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Housing the elderly : a comprehensive policy and coordinated program O'Gorman, Denis Keith Patrick 1965

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HOUSING THE ELDERLY: A COMPREHENSIVE POLICY AND COORDINATED PROGRAM by DENIS KEITH PATRICK 0 1 GORMAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community &, R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A p r i l , 1965 ABSTRACT One of the most s t r i k i n g dimensions o f p o p u l a t i o n change i n Canada i s the marked i n c r e a s e of e l d e r l y persons i n p r o p o r t i o n to the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s phenomenon, p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced i n B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.), r e f l e c t s i n l a r g e measure the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of r e g i o n s w i t h i n B. C , where c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are p r o b a b l y the most moderate i n Canada. T h i s l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the e l d e r l y c r e a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t housing problem because the e l d e r l y , on the whole, have l o w e r incomes than o t h e r housing consumers and are thus at a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n s e c u r i n g adequate accommodation. An attempt i s made to e v o l v e an approach to the problem of housing the needy e l d e r l y which w i l l be g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n Canada and p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e i n B. C. I t i s contended t h a t t h e r e i s need f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system designed to c o o r d i n a t e the d i v e r s e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t are i n v o l v e d , or p o t e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e d , i n p r o v i d i n g housing and complementary s e r v i c e s f o r the needy e l d e r l y . C o o r d i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d at s e v e r a l l e v e l s i n c l u d i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n of p l a n n i n g and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n housing programs designed to s e r v e r e s i d e n t s o f s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and c o o r d i n a t i o n of p r i v a t e housing and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s w i t h complementary p u b l i c housing and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . As a b a s i s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the P r o v i n c i a l Government ought t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework n e c e s s a r y t o e n c o u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e h o u s i n g program f o r t h e e l d e r l y . The h y p o t h e s i s s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s as a n e c e s s a r y b a s i s o f a h o u s i n g program. W h i l e P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s emphasized, th e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would e n t a i l j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n t h e . d e f i n i t i o n o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i n a n c i n g o f t h e s e p r ograms. A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework use t h e "Urban Development B o a r d " , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r e f f e c t i v e and c o o r d i n a t e d j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l Government i s a l o n e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y c a p a b l e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y to implement h o u s i n g programs a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The key i s s u e i s whether t o e n t r u s t t h e program t o a dominant P r o v i n c i a l mechanism o r t o a s t r o n g l y empowered l o c a l agency. Emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h e human e c o l o g y o f t h e p r o b l e m . The problem o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i s e x p e c t e d t o be pronounced i n r e g i o n s w i t h c l i m a t i c a m e n i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n urban a r e a s o f t h o s e r e g i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system t o implement a h o u s i n g program a r e d e v e l o p e d and a r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s a n a l y z e d i n l i g h t o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a . The a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h c o u l d p r o d u c e a c o o r d i n a t e d h o u s i n g program a t the l o c a l l e v e l o f Government. The P r o v i n c i a l Government would make h o u s i n g a mandatory f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l government, a t t h e same t i m e p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y powers and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l government would c o o r d i n a t e the programs o f a l l l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s and a d m i n i s t e r a s y s t e m o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e need and i n r e l a t i o n t o P r o v i n c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s . Because o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f v o l u n t a r y p h i l a n t h r o p i c h o u s i n g e f f o r t i n B. C . , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y be c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n p u r p o s e s w i t h a p r o p o s e d H o u s i n g C o u n c i l t o be c o m p r i s e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h o s e p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g and c o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s . The c a s e - s t u d y method i s used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e recommended a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c a r e a . The f o c u s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y i s on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . P r o p o s e d changes i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s on h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s a r e not examined b e c a u s e a c a s e s t u d y c a n n o t i d e n t i f y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f n o n - e x i s t e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s . The s t u d y s e r v e s to i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l r o l e o f a l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a l t h o u g h the m e c h a n i c s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e a p p r o a c h a r e hot d e t a i l e d . The h y p o t h e s i s f a i l s t o a s s e r t e x p l i c i t l y t h a t t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments s h o u l d j o i n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s and t h a t a h o u s i n g program f o r t h e e l d e r l y s h o u l d not be c o n c e i v e d i n d e p e n -d e n t l y o f an o v e r a l l h o u s i n g program. S u b j e c t to t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d v a l i d . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e many p e o p l e who have a s s i s t e d d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. H. P. O b e r l a n d e r , Head o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r h i s encouragement and i n t e r e s t i n my p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n . Dr. K e v i n J . C r o s s d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l t h a n k s f o r t h e i n t e r e s t , c o n c e r n and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m he has p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . The s t a f f o f t h e F i n e A r t s s e c t i o n o f t h e L i b r a r y a l s o d e s e r v e t h a n k s f o r t h e i r c h e e r f u l a s s i s t a n c e and t o l e r a n c e o f my bothersome b o r r o w i n g h a b i t s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e b t e d t o a f r i e n d and f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n Community P l a n n i n g , Mr. Graham V. S t a l l a r d who has s e r v e d as s o u n d i n g b o a r d , s t i m u l a n t and sometime s o u r c e o f i d e a s . F i g u r e s 3 and 4 i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e h i s work, and I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge my debt t o him. I wish t o e x p r e s s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mrs. E m i l y F. S t e w a r t , S e c r e t a r y o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s . I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s p a r t i c u l a r a p p r e c i a t i o n t o M i s s E d i t h 5tewart f o r h e r c h e e r f u l w i l l i n g n e s s t o t y p e t h i s t h e s i s . ( i ) The a s s i s t a n c e o f Mr. V/. P. Merner o f t h e W e l f a r e Department o f S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y and Mr. John R a n k i n and o t h e r c a s e w o r k e r s o f t h e W e l f a r e Department o f The C i t y o f White Rock i s g r a t e f u l l y a c k n owledged. Mr. D. G. Munro, Chairman o f t h e A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission o f White Rock gave me p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r which I am g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y , t h a n k s t o t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r a s s i s t i n g i n f i n a n c i n g my p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n . ( i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . HOUSING THE ELDERLY: A PLANNING PERSPECTIVE . . 1 C a p s u l e I n s i g h t s on the H o u s i n g Problem . . . 3 D i m e n s i o n s o f I n c r e a s i n g H o u s i n g Need . . . 3 H o u s i n g an A g i n g P o p u l a t i o n 5 A P l a n n i n g P e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e Probl e m . . . 13 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Study IB D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Probl e m IB Summary o f the Problem 21 Scope, O r g a n i z a t i o n and L i m i t a t i o n s 23 Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n 23 L i m i t a t i o n s 24 I I . ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE PROCESS OF HOUSING THE ELDERLY 28 H o u s i n g t h e E l d e r l y : A Review o f P r a c t i c e s i n Canada 28 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 28 C o o r d i n a t i o n 30 E x i s t i n g R o l e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : A D e s c r i p t i o n 33 Government 33 P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e 43 An A n a l y t i c a l E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e E x i s t i n g P r a c t i c e s 47 ( i i i ) CHAPTER PAGE I n f o r m a t i o n 47 C o o p e r a t i o n and C o o r d i n a t i o n 49 S p a t i a l P l a n n i n g . . . . . . 52 S u p p l y 53 C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n D e v e l o p i n g an Approach t o t h e P r o b l e m i n B. C 55 M i g r a t i o n 55 Summary 70 I I I . A PROGRAM FOR HOUSING THE ELDERLY 76 What i s a Program? 76 "Program" i n the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s . . . . . 76 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a Program 81 Key A t t r i b u t e s o f a Program 84 D e v e l o p i n g an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework . . . 92 O b j e c t i v e s and P o l i c i e s : The R o l e o f S e n i o r Governments 93 R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework 102 A l t e r n a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e v i c e s . . . . 109 L i m i t i n g t h e F i e l d 130 R e c a p i t u l a t i o n 136 R o l e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 138 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Framework 144 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 150 ( i v ) CHAPTER PAGE IV. EXAMINING THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK: A CASE STUDY OF THE WHITE ROCK AREA OF B.C. . 159 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . • 159 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Case S t u d y 159 The A r e a o f Study 160 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Case S t u d y 161 The White Rock A r e a Today 164 What, Where, and Why 164 The P e o p l e 165 H o u s i n g i n White Rock • . 169 F o r c e s o f Change i n White Rock 174 C o n c e p t s f o r G u i d i n g Change . . . 178 The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework: O p e r a t i o n i n • a S p e c i f i c C o n t e x t 190 P r e s e n t F e d e r a l R o l e 191 P r e s e n t P r o v i n c i a l R o l e 193 The L o c a l R o l e 194 Summary 201 V. REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE STUDY 209 Summary o f t h e St u d y 209 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y 215 The H y p o t h e s i s : L i m i t a t i o n s and C r i t i c i s m s . 215 The S t u d y : L i m i t a t i o n s and C r i t i c i s m s . . . 219 C o n c l u s i o n 223 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 224 (v) LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Persons Age 60 and Over by Census D i v i s i o n i n B. C. - 1961 57 I I . Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n by P l a c e o f B i r t h ( B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada) by Census D i v i s i o n i n B. C. - 1961 67 I I I . Percentage of P o p u l a t i o n 65 Years o f Age and Over i n G r e a t e r Vancouver Communities - 1961 167 ( v i ) L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. The Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 58 2. The Recommended A d m i n i s t r a t i v e System . . . . 143 3. White Rock and t h e S t u d y A r e a i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n C o n t e x t . 163 4. M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r - P e r c e n t a g e o f P o p u l a t i o n Over 65 y e a r s o f age 166 5. The Towns, V i l l a g e s and N e i g h b o r h o o d s C o n c e p t o f S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y 184 ( v i i ) CHAPTER I HOUSING THE ELDERLY: A PLANNING PERSPECTIVE T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y has e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f o u n d changes, not the l e a s t o f which a r e t h e changes i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . One o f the most s t r i k i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n change i s t h e marked i n c r e a s e o f e l d e r l y p e r s o n s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s phenomenon, which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o n o u n c e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e f l e c t s i n l a r g e measure t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f r e g i o n s w i t h i n B. C , where c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r o b a b l y the most moderate i n Canada. T h i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y c r e a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t h o u s i n g problem b e c a u s e the e l d e r l y , on t h e whole, have l o w e r incomes t h a n o t h e r age g r o u p s . T h i s o f c o u r s e means t h a t the e l d e r l y a r e a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n s e c u r i n g a d e q u a t e and s u i t a b l e accommodation a t r e n t a l s t h e y can a f f o r d t o pay. M o reover the h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the e l d e r l y a r e more s p e c i a l i z e d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . G r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n must be d e v o t e d not o n l y t o the l o c a t i o n and d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y , but a l s o t o the p r o v i s i o n o f a wide range o f r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o s u s t a i n t h e p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l w e l l -b e i n g o f c i t i z e n s w i t h d e c l i n i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t . 2 Once a g a i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e e l d e r l y t o pay f o r t h e c o s t l y s e r v i c e s which complement the s h e l t e r r e q u i r e m e n t i s low i n r e l a t i o n t o need. However, the s h e l t e r needs o f t h e e l d e r l y a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y s p e c i a l i z e d t h a t t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m c a n n o t be d e s c r i b e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n economic t e r m s . P l a n n i n g i s not p r e - o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o - c a l l e d "economic market" i n which i n d i v i d u a l s f i n a n c e t h e i r own h o u s i n g and t h e "non-economic" market i n which i n d i v i d u a l s must be g i v e n f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e i t h e r on a r e c o v e r a b l e o r n o n - r e c o v e r a b l e b a s i s . P l a n n i n g f o r t h e needs o f t h e e l d e r l y i s g e a r e d t o e n s u r i n g the most e f f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n o f n e i g h b o r h o o d a m e n i t i e s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s from which t h e e l d e r l y as members o f a l a r g e r community can b e n e f i t , and can p r e v e n t the c r e a t i o n o f economic and s o c i a l g h e t t o s . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e n a t u r e and d i m e n s i o n s o f a program f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y , p r i o r t o p r e s c r i b i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m t o implement such a program. B e f o r e e x a m i n i n g t h e h o u s i n g problem p e r se i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p a i n t , a l b e i t w i t h b r o a d s t r o k e s , t h e demographic and economic b a c k g r o u n d . 3 I CAPSULE INSIGHTS ON THE HOUSING PROBLEM Di m e n s i o n s o f I n c r e a s i n g H o u s i n g Need O l d age i s a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f r e t i r e m e n t , which i n Canada, g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s a t age s i x t y - f i v e . Thus t h e e l d e r l y , a r e d e f i n e d as p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s o f age and o v e r . The e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada as a whole, has i n c r e a s e d from 5.0% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1901, t o 7.6$ i n 1 9 6 1 . I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n l i g h t o f i n c r e a s i n g l o n g e v i t y , t h a t t h i s upward t r e n d w i l l c o n t i n u e and t h a t t h e e l d e r l y w i l l c o n s t i t u t e 8.9% o f the t o t a l C a n a d i a n 2 p o p u l a t i o n by 1980. In a b s o l u t e numbers, the growth was from about 270 t h o u s a n d i n 1901 t o about 1.4 m i l l i o n p e r s o n s i n 1961. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d 3.1% and 10.2% o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1901 and 1961 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a b s o l u t e numbers o f p e r s o n s o v e r age 65 f o r B. C. i n 1901 and 1961 were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5,000 and 165,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e a v e r a g e age o f the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e p r o g r e s s i v e l y so t h a t p e r s o n s aged 75 and o v e r which c o n s t i t u t e d 33% o f t h e t o t a l o l d aged group i n 1955 and 35.5% i n 1961 a r e e x p e c t e d t o c o n s t i t u t e 38% o f the t o t a l e l d e r l y i n 1980. The a b s o l u t e 4 f i g u r e s a r e i m p r e s s i v e ; t h e number o f p e o p l e aged 75 and o v e r i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e from 398,000 i n 1961 t o 911,000 by 1980. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n l o n g e v i t y i s a p r o d u c t o f s e v e r a l i n f l u e n c e s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f which a r e im p r o v e d s t a n d a r d s o f n u t r i t i o n , m e d i c a l c a r e , and p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . Some view t h i s " m e d i c a t e d s u r v i v a l " as a s c o u r g e b e c a u s e f o r them More h a n d i c a p p e d s u r v i v e a t a l l a g e s . More p e o p l e l i v e t o have m e n t a l i l l n e s s . More p e o p l e l i v e t o become s o c i a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t . More p e o p l e l i v e t o a c q u i r e c h r o n i c i l l n e s s o f a l l k i n d s . 4 O t h e r s view t h e " p r o b l e m o f a g i n g " as no p r o b l e m a t a l l . " I t i s o n l y t h e p e s s i m i s t i c way o f l o o k i n g a t a g r e a t 5 t r i u m p h o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " . Viewed d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , t h e s i m p l e f a c t s o f an a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n a r e t h e i n c r e a s e d numbers o f aged p e o p l e , an i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n o f aged p e o p l e i n t h e n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e i n c r e a s i n g a v e r a g e age and t h e r e f o r e a v e r a g e dependency o f t h e aged p o p u l a t i o n . The m a s s i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e changes i n p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e f o r community s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y h o u s i n g , m e d i c a l c a r e and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be r e a l i z e d . 5 H o u s i n g a n . A g i n g P o p u l a t i o n The b r o a d s t a t i s t i c a l a g g r e g a t e s i n d i c a t e t h e g r o s s d i m e n s i o n s o f the h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the aged which must be met by C a n a d i a n s i n g e n e r a l , and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e aged i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n d i c a t e i n p r e c i s e terms th e t y p e s o f h o u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an a g i n g p o p u l a t i o n . F i r s t however, a b r i e f r e v i e w o f the p r o c e s s o f a g i n g as i t a f f e c t s h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the aged i s r e q u i r e d . The P r o c e s s o f A g i n g . Knowledge o f t h e p r o c e s s o f a g i n g as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l phenomenon i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d . F o r example, t h e r e a r e f o u r phases o f a g i n g d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e " f a m i l y c y c l e " and h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . 6 Phase I , s t a r t s i n m i d d l e age when t h e c h i l d r e n b e g i n t o l e a v e home and t h e h o u s i n g b e g i n s t o be t o o l a r g e f o r r e m a i n i n g f a m i l y members. Phase I I comes i n " l a t e r m a t u r i t y " when a l l t h e c h i l d r e n have l e f t home. Phase I I I , d e s c r i b e d as " e a r l y o l d age" i s the s t a g e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e a r u n i v e r s a l r e t i r e m e n t o f t h e c h i e f wage e a r n e r , and t h e s t a g e i n w hich a growing p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e aged have p h y s i c a l a i l m e n t s which r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t y . G e n e r a l l y t h i s i s t h e p e r i o d i n which i n i t i a l a d j u s t m e n t s i n h o u s i n g t a k e p l a c e . The w e l l - t o - d o may revamp e x i s t i n g q u a r t e r s o r seek s p e c i a l 6 r e t i r e m e n t h o u s i n g ; the low income aged, f o r economic r e a s o n s , a r e f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . M o r e o v e r , a t t h i s p e r i o d , d e a t h b r i n g s d i s s o l u t i o n t o many f a m i l i e s and the widowed p a r t n e r may be f o r c e d t o o r may d e s i r e t o make new h o u s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . Phase IV i s t h e p e r i o d o f " l a t e o l d age" i n which a growing s h a r e o f p e o p l e r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r s o n a l and h e a l t h s e r v i c e i n a d d i t i o n t o s h e l t e r b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d i n f i r m i t y . Phases I I I and IV a r e t h e p e r i o d s when t h e unwed and widowed a r e f a c e d w i t h s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s o f s e c u r i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation b e c a u s e o f t h e i r g e n e r a l low s t a n d i n g on the economic s c a l e . T h i s i s why s i n g l e p e o p l e show g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i a l t y p e s o f accommodation. Demography and H o u s i n g T y p e s . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k r e q u i r e d f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i s a f u n c t i o n o f s e v e r a l d emographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The m a r i t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the aged i s a key v a r i a b l e . In Canada, m a r r i e d c o u p l e s c o n s t i t u t e o n e - h a l f o f a l l aged p e o p l e , and 95% o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s m a i n t a i n s e p a r a t e o r s e l f - c o n t a i n e d h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l demand f o r i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . The 1961 Census o f Canada enumerated 542,000 s i n g l e e l d e r l y , 172,000 o f whom were l i v i n g a l o n e and 300,000 o f whom were l i v i n g w i t h m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n . As o u r s o c i e t y becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y 7 m o b i l e , t h e a b i l i t y o f m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n t o p r o v i d e accommodation f o r t h e i r p a r e n t s w i l l p r o b a b l y d e c l i n e . T h i s s u g g e s t s an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r u n i t s p r o v i d i n g so c a l l e d " s h e l t e r e d c a r e " f o r t h e s i n g l e e l d e r l y . S h e l t e r e d c a r e r e f e r s t o homes f o r t h e aged which p r o v i d e f o o d and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s and p e r h a p s h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n a d d i t i o n t o h o u s i n g . Because t h e e x i s t i n g t r e n d i s towards d i f f e r e n t i a l l o n g e v i t y o f male and f e m a l e , an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e u n i t s must be p r o v i d e d f o r f e m a l e s . The O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s (O.A.H.A.) e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada between 1961 and 1980 w i l l c o n s t i t u t e 300,000 e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s and 170,000 e l d e r l y n o n - f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n s . ^ Economic F a c t o r s i n H o u s i n g . The demand f o r s p e c i a l programs f o r h o u s i n g t h e aged r e f l e c t s c o n c e r n f o r t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e e l d e r l y - namely low income, d e c l i n i n g h e a l t h , i n c r e a s i n g dependency and p e r h a p s r i s i n g m e d i c a l c o s t s . The h o u s i n g problem a p p e a r s to be, i n t h e main, an economic one. In s i m p l e s t t e r m s , the e l d e r l y w i t h t h e i r low p e r s o n a l i n comes, o f t e n c a n n o t f i n d accommodation i n t h e m a r k e t - p l a c e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s . The p r o b l e m i s one o f p o v e r t y - t h a t i s t h e l a c k o f income s u f f i c i e n t t o s e c u r e a l i v i n g a t s t a n d a r d s deemed by s o c i e t y 8 as acceptable. The plight of many of the elderly is basically portrayed by income statistics. In 1961, 4 5 - 5 5 % of aged males and 90% of aged females had incomes under $1,000 per 8 annum. Moreover 3 0 % of the aged with an annual income of less than S3,000 reported no liquid assets and 5 5 % reported assets of $1,000 or less. Most assets take the form of homes or equities in l i f e insurance. These assets are subject to rapid depletion because of the low cash incomes and the burdens of living expenses - especially the costs of prolonged illness, so that frequently "the aged outlive such g assets as, they once possessed". At the moment i t is believed that most private pension funds "came too late for their maximum benefits to be f e l t in the retirement income of the present generation"^ of the aged. In the future, the increased number of pension plans -both private and public (such as the proposed "Canada Pension Plan"), may assist in improving the relative economic position of the elderly. The O.A.H.A. defined the poverty line of $1,000 per annum for single elderly persons and $1,500 annum for elderly couples.*^ Because they found that the average monthly rental for dwellings occupied by the elderly was only fractionally lower than the average rentals for a l l h o u s e h o l d s , t h e y c o n c l u d e d " a t l e a s t 40% and as h i g h as 60% o f t h e e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n Canada a r e e n d u r i n g h a r d s h i p b e c a u s e o f economic c o n s t r a i n t . T w e n t y - f i v e to 30% o f 12 e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s a r e so d i s t r e s s e d " . Indeed i n 1961 t h e r e were i n B. C. 34,000 p e o p l e o v e r t h e age o f 65 whose m o n t h l y income does not e x c e e d $79 ( O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e o r O l d Age s e c u r i t y and C o s t o f L i v i n g B o n u s ) , and 10,000 dependent on War V e t e r a n ' s A l l o w a n c e o f $90 p e r month.13 The a n n u a l g r o s s incomes o f t h e s e two g r o u p s , assuming no a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s o f income e x i s t , a r e r e s p e c t i v e l y $948 and $1,080 p e r annum. U s i n g t h e O.A.H.A. d e f i n i t i o n o f p o v e r t y , t h e f o r m e r group i s p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n and t h e e l d e r l y c o u p l e s r e c e i v i n g t h e War V e t e r a n ' s A l l o w a n c e a r e p o v e r t y s t r i c k e n . T h i s measure i s o b v i o u s l y no more t h a n a rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f need. F a m i l i e s w i t h incomes i n e x c e s s o f t h e " p o v e r t y l i n e " may b e c a u s e o f h i g h m e d i c a l o r o t h e r expense be r a t e d as p o o r . C o n v e r s e l y , many o f t h e a s s i s t e d e l d e r l y may have some s u p p l e m e n t a r y s o u r c e o f income. The O n t a r i o W e l f a r e C o u n c i l u t i l i z e d t h e budget i t e m i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o d e t e r m i n e a r e a l i s t i c " s h e l t e r c o s t t o income r a t i o " f o r p e r s o n s w i t h a modest income l e v e l somewhat above th e O.A.H.A.'s $1,000 and $1,500 p o v e r t y l i n e . They f o u n d t h a t an " a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e 10 r e n t a l s h e l t e r a l l o c a t i o n f o r e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d r a n g e a t about 40% and f o r c o u p l e s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30%"."^ The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e S c a l e i n B. C. (1961) computes an a c c e p t a b l e r e n t a l f o r s i n g l e u n e m p l o y a b l e males o v e r age 45 a t 32.7% o f t o t a l a s s i s t a n c e and 37.6% f o r u n e m p l o y a b l e c o u p l e s o v e r age 45. A 1958 s t u d y by t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s i n V a n c o u v e r e n t i t l e d The Adequacy o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r found t h a t b o t h t h e s e groups ( s i n g l e and c o u p l e s ) 15 were p a y i n g 49.6% o f t h e i r t o t a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r s h e l t e r . T h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n would summarize th e problem o f t h e l o w e r income e l d e r l y , who b e c a u s e o f the c o m p u l s o r y r e t i r e m e n t age would be c o n s i d e r e d , i n t h e main, u n e m p l o y a b l e . O b v i o u s l y an e x c e s s i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f income i s b e i n g used t o s e c u r e accommodation, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e need t o f o r e g o c o n s u m p t i o n o f o t h e r goods and s e r v i c e s . The Concept o f Need. The O.A.H.A. a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h e e x t e n t o f h o u s i n g need i n Canada by d e r i v i n g a c o n c e p t o f need u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1 f a m i l i e s and h o u s e h o l d s who a r e l i v i n g i n p h y s i c a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation whether a t manageable o r e x c e s s i v e c o s t s . . . 2. . . . . t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s who, t o a c h i e v e d e c e n t and s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g have been o b l i g e d t o d e v o t e an e x c e s s i v e amount o f t h e i r budget t o h o u s i n g . . . . 1 6 11 A p p l y i n g t h e s e e c o n o m i c a l l y d e r i v e d c r i t e r i a o f need, t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t o f the 516,000 e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s enumerated i n Canada i n 1961, some 30 to 35% a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n a c h i e v i n g good h o u s i n g a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t s . They c o n s i d e r t h a t c o u p l e s c an d e v o t e about 30% o f t h e i r income t o o b t a i n s e r v i c e d s h e l t e r . ^ U s i n g e v i d e n c e g l e a n e d from u n s p e c i f i e d s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e p o r t s , t h e O.A.H.A. c o n c l u d e d t h a t one h a l f o f t h e 235,000 n o n - f a m i l y e l d e r l y h o u s e h o l d s enumerated i n 1961, were a p p a r e n t l y i n economic d i f f i c u l t y . I t was assumed t h a t "a m a j o r component o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s good h o u s i n g a t manageable c o s t s " . The O.A.H.A. b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s o f 70% o f the f a m i l i e s c o u l d be r e s o l v e d i n l a r g e measure by l a r g e r p e n s i o n s , more m e d i c a l c a r e and o t h e r s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . A s i m i l a r f i g u r e f o r s i n g l e e l d e r l y was not p r o v i d e d . The f o r e g o i n g r e v i e w l e a d s t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. The h o u s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f the aged a r e l a r g e l y t h o s e c a u s e d by i n a d e q u a t e p e r s o n a l income. 2. The h o u s i n g p r o b l e m means t h a t t h e e l d e r l y c a n n o t f i n d accommodation i n t h e market p l a c e s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s a t p r i c e s t h e y can a f f o r d . 3. The economic d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g i n g a r e a f f e c t i n g l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e . Moreover, i n c r e a s e d 12 w e l f a r e a d v a n t a g e s may be f o r t h c o m i n g , y e t t h e y w i l l be p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by i n f l a t e d c o s t s o f consumer goods and h o u s i n g . 4 . The O.A.H.A. u n d e r l i n e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y s o c i a l n a t u r e o f the p r o b l e m by s t a t i n g : "An i d e a l r a t h e r t h a n a number i s t h e f i n a l and o n l y d e f e n s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n o f 19 t h e h o u s i n g need a p p r a i s a l " . The Aged: A New F o r c e i n the M a r k e t . The m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d i a n b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s i n t h e p o s t - w a r p e r i o d have been g e a r e d to m e e t i n g the demands o f a mass market i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e demands o f young f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s have a l s o been d e v o t e d t o m e e t i n g the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the s i n g l e wage e a r n e r s and young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , as w i t n e s s e d by t h e upward t r e n d s i n a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g i n majo r c i t i e s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . F o r example, a p a r t m e n t accommodations, o f t e n e m i n e n t l y s u i t a b l e t o t h e needs o f the e l d e r l y a r e u s u a l l y beyond t h e means o f t h e l o w e r income segment o f t h e e l d e r l y m a r k e t . O n l y i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t has much a t t e n t i o n been s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d towards p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r t h e aged as a s p e c i a l segment o f the m a r k e t . H o u s i n g needs o f the e l d e r l y have become an i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t o f s p e c i a l s t u d y b e c a u s e : 13 1. The demand o f t h e e l d e r l y f o r h o u s i n g t y p e s w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e i r needs i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i n c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y p u t s more and more o f the e l d e r l y i n t h e " e a r l y " and " l a t e o l d age" segments o f the a g i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f the h o u s i n g problem f o r more p e o p l e w i l l be i n the p o s i t i o n o f r e q u i r i n g t y p e s o f accommodation u n i q u e l y w e l l a d a p t e d t o s p e c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s b r o u g h t on by i n c r e a s i n g dependency. 2. H o u s i n g needs a r e becoming a majo r p a r t o f o v e r a l l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g f o r t h e low income e l d e r l y . 3. The needs o f the e l d e r l y a r e s u c h t h a t p h y s i c a l s h e l t e r a l o n e w i l l not s u f f i c e . The e l d e r l y r e q u i r e a wide r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s the p r o v i s i o n o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s and a t t e n d a n t management p r o b l e m s t h a t have d e t e r r e d most p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s from t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , a p a r t from the r e l a t i v e l y few n u r s i n g homes a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o t h e m i d d l e and upper income g r o u p s . A P l a n n i n g P e r s p e c t i v e o f the Prob l e m As i n d i c a t e d above, the h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as a u n i q u e component o f the o v e r a l l h o u s i n g market b e c a u s e t h e e l d e r l y h o u s i n g market e x e r t s 14 s t r o n g demands f o r s e r v i c e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s h e l t e r . Because o f t h i s , t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g th e e l d e r l y can be v i e w e d as an i m p o r t a n t m e e t i n g ground f o r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s whose p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t s and t a l e n t s a r e j o i n t l y r e q u i r e d t o f o r g e an e f f e c t i v e program f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . Such a program, w h i l e g e a r e d p r i m a r i l y t o m e e t i n g t h e needs o f t h e low income e l d e r l y w i l l p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s which the e l d e r l y , whether r i c h o r p o or, may u t i l i z e . I ndeed t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y has been one a r e a o f h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e r e c o g n i z e d need f o r d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n from p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , has g i v e n t h e p r o m i s e o f g e n u i n e "community" p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g . As e x p r e s s e d i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s . "The g o a l s o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e [ i . e . p h y s i c a l ] p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g meet i n t h e d e s i r e t h a t the c i t y s h o u l d be 20 t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e p l a c e i n which t o l i v e " . With r e f e r e n c e t o h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , b o t h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s a r e a s s i s t i n g i n a m e l i o r a t i n g t h e same s o c i a l p r o b l e m and a c h i e v i n g t h e same s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e - namely e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e needs o f the e l d e r l y a r e p r o p e r l y f u l f i l l e d . T h a t t h e r e i s i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g 21 p r o c e s s f o r " i n t e g r a t e d p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g " i s n o t t o deny t h a t s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l ( i . e . community) 15 p l a n n i n g a r e d i s c i p l i n e s l a c k i n g u n i q u e f o c i o f i n t e r e s t . The community p l a n n e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l s , p o l i c i e s , and programs t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o p e r p r o v i s i o n o f n e c e s s a r y p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s - i n t h i s c a s e h o u s i n g . The s o c i a l p l a n n e r f o l l o w s s i m i l a r p r o -c e d u r e s i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o s e r v e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s e h o u s e s . The community p l a n n e r , w h i l e not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r m u l a t i n g , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , the s o c i a l g o a l s which g u i d e the programs a f f e c t i n g the w e l f a r e o f the e l d e r l y , must c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l g o a l s and t h e p h y s i c a l d evelopment g o a l s which a r e h i s d i r e c t p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e r n . The community p l a n n e r i s c a p a b l e o f e n s u r i n g t h a t h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y i s p l a c e d i n a community s e t t i n g w e l l r e l a t e d t o the n e c e s s a r y a m e n i t i e s s u c h as s t o r e s , p a r k s and t r a n s i t r o u t e s which a r e a d j u n c t s o f h o u s i n g . S i m i l a r l y , t h e community p l a n n e r can s t r i v e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e h o u s i n g s u p p l y s h o u l d be o f t h e r i g h t t y p e , a t t h e r i g h t p r i c e , and i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y t o meet t h e needs o f the e l d e r l y . The terms p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and community p l a n n i n g a r e synonomous as used h e r e i n . C e r t a i n w r i t e r s a r e p r o n e t o i n f e r r i n g t h a t p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s a r e o b l i v i o u s t o s o c i a l need, a view which c a n n o t be e n t e r t a i n e d h e r e i n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e term community p l a n n i n g i s used a d v i s e d l y . 16 The t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g and l o n g - r a n g e need f o r h o u s i n g and p r e p a r i n g t h e " l o n g range p r o p o s a l 22 which s e e k s t o f u l f i l l f u t u r e h o u s i n g n e e d s , . . . " i s p r o p e r l y t h a t o f t h e community p l a n n e r . H i s j o b i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n D f p r o p o s a l s based on s o c i a l need as p a r t o f an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d u s e . The b a s i c s h o r t c o m i n g i s t h a t no t r u e p l a n n i n g t o meet the need i s b e i n g done. A c c e p t i n g the d e f i n i t i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g means a s s e s s i n g f u t u r e needs and d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e s e needs a r e t o be s a t i s f i e d , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e r u d i m e n t s o f p l a n n i n g a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t . T h e r e i s n e i t h e r a d e q u a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e need on a r e g i o n a l or l o c a l b a s i s i n B. C , nor i s t h e r e a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r accommodating t h i s need. No p l a n has been e v o l v e d t o e n s u r e a c t i o n w i l l be t a k e n t o s a t i s f y t h e a n t i c i p a t e d need. L e t us f i r s t c o n s i d e r p r e d i c t i o n . The l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on h o u s i n g need i s a m a s s i v e gap f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e can i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e and d i m e n s i o n s o f h o u s i n g need i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a . W e l l p u b l i c i z e d , such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d a l e r t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n makers o f the p r e s s i n g n eeds. P o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n makers c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o a c t where knowledge o f h o u s i n g i n a d e q u a c y i s s c a n t . The l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n has a d v e r s e r a m i f i c a t i o n s on t h e p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g t o meet the need. The l a c k o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i s i n p a r t t r a c e a b l e t o 17 t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the e x t e n t , n a t u r e and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f f u t u r e "need". I n f o r m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e p r o b l e m , which i s t h e n e c e s s a r y b a s i s f o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s . How a r e the e l d e r l y t o be housed and a t what l e v e l o f s e r v i c e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n must be answered and e x p r e s s e d as an o b j e c t i v e . T h i s o b j e c t i v e w i l l i n f a c t d e t e r m i n e t h e a g g r e g a t e h o u s i n g need b e c a u s e need i s a f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . No p o l i c i e s e x i s t , a g a i n p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n upon which t o base e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c y . M o r e over, w i t h o u t i n f o r m a t i o n , no program which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e s t h e s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g t o t h e need can be p r e p a r e d . T h e r e can be no p r i o r i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o p r o j e c t s , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u r g e n c y o f need, and thus t h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e o f o b t a i n i n g an optimum a l l o c a t i o n o f s c a r c e h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e s a t any t i m e . A l b e i t , as l o n g as demand i s g e n e r a l l y h i g h f o r any t y p e o f o l d age h o u s i n g , p r i o r i t i e s may n o t a p p e a r t o be t o o u s e f u l . As need becomes s a t i s f i e d , however, t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r i o r i t y i n r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n w i l l become enhanced. In B. C. i t i s g e n e r a l l y f a i r to say t h a t b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t s toward h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y a r e p r e s e n t l y s p u r i o u s . Under t h i s system o f p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g t h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e o f c o n t i n u i t y o f e f f o r t , o r o f p r o v i d i n g t h e h o u s i n g a t t h e p r o p e r t i m e i n the p r o p e r p l a c e . 18 P r o j e c t p l a n n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y t o o n a r r o w l y c o n c e i v e d . I t may w e l l be t h a t p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g - by a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y may be l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n m e e t i n g b r o a d s o c i a l needs t h a n i t might o t h e r w i s e be b e c a u s e i t s e f f o r t s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o a s i n g l e f u n c t i o ' n , t o p r o v i d i n g a s i n g l e t y p e o f s h e l t e r , o r s e r v i n g a s i n g l e t y p e o f p e o p l e i n a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . What a l l t h i s i n d i c a t e s i s t h e l a c k o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p a r a t u s which can e f f e c t i v e l y e n s u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a f u l l program f o r h o u s i n g t h e aged. I I OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Prob l e m I t i s t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t t h e r e i s an u r g e n t need f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system d e s i g n e d t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e d i v e r s e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d o r p o t e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g and complementary s e r v i c e s f o r t h e e l d e r l y . The aim i s t o e v o l v e an a p p r o a c h to h o u s i n g t h e needy e l d e r l y which w i l l have g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n B. C. and which w i l l p r o v i d e f o r : 1. E x e c u t i v e l e a d e r s h i p t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implemen-t a t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o o r d i n a t e d h o u s i n g program. 19 2 . S u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the e f f o r t s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e i n housing the e l d e r l y . 3 . P r e s e r v a t i o n and encouragement o f e x i s t i n g e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t p r o v i d e housing f o r the e l d e r l y . 4. D e d i c a t i o n of more r e s o u r c e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r the e l d e r l y i f n e c e s s a r y . To f u l f i l l these c o n d i t i o n s , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i s proposed which w i l l c o n s i s t o f a system o f i n t e r r e l a t e d a g e n c i e s and i n t e r e s t s which i s ( l ) m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l , t h a t i s c a p able of i n t e g r a t i n g the f u n c t i o n s o f f i n a n c i n g , p l a n n i n g , w e l f a r e and p r o j e c t management r e q u i r e d i n the process of p r o v i d i n g homes f o r the e l d e r l y ; ( 2 ) m u l t i - l e v e l , t h a t i s capable o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g two o r more l e v e l s o f government, s e v e r a l l o c a l governments i f n e c e s s a r y , and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t o produce an o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t ; and ( 3 ) m u l t i - a r e a , t h a t i s capable o f i n i t i a t i n g a program e x t e n d i n g over s e v e r a l p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i f n e c e s s a r y . The p r e s c r i b e d system must be designed t o : 1. Ensure t h a t t h e r e i s an u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g a program t h a t w i l l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e the s u p p l y of housing to the need f o r ho u s i n g . T h i s may im p l y the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i r e c t or more e x t e n s i v e i n d i r e c t government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the housing market. The program s h o u l d ensure t h a t proper s e r v i c e s are 20 p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r i g h t p e o p l e , i n t h e r i g h t l o c a t i o n and i n the r i g h t t i m e s e q u e n c e . T h e r e must be a l e g i s l a t i v e o r l e g i s l a t i v e - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e t h a t w i l l c o n c e i v e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . A d e c i s i o n must be made on who s h a l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s , and what the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s a r e . F o r example, i s t h e r e need f o r j o i n t p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y making by p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s and b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s ? The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system must e n s u r e t h a t d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s a r e most e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and u t i l i z e d t o get on w i t h the j o b o f p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g . T h i s system would be d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t by d e f i n i n g r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s , t h u s r e l e g a t i n g t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e y can b e s t p e r f o r m . T h i s system must be d e s i g n e d to f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t and government p r i v a t e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . The program s h o u l d be b r o a d enough t o encompass a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f i m p r o v i n g th e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n o f the e l d e r l y , i n c l u d i n g : a) Economic a p p r o a c h e s s u c h as s u b s i d i z e d r e n t a l s , i n c r e a s e d w e l f a r e payments, i n c r e a s e d m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s 21 e t c . which w i l l l e a v e the e l d e r l y i n a b e t t e r economic p o s i t i o n to b i d f o r accommodation on the market. b) P r e v e n t a t i v e measures such as e d u c a t i o n to induce people to prepare e a r l i e r i n l i f e f o r t h e i r p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t housing needs. c) A v a r i e t y o f approaches to o b t a i n i n c r e a s e d s p e c i a l i z e d housing i n c l u d i n g i n c e n t i v e s to the r e a l e s t a t e i n v e s t o r s , and p u b l i c h o u s i n g . 5. The approach must be comprehensive, t h a t i s the housing program must meet the f u l l range of housing needs of the e l d e r l y . 6. The housing program must be implemented i n a p p r o p r i a t e and r e l e v a n t g e o g r a p h i c a l areas unencumbered by j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . 7 . A "community p l a n n i n g " approach embracing both s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , agencies and i n t e r e s t s . 8 . The l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l housing f o r the aged must be a f u n c t i o n of c i t y p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s to c a p i t a l i z e most f u l l y on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a c h i e v i n g more " p o s i t i v e d e s i g n on a neighborhood s c a l e " . ^ Summary of the Problem In view of the i n c r e a s i n g housing need, an approach to e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y house the e l d e r l y must be developed. An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system must be e v o l v e d to 22 ensure t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s , c o l l e c t i n g n e c e s sary i n f o r m a t i o n and implementa-t i o n of programs of a c t i o n are a p p r o p r i a t e l y performed. As a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government o f B. C. must assume a wider r o l e i n the process of housing the e l d e r l y because: 1. Of i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2. Of the f e l t need f o r an u l t i m a t e e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y . 