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The cost of education in Canada; or, An analysis of costs of education in the provinces of Canada Hardwick, Walter H.W. 1936

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T H E C O S T O P E H O A T I O S Iff C A N A D A or An Analysis of Costs of Education in the Provinces of Canada Walter H. W . Hardwick, B, A. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts' in the Department of Philosophy of the University of Brit-ish Columbia* M Vancouver, B. C. April, 1936. ' /f ^  Jf/S a 1 /f/lj!^, c o M w r s Chapter Page Table of Contents i List of Tables and Charts ....Iii I Introduction 1 (aJ The Present Situation 1 (b) The Need for Scientific Investigation of Costs of Education . 2 (cj Outline of Study 4 II Changes in Educational Practice in Canada ... 6 (aJ Changes in the Goals of Education in Canada .. 6 (b) Changes in Organization of Education in Canada 7 (cj Changes as the Result of Federal Aid to Education in Canada 9 (d) Changes in Secondary Education 12 ( i J Increasing Enrolment 1 2 (ii) Re-organization of Secondaiy Schools after 1921 • > • • 14 (1) Re-organization of the Middle , , ( Grades 15 (2 J Promotion by Subject „. 16 (iii) Changes in the Curriculum 17 (e) Changes in the Articulation of High School and University * , . . 2 1 (f) Changes as the Result of Compulsory Attendance Laws 24 (gj Development of Correspondence Courses 26 (h) Changes in Examinations 26 (i) Improvements in Medical Inspection of Schools 2 9 (jj Improvements in Building's and Equipment ! „ 30 (k) Text-books and Supplies 31 (1) Changes in Standards for the Teaching Profession . s p ImJ Summary of Changes in Educational Practice in Canada, 1913 to 1935 3 4 1 1 1 Changes in Teachers' Salaries and in Standards of laving 37 i I v Analysis of Expenditures of Provincial Governments for Education and for Other Purposes, 191B to 1984 ..... 41 (aj Comparison of Expenditure of Provincial Gov-ernments Charged to Education with Total Government Expenditure a t 1 , 1 n . *±x lb I comparison of Provincial Government Expenditures for Education with Expenditures for Other Purposes 42 1 Analysis of Changes in Total Cost of Public Schools .... 46 (aj Changes in Total Cost of Public Schools Expressed in Current Dollars . 45 (b) Changes in Total Cost of Public Schools-Expressed in Dollars Corrected for Variations in Purchasing Power . Analysis of Cost of Public Schools 5 2 (aJ Comparison of Changes in Current and Real Cost per Head of Population . 5 2 ibj Comparison of Changes in Total, Secondary'and" " " Elementary School Enrolment and in Population 56 (cj Comparison of Changes in Current and Heal Cost per Pupil . 59 (dj Summary of Changes in Cost of Education'.'!.*.'!!!.*.*'.* 62 VI VII A Consideration of the Ability of the People of Canada to Bear the Increased Cost of Public Education . 64 (aj Comparison of Changes-in let Value of Production and in Total Cost of Public Schools 64 I d J Comparison of Changes in Per Capita Wealth and in Per Capita Cost of Public Schools 66 Icj Comparison of Changes in Estimated Income and in Total Cost of Public Schools 67 (d) Comparison of Changes in Production and'sale'of Some Ion-essentials and in Total Cost of Public Schools r„ Or VIII General Conclusions 6 9 Bibliography 7, Tables and Charts ...... ii LIST OP TABLES AMD CHARTS Page Table AAI - . Total of Teachers* Salaries and Total Cost of Education in British Columbia 79 Chart AAI - Total of Teachers' Salaries and Total Cost of Education in British Columbia .. 80 Table AA2 - Changes in British Columbia Teachers' Standards of Living, 1913 to 1932 81 Chart AA2 - School Teachers' Salaries in British Columbia, 1913 to 1932 82 Chart A43 - Percentage Changes in Standards of Living of British Columbia Teachers (1913 to 1932) 83 Table AA3 - Index lumbers of Rates of Wages for Various Classes of Labour in Canada, 1913 to 1932 84 Chart AA4 - Percentage Changes in Standards of Living, (1913 = 100),... 85 Chart A - Percentage Changes in Provincial Government Expenditures 86 Tables A(1 to 10) Provincial Government Expenditures Charged to Education and to Government Income 87 Charts B(l to 9) Provincial Government Expenditures 97 Tables B(l to 9) Expenditures of Provincial Governments for Various Departments Table C - Index Ilumbers of Retail Prices, Rents, and Costs of Services, 1913 to 1934, (1913 = 100) 1 1 5 Tables C(l to 9) Growth in Total Costs of Public Schools 116 Tables D(l to 9) Changes in Population and Cost Per Head of Population .. 125 Charts C(l to 9) Percentage Changes in Population and Enrolment 134 Tables E(l to 9) Changes in Enrolment as a Percentage of Population ......138 Charts D(l to 8) Enrolment - Secondary and Elementary Schools .........147 Tables F(l to 9) Changes in Enrolment and Cost per Pupil, 1913 to 1934.155 Tables G(l to 9) Changes in Secondary and Elementary School Enrolment..164 iii Charts E(l to 9) Percentage Changes in Cost of Education in the Canadian Provinces Tables H(l to 10] Changes in let Value of Production and in Total Cost of Public Schools 178 Tables J(l to 10J Changes in Per Capita Wealth and in Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population .183 Table K - Changes in Estimated Income of Canada, Total Cost of Public Schools, and Estimated Income Per Head of Population 188 Table L - Statistics of Production and Sale of Some Hon-Essentials in Canada, and Total Cost of Public Schools, 1921 to 1933 139 Charts F(l to 10} Percentage Changes in (l) Total Cost of Public Schools; (2) let Value of Production; (3) Estimated Average Income Per Head of Population of Canada as a Whole; (4j Per Capita Wealth; (5] Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population ........190 iv CHAPTER I. 1M TBQDUG TI Oil i (a) The Present Situation: •During the past two decades, there have been many changes in the educational systems of Canada, and further improvements are continually being proposed or effected. That these changes should be made is to be • expected, when one considers the heavy demands that are being made on education in this rapidly changing world. Descriptions of these changes are. readily available in most of the good libraries of Canada, However, in one branch of study, namely costs of education, there is a deficiency - of accessible information. Although it is to be expected that inrorove-ments in educational practice should be parallelled to some extent by variations in costs of education, evidence is not readily available, /aid so, it is not apparent whether costs of education have remained stationary, have increased or decreased during the last two decades. To the superficial observer it appears that they have increased tremendously, and that the governments of Canada may not be able to bear them. The depression has focussed much criticism on allegedly rising-educational costs, and has witnessed crystallization of that criticism in cuts in school grants and some of the newer services. Many private and public organizations and individuals have alleged that the total (1) 2 •burden has increased out of proportion to the ability of the people of to provincial and local expenditure. Others have seriously questioned and the obvious necessity for financial economy in government, many in-vestigations into educational costs .have been made. However, comparative-ly few of them have been made scientifically and hence they are generally of little value to the study of educational financing. (t>j -The Heed for Scientific Investigation of Costs of Education: A review of several reports of educational commissions which summar-ized studies of financing of education in various sections of Canada,, reveals that care has not always been taken to substantiate assertions (1) "Report of the Committee Appointed by the Government to Investigate the Finances of British Columbia", #154. (This publication is commonly termed the "ELdd Report".) "The total cost of education has risen from $1,917,263 in 1910 to 10,061,367 in 1931. These figures are taken from the annual report on public schools and include the cost of education to both the Provincial government and the municipal authorities. The increased cost of public education shown by the above figures can only partially be explained by increased population". Canada to nay ( U As evidence of increase they have pointed to addition the social value of education. ( 2 ) As a consequence of this criticism — - - " u a ^ e ^ u u c e a Finance Chairman Aide as follows: •ver, B.C., issue of February 14, Council budget debate on rman George Miller's remarks "I might as well tell you h e considered that education has down to earth." - that the bank manager* told me gone wild and will have to come {» The City's bank is the Bank of Montreal] 9 regarding the increasing cost of education and the ability of the people of Canada to pay. Many of these reports are of doubtful value, as they are the results of unscientific study, or because they give the reader the impression that they have been arranged to rationalize prejudices against public educationJ0^ They reveal that a scientific study of changing costs and the ability of the people of Canada to pay for education (3) (a) The "ladd Report" says, p.24: "Once the elementary stage of education has been passed, the sooner the majority of students commence to assist in producing the wealth now lying dormant in our natural resources,"the better will it be for themselves and the society in which they live".. (b) The President of the Manitoba School Trustees' Association, (quoted in Lord Eustace Percy, "The Yearbook of Education", 1934, page 281), says: "lo doubt you will tell me that education is also an absolute necessity. Yes, but who is to define Education? What is it to ' consist of and to whom is it to be given? I would go still further and ask: What education should be given free by the taxpayers? — — The School Board of which I am a member has cut out the teaching of agriculture, domestic science and manual training. We would like to cut out a lot more items on the cur-riculum that are looked upon as essential". (c) The Yearbook of Education", Lord E. Percy, 1934, expresses , other view of the situation. It says that there was, throughout the post- Great War days "a general feeling that the money that was being spent for ed-ucation was being spent with value received. This appeared to be confirmed by a study of the situation in the "Annual Survey of Education in Canada, 1929". After making an analysis of the various factors that could account for a rise in the index num-ber of the gross expenditure on education in the nine provinces ox Canada from 100 to 262 between 1913 and 1929, it concluded that, if these factors could be conveniently arranged and measured, it would be shown that the value received for moneys spent on education — was greater than in the ^ears preceding the War." " 4 is needed; for it may be true (1) that the gross cost of education has not risen, as alleged; and (2) that even if it has, the various governments can well afford to pay for the present quality and quantity of education, ind so, one is led to inquire: (1) What improvements in Canadian education have been effected in recent years to warrant any changes in educational izosts? (2) Is the gross cost of education in the provinces rising, and if so, to what extent? (3) Can the people of Canada afford the present quality and quantity of educ 3. J ion? (c) Outline of Study; In the remainder of this work an attempt will be made to answer these questions by:-(1) a survey of major improvements in educational services in Canada, roughly during the two decades 1913 to 1935; (2) a survey of changes in gross school costs during that period; (3) an analysis of gross expenditures of provincial governments of Canada, (a) for various public services, and lb) for education; and finally (4) a consideration of the ability of Canada ( and therefore of the Provincial and Dominion governments) to pay for the present amount and quality of education,. It is obvious from the foregoing statements that the essential body of this 1 0r k concerns a quantitative rather than a qualitative study in costs of education. In the former, the various integrations of the bill 5 of educational costs can be analyzed; in the latter, the value of educa-tion may be estimated, not so much in the light of its cost, as in its purpose in society. In the former, accurate measurements can be made; in the latter, these mathematical calculations cannot be attempted owing to the lack of a unit or of units of measurement. And so, in the following chapters, consideration will be given to qualitative aspects of education only in their relation to the quantitative study. Consideration will first be given to the changes that have been effected or proposed in Canadian education, roughly between the years 1913 and 1935, in order to picture the background of educational financing in Canada. CHIPEES XI. CHANGES III EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE IK C ALT AD A 1913 TO 1935 (a) Changes in the Goals of Education in Canada; A serious consideration of the great changes that have been occurr-ing in educational services in Canada obviously involves a reference to the goals of education in a democracy. Education has become increasingly concerned with the needs of the society which has to be served and the character of the individuals- to be educated. It has evolved out of the advancing needs of human beings in a democracy. If it is assumed that Canadians live in a democracy, then it is obvious that education in Canada should be guided by a clear conception of the meaning of democracy. This is well defined in an old but valuable government publication, which says, in part: ^  "It is the ideal of democracy that the individual and society may find fulfillment each in the other. Democracy sanctions neither the exploitation of the individual by society nor the disregard of the interests of society by the individual. The purpose of democracy is so to organize society that each member may develop his personality primarily through activities designed for the well-being of demands that human activities be placed upon a high level of efficiency; that to this efficiency be added an appreciation of the significance of these activities (1) United States Bulletin, Department of the Interior, 1918, lumber 35 "Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education", page'9. (6) and loyalty to the best ideals involved; and that the individual choose that vocation and those forms of social service in which his personality may develop and become most effective. For the achievement of these ends, democracy must place chief reliance upon education. Consequently, education in a democracy, both within and without the school, should develop in each individual the knowledge, interests, ideals, habits, and powers whereby he will find his place to shape both himself and society towards ever nobler ends." It is a trite remark to say that many great changes have been effect-ed in Canadian life in the past two decades; and so it is obvious that twentieth century education in Canada must not be oblivious of- the society which it increasingly must serve and the character of the .individuals who are to be educated. Hence, the following survey of changes in educational services between 19IS and 1935 must be considered in the light of their value as improvements to aid this society and these individuals. in Organization of Education in Canada: In Canada, any attempt to describe educational developments and important events is complicated by the variety of types of educational organizations in different parts of the country. When, in 1867, the four eastern mainland provinces were united by the British North America l c t to form a federal union to be known as the Dominion of Canada, each of them had already made considerable progress in developing a system of public schools. Education is accordingly definitely mentioned in the Act and is one of the functions assigned to the provincial governments subject to 8 (17 ) certain limitations. Since 1867, five new provinces have joined, the conflederation or have been created out of the settled crown lands, so that there are now in Canada nine provincial systems of education. Their progress has naturally been determined by local geographical or historical conditions,and hence, (3 ) though in many respects similar, their problems vary. 1 (2) Canada Yearbook, 1931, p. 957 ( I T . - ?he Federal Government in Can-ada also controls Indian Schools directly.) The Yearbook says: "Throughout the Dominion of Canada public education is a matter of provincial concern, before Confederation, the maritime colonies were separated from Ontario by French-speaking Quebec, and in-each of these an educational system specially adapted to the local con-ditions had come into existence. When Confederation was under con-sideration, the protection of existing vested rights was the predom-inant consideration, is a result, section 93 of the B.IT.A. Act, which embodies the Canadian constitution in so far as that constitu-tion is a written one, provides that in and for each province the pro-vincial Legislature may exclusively make laws in respect to education, except that 'nothing in any such law shall prejudicially affect any right or privilege with respect to denominational schools which any class of persons have by law in the province at the union'." (3) A reference, to the educational system of the Province of Quebec is necessary here, because that province has the chief variant from the sys-tems of other provinces; and this must be considered when consideration is being given to the changes described below. The Canada Yearbook, 1931, on page 958, says: "Tn Quebec, there are two distinct systems of education, in each of which the teaching of religion takes a prominent Position -the Protestant and the Homan Catholic Systems. In the former, which is under control of the Protestant Committee of the Council of Public Instruction, with an English secretary, the curriculum and the gen-eral system of education is similar to that of the other provinces, except that the highest garade is Grade XI, from which students are matriculated to LieGill University and Bishop's University, the two Protestant English-speaking universities of the province. In the Soman Catholic Schools, which are mainly French-speaking the administration is in the hands of the Catholic Committee of the Council of Public Instruction, with a French secretary. General elementary and continuation or "complementary" training is given by means of acurriculum extending over a preparatory course of "six" years of an elementary .course and two "Years" of a complementaiy (continued) 9 As the educational system of Quebec is so different from that of the remaining Canadian provinces, it is obvious that the changes in educa-tional services described below refer particularly to the provinces other than Quebec. First consideration will be given to those changes which have come about as the result of interest being taken in education by the Federal government and of its actual aid in consequence. (c) Changes as the Result of Federal Aid to Education in Canada; With the variety in educational organization and with a recognition of unquestioned provincial authority in this sphere, there have been evidences within the past two decades of a growing recognition of the ad-vantages of co-operation through the agency of the Federal g o v e r n m e n t . ^ Moreover, financial policies of provincial governments have been materially affected by the actions of the Federal government in pursuing a spordic course of encouragement to e d u c a t i o n . s c h e m e s initiated by the Federal government and later dropped have been carried on by provincial govern-ments. Thus, the effect of these schemes on Canadian educational finance should be considered. It should be noted that there is no federal bureau of education al-though the Dominion Bureau of Statistics has an Education Statistics Branch which has done invaluable pioneering work.(3) (concluded from page 8) course. Some of these "years" require more than a year to complete, the work of the "eighth year" corresponding in a gen-eral way to the work of Grade x, as that work is generally defined." ° (1J "Agricultural Instruction Act". (?) Ibid; The Act was in effect from 1913 to 1924 only. (3) Research and Information: In order to assist education, the Dominion government has created a lational Council of lie search which fosters scientific research by grants to approved investigations in the provinces, by scholar-ships to individuals engaged in research, and chiefly bv maintaining at Ottawa the well-equipped lational Research Laboratories. More- ° over, the Dominion government is disseminating many publications of an educational nature, of which its Vumual Survey of Education*in Canada is a prominent example. 10 The Dominion government has, since 19IS, materially assisted "by fed-eral grants to provinces, two important departments of educational work: (a) agriculture and (b) technical education,, However, courses in these subjects, begun with Federal government aid, have been carried forward in recent years by local finance, owing' to the withdrawal of this federal assistance. The history of these courses is, then, of interest in this summary of important changes: (a) In 1913, the "Agricultural Instruction Act" granted $10,000,000 to be divided among the provinces during the succeeding ten years, for the purpose of agricultural instruction.(4) This money helped considerably in instruction through the schools and colleges, and through a variety of agricultural organizations: viz., associations, societies, clubs, institutes and unions. The Act expired in 1923 in some provinces and in 1924 in others. {bj In 1919, the Federal Government, in pursuance of recommendations in its own Eoyal Commission on Technical Education passed the "Technical Education Act," and this is still largely in force. (5) Commenting on its effects, the Canada Yearbook says:'6 ^  "The introduction of technical and vocational courses In the high school curricula has received strong stimuli in recent vears (4J Canada Yearbook, 1913, p. 642. (5) Appointed in 1910 after the consent of each province had been obtained. (Ibid, p. 642); (9 - 10 George v., C.73) (6) Canada Yearbook, 1933, p. 974.: Also, "Vocational education", Depart-ment of Labour, Ottawa, publication 1930, p. 43. "This Act may be cited as the 'Technical Education «ict», 1919 c.73, s.I." ' 11 from the Technical Education Acts of 1919, 1929 and 1951, under terms of which the Dominion Government undertook to provide sub-, •sidles to the provinces to encourage the growth of technical in-struction. l?rom-the outset evening classes during the winter months; have been an important part of the work of the technical schools. The number of students in the institutions for technical education coming within the scope of the Technical Education Act of 1919 in the academic years ending June 30, increased from • 55,774 in 1921 to 117,005 in 1931, a gain of 106^.« (7J In the years since 1929, not all provinces have been receiving grants but records of pupils receiving instruction of a technical character in the publicly controlled schools of the Dominion in 1931 show that in Ont-ario, Quebec,, and British Columbia,• where enrolments were largest, the opportunities for securing technical education were grasped.^8 ^ Courses (7) : The following are complete figures available; Year. Enrolment Increase Per Bent 1921 56,774 0 1922 61,961 9 1923 70,300 23 1924 79,828 40 1925 88,024 55 1926 : 88,961 56 1927 9 6,682 70 1928 109,008 92 1929 121j25 S 113 193® 117,005 106 (8) Enrolment in Publicly Controlled Vocational School Provinces, School Year ended June 30, 1931. s in Canada, by .-gull time. day .students Comme r-cial Other than Commercial Total Part-time and Short Course 'Stud's Evening Students P.E.I 24 " If. S. 58 21 I.B. 490 925 Que. 7775 Ont. 15328 -. 14219 iaani 3246 169 Gask. 1211 146 iUta. • 1219 1815 B.C. 2793 3064 24368 .26134 24 79 1415 7775 29547 3415 1357 3034 5856 52502 ' 1116 3614 68 671 3334 ~ 140 22 179 9144 2667 2667 2004 51276 47440 2732 1908 1811 7167 117005 12 thus offered have, to some extent, provided a substitute for the apprentice system now practically obsolete. Witir this reference to federal aid to education in Canada, attention may now be given to major changes in educational practice. These are notably in secondary education. (d) Changes in Secondary Education: The most outstanding changes in Canadian Schools have been effected in the field of secondary education. These are especially evident (1} in increasing enrolment, (2) in theory and practice, as illustrated (i) by recent re-organization of the intermediate grades and (iij by promotion by subject, and (iii) in curriculum changes. It may be that these changes alone are causes of wide fluctuations in the bill for Canadian education, (ij Increasing Enrolment: One of the tendencies of the past two decades has been the increase in the proportion of students reaching the higher grades in Canadian schools. The following table gives the relative numbers of students in elementary and secondary schools of five Canadian provinces from 1912 to 1 9 1 9 : ^ \ Tear P.p. In Elem-entary Schools P.O. In Second-ary Schools 1912 94.71 . 3«39 1913 93.85 . 