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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The intelligence and scholarship of junior high school students Moore, James August 1939

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-1223 I M B I i i G l I C E  MW  of OTIOB  HIGH SCHOOL .SfOaJSIIifS  J&mes JW Moore  ' f h e s i s safcrnittect f o r the Begre-e o f  i n the D e p a r t m e n t of  x  PHX&QSOPHY a M PSXSHQLOGY  The  University  o f British-  A p r i l , 1839.  Coltinfoia  JAKES  Qg  (idj  UOIigElgS.  Uhapter I .  _ ' . dome H i s t o r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e  Chapter 1 1 .  kn O u t l i n e  o f the H i s t o r y  Chapter III.  A Critical  s u r v e y o f some Maseru u e f i n i t i o n s  of Chapter IV,  Intelligence  •»  * fiature  ,  •  .o  .  ,  .  .  .  4. The u o n f i g u r & t i a n H y p o t h e s i s »  .  .  », The H u l t i - J f e e t o r T h e o r y  16  o f I n t e l l i g e n c e 2S •  2. i-iie Twc f a c t o r T h e o r y  „  Z'6  .  24 2  9 SO  oome iieseeroh. t r e a t i n g t h e d e l a t i o n Between Intelligence  Chapter ¥I„  6  .  1. The U n i t I'sctoa? i l i e o r y  Chapter ?.  :  o fMental 'letting  »  Dome t h e o r i e s a s t o t h e  Page 1  ana s c h o l a r s h i p  &Z  The scope o f t h e P r e s e n t stuay  .  39  Am P u p i l a used i n t h e stuay 5. I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s usea i n t h e study  42  0. f h e Orixorif-i  42  i>. s t a t i s t i c a l Chapter ¥11*.  o f scholarship Method  .,  »  iiie I n t e l l i g e n c e  r.na s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade l£  studenta  »  -  «.  «  »  A. M s t r l n u t i o i i o f I n t e l l i g e n c e JB. B l s t f i b U t i o n o f A g e  .»  :  0. Average  scholarship  .  «  4o'  .  45  • .»  46  .  46  • »  end I n t e l l i g e n c e  x>. A c h i e v e m e n t i n E n g l i s h a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e ii*  43  49  A c h i e v e m e n t i n S & t h e i n a t i e s a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e 50  ¥*. Achievement  i n social  s t u d i e s and I n t e l l i -  G. Achievement; i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e a n d I n t e l l i gence  »  «.  o  *  55  (iii) TKBLE  OP U QJffiBBf a,  Page  H. Achievement i n t r e n a i l ana I n t e l l i g e n c e  56  I * AeiixeTeiaent i n tips. C o i a a e r c i a l s a h ^ e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e ' -  *  .  *  «  5?  J , AcMevement =in t h e T e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s and Intelligence  .  .  *  .  59  IS, AelaieTement • in,.Heme i&aonemics and I n t e l l i gence  .*•  »  »  •«  .  »••  »  6£  g e n e r a l t l o i i c l u s i o n s a s t o the Helatt o n s h i p Between I n t e l l i g e n c e and Gr#de 12 S c h o l a r sJx^Lx)  «  *  #  -ti  «  *  *  Ohapter V I I I , i l i e I n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade Students  ».  •  .  •  >  6«!5  Till *  65  &„. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f 'Grade .VIII. P u p i l s ' B* The x i e l l a h i l i t y o f t e a c h e r s  Achievement i n  finglisli  Har&s •  1  65 67  and I n t e l l i g e n c e  68  3.* AcMeveaaent i n I f e t h e m a t l e s and I n t e l l i gence  *  «  ,  »  .  .  »  69  B. Achievement i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s and I n t e l l i gence  »  «  «  »  *  71  I .- Achievement i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e and I n t e l l - ' 5  G. Achievement i n if r a n c h and I n t e l l i g e n c e H, Achievement i n the O o c E i e r c i s l and I n t e l l i g e n c e  74  Subjects 75  (iv)  TABLE Off CQI'ITEBfa, (continued) ~  Page I . Achievement i nt h e T e c h n i c a l  Subjects  and I n t e l l i g e n c e  .  .  .  .  78  J . A c h i e v e m e n t i n Home E c o n o m i c s a n d I n t e l l igence  *  ••»  »  *  *  *  .:  80  K. A c h i e v e m e n t i n M u s i c a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e  »  81  L.» A c h i e v e m e n t i n A r t a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e  .  82  M. G e n e r a l Summary o f Grade V I I I M u c a t i o n a . 1 Achievement i n E e l a t i o n t o I n t e l l i g e n c e The  I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I  students A.  B.  83  ....  ..  i .  *  «  »  85  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and Average s c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade V I I s t u d e n t s  .  36  The H e l i a h i l i t y  .  88  ox T e a c h e r s  Marks  ?  u„ A c h i e v e m e n t i n E n g l i s h a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e JL>. A c h i e v e m e n t i n I'aathematias and gence  •*.!  *  88  Intelli-  *: '  -  ...  90  is. Achievement i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s a n d I n t e l l i gence  «  .  -•  *.  «.  ».  91  i'V A c h i e v e m e n t i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e a n d I n t e l l igence  .  .  V  .  ,  w  *.  93  G. Achievement i n F r e n c h a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e  94  H. .. A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e T e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s a n d Intelligence  .  .  ...  .  I . A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e Home E c o n o m i c s and I n t e l l i g e n c e  .  .  .  .  ,  95  Subjects .  96  (v.)  TABIB Off 00jH:ES3TB» (continued) . ,  Page J . Achievement  i n M u s i c and I n t e l l i g e n c e  i i . Achievement  i n A r t and I n t e l l i g e n c e  L. G e n e r a l Nummary o f Gro.de VII in Helation Chapter A .  to I n t e l l i g e n c e  .»  .  *  *  «  A. Some K e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e  .  B. . The I f e t u r e a n d Scope  i i . The b i n d i n g s . •  Interpretation  .  .  . .  100  .  .  102  the I n t e l l -  .  . . . .  .  .  .  .  .  summary a n d G e n e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  .  of Orien-  of the bindings  s t a t i s t i c a l bindings  99  102  o f t h e Present S t u d y 105  C. s t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e  Chapter A I „  *  Treating  igence o f Orientals  „  scholarship  The I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d S c h o l a r s h i p tals  98  .  .  .  .  106 107  ...  108  *  110  .  110  .  113  of the ±  A. summary o f t h e C o r r e l a t i o n he tare en Teachers  7  Marks and I n t e l l i g e n c e  5. The H e l i a h i l l t y  o f Teachero  »  l&rks  T  c . some f a c t o r s w h i c h D e t e r m i n e  the Cor-  r e l a t i o n hetv/een T e a c h e r s ' Marks a n d I n telligence  .  .  .  1* The I f e t u r e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e 2.. The. H e l i a b i i i t y  '6»  and V a l i d i t y  .  . 1 1 5  .  .  115  o f Mea-  sures o f Achievement and I n t e l l i g e n c e  116  h e a d i n g A h i l i t y and P r e v i o u s T r a i n i n g  116  4* Home E n v i r o n m e n t  .  ..  5. The a m o t i o n s and Temperament  .  .  117  .  .  118  TABL25 QW  (vi)  QOMT&ltjx.  ~*~Tclni tinned) **  Page 6« JJ.  M o t i v a t i o n  .some  I n f e r e n e e s  J5du.es> t i o n  Section  A.*  P s y c h o l o g i c a l , -  oec'tion  S.  d e l a t i o n  o e e t i o n  0*  She  o f  . o f  «  „ t h i s  »  JSduoatipnal,  I n t e l l i g e n c e  I n t e l l i g e n c e  o f  to  ,.  .  He s e a r c h  . 1 1 9 f o r  „  «,  122  S t a t i s t i c a l  .  125  Teachers  ..  135  O r i e n t a l s  »  1  Marks »  .  145  •  .  .{vii;)  L I S 5 Oi ' TABIijbla« ;  Page 1. summary o f C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p ona I n t e l l i g e n c e 2. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s '  •  «  .  •  Harks i n the Elementary  -school s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e  34  3. C o r r e l a t i o n o f ' f e a c h e r a ' Mar-he i n t h e S e c o n d a r y s u b j e c t is w i t h . I n t e l l i g e n c e  ,  .  .  School  .  4. C o r r e l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y K s r k s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e 5. Ths OQJ: . u i f f e r e n c e i n t h e C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i g e n c e and T e a c h e r s ' 6.  32  Marks  .  .  .  35  .  36  Intell-  .  »  .  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I.Q. Among 0 2 7 G r a d e I X S t u d e n t s  7. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f a g e Among 327 G r a d e I X s t u d e n t s  37 45  »  4-0  8. A v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p o f G r a d e 1A s t u d e n t s a t V a r i o u s '  9. P e r c e n t a g e  o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y work a t V a r i o u s  I.Q. L e v e l s  „  10. C o r r e l a t i o n o f  11. Achievenent  »  .  .  »  ..  ,  47  w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade  »  50  1 2 . S o n - e l a t i o n o f A c h i e v e m e n t i n l l a g l i s h w i t h I.Q.  .  50  13.. A c h i e v e m e n t i n l-iatherna t i e s a t V a r i o u s  .  51  1 4 . A c h i e v e m e n t I n A l g e b r a , a t V a r i o u s I . Q. h o v e l s  .  51  15. Achievement i n A r i t h m e t i c a t V a r i o u s  .  52  .  52  16.  I n E n g l i s h a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s  A c h i e v e m e n t i n Geometry  I.Q. l e v e l s  I.Q* L e v e l s  & t V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s  1 7 . £he c o r r e l a t i o n o f G e n e r a l l t a t h e m & t i e s , A l g e b r a , m e t i c , a n d Geomebv$ v / i t l i I.Q.  ,  .  .  .  Arith.  53  1 8 . A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t t h e " V a r i o u s I.Q. l o v e 1 3 5 4  (viii) LIST  OF  {continued) Page 19.  C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s * M a r k s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and I.Q.  * •  .  *  *  *  *  20.  Achievement i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e  21.  Correlation of Teachers I.  Q,  ,  7  .  *  *  54  a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s  Iferks i n G e n e r a l Science v/ith  .  . . .  .  *  .  .  22.  Achievement i n JPreneh a t V a r i o u s I*Q. L e v e l s  .  23.  c o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' iferks i n French w i t h  I.Q..  24.  Achievement I n Book-keeping. Business A r i t h m e t i c , T y p i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e - ) aievexo  25.  Correlation o f Teachers jects with  26.  29.  *  • 7  , 57  and .  .  ,  . '  .  .  .  .  59  59  61  Sub-  I.Q.  61  Achievement i n C o o k i n g and C l o t h i n g  at Various  igence Levels.  ,  *  *  ».  .  .  Intell.  •..  C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' M a r k s I n Home Economics  ..  .  • .  62  with  .  j ^ i s t r i D u t i o H o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and Ax-erage  63  Scholarship  .  .  - .  66  P e r c e n t a g e o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y vVork a t V a r i o u s I.Q.  32.  #  Marks i n the Technical  o f Grade V I I I S t u d e n t s 31.  .  .  C o r r e l a t i o n ox T e a c h e r s  I.Q. 30.  .  57  Achievement i n the Te c l i n i c a l S u f c j e c t s a t V a r i o u s I n -  jects with 28.  »  56  M a r k s i n t h e C o m m e r c i a l Sub-  '. 4  I.Q. .  telligence Levels 27.  1  55  Revels  .  .  C o r r e l a t i o n o f I.Q. w i t h  .  .  .  .  .  Average s c h o l a r s h i p  .  . o f Grade  66  (ix)  LIST Qjy TABLZii.. . *~~ {continued]  Bage 3 3 , C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Average Marks f o r Stfvember with, these o f I v o r i i  .  .  »  «  .  .  34« Achievement i n E n g l i s h a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s  .  68  „  69  35. 0orre3.atj.on o f Teachers' Marks i n E n g l i s h w i t h I.Q. 36. Achievement i n G e n e r a l Mathematics a t V a r i o u s Levels  *  *  .*  *  .*  • ...  69  I.Q.  ••*•  «.  70  37. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks I n General Mathematics w i t h I . Q.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  38. Achievement i n - S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s 39. C o r r e l a t i o n of T e a c h e r s I.Q. - .  .  .  1  • .  * .  ...  Y2  Marks i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s w i t h • .  .  .  .  40. Achievement i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e a t the V a r i o u s Levels  71  • *  • ...  ..  .  .  .  72  *  73  I.Q. »•  4 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks i n G e n e r a l s c i e n c e w i t h I.  Q.  *  ..  ...  -„  ....  *.  42. Achievement i n F r e n c h a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s  .  . .  74 75  43. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks i n F r e n c h w i t h I.Q.  75  44. Achievement i n J u n i o r B u s i n e s s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s  76  45. Achievement i n T y p i n g a t V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s  77  46. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' T y p i n g w i t h I.Q.  Iferks i n J u n i o r B u s i n e s s and  .  .  .  .  .  47. Achievement i n T e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s a t V a r i o u s gence L e v e l s  .  .  .  .  .  .  77  Intelli-  .  .  78  48. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks I n the T e c h n i c a l Subj e c t s w i t h I.Q.  .  .  :  ..  .  .  .  .  79  (x)  L I S T OP g A B L 5 a . continued)  r&ge 49* Achievement i n C o o k i n g a n d C l o t h i n g igence Levels  ,  .  a t Various  •»  50. C o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s '  ».  Intell.  .  80  M a r k s i n Eoine economies w i t h  51* Achievement i n M u s i c a t t h e V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e L e v e l s  81  52. C o r r e l a t i o n o f ' T e a c h e r s  02  7  M a r k s i n M u s i c w i t h I.Q.  53. A c h i e v e m e n t i n A r t a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s 54* C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Marios i n A r t w i t h  .  .  a  I„Q.  .  83  55. D i s t r i b u t i o n o.f. I n t e l l i g e n c e and Average s c h o l a r s h i p Grade V I I Students  ,.  *  .  *  *  56. P e r c e n t a g e o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y I..Q... L e v e l s  »  .  .  ...  .  tfork .  VII Pupils  .  .  .  .  .  ,  .  87  at Various ...  57. C o r r e l a t i o n o f I.Q. w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p  of  ...  87  o f Grade  .  •  .  88  58. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s * A v e r a g e Marks f o r Movewiber with  those f o r A p r i l  .  ,  .  ..  59. A c h i e v e m e n t i n E n g l i s h "at - V a r i o u s I.Q«. L e v e l s 60*  C o r r e l a t i o n of .Teachers  7  , «  , 8 8 ..  M a r k s i n E n g l i s h w i t h I.Q.  89 90  61. A c h i e v e m e n t i n General M a t h e m a t i c s a t V a r i o u s I.Q, Levels  ..  .  .  .  62.. C o r r e l a t i o n o f l e a c h e r s ' with  I..Q,  .  ...  .  .  .  .  .  . 9 1  Marks i n General Mathematics .  ,  •,  .  63. A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s 64. C o r r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' I.Q.  M a r k s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s with..  91 92 •  LIST CI? TABLES, r e m i t Inued) ,  •"•  Page  •65. Achievement i n General S c i e n c e a t the V a r i o u s I.;Q. Levels 66*  93  C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers" Marks i n G e n e r a l Science w i t h  . I.O,  .«,  *.  . ..  ,  .  *  . i  •  67, Achievement i n t r e n c h a t the V a r i o u I.Q.. L e v e l s 68-. C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s  T  ..  94  »..•  93  Marks i n French w i t h I»Q, .  95  69., Achievement i n General Shop #ork a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q, Levels  *  .  ...  ,  *  *  .  . . 9 6  70. Achievement i n Cooking and C l o t h i n g a t the V a r i o u Intelligence Levels  .  .  ..•  .  .  .  .  97  71. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks i n Home Economies w i t h I.Q.  .  .  *  *  *  . • 97  72. Achievement i n Music a t the V a r i o u s I,Q» L e v e l s  .  98  73-. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks i n Music w i t h I.Q,  .  99  74. Achievement i n A r t a t the V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s  .  99  75. C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Teachers' Marks i n A r t w i t h .I.Q.  .  100  ..  108  ,  108  76. Comparison o f the Mean I..Q. o f O r i e n t a l and White Boys h a v i n g the same Average S c h o l a r s h i p  .  77. Comparison o f the Mean I.Q.. o f O r i e n t a l and 'tfhite G i r l s h a v i n g the Same Average S c h o l a r s h i p  .  78. Summary o f the C o r r e l a t i o n s "between T e a c h e r s '. and I n t e l l i g e n c e  .  .  •  <,  .  1  Marks  *  .  . I l l  79. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers"' Average Marks i n November* w i t h those i n A p r i l  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  114  80. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks i n Grade V I I I General Science f o r October w i t h those f o r December  .  .  114  •Uvll , .-continued)  3?a ^e 3  81.* The  I f f e e t  o f  I n t e l l i g e n c e  Motivation and  t e a c h e r s  o n 1  the  Harks  Correlation  "between.  General  S c i e n c e  i n  (1) Tm  liiESlL'IGSSCS and --UECLIESHI? o f  Chapter 1. Somo,. E i _ s t o r i e a l . C o n g e s t i o n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e I v e n today,, some t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r l i n e t g a v e t h e w o r l d h i s .famous i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , t h e w o r d i n t e l l i g e n c e has no common o r d e f i n i t e m e a n i n g *  E d u c a t o r s , who make f r e q u e n t u s e  o f the t e r m a r e t o o o f t e n v a g u e a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t when ques-  t i o n e d a s t o i t s meaning-, ' When we t u r n t o the p s y c h o l o g i s t s , amour; whom we m i g h t esrpeet some c o n f o r m i t y  t  m  f i n d that there  a r e innume.rahle d e f i n i t i o n s and s e v e r a l major t h e o r i e s . t o e x p l a i n i t s nature,  i n the words o f B e r t r a M  !ha.saell,. " e v e r y -  h o d y — I s much more agreed a s t o who i s i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n as t o "what c o n s t i t u t e s i n t e l l i g e n c e , . - ^ ^ * Hence B  of  s>  a "brief - d i s c u s s i o n  the t o z s i i n t e l l i g e n c e and a n o u t l i n e o f the t e s t i n g move-  ment seems ^ . s e n t i a l "before emharking upon t h e major t o p i c s of o u r prehlam. The  Greeks a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o hove d e v e l o p e d t h e  f i r s t d e f i n i t e ideas o f psychology owe  cur f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c  "beginnings  as h e l d  and i t i s t o them t h a t we  ideas of i n t e l l i g e n c e *  "We f i n d the  o f t h e i r ( t h e Greeks) c o n c e p t s I n the i d eg  "by A n s x a g o n a o (500-428 U.C.}, who f i r s t  usoci  o f 'nous'  the term  i n a t e c h n i c a l s e n s e * fr> H.ous" f o r the Greeks was synonymous T:  with ahatract reason*  n  D e m o k r i t o s seems t o have p i e c e d t h e  (1) L o r t r e n d i o i s s e l i , $kw.t C o n s t i t u t e s I n t e l l i g e n c e , " ( L o n d o n ) , 1 9 2 S , v o l . 33, P. 330. n  Ifetion  (2) J o s e p h P e t e r " i l a r l y C o n c e p t i o n s and T e s t s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , " 1 9 2 5 , Page 1 1 .  (2) different; mental processes i n various placed the  p a r t s of the  d e s i r e - i n the l i v e r , a n g e r I n the h e a r t ,  brain.  Aristotle  I t r e m a i n e d , however, f o r P l a t o (384-322 B.C.)  advancement o f fhe  Plato postulated  c l a s s i f y i n g o f knowledge,, irs?ation.«l sou;.  t  r a t i o n a l s o u l i n the  He  divided  head-.  The  nobler  made up  The  soul.  This  some c x t e n t  theory of innate s  o v e n t o the  transmigration reality  in  and to  the  o f souls,.  placed  He  gaining  parts, a  rat-  the  irrational  t h i s was  Irrational thought to that  reg-  knowledge  i d e a s which w e r e i n n a t e ideas  was  and  located  of the  Plato believed  In  the  seems t o h a v e p e r s i s t e d ,  p r e s e n t Say  i n tho  Plato believed  c o n c e p t u a l t h i n k i n g t h a n we  I n h i s w r i t i n g s he  the  c o n t r o l l e d t h e more w o r t h y  baser part  passions.  o f s e n s a t i o n , and  the  p a r t , .of t h e  s o u l he p i e c e d b e l o w t h e d i a p h r a m , and undesirable  In  t h e s o u l i n t o two  a t t r i b u t e d reason*  courage.  presented  c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s i r e , and  s i t u a t e d i n t h e h e a r t and  emotions s u c h as  was  (427-347 B . C J  e s o u l o r mind (psychs) w h i c h  w h i c h was  i o n a l s o u l , t o w h i c h he  u l a t e the  In  P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y seems t o h a v e  concerned w i t h t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e b o d y and  s o u l was  thought  psychology.  b e e n h i s f a m o u s t h e o r y o f i d e a s , w h i c h was  an  ana  He  t o make t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s  c e n t r a l t o p i c of the  itepuhlie.  body.  assuiaption o f  t h a t we  are  are  i n sense  much more e m p h a s i s on. t h e  u a l p r o c e s s e s t h a n u p o n t h e f e e l i n g s and  emotions.  top  the  nearer perception. intellectThis  em-  phasis of  u n d o u b t e d l y has  played  (3) i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the h i s t o r y  an  psychology. A r i s t o t l e continued  cesses.  the  e m p h a s i s on  the  intellectual  thought of  the  s o u l as a  However* w h i l e P l a t o  e n t i t y w h i c h was  innate, A r i s t o t l e  method o f r e s p o n s e , a f u n c t i o n He p o s t u l a t e d  the r a t i o n a l .  these f u n c t i o n s .  "entelechy"  rather  o f the body.  He  For P l a t o , sensations ideas; but  knowledge c o u l d be  the  led  by  reason.  1  ( k n o w l e d g e and  had  Aristotle  d e s i r e and  action)  reason') and  survived u n t i l  A r i s t o t l e a d d e d f u r t h e r t o . p s y c h o l o g y by several mental f u n c t i o n s ,  and  s o u l as largely  saw  ectus"  that  into  '^active, powers"  the  threefold  f e e l i n g and  will.  making a c a r e f u l study  e s p e c i a l l y memory,  imagination,  G r e e k word " n o u s " was  and  t r a n s l a t e d by  soon became l i m i t e d to  the  the L a t i n  "intell-  cognitive functions.  of these p r i m i t i v e views of i n t e l l i g e n c e l a r g e l y neglected problem of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ; a neglect the p o p u l a r v i e w p o i n t  even to  the. p r e s e n t  Rene D e s c a r t e s ( 1 5 9 6 - 1 6 5 0 ) " s t a n d s a t philosophy  (o)  the  association. The  in  the  s e n s e s when t h e y w e r e c o n t r o l -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Kant,, i n t o i n t e l l e c t ,  of  to  A r i s t o t l e ' s d i v i s i o n of mental f u n c t i o n s  " c o g n i t i v e powers' (feeling,  g a i n e d by  the  a soul  r e f e r s to the h i g h e s t  a  object.  the n u t r i t i v e ,  A r i s t o t l e assigned  f u n c t i o n o f awakening i n n a t e  distinct  the mind as  than a m a t e r i a l  three l e v e l s of behavior,  a p p e t i t i v e , and each o f  thought o f  pro-  T  *  ..  and  _  psychology. "(3)  Baldwin,  w h i c h has  All , the  persisted  day.  the P °  r  t  a  l  s  ?  f  modern  D e s c a r t e s soon, d e c i d e d " t h a t i t  " H i s t o r y o f P s y c h o l o g y , " V o l . 1, 1913.  ?.  131  (4) was n e c e s s a r y t o abandon many o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f He d i s c a r d e d ^ a l l  the a n c i e n t s .  o f t h e souls, e x c e p t t h e r a t i o n a l  haps h i s c h i e f achievement  i n p s y c h o l o g y was  the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b o d y and. m i n d .  soul.  Per-  h i s treatment of  Descartes regarded  these  as b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y d i s t i n c t ; m i n d and b o d y became s u b j e c t t o entirely different  laws.  The m o s t i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v i e w s o f J o h n L o c k e 1704)  a r e to be f o u n d  in his  !f  S s s a y C o n c e r n i n g Human U n d e r -  s t a n d i n g , " p u b l i s h e d i n 1690. o f i n n a t e i d e a s and or  "tabula rasa."  gained to  He  denied absolutely  the t h e o r y  s t a t e d t h a t t h e mind began as a b l a n k Locke b e l i e v e d  t h a t a l l k n o w l e d g e was  t h r o u g h s e n s a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n .  the i d e a o f f a c u l t i e s he  (1632-  sheet to  be  A l t h o u g h he o b j e c t e d  seems t o h a v e u s e d  the term  "power"  i n much t h e same s e n s e . F a c u l t y p s y c h o l o / r y , d e v e l o p e d b y C h r i s t i a n Von 1 7 5 4 ) , was the s o u l . " found  c h i e f l y concerned  The members o f t h i s s c h o o l b e l i e v e d ,  explained the a c t i v i t y .  in psychology  Immanuel K a n t o 1  (1724-1804) i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l  will.  con-  in i t s Practical  .'-'e f a v o r e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y  p r o c e s s e s and human b e h a v i o r r a t h e r  CP.1 s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t fold  of a v o i d i n g the  processes.  A s p e c t s , " p u b l i s h e d i n 179S. the m e n t a l  activity,  Some o f t h e c u r r e n t t e x t b o o k s  t r i b u t i o n s a r e t o be f o u n d i n " A n t h r o p o l o g y  of  of  t h a t i f they  type o f mental  seem t o c o n t i n u e t h i s t e n d e n c y  explanation of mental  (1679-  with c l a s s i f y i n g the " f a c u l t i e s  t h e f a c u l t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any  they bad  Wolff  the s o u l .  Kant  than  theoreti-  a l s o made t h e famous t h r e e -  d i v i s i o n o f mental p r o c e s s e s i n t o i n t e l l e c t ,  feeling  and  Herbart (l776-18 il) i s generally credited with having /  (5) written  'he f i r s t  real  t e x t b o o k s i n p s y c h o l o g y - - T e x t Boole o f  Psychology ( 1 8 1 6 ) a n d Psychology as Science (1824-25)»  He  made many c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a n d d i d much to  disprove f a c u l t y psychology.  to  i n t r o d u c e mathematics  He seems t o h a v e b e e n t h e  into psychology.  Herbart  first  '"exhibited  t h e n o t uncommon c a s e i n s c i e n c e , i n w h i c h i n a d e q u a t e d a t a a r e t r e a t e d w i t h e l a b o r a t e mathematics, creates the i l l u s i o n  that  method o f t r e a t m e n t * . ^ 4  the p r e c i s i o n o f which  the o r i g i n a l  data are as exact a s the  ( P h i s t e n d e n c y may w e l l b e b o r n i n m i n d  when c o n s i d e r i n g much o f t h e modern work with, i n t e l l i g e n c e results.)  test  H e r b a r t r e g a r d e d t h e m i n d m e r e l y a s ' t h e ;p.laee where  ideas', -interact* o r a s a s t o r e h o u s e o f i d e a s . s e l f makes no r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n  Urns the mind i t -  to I n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s e s .  Ideas  'were a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n t h e mind a n d h e n c e t h e r e w a s no r e a l forgetting,  (of. Psychoanalysis)  ^ > S. .£ B o r i n g , "A H i s t o r y o f rheperi m e n t a l Psychology,' * P. 2 4 9 . 4  1  1929,  (6)  Chapter I I . the H i s t o r y o f M e n t a l  An O u t l i n e o f The  modern i n t e r e s t i n i n t e l l i g e n c e was  s t i m u l a t e d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h t e r e s t i n the feebleminded. the f i r s t  scientific  c e n t u r y by  I n 1797,  of Aveyron.  for  f i n d i n g be  f i v e years but,  n o r m a l i t y , g a v e up r e a l i z e that his made t h e boy  on  1880), a p u p i l of I t a r d ,  has  t h i s work.  been worthwhile  continued  of these  s i n c e b e e n f o u n d to b e  i g e n c e ' t e s t s and h a s  was  one  The field  school  and  Seguin  had  (1812-  training  the  devoted e n t i r e l y  to  techniques  e a r l y . I n t e r e s t i n and  problems of  intell-  greatest of  the  t e s t i n g was  h i s book " H e r e d i t a r y  the  t h e .feebleminded,'  r o l e i n the  t e s t s e s p e c i a l l y through  first  i n that i t  not  t h e S e g u i n ..-Form .Board w h i c h  a considerable  of i n t e l l i g e n c e  He b e g i n s  t h e work o f  did  o f the b e s t non-language  The  p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t e n t i o n to the undoubtedly played  E.  to  been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the P l n t n e r - P a t t e r s o n  Scale of Performance Tests.  intelligence  lie a p p a r e n t l y  d e v i s e d many s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l  One  diligently  c o u l d n o t r e s t o r e t h e boy  founded the f i r o t  He  (1775-1838) began  Itard laboured  l e s s o f a b u r d e n to s o c i e t y .  t h i s -ourpose.  first  a scientific in-  Itard  the work i n d e s p a i r .  t r a i n i n g had  f e e b l e m i n d e d and  probably  t r a i n i n g of a feebleminded c h i l d i n h i s  work w i t h t h e W i l d Boy  'for  Testing  development  of  the- work o f B-i-netv  e a r l y English workers i n  the  S i r F r a n c i s Gal ton ( 1 8 2 2 - I 9 l l ) t  Genius'  1  (1869) w i t h f o l l o w i n g  s e n t e n c e : " I p r o p o s e t o show i n t h i s b o o k t h a t a. man' s n a t u r a l a b i l i t i e s are  d e r i v e d by  i n h e r i t a n c e , under e x a c t l y  the same  l i m i t a t i o n s - a s a r e t h e f o r m and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e w h o l e .  organic  w o r l d . v ° / T h u s we  individual  differences.  .measuring g e n e r a l ution. are  in  sensory  contributions  weight discrimination,  whistle  f o rtesting pitch  interesting  studies  Galton  o f psychology  that  actual  several  abilities,  with  ablest.'"-(-6}  n  e  tests p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d  lie I n v e n t e d  t h e well-knowi Gal ton  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . . H e m a d e some  o f difference® i n m e n t a l  imagery.  t e s t s b a s e d - upon  t h i s .view.  very Gal ton  t e s t i n g and  He b e l i e v e d  that  «hich c o u l d  b e measured, would  correlate  i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d so c o u l d  b e used, to p r e d i c t  the l a t t e r .  Although-his validity resent  sensory  several  t e s t s have  since  been found  f o r t e s t i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e o f normal  the f i r s t  a t i v e manner*'  real  interest  i t "would on the  worked o u t t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e theory o f mental devised  distrib-  showed a k e e n  intellectually  worked o u t a s e r i e s o f s e n s o r y of  to t h e f i e l d  and b e l i e v e d  -among.'' t h e  the Gaussian  i n t o Human. F a c u l t y , * w h i c h a p -  Here S i r P r a n c i s  discrimination  whole be h i g h e s t  was i n t e r e s t e d i n  I n t h i s hook he proposes a s c a l e f o r  i n , "Inquires  I n 1883.  Oalton  i n t e l l i g e n c e "based u p o n  H i s greatest  to be found  peared  see that  n  attempt  He m a d e  statistical  father  to m e a s u r e  people,  they  intelligence i sa  another major contribution  methods  o f mental  to have  f o rh a n d l i n g  data*.'  t e s t i n g and a l l that  little rep-  quantit-  i n devising  Gal ton  i s the  has developed out o f  it. Gal ton's most famous p u p i l , C a r l P e a r s o n  Sir  Praneis  Gal ton,  "Hereditary  Sir Francis " \ 29  Gal ton,  "Inquiries  !  (1857-  )'•$..'  G e n i u s , * ' 1 8 6 9 , P. 1 , into  Human • F a c u l t y , * 1 8 8 3 ,  .(B)  c a r r i e d on ly  t h e work i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  field..  He i s p a r t i c u l a r -  f a m o u s f o r t h e w e l l - k n o w n p r o duct-moment m e t h o d f o r c a l c u -  lating correlations  w h i c h h e p u h l i s h e d i n 1896, (7)  Bbbinghaus  ( 1 8 5 0 - 1 9 0 9 ) was  t r i b u t o r s i n the f i e l d the  t h e f i r s t o f t h e German c o n -  of mental t e s t i n g .  I n 1885 h e  published  r e s u l t s o f h i s r e m a r k a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n on memory.  marks t h e f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c es. " I n 1897  Bbbinghaus  study o f the "higher mental process-  p r e s e n t e d the r e s u l t s of  o f G-erman S c h o o l c h i l d r e n . ( ) 8  lation,  memory f o r d i g i t s ,  This  He  his testing  used t h r e e t e s t s , r a p i d  calcu-  and h i s f a m o u s c o m p l e t i o n t e s t ,  He  f o u n d a m a r k e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s on b i s completion  t e s t and i n t e l l i g e n c e a s e s t i m a t e d b y  teachers.  