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The function of the principal of the elementary school with particular reference to British Columbia Davy, John Gregory 1938

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THE F U N C T I O N OF THE P R I N C I P A L THE ELEMENTARY REFERENCE  SCHOOL WITH  OF  PARTICULAR  TO B R I T I S H . C O L U M B I A  by John Gregory  A Thesis of  the  Submitted  in  Requirements  MASTER OF  in  the  Davy  Partial for  the  Fulfilment Degree  of  ARTS  Department of  PHILOSOPHY  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  April,  1938.  COLUMBIA  TABLE  03? CQHTEHTS-' Page  Introduction.  vi Statement Outline  Chapter  I  of  of  Evolution  purpose  of  thesis.  procedure.  of  British  the  Principalship  Columbia  .  .  .  .  Expansion, of the of the p r o v i n c e .  educational  The p r i n c i p a l head-teacher.  distinct  as  I. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t XI Ill  Provincial Boards, o f  Principal I  in  School  relation  Trends in  of the  Educational  of  Health  to of  of  differences.  education.  ii  .  system  the  Inspectors..  staff. qualifications  supervision.  Philosophy  studies.  Self-expression.  .  Trustees.  living.  Individual  .  Education.  new Programme  Integration, Social  function  .  to,  and M u n i c i p a l  Rising standards of teachers;.  II. C h a n g i n g  II  of  .  from  The p r i n c i p a l i n r e l a t i o n superior officers..  Chapter  .  in  of  Studi  Evident  1  Chapter.  I l l  Organization One  of  teacher  the  per  School  22  class.  Departmentalization. Platooning.  !  Cooperative  grouping.  Time-tables.  Chapter  IV  The  Library  Physical  .  .  V  Visual  and  Types Use  Chapter  VI  with  Radio  of  of  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  36  school  Aids  .  .  programme.  .  .  . . .  . . .  42  equipment.  each  type.  Co-curricular  Activities  Pupil participation government. Class  .  equipment.  Articulation  Chapter  .  in  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  47  school  excursions'.  '  Clubs. School  paper.  Concerts, displays.  Chapter  VII  Records  VIII  and  and R e p o r t s  Purpose  and  Purpose  of  Report  Chapter  demonstrations,  Promotion  55  organization pupil  of  records.  reports.  forms.  Policy  Promotion theory.  in  .  . . . . . . .  relation  i i i  to  .1  educational  65  Grading. Pupil  failure.  Pupil  acceleration.  Annual  Chapter  IX  and  General  Philosophy  Modern The  technique  Relation  X  The  Purpose  to  of  of  XI  The  Effect  i  XII  of  .  .  .  .72  supervision.  leader. special  in  supervisors.  Relation  of  to  Testing  .  .  to  Discipline.-  -80  teachers.  in  Relation  conception of  of  personality of  teachers,  Guidance  of  pupils.  85  discipline. of  principal.  study.  Summary Use  .  supervision.  Guidance  Case  Chapter  Supervision  tests.  Principal  Changed  of  plans.  tests.  Guidance  Chapter  as  Principal  Types  of  conception  Principal  Chapter  semi-annual  of  93 the  time  of  the  Necessity for continued part of the p r i n c i p a l .  iv  Principal growth  on  TABLES  AND  PLATES  Table i I  II  III  IV  V  Page G r o w t h i n P u p i l P o p u l a t i o n s and t e a c h e r s employed i n schools- of Columbia C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers- of C o l u m b i a , f r o m 1925*1936 Percentage in British  Number o f British. 2  .British. 9  of C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers C o l u m b i a , from 1926-1936 . .  .  .  .  .  Number o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a v i n g s i x o r more D i v i s i o n s . . .  .  .  .29  Number o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as. w o u l d a p p e a r i f G r a d e s S e v e n and E i g h t were removed  9  31  Plate I  Certification  of  Teachers  ±&  British  Columbia  .  II  Library  Reference  III  Progress  IV  Evaluation  Y  Special  Record  .  Blank  Report  Slip .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  10 40  .  .  57  .  76  on P u p i l s  v  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  91  IHTRODUG T I O N  The m o d e r n in  the  educational  responsibility •Although h i s of  school  his  issued  by  judgment  system,  for  the  policies  local the are  left  and  provision but  for  Vital today . it  in. B r i t i s h  has  ever  cedure last  the  decade,  of  educational  function  Columbia  province  however,  as  has  1  is  been b e f o r e .  in. t h i s  with  of  of  s y s t e m were h e a r d .  resulted  in  the  drawing  presenting  a  conformity  w i t h modern  To of  set  achieve  of  aims  these  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and  itself. extent  This be  change,  initiated  by  and  technique  been.,  the  of  Studies to  his.  his  staff,  only  his  for  his  very  position  importance  than  pro-  During  against  I n 1936,  the  the  this  protest  Programme  of  Studies  w h i c h were more  in  philosophy.  as  change  well  nature,  principal.  vi  those  educational  protest  requires  supervision, its  of  little.  revised  educational  from  but  objectives,  new a i m s  with  administrative  even, g r e a t e r  the  a  school.  nevertheless,  always  of  of  the  well.  rigidity  up  rests  his  leadership'not  changed  rumblings  position  t h e Programme  3?or m a n y y e a r s had  of  conform  local  teaching  his: community  as. h i s  must  authorities,  problems  of  of  and  a key  shoulders  operation  In g e n e r a l  the  occupies  on h i s  efficient  educational  supervision  school  for  superintendent  policy, the  principal  as  in  in.  must  An. i n e r t  technique  teaching to  or  a  large  reaction-  ary  attitude  the  success  on h i s of  enthusiastic of  its  the  aims.  There  own. s c h o o l . the  of  and  immediate  and  study  or  the  t h e n must  principalship  tracing  the  educational by  the  will ing  such  some  special  Proceeding  such  to  his  achievement  hands  praise  has  rests in  or  the his  blame  practices  of  more  school  been w r i t t e n .  of  princia  Only  organization  questions  lie  the  outside  the and  relevant the  more  to  scope  of  this  included.  the of  of  the  in  field  Columbia duties the  must  of modern  features  as  from t h i s  to  be  covered,  the h i s t o r i c a l  the  study  vii  for  and  to  purpose  the  of  will  an  of  acceptable  doctrines  advanced  be made.  This  educational Activity  of  first of  responsibilities  likewise  it  the  development  the  definition  relation  Studies  study  for  elementary  desirable  British  philosophy of  hand,  new Programme  solution  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  Programme  entail  in  some  matters  study  evolution  the p r i n c i p a l .  disaster  the  in his  the  considered;  limited a  of  difficulties  been  thus  that  accorded  facing  thesis  been  be  be  t h e most  not  other  do much t o w a r d  offer  financial  Having task  to  pressing  and have  spell  warrant.  this  have  On t h e  success  problems  one,  supervision municipal  shall  outline  successful  inevitably  no d o u b t  the  effort  the  to  is  will  To h i m w i l l  In an  pal  for  results  urgent  must  new s c h e m e .  leadership  responsibility  as  part  thought  includ-  Movement.  then be  possible  to  explain  the  function  educational  of  facuities It  will  as  records and  of  and  functions  policy  he  upon as  As  of  but  also  a whole  of  greater of  on. m a t e r i a l  part  of  experiences  the  both  of  explanation  this  of  questionnaire tary  school  general  of  some  Finally  will  w h i c h , was  inspectors,  will  suggestion will  be  result  of  normal  teaching  library  he to  Here  a  considered. consider  the  general  proper  as  of be  supervision  testing will  practices  and  be  dis-  looked  considered  experiments  conditions. viii  of  in  Some  consideration  a  of  in  part  a elemen-  school  the  inspec-  a  number  who  were  arriving  procedures.  compiled  local  of  their  principals,  data  wide  ascertaining  opinions  desirable  The  result  through  provincial  obtaining  in  the  to  purpose  certain  conducted  be  periodicals.  the  be  sources.  results  school  the most  will  on t h e  considered  into  will  vicariously  based  the  thesis,  four, c h i e f  current  with  taken of  from  submitted  the  this  suggested  elementary be  in  obtained  and  In a d d i t i o n ,  interviewed, at  were  books  forward-looking  of  work  supervision  offered  obtained  administrative  torates.  organizing  all  the  such matters  solutions  that  reading  for  new-  leadership.  The.explanations» developed  this  only  educational  educational  will  principal.  not  of  provision  of  the  administration,  methods  of  scope  implementing  with  policies,  the  suggested,  instruction,  cipline.  reports,  the  in  first  effectire  promotion  t h e n "be w i t h i n  must  principal  Dealing  the most  supervisory  of  the  doctrines.  such matters classes,  of  as  the  under  The the  author  is  greatly  Department  of  Education at  Columbia in  the  his  unfailing  preparation  Assistant Mr.  for  knowledge  of  this  Superintendent  C.G.Brown, and  indebted  Municipal experience  disposal.  Ix  of  to  Mr.  C* B .  the University  of  kindness  and h e l p f u l  thesisf  to  Schools,  Inspector have  of  Wood  of  British criticism  Mr.O.J.Thomas,  Vancouver?  and  Burnaby,  whose  been f r e e l y  placed  at  to  his  Chapter  1  E V O L U T I O N OP T H E P R I N C I P A L S H I P  In function British  order of  the  to  provide  principal  Columbia,  it  of  effectively  accomplished  his  position  this  in  a background in  the  position.  relation  for  elementary  is; d e s i r a b l e  development  IN BRITISH  to  This  by  tracing  to  his  the  study  schools  outline can  COLUMBIA  the  perhaps  through  superiors  and  the  of  historical be  the  of  most  changes  to  of  his  teachers. In province part the  at  its has  passed  least,  total  33.  short  enrollment  the  118,431 p u p i l s  the  t h r o u g h many  be a s c r i b e d  pupil  In 1936,  history,  to was  educational  in both  its  educational stages.  system  elementary  This  phenomenal  985 w i t h  and  system  a  fact  no  secondary  the  may,  growth.  teaching  served  of  in  In  body  fewer  1872 of  than  schools  under  2 the  guidance The  with  which  period  of  4,025  teachers.  accompanying the  before  table  system has  (TABLE  developed,  1.)  shows  the  particularly  rapidity in  that  1932.  P a c t a and f i g u r e s upon which t h i s c h a p t e r i s based have b e e n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f iffre P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1874 to 1 9 3 7 .  T A B L E 1. - GROWTH EST P U P I L P O P U L A T I O N AND BUMBER OP T E A C H E R S E M P L O Y E D I F SCHOOLS OP B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A -  t  School  Year  Pupil  Population  1872-73  :  Teachers  Employed  33  985- •  ' 1877-78  2,198  56  1882-83  2,693  69  •. •  1887-88  6 m%.'  128  s  1892-93  ';. 1 1 ^ 4 9 6  •'£'67  1897-98  17,648  429  24^499/ '  609  - . 7'.  1902-03 1907-08  •' 3 3 , 3 1 4  '  1912-13  1,591  ;;"-i9l7-is' 1922-23  816  . m si6 .  •  9  ' •"•  2,246  94,888  3,118  1927-28  108,179  3,668  1932-33  116,816  3,912  1933-34  1X5,792  3,873  "1934-35''; 1935-36 ' ,'1936 -37 :  3,942 •  1I6»?22.. 118,431  3,956 4,025  D e p a r t m e n t "of E d u c a t i o n , S i x t y - s i x t h . Annual Reports of P u b l i c Schools C o l u m b i a , 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 . p . H 10 ~ ~™  of  British "  In British degree  early  of of  Education  method,  were  two  only  province  was as  in  at  school boards  had  charge  T h e y made  of  the  payment  provided  only  to  of  of  for  this  that  supervise  when a  boards  there entire  principals  salaries;  out  of by  the  came  board  established  warranted. heating,  of  the  control  school  were  erection,  purpose  these  local  population  the  and  the  centralized  buildings  the  of  in  Superin-  superintendent.  Other  of  school  in  high  the  teachers,  Both  the  the  school  two  class.  "Victoria. size  Hence  In 1871,  as  of  however,  the  the  very  unsatisfactory.  away f r o m  as  maintenance  be p o s s i b l e .  a  salaries,  one  same y e a r ,  instituted quickly  step  for  system,  their  responsible  first the  than  educational  small  appoint  principals,  directly  moneys  whole  payment  who w e r e  had more  The  to  could  authorize  those  later  the  centralization  discharge  were  years,  C o l u m b i a was; s u f f i c i e n t l y  tendent their  the  local  These and  taxes.  teachers  out  Department  of  of  Education.  I n 1876 teachers, by  the  School  p o w e r was g i v e n  though  provincial Boards,  of  funds  for  to  the  government. Victoria,  these  boards  to  salaries  were  still  In 1891,  the  Vancouver,  required  to  refund  one-third  of  the  cost  of  the  salaries.  This  increased  to  one-half  in  the  following  year.  was  apparently  not  the  provided Municipality  New W e s t m i n s t e r  Kanaimo were  arrangement  to  City  appoint  provincial  satisfactory,  and  treasury  proportion Since these  was  this cities  were  authorized  own f u n d s .  in  from  was a f t e r w a r d s  'of  being  the  it  to  the  of  many  extended  and  for  quently,  in  school  This  hoards,  to  from  towards  treasury.  other  the  their such  arrangement the  grant  financial  sponsible  to him;  the  and  to  in  he  needs  the  the  Victoria  his  first  by  in  a  board,  relieve  him  affording  professional  grown  to  had  findings  and making  an  become  was  measure, and  to  guided  the  such  too  Conse-  inspector  large  duties.  such  one m a n .  now i n s p e c t e d his  the  acceptable  details,  provincial  became,  with  on l i n e s  Superintendent  officer  school  deemed  to  matters  frequently  however,  p o p u l a t i o n had  reporting  rethe  Superin-  recommen-  necessary.  relegation  local  attend  the  This  tendent  did,  administrative  principal  schools,  connected  principal  administration  year,  the  This  of  his board  to  school  of  dations; as  This  efficient  and  closely  policies  duties  that  i n many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  model  routine  the  appointed  of  grant  the  opportunity  the  numerous  ment  a  directly  district*  board.  1887,  that  1902  to  who w e r e  to  incidental  By  in  receive  proportionately  school  expedient  him greater  work  salaries  provincial  trustees  school  extent  to  now r e s p o n s i b l e  of  school  found  pay  area.  a body  the  the  arranged  Being to  to  E a c h was t h e n  expenditures  given  1893  of  and  authority in  1903  superintendents  of  in  was  carried  Vancouver  schools,  to  by  a  step the  whom  further  appoint-  the  p r i n c i p a l "became v e r y d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e . superintendent school board  supervised  a l l teachers,  teaching  local  recommending t o  the appointment, promotion,  member o f t h e  The  or d i s c h a r g e  body i n his; d i s t r i c t .  As  the  of  the  boards  g e n e r a l l y a d o p t e d h i s recommendations h i s p o s i t i o n was 'of g r e a t  i n f l u e n c e and  g e n e r a l was  The  carried  h i s philosophy  o u t by  the p r i n c i p a l s under  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Hew  B u r n a b y , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r and followed  the  municipal  lead  The  city  o f the p r o v i n c e  cities. who  became l o c a l  i n 1921  New  i n the  except  elementary  that  of the  V i c t o r i a followed  extended to  s c h o o l s , who  t e a c h i n g b u r d e n by purpose.  superschools  board In  this  school boards i n l a r g e r centres.  the p o l i c y was smaller  the  of i t s l a r g e s t schools.  number o f p r i n c i p a l s o f t h e  i n 1930,  The  when t h e V a n e o u v e r s c h o o l  W e s t m i n s t e r and  super-  dis-  in  slow.  l a r g e r schools  V a n c o u v e r became e n t i r e l y f r e e o f t e a c h i n g  their  districts,  name.  appeared  t h a t p o s i t i o n i n two  increasing  cipals  times  In these  of Vancouver, been v e r y  example as d i d o t h e r  and  him.  at various  from that of head-teacher has,  principal first  I n 1922,  in  emergence o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l a s  case of the  created  Saanich,  two  i n everything, but  tinguished  vising  of these  one.,  Westminster, South Vancouver,  i n s p e c t o r s were a p p o i n t e d  intendents  of education  any  An of  responsibilities,  i n c l u d e the  were r e l i e v e d  a s s i s t a n t s appointed  prin-  of h a l f  especially  of for  In d i s t r i c t s supervising true  other  p r i n c i p a l as  i t was  actuated  not  the  left  small.  Obviously  factor.  a t t e n t i o n of the him  had  little  opportunity  the head teacher,  he  can  and  The  the  inadequacy  incumbents  p r o v i s i o n has  yet  the  out  time teaching.  generally  does budget  i s enabled  In  the  to c a r r y out duties  larger centres,  p r i n c i p a l without  responsibility  o f an  principalstill  h i s d u t i e s as p r i n c i p a l i n  of f u l l  supervisory  this  p r i n c i p a l remains  the  time of from  time  particularly  his  full  thus  i n Vancouver*  t o c a r r y out  necessity  individual class.  larger  many o f h i s  i n the  d e f i n i t e p r o v i s i o n i s made t o p e r m i t h i m f u n c t i o n as  had  province.  every s t a g e of the  He  In  time  duties  a v a i l a b l e i n the  teaching- d u t i e s .  allowed.  of  b e e n made f o r  a c e r t a i n measure o f r e l e a s e  and  of  was  Unfortunately  s t a f f to g i v e him  administrative  belief  amount  h i s teaching  schools, t h e  carrying  a d d i t i o n to h i s t a s k Schools,  little  Columbia,  small  New-  e i t h e r f o r s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g or  i t i s not  Today i n B r i t i s h In  in  demands made u p o n t h e  principalship.  e f f e c t that  exists.  The  p r i n c i p a l by  study f o r the the  and  was  alone, which  boards i n t h i s matter.  very  s u c h t r a i n i n g , and  ship  consideration,  p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the  personal has  i n 1931,  of  This  T h e r e i s some g r o u n d f o r t h e  school  another motivating and  disappeared.  in Victoria  financial  money s a v e d was the  such has  i n B u r n a b y i n 192?,  W e s t m i n s t e r i n 1933. that  than V a n c o u v e r t h e p o s i t i o n  his  of assuming  the  Such in  is  British  the  position  Columbia.  the  policy  local  case  of  must  free  be  expenditure financial  of  change money,  provisions  The h i s t o r y  of  hand.  or  the  cations  of  teachers  have  less  need, f o r  authoritative  In 1874,  there  teachers. comments ample, "  was  In fact on  this  writes  in  a  some y e a r s  situation.  edusuperior, In  the  involves  limited  by  the  board.  has  the  by  principal As  been  direction  the  his  inspector.  development.  