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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Roman agriculture as depicted by Cato, Varro, and Vergil Lowe, Shirley Ronald Henry 1938

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ROMAN AGRICULTURE AS DEPICTED BY CATO, VARRO, AID VERGIL by Ronald H. Lowe  A THESIS Submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MikSTER OE ARTS i n the  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October. 1938.  TABLE OF CONTENTS- -  page CHAPTER I.  The I m p o r t a n c e o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n World H i s t o r y  CHAPTER I I . The H i s t o r y  1  of A g r i c u l t u r e  4  CHAPTER I I I . H i s t o r i c a l a n d P o l i t i c a l B a c k g r o u n d of t h e W r i t i n g s o f C a t o , Y a r r o , CHAPTER I V . The C h o i c e o f t h e F a r m  24  CHAPTER V.  33  The E q u i p m e n t  o f the Roman F a r m ...  CHAPTER V I . The M a j o r C r o p s o f Roman A g r i c u l t u r e arid t h e i r P r o d u c t i o n  47  CHAPTER V I I . T h e A n i m a l 3 o f t h e Roman F a r m t h e i r C a r e and T r e a t m e n t  .......  78  CHAPTER V I I I . B i r d s , B e e s , and S m a l l e r A n i m a l s .  94  CHAPTER I X . F e r t i l i z a t i o n and D r a i n a g e ........ 106 CHAPTER X.  The R e l i g i o u s A s p e c t o f Roman .A.^x*ic0.1 t\xx*@  X X 5  CHAPTER X I . The L a b o u r S u p p l y on t h e Roman CHAPTER X I I . G e n e r a l C o n d u c t APPENDIX.  o f t h e F a r m ........ 130  Modern A g r i c u l t u r e  i n Italy  --- 0O0  ....... 139  CHAPTER I  The  Importance of A g r i c u l t u r e i n World H i s t o r y  Although A g r i c u l t u r e i s u n i v e r s a l l y regarded as the b a s i c  industry  of the modern world;,  the f a c t t h a t i t s paramount importance i s as man  himself  i s not always recognized.  In the  ment of A g r i c u l t u r e every c i v i l i z a t i o n has i t s p a r t ; but c o n t r i b u t i o n s  as reminders of i t s greatness.  her l i t e r a t u r e .  played  the more impressive  l e g a c i e s which each c i v i l i z a t i o n has  temples and  develop  to A g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge  have been minimized i n h i s t o r y by  her  o l d as  bequeathed to us  Egypt has  left  her pyramids, B a b y l o n i a her law The  g i f t of P h o e n i c i a  ceramics.  her poetry and  Our memory of Greece centres the deathless  and  i s her alphabe  of Crete, her e x q u i s i t e craftsmanship i n g o l d , and  us  about  beauty of her a r t  her a r c h i t e c t u r e ; w i t h quickened pufee we  silver  recall  and the  grandeur of Rome, her conquering l e g i o n s , her world-  wide Empirej and the s t o r i e d p a t r i o t i s m of her heroes. But  these memories, magnificent and g l o r i o u s though  they are, cannot,  from the standpoint of human w e l f a r e ,  compare i n importance w i t h the humble s t o r y of Farming, which by slow, h e s i t a n t steps has progressed  from  p r i m i t i v e t i l l a g e to the s p e c i a l i z e d science of the present day. • Nor has any one c i v i l i z a t i o n or any one p e r i o d alone been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s e v o l u t i o n ; our knowledge of A g r i c u l t u r e i s the legacy of a l l ages and  of a l l peoples.  Neither has the development of  A g r i c u l t u r e progressed  uniformly through  the c e n t u r i e s .  Just as the Dark Ages represent an e r a of r e g r e s s i o n i n a l l other branches of human knowledge, so d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d A g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n slowly accumulated during previous ages was temporarily l o s t to the human r a c e . i n England  Not u n t i l the A g r i c u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n the eighteenth century d i d A g r i c u l t u r e  once more begin to move forward.  Since that  time  progress has been r a p i d ; b e t t e r methods of c a t t l e breeding, c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of stock, improved methods of c u l t i v a t i o n , the use of commercial all  fertilizers,  these have i n c r e a s e d the y i e l d s of a g r i c u l t u r e  and b e t t e r e d  the l o t of the farmer. Since the development of A g r i c u l t u r e  thus p a r a l l e l s the s t o r y o f the human ..race, i t would be impossible to r e g a r d the A g r i c u l t u r e  of any s p e c i f i c  p e r i o d as a n e n t i t y complete i n i t s e l f .  Therefore,  to obtain a comprehensive understanding of farming as p r a c t i s e d by the Romans, i t seems f i t t i n g , f i r s t to review the h i s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r e from i t s beginnings to the present day; secondly, to consider theory o f A g r i c u l t u r e as revealed  the Roman  by the w r i t i n g s of  Cato, Yarro and V e r g i l ; and f i n a l l y  to sketch the  r e b i r t h of I t a l i a n a g r i c u l t u r e under the F a s c i s t Regime of M u s s o l i n i .  CHAPTER I I  The H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e  In  i t s e a r l i e s t and crudest  sense,  the h i s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r e begins among the Nomadic t r i b e s of Southwestern A s i a .  O r i g i n a l l y man gained  a p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e by hunting,, f i s h i n g , and g a t h e r i n g the v/ild f r u i t s of the f o r e s t .  Gradually,  however, he l e a r n e d t h a t c e r t a i n w i l d animals, notably the horse, the sheep, and the cow, could be domes t i c a t t h i s knowledge represents, the f i r s t t u r a l progress. for  stage of A g r i c u l -  Ho longer was p r i m i t i v e man dependent  h i s existence s o l e l y upon h i s s k i l l  i n the chase;  true, a supply of food was necessary f o r h i s f l o c k s and herds, b u t t h i s was a f f o r d e d by the bounty of Nature.  I f the supply of fodder f a i l e d i n h i s  l o c a l i t y , the p r i m i t i v e shepherd wandered w i t h h i s f l o c k to a new a r e a where the supply was more abundant There was as yet no attempt  to r a i s e crops by human  i n t e r v e n t i o n ; a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d was purely "extensive" or p a s t o r a l .  The second  step i n A g r i c u l t u r a l  progress c o n s i s t e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of d e f i n i t e on the same land year a f t e r year. introduced new  Continuous  crops  cropping  elements i n t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e ;  the s o i l must "be c u l t i v a t e d and f e r t i l i z e d ,  crops  must he sown and harvested - i n a word, the f o r c e s of Nature must be supplemented by. human t o i l . the t o o l s of e a r l y man were few and conception of f e r t i l i z a t i o n Obviously t h i s new  development would take p l a c e , then, not only f e r t i l e , but  such areas e x i s t e d i n the great  r i v e r - v a l l e y s and d e l t a s , and  i t i s here t h a t we  a g r i c u l t u r e s t r i k i n g out to new lower reaches  ineffective, h i s  vague at the b e s t .  i n regions where the s o i l was a l s o easily-worked:  But.  attainments.  find  The  of the N i l e , the v a l l e y s of the T i g r i s  and Euphrates, the a l l u v i a l Ganges, the Hwang-Ho and  p l a i n s of the Indus,  the Yangtze-Kiang,  the stages f o r the next scenes  the  these are  i n the drama <f A g r i c u l -  t u r a l progress. Since husbandry, as p r a c t i s e d by the peoples of I n d i a and China has had l i t t l e  or no  b e a r i n g upon the advancement of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the  Western World, a v e r y b r i e f resume' of farming i n these areas w i l l s u f f i c e .  Among these a n c i e n t peoples of  the-Orient, a g r i c u l t u r e has developed i n the f a c e of n a t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , f o r a l l the major r i v e r s are subject to f l o o d i n g a t v a r i e d and u n p r e d i c t a b l e intervals.  D e s p i t e systems  of f l o o d c o n t r o l developed  through 4500 y e a r s , China i s s t i l l  subject to d i s a s t e r s  from t h i s source; i n 1877, the Hwang-Ho broke  through  i t s man-imposed b a r r i e r s b r i n g i n g death to over a m i l l i o n Chinese; i n 1898, f i f t e e n hundred to  villages  the north and west of Tsinan were inundated with  untold l o s s of l i f e and p r o p e r t y .  Drought  constitutes  a second scourge, no l e s s d i s a s t r o u s than f l o o d s * But i t i s a t r i b u t e to China's t e n a c i t y t h a t , w i t h only h a l f her area s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , a p o p u l a t i o n of f o u r hundred m i l l i o n can be maintained upon the produce  of her f e r t i l e r i v e r - v a l l e y s .  One  cannot help f e e l i n g that the dogged, p e r s e v e r i n g c h a r a c t e r of the t y p i c a l Chinese has been developed i n l a r g e measure by h i s age-old s t r u g g l e to maintain his  existence i n the f a c e of such r e l e n t l e s s  forces.  In I n d i a , too, n a t u r a l hazards to A g r i c u l t u r e abound;  a delayed monsoon means crop f a i l u r e and famine; a premature monsoon, death and  consequent  destruction.  But - i t i s important to notice, t h a t , i n s p i t e of f i v e thousand years of continuous cropping, the f e r t i l i t y of  the s o i l has been maintained by c a r e f u l  cultivation  and f e r t i l i z a t i o n , - a d i r e c t r e f u t a t i o n of a commonlyaccepted theory that land "wears out".  Agricultural  land "'wears out'' only i f the elements drawn from i t by the p l a n t growth are not r e s t o r e d to the s o i l . Turning now  to consider the e a r l y  h i s t o r y of western A g r i c u l t u r e , our a t t e n t i o n i s a r r e s t e d f i r s t by Lower Egypt.  This ancient kingdom  c o n s i s t e d cf the "Valley and the Delta, of the lower M i l e , a t r a c t of l e v e l country approximately s i x hundred miles l o n g from North to South, and twenty m i l e s wide.  Over a l l . t h i s area, the N i l e i n i t s annual f l o o d  spreads a m a r v e l l o u s l y r i c h c o a t i n g of s i l t down from the h i g h table lands of A b y s s i n i a . even w i t h the crude implements  carried Here,  of a n t i q u i t y , the  production of enormous crops and the maintenance great herds were p o s s i b l e . for  I t was  of  no longer necessary  each i n d i v i d u a l to wrest h i s own l i v e l i h o o d from  the s o i l ;  s i n c e one man  c o u l d produce food f o r twenty,  the human energy thus r e l e a s e d could "be expended i n new .spheres of a c t i v i t y . grew and  New  a r t s and i n d u s t r i e s  f l o u r i s h e d ; p o t t e r y , shoemaking,  weaving, these and  glass-blowing  a dozen other trades came i n t o being  In a word, E g y p t i a n a g r i c u l t u r e made E g y p t i a n tion possible.  civiliza-  Furthermore, to c o n t r o l the N i l e a t  f l o o d season and  to conserve water f o r i r r i g a t i o n  during the dry season, an elaborate system of dykes and canals was  e s s e n t i a l ; such works could only be  accomplished by widespread c o - o p e r a t i o n . necessary  co-operation  Kor was  e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h e d ; l o n g and  bloody wars were waged as each i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e s t a t e strove j e a l o u s l y to o b t a i n i t s share Slowly and  even as e a r l y as 3400 B.C.,  of Memphis, had u n i t e d the'petty around him  i n t o one  state.  and  of water.  s u r e l y , however, the c o s t l y l e s s o n  l e a r n e d , and  the  was  Menes, p r i n c e  principalities  Thus, while h i s t o r i a n s  t e l l us of the great achievements of Ancient Egypt i n art,  s c i e n c e and  government, i t would be w e l l to  remember t h a t these were made p o s s i b l e by ment of E g y p t i a n A g r i c u l t u r e .  the  develop-  To the north and east of Egypt l i e s the other centre of e a r l y western c i v i l i z a t i o n , the - F e r t i l e Crescent-  This area, so famous i n  B i b l i c a l h i s t o r y , f a l l s i n t o three n a t u r a l d i v i s i o n s ; . f i r s t , the v a l l e y s of the T i g r i s and Euphrates comparable i n f e r t i l i t y  Rivers,  to the v a l l e y of the K i l e ;  secondly the h i g h t a b l e l a n d of Mesopotamia; l a s t l y the country of S y r i a , which formed the c o n n e c t i n g - l i n k between A s i a and A f r i c a .  The lands of S y r i a  Mesopotamia were mainly grassy uplands,  and  ideally  s u i t e d to the p a s t u r i n g of f l o c k s and herds, whose produce could be e a s i l y f r e i g h t e d down the r i v e r s the populous c i t i e s of the lowlands. Euphrates  to  Along the T i g r i s  v a l l e y s , as i n Egypt, f l o o d c o n t r o l and  •  i r r i g a t i o n systems were necessary; remnants of the vast engineering p r o j e c t s developed remain to the present day. these dyke-protected  The  to these ends  crops produced  on  a l l u v i a l l a n d s , were, i n the main  the same as those of Egypt,- wheat, b a r l e y , sesame, f l a x , 3. l i t t l e garden produce*  c o t t o n , and Few  fabulous f e r t i l i t y  tremendous q u a n t i t i e s of  traces now  remain of the once  of t h i s area; on a l l sides the  barren sands of the desert have d r i f t e d i n , and the uncontrolled  r i v e r s have made marshes where once great  c i t i e s and prosperous farm lands e x i s t e d . fertility  The a c t u a l  of the s o i l , however, seems to be unimpaired,  and modern engineering  p r o j e c t s b i d f a i r to r e s t o r e  the f r u i t f u l n e s s of t h i s ancient  land.  The ultimate  c o l l a p s e of the s t a t e s of the F e r t i l e Crescent was not, however, occasioned by n a t u r a l causes;  centuries  of i n t e r m i t t e n t warfare among themselves weakened them to the point where they f e l l an easy prey to the r i s i n g power, f i r s t  of Macedonia and l a t e r of Home.  It i s  to these European s t a t e s , then, that we must turn f o r subsequent progress i n A g r i c u l t u r e . European a g r i c u l t u r e , i n common w i t h a l l o the r forms ••of-•-European c i v i l i z a t i o n , found its  e a r l i e s t home i n Greece.  r i v e r s to e n r i c h the s o i l ,  no broad v a l l e y s o f f e r i n g  promise of b o u n t i f u l crops. l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s evident  Here e x i s t e d no mighty  Y e t , from a study of e a r l y  that a g r i c u l t u r e formed the  keystone of Greek c i v i l i z a t i o n ; f o r example , i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of A c h i l l e s ' s h i e l d , Homer speaks of farmers t i l l i n g t h e i r f i e l d s , youths and maidens  * I  . • ' - 11 -  p l u c k i n g the grapes i n the v i n e y a r d , and the k i n g surveying h i s lands and the harvesters a t work.  This  p i c t u r e . i s , of course, i d e a l i s t i c , and i t must not be assumed that Greece was an a g r i c u l t u r a l p a r a d i s e . Over most of the country the h i l l y nature of the l a n d scape made the.production-of grapes and o l i v e s more p r o f i t a b l e than the c u l t u r e of c e r e a l s .  In the  Peloponnesus, however, the ground was more l e v e l and here, by c a r e f u l i r r i g a t i o n s p e l t , wheat, and b a r l e y could be grown.  The s o i l lacked the p r o d i g a l  fertility  of d e l t a land; hence some form of f e r t i l i z a t i o n was necessary.  This was accomplished by l e a v i n g a h i g h  stubble a t harvest-time which was l a t e r ploughed  under.  To us t h i s seems a crude and i n e f f i c i e n t method, but we are n e v e r t h e l e s s indebted to the Greeks f o r r e a l i z i n g the need f o r a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z a t i o n and f o r ma-king a beginning upon t h i s important branch of farming. In Rome, as i n Greece, a g r i c u l t u r e was regarded as the most honourable form of human' employment,  -  Our a n c e s t o r s , says C a t o \ when they wished  1.  Cato, Agr.. - a t end of i n t r o d u c t o r y paragraph.  - 12 to p r a i s e a worthy man, p r a i s e d him as a . good farmer and a good husbandman; a man so p r a i s e d was thought to have r e c e i v e d the highest commendation. Prom the sturdy yeoman f a m i l i e s came the C i n c i n n a t i , the S e r r a n i and the Fabians - men whose names loom l a r g e i n the e a r l y h i s t o r y of Home. t e r r i t o r y g r a d u a l l y widened  But as Roman  to i n c l u d e the whole  Mediterranean world, domestic g r a i n could not compete w i t h that imported from Egypt and S i c i l y , where i t s production was  i n f i n i t e l y l e s s expensive.  Such com-  p e t i t i o n might have s p e l l e d the r u i n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n I t a l y , had not the Roman farmer shrewdly turned to other branches o f - f a r m i n g .  The c u l t i v a t i o n of the  vine and the o l i v e , t o which the climate of the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a was  admirably s u i t e d , a t t a i n e d a  new  emphasis was  importance; a new  laid  on the b r e e d i n g  of c a t t l e and sheep; pasture and meadow land f o r the maintenance  of f l o c k s and herds appeared where formerly  had been g r a i n - f i e l d s , and the p r o d u c t i o n of fodder crops to supply feed during the w i n t e r months became a recognized branch of farm a c t i v i t y .  For the f i r s t  time i n the western world, A g r i c u l t u r e had become t r u l y "intensive".  Of the importance of Roman c o n t r i b u t i o n s  to a g r i c u l t u r a l science I s h a l l speak l a t e r i n more detail;  s u f f i c e i t to say f o r the present  unti'l the Nineteenth Century  that not  d i d a g r i c u l t u r e again  reach the. heights which i t a t t a i n e d d u r i n g the l a t e Republic and  e a r l y Empire. Under the l a t e r Empire and  during  the Bark Ages which f o l l o w e d , a g r i c u l t u r e , i n common w i t h a l l other branches of human knowledge, sank i n t o decadence. . The  one ray of l i g h t p i e r c i n g the  i s found during the Moorish  darkness  occupation of Spain.  In  the region about Granada,, i n f e r t i l e v a l l e y s between the ranges of the S i e r r a s , a g r i c u l t u r e was f o s t e r e d by s k i l f u l c u l t i v a t i o n and c a r e f u l i r r i g a t i o n . i n almost  Here  unbelievable p r o f u s i o n grew oranges, f i g s ,  c i t r o n and pomegranates.  P l a n t a t i o n s of mulberry  y i e l d e d food f o r the silkworm;  orchards and  vineyards  c l o t h e d the h i l l s i d e s and looked down upon broad of waving g r a i n .  trees  fields  Small wonder, then, that the Moors  b e l i e v e d that the abode of t h e i r Prophet was i n the Heavens immediately  situated  above Granada.  Elsewhere throughout  Europe, the  A g r i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e i s uniformly a p p a l l i n g .  Farming  •knowledge., slowly accumulated i n Mediterranean  d u r i n g previous c e n t u r i e s  l a n d s , l a y hidden i n manuscripts  i n t e l l i g i b l e only to monks i n the s o l i t u d e of  monasteries  where alone c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g and l i t e r a t u r e l i v e d  on.  In a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d of general lawlessness, "barbarian i n v a s i o n s , supplemented by the  depredations  of wandering brigands, rendered  of the  husbandman one  the l i f e  of c o n t i n u a l jeopardy, and robbed  him  of any i n c e n t i v e to produce more than the b a r e s t n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . G r a d u a l l y , however, some semblance of order evolved from the c h a o t i c s i t u a t i o n . was  an order based  But i t  not upon j u s t i c e , but upon f o r c e ;  a l l forms of human endeavour seemed to be t i n g e d w i t h ' a gloomy hopelessness.  In a g r i c u l t u r e there  the Feudal System, under which the men  who  the s o i l were e i t h e r " s e r f s " or " v i l l e i n s " . two,  the s e r f was  the more unfortunate,  developed  tilled Of  lie was  to the s o i l by law, and could not leave i t ; he not, however, a s l a v e , inasmuch as he c o u l d not s o l d apart from  the l a n d .  the bound •• was' be  When r e q u i r e d , he must  work on h i s l o r d ' s e s t a t e and pay  such dues as h i s l o r d  deemed f i t .  The v i l l e i n ,  on the other'hand, was  free  i n person, and could change land or master at w i l l . Living  c o n d i t i o n s of both s e r f and v i l l e i n were  d e p l o r a b l e ; a mud  hut, p r a c t i c a l l y unfurnished, a t i n y  s t a b l e and a few square f e e t of garden  comprised  the  peasant's home, and even t h i s might be destroyed i f h i s master engaged i n war w i t h some more, powerful neighbour.  Under such c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e and l a b o u r ,  agricultural  progress was m a n i f e s t l y i m p o s s i b l e .  harsh treatment of the farmer i s r e f l e c t e d c a r e l e s s treatment of the s o i l . was  the  i n the  A l l a r a b l e land  d i v i d e d i n t o three great f i e l d s ,  wheat was  The  i n one of which  grown, i n the second rye or b a r l e y , while  t h i r d l a y f a l l o w to r e c u p e r a t e .  The two f i e l d s  under c u l t i v a t i o n i n any year were apportioned i n narrow s t r i p s running the l e n g t h of the f i e l d separated by narrow r i d g e s of t u r f .  A number of s t r i p s ,  scattered at intervals  throughout the f i e l d s ,  the peasant's "farm".  F e r t i l i z a t i o n was  non-existent; c u l t i v a t i o n , a l s o , was ineffective,  and  constituted  practically  crude and  owing to the fewness and inadequacy of  farm implements,  A wooden plow and.harrow, a cumber-  - 16 some high-wheeled c a r t , a crude s i c k l e , a shovel, mattock, and hoe,- these were the instruments of t i l l a g e . Judged by modern standards, crops were  pitifully  meagre; i n view of such haphazard c u l t i v a t i o n they could h a r d l y be otherwise. Such i s the d e p r e s s i n g s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r e from the f a l l of the Roman Empire the  middle of the E i g h t e e n t h Century*  the  American c o l o n i e s were a s s e r t i n g t h e i r  until  But even w h i l e independence,  and France was' moving slowly towards R e v o l u t i o n , developments e q u a l l y important but l e s s were taking place i n England.  startling  There the s o - c a l l e d  " A g r i c u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " had begun; a f t e r  fifteen  hundred years of s t a g n a t i o n farming was once more p r e p a r i n g to move forward. the  The f i r s t , and p o s s i b l y  most important changes, took p l a c e i n crop  rotation.  With the improvements  i n t h i s phase of  a g r i c u l t u r e the name of Viscount Townshend i s f o r e v e r l i n k e d , since i t was he who f i r s t  r e a l i z e d that r o o t -  crops and c l o v e r c o u l d be produced on the land formerly left  fallow.  Townshend's f r i e n d and contemporary,  Jethro i ' u l l , invented a machine whereby seed could  . .>  - 17 -  "be sown i n even rows and c o v e r e d , broadcast too-,  on t h e l a n d .  i n s t e a d o f "being  The b r e e d i n g o f f a r m  animals,  was n o t l o n g n e g l e c t e d ; b y c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f  breeding  stock Robert B a k e w e l l produced  i n weight  sheep  t o those o f a few years e a r l i e r ;  and R o b e r t  C o l l i n g , c a r r y i n g on s i m i l a r  w i t h c a t t l e , were e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l ,  double  Charles  experimentation E a r l y i n the  N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , w i t h improvements i n m e t a l l u r g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , new f a r m m a c h i n e r y b e g a n to a p p e a r ; M c C o r m i c k ' s " r e a p e r " r e p l a c e d the s i c k l e ; t h r e s h i n g machine proved than  the f l a i l ;  by h o r s e s  a crude effective  the c a s t i r o n plow and harrow, drawn  i n s t e a d o f o x e n , s l o w l y o u s t e d t h e i r wooden  predecessors. improved  i n f i n i t e l y more  i n 1834,  B e t t e r roads brought  markets  nearer;  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s made i n t e r c h a n g e o f  i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l e f o r t h e f i r s t  time  since  t h e e n d o f t h e P a x Romana. S i g n i f i c a n t as these changes were, those  of t h e p a s t f i f t y  impressive.  y e a r s h a v e b e e n e v e n more  The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e g a s o l i n e e n g i n e ,  c o u p l e d w i t h t h e development of e l e c t r i c power, has m a t e r i a l l y reduced  t h e drudgery  of farm labour.  The  - 18 r a d i o and the d a i l y newspaper b r i n g crop, market and weather r e p o r t s i n t o the farmer's home; modern systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n permit him to take advantage of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and to market h i s produce at. the most favourable moment.  Mew crops and improved v a r i e t i e s  of the o l d are c o n s t a n t l y being introduced; and  commercial f e r t i l i z e r s  s o i l tests  enable the a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t  not only to l e a r n i n what elements h i s s o i l but a l s o to remedy these d e f i c i e n c i e s .  i s lacking,  In s h o r t ,  the modern farmer i s at once a s c i e n t i s t and a business man.  CHAPTER I I I  The  H i s t o r i c a l Background of the of Gato» Varro and  The  Writings  Vergil  purpose of the  foregoing  resume has "been to place Roman A g r i c u l t u r e i n i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e  i n Agrarian History.  