This  completion t e s t * which undoubtedly i n v o l v e s the h i g h e r mental functions.,  h a s p r o v e n t o b e one o f t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e t e s t s o f  intelligence* Emil Kraepelin  (1956-  ) , a p u p i l o f ¥undt, was l e d t o  c o n s i d e r the problem of  individual differences.  a number o f  are well-known  and p h y s i c a l  t e s t s which  measurements.  i n the- f i e l d  constructed of  mental  Among t h e s e we m i g h t m e n t i o n :  memory, c o m p u t a t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n tion,  He  of double cutaneous  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o f b r i g h t n e s s , -and s t r e n g t h o f  rote  sensa-  grip.  A. Oehra*. a p u p i l o f bothwtipdt and K r a e p e l i n , p u b l i s h e d 0. Pearson': "Regression,~l'Ieredity etc*'* r ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ — — P h i l . Trans, Boy, S o c . , . 187: A ( 1 8 9 6 ) P. 255318.  TT)  ( ^Bbbinghaus, y  I I . * Uber e i n e n e u e J^ethode -zur P r u f u n g  geistiger  P a h i g k e i t i n und i h r e A n d v e n d u n g b i e S c h u l k i n d e r n , Z e i t e c h r i f t f u r a n g e w a n d t e P s y c h o l o g i e ; V o l ; 1 3 i 1 8 9 ? j P. * 0 1 459.  (9)  t e s t s a s e a r l y as 1889. mental c o r r e l a t i o n . namely, p e r c e p t i o n ,  He made t h e e a r l i e s t e x p e r i m e n t s  H i s t e s t s measured s e v e r a l mental c a p a c i t i e s , memory, a s s o c i a t i o n , and mo t o r f u n c t i o n s .  In 1891, P u n s t e r b e r g p u b l i s h e d t e s t s t h a t h e made o n s c h o o l  a description of various  children.  The b e s t known o f the German p s y c h o l o g i s t s field  with  working i n the  o f m e n t a l t e s t s i s S t e r n , who was g r e s t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y  the v/ork o f B i n e t ,  He seems to h a v e b e e n  lie first  to  introduce  t h e i d e a o f a r a t i o b e t w e e n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age a n d m e n t a l a g e i n a series of lectures before in  1912.  Xhis  t h e German f'ongress o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s  i d e a o f a r a t i o i»as l a t e r p o p u l a r i z e d b y "Jerman  u n d e r t h e name i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t Phe  o r I . Q,.  German c o n t r i b u t i o n may b e s u m m a r i s e d b y s t a t i n ; ? t h a t  they devised  a l a r g e number o f s e p a r a t e t e s t e w h i c h h a v e  since  b e e n u s e d i n many t e s t b a t t e r i e s . J , "'."eKeen C a t t e l l of  (i860-  ) may be c o n s i d e r e d  t h e t e e t i n s ' movement i n A m e r i c a .  first  He seems t o h a v e b e e n t h e  to use t h e f a m i l i a r t e r m " m e n t a l t e s t , " i n 1 8 9 0 . ( ) He 9  combined p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l i z a t i o n of procedure.  t e s t s and emphasized t h e  rone t i o n  of p e r c e t i o n  time*  in 1 8 9 6 . H e  used  l e n g t h o f a f t e r i m a g e s , memory,  a n d movement, a c c u r a c y o f movement,  pain, keeness o f eyesight ference,  and p e r c e p t i o n  standard-  The r e s u l t s o f h i s t e s t s o n o v e r o n e  h u n d r e d f r e s h m e n were p u b l i s h e d as:  the f a t h e r  and h e a r i n g ,  t e s t s such imagery,  s e n s i t i v i t y to  color vision,  color  f  (10)  pre-  o f p i t c h and w e i g h t ,  (9) J . l o K e e h ' G a t t e l l , ' '"^mteSi Y e w W and F e a ^ r emeri t s, Vol.  rate  v  1 5 , p. '373-380.  Hind,  C a t t e l l a n d -Farrand,, " P h y s i c a l a n d M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s o f the S t u d e n t s o f C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 3, 1 8 9 6 , P. 6 1 8 - 6 4 8 ,  do) Another o f the e a r l y American workers i n the f i e l d o f m e n t a l t e s t s v&.s J . J a s t r o w who i n 1890 b e g a n t e s t i n g in p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s . acuity  and b i l a t e r a l  ' h i s t e s t s were l a r g e l y o f s e n s o r y  v  movements.  J a s t r o w began t h e f i r s t  scale  t e s t i n g i n 1 8 9 3 , when h e a p p l i e d  teers  at. t h e C o l u m b i a E x p o s i t i o n I n 1 8 9 1 J3oas s t u d i e d  cester.  students  his  large  tent's t o a l l v o l u n -  i n Chicago. "  a b o u t 1500 s c h o o l  c h i l d r e n " o f Wor-  . He t e s t ed them f o r v i s i o n , h e a r i n g a n d memory a n d com-  pared h i s r e s u l t s w i t h  teachers'  estimates o f t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  D u r i n g 1893-4 J.» A. G i l b e r t made a n e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e mental and p h y s i c a l  d e v e l o p m e n t o f schefol  c h i l d r e n . (12) He  fro-olied h i s t e s t s to some I S O O c h i l d r e n o f 3-3ew Haven a n d compared h i s r e s u l t s with, t h e i r " g e n e r a l a b i l i t y " teachers.  a s estimated by  lie a p p a r e n t l y found a c o r r e l a t i o n between  estimated  i n t e l l i g e n c e and some t y p e s o f s e n s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  Pe  f o u n d a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n b'i-aeen memory a n d e s t i m a t e d  also intell-  igence*' Clark  'wlBsler,  i n 1901, -oublished  an a n a l y s i s , by the  P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n method, o f r e s u l t s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l (2 3)  tests i n Oattell'a laboratory. mark i n c o l l e g e  studies  T h i s was t h e f i r s t  /  He u s e d  the students'  average  a s a c r i t e r i o n o f "generf.il a b i l i t y . "  s t u d y i n -which c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e  with mathematical p r e c i s i o n . t i l ) «T. J a s t r o w ,  "  calculated  D i f f e r e n t p a i r s o f the psyeholog-  "Soffit* - A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  .College Students--A P r e l i m i n a r y  and P s y c h o l o g i c  Survey," American  T e s t s on Journal  U « J ; f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 4 (1891-1892), P. 4 2 0 . J . A. G i l b e r t , " R e s e a r c h e s on t h e h e n t a l a n d P h y s i c a l , .development o f School C h i l d r e n , " S t u d i e s o f Y a l e P s y c h o l o g ^ ' i c s l L a b o r a t o r y , Vol,. 2, 1 8 9 4 , P . 40 C. ' I s s l e r , "The C o r r e l a t i o n o f P e n t a l a n d P h y s i c a l T e s t s , " P s y c h o l o g i c e l Review, P o n o g r a p h S u p p l e m e n t , V o l . 3, K*o. 6, 1901. • 0  ical  t e s t s allowed  slightly better  (11)  c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging  f r o i n — . 2 9 t o .39, o n l y  than a chance r e l a t i o n .  He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e  p s y c h o l o g i c a l ' t e s t s must b e t e s t s o f s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s .  Phys-  ical  t e s t s showed some c o r r e l a t i o n ornong t h e m s e l v e s b u t were  only  s l i g h t l y correlated with  the psychological  r e l a t i o n between p a i r s o f c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s cant ranging  from-  tests.  were q u i t e  .11 t o .'75 b u t t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n  marks and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t e s t s was n e g l i g i b l e .  Corsignificollege  1'his s t u d y u n -  d o u b t e d l y did. much t o c o n v i n c e A m e r i c a n p s y o h o l o g i ~-ts t h a t their  tests o f sensation,  value  and p r e j u d i c e d  imagery,, memory e t c . \\ ere o f l i t t l e 7  them a g a i n s t  t h e w h o l e t e s t i n g movement.  " \ V h i l e we p r o b a b l y owe t o S a l t o n a n d C a t t e l l  the greatest  debt f o r t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n o f mental t e s t i n g , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of A l f r e d Binet  ( 1 8 5 6 - 1 9 1 1 ) s t a n d s supreme f o r i t s g e n e r a l  o r i g i n a l i t y and t h e f a c t t h a t h e s y n t h e s i z e d  the growing  ra en t i n t o h i s now w e l l - k n o w * s c a l e . '»(^) B i n e t first' psychological 1889..  laboratory  raove-  founded t h e  i n Prance a t t h e Sorbonne i n  I n 1885 he f o u n d e d t h e famous p s y c h o l o g i c a l  journal,  "L'Annee P s y c h o l o g i q u e , " and Vie r e m a i n e d one o f i t s p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t o r s up to t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h i n 1 9 1 1 . Binet  and H e n r i  published  an a r t i c l e on i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y .  They d e c i d e d t o t e s t t e n m e n t a l of mental images, imagination., prehension, s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ,  f u n c t i o n s : memory, t h e n a t u r e a t t e n t i o n , t h e f a c u l t y o f corn-  aesthetic appreciation,  s e n t i m e n t s , m u s c u l a r f o r c e and f o r c e o f w i l l , j udgmen t o f v i s u a l  „  I n 1896  sps.ce ( co up d * o e i l } , ^  _  _  _  1 5  moral  motor s k i l l ,  and  )  „  H i i r i b a l l Y o u n g , "'l'he h i s t o r y o f ' e n t a l T e s t i n g , " P e d a g o g i c a l Seminary, 1923, V o l . x z x l , P.11. (15) B i n e t A. a n d .Henri V., " L a P s y c h o l o g i e I n d i v i d u e l l e , * L ' A n n e e P s y c h o l o g y , que, V o l . 2, 1 8 9 6 , V. 435 [,  In 19C2 B i n e t  published  (12) the r e s u l t s o f h i s e x t e n s i v e t e s t -  i n g o f h i s two daughters u n d e r t h e t i t l e ,  "The Experimental  S t u d y o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , " a n d t h i s work u n d o u b t e d l y , h a d a c o n s i d erable  e f f e c t on h i s I n t e r t e s t s ,  iety o f s u b j e c t s  i n h i s search  he investigated a wide  var-  f o r a test- o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Some o f t h e s e -sere, -memory, imagination,  suggestability, descrip-  t i o n o f o b j e c t s a n d p i c t u r e s . , m o r a l i t y , -attention*  adaptation,  d i s t r a c t i o n , p h y s i c a l a e a s u r em en t s, c e p h a l i c m e a s u r e m e n t s ,  hand-  w r i t i n g , , end p a l m i s t r y . I n 1904 the F r e n c h M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n v i t e d Binet  to j o i n  a committee to study backward c h i l d r e n .  t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s was t h a t o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and mere l a z i n e s s . vigorously  Binet  -:.nd i n 1905 h e p u b l i s h e d  attacked  One o f lack of  t h i s problem  h i s fir?t Intelligence test  seals.. Binet Blin of  seems t o h a v e b e e n  "Les U e b i l i t e s •"-entales,  n K  "Sssai  de d i a g n o s t i c  . R l i n ' s p a p e r o f 1 9 0 2 was e n t i t l e d , ' while  w o r k e d o u t a number o f t e s t s t o m e a s u r e g e n e r a l  T:R«b.  his result,  to f i v e f o r m e a s u r i n g therefore,  B l in, 1902.  ability,  the l e v e l o f s u c c e s s  was expressed i n t e r m s o f a  "score" r a t h e r t h a n a "mental, age". Tl6)  i n 1 9 0 3 Damaye w r o t e ,  e n t r e l e s e t a t s de U e b i l i t e .mentale.  w i t h a s c a l e f r o T zero in  to two o f h i s c o u n t r y m e n ,  a n d h i s p u p i l Daraaye, who a r e s e l d o m m e n t i o n e d i n a c c o u n t s  the t e s t i n g movement.  Blin  indebted  The t e s t s , which, w e r e  given  "Les D e b i l i t e s T.'enb'nies7~"^evu™e de P s y c h ' i a trei,  AUR.  ( 1 7 ) Damaye, "Essai d e d i a g n o s t i c e n t r e l e s e t a t s de d e b i l i t e ment:jle, " T h e s i s a t P a r i s , S t e i n h c i l , 1 9 0 3  to  some ."50  abnormal  undoubtedly  used  some o f  Binet* s 1905 of  difficulty,  result of ?/hich a  ment of  consisted  -/as  standardised  It  scale  to  in  was  This  scale*  children.  the  u n d e r the  equality  the  7»hile a n  i n the  directions  title,  completely  these  difficulties. Binet'o and  ( l ) imperfect tests at  for administering revised  the  tests p r o v e d  revised  translation of  in  the  translated Binet*s Bnglish  Pall i n published scale into Terman and  and  a great  scale  1908  version  of  that  r  item  the  of  'The Develop of  term  1905  the  various  means o f i t . had  i n 1908  several (2)  were  (3)  i n 1911  the  the  some  soon  Ooddard p u b l i s h e d and  in-  objective,  overcoming  and  tests  "mental  levels,  were not  i n 1911  58  inclusive.  standardisation,  -""ays..  1908  years  c h i l d by  success  scale. the  a  scoring  scale  a numb o r o f  first  13  introduced  improvement over  number o f  Binet  to  i n t e l l i g e n c e of  'v.eakn e s s e s :  The  number of  8  ages from 3  s c a l e that B i n e t  expressed  important  1908  a b o u t 50  order  passed.  published  to  (13) be  and  tests arranged i n  expressed i n t e r m s o f  correspond  this  and  revised  on  Binet  scrle.  30  3  age"  he  of  by  I n t e l l i g e n c e i n C h i l d r e n , «( - ) i t c o n s i s t e d  arranged  lated  them i n h i s own  successfully  1908  sere p r a i s e d  scale  t e s t was  pupil  The  I t was  the  children*  f o l i o vdng  of  transa year  Buhlman published  scale.  In  a. s i m i l a r r e v i s i o n . - P e r r a r i  the  same  a  year  translated  the  tentative r e v i s i o n of  the  Italian. Childs  i n 1912.  published  1908  scale  ford  Kevision of  (18)  B i n e t a n d S i m o n , " L e d e v e l o p pern en t " d e I i n t e l l i g e n c e chess " 1 e s enfants,, * L ' A n n e e B s y c h o l o g i one V o l . 1 4 , 1 9 0 8 , P.1-94.  the  In 1916  a  Terman p u b l i s h e d  B i n e t - S i m o n S e a l a.  Hi®  the  fan©tie S t a n -  w o r k m a r k s a, 1  Ms-  (14) t i n c t a d v a n c e I n . t h e t e s t i n g movement s i n c e h e wo rice d o u t h i s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n a much more t h o r o u g h manner,  lie i s r e spon-  s i b l e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e term "intelligence suggestion  q u o t i e n t " o r I.Q-,.  (probably f o l l o w i n g  Stern's  o f 1912),  In 1915, Yerkes,  Bridges  and H a r w i c h p u b l i s h e d  "A Point  S c a l e f o r M e a s u r i n g P'ental  Ability."  Binet  them i n o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y  Tests b u t r e a r r a n g e d  v i s e d the system o f s c o r i n g . never proven as popular  They used, t h e o r i g i n a l and r e -  This v e r s i o n o f the t e s t has  as the Stanford  Revision.  Another r e v i s i o n i s the h e r r i n g S c a l e o f 1922 ivhich i s similar  to t h e B i n e t t y p e o f t e s t b u t a l l t e s t i t e m s  erent.  The m e t h o d o f s c o r i n g and o f c a l c u l a t i n g meats! age  d i f f e r s from, t h a t o f B i n e t .  I t i s somewhat s i m i l a r  are d i f f aleo  to t h e  S t a n f o r d . R e v i s i o n and. c o r r e l a t e s v e r y h i g h l y v.l t h i t . The  latest,  individual  a n d by f a r t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e , o f t h e  t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s t h e "Sew R e v i s e d  Stanford-  Binet Tests o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , "  p u b l i s h e d i n 1937 b y Terman -and  Merrill.  the authors  I n t h i s new r e v i s i o n  scales d i f f e r i n g In content f o r m o f t h e new r e v i s i o n 30  22 y e a r s  any p r e v i o u s  10 m o n t h s .  c o m p l e t e and  Bach  scale.  I t covers  a much  wider  t e s t — f r o m a m e n t a l a g e o f 18 m o n t h s to.  This r e v i s i o n  r e q u i r e d some t e n y e a r s to  !he p r o v i s i o n a l s c a l e s w e r e s t a n d a r d i s e d upon more  than 3000' s u b j e c t s .  An a t t e m p t was made t o e l i m i n a t e some o f  verbal t e s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y The  to one another.  c o n t a i n s 129 t e s t s a s compared w i t h t h e  t e s t s i n the o r i g i n a l B i n e t  range than  the  but equivalent  p r e s e n t two c o m p l e t e  a t the lower  f i r s : , s c a l e to u s e t e s t s w h i c h  levels.  d i d n o t r e q u i r e the use  o f l a n g u a g e was  "The P i n t n e r - P a t t e r s o n  T e s t s " p u b l i s h e d i n 1917. p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s b u t , on satisfactory, particularly  ,t p r e s e n t ,  (15) Scale o f Performance t h e r e a r e many type?:; o f  t h e vvhole, t h e y h a v e n o t p r o v e n v e r y a t t h e h i g h e r .~ge l e v e l s  (above t h e  a g e s o f 1 2 t o 14 7 / e a r s ) . One o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n '.he h i s t o r y o f mental t e s t i n g h a s been  the r i s e o f the group  type o f t e s t , t h e s u b j e c t s a r e examined individually.  in persuading telligence ful  testing.  ~tat.es  of psychologists  the military authorities  In t h i s  i n groups rather  On t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e u n i t e d  • 7 o r l d '-"ar i n 1 9 1 7 , a "committee  test.  was  than  i n t o the successful  a s to the v a l u e o f i n -  T h i s committee developed the f i r s t  succes?w  g r o u p t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h -was known a s t h e Army A l p h a *  A n o t h e r f o r m , t h e Army B e t a ,  v/as a g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t .  The  Army A l p h a was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o some 1,700,000 men a n d g a v e a t r e m e n d o u s i m p e t u s t o t h e -Ahole  t e s t i n g movement.  In recent  y e a r s ' a n a m a z i n g number o f g r o u p t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e h a v e b e e n developed. National roit  Borne o f the b e t t e r  I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i s , Bearbora I n t e l l i g e n c e  I n t e l l i g e n c e Tests, Otis  1, Army A l p h a , Terman Group Bental  Ability  Intelligence  Test o f Pental  Psychological  Test,  Ohio  Ability,  Tests,  t a l Be a s u r e , s n d t h e P r i n c e t o n  #  Det-  t  University  S c a l e CAVD, K u h l m a n ;  Trabue B e n t i m e t e r s , International  Biller  Bxamination-  State  The 1.3.P.. I n t e l l i g e n c e  Intelligence  ?.eale  -'ests, B a g g e r by D e l t a  Test, H a i r s tono P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Thorndilce I n t e l l i g e n c e l a m i n a t i o n ,  /aider son  knovai g r o u p t e o t s are:  .lie B y e r a  .'est.  Fen-;,  (16)  Chapter I I I . A Critical  S u r v e y o f Some Hod era, - d e f i n i t i o n s o f Intelligence  'ihe d i s c o v e r y r-nd e a r l y as o u t l i n e d affair. any  development o f i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r v/as l a r g e l y  The e a r l y  tests,  a h i t o r miss  e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n was w i t h o u t t h e a d v a n t a g e o f  co-upreherirtive o r c o n s i s t e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f  intelligence..  "As a m a t t e r o f f a c t g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e has  r i g h t l y been assumed t o e x i s t and n s y c h o l o g i «to h a v e gone t h e measurement o f an i n d i v i d u n l s T  about  g e n e r a l a b i l i t y without / a i t (19 )  i n g f o r an ad e qua t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n . "  '  N  However, as  t h e t e s t i n g movement continued t© g a i n momentum., r j s y c h o l o g i s t s hocnme i n c r e a s i n g  concerned  which t h e y v.-ere m e a s u r i n g . solution  a s t o the n a t u r e o f t h e ' ' a b i l i t y " T h i s l e d p s y c b o l o i . s t s to seek t h e  o f t h e i r p r o b l e m b y means o f s y m p o s i a .  famous B r i t i s h  authorities  I n 1910 s e v e r a l  c o m b i n e d t h e i r e f f o r t s i n o r d e r to  c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f i n s t i n c t and t h a t o f intelligence. testers  Tn 19 ?! , t h e erabaras sment was f e l t b y  a n d a g a i n a sympo S " -im was t h e r e s u l t . " 1  F o u r t e e n of  w  the l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , took p a r t .  Again  American  i n 1923.  another  symposium o n i n t e l l i g e n c e was h e l d a t O x f o r d . ~ ' L e t u s examv  ine., i n a somewhat c r i t i c a l manner, some which have been  , [21)  x  A  of the definitions  oroposed.  ^« P i n t n e r , " I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g , " 1 9 3 1 , P. 4 5 . Symposium, " I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d I t s M e a s u r e m e n t , " J o u r n a l o f Did."Psych., V o l . X I I , 1 9 2 1 , P. 123-147,195-216. International  Congress  o f Psychology, 1923.  The  first  attempt a t an  of i n t e l l i g e n c e a careful ed  analysis  probably t h a t o f o f how  that i n t e l l i g e n c e  tude o f  definition,  chief in  in  may  After  t h e m s e l v e s , , he  "bringing  decid-  to-gether a mul t i a  unitary,  any'way p u r p o s i v e whole."(22) G u i d e d by  one  of  the b e s t  c r i t i c i s m of h i s  single  have l i t t l e  or  at no  tests  of  ability at  the  test,  consists  character.  combining i n  this  intelligence.  vieiv t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e  "combining" i s i t s u n i t a r y  have excellent a b i l i t y he  distinguish  consisted of  nature  E b b l n g h a u s c o n s t r u c t e d h i s f a m o u s completion  which i s s t i l l  tially  men  the  Ebbinghaus i n 1697.  independent c o n c o m i t a n t impressions i n t o  meaninful, o r  The  was  adequate d e f i n i t i o n o f  essen-  A person  field  of  combining i n  music  may while  some" o t h e r  fields. It  i s l o g i c a l that Binet,  successful  tests.,  intelligence, he  does n o t  h o w e v e r , on  I n 1905,  o r g a n who oe  o.-.amining h i s  Binet presented i t seems  defectiveness or  once f o r p r a c t i c a l l i f e :  to  the  (22)  his  the  first  nature we  that  theory  of  definition:  bo u s ,  one  fundamental  alteration  has  the  tests.  "The  teste  organ,  most i m p o r t -  Further, Let  of  find  following  t h i s i s judgment."  of  the  systematic  s t a t e s t h a t memory i s d i s t i n c t f r o m j u d g m e n t . amine B i n e t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n  of  writings  comprehensive or  "There i s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , on  originator  s h o u l d , h a v e some v i e w s a s  p r e s e n t any  intelligence.  the  us to  now  he ex-  which  we  H. Ebbinghaus, Z e i t . P s y c h o l o g i c , X I I I , 1897, P. 401, a s -quo t o d by C. Soearman, 'ilia .Mature o f I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1923., •- B. 3B (23) A. B i n e t and Th. Simon, ''Methodes n o u v e l l e s p o u r l e d i a g n o s t i c du n i v e a u i n t e l l e c t u e l des anormoux, " L'Annee B s y c h o l o g i q u e , V o l . X I , 1905, P.P95.  s h a l l have r e c o u r s e seem c a p a b l e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o  three  d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : ft.) T e s t s o f memory; ( 2 ) T e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e which'are p a r l y of sensorial ly  done w i t h  i n t e l l i g e n c e . " ^ - ' Thus we s e e t h a t B i n e t c o m p l e t e -  Ignores h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n the construction,  of h i s tests.  I n 1.909 he d e f i n e s i n t e l l i g e n c e i n a c o m p l e t e l y manner. ior: (2)  ( 3 } Tests  the help o f l a n g u a g e ;  His definition  different  then e m p h a s i s e d t h r e e p h a s e s o f b e h a v -  ( i j The t e n d e n c y t o take and m a i n t a i n a d e f i n i t e adaptability, { 3 } self-criticism.  . B l u e t i s u n a b l e to f i n d a c o m p l e t e l y  Thus i t w o u l d satisfactory  direction  seem  that  theory of the  nature of intelligence. • L e t . u s now  t u r n to S t e r n ' 5 d e f i n i t i o n .  a g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y o f sn I n d i v i d u a l thinking  "Intelligence i s  c o n s c i o u s l y to a d j u s t h i s  to new p r o b l e m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f l i f e .  i c i s m that i m m e d i a t e l y p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i s why s h o u l d b e r e s t r i c t e d to new s i t u a t i o n s .  t i V  further.,  A crit-  intelligence  I t would also  t h a t ' i n t e l l i g e n c e i s ' r e q u i r e d t o meet s u c c e s s f u l l y , t i o n s , as they .recur.  ;  seem  o l d situa-  i t seems v e r y d o u b t f u l i f  any  s i t u a t i o n i s e n t i r e l y new o-; e n t i r e l y o l d b u t i s r a t h e r a m i x ture o f both.  As a f i n a l  objectionj  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t e l l s us  n o t h i n g about the n a t u r e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e its  employment,  Exactly  V/ell h ' d e f i n i t i o n - : of  so  no v e l  but merely  describes  t h e same c r i t i c i s m may be l e v e l l e d a t  "Intelligence  means p r e c i s e l y  the p r o p e r t y  r e c o m b i n i n g o u r b e h a v i o r - p a t t e r n s MO to a c t b e t t e r  in  sItuations. ^ ~ ' !1  u  X*24~j Tbi"dT~~I\ 257T" _a (25) \7. S t e r n , "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e t h o d s o f T e s t i n g ence, ' T r a n s l a t e d b y G. M. W i p p l e , 1914, P.3. (26) I i . ' " e l l s , " I l e n t a ! Adjustments-," 1917. 4  Intellig-  I n 1921, a f t e r  s e v e r a l m i l l i o n p e r s o n s h a d been  f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e . , American p s y c h o l o g i s t s to. the p r o b l e m o f d e f i n i t i o n . i g a t o r s were i n v i t e d of  these replied.  of  Conformity. Oolvin  far  ff  tocontribute  the conclusion  since  that  some o f t h e m a r e v e r y  Purther,  psychiatrists  were p o o r l y  fourteen  well  to their  him-elf  i n so to h i s  we a r e f o r c e d  animals a r e q u i t e i n t e l l i g e n t , adapted  and teachers  adapted  to adjust  this definition  the lower  invest-  we m i g h t e x p e c t some d e g r e e s  as he has 1 earned, o r can l e a r n 7  who  t o a syrup© slum a n d  an I n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s i n t e l l i g e n c e  e n v i r o n m e n t . " - ^ ) I f we a c c e p t to  their .attention  S e v e n t e e n o f the l e a d i n g  Here a t l e a s t  says,  turned  tested  to their  have reported  environment, many  children  environment because o f superior  intelligence, Henman s a y s , acity  this  definition  intelligence  we a r e f o r c e d  i s not innate  t w o factors-,---the c a p w  to the conclusion  a n d can b e d e f i n i t e l y  e  that  improved  since  "knowledge possessed ' can b e i n c r e a s e d . 1  Vintner  gives  the following ash i s d e f i n i t i o n :  always thought o f i n t e l l i g e n c e to  involves  f o r k n o w l e d g e a n d the k n o w l e d g e p o s s e s s e d . "(23}  accept  the  "intelligence  adapt h i m s e l f  life. ( -) H  subject  2  <p j_ A  s  adequately definition  as the a b i l i t y  " I have  o f the individual  to r e l a t i v e l y new s i t u a t i o n s i n  i s similar  to that o f 8tern  and i s  t o t h e same c r i t i c i s m - .  Thordike  states  that^  ,!  we m a y d e f i n e  i n t e l l e c t i n general  (27) S. S. CoTvTn,'' ''InTelligence a n d I t s P e s ^ r ^ m e n t : - a S y m p o s i u m , " Jo urn. 13d. Psy.» V o l . PH., 1921 >\ 136. (28) V. A. C, Heniftan,. I b i d . P . 195. (29) Iv. P i n t n e r , I b i d . P. 1 3 9 . ^ T h o r n d i k e u s e s the t e r m i n t e l l e c t a s a s y n o n y m f o r  intelligence  (  a s t h e p o w e r o f good" r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f { <3Q)  or ffiCt,  -  "  : t  The  interpretation  '  d i f f i c u l t y with this definition i a i n  o f the  t e r m "good r e s p o n s e s . "  evaluate  these..  The  smae c r i t i c i s m may  d e f i n i t i o n o f B u c k i n g h a m who "the  ability  intelligence  the  Thorndike  t a i n l y cannot i n c l u d e a l l p o s s i b l e types of response p h y s i c ? ! r e s p o n s e s ) b e c a u s e no  20) truth  cer-  (e.g.  test attempts  ho  levelled at  the  believes that intelligence  to s e t e f f e c t i v e l y under g i v e n  to  Is  conditions."  B o t h o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s seem to make t h e e r r o n e o u s assumpt i o n that e . l l responses are ponses are  required  intellectual*  for effective  t e s t s are concerned w i t h the  Msny t y p e s o f  "behavior.  limited field  res-  Intelligence of i n t e l l e c t u a l  response. Por as he  f e r m a n , "en  i s able  Individual i s intelligent i n  to c a r r y o n a b s t r a c t  proportion  t h i n k i n g . " ' Thus v  he  would e l i m i n a t e from c o n s i d e r a t i o n a l l types of b e h a v i o r which deal with tremely "1  concrete  limited...  objects  and  h e n c e i n t e l l i g e n c e becomes  freeman takes the opposite  conceive i n t e l l i g e n c e  v i e w when he  t o be a somewhat more i n c l u s i v e  a c i t y t h a n i s i m p l i e d when i t i s u s e d EU; a name f o r o u r tests."  He  believes thst intelligence  seventeen items which should end  morrl  character*  Por  i s the  include t r a i t s  exstates cap-  present  srnn o f a b o u t  such as  Preeman t h e n , i n t e l l i g e n c e  temperament seems t o  become s y n o n y m o u s w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y . , One  (SI) (SB) (SS)  of  the  better d e f i n i t i o n s i s that of Peterson,  B. R. B u c k i n g h c m , I b i d . P. SOO I . H. S e r m a n " I b i d . P. IE8 P. I I . P r e e m a n , I b i d . . P. 18S  who  states that*  Ji  i n t e l l i g e n c e seems t o l e a b i o l o g i c a l  (21) mechanism  by w h i c h t h e e f f e c t s o f a c o m p l e x i t y o f s t i m u l i a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and' g i v e n a somewhat u n i f i e d e f f e c t I n behavior»" L e t u s now t u r n t o t h r o e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s A m e r i c a n symposium w h i c h a r e r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g .  given i n the Rural s a y s , " i t  seems t o me t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e net-are o f I n t e l l i g e n c e c a n h a r d l y be d e b a t e d a t t h e p r e s e n t Haggerty i s very similar;  time." '  The s t a t e m e n t  1  " i n nry thinlciafe t h e w o r d  does n o t denote a s i n g l e m e n t a l p r o c e s s capable  se)  tic  definition."  Pressey  of  Intelligence  o f exact  analy-  remarks t h a t , although a l a r g e p a r t  o f h i s time I s used I n work w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e  t e s t s , he i s n o t  v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o w h a t l i e c o n c e i v e s (37 ) I n t e l l i g e n c e to he. ' v  One o f t h e most, obvious c r i t i c i s m s t h e i r complete l a c k o f conformity,,  o f these definitions i s  A second o b j e c t i o n that  m i g h t be r a i s e d i s t h a t none o f t h e w r i t e r s q u o t e d b r i n g s any factual  evidence  i n support o f h i s particular  viewpoint.  A  t h i r d c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e us w i t h a b s o l u t e l y no h e l p i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e s t s ,  f o r they t e l l  •what t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l a r e t o b e i n c l u d e d .  us n o t h i n g a b o u t F o r example, a r e we  t o i n c l u d e t e s t s o f memory i n o u r i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t b a t t e r y ? On t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e a u t h o r i t i e s seem t o be a b o u t e v e n l y d i v i d e d - . The Army, t h e O t i s , t e s t s exclude  t h e P r e s s e y , and t h e I l l i n o i s  s p e c i f i c memory p r o b l e m s .  i t s many r e v i s i o n s c o n t a i n memory P e t e r s o n , " " I b i d . P.' 1 9 8 . (55) B . R U E I I , I b i d . P. 14-2-. (56) I I . 3 . H a g g e r t y , I b i d . ?. £ 1 2 . (27) 3, L . P r e s s e y , I b i d . P. 1 4 4 .  items.  University  The B i n e t t e s t s a n d  (22) JSven t h e matter. cut  same a u t h o r i t y  Thorndike  the  excludee  I t from h i s  far  from the  truth  to  National  group tests..  w h o n he  cultivate  Tssj  -  i s .  ^  for  w h i c h he  Intelligence  and  the  seems t o  "while  feits,"  the  psychologist  know p r e c i s e l y  1920,. X  some-  individual  1  i i a l l a r d , • "Mental  this tests  was  Perhaps Bernard  remarks t h a t ,  measure intelligence.,, nobody telllgerice  testa,  in  Matriculation  f e r m a n i n c l u d e s memory i n h i s  but  tried  always consistent  I n c l u d e s memory i n h i s  excludes It from  what r e s p o n s i b l e *  i s net  22.  