5 8 1914 93.87 6.13 1915 93.90 6.10 1916 93.82 6.18 1917 94.18 5.82 1918 94.09 5.91 1919 93.90 6.10 . [9} Historical Survey of Education in Canada, 1919, p.48. ( k . S i ' ' Man., sask,, Alta. The evidence is not available from other provinces' 13 It is evident that the percentage of the enrolment in secondary schools in-creased less than 20$ "before 1920. In 1921, the proportion of the total enrolment of ordinary publicly-controlled schools in the high school grades was less than 8$; "by 1929, it had increased almost to 1Th e Canada Yearbook s a y s:( 1 1^ "This is'the result of a number of factors, foremost among them being the raising of sompulsory attendance laws. Moreover, the higher grades are being reached at earlier ages, the average [median) age of pupils in what is usually .the final year at high school (junior matriculation) being almost one half of a year less in 1929 then in 1924 in the seven provinces for which age-grade data are compiled." Since 1929, the increase in secondary education enrolment has become a serious problem. Regarding this, the "Survey of Education in Canada", 1931, notes:'1 2^ "The common experience of all provinces was a continued multiplication of older pupals. In the two years, 1929 to 1951, the number of pupils sixteen years of age or older increased by 39.5$ in the Prairie provinces, and those in high school grades by 24.2$, while the total number'of pupils increased less than 2f>. — - — The tendency was less pronounced in other provinces, but nevertheless quite strong. There is no doubt that the disproportionate increase in older pupils has in the last few years been particularly strength-ened by the difficulty of the teen-age children in finding employ-ment." . J The "Survey of Education in Canada", 1932, supplements this statement as followsj(1 3) . "T h e enrolment of the higher years will probably continue to increase for a time at least, though the immediate future possibilities o± im d i n g employment, among other factors, are too uncertain to make it possible to see for how long this will be." (10) Canada Yearbook, 1931, p. 958. (11) Ibid, p. 958. (12) Survey of Education in Canada, 1931, P. xi - xii, (13) survey of Education in Canada, 1932, - 9 p. xvi, 14 Farther and more detailed analysis of the considerable increase in secondary school enrolment between 1921 and 1952 will be found in Charts I)' (1 to 9 ) and Tables & (1 to f j of this work, (ii} Re-organization of Secondary Schools after 1921 The relatively large increase in secondary school enrolment before 1929 (the first'year of the depression) shows that the problem of second-ary education is not merely a result of the depression; it stafcted many years previously. The increase in secondary school enrolment has been accompanied by marked changes in educational theory and practice which are both causes and results of this increase. These changes were antic-ipated as early as 1918 in the report of the National Education Association committee on the re-organization of secondary schools in the united States. (14) The committee expressed the view that secondary education was in dire need of re-organization because its nature was determined by; (a) the needs of the society which it was supposed to serve; (b) the character of the individuals which now had to be educated; and (c) the knowledge of educational theory and practice available. It noted that these factors were not static but dynamic, and that the time for re-organization had arrived. It gave as its reasons (a) that society was always developing, (b) that the character of the secondary school populationwas undergoing considerable modification as a result of the changes in society, (c) that new sciences of educational theory and practice were developing new educational information, (d) that the conservative nature of secondary education had previously resisted modifications to a considerable extent, (14) Cardinal Principles, op.cit., p. (6), above. 15 and (e) that failure to make adjustments when necessary usually leads to the necessity of more extensive re-organization at irregular intervals. After urging immediate overhauling of secondary school practice it enlarged on the principles that should guide re-organization and development of secondary education in the United States. The chief of these was stated to be the responsibility of the secondary schools for planning its work so that young people might meet the needs of democracy. Many of the changes suggested in this document were further described in Canadian articles after 1919; and some of the ideas were adopted with Canadian modifications. Two related examples will serve to illustrate the trends of these changes in secondary schools in Canada (as well as in the United States): (I) He-organization of the Middle Grades Some re-organization of the middle grades of school systems has been effected as a result of educational research in the fiield of early adole-scent child education. The "Survey of Education in Canada" describes the reasons for changes as follows:'1 5^ "Traditionally, except in Quebec, .there has been complete continuity between^elementary and secondary education in one set of schools, the first eight grades having been considered elementary, the higher grades secondary. But in several quarters the eighCyear is coming°to be regarded as an unnatural point at which to mafife the distinction (16) It is maintained that a new period in the child's mental development begins a year or two earlier than the average Grade VIII pupils', and that the structure of the school system should be altered to take account of this change, having the elementary course proper terminate ,°f S G h°0 1 'r h e recognition of this situation in tne United States has resulted in the introduction of the junior ^ f * s c h°o 1 i n m a n3r Places, a movement that has been watched/:losely (15) "Survey of Education in Canada", 1932, p. xiv. (16) Briggs, Thos. Ii., "The Junior High School", 1920, Chap. I. (This chapter deals with the "Need for Be-organization of Schools") 16 (17 ) in parts of Canada,1 Similarly in England since 1926, there has "been a concerted effort to introduce a new type of school receiving children at the age of eleven-plus." (1.8) The changes in the United States and England resulted from a prac-tical recognition of the needs for special treatment of children from the.age of eleven-plus. These American and English schools have been studied "by Canadians, and as a result junior high schools have been organ-ized in Manitoba and British Columbia. The 1931 Report of the Department of Education for Ontario states that it is proposed to set up a new type of school called the intermediate school; and the 1931 report of the Superintendent of the Fova Scotia school system records new legislation tending in the same direction. The depression since 1929 in considerable measure has given impetus to the movement for junior high schools, which have been stated to cost-less than schools operated under the 8 - 4 system.'1 9) Moreover the junior high schools are able to accommodate a large number of pupils who do not intend to remain at school long after the age of sixteen years. The whole spirit of the junior high school system has promised a radical change in the method of promotion-. What is the change? (2) Promotion by Subject During the depression, several urban centres in Ontario have offered two years of secondary school work in advanced classes and this expedient has been carried out by means of "staggered classes". Under this system, schools have operated from 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m., no teacher or pupil working more than eight periods (of forty minutes each) during the day. (17) "Cardinal Principles", op.cit., p.2. ~~~ (18) Since the "Report of the Consultative Committee on the Education of the Adolescent", in 1926. (19) Percy, Lord E., "Yearbook of Education", 1934, p. 285. I 17 This has created an administrative problem in promotions which has been met by promotion by subject and time-table arranged for each pupil, The in'crease in the number of teaching periods makes possible more options to pupils. The principal of a large secondary school who, driven by circum-stances. resorted to the system, commended it as follows: "The criticism that secondary schools have gone in for "mass prod-uction" and "sausage machine" methods has some foundation in fact. This scheme enables the principal and parents to consider individual needs. The student who finds language study almost impossible, can be guided into other channels more easily. Again, in a large school, the groups in physical training can be made up of pupils of similar ability. The athletic boys can be given more advanced work and the slower ones will not be open to that ridicule which often causes tthem to hate the gymnasium period. It is my conviction that the system opens for experimentation which the present rigid hi^h-school organization makes difficult. Bather than being a make-shift for the present strenuous times, it will prove a factor in making the , high school of to-morrow a better agency in educating our youth."(2 0^ The idea of student time-tables and promotion by subject spread, and, in September 1934, two large British Columbia high schools became far-/ 21 ) western pioneers in this important educational reform. ' others have followed suit. (iii) Changes in the Curriculum The increase in secondary school attendance, the inauguration of the junior high school, promotion by subject and many other enlargements of educational services, have all reacted to cause curriculum changes. More-Over, the depression has tended to accelerate these changes by bringing about a change in attitude towards the whole educational process. Until and during the boom years preceding 1929, the chief incentive to obtain schooling was economic. The dollar value of diplomas was then (20) Quoted in Percy, Lord E., "Yearbook of Education", 1934 (21) King Edward and Prince of Wales High Schools, Yancouve , p. 285. B»C • 18 high. Daring the early years of the depression, when positions were more difficult to secure, the emphasis on schooling shifted to the attain-ing of scholastic standing. But as time has passed, the number of persons with high academic attainments has increased and, in consequence, the di stinction has become less conspicuous.^^ The emphasis has shifted again, and now the basic value of education has come into perspective. The aim of education has thus become that of opening up a fuller cultural life to the individual, no matter what his economic or social position. It has already been explained that it is not easy to measure the social value of education which Is not readily amenable to measurement; but it can be shown that changes in emphasis in education have taken / place by a resume of recent curriculum changes. It is to be expected that there should be opposition to curriculum change from conservative and reactionary groups. Moreover, it Is not unlikely that considerable opposition to changes in educational costs may have emanated from similar individuals. The cause of opposition in both cases has likely been ignorance of basic reasons for the changes. However, curriculum changes from the time of Plato have not come without a due share of opposition, and the "new education" developing in recent years, is no exception. It was noted in the opening lines of this section that the emphasis in education before 1929 was largely placed on the securing of diplomas. Hence, education before 1929 largely emphasized curriculum, newer education which has been evolving generally since the Great V7ar, stresses the indiv-(22) The number of people holding a Bachelor of Arts degree has increased considerably. 1 a x ^  ! 23) idual, The "old education" catered to social classes of persons who usually went to university or into the professions, and was largely 'based (24) on the study of the classics.' The "new education" takes cognizance of the fact that only a small percentage who enter secondary schools ever matriculate for university, and hence it attempts to fit the curriculum to the needs of;the individuals in modern society. This is accomplished (I) by including such subjects as physical education, household science, and many others noted below, and (2) by extending the benefits of voca-tional guidance. Many people are doing and others have been forced to do life work for which they are not eminently fitted. Vocational guidance was intro-duced into many of the schools of Canada as one means of directing stud-ents -into the vocations for which they are best suited. Thus it has a place in the school. The past two decades have seen hours of labour steadily decreasing, with the result that men and women have been given more and more hours of (23) It is noted that in the previous sentence the word "largely" was used as the newer education has been developing since the \7ar., (24) John Dewey, in discussing "Democracy and Education", emphasizes continually that education must take cognizance of the state of society if it is to fulfil its task. He writes on page 102 of his above book: "A society marked off into classes need be specially attentive to the education of its ruling elements, a society which is mobile, cs which is full of channels for the distribution of a change occurring anywhere, must see to it that its members are educated to personal initiative and adaptability. Otherwise they will be overwhelmed by the changes in which they are caught and whose significance they do not perceive." 20 leisure; and the present tendency appears to he towards even shorter working and longer leisure hours. The inclusion of music .and dramatics in the school curriculum, for example, may be considered as a move to meet the needs of this situation. In various Canadian provinces, the curriculum has been amended during the past two decades to include the technical subjects of a vocational nature, already mentioned, as well as biology, civics, elementary economics, commercial work, music and dramatics, physical education, and many other branches of study not found in traditional programmes of studies.(2 5) a (25) The following excerpts from the "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1931, p. 46 to 49, shows that traditional subjects of the cur-riculum have not been supplanted in Canada, but that newer subjects have-shown a marked increase in popularity during the past two decades: Older Group Students enrolled (Ontario) Saskatchewan 1913 ' 1921 1931 1923 19 31 Eng. Gompositior Algebra Eng. Grammar French Ancient History Greek 38,378 30,300 23,300 22,806 9,605 602 35,781 33,689 24,897 28,908 7,747 276 80,299 45,434 25,388 60,697 8,499 419 4660 4535 3716 2026(1926] 10(1922] 7498 6679 5712 2539 18 Hewer Group; Stenography Manual Training Agriculture Hist. & Civics , Typewriting 3,741 2,444 420 1,041 3,555 4,318 3,885 1,506 2,390 3,462 16,348 • 9,364 9,587 22,075 17,481 213 1174(1926) 1175 1069 . . Scotia and Brunswick retained largely a traditional cur-riculum^untx 1 19^1. The former records economics as being added in 1930, tiie_ latter general science in. 1928. Saskatchewan reports record manual training being introduced in 1926. British Columbia reports record exten sive advances in curriculum construction; but little has been done by way of lessening tne "load" on students, who are still required to carry trad-i ^ T *** ^ J1 3 3 ™e r E j e c t s . The following are subjects which we s t M e S s W e e n 1 9 1 9 a M 1 9 2 7 ^ W M 0 h S h 0 W l e a s e d popularity re among Subject Enrolment in Year Introduced Enrolment in 1930 or 1931 Metal Work Music Magnetism & Electr: Physical Culture 233 183 -city 547 4710 3669 3687 2606 10423 !continued J 21 university professor once summed up the tendency as follows; "Do not teach what our grandfathers thought our fathers should know, hut what thousands who have gone before are doing." Although every province has made curriculum changes, most alterations are, as yet, comparatively superficial. Traditional subjects are still largely retained, and, though new ones are included, they are placed in an inferior position. It is not improbable that a more general acceptance of the principle of promotion by subject will considerably alter their relative positions during1 the next decade, so that another generation will see only a minimum of students taking the traditional classical program. Educationists have a pressing responsibility in advising administra-tive bodies, who lack understanding of the "new education",, of the sub-jects which should be retained or eradicated from the curriculum. Other-wise an unnecessary accumulation of debt may ensue. (e) Changes in the Articulation of the High School and University The problem of the best distribution of the work of the early adole-scent years has been met by the introduction of the junior high or inter-mediate school. To-day a similar educational problem presents itself: that of,the place, in high school or university of much of the work traditionally allotted to the junior years of the university. Obviously, any transfer of work of the university to the public schools will affect changes in educational expenditure. The "Report of the President of the University of Saskatchewan", 1931, quotes as follows:^2 6^ (concluded from page 20) In addition to these, the following subjects, introduced in 1927, have received considerable attention: printing, general science, dietetics and cookery, needlework, dressmaking and drafting. (26J "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1931, quoted p. xiv. "I believe that young students will do better if they take Grade XII work in a good Collegiate rather than the First Year in the University, where the methods of instruction throw more responsible ; -ity upon the student. The time may shortly arrive when the minimum entrance requirement may be senior matriculation for entr-ance. In time the first and second years' work of the Arts course will be relegated to Junior Colleges or Collegiates, and the univer-sity course will consist of three years." In this connection, the report of the retiring President of the University of Toronto, for the year 1931 - 1932, s a i d : ^ "I do not look for any great advance in higher education by any material change within the university. But for some years, I have been of the opinion that its quality would be improved if the university were to receive a more fully developed student than it does now." In the year in which these remarks were made, the University of Toronto had put into effect for the first time the requirement of senior matriculation standing for entrance to its Arts course, thus putting the first year of its former course entirely in the secondary schools, and retaining a pass course one year shorter within its own walls. Some just-ification for the transfer of work came from the fact that the examination failures of the class entering in 1931 - 32 (with senior matriculation standing) were only 19.4$ as compared with 31.5)? for those in the,same class who had entered the university in the preceding year with junior I ?8 ) matriculation standing.1 ' The University of Toronto is the only Canadian University to stop giving the equivalent of senior matriculation work in its first year; but other universities'2 9 ) are receiving more and more students with senior matriculation standing and report that they generally do better worft than (28) 0 f M u e a t i o n i n Canada", 1931, quoted p. xiv. (29 ) Viz. - Universities of. Saskatchewan, ALberta, and British Columbia. 23 those entering with junior matriculation standing,'3 0^ Obviously, one factor that may hasten the placing of the first year of the university in the secondary schools is the difficulty of providing accomodation for the rapidly increasing university enrolment.'3 1^ This problem may be partially overcome, (a) by spreading out the senior matri-culation students over a considerable number of secondary schools to avoid their convergence from all points on a single university, of (b) by extending the facilities in secondary schools for promotion by subject, under which conditions, very probably fewer students would meet university requirements, yet secure a Grade 211 standing before leaving school, Enough has been written above regarding the changing conditions affec-ting the union of secondary schools and universities of Canada to indicate that there is another difficulty which public bodies must consider in their (30) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1931, p. xv. Commenting on this fact the President of the University says: "If this is maintained, it will mean that the quality of the pass degree at the end of three years will be better than that of the former degree at the end of four years." (31) Canadian university enrolment follows: 1911 - 16,675 1921 - 26,385 1932 - 43,143 (or 163$ increase over 1911 figures) them ^ Z T Z l Z i : t h S r 6 S U l t °f m a n y f a C t°r S' P r°m i n e n t (a) ,The Canadian population of university age has increased. n f p r°p°r t i o n o f w o m e n i n Canadian universities has increased. (c) The extensive increase in facilities (e.g.., Summer Schools, evening classes, correspondence courses, etc. ) for teachers to obtain higher education. (d) Lengthening of some professional courses, I.e., medicine, dentistry, and admission of new courses, i.e., agriculture, veterinary science, household science. 24 financing of education. The addition of another year to the high school course may also result in changing educational costs just as has the enforcement of compulsory education laws. However, if the change just-ifies itself as an improvement in educational service, then it should justify a change in educational costs. (f) Changes as.the Hesuit of Compulsory Attendance Laws • The introduction and development of technical and vocational training in schools, and. the radical changes in secondary education have been important improvements effected in educational service during the past two decades, "-ence a comparatively extended discussion has been attempted. But there have been many other changes of primary importance, among which improved attendance laws are prominent. I n all Canadian provinces, except Quebec, there have been enacted laws relating to compulsory school attendance and these have been increased - • , (32) m severity during' the past twenty years. 'Quebec has no compulsory attendance act, but a provincial law forbids the employment of children under sixteen years of age unless they can read and write. (32) Other typical provincial attendance regulations are as follows; Manitoba: Children of ages 7 to 14 must attend, and those of ages 14 to 16 if they are not engaged in some regular occupation. leva Scotiaj In urban centres, children of ages 6 to 16, and in rural areas those of ages 7 to 14 must attend. Ontario: Children of ages 8 to 14, and, with certain qualifications as to amount of attendance, those of ages 14 to 16 years from all urban adolescents who have not attained university standing, must attend, (part time courses are also arranged for instruction of adolescents of ages 16 to 18.) 25 Owing to various interpretations of the word "attendance", it is difficult to agree upon a yardstick hy which to measure the degree to which compulsory attendance laws are enforced, or to what actual extent there has heen improvement in attendance. However, reference to census returns regarding literacy land illiteracy) in Canada over a period of 0/ / g 15 1 years shows that trier has he en considerable improvement.." The Canadian census returns of 1891 showed that 13.8^ of the people of Canada (exclusive of Indians) over ten years of age were unable to read (34) and write. The corresponding percent.for the census of 1921 (includ-1 35 ) ing/aboriginals) was 5.10^.' ' This shows extensive progress. Owing to the increasing interest in school attendance since the v/orld War, and to the tendency to transfer in large measure the enforcement of compulsory legislation to the central educational authority, the census of 1931 shows even further progress.( 3 6 1 T h e number unable to read or write was reduced t0 3'79f° of t h e population over ten years of age (including aboriginals). That the various compulsory attendance acts have had effect in im-proving school attendance is shown by the census returns of 1 9 3 1 J3 7^ For Canada, as a whole, the population between the ages of five.md twenty-four increased between 1921 and 1931 by 19.5^, while the number at school increased by 25.82$. This improvement in school attendance has been of significance in its effects, not only on the financing of buildings to accommodate the increasing number of students, but also on. many other ser-vices, auch as the cost of text-books and supplies, medical attention and school sanitation, examinations, equipment and teachers' salaries. (33) It is assumed here that there is a direct relation between"the"en-~ iorceinent of compulsory attendance legislation and improvement in Canad-ian literacy. (34) Percy, Lord E., "Yearbook of Education", p. 682. if f T1 a i r V e ; y" °f Education Canada",'1932, p.xvii. l«->oJ Ibid, p.xvii. (37) Ibid, 1931, p.xiv. 26 (g) Development of Correspondence Courses . •• < Particularly in the western provinces, the re has "been a marked exten-sion of the functions and activities of the correspondence courses offered by the provincial departments of education. Saskatchewan organized its / 3 8 j first course in the "Outpost Correspondence Schools" in 1925.1 ' In 1930, these showed 210 children receiving instruction in Grades I to Till; and in 1932, 9000 pupils in one-room schools were enrolled for subjects of Grades IX, X and XI.'3 9 ) in addition, 1,100 were receiving full instr-uction from the correspondence school. In Manitoba, the work of the correspondence branch was extended in 1932 to cover work of Grade IX, and in British Columbia, for the same year, students could secure correspondence courses to Grade XII. In the latter province, an., enrolment of 617 in these courses was made, notwithstanding that 355 of these had to pay fees for high school courses. In Eova Scotia, an amendment (1933) to the Education Act, empowered the Co u n cn 0f public Instruction to make use of correspondence courses if deemed n e c e s s a r y . ^ Of course, in many sections of Eastern Canada, where population is fairly dense, the need for these facilities is not as pressing as in most parts of the Western.provinces. However, the extension of correspondence courses represents a decidedly important factor in improved facilities for educa-tion in Canada. (h) Changes in Examinations: In Canada, as elsewhere, the number and influence of examinations set by departments of education have, for many years, been undergoing consid-(38) Percy, Lord E., "Yearbook o£ Education", 1934, p. 289. (39) "Yearbook of Education", 1934, p. 289. (40) Ibid, quoted p.289. 