Next a b r i e f  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t of p o l i t i c a l movements upon Roman a g r i c u l t u r e seems e s s e n t i a l . almost t r i t e  to say  that the p o l i t i c a l  under which an author l i v e s w i l l it  is particularly  While i t i s conditions  i n f l u e n c e h i s work,  true that the events of contem-  porary Roman h i s tory e x e r c i s e d a profound e f f e c t , only upon the l i v e s of Cato, Varro, and also upon t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l  Vergil,, but  treatises.  Marcus P o r c i u s Cato was 234 B.C. was  and  d i e d i n 149 B.C.  born i n  Thus h i s e n t i r e l i f e  passed i n the p e r i o d when Rome was  extending her  dominion, i n the West over Carthage, and over Greece and A s i a Minor.  not  This was  i n the East  an age  tremendous achievement f o r Roman, i m p e r i a l i s m ,  of but  one  of sore  Italy.  t r i b u l a t i o n f o r the farming c l a s s e s of  Widespread d e v a s t a t i o n  of I t a l i a n farm-lands  by Hannibaljand continuous employment of the farmers i n the armies of Home, had reduced a g r i c u l t u r e and the welfare levels.  of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t  to c o n s t a n t l y  lower  But Cato, w i t h that s t e r n t e n a c i t y of purpose  which c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s censorship  and which kept  a l i v e h i s b i t t e r , deathless  of Carthage, wrote  hatred  down I n h i s De A g r i C u l t u r a the f r u i t of h i s own p r a c t i c a l experience, that p o s t e r i t y might read and thereby b e n e f i t . at  In h i s w r i t i n g there i s no attempt  o r d e r l y arrangement, no a r t i f i c i a l  embellishment  of word or phrase, only a s e r i e s of i n s t r u c t i o n s which are d i r e c t , b l u n t , and b r i e f to a point  often  approaching o b s c u r i t y . The De Re R u s t i c a of Varro was w r i t t e n i n the decade f o l l o w i n g the a s s a s s i n a t i o n of J u l i u s Caesar, a p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y comparable to the troubled e r a which Cato knew.  Nov/ nearing h i s  e i g h t i e t h year, Varro had watched the career of C i c e r o w i t h i t s t r a g i c ending, the machinations of the F i r s t Triumvirate,  and from Pompey's camp the long  duel between h i s master and Caesar. his  Even as he wrote  c o n t r i b u t i o n to Roman a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge we  can "imagine him pondering the outcome of the i n c r e a s i n g enmity between Marc Antony and Octavian.  But w i t h  the calm detachment of the true p h i l o s o p h e r ,  he could  w r i t e a l u c i d and s c h o l a r l y account of the methods of Koman a g r i c u l t u r e despite the p o l i t i c a l i n s e c u r i t y of his  own p o s i t i o n and the f a c t  that h i s l i f e ,  w e l l r e a l i z e d , was nearing i t s c l o s e .  as he  His work l a c k s  the blunt f o r e e f u l n e s s of Gate's epigrammatic s t a t e ments but the s t u d i e d order i n arrangement and ?  treatment of subject matter a f f o r d s a remarkably c l e a r conception  of the a g r i c u l t u r e of h i s p e r i o d .  '.  Although a much younger man than  Varro, Y e r g i l may be regarded as h i s contemporary, s i n c e t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l w r i t i n g s were undertaken i n the" same year - 31 B.C.  T h e i r p o i n t s of view, however,  d i f f e r e d w i d e l y ; whereas V a r r o s f  work was p u r e l y  d i d a c t i c , V e r g i l ' s was motivated by a deeper, l e s s tangible f e e l i n g .  R e a l i z i n g f u l l w e l l the havoc wrought  upon a g r i c u l t u r e by two decades of C i v i l War, V e r g i l  felt  that the s a l v a t i o n of Koman s o c i e t y l a y i n a  r e t u r n to the v i r t u e s e x e m p l i f i e d by l i f e country.  i n the  The task was one which l a y near to the poet's  h e a r t , f o r he was h i m s e l f a man of the country, deeply imbued w i t h a love f o r h i s n a t i v e c o u n t r y s i d e . his  Of  love were born the f o u r books of the Georgics,  where, i n masterly hexameters, V e r g i l d e a l t s u c c e s s i v e l y w i t h the c u l t i v a t i o n of the s o i l , the care of vineyards, the r e a r i n g of f l o c k s and herds, and f i n a l l y the keeping of bees. work accomplished  Whether or not h i s  i t s intended purpose i s now of  l i t t l e consequence; the f a c t remains that i n the Georgics Koman a g r i c u l t u r e had found i t s most eloquent expression. Owing to the e n t i r e l y  different  method o f treatment which each of these authors employs, a d i r e c t comparison and c o n t r a s t of t h e i r works would be m a n i f e s t l y u n f a i r .  Consequently, i t  seems b e t t e r t o regard Koman a g r i c u l t u r e as f a l l i n g under v a r i o u s headings, and w i t h these d i v i s i o n s of the subject i n mind, to form as complete a survey as  .  )  - 23  -  p o s s i b l e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of the Romans  CHAPTER IV  '  The Choice of the Farm  The major problem c o n f r o n t i n g the Roman farmer i s s t i l l  of prime importance  twentieth century s u c c e s s o r .  to h i s  The problem i s that of  choosing, a farm; i n making h i s s e l e c t i o n the farmer must take i n t o account an almost b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of  related factors.  A b r i e f survey of the p r i n c i p a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s governing the modern farmer's choice w i l l serve as a f i t t i n g the  screen on which to p r o j e c t  advice o f f e r e d to t h e i r contemporaries by Cato,  Varro, and V e r g i l . The f i r s t  step i n s e l e c t i n g a farm  c o n s i s t s i n a c a r e f u l study of the s o i l ;  i f the  land i s already c l e a r e d and under c u l t i v a t i o n , the p r o s p e c t i v e farmer must c o n s i d e r , f i r s t , of  the q u a l i t y  the s o i l , and secondly the treatment which i t has  r e c e i v e d from i t s former owner. r i c h i t may  S o i l , no matter  how  be n a t u r a l l y , cannot be i n good condi t i o n  if  i t has been continuously cropped without  fertilization.  adequate  Land which has been l e t out on l e a s e  w i l l ' bear even c l o s e r s c r u t i n y i n t h i s many r e n t e r s operate  connection;  on the theory of s e l l i n g a l l  p o s s i b l e produce and r e s t o r i n g a minimum amount of fertilizer  to the s o i l * Provided,  then,  that the  prospective  buyer can assure himself that the s o i l i s n a t u r a l l y fertile  and  i n good "heart", he should next t u r n h i s  a t t e n t i o n to the water supply.  I f the farm i s favoured  with a p e r e n n i a l running stream, the problem decreases i n importance; such good f o r t u n e , however, i s r a r e , and  i n the great m a j o r i t y of i n s t a n c e s , the farm must  depend f o r i t s water upon subterranean  sources.  e x i s t i n g w e l l s or springs ensure a constant dependable  supply, no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s  but, i f w e l l s have to be dug should and in  If  and necessary;  or d r i l l e d , the buyer  enquire l o c a l l y as to the cost of such work,  also the approximate depth of s a t i s f a c t o r y w e l l s the d i s t r i c t .  should  I f i r r i g a t i o n i s necessary,  he  take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the adequacy of h i s  own water supply, or the cost per u n i t i f he intends to purchase from a privately-owned or community p r o j e c t . Conversely, i f the area i s dyked, he must take i n t o account  the a d d i t i o n a l tax or commitment f o r t h i s  s e r v i c e and regard i t as a f i x e d overhead  charge.  Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and one which i s f r e q u e n t l y overlooked, i s the problem of drainage* cement, and  I f the e x i s t i n g drains are of t i l e of s u f f i c i e n t c a p a c i t y to handle  excess water, the matter may f u r t h e r thought.  or  the  he dismissed without  I f , however, the e x i s t i n g system  depends upon open d r a i n s , or upon underground d r a i n s made of wood, the purchaser should estimate  closely  the cost of keeping the former i n good c o n d i t i o n and of r e p l a c i n g the l a t t e r *  I f a new  seems a d v i s a b l e , he should observe  drainage system the slope of the  l a n d , and l i k e w i s e the f a c i l i t i e s f o r o u t l e t s to h i s main d r a i n s .  An accurate chart of the e n t i r e  drainage  system should be obtained or compiled, and kept f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e i n case breaks or stoppages  occur*  In a d d i t i o n to the above f a c t o r s ,  which p r i m a r i l y concern  the l a n d , there are other  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e q u a l l y important, which p e r t a i n to the l i f e * of the farmer and h i s f a m i l y .  These, i n a general  way, are dependent on the neighbourhood. roads good?  A r e the  A r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s adequate?•  Are there markets near a t hand f o r the purchase,of n e c e s s i t i e s and the s a l e of s u r p l u s produce? churches and schools a v a i l a b l e ? for  s o c i a l intercourse?  Are  Is there opportunity  L a s t , but by no means l e a s t ,  i s a supply of labour a v a i l a b l e i n the rush seasons? The above are, b r i e f l y , the p o i n t s to be considered i n the purchase of a farm a l r e a d y i n production.  I f , on the other hand, the purchaser  p r e f e r s to buy v i r g i n land and-clear i t h i m s e l f , f u r t h e r d e t a i l s must be taken i n t o account.  He must  form as, c l o s e an estimate as p o s s i b l e of l a n d - c l e a r i n g c o s t s , costs which w i l l be determined  by the nature  and d e n s i t y of the overgrowth, the stumps and l a r g e rocks to be removed and the value of the land when finally  cleared.  Against t h i s cost he should  balance  the value of the timber when removed, e i t h e r as lumber'  ~ 28 or as f u e l * Turning now to a study of these p o i n t s i n our Roman authors * i t w i l l he found that a phenomenal number of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are d e a l t with i n their writings.  Cato's i n s t r u c t i o n s concerning 1 the purchase of a farm are b r i e f , but cogent. When you are c o n s i d e r i n g the purchase of a farm, keep t h i s i n mind - that you do not buy r a s h l y , that you do not s t i n t your e f f o r t s i n examining (the l a n d ) , and that you do not consider i t enough to go over the land once only. The more you v i s i t a farm, provided i t be a good one, the more i t w i l l d e l i g h t you.  This advice might w e l l be tendered to a farmer of the 2 twentieth century. Re c o n t i n u e s , Observe how the neighbours f a r e ; i n a good d i s t r i c t they should f a r e w e l l ... The d i s t r i c t should have a good c l i m a t e , one not subject to damaging storms; the s o i l should be r i c h and n a t u r a l l y f e r t i l e . If possible, the farm should l i e a t the f o o t of a mount a i n , f a c i n g the south, i n a h e a l t h f u l l o c a t i o n ; there should be a good supply of workmen a v a i l a b l e . The farm should be w e l l watered , and near a prosperous town, or the sea, or a navigable r i v e r , or a good, muchused highway. The l a s t sentence quoted shows p a r t i c u l a r l y how f u l l y  1. 2.  Cato, De A g r i ..Cultura^ 1, ad. i n i t . Cato, Agr* !..,„ 2, 3, 4.  Cato r e a l i z e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r good markets and f o r adequate systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . In the De Re K u s t i c a , Varro echoes Cato's i n s t r u c t i o n s , and t r e a t s of them i n c o n s i d e r a b l y more d e t a i l .  An e a r l y statement, which Varro a t t r i b u t e s 1 to "ffundani.ua, i s e s p e c i a l l y worthy of n o t i c e . I t a l i a n s seem to have two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n mind i n farming - whether the land w i l l y i e l d a f a i r r e t u r n f o r the expense and labour, and whether the l o c a t i o n i s h e a l t h f u l or not. I f e i t h e r one or the other i s l a c k i n g , and he i s determined to farm (such land) i n s p i t e of t h i s , he should be taken i n hand by h i s r e l a t i v e s . i'or no sane man should d e s i r e to i n c u r the cost and expense of such c u l t i v a t i o n i f he sees that i t cannot be regained, or even i f a crop can be produced, that i t w i l l be destroyed by the p e s t i l e n t i a ' of the locality. 1  By  the term " p e s t i l e n t i a " , Varro probably r e f e r s to  b l i g h t or disease conditions  a r i s i n g from f o u l moisture or a i r  engendered by a l o w - l y i n g or swampy 2  Continuing w i t h the same theme, Varro s t a t e s  district. that,  even i f the land i s r i c h , i f the r e g i o n i s u n h e a l t h f u l , misfortune prevents the farmer from o b t a i n i n g h i s p r o f i t , and endangers, not only h i s p r o f i t , but h i s  1. 2.  Varro, R.R.I., M. S .. I b i d , i x . c f . a l s o , I , i v , 3. y  l i f e as w e l l .  With these i n j u n c t i o n s i n mind, Varro  thus summarizes h i s conception of the i d e a l •1 f o r a farm.  location  A lowland d i s t r i c t , s l o p i n g r e g u l a r l y i n one d i r e c t i o n , i s p r e f e r a b l e to one which i s perf e c t l y l e v e l , f o r the l a t t e r has no o u t f a l l f o r the water and becomes swampy. The most unfavourable s i t e of a l l i s one which i s i r r e g u l a r i n conformation, f o r i t becomes 'sour' owing to stagnant p o o l s . The n a t u r a l i n f e r e n c e from t h i s statement  i s that land  of an even slope presents a r e l a t i v e l y simple drainage problem, even as i n the present  day.  With regard to the s o i l  of the  farm, Varro draws a t t e n t i o n to the ever-important f a c t that the nature and type of the s o i l what crops s h a l l be produced.  determine 2 He comments,  A H f b r o p s cannot be s u c c e s s f u l l y r a i s e d on the same l a n d . Just as one v a r i e t y of s o i l i s s u i t e d to the v i n e , and another to g r a i n , so each of the other v a r i e t i e s i s s u i t e d to one p a r t i c u l a r crop* V e r g i l uses almost the same words , supporting h i s atatement w i t h r e f e r e n c e s to the produce Pontus, and E p i r u s .  1. 2. 3.  of I n d i a ,  In other words, one may  V a r r o , R.R. I , v i , 6. I b i d , v i i , 5 and 6. V e r g i l , G-eorg. I, 50-63.  summarize  t h e i r advice by s a y i n g that the s u c c e s s f u l farmer  will  adapt h i s crops to the c a p a b i l i t i e s of h i s farm, or c o n v e r s e l y , choose h i s farm w i t h an eye to the crops which he d e s i r e s to produce.  I t need h a r d l y be  pointed out that the wisdom of t h i s advice has not diminished i n twenty c e n t u r i e s . 1 In h i s observations the surroundings of the faring  concerning  that i s , the neighbour-  hood i n which the farm i s l o c a t e d , Varro might almost be a contemporary a g r i c u l t u r a l w r i t e r .  Are c o n d i t i o n s  on neighbouring farms, he asks, such as to b e n e f i t or i n j u r e our land?  Are the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  roads and r i v e r s * adequate?  systems,  A r e t h e r e markets from  which n e c e s s i t i e s may be purchased, and at which farm produce may be s o l d ?  A r e there i n the d i s t r i c t  p h y s i c i a n s , f u l l e r s , workmen, who may be c a l l e d i n when r e q u i r e d ?  A l l these are c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , he  concludes, which are d e s e r v i n g of c a r e f u l  thought  before the farm i s purchased. The f o r e t h o u g h t which Cato and Yarro  1.  V a r r o , R.R.  I , x v i , 1-6.  - 32 e n j o i n upon the p r o s p e c t i v e buyer of a farm proves that each of these authors r e a l i z e d that there are two p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s to he considered - f i r s t ,  the a b i l i t y  of the farm to produce revenue, and secondly the desirability to l i v e . it  of the neighbourhood as a place i n which  Even a f t e r the lapse of two thousand y e a r s ,  i s safe to say that these two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s should  s t i l l be the governing f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n of a farm, and that the modern farmer would be w e l l advised to keep the advice of Cato and Varro c l e a r l y i n mind when making h i s purchase.  CHAPTER V  The Equipment  •"  • •  of the Roman Farm  In view of the emphasis Cato and Varro place upon the s e l e c t i o n  which both  of the farm,  one might be i n c l i n e d to assume that other departments of farm management were subordinate to t h i s main problem. the  Such a c o n c e p t i o n has a b a s i s i n f a c t , s i n c e  soil  of the farm d i r e c t l y determines the nature  and v a r i e t y  of the produce.  As the experienced farmer  has always r e a l i z e d , however, the n a t u r a l  fertility  of the s o i l must be made e f f e c t i v e by c a r e f u l and thorough c u l t i v a t i o n . certain  tools  To accomplish t h i s  and implements a r e e s s e n t i a l ;  number and v a r i e t y w i l l  depend, f i r s t  objective, their  upon the nature  of the crops produced and secondly upon the a r e a of the  farm.  Under the general heading of "farm, equipment"  must be i n c l u d e d not only " t o o l s  of c u l t i v a t i o n " but  also housing accommodation f o r the farmer and h i s workmen; barns f o r l i v e s t o c k ,  storage sheds, and  f a c i l i t i e s f o r s t o r i n g the crops u n t i l s o l d or used on the farm.  I n a. g e n e r a l way, a farm should have ,  s u f f i c i e n t t o o l s and implements to handle the farm-work adequately, and s u f f i c i e n t storage f a c i l i t i e s all  the produce.  spell, f i r s t ,  to house  A shortage i n e i t h e r respect w i l l  i n a b i l i t y to take advantage of favourable  s o i l or weather c o n d i t i o n s , and secondly an i n a b i l i t y to p r o t e c t the produce from inclement weather.  Con-  v e r s e l y , too extensive equipment w i l l mean increased capital  expenditure and consequent  reduced r e t u r n s  upon the money i n v e s t e d . Cato remarks, i n a b r i e f 1 but p e r t i n e n t statement, L i t t l e p r o f i t w i l l be l e f t i f the farm be over-extravagant. Although he intends to formulate a general p r i n c i p l e , h i s statement purchase  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to the  of implements and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  farm b u i l d i n g s . At the outset two p o i n t s on which Roman terminology d i f f e r s from our modern usage should be noted.  1.  These are, f i r s t  Cato, Agr.  I, 6.  the denotation of the  term "equipment" and secondly the meaning of the w o r l " v i l l a " , as used "by Cato and Varro.  The term equipment  i n modern parlance a p p l i e s to inanimate whereas our Roman authors  objects only,  i n c l u d e under t h i s t i t l e a l l  the workmen necessary to carry out the farm work.  This  conception, strange as i t may seem to us, becomes n a t u r a l when one r e c a l l s that the work was performed almost  e n t i r e l y by s l a v e labour. The workl " v i l l a "  as used i n the  modern sense, a p p l i e s to a house or home i n the country.  To the Roman, however a v i l l a meant the  e n t i r e group... of b u i l d i n g s on the farm. not separated from one another  These were  as on farms of the  present day, but were a l l grouped together about a c e n t r a l courtyard - a convenient arrangement, and one well-adapted  to defence, should the n e c e s s i t y a r i s e .  The- v i l l a was, i n many instanc-.es* surrounded  by a  fence; of such fences there were s e v e r a l types, each of which Varro describes i n the f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l e d 1 manner.  1.  Varro, R.R.  I, x i v .  There are f o u r types of defences, the f i r s t , n a t u r a l , the second, r u s t i c , the t h i r d , m i l i t a r y , and t h e f o u r t h , masonry. The f i r s t type, the n a t u r a l , i s a hedge p l a n t e d w i t h * s a p l i n g s or thorn hushes; i t has roots and i s a l i v e and consequently does not f e a r the b l a z i n g t o r c h of the wanton passer-by. The second type, the r u s t i c , i s a l s o of wood, but. i s not a l i v e ; i t i s made of stakes p l a n t e d t h i c k l y and interwoven w i t h s a p l i n g s , or of posts w i t h holes bored through, and through the holes r a i l s running lengthwise; or i t may be made of trimmed trees w i t h the branches d r i v e n i n t o the ground, the trees being placed end to end. The t h i r d type of fence i s the m i l i t a r y enclosure, namely a trench and bank of e a r t h . The trench i s adequate only i f i t can hold a l l the r a i n that f a l l s or has s u f f i c i e n t slope that the water w i l l run away. The bank i s most s a t i s f a c t o r y i f i t i s set c l o s e to the d i t c h and on the inner side of i t , or steep enough that i t cannot be climbed e a s i l y . This type of fence i s u s u a l l y constructed along the p u b l i c roads or along streams ... Banks without d i t c h e s are c a l l e d w a l l s . The f o u r t h type of fence i s a masonry w a l l of which there are f o u r general types - stone, burned b r i c k , sun-baked b r i c k , or e a r t h and stone. A fence of any of the above types may also be used to enclose the whole farm, or e l s e the boundaries may be secured by p l a n t i n g t r e e s ; a c a r e f u l marking of the boundaries,  Varro observes  and l a w - s u i t s .  1.  Varro, R. K.  , w i l l prevent q u a r r e l s  N e i t h e r he nor Cato makes any suggestion :  I , XT, a d i n i t .  r e g a r d i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the expense  entailed  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g boundary fences; p o s s i b l y , as i n modern p r a c t i c e , the expense was the  shared e q u a l l y by  two owners a f f e c t e d * In  determining the neceasary  amount of equipment, Cato s e l e c t s two farms, one of 1 240 i u g e r a , the second of 100 i u g e r a , as the bases for  his calculations.  I t i s worthy of note that the  very d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s he gives w i t h respect to the be  f i r s t farm presuppose that the main crop s h a l l 2 olives, For an o l i v e y a r d of 240 i u g e r a , he a d v i s e s , the f o l l o w i n g equipment i s necessary: a farm manager, a housekeeper, f i v e Yforkmen, three teamsters, one m u l e - d r i v e r , one swineherd, one shepherd - 13 men i n t o t a l ; 3 yoke of oxen, 3 mules f o r h a u l i n g manure, one m i l l - a s s j and 100 sheep; f i v e o i l - p r e s s i n g machines, one copper v e s s e l h o l d i n g 180 g a l l o n s , complete w i t h a copper top, 3 i r o n hooks, 3 w a t e r - v e s s e l s , 2 f u n n e l s , 1 copper v e s s e l h o l d i n g 30 g a l l o n s , w i t h a copper cover, 3 hooks, 1 small bowl, 2 o i l - j a r s , 1 j a r h o l d i n g f i f t y g a l l o n s , 3 l a d l e s , 1 water bucket, 1 b a s i n , 1 small pot, 1 ewer, 1 p l a t t e r 1 watering-can, 1 l a d l e , 1 c a n d l e s t i c k , 1 p i n t measure. 3 l a r g e c a r t s . 6 ploughs complete w i t h shares, 3 yokes ..complete w i t h t r a c e s , 6 sets of harness f o r the oxen, 1 harrow,  1. 2.  A iugerum i s 28,800 square f e e t , approximately 2/3 of an a c r e . Cato, De A g r i C u l t u r a . X.  7 manure-baskets, 3 small v e s s e l s . 3 blanketpads f o r the mules; the i r o n t o o l s r e q u i r e d are as f o l l o w s - 8 i r o n f o r k s , 8 hoes, 4 spades, - 5 shovels, 2 rakes w i t h f o u r t e e t h , 8 scythes, *5 b i l l - h o o k s , 5 pruning hooks, 3 axes, 3 wedges, 1 h a n d - m i l l , 1 set of f i r e tongs, 1 f i r e - r a k e , 2 b r a z i e r s , 100 o i l v e s s e l s , 12 v a t s , 10 v e s s e l s to hold grape-pulp, 10 f o r amurca , 10 w i n e - j a r s , 20 containers f o r g r a i n , 1 container f o r l u p i n e , 10 p r e s e r v i n g j a r s , 1 bath tub, 1 wash tub, 2 hand b a s i n s , covers f o r j a r s and v e s s e l s , 1 donkey m i l l , 1 hand m i l l , 1 S p a n i s h m i l l , 3 c o l l a r s , 1 wooden t r a y , 2 copper d i s k s , 2 t a b l e s , 3 l a r g e benches, 1 bench f o r the bedroom, 3 f o o t s t o o l s , 4 c h a i r s , 2 s o f a s , 1 couch f o r the bedroom, 4 hammocks, 3 bunks, 1 wooden mortar, 1 f u l l e r ' s mortar, 1 clothes loom, 2 mortars, 1 p e s t l e f o r c r u s h i n g beans, 1 f o r g r a i n , 1 f o r seed, 1 f o r nuts, 1 peck measure, 1 h a l f - p e c k measure, 8 mattresses, 8 covers, 16 cushions, 10 t a b l e covers, 3 towels, 6 hoods.for the workmen. All  t h i s v a r i e d equipment i s necessary,  for  the l i f e and work of the farm.  d e c l a r e s Cato,  For the v i n e y a r d of one hundred i u g e r a , Cato l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g equipment as  necessary  1 farm manager, 1 housekeeper, 10 l a b o u r e r s , 1 teamster, 1 mule d r i v e r , 1 willow-worker, 1 swineherd, a t o t a l of 16 persons; 2 oxen, 2 donkeys f o r farm work, 1 f o r the m i l l ; 3 presses, vats w i t h a c a p a c i t y to c o n t a i n f i v e vintages of 96,000 g a l l o n s , 20 vats f o r grape pulp, 20 to hold g r a i n , w i t h tops and covers f o r each, 6 vessels, covered with Spanish  1. 2.  Amurca - the watery residue l e f t a f t e r the o i l had been extracted from the o l i v e s . For a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of i t s uses see Chapter X I I . Cato, Agr. XI  - 39  -  broom, 4 s i x - g a l l o n j a r s , 2 f u n n e l s , 3 s t r a i n e r s , 3 e x t r a s t r a i n e r s f o r removing the flower, 10 v e s s e l s f o r the j u i c e s ; 2 c a r t s , 2 ploughs„ 1 wagon-yoke, 1 yoke f o r e a r r i n g grapes, 1 donkey-yoke, 1 copper d i s k , 1 set of harness f o r the m i l l , 1 copper v e s s e l to h o l d 120 'gallons; 1 watering-can, 3 i r o n hooks, 1 copper b o i l e r h o l d i n g 120 g a l l o n s , 1 b a s i n , 1 small pot, 1 wash b a s i n , 1 water bucket, 1 l a d l e , 1 c a n d l e s t i c k , 4 beds, 1 bench, 2 t a b l e s , 1 wo oden tray, 1 c l o t h e s chest, 2 c l o t h e s c l o s e t s , 6 long benches, 1 waterwheel , 1 peck measure bo und wi th i r o n , 1 h a l f peek measure, 1 washtub, 1 bath tub, 1 vat f o r l u p i n e s , 10 l a r g e pots; 2 sets of oxharness, 3 complete sets of donkey harness, . 