3. The problem o f housing i s p a r t i a l l y due t o m i g r a t i o n and thus a problem i n i t i a t i n g beyond s p e c i f i c m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s . 4. The P r o v i n c e has the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o i n i t i a t e programs which i n c l u d e housing and w e l f a r e . 5. The P r o v i n c e can n e g o t i a t e d i r e c t l y w i t h the F e d e r a l Government to s e c u r e N a t i o n a l Housing Act A s s i s t a n c e . I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t h a t e x i s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process of housing the e l d e r l y must be p r e s e r v e d and e n l a r g e d and the e f f o r t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s more f u l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d because each p l a y s a v i t a l and i r r e p l a c e -a b l e r o l e i n the p r o c e s s of housing the e l d e r l y . These two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t e r l o c k i n the h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s study t h a t 23 In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government ought t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework n e c e s s a r y t o en c o u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program f o r the e l d e r l y . I l l SCOPE, ORGANIZATION, AND LIMITATIONS Scope and O r g a n i z a t i o n T h e r e a r e two key c o n c e p t s , each w i t h a number o f component e l e m e n t s , embodied i n the h y p o t h e s i s . The key c o n c e p t s a r e o f c o u r s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y and t h e need f o r a h o u s i n g program r e q u i r i n g a number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t o t a l q u e s t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e P r o v i n c e i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f e x p l i c i t o b l i g a t i o n s and by a p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g which segments o f t h e h o u s i n g program a r e n o t b e i n g e f f i c i e n t l y h a n d l e d by l o c a l government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . C h a p t e r I I I i s d e s i g n e d t o e l a b o r a t e on the c o n c e p t o f a program - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e n a t u r e o f a program and t h e need f o r o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . The d e s i g n o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system a p p l i c a b l e i n the P r o v i n c e o f B. C. t h a t d e f i n e s t h e r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s i s a l s o the s u b j e c t o f 24 t h i s c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r IV employs the c a s e - s t u d y method t o t e s t t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t e v o l v e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . A s e l e c t e d a r e a i n the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a i s employed. A r e v i e w o f the t h e s i s and an e v a l u a t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e the s u b j e c t o f C h a p t e r V. L i m i t a t i o n s The c o n c e p t s o f " o b j e c t i v e s " and " p o l i c i e s " a r e embodied i n the h y p o t h e s i s . W h i l e t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e d e f i n e d and e n l a r g e d upon, no a t t e m p t a t e x h a u s t i v e c a t a l o g u i n g o r d e t a i l e d f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s i s made. The p u r p o s e i s t o s t r e s s t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e as b a s i c g u i d e l i n e s t o a h o u s i n g program. In d i s c u s s i n g the q u e s t i o n o f j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , no atte m p t i s made t o i t e m i z e and i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f d e t a i l e d h o u s i n g problems r e q u i r i n g o p e r a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n i n government. Nor i s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h o u s i n g programs t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . No a t t e m p t s a t d e t a i l e d e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s i n terms o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m o b i l i z e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y a r e u n d e r t a k e n . 25 L a s t l y , no i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s o f economic w e l f a r e programs v e r s u s h o u s i n g programs i s u n d e r t a k e n , o t h e r t h a n to acknowledge t h a t t h e s e programs a r e complementary and p e r h a p s p a r t i a l s u b s t i t u t e s f o r each o t h e r . 26 REFERENCES ^"Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , B u l l e t i n 1-2-2. 2 F o r e c a s t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on Canada's Economic P r o s p e c t s C i t e d i n O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s ( T o r o n t o : The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 6 1 . 3 I b i d . 4D. A. C l a r k , "Where Does t h e N a t i o n ' s H e a l t h S t a n d T o d a y ? " , i n S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s o f M i g r a t i o n S i n c e W o r l d War I I (New Y o r k : M i l b a n k M e m o r i a l Fund, 1958), p. 233. 5 Frank W. N o t e s t e i n , "Some Demographic A s p e c t s o f A g i n g " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Am e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The S o c i e t y , 1 9 5 4 ) , pT 38. 6 U . S. H o u s i n g and Home F i n a n c e Agency, H o u s i n g ThB  E l d e r l y ( W a s h i n g t o n : The Agency, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 4. 7 O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , Good  Ho u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s ( T o r o n t o : The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964), p. 86. ^ I b i d . . p. 64. 9 I b i d . ^ U . S. H o u s i n g and Home F i n a n c e Agency, o_p_. c i t . . p. 6. " ^ O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , pj3. c i t . , p. 66. 1 2 I b i d . 13 Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l Government  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n 5 e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' H o u sing ( V a n c o u v e r : Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 3 . 27 14 O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , op_. c i t . , 64. 15 Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s , o_£. c i t . , p. 1 . 88, • ^ O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , o_p_. c i t . , "^Ibid.» p. 66. ^ I b i d . , p. 65 . 1 9 I b i d . , p. 96. 20 James Brown, D. Kogawa and R. P e t e r s , P u b l i c H o u s i n g  and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964) , p. 47 . ^ I b i d • > P• 4 5 . p p F. S t u a r t C h a p i n , Urban Land Use P l a n n i n g (New York: H a r p e r and B r o s . , 1957) , p. 368. 23 E. H. Hoben, " P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Urban Communities", C o n f e r e n c e on A g i n g . 1951, Wilma T. Donahue ed. (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1953) , p. 46 . CHAPTER II ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE PROCESS OF HOUSING THE ELDERLY I HOUSING THE ELDERLY: A REVIEW OF PRACTICES IN CANADA The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e t h e e x i s t i n g r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l l e v e l s o f government and f r e e e n t e r p r i s e i n h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i n Canada. R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i s a complex one b e c a u s e o f i t s m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r . A l l l e v e l s o f government, d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s w i t h i n government a t each l e v e l and a number o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , i n t e r e s t groups and p r o f i t making e n t e r p r i s e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s . On t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g Study c o n t e n d s The p r o v i s i o n o f an a dequate s u p p l y o f sound h o u s i n g s h o u l d p r i m a r i l y be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . The community s h o u l d c r e a t e t h e f a c t o r s which w i l l a l l o w p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s t o s u p p l y d w e l l i n g s a t a w i d e r c o s t r a n g e t h a n i s p r e s e n t l y t h e c a s e . l 29 T h i s s t a t e m e n t e x p r e s s e s t h e p h i l o s o p h y which has g u i d e d d e v e lopment o f s u c c e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s b o t h F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l , p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r p r i v a t e e f f o r t s t o expand t h e h o u s i n g s u p p l y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , government p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o a c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . L o ans, s u b s i d i e s , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e have been t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n s t r u m e n t s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y . D i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by governments i n the h o u s i n g market i n Canada i s s t i l l l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o p r o v i d i n g d w e l l i n g s f o r low income c i t i z e n s i n c a p a b l e o f p a y i n g "economic r e n t s " . H o u s i n g o f t h e e l d e r l y i s now a c c e p t e d as a w e l f a r e p r o b l e m b e c a u s e the e l d e r l y c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the h o u s i n g market which i s i n c a p a b l e o f p a y i n g an "economic r e n t " which would j u s t i f y p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g by t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t . F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments a l i k e have become s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v o l v e d b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a n c e o f an expanded r o l e o f the s t a t e i n w e l f a r e . W e l f a r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t e r e d by l o c a l government i n Canada but t h e y s i n c e have e x p e r i e n c e d a p r o g r e s s i v e b r o a d e n i n g o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s which has r e s u l t e d i n a "moving up from m u n i c i p a l to h i g h e r l e v e l s o f 2 3 government". A n g e l and McKinnon n o t e t h a t e d u c a t i o n , employment, income m a i n t e n a n c e , h e a l t h , r e c r e a t i o n , and s o c i a l w e l f a r e have i n the p a s t been r e g a r d e d as r e l e v a n t t o 30 t h e needs o f the aged but H o u s i n g i s a "newcomer" to t h e group o f w e l f a r e d e v i c e s t o a s s i s t the e l d e r l y . H o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i s a prime a r e a o f p u b l i c - p r i v a t e c o o p e r a t i o n i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s b e c a u s e ou r f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f government and "mixed" economy l e a d s to a d i s p e r s a l o f p r o d u c t i v e power, i n i t i a t i v e and i n n o v a t i o n . Humphrey C a r v e r d e s c r i b e s the system o f p r o d u c i n g h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y as c o n s i s t i n g o f " such an i n t e r w o v e n complex o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t s t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d n e v e r be u n s c r a m b l e d " and r i g h t l y s o , f o r i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u t i l i z e a l l p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s i n p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g t y p e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e same " s o c i a l and economic system o f u r b a n l i f e " . ^ C o o r d i n a t i o n J o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by d i v e r s e government and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i s seen as n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e . E q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t however, i s t h e need f o r a s y s t e m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a p a b l e o f c o o r d i n a -t i n g a l l e f f o r t s b e c a u s e o f the growing s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m , and the i n c r e a s e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . More c o o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n the framework o f e x p l i c i t and m u t u a l l y c o n s i s t e n t f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l . A s i n g l e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e 31 f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r as 5cott G r e e r c o n t e n d s , the d i f f u s i o n o f power and d i l u t i o n o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y p r o d u c e s "a c u r i o u s r i g i d i t y , not a r i g i d i t y o f program but a r i g i d i t y o f p r o c e s s t h a t e n e r v a t e s program".^ The c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t the p r o c e s s can and must be made more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e by e v o l v i n g e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d to c l a r i f y what i s t o be done and who i s t o do i t , t h u s f o r m i n g a g u i d e f o r b o t h government and p r i v a t e d e c i s i o n makers. An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a framework o f g u i d i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s would s e r v e t o : (1) c l a r i f y r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , ( 2 ) s t r e a m l i n e the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , (3) f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , and p r i v a t e - p u b l i c j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t t e r s o f p o l i c y and a c t i o n , ( 4 ) f o s t e r and f a c i l i t a t e new i d e a s and a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to p r o b l e m s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y and ( 5 ) p e r m i t j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f w o r k a b l e programs c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h h o u s i n g need. J o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s i s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e each i s c a p a b l e o f p e r f o r m i n g a v i t a l and m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i n g f u n c t i o n . F i s c a l c a p a c i t i e s and l e g i s l a t i v e powers o f government a r e s u p p l e m e n t e d by p r i v a t e c a p i t a l and m a n a g e r i a l t a l e n t s . Because a " p a r t n e r s h i p " 32 a p p r o a c h i s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e , t h e problem o f d e f i n i n g t h e s c o p e o f j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r i s e s . Imposed p l a n s and s t a n d a r d s u t i l i z e the r e g u l a t o r y powers o f government. However, the p a r t i c i p a t i v e a p p r o a c h r e q u i r e s i n a d d i t i o n t o r e g u l a t i o n , use o f t h e b a s i c t o o l s o f e f f e c t i v e management, o r g a n i z a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system as a d e v i c e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d . What does t h e c o n c e p t o f m o t i v a t i o n o f f e r ? P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s must be h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n b r i n g s f o r t h t h e f u l l e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r e a t i v e change. J u r a n o u t l i n e s t h e s e p r o p o s a l s f o r e n s u r i n g m o t i v a t i o n : 1. . . n e v e r ask a man t o do s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t e x p l a i n i n g why you want i t done. 2. . . n e v e r t e l l a man how he s h o u l d do s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t f i r s t a s k i n g him how he t h i n k s i t s h o u l d be done.6 Assuming t h e s e "axioms" a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as man, t h e y c o n s t i t u t e u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s t o d e v e l o p i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework. The f i r s t "axiom" s u g g e s t s t h a t c l e a r l y s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s p l u s the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d go a l o n g way i n s t i m u l a t i n g p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . The s econd s u g g e s t s t h a t wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . 33 I I EXISTING ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOUSING THE ELDERLY: A DESCRIPTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i n Canada and t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Government I n t r o d u c t i o n . In t h e C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l s ystem o f government t h e s o u r c e s o f power and i n i t i a t i v e a r e u s u a l l y t o be f o u n d a t t h r e e l e v e l s o f government - f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l . In a d d i t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o a r d s o r a u t h o r i t i e s o r m e t r o p o l i t a n f e d e r a t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r i n g s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s form an e f f e c t i v e " f o u r t h " l e v e l . A l l may p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f u n c t i o n o f p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g . The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a (B.N.A.) A c t o f 1867 ( e f f e c t i v e l y t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f Canada) c l a s s i f i e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. I t c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e s t h a t " p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s " , a b r o a d r u b i c which subsumes h o u s i n g , p l a c e s u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y s q u a r e l y upon P r o v i n c i a l governments. R i g i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h i s c l a u s e have n o t been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and t h e F e d e r a l Government has assumed a wide r o l e i n the f i e l d o f h o u s i n g . 34 F e d e r a l Government. D i r e c t F e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any h o u s i n g program i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d b ecause h o u s i n g i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l governments and t h e i r c r e a t u r e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In p r a c t i c e i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t o s a y h o u s i n g i s e x c l u s i v e l y a p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r i s u n r e a l i s t i c . Because o f t h e key i m p o r t a n c e o f h o u s i n g i n c i t i z e n w e l f a r e and b e c a u s e o f t h e "many s i d e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s " o f the h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l economy t h e F e d e r a l government has assumed a wide i n d i r e c t r o l e i n h o u s i n g . F e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been c u m u l a t i v e , growing from an i n i t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n the mortgage market b u t t o now embrace d i r e c t l e n d i n g and s p e n d i n g programs, r e s e a r c h programs, p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs on h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s , and a d v i s o r y and h o u s i n g d e s i g n s e r v i c e s . F e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o be p r i m a r i l y o f an economic n a t u r e and l a r g e sums of money a r e a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r h o u s i n g under the terms o f the N a t i o n a l H o u sing A c t (N.H.A.). T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n e n s u r e s th e F e d e r a l government a v o i c e i n d i c t a t i n g how t h e f u n d s a r e employed and thus g i v e s i t a p o t e n t i n d i r e c t v o i c e i n h o u s i n g . C e n t r a l M ortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (C.M.H.C.) i s a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e N.H.A. The p r o v i s i o n o f F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r h o u s i n g has s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s which i n c l u d e : 35 1. M a i n t e n a n c e o f a p r o s p e r o u s economy by s t i m u l a t i n g the house b u i l d i n g m a r k e t . 2. I m p r o v i n g and i n c r e a s i n g t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k by (a) f a c i l -i t a t i n g p u r c h a s e o f homes a t market p r i c e s by p r o v i d i n g f o r low i n t e r e s t f i n a n c i n g and (b) f i n a n c i n g n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s who c a n n o t a f f o r d good h o u s i n g a t c u r r e n t market p r i c e s . P r o v i n c i a l . As i n d i c a t e d above, t h e B.N.A. A c t a s s i g n e d to the p r o v i n c e s , j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s - a c a t c h a l l i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g and community p l a n n i n g , and w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s . The P r o v i n c i a l Governments r e t a i n e d e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and s e c u r i t y o f l o c a l government, and t h e power t o d e l e g a t e powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o the l o c a l governments as t h e y see f i t . Among t h e f u n c t i o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s i g n e d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e t h o s e o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e and community p l a n n i n g . The u n p r e c e d e n t e d u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has c o m p e l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the r e s p e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f P r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l g o v ernments. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s has been " s h i f t i n g " t o the s e n i o r governments. H o u s i n g , as a g o v e r n m e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a r e l a t i v e l y new and emerging f u n c t i o n . S i n c e h o u s i n g i s a b a s i c l a n d use i n an 36 u r b a n a r e a , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e l o g i c i n making l o c a l government r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s c o n t r o l and p r o v i s i o n . However, b e c a u s e t h e f i n a n c i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l b u r den o f h o u s i n g i s l a r g e , the j u s t i c e o f a s s i g n i n g t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o l o c a l government i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . T h a t t h e p roblems o f u r b a n i z a t i o n e xceed the f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s and f r e q u e n t l y l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f l o c a l government i s c e r t a i n . Thus t h e p r o v i n c i a l government must assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which exceed t h e m u n i c i p a l c a p a c i t i e s . F o r example t h e P r o v i n c e i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s -t e r i n g b o t h t h e w e l f a r e and h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n s , which a r e v i t a l components o f programs f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , where th e l o c a l governments a r e f i s c a l l y a nd/or j u r i s d i c t i o n a l l y i n c a p a b l e . The P r o v i n c e w i t h i t s powers and r e s o u r c e s and y e t i t s c l o s e n e s s t o t h e l o c a l community i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y p o s i t i o n e d t o f u n c t i o n as t h e l e a d e r o r i n i t i a t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . The P r o v i n c i a l Government has powers t o i n s t r u c t , d i r e c t and c o n t r o l m u n i c i p a l government o p e r a t i o n s . However, the l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between the governments may be i l l - d e f i n e d . I f h o u s i n g programs f o r t h e e l d e r l y a r e t o assume a l a r g e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y and p r e c i s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments must be d e f i n e d . An e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l and P r o v i n c i a l government 37 t i e - i n must be d e v e l o p e d . The P r o v i n c e , b e c a u s e o f i t s r o l e as l e g a l m a s t e r o f l o c a l government and b e c a u s e o f i t s g r e a t e r r e v e n u e c a p a c i t y i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f u n c t i o n s which i t may a s s i g n l o c a l government. The P r o v i n c e has the powers n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n and i s f i n a n c i a l l y c a p a b l e o f u n d e r t a k i n g b r o a d programs f o r the w e l f a r e o f t h e e l d e r l y which i n c l u d e h o u s i n g and o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f economic a s s i s t a n c e . M u n i c i p a l . L e g a l l y , m u n i c i p a l government i s c o n c e i v e d as b o t h the c r e a t u r e and l o c a l arm o f the P r o v i n c i a l government. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have no d i r e c t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a p a r t from t h o s e d e l e g a t e d t o them by t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . The P r o v i n c e imposes l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e t a x i n g and b o r r o w i n g powers o f l o c a l government and imposes s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e and good government. The P r o v i n c e , i n d e l e g a t i n g a u t h o r i t y , c r e a t e s an a r e a o f autonomy o r d i s c r e t i o n i n government a c t i o n and w i t h i n t h a t a r e a t h e l o c a l governments a r e f r e e t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l government where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s t i e i n t h e two l e v e l s , as e q u a l s o r a t l e a s t w i t h a measure o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . 7 L o c a l governments a r e not p e r m i t t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e F e d e r a l government i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any d i r e c t i o n t h e y get from t h e P r o v i n c i a l Governments. 38 The P r o v i n c i a l Government depends on m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h e r e n d e r i n g o f l o c a l s e r v i c e s - t r a d i t i o n a l l y e d u c a t i o n , r o a d s , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , and p l a n n i n g . Thus t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g l o c a l l a n d use p l a n s f o r example, has been d e l e g a t e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s . T h i s d e l e g a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y g i v e s t h e l o c a l government i m p o r t a n t powers t o g u i d e t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . L o c a l governments a r e empowered t o impose r e s t r i c t i v e b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r d s , and t o make d e c i s i o n s on t h e l o c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g t y p e s and t h e i r d e t a i l e d a r r a n g e m e n t on the ground. These a r e t h e powers o f community p l a n n i n g and a r e p o t e n t i a l l y a t l e a s t o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n the p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . F i r s t , c o n s i d e r z o n i n g as a d e v i c e to c o n t r o l c i v i c d e v e l o p m e n t . A m u n i c i p a l i t y i n d e s i g n a t i n g a r e a s as s u i t a b l e f o r o n l y s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f uses and b u i l d i n g s , i s s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y s h a p i n g and p r e d e t e r m i n i n g the s o c i a l a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n o f an a r e a . C a t h e r i n e [ B a u e r ] W u r s t e r c o n t e n d s "The b i g s o c i a l d e c i s i o n s a r e a l l made i n advance, i n h e r e n t Q i n t h e p l a n n i n g and b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s " . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s must r e c o g n i z e t h a t g u i d i n g t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n i s a n e c e s s a r y c o n c o m i t a n t o f g u i d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l growth and change and must assume c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e s u l t a n t p a t t e r n . A c c o r d i n g l y the p r o c e s s e s o f 39 p l a n n i n g must be g u i d e d by s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . Development o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use f o r example must be g u i d e d by o b j e c t i v e s d e f i n i n g what t y p e s o f community a r e d e s i r e d . Thus d e c i s i o n s must be made as t o whether o r not t o i n c l u d e a m i x t u r e o f age groups and s o c i a l t y p e s i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e c i t y . The power f o r g u i d i n g growth and development i s c r i t i c a l i n the p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . The i m p o r t a n c e o f l o c a t i n g homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y w i t h i n c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s o f s h o p p i n g , c h u r c h , m e d i c a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i s w e l l documented. The m u n i c i p a l i t y t h r o u g h i t s p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t has the power t o r e g u l a t e and c o n t r o l t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . The s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n t e g r a t e d - t h a t i s mixed age n e i g h b o r h o o d s 9 has been s t r e s s e d by p r o m i n e n t w r i t e r s s u c h as L e w i s Mumford. N e i t h e r the v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g t y p e s and a t t e n d a n t s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f young and o l d n o r t h e p r o p e r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g t y p e s and f a c i l i t i e s c an be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t p o s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e i g h b o r h o o d d e s i g n . P l a n n i n g a l o n e can p r o d u c e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s f u n c t i o n a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h e needs o f t h e e n t i r e l i f e c y c l e . In s h o r t , t h e m u n i c i p a l powers f o r z o n i n g must be employed i n a p o s i t i v e s e n s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h d e s i g n as t o o l s o f c i v i c d e v e l o p m e n t . The z o n i n g b y - l a w s , p r e p a r e d and e n f o r c e d l o c a l l y must have g u i d i n g s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . 40 The u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l r e s t a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l where t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . The m u n i c i p a l i t y a l o n e can r e g u l a t e t h e l a r g e numbers o f s m a l l and p r i v a t e development d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f a wide range o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l d e t e r m i n e whether the community i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a c e i n which t o l i v e . L o c a l governments i n i t i a t e a wide range o f u r b a n r e n e w a l programs, a l l o f which c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u i t a b l y accommodating the e l d e r l y . These o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c l u d e p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n urban r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o l d e r s t r u c t u r e s i n e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o r h o o d s , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s u i t a b l e s i t e s i n e i t h e r r e d e v e l o p m e n t o r newly d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s f o r h o u s i n g o f the e l d e r l y . P u b l i c , p r i v a t e and c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s a r e a l l p o s s i b l e . The l o c a l government can a l s o employ i n d i r e c t i n d u c e -ments t o a c h i e v e i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s . D i r e c t l a n d g r a n t s , s p e c i a l low p r i c e s on l a n d , s p e c i a l l a n d l e a s e agreements and s p e c i a l t a x c o n c e s s i o n s f o r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ( n o n - p r o f i t ) f o r t h e e l d e r l y a r e p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y d e v i c e s which may be c o n s c i o u s l y employed t o p r o v i d e " p r o p e r l y " l o c a t e d homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y i f g u i d i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r e p a r e d . 41 A major c h a l l e n g e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n n i n g i s t h a t o f s e c u r i n g i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y as the t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i o n programs have been i n i t i a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s whereas the p r o b l e m s t e n d t o o v e r - r u n the a r e a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s s t r o n g i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t s which a r e t a x r e v e n u e p r o d u c i n g . C o u l d not the o b v i o u s c o n d i t i o n be e x p e c t e d -t h a t i s , a s t r o n g r e l u c t a n c e t o e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t s such as t h o s e f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y which c o n s t i t u t e a " b urden" on t h e community by way o f s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s on l a n d p r i c e s , r e n t a l s o r t a x e s ? A l s o , i s t h e r e not a p o t e n t i a l p r oblem o f i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o s t s h a r i n g on f a c i l i t i e s which s e r v e two o r more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ? These a r e h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m s , l i k e l y t o a r i s e , and y e t not t h e t y p e which can a w a i t r e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l government. M u l t i - L e v e l A c t i o n . Up t o t h i s t i m e , a l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has f o c u s s e d upon the d i s c r e t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f each l e v e l o f government. In p r a c t i c e a l l t h r e e l e v e l s a r e a c t i n g i n p a r t n e r s h i p . P u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s (which may house t h e e l d e r l y ) f o r example a r e i n i t i a t e d by m u n i c i p a l governments which s u b m i t t e n t a t i v e urban r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s t o t h e s e n i o r g o vernments. In B. C. t h e l o c a l government d i r e c t s a r e q u e s t t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l H o u s i n g C o m m i s s i oner who 42 r e p o r t s t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e and t o t h e F e d e r a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n - C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . The m u n i c i p a l r e q u e s t i s t h e n c o n s i d e r e d by bot h t h e P r o v i n c e and C.M.H.C. F o l l o w i n g a p p r o v a l by t h e P r o v i n c e , C.M.H.C. a p p r o v e s t h e s e l e c t e d s i t e , may e x e c u t e t h e d e s i g n , and s u p e r v i s e s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . The F e d e r a l government w i l l b e a r up t o 15% o f a l o w - r e n t a l , o r economic r e n t a l p r o j e c t i n a r e n e w a l scheme. P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r up t o 25% o f t h e p r o j e c t c o s t s t o come from the P r o v i n c i a l government. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e P r o v i n c e may c a l l upon t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o bear a s h a r e o f c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r low r e n t a l h o u s i n g ( u s u a l l y 1 2 . 5 % ) . P o l i c y m a t t e r s a r e h a n d l e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -ment which i n t u r n t a k e s up the i s s u e s w i t h C.M.H.C. A l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , w i t h an e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r , s t a f f , and a p p o i n t e d b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s i s g i v e n b r o a d d i s c r e t i o n i n h a n d l i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f day t o day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . No c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f w e l f a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t y e x i s t , and C.M.H.C. has i s s u e d no p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s o r d i r e c t i v e s as t o whether p u b l i c h o u s i n g s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d as " r e a l e s t a t e " o r whether the w e l f a r e needs o f t e n a n t s a r e t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r . ^ 43 The F e d e r a l Government p r o v i d e s l o w - i n t e r e s t l o a n s , and i n B. C. t h e P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s c a p i t a l g r a n t s t o s o c i e t i e s which p r o v i d e s p e c i a l accommodation f o r t h e e l d e r l y . As a minimum, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y p r o v i d e s s u i t a b l e z o n i n g and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e a r e a , and may i n f a c t s u p p l y t h e s i t e o r g r a n t a t a x r e d u c t i o n on a s i t e , whether i t i s p u r c h a s e d o r g r a n t e d . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f E d u c a t i o n . The p u b l i c c o n s c i e n c e and p u b l i c o p i n i o n a r e key i n g r e d i e n t s o f any program f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , f o r t h e y i n f l u e n c e and d e t e r m i n e the amount o f f u n d s f o r t h c o m i n g t h r o u g h e i t h e r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e c h a n n e l s . E d u c a t i o n i s a t e c h n i q u e which can summon s u p p o r t by t h e c i t i z e n s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low c o s t h o u s i n g by e i t h e r l o c a l groups o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g S t u d y s u g g e s t s " t h a t f o s t e r i n g s u p p o r t f o r and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s l o c a l programmes s h o u l d be a m a t t e r o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l government as w e l l as l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s " . " ^ P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e I n t r o d u c t i o n . P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e as used h e r e i n r e f e r s t o t h e e f f o r t s o f non-government h o u s e r s f a l l i n g i n two b r o a d g r o u p s , t h e p r o f i t - m o t i v a t e d and t h e n o n - p r o f i t g r o u p s . 44 P r o f i t - M o t i v a t e d H o u s e r s . To t h e b u i l d e r , a d w e l l i n g i s a p r o d u c t m a n u f a c t u r e d f o r s a l e f o r a p r o f i t . The p r o m i s e o f an economic r e t u r n - p r o f i t - i s the f u n d a m e n t a l i n c e n t i v e t o u n d e r t a k e " r i s k s " i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a p r o d u c t . A l t h o u g h " r e s i d e n t i a l and o t h e r growth w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t 12 p r i m a r i l y by p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e and b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e . . . " t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s which a r e not met by t h e normal o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g market. The b a s i c mechanism o f t h e market i n v o l v e s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f new h o u s i n g t o be c o n t i n u o u s l y o c c u p i e d by t h e u p p e r income g r o u p s . T h i s was b e l i e v e d t o c a u s e d e v a l u a t i o n o f o l d e r homes t o a p o i n t where t h e low income groups c o u l d a f f o r d to r e n t o r p u r c h a s e t h e p h y s i c a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y d e p r e c i a t e d o l d e r s t r u c t u r e . T h i s so c a l l e d " f i l t e r i n g p r o c e s s " has p r o v e d i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e t h e volume o f h o u s i n g f i l t e r i n g downward i s i n a d e q u a t e , and t h e h o u s i n g t h a t d i d f i l t e r down i s sub -s t a n d a r d b e c a u s e o f t h e r a v a g e s o f t i m e and wear. The e l d e r l y form a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e low income group, who b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e d u c e d e a r n i n g power o r income a r e u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r f a m i l y income. Moreover f a m i l y h o u s i n g i s not s u i t e d t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y . R e c e n t l y t h e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y has commenced p r o v i d i n g forms o f h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e f o r t h e aged p e r s o n s o f above a v e r a g e means. The low income e l d e r l y however c a n n o t p r o v i d e an u n a s s i s t e d b u i l d e r an a d e q u a t e r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l . 45 The h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y must c o n t i n u o u s l y s t r i v e t o r e d u c e c o s t s i n o r d e r t o e n t e r the p o t e n t i a l market s e r v i n g t h e needs o f h o u s e h o l d s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s , d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l s and a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s i n the l i f e c y c l e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s h e l d t h a t s u b s i d i z e d " p u b l i c h o u s i n g 13 s h o u l d n o t s e r v e p e o p l e t o o f a r up on t h e income s c a l e " . The M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g S t u d y recommended t h a t Wherever p o s s i b l e , h o u s i n g f o r low income f a m i l i e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by. p r i v a t e d e v e lopment c a p i t a l which s h o u l d i n c l u d e s u c h a g e n c i e s as c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and l i m i t e d - d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g c o m p a n i e s . Wherever p r i v a t e l y s p o n s o r e d l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g companies a r e u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e low r e n t a l accommodation, p u b l i c h o u s i n g s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . 1 4 N o n - P r o f i t H o u s e r s . T h i s group o f h o u s e r s i n c l u d e s t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p h i l a n t h r o p i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d , and p u b l i c h o u s e r s . P h i l a n t h r o p i e s can a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e low i n t e r e s t l o a n s p r o v i d e d by N.H.A. i f t h e y i n c o r p o r a t e as a n o n - p r o f i t company o r h o u s i n g s o c i e t y under p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . T hese c h a r i t a b l e e f f o r t s , d e s i g n e d t o p r o d u c e h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e income s c a l e , a r e i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t t h e y evoke, but because t h e y can m o b i l i z e p r i v a t e c a p i t a l f o r i n v e s t m e n t i n homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s i s c r i t i c a l b e c a u s e o f the o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . M o reover, b e c a u s e t h e s e groups a r e not t i e d by the n e c e s s i t y o f m i n i m i z i n g i n v e s t m e n t 46 r i s k , they are i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n to undertake p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t s i n d e v e l o p i n g new i d e a s f o r b e t t e r h ousing of the aged. The success o f s u b s i d i z e d housing e f f o r t s thus depends h e a v i l y upon c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to produce more and b e t t e r h o u s i n g . The l i m i t a t i o n s on p r i v a t e bodies which undertake housing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s become pronounced i n l a r g e c i t i e s s u b j e c t to r a p i d growth and change. The s p e c i a l advantages of an i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a group o f o l d people and a s p o n s o r i n g church c o n g r e g a t i o n or s e r v i c e c l u b are not e a s i l y s u s t a i n e d i n a l a r g e c i t y where people are c o n t i n u a l l y moving between the c e n t r e c i t y and the suburbs. T h i s k i n d of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s not a f i r m base on which to e r e c t a long-term p h i l a n t h r o p i c management r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 5 • Another l i m i t a t i o n o f p r i v a t e l y sponsored p r o j e c t s i s the tendency f o r each to proceed i n i t s own way. T h i s tends to i m p a i r the e f f i c i e n c y o f the proc e s s because t h e r e i s no assurance o f u t i l i z i n g past e x p e r i e n c e and e x i s t i n g e x p e r t i s e to guide new p l a n n i n g and management e f f o r t s i n housing the e l d e r l y . In the absence of f o r m a l development p o l i c y f o r housi n g , the d e c i s i o n s of independent d e v e l o p e r s are forming development p o l i c y by d e f a u l t . T h i s then emphasizes the need f o r j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pro c e s s of housing the e l d e r l y . The F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments have taken l o n g s t e p s i n a s s i s t i n g 4 7 i n f i n a n c i n g o f p r i v a t e e f f o r t s . I t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments c o u l d and s h o u l d a l s o p r e p a r e o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and programs d e s i g n e d t o g i v e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p i t s f u l l e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n t h e framework o f a program and g u i d e d by o b j e c t i v e s . I l l AN ANALYTICAL EXAMINATION OF THE EXISTING PRACTICES F o u r major a r e a s o f s h o r t c o m i n g have been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , namely t h o s e o f i n a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n a d e q u a t e c o o r d i n a t i o n , i n s e n s i t i v e l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g and i n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l y . I n f o r m a t i o n The m a r s h a l l i n g o f f a c t s i s t h e o n l y r e l i a b l e way o f g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o a p r o b l e m . W i t h o u t d a t a , n e i t h e r t h e magnitude n o r a r e a l i n c i d e n c e o f a p r o b l e m can be d e t e r m i n e d n o r can a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t i v e s d e s i g n e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p r o b l e m be d e f i n e d . O b j e c t i v e s i n t u r n a r e a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c i e s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s d e s i g n e d f o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e . I n f o r m a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t need and p r o j e c t i n g f u t u r e need. I t i s e q u a l l y v i t a l f o r 48 a s s e s s i n g e x i s t i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d s u p p l y , and i n t h e e v e n t o f a d i s c r e p a n c y between f u t u r e need and f u t u r e s u p p l y i t s e r v e s as a b a s i s f o r i n i t i a t i n g programs d e s i g n e d t o b r i d g e t h a t d i s c r e p a n c y . I n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e o n l y b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a g g r e g a t e h o u s i n g demand, t h e sub-components o f t h i s demand (by h o u s i n g t y p e ) , and a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t i e s t o t h e s e components o f demand. The Census o f Canada c o n t a i n s d a t a on t h e age c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h u s p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i c r e s o u r c e f o r a s s e s s i n g a g g r e g a t e h o u s i n g need. F o r example a r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d a n a l y s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n d a t a f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r ^ i n d i c a t e s the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n age g r o u p s . T h i s f a c i l i t a t e s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e low income e l d e r l y . Income and o t h e r w e l f a r e d a t a used w i t h c ensus d a t a p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e number o f e l d e r l y i n need o f s p e c i a l h o u s i n g . In t h e c a s e o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , f o r example, c e n s u s a n a l y s i s has not y e t been employed as a b a s i s o f d e r i v i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . Nor has a c o m p r e h e n s i v e program o f h o u s i n g been p r e p a r e d w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e the a n t i c i p a t e d s o u r c e s o f h o u s i n g s u p p l y and t o r e l a t e t h i s t o a n t i c i p a t e d need. T h i s o b v i o u s l y 4? r e q u i r e s l o n g range e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s o f h o u s i n g s u p p l y as w e l l as the need. C o o p e r a t i o n and C o o r d i n a t i o n Each " p a r t i c i p a n t " i n the p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y makes an i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n on t h e l o c a t i o n , s i z e and t y p e o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i t i n i t i a t e s . No a t t e m p t i s made t o p r o d u c e a system o f r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s on t h e l o c a t i o n and t y p e o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e f i r s t l y , i t f a i l s t o e n s u r e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e t o g u i d e f u t u r e h o u s i n g d e c i s i o n s . S e c o n d l y t h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e t h a t f a c i l i t i e s w i l l n ot be d u p l i c a t e d , a t l e a s t i n a g i v e n a r e a . T h i s c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d by p l a n n i n g f o r t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s i n s p a c e and i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r p r i o r i t y o f d e v e l opment o v e r t i m e . T h i r d l y t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s i s p l a g u e d w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y : u n c e r t a i n t y about when, where, and what t y p e o f h o u s i n g accommodation f o r t h e needy e l d e r l y w i l l be p r o v i d e d - i f any. F o u r t h l y , t h e r e i s no e s t a b l i s h e d method o f e f f e c t i n g a l i a i s o n o f s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n a t p o l i c y making and t e c h n i c a l l e v e l s i f t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l needs o f the e l d e r l y i s t o be t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e h o u s i n g p rogram. 50 S e v e r a l f a c t o r s a c c o u n t f o r t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p - i n t h e form o f a s i n g l e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n , g u i d a n c e , d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l a t any l e v e l o f government. No agency e x i s t s which can p r o v i d e a d v i c e on t h e t y p e o f f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e d o r on a d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r t h a t f a c i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o an o v e r a l l h o u s i n g program w i t h a wide number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . S e c o n d l y , e f f e c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n c a n n o t e x i s t u n t i l t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i s c l a s s i f i e d . A f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n based on what each p a r t i c i p a n t i s b e s t c a p a b l e o f d o i n g i s recommended i f t h e a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f each p a r t i c i p a n t i s to be used most e f f e c t i v e l y . C h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r example, a r e engaged i n the s i t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s - a f u n c t i o n t h a t m i ght more p r o p e r l y be a s s i g n e d t o a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . C o o r d i n a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d v i t a l f o r i n t e r m u n i c i p a l , i n t e r - l e v e l , i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l , p u b l i c - p r i v a t e , and p r i v a t e t o p r i v a t e l i a i s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . W h i l e s u b s e q u e n t t e s t i n g can a l o n e v e r i f y t h i s a s s e r t i o n , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p r o b l e m i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e b e c a u s e the p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g low income e l d e r l y i s b e l i e v e d t o o v e r r u n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s , 51 whereas t r a d i t i o n t i e s a c t i o n programs t o m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h e i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l p r o b l e m i s whether t h e r e i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i m p o s i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l b urdens ( o f t a x c o n c e s s i o n s and l a n d g r a n t s f o r example) on c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a m e t r o p o l i s where low income groups can b e s t be housed; e i t h e r b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e s e groups f o r a p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y , b ecause o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u i t a b i l -i t y o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r t h e h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n , o r t h e f a c t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y a l o n e has i n i t i a t e d a program. Is t h e r e an i n e q u i t a b l e s p a t i a l i n c i d e n c e o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m f o r which m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a m u l t i - m u n i c i p a l i t y a r e a a r e j o i n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e ? Are programs which c u t a c r o s s a r e a s w i d e r t h a n a s i n g l e j u r i s d i c t i o n r e q u i r e d ? These q u e s t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n p a r t IV o f t h i s c h a p t e r and i n C h a p t e r I I I . Does d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l o n g f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s , such as t h e c r e a t i o n o f w e l f a r e and p l a n n i n g d e p a r t -ments a t a g i v e n l e v e l o f government i m p a i r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e h o u s i n g s y s t e m o r a r e t h e a f f e c t e d d e p a r t m e n t s e f f e c t i v e l y c o o r d i n a t e d ? T h i s q u e s t i o n remains t o be answered, but i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e f o r b r i n g i n g i n t e r e s t e d d e p a r t m e n t s t o g e t h e r i s r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e someone has a u t h o r i t y t o d e a l w i t h the p r o b l e m s c o n c e r n e d . 