of  today  his  immediate  between  there  scarcity  of  however,  his  be  school  improved  great  for  must  a happier  exists  system which  existing  teachers  it  management  provincial  and h i s  ively  presents  of  school  relations  as  As yet,  efforts  made b y  of  that  the  in. h i s his  principal  details  largely  superintendent  a major  the  In. t h e  s c h o o l h e 'has: a f a i r l y cational  of  progress-  the  adequately Annual  Superintendent  qualifi-  principal. trained  Reports Jessop,  contain for  ex-  1.874s  Among t h e t h i r t y - s i x t e a c h e r s i n t h e e m p l o y of" the Department d u r i n g the past y e a r , o n l y e i g h t have undergone r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g I t was f u l l y e x p e c t e d t h a t b e f o r e t h i s t i m e we w o u l d h a v e a s u f f i c i e n t number o f t r a i n e d and q u a l i f i e d teachers; t o p u t a n end t o a l l t e m p o r a r y a r r a n g e ments entered i n t o f o r the purpose of k e e p i n g schools in operation. Such, however, has not been the. c a s e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e r e a r e more schools; under u n q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s than a t the d a t e o f my l a s t r e p o r t . * 1  I n an. e f f o r t Department  of  to  overcome  Education  T h i r d A n n u a l R e p o r t on C o l u m b i a , 18:74, p . 1 2 .  this  conducted  the P u b l i c  unfortunate examinations  Schools  of  situation for  British  the  prospective that  they  ledge.  of  of  the  A. p e r u s a l  academic  spite  obtaining  In at  tested  In  position  teachers.  of  the  1901,  Vancouver  rather  lack  principal  teachers  and  a  experiments efficiency  Not  with  the  directing a  1924  Teacher  teaching  with  was  the  Training  adequately  necessity  of  procedures.  His  view to  bringing  about  only  has  the  professional  in of  British  himself,  training  in  school.  up  trained  teachers  his  set  Course.  his  of  overcome.  established  University  now m o r e  to  teachers  was  in  principal,  turned  scholarship  the  difficulty  Finally  The  be  the  was  its  fundamental  as  know-  training,  institution  instituted  in  professional  for  however,  similar  Columbia  faced  show,  professional  improved,  school  In  was  these  than  adequate  Victoria  longer  1915.  of  was  of  a normal  of  his  attention  teachers could  investigations the  standing  no  now  and  greater  of  the  teachers  so of  the  well.  province  risen  As  1923  after  tion  diminished,  rose  steadily  came  the  until of  the  a  rate  the  increased  or  advancement.  As  increased  number  qualifications,  class  rapidly.  of  a result, or  II  of  the  in  to  school  resulted. those  belief  arose for  as  popula-  graduates  appoint  the  the  level  teacher  opportunity  academic  Tables  academic  teachers  and  the  the  increase  many b o a r d s  certification  first  of  surplus  er  holding  has  A  while  practice  with highest  but also  It  be-  teachers that  high-  appointment  percentage  of  teachers-  certificates  in  the  province  this  clearly.  and  III  indicate  TABLE~Tr« Year  C E R T I F I C A T I O N : OF T E A C H E R S OF B R I T I S H : C O L U M B I A . FROM 1 9 2 6 - 1 9 3 6 .  * Academic  First  Class  Second  Class  Third  Class.  1926-2?  580  994  1610  133  1927-28  612  1110  1589  113  1928-29  695  1227  1545  92  1929-30  730  1244  1534  83  1.930-31  759  1380  1471.  65  1931-32  789  1441  1378  73  1932-53  835  1449  1309  56  1933-34  862  1490  1218  56  1934-35  922  1560  1150  51  1935-36  955  1607  1082  49  T A B L E 1 1 1 . P E R C E N T A G E . OF C E R T I F I C A T I O N OF T E A C H E R S B R I T I S H COLUMBIA. /FROM 1 9 2 , 6 - 1 9 3 6 . Year  Academic  %  First  Class  %  Second  Class  %  Third  IN  Class.  %  1926-27  17.5  29.9  48.6  4.0  1927-28  18.3  33 » 2  44.8  3.4  1928-29  19.6  34. &  43.4  ,2.5,  1929-30  20.3  34.  42.7  2.3  1930-31  20.6  , 37.6  40.0  1.7  1931-32  21.4  39.2  37.2  1.9  1932-33  23.1  39.7  35.6  1.5  1933-34  23.8  41.1  33 • 3  1.5  1934-35  £5.0  42.5  31.1  1.4  1935-36  25.9  43.5  29.3  1.3  Figures  taken  6:  from Annual  Reports  1926  to  1936.  -10-  PLATE  CERTIFICATION  I  OP T E A C H E R S 1926  -  IF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1936.  , i  i „ i.. 1  I  First  CO cr> r-t  o> I—1  w  a  o to o> r-l  rH  to  a> r-i  CM to  to to  to  I-I  r-i  r-i  lO  to  to  r-i  r-i  cn  l  !  i  l  l_  Class  -11-  This  increased  teachers  has. m a t e r i a l l y  c a n he he on a l l comes  regarded  questions the  Vision  as  of  takes  technique  his  the  realize  that  the  leader  axis  than  must  in  his  school.  of  his  staff  His  the  be  replaced  so  by  long  he  be-  the  consists His  and  super-  now i s  rotates;  power w h i c h  subjects  and h i s  task  of  longer  Instead  supervision  school  Fo  on a l l  teacher-inspection.  driving  principalship  standard  principal.  authority  and h i s  on w h i c h  the  the  aspect.  school  teacher-guidance  becomes  sole  on a b r o a d e r of  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  affected  the  professional  unification of  academic  more  position  he must  now  characterized  inspiration  and  leader-  ship.  This  increase  the  teaching  for  many y e a r s  of  a  of  become  the  This  the  the  the  old  for  the  school.  eontent so  his  in  of  fitting  scheme  of  things  long  and  valued  and  The  child,  that  of  text  defined  and of  its a  aims  the  which limits  increased  and  not  the  the  wise  a  know-  broader  objectives  subject,  has  principal  has  teacher-supervision*  train  a  teacher,  new p r o b l e m long  and u n w i l l i n g  such, a  affected  book,  possible  methods  Dismissal  The  h a s made  work,  brought  directly  The  the  school  has  essential.  course.  changed? of  ability  teacher  outlined  change has -  his  longer  adjusted  new o r d e r .  possible,  by  have  principal  under  no  centre  accordingly  the  is  the  education  in  afforded  possessed  treatment of  technique  subject,  ledge  i n academic  teacher  service  make  to is  it  in  far  service  change*  into  hardly unlikely  that  - 1 2 -  any p r i n c i p a l  will  recommend  will  agree  to  it.  The  philosophy  in  line  with  ly  likely  to  principal  For dawns.  must  the  pupils, and  very bend  the  new l e v e l s and  cannot  responsibility  of  to  bring  the  hut  any her  it  is  school to  of  of  to  on h i s  elementary  British  accept  a  Studies  one  to  school  Columbia  is  which  hardthe  the  is  a  new  era  education opens  the  Teachers,  leadership.  shoulders of  the  endeavour.  him f o r  success  hoard  efforts.  professional  the  that  modern p h i l o s o p h y b y  look  for  for  of  or  new P r o g r a m m e  utmost  province  parents fail,  the  his  principal  of  effort  successful  The a d a p t i o n . o f  authorities way t o  he  it  placed  He m u s t very  new Programme  not  great of  studies.  Chapter  II  TRENDS OF MODERN E D U C A T I O N A L P H I L O S O P H Y E V I D E N T KEY/ PROGRAMME OF S T U D I E S .  A discussion clude the  ularly  true  from that  the  formerly  Influenced They have child, the  a world  is  As lesson and  the  by  child  moral, provide  the  the  individual  the  alone  child in  social the  be  and  child  the  centre  the a  in  -13-  -  been  Dewey. to  agreed  the  child,  to  that  of  The  and  school  the  teachers  phases says, the  change.  new  the aims  teacher in  any  but school.  Such growth of the  character school  complete  these  princi-  work and  importance, by  the  this  the  schools  conform with  about  important.  "experience  hav&  be,  interest.  the  As Rugg  partic-  s c h o o l must  only  all  is  radically  John  adjustment  not  underlie  philosophy  decades of  bringing  who d i r e c t s  but  of  secondary  becomes a l l  with  the  centre  adopted,  physical.  two  attempting  in  in-  province.  last  that  This the  THE  must  that  departs  philosophy  leader  knowledge  since  they have  are  assumes  works.  in  the  principal  theories  today  considerable  becomes  must  basic  Studies  the  theory  be  involves  accordingly  Growth of not  must  responsible  the  for  by  Columbia_today  objectives  also  greatly  the  of  acceptable  teachers  of  w h i c h he  in miniature;  lesson,  This  the  Columbia  accepted h i s  British  ideas.  be  very  of  new Programme  Progressive  pal  function  system under  In B r i t i s h  advanced by  of  the  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n  educational  not  of  IN  must -  must  integrated  Life  of  the  That In. t h e  child  same  general  -  as  the  focus  of  new  Idea  is  expressed  in  the  statement  on c h a r a c t e r  education.  Programme  education  n  of  Studies.  the  following  appears; "The u l t i m a t e g o a l o f a l l e d u c a t i o n i s character. E v e r y d e t a i l o f s c h o o l l i f e makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n , f o r good o r i l l , to t h e c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y of each p u p i l . Since the development of c h a r a c t e r is. a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a l l e d u c a t i o n , i t s h o u l d be the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . " 2  It  is  highly  culture  in  any  by  the  state  educational  simplified  pupil  habits  honesty,  of  control,  and  of  institutions,  any  the  other  field  veloping  the these  necessary. former  1  that  rise  system.  higher  affords  may d e v e l o p  a  school of  level  his  life  of  the  ideals.  be  each  standards  set  with  its  in  development  integrity,  our  carried  and  school  The  toward  morality  community  personal  attitudes  of  than, t h e  splendid  self-reliance,  correct  of  self-  democratic  out more  individual  effective-  than  through  activity.  acceptance habits  Factual  importance  the  Fortunately  can. u n d o u b t e d l y  through  With  can  environment  which, t h e  ly  improbable  in  and  the  ideals,  knowledge,  need  new s t r e s s e s such,  lost  de-  become  much  of  its  development  R u g g , H . , and S c h u m a k e r , A . , The C h i l d W o r l d . B o o k , Hew Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 , p . 5.  Centred  School,  the II,  ideal  has  have  for  rounded  of Studies for 1936, B u l l e t i n  the  as  the  of  'Programme Columbia,  and with  school, of  Elementary p. 95.  Schools  of  British  -15-  in. t h e m i n d whole,  the  themselves activity  is  having  the  value  subjects  to  is  of As  the  very  of  av;uiii£ded  interest.  subjects,  contributing  the  decisions  guidance  in  to  the  the  and g r e a t e r  knowledge  than  those  child  to  realize  in  £ar  as  it  judgments  the  relates  to  measure  teacher  to  of  wider  for of  he  edu-  tool learn  himself, self  control.  wider  activities  that  experience  more  t h e moment  distant  bring is  the  valuable  i n which  he  participate* c-  If  the  objectives use  as  teacher in  the  possible  school actually Eugg,  H.»and  of  is; t o  life his  becomes  of  give the  a  real  pupil,  environment. life  Schumaker,  meaning  these  she must  make a s  much  Thus  work  of  the  School  is  not  the  in miniature.  A.> o p .  to  cit.,  p.  5.  to  and  certain  she must  it  should  the  make Her  of  to  He m u s t  visualise  Hence  activity the  to  adequate.  sees;.  of  progress.  enable* her  pupil  that  is  lead  more mature  a mastery  great the  subjects  the  his  lessons  adoption  conceivably  that  and  a  of  an u n c r i t i c a l  becomes  to  exercise  integration; of  might  pupil  necessary  of  must  a core  than  complete  staff  the  the mastery  so  become  accomplished,  other  realization,  come t o  requires  aims  around  teacher,  the  intellectual  gradually  of  primary  chaos.  be brought  It  no  ideal  teachers  cational  make  built  have  itself.  guide  by a l l  Studies  thus; c o m p l e t e l y  •v.'.Hiffiiile.. t h i s  must  teacher.  A H lessons, are  Integration  •  of  -16something of  living.  widely  apart  set  This  accepted  from  everyday  principle today.  of  life  the  Cobb,  in  "but  a very  Dewey p h i l o s o p h y commenting  real  part  is  very  1  on t h e  theory  says:  \ffhe s c h o o l o u g h t n o t t o h e a n a r t i f i c i a l c e n t e r w h e r e t h e r e i s no c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h l i f e e x c e p t t h r o u g h "brocks., h u t i t o u g h t t o be a s m a l l w o r l d , r e a l , p r a c t i c a l , where t h e c h i l d may f i n d h i m s e l f . " 2 Almost Social that  identical  Nature  "school  of  there  velop  desirable  Life* ly  and  is  in  to  the  his  home.  The  of  utilizing  this  uable the  opportunity  relationships  5To t h e with  child  familiar  c h a r a c t e r .than Well-known will  feel  ^Dewey, 2  Cobb,  primary  S.,  Programme  the  of  to  be  ideals."  must  acquired  by  to  solve  teacher  with  present for  John Day, I,  assume  p.  the  9.  a  so  the  val-  vital  to  pupil.  unknown  dealing real  things.  problems  Macmillan,  of  necessity  a more  himself.  close-  experiences  lessons  New Y o r k ,  de-  pupil  loses  and  school,  and E d u c a t i o n , Bulletin  realize  co-operation  dealing  be  a  to  activities  to  3  who  that  stated  experience  knowledge,  of  lived*  came f r o m h i s  fails,  is-  opportunity  everyday  elementary  New L e a v e n ,  Eere  particularly,  between  to  discussion  at. s c h o o l  those  desire  life  and  knowledge  c a n b e made  Studies,  a  and  acquired  existing  in  as  the  obtaining  Democracy The  the  objects, and  a great  of  with  already  that  of  grades  the  Programme.  habits  teacher,  articles  J . ,  all  of  in  co-operation,  enrollment  in  found  the  thought  connected  his  in  attitudes,  Practically  previous  be  action,  vitally  child.  Education  should  where  words; a r e  In  which  he  these  1916, 1928,  p. p.  11. 52.  -17-  circumstances,  the mastery  to  him,  end  in  order  not  an  to  deal  such mastery  mind  then  takes  very  limitations  Hecessary up w i t h  effect, studies.  It  he based must  up  desirable.  One  the major  teach  the  principal this  child and  learn  in  p r i v i l e g e s , and  of  they  of  a  The  the  of  In  given  the  into  a  closely  the  in  the  fullest  pattern  of  purposive practicable  system  school attain  the  They  others  and,  by  develop  tact  and  consciousness  is  where  of  to the  ideals  opportunities  classroom.  of  criticism,  to  in prin-  work  for  school the  this  he  neither  the  keep  of  the  immediate  utmost  efforts,  grow  people,  of  aspect.  always  generalized  pupils; are of  purposive  is  possess  achievement  on t h i s ,  of  becomes  w h i c h he must  school, l i f e  grades-  their  skills  adoption  the  living;.  affairs  for  the  adoption  aim,  the  entirely  do  constructive  Gradually  that  present  art  the  tool  however,  to  objectives  teachers  toleration  giving  ation.  the  particular  co-operating  a  will,  through, the  highly  of  is  complete  right  hut  environment  school The  1  activity  the  cannot  the  aa  fundamental  on a d i s t i n c t l y  the  real  the  difficulties.  principal  classroom  and  with h i s  efficient  linked  of  itself,  The  ciple.  nor  in  of  of  early receiving considersocial  responsibilities.  "'"Rugg,-E.» a n d S c h u m a k e r , A..» o p . c i t . » p . 1 4 2 . Kandel, I.L., " E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l D i s o r d e r " , Teachers C o l l e g e R e c o r d , V o l . 3 4 , No.5, F e b r u a r y 1933» p . 364.  -18-  Reflected expressed  in  adjustment and  in  is  by  group  self  the  who  pupil  and  and  society  of  making  with  takes  pupils.  As  attacks  only  to  of  social  and  opportunity  of in  informal  free  for  as  well  as  into  of  as  it  task  too  difficult  States. Bureau  the  of  Surely  both  school  to  developing  must of  be  work  the  any  by  that  within  lie  m u s t make To  pupil  1,  Education,  p.  in  its  differences each  benefit  Bulletin of  a  society  develop,  arises,  for  a  interest  complex nature.^  gain  Studies,  him-  disturbances  expect  Individual  activity  more  of  some  find  result.  for  centre  the  its  "Programme  to  pupils,  the  in  him to  will  Emotional  school  phases, o f  situation,  easy for  adjustments  a right  the  account  units-  h a v i n g had  n a t u r e may  the  child  those  without  adjustments.  that  the  the  each  challenge  United  "The method  itself  social  have  such  The p r i n c i p l e  too  philosophy  "be a m a x i m u m o f  school  serious  ability  given, a  same  should  handicapped.  opportunities  though  activity,  these  provide  nature  There  leaves  seriously  permanent  miniature  the  terms.  expressing  in making  most  a most  Is  ways.  The p u p i l practice  similar  living.  leadership  'organized  new Programme  somewhat  spontaneous  natural  the  of  a  his  must  his  ability,  from  its  mastery.  9. p.  powers,  fresh  no c h i l d  cit.,  the  child  of  op.  very  13.  be  nor  -19-  While  due  individual, lives for  in  regard  the  a  social  fact  social  individual  must he must  not  world.  he  to  this  is  to  obscure  likely  development  overlooked  Any programme,  differences  participation,  paid  to  that  that  the  after  allows,  a  the  all  he  provision  education  produce  of  for  one-sided  personality."''  Modern p h i l o s o p h y ativeness main of  goals  the  bolic one  (in of  child  widest  general  some  aims  the  in  development  children  Moreover,  The programme  the  that  sense)  education.^ requires  form.  of  its  holds  the  expression is  in  of the  school  one  a  work  this  is  to  self-expression.^  studies,  objective  is  "to  permit  self-cultivation  in  art  is  encourage  pression,  and  graphic,  or p l a s t i c  "to  with  the  symfor  stimulate  desirable  self-expression"^  or  view,  and develop one  Again  the  activity  concrete  with  ere-  of  purposive  in  accord  is  of  in  social through  creative  children's  ex-  interests  5  and  experiences." Too n a r r o w a n d  the  aim to  ization,  develop  the  pupil  too  5  Bulletin Bulletin  v i e w must  ability.  For  requires  opportunity  JLL  p.13. p  .  TIT,  a. p.148.  in  alike  not  be  its  full  for  A . , op. c i t . , p. 44. Education, op. c i t . , p .  R.W.* "The C r i s i s i n E d u c a t i o n , " H o . 9 8 9 , D e c . 9 , 1933.. p . 7 5 9 .  '-'Bulletin t . 4  a  creative  ARugg,.•&••>and S c h u m a k e r , United S t a t e s Bureau of 2wheeler, V o l . 38,  concrete  taken  of  real-  the  14.  School  and  Society,  physical a  poem,  and a  emotional  story,  experience, tion for  is  in  modern  of  instead  especially It  when  is  increased  training  being  it  is  with  a  the  that  the  or  lays  a  founda-  sitting  in  enforced  stillness  harmful  to  physical  welfare*  twin  duties  curbing  and  preventing  freedom  for  of  of  upon, of  the  is  community of  that  he  diseases  in  that  fit  encouraged,  assume  health.  and  owes, t o his  the  Physical  activity.  health  individual  maintaining  ideals  rather  t o d a y must  programme of  movement.  purposive  schools  who l e a r n s  the  in  emotion  his  health  result  definite  and  Such work  of  stresses  frowned  the  society  attitudes  is  objective  pupil*  express  creation  philosophy  advocate  responsibility  The  -social  that  of  a s s u m p t i o n means  to  The  appreciations.  positions  evident  experience.  importance.  educational  educationists  motion*  fare.  vital  Contending  strained  of  even a p a r a g r a p h  his  day  education.^ and  of  many  Present  or  aspects  an  Such  teaching  community himself  community*  has  for  and wel-  and  own h e a l t h ,  him b e t t e r  an  to  and  of  acquired  his  place  society.  