27 arable change, In 1910, the Superintendent of Education for Ontario wrote of the uniform departmental examinations of that province as rt%he xnost striking feature of our primary and secondary schools", one which for over a quarter of a century had not only determined the character of the teaching, hut had held in thrall pupils, teachers and the public J4 1® '1 The number writing these'examinations grew from year to year out of all proportion to the necessities of business ancl the professions, for which such examinations were 'supposed to provide. The same situation obtained in Alberta and Saskatchewan even in 1932.(4 1 dJ However, in recent years, there has been a marked tendency to lessen tne number of these examinations and to provide optional means of acquir-i ing the same credit of certificate. Ontario has provided such a method for entrance to high school for many years. In other provinces, a similar tendency is noticeable. In Saskatchewan, instead of a departmental examin-ation, the Department of Education undertook to prepare examination tests which teachers might give their students during the month of June, the teachers to read the papers, and give promotion subject to the approval of the inspector. In Alberta, in 1931, for the first time pupils in Grade VIII were promoted to high school without being required to write a departmental examination. In British Columbia, a fairly general system' of promotion to high school on the recommendation of a committee comprising the elementary and high school principals and the district.imspector, has been in operation for several years; and in 1932,' four-fifths of such stu-dents were promoted by these committees. .(41a) "Annual Beport", Department of Education, Ontario, 1910. 41b) "Yearbook of Education", 1934, p. 291. (42) "fieport of Department of Education of B.C." - 1932. In mptf. provinces, it is still the custom for the departments of education to prepare examination tests, and pupils not promoted on recom-mendation of committees, have the opportunity of taking these tests. In British Columbia it is possible for students to be promoted on recommend-ation up to and into Grade XII. Some .'beginning has been made in Canadian provinces in the use of objective tests. In several of the western provinces, these have been used more and more extensively during the last few years. In Ontario, in 1931, a committee undertook to report on how these new-type tests might be used effectively In departmental examinations. The results of its experiments were published by the Department of Education.^3) The prep-aration of types of objective tests designed for Canadian schools was delegated to the Department of Educational Research established in Ontario A College of Education in 1931, Although these tests have had a comparatively short term of use and in only a few schools, yet their value has been demonstrated in cutting down the cost of administration of examinations and in effecting greater validity of the testing program, The latter has enabled promotion from grade to grade to be carried out in a fairly consistent manner. The Ontario investigation found: "As regards validity their (tests-*) correla-tion with the school marks shows that they are almost if not quite as valid as the examinations. It would, moreover, be interesting to discover statistics showing whether any correlation exists between improvements in age- grade tables and use of these tests. (43) "Report of An Experiment in Educational Measurement", Toronto, Herbert H. Ball, printer, 1931, 29 (i) Improvements in Medical Inspection of Schools: During the past two decades, much improvement in attendance in urban centres, and, doublless in the quality of educational "results" has been attained through medical inspection of schools, scholars and. teachers, is would be expected, the demand for meuical inspection of schools and schol-ars arose at a comparatively late period in educational development. Building and equipping schools and securing properly qualified teachers obviously preceded this inspection. As Canada is comparatively young in educational development, medical inspection is inadequate outside of large centres such as Toronto and Vancouver. However, Ontario has outlined a good scheme of medical development and several large centres have put it into effect. In the larger centres of British Columbia, dental inspection was included with a medical examin-ation until 1933, when dental treatment was abolished as an economy measure. Although medical inspection in schools of Canada is in its infancy indications are that it has already effected considerable improvement: (a) In securing more regular school attendance of pupils and teachers, and (b) in securing of more modern buildings and equipment. Coupled with a natural increase in enrolment, owing to increased population, with the rise in the proportion of students attending second-ary schools, and with relatively rigid enforcement of compulsoiy attend-ance laws, medical inspection has become another factor in securing a high percentage of actual attendance from students enrolled. Increased enrolment has brought about demands from time to -time for new buildings; and these have had to be built, in most cases, with special 30 attenti on to modern sanitary requirements® As a more detailed discussion of 'buildings is left to another section, it is sufficient to observe here that the actual effect of better health conditions in schools is more likely to cut down cost by speeding promotions than by increasing it owing to initial outlay for sanitary conveniences in new buildings. (j) Improvements in Buildings and Equipment; Although many changes have taken place in types of school buildings, a variety of school structures can be found. Log buildings with prim-itive equipment still survive. In Canada, the responsibility for the provision of the school building and its equipment rests upon the local school community. For this purpose, trustees or councils are empowered to issue bonds on the security of the district or municipal taxes. In most cases, especially for large capital expenditures, authorization by a poll of the ratepayers must be secured. Ontario, Manitoba, Uova Scotia and British Columbia have done con-siderable work in improving buildings by means of stringent regulations, and issue bulletins describing standard school buildings and regulations governing construction. A great deal in this direction remains to be done. Old type unjacketed stoves are very frequently found in rural schools, resulting in greatly varying temperatures in different parts of the same room J4 4) However, progress is being made, as most provinces now insist on Inspectors passing new plans for buildings. The greatest need in Canadian schools is for building funds which can be used to provide accom-(44) The writer has recollections of teaching in a rural classroom in 1921, where plants g n the teacher's desk froze, while children sitting within two rows of the fire perspired with the heat. 31 odation from time to time as required. During the Great War, school building programmes were discontinued, and" school authorities found themselves faced with the problem of provid-ing buildings or cutting down on the extent of education. They bridged the difficult War years by providing temporary out-buildings or by housing-students in basements, attics, hallways and other available space. After the "far, there was great activity in school construction, many temporary structure s being abandoned. The new buildings were financed, in most cases, by bond issues, which not only caused a considerable increase in the cost of education at that time, but increased the bill for education in succeeding years. At the same time, (after the i/ar), the abandonment of temporary accommodation represented further financial loss to ratepayers. There .may be some justification in applying to the whole building programme of War and post-far years the stigma of "false economy". Further reference to building programmes will be made below. At this point, one-may note that considerable progress has been made in the con-struction and equipment of school buildings although many rather primitive buildings are still in use; and that casual observation of financing methods indicates that they have been of the instalment plan category, rather than of the progressive type. 146) (k) Text-books and Supplies; A part of the growing cost of schools in Canada is attributable to text-books and supplies. As in other-parts of the American continent, the (45) Building funds would provide money for new buildings as required. . The_present method of paying taxes into sinking funds merely results in increased cost of buildings owing to necessary interest payments. (46) By "progressive" type, is here meant, for example, such a method as one in which ratepayers pay two mills annually into a building fund. See footnote (45 )> above. 32 text-book has evolved and grown in importance in the classroom owing to two factors: (aj The rural school, and (hJ The incompetent teacher. The' text-hook nas become important both to the rural pupi1 who receives a minimum amount of direct instruction and to the inexperienced teacher who requires a guide. Some of these text-books are supplied free of charge by school authorities, while others are purchased by students themselves. But while the text-book will obviously continue to be an important aid in some subjects, there are evidences that in others it is losing some of its significance as the result of research and of improved practices in class-x'oom work.'4 7 ^  In place of text-books, many schools have secured the beginnings of libraries: and a measure of cultured reading, formerly hampered as the result of too much use of the text-book, is no longer conspicuous by its absence J 4 8 ^ The text-book still plays a prominent part in Canadian educ-ation, as evidence of which part one can refer to continued expenditure by provincial governments charged to text-books; and, in a negative manner,' to the lack of proper libraries in the great majority of schools in Canada. Many years may pass and considerable money.-©ill have to be spent in est-ablishing and extending school libraries before the text-book will diminish, to any considerable extent, in undue importance. ^ • U ) Changes in Standards for the Teaching Profession: This chapter would be incomplete without ample reference being made to changing standards of the teaching profession, as the cost of education is affected very materially by the cost of salaries and improvements in (47) Morrison,. HiC., "Practice of Teaching in Secondary Schools", University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 111. 1926. (48) The reference here is to such subjects as Literature, social stud and Health. 33 procedure originating with teachers. This subject naturally falls into two divisions: (1) Bising standards for the teaching profession, and (2)'Changes in teachers' salaries and standards of living. Chapter II will be devoted to a consideration of the latter, the former being treated here., Blsing Standards for the Teaching Profession; The "Canada.Yearbook", 1931, s a y s : ^4 9^ "Raising of standards in the teaching profession has been a pro-nounced characteristic of recent years, and one that augurs well .for the enhanced efficiency of the schools, -numerous factors are concerned, and it is often difficult to say whether they are more a cause or a result. Each of the provinces and the Dominion as a whole now possess teachers' professional organizations, severally termed federations, alliances, unions, or associations, which have - held consistently befo if them the ideal of, improvement within the profession. Teachers without professional training have in most of the provinces, been reduced, to i/ery small numbers, while normal school courses have been generally lengthened and the requirements . for admission gradually raised.(50) Summer-school courses, enabling teachers to improve both their academic and professional standing, have become increasingly numerous and well-patronized. Teachers' pension or superannuation schemes have become operative in seven of the provinces, most of them within the last few years, adding much to the stability of the profession." (49) (50) It is significant that in Canada, in addition to the teachers' pro-Canada Yearbook, 1931, p. 959. For example, the following table shows the proportion of teachers in Year , Academic First Class Total Proportion of total holding academic or first class certificates 4, Index 1913- 305 450 1582 48.63 100*0 1914 331 634 1843 .52.36 - 107.7 19 IS 380 466 2124 39.83 81.9 1921 433 490 2734 33i76 69.4 : 1924 526 717 3211 38.71 79.6 1927 580 994 3531 44.58 91.7 1930 730 1244 3854 D X» 105.3 1931 - 759 1380 3948 54.17 111.4 1932 789 1441 3959 56.33 115.8 ' » .~ j . w v u . u . 0 p e n o u s , m e r e nas oeen a steadily 54 fessional associations above noted, there are at least twenty associations of teachers, trustees or educational officials of provincial or dominion „ (51S \ scope.1 1 There hasbeen a parallel increase in the number of education" (5?} al periodicals. " In 1915, there were five educational journals, whereas in 19S4 there were twenty, most of which were organs of teachers* associations. ($) Summary of Changes; Education in Canada has long since passed the pioneering stage of the "Little Bed School House". It has become increasingly concerned with <0 the needs of the Canadian society which has to be served and the char-acter of the individuals to be educated. Education in Canada varies in different parts of the country because of historical and geographical factors and because it is a function assign-ed exclusively to the provincial governments by the British Forth imerica Act. Although the education of most provinces is similar, that of Quebec is a variant. In spite of the fact that education is primarily a provincial func-tion, considerable impetus has been given to technical and agricultural education by federal government grants. These grants for agricultural education have not be en given since 1924 yet some provinces have contin-ued their courses at their own expense. The most outstanding changes of the past two decades, have been in secondary education. They were especially evidenced ins (i) a marked increase in secondary school population: (il) reorganization of secondary education: £51) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1952, pages xxviii to xxxi. 52) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1952, pages xxxiii to xliii. (On these pages will be found an extensive bibliography of Can. publications.) 35 (a) in the formation of the junior high school (b) in the Introduction of promotion by subject ' (iii) curriculum changes which have shown a wide departure from the traditional subjects. A movement to give to the secondary schools the work of the first university year in order to secure a more mature student for higher educa-tion has commenced in recent years and will have to be taken into account with changing educational costs. Compulsory attendance laws have steadily been rendered stricter since 1913, resulting in a much greater school attendance, and consequently in changes in costs of buildings, equipment and salaries. Correspondence courses, conducted by departments of education, have shown .considerable increase, particularly in the western provinces, where children in remote areas, lighthouses, etc., cannot attend a regular school. The cost of the courses is borne-directly by the' provincial govern-ments. The advent of new types of examinations has allowed for consistent pro-motion from grade to grade. Moreover they.are cheaper to administer. During recent years, improvement in attendance of teachers and pupils and in promotions has been effected Dy medical and dental inspection in schools of some provinces of Canada. This improvement probably more than offsets the extra cost of constructing better school buildings. During the Great V/ar, building of schools was retarded, ^ence, ano extensive building boom ensued after 1919, adding considerably to the bonded indebtedness of municipalities in Canada, Buildings have beei progressive t ^ J g g ) (53) Op.Cit., footnote 46, above. 211 36 Largely owing to lack of "socialization"' of the schools and to the necessities of rural and some still-existent incompetent teachers, large sums are expended annually by departments of education to provide text-hooks for schools, Y/hile they are necessary to the teaching of some sub-jects, they might be largely dispensed with in others. Probably one of the chief causes, as well as the effect of the mamr I radical changes in educational services during the past two decades, is the marked improvement in standards for the teaching profession. Better teaching conditions, greater permanency of tenure and improvements in the academic and professional qualifications of teachers have resulted- in Increasing improvement in the quality of instruction afforded. CHAPTEH III CHAHGES III TEACHEHS' SALARIES M B STABDAliDE OF LITIiJG It Is evident that salaries of teachers make up the hulk of the ex-penditure on education In Canada. Hence,, it is important to consider general trends in salary changes and teachers® standards of living, before analysing gross costs. It is well to know if there has been changes in teachers' salaries and standards of living to parallel those in standards of teaching In the teaching profession. The statistics of teachers' salaries in the reports of the different Canadian provinces are so diverse that it is almost impossible to secure comparable data with which to give any true idea of the facts, liany all-egedly comparable salary studies based on average salaries in different provinces have been made, but It is a very moot question whether thev 1 depict true situations J1^ • (1) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1932, pages 72 to 79. (The Dominion Bureau of Statistics gives tables of average salaries, but they cannot be arranged In such a way as to show parallel facts about different-provinces). One has to be very careful in working with "average salaries". Eor example, one province with a comparatively small number of teachers and a low salary schedule for teachers, could show a higher average salary than another province having a much larger number of teachers and a much higher salary schedule. This higher average could show, as It l i k e l y would, if many of the teachers in the former province (with low salary schedule) were teachers of relatively long experience and hence were .receiving salaries near the schedule maximum, the average salary thus being high." On the other hand, in the case of the latter (with the high salary'schedule), with a^much larger number of teachers, the average salary would." likely appro*-, . xiraate the median and that province could appear to have a lower average ' salary than the former. Hence, comparisons on the basis of average salaries may be misleading. (37) 44 (P ) The "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", for 1932, ~' gives aver-age salaries of different .groups of teachers in different provinces; and, although these must be interpreted with care, at least they reveal that British Columhia salaries were not far out of line with those of other provinces in that year J3-! m recent years, in British Columbia, scient-O ific salary studies were made by comparing median salaries of various groups of teachers, these salaries being devalued to a comparable unit, viz., the Bureau of Statistics! index to the cost of living in British C o l u m b i a . ^ Assuming that salary changes in British Columbia are, at least, in-dicative of the trendof those across Canada, and not assuming to compare one province with another, one may summarize the conclusions of the British Columbia studies as follows;'5^ .(1) Teachers' salaries have risen slightly in terms of 1913 dollars. ^ (2) Salaries of higher-paid teachers have increased comparatively more (2) Pages 7 2 - 7 9 . (3) See above footnote, number (lj (4j By Professor C-. E. Drummond, University of British Columbia, and by Y . Dryer's "A Statistical Analysis of the Cost of Education in British Columbia, from 1913 to 1932, with Particular Reference to School Teachers' Salaries", a graduation essay in the Department of Economics, u. B. C., 1933. They studied upper, lower and middle salaried groups. (5) Excerpts from Prof. Drummond's and Mr. Dryer's works are quoted from the latter's essay, page 42: "It is possible that the salaries of teachers have arisen as — the proportion which the total amount paid in salaries bore to the total cost of education — has — Increased." (See their Chart AAl and Table M l . ] On the whole, since 1919, there has been little change between them. (6J Index to cost of living used, given in Table 2 below. 59 than those of lower-paid teachers J7) on the other hand, they did not increase in the same proportion as those of other wage-earning groups in Cartada, especially during the comparatively normal years of 1922 - 1 9 2 9 . ^ The jlhnual Survey of Education in Canada", says that salaries of teachers were reduced so that their standards of living were lowered to an "un~ (9 ) b&lievable" extent. (3) Salaries of teachers only approximated a good living standard in 1929 - 31, as the result of the decline in the cost of livin.°'» since ther they have heen forced down again by economy measures.'1 0^ (7) Y, Dryer, Op. Git., p. 48. Table M 2 and Charts AA2 and M 3 "Shows the average yearly salaries from 1913 - 1932 — — compiled fzrorn frequency distributions. The dispersion round the mean increased throughout the period, thus indicating that the higher income groups have improved their position relatively to the lower income groups. These lower income groups improved their position only in 18 years. During the same period, the higher income groups improved their position 17,2^, and the average sal-ary increased 12.2;;. If we take the averages for 1931 and 1932 as given In the Annual Report of the Public Schools, we find that more progress was made during those years than in the 18 preceding years, the average salary for the latter being 28.5% higher than that for 1913." (8) Chart AA4 and Table AA3 show the changes in the standard of lining in wage-earning groups in Canada between 1913 and 1932. Mr. Dryer writes, regarding' these groups: "It is evident that, if we take the period as a whole, the school teachers, in spite of the increases during the last two years, (before 1934) have not imp rove u. their position relatively to the other groups. Even the upper income group of teachers had not/ up to 1930, received increases sufficient to maintain their relative position" in the community. The lower income group had lost heavily. We may conclude, there-fore, that the teachers, as individuals, are not getting a larger share of the national income than did in 1913. They are in fact getting less." (9) Annual Survey of Education in Canada, 1931, p. 55. (10) Annual Survey of Education in Canada, 1931, p. xii. After 1931, salary cuts were general in Canada. The "Survey" notes: "It is a further repetition of past experience it is well known that the return of normal salaries after the drop is to be expected much later, than normal business activity. It is this pros-pect that is particularly disconcerting to teachers after the eff-ective steps that have been made in the last decade to improve the professional and permanency status of teaching through retirement plans and other means. The common expression"of opinion seems to have been that general reductions of teachers' salaries was a regret-ful necessity. They were frequently considered underpaid in normal times, when their remuneration and place in the community was com-pared with other occupations". / 40 Again, Mr. Dryer writes: "If we reduce their (teachers) salaries because of that fact (economy), we are recognizing the principle that their salaries >• should vary with the cost of living, We have no right to reduce their salaries — — unless we are prepared to increase them when the cost of living rises. Past experience would lead us to be-lieve that such an increase would never be made. Should 'he who does not profit by the boom — - be made to suffer for the slump'?" (11) It is well to consider these facts regarding trends in teachers' sal-aries carefully when attempting to account for changes in costs of educa-tion. Obviously, salaries make up the bulk of the burden of educational expenditure. However, if Canadian education, as directed by teachers, is of social value, and if the salaries of teachers are not out of reasonable proportion to those of other salaried people or the work expected of them, then, should there be found any unjustifiable increase in educational costs, or any reductions in local expenditure to be necessary, curtailment should not be largely at the teachers' expense.. In Chapters II and III, and attempt has been made to summarize some of the changes that have been effected in Canadian education during the past two decades, and to indicate changes that have been effected in teach-ers' salaries and standards of living. It" is to be expected that variations in costs of education should be Induced by these changes, whether these costs efe rising or are beyond the ability of Canadians to pay, remains for consideration in the remaining sections of this work. It has been indicat-ed that the quality of the education afforded has been considerably improv-ed during the past two decades. How analysis of the variations in the cost of education paralleling these changes in quality may be attempted, (11) V . Dryer, op. cit., p. 58. CEiPTER IV ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES OF PROYIIICIAL' GOYEMIMEEITS EOE. EDUCATION AND OTHER PURPOSES* 1912 TO 1934. U ) C o m p a r i s o n , of Expenditure of P r o v i n c i a l Governments for Education w i t h Total Government Expenditure: A c a s u a l survey of"the expenditure for education In relation to the total cost of the. .government of the various provincial governments would indicate that criticism of educational expenditure is justified. Tables Al to -A10, inclusive, show these'expenditures by fiscal years 1915 to 1931 or later, as available. . ' ' In a l l provinces, except Prince Edward I s l a n d , total, expenditure in-creased by varying percentages from to Qf3 in 1914 and then generally ..remained fixed or declined until 1916. In British Columbia, the decline continued until in 1918, when total expenditure represented but 65.5$ of' "• the 1915 figure. Sinee then, in British Columbia end since 1916 in the other provinces, it has increased steadily with occasional slight recess-ions, as in x-iew Brunswick in 1922 and British'Columbia In 1925 and 1927. -In 1931, in terms of the base year, the extent of the Increase was as foll-'ows.t ' " Province Increase percent in total Of Provincial Governments expenditure in 1931 British Columbia 18 5 9 5 Ontario 504.7; Quebec 513.6 New Brunswick 467.3 .