52 An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e c a p a b l e o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f i n i t i a t i n g l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l . At p r e s e n t , t h e s p r e a d o f government a g e n c i e s p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l to t h e company may p r e c l u d e f u l l e s t use o f a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e by t h o s e s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s w h ich p r o v i d e h o u s i n g . S i m i l a r l y a d e v i c e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i o n and maximum e f f e c t i v e use o f v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t o f v a r i o u s p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s h o u s i n g i s a n e c e s s i t y . The Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l p a r t i a l l y p e r f o r m s t h i s l a t t e r f u n c t i o n . I n t e g r a t i o n o f E f f o r t . The p r i v a t e as w e l l as p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n i t i a t i v e s a r e s c a t t e r e d . The o v e r l a p o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s u n d e r s c o r e s t h e need f o r an a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s y s t e m based on g u i d i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s t o r e a l i z e t h e f u l l p o t e n t i a l o f v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s by d e v i s i n g r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r each . S p a t i a l P l a n n i n g As i n d i c a t e d ( p . 3 8 ) , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d . S i t e s w i t h good a c c e s s t o community f a c i l i t i e s a r e most d e s i r a b l e but a r e commonly e x p e n s i v e and t h e r e f o r e beyond t h e means o f p h i l a n t h r o p i c g roups who a r e f o r c e d , f o r economic r e a s o n s , t o s e c u r e l e s s 53 f a v o r a b l y l o c a t e d s i t e s . A l t h o u g h p l a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s and b r o k e r s may o f f e r s i t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i t i s c o n t e n d e d h e r e i n t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e a b d i c a t i n g t h e i r p r o p e r r o l e i f t h e y a r e not i n t e g r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d t o g r a n t l a n d , s e l l i t a t a p r e f e r r e d p r i c e , o r g r a n t t a x c o n c e s s i o n s t o l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d c o m p a n i e s . These d e v i c e s , a l o n g w i t h the f i n a n c i a l t o o l s o f s e n i o r governments a r e o b v i o u s i n d u c e m e n t s to e n s u r e competent l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g , as l a n d c o s t c o n c e s s i o n s and l o a n s would be g r a n t e d o n l y f o r s u i t a b l y s i t u a t e d h o u s i n g . The m u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o has t h e power t o p u r c h a s e and zone s i t e s and t o r e s e r v e t h e i r s a l e o r l e a s e f o r p u r p o s e s o f h o u s i n g th e e l d e r l y . In a word the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s c a p a b l e o f p r e - s e l e c t i n g s u i t a b l e s i t e s . M o r e o v e r , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r " p o s i t i v e d e s i g n on a n e i g h b o r -l y hood s c a l e " t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s and t o meet t h e p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y a l s o r e s t w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y v i a s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l . 5upply The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the h o u s i n g system must be guaged by i t s a b i l i t y t o s u p p l y a d e q u a t e amounts o f t h e c o r r e c t t y p e o f p r o p e r l y l o c a t e d h o u s i n g . As s u g g e s t e d above, a b a s i c i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m i s t h e l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y which can 54 (1) s y s t e m a t i c a l l y determine the need by type of f a c i l i t y ( h o s t e l , s e l f c o n t a i n e d e t c . ) and a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s t o t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and (2) attempt to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e s u p p l y o f housing w i t h the demand and need f o r the same. The p r e s e n t system of independent p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g f u l f i l l s n e i t h e r of these f u n c t i o n s . Thus i t i s b e l i e v e d n e c e s s a r y to have an u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y whose f u n c t i o n s a r e : 1. D e t e r m i n a t i o n of s u p p l y , demand and need f o r ho u s i n g . 2. E n s u r i n g an adequate s u p p l y of housing by o r g a n i z i n g j o i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s . F a i l i n g s u f f i c i e n t i n i t i a t i v e from l o c a l government and p h i l a n t h r o p y , t o meet housing need, e i t h e r e x t r a a s s i s t a n c e o r i n c r e a s e d d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n - presumably by a s e n i o r government -i s n e c e s s a r y . 3. S e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s t o channel e f f o r t s t o meet the most p r e s s i n g needs. 4. C o o r d i n a t i o n o f semi-autonomous agencies engaged i n the proc e s s of housing the e l d e r l y and r e l a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s to a comprehensive housing program. Such i n t e g r a t i o n i n the housing system promises to i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the housing e f f o r t . I t promises to make more e f f e c t i v e use o f e x i s t i n g e f f o r t s by a s s i g n i n g r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g 55 d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . I t augurs w e l l f o r a community p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h by p r o v i d i n g f o r l i a i s o n o f s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s . B a n f i e l d s u g g e s t s t h a t . . . f o r a l l t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e f a c t o r s and a l l t h e u n c o n t r o l l e d a c t i o n s , p r o g r e s s i n community development and t h e h o u s i n g t h a t goes w i t h i t w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by m a r s h a l l i n g f a c t s , p o o l i n g e x p e r t i s e , and e n s u r i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n . 1 8 IV CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING AN APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM IN B. C. P a u l Y l v i s a k e r , i n d i s c u s s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t maxim i n t h e t r a i n i n g f o r p u b l i c a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n . .. (which ) emphasizes t e a c h i n g t h e v a l u e o f a p r a g m a t i c and c r e a t i v e a p p r o a c h c a r e f u l l y t a i l o r e d t o p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s and c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 1 9 G i v e n s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e " a r e p r o b a b l y 2 0 no u n i v e r s a l f o r m u l a s t h a t can be a p p l i e d " , what a r e the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n B. C. t h a t m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e n a t u r e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t o be a p p l i e d t o the problem o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y ? M i g r a t i o n The most o b v i o u s f a c t o r t o be a c c o u n t e d f o r i s t h a t n o t a l l s e c t i o n s o f a c o u n t r y have e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e 56 e l d e r l y i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e y e a r s ahead may see some d r a m a t i c changes i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y . [ i n t h e U.S.A.] t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a growing t e n d e n c y on t h e p a r t o f r e t i r e e s t o m i g r a t e , o f t e n i n q u e s t o f more s u i t a b l e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . 2 1 C e r t a i n l y , " t h e westward d r i f t o f o l d e r p e o p l e s e e k i n g a m i l d e r c l i m a t e has g i v e n [ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ] an a b n o r m a l l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e o v e r 65; and t h e d r i f t has been 22 g r e a t e s t t o t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s " . The s o u t h w e s t e r n segment o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , S o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e G u l f I s l a n d s and t h e Okanagan V a l l e y i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r have the most moderate c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e whole o f Canada. The a t t r a c t i o n o f s u c h n a t u r a l a m e n i t y o b v i o u s l y b r i n g s l a r g e numbers o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t o l o c a l i z e d r e g i o n s and i n d e e d even i n t o s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t i e s . The a t t r a c t i o n o f s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n T a b l e I and F i g u r e I . TABLE I 57 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS AGE 60 AND OVER BY CENSUS DIVISION IN B. C. - 1961 P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y P er Census D i v i s i o n 5quare M i l e Canada B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 4.5 1. E a s t Kootenay 2.1 2. West Kootenay 5.3 3. Okanagan 8.8 4. Lower M a i n l a n d 93.0 5. G u l f I s l a n d s 22.0 and V a n c o u v e r 6. Kamloops - 2.1 L i l l o o e t 7. M a i n l a n d C e n t r a l 1.0 C o a s t 8. C e n t r a l 1.0 9. North-West 0.4 10. Peace R i v e r 0.4 Rank P e r c e n t o f Rank Based Based on P o p u l a t i o n on P e r c e n t D e n s i t y Aged 60+ Aged 60+ 10.9 13.7 5 9.3 5 4 10.0 4 3 15.4 1 1 14.7 3 2 15.0 2 5 9.3 5 7 8.0 7 7 6.1 9 9 6.4 8 10 5.5 10 S o u r c e : I n v e n t o r y o f t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964, p. 54 and 57. 58 FIGURE I THE CENSUS DIVISIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS OF BRITI5H COLUMBIA S o u r c e : I n v e n t o r y o f the N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964, p. 43. 59 T a b l e I d e m o n s t r a t e s w i t h f o r c e t h e s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e Qkanagan, V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s , and Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n s as p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e e l d e r l y . A l l o f t h e s e r e g i o n s have e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n s f o r e x c e e d i n g the a v e r a g e s f o r B r i t i s h C olumbia and Canada. . These same r e g i o n s a r e a l s o t h e most u r b a n i z e d i f p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y p e r s q u a r e m i l e i s s e l e c t e d as an i n d e x o f u r b a n i s m . I t would t h u s a p p e a r t h a t t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e s e a r e a s i s e x p l i c a b l e b o t h i n terms o f n a t u r a l and u r b a n a m e n i t i e s . I f t h e m i g r a n t s a r e i n c a p a b l e o f s u s t a i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n d e c e n t , s a f e and s a n i t a r y accommodation, t h e y may impose i n o r d i n a t e l y heavy h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e b u r dens on a community. P e r h a p s even s e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n o c c u r s such t h a t s p e c i f i c c o mmunities h o s t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e numbers o f low income aged i n - m i g r a n t s , whereas o t h e r s r e c e i v e l a r g e r numbers o f h i g h income aged i n - m i g r a n t s . C e r t a i n l y c e n s u s a n a l y s i s d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t l a r g e numbers o f t h e aged l i v e i n c e r t a i n a r e a s but the . s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e s e aged and t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e not known. Are t h e m i g r a n t s from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e , from w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , and i n d e e d from s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s o r c o m m u n i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e ? The p r e v a i l i n g and a n t i c i p a t e d m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n must be d e t e r m i n e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r r e g i o n a l and l o c a l h o u s i n g 60 and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . R e g i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . What a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to b e a r i n mind when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c a s e o f B. C ? The most i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t the V a n c o u v e r M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a i s the p r i m a t e u r b a n a r e a o f B. C , h a v i n g 48.5% o f the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961, and an e x p e c t e d 44.6% o f the same i n 1981. Census d i v i s i o n 4 ( s e e F i g u r e 1, page 58) t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a i n which t h e V a n c o u v e r M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a i s s i t u a t e d had 55.7% o f p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961. The r e g i o n i s e x p e c t e d to r e t a i n r o u g h l y t h i s p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . 2 4 M o r e o v e r , B. C. i s h o l d i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f the C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . The o b v i o u s i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t much o f B. C.'s growth w i l l be u r b a n and i n d e e d c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s i n g l e urban a r e a . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f bo t h i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n and l a r g e - s c a l e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . L o c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n . The t r e n d t o u r b a n i z a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n j u s t d e s c r i b e d , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e c l i m a t i c a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f B. C. has o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . F o r example, t h e P l a n n i n g Department o f the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r c o n t e n d s , 61 "The m i l d c o a s t a l c l i m a t e has enhanced the [Lower M a i n l a n d ] r e g i o n ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s as a r e t i r e m e n t haven, and w i l l 25 p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e t o do s o " . S t a t i s t i c s s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n f o r t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n above 65 y e a r s o f age t h a t was 7.6% f o r Canada i n 1961 was 13 . 8 % i n V a n c o u v e r C i t y . Comparable f i g u r e s f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r ( e x c l u d i n g V a n c o u v e r C i t y ) and t h e P r o v i n c e o f 2 6 B. C. a r e 8.9% and 10.2% r e s p e c t i v e l y . That marked d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e aged, even i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s i n d i c a t e d by the above d a t a . I t i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by b i r t h and d e a t h r a t e d a t a . F o r example, V a n c o u v e r C i t y , the c e n t r a l c i t y o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , had h i g h e r d e a t h r a t e s and l o w e r b i r t h r a t e s t h a n th e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s i n d i c a t e s l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e aged and i m p l i e s h i g h e r w e l f a r e " b u r d e n s " v i s - a - v i s t h e s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s . The p l a n n i n g d e partment o f the C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r has examined t r e n d s and p r e p a r e d f o r e c a s t s o f p o p u l a t i o n by age g r o u p s . In t h e p a s t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r s o n s under 20 has been r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , as has t h e p r o p o r t i o n i n m i d d l e age g r o u p s . The group o f 65 y e a r s and o v e r a l o n e e x p e r i e n c e s a c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d towards i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s i n c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y , an o u t - m i g r a t i o n o f f a m i l y p e o p l e t o the s u b u r b s l e a d i n g t o r e l a t i v e " c o n c e n t r a t i o n " o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e 62 c e n t r a l c i t y , and perha p s even i n - m i g r a t i o n from t h e r e g i o n ( i . e . a r e t u r n t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y ) and beyond. P r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d e c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s o f y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s o f young s i n g l e and f a m i l y p e o p l e , and d e c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e m i d d l e age group. Only f o r th e "65 p l u s " age group does t h e p r o j e c t i o n i n d i c a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . . I m p l i c a t i o n s . M i g r a t i o n has been emphasized b e c a u s e o f i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y when i t i s l i n k e d w i t h t h e 27 c o n c e p t o f " s p a t i a l s p i l l o v e r " o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . At t h e nub o f t h i s n o t i o n o f s p a t i a l s p i l l o v e r o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s i s the n o t i o n t h a t the e n t i r e community r e c e i v i n g a s e r v i c e s h o u l d assume t h e c o s t s o f t h a t s e r v i c e . Because c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s i n v o l v e c o m p l i c a t e d i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y and i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l b e n e f i t and c o s t s p i l l - o v e r s , t h e b r o a d e r a r e a s a f f e c t e d s h o u l d assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g them. Thus i f the b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e r e m a i n i n t h a t community t h e y s h o u l d be t h e ones t o pay f o r t h a t s e r v i c e . However, i f t h e y do not r e m a i n i n t h a t community and r e t u r n , however i n d i r e c t l y t h e b e n e f i t t o t h e community, o r do not pay f o r s e r v i c e s t h e y r e c e i v e i n t h a t community an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f c o s t s among t a x p a y e r s does not o b t a i n . 63 When communities were i s o l a t e d , l o c a l government r a i s e d f u n d s f o r needed s e r v i c e s . V i r t u a l l y a l l b e n e f i t s d e r i v i n g from t h e s e s e r v i c e s r e m a i n e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . In an e r a o f r a p i d m o b i l i t y and i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , the b e n e f i t s o f a s e r v i c e f o r which a m u n i c i p a l i t y pays no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r i l y r e m a i n i n t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t y . The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s t h u s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l i t y and i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l s p i l l - o v e r s o f b e n e f i t s and c o s t s which may i n e q u i t a b l y burden c e r t a i n a r e a s . L o c a l governments, a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o n c e p t , s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g o f s e r v i c e s h a v i n g few s p a t i a l s p i l l - o v e r s . The p r o v i n c e s s h o u l d assume f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e r v i c e s , t h e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f which remain w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s . P r e s u m a b l y m e t r o p o l i t a n b o a r d s and/or governments s h o u l d assume t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e r v i c e s whose s p i l l - o v e r s o c c u r p r i m a r i l y i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment i s o b v i o u s l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s w i t h m a j o r i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l b e n e f i t and c o s t s p i l l - o v e r s and " i n which income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n [ i . e . t r a n s f e r o f income from the r i c h 2 8 t o t h e p o o r ] p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e " . T h i s c o n c e p t has d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g th e e l d e r l y . D a t a on m i g r a t i o n , used c o n j o i n t l y w i t h t h i s c o n c e p t o f s p i l l - o v e r c o u l d s e r v e as a sound t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the 64 a s s i g n m e n t o f f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . P i n n i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y on m u n i c i p a l i n i t i a t i v e on f i r s t b l u s h a p p e a r s t o be i n e q u i t a b l e i n l i g h t o f t h i s c o n c e p t . I f f o r example, p e o p l e a r e m i g r a t i n g t o t h e " c e n t r a l c i t y " i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n from l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n and beyond t h a t r e g i o n , i t would a p p e a r a m u n i c i p a l l y o r g a n i z e d " c e n t r a l c i t y " i s b e i n g u n d u l y burdened b e c a u s e i t has n o t b e n e f i t t e d from t h e d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e p e o p l e i n t h e i r so c a l l e d " p r o d u c t i v e " y e a r s . T h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y must however assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r them i n t h e i r y e a r s o f r e l a t i v e dependency. The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a f f o r d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s i n d i s p u t a b l e ; the s u i t a b i l i t y o f a method o f f i n a n c i n g them which burdens p a r t i c u l a r c o m m u n i t i e s i s however, q u e s t i o n a b l e . In a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , the human e c o l o g y i s s u c h t h a t c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s accommodate more o f t h e e l d e r l y t h a n do o t h e r s . In a p r o v i n c e o r i n d e e d a n a t i o n , t h e human e c o l o g y may be s u c h t h a t c e r t a i n r e g i o n s accommodate more o f t h e e l d e r l y t h a n do o t h e r s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f young, m i d d l e aged and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n i s e x p l i c a b l e i n a number o f ways. F i r s t l y the o l d e r a r e a s i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n might be e x p e c t e d t o r e t a i n a l a r g e number o f l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i s p r e s e n t l y t r u e i n 65 B. C. where many o f the r e s i d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r communities may be o l d - t i m e r s and o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s . In G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r f o r example, many o f t h e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s c an be e x p e c t e d t o occupy homes b u i l t i n t h e " c e n t r a l c i t y " p r i o r t o mass s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p o s t - W o r l d War I I y e a r s . S e c o n d l y t h e c e n t r a l c i t y , w i t h i t s g r e a t e r amount o f m u l t i -f a m i l y h o u s i n g may be c o n s i d e r e d t o a f f o r d more s u i t a b l e and e c o n o m i c a l h o u s i n g f o r t h e s i n g l e e l d e r l y and e l d e r l y c o u p l e s t h a n the subur b a n a r e a s which a r e l a r g e l y s p e c i a l i z e d i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g . T h i r d l y , a s e l e c t i v e o u t - m i g r a t i o n o f y o u n g e r groups and i n - m i g r a t i o n o f aged groups may be e x p e c t e d i n r e s p o n s e n o t o n l y t o t h e h o u s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d e s c r i b e d above but a l s o t o t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the c o m m e r c i a l , h e a l t h and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s e r v i c e s , and a m e n i t i e s o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . I f the c e n t r a l c i t y i s burdened w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g t h e aged and o t h e r low income groups i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a by r e a s o n o f i t s s p e c i a l h o u s i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e problem may be a m e t r o p o l i t a n one. In t h i s e v e n t , e f f o r t s towards t h e development o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n s c i e n c e - a f e e l i n g o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l v i n g a h o u s i n g p r o b l e m e n g e n d e r e d i n t h e a r e a w i l l be r e q u i r e d . By t h e same l o g i c i t f o l l o w s t h a t i f t h e pro b l e m i s eng e n d e r e d i n a b r o a d e r r e g i o n , o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( i f t h e y e x i s t ) s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s from 66 w hich t h e i r f o r m e r c i t i z e n s b e n e f i t . R e f e r r i n g once a g a i n t o T a b l e I on page 57, i t can be s e e n t h a t s e v e r a l r e g i o n s have a low p e r c e n t a g e o f c i t i z e n s i n t h e upper age b r a c k e t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t (1) t h e s e r e g i o n s a r e e i t h e r newly s e t t l e d and t h u s have not had s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o d e v e l o p an i n d i g e n o u s aged p o p u l a t i o n a n d / o r (2) t h e s e r e g i o n s have l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e i s some t r u t h i n b o t h views but the s e c o n d a s s e r t i o n i s more g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n B. C. The r e g i o n s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n a r e the r e g i o n s w i t h few, i f any major u r b a n c e n t r e s . T h e s e r e g i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y r e l a t i v e l y u n s e t t l e d and have economies b a s e d on e x p l o i t a t i o n o f p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . m i n i n g , l u m b e r i n g and f i s h i n g ) . P r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s do not g e n e r a l l y p r o d u c e u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t s which s u s t a i n t h e v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g s o c i a l , and o t h e r s e r v i c e s a r e t i r e d p e r s o n o r c o u p l e s d e s i r e o r r e q u i r e . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t r a -r e g i o n a l m i g r a t i o n o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e i s t h e r e f o r e presumed t o be a common o c c u r r e n c e i n B. C. S i m i l a r l y , i n t e r -p r o v i n c i a l m i g r a t i o n has c o n t r i b u t e d h e a v i l y t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B. C. as T a b l e I I , page 67 i l l u s t r a t e s . TABLE I I 67 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY PLACE OF BIRTH (BRITISH COLUMBIA OR CANADA) BY CENSUS DIVISION IN B. C. - 1961 P e r c e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n P e r c e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n Census D i v i s i o n Born i n B. C. Born i n Canada 1. E a s t Kootenay 46.7 74.0 2. West Kootenay 49.4 77.8 3. Okanagan 52.4 78.5 4. Lower M a i n l a n d 46.6 75.8 5. V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and G u l f I s l a n d s 44.0 48.7 71.7 74.0 6. Kamloops - L i l l o o e t 57.B 82.2 7. M a i n l a n d C e n t r a l C o a s t 57.1 76.1 8. C e n t r a l 51.6 81.4 9. N o r t h - West 52.9 74.4 10. Peace R i v e r 39.8 85.1 S o u r c e : I n v e n t o r y o f t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964, p. 58. 68 From T a b l e I I i t may be seen t h a t c e n s u s d i v i s i o n s 3, 4, and 5, ( t h e most urban and most amenable a r e a s o f B. C. as d e m o n s t r a t e d on page 67) accommodate ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c ensus d i v i s i o n 10, a r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g " f r o n t i e r " r e s o u r c e r e g i o n ) t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n s o f " b o r n o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e " r e s i d e n t s . The d a t a does n o t i n d i c a t e the ages o f t h e m i g r a n t s but i t i s assumed t h e e l d e r l y would c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m i g r a t i o n f l o w s a t l e a s t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r numbers i n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t n e t i m m i g r a t i o n as a p e r c e n t o f a v e r a g e a n n u a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e w i l l d e c l i n e from t h e peak f l o w s r e a l i z e d i n the l a t e 1950's, t h i s does not p r e c l u d e s u s t a i n e d o r even i n c r e a s e d m i g r a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t o B. C. The p r o j e c t i o n o f net i m m i g r a t i o n was not p r e p a r e d on an age-group b a s i s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e a d e c i s i v e c o n c l u s i o n as r e g a r d s e l d e r l y i m m i g r a t i o n . Once a g a i n , i t must be assumed the e l d e r l y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e a t l e a s t a p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l m i g r a n t s and i n l i g h t o f the c l i m a t i c a d v a n t a g e s o f s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s and p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t m i g r a t i o n t r e n d s , p e r h a p s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r number o f m i g r a n t s t h a n o t h e r age g r o u p s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e two. F i r s t , t h e i n t r a -p r o v i n c i a l m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n deduced s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r w i d e - s c a l e p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i f c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e not t o be u n d u l y b u r d e n e d . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e e l d e r l y , i n a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s w i l l m i g r a t e w i t h e q u a l e a s e , t h e r e b y p o t e n t i a l l y r e q u i r i n g a f u l l p r i c e range o f h o u s i n g t y p e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l m i g r a n t s , many o f whom a r e t h e e l d e r l y , c r e a t e h o u s i n g needs i n t h e a r e a s t o which t h e y have m i g r a t e d . I n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s f e r s o f income i n t h e form o f f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y a r e j u s t i f i e d i n l i g h t o f t h i s m i g r a t i o n . A P r o b l e m f o r C i t i e s . T hat the p r o b l e m s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y w i l l be l a r g e s t i n c i t i e s seems o b v i o u s . F i r s t l y , the C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s s t e a d i l y u r b a n i z i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r o b l e m w i l l be most i n t e n s e i n l a r g e r c i t i e s owing t o t h e magnitude o f the p r o b l e m and t h e f a c t t h a t " t h e g r e a t e r t h e s i z e o f and d e n s i t y o f u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t t h e more e l a b o r a t e a r e the community s e r v i c e s . 29 r e q u i r e d . . . " Thus w h i l e a v a r i e t y o f s o l u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g and a f u l l e r range o f f a c i l i t i e s may be r e q u i r e d i n l a r g e c i t i e s , " i n s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s . . . i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the need may be met...by s o c i e t i e s and 30 c o r p o r a t i o n s s p o n s o r e d by p r i v a t e groups o f c i t i z e n s " . V SUMMARY 70 The p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i s m u l t i -p a r t i c i p a n t i n n a t u r e , t h a t i s i t i n v o l v e s the e f f o r t s o f b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e . Wide s c a l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s i s r e q u i r e d b e cause o f the a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y o f the market mechanisms t o s u p p l y a d e q u a t e amounts o f d e c e n t , s a f e and s a n i t a r y accommodation t o t h e low income market - o f which the e l d e r l y market i s a l a r g e segment. A l l l e v e l s o f government p a r t i c i p a t e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n the p r o c e s s , each p e r f o r m i n g assumed o r a s s i g n e d r o l e s . Government a c t i o n i n h o u s i n g u s u a l l y t a k e s t h e form o f l o w - i n t e r e s t l o a n s , c a s h s u b s i d i e s , and s p e c i a l s i t e s u b s i d i e s . These i n d u c e m e n t s a r e d e s i g n e d t o m o b i l i z e the p r i v a t e market, p a r t i c u l a r l y p h i l a n t h r o p i e s t o p r o v i d e b o t h i n i t i a t i v e and c a p i t a l r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e accommodation f o r t h e e l d e r l y . P u b l i c h o u s i n g e f f o r t s a r e g e n e r a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h e most u r g e n t needs, which n e i t h e r the market n o r the p h i l a n t h r o p i e s s e r v e . A number o f s h o r t c o m i n g s i n the e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s have been i d e n t i f i e d . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s the l a c k o f s y s t e m a t i c c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a t o p r o j e c t a n t i c i p a t e d h o u s i n g n e e d s . Once t h e s e needs a r e known, t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m can be d e f i n e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n , and o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s , and programs can be d e v i s e d to r e l a t e 71 h o u s i n g need t o h o u s i n g s u p p l y . P r i o r i t i e s can be a s s i g n e d t o b o t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f accommodation and t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g a r e s c a t t e r e d t h u s l e a d i n g t o p o t e n t i a l p roblems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t . An . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework which p r o v i d e s an u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and g u i d a n c e , and d e f i n e s and c l a s s i f i e s t h e r o l e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework would seek t o e n s u r e t h a t f u l l e s t use o f e x i s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e i s made i n making d e c i s i o n s on h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . I t p r e s u p p o s e s a l s o , c o n s i d e r a b l e r o l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; t h a t i s t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f t a s k s t o a g e n c i e s b e s t e q u i p p e d t o e x e c u t e them. I t must e n s u r e t h a t o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s a r e p r e p a r e d t o g u i d e t h e development o f programs which i n d i c a t e when, where and what t y p e o f accommodation w i l l be p r o v i d e d . C o o r d i n a t i o n w i l l be t h e key aim o f t h e framework. C o o r d i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s i n c l u d i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s t o e n s u r e g e n u i n e community p l a n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g programs d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s w i t h complementary p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . 72 In d e v i s i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i n B. C , p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e human e c o l o g y o f t h e p r o b l e m . The key o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e t h e s e : F i r s t l y , t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y w i l l p r o b a b l y be most s e v e r e i n t h o s e r e g i o n s h a v i n g f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e , b e c a u s e t h e e l d e r l y a r e a t t r a c t e d by t h i s n a t u r a l a m e n i t y ; S e c o n d l y , t h e pr o b l e m w i l l be l a r g e l y an urban one b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n and b e c a u s e c i t i e s e x i s t i n the r e g i o n s o f f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e . In m u l t i - m u n i c i p a l i t y " c i t i e s " , t h e human e c o l o g y i s s u c h t h a t c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may accommodate more o f t h e e l d e r l y t h a n o t h e r s and a r e t h u s p o t e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t t o heavy h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e c o s t s . T h i s i m b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g burdens s u g g e s t s the need f o r i n t e r - r e g i o n a l and p e r h a p s i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o s t s h a r i n g a g r e e m e n t s . 73 REFERENCES Manitoba Department of Industry and Commerce, The Manitoba Housing Study (Toronto: Project Planning Associates Limited, July 1963), p. 13. 2 J. Stefan Dupre, "Applied Areal Analysis: The Case of Canada", Area and Power: A Theory of Local Government [A. Maass Ed.J, (GI encoe Illinois: The Free Press, 1959), p. 105. 3 Jerome Angel and Dolina McKinnon, Housing Needs and  Preferences Among 5enior Citizens (Vancouver: Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1957), p. 4. 4 Humphrey Carver, "The Extra Slice of Life", Habitat. 4:8, March-April, 1961. 5 Scott Greer and David Minar, "The Political Side of Urban Development and Redevelopment", The Annals of the  American Society of Political and Social Science, 352:64, March, 1964. J^oseph M._ Juran, Managerial Breakthrough; A New  Concept of the Manager's Job (New York: McGraw Hill. 1964). p• 338. G^arry C. Harkness, Criteria For River Crossing  Locations; A Case 5tudy Approach (Vancouver: Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1964), p. 3. g Catherine Bauer Wurster, "Social Questions in Housing and Community Planning", Journal of 5ocial Issues 7:22, nos. 1 and 2, 1951. g Lewis Mumford, "For Older People - Not Segregation but Integration", Architectural Record, 191-225, May 1956. "^James Brown, D. Kogawa, and R. Peters, Public Housing  and Welfare Services (Vancouver: Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1963), p. 196. 74 " ^ M a n i t o b a Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, op. c i t . , p. 40. 12 C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , H o u s i n g and  Urban Growth i n Canada (Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 35. 13 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on t h e A g i n g , B u i l d i n g f o r O l d e r  P e o p l e (New Y o r k : The C o u n c i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1-V. 14 M a n i t o b a Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, op. c i t . , p. 43. ^ C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , S u b m i s s i o n  t o t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e on A g i n g , (Ottawa: C e n t r a l M ortgage, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 15. ^ C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , V a n c o u v e r ' s C h a n g i n g P o p u l a t i o n ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 4 ) . ^ E . H. Hoben, " P l a n n i n g C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Urban Communities", C o n f e r e n c e on A g i n g . 1951. Wilma T. Donahue ed. (Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 46. 18 E. C. B a n f i e l d and M. G r o d z i n s , Government and  H o u s i n g i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s (New York: McGraw H i l l , 1 9 58), p. 68. 19 P a u l Y l v i s a k e r , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 82. I b i d . 21 U. S. H o u s i n g and Home F i n a n c e Agency, H o u s i n g t h e  E l d e r l y ( W a s h i n g t o n : The Agency, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 4. 22 P.R.U. S t r a t t o n , " H o u s i n g f o r S e n i o r C i t i z e n s , The Next S t e p " , Community P l a n n i n g Review, 6:102, September, 1956. 23 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , o £ . c i t . , t a b l e 1. 75 24 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , I n v e n t o r y o f t h e N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1964 ( V a n c o u v e r : The C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 12. 25 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , o_p_. cit», p. 3. ^ I b i d . . p. 14. 27 Werner Z. H i r s c h , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and F i s c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Urban Development", The A n n a l s o f t h e  A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and 5 o c i a l S c i e n c e , 362:55, March, 1964. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 60. 29 C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , H o u s i n g  and Urban Growth i n Canada ( O t t a w a : The C o r p o r a t i o n , 1957), p. 8. 30 Jerome A n g e l e t c . a l . , OJD. c i t . , p. 22. CHAPTER I I I A PROGRAM FOR HOUSING THE ELDERLY D e c l a r e d aims c a n , i n a complex s o c i e t y , be a c h i e v e d o n l y by d e s i g n e d means, and b o t h a r e the r e s u l t o f t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s o f human b e i n g s . D a v i d C. Marsh, The F u t u r e o f t h e W e l f a r e S t a t e A h o u s i n g program as i t mi g h t be a p p l i e d t o t h e problem o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y must be b o t h c o o r d i n a t e d and compre-h e n s i v e . S e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s c a p a b l e o f i m p l e m e n t i n g s u c h a program a r e e x p l o r e d and e v a l u a t e d h e r e i n u s i n g s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a , and recommendations f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework a r e d e v e l o p e d . The framework i s d e s i g n e d e s s e n t i a l l y t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p l e t e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c e ndeavour i n the e x e c u t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program and to f o s t e r e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g e f f o r t s t o house t h e e l d e r l y . I WHAT IS A PROGRAM? "Program" i n t h e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f community p l a n n i n g , a program i s e s s e n t i a l l y a work s c h e d u l e composed o f a s t a t e m e n t o f th e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the e x i s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , the f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s and a p r o p o s e d method o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d c h a n g i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s from t h e p r e s e n t t o the f u t u r e 7 7 w i l l be met. However, a program i s but one o f t h e s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d s t e p s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e s t r a t e g y o f p l a n n i n g o r " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i n s i m p l e s t terms, r e q u i r e s : 1. I n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n t o p e r m i t d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the p r o b l e m i n a l l i t s a s p e c t s and d i m e n s i o n s . 2. O b j e c t i v e s which a r e based on a knowledge o f t h e p r o b l e m , and which s t a t e t h e p u r p o s e o f a d e v i c e d e s i g n e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e problem by removing i t s c a u s e s a n d / o r e f f e c t s . 3 . P o l i c i e s which a r e s i m p l y d e v i c e s which g i v e o p e r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o o b j e c t i v e s . I f o b j e c t i v e s e x p r e s s "what" i s t o be a c h i e v e d , p o l i c i e s e x p r e s s "how" o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be a c h i e v e d . 4 . P r o c e d u r e s which a r e t h e d e t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e methods f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c i e s . 5. Programs d e s c r i b e the way o f f u l f i l l i n g p r o j e c t e d r e q u i r e -ments o v e r t i m e . F o r example, a h o u s i n g program a r i s e s o u t o f a measured need f o r h o u s i n g a t t h e moment and i n t h e f u t u r e . I t i s f o l l o w e d by t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n s o r s t a n d a r d s o f a c h i e v e m e n t t o s a t i s f y t h a t need. Programs, i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g , a r e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v i c e f o r e n s u r i n g the t r a n s l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g p l a n s i n t o t h e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y o f h o u s i n g r e a d y f o r o c c u p a t i o n . 78 T hese e l e m e n t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e c o n s i d e r e d below. I n f o r m a t i o n . I n c r e a s e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n p u b l i c p o l i c y on h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y w i l l depend upon b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a n a l y s i s o f the needs and wants o f t h e e l d e r l y . O n l y i m p roved use and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and development o f new i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s can e n s u r e t h i s s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i l l be a t t a i n e d . I n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e can p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h o u s i n g need. I t i s a v i t a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o a c t i o n , i f t h a t a c t i o n i s to p r o d u c e th e p r o p e r t y p e o f h o u s i n g r e l a t e d t o needs and p r e f e r e n c e s , a n d i f optimum s o c i a l a d v a n t a g e i s t o be s e c u r e d t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l s ystem o f p r i o r i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n may be t h e i m p o r t a n t s t i m u l u s t o a c t i o n f o r as t h e M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g Study d i s c o v e r e d , " o n l y a f t e r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n had been d i r e c t e d to the f a c t s , d i d t h e y [ t h e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s ] b e g i n t o r e a l i z e the e x t e n t o f t h e i r problems".^" The p u b l i c s u p p o r t g i v e n t o p o l i t i c a l l y s p o n s o r e d programs t o r e l i e v e h o u s i n g d i s t r e s s i s a f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n which i n t u r n p r e s u p p o s e s a d e q u a t e d a t a . I f t h e r e i s i g n o r a n c e and/or i n d i f f e r e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c o r more i m p o r t a n t l y t h e l e g i s l a t o r s , i t i s p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the l a c k o f o r f a i l u r e t o d i s s e m i n a t e c o n v i n c i n g d a t a . 79 O b j e c t i v e s . In s i m p l e s t terms, o b j e c t i v e s a r e m e r e l y t a n g i b l e and m e a n i n g f u l r e s u l t s which an i n d i v i d u a l o r a group s e e k s t o a c h i e v e . S t a t e m e n t s o f o b j e c t i v e s have s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . F i r s t l y , t h e y g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o t h o s e making d e c i s i o n s on development by e x p l i c i t l y s t a t i n g the r e a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e community o r a t l e a s t i t s o f f i c i a l s who a r e c h a r g e d w i t h g u i d i n g d e v e l o p -ment. They a l s o p r o v i d e g u i d e s t o the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h e y r e p r e s e n t a s t e p i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p r o b l e m , t h u s f o r m i n g t h e b a s i s o f f u r t h e r s t e p s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Such s t a t e m e n t s may not o n l y e x p r e s s but may a l s o f o s t e r a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u r p o s e and d i r e c t i o n which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y " d e s i r a b l e when many i n d i v i d u a l s and groups 2 a r e making d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t t h e community w e l f a r e " . A c o n s e n s u s on o b j e c t i v e s e n s u r e s t h e " a c c e p t a n c e o f s i m i l a r o r a t l e a s t not c l e a r l y i n c o n s i s t e n t o b j e c t i v e s and s u b s t a n t i a l agreement on most o f the b a s i c r e l e v a n t f a c t s 3 and t h e i r meaning". T h i r d l y , an e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s p e r m i t s s e p a r a t i o n o f b a s i c and u n i v e r s a l from s e c o n d a r y and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s ; and l o n g r a n g e from s h o r t r a n g e o b j e c t i v e s . L a s t l y , e x p l i c i t g o a l s may s e r v e t o measure p r o g r e s s , f o r u n l e s s d e s i r e d a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e e x p r e s s e d i t i s not d e t e r m i n a b l e whether o r not a c t i o n s a r e a d v a n c i n g towards them. 80 P o l i c y . P o l i c i e s a r e g e n e r a l g u i d e s t o t h o s e a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s . O b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f y what i s t o be a c h i e v e d ; p o l i c i e s e x p r e s s how t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o be a c h i e v e d by s p e c i f y i n g t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s and s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s t o be u n d e r t a k e n . In a d d i t i o n , p o l i c i e s may s p e c i f y how and by whom t h e a c t i v i t i e s a r e t o be e x e c u t e d . Program. "A program l a y s o u t t h e p r i n c i p a l s t e p s f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g a m i s s i o n and s e t s an a p p r o x i m a t e t i m e f o r each s t e p " . 4 The program i s s i m p l y a d e v i c e f o r g e t t i n g from where we a r e t o where we a r e g o i n g ( i . e . t h e m i s s i o n o r t h e o b j e c t i v e ) . The program i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y , i s advance p l a n n i n g o f f u t u r e h o u s i n g s u p p l y from b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s p o n s o r s , so as t o r e l a t e i t t o a n t i c i p a t e d h o u s i n g demand. The M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g Study emphasized t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r any community, which w i s h e s t o e n s u r e sound development and improvement, i s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e programme o f a c t i o n b ased on need and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Such a programme must i n c l u d e t h e means to e n c o u r a g e economic development as w e l l as t o improve t h e community's p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s h o u s i n g s t o c k . 5 The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f a program i s t h a t i t i s b a s e d on f a c t s on l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i o n s o f f u t u r e need. I t embodies t h e v i t a l e l e m e n t s o f p r e d i c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n . 81 Werner H i r s c h contends t h a t i n g e n e r a l , p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i n g government programs can be improved i f we have a p o w e r f u l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g framework t o g e t h e r w i t h a f l o w of w e l l o r g a n i z e d c r i t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n to be examined and a c t e d upon w i t h i n t h i s framework. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r e x p e r t s from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s t o j o i n f o r c e s and develop a w e l l c o n c e i v e d program.6 The program thus appears t o be a p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t of c o o r d i n a t i o n , c a p a b l e o f e f f i c i e n t l y m o b i l i z i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s to ensure housing p r o d u c t i o n s u f f i c i e n t to meet the p r o j e c t e d demands f o r housing the low-income e l d e r l y . A s i n g l e p r o j e c t i s viewed as a s i n g l e s t e p i n the accomplishment of a program. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a Program P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Who sh o u l d e s t a b l i s h the g o a l s and p o l i c i e s of a housing program which i s m u l t i p a r t i c i p a n t i n c h a r a c t e r ? Who i n f a c t s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h the program? I t i s p r o b a b l y necessary t h a t wide p a r t i c i p a t i o n be encouraged i n s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s because o f the c r i t i c a l i mportance o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n of t h e i r s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s to the o v e r a l l and common o b j e c t i v e s o f a housing program. Perhaps broad forums of o p i n i o n such as a "round t a b l e " of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n housing and p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s c o u l d precede the 82 s e t t i n g o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The p r o p o s e d o b j e c t i v e s would be s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v i e w e d by t h e b r o a d community o f i n t e r e s t t o t e s t i t s r e a c t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s a l s . A more a u t h o r i t a r i a n a p p r o a c h t o d i r e c t e n e r g i e s toward a common g o a l may be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . L e g i s l a t o r s may o r may not c a l l f o r b r o a d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f o p i n i o n t o have a l t e r n a t i v e s e x p r e s s e d . In any e v e n t t h e y d e t e r m i n e a s u i t a b l e o b j e c t i v e w hich i s s u b s e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d as l e g i s l a t i o n . E i t h e r a p p r o a c h would n e c e s s i t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s t o promote t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f common o b j e c t i v e s and the i m p o r t a n c e o f c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t . Management. I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e me c h a n i c s o f e s t a b l i s h -i n g a h o u s i n g program, i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s r e m a i n u n a l t e r e d . B a s i c a l l y i t c a l l s f o r management, t h a t i s a p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s t o t h e acc o m p l i s h m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i s a c o o r d i n a t i v e f u n c t i o n which i n t e g r a t e s a r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s p e r f o r m e d by o t h e r s . The p r o c e s s o f management has f o u r e l e m e n t s , namely: (1) o r g a n i z i n g , (2) " p l a n n i n g " (3) l e a d i n g and (4) m e a s u r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g . " ^ O r g a n i z i n g i s t h e t a s k o f a s s i g n i n g v a r i o u s t a s k s t o d i f f e r e n t i ncumbents and t h e n c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e s e t a s k s . T h i s o r g a n i z i n g i s a c h i e v e d by a program which makes e x p l i c i t t h e d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e program. " P l a n n i n g " i s t h e p r o c e s s o f ( l ) c l a r i f y i n g 83 o b j e c t i v e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l i c i e s and procedures t o guide d e v e l o p e r s and (2) the p r e p a r a t i o n of programs t o guide development to a c h i e v e the o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i s a c r i t i c a l r equirement i n the process of housing the e l d e r l y . L e a d e r s h i p i s the a c t o f i n f l u e n c i n g o t h e r s to ach i e v e the o b j e c t i v e and i s a key f e a t u r e i n a m u l t i p a r t i c i p a n t p r o c e s s . I t seeks t o bal a n c e the advantages o f " i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n and 8 c o o p e r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y " . Newman and Summer a s s e r t t h a t " c l e a r d i r e c t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n , 9 t y p i c a l l y a c h i e v e s the nec e s s a r y c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t " . I f t h i s i s t r u e , a housing program o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s c l e a r and unambiguous d i r e c t i o n from a s i n g l e s o u r c e , w i t h t h a t source employing a l l p o s s i b l e d e v i c e s to ensure c o o p e r a t i o n . Measurement and c o n t r o l are v i t a l elements of m a n a g e r i a l c o n t r o l . The program i s a d e v i c e which f u l f i l l s t h i s f u n c t i o n f o r i t f a c i l i t a t e s the measurement of p r o g r e s s i n achievement of o b j e c t i v e s a g a i n s t a time s c h e d u l e of d e s i r e d l e v e l s o f a t t a i n m e n t . This p e r m i t s necessary c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n to be undertaken i f o b j e c t i v e s are not bei n g a t t a i n e d or not being a t t a i n e d r a p i d l y enough. Housing the e l d e r l y i s then an area of a c t i v i t y amenable to good management p r a c t i c e s . P r e s e n t l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a d i f f u s e one because o f the p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n . 84 Key A t t r i b u t e s o f a Program C o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a community p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h t h a t p r o v i d e s both f o r t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and t h e e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to house t h e e l d e r l y was s t r e s s e d i n c h a p t e r one. As s u g g e s t e d t h e r e , t h e e l d e r l y r e q u i r e p h y s i c a l s h e l t e r complemented by a wide r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s t o s u s t a i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l w e l l - b e i n g , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d e c l i n i n g c a p a c i t i e s f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t . These e x t r a o r d i n a r y needs o f the e l d e r l y must be met by a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g , encompassing b o t h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . As e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h a p t e r two, p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s must o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e bounds o f a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a r e a a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s c o p e o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . Any h o u s i n g program must e n s u r e t h a t t h e u r b a n p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c i n g , p r o j e c t management p r o c e d u r e s and the p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a r e viewed as comple-mentary a s p e c t s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s i s one meaning o f t h e word c o m p r e h e n s i v e as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . T h i s meaning acknowledges t h a t h o u s i n g i s more than the p r o v i s i o n o f d w e l l i n g q u a r t e r s , but i n c l u d e s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s beyond t h o s e o f mere s h e l t e r . P l a n n i n g f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y must i n c l u d e p l a n n i n g f o r a b a t t e r y o f s e r v i c e s which w i l l make p o s s i b l e a f u l l , c o m f o r t a b l e and d i g n i f i e d l i f e . Such s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e 85 th e n ormal r a n g e o f n e i g h b o r h o o d a m e n i t i e s such as c o m m e r c i a l s e r v i c e s and community r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s as. w e l l as t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a f f o r d e d by p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . T h i s i s m e r e l y a r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t t h a t p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d p o o l t h e i r s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s i n p l a n n i n g f o r the e l d e r l y . C omprehensive i s a l s o used t o denote a h o u s i n g program t h a t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e s u c c e s s i v e phases i n t h e l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f the e l d e r l y . Such a program p r o v i d e s f o r a f u l l s p e c t r u m o f h o u s i n g needs r a n g i n g from s e l f c o n t a i n e d h o u s e h o l d s t o s h e l t e r e d c a r e ( i . e . n u r s i n g homes). Such a program i s d e s i g n e d t o c r e a t e "an e n v i r o n m e n t which e n a b l e s th e e l d e r l y t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y and i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e " " ^ , which i s a v a l u e c h e r i s h e d by th e e l d e r l y . T h i s c o n c e p t i s w e l l s u p p o r t e d on economic grounds f o r i n d e p e n d e n t p e o p l e p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s f o r t h e m s e l v e s which o t h e r w i s e would u n n e c e s s a r i l y be p r o v i d e d f o r them. A wide range o f c o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s a r e o f f e r e d t o e x t e n d t h e p e r i o d o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . Such s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e home manage-ment, v i s i t i n g n u r s e s and home d e l i v e r y (by v e h i c l e ) o f m e a l s . T h i s s e r v i c e m i n i m i z e s t h e l o a d s imposed on s p e c i a l s h e l t e r e d s e r v i c e s and u n n e c e s s a r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l p l a c e m e n t . By way o f i l l u s t r a t i o n c o n s i d e r t h e W i n n i p e g c a s e where The W i n n i p e g G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l f o u n d t h a t d u r i n g 1959-60, home c a r e s e r v i c e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s a v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y th e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e f u l l o c c u p a n c y o f 33 h o s p i t a l and 27 n u r s i n g home beds, o r a s a v i n g o f $210,702 p e r y e a r . H 86 In a d d i t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h o s e who a r e i n g r e a t e r need o f encouragement and c a r e . The c o n c e p t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e program a l s o i m p l i e s c h o i c e b o t h o f t y p e o f d w e l l i n g and t y p e o f l o c a t i o n ( i . e . s u b u r b a n o r c e n t r a l ) . T h i s acknowledges the wide v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l h o u s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . Hanowski c o n s i d e r s d a t a on p r e f e r e n c e s i s an i m p e r a t i v e f e a t u r e o f a h o u s i n g program i f t h e t r u e h o u s i n g d e s i r e s o f the e l d e r l y a r e to be a s c e r t a i n e d . " ' ' 2 T h i s o f c o u r s e must be tempered by a h e a l t h y d e g r e e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h new s o l u t i o n s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e to a v o i d " i s l a n d s o f e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n " o f any one age group . The meaning o f " e x c e s s i v e " i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . Some would view a s i n g l e p r o j e c t f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y w i t h a l a r m . O t h e r s would argue homogeneity i s u s e f u l f o r f o s t e r i n g s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r newcomers, b e c a u s e o f t h e "common i n t e r e s t s " o f an ag e - g r o u p . The d e b a t e i s open but p r e s u m a b l y i n d e p e n d e n t and c o n g r e g a t e h o u s i n g t y p e s a r e b o t h n e c e s s a r y i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s w i t h mixed-age c o m p o s i t i o n . S e v e r a l t y p e s o f h o u s i n g a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e e l d e r l y . E x i s t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t h o u s i n g , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y owned s i n c e t h e p r e - r e t i r e m e n t p e r i o d i s t h e most o b v i o u s t y p e . C o n v e r s i o n o f homes t o s e v e r a l s e l f c o n t a i n e d u n i t s can be a c h i e v e d w i t h N.H.A. l o a n s , p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h i s i s p e r m i t t e d 87 by l o c a l z o n i n g b y - l a w s . New i n d e p e n d e n t h o u s i n g t h a t i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and d i s p e r s e d among t h e g e n e r a l h o u s i n g s t o c k , i s one means o f a c h i e v i n g communities w i t h a mixed age c o m p o s i t i o n . B u i l d e r s i n t h e U.S.A. have d e v e l o p e d s m a l l and medium s i z e d houses o f moderate p r i c e which have p r o v e n p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e e l d e r l y . Such h o u s i n g s h o u l d .not be e x c l u s i v e l y i n h a b i t e d by a s i n g l e age group i f a f e e l i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h t h e community i s t o e x i s t . New i n d e p e n d e n t h o u s i n g a l s o i n c l u d e s one and two bedroom a p a r t m e n t s and the s m a l l v e s t p o c k e t p r o j e c t s o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s , e i t h e r a p a r t m e n t s , row, s e m i - d e t a c h e d o r d e t a c h e d groups o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s d e s i g n e d and r e s e r v e d f o r e x c l u s i v e use by s p e c i a l groups such as t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s a c h i e v e s " i n s u l a t i o n b u t n o t i s o l a t i o n " from t h e l a r g e r community i n which t h e p r o j e c t i s s i t u a t e d . C o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g f r e q u e n t l y t a k e s t h i s form o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Independent c o n g r e g a t e h o u s i n g i s a t y p e o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t q u a r t e r s f o r each r e s i d e n t but whi c h o f f e r s home s e r v i c e s on an o p t i o n a l b a s i s . C o n g r e g a t e o r group h o u s i n g i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e s e i s t h a t t h e y o f f e r d o m i c i l i a r y c a r e a l t h o u g h the s t r u c t u r e s may be c o t t a g e s , a p a r t m e n t s o r a community r e s i d e n c e . Such h o u s i n g u s u a l l y o f f e r s c e n t r a l i z e d h o u s e k e e p i n g b ut not 88 n e c e s s a r i l y c e n t r a l i z e d d i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Group h o u s i n g f a l l s i n t o t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s , namely n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l , s e m i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l . N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p e s a r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e a m b u l a t o r y . I n s t i t u t i o n a l and s e m i -i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p e s a r e f o r t h o s e no l o n g e r w i s h i n g o r f u l l y a b l e t o c a r e f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and i n c l u d e h o s t e l s , l o d g e s , b o a r d i n g homes, s e m i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e n t a l u n i t s , r e s i d e n t h o t e l s and c l u b s . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e s n u r s i n g homes which may a l s o house t h e a m b u l a t o r y , but which u s u a l l y s e r v e t h o s e n e e d i n g a t l e a s t s e m i - c o n t i n u o u s m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n . F u l l m e d i c a l c a r e can be p r o v i d e d i n c o n g r e g a t e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , b u t a r e p r a c t i c a l i n an e c o n o m i c a l s e n s e o n l y i n t h e l a r g e s t o f p r o j e c t s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l h o u s i n g accommodates but a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y - about 4% o f t h o s e o v e r 65 i n t h e U.S.A. i n 1951. They a r e c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n d e e d t h e most e x p e n s i v e form o f h o u s i n g , and hence l i k e l y t o be i n s h o r t s u p p l y . Y e t i n c r e a s e d l o n g e v i t y w i l l l i k e l y i m p l y a p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e i n c i t i z e n s r e q u i r i n g i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e s which i n s t i t u t i o n a l h o u s i n g p r o v i d e s . The " s p o n s o r s h i p " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l t h e above forms o f h o u s i n g d i f f e r . I n d e pendent h o u s i n g , e i t h e r s e l f c o n t a i n e d o r p r o x i m a t e , c o n s t i t u t e s the so c a l l e d economic market i n which i n d i v i d u a l s f i n a n c e t h e i r own h o u s i n g . The p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s must end e a v o r t o r e d u c e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s o f s u c h d w e l l i n g s t o b r o a d e n t h e market f o r s u c h h o u s i n g . T h i s b r o a d e n i n g can be b u t t r e s s e d by s p e c i a l 89 government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e n a n t s , s u c h as low i n t e r e s t l o a n s and income s u p p l e m e n t s . P r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s depend upon N.H.A. t o i n s u r e t h e i r m o r t g a g e s . N o n - p r o f i t ( p h i l a n t h r o p i c ) h o u s i n g f o u n d a t i o n s , c o r p o r a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s ; c o o p e r a t i v e s , and p u b l i c h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s s p o n s o r a l l forms o f h o u s i n g by a v a i l i n g them-s e l v e s o f f e d e r a l h o u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e . The N.H.A. (1964) p e r m i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , p r o x i m a t e and c o n g r e g a t e forms o f d w e l l i n g and t h e r e f u r b i s h i n g o f o l d h o u s i n g f o r s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s . N o n - p r o f i t s p o n s o r s depend h e a v i l y upon l o c a l t a x exe m p t i o n s , N.H.A. low i n t e r e s t l o a n s , c a p i t a l g r a n t s from p r o v i n c i a l governments and l i m i t e d r e t u r n s on s t o c k s t h e y i s s u e t o p e r m i t them to f i n a n c e h o u s i n g f o r t h e low-income e l d e r l y , who a r e i n c a p a b l e o f p a y i n g f u l l economic r e n t s . P u b l i c h o u s i n g i s p r o v i d e d by t h e combined e f f o r t s o f t h r e e l e v e l s o f government i n Canada. Such h o u s i n g i s a l s o d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h o s e i n c a p a b l e o f p a y i n g economic r e n t s . The s o c i a l s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y t o p e r m i t o p e r a t i o n o f th e v a r i o u s forms o f h o u s i n g a l s o have d i v e r s e s p o n s o r s h i p . " I n u r b a n communities t h e community w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g c o u n c i l i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t o be t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n 13 t h e h e a l t h and w e l f a r e ( i . e . s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ) f i e l d " . I t i s not an o p e r a t i n g agency, but i n s t e a d p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p i n f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on needs and i n i n t e r e s t i n g i t s 90 component a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s . Thus i t would s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s e s s t h e needs o f t h e e l d e r l y and d e v e l o p a p l a n o f a c t i o n by c o o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s o f i t s member p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e s . The t a s k o f c o o r d i n a t i n g such a g e n c i e s and d e v e l o p i n g s e r v i c e programs i s p r o p e r l y t h a t o f the s o c i a l p l a n n e r . The t a s k o f programming t h e h o u s i n g e f f o r t p e r se i s t h a t o f t h e community p l a n n e r . Long range p l a n n i n g o f h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e needs i s not p r o p e r l y t h e f u n c t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n t s p o n s o r s o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . T h e i r c o n c e r n s a r e m a i n t e n a n c e , f i n a n c e , and r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e y w i l l l i k e l y r e l y h e a v i l y upon w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s f u n c t i o n . C o o r d i n a t i o n . To e n s u r e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e program, c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e a g e n c i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and groups p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r and c o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s must be e n s u r e d . The problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n a r e s a i d t o "depend on the number and i m p o r t a n c e o f p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t and a r e a s o f c o n c u r r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n " ."^4 H o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , a t a s k w h ich depends on many p a r t i c i p a n t s , i s an a r e a o f c o n c u r r e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r many i n t e r e s t s . However, "where t h e r e a r e c l e a n c u t l i n e s o f a u t h o r i t y , problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n 15 h a r d l y a r i s e " . Assuming t h i s i s t r u e , a s i n g l e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y , d e f i n e d r o l e s and d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y would seem 91 t o be necessary to implement an e f f e c t i v e housing program. C o o r d i n a t i o n i s a q u e s t i o n of r e l a t i o n s between ag e n c i e s w i t h power f o r independent a c t i o n . Where one a u t h o r i t y i s empowered to i n s t r u c t and d i r e c t another, any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems are m a t t e r s of e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s i s the r e l a t i o n o f l o c a l government to p r o v i n c i a l government. Where an a u t h o r i t y has no power or r i g h t to d i r e c t a n other, the working out o f a scheme f o r j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e s p e r s u a s i o n , compromise, communication and c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of government t o the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s who are i n i t i a t i n g housing programs, a l t h o u g h these d e v e l o p e r s are w i d e l y a f f e c t e d by c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d to s u b s i d i e s and l o a n s , and by m u n i c i p a l by-laws e t c . Any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t i n the process o f housing the e l d e r l y must c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s of the problem: 1. C o o r d i n a t i n g p u b l i c housing e f f o r t s i n F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l , P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l , and i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l a s p e c t s . 2. C o o r d i n a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s i n p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y of housing f o r the economic market. 3. C o o r d i n a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s i n p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y of n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g . 92 4. C o o r d i n a t i o n of p u b l i c housing w i t h both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s . 5. C o o r d i n a t i o n of p r i v a t e housing w i t h both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s . 6. C o o r d i n a t i o n of the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c , on a broad a r e a l b a s i s . C o o r d i n a t i o n of course has no a b s o l u t e v a l u e and i t becomes u s e f u l o n l y where i t f u r t h e r s the o b j e c t i v e of more and improved housing f o r the e l d e r l y . C o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e an o b j e c t i v e by the medium of a program i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p e r a t i v e i f the s o c i a l l y optimum s o l u t i o n a t any one time i s to be a c h i e v e d , f o r i t w i l l m i n i m i z e p o t e n t i a l d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t and d i r e c t e f f o r t s to areas o f g r e a t e s t r e l a t i v e need. Moreover i t w i l l e x p l o i t the complementary a b i l i t i e s and r o l e s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s to the f u l l e s t e x t e n t . II DEVELOPING AN ADMINISTRATIVE/FRAMEWORK An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r purposes of t h i s study i s s i m p l y a system of o r g a n i z a t i o n designed t o f a c i l i t a t e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the proc e s s of housing the e l d e r l y . B e f o r e e x p l o r i n g the nature of a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s which might be employed to ensure e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r the e l d e r l y i t i s necessary 93 t o examine t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y making i n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s i n g g e n e r a l l y . O b j e c t i v e s and P o l i c i e s : The R o l e o f S e n i o r Governments Development o f h o u s i n g programs may, d e p e n d i n g on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s e l e c t e d , be t h e c o n c e r n o f a l l l e v e l s o f government i n Canada. C e r t a i n l y t h e s e n i o r governments, by r e a s o n o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t r e n g t h and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s ) , d e t e r m i n e t h e main d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e h o u s i n g programs which u l t i m a t e l y t a k e form as d w e l l i n g s i n t h e l o c a l community. The F e d e r a l R o l e . The F e d e r a l Government, t h r o u g h t h e N.H.A. p l a y s t h e l e a d i n g r o l e i n c h a n n e l l i n g n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n t o h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and d e t e r m i n i n g how t h e s e r e s o u r c e s a r e a l l o c a t e d between the economic, f u l l r e c o v e r y , and s u b s i d i z e d components o f t h e h o u s i n g m a r ket. The economic market c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s c a p a b l e o f owning or r e n t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation a t p r i c e s p r e v a i l i n g u n d e r normal market c o n d i t i o n s . The f u l l r e c o v e r y c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s who can a f f o r d t o own o r r e n t s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation p r o v i d e d by n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g e n d e a v o r s u t i l i z i n g t h e most f a v o u r a b l e f a c i l i t i e s o f low i n t e r e s t l o n g term government l o a n s combined w i t h some form o f m u n i c i p a l t a x a s s i s t a n c e . 1 ^ 94 The s u b s i d i z e d c a t e g o r y c o m p r i s e s t h o s e f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s ( m o s t l y e l d e r l y ) who c a n n o t o b t a i n ' d e c e n t , s a f e and s a n i t a r y ' accommodation a t r a t e s t h e y can a f f o r d and whose income i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to pay f o r p r o p e r l y s e r v i c e d d w e l l i n g s . 1 7 At p r e s e n t , " C a n a d i a n p r o d u c t i o n o f new h o u s i n g i s . . . d e s t i n e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y ( 9 8 % and more) t o a p r i v a t e market which 18 s e r v e s the upper 50% t o 60% o f the p o p u l a t i o n " . T h a t p r e s e n t mortgage and h o u s i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e not g e a r e d t o m e e t i n g t h e f u l l r a n g e o f needs i s o b v i o u s when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t " n i n e t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t Loans f o r new house p u r c h a s e s a r e made t o f a m i l i e s w i t h a g g r e g a t e 19 incomes o f $4,000 p e r y e a r o r more". The c l e a r dominance o f p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d h o u s i n g i s o b v i o u s f o r " i n 1961 F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l Low Income H o u s i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 0.7% o f new d w e l l i n g s " and " o n l y 3.5% o f a l l f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s were 20 d i r e c t e d t o low income and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s h o u s i n g " . Y e t t h e a u t h o r s o f Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s n o t e t h a t 20% o f h o u s i n g consumers a r e i n t h e " f u l l r e c o v e r y " c a t e g o r y and a n o t h e r 20% i n t h e s u b s i d i z e d c a t e g o r y . However t h e " p r e s e n t economic sy s t e m i s p r o v i d i n g decemt h o u s i n g a t manageable c o s t s f o r r o u g h l y one h a l f o f t h e consumers i n t h e s e • n 21 c a t e g o r i e s " . The r e s u l t s o f t h e h o u s i n g system a r e a r e f l e c t i o n o f F e d e r a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y as e x p r e s s e d i n the N.H.A. The system 95 i s o b v i o u s l y l a r g e l y g e a r e d t o m e e t i n g t h e demands posed by t h e economic m a r k e t . A l l o c a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n a p p e a r s t o be b a s e d on t h e i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t any enhancement o f t h e t o t a l i n v e n t o r y o f h o u s i n g , w i l l by t h e f i l t e r i n g p r o c e s s u l t i m a t e l y s e r v e t h e low income h o u s i n g segment o f t h e m a r ket. I n d e e d , i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g has been t h e k e y n o t e o f a h o u s i n g p o l i c y which has i n t h e main s e r v e d o n l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e demand f o r and s u p p l y o f mortgage money i n t h e economic s e c t o r o f t h e m a r k e t . The q u e s t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the h o u s i n g s u p p l y t o meet a l l f a c e t s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g market has been p a r t i a l l y f a c e d by the amended N.H.A. [ s e c t i o n 35 ( a ) ] which p r o v i d e s f o r a b r o a d e n e d s c o p e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y . The amendments, c o u p l e d w i t h complementary p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , w i l l s e r v e p a r t i a l l y t o r e d r e s s t h e i m b a l a n c e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h o u s i n g between c i t i z e n s i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e m a r k e t . More d r a m a t i c a c t i o n was p r o p o s e d i n Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s w h i c h c a l l e d f o r an e f f e c t i v e program o f low income and e l d e r l y h o u s i n g . . . t h a t i s . . . a s s i g n e d a p e r s i s t e n t and manageable p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s t o t a l economic r e s o u r c e s e x t e n d i n g o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d and c o n s i s t e n t l y p u r s u e d r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t o f f l u c t u a t i n g n a t i o n a l economic c o n d i t i o n s . 2 2 96 To a c h i e v e t h i s a f i r m and unambiguous s t a t e m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l s o c i a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e , and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o n c o m i t a n t p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s a c h i e v e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s o b j e c t i v e i d e a l l y would s t a t e t h a t t h e government i s f u l l y p r e p a r e d t o s e r v e t h o s e i n the economic and a s s i s t e d m a r k e t s i n p r o p e r p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e t r u e demands posed by t h e s e m a r k e t s , which e n t a i l s a commitment o f t h e n e c e s s a r y f u n d s t o s u p p o r t t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Indeed a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c h a s o c i a l h o u s i n g g o a l would c a l l f o r "a f u n d a m e n t a l 23 r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f . . . t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n . . . " between t h e economic and a s s i s t e d c a t e g o r i e s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f g r o s s n a t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e d e d i c a t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g has, a c c o r d i n g t o Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s , been a c h i e v e d i n t h e p a s t and t h e r e f o r e seems f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . However t h e s u b s i d y i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e s t a g g e r i n g i f t h e governments a l o n e were t o assume the f u l l economic burden o f r e - d i r e c t i n g h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n from a r e a s o f p r i v a t e e f f e c t i v e n e s s to t h o s e r e q u i r i n g p u b l i c a c t i o n . The s y s t e m must t h u s s t r i v e t o s e c u r e the s o c i a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e by e m p l o y i n g "an amalgam o f p u b l i c , s e m i - p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t s " . 1 ' " ' Nor can the h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e be a c h i e v e d i n a f e l l swoop. A r e a l i s t i c f i n a n c i a l program f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e r e q u i r e d p r o d u c t i o n , by i n c r e m e n t s o f e f f o r t o v e r t i m e , i s r e q u i r e d . 9 7 Development o f a h o u s i n g program m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l a t e d t o o v e r - a l l h o u s i n g needs r e q u i r e s an o v e r a l l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . F o l l o w i n g t h e a s s e m b l y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a t o g u i d e t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f h o u s i n g p o l i c y , a n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g program t o meet t h e a g g r e g a t e need c o n s i s t i n g o f p r e s e n t d e f i c i e n c i e s and f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . These d e f i c i e n c i e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s can o f c o u r s e o n l y be d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n to the h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e which i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The P r o v i n c i a l R o l e . In Canada any n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e can only- o b t a i n f u l f i l l m e n t i f P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -ments e n d o r s e i t , f o r f e d e r a l h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . Under the terms o f t h e N.H.A. the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r h o u s i n g low income groups a r e s h a r e d by t h e P r o v i n c e . The a t t a i n m e n t o f the b r o a d h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e i n a l l p r o v i n c e s p r e s u p p o s e s a w i l l i n g n e s s o f P r o v i n c i a l Governments t o a c c e p t and s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e program. The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would p r o b a b l y e n t a i l a F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l d i a l o g u e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e , f o l l o w e d by c o s t s h a r i n g a g r e e m e n t s . Because d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f Canada would most c e r t a i n l y d i f f e r i n t h e i r h o u s i n g needs a t o t a l a n n u a l a l l o c a t i o n o f F e d e r a l l o a n s and g r a n t s 98 " c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d from th e sum t o t a l o f p r o v i n c i a l programmes [a n d be] c o o r d i n a t e d f o r amounts and p r i o r i t i e s a t a f e d e r a l 25 l e v e l " . In o t h e r words, a F e d e r a l agency would e s t a b l i s h o v e r a l l h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n programs, bo t h s h o r t and l o n g t e r m , and a l l o c a t e p r i o r i t i e s between t h e p r i v a t e , a s s i s t e d and s u b s i d i z e d components o f t h e market on a p r o v i n c e by p r o v i n c e b a s i s . P r o v i n c i a l agreement w i t h t h e F e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e (and t h e r e f o r e p r i o r i t i e s ) i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e would appear n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e . P erhaps t h i s c o u l d be s e c u r e d by d e t e r m i n i n g the n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e by c o l l a t i n g l o n g r a n g e programs s u b m i t t e d by the P r o v i n c e s . A s t a n d a r d o b j e c t i v e f o r a l l t h e s e programs would appear v i t a l and hence d i c t a t e e a r l y agreement on the o b j e c t i v e s by t h e P r o v i n c e s . These c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o r i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l agreement and F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e c e r t a i n l y beyond t h e immediate s c o p e o f t h i s p a p e r . The p r e c e d i n g r e v i e w i s i n t e n d e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e h o u s i n g market i s d e t e r m i n e d beyond t h e l o c a l community. By d e t e r m i n -i n g t h e " s p l i t " between the v a r i o u s components ( i . e . economic, a s s i s t e d , s u b s i d i z e d ) o f t h e market however s e n i o r governments a r e d e t e r m i n i n g the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h o u s i n g a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . Whatever o b j e c t i v e or p o l i c y f o r h o u s i n g e x i s t s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y c h a r g e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m t o implement i t . The 99 o b j e c t i v e w i l l o b v i o u s l y d e t e r m i n e t h e s c a l e o f a c t i o n r e q u i r e d , t h e r e b y i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n b r i n g s us more c l o s e l y t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f community p l a n n i n g . S e n i o r government d e c i s i o n s i n f l u e n c e t h e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s and q u a n t i t y o f h o u s i n g i n an a r e a . The v i t a l t a s k s o f d e t e r m i n i n g the p r e c i s e l o c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a compre-h e n s i v e and c o o r d i n a t e d h o u s i n g program a r e l e f t to be r e s o l v e d l o c a l l y , by t h e P r o v i n c i a l o r l o c a l governments. The key i s s u e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m t o implement F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l programs i s w hether the p r o v i n c e s h o u l d e n t r u s t t h e program t o a dominant P r o v i n c i a l mechanism o r t o a s t r o n g l y empowered l o c a l agency. Both F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y s h o u l d i d e a l l y r e f l e c t a c o n c e r n f o r the r e l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t , f u l l r e c o v e r y and s u b s i d i z e d s e c t o r s o f the h o u s i n g s y s t e m . Having weighed the r e l a t i v e needs o f t h e s e s e c t o r s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s and programs f o r f u l l r e c o v e r y and s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e e l d e r l y as p a r t o f an o v e r - a l l a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f low income h o u s i n g . H a v i n g s e t p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t e d f u n d s i n r e l a t i o n t o o v e r a l l need, p l a n n i n g f o r t h e p r e c i s e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y c o u l d p r o c e e d . 100 R e t u r n i n g t o the q u e s t i o n of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the housing system i t i s obvious t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n B. C. i s f a c e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n a c t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n which w i l l p e r m i t f u l l advantage to be made o f N.H.A. p r o v i s i o n s . The dilemma i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f how much a u t h o r i t y to d e l e g a t e to the l o c a l l e v e l , i f any. C e r t a i n l y i f t he P r o v i n c e a c c e p t s some housing o b j e c t i v e , i t must produce a program to implement t h a t o b j e c t i v e a t a manageable r a t e . The P r o v i n c i a l Government s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y ensure t h a t the housing needs o f a l l s e c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c e are met. T h i s would seem to d i c t a t e data a n a l y s i s as a b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a system of housing p r i o r i t i e s , r e l a t e d t o need w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The P r o v i n c e has s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t c o u l d undertake housing a c t i o n on i t s own b e h a l f to ensure t h a t r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s are met or i t can f u l l y d e l e g a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r housing programs to the l o c a l l e v e l of government on e i t h e r an o p t i o n a l or n o n - o p t i o n a l b a s i s . Programs would be i n d e p e n d e n t l y prepared at the l o c a l l e v e l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y the P r o v i n c e c o u l d d e l e g a t e power t o prepare programs under P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , at the l o c a l l e v e l and s u b s e q u e n t l y c o l l a t e these programs t o d e l i n e a t e housing p r i o r i t i e s on a broader a r e a l b a s i s . I f the P r o v i n c e undertakes housing a c t i o n on i t s own b e h a l f , the problem of c o o r d i n a t i n g i t s a c t i o n w i t h t h a t o f c i t y p l a n n i n g , urban renewal e t c . , develops as does the 101 p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m o f r e c o n c i l i n g P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l "autonomy". D e l e g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e l o c a l l e v e l c r e a t e s t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p r i o r i t i e s a r e met, b e c a u s e o f v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f m u n i c i p a l i n i t i a t i v e . To e a s e th e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m o f i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d compel i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d evelopment and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a program. T h i s i s a t h o r n y i s s u e b e c a u s e c e r t a i n communities w i t h i n a r e g i o n would get more o f t h e r e p u t e d a d v a n t a g e s o f a program than o t h e r s . F o r example t h e c e n t r a l c i t y would l i k e l y r e q u i r e more o f the h o u s i n g e f f o r t s b e c a u s e o f i t s s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . I t i s not u n l i k e l y t h a t s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be r e l u c t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c e n t r a l c i t y i s i n f a c t p e r f o r m i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i n a b r o a d e r r e s i d e n t i a l s ystem o f w h i c h t h e y a r e but a p a r t . Any agency a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l s h o u l d n o n e t h e l e s s t a k e t h e o v e r a l l o r " r e g i o n a l " view o f t h e p r o b l e m and p r o v i d e f o r e q u i t a b l e c o s t s h a r i n g . A p r o v i n c i a l agency c o u l d p e r h a p s a c h i e v e s h a r i n g o f t h e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n , a l b e i t i n d i r e c t l y , w i t h l e a s t immediate p o l i t i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l and p e r h a p s w i t h maximum o b j e c t i v i t y . To a s s i s t i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a method f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g h o u s i n g programs w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e 1 0 2 r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e system a r e o u t l i n e d below f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework C o o r d i n a t i o n . The c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i n a complex m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t p r o c e s s i s f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system must be a b l e t o d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s a f f e c t i n g more t h a n one agency and more than one j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t must f a c i l i t a t e c o n t i n u e d c o o p e r a t i o n and c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r j o i n t a c t i o n between any and a l l o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and accommodate a wide v a r i e t y o f a l t e r -n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m . P u r p o s e f u l . A p r o p e r h o u s i n g e f f o r t must have a s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n - i t must be b o t h p u r p o s e f u l and p r e d i c t a b l e . I n o t h e r words the system s h o u l d have o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e making o f r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s o f t h e e l d e r l y . The s y s t e m must e n s u r e the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l o n g range o b j e c t i v e s f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e h o u s i n g p rogram. S i m i l a r l y i t must p r o v i d e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p l a n s and programs f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y . I n f o r m a t i o n . The f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s and t h e 103 d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program depend on i n f o r m a t i o n . To f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e t a s k s , a system o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s on an u p - t o - d a t e b a s i s must be p r o v i d e d . Some means o f c o l l e c t i n g , a n a l y z i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g p l a n n i n g d a t a f o r t h e use o f p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , l e g i s l a t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n p r e p a r i n g p l a n s and program w i l l be r e q u i r e d . The r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n on a v a i l a b l e government a s s i s t a n c e , methods o f f i n a n c e and p l a n n i n g a d v i c e would be a v a i l a b l e from a s i n g l e s o u r c e . T h i s would enhance t h e o v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r o c e s s by p e r m i t t i n g use o f common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y f o r what i s b a s i c a l l y a common p r o b l e m . L e a d e r s h i p . The system r e q u i r e s a d e f i n e d l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y and an u l t i m a t e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o r m u l a t i o n and a c h i e v e m e n t o f a h o u s i n g program. Those u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e must be c a p a b l e o f b a s i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on f i r m d a t a and a d v i c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r a s t r o n g a d v i s o r y s t a f f , t h a t i s , p e o p l e employed a t t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g l e v e l t o d e v e l o p p o l i c y and t o g i v e sound c o u n s e l . The sy s t e m s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r a s t r o n g e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y c a p a b l e o f making, i f n e c e s s a r y , f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on t h e t y p e , s i z e , and l o c a t i o n o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s o r n a t u r e and e x t e n t 104 o f h o u s i n g s e r v i c e s . Where t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e many, such an a r b i t r a t i o n f u n c t i o n , backed by a u t h o r i t y , would appear t o be n e c e s s a r y . R o l e D e f i n i t i o n . C l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s has s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . F i r s t l y i t i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t p r o p e r d e c i s i o n s a r e b e i n g made i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e span o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In o t h e r words i t p r o v i d e s f o r f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n a l o n g l i n e s o f competence s u c h t h a t p a r t i c -i p a n t s e x e c u t e t h e j o b s t h e y a r e most c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g . F o r example, p e r h a p s an e x e c u t i v e body i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a c o u l d make a h i g h - l e v e l d e c i s i o n on t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s by m u n i c i p a l i t y , but p e r m i t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , to s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e s i t e s f o r t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e n s u r e s t h a t no s i n g l e t y p e o f h o u s i n g o r s e r v i c e i s s u p p l i e d i n e x c e s s o r to the e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r t y p e s . In o t h e r words c a r e f u l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b l o c k s o f work i s d e s i g n e d t o e n s u r e each p a r t i c i p a n t has maximum i n d e p e n d e n c e o f a c t i o n t h e r e b y e n h a n c i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y , b u t a l s o e n s u r i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f each p a r t i c i p a n t a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s . M oreover such a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f work c r e a t e s d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r a s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g and 105 s e r v i c e s . C o u p l e d w i t h a s y s t e m o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s and a common o b j e c t i v e w i t h i n t h e framework o f a program, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e n s u r e t h a t each i n d e p e n d e n t agency i s c o n t r i b -u t i n g t o t h e o v e r a l l program and i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g problems which might exceed i t s competence. The P r o v i n c i a l government has u l t i m a t e j u r i s -d i c t i o n o v e r p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s and t h e r e f o r e i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t s a t i s f a c t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s a r e d e v e l o p e d t o a d m i n i s t e r h o u s i n g p rograms. E f f e c t i v e n e s s . The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i s t h a t o f e v o l v i n g a program which can s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e t h e s u p p l y and demand o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y . The a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e t h i s w i l l l a r g e l y depend on t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o implement t h e program. As l o c a l government t a x r e s o u r c e s a r e a l r e a d y b u rdened and h o u s i n g i s t h e r e f o r e a p p a r e n t l y low on t h e l i s t o f m u n i c i p a l p r i o r i t i e s and b e c a u s e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s 1 e f f o r t s i n p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be v o l u n t a r y , t h e s i t u a t i o n v i r t u a l l y demands a w i d e r P r o v i n c i a l r o l e i n a t l e a s t f i n a n c i n g o f h o u s i n g programs f o r the e l d e r l y . E f f e c t i v e n e s s a l s o demands bo t h an a b i l i t y and an e x p l i c i t commitment to a c t d e c i s i v e l y and w i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l government a l o n e lias the power t o a c t as an 106 u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y o r t o d e l e g a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers t o l o c a l government i n a l l m a t t e r s i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g . The h o u s i n g p r o b l e m o f the e l d e r l y can be h a n d l e d from b o t h s u p p l y and demand v i e w p o i n t s . An e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m s h o u l d be a b l e not o n l y t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g and a t t e n d a n t s e r v i c e s but a l s o s h o u l d be a b l e t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p r o b l e m o f i n a d e q u a t e income and p e r m i t t h e e l d e r l y t o s e c u r e h o u s i n g i n t h e economic market. These methods s h o u l d be viewed as components o f an i n t e g r a t e d s o l u t i o n t o a p r o b l e m . An e f f e c t i v e program p r o v i d e s f o r i n t e r n a l m o n i t o r i n g and c o n t r o l o f i t s p r o g r e s s . C o n t r o l i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e measure o f p e r f o r m a n c e a g a i n s t o b j e c t i v e s . D e s i r a b l e l e v e l s o r s t a n d a r d s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each p a r t i c i p a n t o r component o f t h e h o u s i n g program. The i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m c o u l d a s s e s s the p e r f o r m a n c e and d e t e r m i n e c a u s e s f o r a d v e r s e v a r i a n c e from t h e s e s t a n d a r d s . The r e s u l t i n g d a t a c o u l d t h e n be u t i l i z e d by a d v i s o r s and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o m o d i f y i n i t i a l p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s , and i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e program. C o n t i n u i n g e v a l u a t i o n a l s o p e r m i t s t h e use o f new i d e a s and t e c h n i q u e s t o m o d i f y , i f n e c e s s a r y , e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and programs. E f f e c t i v e n e s s a l s o d i c t a t e s t h a t any program be c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n an a r e a l s e n s e . The program must be a d m i n i s t e r e d o v e r an a p p r o p r i a t e a r e a , unencumbered by j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . 107 C o n t i n u i t y . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program p r e s u p p o s e s an a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n e f f o r t s and t o d i r e c t them t o the a t t a i n m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s o v e r t i m e . No program i s a s s u r e d o f c o n t i n u i t y u n l e s s an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e m a i n s i n o p e r a t i o n and u n l e s s t h e r e i s a f i n a n c i a l commitment t o a c t . T h i s d i c t a t e s t h a t t h e h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n becomes an e x p l i c i t government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h a t i t i s e i t h e r i n c o r p o r a t e d as a r e g u l a r e lement i n the budget o f a l l governments w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e h o u s i n g program o r p l a c e d under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n . E q u i t y . The system must s t r i v e f o r s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l e q u i t y . S o c i a l e q u i t y i m p l i e s t h a t s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d on an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s - p e r h a p s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o need as measured by t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c i t i z e n s o v e r a c e r t a i n age i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . F i n a n c i a l e q u i t y i m p l i e s t h a t no group o f p e r s o n s s h o u l d be u n d u l y burdened by t h e c o s t s o f a l l e v i a t i n g a p r o b l e m f o r w h ich t h e l a r g e r group s h o u l d a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e . F o r example t h e a n a c h r o n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e o f b o u n d a r i e s must be c o n s i d e r e d . H o u s i n g may be f i x e d i n s p a c e b u t c e r t a i n l y t e n a n t s a r e n o t . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n to e x p e c t r e s i d e n t s o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e t o , o r s u i t a b l e f o r , a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n t o b e a r th e c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s w h i c h ' t h a t f u n c t i o n r e q u i r e s ; u n l e s s t h e s e r e s i d e n t s 108 a r e t h e e x c l u s i v e b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h o s e s e r v i c e s . C e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s do i n f a c t p r o v i d e s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n s f o r t h e f u n c t i o n o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . I t i s o b v i o u s l y i n e q u i t a b l e t o i n s i s t however, t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y w hich a c c e p t s t h a t h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be e x c l u s i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b e a r i n g the c o s t s i t e n t a i l s . U t i l i z e E x i s t i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s e l e c t e d t o implement t h e h o u s i n g program s h o u l d u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o the f u l l e s t e x t e n t . The f o c u s i s once a g a i n on c o o r d i n a t i o n , not d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . T h i s w i l l l i k e l y i n c r e a s e t h e r e c e p t i v i t y t o t h e change by t h e a f f e c t e d d e p a r t m e n t s and p e r m i t u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g c h a n n e l s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , knowledge and e x p e r t i s e which t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s have d e v e l o p e d . U t i l i z i n g t h e e x i s t i n g b u r e a u c r a c y i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y , to t h e e x t e n t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e f f i c i e n c y o f o p e r a t i o n , p r o v i d e s f o r a b r o a d r a n g e o f i n t e r e s t r a n g i n g from s m a l l s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and h o u s i n g companies w i t h good c i t i z e n s s u p p o r t up t o the f e d e r a l government. A c c e p t a b i l i t y . The a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Assuming t h a t a new method o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i s r e q u i r e d , 109 a method which does not d i s r u p t t o o a b r u p t l y the e x i s t i n g power r e l a t i o n s , e x i s t i n g r e v e n u e and e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s and e x i s t i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p l a n s , w o u l d l i k e l y be most a c c e p t a b l e . A d e v i c e which p r e s e r v e s some measure o f l o c a l autonomy and d i r e c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o be p r e f e r r e d by p o l i t i c i a n and e l e c t o r a t e a l i k e . A l t e r n a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e D e v i c e s A v a r i e t y o f d e v i c e s t o a d m i n i s t e r h o u s i n g programs have been u t i l i z e d i n t h e p a s t and a r e p r o p o s e d f o r u t i l i z a -t i o n i n the f u t u r e . These d e v i c e s a r e d e s c r i b e d and s u b s e q u e n t l y e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a h o u s i n g s y s t e m , as o u t l i n e d above, as a b a s i s f o r making recommenda-t i o n s on t h e n a t u r e o f a system t o u t i l i z e i n B. C. i n t h e f u t u r e . P r o v i n c i a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n . The newest a p p r o a c h t o h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s i n Canada has been p i o n e e r e d by O n t a r i o which has c r e a t e d a P r o v i n c i a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n w i t h b r o a d o p e r a t i o n a l powers to p l a n , d e v e l o p and a d m i n i s t e r p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g programs u s i n g the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f N.H.A. I t i s empowered t o p l a n and d e v e l o p , and r e h a b i l i t a t e a l l forms o f r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation f o r e i t h e r r e n t o r s a l e . The c o r p o r a t i o n a l s o i s empowered to a c q u i r e and h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y i n i t s own name. I t i s a l s o p e r m i t t e d t o advance 110 g r a n t s i n a i d o r guarantee monies loaned to b u i l d i n g development c o r p o r a t i o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n w i l l u ndertake management o f m u n i c i p a l housing developments on a f e e b a s i s . The C o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t may i s s u e debentures o r borrow money from c h a r t e r banks to secur e necessary development c a p i t a l . The Cabin e t a u t h o r i z e s cash advances to the C o r p o r a t i o n as i t sees f i t . I t s o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s are determined by a Board of D i r e c t o r s a p p o i n t e d by the P r o v i n c i a l government. A l l e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l and m e t r o p o l i t a n housing a u t h o r i t i e s are merged under a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s dominant P r o v i n c i a l mechanism has a number of advantages i n c l u d i n g (1) s t r e a m l i n i n g of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures by r e q u i r i n g i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n by o n l y two r a t h e r than t h r e e or more l e v e l s of government, (2) an a b i l i t y to a c q u i r e and hold housing s i t e s i n advance of need, (3) an a b i l i t y to ci r c u m v e n t the r e s t r i c t i o n imposed on l o c a l h ousing a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t they must c o n f i n e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s to t h e i r own m u n i c i p a l t e r r i t o r y , (4) a s i n g l e s o u r c e of g a t h e r i n g and a n a l y s i s of housing data and (5) a g r e a t e r assurance of c o n t i n u i t y o f e f f o r t by having housing m a t t e r s the s u b j e c t o f d i r e c t c a b i n e t c o n c e r n . Moreover the c o r p o r a t i o n approximates a s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y and c o u l d s e r v e as an i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l c e n t r e , i t i s c a p a b l e o f c o o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s of m u n i c i p a l agencies and I l l p h i l a n t h r o p i e s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e s . A J o i n t l y - S p o n s o r e d P u b l i c C o r p o r a t i o n . A p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d be j o i n t l y s p o n s o r e d by t h e P r o v i n c e and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e on e i t h e r a v o l u n t a r y o r mandatory b a s i s . The powers o f s u c h a c o r p o r a t i o n would be s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above. The c o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d a l s o e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h C.M.H.C. t o s e c u r e a n n u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o c o v e r o p e r a t i n g l o s s e s . T h i s scheme has t h e a d v a n t a g e o f f o r m a l l y i n v o l v i n g m u n i c i p a l government and p o s s i b l y t h e r e f o r e i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f the c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s and g e t t i n g h o u s i n g acknowledged as a r e g u l a r i t e m w a r r a n t i n g m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e c o r p o r a t i o n m i g h t be c o m p e l l e d to compromise i t s h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s t o i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l r i v a l r i e s w h ich c o u l d d e v e l o p where s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were i n v o l v e d . T h i s compromise m i g h t i m p a i r t h e c o r p o r a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o t a k e d e c i s i v e a c t i o n b e c a u s e o f p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t o f p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l i n t e r e s t s . A M u n i c i p a l F u n c t i o n . Complete j u r i s d i c t i o n i n h o u s i n g m a t t e r s c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o each m u n i c i p a l i t y by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. The M u n i c i p a l i t i e s would be bound by s t a t u t e t o d e v e l o p and implement low-income h o u s i n g 112 p r o g r a m s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d employ a system o f s p e c i f i c g r a n t s towards the programs which would v a r y d e p e n d i n g on h o u s i n g needs which e i t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d e s t a b l i s h by s u r v e y . By making the g r a n t s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o d e t e r m i n e d need, the p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s would be d i s t r i b u t e d e q u i t a b l y . The burden might not be e q u i t a b l e ( i . e . t h e burden borne " e q u a l l y " by a l l t a x p a y e r s ) however i f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n t i n u e d t o pay a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c o s t o f p r o j e c t s o r c o n t i n u e d t o g r a n t t a x c o n c e s s i o n s o r s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s on s i t e s c o s t s f o r l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d p u r p o s e s . P r e s u m a b l y t h e t a x p a y e r s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y which was f a v o r e d f o r many p r o j e c t s would be b e a r i n g a l a r g e b u r d e n o f h o u s i n g c o s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t e d f o r t h e h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n . T h i s s u g g e s t s e i t h e r t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -ment s h o u l d f i n a n c e a l l t h e c o s t s o f the h o u s i n g s e r v i c e which i s much w i d e r than a l o c a l c o n c e r n o r , t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , whose c i t i z e n s s u b s e q u e n t l y m i g r a t e t o a s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , s h o u l d a s s i s t t h e l a t t e r m u n i c i p a l i t y i n f i n a n c i n g i t s s h a r e o f the c o s t s . The s e c o n d o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s would demand such p r e c i s e knowledge o f m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s and p e r h a p s i n v o l v e such complex i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l t r a n s f e r s o f f u n d s as t o be a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i m p a s s i b l e . 113 L o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . S t r o n g l y empowered m u n i c i p a l l y b a s e d l o c a l h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s , o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e framework o f p o l i c i e s and programs d e t e r m i n e d a t the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l were a d v o c a t e d by P r o f e s s o r J . Murray i n Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s . Under such a scheme, m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s would be o b l i g e d by a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , on a n o n - o p t i o n a l b a s i s t o assume t h e c h i e f r o l e i n h o u s i n g . Such a scheme acknowledges the need f o r a h o u s i n g program a d m i n i s -t e r e d on a m e t r o p o l i t a n b a s i s i f the s i t u a t i o n demands, and p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y c o u l d be a c r e a t u r e o f the group o f m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and d e r i v e i t s o p e r a t i n g f u n d s from a l l o f them. S u p p o r t e r s o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t o f l o c a l autonomy. T h i s a p p r o a c h has s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s . F i r s t l y i t p e r m i t s t h e a u t h o r i t y t o l o c a t e , own, and manage p r o j e c t s o v e r t h e t o t a l a r e a i n which the h o u s i n g p r o b l e m o c c u r s . S e c o n d l y , b e c a u s e t h e a c t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , h o u s i n g programs can be d e v e l o p e d i n a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c i t y p l a n n i n g , u r b a n r e n e w a l and c i t y w e l f a r e p r o p o s a l s - i n 26 o t h e r words " i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f normal community c o n c e r n " . T h i s emphasizes t h e f a c t t h a t h o u s i n g c a n n o t be c o n c e i v e d as an i n d e p e n d e n t and s i n g l e p u r p o s e a c t i v i t y . T h i r d l y , t h e b e n e f i t s o f a s t r e n g t h e n e d l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a r e s a i d t o l i e i n t h e " c o n t i n u e d i n v o l v e m e n t o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d and d e d i c a t e d l o c a l c i t i z e n s " . 2 ^ 114 Among t h e d u t i e s o f t h e a u t h o r i t y a r e i n c l u d e d c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f data' upon t h e c o m p l e t e r a n g e o f h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the economic market, t h e n o n - p r o f i t but f u l l - r e c o v e r y market, and t h e low income s u b s i d i z e d m a r k e t . The a u t h o r i t y would be p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h o u s i n g f o r t h o s e o f low income and t h e e l d e r l y and would i n c l u d e " i n i t s s t r u c t u r e , e x i s t i n g e f f e c -t i v e m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s and companies a c t i v e i n e l d e r l y p e r s o n s h o u s i n g as an i n t e g r a t e d component o f a c o o r d i n a t e d a p p r o a c h 2 8 t o an i n d i v i s i b l e p r o b l e m " . These d u t i e s r e q u i r e e x p a n d i n g t h e o b l i g a t i o n s and powers o f l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s as t h e y a r e p r e s e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d , and t o e n a b l e them to i s s u e bonds, e x p r o p r i a t e , b u i l d and own p r o p e r t y . The h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n c o u l d be combined w i t h th e urban r e n e w a l f u n c t i o n i n a s i n g l e a gency. Murray c o n t e n d s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e M u n i c i p a l Governments s h o u l d a s s u r e t h e p r i m a r y o r i g i n a t i n g and o p e r a t i v e r o l e , "where c i r c u m s t a n c e s such as s i z e , e x p e r i e n c e or r e s o u r c e s i n h i b i t m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n , t h e P r o v i n c e 29 s h o u l d l e a d " . T h i s c e r t a i n l y adds f l e x i b i l i t y t o t h e s y s t e m but m ight d i c t a t e t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e adopt t h e i n i t i a t i n g r o l e i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e . The h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , as e n v i s a g e d would be compre-h e n s i v e m u n i c i p a l l y b ased o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d under P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n , and would be mandatory components o f 115 l o c a l governments. G r a n t s - i n - a i d to t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would d e r i v e from F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments who would e s t a b l i s h , by s t a t u t e , t h e r u l e s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e s e g r a n t s . I t would be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a b o a r d which would d e t e r m i n e o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s . Board members would have no r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r e x e c u t i v e d u t i e s but would i n s t e a d , j u d g e t h e f a i r n e s s w i t h which p o l i c i e s a r e e x e c u t e d by t h e permanent s t a f f . The b o a r d would be a p p o i n t e d and would c o n s i s t o f members o f t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l o r c o u n c i l s i n the c a s e o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a w i t h a d d i t i o n a l a p p o i n t -ments from F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. The b o a r d o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would have f u l l c o n t r o l and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d e x e r c i s e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o n l y t h r o u g h i t s r i g h t t o a p p o i n t members t o the b o a r d . An i n d e p e n d e n t b o a r d would have t h e p o s s i b l e a d v a n t a g e o f r e l i e v i n g a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l o r s e p a r a t e c o u n c i l s o f the p r o b l e m s o f d e c i d i n g on t h e t y p e , l o c a t i o n and t i m i n g o f h o u s i n g on an a r e a - w i d e b a s i s w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g a measure o f p o l i t i c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . Dangers e x i s t i n the i n d e p e n d e n t a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h i n t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y may n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g and may be u n d e s i r a b l y i s o l a t e d from t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g . To overcome t h i s , M urray would c h a r g e the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y w i t h t h e 116 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o o r d i n a t i n g i t s h o u s i n g program w i t h p l a n n i n g , w e l f a r e , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s o f government and w i t h r e l e v a n t p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An Urban Development B o a r d . The Urban Development Board i s d e s i g n e d " t o d e a l w i t h a l l m a t t e r s o f p l a n n i n g and 30 h o u s i n g where j o i n t a c t i o n " between F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments i s i n v o l v e d . As we have seen b o t h the s e n i o r governments a r e d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . The Urban Development Board a p p r o a c h would e n l a r g e t h e i r r o l e i n t h i s f i e l d o f development f o r t h e s e b o a r d s would be c h a r g e d w i t h " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u sing A c t and r e l a t e d f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s p r o v i n c i a l l y " and " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Town P l a n n i n g A c t and r e l a t e d p r o v i n c i a l 31 s t a t u t e s " . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n would i n c l u d e (1) an o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s f o r u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y , (2) l e a d e r s h i p f o r p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n o r g a n i z e d ( m u n i c i p a l ) a r e a s , (3) c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g programs i n " r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " and (4) " c o l l e c t i o n , c l e a r a n c e and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l l y and r e g i o n a l l y 32 s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n n i n g d a t a " . Such a b o a r d would be s e r v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y as an agent o f t h e F e d e r a l government and as a P r o v i n c i a l agency. T h i s would p e r m i t t a i l o r i n g o f t h e F e d e r a l Government powers and p o l i c i e s more p r e c i s e l y t o l o c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 117 The B o ard would a d m i n i s t e r " i n c e n t i v e g r a n t s i n a i d " t o e n c o u r a g e l o c a l a c t i o n on r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and t o e n a b l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o p r o v i d e a t l e a s t minimum s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e s r e g a r d l e s s o f l o c a l f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y . These i n c e n t i v e s c o u l d a l s o be used on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t any s e r v i c e program be j o i n t l y implemented on an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s by " r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s " . M e t r o p o l i t a n Government. An a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o e n s u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program would be t o a s s i g n a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f i n i t i a t i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g h o u s i n g programs. F o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which a r e l i n k e d p h y s i c a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n the h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n c o u l d be a s s i g n e d as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n government. The P r o v i n c i a l Government would e n s u r e t h a t t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n government had f i n a n c i a l a s s e t s a d e q u a t e t o e x e c u t e the program. One key c o n c e p t b e h i n d m e t r o p o l i t a n government i s t h a t o f s t r i v i n g f o r e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n s o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s among l o c a l i t i e s i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . A wide number o f f i n a n c i a l i m b a l a n c e s may e x i s t i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a x base and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . A h o u s i n g s e r v i c e f o r the e l d e r l y may bu r d e n c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s more h e a v i l y t h a n o t h e r s . B e f o r e c a l l i n g f o r i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i a l t r a n s f e r s on a 118 s e r v i c e by s e r v i c e b a s i s , the whole range o f s e r v i c e s a f f o r d e d s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . F o r example w h i l e t h e c o s t s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y may u n d u l y burden some t a x p a y e r s , t h e c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g p a r k s may u n d u l y burden o t h e r s . To e n s u r e t h a t s e r v i c e s which a r e used by s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e f i n a n c e d on some e q u i t a b l e b a s i s by them a l l i s one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n government. H o u s i n g f o r low-income f a m i l i e s and h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d w e l l become t h e f u n c t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n government. M e t r o p o l i t a n g o v e r n -ment p o t e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y p o l i c y making, p l a n n i n g , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m a c h i n e r y f o r an e f f e c t i v e h o u s i n g program. The needs o f the b r o a d m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a c o u l d be a s s u r e d . P l a n n i n g f o r the p l a c e m e n t o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s on an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s , b e s t s e r v i n g t h e need c o u l d be a t t a i n e d . I f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y were t o be e x c l u s i v e l y a m e t r o p o l i t a n t a s k , m i g r a t i o n d a t a s u g g e s t i n g i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l f l o w s o f c i t i z e n s and undue c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f needy c i t i z e n s i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s must be p r o v e n . Even a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on a m e t r o p o l i t a n b a s i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e f o r c a r r y i n g c o s t s c r e a t e d by a p o s i t i v e n e t m i g r a t i o n c i t i z e n s coming from beyond t h e a r e a , which i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y the s i t u a t i o n i n B. C. 119 The J o i n t S e r v i c e B o a r d A p p r o a c h . T h i s d e v i c e has been p r o p o s e d f o r use i n B. C. by t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . In b r i e f t h i s p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r an e x t e n s i o n o f l o c a l government on t h e b a s i s o f " v o l u n t a r y u n i t y " t o p e r m i t j o i n t f i n a n c i n g and p r o v i s i o n o f s e l e c t e d s e r v i c e s . " V o l u n t a r y u n i t y " r e q u i r e s t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n a r e g i o n a c c e p t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f j o i n t p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s p r i o r t o i t s f o r m a l a c c e p t a n c e . T h i s a p p r o a c h i s d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e a f a i r a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f c o s t s among b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f a s e r v i c e i n a r e g i o n and t o p e r m i t t h e use o f common c o o r d i n a t e d m a c h i n e r y t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g commonly used s e r v i c e s i n u r b a n and s u b u r b a n a r e a s . A J o i n t S e r v i c e B o a r d would d e r i v e a u t h o r i t y from r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f l o c a l government t o p r o d u c e n e g o t i a t e d s o l u t i o n s to s e r v i c i n g p r o b l e m s . P l a n n i n g , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n , h o s p i t a l s and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , w a t e r , sewer and t r a s h c o l l e c t i o n would be t h e s u b j e c t s o f J o i n t S e r v i c e B o ard a u t h o r i t y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h o u s i n g s e r v i c e s c o u l d a l s o be p r o v i d e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . However o b t a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f j o i n t f i n a n c i n g o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r example c o u l d p r o v e d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f the d i f f i c u l t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t would be d i f f i c u l t f o r example t o measure i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l 120 f l o w s o f p e o p l e w h i c h might impose h i g h h o u s i n g c o s t s on s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A r r a n g i n g f o r i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l t r a n s f e r s o f f u n d s would c r e a t e complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s . M o r e o v e r i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t t h e m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n s o f p e o p l e t r a n s c e n d s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f even l a r g e r e g i o n s . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t d i r e c t P r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s would be a more f e a s i b l e a p p r o a c h . A P r o v i n c i a l Department o f H o u s i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a Department o f H o u s i n g s t a f f e d w i t h a p o o l o f s p e c i a l i s t s i n p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , economics and e n g i n e e r i n g e t c . T h i s department c o u l d u n d e r t a k e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s i t e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g much as a p r o v i n c i a l l y owned h o u s i n g c o r p o r a t i o n would. Such a department might be c a p a b l e o f more d i r e c t and e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s o f P r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a n an i n d e p e n d e n t c o r p o r a t i o n . However, i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h e c o r p o r a t e d e v i c e i n t a k i n g q u i c k d e c i s i o n s . B r a n c h o f a P r o v i n c i a l Department. A H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as a b r a n c h o f a P r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t o f p u b l i c works, m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e e t c . and a s s i g n e d t h e r o l e o f e i t h e r a d v i s o r o r 121 i n i t i a t o r o f programs. In an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , t h e h o u s i n g b r a n c h would m a i n t a i n an i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e , p r e p a r e p r o j e c t i o n s o f h o u s i n g need on a r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , and a d v i s e and c o n s u l t w i t h d e p a r t m e n t s o f P r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l g o v e r n -ment and w i t h p r i v a t e s p o n s o r s o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y who would e x e c u t e h o u s i n g p l a n s . The s e r v i c e would be d e c e n t r a l i z e d to s e r v e "on the s p o t " t h e l o c a l l y c e n t e r e d d e v e l o p e r s . The o p e r a t i o n s o f t h i s b r a n c h c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i f i t were g i v e n t h e a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s o f p r e p a r i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g h o u s i n g programs. T h i s a p p r o a c h has been a d o p t e d i n Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . In Saskatchewan t h e " H o u s i n g and N u r s i n g Homes B r a n c h " o f the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e u n d e r t a k e s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ' l o w r e n t a l s e l f c o n t a i n e d h o u s i n g , h o s t e l s , n u r s i n g homes and g e r i a t r i c c e n t r e s . The scheme i s a p r o v i n c e - w i d e one d e s i g n e d to d i s t r i b u t e h o u s i n g o v e r a wide a r e a t o s e r v e b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h e q u a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The p r o v i n c e i n v i t e s groups o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to form a l i m i t e d -d i v i d e n d company t o s a t i s f y r e g i o n a l h o u s i n g n e e d s . The s i z e and number o f the groups o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( t h e " r e g i o n " ) d i f f e r s w i d e l y b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n . A l l p e o p l e i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g 122 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r accommodation. The p o l i c y o f d i s t r i b u t i n g o l d p e o p l e ' s h o u s i n g . . . t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e i s based on t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t r e t i r e d p e o p l e would l i k e t o r e m a i n i n t h e d i s t r i c t t h a t i s f a m i l i a r . . . b u t i n a community w i t h s h o p s , s e r v i c e s and h o s p i t a l s a v a i l a b l e . 3 4 The P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a has a p p o i n t e d a d i r e c t o r o f W e l f a r e Homes and I n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e t o a d m i n i s t e r a program o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s s t e p was t a k e n b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y low volume o f h o u s i n g which was p r o d u c e d by f o r m e r s y stems o f c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The d i r e c t o r a t e was c h a r g e d w i t h u n d e r t a k i n g "a l a r g e r p l a n d e v e l o p e d on a 35 p r o v i n c e - w i d e s c a l e . . . " A h o u s i n g program p r o v i d i n g low r e n t a l s e l f c o n t a i n e d and l o d g e ( g r o u p ) t y p e h o u s i n g was a u t h o r i z e d . The h o u s i n g b r a n c h a s s e s s e d P r o v i n c e - w i d e need, d i v i d e d the p r o v i n c e i n t o h o u s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a s , and d e t e r m i n e d a P r o v i n c e - w i d e g e o g r a p h i c a l p a t t e r n f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the h o u s i n g program on an o p t i o n a l b a s i s . The P r o v i n c e u n d e r t a k e s o n l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g and the t a s k o f management i s l e f t t o a f o u n d a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h o s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a w hich p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e program. The f o u n d a t i o n i s a d m i n i s -t e r e d by a b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s whose members s i t on t h e 123 c o u n c i l s o f c o n t r a c t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , o r a r e members o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s which p r o v i d e f o r the w e l f a r e needs o f t h e t e n a n t s . T h i s program does not p r e c l u d e c o n t i n u e d d evelopment o f l i m i t e d - d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g by p h i l a n t h r o p i e s . The P r o v i n c e d e l i b e r a t e l y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g b u t a b s o l v e s i t s e l f o f t h e major problems o f c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t s , and a s s i g n s t h e s e d u t i e s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and l o c a l v o l u n t e e r a g e n c i e s . Both t h i s program and t h a t o f Saskatchewan show c o n s i d e r a b l e s e n s i t i v i t y to t h e need t o p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f accommoda-t i o n s r e l a t e d i n an i n t e g r a t e d program. The A l b e r t a program was i n i t i a t e d as p a r t o f a f i v e y e a r " a n t i - r e c e s s i o n program" and f o r t h a t r e a s o n need not p r o m i s e c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t n o r c o n t i n u e d e v a l u a t i o n o f c h a n g i n g n e e d s . The R e g i o n a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . A number o f r e g i o n a l h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . These a g e n c i e s would be c h a r g e d w i t h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e g e n e r a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e f u l l r a n g e o f h o u s i n g i n t h e r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . Each a u t h o r i t y would have a permanent t e c h n i c a l s t a f f who would s u r v e y , program, b u i l d and manage h o u s i n g t h r o u g h o u t a r e g i o n . Each would have a p o l i c y - m a k i n g f u n c t i o n but would work w i t h i n t h e framework o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r m u l a t e d at the P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The p o l i c y - m a k e r s would c o m p r i s e r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l D epartments o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 124 and H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f C.M.H.C. The v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e h o u s i n g r e g i o n c o u l d be g i v e n a s t r o n g a d v i s o r y r o l e b u t t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n would r e s t w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. The R e g i o n a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s would p r e p a r e h o u s i n g programs u n d e r t h e b r o a d p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y which c o u l d be d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o a M i n i s t e r o r a t t a c h e d t o an e x i s t i n g Department o f P r o v i n c i a l Government. The P r o v i n c i a l A u t h o r i t y would d e t e r m i n e t h e budget o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s and s u p e r v i s e t h e i r programs on a s h o r t term and l o n g term b a s i s . Such a s y s t e m c o u l d i n t e g r a t e l o c a l , P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Government e f f o r t s i n a r e g i o n . L o c a l and R e g i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s t a f f s c o u l d j o i n t l y p r e p a r e l o n g term h o u s i n g programs, t h u s p r o v i d i n g a n e c e s s a r y s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e community p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . C l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h C.M.H.C. would be a f e a t u r e o f t h i s d e v i c e . The r e g i o n a l d e v i c e i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , whose s i z e and i n e x p e r i e n c e m ight o t h e r w i s e h a n d i c a p t h e i r l ow-income h o u s i n g e f f o r t s . The R e g i o n a l A u t h o r i t y would f u n c t i o n as the c e n t r a l s o u r c e o f h o u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e i n the r e g i o n . Permanent A d v i s o r y B o a r d . A permanent a d v i s o r y b o a r d , e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r o v i n c e o r the p r o v i n c e and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 125 j o i n t l y and d e s i g n e d t o assemble and a n a l y z e d a t a , t e n d e r a d v i c e and p e r f o r m c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s y e t a n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e . The R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Boards e x e m p l i f i e s a b o a r d f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l g o vernments. T h i s b o a r d l a c k s any power f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H o s p i t a l I n s u r a n c e S e r v i c e (B.C.H.I.5.) o f f e r s a t h o r o u g h a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e t o i n d e p e n d e n t H o s p i t a l B o a r d s o f Management who must i n i t i a t e h o s p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p rograms. B.C.H.I.S. p r o v i d e s a l i a i s o n between t h e l o c a l b o a r d and t h e M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . I t has a " r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n " which s u r v e y s h o s p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and a d v i s e s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f h o s p i t a l d i s t r i c t s and i n methods o f f i n a n c e . A " c o n s t r u c t i o n d i v i s i o n " a s s i s t s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g p l a n s and a " c o n s u l t a t i o n d i v i s i o n " p r o v i d e s c o n t i n u i n g a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o b l e m s . A " H o u s i n g P l a n n i n g B u r e a u " s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r o v i n c e o r p r o v i n c e and m u n i c i p a l governments c o u l d p e r f o r m a d v i s o r y f u n c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e above d e s c r i b e d b o a r d s . Indeed R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Boards c o u l d be e n l a r g e d i n f u n c t i o n t o i n c l u d e a h o u s i n g a d v i s o r y b o a r d . Of c o u r s e a d v i s o r y b o a r d s s u f f e r t h e f u n d a m e n t a l and p e r h a p s i n e x c u s a b l e weakness - t h e i n a b i l i t y t o e n s u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r p l a n s and p rograms. 126 A d v i s o r y Committee A p p r o a c h . Committees s e r v e as v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o o r d i n a t i v e d e v i c e s by f u n c t i o n i n g as forums o f exchange o f o p i n i o n between f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l governments and between i n t e r e s t e d p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Members o f a d v i s o r y committees a r e not empowered e i t h e r by e l e c t i o n o r d e l e g a t i o n t o t a k e a c t i o n . A c t i o n comes o n l y t h r o u g h d e t e r m i n i n g f o r m u l a s f o r a c t i o n which a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e a c t i o n program. The term a d v i s o r y committee r e f e r s t o (1) p e r s o n s , r e s p o n s i b l e g r o u p s o f o f f i c i a l s from a s i n g l e d e p a r t m e n t , o r s e v e r a l d e partments o f governments from one o r more l e v e l s ; (2) f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d c o m m ittees s u c h as R o y a l Commissions; and (3) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d v i s o r y committees c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f c i t i z e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Committees, however, c o n s t i t u t e d a r e d e s i g n e d as c h a n n e l s o f c o n s u l t a t i o n to a s s i s t i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f p o l i c y . They a l s o s e r v e as an a r e n a where c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s can be worked o u t and a compromise r e a c h e d . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e committees w i t h b r o a d government and p r i v a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would a p p e a r t o be o f p a r t i c u l a r u t i l i t y i n the p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . Not o n l y can s u c h a committee p r o v i d e f o r e x p e r t a d v i c e , b u t i t a l s o s e r v e s as a v i t a l l i n k between l e g i s l a t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e p u b l i c . Such committees may be used t o i m p r o v e 127 c o o r d i n a t i o n between the i n d e p e n d e n t programs o f government, p r i v a t e and v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s . They p r o v i d e a f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n between a d m i n i s t r a t o r and c i t i z e n and may be a u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r s a m p l i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e where l e g i s l a t o r s a r e g e n u i n e l y c o n f u s e d . They c a n , p o t e n t i a l l y a t l e a s t , be u sed t o f o s t e r p u b l i c awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h o u s i n g p rograms. Committees have t h e d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e t h a t t h e y can be convened on a permanent, semi-permanent o r c o m p l e t e l y ad hoc b a s i s . On the o t h e r hand, committees may form s t r o n g p r e s s u r e groups and a c t as a d v o c a t e s f o r p e r h a p s " m i s g u i d e d " p o l i c i e s . Committees o f c o u r s e l a c k power to implement d e c i s i o n s and t h e r e f o r e need p r o m i s e no a c t i o n , much l e s s c o n t i n u i t y o f a c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t membership i s v o l u n t a r y may a l s o i m p a i r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n t i n u i n g programs o f a c t i o n . W. G o u l d i n g , an A r c h i t e c t , p r o p o s e s a s t r o n g l o c a l committee, a committee f o r O l d P e o p l e ' s Needs, i f you l i k e , r e l a t e d t o t h e W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o r C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s ; a committee t h a t w i l l a c t as a f a c t - f i n d i n g body, t h a t w i l l have a c c e s s t o e x p e r t a d v i c e a t t h e community l e v e l and t h a t w i l l work w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l d e p artment o f w e l f a r e and C .M.H.C. I t has t o s p o n s o r e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n , t o f i n d . . . p e o p l e w i l l i n g t o t a k e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s e t t i n g up a h o u s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n t o b u i l d . . . a n d e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y o f t e n a n t s e l e c t i o n t h a t a l l o w s f o r t h e s p e c i a l problems o f o l d e r people.3 3 128 T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g committees have been w i d e l y u s e d t o d e v e l o p p l a n n i n g programs. In t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l from t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n j o i n t p l a n n i n g f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l from F e d e r a l . P r o v i n c i a l , and C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r d e p a r t m e n t s formed a committee r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and i n i t i a t i n g u rban r e n e w a l and p u b l i c h o u s i n g schemes. Such a committee, empowered t o a c t as w e l l as a d v i s e might be s u i t a b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program f o r the e l d e r l y . Such a committee m i g h t c o n s i s t o f p l a n n e r s - " p h y s i c a l " and " s o c i a l " f r o m a l l t h e p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s who would a d v i s e t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o u n c i l s o r o f t h e mayors' o f t h e same m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T hese committees c o u l d a s s e s s need, p r e p a r e p l a n s and programs and a d v i s e on p o l i c y . To be e f f e c t i v e , e x p l i c i t commitments from l o c a l governments t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the h o u s i n g program would be n e c e s s a r y . Such commitments t o a c t i o n c a n n o t o f c o u r s e be g e n e r a l l y s e c u r e d from p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n must o f n e c e s s i t y be v o l u n t a r y . These committees o f c o u r s e c o u l d s e r v e o n l y t o c o o r d i n a t e as b e s t as p o s s i b l e , i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o n c e i v e d and s p o n s o r e d h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e programs. T h i s a s s u r e s n e i t h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s nor program c o n t i n u i t y . 129 Housing Council Approach. The Capital Region Planning Board of B. C., in a study of senior citizens housing discovered a lack of coordination in both the construction and management of projects. To overcome this problem a coordinating Housing Council was proposed, with representation from "Municipal and Provincial Welfare Depart-ments, local organizations that have sponsored non-profit 3 6 housing projects and various other senior citizens' groups". The coordinating council would determine future need for housing, specify the types of housing required, consider the location and layout of new projects, assist housing organiza-tions in obtaining financial and technical assistance, provide services to projects on a joint basis, and formulate admission policy for housing projects. Community Councils. The coordinative efforts of the community councils provide an indispensable component of any program. The community council is simply a coordinating agency designed to establish cooperative relationships among the various health and welfare agencies of a community, and to develop where necessary, service programs which exceed the capacity of single member agencies. The council serves to focus on the problems and needs for the representatives and agencies which initiate action. It serves as a clearing house for information on welfare needs and problems, and properly 130 f i n a n c e d i t c o u l d p e r f o r m a c o n t i n u o u s r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n . However t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l i t t l e r e a s o n f o r c r e a t i n g a new p r i v a t e l o c a l agency c h a r g e d w i t h t h e h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h f u n c t i o n . I n s t e a d i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be g a t h e r e d t o s e r v e i f p o s s i b l e t h e needs o f p o l i c y makers as w e l l as o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s . T h e r e f o r e d a t a on h o u s i n g need s h o u l d be c o m p i l e d by a p u b l i c agency whose c e n t r a l c o n c e r n i s w i t h h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s p e r s e . and made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e community c o u n c i l f o r use and d i s t r i b u t i o n . L i m i t i n g t h e F i e l d A wide a r r a y o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s have been d e s c r i b e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o examine f e a t u r e s o f t h e s e d e v i c e s which a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r use i n B. C. The Crown C o r p o r a t i o n a p p r o a c h , whether P r o v i n c i a l o r M u n i c i p a l , i s not recommended f o r use i n B. C. C e r t a i n l y i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e o f a c t i o n and b y - p a s s i n g o f m u n i c i p a l government has s t r o n g p r a g m a t i c a p p e a l . However i t s e r v e s o n l y t o c r e a t e y e t a n o t h e r a c t o r on t h e h o u s i n g d e v elopment s t a g e . E x i s t i n g d e p a r t m e n t s o f P r o v i n c i a l Government c o u l d be e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e t h e f u n c t i o n s which such a C o r p o r a t i o n would e x p e d i t e . M o r e o v e r a P r o v i n c i a l Department c o u l d p r o b a b l y p r o d u c e a program o f h o u s i n g which c o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r 131 d e p a r t m e n t s o f government c o n c e r n e d w i t h h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s , s u c h as t h e Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . The C o r p o r a t i o n would have no u l t i m a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l and i s i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g u n d u l y d i v o r c e d from l o c a l p l a n n i n g , u r b a n r e n e w a l , and w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s . The i d e a o f a dominant p r o v i n c i a l mechanism i s however e n d o r s e d . The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h has much t o recommend i t . I t has f l e x i b i l i t y , i t can be employed i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n o r s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h e q u a l e a s e . The a u t h o r i t y c o u l d be bound by s t a t u t e t o c o o r d i n a t e i t s program w i t h p l a n n i n g , u r b a n r e n e w a l , s o c i a l w e l f a r e and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l a c t i v i t y . I t s program would be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , and t h e agency would f u n c t i o n as a u n i f i e d s o u r c e o f d a t a and g u i d a n c e a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . Wide s c a l e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n would f o s t e r an e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n i n t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would not be e x p e c t e d t o meet " s p i l l o v e r " i n h o u s i n g c o s t s ( s e e p.62 ) from t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . The Urban Development Board (U.D.B.) would a p p e a r t o be a t a i l o r - m a d e complement f o r t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h . The l a t t e r a p p r o a c h c a l l s f o r j o i n t F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h o u s i n g programs. The U.D.B. i s p u r p o s e - d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e s uch j o i n t a c t i o n , not o n l y i n m a t t e r s o f f i n a n c e b u t a l s o in,, the development o f 132 o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and programs f o r h o u s i n g and t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I t i s recommended t h a t t h e U.D.B. a p p r o a c h o r a s i m i l a r d e v i c e e n s u r i n g an e f f e c t i v e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l d i a l o g u e be employed. M e t r o p o l i t a n government would not a p p e a r t o be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e d e v i c e f o r use i n B. C. F i r s t l y , i t would no t be a p o l i t i c a l l y s a g a c i o u s move i n B. C. where l o c a l autonomy i n government i s s t r o n g . S e c o n d l y , i t would be e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a c o s t - s h a r i n g f o r m u l a i f i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . M e t r o p o l i t a n government i s u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r s e r v i c e s w i t h p e r h a p s more o b v i o u s r e g i o n a l o v e r t o n e s . T h i r d l y , t h e h o u s i n g problem i s p r o b a b l y g e n e r a t e d i n r e g i o n s much l a r g e r t h a n even m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . F o u r t h l y , t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n s o l u t i o n a p p l i e s o n l y t o u n i q u e t y p e s o f commun-i t i e s and i s n o t g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . The same c r i t i c i s m s a p p l y t o t h e J o i n t - S e r v i c e B o a r d a p p r o a c h which i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e commonly - used s e r v i c e s . I t i s d o u b t f u l i f h o u s i n g programs p r o v i d e u n i f o r m s e r v i c e t o a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Thus i t i s d o u b t f u l i f a p a r a m e t e r o f common-use c o u l d be d e v i s e d . The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f H o u s i n g , t h e " B r a n c h o f a Department" and t h e " R e g i o n a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y " a p p r o a c h e s d i f f e r from t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h i n c o n c e n -t r a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r t h a n l o c a l 133 l e v e l o f government. T h i s d e v i c e e i t h e r r e l i e v e s t h e l o c a l government o f t h e h o u s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r d e p r i v e s i t o f a r i g h t to d e t e r m i n e i t s own d e s t i n y , d e p e n d i n g on one's p o i n t o f view. C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e s t r o n g arguments f o r t h e P r o v i n c e t o p r e p a r e P r o v i n c e - w i d e h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and programs and t o f i n a n c e t h e s e programs i n whole o r p a r t . C e r t a i n l y t h e P r o v i n c e s h o u l d s e t up t h e b r o a d p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s and s h o u l d p e r h a p s a r r a n g e f o r P r o v i n c e - w i d e s u r v e y s o f h o u s i n g need. Whether b r a n c h e s o f P r o v i n c i a l Government s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f e v o l v i n g h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s t o be a p p l i e d i n l o c a l a r e a s and implemented t h e r e i s a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Community p l a n n i n g has been d e l e g a t e d t o t h e l o c a l l e v e l o f government and t h e r e would a p p e a r t o be no good r e a s o n f o r weakening i t by t r a n s f e r r i n g the h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n t o the P r o v i n c e . The R e g i o n a l A u t h o r i t y f o r example c o u l d s t r i v e t o p l a n i n c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b ut once a g a i n , why even c o n s i d e r a s i t u a t i o n w h ich compels c o o r d i n a t i o n and c r e a t e s a p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s ? In c o n c l u s i o n , i t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can b e s t e v o l v e t h e i r own h o u s i n g programs i n c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . The P r o v i n c e can b e s t s e r v e by p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y mandatory and e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , f u n d s , and b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . The P r o v i n c e c o u l d , t h r o u g h an e x i s t i n g d e p a r t m e n t , a r r a n g e f o r h o u s i n g s u r v e y s and t h e 134 i n i t i a t i o n o f h o u s i n g programs i n communities w h i c h a r e t o o s m a l l o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t o u n d e r t a k e them. A s t r o n g P r o v i n -c i a l mechanism c a p a b l e o f a s s e s s i n g o v e r a l l need and d e t e r m i n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f m e e t i n g t h a t need ( i . e . more h o u s i n g , more s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , more d i s p o s a b l e income f o r t h e e l d e r l y ) would seem n e c e s s a r y . T h i s mechanism would f u n c t i o n as t h e u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s i n t h e P r o v i n c e and would be r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l programs which r e l a t e t o the h o u s i n g p r o b l e m ( i . e . b u i l d i n g programs and w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s ) . The r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s p l a c e d on a l t e r n a t i v e programs s u c h as t h o s e o f b u i l d i n g and w e l f a r e , where t h e s e programs a r e not complementary but a r e s u b s t i t u t e s , would have t o be r e s o l v e d by the P r o v i n c i a l C a b i n e t i n t h e b u d g e t a r y p r o c e s s . The C a b i n e t c o u l d be a s s i s t e d by a Department o f government d e s i g n e d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t programs o f s e p a r a t e f u n c t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s and d e t e r m i n e t h e i r u l t i m a t e d i m e n s i o n s . The P r o v i n c i a l department u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t i o n i n B. C. would have to assume a w i d e r r o l e t h a n have P r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s i n Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a . Saskatchewan r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon e n c o u r a g i n g m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r e l d e r l y t o s e r v e r e s i d e n t s o f a r e g i o n . T h i s method i s p r e d i c a t e d h e a v i l y upon an assumed l a c k o f g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y o f the e l d e r l y i n t h a t p r o v i n c e . The same may be s a i d f o r the 135 A l b e r t a program which a l s o depends h e a v i l y upon a s t a b l e m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n w i t h i n a r e g i o n . The i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t h e e l d e r l y w i l l r e m a i n w i t h i n the r e g i o n . T h i s c o n d i t i o n does not o b t a i n i n B. C. where communities s e r v e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s on an i n t e r - r e g i o n a l and i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l s c a l e . In H i r s c h ' s terms, c e r t a i n B. C. c ommunities a r e s u b j e c t t o heavy s p i l l o v e r c o s t s . The A d v i s o r y Board t e c h n i q u e f a i l s to p r o v i d e t h e s t r e n g t h o f l e a d e r s h i p , g u a r a n t e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i t y o f e f f o r t t h a t a m e a n i n g f u l h o u s i n g program would r e q u i r e . The A d v i s o r y Committee d e v i c e would c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k between t h e many p a r t i c i p a n t s but f a i l s t o p r o m i s e d e c i s i v e a c t i o n . I t i s b e s t c o n c e i v e d as a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e to be employed by a more p o w e r f u l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , r a t h e r t han as an a u t h o r i t y i n i t s e l f . ' A more v i t a l a p p r o a c h would f o l l o w t h e l i n e s o f a H o u s i n g C o u n c i l , w i t h the p r o v i s o t h a t such a C o u n c i l would be i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e Community C o u n c i l b e c a u s e o f t h e key i m p o r t a n c e o f l i a i s o n w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . A b r a n c h o f government, e i t h e r P r o v i n c i a l o r m u n i c i p a l , c o u l d be h e l d u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o u s i n g need but c o u l d be g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by p r i v a t e e f f o r t s . M u n i c i p a l government c o u l d , w i t h the knowledge o f 136 t h e number and t y p e o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e z o n i n g and l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g s t e p s . The c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l would d e v e l o p programs o f a c t i o n i n b o t h h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e , e s t a b l i s h i n g b o t h t a r g e t s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e , and t h e r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . E x i s t i n g e x p e r t i s e c o u l d be used t o t h e f u l l e s t e x t e n t . R e c a p i t u l a t i o n The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n has s ought t o i d e n t i f y by a n a l y s i s , t h e key f e a t u r e s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system t o house the e l d e r l y i n B. C. The f i n d i n g s a r e t h a t : 1. The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h i s c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d and c o m p r e h e n s i v e h o u s i n g program. 