is  testa not  teacher tried•to what  in-  (23) C h a p t e r x'l. pamo t h e o r i e s a s t o t h e M a t u r e o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . A f t e r a e a r e f t i l a n d somewhat c r i t i c a l ,  survey o f the def-  i n i t i o n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e p r o p o s e d by l o a d i n g a u t h o r i t i e s we f i n d - t h a t they t e l l  us l i t t l e  shout i t s true nature,  the l e a d e r s  i n the f i e l d  io  umiacos^aary h u t thft  n o t only  domo o f  o f mental t e s t i n g have s t a t e d t h a t I t i t i sf u t i l e  to t r y t o deter-  ^ E v e n Terman seems t o f a l l  mine t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .  w i t h i n t h i s g r o u p when he a t y t e s , " t o demand, a a c r i t i c s ox t h e B i n e t method h a v e some t i m e s d o n e , t h a t one who w o u l d m e a s u r e intelligence  should  f i r s t present a complete d e f i n i t i o n o f i t  l Is  quite unreasonable*"  more d o g m a t i c * is  AC)}  The a t t i t u d e o f B o b e r t a g i s e v e n  %  "She k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e s s e n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e  naturally a thing that merits  profound research;  I never-  t h e l e s s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f the e x a m i n a t i o n would not p r o f i t by them-."^ ^ A s l o n g aa such a n a t t i t u d e persists 1  among m e n t a l t e s t e r s l i t t l e  s c i e n t i f i c progress,  p r e s e n t I n a d e q u a t e t e s t s , c a n be e x p e c t e d .  beyond o u r  'Fortunately  s  a few  p s y c h o l o g i s t s have g i v e n t h e p r o b l e m p r o f o u n d s t u d y and have pr02503ed  gence, research  comprehensive  theories  iipearraan a n d f h o r n d i h e I n this field-.  major t h e o r i e s w i l l 1. :  a a  intelli-  have c a r r i e d o u t t h e o u t s t a n d i n g  A brief'outline•of several of the  be p r e s e n t e d ,  5he U n i t f a c t o r  I'he u n i t f a c t o r t h e o r y ,  fneory  o r wha'c s p e a r m a n h?;o c e i l e d t h e  " m o n a r c h i c d o c t r i n e , " assume?; t h a t  T2§Tl\TTr^e^^^ (40) (41)  t o the nature o f  intelligence consists of  *  Ii, 11. Serman, " l i e s e u r e i a e n t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , " 1 0 1 6 , P. 4 4 . 0. B o b e r t a g , Annoe P s , , c h o l o g i q u o , ¥ o l . A7I.II 1912, ?. 2 7 4 .  one  unitary faculty  or a b i l i t y .  This f a c t o r  " i n t e l l i g e n t and weslt I n t h e s t u p i d . a t l e a s t i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s was Both B b b i n g h a u s end for  w h o l e t e s t i n g movement,  c e r t a i n l y based upon t h i s  I n t e l l i g e n c e as a C o m b i n i n g " a b i l i t y  and the- l a t t e r r e g a r d e d  i t a s the f a c u l t y o f j u d g m e n t .  s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s . , completion, a r i t h m e t i c a l  this  as  calculation,  memory, e t c . ) to. a l a r g e g r o u p o f  people,  theory demands v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s throughout,, s i n c e  t h e same g e n e r a l a b i l i t y  i s involved*  However., a l l o f  a v a i l a b l e d a t a s h o w s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s are are  I f we  t e s t s i n v o l v i n g mental f u n c t i o n s ( s u c h  varbs.1 d i r e c t i o n s *  theor;  Binet. seem to h a v e f o l l o w e d t h i s d o c t r i n e ,  the former r e g a r d e d  g i v e a .aeries o f  The  i s s t r o n g i n tlio  n e i t h e r very h i g h nor  v e r y low*,  later]  2.. The. ti  The  but  t o some extent  l a r g e l y b e a n abandoned by p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  h o w e v e r , some p h a s e s o f the ( t o he p r e s e n t e d  positive  A n i l e t h e unit, f a c t o r  t h e o r y i s s t i l l p r e v a l e n t i n p o p u l a r u s a g e and i n e d u c a t i o n , i t has  the  westalt t h e o r y o f  intelligence  seem t o h a v e a u n i t a r y c h a r a c t e r .  ^o .gaQtQ^B|h^EgL r  g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  the  true nature  of i n t e l l i g e n c e  who  has devoted  a quarter of a century to i n t e n s i v e research  on t h i s p r o b l e m .  i s t h e worJfc o f O r l  of  a  spearman  Spearman r e c e i v e d h i s e a r l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l  t r a i n i n g u n d e r rfundt and  Muller.  I n 1907  he  became head  of  t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f psychology a t u n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , L o n d o n . He  rerasin^u i n t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l he crime t o A m e r i c a I n  He  i s the f o u n d e r  o f t h e most important B r i t i s h s o h o o l  psychology, w h i c h h a s  been c a l l e d  " P s y c h o l o g i e s o f 1930".  "She  Factor School"  of in  1931.  - i n scale, eral  1904,  just  one y e a r  before  3pearman- p u b l i s h e d s m o n u m e n t a l a r t i c l e  Intelligence  (25) intelligence  Bluet's f i r s t  O b j e c t i v e l y Determined  entitled,  a n d Measured„"^  Here he makes a c r i t i c a l survey o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e of intelligence  end/points  "Sen*  I n the  o u t t h a t , w h i l e numerous  field  attempts  h a v e b e e n made t o j l a e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e , n o one h a s p r e s e n t e d any  comprehensive  theory  t o expl?;in I t s net-ore,  iflsae £ eoxaprehensitre a n a l y s i s o f e x i s t i n g d a t a o f c o r r e l a t i o n . - . - H e w a s .the- f i r s t t o r e a l i s e the c o r r e l a t i o n  technique  f o r psychology.  by tho method  the importance  correcting  and  experimental  to  attack  e r r o r s i ni t .  treatment, o f mental t e s t r e s u l t s  namely, t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . - * tests  large  group o f persons,  never  very high nor  ulated  a factor  person  to person  v e r y low..  o f goners!  butoperates  i / r g , a' p e r s o n  a p p l i e d , to a  spocialiaea  In  function*  g, which varies  from  i n e l l mental  that i n a d d i t i o n to this  gen-  p o s s e s s e s a l a r g e number o f  collectively called  abilities fhis  called  t h i s , -Spearman p o s t -  t o some e x t e n t  also  spueieli:;ed a b i l i t i e s ,  two-factor  are  !  assumed  more o f t h e s e  the  psychology,  S p e a r m a n found, t h a t I f a  i o explain  ability,  eral  any mental  c o u l d be used  c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e al?/ays p o s i t i v e b u t  lie further  highly  problems i n  o f mental a b i l i t y  operations,, ability  and a l s o methods  f u r t h e r , h e showed hoi? m a t h e m a t i c a l  one o f t h e most I m p o r t a n t  number o f s i n g l e  of  He d e v i s e d a n e w  s i m p l e r method f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e c o e f f i c i e n t for  Spearman  are c a l l e d  &.  into  One o r operation  d o c t r i n e h a s come -to b e k n o w n a s  theory o f i n t e l l i g e n c e *  "Oarl Bpeorman, " G e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e O b j e c t i v e l y D e t e r m i n e d and Measured." Amer. J o r n . o f Psy, V o l . l a , PP.201-285, 1904.  (26.) B u t s p e a r m a n d i d n o t s t o p 'with m e r e l y p r o p o s i n g B i s theory. By a f u r t h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n s i n g l e m e n t a l t e s t s he found, that t h e r e was  a definite  g o v e r n i n g t h e si2e o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d . the  principle  He found  that  c o r r e l a t i o n s tended toward a d e f i n i t e mathematical a r r a n g e -  m e n t which, c o u l d b e known a s the  e x p r e s s e d ' by a f o r m u l a .  t e t r a d e q u a t i o n and may  This  formula is  be s t a t e d a s  follows:  w h e r e r s t e n d s f o r t h o c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t and indicate  the a b i l i t i e s  correlated, proof that  4  a p,b&q 5  ( t e s t , s o h o o l HP.rks e t c ) t h a t a r e  j p e a r m o n h a s b e e n able; to fahow by s. m a t h e m a t i c a l when t h e t e t r a d e q u a t i o n h o l d s (and o n l y when i t  holds) throughout a t a b l e of c o r r e l a t i o n s , then the  abilities  i n v o l v e d c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o fere i n d e p e n d e n t p a r t s .  "Q?he one  p o r t lias been c a l l e d  t h e ' g e n e r a l factor-* and  d e n o t e d by t h e  l e t t e r g; i t i s so named b e c a u s e , a l t h o u g h v a r y i n g f r e e l y i n d i v i d u a l to i n d i v i d u a l i t remains the  same f o r any  d i v i d u a l i n r e s p e c t of a l l o o r r e l e t e d a b i l i t i e s . p a r t has been c a l l e d letter  s.  t h e s p e c i f i c f a c t o r ' and T  one i n second  d e n o t e d by t h e  I t not only v a r i e s from i n d i v i d u a l to  b u t f o r any one i n d i v i d u a l , f r o m e a c h a b i l i t y  The  from  Individual,  to another.  p r o o f ox t h i s o i l - i m p o r t a n t ma t a e n i a t i c a l theorem h a s  The  gradually  e v o l v e d through s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f c o m p l e t e n e s s , c u d may  now  be regarded a s complete."''"" "" 1  •Xheso two f a c t o r s a r e o p e r a t i v e s i n e v e r y m e n t a l p r o c e s s but they n e e d n o t be e q u a l l y 0.  ripeprraan,  Tho  involved.  A b i l i t i e s of &an,  I n soma c a s e g w i l l 1927,  75.  be  '  •  '-  '  in)  predominant while Iror t h e ant  as  s w i l l • he - of- .ma-jor  c l a s s i c s .Spearman f o u n d s , ' w h i l e f o r m u s i c s w&s  cording to  the  t e s t s , i s due different one  i n others  Spearman t h e o r y ,  to  the  fact  items,, t h e  ana t h a i - and  He  fand  tlpearman  g may  be  the  state  of t h e  the success  t h a t by  of  is m  approximate measure  consideration of  admits  general p l a s t i c i t y  that there  of the  Ac-  neutralize  of  to a general  is,, as y e t ,  ,  no  viewpoint,  nervous system,  '.glands± -or m a n y . o t h e r  of  the" n a t u r e  s t a t e s . t h a t frata a p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y  endocrine  import-  number o f .  t o b e l i e v e , t h a t -g c o r r e s p o n d s but  as  intelligence  pooling a large  the r e s u l t  o f ' c e r e b r a l energy*  proof,  times  s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s more or l e s s  hence  is.inclined  16  4. t i m e s a s p r o m i n e n t a s ,g..  Spearman continues w i t i i a g.  t h a t g was  -importance.  the  physiological  conditions.. Spearman and  h i s p u p i l s h a v e dan© a  investigation into  the  t r e m e n d o u s amount  ways I n w h i c h g and  s manifest  of-  them-  selves-. I t was ject  of  bf this this  inevitable  considerable  that  contraversy*  To  paper.  ' Ills mathematical  p r o v e n i n - the Thomson ^ "^  latest  4  took  sampling  theory  that  h i s sampling  [M)  ». ''i^bran-, and Mes surements..,.  proof  be  the  -sub-  various  bsyo&d t h e  was  the  scope  criticized  o b j e c t i o n to  the  i n i t s place.  th-s theory*.-  theory  Brov/n  i n 1321  stages of  because  These assumptions seem t o have  formulation of  theory  should  follow  lengthy discussion Is entirely  some o f h i s a s s u m p t i o n s *  a  such a t h e o r y  and  been and  proposed  However, xiiomson p o i n t s  aces not  rule  out  general  ±L Shomaon-, fhe E s s e n t i a l s 1021. r  of  of  out  ability Mental  (£8) "because w h o r e t h e s a m p l e s a r e l a r g e t h e r e w i l l conraon t o a l l a c t i v i t i e s .  iCelley^  g e n e r a l f a c t o r hut i s i n c l i n e d  he  factors  f i n d s .evidence  for a  to i n t e r p r e t i t d i f f e r e n t l y  from spearman. The  most i m p o r t a n t  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f Spearman s theory1  has'come f r o m t h e work o f L a s h l e y i n h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l on t h e b r a i n .  The  research  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s research f o r theories  o f i n t e l l i g e n c e do n o t seem t o have b e e n s u f f i c i e n t l y nized. lend  Lashley states,  support  "the r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t  t o the t h e o r y w h i c h c o n c e i v e s  recogexperiments  intelligence  as- s  g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y , i n t h e same measure t h a t t h e y op3Dose t h e o r i e s of r e s t r i c t e d  r e f l e x conduction.  The  r e t a i n a v e r i e t y o f maae h a b i t s and  c a p a c i t y t o f o r m and  o t h e r l e e s well-defined  h a b i t s seems r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , e n t upon the absolute q u a n t i t y o f c o r t i c a l t i s s u e and  Independent.of any  to  depend-  functional  q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the  cor-  U0iC.  I n c o n c l u d i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the t w o - f e c t o r t h e o r y , one  may  state that i t offers  nature of i n t e l l i g e n c e  the b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f  that hps y e t b e e n p r o p o s e d .  t h e o r y seems t o be most I n accord w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l , al  r  and  physiological findings.  S p e a r m e n , more t h a n t o a n y o n e e l s e . of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  "His  This education-  P u r t h e r , i t i s the only  f o r w h i c h a mathematical p r o o f h a s  nature  the  been attempted. 0  u r preso-nt  theory  « e owe r  i d e a s as t o  to the  (tfpeprraan a) a c h i e v e m e n t , w h i c h 1  (45) T. 1. i i e l l e y , C r o s s r o a d s i n t h e m i n d " o f i i a n , 1928 (46) i l . S. L a s h l e y , B r a i n M e c h a n i s m s and I n t e l l i g e n c e , i\ 17S.  19£9  i s one  . l o g y , has and  given  indeed 3.  >n e n t i r e l y new  to t h e  She  The  study  c l e a r e s t and  doctrine"}  s i g n i f i c a n c e to mental t e s t s  of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  Multi-gaotor  m u l t i - f a c t o r theory  he  most c o m p r e h e n s i v e f o r m u l a t i o n o f  ( o r w h a t Spearman h a s  i s that of Thcrndike.  His theory  Independent f a c u l t i e s . . "  t h e m i n d m u s t be  the  related  t o o n l y a few  g r e a t e r and I n 19B7  presented.  H e r e he  postulates  o f an  particular-  of functions  each  so  i s closely  others  g r e a t e r d e g r e e s o f remoteness.."  I n h i s b o o k , "The  In  that  o f i t s f e l l o w s , to t h e  the  -'anarchic  he w r i t e s  a s w e l l a s f o r m , and  that Thorndike published  the t h e o r y  I n 1914  the  seems t o h a v e  first  r e g a r d e d "as a m u l t i t u d e  of which i n v o l v e s content  o f an  colled  s t a t e s t h a t "the mind i s a h o s t o f h i g h l y  i z e d and  up  generally."(47}  Theory.  u n d e r g o n e some m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n c e i t was . 1903  (£9) psycho-  o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e i n t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y o f  with  I t was,  however,  clearest formulation  of  Measurement o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . "  that a person's t o t a l i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n n u m e r a b l e number o f s p e c i f i c  Individual s intelligence  i s due  T  abilities. to  i s made  The  quantity  t h e number ox  con-  nections w i t h i n the nervous system. "More, e x a c t l y o u r h y p o t h e s i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  of forming  bond b e t w e e n a n I d e a o r any and  one  i s as f ollotys:  connection  J47J d. (48) E. 2. (49) J ^ j  3  represent  thereof  p a r t or aspect or  Then i f i n d i v i d u a l s I, , I* , I  i n t h e number o f O's  0  or a s s o c i a t i o n or  p a r t or aspect or f e a t u r e  a s e q u e n t i d e a o r movement o r any  thereof.  Let  , I*,  etc.,  w h i c h t h e y p o s s e s s but a l i k e i n  feature  differing other  U. P l t i g e i , A H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f P s y c h o l o g y , P. 310, 19S5 L. T h o m d i k e , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y ( P i r s t E d i t i o n ) , 39, 1903 J * t h o r n d i k e , E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 3, P. 366,  r e s p e c t s , are ox  d e g r e e ox  the extent es  subjected  i n t e l l e c t w h i c h any  t o w h i c h he  than the  to i d e n t i e r l e n v i r o n m e n t s , t i i e amount  other  manifests  w h i c h he  b e l i e v e s that the scores  thorndike  and  I f there  highest  specific  but  is. a general  tellectual tasks.  are  On  elements are  Our  will  O's. o f Spearman's  two  unnec-  f a c t o r then t h i s would  merely  common o r n e c e s s a r y t o a l l i n -  by L a s h l e y ,  i s more  data  lies  i n the  " T h e r e i s no  ev-  i n i d e n t i t y o f nervous elements.  e v e n i n two  same n e u r o n s o r  s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n s to  seem t o p r o v e t h p t  The  Configuration  Gestalt school  the  the  structural  According  Hypothesis.  of psychology have developed a concep-  t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h we pothesis.  pro-  r e l a t i v e l y unimportant f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . " 4.  The  be  i n t e l l e c t u a l processes  i t i s very d o u b t f u l i f the  involved  same s t i m u l u s .  Thorndike  also postulates that i n -  to T h o r n d i k e ' s t h e o r y  to support t h i s b e l i e f  synapses are  ^ JPurther,  iipearman.  chief obstacle  the c o n t r a r y ,  process-  c l o s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to  Thorndike b e l i e v e s that h i s theory  than that of  and  s t a t e s the.t t h e y a r e  p h y s i o l o g i c a l evidence obtained idence  be  intellectual  deny the e x i s t e n c e  mean t h a t some o f t h e O's  The  He  l a r g e s t number o f  does not  factoz'S g e n e r a l  higher*  intelligence tests w i l l T  a l s o p o s s e s s the  general  on  e x h i b i t the  o f them m a n i f e s t s ,  possesses."  t o the number o f C s ,  d i v i d u a l s who  essary.  1  individuals,will  t h e number o f O's  portional  one  to t h i s  may  call  the  configuration  school, intelligence  i s the  hyability  (50) A . L. T h o r n d i k e , e t ~ a l . , The lier.surement of' I n t e l l i g e n c e , P. 4 1 5 , 1927. (51) 11. rf. L a s h l e y , B r a i n M e c h a n i s m s and i n t e l l i g e n c e P. 173, 1929.  t o 0012131116 t h e v a r i o u s configuration. cording  elements o f s i t u a t i o n Into a s i g n i f i c a n t  A person i s i n t e l l i g e n t or unintelligent ac-  a s h e h a s many o r f e w w a y s o f r e l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e *  telligence  d e v e l o p s by g a i n i n g new c o n f i g u r a t i o n s ,  seems t o I n v o l v e  t h e conception  igence i n the i n d i v i d u a l ganization from the last. ceptions  11  theory  t h a t each increment o f i n t e l l -  involves a qualitative  different or-  T h i s would o u t l a w the, c u r r e n t  of quantitative differences I n intelligence*  attempts t o express the growth o f i n t e l l i g e n c e uous s c a l e .  The  In-  con-  and t h e  upon a c o n t i n -  I t i m p l i e s a l s o a d i s t i n c t type o f n e u r o l o g i c a l  theory." T h i s ' s c h o o l . , a d m i r a b l e a s i t may b e i n some . f i e l d s , , seems to have brought o n l y  confusion  nature of intelligence..  i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f the  Some o f t h e G e s t a l t  psychologists  (Benussi and M e i n o n g ) b e l i e v e  t h a t a l l shape p e r c e p t i o n  to i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  Eohler,  fertheimer,  i s due  and Kofflca.* o n t h e o t h e r  hand, b e l i e v e t h a t s h a p e - p e r c e p t i o n i s n o t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o intelligence.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d a c l e a r and c o m p r e h e n -  s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f what t h e G e s t a l t s c h o o l intelligence*  mean b y t h e t e r m  (32)  C h a p t e r V. Some R e s e a r c h T r e a t i n g t h e R e l a t i o n and S i n c e a b o u t 1900  between  Intelligence  Scholarship  there has been c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t I n  comparing i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s w i t h s c h o o l grades.  How-  ever, the c h i e f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s f i e l d  1920  and  dates from about  t h e advent o f t h e g e n e r a l use o f t h e group t e s t o f i n t e l l -  igence.  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o t e d t o a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f  some o f t h e r e s e a r c h t r e a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and  scholarship  will  be made t o t r e a t  would r e q u i r e  a large  the l i t e r a t u r e e x h a u s t i v e l y , volume i n i t s e l f *  f o r this  A considerable  o f t h e p u b l i s h e d r e a s e a r c h w i l l , ho*wever  sampling  be a t t e m p t e d .  8  T a b l e I s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f 157 863  Mo a t t e m p t  a s measured by t e a c h e r s ' marks.  studies  which present  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s and  Intelligence involved  test results.  will  A complete l i s t i n g  be f o u n d i n S e c t i o n B o f t h e  o f the S t u d i e s  bibliography,  TABLE I Summary o f C o e f f i c i e n t s ,of C o r r e l a t i o n between, A v e r a g e S c h o l a r s h i p and I n t e l l i g e n c e .  elementary grades Secondary grades Hniversity All The variety  ,-  studies  In several  10 36 111 157  iramber of r ' s  109 356 398 863  Mean r  i526 *401 .413 .422  s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e I r e p r e s e n t a .tsamendous  of conditions.  correlations  Humber of Studies  The number o f c a s e s u p o n w h i c h t h e  a r e based vary from very few t o s e v e r a l  Instances the correlations  b e c a u s e t h e number o f c a s e s i n v o l v e d  thousand.  are not very s i g n i f i c a n t i s too few.  I n many o f  (32) the s t u d i e s variety used. zero  the - r o b a b l e  of i n t e l l i g e n c e The  E r r o r s were n o t  t e s t s , b o t h i n d i v i d u e l ?na  c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n range f r o m  t o t h a t o f . . 9 1 ( a s r e p o r t e d by  indicate  Burt).  The  the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s .  t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t s are h i g h e r than i n the will  presented.  s e c o n d a r y and  A  great  g r o u p , were approximately  t a b l e does  It will  be  clear  (.526) i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s  university  grades (about  .40).  It  a l s o be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r s e c o n d a r y  i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c e l w i t h t h a t o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s . mean o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and  t e a c h e r s ' ' m a r k s o f .422  a b l y b e l o w t h a t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e ana  The  schools general  i s consider-  achievement test  results (  w h i c h St.. J o h n r e p o r t s as  .56  a f t e r s u m m a r i z i n g some 320 r's..  T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d s i n c e a c h i e v e m e n t and are  constructed  i n p r a c t i c a l l y the  2able I I p r e s e n t s  intelligence  tests  same manner*  c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n  of  teachers'  marks I n the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e reported  i n the s t u d i e s o f S e c t i o n B o f the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  'presents  the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the data but  be  exhaustive.  The  correlations  seen, that i n g e n e r a l , those upon a b i l i t y than those ant  i n reading  are  as It  does n o t p r e t e n d  quite low.  It will  to  be  s u b j e c t s w h i c h depend i n p a r t  show a more s i g n i f i c a n t  correlation  s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g does n o t p l a y an  import-  part. Table I I I presents  c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n  of  teachers  marks i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e reported (53)  p.rz)  i n the  s t u d i e s o f s e c t i o n B o f the  ss  bibliography.  U. tf. S t . J o h n , E d u c a t i o n a l A c h i e v e m e n t i n d e l a t i o n I n t e l l i g e n c e , 1930, P. 38.  It to  1  C o r r e l a t i o n ox l y n c h e r s ' Marks i n t h e fllementsry - . Er/hjeets w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Subject  hiunber o f r s T  Mean r  Reading  •7  English  15  .368  Spelling  4  .305  Dictation  1  .52  Arithmetic  .48  20  Geography  5  History  8  School ~  •  .324 *324 ' •.  Writing  .47 .41 •  1  drawing Woodwork Cooking Sewing  —  ..  ;  11  .186  6  .315  8  .14  g i v e s t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e d a t a h u t i s I n no way e x h a u s t i i v e . The  s t u d i e s presented  liability  a r e "by no means homogeneous and t h e r e -  o f some o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d  t i o n because important were n o t f o l l o w e d .  i s o p e n t o ques-  p r i n c i p l e s o f good s t a t i s t i c a l p r a c t i c e  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e nowhere v e r y  being highest f o r physics  (.56) and l o w e s t  high.,  f o r shorthand  (.072).  I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e d e c i d e d l y more s i g n i f i c a n t i n the case o f the t r a d i t i o n a l academic s u b j e c t s than i n t h e c a s e o f some o f t h e n e w e r s u b j e c t s s u c h a s t y p i n g , bookkeeping,  shorthand,  m u s i c , d r a w i n g and m a n u a l a r t s .  c o m p a r i s o n m i g h t be made. plays a considerable  Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h  r o l e show a v e r y much h i g h e r  Another reading  correlation  '(55) w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e t n a n do s u b j e c t a which, i n v o l v e some measure of manual  dexterity, TABLE I I I . .  C o r r e l a t i o n . , o f T e a c h e r s -Marks i n t h e S e c o n d a r y Subjects w i t h Intelligence  School  1  Subject  Humber o f r ' s  Mean r .  English  20  .442  Grammar  . 7  .490  18  .357  Algebra  8  .463  Geometry  1  •"a/I  Arithmetic  I  Mathematics  General  Science  Chemistry  • <V3 r  15  .453  37  .574  Physics  1  Commercial S u b j e c t s  1.  Typing  1  Bookkeeping  1  Shorthand  1  History  •  20  *5D A H.  .092 :  .22 .072 fl t£ tf-;  French  Z  .355  Latin  5  .446  Spanish  1  .15  Music  1  .29  Drawing  1  .097  Manual A r t s  2  .158  J  T a b l e 17 p r e s e n t s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y marks w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e .  While e g r e e t d e a l o f r e s e s r c h has  been done on t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e , l e s s h a s b e e n done w i t h subjects*  u n i v e r s i t y average thei n d i v i d u a l  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e somewhat h i g h e r  f o r the secondary school to t h e f a c t t h a t f e w e r r  subjects ?  t h a t t h e y were  b u t p e r h a p s t h i s may be due  s are averaged.  Some o f t h e c o e f f i c -  ients- a r e based upon n u m e r i c a l  grades d i r e c t l y , others  been w e i g h t e d f o r time devoted  t o t h e s u b j e c t s , and o t h e r  have b e e n t r a n s m u t e d i n t o v a r i o u s "honor p o i n t s . "  numerical  values  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y  have grades  often called higher f o r  the sciences t h a n f o r t h e f o r e i g n languages. TAILS IT* C o r r e l a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y Marks w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e Subject"--  l u u t b e r o f r ' s Mean r .  English Mathematics f o r e i g n Language i reneh Spanish Ser-man Science Physics Zoology Botany Biology Chemistry Geology Psychology • History Education ?  I t may seem s t r a n g e  3 4 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 7 4 1  .632 .503 .313 .,425 .57 .50 .448 .64 .78 . 72 .515 ,56 .65 .549 .552 .66  t o state that i n s p i t e o f the large  number o f s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n ship o f teachers  1  marks t o i n t e l l i g e n c e , v e r y  seem t o h a v e t h o u g h t and  g i r l s separately.  i tworth while  few i n v e s t i g a t o r s  t o t r e a t t h e d a t a f o r boys  T a b l e . V. shows t h e r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s  w h i c h made t h i s s e p a r a t i o n ,  f u r t h e r d a t a c o u l d be  obtained  (37)  TABLE 7, The  Sex. D i f f e r e n c e i n The T< ,  Type o f S c h o o l  Investigator Hartson,l . D .  Boys  University  " (1932) tt  Jones.  C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and  .101 .503 .473  * It  n  ft «  3.  (1932)  rr  rt  Madeen, I . I n " (1920)  H i g h ' School '  II  n  n  .63 .67 .49  .27 .42  .37 .36  .38  ,36  .50 .51  .282  .277  .39  .39 .44  .48 .52 .55  11  .83  .87  Mean r  .410  .510  Elementary School 1!  T a x a m l n c , II. (1933)  .54 .48 ,42  u  (19.22)  St; John, 0 . Iff. " (1930)  1  r  .459 .498 .551  tt'  7?  B o o r , tf. ]?.  Girls  .29 .43 (5 y e a r (5 j-e paA v e r a g e ) A v e r age )  -«  Termon, X* 11. et a l (1923)  r  1  -  f r o m " a l l . g i r l s " ' o r " a l l b q y e " i n s t i t u t i o n s h u t i n e s much a s e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d s v a r y p r o f o u n d l y f r o m one s c h o o l t o a n o t h e r i t was n o t t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o i n c l u d e t h e s e . clearly  seen t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r g i r l s  h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r "buys.  I t w i l l be  are consistently  I n o n l y three o u t o f the f i f t e e n  p a i r s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d So t h e b o y s a c h i e v e a h i g h e r r a t i n g than g i r l s ; is less itself.  and i n each o f these cases t h e d i f f e r e n c e  than the Probable lirror involved The d i f f e r e n c e  i n the c o e f f i c i e n t  i n t h e mean r ' s i s q u i t e  significant,  the g i r l s ' - m e a n I t should  be  statistical  r he i n g  pointed  a b o u t 25J& h i g h e r  not  followed.  i n v o l v e d i n some o f t h e s t u d i e s was WOT  too  subjects*  general  trend  few  number o f  cases  to give very  sig-  P r a c t i c a l l y no  data  t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l  I t w i l l be  problem merits  The  example s i x o f Madsen's c o r r e l a t i o n s  w e r e -based on f e w e r t h a n f i f t y c a s e s . i s a v a i l a b l e as  boys*  o u t h o w e v e r , t h a t i n many e a s e s good  p r o c e d u r e was  nificant results*  than that of the  c l e a r t h a t t h i s phase o f  further investigation*; o f the p u b l i s h e d  are b e t t e r adapted  the c o r r e l a t i o n  I t w o u l d seem f r o m  data that schools  t o g i r l s t h a n t o boys*.  and  the  colleges  (39)  - - Chapter-YI, The Scope o f t h e Pi's s e n t Stud;/. The v a l u e o f a d d i n g f u r t h e r t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e  infield  o f the.  c o r r e l a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d s c h o l a r s h i p , w h i c h seems a l ready overburdened,  may  n o t be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t .  b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y maJces a d i s t i n c t to  The author  contribution  the f i e l d , 1* Many o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d I n t h e l i t -  e r a t u r e a r e m i s l e a d i n g because too  few.  t h e number o f c a s e s i n v o l v e d i s  To be s i g n i f i c a n t a c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n must  be a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s , and more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y f o u r t i m e s , the probable e r r o r *  2Trom t h e f o r m u l a e i t w i l l b e . s e e n t h a t t h e  Probable Error  o f r - .67445  (l-r )  S  "  s  p r o b a b l e e r r o r o f a c o r r e l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s a s H., t h e number o f cases decreases. as M a p p r o a c h e s  The p r o b a b l e e r r o r becomes i n f i n i t e l y zero.  great  P o r t h i s r e a s o n , c o r r e l a t i o n s s h o u l d be  v i e w e d w i t h c a u t i o n when b a s e d u p o n fewer t h a n .100 c a s e s e x cept where the c o e f f i c i e n t i s q u i t e h i g h . ies  Out o f t h i r t y  s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m t h o s e o f S e c t i o n B o f t h e  g r a p h y 15 w e r e b a s e d  upon fewer  t h a n 100 c a s e s .  