(41.). ' . 42 In other provinces the percentages were less than'these. Expenditure charged to the departments of education, on the otherhhMd, increased ever-e/ year until 1923. In 1924 and 1925 it fell off slightly hut commenced to rise again in 1926 and continued to do so until, inl931, it had increased over the 1913 amount as follows: 3rovxnce Per cent. Increase ove 1913 .Amount in Expen-diture changed to Education In 1931 , Average { all Provinces') Saskatchewan Ontario British Columbia Prince Edward 1siand 379.9$ 590.6 550.4 355.3 117.1 Ontario and Saskatchewan show the greatest increases both in total expenditure and expenditure charged to education. British Columbia shows a much greater relative increase in education cOst than in total govern-mental expenditure: The(85.9$ increase in total government costs being the least among the provinces. Table Al shows that the increase in total ex-penditure for all provinces is 258$; Table A2 shows the increase for British Columbia to be 85.9$. On the othe hand, In British Columbia the increase in expenditure charged to education merely approximates the increase in all provinces. Table.A2 showing the increase in educational expenditure over 1913,to be 355.5$ and Table Al showing the increase in all provinces to be 379.9$ Among the Maritime provinces, Mova Scotia and .Jew Brunswick respecti ly show 320.3$ and 367.3$ increases over 1913 in total expenditure, but only 225$ and 185.7$ increases over 1913 in expenditure charged to educa Prince Edward I s l a n d is below the'average both in increases In expenditure ve-tion. 43 charged to education.andototftl,expenditure* Quebec, with a dual educational system, in part of which many clerics te'ach for little salary, expenditure for education is considerably below normal in its increase. The increases in the various provinces are given graphic representation in Chart A. To summarize, it is noted that Sakatchewan and Ontario show the greatest and approximately parallel increases in expenditure charged to education and total expenditure. The Maritimes and Quebec show the lowest increases in cost of education as against their above-average increases in total expenditure. British Columbia shows the greatest spread between in-crease in expenditure charged to education and total expenditure; but whereas in educational costs, the increase approximates the all-Canada aver-age, .in governmental costs it is the least in Canada. Alberta and Manitoba show parallel!;. . increases, following the average, in both expenditures. All provinces show that since 1913, the increase in expenditure charged to education is more than'the Increase in total expenditure. Apparently, then, criticism of rising costs of education is justified. Comparison of Provincial Government Expenditure for Education! with Expenditures- -for- Other Purposes: If, then, expenditure of the departments of education has increased more rapidly than total expenditure, are we justified in concluding that the expenditure charged to the departments of education has, since the pre-waf period, increased disproportionately to that of other departments of government? A study of Tables B (1 to 9) and Charts B (1 to 9) will indicate" that a disproportionate increase has not occurred. These charts present the story of provincial government expenditure in Canada from 44 1913 to 1931. Total expenditure is shown as well as that chargeable to the various departments. These composite ratio or semi-logarithmic graphs show the rates of increase and not absolute quantities. Equal vertical distances represent not absolute increments.but equal proportional incre-ments.^^ An examination of Chart B (1 to 10] will show that the expenditure of the departments of education has been accompanied by equal proportional in-creases in expenditure of most of the other departments. In British Col-umbia total expenditure shows a comparatively low proportional increase in the face of generally large proportional increase in expenditure of the various departments. This is explained by considerable decreases in the expenditure of the Department of Public Works which spent enormous sums in pre-war years. Educational expenditure in Saskatchewan presents a prima facie case of "education — gone w i l d — " , showing an apparent increase greater than other departments or total expenditure. Here, however, the educational expenditure in the base year was abnormally low. Had the ex-penditures of 1912 or 1914 or an average of 1913 and 1914 been taken as a base, the proportionate increase would have been considerably less. For example, the index would have indicated only 471,2$ increase over 1913 and 1914 averaged as a base year, instead of the 590.6$ shown. In the Mari-time s, particularly in New Brunswick, the proportionate Increase in cost of education is not as great as the expenditures of several other depart-ments or of educational costs in other parts of Canada, except 'Quebec. (1) The following quotation from Haskell, A.C., "Graphic Charts-in Business", p. 28, Hew York, Codex Book Co., Inc., gives a technical ex-planation; "The main difference between the plain and ratio rulings Is as follows; that on the rectilinear chart with plain ruling, the same HUMER1CA1 difference is always represented by the same vertical dist-ance, whereas on the ratio ruling' the same PERCENTAGE difference is always represented by the same vertical distance, in other words, the plain ruling is adapted to making a comparison of difference in magnitude and the ratio ruling is adapted to making a comparison of difference in percentage,» 45 In all provinces not only the proportionate increase in expenditure of the education departments hut that of expenditure of other departments have been much less than that of expenditure on interest. Hence, in Canadian Provincial government finance the increase in expenditure of the depart-ments of education is not disproportionate to that of provincial govern-ment expenditure-'as a whole. It only appears to be so In provinces such as British Columbia and Saskatchewan for the reasons given above. On this basis then, criticism is unjustified. However, there are other bases of criticism possible. CHAPTER T ANALYSIS OP CHAIfGES II TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS The fact that the Increase in educational' costs has not teen too great in comparison with other governmental costs does not necessarily justify the increase. The fact remains that the cost of education has apparently" increased tremendously since the pre-war period, as shown "by the following table: Expenditures of Departments of Education Apparent Increase in Cost of Education over 1915 Figure. Province Apparent Increase per (or latest date) over Cent 1913 In 1933 Figure. British Columbia 355.3 Alberta 340.2 Saskatchewan, 590.6 Manitoba 251.4 Ontario 550.4 Quebec 194.1 Sew Brunswick ..185*7-Hova Scotia 225.0 Prince Edward Island 117.1 To what extent has it actually increased? (a) AChanges in Total Cost of Public Schools in Current Dol\ars. ^ In considering provincial government costs above, in order to make (46) 47 comparable the two series of Table B (1 to 9), viz., "Expenditure Charged to the Department of Education" and "Total Expenditure Charged to Govern-ment Income", the amounts were given by fiscal years. In the following-tables C (1 - 9), are given the total amounts spent each year on education in each province from 1913 to 1931 or later, by school y e a r s . T h i s change has been, made in order to allow for comparisons of school expendi-ture with various cost factors, such as elementary and secondary school enrolments, which are obtainable only by school years. Some criticism might legitimately be leviea against the following series on the ground that the year 1913 is chosen as a base rather than 1911, 1912 or 1914, in all of which years expenditures varied- consider-(2) ably. However, as statistics showing total expenditure on education for-all the provinces for 1911 and 1912 are not obtainable, and as the base selected should be similar for each province, and as other series intro-duced are based on the year 1913,f3) t h a t year is adopted below. " During the Great Was period, the expenditure on education in current dollars showed violent fluctuations. Especially in British Columbia, Alberta and Quebec, war-time ecfeoaomies in educational costs were effected until 1916 and 1917. In other provinces, except Hova Scotia, the 1914 (1) School years vary according to the province. They are from July 1 to June 30 in Prince Edward Island, lew Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba, and British Columbia; in Saskatchewan and Alberta finances are given by calendar years; in lova Scotia, the school year is Augast 1 to July 31; and in Ontario, the school year consists of two terms, Sept-ember 1 to December 22 and January 3 to June 29, (2) It has already been noted on Charts B (1) and B (3J that the year 1913 used as a base was unsatisfactory. (3) Bureau of Statistics indices of retail prices and wages of various labour groups are based on 1913 « 100. 48 figures are higher than 1913, hut they also show reductions later in the war. In New -Brunswick, the^expenditure on education continued to rise reg-ularly from 1913 throughout the war. Since 1916 to 1918, there has been an almost continual increase until the attainment of peaks in 1929 to 1931 in all provinces except Nova Scotia, where the ecpenditure has continued to rise slowly .until 1934. In these provinces, the- total, cost of education had increased to the peak over the base year as follows: Province Increase Per Cent British Columbia X 2 7 o Alberta 65.7 Saskatchewan 109.4 Manitoba 132.5 Ontario 305,9 Quebec 281.0 Hew Brunswick 140.4 Nova Scotia 188.5 Prince Edward Island 146,1 ^ Changes in Total Cost-of Public -Schools BxpEessed in dollars IGorr^-Jl g le d for Yariations in Purchasing Power, c : :" -! The figures quoted above are in current dollars. However, it should be remembered that the period 1913 to 1935-was one in which there were er-ratic price changes=, % nc e it is necessary to correct the figures used for the purchasing power of the dollar. Further if expenditures of different departments of education are to be compared throughout this period, one (4) It will be noted that, in Prince Edward Island, In 19 33, expenditure" on education rose again to a peak of 15'3.8$ over 1913. 49 must distinguish between the current cost and the real cost. The current cost is the amount of money spent; the real cost is the amount that mea-sures the actual goods ana services which the money will purchase, or, relating the difference between nominal cost and real cost to financing of education, one should realize that the real cost represents the actual goods and services which the citizens of the various provinces sacrificed in order to maintain the schools. In the second column of tables C ( 1 - 9 ) , the necessary correction has been made, the correcting series used being the index to "Betail Prices, Rents and Costs of Services, 1913 to 19S1»(5) a n d subsequent additions issued by the'Bureau of Statistics at Ottawa. .Their basis is'1913 = ].00, By the use of these index numbers, shown in Table C, current dollars are devalued to real (1913) dollars, It Is now obvious that the real cost of education declined in eveiy province between 1914 and the end of the war. In Quebec there was a 5.5$ decline in 1914, then a rise of 25.1$ in two years, followed by a sharp decline until 1920, In British Columbia it is evident that the real cost declined until in 1918, only about half as much (50.7$) was spent on ed-ucation as in 1913, Alberta also shows a rapid decline to 57,7$ of the i(oi 'Tf JC e S a n d ? r i c e I b e x e s (1913-31)", 1932, p. 12 2 ^ 7 l b i 7 7 i n 3 7 19-jo), 1934, p. 109, Commonly termed the "cost of living" index the numbers include the; food index, fuel index, rent index, clothing j ^ e x . and sundries index. A quotation from the 19 32 issue, above pa~-e 120 will explain this term; " * . . "Index numbers of retail prices and sost of living issed by the Bur-eau are constructed from a general point of view, having for their object the measurement of the general movement of sych Prices and" costs in the Dominion as a whole, and being so calculated as to make .comparisons possible with other index numbers constructed on similar principles, as, for example, the index of wholesale prices. C a l e u l a W as these index numbers are on the aggregate principle, i.e., the total' consumption of each commodity, the Bureau of Statistics index rubber-" u n o r a an excellent measurement of changes in the average cost of ijvin-, m the Dominion as distinguished from that of any particular clas7or" " section". 1913 base. Tlie other provinces generally cut expenditure, in terms of 1913, to figures ranging from 72.3-? in Saskatchewan to 84;i in Prince Edward,Island. : After 1919 and 1920, there was an almost continual Increase until the depression of 1929, in 1932, British Columbia shows an increase of 59.6;? over the 1913 base, increases over the base year in other provinces being as follows: Province Year Increase per cent in Real Cost of Education in the Depression over 1913 base. Alberta 1929 7. Saskatchewan 1929 34; 8 Manitoba 1931 69.7 .Ontario 1931 174.6 Quebec 1952 19 # %) Hew Brunswick 19 51 148'. 5 nova Scotia 1933 142.2 Prince Edward Island 1953 113.2 It is noteworthy that in Prince Edward Island, Mova Scotia, Hew Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario, the total expenditure on e d u c a t i o n h a s r i s e n regularly from the conclusion of the y/ar to 1933. In the western provinces, s h a r p declines from thepeaks of 1929 and 1930 have been g e n e r a l . T h e reasons for these latter reductions'are found in depressed economic conditions which materially affected the wheat growing, fishing and lumbering indus-try there, governments resorting to slashing education and other government expenditures in vain endeavours, to balance budgets. On the whole, during the depression, cuts In.expenditure on education were .much more s e v e r e in western Canada than in Eastern Canada, But, taking into consideration even the violent fluctuations between 1915 and 1934., described above, the fact remains that the real cost ox-education has increased above the cost in the base (1913] year, ranging from 5.8$ and 5.6$ respectively in ilberta and Sakatchewan to 1 9 8 . a n d 174,6$ in Quebec and Ontario respectively. Consideration must now be given to analyses of possible causes of this increase, viz., changes in population and. enrolment. 1 CHAPTER YI MALYSXS OF COST 0? PII3LIC SCHOOLS • U ) Comparison.-of Changes in Current arid Heal Cost per Head of Population It is expected that costs of government, including educational ex-pend! tue, should Increase when the population of a community is increasing as has been the case in Canada during the past twenty y e a r s . ^ it is necessary to decide whether total costs of education have increased rel-atively more than has the population. In other words, it must be decided whether the cost per head of population [cost per capita) has increased. Tables D (1 to 10) supply this information, (6) Aside altogether from natural increase in population, it is noted that the following increases were effected by immigration, 1913 to 1931 (Canada Yearbook, 1934 - 1935), p. 213; Year lumber of Immigrants Year Number - ..of Immigrants 1913 402,432 1923 72,887 1914 384,878 1924 148,560 1915 144,789 1925 111,362 1916 , 48,537 1926 96,064 191? 75,374 1927, 143,9 91 1918 79,074 1928 151,597 1919 57,702 1929 167,722 1920 ,117,336 1930 163,288 1921 148,477 1931 88,223 1922 89.999 1932 25.752 (52) 53 Population increased from 1913 to 1931 as follows: Province percent Increase in Population in 1931 over 1913 British Columbia 63.7 Alberta 70i3 Saskatchewan 63.7 'Manitoba , 36,6 Ontario 30.0 Quebec 37.1 Hew Brunswick 12.4 STova Scotia 1.7 Prince Edward Island -'6,4 In Prince Edward.Island, however,'it has heen gradually Increasing since 1924 and 1925, when it was.down 8.6^ from 1913/ Cost per head of population, in current dollar®, shows a decline during the war in all western provinces, and a steady increase from low per head of population figures in all eastern ones.: Since 1916 and 1917 there has been a steady increase in cost per head, with occasional small temporary recessions, up to 1929 to 1931. Since 1931 and 1932 declines have not been uncommon. However, when correction is allowed for the purchasing power of the dollar, an entirely different situation is found. The real cost per head declined considerably during the war, except in q u e b e c J7^ In 1918 and 1919, when lows were reached, in terms of 1913 figures, real per capita costs were (7) In Quebec there was a sharp decline to 93.3)! in 1914, then a sharper increase to 118.4jC and 119.3$ in 1915 and 1916 respectively, a decline followed, as in other provinces until, in 1918, the cost per head represented 101.8$ of the 1913 base. There has been a steady increase since 1920. 54 as follows: Province Heal Cost of Education Per Head of Population in 1918 and 1919 in terms of 1913 Dollars (19.13 - 100$ ) British Columbia 45.2$ ' 47.5 Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba 70.2 Ontario 78.5 lew Brunswick 91.8 Fova Scotia • 84.9 -Prince Edward Island 88.6 In 1922 and 1923, In terms of the pre-war figure, it rose to the following-percentages: > Province Beal Cost of Education Per Head of population in 1922 and 1923 in terms of 1913 Dollars (1913 = 100$) British Columbia ; Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island 80.7$ 67.0 81.1. 143.4 179.2 154.6 : 1,68.1 In Quebec and lew Brunswick it continued to rise without any recession. These post-war increases were likely caused by the necessity of providing school-builtiing accommodation resulting from the heavy influx of immigrants in 1920, 1921 and 1922, and the replacement of temporary buildings erected during the war.( 8^ From 1922 and 1923 until 1929 and 1950, the real cost og education per head rose and fell by varying percentages, but remained lower than the base in the three, western provinces. In 1929, there were sharp rises to peaks, of 94.9$ in British Columbia, 67.5$ in Alberta, and ! 86.8$' in Saskatchewan (1927). These increases may have been caused by the (8 j Supra, Chapter II. page 31 above, 55 mild booms in school building which accompanied the sharp rise in immi-gration and the arrival at school age of post-war children. It is evi-dent that, since 1930 and 1931, the cost in current dollars has decreased in all provinces, but the increase in the value of the dollar (of the decrease in the cost of living)^) h a s caused the real cost per head to increase in all.provinces except Saskatchewan and Manitoba. There, econo-mic conditions due to depression in world wheat prices resulted in even further decreases in real cost. In 1932 to 1934, the real cost, in terms of 1913 figures, was as follows; Province heal Cost Per Head-of population in terms of 1913 Dollars (1913 = 100.;) for 1932 to 1934. British Columbia 89.9 fa 61.3 Alberta Saskatchewan 60.1 Manitoba 97.4 Ontario 202.4 Quebec 218.8 lew Brunswick 232.4 lova Scotia 235.6 Prince Edward Island 226.0 In other words, during the last twenty years in the western provinces, the real cost remained lower than the pre-war cost per head, and even the increase in the value of the dollar which accompanied the depression, did not cause the increased costs in Alberta and British Columbia to be suff-icient to equal the 1913 cost. In the eastern provinces, the cost per head has increased continually since the post-war period,(1 0) the increase in the value of the dollar causing an even-greater-rise than might normally have been the case. (9) Table C (10) 1918 to 1925. (11) As might have been expected from' the gradual rise 1925 to 1929. 56 I t should he obvious that the situation is not such as to justify any alarm, particularly in the western provinces. In Eastern Canada there should be expected some increase over the extremely low cost per head of population of the prewar period, particularly as population has been in-creasing more slowly than I n yestern Canada, and modern improvements in educational theory and practice are demanding greater services. This is especially the case in Qjuebec, Sew Brunswick, Sova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, (b) Comparison of Changes in Total, Secondary and Elementary School Enrol-ment and in Population;; Increase in population, however, is not the only factor which can justify an increase in expenditure on education. For, even if population had remained stationary, an increase in school enrolment would have tended to cause an increase in the cost of education. ; If enrolment increases more rapidly than population, one can expect the total cost of education w to Increase faster than population. So, in oder to establish a t i ^ b a s i s one should study not cost per head of population, but cost per pupil. Tables El to E9 show that in all provinces, during the two decades. 1913 to 1934, enrolment has increased faster than has population. In 1913 in terms of the total population, the school population was as follows: Province 1 Enrolment Population as a percentage of Total in 1913 British Columbia Alberta; Saskatchewan Manitoba 13.5$ 18 i 6 18.0 16.7 ,12 J It has been noted already that the population of Prince Edward Island actually has decreased since 1913. Hence one might expect a greater cost per head if the school system were kept at all*in tune with the new education. 57 Province Enrolment as a Percentage of Total Population in.1913. Ontario 20.6% Qtiebec 19.6 -lew Brunswick 19.1 Nova Scotia 20.8 Prince Edward Island . 18.6 , The percentage rose with unimportant and temporary recessions until it reached a peak in the period from 1922 to 1925. Since then, it has de-creased slightly, and between 1931 and 1933 it was as follows; Province enrolment between 1931 and 1933 as a Percentage of Total Population British Columbia 16.4fa 23.0 Alberta Saskatchewan 23.7 Manitoba 20.7 : Ontario 22.1 Quebec 21.3 Nevj Brunswick 21.6 -Nova Scotia 27.2 Prince Edward Island : 20.5 The situation may be expressed in another way by reference respectively to Tables F (1 to 9 ) and D (1 to $}. There It is noted (a) that in the period 1931 to 1933, in terms of 1913 figures, enrolment had Increased as shown in column (a) below, and that population.-had increased as shown in column (bjj Province Percentage Increase over for 1931 to 1933 in 1913 figures (a) enrolment {"to) population Difference Percent. British Columbia 101.7?i 70 .9^ 30.8 % Alberta 115.7 72 .4 41.3 Saskatchewan 112.8 68 .9 43.9 Manitoba 79.3, 42 .9 26.4 Ontario 43,5 33 .5 10.0 Quebec 50,2 38 .5 11.7 New Brunm^ick. 28.2 12 .9 15.3 Nova Scotia 11.4 3 ,5 ' 7.9 Prince Edward Island 3.9 - 5 .4 9.3 58 It is noted that population has declined only, in Prince Edward Island. The whole situaion is depicted graphically in Charts C (1 to 9). In such a wide spread country, as Canada, the reasons for this increase may he many. IMatural increase in population would normally-cause enrolment to rise faster than population. Particularly in the 'West-ern provinces, which have been developed considerably since the war, It is expected that a more rapid increase in enrolment would ensue than before 1913, when they were comparatively undeveloped. In addition, it was observed above(1 3 ) that there has been an increas-ing demand for education in recent years. Compulsory school attendance laws have been more rigidly enforced; there has been an extension in school-leaving ages; the state has provided educational facilities which have in been.used/larger and larger degree by the youth of the country. The result is that these young people have tended to stay at school longer. It is useless for reactionaries to protest against this tendency, because it is prevalent throughout the civilized world, and is especially evident in the United States of America, Canada's nearest neighbour. The result of this tendency is shown in Tables G (1 to 9 ). Secondary school enrolment has increased more rapidly than that of elementary schools. Whereas, in 1913, in terms of total school enrolment, secondary schools represented less than 5$ in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, lew Brunswick, 8,44$ in Ontario, 8.20$ in Kova Scotia and 5,48$ in Prince Edward Island, (1916), M m the period 1932 to 1934,( 1 5> it (13) Op, Cit,,'Chapter II. (14) Statistics of secondary school enrolment in prince Edward Island before 1916, as available, appear to be compiled on a different basis than since 1916. So, in order to make the series comparable to those of other provinces, statistics of 1916 are given. (15) In the latest year for which provincial records are available. 