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The forest industry as a determinant of settlement British Columbia : the case for interegation through… Gilmour, James Frederick 1965

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THE FOREST INDUSTRY AS A DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT I N BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CASE FOR INTEGRATION THROUGH REGIONAL PLANNING b y JAMES FREDERICK GEELMOUR A r c h . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFTTJ.MKNT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n t h e Department o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Bri t i sh Columbia-, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study* I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permissions-Department of Community & Regional PiAmrrt^ g The University of Brit ish Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date April. 1?65.  ABSTRACT The forest industry is the most important economic activity in the Province of British Columbia, with half the families in the province depending directly or indirectly on the industry's $400 million annual payroll. Predictions of $1 billion worth of new capital investment materializing within the next five years provide a firm indication that the industry will retain this position of economic importance throughout the forseeable future. The growth of the forest industry has had a profound effect upon the settlement pattern of British Columbia, characterized principally by an extreme concentration of productive facilities, and hence of population, in the south-west of the province, and a thin diffusion of employment and population throughout the remainder. In this large hinterland the population is scattered throughout a myriad of camps, company towns and isolated settlements which are able to provide for their residents a minimum level of goods and services and a narrow range of opportunities for personal develop-ment and self-realization. Thus, for many thousands of workers and their families, employment in the forest industry involves denial of the opportunity to participate fully in the prosperous and variegated way of life which the iraiustry has so materially assisted to create within the province. i i i The Provincial Government has, to some extent, indicated an awareness of this condition, for the two declaredi objectives of its forest policies are the assurance of a perpetual yield of timber, and the establishment of prosperous permanent communities. Policies to ensure the fulfillment of the first objective have been thoroughly prepared, and conscientiously and competently applied. Policies to ensure the fulfillment of the second objective, on the other hand, are s t i l l lacking. The anticipated wave of new investment in the industry will produce significant changes in provincial settlement patterns, in the fcrm of several new towns in hitherto undeveloped areas and of a re-structuring of communities in already established areas9 If controlled by firm government policy, these changes could be directed toward the creation of a settlement pattern which would make available to the citizens of the province the highest level of goods, services and urban amenities which the province is capable of providing. In order to achieve this objective the developmental activities of the forest industry would have to be coordinated with those of al l other agencies, both public and private, which are engendering urbanization within the province. Such coordination could only be achieved by the creation of a framework for developmental planning iv which would be province wide i n scope, comprehensive enough to embrace a l l developmental action, and capable of accounting for regional variations. By establishing a Provincial Development Department et Cabinet level, with the portfolio being held by the Provincial Premier, a means would be provided for effectively initiating and controlling development on a comprehensive province wide basis. By establishing regional branch offices of the Provincial Development Department a means would be provided for the achievement of regional accountability. It would, be the responsibility of the Regional Development Offices to prepare regional development plans far the areas under their jurisdiction. Coordination of activity at the regional level would be assured through the establishment of a Regional Inter-departmental Committee consisting of the regional representatives of a l l government departments functioning within the region. By bringing the regional representative of the British Columbia Forest Service into the Regional Inter-departmental Committee, and by making a l l forestry development subject to the Regional Development Plans, developments within, the forest industry could be directed and controlled so as to make the maximum possible contribution to the realization of an optimum settlement pattern within each region. ACKNOWLED GEMENTS. The; author extends his gratitude to^alljthose whose generous assistance made ^ possible! the preparation of this thesis^-Thanks are due to Dr. H,P.Oberlander, Head, @omiminity and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia and Dr. K.J.Cross of the same department, for their inspirational guidance and constructive criticism. The assistance provided by Miss. M.Dewyer and staff of the Fine Arts Section, University Library, is also gratefully acknowledged. Invaluable assistance was provided by amny persons connected with the forest industry, in Government, Business and Labour who gave generously of their time. Space does not permit individual mention, but the interview section of the Bibliography includes a list of their names. Special thanks are extended to Mr. R.G.McKee, Deputy Minister of Forests, British Columbia Department of Lands  Forests and Water Resources, who took time out from a very busyy schedule to accommodate the author. Grateful appreciation is extended to my wife and sister, whose patience, encouragement and endless hours of typing made completion of this thesis possible. Finally, the financial assistance provided by the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, in the form of a Planning Fellow-ship is sincerely and gratefully acknowledged* V V TAILS OF COHEEKTS PAGE ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i ACKTOWLEDGEMSMT . . . . . . . . . < , . . . • , „ . . . . v LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x CHAPTBR I. INTRODUCTIONS 1 II. BACKGROUND TO FORESTRY IN BRITISH .COLUMBIA . . . 12 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS Geographic Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. Activities of the Forest Industry . . . . 13 HISTORICAL mmm Chronological Growth . • • » • • • • • » • 14 Technological Changs 21 Forms of Tenure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION legislative Background . . . . . . . . . . 32 British Columbia Forest Service 33 Classification of Crown Forests . . . . . 3 7 PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MANAGEMENT Sustained Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Utilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Multiple Use . . . . . . . . . . 44 CHAPTER SUMMARY 46 TTT, CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY . . . . . . 48 TYPES OF OPERATION Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4$ Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . 52 vi PAGE SPATIAL AND LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Extraction • 58 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS Extraction . . . . . . . . 63 Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 FUTURE TRENDS Extraction • . • . . . . . . . . . . » • • 68 Conversion . . . . . . . . » . . . . . . * 69 CHAPTER SUMMARY . 73 IMPACT OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY UPON; IV. SETTLEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . . . . . 75 COMMUNITIES Gamps • . . . . . . • • 7 $5 Company Towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Other Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction • • 106 Coast Development • • • • • • • • • • • • 106 Interior Development . . . . . . . . . • • 109 Conclusions 110 CHAPTER SUMMARY , I l l V. THE DETERMINATION OF SETTLEMENT PATTERNS THROUGH THE CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST ACTIVITIES .. H4 PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE The Need to Plan . 121 The Planning Process 121 GOALS AND GOAL FORMS Criteria fee Goals 123 Proposed Goals . . . • . 124 THE CONCEPT OF GOAL FORMS Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Goods and Services 130 Proposed Goal Forms 133 Residual Goal Forms • • 147 v i i PAGE CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . \ . . . . . . . . . . . 150 PROPOSED POLICIES FOR INTEGRATING VI. FORESTRY WITH REGIONAL PLANNING . . . . . . . . .. . 153 ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL PLANNING . . . . .. .. . . . . Basic Requirements 153 Existing Provisions • 157 Proposed Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 IMPLEMENTATION OF REGIONAL PLANNING Determination of Regional Boundaries . . . . 164 Evaluation of Current Conditions . . '. . . . 16? Regional Application • • • • . 170 ROLE OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN REGIONAL PLANNING ; ; ' Research Activities'. . . . . . . . .'. . . . 174 Policies with Respect to Existing Conditions.. 175 Policies with Respect to New Development. . . 1B2 CHAPTER SUMMARY • ...... . . . . . . . . . . 1B2 VII. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . .. . 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 A, v i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Forest Districts of British Columbia ( 1963 )•.<.-.. 36 U. Changing Sawmill Capacity in British Columbia . . . . 53 III. Distance in Miles Between Optimum Centre Locations • • • • • • • • 135 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE L. Division Between Coast and Interior Forest Districts . . 12A 2. Existing Pulp Mills . . 20A 3. Forest Districts • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36A 4* Aerial View of Patch: Logging . . . . . . 65A 5. Tree Felling in the Coast Forest District . 65A 6. Portable Spar "Cherry Picker" Loader and Logging Truck . 65A 7. Boom Boats at Beaver Cove, Northern Vancouver Island . . 65B 8. Boom Worker at Sorting Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65B 9. Flat Raft Used For Log Towing in Sheltered Water . . . . 65B 10. Self Dumping Log Barges • 65B 11. Gordon River Camp ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84A 12. Bunkhouses at Gordon River . . . . 84A 13. A Typical Camp, Vernon Lake, Northern Vancouver Island . 84A 14. A Typical Cookhouse Operated by Professional Caterers . 84A 15. Family Housing in a Logging Camp, Beaver Gove, Northern Vancouver Island . . . . . . . . . 84B 16. House Grouping at Beaver Cove 84B 17. Typical Logging Camp House 84B 18. Aerial View of a Company Town •• • • • • 94B 19. Street Scene in Ocean Falls, B.C. . . 94A 20. Pattern of Location of Six Orders of Service Centres. . 133A FIGURE PAGE 21 Theoretical Models of Alternative Settlement Patterns to 26, Based on the Central Place Theories of Ghristaller and Losch . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . * » . 13 5A 2? Alternative Settlement Patterns Based on the Gentral to 32, Place Theories as Modified by the Characteristics of the Forest Industry • • • • • • . . • • • • • • „ 146A CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t a n d s t o - d a y on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f a p e r i o d o f r a p i d economic e x p a n s i o n . A l r e a d y f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as Canada's f a s t e s t g r o w i n g p r o v i n c e , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n growth d u r i n g t h e 1941-1961 census p e r i o d s o f 99%, compared w i t h a n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f 58.5% and a f i g u r e o f 67% f o r A l b e r t a , i t s n e a r e s t r i v a l , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a c e s i n t h e immediate f u t u r e an i n f u s i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l on such a s c a l e as t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i m p r e s s i v e pace o f development c a n be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e a t l e a s t t h r o u g h t h e n e x t decade."*" I n a d d i t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b o a s t s a p e r - c a p i t a income 17% h i g h e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e , a l e v e l e q u a l l e d o n l y b y t h e 2 P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o . B l e s s e d w i t h a n abundance o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a owes most o f i t s p r o s p e r i t y and growth t o i t s p r i m a r y o r " e x t r a c t i v e " i n d u s t r i e s . E v e n a most s u p e r f i c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l economy r e v e a l s t h a t , o f t h e s e , b y f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . F o r example, t h e l a t e s t e d i t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a F i n a n c i a l and Economic R e v i e w r e v e a l s t h a t t h e f o r e s t ^ Dominion B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada: 1941 & 1961  P o p u l a t i o n , V o l . 1 , ( O t t a w a : .Queen's P r i n t e r , 1943 & 1963). 2 ' ' • • F i n a n c i a l P o s t ( e d . ) , " S u r v e y o f M a r k e t s and B u s i n e s s Y e a r Book" (39th e d i t i o n ; T o r o n t o : M a c l e a n H u n t e r , 1962) p. 190. 2 i n d u s t r y a c c o u n t e d f o r 46.3$ o f t h e s e l l i n g v a l u e o f a l l f a c t o r y s h i p -ments f r o m t h e m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s o f the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e 1962 f i s c a l 3 year.-' M a j o r G e n e r a l B.M. H o f f m e i s t e r , s p e a k i n g b e f o r e t h e r e c e n t con-v e n t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r u c k L o g g e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d m a t t e r s even more f o r c e f u l l y when he n o t e d t h a t 300,000 wage e a r n e r s , o r h a l f t h e f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , depend d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y on t h e i n d u s t r y ' s $400 m i l l i o n a n n u a l p a y r o l l . ^ Nor i s t h i s pre-eminence o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t o r i g i n . As f a r back as 1900 f o r e s t r y o v e r t o o k m i n i n g a s t h e f o r e m o s t economic a c t i v i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , and e v e n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , now a d i v e r s i f i e d c o s -m o p o l i t a n c e n t r e o f n e a r l y 400,000 p e o p l e had i t s o r i g i n s i n 1867 a t 5 H a s t i n g s S a w m i l l on t h e s o u t h shore o f B u r r a r d I n l e t . L o o k i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e , f o r e s t r y a p p e a r s l i k e l y t o r e m a i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s most i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y . R o d e r i c k Haig-Brown, n o t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a t u r a l i s t and w r i t e r , comments t h a t "so f a r as anyone c a n judge a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f B r i t i s h C olumbians w i l l . d e p e n d j u s t as h e a v i l y upon t h e good c o n d i t i o n s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F i n a n c i a l and E conomic Review, (24th e d i t i o n ? V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964) p.49. Slews I t e m i n t h e V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 16, 1965. ^W.G. Ha r d w i c k , Geography o f t h e F o r e s t I n d u s t r y o f C o a s t a l B.C., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r s i n Geography, No.5 ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963) p . H . 3 o f t h e f o r e s t s as does t h a t o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n " . ^ D r . Jo h n D e u t s c h , i n h i s f i r s t r e p o r t as Chairman o f t h e Economic C o u n c i l , o f Canada, i n a n a l y z i n g f u t u r e t r e n d s o f C a n a d i a n development, s t a t e s t h a t " u n l i k e most p r o v i n c e s , most new j o b s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s , s u c h a s 7 f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g " . P e r h a p s t h e most t h o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g i n d i c a t o r o f t h e f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l o f f o r e s t r y i s c o n t a i n e d i n a r e c e n t column f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s page o f t h e Vanc o u v e r Times, w h i c h r e a d s i n p a r t as f o l l o w s : The i n d u s t r y , a c c o r d i n g t o r e p o r t s f r o m V i c t o r i a , i s g r o w i n g so q u i c k l y t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l government s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d o n l y months ago i s a l r e a d y o b s o l e t e . The e a r l i e r s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d p u l p p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d a l m o s t d o u b l e b y 1971 t o 9.3 m i l l i o n t o n s . Now, Ray W i l l i s t o n , M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s , a d m i t s t h e e s t i m a t e s were f a r t o o l o w . He p r e d i c t s 20 new m i l l s r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n v e s t m e n t o f more t h a n $1 b i l l i o n b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s . 8 The p o t e n t i a l consequences o f s u c h r a p i d development a r e e n o r -mous and f a r r e a c h i n g , and i n them many h o p e f u l l y seek t h e answers t o p r e s s i n g economic p r o b l e m s . To a c o u n t r y b e s e t w i t h problems o f r e -c u r r i n g unemployment i n t h e f a c e o f a r a p i d l y e x p a n d i n g l a b o u r f o r c e i t o f f e r s t h e p r o s p e c t o f th o u s a n d s o f new j o b s . To a n a t i o n a l ^ R o d e r i c k Haig-Brown, The L i v i n g Land ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n , 196 l ) p. 51 . ''News i t e m i n t h e Vancouver Times, J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1965. 8 I b i d . , D e c e m b e r ? , 1965. economy p l a g u e d by a c h r o n i c d e f i c i t i n i t s b a l a n c e o f payments, i t opens t h e p r o s p e c t o f i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g s i n f o r e i g n m a r k e t s . To / / governments becoming aware o f i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e s f o r c o s t l y p u b l i c / s e r v i c e s i n t h e f i e l d s o f e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e i t s u g g e s t s new s o u r c e s o f t a x r e v e n u e s . D o u b t l e s s t h e s e a r e a l l w o r t h y ends i n t h e m s e l v e s , and i t i s q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t B r i t i s h C o lumbians f a c e t h e f u t u r e i n a g e n e r a l s p i r i t o f b u o y a n t o p t i m i s m . However, development b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e i m p l i e s change; r a p i d and m a s s i v e development i m p l i e s r a p i d and m a s s i v e change. I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t h e n t o s u g g e s t t h a t any community o r any s o c i e t y f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t o f s u c h change s h o u l d pause on t h e t h r e s h o l d and ask,"What i s t h i s a l l a b o u t ? " To i m p l y t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n has n e v e r b e e n r a i s e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be m a n i f e s t l y u n j u s t and u n t r u e . G r a p h i c p r o o f o f t h i s i s . r e c o r d e d i n t h e l a t e s t T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e . T h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s an a n n u a l e v e n t con-d u c t e d b y an i n d e p e n d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g i n d u s t r y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Govern-ments, and i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h " c o n s e r v a t i o n , f r o m t h e v i e w - p o i n t o f optimum u t i l i z a t i o n , o f a l l t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The l a t e s t c o n f e r e n c e was o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h e theme "What s h o u l d be t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f o u r r e s o u r c e s development", a t o p i c t o w h i c h a wide t r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e F i f t e e n t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e ( V a n c o u v e r ; t h e C o n f e r e n c e , 1964) F o r e w o r d . 5 v a r i e t y o f s p e a k e r s , drawn f r o m management, l a b o u r , e d u c a t i o n , t h e c l e r g y , government, e n g i n e e r i n g , t h e d i p l o m a t i c c o r p s and m e d i c i n e , a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s . That t h i s t o p i c c o u l d draw and h o l d t h e a t t e n -t i o n o f s u c h a d i v e r s e group on t h e eve o f s u c h momentous economic development i s i n i t s e l f s i g n i f i c a n t . One theme i s c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n a l l t h e p a p e r s c o n t r i b u t e d b y t h e s e . c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h a t i s t h a t t h e u l t i m a t e p u r -pose o f r e s o u r c e development i s t h e s e r v i c e o f man. F o r example, R.R. P u r c e l l , C h i e f E n g i n e e r o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E n e r g y B o a r d d e f i n e s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e development as " t h e a r t o f d i r e c t i n g t h e s o u r c e s o f power and m a t e r i a l s i n n a t u r e f o r t h e use and c o n v e n i e n c e o f m a n " T h e u n d e r l y i n g p u r p o s e o f t h e words "use and c o n v e n i e n c e " a r e e l a b o r a t e d upon b y t h e R e v erend R.M. G o o d a l l , o f S i x t h Avenue U n i t e d C hurch i n New W e s t m i n s t e r who n o t e s t h a t " t h e purpose o f r e -s o u r c e development c a n be s i m p l y s t a t e d as t h e w e a l t h , h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f m a n k i n d " . 1 1 Such d e f i n i t i o n s , t h o u g h t h e y a r e s u f f i c i e n t -l y commendable and n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l as t o be a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e c i t i z e n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y somewhat t o o vague t o be o f much a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e f u t u r e . I n h i s book, The L i v i n g L a n d , i t s e l f a p r o d u c t o f t h e B r i t i s h 10-I b i d . , p. 20. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 3 0 . 6 Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, Haig-Brown notes the inadequacy o f such e x p r e s s i o n s o f o b j e c t i v e s , and o f f e r s a more complete, and more e loquent m a n i f e s t o . Whi le acknowledging u n i v e r s a l l i t e r a c y , f u l l employment, improved p u b l i c h e a l t h and l o n g t e r m s e c u r i t y as d e s i r a b l e and e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t i v e s he adds t h a t w h i l e these t h i n g s may a l l e v i a t e unhappiness , t h e y do not reach v e r y f a r i n t o q u e s t i o n s o f p o s i t i v e h a p p i n e s s . Happiness , he contends, can o n l y be a c h i e v e d through " s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n " . The f a c t t h a t " s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " i s i t s e l f i n c a p a b l e o f p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n does not d e t r a c t f rom i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a concept i n f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r resource development. Any d e f i n i t i o n o f s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i s almost as e l u s i v e as a d e f i n i t i o n o f h a p p i n e s s . I t i s one t h i n g f o r the i n t r o v e r t , q u i t e another f o r the e x t r o v e r t ; i t may be i n the s e l f - i m m o l a t i o n o f a m a r t y r o r i n the se l f -aggrandizement o f a Napoleon. I t i s more l i k e l y t o be i n t h i n g s s p i r i t u a l and m e n t a l t h a n i n t h i n g s p h y s i c a l and m a t e r i a l . The o n l y r u l e f o r l e g i s l a t o r s and p l a n n e r s i s t h a t men must be l e f t f r e e t o s e a r c h f o r i t , so l o n g as t h e i r freedom does not impede the search o f o t h e r s . Beyond t h i s the o n l y a i d s t h e y can be g iven are e d u c a t i o n and u p b r i n g i n g , and abundant scope f o r s e a r c h when the t ime comes. I f a s o c i e t y does not d i r e c t the use o f i t s resources t o these ends, i t cannot^be u s i n g o r s e r v i n g the k e y r e s o u r c e , i t s p e o p l e , as i t s h o u l d . The o p i n i o n s o f f e r e d b e f o r e the c o n f e r e n c e , coming as t h e y do from such a wide c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the community, may be regarded as a t l e a s t a broad i n d i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l goals f o r resource development. T h i s b e i n g the case one might l o g i c a l l y ask how c l o s e we are coming toward f u l f i l l m e n t o f these g o a l s . G o o d a l l , i n h i s "Haig-Brown, o p . c i t . , p.252. 7 p a p e r , s t a t e s : I I t h e g o a l o f r e s o u r c e development i s t h e w e a l t h , h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e , we may w e l l q u e r y whether we a r e d o i n g an adequate j o b o f r e s o u r c e development i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . As f a r as w e a l t h i s c o n c e r n e d , no doubt p e o p l e a r e as w e l l o f f h e r e as anywhere . . . . The p r o b l e m w h i c h nags a t my mind however i s t h i s ; why i n t h i s most f a v o r e d o f p r o v i n c e s i s t h e h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e i n s u c h j e o p a r d y ? B r i t i s h Columbia has t h e h i g h e s t d r u g a d d i c t i o n r a t e i n Canada, as w e l l as t h e h i g h e s t r a t e o f a l c o h o l c o n s u m p t i o n . More and more p e o p l e a r e b e i n g t r e a t e d f o r m e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e ; t h e i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e i s g o i n g up and up, and t h e d i v o r c e r a t e i s way above t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e . - ^ S i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d b y H a i g - B r o w n . 1 ^ I f i n d e e d t h e development o f o u r u l t i m a t e r e s o u r c e , t h e p e o p l e , f a l l s somewhat s h o r t o f what we w o u l d l i k e i t t o b e , i t i s t o t h o s e t w i n f a c t o r s o f human d e t e r m i n i s m , h e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t , t h a t we must t u r n 1 t o seek f o r a n s w e r s . I n a s o c i e t y t h a t f i n d s repugnant t h e co n c e p t o f s e l e c t i v e b r e e d i n g t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h a t c a n be done about t h e f a c t o r o f h e r e d i t y and we must, p e r f o r c e , c o n f i n e o u r c o n c e r n t o e n v i r o n m e n t i f we seek t o move c l o s e r t o o u r g o a l s . The q u e s t i o n w h i c h l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s upon t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s : "To what e x t e n t does o u r p r e s e n t a p p r o a c h t o r e s o u r c e development s u p p o r t , o r c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h w i l l b e s t e n a b l e u s t o f u l f i l l o u r g o a l s ? " A t f i r s t , t h e c o n -• ^ N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , op. c i t . , p . 31. •^Haig-Brown, op. c i t . , p. 253. 8 n e c t i o n between r e s o u r c e development and e n v i r o n m e n t may seem a ten u o u s one, b u t n o t e d A m e r i c a n a u t h o r and p l a n n e r , C a t h e r i n e B a u e r , comments: "Economic development i n v a r i a b l y f o r c e s p o p u l a t i o n r e d i s t r i -b u t i o n w h i c h i n t u r n means r a d i c a l changes i n t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n a nd 15 s t r u c t u r e o f man-made e n v i r o n m e n t " . The word " e n v i r o n m e n t " i t s e l f i s o f s u c h b r o a d a p p l i c a t i o n as t o encompass t h e e n t i r e range o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b o t h p h y s i c a l and n o n - p h y s i c a l , i n w h i c h man f i n d s h i m s e l f . However, a s C a t h e r i n e B a u e r p o i n t s o u t , i t i s i n t h e man-made e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t changes a r e most i m m e d i a t e l y and most n o t i c e a b l y b r o u g h t about when economic development p r o c e e d s . T h e r e f o r e i f r e s o u r c e development i s t o s e r v e t h e achievement o f p r o v i n c i a l g o a l s i t must be c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d i n such a way as t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e g o a l s . The c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f o r c e s w h i c h shape man-made e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . J o h n F r i e d m a n n , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t t h e M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y s t a t e s : "The m a j o r p r o b l e m o f p l a n n i n g i s how t o b r i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h man l i v e s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l l i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " 1 ^ ^ C a t h e r i n e B a u e r , The Case f o r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Urban D i s p e r s a l i n Burnham K e l l y ( e d . ) , H o u s i n g and Economic Development, ( C a m b r i d g e : M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y P r e s s , 1955), p. 4 0 . • ^ J o h n F r i e d m a n , "The Concept o f a P l a n n i n g R e g i o n , " L a n d Bconomiss, v o l . X X X I I ( F e b r u a r y , 1956), p . I . 9 H a v i n g i n m i n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e s o u r c e development upon man's e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e ac h i e v e m e n t o f man's u l t i m a t e g o a l s , and t h e r o l e o f community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s h a p i n g man's e n v i r o n m e n t , i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t t h e development o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e i n -s e p a r a b l e i f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s t o be s e r v e d . I n 1945 t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d i t s f o r e s t p o l i c i e s , r e p l a c i n g t h e p r e v i o u s " l i q u i d a t i o n " a p p r o a c h w i t h one b a s e d on s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d . T h i s i n v o l v e d d r a w i n g up and a d m i n i s t e r i n g a complex, comprehensive l o n g - r a n g e p o l i c y o f f o r e s t management, h a v i n g among i t s o b j e c t i v e s " t h e maintenance o f f o r e s t c o v e r and g r o w t h , t h u s e n s u r i n g a p e r p e t u a l s u p p l y o f raw m a t e r i a l f o r f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , w i t h consequent s t a b i l i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l com-17 m u n i t i e s and a s s u r a n c e o f permanent p a y r o l l s " . 1 T h i s forest-management p o l i c y c o n s t i t u t e s a commitment t o a f o r m o f p l a n n i n g as i s e v i d e n c e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g quote f r o m t h e R e p o r t o f t h e Commissioner R e l a t i n g t o t h e F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : " I n d u s t r i e s have been l i v i n g on a n e x p e n d i t u r e o f f o r e s t c a p i t a l t h a t has t a k e n hundreds o f y e a r s t o a c c u m u l a t e a t no c o s t t o i n d u s t r y . The t i m e has now come when we have t o p l a n t o l i v e on f o r e s t i n t e r e s t and m a i n t a i n o u r 18 c a p i t a l u n i m p a i r e d 1 1 . The above two q u o t a t i o n s e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e ^Sloan, Gordon McG., The F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956, ( V i c t o r i a , B ; . C : Queen's P r i n t e r , 19>Y; p. 4 0 . 1 8 I b i d . f o u n d i n g document o f t h e government's p r e s e n t f o r e s t p o l i c i e s i n d i c a t e a r e c o g n i t i o n o f : ( a ) t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p -ment and community gr o w t h , and ( b ) t h e need f o r p l a n n i n g i n r e s o u r c e d e v e l opment. However, t h e o b v i o u s n e x t s t e p , t h a t o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e p l a n n i n g o f r e s o u r c e development w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g o f r e s o u r c e - b a s e d communities does n o t a p p e a r t o have been t a k e n , o r i n d e e d , t o have been acknowledged t o e x i s t , b y t h e government. I n o r d e r t o examine t h e p r o b l e m o f how t h e s e two i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s c a n be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s advanced t h a t t o e n s u r e optimum p l a n n i n g and development i n t h o s e a r e a s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s t h e dominant economic a c t i v i t y , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government s h o u l d i n t e g r a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f F o r e s t Management, and Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n t o a s i n g l e compre-h e n s i v e p o l i c y . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be t e s t e d b y f i r s t e x a m i n i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a to> a c h i e v e a c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f a l l t h e f o r c e s w h i c h have c o n t r i b u t e d t o -ward g i v i n g i t i t s p r e s e n t f o r m . The s t u d y w i l l t h e n examine a l l t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o m m u n i t i e s f o r w h i c h t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e , o r upon w h i c h i t has had a n i m p a c t , w i t h a v i e w t o d e t e r -m i n i n g t o what e x t e n t t h e y promote o r f r u s t r a t e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h community l i f e . S h o u l d i t be f o u n d t h e f o r e s t b a s e d communities f a l l s h o r t o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e s e g o a l s , p o l i c i e s w i l l be 11 proposed by which future development of the forest industry may most effectively be channelled to make this contribution. CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND TO FORESTRY I N BRITISH COLUMBIA I . BASIC CHARACTERISTICS Ge o g r a p h i c S e t t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has an a r e a o f 234 m i l l i o n a c r e s , o f w h i c h 118 m i l l i o n o r r o u g h l y 6C$, a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s f o r e s t l a n d . T h i s immense expanse o f f o r e s t i s b y no means u n i f o r m i n n a t u r e v a r y i n g g r e a t l y i n s p e c i e s and d e n s i t y i n re s p o n s e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o p o g r a p h y and r a i n f a l l . The s u r f a c e o f t h e p r o v i n c e c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f p a r a l l e l m o u n t a i n r a n g e s r u n n i n g i n a n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t d i r e c t i o n . The most w e s t e r l y o f t h e s e , t h e C o a s t Range i n t e r c e p t s t h e m o i s t u r e l a d e n winds o f t h e P a c i f i c , and t h e r e s u l t a n t heavy r a i n f a l l g i v e s r i s e t o d e n s e, l u x u r i e n t f o r e s t s on i t s seaward s l o p e s . On t h e e a s t w a r d s l o p e , and t h r o u g h much o f t h e c e n t r a l a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e , where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , t h e f o r e s t s a r e t h i n n e r and t h e t r e e s a r e s m a l l e r . On t h e w e s t e r n f a c e o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , w h i c h f o r m t h e b o u n d a r y between B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a , t r e e s i z e and d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e somewhat as m o i s t u r e i s d e p o s i t e d f r o m t h e p r e v a i l i n g west w i n d s . However, t h e c o l d c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e i s an i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r w h i c h p r e v e n t s t h e f o r e s t f r o m a c h i e v i n g t h e l u x u r i a n t c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c o a s t . Thus t h e summit o f t h e Coast Range may be seen as a b o u n d a r y d i v i d i n g t h e f o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o two d i s t i n c t a r e a s , g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d as t h e " C o a s t F o r e s t D i s t r i c t " 12A f I G U R £ DIVISION BETWEEN COAST AND INTERIOR FOREST DISTRICT. L E G E N D rr — * • y;rto* , .... ,\ -THE FOREST INDUSTRY AS A DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CASE FOR INTEGRATION THROUGH REGIONAL PLANNING M A S I E R S D E G R E E I H f S I S I K C O M M U N I T Y & R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A O 20 40 60 N SCALE IN MILES J. F. GILMOUR A P R I L 1 9 6 5 -4 - -c—..'jj^ i i COAST • . .. ,... V. ^ J. "i 4-1 3 and t h e " I n t e r i o r F o r e s t D i s t r i c t " . S p e c i e s The most v a l u a b l e s t a n d s o f t i m b e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e c o a s t f o r e s t . Here t r e e s i n v i r g i n s t a n d s a r e c l o s e l y -s p a c e d , w i t h t r u n k s s i x f e e t o r more i n d i a m e t e r and r i s i n g t o h e i g h t s o f one hun d r e d f e e t t o t h e l o w e s t l i m b . On t h e s o u t h e r n t w o - t h i r d s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , and i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g b e l t on t h e m a i n l a n d , t h e p r i n c i p a l s p e c i e s i s Douglas f i r , c o m p r i s i n g up t o 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t a n d . T h i s t r e e , because o f i t s e x c e l l e n t s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , has been t h e most s o u g h t - a f t e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s p e c i e s , and most o f t h e prime a r e a s have now been l o g g e d . W e s t e r n hemlock makes up a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s m i x a t h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s and more n o r t h e r l y l a t i t u d e s , and i n d u s t r y i s f a l l i n g b a c k more and more on t h i s wood t o supplement d w i n d l i n g s u p p l i e s o f D o u g l a s 1 f i r . The i n t e r -i o r f o r e s t s e x h i b i t a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f s p e c i e s , w i t h Engelmann s p r u c e , y e l l o w p i n e , w e s t e r n l a r c h and w h i t e s p r u c e p r o v i d i n g t h e m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l c o v e r . B a l s a m f i r , a s p e c i e s u s e d p r i m a r i l y i n p u l p m a n u f a c t u r e , i s f o u n d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s i n b o t h c o a s t and i n t e r i o r f o r e s t s . Cedar.,' v a l u e d because i t s w e a t h e r r e s i s t a n t p r o p e r t i e s make i t i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r use as s h i n g l e s , shakes and s i d i n g , i s f o u n d e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f t h e c o a s t d i s t r i c t , and i n t h e dampest p o c k e t s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e F o r e s t I n d u s t r y The i n g e n u i t y o f man has d e v i s e d many u s e s f o r t h e t r e e s o f t h e f o r e s t . The p r i n c i p a l ones i n c l u d e sawn l u m b e r , u s e d i n a w ide v a r i e t y o f ways p r i m a r i l y f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n p u r p o s e s ; plywood; p a p e r and p l a s t i c s made f r o m wood-pulp; and a number o f c o m p o s i t i o n b o a r d s made f r o m w o o d - f i b r e s combined w i t h c h e m i c a l s . The a c t i v i t i e s i n -v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s t o t h e s e r v i c e o f man may i n v o l v e many s t a g e s , b u t f o r p u r p o s e s o f g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s i t has become c u s -t o m a r y i n t h e i n d u s t r y t o t h i n k o f them i n t e r m s o f two b r o a d c a t e -g o r i e s , e x t r a c t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n . E x t r a c t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e f e l l i n g o f t r e e s and t h e i r t r a n s f e r t o a c e n t r a l c o l l e c t i o n p o i n t , and i s most commonly c a l l e d " l o g g i n g " . C o n v e r s i o n i s t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f the^ t r e e i n t o any o f t h e p r o d u c t s m e n t i o n e d above, and i t has t h u s become common p r a c t i c e i n t h e i n d u s t r y t o c a t e g o r i z e p u l p - m i l l s , s a w m i l l s , p l ywood m i l l s , e t c e t e r a as " c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s " . The f u r t h e r t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f wood p r o d u c t s i n t o s p e c i a l t y p a p e r s , f u r n i t u r e and o t h e r s u c h consumer i t e m s i s n o t r e g a r d e d as a p a r t o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y b u t r a t h e r as one o f t h e m a r k e t s f o r i t s p r o d u c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f l o g g i n g and c o n v e r s i o n . I I . HISTORICAL REVIEW C h r o n o l o g i c a l Growth P i o n e e r P e r i o d (up t o 1 8 8 6 ) . I f one i g n o r e s t h e o c c a s i o n a l c u t t i n g o f s h i p s s p a r s b y i t i n e r a n t f u r - t r a d e r s and e x p l o r e r s , i t 15 can be said that the British Columbia forest industry had its origins at Victoria in the early 1850' s when four mills were built with the intention.of exporting lumber to the booming gold-rush towns of Cali-fornia. These ventures failed within a year or two, and sawmilling was not established on a permanent basis until 1858 when-a mill was built on Saanich Inlet to supply the local Victoria market^  which was experiencing a gold-rush boom of its own as a result of the Barkerville discoveries. By 1865 growing timber markets in China, Australia, Chile and Hawaii led to the establishment of two sawmills on Burrard Inlet, the site of the present city of Vancouver. During the next twenty years other smaller mills were established on the inlet, as well as at New Westminster and Chemainus in order to par-ticipate in this flourishing trade. By 1888 the Provincial Timber Inspector reported twenty-five sawmills in operation or under con-19 st ruction, with an annual production of 35 million f ,b.m. British Columbia was on its way to becoming one of the principal timber exporting areas of the world, and the forest industry had established itself in the vanguard of urbanization in the province. The Period of Expansion (1886-1914). The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1886 brought about dramatic changes in •^.A.Carrothers, in Lower, et. al., The North American Assault on the Canadian Forest (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1938) p.27. Note The abbreviation f.b.m. stands for "feet, board measure11, a unit, of volumetric measurement one foot.square and one inch, thick. 