3 pack saddles, 3 v e s s e l s to h o l d vane dregs, 3 donkey m i l l s , 1 hand m i l l ; the f o l l o w i n g i r o n t o o l s are a l s o necessary - 5 brush-hooks, 6 tree-hooks, 3 pruning hooks, 5 axes, 4 wedges, 2 ploughs, 10 f o r k s , 6 spades, 4 shovels, 2 four-toothed rakes, 5 manure baskets; 40 grape-knives, 10 s i c k l e s , 2 b r a z i e r s , 2 sets of tongs, 1 f i r e rake, 20 Amerine baskets, 40 planting-baskets or troughs, 40 wooden scoop-shovels, 2 wooden t r a y s , 4 mattresses, 4 covers, 6 cushions, 6 table covers, 3 napkins, 6 hoods f o r the workmen. In perusing equipment and f u r n i s h i n g s one  the f o r e g o i n g l i s t cannot help but  impressed by Cato's meticulous a t t e n t i o n t o  of  be  detail.  At f i r s t glance, however, i t might seem that Cato i s i n c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s estimate  of the number of  labourers r e q u i r e d on the two farms, inasmuch as suggests a t o t a l of 16 f o r the 100  he  i u g e r a farm, and  - 40 only 13 f o r the 240 i u g e r a farm. discrepancy a r i s e s from the f a c t farm i s to be devoted  This  apparent  that the smaller  e n t i r e l y to the c u l t u r e of the  v i n e , a p l a n t which r e q u i r e s constant care and c u l t i v a tion.  The l a r g e r farm, on the other hand i s to be  devoted  to o l i v e orchards, which r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y  l i t t l e care or a t t e n t i o n except a t harvest-time. the l a r g e r farm, a l s o , Cato advises keeping  On  one hundred  sheep; the pasture and meadow l a n d - r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r sustenance would n a t u r a l l y c u r t a i l the p r o d u c t i v e area..  Consequently,  i t i s c l e a r that Cato i s basing  h i s estimate, not upon acreage, but upon the type of crops produced* P o s s i b l y a b r i e f statement  made  1 by Varro  r e g a r d i n g the number of labourers i s as  valuable as C a t o s minute i n s t r u c t i o n s ; he suggests T  that the owner should observe  other farms i n h i s 2  neighbourhood and be guided by t h e i r example. a p p a r e n t l y , found  the subject of farm equipment  Vergil , ill-  s u i t e d to expression i n hexameters, f o r he dismisses 1. 2.  Varro, K. R. I , x v i i i , 7. V e r g i l , Georg. I , 160-176.  - 41  -  the t o p i c i n l e s s than twenty l i n e s , w i t h references  casual  to "the crooked plough", "the harrow of  ponderous weight", and  "the  slow-moving wains of Ceres,  the E l e u s i n i a n Mother"'. With regard  to the b u i l d i n g s of  the  farm,three f a c t o r s appear to have been uppermost i n the Roman mind. follows:  These might be b r i e f l y s t a t e d as  f i r s t , the cost of c o n s t r u c t i o n ;  secondly,  the r e l a t i o n of the s i z e of the v i l l a to the s i z e of the farm; t h i r d , the l o c a t i o n of the b u i l d i n g s on 1 farm. has  the  Cato , w i t h h i s customary emphasis upon d e t a i l ,  l e f t us minute i n s t r u c t i o n s regarding  construction  costs and methods; i n b r i e f , the owner i s to timber, stone, lime, sand, water, straw and  provide clay,  w h i l e the c o n t r a c t o r s u p p l i e s the necessary workmen. This d i v i s i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s d i f f e r e n c e from the modern p r a c t i c e , whereby the c o n t r a c t o r , f o r an i n c l u s i v e p r i c e , s u p p l i e s both labour and  materials  of c o n s t r u c t i o n .  regard  Cato, however, does not  b u i l d i n g as the f i r s t duty of the farmer; "when one  1.  Cato, Agr.  XIV,  XV  1 has reached  the age of t h i r t y - s i x " , he advises , "he  should b u i l d , provided that the farm i s completely planted". first  I n other words, the farmer should attend  to the s e t t i n g out of p r o d u c t i v e crops, and  consider b u i l d i n g only when t h i s has been done. Both Cato and Varro devote cons i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the s i z e of the v i l l a . A t the • outset, the l a t t e r makes the f o l l o w i n g statement: Many mis takes a r i s e i f the measurement of the farm i s not c a r e f u l l y observed, f o r some b u i l d the v i l l a too small i n p r o p o r t i o n to the s i z e of the farm, others too l a r g e , e i t h e r of which r e a c t s against the farm and the revenue therefrom.. 2  The  import  of t h i s remark i s q u i t e c l e a r ; b u i l d i n g s  too l a r g e are over-expensive;  b u i l d i n g s which are  too small do not c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t storage-space to house a l l the crops, implements, and general equipment of  the farm. 3  Varro adds  1. 2.  3.  To the blanket statement  quoted above,  that the nature of the crops w i l l  Cato, Agr. I l l , 1. Varro, K. R. I, x i , 1. c f . a l s o , Cato, Agr. I l l , 1 ad f i n . , 2„ " I t a a e d i f i c e s , ne v i l l a fundum quaerat, neve fundus v i l l a m . " / Varro, R. R. I, x i , 2.  n e c e s s i t a t e a v a r i a t i o n i n the type of b u i l d i n g s cons true t e d  s  inasmuch as a g r a i n farm w i l l r e q u i r e  l a r g e g r a n a r i e s , a v i n e y a r d , extensive wine c e l l a r s , 1 etc.  Cato makes the f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i o n  farmer have well-cons true ted b u i l d i n g s ,  that  the  oil-cellars,  granary and a p l e n t i f u l supply of storage v e s s e l s for  o i l and wine, i n order that he may  hold h i s  produce f o r a good market; t h i s w i l l enhance h i s p r o f i t , h i s e f f i c i e n c y and h i s good name. Barns f o r 2 c a t t l e , he adds , should be s t r o n g l y b u i l t i n every d e t a i l , w i t h racks above the mangers i n which hay  may  be p l a c e d ; the presence of such racks w i l l prevent the c a t t l e from wasting food by trampling i t underfoot. To the u n i n i t i a t e d , t h i s l a t t e r item may t r i f l i n g importance;  seem of  i t i s a t t e n t i o n to j u s t  such  d e t a i l s , however, which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the s u c c e s s f u l farmer. In choosing a l o c a t i o n f o r the 3 farm b u i l d i n g s , Cato merely remarks be^well-situated". 1. 2. 3.  that they should  Varro, however, a m p l i f i e s  Cato, Agr. I l l , 2. I b i d . IM, 1, ad i n i t . I b i d , IV, i n med.  this  1 statement c o n s i d e r a b l y »  The water-supply, he i n s i s t s  should be c a r e f u l l y considered, both w i t h respect to . 2 q u a n t i t y and l o c a t i o n . Secondly, the dwelling-house .should be p l a c e d , i f p o s s i b l e , on a h i l l - t o p , presumably f o r the sake of dryness and easy drainage. 3 Barns  f o r the c a t t l e and sheep  should be placed  p r e f e r a b l y at the f o o t of a wooded h i l l , f a c i n g the most h e a l t h f u l winds of the l o c a l i t y ; swamps and river-banks should be avoided as these are not only damp, but subject to plagues of i n s e c t s and t i n y "germs","which cannot be seen by the eye, but enter the  body through the mouth and nose and b r i n g about  serious i l l n e s s e s " .  B u i l d i n g s , he adds, which l i e i n  depressions are a l s o subject to f l o o d s and to a t t a c k s by robber-bands. the  Care must be taken to ensure that  c a t t l e - b a r n s w i l l be warm i n w i n t e r and that  storage sheds are dry and warm. As an a i d to dryness, 4 Cato suggests a p l a s t e r , which can be made as  1. '  2  3. 4.  V a r r o , J * . R. I.xi.-, 2. I b i d , l , x i i i , 7 ad f i n . By " v i l l a " i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , Varro i s r e f e r r i n g to the master's house, not the quarters f o r the s l a v e s . I b i d , I., x i i . Cato, Agr. cxxviii.  - 45 follows: Pour amurca over e a r t h as chalky or r e d d i s h as p o s s i b l e , and add straw-chaff; l e t i t steep ' f o r f o u r days, then mix i t w e l l with a spade. Then p l a s t e r (the w a l l s ) w i t h i t . Moisture w i l l not harm t h i s c o a t i n g , nor w i l l mice make holes t h e r e i n , no weeds w i l l grow i n i t , nor w i l l i t crack. When one compares the minute instructions  formula-ted by Cato f o r the working  equipment of the farm with the somewhat vague instructions  r e g a r d i n g the d w e l l i n g , he cannot  to observe t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of the farm was s i d e r e d of i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r importance comforts  of l i v i n g .  In f a c t , Varro  compares the "luxury" of h i s own  con-  than the  caustically  age with the t h r i f t  of the a n c i e n t s , among whom he would include  fail  undoubtedly  Cato.  1 A farm, is..more p r o f i t a b l e v he warns, i f you. c o n s t r u c t your b u i l d i n g s i n accordance w i t h the t h r i f t i n e s s of our ancestors rather than i n accordance w i t h the luxury of the present day; they b u i l t w i t h an eye to the requirements of t h e i r crops, we, w i t h an eye to our own u n b r i d l e d extravagance.  1.  Varro, R. R.  I, X x x x« o«  I t i s perhaps comforting  to n o t i c e that two thousand  years ago, even as a t the present time, men r e g r e t t e d the*passing of the "good o l d days", and sadly pondered  the f a t e of t h e i r contemporary decadent  generation.  CHAPTER VI  The Major Crops of Roman A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e i r P r o d u c t i o n  To the a T e r a g e Canadian, imbued w i t h the economic  importance of the P r a i r i e  p r o v i n c e s , i t would appear that wheat, and to a l e s s extent other v a r i e t i e s of g r a i n , i s the major product of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y .  I n c o n s i d e r i n g Roman  a g r i c u l t u r e , however, one must o r i e n t h i s mind to an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view; i n the e a r l y days of the Republic i t i s true that g r a i n was a crop of major importance, but during the t h i r d and second c e n t u r i e s B.C. the extension o f Roman dominion to i n c l u d e S i c i l y and North A f r i c a brought about a r e v o l u t i o n i n farming on the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a .  C-rain  could now be imported from the new t e r r i t o r i e s at p r i c e s ruinous to i t s p r o d u c t i o n at home.  How, then,  d i d the Roman farmer meet t h i s c h a l l e n g e ? What may we c o n s i d e r the major products of Roman a g r i c u l t u r e ?  - 48 To both .these questions Cato r e p l i e s i n no u n c e r t a i n 1  terms.  ••  I f you should enquire of me as to what type of farm i s best, I would answer thus, A vineyard i s of foremost importance, provided i t produces wine of a good q u a l i t y , secondly, an i r r i g a t e d garden, t h i r d , a w i l l o w - p l a n t a t i o n , f o u r t h , an o l i v e grove, f i f t h , meadow land, s i x t h , g r a i n l a n d , seventh, f o r e s t l a n d , e i g h t h , an orchard upon which vines may be t r a i n e d , n i n t h , a f o r e s t - g r o v e producing acorns. 2 Varro, however, p o i n t s out  that Cato's choice i s  by no means u n i v e r s a l , and that some a u t h o r i t i e s regard meadow-land as of prime importance,  feeling  that the cost of m a i n t a i n i n g a v i n e y a r d i s excessive i n comparison w i t h the r e t u r n s .  In f a i r n e s s to Cato,  however, too much s i g n i f i c a n c e must not be attached to the discrepancy between h i s o p i n i o n and that of Varro, as a century and a h a l f had elapsed since Cato's w r i t i n g , during which time p r i c e s , and markets a l s o , would have undergone i n e v i t a b l e changes. y''  So thorough a knowledge does Cato  d i s p l a y of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n of s o i l 1. 2.  and crop, so  Cato, Agr. 1 , 7 . Varro, K. K. I, v i i , 9, 10, and I, v i i i , init.  1 ad  sound i s h i s advice even a t the present day, that i t 1 seems a d v i s a b l e to quote h i s suggestions i n f u l l . ' Where the l a n d i s heavy, f e r t i l e and f r e e of t r e e s , there g r a i n should be sown. The same l a n d , i f s u b j e c t t o f o g and mist, can be most p r o f i t a b l y sown t o rape, t u r n i p s , m i l l e t , or I t a l i a n p a n i c - g r a s s . In r i c h , warm s o i l p l a n t o l i v e s , - the long o l i v e , the S a l l e n t i n e , the C o l i m i n i a n , and the white; p l a n t the v a r i e t y which i s s a i d to f l o u r i s h best i n that l o c a l i t y ... Land which faces the west and i s open to the sun i s best f o r o l i v e s . Land which i s c o l d e r and l e s s f e r t i l e should be planted w i t h L i c i n i a n o l i v e s . I f you p l a n t ( t h i s variety.), i n warm, r i c h s o i l , the ' produce w i l l be v a l u e l e s s , the tree w i l l exhaust i t s e l f by producing, and an i n j u r i o u s red scab w i l l develop* Around the edges of the farm and along the roadways p l a n t elms and p o p l a r s , which w i l l f u r n i s h leafage f o r oxen and c a t t l e , and a l s o lumber, should you r e q u i r e i t . On river-banks and i n damp spots p l a n t shoots of p o p l a r and a reed-bed. Take c a r e f u l note of the f o l l o w i n g i n d e c i d i n g where t o p l a n t your v i n e y a r d . I n s o i l which i s s a i d to be the bestf,suited to v i n e c u l t u r e and l i e s open t o the sun, p l a n t the small Aminian, the double Eugeneum and . the small mottled v a r i e t y . S o i l which i s r i c h or more s u b j e c t to fogs should be planted w i t h the l a r g e r Aminian grape, the Murgentian, the A p i c i a n and the Lucanian. Other v a r i e t i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y the h y b r i d s , s u i t any land a t a l l .  1. 2.  Cato, Agr. VI, 1, 2, 3, 4. I b i d , V I , 4, ad f i n .  I t i s of great advantage f o r the farm to have a wood-lot, so that firewood can "be s o l d or used by the master. On. the same farm, a l l p o s s i b l e crops should be p l a n t e d , • i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l kinds of grapes - the small and the larger-Aminian, and the A p i c i a n . . A l l types of f r u i t should be p l a n t e d or g r a f t e d apples, S c a n t i a n and Q u i r i n i a n quinces, and l i k e w i s e other v a r i e t i e s f o r p r e s e r v i n g , and pomegranates, as w e l l as s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s of pears... P l a n t mariscan f i g s i n chalky, l o o s e - t e x t u r e d s o i l , and i n r i c h e r , h e a v i l y manured s o i l p l a n t the A f r i c a n , Herculanean, Saguntine, black T e l l a n i a n and winter f i g s . Seed down a meadow, well-watered i f p o s s i b l e , i f not, a dry meadow, i n order to have fodder f o r your c a t t l e . Close to a c i t y , too, make sure you p l a n t a garden w i t h a l l kinds of vegetables and w i t h flowers f o r making garlands, megarian bulbs, s e v e r a l v a r i e t i e s of myrtle, Delphian, Cyprian, and w i l d l a u r e l , A b e l l a n , Praenestine and Greek nuts. A suburban farm, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h i s be the only one you have, should be planted as c a r e f u l l y as p o s s i b l e . ;  Lupine w i l l f a r e w e l l i n s o i l that i s r e d d i s h , dark-coloured, or hard, or poor, or sandy, provided only that i t i s not wet. Spelt should be sown p r e f e r a b l y i n s o i l t h a t i s chalky or marshy or r e d d i s h , provided i t i s damp. In places that are dry, f r e e from weeds, and exposed to the sun, wheat should be sown. P l a n t beans i n s o i l that i s r i c h and p r o t e c t e d from,storms. Vetch and fenugreek must be sown where there are as few weeds as p o s s i b l e ; winter wheat does best on a high open l o c a t i o n where the sun shines l o n g e s t i - . L e n t i l s should be sown on land that i s r e d d i s h and u n f e r t i l e ,  .1.  Cato, Agr.  VII.  barley on v i r g i n s o i l that does not l i e fallow. 'Three-month' or s p r i n g wheat should he p l a n t e d where winter wheat w i l l not come to m a t u r i t y , or where the s o i l , ' owing to i t s f e r t i l i t y , does not need to l i e f a l l o w . Rape, t u r n i p s and radishes must he sown on well-manured or n a t u r a l l y f e r t i l e land.- 1  Varro's remarks concerning  the  2 choice of crop f o r a c e r t a i n type of s o i l  follow  the same general trend as the more d e t a i l e d t i o n s of Cato.  instruc-  .In f a c t , he a c t u a l l y acknowledges  i n s e v e r a l instances that h i s suggestions are  cased  on those of Gato$ an admission which i s ample' proof of  the soundness of Cato's advice and an  that the l a t t e r s precepts had 1  indication  stood the t e s t of time..  A b r i e f resume of Varro' s comments w i l l s u f f i c e to 1  i l l u s t r a t e the c l o s e resemblance between h i s advice 3 and that of Cato. to  hay,  Some p l a c e s , he says  others to v i n e s , s t i l l  , are s u i t e d  others to o l i v e s , e t c .  As a general r u l e p l a n t s r e q u i r i n g a l a r g e amount of n u t r i t i o n should be planted i n r i c h s o i l ;  those whose  wants are more e a s i l y s u p p l i e d should be sown i n the 1. 2. 3.  Cato, A g r v XXXIV and XXXV. Varro, H... R. I , x x i v , 1, 3, 4 and' I, xxv. I b i d , I, x x i l i , 1. ad " f i n . ,->'/-*3 4, 5, 6. : >  poorer s o i l s .  K i c h , heavy, t r e e l e s s s o i l , he con-  t i n u e s , i s best f o r g r a i n ; warm, r i c h s o i l i s best adapted  to the c u l t u r e of o l i v e s .  Vergil, also*  notes the f a c t that a l l crops do not r e q u i r e the same s o i l and weather conditions*, w i t h t h i s admonition , Before we c u t an unknown p l a i n w i t h our plough, we should take care to l e a r n beforehand the winds and the changeful temper of the sky, and what crops and what manner of c u l t i v a t i o n are n a t i v e t o the l o c a l i t y , what each d i s t r i c t produces, and what each r e f u s e s . Here crops of corn, there vines grow more abundantly, i n other places the young growth of t r e e s , and s t i l l e l s e where grasses grow s t r o n g spontaneously. In view of the importance  attached  by Gato, Varro, and V e r g i l to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the v i n e , i t seems necessary t o c o n s i d e r t h i s major crop i n more d e t a i l .  The f o l l o w i n g i s a resume of V e r g i l ' s  i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the care of the v i n e y a r d . 2 the f i r s t p l a c e , he says  , the farmer  should consider  whether he w i l l e s t a b l i s h h i s vineyard•upon or on a g e n t l e h i l l - s l o p e .  In  the p l a i n ,  I f i n the former, p o s i t i o n ,  the vines may be p l a n t e d more t h i c k l y , but i n e i t h e r , case they should be so p l a c e d as to permit each p l a n t 1'. 2.  V e r g i l , Georg. I , 50-63. I b i d , I I , 270-384.  a maximum o f a i r and sunshine. not be intrenched  too deeply;  1'he young p l a n t s  should  from t h i s precept we  may I n f e r that the v i n e , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to 1 p l a n t forms of l a r g e r growth, i s a s u r f a c e - f e e d e r . I f l o c a t e d on a h i l l s i d e ,  the vineyard must not slope  towards the west - e v i d e n t l y because a vineyard so situated w i l l  r e c e i v e the sun i n the afternoon  only.  S l i p s or c u t t i n g s taken from the lower part of the old  vine w i l l make b e t t e r growth than those  from the  upper branches; furthermore,  obtained  such c u t t i n g s  must be taken with a sharp k n i f e , as b l u n t s t e e l w i l l b r u i s e the tender  shoots.  New p l a n t s , he continues,  should never be set out i n the v i n e y a r d i n winter, f o r at t h a t time the ground i s f r o z e n and the young s l i p w i l l be unable to s t r i k e i t s roots i n the c h i l l y soil;  the proper  time f o r p l a n t i n g i s the e a r l y  s p r i n g , or i f pressure prevent,  1.  of work at that time should  the e a r l y autumn w i l l u s u a l l y prove  satis-  Mr, a , Parker, who has experimented e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h vines on h i s Brentwood farm i n Saanich, B.C. states that a vine w i l l s t r i k e lower roots i n a s o f t s u b s o i l , but nevertheless d e r i v e s i t s nourishment from the r o o t s c l o s e r to the s u r f a c e .  factory.  Close to the new  p l a n t s , strong stakes should  he p l a c e d , on which the growing vines may  find  C u l t i v a t i o n must he c a r e f u l and continuous.  support.  No  pruning, however, should he p e r m i t t e d , u n t i l the v i n e s are well-grown, nor should animals he allowed to approach them.  Goats, i n p a r t i c u l a r , must be  r i g o r o u s l y kept away, as the b i t e of these  animals  i s f a t a l to the v i n e . . For no other reason, c o n c l u d e s ^ V e r g i l , i s the goat s a c r i f i c e d to Bacchus on every altar. . To these i n s t r u c t i o n s of V e r g i l , Cato f u r n i s h e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n regarding,the 2 care of the v i n e y a r d . should be  The v i n e s , he suggests ,  t r a i n e d to grow as s t r a i g h t up as p o s s i b l e ,  but, i n t y i n g them, care must be taken that the thongs used do not c o n s t r i c t or "choke" the p l a n t . At seed-time  1.  the s o i l around the vines should be  V e r g i l , Georg.II, 380. c f . a l s o Varro, R. R. I, 2.1, 19, 20. "Sic factum ut L i b e r o p a t r i , r e p e r t o r i v i t i s , h i r c i immolarentur, proinde ut c a p i t e darent poenasj c o n t r a ut Minervae c a p r i n i generis n i h i l immolarent p r o p t e r oleam, quod earn quam l a e s e r i t f i e r i dicunt s t e r i l e m ; eius enim salivam esse fruct<^!s venenum. Cato, Agr. XXXIII. u  2.  "trenched", and  thoroughly c u l t i v a t e d .  i s poor, manure, straw, or grape-dregs  I f the s o i l should he  placed around the roots to supply a d d i t i o n a l n o u r i s h ment.  Leaves should be thinned at i n t e r v a l s and  s t r i p p e d o f f completely  towards harvest-time to permit  even r i p e n i n g of the f r u i t .  Varro has l i t t l e  to say  r e g a r d i n g the a c t u a l c u l t i v a t i o n of the v i n e , but he devotes c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the stakes i n supporting the p l a n t s . 1 may  be used, he suggests  used  Various types of stakes ,- e i t h e r those which w i l l  c a r r y the v i n e v e r t i c a l l y to i t s f u l l h e i g h t , or those which w i l l c a r r y i t v e r t i c a l l y to the height of  a man,  then l a t e r a l l y to care f o r the  of  the growth.  remainder 2  Another method suggested by Varro  c o n s i s t s i n p l a n t i n g the v i n e s i n the tree p l a n t a t i o n , where they w i l l f i n d support on the spreading branches of the t r e e s .  This l a t t e r method, so  f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n Roman l i t e r a t u r e , i s known as ''wedding", that i s , u n i t i n g the vine w i t h the branches of the s u p p o r t i n g t r e e . 1. 2.  Varro, K. K. I, v i i i , 2-6. I b i d , I, v i i i , 3, ad f i n .  With a l l the above  - 56 advice i n mind, one i s compelled  to admit  that Varro,  i n c r i t i c i z i n g the expense i n v o l v e d i n maintaining a v i n e y a r d , had some "basis a t l e a s t f o r h i s comment. The o l i v e , by comparison v i n e , r e q u i r e d very l i t t l e 1 opinion  care.  w i t h the  I t i s Vergil's  that " s o i l which i s hard to work and h i l l s  that grudge to y s l d , and t h i n c l a y , and g r a v e l i n shrubby f i e l d s , a l l these r e j o i c e Athene's wood of the l o n g - l i v e d  olive".  2 O l i v e s , he continues , r e q u i r e no c u l t u r e , • nor do they d e s i r e the crooked pruning hook nor the c l i n g i n g harrows, when once they have taken r o o t i n the f i e l d s and a t t a i n e d the a i r . 3 Cato. however, suggests c u l t i v a t e around  that i t i s a d v i s a b l e to  the roots of the o l i v e - t r e e s  each  month u n t i l they are three years o l d , but a f t e r  that  time an o c c a s i o n a l l i g h t ploughing i s s u f f i c i e n t . 'from the f o r e g o i n g survey i t i s c l e a r that the Koman farmer thoroughly understood the care of these, his.major crops* 1. 2. 3.  Consequently,  V e r g i l , Georg. I I , 179-182. I b i d , I I , 420-422. Cato, A g r . X L I I I , ad f i n . ; ALIV, ad f i n .  i t is  \  * j  - 57 -  not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that the same f a c u l t y of c a r e f u l observation gave him a c l e a r of In  the various ways i n which p l a n t s are propagated. 1 d i s c u s s i n g t h i s subject , V e r g i l d i v i d e s propagation  i n t o two main c l a s s e s ; f i r s t , n a t u r a l methods, and or  understanding  that e f f e c t e d by  secondly that e f f e c t e d by  "man-made" methods.  artificial  under the heading of n a t u r a l  growth V e r g i l i n c l u d e s the p l a n t s which appear to r i s e spontaneously from the ground such as the broom, poplar and willow; secondly those which deposit t h e i r own  seed on the ground and f i n a l l y those which, l i k e  the cherry, plum, and apple, send up from the ground, 2 "an ample f o r e s t of suckers" .  Under  artificial  methods, V e r g i l mentions the t r a n s p l a n t i n g of suckers from the parent t r e e , the d i r e c t p l a n t i n g of c u t t i n g s or  " s l i p s ' * , the use of g r a f t s , and the process of  " l a y e r i n g " , whereby a branch or shoot i s placed i n the s o i l w h i l e s t i l l  connected w i t h the parent bush;  i f c a r e f u l l y watered and c u l t i v a t e d a shoot so placed w i l l e v e n t u a l l y s t r i k e new  1. 2«  roots of i t s own.  