With these ing develops; methods  by  knowledge strongly Cobb,  attitudes,  the  which  pupil the  the  will  second phase  wish  community  to  acquire  health  is  becomes  desirable  to  h i m and  purposive  aspect.  To  initiate  S.,  op.  cit.,  p.  25.  of  health  knowledge  maintained.  learning this  it  desire  teachof  the  This  assumes should  a be  -21-  the  real  aim. o f  The  fact  any h e a l t h  is  now u n i v e r s a l l y  many d i f f e r e n c e s , if  we c o n s i d e r ,  between not  school personnel, cultural school to  create  It  granting: that the  to  give  the  peculiar  any  form  is  school w i l l  ideas  principal  course  throughout  the  on l i n e s  schools  in  the  freedom  is  essential.  is  and  is  schools.  economic  individual  to  be  true The  and  temper  of  -  the  all  schools.  for  a  to  ;.:  tend  Such  province  to Ho  living  his  life  some  Even  of  which  in  pattern  of  and  for  course  to  those  be  of  always,  feasible  of  that  they  other  pupil-transfers, is  to  interpreting  Provided,  pupil  must  seems  a continuous the  of  restricted  procedure  school.  provide  force.  schools  with, a measure  latitude  similar  other  all  failure.  stereotyped  logical  present  school  mould  m i g h t meet  The  sufficiently  a  to  foredoomed  considerable  followed  develop  school  exist  same  community,  t o m a n y r e q u i r e m e n t a:,  be u n s u i t a b l e .  the  the  the  there  The  single  the  attempt  become  curriculum, prescribed  that  in  to  s u c h . an. a t t e m p t  conforming  inevitably  but  atmosphere  position  then that  into.a pre-determined  thing,  pupils.  and p u p i l s ,  very  that  be. c o n c e d e d .  follows  success,  the  its  situations  can readily  pupils,  teachers  and  accepted  individual  single  background,  itself,  programme.  if  this; the  Chapter  ••••*. 1  Of  a l l  pressing most  ORGrASIZATION 0 1 T H E  the  is  queattons  that  effective  of  for  success  or  failure  Out  of  the  probably  smaller Each or  choose  schools,  division  classes,  where  of  great  in  in  type  it his  number  of  one  four  of  subjects. permit* the  the  group  plans.  the  each  i n making  physical ment, the  his  Influence  The p l a n work  the  is  under of  one  is  one  the  choice.  will  is  he  of  measure  of  of  the  schools, may b e  in  called  other  of  great its  upon and  organ-  one  teacher  weakness^ of  degree,  size  educational  deciding  -22-  class,  however,  and d e m e r i t s a  school,  the  particular  all  the  one.  the  platoon,  strength, and  the  of  possible  taking  the  he  these.  Though, the  I n most  only  Practically  of  decision,  which  large  teacher  weigh the m e r i t s  perhaps  this  types.  departmental,  points  characteristics  principal  entire  must  a  principal  modifications  principal  to  most  organizations,  In l a r g e r  the  and  to  main  school has  E a c h p l a n , has: i t s  answer  possible  the  among  but  the  school.  t o make a c h o i c e  are  principal  organization  depend  organization  circumstances  izations  The  will  the  class  the  all  co-operative  of  school.  upon  SCHOOL.  confronting  what  in his  g r e a t moment,  will  H i  and  the  equip-  philosophy  of  factor.  is  classroom  responsible is  so  for  familiar  the as  to  -23-  make a n a c c o u n t  of  long- b e e n p a p u l a r  its and  structure even  unnecessary.  today,  those  f u l l e s t , measure  the modern p h i l o s o p h y  ment,  as  regard  advantages  it  are  the  ideal  inherent  in  who h a v e  of  the  arrangement.  this  plan.  This  Activity  Certainly  The  close  make m u t u a l  understanding  Particularly  this  in  of  quickly of  the  likes for  becomes  conversant  individual  members  and d i s l i k e s .  her  to  become  familiar  pupils.  Obviously,  ment  far  and  Then,  the  provision  the  with of  case the  her  too,  is  with, the  home  individual  and  possible.  an  who  weaknesses  their  quite  potentialities for  and  various  easy  matter  enviroments  for  Movemany  teacher  abilities  class, it  the  in  association  and p u p i l true  has  accepted  between!teacher is  type  of  character  differences  her  develop-  are  very  great• Interviews the  fact  that,  organization  with with  S o much, o f  -theme  activity  requirements teacher pupil of  of  the  school  In the benefits er  as  the  exception,  work no  first  which  life  upper  p l a n does: n o t must  grade  of  is; so  the  grades, the  a l l  city felt  the  is  incidental  other  to  of  to  needs  This  carry  plan  on a  necessary  schools that  of  arrangement  satisfactorily.  materially  organization  principals  suited  that  adjustment,  the  one  was m o s t  grades. of  nine  this  the  to  type  first  the  seems also  revealed  two  central t o meet  permits  the  first  the  the  d e f i n i t e , scheme in  of  of  months  child.  however*  work  lend  itself  be  adopted.  of  teacher  the  well  to  class. this,  specialization As some  the  one-teach-  other  -24-  The  advantages  find.  Hot  only  teach  those  but  guidance  a  of  to  This  consists  lesson  to  of  plan,  greatly of  under to the  the  the  one  increased  Three  himself  as  a member  his  horizon,  closely  for  the  the  practice  outstanding  those mentioned  and  the  co-operative  The  first  opposite  of  adopts  group  these  to  one  of  methods  above  extreme  herself  adult  of  freedom  to  ability  and  under and  the  com-  in  time  preparation  the  equipment  the  school  needed  spirit  pupil,  the  entire  his  class  who  day, rather  consequently  opportunities  social  obtaining  is  specialization  situations and  for  subject.  called  of  and  are  behavior.  this  departmental,  specialization  the  platoon,  plan.  the  class.  section  world  truly  the  three,  from one  -  both  teacher  life  to  studying  each  under  The  her  Whereas t h e  one  school,  of  fo;r  quality  the  hard  instruction.  and  of  are  teacher  set  not  subjects  teacher  guidance  becomes much b r o a d e r .  confines  of  reduced  intangible  regard  more  her  economical by  to  from  in  quality  is  spent  cases  that  gains  are  from  suited  well-?versed  highest  is  benefit  f l o u r i s h more v i g o r o u s l y .  resemble  the  teacher  pupil, a l s o  time  i n most  inclined than  the  The  Moreover,  remains  the  specialization  particularly  specialization  daily  seems  the  teacher  give  material. the  teacher  does  subjects  temperament  petent  of  or  the  1  plan In  departmental whereby this  department  the  scheme, one  teacher  arrangement, as her  is  field  each of  at  -25-  endeavour  and  lessons- as  teaches,  fall  to  to  her  so  place,  that  no  Secondly, child  is  number and  daily is  danger  very  great.  of  of  It of  pupils  the  one  is  other  in  the  that  effect should  unity  school  life  taught  out  of  grate;  there  of  teacher  of  the  a  another of  his  subject  matter  development  neglected.  teaches  the  one  unity  handles  organization,  she  of  to  of  the  large fact  them o v e r  individual  teacher  a  that, period  pupils  to  who h a s ; c h a r g e  a of  class.  seems  this  this  that  danger  cussing  the  the  teachers  into  well-rounded  being  knowledge  The g r e a t e s t the  a  to  studies  divide  the  In  violated.  the  knowledge  of  that  are  of  disrupts  of  schools,  to  such  arise.  unrelated  his  danger  daily  equal  ability,  subjects  tends: to  phases  obvious  large  not  class  in  work  seemingly  increases, her  almost  the  is  very  years,  only  it  assign  disintegration  teachers  considerable  in  degree  the  her  relationships  His  of  of  immediately  to  Though p o s s i b l y  Though numbers  of  compartments-  increased,  except  subject  succession  in  however,  difficult  natural  work.  stand  Is  the  of  the  it  "best  lot.  Two d i f f i c u l t i e s : , first  the  point  writes,  relation is  no  to  on t h e be to of  the be the  teacher chief that  culture  transfer  ....  there  The  of  may be  knowledge  the a  As; W h e e l e r ,  skills as  on h e r  concern  pupil.  •'special  or  or  a whole,  special do* n o t  departmental  principal loss; of . in  dis-  subjectsinte-  plan  will  -26-  have  to  be  This holds  abandoned, o r  view; I s  that  under  radically  corroborated the  concerned  quently  demands a c c o m p l i s h m e n t  the  child.  The  school. and  of  by The  part  It  is  at  complete  evident,  day,  the  apparently teachers the  commonly  called  1  2  the  teaching  Wheeler,  the  or  idea  of  of  Power,  who  the  teacher,  too  the  subject,  f r e -  the  the  ability  and  powers  into  of  be  the  the two  other  op.cit.  can of  advised  be  of  to  be  attitudes overcome,  the  limits  not  elementary  school.  same a t t i t u d e s  and  the  this  teach-  consider  departmental  platoon equal the  groups,  teach  while  subjects Similarly,  plan  system.  any  In  those  that,  day  this,  is  the  desig-  section.  The  subjects  of  r e q u i r i n g more the  have  one b e i n g  specialist  is. to  subjects,  those  the  social  life  the  well  in  pupil  these  within  of  teacher  "tool"  the  evidently  them.  in  the  of  if  would  weaknesses  home  will  the  co-curricular that  training.  V/.E.,  developing  developed  and  province  work  accomplish  home,  knowledge  by  divided  of  the  of  be  the  function  is  plan,  above  the  of  b e e n removed  are  one  "  findings  departmentalization  principal to  Some o f  for  however,  can  plan, l i k e l y  nated  some  difficulty  least,  unification  the  n  2  unification  in  ing  with  new P r o g r a m m e  satisfied  by  departmental  greatly  of  revamped.  the  specialist  specialized  divided  into  p.759.  Power, I . , "The C o - o p e r a t i v e G r o u p P l a n and t h e I n d i v i d u a l , " E d u c a t i o n a l Method, V o l . 1 4 . , Fo. 5, February, 1935, p.247.  two  equal  sections: u s u a l l y  spending H a l f with  vspecialist.  The  advantages  daily,  two  the  contact  to  classes,  valuable  of  long  with  of  home-room  so  task  four  periods  t h e home-room  such a p l a n each f o r  teacher in  an  hours  of  equal  number  diagnosing  mastery,  and  The teacher to  in  more  of  the with the  closely  To studies,  the so  is  he  develops  the  adult  community the  departmental  with  and can  the  pupil  a  with  1  all  accompanying  all.....Here,  his  sense  Relieved  the  advantages  In  addition,  on  the  her  herself  mechanical  has; a l l  correlate  of  differ-  pupil  teacher  himself.  she  various  special  of is  the able  character-  subjects;  studies.  brings  the  balanced  which  is  quite  platoon  its  privileges  unification  growth.  centred  and  is  a  of  to  one  that  freedom,  participation,  with  by  the making  "The P l a t o o n S c h o o l and K o d e r n L i f e ' * , V o l . I V . , N o . 1. , p . 1 6 , a s q u o t e d b y Platoon School in America. 1931., p. 15.  in  child's  together  be b o r n e  as  room,  needed  "veritable  w h i c h must  his  In a d d i t i o n ,  around  comparable  school  responsibilities student  personal  can devote  in  half  periods  the  The  through  WInship, A . E . , Platoon School, Case, R.D., The Stanford Press,  to  a group  social  world.  plan  of  of  home-room  this  of  study  and  individual  defects  pupil  Handling  that  she  for  school.  t h e home-room pupil  a member  personal  meanwhile,  necessary  he  correcting  close  specialist,  confer  istics  in  and  of  development.  preparation,  tlie  teacher  obvious.  g a i n s much  character  each,  are  such matters- as making p r o v i s i o n  ences,  1  time  the  now o n l y  the  his  of  of The  social  adjustments,  judging, the  and  child  life,  and  forms  the  ate  phases  needs. to  school  of  of  plan.  the  as  to  be  schools  in  principals  adjustments  is  plan  appears  There  are,  however,  size  can  is  to  true  there  answer  one  or  that  be  well  two only  in  successful  of  working  In. m u l t i p l e s  reports America  in  the  platoon  primary  classes  that  per  cent  all  include  interviewed  the  first  agreed with  and  the  of  plan.  the  of  a  stressed,  including 76.9  the  operation  advisability  eight  to  unfortun-  schools  least  in  1  platoon  at  program,  early  integrated."  this  It  an a c t i v i t y  of  having  Case  to  executing,  principals  t h e wisdom of  Though  making  considered.  All the  of  personality  considerable  interviews, teachers,  then  planning,  which belong  habit  developing  day  purposing:,  generalizing  In g e n e r a l present  the  in  four  Opinion  varied.  platooned  second  grades,  view that  this  2  the  is  3 hardly  advisable.  Such being are  automatically  Figures  in  schools  are  for  the  Table of  ^Case,  R.D.,  excluded IV  eight  platooning.  op.  c a s e many  If,  schools  from  indicate  the  that  in. B r i t i s h  adoption  only  o r more d i v i s i o n s however,  cit.,  p.  the  first  of  Columbia this  one h u n d r e d and two  are  three  large  grades  p.  enough  are  12.  2 Ibid.  plan.  51.  ^Department of S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e , S e v e n t h Y e a r B o o k , The A r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e U n i t s o f A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n , 1929, p. 14.  not  -29-  TABLE I V . NUMBER OP E L E M E N T A R Y SCHOOLS I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA H A V I N G S I X OR MORE D I V I S I O N S " . Size of School (in divisions)  Frequency of Schools extending to Grade 8  . • •• 6  11  7 8  7 • •  13 8  Frequency of Schools, ext e n d i n g to Grade 6 o n l y . " " ""  2  • -3  :  :  Total Frequencies  -  ' .13 •  .'  10  •• 5-• 5-  18 -  •-' 1 1 '  I@' '  9  11  •''..:"' 13. '  12  2: 2  .is;"  17  ;  6  '•  3 •"'  5.  2  7  1  '•'"  4 .''  7  18  1  2  ''is.  2  3  1  2& . .'  7  .21  2 .  1  1  22  1  1  23  2 .  2  •.36 • •  Figures compiled Annual Report.  1  from  statistics  1  occurring  in  the  Sixty-Sixth  -30-  to  be  even  included, less.  eighth sixth be  number  In a d d i t i o n ,  grade grade  taken  the  and by  the  this  these  likelihood  of  their  introduction  of  the  junior  used,  number  platooning  would  be  an advantage  can h a r d l y  the  province.  however,  plan  entire  these  forty,  Under  ideals  of  desired. adapting  a principal  the  platoon  Its  flexibility  the  institution.  school 2  the  difficulty  of  work  the or  the  platoon  as  suggested  ducts  all  becomes See  the  a  TABLE  ^Case,  R.D.,  Reavis, School,  with  the  ample  to  the  to  number  must  third  forty  to  in.  advan-  ideas  and  little  to  be  for  growing  the  entirely  teachers  the  great  any  of  to  which  opportunity in  the  school  exceed  affords  almost  subjects-  teachers obviates  without  the  inter-  alliances.  two  co-operative  in  plans  group  by Reavis  lessons  subject  from  schools  inevitable  class  schools  platoon  of  to  reduced high  system l e a v e s  provides  the  assigning  small  the  changes  of  with natural  For  conversant  plan,  to  the  • <• r e d u c t i o n i n the  The  conducting  ference  the  grades  becomes:  extend  being  be  are  only  system  schools  to  sixth  tages.  3  of  use  If  To  1  many  to  consideration.  the  into  the  able  one  specialist  are  plan.  every  the  a  Under  the  modified  the  staff  member  classroom in  possibles  in  of  modified  the morning  afternoon.*^  con-  and  Obviously  V. op.  cit.,  p.  63.  W . C . , P i e r c e P . R . , and U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago,  S t u l l k e n , E.HV, 1 9 3 1 , p . 8. ;  The  Elementary "  -31-  TABLE V . KUMBER OP E E E M E N T A R Y SCHOOLS. I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A •AS WOULD A P P E A R I P GRADES' S E V E N AND E I G H T WERE R E M O V E D .  . Size of School (in divisions)  j  .  Frequency  6  13  7  18 -  •a  14 ;  9  8  10  7  i i  7  12  7  :  7 ': 5 . 3  .17''  2  18  2  19 20 21  2  22 23  figures  were a r r i v e d a t by c o u n t i n g to Grade S i x o n l y .  divisions-  up  _—_  -32-  many T a r i a t t o n s - , essence  it  of  this, plan  remains  the  same.  teacher-specialization of  platooning,  though  are  is  possible,  Naturally  dimished  somewhat  "but  the  hut  its  opportunity  many  modified,  in  of  can  the  for  advantages  nevertheless  he  gained. Under Joined  into  work most  the  groups o f  agreeable  the  group.  and  all  lessons  velopment as  Museum, studies; writing  this  dramatics,  captain.  and  of  adjustments ledge  1  of  the  duty and  to  for  the  necessary  pupils  or  to  developed on  all  in  divisions, phases  for  of  of  frequent a l l  in  changing  the  is  its  At  decided  light  of  conditions  de-  the  social as  well  music,  members of  the  these on and  made.  group  meetings,  increased are  as  any knowThis  Hosic, E.J., The S o - o p e r a t i v e Group P l a n i n the Primary School, E d u c a t i o n a l Method, V o l . 10, Kb. 4, January, 1931, p. 212. H  H  as  activities*  meetings  lessons.  group  of  such  and  arts  and p l a y g r o u n d  of  the  one  including  one  classes  English;  industrial  chooses  the  conference  health,  Recreation,  are  this.  responsible  all  teachers  teacher'choosing it  centre  and  call  articulate  activity found  the  teachers is  each  arithmetic,  education  of  is  to  fine  plan,  teaching  including  taught j  Her  and  names t h e  where  coordinate  the u n i t  plan,  physical  four,  activity  Arts,  Each, g r o u p  to  her  including: science,  are  or  been largely  library,  the  co-operative  arranged  who h a s  of  the  of  are  the  three to  A. u n i t  Hosic,  unit  second,  -33-  very  flexibility  neglected by  the  and  close  By  the  danger  comparing  handles  the  notes  with, the  class  for  so n e c e s s a r y  that  of  co-operation  grow f a m i l i a r  tacts,  guarantees  formalism  of  all  with  is  teacher  nor p u p i l  reduced  to  a  is  minimum  teachers.  one a n o t h e r ,  pupils two  neither  of  the  the unit  and a s  o r more y e a r s ,  i n character  teachers  those  education  soon  each  teacher  personal  are  con-  easily  established. Furthermore danger  of  a pupil  encourages  the  The p r e v i e w s fication  of  developed classes is  formed,  .must  the  of  done w i t h o u t possible  to  and  his  If,  the  of  of  and  for to  the  the  of  the  the  small  rest,  best  ^ P o w e r , L., "The C o - o p e r a t i v e Educational Eethod, V o l . 14,  of  features  such  each p u p i l  his  teacher,  as  are he  ability.  even more  flexible  expedient  timetable  the  is  all  of  deemed  adequately  uni-  the p u p i l  group  his  is  of  In a  being  it  from  be  to  assure  of  of  and  initiative.  activities  guidance  example,  upsetting utilize  the  virtue  to  together  the  teacher  and  consciousness  all  extent  on h i s  responsibilities  depart  work  teachers  according  the  a great  self-reliance  activity^  and under share  to  dependent  social  larger  duties  agreement  one p h a s e  too  the  centring  plan, has  platoon.  mutual  the  apparent,  This the  drawn up b y  the  accept  eliminates  becoming  studies  by  plan  development  around  readily  the  to  school. of  any  by  permit  developed,  it  Thus,  than  any  can  be  it  is  experience  Group P l a n and the I n d i v i d u a l , Ho. 5, F e b r u a r y , 1935, p. 240.  t t  -34-  approach  to  school  the most  of  any a v a i l a b l e  To  the  principals  Columbia,  this  ization.  