biblio-  12 o f the  c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e b a s e d u p o n f e w e r t h a n 75 c a s e s .  .While 8 of  t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s e m p l o y e d f e w e r t h a n 50 c a s e s and 2 w e r e u p o n fewer t h a n 30 e a s e s . principles of s t a t i s t i c a l  data.  based  Such r e s e a r c h v i o l a t e s t h e c a r d i n a l procedure.  2. i^any o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e n o t b a s e d homogeneous  stud-  Even those s t u d i e s i n which  upon  the number o f , (54)  cases i s v e r y l a r g e a r e o f t e n open t o q u e s t i o n .  SJOOK  TBTFBook, ./. P. The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f H i g h S c h o o l S e n i o r s , 1 9 2 2 , ?. 1 0 3 - 1 0 5 .  {40} "between mental t e s t s c o r e s a n d  \7orked-~out--the-correlation  c c a d e m i c $rf-d.es o f some 6000 h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s snd o b t a i n e d a c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,282*.05 f o r b o y s a n a .277-.04 f o r Bice^  5 5  ^  girls.  s e l e c t e d a t r a n d o m 1 2 4 s e n i o r s f r o m one o f t h e t y p i c a l  high schools covered .47--.05.  by Book^s s u r v e y and o b t a i n e d e n r o f  Book's c o r r e l a t i o n i s d e c i d e d l y below t h a t o f o t h e r  studies i n the high school f i e l d .  T h i s i s d o u b t l e s s due t o  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e methods o f m e a s u r i n g s c h o o l achievement. There would u n d o u b t e d l y  ba w i d e v a r i a t i o n i n s t a n d a r d s and  e l i a b i l i t i e s o f s c h o o l marks g i v e n In t h e 320 s c h o o l s r e p r e s ented  I n the survey.  I n o t h e r words h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s t o o low  b e c a u s e I t i s b a s e d u p o n d a t a w h i c h i s not homogeneous, 3. Many o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e r e n d e r e d s i n c e t h e y do n o t p r e s e n t  the probable  valueless  errors of their  coeffic-  ients. 4. b l o s t j i f n o t a l l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e o p e n t o q u e s t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t p r e s e n t reliability  coefficients for their criteria  o f t e a c h e r s ' marks.  B e f o r e c o r r e l a t i n g a n y two v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s I.Q. a n d t e a c h e r s ' marks, s t a t i s t i c a l procedure  demands t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f  e a c h o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s be known.  I ti s well established that  most o f t h e s t a n d a r d  t e s t s have h i g h  coefficients  (betvveen  of teachers  marks?  1  l i t e r a t u r e has f a i l e d  Thin~lHeir7^'^  intelligence .8 a n d . 9 5 ) .  reliability  B u t what o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  A c a r e f u l search  through  to r e v e a l a s i n g l e  the available  c o r r e l a t i o n study i n  snd  S c o r e s Made o n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s , M a s t e r o f A r t s T h e s i s a t I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , J u n e 1920." Quoted b y Book,P. 104  which r e l i a b i l i t y  coefficients of teachers  5  marks were  clearly  presented« 5. Pew i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e t h o u g h t  I t worth while to deter-  mine s e p a r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r b o y s and g i r l s .  Ihu data  o f the  l a s t chapter i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n sex d i f f e r e n c e s .  T h i s phase o f  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n p r o b l e m n e e d s t o be t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d , particularly  i n the case  o f t h e separate s u b j e c t s .  6. . / h l l e a g r e a t many s t u d i e s have been made t o  determine  the c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and s c h o l a r s h i p i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t o o f e w h a v e d e a l t w i t h one o f the key i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system, namely, the junior high school. fill  T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n h a s been founded t o f u l -  c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r n o e d s a t t h i s s t a g e o f e d u c a t i o n and o c -  c u p i e s a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e i n t h e modern e d u c a t i o n a l system. seems, t h e r e f o r e , i m p o r t a n t  It  t h a t t h o j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l he t h e  subject of further correlation studies. 7. T h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o d e t e r mine t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e s e p ^ r ^ t e s u b j e c t s wixii i n t e l l i g e n c e .  This I s e s p e c i a l l y necessary  i n t h e com-  m e r c i a l , t h e t e c h n i c a l , ana t h e home e c o n o m i e s s u b j e c t s ,  ouch  c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r adequate e d u c a t i o n a l guidance the  student. 0. A c a r e f u l s e a r c h t h r o u g h  the. a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e  o n l y one c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y u s i n g C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s . (56) s t u d y o f v*. L i n e >• nd J . o. G l e n lic (56J  of  schools o f Toronto.  reveals  i h i s i s 'the  u s i n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e pub-  I t i s o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e t h a t a eom-  L i n e , ; i . a n a fclen, *J. s . , some H o l a u i o n s h i p s B e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e and Achievement i n P u b l i c S c h o o l , J o u m . Educ. R e s e a r c h , 1935, v o l . 2 8 , 5 8 2 - 5 8 8 .  prehensive  s t u d y "be u n d e r t a k e n i n V a n c o u v e r t o d e t e r m i n e  o n r r e s u l t s compare w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r  liow  investigators.  The p r e s e n t problem i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e t e r m i n e  the r e l a -  t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e end e d u c a t i o n a l achievement i n t h e junior h i g h s c h o o l  grades.  k y  Approximately  who a t t e n d e d  tells  used., i n t h e S t u d y .  2000 s t u d e n t s ( e v e n l y d i v i d e d a s t o s e x ) ,  Templeton J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , V a n c o u v e r , d u r i n g  t h e y e a r s 1937-28 and 1938-39* w e r e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . school d i s t r i c t entative  i s a l a r g e one a n d i s p r o b a b l y c l o s e l y r e p r e s -  of the c i t y at large*  g r o u p s were r e p r e s e n t e d  Practically a l l n a t i o n a l i t y  i n t h e s t u d y but t h e d a t a o n o r i e n t a l s  w i l l be t r e a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e Jh  The  chapter.  Intelllgenpe^ej^^T^^in^JKte_8tud^  As a c r i t e r i a o f i n t e l l i g e n c e b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p t e s t s were a v a i l a b l e . determine  The g r o u p t e s t s w h i c h w e r e u s e d t o  t h e I.Q. o f p u p i l s isrespe:  ( l ) Terman Group T o s t ,  (2) O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t s , ( 3 ) n a t i o n a l Test,  (4) .Detroit T e s t .  Intelligence  Individual i n t e l l i g e n c e r e s u l t s  b?sed  u p o n t h e S t a n f o r d He-vision o f t h e B i n e t t e s t w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n some c a s e s . 0. The C r i t e r i a Teachers scholarship. reasons:  1  o f Scholarship„  marks were used e x c l u s i v e l y a s a c r i t e r i a o f A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s were n o t u s e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g  ( l ) The s i m i l a r i t y  i n t h e method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f b o t h i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement t e s t s l e a d s one t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n them.  (£} - The . number- o f a c h i e v e m e n t standardized  on Canadian p u p i l a  • (z) 2or p u r p o s e portant  t e s t s which hare been  i s extremely  limited.  o f e d u c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e i t i s Im-  t o know h o w a s t u d e n t s  1  s c h o l a r s h i p , which w i l l be  m e a s u r e d by t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s , w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h -In  intelligence.  t h e c a s e o f Grade- I S s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s w e r e  a v a i l a b l e i n t h e f o r m o f p e r c e n t a g e s and l e t t e r  grades.  The  p e r c e n t a g e s were u s e d i n o b t a i n i n g most o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s . . The s c h o l a r s h i p o f G r a d e 7 1 1 a n d V I I I s t u d e n t s was a v a i l a b l e In t h e form  of letter  A,33,0+,C,G~,D,E„ ^4/y  The l e t t e r  g r a d e s u s e d were .  A w a s a s s i g n e d t o t h e t o p 6p, B t o t h e n e x t  a n d B's t o t h e next- 40£>, D t o t h e n e x t B4#>.  s  and E t o t h e  a  lowest  was  grades.  &p*  Tims a seven p o i n t  scale  with a normal  distribution  obtained* To d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t s * g e n e r a l a v e r a g e  i n a l l subjects  the f o l l o i Y i n g n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s w e r e s u b s t i t u t e d letter  grades.  A - 5 , B=£, C f ~ 3 1 / 3 ,  f o rthe  C*=5, 0 ~ £ 2 / 3 , D=2, E K  = 1  «  The n u m e r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s w e r e t h e n added a n d t h e mean o r "numerical average" obtained»  I n ob-  t a i n i n g t h e " n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e " t h e marks i n E n g l i s h and Mathe m a t i c s were d o u b l e d s i n c e more s c h o o l t i m e was d e v o t e d t o these  subjects.. P. S t a t i s t i c a l i.^ethqcU The p r o b l e m w a s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  between i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d t e a c h e r s lIoujj.it m e t h o d was u s e d  7  marks .  relations  The I?e a r s o n P r o due t -  to determine a l l c o r r e l a t i o n .  The  f o r m u l a used, t o c a l c u l a t e  Proba bk  Error  of  T =  T  To i n t e r p r e t shall  use the  tiie s i z e  probable  ^A^Sd' TFT  o f the correlations  obtained,  Below  .IS o r .20, " n e g l i g i b l e  from  ,15 o r .EO t o ,S5 o r .40., "present b u t low, '  I'Tovd  .36 o r .40 t o ..60 o r .60, "markedly  Above  . 6 0 © r .70., "high**'  study  we  or  indifference," 5  that  present."  the p u p i l s used in  formed a homogeneous group and y e tware  representative city  ^  (44) was as f o l i o ? /  - s t a n d a r d s g i v e n b y liugg.-  There- i s g o o d r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e this  error  socially,  economically,  closely  and racially o fthe  as a whole.  TB¥Fh.  0. iiugg," S t e ' t i T t i e a i " Methods A p p I T e d ^ o ~ 3 o ^ a t i o n,  (45) Chapter VII. The  Intelligence  and S c h o l a r s h i p o f Grade I X s t u d e n t s .  A. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e . I t has been w e l l - e s t a b l i s e d I.Q.  1  s o b t a i n e d by o r i e n t a l s  b y many i n v e s t i g a t o r s  on v e r b a l  Intelligence  t h a t the  tests,  both  i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p , a r e n o t r e l i a b l e because o f the l a n g u a g e difficulty.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e d a t a c n o r i e n t a l s h a s been  specifically  eliminated  This data w i l l  f r o m the g e n e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n  he t r e a t e d  i n a separata  study.  chapter.  TABLE V I .  PJ-J*$F£]^£P?LS£~^$.-ii'A-. .8>aen% I.Q.  ^F&de 1L S t u d e n t s .  dumber ^umber Total of Boys . of G i r l s  135—145  3  1  125™-134  11  11  115—124  39  47  86  105—114 .  48  44  92  95—104  46  45  91  85—94  12  14  75—04  4  65—74  0  Totals  J.63  5 1 164  1 327  T a b l e V i p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I.Q.'s-of 163 b o y s and 1 6 4 g i r l s  i n Grade I X .  p r a c t i c a l l y no s e x d i f f e r e n c e s I.Q.  f o rgirls  i s 109 w h i l e  that  The t a b l e  shows t h a t  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n . f o r boys i s 106.  there are The m e d i a n  (46) B. D i s t r i b u t i o n  o f Age  T a b l e VII p r e s e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n G r a d e IX s t u d e n t s u s e d i n t h i s  study.  o f a g e , among t h e 327  The m e d i a n age o f b o y s  t a k e n a t A p r i l 1938 was 1 8 5 months w h i l e f o r g i r l s i t was 182 months.  Thus i t w i l l be s e e n t h a t g i r l s t e n d t o be somewhat  younger i n t h i s  grade, TABLE VII*  Distribution  o f A g e among 3 2 7 G r a d e I X S t u d e n t s .  Age i n M o n t h s  A'umber of Boys  Humher T o t a l of G i r l s  155—159  I  160—164  2  2  4  165—169 •  1  o  9  170—174  20  24  44  175—179  24  35  59  180—184  32  30  62  185—189  £8  190*--194  24  lH-  39  195—199  17  ll  28  200—204  7  205—209  5  210—214  £  215—219  0  220—224 Totals  1  59  ri.  10 7  2 0  0  0  •j  1  163  164  327  .  0. A v e r a g e S c h o l a r s h i p a n a I n t e l l i g e n c e . As s t a t e d i n t h e l a s t  chapter teachers  1  l e t t e r grodes i n  - -  -  t h e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s v/ore c o n v e r t e d t h e mean o f . t h e s e w i l l  -  • (47)  I n t o n u m e r i c a l vo.lues and  be c a l l e d the numerical a v e r a g e .  The  range o f t h i s n u m e r i c a l average i s from 1 . 0 0 t o 5 . 0 0 , TABUS " f i l l . A v e r a g e S c h o l a r s h i p o f G r a d e I X s t u d e n t s a t V a r i o u s I.Q,. L e v e l s . T  n.  Beys  Girls  a. a v e r a g e Scho I a r s i i i p 1 3 5 — 1 4 5  3  1 2 5 — 1 3 4  11  115—124  All  Average Scholarship  3.95  Average Scholarship  1  4,3.0  4  3,79  11  3.73  22  3.76  39  3,51  47  3.48  86  3.49  105—114  48  3.11  44  3.26  a9  3.20  95—104  46  2.86  4 5  2.99  91  2,92  85—94  12  2.47 •  14  2.60  26  2.54  75—84  4  6 5 — 7 4  "0  2.41  •'•  2 ..62  5  2.45 '  1  1 . 7 3  1  1.73  o f Pupils doing satisfactory I.Q. l e v e l s  Boys Hi -  1 2 5 — 1 4 5  1  •  TABLE I X .  Percentage I.Q.  3.99  '4  P Doing Satisfactory Work  Girls Js.  work a t v a r i o u s  ft D o i n g satisfactory Work  •Vi.l .. Ii*.. p Doing Satisfactory «ork  100  $  1  100  fo  100  $  1 1  100  ft  Tp  4 7  Q7.2%  86  BQA'p  4 4  S9.l£  92  8 4 . 2 ^  7p  91  73.9#  26  35  p'  4 0  f  0  p  •4  100  22 .  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4  11  1 1 5 — 1 2 4  39  8 9 .  1 0 5 — 1 1 4  4 8  7 9 . 6 ^  9 5 — 1 0 4  4 6  75  p  4 5  7 2 .  8 5 — 9 4  JL^B  17  p  14  50  jc  .;50 - %  1  0  fo  o  0,  p  1  7 5 — 8 4  4  6 5 — 7 4  0  •• X  p ,i  c  • T a b l e - -T-i-Z I - f-j v e s t h e a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p a t v a r i o u s I.Q,. levels.  Itwill  he c l e a r l y s e e n t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a v e r y  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e n u m e r i c a l average which a pupil  will  attain. T a b l e IX. shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l work a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s .  A numerical av-  e r a g e o f £.70 o r b e t t e r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . this table i t w i l l  3?rom  be seen t h a t a n I.Q. o f 95 o r b e t t e r i s n e c -  e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y s c h o o l work:*  'ffith a n I.Q. l o w e r t h a n  95 t h e c h a n c e s f o r s u c c e s s i n Grade I X a r e a b o u t ono i n t h r e e . TABES X. C o r r e l a t i o n o f I».Q.. j?it.h A v e r a g e Subjects  It  dumber  S c h o l a r s h i p o f .Grade, I X P u p i l s  Correlation  Probable  Error  Boys  163  .582  Girls  165  .519  .0.38  All  328  .551  .026  . .035  w i l l be s e e n f r o m T a b l e X t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f a v -  e r a g e scholarship w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e quite s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h b o y s and g i r l s .  I t m i g h t be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e c o r -  r e l a t i o n f o r boys i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r g i r l s general trend o f the available l i t e r a t u r e .  contrary to the  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  o b t a i n e d a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean r o f .401 w h i c h was  o b t a i n e d b y a v e r a g i n g 356 r ' s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  (See T a b l e I . C h a p t e r •V.), ilaiiy s t u d i e s s u c h a s t h o s e o f s t a r c b J * ^  and B a n k e r ^ ^  h a v e shown t h a t t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s a r e n o t v e r y r e l i a b l e *  0 9  I n order  (58) s t a r c h , - U E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , " ' W c m i l l a n UoTT -*ew Y o r k , 1 9 1 9 , P. 426-449 (59) B a n k e r , H, J . , "The S i g n i f i c a n c e o f T e a c h e r s ' M a r k s , " J o u r n a l o f E c u R e s e a r c h , V o l . 1 6 , ?. 1 5 9 - 1 7 1 , 221-284, 1 9 2 7 . f  t c d e t e r m i n e ^i^e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e teachers* m a r k s u s e d i n t h i s study the w r i t e r c o r r o l s t e d the p u p i l s I n hovembei"' w i t h  that i n A p r i l ,  .86 "t .013) was o b t a i n e d .  average  I t may o c c a s i o n  t o s t a t e t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .84 t . o i l girls  T  scholarship  some s u r p r i s e  ( h o y s .81 i .020.,  This c o r r e l a t i o n i s extremely  h i g h and may o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d b y s t a t i n g t h p t t h e t e a c h e r s ' average marks used i n t h i s  study were e x c e p t i o n a l l y  reliable,  p r o b a b l y a s r e l i a b l e a s most i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t r e s u l t s . D», Achievement,, i n E n g l i s h a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e ^ark_ T e a c h e r s g a v e p u p i l s I n Grade IX one mark i n g e n e r a l l i s h which included, and  spelling.  English literature  t  c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar,  T a b l e X I .shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s  s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s t h a t g i r l s do s u p e r i o r  Eng-  I.Q. l e v e l s .  work i n E n g l i s h a t all  I twill levels.  doing be s e e n Boys  r e q u i r e a n I.Q. o f 105 o r b e t t o r t o do s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k i n this sub iect while (  quotients  ;  a b o u t 50p o f t h e g i r l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e  b e l o w 95 o r e s u c c e s s f u l .  T a b l e X I I p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f p u p i l s ' marks i n English with intelligence.  I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t c o r r e l a -  t i o n s s r o a l l q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , b e i n g somewhat h i g h e r f o r boys than f o r g i r l s *  I t msy b e p o i n t e d  tions a r e d i s t i n c t l y higher tained (See  out that the correla-  t h a n t h e r o f .442 w h i c h w?>s ob-  on a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  T a b l e I I I . C h a p t e r V).  Achievement in. £nglish a t the I.Q.  Boys 7o h o i n g Satisfactory Work  135—144  S i r ? .s  V a r i o u s I.Q.  All /•3 D o i n g if. /& D o i n g Ba t i s f a c t ory Satisfactory flork Work  3  100  p  1  100  £  X S O *** IL t!y 4r 12  83  p  11  100  $  Under 85  93  £  71  jy  64 a  4/J  45  37  93  -i <?i  44  91  "31  53  {7.G  *] V.  8  $  15  4  0  #  2  (  86  5 6,2|B :  100 /o 91  9o  95—104 46 85--94  4  fly  115—124 38 105—114 48  Levels.  ^  \  28 6  TABLE  16.6>$  XII. 1*0.  C o r r e l a t i o n ox Achievement i n E n g l i s h w i t h .Number  p.  Correlation  Probable  irror  Boys-  158  .590  »035  Girls  172  .526  .037  All  330  .537  .026  A c h i e v e m e n t i n M a t h e m a t i c s and  Intelligence.  T e a c h e r s ' m a r k s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r . g e n e r a l Mathematics and  f o r the  etry. the  The  individual subjects:  a l g e i b r a , a r i t h m e t i c , and  m a r k i n g e n e r a l mathematics was  marks i n the  three separate  T a b l e i l l 11 shows t h e  obtained by averaging  branches.  percentage of p u p i l s doing s a t i s f a c t -  o r y 'work i n g e n e r a l m a t h e m a t i c s a t t h e  various  I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t b o y s t e n d t o do s u p e r i o r subject  geom-  I.Q*  levels.  work i n t h i s  j u s t a s g i r l s d i d s u p e r i o r work I n E n g l i s h .  Girls  (51)  TABL3 X I I I Achievement  i n Ha taenia t i c s a t v a r i o u s I,Q«  Boys'  I.Q.  70 xiomg Satisfactory fork  135—144  Girls 5*> Doing Satisfactory Work  All  Levels* yo D o i n g Satisfactory ifork  2  100  1  100  3  100  1 2 5 — 1 2 4 12  100  9  78  21  90  • 33  97  69  94  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36  • 92 .  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 35  83  29  93  64  87  9 5 — 1 0 4 36  78  17  53  5.3  70  95 15  40  4  50  19  42  Under  EASES  'Xllf,  A c h l e v e B e a t ,in, A l g e T j r a a t v a r i o u s 1  n  Boys Li*  I.Q. L e v e l s .  Girls )o D o i n g W 7 fo D o i n g Satisfactory Satisfactory Work Work  All  /o D o i n g Satisfactory Work 6  2  100  1  100  3  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12  100  9  100  21  100  • 1 1 5 — 1 2 4 35  91  |32  84  67  88  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 .34  85  30  33  64  84  9 5 — 1 0 4 36  70  118  56  54  66  Under 95 15  47  4  25  19  42  135—144  seem t o r e q u i r e a n I.Q. o f 1 0 5 o r b e t t e r t o do s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n the. s u b j e c t , w h i l e I . Q. a s low a s 9 5 .  boys succeed f a i r l y well with a n  The t a h l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e r e  d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p "between a c h i e v e m e n t i n g e n e r a l a 1:0. i n t e l l i g e n c e  i sa  mathematics  TABL3 XV. A c h i e v e m e n t i n A r i t h m e t i c a t v a r i o u s I.Q, T A ~>  (_,' *  Boys  Girls  P Being Satisfactory Work  1,35—144  2  125—134 12 '  p Boiiig Satisfactory Work  T  Levels.  All Boing Satisfactory Work  100  u.  100  3  100  100  9  78  2.1  90  88  69  93  63  84  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36  97'  33  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 34-  85  29  9 5 — 1 0 4 35  71  18  50  53  64  Under 95 15  27  4  50  19  32  TABLE XVI. Achievement i n Geometry at..Various L.Q. L e v e l s * I.Q.  135—144.  Boys ?*;  P Boing Satisfactory. Work  Girls B* p Doing Satisfactory Work  All K.  'p B o i n g Satisfactory Work  100  1  100  3  100  1 1 5 — 1 3 4 12  t)p  10  50  22  73  115—124 36  86 -  32  78  68  82  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 35  86  29  79  64  83  9 5 — 1 0 4 35  77  17  53  52  69  Under 95 1 5  48  4  75  19  47  2  Tables  X I V , XV, and A T I g i v e i  arithmetic,,and  t h e achievement I n a l g e b r a ,  g e o m e t r y a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s .  be s e e n t h a t b o y s a r e s u p e r i o r t o g i r l s a t a l l s t a g e s . superiority  o f b o y s i s m o s t marked  This i s probably  due t o t h e f a c t  It will The  I n t h e e s s e ox g e o m e t r y .  t h a t boys take  d r a w i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o geometry and t h e t r a i n i n g  mechanical I n the former  subject girls  a i d s them i n the l a t t e r ,  r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q,  i n g e n e r a l , we  o f 105  t o do  may  .(S3) that  soy  s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n  the s e p a r a t e  mathematics s u b j e c t s , w h i l e boys are s u c c e s s f u l  w i t h an  o f 95  I.Q.  or b e t t e r . TABLE ZVII.- •  The  C o r r e l a t i o n of-General Mathematics, Algebra. A r i t h m e t i c , em. G e o m e t r y ' w i t h I.Q." General Mathematics r ..  bumber Boys  Geometry r •Jt\iG.  136  .576  .039  .462  ..046  .569  .039  .455  .046  93  .360  .061  .446  .056  .300  .063  .112  . 061  229  .488  .452  .035  .458  ,035  . 316  .040  Girls All  Arithmetic Algebra P.iS, r r.  Table AYII presents r - I g e b r a , a r i t h m e t i c end  the c o r r e l a t i o n s of g e n e r a l geometry w i t h  I.Q.  It will  mathematics be  seen  t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r a l l p u p i l s are s i g n i f i c a n t but considerably lower  i n geometry than i n the o t h e r subjects.  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r general mathematics of than  '. t h e r o f  .357  obtained  i e n t s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . should  be p o i n t e d  t i n c t l y higher  part of  the  (See  .480  is distinctly  by a v e r a g i n g  18  higher  Table I I I , Chapter - V).  of the g i r l s ,  sex d i f f e r e n c e w i l l  The  coeffic-  c u t t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys are  than those  t h i s significant  are  An e x p l a n a t i o n  bo r e s e r v e d  for a  It  disof  later  study.  E." A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e , . Teachers * marks were a v a i l a b l e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , and c o m b i n e d i n b o t h t e a c h i n g and available.  civics.  These s u b j e c t s  t e s t i n g , h e n c e o n l y one  T a b l e A 7 I I I shows how  are  mark wots  achievement i n socis1 s t u d i e s  varies-with. i.Q.  i twill  be s e e n t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement  i n this  subject.  A minimum I.Q.  95 seems t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l w o r k i n s o c i a l for  b o t h b o y s and  (54) sex of  studies  girls. TABLE XVIII.  A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l S t u d i o s a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. Boys iu  I.Q.  P Doing Satisfactory Work  Levels.  Girls ~ A l l p Boing iU )-3 D o i n g Satisfactory Satisfactory Work i'/ork 4  100  100  1  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12  92  11  91  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 38  95  46  •pO  84  92  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 48  85  48  39  96  87  9 5 — 1 0 4 46  7-6  45  67  91  71  27  16  37  31  32  135—L44 ' - 3  Under  95 15  91  TABLE X I X . U j o r r e l ^ t i o n of T e a c h e r s ' M a r k s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s ana li umber  P r o b a b l e mirror . 036  Beys  162  Girls  167  ..443  .041  All  329  .497  . 028  T a b l e XIX  p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s  m a r k s and  I.Q.  "markedly  present".  1  A c c o r d i n g to 2 h i g g s s t a n d a r d s a c o r r e l a t i o n i s 7  The  h i g h e r than those found .332 was  Correlation  I.Q.  c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d ore i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  distinctly  A coefficient  of  o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g 20 r ' s f o r h i s t o r y f o u n d i n  p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h (Soe T a b l e I I I ,  Chapter V),  I t should  be  pointed out  t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s are  toys than f o r £*  d i s t i n c t l y higher f o r  girls,  ^chioVement i n General  S c i e n c e and  G e n e r a l Science I s s. c o m p u l s o r y Ylil  b a t i s o p t i o n a l i n G r a d e IS.  Intplliftonqe.  s u b j e c t i n Orrdes  VII  However, a p p r o x i m a t e l y  75$  of t h e p u p i l s i n t h i s grade s e l e c t the s u b j e c t f o r t h e i r fiie d i s t r i b u t i o n o f intelligence I.Q.  l e v e l s a r c t o be f o u n d  contrary in  and  course  achievement a t t h e v a r i o u s  I n Table XX.  I t v / i l l bo  to p o p u l a r o p i n i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e  achievement i n science..  and  sex  seen t h a t ,  difference,,  A g a i n a minimum. I.Q,.  o f 95  saems  e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s f u l work I n t h i s s u b j e c t . TABLE  XX,  Aghie_yeme-3t, i n G e n e r a l j c i g n c e a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q,. L e x - e l s . Boys ii.  135—144  G i r l sI, P Doing Satisfactory >^orh  p hoing Satisfactory */ork  C  All ii.  • /j ho i n g Satisfactory Work  3  100  1  100  ££.  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12  100  9  100  21  100  1 1 5 — 1 2 0 36  95  34  88  70  91  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 36  82'  30  86  66  84  62  '•18  61  57  61  9 5 — 1 0 4 39 Under  95 15 j The  7  j  29  c o r r e l a t i o n s between T e a c h e r s  presented  i n Table XXI.  •A  I t w i l l be  7  32 m a r k s and  .627,  obtained  f o r beys,  b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' marks and section of t h i s study.  I.Q,.  are  seen that a correlation  "markedly p r e s e n t , " a c c o r d i n g t o Rugg's s t a n d a r d s . ient o f  I.Q.  The  is  coeffic-  i s the h i g h e s t  correlation  that was  i n t h e Grnde I I  found  I t should be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the  cor-  (56) i co-  r e l a t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r hoys than f o r . g i r l s , e f f i c i e n t o f .453 was  obtained o n a v e r a g i n g 15 r s f o u n d i n t h e T  a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e (-ce  'f«.Dle I I I , C h a p t e r V  be s e e n t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s  }.  Thus I t w i l l  found i n t h i s study are  markedly  higher than those o f other r e s e a r c h . PABIS C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers  T  ihimbor Boys  Iferks In General Science with_1.^. v  Correlation  B r o ha h i e l<rr o r  141  .*62?  .05.4  99  *528  .049  Girls All  XXI.  240  ,586  -•E. A c h i e v e m e n t i n f r e a c h and  Intelligence.  F r e n c h i s an o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n a l l grades o f the High School*  A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f the p u p i l s e l e c t e d  s u b j e c t I n Grade I X *  P u p i l s I n the l o w e r I n t e l l i g e n c e  do n o t t e n d t o s e l e c t  this subject*  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and I.Q.  levels.-  out,  She g i r l s  successful scholarship  achievement  o f 105  levels  a t the v a r i o u s through-  seems t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r  I n Ih-ench; b u t 50fo o f t h e g i r l s  satisfactory  this  P a b l e _ X A I I _ shows t h e  exhibit a distinct superiority  i'or b o y s a minimum I.Q.  t h i s l e v e l do  Junior  below  work.  T g f t l e ^ I X I I I shows t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s be ewe e n t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s i n F r e n c h end  I.O..  I t w i l l be  seen t h a t t h e r e i s a  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . superior work o f g i r l s  o f the  I n F r e n c h , t h e b o y s m a r k s she*? a h i g h e r  correlation with Intelligence, tained  In spite  distinct  on a v e r a g i n g 2 r ' s f o u n d  A c o e f f i c i e n t o f .353 was i n the i i w i ^ t u r e .  ob-  xhe c o r -  relations-found  (57) here a r e t h e r e f o r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r than those  reported i n other *  studies.  i  Achievement  135—144  i  i n F r e n c h a t V a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s .  I.Q. Doing Satisfactory «ork  -  m  T A B U  Girl s li.  Doing Sa t i s f a c t o r y *?ork  /•ll J5.  °/o D o i n g Satisfactorv Work  9  100  1  100  3  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 10  SO  9  100  19  95  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 25  84  32  94  57  89  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 15  73  27  85  42  . 81  95—104  8  25  18  50  26  41  unaor 9 5  3  0  4  50  7  28  5?A-8J,*£J JLXII I .  dumber  C o r r e l a t i o n . 2robable  Error  Boys  63  • 53,9,.....;.  .•060  Girls  91  .425  .065  154  .447  „043  Ml I. Achievement  i n the. C o m m e r c i a l S u b j e c t s a n d • I n t e l l i g e n c e .  The commercial s u b j e c t s i h ' t h i s g r a d e i n c l u d e , b o o k - k e e p i n g , b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c , and t y p i n g .  A l l o f these subjects a r e  o p t i o n a l a n d a r e s e l e c t e d b y f r o m 20 t o 30}fc o f t h e p u p i l s , most o f whom a r e g i r l s .  G i r l s i n t h e lower i n t e l l i g e n c e b r a c k e t s  tend t o s e l o c t t h e commercial s u b j e c t s .  