V e r g i l Georg. I I , 9-60. I b i d , I I , 17 "ab r a d i c e • .. densissima  Keturning  ?  t  silva".  .j  - 58 1  to the subject of g r a f t i n g , V e r g i l i s probably more p o e t i c a l than p r a c t i c a l when he speaks of i t s possibilities,the beech has whitened with the blossom of the chestnut, the mountain-ash w i t h the snowy bloom of the pear, and swine have broken the acorn beneath the elm. 2 Varro, however, adds the c a u t i o n  that c u l t i v a t e d  f r u i t s should be g r a f t e d only on c u l t i v a t e d trees i f the farmer wishes to r e t a i n the q u a l i t y of the f r u i t unimpaired. Varro's remarks on the subject of p l a n t - p r o p a g a t i o n f o l l o w the same general trend as 3 those o f V e r g i l ; l i k e V e r g i l , he recognizes  two  general d i v i s i o n s of plant-growth,  namely, n a t u r a l  and a r t i f i c i a l .  of n a t u r a l methods  Under the heading  he i n c l u d e s a l l p l a n t forms which r i s e from seed; a r t i f i c i a l methods he subdivides i n t o three subs e c t i o n s , namely the use of suckers, of c u t t i n g s and . 4 of g r a f t s . In g e n e r a l , he says , slow-growing v a r i e t i e s . 1. 2. 3. 4.  V e r g i l , u-eorg. I I , 65-72. Varro, R.R. I , x l , 5, ad f i n . , >•• I b i d . I , x l , 1-5. I b i d , I , x l i , 4, 5.  of which the o l i v e was which* l i k e  the c l a s s i c , example, or those  the f i g , produce a very small seed,  "be grown more r e a d i l y from c u t t i n g s than from  can  seed.  E a r l y i n the s p r i n g , before there i s any s i g n of a "bud, c u t t i n g s should be removed from the strongest and h e a l t h i e s t branches and placed at once i n the nursery i n s o i l as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e to that to which they w i l l f i n a l l y be transplanted*  The  importance of having the s o i l of the nursery  resemble  that of the f i e l d where the f i n a l p l a n t i n g w i l l made i s emphasized a l s o by V e r g i l and Cato. 1 remarks:  be  Vergil  Those men whom no v i g i l a n c e escapes seek out i n advance a p l a c e where f i r s t the crop may be prepared f o r the supporting t r e e s , l i k e i n c h a r a c t e r to that wherein i t i s to be p l a n t e d when c a r r i e d out, l e s t the young p l a n t s should f a i l to recognize a mother suddenly changed. Less p o e t i c a l l y , but q u i t e as emphatically, Cato 2 • • offers s i m i l a r advice. l a k e a nursery i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. S e l e c t the b e s t , the most open and the most h e a v i l y manured land you have, where the  1. 2.  V e r g i l , Georg. I I , 265-272. Cato, Agr. XLVI.  - 60 s o i l i s as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e to that where you intend to t r a n s p l a n t , and so s i t u a t e d that the young p l a n t s w i l l not have t o be c a r r i e d too f a r from the nursery ' to the f i e l d . 1 As a f u r t h e r d e t a i l regarding advises  the nursery,  that the s l i p s be planted  eighteen  Cato inches  apart i n each d i r e c t i o n and that they be permitted to p r o j e c t about an i n c h above the ground; a l s o , growth w i l l be more r a p i d i f the hoe i s kept busy. . 2 Although Varro d i s c u s s e s  the  subject of g r a f t i n g , h i s remarks are i n c l i n e d to be sketchy, and i t i s t o Cato that we must t u r n f o r a d e t a i l e d treatment of t h i s s c i e n c e . Graft o l i v e s , f i g s , pears, and apples, he a d v i s e s , a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g method. Cut the end of the branch where you intend to make the g r a f t a. l i t t l e on the angle so that the water w i l l run o f f ; while you are making the cut, take care that you do not b r u i s e the bark, then take a hard s t i c k , sharpen i t , and a l s o s p l i t a fireek w i l l o w . Mix chalk or c l a y , some sand, and c a t t l e manure and make the mixture as s t i c k y as possible. Take the s p l i t w i l l o w and bind i t around the c u t branch, so that the bark w i l l not s p l i t * When you have done t h i s , 1.  Cato, Agr. XLYI,  2. 3.  Varro, R.R. I , x l , 6 and I , x l i , 1-5. Cato, Agr* XL, 2.  ad f i n .  - 61 d r i v e the sharpened s t i c k between the bark and the sap-wood to a depth of two f i n g e r s . Then take a s c i o n of whatever v a r i e t y you wish to g r a f t s sharpen i t s l i g h t l y on the • angle f o r a d i s t a n c e of two f i n g e r s ; take out the dry s t i c k which you drove i n p r e v i o u s l y , and i n i t s place i n s e r t the s c i o n which you wish to g r a f t . D r i v e i t i n to the edge of the sloped c u t , u n t i l bark f i t s to bark. By the same method you may make a second, t h i r d , or even f o u r t h g r a f t F i n a l l y , wrap c a r e f u l l y w i t h straw and b i n d i t c a r e f u l l y to prevent i n j u r y byfrost. This method, i t may be noted, i s s t i l l  extensively  used by h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , who r e f e r to the process as 1 "Crown"' or "Rind" g r a f t i n g .  Cato speaks  a l s o of  g r a f t i n g by the process now known as "budding", whereby a s e c t i o n of bark i s removed from a branch and a s e c t i o n of bark c o n t a i n i n g a bud from another tree i s f i t t e d a c c u r a t e l y i n i t s p l a c e .  E i t h e r of  these methods may be c a r r i e d out a t three seasons of  the year, namely, i n the e a r l y s p r i n g , f o r f i f t y  days, a t the summer s o l s t i c e , and d u r i n g the v i n t a g e . For  o l i v e and f i g - g r a f t i n g , however, Cato recommends  the  early  1.  Cato, Agr. X L I I .  spring.  — 62 — For  g r a f t i n g T i n e s , Cato o u t l i n e s  1 three methods.  In the f i r s t  method, a strong branch  i s cut o f f at r i g h t angles and across the face of the cut  a wedge-shaped i n c i s i o n i s made to the f u l l extent  of  the diameter; i n t h i s i n c i s i o n a s c i o n  to  f i t e x a c t l y i s p l a c e d and bound f i r m l y i n p o s i t i o n .  Presumably  sharpened  he intends t h i s method, known i n modern  h o r t i c u l t u r e as " c l e f t - g r a f t i n g " , to be used when both stock and s c i o n are of approximately the same s i z e . A second method which may be employed when the T i n e s are growing c l o s e together, Cato d e s c r i b e s as 2 follows: Cut the end of a young shoot of each of two T i n e s on the angle, b i n d i n g the shoots p i t h to p i t h . This method i s known i n modern h o r t i c u l t u r e as " s i d e g r a f t i n g " or more g e n e r a l l y as " i n a r c h i n g " .  The most  frequent present-day use of i n a r c h i n g i s to improve the symmetry of ornamental  trees or shrubs, f o r by  bending back a superfluous branch u n t i l i t touches the trunk, a union w i l l u l t i m a t e l y be e s t a b l i s h e d at  1. 2.  Cato, Agr. XLI, 2. I b i d , XLI, 2, ad f i n .  the p o i n t of contact; when the f i b r e s are f i r m l y " k n i t t e d " , the branch i s cut o f f below the union, 1 t h i r d method d e s c r i b e d hole completely  A  by Cato c o n s i s t s i n b o r i n g a  through a low-growing branch, and  p l a c i n g i n the i n c i s i o n two scions cut o b l i q u e l y and f i t t e d together.  The branch i s then bent down to the  e a r t h and covered  with s o i l a t the p o i n t where the  g r a f t has been made.  To t h i s process  there seems to  be no d i r e c t modern counterpart; Cato himself makes no comment as t o the e f f i c a c y of t h i s method of g r a f t i n g , but i t could h a r d l y have been very ful  success-  as the cambium l a y e r of the scions d i d not come  into direct  contact with that of the stock. I n a d d i t i o n to the above methods  of g r a f t i n g , Cato d e s c r i b e s two other means of artificial  propagation,  both of which are d i r e c ted  to causing a branch or sucker to s t r i k e roots of i t s own while s t i l l u n i t e d to the parent stem. The f i r s t 2 method he d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : Press down i n t o the ground the suckers  1. 2.  uato, Agr• X I I , 3. I b i d . L I ; o f . a l s o A * X I I I , 1, 2.  which a r i s e from the earth a t the foot of the t r e e , r a i s i n g the t i p of the shoot from the ground so that i t (the shoot) w i l l take r o o t . A f t e r two years d i g i t up and t r a n s * plant. 1 Or, he suggests may  he passed  , f o r more c a r e f u l l a y e r i n g , the s c i o n  through a basket f i l l e d w i t h s o i l i n  which, roots w i l l e v e n t u a l l y form; -when the shoot i s t r a n s p l a n t e d , the basket should be l e f t i n p o s i t i o n . This method i s s t i l l two improvements.  used by modern experts, but w i t h  At the p o i n t where the new  roots  should develop, the stem i s e i t h e r "tongued" ( i . e . cut  l o n g i t u d i n a l l y to a r r e s t  the flow of r e t u r n i n g  sap) or the bark i s "ringed*' to accomplish the same purpose.  A l s o , i t i s now  customary to f a s t e n the shoot  underground w i t h a wooden staple to prevent i t from 2 being a c c i d e n t a l l y d i s l o d g e d .  Cato a l s o describes  a method of l a y e r i n g a branch higher up on the t r e e , by•surrounding the branch w i t h a basket of s o i l and leaving i t i n this position u n t i l  roots have been  struck, a process r e q u i r i n g two years.  This method,  c a l l e d i n modern p r a c t i c e " c i r c u m p o s i t i o n " , i s s t i l l 1. *  2  Cato, Agr. L I I , c f . also&tfXIII, 3. I b i d , CXXXIIi, 3.  - 65 widely used, but again the branch i s "tongued" or "ringed" as i n the case of ground-layering. As a n a t u r a l sequel to the g r a f t i n g and l a y e r i n g of young p l a n t s , (Jato gives b r i e f but 1 clear-cut instructions All  w i t h regard to t r a n s p l a n t i n g .  young plants,when of an age to be placed i n f i e l d  or v i n e y a r d , should be dug up c a r e f u l l y w i t h as much s o i l around the roots as p o s s i b l e , to prevent or  tearing  otherwise damaging the d e l i c a t e r o o t - h a i r s .  p l a n t i n g should never be attempted weather.  Trans-  i n windy or s tormy  When p l a c e d i n trenches p r e v i o u s l y prepared  to r e c e i v e them, the p l a n t s should be covered w i t h f i n e top s o i l packed down t i g h t l y t o prevent  escape  of moisture and to give the young roots a chance to make growth immediately  i n t h e i r new surroundings.  To these s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s modern h o r t i c u l t u r a l science has l i t t l e  to add. Although Varro o f f e r s but l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h regard to g r a f t i n g and l a y e r i n g , h i s advice on the s u b j e c t of f i e l d - c r o p s i s accurate,  1.  Cato, Agr. XXVIII.  d e t a i l e d , and worthy of the most c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I'urning h i s a t t e n t i o n f i r s t  to the amount of seed 1 r e q u i r e d per u n i t of area, he advises that beans 2 be planted f o u r modii  to the iugerum, wheat  five,  b a r l e y s i x , s p e l t ten and a l f a l f a one. Reducing these amounts to modern terms we f i n d  that h i s estimate  i s three bushels per acre f o r beans, three and three™ quarters f o r wheat, three and one-half f o r b a r l e y , seven and one-half f o r s p e l t and one and one-half f o r 3 alfalfa*  These amounts, w i t h the exception of that  recommended f o r a l f a l f a , correspond very c l o s e l y to those 8own on a modern farm.  The y i e l d  per acre  on a Roman farm, however, must have been somewhat l e s s than that considered an average crop on the presentday farm, as improved methods of s e e d - s e l e c t i o n and c u l t i v a t i o n have m a t e r i a l l y increased y i e l d s , even 1. 2. 3.  Varro, R.R. I , x l i v , 1, and I , x l i i . A modius i s equivalent to 1 peck, dry measure. Examples o f an average modern sowing are as f o l l o w s : wheat ( f a l l ) 2 bushels per a c r e ; wheat (spring) 2^-3 bushels; b a r l e y .3 bushels; a l f a l f a 15 l b s . i f sown broadcast, 9 l b s . i f d r i l l e d i n rows. Varo's suggestion o f 1-% bushels-per acre (90 l b s . ) : f o r a l f a l f a i s q u i t e impossible of e x p l a n a t i o n , unless the g e r m i n a t i o n . r a t i o was exceedingly low.  w i t h i n the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s , 1 the s t i p u l a t i o n  Varro, however, makes  that the amount of seed may  be v a r i e d  to dome extent; on poor land a l i g h t e r sowing i s p r e f e r a b l e , w h i l e on r i c h land or land that has  lain  fallo?/ during the previous year a heavier sowing w i l l not be d e t r i m e n t a l .  About r o t a t i o n of crops  Varro o f f e r s no i n f o r m a t i o n , but V e r g i l s u p p l i e s a 2 l i t t l e of a very general nature. You w i l l a l s o allow your lands to r e s t a f t e r being cut., and the f i e l d to harden by inactivity. Or, i n d i f f e r e n t seasons, you w i l l sow the golden wheat whence you have reaped the joyous pulse w i t h r a t t l i n g pods or the slender o f f s p r i n g of the v e t c h and the f r a g i l e s t a l k s of the b i t t e r l u p i n e w i t h i t s r u s t l i n g growth. Crops of f l a x burn the l a n d , and l i k e w i s e oats, and so, too, poppies, laden w i t h Lethaean sleep. But the t o i l (of the ground) i s made easy by changing the crops, provided i t shame you not. to l o a d the ground w i t h r i c h manure and to s c a t t e r ashes upon the wearied lands, Thus, too, the land w i l l r e s t by a change of crops, nor w i l l there be meanwhile the barrenness of u n t i l l e d ground. This passage i s i l l u m i n a t i n g inasmuch as i t shows, not only a conception of the n e c e s s i t y f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n , but a l s o some conception of the f a c t  1. 2.  Varro, K.K. I , x l i v , 1. V e r g i l , " Oeorg. I , 71-83.  that continuously  . ,  - 68 -  growing the same crop on a p i e c e of land i s i n j u r i o u s to  the w e l f a r e o f the s o i l . As a f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n to h i s  remarks on crop c u l t i v a t i o n Varro d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the accepted Roman methods of h a r v e s t i n g the crops and the storage t h e r e o f .  Cato' s advice, while more  t e c h n i c a l and i m p e r f e c t l y organized, nevertheless furnishes a d d i t i o n a l information, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to h a r v e s t i n g when done by c o n t r a c t . speaks f i r s t of  Varro  of hay crops, secondly of g r a i n ,  thirdly  the v i n e y a r d and f i n a l l y of f r u i t s , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  r e f e r e n c e t o the o l i v e . With regard to hay crops, Varro*s 1 advice  may seem b r i e f and inadequate, but i t must  be remembered that t h i s crop presents i n f i n i t e l y  less  trouble to the farmer than do the other crops which he d e s c r i b e s .  The grass should be c u t , he advises ,  Z when i t ceases t o grow and commences to r i p e n wi th 1. 2.  the heat.  When thoroughly d r i e d , i t should he made  i n t o bundles and hauled homeward to barn or stack, 1 p r e f e r a b l y the former.  Cato emphasizes  the f a c t  that hay should be cut before the seed r i p e n s , an i n j u n c t i o n which suggests that under-ripe hay i s p r e f e r a b l e to that which i s o v e r - r i p e . The best hay, 2 he continues to  , should be stored s e p a r a t e l y and.fed  the oxen during the s p r i n g when they are being  worked hardest and consequently available.  need the best fodder 3  I f the hay crop i s poor, Cato advises  that p o p l a r , elm, and oak leaves w i l l for  serve as forage  sheep and c a t t l e . For h a r v e s t i n g g r a i n - c r o p s , 4  Varro suggests  three methods of c u t t i n g , i n which  the only v a r i a t i o n i s the l e n g t h of straw l e f t on the f i e l d .  The s tubble, apparently, was e i t h e r cut  l a t e r to make bedding as pasture. 1. 2. 3» 4. 5,  f o r the c a t t l e , or was used 5 . He advises that the best ears be s e l e c t e d  Cato, Agr. L I I I . Ibid. LIII. Ibid., LIY, 4; c f . a l s o , XXX ad i n i t . Varro, K.K. I , 1,1., 3. I b i d , I , l i i ad i n i t .  * ,  - 70 -  r  and threshed s e p a r a t e l y from the main crop. 1  Vergil,  i n a p a r a l l e l passage , emphasizes the need f o r p a r t i c u l a r care i n the treatment and  s e l e c t i o n of  seed, s i n c e a l l seed has a n a t u r a l tendency  to  d e t e r i o r a t e i n course of time. Threshing, to which Varro devotes 2 c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , was c a r r i e d out by a method 3 which to us seems crude and t h r e s h i n g f l o o r was  inefficient.  First  a  constructed of earth, packed  hard and t r e a t e d w i t h o i l dregs to prevent s a t u r a t i o n by r a i n and i n j u r y to the surface by mice or other vermin.  Upon t h i s f l o o r the ears of g r a i n were  placed and  trampled by oxen to separate the g r a i n  from the husks.  F i n a l l y the g r a i n , c h a f f and husks  were tossed i n the a i r , p r e f e r a b l y when a l i g h t breeze was  blowing;  the heavy g r a i n f e l l back to the  ground w h i l e the l i g h t c h a f f was the wind.  c a r r i e d away by  The g r a i n , Varro recommends, should be  stored i n a dry granary, elevated above the ground  1. 2. 3.  V e r g i l , Georg. I, 194-203. Varro, R.R. I, l i , l i i , l i i i . I b i d , I , l i , 1 ad f i n . c f . Cato, Agr > CXXIX.  - 71 to prevent moisture from seeping i n t o i t from the s o i l ; furthermore,  to p r o t e c t the g r a i n from mice, the walls-  of the granary  should be coated with a p l a s t e r made  of c h a f f and amurca. 1 advised by Cato.  This l a t t e r p r e c a u t i o n i s a l s o  With regard to h a r v e s t i n g the 2 grapes, Varro makes the obvious  suggestion  early-maturing v a r i e t i e s should be gathered During the p i c k i n g , the farmer  that first.  should d i v i d e the  produce, c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g the best f r u i t f o r the t a b l e . A f t e r the grapes have been ''trodden", the s t a l k s , pulp, and s k i n s should be placed i n the wine press and f u r t h e r j u i c e e x t r a c t e d , which w i l l not be i n f e r i o r to that y i e l d e d by the former process. P r e s s i n g may be repeated s e v e r a l times a f t e r the skins have been cut i n t o small p i e c e s , but the j u i c e should be kept separate as i t w i l l taste of the k n i f e . 3 A c c o r d i n g to a suggestion made by the f r u g a l Cato , t h i s i n f e r i o r wine, as w e l l as that made from i n f e r i o r grapes should be s t o r e d away and i s s u e d to the farm1. 2. 3.  Cato, Agr. XCII. Varro, K.K. I , l i v . Cato, Agr. XXV, XXIII, 2; c f . a l s o LIV ad i n i t . , and LVII ad i n i t . c f . a l s o Varro, R.R. I, l i v , 3.  l a b o u r e r s d u r i n g the winter months.  Finally,  the  wine should be placed i n j a r s and allowed to stand w h i l e the dregs s e t t l e ; a f t e r each s e t t l i n g the wine should be poured  o f f , and when no f u r t h e r  appear, should be s e a l e d and  dregs  stored away u n t i l  sold.  I f the wine has a bad odour, Cato declares i t can 1 be improved by the f o l l o w i n g means: Thoroughly heat a t h i c k , c l e a n piece of r o o f i n g - t i l e , coat i t w i t h p i t c h , and lower i t g e n t l y to the bottom of the wine j a r . Leave the j a r sealed f o r two days, then remove the t i l e . I f the bad odour has disappeared, w e l l and good; i f not, repeat the treatment, 2 In h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s  regarding  the o l i v e harvest* Varro emphasizes the f a c t that the fruit  should be p i c k e d by .hand r a t h e r than shaken  from the trees or beaten  o f f w i t h s t i c k s , as a b r u i s e d  o l i v e d r i e s out r a p i d l y and consequently y i e l d s l e s s oil.  The f r u i t  should be conveyed immediately  the pressing-room  and placed i n p i l e s to mellow,,;  c a u t i o n must be observed, however, f o r i f l e f t l o n g i n the p i l e s ,  1. 2.  to  too  the o l i v e s w i l l s p o i l w i t h the  Cato, Agr. CX. Varro, R.R. I , I T .  1 heat and and  turn rancid.  This p o i n t Cato a l s o emphasizes ,  suggests that i t i s advantageous to have two  ,  •complete p r e s s i n g equipments so that the o i l may extracted at e x a c t l y the r i g h t moment.  he  A f t e r the  p r e s s i n g i s completed, the best o i l should be  carefully  skimmed o f f the v e s s e l s i n which i t has been placed, and  stored i n a c o o l place u n t i l marketed.  The watery  r e s i d u e , known as "amurca", which remains a f t e r skimming process  should be stored and  used f o r a wide  v a r i e t y of purposes which w i l l be considered detail  the  in  later. L e s t anyone should  think that  the  farmer's labours were over at the c o n c l u s i o n of the vintage and  the harvest, b o t h Cato and Varro  that work must continue  throughout the  insist  winter. 2  Although Cato conveys t h i s impression  by  suggestions  s c a t t e r e d at random throughout the De A g r i C u l t u r a , Varro, more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , d i v i d e s the year i n t o 1. 2.  Cato, Agr. I l l , 5. I b i d , I I , 3; XVII, ad init.; XXXVII, 3; XXXIX.  JOCIII ad i n i t . ;  *  i  -  74 -  1 eight p e r i o d s , o u t l i n i n g the v a r i o u s tasks to he performed who  during each p e r i o d .  To the modern farmer,  p r i d e s h i m s e l f upon h i s systematic o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the year' s work, there i s no more interestingpassage i n the whole realm of Koman a g r i c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e than that i n which Varro o u t l i n e s h i s suggestions f o r the s u c c e s s f u l completion of the manifold labours of the  farm.  In the f i r s t  of h i s e i g h t p e r i o d s ,  extending f o r f o r t y - f i v e days from the r i s i n g of the West wind to the s p r i n g equinox  (February 4 to March  2 1 ) , Yarro advises t h a ^ young p l a n t s should.be out i n the n u r s e r i e s , orchards pruned and meadows weeded and manured, and cultivated. to May  set  trimmed,  the v i n e y a r d  During the second p e r i o d , from March 22  4, o l i v e s should be planted out, and old o l i v e  trees pruned; a t the same time crops must be weeded, and willows cut and s t o r e d away to be used l a t e r i n making stakes and baskets.  Between May  4 and June 2 1 ,  that i s , during the t h i r d p e r i o d , the v i n e s should  1*  Y a r r o , R'.R*.- -"I, x x v i i i , ad f i n ; I, x x i x - x x x v i .  be c o n t i n u o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d , and out'where necessary.  the leaves thinned  A l l fodder-crops f o r the stock  should be cut - c l o v e r , v e t c h , mixed forage and finally  hay.  During the f o u r t h p e r i o d , extending  from June 22 to J u l y 18, g r a i n should be harvested and summer-ploughing done, d u r i n g these days a l s o , provided the ground can be prepared, a l l leguminous p l a n t s (vetch, l e n t i l s , peas) should be sown. C u l t i v a t i o n of the v i n e s should a l s o continue.  Between  J u l y 18 and September 23, stacks should be b u i l t i f barn space i s inadequate,  the land ploughed  i n the  former p e r i o d should be harrowed, a,nd watered meadows cut at  a second  time.  Leafage  should a l s o be  t h i s time as w i n t e r fodder f o r sheep and  gathered cattle.  During the s i x t h p e r i o d , extending f o r t h i r t y - o n e days from September 24 to October 25, crops, should be 1 sown; (presumably  Varro r e f e r s to f a l l g r a i n , but  Cato  adds t u r n i p s , forage-crops and l u p i n e ) ; grapes must be gathered  and the v i n t a g e attended to, followed by  pruning of v i n e s and the p l a n t i n g of f r u i t - t r e e s .  1.  Cato, Agr. V, 8 ad f i n .  the  At t h i s time, too,although  varro makes no mention  "thereof, i t would n a t u r a l l y be necessary t h e ' o l i v e crop.  to harvest  In the seventh p e r i o d , from October  26 to December 21, the work w i l l c o n s i s t i n pruning the vineyard and  i n general care of the farm - d i g g i n g  and c l e a n i n g d i t c h e s , r e p a i r i n g fences, and b u i l d i n g new  ones where r e q u i r e d .  December 22 and February  In the f i n a l p e r i o d , between 4, d r a i n i n g should be con-  tinued and pruning of the v i n e y a r d completed. sea-son i s dry and f a i r , arable land may i f the weather i s bad, v a r i o u s tasks may indoors.  I f the  well be worked; be c a r r i e d  These Varro does not enumerate, but Cato  suggests mending c l o t h e s , making or r e p a i r i n g c l e a n i n g seed, and  harness,  other r o u t i n e work i n p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r busy days to come.  Considering t h i s  formidable  o u t l i n e of work, ore cannot wonder a t a remark of 1 Cato's : Make sure you do a l l tasks at the proper time; i t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of farming, t h a t , i f you do one t h i n g l a t e , you w i l l be l a t e i n doing e v e r y t h i n g .  1-  on  Cato, Agr. V, 7, ad f i n .  - 77 Prom a survey of the f o r e g o i n g , i t i s evident that the Koman farmer had an amazingly c l e a r conception o f the most important phases  of farm ,  management - namely, the s e l e c t i o n of crops as required by s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , the care of the crops when p l a n t e d , the h a r v e s t i n g and storage of the produce, and the e f f e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the year's work. his  Some of  methods (and one immediately thinks of h i s method  of t h r e s h i n g ) , may seem to the modern farmer, p i t i f u l l y  machine-equipped  inadequate; but we must c o n t i n u a l l y  keep I n mind the f a c t t h a t , not alone i n a g r i c u l t u r e , but i n every other i n d u s t r y , machinery  was p r a c t i c a l l y  unknown two thousand years ago. Consequently, we must appraise the Koman farmer i n the l i g h t of h i s p e r i o d , and tender him due r e s p e c t f o r the method and the system which he developed i n a l l h i s farm work.  