2. A d e v i c e t o f o s t e r e f f e c t i v e j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . The Urban Development Board o r a s i m i l a r d e v i c e a c h i e v e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e . 3. The i d e a o f P r o v i n c i a l dominance i s e n d o r s e d w i t h i n t h o s e f i e l d s o f a c t i o n which a r e p r o p e r l y P r o v i n c i a l . These f i e l d s would i n c l u d e l e g i s l a t i o n , b r o a d h o u s i n g o b j e c -t i v e s and p o l i c i e s , f i n a n c e , d a t a a n a l y s i s , m o n i t o r i n g and c o n t r o l , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e and h o u s i n g programs w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h o s e a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , and i n i t i a t i o n o f programs where l o c a l a r e a s a r e i n c a p a b l e . 1 3 7 4. The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h p r o p o s e d by Murray c a l l s f o r " i n c l u d i n g w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y , t h e e x i s t i n g e f f e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s and c ompanies" w i t h o u t s t a t i n g how t h i s i s t o be a c h i e v e d . I t must be remembered t h a t h i s p r o p o s a l was p r e p a r e d i n t h e O n t a r i o c o n t e x t . As t h e s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e S e n a t e n o t e s I t has n o t p r o v e d easy [ i n O n t a r i o ] f o r c h u r c h groups and s e r v i c e c l u b s t o make t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e s e c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have made i n o t h e r p l a c e s [ i n Canada]. 3 7 T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s u s t a i n i n g a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o l d p e o p l e where s o c i e t y i s h i g h l y m o b i l e . I t a l s o r e f l e c t s h i g h l a n d c o s t s . A s t r o n g p u b l i c agency a p p e a r s n e c e s s a r y i n O n t a r i o , and p a r t i c u l a r l y T o r o n t o . In c o n t r a s t , t h e B. C. s i t u a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e l a r g e number o f p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s " t h a t have been b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t o b u i l d s i n g l e p r o j e c t s " . T h e s e s m a l l p r o j e c t s have drawn h e a v i l y upon " g o o d w i l l and v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t o f 3 8 s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . " C.M.H.C. "has had a c l o s e 3 9 a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . " I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s t r o n g p u b l i c and s t r o n g p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . Because o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B. C. however, t h e 138 e f f o r t s o f a l l p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s must be more s e n s i t i v e l y h a n d l e d , more v i t a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , and u t i l i z e d more e x t e n s i v e l y t h a n Murray would i n f e r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d t h a t a Housing C o u n c i l , a c t i n g as an arm o f a Community C o u n c i l where t h e l a t t e r e x i s t s , be e n l i s t e d as t h e c h i e f d e v i c e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n h o u s i n g and c o l l a t e r a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . In summary, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r u t i l i z a t i o n i n B. C. demands c l o s e F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l l i a i s o n i n s e t t i n g t h e b r o a d e r d i m e n s i o n s o f h o u s i n g programs and a s t r o n g m u n i c i p a l l y b ased h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t o implement h o u s i n g programs a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . R o l e s and R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The d e s i r a b i l i t y and i n d e e d p e r h a p s the l o n g - r a n g e n e c e s s i t y o f j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i n the formu-l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and programs o f a c t i o n has been s t r e s s e d (page 9 8 ) . The Urban Development Board c o u l d f u n c t i o n as a v e h i c l e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s , and e n s u r i n g the c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l programs. F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments c o u l d j o i n t l y a r r a n g e f o r t h e 139 c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s which would form the n e c e s s a r y b a s i s i n d e l i n e a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s and p r e p a r a t i o n o f programs. F i n a n c e s f o r t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s would d e r i v e , i n t h e main, from F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments ( i . e . Urban Development Board) v i a t h e g r a n t - i n - a i d t e c h n i q u e . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r r e c e i v i n g t h e s e g r a n t s would be s t i p u l a t e d i n s e n i o r government l e g i s l a t i o n . The P r o v i n c i a l government a l o n e must e n a c t " t h e n e c e s s a r y e n a b l i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h t h e n a t u r e and o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l r o l e i n h o u s i n g " , and c r e a t e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e - a d e q u a t e l y empowered and f i n a n c e d , to implement h o u s i n g programs. M u n i c i p a l Government. The o p e r a t i o n o f l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s would o f c o u r s e become a s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Such a u t h o r i t i e s would p l a n , program, b u i l d and m a i n t a i n h o u s i n g f o r low income and e l d e r l y g r o u p s . In a d d i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a r e a v a i l e d o f m u n i c i p a l powers t o zone, and a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h d a t a and p o s s e s s e d o f permanent s t a f f t h e y a r e e q u i p p e d t o a s s i s t t h e p r i v a t e s o c i e t i e s engaged i n h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . Murray o u t l i n e s a b r o a d range o f powers and r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y which i n c l u d e : 140 1. A d v i s i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o h o u s i n g . A s s i g n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l h o u s i n g m a t t e r s ( e c o n o m i c , a s s i s t e d , and s u b s i -d i z e d h o u s i n g ) t o t h e a u t h o r i t y i s l o g i c a l f o r t h e a u t h o r i t y would f u n c t i o n as a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e . I t would a s s e s s , w i t h P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l s u p p o r t , t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k and o p e r a t e a h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e p e r s o n s i n s e a r c h o f h o u s i n g . 2. On t h e b a s i s o f measured and p r o j e c t e d h o u s i n g need, t h e a u t h o r i t y would d e v e l o p s h o r t - t e r m and l o n g - t e r m h o u s i n g programs which would be c o o r d i n a t e d a t the P r o v i n c i a l (Urban Development Board) l e v e l w i t h t h e programs o f o t h e r h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n l i g h t o f P r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s . 3 . The h o u s i n g programs would be d e v e l o p e d i n c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g and urban r e n e w a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The m u n i c i p a l c o s t s o f a h o u s i n g program would become p a r t o f t h e c a p i t a l budget r e q u i r e m e n t s . The programs would c o n s i d e r the "need, 41 k i n d , l o c a t i o n , q u a n t i t y , p r i o r i t y and t i m i n g " o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and d e v e l o p m e n t s . 4. The a u t h o r i t y would a c q u i r e and h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y . With t h e a p p r o v a l o f m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l t h e a u t h o r i t y would 141 a c q u i r e s i t e s i n advance o f c o n s t r u c t i o n programs. In t h i s way s o p h i s t i c a t e d l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . The a u t h o r i t y c o u l d a c q u i r e and r e h a b i l i t a t e e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s i n d e s i g n a t e d u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a s . The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y would p l a n , program, c o n s t r u c t and manage h o u s i n g f o r low income and e l d e r l y p e r s o n ' s on b e h a l f o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The a u t h o r i t y c o u l d do t h i s by f o r m i n g m u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g companies t o implement p a r t s o f a h o u s i n g program as r e q u i r e d . The a u t h o r i t y would a c t i v e l y promote, e n c o u r a g e and a s s i s t n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o t h e r p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s t o meet the h o u s i n g needs o f low-income and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e would t a k e t h e form o f t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e , e x e c u t i o n o f t h e l a n d - u s e p l a n n i n g and s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n f u n c t i o n s , and a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d under t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n To a d m i n i s t e r h o u s i n g programs which would p e r m i t t h e low-income groups and the e l d e r l y t o u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k i n the economic market. T h i s would i n v o l v e t h e use o f a r e n t - c e r t i f i c a t e d e v i c e w hich e n t a i l s p r o v i s i o n o f a s u b s i d y . To d e v e l o p h o u s i n g programs i n c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h the s o c i a l w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . T h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e 142 l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y i n such a way t h a t i t p e r f o r m s b o t h t h e h o u s i n g and s o c i a l w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s . A l t e r -n a t i v e d e v i c e s s u c h as ( l ) an i n d e p e n d e n t h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t o r (2) a s k e l e t o n s t a f f o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s who a c t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y t o b o t h t h e m u n i c i p a l and p r i v a t e w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s would not seem t o a c h i e v e t h e same c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f programs and j o i n t - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d d e v i c e a c h i e v e s . The agency would o f c o u r s e be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e H o u s i n g C o u n c i l and c o u l d t h u s c o o r d i n a t e i t s programs a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h t h o s e o f p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e o r g a n -i z a t i o n s . 8 . The a u t h o r i t y would d e t e r m i n e f a m i l y and i n d i v i d u a l e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t e d and s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h m u n i c i p a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p r o v i n c i a l l y and f e d e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a and p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g income, f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and age.42 FIGURE THE RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM FEDERAL LEGISLATURE HOUSING OBJECTIVE A N D HOUSING POLICIES 4 PROVINCIAL LEGISLATURE CABINET MINISTER CABINET MINISTER CABINET MINISTER interdepartmental admin istative coordination THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOARD (UDB) A BOARD OF 7 OR MORE MEMBERS 3 OF WHOM ARE RECOMMENDED BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. THE BOARD SERVES IN AN VDMI NI STR AT IV E CAPACITY AS A PROVINCIAL AGENCY AS WELL AS AN AGENT OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. C.M.KC (semi -autonomous) STAFF SECRETARIAT OF THE UDB STAFF RECRUITED FROM MEMBERS OF PROVINCIAL DEPART M FN T RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING & THE REGIONAL OFFICES OF CMHjC. LOCAL HOUSING AUTHORITY CREATED & EMPOWERED BY THE PROVINCIAL GOVE RNAAEN T. LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL PRIVATE COMMUNITY COUNCIL PLANNING j WELFARE LOCAL HOUSING I AUTHORITY 71 I representatives HOUSING 'COUNCI L 144 E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e Framework The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o a s s e s s t h e p r o p o s e d s y s t e m i n l i g h t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s h i t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h e d . C o o r d i n a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework would a p p e a r t o a c h i e v e t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n the f o r m u l a -t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and programs f o r h o u s i n g , v i a t h e Urban Development B o a r d . T h i s Urban Development B o a r d ( o r s i m i l a r d e v i c e ) would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f P r o v i n c i a l government i n f i e l d s o f h o u s i n g and c o l l a t e r a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y d e v i c e would c o o r d i n a t e t h e h o u s i n g a c t i o n s o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The P r o v i n c e would make i t a s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t r e l a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s d e v e l o p h o u s i n g programs i n c o n c e r t u s i n g common a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y . The g r a n t s - i n - a i d d e v i c e would be employed t o enhance t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f s u c h a p r o p o s a l . C l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g i s p r o v i d e d f o r . The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would s e r v e as a s o u r c e o f d a t a , a d v i c e , and a s s i s t a n c e t o n o n - p r o f i t h o u s e r s . The s c a l e o f p u b l i c a c t i v i t y i n n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d by h a v i n g a c l o s e awareness o f the p l a n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f 145 p r i v a t e h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Community c o u n c i l would p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y " r o und s t a b l e " d e v i c e f o r b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y and t h e p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s who a r e j o i n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e o v e r a l l h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . In t h i s way the o p i n i o n o f p r i v a t e h o u s e r s c o u l d be e l i c i t e d so as t o c o n t r i b u t e t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . More i m p o r t a n t l y t h e p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d j o i n t l y d e v e l o p h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e p rograms. P u r p o s e f u l . The p r o p o s e d s y s t e m p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s o f government. F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n the f o r m u l a -t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s which u l t i m a t e l y d i c t a t e the s i z e o f t h e i r t o t a l f i n a n c i a l commitment t o s o c i a l h o u s i n g . A l l l e v e l s o f government d e v e l o p i n t e r - l o c k i n g programs. To i l l u s t r a t e , p r o v i n c i a l programs a r e summaries ( a d j u s t e d where n e c e s s a r y ) o f p r o p o s e d programs p r e p a r e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The F e d e r a l program would c o o r d i n a t e t h e p r o p o s e d P r o v i n c i a l programs. A l l programs i d e a l l y would employ common o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and c r i t e r i a o f need t o e n s u r e t h a t p r i o r i t i e s would be a s s i g n e d t o g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s and h o u s i n g c a t e g o r i e s w i t h g r e a t e s t r e l a t i v e need. I n f o r m a t i o n . The programs would be p r e p a r e d on the b a s i s o f s y s t e m a t i c a l l y g a t h e r e d and a n a l y z e d d a t a . T h i s 146 d a t a c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n s e v e r a l ways. The most o b v i o u s means i s t h a t o f r e v i s i n g a n d / o r e n l a r g i n g the r o l e o f t h e D o minion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s i n r e g a r d to h o u s i n g d a t a . I t would be n e c e s s a r y t o d e s i g n the c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o g i v e p r e c i s e l y t h e t y p e s o f d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r a " s t r u c t u r e d a t t a c k " on h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . The P r o v i n c e would c o l l e c t and c o l l a t e t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f i t s f u n c t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s would p r o v i d e s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , p l a n n i n g and u r b a n r e n e w a l a c t i v i t i e s . The key r e q u i r e m e n t i s t h a t a l l t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p u r p o s e f u l l y g a t h e r e d and made a v a i l a b l e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f programs a t a l l l e v e l s . The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would s e r v e as a h o u s i n g d a t a bank ( o r p r e p a r e t h e d a t a f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d a t a bank i f one e x i s t s ) . L e a d e r s h i p . Under the p r o p o s e d scheme, s t r o n g l e a d e r -s h i p i s a v a i l a b l e a t a l l l e v e l s o f government. The F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments have i d e a l l y f o r m u l a t e d obj e c t i v e s and committed t h e m s e l v e s t o programs o f a c t i o n . T h i s e n t a i l s p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t both t h e s e l e v e l s . The Urban Development Board d e v i c e o p e r a t e s as a s t r o n g P r o v i n c i a l mechanism and i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e i n i t i a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p rograms. The Urban Development Board d e v i c e would p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y - m a k i n g body f o r j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n . I t 147 would i n t e g r a t e f u n c t i o n a l d e p a r t m e n t s o f the P r o v i n c i a l government on bo t h p o l i c y and o p e r a t i n g d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e h o u s i n g program. The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n the f i e l d o f h o u s i n g . As p a r t o f t h e n o r m a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e i t would d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a n t i t y , t y p e and l o c a t i o n o f a l l t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . In i t s l i a i s o n w i t h p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s i n b o t h p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l w e l f a r e c a p a c i t i e s i t would e n c o u r a g e wide s c a l e p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the p r o v i s i o n o f n o n - p r o f i t h o u s i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n i t would assume an e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e where n e c e s s a r y . Such a r o l e c o u l d be d i r e c t e d to b u i l d e r s t o e n c o u r a g e a w i d e r i n t e r e s t i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and home c o n v e r s i o n , and low income and s p e c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n the h o u s i n g program i s o f c o u r s e v o l u n t a r y . In t h e ev e n t t h a t t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e program a l l o c a t e d t o p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s not f u l f i l l e d , t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would u n d e r t a k e b u i l d i n g t o make good t h e i n c o m p l e t e p o r t i o n o f t h e program. The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a mandatory b a s i s , s u b j e c t o f c o u r s e t o t h e r e c e i p t o f n e c e s s a r y f u n d s from t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. R o l e D e f i n i t i o n . The system i n d i c a t e s t h e b r o a d d i m e n s i o n s o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The 148 l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y - h o u s i n g c o u n c i l d e v i c e p r o v i d e s f o r c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , where the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d be d e f i n e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e q u i r e -ments o f t h e community. E f f e c t i v e n e s s . The system i d e a l l y p r o m i s e s a commit-ment, on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s , t o s u p p o r t h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . I t i n t e g r a t e s b o t h t h e s h e l t e r and w e l f a r e a p p r o a c h e s t o h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . The h o u s i n g programs, a t a l l l e v e l s o f government b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y work s c h e d u l e s a r e d e v i c e s f o r r e l a t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t o need a t any t i m e . The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y s y s t e m c o u p l e d w i t h t h e g r a n t - i n - a i d d e v i c e e n s u r e s the programs o p e r a t e on an i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l b a s i s i f n e c e s s a r y . C o n t i n u i t y . The s y s t e m p r o m i s e s c o n t i n u i t y . F i r s t l y i t p r o v i d e s f o r e x p l i c i t commitments t o a c t ( i . e . programs) a t a l l l e v e l s o f government. S e c o n d l y , permanent a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e m a c h i n e r y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e t o t a l range o f h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s i s p r o v i d e d . E q u i t y . The system p r o v i d e s f o r c o n c e n t r a t i n g f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . T h i s a p p r o a c h seems most e q u i t a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y where s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s and c ommunities may f a c e h e a v i e r h o u s i n g c o s t s b e c a u s e o f r e t i r e m e n t age 149 m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n h o u s i n g be r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d . P a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g r a n t i n g l a n d o r t a x c o n c e s s i o n s t o p r i v a t e h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s . S t a t u t e s c o u l d p r e s c r i b e a u n i f o r m p o l i c y on s u c h a p r a c t i c e , r e q u i r -i n g a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o a c t s i m i l a r l y . T h i s would seem t o augur f o r r a t i o n a l s i t i n g o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a u n i f o r m p o l i c y , i t would a p p e a r because o f t h e i n n a t e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o r s u i t a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h a t an e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g o f b u rden between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would not o b t a i n . The s u i t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would p e r h a p s b e a r an i n o r d i n a t e l y heavy c o s t i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e : (1) p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c e s t o a l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y w hich would assume l a n d c o s t s and (2) i n c r e a s e P r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s t o p r i v a t e h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a -t i o n s t o compensate f o r t h e l o s s o f m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s . The i n c r e a s e d P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l r o l e i n the h o u s i n g f i e l d c o u l d be compensated f o r ( i f n e c e s s a r y ) , i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f o v e r a l l P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and c o s t - s h a r i n g a g r e e m e n t s . U t i l i z e E x i s t i n g B u r e a u c r a c y . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m c a l l s f o r e n l a r g e m e n t o f e x i s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s e r v i c e s . 150 I t c a l l s f o r m o d i f y i n g t h e r o l e o f C.M.H.C. ( v i a t h e Urban Development Board) and more c l o s e l y c o o r d i n a t i n g P r o v i n c i a l D epartments by e n l a r g i n g an e x i s t i n g d e p artment t o h a n d l e t h i s r o l e . The p l a n n i n g , and w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l government a r e v i t a l l y i n t e r l o c k e d v i a t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y . A c c e p t a b i l i t y . The p r o p o s e d s y s t e m e n l a r g e s m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but p r o v i d e s c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e s i n power and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . I l l SUMMARY From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f community p l a n n i n g , a program i s e s s e n t i a l l y a work s c h e d u l e . I t c o m p r i s e s b o t h a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n and f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s , and a p r o p o s e d method o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t e d c h a n g i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s from t h e p r e s e n t t o t h e f u t u r e w i l l be met. The program a p p e a r s to be a p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t o f c o o r d i n a t i o n c a p a b l e o f m o b i l i z i n g p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s to e n s u r e h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet t h e p r o j e c t e d demands f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . A program f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y must be c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n two s e n s e s . F i r s t l y i t must p r o v i d e b o t h f o r t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and t h e e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by t h e e l d e r l y . S e c o n d l y , a f u l l r a n g e o f h o u s i n g t y p e s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s u c c e s s i v e phases i n t h e l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e e l d e r l y must be e n s u r e d . 151 To e n s u r e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e program, c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r and c o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s must be e n s u r e d . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n the f i e l d o f h o u s i n g where t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e numerous. C o o r d i n a -t i o n has many d i m e n s i o n s . The f i r s t d i m e n s i o n o f c o o r d i n a t i o n c o n c e r n s i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s i n i t s F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l , P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l , and i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l a s p e c t s . The s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n i s t h a t o f c o o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low income h o u s i n g . The t h i r d and f o u r t h d i m e n s i o n s i n v o l v e m u t u a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e h o u s i n g w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . The f i f t h d i m e n s i o n i s t h a t o f c o o r d i n a t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s on a b r o a d a r e a l b a s i s where r e q u i r e d . A b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t o f a c i l i t a t e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a h o u s i n g program i s e s s e n t i a l . I n v e s t i g a t i o n commenced w i t h a s t u d y o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l r o l e s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . The F e d e r a l Government, t h r o u g h the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , p l a y s a l e a d i n g r o l e i n c h a n n e l l i n g h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e economic, f u l l - r e c o v e r y , and s u b s i d i z e d components o f t h e h o u s i n g market. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g system r e f l e c t s F e d e r a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y as m a n i f e s t e d i n the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . The s y s t e m i s p r e s e n t l y g e a r e d t o m e e t i n g the 152 demands o f the economic market. Good H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s c a l l s f o r d r a m a t i c a c t i o n t o r e d i r e c t h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n . A s o c i a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e which would s t a t e t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government was p r e p a r e d t o s e r v e t h e a s s i s t e d and s u b s i d i z e d m a r k e t s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e demands they g e n e r a t e i s r e q u i r e d . Development o f a h o u s i n g program g e a r e d t o meet o v e r a l l h o u s i n g needs o f c o u r s e r e q u i r e s an o v e r a l l assessment o f t h e s e needs on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . F u l f i l l m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e o f c o u r s e r e q u i r e s P r o v i n c i a l Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The P r o v i n c e s must s h a r e i n t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e q u i r e d h o u s i n g program. The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would e n t a i l a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l d i a l o g u e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . The n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g program d e r i v i n g from t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s would be a c h i e v e d by c o l l a t i n g l o n g - r a n g e P r o v i n c i a l p rograms. The P r o v i n c i a l Government i s o f c o u r s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y t o implement h o u s i n g programs a t the l o c a l l e v e l . The key i s s u e i s w hether t o e n t r u s t t h e program t o a dominant P r o v i n c i a l mechanism o r t o a s t r o n g l y empowered l o c a l a g ency. To r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework were o u t l i n e d . These r e q u i r e m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system s h o u l d s e r v e a s t r o n g c o o r d i n a t i n g 153 f u n c t i o n . I t s h o u l d a l s o be g u i d e d by a s e n s e o f d e s t i n y and must p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r the f o r m u l a -t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s which g u i d e t h a t d e s t i n y . The h o u s i n g s y s t e m r e q u i r e s a d e f i n e d f l o w o f a u t h o r i t y , a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f r o l e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s and an u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a program. An o v e r a l l h o u s i n g program r e q u i r e s s y s t e m a t i c r e l a t i o n o f demand and s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g , and an e x p l i c i t commitment t o a c t t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g t o s a t i s f y demand. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program p r e s u p p o s e s an a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n e f f o r t s and t o d i r e c t them to t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s . The s ystem must p r o v i d e f o r an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h o u s i n g b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . S i n c e t h e f o c u s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i s t h a t o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , not d u p l i c a t i o n , i t was t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n where p o s s i b l e . A wide a r r a y o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s t o implement an o v e r a l l h o u s i n g program, o f which a program f o r h o u s i n g t h e aged i s a p a r t , were i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d and a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d : 1. The l o c a l a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n can r e s u l t i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o o r d i n a t e d h o u s i n g program. 2. A d e v i c e t o f o s t e r e f f e c t i v e j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . The Urban Development Board o r 154 s i m i l a r d e v i c e a c h i e v e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e . 3 . The P r o v i n c e must p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , l e g i s l a t i o n and d a t a . I t must c o o r d i n a t e P r o v i n c i a l w e l f a r e and h o u s i n g programs and i n i t i a t e programs where l o c a l a r e a s a r e i n c a p a b l e . 4 . The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h must be supplemen-t e d by a H o u s i n g C o u n c i l w hich i s a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e Community C o u n c i l where t h e l a t t e r e x i s t s . T h i s c o u n c i l would be t h e c h i e f d e v i c e f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p a r t i c -i p a t i o n o f p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Under t h e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m , t h e s e n i o r governments would f o r m u l a t e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s and f i n a n c e t h e h o u s i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y . The h o u s i n g f u n c t i o n would become a s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t s f u n c t i o n s would i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n o f l o n g term and s h o r t term h o u s i n g programs i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p l a n n i n g , urban r e n e w a l and w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s o f a m u n i c i p a l -i t y . The a u t h o r i t y would be empowered t o a c q u i r e and h o l d r e a l p r o p e r t y and t o engage i n advance s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . The a u t h o r i t y would p l a n , program, c o n s t r u c t and manage h o u s i n g f o r low income and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s on b e h a l f o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y as w e l l as p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s engaged i n m e e t i n g 155 t h e h o u s i n g needs o f low-income and e l d e r l y p e r s o n s . The a u t h o r i t y would a d m i n i s t e r r e n t c e r t i f i c a t e programs which e n a b l e t h e low income groups t o u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g . The p r o p o s e d system p r o v i d e s f o r t h e m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o u t l i n e d above. I t p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e h o u s i n g e f f o r t s a t a l l l e v e l s o f government and programs a t a l l l e v e l s a r e d e v e l o p e d w i t h the same o b j e c t i v e s i n mind. S t r o n g F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t i n u i t y o f a c t i o n i s a s s u r e d , f o r F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments a r e committed t o a c t i o n and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e bound, and empowered by s t a t u t e t o e x e c u t e programs. The F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l r o l e s a r e b a s i c a l l y t h o s e o f p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The m u n i c i p a l r o l e i s one o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e h o u s i n g need i s met. The r o l e s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p a r t i c -i p a n t s c o u l d be d e f i n e d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e q u i r e m e n t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the community. C o n c e n t r a t i n g f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s seems e q u i t a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y where s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s and c o m m u n i t i e s may f a c e h e a v i e r h o u s i n g c o s t s b e c a u s e o f r e t i r e m e n t age m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s . The p r o p o s e d system c a l l s f o r m o d i f y i n g t h e r o l e o f C . M.H.C, f o r e n s u r i n g g r e a t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l d e partments e n g a g i n g i n h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e , and f o r v i t a l l y i n t e r l o c k i n g t h e p l a n n i n g , h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s o f l o c a l government. REFERENCES 156 ^ M a n i t o b a Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, The  M a n i t o b a H o u s i n g S t u d y ( T o r o n t o : P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. ( i ) . 2 W. H. R e y n o l d s , "What i s E x p e c t e d o f a P l a n n i n g Program", Ame r i c a n S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s C o n f e r e n c e ( B o s t o n : The S o c i e t y , 1964), p. 42. 3 K. W. T a y l o r , " C o o r d i n a t i o n i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N i n t h A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , the I n s t i t u t e  o f P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 254. 4 W. H. Newman and C. E . Summer, The P r o c e s s o f  Management (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 964), p. 414. 5 M a n i t o b a Department o f I n d u s t r y , OJD. c i t . , p. 12. ^Werner Z. H i r s c h , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and F i s c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Urban Development", The A n n a l s o f t h e Ameri c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l 5 c i e n c e . 352:50, March, 1964. W^. H. Newman, OJD. e x t . , p. 10. ^ I b i d . . p. 11. 9 I b i d . 10 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on t h e A g i n g , B u i l d i n g f o r O l d e r P e o p l e (New Yo r k : The C o u n c i l , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 1-W. ^ J a n e t Gore "An O l d P e r s o n i s a P e r s o n " , O n t a r i o  H o u s i n g . 10:6, December, 1964. 12 A. Hanowski e t . a l . , H o u s i n g f o r t h e Aged ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 3 4 . 13 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on t h e A g i n g , op_. c i t . , p. 3BB. 157 K. W. T a y l o r , op_. c i t . . p. 253. I b x d . O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s . Good  H o u s i n g f o r C a n a d i a n s ( T o r o n t o : The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964), p. 120. 1 7 I b i d . I b i d . » P. 17. 1 9 I b i d . » P» 40. 2 0 I b i d . » P. 35. 2 1 I b i d . » P. 10. 22 T. . . I b i d . » P. 51. 2 3 I b i d . » P. 10. 2 4 I b i d . 25.,., I b i d . » P. 108. I b i d . » P« 112. 2 7 I b i d . 28 T, . , I b i d . 2 9 I b i d . I b i d . P. 114. H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , "Community P l a n n i n g and H o u s i n g : S t e p - C h i l d r e n o f C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m " , Queen's Q u a r t e r l y . W i n t e r , 1961, p. 667. 158 3 2 I b i d . , p. 668. 33 Wm. S. G o u l d i n g , " H o u s i n g f o r O l d e r P e o p l e , C a n a d i a n  W e l f a r e : S p e c i a l Number " H o u s i n g f o r Canada", December, 1952. 3 4 C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , S u b m i s s i o n  t o t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e on A g i n g (Ottawa: The C o r p o r a t i o n , 1964), p. 12. 35 P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a - Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e , Homes f o r t h e Aged i n A l b e r t a (Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 2. 36 C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board o f B. C , S e n i o r  C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g i n t h e C a p i t a l R e g i o n ( V i c t o r i a : The Board, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 10. 37 C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , op_. c i t . , 15. ^ I b i d . , p. 10. 39 I b i d . , p. 11. ^ O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , OJD. c i t . . 114. 4^I_b_id. , p. 113. I b i d . CHAPTER IV EXAMINING THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK: A CASE STUDY OF THE WHITE ROCK AREA OF B. C. I INTRODUCTION O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Case S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o examine the o p e r a -t i o n s o f t h e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c community. I t i s i n t e n d e d t o d e t e r m i n e by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a whether o r not t h e p r o p o s e d a p p r o a c h to h o u s i n g can f u l f i l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s which were o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r one o f t h i s s t u d y . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s to be m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n t e g r a t i n g f i n a n c e , p l a n n i n g , w e l f a r e and management f u n c t i o n s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o c e s s ; m u l t i - l e v e l , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g t h e e f f o r t s o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government, and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t s ; and m u l t i - a r e a , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n i t i a t i n g a h o u s i n g program e x t e n d i n g o v e r s e v e r a l p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s where n e c e s s a r y . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i s o f c o u r s e p r o p o s e d f o r use i n B. C. g e n e r a l l y . Thus i t s h o u l d be a b l e t o accommodate t h e wide v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 160 The A r e a o f 5 t u d y A s t u d y a r e a c e n t e r i n g on t h e C i t y o f White Rock, B. C. has been s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y p u r p o s e s . T h i s C i t y o f some 6,000 p e r s o n s was s e l e c t e d f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , 35% o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f White Rock were 65 y e a r s o f age and o v e r i n 1961. To a p p r e c i a t e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f i g u r e i t must be remembered t h a t a s i m i l a r f i g u r e f o r Canada as a whole i n t h e same y e a r s was 7.6%. I t was c o n s i d -e r e d t h a t such an o b v i o u s l y a t y p i c a l community c o u l d be t h e s u b j e c t o f an i n t e r e s t i n g and r e v e a l i n g c a s e s t u d y o f the p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . S e c o n d l y , t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s i n d i c a t e s w i t h o u t a doubt t h a t any problems o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y a r e not i n d i g e n o u s t o the a r e a . White Rock a f f o r d s an extreme example o f f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f a community. I t l u c i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m i g r a t i o n t r e n d s t o a r e a s o f n a t u r a l a m e n i t y as p l a c e s f o r r e t i r e m e n t and may t h u s p r o v i d e a c l e a r example o f i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y , i n t r a -p r o v i n c i a l , and p e r h a p s i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l " s p i l l o v e r s " o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . T h i r d l y , White Rock r e p r e s e n t s a s t u d y a r e a o f manageable s i z e , t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f m e a n i n g f u l c o n c l u s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community, t h e i r h o u s i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f a h o u s i n g program, and t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a c h i e v i n g an a c t i v e program under th e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework. L a s t l y , the t o t a l q u e s t i o n 161 of housing the e l d e r l y i n the White Rock area has an i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l aspect i n s o f a r as the a b u t t i n g areas o f Surrey M u n i c i p a l i t y have a s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . Moreover the l a t t e r m u n i c i p a l i t y has e v o l v e d a concept f o r long-range p h y s i c a l development f o r a broad area s u r r o u n d i n g White Rock which w i l l undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e the c h a r a c t e r of development i n White Rock per s e , c r e a t i n g the need f o r c l o s e i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n i f s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s are to be e f f i c i e n t l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y s u p p l i e d to the r e s i d e n t s o f the a r e a . D i s c u s s i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e not be r e s t r i c t e d to the c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s of the C i t y of White Rock, but w i l l expand to embrace the Sunnyside area of S u r r e y where n e c e s s a r y . The White Rock a r e a , i n t e g r a l l y p a r t o f the Lower Mainland Region of B. C , i s an e n t i t y s t i l l d i s t i n c t from the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s c o n d i t i o n may o f course change, p a r t i c u l a r l y as c o n d i t i o n s of access a l t e r . Nonethe-l e s s , a t the moment, the area remains somewhat s o c i a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y unique and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d . The area of study i s shown i n i t s m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t i n F i g u r e 3, page 163. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Case Study T h i s c h a p t e r must assume no d r a m a t i c r e a l i g n m e n t o f housing p o l i c i e s of F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments. I n s t e a d the o p e r a t i o n s o f the proposed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e frame-work w i l l be examined i n l i g h t of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e 162 p r o v i s i o n s . The system s h o u l d o f c o u r s e c o n t i n u o u s l y d i s s e m i n a t e a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e l e g i s l a t o r s and e l e c t o r a t e who i n t h e l o n g r u n w i l l d e t e r m i n e changes i n h o u s i n g p o l i c y . Emphasis, i n any e v e n t , w i l l n o t be p l a c e d on i m p o n d e r a b l e s s u c h as changes o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y o r p r o b l e m s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t o r between t h o s e l e v e l s o f government. I n s t e a d t h e community p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s of h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y w i l l be e m p h a s i z e d . M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r M a j o r H ighway a r y - f - H — f _ M a j o r R a i l w a y CO 164 I I THE WHITE ROCK AREA TODAY What. Where, and Why White Rock i s an a n a c h r o n i s t i c community. I t i s i n c o r p o r a t e d as a c i t y y e t i t has but 6,500 r e s i d e n t s ( 1 9 6 1 ) . I t i s a c i t y y e t i t l a c k s an i n d u s t r i a l economic b a s e . The p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i s u n i q u e among C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s ; h a v i n g s o m e t h i n g j u s t l e s s t h an f i v e t i m e s the a v e r a g e number o f aged c i t i z e n s t h a n has an " a v e r a g e " C a n a d i a n community. Yet White Rock i s b l e s s e d - b l e s s e d w i t h a c l i m a t e t h a t m ight w e l l be t h e m i l d e s t e n c o u n t e r e d anywhere i n Canada. S i t u a t e d i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n o f B. C , W h i t e Rock e n j o y s t h e moderate "marine w e s t - c o a s t " c l i m a t e w hich p r e v a i l s i n t h a t r e g i o n . Even then White Rock and e n v i r o n s s t a n d s a l o n e , h a v i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s r a i n -(40 i n c h e s p e r annum compared w i t h 60 i n c h e s i n V a n c o u v e r C i t y ) and more b r i g h t s u n s h i n e (2,000 hours p e r annum compared w i t h 1,250 i n V a n c o u v e r C i t y ) t h a n e l s e w h e r e i n the region."'' The c l i m a t i c a d v a n t a g e s o f the a r e a a r e enhanced by t h e s p e c t a c u l a r s e t t i n g o f t h e c i t y on t h e s l o p e s o f an u p l a n d p l a t e a u o v e r l o o k i n g the s h e l t e r e d w a t e r s and beaches o f Boundary Bay. The f a v o r a b l e c o n c u r r e n c e o f c l i m a t i c , s c e n i c and o c e a n s i d e a m e n i t i e s a r e t h e c h i e f r e s o u r c e s o f the a r e a and e x p l a i n i t s c h i e f f u n c t i o n s as a r e t i r e m e n t and r e c r e a t i o n 165 c e n t r e . Indeed t h e a t y p i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e o f White Rock i s e x p l i c a b l e e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms o f i m m i g r a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n t h e p r e - r e t i r e m e n t and p e r m a n e n t l y r e t i r e d c a t e g o r i e s . W h i t e Rock i s a l s o a c o t t a g e community where a number o f f a m i l i e s r e s i d e o n l y i n t h e summer months t o be c l o s e t o the sun and s e a . The beaches o f White Rock a r e w i t h i n easy " d a y - t r i p " r a n g e o f the r e s i d e n t s o f the Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n and t h e r e f o r e a t t r a c t l a r g e numbers o f s h o r t - t e r m v i s i t o r s i n t h e summer months. The "summer" c o t t a g e s o f the a r e a have p r o v e n a t t r a c t i v e t o the r e t i r e d e l d e r l y who have s o u g h t permanent r e s i d e n c e i n White Rock but who have p r e s u m a b l y not d e s i r e d t o pay f o r l a r g e and e x p e n s i v e homes. The P e o p l e The most n o t a b l e f e a t u r e s o f White Rock's p o p u l a t i o n a r e o f c o u r s e t h e age and sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 35% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s o v e r 65 y e a r s o f age. The a b b e r e n t n a t u r e o f t h i s p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i s b e s t a p p r e c i a t e d by c o mparing t h i s f i g u r e w i t h s i m i l a r f i g u r e s f o r o t h e r G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r communities p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I and F i g u r e 4, page 166. TABLE I I I PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION 65 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER IN GREATER VANCOUVER COMMUNITIES - 1961 P e r c e n t o f P o p u l a t i o n Community 65 Y e a r s and Over M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r 11.1 C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 13.8 Burnaby 8.5 New W e s t m i n s t e r 11.2 West V a n c o u v e r 9.7 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r C i t y 9.5 N o r t h V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t y 5.6 C o q u i t l a m 8.4 P o r t Moody 5.5 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 6.2 S u r r e y 8»7 White Rock 35.0 D e l t a 7.7 Richmond 4.9 S o u r c e : C a l c u l a t e d from Census o f Canada, 1961. 