n t o f .453 was obtained on a v e r a g i n g 15 r T s found i n the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e (-ce 'f«.Dle I I I , Chapter V }. Thus I t w i l l be seen t h a t the correlations found i n t h i s study a r e markedly h i g h e r t h a n those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h . PABIS XXI. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s T I f e r k s v I n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e w i t h _ 1 . ^ . ihimbor C o r r e l a t i o n Br o ha h i e l<rr o r Boys 141 .*62? .05.4 G i r l s 99 *528 .049 A l l 240 ,586 -•E. Achievement i n f r e a c h and I n t e l l i g e n c e . F r e n c h i s an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n a l l grades o f the J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l * A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f the p u p i l s e l e c t e d t h i s s u b j e c t I n Grade I X * P u p i l s I n the l o w e r I n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s do n o t tend t o s e l e c t t h i s s u b j e c t * P a b l e _ X A I I _ shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . - She g i r l s e x h i b i t a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y through-ou t , i'or boys a minimum I.Q. of 105 seems to be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l s c h o l a r s h i p I n Ih-ench; but 50fo o f the g i r l s below t h i s l e v e l do s a t i s f a c t o r y work. Tgftle ^ I X I I I shows the c o r r e l a t i o n s be ewe en t e a c h e r s ' marks i n F r e n c h end I.O.. I t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . I n s p i t e o f the s u p e r i o r work o f g i r l s I n F r e n c h , the boys marks she*? a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e , A c o e f f i c i e n t o f .353 was ob-t a i n e d on a v e r a g i n g 2 r ' s found i n the i i w i ^ t u r e . xhe c o r -(57) r e l a t i o n s - f o u n d h e r e a r e t h e r e f o r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r than those r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . * i T A B U m i Achievement i n F r e n c h a t V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I.Q. G i r l s / • l l -Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y «ork li. Doing Sa t i s f a c t o ry *?ork J5. °/o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r v Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 9 100 1 100 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 10 SO 9 100 19 95 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 25 84 32 94 57 89 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 15 73 27 85 42 . 81 9 5 — 1 0 4 8 25 18 50 26 41 unaor 95 3 0 4 50 7 28 5?A-8J,*£J JLXII I . dumber C o r r e l a t i o n . 2robable E r r o r Boys 63 • 53,9,.....;. .•060 G i r l s 91 .425 .065 Ml 154 .447 „043 I . Achievement i n the. Commercial S u b j e c t s and • I n t e l l i g e n c e . The commercial s u b j e c t s i h ' t h i s grade i n c l u d e , book-keeping, b u s i n e s s arithmetic, and t y p i n g . A l l o f these s u b j e c t s a r e o p t i o n a l and a r e selected by from 20 t o 30}fc o f the p u p i l s , most of whom are g i r l s . G i r l s i n the lower i n t e l l i g e n c e b r a c k e t s tend to s e l o c t the commercial s u b j e c t s . Table XXIV shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement a t v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s o f p u p i l s t a k i n g book-keeping, b u s i n e s s arithmetic, and t y p i n g , i t w i l l "be s e e n t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e . p l a y s a small,..:- r o l e i n t h e s u c c e s s o f s t u d e n t s ' I n t h e c o m m e r c i a l s u b j e c t s . In the e a s e o f book-keeping, s t u d e n t s v/ith i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s between 95 eno 124 a r e a l l a b o u t e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , w i t h those b e t w e e n 1 1 5 a n d 124 d o i n g s l i g h t l y p o o r e r w o r k . A minimum I.Q. o f 95 seems n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y a c h i e v e m e n t . A l l s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s a b o v e 125 w e r e s u c -c e s s f u l * S a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o l a r s h i p i n b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c seems t o be a l i t t l e more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o I n t e l l i g e n c e , but again, s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s b e t w e e n 95 a n d 1 2 4 a r e a l l a b o u t e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . A minimum I.Q. o f 95 seems t o be r e q u i r e d f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k . Tho t a b l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s l i t t l e o r no p a r t i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f a s t u d e n t i n t y p i n g . P u p i l s w i t h I.Q.'s between 95 a n d 114 do t h e b e s t w o r k i n t h e s u b j e c t , w h i l e t h o s e ' a b o v e 1 2 5 do t h e p o o r e s t S t u d e n t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s b e l o w 95 seem t o be f a i r l y b u c u e s s f u l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s I n the commercial -s u b j e c t s and I.Q. a r e t o be f o u n d i n T a b l e AIT. I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t i n t h e case o f b o o k - k e e p i n g and b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c a c o r r e l a t i o n i s ,J p r e s e n t b u t l o w " ( a c c o r d i n g to' -Hogg's s t a n d -a r d s ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t y p i n g w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e (.031 -.063) i s " n e g l i g i b l e " , The r e s u l t s f o r b o t h b o o k - k e e p i n g a n d t y p i n g a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (See T a b l e I I I , Chapter V ) . I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e commercial s u b j e c t s a r e d i s t i n c t l y l o w e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e academic s u b j e c t s , v r t i i e h h a v e b e e n t h u s f a r p r e s e n t e d . TAKES. .XXIV:. ~ — — - — j j f i , B u s i n e s s a t Various i n t e l l i g e n c e " L e v e l s T (69) Achievement I n Eook-l:„ev,;i,nR\ Bi»H-«r>esm --r-i •• ; -> ) - i . - - . i - - - t . • 1 1 • — — — — 1 1 • . . i — g g ± a a . » - •-~»yr-g"***>l" ^ - A . J . liUiito i / l G . ;^P.'A ,„-y p . m g sock-keeping a Do Bu s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c Typing A .^ulng S a t i s f a c t o r y •jork 125—144 115—124 105—114 9 5 — 1 0 4 under 95 3 13 20 25 6 100 77 80 80 16 ^ Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y <»rork 13. 100 O O 54 5 25 32 a n 13 /0 JJV±i. _ S s t i s f actor; Work 60 76 81 81 70 TABLE XXV. Correlation o f Teachers; ...forks i n the Commercial S u b j e c t s w i t h — « ~ _______ ihunber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r •Book-keeping 67 .290 .075 B u s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c 98 .372 .059 T y p i n g .031 .063 _L». ApMe„T.e-Met.. Ife the T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s w i ^ _ ^ e l J U L £ g n ^ e r I n Grade I X , the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s I n c l u d e d r a f t i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y , m e t e l work, and woodwork, .nearly a l l o f the boys of t h i s grade spend soma time w i t h these s u b j e c t s . Table XXVI shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and the achievement i n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t w i l l be apparent t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e does n o t p l a y e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s . I n d r a f t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h I..Q.'s above 115 do s u p e r i o r work, but those p u p i l s between 105 arsa 115 do p o o r e r work than (60) those a t -any-other l e v e l . Boys w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s he-low 95 are f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l . S a t i s f a c t o r y work i n e l e c t r i c i t y seems to he somewhat more dependent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n any o f the o t h e r t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s * S t u d e n t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s below 95 do the p o o r e s t work w h i l e t h o s e above 115 do d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r work. Boys whose I.Q.'a a r e between 96 and 115 ere about e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , S u ccess -in m e t a l work i s o n l y s l i g h t l y dependent upon i n -t e l l i g e n c e . P u p i l s w i t h I,Q.'s above 125 a r e the most s u c c e s s -f u l w h i l e those below 95 do the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y work. Boys w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e quotient© between 105 and 125 seem t o have an e q u a l chance f o r success„ Achievement I n v/oodwork seems t o be t h e l e a s t dependent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, s t u d e n t s w i t h I.Q. 's.above 125 do the beet work and those below 95 tho p o o r e s t . Boys w i t h i n -t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s between 95 and 105 a r e more l i k e l y t o suc-ceed t h a n t h o s e between 115 end 115. l a b l e .ixyil g i v e s the c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks :in the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s and" I.Q. The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r e l e c t -r i c i t y o f *£4g i ^057 shows t h e t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t but lo v i i . " The c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r d r a f t i n ? , m e t a l work, and woodwork are " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( a c c o r d i n g to Pugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d a r e s i m i l a r t o those found i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h . A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .158 was o b t a i n e d on a v e r a g i n g 2 r ' s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . (See Il&nual A r t s , T able I I I , Chapter 7 ) . Achievement i n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e , i s not a p p r e c i a b l y dependent upon a s t u d e n t ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e . (61) T A B L E zxvr. Achievement i n tap Technical^/Subjects at Tarions Intelligence Levels., ' " " ' I.Q, Drs xtina i - l e c t r i c i t v I . c/o Doing Satisfactory Work 3 . % Doing Satisfactory Work 1ES—144 8 100 8 88 115—-124 PA 88 26 85 105—114 35 63 36 69 • 95—104 39 72 . 39 69 Under 95 15 73 " 15 60 I.Q. Metal ;¥or> Woodwork fi, 7» Doing Satisfactory Work If. •f> Doing Satisfactory Work 125—144 8 88 8 66 115—124 SO -23 70 105—114 34 80 32 78 •95—104 39 70 39 80 Under 95 15 67 15 60 TABLE X X V I I . Correlation o f T e a c h e r s 1 ' B a r k s ..in : t h e n T e c h n i c a l . . . S t i h j e c t s w i t h M i ihnaber Correlation •frobable Srror Drafting 181 ,116 .060 E l e c t r i c i t y 124 .242 .057 ll e t a l v'/ork 121 .106 .061 vVoGdwork 117 .074 ,062 (62.) A. Achievement i n Home- Aeonomies and. I n t e l l i g e n c e . The home economics s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g . . While t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e o p t i o n a l i n Grade 11, they a r e s e l e c t -ed by most g i r l s . T a b l e X A V I I I g i v e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n -t e l l i g e n c e and t h e achievement i n home economics a t the v a r i o u s I . Q . " l e v e l s , A s t u d e n t * s s u c c e s s i n these s u b j e c t s does n ot depend,.to any g r e a t e x t e n t , upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n c o o k i n g , g i r l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s above 110 do s u p e r i o r work* A minimum I-..Q. o f 90 seems t o be e s s e n t i a l f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement. S t u d e n t s w i t h I»Q.*s between 90 and 99 seem to have a somewhat b e t t e r chance f o r s u c c e s s t h a n these w i t h I*Q. !s between 100 and 109. S a t i s f a c t o r y work i n c l o t h i n g i s l e s s dependent upon i n - , t e l l i g e n e e t h a n i s c o o k i n g * A l l s t u d e n t s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e , q u o t i e n t s a r e above 100 seem t o have a n e q u a l chance f o r suc-c e s s . A minimun I.Q. o f 90., however, i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s -f a c t o r y achievement.. • ,. TABUS X X O I X . Achievement, i n .Cooking and C l o t h i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s * Oooking S l o t h l n g p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work /o D o i n g S a t i s f s c t o r y Work 120—120 lO" • x8 78 1 1 0 — 1 1 9 27 85 i 36 78 1 0 0 — 1 0 9 4.1 71 47 78 9 0 — 9 9 d* xj 77 69 8 0 — 8 9 6 50 6 33 The c o r r e l s t l o n s between t e a c h e r s T marks I n home economics ana I . . are p r e s e n t e d i i i fable XXIS. I t - g r i l l be seen t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s ' a r e " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( a c c o r d i n g t o Rugg 1 s t a n d e r a s j . There I s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s ob-t a i n e d f o r the two s u b j e c t s . TABLE JLXI1V O o j ' r e l s t i o n , o f r Teachers' Marks, S ^ ^ ^ ^ B ^ W ^ O B J ^ V S . I.Q. i-lumber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r b o o k i n g 108 -182 . 068 C l o t h i n g 130 ,169 .057 ! &. _ (general...Conclusions as t o the R e l a t i o n s h i p between I n t e l l i g e n c e said Or ad e . IX E c h o l s r s h i p. 1. The c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,651 o b t a i n e d between average scholar-•-s h i p and i n t e l l i g e n c e shows t h e t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t . i ! 2. S i m i l a r l y t h e r e i s a mrfced c o r r e l a t i o n between g e n e r a l E n g l i s h (.537), g e n e r a l mathsmatics {»-488) * s o c i a l s t u d i e s (.497), g e n e r a l s c i e n c e {-.l>87}4. F r e n c h (*447). and the i n t e l l i -gence q u o t i e n t . 3. The c o r r e l a t i o n o f book-keeping (.290) and b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c {,37h) w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e i s " p r e s e n t b u t low* The c o r r e l a t i o n between t y p i n g and I n t e l l i g e n c e (.031) I s " n e g l i g i b l e . " 5» The c o r r e l a t i o n o f the t e c h n i c a l , and home economics s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e i s " n e g l i g i b l e 1 5 . . j 6 » The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was that between gen-e r a l s c i e n c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e - . 7. The l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was t h a t between t y p i n g (64) and i n t e l l i g e n c e . • - ~8_.--iiie - c o r r e l a t i o n "between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n -t e l l i g e n c e was d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t found i n o t h e r r e -s e a r c h . 9_. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the academic s u b j e c t s and I n -t e l l i g e n c e <*••« d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n th.»» found i n o t h e r r e -s e a r c h . 10. The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e - c o m m e r c i a l and t e c h n i c a l sub-j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e are s i m i l a r t o those found i n the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e . . 1 1 . Boys do s u p e r i o r work t o g i r l s i n mathematics. I S * G i r l s do s u p e r i o r work t o boys i n E n g l i s h and Preneh. 13. There i s l i t t l e s e x d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement I n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and g e n e r a l science., 14. The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s 1 marks and i n t e l l i -gence a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r Sdr boys than f o r g i r l s . . T h i s I s c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s found i n the av-a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e (See Table f s C h a p t e r T ) . 