16 t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , f o r t h e subsequent wave o f p r a i r i e i m m i g r a n t s n o t o n l y c r e a t e d a v a s t i n c r e a s e i n t h e demand f o r i t s p r o d u c t s , b u t f o r c e d a complete r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f i t s m a r k e t i n g as w e l l . The e a s t w a r d s h i f t i n m a r k e t s meant t h a t f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i t was e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . However, t h e depend-ence upon c o s t l y l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r g e t t i n g l o g s f r o m t h e stump t o t h e m i l l meant t h a t i n t e r i o r m i l l s had t o move q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y when t i m b e r - s t a n d s became e x h a u s t e d . A t t h e c o a s t , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f cheap w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n meant t h a t m i l l s c o u l d s t a y p u t , r e a c h i n g f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r up t h e c o a s t when n e a r b y s u p p l i e s became d e p l e t e d . Thus, t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d , c u l m i n a t i n g i n 1910 i n 261 m i l l s w i t h a p r o d u c t i o n o f 1,620 m i l l i o n f .b.m., l e d t o s t a b i l i t y and growth i n e s t a b l i s h e d c o a s t a l c o m m u n i t i e s , b u t c o n t r i -b u t e d l i t t l e t o t h e development o f permanent s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e i n t e r i o r ? 1 Between t h e Wars (1914-1945). The F i r s t W o r l d War b r o u g h t a n e n d t o t h e p r a i r i e b u i l d i n g boom, and a d r a s t i c d e c l i n e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . A c t i v i t y a l m o s t c e a s e d i n t h e i n t e r i o r , a n d t h e c o a s t i n d u s t r y was f o r c e d t o r e - b u i l d t h e t r a n s o c e a n i c m a r k e t s w h i c h had been d e f a u l t e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n North-West. A f t e r t h e war a 2 0 I b i d . , p . 272. F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h e r i s e and d e c l i n e o f f o r e s t r y i n t h e i n t e r i o r , see a l s o J o s e p h Lawrence, M a r k e t s and  C a p i t a l ; A H i s t o r y o f t h e Lumber I n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (1778- 1952),(Vancouver; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , 1957) p.43-64. I? c o m b i n a t i o n o f I m p e r i a l t a r i f f p r e f e r e n c e s , a p o s t - w a r s u r p l u s o f s h i p p i n g t o n n a g e , and t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Panama C a n a l p r o v i d e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d u s t r y w i t h l u c r a t i v e m a r k e t s i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g -dom and on t h e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ^ So s u c c e s s f u l was t h e i n d u s t r y i n a c q u i r i n g new m a r k e t s t h a t b y 1929 a n n u a l p r o d u c -t i o n had c l i m b e d t o n e a r l y 2,500 m i l l i o n f.b.m., w i t h t h e c o a s t d i s t r i c t a c c o u n t i n g f o r n e a r l y a l l o f i t . I n t h e s t o c k market c r a s h o f 1929, and t h e d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d , many o f t h e s m a l l e r o p e r a t o r s were f o r c e d o u t o f b u s i n e s s , l e a d i n g t o a p e r i o d o f con-s o l i d a t i o n i n t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t i m b e r h o l d i n g s . The i n d u s t r y recovered f a i r l y q u i c k l y f r o m t h e d e p r e s s i o n , p r i m a r i l y on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e l a r g e m a r k e t p r o v i d e d i n B r i t a i n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t - s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g program. The war y e a r s o f 1939 t o 1945 saw a n o t h e r p e r i o d o f r a p i d e x p a n s i o n i n w h i c h e x t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y was resumed i n t h e i n t e r i o r , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t r a t e o f growth b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e h i t h e r t o l i t t l e - d e v e l o p e d n o r t h - c e n t r a l a r e a a r o u n d P r i n c e George. The P a l p and P a p e r I n d u s t r y . The f i r s t a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a p u l p and p a p e r i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was made a t A l b e r n i i n 21 1896 when a r a g - p a p e r m i l l was e s t a b l i s h e d b y E n g l i s h c a p i t a l . However, t h e l o c a l s u p p l y o f r a g s p r o v e d i n a d e q u a t e and t h e company f a i l e d w i t h i n two y e a r s . I n 1902, i n an e f f o r t t o encourage t h e development o f a p u l p and p a p e r i n d u s t r y , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government ^ a r r o t h e r s , t i p , c i t . , p. 312. 18 e n a c t e d l e g i s l a t i o n g r a n t i n g r i g h t s t o pulpwood t i m b e r on a generous b a s i s t o companies a g r e e i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a m i l l . T h i s l e d t o much s p e c u l a t i o n i n t i m b e r h o l d i n g s , b u t p r o d u c e d l i t t l e g enuine d e v e l o p -ment, and was r e p e a l e d two y e a r s l a t e r . However, some o f t h e companies formed a t t h i s t i m e d i d s u c c e e d i n g e t t i n g m i l l s underway, and t h e f i r s t p u l p was produced i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t Swanson Bay i n 1909. T h i s was f o l l o w e d l a t e r t h e same y e a r b y a m i l l a t P o r t M e l l o n . I n 1912 m i l l s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a t W o o d f i b r e , P o w e l l R i v e r and Ocean F a l l s , and i n 1918 a n o t h e r went i n t o p r o d u c t i o n a t P o r t A l i c e . Two> o t h e r f i r m s , t h e S i d n e y R o o f i n g and P a p e r Company o f V i c t o r i a , and t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r P a p e r M i l l o f New W e s t m i n s t e r were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1918 and 1925 r e s p e c t i v e l y . These were: s p e c i a l i z e d f i r m s p u r c h a s i n g p u l p f r o m t h e e s t a b l i s h e d m i l l s and c o n v e r t i n g i t t o s u c h p r o d u c t s as r o o f i n g p a p e r i n t h e S i d n e y m i l l and t i s s u e p a p e r and n a p k i n s i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r one. A l l t h e s e m i l l s , w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r two, had a t u r b u l e n t e a r l y h i s t o r y o f m a n a g e r i a l problems and t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n o c c a s i o n a l p e r i o d s o f i n -a c t i v i t y and f r e q u e n t changes o f o w n e r s h i p . However, e x c e p t f o r t h e Swanson B a y M i l l , w h i c h was abandoned i n 1923, a l l r e m a i n a c t i v e t o t h i s day, and p r o v i d e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r an i n d u s t r y w h i c h was t o grow t o a p o s i t i o n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a economy i n t h e p o s t - w a r e r a . The P o s t War P e r i o d (1945-1964). I n t h e p o s t - w a r y e a r s t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y e x p e r i e n c e d a n o t h e r p e r i o d o f r a p i d g r o w t h , w i t h t o t a l a n n u a l c u t r i s i n g f r o m 3,096 m i l l i o n f .b.m. i n 1945 t o o v e r 22 8,000 m i l l i o n f .b.m. i n 1963. One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p e r i o d was a s h i f t i n m a r k e t s w h i c h saw t h e B r i t i s h s h a r e o f e x p o r t t r a d e d e c l i n e f r o m a 1945 f i g u r e o f 45 p e r c e n t t o a 1950 f i g u r e o f 8 p e r c e n t w h i l e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h a r e r o s e f r o m 26 23 p e r c e n t t o 84 p e r c e n t . -* T h i s market s h i f t meant t h a t once a g a i n t h e i n t e r i o r was a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p e r i o d o f g rowth, w i t h i t s s h a r e o f t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n r i s i n g f r o m 19 p e r c e n t i n 1945 t o 44.7 p e r c e n t i n 1963. However, t h e c o a s t and t h e i n t e r i o r e a ch d e v e l o p e d i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t way d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . At t h e c o a s t a t r e n d t o w a r d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p w h i c h had begun d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n c o n t i n u e d a t an a c c e l e r a t e d pace f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. Economic d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n f o r c e d many o f t h e s m a l l e r o p e r a t o r s t o s e l l t o t h e more s u c c e s s f u l ones, who were a n x i o u s t o expand and c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r t i m b e r h o l d i n g s i n t h e f a c e o f i m p e n d i n g s h o r t a g e s . Newcomers a f t e r t h e war had t o c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h l e s s p r o f i t a b l e and l e s s a c c e s s i b l e s t a n d s o f t i m b e r . 2. The l a r g e r l o g s and more rugged t e r r a i n o f t h e c o a s t demanded 2 2 B r i t i s b C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1963 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964) p . l . ^ L a w r e n c e , op. c i t . , p. 149. 24, B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , op. c i t . , p . l . 20 heavier equipment than was required in the interior, necessi-tating i n i t i a l capital investments beyond the reach of many entrepreneurs. 3. Once an operation reached a certain minimum size, i t became possible to practise economies of scale through integrated 25 utilization, malting the smaller operations increasingly uneconomic. By 1961, as a result of this process of consolidation, seven large firms accounted for over 95 per cent of the total allowable annual cut from tree farm licenses in the coast forest district. Develop-menl^ in the interior, on the other hand, became characterized by a large number of small independent operators, with no fewer than 27 2,435 sawmills being accounted for in 1959. During this period, growth in pulp and paper production kept pace with that of the indus-try as a whole. New mills were built at Port Alberni, Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Crofton and Duncan Bay in the coast district, and the interior received its first mill at Castlegar on the Arrow Lakes in 1961, giving British Columbia a total of thirteen mills. 2 5For explanation of this term see page 42 2^For explanation of these terms see page ; 27 J.J. Deutsch, et. al., Economies of Primary Production in  British Columbia, vol. 1, "The Forest Products Industries," (Vancouver, B.C.: Mimeographed, 1959)' p. 17. — ! i j • . . . " ' ' Li 201 f I G U R E KXISTIHO PULP MILLS -I—, V^L*-.« \ N. S£ Y ,A< s-4 < -\. s^s • km, L E G E N D 1 1 0 Swanson Bay (Abandoned) 2* Port Mellon fo Woodfibre 4o Powell River 5« Ocean falls 60 Port Alice 7e Hew Westminster 8o Port Alberni 9o Prince Rupert 10o Nanaimo llo Croft on 12o Campbell River 13o Castlegar \ V THE FOREST INDUSTRY AS A DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CASE FOR INTEGRATION THROUGH REGIONAL PLANNING M A S t E R S D E G R E E f H E" S I S I N C O M M U N I T Y A R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A N O 20 40 60 SCALE IN MILES J. F. GILMOUR A P R I L 1 9 6 5 I • • "— 21 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change P i o n e e r P e r i o d (up t o 1 8 8 6 ) . The h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s o f t o - d a y b e a r l i t t l e r e semblance t o t h e i r p r i m i t i v e p r e d e c e s s o r s o f l i t t l e more t h a n a c e n t u r y ago. I n i t s e a r l y d a y s , t h e o n l y f o r m o f power a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was t h a t p r o v i d e d b y f a l l i n g w a t e r , a n i m a l s and man. S a w m i l l s were l o c a t e d where st r e a m s e m p t i e d i n t o s h e l t e r e d c o a s t a l b a y s , p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a s o u r c e o f power and w a t e r b o r n e a c c e s s f o r t h e i r l o g s u p p l y . T r e e s were f e l l e d b y h a n d - t o o l s , dragged t o t h e w a t e r ' s edge b y m u l t i - y o k e d teams o f h o r s e s o r oxen o v e r s k i d - r o a d s made o f g r e a s e d l o g s l a i d a c r o s s t h e p a t h o f t r a v e l , and towed t o t h e m i l l b e h i n d w h a l e b o a t s rowed b y crews o f men. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n o l o g i -c a l advance t o emerge d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f steam power i n t h e s a w m i l l s . T h i s f r e e d t h e m i l l s f r o m t h e i r depend-ence upon r i v e r - m o u t h l o c a t i o n s , and made p o s s i b l e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e many m i l l s b u i l t i n t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t and New W e s t m i n s t e r a r e a s d u r i n g t h e 1870's and 1880's. The Age o f Steam (1886-1940). W i t h t h e growth o f m a r k e t s w h i c h accompanied t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e r a i l r o a d , t h e l o g g e r sought more e f f i c i e n t means o f g e t t i n g h i s l o g s t o t h e m i l l , and f o u n d h i s answer i n t h e steam e n g i n e . S t a t i o n a r y e n g i n e s , c a l l e d "donkeys" were f i r s t u s e d a t t h e w a t e r f r o n t end o f t h e s k i d - r o a d t o d r a g l o g s f o r d i s t a n c e s o f up t o a m i l e b y means o f s t e e l c a b l e s . These were 22 s o o n r e p l a c e d b y s t e e l - w h e e l e d e n g i n e s on r a i l s s p i k e d t o t h e s k i d -r o a d , w h i c h d r a g g e d t h e l o g s b e h i n d them. About 1904 s t e e l - w h e e l e d f l a t - c a r s began t o be u s e d t o c a r r y t h e l o g s b e h i n d t h e e n g i n e , and th e r o m a n t i c age o f r a i l r o a d l o g g i n g was u s h e r e d i n . The n e x t s t e p i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l o g g i n g o c c u r r e d about 1915, when t h e " h i g h - l e a d " t e c h n i q u e was d e v e l o p e d t o b r i n g t h e l o g f r o m t h e stump t o t h e r a i l -s i d e . T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e use o f a steam donkey t o d r a g o r " y a r d " t r e e s t o t h e r a i l b y means o f a s t e e l c a b l e p a s s e d t h r o u g h a p u l l e y on t o p o f a t a l l s p a r t r e e . T h i s had t h e advantage o f r a i s i n g t h e f r o n t end o f t h e l o g c l e a r o f t h e ground as i t was d r a g g e d a l o n g b u t p r o v e d t o be an e x t r e m e l y d e v a s t a t i n g method w h i c h f l a t t e n e d a l l t h e immature growth and unwanted s p e c i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s , l e a v i n g them t o r o t o r b u r n . A f u r t h e r a r e a o f development d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was t h a t o f t h e w a t e r - b o r n e t r a n s p o r t o f l o g s . P r i m i t i v e p a d d l e - w h e e l e d steamers began t o ap p e a r i n t h e l a t e 1860's, and b y t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y p u r p o s e b u i l t s t e a m - p o w e r e d t u g s o f up t o one hun d r e d f e e t i n l e n g t h , w i t h f i v e h u n d r e d horsepower e n g i n e s , were i n common u s e . They towed l o g s e i t h e r i n f l a t booms o f up t o s i x a c r e s i n e x t e n t , o r , where 29 r o u g h open w a t e r was e n c o u n t e r e d , i n " D a v i s " r a f t s . These t o w i n g 2 % . E . Swanson, A H i s t o r y o f R a i l r o a d L o g g i n g . ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , I 9 6 0 ) p.4. 29 "The D a v i s r a f t was an i c e b e r g - l i k e mass o f l o g s . Logs were p i l e d on a mat woven o f c a b l e s and t i e d t o g e t h e r w i t h c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l a s h i n g s . B y s t a g g e r i n g t h e b u t t s o f a d j a c e n t l o g s w i t h i n t h e b u n d l e some degree o f l o n g i t u d i n a l s t i f f n e s s was o b t a i n e d . . . . Many r a f t s were 500 t o 800 f e e t i n l e n g t h , 50 t o 80 f e e t w i d e , drew 20 t o 40 f e e t o f w a t e r , and r o s e 10 t o 20 f e e t above t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e . " H a r d w i c k , op. c i t . , p. 3 5 . 23 t e c h n i q u e s , combined w i t h t h e s h e l t e r e d w a t e r s o f G e o r g i a S t r a i t s , were a p o w e r f u l f a c t o r i n t h e development o f a r e a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n and community s t a b i l i t y i n t h e c o a s t f o r e s t d i s t r i c t . The age o f steam l a s t e d u n t i l about 1940, when t h e d e p l e t i o n o f t h e l o w l a n d s and v a l l e y f l o o r s made i t n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n l o g g i n g t h e h i l l s i d e s w h i c h were beyond t h e r e a c h o f r a i l w a y s . The Modern B r a . The p r e s e n t - d a y f o r e s t i n d u s t r y employs a wide v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s most o f w h i c h a r e b a s e d on t h e d i e s e l e n g i n e f o r power. Huge r u b b e r t i r e d t r u c k s n e g o t i a t e s t e e p b u t w e l l -e n g i n e e r e d l o g g i n g r o a d s t o b r i n g l o g s down f r o m t h e h i l l s i d e s t o t h e m i l l , booming-ground, o r m a i n - l i n e r a i l r o a d . P o r t a b l e s t e e l s p a r s and o t h e r i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e s r e d u c e damage ca u s e d b y h i g h - l e a d y a r d -i n g . I n t h i n n e r s t a n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e i n t e r i o r , d i e s e l c r a w l e r -t r a c t o r s a r e sometimes u s e d t o p u l l l o g s out b e h i n d r u b b e r - t i r e d h i g h l i f t a r c h e s . P o r t a b l e d i e s e l c r a n e s a r e u s e d t o l o a d l o g s on t r u c k s and r a i l - c a r s , and d r y - l a n d l o g s o r t i n g w i t h f o r k - l i f t t r u c k s has a p p e a r e d i n some p l a c e s t o su p e r c e d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l method o f s o r t i n g and s t o r i n g i n f l o a t i n g booming gr o u n d s . Huge s e l f - d u m p i n g l o g - b a r g e s have made i t p o s s i b l e f o r c o a s t c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s t o r e a c h beyond l a r g e s t r e t c h e s o f open w a t e r t o t a p more remote t i m b e r - s t a n d s . A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y , m a king s i t e - s e l e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s l e s s dependent upon p r o x i m i t y t o t i m b e r s t a n d s , and more dependent on f a c t o r s s u c h as t h e economics o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and p r o x i m i t y t o 24 m a r k e t f a c i l i t i e s , power and w a t e r s u p p l y , and l a b o u r f o r c e . Forms o f Tenure I n t r o d u c t i o n . At f i r s t g l a n c e t h e s y s t e m o f f o r e s t t e n u r e p r e v a i l i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia p r e s e n t s a b e w i l d e r i n g p i c t u r e , w i t h , no f e w e r t h a n n i n e t e e n d i s t i n c t f o r m s o f t e n u r e i n f o r c e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . However, i f v i e w e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y i n t h e l i g h t o f p o l i c y r e v i s i o n s e n a c t e d b y s u c c e s s i v e governments i n response t o c h a n g i n g p r o v i n c i a l needs, a l o g i c a l p a t t e r n b e g i n s t o emerge. B a s i c a l l y t e n u r i a l changes have been t h e r e s u l t o f a g r a d u a l s t e p -b y - s t e p p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e government has become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e f o r e s t s , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g them as a p e r p e t u a l renewable r e s o u r c e . However, t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f one t e n u r i a l p o l i c y by a n o t h e r d i d n o t have t h e e f f e c t o f o b l i t -e r a t i n g t h e e a r l i e r f o r m o f t e n u r e s i n c e t h e government c o n t i n u e d t o h o n or agreements made p r i o r t o t h e p o l i c y change. Commendable though t h i s may have been i n t e r m s o f e q u i t y o r j u s t i c e , i t c o m p l i -c a t e d m a t t e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h a t any new p o l i c y n o t o n l y had t o be an improvement upon t h e o l d i n t erms o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , b u t a l s o had t o a v o i d , so f a r as p o s s i b l e , p u t t i n g t h e h o l d e r s o f t h e new forms o f t e n u r e a t a c o m p e t i t i v e d i s a d v a n t a g e w i t h t h o s e s t i l l a b l e t o o p e r a t e u n d e r t h e o l d r u l e s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s e v o l u t i o n -a r y p r o c e s s t h e r e now e x i s t n i n e t e e n s e p a r a t e forms o f t e n u r e . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t o f what i s now t h e 25 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l l l a n d was deemed t o b e l o n g t o t h e Crown, i n t h e r i g h t o f t h e C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W i t h t h e e n t r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871, t h i s r i g h t p a s s e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. F o r t h e s e e a r l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s l a n d was t h e o n l y a s s e t f r o m w h i c h t h e y c o u l d d e r i v e r e v e n u e , so i t was s o l d , o r made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h p r e - e m p t i o n , w i t h l i t t l e o r no r e g a r d f o r t h e u l t i m a t e v a l u e o f i t s r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l . ^ 0 Land o b t a i n e d i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e ways; was r e f e r r e d t o as "Crown Gr a n t Land", and was s a i d t o have been " p e r m a n e n t l y a l i e n a t e d " . By 1865 t h e C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n began t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e t r e e s o f t h e f o r e s t were a p o t e n t i a l a s s e t i n t h e m s e l v e s s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e l a n d w h i c h grew them. W i t h t h e Land O r d i n a n c e o f t h a t y e a r t h e r e was i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f g r a n t i n g t h e r i g h t t o c u t t i m b e r on Crown Land w i t h o u t p e r m a n e n t l y a l i e n a t i n g t h e l a n d i t s e l f . T h i s was n o t i n s p i r e d b y any c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t t o promote t h e l o n g - t e r m p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h r e t e n t i o n o f t h e f r e e h o l d b y t h e Crown, b u t was r a t h e r an e f f o r t t o encourage t h e development o f a f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a t a t i m e when v e r y f e w i n h a b i t a n t s c o u l d a f f o r d t o buy Crown l a n d even a t t h e p r e v a i l i n g l o w p r i c e o f one d o l l a r p e r a c r e . N o n e t h e l e s s t h e s e " t i m b e r l e a s e s " as t h e y were 30u# # # a p r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1859 b y t h e Governor o f t h e C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e c i t e d t h a t " u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i a l l y announced a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s a l e t h e conveyance o f t h e l a n d s h a l l i n c l u d e a l l t r e e s ' . . . ." f r o m S l o a n , op. c i t . , p. 19. 26 c a l l e d were t h e f i r s t i m p o r t a n t s t e p t o w a r d t h e development o f c u r r e n t f o r e s t p o l i c y — " t h e r e t e n t i o n b y t h e Grown o f t i t l e t o f o r e s t l a n d , and t h e g r a n t i n g o f c u t t i n g r i g h t s t h e r e o n b y v a r i o u s forms o f 3 1 l i c e n s e . " A l l s u c h r i g h t s t o t i m b e r on Crown Land have come t o be c a l l e d " t e m p o r a r y a l i e n a t i o n s " . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e permanent and t e m p o r a r y a l i e n a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r c a t e g o r y o f f o r e s t l a n d w h i c h c a n n o t p r o p e r l y be d e s c r i b e d as t e n u r e . These a r e l a n d s r e t a i n e d b y t h e Crown, and managed b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Permanent A l i e n a t i o n s . As was n o t e d above, e a r l y a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s p e r m i t t e d t h e o u t r i g h t s a l e o f f o r e s t l a n d . T h i s p r a c t i c e was c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1896 when t h e Land A c t was r e v i s e d t o p r o h i b i t t h e s a l e o f " t i m b e r l a n d " , d e f i n e d as l a n d c o n t a i n i n g 8,000 f .b.m. p e r a c r e on t h e c o a s t and 5,000 f.b.m. p e r a c r e i n t h e i n t e r i o r . The r e v i s e d A c t had two f u n d a m e n t a l weaknesses, however. L a n d s u r v e y s , up u n t i l 1912, were c a r r i e d o u t s o l e l y b y p r i v a t e s u r v e y o r s , who were n o t f o r e s t e r s o r lumbermen, and who o f t e n u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e amount o f s t a n d i n g t i m b e r p e r a c r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , prime l a n d b e a r i n g i m -mature s t a n d s might n o t c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m b e r a t t h e t i m e o f p urchase t o q u a l i f y as " t i m b e r l a n d " , y e t m i g h t w e l l do so i n f u t u r e y e a r s . As a r e s u l t , a g r e a t d e a l o f " t i m b e r l a n d " c o n t i n u e d t o pass i n t o p r i v a t e hands a f t e r 1896. The f i r s t p r o b l e m , t h a t o f ^ S l o a n , op. c i t . , p. 1 7 . 27 i m p r o p e r s u r v e y s , was c o r r e c t e d i n 1912 w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d F o r e s t S e r v i c e examine a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r purchase. The second p r o b l e m was n o t s o l v e d u n t i l 1947, when l e g i s l a t i o n was: p a s s e d d e f i n i n g t i m b e r l a n d as " l a n d t h a t i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r ( o f Lands and F o r e s t s - ) w i l l f i n d i t s b e s t economic use u n d e r 32 f o r e s t crop."-' One s o u r c e o f permanent a l i e n a t i o n s t i l l r e mains a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , i n t h e l a n d s known as t h e "E. and M. Land G r a n t " . T h i s i s an a r e a o f some 3,000 square m i l e s o f c h o i c e f o r e s t l a n d on Vancouver I s l a n d ^ g r a n t e d t o t h e E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y , now a Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y s u b s i d i a r y , as p a r t o f t h e t e r m s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . Because t h e g r a n t p r e - d a t e s any P r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t l e g i s l a t i o n , l a n d h e r e may s t i l l be bought and l o g g e d f r e e f r o m a l l government r e g u l a t i o n s e x c e p t t a x a t i o n . P e r m a n e n t l y a l i e n -a t e d l a n d a c c o u n t s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e , y e t i n 1963 y i e l d e d n e a r l y 33 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c u t f o r t h a t y e a r . C l e a r l y , though t h i s f o r m o f t e n u r e was o f f i c i a l l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1896, i t s t i l l e x e r t s a s i z e a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia's f o r e s t economy. Temporary A l i e n a t i o n s . A t o t a l o f t w e l v e d i s t i n c t forms o f t e m p o r a r y a l i e n a t i o n have e v o l v e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . The e a r l i e s t o f 3 2 I b i d . , p. 20. • ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , op. c i t . , p. 83. 28 t h e s e , known as l e a s e s , d a t e b a c k t o 1865, and were g r a n t e d f o r renew-a b l e t erms o f twenty-one y e a r s t o b o n a - f i d e o p e r a t o r s o f c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s . The l e a s e h o l d e r a g r e e d t o pay t h e government a r o y a l t y on a l l t i m b e r c u t , a t a r a t e d e t e r m i n e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e g r a n t i n g o r renew-i n g o f t h e l e a s e . L e a s e s were o f two k i n d s , " t i m b e r " and " p u l p " , w i t h r o y a l t i e s on p u l p l e a s e s b e i n g l o w e r s i n c e t h e y a p p l i e d t o t i m b e r o f a q u a l i t y o r s i z e w h i c h made i t l e s s v a l u a b l e t h a n s a w - t i m b e r . The l e a s i n g s y s t e m was f i n a l l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1905, s i n c e i t meant t h a t t i m b e r was b e i n g s o l d f o r twenty-one y e a r s ahead a t l o w p r e v a i l i n g r a t e s , t h u s d e n y i n g t h e government t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e b e n e f i t s t o be d e r i v e d f r o m any i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e . However, many l e a s e s r e m a i n i n good s t a n d i n g t o t h i s day, and i n 1963 a c c o u n t e d f o r two and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c u t . ^ The p o l i c y o f l i c e n s i n g began i n 1884 and r a n c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e l e a s i n g p o l i c y u n t i l t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r i n 1905. L i c e n s e s d i f f e r e d f r o m l e a s e s i n two f u n d a m e n t a l ways: t h e y were g r a n t e d f o r a s h o r t e r t e r m , o r i g i n a l l y f o u r y e a r s b u t l a t e r r e d u c e d t o one y e a r , and t h e y d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h e i r h o l d e r t o be a c o n v e r s i o n -p l a n t o p e r a t o r . L i c e n s i n g was i n t r o d u c e d t o f u r t h e r encourage t h e growth o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , and w i t h i t t h e growth o f P r o v i n c i a l r e v e n u e s , b y e n a b l i n g p e o p l e o f l i m i t e d c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s t o c u t logs, and s e l l them on t h e open l o g m a r k e t . I n 1905, by m a k i n g l i c e n s e s 34lbid. 29 r e n e w a b l e f o r twenty-one year.:-periods, and by^making them t r a n s f e r a b l e among l i c e n s e e s , t h e government u n l e a s h e d a f l o o d o f s p e c u l a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t i m b e r l a n d i n w h i c h 15,000 square m i l e s o f l a n d were t a k e n up, and t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s o f revenue were y i e l d e d t o t h e t r e a s u r y , i n a p e r i o d o f s e v e n y e a r s . However, u n d e r t h e l i c e n s i n g s y s t e m , t i m b e r l a n d r e v e r t e d t o t h e Crown when l o g g e d , so o p e r a t o r s : had ho permanent i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n d and no i n c e n t i v e t o p r a c t i s e : measures o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . "They were t r a n s i e n t s , consuming t h e f o r e s t s as t h e y went a l o n g . T h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h i s p o l i c y were f i n a l l y n o t e d i n t h e 1945 R o y a l Commission i n t o t h e F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and l i c e n s i n g was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1947. A number o f l i c e n s e s s t i l l r e m a i n i n f o r c e , and i n 1963 a c c o u n t e d f o r t w e l v e and o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c u t . "Timber B e r t h s " were a n o t h e r f o r m o f t e m p o r a r y a l i e n a t i o n s . These were a f o r m o f l i c e n s e , g r a n t e d b y t h e F e d e r a l Government f r o m t i m b e r l a n d s h e l d b y them i n t h e t w e n t y m i l e wide b e l t o f l a n d e a c h s i d e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y as p a r t o f t h e terms o f Con-f e d e r a t i o n . T h i s " R a i l w a y B e l t " was r e t u r n e d t o p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n i n 1930, and s i n c e t h e n t h e t i m b e r b e r t h s have been s u b j e c t t o r e g u l a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e g o v e r n i n g l i c e n s e s . Timber b e r t h s a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y two p e r c e n t o f t h e 1963 c u t . "Timber S a l e s " a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e t o t a l a n n u a l c u t , a c c o u n t i n g i n 1963 f o r n e a r l y f i f t y p e r c e n t . S l o a n , op. c i t . , p. 39. 30 These a r e b a s i c a l l y c o n t r a c t s l e t b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e f o r t h e c u t t i n g o f t i m b e r on Crown L a n d , and a r e u s u a l l y awarded t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g . The d u r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t i s w r i t t e n i n t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s a l e , and may v a r y anywhere f r o m one t o t e n y e a r s . The t e c h n i q u e o f t h e t i m b e r s a l e o r i g i n a t e d i n 1912, and assumed i t s c u r r e n t p r o m inent p o s i t i o n i n 1947 a f t e r t h e 1945 R o y a l Commission recommended t h e i r w i d e - s p r e a d a d o p t i o n . "Tree Farm L i c e n s e s " , f o r m e r l y c a l l e d " F o r e s t Management L i c e n s e s " a r e t h e second most i m p o r t a n t f o r m o f t e m p o r a r y a l i e n a t i o n a c c o u n t i n g i n 1963 f o r f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c u t . They were c o n c e i v e d i n 1945 b y t h e l a t e C h i e f J u s t i c e Gordon McG. S l o a n as a means o f i n d u c i n g t h e l a r g e p r i v a t e h o l d e r s o f t i m b e r r i g h t s t o p l a c e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s u n d e r a government s u p e r v i s e d program o f s u s -36 t a i n e d y i e l d . I n most e a s e s , l a r g e t h o u g h t h e s e p r i v a t e h o l d i n g s were, t h e y were n o t o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o make i t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s -i b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t o r s t o u n d e r t a k e p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h i n v o l v e d r e d u c -i n g t h e i r a n n u a l c u t t o match t h e a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f growth w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , assuming s u c h a d d i t i o n a l b u r d e n s as s i l v i c u l t u r e , r e f o r e s t a t i o n and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . The f o r e s t management l i c e n s e a l l o c a t e s t o t h e l i c e n s e e a s u f f i c i e n t a r e a o f a d j a c e n t Crown l a n d t o make h i s t o t a l h o l d i n g s l a r g e enough t o overcome t h i s , l i m i t a t i o n . I n r e t u r n t h e l i c e n s e e a g r e e s t o manage b o t h h i s own l a n d and t h e Crown l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o a government approved p l a n o f s u s t a i n e d 3^For e x p l a n a t i o n of. t e r m see page y i e l d . F a i l u r e t o l i v e up t o t h e agreement c o u l d l e a d t o f o r f e i t u r e o f t h e l i c e n s e . O r i g i n a l l y l i c e n s e s were g r a n t e d i n p e r p e t u i t y , b u t r e v i s e d l e g i s l a t i o n now c a l l s f o r r e n e w a l on a twenty-one y e a r b a s i s . The newest f o r m o f t e n u r e t o have b e e n c r e a t e d i s t h e " P u l p -wood H a r v e s t i n g A r e a " . These a r e l a r g e a r e a s o f Crown l a n d upon w h i c h t h e r e e x i s t s s u f f i c i e n t pulpwood t o s u p p o r t a p u l p m i l l . T h i s pulpwood i s t i m b e r b e l o w t h e s t a n d a r d o f u t i l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r s a w m i l l i n g p u r p o s e s . ' Thus, w i t h i n a pulpwood h a r v e s t i n g a r e a t h e r e may e x i s t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e v e r a l "Timber S a l e s " as- d e s c r i b e d above, w i t h two c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t s e t s o f o p e r a t o r s a t work; one remov-i n g pulpwood, t h e o t h e r r e m o v i n g s a w - t i m b e r . The Pulpwood H a r v e s t i n g A r e a was d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e i n t e r i o r , b y m a k i n g i t p o s s i b l e f o r pulp-mi l i s t o become e s t a b l i s h e d w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t o r s i n l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s t e n u r e as y e t has made no c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t o t a l a n n u a l c u t s i n c e no m i l l s b a s e d upon i t have been c o m p l e t e d . However, i t i s i n t h i s a r e a o f a c t i v i t y t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p a n s i o n i n t h e f o r e s t i n -d u s t r y w i t h i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a l i e n a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above, t h e r e e a s t a number o f m i n o r t y p e s i n c l u d i n g "Hand L o g g e r ' s L i c e n s e s " , Farm Wood L o t L i c e n s e s " , " C h r i s t m a s T r e e P e r m i t s " and " S a l v a g e P e r m i t s " . These a c c o u n t f o r l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n one p e r c e n t o f t h e a n n u a l c u t . I I I . GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION L e g i s l a t i v e B a c k g r o u n d I n t r o d u c t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , a c t i n g u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e " F o r e s t A c t " , C h a p t e r 153, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I960. The A c t , i n I t s p r e s e n t f o r m , was drawn up i n 1947, f o l l o w i n g t h e recommendations handed down t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r i n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e S l o a n R o y a l Commission. The S l o a n R o y a l Commission, i n 1945 t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government a p p o i n t e d t h e l a t e C h i e f J u s t i c e Gordon McG. S l o a n a one man R o y a l Commission t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e F o r e s t R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s were h e l d i n s e v e r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c i t i e s d u r i n g 1946, a t w h i c h s u b m i s s i o n s were p r e s e n t e d b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f i n -d u s t r y , government and l a b o u r , as. w e l l as b y i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . A f t e r e v a l u a t i n g a l l t h e s e s u b m i s s i o n s , C h i e f J u s t i c e S l o a n recommend-e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f p o l i c i e s h a v i n g as t h e i r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s t h e p l a c i n g o f t h e e n t i r e f o r e s t l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n d e r a s y s t e m o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d w h i c h would t r e a t t h e f o r e s t s as a c r o p t o be h a r -v e s t e d a t a r a t e n o t t o exceed t h a t a t w h i c h i t c o u l d be r e g e n e r a t e d . I t was as a r e s u l t o f t h e 1946 r e p o r t t h a t t h e "Tree Farm L i c e n s e s " and "Timber Sales' 1 , d e s c r i b e d above came t o be a d o p t e d . A f u r t h e r r e -commendation o f t h e r e p o r t was t h a t a second R o y a l Commission be h e l d 33 i n t e n y e a r s t i m e t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o g r e s s made d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d . T h i s was done, w i t h C h i e f J u s t i c e S l o a n a g a i n a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t t h e e n q u i r y . The r e p o r t handed down i n 1956 b a s i c a l l y approved o f t h e measures implemented b y t h e government, w i t h recommendations, b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o ways o f m a k i n g them work more e f f i c i e n t l y . I t i s n o t e d t h a t i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e 1956 r e p o r t , t h e r e appears a l i s t o f t h i r t e e n s p e c i f i c m a t t e r s t o be i n q u i r e d i n t o , number s i x o f w h i c h i s " t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t c r o p and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o employment and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s " . However t h e r e p o r t i t s e l f c o n -t a i n s no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , an o m i s s i o n w h i c h t y p i f i e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n between community development and t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y w h i c h p r e v a i l s t o t h i s day. None-t h e l e s s , t h e S l o a n R o y a l Commission R e p o r t s emerge as two o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t documents w i t h r e s p e c t t o community development i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s i n c e t h e y e n s u r e d t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t r e s o u r c e w i t h o u t w h i c h v i a b l e f o r e s t - b a s e d c o m m u n i t i e s c o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d o r m a i n t a i n e d . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e I n t r o d u c t i o n . The b r a n c h o f government r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i -s t e r i n g f o r e s t p o l i c y i s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , e s t a b -l i s h e d i n 1912. Of t h e S e r v i c e , S l o a n s t a t e s , "The F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s c h a r g e d w i t h t h e g r a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e P o l i c y o f t h e Government and t h e r e l e v a n t f o r e s t r y l a w s r e l a t i n g t o o u r most 34 i m p o r t a n t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e . I t i s a h e a v i e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r d e n t h a n t h a t b orne b y any o t h e r department o f government i n t h e province".-^ As a consequence o f t h e l o n g - c o n t i n u e d p o l i c y o f r e t a i n i n g o w n e r s h i p o f t h e f o r e s t i n t h e name o f t h e Crown, t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s , i n e f f e c t , " i n b u s i n e s s " ; and i n t h e l a r g e s t b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , a t t h a t . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e . The s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r i s t h e "Deputy M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s , and s e r v i n g d i r e c t l y u n d e r h im i s t h e C h i e f F o r e s t e r . I n t h e p a s t i t has b e e n a common p r a c t i c e t o a s s i g n b o t h t h e s e p o s i t i o n s t o one man, b u t t h e S l o a n Commission n o t e d t h a t t h i s was t o o b i g a b u r d e n t o be borne b y a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l . W i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h e r e a r e two b r o a d d i v i s i o n s , t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , and t h e f i e l d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o p e r a t i n g f r o m f i v e d i v i s i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . C e n t r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e b r a n c h e s w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f d i v i s i o n s , e ach c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g one p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e program. B r i e f l y t h e s e may be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. S t a f f B r a n c h — s e r v e s d i r e c t l y u n d e r t h e C h i e f F o r e s t e r . ( a ) F o r e s t C o u n c i l — r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l l e g a l m a t t e r s . ( b ) A c c o u n t i n g D i v i s i o n . S l o a n , op. c i t . , p. 544. 35 ( c ) P e r s o n n e l D i v i s i o n . ( d ) P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n . 