UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An experiment in teaching general science Clark, Norman 1938

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AN EXPERIMENT I N TEACHING GENERAL S C I E N C E Norman C l a r k A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e D e g r e e o f , M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P h i l o s o p h y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O c t o b e r , 1938* TABLE OF CONTENTS page I n t r o d u c t i o n • i Purpose and Scope o f the I n v e s t i g a t i o n , . . . . . . . . i S e t t i n g o f the I n v e s t i g a t i o n . i v Acknowledgements i v Chapter I Ma t c h i n g the Two Groups o f P u p i l s . 1 Chapter I I S u b j e c t M a t t e r Arrangement and Methods o f S u b j e c t M a t t e r Arrangement f o r the " S o c i a l " S u b j e c t M a t t e r Arrangement f o r t h e "Pure Sol G i l G 6 " G"3?OTX^ p a « « « * • • • « « • • « « « • • • « « • « • • 5 Method o f Treatment f o r the " S o c i a l " Group 6 Statement o f the T i t l e o f U n i t I I . . . . . . . . . 7 Study o f the T i t l e o f U n i t I I 8 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Topic " L i g h t " as P r e s e n t e d t o the " S o c i a l " Group......... 9 O u t l i n e o f the T o p i c " L i g h t " as Taught t o "til,© **Soc XQ.1 G"2?ou.p * ••«•«•«•••««•••«••««« XiS Method o f Treatment f o r the "Pure S c i e n c e " O u t l i n e o f the T o p i c " L i g h t " as Taught t o the "Pure S c i e n c e " Group................ 27 Chapter I I I F a c i l i t i e s and Equipment 34 Chapter IV The - T e s t i n g Programme.. . .. 36 O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e Achievement T e s t s Us ed *•.«•••.. 36 S c o r i n g the T e s t s . . . 37 R e s u l t s o f the T e s t s . ... 39 Chapter V P u p i l I n t e r e s t . O u t s i d e Reading by P u p i l s . . ..... Check on L i b r a r y Books 42 42 Sox* cijQ t) o o 3i. s ««•*««*•«••«•«••«*>*••«•*>•««•••«• 44 ^1X©S~\j 1 O i i I i Q . 1 H ? © 3 « « « * ) a » • • • • • « • « « • • • • • « • • • • • « « 4 5 T\ J Diarv 4 o TABLE OF CONTENTS (c o n t ' d . ) page Chapter Y I A n a l y s i s o f the S t a t i s t i c a l R e s u l t s o f the Experiment ». . 47 Chapter Y I I Summary 49 B i b l i o g r a p h y ... • 50 Appendix • « • • 53 Samples o f a l l T e s t s Used 53 Ge n e r a l S c i e n c e , Grade IX. 53 U n i t I , O b j e c t i v e Test .... 57 U n i t I , S u b j e c t i v e Test . 62 U n i t I I , O b j e c t i v e T e s t . . 63 U n i t I I , S u b j e c t i v e Test 68 U n i t I I I , O b j e c t i v e T e s t . . . 69 U n i t I I I , S u b j e c t i v e T e s t . . . . . . . . . 72 U n i t IT, O b j e c t i v e T e s t . . . . 73 U n i t IV, S u b j e c t i v e Test 75 U n i t V, O b j e c t i v e Test 76 U n i t V, S u b j e c t i v e T e s t . . .... .... 79 Delayed R e c a l l Test 80 " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " Test 82 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 84 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on U n i t I I 84 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Given a t the C l o s e of the Ye a r ' s Work 85 Formula f o r E s t i m a t i n g the S c o r e s o f Absent P u p i l s . 87 TABLES page P l a t e I Table: C h r o n o l o g i c a l Ages, I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s , Grade IX G e n e r a l S c i e n c e L e t t e r R a t i n g , S c o r e s o f Grade IX Achievement Te s t , and S c o r e s o f O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e Achievement T e s t s f o r U n i t I...« I I T a b l e : Means, Medians, and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s , Grade IX Achievement Te s t , and O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e Achievement T e s t s f o r 3 I I I Table: IV Table: V Table: V I Table: V I I Table: U n i t I . . . « • • e « « • • e C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n and P r o b a b l e E r r o r s f o r I n t e l l i g e n c e Q u o t i e n t s , Grade IX Achievement Test and O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e Achievement T e s t s f o r U n i t I . 4 S c o r e s of O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and Delayed R e c a l l Test f o r the " S o c i a l " Group « « • e e a 39 S c o r e s o f O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and Delayed R e c a l l Test f o r the "Pure S c i e n c e " Group. » a a • 40 Means,. Medians, and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f the O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " Test, and Delayed R e c a l l Test f o r the " S o c i a l " Group and the "Pure S c i e n c e " Group. 41 C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n and P r o b a b l e E r r o r s o f t h e O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and Delayed R e c a l l Test f o r the " S o c i a l " Group and the "Pure S c i e n c e " Group 41 A N EXPERIMENT I N TEACHING GENERAL S C I E N C E I n t r o d u c t i o n P u r p o s e and S c o p e o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n The new c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l s c i e n c e now e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u p p l a n t s t h e more s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y a n d b i o l o g y . The new c o u r s e a t t e m p t s t o f u s e t h e s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s i n t o one c o u r s e - " G e n e r a l S c i e n c e " , " d e s i g n e d t o g i v e t h e p u p i l a v i e w o f t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f s c i e n c e , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s , r a t h e r t h a n a somewhat n a r r o w k n o w l e d g e o f one o r more o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n c e s , " ^ * The n e w e r t r e n d s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u s i n g s c i e n c e i n m e e t i n g t h e e v e r y d a y n e e d s o f t h e p u p i l s . A c c o r d i n g l y a w i d e r r a n g e o f c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s c a n be u t i l i z e d . To t h e w r i t e r t h e f o l l o w i n g ( Q u o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n l a r g e m e a s u r e t h e w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e new s c i e n c e c o u r s e . " L e t u s i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l , . h o w e v e r , be f r e e t o h e l p t h e c h i l d i n h i s e f f o r t s t o know and t o i n t e r p r e t t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h he l i v e s ; l e t u s h a v e t h e l i b e r t y t o make t h a t s c i e n c e w h i c h i s bound. Up w i t h h i s , e v e r y d a y l i v i n g m e a n i n g f u l and 1 . Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r t h e S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p . 1 6 0 . e n j o y a b l e , a r i c h , s a t i s f y i n g , v i t a l e x p e r i e n c e l o n g t o be remembered."^"* , " S c i e n c e c o u r s e s at t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l , i f we a g r e e w i t h a l l t h e l e a d e r s o f m o d e r n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n , s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n c e i n t h e c i v i c , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l a s p e c t o f m o d e r n l i f e . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f S c i e n c e , as g i v e n i n most c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , as g l e a n e d f r o m t h e w r i t e r s o f m o d e r n s e c o n d a r y t e x t b o o k s , a n d a s g i v e n b y t h e members o f t h e g r o u p r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e T h i r t y - f i r s t Y e a r B o o k , a l l make t h e s o c i o -c i v i c o b j e c t i v e s p r e d o m i n a t e . " " A f t e r t h i r t y y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e w r i t e r h a s become more a n d m o r e c o n -v i n c e d t h a t t h e s o c i o - c i v i c v a l u e s o f s c i e n c e m u s t come f i r s t i f s c i e n c e i s t o d o i t s b e s t w o r k f o r t h e f u t u r e c i t i z e n s o f t h e d e m o c r a c y . " W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e c h a n g e s t h e p u p i l s w i l l u n d e r g o a new t y p e o f e x p e r i e n c e . W h e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t c a n n o t be d e c i d e d f r o m " a p r i o r i " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . A v a l i d m e t h o d o f v e r i f y i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d i s by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o l l e d t y p e . S u c h an e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d out. b y t h e w r i t e r * I n 1 . B a i r d , E . , " T e a c h i n g t h e P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s f r o m a F u n c t i o n a l P o i n t o f V i e w " , E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , May 1 9 5 7 , p . 4 1 2 . 2 . H u n t e r , G . W . , " S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g " , A m e r i c a n Book C o . , p . 8 . 3 . H u n t e r , G . W . , " S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g " , A m e r i c a n B o o k C o . , p.. 1 1 . t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e new c o u r s e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e I V was t a u g h t t o one. g r o u p o f . p u p i l s i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s to b r i n g t h e i r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e s t o t h e f o r e , a s w e l l a s t o empha-s i z e t h e s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s c i e n c e . To a n o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e g r o u p t h e c o u r s e was p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a way as t o n e g l e c t t h e s e f a c t o r s , and t o p r e s e n t t h e m a t e r i a l as a b o d y o f o r g a n i z e d k n o w l e d g e . The p u r p o s e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s i n t h e two g r o u p s w o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o w a r r a n t t h e a d o p t i o n o f one m e t h o d i n p r e f e r e n c e to t h e o t h e r . B o t h g r o u p s w e r e t a u g h t by t h e w r i t e r , who e n d e a v o r e d a t a l l t i m e s to m a i n t a i n e q u a l i n t e r e s t and e n t h u s i a s m . The a c h i e v e m e n t s o f one g r o u p were n e v e r p r e s e n t e d a s a g o a l t o t h e o t h e r g r o u p . S e t t i n g o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s e n q u i r y was made a t Magee H i g h S c h o o l , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , d u r i n g t h e t e r m e x t e n d i n g f r o m S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 7 , to J u n e 1 9 3 8 . JLckn o w l e dg em en t s . The w r i t e r w i s h e s to e x p r e s s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o M r . C . B . Wood a n d D r . J . W. P i l c h e r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r t h e i r g e n e r o u s a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To f r i e n d s who i n many ways a i d e d t h e w r i t e r i n h i s w o r k , a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d . C h a p t e r 1 . MATCHING THE TWO GROUPS OP P U P I L S The f i r s t s t e p i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o o b t a i n two s i m i l a r g r o u p s o f p u p i l s . T h i s was done d u r i n g S e p t e m b e r 1 9 3 7 , b y a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e r e w e r e f i v e G r a d e X c l a s s e s e n r o l l e d i n G e n e r a l S c i e n c e I Y . The two g r o u p s t h a t h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d t o t h e w r i t e r were made s i m i l a r by an i n t e r c h a n g e o f a number o f s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e c l a s s e s . I n a r r a n g i n g t h e two g r o u p s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a w e r e u s e d : t h e means a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e s , and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t i n g r a d e n i n e g e n e r a l s c i e n c e a s d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e l e t t e r g r a d e s b a s e d o n t h e c u r v e o f n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e s c o r e s f r o m an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t b a s e d on t h e g r a d e n i n e w o r k . T h i s l a t t e r t e s t was g i v e n s h o r t l y a f t e r s c h o o l o p e n e d . Prom a s t u d y o f t h i s d a t a t w e l v e i n t e r c h a n g e s w e r e made i n o r d e r t o make t h e two g r o u p s s i m i l a r . F o r a number o f r e a s o n s n i n e p u p i l s , f i v e f r o m one g r o u p and f o u r f r o m t h e o t h e r . w e r e t o o e x c e p t i o n a l * T h e s e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p u p i l s ' P r o g r e s s R e c o r d C a r d s . T h e s e t e s t s h a d b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d i n 1934 and 1935 b y the B u r e a u o f M e a s u r e m e n t s , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d . F i f t y - f i v e o f t h e s e w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e O t i s S e l f - A d m i n i s t e r i n g T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y , I n t e r m e d i a t e E x a m i n a t i o n , F o r m A . The r e m a i n d e r h a d b e e n m e a s u r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t a n d Terman G r o u p T e s t o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y . to be i n c l u d e d . Due t o i n d i v i d u a l t i m e - t a b l e s t h e y c o u l d not be t r a n s f e r r e d . Although, they t r a v e l l e d along w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s , t h e i r t e s t r e s u l t s and o t h e r r e l a t e d d a t a a r e i g n o r e d i n t h i s . r e p o r t . The above d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d i n t a b l e I . A study o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l show t h a t t h e two groups a r e n e a r l y a l i k e . As a f u r t h e r check on t h e two groups t h e f i r s t u n i t o f the new course, G e n e r a l S c i e n c e IV, was taught as a t r i a l u n i t t o each o f these two groups i n an i d e n t i c a l manner. Two achievement t e s t s were g i v e n to t h e two groups a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e u n i t . The means, medians, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f the t e s t s c o r e s and i n t e l l i -gence q u o t i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d . These r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n t a b l e s I I and I I I . A s t u d y o f t h e s e d a t a showed the two groups to be comparable. F o l l o w i n g t h e s e t e s t s the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was pursued as o u t l i n e d i n t h e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r . To make sure t h a t the t e s t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e were f a i r l y a c c u r a t e , a second t e s t , namely the Terman Group Test o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y , Form B, was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l o f the p u p i l s i n A p r i l 1958. The i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s were o b t a i n e d from t h i s t e s t and c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h o s e o f the p r e v i o u s t e s t . The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was found to be .87 ± .031, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the g e n e r a l l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e had been f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y measured. Table 1. Chronological .Ages, Intelligence Quotients, Grade DC General Science Letter Rating, Scores of Grade DC Achievement Test, and Scores of Objective and Subjective Achievement Tests for Unit 1. "Social" Group "Pure Science" Group 60 Unit 1 Unit 1 CD Pi •H •p CO-CO E-T Tests <D PI •H •p to CD Tests Pupil id Pupil cd • Pi « W ® ® a a? © M » X • o ¥ • a? H • M * •§ 0 £j • i-i H •1-3 O H ,3 e U « h U o H tit " O " m 0 M ti> tit a A. ; 15 120 c 35 49 27 G. B, 15 113 G 35 50 17 D. A . 15 114 c+ 42 52 26 M. B. 15 117 A 40 66 37 D. A . 15 113 c+ 37 54 21 P. 0 © 15 118 B 47 65 44 H« B* 14 134 B 52 69 38 J. G • 15 104 .0+ 18 41 21 H. B. 15 119 A 52 66 37 R. C« 15 136 0+ 45 70 36 P. B. 14 121 A 48 63 43 .E. E. 14 114 A 41 65 31 M. G. 15 113 C 30 4o 17 K. r . 15 104 B 20 44 26 R. G. 14 114 c 21 43 20 L. 16 106 C 20 32 17 S» F* 15 108 c 2? 50 24 E. E. 15 123 B 34 53 24 N . 1. 14 120 c+ 30 54 21 D. G.s 15 110 0- 29 52 22 P. 14 110 0 29' 46 24 T. Ge 14 114 C 29 52 34 R ® E. 14 128 A 35 63 29 P. H» 15 106 B 40 52 27 *D. H. 15 105 c 18 40 18 R. H. 15 113 0+ 46 70 31 D» K» 123 B 41 64 45 Rs J. 15 114 A 50 68 40 D. •L. 14 121 B 32 44 23 M. J. 15 116 B 41 57 33 D. L. 15 123 B 45 64 32 M. K» 15 119 B 34 54 28 H. M. . 14 111 c - 22 48 26 K. L. 15 124 B 34 66 40 J. M.: 15 112 c+ 52 52 30 D. Hie 14 113 C 26 42 15 G. M. 15 124 c 28 46 18 E. L. 1.4 121 B 35 39 24 G. M. 15 115 C+ 35 48 24 m. M. ! 14 108 G 15 40 13 ~ Mi' :M. 15 106 c 24 52 23 ••'Or. M. 14 126 B 41 60 35 P. M. 16 106 c - 20 38 15 C • M. 14 122 0+ 46 67 39 3» ¥ . 15. 114 0 34 51 20 0. 15 112 0 16 39 23 N:. 15 106 G- 31 50 20 G • P. 16 108 c 29 42 16 0. 15 125 . B 36 53 33 D. P. 15 11? c~ 15 45 20 L. P. 14 113 B 32 45 20 P. P. 16 112 c 32 54 22 P. R © 15 114 C 27 41 24 ¥."' P. 15 118 . c 31 47 23 J. "S;.. 15 109 B 31 56 22 T. R. 15 114 D 28 34 26 A. S, 15 106 C 27 41 26 B. W. 15 122 B 33 56 33 R. u. 15 116 c+ 40 61 37 D, IB. 15 113 C- 36 59 32 J. TST .15 121 G+ 30 46 21 R. W. 15 130 0- 42 56 32 These two pupils l e f t school in January 1938. Since they were a similar pair their leaving did not affect the results of this investigation. 4. Table II. Means, Medians, and Standard Deviations for Intelligence Quotients, Grade EC Achievement Test, and Objective and Subjective Achievement Tests of Unit 1. "Social" Group "Pure Science" Group M. Mdn. CT M. Mdn. 116 114 7.31 115.7 114 7.5 (Jr.. IX. Test 33.6 32 9-3 33.1 . 3 4 7 . " ? . 8 Unit 1 Obj. 51.4 50 8.2 53.1 .53 11 Unit 1 Subj. 25.9 24 7.8 27.6 27 8.1 Table III. Coefficients of Correlation and Probable Errors for Intelligence Quotients, Grade IX Achievement Test and Objective and Subjective Achievement Tests of Unit 1, • - •  "Social" Group "Pure Science" Group ri.Q., Gr. EC Ach. .50 t .092 .52 + .088 1 - " • • •. ." -,' rObj., Subj. Unit 1. .80 ± .044 ..81 + .042 r I . Q,., Obj. Unit 1. .60 ± .078 .52 t .089 r I . Q,., Subj. Unit 1. .62 ± .676 .55 + .086 C h a p t e r I I . _ SUBJECT MATTER ARRANGEMENT AND METHODS OF TEACHING T h i s c h a p t e r a i m s t o p r e s e n t t h e m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r r a n g e m e n t , and m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g , t h a t w e r e e m p l o y e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s . S u b j e c t M a t t e r A r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h e " S o c i a l " G r o u p The c l a s s to w h i c h t h e g e n e r a l s c i e n c e was t a u g h t w i t h s o c i a l e m p h a s i s , were g i v e n a n a r r a n g e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l t h a t was a s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to t h e i r e v e r y d a y e x p e r i e n c e as t h w r i t e r c o u l d make i t . P r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s w e r e made t h e c e n t e r o f d i s c u s s i o n , t h e n e c e s s a r y l a w s and p r i n c i p l e s g r o w i n g o u t o f s u c h a p r e s e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n w e r e e v e r a i m i n g a t t h e t h o u g h t o f s h o w i n g t h e p u p i l s how man h a s made h i s d i s c o v e r y o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s s u b s e r v e h i s n e e d s . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p l a n t h e g e n e r a l m e t h o d o f t e a c h i n g u s e d was t h a t o f i n d u c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e , i . e . t h e p u p i l s w e r e a i d e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n by p r o c e e d i n g m e n t a l l y f r o m s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s t o g e n e r a l m e a n i n g ' s . S u b j e c t M a t t e r A r r a n g e m e n t f o r t h e " P u r e S c i e n c e " Group W i t h t h e o t h e r g r o u p a s i n c e r e a t t e m p t was made t o t e a c h s c i e n c e a s an o r g a n i z e d , body o f k n o w l e d g e . The l a w s , t h e o r i e s , and p r i n c i p l e s became t h e c e n t e r ; t h e p r a c t i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o r a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g i n c i d e n t a l , m e r e l y u s e d 6 . t o h e l p i m p r e s s t h e p r i n c i p l e s , and s e r v e as a means o f r o u s i n g i n t e r e s t by s h o w i n g t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s d i d f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n . W i t h t h i s g r o u p , q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o b l e m s w e r e u s e d t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , t h e i r p u r p o s e b e i n g to a i d i n d r i v i n g home t h e p r i n c i p l e s . The g e n e r a l method o f t e a c h i n g was b o t h d e d u c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e i n i t s t h o u g h t m o v e m e n t . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d s i n c e i t seemed t o be b e s t s u i t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e i n h a n d , n a m e l y , t h e p r e s e n t i n g o f a w e l l o r g a n i z e d body o f f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s . B o t h t r e a t m e n t s r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o f i t i n t o t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e . M e t h o d o f T r e a t m e n t f o r t h e " S o c i a l " G r o u p I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e a b o v e e x p l a n a t i o n two o u t l i n e s w i l l be g i v e n . The f i r s t w i l l p r e s e n t t h e t r e a t m e n t g i v e n t h e f o r m e r , o r " s o c i a l " g r o u p . The s e c o n d w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t r e a t m e n t g i v e n t h e l a t t e r , o r " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p . I n e a c h c a s e t h e t o p i c d e a l s w i t h l i g h t . Many o t h e r t o p i c s f r o m the p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e m i g h t h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d , b u t t h e one o n l i g h t i s o f r e a s o n a b l e l e n g t h and i m p o r t a n c e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e m a n n e r o f t r e a t m e n t t h a t was a p p l i e d to t h e e n t i r e c o u r s e b e y o n d u n i t o n e . W i t h t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f m a t e r i a l o u t l i n e d i n t h e c o u r s e was f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y . The r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w e r e t a k e n v e r y l a r g e l y f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e t e x t b o o k " S c i e n c e f o r T o - d a y " , s i n c e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e i n c o u l d be more c l o s e l y a d a p t e d to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h o f t h e m a j o r and s u b o r d i n a t e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , and i n t h i s way was a c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t f o r t h i s g r o u p . A s t h e l e s s o n s p r o g r e s s e d , i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s w e r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e b l a c k b o a r d . N o t e s were made by t h e p u p i l s and w e r e c h e c k e d a t t h e c l o s e o f e a c h u n i t by t h e t e a c h e r . P e r i o d s u s u a l l y commenced w i t h a r e v i e w o f p r e v i o u s w o r k o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f a s s i g n m e n t s . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a u n i t t h e p u p i l s p r e p a r e d e s s a y s , t h e t i t l e o f w h i c h e m b o d i e d t h e c o n c e p t s e t f o r t h i n t h e c a p t i o n o f t h e u n i t . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e T i t l e o f U n i t I I The m a j o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r t i t l e f o r t h i s u n i t i s s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : " C i v i l i z a t i o n h a s p r o g r e s s e d a s man h a s l e a r n e d to u s e and c o n t r o l e n e r g y " . To w o r k t h i s a b s t r a c t i o n w i t h i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o v e r i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e p u p i l s , p r o v e d t o be a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m . H o w e v e r , i t was a t t e m p t e d by w r i t i n g t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n on t h e b l a c k b o a r d , and i n f o r m i n g t h e p u p i l s b r i e f l y o f t h e b r o a d i m p l i c a t i o n s i m p l i e d i n i t . T h i s s t a t e m e n t was to be t h e k e y n o t e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u n i t , and a l l s u b s e q u e n t m a t e r i a l was t o l e a d t o i t s a m p l i f i c a t i o n . An o u t l i n e o f t h e s t u d y g i v e n t o t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p on t h e t i t l e o f U n i t I I f o l l o w s . Study o f t h e T i t l e o f U n i t I I  Meaning o f " c i v i l i z a t i o n " Man has been r e c l a i m e d from a savage s t a t e s i n c e he i s a t h i n k i n g a n i m a l . In the l o w e s t s t a t e of savagery, man * conquered f i r e . L a t e r he u s e d f i r e and heat to make weapons and t o o l s , and used these to improve l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . L a t e r he d i s c o v e r e d gunpowder, how to use the compass, and horn t o use steam power. As a r e s u l t o f t h i s advance from t h e savage s t a t e we say man became " c i v i l i z e d " . What i s p r o g r e s s ? We commonly u n d e r s t a n d p r o g r e s s as a moving f o r w a r d , an improvement of c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g as compared w i t h t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d . S c i e n c e g i v e s us a dominant note o f p r o g r e s s i n o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n ? . I t has e v e r sought to make t h i s w o r l d a b e t t e r p l a c e i n w h i c h t o l i v e . Energy W h i l e the s c i e n t i s t has been u n a b l e to i n f o r m us what energy i s i n i t s e l f , y e t he has been a b l e to t e l l us much about i t . f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e are many k i n d s o f energy -k i n e t i c , p o t e n t i a l , h e a t , e l e c t r i c , e t c . Energy changes i t s forms. F o r example, the energy o f heat can be t r a n s -formed i n t o e l e c t r i c i t y , l i g h t , o r m e c h a n i c a l energy. W h i l e we have no d i r e c t knowledge of energy, t h e above m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f i t a r e commonly observed. F o r many c e n t u r i e s man was l i m i t e d i n h i s energy r e s o u r c e s to those w h i c h he c o u l d o b t a i n t h rough t h e use o f h i s own muscles 9 . and those o f b e a s t s of burden. When man l e a r n e d t o use the energy o f h e a t , e l e c t r i c i t y , o i l , and o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , h i s power to extend c i v i l i z a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d r a p i d l y . The c l a s s was asked to c o n s u l t source books i n t h e l i b r a r y and at home and to w r i t e out and b r i n g to c l a s s the f o l l o w i n g day i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the words " c i v i l i z a t i o n " , " p r o g r e s s " , " c o n t r o l " , and "energy", A number o f p u p i l s were c a l l e d upon t o r e a d the work t h e y had pre p a r e d . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n -was used l a r g e l y as a m o t i v a t i n g d e v i c e , as w e l l as to show the r e l a t i o n of the t o p i c ( i n t h i s case l i g h t ) t o the l o n g e r u n i t of whi c h i t i s a p a r t . H a v i n g b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e t i t l e , the p u p i l s were informed that the main purpose o f t h i s u n i t was to t r y t o u n d e r s t a n d as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s s c i e n c e has made t o improve methods o f l i v i n g . The u n i t <^\rould d e a l w i t h eaoh o f the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of energy, and we would endeavor to r e l a t e t h e s e i n a o l e a r way t o t h e main t o p i c . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e t o p i c " L i g h t " as P r e s e n t e d t o the " S o c i a l " Group L i f e i s a b s o l u t e l y dependent upon l i g h t . We r e q u i r e l i g h t f o r v i s i o n . What would our l i f e a c t i v i t i e s be l i k e w i t h o u t t h i s sense o f v i s i o n ? Man has been a b l e to e x e r c i s e h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e l a r g e l y t h r o u g h h i s sense o f s i g h t . Human p r o g r e s s has depended upon d i s c o v e r y and i n v e n t i o n and these 1 0 . a r e p o s s i b l e l a r g e l y by, s e e i n g . The p r o c e s s o f p h o t o s y n t h e s i s I w h i c h we s t u d i e d i n u n i t one was dependent upon l i g h t energy j f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g t h e l i f e l e s s substance of the s o i l and a i r j i n t o f o o d . J A r t i f i c i a l l i g h t has been a problem o f mankind s i n c e | e a r l i e s t t i m e s . Can we imagine what f i r e and l i g h t meant t o the home l i f e o f p r i m i t i v e man? The f i r s t f i r e he k i n d l e d produced a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t . The l i g h t gave him power o v e r d a r k n e s s . I n h i s huts and caves he found lamps t o be a n e c e s s i t y . F i r s t he used f i r e l i g h t , then he l e a r n e d to p l a c e r e d c o a l s i n n i c h e s i n t h e w a l l s . L a t e r he u s e d t o r c h e s . He p r o b a b l y d i s l i k e d the q u a l i t y and smokiness o f pinewood t o r c h e s and sought to d e v e l o p b e t t e r means of l i g h t i n g . I n j t h i s way he e x h i b i t e d h i s s u p e r i o r i t y by a d a p t i n g m a t e r i a l s j a t hand to h i s growing r e q u i r e m e n t s . Through the c e n t u r i e s I methods o f l i g h t i n g improved s l o w l y as c i v i l i z a t i o n advanced. j R e s i n was e x t r a c t e d from wood and burned I n c o n t a i n e r s . i Some e a r l y p e o p l e s l e a r n e d to use v e g e t a b l e and animal f a t s . These were the f o r e r u n n e r s o f t h e o i l - l a m p and t h e c a n d l e , which, i n v a r i o u s forms, s e r v e d the a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n g j j r e q u i r e m e n t s u n t i l about the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when o t h e r I I forms came i n t o common use. Th i s p e r i o d we may n o t e as the ! b e g i n n i n g o f the s c i e n c e o f l i g h t - p r o d u c t i o n , s i n c e the e a r l y o i l - l a m p and candle were not s c i e n t i f i c developments i n t h e modern sense. j Many l i g h t i n g d e v i c e s e v o l v e d as l i f e a c t i v i t i e s { 11. became more complex. The can d l e was g r e a t l y improved, not o n l y by. e x p e r i e n c e , but by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge r e g a r d i n g waxes, f a t s , w i c k s , and t h e c h e m i s t r y o f combustion. S i m i l a r improvements i n the lamp t o o k p l a c e , p a r t i c u -l a r l y w i t h the advent o f t h e g l a s s chimney, which not o n l y p r o t e c t e d the flame from d r a f t s , but a l s o improved combustion by i n c r e a s i n g the. a i r s u p p l y . (Our s t u d i e s on c o n v e c t i o n c u r r e n t s and combustion a l l o w us t o a p p r e c i a t e the s c i e n c e i n t h i s . ) More complex m e c h a n i c a l lamps f o l l o w e d . However, i t w i l l not be n e c e s s a r y f o r u s to c o n s i d e r t h e s e . G o a l g a s was d i s c o v e r e d and i t s use f o r g a s - l i g h t i n g advanced g r e a t l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I l l u m i n a t i n g gas, and gas ma n t l e s f o l l o w e d . We may a p p r e c i a t e the gas mantle by a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e Welsbach model. ( D e m o n s t r a t i o n f o l l o w s . ) I n 1879 E d i s o n succeeded i n overcoming many d i f f i -c u l t i e s to g i v e t h e wo r i d the f i r s t i n c a n d e s c e n t f i l a m e n t lamp o r e l e c t r i c b u l b . (The p u p i l s r e p o r t on t h e s t o r y of E d i s o n ' s work i n p r o d u c i n g t h e l i g h t b u l b . ) The e l e c t r i c lamp has undergone many improvements s i n c e then, brought about by c a r e f u l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . We can w e l l r e a l i z e t h a t l i g h t has been, and i s , most v a l u a b l e to s o c i e t y , and has had p o w e r f u l c i v i l i z i n g e f f e c t s . R e a l achievement i n t h e use o f l i g h t was not accomplished i n a haphazard way, but by a s c i e n t i f i c study designed t o d i s c o v e r 12c many p r o p e r t i e s , laws, and p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e of l i g h t . Mot u n t i l t h i s was done d i d p r o g r e s s become r a p i d . We can a p p r e c i a t e more f u l l y these achievements by a c a r e f u l study o f the b e h a v i o r o f l i g h t and some o f the i m p o r t a n t f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g t o i t . O u t l i n e o f t h e t o p i c " L i g h t " as Taught t o t h e " S o c i a l " Group P r o c e d u r e : O r a l d i s c u s s i o n , w i t h p u p i l s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the development o f the t o p i c . P r e s e n t a t i o n : What i s o u r most i m p o r t a n t soxirce o f n a t u r a l l i g h t ? The sun. How does s u n l i g h t t r a v e l to t h e earth? By coming i n v e r y s m a l l waves through t h e e t h e r . What do t h e s e waves produce when they a f f e c t t h e eye? V i s i o n . The s c i e n t i s t s i n f o r m us t h a t l i g h t i s a form o f energy. What p a r t i c u l a r form would you c a l l i t ? R a d i a n t energy. How r a p i d l y does l i g h t t r a v e l ? One hundred e i g h t y - s i x thousand m i l e s p e r second. We s h a l l p u l l down the window shades and darken t h e room. Are t h e r e any s o u r c e s o f l i g h t i n t h e room? None. A s m a l l opening i s made i n t h e s c r e e n , and a beam of l i g h t comes th r o u g h to s t r i k e a m i r r o r . What do you observe about the d i r e c t i o n taken by the beam o f l i g h t ? I s i t bent or s t r a i g h t ? S t r a i g h t . What happens to t h e l i g h t a f t e r i t reaches the m i r r o r ? I t i s r e f l e c t e d . Why i s the m i r r o r v i s i b l e now? I t r e f l e c t s l i g h t t o our eyes. Turn on t h e 13 l i g h t s . Why a r e a l l t h e o b j e c t s i n t h e room v i s i b l e now? The l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d t o u s f r o m t h e m . How i s t h i s l i g h t e d l a m p f i l a m e n t v i s i b l e t o u s ? I t g i v e s o u t i t s own l i g h t . I t i s s e l f - l u m i n o u s . How d o e s t h i s d i f f e r f r o m t h e o t h e r o b j e c t s i n t h e room? They a r e v i s i b l e by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t . F r o m o u r p r e v i o u s w o r k what w o u l d y o u s a y i s t h e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f t h e l i g h t e n e r g y f r o m t h e lamp b u l b ? The s u n . G l a s s a s s i g n m e n t . F o r n e x t day y o u a r e t o w r i t e an a c c o u n t t r a c i n g t h e e n e r g y o f t h e lamp b a c k t o . i t s s o u r c e , p o i n t i n g out how t h i s e n e r g y h a s b e e n c a p t u r e d and c o n t r o l l e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f m a n k i n d . P r e s e n t a t i o n : On a d u l l day we a r e u n a b l e to s e e t h e s u n , y e t we h a v e l i g h t . Why? The r a y s o f t h e s u n a r e r e f l e o t e d f r o m t h e many d u s t and m o i s t u r e p a r t i c l e s i n t h e a i r u n t i l t h e y a f f e c t t h e n e r v e s o f t h e e y e s . Y o u may a t s o m e t i m e h a v e n o t i c e d t h e s u n l i g h t r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e windows o f a d i s t a n t h o u s e m a k i n g i t l o o k a s t h o u g h t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t were b e h i n d t h e m . I s a l l t h e s u n l i g h t r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e window? N o . Why n o t ? Some o f t h e r a y s p a s s t h r o u g h t h e g l a s s , o r a r e t r a n s m i t t e d . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t s we h a v e j u s t m e n t i o n e d what w o u l d y o u s a y h a p p e n s t o a beam o f l i g h t when i t s t r i k e s a window? I t i s r e f l e c t e d a n d t r a n s m i t t e d . On y o u r t a b l e y o u w i l l f i n d c a r d b o a r d , o i l e d p a p e r , 1 4 . f r o s t e d g l a s s , a n d p l a i n g l a s s . H o l d e a c h o f t h e s e i n t u r n t o t h e l i g h t f r o m t h e w i n d o w . Compare t h e p a s s a g e o f l i g h t t h r o u g h e a c h . Does l i g h t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e c a r d b o a r d ? N o . What name do we g i v e t o s u c h a s u b s t a n c e ? O p a q u e . Does l i g h t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e o i l e d p a p e r a n d f r o s t e d g l a s s ? Y e s . A r e o b j e c t s v i s i b l e t h r o u g h them? N o . What name do we g i v e t o t h e s e ? T r a n s l u c e n t . Does l i g h t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e p l a i n g l a s s ? Y e s . A r e o b j e c t s p l a i n l y v i s i b l e t h r o u g h i t ? Y e s . What name do we g i v e t h i s ? T r a n s p a r e n t , Do a l l s u b s t a n c e s r e f l e c t o r t r a n s m i t l i g h t e q u a l l y w e l l ? N o . Name a n d c l a s s i f y some l i g h t s o u r c e s t h a t a r e c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e u s e o f s u c h m a t e r i a l s . How does a window p a n e f e e l on w h i c h t h e s u n h a s b e e n s h i n i n g ? Warm. Why? The h e a t f r o m t h e s u n warms i t . T h e r e i s no g l a s s so c l e a r t h a t a l l t h e l i g h t f a l l i n g u p o n i t w i l l go t h r o u g h i t . We know t h a t some o f t h e l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d , a n d some i s t r a n s m i t t e d , b u t t h e r e m a i n d e r i s a b s o r b e d and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o h e a t e n e r g y . We h a v e l e a r n e d t h a t t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s i n t h e r o o m a r e v i s i b l e by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t . H o w e v e r , n o t a l l t h e l i g h t i s r e f l e c t e d . Some i s a b s o r b e d b y t h e o b j e c t s . Some o b j e c t s r e f l e c t a n d a b s o r b more t h a n o t h e r s . To sum up , what, may h a p p e n t o a beam o f l i g h t when i t s t r i k e s an o b j e c t ? I t may be r e f l e c t e d , t r a n s m i t t e d , o r a b s o r b e d . 1 5 . P r e s e n t a t i o n : I f we w i s h t o s e e o u r s e l v e s i n a m i r r o r where do we s t a n d ? D i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f i t . I f we s t a n d i n a room on one s i d e o f a m i r r o r what do we s e e ? We s e e o n l y t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e r o o m . ( S e v e r a l p u p i l s g i v e n m i r r o r s . ) The r e f l e c t i o n o f t r e e s and l a n d s c a p e c a n he s e e n on s m o o t h w a t e r i f one s t a n d s i n t h e r i g h t p o s i t i o n . I f t h i s p o s i t i o n I s c h a n g e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t h e r e f l e c t i o n c a n n o t be s e e n . T h e s e common o b s e r v a t i o n s may be e x p l a i n e d b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d e m o n s t r a t i o n . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : The room i s d a r k e n e d . A beam o f l i g h t f r o m a s m a l l h o l e i n t h e window b l i n d i s r e f l e c t e d o n t o a m i r r o r l y i n g f l a t u p o n a t a b l e . A p o i n t e r i s h e l d v e r t i c a l l y t o t h e m i r r o r a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e r a y s f a l l u p o n i t . The p u p i l s a r e a s k e d t o compare t h e a n g l e s f o r m e d by e a c h r a y w i t h t h e p o i n t e r . The m i r r o r on t h e t a b l e i s t i l t e d and t h e p o i n t e r p l a c e d a t r i g h t a n g l e s to t h i s new p o s i t i o n . A g a i n t h e a n g l e s a r e c o m p a r e d . The m i r r o r i s t h e n h e l d p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e b e a m . I t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r a y w h i c h s t r i k e s t h e m i r r o r makes an a n g l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o t h e r a y w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d . T h e s e two a n g l e s a r e c a l l e d r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e a n d t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n . O a r e f u l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n h a s shown t h a t t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s e q u a l t o t h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n . A d i a g r a m i s drawn i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e l a w o f r e f l e c t i o n . Now we c a n e x p l a i n e a c h o f t h e p r o b l e m s p r e v i o u s l y 16. m e n t i o n e d . ( S e v e r a l p u p i l s a r e c a l l e d u p o n . ) D e m o n s t r a t i o n : Why a r e t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s on t h e p a g e s o f y o u r t e x t b o o k s c l e a r e r t h a n t h e o n e s on t h i s n e w s p a p e r ? We h a v e on t h e w a l l a s h e e t o f n e w s p a p e r a n d a h i g h l y p o l i s h e d p i e c e o f m e t a l . How a r e t h e y v i s i b l e t o u s ? By r e f l e c t e d l i g h t . I f t h e y b o t h r e f l e c t l i g h t c a n we e x p l a i n why we c a n s e e o u r r e f l e c t i o n s i n t h e p o l i s h e d m e t a l o n l y ? How do t h e s u r f a c e s o f t h e s e two b o d i e s compare? The m e t a l i s much s m o o t h e r t h a n t h e p a p e r . What e f f e c t w i l l a s m o o t h s u r f a c e h a v e u p o n t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y s ? I t w i l l r e f l e c t them r e g u l a r l y . What e f f e c t w i l l . t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y i r r e g u l a r s u r f a c e o f t h e n e w s p a p e r h a v e u p o n t h e l i g h t r a y s ? I t w i l l s c a t t e r t h e m . T h i s i s c a l l e d i r r e g u l a r r e f l e c t i o n o r d i f f u s i o n . A l a b e l l e d d i a g r a m i s d r a w n o n t h e b l a c k b o a r d . Gan we e x p l a i n t h e p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n now t h a t we u n d e r s t a n d d i f f u s i o n o f l i g h t ? . . ( S e v e r a l p u p i l s c a l l e d u p o n t o do s o . ) F r o s t e d lamp b u l b s , t r a n s l u c e n t lamp s h a d e s , a n t i -g l a r e g l a s s f o r a u t o m o b i l e s a r e u s e d to c o n t r o l l i g h t . E x p l a i n . The l i g h t i s d i f f u s e d by t r a n s m i s s i o n . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e l i g h t w h i c h e n t e r s o u r homes a n d o t h e r b u i l d i n g s i s d i f f u s e d l i g h t . "What d i f f u s e s t h i s l i g h t ? D u s t , m o i s t u r e i n t h e a i r , a n d v a r i o u s o b j e c t s on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h . T h i s s c a t t e r e d l i g h t i s l e s s g l a r i n g t h a t d i r e c t s u n l i g h t , and so i s e a s i e r on t h e e y e s . 1 7 . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : A s we w a l k a l o n g i n t h e b r i g h t s u n s h i n e we o b s e r v e what i s c a l l e d o u r shadow. What c a u s e s t h e shadow t o f o r m ? The l i g h t waves h a v e b e e n s t o p p e d b y o u r b o d y w h i c h i s o p a q u e . Not o n l y h a v e t h e l i g h t w a v e s b e e n c u t o f f f r o m t h e d a r k p a r t on t h e g r o u n d , b u t f r o m a l l t h e s p a c e i n c l u d e d between i t and o u r b o d y . A b o o k i s p l a c e d c l o s e to a w h i t e s c r e e n . A l i g h t e d c a n d l e i s s e t b e f o r e t h e b o o k . The b o o k i s s l o w l y moved t o w a r d t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t . What do y o u o b s e r v e ? A t f i r s t t h e shadow i s d i s t i n c t l y b l a c k . Does t h i s i l l u s t r a t e how l i g h t t r a v e l s ? Y e s , i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . Why i s t h e s p a c e on t h e s c r e e n d a r k ? The b o o k c u t s o f f t h e l i g h t . A s t h e book i s moved t o w a r d t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t a d a r k s p o t i s s e e n b o r d e r e d by a f r i n g e t h a t s h a d e s o f f f r o m t o t a l d a r k n e s s t o c o m p l e t e i l l u m i n a t i o n . The d a r k c e n t r a l p o r t i o n i s c a l l e d t h e u m b r a , and t h e s h a d e d p o r t i o n t h e p e n u m b r a . Why i s t h e p e n u m b r a n o t a s d a r k a s t h e umbra? D i a g r a m and e x p l a n a t i o n . P r e s e n t a t i o n : We h a v e on t h e t a b l e b e f o r e u s a l a r g e number o f c o l o r e d o b j e c t s . The c l o t h e s we a r e w e a r i n g a r e o f many d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s . P i c t u r e s and p a i n t i n g s owe much o f t h e i r b e a u t y t o c o l o r . N a t u r e u s e s c o l o r i n many w a y s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g l i f e . Gan we o b t a i n an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r c o l o r ? T a k e t h e g l a s s p r i s m t h a t i s on y o u r t a b l e and h o l d 18. i t t o w a r d t h e s u n l i g h t . What do y o u o b s e r v e ? A p a t c h o f l i g h t h a v i n g a l l t h e c o l o r s o f t h e r a i n b o w . Name t h e c o l o r s y o u s e e . What i s t h i s b a n d o f c o l o r s c a l l e d ? S p e c t r u m . The s o - c a l l e d w h i t e l i g h t o f t h e s u n h a s b e e n b r o k e n u p i n t o s e v e n c o l o r s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : To o b t a i n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c a u s e o f t h i s l e t u s t a k e t h i s i n c l i n e d p l a n k . The t o p h a l f i s s m o o t h , b u t t h e l o w e r h a l f i s c o v e r e d w i t h b a i z e w h i c h h a s b e e n cut a t an a n g l e and f a s t e n e d t i g h t l y t o t h e p l a n k . A c a r r i a g e r u n s down t h e p l a n k . One w h e e l s t r i k e s t h e b a i z e b e f o r e t h e o t h e r and t h e c a r r i a g e i s s l e w e d a r o u n d . E x p l a i n . One w h e e l i s r e t a r d e d more t h a n t h e o t h e r , so t h a t t h e c a r r i a g e c h a n g e s i t s d i r e c t i o n T h i s b e n d i n g f r o m a d i r e c t c o u r s e i s c a l l e d r e f r a c t i o n . U s i n g t h i s i d e a we may a c c o u n t f o r t h e s p e c t r u m we o b s e r v e d . ( D i a g r a m o f a beam o f l i g h t p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e p r i s m i s drawn on t h e b l a c k b o a r d . ) The beam s t r i k e s t h e p r i s m a t a s h a r p a n g l e . The l i g h t on one s i d e o f t h e beam e n t e r s t h e p r i s m b e f o r e t h e l i g h t o n t h e o t h e r s i d e . The g l a s s r e t a r d s t h e l i g h t w h i c h e n t e r s f i r s t , and t h e beam i s s l e w e d away f r o m i t s p r e v i o u s s t r a i g h t l i n e . T h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e s i n c e t h e a i r and g l a s s a r e n o t o f u n i f o r m d e n s i t i e s . F u r t h e r , s i n o e t h i s g l a s s i s a p r i s m , t h e waves p a s s t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t t h i c k n e s s e s o f g l a s s . The w a v e s whose d i r e c t i o n i s c h a n g e d t h e m o s t p a s s t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e s t t h i c k n e s s o f g l a s s , t h a t i s , t h e y a r e r e f r a c t e d t h e m o s t . "When t h e l i g h t emerges f r o m 1 9 . t h e p r i s m , t h e l o n g e s t waves w h i c h h a v e t r a v e l l e d m o r e r a p i d l y -t h r o u g h t h e g l a s s a r e r e f r a c t e d t h e l e a s t and come out f i r s t . The s h o r t e s t w a v e s t r a v e l more s l o w l y i n t h e g l a s s a n d a r e r e f r a c t e d t h e m o s t . On l e a v i n g t h e g l a s s t h e r a y s t r a v e l i n 7 s t r a i g h t l i n e s h u t a r e s p r e a d out a n d a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r f r o m l o n g e s t t o s h o r t e s t wave l e n g t h . Red l i g h t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e l o n g e s t , a n d v i o l e t t o t h e s h o r t e s t w a v e s . We b e l i e v e t h a t e a c h c o l o r o f t h e s p e c t r u m i s c a u s e d by a d i s t i n c t wave l e n g t h . -P r e s e n t a t i o n ; H e r e a r e t h r e e b o o k s . N o t e , t h e i r c o l o r s , — r e d , g r e e n , a n d b l u e . A r e t h e y l u m i n o u s o r n o n - l u m i n o u s ? N o n - l u m i n o u s . The eye s e e s e a c h book and o u r b r a i n i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e n s a t i o n a s r e d , g r e e n , a n d b l u e . What k i n d o f l i g h t e n t e r s t h i s r o o m , and I s r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h e v a r i o u s o b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e b o o k s ? S u n l i g h t . We o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t l i g h t i s composed o f s e v e r a l c o l o r s . We must p r o c e e d t o e x p l a i n , t h e r e f o r e , why t h i s h o o k i s r e d . What l i g h t d o e s , t h e book r e f l e c t ? R e d . What m u s t h a p p e n t o t h e o t h e r c o l o r s o f t h e s p e c t r u m ? They a r e a b s o r b e d . ( S i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s f o r g r e e n and b l u e b o o k s . ) What l i g h t w a v e s a r e r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h i s n o t e p a p e r ? A l l waves c o m p r i s i n g w h i t e l i g h t . What l i g h t waves a r e r e f l e c t e d f r o m t h i s - c a r b o n p a p e r ? N o n e . A l l t h e . l i g h t waves a r e a b s o r b e d , s o t h e o b j e c t a p p e a r s b l a c k . B l a c k i s t h e a b s e n c e o f c o l o r . Yfliy d o e s t h i s w i n d o w g l a s s a p p e a r w h i t e ? . A l l l i g h t w a v e s p a s s t h r o u g h . .Why d o e s t h i s £ 0 . g l a s s a p p e a r r e d ? O n l y t h e r e d waves a r e t r a n s m i t t e d , t h e o t h e r s a r e a b s o r b e d . ( S i m i l a r f o r g r e e n a n d b l u e g l a s s . ) To dye c l o t h , a s u b s t a n c e i s p u t i n t o i t t h a t w i l l a b s o r b a l l t h e c o l o r w a v e s o f w h i t e l i g h t e x c e p t t h o s e t h a t p r o d u c e t h e d e s i r e d c o l o r . .. Have y o u e v e r m a t c h e d p i e c e s o f c l o t h i n t h e a r t i -f i c i a l l i g h t o f a s t o r e a n d t h e n f o u n d t h e m t o b e d i f f e r e n t i n c o l o r i n d a y l i g h t ? What i s t h e c a u s e o f t h i s ? I n a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t t h e waves a r e r e f l e c t e d e q u a l l y , b u t i n d a y l i g h t one r e f l e c t s t h e c o l o r waves i n d i f f e r e n t a m o u n t s , o r a d d i t i o n a l waves a r e r e f l e c t e d by one p i e c e o f m a t e r i a l a n d n o t b y a n o t h e r . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : T h i s p i e c e o f w i r e h a s b e e n h e a t e d f r o m r o o m t e m p e r a -t u r e t o b r i g h t r e d h e a t . Why d o e s t h e w i r e a p p e a r r e d ? E m i s s i o n o f r e d r a y s . We have, s e e n t h i s B u n s e n f l a m e c h a n g e i n c o l o r f r o m y e l l o w t o g r e e n and r e d as we a d d e d s o d i u m , b a r i u m , and s t r o n t i u m s a l t s . E x p l a i n t h e c h a n g e I n c o l o r s i n e a c h c a s e . The c o l o r s o f the l i g h t s d e p e n d u p o n t h e wave l e n g t h o f t h e i i g h t waves t h e y t r a n s m i t . Can y o u make a s t a t e m e n t t h a t w i l l s u m m a r i z e t h e s e f a c t s a b o u t c o l o r ? C o l o r s o f o b j e c t s r e s u l t f r o m t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f some r a y s and t h e r e f l e c t i o n a n d t r a n s m i s s i o n o f o t h e r s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : When we d r i v e i n a n a u t o m o b i l e on a d a r k r o a d , t h e h e a d l i g h t s i l l u m i n a t e t h e r o a d i n f r o n t . How d o e s t h i s l i g h t 2 1 . r e a c h u s ? R e f l e c t i o n . What e f f e c t w o u l d t h e s e same h e a d l i g h t s h a v e on a man f a c i n g them? B l i n d i n g . I f y o u l o o k a t t h e sun oh a b r i g h t day y o u r e a l i z e how u n c o m f o r t a b l e and p a i n f u l d i r e c t b r i g h t l i g h t c a n b e . E x p o s u r e t o t h e d i r e c t l i g h t f r o m a s i n g l e e l e c t r i c l i g h t may p r o d u c e g l a r e , t h u s r e d u c i n g o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o s e e . G l a r e r e s u l t s i n eye s t r a i n and d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n . We may t h i n k o f l i g h t a s h a v i n g two o p p o s i n g q u a l i t i e s . One t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s e e , a n d t h e o t h e r , n a m e l y g l a r e , w h i c h d e f e a t s v i s i o n . I n l i g h t i n g o u r homes i t i s n o t e n o u g h j u s t t o h a v e l i g h t . I t i s c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d l i g h t t h a t we n e e d . The s c i e n c e o f i l l u m i n a t i o n h a s d i s c o v e r e d i n l a r g e m e a s u r e how t o c o n t r o l l i g h t by t h e u s e o f s h a d e s a n d r e f l e c t o r s , t h a t g a t h e r i n t h e l i g h t r a y s , and t h e n r e - d i r e c t them t o t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e y a r e n e e d e d . L i g h t c o n t r o l i s g r e a t l y a i d e d b y a p p l y i n g t h e i m p o r t a n t s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s o f r e f l e c t i o n , d i f f u s i o n , a b s o r p t i o n , a n d r e f r a c t i o n . Good l i g h t i n g p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t h e q u a l i t y a n d q u a n t i t y o f t h e l i g h t , i t s i n t e n s i t y , p o s i t i o n , d i r e c t i o n , and s u i t -a b i l i t y t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r t a s k . Why i s t h e amount o f w i n d o w s p a c e t o f l o o r s p a c e i n a b u i l d i n g a b o u t o n e - f o u r t h ? To r e c e i v e a d e q u a t e d a y l i g h t . How d o e s a room w i t h a s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e g e t much o f i t s l i g h t ? D i r e c t r a y s o f t h e s u n and d i f f u s i o n . A r o o m w i t h a n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e ? B y d i f f u s i o n o n l y . The amount o f l i g h t w h i c h e n t e r s a room i s o n l y one 2 2 . o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e g o o d l i g h t i n g . I f t h e w a l l s and d e c o r a t i o n s o f a r o o m a r e d a r k w i l l t h e room a p p e a r l i g h t ? N o . Why? The d a r k s u b s t a n c e s a b s o r b t h e l i g h t a n d r e f l e c t b u t a s m a l l a m o u n t . I f a room i s to b e made a s l i g h t a s p o - s s i b l e what c h a n g e s w o u l d y o u s u g g e s t ? W h i t e w a l l s and c e i l i n g , l i g h t d r a p e r i e s and f u r n i t u r e . N o t o n l y i s t h e c o l o r i m p o r t a n t . The f i n i s h o f t h e s u r f a c e h a s much to do w i t h t h e amount o f r e f l e c t i o n . A s m o o t h , g l o s s y f i n i s h p r o d u c e s a g l a r i n g e f f e c t , w h i l e a r o u g h o r d u l l s u r f a c e t e n d s t o d i f f u s e t h e l i g h t and p r o d u c e a s o f t e r e f f e c t . H e r e a r e a f e w i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e s . A g o o d w h i t e p a p e r r e f l e c t s a b o u t 80% o f t h e l i g h t , c r e a m p a p e r 5 6 f o , r e d p a p e r 1 2 % a n d d a r k g r e e n 5%. H e a v y c u r t a i n s and s h a d e s may c u t o f f an amount o f l i g h t t o make l i g h t i n g i n a d e q u a t e . L i g h t - c o l o r e d t r a n s l u c e n t s h a d e s a r e b e t t e r t h a n d a r k - c o l o r e d opaque o n e s . P r e s e n t a t i o n : What a r e t h e t h r e e s y s t e m s o f e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g i n common u s e ? D i r e c t l i g h t i n g , i n d i r e c t l i g h t i n g , and s e m i -i n d i r e c t l i g h t i n g . What i s t h e d i r e c t s y s t e m ? L i g h t s a r e so a r r a n g e d t h a t t h e i r r a y s f a l l d i r e c t l y on t h e s u r f a c e s to be l i g h t e d . What i s i t s c h i e f d i s a d v a n t a g e ? I t p r o d u c e s g l a r e i n some s p o t s and d i m n e s s i n o t h e r s . What a d v a n t a g e d o e s i t h a v e ? I t i s more e c o n o m i c a l on e l e c t r i c i t y . How may t h e g l a r e be o f f s e t somewhat i n t h i s s y s t e m ? F r o s t e d l a m p s o r f r o s t e d o r 2 3 . e t c h e d g l a s s b o w l s may be u s e d to d i f f u s e t h e l i g h t . What i s t h e i n d i r e c t s y s t e m ? A n i n v e r t e d opaque r e f l e c t o r i s hung u n d e r t h e l a m p . The l i g h t i s t r a n s m i t t e d o r r e f l e c t e d t o t h e c e i l i n g a n d i s t h e n s p r a y e d o v e r t h e r o o m by" d i f f u s e r e f l e c t i o n . What i s - i t s c h i e f a d v a n t a g e ? I t p r o d u c e s a s u b d u e d l i g h t w i t h o u t g l a r e o r m a r k e d s h a d o w . What i s i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e ? I t i s e x p e n s i v e t o u s e . What i s t h e s e m i - i n d i r e c t s y s t e m ? I t c o m b i n e s t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t l i g h t i n g . A t r a n s -l u c e n t b o w l i s p l a c e d u n d e r t h e l a m p . Some l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e b o w l and s h i n e s downward, w h i l e a l a r g e p a r t i s t h r o w n to t h e c e i l i n g , and d i f f u s e d o v e r t h e r o o m . What a r e i t s c h i e f a d v a n t a g e s ? I t g i v e s a s u b d u e d , r e s t f u l l i g h t and i s n o t e x p e n s i v e . On what b a s i s s h o u l d l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s be c h o s e n . S e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f l i g h t c o n t r o l and a p p e a r a n c e . What t y p e o f l i g h t i n g s h o u l d be u s e d i n t h e l i v i n g room? The l a m p s s h o u l d p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e l i g h t f o r r e s t and r e c r e a t i o n . Common t y p e s a r e c e i l i n g f i x t u r e s , w a l l b r a c k e t s , and p o r t a b l e l a m p s . T h o u g h t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e s h a d e s . T h e y s h o u l d p r e v e n t g l a r e , but n o t o b s t r u c t t h e l i g h t u n d u l y . They s h o u l d be c h o s e n t o b l e n d w i t h t h e c o l o r scheme o f t h e room b o t h d a y and n i g h t . ( D i s c u s s d i n i n g - r o o m , k i t c h e n , e t c . , i n s i m i l a r m a n n e r . ) P r e s e n t a t i o n : I f y o u h a d t o do some p r o l o n g e d r e a d i n g o f f i n e p r i n t 24. on p o o r p a p e r , what k i n d o f l i g h t w o u l d y o u c h o o s e ? A b r i g h t l i g h t w i t h o u t g l a r e . W o u l d y o u r e q u i r e t h e same c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o r e a d l a r g e r p r i n t o n g o o d p a p e r ? She l i g h t n e e d n o t be so b r i g h t . I n g e n e r a l , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e l i g h t d e p e n d s u p o n t h e t y p e , o f work b e i n g d o n e . L i g h t i n g e n g i n e e r s h a v e s t u d i e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g o o d l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s and h a v e d e v e l o p e d v a r i o u s i n s t r u -m e n t s f o r t e s t i n g a d e q u a t e i l l u m i n a t i o n i n s u c h a way t h a t g u e s s w o r k i s e l i m i n a t e d . One o f t h e most commonly e m p l o y e d d e v i c e s i s t h e s i g h t m e t e r o r f o o t - c a n d l e m e t e r . B y e x p o s i n g t h i s i n s t r u m e n t t o t h e l i g h t and r e a d i n g a s c a l e , one c a n t e l l a t a g l a n c e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e l i g h t i n g i s a d e q u a t e . T h i s d e v i c e d e p e n d s u p o n t h e u s e o f a p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l . Y o u w i l l r e c a l l t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n one o f o u r members g a v e on t h i s a s h o r t t i m e a g o . A s we move a p r i n t e d page away f r o m a s o u r c e o f l i g h t , how i s t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n a f f e c t e d ? I t d e c r e a s e s . T h i s d e c r e a s e i n t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e l i g h t a s t h e d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s i s t h e r e a s o n why so s m a l l a c h a n g e i n t h e d i s t a n c e " o f a lamp makes so g r e a t a d i f f e r e n c e to t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h we r e a d t h e p r i n t e d p a g e . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : How c a n t h e p i c t u r e f r o m t h i s f i l m s l i d e p r o j e c t o r be made l a r g e r ? B y i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s c r e e n a n d t h e p r o j e c t o r . H a v i n g done s o , what d i f f e r e n c e do y o u s e e b e t w e e n t h e two p i c t u r e s ? The s e c o n d i s n o t so b r i g h t 2 5 . as t h e f i r s t . . M e a s u r e t h e a r e a o f t h e two p i c t u r e s we h a v e j u s t c o n s i d e r e d . One i s f o u r t i m e s a s l a r g e a s t h e o t h e r . Why i s t h e s e c o n d p i c t u r e n o t so b r i g h t ? The l i g h t f r o m t h e lamp h a s s p r e a d o u t t o c o v e r a l a r g e r a r e a . How c o u l d we make t h i s l a r g e r p r o j e c t i o n b r i g h t e r ? By u s i n g a more p o w e r f u l l i g h t s o u r c e . T h i s lamp u s e d i s one h u n d r e d w a t t s , o r one h u n d r e d c a n d l e p o w e r . What d o e s t h a t mean? I t e m i t s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f one h u n d r e d s t a n d a r d c a n d l e s . On what two f a c t o r s d o e s t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n o f an o b j e c t d e p e n d ? On t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , o r c a n d l e p o w e r , and on t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t . The l i g h t e m i t t e d by o n e c a n d l e on one s q u a r e f o o t o f s u r f a c e a t a d i s t a n c e o f one f o o t i s a f o o t - c a n d l e o f i l l u m i n a t i o n . I f t h e d i s t a n c e i s two f e e t , t h e same r a y s o f l i g h t i l l u m i n a t e a s u r f a c e o f two by t w o , o r f o u r s q u a r e f e e t , so t h a t e a c h s q u a r e f o o t o f s u r f a c e g e t s b u t o n e - f o u r t h o f a f o o t - c a n d l e o f l i g h t . A t a d i s t a n c e o f f o u r f e e t , t h e same r a y s i l l u m i n a t e f o u r b y f o u r o r s i x t e e n s q u a r e f e e t o f s u r f a c e , e a c h s q u a r e f o o t r e c e i v i n g o n e - s i x t e e n t h o f a f o o t - c a n d l e o f i l l u m i n a t i o n . Summary. How h a s " c i v i l i z a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d as man h a s l e a r n e d t o u s e and c o n t r o l t h e e n e r g y o f l i g h t " ? The i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y i n t h e f i e l d o f l i g h t i n g h a s h a d a g r e a t e f f e c t upon o u r l i v e s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g was d i s c u s s e d : t h e u s e a n d c o n t r o l o f n a t u r a l and 2 6 . a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i n t h e home, t h e u s e o f a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t f o r s t r e e t - l i g h t i n g , t r a f f i c c o n t r o l , a u t o m o b i l e l i g h t s , a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s , a i r p o r t b e a c o n s , l i g h t h o u s e s , a n d l i g h t -s h i p s , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f the p h o t o - e l e c t r i c c e l l , t h e a r t o f c o l o r i n c l o t h i n g , home d e c o r a t i n g , p a i n t i n g , a n d t h e v a l u e o f c o l o r t o l i v i n g t h i n g s . M e t h o d o f T r e a t m e n t f o r t h e " P u r e S c i e n c e " G r o u p A s i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p f o l l o w e d a p r o c e d u r e o f s t r e s s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n c e . The s o c i o -l o g i c a l c a p t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e w e r e t o t a l l y -i g n o r e d , and t h e e v e r y d a y a s p e c t was p u r p o s e l y n e g l e c t e d u n l e s s i t f o r c e d i t s way t o t h e f r o n t . R e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s f o r t h i s g r o u p w e r e g i v e n a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , and b i o l o g y r e f e r e n c e b o o k s , s i n c e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e b o o k s f i t t e d more c l o s e l y t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t f o r t h i s c l a s s . I m p o r t a n t p o i n t s w e r e w r i t t e n on t h e b l a c k b o a r d a s t h e l e s s o n s p r o g r e s s e d . A g r e a t e r number o f a r i t h m e t i c a l p r o b l e m s . was p r o v i d e d t o a i d i n t h e d r i v i n g home o f p r i n c i p l e s . P u p i l s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o make t h e i r own n o t e s w h i c h w e r e l a t e r e x a m i n e d b y t h e t e a c h e r . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p e r i o d p u p i l s w e r e o f t e n a s k e d to g i v e a resume o f f o r m e r w o r k o r to d i s c u s s t h e p r e v i o u s d a y ; 8 s a s s i g n m e n t . When a u n i t o f w o r k was c o m p l e t e d t h e p u p i l s s u b m i t t e d a r e v i e w o u t l i n e o f t h e w o r k c o v e r e d . A s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o U n i t I I t h e p u p i l s w e r e i n f o r m e d t h a t we w o u l d s t u d y e n e r g y . We w o u l d d i s c u s s i t s t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n and w o u l d c o n s i d e r s u c h t o p i c s a s m a c h i n e s , h e a t , £7. magnetism, e l e c t r i c i t y , sound, and l i g h t . Our main purpose was to g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e t o p i c s . O u t l i n e o f the Topic " L i g h t " as Taught t o t h e "Pure S c i e n c e " Group Proc edure: • • L e c t u r e w i t h q u e s t i o n s and answers. P r e s e n t a t i o n : L i g h t . L i g h t i s the form o f r a d i a n t energy, w h i c h , by i t s e f f e c t upon t h e ner v e s o f t h e eye, e x c i t e s t h e s e n s a t i o n o f v i s i o n . I n our st u d y o f heat we l e a r n e d t h a t heat energy may he t r a n s m i t t e d by waves i n the e t h e r . Heat and w i r e l e s s waves are l o n g e r than l i g h t waves. The eye i s s e n s i t i v e o n l y t o waves o f c e r t a i n wave l e n g t h s . What i s a' luminous body? I t i s one t h a t e m i t s l i g h t , i . e . i s s e l f - l u m i n o u s , o r i s v i s i b l e on account o f i t s own l i g h t , e.g. sun and s t a r s , h e a t e d p l a t i n u m w i r e . What i s an. i l l u m i n a t e d body? I t i s one t h a t i s v i s i b l e s i n c e i t r e f l e c t s l i g h t w hich i t has r e c e i v e d , e.g. moon and p l a n e t s . What i s a t r a n s p a r e n t body? I t i s one t h a t a l l o w s l i g h t to pass through i t i n such a way t h a t o b j e c t s are d i s t i n c t l y v i s i b l e through i t , e.g. g l a s s , water, mica. What i s a t r a n s l u c e n t body? I t i s one t h a t t r a n s m i t s l i g h t , but a l s o d i f f u s e s ( s c a t t e r s ) the l i g h t so t h a t o b j e c t s cannot be d i s t i n c t l y seen t h r o u g h i t , e.g. o i l e d paper, 2 8 . f r o s t e d g l a s s , g r o u n d g l a s s , t h i n p a p e r . What i s an opaque b o d y ? I t i s one t h a t d o e s n o t a l l o w l i g h t to p a s s t h r o u g h a t a l l , e . g . w o o d , b r i c k s , s t o n e , i r o n . What a r e some i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f l i g h t ? 1 . L i g h t f r o m d i s t u r b a n c e s a t h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e , e . g . s u n , s t a r s , b o d i e s h e a t e d t o i n c a n d e s c e n c e . 2 . L i g h t f r o m f r i c t i o n a n d c h e m i c a l a c t i o n , e . g . c o m b u s t i o n o f o i l , g a s , and o t h e r f u e l s . 3 . L i g h t f r o m p h o s p h o r e s c e n t s u b s t a n c e s , e . g . l u m i n o u s p a i n t . 4 . L i g h t f r o m e l e c t r i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , e . g . a u r o r a . F o r o u r p u r p o s e we may p i c t u r e t h e n a t u r e o f l i g h t : 1 . composed o f w a v e s 2 . t r a v e l s t h r o u g h a v a c u u m 3 . waves a r e e x t r e m e l y s h o r t . 0 0 0 0 5 9 cm. t o . 0 0 0 0 8 1 c m . i n l e n g t h . P r o p a g a t i o n o f L i g h t D e m o n s t r a t i o n : ( t e a c h e r a n d p u p i l s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r ) . P l a c e a s m a l l b u r n i n g c a n d l e o n a t a b l e . T a k e two p i e c e s o f c a r d b o a r d a b o u t a f o o t s q u a r e , w i t h a h o l e n e a r t h e c e n t e r o f e a c h . H o l d t h e c a r d b o a r d s b e t w e e n y o u r eye and t h e f l a m e o f t h e c a n d l e i n s u c h a way t h a t y o u can s e e t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t t h r o u g h t h e h o l e s . Y o u w i l l s e e t h a t t h e h o l e s and t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t a r e i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . Move one o f t h e c a r d b o a r d s s i d e w a y s , t h e n up and down. Y o u c a n no l o n g e r see t h e s o u r c e o f l i g h t . T h i s p r o v e s t h a t l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . .29. From a luminous p o i n t , l i g h t moves outward i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . I f t he medium i s of u n i f o r m d e n s i t y the l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . R e f l e c t e d and D i f f u s e d L i g h t Diagrams w i t h e x p l a n a t i o n s . P u p i l s a s s i s t i n g t o f o r m u l a t e d e f i n i t i o n s : A r a y i s a s i n g l e l i n e o f l i g h t coming from a luminous p o i n t . A beam o f l i g h t i s s e v e r a l p a r a l l e l r a y s . R e f l e c t i o n i s a t u r n i n g o r t h r o w i n g back o f l i g h t rays f r o m a s u r f a c e . The normal means the p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the r e f l e c t i n g s u r f a c e at the p o i n t o f i n c i d e n c e . The a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s the ang l e between the i n c i d e n t r a y and the normal. The a n g l e of r e f l e c t i o n i s the angle between the normal and the r e f l e c t e d r a y . Law o f R e f l e c t i o n Demonstration: Use the H a r t l o p t i c a l d i s k , r e f l e c t o r and lamp t o show r e f l e c t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n f o r m u l a t e d by p u p i l s : The angle o f i n c i d e n c e equals the ang l e o f r e f l e c t i o n . P u p i l experiment: prove the law o f r e f l e c t i o n by the common method u s i n g p i n s , m i r r o r , and p r o t r a c t o r . What i s r e g u l a r r e f l e c t i o n ? Demonstration: A beam o f l i g h t from a p r o j e c t o r f a l l s upon a m i r r o r . I t i s r e f l e c t e d , f o r m i n g a b r i g h t spot on the w a l l , showing t h a t the p a r a l l e l beam was r e f l e c t e d as a p a r a l l e l beam. Diagram to i l l u s t r a t e . 3 0 . D e f i n i t i o n f o r m u l a t e d b y p u p i l s : When l i g h t f a l l s u p o n a h i g h l y p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e , t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e l i g h t w i l l be r e f l e c t e d r e g u l a r l y ; t h a t i s , a p a r a l l e l beam i s r e f l e c t e d as a p a r a l l e l b e a m . What i s i r r e g u l a r r e f l e c t i o n o r d i f f u s i o n ? D e m o n s t r a t i o n : S i m i l a r t o a b o v e , e x c e p t t h a t a p i e c e o f w h i t e p a p e r i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e m i r r o r . No b r i g h t s p o t i s shown, t h e l i g h t b e i n g d i f f u s e d . D i a g r a m t o i l l u s t r a t e . D e f i n i t i o n : When l i g h t f a l l s u p o n an u n p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e , t h e r e f l e c t e d r a y s a r e n o t p a r a l l e l , b u t s c a t t e r e d . How a r e shadows f o r m e d ? D e m o n s t r a t i o n u s i n g c a n d l e s , o b j e c t , a n d c u r t a i n . D i a g r a m s t o i l l u s t r a t e . The f o r m a t i o n o f a shadow d e p e n d s on t h e f a c t t h a t l i g h t t r a v e l s i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s . S i n c e an opaque b o d y a b s o r b s l i g h t , t h e s p a c e b e h i n d t h e o b j e c t i s i n d a r k n e s s a n d i s c a l l e d a shadow'. I f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i s a p o i n t t h e shadow i s s h a r p l y d e f i n e d . No p a r t o f t h e shadow r e c e i v e s l i g h t and i s c a l l e d t h e u m b r a . The p e n u m b r a i s t h a t p o r t i o n o f a shadow w h i c h i s p a r t l y i l l u m i n a t e d . S p e e d o f L i g h t L i g h t t r a v e l s w i t h a s p e e d o f 1 8 6 , 0 0 0 m i l e s p e r s e c o n d . M e t h o d s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s p e e d o f l i g h t : 1 . R o m e r ' s m e t h o d - d i a g r a m and e x p l a n a t i o n . 