15. I n g e n e r a l , achievement i n those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e has a marked c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 16.. Achievement i n those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h manual d e x t e r i t y p l a y s e s i g n i g i o e n t p a r t shows s n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 17. C o n t r a r y t o common o p i n i o n , t e a c h e r s ' marks a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p i n Uovember and t h a t i n A p r i l was found t o be .84 t .011. ( 6 5 ) Chapter VIII The I n t e l l i g e n c e end S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I I S t u d e n t s . i i * D i s t r i b u t i o n , o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ana the Average Scholershi-o of Grade VIII 1-upilsT '—' The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e among £30 boys and £34 g i r l s i n Grade V I I I i s t o be found in Table XTX;. i t w i l l be a p p a rent t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n . The median I.Q. f o r g i r l s i s 10? w h i l e t h a t f o r boys i s 105. /12 s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n O, C h a p t e r V I , t e a c h e r s ' l e t t e r grades i n the s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s were c o n v e r t e d I n t o n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s ; and the mean o f t h e s e may be c a l l e d the n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e . Table XXX p r e s e n t s the average s c h o l a r s h i p . a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . The t a b l e shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a p u p i l ' s s u c c e s s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the g i r l s a r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n boys a t the h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . JFrom t h i s t a b l e we may c o n c l u d e t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a much more i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n the s u c c e s s of g i r l s t h a n boys. • Table XXXI shows the p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t -o r y work f o r v a r i o u s degrees o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t w i l l be seen t h a t boys have a f a i r chance f o r s u c c e s s even a t the l o w e r l e v e l s . G i r l s whose I.Q.'s a r c below 105 have a poor chance f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement. Boys have a somefthat b e t t e r p r o g n o s i s £ o r s u c c e s s a t most l e v e l s . T a b le X X X I I p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' average s c h o l a r s h i p w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . I t w i l l be observed t h s t the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , o r t o use Rugg's s t a n d a r d s they are "markedly p r e s e n t . " The t a b l e c l e a r l y shows a d i s t i n c t TABLE XXX. ( 6 6 ^ D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ^ a n d Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade I I I S t u d e n t s . I.Q. Boys, G i r l s A l l . a. a v e r a g e S c h o l a r s h i p iU Average Scholf- r s h i p Average S c h o l a r s h i p 1 2 5 — 1 4 4 3 3.67 3. 3.67 125.--134 11 3.78 I I 3.85 22 3.82 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 M. „ 3.25 47 3.66 79 3.49 105—,114 71'" 3*10 84 3.12 155 3.11 9 5 — 1 0 4 72 £.87 55 £.77 ". 127 2.83 8 5 — 9 4 32 . . 2,86 27 2. 53- 59 2.71 75--84 10 2.86 9 2.06 19 2.44 TABLS X X X I . Percentage o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y '.York a t V a r i o u s I.Q. T O Boys G i r l s A l l P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y f o r k ih /'o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 3 100 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11 100 11 91 22 96 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 32 78 47 98 79 90 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 71 82 84 77 15 o 80 95--104 72 65 49 127 58 8 5 — 9 4 66 27 37 59 55 7 5 — 8 4 10 67 9 10 19 37 sex d i f f e r e n c e . While t h e r e s u l t s i n Grade IX a l l showed h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys, those f o r Grade V I I I c l e a r l y f a v o r the g i r l s . The s e x d i f f e r e n c e found i n t h i s grade i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t found I n t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e and p r e s e n t e d i n S a b l e V o f C h a p t e r 7. S e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s may he advanced to a c c o u n t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . ( l ) Perhaps t e a c h e r s ' marks e r e l e s s r e l i a b l e f o r boys. T h i s t o p i c w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n the n e x t s e c t i o n . - {2} The I.Q. may be a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the ach-ievement o f boys t h a n g i r l s . (3) The s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n may o f f e r g r e a t e r m o t i v a t i o n f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r b o y s . T h i s q u e s t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n i s one o f extreme importance and ? / i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l i n . Chapter XI* TABhl X X X I I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f I,Q. w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I I Pupils. S u b j e c t s lumber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e A r r o r Boys 230 .415 .03? G i r l s 234 .660 ••is 0S«5 464 ,54? ,022 B. The R e l i a b i l i t y o f T e a c h e r s ' Marks. The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s ' marks f o r Grade V I I I was de-t e r m i n e d by c o r r e l a t i n g t h e p u p i l s ' n u m e r i c a l average f o r Nov-ember w i t h t h a t f o r A p r i l . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d are p r e -sented i n Table X X X I I I . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y h i g h and can o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' marks used i n t h i s Study a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e . I t would seem t h a t , c o n t r a r y to the o p i n i o n o f many w r i t e r s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , t e a c h e r s ' average marks a r e about as r e l i a b l e as any two group I n t e l l i g -ence t e s t s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y co-e f f i c i e n t s a r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t han f o r hoys, 'This may e x p l a i n , t o some e x t e n t , why the c o r r e l a t i o n o f g i r l s ' marl w i t h I.Q. i s ' somewhat h i g h e r t h a n f o r l a y s . TABLE X X X I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Average Maries f o r I-ioveraber w i t h those 11 umber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e £rror Boys 230 .783 .016 G i r l s 229 • 828 .014 A l l 459 ,804 .011 £• Achievement i n . -English and I n t e l l i g e n c e . G e n e r a l J S n g l i s h i s made up of the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s : i i i n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar, s p e l l i n g and w r i t i n g . T e achers' marks i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h w i l l be used as a c r i t e r i a ' o f s c h o l a r s h i p i n the subject. Table &XXIY shows t h e p e r c e n t -age o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g -ence l e v e l s . G i r l s show a marked s u p e r i o r i t y a t n e a r l y a l l l e v e l s . G i r l s w i t h I.Q.'s as low as 85 have a good chance f o r su c c e s s i n E n g l i s h , w h i l e boys require a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 105 f o r s a t i s f r c t o r y work. These r e s u l t s a re v e r y s i m i l a r to th o s e found i n Grade IX. The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s a de-f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between achievement i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h and i n t e l l i g e n c e * The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' marks i n E n g l i s h v ; i t h I.Q. are to be found i n Table XXXV. The t a b l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i s "marked," to use Pugg's s t a n d a r d s . I t w i l l be observed t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n i s h i g h e r f o r g i r l s than f o r boys. T h i s d i f f e r s from the r e s u l t s (89) found i n G-ra.de 1 A . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l l d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n the r o f .442 w h i c h wes found on a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n t h e ; l i t e r a t u r e (See f a b l e I I I , Chapter ? ) • TABLE XXXIV, Achivement- i n E n g l i s h a t t h e V a r i o i i s I.Q.. L e v e l s . I.Q. Boy s O i r : Is A l l iS. D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y fa Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y #ork S. Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y V7ork •135—144 3 100 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11 31 10 90 ' 21 90 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 . 33 76 46 98 79 88 ' 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 69 64 84 86 150 74 9 5 — 1 0 4 .74 50 55 74 129 61 : 85—94 31 39 27 67 58 52 7 5 — 0 4 9 . 4 4 10 10 19 26 TABLB XXXV. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks I n E n g l i s h w i t h 1.0 L Smabsr C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 230 ,482 ,034 G i r l s 232 .569 .030 A l l 462 .518 .023 D. Achievement i n Ifo theme t i c s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . Teachers gave p u p i l s i n Grade V I I I one mark I n g e n e r a l mathematics w h i c h i n c l u d e d a r i t h m e t i c , a l g e b r a , and geometry. The percentage o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t She v a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n gable XXXVI. G i r l s w i t h I.Q.'s above 115 shevv a s l i g h t s u p e r i o r i t y over boys o f the same i n -t e l l i g e n c e . Boys show a marked s u p e r i o r i t y a t a l l o t h e r i n -<70>) • t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . Boys whose I.Q.'s s i r - j ' £s low as 85 do f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n mathematics, w h i l e g i r l s seem t o r e q u i r e a minimum I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 105 to have the same chance f o r s u c c e s s . The r e s u l t s w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d here are v e r y s i m i l a r t o those found i n Grade IA\. A s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p "between achievement i n g e n e r a l mathematics and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c l e a r l y : i n d i c a t e d by the t a b l e . TABLE XXXVI Achievement i n G e n e r a l Mathematics s t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . I.Q. Boys G i r l 3 A l l i i . P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work P. /j Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work li. fo Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y V/ork ' 135—14 - 4 : 3 100 3 ' 100 1 2 4 — 1 3 4 11 • 91 • / 10 100 21 95 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36 89 48 94 84 92 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 70 86 82 67 152 76 9 5 — 1 0 4 73 . 73 ., 55 56 128 66 8 5 — 9 4 30 63 27 41 57 53 7 5 — 8 4 •9 44 10 20 19 32 Table AXAVI1 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s of achievement i n g e n e r a l mathematics w i t h I.Q. A l t h o u g h the c o e f f i c i e n t s are c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n those f o r E n g l i s h t h e y show t h a t a c o r -r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t " ( t o usts Sugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . A l -though the r e s u l t s a r e somewhat l o w e r t h a n those found I n Grade IX, they a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n the r o f .357 o b t a i n e d by-a v e r a g i n g 18 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Table I I I , Chapter V ) . Tt w i l l be seen t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r g i r l s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r boys. T h i s d i f f e r s from the r e s u l t s fcmici i n Grade I A . TABLE XZZYII, The C o r r e l a t i o n ox Teachers' LSgrks i n G e n e r al Mathematics w i t h 1. Q."' ~" "~ ' ~~ dumber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 232 . .393 ,037 G i r l s 222 .497 .,033 A l l 464 • .439 ,026 S. Achievement i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e , . P u p i l s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e i n s o c i a l studios., w hich i n -c l u d e d geography, h i s t o r y , and c i v i c s . Table A X A T I l l p r e s e n t s the p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . I t w i l l be o bserved t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e f o r r . l l l e v e l s above an I.Q* o f 105, At t h e • l o w e r l e v e l s , however, the boys show a v e r y marked s u p e r i o r i t y . Boys have a good chance f o r s u c c e s s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s a t a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . G i r l s whose I.Q.'s a r e below 105 have a much p o o r e r chance t h a n boys f o r s u c c e s s I n the s u b j e c t . I n -t e l l i g e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , seems to p l a y a much g r e a t e r p a r t i n the s u c c e s s o f g i r l s than boys. The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between teachers T marks i n s o c i a l studies w i t h I.Q, a r e to be found i n Table XAXIA. I t w i l l be seen a t once t h a t t h e r e i s a marked sex d i f f e r e n c e . The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r boys of .309 shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t but l o w " , w h i l e t h a t f o r g i r l s , o f . 6 2 8 i s " h i g h " ( t o use hugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . Tho r e s u l t s 'clearly i n d i c a t e t h a t f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t w h i c h produced a much c l o s e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s f o r (7S) g i r l s t h a n f o r "boys. I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e r e s u l t s d i f f e r from those o f Grade IX w h i c h showed a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n f o r hoys. The c o e f f i c i e n t o f .46S, f o r hoys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r , i s d i s -t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e r of .332 which was found on a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Table I I I , Chapter V ) , The c o r r e l a t i o n i s , however, s l i g h t l y l o w e r than t h a t found i n the tfrade IX s e c t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . TABUS XX1VIII. Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s JL.Q. L e v e l s . Boy 3 G i r l s A l l p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y infork Jo Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work sM p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 O 100 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11 100 ' 10 100 21 100 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 33 97 45 98 78 97 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 69 87 83 85 152 86 9 5 — 1 0 4 74 SI 55 56 129 71 8 5 — 9 4 30 80 27 26 57 54 7 5 — 8 4 9 77 10 25 19 iAx5ij.ui M A i A t 0 o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' H a r k s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s w i t h I . Q . dumber , C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e i :<rror Boys 229 .309 .040 G i r l s 230 . 628 .027 A l l 459 .468 .022 Achievement i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . G e n e r a l S c i e n c e i s now a compulsory s u b j e c t i n Grade VIII and hence marks were a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l p u p i l s . Table XL p r e s e n t s (73) d a t a w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the achievement o f p u p i l s a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t w i l l he observed t h a t boys show a marked sup-e r i o r i t y o v e r g i r l s a t n e a r l y a l l l e v e l s . T h i s sex d i f f e r e n c e becomes v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t o r t he lo w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s . The t a b l e shows t h a t boys have an e x c e l l e n t chance f o r s u ccess r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r I.Q. The g i r l s , on the o t h e r hand, seem to r e c r a i r e a minimum I.Q. o f 95 f o r s a t l s f a c t o r j ' work. The suc c e s s o f boys i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e seems t o be much l e s s depend ent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n does t h a t o f g i r l s . . TABLE XL. Achievement i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e at... the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boys G i r l s A l l I.Q. i i . D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y V/ork A„ £ D o i ng S a t i s f a c t o r y Work A. c/o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—144 3 100 5 100 125—134 11 100 10 9-0 21 95 115—124 33 91 48 ' '34 81 93 10.5—114 70 87 80 78 150 82 95—104 74 88 55 60 129 76 85—94 31 84 27 41 58 64 75—84 9 88 10 30 19 58 j Table X L I p r e s e n t s the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . A g a i n t h e r e i s a pronounced s e x d i f f e r e n c e ; the c o r r e l a t i o n s b e i n g d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s . The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r boys o f .309 shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n I s " p r e s e n t but low," w h i l e t h a t f o r g i r l s o f .536 shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t " ( u s i n g Fcugg's e v a l u a t i o n ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f .415, f o r bo;vs (74) end g i r l s t o g e t h e r i s somewhat l o w e r t h a n the r o f .452 w h i c h \?as o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 15 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n the p u b l i s h -ed l i t e r a t u r e . The c o r r e l a t i o n i s markedly below the c o e f f i c -i e n t o f .586 which 'was found i n the Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . • TABLE XLI. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Harks i n g e n e r a l S c i e n c e w i t h I.Q. Boy* G i r l s flumbei- C o r r e l a t i o n | P r o b a b l e E r r o r ox 230 461 .209 .536 .415 .040 .031 * 026 G. achievement i n P r e a c h and I n t e l l i g e n c e . F r e n c h i s an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n t h i s grade and I s s e l e c t -ed by about 70$b o f t h e g i r l s and AQ% o f tho boys. P u p i l s w i t h l o w e r I.Q.'s do n o t t e n d t o take t h i s subject.. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X L I I . The g i r l s show a d i s t i n c t superiority over the boys a t a l l e x c e p t one l e v e l . A minimum I.Q. o f 95 seems to be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l work by b o t h boys and g i r l s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s 1 marks i n Prench and: I.Q. a r e to be found i n Table XL 111.. A l l o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s show t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s are " p r e s e n t but low." Tho c o e f f i c -i e n t o f .301 f o r boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n the c o r r e l a t i o n o f .353 o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 2 r ' s found i n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . The c o r r e l a t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y below the c o e f f i c i e n t o f .447 found i n the Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s (75) TABLE /LIU. Achievement i n ffrench a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boys ' G i r l L S A l l ... Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work ft Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work U. CP Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 2 5 — 1 4 4 o 100 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 9 77 10 80 19 79 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 21 62 . 43 79 64 73 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 28 61 61 70 89 67 9 5 — 1 0 4 20 55 32 66 52 61 8 5 — 9 4 8 50 15 4? 23 48 75--84 <, 0 5 20 7 14 TABLE X L I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Maries i n I r e n c h w i t h I.Q. l i umber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o h a h i e E r r o r Soys 91 .202 , 067 G i r l s 166 .046 A l l 257 .301 .038 i i * Achievement i n .the Commercial. S u b j e c t s ..and I n t e l l i g e n c e . The commercial s u b j e c t s i n t h i s grade i n c l u d e j u n i o r bus-i n e s s and t y p i n g . Both o f th e s e s u b j e c t s are o p t i o n a l but are selected by a p p r o x i m a t e l y t-S/i- o f t h e boys and 80^ o f the g i r l s . T a b le XLIY p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e and the achievement o f p u p i l s i n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s a t v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t will-Abe o b s e r v e d t h a t g i r l s have a somewhat b e t t e r chance f o r s u c c e s s a t most l e v e l s . A d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween achievement i n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d I n the t a b l e . (76) TABL3 ZLIV. Achievement i n Ounior B u s i n e s s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boy s G i r l s A l l i . y * J 3 . yo Doing • S a t i s f a c t o r y Work / J Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y iVork H. /j Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y ;?ork 1 5 5 — 1 4 4 3 100 tJ 100 1 2 5 — 1 5 4 8 88 8 100 16 94 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 25 . 92 32 100 57 96 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 47 72 62 81 109 77 9 5 — 1 0 4 41 71 51 69 • 92 70 0 5 — 9 4 19 53 23 65 42 59 7 5 — 8 4 4 75 10 30 14 43 The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and the achievement o f s t u d e n t s i n t y p i n g a t v a r i o u s I.Q* l e v e l s a re p r e s e n t e d i n Table XLY. The t a b l e shows t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e a t I.Q. l e v e l s above 105. A t t h e l o w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s boys have a much gre-. t o r chance f o r s u c c e s s t h a n g i r l s . The t a b l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e does n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i -c a n t r o l e i n the s u c c e s s o f b o y s . G i r l s whose I.Q. Ts are be-tween 85 and 125 a l l have about an e q u a l chance f o r s u c c e s s . Success I n t y p i n g i s n o t dependent, to any a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t , upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f j u n i o r b u s i n e s s and t y p i n g w i t h I.Q. a r e t o be found i n Table X L V I . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r j u n i o r b u s i n e s s show t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t " ( t o use Hugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . The c o e f f i c i e n t i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r boys, f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d of the r e s u l t s i n * t h i s g r a a o . TABLE XIV. Achievement i n l y p i n g . e t V a r i o u s , I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s . (77) Boys G i r l s A l l I - . Q . lK /o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work n. /o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Stork IK y? j)oing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 136—144 3 100 3 100 125—134 8 88 8 88 16 88 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 25 68 . 32 72 57 70 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 46 - 69 63 74 109 72 9 5 — 1 0 4 42 72 51 61 93 66 0 5 — 9 4 •19 89 • Ho 65 42 76 7 5 — 8 4 4 75 9 le3 38 TABLE Xmi w i t i i 1* Q* . J u n i o r B u s i n e s s TyBine A'umber C o r r e l a t i o n Pro c a b l e S r r o r C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys' 147 .409 .046 .008 .055 G i r l s 186 .550 .034 .173 .049 i l l 333 .482 .029 .097 .037 The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r t y p i n g c l e a r l y show t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e I s " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( u s i n g Kugg's e v a l u a t i o n ) . The c o e f f i c i e n t o f .097 o b t a i n e d f o r boys end g i r l s t o g e t h e r a g r e e s v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h the r o f .092 found I n o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Table- I I I , Chapter V). I t I s a l s o s i m i l a r t o the c o r r e l a t i o n o f .031 found i n the Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . I t may t h e r e f o r e be c o n c l u d e d thp.t s u c c e s s i n t y p i n g i s n o t dependent xivon I n t e l l i g e n c e . (78) i * Achiovement i n the T e c h n i c a l ^ o b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . The t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s grade i n c l u d e d r a f t i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y , m e t a l work, and woodwork. These s u b j e c t s a r e ta k e n by a l l boys i n Grade VIII. Table XOVII p r e s e n t s the achievement o f s t u d e n t s i n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. - l e v e l s . I t w i l l be observed t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e does n ot p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t I n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n thes e s u b j e c t s , TABLE XL V I i . Achievement i n the T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e T Q D r a f t .135—144 3 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11 91 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 30 77 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 70 81 9 5 — 1 0 4 73 78 8 5 — 9 4 27 67 7 5 — 8 4 9 77 Do i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work E l e c t r i c ! lu I p B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 33 68 72 30 9 67 70 85 76 71 70 77 I.Q. 155—144 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 9 5 — 1 0 4 . 8 5 — 9 4 7 5 — 8 4 M e t a l >io 10 33 67 75 10 o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y fork 67 80 85 73 69 72 60 '•i/oodwork 1*1. I p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y ^ o r k 3 59 65 67 67 70 91 75 70 1 7 9 ) S t u d e n t s with an I.Q. above 125 do s u p e r i o r work i n " d r a f t -i n g b u t s t u d e n t s a t a l l o t h e r l e v e l s have a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same chance f o r s u c c e s s . I t w i l l be c l e a r t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s no p a r t I n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n e l e c t r i c i t y . Boys a t a l l l e v e l s have about the same chance f o r s u c c e s s * S a t i s f a c t o r y achievement i n m e t a l work i s l i k e w i s e i n d e -pendent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , , S t u d e n t s have a f a i r p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s a t a l l I.Q. l e v e l s . P u p i l s whose I.Q.'s a r e between 105 and 114 have a much greater chance f o r s u c c e s s i n woodwork t h a n s t u d e n t s a t h i g h e r o r l o w e r I n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between teachers 1 marks i n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s xa.hdh I.Q, are p r e s e n t e d i n Tagle X M I I I , The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y show that the c o r r e l a t i o n between a c h i e v e -ment i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e I s " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n -d i f f e r e n t . " The c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e s e n t e d h e r e c o n f i r m t h o s e found i n t h e Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y and a l s o those o t h e r re-s e a r c h (See Manusl Ar t s , T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r V ) . Hence we may c o n c l u d e t h a t achievement I n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s I s independ-ent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE X L V I I I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Te a c h e r s ' LShrks i n the T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s w i t h xhimber C o r r e l a t i o n Pr o bab 1 e i3 r r o r D r a f t i n g 22 3 .081 .045 I l e t a l ivork 230 ,108 .044 i j l e c t r i c i t y 225 .076 . 045 'Voodwork 198 .030 .048 " (80) i i * achievement i n .acme ^oononiiGB and . i n t e l l i g e n c e . Home economics i n c l u d e s two s u b j e c t s , c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g . These s u b j e c t s a r e t a k e n by a l l g i r l s i n Grade T i l l . The a c h i e v e -ment i n c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g a t v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s as p r e s e n t e d I n Table XLIX. There appears t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n thes e two s u b j e c t s a t any one i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l • However, p u p i l s w i t h t h e ' h i g h e r I.Q.'s do d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r work. A s t u d e n t ' s p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s d e c r e a s e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y w i t h d e c r e a s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABhl ZE12. Achievement i n Cooking and C l o t h i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e • ' ' • • L e v e l s . " • ,-C o o k i n g O l o t h l n p I.Q. J.M. p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work H* )b Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 125—134 10 100 10 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 43 93 ,45 96 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 77 78 76 80 9 5 — 1 0 4 51 65 48 66 8 5 — 9 4 22 59 24 58 7 5 — 8 4 10 50 9 44 T a b l e 1 g i v e s t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks i n home economics and I.Q. The c o e f f i c i e n t s show t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t but low." The r e s u l t s are somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e found i n the Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . (81) TABLE I. Number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o h a h i e S r r o r C o o k i n g C l o t h i n g 213 212 ,327 .362 ,041 ,040 —* Achievement. I n Music and I n t e l l i g e n c e . M u s i c i s an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n t h i s grade and i s s e l e c t e d by about Z&p o f b o t h boys and g i r l s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n -t e l l i g e n c e and the p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s shown i n Ta b l e L I . Boys whose I.Q. Ts are between 95' and 104 have a much b e t t e r chance f o r su c c e s s t h a n t h o s e a t any o t h e r l e v e l . G i r l s whose I.Q.'s are between 115 and 124 have the b e s t p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s . A minimum I.Q, o f 95 seems e s s e n t i a l f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y work by b o t h boys and g i r l s - • •• TABLE LI*: -T—^ 'loy 3 G i r l s A n I.Q. li. P hoIng S a t i s f a c t o r y tfork h. P D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y ffork a. % Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 125—134 7 86 2 50 9 78 115—124 10 70 16 87 26 34 105—114 .26 69 27 78 53 74 95—104 7 100 14 50 21 67 85—94 5 ' 29 5 4-0 10 30 75—84 0 1 0 1 0 The c o e f f i c i e n t : , u f c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e morks r e c e i v e d (82) by p u p i l s i n music and i.Q. are t o be found i n g a b l e L I I . P o r boys the c o r r e l a t i o n i s -"negligible o r i n d i f f e r e n t " while f o r g i r l s I t i s " p r e s e n t but low" ( u s i n g Rugg Ts standards). However, the number o f ca s e s i n each o f these groups l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d . The c o e f f i c i e n t o f ..217 "1 .06 f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s , w h i c h - i s based on 120 c a s e s i s somewhat more r e l i a b l e and i s s i m i l a r t o the r o f .29 found i n an o t h e r s t u d y (See Table I I I , Chapter "V"). We may conclude., t h e r e f o r e , t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e does n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a. s t u d e n t ' s achievement i n music. , TABLE L1I. Correlation o f T e a c h e r s ' Marks i n M u s i c w i t h I.Q. Boys G i r l s A l l dumber 55 65 120 C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r .073 ,330 .217 .090 .074 .059 L. Achievement i n A r t and, I n t e l l i g e n c e . A r t i s an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n Grade V I I I but i s s e l e c t e d by about 75$ o f t h e boys and a b o u t 60$ o f t h e g i r l s . Table B i l l p r o d e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e p e r c e n t -age o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s , G i r l s show a s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r boys a t n e a r l y a l l l e y e l s . Boys have about the same chance f o r s u c c e s s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r I.Q* The achievement o f g i r l s i n a r t seems t o be s l i g h t l y more de-pendent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n does t h a t of boys. T a b l e L I Y p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s " marks i n a r t and I.Q. . .The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r boys shows t h a t t h e c o r -r e l a t i o n i s " n e g l i g i b l e o r I n d i f f e r e n t , " w h i l e t h a t f o r g i r l s shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t but low" ( u s i n g Rugg Ts (83) e v a l u a t i o n ; . The c o r r e l a t i o n f o r "boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r o f .099 t . 0 3 8 - i s almost i d e n t i c a l l i r i t h the r o f .097 found i n a n o t h e r s t u d y (Table I I I , C h a p t e r V)« I t i s t h e r e f o r e apparent t h a t achievement I n a r t i s independent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE I I I I . Achievement i n A r t a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . "ITQT soys if. 5» ho i n g ( S a t i s f a c t o r y ^ o r h G i r l s i f . /'a D o ing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work f 1 c/s Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y '.York 135--144 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 9 5 — 1 0 4 8 5 — 9 4 7 5 — 8 4 2 5 24 46 61 20 7 50 80 79 67 61 69 71 9 27 50 29 21 5 67 93 92 72 71 •30' 2 14 51 96 90 47 12 50 72 84 83 64 70 75 TABLE LIT. number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e S r r o r Boys 171 .024 .051 G i r l s 141 .259 .052 A l l 312 .099 .038 i i * G eneral. Summary o f Grade V I I i i i a u c a t i o n a l Achievement i n K e l a t i o n to I n t e l l i g e n c e . 1, The c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,547 between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l i g e n c e shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n I s "markedly p r e s e n t . " 2. There i s a l s o a "marked" c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i -gence and achievement i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h (.518), i n mathematics L 4 3 9 J , IB s o c i a l s t u d i e s (.468), i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e (.415) and I n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s (.482). 3 . The c o r r e l a t i o n between F r e n c h and i n t e l l i g e n c e (.301} i s " p r e s e n t but low." 4. The c o r r e l a t i o n between t y p i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e (.097) i s " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t . " 6* The home economics s u b j e c t s show a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 6.. The t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s show a n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . 7. The c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l -i g e n c e was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r any s i n g l e s u b j e c t . 8. The l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were those between the t e c h n i -c a l s u b j e c t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e . 