2. T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B r a n c h — s e r v e s u n d e r one o f two A s s i s t a n t C h i e f F o r e s t e r s . ( a ) S u r v e y s and I n v e n t o r y D i v i s i o n . ( b ) R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n . ( c ) R e f o r e s t a t i o n D i v i s i o n . ( d ) W o r k i n g P l a n s D i v i s i o n — S c h e d u l e s t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f Crown F o r e s t s , and approves s c h e d u l i n g o f "Tree Farm L i c e n s e " h a r -v e s t i n g . ( e ) P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n . 3. O p e r a t i o n s B r a n c h — s e r v e s u n d e r t h e o t h e r A s s i s t a n t C h i e f F o r e s t e r . ( a ) Management D i v i s i o n — a d m i n i s t e r s a l l h a r v e s t i n g a f t e r a p p r o v a l i s o b t a i n e d f r o m "Working P l a n s D i v i s i o n " . ( b ) G r a z i n g D i v i s i o n — a d m i n i s t e r s use o f g r a z i n g l a n d f a l l i n g w i t h i n Grown f o r e s t s . ( c ) E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n — d e s i g n s and c o n s t r u c t s r o a d s , m a i n t a i n s . a l l e q uipment. ( d ) P r o t e c t i o n D i v i s i o n — i n c h a r g e o f f i r e p r e v e n t i o n , d e t e c t i o n and s u p p r e s s i o n . F i e l d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F i e l d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s w h i c h , i n t o t a l , embrace t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . E a c h i s u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r and an a s s i s t a n t 36 d i s t r i c t f o r e s t e r . The f i v e f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s a r e f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a l a r g e number o f r a n g e r d i s t r i c t s u n d e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a e f o r e s t r a n g e r . T a b l e I i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e s e f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s . TABLE I FOREST DISTRICTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (1963) Volume o f T i m b e r No. o f Name o f D i s t r i c t A r e a Removed-1963 Ranger Sq. M i l e s (f.b.m.) D i s t r i c t s V a n c o u v e r 34,406 4*246,691,460 26 P r i n c e R u p e r t 108,053 1,035,009,162 14 P r i n c e George 137,922 1,079,231,863 17 Kamloops 53,509 1,466,537,891 24 N e l s o n 30,687 848,361,446 22 S o u r c e s : S l o a n R o y a l Commission R e p o r t (1956) B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e A n n u a l R e p o r t (1963) E v a l u a t i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e p r o v i d e s a two d i m e n s i o n a l framework f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h a s t r o n g c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y i n V i c t o r i a r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a k i n g b a s i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , and a w i d e s p r e a d f i e l d o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r c a r r y i n g o u t p o l i c y and f o r f e e d i n g b a c k t o t h e c e n t r a l , a u t h o r i t y a c o n s t a n t a p p r a i s a l o f t h e p o l i c y ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . S l o a n n o t e d t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d be im p r o v e d b y a l l o w i n g t h e D i s -t r i c t R angers more power i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and b y h a v i n g a g r e a t e r ^ number o f s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s , t e n b e i n g p u t f o r w a r d as a t e n t a t i v e V 1 u % \ ) > 36k f I G U R E 3 FORKT DISTRICTS i f 8 mi '•V 5J 7 F r i W srt' Si L E G E N r A i Prince George A . — ^ Boundary Between Forest Districts. Boundary Between Coast and Interior 0 **•••• <2 5 I yr HI-.. \ J-^ F ) V M sir v. i*jEJ • 1 • j Taws 1 V 1 v V3 / Iff / THE FOREST INDUSTRY AS A DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE CASE FOR INTEGRATION THROUGH REGIONAL PLANNING I N M AS t f R* S D E G R E E I H F S I C O M M U N I T Y & R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G U N I V E R S I T Y O f B R I T I S H C O l U < I M B I A N O 20 40 60 SCALE IN MILES J. F. GILMOUR A P R I L 1 9 6 5 Kamlooi J II 3 13 X'. 4Lf ; .V. S i [ 'if*' K ) \ \ \ \ 37 38 suggestion. This would make for speedier decision-making in mana-gerial, as opposed to policy matters by people in the best position x to judge the facts. With these suggestions the then Chief Forester agreed, citing manpower shortage as the only obstacle to Implementa-tion, Classification of Crown Forest Introduction, Approximately 110 million acres of forest land in British Columbia is held by the Crown, Of this, somewhat less than 20 million acres are s t i l l unsurveyed and inaccessible, while over 90 million acres, representing two-thirds of the total forest land in the province, are in productive use to varying degrees of intensity, under the management of the British Columbia Forest Service, This vast territory is divided into eighty-two areas known as "Public Sustained Yield Units" in which logging is carried out by private operators holding licenses obtained! through the Mtim~ ber-salett form of tenure described previously. The forest Service is responsible for determining the allowable annual cut, awarding cutting licenses, constructing main access roads, and managing refore-station and fire protection, with the operators being responsible for building the branch roads linking their cutting areas to the main road, 38sioan, op, cit,, p. 551. G e o g r a p h i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s v a r y i n s i z e f r o m 4,090,000 t o 81,000 a c r e s , w i t h t h e ave r a g e s i z e b e i n g about 1,360,000 a c r e s . I n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e s e u n i t s s e v e r a l f a c t o r s were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g p r e -e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s , r a n g e r d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s , and w a t e r s h e d s . Wherever p o s s i b l e , b o u n d a r i e s were a r r a n g e d so t h a t e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s were a t , o r near, t h e c e n t r e s o f t h e u n i t s . ^ 9 S i z e was d i c t a t e d m a i n l y b y t h e need t o c r e a t e u n i t s l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e an a n n u a l c u t s u f f i c i e n t t o s u p p o r t e s t a b l i s h e d o p e r a t o r s w i t h o u t e x c e e d i n g t h e a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f g r o w t h . P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s a r e a l s o t h e b a s i c a r e a l u n i t upon w h i c h Pulpwood Har-v e s t i n g A r e a s a r e b a s e d . F o r example, Pulpwood H a r v e s t i n g A r e a N o . l i s made up o f n i n e P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s a r o u n d P r i n c e George, and A r e a No.2 i s made up o f t h i r t e e n U n i t s a r o u n d Kamloops. A l l o c a t i o n o f L i c e n s e s . I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t s were c r e a t e d l o n g a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e a r e a c o n c e r n e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e government had t o t r y t o r e s p e c t t h e l e g i t i m a t e needs o f t h e s e o p e r a t o r s f o r a n a s s u r e d s u p p l y o f t i m b e r s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e i r a n n u a l c o s t s o f c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . A t t h e same t i m e , however, i t had t o implement i t s p o l i c y o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b y l i m i t i n g t h e a n n u a l c u t t o match t h e a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f g r o w t h . The t e c h n i q u e -'"R, G. McKee, D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1965. 39 adopted was that of allocating to each operator an "assigned commit-ment" which was approximately equal to the volume he had been removing each year prior to the establishment of the Public Sustained Yield Unit. This meant that each unit had to be drawn up large enough that its annual increment of growth would at least equal the sum total of i t s assigned commitments. The operators, known as "established licensees" were allowed a new timber sale only when required to replace what had been cut under the previous sale. When a licensee i s nearing the end of the term of his previous sale, he applies to the Forest Service to have an additional stand of timber made available. The stand is auc-tioned, and anyone can bid. However, i f the Unit is fully committed, that i s , i f the sum total of "assigned commitments" equals the allowable annual cut, then bidding i s be sealed tender and the appli-cant i s given the right to meet the highest bid after the tenders are open. If he fail s to do this he loses his assigned commitment, ceases to be an established licensee, and, to a l l intents and pur-poses, i s out of business. IV. PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MANAGEMENT Sustained Yield Sustained yield i s the cornerstone of present government policy i n British Columbia. Basically i t involves balancing the annual forest cut accurately against the annual regrowth or "incre-ment". However, this is be no means a simple matter. If community and r e g i o n a l s t a b i l i t y a r e sought as o b j e c t i v e s t h e n c u t must b a l a n c e r e g rowth n o t m e r e l y on a p r o v i n c e - w i d e b a s i s , b u t b y l o c a l i t y and s p e c i e s as w e l l . A v i t a l f i r s t s t e p i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a p o l i c y o f s u s -t a i n e d y i e l d i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a complete i n v e n t o r y o f a l l t h e s t a n d i n g s t o c k o f t i m b e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e , r e g i o n b y r e g i o n , t o d e t e r -mine volume, s p e c i e s m i x , a n n u a l growth r a t e , e t c e t e r a . S i n c e t h e s t a n d i n g s t o c k o f t i m b e r i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f g r o w t h , r e g e n e r a t i o n , l o g g i n g , f i r e and i n s e c t r a v a g e , and d e c a y , a f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y becomes o u t o f d a t e v e r y q u i c k l y . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s t h e p r o v i n c e , i n 1957, opened a " C o n t i n u o u s F o r e s t Inventory",« a l a r g e and complex document n e a r l y f i v e i n c h e s t h i c k w h i c h i s k e p t up t o d a t e t h r o u g h c o n s t a n t f i e l d work and r e v i s i o n . P e r h a p s t h e most d i f f i c u l t , and most i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n t o be made w i t h r e s p e c t t o s u s t a i n e d y i e l d i s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e optimum " r o t a t i o n p e r i o d " , w h i c h means s i m p l y t h e age a t w h i c h t h e t i m b e r c r o p i s t o be h a r v e s t e d . O b v i o u s l y , i f a t r e e grows r a p i d l y f o r a hundred y e a r s , b u t o n l y v e r y s l o w l y f o r t h e n e x t two o r t h r e e hun-d r e d y e a r s i t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y w i s e r t o h a r v e s t a s e r i e s o f hundred y e a r c r o p s t h a n t o w a i t f o r t h e t r e e s t o m a t u r e . I n f a c t , H a i g -Brown p o i n t s o u t t h a t "immature f o r e s t s have a growth r a t e n e a r l y t w e n t y - f o u r t i m e s as f a s t a s mature f o r e s t s , and i n mature f o r e s t s t h e a n n u a l l o s s t h r o u g h d e c a y i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e a n n u a l growth . . . t i m b e r on t h e v e r g e o f o v e r - m a t u r i t y and decadence i s t i m b e r i n v e r y 41 p o o r s t o r a g e " . 4 ^ Optimum r o t a t i o n t i m e v a r i e s g r e a t l y w i t h s p e c i e s , g r o w i n g e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e purpose t o w h i c h t h e t i m b e r i s t o be put. Saw-timber and pl y w o o d f r o m Coast D o u g l a s F i r r e q u i r e s a r o t a t i o n p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t n i n e t y y e a r s , hemlock f o r pulpwood p u r p o s e s a p e r i o d o f about s i x t y y e a r s , and f o r some y e l l o w p i n e - l a r c h f o r e s t s i n t h e i n t e r i o r , a. f i f t y - y e a r c y c l e has been f o u n d s u i t a b l e . 4 1 I n t h e n a t u r a l f o r e s t , s p e c i e s and a g e - c l a s s e s t e n d t o be m i n g l e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f " c l e a r - c u t " l o g g i n g , i s employed, i n w h i c h a l l t r e e s i n a g i v e n s t a n d a r e removed a t once, t h e n much p o t e n t i a l i n c r e m e n t i s l o s t t h r o u g h t h e w a s t e f u l d e s t r u c t i o n o f immature g r o w t h . On t h e o t h e r hand i f " s e l e c t i v e " l o g g i n g i s employed, i n w h i c h o n l y t h e mature t r e e s a r e removed, c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n a r e v e r y much h i g h e r , and t h e i n e f f i c i e n t m i x t u r e o f a g e - c l a s s e s i s p e r p e t u -a t e d as new growth t a k e s r o o t among t h e t r e e s l e f t s t a n d i n g . Gener-a l l y i t has been f o u n d t h a t t h e " c l e a r - c u t " method i s more adva n t a g e -ous i n t h e l o n g r u n , s i n c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a c h e a p e r method o f l o g g i n g , i t a l l o w s e n t i r e s t a n d s t o be r e s t o c k e d b y growth i n a s i n g l e a g e - c l a s s s© t h a t f u t u r e o p e r a t i o n s can be " c l e a r - c u t " w i t h v i r t u a l l y no w a s t e . To quote S l o a n , " I t i s a p a r a d o x t h a t no i r r e g u l a r l y s t o c k e d f o r e s t can be o r g a n i z e d f o r s u s t a i n e d y i e l d w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c e 42 o f i m m e d i a t e y i e l d " . When a f o r e s t has been f u l l y c o n v e r t e d t o s u s t a i n e d y i e l d i t 40Haig-Brown, op. c i t . , p. 63 and 7 5 . ^ - S l o a n , op. c i t . , p. 231. 4 2 I b i d . , p. 226. 42 i s as d i f f e r e n t from the unregulated f o r e s t s found i n nature as i s a modern d a i r y cow from the p r e - h i s t o r i c animal f i r s t domesticated by man: a h i g h l y p r o d u c t i v e , h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d resource re-shaped by man t o s u i t h i s own purposes. Haig-Brown notes t h a t " i f a l l the l a n d were producing as i t should ( i . e . under su s t a i n e d y i e l d ) , i f every f o r e s t area were a c c e s s i b l e , and i f a l l the d i f f e r e n t types of f o r e s t t h a t make up the resource could be economically worked, the safe annual cut would be three b i l l i o n cubic f e e t , approximately three times the present y i e l d " . However, most a u t h o r i t i e s agree t h a t i t w i l l take at l e a s t a century t o achieve these c o n d i t i o n s . B a r r i n g some as yet unknown t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n which might render wood products redundant, the government p o l i c y of sus-t a i n e d y i e l d holds f o r B r i t i s h Columbia the promise of permanent f o r e s t communities i n s t e a d of temporary camps and ghost towns, and the f u r t h e r promise of long-term economic growth and p r o s p e r i t y , U t i l i z a t i o n As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y the p r o d u c t i v i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's for e s t s , may be expected t o i n c r e a s e by as much as t h r e e f o l d over the next century. However, the r a p i d expansion of the i n d u s t r y d u r i n g the post-war y e a r s , from a 1944 annual cut of three b i l l i o n f.b.m. t o a 1963 f i g u r e of e i g h t b i l l i o n , plus the b i l l i o n d o l l a r , twenty-p u l p - m i l l expansion p r e d i c t e d f o r the next f i v e years, might seem 'Haig-Brown, op. c i t . , p. 73. t o i n d i c a t e t h a t consumption of the f o r e s t i s going t o o u t s t r i p the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y t o a dangerous degree. That t h i s expansion can be accommodated without d e p l e t i n g the f o r e s t i s explained by the term " u t i l i z a t i o n " . Through most of i t s h i s t o r y the B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t i n d u s t r y ' has been p r i m a r i l y a saw-log i n d u s t r y concerned a l -most e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h producing lumber f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes. As a r e s u l t , timber considered u n s u i t a b l e f o r s a w m i l l i n g due t o s p e c i e s , d e f e c t s , or i n s u f f i c i e n t s i z e was l e f t i n the woods t o r o t . Thus, as l a t e as 1958 Haig-Brown was able t o s t a t e t h a t "one t r e e i n f i v e of a mature f o r e s t , and two t r e e s i n f i v e of a young f o r e s t are l o s t " . ^ " U t i l i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s p u t t i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e wood, i n c l u d i n g t h a t which was f o r m e r l y waste, t o i t s best p o s s i b l e use. Modern u t i l i z a t i o n methods i n c l u d e s e l e c t i n g the v e r y best l o g s as " p e e l e r s " f o r manufacture i n t o plywood, u s i n g "average" l o g s f o r s a w m i l l i n g i n t o lumber, and converting undersized and d e f e c t i v e l o g s i n t o pulp-wood. I n a d d i t i o n , the i n s t a l l a t i o n of c h i p p i n g machines at s a w m i l l s i t e s has made i t p o s s i b l e t o convert s a w m i l l residue i n t o chips f o r s a l e t o p u l p - m i l l s , i n s t e a d of simply burning i t . Some i n d i c a t i o n of what t h i s can mean t o the i n d u s t r y may be deduced from the s t a t e -ment of one l a r g e s a w m i l l operator who f o r m e r l y r e a l i z e d an §8,000 annual r e t u r n from waste-slabs by s e l l i n g them t o the urban wood-fuel market and now claims t o r e c e i v e $200,000 per annum from the same volume of s l a b s by c h i p p i n g them and s e l l i n g them t o the nearest 'Haig-Brown, op. c i t . , p. 65. pulp m i l l . In the coast forest industry, f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n i s practised by the large integrated companies who maintain logging operations, sawmills, plywood plants and pulp-mills a l l within one corporate structure. In the interior, on the other hand, the predominance of small sawmills and the absence of pulpmlls has meant that the annual cut i s far from f u l l y u t i l i z e d . It i s i n the interior that most of the predicated future pulp expansion i s to take place, and the re-sult w i l l be not ruinous over-consumption of the forest resource, but rather i t s more efficient u t i l i z a t i o n . Market linkages, as opposed to corporate linkages, w i l l become established between the existing sawmills and the new pulp-mills to f a c i l i t a t e the exchange of materials. Multiple Use Resource uses frequently conflict with one another, making planning and co-operation necessary i f these conflicts are to be resolved. In British Columbia, where forests cover such a large per-centage of the total surface area, the potentialities for conflict between the forest industry and other resource-users are p l e n t i f u l . To cope with these a number of pr i o r i t i e s have been established i n which forestry must give way to the requirements of other activities. 45 R .G. McKee, Deputy Minister of Forests, personal interview, February 16, 1965. 45 F o r example, seven m i l l i o n a c r e s have been d e c l a r e d " p r o t e c t i o n forest'^ i n which l o g g i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d o r p r o h i b i t e d f o r purposes o f w a t e r -s torage and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l . M i n i n g i s a l l o w e d p r i o r i t y over f o r e s t l a n d , but o n l y f o r v e r y l i m i t e d areas adjacent t o the a c t u a l w o r k i n g s . Water-s torage b e h i n d dams i s granted p r i o r i t y , w i t h the f o r t h c o m i n g p r o j e c t s on the Peace and Columbia R i v e r s expected t o remove n e a r l y a m i l l i o n a c r e s f rom p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t u s e . The most c o n t r o v e r s i a l a s p e c t o f the concept o f m u l t i p l e use concerns access t o the f o r e s t b y the p u b l i c f o r purposes o f h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n . Those i n f a v o u r o f p u b l i c access p o i n t out t h a t f o r e s t l a n d can produce a hundred crops o f w i l d l i f e o r a hundred y e a r s o f r e c r e a t i o n w h i l e i t i s p r o d u c i n g one crop o f t r e e s . Those opposed base t h e i r arguments on i n c r e a s e d f i r e h a z a r d , danger t o the p u b l i c from l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r vandal i s m t o u n s u p e r v i s e d i d l e l o g g i n g m a c h i n e r y . The compromise s o l u t i o n a p p l i e d throughout most o f the p r o v i n c e t o - d a y i s the c l o s u r e o f roads t o the p u b l i c o n l y d u r i n g w o r k i n g h o u r s . Where roads are p r i v a t e l y owned t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t p e r m i t s must be o b t a i n e d f rom the owner b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g on t o the roads d u r i n g evenings and weekends. I n s p i t e o f these onerous r e s t r i c t i o n s l o g g i n g roads have become v i t a l p a r t s o f the p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, p r o v i d i n g i n many cases the o n l y means o f o v e r l a n d access t o the more remote s e t t l e d a r e a s . V. CHAPTER SUMMARY 46 The geography o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has endowed t h e p r o v i n c e w i t h 118 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t c o v e r i n g s i x t y p e r c e n t o f i t s t o t a l a r e a . Man began t o e x p l o i t t h i s f o r e s t f o r h i s own p u r p o s e s about 1850, and f r o m humble b e g i n n i n g s t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has grown t o become t h e p r o v i n c e ' s most i m p o r t a n t economic a c t i v i t y , c u t t i n g o v e r e i g h t b i l l i o n b o a r d f e e t o f t i m b e r i n 1963 w i t h a v a l u e o f $850,000,000 and s u p p o r t i n g , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , o v e r h a l f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l a b o r f o r c e . The growth o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y has had a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e upon t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Throughout most o f i t s development t h e i n d u s t r y has c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s o u t h w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e where dense f o r e s t s and c o n v e n i e n t w a t e r a c c e s s have enc o u r a g e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s s u c h as l a r g e saw-m i l l s , p u l p - m i l l s and plywood p l a n t s . Two m a j o r i t e m s o f government p o l i c y have been o f t h e utmost i m p o r t a n c e i n s h a p i n g t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e i n d u s t r y , and i n d e t e r m i n i n g i t s c o u r s e f o r t h e f u t u r e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , e n u n c i a t e d i n 1896, i s t h e r e t e n t i o n b y t h e Crown, i n t h e r i g h t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , o f t i t l e t o a l l l a n d deemed t o have as i t s h i g h e s t and b e s t use t h e g r o w i n g o f f o r e s t c r o p s . The s e c o n d , a d o p t e d i n 1946, i s t h e commit-ment o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government t o a c o n t i n u o u s endeavour t o p l a c e a l l t h e f o r e s t l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e u n d e r s u s t a i n e d y i e l d . The f i r s t p o l i c y has p e r m i t t e d t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f n e a r l y n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s f o r e s t l a n d t o t h e s e r v i c e o f i t s c i t i z e n s u n d e r t h e t r u s t e e s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. The second p o l i c y has a s s u r e d f o r e s t r y a permanent r o l e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l economy and has t r a n s f o r m e d t h e i n d u s t r y f r o m one c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s h o r t - t e r m e x -p e d i e n c y and i n s t a b i l i t y t o one d e d i c a t e d t o s t a b i l i t y and l o n g t e r m g r o w t h . B o t h t h e s e p o l i c i e s were m o t i v a t e d b y a genuine c o n c e r n f o r t h e l o n g - t e r m p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , y e t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y h o l d f o r t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y and i t s e f f e c t s upon human e n v i r o n m e n t have n o t as y e t been e x p l o r e d . CHAPTER I I I CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY 1. TYPES OF OPERATION E x t r a c t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n . The r e m o v a l o f t r e e s f r o m t h e f o r e s t s f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s i s a complex, m u l t i - s t a g e d o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a b a l a n c e o f e c o n o m i c , e n g i n e e r i n g , and manual s k i l l s , m o d i f i e d b y t h e demands o f g e o g r a p h y and government p o l i c y . Because o f t h e g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s o f t e r r a i n and f o r e s t t y p e t o be f o u n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e as " t y p i c a l " any one c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a b o r and c a p i t a l t o be f o u n d i n t h e e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e s s . However, c e r t a i n b r o a d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e common t o e a c h s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s . W o r k i n g P l a n . A l l f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s must b e g i n w i t h a b a s i c management p l a n i n c l u d i n g o b j e c t i v e s , c u t t i n g method, a l l o w a b l e a n n u a l c u t , development o f t h e f o r e s t , r e f o r e s t a t i o n , a c c e s s , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e v i e w , r e s e a r c h and a n n u a l r e p o r t . ^ These p l a n s a r e m a n d a t o r y f o r a l l Tree Farm L i c e n s e s , Pulpwood Har-^°I.T. Cameron, " P r o v i d i n g a C o n t i n u o u s S u p p l y o f Timber i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e XXXIX, ( M a r c h , 1963), p. 36. 49 v e s t i n g Areas and P u b l i c Sustained Y i e l d U n i t s , and must be approved by the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e before the g r a n t i n g of a l i c e n s e . Based upon these plans, the operator then makes more de-t a i l e d year-by-year plans t o guide h i s short-term o p e r a t i o n s . The f i r s t step i n t h i s p l a n n i n g procedure i s t o estimate the l i k e l y market requirements f o r species, s i z e , and volume d u r i n g the f o r t h -coming c u t t i n g season. Then, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a e r i a l photo-graphs and maps showing t r e e s i z e , species and topography, f o r e s t e r s and f o r e s t engineers draw up the a c t u a l s e t t i n g s t o be logged. These are then marked out on the ground, w i t h adjustments b e i n g made where the l i m i t a t i o n s of equipment and unexpected geographical i r r e g u l a r i -t i e s may d i c t a t e . Logging Areas. Logging p r a c t i c e s v a r y not o n l y w i t h t e r r a i n but a l s o from company t o company, r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n on matters such as r e f o r e s t a t i o n and c a p i t a l u t i l i z a t i o n . However, the most common technique i n use to-day appears t o be t h a t of "patch*3 l o g g i n g i n which areas of about 300 acres i n extent are c l e a r - c u t , l e a v i n g extensive stands of surrounding timber from which the patch w i l l be n a t u r a l l y re-seeded. This standing timber w i l l not be logged u n t i l the cut patches have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y restocked. The E x t r a c t i o n Process. The steps i n the e x t r a c t i o n process c o n s i s t of f e l l i n g , bucking, y a r d i n g , decking, l o a d i n g , h a u l i n g , sort-i n g and s h i p p i n g . F e l l i n g i s the a c t u a l process of c u t t i n g down the 50 t r e e s , and b u c k i n g c o n s i s t s o f r e m o v i n g a l l b r a n c h e s , and c u t t i n g t h e l o g i n t o l e n g t h s s u i t a b l e f o r h a n d l i n g o r as s p e c i f i e d b y t h e c o n v e r -s i o n p l a n t f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e d e s t i n e d . Y a r d i n g i s t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e l o g f r o m where i t was f e l l e d , t o a p o i n t where i t i s s t a c k e d o r "decked" f o r l o a d i n g . The most common f o r m o f y a r d i n g i s t h e d i e s e l -powered " h i g h - l e a d " t e c h n i q u e d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , a l t h o u g h i n t h i n n e r s t a n d s a mechanized " a r c h " may be d r i v e n d i r e c t l y u p t o t h e f a l l e n l o g i n o r d e r t o d r a g i t t o t h e r o a d s i d e . The most commonly us e d h i g h - l e a d equipment c o n s i s t s o f a p o r t a b l e s p a r w i t h a n optimum r e a c h o f a b o u t 600 f e e t . " D e c k i n g " i s s i m p l y t h e p i l i n g o f l o g s a t o r n e a r t h e base o f t h e s p a r , f r o m where t h e y a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y l o a d e d on t o f l a t - b e d d i e s e l t r u c k s b y means o f c r a n e s . H a u l i n g i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y done b y t r u c k , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s s t i l l one o p e r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h a t o f C a n a d i a n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s i n t h e N i m p k i s h V a l l e y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , w h i c h u s e s r a i l i n a d d i t i o n t o t r u c k . A t t h e end o f t h e h a u l t h e l o g s a r e dumped a t a c e n t r a l s o r t i n g a r e a , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y a l a k e , r i v e r o r s h e l t e r e d b a y o f t h e s e a . Here t h e y a r e s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o q u a l i t y and s p e c i e s , e i t h e r m a n u a l l y o r b y means o f t i n y b u t p o w e r f u l boom-boats. A t some o f t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r i o r , h a u l i n g may t e r m i n a t e d i r e c t l y a t a s a w m i l l s i t e , where t h e l o g s a r e dumped i n t o a s m a l l m i l l - p o n d f o r s o r t i n g . A f t e r s o r t i n g t h e l o g s a r e a s s e m b l e d i n t o r a f t s o r l o a d e d on t o r a i l c a r s o r b a r g e s f o r t r a n s p o r t t o t h e c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t . Corporate Forms of Logging, Logging i s conducted by three d i f f e r e n t forms of operators, the independent logger, the contract logger and the integrated f i r m . The independent logger i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent i n the i n t e r i o r , and h i s numbers are diminishing on the coast as w e l l . The independent loggers are estimated to require approximately $20,000 to $30,000 of c a p i t a l investment f o r each m i l l i o n f.b.m. produced. Since most operations produce three m i l l i o n f.b.m. or more, the t y p i c a l independent i s c a p i t a l i z e d at perhaps $100,000, i n d i c a t i n g that he i s by no means a "small" businessman i n the same sense that the word may be used i n other f i e l d s of hi economic a c t i v i t y . The independent cuts logs from small l i c e n s e -areas and s e l l s them on the open l o g market through brokers. I t i s estimated that there are approximately three hundred independent loggers producing some 250 m i l l i o n f.b.m., or approximately three i g percent of the t o t a l cut. Contract loggers are firms whose production i s promised, by f i r s t - r e f u s a l at market or some other form of contract, to sawmills or p u l p - m i l l s . They do not have any timber holdings of t h e i r own, but cut t h e i r customers timber instead. One of the terms of Tree Farm Licenses i s that t h i r t y percent of the cut be made ava i l a b l e t o contract loggers. I t i s estimated that there are approximately ^ Deutsch, op. c i t . , p. 21. 4 8 I b i d . 52 1,000 f i r m s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . The m a j o r i t y o f l o g g i n g t o - d a y i s c a r r i e d out by crews employed by the owners of c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s . As the process o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n proceeds, c a p i t a l investment i n c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r , t o the p o i n t where no o p e r a t o r dares t o r i s k the l o s s o f h i s s u p p l y o f l o g s . To assure t h e i r source o f supply , p l a n t operators, b i d a g a i n s t l o g g i n g o p e r a t o r s f o r t i m b e r and, b e i n g content t o show a p r o f i t o n l y on t h e i r m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , are a b l e t o submit h i g h e r t e n d e r s , thus g r a d u a l l y so^ueezing the independent l o g g e r out o f the p i c t u r e . Convers ion S a w m i l l s . S a w m i l l s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the backbone o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n s i s t e n t l y employing more w o r k e r s , and c o n t r i b u t i n g a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l "va lue added", t h a n any o t h e r branch o f the i n d u s t r y . The growth and impor-tance o f s a w m i l l i n g i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a government p o l i c y f i r s t enacted i n 1901 p r o h i b i t i n g the e x p o r t o f non-manufactured t i m b e r except by s p e c i a l p e r m i t s . T h i s was the f i r s t , and undoubtedly the most i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y enacted i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o encourage the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . S a w m i l l s e x i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n great p r o f u s i o n and i n a wide v a r i e t y o f s i z e s , from p o r t a b l e two o r t h r e e man o p e r a t i o n s t o g i a n t complexes employing as many as one thousand w o r k e r s . G e n e r a l l y , 53 coast mills tend to be larger than interior mills, i t having been noted in the Sloan Commission Report that the average number of workers em-ployed by sawmills in the interior was nine or ten, while along the coast the average was sixty. About two thirds of the larger mills are concentrated in the southwest coastal areas, either in the Port Alberni-Victoria axis on Vancouver Island, or on the north arm of the Fraser River in the lower mainland area. The pattern of- sawmilling is undergoing such rapid change that a detailed picture of the distribution of activities i s virtually impossible to obtain. Basically however the trend is toward further concentration, with the number of mills steadily declining over the past decade, while the capacity for production has actually increased. The figures contained in Tablell give some indication of this trend. TABLE II CHANGING SAWMILL CAPACITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Estimated 8 hour Year Number daily capacity l,000«s f.b.m. 1954 2346 25,602 1955 2489 28,016 1956 2435 29,080 26,752 27,694 1957 2255 1958 2010 1959 2005 28,280 I960 1938 29,432 1961 1778 29,025 1962 162? 28,234 1963 1541 29,339 10 year average 2042 28,145 Source: British Columbia Service Annual Report, 1963. B a s i c a l l y , s a w m i l l i n g i s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h l o g s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o a c c u r a t e l y shaped l e n g t h s o f f i n i s h e d l u m b e r s u c h as b o a r d s , p l a n k s , t i e s and beams. The p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s t h e h a u l i n g o f t h e l o g b y means o f a " g r e e n c h a i n " on t o a movable t a b l e o r " c a r r i a g e " . The c a r r i a g e p a s s e s t h e l o g t h r o u g h a "gang-saw" w h i c h saws i t i n t o l o n g i -t u d i n a l s t r i p s o f t h e d e s i r e d t h i c k n e s s . I t i s n e x t p a s s e d t h r o u g h an e d g e r w h i c h s q u a r e s o f f t h e edges. D e p e n d i n g on t h e u l t i m a t e u s e o f t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t t h e l u m b e r may, a t t h i s s t a g e , be "trimmed" i n t o t h e d e s i r e d l e n g t h s and p i l e d f o r e v e n t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , o r i t may be p a s s e d t h r o u g h a " p l a n e r " i n w h i c h a s e r i e s o f c u t t i n g edges on r o t a t -i n g drums p r o v i d e i t w i t h a smooth s u r f a c e on a l l f a c e s . S p e c i a l t y m i l l s m i g h t a l s o i n c l u d e a f u r t h e r s t a g e c a l l e d " s h a p i n g " , i n w h i c h s p e c i a l p r o f i l e s a r e c u t i n t o t h e wood f o r use as m o u l d i n g and t r i m . W i t h t h e g r o w i n g s h o r t a g e o f D o u g l a s F i r and subsequent i n c r e a s e d r e -l i a n c e u pon hemlock, many m i l l s have a l s o i n s t a l l e d l a r g e sheds f o r k i l n d r y i n g . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e t h e h i g h m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f g r e e n hemlock makes i t d i m e n s i o n a l l y u n s t a b l e . The l a r g e r and more e f f i c i e n t m i l l s a l s o have h y d r a u l i c b a r k e r s f o r t h e r e m o v a l o f b a r k b e f o r e t h e l o g i s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e saws. T h i s makes p o s s i b l e t h e s a l v a g e o f " s l a b s " o r p a r t i a l l y r ounded edges, w h i c h were f o r m e r l y w a s t e d b u t w h i c h c a n now be " c h i p p e d " f o r s a l e t o p u l p - m i l l s . L a r g e m i l l s a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y powered, b u t v e r y s m a l l ones may use d i e s e l , o r g a s o l i n e i n t e r n a l - c o m b u s t i o n e n g i n e s . 55 P u l p - m i l l s . The f a c t o r t h a t most d i s t i n g u i s h e s p u l p - m i l l s f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f f o r e s t a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f s m a l l s c a l e o p e r a t i o n . C u r r e n t p u l p - m i l l t e c h n o l o g y r e n d e r s p r o d u c -t i o n most e f f i c i e n t when c a r r i e d - o n a t a s c a l e o f f r o m 500 t o n s p e r d a y t o 750 t o n s p e r d a y . A r o u g h r u l e o f thumb i s t h a t m i l l s c o s t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y $100,000 p e r d a i l y t o n o f o u t p u t , so t h a t optimum i n v e s t m e n t s a r e i n t h e range o f f r o m 50 t o 75 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . E x i s t i n g p u l p - m i l l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a l l i n t o two d i s t i n c t age g r o u p s : t h o s e b u i l t p r i o r t o t h e F i r s t W o r l d War i n response t o a b r i e f p e r i o d o f government encouragement t h r o u g h generous l i c e n s i n g t e r m s , and t h o s e b u i l t a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d p o l i c i e s , i n 1947. I n b o t h c a s e s i t t o o k t h e p o s i t i v e a s s u r a n c e o f a c o n t i n u e d wood s u p p l y t o b r i n g about t h e h e a v y i n v e s t m e n t s i n v o l v e d . S i m i l a r l y t h e c u r r e n t wave o f e x p a n s i o n i s a r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Pulpwood H a r v e s t i n g A r e a t e n u r e i n 1961. The purpose o f p u l p - m i l l s i s t o produce a f i b r o u s m a t e r i a l w h i c h can be u s e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f p a p e r and t i s s u e p r o d u c t s , as w e l l as a c h e m i c a l raw m a t e r i a l , c e l l u l o s e , w h i c h i s u s e d i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f a v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s s u c h as e x p l o s i v e s , r a y o n and c e l l o p h a n e . Those m i l l s engaged i n p r o -d u c i n g p u l p f o r p a p e r m a n u f a c t u r e a r e known as " k r a f t " m i l l s , u s i n g t h e " s u l p h a t e " p r o c e s s , w h i l e t h o s e whose o u t p u t i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f a c h e m i c a l raw m a t e r i a l a r e known as " s u l p h i t e " m i l l s , p r o d u c i n g ^ p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. N.C. B r u c e , D e s i g n E n g i n e e r , S a n d w e l l and Company L i m i t e d , C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r s , F e b r u a r y 4, 1965. " b l e a c h e d " o r " d i s s o l v i n g " p u l p . O n l y two B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m i l l s use t h e " s u l p h i t e " p r o c e s s , t h o s e a t P o r t A l i c e and P r i n c e R u p e r t . The raw m a t e r i a l f o r s u l p h i t e m i l l s i s l i m i t e d t o hemlock, s p r u c e and b a l s a m , w h i l e k r a f t m i l l s a r e a b l e t o use v i r t u a l l y any s p e c i e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e k r a f t m i l l t h a t i s a b l e t o be most c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o m a j o r s a w m i l l s and t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , n o t o n l y a r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f e x i s t i n g m i l l s u s i n g t h e k r a f t p r o c e s s , b u t e v e r y one o f t h e p r o p o s e d f u t u r e m i l l s i s o f t h i s 51 t y p e as w e l l . O t h e r O p e r a t i o n s . There a r e a wide v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l t y wood p r o d u c t s w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t f o r some t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . These i n c l u d e t h e manu-f a c t u r e o f s h i n g l e s and s h a k e s , plywood, f i b r e - b o a r d s and p r e s t o -l o g s . S h i n g l e and shake m a n u f a c t u r e i s c a r r i e d o u t e i t h e r b y p l a n t s a t t a c h e d t o e s t a b l i s h e d s a w m i l l s , o r b y s m a l l i n d e p e n d e n t o p e r a t o r s . I t i s an e x t r e m e l y v o l a t i l e i n d u s t r y , w i t h t h e number o f m i l l s i n o p e r a t i o n f l u c t u a t i n g w i d e l y f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . I n 1961 t h e r e were s i x t y o p e r a t i n g m i l l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n 1962 t h i s f i g u r e d r o p p e d t o t h i r t y - t h r e e and b y 1963 i t had c l i m b e d b a c k t o s i x t y -- ^ D e u t s c h , op. c i t , , p. 30. ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, R e c e n t Developments i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P u l p and  P a p e r I n d u s t r y ( V i c t o r i a : The Department, 1964) pp. 4-7. 