3 1 . 2 . M i c h e l s o n ' s m e t h o d - d i a g r a m and e x p l a n a t i o n . R e f r a c t i o n P u p i l e x p e r i m e n t : Draw a h e a v y p e n c i l l i n e on a s h e e t o f p a p e r and p l a c e a p i e c e o f p l a t e g l a s s o v e r i t . L o o k d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e l i n e . Move t o t h e r i g h t a n d t h e n t o t h e l e f t and l o o k a t t h e l i n e . What do y o u n o t i c e i n e a c h c a s e ? E x p l a n a t i o n w i t h d i a g r a m : The phenomenon t h a t y o u o b s e r v e d i s c a u s e d when t h e l i g h t c o m i n g f r o m t h e l i n e t o t h e e y e h a s i t s d i r e c t i o n c h a n g e d . D e f i n i t i o n f o r m u l a t e d by p u p i l s : R e f r a c t i o n i s t h e b e n d i n g o f a l i g h t r a y w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e w h e n e v e r l i g h t p a s s e s o b l i q u e l y f r o m one medium t o a n o t h e r o f a d i f f e r e n t o p t i c a l d e n s i t y . •1 What i s t h e s p e c t r u m ? D e m o n s t r a t i o n : Show t h e s p e c t r u m u s i n g t h e o p t i c a l d i s k , p r i s m , and s c r e e n . E x p l a n a t i o n w i t h " ' d i a g r a m : When t h e l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e p r i s m i t i s r e f r a c t e d a t b o t h s u r f a c e s and comes o u t i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h a t a t w h i c h i t e n t e r e d . N o t o n l y i s t h e l i g h t d e v i a t e d , but i t i s s p r e a d o u t o r d i s -p e r s e d i n t o i t s component c o l o r s . V i o l e t d e v i a t e s t h e m o s t and r e d t h e l e a s t . The f a c t t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s a r e r e f r a c t e d u n e q u a l l y e n a b l e s us to see t h e s p e c t r u m . The v i o l e t l i g h t i s r e f r a c t e d more t h a n t h e o t h e r c o l o r s b e c a u s e i t h a s t h e s h o r t e s t wave l e n g t h . The r e d r a y s a r e b e n t t h e l e a s t 3 2 . b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e t h e l o n g e s t , w a v e l e n g t h . C o l o r C o l o r i s a p r o p e r t y o f l i g h t t h a t d e p e n d s on i t s wave l e n g t h . B o d i e s a r e c o l o r e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a b l e t o r e f l e c t o r t r a n s m i t c e r t a i n wave l e n g t h s o f l i g h t . I f a beam o f w h i t e l i g h t f a l l s u p o n a r e d body t h e b o d y r e f l e c t s o n l y t h e r e d wave l e n g t h s and a b s o r b s t h e o t h e r s . I f r e d l i g h t f a l l s u p o n a b l u e o b j e c t t h e o b j e c t r e f l e c t s l i t t l e o r n o n e o f t h e l i g h t and i t a p p e a r s b l a c k . I f g r e e n l i g h t f a l l s , u p o n a g r e e n b o d y , i t r e f l e c t s t h e l i g h t , a p p e a r i n g g r e e n . A n o b j e c t a p p e a r s w h i t e i f i t c a n r e f l e c t a l l t h e c o l o r s t h a t compose w h i t e l i g h t . A b o d y a p p e a r s b l a c k i f i t d o e s n o t r e f l e c t any c o l o r , t h a t i s , a b l a c k b o d y a b s o r b s a l l c o l o r s . E x p e r i m e n t : To d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s we s h a l l p l a c e a w h i t e r i b b o n i n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s Of t h e s p e c t r u m . I t a p p e a r s r e d i n t h e r e d , and b l u e i n t h e b l u e . ' P l a c e , a r e d r i b b o n i n t h e r e d o f t h e s p e c t r u m a n d i t a p p e a r s r e d . P l a c e i t i n t h e b l u e a n d i t a p p e a r s b l a c k . C o l o r o f T r a n s p a r e n t B o d i e s The c o l o r o f a t r a n s p a r e n t s u b s t a n c e d e p e n d s u p o n t h e c o l o r i t t r a n s m i t s . A p i e c e o f r e d g l a s s a p p e a r s r e d s i n c e i t a b s o r b s a l l t h e c o l o r s w h i c h compose w h i t e l i g h t e x c e p t r e d , w h i c h i t a l l o w s t o p a s s t h r o u g h . A p i e c e o f b l u e g l a s s i s b l u e f o r a s i m i l a r r e a s o n . Common w i n d o w g l a s s i s c o l o r l e s s b e c a u s e i t t r a n s m i t s a i l c o l o r s o f w h i t e l i g h t e q u a l l y w e l l . E x p e r i m e n t : P u p i l s g i v e n p i e c e s o f g l a s s o f d i f f e r e n t 33'. c o l o r s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n p u r p o s e s . E x p l a n a t i o n s c a l l e d f o r . P h o t o m e t r y ' The I n t e n s i t y o f I l l u m i n a t i o n T h i s i s m e a s u r e d by the q u a n t i t y o f l i g h t "that f a l l s -on a u n i t a r e a o f s u r f a c e . T h i s d e p e n d s on 1. t h e i n t e n s i t y o f the s o u r c e o f t h e l i g h t 2. w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s o u r c e The i n t e n s i t y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n i s m e a s u r e d i n f o o t - c a n d l e s . A f o o t - c a n d l e i s t h e q u a n t i t y o f l i g h t r e c e i v e d one f o o t d i s t a n t f r o m a l i g h t - s o u r c e o f o n e c a n d l e p o w e r . The b r i g h t n e s s o f a l i g h t s o u r c e i s m e a s u r e d i n c a n d l e p o w e r . One c a n d l e p o w e r i s t h e r a t e - a t w h i c h one s t a n d a r d c a n d l e e m i t s l i g h t . Law o f I n v e r s e S q u a r e s ; P h o t o m e t r y i s t h e p r o c e s s o f m e a s u r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t i e s o f l i g h t . The i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a r e c a l l e d p h o t o m e t e r s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : U s e a R u m f o r d p h o t o m e t e r . The i n t e n s i t y o f i l l u m i n a t i o n v a r i e s i n v e r s e l y a s t h e s q u a r e o f t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s o u r c e . P u p i l e x p e r i m e n t : U s e B u n s e n g r e a s e s p o t p h o t o m e t e r . T y p e s o f L i g h t D i r e c t I n d i r e c t S e m i - i n d i r e c t 3 4 . C h a p t e r I I I . F A C I L I T I E S AND EQUIPMENT T h e s c i e n c e e q u i p m e n t o f t h e s c h o o l i n w h i c h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e w e l l e q u i p p e d l a b o r a t o r i e s , one f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s c i e n c e s : c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , and b i o l o g y . T h e s e a r e c o n v e n i e n t l y s i t u a t e d on one f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g . A l l n e c e s s a r y a p p a r a t u s f o r t e a c h i n g h i g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e , i n a d d i t i o n to many c h a r t s and l a r g e p r i n t e d d i a g r a m s o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f c o m m e r c i a l raw m a t e r i a l s and p r o d u c t s , r o c k s and m i n e r a l s , b i r d s , f o s s i l s , i n s e c t s , and m i c r o s c o p i c s t u d i e s . F o u r d i f f e r e n t a q u a r i a a r e k e p t . The c l a s s e s ' m e t t h e f i r s t a n d f o u r t h p e r i o d s e v e r y m o r n i n g o f t h e s c h o o l w e e k . The c h e m i s t r y and p h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r i e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r f o u r o u t o f t h e s e f i v e w e e k l y f o r t y m i n u t e p e r i o d s . The b i o l o g y l a b o r a t o r y was a v a i l a b l e by a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e b i o l o g y t e a c h e r as t h e n e e d a r o s e . F o r t y c o p i e s o f e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t e x t b o o k s recommended by t h e Programme o f S t u d i e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e i r p u r c h a s e i n N o v e m b e r : C a l d w e l l , 0 . W . , and C u r t i s , F . D . , S c i e n c e f o r Today , ( G i n n ,1936). B l a c k , N . H . , and G o h a n t , J . B . , New: P r a c t i c a l C h e m i s t r y , : ( M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 6 ) . B a k e r , A . 0 . , and M i l l s , L . H..., Dynamic B i o l o g y , ( R a n d , M c N a l l y and C o . , 1 9 3 3 . ) 3 5 . M i l l i k a n , , R. A . , G a l e , H . G . > and G o y l e , J . P . , New E l e m e n t a r y P h y s i c s , ( G i n n , 1 9 3 6 ) . (These b o o k s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r c l a s s r o o m o r l a b o r a t o r y u s e w h e n e v e r r e q u i r e d . S t u d e n t s w e r e a l l o w e d t o b o r r o w t h e m f o r o v e r n i g h t o r w e e k - e n d u s e . F i v e c o p i e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g were o b t a i n a b l e i n t h e l i b r a r y : W a l k e r , J . P . , E l e m e n t a r y G e o l o g y A p p l i e d t o P r o s p e c t i n g , Z i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B . G . , 1 9 3 6 ) . A b u n d a n t g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e b o o k s s u c h a s e n c y c l o p e d i a s and t e x t b o o k s on s c i e n c e w e r e a v a i l a b l e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y f e w s c i e n c e b o o k s o f a g e n e r a l o r p o p u l a r n a t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n to t h e a i d s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e s c h o o l i s e q u i p p e d w i t h a m o t i o n p i c t u r e m a c h i n e , a d a p t e d f o r s i l e n t o r s o u n d f i l m s a s w e l l as a f i l m s l i d e p r o j e c t o r . T h e s e c o u l d be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , l a b o r a t o r y o r a u d i -t o r i u m . A number o f f i l m s and f i l m s l i d e s recommended f o r t h e c o u r s e , a s w e l l as s e v e r a l o t h e r s t h a t were l o a n e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d , w e r e shown. I n t h e c a s e o f f i l m s l i d e s p u p i l s w e r e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a s t h e s l i d e s w e r e shown, w h i l e i n t h e c a s e o f t h e m o v i n g p i c t u r e f i l m s q u e s t i o n s were g i v e n a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p i c t u r e . Where p o s s i b l e , t h e q u e s t i o n s w e r e s e l e c t e d t o s u i t t h e p r o b l e m o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . B o t h g r o u p s w e r e shown t h e same f i l m s . 56. Chapter IV. . > THE TESTING PROGRAMME O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e Achievement Tests Used I n o r d e r to compare t h e work of t h e two groups o b j e c t i v e l y , achievement t e s t s were d e v i s e d by t h e w r i t e r . No s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s on g e n e r a l s c i e n c e were s u i t a b l e f o r t h e new course. At the c o n c l u s i o n o f U n i t s I I , I I I , IV, and V, two achievement t e s t s were g i v e n : one o f the o b j e c t i v e type and one o f the s u b j e c t i v e t y p e . The former was used, l a r g e l y to measure the p u p i l s ' knowledge of f a c t s , l a w s, p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s , hypo-theses , and the meaning of s i g n i f i c a n t words, w h i l e the l a t t e r was used l a r g e l y t o t e s t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the meaning, use.and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the knowledge. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e above t e s t s , two o t h e r s were g i v e n c l o s e to t h e end of the s c h o o l s e s s i o n i n June. One o f these was a t e s t d e s i g n e d to measure the achievement of t h e groups i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s as a p p l i e d to n o v e l s c i e n t i f i c d e v i c e s , as w e l l as to t h e i r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the s o c i a l u t i l i t y o f the d e v i c e . These d e v i c e s had not been d i s c u s s e d o r a l l u d e d to i n any way, and so f a r a s t h e w r i t e r was aware, were g a t h e r e d from s o u r c e s u n a v a i l a b l e to t h e p u p i l s . The second of these t e s t s was a d e l a y e d r e c a l l one, based on the f i r s t two u n i t s . I t s purpose was to determine how much o f the e a r l i e r work of t h e c o u r s e had been r e t a i n e d . No warning-whatever was g i v e n the p u p i l s b e f o r e these two t e s t s , but t h e y were in f o r m e d t h a t the r e s u l t s would n o t , i n any way, be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r term's work. 3 7 . The t e s t s w e r e o f s u c h l e n g t h t h a t t h e y c o u l d b e a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r w i t h i n t h e f o r t y m i n u t e c l a s s p e r i o d . In t h e c a s e o f the two l o n g e s t u n i t s , one and t w o , a l o n g e r o b j e c t i v e t e s t was g i v e n , r e q u i r i n g t h e u s e o f two p e r i o d s . M i m e o g r a p h e d c o p i e s o f t h e t e s t s were u s e d f o r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . S c o r i n g t h e T e s t s A l l t e s t s w e r e s c o r e d by t h e t e a c h e r on a p o i n t b a s i s . I n s c o r i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e t e s t s , one p o i n t was a l l o w e d f o r e a c h a n s w e r , t h e t o t a l number o f p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p u p i l ' s s c o r e . I n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d f o r s c o r i n g t h e t e s t s . A s o h e d u l e o f p o i n t s was a s s i g n e d t o e a c h q u e s t i o n i n p r o p o r t i o n t o i t s r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . The same q u e s t i o n on e v e r y p a p e r was r a t e d b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n . E o i n t s w e r e a s s i g n e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e l a t i v e q u a l i t y o f • t h e p u p i l ' s a n s w e r . The q u a l i t y o f t h e w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n was n o t r a t e d . The sum o f t h e s c o r e s on e a c h q u e s t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p u p i l ' s s c o r e . I n the few c a s e s where p u p i l s w e r e a b s e n t f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e and so were u n a b l e to t a k e t h e t e s t , t h e i r s c o r e was e s t i m a t e d f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s by t h e u s u a l f o r m u l a . The s c o r e s w e r e t a b u l a t e d and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s w e r e a p p l i e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t See a p p e n d i x , p . 8 7 . 58, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d . These r e s u l t s are t a b u l a t e d on pages 39, 40 and 41. Samples o f a l l the t e s t s u s e d f o r comparative purposes are i n c l u d e d i n t h e appendix to t h i s r e p o r t . Note: The w r i t e r has on f i l e a l l d a t a used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Any person i n t e r e s t e d may have a c c e s s t o t h e d a t a upon r e q u e s t . 3 9 . S a b l e I V . S c o r e s o f t h e O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and D e l a y e d R e c a l l T e s t f o r t h e " S o c i a l " G r o u p . P u p i l U n i t U n i t U n i t U n i t "S .D. . . " . D. R.. I I I I I TV V T e s t _ I & I I . 0 . S . 0 . S . 0 . S . 0 . s . 100 60 50 60 50 40 80 40 . 50 R. A . 64 42 29 33 29 28 50 35 28 33 D. A . 61 32 24 29 30 25 55 32 27 35 D. A . 61 22 32 35 37 28 52 35 29 27 H . B . 89 46 38 50 44 38 60 39 40 48 R. B . 72 47 39 47 38 35 62 41 4 1 38 P . •B. 85 43 41 49 46 34 70 48 36 54 M. G . 37 16 22 17 19 15 36 22 10 19 R. G. 38 15 18 25 21 19 32 22 15 28 s . P . 47 17 12 25 25 19 34 28 17 22 N . P . 47 21 26 23 25 23 4 3 27 27 26 P . P . 57 25 27 25 30 26 46 36 ' . 32 24 R. H» 57 29 30 31 31 28 45 32 28 34 D. JC.. 78 39 37 38 42 33 69 46 42 38 D. L . 45 18 17 21 26 15 31 22 16 32 D. L . - 76~ 41 40 44 40 32 63 36 41 37 H. M. 43 32 25 2^4 20 22 46 32 20 29 J . M . 65 34 38 38 4 3 31 63 33 39 35 G . M. 54 34 24 31 25 21 49 20 24 27 G . M. 56 29 28 35 29 28 40 32 30 35 M. M. 55 28 25 34 24 24 50 33 28 24 P . M. 44 11 14 23 16 20 31 17 13 14 S . Km 67 32 31 37 31 23 51 31 29 27 H. Km 56 28 26 23 26 22 4 3 28 22 36 W. 0 . 76 36 37 38 38 29 67 42 31 33 L . p . 48 14 24 25 26 18 47 30 19 30 P . R • 47 21 19 30 12 12 18 26 26 24 J . S . 53 24 31 34 34 27 58 '33 15 51 A . s . 49 25 26 23 29 20 50 26 24 19 R. u . 76 39 38 50 37 30 67 44 44 41 J . w. 59 21 27 34 28 25 54 30 29 17 B o y s = 20 G i r l s = 10 T o t a l .=. 3 0 . T a b l e V . S c o r e s o f t h e O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and D e l a y e d R e c a l l T e s t f o r t h e " P u r e S c i e n c e " G r o u p . P u p i l U n i t U n i t U n i t U n i t J'S..D. " D . R . I I I I I I Y Y T e s t I & I I s . a . . s . o . s . o . s , 100 60 50 60 50 40 80 40 50 &• B . •  52 23 21 35 29 23 39 18 19 16 M. B« 71 32 37 40 37 28 62 40 40 38 P . G . 71 4 1 36 39 40 33 66 4 3 42 45 J. 0 • 36 22 24 37 31 19 48 33 11 25 R. c. 85 32 44 41 48 30 63 38 42 51 E . E . 79 40 4 3 40 40 30 64 40 36 4 3 E. P. . 49 24 31 33 35 29 57 32 24 30 L . P . 49 14 23 15 25 19 35 27 13 17 E . P . 60 26 27 21 35 24 49 31 26 36 D. G • 44 18 30 30 19 16 38 ' 24 21 28 T . 6 . 62 39 : 32 34 33 26 50 32 32 31 P.. H . 75 32 34 4 1 31 30 60 4 1 20 24 R. H . 80 ; 51 38 46 36 46 70 4 5 36 53 R o J. 84 39 46 42 • 4 1 34 59 40 34 38 M. J « 71 4 1 32 46 33 28 59 35 35 38 •M. E . 54 25 33 38 32 23 56 37 . 21 31 E. 70 33 36 46 39 31 59 42 26 38 D. L. 4 3 24 24 22 27 12 49 26 18 25 K. L. 62 27 26 28 51 28 4 5 31 22 25 "©.-.- M. 64 35 40 41 32 33 56 32 29 39 G <B M. 74 49 42 52 35 32 57 38 28 38 G. 0 . 37 16 20 24 19 15 45 29 22 16 0 . P . 49 19 28 17 18 27 45 33 21 21 D. P . 4 3 14 20 14 25 14 41 20 13 24 P . P . 63 44 30 40 35 26 54 40 28 39 W. P . 52 30 • 27 40 33 25 54 29 23 27 T . R. 4 3 16 21 26 18 17 28 18 26 16 B . W. 61 52 25 40 29 31 48 29 40 28 D. W. 56 19 28 30 32 27 48 36 26 35 R. W. 70 36 30 23 28 27 50 36 37 25 l o y s ^~T8 ~~ : G i r l s = 12 T o t a l = 3 0 . 4 1 . T a b l e V I . M e a n s , M e d i a n s , and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and D e l a y e d R e c a l l T©st f o r t h e " S o c i a l " G r o u p and t h e " P u r e S c i e n c e ' : ' G r o u p . " S o c i a l " G r o u p " P u r e S c i e n c e " G r o u p T e s t M. Mdn, dr M. Mdn U n i t I I O b j . 5 8 . 7 56 1 3 . 7 6 0 . 3 61 1 3 . 9 U n i t I I S u b j . £ 8 . 6 28 9 . 9 2 9 . 4 30 1 0 . 0 " U n i t I I I O b j . £ 8 . 6 27 7 . 9 3 0 . 9 30 7 . 5 U n i t I I I S u b j . 32 t 32 9 . 2 34 37 1 0 . 0 U n i t I Y O b j . 30 29 8 . 4 31* 15 32 7 . 2 U n i t IV S u b j . 25 25 6 . 3 26 27 6 . 1 U n i t V O b j . 4 9 . 4 50 1 2 . 9 5 1 . 8 50 9*3 ffnit V S u b j . 32«2 32 7 . 4 3 3 . 1 33 7 . 1 S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s 27 . 5 28 9 . 5 2 6 . 8 26 8 . 7 D e l a y e d R e c a l l 5 0 . 9 51 9 . 0 31 30 9 . 9 T a b l e V I I . C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n and P r o b a b l e E r r o r s o f t h e O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e T e s t s , " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t , and D e l a y e d R e c a l l T e s t f o r t h e " S o c i a l ' 7 G r o u p a n d t h e " P u r e S c i e n c e " G r o u p " S o c i a l " " P u r e S c i e n c e " . G r o u p , G r o u p u n i t I I . o b j . and s u b j . t e s t s . 8 5 . 0 3 . 8 4 ± . 0 3 r u n i t I I I o b j . and s u b j . t e s t s .79 ± . 0 5 . 6 8 ± . 0 7 r u n i t IV o b j . and s u b j . t e s t s . 9 0 . 0 2 . 6 5 ± . 07 £ u n i t V o b j . and s u b j . t e s t s . 8 5 + . 0 5 .87 . 0 3 " u n i t s I I and I I I o b j . t e s t s . 8 8 ± . 0 3 . 8 3 + . 0 4 r u n i t s I I and I V o b j . t e s t s . 8 7 . 0 3 . 7 7 ± . 0 5 r u n i t s I I I and IV o b j , t e s t s . 8 8 ± . 0 3 . 7 6 . 0 5 r u n i t s IV and V o b j . t e s t s Runits I I and I I I s u b j . t e s t s - u n i t s I I and IV s u b j . t e s t s .87 ± . 0 3 . 8 1 ± . 0 4 . 8 0 ± . 0 4 .77 ± , 0 5 . 8 1 ± . 0 4 .77 ± . 0 5 r u n i t s I I I and IV s u b j . t e s t s . 8 3 ± . 0 4 . 6 5 ± . 0 7 [ u n i t s I V and V s u b j . t e s t s L " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " and . 8 3 ± . 0 4 . 7 4 ± .0.5 . D e l a y e d R e c a l l . 6 0 ± . 0 8 . 6 9 ± . 0 7 runit I I o b j . and D e l a y e d R e c a l l • 7 § . 0 5 . 7 5 ± . 0 5 4 2 . C h a p t e r Y . P U P I L INTEREST I n o r d e r t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t e s t i n g p r o g r a m , an e a r n e s t a t t e m p t was made t o o b s e r v e and r e c o r d t h e i n t e r e s t shown b y t h e p u p i l s o f e a c h g r o u p , A s a means f o r c o m p a r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t m a n i f e s t e d b y e a c h g r o u p , s e v e r a l d e v i c e s were u s e d . I n t h e s e , as i n a l l o t h e r work , r i v a l r y b e t w e e n t h e two c l a s s e s was a v o i d e d . Gare was t a k e n i n a l l o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t shown b y t h e p u p i l s s h o u l d be g e n u i n e . O u t s i d e R e a d i n g by p u p i l s F o r one o f t h e s e t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l l i b r a r i a n was e n l i s t e d to o b t a i n a c h e c k o f t h e r e a d i n g done by t h e two g r o u p s . F o r t h i s s c h e m e , w h i c h was i n o p e r a t i o n f r o m December u n t i l J u n e , a number o f s c i e n c e b o o k s o f t h e more p o p u l a r t y p e , s u c h a s " G r e a t Men o f S c i e n c e " by G r o v e W i l s o n , "Romance o f E l e c t r i c i t y " by W i l f r e d L . R a n d a l l , and " T h e S t o r y o f G e o l o g y " by A l l a n L . B e n s o n , a s w e l l a s a number o f c u r r e n t s c i e n c e m a g a z i n e s s u c h as " S c i e n c e D i g e s t " , " S o i e n c e News L e t t e r " , and " P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y " , s u p p l i e d by t h e w r i t e r , were p l a c e d on a s p e c i a l s h e l f n e a r t h e l i b r a r i a n ' s d e s k . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e was a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o members o f t h e two g r o u p s . E a c h g r o u p was i n f o r m e d o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t . The p u p i l s were t o l d t h a t t h e r e a d i n g t h e y d i d was p u r e l y v o l u n t a r y , and t h a t no a t t e m p t w o u l d b e made t o 43. c o n s i d e r t h i s i n r e l a t i o n to s c h o o l g r a d e s . The books and magazines were a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the s t u d e n t s * weekly l i b r a r y p e r i o d , d u r i n g the noon hour, o r a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s . Books c o u l d be borrowed f o r a week, but the p e r i o d i c a l s were not to be ta k e n from the l i b r a r y . In accordance w i t h the l i b r a r y r e g u l a t i o n s the p u p i l s s i g n e d l i b r a r y cards each time they borrowed a book o r magazine. From these c a r d s a check was made o f the r e a d i n g done. This, check r e v e a l e d t h a t the members o f the " s o c i a l " group had made a t o t a l o f two hundred and twenty-two c a l l s f o r magazines, and e i g h t y - f o u r c a l l s f o r books, w h i l e the "pure s c i e n c e " group had made a t o t a l o f one hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e c a l l s f o r magazines, and f i f t y - t h r e e c a l l s f o r books. An a n a l y s i s o f the l i b r a r y c a r d s showed t h a t almost a l l the members o f t h e " s o c i a l " group made use of some o f t h i s e x t r a m a t e r i a l , w h i l e j u s t a few members o f the "pure s c i e n c e " group d i d a l l the o u t s i d e r e a d i n g . Check on L i b r a r y Books A f t e r the l i b r a r y c l o s e d f o r t h e y e a r , a check was made o f a l l the books o f a s c i e n t i f i c n a t u r e on the l i b r a r y s h e l v e s t h a t had n o t been used as r e f e r e n c e o r source books. T h i s d i d not i n c l u d e the s p e c i a l group o f books p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. From the l i b r a r y c a r d s i n t h e books an examination was made o f the t o t a l number o f t h e s e books t h a t had been taken out f o r r e a d i n g by the members o f these two groups. The " s o c i a l " group had a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - n i n e , and the "pure 44. s c i e n c e " a t o t a l o f t w e n t y - f o u r . T h i s s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i s i n f a v o r o f t h e " s o c i a l " , g r o u p , h u t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . S o r a p b o o k s To o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e o f i n t e r e s t two s c r a p -b o o k s , one f o r e a c h c l a s s , w e r e made v o l u n t a r i l y o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m s b y t h e p u p i l s . They c o n t a i n e d a m i s c e l l a n e o u s c o l l e c t i o n o f s c i e n c e news i t e m s , c o l l e c t e d m a i n l y f r o m n e w s -p a p e r s , w i t h a few f r o m m a g a z i n e s . C l i p p i n g s c o n t r i b u t e d by a p u p i l b o r e h i s name o r i n i t i a l s . I n t h e c a s e o f more t h a n one p u p i l b r i n g i n g i n t h e same c l i p p i n g , t h e i n i t i a l s o r names o f a l l were i n c l u d e d o n t h e one i t e m p l a c e d i n t h e b o o k . News i t e m s r e l a t i n g to c l a s s w o r k were s o m e t i m e s b r o u g h t to c l a s s f o r d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e b e i n g e n t e r e d i n t h e s c r a p b o o k . A v e r y l i m i t e d t i m e was g i v e n t o t h i s , h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e c o u r s e p r o v e d t o be q u i t e l e n g t h y and t i m e was at a p r e m i u m . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h e t e r m t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p h a d c o m p i l e d one h u n d r e d f i v e s e p a r a t e i t e m s , t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p s i x t y -s i x . The f o r m e r g r o u p showed t h a t n o t o n l y were t h e r e a g r e a t e r number o f p u p i l s c o n t r i b u t i n g , b u t t h a t t h e r e was a more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d t h a n w i t h t h e l a t t e r . P o s t e r s I t was s u g g e s t e d t o t h e p u p i l s t h a t t h e y b r i n g p h o t o -g r a p h s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s f r o m n e w s p a p e r s o r m a g a z i n e s , t h a t 4 5 . w e r e r e l a t e d t o s c i e n t i f i c t o p i c s , and p o s t them on t h e h o a r d p r o v i d e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The number o f p i c t u r e s c o l l e c t e d was s m a l l , t h e r e b e i n g t w e n t y - t w o f r o m t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p , and t w e l v e f r o m t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p o s t e r c o n t r i but i o n s t h i s was a d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r o f t h e f o r m e r g r o u p . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were g i v e n t o e a c h g r o u p , one a t t h e c l o s e o f U n i t I I and t h e o t h e r a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e t e r m . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e p u p i l s were a s k e d n o t t o s i g n t h e i r n a m e s . T h i s i n s t r u c t i o n was g i v e n i n o r d e r t h a t t h e p u p i l s w o u l d be u n d e r min imum r e s t r a i n t i n g i v i n g r e p l i e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was d e s i g n e d to f i n d o u t t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n U n i t I I a s w e l l as t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o i t . A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e p l i e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s e s t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n . With, t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p t w e n t y - f i v e f o u n d u n i t I I an i n t e r e s t i n g o n e , and f i v e d i d n o t . I n t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p n i n e t e e n r e p l i e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e and e l e v e n i n t h e n e g a t i v e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was shown i n r e p l i e s t o t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s t o e l i c i t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n u n i t s , t o p i c s , b o o k s , and m a g a -z i n e s , a s w e l l a s q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o d i s c l o s e t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n h i g h s c h o o l s c i e n c e . W i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was shown b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s e x c e p t i n the . c a s e 46. o f t h e s i x t h q u e s t i o n : " I f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e f o r y o u t o " d r o p " s c i e n c e w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s w o u l d y o u w i s h t o do s o ? " T h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p g a v e s i x r e s p o n s e s t o " y e s " and t w e n t y - t w o t o " n o " . The " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p e l e v e n r e s p o n s e s t o " y e s " and e i g h t e e n t o " n o " . D i a r y A r u n n i n g d i a r y o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s , t o p i c s , i n t e r e s t t o w a r d e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k c o n d u c t e d i n t h e s c h o o l and a t home, o r o t h e r e v i d e n c e s o f i n t e r e s t by e a c h g r o u p was k e p t by t h e w r i t e r . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was a p p a r e n t f r o m a s t u d y o f t h e d i a r y . A s a m p l e c o p y o f e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . 4 7 . C h a p t e r V I . ANALYSIS OS1 THE S T A T I S T I C A L RESULTS 0E THE EXPERIMENT A s a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e two g r o u p s o f p u p i l s w e r e c l o s e l y m a t c h e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l a n d s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t and c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d c o m p a r a b l e g r o u p s . E x a m i n i n g , f i r s t o f a l l , the s c o r e s on t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s g i v e n , t h e means and m e d i a n s f o r t h e " s c i e n c e " g r o u p a r e , i n e v e r y t e s t b u t o n e , s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e f o r t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p ; b u t f o r any s i n g l e t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . The s p r e a d o f t h e s c o r e s , a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , i s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e same f o r b o t h g r o u p s i n n e a r l y e v e r y t e s t . C o m p a r i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s u b j e c t i v e a n d t h e o b j e c t i v e t e s t s f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r u n i t s i n t h e c u r r i c -u l u m , we f i n d , f i r s t , f o r t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p t h a t t h e c o r r e -l a t i o n s v a r y f r o m . 9 0 t o . 7 9 and f o r t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p f r o m .87 t o . 6 5 . T h e r e i s t h u s much l e s s v a r i a t i o n w i t h t h e " s o o i a l " g r o u p . S e c o n d l y , we f i n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r f o r t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p t h a n f o r t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p ; and f o r many o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s t h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . How c a n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s be i n t e r -p r e t e d ? I t means t h a t , when two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t e s t s a r e u s e d f o r t h e same u n i t , t h e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s on t h e two t y p e s i s g r e a t e r f o r t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p , i . e . t h e 48. t y p e o f t e s t u s e d l ias l e s s e f f e c t on t h e s c o r e s o f t h e " s o c i a l g r o u p t h a n o f t h e " p u r e s c i e n c e " g r o u p . F r o m t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s , t h e n , we must c o n c l u d e t h a t i n s o f a r a s o u r t e s t s m e a s u r e a c h i e v e -m e n t , t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c h i e v e -ment o f t h e two g r o u p s o f p u p i l s o t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p i s somewhat more c o n s i s t e n t , i n t h a t a v a r i a t i o n i n t h e t y p e o f t e s t u s e d h a s l e s s e f f e c t on t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e p u p i l s i n t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p . 4 9 . C h a p t e r V I I . SUMMARY The e x p e r i m e n t was d e v i s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f two m e t h o d s o f t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , a s a p p l i e d to t h e new c o u r s e G e n e r a l S c i e n c e IV as p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n f o r m u l a t i n g the t e s t s m e a s u r e s w e r e s o u g h t o f t h e p u p i l s ' k n o w l e d g e o f f a c t s , l a w s , p r i n c i p l e s , h y p o t h e s e s , t h e o r i e s , and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d u s e o f t h i s k n o w l e d g e . F r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s i t w o u l d seem t o make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r t h e t e a c h i n g be f r o m t h e s o c i a l i z e d p o i n t o f v i e w o r f r o m t h e p u r e s c i e n c e p o i n t o f v i e w . P e r h a p s t h e t e s t s w e r e i n a d e q u a t e a s m e a s u r e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t , o r , p e r h a p s , t h e y f a v o r e d one p o i n t o f v i e w r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r . T h e r e may h a v e b e e n r e s u l t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t i n s c i e n c e n o t m e a s u r e d by t h e t e s t s . I n o r d e r t o h a v e some c h e c k on t h e l a t t e r p o i n t an a t t e m p t was made to f i n d w h e t h e r t h e " s o c i a l i z e d " t e a c h i n g d e v e l o p e d a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t I n s c i e n c e i n g e n e r a l . The e v i d e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r i l y f r a g m e n t a r y , b u t i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h o u g h t h e k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s i s a b o u t t h e same f o r b o t h g r o u p s , t h e " s o c i a l " g r o u p as a w h o l e seemed more i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e g e n e r a l l y . 5 0 . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a i r d , H . , " T e a c h i n g t h e P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s f r o m a F u n c t i o n a l P o i n t o f V i e w . " E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , v o l . x v i , p p . 4 0 7 - 4 1 2 , May 1 9 3 7 . : : B a t eman, G . M . , " T r e n d s i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , " J o u r n a l o f C h e m i c a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . i i , p p . 5 4 0 - 5 4 2 , O c t o b e r 1 9 3 4 . B u s h , G . L . , P t a c e k , T . W . , K o v a t s , J . , S e n i o r S c i e n c e . S o c i a l i z e d f o r t h e H i g h S c h o o l , A m e r i c a n B o o k Oo . 1 9 3 7 . C a l d w e l l , 0. W., " T h e N e x t Ten Y e a r s i n S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , " S c i e n c e E d u o a t i o n , v o l . 2 1 , p p . 6 1 - 6 4 , A p r i l 1 9 3 7 . C o m m i s s i o n o n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m . S c i e n c e i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n . A R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e on S c i e n c e i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n . D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y Go . 1 9 3 8 . C u r t i s , F . D . , D i g e s t o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f S c i e n c e . B l a k i s t o n , 1 9 2 6 . C u r t i s , F . P . , S e c o n d D i g e s t o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f S c i e n c e , B l a k i s t o n , 1 9 5 1 . D o w n i n g , E . R . , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e T e a c h i n g o f S c i e n c e . The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 . D r a p e r , E . M . , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s o f C u r r i c u l u m M a k i n g . D. A p p l e t o n-Cen t u r y G o . , 1936 . E c k e l s , G . F „ , S h a v e r , G. B . , H o w a r d , B . W. , O u r P h y s i c a l W o r l d . An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e P h y s i c a l S c i e n c e s . Ben j . H.. S a n b o r n and O o . , 1 9 3 8 . E f r o n , A . , The T e a c h i n g . o f P h y s i c a l .Sc iences. , i n t h e S e c o n d a r y  S c h o o l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F r a n c e , and S o v i e t  R u s s i a . B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 7 . E u r i c h , A . 0 . , " R e s e a r c h t h a t I m p r o v e s I n s t r u c t i o n , " The H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , v o l . v i i . p p . 1 7 8 - 1 8 3 , M a r c h 1937^ " ~ F i t z p a t r i c k , F . L . , S c i e n c e I n t e r e s t s . B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 6 . 5 1 . Hawkes , H . E . , L i n d q u i s t , E . E . , Mann , 0. R . , T h e C o n s t r u c t i o n , . and U s e o f A c h i e v e m e n t E x a m i n a t i o n s , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 3 6 . H o l l e y , G. E . , H i g h S c h o o l T e a c h e r s ' M e t h o d s , The G a r r a r d P r e s s , C h a m p a i g n , I l l i n o i s , 1 9 3 7 . H u n t e r , G . W . , S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g a t J u n i o r a n d ^ S e n i o r H i g h  S c h o o l L e v e l s , A m e r i c a n B o o k G o . , 1 9 3 4 . H u x l e y , J , , S c i e n c e and S o c i a l N e e d s , H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 9 3 5 . K n u d s e n , 0. W . , " T h e S c i e n c e T e a c h e r and C u r r i c u l u m T r e n d s , " P e a h o d y J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 14 , pp. 3 1 0 - 3 1 8 , May 1 9 3 7 . ~ : ~~ L a u w e r y s , J . A . , ( c o n v e n o r ) , S c i e n c e M a s t e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , I n t e r i m R e p o r t o f t h e S u b - C o m m i t t e e A p p o i n t e d i n 1 9 3 5 , The T e a c h i n g o f G e n e r a l S c i e n c e , J o h n M u r r a y , L o n d o n , 1 9 3 6 . L e e , J . M . , A G u i d e to M e a s u r e m e n t i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . , D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C o . , 1 9 3 6 . P o w e r s , S . R . , ( c h a i r m a n ) , A P r o g r a m f o r T e a c h i n g S c i e n c e , T h i r t y - f i r s t Y e a r B o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r  t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n , P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g C o . , B l o o m i n g t o n , 1 9 3 2 . P o w e r s , S . R . , " I n f l u e n c e s o f S c i e n c e on Human A c t i v i t i e s w i t h I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n " , E d u c a t i o n a l M e t h o d , v o l , x v i , p p . 3 9 5 - 4 0 1 , M a y . l 9 3 T ^ P r e s t o n , 0. E . , The H i g h S c h o o l S c i e n c e T e a c h e r and H i s Work , McGraw H i l l Book G o . , 1 9 3 6 . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , The C u r r i c u l u m , - " S c i e n c e " , v o l . v i i , p p . 1 6 2 - 1 6 5 , A p r i l 1 9 3 7 . R u g g , H . , A P r i m e r o f G r a p h i c s and S t a t i s t i c s f o r T e a c h e r s , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n G o . , 1 9 2 5 . ~ ~ S h e l t o n , H . S . , " N e w T y p e o f S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , " C o n t e m p o r a r y R e v i e w , November 1 9 3 6 . Symonds , P. M . , M e a s u r e m e n t i n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , The M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 2 7 . T h a y e r , V . T . , ( c h a i r m a n ) , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t o f t h e S c i e n c e  C o m m i t t e e t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n on S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l  C u r r i c u l u m o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n ' A s s o c i a t i o n , m i m e o g r a p h e d r e p o r t , 1 9 3 6 . 5 2 . T w i s s , G . R . , A T e x t b o o k i n t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , The M a c r n i l l a n O o . , 1 9 2 3 . ' U. S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 2 , n o . 1 7 , M o n o g r a p h n o . 2 2 , ( I n s t r u c t i o n i n S c i e n c e ) , W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 3 3 . W a t k i n s , R. X., e t . a l . , "The Need f o r a T w e l v e - Y e a r S c i e n c e P r o g r a m f o r A m e r i c a n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , " S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 2 2 , n o . 2, p p , 5 1 - 7 3 , F e b r u a r y 1 9 3 8 . W e s t a w a y , P . W . , S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , B l a c k i e and S o n , L o n d o n , 1 9 2 9 . W r i g h t s t o n e , J . W . , A p p r a i s a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l H i g h S c h o o l P r a c t i c e s B u r e a u o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1936 . 5 3 . APPENDIX. GENERAL S C I E N C E ( G r a d e IX) .ID' F 1 . T F 2 . T F 3 . T P 4 . a? F 5 . T P 6« T P V e T F 8 . T P 9 . T P 1 0 . T P 1 1 . a? P 1 2 . a? P X3« T P 1 4 . T P 1 5 . T P 1 6 . T P 1 7 . T P 1 8 . T P 1 9 . Q? P 2 0 . T F 2 1 . T F 2 2 . T P 2 3 . T P 2 4 . T F 2 5 . a? P 2 6 . T P 2 7 . T P 2 8 , T P 2 9 . E n c i r c l e t h e T b e f o r e a l l t r u e s t a t e m e n t s and t h e P b e f o r e a l l f a l s e s t a t e m e n t s . The e x a m p l e h a s b e e n m a r k e d c o r r e c t l y . Do n o t g u e s s . R i g h t - Wrong = S c o r e , S t e a m i s a g a s . Warm a i r i s l i g h t e r t h a n c o l d a i r . I c e i s h e a v i e r t h a n w a t e r . W a t e r e x e r t s an u p w a r d p r e s s u r e . W i n d s b l o w t o w a r d a " l o w " c e n t e r . A s i p h o n i s a d e v i c e f o r pumping w a t e r . A h u r r i c a n e i s a s t o r m o r i g i n a t i n g a t s e a . The d e n s i t y o f a b o d y i s t h e same a s i t s s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y . The e a r t h i s the g r e a t s t o r e h o u s e o f e n e r g y . B a c t e r i a a r e a l w a y s p r e s e n t i n t h e a i r . H y d r o g e n i s s o l u b l e i n w a t e r . Oxygen i s t e s t e d w i t h a b u r n i n g s p l i n t . H y d r o g e n b u m s w i t h a y e l l o w f l a m e . H y d r o g e n i s more p l e n t i f u l t h a n h e l i u m . A l i t e r i s u s e d t o m e a s u r e l i q u i d s . The d e n s i t y o f w a t e r i s 1 3 .6 g rams p e r c . c . The den s i t y o f w a t e r c h a n g e s when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s c h a n g e d . One d e g r e e on t h e F a h r e n h e i t s c a l e i s e q u a l t o n i n e -f i f t h s o f a d e g r e e on t h e C e n t r i g r a d e s c a l e . The p r o c e s s o f o s m o s i s e n a b l e s a p l a n t to a s s i m i l a t e i t s f o o d . A l l v i b r a t i n g b o d i e s p r o d u c e a u d i b l e s o u n d s . H o u s e s a r e h e a t e d m a i n l y b y c o n d u c t i o n . A t h e r m o m e t e r m e a s u r e s t h e amount o f h e a t i n a b o d y . B u r n i n g i n c r e a s e s t h e amount o f o x y g e n i n t h e a i r . C i r c u l a t i o n o f a i r i n a r o o m i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g o o d v e n t i l a t i o n . C a r b o n d i o x i d e i s m o r e f a t a l t h a n c a r b o n m o n o x i d e . A. g e n e r a t o r t u r n s b e c a u s e o f t h e c u r r e n t o f e l e c -t r i c i t y t h r o u g h i t s a r m a t u r e . A n e l e c t r i c f u s e i s b a s e d u p o n t h e m a g n e t i c e f f e c t o f an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t . E l e o t r i o power i s m e a s u r e d i n "Watts. When a l i q u i d w e t s t h e s u r f a c e o f a t u b e p l a c e d i n i t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e l i q u i d w i l l be c o n c a v e , and t h e l i q u i d w i l l r i s e i n t h e t u b e . Oxygen i s an e l e m e n t . 5 4 , I J 3 0 . M a c h i n e s a r e u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y do more w o r k t h a n i s p u t i n t o t h e m . T F 3 1 . ' O o p p e r i s commonly u s e d t o i n s u l a t e e l e c t r i c i t y . T F 3 2 . A m o v i n g o b j e c t h a s h a d w o r k done on i t . T F 3 3 . S c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t e n e r g y i s n o t d e s t r o y e d . T F 3 4 . L u b r i c a t i n g o i l h e l p s a m a c h i n e to work by c a u s i n g f r i c t i o n . T F 3 5 . P o t e n t i a l e n e r g y i s t h e c a p a c i t y f o r work w h i c h a b o d y h a s due t o i t s p o s i t i o n . • T F 3 6 . A f l y w h e e l i n m o t i o n i s an e x a m p l e o f K i n e t i c E n e r g y . T P 3 7 . A s t r e e t c a r u s e s s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y f o r m o t i v e p o w e r . T F 3 8 . H e a t c a u s e s t h e v i b r a t i o n o f m o l e c u l e s . T F 3 9 . A d r y c e l l c h a n g e s c h e m i c a l e n e r g y i n t o e l e c t r i c a l . e n e r g y . T F 4 0 . T e m p o r a r y m a g n e t s a r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n an e l e c t r i c m o t o r . T F 4 1 . M a t t e r c a n b e c r e a t e d and d e s t r o y e d . T F 4 2 . The d i v i s i o n s o f a b a r o m e t e r a r e i n d e g r e e s . T F 4 3 . I f w a t e r i s c o o l e d f r o m 6 0 ° E t o 4 0 ° E i t becomes h e a v i e r p e r c u b i c f o o t . T F 4 4 . The m e r c u r y s t a y s u p i n a m e r c u r y b a r o m e t e r b e c a u s e t h e v a c u u m a b o v e h o l d s i t t h e r e . T F 4 5 . R a i n w a t e r i s h e a l t h y t o d r i n k . T F 4 6 . I n t h e D o l d r u m s t h e a i r i s c o n s t a n t l y r i s i n g u p w a r d s . T F 4 7 . L i g h t t r a v e l s a t 1 8 6 , 0 0 0 m i l e s p e r h o u r . T F 4 8 . P a r a l l a x e r r o r c a n be a v o i d e d by u s i n g a c c u r a t e i n s t r u m e n t s . T F 4 9 . The w o r l d 1 s g r e a t e s t d e s e r t s a r e f o u n d i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e D o l d r u m s . T F 5 0 . The N o r t h M a g n e t i c P o l e i s s i t u a t e d i n a N o r t h E a s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n f r o m V a n c o u v e r . 5 5 . GENERAL SOIENGE I n e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s y o u a r e t o f i n d t h e r i g h t a n s w e r , .draw a l i n e u n d e r i t and t h e n p u t t h e number t h a t i s ' ^ f r o n t o f i t i n t h e p a r e n t h e s i s a t t h e end o f t h e l i n e . 1 . The u s u a l m e t h o d o f p r e p a r i n g o x y g e n i s t o decompose by h e a t some ( l ) e l e m e n t ; ( 2 ) s o l u t i o n ; ( 3 ) s o l u t e ; ( 4 ) compound; ( 5 ) o r e ( ) 2 . The man who d i s c o v e r e d o x y g e n was ( l ) L a v o i s i e r ; ( 2 ) D a l t o n ; ( 3 ) P r i e s t l y ; ( 4 ) E n s t e i n ; ( 5 ) B o y l e ( ) 3. H y d r o g e n may be s e t f r e e f r o m w a t e r b y ( 1 ) s y n t h e s i s ; ( 2 ) c o m b u s t i o n ; ( 3 ) e l e c t r o l y s i s ; ( 4 ) c o m b i n a t i o n ; ( 5 ) d i s t i l l a t i o n ( ) 4 . W a t e r c o n t a i n s a p e r c e n t a g e o f h y d r o g e n b y w e i g h t w h i c h i s a s f o l l o w s : ? 1 ) 10%; ( 2 ) 22.2%; ( 3 ) 88.88%; ( 4 ) 11.11%; ( 5 ) 5.2% ( ) 5 . The l i f t i n g power o f h e l i u m i s ( l ) t w i c e ; ( 2 ) 50 p e r -c e n t ; ( 3 ) 1 . 2 9 ; ( 4 ) 96%; ( 5 ) 80% a s much as h y d r o g e n ( ) 6 . A l i t e r o f o x y g e n c o n t a i n s ( 1 ) 500 c . c ; ( 2 ) 1000 c . c ; ( 3 ) 100 c c ; ( 4 ) 876 c . c . ; ( 5 ) 10 c . c ( ) 7 . B a l l o o n s f i l l e d w i t h h y d r o g e n a r e d a n g e r o u s b e c a u s e o f ( 1 ) o c c l u s i o n ; ( 2 ) c o m b u s t i o n : ( 3 ) o s m o s i s ; ( 4 ) a c t i v i t y ; ( 5 ) e l e c t r o l y s i s ( ) 8 . H y d r o g e n i s c o l l e c t e d by d i s p l a c e m e n t o f ( 1 ) m e r c u r y ; ( 2 ) a l c o h o l ; ( 3 ) w a t e r ; ( 4 ) a i r ; ( 5 ) o x y g e n ( ) 9 . One p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y o f h y d r o g e n i s t h a t i t i s ( 1 ) h e a v i e r t h a n a i r ; ( 2 ) e a s i l y l i q u e f i e d ; ( 3 ) s o l u b l e i n w a t e r ; ( 4 ) h e a v i e r t h a n o x y g e n ; . ( 5 ) l i g h t e r t h a n a i r . ( ) 1 0 . One c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r o f w a t e r a t 4 G w e i g h s ( l ) 1 g r a m ; ( 2 ) 1 k i l o g r a m ; ( 3 ) one o u n c e ; ( 4 ) 100 m i l l i g r a m s ; ( 5 ) 4 g r a m s . ( ) 1 1 . W a t e r h a s ^ i t s g r e a t e s t d e n s i t y a t ( l ) 0 0 ; ( 2 ) 4 C; ( 3 ) 1 0 0 ° G ; ( I ) l f l C j ( 5 ) 10*6 ( ) 1 2 . One c u b i c f o o t o f w a t e r w e i g h s ( 1 ) 1 k g ; ( 2 ) 20 l b s ; ( 3 ) 100 l b s ; ( 4 ) 7 5 . 