59 represents from 1 2 . 5 4 $ in Prince Edward Island to 16.68;! in Alberta and 6.76$ in lew Brunswick. See Charts D (1 to ?). Thes e factors have combined to produce the results shown in Tables E (1 to 9). Hence, it Is quite obvious that the increased expenditure on public education can not e n t i r e l y be explained by increased population.(1 6) Hot cost per he-ad of population, but cost per pupil must be examined, (c) Comparison of Changes in Curxent and Real Cost Per Pupil •Tables F (1 to 9) show enrolment and eost per pupil in current and' real dollars. Thus- the real cost per pupil is In evidence. Variations in enrolment and cost are Indicated, by Indices which have been constructed for each series. During the war, the cost per pupil in current dollars declined below the pre-war base in all western provinces and in Quebec, below 1914 or 1915 highs In Ontario,; Hova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, but continued slowly to increase in Hew Biunswick. It then rose in all provinces until 1929 and 1930, when, In terms of the 1913 base, the indices reached peaks as follows; Province - 1929 to 1930 Expressed as (1913 - 100$ Peaks 1 a p. c. i I n Per Pupil Costs of 1913 Figures British Columbia 120. Alberta 80.3 Saskatchewan 93.0 Manitoba 7«2 Ontario 298.4 Quebec. 264.3 lew Brunswick - ' 274.7 (17) Nova Scotia 261.7 Prince Edward Island 25 2 s 7 (16) (17) See Chapter I, footnote (1). In Mew Brunswick, indices have risen annually since 1913, except for a slight recession In 1923. . 60 Since then, decreases have been effected, and in the latest years for which statistics are obtainable, cost per pupil has increased over pre-war figures in eastern provinces and decreased in the western, as followsj Province P. C. Changes In Current Cost of Education per pupil, Latest Reports from 1915 Figures British Columbia 8.3$ - Decrease Slberta 38,1 - n Saskatchewan 42,6 - » . Manitoba 7,6 - » Ontario 132.8 - Increase Quebec 155,3 - it lew Brunswick 147.4 - f lova Scotia 1 5 8 . 9 - " Prince Edward Island 144./2 - n Therefore, in current dollars, the cost has decreased from pre-war figures in the west and increased in the east. However, the Indices for real cost per pupil reveal an even more satisfactory condition in Western Canada, and a better situation 'in 'in Estern Canada, During the war period, real costs per pupil,/terms of 1913 figures, fell to the following extent. ' Province Wartime Lows in per Papil Costs, expressed as a P. C. of 1913 Figures £1913 = 1 0 0 ) British Columbia 50.7$ 38.2 Alberta(18) Saskatchewan 48.4 ' Manitoba 58.4 Ontari 0 (19 ) 71,9 Quebec £1 8) 91,6 ' Hew Brunswick W»7 lova Scotia 82,0 Prince Edward Island 76.6 They rose steadily to higher figures until 1921 and 1922 in Western Canada and until 1925 and 1924 in Eastern Canada; then they fluctuated. (18) Low reached in 1919 - 1920. (19) Low reached in 1918 - 1919. 61 She peaks were as follows! Province Peaks in Per pupil Costs, Year Peak Expressed as a P. c . of 1913 Attained Figures (1913 = 10OJ British Columbia Alberta 7 8 . 1 % 52,2 1928 it •• and 1929 t» it Saskatchewan 60.0 tt tt TT Manitoba 75.4 t? tt . tt Quebec 160.8 tt t t tt lew Brunswick - 185.8(20 ) tt tt tt Hove. Scotia 217.5 1933 Prince Edward Island 205.1 1933 Ontario 197.0 1931 Daring the depression there have been many minor variations with declines predominating. • Throught the period since the war, when the low costs per pupil were reached, real costs per pupil have never been less than 21.1$ in British Columbia, 46.2$ in Alberta and 38.6$ in Saskatchewan lower than they were before the war; they have been lower in Mai itoba ex-cept for the years 1921 and 1922 when they were 1$ and 7$ higher respect-ively than in 1913, but they have been higher than before the w war in eastern C a n a d a . ^ In these provinces, however, costs per pupil in pre-war years were much lower than those of western Canada, and might increase considerably without exceeding the all-Canada average. Moreover, it should be remem-bered that education in eastern Canada was fairly well established years before the war. Hence, increases in per pupil'costs'since then may be the results of natural increase in population, of increased enrolment in sec-ondary schools, of replacements of old buildings and equipment with up-to- date plants and scientific apparatus, of improvements in organization (20J In 1927 - 28. (21) Yiz. - 97$ In Ontario, 99$ in Quebec, 110.7$ in Hew Brunswick, 117.5^ in Hova Scotia and 105.1$ in Prince Edward Island. 62 curriculum and methods of teaching, and of improvements in teachers' salaries. The increase in eastern Canada might he expressed in another way, - viz,, that as the result of a rapid increase in population coupled with inexpensive operation of schools, eastern provinces years ago reaped the benefits of "large scale production". Hence, since the war, further increases in population coupled with increases in enrolment, and improved educational services, have resulted in increasing per pupil costs. It should he obvious that the situation in western Canada, somewhat has paralleled that of eastern Canada before the war; the primary concern of the comparatively undeveloped west has been to provide school buildings for the children of immigrants, of whom there was a large influx in the pre-war period; the rapid increase in enrolment has effected a decrease in unit costs. It is not unreasonable to assume that, as the variations in population and enrolment throughout Canada become somewhat equalized, that changes in per pupil costs will be approximately similar. (d) Summary of Changes in Cost of Education The results of the above analyses have been combined in graphic form in Charts El to E9, On them are shown (a) total expenditure on education expressed in real dollars; (bj cost per head of population in real dollars; and (c) cost per pupil in real dollars. It is observed (1] that the real total expenditure- declined consid-erably during the war; (2) that it has increased only slightly ab&ve the cost in the base (1913) year In western Canada; and (3) that it has increased by as much as 198$ in eastern Canada, Further, it is noted (1) that the real cost of education per head of population also declined considerably during the war, except in Quebec; 63 (2) that the real cost per capita in the' western provinces remained lower than the pre-war cost per head of population during the last twenty years; and even the increase in the value of the dollar, which has accompanied the depression, has not caused this real cost in Alberta ana British Columbia to eciual the 1913 cost; and (3) that the real cost per capita in eastern Canada has regularly increased since the post-war period, the increased value of the dollar since 1929 causing even a greater rise than might normally have been the case, finally, it is observed (1) that the cost per pupil in eastern Canada, has increased over pre-war figures by percentages ranging from 97% to 105,1$, and (2) that the cost per pupil in western Canada has decreased considerably. In other words, it is evident fl) that, in western Canada, increases in population and enrolment have been accompanied not by a corresponding increase, but by a lesser increase in the cost of education, - that more educational services have been provided, since the war, for the actual money spent; and (2) that in eastern Canada, costs have risen above the comparatively low pre-war costs. In that older and well-settled, section of Canada, these costs were comparatively low as the school systems had previously received benefit of "large scale production?. Since it has been demonstrated that the real total cost of education has increased, consideration must now be given to an a&alysis of the ability of Canadian governments to bear the increased total cost. CHAPTEB YII A C 0N3I DEB AT ION OF THE ABILITY OF THE PEOPLE OF G ANADA TO BEAR THE INCREASED TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC EDUCATION It may be argued that even In the western provinces, where c.ostssper pupil have declined, there is no justification for any increase in expen-diture on schools per head of population; that the people of these prov-inces cannot hear the increase in total cost; and that in eastern Canada, the situation is more serious. But are these arguments sound? Is the wealth of Canada increasing fast enough to allow a larger and larger pro-portion of the population to he educated? It is difficult to submit statistics to settle this contention, for complete data on wealth and income are not available.5 ) However, to the extent that they are, they have been presented in Tables H (1 to 10) and It. The reader should consider them on their face v a l u e , ^ only, and draw conclusions carefully. (a) Comparison of Changes in let Value of Production and Total Cost of Public Schools. Tables Ii (1 to 10) show the growth in Net Talue of Production and Total Cost of Public Schools from 1921 to 1932. In the peak year, 1928 (1) To discuss this point of the thesis properly, one should have statis-tics by provinces, covering the war and depression periods as well as the more stable period preceding the depression. (2) The reader should understand "that statistics of this character are suggestive and indicative rather than strictly accurate." (Canada Yearbook, 1931, page 875.) (64) 65 or 1929, the percentage increases over 1921 were as follows: Province Net Value of Production Total Cost of public (Percentage increase over, 1921) Schools (f0 increase over 1921) . British Columbia H b e rta Saskatchewan Manitoba ; Ontario Quebec lew Brunswick lova Scotia Prince Edward Island .411 Canada, 2 x«2 i. 6 10.7 24.0 46.4 48.6 53.8 78.5 68.2 66.6 57.0 18.6 -10.2 -20.7 49.7 56.2 34.6 10.4 2 9 2 24.3 It is evident that,^he peak years of pre-depression production, in only two provinces aid the expenditure on education increase more than the net value of production. In Ontario, net production and educational ex-let production has decreased in all provinces during the depression. On the other hand expenditure on education has Increased In prince Edward Island, lova Scotia, lew Brunswick, and 'Quebec, and decreased by varying percentages in the west. That costs of education are still proportionately higher than net production is to be expected, for expenditure required to maintain schools cannot be subjected to curtailment to Mie same degree as production has decreased, if proper educational standards' are to be kept. Moreover, an increase in business activity will be reflected in increased production'sooner than in variations in costs of education. To summarize, it can be said that educational costs have-not decreased to as great an extent as has net production; but the average of normal and depression (3) Further, it should be remembered that costs of education in British Columbia for 1929 were .abnormally high. pencilture percentage increases practically balance. ^  ° ^  66 variations indicates that percentage increases in education are not out of line with variations in net production, . i/i (bf Comparison of Changes in Per Capita, Wealth and/Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population. Luring the period, 1921 to 1931, changes in estimated wealth per capita and cost per head of population have been as shown in Tables J (1-10),, Until the peak y e a r s ' ^ of per capita wealth, percentage changes were as follows: Province Percentage Changes from 1921 figures ^ or -Per Capita Wealth Expenditure of Schools Per Head of population British Columbia 57.0 5.7 Alberta 8.8 , - 4.0 -Sakatchewan - 4.2 - 3.1 •f Manitoba 9.8 -26.0 _ Ontario 27.1 31.7 -j. Quebec . 27.6 26.7 f Hew Brunswick ©8 28,9 -lova Scotia H o«1 16. 6 -Prince Ed\9ard Islan .d 37,8 26.4 -. All Canada 21.8 7.4 -It is again evident that, until the advent of the depression, the people of the Canadian provinces were well able to bear the increases in costs per head of population; for it is seen that costs of education per head of population had not increased as much as per capita wealth in six provinces, had practically balanced it in three, and on the average, was well belo?/ iiic 1*68,sss in psr cspx us wealth, (c) Comparison of Changes in Estimated Income and Total Cost of Public Schools of Canada. Statistics of income per head of population are not available except for Canada as a whole. However, they reveal that income did not decrease (4) 1928 or 1929. 67 after 1929 as soon as net production. This is to he expected, for net production would feel the effects of a decline in business activity sooner than income per head of population. (5 J r j j h e y a i l o w a g f l l n t h a t ^ ± g ^ great disparity 'between percentage changes in cost of education per head of population and national wealth and income. It has already been stated that the statistics of national wealth, income and net production cannot do more than indicate trends. .And so, on these bases, it can be noted that there is no need for alarm at changing costs of education. ( d ] Oo^arlBon^f^changes in Production and Sale of Some Eon-essentials and/^Total Cost of Public Schools. i'mother, an indirect method to estimate the ability of the people of Canada to pay for education is to make comparisons between rising costs of education and increasing expenditures on the so-called non-essentials or luxuries. However, the contention ox critics may be sound, viz., that such comparisons are actually meaningless. On the other hand, it may be argued that if citizens have money to pay increasingly for luxuries, they may be able to pay more for necessities such as eaucation. On the basis of statistics shown in'Table 1, it should be noted that the cost of educa-tion has not risen proportionately as m c h as expenditure on the non-essentials listed, viz., cigarettes, passenger automobiles, toilet prepar-ations (cosmetics, etc,J and liquor. Hence, it may be noted that, on the basis of the criteria, analyzed above, of ability of Canadians to pay for education, there is no evidence (5j For example, activities of trade unions would prevent immediate wage-reauctions with the coming of the depression. Liaay other factor* mxght be mentioned that would cause decreases in income^to follow ' rather than accompany decreases in net production. 68 to prove that the people cannot pay the present or an increasing amount J5) » Reference might he made to the huge load of debt, Dominion, provin-cial and municipal, which the people of Canada must oarrr« The vnr— iations in provincial charges, analyzed in Tables B (1 to 9)~ and In Chart A and Charts B (1 to 9), show the tremendous increase, flow-ever, further analyses of Federal, provincial and local debt charges are not practicable herein on account of the difficulty of securing comparable and relatively complete data. Moreover it is a most question if any information of real value to this study would be obtained for it is quite evident that nations, inclucdng Canada, can secure ample money for war purposes, when they often claiir inability to secure credit for other purposes. CHAPTER Till COHCLUSIOI • In conclusion, it is submitted that allegations that educational costs have increased'out of reasonable proportion to other governmental expendi-tures and to the"ability of the people of Canada to pay. are not supported by the facts derived from statistical analysis. In Chapters II and III, above, were outlined the extensive improvements to the educational systems of Canada, showing that education has long since passed the pioneering stage of the "Little Red School House". Education has become concerned Increasingly with the needs of the Canadian society which has to be served and the character of the individuals to educated. •There is no need here to recapitulate to any extent the summary of changes brought about hy the growth of the "new education". Suffice it is to note that Federal government sallies Into the field of education; changes in secondary school enrolment, organisation._methods of promotion and curric-ulum; changes in the articulation of the high schools and universities; compulsory attendance laws; Introduction of correspondence courses, im-provements in examinations, in buildings, in medical service, in text-book policies and in.methods of teaching, and changes in teachers' salaries, have all effected-inevitable changes in the cost of education, v/hat Is the nature of these variations in the cost of education? Is the gross cost of education 'rising, and, if so, to what extent? Can the people of Canada pay for the present quality and quantity of education? These are the (69) questions which have been answered by the analysis of this study. In Chapter IV, an analysis of the expenditures of provincial govern-ments charged to education in relation to the total cost of the provincial governments indicates that since 1913, the increase in the former is more than the increase in the latter. However, further analysis of the expen-ditures for education in relation to those for other departments of the provincial governments, shows that the former are not disproportionate to the latter. It appears to he so in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, because.the, expenditures in the basic year were not'normal. That is, bills for education in the various provinces are not the sole causes of increases in total cost of governments Other services have shown an equal or greater increase. But the fact that educational costs have not increased dispro-portionately to other departments of governments does not justify an in-crease. Prima facie there has been a tremendous increase. In Chapter V, it has been demonstrated that the real cost of education, (that is, the cost corrected for the purchasing power of the dollar), has increased above the cost in the base year (1913). The range of this in-crease is from 5.8% and 3.6$ in Alberta and Saskatchewan r e s p e c t i v e l y . ^ ^ Q - ^ U This is less than the range of costs when.expressed in current dollars. It has been noted that the increase in educational costs may be attri-buted to a great many factors, but that prime causes of this increase have been (a) increase in population and (b) increase in enrolment.'1^ What is the nature of these increases? In Chapter VI, it has been found that, although gross costs of educa-(l) The Department of Trade and Commerce, Bulletin 3, "Costs of Education", notes that the increase in costs of education which is substantially more than the increase in population "is scarcely more adequate reason for concluding at once that too much is being spent for schools, than the fact that during the same time telephones increased 200$ and auto-mobile s 2300/i is proof that too much is being expended on these com-modities." 71 tion have increased, there is no cause for alarm; for in eastern Canada, the rise in costs per capita over the comparatively low pre-war costs must /be expected to accompany the slow increase in population and the many improvements in educational theory and practice; and in western Canada there has been a decrease in per capita costs from pre-war'figures owing to increased population and in spite of an increase during the depression in the value of the dollar. . Again, a study of enrolment and population statistics shows that the real cost of education has increased more as a result of increased enrolment A* than of increased population. In we^Slrn'Canada, enrolment has increased in varying percentages from 7.9$ to 15.3% more than has population; and in western Canada it has increased in percentages from 26.4% to 43.9$ greater than has population. Explanation of the more rapid -increase in enrolment than in population, particularly in western Canada, may be found (ij in natural increase in population, which would normally cause this; (ii) in the extremely rapid development, since 1913, of western Canada which was formerly comparatively undeveloped; and (iiiJ in the increased demand for education in recent years, as indicated by the effects of the compulsoiy attendance laws, by an extension in school leaving ages, by increased state provisions for education, and by increased secondary school enrolment in relation to elementary school enrolment. Hence, an increase in per pupil costs is a larger factor in increased costs of education than is an increase in per capita costs. Further analysis of per pupil costs, expressed in current dollars, reveals (i) that in western Canada they have decreased considerably, and (ii) that in eastern Canada they have increased by 132.8$ to 158*9$. But 72 ail examination of the costs in real (1913) dollars reveals a different situation. In the west of Canada, since the v/ar, real costs per pupil have never been less than percentages varying from 21,1$ to 28.6$ lower than they were before the y/ar; and in the east they have been only from 97$ to 117.5$ higher than they were before the v/ar. in explanation of the situation in eastern Canada may be found in the fact that education there was fairly well established before 1913, so that Increases in per pupil costs are effected by natural increase in population, by replacement of old buildings and equipment, by further increase in secondary school enrolment, anu by further necessary improvements in ed-ucational services. In western Canada, per pupil costs have decreased since the V/ar, be-cause. extremely rapid increases in population and enrolment have tended to cause a reduction in unit costs. It is not unlikely that, eventually, future improvements in educational services in the west, and less rapid Increase in population than during the past two decades, as well as replace-ments of buildings and equipment will result in an increase in per pupil costs. Such an increase has been effected iii eastern Canada. .And finally, in Chapter VII, kHK analyses of certain direct and in-direct criteria of Canada's ability to pay for education has been made. The direct criteria were (i) a comparison of changes in net value of pro-duction in the various provinces in relation to changes in total cost of public schools; (ii) comparison of changes in per capita wealth in relation to total cost of public schools per capita; and (iii) comparison of changes in estimated Income of the provinces in relation to total cost of public schools. The indirect criteria were changes in production and sale of some 73 non-essentials in Canada in relation to changes in total cost of public schools. On the basis of the analysis of these criteria, there is no evidence that Canada cannot bear the present or an increasing expenditure for public education. BIBLIOGRAPHY School Periodicals (1) "The 3 . C . Teacher" - Piibliahed by B. C . Teachers' Federation, Managing Editor, Harry Charlesworth, Vancouver, B. G. (2) "The School" - A magazine devoted to Elementary and Secondary Education in Canada, Editorial Board, the Staff of the Ontario College of Education, University of,Toronto, Toronto; Managing Editor, \7, E , Macpherson. (3) "Parent-Teacher Hews" - Published by the B. C, Parent-Teacher Federation, Vancouver, B, C. Technique and Background !1) Annual Reports of Departments of Education. (2) Black, H . p., "Peace and Efficiency in School Administration", 1926, ,J. M . Bent & Sons, Ltd. (3) Cubberley, E . P., "Public School Administration", 1916, Hew York, Houghton, Mifflin Co. (S) Budget Addresses, Province of Ontario, 1932, 1933. (§) Dewey, John, "Democracy and Education", 1916, Hew York, MacMillan Co, (74) 75 (6) Dxyer, Y., "A Statistical Analysis of the Cost of Education in British Columbia from 1915 to 1932, with Particular Reference to School Teachers-' Salaries". Vancouver, B. 0. , (U. B» C. Graduation Essay), 1953. (7) Gosnell, H. E., "A Yearbook of British Columbia", Coronation Edition, 1911. (8) Haskell, A. C., "Graphic Charts in Business" -lew York, Codex Book Co. Inc., 1928. (9) Manuals of School Law in nine provinces of Canada. (10) Monroe, Paul, "Principles of Secondary Education", 1914, lew York, MacMillan Co., (11) Morrision, H. C., "Practice of Teaching in Secondary Schools", Chicago, 111., The University of Chicago Press, 1926. (12) Percjp, Lord E., "The Yearbook of Education, 1932 1953, 1954, - London, Evans Bros. Ltd. (15) "Public Accounts", of various provincial governments. 76 (14) "Recommendations and Regulations for the Establishment, Organization and Management of Vocational Schools and Vocational Departments in Continuation Schools, High schools, and Collegiate Institutes? Ontario Department of Education, 1932. (15) Report of the Committee Appointed by the Government of British Columbia. (Commonly called the "Ridd Report"]. Victoria, B. C., Chas. F. Banfleld, Printer to I{ingss Host Excellent Majesty, 1932. (16) Report of Committee of Manitoba School Trustees Association on School Administration and school Finance, E. IC» Marshall, Chairman, Winnipeg, Mimeographed Report, December 1932. (17) Rogers, C. E., Assistant Deputy Minister of Education Winnipeg, Manitoba, private letter, 18/7/34* (18) Peter Sandiford, "Comparative Education", (Revised) Toronto, 1928, E. P. Button & Co., Hew York, 1928. (19) Spencer, Herbert, "Essays on Education", Hew York, J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd. (20) Swift, F» H», "Studies In Public School Finance", Minneapolis, University of Minnesota, 1922. 