57 three. Under these conditions i t is virtually impossible to general-ize about this section of the industry. However, over the past ten years its output has amounted to only about three and one-half per-cent of that of the sawmill industry, so any trends that may emerge will have l i t t l e significance upon patterns of employment or spatial distribution of activity. The fibreboard and presto-log activities are also relatively unimportant, being adjuncts of large sawmill operators and serving as a means of utilizing wastes considered un-suitable for pulp-mill purposes. Of the "other operations", only plywood plants would appear to constitute an activity of any degree of significance. There are at present nineteen plants in British Columbia of which ten are located in the Greater Vancouver area and fourteen are located in the highly urbanized southwest corner of the 52 province. Like pulp-mills, plywood plants are sufficiently expen-sive to preclude the existence of small operators, with the typical 53 plant being estimated to have cost approximately $500,000. Plywood manufacture consists basically of mounting logs on giant rotary lathes and "peeling" them against a knife edge so as to produce a long, thin continuous ribbon of veneer. These veneer-ribbons are then cut to desired size, dried, and glued together under pressure, with alter-^Interview with Mr. L. Reed, Director of Economic Research, British Columbia Council of Forest Industries, March 8, 1965. ^Deutsch, op. cit., p. 35. n a t e l a m i n a t i o n s , h a v i n g t h e i r d i r e c t i o n o f g r a i n a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o one a n o t h e r , t h u s p r o d u c i n g a t h i n s h e e t o f e x c e p t i o n a l s t r e n g t h and d i m e n s i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . O n l y t h e v e r y c h o i c e s t o f D o u g l a s F i r l o g s , s t r a i g h t - g r a i n e d and f r e e f r o m d e f e c t s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r m a k i n g i n t o p l y w o o d . I n t h e t r a d e t h e s e a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " p e e l e r s " and f e t c h t h e h i g h e s t p r i c e s o f any l o g s i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r e s t . 2. SPATIAL AND LOCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS E x t r a c t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n . I t may be t h o u g h t t h a t n a t u r e i s t h e o n l y l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t f o r t h e e x t r a c t i o n b r a n c h o f t h e f o r e s t i n -d u s t r y , s i n c e man must c u t t h e t r e e s where he f i n d s them. However, a g r e a t many f a c t o r s , economic, g e o g r a p h i c and p o l i t i c a l must be con-s i d e r e d i n d e c i d i n g what t r e e s t o c u t a t a n y g i v e n t i m e . P o l i c y D e t e r m i n a n t s . H a v i n g put most o f t h e f o r e s t l a n d o f t h e p r o v i n c e u n d e r s u s t a i n e d y i e l d , t h e government h a s , i n e f f e c t , f i x e d t h e l o c a t i o n o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s b e h i n d t h i s p o l i c y was t h e c r e a t i o n o f s t a b l e communi-t i e s b y e n s u r i n g t h a t , once an o p e r a t o r had assembled a l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e r e w o u l d be a p e r p e t u a l s u p p l y o f t i m b e r a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n r e a s o n -a b l e d i s t a n c e o f t h e w o r k e r s ' p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e need t o impose t h i s new p o l i c y on t o p o f a p r e - e x i s t i n g t e n u r i a l system has meant that this ideal condition could not always be achieved. This is particularly true in the case of Tree Farm Licenses, where the long-established private policy of growth by accretion resulted in many long narrow timber holdings based on valley formations, or where a single license-area may embrace ad-jacent island and mainland sites separated by many miles of open water. One example of this is Tree Farm License 39, held by MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited. A portion of this area is on the Queen Charlotte Islands, a portion is on the main-land across some 150 miles of open water, and yet another portion is on northern Vancouver Island. Although the area involved may be large enough to be operated in perpetuity, i t obviously cannot be worked by a labour force operating from a single permanent community. Market Determinants. When log prices are high, operators prefer to cut in sparsely-treed areas and more difficult terrain, where costs per unit of output tend to be relatively high. Good log prices permit them to absorb these high costs, while the cutting of more lucrative stands is deferred until periods of low prices. Climatic conditions are a further influence in this regard, with denser and more readily accessible stands being cut during periods of inclement weather. Thus the scene of a particular logging operation may shift about considerably over relatively short time s p a n s . Where t h e shape and s i z e o f an o p e r a t o r ' s t i m b e r h o l d i n g i s l o n g and n a r r o w , and t h e community- i n w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s l i v e i s n o t c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , t h i s may have c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t upon t h e l e n g t h o f t h e j o u r n e y t o work. C o n v e r s i o n SaxTnnllls. The e x t r e m e l y wide v a r i a t i o n i n s a w m i l l s i z e s r e n d e r s i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e about many o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l d e t e r -m i n a n t s f o r t h i s b r a n c h o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . However, one c r i t i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t , t h a t o f l o c a t i o n , i s common t o a l l m i l l s . Because l u m b e r i s s u c h a b u l k y commodity any u n n e c e s s a r y t r a n s - s h i p m e n t must be a v o i d e d a t a l l c o s t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n even t h e s m a l l i n t e r i o r m i l l s t e n d t o l o c a t e a l o n g s i d e r a i l w a y s p u r s , where c a r s can be l o a d e d f o r shipment t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d c o n t i n e n t a l m a r k e t s . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e l a r g e s t c o a s t m i l l s a r e l o c a t e d on t i d e w a t e r , where advantage c a n be t a k e n o f cheap w a t e r b o r n e t r a n s p o r t t o o v e r s e a s and e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s m a r k e t s . S a w m i l l i n g i s a l a n d - e x t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y , s i n c e t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s a h o r i z o n t a l one, and s i n c e a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a a d j a c e n t t o t h e m i l l must be s e t a s i d e f o r p i l i n g o r s t a c k i n g t h e l u m b e r as i t comes o f f t h e l i n e . S i t e - s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r y g r e a t l y depend-i n g upon t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e m i l l . The v e r y l a r g e s t m i l l s , s u c h a s t h e E burne S a w m i l l s i n t h e M a r p o l e d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, o r F r a s e r M i l l s o u t s i d e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , w i t h c a p a c i t i e s i n e x c e s s o f 750,000 f.b.m. p e r day, o c c u p y s i t e s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f i v e a c r e s . A m o d e r a t e s i z e d m i l l , e m p l o y i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y and p r o d u c i n g n i n e t y t h o u s a n d f.b.m. p e r d a y would o c c u p y a s i t e o f about sev e n a c r e s . ^ Because o f t h e i r e x t e n s i v e s i t e - s i z e , s a w m i l l s a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o a f f o r d l a n d w i t h i n b u i l t - u p u r b a n a r e a s , and a r e u s u a l l y l o c a t e d on m a r g i n a l i n d u s t r i a l l a n d on t h e p e r i p h e r i e s o f c i t i e s o r towns. P u l p - m i l l s . P u l p - m i l l s have v e r y s p e c i a l i z e d l o c a t i o n a l r e -q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h t e n d t o make them c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f e x i s t -i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e y o c c a s i o n a l l y become t h e g e n e r a t o r s o f new c o r m m i n i t i e s . C h i e f among t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h demand f o r w a t e r . A t y p i c a l p u l p - m i l l r e q u i r e s 55 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 U.S. g a l l o n s p e r d a i l y t o n o f o u t p u t . Thus a 500 t o n - p e r - d a y m i l l w ould consume as much as 50 m i l l i o n g a l l o n s o f w a t e r , a volume f a r beyond t h e c a p a c i t y o f even v e r y l a r g e m u n i c i p a l s y s t e m s . Because o f t h e enormous q u a n t i t i e s o f wood w h i c h t h e y consume, p u l p - m i l l s must be l o c a t e d on t i d e - w a t e r where l o g s and c h i p s can be c h e a p l y t r a n s p o r t e d o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f a t an i n l a n d s i t e , t h e y must be as n e a r as p o s s i b l e t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c c e n t r e o f t h e i r s u p p l y a r e a . ^ % . C . B r u c e , l o c . c i t . 5 5 I b i d . 6 2 E l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p u l p - m i l l s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h . S u l p h i t e m i l l s r e q u i r e 3 2 3 , 0 0 0 B.T.U.'s o f e l e c t r i c a l i n p u t p e r d o l l a r v a l u e o f o u t p u t , a f i g u r e f i f t y p e r c e n t above t h e 2 0 9 , 0 0 0 r e -q u i r e d f o r aluminum r e d u c t i o n , a p r o c e s s g e n e r a l l y t h o u g h t o f as b e i n g t h e g r e a t e s t o f a l l i n d u s t r i a l e l e c t r i c i t y consumers. K r a f t m i l l s , a t a f i g u r e o f 9 6 , 0 0 0 B.T.U.'s a r e s t i l l w e l l above t h e a v e r a g e o f 3 7 , 0 0 0 B.T.U.'s f o r a l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . ^ F o r t h i s r e a s o n most m i l l s g e n e r a t e t h e i r own e l e c t r i c i t y u s i n g o i l - f i r e d b o i l e r s o r i n t h e c a s e o f new i n t e r i o r m i l l s , n a t u r a l g a s . P u l p - m i l l s d i s c h a r g e l a r g e volumes o f t o x i c w a s t e w h i c h pose s e v e r e d i s p o s a l p r o b l e m s . Where a w e l l - s c o u r e d t i d a l c h a n n e l o r a r a p i d l y f l o w i n g r i v e r i s a v a i l a b l e , waste may be d i s p o s e d o f a f t e r v e r y l i t t l e t r e a t m e n t , a l t h o u g h F e d e r a l f i s h p r o t e c t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s have been t i g h t e n e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t most new m i l l s a r e p r o v i d i n g a t l e a s t p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t , i n t h e f o r m o f o x i d a t i o n ponds. P u l p - m i l l s have l o n g been n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r o d o u r . A l t h o u g h much improvement has been made i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e y a r e s t i l l f a r f r o m o d o u r - f r e e , and a r e t h u s unwelcome i n a r e a s where a h i g h degree o f u r b a n a m e n i t y has been a c h i e v e d . An a c c e p t a b l e minimum s i t e a r e a f o r a p u l p - m i l l i s a p p r o x i -m a t e l y two hundred a c r e s , a l t h o u g h , when s e l e c t i n g a new s i t e o p e r a -t o r s w i l l g e n e r a l l y seek more t h a n t h i s i f p o s s i b l e , t o a l l o w f o r 'John D a v i s , C a n a d i a n E n e r g y P r o s p e c t s , ( O t t a w a : 1 9 5 8 ) p. 4 5 . 63 expansion and greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n arrangement of a u x i l i a r y a c t i v i -t i e s . Thus an i d e a l p u l p - m i l l s i t e i s a two hundred acre p a r c e l of r e l a t i v e l y f l a t land, on tidewater or r a i l , with a r e l i a b l e r i v e r adjacent. Plywood Pla n t s . Generally speaking, the same l o c a t i o n a l r e -quirements described f o r large sawmills are applicable to plywood plants as w e l l . They must have very large s i t e s to allow f o r mater-i a l handling and storage, and good access to transportation f a c i l i -t i e s f o r marketing purposes. One other f a c t o r which i s of s p e c i a l importance to plywood manufacturers i s access to a p l e n t i f u l l o g supply. Since only the very best of logs are suitable f o r making plywood, the point of maximum conversion of l o g flows i s the point at which one may expect to f i n d a concentration of plywood m i l l s . At such l o c a t i o n s operators a,re able to purchase from, or trade with t h e i r competitors when faced with temporary shortages. This explains the high concentration of plants i n the southwest corner of the province. The lac k of any si n g l e point of log-concentration i n the i n t e r i o r may prove to be an i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r i n the expansion of plywood manufacture i n that part of the province. 3. EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS E x t r a c t i o n The basic u n i t of organization within the e x t r a c t i o n process i s c a l l e d a "show". A show i s a complete, integrated f u n c t i o n a l 64 Unit consisting of a l l the men and equipment required to get logs from the tree to the conversion plant. Shows vary greatly in size, depend-ing upon many factors such as size of timber holding, nature of terrain, species, et cetera. Shows in turn are broken down into "sides", with smaller shows operating only one side while large ones may have as many as five or six sides. A side may be thought of as a field opera-tion, with the remainder of the show being analogous to a headquarters staff. A side consists of people engaged in the process of felling, bucking, yarding, decking, loading and hauling, while the remainder of the show is made up of superintendents, foresters, engineers, time-keepers, road-builders and graders, mechanics, saw-filers, boom workers, 57 58 scalers, ' cooks, kitchen helpers and "bull-cooks". The process of falling and bucking is carried out by "sets" consisting normally of four men, two fallers and two buckers. A typical side is made up of four sets (that i s , sixteen buckers and fallers). In addition, there are usually three "chokermen", who attach the high-lead cables to the fallen logs, one high-lead operator or skidding-tractor driver, one loader operator, and two, three or four truck drivers, depending on the length of haul. Thus a typical side might consist of perhaps twenty to twenty-four men. An exceptionally large show of six sides would have, in addition ^^Government-licensed specialists who measure the volume of timber i n each log for taxation and other statistical purposes* 5&Those responsible for general camp 11 house cleaning". 6 5 t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 140-150 men employed i n t h e s i d e , a base-camp l a b o u r f o r c e o f p e r h a p s f i f t y men, m a k i n g a t o t a l p a y r o l l o f a r o u n d two hundred w o r k e r s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s about t h e maximum s i z e o f o p e r a -t i o n t o be f o u n d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a woods t o - d a y . A more t y p i c a l s i z e d show w o u l d c o n s i s t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d xrorkers on t h e c o a s t , w h i l e s m a l l o p e r a t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t i n t e r i o r s t a n d s , may g e t b y w i t h as f e w as a d o z e n men. C o n v e r s i o n P l a n t s Sawmills.. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a b o u r f o r c e i n s a w m i l l s a r e e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o make because o f t h e tremendous range o f s i z e e x h i b i t e d b y t h i s b r a n c h o f t h e i n d u s t r y . However, r e f e r e n c e t o s t a t i s t i c s p u b l i s h e d b y some f i r m s i n t y p i c a l s i z e - g r o u p s may be u s e d as a r o u g h g u i d e . Two examples o f e x t r e m e l y l a r g e m i l l s w o u l d be t h o s e o p e r a t e d b y R a y o n i e r o f Canada L i m i t e d , i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . Of t h e s e , t h e Rew W e s t m i n s t e r p l a n t , p r o d u c i n g 750,000 f,b.m. d a i l y , employs 500 w o r k e r s and t h e M a r p o l e p l a n t , p r o d u c i n g 600,000 f,b.m. d a i l y , employs 400. T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e a r a t i o o f o u t p u t t o w o r k e r s o f r o u g h l y 1,500 f .b.m. p e r d a y p e r w o r k e r . T h i s r a t i o w o u l d a p p e a r t o h o l d good f o r t h e m e d i u m - s i z e d m i l l s as w e l l . F o r example, S i l v e r t r e e S a w m i l l s i n V a n c o u v e r p r o d u c e s a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 90,000 f.b.m. w i t h 60 e m p l o y e e s , and C h u r c h S a w m i l l s a t W i l l o w 59 R i v e r n e a r P r i n c e George, p r o d u c e s 60,000 f.b.m. w i t h 40 employees. 7 5%.B.C. Lumber Trade D i r e c t o r y ( V a n c o u v e r : P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1958) p p . 46, 62 and 1±J. 65A figure V. BOOM BOATS AT BEAVER GOVS NORTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND. f i g u r e BCvM WORKER SORTING LOCi>. S E L F DUMPING LOG BARGES. 66 The v e r y s m a l l m i l l s , t h o s e p r o d u c i n g u n d e r 5 , 0 0 0 f.b.m. d a i l y , do n o t n o r m a l l y f u r n i s h s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s on employees so an e s t i m a t i o n o f o u t p u t - t o - w o r k e r r a t i o i s u n o b t a i n a b l e a t t h i s s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n . S a w m i l l i n g i s a h i g h l y l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e b r a n c h o f t h e c o n v e r s i o n i n d u s t r y . D e u t s c h e s t i m a t e s t h a t a 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 f.b.m. p e r d a y m i l l r e p r e -s e n t s a c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 . ^ U s i n g t h e f i g u r e o f one employee p e r 1 , 5 0 0 f.b.m. d e r i v e d a b o ve, t h i s w o u l d i n d i -c a t e r o u g h l y one employee p e r $ 3 , 8 0 0 o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . P u l p - m i l l s . P u l p - m i l l s p r e s e n t a number o f marked c o n t r a s t s t o s a w m i l l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o a much g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y o f l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e y a r e a l s o l a b o u r - e x t e n s i v e , r e q u i r i n g r e l a t i v e l y few employees p e r d o l l a r i n v e s t e d . F o r example, o f new c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t e m p l a t e d o r a c t u a l l y underway, t h e Gold R i v e r m i l l o f t h e T a h s i s Company i s e x -p e c t e d t o employ 3 2 1 w o r k e r s , t h e Northwood M i l l a t P r i n c e George a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 2 5 , and t h e B u l k l e y V a l l e y M i l l a t H o u s t o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 9 0 . ^ These r e p r e s e n t c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s o f 60 m i l l i o n , 56 m i l l i o n and 5 2 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n d i c a t i n g a r a t i o o f one w o r k e r t o r o u g h l y $ 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . Because p u l p - m i l l s a r e so h i g h l y c a p i t a l i z e d t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y a t e n d e n c y t o o v e r - e s t i m a t e t h e magnitude o f t h e e f f e c t w h i c h a new m i l l may have upon t h e economic ^ D e u t s c h , op. c i t . , p . 2 5 . ^Bruce, loc. c i t . 67 base o f a r e g i o n . However, t h e s e c o n d a r y e f f e c t s o f a p u l p - m i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s t a b i l i z i n g o f demand f o r l o g o u t p u t and t h e i n c r e a s -i n g o f l a r g e s a w m i l l p r o f i t s t h r o u g h p r o d u c t u t i l i z a t i o n , e x e r t s i g n i -f i c a n t l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s upon t h e employment p a t t e r n o f a r e g i o n . P l y w o o d P l a n t s . I n t e r m s o f employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p l y -wood p l a n t s f a l l somewhere between s a w m i l l s and p u l p - m i l l s . They a r e n o t a b l e t o e x i s t i n s u c h s m a l l - s c a l e p r o f u s i o n as s a w m i l l s , s i n c e t e c h n o l o g y s e t s a l o w e r l i m i t on c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f a r o u n d h a l f - a -m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e y a r e n o t so h i g h l y c a p i t a l i z e d as pulp-mi l i s , w i t h a l a b o u r i n t e n s i t y even g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f saw-m i l l s . A t y p i c a l h a l f - m i l l i o n d o l l a r plywood p l a n t , s u c h as t h a t o f W e s t e r n Plywoods a t Q u e s n e l employs 275 w o r k e r s o r r o u g h l y one w o r k e r p e r $1,800 o f c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , as opposed t o t h e one-to-$3,800 r a t i o 62 f o r s a w m i l l s . Because o f l i m i t a t i o n s o f l o g s u p p l y , and c u r r e n t m a r k e t demand, plywood m a n u f a c t u r i n g i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n e r a t o r o f o v e r a l l employment, w i t h o n l y 5,127 w o r k e r s i n 1961, as opposed t o 31,459 i n s a w m i l l i n g ; 18,484 i n l o g g i n g ; a n d 9,810 i n p u l p and p a p e r . ^ However, i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e n t r a t o r o f employment, w i t h a $500,000 i n v e s t m e n t c r e a t i n g n e a r l y as many j o b s as a p u l p - m i l l c o s t i n g one D < iA.B.C. Lumber Trade D i r e c t o r y , op. c i t . , p. ^ D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada, 1961, v o l . 3, p a r t I , "Labour F o r c e " ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963) pp. 1-1, 1-3, and 1-5. 68 hundred times that figure. 4. FUTURE TRENDS Extraction. Recent studies prepared by the Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia estimate that the annual cut from British Columbia's forests will reach twelve billion f.b.m. by 1970, a fifty percent increase over the latest available figure of eight billion f.b.m. for 1963.^ Estimates of labour-force requirements in logging indicate a roughly proportional increas in employment, from 18,500 to 29>000 workers over the same period. Figures gathered by the International Woodworkers of America show that productivity per man in logging activities increased during the period 1957^ -1961 from 319»471 to 385,802 f .bjm. per annum, representing a twenty percent increase of efficiency in only five years.^ This is directly attri-butable to a higher degree of mechanization in the woods which is in turn linked in a cause and effect relationship to the gradual squeez-ing out of the small-scale, undercapitalized operators. In view of this trend toward increased efficiency, the assumption that increased production will lead to proportional increases in employment might 6^Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia, Skilled  Manpower Needed for Present Expansion Program. (Vancouver: Unpub-lished, Mimeographed, December 11, 1964)p. 2. 65 Personal interview with Mr. J. Miyazawa, Associate Director, Research and Education Department, International Woodworkers of America, Vancouver, March 1, 1965. appear unrealistic. However, i t i s pointed out that much of the ex-pected increase i n output w i l l result from changes i n government policy a l l owing smaller trees, down to nine inches i n diameter, to be cut for both sawlogs and pulpwood.^° Since labour efficiency de-clines with decreasing tree size, this factor w i l l cancel out any further gains i n efficiency that might occur through further opera-tiona l consolidation, justifying the conclusion that employment w i l l rise i n proportion to output. Only one significant technological advance i s foreseen i n logging during the next decade, and that i s the process known as "balloon logging". In this process, giant helium-filled balloons are attached to the yarding cable i n order to l i f t the front end of the logs clear of the ground. ' This i s ex- . pected to make many presently inaccessible areas economically feas-ible to log, though overall labour-force requirements are not l i k e l y to be seriously effected. Conversion Sawmilling. A somewhat different trend i n sawmilling employ-ment i s predicted over the next five years for, although output-per-worker has been increasing as i n logging, there appear to be no compen-Personal interview with Mr. L. Reed, Director of Economies Research, Council of Forest Industries of British Columbia, Vancouver, March 9, 1965. 67"The Shape of Things to Come", News item i n Vancouver Times  Business Review, March, 1965. 70 s a t i n g f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l p e r m i t employment t o r i s e i n p r o p o r t i o n t o i n c r e a s e d o u t p u t . I n t h e same I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers' A s s o c i a t i o n s t u d y r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y i t was f o u n d t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y p e r w o r k e r i n c o a s t s a w m i l l s had gone up b y f o r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t i n t h e f i v e y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1957 t o 1961. I n t h e i n t e r i o r t h e i n c r e a s e was a l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t . S i n c e no new. t e c h n i q u e s o f s a w m i l l -i n g were i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t i n -c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s . These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i s o c c u r r i n g i n b o t h r e g i o n s , b u t t h a t i t has p r o g r e s s e d f u r t h e r on t h e c o a s t . However, a r e c e n t newspaper a r t i c l e n o t e s t h a t i n t h e p a s t two y e a r s t h e number o f s a w m i l l s i n t h e C a r i b o o a r e a has d r o p p e d f r o m one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - t h r e e t o f o r t y - t h r e e , e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s has a c c e l e r a t e d r a p i d l y i n t h e i n t e r i o r Aft s i n c e t h e 1961 f i g u r e s were g a t h e r e d . 0 0 The n e t a f f e c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s has been an a c t u a l d e c l i n e o f t e n p e r c e n t i n s a w m i l l employment on t h e c o a s t , w i t h i n t e r i o r employment r e m a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t i n s p i t e o f a t w e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i o n . C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s p r e d i c t s o v e r a l l l a b o u r f o r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30,000 i n 1970 as opposed t o a ^ " L u m b e r M i l l Numbers Drop, S t a b i l i t y R i s e s " , News i t e m i n Vancouver, D a i l y P r o v i n c e , March 5> 1965. 71 1961 f i g u r e o f 3 1 , 4 5 9 . 6 9 B a s i c a l l y i t may be s a i d then t h a t a l t h o u g h no employment increases- o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes are f o r e s e e n i n saw-m i l l i n g , a sweeping program o f r e - a l i g n m e n t i s underway i n the i n d u s t r y which w i l l be i n t e n s i f i e d when new p u l p - m i l l s encourage the f u r t h e r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f l a r g e m i l l s through the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f c h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s . I n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t o v e r a l l employment i n s a w m i l l i n g i s h i g h e r t h a n i n any o t h e r branch o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , t h i s r e -a l ignment holds s i g n i f i c a n t consequences f o r f u t u r e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i n the p r o v i n c e . P u l p - m i l l s . There are e i g h t e e n new m i l l s under c o n s t r u c t i o n o r i n the p l a n n i n g s t a g e , and some e x i s t i n g p l a n t s are undergoing ex-p a n s i o n ; F o r t h i s r e a s o n , the C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s expects t h e 1961 l a b o u r f o r c e o f 9,810 t o expand t o o v e r 17 ,000 b y 1970. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , o n l y f i v e o f these new m i l l s are p r o p o s i n g t o l o c a t e i n areas where t h e r e are no e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s . Of t h e s e , two are p r o p o s i n g t o l o c a t e c l o s e enough t o each o t h e r t h a t t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o share the use o f the same t o w n s i t e , and two o t h e r s are i n such a p r e l i m i n a r y stage o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t no m i l l - s i t e has been s e l e c t e d . Consequent ly o n l y two new towns have been conf irmed as a r e s u l t o f t h i s tremendous i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n . However, some o f the e x i s t i n g towns which are proposed as m i l l - s i t e s are p r e s e n t l y so s m a l l t h a t t h e y w i l l be l i t e r a l l y engul fed by the new wave o f s e t t l e m e n t which ^ C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s , o p . c i t . , p . 1 . w i l l accompany t h e m i l l c o n s t r u c t i o n , 72 P l y w o o d M i l l s . A r e c e n t A m e r i c a n s t u d y p u b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f " R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e " n o t e s t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s h i g h wage r a t e s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e v e r y h i g h l a b o u r c o n t e n t i n v o l v e d i n plywood m a n u f a c t u r e , have p r e v e n t e d a l a r g e e x p o r t m a r k e t f r o m 70 b e i n g b u i l t u p . I n 1959 o n l y t e n p e r c e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s plywood p r o d u c t i o n was e x p o r t e d t o f o r e i g n m a r k e t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s t u d y e x p e c t e d f u t u r e p r o d u c t i o n t o expand a t a r a t e no g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f C a n a d i a n d o m e s t i c c o n s u m p t i o n , and e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1975 p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d range f r o m 1.25 t o 1.8 t i m e s t h e p r e s e n t f i g u r e . However, t h e C o u n c i l o f F o r e s t I n d u s t i r e s e x p e c t a more r a p i d r a t e o f e x p a n s i o n , w i t h t h e 1.8 f i g u r e b e i n g r e a c h e d b y 1970. T h e i r more o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t s a r e b a s e d on i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r o d u c t b y t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , p l u s g r e a t e r u s e o f " i n f e r i o r " q u a l i t y woods f o r s t r u c t u r a l grades o f p l y w o o d , w h i c h f r e e s t h e i n d u s t r y somewhat 7 1 f r o m i t s r e s t r i c t i n g r e l i a n c e upon c h o i c e - g r a d e D o u g l a s f i r p e e l e r s . On t h i s b a s i s a l a b o u r f o r c e o f 9,000 i s e x p e c t e d b y 1970, n e a r l y 80% above t h e 1961 f i g u r e o f 5,100, w i t h most e x p a n s i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e i n t e r i o r . S i x new m i l l s , a r e a l r e a d y u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n a t s u c h w i d e -s p r e a d p o i n t s as M c B r i d e , G o l d e n , W i l l i a m s L a k e , One Hundred M i l e House, Canoe and C r e s t o n . ' J.A. G u t h r i e and G.R. A r m s t r o n g , W e s t e r n F o r e s t I n d u s t r y , ( B a l t i m o r e : J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1961) p. 243. ^ R e e d , l o c . c i t . 5. CHAPTER SUMMARY 73 The forest industry in British Columbia is a production pro-cess involving a continuous flow of material from the tree on the stump to the marketing of finished products in the form of sawn lumber, pulp and paper, plywood and several miscellaneous materials. For analytic purposes this process may be broken down into two broad stages, extraction (or logging) and conversion, with the latter being further divisible into three major activities of sawmilling, pulp and paper malting, and plywood manufacture. Historically the processes of logging and sawmilling have been relatively easy to enter as commercial ventures, and as a result both of these branches of the industry present to the analyst a bewildering variety of small and large scale operations. Pulp-mills and plywood plants on the other hand are much more uniform in size, since high capitalization requirements have restricted these undertakings to-large-scale business enterprises. The government's policy of sustained yield, a growing awareness of an absolute upper limit to available timber resources, and the in-creasing costs of new technology have combined to produce an acceler-ated trend toward concentration and stability in logging and sawmill-ing activities. This in. turn will have significant consequences upon the evolution of settlement patterns within the province, with many small marginal logging camps and sawmill sites being abandoned, and 74 t h e i r l a b o u r f o r c e a b s o r b e d i n t o l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . The c r e a t i o n i n 1961 o f a new t e n u r e s y s t e m , known as t h e Pulpwood H a r y e s t i n g A r e a , has i n i t i a t e d a program o f d r a m a t i c e x p a n -s i o n i n p u l p - m i l l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h e i g h t e e n new m i l l s p l a n n e d o r under c o n s t r u c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s i n t u r n w i l l l e a d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a t l e a s t two new towns and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f s e v e r a l more w i t h i n t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . F o r p lywood m a n u f a c t u r i n g , an i n c r e a s e i n p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y p e r c e n t i s l o o k e d f o r o v e r t h e n e x t decade, w i t h most new f a c i l i t i e s b e i n g l o c a t e d i n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t e r i o r t owns. L a b o u r - f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g w i l l b e -come more c o n c e n t r a t e d , b o t h c o r p o r a t e l y and s p a t i a l l y , o v e r t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s , w i t h l o g g i n g employment e x p a n d i n g b y f i f t y p e r c e n t t o 29,000 w h i l e s a w m i l l i n g employment w i l l r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c a t 30,000. I n t h e same p e r i o d t h e p u l p - m i l l l a b o u r f o r c e w i l l e x -pand b y a l m o s t one hundred p e r c e n t t o o v e r 17,000 w o r k e r s , w i t h i t s s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n b e i n g a l r e a d y l a r g e l y p r e - d e t e r m i n e d . Plywood l a b o u r f o r c e t r e n d s a r e more u n c e r t a i n , though e s t i m a t e s p l a c e i t s 1970 s i z e a t a b out 9,000 o r r o u g h l y e i g h t y p e r c e n t above i t s p r e s e n t f i g u r e o f 5,000. R e - a l i g n m e n t and e x p a n s i o n i n a l l phases o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y w i l l produce s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n p r o v i n c i a l s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s w h i c h , i f c h a n n e l l e d b y f i r m government p o l i c i e s , c o u l d be d i r e c t e d "toward t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f community p l a n n i n g and development o b j e c t i v e s . CHAPTER I V IMPACT OF THE FOREST INDUSTRY UPON SETTLEMENT I N BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. COMMUNITIES Camps D e f i n i t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw a p r e c i s e d i v i d i n g l i n e between a camp and a town, f o r many f e a t u r e s o f one a r e common t o t h e o t h e r . Camps a r e t h o u g h t o f b a s i c a l l y a s b e i n g o n l y f o r male w o r k e r s , b u t f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t days i t has n o t b e e n uncommon f o r t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and o t h e r k e y p e r s o n n e l t o have t h e i r f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n camp. Camps a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a complete absence o f owner-r e s i d e n t s , non-company p e r s o n n e l and l o c a l government, y e t t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e common t o company towns as w e l l . Most camps were i n -t e n d e d t o be t e m p o r a r y , y e t many have grown i n t o permanent communities. I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y a number o f c r i t e r i a i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e a camp. F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a camp i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t o f t e m p o r a r y o r p o r t a b l e b u i l d i n g s owned e n t i r e l y b y t h e o p e r a t o r o f a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e , and i n h a b i t e d p r i n c i p a l l y o r e x c l u s i v e l y b y male employees o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e . H i s t o r y . Camps were t h e e a r l i e s t f o r m o f community t o be e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , w i t h t h e f i r s t one b e i n g t h a t e r e c t e d t o s e r v e Sayward's s a w m i l l a t M i l l Bay n o r t h o f V i c t o r i a i n 76 1858. From that beginning, logging and sawmill camps spread virtually to every corner of the province, reaching their peak in the days of railroad logging prior to the Second World War, when camps housing five hundred workers or more were quite common.''72 Wow, with improved technology in the woods, camps of from one hundred to two hundred are considered large, with a few reaching close to four hundred where large booming and sorting operations are carried out in conjunction with logging. Basic Characteristics. Camps have traditionally been considered by their owners as temporary. Because of the difficulty of transport-ing \irorkers through the woods, camps were always established as near as possible to the actual cutting site, and were moved to a new loca-tion when the standing timber had been liquidated. When railroad logging was adopted, entire camps were built on railway bogeys, and were simply hauled along the tracks when operations shifted down the line.73 Modern methods of truck-logging have brought a high degree of mobility to the woods, with workers being transported many miles, to work and back each day in company-owned vehicles called crummies. Nonetheless, the tradition of portability has continued, viith v ir -tually a l l camp buildings being mounted on timber skids instead of '^Deutsch, op. c i t . , p. 23 ^Kramer Adams, Logging Railroads of the West, (Seattle: Superior Publishing Company, 1961) p. 96. 77 permanent f o u n d a t i o n s . The o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h i s p r a c t i c e i s t h a t a t a x ad v a n t a g e i s g a i n e d t h r o u g h l o w e r a s s e s s -ments on p o r t a b l e b u i l d i n g s . ^ 4 A n o t h e r p r o d u c t o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f i m -permanence i s t h a t v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o s i t e p l a n -n i n g o r l a n d s c a p i n g , w i t h b u i l d i n g s b e i n g s i m p l y s c a t t e r e d h a p h a z a r d l y o r a r r a n g e d r i g i d l y i n t i g h t , s t e r i l e g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s , and w i t h no a t t e m p t b e i n g made t o d e f i n e o r d e l i m i t s t r e e t s , p a r k i n g a r e a s , pede-s t r i a n r o u t e s , g a r d e n s and o t h e r u s e s o f open l a n d . The o n l y e x c e p -t i o n t o t h i s r u l e i s t h e use o f p i c k e t f e n c e s t o demarcate s m a l l g a r d e n s a r o u n d t h e houses o f m a r r i e d w o r k e r s , w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y c l u s t e r e d i n a s m a l l p r e c i n c t s e t w e l l a p a r t f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e camp. F a c i l i t i e s . The b a s i c h o u s i n g u n i t i n a camp i s t h e bunkhouse, Over t h e y e a r s a wide v a r i e t y o f bunkhouse t y p e s have been e v o l v e d , w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d b e i n g t o w a r d g r e a t e r r e s p e c t f o r t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . E a r l y bunkhouses were l i t t l e more t h a n b a r r a c k s w i t h no p a r t i t i o n i n g between beds o r groups o f b e d s . Now, f o u r - b e d and two-bed rooms a r e t h e r u l e , w i t h some camps even p r o v i d i n g s i n g l e -b e d rooms. S t a n d a r d o f f i n i s h i s g e n e r a l l y p r i m i t i v e , w i t h u n f i n i s h e d b o a r d f l o o r s , plywood o r f i b r e b o a r d w a l l s and b a r e l i g h t - b u l b s t y p i f y -i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f f u r n i s h i n g s . However, beds a r e i n v a r i a b l y c o m f o r t -a b l e , w i t h s p r i n g - f i l l e d m a t r e s s e s o f t e n b e i n g i n c l u d e d as a mandatory 74interview w i t h Mr. A. Richmond, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , V e r n o n Lake l o g g i n g camp ( C a n a d i a n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ) F e b r u a r y 23, 1965. 78 p a r t o f u n i o n a g r e e m e n t s . M e a l s a r e s e r v e d i n a cookhouse w h i c h c o n -s i s t s b a s i c a l l y o f a k i t c h e n o p e n i n g on t o a s e r v i n g c o u n t e r , and a l a r g e d i n i n g h a l l f u r n i s h e d s i m p l y w i t h t a b l e s and b e n c h e s . C a f e t e r i a t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d f o r s e r v i n g , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e cook-house crew, w i t h consequent s a v i n g s i n l a b o u r c o s t s . Washroom f a c i l i -t i e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f w a s h b a s i n s , f l u s h - t o i l e t s and showers a r e p r o v i d e d i n q u a n t i t i e s v a r y i n g w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e camp, and a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d i n a b u i l d i n g c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e bunkhouses. O t h e r f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e a l a u n d r y and d r y i n g room where w o r k e r s may wash t h e i r c l o t h e s and hang them t o d r y . F r e q u e n t l y t h i s f a c i l i t y w i l l be a t t a c h e d t o t h e washroom b u i l d i n g , t o m i n i m i z e t h e expense o f i n s t a l l -i n g p l u m b i n g . L a r g e camps a l s o may i n c l u d e a c ommissary and r e c r e a t i o n h a l l , w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e s a l e o f t o b a c c o , c o n f e c t i o n e r y and maga-z i n e s , a s w e l l as f o r c a r d p l a y i n g and o t h e r forms o f i n d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . G o v e r n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n . U nder S e c t i o n N i n e o f t h e " H e a l t h A c t " , C h a p t e r 170, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I 9 6 0 , t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l camps. Under t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n a s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s e n t i t l e d " R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e S a n i t a r y C o n t r o l o f I n d u s t r i a l Camps" was p a s s e d i n 1946, t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s o f t h e a r e a s i n w h i c h camps a r e l o c a t e d . The r e g u l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h minimum s t a n d a r d s f o r d r a i n a g e , c o n s t r u c t i o n , f l o o r a r e a p e r i n h a b i t a n t , t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , p r e p a r a t i o n and s e r v i n g o f f o o d , and g e n e r a l s a n i -t a t i o n . 79 E v a l u a t i o n . Camps a r e r e g a r d e d b y b o t h management and l a b o u r as b e i n g , a t b e s t , n e c e s s a r y e v i l s . Company d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h camps d e r i v e s f r o m many s o u r c e s . 