T a b l e X X I V shows t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t a t v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s o f p u p i l s t a k i n g b o o k - k e e p i n g , b u s i n e s s arithmetic, and  typing, in  i t will  "be s e e n t h a t  i n t e l l i g e n c e . p l a y s a small,..:-  the success o f students' I n the commercial In the ease  quotients with  o f book-keeping, students  b e t w e e n 9 5 eno 1 2 4 a r e a l l a b o u t  subjects.  v/ith  intelligence  equally  those between 115 a n d 124 d o i n g s l i g h t l y  successful,  p o o r e r work.  minimum I.Q. o f 9 5 s e e m s n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y All  students with  intelligence  quotients  role  A  achievement.  above 125 were  suc-  cessful* Satisfactory be  a little  more c l o s e l y  students with all  about  Tho no  part  related  intelligence  equally  be r e q u i r e d  scholarship i n business arithmetic  f o rsatisfactory  A minimum  I.Q. o f 9 5 s e e m s t o  work.  shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e  i n the achievement  b u t again,  q u o t i e n t s b e t w e e n 95 a n d 1 2 4 a r e  successful.  table c l e a r l y  to Intelligence,  seems t o  plays  of a student i n typing.  little Pupils  with  I.Q.'s b e t w e e n 9 5 a n d 1 1 4 do t h e b e s t w o r k i n t h e s u b j e c t , those'above quotients The  1 2 5 do t h e p o o r e s t S t u d e n t s w i t h  below  95 seem t o be f a i r l y  correlations  seen a  that  ards). .063)  i s pre sent ,J  The c o r r e l a t i o n i s "negligible",  typing are similar Chapter V ) .  intelligence  marks I n the commercial -  i n T a b l e AIT.  i n t h e case o f b o o k - k e e p i n g  correlation  while  bucuessful.  between t e a c h e r s '  s u b j e c t s a n d I.Q. a r e t o b e f o u n d  or  Itwill  be  and b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c  b u t l o w " ( a c c o r d i n g t o ' -Hogg's s t a n d -  o f typing with The r e s u l t s  intelligence  (.031  -  f o r b o t h book-keeping and  t o t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (See T a b l e I I I ,  I twill  be s e e n  that  the correlations f o r the  commercial s u b j e c t s a r e d i s t i n c t l y  lower than those f o r the  academic s u b j e c t s ,  thus f a r  vrtiieh h a v e b e e n  presented.  (69)  TAKES. .XXIV . :  Achievement I n ~ Eook-l:„ev,;i,nR\ — — - — j j f i , Bi»H-«r>esm B u s i n e s s --r-i • • ; - > ) - i . - - . i - - - t . • — g g ± a a . » - •-~»yr-g"*** " ^ - A . J . liUiito i / l G . ^;P.'A ,„-y p . m g a t Various intelligence"LevelsT 1 1  •  —  —  —  —  1  1  •..  >l  i  sock-keeping  Business Arithmetic ^ Doing Satisfactory <»ork  a Do .^ulng Satisfactory •jork  A  3  125—144  Typing 13.  /0  r  100  JJV±i.  100  5  60  25  76  115—124 13  77  105—114 20  80  32  81  9 5 — 1 0 4 25  80  a n  81  13  70  under 95  16  OO  6  54  _  S s t i s f actor; Work  TABLE XXV. Correlation  o f Teachers; ...forks i n t h e C o m m e r c i a l  —  Subjects with «  ~  _______  ihunber  Correlation  •Book-keeping  67  .290  .075  Business Arithmetic  98  .372  .059  .031  .063  Typing  _L». ApM „T. -Met.. Ife t h e T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s e  In  subjects Include  e l e c t r i c i t y , m e t e l w o r k , a n d woodwork, of  Error  wi^_^elJUL£gn^e  e  Grade I X , t h e t e c h n i c a l  Probable  r  drafting,  .nearly a l l o f t h e boys  t h i s g r a d e s p e n d soma t i m e w i t h t h e s e s u b j e c t s .  Table  XXVI  shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t i n the t e c h n i c a l apparent  s u b j e c t s a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s .  I t w i l l be  t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e does n o t p l a y e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t  part  i n a student's success i n these s u b j e c t s . In  drafting  s t u d e n t s w i t h I..Q.'s a b o v e 115 do s u p e r i o r  work, b u t those p u p i l s  b e t w e e n 1 0 5 arsa 115 do p o o r e r w o r k  than  (60) B o y s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s he-  those a t -any-other l e v e l . low 95 a r e f a i r l y Satisfactory  successful. w o r k i n e l e c t r i c i t y seems t o he somewhat more  d e p e n d e n t u p o n i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r subjects*  Students  with intelligence  technical  q u o t i e n t s b e l o w 95 do t h e  p o o r e s t w o r k w h i l e t h o s e a b o v e 115 do d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r work. Boys whose I.Q.'a a r e b e t w e e n 96 a n d 115 e r e a b o u t e q u a l l y successful, S u c c e s s -in m e t a l w o r k i s o n l y s l i g h t l y telligence. f u l while  dependent upon i n -  P u p i l s w i t h I,Q.'s above 125 a r e t h e most  those  success-  b e l o w 95 do t h e l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k .  with Intelligence  Boys  quotient© b e t w e e n 105 and 1 2 5 seem t o h a v e a n  e q u a l c h a n c e f o r success„ A c h i e v e m e n t I n v/oodwork seems t o be t h e l e a s t d e p e n d e n t upon i n t e l l i g e n c e .  However,  do t h e b e e t w o r k and t h o s e telligence ceed t h a n  s t u d e n t s w i t h I.Q. 's.above 125  b e l o w 95 t h o p o o r e s t .  Boys w i t h i n -  q u o t i e n t s b e t w e e n 95 and 105 a r e more l i k e l y t o s u c those  b e t w e e n 115 end 1 1 5 .  l a b l e .ixyil g i v e s the c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' :in t h e t e c h n i c a l  s u b j e c t s and" I.Q.  marks  The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r e l e c t -  ricity  o f *£4g i ^057 shows t h e t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t  lovii."  The c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r d r a f t i n ? , m e t a l w o r k , and woodwork  are " n e g l i g i b l e  o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( a c c o r d i n g to Pugg's  The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d research.  A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .158  found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 7).  are s i m i l a r to those was o b t a i n e d  ( S e e Il&nual A r t s ,  Achievement i n the t e c h n i c a l  but  standards).  found i n o t h e r on a v e r a g i n g  Table  2 r's  I I I , Chapter  subjects, therefore, i s not  a p p r e c i a b l y dependent upon a s t u d e n t ' s  Intelligence.  TABLE Achievement  (61)  zxvr.  i n tap Technical^/Subjects a t T a r i o n s Levels., ' " "  I.Q,  Drs x t i n a I. /o Doing Satisfactory Work  i-lectricitv % Doing 3 . Satisfactory Work  c  1ES—144  8  100  8  88  115—-124  PA  88  26  85  105—114  35  63  36  69 •  95—104  39  72 .  39  69  Under 95  15  73 "  15  60  I.Q.  Metal ;¥or> fi, 7» Doing Satisfactory Work  125—144  8  115—124  Intelligence '  Woodwork If. •f> Doing Satisfactory Work  88  8  SO  -23  70  66  105—114  34  80  32  78  •95—104  39  70  39  80  Under 95  15  67  15  60  TABLE X X V I I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' B a r k s ..in t h e T e c h n i c a l . . . S t i h j e c t s 1  :  n  with  Mi ihnaber  Correlation  •frobable S r r o r  Drafting  181  ,116  .060  Electricity  124  .242  .057  l l e t a l v'/ork  121  .106  .061  vVoGdwork  117  .074  ,062  (62.) A. A c h i e v e m e n t i n Home- A e o n o m i e s and. I n t e l l i g e n c e . The home e c o n o m i c s s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g . . While t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e o p t i o n a l ed b y m o s t g i r l s .  Table XAVIII g i v e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n -  t e l l i g e n c e and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t I.Q."levels,  i n Grade 11, they a r e s e l e c t -  i n home e c o n o m i c s a t t h e v a r i o u s  A s t u d e n t * s success i n these s u b j e c t s does n o t  depend,.to any g r e a t e x t e n t , upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . I n c o o k i n g , g i r l s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s a b o v e 110 do  A  s u p e r i o r work*  minimum I-..Q. o f 90 seems t o be e s s e n t i a l  f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement.  S t u d e n t s w i t h I»Q.*s b e t w e e n 90  and 99 seem t o h a v e a somewhat b e t t e r c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s  than  t h e s e w i t h I * Q . s between 100 and 1 0 9 . !  S a t i s f a c t o r y work i n c l o t h i n g telligenee  than i s cooking*  i s l e s s dependent upon i n - ,  A l l s t u d e n t s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  q u o t i e n t s a r e a b o v e 1 0 0 seem t o h a v e a n e q u a l c h a n c e f o r s u c cess.  A m i n i m u n I.Q. o f 90., h o w e v e r , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s a t i s -  f a c t o r y achievement..  • ,. TABUS X X O I X .  A c h i e v e m e n t , i n .Cooking and C l o t h i n g a t V a r i o u s Levels* Oooking  S l o t hlng /o D o i n g Satisfs ctory Work  p Doing Satisfactory Work  1 2 0 — 1 2 0 lO" 1 1 0 — 1 1 9 27  85  1 0 0 — 1 0 9 4.1  71  90—99  d* xj  77  80—89  6  50  Intelligence  i  • x8  78  36  78  47  78 69  6  33  The c o r r e l s t l o n s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ana I . . a r e p r e s e n t e d i i i f a b l e XXIS. correlations'are standeras j . tained  "negligible  There I s l i t t l e  m a r k s I n home e c o n o m i c s  T  I t - g r i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e  o r i n d i f f e r e n t " ( a c c o r d i n g t o Rugg difference  1  i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s ob-  f o r t h e two s u b j e c t s . TABLE JLXI1V  O o j ' r e l s t i o n , o f T e a c h e r s ' Marks,  S ^ ^ ^ ^ B ^ W ^ O B J ^ V S .  r  i-lumber  Correlation  Probable  I.Q.  Error  booking  108  -182  . 068  Clothing  130  ,169  .057 !  &. _ (general...Conclusions a s t o t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p  between  Intelligence  said Or ad e . I X E c h o l s r s h i p. 1. The c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,651 o b t a i n e d ship  between average  a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e shows t h e t a c o r r e l a t i o n  present.  i s "markedly  i !  2. S i m i l a r l y t h e r e i s a m r f c e d c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n English  ( . 5 3 7 ) , g e n e r a l m a t h s m a t i c s {»-488) * s o c i a l  (.497), g e n e r a l s c i e n c e gence  scholar-•-  general  studies  {-.l>87} . F r e n c h (*447). a n d t h e i n t e l l i 4  quotient. 3. The c o r r e l a t i o n o f b o o k - k e e p i n g (.290) a n d b u s i n e s s  arithmetic  {,37h)  w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e i s "present but low*  The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t y p i n g Is  and I n t e l l i g e n c e  (.031)  "negligible." 5» The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i c a l , a n d home e c o n o m i c s  subjects with Intelligence  i s "negligible .. 1 5  j 6 » The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was t h a t b e t w e e n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e and i n t e l l i g e n c e - . 7. The l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d w a s t h a t b e t w e e n  typing  and  (64)  intelligence. •  - ~8_.--iiie - c o r r e l a t i o n "between a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l i g e n c e was  d i s t i n c t l y higher  than t h a t found i n other  re-  search. 9_. The  c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s and  t e l l i g e n c e <*••« d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n th.»» f o u n d i n o t h e r  In-  re-  search. 10.  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e - c o m m e r c i a l and  j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e are s i m i l a r t o available  found i n the  literature..  1 1 . B o y s do  s u p e r i o r work to g i r l s i n mathematics.  IS*  G i r l s do  13.  There i s l i t t l e  s t u d i e s and 14.  those  t e c h n i c a l sub-  s u p e r i o r w o r k t o b o y s i n E n g l i s h and  general  The  sex d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement In  1  m a r k s and  gence a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r Sdr b o y s than f o r g i r l s . . general  ailable literature 15.  social  science.,  c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s  c o n t r a r y to the  Preneh.  (See  intelliThis  t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s found i n the Table f  s  Is av-  Chapter T ) .  I n g e n e r a l , achievement i n those  r e a d i n g p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e has  subjects i n which  a marked c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h  intelligence. 16.. A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h o s e  s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h manual d e x t e r i t y  p l a y s e s i g n i g i o e n t p a r t shows s n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h intelligence. 17.  Contrary  reliable.  The  Uovember and  t o common o p i n i o n , t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s a r e  quite  c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p i n  t h a t i n A p r i l was  f o u n d t o be  .84  t  .011.  (65)  C h a p t e r VIII The  I n t e l l i g e n c e end  Scholarship  o f Grade V I I I  i i * D i s t r i b u t i o n , o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ana  Students.  the Average Scholershi-o  Grade VIII 1-upilsT The  apparent t h a t there The  '—'  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e among £30  m e d i a n I.Q.  is l i t t l e  for girls  b o y s and  found i n T a b l e XTX;.  g i r l s i n G r a d e V I I I i s t o be  and  s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s were c o n v e r t e d  the mean o f t h e s e may  T a b l e XXX levels.  presents The  the  be  values;  average.  t a b l e shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a I t should  be p o i n t e d  a r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n b o y s a t  levels.  Into numerical  grades  average s c h o l a r s h i p . a t the v a r i o u s  part i n a p u p i l ' s success. girls  105.  letter  c a l l e d the n u m e r i c a l  be  distribution.  t h a t f o r boys i s  /12 s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n O, C h a p t e r V I , t e a c h e r s ' i n the  £34  i t will  sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the  i s 10? w h i l e  JFrom t h i s t a b l e we  may  of  I.Q.  significant  out  that  the  the h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e  conclude that i n t e l l i g e n c e  p l a y s a much more i m p o r t a n t p a r t  i n the  success of g i r l s  than  boys. • T a b l e X X X I shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s d o i n g ory work f o r v a r i o u s  degrees of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  I t w i l l be  t h a t boys have a f a i r chance f o r success even a t levels. for  G i r l s whose I.Q.'s a r c b e l o w 105  s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement.  prognosis  £ o r  s  u  c  c  e  s  s  a  t most  Table XXXII presents scholarship with  the  seen  lower  have a poor chance  B o y s h a v e a somefthat b e t t e r levels.  the c o r r e l a t i o n s of p u p i l s ' average  intelligence.  I t w i l l be  c o r r e l a t i o n s are q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t , they are  satisfact-  "markedly present."  The  observed t h s t  or t o use  the  Rugg's s t a n d a r d s  table clearly  shows a  distinct  TABLE XXX.  ( 6 6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e ^ a n d Average S c h o l a r s h i p I I I Students. I.Q.  Boys, a.  125—144  Girls  iU  average  Scholarship  Average Scholf- r s h i p  o f Grade  All. Average  Scholarship  3  3.67  125.--134 1 1  3.78  II  3.85  22  3.82  3.25  47  3.66  79  3.49  3*10  84  3.12  155  3.11  £.87  55  £.77 ".  127  2.83  27  2. 53-  59  2.71  2.06  19  2.44  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 M.  „  105—,114 71'" 95—104  72  85—94  32  75--84  10  3.  . . 2,86 2.86  9 TABLS  Percentage TO  P Doing  X X X I .  Girls  Satisfactory Work 3  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11  100  11  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 32  78  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 71  82  95--104 72  65  85—94  66 67  75—84  3.67  o f P u p i l s d o i n g S a t i s f a c t o r y '.York a t V a r i o u s I.Q.  Boys  135—144  10  sex d i f f e r e n c e .  All P Doing ih Satisfactory fork  /'o D o i n g Satisfactory Work  3  100  91  22  96  47  98  79  90  84  77  15 o  80  49  127  58  27  37  59  55  9  10  19  37  W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s i n Grade I X a l l showed  h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r b o y s , t h o s e f o r Grade V I I I favor  ^  the g i r l s .  The s e x d i f f e r e n c e  clearly  found i n t h i s grade i s  s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d I n t h e p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a t u r e and  presented  i n S a b l e V o f C h a p t e r 7.  advanced  to  S e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s may  he  account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . ( l ) Perhaps t e a c h e r s ' marks e r e l e s s r e l i a b l e f o r boys.  T h i s t o p i c w i l l be e x p l o r e d - {2}  The  I.Q.  may  be a l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e  ievement of boys than (3) The  i n the next s e c t i o n . ach-  girls.  s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n may  g i r l s than f o r boys.  offer greater motivation for  T h i s q u e s t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n i s one  e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e and  of  ? / i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l i n .  Chapter XI* TABhl C o r r e l a t i o n o f I,Q. Subjects  termined  w i t h Average S c h o l a r s h i p o f G r a d e V I I I Pupils.  lumber  Correlation  o n l y be  Arror  230  .415  Girls  234  .660  ••is  464  ,54?  ,022  The  .03? 0S«5  R e l i a b i l i t y o f Teachers' Marks.  reliability  o f t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s f o r G r a d e V I I I was  by c o r r e l a t i n g t h e p u p i l s ' n u m e r i c a l  ember w i t h t h a t f o r A p r i l . sented  Probable  Boys  B. The  XXXII.  i n Table X X X I I I .  The  The  de-  a v e r a g e f o r Nov-  c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained are  pre-  c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e v e r y h i g h and  can  i n t e r p r e t e d by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s u s e d i n  t h i s Study a r e  quite r e l i a b l e .  I t w o u l d seem t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o  t h e o p i n i o n o f many w r i t e r s i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , average marks a r e about as r e l i a b l e ence t e s t s .  I t should  be p o i n t e d  as any  two  group  teachers' Intellig-  out t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y  co-  e f f i c i e n t s are s l i g h t l y higher f o r g i r l s may  explain,  than f o r hoys,  t o some e x t e n t , why t h e c o r r e l a t i o n  'This  of g i r l s '  marl  w i t h I.Q. i s ' somewhat h i g h e r t h a n f o r l a y s . TABLE X X X I I I . o f T e a c h e r s ' A v e r a g e Maries f o r I-ioveraber w i t h  Correlation  11 umber  Correlation  Probable  £rror  Boys  230  .783  .016  Girls  229  • 828  .014  All  459  ,804  .011  £• Achievement General JSnglish  in. -English  and  those  Intelligence.  i s made up o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  subjects:  i i i n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar, s p e l l i n g and w r i t i n g . T e a c h e r s ' marks i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h of  scholarship  age  of pupils  ence l e v e l s . levels.  i n the subject.  will  intellig-  G i r l s show a m a r k e d s u p e r i o r i t y a t n e a r l y a l l  G i r l s w i t h I.Q.'s a s l o w a s 85 h a v e a good c h a n c e f o r w h i l e b o y s r e q u i r e a minimum  q u o t i e n t o f 105 f o r s a t i s f r c t o r y w o r k .  finite  criteria'  T a b l e &XXIY shows t h e p e r c e n t -  d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t t h e v a r i o u s  success i n E n g l i s h ,  similar  be u s e d a s a  to those found relationship  i n Grade I X .  intelligence  These r e s u l t s a r e v e r y  The t a b l e  indicates  a de-  between achievement i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h  and  intelligence* The c o r r e l a t i o n s  of pupils'  t o b e f o u n d i n T a b l e XXXV. correlation  marks i n E n g l i s h  The t a b l e  c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e  b e t w e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s  Pugg's s t a n d a r d s . I t w i l l higher f o r g i r l s  be o b s e r v e d  than f o r boys.  v ; i t h I.Q. a r e  i s "marked," t o u s e  t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n i s  This d i f f e r s from the r e s u l t s  f o u n d i n G-ra.de 1 A .  (89) higher  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l l d i s t i n c t l y  t h a n t h e r o f .442 w h i c h wes f o u n d on a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e ;  (See f a b l e  I I I , Chapter ? ) •  TABLE X X X I V , Achivement- i n E n g l i s h Boy s iS.  I.Q.  •135—144  3  125—134  Doing Satisfactory  a t t h e V a r i o i i s I.Q.. L e v e l s . O i r :I s fa D o i n g Satisfactory #ork  100  All S.  Doing Satisfactory V7ork  3  100  11  31  10  90 '  21  90  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 . 33  76  46  98  79  88  105—114  69  64  84  86  150  74  95—104  .74  50  55  74  129  61  31  39  27  67  58  52  10  10  19  26  85—94 75—04  9  .  4  4  '  :  TABLB XXXV. C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Marks I n E n g l i s h w i t h Smabsr  Correlation  Probable  Boys  230  ,482  ,034  Girls  232  .569  .030  All  462  .518  .023  1.0  L  Error  D. A c h i e v e m e n t i n Ifo theme t i c s a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e . T e a c h e r s g a v e p u p i l s i n G r a d e V I I I one mark I n g e n e r a l mathematics which included The I.Q.  percentage Levels  arithmetic,  algebra,  and g e o m e t r y .  o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t She v a r i o u s  i s p r e s e n t e d i n gable X X X V I .  Girls with  I.Q.'s  above 1 1 5 shevv a s l i g h t s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r b o y s o f t h e same i n telligence.  B o y s show a m a r k e d s u p e r i o r i t y a t a l l o t h e r i n -  •telligence levels.  B o y s whose I.Q.'s  s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n mathematics, minimum I n t e l l i g e n c e success. to  The  £s l o w as 85 do  <70>)  fairly  w h i l e g i r l s seem t o r e q u i r e  q u o t i e n t o f 105  a  t o h a v e the same c h a n c e f o r  r e s u l t s which a r e p r e s e n t e d here are v e r y s i m i l a r  those found  achievement  sir-j'  i n G r a d e IA\.  A specific relationship  i n g e n e r a l mathematics  : i n d i c a t e d by  the  and  "between  intelligence i s clearly  table. TABLE X X X V I  Achievement  i n General Mathematics  Boys ii.  I.Q.  135—14-4  P Doing Satisfactory Work  3  :  1 2 4 — 1 3 4 11  Girl 3 P.  s t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q.  /j D o i n g Satisfactory Work  100 •  All  li. 3  91  • /  Levels.  fo D o i n g Satisfactory V/ork ' '  100  10  100  21  95  84  92  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 36  89  48  94  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 70  86  82  67  152  76  55  56  128  66  9 5 — 1 0 4 73 .  73  85—94  30  63  27  41  57  53  75—84  •9  44  10  20  19  32  .,  Table AXAVI1 p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n s g e n e r a l mathematics  w i t h I.Q.  of achievement  A l t h o u g h the c o e f f i c i e n t s are  c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h o s e f o r E n g l i s h t h e y show t h a t a r e l a t i o n i s "markedly though IX,  in  cor-  p r e s e n t " ( t o usts S u g g ' s s t a n d a r d s ) . A l -  t h e r e s u l t s a r e somewhat l o w e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d I n Grade  they are d i s t i n c t l y  h i g h e r t h a n t h e r o f .357  a v e r a g i n g 18 c o e f f i c i e n t s f o u n d Chapter V ) .  Tt w i l l  be s e e n  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  o b t a i n e d by(Table I I I ,  that the c o r r e l a t i o n f o r g i r l s i s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than that f o r boys.  This d i f f e r s from the  r e s u l t s fcmici i n Grade I A .  TABLE The  Correlation  ox  T e a c h e r s ' LSgrks i n G e n e r a l M a t h e m a t i c s w i t h 1. Q."' ~" "~ ' ~~ dumber  S.  XZZYII,  Correlation  the  232 .  .393  ,037  Girls  222  .497  .,033  All  464  •  .439  ,026  Achievement i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s  g e o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , and  percentage of p u p i l s  intelligence levels. sex  Error  Boys  P u p i l s ' m a r k s were a v a i l a b l e cluded  Probable  difference  and  Intelligence,.  i n s o c i a l studios.,  civics.  which i n -  Table A X A T I l l presents  d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the  It will  be  observed that there i s  f o r r . l l l e v e l s a b o v e an  l o w e r l e v e l s , however, the  I.Q*  of 105,  b o y s show a v e r y m a r k e d  G i r l s whose I.Q.'s a r e  telligence,  therefore,  success of g i r l s The  than  The  ( t o use  low",  are  once t h a t  Inthe  .309  shows t h a t  for g i r l s ,  Tho  b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and  T  marks  found i n Table XAXIA.  t h e r e i s a marked s e x  while that  hugg's s t a n d a r d s ) .  t o be  of  difference.  a correlation . 6 2 8 is  is  "high"  results 'clearly i n d i c a t e  f a c t o r s w e r e p r e s e n t w h i c h p r o d u c e d a much c l o s e r ship  have a  subject.  c o r r e l a t i o n between teachers  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r boys of  " p r e s e n t but  all  boys.  i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s w i t h I.Q, seen a t  at  seems t o p l a y a much g r e a t e r p a r t i n  c o e f f i c i e n t s of  I t w i l l be  the •  superiority.  below 105  much p o o r e r c h a n c e t h a n b o y s f o r s u c c e s s I n t h e  little  At  B o y s h a v e a good c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s intelligence levels.  various  that  relation-  achievement i n s o c i a l studies  for  g i r l s t h a n f o r "boys.  In this respect the results d i f f e r  (7S)  from  t h o s e o f Grade I X w h i c h showed a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n f o r h o y s . The c o e f f i c i e n t o f .46S, f o r h o y s and g i r l s t o g e t h e r , i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e r o f .332 w h i c h was f o u n d o n a v e r a g i n g 20 c o e f f i c i e n t s f o u n d i n o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r V ) , The c o r r e l a t i o n i s , h o w e v e r , s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n the  tfrade  I X s e c t i o n of t h i s  study.  TABUS XX1VIII. A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s JL.Q. L e v e l s . Boy 3  All  Girls  Jo D o i n g Satisfactory Work  p Doing Satisfactory infork  135—144  O  100  125—134  11  100  115—124  33  105—114  sM  p Doing Satisfactory Work 100  10  100  21  100  97  45  98  78  97  69  87  83  85  152  86  9 5 — 1 0 4 74  SI  55  56  129  71  85—94  30  80  27  26  57  54  75—84  9  77  10  25  19  '  iAx5ij.ui  M A i A t  0 o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Harks  i n Social Studies withI . Q .  dumber , C o r r e l a t i o n  P r o b a b l e i <rror :  Boys  229  .309  .040  Girls  230  . 628  .027  All  459  .468  .022  A c h i e v e m e n t i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e and I n t e l l i g e n c e . . G e n e r a l S c i e n c e i s now a c o m p u l s o r y  s u b j e c t i n Grade V I I I  and h e n c e m a r k s were a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l p u p i l s .  T a b l e XL p r e s e n t s  data which indicates I.Q.  levels.  I t w i l l he o b s e r v e d t h a t  e r i o r i t y over g i r l s  (73) a t the various  the achievement o f p u p i l s  a t nearly  b o y s show a marked sup-  a l l levels.  This sex difference  becomes v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t o r t h e l o w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e The  table  shows t h a t b o y s h a v e a n e x c e l l e n t  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r I.Q.  The g i r l s ,  quotients.  chance f o r  success  o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , seem  t o r e c r a i r e a minimum I.Q. o f 95 f o r s a t l s f a c t o r j ' w o r k .  The  s u c c e s s o f b o y s i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e seems t o be much l e s s depend ent  upon i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n does t h a t o f g i r l s .  .  TABLE X L . A c h i e v e m e n t i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e at... t h e Boys ii.  I.Q.  135—144  V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s .  Girls A„ £ Doing Satisfactory Work  Doing Satisfactory V/ork  3  100  125—134 11  100  10  115—124 33  91  10.5—114 70  All A.  /o D o i n g Satisfactory Work c  5  100  9-0  21  95  48  ' '34  81  93  87  80  78  150  82  9 5 — 1 0 4 74  88  55  60  129  76  85—94  31  84  27  41  58  64  75—84  9  88  10  30  19  58  Table X L I presents the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n t e a c h e r s ' marks i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e . there i s a pronounced s e x d i f f e r e n c e ; d i s t i n c t l y higher for g i r l s . shows t h a t girls (using  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  between Again being  The c o e f f i c i e n t f o r b o y s o f .309  a c o r r e l a t i o n I s " p r e s e n t b u t low,"  o f .536 shows t h a t  j  while that  for  a c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly present"  Fcugg's e v a l u a t i o n ) .  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f .415, f o r bo;vs  (74) t o g e t h e r i s somewhat l o w e r t h a n t h e r o f .452 w h i c h  end g i r l s  \?as o b t a i n e d b y a v e r a g i n g 15 c o e f f i c i e n t s f o u n d i n t h e p u b l i s h ed l i t e r a t u r e .  The c o r r e l a t i o n i s m a r k e d l y  below the c o e f f i c -  i e n t o f .586 which 'was f o u n d i n t h e Grade IX s e c t i o n o f t h i s study. • TABLE XLI. Correlation  o f Teachers' Harks flumbei-  Correlation  ox  .209  .040  230  .536  .031  461  .415  * 026  Boy* Girls  G. a c h i e v e m e n t  i n P r e a c h and  French i s an o p t i o n a l ed b y a b o u t  i n g e n e r a l S c i e n c e w i t h I.Q. | Probable  Intelligence.  s u b j e c t i n t h i s grade and I s s e l e c t -  70$b o f t h e g i r l s a n d AQ%  o f tho boys.  l o w e r I.Q.'s do n o t t e n d t o t a k e t h i s s u b j e c t . . o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e m e n t presented i n Table XLII.  I.Q. a r e t o be f o u n d i n T a b l e XL 111..  A minimum I.Q. o f 95  w o r k by b o t h b o y s and g i r l s .  between t e a c h e r s  the c o r r e l a t i o n s  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  The g i r l s show a d i s t i n c t s u p e r i o r i t y  seems t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s f u l  show t h a t  Pupils with  a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s a r e  over t h e boys a t a l l e x c e p t one l e v e l .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  Error  1  m a r k s i n P r e n c h and:  A l l o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s  are "present but low."  Tho c o e f f i c -  i e n t o f .301 f o r b o y s and g i r l s t o g e t h e r i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r  than  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .353 o b t a i n e d b y a v e r a g i n g 2 r ' s f o u n d i n published research.  The c o r r e l a t i o n i s d i s t i n c t l y b e l o w t h e  c o e f f i c i e n t o f .447 f o u n d  i n t h e Grade I X s e c t i o n  of this  (75) TABLE /LIU. Achievement  i n ffrench a t V a r i o u s I.Q.  Boys '  ...  Doing Satisfactory Work  GirlLS  ft D o i n g Satisfactory Work  125—144  o  100  125—134  9  77  10  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 21  62 .  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 28  Levels. All  P Doing Satisfactory Work  U.  C  3  100  80  19  79  43  79  64  73  61  61  70  89  67  9 5 — 1 0 4 20  55  32  66  52  61  85—94  8  50  15  4?  23  48  75--84  <,  0  5  20  TABLE  14  7  XLIII.  C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Maries i n I r e n c h w i t h  Soys  ii*  l i umber  Correlation  91  .202  Girls  166  All  257  Achievement  Prohahie  I.Q.  