77 (21) Thorndike, E. L., "Education", 1917. Eew York, MacMillan Co. (22) Williams, L. A., and Bice p'. A., "Principles of Secondary Education", lew York, Ginn & Co., 1927. (23) Woods, D. S., "Eeport of Committee Y/hich Reviewed ' the Financial Condition of Manitoba Schools". (24) "Vancouver Daily Province", Vancouver, B. C., February 14, 1953. (25) Yeaxlee, Basil A., "An Educated nation", 1920, Oxford University Press. Publications, Domion Bureau of Statistics (1) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada',v Years 1921 to 1953 inclusive. (2) Canada Yearbooks, 1911 to 1935, inclusive. (3) "Canada", 1929, 1930, 1951, 1932, 1933, 1934, 19 35, Department of Trade and Commerce, Canada. (4) "Cost of Education", Bulletins Ifo's. 1, 2 and 3, Department of Trade and Commerce, 1934. (5) "Financial Statistics of Provincial Governments", 1921 to 1955, Department of Trade and Commerce, Canada. (6j."Historical Survey of Education in Canada to 1919/ (7) "Prices and Prices Indexes", (1913-1931), Also subsequent issues. (8) "Report on the Tobacco Industries in Canada", 1932, Department of Trade and Commerce, 1954. (9) "The National Income'1, 1934, Department of Trade and Commerce, Canada. 8 \t\ (10) 'wages and Hours of Labour in Canada'^ 1950, 1931, and 1952. Department of Labour, Canada, 1953. 79 TABLE 15 " ' TOTAL TEACHERS' SALARIES AMD TGTil COST OP EDUCATIOH Tear Total Salaries ( D Total Cost (1) Percentage of Salaries to Total Cost f1) 1913 1,286,672 4,658,895 27 i 6 1914 1,606,912 4,634,878 34.7 1915 1,736,335 . 3,917,446 44.3 1916 1,747,382 3,216,350 54.3 1917 1,837,472 3,237,664 56.8 1918 2,032,405 3,519,015 57 ® 8 1919 2,732,638 4,228,720 64.6 1920 3,360,921 5,365,180 62.6 1921 3,792,331 6,743,779 56,2 1922 . 4,234,714 7,388,578 57.3 1923 4,417,894 7,183,760 61.5 1924 4,601,363 7,738,572 59.5 1925' 4,771,688 7,863,088 60.7 1926 4,939,482 7,795,387 63.4 1927 5,183,508 8,640,854 60.0 1928 5,425,339 8,715,178 62.2 1929 5,654,810 10,585,571 53.4 1930 5,866,173 9,401,431 62.4 1931 6,056,232 9,519,938 63.6 1932 5,661,370 9,289,333 60.9 1, V. Dryer, op. cit. , p.43. TABLE 15 " ' 81 CHANGES IN B . C . T1A0HEBS' STATDARD OF L I Y I N G ^ 1913 - 1932 (a) These yearly averages are compiled from frequency distributions. (h); ' The averages (and the upper and lower limits of the standard deviations round the averages ) are corrected for variations in purchasing power to reveal changes in the teachers' standard of living in different groups. (c) Note that the dispersion round the mean has increased throughout the period, thus indicating / that the higher income groups have improved their position relative to the Tower income groups. These lower Income groups have in 18 years only improved their standard of living "by 3.5 per cent. Yide Graph. (d) If the 1931 averages are included and the subsequent 10$ deduction made, including corrections for a fall in the cost of living index, the net result is to leave the 1930 percentages substantially the same. The 10$ reduction does not, of course, include special con-tributions made by the teachers themselves or local variation in the cut. (2) (3 ) i( 4> Arithmetic Mean Arithmetic Mean t Arithmetic Mean - Yalue of Year Current 111 1913 : Index Current In 1913 Index Current In 1913 Index Dollar in Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 1913 Dollars 1913 868.2 868.2 100.0 1153.2 1153.2 100.0 583.2 \ 583.2 100.0 1.00 1914 •871.9 845.7 97.4 1152.8 1118.2 97.0 590.9 573.2 98.3 .97 1915 891.8 829.4 95.5 1183.7 1100.8 95.5 599.9 557.9 95.7 .93 1916 846.6 677.3 78.0 1076.9 861.5 74.7 616.1 492,9 84.6 .80 1917 865.1 605 . 6 69.7 1162.6 813.8 70.6 567.6 397.3 68.2 .70 1918 904*9 561.0 64.6 1218.7 755.6 65*5 591.1 366,5 62.9 .62 1919 1171.6 668.0 76.9 1607.3 916.2 79,4 736.3 419.7 72.0 .57 1920 1314.4 683.5 78.7 1816.4 944,5 81.4 812.4 . 422.4 72.5 « 52 1921 ,1387.1 832.3 95.9 1898.6 1139.2 98.8 875.6 525.4 90.1 ,60 1922 1414.4 905.2 104.3 1942.9 1243.5 ; 107,8 886.5 567.3 97.3 .64 1923 1416.9 892.7 102.7 2016.3 1270.3 110.2 917.4 578.0 99.2 .63 1924 :1433.0 917.1 105.6 1989.0 12.73, 0 110.4 877.0 561.3 96.3 .64 1925 1448.6 927.1 106.8 2025i 6 1296.4 112.4 871.6 557.8 95.7 .64 1926 1454.5 930.9 107.2 2044.5 1308.5 115.5 864.5 553.3 94,9 .64 1927 1468.0 959.5 ,108.2 2037.5 1301.8 112.9 898.5 575.0 98.7 .64 1928 147'9.4 941.5. 108.4 2069.3 1303.6 113,0 919.6 579.4 100.0 .64 1929 149,4.4 946,6 109.0 2047.1 1310.1 113.6 : 911.1 583.1 98.6 .63 1930 1522.1 974.1 112.2 2111.1 1351.1 117.2 933,1 603.2 105.5 ,64 1931 . 1534id ; 1089.1 125.4 .71 1932 1430.0 1115.4 128.5 ' .78 1. Compiled by Prof. Drummond op« cit., and. reported in Y. Dryer's essay op, cit, pi45. 2. of middle 50$ 3. of top one quarter 4.; of lowest quarter. [ ! 1 . : |: , I ; f . : : ~ : ' T ."• " . " " , 7 T r T • • i: 1 . • ' ! • ' 1 : • : ' . i ! - - - - -. • ! i | | ; I i : — r i | ' i ' — ~ - — r 4 • • 1 1 ' | ' . i • —- —I - I - . • 1 1 p - • - ' j - ' ^ l - 1 ! — C H 0 0 L -' 1 ' '' • I S i A C H E R 8 * T i A F l T F . f C H A M . . I i i 3 1 A A 2 i • : ; | • : : I T I 3 H ' . : |, : : ~ ' ~ T . ; : C O l l t J M E iL 1 9 3 i t J i • 8 2 i - I • - r ' 9 1 3 - -• P. • •!• • J i — -r ' •• 1 ~ !•• - • . i f . - h f i f l f i i 1 • •' • r l. o r t h e s p r e a - 1 — t " ... n n T * r * . h • i . . _ a s i j n g -d t h e i : • i • i p o w e r A v e j r a g • : 1 • . • 1 j o f - l t h e e a n d • • i • • •1 . ' i : — . — t i • ( a ) f!r r r e o w i - d o c o v 1 1 i , | ' ' 1 , | , — ( h ) S h e r s t h e « d i o u r e n n g : 6 8 $ o i ' t h e • . ' : ! : i : j • ' ' j • ' 1 i ' j • ' . x e a c b i : i ' ; h • 1 . i ! i • ' i j 1 4 C I > 0 i f ) 1 | : • i , i • • • i • - ! • 1 ' ' • i • i : 1 I • i i i j i ! • — i - — - - r — — j — • i i ! : i ; ! • " " " I t -- -j IV — ' i j • I | • — l — > 0 / c o | « J - . \ 1 -j / / — -n . j o = 3 4 $ i . i * — i O 1 1 ( J 0 -! ! / 1 0 0 0 \ \ _ _ j — 4 — -y | i - - - - - — — - - -4 C o v 6 i e r i l n g -acf \ O /a | 3 m l I 9 C 7( 5 0 m \ \. / /_ / — - — - -i i — - -o f t e e t h e •s . ! x a i o - - - - - • — - - — V N / / — / I -i - 1 = 3 4 i ' c o j. • ____ , — -S. i x j - - - - -^ — — ! | i i — -i ! j • | : 6 ( J O / , —- " 5 ( ) 0 - r — . 1 1 K \ \ -/ /. J - - - - - - -1 I i \ \ / / / — 4 ( 3 1 ) 0 X > -c — - — — • : -. . . . . . . — - - - - -— 1 i 0 o r - i to 1 • ! < T > t - l o » r - f o > O P H - C M cva O 1 OI r-t « -: C M 1 W 1 o > r - t i w — C M o r « « 3 « O i H I S C O C M — o » H c r > — O l c n p H O 1 r -w « c v j c n < - « j < -I M - i W ' 3 1 ! i j f - 1 3 r H G > H r f r - l c * ! o r - J t ~ l —Vi— W o » j c n f l H f ' M t — i o > 1 t - I ! S H O L E T I H V A B B W i H S 84 TABLE 15 " ' TABLE OF IKDEX EUMBEKS OF RATES OF v/AGES FOE VARIOUS GLASSES OF LABOUR DT 'CM AD A (1913-1932) U ) (-Kates. inE 1913-100) Build-ing T Trades Metal Trades : prin-ting' Elec-tric Broys. Steam: Bwys. Coal Mia-: ing Aver-age (prev-; ious 6 columns Com-, mon Fact-ory Labour Miscel-laneous Factory Trades Logging and Saw-Milling 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0: ; 100.0, 100,0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.8 100*5 102.4 101.0 101,4; ; 101.9 101.3 .101,0 103.2 94.7 101.5 107.5 ; 103 , 6 97.8 101.7 •-102.3 ; 104.4 101.0 106.2 89,1 102.4 106.9 105.8 102.2 105.9 111.7 102.3 104.4 105,1 109,5 109.9 128.0 111,3 114,6 124.6 130.8 119.9 129 ® 2 128,0> 130.2 12£5«3 15o»2 123.7 142,9 158,0 157,8 143.9 152.3 : 146.8 150.5 148.2 180.1 : 145.9 163,2 ;183.9 170.5, 165.3" 180.2 180.2 169.8 180.9 ': 209.4 ' 184.0 194.2 221,0 197.7 197.9 215.3 216.8 202.7 170.5 . 186.8 193.3 192.1 13 (3«9 . • 208.3; 191.2 190,6 202.0 152.6 162.5 • 173.7 £ « ^ 184.4 ' :184,4 197.8 182.5 183,0 189.1 158,7 166.4 174.0 188.9 186.2 186.4 : 197,8 18 3 © o 181,7 196.1 1 : 17'0.4 169.7 175.5 191.9 186.4 186.4 192.4 183.7 . 183»2 197.6 183.1 170.4 174.4 192.8 187.8 186.4 , 167,6. 180.1 : 186.3 19 »3»o 178.7 ' 172.1 177.4 193.3 188.4 186.4 167,4 180.8 187,3 196.7 180.8 179.3 178.1 195.0 198.4 167.9 184,8 187.7 ;199',4 199,4 1Q2.8 185.6 180.1 198.3 194.1 198.4 168.9: 187.4 187.1 200.9 . 184.5 197.5 184.6 2 02 9 2 198,6 ; :204.3 168.9 192.7 ' 187.8 202*1 185.6 •203.2 186.6 203«3 199,4 204.3 :169.4 194.4 188.2 202.3 183.9 1 5 a ( 162,9. , 205,1 ' 198.6 . 199.2 169.4 191.8 183.4 197.3 163.0 178.2 174.7 194,2 191.1. 183.9 164.0 181,0 173.6 184.5 141.3 :158.0 169.2 184,3 182.7 179.7 161.9 . 172.6 163.1 175.7 121,7 (1) Tills table strueted. shows indices on the basis of which Chatt 4 has been con-— — j | i * >• i 1 I WM f t g ' m -1 : M | 1 f — "tftj"[r TTT! I r ±ti H i r ta U-i U : . : i. 4: : m ' i ~ • f e f £ > E B J 1 H [jit. T A G j i j h E G H i C H A B T ix :j:tltmxi-S i s s : m A A 4 jltffj 4-TTTT i" STAJ m y a D s — !_1 jj "•[ |'l 1* ~ o:? L I V I 3 4 H L.L-L. ii-LL X '--j--.UaXL.!. — H-- T r H x i;., .... •frrrr it 8 5 r f f f i f | j | | | | — ! — — m : t H t - m t j . ; i j 'J! i i rivr itill H +±i 1 I 1 fl j Ii 11 ; L j t f r f •lEH — — ( a i ( h i ) ( c ) : : j t + t l p t l e n 3 o m j O W e r a E i o n e r h : n±j 1 W af. F a c t • i r o u j — L > e . A v < o i r y o f t j - x & j u a h C e a i e ; m r : s h e r s G i m a f t f n 3 . i Y e a r . B o t! 1 L : ! 1 [ | |i- •• o k . i E + j s M I • 'r r ! j 1,, • i • _ j __ — — | — — . : • 1 1 3 0 § 1 2 0 i ! . • . : H : ; j : ' i | j | i L r— ;; ffi IfX "f ; 'j" ' l-"II E i j i i : -. [ ; ' — - t " 44: i f — t'rt — — J±1± 'jr- ri-— 1 H — — . . rvj 2,110 2 l i t 1 H~'i i ' T T T t T ~ c P a c o m m p x : t o r y A a 5 n e n re a | | j | ].;|-|-t j j ) j j j : . 1 ; ; I' i — j .:.;-' I : i jr ___—|—r-j--ri-r '! : •;• — . — --Hj > o H H g H 3 7> g ^ w J i B < 5 0 )0 iO 70 5 0 — i a ±rj± :fi:|H:; 4 i ^ S . : •.. : . i i e» r .. c r X I r> H X 1 R H e r \ \ \ a rt It' 'i ( 1 ) \ X N . j X iiXitrnj: a r H f o» t rH r T . D i y e u / / i i r u u o L d f r : ! 1 / / [ O p . . / . : - Ill |J — i i c i t . s / c > « T-rH P . J / e r / / / i r 4 c r 5 2 . stge / / t , i •4 ; . ' : ; 1 ^ - r E - i - H -T~T 4_! -U • n . j i - o t e s d e f l a t e i h e d o j . n O j « c n L m rH ^ o w e r T e a c l C a n a d a Y e ? d t o e ^ u a " l a r f o r 1 1 is — l e r Girt i r B o o J t e t i i e i e w h o ! ti) © r H ) u p c I n d p a r e L e p e OJ c n r-l i c e ; h a s : r i o < n a r i." — j — r 5 h a v e . n g p o i I. m > — — a < r-j h e e n fifer o f 1 j r - ? WSM J ; » — I — i i n j&assi MM i®) Jdbiprta 4 7 j l jactec 87 TABLE 15 " ' PROVIICIAL GOVEHKEMEiTT EXPENDITURES TO ALL PROVISOES Tear Expenditure of Provincial Governments charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditures of: r ; ; : Government L (Fiscal Years) Index 1913 $ 7,185,016 100.0 $ 5 3 , 2 7 8 , 4 2 5 ^ i 100.0 1914 7,896,161 , 109.8 57,108,888 107.2 1915 8,755,234 ' 121.8 54,677,473 ' 102.6 1916 9,964,552 138.6 53,826,219 101.0 1917 10,580,647 147.2 60,122,485 • 112.8 1918 11,143,005 X5 5 • X 66,052^09" 123.9 1919 12,541,624 . 174.5 76,403,973 143.4 1920 15,902,175 221.3 88,250,675 165.6 1921 20,474,528 284.9 102,569,515 w : 192.5 1922 22,830,227 317.7 112,874,954 211.8 1923 25,716,519 357.9 132,671,095 249.0 1924 25,427,469 353.9 135', 159,185 253.7 1925 24,784,845 344.9 136,648,242 256«,4 1926 26,160,996 364.1 144,183,178 ; 270.5 1927 152,211,883 -v 285.7 1928 28,936,559 402.7 165,538,910 b 310.7 1929 30,671,176 426.9 177,542,192 333.2 1930 33,245,544 462.7 184,804,203 346.8 1931 34,487,613 479 i 9 190,754,202 ;. .) 358.0 1. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (Years 1911-1920) 2. Ibid, 1926 (Years 1921-1925) 3. Summaries, provincial totals. 4. Canada Yearbook, 1934-5 (1926 ffj 88 TABLE 15 " ' PR07IMQIAL Q O J E B S m m EXPENDITURES BRITISH COLUMBIA Year I Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure! ofsr-ci Government T;.:•":'•••• (Fiscal Years) index 1913 | 944,038 100.0 $15,650,014 100.0 1914 1,141,070 120.9 15,971,878 102,1 1915 1,310,200 138.8 12,174,251 ' 77.8 1916 1,325,308 140.4 10,422,206 66.6 1917 1,331,413 141.0 10,290,123 ' - 65.8 1918 1,397,497 148.0 10,252,501 , 65 « 5 1919 1,831,623 194.0 12,112,286^^ 77.4 1920. 2,227,375 235.9 13,510,272 86.3 1921 3,076,944 , ,325.9 19,626,691 125.4 1922 3,432,919 363.6 20,673,184 132.1 1923 3,473,35W ; 367.9 20,799,467 132.9 1924 3,573,V&J.-' 378.6 | '21,476,272 137.2 1925 3,208;|fe4 'f1 339.8 : 21,227,916 135.6 1926 3,149,952 333.7 21,675,076 138.5 1927 .3,297,982 349.3 20,788,095 • 8 1928 3,477,391 368.3 21,859,578 139,7 1929 3,798,638 402.4 24,596,393 157,2 1930 4,231,163 448.2 26,219,156 167.5 1931. 4,297,924 455.3 29,099,964 185.9 1. Including capital account TABLE 15 " ' 89 PROVINCIAL GOYERiauSIT EXPENDITURES ALBERTA Year Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to . Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of.z: : - •Government (Fiscal Years) • Index 1913 , | 7 1 3 , 7 3 3 ^ 100.0 $ 5,225,584(1) 100.0 1914 797,176 111.7 5,401,595 103.'3 1915 907,408 127.1 5,714,032 109.3 1916 1,094,132 154.7 6,018,894- 115.1 1917. 1,191,979 167.0 6,752,504 . 129.2 1918 '. 1,209,629 169.5 8,303,808' . 158.9 1919 1,439,847 201.0 .,9,525,749 182.3 1920 1,768,834 247.8 10,423,356 199.4 1921 2,299,961 «. 2 13,109,304^ 250.8 1922 2,444,994 542.5 11,235,192 215.0 1923 2,248,474 515.0 10,990,830 210.3 1924 2,007,193 281.2 11,174, 690 213 , 8 1925 2,082,425 277.7 11,249,433 215.3 1926 2,155,953 502.6 11,894,328^ ^  227.6 1927 12,479,381 238.8 1928 15,870,155^ ^  242,9 1929 2,542,387 356.2 15,686,261 261.9 1930 2,715,065 580.1 15,402,885 294.7 $931 5,141,800 440.2 1:8,017,544 344.8 1. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (Tears 1911-1920) 2. Canada Yearbook, 1926 (Years 1921-1925) 3. Years since 1926, public accounts of Alberta 4. Alberta Public Accounts, 1915, page 264 5. Averaged 12 months TABLE A10 90 PBOYISCI AL GOVEBIMEJiT EXPEU 1)1 TUBES SASKATCHEWAN Year r Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of' . b o Government. (Fiscal Years) Index 1913 | 612,220( 4 ) 100,0 4 4;,656,800^' 100.0 1914 867,590 141.7 5,823,980*5 ^  107.4 1915 993,579 162.3 5,368,649 115.3 1916 1,003,944 163*9 5,258,756 112.9 191? 986,798 161.2 5,553,965 119,2 1918 1,052,944 171.9 6,828,59 6 146.6 1919 1,192,697 194.8 8,125,203 174,5 1920 1,434,923 234.4 8,707,833 186.9 1921 2,443,002 399.0 12,151, 6 6 5 ^ 260.9 1922: 2,880,068 470.4 13,322,120 286.0 1923 3,065,650 ,500.7 12,886,544 276.7 1924 2,997,105 489.5 12,449,150 267.5 1925 2,996,743 473.1 12,498,933 268.4 1926 3,748,948 612,3 13,212,483 ^  ^  ^  283.7 192? 12,962,217 278.3 1928 13,449,632 - 288•8 1929 3,776,438 616.8 15 j 9 p 231 34219 1930 3,901,258 637.2 17,079,469 366.7 1931 4,226,833 690.6 18,202,677 390,9 1932 4,698,896 767,& 1. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (1911-1920) 2. Canada Yearbook, 1926 (1921-1925) J3i Public Accounts of Government of Saskatchewan,• yearlyj (1926-1931 ) 4. Public Accounts of Government of Saskatchewan, yearly, 5. Average for 12 months; 4,991,983 91 TABLE 15 " ' PROVINCIAL GOVEBIMEIT EXPENDITURES MANITOBA Year Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of;n-vd to Government n " v v. (Fiscal Years) Index 1913 6 6 8 , 8 3 2 ^ 100.0 f 5,314,849 ^ ^ 100.0 1914 7 2 4 , 5 6 0 ^ 108.3 5,638,659 106.0 1915 9 0 1 , 1 1 7 ^ 134.7 6,026,596 113.4 1916 1,068,910 159.8 6,147,780 115.6 1917 1,213,128 181.4 6,860,555 128.8 1918 1,301,124 194.5 7,307,727 137.5 1919 1,459,710 218.2 8,497,942 159.9 1920 1,744,713 260.8 10,602,955 199.5 1921 2,131,678 318.7 10,063,139 189.3 1922 1,583,898 236.8 8,381,667 157.7 1923 2,150,027 321.4 10,616,567 199.7 1924 2,092,556 . 312 o 9 10,455,187 19 6.7 1925 l,208,157'5 b^ 270.9 6,824,155^5 a^ 192.6 1926 2,002,202 299.3 10,431,652^ 196.2 1927 2 , 1 0 1 , l l l ^ V 314.1 10,446,285 196.5 1928 2,146,416^^ 320.9 11,103,109 208.9 1929 2,221,027 232.0 12,344,493 252.2 1930 2,290,970 342.5 15,637,397 256.6 1931 2,350,387 351.4 14,491,673 272.6 1* C.K. Rogers, Assistant Deputy Minister, private letter, 18/7/54. 2. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (Years 1911-1920) • 3. Canada Yearbook, 1926 (Years 1921-1925) 4. Public Accounts of Government of Manitoba, Various years, (1926-1951) 5. Average for 12 months: (a) 10,256,253 (b) 1,812,236 TABLE 15 " ' 92 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ONTARIO Year Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of " o Government :r' . (Fiscal Years) , Index 1913 $ 2,048,546 100.0 $ 1 0 , 8 6 8 , 0 2 6 ^ 100.0 1914 2,0.67,449 100*9 11,819,311 108.7 1915 2,262,801 ' 110.4 12,704,362 • 116.9 1916 2,592,927 ! 126.5 12,706,333 . 116.9 1917 2,886,409 140.8 16,518,223 151.9 1918 3,170,625 154.7 17,460,404 166.0 1919 3,746,868 182.9 21,464,575 197*5 1920 5,469,679 267.0 25,880,843 238.1 1921 7,568,815 369.4 (2 1 28,579,6881 ' 262.9 1922 9,499,905 463.7 37,458,395 344.6 1923 10,972,931 ! 535.6 49,305,439 453.7 1924 10,505,321 512.8 48,866,569 449.6 1925 10,760,736 525.2 51,462,178 1926 10,516,440 513.3 (3) 51,251,781 ' 471.6 1927 55,763,689 c 513.9 1928 58,198,746 £35.5 1929 12,077,406 589.5 61,906,824 569.6 1930 13,211,183 644.9 57,989,353 533.6 1931 13,323,985 650.4 54,846,994 504.7 1932 .9,845,000 481.7 50,897,000 468.3 1. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (Years 1911-1920,) 2. Canada Yearbook, 1926 (Years 1921-1925) 3. Public Accounts of Province of Ontario (Years 1925-1933) TABLE A7 93 PROVINCIAL GOVEMliENT EXPENDITURES QUEBEC Year Government expenditure charged to Education (fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of: ?' :, • Government 'i ; - : •? (fiscal Years) • Index 1913 $1,419,515 100.0 $ 7,953,985 100.0 1914 1,476,725 104.0 8,624,368 108.0 1915 1,545,079 " 108.8 8,710,516 109.5 1916 1,598,097 112.5 9,436,687 118.7 1917 : 1,637,317. 115.3 9,907,672 124.6 1918 1,668,425 117.5 11,671,830 146.7 1919 1,666,470 117.4 12,371,131 155.3 1920 1,760,262 124.0 13,520,740 169.9 1921 1,302,619 126.9 14,624,088 183.8 1922 1,877,021 132.2 16,575,977 208.3 1923 2,428,687 171.9 19., 930,276 250.5 1924 2,814,516 198.2 21,567,293 : 271.1 1925 2,993,116 210.8 23,629,390 297.7 1926 2,975,899 209.6 26,401,480 331.8 1927 29,078,703 365,4 1928 32,821,226 412,6 1929 3,944,048 207.4 35,964,487 452.1 1930 4,693,628 330.6 39,374,910 495.0 1931 4,863,760 342.6 40,854,245 513.6 1932 4,174,766 294.1 1. Canada Yearbooks: (a) 1921-page 680-685 (1913-1918) b 1928 (1919-1926 (c) 1934 (1929-1932 TABLE, A8 94 PROVINCIAL GOVERIfisIMT EXPENDITURES IEW BRUNSWICK Year • f Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure.of -• '•'Government •. (Fiscal Years ) Index 1913 $276,751 100.0 $1,446,963^' 100.0 1914 282,891 102.2 1,493,774 103.2 1915 290,941 105.2 1,626,634 XX2 • 4 1916 313,409 113.2 1,568,340 108.4 1917 319,906 111.9 • 2,166,904 149.7 1918 329,564 ii5.i; 2,399,062 165.7 1919/ 326,067 110.2 179.4 1920 362,067 130.8 2,969,323 206.2 1921 465,522 168.2 3,432,512{ 3' 237.2 1922 450,913 163.2 2,985,877 206.3 1923 485,180 172.2 3,648,273 257»2 1924 525,280 189.8 3,835,522 265.7 1925 : 585,028 211.3 4,112,569 284.2 1926 637,158 230.2 4 , 0 7 3 , 7 7 5 ^ 281.9 1927 4,636,157 320.4 1928 5,393,784 372.7 1929 974,989 352.3 6,521,575 450.7 1930: 7 7 5 ,aoe!1) 279.9 7,218,856 498.9 1931 790,784* 285.7 6,761,420 467.3' 1» Including Civil Government 2. Canada yearbook, 1921. (Years 1911-1920) Si Canada Yearbook, 1926.(Years 1921^1925) 4. Public Accounts of Province of 'New .Brunswick,. Various Issue (1926-31) TABLE 15 " ' 95 PROVINCIAL GOVEBBICEET EXPENDITURES EOVA SCOTIA Year Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years) Index Total expenditure of i.i 00 Government .1;.•. . (Fiscal Years ) Index 1913 | 344,057 100.0 # 1 , 9 4 9 , 7 8 4 ^ 100.0 1914 369,005 107.2 2,098,893 107,6 1915 370,146 107.5 2,073,672 106.3 1916 508,957 147.9 2,152,773 105.2 1917 527,272 loo 1 2 2,344,009 120,2 1918 522,941 151.9 2,573,797 132.0 1919 , : : 531,104 : 154.3 5,280,282 168.2 1920 610,870 177.5 3,916,848 200.8 1921 776,044 225.5 (4) 4,678,1461'; 239 * 9 1922 721,528 209.7 4,791,998 245.7 1923 780,823 226.9 5,229,178 268.1 1924 791,291 229.9 5,579,525 286.1 1925 793,782 230.7 5,909,544 303 a 1926 761,798 221.4 6,327,043'2) 324.5 1927 6,5 66,143 336 j 7 1928 9 1 5 , 2 4 4 ^ 266.0 7,543,077 386.8 1929 9 5 6 , 4 1 1 ^ ^  277.9 7,288,486 375.8 1930 1,036,317'1^ 501.2 7,900,986 405.2 1931 1,118,300'1) 325.0 8,194,592 420.3 li. Public Accounts of Province of Nova Scotia, 1929, including Civil Government was 1,005,765. 2. Public Accounts of Province *of Nova Scotia, Various issues, (1926-31J 3. Canada Yearbook, 1921, (Years 1911-1920J 4. Canada Yearbook, 1926, (Years 1921-1925) TABLE A10 96 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Year Expenditure of Provincial Government charged to Education (Fiscal Years). Index Total expenditure of , to Government ; •:..,.-.• (Fiscal Years) Index 1915 $157,524 100,0 $ 4 5 0 , 1 1 2 ^ 100.0 1914 169,695 107,8 445,396 98.9 1915. 173,963 110.5 ; 510,545 113,4 1916 173,309 110.1 453,151 100.6 1917.. 176,952 112.4 487,113 108.2 1918 , 170,913 108.6 : 484,416 107.6 1919 180,344 114.6 655,409 145.6 1920 209,478 «1 660,774 146.8 1921 246,401 . 156.5 6 9 4 , 0 4 2 ^ 154.2 1922 273,978 180.5 687s.241 152.7 1925 501,045 191.3 ,"790,046 175.6 1924 • 281,795 179.1 715,882 159.0 1925 -293,451 186*5 745,338 165.6 1926 296,937 188.7 7 5 6 , 1 1 4( 3 ) 167.9 1927 870,427 193.4 [ 1928 .) 943, 548 209.6 1929 331,505 210.7 1,033,315 229.6 1930 324,180 206.0 1,113,366 247.3 1931 313,601 198.7 1,453,191 322.8 1932 324,851 206.4 1,206,025 267.9 1953 341,543 217,1 1,263,063 .: 280.6 1. Canada Yearbook, 1921 (Years 1911-1920) 2. Canada Yearbook, 1926 (Years 1921-1925) 3.w Public Accounts of Province of Nova Scotia, various issues, (1926 ff) <3IfAEi:-£6 H B f i LegallAdministration T o t a l j^zjemJ-lt^re Interest IJeiisXat: JSffi'dmafa • Civil fttois rHiaent eHAiS-B9--pROg-lfe-IAIr ^affVffiBgBffl; Adjrdjiija^rati 'i'ota 1 feperiditaire Interejst 1 Public v'ori;>j itttti ivil to liars. A a m i n i s t r u T o t a l dture: .Itare Lucaticn L e g i s l a t i o n [MiljfcfcJaE^  I n t e r e s t Jio.rfcs J. G o v e r n m e n t XlHim.i oiivill M B L E B I EKPBKDITOBES OP PBOVIHCIjlL GOVEBHHE'ras POK YAEIOUS ' BEP-AETiffilTIS (1) ! i l l PHOVICES Y e a r P o r e s t s A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c SJork I n t e r e s t C i v i l G o v e r n m e n i l e g i s l a t i o H e a l t h l e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 9 1 3 1 9 1 4 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 6 8 6 1 , 0 7 2 1 , 9 3 7 , 6 7 9 1 0 , 6 5 2 , 3 7 3 7 , 8 1 7 , 8 4 4 4 , 0 1 1 , 7 0 1 .1,833,100 1 4 9 , 0 0 4 5 , 1 8 2 , 2 9 9 1 9 1 7 9 5 5 , 1 7 5 2 , 0 5 8 , 1 9 7 1 1 , 0 7 6 , 1 0 2 9 , 4 2 0 , 1 8 3 4 , 1 5 6 , 5 8 2 2 , 0 3 6 , 3 3 0 1 7 1 , 2 9 3 5 , 3 1 4 , 0 9 1 1 9 1 8 1 , 1 1 4 , 5 7 2 2 , 7 2 4 , 7 0 2 1 0 , 8 2 5 , 5 4 4 1 0 , 5 7 5 , 8 4 1 4 , 4 3 3 , 2 6 3 1 , 8 6 4 , 5 0 8 2 7 0 , 2 0 0 5 , 2 7 2 , 8 1 3 1919 1 , 2 7 9 , 7 7 6 2 , 9 0 2 , 8 1 6 1 3 , 3 5 5 , 2 7 4 1 1 , 9 2 5 , 8 3 2 5 , 6 3 1 , 8 8 6 . : 1 , 9 7 6 , 6 4 4 3 9 5 , 3 2 5 5 , 5 6 0 , 1 5 7 1 9 2 0 1 , 5 2 1 , 0 9 8 2 , 7 7 5 , 7 1 3 1 5 , 6 7 8 , 0 1 6 1 4 , 5 9 1 , 4 5 8 6 , 8 3 3 , 9 3 3 2 , 1 7 7 , 9 4 4 5 7 5 , 9 7 1 6 , 5 8 8 , 4 4 1 1 9 2 1 1 , 4 3 1 , 1 0 5 3 , 3 7 1 , 9 3 7 1 6 , 3 8 7 , 1 1 1 1 9 , 8 1 8 , 2 6 6 7 , 9 2 8 , 8 9 7 2 , 0 5 8 , 3 3 9 7 3 4 , 2 8 1 7 , 8 9 0 , 6 0 1 1 9 2 2 1 , 6 8 3 , 3 2 0 3 , 7 7 2 , 9 3 7 1 6 , 3 8 7 , 1 8 2 2 6 , 4 9 6 , 7 9 5 8 , 3 8 0 , 0 3 5 2 , 5 1 2 , 5 0 3 9 2 8 , 1 5 1 7 , 3 8 8 , 5 8 6 1 9 2 3 2 , 3 0 9 , 1 3 4 3 , 4 9 3 , 9 9 4 2 1 , 1 1 5 , 0 6 6 3 1 , 5 0 3 , 3 1 6 8 , 4 7 0 , 5 6 1 3 , 0 0 9 , 2 7 9 1 , 0 5 4 , 5 9 3 8 , 2 7 2 , 6 4 0 1 9 2 4 2 , 9 4 5 , 0 6 3 3 , 8 4 4 , 7 0 9 2 1 , 5 7 4 , 0 0 6 3 5 , 1 1 5 , 3 6 4 8 , 4 1 5 , 9 1 5 2 , 1 9 1 , 4 9 4 9 5 2 , 5 0 6 7 , 3 0 4 , 2 4 3 1 9 2 5 2 , 7 0 1 , 5 9 5 3 , 8 9 7 , 1 9 1 2 2 , 0 4 3 , 5 7 1 3 5 , 7 9 5 , 9 2 6 8 , 3 3 4 , 5 2 5 2 , 6 0 8 , 8 5 9 9 2 3 , 2 8 4 7 , 2 2 5 , 1 3 3 1 9 2 6 3 , 0 6 9 , 1 7 8 i 3 , 9 0 3 , 2 0 2 2 3 , 5 8 6 , 8 5 5 3 7 , 3 6 6 , 9 2 5 9 , 0 0 0 , 2 2 5 2 , 4 7 7 , 6 3 7 1 0 2 9 , 9 64 7 , 6 0 1 , 3 6 4 1 9 2 7 1 9 2 8 3 0 , 4 0 4 , 5 3 2 3 9 , 4 2 7 , 6 3 3 1 9 2 9 4 , 1 4 4 , 9 64 4 , 7 4 7 , 2 1 2 3 3 , 6 2 7 , 6 6 1 4 1 , 2 0 7 , 0 9 0 1 0 , 2 8 6 , 1 0 6 2 , 6 4 6 , 6 8 5 2 0 2 3 , 7 9 6 9 , 4 0 2 , 4 7 6 1 9 3 0 4 , 7 1 4 , 0 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 9 2 8 3 7 , 5 6 4 , 7 2 4 3 5 , 1 8 6 , 3 0 5 1 1 , 1 6 9 , 4 8 0 3 , 3 5 4 , 1 4 0 2, 3 3 2 , 9 8 3 1 0 , 7 0 7 , 2 6 8 1 9 3 1 5 , 5 5 6 , 1 8 8 6 , 3 6 0 , 6 7 7 3 6 , 7 0 7 , 7 0 3 | 3 6 , 7 4 8 , 3 6 6 1 2 , 1 2 8 , 6 7 4 2 , 8 5 5 , 0 4 1 2, 6 5 4 , 7 3 7 1 0 , 2 2 8 , 9 5 7 1 . T a b l e s A l - 1 0 show E x p e n d i t u r e f o r E d u c a t i o n a n a T o t a l E x p e n d i t u r e . KBLE 332 EXPEBMTOBS OP PB0VII/CIA1 GOKffiiSHT FOP. YffilOTB ffiMBWJOTS B E I I I S H OOlTIiBIA ~ : T e a r ? o r e s t s A g r i c a l t u r e P u b l i c V/orlz s i n t e r e s t C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t L e g i s l a t i o H e a l t h "Legal - / A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 9 1 3 t< 2 4 5 , 8 3 5 7 , 6 6 4 , 4 6 8 5 2 9 , 7 7 6 1 , 3 2 9 , 7 0 7 8 7 , 5 0 0 4 5 1 , 2 0 6 1 9 1 4 (: 2 2 6 , 1 7 1 8 , 4 7 6 , 7 4 7 4 9 4 , 0 7 6 1 , 5 9 6 , 7 3 1 8 6 , 3 2 9 7 4 7 , 1 1 2 19 I S {i 1 1 5 , 2 7 0 1 6 2 , 4 3 0 4 , 0 2 9 , 0 3 1 7 7 9 , 2 6 3 1 , 5 5 5 , 5 6 2 9 6 , 3 7 5 3 1 , 7 9 3 4 0 4 , 0 8 3 1 9 1 6 (5 2 4 1 , 8 8 5 1 6 9 , 6 8 2 3 , 1 6 2 , 1 3 0 7 8 2 , 8 0 2 1 , 0 7 6 , 7 9 0 1 6 7 , 3 7 0 2 4 , 6 1 3 7 4 9 , 8 3 4 1 9 1 7 !5 1 0 2 , 4 6 4 1 3 2 , 3 6 8 2 , 6 7 7 , 0 8 0 8 3 0 , 4 2 2 1 , 0 2 7 , 5 7 7 2 7 7 , 5 2 8 2 1 , 8 7 2 6 6 7 , 2 3 7 1918 1 8 8 , 6 2 0 1 3 8 , 6 2 0 1 , 5 6 2 , 5 8 8 9 4 6 , 7 2 8 9 3 2 , 4 1 8 1 7 9 , 9 5 6 2 0 , 8 0 8 5 1 9 , 0 8 6 1 9 1 9 1 4 3 , 7 9 1 9 9 , 8 5 1 1 , 8 3 5 , 3 2 0 1 , 1 7 5 , 5 0 2 1 , 4 9 7 , 9 3 9 1 8 1 , 3 1 7 8 2 , 6 6 6 5 7 9 , 9 1 2 1 9 2 0 1 4 9 , 7 2 3 1 0 3 , 5 7 4 2 , 2 4 7 , 8 0 9 1 , 9 8 0 , 5 8 0 1 , 4 3 7 , 6 2 9 1 6 3 , 5 3 2 4 9 , 8 4 9 7 2 8 , 0 8 6 1 9 2 1 2 1 8 , 7 3 7 1 4 4 , 9 8 3 3 , 1 6 1 , 5 3 8 2 , 1 2 6 , 4 8 8 2 , 3 0 2 , 8 5 7 4 3 2 , 5 2 6 5 6 , 3 6 1 87Jj,100 1 9 2 2 3 5 2 , 5 5 6 1 8 2 , 1 8 4 3 , 0 9 4 , 1 8 2 3 , 0 6 6 , 4 6 7 ' 2 , 3 9 6 , 7 1 7 1 9 0 , 5 4 9 7 3 , 1 5 3 9 0 2 , 1 7 0 1 9 2 3 4 7 6 , 9 7 0 2 0 6 , 2 8 3 3 , 4 5 6 , 8 5 7 3 , 3 2 1 , 5 3 9 2 , 2 1 9 , 6 1 5 1 9 4 , 1 0 3 8 7 , 5 5 2 9 9 3 , 0 5 5 1 9 2 4 7 4 6 , 3 7 4 2 0 5 , 5 1 5 3 , 3 9 4 , 3 4 1 3 , 5 8 3 , 8 8 6 2 , 1 2 4 , 9 9 4 204,021= 9 2 , 8 5 3 9 8 8 , 9 3 4 1 9 2 5 4 0 9 , 3 6 0 2 5 2 , 5 7 8 3 , 7 1 3 , 9 8 8 3 , 8 4 7 , 9 7 7 2 , 0 6 9 , 8 3 7 2 9 8 , 8 2 7 7 8 , 1 4 4 9 7 3 , 4 8 4 1 9 2 6 7 3 7 , 3 0 2 2 3 8 , 9 2 6 3 , 0 8 7 , 7 7 4 3 , 7 7 7 , 6 5 8 1 , 9 7 0 , 9 7 1 1 9 6 , 9 1 0 8 7 , 3 6 9 1 , 0 1 4 , 1 2 2 1 9 2 7 4 7 7 , 0 5 5 4 4 6 , 3 1 3 2 , 7 3 3 , 0 3 7 1 , 8 0 3 , 3 5 8 1 9 2 8 5 1 2 , 5 2 5 6 2 3 , 7 3 0 3 , 0 9 6 , 6 5 6 3 , 7 9 5 , 4 7 5 1 9 5 7 , 1 1 8 1 9 2 9 4 3 0 , 1 8 0 4 5 8 , 8 9 3 3 , 7 0 3 , 2 4 5 3 , 9 4 8 , 5 7 9 2 , 0 9 7 , 7 3 5 434,884. 