5 l b s ; ( 5 ) 6 2 . 4 l b s . ( ) 1 3 . A common s o l v e n t i s ( 1 ) i r o n ; ( 2 ) w a t e r ; ( 3 ) m e r c u r y ; ( 4 ) l e a d ; ( 5 ) s a l t ( ) 1 4 . M a t t e r i n s u s p e n s i o n i n w a t e r i s r e m o v e d by ( 1 ) b o i l i n g ; ( 2 ) a e r a t i o n ; ( 3 ) f i l t r a t i o n ; ( 4 ) d i s i n f e c t a n t s ; ( 5 ) c o n d e n s a t i o n ( ) 1 5 . N i t r o g e n compounds a r e n e e d e d by a n i m a l s t o f o r m ( 1 ) f a t s ; ( 2 ) c a r b o h y d r a t e s ; ( 3 ) p r o t e i n s ; ( 4 ) s a l t s ; {5) a c i d s ( ) 1 6 . C l e a r c o o l w e a t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e b a r o m e t e r i s ( 1 ) a b o u t t o move h i g h e r ; ( 2 ) a b o u t t o move l o w e r ; ( 3 ) i s t o r e m a i n s t a t i o n a r y ; ( 4 ) t o c h a n g e s u d d e n l y ; ( 5 ) t o c h a n g e s l o w l y . ( ) 1 7 . A c l o s e d c o m p a r t m e n t i n w h i c h men c a n w o r k u n d e r w a t e r i s ( 1 ) a c o m p r e s s o r ( 2 ) a c a i s s o n ; ( 3 ) a s a f e ; ( 4 ) c y c l e ; ( 5 ) a pump ( ) 5 6 . C M E R A L S C I E N C E 1 8 . A g r e e n l e a f i s a f a c t o r y f i t t e d t o m a n u f a c t u r e s t a r c h by ( 1 ) o s m o s i s ; ( 2 ) t r a n s i r a t i o n ; ( 3 ) p h o t o s y n t h e s i s ; ( 4 ) l i q u e f a c t i o n ; ( 5 ) s o l u t i o n ( ) 1 9 . A h y d r o m e t e r m e a s u r e s ( l ) a i r p r e s s u r e ; ( 2 ) s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y ; ( 3 ) t e m p e r a t u r e ; ( 4 ) d i s t a n c e ; ( 5 ) v o l u m e ( ) 2 0 . A d e v i c e f o r d e t e c t i n g an e l e c t r i c c h a r g e i s ( l ) a g a l v a n o m e t e r ; ( 2 ) a c o n d e n s e r ; ( 3 ) a m a g n e t ; ( 4 ) a t h e r m o m e t e r ; ( 5 ) an e l e c t r o s c o p e ( ) 2 1 . L i g h t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g r e e n p l a n t l i f e t o ( 1 ) p r o d u c e c a r b o h y d r a t e s ; ( 2 ) g i v e t h e m c o l o r ; ( 3 ) h e l p p o l l e n i z a t i o n ; ( 4 ) k e e p t h e m warm; ( 5 ) a b s o r b -m o i s t u r e ( ) 2 2 . A f o r c e pump pumps w a t e r more s t e a d i l y t h a n a l i f t pump b e c a u s e ( 1 ) t h e h a n d l e i s l o n g e r ; ( 2 ) o f an a i r c h a m b e r ; ( 3 ) t h e p i s t o n I s s h o r t e r ; ( 4 ) t h e v a l v e s o p e n more r e a d i l y ; ( 5 ) t h e c y l i n d e r i s l a r g e r ( ) 2 3 . C h a n g i n g w a t e r i n t o w a t e r v a p o r i s ( 1 ) c o n d e n s a t i o n ; ( 2 ) e v a p o r a t i o n ; ( 3 ) t r a n s p i r a t i o n ; ( 4 ) r e s p i r a t i o n ; ( 5 ) f i l t r a t i o n .. ( ) 2 4 . The b e s t m e t h o d o f p u r i f y i n g w a t e r i s ( 1 ) b o i l i n g ; ( 2 ) f i l t e r i n g ; ( 3 ) t r e a t i n g w i t h o x y g e n ; ( 4 ) e l e c -t r o l y s i s ; ( 5 j d i s t i l l a t i o n ( ) 2 5 . W a t e r r i s e s u p t h r o u g h t h e s o i l b y ( 1 ) c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n ; ( 2 ) o s m o s i s ; ( 3 ) d i f f u s i o n ; ( 4 ) c o n v e c t i o n ; ( 5 ) r a d i a t i o n ( ) 2 6 . S o u n d t r a v e l s a t t h e r a t e o f ( 1 ) 1 8 6 , 0 0 0 f e e t p e r s e c . ; ( 2 ) 1100 f t . p e r s e c o n d ; ( 3 ) 150 f t . p e r s e c ; ( 4 ) 5000 f t . p e r s e c ; ( 5 ) 5280 f t . p e r s e c . ( ) 2 7 . A s u b s t a n c e t h a t c o u l d be u s e d f o r ' i n s u l a t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y i s ( l ) t i n ; ( 2 ) s i l v e r ; ( 3 ) r u b b e r ; ( 4 ) i r o n ; ( 5 ) m e r c u r y ( ) 2 8 . Two s e c o n d s a f t e r t h e s t e a m i s s e e n f r o m a s t e a m e r w h i s t l e t h e s o u n d i s h e a r d a d i s t a n c e away o f ( 1 ) 1 1 , 5 6 0 f t . ; ( 2 ) 1760 y d s ; ( 3 ) 1 k i l o m e t e r ; ( 4 ) 2200 f t ; ( 5 ) 6600 f t . ( ) 2 9 . ' When b r a k e s a r e a p p l i e d t o a m o v i n g m a c h i n e t h e e n e r g y i s c h a n g e d i n t o ( l ) c h e m i c a l e n e r g y ; ( 2 ) h e a t e n e r g y ; ( 3 ) e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y ; ( 4 ) l i g h t e n e r g y ; ( 5 ) m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y ( ) 3 0 . The number o f v i b r a t i o n s p e r s e c o n d o f t h e n o t e 0 i s ( 1 ) 2 5 6 ; ( 2 ) 5 1 2 ; ( 3 ) 3 8 4 ; ( 4 ) 1 0 0 ; ( 5 ) 1 2 0 0 . ( ) •57. GENERAL S C I E N C E I Y U n i t I • , O b j e c t i v e T e s t C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by f i l l i n g i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s a t t h e r i g h t w i t h a w o r d o r p h r a s e . 1. M a t e r i a l s a r e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e i r 2-. The c h a n g e t h a t t a k e s p l a c e when m i l k s o u r s i s c l a s s i f i e d as 5 . The i n a b i l i t y t o d e c o m p o s e m a g n e s i u m p r o v e s i t t o be 4 . How many atoms a r e t h e r e i n 2 ( N H 4 ) g S 0 4 ? 5.. Compounds a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by 6 . JPerrum i s t h e L a t i n w o r d f o r 7 . The s p o n t a n e o u s i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f g a s e s i s c a l l e d 8 . S t a n d a r d t e m p e r a t u r e f o r m e a s u r i n g g a s e s i s 9 . The s m a l l e s t p a r t i c l e o f w a t e r p o s s i b l e i s 1 0 . The e l e c t r o n t h e o r y a s s u m e s t h a t a t o m s a r e composed o f b o t h 1 1 . A c h a n g e i n w h i c h t h e i d e n t i t y o f a s u b s t a n c e i s n o t l o s t i s known as 1 2 . E l e m e n t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by 1 3 . When h e a t e d , g a s e s 1 4 . D i f f u s i o n and B r o w n i a n e f f e c t s a r e e v i d e n c e s t h a t p a r t i c l e s o f a g a s a r e 1 5 . The c o m b i n i n g power o f an atom i s c a l l e d 1 6 . The f r a c t i o n o f t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e c o v e r e d by wat e r i s 1 7 . The h e m i s p h e r e where m o s t o f t h e e a r t h ' s w a t e r i s f o u n d i s 1 8 . The s p e e d o f m o l e c u l e s i s a f f e c t e d b y 1 9 . B u r n i n g s t a r t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f h e a t due to s l o w o x i d a t i o n i s known as 58. U n i t I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 2 0 . A s u b s t a n c e composed o f two o r m o r e e l e m e n t s c o m b i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o a f i x e d r a t i o b y w e i g h t i s 2 1 . S t a t e d i n c e n t i m e t e r s o f m e r c u r y , s t a n d a r d p r e s s u r e i s 22-. What l a w s t a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e w e i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n a c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n and the w e i g h t o f t h e p r o d u c t f o r m e d ? 2 3 . The d e c a y o f wood i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s o f 2 4 . The g a s u s e d t o f i l l t h e g l a s s t u b e s w h i c h make t h e r e d l e t t e r s i n a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s i s 2 5 . I f a compound o o n t a i n s o n l y two e l e m e n t s t h e name o f t h e compound e n d s i n 2 6 . The A t o m i c T h e o r y was f o r m u l a t e d by 2 7 . The c h e m i c a l e q u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c a r b o n a n d o x y g e n i s 2 8 . The a t o m i c w e i g h t o f o x y g e n i s 2 9 - 3 4 . The s i x i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s c o m p o s i n g t h e l i v i n g m a t t e r o f a c e l l a r e ( 2 9 ) ( 3 0 ) ( 3 1 ) ( 3 2 ) ( 3 3 ) ( 3 4 ) 3 5 - 3 7 . W r i t e names f o r (35) Ag NO ( 3 6 ) Mg G i g ( 3 7 ) Cu 0 5 9 . U n i t I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 3 8 - 4 0 . W r i t e f o r m u l a e f o r ( 3 8 ) s o d i u m h y d r o x i d e (39) ammonium s u l p h a t e ( 4 0 ) i r o n c a r b o n a t e I n e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s y o u a r e to f i n d t h e r i g h t a n s w e r , d r a w a l i n e u n d e r i t , a n d t h e n put t h e number o f i t i n p a r e n t h e s i s a t t h e e n d o f t h e l i n e . 1 . The component o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e e s s e n t i a l t o l i f e i s : ( 1 ) o x y g e n ; ( 2 ) n i t r o g e n ; ( 3 ) c a r b o n d i o x i d e ; ( 4 ) a r g o n ; ( 5 ) h y d r o g e n ( ) 2 . The d e p t h o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e a r t h i s a t l e a s t ( 1 ) 10 m i l e s ; ( 2 ) 1 m i l e ; (3) 50 m i l e s ; ( 4 ) 200 m i l e s ; ( 5 ) 1000 m i l e s , ( ) 3 . A s one a s c e n d s a h i g h m o u n t a i n ( 1 ) a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i n c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) t h e o x y g e n c o n t e n t o f t h e a i r i n c r e a s e s ; ( 3 ) t h e r e i s no c h a n g e i n p r e s s u r e ; ( 4 ) t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e d e c r e a s e s ; ( 5 ) t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e s ( ) 4 . The g a s i n t h e a i r t h a t s u p p o r t s c o m b u s t i o n i s : ( 1 ) c a r b o n d i o x i d e ; ( 2 ) n i t r o g e n ; ( 3 ) o x y g e n ; ( 4 ) h y d r o g e n ; ( 5 ) h e l i u m ( ) 5 . A s u b s t a n c e u s e d t o t e s t f o r c a r b o n d i o x i d e i s ( 1 ) a b u r n i n g s p l i n t ; ( 2 ) l i m e w a t e r ; ( 3 ) s i l v e r n i t r a t e ; ( 4 ) w a t e r ; ( 5 ) l i t m u s p a p e r ( ) 6 . The a t m o s p h e r e i s : ( 1 ) a compound; ( 2 ) a m i x t u r e ; ( 3 ) an e l e m e n t ; ( 4 ) w i t h o u t w e i g h t ; ( 5 ) d i a t o m i c ( ) 7 . A n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g compound o f a m e t a l i s c a l l e d : ( 1 ) a s i l i c a t e ; ( 2 ) g r a n i t e ; ( 3 ) an o r e ; ( 5 ) n o n -m e t a l ; ( 5 ) a s i m p l e s u b s t a n c e ( ) 8 . The p e r c e n t a g e o f o x y g e n i n t h e e n t i r e w e i g h t o f t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t i s : ( 1 ) 1 0 ; ( 2 ) 3 0 ; ( 3 ) 50 ; ( 4 ) 4 0 ; ( 5 ) 75 ( ) 9 . The p e r c e n t a g e o f o x y g e n i n t h e a i r by v o l u m e i s ( 1 ) 5; ( 2 ) 1 0 : (3") 2 0 ; ( 4 ) 5 0 ; ( 5 ) 80 ( ) 1 0 . A l l l i v i n g t h i n g s a r e s p o k e n o f a s : ( 1 ) p l a n t s ; ( 2 ) a n i m a l s ; ( 3 ) o r g a n i s m s ; ( 4 ) i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r ; ( 5 ) o r g a n i c m a t t e r ( ) 1 1 . A i r p r e s s u r e t o t h e s q u a r e i n c h a t s e a l e v e l i s : ( 1 ) 32 l b s . ; ( 2 ) 1 5 . 6 l b s . ; ( 3 ) 80 l b s . ; (4) 15 l b s . ; ( 5 ) 6 2 . 5 l b s . ( ) 1 2 . A v e r a g e a i r p r e s s u r e at s e a l e v e l i s s u f f i c i e n t t o . . s u p p o r t a c o l u m n o f m e r c u r y t o a h e i g h t o f ( 1 ) 15 i n . ( 2 ) 32 i n . ( 3 ) 34 i n . ( 4 ) 30 i n . ( 5 ) 100 i n . ( ) 1 3 . C o p p e r , i r o n , s u l p h u r , and n i t r o g e n a r e a l l ( l ) m i n e r a l s ; ( 2 ) compounds ; ( 3 ) g a s e s ; ( 4 ) m e t a l s ; ( 5) e l e m e n t s 6 0 . U n i t I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 1 4 . A n y t h i n g f r o m w h i c h e n e r g y may be r e l e a s e d o r t h a t f o r m s m a t e r i a l f o r g r o w t h o r r e p a i r o f t h e b o d y i s ( 1 ) o x y g e n ; ( 2 ) n u c l e u s ; ( 3 ) f o o d ; ( 4 ) t i s s u e ; ( 5 ) a s t i m u l a n t ( 1 5 . A c o l l e c t i o n o f c e l l s more o r l e s s a l i k e h a v i n g t h e same f u n c t i o n i s known a s ( l ) an o r g a n ; ( 2 ) a s y s t e m ; ( 3 ) an amoeba; ( 4 ) a v a c u o l e ; ( 5 ) c e l l w a l l ( 16'. The p r o c e s s o f a c e l l g e t t i n g r i d . o f w a s t e m a t e r i a l i s c a l l e d ( 1 ) r e s p i r a t i o n ; ( 2 ) a s s i m i l a t i o n ; ( 3 ) d i g e s t i o n ; ( 4 ) e x c r e t i o n ; ( 5 ) s e c r e t i o n ( 17 . . A n e x a m p l e o f a. s i n g l e c e l l e d p l a n t i s ( 1 ) a c l o v e r ; ( 2 ) a b a c t e r i u m ; ( 3 ) a w a t e r c r e s s ; ( 4 ) a p o p p y ; ( 5 ) a p a r a m o e c i u m ( 1 8 . A . n e c e s s a r y p r o c e s s i n a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s i s ( 1 ) c o n d e n s a t i o n ; ( 2 ) r e p r o d u c t i o n ; ( 3 ) p e r s p i r -a t i o n ; ( 4 ) b a t h i n g ; ( 5 ) e l e c t r o l y s i s ( 1 9 . H e a t i n t h e b o d y i s p r o d u c e d by o x i d a t i o n o f t h e ( 1 ) t i s s u e s ; ( 2 ) c e l l membrane; ( 3 ) o r g a n s ; ( 4 ) f o o d ; ( 5 ) v a c u o l e s ( 2 0 . Where g r e e n . p l a n t s a r e g r o w i n g ( l ) t h e amount o f o x y g e n i n t h e a i r i n c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n i n t h e a i r d e c r e a s e s ; ( 3 ) t h e amount o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e i n c r e a s e s ; ( 4 ) t h e r e i s no c h a n g e ; ( 5 ) t h e n i t r o g e n i n t h e a i r i n c r e a s e s ( 2 1 . T h e . g a s g i v e n o f f by g e r m i n a t i n g b e a n s e e d s i s ( 1 ) o x y g e n ; ( 2 ) c a r b o n d i o x i d e ; (3) n i t r o g e n ; (.4) ammonia; ( 5 ) h y d r o g e n ( 2 2 . A m a t u r e c e l l may ( l ) d i v i d e i n t o two c e i l s ; ( 2 ) become a t i s s u e ; ( 3 ) become a n o r g a n ; ( 4 ) d i s a p p e a r ; ( 5 ) d i v i d e i n t o s i x c e l l s ( 2 3 . The power t o r e s p o n d t o s t i m u l i I s known a s ( 1 ) m o t i o n ; ( 2 ) g r o w t h ; ( 3 ) a s s i m i l a t i o n ( 4 ) i r r i t a b i l i t y ( 5 ) c i r c u l a t i o n ( 2 4 . The l i v i n g p a r t o f a c e l l i s t h e ( 1 ) b l o o d ( 2 ) c e l l membrane; ( 3 ) l y m p h ; ( 4 ) p r o t o p l a s m ; ( 5 ) h e a r t ( 2 5 . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h f o o d i s c h a n g e d i n t o t h e p r o p e r l i q u i d f o r m i s ( l ) a b s o r p t i o n ; ( 2 ) f i l t r a t i o n ; ( 3 ) t r a n s p i r a t i o n ; ( 4 ) e v a p o r a t i o n ; ( 5 ) d i g e s t i o n ( 2 6 . When o x y g e n u n i t e s r a p i d l y w i t h o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s t h e p r o c e s s i s c a l l e d ( 1 ) c o m b u s t i o n ; ( 2 ) e v a p o r a -t i o n ; ( 3 ) c o n d e n s a t i o n ; ( 4 ) v e n t i l a t i o n ; ( 5 ) t r a n s p i r a t i o n ( 2 7 . A t h e r m o m e t e r m e a s u r e s ( l ) a i r p r e s s u r e ; ( 2 ) h u m i d i t y ; ( 3 ) d e n s i t y ; ( 4 ) t e m p e r a t u r e ; ( 5 ) s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y ( 2 8 . The d e n s e r c e n t r a l p o r t i o n t h a t g o v e r n s t h e a c t i o n s o f a c e l l i s ( l ) c e l l membrane; ( 2 ) c y t o p l a s m ; ( 3 ) n u c l e u s ; ( 4 ) p r o t e i n ; ( 5 ) v i t a m i n ( 2 9 . B a c t e r i a a r e (.1) i n s e c t s : ( 2 ) worms; ( 3 ) f l i e s ; ( 4 ) m o t h s ; ( 5 ) p l a n t s - ( 6 1 . U n i t I, O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 3 0 . T h e • s m a l l e s t p a r t i c l e o f a n e l e m e n t w h i c h c a n t a k e p a r t i n a r e a c t i o n i s ( 1 ) a m o l e c u l e ; ( 2 ) an e l e c t r o n ; ( 3 ) a p r o t o n ; ( 4 ) an a t o m ; ( 5 ) a n e u t r o n ( ) 3 1 . The p r e s s u r e on 400 c . c . o f g a s was d o u b l e d , t h e v o l u m e a t t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e b e c o m i n g ( 1 ) 800 c . c ; ( 2 ) 200 c . c : ( 3 ) 50 c . c ; ( 4 ) 100 c . c ; . ( 5 ) 600 c . c . ( 3 2 . When a g a s i s c o m p r e s s e d , p r o v i d e d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s c o n s t a n t , t h e p a r t i c l e s ( 1 ) become s m a l l e r ; ( 2 ) come c l o s e r ; ( 3 ) l o s e t h e i r e n e r g y ; ( 4 ) g a i n e n e r g y ; ( 5 ) d e c r e a s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e ( ) 3 3 . M o l e c u l e s o f g a s e s d i f f e r f r o m m o l e c u l e s o f l i q u i d s i n t h a t t h e f o r m e r a r e ( 1 ) c l o s e r t o g e t h e r ( 2 ) f a r t h e r a p a r t ; ( 3 ) a r e r e s t r i c t e d i n m o t i o n ; ( 4 ) a r e a l w a y s c o l o r e d ; ( 5 ) a r e h e a v i e r . 3 4 . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h i n a n i m a t e m a t t e r i s c h a n g e d u n t i l i t b e c o m e s p a r t o f a l i v i n g c e l l i s ( 1 ) a s s i m i l a t i o n ; ( 2 ) a b s o r p t i o n ; ( 3 ) d i g e s t i o n : ( 4 ) o s m o s i s ; ( 5 ) f i l t r a t i o n ( ) 3 5 . The r a t i o b e t w e e n t h e h e i g h t o f a c o l u m n o f m e r c u r y a n d t h e h e i g h t o f a c o l u m n o f w a t e r , where b o t h a r e b e i n g s u p p o r t e d b y a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y ( 1 ) 1 to 3 4 ; ( 2 ) 1 t o 1 4 . 7 ; ( 3 ) 1 t o 62:15; (4) 1 t o . 3 0 ; ( 5 ) 1 t o 1 3 . 6 ( ) 3 6 . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s e s p r o d u c e s h e a t i n a way f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s ? ( 1 ) r e s p i r a t i o n ; (2) b u r n i n g ; ( 3 ) r u s t i n g o f i r o n ; ( 4 ) d e c a y ; ( 5 ) f r i c t i o n ( ) 3 7 . A n e x a m p l e o f a c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t i s ( 1 ) s u g a r ; ( 2 ) w a t e r ; ( 3 ) b r a s s ; ( 4 ) b r o n z e ; ( 5 ) . n i t r o g e n ( } 3 8 . C o m b u s t i o n i s t h e same as ( 1 ) b u r n i n g ; ( 2 ) m e l t i n g ; ( 3 ) f r e e z i n g ; ( 4 ) b o i l i n g ; ( 5 ) e v a p o r a t i n g ( ) 3 9 . The number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s u b s t a n c e s o u t o f w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s made i s a b o u t ( 1 ) o n e ; ( 2 ) e i g h t y - t h r e e ; ( 3 ) 5 0 0 ; ( 4 ) t h r e e ; ( 5 ) n i n e t y - t w o ( ) 4 0 . T h e u s e o f t h e same f o o d e l e m e n t s o v e r and o v e r by l i v i n g t h i n g s i s known as ( l ) t h e e n e r g y c y c l e ; ( 2 ) t h e m a t t e r c y c l e ; ( 3 ) g r o w t h ; ( 4 ) d e c a y ; ( 5 ) d i g e s t i o n < ( ) 6 2 , GENERAL SCIENCE IY. . . U n i t I . S u b j e c t i v e Test 1 . How would you de c i d e i f a g i v e n substance were a l i v i n g o r a n o n - l i v i n g t h i n g ? 2. Why i s a c e l l c a l l e d the u n i t o f both s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n ? 3 . Vfiry does the carbon d i o x i d e o f the a i r c o l l e c t n e a r the f l o o r of a room? 4. I n the n B r o w n i a n Movement", do we a c t u a l l y see the m o l e c u l e s move? I f NOT what i s i t t h a t moves and why? 5. E x p l a i n why water and carbon d i o x i d e do not burn, 6. I s the f a c t t h a t a ca n d l e d i s a p p e a r s on b u r n i n g a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the law o f C o n s e r v a t i o n oi' M a t t e r ? E x p l a i n , 7. I f the temperature o f a g i v e n mass o f gas v a r i e s what w i l l have to be done to keep the volume c o n s t a n t ? E x p l a i n , 8. Why a r e o i l y r a gs more l i k e l y to s t a r t a f i r e than o i l s p i l l e d on the f l o o r ? 9. I s a t h e o r y an e x p r e s s i o n o f t r u t h ? I f not, what i s the d i s t i n c t i o n ? 1 0 . Water i s found on the o u t s i d e of a v e s s e l c o n t a i n i n g water. How would you f i n d i f water soaks through the w a l l s o f the v e s s e l o r comes from some o t h e r source? 1 1 . Devise an .experiment t o i l l u s t r a t e how you c o u l d measure y o u r l u n g p r e s s u r e . (Note: time w i l l p e r m i t a b r i e f i n d i c a t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y s t e p s ) . 1 2 . A cup taken f r o m v e r y h o t water i s i n v e r t e d and p l a c e d on a smooth s u r f a c e . Why i s i t now d i f f i c u l t to l i f t the cup? 1 3 . I f a i r were as l i g h t as hydrogen would atmospheric p r e s s u r e be a l t e r e d ? How? 1 4 . Does the f a c t t h a t a substance undergoes no. change on h e a t i n g prove i t to be an element? Why? 1 5 . I f water were used i n p l a c e o f mercury i n a barometer, would t h e r e be any d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s ? Why? 6 3 . GENERAL S C I E N C E TV U n i t I I ' i O b j e c t i v e T e s t I n e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s y o u a r e t o f i n d t h e r i g h t a n s w e r , a n d p u t t h e n u m b e r o f I t i n p a r e n t h e s i s a t t h e end o f t h e l i n e . 1 . An e x a m p l e o f a c o m p l e x m a c h i n e i s ( 1 ) p u l l e y ; ( 2 ) l e v e r ( 3 ) b i c y c l e ( 2 . One h o r s e p o w e r i s e q u a l t o ( l ) 3 , 3 0 0 f t . l b s . / s e c . ; ( 2 ) 500 f t . l b s . / s e c . ; ( 3 ) 550 f t . l b s . / s e c . ( 3 . I f t h e f r i c t i o n i n a m a c h i n e i s i n c r e a s e d , i t s e f f i c i e n c y i s ( 1 ) i n c r e a s e d ; ( 2 ) d e c r e a s e d ; ( 3 ) t h e same. ( 4 . I n a m a c h i n e d e s i g n e d t o p e r f o r m u s e f u l w o r k , t h e w o r k p u t i n t o i t , a s compared w i t h t h e w o r k o b t a i n e d f r o m i t , i s ( 1 ) m o r e ; ( 2 ) l e s s ; ( 3 ) the same. ( 5 . C o n v e c t i o n c u r r e n t s do n o t t a k e p l a c e i n ( 1 ) s o l i d s ; ( 2 ) l i q u i d s ; ( 3 ) g a s e s ( 6 . H e a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n a v a c u u m b y ( 1 ) c o n d u c t i o n ; ( 2 ) c o n v e c t i o n ; ( 3 ) r a d i a t i o n ( 7 . When t h e g a s i n t h e m e c h a n i s m o f an e l e c t r i c r e f r i g -e r a t o r i s c o m p r e s s e d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e g a s ( 1 ) i n c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) d e c r e a s e s ; ( 3 ) r e m a i n s t h e s a m e . ( 8 . The d e n s i t y o f w a t e r a t 4 0 ° G i s ( 1 ) t h e same a s ; ( 2 ) g r e a t e r t h a n ; ( 3 ) l e s s t h a n i t s d e n s i t y a t 4 0 . ( 9 . The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s t e a m i n a s t e a m b o i l e r u n d e r 5 p o u n d s more t h a n a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s ( 1 ) 1 0 0 ° G ; (21 g r e a t e r t h a n 1 0 0 ° G ; 1 3 ) l e s s t h a n 1 0 0 ° C . ( 1 0 . When t h e w a t e r b o i l i n g i n a k e t t l e i s c h a n g e d t o s t e a m , h e a t i s ( 1 ) l i b e r a t e d ; ( 2 ) a b s o r b e d ; ( 3 ) n e i t h e r l i b e r a t e d n o r a b s o r b e d . ( 1 1 . I f a b l o c k o f i c e i s m e l t i n g , i t s t e m p e r a t u r e i s ( 1 ) c o n s t a n t ; ( 2 ) d e c r e a s i n g ; ( 3 ) i n c r e a s i n g ( 1 2 . A b o y i n f r o n t o f a f i r e w i l l r e c e i v e h e a t m a i n l y by ( 1 ) c o n d u c t i o n ; ( 2) c o n v e c t i o n ; ( 5 ) r a d i a t i o n ( 1 3 . The v o l u m e o f i c e f o r m e d when w a t e r f r e e z e s i s ( 1 ) t h e same a s ; ( 2 ) l e s s t h a n ; ( 5 ) g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f w a t e r ( 1 4 . I f t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f a g a s i n a c l o s e d c y l i n d e r i s i n c r e a s e d , i t s d e n s i t y ( l ) d e c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) i n c r e a s e s ; ( 3 ) r e m a i n s t h e same ( 1 5 . One t h e r m o m e t e r i s w r a p p e d w i t h w h i t e c l o t h , a n o t h e r w i t h b l a c k c l o t h . B o t h a r e e x p o s e d t o t h e s u n f o r a f e w m i n u t e s . The f o r m e r w i l l show ( 1 ) a h i g h e r temp-e r a t u r e ; ( 2 ) a l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n ; ( 3 ) t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e a s , t h e l a t t e r . ( 1 6 . When w a t e r i s c o o l e d f r o m 3°G t o 0 ° 0 , i t s v o l u m e w i l l ( 1 ) r e m a i n t h e same; ( 2 ) i n c r e a s e ; ( 3 ) d e c r e a s e ( 1 7 . When t h e w a t e r i n a l a k e f r e e z e s , h e a t i s ( 1 ) l i b e r a t e d ; ( 2 ) a b s o r b e d ; ( 3 ) n e i t h e r l i b e r a t e d n o r a b s o r b e d . ( 6 4 . U n i t I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) S u b s t a n c e s t h a t a r e g o o d a b s o r b e r s o f h e a t a r e ( 1 ) g o o d r a d i a t o r s ; ( 2 ) p o o r r a d i a t o r s , ( 3 ) g o o d r e f l e c t o r s ( W a t e r i n an open v e s s e l , a t a h e i g h t o f 5 , 0 0 0 f t . a b o v e s e a l e v e l ( l ) c a n n o t be b o i l e d ; ( 2 ) c a n be b o i l e d e a s i l y ; ( 3 ) b o i l s a t a h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n a t s e a l e v e l . ( I f a c h a r g e d r u b b e r comb i s b r o u g h t i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e k n o b o f an e l e c t r o s c o p e , t h e l e a v e s d i v e r g e s i n c e ( 1 ) t h e l e a v e s a r e m a g n e t i z e d : ( 2 ) p r o t o n s go i n t o t h e l e a v e s ; ( 3 ) e l e c t r o n s go i n t o t h e l e a v e s ( A s t o r a g e b a t t e r y n e e d s t o b e r e c h a r g e d p e r i o d i c a l l y i n o r d e r t o ( 1 ) decompose t h e w a t e r ; ( 2 ) r e n e w t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p l a t e s ; ( 3 ) g i v e o f f h y d r o g e n ( When a p e r m a n e n t magnet i s h e a t e d , i t s m a g n e t i c f o r c e ( 1 ) i n c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) d e c r e a s e s ; ( 3 ) r e m a i n s t h e same ( The c a r b o n t e r m i n a l o f a d r y c e l l i s ( l ) p o s i t i v e ; ( 2 ) n e g a t i v e ; ( 3 ) p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ( Two c o i l s c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s h a v e r e s i s t a n c e s o f 50 ohms and 100 ohms r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i s ( l ) 5 , 0 0 0 ohms; ( 2 ) 50 ohms; ( 3 ) 150 ohms. ( T h e maximum c u r r e n t a f u s e s h o u l d c a r r y i s ( 1 ) g r e a t e r t h a n ; ( 2 ) l e s s t h a n ; ( 3 ) t h e same, a s t h e c u r r e n t i t p r o t e c t s ( L i g h t i n a medium o f u n i f o r m d e n s i t y t r a v e l s ( l ) t h r o u g h o p a q u e o b j e c t s ; ( 2 ) i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s ; ( 3 ) i n c u r v e d A body t h a t e m i t s l i g h t i s ( l ) t r a n s l u c e n t ; ( 2 ) t r a n s -p a r e n t ; ( 3) i n c a n d e s c e n t ( A n o n - l u m i n o u s body becomes v i s i b l e when i t ( 1 ) r e f r a o t s ( 2 ) a b s o r b s ; ( 3 ) r e f l e c t s , l i g h t ( The wave l e n g t h o f b l u e l i g h t i s ( 1 ) s h o r t e r t h a n ; ( 2 ) l o n g e r t h a n ; ( 3 ) t h e same a s , r e d l i g h t ( A beam o f l i g h t p a s s i n g f r o m one medium t o a n o t h e r a t an o b l i q u e a n g l e i s ( 1 ) t o t a l l y r e f l e c t e d ; ( 2 ) r e f r a c t e d ; ( 3 ) d e s t r o y e d ( T o t a l l y i n d i r e c t l i g h t i n g g i v e s a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f l i ^ h t b e c a u s e o f ( l ) a b s o r p t i o n ; ( 2 ) r e f r a c t i o n ; T h e a n g l e o f r e f l e c t i o n i s ( 1 ) g r e a t e r t h a n ; ( 2 ) l e s s t h a n ; ( 3 ) e q u a l t o , t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e Lamps and s h a d e s s h o u l d b e c l e a n e d o f t e n t o p r e v e n t ( 1 ) d i f f u s i o n ; ( 2 ) a b s o r p t i o n ; ( 3 ) r e f r a c t i o n A t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 20°C sound t r a v e l s ( 1 ) 2 5 6 f t . / s e c . ( 2 ) 1130 f t / s e c ; ( 3 ) 1 8 6 , 0 0 0 f t . / s e c . A s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e a i r i s d e c r e a s e d , t h e s p e e d o f a s o u n d t h r o u g h i t ( l ) i n c r e a s e s ; ( 2 ) d e c r e a s e s ; l i n e s ( 3 ) d o e s n o t c h a n g e 6 5 . U n i t I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 5 6 . Sound,, i n g e n e r a l , t r a v e l s f a s t e s t t h r o u g h ( 1 ) g a s e s ; ( 2 ) l i q u i d s ; ( 5 ) s o l i d s ( ) 3 7 . I f t h e l e n g t h o f a v i o l i n s t r i n g i s a l t e r e d , - o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , - t h e s o u n d p r o d u c e d w i l l be ( 1 ) l o u d e r ; ( 2 ) o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y , ( 3 ) o f d i f f e r e n t p i t c h ( ) 3 8 . A beam o f l i g h t 1 f o o t f r o m i t s s o u r c e c o v e r s an a r e a o f 1 s q . i n . T h e n 3 f t . f r o m i t s s o u r c e i t w i l l c o v e r an a r e a o f ( 1 ) 3 s q . i n . ; ( 2 ) 6 s q . i n ; ( 3 ) 9 s q . i n . ( ) 3 9 . The p u r p o s e o f i c e i n a r e f r i g e r a t o r i s t o ( l ) p r e v e n t r a d i a t i o n : o f h e a t ; ( 2 ) make t h e w a t e r v a p o r c o n d e n s e ; ( 3 ) a b s o r b h e a t ( ) 4 0 . The p r o d u c t o f S M i 1 and amperage I s ( l ) v o l t s ; ( 2 ) ohms; ( 3 ) w a t t s ( ) C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by f i l l i n g i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s a t t h e r i g h t w i t h a w o r d o r p h r a s e . 