Its  life  last  for  developing  ual  differences and  addition, the  zontal  in  the  the  of  guidance  of  with all  His  theme  As  of  connection  activity, of  of  view  of  perhaps  of  the  within  the  improving In  there  are  hori-  reduces  principal.  He,  thus  can  by  in  The  other  will  record lead  plans,  the  growth  one  routine  to  lies  unit  necessity and  of  con-  effectively a minimum  the  of  followed.  co-operative  such a  captain  be  The  contacts  with  c a n b e made more  the  to  p  contact of  the  co-ordinate  determining  advantage  group.  each group,  captains,  for  individ-  with, c l o s e  greatest  close  responsibility  in  teacher,  specialization  course  in. the  opportunities  the p l a n .  the  general  the  everyday  integration.  groups,  itself  organ-  with  its  effect  the  by  make  British  discovering  favor  each group.  to  close  of  desirable  all  is  show  a most  attitudes,  record  kept  can r e a d i l y  schools  its  the  the  of  the  and  systematic  given  affords  subject  by  of  endeavours,  point  charge  group  pupils,  principal,  in  difficulty,  will  most  supervision, provided  ferences .work  of  vertical  the  captain, close  purposive  from the  and  To  central  the  opportunity.  of  plan  cultural  advantages  Hence  possibilities  through i t s  social  work..  effective  if  planning, and  in professional and a  little  greater  teacher matters  results spirit  direction  achievements.  assumes of  a  each  the class.  She  -35-  attends as  to  the  reports,  the home-room t e a c h e r  Kb m a t t e r he must ation  s t i l l  can  or  spiration. become  what  will  it  not  losing  valuable  -  Having determined organization must  which w i l l  of  the  plan  organization implies ities  for  periods,  but  the  i t s most  chapters,  be  the  aspects, w i l l  for  does  that  the  school  effective of  to  and this  considered.  tend  to  thing  type  of  case,  class  the of  principal a  time-  the  best  possible  whichever  type  of  Programme  of  to  the  education Except  necessarily be  very  in-  flexibility.  make  visual  must  and  will  construction  But  activities. not  of  that  organiz-  Wo  any p l a n  individual  to  1ibrary,  acting  institute,  guidance  particular  adherence  time-table  question be  quality  operated.  co-currlcular this  process  attention  adopted,  provision  library,  permit  is  to  his  in  the  to  teachers.  without  to h i s  his  his  this,  upon  enable  of  may d e c i d e  supply  the  suited  then turn his  table  the  best  such m a t t e r s ,  class.  leader  effective  does  stereotyped,  the  and  a principal  the  be  he  of  plan  remain  If  t h a t makes  use  attendance,  and  in. t h e  entail  flexibility  in  facilcase  of  scheduled  sufficiently  economical use.  Studies  In its  flexible  to  succeeding various  Chapter  THE  It  has., b e e n a s s u m e d  principal is  in  providing  essential modern  the  proper  is  the  in  the  elementary  iate  need  of  dealing  library  schools,  of  big the  the  that  facilities  philosophy  providing  with  construction  programme  library  powerful  of  materials, teacher  today  integrating  i n g depot  all  in  task  he h a s the  the  proper  that  its  presence  studies. small,  very  best  Every must  of  the  provided  school.  to  or  it  and p u p i l  alike,  of  but  system,  If library  school, a  source  the  a  application is  or  So of  pre-  principal  realize  library  none  place  the  in  of  the  immed-  obtainable  has; a  for  As  A  and  everyone  the the  of  most collect-  illustrative in  the  school  In  not  a mere  adjunct  and  integral  before,  appendix  and  the  part  task  he must  The L i b r a r y i n t h e S c h o o l , Chicago, 1933, p. 14.  -36-  of  or  the  ideal  whole  inspirations.  of  setting  exercise  W i l s o n , L..R., ^Increasing; the S l g n i f i c a n c e L i b r a r y , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , V o l . 3 8 , Ho. p. 847. Eargo, I.E., Association,  of  common i n t e r e s t . 2  faced with  existed  one  school.  which  new e n t h u s i a s m s  is  as  periodicals,  room  vital  principal  where  of  becomes.,  of  its  forces, of  becomes, a  it  the  takes  books,  circumstances,  2  in  school.  The  1  LIBRARY.  school "library  educational  supposed  his  time-table  Iv  of 7,  up  a  the  the School March, 1936.  American  Library  • •  -37-  greatest  of  care  librarian. itself./ located ing.  in  choosing  a member  He m u s t  likewise  choose  The  library  that  If  it  one  library,  studies,  easily  is  gained  well,  such a s  the  be  by  bright  be  set  so  doing;  timetable  reading,  art  his  staff  with equal  accessible  s u c h room can  much  classroom as  is  room must  of  to  room  and q u i e t ,  yet  so  the  build-  it  must be  as  the  in  definitely  if  act  care  everyone  aside  to  must  a  be u s e d  adjusted  appreciation.,  as  so  as  a  that  and music  are  1  conducted  here.  best  carried  ;  This  desks,  and  change  is  on i n  permits the  at  ticular  time;  attitudes attractive  d o i n g away w i t h  the  of  the  the  child  of  and as a  and  The of  are  seating  the  the  of  class to  correct  informal  change  arrangement  tables.  arrangement  inculcation  effective  formal  chairs  needs  similarity  the  the  i n many w a y s .  suit  makes  more to  to  much w r i t i n g ,  classroom,  introduction  will  library  which require  another  beneficial  altered  adult  Lessons  Such  can at  a  be  that  that  par-  of  the  library  arrangement  from the  of  is  stereotyped  classroom.  Open filing and a  system f o r card  principal little  shelves,  index as  they  blackboard  easily  accessible  illustrative system, are  offer  cheap  space  is  and  the  materials no  great  easily  required,  American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , 1920, p. 12. .  to  a  for  pupils, the  a  simple  teachers,  difficulty  to  any  constructed.  As  large  the  part  Standard L i b r a r y  of  Organization,  -38-  wa.ll- m a y b e  covered  ing paper.  This  plants,  the  of  cork-board.5.  burlap,  will, provide  off a l l . v a r i e t i e s s c h o o l , work..  with  a background  illustrative  Tastefully library  takes  on a  for  materials,  arranged  or heavy the  new and  display  graphs*  and. r e l i e v e d  build-  by  or  numerous  decidedly  attractive  aspect."'" The: p r i n c i p a l , of  integration  must  see  He m u s t the  that  telligent  to  of  in  take  library  are  the  points  of  the  of  rest in  the  of  every  contact the  order  they  facility  and  by  can  study in»  participate  see  the  by  two.  give  to  organize  offered  work, the  to  He m u s t  2  provided  that  school  librarian in  measure  between  activities  projects.  see  possible  ordinary  staff  opportunity  supervision,  advantage  the  reference  correlation  fullest  with  by which  realize  in his  obtain  a method  guidance  effectively teachers  the  there  arrange  previews  and,  of  to  that  his  library their  library  work and  librarian. Not pupils in  the  in  library  other of  only  the  the  must  library  technique  reference  etiquette  librarian but  -  the  materials.  catalogue  •^Standard  the  of  Library  likewise the  guide  she must and use The falls  library,  Association,  conduct of  into  though  reading definite  books,  proper  op,  the  use  her  of  lessons  indexes  f i e l d .  p.  the  periodicals,  3  incidental,  cit.,  of  In  and  and  addition,  requires  11.  p Case,  3':  R.D.,  op. ii  cit.,  p.  157 '  W i l s o n , L..R., I n c r e a s i n g t h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e School L i b r a r y , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , V o l . 38, p.841. American Library Association, o p . c i t . , p.-23. O t t o , H..J•, E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l O r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d Administration, A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , Few Y o r k , 1 9 3 4 , p . 4 0 5 .  -39-  constant  attention.  the  librarian  for  developing'ideals  overlooked. readily of  in  others,  for  The  ively  providing of  the  students  care  of  in  the  handled  the  citizenship  will  of  by p u p i l  find  that  of  lie  in  work  and  of  are  too  the  she can  library the  of  and to  be  develop for  and  school.  under  way  great  consideration  the  assistants  the  differences,  common p r o p e r t y ,  library  routine  that  individual  attitudes  the use  for  for  good  The p r i n c i p a l  responsibility  Much  opportunities  rights  personal  1  c a n be  effect-  guidance  of  the  2 librarian  herself.  returning  them  paper  clippings  pupils  as  pupils  are  by  the  to  in  the  •iently  and  in  her  one  cards  advance  of  in  of  closely  the  on P l a t e  the  a  real  those  by  same  life  phases  II.  news-  these  to  librarian of  en-  discretion.  principal  the  and  expeditiously  process in  borrowers,  the  delivered  time  to  routine,  professional  are  and  the  the  books  pictures  experience  librarian,  the  sorting  and  o f much more  issuing  efficiently  valuable  require  form similar  as  librarian,  attention  assist  class  shelves,  done  Relieved  that  To  are  the  turn her  deavour  the  getting  situation. can  to  S u c h work, a s  The to  must  develop  assignments the  librarian  information  will  be  are  some made  suff.icdesired  3 so  that  time  s h e may b e  thus  librarian class  2pargo, Case, 3  to  prepare  her  s a v e d may be u t i l i z e d  to  has  card,  teacher  ^Case,  able  R.D., L.P», R.D.,  finished for  her  op. c i t . , op. op.  with  the  guidance. p.  152.  c i t . , p . 47 cit.,.p.150.  references.  advantage, it  is  ftfter  sent  back ;  The the to  the  -40 »  ELATE LIBRARY Grade  *  II  REFERENCE  Teacher's  Name  SLIP  ,  Date General  Topic  S p e c i a l assignments. Topics  This the  co-operation  teacher  pletely cipal  in  must  exert  with every  attitude,  for  be  Both, t h e  lost.  expect  the  without  arousing very the  be  provided  initial  often  the  teachers  Wilson, ^ Fargo,  his  L.F.,  value  its  aims  effort it  teachers in  choice  op.  and  co-operation  the  interest.  op.  to  much of  of  cit., cit.,  completely of  the  and  about  value  of  the  pupil  have  of  library  p.  the  is  Subject, to  294.  and  the a  unless  is  The  this  the  regarding  845.  effective  library  comprin-  desirable library right  will  to  teachers.  the  books  often  the  his  and best  approval,  themselves  _>he c o m m u n i t y p.  to  objectives.  bring  the books  and p u p i l s . 2  l.R.,  he  the  librarian  complete  Consulting i c a l s to  cannot  recognizes: accord  Assigned  can be  effort  thus  periodway of  of course,  left  to  resulting  -41-  helps of  not  books  only sent  in  librarian.for ables are  the  by  the  who  to  spend  ing,  see  there  library  time  in  must  that  the  be  school.  which  to  the  duplication  only  the most  be  section  lists  and  en-  useful  books  a  reserved  for  and use  children  Members its  will  of  the  staff  facilities,  not  be  slow  a  provide  in  follow-  . and  obtained  periodicals  partly  which are  for  seems t o cannot  tools be  no  such  teacher  funds.  to  why a the  a professional contributions  Save  individual  reason  be d e v o t e d  for  through  library  for  members  small  purchase  the  of  of  and  of  staff  of  books  there  library  professional  may  partly  purchase  the  fraction  section  funds  literature  teachers."'" No m a t t e r principal  library  in  what will  the  functioning  stacles  must  be  type find  of  library  rich  reward  school  today has  to  limit  the  overcome,  organization  come  of  but  for  its  his  into  its  they  are  not  can  bring  active  the  brary.  tools  of  The-task  his is  into  craft  have  the  indeed heavy  and v i g o r o u s  the  for  the  Before many  the  it  ob-  principal  growth.  potentialities  but  adopted,  insurmountable.  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  it  own.  possibilities,  perseverence,  and must  is  labor,2  By p a t i e n c e ,  of  The  referred  avoids  teachers.  library  through general  is  entire  this  should  for  the  example  Books  the  the  teachers  consideration,  corner  splendid  for  but  obtained.  professional  be  library  librarian  I n one  a  the  rewards  of are  Few  the  l i -  propor-  tionate . 1 Fargo, L.F., o p . c i t . , p. 223. ' ' 2 R e a v i s , W . C , P i e r c e , P . R . , and S t u l l k i n ,  E.H., o p . c i t . ,  p.14.  Chapter  '  V I S U A L AND R A D I O  i  In c o n s t r u c t i n g the  principal  phase  of  will  time  find  educational  endeavour  b e done  either  by p r o v i d i n g  o r more  simply  by  or  some  Teachers  other  materials  aration.  But  the  first  projection to  his  certain  and  task  of  school.  price of  useful,  the  film-slide  the  these  activity used  choice  in  their  prep-  will  cameras  to  survey is  b e made  the and  a of  and  has  now  all  types  the most  the  opaque,  two w i l l  the  of  motion  projector.  be  projector.  the E d u c a t i o n a l  use-  from a group  film-slide,  opaque  -42  has: h a d  i l l -  school.  purposes', the  of  machines  which  B r u n s t e t t e r , I C . R . , How t o U s e Chicago P r e s s , 1937., p. 7.  a  may  value  millimetre  ascertain  and  such  introduction  to  teaching  This  the  apparatus  is  and. s i l e n t ,  ordinary  for  b e e n done  the  picture,  For  realized  of  glass-slide,  sound  aids.  w h i c h may b e  principal  His  for  remarkable  visual  periods  since  s u c h d e v i c e s , as, t h e both  made  the  apparatus  classes,  feature.  eight  reach  his  make p r o v i s i o n  periods  projection  The m o d e r a t e the  of  special  particularly  them w i t h i n  The  ful  of  organizing  to  use  and much h a s  sixteen millimetre  placed  the  activity  use  growth,  projectors.  of  the  and  which has  many y e a r s ; h a v e  ustrative  tremendous  L  decade,  allowing  for  tahle  necessary  in  this  last  it  strides  for  the  his  AIDS,.  found  mast  The  motion  Sound  Film,  picture  machines: have  tainable  today  the  advantage blinds  the  as  principal,  economical can be  as  screen  apparatus, require c a n be it  a  the  teacher  and  devices definite  nor  blinds in  the  any is  at  a  are  use  toy. they  technique  Brunstetter,  M.R.,  the the  ordinary  little  disturbance.  inexpensive  wishes  on t h e  the  does  but  other  in  on  This not  even  film-slide,  class-room, or  throws  show  screen,  study  available.  which  to  and  it-  addition,  illustrative  hand.  on b o t h  not  the  i n which  otherwise  Like  graph,  of  has  the  projector  be drawn. ordinary  in  directly  not  translucent  picture,  proper  impress  tool  picture  study  ob-  feature.  is  bearing if  the  classroom  very  camera  opaque  on a  a  important  made,  few f i l m s  film-slide  with  the  the  the  an  Films  easily  when u s e d  which  lesson  is  in  can be used  is  project  For must  and  operated  material  a  operate.  any  it  in  very  schools-.  the  well  film-slide  useful  that  will  of  that  the  quickly  Just the  to  available,  Hence  part  Moreover,  Columbia  functions  drawn.  school-room To  it  hut  effectively  British  apparatus,  that  are  promise  can be used  work p r e s c r i b e d : f o r  Of  great  of  any  such apparatus,  pupil  and  teacher  Visual  1  to  of  be  aids  regarded  study must  op.cit.,  p.  are as  that not  principal  projector  is  labor-saving  entertainment.  be worked  12.  the  the  out  in  order  A that  -44the  whole  The  project  teacher  medium o f visual  such  for  in  this  devising  of  darkened purpose  guided  in her  she must she must  and  correct  learn embark  testing  proportion.  study  of  films  the-"basic  danger  of  pleasure  chief  purpose  The  room means classes  work  regarding  While  overcome  problems  advantage.  picture  that  of of  of  exper-  application  must  than the  the the  than  that  Then.,  the  one be  too,  in  projector  usually  creates  even more  projection  film,  is and  picture as  an  be  to  function  consultant  use  it  study,  that  teaching  is  ibid..,  of  the  As  a  the  technique  principal  is  both  supervisor,  he  should  u p o n whom t h e  should  class-room  p.  the  in  not  the must  teacher  administrative be  relies  the for  that  Brunstetter,  for  entertainment.  he  the  to  is  administrator,  permit  need  equipped  problems, and m e t h o d s .  the  The  pronounced  desirable, the  forms.  room must  organized  still  pupil  other  instructional  2  of  and  tions regarding  to  a  attitude.  supervisory.  paring  as  principles  on a c o u r s e  new m e t h o d s  a motion picture  and  motion  tional  its  teaching.  greatest  and  and  administrative a  he  instruction,;  The u s e more  must  education;  imenting of  may a s s u m e  showing  M.R.,  1G9.  for of  see  little  projection films.  op.cit.  p.  9.  or  time in  is  educasugges-  2  lost  adjusting  As in  an pre-  classes  for does  It  would: be  each  school  books.  solely time  by  in  extremely to  build  up  These  films  are  one  school,  his  school  from which at  the  time.  district, teacher  of  used  if  such  a  only  time  the  of  and  greater  material  films  occasionally  some  part  as  it  and, u s e d of  the  of  principal librarian for  teachers  of  staff.  field  principal  must make  some t i m e  the  Broadcasting have been  national System,  however,  with  the  aid  for  library  principals of  films  films  are  needed  c a n much  needless  of  a  the  care  to  many  of  these  studies  of  the  of  the  his  making  them to  exten-  use  of  in  the  the  school  pupils  of  that loans  which  the  radio. the  United  do  States, Un-  not  British  For  Columbia  purposes.  programmes  to  individual  for  Company a n d  staff  all  the  endeavour  the  for  one  returning  which are  broadcasts  under  school,  and  Broadcasting of  the  choose  educational  both  in  facilities.  the  is  been developed  direction  issuing  provision,  conducting  fortunately, well  of  give  must  and  not  placed  obtaining  library  other  to  visual  central  One  fellow  organization  have  may b e  appointed  responsible  a central  such  aids  library  aid  his  avoided.  visual  the  the  up  with  can borrow whatever  be  development  visual  cooperate  from the  late  both  own l i b r a r y  spend  build  by  films  Similarly  teacher  to  Only  specially  s i o n and  must  area  Moreover,  as  would  each school  duplication  act  its  of  storage.  The p r i n c i p a l in  wasteful  artie-  Columbia  -46and,  as  a general  make u s e  of  them found  However, the  a  provincial  measure •the  this  school  As the  in  order  by  its  series  authorities  the  use  of  develop its  his  duties  the  suggestions  aids^the  definite  by  effective to  endeavoured  to  overcoming suited  principal  techniques  educational  to  of  value  in the  must  using  by  a  large  needs  see  this  may n o t  be  of  that  aid,  obscured  aspect.  classes  offer  visual  great  who  p r o g r a m m e s h a s been., b r o a d c a s t  available.  the most  Radio,  principals  unsatisfactory.  now  entertaining  he must  of  educational  Two f u r t h e r  make  them  are  that  organize  those  d e f i c i e n c y . , and programmes  teachers  in  rule,  face a  the  readjustment  use  of  these  Provincial  and  principal. of  the  for  the  he  must  timetables  broadcasts,  Educational  criticisms  First  and  Committee  improvement  to  secondly on of  the  broadcasts.  