1. They a r e money l o s i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s , s i n c e t h e charge o f $2.50 p e r day l e v i e d a g a i n s t each w o r k e r f o r b o a r d and l o d g i n g a s l a i d down i n t h e u n i o n agreement c o v e r s o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f h o u s i n g and f e e d i n g a w o r k e r . 2. They f o s t e r c o n d i t i o n s o f h i g h l a b o u r i n s t a b i l i t y , w i t h w o r k e r s q u i t t i n g on s h o r t n o t i c e o v e r p e t t y g r i e v a n c e s o r s i m p l y f a i l i n g t o show up f o r work a f t e r a week-end " i n town". S t a t i s t i c s g a t h e r e d b y R a y o n i e r o f Canada L i m i t e d i n d i c a t e t h a t a t t h e i r l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s on s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , where w o r k e r s a r e a b l e t o commute d a i l y b y a u t o m o b i l e f r o m e s t a -b l i s h e d c o m m u n i t i e s , a n n u a l l a b o u r t u r n o v e r i s r e l a t i v e l y l o w . I n 1964 t h e r a t i o o f t u r n o v e r was t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t a t Honey-moon Bay and f i f t y p e r c e n t a t Gordon R i v e r . A t t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s on n o r t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , where w o r k e r s must l i v e i n camps, t h e r a t i o o f t u r n o v e r was 235 p e r c e n t a t M a h a t t a R i v e r , 260 p e r c e n t a t H o l b e r g , 267 p e r c e n t a t Jeune L a n d i n g and 300 p e r -c e n t a t F r a s e r Bay.*^ 3 . They impose upon s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and f oremen m a n a g e r i a l b u r d e n s o v e r and above t h o s e n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r u n n i n g o f a l o g g i n g o r s a w m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n . ? 5 F i g u r e s s u p p l i e d b y Mr. L. V i v i a n , C h i e f F o r e s t e r ( N o r t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ) R a y o n i e r o f Canada L i m i t e d , F e b r u a r y 22, 1965 80 Though no industry researchers have attempted to estimate a precise figure, management representatives are virtually unanimous in stating that the problems associated with camps represent additional factors in the overall cost of production.^ Operations fortunate enough to function without camps due to proximity to established communities are not burdened by these costs and so enjoy a definite competitive advantage. For the most part, the workers themselves appear equally dis-satisfied with camps, with their attendant sense of isolation and lack of variety and amenity. The most graphic evidence of this dissatisfaction is the willingness with which workers undergo con-siderable inconvenience to avoid living in camps wherever alterna-tive possibilities exist. On the southern half of Vancouver Island, for example, i t is common for loggers to live in established incor-porated communities such as Duncan and Ladysmith and drive to work for distances of up to sixty miles per one-way trip. Under these conditions a worker may put in a portal-to-portal day of thirteen hours in order to work an eight hour shift.77 In spite of this great daily sacrifice of personal time, camps are becoming increasingly rare in southern Vancouver Island. 7°Based on interviews held during the month of February, 1965 with management representatives of the six largest firms in the British Columbia forest industry: MacMillan,Bloedel and Powell River Limited, Rayonier Canada Limited, Columbia Cellulose Limited, Canadian Forest Products Limited, B.C. Forest Products Limited, and Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited. "^Miyazawa, loc. cit. 81 F u t u r e T r e n d s . I n an e f f o r t t o overcome t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f camps two t r e n d s have emerged i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e development o f s p e c i a l i z e d f i r m s o f " F e e d i n g and H o u s i n g C o n t r a c -t o r s " , sometimes c a l l e d s i m p l y " c a t e r e r s " . These f i r m s f i r s t became p r o m i n e n t i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n - f i f t i e s , when a number o f l a r g e - s c a l e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s c r e a t e d t h e need f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t accommodation o f l a r g e numbers o f w o r k e r s f o r s h o r t t e r m s u n d e r s t a n d a r d s t h a t w o u l d m i n i m i z e l a b o u r u n r e s t . As t h e i r name i m p l i e s t h e s e f i r m s con-t r a c t w i t h b u s i n e s s o p e r a t o r s t o p r o v i d e h o u s e k e e p i n g and d i n i n g s e r v i c e , i n c l u d i n g p u r c h a s i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and s e r v i n g o f f o o d , t h e s u p p l y i n g and l a u n d e r i n g o f b e d d i n g , and g e n e r a l h o u s e k e e p i n g a c t i v i -t i e s s u c h as d a i l y bed-making and room c l e a n i n g . They a r e a l s o a b l e t o p r o v i d e t h e a c t u a l b u i l d i n g s , equipment and o t h e r p h y s i c a l p l a n t i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a camp, a l t h o u g h t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e b u s i n e s s has g e n e r a l l y had g r e a t e r a p p l i c a t i o n i n c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s t h a n i n t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , where t h e p r o c e s s has l a r g e l y b e e n one o f t a k i n g o v e r t h e management o f a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d camps. These f i r m s a r e e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o s i z e o f o p e r a t i o n , managing camps r a n g i n g i n s i z e f r o m t e n o c c u p a n t s t o as many as s e v e n hundred and f i f t y . ^ The p r i n c i p a l advantages, t o be d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s f o r m o f o p e r a t i o n a r e : 7 8 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J.W.D. MacCormac, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , Canus S e r v i c e s , L i m i t e d , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , March 8, 1965. 82 1. I t i s g e n e r a l l y c h e a p e r f o r t h e o p e r a t o r o f a f o r e s t a c t i v i t y t o e n t e r i n t o a c o n t r a c t w i t h a c a t e r e r t h a n t o r u n h i s own camp, s i n c e t h e s e f i r m s a r e s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r f i e l d and a r e a b l e t o e f f e c t economies o f s c a l e t h r o u g h p u r c h a s i n g f o o d and o t h e r s u p p l i e s i n v a s t q u a n t i t i e s . 2. The f o r e s t - o p e r a t o r ' s m a n a g e r i a l s t a f f i s r e l i e v e d o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s i n f i e l d s i n w h i c h i t has no t r a i n i n g , b e i n g f r e e t o c o n c e n t r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s . 3. F i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g o r b u d g e t t i n g b y t h e f o r e s t o p e r a t o r i s g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d s i n c e , once t h e c o n t r a c t i s s i g n e d , he knows, what h i s camp c o s t s w i l l be f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g y e a r . The c a t e r e r assumes t h e r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r i s i n g f o o d p r i c e s and o t h e r u n p r e d i c t a b l e c o s t f l u c t u a t i o n s . I n s p i t e o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e c a t e r i n g system, i t does n o t h i n g t o overcome t h e g r e a t e s t s h o r t c o m i n g s o f camps, t h a t o f l a b o u r i n -s t a b i l i t y . F o r example, a l l t h e R a y o n i e r camps c i t e d as e x h i b i t i n g h i g h r a t e s o f l a b o u r t u r n o v e r make use o f c a t e r e r s . The a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s t o combat i n s t a b i l i t y has been t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f a m i l y - t y p e accommodation i n t o camps, i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t m a r r i e d w o r k e r s w i t h f a m i l i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y more s t a b l e and r e l i a b l e t h a n s i n g l e workers.''"? At t h i s s t a g e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between a camp and a company town b e g i n s t o ' ' I n s t i t u t e o f L o c a l Government, Queens U n i v e r s i t y , S i n g l e  E n t e r p r i s e Communities i n Canada, (Queens U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n O n t a r i o , 1953) p. 142. 83 become b l u r r e d . However, i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l c a s e s where f a m i l y hous-i n g has been added t o camps, t h e b u i l d i n g s have b e e n o f a p o r t a b l e n a t u r e , and t h e p o p u l a t i o n has rem a i n e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y one o f s i n g l e m a l e s , so t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a camp i s s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e . One example o f such a camp i s t h a t o p e r a t e d a t Woss L a k e , i n t h e N i m p k i s h V a l l e y o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d b y C a n a d i a n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s , L i m i t e d where, w i t h a t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e o f some two-hundred w o r k e r s , p r o v i s i o n has been made f o r t w e n t y - t h r e e f a m i l i e s i n t h e f o r m o f s i n g l e f a m i l y 80 d e t a c h e d houses on t i m b e r s k i d s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e camp i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a f o u r - r o o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , and t h e commissary has been ex-panded i n t o a s m a l l - s c a l e g e n e r a l s t o r e . However, t h i s s o l u t i o n t o t h e camp p r o b l e m has been o n l y p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . The i s o l a t i o n and l o w l e v e l o f a v a i l a b l e a m e n i t i e s make camp l i f e s u f f i c i e n t l y u n -a t t r a c t i v e t o most w i v e s o f f o r e s t w o r k e r s t h a t s i n g l e m a les c o n t i n u e t o make up t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a n y camp. T h i s i n t u r n f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e s a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e r a i s i n g o f c h i l d r e n i n an e n v i r o n m e n t c o n d i t i o n e d b y a predominance o f young s i n g l e m a l e s . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m c o n f r o n t s t h e w o r k e r who has remained i n a camp l o n g enough t o r a i s e h i s c h i l d r e n t o t h e t e e n - a g e l e v e l . A f t e r t h i s l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e t h e employee has u s u a l l y worked up t o a p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and income w h i c h he woul d n o t be a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i f he were t o move e l s e w h e r e . Y e t , f o r t h e teen-age c h i l d 8°Interview w ^ t n T ^ G < W r i g h t , G e n e r a l Manager F o r e s t Opera-t i o n s , C a n a d i a n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L i m i t e d , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F e b r u a r y 8, 1965. the environment of a camp i s stulefying, since neither the school nor the facilities for extra-curricular activity are able to provide the range of experiences which the adolescent and his parents consider a necessary prerequisite to well-rounded maturity. This rHtcmrra must be resolved by choosing from among three rather unattractive alter-natives: 1. Remaining i n the camp, and depriving the child of access to fac i l i t i e s . 2. Splitting up the family, either by sending the child to a boarding school or having the wife and child establish a home i n the nearest urban centre, to which the husband commutes on week-ends and holidays. 3. Leaving the camp to seek work elsewhere, which will probably involve a loss of income and position. There are, i n addition, other problems associated with the matter of expanding an employer-employee relationship into a landlord-tenant relationship as well. However, as these problems, are also common to company towns, they w i l l be discussed under that heading. Perhaps the most significant feature of a l l about camps is that so l i t t l e attention has actually been paid to them despite the fact that they are estimated to house perhaps ^ percent of the forest industry's labour force, or some ft people. Ho statistics on camps are available on an industry-wide basis to enable trends to be discovered or policies to be made. They represent, in effect, an unwanted step-child of the forest industry. 84A Figure 11. GORDON RIVER CAMP. Perhaps the best designe camp i n B r i t i s h Columbia being e n t i r e l y a r c h i t e c t designed by R.R.McKee of Vancouver yet s t i l l e x h i b i t i n g l i t t l e i n the way of s i t e planning and landscaping. Figure 12. BTJKKHOUSES AT CORDON RIVER. Figure U . A TYPICAL CAMP. VERNON LAKE, NORTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND. Figure 14. A TYPICAL COOKHOUSE OPERATED BY PROFESSIONAL CATERERS. * 8A B F i g u r e 15. F A M I L Y HOUSING I N A LOGGING CAMP, BEAVER COVE, NORTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND. 85 Company Towns D e f i n i t i o n , Two b a s i c f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h company towns f r o m camps. F i r s t , t h e y a r e c o n c e i v e d o f as b e i n g permanent, w i t h a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f b u i l d i n g t h a n i s t o be f o u n d i n camps, and w i t h permanent "townscape" f e a t u r e s s u c h as s t r e e t s , r o a d s and l a n d s c a p i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y t o accommodate f a m i l i e s r a t h e r t h a n s i n g l e male w o r k e r s , and so p o s s e s s more community f a c i l i t i e s s u c h as s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , shops and r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s , i n a d d i t i o n t o a p r o p o r -t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r number o f f a m i l y - t y p e h o u s e s , t h a n a r e t o be f o u n d i n camps. U n l i k e o r d i n a r y towns however, company towns a r e u n i n c o r p o r a t e d , w i t h a l l p r o p e r t y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e company, and a l l r e s i d e n t s b e i n g i t s employees and t h e i r d e p e n d a n t s . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a company town i s c o n s i d e r e d as an u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t o f f i x e d and d u r a b l e b u i l d i n g s owned e n t i r e l y b y t h e o p e r a t o r o f a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e and i n h a b i t e d e x c l u s i v e l y b y t h e employees o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e and t h e i r d e p e n d a n t s . H i s t o r y . The o r i g i n s o f company towns may be t r a c e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e e a r l y p u l p - m i l l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , s i n c e t h e s e were t h e f i r s t f o r e s t o p e r a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o be c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e i r owners as permanent. Because o f t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d s i t e r e -q u i r e m e n t s t h e s e m i l l s were l o c a t e d a t i s o l a t e d c o a s t a l s i t e s where a p l e n t i f u l l o g s u p p l y , abundant f r e s h w a t e r and deep-sea a c c e s s t o m a r k e t s c o u l d be combined. P r e f e r r i n g n o t t o r e l y s o l e l y upon i t i n e r -a n t camp d w e l l e r s f o r t h e i r l a b o u r s u p p l y , y e t r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e i r 86 r e m o t e n e s s m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t t h e n o r m a l p r o c e s s e s o f u r b a n growth, t h e s e m i l l owners had no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o b u i l d towns a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . The f i r s t company towns t o be e s t a b l i s h e d were Swanson Bay and Ocean F a l l s , i n 1 9 0 9 , P o w e l l R i v e r i n 1910, W o o d f i b r e i n 1912, P o r t A l i c e i n 1917 and P o r t M e l l o n i n 1 9 1 8 . 8 1 S i n c e t h e P o r t M e l l o n m i l l f i r s t went i n t o p r o d u c t i o n i n 1909 i t must be assumed t h a t i t p r o v i d e d o n l y camp f a c i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l y e a r s o f i t s l i f e . Subsequent y e a r s saw t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l company towns a t Youbou, T a h s i s and Honeymoon Bay, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1919, 1946 and 1943 r e s p e c t i v e l y . These towns were ba s e d on l a r g e s a w m i l l s draw-i n g upon t i m b e r s t a n d s whose l o c a t i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s made i t i m p r a c -t i c a l t o t r a n s p o r t l o g s t o e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v e r s i o n s i t e s o r u r b a n a r e a s T a h s i s , f o r example, was e s t a b l i s h e d b e c a u s e , u n t i l t h e development o f t h e s e l f - d u m p i n g l o g b a r g e , t i m b e r c u t on t h e west c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d c o u l d n o t be towed t h r o u g h t h e s w e l l s o f t h e open P a c i f i c . A t t h e Youbou and Honeymoon Bay s i t e s , i n t h e c e n t r e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e dependence upon r a i l t r a n s p o r t t o g e t wood f r o m t r e e t o m a r k e t made i t p r a c t i c a l t o r e d u c e p r o d u c t - b u l k b y s a w m i l l i n g a t o r n e a r t h e c u t t i n g s i t e b e f o r e s h i p p i n g . A l l o f t h e s e company towns a r e s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e as s u c h , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f P o w e l l R i v e r w h i c h has grown i n t o an i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , and Swanson ^ I r a M. R o b i n s o n , New I n d u s t r i a l Towns on Canada's Resource F r o n t i e r , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1962) p. 171. 87 Bay, which was abandoned when the mill was closed in 1923. Improved techniques of transportation, combined with a growing opposition to the concept of company towns on the part of labour, management and government, have meant that in spite of a l l the expansion that has taken place in the forest industry there have been no new company towns established in over twenty years. Basic Characteristics. Company towns established by the forest industry of British Columbia vary in size from 360 at Port Mellon to 3,000 at Ocean Falls. While the size of the plant which gave rise to the town is the most important determinant of town size, i t is signifi-cant to note that the smallest towns a l l possess road links to the "outside world" and, in particular, to other nearby communities. For example, Port Mellon on the west coast of Howe Sound has road connec-tions to Gibson's Landing and other Sechelt Peninsula communities; Youbou and Honeymoon Bay have road connections via the Cowichan valley to southern Vancouver Island communities such as Duncan; and Woodfibre is connected by a short ferry ride to Squamish. In a l l these cases a considerable number of workers have chosen to live outside the company town, commuting each day to work by car. On the other hand, the largest town, Ocean Falls, is completely isolated, being reached only by coastal steamer and float-plane. Commuting in this case is obviously impossible. In spite of the intention to cater to married workers, single males s t i l l account for approximately f i f t y percent of the l a b o u r f o r c e i n a l l company towns. Bunkhouses a r e t h e r e f o r e an im-p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f company towns, though t h e y t e n d t o be o f a h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a n t h o s e f o u n d i n camps. I n most cases, t h e y a r e m u l t i - s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t e g r a l washroom f a c i l i t i e s . The i n a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e a t o t a l l y - m a r r i e d l a b o u r f o r c e i n company towns i s due p a r t l y t o t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f w i v e s t o move t o remote a r e a s , and p a r t l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e towns have i n v a r i a b l y been b u i l t on s u c h crowded s i t e s t h a t t h e company has f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t 82 t o e r e c t s u f f i c i e n t f a m i l y h o u s i n g . These crowded s i t e s have a l s o made i t n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d t o w n s i t e and p l a n t s i t e i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a -c e n t t o one a n o t h e r , so t h a t t h e v i s u a l s c a l e , n o i s e and odour o f t h e m i l l c o m p l e t e l y dominate t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S i t e c r o w d i n g has a l s o l e d t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f a more compact u r b a n f o r m t h a n i s t o be fo u n d i n non-company towns o f e q u i v a l e n t s i z e , w i t h l o t s , b l o c k s and s t r e e t - w i d t h s a l l b e i n g s m a l l e r t h a n a v e r a g e . F a c i l i t i e s . . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g company towns t e n d t o be b e t t e r p r o v i d e d w i t h f a c i l i t i e s t h a n non-company towns o f e q u i v a l e n t s i z e s i n c e t h e companies must t r y t o a t t r a c t w o r k e r s t o remote a r e a s b y p r o v i d i n g a good s t a n d a r d o f u r b a n a m e n i t i e s . F o r example P o r t A l i c e , an a v e r a g e - s i z e d company town o f 1,200 p e o p l e , i s p r o v i d e d ° I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. W i l l i a m McGee, G e n e r a l Manager F o r e s t O p e r a t i o n s , Crown Z e l l e r b a c h Canada L i m i t e d , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F e b r u a r y 8, 1965. 89 with an eighteen-bed hospital, a full-time doctor, public schooling up to the junior matriculation level, a movie theatre, a community hall, a library, a ball-field, a bowling alley, a golf course, two churches, a cafeteria with licensed premises, a laundry, dry-clean-ing and shoe repair service, a beauty parlour, a barber shop, a taxi, a gasoline service station and a general store handling groceries, drygoods, hardware and many other items. In addition, pavedroads, curbs, concrete sidewalks and boulevard trees are provided, giving to the urban landscape a quality of finish well above that found in the typical British Columbia village of 1,200. Every house is on sewer, street-lighting is provided throughout the town, and fire protection is provided by an eighteen-member volunteer brigade under the direction of a f u l l time paid fire-chief. Governing Legislation. In 1919 the Legislature of British Columbia passed the "Company Towns Regulation Act", which s t i l l exists on the statute books as Chapter 63 of the Revised Statutes of  British Columbia, I960. The Act enabled the Lieutenant Governor in Council to declare as a company town any place "where any one hundred or more persons employed by any company in or about any industrial operation or business carried on by the company are living or sojourn-ing on lands owned, occupied, or controlled, either directly or indirec-tly, by the company. . . ." The Act is primarily concerned with 90 e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r i g h t o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o have i n g r e s s t o , and e g r e s s f r o m t h e town b y way o f company-owned wharves and r o a d s , as w e l l as f r e e d o m t o move about t h r o u g h t h e town on company-owned s t r e e t s . "The A c t was t h o u g h t t o be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e d a y s when government o f f i c i a l s , u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s , t r a v e l l i n g s a l e s m e n and o t h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t l a n d on t h e company wharves o r t h e y w o u l d be t r e s p a s s i n g on p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y " . ^ The o n l y towns e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y w h i c h were o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as "company towns" u n d e r t h e A c t were Ocean F a l l s , P o w e l l R i v e r and Swanson Bay o f w h i c h , as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , o n l y Ocean F a l l s r e m a i n s t o t h i s d a y as a company town. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e A c t , w h i c h has b y now v i r t u a l l y f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e , r e s t s w i t h t h e Department o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and W ater R e s o u r c e s , t h e same de-p a r t m e n t w h i c h g o v e r n s t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . Of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o - d a y t h a n t h e Company Towns R e g u l a t i o n A c t a r e a number o f g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n a l A c t s c o n t a i n i n g c l a u s e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f Company t o w n s . These i n c l u d e : 1. The H e a l t h A c t , C h a p t e r 170, R.S.B.C., I960, p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f w a t e r s u p p l y , sewage and r e f u s e d i s p o s a l , and a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y . ^•Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t i t u t e o f L o c a l Government, S i n g l e  E n t e r p r i s e Communities i n Canada, ( O t t a w a : C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1953) p. 57. 2. The Highways A c t , C h a p t e r 172 R.S.B.C., I960 e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g a l l p u b l i c s t r e e t s and r o a d s i n s u b -d i v i d e d l a n d i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y , i n c l u d i n g t h e convey-ance t o t h e Crown o f t h e f r e e h o l d i n e v e r y s u c h s t r e e t and r o a d . 3. The L a n d A c t , C h a p t e r 206, R.S.B.C., I960 p r o v i d i n g t h a t any t o w n s i t e o n Crown g r a n t l a n d must be s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o l o t s and a p l a n o f s u b - d i v i s i o n d e p o s i t e d i n t h e Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . 4. L a n d R e g i s t r y A c t , C h a p t e r 208, R.S.B.C., I960, c o n t a i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c o v e r i n g i n d e t a i l t h e methods b y w h i c h l a n d may be s u b - d i v i d e d and r e g i s t e r e d . 5. T a x a t i o n A c t , C h a p t e r 376, R.S.B.C., I960, b y w h i c h t h e p r o -v i n c i a l government i s a u t h o r i z e d t o r a i s e and c o l l e c t t a x e s on a l l r e a l p r o p e r t y i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y . E v a l u a t i o n . As w i t h camps t h e p r i n c i p l e o f company towns i s a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y condemned t o - d a y . I n a magazine a r t i c l e S.D. L a s h , Head o f t h e Department o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g a t Queen's U n i v e r s i t y s t a t e s : On t h e w h o l e , e x p e r i e n c e i n Canada w i t h company towns has been good. N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y a r e seldom p o p u l a r . The w o r k e r s p r e f e r a f r e e r e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t d i s l i k e s t h e d i v e r s i o n o f c a p i t a l and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o b u i l d a town and r e c o g n i z e s t h a t b e i n g a l a n d l o r d makes f o r p o o r l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s ; governments r e -g a r d s u c h towns w i t h s u s p i c i o n as b e i n g a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y be-yond t h e p a l e o f o r d i n a r y m u n i c i p a l government.85 85S.D. L a s h , "The P l a n n i n g o f R e c e n t New Towns i n Canada", The  E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , X L I (March, 1958), p. 43. 92 Because o f t h i s w i d e s p r e a d f e e l i n g i t has b e e n a g r e e d b y government and i n d u s t r y t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no more company towns b u i l t , and t h a t e x i s t i n g ones s h o u l d be e i t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e d as m u n i c i p a l i t i e s oi abandoned. P r i n c i p a l c o m p l a i n t s r e g i s t e r e d b y w o r k e r s a g a i n s t company towns i n c l u d e : 1. A f e e l i n g t h a t one c a n n e v e r l e a v e t h e j o b b e h i n d . S i n c e t h e company owns and c o n t r o l s e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e town, " t h e b o s s " i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e . T h i s o f t e n c r e a t e s t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e employer can and does a p p l y e x t r a s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t r e c a l c i t r a n t employees b y s u c h d e v i c e s as p r o v i d i n g p o o r e r s e r v i c e a t t h e company s t o r e . 2. A t r a n s f e r a l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y o f t h e company s t a f f i n t o t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community. This, l e a d s t o a f e e l i n g t h a t t h e w o r k e r i s e x p e c t e d t o "know h i s p l a c e " i n t h e community and " n o t s t e p o u t o f l i n e " . 3. A c o m p lete l a c k o f f r e e d o m i n c h o o s i n g one's home w i t h houses g e n e r a l l y b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o w o r k e r s b y a h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The c o m p l a i n t s r a i s e d b y t h e companies a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , m e r e l y o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n , and i n c l u d e : 1. G r i e v a n c e s , o v e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d wrong d o i n g s s u f f e r e d b y t h e w o r k e r , o r h i s w i f e , s u c h as a l l e g e d rude t r e a t m e n t b y c l e r k s i n t h e company s t o r e , a r e r e f l e c t e d i n employee d i s c o n t e n t on t h e j o b . 2. I n i t s s i n c e r e endeavours t o l e a r n about d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h t h e e m p loyees' f a m i l i e s may f e e l t o w a r d t h e town, company o f f i c i a l s may become t o o d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e employees, and t h u s become s u b j e c t t o c h a r g e s o f m e d d l i n g , s n o o p i n g and p r y i n g . 3. Because t h e company must "bend o v e r b a ckwards" i n f i n a n c i n g and s u p p o r t i n g community f a c i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d b e i n g a c c u s e d o f n i g g a r d l i n e s s , and because e m p l o y e e - t e n a n t s demand a h i g h e r q u a l i t y o f home-maintenance and s e r v i c e s t h a n t h e y w o u l d p r o v i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s i f t h e y owned t h e i r own homes, t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a company town i s much more e x p e n s i v e t h a n w o u l d be t h e c a s e f o r a s i m i l a r - s i z e d i n c o r p o r a t e d community. G e n e r a l c o m p l a i n t s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d company towns b y government and p u b l i c - a t - l a r g e i n c l u d e : 1. When a w o r k e r r e a c h e s r e t i r e m e n t age he must l e a v e town, s i n c e employment i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e t o o c c u p a n c y o f a house. F o r a w o r k e r who has l i v e d a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f h i s l i f e i n t h e town t h i s can mean a v e r y p a i n f u l and c r u e l p e r i o d o f r e -a d j u s t m e n t . 2. The p r a c t i c e o f u s i n g p a y r o l l d e d u c t i o n s t o pay f o r r e n t , g r o c e r y b i l l s and o t h e r i t e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l c o s t o f l i v i n g t e n d s t o e v o l v e a c l a s s o f c i t i z e n s who a r e n o t f u l l y c a p a b l e o f b u d g e t t i n g t h e i r earnings.°*° 3. Company p a t e r n a l i s m i n t h e r o l e o f " u n i v e r s a l p r o v i d e r " l e a d s ' S i n g l e E n t e r p r i s e Communities, op. c i t . , p. 37. 94 to apathy and lack of organizing initiative on the part of the residents of company towns In spite of a l l these criticisms of company towns, there are some things to be said in their favour. If the ordinary forces of free-enterprise had been left to look after the housing needs of workers in remote areas, housing would be either inadequate or very expensive, since mortgage funds were not normally available under such circum-stances. Furthermore, a generally higher level of amenity exists in company towns, than i n other communities of the same size. Other Communities Introduction. While camps and company towns are the most obvious forms, of community to be established by the forest industry, they represent only a fraction of the total number of settlements for which the industry has been either partially or totally responsible. In viewing the overall picture a continuous spectrum of communities may be seen, ranging from tiny unincorporated clusters of residences around marginal sawmill operations to the metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver, with over 800,000 inhabitants. Upon analysis five general types of community may be identified, which, for purposes of this study, will be described as: 1. Multi-Industry Incorporated Communities. 2, Single-Industry Incorporated Communities ^Ibid., p. 167 94A 3* Emerging Incorporated Communities. 4* Unincorporated Communities 5. "Instant Towns". Multi-Industry Incorporated Comnunities. Basically, these consist of cities which, though containing important forest opera-tions, have developed a widely diversified economic base through the growth of other industrial or service functions. These would include such cities as Vancouver, Victoria, New Westminster, Prince George, Kamloops and Nanaimo. The development of these cities has progressed to the point where i t i s difficult to pinpoint characteristics which can be said to be the exclusive result of the forest industry. The workers, whether they be employed as loggers or in conversion plants, commute to work from homes in middle-class residential districts, and in the contribution they make to the economy and life-style of the city are virtually indistinguishable from factory workers, construc-tion workers and other tradesmen. It may be argued that loggers in particular have acquired for themselves a certain degree of notoriety with respect to excessive drinking, frequent brawling, and other forms of anti-social behaviour in the "skid-road" section of the city. The very fact that districts which contain the more unsavoury institutions of city l i f e are referred to as "skid-roads" i s an indication of this association since, as noted earlier, the f i r s t skid-roads were the trails down which logs were dragged to water by animal power. That there i s a high incidence of loggers patronizing the skid-road 96 district i s not denied, but for the most part these are loggers who have come into town in search of recreation after protracted periods in remote camps. Under these circumstances the skid-road i s performing a kind of "service centre" function for hinterland residents, and i t s presence i s attributable not to the existence of a resident forest-industry labour-force, but rather to conditions prevailing beyond the city which create a demand for this type of service. Where actual forest operations are found in such cities, they exist in the form of conversion plants in peripheral industrial zones, where low cost land may be combined with r a i l or tidewater access. As urban development proceeds, with attendant increases in land values, the requirement of low-cost land frequently results in shifts of conversion-plant locations within metropolitan areas. Hardwick points out that sawmills i n Van-couver were originally concentrated around Burrard Inlet, then moved to False Creek during the boom which followed the completion of the V Canadian Pacific Railway i n 1886, and finally moved to the North Arm of the Fraser River i n a gradual process of relocation beginning i around 1920.°*^ Hie further speculates that the day may come when saw-mills may eventually be forced out of ©reater Vancouver altogether, perhaps to relocate adjacent to pulp-mills. Whatever the eventual fate of such plants may be, i t can be stated that the point has been reached i n British Columbia's multi-industry incorporated communities ^Hardwick, op. c i t . . p. 65. where the problems they exhibit are the same as those found in prac-tic a l l y a l l typical North American cities; problems of traffic congestion, central-area decay, fringe-growth, conflicting land use, and a host of others. Important though these problems are, they are not of special relevance to the forest industry and for this reason will not be dealt with in this study. Incorporated Single Industry Communities. There are several British Columbia communities which have grown and flourished under the stimulus of the forest industry to the point where they have achieved f u l l local self-government and a reasonable level of urban amenity. Examples of such communities are: 1. The twin cities of Alberni and Port Alberni. Soon to be merged as a single municipality these two cities have e combined population of over 16,000 dependent largely upon the pulp, paper, plywood, sawmill and logging activities of MacMlllan, Bloedel and Powell River, Limited. 2. The District of Powell River,, Formerly a company town with a surrounding fringe-area, this comnrunity of 11,000 people i s almost entirely dependent upon another MacMil lan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited operation. 3. The Tillage of Lumby i n the south-central interior of the province, based on a number of small and medium sized sawmills with a population of 884 people. 98 4* The Village of Ladysmith on Vancouver Island, with a population of 3,410, which derives eighty-five percent of i t s economic base from logging and a farther eleven percent from sawmill-ing. 8? This i s but a representative l i s t , with the Alberni Valley cities being the largest single-industry community in the province. Generally speaking, communities based upon a number of small firms are less well provided with amenities than those based upon a single large firm since, i n the former ease, there i s a tendency for the operator to establish outside the town to escape local taxation. This problem i s further intensified i f logging i s the principal activity, as this must of course be carried on well beyond the boundaries of the community. In the case of a single large industry, on the other hand, the indus-try not only provides the town with a substantial tax base, but i s also a frequent financial contributor to civic projects i n the inter-ests of public relations. The presence of a large firm confers additional benefits i n that i t i s better able to carry i t s employees through brief periods of depressed market conditions. However, regardless of company size a protracted slump i n the industry i s bound to result i n layoffs which can have serious repercussions throughout the entire community. Simi lar effects may arise as a result of prolonged industry-wide strikes. In many respects these ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Year Book, (Vancouver: Mitchell Press, 1963) p». 14, passim. single industry communities are indistinguishable from other small and medium sized towns throughout Hbrth America, exhibiting many of the same problems. However, one very significant problem faces many f of those communities dependent upon small-scale operations such as sawmills-and independent logging shows. As indicated earlier, an industry-wide process of consolidation i s under way in which many of these smaller operations are being shut down. The consequences which this process may hold for the future should be of grave con-cern to the government, as the very existence of many communities may be i n jeopardy. Since, in addition to private investments i n housing and commercial ventures, these communities contain signifi-cant investments of social capital i n the form of sewers, waterworks, streets, schools and other public buildings, the question of whether any of these communities should decline or disappear i s too important to be decided solely by the market-place. Emerging Incorporated Communities. In recent years a number of the larger companies i n the forest industry have grown increas-ingly dissatisfied with the instability of camp-based labour and have tried to attract married workers by adding to the camps a number of family-type rental houses. This has not been entirely satisfactory however, because the companies have found their role of landlord to be a distasteful one, and because the steady reliable type of worker whom i t i s hoped will be attracted, prefers home-ownership i n an 100 established community to tenancy in a company-owned camp* In response to this a few companies have recently began to experiment with the sale of building-lots to employees. In this type of venture the company plays the role of subdivider by acquiring from the Grown, usually at a nominal sum, the freehold title to a parcel of land in the vicinity of the camp, installing services such as sewers, water, electricity and gravelled roads, and selling the lots at or near cost to employees. By the time services have been installed to the stand-ards required by relevant government departments this figure may vary from $1,500 to $3,500 per lot.9° The north end of Vancouver Island ^ contains examples of this type of company activity, with MacMillan, HLeedell and Powell River Limited sponsoring developments at Port Hardy and Kelsey Bay, and Rayonier of Canada Limited involved in a similar venture at Port McNeill. However, there are a number of shortcomings to this approach. 1. There is a lack of clear direction from the government. In such matters as water supply, sewage disposal, community planning, street and road standards, etcetera, the company finds that i t must deal independently with many separate government departments most of which do not have any published schedule of requirements. The normal procedure is for the 9°The majority of the information on which this section of the study is based was obtained during a personal interview with Mr. D.F. McCrimmon, Manager, Timberlands and Property Division, MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited, Vancouver, B.C., February 3, 1965. 101 company to put forward proposals to a l l the relevant government departments for acceptance, rejection or revision, making cost-projection by the company almost impossible in the decision-making stage. 2. The location of these communities is not considered in a region-a l context, with proximity to company work-sites and road-systems being the principal criteria in site selection. One result of this i s the establishment of a number of small com-peting centres connected to each other by private company roads, or perhaps not connected at a l l . This in turn militates against the establishment of as high a level of public services and amenities as could be sustained by the same size of total population i f distributed in a more rational regional pattern. 