1 . The p o i n t a b o u t w h i c h a l e v e r t u r n s i s c a l l e d t h e . . ( 1 ) 2. A m a c h i n e i s g e n e r a l l y u s e d , t o m u l t i p l y ( 2 ) 3 . The e n e r g y o f a b o d y due t o i t s p o s i t i o n i s c a l l e d i t s . . . . ( 3 ) 4 . The k i n d o f e n e r g y p o s s e s s e d b y t h e wound w a t c h s p r i n g i s . . . . . . ( 4 ) 5 . The w o r k done by a g i r l h o l d i n g a t e n - p o u n d f l a t i r o n f o r 1 m i n u t e i s , . . . ( 5 ) 6 . A b a r r e l o f o i l t h a t i s t o o h e a v y f o r a man t o l i f t c a n be r o l l e d u p . C6 ) t o a d e s i r e d l e v e l ( 6 ) 7 . A f o r m o f e n e r g y due t o m o l e c u l a r m o t i o n i s . ( 7 ) .8. I f t h e a u d i t o r y n e r v e i s s t i m u l a t e d , t h e s e n s a t i o n p r o d u c e d i s (8) 9 . A dynamo t r a n s f o r m s m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y i n t o ( 9 ) 1 0 . A s a p i l e d r i v e r hammer f a l l s i t s ( 1 0 ) e n e r g y i n c r e a s e s 1 1 0 ) 1 1 . I n b a t t e r i e s e l e c t r i c i t y r e s u l t s f r o m a ( 1 1 ) TaT c h a n g e o f i l i a ) t o . . 1 1 ( b ) e n e r g y ( 1 1 ) (b)" 1 2 . A p o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d body i s one t h a t h a s . . ( 1 2 ) / 1 3 . U n l i k e m a g n e t i c p o l e s . . . . . . e a c h o t h e r ( 1 3 ) 1 4 . The w o r k c a p a b l e o f b e i n g done by a t h r e e h o r s e p o w e r m o t o r p e r m i n u t e i s ( 1 4 ) 1 5 . The o r d e r o f l e v e r i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e n u t c r a c k e r s i s . . ( 1 5 ) 1 6 . The u n i t w h i c h m e a s u r e s o u r r e n t s t r e n g t h i s ( 1 6 ) 1 7 . The p r i n c i p l e w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y . t o do w o r k c a n n e i t h e r be c r e a t e d n o r d e s t r o y e d i s . . . ( 1 7 ) 1 8 . An e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i n a c i r c u i t i s t h o u g h t . t o be a .... ( 1 8 ) 66a U n i t I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 1 9 . The u n i t o f e l e c t r i c a l power i s t h e . , . . ( 1 9 ) 2 0 . E l e c t r i c l a m p s f o r home l i g h t i n g a r e u s u a l l y c o n n e c t e d i n . . . . ( 20) 2 1 . The number o f r o p e s s u p p o r t i n g t h e l o a d i n a p u l l e y s y s t e m i s a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s . . . . ( 2 1 ) . 2 2 . T h e s c r e w - d r i v e r a c t s on t h e same s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e as t h e . . . . . ( 2 2 ) 2 3 . I n t h e t h i r d c l a s s l e v e r s p e e d I s g a i n e d t o t h e l o s s o f . . . . ( 2 3 ) 2 4 . The i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h o f a c o p p e r b a r when h e a t e d t h r o u g h 1 0 ° 0 d e p e n d s u p o n . . . . ( 2 4 ) 2 5 . The t h e r m o c o u p l e i s a d e v i c e u s e d t o m e a s u r e ( 2 5 ) 2 6 . The q u a n t i t y o f h e a t r e q u i r e d t o r a i s e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 10 l b . o f w a t e r f r o m 6 0 ° E t o 7 5 ° E i s . . . . ( 2 6 ) 2 7 . I f m o r e h e a t i s a p p l i e d to some b o i l i n g w a t e r i n an o p e n v e s s e l , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r w i l l . . . . ( 2 7 ) 2 8 . The number o f d e g r e e s b e t w e e n f r e e z i n g and b o i l i n g on a f a h r e n h e i t t h e r m o m e t e r i s . . ( 2 8 ) 2 9 . A n o t h e r name f o r f u s i o n i s . . . . ( 2 9 ) 3 0 . The o u t s t a n d i n g p r o p e r t y o f w a t e r made u s e o f i n h o t - w a t e r h e a t i n g s y s t e m s i s . . . ( 3 0 ) 3 1 . S o u n d i s a f o r m o f . . . . . e n e r g y ( 3 1 ) 3 2 . S o u n d waves may b e r e f l e c t e d ; s u c h r e f l e c t e d waves a r e c a l l e d . . . . . ( 3 2 ) 3 3 . A b o d y may be s e e n b e c a u s e i t . . . . o r . . . . ( 3 3 ) l i g h t . ( 3 3 ) 3 4 . L i g h t i s a f o r m o f . . . . . e n e r g y . ( 3 4 ) 3 5 . The v e l o c i t y o f l i g h t i s a b o u t . . . . ( 3 5 ) 3 6 . W h i t e l i g h t i s made u p o f s e v e r a l . . . . ( 3 6 ) 3 7 . E o r s a t i s f a c t o r y i l l u m i n a t i o n t h e n a t u r e o f p a i n t o r p a p e r o n a w a l l s h o u l d b e . . . ( 3 7 ) 3 8 . The c o l o r o f a g r e e n o b j e c t d e p e n d s on t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f . . . ( 3 8 ) 3 9 . T h e r e i s a c h a n g e o f s t a t e when i c e m e l t s , b u t no c h a n g e i n . . . . ( 3 9 ) 4 0 . The p r i n c i p l e u p o n w h i c h t h e o r d i n a r y t h e r m o m e t e r i s b a s e d i s . . , . ( 4 0 ) 4 1 . The e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i s ( 4 1 ) a . . . . . c a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t a n d h a v i n g . . . ( 4 1 ) 4 2 . The p r i n c i p a l way b y w h i c h h e a t i s t r a n s -m i t t e d f r o m t h e s t o v e t o t h e w a t e r i n a k e t t l e on i t i s . . . . ( 4 2 ) 4 3 . The p i t c h o f a s o u n d d e p e n d s u p o n t h e n u m b e r o f . . . . , ( 4 3 ) 4 4 . M u s i c a l t o n e s o f h i g h p i t c h t r a v e l w i t h a s p e e d t h a t i s . . . . t h e s p e e d o f l o w - p i t c h e d ( 4 4 ) 6 7 . U n i t I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 4 5 . O b j e c t s t h a t a p p e a r b l a c k . . . m o s t o f t h e l i g h t t h a t f a l l s on them ( 4 5 ) 4 6 . When w h i t e l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h a p r i s m t h e r a y s t h a t a r e b e n t most a r e t h e . . . ( 4 6 ) 4 7 . C o l o r i s a p r o p e r t y o f l i g h t w h i c h d e p e n d s u p o n i t s . . . ( 4 7 ) 4 8 . M o s t p e o p l e c a n s e e t h e c o l o r s t h a t l i e b e t w e e n t h e . . ( a ) , and t h e . . ( b ) . . i n the ( 4 8 ) ( a ) r a i n b o w . ( 4 8 ) (b)] 4 9 . A s u b s t a n c e t h a t a l l o w s l i g h t t o p a s s t h r o u g h i t , b u t w h i c h c a n n o t b e s e e n t h r o u g h i s . . (49 0 5 0 . E v a p o r a t i o n o f a l i q u i d may be i n c r e a s e d b y t h e p r e s s u r e on i t s s u r f a c e . ( 5 0 ) 5 1 . The v a c u u m i n a t h e r m o s b o t t l e i s u s e d t o o f f s e t t h e t r a n s f e r o f h e a t b y . . ( a ) . . a n d ( 5 1 ) ( a ) _ . . . ( b ) . . ( 5 1 ) ( b ) _ 5 2 . The s o l u t i o n i n a d r y c e l l i s . . . . ( 5 2 ) 5 3 . The l i q u i d commonly u s e d i n a s i m p l e v o l t a i c -c e l l i s . . . ( 5 3 ) 5 4 . M e t a l s -when h e a t e d e x p a n d a t . . . . r a t e s ( 5 4 ) 5 5 . M e t a l s c a n b e c h a r g e d w i t h s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y o n l y i f . . . . ( 5 5 ) 5 6 . W a t e r e v a p o r a t i n g f r o m t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e b o d y . . . . t h e t e m p e r a t u r e . . ( 5 6 ) 5 7 . When t h e a i r s u r r o u n d i n g a r a d i a t o r i s h e a t e d , i t s d e n s i t y . , . . . ( 5 7 ) 5 8 . The r e g i o n a r o u n d a magnet where i t s e f f e c t may be f e l t i s i t s . . . . ( 5 8 ) 5 9 . The f i r s t man t o m e a s u r e the v e l o c i t y o f . l i g h t w a s . . . . ( 59) _ 6 0 . T h a t p a r t o f a shadow f o r m e d b y t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o n l y p a r t o f t h e l i g h t i s c a l l e d . . . . ( 6 0 ) 6 1 . The i n t e n s i t y o f l i g h t i s r a t e d i n . . . . ( 6 1 ) 68. GENERAL S C I E N C E IV U n i t I I S u b j e c t i v e T e s t 1 . Does a m a c h i n e p r o d u c e e n e r g y ? Why? 2. Why i s i t e a s i e r to move a l a r g e s t o n e w i t h a l e v e r ? 3 . H o t w a t e r p o u r e d i n t o a t h i c k w a l l e d g l a s s t u m b l e r w i l l l i k e l y b r e a k i t . Why? 4 . What c o l o r w i l l a p i e c e o f r e d p a p e r a p p e a r t o be i n y e l l o w l i g h t ? Why? 5 . When t h e b u l b o f a t h e r m o m e t e r i s p l u n g e d i n t o h o t w a t e r t h e m e r c u r y d r o p s s l i g h t l y b e f o r e i t b e g i n s t o r i s e . Why? 6. Why i s i c e p l a c e d a t t h e t o p o f a r e f r i g e r a t o r ? 7. What w i l l be t h e c o s t o f o p e r a t i n g a 200 w a t t lamp on a 100 v o l t c i r c u i t f o r 10 h o u r s a t 4 c e n t s p e r kwh? 8 . Why i n a s t e a m h e a t i n g s y s t e m a r e s m a l l e r r a d i a t o r s r e q u i r e d ? 9 . Why do k e t t l e s u s u a l l y h a v e h a n d l e s o f wood o r c o i l e d w i r e ? 1 0 . Does s o u n d t r a v e l f a s t e r t h a n l i g h t ? How do y o u know? 1 1 . I s t h e t e l e p h o n e a g o o d i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e n e r g y ? Why? 1 2 . Why may a f u s e " b l o w o u t " when t h e i n s u l a t i o n w e a r s on an i r o n i n g c o r d ? .. 1 3 . P l a c i n g i c e c r e a m b e t w e e n f e a t h e r p i l l o w s w i l l k e e p i t f r o m m e l t i n g r a p i d l y . Why? 1 4 . E x p l a i n c l e a r l y t h e c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b y w h i c h m u s i o a l n o t e s d i f f e r f r o m one a n o t h e r . 1 5 . I c e b e l o w 0°G i s h e a t e d t o a t e m p e r a t u r e a b o v e 100°C a t . n o r m a l a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . What c h a n g e s t a k e p l a c e i n ( a ) s t a t e ; ( b ) t e m p e r a t u r e ; ( c ) v o l u m e ? 6 9 , • •••••••• « « « GENERAL S C I E N C E I V U n i t I I I O b j e c t i v e T e s t C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by f i l l i n g i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s a t t h e r i g h t w i t h a word o r p h r a s e . l . ! The number o f g a s e s i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s 8 . The most p l e n t i f u l g a s i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s . ... 3 . The l o w e s t g a s e o u s s h e l l w h i o h s u r r o u n d s t h e e a r t n i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. I n s e c t s and a n i m a l s b r e a t h e i n o r d e r t o o "b "t s n n •••«••• •««•«•! 5 . D u r i n g t h e day a g r e e n l e a f g i v e s o f f t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e t h e g a s 6 . The r a r e g a s u s e d t o f i l l l i g h t b u l b s i s 7 . The h e i g h t o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e w h i c h w i l l b a l a n c e a m e r c u r y c o l u m n 76 cm, i n h e i g h t i s 8 . The r e l a t i v e w e i g h t o f a v o l u m e o f d r y a i r c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f a s i m i l a r v o l u m e o f m o i s t a i r i s 9 . The s c i e n t i s t who f i r s t m e a s u r e d t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e was 1 0 . T h e t y p e o f b a r o m e t e r t h a t o p e r a t e s w i t h o u t a l i q u i d i s t h e • 1 1 . The i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h k e e p s a w e e k l y r e c o r d o f t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s 1 2 . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h p l a n t s m a n u f a c t u r e s t a r c h i s 1 3 . C o m b u s t i o n t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p l y o f « « • * • xzi "til© SLJLD? « • 1 4 . The i m p o r t a n t d e v i c e on a s t r e e t c a r w h i c h makes u s e o f a i r u n d e r p r e s s u r e i s . . .15. E o r a r i s e I n a l t i t u d e , o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 900 f e e t t h e b a r o m e t e r f a l l s 1 6 . A n o r d i n a r y w a t e r . s i p h o n c a n o p e r a t e p r o v i d e d t h e l i q u i d i s n o t t o be r a i s e d more t h a n . . 1 7 . L i m e w a t e r i s u s e d t o t e s t f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f . . 1 8 . A t s e a l e v e l t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s a b o u t 1 9 . A n o t h e r t e r m f o r c y c l o n e i s . . . 2 0 . The t e m p e r a t u r e a t w h i c h t h e m o i s t u r e i n t h e a i r b e g i n s t o c o n d e n s e i s t h e . . 2 1 . I n t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c i r c u l a t i o n o f a i r i n an a n t i - c y c l o n e IS i « 2 2 . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g s b e t w e e n t h e wet a n d d r y b u l b t h e r m o m e t e r s i s a m e a s u r e o f . . « e » o a o • ••••• • a • e • • • • ••••••••• • • • • « e 7 0 . a s a a a o a e a 9 a a a * « « e a a • a a 9 a a e 0 6 e a « A • • « a a • s e a e a e a a a • a A • a * U n i t I I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) N o r m a l l y , when l o w s f o l l o w h i g h s , t h e w e a t h e r i s . . D e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n e t a r y w i n d s i s c a u s e d m a i n l y b y . . L i n e s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h a l l p o i n t s h a y i n g t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e a r e c a l l e d . . C o n d e n s a t i o n o c c u r s when t h e a i r i s . . The d e v i c e w h i c h m e a s u r e s w i n d v e l o c i t y I s c a l l e d a n . . The u n e q u a l e x p a n s i o n and c o o l i n g o f t h e a i r p r o d u c e s The amount o f r a i n f a l l i s m e a s u r e d b y a d e v i c e c a l l e d t h e . . G r e a t a i r p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e l i k e l y t o he t h e c a u s e o f . . The i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t u s e d to f o r e c a s t w e a t h e r I s . . The q u a n t i t y o f m o i s t u r e t h e a i r i s a b l e t o s u s t a i n d e p e n d s m a i n l y u p o n t h e . . U s u a l l y , h i g h p r e s s u r e a r e a s i n t h e n o r t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e a r e a s move i n t h e ( a ) d i r e c t i o n o f ( a ) . t o ( b ) . . - (b) W e a t h e r i s I n d i r e c t l y and p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s u l t o f c o n t r a s t s i n . . The two i m p o r t a n t a i r - c o n d i t i o n s c o n -t r o l l e d by t h e a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g d e v i c e ( a ) a r e ( a ) . . . and ( b ) . . . . ( b) , The a i r i n a c y c l o n i c r e g i o n i s c o o l e d by The p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when w e a t h e r p r e d i c t i o n s a r e made i s . . The names o f f o u r common c l o u d f o r m s a r e -L * » a « a « « « » a o < » 2 «3«*aa**saaaca The p o r t i o n o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e to w h i c h t h e w e a t h e r i s c o n f i n e d i s . . The p o r t i o n o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h t h e r e i s no t e m p e r a t u r e change I s . . T h i s s k e t c h i s t a k e n f r o m a w e a t h e r map, • • • a « « a a « • • • • a a « a « 9 « a • a a 4 1 . t h e r e g i o n shown i s t erme d a . • . . . . . . . . < 71. U n i t I I I , O b j e c t i v e , ( e n n t ' d . ) The s k e t c h b e l o w r e p r e s e n t s t h e ' p l a n e t a r y w i n d s y s t e m . t-— 4 4 . The r e g i o n o f t h e d o l d r u m s i s n u m b e r e d . . 4 5 . The r e g i o n o f t h e t r a d e w i n d s i s , n u m b e r e d . . 4 6 . The r e g i o n o f t h e w e s t e r l i e s i s n u m b e r e d 4 7 . O c e a n c u r r e n t s a r e s t a r t e d c h i e f l y b y . . 4 8 . L a r g e b o d i e s o f w a t e r p r e v e n t e x t r e m e c h a n g e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y due t o . . 4 9 . D u r i n g t h e summer s o l s t i c e t h e e a r t h i s t h e s u n t h a n d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e . , 5 0 . The o c e a n c u r r e n t s do n o t d i r r e c t l y warm o r c o o l l a n d ; h o w e v e r t h e y do s o i n d i r e c t l y b y . . • • • 0 • 72. GENERAL S C I E N C E I V U n i t I I I S u b j e c t i v e T e s t 1 . I f a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f a i r i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s p a c e a b o v e t h e m e r c u r y i n a b a r o m e t e r t u b e , how i s t h e r e a d i n g - a f f e c t e d ? Why? 2 . S h o u l d a m e r c u r y b a r o m e t e r b e hung i n a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n b e f o r e a r e a d i n g i s t a k e n ? Why? 3 . C a l c u l a t e t h e a i r p r e s s u r e on a n a r e a o f 10 s q . f e e t . 4. Draw and e x p l a i n t h e a c t i o n o f a f o r c e pump. 5 . How i s t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y o f t h e a i r a f f e c t e d by t e m p e r a t u r e ? 6 . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y o f t h e a i r , why i s one o f t h e t h e r m o m e t e r b u l b s s u r r o u n d e d by a m o i s t c l o t h ? 7 . W r i t e an a c c o u n t o f t h e w i n d movements i n a h i g h and a l o w and t h e r e l a t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e e f f e c t s i n e a c h . 8 . E x p l a i n u s i n g a d i a g r a m why t h e e a r t h h a s s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s . 9 . Why i s o u r c l i m a t e more e q u i t a b l e t h a n t h a t o f W i n n i p e g ? 1 0 . A t m i d d a y i n summer t h e l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g a l a k e o r o c e a n i s u s u a l l y warmer t h a n t h e a d j o i n i n g w a t e r . W i l l t h e a i r move t o w a r d t h e l a n d o r t o w a r d t h e w a t e r ? E x p l a i n , u s i n g a d i a g r a m . 7 3 . GENERAL S C I E N C E IV U n i t I V O b j e c t i v e T e s t C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by f i l l i n b l a n k s p a c e a t t h e r i g h t w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y w o r d H y d r o g e n b u r n s i n a i r t o f o r m . . . . 1 . . . . The s o l u b i l i t y o f h y d r o g e n g a s i n w a t e r i s 2 . . H y d r o g e n g a s may be p r e p a r e d i n t h e l a b o r a -t o r y b y a d d i n g z i n c t o . . 3 . . . A s c i e n t i f i c name t h a t may b e u s e d f o r w a t e r i s . . . . 4 . , . The d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f w a t e r by an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t i s c a l l e d . . . . 5 . . . U n d e r o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s t h e s o l u b i l i t y o f o x y g e n i n w a t e r i s . . . . 6 . . . The e f f e c t o f l a r g e b o d i e s o f w a t e r on c l i m a t e i s t o . . . . 7 . . . D i s s o l v e d and s u s p e n d e d s o l i d s c a n be r e m o v e d f r o m w a t e r by . . . . 8 . . . The p u r e s t f o r m o f n a t u r a l w a t e r i s . . . 9 . . . A s o l u t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f s o l u t e i s c a l l e d . . . . 1 0 . The s o l u b i l i t y o f m o s t s o l i d s i s i n c r e a s e d b y • • • • XI« e « On s e p a r a t i n g f r o m s o l u t i o n , some s o l i d s assume a d e f i n i t e g e o m e t r i c a l f o r m ; 1 2 . . . . s u c h s o l i d s a r e c a l l e d . 1 2 and t h e p r o c e s s , 1 3 . 1 3 . . . . A c h e m i c a l e l e m e n t t h a t i s u s e d t o d i s -i n f e c t w a t e r i s . . . 1 4 . . . . What e f f e c t w i l l t h e a d d i t i o n o f a l c o h o l t o w a t e r h a v e u p o n t h e f r e e z i n g p o i n t ? 1 5 . . . . The s o l u b i l i t y o f g a s e s i n w a t e r i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s e o f . . . 1 6 . . . . The p r o c e s s o f p u r i f y i n g w a t e r by p a s s i n g t h r o u g h l a y e r s o f s a n d a n d g r a v e l i s . . 1 7 . . , . Impure s a l t may be p u r i f i e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f . . . 1 8 . . . . A s o l u t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n s a l a r g e amount o f s o l u t e i s . . . . 1 9 . . . . S o l u t i o n s t h a t c o n d u c t e l e c t r i c i t y a r e c a l l e d . . . 2 0 . . . . A s o l u t i o n o f : g l y c e r i n e w i l l n o t c o n d u c t e l e c t r i c i t y b e c a u s e i t c o n t a i n s n o . . 2 1 . . . . T e m p o r a r y h a r d n e s s i n w a t e r may b e ' r e m o v e d * * 22* o •« W a t e r w h i c h I s p e r m a n e n t l y h a r d may be • s o f t e n e d by . . 2 3 . . . . A t e s t f o r a s u p e r s a t u r a t e d s o l u t i o n i s t o . . 2 4 . . . . The t a s t e o f b o i l e d w a t e r may be r e s t o r e d .by*..» • • 25 • « e • 7 4 . U n i t I V , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 2 6 . Soap;,may b e made b y b e a t i n g . 2 6 w i t h . 2 6 . 27 • «27 • 27« 2 8 . W a t e r w h i c h c a u s e s soap t o " c u r d l e " b e f o r e f o r m i n g a l a t h e r i s . . 2 8 . 2 9 . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h w a t e r i s c h a n g e d t o s t e a m b y h e a t and t h e s t e a m c o o l e d t o p r o d u c e w a t e r i s c a l l e d . . 2 9 , 3 0 . A p r e s s u r e a p p l i e d to an e n c l o s e d l i q u i d i s . 5 0 . i n a l l . . 3 1 . 3 0 . 3 1 . 3 1 . 5 2 . The d e n s i t y o f a s u b s t a n c e i s u s u a l l y c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f . 3 2 . 3 2 . 3 3 . The p r e s s u r e on an o b j e c t i m m e r s e d i n a 3 3 . 5 4 , l i q u i d d e p e n d s on . 3 3 . and . 5 4 . 3 4 . 3 5 . A l i q u i d r a t h e r t h a n a g a s i s u s e d i n an h y d r a u l i c p r e s s b e c a u s e . . 3 5 . 3 6 . W a t e r i s h e a v i e s t a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f . . 3 6 . 3 7 . A body w e i g h i n g 1000 l b s . f l o a t s o n w a t e r , t h e w e i g h t o f t h e d i s p l a c e d w a t e r IS a a 37 e 3 8 . I f a b o d y h a v i n g a v o l u m e o f one l i t e r s i n k s i n w a t e r , i t w i l l a p p e a r t o h a v e a w e i g h t o f . . 3 8 . 3 9 . The r i s i n g o r l o w e r i n g o f t h e l e v e l o f l i q u i d s i n f i n e t u b e s i s c a l l e d . . 