Error  , 067 .046  .301  .038  i n .the C o m m e r c i a l . S u b j e c t s ..and  Intelligence.  The c o m m e r c i a l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s g r a d e i n c l u d e j u n i o r i n e s s and t y p i n g .  bus-  Both o f these subjects are o p t i o n a l but are  s e l e c t e d b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y t-S/i- o f t h e b o y s and 8 0 ^ o f t h e g i r l s . T a b l e X L I Y p r e s e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and the  achievement o f p u p i l s i n j u n i o r business a t v a r i o u s  levels.  I t w i l l - A b e o b s e r v e d t h a t g i r l s h a v e a somewhat  chance f o r s u c c e s s a t most l e v e l s .  better  A d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  t w e e n a c h i e v e m e n t i n j u n i o r b u s i n e s s and i n t e l l i g e n c e i n d i c a t e d I n the t a b l e .  I.Q.  i s clearly  (76)  TABL3 ZLIV. Achievement i n Ounior  B u s i n e s s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s .  Boy s i.y*  yo D o i n g •Satisfactory Work  J3.  155—144  3  100  125—154  8  88  115—124  25  105—114  47  95—104  Girls  /J Doing Satisfactory iVork  All H.  /j D o i n g Satisfactory ;?ork  tJ  100  8  100  16  94  32  100  57  96  72  62  81  109  77  41  71  51  69  92  70  05—94  19  53  23  65  42  59  75—84  4  75  10  30  14  43  .  92  •  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f s t u d e n t s i n t y p i n g a t v a r i o u s I.Q* l e v e l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XLY. at  The t a b l e shows t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e  I.Q. l e v e l s a b o v e 1 0 5 .  sex d i f f e r e n c e  At t h e lower i n t e l l i g e n c e  levels  b o y s h a v e a much gre-. t o r c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s t h a n g i r l s . t a b l e c l e a r l y shows t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e d o e s n o t p l a y a cant r o l e  i n the success o f boys.  The signifi-  G i r l s whose I . Q . s a r e b e T  t w e e n 85 and 1 2 5 a l l h a v e a b o u t a n e q u a l c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s . Success  I n t y p i n g i s n o t dependent, t o any a p p r e c i a b l e e x t e n t ,  upon i n t e l l i g e n c e . The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e t o be f o u n d  of junior  i n Table XLVI.  b u s i n e s s and t y p i n g w i t h I.Q. The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r  j u n i o r b u s i n e s s show t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n ( t o u s e Hugg's s t a n d a r d s ) . higher f o r g i r l s the r e s u l t s  graao.  present"  The c o e f f i c i e n t i s d i s t i n c t l y  than f o r boys,  in* this  i s "markedly  following  t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d of  (77)  TABLE X I V . Achievement i n lyping. e t Various, I n t e l l i g e n c e Boys I-.Q.  lK  /o D o i n g Satisfactory Work  136—144  3  100  125—134  8  88  Girls n. /o D o i n g Satisfactory Stork  Levels.  All IK  y? j ) o i n g Satisfactory Work 3  100  8  88  16  88  68 .  32  72  57  70  69  63  74  109  72  9 5 — 1 0 4 42  72  51  61  93  66  05—94  •19  89  Ho  65  42  76  75—84  4  75  le3  38  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 25 1 0 5 — 1 1 4 46  -  •  9 TABLE  Xmi  w i t i i 1* Q* . Junior Business A'umber C o r r e l a t i o n Pro c a b l e Srror  TyBine Correlation  Probable Error  Boys'  147  .409  .046  .008  .055  Girls  186  .550  .034  .173  .049  i l l  333  .482  .029  .097  .037  The c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r t y p i n g the  clearly  show t h a t  correlation with intelligence Is "negligible or indifferent"  (using  Kugg's e v a l u a t i o n ) .  b o y s end g i r l s  The c o e f f i c i e n t o f .097 o b t a i n e d f o r  t o g e t h e r a g r e e s v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e r o f .092  found I n o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Table- I I I , C h a p t e r V ) .  I t Is also  s i m i l a r t o t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .031 found i n t h e Grade I X s e c t i o n of  t h i s study.  typing  I t may t h e r e f o r e  i s n o t d e p e n d e n t xivon  be c o n c l u d e d thp.t s u c c e s s i n  Intelligence.  i*  (78) Achiovement i n t h e T e c h n i c a l ^ o b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . The t e c h n i c a l  s u b j e c t s i n t h i s grade i n c l u d e  e l e c t r i c i t y , m e t a l w o r k , a n d woodwork. t a k e n by a l l boys i n Grade VIII. achievement o f students I.Q. - l e v e l s .  drafting,  These s u b j e c t s a r e  T a b l e XOVII p r e s e n t s t h e  i n the technical  s u b j e c t s a t the v a r i o u s  I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e  play a s i g n i f i c a n t part I n a student's  success  does n o t  i n these  subjects,  TABLE XL V I i . Achievement i n the T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s a t Various  T  Q  .135—144  Draft Doing Satisfactory Work  Electric! lu I p Boing Satisfactory Work  3  100  67  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 11  91  70  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 30  77  33  85  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 70  81  68  76  9 5 — 1 0 4 73  78  72  71  85—94  27  67  30  70  75—84  9  77  9  77  I.Q.  M e t a l >io  '•i/oodwork  oing Satisfactory fork  1*1. I  p Doing Satisfactory ^ork  155—144  67  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 10  80  67  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 33  85  70  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 67  73  59  91  9 5 — 1 0 4 75  69  65  75  . 85—94 75—84  72 10  Intelligence  60  3  67  70  179)  S t u d e n t s w i t h an I.Q. a b o v e 1 2 5 do s u p e r i o r w o r k i n " d r a f t i n g b u t s t u d e n t s a t a l l o t h e r l e v e l s have a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s . It w i l l  be c l e a r t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s no p a r t I n a  student's success i n e l e c t r i c i t y .  B o y s a t a l l l e v e l s have  about  the same c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s * Satisfactory  achievement  pendent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , ,  i n m e t a l work i s l i k e w i s e  S t u d e n t s have a f a i r  inde-  prognosis f o r  s u c c e s s a t a l l I.Q. l e v e l s . P u p i l s whose I.Q.'s a r e b e t w e e n 1 0 5 a n d 1 1 4 have a much g r e a t e r c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s i n woodwork t h a n s t u d e n t s a t h i g h e r or l o w e r I n t e l l i g e n c e The in The  levels.  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n teachers  1  the t e c h n i c a l  marks  s u b j e c t s xa.hdh I.Q, a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a g l e  r e s u l t s c l e a r l y show t h a t  XMIII,  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between a c h i e v e -  ment i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e I s " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n different."  The c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e s e n t e d h e r e c o n f i r m t h o s e  i n t h e G r a d e IX s e c t i o n  found  o f t h i s study and a l s o those other re-  s e a r c h (See Manusl A r t s ,  Table I I I , Chapter V).  conclude t h a t achievement  I n the technical  Hence we may  s u b j e c t s I s independ-  ent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE X L V I I I . Correlation  o f T e a c h e r s ' LShrks i n t h e T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s w i t h xhimber  Drafting I l e t a l ivork ijlectricity 'Voodwork  22 3 230 225 198  Correlation .081 ,108 .076 .030  P r o bab 1 e i3 r r o r .045 .044 . 045 .048  " i i * achievement i  n  (80)  .acme ^ o o n o n i i G B and . i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Home e c o n o m i c s i n c l u d e s two s u b j e c t s , c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g . These s u b j e c t s a r e t a k e n b y a l l g i r l s ment i n c o o k i n g a n d c l o t h i n g presented I n Table XLIX.  i n Grade T i l l .  a t v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s as  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e  i n t h epercentage o f p u p i l s  difference  d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work i n these  s u b j e c t s a t any one i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l •  two  The a c h i e v e -  w i t h t h e ' h i g h e r I.Q.'s do d i s t i n c t l y  However,  s u p e r i o r work.  prognosis for success decreases progressively  with  pupils A student's  decreasing  intelligence. TABhl ZE12. A c h i e v e m e n t i n C o o k i n g and C l o t h i n g  •'' •  •  I.Q.  Cooking J.M.  a t Various  Levels. " •  p Doing Satisfactory Work  Intelligence  ,-  Olothlnp H* )b D o i n g Satisfactory Work  125—134  10  100  10  115—124  43  93  ,45  96  105—114  77  78  76  80  95—104  51  65  48  66  85—94  22  59  24  58  75—84  10  50  9  44  Table 1 gives the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s i n home e c o n o m i c s a n d I.Q. show t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n  i s " p r e s e n t b u t low."  between  The c o e f f i c i e n t s The r e s u l t s a r e  somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e G r a d e I X s e c t i o n o f this  study.  (81) TABLE I .  Number C o r r e l a t i o n P r o h a h i e  Srror  Cooking  213  ,327  ,041  Clothing  212  .362  ,040  —* A c h i e v e m e n t . I n M u s i c a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e . Music by a b o u t  Z&p o f b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s .  telligence at  i s a n o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t i n t h i s grade and i s s e l e c t e d  and t h e p e r c e n t a g e  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n -  o f pupils doing satisfactory  v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s shown i n T a b l e L I . B o y s whose  are  work  I.Q. s T  b e t w e e n 95' a n d 104 h a v e a much b e t t e r c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s  than those a t any o t h e r l e v e l .  G i r l s w h o s e I.Q.'s a r e b e t w e e n  115 a n d 124 h a v e t h e b e s t p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s . o f 95 seems e s s e n t i a l  A minimum I.Q,  f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y work by b o t h boys and  girls-  •  ••  TABLE LI*: -  T—^  'loy  3  Girls  An  I.Q.  li.  125—134  7  86  2  50  9  78  115—124 10  70  16  87  26  34  105—114 .26  69  27  78  53  74  100  14  50  21  67  29  5  4-0  10  30  1  0  1  0  95—104  7  85—94  5 '  75—84  0  P hoIng Satisfactory tfork  h.  P Doing Satisfactory ffork  The c o e f f i c i e n t : , u f c o r r e l a t i o n  a.  % Doing Satisfactory Work  between t h e morks r e c e i v e d  by p u p i l s  (82) Por  i n m u s i c a n d i . Q . a r e t o be f o u n d i n g a b l e L I I .  boys t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s - " n e g l i g i b l e o r i n d i f f e r e n t " w h i l e f o r girls the  I t i s "present but low"  ( u s i n g Rugg s s t a n d a r d s ) .  However,  T  number o f c a s e s i n e a c h o f these g r o u p s l e a v e s much t o be  desired.  The c o e f f i c i e n t  o f ..217 "1 .06 f o r b o t h b o y s and  girls,  w h i c h - i s b a s e d o n 120 c a s e s i s somewhat more r e l i a b l e and i s s i m i l a r t o t h e r o f .29 f o u n d i n a n o t h e r s t u d y ( S e e T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r "V").  We may c o n c l u d e . , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t I n t e l l i g e n c e  n o t p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n a. s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t ,  does  i n music.  TABLE L 1 I .  C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' Marks i n M u s i c w i t h I.Q. dumber C o r r e l a t i o n 55  .073  .090  Girls  65  ,330  .074  120  .217  .059  L. Achievement  by a b o u t  i s an optional  i n A r t and,  s u b j e c t i n Grade V I I I  Intelligence. but i s selected  75$ o f t h e boys and a b o u t 60$ o f t h e g i r l s .  B i l l prodents the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e age  Error  Boys  All  Art  Probable  of pupils  doing satisfactory  G i r l s show a s u p e r i o r i t y  Table  and t h e p e r c e n t -  w o r k a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s ,  o v e r boys a t n e a r l y a l l l e y e l s .  Boys  h a v e a b o u t t h e same c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r I.Q* The  achievement  of girls  i n a r t seems t o b e s l i g h t l y more d e -  pendent upon i n t e l l i g e n c e  t h a n does t h a t o f boys.  Table L I Y presents the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a r t a n d I.Q. . .The c o e f f i c i e n t relation i s "negligible shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n  between t e a c h e r s " marks  f o r b o y s shows t h a t t h e  or Indifferent,"  cor-  while that f o r g i r l s  i s "present but low"  (using  Rugg s T  (83) evaluation;.  The c o r r e l a t i o n f o r "boys and g i r l s t o g e t h e r o f  .099 t . 0 3 8 - i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l l i r i t h t h e r o f .097 f o u n d i n a n o t h e r s t u d y ( T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r V)«  I t i s therefore  apparent  t h a t achievement I n a r t i s independent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . TABLE I I I I . Achievement  "ITQT  soys if.  i n A r t a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s .  Girls if. 5» ho i n g /'a D o i n g (Satisfactory Satisfactory ^orh Work  135--144  2  50  125—134  5  80  9  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 24  79  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 46  f  1  /s D o i n g Satisfactory '.York c  2  50  67  14  72  27  93  51  84  67  50  92  96  83  95—104  61  61  29  72  90  64  85—94  20  69  21  71  47  70  75—84  7  71  5  •30'  12  75  TABLE L I T .  number  ii*  Correlation  Probable Srror  Boys  171  .024  .051  Girls  141  .259  .052  All  312  .099  .038  G e n e r a l . Summary o f G r a d e V I I i i i a u c a t i o n a l A c h i e v e m e n t i n K e l a t i o n to I n t e l l i g e n c e . 1, The c o e f f i c i e n t o f ,547 b e t w e e n a v e r a g e  and  scholarship  i n t e l l i g e n c e shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n I s " m a r k e d l y p r e s e n t . " 2. T h e r e i s a l s o a " m a r k e d " c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n  gence a n d a c h i e v e m e n t  i n general English  intelli-  (.518), i n m a t h e m a t i c s  L 4 3 9 J , I B s o c i a l s t u d i e s (.468), i n g e n e r a l In junior business 3.  science  (.415) a n d  (.482).  The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n F r e n c h a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e (.301}  i s "present  but low." (.097)  4. The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t y p i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e i s "negligible  or indifferent."  6* The home e c o n o m i c s s u b j e c t s show a l o w c o r r e l a t i o n  with  intelligence. 6.. The t e c h n i c a l with  s u b j e c t s show a n e g l i g i b l e  correlation  intelligence. 7. T h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p and  i g e n c e was h i g h e r  than t h a t f o r any s i n g l e  8. The l o w e s t c a l s u b j e c t s and  correlations  intell-  subject.  were those between the  techni-  intelligence.  9. The c o r r e l a t i o n s  o f average s c h o l a r s h i p and o f t h e a c -  ademic s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e were • . d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r those found i n other r e s e a r c h , correlations 10. is  11.  found i n t h e Grade I I s e c t i o n o f t h i s  study.  12.  (.217)  but low*"  The c o r r e l a t i o n  "negligible  b e t w e e n a r t and ' i n t e l l i g e n c e  (.099) i s  or indifferent."  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  music., a n d a r t w i t h other  but s l i g h t l y lower than the  The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n m u s i c a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e  "present  than  o f the technical  s u b j e c t s , typing.,  i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d i n '•  research.  13. atics, 14.  I n g e n e r a l , b o y s do s u p e r i o r w o r k t o g i r l s I n mathems o c i a l studieso, and g e n e r a l I ngeneral,  science.  g i r l s do s u p e r i o r w o r k i n E n g l i s h , P r e n c h  (85) j u n i o r b u s i n e s s , and  art*  1 5 . Tlie c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s  T  m a r k s and I n t e l l i - •  gence a r e d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r boys.  This i s  s i m i l a r t o the general trend of the r e s u l t s found i n the a v a i l able l i t e r a t u r e 16.  (See T a b l e V, C h a p t e r V ) .  I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s a marked c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i n -  t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e m e n t  i n those s u b j e c t s i n which  reading  17-. I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s a n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n  between  plays•a significant part*  i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement  i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h a r e depend-  e n t u p o n some m e a s u r e o f m a n u a l  dexterity.  1 8 . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p i n November w i t h t h a t i n A p r i l was f o u n d t o be .804 % shows t h a t t e a c h e r s  7  .Oil.  This conclusively •  average marks a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e .  Chapter The  I n t e l l i g e n c e and  Sphglgrs^  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and T a b l e LV g i v e s the boys and 103 and  216 g i r l s  (86)  IX»  the Average Scholrg-shir. o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e among 246  i n Grade VII.  t h a t f o r boys i s 101.  The  m e d i a n I.Q.  There appers  for girls i s  t o be l i t t l e  sex  d i f f e r e n c e In t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n c f i n t e l l i g e n c e . Teachers'  l e t t e r grades  i n t h e s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s were  a s s i g n e d n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s and to  find  t h e mean o f t h e s e was  the. n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e .  The a v e r a g e  computed  scholarship at  v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s I s a l s o t o be found i n Table I t w i l l be  i n ac?domic success.  d i f f e r e n c e i n s c h o l a s t i c achievement intelligence.  levels  c e s s f u l achievement. s u c c e s s i s a b o u t one  for  among p u p i l s o f t h o same  i s presented i n Table LVI,  o f ,668  P o r both s e x e s  At t h e l o w e r l e v e l s the p r o b a b i l i t y  of  in three.  i n Table LVI1.  The  s c h o l a r s h i p and  I.Q.  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r boyo o f  shows t h a t a c o x - r e l a t i o n i s " m a r k e d l y girls  the  q u o t i e n t o f 95 seems e s s e n t i a l f o r s u c -  c o r r e l a t i o n " o f p u p i l ' s average  a r e t o be f o u n d .586  sex  o f p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t  . a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e  The  There i s l i t t l e  .  percentage  v a r i o u s I.Q.  LV.  immediately apparent t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a very  significant role  The  the  present" while that  I s " h i g h " ( u s i n g Kugg's ^ e v a l u a t i o n ) .  the Grn.de V I I I s e c t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s h i g h e r f o r  As  in  girland  t h i s s e x d i f f e r e n c e i s s i m i l a r t o t h p t of o t h e r r e s e a r c h  (See  T a b l e V,  than  Chapter "". ,  A l l o f the  coefficients are higher  (87} TA.BL-; I V . tributio.n^uitem  Scholarship „ q  Boys I.Q.  Average Scholarship  Girls Average Scholarshij  All Average Scholarship  135—144  1  4.40  1  4.80  2  4.60  125—134  13  3.65  6  3.70  19  3.67  115—124  36  3*52  ,39  3.60  75  3.56  105—114  56  3.07  59  3.24  115  3.14  95--104  68  3,00  52  2.97  120  2. 39.  85—94  52  2.65  38  2*62  90  2.64  U n d e r 85  20  2.48  21  2.48  41  2.48  •  • f ABBS BVX.. Percentage  of - yavXla  doing S a t i a t e c t o r y "levels.  ffork_at "  V a r i o u s I. —  i.Q.  Boys ii.  135—144  1  100  1  100  2  100  125—134  13  100  6  100  19  100  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 ' 36  97  39  92  75  95  105—114  56  88  59  85  115  86  95--104  68  75  52  73  120  74  85—94  52  44  38  42  90  43  Under 85  20  35  21  33  41  34  fi B o i n g Satisfactory Work c  Girls Ii. Jo B e i n g So fcisfaotorv Work  All P Boing Satisfactory 7/ork  t h o s e obtained I n t h e G r a d e V I I I and II s e c t i o n s o f t h i s  study.  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l s o d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h a n the mean r o f .401 which was obtained by a v e r a g i n g 356 r ' s f o u n d i n t h e l i t -  /e r a m r o vl'aole I, Chapter  (OB)  Y).  TABLE  ZYII.  Vll lumber  .686  . 028  Girls  216  .668  .026  All  462  . 625  .019  The  pupils  T  R e l i a b i l i t y o f Toaohera* .Marke. n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e f o r November was to d e t e r m i n e the  m a r k s i n G r a d e VII,  the It  The  teachers s h o u l d be  i n the  reliability  f a b l e . IATIII p r e s e n t s t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n s , which are 1  u y ) l l s  Error  246  with that f o r A p r i l  tained.  Probable  Boys  B. The  Correlation  p  out  that  of  teachers  coefficients  very high,  average marks i n t h i s grade are pointed  correlated  indicate  quite  there i s l i t t l e  sex  1  ob-  that  reliable» difference  reliability coefficients. TABLE L V I I I .  '  C o r r e l a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s ' A v e r a g e M a r k s f o r Boy ember w i t h .Number  Correlation  Probable  259  .811  . 014  Girls  - 212  .,813.  m A  471  .812  .010  £• • Achievement i n E n g l i s h , and General E n g l i s h literature,  Error  Boys  All  includes  the  Intelligence.  following  subjects  c o m p o s i t i o n , grammar, s p e l l i n g , and  Teachers' ]?srks i n g e n e r a l E n g l i s h w i l l of achievement i n the s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k at  subject. the  various  those  The I.Q.  he  English  writing.•  u s e d as a m e a s u r e  percentage,of pupils l e v e l s i s t o be  doing  found  In  T a b l e LI,,.  i t will  be  apparent that g i r l s  s u p e r i o r i t y over boys i n E n g l i s h . t e l l i g e n c e 'quotient g i r l s whose I.Q.  o f 95  s are  1  B o y s r e q u i r e a minimum i n -  f o r s u c c e s s f u l achievement  as low  as 85 do  123  g i r l s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s  two  obtained  107  boys, h a v i n g the  The  r e s u l t s are  s a t i s f a c t o r y work.  Of  were 105  only  similar to this  135—144  100  1  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13  92  6  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 34 .  91  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59  100  An  A.  5& D o i n g Satisfactory Work ' • 100  100  19  95  44  100  78  96  75  72  97  131  87  95--104 69  67  52  79  121  72  85—94  48  37  37  62  85  48  $5 21  33  22  55  43  44  shows t h e  English with  "high" while  7  ably higher V)  and  c o r r e l a t i o n s of teachers'  i n t e l l i g e n c e . The  In general,  coefficient for  the c o r r e l a t i o n s are  then those of other research a l s o those obtained  of t h i s study.  marks i n girls  t h a t f o r b o y s shows t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s  "markedly jnresent. '  ter  •  Levels.  2  general Is  I.Q.  c  T a b l e LX  and  LIX.  G i r l Ls JS> D o i n g a. fi B e i n g Sa 1 1 s f a c t o r v 8a 11 s f ac t o r y Work • lork  1  Under  of  study.  Boy 3 • Si.  out  those found I n the Srade T i l l  Achievement i n E n g l i s h a t the Various ' ,S  or b e t t e r ,  same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k .  TABLE  T  while  f a i l i n g marks i n A n g l i s h ; w h i l e n i n e t e e n  I X s e c t i o n s oT  i.Q.  (89) distinct  show a  i n the  (See  consider-  T a b l e I I I , Chap-  G r a d e V I I I and  IX  sections  S c h o l a s t i c achievement i n E n g l i s h i s markedly  dependent upon  (90)  intelligence. TABLE L i .  C o r r e l a t i o n of Teachers' dumber  Marks i n a n g l i s h w i t h  Correlation  I.p.  Probable E r r o r  Boys  245  * 541  ,030  Girls  234  • 638  .025  All  479  .588  . 020  B. A c h i e v e m e n t I n Mat-hematics and Table LAI presents the percentage  Intelligence.  of p u p i l s doing  f a c t o r y work i n g e n e r a l mathematics a t t h e v a r i o u s levels.  It will  v/ork t o g i r l s .  be As  satis-  intelligence  s e e n t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , b o y s do s u p e r i o r i n Grade f i l l ,  b o y s w h o s e I.Q. ' s a r e a s  a s 85 h a v e a f a i r c h a n c e , f o r  success.  h a n d , r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q,  o f 9-5.  g e n c e q u o t i e n t s w e r e 115  Girls,  on t h e  other  Of 47 b o y s whose  o r b e t t e r , o n l y one  failed  low  intelll-.  i n mathem-  a t i c s ; w h i l e s i s o u t o f 51 g i r l s w i t h t h e same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work.  The  table Indicates a definite  s h i p b e t w e e n a c h i e v e m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s and The  intelligence.  c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s , marks i n g e n e r a l 1  m a t h e m a t i c s ouAdi i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e The  relation-  t o be f o u n d  coefficients indicate that a correlation  present." higher than  I n g e n e r a l , the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e those  study.  found  LXII.  i s "markedly significantly  of o t h e r r e s e a r c h (Table I I I , Chapter  somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e sections of this  i n Table  i n t h e G r a d e ¥111  and  V) IX  and  (91) Achievement  i n G e n e r a l M a t h e m a t i c s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l s .  Soys D.  J. * •  Girls u. p Doing Sa t i s f a c t o r y Work  p Doing Satisfactory Work  All ii.  P Doing Satisfactory Work  1  100  1  100  2  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 12  100  6  100  18  100  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 34  97  4 4  86  78  91  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59  78  71  87  130  83  9 5 — 1 0 4 70  84  57  60  127  73  85—94  48  63  41  32  89  48  ' Under 85 21  «33  25  24  46  28  135—3.44  •.TABLE Correlation  ffiL  .  o f T e a c h e r s " H a r k s i n G e n e r a l M a t h e m a t i c s w i t h I.Q. Number  Correlation  Probable  Error  Boys  245  .478  .033  Girls  245  .583  .020  All  490  .527  ,022  X. A c h i e v e m e n t  i nSocial  geography,  i  S t u d i e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e .  T e a c h e r s ' m a r k s were a v a i l a b l e included  .  i n s o c i a l studies,  c i v i c s . , and h i s t o r y .  which  The p e r c e n t a g e o f  p u p i l s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e e l s i s shown i n T a b l e L X I I 1 . have a somewhat b e t t e r than g i r l s .  failed.  be a p p a r e n t t h a t  chance f o r s u c c e s s i n s o c i a l  boys  studies  A l l o f t h e 4 8 b o y s whose I.Q.'s w e r e 1 1 5 o r b e t t e r  were s u c c e s s f u l , gence  I tw i l l  lev-  w h i l e 4 o u t o f 50 g i r l s w i t h t h e same  Both boys and g i r l s , however,  intelli-  seem t o r e q u i r e  minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t o f 95 f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y a c h i e v e -  a  (92)  merit. TABLE L i I I I . A c h i e v e m e n t i n S o c i a l s t u d i e s a t V a r i o u s I.Q. L e v e l * Boy X m-Q, a  135—144  fij  J  /=> ho i n g S a 11 s f a c t o r y Work  Girls ti*  All Ii.  )o D o i n g t 8a i s f a e t o r y '•fork  / i Doing Satisfactory Work  1  100  1  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13  100  6  100  19  100  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 34  100  43  91  77  95  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59  85  72  83  131  84  9 5 — 1 0 4 69  82  52  69  121  77  85—94  55  37  46  86  51  43  21  38  ' 42  40  49  L nder 85 T  2  100  Table LXIV p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s i n s o c i e l s t u d i e s anu I.Q,  I tw i l l  c o r r e l a t i o n i s "markedly present."  There i s l i t t l e  ference i n the s i z e o f the c o e f f i c i e n t . a r e much h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e Chapter  be e v i d e n t t h a t a sex d i f -  In general, the results  o f o t h e r s t u d i e s (See Table I I I ,  V) and s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n those found  V I I I and I X p a r t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . studies i s definitely related  i n t h e Grade  Achievement i n s o c i a l  to intelligence.  TABliS L X I V . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teachers' Humber  M a r k s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s w i t h J_.Q.. Correlation  Probable  Error  Boys  246  .610  .033  Girls  232  .515  .033  All  476  .512  . 023  H* A c h i e v e m e n t i n G e n e r a l The I.Q.  Intelligence.  achievement o f p u p i l s i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a t the i s t o he f o u n d i n T a b l e L X V .  levels  o n c e , t h a t b o y s do  o u t o f 50 g i r l s  o r y work.  I t w i l l be  with  only 3 obtained  failing  the same i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d  G i i - I s r e q u i r e a minimum i n t e l l i g e n c e  i s very  chance f o r s u c c e s s .  The  Of  46  marks; w h i l e unsatisfact-  onotient of  f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y achievement, w h i l e boys w i t h a n a a 85 have a f a i r  variou  seen a t  d i s t i n c t l y s u p e r i o r work to g i r l s .  b o y s w i t h I.Q.'s a b o v e 115 14  s c i e n c e and  I.Q.  as  low  data presented  s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d i n t h e G r a d e ¥111  105  here  s e c t i o n of  this  study.  fABLI LXV. -Achievement i n G e n e r a l  Science  Boys i . Q .  JJI.  135--144  Jo DoingSatisfactory Work  a t the Various  Girls JH.  Jfc D o i n g Sat i s f a o to ry Work  1  100  1  100  1 2 5 — 1 3 4 13  100  6  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 32  91  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 59  I.Q. All il..  Levels. . Jfo D o i n g Satisfactory Work  o  100  67  19  09  43  72  75  80  83  71  72  ISO  77  9 5 — 1 0 4 68  70  54  122  60  85—94  48  67  37  43  85  56  85 21  4-8  22  46  43  47  Under  ,48  in/  .-  T a b l e L X V I shows t h e c o e f f i c i e n t ' s o f c o r r e l a t i o n teacher s r  served for  marks i n g e n e r a l  that the c o r r e l a t i o n  girls,  t h i s grade.  contrary The  Science  of  I.Q.  between  I t w i l l be  ob-  is§.<?ffiewhat h i g h e r f o r b o y s t h a n  to the g e n e r a l  size  and  •  trend of the r e s u l t s  in  the c o e f f i c i e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a  cor-  r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t b a t l o w , " a n d i t i s somewhat l o w e r those found  than  i n t h e G r a d e V I I I and I X s e c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y .  The c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e a l s o l o w e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d I n o t h e r r e search.  {Table I I I , Chapter V ) .  However, t h e r e s u l t s  Indicate  t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t i i . g e n e r a l s c i e n c e i s somewhat d e p e n d e n t u p o n intelligence. TABLE L X V I . C o r r e l a t i o n o f Teabhs~A's PJarks i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e w i t h I.Q. L umber T  Correlation  Probable  Error  Boys  242  .412  .036  Girls  234  .370  .038  All  476  .391  .026  G. A c h i e v e m e n t I n F r e n c h a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e . P r e n c h i s a n o p t i o n a l s u b j e c t I n Grade V I I but i s s e l e c t e d by a b o u t 50fi  o f t h e b o y s and 70p o f t h e g i r l s .  lower i n t e l l i g e n c e  Pupils with  q u o t i e n t s do n o t t e n d t o t a k e t h i s  subject.  