3. The remoteness of the sites makes mortgage financing difficult to obtain, and while National Housing Act funds are available where sewers and other services have been provided many potential residents lack sufficient capital to "bridge the gap" between the statutory mortgage ceiling and the f u l l cost of a house. To overcome this difficulty the companies have initiated the practice of making second mortgage money available from their own resources. Further company participation is frequently necessary i n the form of an agreement to purchase an employee's house i f he should choose to leave, or be fired or layed-off, within the f i r s t year of occupancy. This has been found a necessary to overcome the reluctance of workers to undertake heavy financial commitments in the face of uncertainty as to whether they are going to like their new surroundings. In a few cases the company has even found i t necessary to "break the ice" by building the f i r s t few houses in a new community, and offering them for sale to employees. In a l l of these ways the company finds itsel f reluctantly engaged in activities such as the "house building business" or the "mortgage lending business", for which i t i s just as unsuited as i t was for the "landlord business" from which i t was seeking to disentangle it s e l f . 4. The emerging communities have a tendency to rely upon the sponsoring company for the provision of many services. For example, company equipment i s requested for road-grading and snow removal purposes; and the company i s frequently expected to "donate" the school to the community. In this way the "paternalistic" features so deplored in the company town are repeated. 5* Mo specific provisions are laid down in advance regarding methods or time by which the emerging community i s to achieve corporate status. This i s due partly to the impossibility of predicting in advance the rate at which development will proceed, and partly to the feeling that i t should be left to the initiative of the residents to decide such matters for 103 themselves. This leaves the company with no concepts of how long i t must continue to play the role of developer, or how much of i t s own investment i t may hope to recover. Thus, though initiated by reasonably commendable objectives, the activities of the forest industry in sponsoring the development of new incorporated communities f a l l short of being satisfactory, and may even place stumbling blocks i n the way of proper regional development in the outlying parts of the province. Unincorporated Ccmmunities. In addition to the types of communities already described, the forest industry has spawned a great number of small settlements which f i t no previous definition. These are simply clusters of privately owned dwellings which have grown up i n the vicinity of small operations, being particularly prevalent around marginal interior sawmills. These settlements usually started off as crude camps to which some workers, on their own initiative, began adding accommodation for their families. Custo-marily this accommodation took the form of very basic frame dwellings built on small-holdings or acreage acquired through Crown lease, Crown grant or, in some cases, "squatter's rights". When a sufficient number of such dwellings materialized, the local school district would be obliged to provide a schoolhouse, to be followed perhaps by a general store. In this way a small community emerged with no local government, no public services except a school, and no commercial services except a general store. The pattern of settlement along the Canadian National Railway east of Prince George presents an example of the results of this process, with communities such as Shelley, GLscome, Willow River, Aleza Lake, Upper Fraser, Cornell Mills, Button Mills, Longworth, Penney and Dome Creek existing at regular intervals of fifteen to twenty miles along the tracks. These communities vary in size from 377 to less than a dozen people and provide for their residents a bare mini mum level of amenity. Many are dependent upon private wells for their domestic water supply, sewage disposal i s by septic tank or outdoor privy and other community services such as fire protection and street lighting are generally non-existent. Nor is there any strong pressure for corporate status in order to improve the standard of service. The tools of local government i n such areas- are frequently regarded with suspicion as being merely a means of imposing unwanted regulations and taxes. With virtually no investment in social capital, and a very low level of investment in the private sector, these communities face a pre-carious future. The consolidation of sawmill activities which will undoubtedly follow upon the completion of new pulp-mills may well lead to the closure of many of the small mills upon which these communities depend and once the economic base is gone, the minimal level of capital investment will not be sufficient to hold many of the residents. As with the small incorporated communities mentioned previously, the social consequences of such a process of community decline and, abandonment are too important to be left entirely to the dictates of the market. "Instant Towns'*. This i s a term coined by the incumbent Minister of Municipal Affairs, Mr. Dan Campbell, to describe the intention behind a b i l l to be introduced before the Provincial Legis-lature during the current session. The legislation is intended to provide for the establishment, by the government, of new District Municipalities^i i n advance of the arrival of a resident population, when i t i s known that an industrial undertaking i s going to result in a new settlement where there is no pre-existing form of local govern-ment. Hip to the present time, three such communities are under con-struction or in the planning stage as a result of expansion in the forest industry. These are: 1* Bumble Beach, which i s currently under construction and i s intended to supercede the old Port Alice townsite. 2. Gold River, which i s to house the labour force associated with the new pulp-mill projected for the west coast of Vancouver Island by the Tahsis Company. 3. An as yet unnamed town to be built on the Parsnip River north of Prince George, based on two pulp-mills being built in the area by Cattermole Timber Limited and Alexandra Forest Products. The district municipality form of incorporation has been selected as being most appropriate, since this allows residential and industrial land uses to be widely separated for reasons of amenity while s t i l l a form of local government applied to argas of 2,000 acres or more having a population density of less than two persons per acre. See "Municipal Act" R.S.B.C. I960, Chapter 255, Section 19(2). 106 placing the plant-site within the boundaries of the municipality for purposes of providing a tax base. At the time of writing, details of the legislation have not been made public. However, i t appears that a considerable amount of discretion i n decision-making i s left to the developing company in the area of site selection and planning.^ 2. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Introduction As pointed out earlier, the British Columbia forest industry has been until quite recently a •'sawlog" industry, with pulp-mill capacity falling considerably short of what would be required to provide a fully integrated forest economy. The dominant position of sawmills, combined with the geography of the province, have resulted in two distinct patterns of activity i n the coast and interior districts. These varying activity patterns have in turn contributed to the devel-opment of the regional settlement patterns of the province. Coast Development The first commercial sawmilling activity in British Columbia was established in the vicinity of the present cities of Vancouver and Victoria. As these centres grew in importance, the sawmills found 92Based on personal interview with Mr. Don South, Director of Regional Planning, Department of Municipal Affairs, Victoria, B.C., February 16, 1965. 107 i t advantageous to remain, even after nearby timber resources were depleted. Access to shipping facilities by r a i l and water, a readily available labour supply which did not have to be accommodated at company expense, and the pre-existence of capital installation were a l l contributing factors i n inducing the mills to "stay put"; but perhaps the most important factor of a l l was the ease with which logs could be towed through the sheltered waters of Georgia Straits from timber stands as far away as the north end of Vancouver Island. Once this pattern of activity had become firmly established, most new productive capacity simply reinforced i t , rather than seeking out new sites nearer to the log supply, lardwick notes that ". • • con-centration rather than dispersal of processing has become the domin-ant characteristic of the geography of the forest industry of coastal British Columbia".93 For this reason, the forest industry has contributed substan-t i a l l y to the growth of metropolitan Vancouver and Victoria, though by no means being the exclusive reason for their emergence as British Columbia's two principal cities. On the other hand, the industry has done very l i t t l e to develop the remaining areas of the coast forest district, in spite of the fact that i t has always been the district's most important economic activity. The settlement pattern of the coast district i s , in fact, exactly analagous to the activity S^iardwiek, op. cit.. p. 70. 108 pattern of the forest industry, with high concentration in the south-west corner and a very thin diffusion of population throughout the remainder of the area. The only exceptions to the general rule of industrial concen-tration have been the pulp-mills, which have dispersed themselves along both shore lines of the Straits of Georgia, where they have been able to find sites affording them their unique combination of locational requirements. Where these mills were added to pre-exist-ing service centre towns such as Nanaimo and Campbell River, or where they were combined with large sawmills in' integrated corporate operations such as at Alberni and Powell River, they have contri-buted to the growth of cities large enough to sustain a wide range of commercial services and a comparatively high level of public amenities. In isolated sites, on the other hand, the mills have led to the establishment of quite small towns, such as Ocean Falls, Port Alice and Woodfibre, which are able to sustain only a very limited level of fa c i l i t i e s . In view of the fact that the coast forest i s being cut at, or near, i t s allowable limit, i t i s not likely that developments in the forest industry wil l produce any significant alteration to regional settlement patterns in this area. The only completely new pulp-mill capacity being planned for the coast i s that of the Tahsis Company at Gold River. Although the new town to be created i n conjunction with this development will benefit from the "Instant Townstt legislation 109 and will have a highway link with Campbell River and the "outside world" i t w i l l nonetheless remain for the foreseeable future a rather small settlement of some 3,000 persons, since i t will have neither service centre activities nor other forms of industry to add to i t s basic labour force. A l l other new capacity i s being planned in the form of additions to existing plants, which are likely to result in only marginal expansion of labour force and population. Perhaps the only development which might lead to increased urbanization in the outlying areas would be a large-scale shift in the location of sawmilling activities in response to increasing land values in metropolitan areas. The possibility of this was raised by Hardwiek when he suggested that some mills might be forced out of Greater Vancouver, perhaps to sites adjacent to sulphate pulp-mills. However, there i s as yet no evidence of this occurring. Interior Development The pattern of development i n the interior has been quite different from that of the coast, with the lack of cheap water trans-portation making area! concentration of activities unfeasible. Gener-ally speaking development i n the interior consists of a great number of small mills thinly diffused in a ribbon pattern along the railroads and highways. Where a high level of urbanization has evolved, i t has not been as a result of the forest industry. For example, Prince George i n the north-central interior has developed largely as a regional service centre although containing sawmill activity within its boundaries. The Okanagan cities have grown from a variety of causes including regional service, fruit-growing and tourism. The east Kootenay cities, such as Trail or Rossland are heavily dependent upon mineral, extraction and smelting. However, significant develop-ments are underway in the interior forest industry, in the form of pulp-mill construction and sawmill concentration. If the activities of sawmilling and pulp-milling can be brought together in the same towns, significant increases in population, and the overall level of urbanization, may be looked for i n the interior. Where these f a c i l i -ties are to be added to already established service-centre towns even more intensive urbanization will result. This trend is already noticeable in Prince George, which is to receive three new pulp-mills within the next two years and which has become the province's fastest growing city. Conclusions The extractive activities of the forest industry, concerned as they are with the harvesting of a widely distributed crop, do not i n themselves contribute to the achievement of urbanization. Conversion activities, on the other hand, are able to make such a contribution, provided they are arranged in groups or concentrations. Op to the present time however the only significant grouping of conversion I l l activities has occurred in the extreme south-west corner of the province, an area which would have succeeded in becoming urbanized in spite of the forest industry. Other minor centres of urbanization throughout British Columbia have also achieved their present con-dition with only secondary assistance from the forest industry. It is a paradox that although British Columbia is the most highly A urbanized province in Canada, with over ?6.6 percent of its population being classified as urban by the 1961 census, its most important ' economic activity has had.little to do with bringing this about. The range and quality of services which a society is able to provide for its citizens is directly related to their numbers, and their distance from the locus of the facilities concerned. Thus, the more concentrated a. society's population becomes, the more services i t is able to provide. One of the key problems in the devel-opment of British Columbia has been the emergence of many small, iso-lated and unconnected settlements, a process to which the forest in-dustry has been a prime contributor. With significant changes about to take place in the distribution of forest activities, the opportunity is presented for a reversal of this process, under the guidance of firm government policies. 3. CHAPTER SUMMARY The forest industry has contributed to the development of many types of settlement in the province of British Columbia, ranging 112 from primitive isolated eamps to thriving metropolitan areas. The largest of these settlements have achieved municipal incorporation and economic diversification to the extent that they are no longer significantly affected by internal re-adjustments i n the industry. The well being of the smaller settlements however i s closely linked to that of the individual forest operations which sustain them, and policy changes effecting the industry are of compelling significance to these communities as well. Up to the present time, the forest industry has contributed to the evolution of a settlement pattern in which over fifty-three percent of the population i s concentrated in the extreme south-west corner of the province. The result of this has been that throughout much of the rest of the province the population is scattered in settle-ments too small to maintain more than a minimum level of service and amenities. However, changes appear imminent in the industry, which could be utilized as a means of achieving a higher incidence of urban-ization. Br. John Deutsch has stated that tt. . . To-day, the non-export of logs i s taken as an axiom of policy . . • Industry must be encour-aged to grow i n British Columbia. The question then arises, in what u part of British Columbia? The early policy makers did not care.tt95 A further question follows from this: do the present policy makers care? So they care enough to devise and implement policies that will direct 9%eutscht, op. ci t . , p. 70. 113 the growth of the forest industry to achieve the iMnrimtam good for the province? CHAPTER V THE DETERMINATION OF- SETTLEMENT PATTERNS THROUGH THE CONTROL OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST ACTIVITIES. I. PLANNING FOR DEVELOPMENT The Need to Plan Provincial Re&poEgibilities. In previous chapters i t was indicated that a process of widespread change i s already underway i n the forest industry of British Columbia, which has significant implications upon the environment of the province's citizens. The provincial government i s deeply involved i n this process for a number of reasons. 1. It holds t i t l e , on behalf of the people, to over two-thirds of the productive forest land of the province. 2. Many of the changes which are taking place within the indus-try are a direct result of government policy. 3. The forest industry i s the most important economic activity i n the province. In the light of this involvement the government may respond to the forces of environmental changes i n one of three ways. 1* It may simply let things happen, accepting as inevitable what-ever results eventually materialize. 2. It may try to stop the process, freezing or propping-up the status quo by way of statutes or subsidies. 115 3, It may utilize the forces of change as a means of assisting in the positive reshaping of the province. Pursuit of the f i r s t alternative would be inconsistent with the government's willingness to enact and enforce, on behalf of the public interest, firm and far-sighted policies affecting other aspects of the forest industry. Examples of such policies include Crown ownership of the forest lands, severe restrictions upon the export of manufactured timber, and sustained yield. Pursuit of the second alternative would mean the perpetuation, at great cost, of conditions which are pre-sently responsible not only for inefficient utilization of the forest crop, but for unpopular and unsatisfactory environmental conditions as well. Pursuit of the third alternative, on the other hand, would materially assist in achieving the stated goal underlying the pre-viously mentioned policies: the growth of prosperous stable communi-ties. The propensity for change i s , in itself, a resource which can be wasted or dissipated just as surely as any other resource. The two concepts which most clearly distinguish current from previous approaches to resource development in British Columbia are the con-cepts of f u l l utilization and multiple use. To allow the changes in the forest industry to occur without any attempt being made to harness their latent energies, released in the form of environmental change, would constitute a failure to apply these concepts to this potent-i a l l y valuable resource. 116 Be-statement of Goals, It was established in Chapter I that the goals of resource development could be expressed by such phrases as "the use and convenience of man", "the wealth, health and happiness of mankind" and "happiness achieved through individual self-realiza-tion". It was further established that the role of "legislators and planners" in contributing to the fulfillment of these goals con-sisted of providing: 1. Freedom to search for self-realization, so long as this freedom did not impede the search of others. 2. Opportunities for education and upbringing. 3. Abundant scope for search. Finally, in Chapter I the question was posed, °To what extent does our present approach to resource development support, or conflict with, the creation of that environment which will best enable us to f u l f i l l our goals?1* and offered disturbing evidence to the effect that our goals were far from being achieved. If policy-makers choose, as a means toward goal fulfillment, to harness the forces of environmental change arising from developments in the forest industry, i t is in the realm of "freedom, educational opportunity and abundance of scope" that they must work. However, simple though they may be to express, the concepts involved in these few words are exceedingly complex. Freedom. The concept of freedom lies at the very roots of modern society, yet i t defies precise definition. To some i t i s 117 simply absence of restraint upon individual thought and action. Yet, in a complex and interdependent society, the unrestrained actions of some may impose severe restraints upon others. "The slave is not made a free man by virtue of any power put in to him, but by virtue of re-straints imposed upon the actions of others".96 Freedom then involves a delicate balance between the rights of the individual and the rights of society to impose restraints upon individual action In the interest of the community at large. Where the fulcrum of this balance is to be placed will depend, at any one point in time, upon the relative weights which society assigns to private versus community rights, as determined through the political process. It involves in effect a process of continuous arbitration between the private and public interests. In matters of resource development and environmental change, concerned as they are with the permanent commitment of mat-erial and spatial resources, this arbitration process must take cog-nizance not only of current interests, both public and private, but of future interests as well. Any decision taken to-day in these matters is paid for at the price of that which could have been done instead. With respect to the forest industry in British Columbia, matters affecting resource development are in fact subject to a contin-uous arbitration process involving public and private interests viewed in a long-term context. Matters affecting environmental change, how-118 ever receive no such treatment. It is often contended that, in British Columbia, local government is the device through which the democratic process is enabled to reconcile differences between public and private interests in matters pertaining to the human environment. This approach is clearly inadequate for a variety of reasons. 1. Many crucial decisions which concern resource development but which will produce significant environmental change are taken before any local government or any population has materialized in the area concerned. 2. The issues involved in resource development and environmental change have a spatial incidence far broader than that normally encompassed by local government. 3. The most important policy decisions taken in matters of re-source development are taken at the provincial level, which is not subject to local government efforts to influence envir-onmental change. Freedom to search for self-realization without impeding the search of others clearly includes the establishment of a means for arbitrating between public and private interests, based on rule of law and sub-ject to democratic process, at the provincial level. Education. The most obvious item to be considered under this heading is the public school system by means of which children are equipped with the basic tools of knowledge, enabling them to function 119 effectively in communion with their society. In a world whose tech-nology i s increasing in complexity day by day, this system i s being expanded proportionately, to impart a widening range of specialized technical and intellectual knowledge, without which the individual i s severely handicapped in his efforts to contribute to, and share in, the bountiful productivity of his society. Formal education is be-coming an increasingly specialized art, requiring the services of highly trained personnel and costly equipment. Beyond the most rudi-mentary level of education i t i s becoming increasingly necessary to concentrate these scarce resources of capital and manpower at points where they can be most efficiently utilized in serving the maximum number of people. However, education in i t s broadest sense involves much more than schooling, i t comprises the whole range of experience by which man, through the exercise of his sensual perceptions, widens his knowledge. Yet a l l experience i s an arch wherethrough Gleams that untravelled world, whose margin fades For ever and for ever when I move.97 Used in this sense education includes a l l media of communication, radio, television, films, books, newspapers and, above a l l , face-to-face contact with a wide range of variegated individuals. If education is to be employed in the service of self-realization, i t can be most effectively utilized under conditions that permit the 97iennyson, Ulysses, Stanzas 19-21. concentration of population in aggregates large enough to sustain modem institutions of formal education and a wide range of personal experiences. Scope for Search. As Haig-Brown points out, self-realization means different things to different people, and no specifications for i t s achievement can be written in advance. The individual must seek and find i t for himself. Freedom gives him the right to seek, and education gives him the tools, but the total environment in which he lives gives him the locus for his search. The narrower and more circumscribed this environment i s , the less abundant i s the scope for search; the greater the range of choice in every aspect of daily l i f e , the greater i s the liklihood that the search will bear fruit. If the goal of self-realization is to be served through the provision of abundant scope for search, then environmental changes which will broaden the individual's range of choice should be initiated and encouraged. Evaluation of Present Conditions. In terms of its contribu-tion to the fulfillment of the ultimate goals of resource develop-ment, i t i s apparent that the forest industry fall s short on two specific grounds. 1. Developments proceed in the absence of any provisions for identifying and protecting in advance, the public interest with respect to the environmental changes which this devel-121 opment engenders • 2. Development of the forest industry has led to the establish-ment of a settlement pattern in which many people are denied access to f u l l educational opportunities and to a wide range of choice i n their search for self-fulfillment. The following questions then arise:- Are these shortcomings inevi-table as a result of inherent characteristics of the forest industry, or can they be overcome? If they are not inevitable, what policies should be enacted in order to bring about more desirable conditions? When a society poses these questions and coneientiously seeks to answer them i t has, i n effect, adopted the basic ingredient of plann-ing; preparing a course for the future based on a predicted set of preferred consequences. The Planning Process The Meaning of Regional Planning. The word "planning" i s an ubiquitous one. Recent years have seen the emergence of many kinds of planning: social planning, economic planning, physical planning, etcetera. In the complex world of modem western society these various forms of planning are really only subdivisions within a con-tinuous or circular spectrum, since actions taken in one sector have ramifications within the others. Nonetheless, the very complexity of modern society has made specialization necessary. As has already been stated, the general concern of this study i s development within 122 the forest industry, the effects of this development upon the spatial environment, and the possibilities for utilizing the forces of change generated by this development as a means of achieving specified goals. Within the current vocabulary of planning, the type of planning which is specifically concerned with the spatial incidence of development i s referred to as "regional planning1*. In a recent study prepared by the Graduate Students in Community and Regional Planning at the Univer-sity of British Columbia, regional pi arming was defined as "a continuous dynamic process in which a society formulates, selects and pursues i t s goals by initiating, co-ordinating and ordering, in terms of space, the development of i t s environment".9^ This definition w i l l be deemed to apply wherever the term regional planning i s used in this report. From this definition i t follows logically that a process of goal f u l -fillment through utilization of the environmental change engendered by the development of the forest industry i s , i n fact, a limited or special-ized form of regional planning. Having established this fact, the two questions posed above may be reduced to one of :-"How may the develop-ment of the forest industry be made subject to the process of regional planning?" Steps i n the Planning Process. The planning process has been described as:-98Graduate Students i n Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, Student Project lumber 5 , Planning for Develotment  i n British Columbia (Vancouver: unpublished rxdmeo. 1965) p. 6 . 123 a sequence of action which begins with establishing certain goals, involves certain decisions as to alternative ways of achieving these goals, and eventually takes the form of steps for carrying out decisions, followed by evaluation, and perhaps a new sequence of action. The sequence f a l l s into these stages: 1. Goal specification stage. 2. Decision making stage. 3. Plan execution, evaluation and re-orientation stage. 99 The f i r s t stage has been touched on briefly in mentioning "happiness through self-realization" as being the ultimate goal of resource development. Before policies can be evolved, however, a more explicit statement of goals i s necessary. The second stage involves the evalu-ation of alternative forms in which these explicit goals may be given substance. The third stage involves the establishment of policies to bring about the selected goal forms, specific programs for carrying out the policies and the creation of administrative machinery to implement and evaluate the policies. II. GOALS AND GOAL FORMS Criteria For Goals Introduction. Chapin states that "while goals of planning have been in the forefront of planning thought since the early literature on Utopias, only in relatively recent times has the identification of goals been made an integral part of the technical work of planning. 99p. Stuart Chapin, "Foundations of Urban Planning", in Werner Z. Hirsch, (ed.), Urban Life and Form.(Mew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963) p. 224. ^Chapin, op. ci t . , p. 225. 124 Because of the recentness of the concept there i s , as yet, no absolute uniformity of terminology, with many writers on the subject preferring the word "objective'1 to "goal". However, there i s more or less unani-mous agreement on the importance of goal-identification, and on the criteria by which a set of goals, or objectives, should be judged. Basically, these criteria are explicitness, comprehensiveness, and measurability. Explicitness. For planning to be effective goals must be explicitly stated. If this is not done there can be no common agree-ment among policy-makers as to what purposes underlie any proposed policy, nor can the citizens have any real comprehension of why policies are being initiated. Comprehensiveness. It was stated earlier that freedom to seek self-realization must not impede the search of others. Yet i t is quite conceivable that the goals of one individual or group may conflict with those of another. Only i f a l l goals are stated can such potential conflicts be anticipated. Measurability. Goals should be capable of being reduced to measurable quantities so that i t i s possible to test empirically the extent of improvement to be sought and so that, where conflicts between goals are unavoidable, the conflicts may be resolved objec-tively through the establishment of priorities. Proposed Goals The Mature of goals. Goals have their origins in the social 125 values of a community. For this reason they are frequently difficult to identify in explicit terms. Because of this there has been a strong tendency for planners, in the past, to seek to formulate goals intuitively. This, Chapin states, 4s "a holdover from the design origins of the f i e l d " 1 0 1 and i s an unsatisfactory approach toward solving an admittedly vexing problem. A combination of social re-search and the political process appears to offer the best method for identifying and formulating goals, although work in this field i s s t i l l in i t s infancy. The important thing for planners and policy-makers to keep in mind is that goals must not simply be imposed from above, but must be an honest reflection of the values of the community. Benjamin Higgins, in an article written well before the emergence of the planners current concern with goals, stated: . . . the purpose of planning i s to help the people of the community get what they want, not to give them what the planners want, nor even to t e l l the community what they ought to want. Education of popular tastes regarding physical environment and social services i s extremely important, and community planners must help i n the process of public education; but this education is not a major aim of planning as such. 1 0 2 If the current study i s to be conducted in a manner consistent with the steps outlined for the planning process, i t should be based on a comprehensive, explicit, measurable set of goals having i t s origins in the socially-rooted values of the citizens of British Columbia. i e aChapin, op. cit., p. 226. 1 0 2Benjamin Higgins, "Towards a Science of Community Planning", Journal of the American Institute of Planners. X¥ (Fall, 1949) p. 4. Unfortunately, no such set of goals has ever been evolved in this province. Under these circumstances two alternatives are open: 1. Conduct a detailed survey, using a l l the available tools of social science, to identify the goals of the province. 2. Assume a set of goals which appear to be more or less con-sistent.with the social values of the citizens of British Columbia. Since the object of the study i s to investigate only one limited aspect of regional planning, namely the relationship between the forest industry and regional planning, i t would be unreasonable to pursue the former alternative. For that reason an assumed set of goals will be used, although the point is emphasized that this i s not being advocated as a proper approach under actual, rather than hypothetical, circumstances. The assumption of a set of goals applicable to provincial development was recently made by the Graduate Students of Community and Regional Planning at the Univer-sity of British Columbia, 1 Q 3 based upon a survey of statements made by government, political .parties and other ma jor groups within the province. From this set, the following goals have been selected as being of relevance to the environmental impact of forest development. Selected Goals. It was postulated in the study that there exists a three-level hierarchy of goals consisting of a "central" 103Graduate Students of Community and Regional Planning, loc. c i t . or "paramount" goal; "overriding" goals; and "specific" goals. The paramount goal was stated to be*. . .the opportunity for every indivi-dual to have a high and rewarding level of l i f e . Everyone should possess the right to make a meaningful choice among a variety of l i f e styles, so long as that style does not conflict with the rights of others." 1^ This i s completely consistent with the already accepted ultimate goal as outlined in the introductory chapter of the study. The second level, or overriding, goals were concerned basically with "optimization and maximization of the different aspects of the social, economic and physical conditions in which man lives"• At this level, recognition i s given to the fact that the provincial government has an important role to play as "guide, stimulator and developer". This is consistent with the point made at the beginning of the chapter regarding provincial responsibilities in accommodating the environ-mental impact of forest development. It is the level of "specific goals" that is of special relevance to regional planning. These are goals which "are more often viewed as issues than general goals". Specific goals relevant to the spatial incidence of the forest industry are: 1. To provide every person with the means to maintain his health i°%bid. Nelson, et al., Community Structure and Change, (New York: MacMillan, I960) p. 94. 128 and welfare. This includes access to the services of doctors, dentists, pharmaceutical outlets and hospitals. 2. To make available to every person the means of acquiring an education to suit his own particular needs. 3. To provide every person with access to a variety of job opportunities. 4* To provide for the creation of durable settlements which will have the highest possible level of urban services, institutions and amenities. "It seems clear that there i s a rising rate of expectancy on the part of citizens, which should be fully re-cognized by the government."-^ 5. To provide more efficient linkages between urban centres and between regions of the province. Higgins, in the previously mentioned article, defined another goal which i t is felt must be added to the above in order to make the l i s t comprehensive. It i s "minimum travel time, without accidents, by 107 preferred modes of travel." 1 III. THE CONCEPT OF GOAL FORMS Definition The second stage in the sequence of planning action has been ^Graduate Students of Community and Regional Planning, ^Higgins, op. cit., p. 10. 129 identified as the "decision making stage", involving the evaluation of alternative forms in which the selected goals may be given sub-stance. Goal forms may be either tangible, as in the case of a physical layout, or intangible, as in the case of a policy or an administrative program. Goals must be given form in order that they may be evaluated by the decision makers, as a prerequisite to select-ing that form, or set of forms, which will f u l f i l l the stated goals with a maximum of efficiency and minimum of conflict. A l l of the selected goals have spatial manifestation, in that they require the provision of physical facilities in which to be fu l f i l l e d . The services of doctors, nurses and educators, for example, require the provision of clinics, hospitals and schools to be fully effective by modern standards. Employment facili t i e s , shipping facilities and transportation linkages a l l have locus in space. Any goal form pro-posed to serve the above set of goals must therefore be of the tang-ible variety. It i s equally true of course that intangible forms must exist simultaneously to realize a number of these goals. For example, access to health facilities would require a goal form i n the nature of a policy or program to train and recruit doctors. This, however, merely serves to illustrate the point previously made that regional planning is only part of a continuous and interlocking spectrum of planning. The significant point i s that the six selected goals may »n be served by a goal form, or set of goal forms, having physical or tangible manifestations i n space. Such a goal form has 130 been defined by Chapin as Dan abstraction referring to the general character and form of the land development pattern of an area which has been structured to f u l f i l l certain defined goals," 1 0 8 By refer-ence to the previously stated goals i t may be seen that any proposed goal form must consist basically of an arrangement of facilities for: 1. The provision of goods and services including health and education fa c i l i t i e s . 2. The provision of employment. 3. The provision of transportation faci l i t i e s . A l l proposed goal forms will therefore be presented as alternative combinations of these three variables. Goods and Services Central Place Theory. In the sciences of urban geography and regional analysis, places at which goods and services are made available have come to be referred to as "central places". Over the past thirty years a complex "central place theory" has been evolved, largely as a result of the writing of two German analysts, Walther Christaller and August Losch.^*^ Recently the theories have been empirically tested and found valid in localities having many features 1 0 8Chapin, op. cit . , p. 234. 1 0 % a l t h e r Christaller, Die Zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland. (Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1933). August Losch, The Economics of Location, (few Haven, Tale University Press, 195417" 131 i n common with British Columbia, including Snohomish County, i n Washington, with strong geographical similarities and southern Saskat-chewan, with strong political s i m i l a r i t i e s . 1 1 0 Other empirical tests i n Sweden, Germany and, most recently, the United States Midwest, have further substantiated the theory.^ 1 The central place theory postulates the existence of a hierarchical structure of goods and services arrayed or ranked i n terms of "order". Higher order goods and services are those purchased infrequently, for which people are willing to travel considerable distance to obtain. Lower order goods are generally necessities requiring frequent purchases with l i t t l e travel. Two additional concepts are associated with the order of a good, the concepts of "range" and "threshold". Range of a Good. The range of a good delineates the zone or tributary area around a central place from which persons travel to the centre to purchase the good. The upper limit of the range i s the mATrimwm distance which people are willing to travel to purchase the good. The lower limit of the range i s the radius which encloses the iryipjmmn number of consumers necessary to provide a sales volume •^PBrian J.L. Berry and William L. Garrison, «*The Functional Bases of the Central Place Hierarchy", Economic Geography, XXXIV, (January 1958) pp. 145-154. Saskatchewan Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Report Ho. 12, Service Centre, (Begina: Queen's Printer, 1957). llljohn B. Borchert and Russell B. Adams, "Trade Centres and Trade Area3 of the Upper Midwest1*, Urban Report No. 3, Upper Midwest  Economic Study, (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Research and Development Council, September, 1963). 