3 9 . 4 0 . A b l o c k o f c o p p e r h a s a v o l u m e o f 7 c . c . a n d a w e i g h t o f 6 2 . 3 g . The d e n s i t y i n g r a m s p e r c . c . i s . . . . 4 0 . 4 1 . A c o l u m n o f w a t e r t e n f e e t h i g h e x e r t s a p r e s s u r e o f . . . 4 1 , 4 2 . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f g a s o l i n e compared w i t h t h a t o f w a t e r i s . , 4 2 . 4 3 . I n a b a l a n c e d a q u a r i u m t h e p l a n t s g i v e 4 3 . 44* o f f . . 4 3 . . w h i c h i s u s e d up by , 4 4 . 4 4 . 4 5 . f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e f i s h t h e w a t e r i n t h e o c e a n , l a k e o r s t r e a m s h o u l d n o t b e . . 4 5 . " 4 6 . T h e p l a n t w h i c h f o r m s t h e scum on s t a g -n a n t w a t e r i s . . 4 6 . 4 7 . The t i n y m i c r o s c o p i c a n i m a l s and p l a n t s f o u n d i n w a t e r a r e c a l l e d . . 4 7 . ; t h e s e 4 7 , a r e f o u n d i n t h e u p p e r l e v e l s o f t h e 4 8 . w a t e r w h e r e . 4 8 . . . a n d , . 4 9 . a r e more 4 8 . 4 9 . a b u n d a n t . 4 9 . 5 0 . F i s h o b t a i n o x y g e n f r o m t h e w a t e r b y means o f . . 5 0 . 75. GENERAL S C I E N C E I T U n i t I Y S u b j e c t i v e T e s t Why i s w a t e r c a l l e d t h e u n i v e r s a l s o l v e n t ? Why i s s u r f a c e w a t e r u s u a l l y i m p u r e ? I n g e n e r a l , how does a r i s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e a f f e c t t h e s o l u b i l i t y o f s o l i d s ? o f g a s e s ? When a body i s s u b m e r g e d i n w a t e r , why i s i t n o t p u s h e d s i d e w a y s ? Why d o e s w a t e r e x e r t p r e s s u r e o n submerged s u r f a c e s ? What c o n t r o l s t h e amount o f p r e s s u r e ? I f y o u s a t u r a t e d w a t e r a t 80 ° C w i t h some s o l i d and t h e n c o o l e d t h e s o l u t i o n t o 10 C, t h r o w i n g i n a c r y s t a l o f t h e s o l i d , what k i n d o f a s o l u t i o n w o u l d y o u h a v e ? Why? " L i g h t b o d i e s f l o a t o n w a t e r " . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s n o t .- t r u e . E x p l a i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h t h a t t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t a t t e m p t s t o m a k e . Can p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s l i v e i n d i s t i l l e d w a t e r ? "Why? How w o u l d y o u d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a n t i t y o f d i s s o l v e d s o l i d m a t t e r i n a s a m p l e o f s e a w a t e r ? Why m u s t t h e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n w a t e r be v e r y l o w i n o r d e r t h a t p l a n t s and a n i m a l s may s u r v i v e ? 76. GENERAL S C I E N C E I V U n i t V O b j e c t i v e T e s t C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s by f i l l i n g i n t h n e c e s s a r y w o r d o r p h r a s e . The t y p e o f h e a v e n l y body w h i c h s h i n e s by e m i t t i n g i t s own l i g h t i s a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The c e n t r e o f o u r s o l a r s y s t e m i s . . The n u m b e r o f p l a n e t s now known to b e i n t h e s o l a r s y s t e m i s . . B e s i d e s t h e p l a n e t s t h e s o l a r s y s t e m i . . . . . . . . . . . c o n s i s t s o f i i . . . . . . . . . . . Two h y p o t h e s e s t h a t h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d b y s c i e n t i s t s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n O f "til© ©ELI* bll Q.X* © 1 » « # « « e < a e « e » The h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d now I s u h e . . ' . . . . . . . . . . . The f a c t t h a t some s i x t y e l e m e n t s f o u n d on t h e e a r t h h a v e a l s o b e e n f o u n d t o e x i s t o n t h e s u n t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e .7.. h y p o t h e s i s T h r e e m e t h o d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e age o f t h e e a r t h a r e . i i XXX • • • a a o * e * « e O f t h e a b o v e t h r e e m e t h o d s , t h e one g i v i n g t h e b e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n i s . . . S t u d i e s o f s u c h m e t h o d s i n d i c a t e a n a p p r o x i m a t e age o f . . I n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e e v e r o c c u r r i n g , i n t h e l e v e l o f t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t h e e a r t h ' s i n t e r i o r i s b e l i e v e d t o b e . . The two c a u s e s o f m o u n t a i n s f o r m i n g a r e i i i The r e g i o n s i n w h i c h v o l c a n o e s a r e most l i k e l y t o be f o u n d a r e . . . The p r e s s u r e f o r c i n g g e y s e r a n d h o t s p r i n g w a t e r u p w a r d s i s c a u s e d b y . . M o s t e a r t h q u a k e s a r e due m a i n l y t o . . T h a t m o l t e n r o c k i s p r e s e n t i n t h e e a r t h i s i n d i c a t e d b y . . The p r o c e s s w h i c h t e n d s t o l e v e l down t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h i s known a s . . H i l l s o f m i x e d up s o i l and s t o n e s f o r m e d b y a r e t r e a t i n g g l a c i e r a r e c a l l e d . . . . . . . . . S o i l may b e t r a n s p o r t e d b y . . i . , I i . , . i i i . i . . . . . . . a « * s 7 7 . U n i t V , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) The d e c a y o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n t h e s o i l p r o d u c e s v a l u a b l e p l a n t f o o d known a s . . W a t e r f a l l s a r e f o r m e d b y d i f f e r e n c e s i n . . D e c a y i n g o r g a n i c m a t t e r a i d s i n t h e w e a t h e r i n g o f r o c k s b y p r o d u c i n g . . ! , w h i c h a i d i n . i i . t h e r o c k . i i i C h a n g e s i n t e m p e r a t u r e may a i d i n t h e b r e a k i n g up o f t h e r o c k s b y c a u s i n g them t o . . R o c k s may be g r o u n d away by t h e a c t i o n o f w i n d b e c a u s e i t c a r r i e s . . Two c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e a i r w h i c h a i d i n t h e b r e a k i n g u p o f r o c k s a r e . ! . , a n d . i i . i The component w h i c h p r o d u c e s c h a n g e s i i m a i n l y b y c h e m i c a l a c t i o n i s . i i i i i i and t h e one b y p h y s i c a l a c t i o n i s . . i v The l a n d w h i c h i s f o r m e d by d e p o s i t s o f s o i l a t t h e m o u t h o f a r i v e r i s c a l l e d a . . One o f t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l e r o d i n g a g e n t s o t h e r t h a n w a t e r i s . . W e a t h e r i n g d i f f e r s f r o m e r o s i o n i n t h a t t h e l a t t e r . . S o i l r e m a i n i n g i n t h e p l a c e w h e r e i t w e a t h e r e d i s o a l l e d . . . The t h r e e e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l s s u p p l i e d by s o i l s f o r p l a n t g r o w t h a r e . . i . , . i i . . , I . i i i . i i . i i i . S o i l t h a t c o n t a i n s much humus i s c a l l e d F o s s i l s a r e f o u n d o n l y i n r o c k . A " y o u n g " v a l l e y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y . . A r o c k w h i c h h a s b e e n f o r m e d u n d e r w a t e r f r o m s h e l l s o f s e a a n i m a l s i s . . R o c k s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m m o l t e n magma a r e c a l l e d . . . R o c k s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d by h e a t and f o l d i n g a r e c a l l e d . , . . The r o o k f r o m w h i c h a l l o t h e r r o c k s a r e f o r m e d i s . . . G r a n i t e c o n t a i n s t h e m i n e r a l s . . i . . , i . . . i i . . , . . i i i . i i . I i i . The t y p e o f r o c k f o r m e d by t h e c e m e n t i n g o f mud and s i l t i s known a s . . T h a t h i g h l a n d was o n c e o c e a n b o t t o m i s e v i d e n c e d b y . . The c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f m a r b l e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f . . 78. U n i t V , O b j e c t i v e , ( c o n t ' d . ) 4 1 . The p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o d u c e d s a n d s t o n e was 4 2 . M a r b l e i s a n e x a m p l e o f a . . . . . r o c k . 4 3 . A common s u b s t a n c e w h i c h c o n t a i n s a l u m i n u m I s . . 4 4 . The p r o p e r t y o f a l u m i n u m t h a t makes i t u s e f u l f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a i r s h i p s i s . . . . 4 5 . A n a l l o y o f a l u m i n i u m i s . . 4*6. A l u m i n i u m i s o b t a i n e d f r o m i t s o x i d e by t h e p r o c e s s o f . . 4 7 . I r o n i s o b t a i n e d f r o m i t s o r e s by t h e p r o c e s s o f . . 4 8 . The m e t a l o b t a i n e d f r o m h a e m a t i t e i s . . 4 9 . I r o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e i s known a s . , 5 0 . S t e e l i s u s e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a n d b r i d g e s b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t 5 1 . A c o a t i n g o f z i n c i s s o m e t i m e s p u t o v e r i r o n t o p r e v e n t . . 5 2 . The m o s t a b u n d a n t m e t a l i n t h e e a r t h ' s c r u s t i s . . 5 3 . One d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s t e e l and w r o u g h t i r o n i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s m o r e . , 5 4 . S t a i n l e s s s t e e l c o n t a i n s t h e m e t a l s . i , i a n d . i i . i i 5 5 . B r a s s i s an a l l o y o f . . i . . and . . i i . i i i 5 6 . A n i m p o r t a n t m i n e r a l c o n t a i n i n g c o p p e r i s 5 7 . G a l e n a i s an i m p o r t a n t o r e o f . . 5 8 . An i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s e d i -m e n t a r y a n d i g n e o u s r o c k s i s t h a t t h e l a t t e r u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s . . 5 9 . M u c h o f t h e m i n e r a l w e a l t h o f C a n a d a i s l o c a t e d i n a r e a s w h i c h a r e . . . 6 0 . Some r o c k s on e x p o s u r e t o t h e a i r t u r n a r e d d i s h c o l o r due t o t h e . . i . . o f t h e i . i i . . u n i t i n g w i t h t h e . i i i i n t h e r o c k i i i i i 7 9 . GENERAL S C I E N C E I V U n i t V S u b j e c t i v e T e s t 1. What do y o u u n d e r s t a n d b y ( a ) t h e S o l a r S y s t e m ; ( b ) The U n i v e r s e ? 2 . What i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n " t o p s o i l " and " s u b s o i l " ? W h i c h i s t h e b e t t e r f o r p l a n t g r o w t h . Why? 3. Why do some r o c k s a p p e a r i n l a y e r s ? 4 . I n what ways h a v e e a r t h q u a k e s r e v e a l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e a r t h ' s i n t e r i o r . 5. A c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f u n s o r t e d , s o r t e d , and r e s i d u a l s o i l s , 6 . Why do we b e l i e v e t h a t some m o u n t a i n s were p r e v i o u s l y u n d e r w a t e r ? 7 . How c o u l d y o u t e l l w h e t h e r a m o u n t a i n i s y o u n g o r o l d ? 8 . How h a v e h i l l s and v a l l e y s b e e n f o r m e d by w a t e r ? 9 . What m e t h o d i s b e l i e v e d t o g i v e t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e o f t h e e a r t h ' s age? Why? 1 0 . D i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n an o r e and a m i n e r a l . 11. Why was i r o n o b t a i n e d l o n g b e f o r e a l u m i n i u m ? 1 2 . I n what way d o e s e r o s i o n a f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e i g h t o f t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e ? 8 0 . I . I I , B e l a y e d R e c a l l T e s t C l a s s i f y t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p h y s i c a l o r c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s ; g i v e a r e a s o n f o r e a c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ( a ) E v a p o r a t i o n o f a s u g a r s o l u t i o n ( b ) B u r n i n g o f wood ( c ) Z i n c d i s s o l v e s i n s u l p h u r i c a c i d ( d ) E x p l o s i o n o f d y n a m i t e •'(e) M e l t i n g o f snow ( f ) M a g n e t i z i n g an i r o n b a r . F r o m t h e f o r m u l a Hg a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : ( a ) How many atoms a r e r e p r e s e n t e d ? ( b ) How many m o l e c u l e s ? ( c ) What w e i g h t o f t h e e l e m e n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d ? I I I . B a l a n c e t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n s : -( a ) HgO Hg + 0 G ( b ) Zn + HG1 Z n C l g + H g ( c ) -. Hg + 0 2 -> HgO ( a ) Mg + Og -> MgO I V . C l a s s i f y t h e f o l l o w i n g a s e l e m e n t s , compounds , m i x t u r e s : s o i l c o p p e r o x i d e c o n c r e t e n i t r o g e n s a l t a l u m i n i u m w a t e r s a n d f o u n d a t t h e b e a c h e s l e a d • s u g a r V . W r i t e f o r m u l a f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( a ) z i n c s u l p h a t e ( c ) h y d r o g e n c h l o r i d e ( b ) s o d i u m n i t r a t e ( d ) c a r b o n d i o x i d e V I . A n u m b e r o f s a m p l e s o f c h e m i c a l l y p u r e w a t e r o b t a i n e d f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s w e r e t e s t e d and e a c h was f o u n d t o c o n t a i n 88.8$> o x y g e n and l l . £ $ > h y d r o g e n b y w e i g h t . Name and w r i t e o u t t h e s c i e n t i f i c l a w w h i c h t h e above s t a t e m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s . V I I . ( a ) The s t o p p e r i s r e m o v e d f r o m a b o t t l e o f p e r f u m e . E x p l a i n why t h e o d o r i s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e r o o m , ( b ) What c h a n g e i n p r e s s u r e w o u l d y o u e x p e c t t o t a k e p l a c e i n a b i c y c l e t i r e i f : ( i ) an e q u a l w e i g h t o f a i r i s added? ( i i ) t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e s s e v e r a l d e g r e e s ? ( i i i ) " " d e c r e a s e s s e v e r a l d e g r e e s ? ( i v ) an e q u a l v o l u m e o f h y d r o g e n i s s u b s t i t u t e d u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s ? 8 1 . Delayed R e c a l l Test ( c o n t ' d . ) V I I I . A man l i f t s the h a n d l e s o f a wheelbarrow e x e r t i n g a f o r c e o f 100 l b s , at a d i s t a n c e o f 5 f e e t from t h e a x l e o f the wheel. I f the f o r c e s o f the l o a d a c t s downwards a t a p o i n t £ f e e t from the a x l e f i n d : (a) the weight o f the l o a d l i f t e d (b) s t a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t i s i m p l i e d i n t h e above q u e s t i o n . 12. I n w h i c h o f the statements below has the s p e c i f i c heat o f copper been a p p l i e d ? Why? (a) 9 grams o f copper heated from 20 G to 30 0 r e q u i r e s 90 c a l o r i e s o f h e a t , Q 0 (b) 9 grams o f copper heated from £0 0 to 30 0 r e q u i r e s 180 c a l o r i e s o f h e a t . o o ( c ) 9 grams of c o p p e r heated from 20 G t o 50 0 r e q u i r e s 8 c a l o r i e s o f h e a t . X. Of two c o n t a i n e r s , one has two l i t e r s o f w a t e r at the f r e e z i n g p o i n t and the o t h e r one l i t e r o f w a t e r a t b o i l i n g p o i n t . Compare these two b o d i e s o f w a t e r w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n (a) temperature measured i n °C and °JF (b) q u a n t i t y o f h e a t . X I . How would you show t h a t the c o l o r o f an o b j e c t i s due t o the a b s o r p t i o n o f some c o l o r s o f w h i t e l i g h t f a l l i n g upon i t ? X I I . F o u r s t a n d a r d c a n d l e s are p l a c e d two f e e t away from a s c r e e n . What i s the i n t e n s i t y o f the l i g h t on the screen? . 8 2 . ' S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t H e a d t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s and w r i t e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e a c h o n e : I . I n o r d e r t o remove t i n y s p e c k s o f d u s t f r o m r o l l s o f m i n i a t u r e c a m e r a f i l m a h a r d r u b b e r comb w h i c h h a s b e e n r u b b e d b r i s k l y w i t h a s i l k h a n d k e r c h i e f i s p a s s e d a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e f i l m . The comb p i c k s u p t h e d u s t s p e c k s , 1 . Why d o e s t h e d u s t a d h e r e to t h e comb? I I . An a i r p l a n e e n g i n e e r h a s l a t e l y p a t e n t e d a d e v i c e f o r s e a l i n g t h e d o o r s o f p l a n e s . A t u b e o f r u b b e r c o n t a i n i n g a i r a t g r o u n d l e v e l p r e s s u r e i s f i t t e d a r o u n d t h e d o o r j a m b . When t h e p l a n e r e a c h e s a f a i r l y h i g h a l t i t u d e t h e d o o r becomes v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o o p e n . 1 . Why i s t h e d o o r d i f f i c u l t t o open? 2 . What s c i e n t i f i c f a c t i s t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f i n t h i s d e v i c e ? 3 . How w i l l t h i s d e v i c e a f f e c t t h e c o m f o r t o f p e o p l e i n t h e p l a n e when i t i s f l y i n g a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s ? I I I . G l a s s m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a v e made a new t y p e o f window g l a s s . The p a n e i s made o f two s h e e t s o f g l a s s s e p a r a t e d b y a u n i f o r m d r y a i r s p a c e . The pane i s s e a l e d a t t h e e d g e s . V i s i b i l i t y i s i n no way i m p a i r e d by i t s u s e . 1 . What a d v a n t a g e i s o b t a i n e d by h a v i n g an a i r s p a c e b e t w e e n t h e g l a s s p a n e s ? 2 . Why i s t h e a i r d r i e d ? 3 . I n what way w i l l the e x t r a c o s t o f p u r c h a s i n g s u c h window g l a s s be o f f s e t ? I V . I n a f a r n o r t h e r n l a k e a n u n u s u a l m e t h o d i s u s e d t o h e l p b r e a k t h e i c e . A w i d e s t r i p o f o i l and l a m p b l a c k i s l a i d a c r o s s t h e i c e . T h i s , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e s u n ' s r a y s , c u t s a c h a n n e l a l o n g t h e s t r i p to s u c h a d e p t h t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g i c e i n t h e s t r i p i s e a s i l y b r o k e n . 1 . W o u l d a c o l o r l e s s o i l s e r v e i n p l a c e o f t h e l a m p -b l a c k a n d o i l e q u a l l y w e l l ? Why? 2. O f what v a l u e i s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h i s l a k e ? V . A new m e t h o d o f p r e v e n t i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f I c e on a i r p l a n e w i n g s , p r o p e l l e r s , w i r e l e s s a e r i a l s and o t h e r p a r t s i n v o l v e s p a i n t i n g t h e p a r t s w i t h a s p e c i a l m e t a l p a i n t t h r o u g h w h i c h an e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t w i l l p a s s . 8 3 . " S c i e n t i f i c D e v i c e s " T e s t ( c o n t ' d . ) ( c o n t ' d . ) 1 . Why i s a m e t a l u s e d i n t h e p a i n t ? 2 . I n what way w i l l t h e i c e be p r e v e n t e d f r o m f o r m i n g ? 3. O f what v a l u e i s t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b u s i n e s s ? JL r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y u s e s a s p e c i a l l i q u i d t o s e p a r a t e c o a l f r o m s l a t e . The m i x t u r e o f c o a l and s l a t e as o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m i n e i s r u n t h r o u g h t h i s l i q u i d w h i c h s e p a r a t e s t h e c o a l f r o m t h e s l a t e , t h e l a t t e r s i n k i n g t o t h e b o t t o m o f a t a n k , t h e f o r m e r r i s i n g t o t h e s u r f a c e . 1. Why w o u l d w a t e r n o t s e r v e e q u a l l y as w e l l a s t h i s l i q u i d ? 2 . What p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y must a l i q u i d h a v e t o be u s e f u l i n t h i s s i n k a n d f l o a t p r o c e s s ? 3 . Name t h e s c i e n t i f i c l a w o r p r i n c i p l e w h i c h i s made u s e o f i n t h e above p r o c e s s . 4 . What b e n e f i t s t o t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y a r e p o s s i b l e b y t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s ? 8 4 . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n U n i t I I Do n o t s i g n y o u r name. G i v e w e l l c o n s i d e r e d a n s w e r s . I f y o u r a n s w e r i s y e s , e n c i r c l e y e s ; i f n o , e n c i r c l e n o . Be h o n e s t i n y o u r r e p l i e s . 1 . D i d y o u f i n d U n i t I I an i n t e r e s t i n g one? Y e s , N o . Comments: 2 . D i d y o u f i n d U n i t I I a d i f f i c u l t one? Y e s , N o . Comments: 3. Do y o u t h i n k a m o r e i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e U n i t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n ? Y e s , N o . Comments: 4 . Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " e n e r g y " as s t u d i e d i n t h i s U n i t w o r t h w h i l e ? Y e s , N o . Comments: 5 . A s a r e s u l t o f y o u r s t u d i e s i n t h i s U n i t h a v e y o u g a i n e d a n y f u r t h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n a f f e c t y o u r d a i l y l i f e ? Y e s , N o . Comments: 8 5 . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e G i v e n a t t h e C l o s e o f t h e T e a r s 1 Work DO NOT SIGN YOUR NAME G I V E WELL CONSIDERED ANSWERS B E HONEST IN YOUR R E P L I E S R e w r i t e i n r a n k o r d e r t h e u n i t s o f t h i s y e a r ' s w o r k t h a t i n t e r e s t e d y o u m o s t . 1. M a t t e r ( C h e m i s t r y ) 2 . E n e r g y ( P h y s i c s ) 3 . A i r , W e a t h e r and C l i m a t e 4 . W a t e r 5 . E a r t h ( G e o l o g y ) 6 . L i v i n g T h i n g s ( B i o l o g y ) M a r k w i t h a c i r c l e f i v e o f t h e t o p i c s b e l o w w h i c h i n t e r e s t e d y o u t h e m o s t . M a r k w i t h an X f i v e t h a t y o u f o u n d t h e l e a s t i n t e r e s t i n g . The C o m p o s i t i o n o f Compounds G l a c i e r s A t o m s , m o l e c u l e s , e l e c t r o n s H e a t i n g s y s t e m s T h e r m o m e t e r s W a s h i n g m a c h i n e W e a t h e r M e t a l s , o r e s , r o c k s B a r o m e t e r s S t u d y o f w a t e r The E a r t h ' s O r i g i n f u s e s R e f r i g e r a t o r s H y d r a u l i c p r e s s S u n and s t a r s L i g h t R e a d i n g o f t h e e l e c t r i c m e t e r S o u n d Law o f d e f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n s M a c h i n e s A i r c o n d i t i o n i n g W i n d s V o l c a n o e s T e l e p h o n e U s e o f h y g r o m e t e r The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e n e r g y C l i m a t e , p e o p l e and p r o g r e s s Thermos b o t t l e I r o n and S t e e l C o m b u s t i o n V i o l i n W h i c h o f t h e f o u r r e f e r e n c e t e x t b o o k s d i d y o u f i n d ( a) most i n t e r e s t i n g ? ( b ) most u s e f u l ? S c i e n c e f o r Today New E l e m e n t a r y P h y s i c s ( a ) New P r a c t i c a l C h e m i s t r y D y n a m i c B i o l o g y ( b ) 86. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( c o n t ' d . ) 4. D i d y o u f i n d r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e l i b r a r y a d e q u a t e t o y o u r n e e d s f o r t h i s c o u r s e ( G e n e r a l S c i e n c e I V ) ? Y E S NO 5. Do y o u i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e y o u r s t u d i e s i n s c i e n c e n e x t y e a r ? YES NO 6 . I f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e f o r y o u t o " d r o p " s c i e n c e w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s , w o u l d y o u w i s h t o do so? Y E S NO 7 . M a r k y o u r f i r s t , s e c o n d and t h i r d c h o i c e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f m a g a z i n e s o f w h i c h y o u h a v e r e a d a f e w a r t i c l e s . N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c P o p u l a r M e c h a n i c s P o p u l a r S c i e n c e M o n t h l y S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n S c i e n c e D i g e s t S c i e n c e News L e t t e r 8 . Name two b o o k s o f a s c i e n t i f i c n a t u r e ( n o t t h e r e f e r e n c e t e x t s ) w h i c h y o u h a v e r e a d d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r t h a t h a v e i n t e r e s t e d you v e r y m u c h . 87. The F o r m u l a U s e d f o r E s t i m a t i n g an A b s e n t P u p i l ' s S c o r e o n a T e s t , Knowing H i s S c o r e on A n o t h e r T e s t . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know t h e mean s c o r e s a n d t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f b o t h t e s t s a n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t e s t s . The f o r m u l a i s : w h e r e S = e s t i m a t e d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e s c o r e f r o m t h e m e d i a n ^x = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r x y t h e t e s t — = r . x & X <sy y = d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e mean ^ y = s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 

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