9. The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f average s c h o l a r s h i p and o f the a c -ademic s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e were • . d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n those found i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h , but s l i g h t l y l o w e r than t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s found i n t h e Grade I I s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . 10. The c o r r e l a t i o n between music and i n t e l l i g e n c e (.217) i s " p r e s e n t b u t low*" 11. The c o r r e l a t i o n between a r t and ' i n t e l l i g e n c e (.099) i s " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t . " 12. The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s , typing., music., and a r t w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s i m i l a r t o those found i n '• o t h e r r e s e a r c h . 1 3 . I n g e n e r a l , boys do s u p e r i o r work t o g i r l s I n mathem-a t i c s , s o c i a l studieso, and g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . 14. I n g e n e r a l , g i r l s do s u p e r i o r work i n E n g l i s h , P rench (85) j u n i o r b u s i n e s s , and a r t * 15. Tlie c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s T marks and I n t e l l i - • gence are d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r boys. T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s found i n t h e a v a i l -a b l e l i t e r a t u r e (See T a b l e V, Chapter V). 16. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s a marked c o r r e l a t i o n between i n -t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n those s u b j e c t s i n which r e a d i n g p l a y s • a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t * 17-. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s a n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n those s u b j e c t s w h i c h are depend-ent upon some measure o f manual d e x t e r i t y . 18. The c o r r e l a t i o n o f average s c h o l a r s h i p i n November with t h a t i n A p r i l was found t o be .804 % . O i l . T h i s c o n c l u s i v e l y • shows t h a t t e a c h e r s 7 average marks a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e . (86) Chapter IX» The I n t e l l i g e n c e and S p h g l g r s ^ D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and the Average Scholrg-shir. o f Table LV g i v e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e among 246 boys and 216 g i r l s i n Grade VII. The median I.Q. f o r g i r l s i s 103 and t h a t f o r boys i s 101. There appers to be l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e In the d i s t r i b u t i o n c f i n t e l l i g e n c e . T e a c h e r s ' l e t t e r grades i n the s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s and the mean o f these was computed to f i n d the. n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e . The average s c h o l a r s h i p a t the v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s I s a l s o to be found i n Table LV. I t w i l l be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n ac?domic s u c c e s s . There i s l i t t l e s e x d i f f e r e n c e i n s c h o l a s t i c achievement among p u p i l s of tho same i n t e l l i g e n c e . . The p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e LVI, P o r both sexes . a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 95 seems e s s e n t i a l f o r suc-c e s s f u l achievement. At t h e l o w e r l e v e l s the probability o f s u c c e s s i s about one i n t h r e e . The c o r r e l a t i o n " o f p u p i l ' s average s c h o l a r s h i p and I.Q. are to be found i n Table L V I 1 . The c o e f f i c i e n t for boyo o f .586 shows t h a t a c o x - r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t " w h i l e t h a t f o r g i r l s o f ,668 I s " h i g h " ( u s i n g Kugg's ^ e v a l u a t i o n ) . As i n the Grn.de VIII s e c t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s h i g h e r f o r g i r l a n d t h i s sex d i f f e r e n c e i s s i m i l a r to t h p t of o t h e r research (See Table V, Chapter "". , A l l o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s are h i g h e r t h a n (87} TA.BL-; IV. t r i b u t i o . n ^ u i t e m S c h o l a r s h i p q „ Boys G i r l s A l l I.Q. Average S c h o l a r s h i p Average S c h o l a r s h i j Average Scholarship 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 4.40 1 4.80 2 4.60 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13 3.65 6 3.70 19 3.67 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36 3*52 ,39 3.60 75 3.56 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 56 3.07 59 3.24 115 3.14 95--104 68 3,00 52 • 2.97 120 2. 39. 8 5 — 9 4 52 2.65 38 2*62 90 2.64 Under 85 20 2.48 21 2.48 41 2.48 • f ABBS BVX.. Percentage of - yavXla doing Satiatectory ffork_at V a r i o u s I. " l e v e l s . " — Boys G i r l s A l l i.Q. i i . cfi B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work I i . Jo B e i n g So fcisfaotorv Work P B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y 7/ork 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 100 1 100 2 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13 100 6 100 19 100 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 ' 36 97 39 92 75 95 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 56 88 59 85 115 86 95--104 68 75 52 73 120 74 8 5 — 9 4 52 44 38 42 90 43 Under 85 20 35 21 33 41 34 those obtained I n the Grade V I I I and II s e c t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l s o d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r than the mean r o f .401 which was obtained by a v e r a g i n g 356 r's found i n the l i t -/- (OB) eramro vl'aole I, Chapter Y). TABLE ZYII. V l l p u y ) l l s Boys G i r l s All lumber 246 216 462 C o r r e l a t i o n .686 .668 . 625 P r o b a b l e E r r o r . 028 .026 .019 B. The R e l i a b i l i t y o f Toaohera* .Marke. The p u p i l s T n u m e r i c a l average f o r November was c o r r e l a t e d with that f o r A p r i l to determine the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s 1 marks i n Grade VII, f a b l e . IATIII p r e s e n t s the c o e f f i c i e n t s ob-t a i n e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e v e r y h i g h , i n d i c a t e that the teachers 1 average marks i n t h i s grade a r e q u i t e reliable» I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . TABLE L V I I I . ' C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Average Marks f o r Boy ember w i t h those .Number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 259 .811 . 014 G i r l s - 212 .,813. m A A l l 471 .812 .010 E n g l i s h £• •Achievement i n E n g l i s h , and I n t e l l i g e n c e . G e n e r a l E n g l i s h i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s l i t e r a t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar, s p e l l i n g , and w r i t i n g . • Teachers' ]?srks i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h w i l l he used as a measure of achievement i n t h e subject. The p e r c e n t a g e , o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work at the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s t o be found I n (89) Table LI,,. i t w i l l be a p p arent t h a t g i r l s show a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y over boys i n E n g l i s h . Boys r e q u i r e a minimum i n -t e l l i g e n c e ' q u o t i e n t o f 95 f o r s u c c e s s f u l achievement w h i l e g i r l s whose I.Q. 1 s are as l o w as 85 do s a t i s f a c t o r y work. Of 123 g i r l s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were 105 o r b e t t e r , o n l y two o b t a i n e d f a i l i n g marks i n A n g l i s h ; w h i l e n i n e t e e n out o f 107 boys, h a v i n g t h e same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work. The r e s u l t s are s i m i l a r t o those found I n the Srade T i l l and IX s e c t i o n s oT t h i s s t u d y . TABLE LIX. Achievement i n E n g l i s h a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . T ' ,S Boy 3 • G i r l Ls A n i . Q . Si. JS> D o i n g Sa 1 1 s f a c t o r v Work • a. cfi B e i n g 8a 11 s f ac t o r y l o r k A. 5& Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work ' • 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 100 1 • 100 2 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13 92 6 100 19 95 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 34 . 91 44 100 78 96 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59 75 72 97 131 87 95--104 69 67 52 79 121 72 8 5 — 9 4 48 37 37 62 85 48 Under $5 21 33 22 55 43 44 Table LX shows the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ' marks i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r g i r l s I s " h i g h " w h i l e t h a t f o r boys shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly jnresent. 7' I n g e n e r a l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r -a b l y h i g h e r t h e n those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (See Table I I I , Chap-t e r V) and a l s o those o b t a i n e d i n the Grade V I I I and IX s e c t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y . S c h o l a s t i c achievement i n E n g l i s h i s markedly dependent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE L i . C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Marks i n a n g l i s h w i t h I.p. (90) Boys G i r l s A l l dumber 245 234 479 C o r r e l a t i o n * 541 • 638 .588 P r o b a b l e E r r o r ,030 .025 . 020 B. Achievement I n Mat-hematics and I n t e l l i g e n c e . T a b l e LAI p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s -f a c t o r y work i n g e n e r a l mathematics a t t h e v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . I t w i l l be seen t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , boys do s u p e r i o r v/ork to g i r l s . As i n Grade f i l l , boys whose I.Q. ' s are as low as 85 have a f a i r c h a n c e , f o r s u c c e s s . G i r l s , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q, o f 9-5. Of 47 boys whose i n t e l l l - . gence q u o t i e n t s were 115 o r b e t t e r , o n l y one f a i l e d i n mathem-a t i c s ; w h i l e s i s out o f 51 g i r l s w i t h the same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work. The t a b l e I n d i c a t e s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between achievement i n mathematics and i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s 1 , marks i n g e n e r a l mathematics ouAdi i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e to be found i n Table L X I I . The c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t . " I n g e n e r a l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( T a b l e I I I , Chapter V) and somewhat h i g h e r than those found i n the Grade ¥111 and IX s e c t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . Achievement i n G e n e r a l Mathematics a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . (91) Soys G i r l s A l l J. * • D. p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work u. Sa p Doing t i s f a c t o r y Work i i . P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—3.44 1 100 1 100 2 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12 100 6 100 18 100 115—124 34 97 4 4 86 78 91 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59 78 71 87 130 83 9 5 — 1 0 4 70 84 57 60 127 73 8 5 — 9 4 48 63 41 32 . 89 48 ' Under 85 21 «33 25 24 46 28 •.TABLE ffiL . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers" Harks i n G e n e r a l Mathematics w i t h I.Q. Number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 245 .478 .033 G i r l s 245 .583 .020 A l l 490 .527 ,022 i X. Achievement i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . T e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d geography, c i v i c s . , and h i s t o r y . The percentage o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v -e l s i s shown i n Table L X I I 1 . I t w i l l be apparent t h a t boys have a somewhat b e t t e r chance f o r s u c c e s s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t h a n g i r l s . A l l o f the 48 boys whose I.Q.'s were 115 o r b e t t e r were s u c c e s s f u l , w h i l e 4 out o f 50 g i r l s w i t h the same i n t e l l i -gence f a i l e d . Both boys and g i r l s , however, seem to r e q u i r e a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 95 f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y a c h i e v e -merit. (92) TABLE L i I I I . Achievement i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l * Boy J G i r l s A l l X m-Q, a fij /=> ho i n g S a 11 s f a c t o ry Work ti* 8a )o Doing t i s f a e t o r y '•fork I i . / i Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135—144 1 100 1 100 2 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13 100 6 100 19 100 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 34 100 43 91 77 95 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59 85 72 83 131 84 9 5 — 1 0 4 69 82 52 69 121 77 8 5 — 9 4 49 55 37 46 86 51 L Tnder 85 43 21 38 ' 42 40 Table LXIV p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' marks i n s o c i e l s t u d i e s anu I.Q, I t w i l l be e v i d e n t t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly p r e s e n t . " There i s l i t t l e sex d i f -f e r e n c e i n the s i z e o f the c o e f f i c i e n t . I n g e n e r a l , the r e s u l t s a r e much h i g h e r t h a n those o f o t h e r s t u d i e s (See Table I I I , C h a p t e r V) and s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e found i n the Grade V I I I and IX p a r t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . Achievement i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABliS LXIV. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Tea c h e r s ' Marks i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s w i t h J_.Q.. Humber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 246 .610 .033 G i r l s 232 .515 .033 A l l 476 .512 . 023 H * Achievement i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e and I n t e l l i g e n c e . The achievement o f p u p i l s i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a t the v a r i o u I.Q. l e v e l s i s t o he f o u n d i n Table L X V . I t w i l l be seen a t once, t h a t boys do d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r work to g i r l s . Of 46 boys w i t h I.Q.'s above 115 o n l y 3 o b t a i n e d f a i l i n g marks; w h i l e 14 out o f 50 g i r l s w i t h the same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d u n s a t i s f a c t -o r y work. G i i - I s r e q u i r e a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e o n o t i e n t o f 105 f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement, w h i l e boys w i t h a n I.Q. as low aa 85 have a f a i r chance f o r s u c c e s s . The data p r e s e n t e d here i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t found i n the Grade ¥111 s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . fABLI LXV. -Achievement i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boys G i r l s A l l . i . Q . JJI. Jo Doing-S a t i s f a c t o r y Work J H . Jfc Doing Sat i s f a o t o r y Work i l . . Jfo Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 135--144 1 100 1 100 o in/ 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13 100 6 67 19 09 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 32 91 43 72 75 80 • 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59 83 71 72 ISO 77 9 5 — 1 0 4 68 70 54 , 4 8 .- 122 60 8 5 — 9 4 48 67 37 43 85 56 Under 85 21 4-8 22 4 6 43 47 Table LXVI shows the c o e f f i c i e n t ' s o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r r s marks i n g e n e r a l S c i e n c e and I.Q. I t w i l l be ob-s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n is§.<?ffiewhat h i g h e r f o r boys than f o r g i r l s , c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s i n t h i s grade. The s i z e o f the c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c o r -r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t b a t low," and i t i s somewhat lo w e r than t h o s e found i n the Grade V I I I and IX s e c t i o n s o f the s t u d y . The c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e a l s o l o w e r t h a n those found I n o t h e r r e -s e a r c h . {Table I I I , Chapter V ) . However, the r e s u l t s I n d i c a t e t h a t achievement i i . g e n e r a l s c i e n c e i s somewhat dependent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE LXVI. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teabhs~A's PJarks i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e w i t h I.Q. Boys G i r l s A l l LT umber 242 234 476 C o r r e l a t i o n .412 .370 .391 P r o b a b l e E r r o r .036 .038 .026 G. Achievement I n F r e n c h and i n t e l l i g e n c e . P r e n c h i s a n o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t I n Grade V I I but i s s e l e c t e d by about 50fi o f t h e boys and 70p o f t h e g i r l s . P u p i l s w i t h l o w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s do n o t tend t o t a k e t h i s s u b j e c t . T a b l e LXVI I shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and achieve-ment a t the v a r i o u s I.Q, l e v e l s . G i r l s show a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y over boj-s. Boys r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q. o f 95 f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y work, w h i l e g i r l s have good chance f o r s u c c e s s r e g a r d l e s s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between I.Q. and t e a c h e r s ' marks i n F r e n c h are p r e s e n t e d i n Table L X V I I I . The c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c -a t e t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t b u t low" ( u s i n g Pugg's ev-a l u a t i o n ) . The r e s u l t s are somewhat l o w e r t h a n those found i n Grade IX, but a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e found i n Grade V I I I . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l s o somewhat h i g h e r t h a n those found i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h . As I n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , the c o e f f i c i e n t s show a sex d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h f a v o r s the hoys. TABLE LXVII. Achievement i n ffrencn a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. Levels. Boy, s G i r l s A l l i • V4» J&L P D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work U. 1 p B o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y ffork M, P Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y &ork 105—144 1 100 1 100 2 100 1 2 5 — 1 5 4 10 90 . 6 100 16 94 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 29 89 39 95 68 92 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 33 61 65 69 98 66 9 5 — 1 0 4 34 53 38 66 72 59 ;Under 95 10 40 16 75 26 61 TABLE LXYIIi. C o r r e l a t i o n o f TeachersV Marks i n Erench w i t h i.Q. If limber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 117 .404 .046 G i r l s 165 .361 .052 A l l 282 .371 .035 H. Achievement i n the T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . H h i l e the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s grade i n c l u d e d r a f t i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y . , m e t a l work, and woodwork, t e a c h e r s ' a s s i g n e d one mark i n g e n e r a l shop work* The achievement o f boys i n g e n e r a l shop work a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table LXIX. I t w i l l be observed t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a d e f i n i t e p a r t i n a s t u d e n t T s s u c c e s s . Of 47 boys w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s above 115, o n l y 4 d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work. A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .355 £ .037 was o b t a i n e d between the marks o f 247 boys and I.Q. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t b u t low." I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t the (96) c o e f f i c i e n t f o r g e n e r a l shop work i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r than those found f o r the s e p a r a t e technical subjects. Two reasons may he proposed t o explain t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (1) Perhaps t e a c h e r s 1 marks i n g e n e r a l shop work are more r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e o f a s t u d e n t ' s achievement s i n c e t h e y have "been o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g grades i n the s e p a r a t e technical s u b j e c t s . (2) I n Grade V I I p u p i l s spend the f u l l s c h o o l y e a r under one i n s t r u c t o r , while i n G r a d e s V I I I ana' IX,pupils spend a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n weeks w i t h each o f f o u r t e a c h e r s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v -a b l e that. p u p i l s marks i n Grade V I I a r e a b e t t e r i n d e x o f . a b i l i t y I n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s than those i n Grades .VIII and IX.. Achievement i n G e n e r a l Shop Work a t t h e V a r i o u s I . Q . L e v e l s . T O i i umber f? Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 100 1 2 6 — 1 3 4 92 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 35 91 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59 79 9 5 — 1 0 4 71 74 8 5 — 9 4 48 62 | Under 05 21 57 I_. Achievement i n the Home Economics S u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . Home economics, w h i c h i n c l u d e s c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g , x s t a k e n by a l l g i r l s i n Grade V I I . The achievement i n c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s t o be found i n f a b l e LXX-. I t . w i l l be apporent t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s no p a r t (97) i n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n c l o t h i n g . G i r l s whose I.Q.'s are above 125 do the p o o r e s t work, w h i l e those a t a l l o t h e r l e v e l s .seem.to have an e q u a l chance f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement. Success i n c o o k i n g I s somewhat more dependent upon I n t e l l -i g e n c e . G i r l s w i t h I.Q.'s above 125 d i d the most s a t i s f a c t o r y work. However, a l l s t u d e n t s with i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s be-tween 95 and 124 seem to have about the same chance f o r success, HASPS L2X. t the V a r i o u s I n t e l ! i g e n e e Achievement i n C o o k i n g K n d P i n t s v e l s . '• ;—n Cooking C l o t h i n e /-> D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work /o Doing Sat i s f a c t orv Work 125—144 7 100 r; i • 57 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 42 79 41 76 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 71 83 68 76 9 5 — 1 0 4 55 80 54- 77 8 5 — 9 4 36 55 37 81 . Under 85 k L 21 67 18 77 TABLE LKXI. Eumber C o r r e l a t i o n •aounoraics w i t h P r o b a b l e E r r o r C o o k i n g C l o t h i n g 232 225 -.235 .042 -.042 . 045 The c o r r e l a t i o n s between teachers" marks i n the home ec-onomics s u b j e c t s and I.Q. a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table LAXI. The -co-e f f i c i e n t f o r c o o k i n g shows t h a t a c o x - r e l a t l o n i s " p r e s e n t but low," while t h a t f o r clothing i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s ''negligible o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( u s i n g Eugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . The r e -s u i t s a r e somewhat xower t h a n those o b t a i n e d i n Grade V I I I . I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e does n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i -c a n t p a r t I n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n home economics. i i * Achievement I n H u s i c and I n t e l l i g e n c e . I n Grade V£I ; music i s a compulsory s u b j e c t and henco t e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l p u p i l s , Table L X X I I shows t h e - p e r c e n t a g e o f s t u d e n t s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s . I t w i l l be observed t h a t , I n g e n e r a l , g i r l s t end t o do s u p e r i o r work to boys., p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e l o w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . Boys whose I.Q.'s a r e below 95 have a r a t h e r poor p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s i n m u s i c . TABLE LXJ.II. Achievement i n I l u s i c a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s . Boys G i r l s Al 1 I.Q. H. °/o Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work II. • <p D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y Work II. "p Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 125—.144 1 100 1 100 2 100 1 2 6 — 1 3 4 12 92 6 83 18 89 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 33 76 44 82 77 79 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 53 70 74 74 127 72 9 5 — 1 0 4 57 82 52 71 109 77 8 5 — 9 4 35 54 37 70 72 62 Under 85 16 50 21 67 37 59 The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' marks i n music and I.Q. a r e to be found i n Ta.bl-° L A X I I I . The, c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d are " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t . " The r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r to those found i n Grade V I I I , and a l s o those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (see Table I I I , C h a p t e r V ) . I t w i l l be c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a c h i e v e -ment i n music i s o n l y v e r y s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e . TiiBIXS L - r L / i l l i . . C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Harks i n Music w i t h I.Q. dumber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r ±5oys 207 .204 .045 G i r l s 235 .191 .042 A l l 442 .196 .031 K. Achievement i n A r t ana I n t e l l i g e n c e . S i n c e a r t i s a compulsory s u b j e c t i n Grade "VII t e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s I.Q. l e x - e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table hZXIV. The t a b l e shows t h a t achievement i n a r t does n o t dependj t o any marked e x t e n t , upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . P u p i l s whose I.Q. Ts a r e between 125 and 134 seem to have a r a t h e r poor chance f o r s u c c e s s . G i r l s do s u p e r i o r work to boys al-most i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . A l l g i r l s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s a r e between 75 and 124 have about ar? e q u a l chance f o r s u c c e s s . TABUS 1XXIY, Achievement i n A r t a t t h e V a r i o u s I..Q. .bevels. Bov s G i r l s . A l l I . Q.. lu fo D o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y #ork 1L fb Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work B. ft Doing S a t i s f a c t o r y Work 1 3 5 — 1 4 4 1 100 1 100 1 100 1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12 67 6 67 18 67 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 31 90 42 81 73 85 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 60 73 74 85 134 79 9 5 — 1 0 4 70 74 55 87 125 80 8 5 — 9 4 47 57 37 86 84 70 Under 85 21 57 21 81 42 69 The c o e f f i c i e n t s , w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Table LXXV c l e a r l y eh or; t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n ? between t e a c h e r s 1 marks i n a r t and I.Q. a r e " n e g l i g i b l e or I n d i f f e r e n t T h e r e s u l t s found h e r e a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e o f the Grade Vf.II s e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , end a l s o to t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h {Table I I I , C h a p t e r ¥ ) . I t may be c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t achievement i n a r t i s independent o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , TABLE LZZY. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f T e a c h e r s 1 Marks i n A r t w i t h I.Q. l umber C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys • 242 .147 .042 G i r l s - 256 .001 ..044 A l l 478 .080 . 031 ' L. G e n e r a l Summary o f Grade V l l , S c h o l a r s h i p i n R e l a t i o n - t o I n - t e l l i g e n c e . 1. There I s a "marked" c o r r e l a t i o n , .625, between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l i g e n c e . 2. There i s a marked c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e am achievement I n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h (.588}, i n mathematics (.527.), and I n s o c i a l s t u d i e s (.512), 3. There i s a low c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e (.391), i n Erench (.371), and i n g e n e r a l shop work (.355). 4. There I s a " n e g l i g i b l e " c o r r e l a t i o n becween. i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n home economics, i n music, and i n a r t . 5. The c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l -i g e n c e was h i g h e r than t h a t f o r any s i n g l e s u b j e c t . 6. The l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were those between a r t and i n -t e l l i g e n c e . 7. The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f average s c h o l a r s h i p w i t h I n t e l l i -gence were h i g h e r t h a n those found i n Srades T i l l and I X , and a l s o h i g h e r than those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h , 8* I n general., the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the academic s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e were h i g h e r t h a n those found i n Grades V I I I and" I X , and a l s o h i g h e r than, those o f o t h e r .-research, 9 8 f h e . c o r r e l a t i o n s o f a r t and music w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s i m i l a r t o those found I n the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e * 10. G i r l s a r e more s u e e e s s f u t h a n boys I n E n g l i s h , IPrench, m u s i c , and a r t . • 11. Boys a r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n g i r l s i n mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . 12. On the whole,,the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s 1 marks and i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r -boys. T h i s i s s i m i l a r to the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s found I n Grade V I I I , and a l s o those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (See Table V, Chapter ¥}.. Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g p l a y s a n e s s e n t i a l r o l e show, i n g e n e r a l , a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i -gence* 14. Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h somo measure o f manual d e x t e r -i t y I s e s s e n t i a l , show a n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i -gence. 15* The c o r r e l a t i o n o f a v e r a g e - s c h o l a r s h i p i n November w i t h t h a t i n A p r i l was found to be .812 ± .010. Thus we may c o n c l u d e t h a t t e a c h e r s 1 average marks a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e . (102) Chapter X. The i n t e l l i g e n c e ana S c h o l a r s h i p o f O r i e n t a l s . As s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r V I I t h e d a t a on o r i e n t a l s was e x c l u d -ed f r om the g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y . T h i s procedure was con-s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l s i n c e many i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f o r i e n t a l s as determined by v e r b a l t e s t s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p , are not r e l i a b l e . - , Jin examin-a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r -s h i p o f t h e o r i e n t a l s used i n t h i s study c o n f i r m e d t h i s view-p o i n t . B e f o r e t r e a t i n g the d a t a on o r i e n t a l s i t may he a d v i s -a b l e t o b r i e f l y s u r v e y some o f t h e r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d . A. Some Kecent I d t e r a t 1 i r e T r e a t i n g the I n t e l l i g e n c e o f O r i e n t a l s . I n v e s t i g a t o r s have l o o k e d upon the problem of r a c i a l d i f -f e r e n c e s i n t h r e e d i s t i n c t 'ways: (1) Ore group m a i n t a i n s t h a t under i d e n t i c a l environments r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s would d i s a p p e a r . (2) A second group h o l d s t h a t r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y due t o i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y . ( S i The t h i r d group b e l i e v e s t h a t r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s cannot be a c counted f o r , merely by d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y but m a i n t a i n t h a t we must a l s o c o n s i d e r temperamental q u a l i t i e s . M e n t a l t e s t e r s have been c o n f r o n t e d by s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t -i e s i n r a c i a l s t u d i e s . (1) I t i s o f t e n v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g o f t h e - r a c i a l g r o u p under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (2) I t i s even more d i f f i c u l t t o g e t adequate mental t e s t s f o r the v a r i o u s r a c i a l g r o u p s . L e t us examine the v i e w s o f s e v e r a l American p s y c h o l o g i s t s about the C h i n e s e i D U ; . P y l e b e l i e v e s t h a t the Chinese would not be i n f e r i o r t o Americans i f they were g i v e n t h e same e n v i r -onment . V/augh m a i n t a i n s t h a t a l t h o u g h the Chinese a r e s u p e r i o r to I n d i a n s , they a r e i n f e r i o r t o Americans, .valcott f i n d s C h i n e s e s s t u d e n t s t o be more e f f i c i e n t t han Americans i n c e r -t a i n t e s t s but i n f e r i o r i n o t h e r s . As a. r e s u l t of h i s e x p e r i -ments on s t u d e n t s i n San E r a n e i s e o , Young c o n c l u d e s t h a t C h i n -ese c h i l d r e n a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o A m e r i c a n and U o r t h European c h i l d r e n . P o r t e o u s f i n d s t h a t the Chinese a r e super-i o r t o -Japanese i n the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t t e s t but are i n f e r i o r i n temperamental t e s t s . He f i n d s Anglo-Saxons s u p e r i o r t o b o t h . Murdoch h o l d s t h a t a l t h o u g h the o r i e n t a l r a c e s are below Anglo-Saxons i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . , they a r e s u p e r i o r i n m o r a l t e s t s . Garth 1 1 c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f e x t e n s i v e r a c e t e s t i n g show t h a t tine C hinese and Japanese a r e about a s i n t e l l i g e n t as w h i t e s , but t h a t ITegroes, M e x i c a n s , and I n d i a n s a r e i n t e l l e c t -u a l l y i n f e r i o r - . s t a t e s t h a t t h e y e l l o w r a c e s have succeeded w i t h the w h i t e man's t e s t s , w h i l e o t h e r r a c e s have f a i l e d . E s t a b r o o k s ^ ' b e l i e v e s t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e i s h o p e l e s s , a t p r e s e n t , because o f our i n a b i l -i t y to (1) measure i n t e l l i g e n c e , and (2) e l i m i n a t e environmen-t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , huh • ~~~ ' found t h a t Chinese c h i l d r e n were ap-p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the American average on performance r a t i n g s . A f t e r a r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e B a n ! e l c o n c l u d e s '("607" I."C7 wren, " K f h i n e l ^ Chinese S t u d e n t s ' M o n t h l y , 1925, V o l . 