Both measure teachers in  visual  of in  neither  everyone  and  auditory  co-operation the case  on t h e  province. will  concerned  aids  Both  require  part  of  all  h a v e many  these, p o s s i b i l i t i e s  does- h i s  share  in  the  greatest  principals  and  possibilities, be  their  realized  but  unless  development.  C h a p t e r «37T  '  *  The phase  GO-CURRICULAR  attitude  of  school  of  "brings  his  school.  to  thought,  thesis,  the makers  into  limits  the  school  they  have  duced  by  the  commonly  as  of  has of  been  the  the  g.J.Otto"  indicates: quite  the  of  clearly  the  adopted  change  edu-  this  activities status  in  extra-curricular,  term has  in  in  in  Their  being This  that  realigning  trends  drew these  co-curricular. been  of  elsewhere  itself.2  instead  toward  extra-curricular  necessity  Indicated  curriculum  and has  Studies  t h e modern  Programme  system changed; now become  by  of  known a s  principal  Influenced  cational  the  new Programme  endeavour  activities entire  the  ACTIVITIES.  this  in. s t a t u s  been  thesis  of  Introas  it  to  the  these  activities;. Inevitably principal. that  Many  The  inspect  industries,  plan;  cannot  be  In  *See  the  of  two  has  brought  formerly  issues, of  and  now a s s u m e  clubs, the  in  of  like.,  is  on t h e  increased  newspapers, must  assumption  now be  underlying  of part the  imporexcursions of  the  Programme  practice.  grades,  principal  new p r o b l e m s  shelved  the p h i l o s o p h y  realized  first  chapter  ^Programme 3  otherwise  fully  the  class,  side  organization  school  the  questions,  t h e y were mere  tance. to  such a change  where  not  only  one  often called  teacher  handles  upon  assist,  to  2. Studies,  Bulletin  II,  p.  101,  Bulletin  I,  0 t t o , H . J . , and H a m r i n , S . A . , C o - c u r r i c u l a r A c t i v i t i e s E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l » A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , Hew Y o r k , 1 9 5 7 . -47-  p.10. in  the  -48-  in  the  management  in  the  rest  of  the  m e n t a l , ..platoon, he must all  of  assume  are  upper  grades 3?or  social  responsibility  matter  of  havior sonal  pupil  of  almost  of  guidance  But,  in  as  in  of  cases,  this  in  powers  of  body is  of  able  pupils to  desirable 1  2  Bulletin  the  p.  and  of  many  school  depart-  in  operation,  class  of  activities placed  brings  1  up  government. of  that  social  breaches  instead  those  of  many  responsiIn  school  are  teaching  the  without  stage,  from r i g i d  hardly  house-  excep-  lies  school.  teacher  emergence  readjustments  such  under  barring  elementary  the  routine  staff.  self-government of  of  necessary  withNo-  control  many  un-  are  too  8.  Perry, A . G . , D i s c i p l i n e as a School M i f f l i n , New Y o r k , 1 9 1 5 , p . 2 0 2 .  per-  placed  a pupil, organization  the  a  to  general  of  be-  the  pertaining  building,  the  being  of  on  Ideally,  a u d i t o r i u m work,  released  The  new  stress  sense  transitional  pupils  itself  situations. I,  But  administration  teaching  strong  the  hands  suddenly  govern  class.  the  is  of  great  realization  complete  the  the in  in  a  §port.s,  present  tional the  task  particularly  a member  the  plan  t e a c h e r M o r e o v e r ,  classroom  entirely  where  school,  example,  the  school,  the  the  against  the  activities,  keeping  the  as: a n a i m  with  to  the  of  develops  offences:  affront  matters  the  together are  of  participation  participation  bility,  share  group  the  activities.  now d e s i r a b l e .  this  pursued by  particularly  co-operative  a great  pupil  activity  school,  or  co-curricular  In the  the  Problem,  Houghton-  -49-  sharp  and  most n  the  difficulties  insuperable.  It  is  likely  Otto,  that  was  experienced  all  phases  of  by  of  a  in  1  change  commenting  the  least  the  schools  student  sudden  success  on  with  are  this,  in  holds  student  which h u r r i e d  participation  almost  too  school  In-  that,  councils rapidly  and  into  classroom  management." The p r i n c i p a l , uated  in  pupils, to  the  ever,  the  degree  leading ideal  that  school  is  this  view,  five  of  then,  as  the  of  all  by  Two c h i e f preparation  of  The  first  for  the  to  points his  teacher  pupil  attack  teachers step  is  the  study.  the  for  pupil  enthusiasm  The •'•Otto,  this for  next H.J".,  step  plan  can  that  is  Ibid,  Pi  334.  were  even  that  Harris  feels,  how-  in  the  in  accord, planned  of  his  evinced  the  and  proinof  government.  the  degree  of  teachers.  teacher  discussion,  314.  School  the  pupils*  conception  school by  of  pro-  possible.  reports,  clear  p.  while  a definite  determined  op.cit.,  With  the p r i n c i p a l ,  of  From  elementary  pupils.  degree  by  the near  training  in  upon one a s  the  a  grad-  to  before  develop  steps,  place  lie  follows.  S.A..,  of  a carefully  H a r r i s , P . E . , Changing Conceptions M a c m i l l a n , New Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 , p . 2 6 2 . 3  the  participation  naturally  and Hamrin,  of  institution  campaign can be the  2  By d i s c u s s i o n s ,  teachers  in  and  be  government  that  develop  of  to  interviewed  the  Success  series  organization  immaturity  vestigations, necessity  a  can a c h i e v e .  convinced  gramme w a s n e c e s s a r y  gramme  of  principals  them were  obvious  present  school  measure  limited  plan  responsibility  from h i s his  must  Discipline,  -5©-  a definite  plan  pupils  of  procedure  in  the  of  the -general p r i n c i p l e s  ticipation to  take  the  has  care  pupils;  should  does  realized  the  need  eye  for  of  of  arising  which  the  his in  in  social  and. i n  the  guidance  of  teacher,  The later  • from  the  in  and  senior should  ever  "A t r u e have  ing."  attitude  significance  o f jpupil class  can be  par-  captains,  selected  of  by  student  tasks but  The  of  under  the  the  assuming  a  recognized  training  developed  these  This  pupils  in  self-  under in  by  the  good  school.  be  extended  These  to  prefects  include are  prefects  best  chosen.  and. t h e  representatives  on t h e  pupils'  be  the  grades  only.  of  from  to the  keep  along  their  with the  three  the  pupil,  will  of  these  fulfillment  government  sense  of  stand  certain  responsibility.  discretion.,  will  exercised  the mind  can be a s s i g n e d  principal  the  council.  classes  be  in  a real 1  idea  routine  situation.  of  probably  developed,  leges,  use  out  a pupils'  C a r e must ciples  real  teachers,  accept  or  system can g r a d u a l l y  and  council  the  they  teacher  share  a  pupils  execution  reliance  stead both  the  classroom  school,  n o t mean t h e mere  each p u p i l  the  right  themselves;.  duties  watchful  by  the  When, t h e  underlying  ordinary  Throughout routine  he drawn u p .  been  of  in developing  result  upper  real  for  underlying  as R o b e r t s  only  enthusiasm  responsibilities  when t h e for they  their are  prin-  says, pupils privicarry, ,.  •'•Roberts, A » C , a n d D r a p e r , !»M», B-Stra-Class and S u t r a - M u r a l A c t i v i t i e s i n High Schools, H e a t h , Hew" Y o r k , 1 9 2 8 . p . 5 7 .  -51Another school  is  terest. means  sphere  that  off  for  under  the  will any  but  the  and  of  of  survey  a  good  of  the  inthe  mishaps  off a l l  field  the  avail-  of  tabulation desired  one  than  in  to  that  investiof  re-  .informa-  of  usually  does  well-planned  teachers.  great  a  of  come on  the  pupils.  contacts,  teacher,  class  transportation.  class  enough c a r s  to  meet  his  and H a m r i n ,  preparations  In  relationship  not  be  as-  commenting with  automatically, the  part  of  the  1 , 1  the  available,  these  efforts  disadvantages  providing  should  them t o w a r d s  make  of  in  is  officials  "Such c o - o p e r a t i v e  visit  contact  its  attitude  interest  H.J.  of  principal.  a  the  life  for  any necessary  letter,  portation  the  obtain  and by  sufficient  •^Otto,  to  and  visited  logical  greater  says,  the  by p e r s o n a l  procure  forms  them t o make  desirable  result  difficulty  teacher  concern, i s  is. t h e  is.  places  One  of  a r e made,  a body  any  of  responsibility  teachers  up a  Otto  principal  ,  This  enable  worthy is  visits  advisable.  any  prestige this,  and p l a c e  jurisdiction  as  co-curricular  time.  to  s;et  the  such v i s i t s  enable  The p r i n c i p a l  on  of  the  contacted  his  points  and  is  to  neighborhood  transportation,  Before  and  to  time  places  at  visits'  the  the  any  sults  class  in  as  Before  gating  tion  of  activity  . Such m a t t e r s  come d i r e c t l y  able  of  it  is- p e r h a p s  S.A.,  op.  manage  among t h e  needs.  If  the  p.  28.  can,  to  arouse  parents-  commercial  advisable  cit.,  is  The p r i n c i p a l  generally  visit  visits  to  to  trans-  take  - 5 2 -  advantage  of  the  legal  responsibility  of  a  transportation,  company. The.question delicate the  one.  teacher  graphed visit, will al  with  long  the  the  taken  parent,  the  must  teachers  adjusted created  In form a  so by  affected that  the  the  of making  implies.  by  absence  field  of  is  clubs  great  is  One p r i n c i p a l a week, Clubs  the  last  the  the  By  of  of  the  and for  reported day,  were made a v a i l a b l e  to  the precaution  no  addition-  the  the  mimeo-  parent  signature  conditions  the  prin-  unassailable.  action  The of  specialization, on t h e  timetable the  the  part  must  programme  of  be  is  class.  life  essential  the  school,  of  the  a  of  possible  a  care  on  with  pupil,  teacher  visit.  the  rests  securing  disruption  provision  this  of  of  to  of  purposive  self-reliance  system  every  always  direct  and p u r p o s e  co-operative  the  of  developing  too  form  for  no u n d u e  adequate  work,  safety  assumed by  co-currlcular  great  while  agreement  arrange  the  is  each p u p i l  place,  that  any  mishaps  under  p o s i t i o n much more  school with  principal  are  provides  the  trip  and h i s  for  responsibility  time,  can be  the  the  he  the  assure  c a n make h i s In a  pupils  statement  to  know what  cipal  as  school,  stating  responsibility  the  responsibility  If",•however,  form  be  will of  As  of  principal.  of  for  the  school,  endeavour.  the to  The  individual  leadership,  a very  clubs  possibility  differences,  which  principal his  school  to  is  for  inherent  ignore.  in  Some  school.  successful  was  set  aside  all  pupils  plan.  for  from  club  the  One  period  work.  third  grade  -53on.  E a c h p u p i l was  M s  age  to  expected  co-operate  to  join  one  whole-heartedly  club  irrespective  with h i s  fellow  of  mem-  bers. A. s u c c e s s f u l able  school  of  Almost  as  in a  over,  it  and  certainly  in  valuable  would  Here the  for  tration  hard  of  the  can  the  be a  English,  as  to  case,  for  "perhaps  policy a  sponsor  igent  1  on  the the  part  willing  interest  Otto,  school  H..J".,  on and  of to the  all  items  the  desir-  occurrence  her  work.  staff.  part  Hamrin,  The  no  superior. of  it  is  is  character  of  simple of  a  of  a  an  teacher  of  is to  not select  school the  selection and a n Only  p.  such  constructive  youngsters;  cit.,  as  within  the  pupils."  adminis-  this  advisable  on. f a c t o r s  op.  to  sufficient  far-sighted  the  making  interest.  problem  success  More-  off b r i n g i n g  Off c o u r s e ,  the  S.A.,  the  developing  administration;  of  in uniting  sponsorship  a  with  the  means  alone  The  such a s ;  is  special  for  dependent  work  has  comparatively the  the  it  paper.  under  respect  factor  of  That  is  this  k i n d s , and  occasionally  publication of  the  of  of  control  of  school  falls  in  a better  opportunity  a n o t h e r member is  find  found.  a branch  club  activity,  principal  usually  the  developing  reducing  integrating  school  ample  having  for  the  and r e p o r t s  activity  always  A s an  be  again  pupils  reason  as  common s c h o o l  attention  in  discipline.  announcements,,  in  assists  newspaper.  clubs  the  programme  spirit  off b r e a c h e s  school  club  117.  in  of  intellover-  -54seeing  the  financial  an a c t i v e  part.  as. t h e - s c h o o l bilities  and  The  must for  and  r e g a r d e d more  activity  work.  Far  to  the  work  up  the  co-operative  final  among  but  organizations little  real  school:, school  is  all  take  necessary  such  activities  so f a r  the  lia-  for  out  be  the  of  of  demon-  these  points  lessons  point can  as  as  are  for  from ordinary  entirely  which  teachers  for  culminating  conducted  previews  Patrols,  as  organizations only  of  in  something apart  the  regard  to  now  a  school  school  hours,  of  the  class  view,  the  division  decided  o n when  activity  which  drawing  leads  to  and  sim-  presentation.  Safety ilar  this  need  arrangements.  changed  From an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the  the  financial  around  of  in  principal  responsibility  nature  than  centre  the  such c o - c u r r i c u l a r  from being  form a  rotate.  assume  other  in  does  supervision  concerts has  school  they  His  approach  strations  matters  they  corps  affect are  outside  work.  rest  are  the  Junior  the  school  and  Wardens,  and  largely  itself.  activities  now p a r t  Forest  administration  sponsored  extra-curricular  the  of  the  school  directed  by  Such movements  that  parcel  of  of  are the  left  in  regular  are  the  Chapter  RECORDS A F D  Fo affairs of  longer  Is  of  school  the  pupils.  for  It  Without  individual  possible  differences  providing  process.  It  is  knowledge looked be  to  that  placed  the  that  pupils  great  is  fact  charting  But  record. are  and the  and  is  that  separated, into  made  course  of  pupil  the  to  must  greater for  a written  any  new  teaching  principal  able  if  records be  the  fact  of  the  cannot  in  school  Moreover,  information  a  adjustments small  conduct  system  provision  personally  has- l o n g b e e n  which  schools  the  in  b e e n made  for  issues  the  past  that  educational  philosophy.  system the  standardized  an  province.  consequence  at  a  to  use  not  this  be  over-  reliance any  can  reason  record  can  relationships  develop.  Education,  pupil  in  uncertain  pupil  available  This  present  through  advantage.  memory  and  an adequate  suitable  on a w r i t t e n  all may  true  the  principal  carry that  of  a principal  them s u f f i c i e n t  or  each  REPORTS.  for  without  guidance,  knows  VII  end  it  is of  In form,  meet  The  chief  record  the  the  term,  today,  and  by  the  progress however,  years  not  intelligence  The p r i n c i p a l ,  official  fifteen  does  to  recognized  with  the  used  little  more  of  the  standing  of  the  results  of  tests..  than  all has  modern  by  the  of  inevitable,  served  with  achievement  by  change  requirements  academic  requires  card,  the  purpose  together  Department  that.  Some  -56-  record  of  t h e work, h a b i t s ,  sponsibility of  his  Those will the  he h a s  -social factors,  affect record  the  achieved  of  pupil his  of  that  make u p h i s  go  to  moral  any  and  pupil  his  special  social  as  the  of  the  degree  weakness.es  h a b i t s : and  his of  of  or  interests  statement  re-  deficiencies is  individuality  growth are  of  necessary  and  that  as Important  of  his  1  in  scholastic  standing." Such, i n f o r m a t i o n , a  degree  of  detail  confusion rather is  a  clear,  which  is  Attached is  a  school  to  to  of  same l e t t e r  the  maintained record  easily-read,  so  with  great  complicated  results.  and  too  What  is  that  required  easily-tabulated  form  understand.  the  and  deficiencies  if  than understanding  supplementary  local  the  soon makes  concise,  simple  however,  official  form.  in  part  original.  grade  card(plate  III)  there  T h i s , f o r m has; b e e n d e v e l o p e d  remedies the  progress  rating  a  For  least  t h e more  convenience  a s used  in  the  a  apparent  of  other  in  recording sections  is  adopted. Such records wise  the  more, are  to  the be  teacher. 1  2  3  real  must  be  development  p r i n c i p a l , must of  systematically  value  of  the  pupil  ever bear  t h e y must  Records, compiled  the  end  ¥ . C ,  Perce,  P.R.,  F o x , Guy, Basic Principles Systems, and P u p i l R e c o r d s , _To. 7 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 6 , p . 3 6 6 .  and  tt  t t  Further-  that  if  the  be used  to  guide  of  The  Other-  obscured.  i n mind  Mills, J.S., "Classroom Problems," O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 2 , p . 109. Reavis,  is  constantly  at  compiled.  the  term and  School,  Stullkin.,  E.H.,  Vol.  op.  records the  placed 21,  cit.,  l\ o. T  p.  of T e s t i n g Procedures, Grading Educational. Method, V o l . 15, ~  2,  143.  PLATE I I I .  . . . . . .  a  %s a  ••  >»«°T  %oz  „  ..  a  „  a  «  %0Z  .. •  „  %si  „  ,.  %oz  ..  J>»N  «  0 a  spejS in sjidnd 30 % c t Vxafj pspremE — o . »pej3 m sijdnd jo %s doxpspjeMS y • — : S A \ o r j o j EK spgui sq Xeui ?3ofqng m S U I J E ^ :opejr) JOJWI  j"  I  j  INTELLIGENCE TESTS Name of Test Date Score <  s  - Y  6  ACHIEVE] TESTS Name of Test 1Date ' Score j Norm. I  c  ITT 11 i-  £•< 2 W  u  S  1  i  :  IT 1-4  4_±. i  :  1  I  o  fe -p  o  crj 54 -P  o  CD  r-i  No. Pupils in Grade  j 1 |  j  s  Hygiene  it  Drawing Rank in Grade  Nature Music  Geography , History  «S cn u < d  -p  CT5  m  PI  rA fe (EC CO CM  r-t  CD -P  Pi  CQ  Times Late Days Absent Teacher's Initials  |  | Mathematics  Writing  E 0 Q  Grammar Composition  Languages & Lit.  Reading — Oral  Reading — Silent Spelling  Date  SUBJECTS  Grade  1  -P  CD  n a Pi e CD -P eg  K o  CC:  O  ro  CD -P fn  CD •< 2 C ft; tn C ,Po o cc O c cc  -p  CC  -*---'- -  J  . j, •_: : —. . -.— -—. —— •— ' ~o It . ' -'—  ========4=44====="  ;  -  o  :  S !i§S •• tag Oi S o  —  :  I  r  fisK ao <!  ft.  tarn  <J  a °  o  *jfU  ="  =  1. .2 i  =  CD  ..  °  ' :  • - -  —  1  -—-  1  —  fe -  -  -  — -  -  oi  g  d  c -.•  *  ; £  S  O  o  s o « d <w I SA 1 O d  '  : ;  :  <  — ' CO O DO ================ g  —  PROG . Art Music  Typing Shorthand Jun. Business Book-Keeping  Woodwork Metalwork Draughting Electricity  Home Econ.  Gen. Science Chemistry Physics  Latin French  English Soc. Studies Health & Ph. Ed. Mathematics .  SUBJECTS "  o  - — — — —  •  :  -  '  --:  : ———  ——- — — "  : p-  _ ' '! _ _- _- -  "  •. ' ft  •——  •fe.. ' •  H n  o  '  • -  ,  S—  N  ,  —•  _ J_  -  ,- • L  -  ~ ti  •n  o  1  -  „ : °  o - - 4 - - - - - - - J - J  —  . , .  _5  pi  d  ,  "O •g' 5.  |  9  H 0  O  —1 ' F  :  ft  t*4o g d « <! O ^  -a  Ol wH o  !  S  '  1  -  -  '  — - _ -  K p.  C«  ~  —  s i  :' T 3  ; .  a < Bo  u  ._,  O  .  :  '. . ' .  .  ._  : —.  :  o  a  .' ^ .  :— "  — — ——  — —_  ;  -  1  a  :— — •  •  :  ft "  7  o  __ _.  o' ^.  —- — — —  • _ ^  Typing Shorthand Jun. Business Book-Keeping  -=-"=  o  .  \ j  d  •  f  a -  TH  i  - —  ^  Woodwork Metalwork Draughting Electricity  " : : : : : : : : : : : : : - . !  -  s d «  ; !  — --  : — — — —  Geography Home Econ.  &  a o ^5 t& " <j  Gen. Science Chemistry Physics  CO  r  |  •  S i2 c< .  