132 adequate lor the good to be supplied profitably from the central place. This lower limit is a function of density of population, since in' regions of high density the requisite "minimum." will be contained within a relatively smaller area than in regions of low density. Threshold. The actual number of people required to enable a good to be supplied profitably from a central place is termed the "threshold" population for that good. High order goods have a greater range and threshold than low order goods. The effect of this is to produce a hierarchy of "orders" of goods. Higher order service centres provide a l l the goods and services to be found in service centres of lower order and, in addition, those goods and services whose threshold population exceeds the population available in the lower order centre. Hierarchy of Service Centres. Most empirical tests have established the existence of a six-step order of service centres, classified in the Saskatchewan study as Hamlets, Villages, Towns, Greater Towns, Cities and Provincial Cities. Analysts have applied the central place concepts to theoretical regions where the basic workers are evenly distributed over a flat plain; in other words, to an agricultural economy. Under these circumstances the forces of supply and demand act in concert with the concept of "range" and "threshold" to produce an economic landscape in which lowest order centres exist in profusion at close spacing, and progressively higher order centres exist in progressively fewer numbers at progressively 133 wider spacing. Under conditions of absolute uniformity of terrain and equal ease of access in a l l directions, the landscape assumes a pattern in which a l l trade areas become hexagonal, and lower order centres and their trade areas "nest" within those of larger centres according to a rule of threes. This pattern is illustrated in figure In actual fact, of course, a great many factors including irregular terrain, the concentration of specific economic activities such as mining or port facilities, and even historical accident, operate to disturb the regularity of this pattern. In spite of real-l i f e deviations in the pattern, however, the basic concepts of range and threshold remain valid. Where the population of a given settle-ment is below the threshold required for the provision of a specified "order* of goods and services, and where there i s no higher order centre within range, the residents of that settlement must simply go without that level of goods and services. Ihder these circumstances the problem can be solved either by increasing the population above the threshold level, or by improving transportation linkages to bring the higher order centre within range. Proposed Goal Forms Spacing of Service Centres. The goal with respect to goods and services has been defined as access to the widest possible range of fa c i l i t i e s . Consequently any settlement pattern in which the rank and spacing of service centres is consistent with the mathematical F I G U R E 20 P A T T E R N OF LOCATION OF SIX CLASSES OF CENTERS Y •*—© *"i-< V-M. X>~ +~4 V4-V •~t~« —< V t— .A. V—v >—4 r \ Y " i - M —< v - H -4 A Y •-—V •4-4-o V - V o-K~~*. V V > 7 V Y Y H A; S . . < X Y V4«< *"\-4 @—*~ — • * \X 6 < 4 HAMLET VILLAGE TOWN GREATER TOWN CITY PROVINCIAL CITY LEGEND ©-o——o @ 134 relationships of the central place theory would constitute a suitable goal form, since this pattern would provide as many ,,orders,, as the population was capable of sustaining. Because the whole complex system i s built upon the spacing of the lowest order centres, which i s i n turn established by the maximum distance, expressed as a time-distance factor, which people are prepared to travel to purchase lowest order goods (namely, bread, milk, et cetera) the determination of this distance i s a necessary f i r s t step in the preparation of proposed goal forms* This distance i s a function of many objective and subjective factors including spatial distribution of the popula-tion, price willingness of purchasers and preferred modes of travel, and could only be determined by a lengthy process of empirical social value identification. As this i s obviously beyond the scope of the present study the hamlet spacing of ten miles, observed i n the Saskatchewan study, will be used for purposes of example. If ten miles i s the optimum hamlet spacing, then half of this distance, five miles, may be deemed to be the maximum distance people should be re-quired to travel to reach a fir s t order service centre. The mathema-tic a l relationships of the central place theory are such that, once the spacing of the lowest order centre has been established, the spacing of a l l other centres may be determined. One of the mathematical properties of the theoretical model i s that the distance between two adjacent centres of equal rank i s always 1.73 times larger than the distance between two adjacent centres of the preceding rank. 1 1 2 H2Saskatchewan Royal Commission, op. cit., p. 67* 135 Table III indicates the spacing of a l l levels of service centres in accordance with the central space theory, assuming an initial hamlet spacing of ten miles. TABLE III DISTANCE IN HUES BETWEEN OPTIMUM CENTRE LOCATIONS Centre Distance Hamlet 10.0 Village 17.3 Town 30.0 Greater Town 52.0 City 90.0 Provincial City 155.7 Source: Saskatchewan Royal Commission. Alternative Forms. In conceiving possible settlement patterns as goal forms, within the framework of the central place theory, i t is possible to imagine six alternative forms, ranging from one in which all six levels of service centre are present, to one in which only the highest order exists. These six alternatives are illustrated in figures 21. to 2 6 , page; 1}5 A i-> Journey to Work. It is obvious that i f the concentrated form (Figure ) were were,selected, no-one could live more than five miles from the central city, since this is the maximum distance a person is P r o v i n c i a l C i t y Only. F i g u r e 22 T o t a l Number o f Communities One C i t i e s and P r a v i n c i a l C i t y , Maximum Journey t o Work 76 m i l e s * T o t a l Number of Communities 7 Maxiarum Journey t o Work 45 m i l e s * 135k. © 0 © © © ® © © © © © THEORETICAL MODELS OF ALTERNATIVE SETTLEMENT PATTERNS BASED ON THE CENTRAL PLACE THEORIES' OF CHRIS TALLER AND LOSCH ASSUMPTIONS 1. System c o n s i s t s o f f l a t p l a i n o f uniform p r o d u c t i v i t y , 2. A l l r e s i d e n t s of the system are t o be w i t h i n range o f a l l orders of s e r v i c e - c e n t r e s . 2. Spacing o f lo w e s t - o r d e r c e n t r e s 10 m i l e s . LEGEND (§) P r o v i n c i a l C i t y O C i t y © Greater Town O Town • V i l l a g e • Hamlet © F i g a r e 23 Greater Towns, C i t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l C i t y . T o t a l Number of Cowsiunities 19 Maximum Journey t o Work 26 m i l e s . Figure 24 Towns, Greater Towns, C i t i e s , ' and P r o v i n c i a l C i t y * T o t a l Number of Communities 61 Maximum Journey to Work 15 miles r Figure 25 Villages,. Towns, Greater Towns, C i t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l C i t y * T o t a l Number of Communities 169 Maximum Journey to Work 8,7 miles Figure 26 Hamlets, V i l l a g e s , Towns, Greater Towns, C i t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l C i t y . T o t a l Number of Communities 6^9 MaxLesiun Journey to Work 5 adlas. I 3 5 & THE FOREST INDUSTRY AS A DETERMINANT j OF SETTLEMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA : i THE CASE FOR INTEGRATION THROUGH REGIONAL PLANNING M A S T E R S D E G R E E I H f S I S IN C O M M U N I T Y & R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G U N I V E R S I J Y .OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A N O 20 40 60 S C A L E IN MI LJES J. F. GILMOUR A P R I L 1 9 6.5 156 to be reqjiired to travel to reach a centre offering lowest order goods. However, as the extractive operations of the,forest industry are carried out over a wide area of the province, such a form would entail, for the. logger, a daily journey to work of up to two hundred miles or more. It is obvious therefore that a more dispersed pattern i s required. On the other hand the most dispersed pattern (Figure 26. page 135 A) may not be. necessary since, in this form no point within the system i s more than five miles from a central place. This degree of coverage would be necessary only i f the maximum permissible journey to work were also five miles. We have seen, however, that some loggers are prepared to travel up to sixty miles per day to get to work. What constitutes a desirable, maximum journey to work i s another figure which can be satisfactorily determined only through an involved process of social value identification.- Once such a figure had been obtained, however, i t would be possible to determine the maximum spacing, of towns that would permit every worker to live within acceptable range of a lowest order service centre and, simultaneously live within acceptable range of his place of work. If, for example, the desirable maximum distance for. the journey to work was deemed to be fifteen miles, reference, to Table III, page 135, indicates that this i s half the optimum,spacing ofthe "town* level of service centre. Under these circumstances the optimum settlement pattern would be one consisting of a l l orders of service centre ranging upward from the level of "town" (Figure Vh, page 135 A). This pattern would be the one requiring 137 the least number of settlements to provide a f u l l range of services, while satisfying the limits imposed by journey to work and journey to fi r s t order service centre. The Influence of the Threshold Concept. The selection of this particular goal form was made solely on the basis of the concept of "ranged. But, as was previously established, the central place theory rests on two concepts, range and threshold. To determine whether or not the selected goal form is valid with respect to threshold i t i s necessary to determine whether or not the employment characteristics of the forest industry would result i n sufficient population being present within range of each service centre to support the tttownu order of central place functions. The determination of this condition would require analysis of three factors: 1. The population threshold of each order of service centre. 2. The ratio of basic workers to total population. 3. The number of forest workers employed per unit area of pro-ductive forest land. Threshold Sizes. As was the case with journey to work and journey to f i r s t order goods, the population thresholds for service centres are functions of many subjective and objective factors, such as relative costs of marketing particular goods in the region, pur-chasing power, and consumer demand as influenced by social values. 138 For this reason thresholds could be determined satisfactorily only through an extensive process of empirical study. Since the complexity of such a process would-be inconsistent with the scope of the present study, a set of assumed thresholds will be used for illustrative purposes. The use of the Saskatchewan study as a source of example for hamlet spacing and service centre terminology would suggest its re-use as a source of threshold data. Iphfortunately, however, the population figures quoted in the Saskatchewan study were for service centre residents only and did not include the total trade area popula-tion. Therefore, i t is proposed to use instead the figures contained in the Upper Midwest Study. Since the figures are only being used to Illustrate a hypothetical situation the inconsistency is irrelevant. The threshold population disclosed for the five lowest order service centres in the Upper Midwest Study were: Hamlet 960 Village 3,900 Town 9,000 Greater Town 14,600 City 43,400 On the admittedly untested assumption that these figures are valid for British Columbia^  and assuming also that the forest industry were the only basic employer in the province, the productive forest land , circumscribed by a fifteen ml lie radius would have to generate employ-ment sufficient to sustain a population of 9,000 i f the selected goal form were to achieve the stated goal of maximum access to a fu l l range of goods and services in accordance with the central place theory. m Bmplojyaent to Pcgaalation Ratio. To determine whether or not such a population could be sustained, the ratio of basic workers to total population would first have to be established. This too is a complex factor, subject to many influences such as typical family size, ratio of married to single workers, and ratio of basic to service workers. As with other factors, extensive empirical study would be the only satisfactory way of establishing this ratio, but the complexity of the problem necessitates instead the making of further assumptions for illustrative purposes. In a recent study of the possible impact of a new pulp-mil] upon the Peace River District, a ratio of l:3-,33 was used 1 1 3 while in an interview with the Regional Planning Director of the Province of British Columbia i t was suggested that the figure might go as high as l : ? . 1 ^ For illustrative purposes a compromise ratio of 1:5 is proposed. The acceptance of this ratio would mean that to support a total population of 9,000 the forest industry would have to provide a total of 1,800 jobs within the area circumscribed by a fifteen mile radius (that is, within an area of 700 square miles). This works out to a figure of 2.5 employees per square mile. ^^Tantalns Research Limited, The Impact of a lew Forest Industry  on the Peace River Region, (Vancouver: unpublished mimeo., 1964), Appendix D, p. 4. ^ o n South, op. cit. 140 Loycsnt Per Unit Area. Topography, nature of species, and general forest productivity vary so widely throughout the British Columbia forests that a meaningful average figure for employment per unit area i s impossible to calculate. However, given access to detailed cutting plans and forest inventories, plus sufficient re-sources of time and money, i t would be quite feasible to make mean-ingful estimates for desired areas. Since the present study is con-cerned only with the development of general techniques, i t i s pro-posed to establish an assumed figure based on the Celgar operations in the vicinity of the Arrow L a k e s . S i n c e this i s presently the only integrated operation i n the interior, where most future devel-opment i s expected to take place, i t i s felt that i t is roughly typical of the pattern that may emerge throughout the interior during the next few years. Relevant figures for the Celgar operations are: Total License Area 4>000 square miles Logging Employment Sawmill Employment 305 Pulp-mill Employment 320 Total Employment 1,089 Employees per square mile 0*28 It has already been established that to achieve the goal form of "town", service centres at thirty mile spacing would require 2.5 employees per square mile, a figure nearly ten times as high ss H^F.A. Price, "Celgar", Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, (June, 1961) pp. 5, passim. 141 that provided. Under these circumstances there are three possible approaches to a solution. 1, laid the "order" constant while accepting an increased journey to work* 2» laid the journey to work constant, and accept a lower order of service centres. 3. Compromise between these two extremes. If the f i r s t solution were followed, the tributary area re-quired to create enough employment to support a "town" would be 1,800 4 0.28 » 6,430 square miles, necessitating a maximum journey to work of about forty-five miles. This would produce a settlement pattern of "towns" at ninety mile spacing, i n which no higher order , of center would emerge, since this spacing substantially exceeds the fifty-two mile limit upon "greater town" spacing as determined by the "range" of the next highest order of goods. (See Table III). If the second solution were followed, with journey to work limited to fifteen miles, then each tributary area would provide employment for only 19? workers, resulting i n a total population of 985 persons per service centre. This i s approximately equal to the threshold population of 960 required to support a hamlet. Thus the resulting settlement pattern would consist of hamlets at thirty wjie spacings. Since this spacing exceeds the 17.3 mile limit im-posed by theory on the spacing of the next highest order of centre, no higher order would emerge. dearly, by choosing the latter alternative the entire system is condemned to function with only the lowest order of services being made available. Yet this i s precisely the solution chosen throughout much of British Columbia, where industry has been left free to select the location of settlements and has opted i n favour of proximity to work, at the cost to the public of a higher order of service. If the compromise solution were accepted, the result would be a uniform pattern of settlements at the "village" level spaced approximately sixty miles apart. From the above calculations i t i s apparent that the forest industry by i t s e l f does not generate enough employment to allow a f u l l hierarchy of settlements to emerge, and the only valid goal forms from which a choice may be made would be those represented by Figures 127 to page' 14& A , in which a l l settlements are of the same order, with the variable factors being desired level of service, and maximum journey to work. The choice clearly depends on the relative value which society places on level of service and journey to work. As pointed out earlier, the determination of these values i s a matter of sociological research. For illustrative purposes i t will be assumed that the "hamlet" solution is regarded as unduly favoring the journey to work factor, and that the choice lies between the village pattern at sixty mile spacing, and a town pattern at ninety mile spacing. 143 However, another factor most be taken into account before a final solution can be proposed. This i s the fact that, while logging activities are diffused over a wide area, the conversion activities are carried out at concentrated points. The effect which this may have upon employment distribution must be considered as a final step i n the testing and selection of a preferred goal form. Based on the assumed "typical* operation, 4.000 square miles of territory w i l l support the following conversion activities: 1. One pulp-mill of 200,000 tons per year output employing 320 workers. This i s the approximate TtHnitmim economic size for a pulp-mill, as established i n Chapter III, so this activity could not be dispersed among more than one centre. 2. Sawmilling activity with an annual output of approximately 70 million f .b.m. This activity could be concentrated at a single point, or could be dispersed up to a limit of five saw-mills of 14 million f .b.m. capacity. Below this limit i t i s not economically feasible to install "barking" and "chipping" equipment, making f u l l utilization impossible . J _ L O 3* Logging activity employing 464 men, dispersed in a moving pattern in accordance with cyclical patch logging practices. To determine the effects of these employment characteristics upon the two alternative goal forms selected above, consideration i s Reed, op. c i t . 1, If 1*1 given f i r s t to a pattern of complete concentration of activities. The requirement of a 4,000 square mile area to support the selected level of operations would mean locating a l l conversion plants i n points at, or near, the centres of areas circumscribed by radii of approximately thirty-six miles. Retaining the original assumption of uniform topo-graphy and yield, this would mean a pattern of conversion plant sites at seventy-two mile spacing. Three possible approaches could then be taken to accommodate the employment pattern to the previously selected settlement pattern. 1. Hold the employment pattern fixed, and revise the settlement pattern, so that a l l people live at conversion plant sites. 2. Compromise between the ninety mile "town" pattern and the established employment pattern. 3. Compromise between the sixty mile "village n pattern and the established employment pattern. If the f i r s t alternative were chosen the result would be a uniform pattern of settlements at seventy-two mile spacing having a population of 5(1,089) = 5,445. This i s well below the 9,000 thres-hold for a town, so the resulting settlements would be villages with, perhaps, a few more amenities than the threshold-sized village. The selection of this alternative would produce a pattern in which the level of services would be only slightly higher than the sixty mile village pattern, i n which the loggers maximum journey to work would be increased by six miles from thirty to thirty-six, but in which 145 travel for conversion plant workers, constituting some sixty percent of the labour force, would be reduced to a minimum. This pattern i s illustrated in Figure 50 , page 146 A. If the second alternative were chosen, adjustments would be necessary i n order to adhere to the 1.73 relationship required to produce a logical interlocking pattern. Policy changes allowing more intensive harvesting through a reduction in the minimum allow-able diameter of cut, plus the operation of plants at slightly less than optimum capacity, might permit the spacing of conversion plants to be reduced by approximately ten percent to, say, sixty-five miles. The 1.73 relationship would expand the spacing between settlements to 112 miles, as indicated in Figure?) , page 146 A. The increase in spacing would add slightly to the population, but not enough to effect the level of services. The net effect of this alternative would be a level of services approximately equal to the ninety mile tttownM pattern, an increased maximum journey to work of fifty-six miles as opposed to forty-five miles for loggers and an extended journey to work for a l l conversion plant workers as well. If the third alternative were chosen, village spacing would have to be reduced and conversion plant site spacing expanded, in order to maintain the 1.73 ratio. The net effect would be a return to the " v n T-Agft"- level of service as in alternative one, with a slight decrease in the maximum journey to work for loggers, but with a l l conversion plant workers forced to travel long distances 146 to work. Clearly this alternative i s inferior to the f i r s t , and the decision woxdd have to be made between alternatives one and two. It will be assumed that alternative one is preferred, on the basis that the social, cost of having both loggers and conversion plant workers involved in a lengthy journey to work i s too high a price to pay to achieve the "town" level of service. Thus, the goal form finally selected i s that of uniform settlements at seventy-two mile spacing, with a l l conversion plant facilities contained within, with loggers facing a maximum journey to work of thirty-six miles, and with goods and services being provided at the village level only. The Ipper  Midwest Study suggests that at this level, commercial facilities would likely consist of the following: Gasoline Service Station Grocery Drug Store Hardware Store Bank Eating Place pins any two of the following: Garage, automobile or implement dealer Variety Store Meat, Fish or Fruit Market General Merchandise Store ^^Borchart, op. cit . , p. 4. Figure 2? . • • . " . • ' f ± m m 2 g 14.6A ALTERNATIVE SETTLEMENT PATTERNS BASED ON TIE. CENTRAL PLACE THEORIES AS ; • MODIFIED BY THE CHARACTERISTICS O F THE. FOifBST INDUSTRY. - • LSGBND • . O Towns • Village • Hamlet =f{= Conversion Plant S i t e s / — Tributary Areas of Service Centres T r i b u t a r y Areas of Conversion Plants Figure 29 y—-< F i g u r e 32 THE" 'FOREST' INDOS?ft'Y'"'AS; A ''DEf |.RMINANT_ O f SETTLEMEKT IN ; BRITISH/'XOt'U'MBiA:S; ""THE C A S E FOR I N « G R A T I O N : ' THROUGH REGIONAL P L A N N I N G . M A S T E R S D E G R E E I H £* S ! S I N ! C O M M U N I T Y & R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G U N I V E R S I T Y O f B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A ^ N V s r 20 40 60 S C A l t i H M I L E S J . F. GILMOUR A P R I L 1 9 6 5 147 Communities of this size in British Columbia also typically support public education facilities up to junior matriculation level and a thirty to forty bed hospital. 1 1 8 Residual Goal Forms Goal forms relevant to the other stated goals of employment opportunities and transportation facilities are residuals of the goal form selected with respect to goods, services and other amenities. The forest industry can, itself, create employment opportunities only within i t s own operation, and within the service sector of the economy which i t supports. By selecting a settlement pattern that maximizes the level of goods and services available to forest workers while respecting both the technical requirements of the industry, and other goals such as minimum travel time, stability of employment i s satis-fied. The goal form with respect to transportation must clearly be the most efficient road network that can be devised to link up the settlements of the selected settlement pattern. This, of course, i s predicated on the assumption that "preferred modes of travel" refers to automobiles. While there seems to be overwhelming evidence that this i s the case at present, i t i s not inconceivable that this pre-ference might change at some date in the future, in which case the "preferred mode* would be yet another element to be identified through • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance, Report on Hospital Statistics. 1963 (Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1965} p. 24. 1448 social research* Conclusions Before the technique illustrated i n this Chapter could be applied to obtain realistic rather than hypothetical results, sub-stantially more data would be required than i s presently available* Much of this essential data i s of a general planning nature, includ-ing "threshold" and "range" figures for British Columbia conditions; basic to non-basic employment ratios for a l l sizes and a l l economic characteristics of British Columbia communities; employment to total population ratios; and socially desirable standards for journey to work* To obtain this data an extensive empirical study of the entire province would be required involving such specialists as social and regional scientists and economic geographers* Additional data would be required from the forest industry itself* This would include accurate information on employees per unit area for different regions and localities within the province, data on productivity, and future cutting plans* Much of the raw data from which this information could be compiled i s already col-lected for other purposes* Examples of this include the Continuous  Forest Inventoryand the cutting plans filed with the British Columbia Forest Service by every logging operator functioning within the provincial sustained yield program* The forest industry, though the most important economic activity in the province, i s by no means the only one. A l l other activities such as mining, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, govern-ment service, transportation, and recreation also contribute toward the establishment and development of communities, and their effects would have to be analyzed i n exactly the same manner as the forest industry. Squally important would be a thorough analysis with respect to existing conditions of development and urbanization throughout the province. This would be essential to provide an estimate of the extent to which current conditions f a l l short of desired goals, and to provide a point of departure for the process of planning for the future. Only when a l l this had been done could meaningful goal forms be devised for the achievement of desired goals. Obviously the forest industry can not function alone or independently in this field. A province-wide approach to planning i s required, which would not only embrace the entire area of the province, but every economic activity and government function as well. It may be argued that the complexity and volume of needed research i s so great as to make such an approach either excessively expensive or completely impossible. However, as was pointed out earlier, a great deal of the required research i s already being con-ducted on a continuous or periodic basis for other purposes. Census data on population, labour force, income, retail activity and 150 housing, for example, could be restructured to aid in the process of establishing figures for range and threshold. Data gathered by the British Columbia Forest Service, and by other functional government departments could be similarly restructured to enable the relation-ships among resources, employment and population to be determined. Some of the more subjective data, such as relative values assigned by society to level of services and journey to work would admittedly be more difficult to obtain. However the techniques of social science are already well enough developed to allow a more accurate appraisal to be obtained than could be produced through intuition or hunch, which are the only techniques now being used. The most vita l prerequisite to such an undertaking would be the desire of the province's citizens, and their government, to de-fine their goals and devise the means to achieve them. If this were present, then the development of the forest industry, and of a l l other economic activity within the province, could be made "subject 119 to the process of regional planning." I?. CHAPTER SDMMARI The forest industry of British Columbia is undergoing exten-j sive changes in the forms of the consolidation of existing activities Supra, p. 122 151 and the extensive development of new prod uctive capacity. This propensity for change constitutes a potential resource which could be utilized as a means toward the fulfillment of a number of social goals, particularly those associated with the achievement of desirable standards of urban l i f e . Primary responsibility for initiating such a process rests, in British Columbia, with the provincial government. To attempt to direct the forces of development in pursuit of defined goals i s , in effect, to undertake the process of regional planning. This planning process begins with the identification and explicit statement of goals. Although a comprehensive set of provin-cial goals has never been explicitly stated there i s ample evidence of a strong desire on the part of the citizens living beyond the extreme southwest corner of the province to achieve a higher standard of urban services and amenities. The "central place" theories of Christaller and Losch provide an analytic tool for the purpose of conceptualizing possible forms in which such a goal could be given substance. Application of these theories to the peculiar spatial and employment characteristics of the forest industry appears to indicate that a f u l l range of urban services can not be supported by a society depending solely upon forest operations for its economic base. However, a higher level than that prevailing in many of the forestry based regions of the province could be sustained by concentrating settlement in more widely 152 spaced centres, each of which would ideally be based upon an integrated pulp-mill - sawmill complex. Such a pattern would impose a longer journey to work upon those workers engaged in logging, but improved road systems could partially compensate for this. The forest industry, acting in isolation, could not possibly achieve these conditions, A complete, province-wide program of research and action would be required involving the co-ordination of a l l sectors of the economy and a l l government departments. Such a program would be entirely feasible, and i f undertaken would provide a comprehensive framework for directing the development of the province toward the fulfillment of desired goals. CHAPTER VI 153 PROPOSED POLICIES FOR INTEGRATING FORESTRY WITH REGIONAL PLANNING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I. ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL PLANNING Basic Requirements Introduction. While i t was established, i n the previous chapter, that the environmental changes being generated by the forest industry could be utilized as a means toward goal fulfillment, the point was made that this could only be accomplished within a compre-hensive province-wide framework of regional planning. It i s therefore necessary to indicate in broad outline what form this framework would take before specifically analyzing the ways in which the forest in-dustry and the Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources could function within i t * To be effective such a framework would have to possess three fundamental characteristics: i t would have to be province-wide i n area, i t would have to be fully comprehensive, and i t would have to be able to account for regional variations. Province-Wide Scope. The need for a province-wide approach is based on three principal factors: 1 . Constitutionally the provincial level of government i s assigned sovereignty over a l l matters relating to property 154 and c i v i l rights, a l l matters of a purely local nature, and a l l Crown lands and r e s o u r c e s . T h i s embraces the major areas of concern of the process of regional planning, and hence the pro-vincial government i s the most appropriate level at which to initiate and administer such a process. When a provincial government applies itself to the fulfillment of public goals, a concern for less than the entire area of i t s jurisdiction would amount to local favoritism* 2. As a matter of policy the provincial government has retained direct ownership of many resources, developing and administer-ing them it s e l f i n the interests of the public. The forest industry provides a perfect example of this with the British Columbia Forest Service, as was noted before, being "in busi-ness". As there i s scarcely an area anywhere i n the province that i s not either directly of indirectly affected by resource development, the machinery for anticipating and coping with the effects of this development must, of necessity, be .pro-vince-wide, 3, The provincial government is the principal investor i n the province, being active in the fields of road construction, power generation and distribution, ferry operation and railway operations. Its Crown Corporations represent a net investment ^PSritish Hortk America Act, 186?, Section 92. As Amended, Chapter TI, 155 of $1,112,000,000 and returned a net profit of nearly $11,000,000 i n 1963. These activities have a very strong influence upon the nature and direction of development, and i f regional planning is to he effective, their influence must be co-ordinated within the process. Comprehensiveness. The need for comprehensiveness arises directly from the complex interrelationship existing among the social, political, economic and physical aspects of development. These inter-relationships are nowhere more apparent than in the chain reaction of urbanizing events set off by resource development. The opening of a mine, or the construction of a pulp-mill, brings into a hitherto undeveloped area a new population with wants and needs that embrace the entire gamut of human experience, and are directly translatable into explicit goals. These must be met from a limited reservoir of fiscal, spatial and temporal resources. Action taken in the pursuit of one goal, and drawing upon these scarce resources, may unnecessar-i l y frustrate the pursuit of another goal. Conversely, i t may f a i l to take f u l l (or any) advantage of the opportunity to reinforce the pursuit of another goal. Either case constitutes a failure to apply the modern concepts of f u l l utilization and multiple use to our most 1 2 % r i t i s h Columbia Department of Finance, British Columbia  Financial and Economic Review, 24th ed. (Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1964) p. 20. 156 valuable resources. An example of such a resource-waste would be the establishment of two separate settlements by independent resource developers where the opportunity existed to combine these into a single large settlement, making a higher order of service available to the residents. Regional Accountability. The Province of British Columbia has an area of 228 million acres, within which exist many diverse regions. Same of these, such as the lower mainland and the southern tip of Vancouver Island, are highly urbanized, while others are in a very preliminary stage of urbanization. Some are experiencing ex-tremely rapid economic growth, while others remain relatively static. Some depend primarily on forestry for their economic base, some on agriculture, some on mining; yet none is an exclusively one-industry region. For these reasons policies formulated centrally and applied uniformly across the province will affect various regions in differ-ent ways. For example, a policy of liberal tax allowances to farmers, designed to preserve highly productive farmland from the encroachment of urban growth, but applied uniformly throughout the province, might have the effect, in some regions, of encouraging marginal farmers to remain on unproductive land at public expense. Conversely, i f no means exist for determining and understanding regional conditions and transmitting information up to the policy-making.level, then the special requirements of each region cannot be accommodated in any 157 policy. Existing Provisions Mew Legislation. New legislation placed before the current session of the Provincial Legislature in the f om of amendments to the Municipal Act indicates that the government has become more 122 aware of the need for regional planning within the province. Basically the amendments allow for the creation by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Muni-cipal Affairs, of Regional Districts, each of which is to be governed by an executive body called a Regional Board. The Regional Board is to consist of representatives, called directors, drawn from the elected councillors of municipalities within the District, plus directors elected directly by the residents of unorganized territory within the District, in order to provide them with repre-sentation. The Regional Board is required to prepare regional plans for the District, using the services of a full-time, paid, professional Planning Director. This Planning Director,also serves as Chairman of a Technical Planning Committee whose duties are to: 1. Advise the Regional Board on planning matters. 2 . Act as liaison between the administration of the Regional ^Legislature of British Columbia, B i l l No. 83, An Act to Amend  the Municipal Act t (Victoria: Queen1s Printer, 1965) pp. 9-19. 158 Board and the respective departments of government and the T O •a member municipalities. ^ The Technical Planning Committee i s to consist of the Director of Planning, The Medical Health Officer, a representative of the Provincial Planning Department, one officer at the option of each of the member municipalities, and one representative at the option of the following..provincial departments: 1. Land Service, Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources. 2.. Water .Resources Service, Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources. 3. Department of Agriculture. 4. Department of Highways. The Regional Planning Board is also required to appoint one or more Advisory Planning Commissions, to provide the Board with a source of non-political, non-technical advice. Evaluation. As these legislative amendments have not yet been put into force, i t is too early to judge, their effectiveness. However, while the amendments undoubtedly represent a great step forward in the field of regional planning in British Columbia, they appear to f a l l short of meeting the three criteria established at the beginning of this Chapter. 1. Province-Wide Scope. It i s not known yet how large the proposed 123Ibid., p. 18. 159 regions will be, though there appears to be an intention to base them upon school districts. Nor is i t known whether districts will be contiguous or whether they will result in islands of planning within a sea of unplanned territory. How-ewer, i t seems that each district will be basically introspec-tive, co-ordinating development and resolving conflicts within i t s own area without reference to an overall provincial picture. There i s no provision for the expression of overall provincial goals with respect to urbanization or development, and hence no provision for machinery to make development occur i n regions where additional levels or "orders" of urban services would be desirable. 2. Comprehensiveness. The proposed Regional Districts are not fully comprehensive in their representation to the Technical Planning Committee. There i s , for example, no provision made for inclusion of representatives from key Provincial Grown Corporations such as the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority or the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The activities of these bodies can be of considerable significance in the pro-cess of urbanization i n areas such as the Arrow Lakes in the case of the British Columbia Hydro, or the Squamish Valley in the case of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Of greater relevance to this particular study i s the absence of any pro-vision for including the British Columbia Forest Service. This 160 constitutes yet another failure to recognize the importance of the forest industry in the process of urbanization, 3. Regional Accountability. As was mentioned previously the Regional Boards appear to be somewhat introspective, concerned primarily with controlling activities within their own boun-daries. However, the fact that they do have representation from some provincial departments provides the opportunity for a flow of information so that provincial policy-makers in the represented departments may account for regional variations i n their decision making. However, the fact that certain key departments involved in resource development do not have repre-sentation may prove to be a weakness. Furthermore, in the absence of any information as to Regional District size, the possibility exists that the districts may be too small in area to encompass, and effectively deal with,the total area of inci-dence of developmental decisions. Another weakness may prove to be that basic responsibility for co-ordination above the local level rests with the Department of Municipal Affairs. This may make i t difficult at times to secure the fullest co-operation of other departments which, though equal to Municipal Affairs i n the organizational hierarchy, may have greater power or more influence at certain times or in certain regions. In the settlement of disputes, the decisions of the Municipal Affairs Department are subject to cabinet approval, which pro-161 Tides an opportunity for inter-departmental eo-operation. How-ever this i s only a method for resolving conflicts and provides nothing in the way of machinery for initiating a multi-depart-mental program of development. Proposed Provisions Introduction. Politics has been defined as "the art of the possible", and undoubtedly the current amended legislation represents a political judgment as to the tempo or rate at which change can be successfully injected into a well-established social, economic and political order. However, as i t is not the planner's role to make political judgments, but rather to identify where the public interest lies, as an aid to politicians in their decision-making, a framework for planning which meets the above three criteria will be assumed to exist, in order to illustrate how the forest industry could best be utilized to serve the fulfillment of provincial goals. Such a frame-work was proposed in the student project, Planning for Development in  British Columbia and i t i s this framework that will be assumed to exist for purposes of this study. Provincial Development Department. The proposed framework i s based on the establishment of a Provincial Development Department, similar to a l l other functional departments of government, such as the Department of Highways, or the Department of Health and Welfare. The portfolio for this department is held by the Premier, with the depart-ment acting as a technical staff to the cabinet-at-large. The functions 162 of the department include formulating provincial goals, advising the Cabinet on matters of overall development policy, and co-ordinating the policies and activities of a l l other government departments. The department also provides the means of bringing the various provincial Crown Corporations within the Cabinet structure. Regional Development Offices. The Provincial Development Department has a number of regional branches called Regional Develop-ment Offices, each of which is under the direction of a Regional Development Officer and each of which administers a territory large enough to embrace the area of incidence of developmental decisions. The functions of these Regional Offices include preparing an overall development plan for the region, in conformity with provincial goals, feeding back data on local conditions to the policy-makers in the Cabinet and the Provincial Development Department, evaluating the regional effects of government policy, and co-ordinating the develop-mental activities of other government departments, and of private enterprise within the region. Regional Inter-Departmental Committee. The principal instru-ment through which this co-ordination i s achieved is a body known as the Regional Inter-Departmental Committee. This committee consists of the regional representatives of a l l provincial government depart-ments active in the region, who meet at regularly specified intervals under the chairmanship of the Regional Development Officer. This 163 committee provides am opportunity for continuous review of develop-mental action, tdth the role to be played by each individual depart-ment being clearly established. In this way development i s enabled to proceed i n a united, co-ordinated manner with an absolute minimum of inter-departmental conflict. Regional Size and Scope. A precise definition of regional boundaries, and the t o t a l number of regions to be established, i s not presented i n the study. However, i t i s proposed that no part of the province should be outside a region, and that, as a tentative suggestion, seven such regions would provide areas of reasonable -size. The study also provides for a lower level of co-ordinating bodies called Joint Services Boards, by which municipalities may co-operate with each other i n the provision of municipal services. However, as these operate at a l e v e l of decision-making below that at which the forest industry i s involved they w i l l not be examined i n this study. Evaluation. These proposals provide a two-dimensional frame-work for planning for development, with existing functional depart-ments, plus the new Development Department, providing "vertical" administration i n which policies are directed downward from the central authority i n Victoria; and the regional offices and commit-tees providing a means for "horizontal" co-ordination of action i n the f i e l d . A very strong similarity may be seen between the pro-164 posed framework and the existing structure of the British Columbia Forest Service as described on page 33. It i s interesting to note that the proposal of seven "regions" for planning purposes falls be-tween the existing number of five Forest Districts and the ten tenta-tively suggested by Sloan as being an appropriate number.1^ For these reasons i t seems apparent that the Forest Service could adapt itself quite readily to f i t into such an administrative framework. II. IMPLEMENTATION: OF REGIONAL PLANNING Determination of Regional Boundaries Statement of Problem. Upon the establishment of the admini-strative framework the logical next step would be the definition of regional boundaries. This is an extremely difficult problem involv-ing the assessment of many factors. Paul YLvisaker, Associate Direc-tor, Public Affairs Program of the Ford Foundation recently wrote: . . .If anything has been learned, i t is that the region is an extremely elusive concept, and often has no more substance than what each person may impute to i t . Also, even among the regions which exist and are not imaginary, there are considerable differ-ences in size, character and purpose, and i t would be going far beyond what i s known to assert that there i s a common set of general principles which prescribe how regions should be organized and administered for purposes of effective planning. •^Sloan, op. cit., p. 55. •^^Paul Ylvisaker, "Administrative Considerations in Regional Planning", United Nations Seminar on Regional Planning, Tokyo. 