CHAPTER Y I I  The Animals of the Roman Earm  In r e v i e w i n g the crops produced on the  Roman farm, one cannot help but n o t i c e that they  were o f three dis t i n c t c l a s s e s : for  first,  those produced  the table of the master and h i s household, secondly  those produced f o r d i r e c t s a l e , and f i n a l l y  those  produced f o r consumption by the animals kept on the farm.  While the f i r s t and second groups  mentioned  above c l a i m g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n from our Roman authors, s u f f i c i e n t s t r e s s i s l a i d on the t h i r d group to i n d i c a t e that s t o c k - r a i s i n g formed an i n t e g r a l part of Roman a g r i c u l t u r e ; consequently i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t Cato, V a r r o , and V e r g i l devote considerable a t t e n t i o n t o the subject of animal husbandry.  Cato's  remarks, w h i l e c o n t a i n i n g a wealth of p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e fragmentary and s c a t t e r e d ; V e r g i l and Varro, however, t r e a t the whole subject systematica l l y , and t h e i r advice, together w i t h o c c a s i o n a l terse  i n j u n c t i o n s o f f e r e d by Cato ^ w i l l a f f o r d a fairer comp l e t e p i c t u r e of animal husbandry as p r a c t i s e d by the Roman farmer. 1 A t the outset  Varro l i s t s e i g h t  species of farm animals f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n - sheep, goats, swine, c a t t l e , asses, horses, mules, and dogs. Each of these species he c o n s i d e r s under the f o l l o w i n g 2 nine headings  :  age at which to purchase, the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be looked f o r i n each by the prospec t i r e buyer,  the problems of pasturage, f e e d i n g ,  breeding, and h e a l t h , the breed, the form of purchase, and f i n a l l y the number of each which the farmer should possess.  I t need h a r d l y be p o i n t e d out that these  same problems confront the rancher of the present day. In  common with other animals, advises  3 Varro , sheep should be purchased when they a r e f u l l grown, so t h a t they may produce revenue  immediately.  They should be of f u l l body, w i t h t h i c k , s o f t  fleece  covering the e n t i r e body, p a r t i c u l a r l y about the head 1. 2. 3.  V a r r o , R.R. I I , i , 12, ad i n i t . I b i d . I I , i , 13-24. I b i d , I I , i i , 3-20.  - 80 and neck.  The l e g s should he s h o r t , the t a i l long  i n I t a l i a n breeds, but short i n t h e S y r i a n .  Hams  should be f u l l - b o d i e d , w i t h wide chest and shoulders; the tongue should not be black or spotted, as rams w i l l beget  spotted sheep.  Care should be  such taken  that the sheep-pen be placed where the wind w i l l  not  blow too c o l d l y ; above a l l , both pen and pasture must be thoroughly f r e e from dampness, f o r moisture  will  not only i n j u r e the f l e e c e , but w i l l cause ••foot-rot", a d i s e a s e whose d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s are w e l l known even t o s h e e p - r a i s e r s of the present day.  Pregnant  ewes should be kept away from the main f l o c k f o r obvious reasons; s i m i l a r l y , sheep that develop  any  trace of s i c k n e s s should be segregated at once i n order to prevent a spread of the contagion.  As f a r  as p o s s i b l e , sheep should be grazed during the e a r l y morning and l a t e afternoon, but i f pasture i s short and  the f l o c k must be pastured d u r i n g the heat of the  day, the sheep should be headed away from the sun to prevent the dangers of sun-stroke. breed  ewes i s at the end of May;  The best time to  the lambs w i l l  then  be born i n the e a r l y f a l l when new up as a r e s u l t of f a l l r a i n s .  grass i s s p r i n g i n g  For the f i r s t  three  week's, the lambs should be permitted to suck two  or  three times d a i l y , but t h e r e a f t e r they should be 1 g r a d u a l l y weaned , and f e d g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g amounts of v e t c h and  tender g r a s s .  The t o t a l number i n the  f l o c k w i l l depend upon the pas ture a v a i l a b l e , but  one  shepherd should not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r more than twc> hundred sheep. b e t t e r , suggests  From the standpoint of h e a l t h , i t i s Varro, to have smaller f l o c k s , as  the shepherd can watch them more c l o s e l y , and disease. can be more e a s i l y checked.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Varro  dismisses the h e a l t h of sheep wi th the comment that the shepherd should have w r i t t e n r u l e s f o r 2 always with him.  treatment  V e r g i l , however, s u p p l i e s the i n f o r -  mation that cuts and wounds should be t r e a t e d  immediately,  p a r t i c u l a r l y those which occur a f t e r shearing, when the sheep's body i s not p r o t e c t e d by i t s f l e e c e . 1.  2.  He a l s o  * j  —  82 —  1 suggests,  that, i n case of f e v e r , l i s t l e s s n e s s , or  l o s s of a p p e t i t e , the best treatment c o n s i s t s i n opening a v e i n under the f o o t and drawing o f f the f e v e r by l o s s of b l o o d .  As a p r e v e n t i v e a g a i n s t scab, 2 Cato advises the f o l l o w i n g treatment, Take cleaned amurca and water i n which lupines have been b o i l e d and dregs of good wine; mix them a l l together thoroughly. A f t e r shearing the sheep, smear the whole body and l e t the animal sweat f o r two or three days. Then wash (the sheep) i n s a l t water; i f you do a l l t h i s , they w i l l not have the scab, the wool w i l l be of b e t t e r q u a l i t y , and t i c k s w i l l not bother them. The p r o s p e c t i v e goat-keeper  should, i f  at a l l p o s s i b l e , purchase h i s e n t i r e herd from 3 farm .  one  He should also pay s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n to the  appearance  of those o f f e r e d him, choosing only those  animals which are s trong, of good s i z e , w i t h t h i c k smooth h a i r , and most important of a l l , d i s p l a y i n g a l a r g e udder.  L i k e sheep, goats r e q u i r e pens  s h e l t e r e d from, the wind, dry, and w e l l f l o o r e d . c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to sheep, however, goats may  1. 2. 3.  V e r g i l , Georg. I l l , 457-463. Cato, Agr. XCVI. V a r r o , K.H. I I , i i i .  In be  . ,  - 83 -  pastured on rough h i l l s i d e s or on meadows c l o t h e d w i t h shrubs and bushes. in  The female  should be bred  the l a t e f a l l , so that the k i d s may be born i n  the e a r l y s p r i n g when forage i s p l e n t i f u l . first fed  For the  three months of t h e i r l i f e , the young should he  first  on t h e i r mother's m i l k , but g r a d u a l l y weaned  and encouraged to n i b b l e v e t c h and gras s.  As goats  s c a t t e r f a r and wide while f e e d i n g , a herd should not c o n t a i n more than f i f t y head.  For breeding  purposes,  one buck to f i f t e e n does appear^ t o have been the accepted  ratio.  With regard to the h e a l t h of goats, Varro  makes the c r y p t i c comment that he can say nothing about the h e a l t h of animals which are never h e a l t h y . Since he does not amplify t h i s remarkable  statement,  and s i n c e n e i t h e r Cato nor V e r g i l o f f e r s any e n l i g h t e n ment, i t i s impossible to d e r i v e much meaning from Vairo' s complaint. 1 In  speaking of swine, Varro  suggests  that t h e i r care i s a s u b j e c t w e l l understood by the Roman farmer.  1.  As guides to purchase, he states that  Varro, R.R. I I , i v .  the b e s t swine a r e of s o l i d c o l o u r , and h e a v i l y b u i l t i n a l l d e t a i l s except head and f e e t ; a l s o the herd from' which purchase  i s made should be one i n which the  sows a r e famous f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . should be damp, or b e t t e r s t i l l ,  The pastures  should c o n t a i n a  stream or pond i n which the swine may wallow to t h e i r h e a r t s ' content.  Sows may be bred twice annually,  e a r l y i n the s p r i n g and again i n the f a l l , as the p e r i o d of g e s t a t i o n f o r these animals i s only four months.  I f , however, a sow produces a poor l i t t e r ,  when f i r s t bred, i t i s a d v i s a b l e to dispose of her at  once, as the f i r s t  those to come. sow  While  litter  i s a sure i n d i c a t i o n of  she i s f e e d i n g her young, the  should be w e l l f e d i n order to maintain her own  h e a l t h as w e l l as to provide a p l e n t i f u l supply of m i l k f o r her o f f s p r i n g ; consequently, unless  pasturage  i s very p l e n t i f u l , Varro suggests that frpm two to f o u r pounds of b a r l e y should be f e d to the sow d a i l y * For breeding purposes, the r a t i o should be one boar to  t e n sows. 1 Turning h i s a t t e n t i o n to c a t t l e  1.  Varro, K.K.  I I , v, 2-18.  , Varro  •  - 85 -  gives a very d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the best type to purchase;  i t i s w e l l , however, to keep i n mind  that Varro considered c a t t l e p r i m a r i l y as draught animals, and not as milk-producers.  C a t t l e , he  a d v i s e s , should be well-formed, w i t h sturdy limbs, b l a c k i s h horns, wide foreheads, l a r g e b l a c k eyes, a l o n g , t h i c k neck, body w e l l - r i b b e d , broad and f l a n k s , a heavy t a i l hanging  shoulders  down to the hocks, and  a s k i n s o f t and smooth to the touch.  The best pasture  i s that which contains not only grass, but a l s o and bushes upon which the animals may browse. should be bred about the middle  shrubs Cattle,  of May, so that when  the c a l f i s born a p l e n t i f u l supply of pasture i s available.  When the cow i s due t o f r e s h e n , she should  be c a r e f u l l y handled and f e d w i t h the best fodder a v a i l a b l e ; poor food, or scanty f e e d i n g a t t h i s i)eriod, w i l l a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y both the cow and the unborn calf.  Weaning, as i n the case of other animals,  should he e f f e c t e d g r a d u a l l y ; as the supply of mother's m i l k i s decreased, the c a l f should, be f e d i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s of grass and b a r l e y meal.  Regarding the  - 86 h e a l t h of c a t t l e , Varro merely suggests that the man  herds-  should he f a m i l i a r w i t h the diseases to which these  animals.are  subject, and should have w i t h him w r i t t e n  r u l e s f o r treatment.  Cato, however, l i s t s a number  of remedies, which, while i n t e r e s t i n g , may  be considered  of questionable m e d i c i n a l value. 1 i f an ox becomes s i c k , he advises , give him a raw hen's egg, swallowed whole. Next day, crush a head of leek i n wine and make him drink i t ; administer i t from a wooden v e s s e l . Both the ox and the man who administers the remedy should be s tanding, and both must be fasting. Another p r e s c r i p t i o n , to be sickness i n c a t t l e  used as a preventive a g a i n s t 2 i s even more remarkable.  I f you are a f r a i d of s i c k n e s s , give the oxen the f o l l o w i n g remedy w h i l e they are s t i l l i n good h e a l t h : three grains of s a l t , three l a u r e l l e a v e s , three l e e k l e a v e s , three s p r i g s of g a r l i c , three g r a i n s of incense, three p l a n t s of Sabine g r a s s , three leaves of rue, three s p r i g s of white v i n e , three white beans, three l i v e c o a l s , three p i n t s of wine. You must gather, mix and administer a l l these out i n the open, and he who administers the remedy must be f a s t i n g . Give each ox a dose f o r three days, and apportion i t i n such a w a y t h a t , when you have administered three doses to each, a l l has been used.  1. 2.  Cato, Agr. LXXI. I b i d , LXX.  ...  - 87 -  The p r e c i s e e f f e c t  of t h i s c o n c o c t i o n Cato f a i l s to  d i s c u s s ; he does, however, make the very sound 1 suggestion he c l e a n and  that the water given to the c a t t l e should pure. Continuing w i t h  the subject of  draught-  2 animals  , Varro enjoins that asses should be  sound i n wind and limb, and f u l l - b o d i e d .  sturdy,  T h e i r food,  i n a d d i t i o n to pasture, should c o n s i s t of b a r l e y and spelt.  The females, d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t of t h e i r  pregnancy, should be r e l i e v e d of a l l hard work; i f t h i s advice i s f o l l o w e d the o f f s p r i n g w i l l b e n e f i t as w e l l as the mother.  The young should be permitted  to remain with the dam f o r twelve months, and only broken to harness when they are two years o l d . regard to h e a l t h , Varro makes no comment; thus may  assume that the ass of Roman a g r i c u l t u r e was  With we as  hardy as h i s modern progeny. Roman horses, l i k e those of the 3 present day were of two types ,- those used f o r r i d i n g  1. 2. 3.  Cato Agr.LXXIII, ad f i n . Varro, R.R.., I I , v i . I b i d , - I I , v i i , 15. s  » ,  - 88 -  and those intended as draught animals.  As may  readily  he understood, the two types d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y ; draught-horses, by comparison w i t h r i d i n g horses, were s lower, h e a v i e r , and l e s s h i g h - s p i r i t e d . Confinir. 1 h i s a t t e n t i o n to the former c l a s s , Varro advises a t t e n t i o n t o the f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s : moderate s i z e , well-formed  a head of  limbs, wide n o s t r i l s ,  broad,  f u l l chest, broad shoulders, s t r a i g h t l e g s , a backbone not prominent, and hard hoofs,  Mares should be bred  to produce the f o a l i n the s p r i n g ; as the p e r i o d of g e s t a t i o n f o r mares i s s l i g h t l y over eleven months, breeding should thus take p l a c e between the s p r i n g 2 equinox and the summer s o l s t i c e .  The mares should  be permitted to s u c k l e t h e i r f o a l s f o r two years; a t the end of t h i s time the weaning process should be complete.  With reference to the "'breaking * of horses, 1  Varro s t a t e s that t h i s should be done g r a d u a l l y , but only a f t e r the c o l t s have reached the age of three  1. 2.  Varro, K.R. , I I , v i i , 2- 14. A c c o r d i n g to present-day breeders, the period of g e s t a t i o n f o r mares v a r i e s from 10 to 12 months, 11 months being a g e n e r a l l y - r e c o g n i z e d average.  - 89 years.  T h e i r h e a l t h should he c a r e f u l l y guarded  by  the groom, to whom both i l l n e s s e s and treatment must be f a m i l i a r .  From the f a c t that Varro, i n h i s  discourse about p o i n t s to be observed i n purchasing 1 a horse, mentions  "veins w e l l - d e f i n e d a l l over the  body", adding that such a. horse i s amenable to treatment when i l l , was  we may  assume that b l o o d - l e t t i n g  the accepted panacea f o r a l l i l l n e s s e s of these  animal s.  On the s u b j e c t of horses, Cato i s s i l e n t ;  from h i s s i l e n c e we may  i n f e r that the horse was  not  used f o r farm work at h i s p e r i o d , but became f a i r l y common by the time of Varro*s w r i t i n g . Owing to the f a c t that mules are the o f f s p r i n g of a horse and an a s s , and do not  reproduce  2  t h e i r own k i n d , Varro*a d i s c u s s i o n is necessarily b r i e f .  of these animals  I f p o s s i b l e , a mule when f o a l e d  should be f e d on mare's m i l k , which was be more n u t r i t i o u s  than that of the a s s .  considered to Of feed  they r e q u i r e l e s s than horses, but of the same type; 1.  2.  Varro, R.R., I I , v i i , 5 ad f i n . "toto corpore ut habeat venas, quae animadverti p o s s i n t , quod qui huius modi s i t , cum est aeger, ad medendum a p p o s i t u s . " Varro, R.R. I I , v i i i , 2-6.  *  - 90 -  i  t h i s f a c t j i t might be pointed out, i s the advantage possessed by the mule.  The  one  characteristics  to be d e s i r e d by the buyer are e s s e n t i a l l y the same as those to be sought f o r i n the purchase  of horses.  Upon the subject of dogs, Varro l a v i s h e s an amount of care which a t f i r s t  glance  seems t o t a l l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e . When one remembers, however, that dogs were e x t e n s i v e l y used, not only as a s s i s t a n t s to the herdsmen but a l s o as the guardians of the farm, one must admit that t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and care would be a matter moment to the Roman farmer.  of considerable 1  According to Varro ,  the f o l l o w i ng were the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be observed:  closely  good s i z e , stubby jaws w i t h fangs  p r o j e c t i n g l e f t and  r i g h t , l a r g e head, heavy shoulders  and neck, wide paws, spongy r a t h e r than hard underneath.  So dogs should be purchased  from huntsmen or  butchers, as t h e i r former t r a i n i n g w i l l l e a d them to t u r n a l l too r e a d i l y upon the f l o c k s they are intended to guard.  1.  Varro, K.R.  T h e i r food should c o n s i s t of bones  II, ix.  and scraps of cooked meat; raw meat w i l l make them savage.  During the three month p e r i o d of pregnancy,  the' females  should he given b a r l e y bread i n a d d i t i o n  to t h e i r other f o o d .  From the l i t t e r , only the best  pups should be chosen f o r r e a r i n g and the r e s t  dis-  posed of; as a r e s u l t of t h i s c u l l i n g , those which are l e f t w i l l be b e t t e r f e d by the mother and w i l l develop more r a p i d l y .  Both mother and young must be  p r o t e c t e d from damp and c o l d . obedience  Training i n implicit  should be begun i n e a r l i e s t i n f a n c y , as  a l s o should t r a i n i n g i n f i g h t i n g , i n order that they may become accustomed to t h e i r work of guarding the flock.  When the dogs a r e f u l l - g r o w n and t r a i n e d to  t h e i r t a s k s , Varro suggests  that a stout l e a t h e r  c o l l a r w i t h n a i l s p r o j e c t i n g on the outer s i d e should be placed about t h e i r necks to guard spot from i n j u r y by w i l d animals.  this v i t a l  The number of  dogs r e q u i r e d by the farmer w i l l vary w i t h the number and s i z e of h i s f l o c k s and herds.  Cato makes no 1 mention o f shepherd-dogs, but does suggest that  1.  Cato, Agr. CXXIV.  watch-dogs he chained d u r i n g the day and  only permitted  to go f r e e at n i g h t . To the modern farmer, Y a r r o s  advice  1  regarding the s e l e c t i o n and care of farm animals t a i n s many suggestions  of p r a c t i c a l value.  One  concannot  help f e e l i n g , however, that Yarro• s work would have been c o n s i d e r a b l y more v a l u a b l e i f he had  devoted  more a t t e n t i o n to the d i s e a s e s of animals and treatment,  their  since h i s survey i s so thorough i n a l l  other r e s p e c t s .  For  t h i s d e f i c i e n c y there may  be a  good reason; i t i s u n i v e r s a l l y recognized that the more n a t u r a l the c ondi tions under which animals the h e a l t h i e r they w i l l be.  live,  Thus i t seems reasonable  to assume t h a t disease of f l o c k and herd d i d not present such a s e r i o u s problem to the Roman farmer as i t does to the present-day  agriculturalist.  view of t h i s f a c t , one cannot censure  too  In  strictly  Varro's l a c k of advice on t h i s p o i n t ; r a t h e r should 1 we blame the modern p o l i c y of excessive inbreeding  1.  This comment a p p l i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y to c a t t l e , which are " f o r c e d " i n order to produce r e c o r d breaking q u a n t i t i e s of milk and b u t t e r - f a t .  '  and  i  -  93 -  overfeeding, which i s the root of so many-  diseases among farm animals  at the present day.  CHAPTER V I I I  B i r d s , Sees and Smaller Animals  I f a modern farmer were to read Varro's De Re Rus t i c a , h i s i n t e r e s t would he cont i n u o u s l y maintained by the f i r s t  two books wherein  Varro d i s c u s s e s , f i r s t , the farm and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n , and secondly, animal husbandry. how"ever, h i s i n t e r e s t  In the t h i r d book,  might be l e s s marked; here  Varro d e s c r i b e s the care of p o u l t r y , sundry small animals, bees, and f i n a l l y f i s h - a l l of which are branches of husbandry  that have e i t h e r been discarded e n t i r e l y  from modern a g r i c u l t u r e or r e l e g a t e d to the domain of s p e c i a l i s t s *  P o u l t r y r a i s i n g and beekeeping are  s t i l l important branches of the i n d u s t r y , but the average farmer e i t h e r considers himself a s p e c i a l i s t i f he engages i n e i t h e r of these p u r s u i t s , or e l s e regards them as r a t h e r amusing business of stock and crops.  s i d e l i n e s to the main On the Roman farm,  however, not only p o u l t r y and bees, but a l s o numerous  . ,  - 95 -  s m a l l e r b i r d s and animals were p r o f i t a b l e and important subjects of a t t e n t i o n by the Roman farmer.  In these  spheres of farm a c t i v i t y Cato makes but l i t t l e c o n t r i b u t i o n ; V e r g i l , however, devotes h i s e n t i r e •Fourth Georgic to the subject of beekeeping, and the sheer p o e t i c beauty of h i s treatment makes h i s work as i n t e r e s t i n g from the point of view of p o e t i c excellence as i t i s from that of sounds p r a c t i c a l ad vie e. In order to o b t a i n a degree of coherence among the widely d i v e r s i f i e d  t o p i c s of h i s s u b j e c t ,  Varro c r e a t e s a t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n as a basis f o r his d i s c u s s i o n -  F i r s t he c o n s i d e r s p o u l t r y - not  merely ducks, geese, and chickens, but a l s o f a r e s , pigeons, and peafowl.  field-  The second topic he  subdivides under three headings; f i r s t stags, hares and other animals kept i n huge preserves or "warrens" f o r the d e l i g h t of the huntsman, secondly dormice and s n a i l s , and t h i r d l y the v a s t l y important topic of bees; f i n a l l y he comments b r i e f l y , upon the subject of f i s h - not those e x i s t i n g i n the w i l d state i n brook  or stream, but r a t h e r those maintained i n p r i v a t e ponds i n a semi-domesticated  condition.  So cursory  i s Varro's treatment of the game preserve and the 1 fishpond, so c a u s t i c are many of h i s remarks  that  one f e e l s an i m p l i c a t i o n that these were not p r o p e r l y branches of a g r i c u l t u r e , but rather the pastime of the i d l e  rich. In speaking of the v a r i o u s types of 2  p o u l t r y on the farm, 'Varro turns h i s a t t e n t i o n to f i e l d f a r e s .  first  The a v i a r y , or bird-house, i n which  they are r a i s e d should be a l a r g e domed b u i l d i n g , f i t t e d wi th only as many windov/s as are necessary to admit l i g h t , s ince the imprisoned b i r d s w i l l mope and pine i f permitted to see t h e i r more f o r t u n a t e brethren outside.  The b u i l d i n g should be p l a s t e r e d i n s i d e to  prevent the entrance of mice and vermin and w e l l equipped w i t h perches; b o t h f l o o r and perches should be kept s c r u p u l o u s l y c l e a n .  A few days before marketing,  the b i r d s should be removed to a smaller pen and f e d increased q u a n t i t i e s of g r a i n and f i g s .  1. 2.  Varro, K.R. I I I , i i i , I b i d , I I I , v. t  Ortolans and  10 and I I I , x v i i , 8, 9.  quail, which may  a l s o be r a i s e d i n the a v i a r y , require 1  p r e c i s e l y the same treatment.  Peafowl,  on the other  hand, should not be penned, but permitted to roam the f i e l d s f o r t h e i r food; before marketing,  the d i e t 2  should be enriched w i t h b a r l e y or other g r a i n .  Pigeons  should be encouraged to make t h e i r homes i n i n d i v i d u a l nests i n a b u i l d i n g s i m i l a r to the a v i a r y ; again scrupulous c l e a n l i n e s s i s to be d e s i r e d , not merely for  the sake of h e a l t h , b u t a l s o because the manure 3 of these b i r d s i s a most v a l u a b l e f e r t i l i z e r . To 4  f a t t e n young pigeons, Cato advises  a d i e t of b o i l e d  or roasted beans, f o l l o w e d by a mixture  of crushed  beans and s p e l t u n t i l the b i r d s are f a t t e n e d . 5 The best hens, says Varro  , are d i s -  tinguished by t h e i r r e d d i s h c o l o u r , black w i n g - t i p s , toes of uneven l e n g t h , u p r i g h t comb and f u l l body; to these p o i n t s , t h e r e f o r e , he enjoins c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n before purchase i s made. The hen-house should be 1. Varro, K.H. I l l , v i . 2. I b i d , I I I , v i i . 3. I b i d , I, x x x v i i i , 1. 4. Cato, Agr. XC. 5. Varro ,~K.K. , I I I , i x .  -  - 98 -  h  equipped wi th perches and should have an enclosed yard i n f r o n t , i n which the hens may dust themselves.  As  e x e r c i s e and  these b i r d s are p a r t i c u l a r l y  subject to l i c e , a l l equipment should, be cleaned frequently.  F o r s e t t i n g purposes, Varro advises the  use of o l d e r hens, as these are l e s s l i k e l y t o desert the nest; w h i l e the hen i s s i t t i n g ,  the eggs should  be turned every seven days d u r i n g the three week i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d so that they w i l l be warmed evenly. For a s i t t i n g ,  Varro recommends the s t a r t l i n g f i g u r e  of twenty-five eggs per hen, which seems an impossible number when compared with the modern p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g twelve, or a t the most,  fifteen.  A possible  e x p l a n a t i o n i s that eggs were smaller i n Varro's time than they are today. of  During the f i r s t f i f t e e n days  t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , Varro continues, the baby chicks  should be fed a mixture of b a r l e y meal and cress seed spread on s o f t sand, as a hard f l o o r w i l l t h e i r tender beaks. should be burned  injure  To keep snakes away, stag-horn  near the coops, as no snake can  endure i t s pungent s m e l l .  