Latin French  -  - -  *  1—  | •1  fe  o  >  —  ^_____-L___^  1  —  — — — — — " I  s  c  :  •  6  o ; : 1*g  f  TJ  -  j  GRADE  1st TERM  |  l — —_ —  6 6  « d a •a C  GRADE  . •  ft  || oi  — — — —fe  C  SUBJECTS  j o  S  ;  •a' r i '  s ft B  •  "o t C ©P-4 K i L — - - . fi  - .i  H  _ _ _  1  J  H — •tJ i oo^  6  o  .-  C t  ft  *d c  oi  <(  I  •  English Soc. Studies Health & PH. Ed. Mathematics  T-l  6  ,  1 t 1 f  w  =  GRADI GRADI  oi  *J O fr*  -  —  -58-  in  the  office  without work  of  being  c i l  collection,  the  principal  may b e the  On t h e Ihen  they  The  specialization this  wider  side  is  the  than  names one  correction, f l u i d is  taining  the  Castle  run  for  next  small  term  part  of  the  is u s e d  to  glue  For  the  the  pupils  class  over two  class  is  wide  machine,  the  the  next  ratings  inches  placed  teacher  suggestion  subject  two  of  problem  of  how  On a m i m e o g r a p h  printing  is  a  out.  the  is a  any degree  t h e members- o f  removed  names- o f  of  records  offers  about  upon, t h e  off.  if  carried  strip,  of  end  a very  such  consider  columns  placed  the  stencil  marks; f o r  must  a  the  intended.  conveniently  left  taining  are  of  until  perform but  is u s e d .  necessary  this  principal  consulted,  f o r 'which  that  the  are  is a  removed  cut  space.  the  and  away. con-  slightly  together, only  cut.  strip,  and  the  sten-  The  and  the  strip  con-  a new one  is  appended. These mimeographed teacher Each  to  teacher  all  columns  are  returned  together the a  to  of  f i l l s to  the  to  the  form  a  achievement  booklet,  easily 1  each  be  built filed  of up in  the  sheets  specialist  in her right  of  her  little  every the  teacher 1  is  time  office  the of  who  in  class.  detaches  staples  which  reports the  the  The n a r r o w e d  immediately  of  home-room  column and  record.  booklet' -  class  by  teachers  particular  home-room  the  sent  ES  are  the  forms  them  record  all of  available. issued,  principal,  Such  can  where  it  is  Castle, L.E., " A s s e m b l i n g Marks, i n a D e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d School")? Elementary School Journal. V o l . 33, Ho. 7, March 1933, p. 537.  -59-  readily  accessible  The given They  tests, that  at  a  activity,  should  At  These,  to  tive  are  Here show  up  by  a  for a  special meetings  records school  conclusion of  the  is  the  platoon  superiority.  are  not  to  be  parents  are  out,  t o make a s  kept  at  obvious is  an  the  school,  that  the  that  co-operation of  the  aid  the is  are  sent  sent  to  most  these  •'•Hill, G . E . , "The Method, V o l . ' 1 & ,  the  the  the  of  than  the  teaching  the to  just  to  or  the  this  before  reliable  records,  the  parent process  method  report  held  of  which  the as  parent. with and  sent  It  the  to  are is  school  just  obtaining is  which  as this  the  • '  1  Report Kb. 3,  can  parent.  reports  effective  through  pupil.  to  important  co-operation  invaluable  obvious  parent  even more  teachers  co-opera-  confined  reports,  Possibly  each  record.  of  and  to  group.  be  information  then  home-room t e a c h e r  must  the  of  each  Such meetings  meetings  possible  are  sent  meeting  Similar  the  in  supplementary  one f u n c t i o n . to  the u n i t  pupils  sheet  special  the  be  time.  the  that  of  should  programme.  The m a r k s  similar  either  co-operative  the  desired  at  is  their  readily  the  the  it  disrupt the  ratings  built,  these  summarized.  term,  the  for  attainment  once  very  These  of  at  plans,  of  to at  and  each  need.  basis  recording  purpose.  called  captain  record  collect  group  the  likely  recorded  however,  that  of  administered  be  for  form  least  the  least  teacher  be  be  and  available  for  time  should  unit  in. c a s e  Card i n Present Becember, 1935,  Practice", p. 116.  Educational  -60-  Such reports, strengths and as  then must  and weaknesses  a'member  the  need  for  may  improve  of  s.ome  the  parent  today,  the  these  of the  pupil,  various with  a  relation  rest  of  the  interest  gauged  on  reports  Programme  of  manner  bring  off  the  that In  the  of  pupil  this  item  alone.  fail  them more  to  meet  principal into  of  the  use  of  effort  letter  the  compe-  pupil  is  report  the is  requirements  m u s t mod i f y  in  primarily  greater  ranking  the  in  essentially  rank  and  that  The  the This  parents  to  consist  class.  most  form Based  spur  which are  for  today  a  reports  statement  Studies.  rapid  rise  in  off  this  teachers  the m a j o r i t y  such  report  technique  •'•Upjohn,  of  circumstances  stereotyped old  how t h e  is  them  in  chief  fre-  of  the  in  some  harmony w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e  ideas  education.  The of  report  subjects  titive-together  to  official  the  important  facilitate  as  the  Such  to  parent  individual  to  may h e l p  marks  part  quently  an  as  features.  on  of  report  theae  of  centre  the  even more  of  conception  to  both as  none  limited  in  the  to  1  Columbia has  ratings  pupil  in  on t h e the  clearly  Possibly  suggestion  ITnforinnately, British  of  society.  and how t h e  improvement.  portray  H.S.,  of  the  level  of  professional  qualifications  province  in  recent  indicates  the  teaching  there  form  is  studying  staff  appears any more  from a  "A Few Type  Grades", Elementary School P« 730 « . • • • • • •  of  no  yeara  are mentally real  r e a s o n why a.  necessary  single  alert.  today  text-book.  than A  Report  Card  for  the  Journal,  Vol.  35,  F0.10,  the  letter  Elementary June,1935,  -61-  to  the  parent,  of  teacher  giving  to  Three problem  the  to  likely  cult  and h i s By  at  convince only  the  then a  This over  and  start  type  of  and above  its  the  contact the  by  of  he,made  report  present  however,  staff  the  the the in  has  authorities,  order  logical  hardly  from  a more the  the could  of  the  should  reform* letter  for  principal the  point.  desirable staff  be  the  able  to  Then;>and  a  is  diffi-  principal  starting  writing  That  is  letter  w i t h more  for  the  the  immediate  it  such a  off  things.  opposition  between  principal  flexibility.  of  a  the  reaction  present  at ten t i o n  need  report  form..  existing  the  in..  such a  the  that  far  through h i s  possibly,  experimenting, to  filled  of  with  D i e d e r i c k , p.B . , " E v a l u a t i o n R e c o r d s " , V o l . 1 5 , No. 8, May, 1936, p. 436. 1  a manner  results  things  superintendent,  meet  Quite  reports.,  teachers,  in  and  working  local will  to  bringing of  those  established  is  parents,  close  discussion,  purpose  he  or  supplement  methods; and by prime  that  the  staff,  on t h e  of  educational  his,  from  teachers, makes  group  a pupil  introduction  of  Victoria.  The  of  the  principal  teachers  task.  the  inspector  as a  The  change  the  baaed  f o r m w h i c h has; b e e n  teachers-  always  the  that  sent  a  report  e x p l a i n many  life  principal,  any  authorities be  school of  the  Provided superior,  can  f a c t o r s , make  of  parents  the  that  to  attitude  informal  conferences,  go, t o m a k e u p superior  an  report.  one  1  advantage  careful  consid-  E d u c a t i o n a l Method, ~ :  -62eration  tha.t must  written.  The  be  given, to  teacher  in. a  small  percentage  very  dull,  is  be  in  that  knowledge all  group is  pupils  and. p u p i l  there  of  the  be  whose  before  soon  the  very  bright  The m a j o r i t y  result,  necessary,  study  report  is  that  only  of  and  the  little  a more  a  the  Indicate  characteristics  As. a  found  will  class,  much known.  about  class  will  exact  intensive of  the  value  study  to  of  teacher  alike.  The. p a r e n t s report  been  garded  as  a  present  almost  principal  must of  a different  tabulation  meddled w i t h by  adoption  conferences  available.  will  each p u p i l  of  a divine the  set  marks  about,  that  measuring  blundering to  in  it  has  stick,  So  long  come  to  and  experimenters.  change,  a new p r o c e d u r e  problem.  one  for^ u n l e s s  reporting  will  he be  be  not  This  1  has  the  re-  to  view  be the  succeds^his neither  2 successful To the  nor  create  principal  .possible  popular. a different must  conduct  means must  be  and. s c h o o l  mimeographed  pamphlets  parents type,  reports,  and  every  be made.  formation consider  of the  the  school  organizations  as  the  Parent-Teachers'  ^IXlls,  p  ^Harris.,  features  J.S., P.B.,  op. op.  of  cit., cit.,  a p. p*  and  the  of  possible  the  part  of  definite<campaign.  developing  to  on  use  are  the  must  the  teachers  a  utilized;  tween p a r e n t  underlying  outlook  fundamental discussion relative  local, papers,  343.  :  contact  circulation  be-  of  philosophy  groups  of  merits  of  and  such  Association,  campaign w h i c h must 109.  parents,  Every  available The  the  be  of  all  each  these  inaugurated  -63to  "bring  the  the  necessity  off" a c h a n g e  in  reports  firmly  before  parents. for  some  retained report  hut  is  time, as  the  intended  gradually  of  for,  form w i l l  of  exactly  what  realize  the  letter  such as  discontinued.  essential  to  the  who- u n d e r s t a n d  A copy retained  report  parents  the  letter-gradings be  old  need f o r  the  necessity  report  he  the  letter  blank  will  disappear-.  The u s e  must  the  of  by  the  constitute a  suggested "These a r e  teacher,  their  all  reports  uses  permanent  in  they  and  their  sent  the  will  to  mean  that  discussion continue  be  seen  all  of  records  to  only  be by  those  limitations.  the  parents  Carbon, c o p i e s  record  not  and w i l l  but  letters  school.  does  are  must  easily sent  also  made  of  the  reports  to  enhance  the  value  of  visits  continue  if  the  be  and  each  parent. These to  the  letters  school.  eration  so  reports..,  to  school,  them. to  Such v i s i t s  necessary.to  letter the  far  consult  desire  -  This question  with just  the  by in  the what  welfare  discussion of  must  both  pupil  from reducing  will  The. p a r e n t ,  determine  will  their reply  is  his  the  personal to  teacher,  and  the  coming  share  in  and h a p p i n e s s  .of  stenographic  records  and  assistance  teacher number nature,  letter, will to  her  in  promoting of  the  parents  close  is  of  of  to  continue,  such  tend  co-op-  visits  to  increase  be more an  likely  effort  that  to  which  both  pupil.  reports  brings  for  principal.  the  up  the It  is  64-  generally  conceded  that  it  principal  to  time  doing  he  done  school  just  spend as  systems  services  of  time  energy  and  is  efficiently several  such an of  ographer  employed  services  are  has  doubly  economy t o  routine  by  schools  employee the  poor  a in  office  the  district  consequent  principals  concerned.  had  valuable.  training  as. a  the  work w h i c h  stenographer.  with  also  compel  In  some  share  saving If  could  the  teacher  the of  the  stenher  Chapter  VIII  PROMOTION  Just Studies  as is  reports,  the  forcing  so  considering phasize  philosophy  has- b r o u g h t  his  promotion the  and  spiritually  Por  the  greatest  in  which he  This  environment  can is  to  to  his  policy.  as  most  not  only  his  records  the  need  policy  of  and  for  must  re-  em-  academically  p u p i l , must  wholesome  likely  new Programme  but  1  the  establish  revise  How h i s  well.  growth,  the  attention  individual,  socially  ment  advanced by  the, p r i n c i p a l  it  growth, o f  POLICY.  to  be  have  social  found  an  environ-  relationships.  among  fellow  p pupils  who a r e  therefore, This  his  remain  entails,  physical with  the  generally,  and  social  same g r o u p  his  steady  peers-. if  at  advance  He  all  must,  possible.  through  the  school. The fluence  acceptance the  overboard policy  being  with his  Programme  such a p r i n c i p l e policy  of  outmoded n o t i o n based  work.  peers  excessive 1  promotion  the  scholastic  of  by  on an  the  of  avoiding  seriously  principal.  an. e f f e c t i v e  inflexible  Instead  must  he must either  passing  endeavour  He m u s t  unnecessary  throw  promotion  standard to  in-  keep  of the  failure  pupil  or  acceleration. of  Studies,  Bulletin  I,  p.  7.  2 O t t o , H.J".,. P r o m o t i o n . P o l i c i e s and P r a c t i c e s , i n E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s , E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t B u r e a u , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1 9 3 5 , p . 126 -65-  Otto term,  suggests  "school  acceleration onstrated fitted  calendar for  grade", and  that  into  the  dull  growth  of  the  to  the  still  1  Only  a  next  grade  not  very  yet  of  the  principles  of  Research has  adequately  dem-  is  of  abolition the  c o n t i n u o u s , and  discontinuous,,  are  the  discard  children  The b r i g h t  are  involves  retardation.  intervals.  term.  this  and  periodic,  promotion  school  that  and  small at  ready  exact  some  time  for  the  he  defined  percentage  the  prepared  sharply  cannot  end  can of  he  the  before, work  ready  while  off  the  next  term. The grading  suggested  requirements  of  the  of  grades  problem.  attitude the  present  of  the  only  In  of  can  the  only  must  that, he  consider  the  also  connection his  failure.  Since  to  This  discourage  is the  H.J".,  op.  cit.,  in  to  the  however,  of  his  In  bring  every  first  or  p.  167.  to  abolition  as  that  staff,  is  not  the  time  promotion  possible. and h i s  other  of at  being, the  policy This  growth,  renot  respect.  question  uae  The  as well  a p r o b l e m w h i c h must pupil  this  Columbia.  For  his as  great  solution  the meantime,  individual in  predetermined  adequate  British  ideal  :  Otto,  time,  found.  endeavour  but  only  authorities,  be  to  knowledge  the  and  such a p o l i c y .  aa close  this  be  teachers  school  in  definite  present  toward  solution  pupil  1  the  to  educational  favorable  other  quires  the  seems  of  seems* p o s s i b l e  majority  principal for  At  hardly  great  some  abolition  be  failure  is  that  of  attacked as  a  at  form  once.  -67-  of  retribution  principal  i s . no  longer  pedagogically  must  be  careful  is  practically  no  literature  in  education,  yet  to  failure  avoid on  any  the  acceptable,  such p r a c t i c e .  value  continues  the  to  of  There  1  pupil-retardation  color  the  outlook  of 2  many p r i n c i p a l s If  who  adequate  seem to  provision  regard has  it  it  is  difficult  to  which  based  primarily  on n e g l e c t  variations are  in. p u p i l s .  recognized  unnecessary.  and It  to  train  tests  in  the  and  weaknesses the  parts  them.  are of  If  discovered, pupil  is  The p u p i l  will  t h e n be  possible,  skill  in  the  not  can  for,  of  in  the  remedial  co-operative and  parent  care  these  the  of  among  duty  of  pupils becomes  of  the  diagnostic  procedures. corrective  handled,  achieve  failure,  failure  will  tend  there best  developing,  "to  as  fundamental  processes  diff-  justify  the  use  evil.  individual  existing  undoubtedly  properly  f e w who w i l l  for  take  provided  teachers  application  teacher,  to  differences  therefore his  such work  paratively  s e e how o n e  adequately  is  principal  If  a necessary  b e e n made  erences, is  as  high in  work  to  will  of  If  eliminate be  their a  com? 3 ability.  degree all  on  as  school  4 subjects." in  the  Seldom  theory  at  least,  failure  becomes  can. t r i a l  is  a  pupil  promotions who  is  be  promoted  justified on  trial  any more demoted  readily. at  the  end  Marshall, H.C., " T r i a l P r o m o t i o n - An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e v i c e f o r t h e Improvement o f l e a r n i n g " , E d u c a t i o n a l Administration and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . 2 0 , p. 3 7 3 .  2 3  unknown  school.  For  1  In  Otto,  H.J\,  ibid,  p.  ^ Programme  op.  cit.,  p.  152.  143. of  Studies,  Bulletin  I.,  p.  13.  -68-  of  the  trial  viewed  admitted  teachers were  period.  in his  never  and  Otto  study  affirmed  at  disadvantage  for  experiments  of  this,  back."  placed  spite  "but  sent  not  is; g r e a t e r  All  a  the  These  L  show t h a t  than  that  of  increased  one  of  the  reports that  that  pupils  promoted as  their  those  a  cent  promoted  on  consequence  who a r e of  in  of  of  of  then  justification  the  school,  him:" t o  repeat  The until  there the  work  of  recently  very  favorably  for  the  opinion  opposed  to  children  are  ality.  Much c a r e ,  Though work  through  in  H.J*,  carefully  would  of  is  on  child  the  next  it  cit.,  p.  however,  workers, that  pupils  are  provided  side  of  it  making  there  little  Educators  every  off  Is  was  is  a  gained  not that  their  those  person**  doubtful  has  usually  the mental is  ability  advisable  to  if  to  do  refrain  104  2Department of S u p e r i n t e n d e n c e , H . E . A . , n i n t h Year Book, U n i f y i n g E a c t o r s in. A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n , 1931, p . 78. 3  is  acceleration.^  accelerated  op.  late,  needed, f o r  the  grade,  term. .  a means  Of  aim  forcing  as  superior  by  for  regarded  studied  profit  the  acceleration,  school.  however,  is  of  pupil.  in  Since  that  among e d u c a t i o n a l  acceleration  cent  previous  promotion,  bright  by h u r r y i n g - c h i l d r e n  -'-Otto,  the  side  growing  the  of  little  other  provision  10 p e r  is  pupil  advanced,  was  new w o r k .  development  are  achievement This  t h e maximum e d u c a t i o n a l  the  trial  being  general  the  of  moreover,  retarded. the  inter-  70 p e r  pupils,  growth  difficulty  principals  Pive  Witty, P.A., and Y / i l k i n s , E . W . , "The S t a t u s of A c c e l e r a t i o n o r G r a d e S k i p p i n g a s an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e v i c e " , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n , V o l . 1 9 , Ho. 5, May,- 1933, p. 3 4 5 . ;  ^ U n z i c k e r , S . P . - , ""A S t u d y S c h o o l " , School Review,  of A c c e l e r a t i o n V o l . 1 1 , H o . 5,  i n the Jnftior May,; 1932, p .  High 356.  -69from a c c e l e r a t i n g lacks him  the  social  to-get  The  his  all  progress,  and p h y s i c a l  he  should  principal  also  faces  his  promotions  "ideal  time  for  the  ready  for  present, to  and  annual  the  or  of  annual  present  promotions  administrator  For  the  easily  duced the  teacher,  increase  which, t h e y into  in  were  larger  conditions, as greater of  the  degree class  tudes; and rather  by  two  the  is  of  op.  cit.,  1  course, be  be  how  the  when h e  is  instituted  limited  education,  at  largely  advantages  the  semi-annual.  classes  are  easier  classes  possible upset  year  work  can intro-  practice the  end  organized  semi-annual  promotion  achieved according the  Again  by to  the  division  the  individual  promotions.  It  is  but  the  point  2T.E.A.,  op.  cit.  a  aptisubjects,  true has  that already  p.. 152.  Superintendence,  for  c a n be  eliminated.  