21, ?. 47-53. (61) G a r t h , T. K., " H s e l a l Hinds,' 1 Psyche, V o l 8 P. 63-70, 1928. (62) E s t a b r o o k s , G. I f . , "She Enigma, o f R a c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 55 P. 137-139, 1928. (63) L u l l , G. v?., and 'Ju, T. I I . . A Comprehensive Study o f the I n t e l l i g e n c e o f Chinese C h i l d r e n on the P i n t n e r Performance and tho B i n e t T e s t s , " J o u r n a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2, P. 402-408, 1931. (104) t h a t , ''most s t u d i e s so f a r r e p o r t e d are w o r t h l e s s a s i n d i c a t i n g a n y t h i n g r e g a r d i n g the c o m p a r i t i v e mental a b i l i t y o f r a c e s . " ^ 6 4 ) L e t us now b r i e f l y aumtaarize two of the more cornierehensi ve s t u d i e s . (65) Graham w made a s y s t e m a t i c study o f 73 t w e l v e y e ar o l d C h inese c h i l d r e n i n San .Francisco. A wide v a r i e t y o f t e s t s were used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . Chinese c h i l d r e n wore found to be e q u a l t o American c h i l d r e n i n v i s u a l memory but i n f e r i o r i n a u d i t o r y memory. Xhe C h i n e s e were s u p e r i o r I n s e n s o r i m o t o r types o f problem s o l v i n g , but showed a d i s t i n c t language h a n d i c a p oh v e r b a l t e s t s . Two c r i t i c i s m s may be l e v e l l e d a t t h i s otud5*. P i r s t , i t was "based upon too few c a s e s . S econdly, a l l o f the s u b j e c t s v/oro draw— alalia the hemes o f tradesmen and l a b o u r e r s . . n a r s i o • ^ a i s . c i e a thorough s t u d y o f 658 American-born Japanese c h i l d r e n , between t h e ages o f t e n and f i f t e e n , i n an a t t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e between the American end Japanese r s c e s . P o r t e s t m a t e r i a l he used the .Army B e t a , t h e S t a n f o r d Be v i s i o n o f the B i n e t , and t h e S t a n -f o r d Achievement t e s t s * lie a l s o o b t a i n e d t e o c h e r s 1 marks i n s c h o o l s u b j e c t s and r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . D a rsie. found t h a t Jspaneso c h i l d r e n were i n f e r i o r t o American c h i l d r e n i n "mental p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v i n g memory and a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g TMTlJSjilel, R.~T7^~lfB~as±Q C o n f 7 r d^rations""for " V a l 3 d n i n t e r p r ^ ~ t a t i o n o f E i r o e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s P e r t a i n i n g t o R a c i a l D i f -f e r e n c e s , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 23, P. 26, 1932. (65) Graham, V. T., "The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f Chinese C h i l d r e n An Seii F r a n c i s c o , " J o u r n a l of C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 6, P. 43-71, 1926. (66) D a r s l e , 11. L., " M e n t a l C a p a c i t y o f American-Born Japanese C h i l d r e n , " C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y Ponographs, V o l . 3, #15, P. 1-89, 1926. m n e r l . on moan i n f o r concept.- r e p r e s e n t e d hy the v e r b a l syranols' o f the E n g l i s h , language." Japanese c h i l d r e n were e q u a l or sup-e r i o r i n m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s based" upon v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s o f a non-language t y p e . The Japanese were found to be s u p e r i o r i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , penmanship, p a i n t i n g , and d r a w i n g . There were n e g l i g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e l l i n g end a r i t h m e t i c . I n r e a d i n g and the language s u b j e c t s t h e Japanese showed a d i s t i n c t i n f e r i o r i t y . I n s u b j e c t s o f an i n f o r m a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h wera p a r t l y dependent upon r e a d i n g , t h e Japan-ese were s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r t o American c h i l d r e n . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g th e r a t h e r c onfused and c o n t r a d i c t o r y s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i t seems most d i p l o m a t i c that.we s h o u l d d i s c a r d the o l d dogma o f r a c e s u p e r i o r i t y . A. s e l e c t e d l i s t o f s t u d i e s t r e a t i n g the i n t e l l i g e n c e o f o r i e n t a l s w i l l bo found i n S e c t i o n 0 o f the b I b l i o graphy. 3. The Ifature and Scope o f the P r e s e n t Study. I t i s n o t proposed t o i n v e s t i g a t e , h e r e , the problem o f r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . However, i t has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t o r i e n t a l s do more p o o r l y on v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s than Eng-l i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s . i?or e d u c a t i o n a l purposes i t i s i m p o r t -a n t t o have an a c c u r a t e I.Q. f o r a l l p u p i l s . Hence o r i e n t a l s have been f r e q u e n t l y t e s t e d by non-language Performance t e s t s . T h i s p r a c t i c e has n o t p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a -sons. 11) G a t e s / 6 7 ^ h a s c o n c l u s i v e l y shown t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n t e l l i g e n c e , as measured by n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s , and e d u c e t i o n a l achievement a r e J l n e p l i g i b l e . o r i n d i f f e r e n t . " H i s (67) G a t e s , A„ I , , "The C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Achievement i n S c h o o l S u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t a and o t h e r V a r i a b l e s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 12, P. 277~28£, 1922. c o r r e l a t i o n s range from ,30 i n Oracle I t o — . 1 5 i.u Grade V I I l " " ' Tans i t w i l l "be s een t h a t n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s have l i t t l e v a l u e f o r p r e d i c t i n g s u c c e s s i n the academic s u b j e c t s . (2) f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , the r e l i a b i l i t y o f most performance t e s t s i s very-poor, because the t e s t s are too b r i e f and t h e r e a r e many opport u n i t i e s f o r chance s u c c e s s . (3) Host performance t e s t s r e q u i r e a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d a b i l i t y and hence nre n o t r e a l l y t e s t s o f genera3. I n t e l l i g e n c e . An a t t e m p t w i l l be made i n t h i s s t u d y t o determine t h e e r r o r I n v e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s when a p p l i e d to o r i e n t a l s . I f t h i s e r r o r can bo d e t e r m i n e d , wo w i l l know how many I.Q. p o i n t s t o add to Aie i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f o r i e n t a l s , as d e t e r m i n e d by the u s u a l group t e s t s . The importance o f such a c o r r e c t ! 0 2 i f a c t o r f o r e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t be o v e r emphasized. A t p r e s e n t , most t e a c h e r s c o m p l e t e l y ignore- the. I.Q,'s of o r i e n t -a l s , s i n c e these are r e g a r d e d as h o p e l e s s l y Izisccursrbe* £. pta11otica1 ? r o c e d u r e . The g e n e r a l s t a t i s t i c a l method to be used -is p a f o l l o w s : (1) we s h a l l d etermine the average s c h o l a r s h i p o f o r i e n t a l s , (2) we s h a l l s e l e c t a group o f w h i t e s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e same average s c h o l a r s h i p , (3) we s h a l l d etermine the mean I.Q. o f each group % v e r b a l t e s t s , *~A new Tierformance t e s t d e V I s e ^ T ^ ^ has r e c e n t l y boon r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s t e s t has come t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the w r i t e r too l a t e to be examined, but from a c c o u n t s of t h e t e s t i t seems t o o v e r -come ma:^; o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s quoted above. C n r l , 0. P., "A iiew Performance T e s t f o r A d u l t s and U l a e r C h i l d r e n : The C a r l H o l l o w Square S c a l e , " The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l - 7, 1939 P. 1 7 9 — 1 9 9 . . , _ (107) (4) l a s t l y we s h a l l compare t h o mean ±.Q * T B f o r the two groups to determine t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r o r i e n t a l s . J.lore p a r t i c u l a r l y the f o l l o w i n g procedure was employed. The l e t t e r grades o h t a i n e d hy o r i e n t a l s i n each o f the s c h o o l s u b j e c t s were c o n v e r t e d I n t o n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s . The mean of -these e q u i v a l e n t s was c a l c u l a t e d t o determine t h e n u m e r i c a l average. The mean o f tho n u m e r i c a l averages f o r a l l o r i e n t a l s was t h e n o b t a i n e d f o r each o f the t h r e e g r a d e s , A group o f w h i t e s t u d e n t s who had the same mean n u m e r i c a l average was t h e n s e l e c t e d f o r each grade. The I.Q.'s o f b o t h t h e o r i e n t a l "and the w h i t s groups were d e t e r m i n e d by group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . The Terman Group t e s t , t he Otis-, and the H a t i o n a l t e s t s were used. S i n c e there appears to be a pronounced s©& d i f f e r e n c e I n the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r , t h e d a t a f o r boys ana g i r l s was t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , h. The f i n d i n g s ; , ' The d a t e v/hioii was o b t a i n e d f o r boys I s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IiZXVI. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the I.Q. I s very s i g n i f i c a n t t h r o u g h o u t . A d i f f e r e n c e - o f 17 I.Q. p o i n t s i s shown f o r t h e t h r e e grades combined* The d a t a f o r g i r l s i s to be found i n Table, AAAY1I. I t w i l l be observed t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the 1..Q. f o r g i r l s i s some-what l e s s t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r boys. However, 69 g i r l s ( i n a l l g r ades) show a mean I.Q. 'which i s . 11 p o i n t s l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f w h i t e s t u d e n t s w i t h the sam~- average s c h o l a r s h i p . TABLE LXXVI. C o m p a r i s o n _ g f _ ^ e J ^ . 1.3. o f O r i e n t a l snn - . / M * * 7 ^ - , the same Average" S c h o l a r s h i p (10S) m s u b j e c t s iaimher Average S c h o l a r s h i p i-aean i.Q, D i f f e r e n c e i n I » Q . Grade IZ. Grade ViJl Grade v l l A l l Grades O r i e n t a l V/hi to-O r i e n t a l ./hite O r i e n t a l ./hite O r i e n t a l C n l t e 13 63 13 62 25 ' 63 56 138 on? .<LAo O O o / .1. •7 n i ^ / f i O « o 4 100 11? 99 91 110 96 113 17 19 17 TABLE LJXVII. Comparison o f the luean i.Q. o f O r i e n t a l and the same Average S c h o l a r s h i p . V/hite G i r l s h a v i n g S u b j e c t s .E umber Ax-orego. S c h o l a r s h i p Ilean I.Q. D i f f e r e n c e i n I.Q. Grade IK O r i e n t a l 26 3.56 105 .'/hite 109 3.56 113 8 Grade V I I I O r i e n t a l 19 3.35 97 # h i t e 174 3.35 110 13 Grade V I I O r i e n t a l 24 3.43 95 - White §5 3.43 106 11 A l l Grades O r i e n t a l 69 3.46 99 - Sfhite 338 5,46 110 11 E_. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the P i n d i n g s . F o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s I t would seem t h a t v/e are j u s t -i f i e d i n a d d i n g 17 p o i n t s to the I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l hoys, and 11 • p o i n t s t o the I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l g i r l s . The " i n t e l l i g e n c e quo-(109) t i e u t 7 ' w n i c n I s tnus Detained v ; i l l be o f eonsiaex-able importance f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . A l s o , I t w i l l now be p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e o r i e n t a l s I n the p r o p e r I.Cu groups. However, we may n o t be' j u s t i f i e d I n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e " q u o t i e n t " o b t a i n e d i s a t r u e I.Q. I t hae b e e n d e r i v e d by comparing two groups w i t h t h e same average s c h o l a r s h i p , i u t we h a v e s e e n t h a t a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p d o e s n o t c o r r e l a t e p e r f e c t l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . There a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s I n a d d i t i o n t o i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t ' s s c h o l a r s h i p . we h a v e assumed' t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l be e q u i v a l e n t f o r the two r a c i a l g r o u p s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n may n o t bs j u s t i f i e d s i n c e h a r s i e ^ ^ f69) and Graham' have shown t h a t o r i e n t a l s a r a I n f e r i o r i n some s c h o o l s u b j e c t s b u t s u p e r i o r i n o t h e r s . V/e know t h a t o r i e n t a l s a r e u n d e r a d i s t i n c t l a n g u a g e h a n d i c a p I n E n g l i s h , and a some-w h a t l e s s e r h a n d i c a p i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . O r i e n t a l s a r e e q u a l to w h i t e s i n a r i t h m e t i c and s p e l l i n g , and a r e s u p e r i o r i n a r t and penmanship. I t w o u l d seem, t h e r e f o r e , , t h a t t h e a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p o f o r i e n t a l s i s a d v e r s e l y a f f e - c t e d by t h e i r l a n g u a g e h a n d i c a p * T h i s f a c t o r may, h o w e v e r , be b a l -a n c e d by g r e a t e r e f f o r t o n t h e p a r t o f o r i e n t a l s I n o r d e r t o overcome t h i s h a n d i c a p . I n c o n c l u s i o n , we may s t a t e t h a t f o r p u r p o s e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l guidance ana c l a s s i f i c a f t i o j i , we ahoulA add about 17 p o i n t s to t h e I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l boys and 11 p o i n t s t o t h e I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l g i r l s . TolTT ^ ™ i i ^ ^ i t y o f A m e H c a n - b a r n Japanese c h i l d r e n , " C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y Ponographs, V o l . 3, #15, p 1 -.—89 1926. (69) Graham^ V. T., "The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f Chinese C h i l d r e n i n San F r a n c i s c o , " J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , -Vol. 6, P. 4 3 — 7 1 , 1926. aio.) Chapter X I . Swamary and G e n e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o£ the S t a t i s t i c a l F i n d i n g s . I t seems d e s i r a b l e t o assemble a t t h i s p o i n t a complete summary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . A more thor o u g h g o i n g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s t h a n has been g i v e n t h u s f a r w i l l a l s o be a t t e m p t e d . A. Summary o f .the G o r r e l a t l o n . . befcveen Teachers T_...Marks end In-*~ • t e l l i ^ n o e ' ^ " " " ~ ~ ' " " Table L X X Y I I I p r e s e n t s a complete summary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s 1 marks w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e i n each o f the t h r e e grades and g i v e s the mean r f o r a l l g r a d e s . An examine.tion o f the t a b l e l e a d s t o the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . (1) The c o r r e l a t i o n s of i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h t e a c h e r s 1 marks a r e , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , p o s i t i v e , and range from—,008 to .668. (2) There i s a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r -ship, and i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n f o r any s i n g l e s u b j e c t , (3) G e n e r a l E n g l i s h shows t h e h i g h e s t mean c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e (.548), w h i l e woodwork shows the l o w e s t (.052). ( 4 ) The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s show a ""marked" c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e : E n g l i s h (.548), s o c i a l s t u d i e s (.492), g e n e r a l mathematics (.484), j u n i o r b u s i n e s s (.482), g e n e r a l s c i e n c e (.464), a r i t h m e t i c (.458), and a l g e b r a (.452). (5) The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s have a "low" c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e : F r e n c h (.272), b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c (.572), g e n e r a l shop work (.355), geometry (.316), bock-keeping (.290), c o o k i n g (.243), music (.207). (6) The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s show a " n e g l i g i b l e " c o r r e l a t i o n (111) Summary, of: the C o r r e l a t i o n s _between Teachers* Harks and I n t e l ! -S u b j e c t Grade IA Grade v±ii Grade Mil i i e a n r f o r r r . r Ml * :rndes r P.A. Average S c h o l a r s h i p Boys; .582 .415' .586 .528 .020 G i r l s .519 .660- .668 .616 .017 A l l • .551 .547 .625 ,574 .012 E n g l i s h Boys .570 .482 - .541 .538 .020 G i r l s .526 .569 .638 ,578 .018 A H .537 ,518 .588 ,548 .013 S o c i a l S t u d i e s Boys .515 *30S .510 .445 G i r l s .443 .,628 .515 .529 .020 A l l ' .497 .-468 .512 .492 .015 Mathematics . . •• Boys ..576 aqo: .478* ..482 .021 G i r l s .360 1 .497 . 