1958. (lew York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1959) p. 81. 165 It is felt by some planners that the definition of precise regional boundaries should be avoided, i t being argued that, as every problem has its own area of incidence, the machinery set up to deal with these problems should be capable of expanding or contracting accord-ingly. I f this point of view is accepted, then a co-ordinated, rather than an ad-hoc, approach to problem solving requires that a l l action taken within the "elusive11 region originate from the same centre and extend outward as far as necessary to deal effectively with each particular problem. However, two basic difficulties are inherent i n this approach. First, not a l l problems within an area necessarily originate from the same centre. Secondly, action taken in one centre to deal with a particular problem may, at the periphery overlap or conflict with action being taken i n an adjacent centre. For these reasons, clearly defined regional boundaries are necessary. However, there should be machinery for reviewing and changing boun-dary locations i f and when the original choice appears unsuitable. Principal determinants to be taken into consideration in establish-r ing regional boundaries are: (l) Statistical and Administrative, (2) Geographic, and (3) Economic. Statistical and Administrative Determinants. The Province of British Columbia is presently sub-divided into a great many stati-stical and administrative areas, which frequently bear l i t t l e rela-tionship, one to the other, in terms of boundaries or size. Examples of this include school districts, land-registry districts, forest 166 districts, census divisions, federal electoral constituencies, and provincial electoral constituencies. The establishment of regional planning boundaries should be used as an opportunity for rational-izing these inconsistencies, so that a l l such jurisdictions are either contiguous, or multiples of one another. To accomplish this a program of boundary definition should take cognizance of a l l existing boundaries which appear reasonable, and should re-align a l l others to compliment the boundaries chosen for regional planning. Geographic Determinants. Geographic features may be very strong determinants of regional boundaries, with river basins, water sheds and mountain ranges having been used quite frequently for this purpose in the past. Essentially, any geographic determinant should delineate an area of contiguous geographic similarity. For this reason rivers are generally unsuitable as boundaries, in spite of their frequent use for this purpose, since the areas through which they flow are usually similar on either side. Economic Determinants. Economic determinants of regional boundaries include such factors as contiguity of economic activity, flow of intra-regional accounts, and systems of cities. Contiguity of economic activity is generally related to geographic factors such as climate, s o i l f e r t i l i t y and topography, and the use of such deter-minants is likely to lead to the establishment of boundaries similar to those arrived at geographically. Intra-regional flows of accounts 16? serve to indicate how strong the economic, or "business" linkages are between different towns, cities or other areas within a tentatively proposed region. The zone i n which this inter-dependence appears to decline can frequently be used as a regional boundary. The analysis of system of cities within an area will help to disclose what parts of the area are under the dominance of a major city, and the "twi-light zone" between equal areas of influence can often be used as a boundary. Summary. In summary, the determination of regional boundaries would have to depend upon a thorough program of research and analysis. Such a program should take cognizance of a l l existing boundaries, with-out being committed to retain any that prove unsuitable. By re-align-ing existing statistical and administrative boundaries and by paying f u l l regard to geographic and economic factors, a rational system of regional boundaries could be established which would not only assist i n the process of regional planning, but would improve other aspects of provincial administration as well. Once the regions had been delineated, the boundaries of the Forest Districts could be revised to conform and the District Forest Rangers could take their places on the Regional Inter-Departmental Committees. Evaluation of Current Conditions Statement of Problem. Before any planning action can be undertaken in pursuit of specified goals a thorough survey of 168 existing conditions must be undertaken, and the results analyzed. This will indicate how far short of the goals the present conditions are, and what action should be taken. In a regional planning study concerned with urbanization, such a survey would involve the appraisal of current conditions of urbanization, the establishment of standards by which the degree of goal fulfillment could be measured, and precise definition of regional goals, based on pro-vincial goals but modified and refined in the light of regional con-ditions . Basic Research Requirements. The interrelatedness of social, economic, physical and political factors implicit i n planning means that a program of research designed to provide a basis for planning action would have to be broad enough to encompass a l l these fields. Of particular relevance to urbanization would be the classification of every settlement according to i t s position in the hierarchy of service centres. Data would also be required on the combination of goods and services to be found in each level of service centre, including public facilities such as schools and hospitals. The "range" and "threshold" of each order of service centre would also need to be determined, as would data on the ratio of population-to-base employment for a l l increments of community size in British Columbia. Additional information, which could only be obtained through the subjective techniques of social surveys, would be needed to form a basis for establishing maximum standards for 169 journey-to-work and journey-to-school. While this represents an extremely extensive program of research, i t mast be noted that , effective planning cannot be undertaken without a firm foundation of facts. A province thoroughly committed to planning should consider such research to be as much a matter of course as the decennial census, and indeed, much of i t could be conducted i n conjunction with census taking. Analysis of Data. Upon the completion of the research program, the data could be analyzed to obtain a precise, quanti-fiable picture of the relative standards of urbanization within each region. This could be expressed i n terms of relative degrees of "disadvantagement" with respect to urbanization, by determining what percentage of the population of each region was beyond "range11 of f i r s t order services, second order services and so on. Further refinement could be introduced by separating out such important specific services as hospitals and schools, and giving added impor-tance to their absence. In this way an overall provincial picture of the current state of urbanization could be presented i n order to provide guidelines for overall provincial policies, and to estab-l i s h p r i o r i t i e s for provincial action. However, because of the considerable differences which exist between regions of the province, the preparation of detailed developmental programs would have to be conducted at the regional l e v e l . By integrating the forest industry into these regional programs the forces of change within the industry 170 could be harnessed to serve i n the fulfillment of the goals of urbanization. Regional Application Basic Approach. The application at the regional level of the data obtained through the above research program would involve a more precise analysis of settlement patterns and road networks to determine the existing hierarchy of service centres. This analysis would provide the foundation for the preparation of a development plan aimed at achieving that pattern of service centres and road linkages which would bring the maximum number of people within range of the highest possible order of goods and services that the region i s capable of supporting. Technique of Analysis. The technique of analysis would i n -volve mapping the region, locating a l l service centres and drawing circles around them equivalent to the space-time "range11 of each order. By comparing these c i r c l e s against the known distribution of population within the region, i t i s then possible to evaluate what the present pattern means i n terms of numbers of population experiencing "disadvantagement" with respect to access to various levels of urban f a c i l i t i e s and amenities. It would then be possible to view this "disadvantagement" i n terms of two separate time-spans. In the short run the objective would be to re-structure the settle-ment pattern and road network so that conditions of urbanization for 171 the maximum number of existing residents would be brought up to the highest level the region is capable of supporting under present conditions. In the long run the objective would be to in-crease the overall level of urbanization to the extent required for fulfillment of regional and provincial goals. This would involve, introducing new inputs of economic activity into the region and directing their location in order to contribute to the establish-ment of the optimum settlement pattern, as determined by the con-cepts of "range" and "threshold". Short Run Objectives. Where areas are found to be under-developed with respect to the potential level of urbanization that could be supported, the problem could be the result of any one of a number of reasons, or combinations thereof, each of which would call for a different remedy. Principal causes and remedies would include: 1. Inadequate transportation within the area. Remedy: provide new inputs of capital in the form of road construction, bridges, ferries, et cetera. 2, Two or more equal, low order centres which are frustrating one another, so that none can achieve a higher order. Remedy: analyze each centre to determine which appears to have the greatest potential for becoming a higher order centre. Factors to be considered would include centrality, space for expansion, site amenity, total value of existing 172 investment in social capital, et cetera. After selection, programs could be initiated to encourage the emergence of the chosen community to a position of dominance within the area. Examples of such programs would include rearranging road net-works to focus on this community, concentrating future public facilities within the community, and using positive and nega-tive controls such as financial incentives and land use restrictions to direct growth i n this private sector toward reinforcing this choice. Where deemed desirable, programs could also be undertaken to phase-out certain communities by discouraging growth and providing financial assistance for resettlement. 3. A newly developed area i n which services have not had time to catch up to population. Remedy: analyze to determine i f time alone is a l l that i s re-quired to rectify conditions. If the problem appears to in-volve more than this, then the analysis, in a l l probability, will suggest the remedy. For example, a shortage of risk capital to invest in retail facilities would perhaps suggest making low interest loans available to interested local in-vestors . Long Run Objectives. The conditions required for the aehiev-ment of long run objectives would be set forth in the development plan for the region. The preparation of this plan would involve 173 making a complete assessment of the economic potential of the region and the determination of what this would mean in terms of employment and total population. It is theoretically possible that such an assessment might reveal that the economic potential is insufficient to support the expected natural increase in future population. In this case the long range development plan would have to include pro-posals for de-populating the area through planned emigration. However in an underpopulated and richly endowed province such as British Columbia i t is highly unlikely that any region would exhibit these characteristics. In this case the pursuit of long run developmental objectives would involve relating the economic potential to the loca-tional requirements of the economic activities which this "potential" could support. Application of the basic-employment-to-total-popula-tion ratios as determined earlier in the research stage would then indicate which alternative location of each activity would contribute to the achievement of this optimum pattern of settlements. In this way policy makers would be provided with a means for objectively resolving conflicting claims for developmental rights to--the same resources as well as being provided with firm guidelines to direct them in their own developmental activities. HI. ROLE.OF TIE FOREST .IHDDSTRT II REGIONAL PLANNING Research Activities Productivity. As part of the necessary data required to determine the economic potential of a region, information would he required with respect to the productive capacity of a l l forest land within the region. Most of the necessary information i s already collected in the Continuous Forest Inventory, in the determinations of allowable annual cut made by the British Columbia Forest Service and in the cutting plans for sustained yield units and tree farm licenses on f i l e with the provincial government. A l l that would be required to make this information of value i n planning region-ally would be to put i t at the disposal of the Regional Development Office. Employment Characteristics. Much of the information with respect to employment could also be obtained from existing files and records. By gathering data on the size of labour force employed by each operation, and relating this to such factors as size, capa-city and relative efficiency of the operation, technological trends, species mix, topography, length and mode of transportation and other regional and sub-regional variables, i t would be possible to determine fairly accurately the labour force which the region would be able to support. By confining this with the appropriate basic-population-to-total-employment ratio, i t would be possible to pre-175 diet the eventual population which could he supported by forest activities within the region. Existing Operations. A survey of existing productive f a c i l i -ties within the region would be required in order to determine which ones are operating efficiently and which ones are likely to succumb to the effects of competition and technological change. This would be of particular importance i n regions containing many small sawmills which would,be unable, due to inefficiencies of scale, to install barking and chipping equipment in order to make sawmill waste into pulpwood chips. When a market for chips develops within such a region due to the establishment of a pulp-mill, the probable effect wi l l be to enable the larger mills to operate so much more profitably than the smaller ones that, during the next bidding cycle the small mills will lose their assigned committments and will be forced to shut down. Data on the relative strength or vulnerability of each operation could be combined with planning research on such matters as service centre hierarchy, environmental quality and net value of social-capital in order to determine which activity-locations should be phased out, which should be retained, and which should be expanded. Policies With Respect to Existing Conditions Consolidation of Activity. One of the most controversial by-products of the government's sustained yield.policy has been the gradual disappearance of the small scale operations which tradition-176 ally formed the major part of the Forest Industry in British Columbia. However, i f the forest resource i s to be efficiently and fully utilized this disappearance is inevitable, and any attempt to prevent i t , in order to preserve a "way of l i f e " or a "right to a livelihood" would be as illogical as an attempt would have been, at the turn of the century, to prevent the widespread use of the auto-mobile in order to protect the village blacksmith. The end result of this "squeezing out" of small scale operations need not necessar-i l y be the concentration of a l l resources in the hands of a few industrial giants for, through the use of such devises as co-opera-tives and anti-monopoly legislation, ways may be found to enable existing operators to pool their resources of capital and "know how" in order to remain competitive. These matters are not of direct concern to regional planning, however, and are presented only to indicate that the process of consolidation of activities is not only inevitable but desirable, and need not be looked forward to with regret by anyone provided that effective policies exist to deal with a l l its ramifications. Camps. As a general policy camps should be eliminated wherever possible in view of the unanimous agreement that they are costly to industry, contribute to the development of undesirable social characteristics and do l i t t l e or nothing toward urbanizing the area i n which they are located. The development plan will 177 indicate whether elimination of any individual camp should involve abandoning i t or transforming i t into a permanent community. Aban-donment would be feasible wherever the opportunity exists for workers to live in established communities and commute to work. To enable commuting to take place a program of road improvement would be necessary. Where the camp i s beyond commuting range of any community i t must of course be retained. Under these circumstances i t should be the aim of the development plan to transform the camp into a permanent community. An essential first step i n this process would be the evaluation of the camp's location in terms of the devel-opment plan since locations chosen by companies for their own pur-poses are not necessarily the most suitable locations for permanent communities. Once the best location is established, every effort should be extended to ensure the development of a viable community. These efforts would include the provision of good road access to minimize any feeling of isolation, f u l l utilization of the provisions of the National lousing Act to create a favorable climate for home investment, and, wherever possible, the establishment of other economic activity within range of the community to stimulate its growth. Where the decision is made to abandon a camp, the provision of adequate road connections to nearby communities will generally be a l l the action required, since both workers and industry will be glad to relinquish their use of the camp as soon as alternative 178 accommodation becomes available. Under certain conditions the reten-tion of camps wi l l be inevitable. This is particularly so in ragged coastal areas, where there are no nearby communities and where the cost of building road links to other parts of the province i s pro-hibitive. Under these circumstances some of the problems associ-ated with company ownership of the camps could be overcome by having professional catering companies contract directly with the govern-ment through the Regional Development Office to provide f u l l camp services under a form of Public Utility License. Even under these conditions the choice of locations should be made very carefully, since, i f any unexpected new development occurs in the vicinity the camp could become the nucleus of a new town. By removing the camps from company ownership they can be expanded to accommodate workers associated with other enterprises as soon as the need arises. Company Towns. All company towns should be analyzed with respect to their location within the hierarchy of service centres proposed in the regional plan, their net value of social capital and their standards of environmental quality. Those which are con-sidered suitable for retention should be elevated to incorporated status, while unsuitable ones should be phased out. As was pointed out earlier, company towns are generally of a higher stand-ard of quality than equivalent sized non-company towns, are usually located beyond reach of established communities and are based on permanent industrial operations. For these reasons most company towns would likely be chosen for establishment as incorporated communities. The only ones likely to be scheduled for phasing out would be those which are no longer isolated or remote, such as Woodfibre. Under these circumstances since a l l company towns are at least twenty years old and are money losing propositions, the companies could be expected to concur with this decision to phase out, and l i t t l e would be required in addition to the provision of access and alternative accommodation in order to have the decision implemented. Emerging Incorporated Communities. Wherever these are in the process of being established, their location should be care-fully analysed with respect to the settlement pattern proposed in the development plan. Where i t is felt that their existence will frustrate rather than support the plan, their further growth should be discouraged. If a considerable amount of development has already occurred, then the techniques of cost-benefit analysis should be applied to determine i f the costs of compensation involved in their closure would be greater than the long term costs associated with their continued existence in conflict with the plan. Unincorporated Communities. These too must be assessed in terms of their role within the overall regional development plan. As was indicated in Chapter VI i t is these communities that are ISO most likely to experience economic decline as a result of technolo-gical change. Analysis of the viability of the particular enter-prise on which they are based, of their value and quality of social capital, and of their location and size within the hierarchy of settlements proposed in the plan, w i l l determine which should be retained and which should be expanded. For those communities scheduled to be phased out, the timing or staging of the phasing-out program can be based upon the date when the cutting permits of the particular operation are known to expire. This will be the date when the uneconomic mills will be forced to close due to their in--ability to match the bids made for new timber sources by their larger and more successful competitors. When this event occurs, the exist-ence of firm policies to assist families to relocate in more viable communities will minimize the effect of personal economic crises and, at the same time, serve to promote the fulfillment of the regional plan. Resettlement policies could be adopted similar to those existing in Newfoundland, in which financial assistance of up to $600 per household i s available to a l l residents of an unviable ccnnnunity, providing that unanimous agreement is obtained to abandon the community.^^ To ensure that resettlement would be directed toward those communities selected to be retained or expanded, i t "^^Robert Wells, Provincial Economist, Province of Newfoundland, Report on Resettlement in Newfoundland, (St. John's: unpublished mimeo.5 1960) p. 11. 181 would be necessary to create both job opportunities and housing accommodation i n advance of the closure of the abandoned community. The construction of limited-dividend low-cost housing under the terms of the National Housing Act could be undertaken i n the selected communities by a subsidiary of the Regional Development Office, to be co-ordinated with the phasing-out of the old commun-i t y . A period of slack employment may be expected to occur between the closure of the old m i l l and the emergence of new productive capacity based on the timber allocation lost by the original operator. A fund should therefore be established to supplement un-employment insurance and thereby encourage displaced workers to remain i n the region u n t i l the new operations are commenced. Both the provincial government and industry should contribute to this fund, since both would derive benefits from ensuring a smooth transi-tion i n employment from old to new locations. Government would benefit through seeing i t s plans materialize, and industry through being able to draw upon an existing pool of experienced labour. Existing Incorporated Communities. In most cases these could be expected to be the communities to be retained and expanded i n any regional development plan, since they are generally larger and better located than the unincorporated settlements, and possess a greater momentum of pre-existence. These communities would there-fore, as a general rule, be on the receiving end of the resettlement 182 policies described above. To ensure that the new productive capacity which would be required to supplant the inefficient mills would, in fact, materialize in the desired location, a variety of devices could be employed. These could include tax incentives, the creation of in-dustrial estates in desired locations and the use of stringent zoning regulations to discourage growth where i t was not wanted. Policies With Respect to Hew Development Al l new development within the forest industry would be re-quired to conform with the regional development plan with respect to location of activities and settlements. Wherever such developments are the fir s t activities to be established in remote areas, as i s frequently the case in British Columbia, the Regional Development _ Office should be responsible for the ultimate selection of settlement locations. The existence of a well defined development plan would materially assist in this process of locational decision making, and would be of value as well in resolving conflicts which arise when different proposals are put forward by competing interests for the harvesting rights to the same area. IV, CHAPTER SUMMARY In order that the environmental changes being generated by the forest industry might be utilized as a means toward the f u l f i l l -ment of provincial goals, i t would be necessary to establish a 183 province-wide framework for regional planning. Snch a framework should consist of a Provincial Development Department, of Cabinet rank, with the portfolio held by the Provincial Premier. This depart-ment would have a number of Regional Development Offices under the direction of a Development Officer, with each Office being respon-sible for preparing and administering a regional development plan for the area within its jurisdiction. Co-ordination with the other departments of government would be achieved through Regional Inter-Departmental Committees made up of the regional representatives of a l l government departments. The process of regional planning would commence with a thor-ough province-wide program of research aimed at evaluating current conditions of urbanization and establishing basic data on which to base future decisions. This data would include such matters as "range'1, "threshold11 and "characteristics" of service centres, employ-ment to population ratios, and journey to work standards. On the basis of this information, development plans could be prepared for each region in the province. These regional plans would enable rational decisions to be made with respect to the location of forest activities and their dependent settlements. The processes of consolidation and expan-sion could be guided so as to phase out unsatisfactory settlements, improve satisfactory ones, and contribute to the realization of an optimum settlement pattern within each region. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS Within the time-span of a single century British Columbia has been transformed from an almost uninhabited, virgin wilderness to a modern prosperous province of over 1,600,000 citizens. Through-out the period, the forest industry has played a leading part in bringing this about. The foregoing study was undertaken to analyze the relationships between the forest industry and the growth of communities within the province, with a view toward devising policies for the future development of the industry in order that i t might make the maximum possible contribution toward the establishment and maintenance of a stable, prosperous and satisfying environment. During the progress of the study, a number of important facts were made clear. Perhaps of greatest significance is the fact that throughout much of its evolutionary years the forest industry has been subject to a very gradual process of ever-increasing government control. This process has aimed at transforming the industry from one characterized by a philosophy of short-sighted, exploitive transience to one of socially-responsible permanence. The transfor-mation has progressed to the extent that, to-day, over ninety percent of the forest land of the province is under public ownership and management, with much of the remainder having been voluntarily brought within the framework of government policy. 185 By this policy the forest resources of the province have been placed under a program of sustained yield, in which the annual cut i s carefully balanced to match the annual increment of regrowth to ensure a perpetual supply of timber. The stated objectives of this policy are the conservation of the forest-resource and the establish-ment of permanent communities, lowever, while the policy has been prepared in considerable detail to ensure the realization of the fi r s t objective, there has been very l i t t l e done in a positive way to bring about the fulfillment of the second. Another significant fact that has emerged from the study i s that, although i t is the largest and most important industry in the province, the forest industry i s very incompletely documented. Dr. Deutsch, in his recent study of the industry, points this out in the following manner: The usual sources of industrial information; tax statistics, investment dealers' studies, Dominion Bureau of Statistics manu-facturing statistics, and trade associations provide only frag-mentary information, since the diffusion of the industry has apparently defied the information gatherer. Only the British Columbia Forest Service has facilities for a complete periodic economic survey, but this organization directs its efforts pri-marily to matters of forest management. Yet the development of policies for this most important of industries involves investi-gation of costs of production, efficiency of wood-use, transpor-tation expenses, et cetera, that are so far largely unknown. The average citizen of the west coast is much less informed about desirable economic policy for the forest industry than is the ^ prairie resident about the wheat industry.12'? Deutsch, op. cit., p. 1. 136 This general lack of accumulated knowledge extends beyond purely economic matters into the realm of forest communities as well. In a recently published book concerned with resource-based communi-ties in Canada, Dr. Ira Robinson notes: The only important resource activity not covered by the case studies is the forest products industry. Unfortunately, detailed information! was not available on any post-war forest ccimmunity.1^8 In spite of this general lack df detailed information, i t has been possible to conclude from the study that employment within the forest industry has meant, for many thousands of workers and their families, a denial of the opportunity to participate fully in the wide range of l i f e experiences which the industry has so materially helped to create in the province of British Columbia. This condition has been partly the result of the peculiar geographic requirements of the industry, and partly the result of its historic pattern of entrepreneurial development. These two factors have combined to produce an extreme concentration of con-version facilities i n the highly urbanized southwest corner of British Columbia, and an equally extreme diffusion of activities in a multitude of small communities throughout the rest of the pro-vince. Where these small communities have been able to combine a number of related forest operations, such as sawjnills, plywood plants or pulp-mills, or to acquire additional non-forest activities 128Robinson, op. cit., p. 7 1 8 ? to supplement their economic base, they have succeeded i n becoming stable, incorporated communities^ but most of them are simply camps, isolated company towns and small unincorporated settlements. It has been disclosed i n the study that most people associ-ated with the forest industry, i n government, business and labour, are aware of the shortcomings of these communities as manifested by labour i n s t a b i l i t y , heavy drinking, high operating costs and limited opportunity for personal development. l e t , working within the limita-tions imposed by their exclusive concern with forest operations, these people have been able to do very l i t t l e to improve matters. It i s apparent that i f significant improvements are to be realized, existing settlement-patterns w i l l have to be re-structured to consolidate settlement into larger communities, and new develop-ment w i l l have to be guided to prevent a repetition of past mistakes. Technological change, combined with entrepreneurial realignment has created a situation i n which the widely dispersed pattern of forest operations i s becoming more concentrated, both corporately and spatially. Such a process of realignment offers the opportunity for simultaneous alteration of the pattern of communities dependent upon the affected operations. This alteration w i l l achieve a maximum of effectiveness i f i t can be combined with developments which are occurring simultane-ously i n other fields of a c t i v i t y . To realize such co-ordination, 188 the developmental a c t i v i t i e s of a l l agencies, public and private, must be brought under the controlling influence of a single body. The most appropriate body for this purpose i s the provincial govern-^ ment. At the present time the government does not appear to be administratively equipped to undertake effectively the i n i t i a t i o n ~ " and co-ordination of development. However, the establishment of a Provincial Development Department with Regional Branch Offices, as proposed i n the study, would provide a method of effectively formu-lating and administering developmental policies. By subdividing the province into a number of contiguous, rationally bounded regions, these policies could be translated into regional development plans. By then making a l l a c t i v i t i e s of the forest industry subject, not only to provincial forest policy, but to regional development policy as well, the maximum possible contribution which the industry i s able to make toward the creation of a stable, prosperous and satisfying environment could be achieved. Such a process would involve the province i n extensive programs of research into existing conditions of urbanization, of analysis of a l l the forces influencing urbanization, and of regulation and control over the a c t i v i t i e s of agencies affecting or creating urbanization. Up to the present time such a process has not been in i t i a t e d i n British Columbia with respect to the development of communities, yet 189 the enlightened and effective policies of the government with re-spect to utilization of the forests are based on precisely such a process. The Forest Management Policies of the provincial government could therefore serve as an inspiration for the introduction of regional planning policies as well. In this way the two objectives of forest policy, perpetual yield and stable communities, could both be fully realized. That the forest industry could effectively function within a regional planning policy, and that by doing as i t could materially assist i n the realization of environmental goals has been clearly demonstrated by the foregoing study. It is there-fore concluded that TO ENSURE OPTIMUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT II THOSE AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WHERE THE FOREST INDUSTRY IS THE DOMINANT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY, THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD INTE-GRATE THE PRINCIPLES OF FOREST MANAGEMENT, AND COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING INTO A SINGLE COMPREHENSIVE POLICY. BULIOGRAPHT 191 BIBLIOGfiAPHU BOOKS Adams, Kramer. Logging Railroads of the West. Seattle: Superior Publishing Company, 1961. Bauer, Catherine. Housing and Economic Development. »The Case for Regional Planning and Urban Dispersal" in Burnham Kelly (ed.). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of-Technology Press, 1955. Chapin, F. Stuart. Urban Life and Form. "Foundations of Urban Planning", Werner Z. Hirsch (ed.). New York: Holt, RLnehart and Winston, 1963. Christaller, Walther. Die Zentralen Qrte in Suddeutschland. Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1933. Guthrie, J.A., and Armstrong, G.R., Western Forest Industry. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1961. Haig-Brown, Roderick. The Living Land. Toronto: MacMillan, 1961. Hardwick, W.Gr. Geography of the Forest Industry of Coastal British  Columbia. University of British Columbia, Occasional Papers in Geography, No. 5. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1963. Lawrence, Joseph. Markets and Capital: A History of the Lumber Industry of British Columbia (1778-1952). Vancouver: Iniver-sity of British Columbia, Unpublishedi Master's Thesis, 1957. Losch, August. The Economics of Location. New Haven: Yale University Press, 195TI Lower, A.R.M. The North American Assault on the Canadian Forest. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1938. Nelson, L., et. a l . (kmmninity Structure and Change. New York: MacMillan, I960. Robinson, I.M. New Industrial Towns on Canada's Resource Frontier. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Swanson, R.E. A History of Railroad Logging. Victoria: Queen's Printer I960. 192 PERIODICALS Berry, B.J.L. and Garrison, W.L, "The Functional Bases of the Central Place Hierarchy", Economic Geography, vxxTtf (January, 1958) pp. 145^154. Cameron, I.T. "Providing a Continuous Supply of Timber in British Columbia", Forestry Chronicle, XXXII (March, 1963) pp. 89-9?. Friedman, John. "The Concept of a Planning Region", Land Economies. XXXII (February, 1956). Higgins, Benjamin. "Towards a Science of Community Planning", Journal of the American Institute of Planning, XV (Fall, 1949) pp. 3-13. Lash, S.D. "The Planning of Recent New Towns in Canada", The Engineer- ing Journal, XLI (March, 1958) pp. 43-58. Price, F.A. "Celgar", Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada (June, 1961) pp. 5-62. REPORTS, BULLETINS ABB GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS British Columbia Forest Service. Annual Report, 1963. Victoria, British Columbia: Queen's Printer, 1964, British Columbia Department of Finance. British Columbia Financial and Economic Review (24th ed.), Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1964. British Columbia Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance. Report on Hospital Statistics, 1963. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1965. British Columbia Department of Industrial Development, Trade and Commerce. Recent Developments in the British Columbia Pulp  and Paper Industry. Victoria: Unpublished, Mimeographed, 1964. British Columbia Legislature, B i l l No. 83, An Act to Amend the  Municipal Act. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1963. ~ " British Columbia Municipal Year Book. Vancouver: Mitchell Press, 1963. 193 A, B. C. Lumber Trade Directory. Vancouver: Progress Publishing Company, 1958. Edrchert, John B., and Adams, Russell B. "Trade Centres and Trade Areas of the Upper Midwest", Urban Report No. 3 , Upper  Midwest Economic Study. Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Research and Development Council, 1963. Davis, John. Canadian Energy Prospects. Ottawa: Unpublished, Mimeographed, 1958. Deutsch, J.J., et. a l . Economics of Primary Production in British Columbia, Vol. 1. "The Forest Products Industries". Vancouver: Unpublished, Mimeographed, 1959. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Census of Canada: 1941 and 1961 Population, Vol. I. Ottawa: Queen's Printers, 1943 and 1963. Financial Post (ed.) , "Survey of Markets and Business Year Book" (39th edition) Toronto: Maclean Hunter, 1962. Graduate Students in (kanmunity and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. Planning for Development in British Columbia. Vancouver: Unpublished Student Project, 1965. Queen's University, Institute of Local Government. Single Enterprise  Communities in Canada, Kingston: Queen's University, 1953. Saskatchewan Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Report No. 12. Service Centres. Regina: Queen's Printer, 195?. Tantalus Research Limited. The Impact of a New Forest Industry on the Peace River Region. Vancouver: Unpublished, Mimeographed, 1964. Transactions of the Fifteenth British Columbia Natural Resources Conference. Vancouver: The Conference, 1964. Sloan, Gordon McG. The Forest Resources of British Columbia, 1956. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1957. Wells, Robert. Report on Resettlement in Newfoundland. St. Johns: Unpublished, Mimeographed, I960. YLvisaker, Paul. "Administrative Considerations in Regional Planning" United Nations Seminar on Regional Planning, Tokyo, 1958. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1959. pp. 80 - 83. 194 INTERVIEWS Bruce, N.C. Interview with Mr. N.C. Bruce, Design Engineer, Sandwell  and Company, Limited, Consulting Engineers. Vancouver: February, 4th, 1965. MacGormac, J.W.D. Interview with Mr. J.W.D. MacCormac, Vice-President, Canus Services Limited. Vancouver: March 8th, 1965. McGrimmon, D.F. Interview with Mr. D.F. McCrimmon, Manager, Timber-lands and Property Division, MacMillan, Bloedel and Powell River Limited. Vancouvers February 3, 1965. McGee, W. Interview with Mr. W. McGee, Chief Forester, Crown Zeller- bach Canada Limited. Vancouver: February 9, 1965. McGill, L.S. Interview with Mr. L.S. McGUl, Director of Administra-tion, Columbia Cellulose Company Limited. Vancouver: February 3, 1965. McKee, R.G. Interview with Mr. R.G. McKee, Deputy Minister of Forests, British Columbia Department of Lands, Forests and Water  Resources. Victoria: February 16, 1965. Laker, J, Interview with Mr. J. Laker, Design Engineer. B..A. Simons  Limited. Consulting Engineers. Vancouver: February 18, 1965. Miyazawa, J. Interview with Mr. J. Miyazawa, Associate Director, Research and Education Department, International Woodworkers  of America. Vancouver: March 1, 1965^ Reed, F.L.C. Interviewwith Mr. F.L.C. Reed, Economist and Statisti-cian, Council of the Forest Industries of British Columbia. Vancouver: March 8, 1965. Richmond, A. Interview with Mr. A. Richmond, Superintendent, Vernon Lake Logging Camp, Canadian Forest Products Limited. Vancouver: February 23, 1965. Saunders, D.A. Interview with Mr. D.A. Saunders, Assistant to the President, British Columbia Forest Products Limited. Vancouver: February 3, lyw. " " South, Donald. Interview with Mr. Donald South, Regional Planning Director, British Columbia Department of Municipal Affairs. Victoria: February 16, 1965. 195 Vivian, L. Interview with Mr. L. Vivian, Chief Forester, Northern Vancouver Island, Rayonier Canada Limited. February 11, 1965. Wright, T.G. Interview with Mr. T. G. Wright, General Manager, Forest Operations, flnn*<n«Ti ffm»w«t. Pmdwyhs TJnrit.ftriJ Vancouver: February 9, 1965. 

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