9 9 , 9 6 5 1 3 9 4 , 5 1 7 1 9 3 0 4 9 0 , 2 4 6 3 5 0 , 4 0 0 3 , 6 9 1 , 0 4 5 4 , 5 3 2 , 5 3 0 2 , 3 2 2 , 6 6 1 2 5 5 , 1 4 3 7 6 , 7 3 6 1 3 7 3 , 2 8 3 1 9 3 1 ,170,740' 3 5 7 , 4 9 2 3 , 7 6 2 , 9 1 7 5 , 0 6 4 , 4 9 9 2 , 4 0 8 , 6 9 1 2 6 2 , 7 2 8 8 3 , 3 3 6 1 3 7 2 , 8 9 4 1 9 3 2 4 1 0 , 3 6 7 3 , 5 8 0 , 3 1 1 5 , 8 9 4 , 8 5 9 1 3 3 , 0 5 8 ^ 1 9 3 3 3 1 4 , 8 5 8 2 , 1 1 3 , 2 0 3 6 , 7 8 0 , 7 0 6 1 0 5 , 8 6 5 1 9 3 4 2 8 1 , 0 4 4 1 , 7 3 8 , 9 1 0 6 , 8 6 0 , 8 8 7 1 0 4 , 8 6 8 1. a a r n a l o f P r o v i n c i e l I n f o r m a t i o n ( B . C . ) 1 9 3 0 d 2 5 5 2. C a n a d a Y e a r b o o k , 1 9 1 4 , p . 2 6 8 . 3. I M S , 1915, p. 5 6 4 . 4 . m a , 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 , n . 5 4 0 . 5 . I b i d , 1 9 2 1 , p . 6 8 2 - 5 . T A B L S 3 5 ISCEEHDIHJHL OS P20VII;CIAL C O B B M I F O E V A R I O U S SSS . A i B E K T A 108 ?orests A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c l/ork: I n t e r e s t ;ivil G o v e r n m e n t l e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h L e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 19 Is' 6 1 9 1 4 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 6 1 9 1 7 1 9 1 8 ' 8 1919 ' 8 1 9 2 0 1 9 2 1 1 9 2 2 1 9 2 3 1 9 2 4 1 9 2 5 1 9 2 6 1 9 2 7 1928 1 9 2 9 1 9 3 0 1 9 3 1 | 1 1 | 3 5 , 3 7 0 4 2 8 , 8 8 0 5 3 0 , 5 6 4 6 1 3 , 9 2 4 5 4 3 , 8 6 1 6 2 8 , 4 0 4 7 9 8 , 8 2 5 1 , 0 9 6 , 4 2 7 4 6 0 , 7 6 7 5 9 8 , 4 3 9 7 3 1 , 3 5 9 4 7 0 , 8 2 5 4 0 1 , 5 2 7 4 1 2 , 9 1 7 3 9 2 , 3 0 3 4 1 9 , 0 6 8 5 1 2 , 4 2 6 5 3 3 , 6 3 1 2 , 3 4 9 , 5 5 2 ' 3 2 , 0 0 4 , 7 8 l ' 4 ) l , 7 2 4 , 3 6 l ' 4 ' 1 , 5 6 7 , 4 9 1 1 , 6 7 3 , 4 1 0 1 , 5 1 3 , 2 5 6 2 , 0 3 7 , 3 2 6 2 , 4 6 3 , 9 5 9 2 , 9 9 9 , 5 5 6 1 , 0 9 4 , 8 9 2 9 2 2 , 9 3 2 1 , 2 2 3 , 5 3 4 1 , 0 5 4 , 5 4 4 1 , 2 1 2 , 0 5 2 1 , 4 7 4 , 5 1 9 1 , 9 4 3 , 3 1 4 2 , 3 8 9 , 8 5 0 5 7 6 , 5 8 2 ( 2 6 5 7 , 8 4 5 7 6 8 , 0 9 4 8 5 5 , 4 5 1 9 1 3 , 4 0 1 1 , 4 1 7 , 2 9 9 1 , 5 1 6 , 8 4 3 1 , 7 7 1 , 8 4 6 2 , 3 0 6 , 2 4 6 2 , 5 3 7 , 7 4 3 2 , 9 2 1 , 8 2 7 3 , 4 4 8 , 1 0 0 3 , 4 7 2 , 7 1 5 3 , 7 9 9 , 4 1 1 5 , 0 2 6 , 7 6 7 4 , 2 8 0 , 7 9 9 4 , 3 9 0 , 7 2 2 5 , 0 3 9 , 3 6 6 3 9 2 , 4 0 0 4 4 9 , 6 4 2 4 8 5 , 5 2 8 5 2 8 , 7 8 7 5 8 9 , 7 2 4 6 1 1 , 4 2 3 7 2 2 , 9 3 3 • 822,660 9 3 2 , 8 3 1 9 4 5 , 7 9 4 8 6 5 , 3 2 5 8 1 1 , 4 0 6 8 4 2 , 8 7 0 8 8 2 , 1 7 6 9 5 9 , 7 4 4 ,074,422 ,232,896 1 8 3 , 0 5 6 1 1 8 , 0 4 9 1 1 9 , 4 8 4 1 5 7 , 0 6 9 3 4 1 , 0 7 1 1 7 1 , 4 6 0 1 7 5 , 4 9 4 2 0 2 , 9 9 5 4 6 4 , 0 2 2 2 5 0 , 2 3 3 4 0 7 , 7 0 7 2 5 0 , 5 2 5 2 4 2 , 4 4 7 3 1 2 , 6 6 5 2 3 6 , 2 6 8 2 2 9 , 0 0 5 4 0 7 , 4 3 0 1 3 , 1 5 2 14,8'66 6 3 , 8 4 8 1 2 5 , 7 6 0 1 1 0 , 5 3 8 1 6 7 , 1 1 5 2 5 4 , 6 3 1 2 1 4 , 2 6 6 1 4 9 , 2 5 2 9 7 , 9 0 9 9 6 , 1 4 1 1 4 4 , 8 3 5 1 5 0 , 5 1 7 1 6 4 , 7 8 5 703,431(9 ) 7 8 8 , 4 4 5 ( 1 0 ) 7 3 3 , 6 5 0 ( 1 0 ) 7 3 1 , 4 1 5 0 8 0 , 9 1 9 8 7 9 , 0 5 0 1 , 0 1 0 , 6 9 3 1 , 1 5 2 , 5 5 2 1 , 2 6 5 , 2 9 5 1 , 2 1 3 , 4 8 7 1,-114,392 1 , 0 9 0 , 0 5 4 1 , 0 9 1 , 6 0 0 1 , 0 1 9 , 8 0 0 1 , 0 5 1 , 7 0 3 1 , 0 7 1 , 1 1 5 1 , 1 6 3 , 1 4 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 . 8. 9. 10. C a n a d a y e a r b o o k , 1933, p . 8 5 5 , 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 . P u b l i c A c c o u n t s of P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a , 1913 p 2 6 « I b i d . ^ I b i d , 1 9 1 5 , p . 3 2 3 . C a n a d a T e ^ r b o o k , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 6 7 - A l l 1 9 1 3 S t a t i s t i c s . I b i d , 1 9 1 5 , p . 5 6 3 . I b i d , 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 , p . 5 3 9 . I b i d , 1 9 2 1 , p . 6 8 2 - 5 . ( S o u r c e f o r a l l p r o v i n c e s , 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 2 0 1 PUDIIC A c c o u n t s , 1 9 1 3 , p . 2 6 4 . " P u b l i c A c c o u n t s , 1 9 1 5 , p . 3 2 6 . M 5 L B 3 4 E2Pj2'ffiITOBE OF P R O V I N C I A L g O T S B B U S X C FOB TIBLOUS I E P ~ K E i : T S T e a r F o r e s t s Agriculture Publio r/'orks QJiiJJi. I n t e r e s t LTUiUUUiii-! Civil G o v e r m e n t L e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h L e g a l Adniinistration 1913 I f 2) i 7 3 9 , 3 5 4 1,056,747 288,289 '372,982 111,845: 32,128 1,118,600 1914 I 2 2 4 , 2 5 4 1,028,863 436,655 325,474 105,692, 34,119 1 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 2 1915 t) 2 66,886 8 2 8 , 8 8 4 693,993 343,719 211,604. 31,219 8 5 9 , 4 0 3 1916 192,811 597,690 8 9 3 , 1 0 2 4 5 7 , 1 8 3 231,868' 8 9 8 , 1 0 6 1917 1 5 9 , 6 4 2 8 5 5 , 3 0 4 1 , 0 6 7 , 7 8 0 4 4 4 , 0 0 4 149,901; 1,019,806 1910 131,876 1 , 1 5 7 , 9 8 0 1,09 6,466 5 3 4 , 1 4 5 3 4 4 , 4 4 3 24,416 9 8 8 , 6 4 9 1919 119,878 1,147,221 1 , 2 2 2 , 1 7 7 711,678 2 0 3 , 9 7 5 13,666 9 1 6 , 1 8 3 1920 2 08,006 1,321,738 1 , 3 3 7 , 7 5 4 7 8 9 , 1 7 1 2 0 4 , 1 3 1 2 7 , 1 8 4 1,107,208 1921 576,101 1,821,014 1 , 6 2 0 , 4 5 4 981,581 2 1 8 , 6 9 7 140,190 1,326,496 1922 4 7 0 , 4 6 3 2 , 3 7 7 , 9 4 3 1,629,129 1,075,286 3 9 9 , 0 5 4 109,939 1 , 2 7 9 , 4 0 2 1923 1,000 2 5 1 , 3 2 1 1 , 0 3 6 , 1 9 3 2,185,885 1 , 0 7 2 , 2 7 2 243,253. 9 7 , 3 3 4 1 , 1 6 8 , 7 1 6 1924 1 , 0 0 0 1 8 8 , 6 0 2 1,777,605 2 , 1 9 2 , 6 2 0 • 1 , 0 3 1 , 4 0 5 206,484'; 4 3 , 3 9 2 1 , 2 7 9 , 4 0 2 1925 1,000 2 3 0 , 2 0 2 1,797,730 2,341,559 1,000,406 2 1 2 , 5 6 4 5 5 , 1 8 0 1 , 0 7 9 , 4 8 6 1926 1 , 0 0 0 2 3 2 , 5 5 0 1 , 7 7 4 , 4 9 2 2 , 1 2 7 , 6 7 0 967,648 406,508. 84,626 1,079,369 1927 1928 S,307,469' 1 1929 314,104 3 , 2 9 4 , 4 2 5 2 , 5 6 2 , 5 6 9 ^ 1,100,525 2 5 4 , 5 9 8 2 2 1 , 4 1 0 • 995,690 1930 4 7 3 , 0 5 6 2,832,450 2 , 7 2 2 , 6 2 3 1,124,037 49 6if835 245,987 1 , 4 6 8 , 1 2 4 1931 27,923 381,862 2 , 4 3 4 , 6 4 4 | 3,202,882 1,327,256 350,349 249,213 1,485,628 2. Canada y e a r b o o k , 1914, D . 5 6 6 . 3. Ibid, 1915, D. 562, 4. Ibid, 1916-17, 13.538/ I A 3 L 2 35 EZEjiHIilTDBZ O P RAOVXDBLB, O O T E H B E E H T FOB Y A R I O U S D S P A E H J B E T S M A N I T O B A Y e a r F o r e s t s Agriculture P u b l i c 7/orks I n t e r e s t Civil Governmeni l e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h Legal A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1913' 2 328,335 1,181,155 768,946 188,500 574,448 1914! 3 385,802 1,081,571 976,679 192,933 7 0 9 , 5 5 3 1915< 4 2£8,729 1,054,647 1 , 2 5 5 , 7 0 7 178,094 5 4 3 , 4 8 0 1 9 1 6 58,684 2 , 0 0 4 , 1 8 5 1 , 3 2 7 , 2 2 0 238,079 2 0 6 , 6 9 4 30,000 5 0 7 , 8 8 6 1917 72,880 2,131,745 1 , 4 5 3 , 8 4 3 2 7 4 , 7 7 8 251,412 35,000 4 9 9 , 9 1 5 1918 8 7 , 9 2 4 2 , 3 5 1 , 9 3 3 1 , 6 8 6 , 3 2 5 328,119 160,026 465,176 1919 1 34,166 2 , 7 6 1 , 4 7 3 1,771,457 396,343 1 4 8 , 0 3 1 10,000 612,786 1920 2 1 8 , 4 0 2 3 , 0 3 1 , 7 6 3 2,338,949 4 7 9 , 2 7 2 3 0 6 , 3 6 0 3 0 , 0 0 0 8 0 0 , 0 9 8 192l' 5 1 9 2 2 ( 5 1923' 5 1924' S 2 0 6 , 0 1 7 1 , 2 4 6 , 3 2 3 3 , 0 2 2 , 1 4 4 529,115 2 1 2 , 6 4 6 35,000 793,876 113,439 8 4 4 , 4 7 5 2 , 8 0 7 , 4 1 7 4 3 4 , 3 6 7 315,857 3 0 , 0 0 0 680,968 105,059 1,014,815 4,011,969 5 0 9 , 5 4 3 2.15,084 . .35,000 7 8 1 , 0 1 0 100,095 961,779 4 , 1 5 2 , 8 4 1 504,394 180 , 687 25,000 628,151 1 9 2 5 1 5 3 4 , 4 8 9 U a ) 655,189 ( 1 1 > 2 , 6 1 3 , 1 7 9 1 1 ( 1 3 7 2 , 3 9 4 ( l d ) 1 4 1 , 6 6 3 ( l e ) 1 6 , 5 6 7 U f 627,057 1926 9 7 , 9 6 7 961,591 4 , 0 2 7 , 2 0 1 : 571,239 160,228 2 5 , 0 0 0 642,252 1927 1928 3 , 8 8 2 , 3 3 2 1929 128,731 1 , 5 6 0 , 7 4 4 4 , 0 2 6 , 6 9 4 767,263 197,577 25,000 8 4 4 , 5 9 2 1930 160,339 1 , 7 5 2 , 0 6 7 4,299,599 753,097 2 1 1 , 3 5 5 1 5 8 , 1 4 6 8 4 0 , 5 6 0 1931 125,175 1 4 4 , 3 3 8 1,944,818 4 , 4 4 2 , 5 0 8 861,688 222,616 j 103,753 8 9 6 , 7 6 7 2. Canada Y e a r b o o k , 1913, p.565. ' ~ ' 3. Ibid, 1914, p.561. 4. Ibid, 1916-17, D.537. 5. Ibid, 1926-27, p.791. (all y e a r s and all p r o v i n c e s , 1921-1925) ,919,769 (d) 5 5 8 , 5 9 1 (e) 212,495 [f)25,OOO TABLE BS 111 BffilffilTUBS OP PEOmciAL GOYEBHLEIIT POE YJilOUS SSHjjmxB OEPABIO Y e a r F o r e s t s A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c 'works I n t e r e s t C i v i l Governmen-t L e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h L e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1913 7 1 0 , 1 8 4 7 9 0 , 9 9 9 3 3 3 , 0 2 3 7 1 4 , 7 7 2 1 9 1 4 ( ] 6 8 5 , 9 7 0 3 , 1 4 0 , 4 3 1 7 9 7 , 3 5 2 2 9 1 , 1 7 2 7 7 4 , 2 3 3 1915 ) 7 4 6 , 6 2 7 2 , 8 9 0 , 2 0 7 1 , 2 5 5 , 7 0 7 '-'.'826; 653 2 9 2 , 1 5 8 6 4 4 , 2 1 9 1 9 1 6 4 2 7 , 7 5 6 4 4 6 , 8 2 8 1 , 0 4 3 , 1 4 6 1 , 6 0 0 , 9 1 1 8 6 5 , 2 2 6 3 6 1 , 9 5 0 4 9 , 2 1 1 7 6 1 , 1 0 3 1 9 1 7 6 6 8 , 1 1 9 4 8 7 , 3 3 0 1 , 2 1 3 , 7 6 8 2 , 2 5 0 , 1 5 9 9 3 9 , 2 5 9 3 3 6 , 4 3 5 62,579 6 9 1 , 7 8 4 1918 7 1 6 , 3 7 5 611,525 1 , 0 4 0 , 0 2 6 2 , 5 1 7 , 3 7 9 1 , 0 6 6 , 9 5 0 3 5 9 , 8 8 5 8 3 , 7 0 2 7 4 6 , 6 5 4 1919 8 6 7 , 1 9 2 687,685 1 , 4 1 6 , 9 1 9 3 , 2 9 2 , 3 8 7 1 , 2 6 1 , 3 8 2 4 1 2 , 1 3 6 1 0 5 , 5 4 3 7 4 1 , 8 1 2 1920 9 7 2 , 9 7 8 741,115 1 , 4 0 6 , 2 5 7 4 , 5 5 0 , 1 1 5 1 , 5 5 0 , 6 6 5 4 1 2 , 7 9 8 2 6 9 , 6 4 1 9 0 8 , 6 6 4 1 9 2 1 6 3 3 , 4 7 5 7 0 9 , 3 6 6 1 , 9 2 5 , 2 3 8 6 , 8 3 8 , 3 3 4 1 , 8 5 8 , 1 7 1 4 5 5 , 3 4 8 199,238 1,415,029 1 9 2 2 • 7 4 0 , 3 6 0 8 8 3 , 9 0 2 2 , 1 6 1 , 9 7 9 1 1 , 8 3 8 , 5 0 1 2 , 0 9 3 , 3 4 4 5 1 8 , 3 0 0 3 1 3 , 4 7 4 1 , 0 8 2 , 4 0 2 1923 1 , 1 3 8 , 7 6 8 1 , 1 5 6 , 4 6 1 6,305,038 1 3 , 8 2 1 , 8 2 1 2 , 1 0 2 , 5 6 5 9 2 9 , 7 9 1 3 6 2 , 5 8 0 1 , 9 3 4 , 0 6 5 1 9 2 4 9 3 4 , 5 6 4 1 , 2 8 7 , 9 9 3 6 , 4 3 4 , 8 9 3 1 6 , 0 2 6 , 7 3 0 2 , 2 7 0 , 6 8 1 4 7 0 , 4 9 7 3 7 2 , 1 7 4 1 , 1 1 6 , 6 6 3 1925 1 , 2 9 4 , 1 8 6 1 , 3 3 6 , 7 6 6 6 , 0 7 3 , 3 6 0 1 7 , 0 6 2 , 6 0 4 2 , 3 3 6 , 1 9 1 7 3 2 , 9 8 8 3 6 5 , 6 4 0 1 , 1 9 6 , 5 8 1 1 9 2 6 1 , 3 1 5 , 4 2 0 1 , 3 9 5 , 0 9 8 6,659,999 1 7 , 0 6 2 , 6 8 1 2 , 3 9 7 , 3 7 7 4 3 3 , 9 2 1 3 6 6 , 6 8 3 1 , 0 3 7 , 8 7 4 1927 1928 1 7 , 8 2 6 , 7 3 0 1929 1 , 8 0 3 , 8 3 0 1,303,102 7 , 7 1 5 , 8 5 0 1 9 , 0 3 8 , 2 6 2 3 , 0 1 9 , 2 2 4 4 8 0 , 4 9 4 9 6 8 , 0 7 4 1 , 9 4 5 , 8 9 1 19 3 0 2,024,991 1,421,288 8 , 1 2 4 , 3 5 8 1 1 , 7 8 2 , 7 3 4 3 , 4 2 2 , 9 0 5 1,061,471 1 5 8 , 1 4 6 2 , 3 0 8 , 7 0 4 1931 1,748,957 ,474,837 6 , 4 2 6 , 7 8 5 1 1 , 1 5 3 , 3 3 8 3 , 5 6 3 , 8 9 1 5 1 3 , 8 3 9 1 8 3 , 7 5 3 2 , 5 1 4 , 6 2 7 1. C a n a d a Y e a r b o o k , 1915, p . 5 6 0 . 2. I b i d , 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 , p . 5 3 7 . E X P E N D I T U R E OF F E 0 V I E C I 4 L G O V B B M Z W F O R V i H I O U S D 2 P - M . 3 1 I T 3 EES' BRUHSY/ICK T e a r F o r e s t s Agri culture P u b l i c ;/orks Interest C i v i l Government L e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h L e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s!s ,15 1913 1 9 1 4 ! 4 ) 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 33,259 31,005 33,800 30,095 27,648 35,068 8 4 , 4 3 2 123,233 2 1 5 , 9 4 1 8 5 , 7 7 2 1 7 5 , 6 6 3 141,003 114,518 1 0 1 , 6 7 0 162,930 2 7 5 , 7 7 4 1931 | 2 3 2 , 1 8 1 4 6 , 0 8 2 47,516 46,617 4 9 , 0 7 2 76,209 251,089 8 4 , 4 8 2 9 2 , 9 1 2 66,639 61,625 69,324 8 0 , 2 8 3 90,110 89,305 180,581 260,054 2 6 5 , 8 3 3 390,931 4 0 5 , 6 1 3 3 4 6 , 4 5 8 354,308 5 2 7 , 2 2 5 5 4 4 , 8 7 1 8 2 1 , 7 4 1 9 0 8 , 9 6 2 9 4 2 , 6 4 4 688,537 1,058,371 1,076,649 1,135,118 1,160,114 2,428,579 1,951,319 1,181,902 2 7 5 , 0 7 3 2 7 0 , 1 2 6 335,637 351,005 636,714 644,438 628,892 679,264 814,019 8 8 6 , 7 5 0 954,018 1,011,865 1,107,098 lj027,842 1,130,911 1,903,544 2 , 0 4 8 , 6 6 4 2,310,825 45,345 44,616 4 5 , 8 5 3 68 , 342 79,400 9 9 , 4 5 0 123,173 145,720 146,270 153,095 161,334 160,929 160,265 151,203 199,332 173,639 173,407 (1) (1) 2 9 , 9 8 4 30,021 27,803 5 4 , 9 2 1 68,236 5 9 , 6 5 0 5 9 , 5 3 6 117,936 9 6 , 2 9 2 9 8 , 4 6 5 97,559 97,969 123,646 97,178 9 9 , 5 5 0 125,821 106,657 412 5 , 7 3 1 15,085 9,122 14,039 15,244 19,022 2 8 , 4 4 5 109,605 115,901 135,557 2 1 , 9 5 4 27,298 2 3 , 5 1 3 46,557 44,059 40,216 5 9 , 5 3 1 46,407 53,443 4 8 , 3 1 3 5 4 , 9 3 0 47,828 66,228 59,409 67,506 2 9 6 , 7 3 3 2 7 8 , 7 1 1 1. C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t of c e r t a i n departments is n o t separable. 2. I n c l u d i n g C i v i l Government. 3. Canada Y e a r b o o k , 1914, p . 5 6 2 . 4. I M d , 1915, p . 5 5 8 . 5. Ibid, 1916-17, p . 5 3 5 . M3LE 36 1XS EXPEHDIDBE OF PEO?MCIAL GOVEMEEM FOE ViffilotlS EEPAHEEITS liOVA S C O M A T e a r F o r e s t s A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c V.'orks I n t e r e s t C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t L e g i s l a t i o n H e a l t h L e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 9 1 3 8 4 , 9 7 4 2 7 1 , 1 2 2 4 5 5 , 8 8 3 9 7 , 3 9 7 1 5 , 9 3 2 1 9 1 4 (2 8 2 , 2 6 5 2 6 1 , 7 7 6 3 2 3 , 8 6 0 7 3 , 4 4 7 ' 1 2 , 4 4 4 1 9 1 5 (4 8 4 , 5 5 3 2 4 4 , 8 1 1 5 0 7 , 6 7 2 6 8 , 1 7 7 1 3 , 5 7 9 1 9 1 6 2 , 5 5 0 3 5 , 7 9 8 35 6,499 5 0 5 , 6 4 2 1 2 3 , 5 2 5 1 0 2 , 9 7 1 2 5 , 6 6 0 1 9 1 7 2 , 5 5 0 3 6 , 9 6 0 4 0 3 , 6 6 5 5 4 0 , 1 3 9 1 2 6 , 7 9 6 9 7 , 0 8 2 2 5 , 6 7 0 1 9 1 8 2 , 6 0 0 4 2 , 6 4 1 4 6 0 , 7 7 2 5 6 0 , 9 8 7 1 4 2 , 0 1 9 8 8 , 6 1 8 2 8 , 3 3 3 1919 2 , 6 0 0 5 8 , 4 6 1 8 7 1 , 7 1 7 5 9 9 , 2 1 1 1 6 8 , 7 7 3 1 0 4 , 9 0 0 3 2 , 4 1 0 1 9 2 0 3 , 0 5 0 4 6 , 1 1 6 1 , 1 3 4 , 6 9 6 6 1 6 , 6 4 3 2 1 5 , 4 5 5 1 4 2 , 8 6 5 3 , 6 1 8 3 6 , 0 9 5 1 9 2 1 3 , 0 5 0 7 2 , 7 3 3 1 , 1 2 3 , 9 3 3 8 6 1 , 5 6 4 2 6 2 , 1 9 5 1 5 5 , 1 5 5 3 , 0 5 8 5 8 , 2 4 3 1 9 2 2 3 , 1 1 2 .46,745 1 0 8 9 , 9 6 5 1 , 0 3 0 , 2 3 9 2 6 4 , 2 5 7 1 2 3 , 3 9 9 4 , 1 2 8 7 1 , 0 2 7 1 9 2 3 2 , 9 8 7 4 6 , 6 2 1 1 0 8 2 , 8 9 9 1 3 2 7 , 3 2 2 ' 2 6 8 , 6 6 9 1 2 0 , 2 9 1 4 4 , 7 6 3 9 7 , 0 1 6 1 9 2 4 3 , 0 5 0 5 4 , 6 7 0 1 3 9 6 , 8 4 3 1 3 8 3 , 6 1 6 2 9 9 , 8 4 4 1 3 2 , 9 3 8 - 4 , 5 1 8 4 4 , 3 6 0 1 9 2 5 3 , 0 5 0 6 8 , 8 4 3 1 5 1 0 , 4 8 2 1 6 3 9 , 0 5 7 2 9 7 , 5 7 6 1 5 7 , 6 6 6 3 , 1 6 0 6 9 , 6 2 9 1 9 2 6 8 8 , 5 2 5 1 8 1 9 , 2 0 9 1 7 8 7 , 2 4 3 3 9 2 , 9 8 8 1 2 7 , 2 5 3 4 3 , 0 8 7 1 3 6 , 3 8 3 1 9 2 7 1 9 2 8 2 0 0 2 , 4 7 1 1929 L12,337 1 8 4 , 1 2 6 1, 8 9 1 , 8 1 3 2 2 7 0 , 2 6 9 2 2 9 , 6 5 0 ' 1 ' 1 0 7 , 2 9 1 4 5 , 0 4 4 5 3 , 3 2 2 1 9 3 0 L97.793 2 2 7 , 9 1 7 2, 3 4 8 , 2 4 1 1 9 5 7 , 3 2 3 2 6 2 , 4 8 5 1 4 4 , 7 4 2 4 6 , 7 3 1 1 0 7 , 7 4 3 1 9 3 1 8 9 , 7 1 5 | 2 4 9 , 4 5 9 2, 1 3 1 , 4 7 9 2 0 8 3 , 9 3 7 2 6 8 , 4 8 1 1 1 ' 1 0 2 , 0 5 0 6 3 , 3 9 5 4 3 , 0 7 2 1. C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t n o t s e p a r a b l e i n some d e p a r t m e n t s . 2. C a n a d a Y e a r b o o k , 1914, p . 5 6 2 . 3. I b i d , 1915, p . 5 5 6 . 4 . I b i d , 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 , p . 5 3 4 . T A B H 3 B9 114 E X P E S B I O T B S 0 1 PBOTIHCIJU, G 0 V E B E 1 E B T F O B V A R I O U S J E P j a H H O T T S P R I H C E E D S A E D ISLAfID Y e a r 1 p F o r e s t s A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c W o r k s I n t e r e s t C i v i l G o v e r n m e n t L e g i s l a t i o n Health. L e g a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 9 1 3 1 6 , 5 5 5 7 8 , 3 4 3 3 9 , 2 3 3 1 1 , 1 3 9 2 6 , 2 3 2 1 9 1 4 1 ® 1 9 1 5 ' 4 2 2 , 9 4 2 1 1 2 , 0 9 6 3 8 , 6 2 9 1 1 , 6 8 0 2 9 , 0 7 7 1 9 , 3 1 4 6 8 , 5 2 2 4 1 , 0 8 2 1 0 , 0 2 7 2 7 , 9 4 7 1 9 1 6 1 5 , 0 9 9 6 3 , 0 6 5 4 5 , 8 9 9 2 7 , 3 5 1 1 7 , 7 2 5 751 3 0 , 4 1 2 1 9 1 7 1 2 , 6 6 0 6 9 , 0 0 7 4 6 , 7 9 9 2 4 , 8 1 4 1 8 , 8 2 2 1 , 6 1 0 3 0 , 2 6 2 1918 1 6 , 9 2 8 6 6 , 6 1 2 4 9 , 6 8 0 2 5 , 3 6 2 1 7 , 9 9 9 2 , 3 8 2 2 6 , 7 9 9 1 9 1 9 2 6 , 0 6 6 6 9 , 0 0 7 5 0 , 8 0 1 • 2 9 , 9 8 8 2 4 , 4 6 0 4 , 3 0 4 2 9 , 0 1 5 1 9 2 0 1 7 , 6 2 1 1 3 0 , 0 7 8 5 6 , 4 9 8 4 2 , 6 7 7 3 1 , 7 2 9 9 5 6 3 4 , 0 1 0 1 9 2 1 2 6 , 6 5 9 1 1 9 , 8 3 4 5 8 , 6 8 7 3 7 , 1 0 2 3 2 , 5 4 6 7 8 6 3 3 , 6 6 2 1 9 2 2 3 8 , 1 8 1 9 8 , 8 1 3 5 9 , 0 7 0 3 3 , 4 7 2 2 9 , 4 7 4 5 3 6 3 6 , 1 3 0 1 9 2 3 2 5 , 6 0 0 1 4 7 , 6 2 6 6 4 , 0 5 2 3 1 , 4 7 1 3 6 , 3 6 7 689 3 4 , 3 1 7 1 9 2 4 2 9 , 4 5 0 1 0 3 , 1 5 4 6 9 , 2 4 0 3 5 , 0 7 9 2 8 , 2 4 6 4 9 3 3 2 , 9 1 3 1 9 2 5 2 5 , 2 8 6 1 1 8 , 7 0 5 6 6 . 4 7 4 3 7 , 7 1 1 2 6 , 3 5 7 8 , 6 6 2 3 1 , 0 2 7 1 9 2 6 2 4 , 1 7 5 1 1 9 , 5 8 0 7 4 , 6 4 7 3 5 , 1 3 3 2 6 , 4 8 9 4 5 6 3 5 , 6 9 9 1 9 2 7 1928 7 4 , 7 3 0 1929 2 4 , 6 2 6 2 9 2 , 4 4 1 7 4 , 9 9 8 3 8 , 8 8 7 2 7 , 4 3 9 3 , 1 9 9 4 4 , 5 3 9 1 9 3 0 2 4 , 5 6 4 3 2 0 , 7 1 9 1 4 8 , 1 3 8 4 3 , 8 3 0 2 6 , 6 6 1 4 , 7 9 1 4 8 , 2 9 5 1 9 3 1 4 0 , 7 4 9 4 6 9 , 0 1 1 1 7 0 , 3 8 5 : 5 0 , 0 2 2 3 2 , 2 8 5 2 4 , 6 7 5 8 4 , 5 7 4 1 9 3 2 3 1 1 , 6 7 9 1 7 5 , 6 8 8 6 6 . 4 2 6 1 1 ' 1 9 3 3 | 2 7 9 , 2 8 9 2 0 7 , 3 6 6 ^ 6 8 . 3 2 4 ' 1 ' 1. P u b l i c A c c o u n t s , P r o v i n c e o f P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d . 2. C a n a d a Y e a r b o o k , 1 9 1 4 , p . 5 6 1 . 3. I b i d , 1 9 1 5 , p . 5 5 7 . 4 . I b i d , 1 9 1 6 - 1 7 , p . 5 3 3 . 115 TJffiLE C INDEX NUMBERS OP RETAIL PRICES,/' REITS Hffi COSTS OF SERVICES, 1913 to 1933 (1913=100) Year Total Index Cost of Living 1913 100 1*00 1914 101 *98 1915 103 ,97 1916 111 .90 • 1917 131 .76 1918 149 .67 1919 164 «61 1920 190 .53 1921 \1& 7 .60 1922 153 .65 1923 153 • 65 1924 150 »67 1925 152 .66 1926 153 .65 1927 151 .66 / 1928 151 e 66 1929 153 .65 1930 152 .66 1931 137 .73 1932 124.5 ,80 1933 118.9 «84 1934 120.7 1. 6ana&a; Yearbook, 1934-1935, page 870, (Computed to 1913 basis) TABLE A10 116 GROWTH IK TOTAL COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS BRITISH COLUMBIA Year Cost in Current Dollars ; Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 4,658,895 100*0 4, 658,895 . 100.0 1914 4,634,878 89.8 4,542,180 97.4 1915 3,917,446 84.0 3,799,923 81.5 1916 3,216,350 69.0 2,894,715 62.1 1917 3,237,664 69.5. 2,460,625 ' 52«9 1918 3,519,015 75.5 2,357,740 ; 50.7 1919 4,228,720 90.7 2,616,119 56.3 1920 5,365,180 115.1 2,843,545 61.0 1921 6,743,779. 144.7 4,046,267 86.8 1922 7,388,578 158.7 4,802,576 103.0 1923 7,183,760 154.3 4,669,444 . 100.1 1924 7,738,572 166.1 5,184,843 111«3 1925 7,863,088 168.7 5,189,638 111.4 1926 7,795,387 167.3 5,067,002 108.7 1927 8,640,854 182.4 5,702,964 122.4 1928 8,715,178 187.0 5,752,017 123.4 1929 10,585,571 227.2 6,870,621 147.5 1930 9,401,431 201.9 6,204,944 133,2 1931 9,519,938 204.0 6,949,555 149.1 1932 9,289,333 199.4 7,431,466 159.6 1933 8,691,497 7,300,857 156.0 1. (a) "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1931 (1913-30) (1)) Ioid, 1933, (1931-1933). Figures for all provinces given. (Statistics given "by school years) TABLE 15 " ' 117 GBOWTH II TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS ALBEBTA Year Cost id Current Dollars Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 8,684,186 100*0 , 8,684,186 : 100.0 1914 7,834,891 : 90.2 7,678,193 i 88.4 1915 7,965,470 91,7 7,726,506 88.9 1916 6,121,614 70.4 5,509,453 63.4 1917 6,595,562 75.9 5,012,627 57.7 19.18 7,496,691 86.3 . 5., 022,783 57.8 1919 8,805,529 .101.3 5,371,373 61.8 1920 10,644,329 - 122.0 " 5,641,494 ; 64.9 1921 12,134,188 139.7 7,280,513 83.8 1922 12,358,371 142»3 8,032,941 92.5 1923 11,863,567 136.6 7,711,319 88.7 19 24': 11,458,506 131.9 7,677,199 88.4 1925 10,826,790 124.6 7,145,681 .82.2 19-26 -11,280,112 129.6 7,332,073 84*4 1927 11,707,988 134*8- 7,727,250 88*9 1928 13,036,866 150.1 8,604,332 99.0 1929 14,396,549 165*7 9,357,757 107 i 7 1930 14,050,524 161.7 9,273,346 106.7 1931 12,122,346 139.5 ,8,849,313 101.9 1932 11,495,120 132.3 9,196,096 105.8 118 "TABLE 03 GROWTH IlM TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS SASKATCHEWAN Year Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1915 8,787,904 100.0 8,787,904 100.0 1914 9,072,296 105.2 8,890,850 101.1 1915 8,665,857 109.9 8,405,881 95.6 1916 9,792,018 111.4 8,812,816 100*2 1917 10,804,108 122.9 8^212j122 93*4 1918 : 9,477,085 107.8 6,349,647 72.2 1919 11,720,768 133.3: 7,149,668 81*3 1920 14,605,713 166.1 7,739,968 88.0 1921 15,605,800 177.5 9,363,480 106*5 1922 14,919,803 169.7 9,697,872 110.3 1923 .15,152,636 172.4 9,849,213 112.0 1924 14,761,168 167.9 9,889,983 112,5 1925 14,981,083 170.4 9,887,515 112 e 5 1926 15,500,477 176.3 10,075,310 114.6 1927 17,269,620 ' 19 6.5 11,397,949 129.7 1928 17,212,217 195.8 11,360,063 129.2 •1929 18,228,806 207.4 11,848,723 134.8 1950 18,405,527 . 209.4 11,147,516 126.8 1931 14,194,585 161.5 10,362,046 117.9 1952 11,389,604 <L^9«b 9,111,683 103.6 119 TABLE 15 " ' GROWTH Iff TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS • MABTTOBA Year Cost in Current Dollars : Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 5,056,795 100.0 5,036,795 100.0 1914 6,079,720 120.7 5,958,126 118.2 1915 7,118,898 143.3 • 6,905,331 137.0 1916 6,658,229 »X 5,992,406 118.9 1917 5,333,302 :105.8 4,053,310 80.4 1918 5,909,383 117*3. 3,959,287 78,. 6 1919 6,618,740 131.4 4,037,431 80.1 1920 , 8,827,092 175/2 4,678,359 92.8 1921 13,079,205 259.6 7,847,523 155.8 1922 13,564,824 269.1 7,817,136 155.2 1923 12,999,254 258.0 .8,449,515 167.7 1924 11,284,095 220,4 7,560,344 150.1 1925 10,671,328 211.8 7,043,076 ; 139.8 1926 9.993,961 196.4 6,496,075 128.9 1927 10,.249,47 6 203.4 6,764,654 134.3 1928 10,384,696 206.1 6,853,899 136.0 1929 10,406,305 206.6 . 6,764,098 154.2 1930 11.627,399 230.8 7, 674,083 152,3 1931 11,715,425 232.5 8,552,260 169.7 1932 9,491,846 188.6 7,592,477 150.7 1 9 3 3 ^ ^ 8,350,574 165.7 7,014,482 139.2 1. Report of Department of Education, Winnipeg, 1953. 120 TABLE 15 " ' GROWTH Iff TOTAL COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS OITARIO Year Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 15,268,291 100.0 15,268,291 " 100.0 1914 18,590,533 121.7 18,218,722 119.3 1915 17,049,244 111.6 16,537,367 103.0 1916 16,146,307 105.7 14,531,676 95,1 191? 16,855,431. -.110.3 12,810,128 83.9 1918 18,588,89 0 . 121.7 .12,454,556 81.5 1919: 22,647,443 •148.3 13,814,940 , 90.4 1920 30,626,435 200.5 16,232,011 106.3 1921 36,739,564 240,. 6 22,043,738/ 144.3 1922 41,416,804 2.71.2 26,920,923 176.3 1923 48,034,564 314.6 31,222,467 . 204.4 1924 48,©B0» 681 S94.9 S0jl?0,fe69 197.6 1925 45,655,613 299.0 30,132,705 19 7.3 1926 46,495,220 304.5 30,221,89 3 197.9 1927 48,510,215 317.7 " 32,016,742 209.6 1928 52,389,674 343.1 34,577,184; 226.4 1929 55,006,999 360.2 35,754,549 234.1 1930 61,975,091 405.9 40,903,560 267.8 1931 57,434,8 30 376.1 41,927,426 274.6 1932 50,571,034 335.1 . 40,456,827 . •264.9 121 ' TABLE G6 GROWTH IS TOTAL COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS QUEBEC . ' ' v Year Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 9,225,771 100.0 9,225,771 100.0 1914 8,896,989 9 6.4 8,719,049 94.5 1915 11,463:, 623 124.2 11,129,714 120.6 1916 12,416,607 134.5 ; 11,175,046 121.1 1917 13', 956,220 151,2 10,606,727 114.9 1918 14,492,870 156.9 9,703,523 105.1 1919 16,844,684 182.5 10,275,257 111.3 1920 19,201,405 208.1 10,176,745 110.3 1921 22,122,979 239.8 13,273,787 143.5 1922 23,972,197 259.8 15,581,928 168.8 1923 25,396,268 275.2 16,507,574 178,9 1924 27,917,738 302.6 . 18,730,686 203,0 X9 i . -,28,980^568 '314.1 19,127,175 207.3 1926 28,816,440 312.3 18,730,686 203.0 1927 29,807,607 323.1 19,675,020 213,2 1928 30,881,878 334.7 20,382,039 220.9 1929 32,917,489 356.8 21,396,368 231.8 1930 34.562,530 374.6 22,811,270 247.2 1931 35,155,024 581,0 25,6 63 ,.168 278.1 1932 34,483,498 373.7 27,58 6,798 298.3 *Survey of Education, page 87-89 Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1931 TABLE 07 122 "GROuTH IS TOTAL COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS HEW BHUHShICK Tear Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1915 Dollars Index 1913 942,203 100,0 942,2.05 100.0 1914 99 6,683 105.7 9 66,749 102,6 1915 1,059,811 112.8 1,027,917 109.0 1916 1,146,883 121,7 1,032,195 109.5 1917 1,145,395 121.5 755,9 51 80,2 1918 1,314,746 150.9 880,880 93.4 1919 : 1.530,256 ;161.3 933,456- 99.0 1920 1,758,572 186.6 932,041 99 * 0 1921 2,278,622 241.8' 1,367,175 145,1 1922 2,657,046 282.0 1,727,080 18 *5 * 5 1923 2,674,377 283.8 1,758,545 184.4 1924 2,720,227 •288,7 1,822,552 193.2 1925 3,348,374 355,4 2,209,927 234.5 1926 2,901,529 "5 07-. 9 1,885,874 200.1 1927 3,071,315 325,9 2,-027,068 ; 215.1 1928 3,022,115 320.7 1,994,596 210.6 1929 3,068,670 «7 1,994,636 211.6 1930 3,113,948 350.5 ' 2,055,206 218.0 1931 3,207,477 540.4, 2,341,458 248,5 1932 3,122,059 551.3 2,497,647 265.0 19 33 2,987,060* ^ ^ 317,0 2,509,130 266.3 * Survey of Education, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1951 Page 87-89. • 1. Report of Department of Education, Fredericton, 1935. 