583 .480 .021 A l l . .488 .439 .527 ,484 .015 J u n i o r B u s i n e s s Boys ,409 .409 .046 G i r l s ,550 * 0 .034 • A l l -.402 .482 .029 G e n e r a l S c i e n c e Beys ,627 ,309 .412 .449 .022 G i r l s ..528 .536 .370 ,478 .021 A l l .586 ,415 .391 .464 .016 A r i t h m e t i c Bo.vs .569 .569 ,039 G i r l s .300 .300 .063 A l l ,458 .458 .035 A l g e b r a Boys .462 ,462 .046 G i r l s .446 • .446 .056 A H .452 o 452 .035 F r e n c h Boy s .539 .202 .404 .382 ,034 G i r l s .429 .355 .380 .029 A l l .447 .301 .371 .373 .022 B u s i n e s s A r i t h m e t i c A l l »c ia • t3'? 2 .059 G e n e r a l Shepv/urk « *3o5 .037 Geometry Boys .455 .455 .046 G i r l s •112 , J.12 .061 A l l .316 ,316 .040 T A B E S XiAXv 111. (Continued) S u b j e c t Grade I X r-Grade 7111 r Grade V I I r lie an r f o r A l l G r a d e s r P . E . Bo ok-ke ep l u g A l l .210 .290 ,075 GooV-i ng .182 -.327 .248 . 026 'Music Boys G i r l s A l l ,073 .350 .217 .204 .191. .196 .138 .260 .207 .042 .040 .027 C l o t h i n g ,149 .362 .042 * JL.31 .027 E l e c t r i c i t y .242 .076 .159 .035 M e t a l Work .106 .108 .107 .036 D r a f t i n g • 116 .081 .098 .036 A r t Boys G i r l s A l l T y p i n g Boys G i r l s A l l .031 ' .024 .099 .008 .173 ,.097 .149 .001 ,,080 .087 .130 ,089 .064 .033 .024 .032 Woodwork .074- .030 .052 .037 w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e : c l o t h i n g (,191), e l e c t r i c i t y (.159), m e t a l work (.107), d r a f t i n g (.09-8), a r t (.089), t y p i n g (.064), wood-work (-.0521. -(7) The mean c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l i g e n c e (.574) woo d i s t i n c t l y " h i g h e r than t h a t o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (.401). (8) I n g e n e r a l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between, the academic sub-j e c t : : and i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h o s e o f e t h e r r e s e a r c h : ( c f . Table I I I , C h a p t e r V ) . (9j The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e • f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h : eom-n e r e i a l s u b j e c t s , heme economics, t e c h n i c a l subjects., a r t and music. (10) I n g e n e r a l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' marks and- i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e somewhat h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r boys. The, mean o f 1? r T s f o r g i r l s was found to he .405 w h i l e t h a t for-"-bbys was .887. T h i s shows t h a t tho s e x d i f f e r e n c e i s v e r y s m a l l , much s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( o f . Table V, C h a p t e r V).. • {11) "Harked" c o r r e l a t i o n s are found between I n t e l l i g e n c e ana t h o s e s u b j e c t s i n w h i c a r e a d i n g p l a y s s s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t . (IS) I n g e n e r a l , "low" o r " n e g l i g i b l e " c o r r e l a t i o n s are ob-t a i n e d between I n t e l l i g e n c e and those s u b j e c t s which r e q u i r e soma measure o f manual d e x t e r i t y o r hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n : . (13) The c o e f f i c i e n t ? . : of c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h were o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e -l i a b l e ( s i n c e the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e more th a n t h r e e t i m e s a s l a r g e as the p r o b a b l e e r r o r s ) . i 3 / The B e l l & b l i l t y o f T e a c h e r s ^ Marks. B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e f i n d i n g s , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t wo examine the r e l i a b i l i t y o f our c r i t e r i a o f s c h o l a r s h i p , namely, t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s . A sum-mary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s 1 average marks I n November w i t h those i n '..pril i s p r e s e n t e d i n Table hXiCIX. I t w i l l be apparent t h a t teachers; 1 average marks are e x t r e m e l y r e l i a b l e . There I s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the t h r e e g r a d e s , T e a c h e r s ' average marks ? r e s l i g h t l y more (114) r e l i a b l e f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r boys. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n r e l i a b i l i t y may e x p l a i n I n p a r t , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks and I.Q. are s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s . The r e -l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s 1 average marks used i n t h i s study I s a l m o s t I d e n t i c a l w i t h the r e l i a b i l i t y o f "group I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s as r e p o r t e d by P i n t n e r . ^ 7 0 ^ H e p r e s e n t s th e r e s u l t s o f I S s t u d i e s i n w h i c h the r e l i a b i l i t y o f group I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have been determined* The c o r r e l a t i o n s range from .72 to .93, t h e median b e i n g .82* TABLE M X l i t . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers* Average Ifcrks. i n November w i t h t h o s e " i n Apr age  i l _ . Grade IX r Grade ¥11I • . 3?' Grade V I I r Mean r f o r A l l grades r P.E. Boys .81 .783 .811 - .801 .009 G i r l s .86 .828 ,.813 .834 .008 A l l .84 .804 . 812, .819 .006 TABLE C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers * Marks i n Grade V I I I G e n e r a l S c i e n c e f o r ^ c t o b e l T 7 II. C o r r e l a t i o n P r o b a b l e E r r o r Boys 242 .697 . .022 G i r l s ,692 .023 A l l ' 464 , .695 .016 The h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s * average marks i n d i c a t e s t h a t marks f o r t h e I n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s must a l s o be q u i t e r e -l i a b l e . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n was t e s t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g t e a c h e r s ' marks f o r October w i t h those f o r December i n Grade V I I I G e n e r a l c i e n c e . Tho r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n , Which a r e p r e s e n t e d 70) P i n t n e r . E., I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g , P. 90, 1931. (115) i n T a ble 1IAJL&.^ i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s ' marks i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s I s q u i t e h i g h , a l t h o u g h n o t a s h i g h a s t e a c h e r s ' average marks, Thera appears t o be l i t t l e s e x d i f -f e r e n c e i n the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e s e n t e d . £• Sos^ F a c t o r s w h i c h Determine t h e C o r r e l a t i o n between Teachers' «- ~~ : — l a r k s " [ and"'"' i h t e l I l ^ e n c ~ e T ~ : ' The c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h have been p r e s e n t e d throughout t h i s s t u d y I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e f a c t o r s , o t h e r t h a n " g e n e r a l I n -t e l l i g e n c e , " w h i c h a f f e c t a p u p i l ' s marks i n s c h o o l . I n t h i s s e c t i o n we s h a l l ; a t t e m p t to e v a l u a t e some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks and i n t e l l i g e n c e . 1,. The ifeture- o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 1 X X Y I I I r e v e a l s t h e f a c t Ishat the c o r r e l a t i o n s , between I.Q. and s c h o l a s t i c achievement i n t h e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s , rang© fr o m .052 I n woodwork to .548 i n Eng-l i s h * The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s d i f f e r e n c e l i e s w i t h i n t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i t s e l f . I f we a c c e p t t h e Spearman t h e o r y o f two f a c t o r s , g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c , the r e a s o n f o r t h i s w i d e d i f f e r e n c e becomes a p p a r e n t . Our i n t e l l -i g e n c e t e s t s g i v e us a n a p p r o x i a i a t e measure o f g. We may t h e n I n f e r t h a t achievement, i n E n g l i s h i s l a r g e l y dependent upon " g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . " On the o t h e r hand., achievement i n wood-work I s o n l y v a r y s l i g h t l y dependent upon g, hut r e q u i r e s one , o r more o f the s p e c i a l i s e d a b i l i t i e s c a l l e d s. We may c o n c l u d e t h a t g i s the predominant f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s t u d e n t ' s suc-c e s s i n E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , mathematics and g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . F u r t h e r , s i s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r a s t u d e n t 1 s achievement (116) i n musac, noiae economics, ext typing, and the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s . The d a t a o f t h i s study, l e n d s u p p o r t to the two-factor t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e as proposed by Uarl Spearman. -2. The B e l l a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of Measure of Achievement and When low c o r r e l a t i o n s between I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s and s c h o l a s t i c achievement are o b t a i n e d , t h r e e s t a t i s t i c a l e x p l a n -a t i o n s may be p r o p o s e d . (a) The r e l i a b i j . l t i e s o f tho s c h o l a s -t i c and i n t e l l i g e n c e measures may be low. (b) The v a l i d i t y o f one o r b o t h ox t h e s e measures may be l o w . (c) S c h o l a s t i c ab-i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e may n o t be more c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d t h a n t h a t I n d i c a t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s . I t has been shown that the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the teachers 1 marks used i n t h i s s t u d y was h i g h (about .82 f o r t e a c h e r s * average m a r k s ) . Other i n v e s t ! -( 71 ) g a t o r s 1 " ' have shown t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s I s h i g h (about .,82). Thus i t w i l l be seen t h a t e x p l a n -a t i o n " ( a ) " does not apply i n t h i s . s t u d y . Whether i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s r e a l l y measure I n t e l l i g e n c e , and whether t e a c h e r s ' marks are a tr%© measure o f scholastic achievement;, has l o n g been the s u b j e c t o f much discussion. While t h e v a l i d i t y o f b o t h o f these measures i s doubtless f a r from perfect, they seem to be the best m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s which have t h u s f a r teen proposed." Hence we must c o n c l u d e t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h show a. low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e not v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d ID g. 3. Heading A b i l i t y and P r e v i o u s Training.. Two Important f a c t o r s w h i c h p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a student * s s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s a r e reading: a b i l i t y unci p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have pointeo. out t h a t i n t e l l i -TTTrPintnor,"'^.," 'intelligence Testing, x, 8S--90, 1931. {117} . genee t e s t s c o r e s a r e m a rkedly dependent upon r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . (72) ~ . - , , . . . . -uor/ry aamxnxscerea a group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t to 50 s t u d e n t s b e f o r e and a f t e r a t h r e e months program o f i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i n r e a d i n g . He found t h a t t h e I.Q,.Is on t h e second t o s t were, on the a v e r a g e , 11.76 p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n on t h e f i r s t . , l o w r y , t h e r e f o r e . , i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s are l a r g e l y measures o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y * However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s h o u l d n o t be overemphasized s i n c e i t i s based upon o n l y 50 c a s e s . We may more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y c o n c l u d e t h a t r e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p u p i l ' s s c o r e on a group i n t a l l l g a n e e t e s t . T h i s f a c t s h o u l d be bourne i n mind when i n t e r p r e t i n g the "sharked" c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h ware found i n t h i s s t u d y between I n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement i n those s u b j e c t s 'which a r e somewhat dependent upon r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . •Previous t r a i n i n g i n a s u b j e c t i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h de-t e r m i n e s a s t u d e n t 5 ^ s u c c e s s . T h i s f a c e or s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when s e e k i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f s t u d e n t s i n the h i g h I.Q. groups* 4* Some Euvirpgaent» S t u d i e s by I r e e m a n ^ ^ - a n d B u r k s ^ ^have shown t h a t v e r y pronounced changes -in t h e environment o f young c h i l d r e n a f f e c t the I.Q. .as d e t e r m i n e d by the S t a n f o r d - B i i i e t T e s t s . However, the s h i f t i n t h e I.Q. I s , i n general,, v e r y s m a l l . TTTOT^wrAyTlC^ 35, 2\- 1 7 9 — 1 8 0 , 1932. (73) Freeman, F. JS., e t a l . , "The I n f l u e n c e o f Environment on t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e , . S c h o o l Achievement and Conduct o f F o s t e r C h i l d r e n . " Chapter I I , Twenty-seventh Yearbook A.3.S.E., BP. 101--217, 1928. (74) B u r k s , B. S,, "The B e l a t i v a I n f l u e n c e o f l a t u r e and l i u r t u r e upon M e n t a l Development." Chapter 2, Twenty-seventh Year-book A.S.S.B.,, P. 2 1 9 — 3 1 6 . (118) iioiae environment i s a n I m p o r t a n t f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g s e h o l -a s t i e s u c c e s s , , t h e r e t h e r e I s a m a r k e d d i s c r e p a n c y "between s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e I.Q», t h e home s h o u l d always h e c o n -s i d e r e d . . One ease* w h i c h t h e w r i t e r was as KM t o i n v e s t i g a t e , may e m p h a s i z e t h e .importance o f t h i s f a c t o r . The s u b j e c t o f t h e - c a s e s t u d y , whom we s h a l l c a l l , nAtti was a g i r l , w i t h a n I.Q. o f l i e who was c o n s i s t e n t l y o b t a i n i n g a n £. s t a n d i n g * I n v e s t -i g a t i o n e l i c i t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s * On the d e a t h o f the father.,, t h e m o t h e r h a d I n h e r i t e d a l a r g e sum o f money i n l i f e i n s u r a n c e * T h i s was. v e r y q u i c k l y s p e n t i n r l o u t o u s l i v i n g end a t the time o f t h i s e n q u i r y t h e f a m i l y was dependent u p o n mun-i c i p a l r e l i e f * A n o l d e r s i s t e r had b e e n e x p e l l e d f r o m s c h o o l f o r I m m o r a l b e h a v i o r . V , who was I S y e a r s old', had l o n g been a -school p r o b l e m and had be e n i n v o l v e d i n a l m o s t every k i n d o f m i s d e m e a n o r , "A" a d m i t t e d smoking and s t a t e d t h a t s h e was r e g -u l a r l y up u n t i l 2 The motb.or e i t h e r c o n d o n e d h e r d a u g h t e r ' s f a i l i n g s o r c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d them, v'vhile t h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y an e x t r e m e c a s e , i t may serv e to emphasize t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t a s a f a c t o r i n s c h o l a t i c s u c -c e s s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t u n u s u a l l y f a v o r a b l e 'home c o n d i t i o n s o c c a s i o n a l l y s t i m u l a t e l e s s a b l e c h i l d r e n t o s u r p a s s t h e i r a b i l i t y l o v e l - . 5*. The Smptions a nd Temperament. f e w i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e - s t u d i e d t h e emotions a s a f a c * o r -d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s , S v a n s ' ^ r e s u l t s seem to show t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y ; n o r b e t w e e n c o l l e g e s u c c e s s and erao-TO) E v a n s , '^ot'e c n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a rfo-oaiiei^o?~ t i o n a ] F a c t o r on A c a d e m i c S u c c e s s , " J o u r n a l o* Aononnal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2 5 , P. 5 7 — 5 9 , 1930. . . {119} t l o n a l s t a b i l i t y H o w e v e r , we must r e g a r d t h i s c o n c l u s i o n with. extreme c a u t i o n s i n c e t e s t s o f e m o t i o n s ! s t a b i l i t y are . s t i l l i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g s . O a t e s ^ 6 ^ f i n d s t h a t hoys who a c h i e v e a v e r a g e temperament s c o r e s o n t h e Downey W i l l - T e m p e r a m e n t T e s t , w i l l r e c e i v e s c h o l -a s t i c r a t i n g s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e . Those b o y s who o b t a i n h i g h o r l o w temperament r a t i n g s may do b e t t e r o r w o r s e i n S c h o o l p o s t s t h a n t h e i r I»Qu w o u l d l e a d one t o expect,. I n , a n o t h e r s t u d y • 7 7 ^ D a t e s o b t a i n s a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .583 b e t w e e n s c h o l a r s h i p and t e m p e r a m e n t and h e n c e c o n c l u d e s t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d t e s t e r a m e n t a r e t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n s c h o l -a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t , {78) H a r t s o n v , on t h e o t h e r hand,, f i n d s t h a t e s t i m a t e s o f temperament show no a p p r e c i a b l e r e l a t i o n w i t h s c h o l a r s h i p i n h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l a g e . I n t h e f a c e o f t h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y s i t u a t i o n we may c o n -c l u d e t h a t , . a l t h o u g h . t h e e m o t i o n s end t e m p e r a m e n t may be f a c - • t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s , t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p h a s n o t y e t b e e n w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d . j5* M o t i v a t i o n . One o f the m o s t I m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s i s m o t i v a t i o n , ' w h i l e t h i s f a c t has b e e n c o n c l u s i v e l y d emonstrated by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e does not T T i r r i K t i i ^ ^ B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . V o l , 1 9 , P. 1 — 5 0 , 1928. {77} G a t e s , D. W.