For f a t t e n i n g , a mixture  of b a r l e y meal and f l a x seed soaked i n water, or wheat bread soaked I n wine w i l l c o n s t i t u t e an e f f e c t i v e d i e t , 1 Ducks and geese d i f f e r from the above-mentioned species of p o u l t r y i n that they r e q u i r e access to a running stream -or a pond. making h i s purchase  In  of geese, the buyer should s e l e c t  only those which are f u l l - b o d i e d and pure white i n colour.  The eggs, of which nine to eleven c o n s t i t u t e  a s i t t i n g r e q u i r e from twenty-five to t h i r t y days to hatch.  For the f i r s t few  days a f t e r hatching, the  g o s l i n g s should be f e d barley-meal and cress seed soaked i n water; the b e s t f a t t e n i n g mixture, according to Varro, c o n s i s t s of b a r l e y meal and wheat f l o u r 2 soaked i n water.  Cato a d v i s e s  the same r a t i o n , but  adds that i t should, i f necessary be f o r c e d down t h e i r t h r o a t s i n the i n t e r e s t s of more r a p i d growth. Ducks r e q u i r e but l i t t l e  care.  Provided a marshy  pasture i s a c c e s s i b l e , along with a mixed d i e t of wheat b a r l e y , and grape-skins, these•birds w i l l take care of themselves.  1. 2.  Varro, R.R., I I I , Cato, Agr. LXXXIX.  ; .  - 100 1 The game preserve , provided one e x i s t e d  on the farm, should he stocked w i t h r a b b i t s , boars, and* roes.  To t h e i r maintenance Varro devotes  precisely  one sentence of a l l these the care, i n c r e a s e , and f e e d i n g i s thoroughly e v i d e n t . Presumably he means t h a t , provided the animals are fed and allowed to breed i n a manner and h a b i t a t as n e a r l y n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e , further care i s not essential.  S n a i l s should be enclosed i n a place  e n t i r e l y surrounded f o r themselves;  by water, and' allowed to forage  i f the owner d e s i r e s to f a t t e n them, 3  he may p l a c e them i n a j a r c o n t a i n i n g must and s p e l t . Dormice a g a i n r e q u i r e but l i t t l e  care; provided they  have a dry p l a c e i n which to l i v e , and a supply of nuts f o r f ood, they can be t r u s t e d to take care of themselves. To the subject of bees and t h e i r care, both V e r g i l and Varro devote the most minute a t t e n t i o n . 4 Both w r i t e r s pay t r i b u t e to the remarkable i n t e l l i g e n c e  1. 2. 3. « 4  Varro, K.R., I I I , x i i , x i i i . Ibid, I I I , xiv. I b i d , I I I , xv. I b i d , I I I , x v i , 5; V e r g i l , Georg. IV, 153-170.  - 101 of  -  the bee and t o the community of labour i n the h i v e ,  but both make the mistakes  of assuming, f i r s t ,  that  bees are o r i g i n a l l y horn spontaneously from the carcass 1 of a dead ox , and secondly that the lea-der of the 2 hive i s a "king" and not a "queen" bee. In defence of  our authors, however, i t may  t h i s l a t t e r e r r o r was 3 teenth Century.  be pointed out that  discovered only i n the Seven-  In a l l other r e s p e c t s , t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n  i s so accurate, and t h e i r treatment  so thorough that .  t h e i r works remain standard references f o r the beekeeper of the twentieth century. A c c o r d i n g to both authors, the  site  i n which the hives are l o c a t e d i s a matter of para4 mount importance. the v i l l a  The best s i t u a t i o n  i s one near  i n a spot p r o t e c t e d from winds and  storms  wi th a shallow pool or stream nearby; c r i s s - c r o s s e d w i t h branches or s tones on which the bees may to  1. 2. 3. 4.  d r i n k wi thout danger of drowning.  alight  Furthermore, the  Varro, K.R. I l l , x v i , 4. V e r g i l , Georg. IV, 295-314. B o t h authors c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r to the "king". The c o r r e c t i o n of t h i s long-standing misconcept i o n i s c r e d i t e d to Ian Swaminerdarn, a Dutch n a t u r a l i s t who l i v e d 1637-1680. Varro, R.R. I l l , x v i , 12, 27. V e r g i l , G-eorg. IV, 9-17, 18-30.  - •  • - 102 -  h i v e s s h o u l d h e so p l a c e d turned by the animals peckers,  that they  c a n n o t he  over-  o f t h e f a r m , a n d where wood-  l i z a r d s , a n d s w a l l o w s c a n n o t a t t a c k t h e bees 1  as t h e y go and come i n t h e i r w o r k .  The h i v e s  may  be r o u n d o r r e c t a n g u l a r , - made o f w i l l o w b r a n c h e s , wood a n d b a r k , o r e v e n a h o l l o w  t r e e stump; a n e a r t h e n -  w a r e h i v e i s l e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y s i n c e i t i s more q u i c k l y a f f e c t e d b y heat and c o l d , extremes of w h i c h a r e harmful  to the c o l o n y .  I n s i d e and o u t t h e h i v e 2.  s h o u l d b e p l a s t e r e d w i t h mud a n d l e a v e s ; t h e e n t r a n c e s h o u l d b e n a r r o w , b o t h t o p r o t e c t t h e bees f r o m extremes o f t e m p e r a t u r e and t o l e s s e n the danger o f at tack by f o e s . In order dependable supply  t o ensure a c o n s t a n t and  of food f o r h i s colony,  t h e owner  should be c a r e f u l t o p l a n t near the h i v e s a p r o f u s i o n 3 of shrubs a n d f l o w e r s b e l o v e d thyme, p o p p i e s ,  by t h e bee  c l o v e r , and a l f a l f a .  - rose,  Of a l l t h e s e  p l a n t s , thyme i s t h e most e s s e n t i a l , as i t e n a b l e s t h e 1. v a r r o , R . R I I I , x v i , 1 5 . V e r g i l , G e o r g . I V , 33-36. 2. V a r r o , K.R. I l l , x v i , 16^/75.Ibid, x v i , 1 3 . V e r g i l , G e o r g . I V , 109-115.  ' i  - 103 -  bees to produce the f i n e s t honey, from the standpoint both of f l a v o u r and q u a n t i t y .  During the w i n t e r ,  or "if inclement weather occurs a t other seasons, the owner should see that s u f f i c i e n t food i s provided f o r h i s bees, u n t i l a supply from ordinary sources i s once more a v a i l a b l e ; unless p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r t h e i r sustenance a t such times, the bees w i l l 1 die of s t a r v a t i o n or desert the h i v e .  either  By b o i l i n g  ten pounds of f i g s i n f o u r g a l l o n s of water and p l a c i n the b o i l e d f i g s and syrup i n shallow pans near or even i n s i d e the h i v e , the bees w i l l be able to e x i s t t h e i r n a t u r a l food i s once more a v a i l a b l e .  until  The  general h e a l t h of the hive should be the subject of 2 continuous  attention;  i f the bees appear sleek and  smooth of body, and swarm t h i c k l y , ho anxiety need be f e l t , but i f they seem l i s t l e s s  or have a rough, and  shaggy appearance, the hive should be fumigated smoke and a l l the o l d , f o u l wax cut away. becomes necessary 1. ' -  2  with  If i t  to move the h i v e , the operation  Varro, R.R. I l l , x v i , 2 8 . I b i d , I I I , x v i , 20. V e r g i l , Georg. IV, 251270. ;  104 should he performed  -  g e n t l y and slowly, w i t h as  little  disturbance as p o s s i b l e ; as an a d d i t i o n a l p r e c a u t i o n i t ' s h o u l d be coated w i t h sweet-smelling herbs a t t r a c t the occupants  to t h e i r new  home.  On  to the  occasion of a swarm, the bees should be a t t r a c t e d by a white c l o t h to a place, p r e v i o u s l y prepared f o r them. When the honey i s removed, at l e a s t one-tenth 1 be l e f t  should  i n the h i v e , i n order that the bees may  not  become discouraged and desert the hive w i t h consequent l o s s to the owner. It  i s a t r i b u t e to V e r g i l ' s p o e t i c  genius that, throughout  the F o u r t h Georgia, he portrays  the l i f e and work of the t i n y bee i n language that would w e l l b e f i t the e p i c h i s t o r y of a great n a t i o n , without  seeming grandiose or a f f e c t e d .  In glowing  terms he d e s c r i b e s the s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g v a l o u r w i t h which the bees w i l l f i g h t i n defence of home and "king" and l a y down t h e i r l i v e s i n the wounds they inflict toil  1.  on the f o e .  T h e i r i n d u s t r y he compares to the  of the Cyclops, p o r t r a y i n g i n language that i s  Varro, K.K..  I l l , x v i , 33.  " =  .  - 105 -  m a j e s t i c i n i t s sweeping cadence how the older bees remain at home to b u i l d the c e l l s and care f o r the h e l p l e s s young, w h i l e the workers rush f o r t h a t dawn, t o i l a l l day a t t h e i r appointed tasks, and r e t u r n i n the shadows of evening to t h e i r welcome repose*  Or  how, l i k e mariners w i t h ever a watchful eye on the sky and approaching storm, they attempt  only b r i e f  excursions when the e a s t e r l y wind holds threat of r a i n and tempest.  And again, even as i n a mighty  n a t i o n , a l l i s ' c a l m and p e a c e f u l while an adored  ruler  l i v e s and rules„ but when he has d i e d , s t r i f e and d i s c o r d s e i z e upon the e r s t w h i l e contented h i v e and the workers demolish the f r u i t s  of t h e i r own t o i l -  V e r g i l ' s sorrowful commentary upon the f o l l y and the futility attempted  of C i v i l War.  T r u l y , had V e r g i l  never  the composition of the Aeneid, had he  never essayed the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of Augustus and Imperial Home, h i s name would nevertheless command the e v e r l a s t i n g respect of the ages through the deathless beauty  of h i s l a s t  Georgia.  CHAPTER IX  F e r t i l i z a t i o n and Drainage  In the important matters and drainage, the Roman farmer,  of f e r t i l i z a t i o  i n comparison w i t h  the modern a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , was a t a d e f i n i t e advantage.  dis-  True, he r e a l i z e d the n e c e s s i t y f o r crop-  r o t a t i o n and summer f a l l o w i n g ; a l s o he c l e a r l y understood the v a l u e of manure i n m a i n t a i n i n g the f e r t i l i t y of  the s o i l , hut of modern chemical  fertilizers,  he c o u l d , -naturally, have no conception.  During the  l a s t few y e a r s , the s c i e n c e of s o i l chemistry has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the farmer what elements h i s s o i l  to discover i n e x a c t l y  i s d e f i c i e n t ; f o r each  d e f i c i e n c y a chemical f e r t i l i z e r  i s available.  It  should be noted, however, that the modern farmer, while admitting the v a l u e of a r t i f i c i a l for  s p e c i f i c purposes,  fertilizers  s t i l l regards barnyard  manure  as the "complete" f e r t i l i z e r , and i f compelled to make a c h o i c e between chemical f e r t i l i z e r s and  . )  - 10? -  n a t u r a l manure, would undoubtedly choose the l a t t e r . In the matter of drainage, a l s o , the use of c y l i n d r i c a l t i l e manufactured from c l a y or cement has made p o s s i b l e a type of drainage which i s inestimably s u p e r i o r to the open, surface d r a i n s of the Koman period. I n h i s customary t e r s e manner Cato makes the f o l l o w i n g s tatement,which c l e a r l y  indicates  the importance which he attaches to manure. Of what does good c u l t i v a t i o n c o n s i s t ? Thorough ploughing. What, second 1 y? Ploughing. What t h i r d l y ? Manuring. This s tatement, although almost epigrammatic i n i t s b r e v i t y , c l e a r l y means that manuring i s almost as  r  <  important as thorough ploughing.  A further  injunction  s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s theory* See to i t that you have a manure p i l e of goodly s i z e . Save the manure c a r e f u l l y , keep i t c l e a n of f o r e i g n matter, and when you haul i t out, break i t up thoroughly. 3 Varro, a l s o , adds a word to Cato' s instructions.;  1. 2. 3.  Cato, Agr. LXI. I b i d , v, 8. V a r r o , K.K. I, y . i i i ,  4.  - 108 Close a t hand you ought to have two manurep i t s , or one p i t d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . In the one should he placed the new manure; from the other the w e l l - r o t t e d manure should he hauled out to the f i e l d s , f o r w e l l - r o t t e d manure i s the b e s t . The manure-pit should be p r o t e c t e d from the sun by a covering of s a p l i n g s and l e a v e s , f o r the sun d r i e s out the essence which the land r e q u i r e s . S u r e l y one must admit that these d e f i n i t e prove how f u l l y  the Roman farmer  instructi  r e a l i z e d the value  of manure. With r e s p e c t to the v a r i o u s types 1 of manure, Varro remarks most v a l u a b l e .  that b i r d manure i s the  This should be s c a t t e r e d t h i n l y on the  l a n d , r a t h e r than l e f t i n p i l e s , as was apparently the p r a c t i c e i n t h e use of c a t t l e manure.  "Next i n  value comes the manure of. goats, sheep, and asses. Horse manure, Varro concludes, i s l e s s v a l u a b l e , g e n e r a l l y speaking, but i s u s e f u l on g r a i n and meadow l a n d , as the food of the horse i s d e r i v e d from these Wo  sources.  Cato makes no comment with respect to 2  r e l a t i v e v a l u e s , but merely advises s e r v a t i o n o f the manure supply. 1. 2.  Varro, R.R. , I , xxxvii/, 1, 2, 3. Cato, Agr. V, 8 and XXXVI, 1.  c a r e f u l con-  " »  - 109  -  On the modern farm, manure i s u s u a l l y hauled out to the f i e l d s before the f a l l  ploughing,  or "else d u r i n g the w i n t e r , when the ground i s f r o z e n hard enough to make h a u l i n g easy. Cato, however, 1 advises that i t be hauled out at the beginning of s p r i n g to meadow l a n d , and to other f i e l d s i n the 2  fall.  lie a d v i s e s , f u r t h e r , that the manure should be d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g r u l e - one-half for  the forage crops, one-fourth f o r the o l i v e s , and  one-fourth f o r the meadows.  This we may  interpret  as a general r u l e , subject to any v a r i a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the comparative  acreage devoted  to each crop and  by the c omparative  f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l i n various  p a r t s of the farm. In a d d i t i o n to the use of manure, our Roman a u t h o r i t i e s mention two land may  be f e r t i l i z e d ,  other means by which  namely, by ploughing under  c e r t a i n green growing crops, and by the use of compost. 3 Cato and Varro agree that crops of l u p i n e s , beans,  1. 2. * 3  Cato, Agr. L, 1. I b i d , ;VXKIX. 1M1> XXXVII, 2.  Varro, R.R.  I, x x i i i , 3.  ' 5 and v e t c h ,  - 110 -  i f permitted to grow f o r a time w i l l  enrich  the ground when ploughed under, or even i f permitted 1  to ' l i e on the ground.  Humus or compost, Cato adds ,  may he made by mixing straw, l u p i n e s , c h a f f , b;ean s t a l k s , i l e x and oak leaves, and p e r m i t t i n g rot. and  them to  A l s o , they may be used as bedding f o r the sheep cattle;  i f so used they would n a t u r a l l y count as 2  manure when r o t t e d .  The same author a l s o states  that  amurca, i f mixed with water and s p a r i n g l y a p p l i e d , w i l l increase  the y i e l d  of o l i v e t r e e s ; i n large q u a n t i t i e s  however, i t w i l l harden and s t e r i l i z e the ground. Neither  Cato nor Varro mentions c l o v e r or a l f a l f a as  s o i l b u i l d i n g crops;  thus we must conclude that the  nitrogen-storing properties  of these p l a n t s were  unknown to the Koman farmer. Although the subject  of drainage may  seem a t f i r s t glance to be e n t i r e l y divorced from the subject  of f e r t i l i z a t i o n ,  there e x i s t s a very close  r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two departments of farm management. 1. 2.  Land may be n a t u r a l l y r i c h ,  Cato, Agr. XXXVII, 2. I b i d . XCIII.  or h e a v i l y  • 1.  - 111  -  manured each succeeding year, hut unless the drainage system i s adequate, merely degenerate  the f e r t i l i t y  i n t o "sourness". 1  of the s o i l  will  Thus we f i n d  that  both Cato and Varro o f f e r advice w i t h regard to the problem  of drainage.  I t has already been noted that  Varro favours a farm on which the land has an even 2 slope; m a n i f e s t l y , such a contour makes d r a i n i n g a 3 r e l a t i v e l y simple matter. D i t c h e s , Cato advises , should be dug trough-shaped, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the land i s marshy, three f e e t wide at the top, f o u r f e e t deep, t a p e r i n g to a width of approximately one f o o t at the bottom. f a i l i n g stone of brushwood. 4  9  These should be l i n e d w i t h stone, or w i t h w i l l o w branches  or even bundles  The best time f o r i n s t a l l i n g  drains,  he continues , i s the winter season, when c u l t i v a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y at a s t a n d s t i l l . growing  Even d u r i n g the  season, however, i f water i s l y i n g anywhere  on the g r a i n - f i e l d s , i t should be drained o f f  1. 2. 3. 4.  0  Varro, K.K., I, v i , 6. A modern t i l e d r a i n , w e l l l a i d and i n good c o n d i t i o n , w i l l work w i t h a f a l l of one i n c h per hundred f e e t of l e n g t h . Cato, Agr. SXITI, 1. I b i d . CLV, 1, 2 ad f i n . .  - 112 immediately.  Varro makes no comment w i t h regard t o 1 methods of drainage, hut suggests merely that t h i s wo'rk he done d u r i n g the w i n t e r months. In view of the foregoing summary, one w i l l r e a d i l y admit that the Roman farmer w e l l r e a l i z e d the -vital n e c e s s i t y of f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  Apart from the  , modern use of chemical f e r t i l i z e r s , h i s knowledge of manures was p r a c t i c a l l y as complete as our own. f a c t , when one hears of twentieth century  In  farmers  who crop land c o n t i n u o u s l y without g i v i n g a thought to the maintenance of the s o i l ' s f e r t i l i t y , he i s almost  inclined  to f e e l that Cato and h i s successors  were w i s e r i n t h i s matter  than many a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s  of the present day. In the matter ever , i t must he admitted  of drainage, how-  that the Roman farmer made  l i t t l e progress; i n h i s defence i t may he pointed out that he f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d the importance  of removing  superfluous moisture from the l a n d , and c a r r i e d out t h i s o b j e c t i v e w i t h the best means at h i s command.  1*  Varro, R.R.. I , xxxv, 2 ad f i n .  CHAPTER X  The R e l i g i o u s Aapect of Roman A g r i c u l t u r e  I t i s g e n e r a l l y admitted that Roman r e l i g i o n , i n comparison w i t h that of Greece, was an unimaginative conception  of c e r t a i n o c c u l t f o r c e s  and processes that man c ould not f u l l y comprehend. In a word, Roman r e l i g i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y a p r a c t i c a l working agreement between man and god; i f c e r t a i n r i t u a l s , s a c r i f i c e s and ceremonies were duly and c o r r e c t l y observed, the god was i n honour bound to lend a favouring  ear to the s u p p l i a n t ' s request.  If  the god f a i l e d to perform h i s share of the c o n t r a c t , the worshipper might f e e l himself absolved n e c e s s i t y of f u r t h e r prayer particular deity.  Since  from the  or s a c r i f i c e to that  the Romans were o r i g i n a l l y  a farming people, and as many of t h e i r gods thus had t h e i r o r i g i n i n the various a c t i v i t i e s of the farm, it  i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t the element of  r e l i g i o n , o r r a t h e r the element of r e l i g i o u s observance  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n Roman a g r i c u l t u r e ; sequently we own  f i n d that each of our  authors, a f t e r  i n d i v i d u a l f a s h i o n , pays t r i b u t e to the  d e i t i e s of the farm.  Cato, p r a c t i c a l as  gives minute and  painstaking directions  p i t i a t i o n of  gods of f i e l d and  the  commences h i s  his  tutelary  always, f o r the  pro-  home; Varro  t r e a t i s e with a lengthy i n v o c a t i o n to  a l l the d e i t i e s who  are  concerned w i t h the  branches of farm a c t i v i t y ; V e r g i l , at the ment of each Georgic, c a l l s upon the god particular  con-  province i n A g r i c u l t u r e  he  various commence-  whose  i s about to  enter. After that a g r i c u l t u r e  a b r i e f statement of the  i s to be  the  subject of h i s w r i t i n g s ,  Yarro at once c a l l s upon the gods of the t h e i r favour and  fact  a s s i s t a n c e i n the  farm f o r  task he  has  1 essayed.  To quote h i s  invocation.  I invoke, not the Muses of Homer and Ennius, but the twelve ' C o u n c i l l o r Gods' who are the d i r e c t o r s of the farmer. E i r s t I c a l l upon J u p i t e r and T e l l u s , who by means of Heaven and E a r t h embrace a l l f r u i t s of c u l t i v a t i o n *  1.  Y a r r o , K.R.,  I, i , 5,  6.  - 115  -  and thus are c a l l e d the 'Great Parents', J u p i t e r being c a l l e d 'Father' and E a r t h 'Mother'. Then I beseech the favour of Sun and Moon, whose periods are observed f o r sowing and h a r v e s t i n g . T h i r d l y I invoke Ceres and L i b e r , s i n c e t h e i r f r u i t s are most e s s e n t i a l to l i f e , f o r i t i s through them that food and d r i n k come from the farm. F o u r t h l y I c a l l upon Kobigus and F l o r a , f o r when these are f a v o u r a b l e , r u s t w i l l not harm the crops, nor w i l l they f a i l to produce flowers i n due season. Likewise I pray to Minerva and Venus, one of whom p r o t e c t s the o l i v e , the other the garden. A l s o I invoke Lympha and Bonus Eyentus, f o r without moisture a l l c u l t i v a t i o n w i l l be parched and b a r r e n , and without success and good issue-, farming becomes, not farming, but disappointment. Although Cato indulges i n no formal i n v o c a t i o n to the gods, he d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the various r i t u a l s upon which the p r o s p e r i t y of the farm depends.  In each of these ceremonials i t i s  w e l l t o note that Cato l a y s the g r e a t e s t s t r e s s upon the a c t u a l form of the observance; from h i s i n s i s t e n c e upon d e t a i l we may  r e a d i l y assume that the Homan  farmer e n v i s i o n e d h i s gods as being s i n g u l a r l y e x a c t i n g w i t h r e g a r d to the form of the worship to  them.  A study of the r i t u a l  , tendered  to be performed before  - 116 a grove i s thinned w i l l amply i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . 1 S a c r i f i c e a p i g , e n j o i n s Cato, and o f f e r the f o l l o w i n g p r a y e r ; 'whether thou he god or goddess whose sacred possession t h i s grove i s , as i t i s thy r i g h t to r e c e i v e the sacr i f i c e of a p i g f o r the t h i n n i n g of t h i s sacred grove, and with t h i s purpose, whether I or one a t my command do i t , may i t be r i g h t l y done. By the o f f e r i n g of t h i s p i g s a c r i f i c e d to thee, 1 pray that thou w i l t he g r a c i o u s unto me, my house, my household and my c h i l d r e n . May thou he g l o r i f i e d by t h i s p i g s a c r i f i c e d unto thee f o r t h i s end.' I f you wish to c u l t i v a t e the land, make a second o f f e r i n g i n the same way, and add the words, ' f o r the sake of doing t h i s work'. As l o n g as the work continues, o f f e r t h i s prayer each day i n some part of the land; i f p u b l i c or f a m i l y feast-days intervene, a new o f f e r i n g must be made. Or again, when the pear t r e e s are i n bloom, and before s p r i n g ploughing begins, an o f f e r i n g c o n s i s t i n g of wine and roast meat must be made f o r the h e a l t h of the  oxen, to the accompaniment of the f o l l o w i n g 2 prayer* J u p i t e r D a p a l i s , be thou g l o r i f i e d by t h i s f e a s t p l a c e d before thee, and by t h i s wine placed before thee. At  the same time an o f f e r i n g may  at the d i s c r e t i o n  1. 2.  of the farmer.  Cato, Agr. CXXXIX, QXX. I b i d , CXXXI, CXXXII.  be made to "Vesta, To ensure the h e a l t h  - 117 1 of the c a t t l e  , an o f f e r i n g of ground g r a i n , bacon,  meat, and wine must he made to Mars S i l v a n u s ; hut, adds Cato b l u n t l y , no woman may take p a r t i n , or 2 even-witness t h e ceremony*  Before  the harvest,  o f f e r i n g s to Ceres, Janus, and J u p i t e r must be made, accompanied by prayers that such o f f e r i n g s w i l l he acceptable to the gods. For the important r i t u a l of p u r i f y i n g the l a n d , Cato a g a i n g i v e s minutely d e t a i l e d 3 tions.  instruc-  B i d the o f f e r i n g of a p i g , a sheep and a b u l l o c k to be l e d around the farm, w i t h these words, 'That wi th the k i n d l y help of the gods a l l our work may turn out w e l l , I b i d thee, Manius, t o take care to p u r i f y with t h i s s a c r i f i c e my farm, my f i e l d s , my l a n d , i n each part that thou thinkest they should be d r i v e n or c a r r i e d around' . With an o f f e r i n g of wine to Janus and J u p i t e r , speak these words, '0 F a t h e r Mars, I beg and beseech that thou w i l t be favourable and gracious unto me, my house, and my household; f o r the purpose thereof I have bidden t h i s s a c r i f i c e to be l e d around my farm, my f i e l d s and my l a n d . That thou p r o t e c t and guard me from i l l n e s s , seen and unseen, barrenness and d e s o l a t i o n ,  1. 3.  Cato, Agr. LXXXIII I b i d . CXXXIV. I b i d * CXLI.  - 118 d i s a s t e r and unseasonable events; and that thou permit my f r u i t s , my g r a i n , my v i n e yards , my groves to increase and f l o u r i s h . And preserve i n good h e a l t h my shepherds and my f l o c k , a n d give good h e a l t h to me, my house, and my household. For these purposes, to p u r i f y and make pure my f i e l d s , my farm, and my l a n d , as I have h e r e t o f o r e s a i d , may thou be g l o r i f i e d by the o f f e r i n g of t h i s s a c r i f i c e ; and, 0 f a t h e r Liars, may thou f o r the same purpose be g l o r i f i e d by the s a c r i f i c e of these victims''. In a d d i t i o n to these r i t u a l s of o f f e r i n g s and s a c r i f i c e , Cato i n numerous instances makes minor suggestions p e r t a i n i n g to r e l i g i o u s  observance, 1  Neither the farm-manager nor the housekeeper  may  engage i n r e l i g i o u s observances without the consent of the master; nor may  the overseer consult any  soothsayer, a s t r o l o g e r , or Chaldean.  