for  difficult  actual  For  organize,  were  has defeated the  c a n be  pupils  classes  in  under  Is  to  differences  provision,  of  the  of  Moreover,  accident  "''Otto,  of  of  the  becomes: m o r e  "Department  on  or more g r o u p s  acceleration H.J.,  choice  enable  deciding  would  however,  his  of Of  Individual  this  homogeneity  abilities  than  for  mid-year  into  a pupil  those  year"  number  than  of  be made.  outlook  intended.  the  of  to  experiences.  necessity  Though the h a l f  t o make  units  necessary  to  outweigh  "whole  the  so  finds  provision  originally  maturity  school  probability,  promotions.  day  be made.  all  cannot,  principal  the  more  policy  semi-annual  From the  in  the  are  promotion  That  he,  from h i s  frequently  it.  as  p.  71-72.  -70-  b e e n made  that  To keep the  the  principal  ports,  this  points  as of  when, t h e should  set  the  procedure  are  the  the  that  class  so  a  pupil  system,  teacher  For  the  great  and  so  as  materials, of  sympathetic  some  both for  pupils.  Seldom w i l l  be  carrying  on an a c t i v i t y  that to  the  information  to  need  the  to  of  no  of  this  defence.  the  time  consider  find  among  teachers  or  has  the  staff* of  modify come  for  ways  and  means  for  the  slow-  and  principal  his  seriousness  enrich  superior  the  Similarly,  co-operation  effort  groups  the  his: promotion p o l i c y ,  recognize  indicates  study  provision  of  re-  former  advantages  as  possible  regarding  this  the  as  written  each p u p i l . ^  apparent  teachers  of  from the  possible  pupil  operation  a n d h a v e made  preferably  high, s c h o o l ,  him.  the  as; c o n t i n u o u s ,  can. g e t  information  so many  organization  of making  up  successful  problem,  their  the  graduates, to  p r i n c i p a l must have  the  desirable.  s t r e n g t h , and weakness, o f  accompany  The f a c t  of  next  complete  pupil  For  seldom  growth  must  whereby  teacher  Is  such an  opportunity  that  is  so  for  pur-  posive. In  this  promotion  study,  should  possibilities ing  of  by  cussion.  Only  •*-Otto, H . J . , ibid,  the  p.  op. 138.  details  developed.  diagnostic  instructional  conducted  2  be  the  and  adjustment teachers  by  the  cit.,  2  of  remedial  116  work  be made.  form  sympathetic p.  policy  A thorough canvass  should  should  a clear-cut  and  the  and  of  of the  correspond-  Experiments  basis  of  wholehearted  the  dis-  cooperation.  -71-  of  the  its  entire  staff  can any  principal  test  of  will  the  be  the  success  of  the  degree  in  which  educational  growth  of  the  the  number  to  be  largest 1  Above  all,  administration to  policy  he  realized  in  entirety.  The  ed.  promotion  the  •1 Otto,  growth  H.J.,  or  the  pupils,  it  provides  a n d makes; i t  emotionally  principal  organization  must  socially  see  that  of  the  school  and d e v e l o p m e n t  of  the  children  op.  cit.,  p.  125.  for  the  the  possible  and  supervision  drawn b y  for  well-adjust-  nothing  creates under  in  his  obstacles his  care.  CHAPTER  GENERAL PHILOSOPHY  In  the  outline his  some  task  purely  preceding  of  of  the  'administrative must, be  ation  order  and  those matters attitude  the  and  to  provement  In  all  of  the  only  can  the  school  are of  by  be  effectively  supervisory, the  the  thus  this  principal  principal  Is  in  in.  school.  for  of  still of  is  the  to  of of  to  take  inspection evaluate  the  organiz-  achieved.  In  authoritarian not  his  desirable.  supervision  time  available  in  teacher  his  lot,  they  can  no  for  ability  examination the  supervision.  His  growth  of  through  his  furthering  is the  of  the real teachers  self-criticism  In b r i e f » " s u p e r v i s i o n  guidance  of  standing take  of  no  aspect.  longer  professional  them the  self-reliance.  teachers,  statistically  to  the  on a much b r o a d e r  of  fall  promote  encourage  attitude  his  to  principal  recognized,  today must  testing  part  function  administering  the  authority  part  duties  classes  great  confront  b e e n made  accepted.''"  previews, the  and  has  paramount  which  Supervision while  attempt  the  Teacher-domination be  an  matters  of  on the  OP.SUPERVISION.  problems which  organizing  principal  longer  chapters  IX  and  the  the  im-.  contin-  2 uous 1  growing  of  the  teacher.*  R e a v i s , W . C , P i e r c e , P . R . , and S t u l l k e n , t a r y S c h o o l , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ,  E.H., 1931,  The E l e m e n p. 277.  p C o l l i n g s , E . , School Supervision C r o w e l l , New Y o r k , 1 9 2 7 , p . 1 0 7 . -72-  in  Theory  and  Practice,  -73-  T h l s ; growth, depends guidance a  of  the  training  principal.  institution  t h e members  largely  "He m u s t  for  of  his  s t a f f . "^  Logically  the  teacher  principal  to  accept  relations  to  her  should  be  purposive.  longer  calls  the  dceg  to h i s  as  development  of  this  obedience  expect  the  philosophy  pupils,  from  and  school  right to  educational  unquestioned  his  professional  Approached  effort  Inspiration  organize  has- e v e r y  same  a s he  for  co-operative  the  on t h e  to  i n w h i c h both, t e a c h e r  that  in  all  angle,  his  learning  her  orders,  work  but  and p r i n c i p a l  no  for must  2 play  their  parts.  these  In  assistance better the  circumstances  from  the  technique  ship  of  the  principal,  and  work d o n e .  the  a  clearer  There  principal  is  no  than  teacher  expecting conception  truer  the  welcomes to  acquire  of  the  c r i t e r i o n , of  extent  of  and a s k s  his  for  both  value the  of  leaders  positive  in-  4 fluence  on  provide  such  the as  he must  endeavour  teacher  an  individual  as  of  exert  lie  his his  before  and  teachers. utmost  him,  treating  To  efforts;.  dealing  the  with  teaching  staff  unit.  ^Reavis,  growth  W*G., G.R.,  Mifflin, ibid.  influence  growth  of  The  3  professional  Two f i e l d s  a  ^Stone,  the  of  Pierce,  individual  P.R.,and  Supervision  Cambridge, p.  the  1929,  of p.  teacher  Stullken,  is  E.E*  the Elementary  most op.  School,  easily  cit.,  p.  36.  Houghton-  55.  59.  ^'lamDfiSge* ' l ^ 8  S u  j?  e r Y  j; ^ s  0 Q  °^ I n s t r u c t i o n ,  Houghton-Mifflin,  -74-  The  growth  of  the  actual  principal  must  give  every  joint  task  of  their  lesson ments  and of  the  duced the may  by  basic  result.  school  teacher, the  act  as  though  not  must the  •school. and  of  school  at  the  every  into for  3 Stone,  p.  the  the  to  the  them,  Here  the  Hew  reading best,  of  the  treat**  may  be  however,  teacher  the  teacher,  organization  procedure.  are  easily  classroom.  special  and u n l e s s  classroom  provide must of  under  the  expense  intro-  understands  harm r a t h e r  than  research,  all  and  common f a c t o r he must  in  benefit  clearer Pierce,  in  that  focus P.R.,  op.  cit.,  p.  the  tie  guidance  desirable  the of  but  the  principal agency  of  every  that  binds  There  must  of  his  child the  entire  is  no  adequate  new Programme  of  Studies  this  is  kinds  awakening  direct  work  unity.  and  2.  that  the  in  pupil.  the  a well-balanced principal  is  in  integrating  be  339.  C.R.,  the  i n mind  aids  the  teacher of  correlating  requirement  and  valuable  be  be borne  the  into  R e a v i s , W.G-. , p. 166. ibid,  the  teacher,  A further brought  both  and m a t e r i a l s  Growth  ever  As  substitute  has  in  these  chief  work  the  most  1  principal.  It  is  assistance  teaching  underlying  activities  certainly  of  stages,  principles  in  possible  suggested,  Hew m e t h o d s gradual  teacher  done  improving  may b e  Experiments of  teaching  technique  topics  assigned.  2  individual  gauged by  in  1  the  capacity.  the  necessity  Stullken,  off  E.H.,  establishop.  cit.,  -75Ing- some p r o c e d u r e work For  of  these  work, in  the  in  teachers  he must  procedure  The worth  of  tarded  is  the  a great  necessarily,  secret  of  his  one a s  existence  of  least  teacher.  This without should  the be  teacher form,  blank  if  may b e  assistance  an  kept  effort at  source  of  should  b e made b y  technique,  in  Such  a  understanding  Such an  a  of  report  such as  be  can  a  reknown.  shown, o n  in  secret  obtain  be  were  is  departure  not  teacher  evaluation-  growth might  blank,  need  periodically  considering record  some  but  idea  of  weaknesses."*"  considered  in  planning  weaknesses.  evaluate  staff.  a point  This  a means whereby  s t r e n g t h s : and  in  teaching  an u n f a v o r a b l e  at  a  must  teacher  I V . affords of  specialists.  co-operation  increase  the  teacher.  evaluation  work  supervise  subject  diagnosing  an  rather  her  a  In  of  can  desirable  In addition., Plate the  if  in  e a c h member  preferably  become  scheme  and  and  principal,  a  principal  t h e most  result  betvireen p r i n c i p a l  is  adopt  results,  will  the  who h a v e  establishing  evaluating  the  whereby  all,  suggestions the  filled  out  of  teacher.  the  by  co-operatively to  solve  should for  the be  the  by  various principal  teaching  problems.  left  to  The  with  the  with  improvement  principal  principal  use  in it  the  points  teacher  technique. to  rate  or  the  and  the  The as Ho  a effort  teacher.  Rice, G.A., Conrad, C . C , and F l e m i n g , P . , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P u b l i c High Schools Through flheir Personnel, Macrnillan, F e w Y o r k , 1.933, p. 102.  PLATE  Teacher  .  .  Lesson  r  •  :_  (a)  Selection  (h)  Preparation  (c)  Evidences  (d)  Opportunities  (e)  Relation  (f)  Provision  (g)  Subject  Course  17.  of  of  items  or  action  study.  of m a t e r i a l s  of  of  of  Date  of  lesson.  integration.  for  pupil  study  for  to  environment.  individual  skill  mastery  decided  initiative.  upon.  differences.  of  teacher.  - 7 6 -  The  other  through, the  staff  accustomed  to  principal,  a  of  of  the  the  as  staff,  c h a n n e l s most  likely  be  individual  that  the  critical  every  of  to  develop  desires  to  teachers under  natural  conditions  broadening  the  Particularly discussed  Just  as  differences must mould  b e made all  insight  is  and  can be  this  of  true  of the if  leading  great  to  more  into The  literature,  in his  of  of  members  all.  all  in  tend  staff.  by  regular definite  deepening  the  to  attitude  illustrating  teachers  and  to  scientific  value  scheme  experiments,  lessons  and  their  a  discussion,  current  promote  been  self-reliance  benefit  the  demonstration  technique  from  authorities,  planned  of  the  personal  educational  and  principal  of  the  is:  long  can. d r o p more  of  Carefully  points  As  greatest  teachers  has  substituting  guide  evaluation  recognized  interest  him in  to  staff  above,  instructions  principal  content  reports  arouse  the  to  suggested  activity.  and b e i n g  and  by  of  l e a v i n g much o f  discussion  addresses  confronts  increases,  as  "Where t h e  acceptance  and p u r p o s i v e  background,  by  supervisions  a whole.  new t a s k  teachers  into  of  passive  motivated  his  line  teaching  such demonstrations  are  and process.  later  evaluated.  careful of in  c o n s i d e r a t i o n must  pupils,  so  provision  dealing with  teachers  into  the  for  be  these  teachers.  a preconceived  given  to  same Any  pattern  is  individual variations  effort  to  foredoomed  D o u g l a s s , H . R . , and Boardman, C . ¥ « , S u p e r v i s i o n i n S e c o n d a r y Schools;, Hought o n - M f f l i n , Cambridge, 1934, p. 462.  -77-  to  failure,  which.' i t  for  Its  seeming  is: i n t e n d e d  -  must . d i a g n o s e  the  likes,  of  teachers  of h i s  pupils,  a most  harmonious  his  Both  the  in  teacher  is  suited  to  and  advancement. is  teachers  are  have the  little platoon  finds  her  being so time and  The  growth  for  special  general  for  for  her  knowledge.  In  for  his  dis-  does  those  school  into  unit.  group  the  great  that  today, the  a  on  with  plans  strengths  of  lend of  difficulty.  sphere  of  extra  each  Each  activity  most  technique  of and  felt  they  courses the  that Many  seem  work.  however,  has  to Under  the  gone.  teacher She  undesirable  brought  particularly be  supervisor»in  and  professional  teachers*  on t h e i r  II  over-  eliminated.  centres  can h a r d l y  Chapter  in  that  plans,  variety studies  body  b y many  studies  group  in  interviewed  reflection  supervisors,  Such a  line  largely  larger  principal  approach  great  is  indicated  teaching  this  quiet  few main time  as  principals  cooperative  crowding  the  work  the  done  busy  in a  where  to  as  and  than he  co-operative  without  shown b y  Two o f  specializes  need  the  working  ends  principal  likes  organize  such p r o v i s i o n  Columbia is  need  of  and  The  the  carefully  the  temperament.  interest  too; m u c h  defeat  teaching.  h e may  effective  to  able  In. B r i t i s h great  that  capitalized  then her  e v e n more  order  themselves: r e a d i l y can he  successful  will  s t r e n g t h and weakness:,  platoon  teacher  success  of  expected addition the  into  being  in  those  to  possess  to  fields  directing  individual  the  expert the  teacher,  -78-  also  sets  limits  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s : and those'given teacher in  by  finds  what  pupils  than  of  principal  the  school It  is  have  subject.  with  the  an untenable  obvious  special  supervisor.  the  then q u i t e  the  that  with  the  and  of  the  principal  the  entire  Moreover,  responsibility  unity  logical  conflict  position,  that  perspective  and  result  his  at  a  loss  to^ p u r s u e .  quite  rests  Obviously  occasionally  a better  the  life  in  policy  is. however, to  that  principal,  herself  likely  for  s u g g e s t i o n s must  the  determining  It  aims  of to  the  whole  expect  for  that  his  work  on t h e the  course  Is, m o r e  of  of  the  shoulders  entire studies.^  views  should  have  o  precedence The advisor  off  those  function and  carrying  his  the  principal, supervisor,  conflict  as  one  must  be  a  special  supervisor to  for  recognizing will  the  the  policies.  plans  off a n y the  of  assistant  out  formulate  of  be of  the  to  principal  subject. special  guided  responsible  is  Working  the  ideas,  supervisor. act in  as  In a l l  probability  qualifications,  however,  the wishes  entire  and  cooperatively, these  suggestions.  the  expert  developing  by h i s  for  an  work  of  In of  of  the  event principal  school,  paramount.  ^ Rice, G.A., p. 164.  Pierce,  P.R.,  and  Stullken,  E.H.,  op.  cit.,  2 Douglas,  H.R.,  and Boardman,  C  ,  op.  cit.,  3  p.  53  " Pierce, P.R., The O r i g i n and Development School P r i n c i p a l s h i p , p. 120.  of  the  the  the  the the  two  Public  -79The of  right  method  co-operation  of  between  m e t h o d may p r o d u c e  Consequently  spirit  required  co-operation and  teacher  will  interferes, but  by be  the  nonetheless  lacking,  by h i s  on t h e  degree  if  friction  If he  his  will  reduce  of he  is  up a the  of  the  professional is  too  wanting  develop;  if  generally  domineering in  will  his  spirit  wrong  part  school  teachers,  will  build  principal}  principal.  is  present,  will  attitude  impossible;  too much,  criticism  and  the highest  initiative  he I n t e r f e r e s  teacher  a negative  teacher. is  supervision  force  drift. he  If  never  unspoken  possibilities  of  leadership."^ .There problems  exists  of  the  no  set  formula  principal.  upon  them depends  pal,  the  principal  the to  Yet  value his  of  to  solve  sound the  school,  the  solutions  teachers and  supervisory  the  to  are  vital, for  their  princi-  school  to  its  community.  1  •• Rice,  G..A.,  Conrad,  C . C ,  and F l e m i n g ,  P.,  op.  cit.,  p.  183.  CHAPTER: x THE PRINCIPAL  Possibly as  great  a degree  , guidance  As  tio p h a s e  of  his.  c a n be  of  a  faulty  will  of  be  become  readily  the  main, end  directing  and  of  standardized  tests  governing  are  Here  useless,  such  school  obtains  science either  is  if of  for  of  worse  his  are in  study  and  results exert  his  of  is  undone  measure, by  the  the  Education  allowed  materials types,  use,  to  the  for  with  the  administration  very  since  But  different,  Influence, scores  Bureau, o f  of  instruct-  specific.  an altogether  unless  to  and  rests  burdensome,  K i l p a . t r i c k , W« H.-, U n i t e d S t a t e s U.E«A>, 1927, p t . 2, p. 140.  the  teaching.  test  to  be  school.  tests  or  utmost  can  great  that  their  than useless,  as  for  developing  determined  generally is  calls  part  in  school  informal  in  seldom v e r y  work  In a  supplying  are  principal  programme.  passing  teachers  tests  he must or  a  the  in his  f u n c t i o n , in. r e g a r d  interpretation  matter.  of  TESTING.  w i s d o m : on. h i s  examinations.  training His  of  much of  standardised  principal.  TO  testing  education  responsibility both  the  of  examining which  teachers,  ions  on a  seen,  objectives  a perverted  The  the work  professional  system of  educational system  of  teachers  a modern p h i l o s o p h y by  IW R E L A T I O N  for  tests  are  Publications,  2 R e a v i s , TSf.C, p. 326.  Pierce,  PrR.,  and  Stullken,  E.H.,  op.  cit.,  D o u g l a s , K . L . . , a n d B o a r d m a n , C I . , o p . c i t . , " p . 372« D i c k s o n , Y . E . . (Mental .Tests and • t h e C l a s s r o o m Teacher', I f o f l a "Book, F e w - Y o r k , 1 9 2 3 , p . 218'. " 4  -80-  -81properly  interpreted.-'-  .Shortly  after  the  standardized mental the by  elementary a  teacher  test the  will  school  indicate  child.  kept  in  the  qualified general an  and  the  well  for  as  in  and  their  giving  limits I  is  Moreover,  the  of  of  the  the  intelligence  p.  teacher  of  group of  course,  e r r o r must  in  level  degree  Pierce, op.  to  of  cit.,  a  be  ever  individual  the  p«  class  principal  pupil  serve is  is  Stullken,  E.H.,  the pupils.  in  very  relation  teacher  in  the  as  an  reaching found  both  serves  and  considered  frequently  of  test  of  in  nature,  a record  the p u p l l ^ c a n  and  pupil.4  similar  of  their  indication  achievement  the  the  have  some  the  have  results,  which  P.vR.,  of  level  to  Here  5  of  considering  the  individual  W.C.,  age  standardized of  tests  teacher  should  stimulating  ability.  the  tests  one  light in-  the of  op.cit.,  p.  168.  88.  206.  Symonds, P . M . , M e n t a l Hygiene N e w Y o r k , 1934, p. 193. Dickson,  of  Intelligence  other  the  his  ^Dickson, . V.E..,  5  of  probability  give  guidance  intelligence  Reavis, lb id,  all  a picture  This  dication  administered  level  must,  a  in  though a  and m e n t a l  norm.  This  so,  level  in  school  do  intelligence as  the  individually  interpretation  the  into  to  to  alike.  5  administered.^  preferably  though group  In a d d i t i o n ,  of  he  serve  results,  to  a pupil  they  principal  well  of  mind.3  .weaknesses,  this  the  avoided  should  is  Too l i t e r a l  Similarly,  the  test  especially  scrupulously be  entrance  V.E.,  op.  cit.,  p.  and  197.  the  School Child,  Macmillan,  -82the  first  remedial  indications  standardized teacher  then, for  the  the  successful tests  who  is  school,  maladjustment  handling  both kinds  specially should  a member  and  special,  training  trained,  of  principal  thetic,  or  pupil  and  of  need  for  action.  