T a b l e L X V I I shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e ment a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q, l e v e l s . s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r boj-s.  G i r l s show a  distinct  B o y s r e q u i r e a minimum I.Q. o f 95 f o r  s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k , w h i l e g i r l s h a v e good c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s regardless of intelligence. The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n I.Q. and t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s i n F r e n c h are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e L X V I I I . ate  indic-  t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n i s " p r e s e n t b u t l o w " ( u s i n g Pugg's ev-  aluation) . in  The c o e f f i c i e n t s  The r e s u l t s a r e somewhat l o w e r t h a n t h o s e  found  Grade I X , b u t a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d i n G r a d e V I I I .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e a l s o somewhat h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o u n d i n other research.  As I n general s c i e n c e , the c o e f f i c i e n t s  show  a s e x d i f f e r e n c e which f a v o r s the hoys. TABLE LXVII. A c h i e v e m e n t i n ffrencn a t t h e V a r i o u s Boy,s J&L  i • V4»  105—144  Girls U. 1 p Boing Satisfactory ffork  P Doing Satisfactory Work  1  I.Q. L e v e l s .  100  All M,  P Doing Satisfactory &ork  1  100  2  100  6  100  16  94  1 2 5 — 1 5 4 10  90 .  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 29  89  39  95  68  92  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 33  61  65  69  98  66  9 5 — 1 0 4 34  53  38  66  72  59  ;Under 95 10  40  16  75  26  61  TABLE L X Y I I i . Correlation  o f TeachersV Marks i n Erench w i t h i.Q. Iflimber  Correlation  Probable  Error  Boys  117  .404  .046  Girls  165  .361  .052  All  282  .371  .035  H. A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e T e c h n i c a l S u b j e c t s a n d I n t e l l i g e n c e . Hhile the technical  s u b j e c t s i n t h i s grade i n c l u d e  drafting,  e l e c t r i c i t y . , m e t a l w o r k , a n d woodwork, t e a c h e r s ' a s s i g n e d one mark i n g e n e r a l  shop work*  The a c h i e v e m e n t o f b o y s i n g e n e r a l  shop w o r k a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s p r e s e n t e d It w i l l  i n T a b l e LXIX.  be o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s a d e f i n i t e p a r t i n  a student s T  success.  Of 4 7 b o y s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e  quotients  above 1 1 5 , o n l y 4 d i d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work. A c o r r e l a t i o n o f .355 £ .037 was o b t a i n e d m a r k s o f 2 4 7 b o y s a n d I.Q. is  "present  b u t low."  This indicates  I t should  be p o i n t e d  between t h e  that a correlation out that the  c o e f f i c i e n t f o r g e n e r a l shop w o r k i s d i s t i n c t l y h i g h e r t h o s e found f o r t h e s e p a r a t e t e c h n i c a l may  he p r o p o s e d  t o explain t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t  (1) P e r h a p s t e a c h e r s resentative  subjects.  1  (96) than  Two r e a s o n s  difference  m a r k s i n g e n e r a l shop w o r k a r e more r e p -  o f a s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s i n c e t h e y have "been  o b t a i n e d by a v e r a g i n g g r a d e s  i n t h e separate technical  ( 2 ) I n G r a d e V I I p u p i l s spend t h e f u l l  s c h o o l y e a r u n d e r one  i n s t r u c t o r , w h i l e i n G r a d e s V I I I ana' I X , p u p i l s t e n weeks w i t h each o f f o u r t e a c h e r s .  subjects.  spend  approximately  I ti s therefore conceiv-  a b l e that. p u p i l s m a r k s i n Grade V I I a r e a b e t t e r i n d e x o f . a b i l i t y I n the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s than  those i n Grades .VIII  and IX..  A c h i e v e m e n t i n G e n e r a l Shop Work a t t h e V a r i o u s I . Q . L e v e l s . T O  135—144  i i umber  1  126—134  f? D o i n g Satisfactory Work 100 92  115—124  35  91  105—114  59  79  95—104  71  74  85—94  48  62  21  57  | U n d e r 05  I_. A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e Home E c o n o m i c s S u b j e c t s and I n t e l l i g e n c e . Home e c o n o m i c s , w h i c h  i n c l u d e s c o o k i n g and c l o t h i n g ,  t a k e n b y a l l g i r l s i n Grade V I I . and  x  s  The a c h i e v e m e n t i n c o o k i n g  c l o t h i n g a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e v e l s i s t o be f o u n d i n  f a b l e LXX-.  I t . w i l l be a p p o r e n t  t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p l a y s no p a r t  (97) G i r l s whose I.Q.'s a r e  i n a student's success i n c l o t h i n g . a b o v e 125  do  the p o o r e s t work, w h i l e those a t a l l o t h e r  .seem.to h a v e a n e q u a l c h a n c e f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y Success igence. work.  levels  achievement.  i n c o o k i n g I s somewhat more d e p e n d e n t u p o n  G i r l s w i t h I.Q.'s a b o v e 125 d i d t h e m o s t  Intell-  satisfactory  H o w e v e r , a l l s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s be-  tween 95 and  124  seem t o h a v e a b o u t t h e same c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s , HASPS  Achievement i n Cooking  nd  Pint svels.  t the V a r i o u s I n t e l ! i g e n e e  Cooking  ;—n  '•  K  L2X.  Clothine /o D o i n g Sat i sfac t orv Work  /-> D o i n g Satisfactory Work  125—144  r; i•  7  100  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 42  79  41  76  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 71  83  68  76  9 5 — 1 0 4 55  80  54-  77  85—94  36  55  37  81  85 21 L  67  18  77  . Under  k  57  TABLE LKXI. •aounoraics w i t h Eumber  The  Correla t i o n  Cooking  232  -.235  Clothing  225  .042  correlations  o n o m i c s s u b j e c t s and  Probable E r r o r .042  -  . 045  between t e a c h e r s " m a r k s i n t h e home e c I.Q.  are presented  i n Table LAXI.  The  e f f i c i e n t f o r c o o k i n g shows t h a t a c o x - r e l a t l o n i s " p r e s e n t low," while t h a t f o r clothing ''negligible  or i n d i f f e r e n t "  -cobut  i n d i c a t e s that the c o r r e l a t i o n i s  ( u s i n g Eugg's s t a n d a r d s ) .  The  re-  s u i t s a r e somewhat x o w e r t h a n t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n Grade  VIII.  I t may  signifi-  be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e  does n o t p l a y a  c a n t p a r t I n a s t u d e n t ' s s u c c e s s i n home ii*  A c h i e v e m e n t I n H u s i c and  I n G r a d e V£I m u s i c  t e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e shows t h e - p e r c e n t a g e v a r i o u s I.Q. girls  Intelligence.  i s a compulsory  ;  economics.  s u b j e c t and  for a l lpupils,  henco  Table LXXII  o f s t u d e n t s d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y work a t the  levels.  It will  be o b s e r v e d t h a t ,  In general,  t e n d t o do s u p e r i o r w o r k t o boys., p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e  lower intelligence l e v e l s .  B o y s whose I.Q.'s a r e b e l o w 95 h a v e  a r a t h e r poor p r o g n o s i s f o r success i n music. TABLE L X J . I I . A c h i e v e m e n t i n I l u s i c a t t h e V a r i o u s I.Q. Boys H.  I.Q.  125—.144  °/o D o i n g Satisfactory Work  Girls II. • <p D o i n g Satisfactory Work  Levels.  Al 1 II.  "p D o i n g Satisfactory Work  1  100  1  100  2  100  1 2 6 — 1 3 4 12  92  6  83  18  89  1 1 5 — 1 2 4 33  76  44  82  77  79  1 0 5 — 1 1 4 53  70  74  74  127  72  9 5 — 1 0 4 57  82  52  71  109  77  85—94  35  54  37  70  72  62  85 16  50  21  67  37  59  Under  The c o r r e l a t i o n s are  b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s i n m u s i c and  t o be f o u n d i n Ta.bl-° L A X I I I .  "negligible found  or i n d i f f e r e n t . "  The, c o r r e l a t i o n s  I.Q.  obtained are  The r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e  i n Grade V I I I , and a l s o t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (see  Table I I I , Chapter V ) . ment i n m u s i c  I t w i l l be c l e a r ,  therefore,  i s only very s l i g h t l y related  that achieve-  to i n t e l l i g e n c e .  TiiBIXS  Correlation  L-rL/illi..  o f Teachers' Harks i n Music w i t h dumber  Correlation  Probable  Error  ±5oys  207  .204  .045  Girls  235  .191  .042  All  442  .196  .031  K. A c h i e v e m e n t i n A r t ana  I.Q.  Intelligence.  S i n c e a r t i s a c o m p u l s o r y s u b j e c t i n G r a d e "VII t e a c h e r s ' marks were a v a i l a b l e  f o r a l l students.  The p e r c e n t a g e o f  pupils  d o i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y w o r k a t t h e v a r i o u s I.Q. l e x - e l s i s p r e s e n t e d i  Table hZXIV.  n  not  The t a b l e  shows t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t i n a r t does  dependj t o any marked e x t e n t , upon i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Pupils  whose I . Q . s a r e b e t w e e n 125 and 134 seem t o h a v e a r a t h e r T  poor chance f o r success.  G i r l s do s u p e r i o r w o r k t o b o y s a l -  most i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s . are  A l l g i r l s whose i n t e l l i g e n c e  quotients  b e t w e e n 75 a n d 124 h a v e a b o u t ar? e q u a l c h a n c e f o r s u c c e s s . TABUS 1 X X I Y , A c h i e v e m e n t i n A r t a t t h e V a r i o u s I..Q. . b e v e l s . I . Q..  Bov s  lu  fo D o i n g Satisfactory #ork  Girls fb D o i n g 1L Satisfactory Work  .All B.  ft D o i n g Satisfactory Work  135—144  1  100  1  100  1  100  125—134  12  67  6  67  18  67  115—124  31  90  42  81  73  85  105—114  60  73  74  85  134  79  95—104  70  74  55  87  125  80  85—94  47  57  37  86  84  70  U n d e r 85 21  57  21  81  42  69  The  c o e f f i c i e n t s , which are  clearly  eh or; t h a t t h e  a r t and  I.Q.  are  found here are t h i s s t u d y , end Chapter ¥).  p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e LXXV  c o r r e l a t i o n ? between t e a c h e r s  "negligible  or I n d i f f e r e n t T h e  s i m i l a r to those o f the also  I t may  to be  marks i n  1  results  Grade Vf.II s e c t i o n  of  those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h {Table I I I , concluded, therefore,  i n a r t i s independent of  t h a t achievement  Intelligence,  TABLE L Z Z Y . Correlations  of Teachers lumber  Boys  L.  •  Correlation  242  Probable  I.Q.  Error  .147  .042  Girls-  256  .001  ..044  All  478  .080  . 031  There I s a "marked" c o r r e l a t i o n ,  scholarship 2.  and  '  There i s a low  i n g e n e r a l shop work  ( . 5 8 8 } , i n m a t h e m a t i c s (.527.),  c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e  and  (.355).  T h e r e I s a " n e g l i g i b l e " c o r r e l a t i o n becween. i n t e l l i g e n c e  The  i g e n c e was 6.  and  (.391), i n E r e n c h (.371),  a c h i e v e m e n t i n home e c o n o m i c s , i n m u s i c , and 5.  am  (.512),  achievement i n general science  4.  between average  There i s a marked c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e  In s o c i a l studies 3.  .625,  In-  intelligence.  achievement In general E n g l i s h  and  Marks i n A r t w i t h  G e n e r a l Summary o f G r a d e V l l , S c h o l a r s h i p i n R e l a t i o n - t o telligence. 1.  and  1  The  telligence.  in art.  c o r r e l a t i o n between average s c h o l a r s h i p h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r any lowest correlations  single  and  intell-  subject.  w e r e t h o s e b e t w e e n a r t and  in-  7. The  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f average s c h o l a r s h i p w i t h  gence were h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e found a l s o h i g h e r than those 8*  i n S r a d e s T i l l and  I n general., the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f the academic s u b j e c t s  and" I X , a n d a l s o h i g h e r t h a n , t h o s e 8  to those found  i n Grades V I I I  o f o t h e r .-research,  f h e . c o r r e l a t i o n s o f a r t and  are s i m i l a r 10.  I X , and  of other r e s e a r c h ,  w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e were h i g h e r t h a n those found  9  Intelli-  music w i t h  I n the a v a i l a b l e  Intelligence  literature*  G i r l s a r e more s u e e e s s f u t h a n b o y s I n E n g l i s h , IPrench,  m u s i c , and  art.  •  1 1 . B o y s a r e more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n g i r l s i n m a t h e m a t i c s , social 12. and  s t u d i e s , and On  general  science.  the whole,,the c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s  i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e h i g h e r f o r g i r l s t h a n f o r -boys.  s i m i l a r to the g e n e r a l t r e n d o f the r e s u l t s found and  a l s o t h o s e o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h (See T a b l e V, Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h r e a d i n g p l a y s a n  role  marks  1  This i s  I n Grade V I I I ,  Chapter  ¥}..  essential  show, i n g e n e r a l , a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h  intelli-  gence* 14. ity  Those s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h somo m e a s u r e o f m a n u a l d e x t e r -  I s e s s e n t i a l , show a n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h  intelli-  gence. 15*  The  c o r r e l a t i o n o f a v e r a g e - s c h o l a r s h i p i n November  w i t h t h a t i n A p r i l was conclude  that teachers  found 1  t o be  .812  ±  .010.  Thus we  average marks are q u i t e r e l i a b l e .  may  Chapter The As  i n t e l l i g e n c e ana  (102)  X.  Scholarship  of O r i e n t a l s .  s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r V I I t h e d a t a on o r i e n t a l s was  ed f r o m t h e  general  c o r r e l a t i o n study.  exclud-  T h i s p r o c e d u r e was  con-  s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l s i n c e many i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e shown t h a t intelligence quotients  o f o r i e n t a l s a s d e t e r m i n e d by  t e s t s , b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p , a r e n o t a t i o n o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  the  verbal  reliable.-,  Jin e x a m i n -  I n t e l l i g e n c e and  scholar-  s h i p of the o r i e n t a l s used i n t h i s study confirmed t h i s  view-  point.  advis-  able  B e f o r e t r e a t i n g the  to b r i e f l y  d a t a on o r i e n t a l s i t may  s u r v e y some o f t h e  recent  he  literature i n  the  field. A.  Some K e c e n t I d t e r a t i r e T r e a t i n g  the  1  I n v e s t i g a t o r s have looked ferences  i n three  Intelligence of Orientals.  upon the problem of r a c i a l  d i s t i n c t 'ways:  (1)  Ore  group m a i n t a i n s  under i d e n t i c a l environments r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s would  difthat  disappear.  (2) A s e c o n d g r o u p h o l d s t h a t r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y due  to  (Si  The  inherent third  differences i n learning  group b e l i e v e s t h a t r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s cannot  a c c o u n t e d f o r , m e r e l y by maintain  t h a t we  differences i n learning ability  must a l s o c o n s i d e r  temperamental  M e n t a l t e s t e r s have been c o n f r o n t e d ies i n racial (1)  by  be  but  qualities.  several  difficult-  studies.  I t i s o f t e n very  difficult  of t h e - r a c i a l group under  to get  a representative  sampling  consideration.  (2)  I t i s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t t o g e t  the  various r a c i a l L e t us  ability.  adequate mental t e s t s f o r  groups.  examine the v i e w s o f s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n  psychologists  about the C h i n e s e  i D U ;  .  P y l e b e l i e v e s t h a t the Chinese  n o t be i n f e r i o r t o A m e r i c a n s onment .  would  i f t h e y were g i v e n t h e same e n v i r -  V/augh m a i n t a i n s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e C h i n e s e a r e s u p e r i o r  to I n d i a n s , they are i n f e r i o r to Americans,  .valcott  finds  C h i n e s e s s t u d e n t s t o be more e f f i c i e n t t h a n A m e r i c a n s t a i n t e s t s but i n f e r i o r i n o t h e r s .  i n cer-  A s a. r e s u l t o f h i s e x p e r i -  ments o n s t u d e n t s i n San E r a n e i s e o , Y o u n g c o n c l u d e s t h a t C h i n ese c h i l d r e n a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o A m e r i c a n European c h i l d r e n .  and  P o r t e o u s f i n d s t h a t the Chinese  are  i o r t o -Japanese i n t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t t e s t b u t a r e i n temperamental t e s t s .  He  Uorth super-  inferior  f i n d s Anglo-Saxons s u p e r i o r to both.  Murdoch h o l d s t h a t a l t h o u g h the o r i e n t a l r a c e s are below A n g l o Saxons i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . , they a r e s u p e r i o r i n m o r a l Garth  11  concludes  that the r e s u l t s of extensive race  show t h a t tine C h i n e s e  and  Japanese are about as  w h i t e s , b u t t h a t ITegroes, M e x i c a n s , ually inferior-  tests.  and  intelligent  Indians are  ity  tal differences,  h u h • ~~~ ' f o u n d  inabil-  (2) e l i m i n a t e e n v i r o n m e n -  t h a t C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n were  p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the A m e r i c a n ratings.  differences  i s h o p e l e s s , a t p r e s e n t , because o f our  t o (1) m e a s u r e i n t e l l i g e n c e , and  succeeded  failed.  'believes t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of r a c i a l  in intelligence  as  intellect-  . s t a t e s t h a t t h e y e l l o w r a c e s have  w i t h t h e w h i t e man's t e s t s , w h i l e o t h e r r a c e s have Estabrooks^  testing  average  on  A f t e r a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e Ban!el  ap-  performance concludes  '("607" I."C7 w r e n , " K f h i n e l ^ C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s ' M o n t h l y , 1925, V o l . 2 1 , ?. 4 7 - 5 3 . ( 6 1 ) G a r t h , T. K., " H s e l a l H i n d s , ' P s y c h e , V o l 8 P. 63-70, 1928. (62) E s t a b r o o k s , G. I f . , "She Enigma, o f R a c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 55 P. 137-139, 1928. ( 6 3 ) L u l l , G. v?., and 'Ju, T. I I . . A C o m p r e h e n s i v e S t u d y o f t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e o f C h i n e s e C h i l d r e n on the P i n t n e r Performance and t h o B i n e t T e s t s , " J o u r n a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2, P. 4 0 2 - 4 0 8 , 1 9 3 1 . 1  (104) ''most s t u d i e s so f a r r e p o r t e d a r e w o r t h l e s s a s i n d i c a t i n g  that,  anything regarding  the comparitive  L e t u s now  aumtaarize two  briefly  mental a b i l i t y of  of  races."^ ) 6 4  the more cornierehensi ve  studies. (65) Graham  w  made a s y s t e m a t i c  study  o f 73 t w e l v e y e a r o l d  C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n i n San . F r a n c i s c o . A w i d e v a r i e t y o f t e s t s were used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h .  C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n wore f o u n d t o be  t o A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n i n v i s u a l memory b u t memory.  Xhe  equal  i n f e r i o r i n auditory types  of  p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , b u t showed a d i s t i n c t l a n g u a g e h a n d i c a p  oh  verbal tests. Pirst,  i t was  C h i n e s e were s u p e r i o r I n s e n s o r i m o t o r  Two  c r i t i c i s m s may  "based u p o n t o o few  be l e v e l l e d a t t h i s otud5*. cases.  Secondly, a l l of  s u b j e c t s v/oro d r a w — alalia t h e hemes o f t r a d e s m e n and n a r s i o • ^ais.cie  thorough study  a  o f 658  the  labourers..  American-born  J a p a n e s e c h i l d r e n , b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f t e n and  fifteen, in  an  attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e between the A m e r i c a n end .Army B e t a ,  Japanese r s c e s .  the Stanford  f o r d Achievement t e s t s * s c h o o l s u b j e c t s and  Por  t e s t m a t e r i a l he  used  Be v i s i o n o f t h e B i n e t , and lie a l s o o b t a i n e d  teochers  r a t i n g s on p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  the 1  the Stan-  marks i n Darsie.  f o u n d t h a t J s p a n e s o c h i l d r e n were i n f e r i o r t o A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n i n "mental processes  i n v o l v i n g memory and  TMTlJSjilel, R.~T7^~ B~as±Q  abstract thinking  Conf7rd^rations""for " V a l 3 d n i n t e r p r ^ ~ t a t i o n of Eiroerimental Studies P e r t a i n i n g to R a c i a l D i f f e r e n c e s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 23, P. 26, 1932. (65) Graham, V. T., "The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f C h i n e s e C h i l d r e n An Seii F r a n c i s c o , " J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 6, P. 4 3 - 7 1 , 1926. (66) D a r s l e , 11. L., " M e n t a l C a p a c i t y o f A m e r i c a n - B o r n J a p a n e s e C h i l d r e n , " C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y P o n o g r a p h s , V o l . 3, #15, P. 1-89, 1926. lf  mnerl.  moan i n f  on  o r concept.- r e p r e s e n t e d  of the E n g l i s h , language."  hy  the  verbal  syranols'  J a p a n e s e c h i l d r e n were e q u a l o r  e r i o r i n m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s based" u p o n v i s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s i t u a t i o n s o f a non-language type. be  superior i n v i s u a l perception,  drawing.  The  sup-  concrete  Japanese were found  penmanship, p a i n t i n g ,  and  There were n e g l i g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s p e l l i n g  end  arithmetic.  In reading  showed a d i s t i n c t  and  the l a n g u a g e s u b j e c t s t h e  inferiority.  In subjects  o f an  to  Japanese  informational  c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h wera p a r t l y dependent upon r e a d i n g ,  the  Japan-  ese were s l i g h t l y i n f e r i o r t o A m e r i c a n c h i l d r e n . A f t e r examining the  r a t h e r c o n f u s e d and  contradictory  s i t u a t i o n which e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of r a c i a l it  seems most d i p l o m a t i c  of race  superiority.  that.we should  A. s e l e c t e d l i s t  intelligence of orientals w i l l  bo  differences,  d i s c a r d the  o l d dogma  o f s t u d i e s t r e a t i n g the  found i n S e c t i o n 0 of  the  b I b l i o graphy. 3. It  The  i s not  I f a t u r e and  Scope o f the  Present  Study.  proposed to i n v e s t i g a t e , h e r e , the problem  racial differences.  However, i t has  been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d  of that  o r i e n t a l s do more p o o r l y  on v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t h a n E n g -  lish  i?or e d u c a t i o n a l  ant  speaking students. t o have an a c c u r a t e  h a v e been f r e q u e n t l y T h i s p r a c t i c e has sons.  11)  I.Q.  purposes i t i s  for a l l pupils.  import-  Hence o r i e n t a l s  t e s t e d by n o n - l a n g u a g e P e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s .  n o t p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l f o r the  following rea-  G a t e s / ^ h a s c o n c l u s i v e l y shown t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s 6 7  b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e , a s m e a s u r e d by n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s ,  and  e d u c e t i o n a l achievement a r e J l n e p l i g i b l e . o r i n d i f f e r e n t . " His ( 6 7 ) G a t e s , A„ I , , "The C o r r e l a t i o n s o f A c h i e v e m e n t i n S c h o o l S u b j e c t s w i t h I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t a and o t h e r V a r i a b l e s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . V o l . 12, P. 277~28£, 1922.  c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e f r o m ,30 Tans i t w i l l for  i n Oracle I t o — . 1 5 i.u Grade  "be s e e n t h a t n o n - v e r b a l t e s t s have l i t t l e  p r e d i c t i n g s u c c e s s i n the  c h i l d r e n , the  reliability  p o o r , because the  academic s u b j e c t s .  VIIl""' value  (2) f o r  older  o f m o s t p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s i s very-  t e s t s are  too  b r i e f and  there are  many o p p o r t  u n i t i e s f o r chance s u c c e s s .  (3) H o s t p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s  a highly  and  specialized ability  h e n c e nre  not  require  really tests  of  genera3. I n t e l l i g e n c e . An  attempt w i l l  error In verbal If  t o add  to  d e t e r m i n e d by  made i n t h i s s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e  I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s when a p p l i e d  t h i s e r r o r can  points  be  bo Aie  the  d e t e r m i n e d , wo  to  w i l l know how  orientals. many  I.Q.  i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients of orientals,  u s u a l group t e s t s .  The  c o r r e c t ! 0 2 i f a c t o r f o r e d u c a t i o n c a n n o t be  since  these are £.  The  regarded as  pta11otica1  general s t a t i s t i c a l  hopelessly  over emphasized.  orient-  ?rocedure. method t o be  u s e d -is p a  s h a l l d e t e r m i n e the  (2) we  s h a l l s e l e c t a group of white s t u d e n t s w i t h  (3) we  At  Izisccursrbe*  (1) we  average  as  importance of such a  p r e s e n t , m o s t t e a c h e r s c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e - the. I.Q,'s o f als,  the  average s c h o l a r s h i p  follows:  of orientals, the  same  scholarship,  s h a l l d e t e r m i n e t h e mean I.Q.  of each group %  verbal  tests, *~A new Tierformance t e s t d e V I s e ^ T ^ ^ has r e c e n t l y boon r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s t e s t h a s come t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r t o o l a t e t o be e x a m i n e d , b u t f r o m a c c o u n t s o f t h e t e s t i t seems t o o v e r come ma:^; o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s q u o t e d a b o v e . C n r l , 0. P., "A iiew P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t f o r A d u l t s and U l a e r C h i l d r e n : The C a r l H o l l o w S q u a r e S c a l e , " The J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l - 7, 1939 P. 1 7 9 — 1 9 9 .  . ,  _  (4)  l  a  s  t  to  l  we s h a l l compare t h o mean  y  determine  l e t t e r grades  f o r the two g r o u p s  was e m p l o y e d .  o h t a i n e d hy o r i e n t a l s i n e a c h o f t h e s c h o o l Into numerical equivalents.  -these e q u i v a l e n t s was c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e  average. was  T  the f o l l o w i n g procedure  s u b j e c t s were c o n v e r t e d of  ±.Q* B  the correction factor f o r orientals.  J.lore p a r t i c u l a r l y The  (107)  The mean o f t h o n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e s  The mean  the numerical  for a l l orientals  t h e n o b t a i n e d f o r each o f the t h r e e g r a d e s ,  A group o f  w h i t e s t u d e n t s who h a d the same mean n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e was t h e n s e l e c t e d f o r each grade.  The I.Q.'s o f b o t h t h e o r i e n t a l "and  t h e w h i t s g r o u p s were d e t e r m i n e d The  by g r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e  tests.  Terman G r o u p t e s t , t h e O t i s - , and t h e H a t i o n a l t e s t s were  used.  S i n c e t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a p r o n o u n c e d s©& d i f f e r e n c e I n  t h e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r , t h e d a t a f o r b o y s a n a g i r l s was t r e a t e d separately, h. The f i n d i n g s ; , ' The  d a t e v/hioii was o b t a i n e d f o r b o y s I s p r e s e n t e d i n  T a b l e IiZXVI.  The d i f f e r e n c e  i n t h e I.Q. I s v e r y  significant  throughout.  A d i f f e r e n c e - o f 17 I.Q. p o i n t s i s shown f o r t h e  t h r e e grades  combined*  The  data f o r g i r l s  be o b s e r v e d  i s t o be f o u n d  that the difference  grades)  of white  It will  i n t h e 1..Q. f o r g i r l s i s some-  what l e s s t h a n t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r boys. all  i n T a b l e , AAAY1I.  show a mean I.Q. 'which  H o w e v e r , 69 g i r l s ( i n  i s . 11 p o i n t s l o w e r t h a n t h a t  s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e sam~- a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p .  (10S)  TABLE LXXVI. C o m p a r i s o n _ g f _ ^ e J ^ . 1.3. o f O r i e n t a l snn - . / M * * t h e same A v e r a g e " S c h o l a r s h i p subjects G r a d e IZ.  Grade  ViJl  Grade v l l  All  iaimher  Average i-aean i . Q , Scholarship  Oriental  13  V/hi to-  63  Oriental  13  ./hite  62  Oriental  25  ./hite  63  ^  56  O «  Grades O r i e n t a l Cnlte  .<LAo  on?  100  OO  11?  o / .1. •7  7^-,  m  Difference in I»Q.  17  99  n i  '  91 / f i  110  o4  96  138  113  19  17  TABLE LJXVII. C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e luean i . Q . o f O r i e n t a l and V/hite G i r l s t h e same A v e r a g e S c h o l a r s h i p . Subjects Grade IK  Oriental  105  109  3.56  113  19  3.35  97  174  3.35  110  Oriental  24  3.43  95  White  §5  3.43  106  69  3.46  99  338  5,46  110  #hite  All  Grades O r i e n t a l -  Ilean I.Q.  3.56  Grade V I I I O r i e n t a l  -  Ax-orego. Scholarship  26  .'/hite  Grade V I I  .E umber  Sfhite  having  Difference i n I.Q.  8  13  11  11  E_. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e P i n d i n g s . For ified  e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s I t w o u l d seem t h a t v/e a r e j u s t -  i n a d d i n g 17 p o i n t s  t o t h e I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l h o y s , and 11 •  p o i n t s t o t h e I.Q. o f o r i e n t a l  girls.  The " i n t e l l i g e n c e quo-  t i e u t ' w n i c n I s t n u s D e t a i n e d v ; i l l be  o f eonsiaex-able  7  for  educational guidance.  place  "quotient"  may  i s a t r u e I.Q.  groups w i t h the  have seen t h a t average  intelligence.  intelligence  groups.  student's  factors will  be  Orientals are  not  bs  their  anced  by  equal  i n social  scholarship.  iut  we  to we  the  two  have racial  since h a r s i e ^ ^  In English, general  to w h i t e s i n a r i t h m e t i c penmanship. of  language handicap*  This  greater effort  on  the  and  I t would  orientals  a  some-  science.  spelling,  and  seem, t h e r e f o r e , ,  i s adversely  f a c t o r may,  part  and  orientals  affe-cted  h o w e v e r , be  of o r i e n t a l s  In order  balto  handicap.  In conclusion,  g u i d a n c e ana  I n f e r i o r i n some  V/e know t h a t  s t u d i e s and  average scholarship  overcome t h i s  t h e I.Q.  by  In addition  justified  superior i n others.  s u p e r i o r i n a r t and the  the  correlate perfectly  equivalent for  under a d i s t i n c t language handicap  that  that  been derived  h a v e shown t h a t o r i e n t a l s a r a  what l e s s e r handicap  by  I t hae  There a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s  school s u b j e c t s but  are  to  69)  Graham'  are  possible  In stating  s c h o l a r s h i p does not  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n may f  be  same a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p ,  which determine a  assumed' t h a t t h e s e  now  groups.  n o t be' j u s t i f i e d  obtained  c o m p a r i n g two  and  It will  o r i e n t a l s I n t h e p r o p e r I.Cu H o w e v e r , we  with  Also,  (109) importance  we  may  state  c l a s s i f i c a f t i o j i , we  o f o r i e n t a l boys and  that for purposes  a h o u l A add  of  educational  a b o u t 17 p o i n t s t o  1 1 p o i n t s t o t h e I.Q.  of  oriental  girls.  TolTT^ ™ i i ^ ^ (69)  i t y o f A m e H c a n - b a r n Japanese c h i l d r e n , " C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y P o n o g r a p h s , V o l . 3, #15, p 1 -.—89 1926. Graham^ V. T., "The I n t e l l i g e n c e o f C h i n e s e C h i l d r e n i n S a n F r a n c i s c o , " J o u r n a l o f C o m p a r i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , - V o l . 6, P. 4 3 — 7 1 , 1926.  aio.)  Chapter X I . Swamary and G e n e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o£ t h e S t a t i s t i c a l  Findings.  I t seems d e s i r a b l e t o a s s e m b l e a t t h i s p o i n t a c o m p l e t e summary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y .  