«, "The E o l a t i o n o f Temperament and i n t e l l i g e n c e t o S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y , " P c r u m o f E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 7, P. 1 7 1 — '185. 1929* {78) H a r t s o n . L.D. , "The V a l i d a t i o n o f the- E a t i n g s c a l e s used w i t h C a n d i d a t e s f o r A d m i s s i o n t o O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , " s c h o o l and S o c i o tor, V o l . 3 6 , ?. 4 1 3 — 4 1 6 , 19 3 2 . seem.to ; have seen s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o g n i s e d "by many teachers,*" A f t e r a r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y o f ..junior and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l ' students., T u r n e y ^ 9 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e two m a j o r f a c t o r s i n s c h o o l achievement a r e m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e * J o n e s m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n between u n i v e r s i t y g r a d e s and i n t e l l i g e n c e v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the s c h o l a s t i c m o t i v a t i o n o f the- s t u d e n t s . C o r e y ^ ^ ^ p r e s e n t s . s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h he I n t e r p r e t s as" showing t h a t m o t i v a t i o n I n c r e a s e s the r e l s t i o n s h i p between . achievement and i n t e l l i g e n c e . He h o l d s t h a t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e two- v a r i a 1 Q . e s I s an i n d i c a t i o n o f good t e a c h -i n g . To t e s t ' t h e e f f e c t o f m o t i v a t i o n on. t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e w r i t e r c o n d u c t e d two e x p e r i m e n t s . I n t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t boys who were t a x i n g grade IZ m a t h e m a t i c s were used a s s u b j e c t s . The c o u r s e was p r e -s e n t e d so a s t o he a s s t i m u l a t i n g a s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e p u p i l s . The c o u r s e was m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r t o s t r e s s t h e p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c -a t i o n s o f mathematics t o b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y , n a v i g a t i o n , , s u r v e y -i n g e t c . S i n c e moat o f H i e .boys ware p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e T e c h n i c a l H i g h S c h o o l , e v e r y e f f o r t was made t o c o r r e l a t e m a t h e m a t i c s with t h e t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s . P u p i l s w e r e encouraged t o k e e p g r a p h s (79} Turney, A. II.-, " I n t e l l i g e n c e , - M o t i v a t i o n , and Achievement.," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 22, P. 426—434,. 1931. (80) Jonas, 3. E», "The Grade - t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n as a n I n d e x o f - M o t i v a t i o n , 1 * S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , V o l . 36, P. 4 7 3 — 4 8 0 , 1932. ( 8 1 ) C o r e y , S.„ M., "The E f f e c t o f M o t i v a t i o n u p o n t h e B e l a t i o n between Achievement and I n t e l l i g e n c e , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , Vol., 4 1 , P. 2 5 6 — 5 7 , 1 9 3 5 . * G a t e s , A. I . , P s y c h o l o g y f o r S t u d e n t s i n . I t e r a t i o n , gives an e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t , o f m o t i v a t i o n . showing t h e i r p r o g r e s s i n the v a r i o u s phases o f the. subject,. D i a g n o s t i c t e s t s and r e m e d i a l t e a c h i n g f o r s p e c i a l groups was employed, Thus c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n mathematics was ar o u s e d . The g i r l s o f grade XX r e c e i v e d a more t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f g e n e r a l mathematics,, a l g e b r a , a r i t h m e t i c , and geometry w i t h i.Q. w e r e - p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e Z V I I . (page 5 5 ) . I t w i l l . b e a p p a r e n t t h a t ;the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r . boys t h a n f o r g i r l s * The boys' c o r r e l a t i o n o f ..576 I n gen-eral.' mathemptlos i s a l s o markedly h i g h e r t h a n those f o r boys i n grade V I I I (.393) and i n grade V I I (.478). The second e x p e r i m e n t was conducted i n grade ¥111 g e n e r a l •science u s i n g b o t h boys and g i r l s . E v e r y e f f o r t was made to make t h e c o u r s e I n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a s I n t e r e s t i n g as p a s s i b l e , P u p i l s were encouraged t o make scr a p - b o o k s o f s c i e n c e c l i p p i n g s f r o m newspapers and magazines, and about 95>> resp o n d e d . news-paper. a r t i c l e s were f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d . B o t h s i l e n t and sound m o t i o n p i c t u r e s were e f f e c t ! / e l y employed. P u p i l s were r e q u i r e d t o g i v e r e p o r t s on the c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s and t h e i r s x perla-ments .• P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was devoted to c h a r t s showing p u p i l T a b l e I i X X/lI p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ' marks i n grade V I I I g e n e r a l s c i o i i c s w i t h I . a . The c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h ware o b t a i n e d by the same p u p i l s i n grade V I I a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . I t w i l l be observed t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s found I n grade V I I I a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y ' h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f grade V I I . I t a l s o s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n the co-e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n seem to d i s a p p e a r unoer e f f e c t i v e mot-i v a t i o n , V»e may t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s a v e r y s i g n i -(122) f l e a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i z e ' o f the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p , C o r r e l a t i o n - s t u d i e s seem t o o f f e r a method f o r o b j e c t i v e l y r a t i n g v a r i o u s t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s , a p r o b l e m w h i c h h a s l o n g p u z z l e d e d u c a t o r s . TAB.U& iui_/i_ii-i« The-, E f f e c t o f M o t i v a t i o n on. t h e C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e G r a d e ¥11 G r a d e ¥111 • r r B o y s »412 .036 .018 .033 G i r l s .270 »038 .1517 ,035 A l l .,391 .026 .517 .024 O t h e r f a c t o r s w a i e h I n f l u e n c e s c h o l a s t i c achievement a r e g e n e r a l h e a l t h , d e f e c t i v e ' v i s i o n . , d e f e c t i v e h e a r i n g , p o o r h a n d -a y e c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e e n d o c r i n e g l a n d s . These f a c t o r s w i l l n o t be c o n s i d e r e d I n t h i s s t u d y . .33.; Spipe; .Infe.rcnc.es_ of., t h i s ..Research • f o r Bduca/tipii,. T l a l s s t u d y h a s c o n c l u s i v s l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e - i s a m a r k e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p . T h i s f a c t l e a d s u s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d make a more t h o r o u g h - g o I n g u s e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , t e s t r e s u l t s . . I t i s v e r y I m p o r t a n t t h a t a n a c c u r a t e I.Q. be o b t a i n e d f o r a l l p u p i l s . The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s w h i c h a r e o b t a i n e d by o r i e n t a l s o n group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s s h o u l d be a d j u s t e d by the a d d i t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r . I n t h i s s t u d y the c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r o r i e n t a l b o y s was f o u n d t o be 17 I.Q,. p o i n t s , w h i l e /or o r i e n t a l . g i r l s i t was 11 I.Q. p o i n t s . Some- o f t h e I m p o r t a n t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s , w h i c h may be I n f e r r e d f r o m t h e s t u d y , w i l l now be presented. The major preplan o f p u b l i c edizcation.is the adaptation o f the s c h o o l to t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f the p u p i l s . The t a b l e s throughout t h i s study have shown t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s between general I n t e l l i g e n c e and teachers' marks are moderately h i g h . "But they a l s o c l e a r l y demonstrate that t h e r e a r e many I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s f o r whom the school i s not p r o v i d i n g a stim-u l a t i n g environment,- T i l l s maladjustment Is not s u r p r i s i n g when one considers the tremendous v a r i a t i o n which e x i s t s among p u p i l s in, general I n t e l l i g e n c e , s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , home e n v i r -onment, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , I n t e r e s t s , temperament, etc* One o f the f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n s of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s that o f c l a s s i f y i n g p u p i l s i n t o more or l o s s homogeneous groups Where such grouping has been t r i e d , I t has. I n general, p r o v e n very s u c c e s s f u l * Teaching becomes raoro uniform since the i n -s t r u c t o r does not spend a l a r g e p o r t i o n of h i s time on the mal-adjusted c h i l d . D i s c i p l i n e i s markedly improved. With such a grouping i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o adjust t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o the ca p a c i t y and i n t e r e s t s of the students. A second a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s i n the f i e l d o f e d u cational and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e . -While we must agree t h a t t h e I.Q. i s only one o f the f a c t o r s to be considered, i t s Importance must not be underestimated. The r e s u l t s presented i n t h i s study demonstrate that boys w i t h low I.Q.. 's s h o u l d be encouraged to s e l e c t , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , the f o l l o w i n g courses t h e ' t e c h n i c a l - s u b j e c t s , the commercial subjects, a r t , music, and mathematics. G i r l s w i t h low I»Q. Ts should be encouraged to s e l e c t home economics, the commercial subjects, a r t , music, (124) and E n g l i s h , However, a minimum I . Q., o f 95 seems e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l work i n most s u b j e c t s o f the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . A t h i r d use o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s n e e d i n g s p e c i a l case s t u d i e s , Whenever a p u p i l shows a wide d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t and h i s s c h o l a s t i c achievement, he s h o u l d bo r e f e r r e d t o a. competent c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t , f o r s t u d y . Such a c l i n i c a l s t u d y s h o u l d i n c l u d e : a complete p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n by a p h y s i c i a n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r y , the f a m i l y * the s c h o o l h i s t o r y , s c h o o l achievement, g e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l m a t u r i t y , conduct, e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of i n -t e l l i g e n c e . A f o u r t h a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s f o r the ad-equate r a t i n g o f s c h o o l s and t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I t has been shown i n t h i s s t u d y , and e l s e w h e r e , t h a t t h e s i z e o f the c o r -r e l a t i o n between teachers'" marks and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s d i s t i n c t l y dependent upon the m o t i v a t i o n o f the p u p i l s . Such c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s , t h e n , a f f o r d e d u c a t o r s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e method o f ob-j e c t i v e l y r a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y o f v a r i o u s s c h o o l s and t e a c h i n g methods, (1X43) H E E B I E S I B L I C G P A P i i Y , . S e e t i c s . A P s y c h o l o g i c a l * E d u c a t i o n a l , and S t a t i s t i c a l . I . Adams, S., "She H a l a t i o n b e t w e e n P h y s i q u e , I n t e l l i g e n c e , and P r o f i c i e n c y I n S c h o o l S u b j e c t s , ' 1 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n -a l B e s e a r c h , T o l . E E , P* 1 E E —155, 1U30. £ . A l l p o r t , A * A . , S o c i a l Psychology*• B o s t o n , 1924. 3* B a l d w i n , J . E E , H i s t o r y o f P s y c h o l o g y . P e w Y o r k , 1313. 4.- B a l l a r d , P, E . s • M e n t a l P e s t s . L o n d o n , , 1 9 2 0 , 5„ Banker, H . J . , r t P h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t e a c h e r s T M a r k s , " • J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l H e s e a r c h , T o l , 1 6 , P . 159—171, 271—284, 1927. 6. B l u e t , ^ , ana E o n e l -*., '-ua - _ y o , U G l o g E At;.1 v i a u e l l e , " B ' A l a . c o - o / c h e 1 o 1 qu o , V o l . >. ~ E 435, 109 3 . 7. B i n e t , A. a n a J i m o n , I n . , "iiiethodec. x i o a v a l l e s p o u r l e u i r g n u s i l c d u n i \ o a v l u w l l c o t u o l a « o - n 'Ox-mcusi," L'Annee " ' ' s y e h o l o p i . ; u e , V o l * X J , P. l u l — 0 0 6 , 19u._. , 8 . B i n e t , - A . a n d S i m o n , P h . , " E s d e v e l o p p ^ a e n t d e I r I n t e l l -i g e n c e ahaz l e s e n f a n t s,'' L ' A z m e e P a y o h o l o g i q u e , V o l . 14, P. 1 — 9 4 , 1 9 0 8 , 9.. B i i i o t , A. a n d S i m o n * P h . , " L ' l n t o l l i g o n o e u e s i m b e c i l e s , " L E - n n e a P s y c h c l o g i q u e , V o l . 15, P . . I--147, 1909. 10. B l i n , T ' E c s E o b l l x t e s Mentales, 1'- Kevuo d o P s y c h i a t r i e , A u g u s t 1902. I I . B o b e r t a g , u. , L ' A n n e e P s y e E u l o g i q u e , V o l . 10, ?, 274, 1512. 1 2 . B o l t o n , P . a . , A d o l e s c e n t E d u c a t i o n , Ee.v Y o r k , 1931. 13. B o r i n g , E . 0., A E i a t c r y o l E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , h e w (126) Y o r k , x929. 14, B r o o k s , P. D., The P s y c h o l o g y o f A d o l e s c e n c e , Cambridge, Maes., 1929. 15. Brown, A. If.,' and B i n d , 0.., -"School Achievement i n R e l a -t i o n t o M e n t a l Age," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, V o l . 22., P. 5 6 1 — 5 7 6 , 1931. 16- Brown, W,, and Thomson, 6-. H*, The E s s e n t i a l s o f H e n t s l Measurement., Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1921<, 17, B u r g e r t , B. H..s. "The H a l a t i o n - o f S c h o o l Marks to I n t e l l -i g e n c e i n Secondary S c h o o l s , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h -o l o g y , Vol.. 5, P. 606—614,, 1935. 18,. Burks,. B. s„. "The R e l a t i v e I n f l u e n c e o f I s t u r e and n u r t u r e upon M e n t a l Development," Twenty-seventh Y e a r -book P.S.S.B., Ch a p t e r X, P* £19—316, 1928, 19. Burnham, f, H., The l o r m a l Mind, Ifew Y o r k , 1924. 20. B u r t , G.s M e n t a l and S c h o l a s t i c T e s t s , London, 1922. 2 1 . C a r l , 6, P., "A Hew Performance Test f o r A d u l t s and O l d e r C h i l d r e n ; . The C a r l H o l l o w Square Scale,". The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 7, 1 7 9 — 1 9 9 , 1939. 22... C a r r o l l , H. P., if h a t i s I n t e l l i g e n c e ? " S c h o o l and Soc-i e t y , V o l . 28, P.. 7 9 2 — 7 9 3 , 1928. 23. C a t t a i l and F a r r e n d , " P h y s i c a l and M e n t a l Measurements o f the S t u d e n t s o f Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , P s y c h o l o g i c a l . Review, Vol.. 3, P. 6 1 8 — 6 4 8 , 1896. 24. C h a r t e r s , 9. W., " S u c c e s s , P e r s o n a l i t y , a n d - I n t e l l i g e n c e , ' J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l H esearch, V o l . 11, P. 1 6 9 — 1 7 6 , 1925. 25. Cobb, M. V.., " L i m i t s S e t to E d u c a t i o n a l Achievement by (12?) L i m i t e d I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1 ' J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s ychology. V o l , I S , P. 4 4 9 — 4 6 4 , 5 4 6 — 5 5 5 , 1922. 26. C o c k i n g , <?'. P. and H o l y , T. C., " R e l a t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e S c o r e s t o H i g h - S c h o o l and U n i v e r s i t y Marks," E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , - V o l * 6, P. 3 8 3 — 3 8 4 , 1927. 27. Corey., S„. 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