168 5 u r r e y m u n i c i p a l i t y , as may be seen from T a b l e I I I , has a more " t y p i c a l " s uburban p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e w i t h f a r l e s s e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s t h a n White Rock. Y e t as F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s , t h e e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n o f c e n s u s t r a c t ( c . t . ) 189 i s a l s o h i g h , b e i n g 20.8% o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i g u r e s o f 4.1% and 7.1% o f c . t . 184 and 182 w h i c h a r e a l s o i n S u r r e y . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e who r e s i d e i n t h e S u n n y s i d e a r e a o f S u r r e y , i n u r b a n a r e a s c l o s e t o t h e c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s o f White Rock C i t y . In White Rock t h e r e a r e 100 f e m a l e s f o r e v e r y 90 m a l e s , a f a c t which p r e s u m a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l l o n g e v i t y o f males and f e m a l e s among t h e r e t i r e d p e o p l e o f t h a t c i t y . The f e m a l e s , i n s i m p l e t e r m s , " o u t - s u r v i v e " t h e m a l e s . ( I n White Rock t h e r e were 544 widowed f e m a l e s and 164 widowed males i n 1 9 6 1 ) . In a b u t t i n g c . t . 189, t h e r e a r e 100 f e m a l e s f o r e v e r y 102 males which i s t y p i c a l o f u r b a n B. C. T h i s f i g u r e r e f l e c t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e y o u n g e r f a m i l i e s i n c . t . 189. Indeed t h e l a r g e s t groups i n b o t h White Rock and c . t . 189 a r e t h e aged; t h e n e x t l a r g e s t a r e t h e 55 - 64 group i n White Rock and 35 - 44 group i n c . t . 189. E d u c a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e v e a l i n g . About 1 0 % o f a l l t h e r e s i d e n t s o f White Rock have had one o r more y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . The a v e r a g e s f o r u r b a n B. C. and 169 M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a r e 4% and 5.6% r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e r e i s not a d i v e r s i f i e d economic base s u f f i c i e n t t o employ l o c a l l y s u c h a number o f q u a l i f i e d p e o p l e , t h e o b v i o u s i n f e r r e n c e i s t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r e t i r e d e l d e r l y a r e w e l l e d u c a t e d . The h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f the w o r k i n g f o r c e i n White Rock i s engaged i n c o m m e r c i a l b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , b e i n g some 30% i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e 23.9% f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t W h i t e Rock i s r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , and c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g c o m m e r c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r permanent r e s i d e n t s o f White Rock and S u n n y s i d e as w e l l as f o r s e a s o n a l p o p u l a t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s on t h e incomes o f the e l d e r l y r e s i d i n g i n th e a r e a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . In t h e o p i n i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n White Rock and S u r r e y , e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s i n a l l income b r a c k e t s r e s i d e i n t h e a r e a , but i n unknown p r o p o r t i o n s . H o u s i n g i n White Rock The h o u s i n g o f W h i t e Rock does n o t d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h a t o f t h e Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a (CM.A.) ( e x c l u d i n g V a n c o u v e r ) . The d a t a o f the 1961 Census o f Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t : 1. 87% o f t h e homes i n White Rock and t h e CM.A. a r e s i n g l e -f a m i l y d e t a c h e d . 170 2. White Rock has a h i g h e r r a t e o f owner o c c u p a n c y - 82% a g a i n s t . 79% f o r t h e CM.A. 3. No c r o w d i n g o f d w e l l i n g s was r e p o r t e d i n White Rock whereas 9% o f t h e d w e l l i n g s i n the CM.A. were crowded. T h i s p r e s u m a b l y r e f l e c t s i n p a r t t h e s m a l l f a m i l y (one o r two p e r s o n s ) which would c h a r a c t e r i z e the houses o f th e e l d e r l y i n White Rock. 4. 3.6% o f t h e d w e l l i n g s i n the CM.A. had major d e f e c t s and 16% r e p o r t e d m i n o r d e f e c t s . In White Rock o n l y 12% had m i n o r d e f e c t s and no d w e l l i n g s w i t h major d e f e c t s were r e p o r t e d . W h i l e census d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t h o u s i n g i s f r e e o f major d e f e c t s and n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y p l a g u e d w i t h m i n o r d e f e c t s , one key v a r i a b l e must be c o n s i d e r e d . T h a t v a r i a b l e i s t h e o r i g i n a l q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s t e e p c l i f f s o f White Rock were i n i t i a l l y s u b d i v i d e d i n t o narrow t h i r t y - t h r e e f o o t l o t s and summer c o t t a g e s were s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d upon t h e s e s m a l l l o t s . S i m i l a r l y , n e a r t h e f o r m e r C a m p b e l l R i v e r M i l l i n t h e l o w - l y i n g a r e a s i n the e a s t e r n end o f town, c o n s i d e r a b l e s m a l l c o t t a g e h o u s i n g was d e v e l o p e d t o house t h e workers o f t h e "camp". Much o f t h i s c o t t a g e and camp h o u s i n g has been p u r c h a s e d , o f t e n c o n v e r t e d and r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o form r e t i r e m e n t houses f o r t h e e l d e r l y . Indeed many o f t h e permanent r e s i d e n t s o f the c o t t a g e a r e a s 171 a r e t h e e l d e r l y who r e q u i r e o n l y s m a l l homes and i n d e e d who can o n l y a f f o r d such h o u s i n g . Much o f t h i s h o u s i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d t o be "cheap h o u s i n g " , as i n i t i a l p u r c h a s e p r i c e s a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y low, r a n g i n g around $5,000.00. M o r e o v e r t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e s f o r p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n p u r p o s e s on many c o t t a g e s a r e low. M u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s i n the o r d e r o f 2 $30.00 p e r annum a r e not uncommon. T h i s o f c o u r s e means r e d u c e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and f u r t h e r enhances t h e "cheap h o u s i n g " a s p e c t s o f the a r e a . T h i s "cheap h o u s i n g " f e a t u r e o f c o u r s e c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o be a permanent c o n d i t i o n . H o u s i n g becomes o l d and o b s o l e t e , d e t e r i o r a t i n g to s t a n d a r d s which endanger t h e h e a l t h o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s and the s a f e t y o f t h e community. Indeed i n 1958, the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board s t r e s s e d t h a t among the s p e c i a l problems o f p a r t i c u l a r u r g e n c y was t h a t o f t h e b a d l y p l a n n e d [ c o t t a g e ] a r e a t h a t i s l i k e l y t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y r u n down and a major f i r e h a z a r d , w i t h o u t i n t h e p r o c e s s p e n a l i z i n g r e t i r e d p e o p l e who depend o n . . . c o t t a g e s as t h e i r homes and who may have no s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . ^ White Rock i s a t t r a c t i n g new apartment development and 4 t h e c h i e f o c c u p a n t s a r e b e l i e v e d t o be p e n s i o n e r s . T h i s judgment i s i n f e r r e d b e c a u s e t h e p o l i c y o f t h e s e a p a r t m e n t managers i s one o f no c h i l d r e n ( i n c l u d i n g t e e n a g e r s ) . T h i s would e f f e c t i v e l y p r e c l u d e o c c u p a n c y by the b u l k o f t h e 172 m i d d l e - a g e b r a c k e t , and b e c a u s e the p r o p o r t i o n o f p e o p l e i n t h e young m a r r i e d age b r a c k e t i s low, the c h i e f market i s by d e d u c t i o n t h a t o f the e l d e r l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n White Rock a r e l a r g e " b e a c h f r o n t " s t r u c t u r e s , w h ich were o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d as h o t e l s o r " a p a r t m e n t " h o u s e s . These s t r u c t u r e s , now o l d , a r e g e n e r a l l y u n a p p e a l i n g t o the t o u r i s t t r a d e . They s e r v e as homes f o r t h e s i n g l e e l d e r l y , e i t h e r on a h o u s e k e e p i n g o r room and b o a r d b a s i s . H o u s i n g , p u r p o s e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e e l d e r l y , has been and i s b e i n g b u i l t under the l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . The most s a l u t a r y example i s t h e l a r g e and w e l l c o n c e i v e d p r o j e c t s p o n s o r e d by t h e B a p t i s t C h u r c h . An i n t e g r a t e d development u l t i m a t e l y to embrace r e s t homes, a s m a l l i n f i r m a r y , s e v e n " f o u r - p l e x " m a r r i e d u n i t s , and apartment u n i t s accommodating n i n e t e e n s m a l l s u i t e s e ach, i s b e i n g d e v e l o p e d on a f i v e a c r e s i t e . A d evelopment o f t h r e e major u n i t s p r o v i d e s rooms f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y male and f e m a l e s i n g l e - e l d e r l y e x i s t s . A c e n t r a l d i n i n g a r e a e x i s t s , and meals may be s e r v e d i n i n d i v i d u a l rooms a t a n o m i n a l d a i l y c h a r g e . The f i r s t o f t h e f o u r - p l e x s e l f -c o n t a i n e d " m a r r i e d u n i t s " i s under c o n s t r u c t i o n as i s t h e f i r s t o f the apartment b l o c k s . The t w e l v e bed rest-home i s t o be d e v e l o p e d i n a s u b s e q u e n t b u i l d i n g p h a s e . T h i s home 173 i s d e v e l o p e d on t h e top o f t h e c l i f f s g i v i n g i t a m a g n i f i c e n t o u t l o o k t o the s e a . Of a l l t h e p r o j e c t s i n t h e a r e a , i t i s c l o s e s t t o c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s , b u t s t i l l i t i s l o c a t e d o n e - h a l f m i l e from a s h o p p i n g c e n t r e . A p r o j e c t c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l m a r r i e d u n i t s has been d e v e l o p e d by t h e C a n a d i a n L e g i o n . W h i l e t h e i r e f f o r t s a r e l a u d a b l e , t h e p r o j e c t s u f f e r s from i s o l a t i o n . The n e a r e s t s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e a m i l e and a q u a r t e r away and t h e a r e a i s s e r v e d by o n l y one bus a day. The poor l o c a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f one v a r i a b l e - namely l a n d c o s t s . In s t r u g g l i n g to i n i t i a t e a p r o j e c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s o u g h t t o r e d u c e c o s t s . T h i s c o s t r e d u c t i o n c a r r i e d o v e r t o l a n d c o s t s . A p e r i p h e r a l s i t e , a l b e i t c h e a p e r , was s e l e c t e d . T h i s has however i m p a i r e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e whole a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a s a l u t a r y l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t f o r the e l d e r l y . C r e s c e n t Beach Park Homes ( i n C. T. 189) was i n i t i a l l y s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h , b u t management has now p a s s e d t o a s e r v i c e c l u b . T h i s p r o j e c t as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e L e g i o n i s r e p u t e d t o the a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e e f f o r t s o f a few d e d i c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . When, f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s the i n t e r e s t s o f o r i g i n a l s p o n s o r s c e a s e s , the p r o j e c t s s u f f e r from v e r y r e a l management p r o b l e m s . I t i s a p p a r e n t l y d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n and e n s u r e l o n g - t e r m p h i l a n t h r o p i c management 174 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y even i n a s m a l l e r community s u c h as White Rock. A p p a r e n t l y , one o f t h e most p r e s s i n g needs i s f o r " h a l f way measures" which can e n a b l e the e l d e r l y t o m a i n t a i n , 5 w i t h a modicum o f a s s i s t a n c e , t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e . These h a l f way measures a r e e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s s u c h as c o o k i n g , b a t h i n g e t c . , e n t a i l i n g p e r h a p s the a s s i s t a n c e o f a "home-maker" f o r o n e - h a l f hour p e r day. F o r c e s o f Change i n White Rock F u n c t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y must echo the view t h a t " i t does no t seem l i k e l y t h a t White Rock's f u n c t i o n and economic base w i l l change much f o r a l o n g t i m e t o come". White Rock i s p r e s e n t l y a r e s o r t and w i l l c o n t i n u e to depend upon i t s a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t h o l i d a y - m a k e r s . E f f o r t s t o enhance White Rock's a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and c a p a c i t y t o meet t h e needs o f v a c a t i o n e r s must be a g g r e s s i v e f o r e x i s t i n g development i s poor and u n a t t r a c t i v e . T h i s i s c r i t i c a l f o r White Rock depends on t o u r i s t d o l l a r s f o r i t s economic v i a b i l i t y . White Rock i s a haven f o r t h e r e t i r e d and t h i s r o l e i s i m p l i c i t l y a cknowledged by i t s c i t i z e n s . T h i s r o l e has not changed i n t h e s h o r t r u n a t l e a s t . F o r example, p e o p l e 55 y e a r s o f age and o v e r c o n s t i t u t e d 47% o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n 1956 and 48% i n 1961. 175 One new f u n c t i o n which may a l t e r the c h a r a c t e r o f White Rock i s t h a t o f s e r v i n g as a bed-room d o r m i t o r y f o r t h e community worker and h i s f a m i l y . White Rock i s now l i n k e d by f r e e w a y t o V a n c o u v e r C i t y and " i t seems c e r t a i n t o become a p o p u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l s a t e l i t e o f the m e t r o p o l i s " . 7 C o n s i d e r -a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new s i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d homes i n White Rock has been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the l a s t few y e a r s . T h i s t r e n d a p a r t from a l t e r i n g the p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n would n o t a p p e a r t o r e d u c e t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the a r e a f o r t h e r e t i r e d c i t i z e n s . I n s o f a r as i t i s a component o f growth, i t w i l l p r o b a b l y e n t a i l the e x p a n s i o n o f a l l r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s i n t h e a d j a c e n t S u n n y s i d e a r e a o f S u r r e y . D e t e r i o r a t i n g H o u s i n g . The c o t t a g e problem has been b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d above. In e s s e n c e i t r e q u i r e s a c t i o n t o e n s u r e i n t h e s h o r t r u n , t h a t summer c o t t a g e a r e a s do not d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o shacktowns; i n t h e l o n g r u n i t n e c e s s i t a t e s a program f o r r e d e v e l o p i n g t h o s e p a r t s o f the c i t y w i t h t h e problem o f " s m a l l l o t s , i n f e r i o r development a n d / o r p o o r Q s t r e e t l a y o u t " . T h i s a c t i o n w i l l a p p r o p r i a t e l y be u r b a n r e n e w a l a c t i o n t o c o n s e r v e good h o u s i n g , to r e h a b i l i t a t e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g , where p o s s i b l e , and t o r e d e v e l o p t h e a r e a s o f p o o r e s t h o u s i n g . These problems t a k e on s p e c i a l meaning i n t h e c o n t e x t o f White Rock where t h e s e measures must i n l a r g e measure be g e a r e d t o accommodate the p h y s i c a l , economic, 176 and s o c i a l needs and c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e e l d e r l y . The problems c r e a t e d by h o u s i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n have a l r e a d y become m a n i f e s t i n the form o f f a l l i n g a s s e s s m e n t s i n t h e c o t t a g e a r e a . P r o p e r t y t a x e s (as m e n t i o n e d above) on many s m a l l homes a r e as low as $30.00 p e r annum. T h i s c a n n o t be d e n i e d as a h i g h l y a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e f o r the r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s e a r e a s - p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y a r e on f i x e d low incomes such as are. t h e p e n s i o n e r s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i n g demand f o r s e r v i c e s i n White Rock. The u p s h o t o f t h i s i s the need t o m a i n t a i n the o v e r a l l r e v e n u e s by i n c r e a s i n g the a s s e s s m e n t s i n jthe newer and b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d segments o f t h e C i t y . Such d r a m a t i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n any p a r t o f t h e t a x base i s o b v i o u s l y damaging i n a c i t y , w hich l a c k s p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y and which must depend on a s s e s s m e n t s o f c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r i t s r e v e n u e s . Many r e s i d e n t s i n White Rock have, i n t h e p a s t , been f o r t u n a t e i n b e i n g a b l e t o s e c u r e h o u s i n g a t low i n i t i a l c o s t and w i t h low a n n u a l t a x a s s e s s m e n t s . U n d o u b t e d l y t h i s cheap h o u s i n g has been an i n s t r u m e n t a l f a c t o r i n e n h a n c i n g White Rock's r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n . To e x p e c t t h i s c o n d i t i o n t o e ndure i n t h e l o n g r u n i s o f c o u r s e n a i v e . C o n t i n u e d dependence on a l e g a c y o f low c o s t c o t t a g e h o u s i n g i s n o t t e n a b l e f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y t h e c o t t a g e h o u s i n g w i l l 177 become w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e u n s a f e and u n f i t f a r h a b i t a -tion-.- S e c o n d l y , the economic base o f the C i t y w i l l be s t e a d i l y weakened by p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r which no economic r e t u r n i s o b t a i n e d . M oreover t h e p l a c e m e n t o f homes w i t h i n a framework o f s t r e e t s , t h e g r a d e s o f which e x c e e d 20%, i s from a p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f view, u n a c c e p t a b l e . These s t e e p g r a d e s make i t e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t t o make j o u r n e y s by f o o t from home t o s h o p p i n g a r e a s , p l a c e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and p l a c e s o f w o r s h i p . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the e l d e r l y whose m o b i l i t y may be h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d by some p h y s i c a l i n c a p a c i t y . The s l o p e s need not r e s t r i c t t h e p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n . I n s t e a d t h e s l o p e s a f f o r d a s p l e n d i d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r e a t i v e r e d e s i g n , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a system o f walkways o f g e n t l e g r a d i e n t , and s m a l l p a r k s . The view which t h e s l o p e s a f f o r d i s s p e c t a c u l a r and s h o u l d be c a p i t a l i z e d upon when t h e a r e a becomes due f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Garden a p a r t m e n t s , p a t i o h o u s i n g , e t c . , a r e forms o f h o u s i n g w h i c h c o u l d c a p i t a l i z e on t h i s view and y e t p r o v i d e t h e s m a l l a t t r a c t i v e accommodation p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e needs o f t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s i s not t o s u g g e s t the a r e a s h o u l d be e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e o c c u p a n c y o f t h e e l d e r l y . What i s i n t e n d e d i s a d e s i g n c o n c e p t s e n s i t i v e t o bo t h the s c e n i c a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e s l o p e s and t h e c i r c u l a t i o n p roblem t h e y p o s e . In a d d i t i o n i t must 178 be s t r e s s e d t h a t c o n s i d e r e d d e s i g n can r e d u c e the o v e r a l l s e r v i c i n g c o s t s i n o r d e r to t e n a b l e the p r o v i s i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e low c o s t h o u s i n g . C o n c e p t s f o r G u i d i n g Change White Rock. The need f o r u l t i m a t e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e a s o f poor h o u s i n g i n White Rock was s t r e s s e d i n 1958 by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d (L.M.R.P.B.) . An a c t i v e program o f a c t i o n f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a r e a s o f p o o r h o u s i n g was a d v o c a t e d a t t h a t t i m e , but no a c t i o n was t a k e n . Nor has a c o n c e p t f o r s h a p i n g White Rock's f u t u r e been f o r m u l a t e d . A c o n c e p t f o r p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , as-s t r e s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I (page 38), i n s p e c i f y i n g t h e t y p e s o f accommodation t o be d e v e l o p e d , i n h e r e n t l y makes t h e d e c i s i o n s w hich w i l l shape th e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . In t h e a b s e n c e o f a g u i d i n g c o n c e p t , the s o c i a l d e s t i n y o f t h e C i t y i s l e f t t o change. To p e r m i t c o n t i n u e d u n g u i d e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i l l p r o d u c e a s u b s t a n d a r d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t c o n d u c i v e t o a s i m i l a r l y s u b s t a n d a r d s o c i a l l i f e . N a t u r a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d but w i t h i n the framework o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e development p l a n . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y i f the r e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t i s t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e s i g n o f t h e a r e a to p r o d u c e c l o s e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f w o r k i n g , s h o p p i n g and r e c r e a t i o n 179 a r e a s . New development on an o l d p a t t e r n w i l l o n l y r e i n f o r c e t h e i n e f f i c i e n t l a y o u t t i l l t h e t i m e o f the n e x t r e d e v e l o p -ment c y c l e . An a g g r e s s i v e r e n e w a l program may demand p u b l i c a c t i o n i n the a r e a s which w i l l not renew t h e m s e l v e s i f t h e p r o c e s s o f p r i v a t e development i s e x c l u s i v e l y r e l i e d upon. The L.M.R.P.B. o u t l i n e d t h e a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h e problems o f t h e c o t t a g e a r e a . The f i r s t method i s t h a t o f s t r i c t e n f o r c e m e n t o f e x i s t i n g b y - l a w s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s c o n s e r v a t i o n d e v i c e i s n e c e s s a r y , but i t w i l l n o t s o l v e the p r o b l e m s o f an a l r e a d y d e t e r i o r a t i n g a r e a . The s e c o n d method o f p i e c e m e a l a c q u i s i t i o n and assembly o f p r o p e r t i e s i s e f f e c t i v e o n l y i f the C i t y i s p r e p a r e d t o v o i d t h e use o f a c q u i r e d p r o p e r t y f o r a l o n g p e r i o d . The t h i r d method, t h a t o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p l a n n i n g and r e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p e a r s t o be t h e most e f f e c t i v e method o f e l i m i n a t i n g p r e s e n t h o u s i n g problems and r e c r e a t i n g a new and more f u n c t i o n a l l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . F i n a n c i a l and o t h e r a i d i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e t a s k and t h i s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n s u b s e -quent s e c t i o n s . In s h o r t , t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i s bound t o e v o l v e a c o n c e p t f o r White Rock's f u t u r e . T h i s c o n c e p t w i l l v i t a l l y b e a r upon the r e t i r e m e n t f u n c t i o n d e p e n d i n g on the p r o v i s i o n s i t w i l l make r e l a t e d t o White Rock's r e s i d e n t i a l 180 d e v e l o p m e n t . The c o u n c i l must choose between d r i f t i n g and p l a n n i n g ; t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p a t h s t o t h e f u t u r e must be e v a l u a t e d and a p a t h c o n d u c i v e t o sound development s e l e c t e d . S u r r e y . The C i t y o f White Rock c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n v a c u o . The S u n n y s i d e a r e a o f S u r r e y , c o n t i g u o u s w i t h t h e ur b a n a r e a o f White Rock; and t h e communities o f Ocean Park and C r e s c e n t Beach (shaded i n as t h e u n i d e n t i f i e d u r b a n a r e a w i t h i n the s t u d y a r e a on F i g u r e 3, Page 163, must be c o n s i d e r e d as s h a r i n g c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e which p r e v a i l i n White Rock. C e r t a i n l y the s e a - s i d e c ommunities i n S u r r e y s h a r e t h e same c l i m a t i c and s c e n i c a d v a n t a g e s as does White Rock. Moreover t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f c . t . 189 w h i c h embraces S u n n y s i d e , Ocean P a r k , and C r e s c e n t Beach i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d among t h e o t h e r c . t . ' s o f S u r r e y by i t s r e m a r k a b l y h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y . D o u b t l e s s l y , t h e s e a r e a s f u l f i l l t he s e l f s a m e r o l e o f White R o c k . p r o p e r -namely t h a t t h e y f u n c t i o n as r e t i r e m e n t c o m m u n i t i e s . C. T. 189, b e c a u s e o f i t s s i z e i n c l u d e s a l a r g e and t y p i c a l l y s u b u r b a n a r e a . T h i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s t h e l o w e r o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e e l d e r l y i n the a r e a . I t i s l i k e l y , t h a t i f d a t a were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e "urban a r e a " ( s e e F i g u r e 3, page 163) o u t s i d e o f White Rock, but w i t h i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e same h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e e l d e r l y would be n o t e d . In c . t . 189 t h e sex r a t i o i s c l o s e l y b a l a n c e d between male 181 and f e m a l e . T h i s may r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e o f y o u n g e r age g roups on t h e o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , the s h o r t a g e o f r e n t a l accommodation i n t h e a r e a s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s i n g l e e l d e r l y , compared w i t h White Rock, and a l e s s e r r o l e as a r e t i r e m e n t community. A p l a n n i n g s t u d y c o n d u c t e d by 5 u r r e y m u n i c i p a l i t y as a whole i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e c o n t r a c t r e n t i n S u r r e y i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t p r e v a i l i n g i n e i t h e r V a n c o u v e r C i t y o r the Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . T h i s t h e y c o n t e n d may r e f l e c t " S u r r e y ' s f r i n g e l o c a t i o n as w e l l as a r e l a t i v e l y low c a l i b r e o f r e n t a l accommodation"."*"^ S i m i l a r l y t h e median v a l u e o f o w n e r - o c c u p i e d homes ( i n c l u d i n g l a n d ) i n S u r r e y i s about $2,500 l o w e r t h a n t h e median v a l u e f o r homes i n V a n c o u v e r and the Metro A r e a , r e f l e c t i n g t h e l o w e r l a n d c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from S u r r e y ' s f r i n g e l o c a t i o n . H W i t h o u t d e t a i l e d s t u d y , t h e s p a t i a l i n c i d e n c e o f t h e c h e a p e r homes and r e n t s i n S u r r e y , one must assume t h a t t h e accommodation i n the s t u d y a r e a ( F i g u r e 2) l i k e t h a t o f S u r r e y i s r e l a t i v e l y low. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t cheap r e n t s as w e l l as c l i m a t e may e x p l a i n t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y i n c . t . 189. The number o f p e r s o n s aged 55 and o v e r i n S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y as a whole, d e c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y by 4.3% 12 r e l a t i v e t o t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n between 1956 and 1961. 182 T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e p r o n o u n c e d i n - m i g r a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l f a m i l i e s a f t e r 1956. However, by s u r v i v i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o t h e f u t u r e , u s i n g t h e c o h o r t s u r v i v a l method, the S u r r e y p l a n n i n g d i v i s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the 65 and o v e r age group w i l l , between 1961 and 1981, grow a t r a t e s e x c e e d i n g t h e 0-4 and 25-34 age groups which p r e s e n t l y loom so l a r g e i n 13 t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . S u r r e y has e v o l v e d a d e s i g n c o n c e p t , based on t h e p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s , r e q u i r e d t o g u i d e f u t u r e urban growth i n S u r r e y . The i n t e n t i o n i s t o b r i e f l y e v a l u a t e t h i s c o n c e p t as i t w i l l accommodate p l a n n i n g f o r t h e needs o f t h e e l d e r l y . The c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t any d e s i g n c o n c e p t must r e s p e c t b o t h the n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e s and a m e n i t i e s o f an a r e a , and the age-sex c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . These two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s come t o f o c u s i n the White Rock - S u n n y s i d e a r e a where b e c a u s e o f n a t u r a l a d v a n t a g e s a p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d towards the e l d e r l y has d e v e l o p e d . Whether su c h a p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n w i l l o r even ought t o c o n t i n u e , must be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e w i l l s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h a t p a t t e r n . The S u r r e y p l a n n e r s i n s i s t t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d a t random w i t h i n a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, but s h o u l d i n s t e a d be " d i r e c t e d i n t o c o n c e n t r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o economic p r i n c i p l e s o f 183 s e r v i c i n g " . ^ " 4 The p r o p o s e d development p a t t e r n i s t h u s one o f r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d towns c o n s i s t i n g o f r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e s . T hese v i l l a g e s would s u r r o u n d a c e n t r a l c o r e c o n t a i n i n g r e t a i l and n o n - r e t a i l c o m m e r c i a l u s e s , o f f i c e s , a p a r t m e n t s and town h o u s e s . S o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and h i g h s c h o o l uses would a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r a t the c o r e . . . " 1 5 ' The v i l l a g e s i n t u r n would c o m p r i s e s e v e r a l n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t s as t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . Towns would be s e p a r a t e d by i n v i o l a b l e n a t u r a l g reen a r e a s and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . T h i s d e s i g n c o n c e p t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5, page 184. A p p l y i n g t h e above d e s i g n c o n c e p t , S u r r e y would c o n s i s t o f f i v e u r b a n u n i t s c a l l e d towns which would d e v e l o p a r o u n d e x i s t i n g u r b a n n u c l e i . The S u n n y s i d e - White Rock a r e a would c o m p r i s e one o f t h e s e towns. The "town c e n t r e " f o r t h i s town "would a p p r o p r i a t e l y o v e r l a p t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f S u r r e y and White Rock and would, i n f a c t , s e r v e b o t h " . T h i s does not r e q u i r e p o l i t i c a l a malgamation but i n s t e a d " r e c o g n i z e s the whole a r e a as a l o g i c a l u n i t f o r p r o v i s i o n o f many s e r v i c e s " . ^ " 6 The town c e n t r e would c o n t a i n a wide r a n g e o f c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g a d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , s u p e r m a r k e t s , s m a l l s h o p s , and r e s t a u r a n t s as w e l l as t h e l i b r a r y , h e a l t h c e n t r e , town c o n c e r t h a l l , o f f i c e s , a p a r t m e n t s , town houses, s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' homes, s p e c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o v a r i o u s age g r o u p s , l o c a l l i g h t i n d u s t r y , - and s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . 1 7 THE TOWNS, VILLAGES AND NEIGHBORHOODS CONCEPT OF SURREY MUNICIPALITY Source: P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P e r s p e c t i v e ' B l ( C l o v e r d a l e : C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of S u r r e y , 1964), p. 26. 185 Each town would c o m p r i s e v i l l a g e s h a v i n g p o p u l a t i o n s o f 15,000 t o 25,000 p e r s o n s . T h e s e v i l l a g e s would, e x c e p t where t h e town c e n t r e i s c l o s e enough t o f u l f i l l b o t h town and v i l l a g e f u n c t i o n s , s u p p o r t a s u p e r m a r k e t , shops and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w i t h r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o be used a t a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s by a l l r e s i d e n t s . W i t h i n each v i l l a g e d i v e r s i t y o c c a s i o n e d by d i f f e r e n t age groups and income l e v e l s would be e n c o u r a g e d " by " e n c o u r a g i n g t h e forms o f h o u s i n g s u i t e d t o each p a r t i c u l a r age group — a p a r t m e n t s f o r s i n g l e and m a r r i e d p e o p l e w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n and f o r t h e e l d e r l y , town houses and garden a p a r t m e n t s f o r young f a m i l i e s . . . a n d s i n g l e f a m i l y homes...18 High d e n s i t y development c o u l d be accommodated a r o u n d v i l l a g e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . The n e i g h b o r h o o d i s c o n c e i v e d as a c o n v e n i e n t f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g u n i t f o r p r o v i s i o n o f e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s , l o c a l p a r k s and s h o p p i n g [ a n d ] . . . c a n a l s o , by i t s d e s i g n , be a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and a l s o e n s u r e p r i v a c y o f i t s r e s i d e n t s . Each n e i g h b o r h o o d would have u n i q u e d e s i g n problems which would c a l l f o r v a r i e d s o l u t i o n s . . . 1 9 P l a n n e d development o f n e i g h b o r h o o d s as u n i t s a u g u r s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n which h o u s i n g i s f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d t o s u p p o r t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s such as s c h o o l s and s h o p s . 186 I t i s w orth n o t i n g t h a t t h e p r e s e n t C i t y o f White Rock, w i t h an e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n c a p a c i t y a t e x i s t i n g d e n s i t i e s o f about 1 2 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s , a p p r o x i m a t e s a v i l l a g e i n i t s s c a l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The S u r r e y p l a n n e r s emphasize t h a t t h e i r d e s i g n c o n c e p t i s a g e n e r a l p l a n and as s u c h i t c o n c e n t r a t e s on " b r o a d development c o n c e p t s and p o l i c i e s i n t e n d e d t o have 2 0 g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t S u r r e y " . T h i s g e n e r a l p l a n i s a p r e l u d e t o t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f " p h y s i c a l and 2 1 f u n c t i o n a l d e s i g n and o f s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t " on a more d e t a i l e d s c a l e . I t i s a s u g g e s t e d method f o r p r o v i d i n g " e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o r e c o g n i z e d need by t i m e and by a r e a [and i n such a way as t o ] i n f l u e n c e t h e development a c t i o n s o f p r i v a t e p a r t i e s i n a d e s i r a b l e way". P u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s would be i n s t a l l e d a c c o r d i n g t o a program o f s i t e development based on p r i o r i t i e s o f needs by time and by a r e a . The growth o f p o p u l a t i o n i n each n e i g h b o r h o o d , v i l l a g e and town would be watched, t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d i n t h e s e u n i t s . The key f e a t u r e s o f t h e d e s i g n c o n c e p t have been o u t l i n e d above. The o b j e c t i v e i s now t o examine how i t r e l a t e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . A h i e r a r c h y o f c o m m e r c i a l , s e r v i c e and s o c i a l c e n t r e s has been p r o p o s e d f o r each town, r a n g i n g from town c e n t r e , t o 187 v i l l a g e c e n t r e t o n e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t r e s . The d e s i g n c o n c e p t o f t h e s e c e n t r e s meets the needs o f t h e e l d e r l y i n s e v e r a l ways. The e l d e r l y have a s p e c i a l need t o be n e a r to community i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e s t o r e s , c h u r c h e s , l i b r a r i e s , and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s as w e l l as b e i n g s e r v e d by p u b l i c t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n . The d e s i g n c o n c e p t s e r v e s t h i s need f o r i t p r o v i d e s e x p l i c i t l y f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ' h o u s i n g t o be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f the town c e n t r e complex. In t h i s way the " h o s p i t a l -o r i e n t e d " forms o f h o u s i n g c o u l d be i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h c e n t r e l o c a t e d i n each town. T h i s p r o v i s i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o r a b l e f o r p r o p e r l o c a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s , s u c h as n u r s i n g homes i n which most i f n o t a l l r e s i d e n t s r e q u i r e c o n t i n u o u s l y , o r from t i m e t o t i m e , m e d i c a l c a r e . H i gh and medium d e n s i t y d e v e lopment c o u l d be accommo-d a t e d around town, v i l l a g e and n e i g h b o r h o o d c e n t r e s . A p a r t m e n t s , h o s t e l s , l o d g e s , town houses and g a r d e n a p a r t m e n t s would be among t h e t y p e s o f h o u s i n g , p u r p o s e d e s i g n e d o r g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r h o u s i n g b o t h t h e s i n g l e and m a r r i e d e l d e r l y . These towns would a c h i e v e a d e s i r a b l e c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f r e s i d e n t s t o r e q u i r e d c o m m e r c i a l and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . The p r o p o s e d towns a r e compact, t h e r e b y f a v o r i n g e c o n o m i c a l o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n upon which many o f t h e e l d e r l y depend. The c o n c e p t p r o v i d e s f o r a f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f towns "based upon u n i q u e f e a t u r e s or h i s t o r i c a l p lacement 188 23 w i t h i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s " . O b v i o u s l y i t h e n , i f t h e u n i q u e c l i m a t i c a d v a n t a g e s c o n t i n u e d t o a t t r a c t t h e e l d e r l y , t h i s c o n c e p t would p e r m i t t h e S u n n y s i d e -Wh i t e Rock a r e a t o s p e c i a l i z e i n the f u n c t i o n o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . S i m i l a r l y , " i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t v i l l a g e s would grow t o have some d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h a r a c t e r and would a f f o r d them a p a r t i c u l a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " . 2 4 These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n age o r f u n c t i o n . Thus a v i l l a g e on t h e s c a l e o f White Rock o r Ocean P a r k c o u l d d e v e l o p t o s p e c i a l i z e , t o a s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l , i n the f u n c t i o n o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y . Such f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n by v i l l a g e need n o t be r e p u g n a n t t o t h o s e who would p r e f e r a m i x t u r e o f age groups and p o s i t i v e e f f o r t s t o keep t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e main p a r a d e o f l i f e . T h ese o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by e n s u r i n g a m i x t u r e o f h o u s i n g t y p e s and r e l a t i n g t h e homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y t o t h e c e n t r e s where a l l age groups p a r t i c i -p a t e i n a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , "would p r o b a b l y o c c u r . . . a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l where d i v e r s i t y and a 25 wide enough r a n g e o f i n t e r e s t s would be r e p r e s e n t e d " . A m i x t u r e o f a g e - g r o u p s , would be a c h i e v e d i n each v i l l a g e "by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e forms o f h o u s i n g s u i t e d t o each 26 p a r t i c u l a r age g r o u p " . T h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by p l a n n e d u n i t d e v e lopment by which a v a r i e t y o f b u i l d i n g t y p e s and 189 a r r a n g e m e n t s would be i n t e g r a l l y i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n t h e d e s i g n s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . In t h i s way the " p r o x i m a t e " forms o f h o u s i n g such a s m a l l v e s t p o c k e t p r o j e c t s o f a p a r t m e n t s , a t t a c h e d , o r d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g f o r e x c l u s i v e use o f the e l d e r l y c o u i d be d e s i g n e d as component p a r t s o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d . P a t i o h ouses, garden a p a r t m e n t s and c l u s t e r s o f i n d e p e n d e n t d w e l l i n g u n i t s a t medium d e n s i t y , but n o t f o r e x c l u s i v e use f o r t h e e l d e r l y , c o u l d a l s o be d e s i g n e d as p a r t s o f a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h i s d e v e lopment would be e n c o u r a g e d n e a r v i l l a g e c e n t r e s and i n a r e a s where such h o u s i n g c o u l d u t i l i z e s i t e s t o a d v a n t a g e . T h i s would a p p e a r t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r White Rock. Mo r e o v e r , s u c h a m i x t u r e o f h o u s i n g t y p e s p r e v e n t s " f r e e z i n g o u t " o f o l d p e o p l e and p e r m i t s development o f v i l l a g e s and p e r h a p s n e i g h b o r h o o d s s u i t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n c e d u r i n g many phases o f t h e l i f e c y c l e f o r t h o s e who p r e f e r a change o f accommodation but n o t a change o f a r e a . To sum up, t h e g e n e r a l p l a n p r o p o s a l f o r S u r r e y p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t i n i t i a l s t e p i n e v o l v i n g a p l a n which i s h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e t o t h e f u l l r a n g e o f h o u s i n g n e e d s . In p a r t i c u l a r i t p r o v i d e s development p r i n c i p l e s which w i l l e n s u r e a d e q u a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the needs o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s s h a p i n g t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . A d m i t t e d l y t h e c o n c e p t s a r e g e n e r a l and o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t s have been used as t h e b a s i s f o r a p p r o x i m a t i n g the f u t u r e 190 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t i n S u r r e y . However t h e e s s e n t i a l b a s i s f o r making f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n s on the f u n c t i o n and d e t a i l e d d e s i g n o f s p e c i f i c a r e a s i s a v a i l a b l e . The f a c t o r s w h ich w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e p h y s i c a l d e s i g n o f the S u n n y s i d e -White Rock town, can be i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d . P a r t i c u l a r emphasis must be a c c o r d e d t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f growth t r e n d s and m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t h i s a r e a , f o r p o s t r e t i r e m e n t s e t t l e m e n t may be a major f o r c e s h a p i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a . I t w i l l demand a p p r o p r i a t e programs f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g , f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s s u i t a b l e t o t h e needs o f the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . I l l THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK: ITS OPERATION IN A SPECIFIC CONTEXT The m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t n a t u r e o f the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s has been s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e need f o r c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l l e v e l s o f government has been emphasized. An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework to a c h i e v e t h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n has been p r o p o s e d . T h i s framework would e n t a i l f a i r l y d r a m a t i c r e v i s i o n s o f t h e e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l -P r o v i n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r i t must be assumed t h a t n e i t h e r a sudden r e a l i g n m e n t o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y n o r F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s on h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s w i l l o b t a i n . T h i s i s not t o deny t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 191 s u c h c h a n g e s . Indeed i t r e f l e c t s t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r i s a ca s e s t u d y o f a l o c a l a r e a , and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s a t t h a t l e v e l a r e i t s e s s e n t i a l f o c u s . M oreover a c a s e s t u d y c a n n o t i d e n t i f y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f y e t n o n - e x i s t e n t l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s . Thus t h e f o c u s w i l l be on t h e e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . P r e s e n t F e d e r a l R o l e . The F e d e r a l Government i s f u n c t i o n i n g e s s e n t i a l l y as a f i n a n c i e r . I t makes mortgage money a v a i l a b l e f o r b o t h t h e economic and non-economic m a r k e t s . The l a t t e r market i s o f c h i e f i n t e r e s t h e r e i n . E s s e n t i a l l y , two k i n d s o f a c t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d f o r h o u s i n g the low income e l d e r l y i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . T hese a r e r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c o t t a g e a r e a o f White Rock and i n i t i a l d e v elopment i n the S u n n y s i d e a r e a . The N.H.A. p r o v i d e s a s s i s t a n c e f o r bot h t y p e s o f de v e l o p m e n t . L e t us f i r s t c o n s i d e r the White Rock p r o b l e m . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a c t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r may be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e s h e l t e r f o r the e l d e r l y i f r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e e d s . The 1964 N.H.A. p e r m i t s t h e development o f p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d f o r e x c l u s i v e use by the e l d e r l y . The F e d e r a l Government, t h r o u g h C.M.H.C, w i l l assume up t o 75% o f the t o t a l c o s t ( l a n d and b u i l d i n g s ) o f su c h p r o j e c t s as w e l l as s u b s i d i z i n g up t o 75% o f t h e r e n t a l s u b s i d i e s and a n n u a l d e f i c i t s i n c u r r e d 192 i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f su c h h o u s i n g . These hou-sing p r o j e c t s may be o f t h e h o s t e l ( i . e . d o r m i t o r y ) t y p e , and b o t h the h o u s i n g and common b l o c k f o r d i n i n g e t c . , a r e f i n a n c e d . S h o u l d r e h o u s i n g o f t h e d i s p l a c e d r e s i d e n t s be e n v i s a g e d , t h e 1964 N.H.A. p e r m i t s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p u r p o s e s i n any a r e a . The 1954 N.H.A. l i m i t e d a c q u i s i t i o n t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s . With r e s p e c t t o a r e a s , n ot as y e t d e v e l o p e d , the 1964 N.H.A. has a number o f p r o v i s i o n s . The A c t p r o v i d e s s u b -s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r e i t h e r a P r o v i n c i a l o r M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n o r " p u b l i c h o u s i n g agency", ( s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o p o s e d l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y ) t h a t i s empowered f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p u r p o s e s , t o a c q u i r e and d e v e l o p l a n d and c o n s t r u c t and o p e r a t e p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t avenue o f a s s i s t a n c e i s f o r advance a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p u r p o s e s . T h i s may a s s i s t i n e n s u r i n g the p r o p e r r e l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y w i t h c o m m e r c i a l and p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s and w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . C.M.H.C. p r o v i d e s a l o a n o f up t o 90% o f t h e c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g and s e r v i c i n g l a n d . The repayment p e r i o d i s 15 y e a r s and t h e r a t e o f i n t e r e s t p r e s c r i b e d by G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l . The s e c o n d mode o f a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e s t h a t an " a u t h o r i t y " may e i t h e r c o n s t r u c t o r a c q u i r e and s u b s e q u e n t l y o p e r a t e h o u s i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s o f low income. C.M.H.C. p r o v i d e s 193 l o a n s up t o 90% o f t h e b u i l d i n g c o s t w i t h a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d s o f up t o 50 y e a r s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . Under s e c t i o n 16 o f t h e N.H.A. d i r e c t F e d e r a l G overn-ment l o a n s t o n o n - p r o f i t ( l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d ) companies i s a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g low r e n t a l accommodation f o r t h e e l d e r l y . Once a g a i n , 90% l o a n s a t low i n t e r e s t r a t e s w i t h l o n g a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d s a r e p r o v i d e d . The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s s e c t i o n have been u t i l i z e d , as d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , w i t h mixed s u c c e s s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . P r e s e n t P r o v i n c i a l R o l e P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e complements F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e . Thus i n a r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a s u c h as t h e one p r o p o s e d f o r W hite Rock, the P r o v i n c i a l Government pays 25% o f t h e c o s t s o f a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r a n c e o f l a n d and c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f new b u i l d i n g s , and would c o n t i n u e t o do so u nder the p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m . The P r o v i n c e would pay 12.5% o f t h e s u b s i d y i f r e n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e s u b s i d i z e d . To f a c i l i t a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g , t h e P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s f o r a g r a n t o f o n e - t h i r d o f the c a p i t a l c o s t s o f a p r o j e c t under the terms o f t h e E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' H o u s i n g A i d A c t . I t does however, i n s i s t t h a t t h e t e n a n t s d e c l a r e t h a t t h e i r m o n thly income does not e xceed $105.00 p e r p e r s o n . 194 As regards future action, the Province should, if N.H.A. legislation is to be utilized to the fullest extent, establish the proposed local housing authorities. Ideally these authorities would be sufficiently well financed to undertake programs of land acquisition for other than public housing purposes. This would permit reservation of sites that are particularly suitable for housing the elderly, for subsequent utilization by either limited dividend companies or private builders. The Provincial Government would also administer a system of grants-in-aid to support local housing authority operations. These grants would be proportionate, that is would vary with the dimensions of the problem. For example, the total Provincial budget for housing the needy elderly would be determined as part of the overall budget for housing. From this budget for senior citizens' housing, allocations from the Provincial to each local authority budget for senior citizens' housing would be proportionate to the numbers of needy elderly in a community as a proportion of the Provincial total. The Local Role The role of any Canadian municipality is that of guiding all types of development into the most suitable sites and areas. This control over private development is exercised through zoning, building, and subdivision by-laws, which to 195 be t r u l y e f f e c t i v e conform w i t h the o f f i c i a l community p l a n . C o n t r o l over p u b l i c development which i n i t s e l f i n f l u e n c e s p r i v a t e development, i s s u b j e c t t o the same c o n t r o l s . Moreover, the r a t e o f p u b l i c development and i t s l o c a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l a b l e by the c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g p r o c e s s . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are o f course e x e r c i s i n g d e v e l o p -ment c o n t r o l f o r a purpose - namely the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the goa l s o f the o f f i c i a l p l a n . T h i s o f f i c i a l p l a n i s a f o r m a l p o l i c y statement o f c o u n c i l which expresses a c l e a r image o f the f u t u r e of an a r e a . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s p l a n are s o c i a l ones i n t h a t they attempt to improve the urban environment as a p l a c e t o l i v e . As d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , S u r r e y has proposed a s t r o n g , but not y e t d e f i n i t i v e concept f o r f u t u r e development. White Rock, at the moment l a c k s such a concept. A development concept i s c r i t i c a l i f the e l d e r l y are to be e f f e c t i v e l y housed. As C a r v e r p o i n t s out One o f the most p e r p l e x i n g problems i s the d i s c o v e r y of s u i t a b l e s i t e s f o r housing o l d peop l e : to f i n d l a n d a t re a s o n a b l e c o s t s where people w i l l not be s e p a r a t e d f r o m - e s s e n t i a l community s e r v i c e s , from shops, chu r c h e s , m e d i c a l c e n t r e s , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a l l the i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of c i t i e s t h a t make l i f e worth l i v i n g . " I t i s a x i o m a t i c . . . t h a t l a n d i n p r o x i m i t y t o [such] f o c a l c e n t r e s has the h i g h e s t market v a l u e and... t h a t o l d people are the l e a s t a b l e t o meet the h i g h c o s t s . 2 7 196 C a r v e r ' s words would seem t o d e s c r i b e p r e c i s e l y the p r o b l e m o f e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r t h e e l d e r l y i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , which a r e g e n e r a l l y i s o l a t e d from e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . In p a r t t h i s would a p p e a r t o r e f l e c t t h e l a c k o f a p l a n n i n g agency t o e n s u r e p r o p e r l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n l e a v i n g l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s p u r e l y to " c h a n c e " d e c i s i o n s by s p o n s o r i n g g r o u p s . A c a r e f u l l y c o n c e i v e d d evelopment c o n c e p t c o u l d be c o u p l e d w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r e - a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d i n 5urrey and a r e a r e d e s i g n i n White Rock to a c h i e v e t h i s p r o x i m i t y t o f o c a l c e n t r e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y , u nder t h e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scheme be c h a r g e d w i t h e s t i m a t i n g t h e h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n r e n e w a l o r development a r e a s and d e v e l o p i n g a c t i o n programs t o e n s u r e t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e f i l l e d . T h i s program would c o n s i d e r a l l h o u s i n g - economic and non-economic and t h a t f o r t h e young and o l d a l i k e . The s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the r e q u i r e d h o u s i n g would be met i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d use p l a n n i n g . In C h a p t e r I , i t was a s s e r t e d t h a t p l a n n i n g i s t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s e s s i n g f u t u r e h o u s i n g needs and d e v i s i n g methods t o meet t h i s need. P l a n n i n g thus i n v o l v e s b o t h p r e d i c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n but i n White Rock n e i t h e r e x i s t s . P r e s u m a b l y t h i s r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t no f o r m a l r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y f o r t h i s f u n c t i o n e x i s t s . In S u r r e y th e v i t a l f i r s t 197 s t e p s i n p r e d i c t i o n have been made, and t h e c o n c e p t s e r v e s as the f i r s t s t e p i n p r e p a r a t i o n . The n e x t s t e p s a r e t o a s s e s s i n d e t a i l t h e h o u s i n g needs o f each town and v i l l a g e and n e i g h b o r h o o d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a program o f s t a g e d d e v e l o p m e n t . Here a v i t a l r a p p o r t w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n e r s i s i m p e r a t i v e . In b o t h S u r r e y and W h i t e Rock, t h e w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s p o s s e s s raw d a t a w h i c h , when t a b u l a t e d would s u g g e s t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f h o u s i n g need. The e f f e c t o f p o s s i b l e w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s s u c h as " f r i e n d l y v i s i t i n g " and "meals on w h e e l s " on r e d u c i n g the a g g r e g a t e h o u s i n g need p e r se c o u l d a l s o be c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d . W i t h o u t f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n on h o u s i n g need, a h o u s i n g program t o meet t h a t need c a n n o t d e v e l o p . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e v i s i t i n g and meal s e r v i c e s i n r e d u c i n g the a g g r e g a t e c o s t s o f t h e h o u s i n g program i n W i n n i p e g was m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r II« The l a c k o f and a p p a r e n t need f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s i n White Rock was s t r e s s e d (as a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d ) by one o b s e r v e r . As C a r v e r c o n t e n d s , we c a n n o t e x p e c t t o draw a s h a r p l i n e between ' s e l f c o n t a i n e d ' h o u s i n g f o r i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g and t h e v a r i o u s forms o f accommodation where s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o s u s t a i n h e a l t h and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 2 8 A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s must be f o s t e r e d i f p r o p e r management o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and programs i s t o e v o l v e . As i n d i c a t e d , c e r t a i n o f t h e l i m i t e d d i v i d e n d 198 p r o j e c t s t h u s f a r d e v e l o p e d have s u f f e r e d from d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e n s u r i n g even r o u t i n e management. And b e c a u s e t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e department i s kept busy w i t h c a s e l o a d s , one may e x p e c t t h a t many s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t h a t e l d e r l y might r e q u i r e c a n n o t be p r o v i d e d . M o r e o v e r , i f White Rock was t o e n v i s a g e u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e e f f o r t s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s would c e r t a i n l y be r e q u i r e d t o ease p o t e n t i a l r e l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t e x i s t i n g accommodation, though s u i t a b l e to t h e needs o f many o f t h e e l d e r l y , may o f t e n - t i m e s e xceed t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pay. In t h i s e v e n t , a sy s t e m o f r e n t c e r t i f i c a t e s by which t h e government a g r e e s t o pay t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e market p r i c e and t h e amount t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y can a f f o r d c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . The w e l f a r e d e partment would a d m i n i s t e r t h i s form o f a s s i s t a n c e . Such a system would have the a d v a n t a g e o f p r o d u c i n g a m i x t u r e o f income and age groups i f t h i s i s d e s i r e d . The o b v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l work e f f o r t s must be expanded i f a b r o a d and e f f e c t i v e h o u s i n g program i s t o d e v e l o p . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f White Rock and S u r r e y c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y c o o p e r a t e i n bo t h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . The S u r r e y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n c o n t e n d s t h a t " l i b r a r y , f i r e , community c e n t r e and s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s m i g ht be j o i n t l y u n d e r t a k e n w i t h White Rock, w i t h accompanying s a v i n g s t o each 29 m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y " . These f a c i l i t i e s would be d e v e l o p e d 199 i n t h e town c e n t r e . I d e a l l y b o t h towns would p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h i s c e n t r e and p e r h a p s j o i n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o s t s o f s p e c i a l i z e d h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . O v e r a l l j o i n t p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g c o u l d be p o s s i b l e f o r White Rock and Sunnyside,. i f b o t h m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s were w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e f u l l c o n t r o l o v e r p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Perhaps a j o i n t w e l f a r e department c o u l d a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p e r m i t e c o n o m i c a l p r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s such as " m e a l s - o n - w h e e l s " f o r t h e e l d e r l y . I t i s recommended t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y be merged w i t h s o c i a l w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r m u t u a l c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e and management a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c and l i m i t e d d i v i d e d h o u s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . In any e v e n t , r e c e i p t o f P r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r h o u s i n g c o u l d be made c o n t i n g e n t upon d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f c l o s e i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l w e l f a r e . In summary, t h e c h i e f f i n d i n g s were: 1. The a b sence o f a development c o n c e p t f o r g u i d i n g community growth r u l e s o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n i t i a t i n g an e f f e c t i v e program t o a c h i e v e the g o a l s o f community r e n e w a l and good h o u s i n g i n White Rock. 2 . No t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f the n a t u r e and d i m e n s i o n s o f h o u s i n g need i n White Rock has been c o n d u c t e d . L a c k i n g s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and 200 programs f o r h o u s i n g a c t i o n do not e x i s t . The p r e s u m a b l y h i g h number o f s i n g l e e l d e r l y p e r s o n s l i v i n g a l o n e i s h a r d t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s . I t may be t h a t more accommodation f o r t h e s i n g l e e l d e r l y i s r e q u i r e d but t h e r e i s n e i t h e r s u f f i c i e n t demand f o r " economic" a p a r t m e n t s n o r s u f f i c i e n t l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e community t o u n d e r t a k e more l i m i t e d - d i v i d e n d b u i l d i n g . T h i s however i s p u r e c o n j e c t u r e . 3. H o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , p u r p o s e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e e l d e r l y a r e not w e l l r e l a t e d t o f o c a l c e n t r e s . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e a b sence o f a development c o n c e p t , an e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y c a p a b l e o f competent l o c a t i o n p l a n n i n g , and s u f f i c i e n t g u i d a n c e f o r p h i l a n t h r o p i e s which i n i t i a t e d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . T h e r e i s need f o r s p e c i a l i s t s t o h a n d l e t h e s i t e s e l e c t i o n p r o b l e m s . 4. A community p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h , p r o v i d i n g f o r b o t h s h e l t e r and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s must be u t i l i z e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . 5. At l e a s t p o r t i o n s o f any h o u s i n g program would be more e f f e c t i v e i f p l a n n e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d on an i n t e r -m u n i c i p a l b a s i s . 6. The P r o v i n c i a l Government must e s t a b l i s h a l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y i f S u r r e y and White Rock a r e t o be f u l l y a v a i l e d o f t h e use o f N.H.A. p u b l i c h o u s i n g and s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . 201 The l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y i s n o t c h a r g e d w i t h e v o l v i n g t h e development c o n c e p t . I f a c o n c e p t were p r e p a r e d however, i t would c o n d u c t a s u r v e y o f h o u s i n g need and e v o l v e a program o f a c t i o n . The a u t h o r i t y would work i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p l a n n e r s t o s e c u r e a p p r o p r i a t e s i t e s f o r h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . I t would a s s i s t p h i l a n t h r o p i e s i n a l l s t a g e s o f t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y and would o r g a n i z e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r the e l d e r l y . The h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r h o u s i n g which s e r v e s r e s i d e n t s o f White Rock and S u r r e y . IV SUMMARY A s t u d y a r e a c e n t e r i n g on t h e C i t y o f White Rock, B. C. and embracing c o n t i g u o u s and n e a r b y a r e a s o f S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l -i t y was s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y p u r p o s e s , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f i t s i n o r d i n a t e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s . The White Rock a r e a l u c i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f a r e a s o f n a t u r a l a m e n ity as p l a c e s f o r r e t i r e m e n t . The f o c u s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y i s upon the community p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y , i n c l u -d i n g how t h e p l a n n i n g i s i n f l u e n c e d by e x i s t i n g F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s . The p r o p o s e d F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s o f c o u r s e not amenable t o the c a s e - s t u d y a p p r o a c h . 202 The White Rock a r e a would a p p e a r t o draw e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s from t h r o u g h o u t t h e economic s p e c t r u m and has no p e c u l i a r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f needy e l d e r l y . P r e s e n t h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y good a l t h o u g h much o f the h o u s i n g c o n s i s t s o f f a r m e r summer c o t t a g e s now used as permanent d w e l l i n g s . The c o t t a g e a r e a has been i d e n t i f i e d as a p o t e n t i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a , and t h i s poses r e l o c a t i o n and r e h o u s i n g problems f o r the c i t i z e n s who w i l l be d i s p l a c e d . I n s o f a r as t h e e l d e r l y o ccupy much o f t h i s c o t t a g e h o u s i n g and may n o t be a b l e t o a f f o r d newer r e p l a c e -ment h o u s i n g , any a t t e m p t s a t r e d e v e l o p m e n t must c o n s i d e r (1) r e h o u s i n g and (2) the f u t u r e o f the r e t i r e m e n t f u n c t i o n i f e c o n o m i c a l h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e t o the needs o f t h e e l d e r l y i s not p r o v i d e d as p a r t o f the r e h o u s i n g e f f o r t . H o u s i n g , p u r p o s e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e e l d e r l y , has been p r o v i d e d i n t h e White Rock a r e a by p h i l a n t h r o p i c g r o u p s . T h e i r h o u s i n g e f f o r t s have been i m p a i r e d by: 1. d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g s i t e s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s t o r e s , p a r k s and o t h e r a m e n i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h c o s t o f l a n d i n s u c h c h o i c e l o c a t i o n s . 2 . d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e n s u r i n g l o n g term p h i l a n t h r o p i c manage-ment r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the g r e a t e s t need i n White Rock i s f o r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s which would e n a b l e many o f t h e e l d e r l y t o 203 m a i n t a i n an i n d e p e n d e n t l i f e . H o u s i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e c o t t a g e a r e a s o f White Rock i s a s e v e r e problem i n a C i t y w i t h a t a x base l i m i t e d t o c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s f o r i t means d e c r e a s i n g p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e s . White Rock p r e s e n t l y l a c k s a c o n c e p t t o g u i d e i t s p h y s i c a l development and r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Such a c o n c e p t i s i m p e r a t i v e i f p r i v a t e r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n White Rock i s t o p r o d u c e c l o s e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h o u s i n g , s h o p p i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . S i m i l a r l y the c o n c e p t w i t h i t s g o a l s and p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e i f c o u n c i l i s t o u t i l i z e the ur b a n r e n e w a l p r o v i s i o n s o f the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t t o r e s h a p e White Rock. The u r b a n a r e a s o f S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y i n the v i c i n i t y o f White Rock a l s o f u n c t i o n as r e t i r e m e n t c o m m u n i t i e s a l t h o u g h t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f the e l d e r l y may be l e s s p r o n o u n c e d . The same n a t u r a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and low h o u s i n g c o s t s t y p i c a l o f White Rock a r e f o u n d i n t h i s a r e a . 5urrey has e v o l v e d a p h y s i c a l development c o n c e p t c a l l i n g f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d towns composed o f " v i l l a g e s " , which i n t u r n a r e composed o f n e i g h b o r h o o d s . One town, e m b r a c i n g White Rock and t h e S u n n y s i d e a r e a o f S u r r e y i s p r o p o s e d . T h i s c o n c e p t i s h i g h l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e needs o f t h e e l d e r l y and p o t e n t i a l l y p r o m i s e s t o e n s u r e t h a t the homes f o r the e l d e r l y a r e w e l l r e l a t e d i n s p a c e t o 204 - t h e u r b a n a m e n i t i e s t h e y r e q u i r e i n c l u d e s s t o r e s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and p l a c e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . T h i s d e s i g n c o n c e p t e x p l i c i t l y p r o v i d e s t h a t the towns and v i l l a g e s c o u l d be f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i a l i z e d . T h i s p r i n c i p l e accommodates t h e p o s s i b l e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e White Rock - S u n n y s i d e a r e a t o p a r t i a l l y f u n c t i o n as a r e t i r e m e n t haven f o r t h e e l d e r l y . Through t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t the F e d e r a l Government may be e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i n the s t u d y a r e a . F i r s t l y , a c t i o n i n the p u b l i c h o u s i n g s e c t o r may be r e q u i r e d i f r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e e d s i n t h e White Rock a r e a . S e c o n d l y , t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e N.H.A. (amended 1964) f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g p u r p o s e s a r e u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s s u c h as S u n n y s i d e - e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e p r i o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u i t a b l e s i t e s . T h i r d l y , d i r e c t l o a n s f o r low r e n t a l h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y a r e a v a i l a b l e . P r o v i n c i a l Government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t and p u b l i c h o u s i n g complements t h a t o f t h e F e d e r a l Government. I f the P r o v i n c e were t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r o p o s e d l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , the N.H.A. p r o v i s i o n s c o u l d be more f u l l y u t i l i z e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e v o l v i n g t h e development c o n c e p t which i s t h e v i t a l f i r s t s t e p p r e c e d i n g t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s c o n c e p t 205 s h o u l d form t h e b a s i s f o r a c q u i r i n g s i t e s f o r " v e s t p o c k e t " and group forms o f h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h o u s i n g need r e q u i r e s c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n e r s on t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , who p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s w hich may r e d u c e h o u s i n g need p e r s e . S o c i a l w o r k e r s would be c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g i m p r o v e d means o f managing h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . They would be i n v o l v e d i n r e l o c a t i o n and i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e n t -c e r t i f i c a t e programs. I n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g and s o c i a l w e l f a r e would i m p r o v e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a h o u s i n g program i n t h e White Rock - S u n n y s i d e a r e a . R e c e i p t p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y c o u l d be made c o n t i n g e n t - upon d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f s u c h c o o p e r a t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s c a s e - s t u d y has c l a r i f i e d t h e m u n i c i p a l r o l e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . I t has i n d i c a t e d d evelopment p l a n s a r e a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y t h e programs t o implement t h e s e p l a n s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d l o c a l l y . The i n f o r m a t i o n upon which t o base t h e s e programs i s l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e (as w e l l as i n the c-ensus); The P r o v i n c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g a l o c a l - h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y and e n a b l i n g i t f i n a n c i a l l y t o implement a program. The c a s e - s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h would appear t o be a u s e f u l aim o f l o c a l government. I t would 206 i t s e l f u t i l i z e , and would a s s i s t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t o u t i l i z e n a t i o n a l ( i . e . N.H.A.) and p r o v i n c i a l ( i . e . E l d e r l y C i t i z e n ' s H o u s i n g A i d A c t ) h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h s o c i a l w e l f a r e and i m p r o v e d community e n v i r o n m e n t p e r s e . REFERENCES 207 S t a f f R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t , Urban Land Use and  A c c e s s i b i l i t y ( V a n c o u v e r : Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 19 6 4 ) , unpaged d r a f t . 2 S t a t e m e n t o f D. G. Munro, Chairman o f t h e A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission, White Rock, March 31, 1965. 3 Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , A P l a n f o r  t h e C i t y o f White Rock, P a r t I (New W e s t m i n s t e r : The B o a r d , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 19. 4 O p i n i o n o f John R a n k i n , S o c i a l Worker a t White Rock W e l f a r e Department, March 31, 1965. 5 0 p i n i o n o f D. G. Munro, White Rock, March 31, 1965. 6, 2. Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , op_. c i t . , 7 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p. 3. 9 I b i d . , pp. 19-20. ^ P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , The P e o p l e o f S u r r e y ( C l o v e r d a l e B. C : The C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 35 . i : L I b i d . , p. 51. ^ 2 I b i d . , p. 13. * ^ I b i d . , p. 66. • ^ P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P e r s p e c t i v e '81 ( C l o v e r d a l e , B.C. The C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 78. 208 1 5 I b i d . , p. 82 . l 6 I b i d . , p. 26. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 19 . 1 8 I b i d . , p. 22. 1 9 I b i d . . p. 26 . 2 0 I b i d . , p. 8 . 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 I b i d . , p. 9 . P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P r e f a c e t o a Community P l a n ( C l o v e r d a l e , B. C.: The C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f S u r r e y , 1964) , p. 17 . 24 ' i b i d . , p. 22. P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P e r s p e c t i v e ' 8 1 , op. c i t . , p. 100. 25. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 72 . 2 7 H u m p h r e y C a r v e r , "The E x t r a S l i c e o f L i f e " , H a b i t a t , 4 : 9 , M a r c h - A p r i l , 1961. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 9 . 29 P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , P e r s p e c t i v e ' 8 1 , op. c i t . , p. 88. CHAPTER V REVIEW AND EVALUATION -OF THE STUDY I SUMMARY OF THE STUDY The b a s i c aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e v o l v e an a p p r o a c h t o t h e pr o b l e m o f h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y - p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e needy, which w i l l have g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n B. C. To a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system which i s ( l ) m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n t e g r a t i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f f i n a n c i n g , p l a n n i n g , w e l f a r e and p r o j e c t manage-ment r e q u i r e d i n the p r o c e s s o f p r o v i d i n g homes f o r t h e e l d e r l y ; (2) m u l t i - l e v e l , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g two o r more l e v e l s o f government, s e v e r a l l o c a l governments i f n e c e s s a r y and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s to p r o d u c e an o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t ; and (3) m u l t i - a r e a , t h a t i s c a p a b l e o f i n i t i a t i n g a h o u s i n g program e x t e n d i n g o v e r s e v e r a l p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o expand t h e r o l e o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government and y e t p r e s e r v e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f v a r i o u s p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y . I t i s t h u s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework n e c e s s a r y to e n c o u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program f o r t h e e l d e r l y . 210 Because t h e h y p o t h e s i s s t r e s s e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e e x i s t i n g r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f government and f r e e e n t e r p r i s e i n h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i n Canada a r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e p r o c e s s was found t o be a complex one b e c a u s e o f i t s m u l t i - p a r t i c i p a n t c h a r a c t e r . A l l l e v e l s o f government, d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s w i t h i n government a t each l e v e l and a number o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , i n t e r e s t groups and p r o f i t making e n t e r p r i s e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s s c a t t e r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e a d s t o p o t e n t i a l problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t , hence a c h i e v i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n i s t h e key aim o f t h e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m . C o o r d i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s i n c l u d i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s t o e n s u r e g e n u i n e community p l a n n i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g programs d e s i g n e d to s e r v e s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s w i t h complementary p u b l i c h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . In d e v i s i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system a p p r o p r i a t e f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y i n B. C , p a r t i c u l a r emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e human e c o l o g y o f t h e p r o b l e m . The p r o b l e m o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y i s e x p e c t e d t o be most p r o n o u n c e d i n r e g i o n s w i t h c l i m a t i c a m e n i t y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s o f t h o s e r e g i o n s . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 211 t h e e l d e r l y w i l l c r e a t e s p e c i a l h o u s i n g burdens f a r some c o m m u n i t i e s . The s e c o n d key c o n c e p t embraced i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e need f o r a h o u s i n g program. From the s t a n d p o i n t o f community p l a n n i n g , a program i s e s s e n t i a l l y a work s c h e d u l e . I t i s a p r o p o s e d method o f e n s u r i n g t h a t the b a c k l o g o f p r e s e n t h o u s i n g need p l u s the a n t i c i p a t e d f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l be met. A program f o r h o u s i n g the e l d e r l y must be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , t h a t i s i t must p r o v i d e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and i t must p r o v i d e f o r t h e s u c c e s s i v e phases i n the l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y . To e n s u r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s and i n t e r e s t s which p r o v i d e s h e l t e r and c o l l a t e r a l s e r v i c e s must be e n s u r e d . The h y p o t h e s i s s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s as a n e c e s s a r y b a s i s o f a h o u s i n g program. I t a l s o emphasizes P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s but i n p o i n t o f f a c t , t h e F e d e r a l Government p l a y s , a t p r e s e n t , the key r o l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . The e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g system r e f l e c t s F e d e r a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y as m a n i f e s t e d i n the N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . The system i s p r e s e n t l y g e a r e d t o m e e t i n g t h e demands o f t h e economic m a r k e t . A s o c i a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s t a t i n g t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government to s e r v e t h e a s s i s t e d * 2 1 2 and s u b s i d i z e d market i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e demands t h e y g e n e r a t e i s r e q u i r e d . F u l f i l l m e n t o f a n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e o f c o u r s e r e q u i r e s P r o v i n c i a l Government p a r t i c -i p a t i o n , f o r t h e P r o v i n c e must s h a r e i n the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l h o u s i n g programs. The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would e n t a i l a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l d i a l o g u e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r m u t ual i n v o l v e m e n t . The P r o v i n c i a l Government i s o f c o u r s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h i n e r y to. implement h o u s i n g programs a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The key i s s u e i s whether t o e n t r u s t t h e program t o a dominant P r o v i n c i a l mechanism o r t o a s t r o n g l y empowered l o c a l a g e n c y . To s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system were d e v e l o p e d and t h e s e i n c l u d e d c o o r d i n a t i o n , p u r p o s e , i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s , l e a d e r s h i p , r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , e f f e c t i v e n e s s , c o n t i n u i t y , e q u i t y , u t i l i z a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a c c e p t a b i l i t y . A wide a r r a y o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s to implement an o v e r a l l program were a n a l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h c o u l d p r o d u c e a c o o r d i n a t e d h o u s i n g program a t the l o c a l l e v e l o f government. Because o f t h e m u t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n h o u s i n g programs, t h e Urban Development Board o r s i m i l a r d e v i c e t o f o s t e r more 213 e f f e c t i v e and c o o r d i n a t e d j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s p r o p o s e d . T h i s b o a r d would d e v e l o p t h e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s o f a p r o v i n c i a l h o u s i n g program. A l l p r o v i n c i a l programs would be c o o r d i n a t e d a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r budget p u r p o s e s . The P r o v i n c i a l Government must make h o u s i n g a mandatory f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l government, a t t h e same t i m e p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y powers and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . The P r o v i n c i a l government would c o o r d i n a t e t h e programs o f a l l l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and a d m i n i s t e r a s y s t e m o f g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r need. Because o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f v o l u n t a r y p h i l a n t h r o p i c h o u s i n g e f f o r t i n B. C , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y be s u p p l e m e n t e d by a H o u s i n g C o u n c i l which would e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and s o c i a l s e r v i c e e f f o r t s and c o o r d i n a t e t h e s e e f f o r t s w i t h t h o s e o f the p u b l i c . T h i s s y s t e m i s t h o u g h t t o p r o v i d e the m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , t h e s t r e n g t h o f p u r p o s e and l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e d , as w e l l as e f f e c t i v e and c o n t i n u o u s a c t i o n . The c a s e s t u d y method i s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e the u t i l i t y o f t h e recommended a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m i n the c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c a r e a . The f o c u s o f the c a s e s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r i l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , f o r t h e p r o p o s e d c o u r s e o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y not amenable t o " c a s e - s t u d y " . 214 The s t u d y a r e a c e n t r e s on the C i t y o f White Rock b u t embraces c o n t i g u o u s and n e a r b y a r e a s o f S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l i t y . The a r e a was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t has the l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a -t i o n o f e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d r e g i o n . The s t u d y a r e a i n c l u d e s b o t h r e d e v e l o p m e n t and d evelopment c o n d i t i o n s . A l a r g e c o t t a g e a r e a i n White Rock has been i d e n t i f i e d as a p o t e n t i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a . Redevelopment must c o n s i d e r b o t h t h e problems o f r e h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y and t h e f u t u r e o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t f u n c t i o n i f e c o n o m i c a l h o u s i n g , s u i t a b l e f o r the e l d e r l y , i s n o t p r o v i d e d i n t h e r e h o u s i n g e f f o r t . " D e v e l o p i n g " c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n t h e S u n n y s i d e a r e a o f S u r r e y and a c o n c e p t f o r f u t u r e p h y s i c a l d e v e lopment e x i s t s . T h i s c o n c e p t i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o the needs o f t h e e l d e r l y and p r o m i s e s t o s e c u r e a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f homes o f the e l d e r l y t o t h e l o c a l c e n t r e s o f a c t i v i t y and s e r v i c e s . B oth F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r h o u s i n g , r e h o u s i n g and s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by a l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y . The a u t h o r i t y would d e t e r m i n e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d e x t e n t o f h o u s i n g need, and d e v e l o p programs f o r e n s u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f n e c e s s a r y h o u s i n g . The h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would e n c o u r a g e p h i l a n t h r o p i c groups t o b u i l d h o u s i n g f o r the needy e l d e r l y and a s s i s t t h e s e groups i n s e c u r i n g f i n a n c e and l o c a t i n g p r o j e c t s . Where n e c e s s a r y , the a u t h o r i t y would b u i l d o f i t s 215 own a c c o r d . Because the need f o r e x t e n d e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e e l d e r l y e x i s t s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a , t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y would e v o l v e a program f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s . The "town" o f S u n n y s i d e p r o p o s e d by S u r r e y would embrace White Rock and i t s town c e n t r e would p r o v i d e c e n t r a l s e r v i c e s f o r White Rock. S p e c i a l forms o f h o u s i n g l o c a t e d i n p r o x i m i t y t o t h i s town c e n t r e would a l s o l i k e l y s e r v e r e s i d e n t s o f b o t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S o c i a l s e r v i c e programs m i g h t d e v e l o p economies o f s c a l e i f j o i n t l y p r o v i d e d . In any e v e n t c l o s e i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n on j o i n t l y used h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by making p r o v i n c i a l (and u l t i m a t e l y Urban Development Board) h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e g r a n t s t o t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y c o n t i n g e n t upon p r o o f o f i n t e r - m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n . I I EVALUATION OF THE 5 T U D Y The H y p o t h e s i s : L i m i t a t i o n s and C r i t i c i s m s The h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y would a p p e a r t o be e s s e n t i a l l y v a l i d but not w i t h o u t f a u l t . The key c o n c e p t s embodied i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s w i l l t h u s be s e p a r a t e l y examined. O b j e c t i v e s and P o l i c i e s . The f i r s t c o n c e p t i s t h a t o f P r o v i n c i a l Government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r - e s t a b l i s h i n g h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . In r e t r o s p e c t t h i s p o r t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i s a p p e a r s somewhat n a i v e i n f a c e o f t h e 216 e x t e n s i v e r o l e o f F e d e r a l Government i n the h o u s i n g p r o c e s s . C e r t a i n l y t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, under t h e terms o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t o f 1867 was a s s i g n e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , a b r o a d c a t e g o r y which encompasses h o u s i n g . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e p r o f o u n d i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l economy t h e F e d e r a l Government assumed an e a r l y l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n g u i d i n g h o u s i n g p r o d u c t i o n v i a t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y g u i d e s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s between t h e economic, a s s i s t e d , and s u b s i d i z e d s e c t o r s o f the h o u s i n g m a r ket. I t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t more r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o the a s s i s t e d and s u b s i d i z e d s e c t o r s on a permanent and manageable b a s i s . T h i s r e d i r e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e s b o t h F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l agreement on t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e s u p p l y o f s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g as a s o c i a l o b i e c t i v e because t h e y must j o i n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s f i n a n c e under t h e terms o f the N.H.A. The s c a l e o f t h e s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g program i n any p r o v i n c e may be d e t e r m i n e d by the amount o f r e s o u r c e s t h a t p r o v i n c e i s p r e p a r e d t o a l l o c a t e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y i t m i ght be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e amount the F e d e r a l Government can a l l o c a t e t o a p r o v i n c e i n l i g h t o f the demands imposed by o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . O b v i o u s l y t h e j o i n t f i n a n c i n g a s p e c t o f s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g c r e a t e s the need f o r i n i t i a l F e d e r a l -217 P r o v i n c i a l agreement on h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The F e d e r a l Government has i n d e p e n d e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s w hich a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . Many p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s a c t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y o n l y " e n a b l i n g " i n n a t u r e and t h e P r o v i n c e must make the u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n t o use o r not t o use t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s . T h i s d e c i s i o n i n any e v e n t , p r e s u m a b l y m i r r o r s p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s as d i s t i n c t i n c o n c e p t u a l terms, i n p r a c t i c e t h e y a r e v i t a l l y i n t e r - t w i n e d and m u t u a l l y dependent. The h y p o t h e s i s does n o t make t h i s e x p l i c i t , a l t h o u g h C h a p t e r I I I a d v o c a t e s a d e v i c e f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l r e s p e c t s - i n c l u d i n g the p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework. The second m a j o r c o n c e p t i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t o f P r o v i n c i a l Government r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework t o enco u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program f o r t h e e l d e r l y . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g a s t o n i s h i n g i n t h i s p r o p o s a l i n l i g h t o f the B.N.A. A c t which a s s i g n e d t h e p r o v i n c e s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s and p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s - a c a t c h a l l i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g and community p l a n n i n g . The P r o v i n c i a l Government r e t a i n e d e x c l u s i v e 218 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l government and d e l e g a -t i n g powers and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o t h a t l e v e l . In e s t a b l i s h i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g a h o u s i n g program t h e P r o v i n c e has a v e r y r e a l c h o i c e between r e t a i n i n g t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s e l f o r d e v o l v i n g i t t o i t s c r e a t u r e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The i d e a o f j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments as w e l l as p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a h o u s i n g program i s not n o v e l . R a t h e r i t i s m e r e l y an e x t e n -s i o n o f e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s . However i t i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o i n t r o d u c e r o l e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e p r o c e s s t o e n a b l e each c a t e g o r y o f c o n t r i b u t o r t o p e r f o r m t h e f u n c t i o n s f o r which i t i s b e s t e q u i p p e d . The h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t t h e h o u s i n g program i s t o be f o r t h e e l d e r l y . T h i s was p u r p o s e f u l l y i n t r o d u c e d t o l i m i t the s c o p e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In f a c t i t may l e a d t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t s u c h a program s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as s t a n d i n g a p a r t from o t h e r programs f o r s o c i a l h o u s i n g . N o t h i n g can be f a r t h e r from the t r u t h . H o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y c a n n o t and s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t from the o v e r a l l h o u s i n g problems o f low income groups i n Canada. The e l d e r l y , i t i s t r u e , c o m p r i s e a s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e low income groups i n Canada. However, t h e i r demands on the r e s o u r c e s o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments must be 219 c a r e f u l l y weighed a g a i n s t t h e demands o f a l l groups f o r h o u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e . H o u s i n g . The h y p o t h e s i s makes e x p l i c i t m e n t i o n o f h o u s i n g programs. T h i s would a p p e a r t o u n d u l y emphasize the i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l s h e l t e r t o t h e a p p a r e n t n e g l e c t o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . In f a c t t h e t h e s i s p o i n t s up t h e c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s as a n e c e s s a r y comple-ment t o a h o u s i n g program. Fo r example, n u r s i n g c a r e and f o o d s e r v i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d i n s p e c i a l i z e d forms o f s h e l t e r . H o u s i n g W e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e a l s o a s u b s t i t u t e f o r s p e c i a l i z e d s h e l t e r . Thus m o b i l e s e r v i c e s may e n a b l e a p e r s o n to m a i n t a i n an independent, e x i s t e n c e . S i m i l a r l y a r e n t - c e r t i f i c a t e , t h a t i s a s p e c i a l r e n t s u b s i d y , i s a d e v i c e which p e r m i t s t h e needy t o s e c u r e h o u s i n g i n t h e economic market w i t h o u t the n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c a l l y a s s i s t e d h o u s i n g . The S t u d y : L i m i t a t i o n s and C r i t i c i s m s The s t u d y r e v i e w s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a h o u s i n g program-e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t t h i s program must be b o t h c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n s c o p e and c o o r d i n a t e d i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e d e s i g n e d t o implement such a program i n B. C. i s t h e c h i e f p r o d u c t o f t h i s s t u d y . To a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the t y p e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system t o employ the r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r what were b e l i e v e d t o be t h e c h i e f r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e s y s t e m 2 2 0 were a r r a y e d . A number o f a l t e r n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s were t h e n d e s c r i b e d . T h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e t h a t e i t h e r a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o r a l l t h e p o s s i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e s were c o n s i d e r e d . The i n i t i a l i n t e n t i o n was t o u t i l i z e t h e l i s t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s i n a m e t h o d i c a l manner, such as a r a t i n g s c a l e , t o a s s i s t i n s e l e c t i o n o f the recommended a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework. I t was not p o s s i b l e t o weigh t h e r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e " r e q u i r e m e n t s " so the s e l e c t i o n was more s u b j e c t i v e . The p r o p o s e d framework was however a s s e s s e d i n l i g h t o f t h e " r e q u i r e m e n t s " , and a p p e a r s to meet them a l l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The c a s e - s t u d y method was employed t o examine how t h e p r o p o s e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system might f u n c t i o n i n the c o n t e x t o f a s p e c i f i c community. As s u c h , i t s t r e s s e s the i s s u e s o f l o c a l c o n c e r n , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o c e s s o f h o u s i n g t h e e l d e r l y and how t h e p r o p o s e d l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y might a s s i s t i n t h e p r o c e s s . T h i s s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r i l y a b b r e v i a t e d . I t c a l l s f o r a m a r r i a g e o f the e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e department a t the l o c a l l e v e l w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g how t h i s s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e . I t a l s o c a l l s f o r c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e combined h o u s i n g - w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t w i t h the p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , but once a g a i n does not s p e c i f y t h e m e c h a n i c s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The c a s e s t u d y i n f e r s t h a t j o i n t a c t i o n 221 between t h e two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p e r h a p s even t o t h e e x t e n t o f j o i n t s t a f f i n g o f h o u s i n g and w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s might u l t i m a t e l y be d e s i r a b l e but does n o t p u r s u e t h e i s s u e . The c a s e - s t u d y b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r s h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s i n an a r e a b u t n e i t h e r p r o p o s e s s o l u t i o n s n o r d e v e l o p s any programs o f a c t i o n . These t o p i c s were beyond the s c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e the h o u s i n g problems o f a s p e c i f i c a r e a w i t h which t h e l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t e n d . T h i s s t u d y i s q u i e t on how to a c h i e v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h e s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government. I t does n o t , f o r example, pu r s u e t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o implement t h e Urban Development B o a r d o r a s i m i l a r d e v i c e d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n on h o u s i n g . Nor does i t examine how i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n would be a c h i e v e d a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , b e a r i n g i n mind t h e need t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s h e l t e r and w i t h w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a t t h i s l e v e l as w e l l as l o c a l l y . The s t u d y f a i l s to examine t h e q u e s t i o n o f f i n a n c e and p a r t i c u l a r l y f a i l s t o i n d i c a t e t h e s o u r c e s o f f u n d s which would be n e c e s s a r y t o f i n a n c e an expanded r o l e .of government i n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s i n g . I t makes t h e i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s w i l l c a p t u r e t h e c o n s c i e n c e o f l e g i s l a t o r s and the e l e c t o r a t e and thus t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l 222 and budget p r o c e s s e s c a p t u r e a l a r g e r s h a r e o f government r e v e n u e s . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f h o u s i n g , u s u a l l y u nder the l i m i t e d - d i v i d e n d p r o v i s i o n s o f N.H.A., c a n n o t be u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d . Yet l i t t l e i s known o f the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p r i v a t e p h i l a n -t h r o p i c g r o u p s . What, f o r example m o t i v a t e s them t o i n i t i a t e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ? Do t h e y p r e f e r t o c o n f i n e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o f i n a n c e and management and a r e t h e y f o r c e d i n t o s e l e c t i n g s i t e s by d e f a u l t ? Can s t r o n g p h i l a n t h r o p i c e f f o r t i n p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g f o r t h e e l d e r l y be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t i n u e ? I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s such as house-k e e p i n g i s a p a r t i a l s u b s t i t u t e f o r s p e c i a l f orms o f h o u s i n g . D a t a on the c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t s o f t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s , o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t s o f s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g and income s u b s i d y ( i . e . r e n t c e r t i f i c a t e s ) c o u l d be u s e f u l . One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t a p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i v e m i g r a t i o n o c c u r s , s u c h t h a t t h e w e a l t h i e r e l d e r l y a r e t h e ones who move t o a m e n i t y r e g i o n s l i k e t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B. C. T h i s i s not known, but c e r t a i n l y i t w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f any p r o p o s e d h o u s i n g programs. 223 C o n c l u s i o n S u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t e d above, i t i s f a i r t o u p h o l d t h e b a s i c v a l i d i t y o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t " I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o vern-ment ought t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework n e c e s s a r y t o e n c o u r a g e j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l g o v e r n -ments and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a h o u s i n g program f o r t h e e l d e r l y " . 224 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS AND THESES A n g e l , Jerome, and D o l i n a McKinnon. 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