T h e most,  a  of  would  in  reduce  interpretation  would p r o v i d e  the  of  for  undoubtedly in  select,  as a  his  field..  taken  Such a  tests.  staff  At  expert  specialist  alert,  or w i l l  teacher,  a minimum the  these  is  danger the  leadership  sympatake  properly  of  same  by  Naturally  1  testing who  of  achieved  such, w o r k .  staff,  a n d who h a s  to  the  is  interpretation  trained  of  intelligent,  and  improper  time, in  the  use  he work  of  measurement.  One types  important  can be  from another rate  put  is  siderable  ly for  of  which of  Such  and  at  testing testing  the  same  degree  pupils  in  of  such  of  homogeneity  groups  uniform produces  a  tests  a pupil enables  time  1 - ,. ~~~ Douglass, H..R., 2. p. p.  379. 379.  also of  where the  learning  individual, differences  ibid, 3ibid,  standardized  tests, of newly  the  gives  both  transferred  principal  some  to  indication  possibilities.^  The r e s u l t s  tion  to  that  school.  him. p r o p e r l y  of .his  use  C.W.,  in  obtaining  a  con-  groupings.  Reclassified^  achievement  level  situation  can. most  and Boardman,  assist  in  easily op.  which be  cit.,  fair-  provision  made.3 p.  is  380  -83It must ly  Is, i n  exert  by  all  guide  his  them to  the  For  thing  teachers.  certain  example,  of  For  quite  throughout  embark  principles  to  from  To b e m o s t  that  These  are  year  all  be  tests  and  are  his  staff  campaign, to marking,  allow the  testing  teaching  effective,  to  extensive-  principal based  and  them t o of  regarded  activities  t e s t i n g must  on. s o u n d  diagnostic  evaluation be  must  understands  encourage  and  principal  used  tests  sure  the  the  between achievement  on a  he  the  that  setting,  must  apart  informal  influence.  difference  he must  ations. ^  of  greatest  make  essential  tests,  field  teachers  principles. the  the  of be  study  examin-  as  some-  his accepted  as  2 an  important, This  teacher  phase  implies,  that  of  the  teaching  obviously,  cycle.  a clear  testing,  as  such,  must  importance.  Instead,  it  is  be  the  process  itself.  teaching  Of  the  principals  standardized were  administered of  this  adequate tary  opposed  means  school  to  were of  pupil.  considered  informal  all  tests  outside  evaluating  too  as  by  the  great  an a i d  an  to  3  considered  All  assume  favored  and achievement  by any agency  nature  not  interviewed,  intelligence  strongly  to  understanding  by  the  tests,  but  w h i c h were  the  school  these  four  achievements  principals,  the use  moreover,  to of  be  four  set  itself. an  the  agreed  of  or Tests in-  elementhat  ^ D o u g l a s s , .BL.R. , a n d B o a r d m a n , C . W . , o p . c i t . , p . 3 8 9 . p " W i l s o n , G . M . , " T e s t s : A i m s , P r o c e d u r e s , and T y p e s , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o l . 2 8 , K b . 7. , M a r c h , 1 9 3 6 , p . 4 9 2 . ;  3  ibid,  p.  492.  -84-  diagnostic process  To of  as  than  the  the  such  of  the of  work his  tenable.  should  greater  achievement  principals  work  longer  are  the  evaluating  rate * no  tests  be  the of  teachers As W i l s o n  is  S.M.,  cit.,  p.  the  says, 1  490.  great  hut  on t h e  discontinued".  op.  of  pupil  1 Wilson,  to  actual  teaching  tests.  test the  value  the  results n  value.as view of  a  that any  administration  means he  can  tests, tests  is  Chapter  THE P R I N C I P A L  The before tion is  old  that  is  is  but  through h i s  to  being  to  expected  such  of  external  an  In  an  the  behavior  require  mally, but work  at  Harris,  in  this  the  careful  interest and  to  them.^ process  the  In of  school. of  necessary  new  concep-  that  should  work and will  be  social  the  be  good  largely  conception,  study  and  obtain,  misdemeanors  through h i s  social  the  the  discipline,  are  2  to  causes, of  treatment.  through  attention  of  in  unnecessary.  remedial  not  aim  up  that  The  pupil  privileges  build  order  such,  each  end a n d  to  pupil  as  with  it  dis-  a  Discipline, life,  that  words,  developing  school  follows  and  the  other  of maladjustment.  and harmony  school,  school  It  symptomatic  order  through  of  g i v e n way  something  encroached upon c o n t r o l  and c o n t r o l  light  is  accord with his  character,  as  1  in  interest  regarded  so  the  in  responsibilities.  pupil  has  background act  s c h o o l management  his  of  DISCIPLINE.  discipline  separate  activities the  and  has  a part  now moves, i n t o  that  possible  instruction  now i m p o s s i b l e  cipline  I N R E L A T I O N TO  conception  learning  XI  fear  child  of has  be this  Norteacher  for  growth r e s u l t i n g  his from  activities. P..E.,  op.  cit.,  p.  328,  2 Cubberley, E.P., ffiifflin, Boston,  The P r i n c i p a l and H i s 1923, p. 280.  -85-  School,  Houghton-  -86-  This theory  ideal  of  cannot  discipline  in  the. p a s t ,  of  its  the  believe  practising  it  aged  look  to  constitutes puts  the  in  that  to  his  acceptable idea  of  the  bring  in  should  in  realization  for never as  to  teachfrom  control  is  be  encour-  to  what  of  words,  contribute  the  comes-  Programme the  a  teachers  that  decisions  The  concisely  G h i l d  a  sure  should  all  conduct.  very  them t o be  such  by h i s  necessity  child  for  If  self-control  where  the  teacher  accepted  he must  growth  situations  overnight.  been  must  Certainly,  same  experience  not  Moreover,  ers- r e a l l y  seen.  has  achieved  principal  soundness-  clearly  be  Studies  "the  ideals  total and 3  standards Por  of  conduct  the  proper  self-control, the  Perhaps is  the  in  courtesy,  consistently a  in  of  of  the  and  must  and  the  alike. in  The  others,  often  that  habits  in his  makes one  the  who  Harris,  •2 U n i t e d p. 9. ^ Perry,  are  the  he  sets  personal pattern  Is  calmly in  task  off g r e a t l y  forces  of and  his  of reduced :  P.E., States  3 Programme  These  develops  difficulty. 1  social  example  becomes  decisions,  and a f f e c t i o n  of  the motivating  A principal,  his  social  quality  life."  pupil.  of  with  throughout  co-operate.  principal.^  ideals,  impartial,  correct  this  influential  pupil  respect  establishing  teacher,  co-operation  and  function  individuals  most  habits,  teacher  pupils  the  personality  attitudes, the  the  will  developing  three  principal,  that  of  A . C ,  op.  cit.,  Bureau  of  Studies, op.  cit.,  p.  336.  Education,  Bulletin p.  209.  I,  Bulletin, p.  9.  193G,  No.  26,  -87-  His  work  with  the  them, t o  organize  their  plinary  problems  from  utilize  the  purposive  provision  for  classes  standard  a  work  which  the  for  class  for  the  of  the  child work  and  welfare  To  the  sudden g r a n t i n g social  of  too  sudden a  the  that  is to  to  who  and make  set  up  pupil,  in  adequate  their  consciously  to  in  share  the  accustomed  the most  create  assist  asked  great  the  disci-  teachers;,  pupils ean  training  removes  Those  himself,  success, o f  long  and m e n t a l  Too  is  of  that  In  or  own.  pupil  free  so  and  pupil  as h i s  principal  feels  a manner  differences,  behavior  the  primarily  classes.  activity  of  to  in  their  accepts  regard  first  work  individual  unconsciously,  With  teachers" l i e s  important  an. a t m o s p h e r e drawing up the  in  the  plans  responsibility  group."*"  to  rigid  a degree  of  control,  the  f r e e d o m may l e a d  to  disturbance.  change  does  not  bring  in  its  train  entirely  2 satisfactory of  external  develop will  in  results.  While  discipline the  pupil  that  those  result,  i n an  increase  Fortunately  there  are  principal ^United ^Harris, 3  ibid.,  and  pupil  in  States. Bureau P.E., p.  op. 262.  at  is  cit.,  applied,  attitudes in  hand  this of  gradually  the  power  several  the  344.  must  behavior  that  self-control.  forces  op.  measure  principal  social of  the  to  assist  task.  Education., p.  of  reducing  cit.,  p.  175.  3  both  -88-  Of as  Cobb  ful as  these, says,  in  from  its  a wise  the  attitudes  in  house  the  all  other  have  Hb  the and  school  ary  policy  the  time  if  and  and to  the  pupil  the  for  power-  school  cit.,  of  the  good  c a n be  room  school  potent,  the  example and  on t h e s e .  tradition  does  of  the  factor,  school  it  as  Six  that  in  that  From  develop  the  their  develops  on  welfare.  by  a definite  concerts  to  those  bringing  need  to as  the  for  have such,  68.  a  and  high  programme displays,  work.  Drives  in  local  the  forcefully  to  standards  if  satisfactory  occupies  principal  developed, p.  felt  slow  the of  sportsmanship.  said  of  earlier.  the  is  proceeding  off c o - c u r r i c u l a r  effect  energy  of  sports * of  discipline,  op.  in  the most  tradition  concentrate  strengthened  school of  very  corresponding  attitudes: are S.,  was a  varieties,  the  such  changing,  y o u n g e r members  school, p a p e r ,  citizenship  tradition,  reality  on t h i s , m a t t e r ,  interschool  of  in  school  as, e f f e c t i v e  in  first  tradition, is  attention  ^Cobb,  would  conducive  newspaper,  correct  the  and  are  established  students  and h a b i t s ,  This  of  precedents  senior  l i n e s ; moat  the  however,  slow  interviewed  set,  and  nature,  equally  principal  example  sanctions  is  1  i d e a l s , and  by  effective  conduct  very  and  principals,  and  of  society."  developing  of  "School  regulators  From  set  the most  or  the  adequate  disciplin-  a great  deal  teacher. provision  If is  of  made  for  pupil  well  organized,  But ization  is  such  built  school, up  to  inevitably eases  believes  tunate  phases  that  of  the  school  are  life  of  the  not  for  is  arise.  how c a r e f u l l y  is  the  organ-  of  malad-  cases  altogether  undesirable  developing: s o c i a l  useful that  school  difficulties  occurrence,  This  openings  they  work  no m a t t e r  avoid  as  the  behavior  arise.  serve  Kir.sch  and  seldom w i l l  in; e v e r y  justment as  adjustment,  in  showing up  otherwise  might  ideas.'*"  the  unfor-  remain  hidden. In. a ual  differences  major  cause  beyond home of  the  of  the  so  of and  or  treatment  of  repressive  classroom,  the  greatest  for  professional  social  but  any  on t h e  they  growth  of  consideration  a  E.P.,  teacher op.  cases part  do  the and  suspects  cit.,  p.  factors  the  balance  calls  principal.  outward assist  remedial  229.  a  disabilities,  arises  the  child.  that  unknown,  case.  of  not  individ-  But  upset  that  may r e s t o r e  certainly  for  physical  relationships,  problem  measures  made  been avoided;.  school, i t s e l f ,  action  possible  soon a s  •^Cubberley,  the  has  is  is. v i r t u a l l y  a n d h e may b e c o m e a p r o b l e m  the  As  provision  non-promotion  maladjustment  control  pupil  adequate  that  well-considered  Harsh  2  where  environment,  The for  school  order in  Here  is  to  promoting a  case  work.  a pupil  is  developing  .  Hirsch, B.C., "The C a s e M e t h o d o f D e a l i n g w i t h I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , i n the Secondary School *, S c h o o l Review, "Vol.38, Ho. 7, 1930, p. 525. 1  O t t o , H.J., P r o m o t i o n . P o l i c i e s t a r y School, Educational Test  and P r a c t i c e s i n t h e Bureau, Minneapolis,  Elemen1935.  -90-  tendencies  towerd maladjustment,  case  to  the  must  gather  condition,  principal. all  and h i s  states  this  of  future  iously  use.  next  the  pupil  in  ing  on P l a t e  a l l  the  can be cipal  of  ment  and  step  V.  the  the  is  view with valuable  and  cause on  are off  the  the  information,  advising  that  his  co-operation  the  all  a  be  the  of  Chapter  VII.  been  previs,  of  him to  under  the  one  in  an  with  effort  Additional  estimate  the  to  light  between  attitude  whom  appear-  together  consultation  on  printhe  tempera-  pupil.  obtained to  must  situation what  by  a personal  getting use  the P u p i l ~~  from him this  and f o r  remedial  R e a v i s , W.G., P u p i l Adjustment i n Junior S c h o o l s , Heath, Boston, 1926, p. 66. See  to  examined  sympathetic  the  determining  Administration p. 226.  anticipation  teachers,  similar  principal of  his  task  assembled,  In a d d i t i o n  parent in  are  and  can  physical  in  this  he  emphatically  collected  to  form  enable  information  for  a  problem by  parent.  Reavis  1  the  one.  carefully  off  his  home f a c t o r s ,  the maladjustment.  will  report  information,  operation,  sending  A kindly  to  system which has  reports  general, a t t i t u d e  A.O., 1929,  in  easy  the  These  former  Further  3  already  and p u p i l .  Heck, York,  record  question works,  thrown  part  2  is  records,  ascertain  1  the  a comparatively  The  his  be  duty  child,  abilities.  If  her this  on t h e  history,  special  is of  i n f o r m a t i o n must  discussed  course,  data  scholastic  aspirations that  Qn r e c e i p t  available  his.  it  intermuch  opportunity enlisting  procedure  Personnel,Ginn, ~ ~~ and ' "  Senior  High  New  -91-  PLATE  SPECIAL  REPORT  0 1 " PUPILS:  .  M E  ¥111  T.  teacher  points  kindly  indicated,  1.  Deportment  2.  Application  5.  Neatness  and  report  and  to  DIVISION  on t h e  return  this  pupil form  named to  the  above,  on  office  today.  work.  cleanliness  (a)  in  work  (b)  in  personal  4.  Special  weakness.  5.  Special  interests.  6.  Do y o u  7.  General  consider  this  appearance.  pupil  a problem  child?  remarks.  Teacher  (Yes  of  No)  -92-  is  to  "be a p p l i e d .  child,  teacher,  effected the  task  deal the  placed  of  the  functions  pline  both  of  can  satisfactory  cure  securing of  a  this  the  co-operation  principal  in  each  one  its. p a r t i c u l a r  solved  systematic  adoption of  of  all  parent, be  is  not  case  orderly,  of  in. s c h o o l have of  become the  I V C ,  result far  in  work  less  a  the  the  unique  in  principal  merits. of  the and  out.  school  is  not  building social  More  the most  towards;  inhibited  however,  In  behavior and  the  forces  new a t t i t u d e  today,  orderliness.  and  work  as  Only  school  thus be  basis."'"  a  course,  school  ideals  •Reavis,  regarded  with  on  the  be  of  a  success  t y p e must  nature  less  of  this  very  may,  school  of  p r o b l e m be  ness: and the  case  on a  far  test  co-operation  The  The  is  of  close  work.  itself.  can  the  and p r i n c i p a l ,  the  Every  to  by  and  least  study  Only  than the  attitudes the  effective  means  disciplinary  poliey  that  op.  38.  cit.,  p.  of  disci-  organization  itself,  than, e v e r  school  which  formerly. degree but of  of  quiet-  rather  the  gauging  school.  in  pupils  graduates of  The  of  any  the  CHAPTER  XII  SUMMARY.  Before ing  his  is  the  mentally  and  socially,  in  on h i m r e s t s  of  time  he  devotes  in  a  For  the  teaching, that  more  is  great  of  the  gained.  To a l l o w free  himself  from year  to  those  year,  and  in  bility  many p u r e l y  ^-IT.E.A.,  however,  some  finding  of  his  course, no  be  it  special  of  time differ-  teaching  for  a  tasks  needs  supervision  his  school.  various  most  of  physically,  and  immediate  spends  adapt-  his  for  his  who a s s u m e s  for  the  this  lie  tasks  that  is  that  they  tasks  Vol. -93-  7,  from  before  second  routine  Bulletin,  supervision,  possible  useless  such a manner  Research  to  the  of  of  important  will,  use  a s much a s  and p u p i l s for  time  accomplishing  eliminate  pupils  than, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  greatest  of  re-  must  is  as  a  qualifica-  1  himself  Two m e a n s o f  division  In b o t h c a s e s ,  the  on  who  principal  attention  that  measure,  principal the  task  responsibility  proportion  supervisor  to  some  them.  sponsibilities.  is  the  off  from  must  for  each  actual  tions  the  the  possible- growth,  to  depend,  receive  greatest  solution  school.  ent  problem,  b y many d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  and  successful  his  his  get  trifling,  The  is  to  faced  will  principal  school  morally, He  the  to  the  principal  routine him.  have  The  and No.2,  first  accumulated  organize  assume  tasks.  the  leave  his  teachers  responsi-  him f r e e  March,  1928,  for p.90.  .  -94-  more  important  The  form  of  which he has  the  of  school  best  possible  any  of  teachers cedure  is  its  success.  a  fair  result  in  every  iveness  of  the  trial  a  he  type  one  of  for  class-  work,  to  for  that  interfere  with  example,  each  lies  in  part  is  any  the  of  new  pro-  them t o  give  judgment  of  the  the  principal,  hands.  partial  his  cooperation,  success  his  so.  upon  persuade  on t h e  the  will  unbiassed  an  wholehearted  become  Before  must  render  to  his  opinions.  opposition  solution  he  conviction  Imposes  problem confronting  the  the  himself  principal  of  should  co-eurricular  permit  and  lack  attention..-'-  scheme.  their  Definite  seriously  In  of  of  personal  that  instituted  idea  would  choices  choice  of  his  his  professional  organization  or  however,  regardless  his  will  for  not,  his  of  his  His  reports  h e made " b e c a u s e  He m u s t to  his,  enthusiasm.  organization, must  ones, r e q u i r i n g  of  teachers  which plan.  the  He m u s t  effect-  be  the 2  vitalizing the  factor  educational  inspiration  and  Moreover, teachers principal  of to  in  providing  growth  of  guidance the  his  rapidly  well  •'-Isr.E.A.,  Research B u l l e t i n ,  %  Rice,  educational  W.C,  G.A.,  Pierce,  Conrad,  op.  it  and  level  imperative  the  cit.  and  largely  professional  leadership  P. R.,  C . C ,  of  depends  methods  and on  the  him.  risipg  abreast  the  Reavis, p. 167.  by  B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a makes keep  improved  teachers  given  provides 2  new and  times,  of p.  his,  unless  school,  the  the. he  one  of  110.  Stullken,  Fleming,  for  of  P.,  E'.Hv,. o p . op.  cit.,  cit., p.  152.-  two  things  staff  will  without exercise that  is  likely  provide  any  real  on  From the  is  a  will  ever  aim or  living  sound  very be  occur;  purpose.  completely  unquestionably  make  must  multitudinous  details  need  attention.  degree  commensurate That  with  importance  i n mind, playing  at in  of  all the  he  be  his  satisfactory.  the  times,  development  of  vital of  will  and  his  part  his  no  Research  Bulletin,  op.  solution  changes  that  problems  to  base  arrived school occur  necessary. and  the  administration  be  position  realize which  p.  must  the  115.  at in  unless  his  community.  cit.,  drift  who d e s i r e s  Because  1 N.E.A.,  the  1  a l e r t n e s s must  perhaps- n e v e r the  staff  constantly  on h i s  organization  importance  will  the  reconsideration  professional  on  teachers  problems,  ever working of  teacher  the  thinking.  organization,  The p r i n c i p a l  His  of  or,  among h i s  professional  nature  some  The p r i n c i p a l  leadership  and dynamic  constant  either  that, l e a d e r s h i p ,  professional  right  at-will  to  which  all the he  school  times school. bears  is  -96-  BLBLIOGRAPHY.  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