A more  t h o r o u g h g o i n g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s t h a n has given thus f a r w i l l  been  a l s o be a t t e m p t e d .  A. Summary o f .the G o r r e l a t l o n . . befcveen T e a c h e r s_...Marks end In*~ • telli^noe'^"" " ~ ~ ' " " T  T a b l e L X X Y I I I p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e t e summary o f the of teachers  1  marks w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e  correlation  i n e a c h o f the t h r e e g r a d e s  and g i v e s t h e mean r f o r a l l  grades.  An e x a m i n e . t i o n o f t h e  table leads to the f o l l o w i n g  statistical  conclusions.  (1) The c o r r e l a t i o n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h t e a c h e r s a r e , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , p o s i t i v e , and r a n g e f r o m — , 0 0 8  marks  1  to  .668. (2) T h e r e i s a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a v e r a g e ship, and i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a n f o r any s i n g l e (3) G e n e r a l E n g l i s h with intelligence (4)  scholar-  subject,  shows t h e h i g h e s t mean c o r r e l a t i o n  ( . 5 4 8 ) , w h i l e woodwork shows t h e l o w e s t  (.052).  The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s show a ""marked" c o r r e l a t i o n  with intelligence:  English  (.548), s o c i a l s t u d i e s  (.492),  g e n e r a l m a t h e m a t i c s (.484), j u n i o r b u s i n e s s (.482), g e n e r a l science  (.464), a r i t h m e t i c  ( . 4 5 8 ) , and a l g e b r a  (.452).  (5) The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s have a " l o w " c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h intelligence:  F r e n c h (.272), b u s i n e s s a r i t h m e t i c  g e n e r a l shop work (.355), geometry cooking  (.243), music  (.572),  (.316), b o c k - k e e p i n g (.290),  (.207).  (6) The f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s show a " n e g l i g i b l e "  correlation  (111) Summary, of: t h e C o r r e l a t i o n s _between T e a c h e r s * H a r k s and I n t e l ! Subject  Average Scholarship Boys; Girls All • English Boys Girls AH Social Studies Boys Girls All Mathematics . . ••• B o y s Girls All Junior Business Boys Girls •A l l General Science Beys Girls All Arithmetic Bo.vs Girls All Algebra Boys Girls AH French Boy s Girls All Business Arithmetic All G e n e r a l Shepv/urk Geometry  Boys Girls All  Grade I A r  '  Grade r  v±ii .  G r a d e Mil r  iiean r f o r Ml *:rndes P.A. r  .582 .519 .551  .415' .660.547  .586 .668 .625  .528 .020 .616 .017 ,574 .012  .570 .526 .537  .482 .569 ,518  .541 .638 .588  .538 .020 ,578 .018 ,548 .013  .515 .443 .497  *30S .,628 .-468  .510 .515 .512  .445 .529 .020 .492 .015  aqo:  .478* . 583 .527  ..482 .021 .480 .021 ,484 .015  ..576 .360 . .488  1  .497 .439 ,409 ,550 -.402  ,627 ..528 .586  ,309 .536 ,415  .409 .046 * 0 .034 .482 .029 .412 .370 .391  .449 .022 ,478 .021 .464 .016  .569 .300 ,458  .569 ,039 .300 .063 .458 .035  .462 .446 .452 .539 .429 .447  •  ,462 .046 .446 .056 4 5 2 .035 o  .202 .355 .301  .404 .371  .382 ,034 .380 .029 .373 .022  »c ia  • t3'? 2 .059 « *3o5 .037  .455 •112 .316  .455 .046 , J.12 .061 ,316 .040  TABES  XiAXv  111.  (Continued) Subject  Grade I X r-  Grade 7111 r  Grade V I I r  lie a n r f o r All  r  Bo o k - k e ep l u g All  .210  GooV-i ng  .182  'Music  Boys Girls All  -.327  Grades  P.E.  .290  ,075  .248  . 026  ,073 .350 .217  .204 .191. .196  .138 .042 .260 .040 .207 .027  .042  *  Clothing  ,149  .362  Electricity  .242  .076  .159  .035  M e t a l Work  .106  .108  .107  .036  Drafting  • 116  .081  .098  .036  .087 .130 ,089  .033  Art  Typing  Boys Girls All  .024  Boys Girls All  .008 .173  .099  Woodwork with intelligence:  (.107), d r a f t i n g  work  (-.0521.  .027  .024  .031 '  ,.097  .064  .032  .074-  .030  .052  .037  clothing  work  .149 .001 ,,080  JL.31  (,191), e l e c t r i c i t y  (.159), m e t a l  (.09-8), a r t (.089), t y p i n g ( . 0 6 4 ) , wood-  -  (7) The mean c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a v e r a g e s c h o l a r s h i p and intelligence  (.574) woo d i s t i n c t l y " h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f o t h e r  r e s e a r c h (.401). (8) I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between, t h e a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t : : and i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f ether research:  ( c f . Table I I I ,  ChapterV ) .  (9j  The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e • f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s and  I n t e l l i g e n c e a r e v e r y s i m i l a r to those o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h : n e r e i a l s u b j e c t s , heme e c o n o m i c s ,  eom-  t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s . , a r t and  music. (10) I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e a c h e r s ' marks and- i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e somewhat h i g h e r f o r g i r l s The, mean o f 1 ? r s f o r g i r l s was f o u n d T  for-"-bbys was  .887.  than f o r boys.  to he .405 w h i l e t h a t  T h i s shows t h a t t h o s e x d i f f e r e n c e i s v e r y  s m a l l , much s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f o t h e r r e s e a r c h ( o f . T a b l e  V,  C h a p t e r V).. • {11) " H a r k e d "  c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e found between I n t e l l i g e n c e  ana t h o s e s u b j e c t s i n w h i c a r e a d i n g p l a y s s s i g n i f i c a n t (IS)  part.  I n g e n e r a l , " l o w " o r " n e g l i g i b l e " c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e ob-  t a i n e d between I n t e l l i g e n c e and those s u b j e c t s which soma m e a s u r e o f m a n u a l d e x t e r i t y o r h a n d - e y e  require  co-ordination:.  (13) The c o e f f i c i e n t ? . : o f c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h were o b t a i n e d in  t h i s study are almost without exception s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e -  liable  ( s i n c e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e more t h a n t h r e e t i m e s a s  l a r g e as the probable i / 3  errors).  The B e l l & b l i l t y o f T e a c h e r s ^ M a r k s .  B e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e  f i n d i n g s , i t i s a d v i s a b l e t h a t wo e x a m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f our c r i t e r i a  o f s c h o l a r s h i p , namely, t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s .  mary o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s  1  average  m a r k s I n November  w i t h t h o s e i n '..pril i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e hXiCIX. apparent  t h a t teachers;  There I s l i t t l e  1  A sum-  I t w i l l be  average marks are e x t r e m e l y  reliable.  d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r  the three grades,  Teachers' average  marks ? r e s l i g h t l y  more  reliable for girls may  explain  than for boys.  In part,  t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s and liability  of the  the  t e s t s as studies  are  teachers  r e p o r t e d by i n which the  c o r r e l a t i o n between  s l i g h t l y higher for g i r l s .  r e l i a b i l i t y o f "group  The  study  Intelligence  r e l i a b i l i t y of group I n t e l l i g e n c e c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e f r o m .72  tests to  .93,  .82* lit.  o f T e a c h e r s * A v e r aage g e I f c r k s . i n November w i t h "in Apri l _ . Grade r  IS  7 0  The  reIs  P i n t n e r . ^ ^ H e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of  TABLE M X Correlation  (114) reliability  in  average marks used i n t h i s  1  the  have b e e n d e t e r m i n e d * the median being  fact that the  I.Q.  almost I d e n t i c a l with  This difference  IX  Grade •  ¥11I  . 3?'  Grade r  VII  those  Mean r f o r A l l grades r P.E.  Boys  .81  .783  .811 -  .801  .009  Girls  .86  .828  ,.813  .834  .008  All  .84  .804  . 812,  .819  .006  TABLE Correlation  of T e a c h e r s * Marks i n Grade V I I I G e n e r a l for^ctobelT  Science  7  II. Boys  Correlation  242  Girls All ' The  high r e l i a b i l i t y  t h a t marks f o r t h e liable.  464 ,  . .022  ,692  .023  .695  .016  of t e a c h e r s * a v e r a g e marks  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n was  cience. Tho 70) P i n t n e r .  Error  .697  Individual  marks f o r October w i t h  Probable  subjects tested  must a l s o  be  by c o r r e l a t i n g  indicates quite  re-  teachers'  t h o s e f o r December i n Grade V I I I  General  r e s u l t s of t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n , Which are presented E., I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t i n g , P. 90, 1931.  i n Table  1IAJL&.^  (115) of t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s  i n d i c a t e t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y  i n the i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s I s q u i t e h i g h , although not as high as t e a c h e r s ' average marks,  T h e r a a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e  ference i n the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s  sex  presented.  £• Sos^ F a c t o r s w h i c h Determine t h e C o r r e l a t i o n between «- ~~ : — l a r k s " [ and"'"' i h t e l I l ^ e n c ~ e T ~ '  Teachers'  :  The  dif-  c o r r e l a t i o n s which have been p r e s e n t e d  throughout  this  study I n d i c a t e t h a t there are f a c t o r s , other than "general Int e l l i g e n c e , " which s e c t i o n we  a f f e c t a p u p i l ' s marks i n s c h o o l .  In this  s h a l l ; a t t e m p t to e v a l u a t e some o f t h e s e f a c t o r s  which  i n f l u e n c e t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between t e a c h e r s ' marks and  intelligence. 1,. The i f e t u r e - o f An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f T a b l e 1 X X Y I I I r e v e a l s t h e f a c t Ishat t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n s , b e t w e e n I.Q.  and  s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s , rang© f r o m lish*  The  Intelligence.  s c h o l a s t i c achievement i n the .052  I n woodwork t o .548  most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s  l i e s w i t h i n the nature of i n t e l l i g e n c e i t s e l f . t h e Spearman t h e o r y o f two  i n Eng-  difference  I f we  accept  f a c t o r s , g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c ,  r e a s o n f o r t h i s w i d e d i f f e r e n c e becomes a p p a r e n t .  Our  i g e n c e t e s t s g i v e us a n a p p r o x i a i a t e measure o f g.  We may  the  intellthen  I n f e r t h a t achievement, i n E n g l i s h i s l a r g e l y dependent upon "general i n t e l l i g e n c e . "  On t h e o t h e r hand., a c h i e v e m e n t i n wood-  work I s o n l y vary s l i g h t l y or  d e p e n d e n t u p o n g, h u t r e q u i r e s one ,  more o f t h e s p e c i a l i s e d a b i l i t i e s  c a l l e d s.  We  may  conclude  t h a t g i s the predominant f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a s t u d e n t ' s cess i n E n g l i s h , s o c i a l  s t u d i e s , m a t h e m a t i c s and  suc-  general science.  F u r t h e r , s i s the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r a s t u d e n t s achievement 1  i n musac, noiae e c o n o m i c s , ext The  t y p i n g , and  d a t a o f t h i s study, l e n d s u p p o r t  intelligence 2. The  (116) the t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s .  to the  two-factor t h e o r y  a s proposed by U a r l Spearman. V a l i d i t y of  B e l l a b i l i t y and  When low  M e a s u r e of  Achievement  t i c and one  be p r o p o s e d .  ( a ) The  and  explan-  r e l i a b i j . l t i e s o f tho s c h o l a s -  i n t e l l i g e n c e measures may  be l o w .  (b)  o r b o t h ox t h e s e m e a s u r e s may  be l o w .  ( c ) S c h o l a s t i c ab-  ility  and  i n t e l l i g e n c e may  the r e l i a b i l i t y o f (about ( 71 )  the t e a c h e r s  1  1  a t i o n " ( a ) " d o e s not  .,82).  of  than  marks u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y  g a t o r s " ' h a v e shown t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y (about  validity  I t h a s b e e n shown that  .82 f o r t e a c h e r s * a v e r a g e m a r k s ) .  scores Is high  The  n o t be more c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d  t h a t I n d i c a t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s .  high  and  c o r r e l a t i o n s between I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s  s c h o l a s t i c achievement are o b t a i n e d , three s t a t i s t i c a l a t i o n s may  of  Thus i t w i l l  apply i n t h i s . s t u d y .  Other  was  invest!-  of i n t e l l i g e n c e be  test  seen t h a t e x p l a n -  Whether  intelligence  t e s t s r e a l l y m e a s u r e I n t e l l i g e n c e , and w h e t h e r t e a c h e r s ' m a r k s a r e a tr%©  measure o f s c h o l a s t i c  s u b j e c t o f much d i s c u s s i o n .  achievement;, h a s  While  the v a l i d i t y  l o n g been  of both of  the these  measures i s doubtless f a r f r o m p e r f e c t , t h e y seem t o be the  best  m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s which h a v e t h u s f a r teen proposed." Hence  we  must c o n c l u d e  t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h show a. low  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e are not very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d 3. H e a d i n g A b i l i t y a n d Two  Important  ID  g.  Previous Training..  f a c t o r s which play a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n a  student * s s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s a r e r e a d i n g : a b i l i t y unci p r e v i o u s training.  S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have pointeo. out t h a t i n t e l l i -  TTTrPintnor,"'^.," ' i n t e l l i g e n c e  T e s t i n g , x,  8S--90,  1931.  {117} ability.  . genee t e s t s c o r e s a r e m a r k e d l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n r e a d i n g -uor/ry  (72)  ~ . - , , .... a a m x n x s c e r e a a g r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t t o 50  b e f o r e and  students  a f t e r a t h r e e months program o f i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g  i n reading.  He  found  t h a t t h e I.Q,.Is o n t h e s e c o n d t o s t w e r e ,  on the average,  11.76  p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n on t h e f i r s t . ,  lowry,  t h e r e f o r e . , i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s l a r g e l y measures o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y *  are  However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  s h o u l d n o t be o v e r e m p h a s i z e d s i n c e i t i s b a s e d u p o n o n l y 50 We  may  more c o n s e r v a t i v e l y c o n c l u d e  that reading a b i l i t y  cases.  is a  s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p u p i l ' s s c o r e on a g r o u p intalllganee  test.  T h i s f a c t s h o u l d be b o u r n e i n m i n d when  i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e "sharked" c o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h w a r e f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y b e t w e e n I n t e l l i g e n c e and a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s 'which a r e somewhat d e p e n d e n t u p o n r e a d i n g  ability.  •Previous t r a i n i n g i n a s u b j e c t i s another termines a student ^ 5  success.  f a c t o r which  T h i s f a c e o r s h o u l d be  de-  considered  when s e e k i n g a n e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f s t u d e n t s i n the h i g h I.Q.  groups* 4* Some Euvirpgaent»  S t u d i e s by I r e e m a n ^ ^ - a n d B u r k s ^  ^have shown t h a t v e r y  p r o n o u n c e d c h a n g e s -in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n t h e I.Q. .as d e t e r m i n e d s h i f t i n t h e I.Q.  TTTOT^wrAyTlC^  by t h e S t a n f o r d - B i i i e t T e s t s .  affect  However, t h e  I s , i n general,, v e r y s m a l l .  35, 2\- 1 7 9 — 1 8 0 , 1932. (73) F r e e m a n , F. JS., e t a l . , "The I n f l u e n c e o f E n v i r o n m e n t on t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e , . S c h o o l A c h i e v e m e n t and C o n d u c t o f F o s t e r C h i l d r e n . " C h a p t e r I I , T w e n t y - s e v e n t h Y e a r b o o k A.3.S.E., BP. 1 0 1 - - 2 1 7 , 1 9 2 8 . (74) B u r k s , B. S,, "The B e l a t i v a I n f l u e n c e o f l a t u r e and l i u r t u r e u p o n M e n t a l D e v e l o p m e n t . " C h a p t e r 2, T w e n t y - s e v e n t h Y e a r b o o k A.S.S.B.,, P. 2 1 9 — 3 1 6 .  (118) iioiae e n v i r o n m e n t i s a n I m p o r t a n t f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g s e h o l astie  success,,  there  school achievement sidered.. may  of  I s a marked discrepancy  "between  a n d t h e I.Q», t h e home s h o u l d a l w a y s h e c o n -  One e a s e * w h i c h t h e w r i t e r was a s KM  emphasize  the-case  there  t h e .importance o f t h i s f a c t o r .  s t u d y , whom w e s h a l l c a l l , A n  tt i  to investigate, The subject o f  was a g i r l , w i t h a n I.Q.  l i e who w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y o b t a i n i n g a n £. s t a n d i n g *  igation elicited  thefollowing  facts*  Invest-  On t h e d e a t h o f t h e  father.,, t h e m o t h e r h a d I n h e r i t e d  a l a r g e s u m o f money i n  insurance*  s p e n t i n r l o u t o u s l i v i n g end  at  quickly  t h e t i m e o f t h i s e n q u i r y t h e f a m i l y w a s d e p e n d e n t u p o n mun-  icipal for  T h i s was. v e r y  relief*  A n o l d e r s i s t e r had b e e n e x p e l l e d  Immoral b e h a v i o r .  V ,  misdemeanor, ularly  up u n t i l  failings  2  considering  case,  smoking a n d s t a t e d t h a t  i g n o r e d them,  i t may s e r v e  a l s o be p o i n t e d  'home c o n d i t i o n s o c c a s i o n a l l y surpass t h e i r a b i l i t y  been  s h e was r e g -  condoned h e r daughter's  v'vhile t h i s  i s undoubtedly  to e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t  I t should  school  i n almost every k i n d o f  T h e motb.or e i t h e r  o r completely  extreme  cess.  "A" a d m i t t e d  from  who w a s I S y e a r s old', h a d l o n g  a -school problem a n d h a d been i n v o l v e d  an  life  as a factor out that  i n scholatic  unusually  suc-  favorable  stimulate l e s s able c h i l d r e n to  lovel-.  5*. T h e S m p t i o n s a n d T e m p e r a m e n t . few  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have -studied  determining  scholastic  success,  t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t and TO)  emotional s t a b i l i t y ;  t h e emotions a s a  Svans'^  fa * c  o r  -  results  seem t o show  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  Intelligence  nor between c o l l e g e  s u c c e s s a n d erao-  Evans, '^ot'e c n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a rfo-oaiiei^o?~ t i o n a ] F a c t o r on A c a d e m i c S u c c e s s , " J o u r n a l o* Aononnal a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2 5 , P. 5 7 — 5 9 , 1 9 3 0 .  tlonal  stabilityHowever,  extreme c a u t i o n the  since  tests  . must regard  we  o f emotions! s t a b i l i t y  are  .still  in  experimental stags. O a t e s ^ ^ f i n d s t h a t h o y s who  achieve average  6  scores astic who  . {119} t h i s c o n c l u s i o n with.  on  t h e Downey W i l l - T e m p e r a m e n t  ratings  i n accord with their  obtain high or low  In, a n o t h e r s t u d y •  7 7  ^Dates  b e t w e e n s c h o l a r s h i p and  astic  and  receive  intelligence.  t e m p e r a m e n t r a t i n g s may  worse i n School posts than t h e i r  Intelligence  Test, w i l l  temperament  I»Qu w o u l d  Those  scholboys  do b e t t e r  lead  one  to  or expect,.  o b t a i n s a c o r r e l a t i o n of  t e m p e r a m e n t and  testerament are the  .583  hence concludes  essential  factors  that i n schol-  achievement, {78)  Hartson  v  , on  temperament show no high  s c h o o l and In the  clude  t h e o t h e r hand,, f i n d s t h a t appreciable  estimates  of  relation w i t h scholarship  i n  collage.  face of  this  contradictory  t h a t , .although.the emotions  tors determining scholastic s h i p has One success  not yet o f the  been  may  t e m p e r a m e n t may  conbe  success, the extent of t h i s  fac-• relation-  well-established. j5* M o t i v a t i o n .  most Important  i s motivation,  end  s i t u a t i o n we  'while  f a c t o r s determining this  f a c t has  scholastic  been conclusively  d e m o n s t r a t e d by m a n y i n v e s t i g a t o r s , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e d o e s  not  TTirriKtii^^ B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . V o l , 1 9 , P. 1 — 5 0 , 1928. G a t e s , D. W.«, " T h e E o l a t i o n o f T e m p e r a m e n t and intelligence t o S c h o l a s t i c A b i l i t y , " P c r u m o f E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 7, P. 171— '185. 1 9 2 9 * { 7 8 ) H a r t s o n . L.D. , "The V a l i d a t i o n o f the- E a t i n g s c a l e s u s e d w i t h Candidates f o r A d m i s s i o n to O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , " s c h o o l and S o c i o tor, V o l . 3 6 , ?. 4 1 3 — 4 1 6 , 1 9 3 2 .  {77}  seem.to h a v e ;  seen s u f f i c i e n t l y  After a rather  "by many  teachers,*"  e x t e n s i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y o f ..junior a n d  h i g h s c h o o l ' students., factors  recognised  Turney^ )concludes that 9  the  two  senior  major  i n s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t a r e m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e *  Jonesmaintains u n i v e r s i t y g r a d e s and  t h a t the degree o f c o r r e l a t i o n between  intelligence varies directly with  the  s c h o l a s t i c m o t i v a t i o n o f the- students.  Corey^^^presents  .statistical  evidence which he  Interprets  as" s h o w i n g t h a t m o t i v a t i o n I n c r e a s e s t h e r e l s t i o n s h i p  .. a c h i e v e m e n t and  intelligence.  ship between these  between  He h o l d s t h a t a c l o s e  two- v a r i a 1 Q . e s I s a n  relation-  i n d i c a t i o n o f good  teach-  ing. To  t e s t ' t h e e f f e c t o f m o t i v a t i o n on. t h e  Intelligence  two  and  experiments.  scholarship  In the f i r s t  g r a d e IZ m a t h e m a t i c s sented The  so  as  c o u r s e was  i n this  t o he a s  High the  etc.  the w r i t e r  e x p e r i m e n t b o y s who  were used as  subjects.  The  modified i n order t o  stress  conducted  were t a x i n g  c o u r s e was  s t i m u l a t i n g as p o s s i b l e f o r the  a t i o n s o f mathematics t o business, ing  study,  c o r r e l a t i o n between  pupils.  the p r a c t i c a l  technical subjects.  applic-  industry, navigation,, survey-  S i n c e m o a t o f H i e .boys w a r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e  S c h o o l , e v e r y e f f o r t was  pre-  made t o  correlate  Technical  mathematics  P u p i l s were encouraged to k e e p  with  graphs  (79}  T u r n e y , A. II.-, " I n t e l l i g e n c e , - M o t i v a t i o n , and Achievement.," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2 2 , P. 4 2 6 — 4 3 4 , . 1931. (80) Jonas, 3. E», "The Grade - t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n as a n I n d e x o f  - M o t i v a t i o n , * S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , V o l . 36, P. 4 7 3 — 4 8 0 , 1932. ( 8 1 ) C o r e y , S.„ M., " T h e E f f e c t o f M o t i v a t i o n u p o n t h e B e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A c h i e v e m e n t and I n t e l l i g e n c e , " S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y , Vol., 4 1 , P. 2 5 6 — 5 7 , 1 9 3 5 . * G a t e s , A. I . , P s y c h o l o g y f o r S t u d e n t s i n . I t e r a t i o n , gives an e x c e l l e n t account, o f m o t i v a t i o n . 1  s h o w i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s i n t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f the. s u b j e c t , . D i a g n o s t i c t e s t s and r e m e d i a l t e a c h i n g employed,  f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s was  Thus c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n m a t h e m a t i c s was a r o u s e d .  The g i r l s  o f g r a d e XX r e c e i v e d a m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e .  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s o f g e n e r a l mathematics,, a l g e b r a , a r i t h m e t i c , and geometry w i t h  i.Q. w e r e - p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e Z V I I .  (page 5 5 ) .  w i l l . b e a p p a r e n t t h a t ;the c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e d i s t i n c t l y for. boys than f o r g i r l s * eral.' mathemptlos i n grade V I I I The  It  higher  The b o y s ' c o r r e l a t i o n o f ..576 I n g e n -  i s a l s o markedly h i g h e r than those f o r boys  (.393) and i n g r a d e V I I ( . 4 7 8 ) .  s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t was c o n d u c t e d i n g r a d e ¥111 g e n e r a l  •science u s i n g b o t h boys and g i r l s .  E v e r y e f f o r t was made t o  make t h e c o u r s e I n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a s I n t e r e s t i n g a s p a s s i b l e , P u p i l s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o make s c r a p - b o o k s o f s c i e n c e  clippings  f r o m n e w s p a p e r s a n d m a g a z i n e s , and a b o u t 95>> r e s p o n d e d . paper. a r t i c l e s were f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d . m o t i o n p i c t u r e s were e f f e c t ! / e l y e m p l o y e d . to  Both s i l e n t  and sound  P u p i l s were  g i v e r e p o r t s on t h e c l a s s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s and t h e i r  news-  required  sxperla-  m e n t s .• P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was d e v o t e d t o c h a r t s s h o w i n g  pupil  T a b l e IiXX/lI p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s ' marks i n grade V I I I g e n e r a l s c i o i i c s w i t h I . a .  The c o r r e l a t i o n s  w h i c h ware o b t a i n e d b y t h e same p u p i l s i n g r a d e V I I a r e a l s o presented.  I tw i l l  be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s f o u n d I n  grade V I I I a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y ' h i g h e r than those o f grade V I I . I t a l s o s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n seem t o d i s a p p e a r u n o e r e f f e c t i v e motivation, V»e may t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s a v e r y s i g n i -  (122) fleant  factor  i n determining  the  the  a  objectively rating various teaching procedures  academic  subjects, a  -studies  between  and  the  Correlation  correlation  intelligence method f o r  scholarship,  size' of  p r o b l e m w h i c h has  seem to  long puzzled  offer in  educators.  TAB.U& iui_/i_ii-i« The-, E f f e c t  of Motivation  on. t h e  Grade  Correlation  ¥11  G r a d e ¥111  »412  .036  .018  .033  Girls  .270  »038  .1517  ,035  All  .,391  .026  .517  .024  .33.;  will  and  the  not  be  Spipe; .Infe.rcnc.es_  Tlals s t u d y has marked fact  us  to  use  Important  an  The  that  conclusion,  of  factor for  this  accurate  correction oriental  that  I.Q.  be  which are  should  factor.  b o y s was  be In  that  there-is  This  s h o u l d make a  more  is  very  for a l l pupils. by  by  t h i s study 17  a  scholarship.  obtained  be  glands.  Bduca/tipii,.  results. . It  adjusted  found t o  hand-  study.  schools  obtained  are  poor  endocrine  demonstrated  intelligence, test  intelligence quotients  proper  In  the  of., t h i s ..Research • f o r  group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s the  considered  of  achievement  hearing,  b e t w e e n i n t e l l i g e n c e and  the  thorough-go Ing  functioning  conclusivsly  relationship  leads  scholastic  defective' v i s i o n . , d e f e c t i v e  co-ordination,  These f a c t o r s  •  Boys  Other f a c t o r s waieh I n f l u e n c e  aye  Intelligence  r  r  general health,  between  orientals  the  the I.Q,.  on  addition correction  points,  while  /or  oriental  .girls  Some- o f results,  i t was  the  w h i c h may  11  I.Q.  points.  Important a p p l i c a t i o n s be  Inferred  from the  of  of  Intelligence  study, w i l l  now  test be  presented. The  major p r e p l a n o f p u b l i c e d i z c a t i o n . i s t h e a d a p t a t i o n  o f the s c h o o l to t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e p u p i l s .  t a b l e s throughout  The  t h i s study have shown t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s  between g e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e and t e a c h e r s ' marks a r e moderately high.  "But t h e y a l s o c l e a r l y demonstrate t h a t t h e r e a r e many  I n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s f o r whom t h e s c h o o l i s n o t p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g environment,- T i l l s m a l a d j u s t m e n t I s n o t s u r p r i s i n g when one c o n s i d e r s t h e tremendous v a r i a t i o n which e x i s t s among p u p i l s in, g e n e r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e , s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s , home e n v i r onment, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , I n t e r e s t s , temperament, e t c * One o f t h e f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s  t h a t o f c l a s s i f y i n g p u p i l s i n t o more o r l o s s homogeneous g r o u p s Where such g r o u p i n g h a s been t r i e d , I t has. I n g e n e r a l , p r o v e n very s u c c e s s f u l *  Teaching becomes raoro u n i f o r m s i n c e the i n -  s t r u c t o r does n o t spend a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f h i s time on t h e m a l adjusted c h i l d .  D i s c i p l i n e i s m a r k e d l y improved.  With such a  g r o u p i n g i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o a d j u s t t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o t h e c a p a c i t y and i n t e r e s t s o f the s t u d e n t s . A second a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l g u i d a n c e .  -While we must a g r e e  t h a t t h e I.Q. i s only one o f the f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d , i t s Importance must n o t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  The r e s u l t s  presented  i n t h i s study demonstrate t h a t boys w i t h l o w I.Q.. 's s h o u l d be encouraged t o s e l e c t , a s f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g  courses  t h e ' t e c h n i c a l - s u b j e c t s , the commercial s u b j e c t s , a r t , music, and mathematics.  G i r l s w i t h l o w I » Q . s should be encouraged T  to s e l e c t home economics, t h e c o m m e r c i a l s u b j e c t s , a r t , music,  and  English,  for successful  w o r k i n most s u b j e c t s o f t h e  A t h i r d use  junior high  a c h i e v e m e n t , he  c l i n i c a l psychologist,  s h o u l d bo  f o r study.  a complete p h y s i c a l  developmental h i s t o r y ,  the  referred  e x a m i n a t i o n by the  shows his  study  should  a physician,  school h i s t o r y ,  the q u a n t i t y  of  t o a. c o m p e t e n t  achievement, g e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l m a t u r i t y , e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  selection  q u o t i e n t and  Such a c l i n i c a l  family*  school.  Whenever a p u p i l  a wide d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s I n t e l l i g e n c e  include:  seems e s s e n t i a l  of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s f o r the  students needing s p e c i a l case s t u d i e s ,  scholastic  (124)  H o w e v e r , a minimum I . Q., o f 95  and  the  school  conduct,  q u a l i t y of i n -  telligence. A  fourth  application  equate r a t i n g of  o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s f o r the  s c h o o l s and  s h o w n i n t h i s s t u d y , and  teaching procedures.  elsewhere, that  the  I t has  s i z e o f the  r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s ' " m a r k s and  intelligence i s  dependent upon the m o t i v a t i o n o f the  pupils.  studies,  then, afford  jectively rating methods,  the  Such  adbeen  cor-  distinctly  correlation  e d u c a t o r s a v e r y e f f e c t i v e method o f e f f i c i e n c y o f v a r i o u s s c h o o l s and  ob-  teaching  (1X43) H E E B I E  SIBLICGPAPiiY,.  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