Even b e f o r e  the master goes on a tour of i n s p e c t i o n around the farm, he must pay h i s r e s p e c t s to the gods of the  Z  household.  The mere mention of p o s s i b l e misfortune 3  causes Cato to i n t e r j e c t the e x p r e s s i o n which may  1. 2. 3.  be t r a n s l a t e d "May  "bona s a l u t e " ,  Heaven f o r f e n d " .  Again,  c a t o , Agr. V, 3, 4; c f . also Cato, Agr. CXLIII, 1 ad f i n . I b i d , I I , 1. I b i d , IV, 1 ad f i n *  - 119 the sower must not cheat 1  the g r a i n - f i e l d s i n the  matter of sowing , as t h i s i s a sure precursor of misTor tune.  These examples, although l e s s  striking  than the i n v o l v e d r i t u a l p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , s u f f i c e to prove that r e l i g i o u s observance  on the Roman farm  was a n important p a r t of the d a i l y r o u t i n e . The c l o s e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n between Roman a g r i c u l t u r e and Roman r e l i g i o n i s a t t e s t e d by the a g r i c u l t u r a l o r i g i n of many of the major Roman f e s t i v a l s and h o l i d a y s .  Of these the g r e a t e s t was  the S a t u r n a l i a , c e l e b r a t e d a n n u a l l y a t the c l o s e of the v i n t a g e and the harvest i n honour of Saturn, a legendary k i n g of e a r l y I t a l y , who f i r s t p r a c t i c e of A g r i c u l t u r e .  taught the  This f e s t i v a l , so s i m i l a r to 2  our Harvest Home and Thanksgiving , was c e l e b r a t e d w i t h f e a s t i n g and merrymaking - expressing the thanks of the people f o r a bounteous harves t.  Or again, we  might mention the L i b e r a l i a , which observed annually on March 17, was designed to do honour to libers, 1. 2.  Cato, Agr. I I , 4, ad f i n . A touch of "Christmas" was n o t i c e a b l e , too, i n the g i v i n g of p r e s e n t s .  - . god o f w i n e .  - 120 On t h i s a u s p i c i o u s o c c a s i o n , Koman b o y  assumed t h e "toga- v i r i l i s " ,  emblematic o f a t t a i n i n g  the- s t a t u s o f manhood a n d c i t i z e n s h i p .  Mars,  second  o n l y t o J u p i t e r i n t h e a d o r a t i o n o f t h e Koman p e o p l e was  o r i g i n a l l y a n a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t y , whose r o l e of  god o f w a r was s u p e r i m p o s e d upon h i s e a r l i e r of the p r o t e c t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r e . Pagan e r a , b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  functio:  To t h e end o f t h e sacrifices  c o n t i n u e d t o c o n s i s t o f t h e humble a n i m a l s o f t h e f a r m - t h e s h e e p , t h e g o a t , t h e p i g , a n d t h e snowy b u l l o c k s i m m o r t a l i z e d by V e r g i l .  T r u l y , Koman  r e l i g i o n , a n d t h r o u g h r e l i g i o n , Koman s o c i e t y h a d its  r o o t s deep i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e  Koman p e o p l e ; upon t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l and e n d u r i n g f o u n d a t i o n was b u i l t  the world-wide Empire, which to  s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s h a s b e e n synonymous w i t h t h e m i g h t y name o f Kome.  OBAPTJiiK X I  The L a b o u r S u p p l y on t h e Roman F a r m  The w i d e s p r e a d , use o f m a c h i n e r y by the modern farmer h a s n o t only m a t e r i a l l y reduced the drudgery of f a r m l a b o u r b u t has a l s o brought  about  a s h a r p d e c l i n e i n t h e number o f men n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y on t h e m a n i f o l d t a s k s o f t h e f a r m . f a r m , however, an e n t i r e l y existed.  different  On t h e Roman labour-situation  T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no l a b o u r saving-  m a c h i n e r y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , a l l w o r k h a d t o be done by h a n d , a f a c t -which n e c e s s i t a t e d a n i n f i n i t e l y staff  larger  t h a n w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d on a modern f a r m o f  comparable  area devoted  to s i m i l a r crops-  That most  of t h i s work was p e r f o r m e d by s l a v e l a b o u r c a n n o t be d e n i e d ; a f a c t l e s s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d I s t h a t a c e r t a . i n amount o f h i r e d l a b o u r was employed. V a r r o 1 . _ d e f i n i t e l y states that the h e a v i e r farm o p e r a t i o n s , s u c h a s the h a r v e s t and t h e v i n t a g e s h o u l d be h a n d l e d  1.  V a r r o , R.R.  I,xvii,  3.  - ,  - 122 -  by f r e e m e n , t e m p o r a r i l y  hired f o r the occasion.  The  reason f o r Varro's suggestion  i s obvious; to possess  a number o f s l a v e s s u f f i c i e n t  t o c a r r y on t h e s e  seasonal  o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e r o u t i n e work  of t h e f a r m w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e a s t a f f so l a r g e  that  employment f o r many o f t h e hands w o u l d be l a c k i n g a t s l a c k seasons.  R e c a l l i n g t h e o l d adage t h a t  a l w a y s f i n d s some m i s c h i e f is  inclined  sufficient  "Satan  f o r i d l e hands t o do"', one  t o a g r e e w i t h V a r r o when h e a d v i s e s  that  s l a v e s be m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e r e g u l a r work  of t h e f a r m , w i t h "day-labourers"  the a d d i t i o n of h i r e d h e l p or  when t h e p r e s s u r e  o f work i s a b n o r m a l l y  heavy. I t has a l r e a d y been noted  that, f o r  an  o l i v e y a r d o f 240 i u g e r a , C a t o a d v i s e s a p e r s o n n e l . 1 1 of 13 s l a v e s ; f o r a v i n e y a r d o f 100 i u g e r a , 16 s l a v e s .  Thus i t i s e v i d e n t was'proportional, but  rather  quoting  1. 2. 3.  t h a t t h e number o f s l a v e s  required  not to the a c t u a l area of the farm,  to t h e type o f f a r m i n g p r a c t i s e d . 2 3 Saserna , states t h a t one man s h o u l d  Varro, be  C a t o , A g r . X, X I . S a s e r n a e ( f a t h e r a n d s o n ) were Roman w r i t e r s on a g r i c u l t u r e , quoted by Varro i n s e v e r a l instances. V a r r o , K.R.> I , x v i i i , 2-8.  - 123 sufficient  -  f o r e i g h t i u g e r a as a g e n e r a l  rule,  hut  t h a t , i f the l a n d i s i n t e n s i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d , the amount o f l a n d p e r  s l a v e must he r e d u c e d .  Apparently  at a l o s s to e s t a b l i s h a d e f i n i t e formula  applicable  to a l l i n s t a n c e s , Varro  farmer  should  s u g g e s t s t h a t the  observe other farms i n h i s neighbourhood,  be g u i d e d by  their The  and  example. d u t i e s o f the  t h e f a r m manager o r o v e r s e e r ,  "vilicus".-  that i s ,  a p p e a r t o have b e e n 1  very  onerous.  so d e t a i l e d and  For  o n c e , C a t o waxes a l m o s t e l o q u e n t ;  comprehensive are h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s '  t h a t a c o m p l e t e t r a n s l a t i o n seems w a r r a n t e d . These a r e the o v e r s e e r ' s d u t i e s . He must e n f o r c e g o o d d i s c i p l i n e among t h e s l a v e s . F e a s t d a y s must be o b s e r v e d . L e t h i m k e e p h i s hands o f f t h e p r o p e r t y o f o t h e r s , and c a r e f u l l y g u a r d h i s own. He must a d j u d g e d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g among the s t a f f , and i f a n y o n e has c o m m i t t e d any o f f e n c e , he muqt p u n i s h t h e o f f e n d e r a c c o r d i n g l y . He must l o o k a f t e r t h e s l a v e s o f the h o u s e h o l d see t o i t t h a t t h e y a r e n e i t h e r c o l d nor 'hungry. He must keep t h e w o r k g o i n g , f o r i n t h i s way he w i l l k e e p t h e s l a v e s more e a s i l y f r o m t h e f t and w r o n g d o i n g . I f the o v e r s e e r r e f u s e s t o do w r o n g , ( t h e s l a v e s ) w i l l n o t do w r o n g e i t h e r . I f , h o w e v e r , he  1.  Cato, Agr.  V.  and  - 124 s u f f e r s any s i n to be committed, t h e master must p u n i s h h i m . F o r w o r k w e l l d o n e , t h e overseer should express h i s g r a t i t u d e ; i n t h i s way o t h e r s l a v e s w i l l be g l a d t o do t h e i r w o r k i n a p r o p e r manner. He must n o t be a w a n d e r e r he must a l w a y s be s o b e r , a n d he must n e v e r go o u t f o r d i n n e r . . He must k e e p t h e hands e m p l o y e d , and make i t h i s b u s i n e s s t o see t h a t t h e master's o r d e r s a r e faithfully c a r r i e d o u t . L e t him never t h i n k he knows more t h a n t h e m a s t e r . H i s m a s t e r ' s f r i e n d s must be h i s f r i e n d s . He must p a y heed t o whomever he h a s b e e n o r d e r e d to o b e y . He must p e r f o r m no r e l i g i o u s r i t e s , except t h e C o m p i t a l i a a t the c r o s s ways o r b e f o r e t h e h e a r t h . He must s e l l n o t h i n g on c r e d i t w i t h o u t t h e master's o r d e r s , and c o l l e c t f o r s a l e s made by t h e m a s t e r . He must l e n d no one s e e d g r a i n , f o d d e r , m e a l , w i n e , o r o i l . He s h o u l d , h a v e two o r t h r e e h o u s e h o l d s , a n d no more, f r o m whom he b o r r o w s n e c e s s i t i e s a n d to whom he l e n d s . He s h o u l d c h e c k o v e r a c c o u n t s o f t e n w i t h t h e m a s t e r . He s h o u l d n o t k e e p t h e same l a b o u r e r , s e r v a n t , o r caretaker f o r longer than a day ( a t a time). He must b u y n o t h i n g w i t h o u t h i s m a s t e r ' s o r d e r s , a n d must k e e p n o t h i n g h i d d e n f r o m h i s m a s t e r . He must h a v e no p a r a s i t e s a b o u t h i m . He must h a v e no d e a l i n g s w i t h soothsayer, augurer, or prophet. He must not cheat- t h e f i e l d s i n t h e m a t t e r o f s o w i n g , f o r t h i s i s most u n l u c k y . He s h o u l d be a b l e t o p e r f o r m a n y w o r k on t h e f a r m , and s h o u l d p e r f o r m s u c h work f r e q u e n t l y , p r o v i d e d o n l y t h a t he does n o t t i r e h i m s e l f . I n s o d o i n g , he w i l l l e a r n what i s i n t h e minds o f t h e s l a v e s , a n d t h e y , on t h e i r p a r t , w i l l p e r f o r m t h e i r work w i t h b e t t e r f e e l i n g s . 5  -  125  I f he does (such w o r k ) , he w i l l he l e s s i n c l i n e d t o w a n d e r a b o u t , he w i l l be i n b e t t e r h e a l t h , and w i l l s l e e p more s o u n d l y . He must be t h e f i r s t t o r i s e i n the m o r n i n g , the l a s t t o r e t i r e . B e f o r e g o i n g t o b e d , he s h o u l d see t h a t t h e v i l l a i s c l o s e d up, t h a t e a c h s l a v e i s a s l e e p i n h i s own b e d , and t h a t the c a t t l e have f e e d . V a r r o a d d s t h a t , as a r e w a r d f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t charge of h i s d u t i e s , the o v e r s e e r  s h o u l d be t r e a t e d  a l i t t l e more l i b e r a l l y i n the m a t t e r  of f o o d  c l o t h i n g , a.nd p e r m i t t e d t o g r a z e some c a t t l e own  on t h e f a r m .  accorded and  The  dis-  same t r e a t m e n t  or of h i s  s h o u l d a l s o be  t o t h e w o r k e r s , when they h a v e w o r k e d w e l l  faithfully. W i t h r e g a r d to the housekeeper, Cato 1  suggests overseer. in  t h a t i t i s sound p o l i c y t o m a r r y h e r  of y o u " .  She  a l s o has  must n o t be e x t r a v a g a n t ,  1.  nor m a n i f e s t a  out v i s i t i n g or to meals.  Cato, Agr.  CXLIII.  stand  d e f i n i t e duties to  perform, w h i c h Cato d e s c r i b e s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e  t o go  the  B u t w h e t h e r w i f e o r n o t , comments C a t o  a f i n a i i n j u n c t i o n t o t h e o v e r s e e r , "make h e r  i n awe  She  to  She  detail.  tendency  must keep  her-  • .  - 12.6 -  s e l f a n d h e r house c l e a n and n e a t , and in  such r e l i g i o u s  master. eggs. for  o n l y engage  o b s e r v a n c e s as a r e o r d e r e d by  the  She s h o u l d keep h e n s , t o e n s u r e a s u p p l y o f She must k e e p a s u p p l y o f f o o d a l w a y s on hand  trie m a s t e r ,  visit.  s h o u l d he h a p p e n t o make an  unexpected  She must t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d a l l methods  of p r e s e r v i n g and  d r y i n g f r u i t s , as w e l l as  grinding of g r a i n into f l o u r .  the  I n s h o r t , w e may  summarize  h e r d u t i e s b y s a y i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y the same a s  t h o s e o f the modern f a r m e r ' s w i f e . I n s p e a k i n g o f t h e s l a v e s employed  on t h e f a r m , V a r r o m e n t i o n s of p a r t i c u l a r  interest.  three points which are 1 I t I s a d v i s a b l e , he s a y s ,  not t o have t o o many o f t h e same n a t i o n a l i t y , 2 will  l e a d to domestic s t r i f e .  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d  Secondly  this  , slaves  t o i n t e r m a r r y , as t h i s  make them become more a t t a c h e d t o t h e f a r m , incidentally w i l l  as  will and  ensure a f u t u r e supply of s l a v e s 3 F i n a l l y , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be e x c e s s i v e l y  for  the master.  1. 2. 3.  V a r r o , K.K. I , x v i i , I b i d , I , x v i i , 5. I b i d , I , x v i i , 4.  5.  - 127  -  meek or e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h - s p i r i t e d , hut those  selected  as foremen should he somewhat s u p e r i o r to t h e i r f e l l o w s i n a b i l i t y and education. I n s e l e c t i n g herdsmen f o r the f l o c k s 1 and herds, Varro suggests  that o l d men  or young boys  are s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s work i f the f l o c k s are being grazed on the farm.  I f , however, the animals are  out to pasture on range land or i n the h i l l s , herdsmen should be young men.  the  l i t h e , supple, and w e l l .2  armed; the best slaves f o r t h i s work, he continues , come from Spain and Gaul.  I f the herd i s very l a r g e ,  or i f a number of f l o c k s or herds i s being pastured 3 together, i t i s advisable to have a s e n i o r herdsman i n charge of the whole group. The food issued to slaves on a Koman farm was,  n a t u r a l l y , not of the highest q u a l i t y .  With 4  h i s customary a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l , Cato gives advice p e r t a i n i n g to the amount of food necessary f o r each slave. 1. 2. 3. 4.  In w i n t e r , he suggests, f o u r pecks of wheat  Varro, K.R.„ I I , x, 1, I b i d , I I , x, 3, 4. I b i d , I I , x, 2. Cato, Agr. l v i . .  2.  - 128 is  sufficient, with a slight  summer months.  increase during  Outside labourers  should  pounds o f b r e a d d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r , 1 during  the summer.  b e e n b l o w n f r o m the p i c k i n g , should supply  be  thereof  the  receive  four  i n c r e a s i n g to  five  I n a d d i t i o n , o l i v e s w h i c h have t r e e s by  t h e w i n d , o r damaged i n  i s s u e d t o the l a b o u r e r s ; when the  i s exhausted, f i s h - p i c k l e  or  vinegar  may be i s s u e d i n s t e a d . E a c h s l a v e s h o u l d r e c e i v e one p i n t o f o i l p e r month and one p e c k o f s a l t p e r y e a r , 2 The  poorer wine  s h o u l d be  - or t h a t of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f l a v o u r  given  t o the  slaves, with a l i t t l e  extra  r a t i o n f o r t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e S a t u r n a l i a and Compitalia.  The  each s l a v e should  the  average a n n u a l a l l o w a n c e of wine f o r amount, C a t o e s t i m a t e s ,  to  sixty  gallons. 3 I n a b r i e f statement c l o t h i n g f o r the b l a n k e t and  s l a v e s , Cato a d v i s e s  a p a i r o f wooden s a n d a l s  concerning that a t u n i c , should  s u p p l i e d t o each s l a v e every other y e a r ; f o r 1. 2. 3.  Cato, Agr. lviii. Ibid, l v i i . Ibid, Xx *  be the  ' . •  •  - 129 -  sake of economy, q u i l t s should he made from the worn out t u n i c s and b l a n k e t s . However much we may deplore employment of slave labour  widespread  on the Roman farm, we  must not overlook the f a c t that s l a v e r y was common to a l l branches of Roman i n d u s t r y .  Nor was the  p o s i t i o n of the slave e n t i r e l y hopeless;  i n some  i n s t a n c e s , at l e a s t , a slave was rewarded f o r d i l i g e n t and f a i t h f u l s e r v i c e , f o r Yarro,  i n a passage  already  r e f e r r e d t o , suggests t h a t , f o r work w e l l done, a s l a v e should be permitted  special l i t t l e privileges.  Thus we may conclude our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the labour s i t u a t i o n on a Roman farm by s a y i n g that the farm s l a v e was no worse o f f than h i s brethren  i n other  i n d u s t r i e s , and c e r t a i n l y fared as w e l l as the negro on a Southern c o t t o n p l a n t a t i o n l e s s than one hundred years ago.  CHAPTER X I I  The General Conduct of the_ Farm  Although the major operations of the farm have been d e a l t w i t h i n preceding chapters, s e v e r a l p o i n t s p e r t a i n i n g to the general conduct of the farm have not y e t heen c o n s i d e r e d .  These, i n  g e n e r a l , do not apply s p e c i f i c a l l y to a s i n g l e branch of farm a c t i v i t y , but are broad general statements whose observance i s v i t a l to the p r o f i t a b l e management of a farm.  Bbr i s t h e i r importance confined to farm  management of the Roman period alone, a l l of them are p o i n t s which the s u c c e s s f u l farmer of the present day would admit to be of the utmost v a l u e . Foremost among the p o i n t s which Cato from time to time o f f e r s f o r our c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s h i s i n s i s t e n c e upon economy, a p r a c t i c e which he s t r e s s e s so c o n s t a n t l y that one f e e l s i t i s almost an obsession w i t h t h i s rugged " o l d - s c h o o l " a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t .  Early, 1 i n the De A g r i C u l t u r a he makes the abrupt comment  1.  Cato, Agr• I , 5.  - 131  -  that a farm i s very l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l ; however great the income profit.  ?  over-extravagance w i l l consume a l l the  ""Over-extravagance" we may  interpret  as  having s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t phases of meaning; land whose c u l t i v a t i o n i s too c o s t l y i n p r o p o r t i o n to the r e t u r n s d e r i v e d from i t , crops  or herds,  carelessness i n the care of  unchecked i d l e n e s s on the p a r t of  workmen, unduly c o s t l y b u i l d i n g s or implements - a l l these w i l l reduce,, the p r o f i t from the farm. In a 1 l a t e r passage t h i s p o i n t of view i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d . When the weather i s stormy look around and see what can be done indoors. Clean things up r a t h e r than be i d l e . Keep this f a c t i n mind, that even though no work i s accomp l i s h e d , expenses, n e v e r t h e l e s s , continue. In s e v e r a l instances Cato mentions work which can c a r r i e d on indoors, even i f inclement weather •work on  prevents  the land.  2 Remind the overseer, he advises , of the. work which c o u l d have been done i n bad weather washing wine v e s s e l s and c o a t i n g them w i t h p i t c h , c l e a n i n g up the b u i l d i n g s , moving g r a i n , h a u l i n g out manure, making a manure-pit, c l e a n i n g g r a i n f o r seed, mending o l d harness and making new, mending clothing.  1.  Cato, Agr. XXXIX, 2 ad f i n .  be  - 132 Even on h o l i d a y s , when work on the land was c o n t r a r y 1 to e s t a b l i s h e d custom, Cato suggests  that c e r t a i n  r o u t i n e operations - c l e a n i n g d i t c h e s , c u t t i n g  brambles,  b u i l d i n g roads - may provide employment f o r the labourers.  In these ways p r o f i t a b l e employment of  the workmen may continue, even i f work on the land is  temporarily h a l t e d ; furthermore, i f slaves are  kept busy they w i l l be l e a s i n c l i n e d to q u a r r e l l i n g and  mischief-making. As another point of economy, Cato suggests  that nothing should be kept on the farm which i s not of p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . 2 The farmer, he remarks , should be a s e l l e r , not a buyer, and a d v i s e s the s a l e of surplus o i l , wine, g r a i n , old oxen, f a u l t y sheep, aged c a t t l e , wool, h i d e s , and even s l a v e s who are o l d or s i c k l y .  Such c a l l o u s  treatment of slaves i s an evidence that humanitarian-ism was s t r a n g e l y l a c k i n g i n Cato; even an o l d horse, 3 a c c o r d i n g to V e r g i l , deserves an honourable retirement..  1* 2. 3.  Cato, Agr, I I , 4. I b i d . I I , ?, ad f i n . V e r g i l , Georg. I l l , 95-96.  - 133 Some o f the l a t t e r s e c t i o n s of the 1 JJe A g r i G u l t u r a , as Varro c a u s t i c a l l y p o i n t s out , seem t o hear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to farm management. 2 these  In  Cato g i v e s minute i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the making  of p l a c e n t a , s a v i l l u m , erneum, s t a r c h , e t c . , and dwells glowingly upon the m e d i c i n a l value of the cabbage.  In Cato s support. however, l e t i t be T  r e a l i z e d t h a t he regarded  "buying" i n general as a  h a b i t to be avoided, and i s consequently suggesting means whereby the farm may be made a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g unit.  Thus, while we may a d v i s e d l y discount the  marvellous m e d i c i n a l q u a l i t i e s of the cabbage, we should remember that the medical science of t h i s p e r i o d , even when p r a c t i c e d by s o - c a l l e d "experts'* was by no means i n f a l l i b l e . remains,  that Cato wished  The b a s i c f a c t  f  however,  to c u r t a i l expenditures by  the use of farm products f o r a l l p o s s i b l e Cato's abhorrence  purposes.  of waste i n any form  i s admirably e x e m p l i f i e d by the v a r i e d uses which he suggests f o r amurca.  1• 2.  This l i q u i d , although a c t u a l l y  Va.rro, R»R. I , i i , 28 • Cato, Agr. LXXV-IXXXII, CLVI  -  CLVTII.  - 134 a by-product from the o l i v e - p r e s s , seems to have been almost as valuable as the o i l i t s e l f . To steep new 1 o i l - j a r s , Cato suggests that they be f i l l e d with amurca and l e f t s t a n d i n g f o r seven days.  To make the  t h r e s h i n g f l o o r hard and impervious to moisture, amurca should be poured on the ground i n p l e n t i f u l 2 quantities  ; the threshed g r a i n may l i k e w i s e be pro-  tected from mice and other vermin by c o a t i n g the w a l l s of the granary w i t h a p l a s t e r made from amurca and 3 chaff .  To increase the y i e l d of an o l i v e t r e e , or  to make a f i g - t r e e r e t a i n i t s f r u i t , a mixture of amurca and water should be poured i n small q u a n t i t i e s 4 around the r o o t s . C a t e r p i l l a r s w i l l not a t t a c k a 5 t r e e , adds Cato , i f i t s trunk and lower branches have been t r e a t e d w i t h a mixture of bitumen, sulphur and amurca.  Combined w i t h wine dregs and v/ater i n  which l u p i n e s have been b o i l e d , i t w i l l p r o t e c t  sheep  from s k i n d i s e a s e s i f a p p l i e d e x t e r n a l l y to the hide 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Cato, Ibidj Ibid, Told,, ibid,  Agr. C. CXXIX. XCII. XCIII, XCIV. XCV..  - 135 1 after shearing .  -  F i g s may  be kept f r e s h i n d e f i n i t e l y 2 i f p l a c e d i n an earthenware j a r coated w i t h amurca .  Food which has been dipped  i n t h i s remarkable l i q u i d  and  then d r i e d w i l l b l a z e more b r i g h t l y without 3 smoking . C a t t l e which are " o f f t h e i r feed" may  be  r e s t o r e d to good a p p e t i t e i f t h e i r food i s s p r i n k l e d with amurca, or i f a l i t t l e i s placed i n the d r i n k i n g 4 water . An e x c e l l e n t w a l l p l a s t e r may be made of c l a y , 5 amurca and straw . F i n a l l y i t may be used as d r e s s i n g f o r b e l t s , shoes or h i d e s , and w i l l a l s o do 6 s e r v i c e as a x l e grease  .  With a l l due  noble  deference  to  Cato, one i s nevertheless reminded of the remarkable c a p a b i l i t i e s a t t r i b u t e d to c e r t a i n patent medicines by t h e i r manufacturers» During recent years, the p r a c t i c e of "share-cropping" i n Canada.  has become i n c r e a s i n g l y prevalent  Consequently, the manner i n which t h i s  method of farming was 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. * 6  Cato. Ibid", Ibid, Ibid , Ibid, Ibid,  Agr. XCVI. XCIX. CXXX. GUI. CXXVIII. XCVII.:.  c a r r i e d on i n the Roman world  - 136  -  is particularly interesting. Cato i s i n s i s t e n t : cut  On one p o i n t , e s p e c i a l l y ,  there must he a d e f i n i t e ,  agreement between the two  clear-  parties affected.  He  1 advises  that the d i v i s i o n of the crop he based  the f e r t i l i t y to  of the s o i l , v a r y i n g from  on  one-eighth  o n e - f i f t h (to the tenant) i n i n v e r s e r a t i o to the  q u a l i t y of the s o i l .  In share farming land where the  p r i n c i p a l crop i s the v i n e , the tenant should keep the whole farm w e l l t i l l e d and i n good r e p a i r , and should be allowed s u f f i c i e n t fodder f o r the stock: the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l produce to owner and tenant 2 should be equal .  Although  t h i s l a t t e r d i v i s i o n , by  compar i s o n wi th the former, may to the tenant, we  seem  of undue b e n e f i t  should keep i n mind that the cost of  m a i n t a i n i n g a vineyard and mixed farm  ( i n labour,  implements etc.) would be c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than on a farm producing g r a i n only.  For the l e a s i n g of 3  winter pasturage, Cato once more enjoins  a definite  c o n t r a c t s t a t i n g the dates on which pasturage 1. 2. 3.  Cato, Agr. CXXXVT. Cato, Agr. CIXK.WMIbid « CXLIX.  should  - 137 "begin and  end.  I f damage i s done by e i t h e r owner or  •leasee, Cato suggests that an independent  tribunal  de'cide upon the amount of damage sustained.  Pending  settlement of such a claim, a l l l i v e s t o c k and servants are to be held as s e c u r i t y .  In the same manner, Cato  advises a formal agreement f o r any farm work done by c o n t r a c t , such as the g a t h e r i n g of o l i v e s or grapes, or f o r the s a l e of o l i v e s , grapes, wine, or other farm produce. who  This p o l i c y f i n d s an echo i n Varro,  d e t a i l s a f i x e d formula to be observed i n the  purchase of c a t t l e , s h e e p , and other farm animals. In reviewing Koman a g r i c u l t u r e as a whole, one cannot f a i l  to be impressed w i t h the  emphasis upon thoroughness which i s everywhere enjoined i n the precepts of our Roman authors.  This  thorough-  ness i s not a pose, nor i s i t a f e a t u r e of Roman a g r i c u l t u r e only, but a n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  The  same d e l i b e r a t e thoroughness, the same a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l , were the f a c t o r s which enabled Rome to overcome the t h r e a t e n i n g power of Carthage, to extend her dominion over the whole Mediterranean world and  •  - 138 -  to develop a code of laws and p o l i t i c a l science whicii s t i l l endure as b a s i c f e a t u r e s of our western civilization.  APPENDIX  Modern-Agriculture i n I t a l y  The tragedy of Roman a g r i c u l t u r e  lies  i n tne f a c t t h a t the science developed "by the Roman farmer f a i l e d to s urvive the f a l l  of the Empire.  This  f a i l u r e , however, i s not s u r p r i s i n g , since other forms of Roman c i v i l i z a t i o n l i k e w i s e crumbled before the impact of barbarism.  Throughout  I t a l y , the d i s -  r u p t i o n of the Empire was followed by almost f i f t e e n c e n t u r i e s of chaos, but chaos tempered by the s u r v i v a l of the b l u r r e d o u t l i n e s of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Roman roads and aqueducts were preserved; the Roman language was reborn i n the Romance languages of the new Europe; Roman l i t e r a t u r e found sanctuary i n the monasteries; but only i n s c a t t e r e d d i s t r i c t s was there any attempt a t the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l science.  Prom the f o u r t h to the seventh c e n t u r i e s ,  the c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d farms, o l i v e groves, and vineyards of A n c i e n t I t a l y were the prey of successive  - 140  -  invaders - V i s i g o t h s , Ostrogoths the two  Althou  l a t t e r groups remained i n I t a l y , the Ostro-  goths near Rome and Po,  and Lombards.  i t was  the Lombards i n the V a l l e y of the  c e n t u r i e s before these crude  conquerors  learned even the rudiments of a g r i c u l t u r e .  Still  l a t e r , bands of Normans swept down upon Southern the "Oenotria  11  of V e r g i l .  By 1300,  Italy  three general  d i v i s i o n s had evolved - the kingdom of the Normans i n the South, the s t a t e s of the Church i n C e n t r a l I t a l y , and numerous c i t y - s t a t e s , dominated by the Holy Roman Empire in. the North.  A g r i c u l t u r e was  carried  on,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f e r t i l e lands of the Po V a l l e y , but i t was  of a type which, our Roman authors would  have deemed unworthy of even the e a r l y Republic. Although L i t e r a t u r e was the Renaissance  a new  i n t e r e s t i n A r t and  awakened i n I t a l y w i t h the advent of i n the f o u r t e e n t h century, there  no c orresponding r e v i v a l i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  was  Perhaps the  reason f or t h i s r e t a r d a t i o n l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e can f l o u r i s h only under a strong s e t t l e d form of government, which d i d not return to I t a l y  u n t i l the present century.  In s p i t e of the g l o r i o u s  p a r t which i n d i v i d u a l I t a l i a n c i t i e s played i n the r e v i v a l of l e a r n i n g d u r i n g the Renaissance,  Italy  remained a p o l i t i c a l patchwork q u i l t , wi thout semblance of cohesion  or u n i t y .  remarked i n 1815  Thus when Metternich  that I t a l y was  merely a  complacently  "geographical  expression"', he might w e l l have added that I t a l i a n a g r i c u l t u r e had  ceased  to be even an expression almost  f i f t e e n hundred years before.  In s h o r t , I t a l i a n  a g r i c u l t u r e lacked the i n c e n t i v e to progress which only a s e t t l e d form of government can impart. an. i n c e n t i v e appeared to be i n the o f f i n g by  Such 1860,  when I t a l y , under the g u i d i n g hand of Cavour, had once more become a p o l i t i c a l u n i t . Cavour's death i n 1861  Unfortunately,  cut short that great statesman's  programme of economic reform;  no man  of comparable  a b i l i t y appeared to c a r r y on h i s work, and f o r f i f t y years l o n g e r , I t a l y staggered  under i n c r e a s i n g l y  adverse  By 1920,  economic c o n d i t i o n s .  labour troubles,  which had become a commonplace f e a t u r e of c i t y had  spread  life,  to the r u r a l areas, where landowners were  - 142 confronted "by an embattled peasantry land f o r s u b s i s t e n c e .  demanding enough  The j u s t i c e of t h e i r actions  may be a p p r e c i a t e d from the f a c t that these r e v o l t s were f r e q u e n t l y l e d by the p a r i s h p r i e s t s ,  actuated  not so much by antagonism towards the l a n d l o r d s as by a sympathy f o r the unfortunate  peasantry.  Internal  economic weakness was p a r a l l e l e d by weakness i n the field  of f o r e i g n diplomacy.  In 1919, although  numbered among the v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s ,  I t a l y was  she received  nei ther c o l o n i e s nor mandates, both of which she s o r e l y needed as o u t l e t s f o r her excess p o p u l a t i o n . True, I t a l i a I r r e d e n t a had been annexed to I t a l y , but I t a l i a n dreams of a ""sphere of i n f l u e n c e " on the east coast  of the A d r i a t i c and a c o l o n i a l empire had come  to naught.  A c r u s h i n g l o a d of debt, ( m a t e r i a l l y  increased by the Great War), the growth of unemployment, a steady  r i s e In the cost of l i v i n g , constant  u t i o n a r y disturbanees  revol-  i n both r u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l  areas, and a corrupt government,- such were the problems f a c i n g I t a l y i n 1920. seriousness  The magnitude and  of these d i f f i c u l t i e s l e d both the power-  - 143 f u l c a p i t a l i s t and  -  landowning c l a s s e s to give  u n q u a l i f i e d support to Benito  their  Mussolini.  F o l l o w i n g h i s "March on Rome"" i n  1922,  and h i s immediate assumption of d i c t a t o r i a l powers, Mussolini f i r s t  undertook a thorough " F a s c i s t i z a t i o n "  of the Italian s t a t e *  A l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts  n a t i o n a l and municipal  in  government were given to l o y a l  F a s c i s t s , subject to removal or d i s m i s s a l only at order  of I I Duce.  party permitted  The F a s c i s t party was  known:  only  to e x i s t ; the w i l l of Fascism became  the w i l l of the s t a t e and subversion  the  the  of the i n d i v i d u a l . ' How  of the i n d i v i d u a l was  r i g i d press  censorship,  this  accomplished i s w e l l a r u t h l e s s secret  p o l i c e , f l a g r a n t i n t i m i d a t i o n of enemies, even a s s a s s i n a t i o n soon removed a l l v e s t i g e of to I I Duce s a u t h o r i t y . 1  By  1926,  h i s own  opposition position  i n the s t a t e u n a s s a i l a b l y secure, M u s s o l i n i  turned  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , among which the a g r i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n was least. first  by no means the  He found h i s remedy f o r t h i s l a t t e r problem i n a thorough r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the economic  - 144 life  of I t a l y , and  secondly,  i n a rigorous f o r e i g n  policy. The C o r p o r a t i v e , or T o t a l i t a r i a n , s t a t e , which has b een developed d u r i n g the l a s t  ten years,  embodies M u s s o l i n i ' s ideas of economic r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . These ideas were not hard and f a s t conceptions, have passed through an e v o l u t i o n a r y process condi tions as they arose.  but  to s u i t  With regard to A g r i c u l t u r e ,  the enactments of the " C o l l e c t i v e Labour R e l a t i o n s Law™, passed i n 1926,  are of prime importance.  i t s terms* a l l I t a l i a n a c t i v i t y was f o l l o w i n g seven c l a s s e s :  Under  d i v i d e d i n t o the  i n d u s t r y , commerce, banking,  a g r i c u l t u r e , maritime and a e r i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and artistry.  inland navigation,  and  In each of the f i r s t s i x u n i t s , two  con-  f e d e r a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d - one f o r employers, and one f o r employees.  The  seventh u n i t , a r t i s t r y ,  c o n s i s t e d of a s i n g l e c o n f e d e r a t i o n only, s i n c e the d i v i s i o n between employers and be here i n d i s t i n c t .  employees was  felt  Below the confederations come  i n t u r n the Regional Syndicates,  the P r o v i n c i a l  to  - 145 Syndicates, and  lastly  -  the Municipal Syndicates.  The  syndicates have complete c o n t r o l over hours and c o n d i t i o n s of labour, wages, and may  a r i s e between employer and  any dispute which  employee; serious  disputes to which the syndicate can f i n d no f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n are submitted concerned.  to the  satis-  confederation  In a ""Charter of Labour" issued i n  1927,  M u s s o l i n i d e f i n e d the purpose of h i s complex organization!  the Corporative, s t a t e would permit p r i v a t e  i n i t i a t i v e , but  t h i s i n i t i a t i v e must be  i n the i n t e r e s t s of the n a t i o n .  regulated  Thus the a g r i c u l t u r a l  worker, as d i d each other c l a s s of worker,  surrendered  h i s economic freedom to the s t a t e , r e c e i v i n g from the s t a t e i n r e t u r n the " s o c i a l s e c u r i t y " of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , unemployment insurance, and f o r s i c k n e s s and  compensation  accident.  Having thus accomplished h i s primary regimentation  of the I t a l i a n people,  Mussolini  turned h i s a t t e n t i o n towards making h i s the governing  f o r c e s of the s t a t e , subject to guidance  By h i m s e l f and law of 1928,  confederations  the F a s c i s t party.  i t was  enacted  By an  that the  electoral  confederations  - 146  -  s h o u l d p r o p o s e one t h o u s a n d men Parliament. consisting  as c a n d i d a t e s f o r  Of t h e s e t h e Grand F a s c i s t C o u n c i l , of M u s s o l i n i and a s e l e c t i n n e r c i r c l e  F a s c i s m , was  of  t o s e l e c t f o u r h u n d r e d names f o r s u b m i s s i o n  t o t h e I t a l i a n v o t e r s , who  w o u l d v o t e " y e s " o r "no"  ( t h e o r e t i c a l l y at l e a s t ) to the e n t i r e s l a t e ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , a n I t a l i a n e l e c t i o n i s now m e r e l y a referendum or p l e b i s c i t e . claims  I n t h i s way,  Mussolini  t h a t power i s v e s t e d , n o t i n a mere  o f h e a d s " as he c a u s t i c a l l y  "counting  terms d e m o c r a c y , b u t i n  the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o f t h e s t a t e , t h a t i s  3  the  confederations. By l a w s o f 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 , t h e r e was  created  a N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of C o r p o r a t i o n s , w i t h M u s s o l i n i as C h a i r m a n .  A "Corporation",  i t may  be  explained,  c o n s i s t s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e e m p l o y e r s ' c o n f e d e r a t i o n and t h e e m p l o y e e s ' c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n e a c h of the seven branches of I t a l i a n i n d u s t r y , i n the g e n e r a l sense of the term. created  The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l so  i s t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y to w h i c h  d i s p u t e s may  be r e f e r r e d .  labour  From the s t a n d p o i n t  of  - 147 a g r i c u l t u r e , i t i s important  to note that the f i r s t  case submit ted f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n was one i n which a group of landowners i n North I t a l y attempted to f o r c e t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l workers to accept a t h i r t y per cent r e d u c t i o n i n wages because of the r e v a l u a t i o n of the l i r a i n 1927.  The workers refused to accept the  amount, demanded by the landowners, but o f f e r e d to accept a l e s s d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n .  The c o u r t , from whose  d e c i s i o n s there c o u l d n a t u r a l l y be no appeal, decided i n favour of the workers* In 1934, a f u r t h e r law increased the number of Corporations to twenty-two, each based upon a. "Cycle of P r o d u c t i o n " .  A General Assembly of  Corporations was a l s o c r e a t e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each of the newly-aligned c o r p o r a t i o n s . Corporations connected  with a g r i c u l t u r e , wi th the  number of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s which they have i n the General Assembly, a r e as f o l l o w s :  Cereals 32;  H o r t i c u l t u r e , Flowers and F r u i t 32, Vines and Wines 32, O i l s 23, Beets and Sugar, 15; t h i s  distribution  i n d i c a t e s c o n c l u s i v e l y the r e l a t i v e importance of  - 148  -  • each of these branches of A g r i c u l t u r e i n Modern I t a l y . The  r a t h e r vague term "Cycle of Production" may  defined by e x p l a i n i n g that each of the 22 mentioned above concerns i t s e l f with the processes  be  corporations various  by which a raw product i s produced  and  finally  transformed to a f i n i s h e d a r t i c l e of commerce.  In 1939  i t i a planned that the General Assembly of  Corporations  s h a l l r e p l a c e the parliamentary  which had a l r e a d y been so d r a s t i c a l l y i n 1928.  body  reorganized  At that time, t h e r e f o r e , M u s s o l i n i ' s  t a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of ten years  ten-  ago w i l l make  way  f o r a system which w i l l provide' f u r t h e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n between economic and p o l i t i c a l How I t a l i a n s t a t e has  organization.  that the economic s t r u c t u r e of the been d i s c u s s e d , some of the  accomplishments may  be noted, w i t h s p e c i a l reference  to those a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e .  Post-war I t a l y  an average d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n  of 323  had  to the square  m i l e , f o r which her a g r i c u l t u r e f a i l e d to produce s u f f i c i e n t food. was  The  seriousness  of t h i s s i t u a t i o n  rendered more c r i t i c a l by the f a c t that M u s s o l i n i  - 149  -•  d e l i b e r a t e l y encouraged a high b i r t h - r a t e to provide men  f o r h i s increased armies of the f u t u r e .  I t a l y economically s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t was M u s s o l i n i ' s programme. 1922,  To make  the aim of  Soon a f t e r t a k i n g o f f i c e i n  he began h i s " B a t t l e of the Wheat", w i t h a two-  f o l d purpose - f i r s t , to extend duction and of a r e a .  the area under pro-  secondly, to i n c r e a s e the y i e l d per unit  The  success of h i s campaign i s i n d i c a t e d  by the f a c t that i n 1932  the production of wheat had  increased by 70 per cent over that of 1922,  and came  w i t h i n 8 per cent of s u p p l y i n g I t a l y ' s normal r e q u i r e ment . and  During the same p e r i o d increases i n r i c e , corn  oats  ranged from 40 to 60 per cent.  of wine and  The production  o l i v e s , to which the climate of I t a l y  i s so f a v o u r a b l e , was the home market and  l i k e w i s e f o s t e r e d , both to supply  to increase I t a l i a n trade abroad.  Numerous s t a t e - c o n t r o l l e d p u b l i c works were a l s o undertaken, farmer.  which proved  of inestimable value to the  C o n s t r u c t i o n of new  roads and r a i l w a y s , the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v a s t i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s and d r a i n i n g of swamp-lands have a l l helped  the  to r e s t o r e  - 150  -  p r o d u c t i v i t y to a point comparable to that of Ancient Italy.  The business depression of 1929-35 acted as a  brake upon economic reform i n I t a l y as elsewhere i n the world, but the c e s s a t i o n of formerly  constant  labour d i s p u t e s , the increase i n production, and many worthwhile improvements remain as tangible  evidence  of what s i x t e e n years of strong c e n t r a l i z e d government have done to ameliorate  the c o n d i t i o n s engendered  by c e n t u r i e s of decadence* A vigorous  imperialistic policy  has  formed the second of M u s s o l i n i ' s remedies f o r economic ills.  A t f i r s t t h i s p o l i c y seemed to be d i r e c t e d  e x c l u s i v e l y .towards the Dalmatian Coast.  In  1925,  I t a l y persuaded Jugo-Slavia to s i g n the H'etteuno Convention, whereby the r i g h t of I t a l i a n s to buy  land  i n J u g o - S l a v i a w i t h i n t h i r t y miles of the Jugo-SlavI t a l i a n f r o n t i e r was  recognized,  i n r e t u r n f o r the  g r a n t i n g by I t a l y of c e r t a i n commercial advantages to Jugo-Slavia.  That the agreement b e n e f i t t e d I t a l y  more than Jugo-Slavia i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that a r a t i f i c a t i o n of the t r e a t y c o u l d not be  obtained i n  - 151 the Jugo-Slav parliament of the C r o a t i a n delegates  u n t i l 1928, when the m a j o r i t y ( r e p r e s e n t i n g the area  a f f e c t e d ) were absent from the s e s s i o n .  In 1926, to  f u r t h e r strengthen h i s h o l d on the Dalmatian Coast, M u s s o l i n i signed the Treaty of T i r a n a with A l b a n i a ; under i t s terms, I t a l y gained  important  economic con-  c e s s i o n s , i n r e t u r n f o r a doubtfu l promise to recognize the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y  of A l b a n i a .  I t a l i a n p e n e t r a t i o n of the country  Throughout 1927  continued, but  M u s s o l i n i ' s d i p l o m a t i c manoeuvres with A l b a n i a l e d to f r i c t i o n between I t a l y and Jugo-Slavia, w i t h the result  that the Ifetteuno Convention was not renewed.  P o s s i b l y because the area proved worthless agricultural  from an  p o i n t of view, M u s s o l i n i seems to have  abandoned h i s Dalmatian p e n e t r a t i o n without  too much  r e g r e t , i n order to devote a l l h i s energies  towards  I t a l i a n expansion i n A f r i c a . In December 1934, a c l a s h between E t h i o p i a n and I t a l i a n p a t r o l s at Walwal (on the border between E t h i o p i a and I t a l i a n Somaliland) gave M u s s o l i n i h i s chance to begin a second Roman Empire.  Refusing  to submit the matter  to a r b i t r a t i o n , and  defiantly  f l a u n t i n g the League's h a l f - h e a r t e d attempt to apply s a n c t i o n s , M u s s o l i n i , i n October 1935,  ordered  h i s l e g i o n s t o invade E t h i o p i a from both E r i t r e a and I t a l i a n Somaliland.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y the i n v a s i o n  ended i n v i c t o r y f o r the I t a l i a n f o r c e s when they entered Addis Ababa on May  5, 1936.  In the manner of  the Caesars, M u s s o l i n i announced "A Roman Peace which i s expressed i n t h i s simple, i r r e v o c a b l e phrase 'Ethiopia i s I t a l i a n ' . "  By June 1936,  Ethiopia,  E r i t r e a , and I t a l i i n Somaliland were organized as I t a l i a n East A f r i c a , which f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e was  divided into f i v e provinces.  purposes  The aim of the  conquest, as expressed by a prominent  Italian,  was  "to r a t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t a vast r e s e r v o i r of raw 1 materials".  The same I t a l i a n suggested that the  f o l l o w i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l products might be obtained i n abundance:  meat, m i l k , wool, s k i n s , c o t t o n , c o f f e e ,  o i l s e e d and c e r e a l s .  W i t h i n a few,years  i t i s planned  to s e t t l e h a l f a m i l l i o n c o l o n i s t s to a i d i n the pro-  1.  Coirado Z o l i , " T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n of I t a l y ' s E a s t A f r i c a n Empire", F o r e i g n Affairs» October, 1937*  - 153 d u c t i o n of. these commodities. however, has  The  initial  cost,  been c l o s e to a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s ,  although I t a l y has budget has  -  and  remained on the gold standard,  her  not been balanced nor has a f i n a n c i a l  statement been issued by the Bank of I t a l y s i n c e Despite  1935.  t h i s heavy d r a i n upon I t a l y ' s f i n a n c i a l  resources,  r e p o r t s of n a t i v e u p r i s i n g s , and  the  maintenance of heavy m i l i t a r y garrisons i n East A f r i c a would i n d i c a t e that E t h i o p i a i s not yet conquered.  I t i s yet  too e a r l y to estimate  f i n a l v a l u e of I t a l y ' s new can absorb the i n i t i a l proves as valuable  completely the  c o l o n i a l venture;  c o s t s , and  i f East  i f she  Africa  a, producer of raw m a t e r i a l s 'as  M u s s o l i n i seems to expect, I t a l y ' s economic p o s i t i o n w i l l be m a t e r i a l l y strengthened as the new developed*  At the present  lands  are  time, however,, i t i s safe  to say that A g r i c u l t u r e has b e n e f i t t e d more c o n c r e t e l y through i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n than through the outwardly more s p e c t a c u l a r advance of I t a l i a n arms in Africa. In surveying the a g r i c u l t u r a l p i c t u r e  - 154 of modern I t a l y , one cannot h e l p wondering what the Koman farmer o f C a t o s p e r i o d would have thought of 7  the present  i n c r e a s i n g l y elaborate s t r u c t u r e .  Of the  i m p e r i a l i s t i c p o l i c y adopted by M u s s o l i n i he would undoubtedly approve; c r o p - y i e l d s , labour-saving machinery, the g i g a n t i c engineering accomplishments i n i r r i g a t i o n and land-reclamation - a l l these would arouse h i s envious wonder.  But how, one may w e l l ask,  would he regard the l o s s of i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y , the regimented  c o n t r o l of h i s l i f e and labour?  Perhaps,  true to h i s o l d i d e a l of devotion to the s t a t e , he would s t i l l regard the s t a t e as the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l of h i s e x i s t e n c e ; more p r o b a b l y , he would f e e l the cramping s t r i c t u r e of the present despotism,  and t u r n h i s thoughts  ill-concealed to the freedom of  speech and a c t i o n which were the noblest f e a t u r e s of Republican Rome.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  "BAILEY, L.K. Horticulture. (In Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a XI E d i t i o n , volume 13)"''"UnTveraity P r e s s , Cambridge, 1910. BEHNS, P. Lee. Europe Since 1914. Second r e v i s e d edi t i o n . E. S. C r o f t s and Co., New York, 1936. C A T O N I S , M. P o r c i . Be A g r i C u l t u r a . Post Henricum K e i l iterum e d i d i t G. Goetz, L i p s i a e i n aedibus 3.G. Teuberni, MCMXXII. C0NINGT0N and EETTLESHIP, e d i t o r s . Eclogues and Georgics of V e r g i l , e d i t e d by Conington and I-iettieship. George B e l l and Sons, London, 1898. ERE All, W i l l i a m . A g r i c u l t u r e . (In Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a XI E d i t i o n , Volume I) U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1910. GREENFIELD, K.R. Economics and L i b e r a l i s m i n the Resorgimento. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1934. HEDRICK,. U.P. Manual of American Grape Growing. K a c M i l l a n Co., New York, 1919. McCOMNELL, Primrose. A g r i c u l t u r a l Handbook. Lockwood & co., London, 1897.  Crosby  McEAY, R.A. and SAUNDERS, S.A. The Modern WorldP o l i t i c a l and Economic. Ryeraon Press, Toronto, PAGE, J.E., ed. B u c o l i c s and Georgics of V e r g i l , e d i t e d by J.E. Page, McMillan and Co., London, 1929*  - 156 PECK, H. T., ed. Harper's D i c t i o n a r y of C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e and A n t i q u i t i e s , edited by H.T. Peck. American Book Co., Hew York, 1897. "RUSSELL, E . J , S o i l Conditions and Plant Growth. Longmans, liew York, 1932* SCRAPIRO, J.S. Modern and Contemporary European H i s t o r y . Houghton, M i f f l i n Co., Hew York*, 1929. VARROiTIS, M. T e r e n t i . Rerum Rustic arum L i b r i 'Ires. Post Henri cum K e i l iterum. edid.it G. Goetz. L i p s i a e i n aedibus B. G. Teuberni, MCMKXII. WHITMEY, M. S o i l and C i v i l i z a t i o n . Hew York, 1925,  D. van Ho3 trand,  ZOLI, Corrado. The O r g a n i z a t i o n ..of I t a l y ' s East A f r i c a n Empire. (In F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ! October 1937.) Hew York, 1937.  

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