125 TABLE c e * GROWTH IK. TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS HOTA SCOTIA Tear Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1915 Dollars Index 1913 1,487,590 100.0 1,487,590 100.0 1914 1,556,618 104.6 1,525,476 102.5 1915 1,642,114 110.4 1,592,851 107.0 1916 1,620,154 108.9 1,458,139 98,2 1917 * 1,753,726 117.9 1,332,832 89.6 1918 1,872,444 125.8 1,254,537 84.3 1919 2,109,909 141.8 1,287,044 86.5 1920 2,702,673 181.7 1,432,417 96.3 1921 3,442,546 231,4 2,066,128 i 138.9 1922 3,646j570 245.1 2,370,271 159.3 1923 3,487,937 234.4 2,267,159 152.4 1924 3,591,338 »4L 2,406,19 6 161.7 1925 3,704,940 249.0 2,445,260 164.4 1926 3,570,626 239,9 2,320,907 156.0 1927 3,605,401 242.3 2,379,565 159.9 1928 3,781,215 254.2 2,495,602 167.8 1929 3,948,230 265.4 o n /" r frcn (i, Dob, ODU 172.5 19 30 262.8 2,620,217 176.2 1951 4,194,295 2S1.9 3,061,835 205.8 1932 4,292,217 288.5 3,433,774 230.8 1933 4> 290,412 P R P. A 3,603,946 ' 242.2 * Survey of Education, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1951 Page 87-89 J 124 TABLE C9 * GEOWTH IH TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Year Cost in Current Dollars Index Cost in 1913 Dollars Index 1913 207,606 100.0 207,606 ' 100.0 1914 217,993 105.0 213,633 102.9 1915 259,671 : 125.0 251,881 2.21«2 1916 244,572 117.8 220,115 106.2 1917 251,230 121.0 190,935 91.9 1918 : 268,547 129.3 179,926 86.6 1919 285,960 137.7 174,436 84.0 1920 342,648 116.9: 181,603 87.4 1921 396,778 142.9 238,067 114.6 1922 428,869 206.5 278,765 134.2 1923 496,550 239.1 322,758 155.4 1924 449,847, 216.2 301,397 145.1 1925 452 , 699 218.0 298.781 143.9 1926 . 454,671 219.0 295,536 142,3 1927 458,477 220.8 302,595 145.7 1928 473,041 227.8 312,207 150.3 1929 485,138 233.7 315,340 151.9 1930 49 6,059 238.9 327,399 157.7 19 31 510,952 246.1 372,995 179.6 1932 533,308 208.7 426,646 205,5 1933 526,921 253.8 442,614 2 13 « 2 * Survey of Education, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, 1931 Page 87-89 TABLE G-8 125 CHANGES 11 POPULATION AND COST PEE HEAD OP POPULATION, 1915 TO 1954 BRITISH COLUMBIA Year Population (Thousands*) ; Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1915 Dollars lumber Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1915 424 100.0 10.98 100.0 10.98 100.0 ' 1914 ' 442 104.2 : 10.48 95.4 10.27 93.5 1915 450 106.1 8.70 1 79.2 8.43 76.7 1916 456 107.5 . 7,p5 64i2 6.34 57.7 1917 464 109.4 6.98 63.5 5.30 48.2 1918 474 " 111.8 7.42 67.5 4.-9 7 o 2 1919 488 115.1 8.66 78.8 5.28 48.2 1920 507 119.5 10.58 96,3 5.60 51,0 1921 524,582' 125.9 12.85 117.0 7.71 70.2 . 1922 541 127.6 13.65 124.3 8.87 80.7 1925 555 130.9 12.94 117.8 8.41 76.5 1924 571 134.6 13,55 123.4 : 9.07 82,6 1925 588 138.6 13.57. 121.7 8,82 80.3 1926 606 142.9 : 12,86 ; 117.1 8.35 76.0 1927 625 145.9 : 15.86 126.2 . 9.14 83.2 1928 641 151.1 13.59 123.7 8.96 81.6 1929 659 1«5 0 9 2 16.06 146.2 : 10.43 94.9 1950 676 159.4... 13.90 116.5 9.17 83.5 1951 694,265" 165.7 13.71 124.7 9,99 90.9 1952 704(2) 166.0 12.34 . 112.3 9.87 89.9 1955 712 (2). 167.9 1954 725 (2) 170.9 1, Canada Yearbook, 1954-55, p.164. (Estimated, subject to 2> Mimeographed sheet, Bureau of Statistics. correction) *. These are exact numbers. TABLE 1)2 126 CHANG-ES II POPULATION AND COST PEE HEAD OP POPULATION, 1913 TO 1934 ALBEETA Year Population (Thousands* j ; Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 429 100*0 20.24 100*0 20*24 100.0 1914 459 106.9 17.06 842 . 16>72 82.5 1915 480 111.6 16,59 819 16.09 779*4 1916 49 6. 113.3 12.34 609 11.11 54.8 1917 508 113,7 12,98 641 9.86 48*7 1918 522 121.6 14.36 709 9.62 47.5 1919 541 126.1 16.27 803 9.92 49.0, 1920 565 151.7 18.83 :. 930 9.98 49.3 1921 588,454° 137.1 20*62 1.018 12.37 61.1 1922 592 137,9 20*87 1.031 13,57 67.0 1923 593 138.2 20.00 : 988 13*00 64,2 1924 597 139.1 19.19 948 12.86 63,5 1925 ' 602 140,3; v' 17.98 888 11,87 58.7 1926 608 141.7 18.55 916 12,06 59.5 1927 633 147.5 18.49 913 .- 12.20 60.2 1928 658 153.3 19.81 978 13.07 64.5 1929 684 159.4 21.04 1.039 13*68 67.5 1930 708 165.2 19.84 980 13.09 64.6 1931 731,605'" 170.3 16,56 818 12.09 59,7 1932 740 172.4 15.53 767 12*42 61,3 1933 712 165.9 1934 725 169.9 * These are exact numbers. TABLE D3 127 CHANGES Iff POPULATION AND COST PES HEAD OP POPULATION, 1913 TO 1934 ; SASKATCHEWAN Population Cost per head of population Year (Thousands*} Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 563 100.0 15.60 100.0 15.60 100.0 1914 : 601 106.7 15.09 96.7 14.69 94.1 1915 628 111.5 13.79 88.4 13.38 85.8 1916 648 116.8 15.11 96.8 13.60 87.1 1917 662 117.5 16.32 •104.6 12.40 79.5 1918 678 120.4 13.79 88.4 9.24 59.2 1919 700 124» 3 16.74 107.3 10.21 65.4 1920 729 125.9 20.03 128.3 10.62 68.1 1921 757,510 134,5 20.60 132.0 12.36 79.2 1922 : 769 : 136.5 19.40 124.3 12.62 80.9 1923 778 138.1 19.47 124.8 12.66 : 81.1 1924 - 791 140.4 18.66 119.6 12.50 80.1 1925 806 143.1 y 18.58 119.0 12.26 78.6 1926 821 145.8 18.87 120.9 12.27 78.6 1927 841 149.3 20.53 131.6 13.55 8 6.8 1928 862 153.1 19.96 127.9 13.17 84*4 1929 883 156.8 20.64 132.3 13.42 86.0 . 1930 903 160.3 20.38 130.6 . 13.45 86.8 1931 921,785' 163.7 15,39 98.6 11.23 71.9 1932 971 172.4 11.72 75.1 9.38 60.1 19 33 1934 951 966 168.9 171.5 * These are exact numbers. TABLE 1)2 128 CHANGES IN POPULATION AND COST PER HEAD OF POPULATION, 1915 TO 1934 MANITOBA . Tear Population (Thousands*) Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1915 505 100.0 9.97 100.0 9.97 100.0 1914 530 104.9 11.47 115.0 11.24 112.7 1915 545 107.9 13.06 130.9 12.67 137.1 1916 . 054 109.6 12.01 120.3 10.81 108.4 1917 558 110*4 9.55 95.8 7.26 72.8 1918 565 111.8 10.45 104.8 7.00 • 70.2 1919 577 114J2 11.47 115*0 7.00 70.2 1920 594 117* 6 . 14.86 •-149.0 7.88 79.0 1921 610,118' : 120.8 21.10 211.6 12.66 126.9 1922 616 121.9 22002 230.9 14.31 143.4 1923 619 122.5 21.00 210.6 13.65 136.9 1924 625 123.7 18.05 181.0 11.09 .112,2 1925 632 125.1 16.88 : 169,3 11.14 111.7 1926 639 126.5 15.64 156.8 10.17 102,0 1927 651 128.9 15.74 157.8 10.39 104.2 1928 664 131.4 15.63 156.8 . 10.32 103.5 1929 677 155.0 15.37 154.2 9.99 100,2 1930 689 156.4 16.89 169,4 11.15 111*8 1931 700,159* 136.6 16.75 ^ 167.8 12.21 122.4 1932 705 139.6 15.46 155.0 10.77 108.0 1933 722 142.9 11.56 115.8 9.71 97.4 1934 731 144.7 * These are exact numbers. TABLE 1)2 129 C H M G E S IN POPULATION AND COST PER HEAD OF POPULATIONs 1915 TO 1934 ONTARIO , Year Population (Thousands*) Cost per head of population Gurrent Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 19.13 2,639 100.0 . 5.78 100.0 5.78 100.0 1914 2,705 102.5 6.87 118.8 6.73 116.4 1915 2,724 103.2 6.25 108,1 6.06 104,8 1916 2,713 102.8 5.95 102.9 (3 ® 92.5 1917 2,724 103.2 6,18 106.9 4.70 81.3 1918 2,744 103.9 6.77, 117.1 4,54 78.5 1919 2,789 105.6 8.12. 140.5 4,95 85,6 1920 2,863 ' 108.5 • 10.69 184,9 5,67 98,1 1921 2,933,662.1 111.1 12.52 216.6 7.51 129.9 1922 2,980 112.9 13.89 223,0 9,03 156.2 1923 3,013 114,1 15.94 : 274.0 10.36 179.2 1924 3,059 115.9 14.72 254.6 9*86 170.6 1925 3,111 117.8 14.67 253.8 9,68 165.7 1926 3,164 119.8 14.69 254.1 9.55 180.8 1927 3,219 121.9 15,06" 260.5 9.94 171,9 1928 3,278 124.3 15,98 276.4 10.55 180.8 1929 3,334 126.3 16.49 285.3 10.72 185.4 1930 3,386 128.3 18.30 316,6 12.08 208.9 1931 3,431,683=! 130.0 16.73 287.5 12.21 211.2 1932 3,459 131.0 14i 62 252.9 11.70 202.4 1933 3,524 133.5 1934 3,566 135.1 * These are exact numbers. 150 TABLE D6 CHANGES II POPULATION -AND COST PEE HEAD OF POPULATION, 1915 TO 1934 Year 1 Population (Thousands*.) 'cf.W/JJJ^OJV Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1915 2,096 100.0 4.34 100.0 4.34 100.0 1914 2,148 102.4 4,14 95,3 4.05 93.5 1915 2,162 105.1 5.30 122.1 5.14 118.4 1916 2,154 102.7 5.76 132.7 5.18 119.3 1917 2,169 .103,4 6.43 148.1 4.88 112.4 1918 2,191 104.5 6.61 112.3 4.42 101.8 1919 2,234 106.5 7.54 173.7 4.59 105.7 1920 2,299 109.6 8.35 192.3 4.42 101.8 1921 S* 2,360,665' 112.6 9.57 215.9 5,62 129.4 1922 2,409 114.4 9.53 219,5 6.19 142.6, 1925 : 2,446 116.6 10.38 2 91 6.74 ' 155.3 1924 2,495 119.0 11.19 217.8 7.49 172.5 1925 2,549 121.6 11.36 261.7 7. 69 177.1 1926 2,603 124,1 11.07 255.0 7.19 165,6 1927 2,657 126.7 10*84 " 249.7 7.15 164.7 1928 2,715 129.5 11.37 261.9 7.50 172.8 1929 2,772 132.2 1187 275.5 7.72 177,8 19 30 2,825 154,7 12,23 281.7 8.07. 185.9 1931 2,874,255* 137.1 12.23 281.7 8.92 205,5 1932 2,904 138.5 11.87 271.1 9.50 218.8 1933 2,970 141.7 1934 3,022 144.3 * These are exact numbers. TABLE 1)2 131 CHANGES IN POPULATION AND COST PEE HEAD OF POPULATION, 1913 TO 1934 NEff BRUNSWICK Year Population (Thousands*) Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 363 100.0 2.57 100.0 2.57 100.0 1914 371 102.2 2.68 104.2 2,62 101.9 1915 371 102.2 2.85 110.9 2.76 107.3 1916 368 101.3 3.11 121.0 2.79 108.5 1917 368 101.3 3.11 121.0 2.36 91.8 1918 ; 369 101.6 3.56 138.5 2.38 92.6 1919 373 102.7 4.10 159.5 2.50 97.2 1920 381 104.9 4.61 ! 179.3 2*44 94.9 1921 387,876* 106,8 5.84 ; 227.2 3.50 136.1 1922 389 107.1 6,83 265.7 4.43 172.3 1923 389 107.1 6,87 263.4 '4*46- 173.5 1924 391 107.7 : 6,93. 269.6 4.64 180,5 1925 393 108.2 8.52 ; 331.5 5.62 : 218,6 1926 396 109.0 7.32 284.8 4.75 184,8 1927 398 109.6 7,71 300.0 5,08 197.6 1928 ' 401 110.4 7* 53 296.8 ; 4,96 192.9 1929 404 111.2 7.59 295.3 4.93 191.8 1930 406 111.7 7.66 298*0 5.05 196.5 1931 408,219* 112.4 7.85 305.4 5.73 222.9 1932 409 112.6 7.63 29 6,6 6.10 237,4 1933 420 112.9 7.11 276.6 5.97 232.4 1934 426 114.6 * These are exact numbers. TABLE D8 132 CHANGES IS POPULATION AND COST PEE HEAD OP POPULATION, 1913 TO 1934 NOTA SCOTIA | Population Cost per head oi' population Year (Thousands*) Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 504 100.0 2.93 100.0 2.93 100.0 1914 512 101.5 3.04 103.7 2.97 101.3 1915 511 101.3 3.21 109.5 3.11 106.1 1916 505 100.1 3*20 109.2 2.88 98.2 1917 : 503 99.8 3.48 118.7 2.64 90.1 1918 502 99.6 3.73 127.3 2,49 84.9 1919 507 100.5 4.16 141.9 2.53 86.3 1920 516 102.3 5.21 177.8 2,76 94.2 1921 523,837* 103.9, 6*57 224.2 3.94 134.4 1922 522 103.5 6.98 238.2 4.53 154. 6 1923 518 102.7 6.73 229, 6 4.37 149.1 1924 516 102.3 6.96 237.5 4.66 159.0 1925 515 102.1 7.19 245.3 4.74 161.7 1926 515 102.1 6.93 236.5 4.50 153,5 1927 515 102.1 7.00" 238.9 4.62 157,6 1928 515 102>1 7.34 250.5 4.84 165.1 1929 515 102.1 rj n r' < . ofa 261.4 4.97 169.6 1930 514 101.9 7.72 263.4 . 5.09 173,7 19 31 512,846* 101.7 8.17 278.8 5.96 203.4 1932 513 101.7 8.36 285.3 6.69 228.2 1933 522 103.5 8.22 280.5 6.90 235.7 1934 526 104.3 i * The a re exact imm'berS'. Tear 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 ; 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 * The TABLE D9 133 CHANGES II POPULATION M D COST PEE POPULATION, 1913 TO 1934 PBINCE EDWARD ISLAND HEAD 01 Population {Thousands*} Number Index Cost per head of population Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Dollars Index Dollars Index 94 95 94 92 90 89 89 89 88,615* 89 87 86 86 87 87 88 88 .88 88,038* 88 89 89 100.0 101.0 100.0 97.8 95.7 94.6 94.6 94.6 94,2 94.6 92.5 91.4 91.4 92.5 92.5 93.6 93.6 93,6 93.6 93.6; 94.6 94.6 2.20 2.29 2.76 2.65 2.79 3 . 0 1 rz o f O.tUX 3.84 4.36 4.81 5.70 5.23 5.26 5.22 5.26 5.3 7 5.51 5,63 5.80 6.06' 5.92 100.0 104.0 125.4 120.4 126.8 136.8 145.9 174.5 198.1 218.6 259.0 237.7 239.0 7 • 2 239.0 224.0' 250.4 255.9 263.6 275.4 269.0 2.20 2.24 2.67 2.38 2.12 2..01 1.95 2.03 2.61 3.12 3.70 3.50 3.47 3.39 3.47 3.54 3.58 3.71 4,23 4.85 4.97 100.0 101.8 121.3 108.1 96 * 3 91.3 88.6 92.2 118.6 141.8 168.1 154.5 157.7 154.0 157.7 160.9 162.7 168.6 192.2 220.3 226.0 e are exact numbers. PBBGIjM'aG-E : ® M G E S I I POPU IKD EIH0LMK1TO SAS4A!£GHEMiAIL-'7 . Enrolment Populat Percentage ?5T r "T-^-F-MHI—•——HP ri+ .rji fere err .LiJ-fci^  Pe rcexr PERCELTTA&E CHANGES Iff POPULATION CftART 07 NEW BSDifSWICE -<-H-::3q3J . <t« • GiLUtx 08 I- rfi-r p ' rri 1 ' £ ~f =4—i'H*^  I rl Enrolrnen-AND e: :,.'hQ3La»)l]Fi.' rfH 1 fri - M NOVA SCOTIA GEARS C$ Enrolment 137 £ Tcipula isiA^p Dnrplment rH- ' rf-f. • r • Population - 4 $ ! ™ c fflff — -ft-i-y x&fx= 44-r c. r H red . rf-i r" — v TABLE El 138 CHANGES II ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE OP POPULATION BRITISH COLUMBIA Year Enrolment Population . , (Thousands, except *) percentage of Population 1913 57s384 424 13.5 1914 61,957 442 14.0 1915 64,264 450 14*2 1916 64,264 45 6 14.1 1917 65,118 464 14.0 1918 67,517 474 14.2 1919 72,006 488' 14.7 1920 79 5243 507 15.6 1921 85,950 ; 525,882* 16.3 1922 91,919 541 16.9 1923 94,888 555 17.0 1924 •96,204 571 16*8 1925 97,954 588 16.6 1926 101,688 606 16.*7 1927 105,008 623 16.8 1928 108,179 641 ' 16.8 1929 109,558 659 16*6 1930 111,017 676 16*4 1931 113,914 694,263* 16.4 1932 115,919 ^  ^ ' 704 { 2 ) 16.4 1933 (3] 116,8161 ' 712 ( 2 ) 16.4 1934 1 ? 1 725 ^ ' 1. "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1931, p.17. 2* Canada Yearbook, 1934-35, p.164 - (Estimated, subject to later correction.} 3* "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", 1933, p.17. TABLE K3 139 CHANGES IN EiffiOLMENT AS A PERCENTABE OP POPULATION &1BERTA Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of Population 1913 79,909 429 18.6 1914 89,910 459 19.5 1915 97,286 480 20.2 1916 99,201 496 20.0 1917 107,727 508 21® 3 1918 111,109 522 21.2 1919 121,567 541 22.4 1920 135,750 565 24.0 1921 C 124,328 588, 454* 1922 142,902 592 24.1 1923 148,045 593 24.9 1924 147,373 597 24.6 1925 1 4 7 , 7 9 6 ^ ' 602 24.5 1926 150,526 608 26.4 1927 . 154,380 633 24.3 1928 159,086 658 24.1 1929 164,850 684 24.1 1930 168,076 . 708 23.7 1931 168,730 731, 605* 23.0 1932 170,795 740 23.0 1933 168,992 757 2.2.3 1934 770 1* 6 months. 2. Including private schools* TABLE G-8 140 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE OP POPULATION SASKATCHEWAN T e a r Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of population 1913 101,463 563 18.0 1914 113,985 601 18.9 1915 122,862 628 19.5 1916 129,439 648 19.9 1917 142,617 662 21 • 5 1918 151,326 678 22.3 1919 164,219 700 23.-4 1920 174,925 729 . 23.9 1921 184,871 757,510* 24.4 1922 183,935 769 23.9 1923 194,313 778 24,9 1924 204,154 791 25.8 1925 206,595 806 25.6 1926 213,404 821 25.9 1927 218,560 841 25 * 9 1928 223,049 862 25.8 1929 227,263 883 25 9 7 1930 228,434 903 25 o 2 1931 230,492 921,785 26.0 1932 229,193 971 23.6 1933 226,007 951 23.7 1934 966 TABLE G-8 141 CHANGES IN E M O L M E N T AS A PERCENTAGE CP POPULATION MANITOBA Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of Population 1915 83,679 505 16*7 1914 93,954 530 17.7 1915 100,963 545 18.5 1916 103;796 554 18.7 1917 106,588 558 19.1 1918 109,925 565 19.4 1919 114,662 577' 19.8 1920 125,452 594 20.7 1921 129,015 610,118* 21.1 1922 136,876 616 22* 2 1925 142,369 619 2 2«9 1924 144,491 625 2«D o X 1925 145,854 632 23.0 1926 148,279 659 2 3 » 2 19 27 148,763 "651 22* 8 1928 150,883 664 22* 7 1929 150j517 • 677 22«2 19.30 151,846 689 22.0 1951 153,553 700,139* 2 X & 9 1952 151,927 705 21.5 1933 150,070 722 20.7 1934 147,253 751 20.1 TABLE G-8 142 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE ONTARIO OF POPULATION Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of Population 1913 542,822 2,639 20.6 1914 561,927 2,705 20*7 1915 - 569,030 2,724 20.8 1916 560,340 2,713 20*6 1917 561,865 2,724 20.6 1918 564,655 2,744 20.5 1919 584,724 2,789 20.9 1920 2,863 1921 (i 604,923 * 2,9 33,662* 20.62 1922 632,123 2,980 21* 1923 654,893 3,013 21.73 1924 667,922 3,059 21.89 1925 671,311 3,111 21.57 1926 692,653 3,164 21.89 1927 703,614 3,219 21.85 1928 720,625 3,278 / 21.98 1929 731,258 3,334 21.93 1930 738,477 3,386 21.80 1931 : 756,812 3,431,683* 22.05 1932 772,388 3,459 22.32 1933 : 778,972 3,524 22.10 1934 3,566 1. In order to compare statistics of elementary and secondary school enrolment, it has "been necessary to forward hy one year total enrolment figures. (In the "Annual Survey of Ed-ucation in Canada") TABLE G-8 143 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE IN POPULATION QUEBEC Tear Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *J Percentage of Population 1913 411,784 2,096 19.6 1914 435,895 2,148 20.2 1915 448,08 7 2,162 - 20.7 1916 464,447 2,154 21.5 1917 463,390 2,169 21.3 1918 467,508 2,191 21.3 1919 486,201 2,234 21.7 1920 295,887 2 $ 29 9 21.5 1921 512,651 2,360,665* 21.7 1922 530,705 2,409 22.0 1923 537,406 2,446 21.9 1924 541,485 2,495 21.7 1925 548,519 2,549 21.4 1926 552,832 2,603 £1«£ 1927 557,732 2,657 20.9 1928 565,845 2,715 20.8 1929 577,373 2,772 - 20.8 1930 583,684 2,825 20.3 1931 599,942 2,874,255* 20.8 1932 618,597 2,904 21.30 1933 2,970 = 1934 3,022 TABLE G-8 144 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE IN POPULATION NEW BRUNSWICK Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of population 1913 69,663 363 19.1 1914 70,622 371 19.0 1915 72,013 371 19.4 1916 . 73,007 368 19.8 1917 71,981 368 19.5 1918 71,782 369 19.4 ,1919 71,029 373 19.0 1920 .72,988 381 19.1 1921 73,712 377,876* • 5 1922 77,774 389 . 19.9 1923 78,753 389 20.2 .1924 79,265 391 20.2 1925 80,145 393 .20.3 1926 80,769 396 20.3 1927 80,690 398 22.7 1928 82,170 401 20.4 1929 83,580 404 20.6 1930 85,635 406 20.1 1931 86,355 408,219* 21.1 1932 .87,648 409 21» 1933 90,888 420 21.64 1934 426 TABLE G-8 145 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AS A PERCENTAGE IN POPULATION NG¥A SCOTIA Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except *) Percentage of Population 1913 105,269 504 20.8 1914 106,351 512 20.7 1915 107,768 511 21.0 1916 109,189 505 21.6 1917 109,032 503 21.6 1918 108,097 502 21.5 1919 106,982 507 21.1 1920 108,096 516 20.9 1921 109,483 523,837* . 20.9 1922 114,458 518 22.0 1923 114,459 528 22.8 1924 111,594 516 21.6 1925 112,352 515 21.8 1926 112,391 515 21.8 1927 112,556 515 21.8 1928 112,898 515 21.8 1929 113,309 515 22,0 1930 113,860 514 22.1 1931 115,511 512,846* . » 5 1932 116,041 513 22.62 1933 117,238 522 22.45 1934 526 TABLE El 146 CHANGES IN ENROIAIENT AS A PERCENTAGE IN POPULATION PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Year Enrolment Population (Thousands, except * j Percentage of Population 1915 17,555 94 18.6 1914 18,069 95 19.0 1915 18,402 94 19.5 1916 18,362 92 19.9 1917 18,190 90 20.2 1918 17,861 89 20.0 1919 17,587 89 19.7 1920 : 17,354 89 19.5 1921 17,510 88,615* 19.7 1922 18,325 89 20*5 1923 17,742 87 20.3 1924 17,281 86 20.0 1925 17,427 86 20,2 1926 17,324 87 19.9 1927 17,210 87 19.7 1928 17,214 88 19,5 1929 17,180 88 19.5 1950 17,277 88 19.6 1931 17,506 88,038* 19.8 1932 17,846 88 20*27 1933 18,247 89 20.50. 1934 8.9 CHART D4 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS Thousands of Pupils Elementary Secondary Scl&ola Sclioo-PESCIITAGE CHART TABLE El 155 C H M G E S IN EMQLME]iT MB COST PIE PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 BRITISH COLUMBIA Year E n r o l m e n t ^ Cost per pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars •iftmib© r Index Dollars Index Dollars : Index 1913 57,384 100.0 81.18 100.0 81*18 100.0 1914 61,957 107.9 74.80 9 S 9 1 73.30 90.2 1915 64,264 Ilia 9 60.95 75.0 59.12 72.8 1916 64,570 112.5 49.81 61.4 44*83 5*3«2 1917 65,118 113.4 49.71 61.2 37* 78 46.5 1918 67,516 117.6 : 52.12 64.2 i 25.00 30.7 1919 72,006 125.4 : 58.72 72.3 . 35.82 44*1 1920 79,243 138.0 , 67.70 83*4 ; 35.88 44.1 1921 85,950 149.7 : 78.45 96.6 47.07 57.9 1922 ; 91,919 160.1 80.38 99.0 52.25 64.3 1923 94,888 165.3 ; 75.70 ; 93.2 49.21 60.6 1924 96,204 167 * 6 80.43 : 99.1 53.89 66.5 1925 97,954 170.6 ; 80.27 ; 98.9 52.98 65.2 1926 101,688 177.2 ' "•76.65 94.4 . 49.82 61 * 3 1927 105,008 182.9 j 82.28 ^ .101.0 54.30 66.8 1928 108,179 188.5 ^ 80.57 99.2 53*18 55.5 1929 109,558 190.9 ; 97.43 120.0 63.33 78.1 1930 111,017 193.4 84.68 : 104.3 55.89 68.8 1931 113,914 198.5 83*57 102,9 61.01 75.1 1932 115p919 202.0 80.13 CD 64.10 78.9 1933 116,816 203.5 74.40 91.7 62.50 76.9 1934 115,792 201.7 1. Annual Survey of Education in Canada, 1933, p.17. TABLE G-8 156 CHANGES IK ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 ALBERTA Year Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 79,909 100.0 108.68 100.0 108.68 100.0 1914 89,910 112.5 87.14 80.1 85,40 78.5 1915 97,286 ; 1 2 1 . 7 81.88 75.3 79.42 73,0 1916 99,201 124,1 61,71 56*3 55.54 51.1 1917 107,727 134.8 61 • 22 56.3 46.53 42.8 1918 111,109 :139.0 67.47 62.0 45.20 41*6 1919 121,567 152*1 72.43 66.6 44* 18 : 40.6 1920 135,750 169.9 78.41 7 2«X 41.56 38.2 1921*1 I24,328 155.6 97.60 89.8 58.56 38.2 1922 142,902 178,8 86.48 79.5 56« 51.7 1923 148,045 185.1 80,13 73.7 52.08 47.9 _ 1924 147,373 184.4 77,75 71.5 52.09 47.9 1925 147,796 185.0 73.25 67.4 48.35 44.5 1926 150,596 188.4 74.90 68.9 50.05 46.0 1927 154,380 193.2 75*84 69.8 ; 50.05 46.5 1928 159,086 199.1 81.95 75.4 54.09 .49*7 1929 164,850 206.3 87.33 80.3 56.76 52.2 1930 168,076 210.3 83,60 76.9 55,18 50.7 1931 L68,730 211.1 71.84 66.1 5.2.44 48.2 1932 170,795 213.7 67.30 61.9 53.40 49.1 1. 6 months. TIDLS E3 157 CHANGES II EHRGLiiElT M D COST PES PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 sASEAimsmm Year Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Numbe r Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 101,463 100„0 86.61 100.0 86.61 100.0 1914 113,985 112.3 79.59 91.9 78.00 90.0 1915 122,862 121.0 70.53 81.4 : 68,41 78.9 1916 129,439 127.5 75.65 87.3 68.09 78.6 1917 142,617 140.5 75.76 ' 87.4 57.58 66.4 1918 151,326 149.1 62.63 72.3 41.96 ; 48*4 1919 164,219 161.8 71.37 82.3 43.54 50.2 1920 174,925 172.4 . 83.49 96.4 44.25 51.0 1921 184,871 182.2 84.41 97.4 50.65 . 58.4 1922 183,935 181.2 811.11 95.6 . 52.72 60.8 1923 194,313 181.6 77.98 '90.0 50.69 58.5 1924 204,154 201.2 72.30 83.5 48.44 55.9 1925 206,595 : 203.6 72.51 83.7 47.86 55.2 1926 213,404 210.3 72.63 83.8 47.21 54.5 1927 218»560 215.4 79.02 . 91.2 52.15 60.2 1928 223,049 219.8 77.17 89.1 50.93 58.8 1929 227,263 »9 80.21 92.6 52.14 60.0 1930 228,434 ® 1 80.57 93.0 53.18 61.4 1931 230,492 227.1 61.58 71.1 44.95 51.9 1932 229,193 225.8 49.69 57,4 39.75 45.9 1933 226,007 212.8 TABLE G-8 158 CHANGES IN ENROLMENT AND COST PEE PUPIL, 1913 1934 MANITOBA Year Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 •83,679 100.0 60.19 100.0 60.19 100.0 1914 93,954 XX 2 o 2 64.71 107,5 63.42 105.3 1915 100,963 120.7 70,51 117.1 68*39 113.6 1916 103,796 124*0 64.15 106.5 57,74 95.9 1917 106,588 127.4 50.04 83.1 38,03 63.1 1918 109,925 131.4 ^ 53.76 89.3 36.02 59,8 1919 114,662 137.0 57.72 95.9 35,21 58.4 1920 123,452 147,5 , 71.50 118.8 37.90 62.9 1921 129,015 154.2 101.38 168,4 60.82 101,0 1922 136,876 163.6 99.10 164.6 : 64,42 107,0 1923 142,369 170.1 91.31 151,7 59.35 98,6 1924 144,491 172.7 78.10 129,7 86,9 1925 145,834. 174.3 73.17 121,5 48.29 " 80.2 1926 148,279 177.2 67.40 111.9 43.81 72,7 1927 148,763 177.8 68.90 114,4 45.47 -73.8 1928 150,883 180.3 68.83 114,3 45.43 75.4 1929 150,517 179.9 69.14 114.8 44,94 74.6 1930 151,846 181.5 76.5 7 127,2 . 50.54 83.9 1931 153,553 , 183.5 76.30• 126.7 55,70 92.5 1932 151,927 181.6 62.48 103.8 49.98 83.0 1933 150,070 179.3 55.64 * 92,4 46,64 77.4 1934 147,253 176.0 TABLE G-8 159 CHANGES II EMEOLMEKT AND' COST PEB PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 ONTARIO Tear Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 542,822 100.0 28*12 100.0 28.12 100.0 1914 561,927 103.6 32*95 117*1 32.15 114.3 1915 569,030 102.9 30.13 , 107.1 29.23 103.9 1916 560,340 103.2 28.81 102.4 25.93 92.2 1917 561,8 65 103.5 29.99 106.6 22*79 81.0 1918 564,655 104.0 32.92 117.0 22.06 78.4 1919 584,724 107.7 38.73 137.7 e 3 71.9 1920 1921 604,923 : 111.5 60.73 215.9 36.44 129.6 1922 632,123 116.4 65.52 233.0 42.59 151.4 1923 . 654,893 : 120.6 73.34 ;260.8 47.67 169.5 1924 667,922 123.0 67.41 239.7 : 45.16 160.6 1925 671,311 123.6 68.00 241*8 44.88 .159.6 1926 692,653 127.6 67.12 238.7 43.63 155.1 1927 703,614 129.6 ,68*94. 245.1 45.50 161.8 1928 720,625 132.7 72.79 258.8 • 48.04 170.4 1929 731,258 134.7 75.22 267.4 48.89 173.8 1930 728,477 136* 0 : 83.92 298.4 ; 55.39 196.9 1931 756,812 J.39.4 | 75*89 269.8 55.40 197.0 1932 772,388 142.2 65.47 232*8 52.38 186.2 1933 778,972 143*5 T i L B L E F 6 1 6 G CHMGES IN EimOIMEUfT- M D COST PEE PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 QUEBEC Tear Enrolment Cost Per Puuil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars lumber 'Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 411,784 100.0 22*40 100.0 22 .,40 100.0 1914 435,895 105.8 20.57 91.8 20.16 90.0 1915 448,087 108.8 25.53 114.2 24.81 110.7 1916 464,447 :112.7 26.73 119.3 24.06 107.4 1917 463,390 •Ll>2 $ 5 30.12 134.4 22.89 102.1 1918 467,508 : 1 ® 2 30.98 138.3 20.76 92.7 1919 486,201 118.0 34.65 154.7 21.14 94.3 1920 495,887 120.4 : 38.72 172.8 20.52 91.6 1921 512,651 124*4 : 43.15 192.6 25.8 9 115.5 1922 530,705 :128.8 45*17 201.6 29.36 131*0 1923 537,406 ' 130*5 47.26 210.9 30.72 137.1 1924 541,485 : :131.4 52.56 234.6 31? • 2 2 '157.2 1925 548,519 • 2 52.56 235.8 34.87 155.7 1926 552,832 134.2 52.13 2 32 © *7 35.88 151.2 1927 557,732 135.4 55.44 238.5 35.27 157.4 1928 565,845 137.4 54.58 243.6 36.02 160.8 1929 577,373 140.2 57.01 254*5 37.06 165.4 1930 ; 583,684 141*7 5 9 e 21 264.3 39.08 174.4 1931 599,942 143.2 58.60 261*4 42.78 190.9 1932 618,597 150.2 55.74 25 rJ ® 3 44.59 199.0 TABLE G-8 161 CHAHGES IK ElffiO.MSIT AID COST PEE PUPIL, 1915 TO 1934 ' HEP/ BRUHSWICE Tear Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Sumner Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 69,663 100.0 15 • 52 100.0 13.52 100.0 1914 70,622 101.4 14.11 104.3 13.83 102.2 1915 72,013 103.4 14.71 108.8 14.27 105.5 1916 73,007 104.8 15.70 116.1 14.13 104.5 1917 71,981 103.3 15.91 117. 6 12.09 98.4 1918 71,782 103.0 18.31 135.4 12 a 27 90.7 1919 71,029 102.0 21.54 159.3 13.14 97.8 1920 72,988 104*8 24.09 178.1 12.77 94.4 1921 73,712 105.8 30.91 228. 6 18.55 137.2 1922 77,774 114.. 6 34.16 252.6 22.20 164.2 1923 78,753 113.0 33.94- : 251.0 22.04 163.0 1924 79,265 113.8 34.31 253.1 22.89 169.3 1925 80,145 115.0 41.77 •"'308.9 27.57 200.3 1926 80,879 . 115.9 35.92 265.6 2 55 172.7 1927 80,690 115.8 38r. 08 .281.6 25.13 185.8 1928 82,170 118.0 36.71 271.9 24.27 179.5 1929 83,580 120.0 36.71 271.5 23.86 176.4 1930 85,635 123.0 36.36 268.9 24.00 177.5 1931 86,355 : 124»0 37.14 274.7 27.11 200.5' 1932 87,648 , 125.8 35.62 263.4 28.50 210.7 1933 89,281 • 128,2 33.45 247.4 28.10 207.8 TABLE G-8 162 CHANGES IH EIE0I1CEHQ? AND COST PEE PUPIL, 1913 TO 1934 IOTA SCOTIA Year EuroIment Gost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 105,269 100.0 14.13 100,0 14.13 100.0 1914 106,351 101.0 • 14.63 103.6 14.38 101,7 1915 107,768 : 102.4 152,3 107.7 14,77 104.5 1916 109,189 103.7 14.83 104.9 13,35 94.4 1917 109,032 103.6 16.08 113.8 X 2 ® 2 2 8 6.4 1918 108,097 102.7 , 17.32 X22 • 5 11.60 82,0 1919 106,982: ; 101.6 19.60 138,7 11,96 84,6 1920 108,096 • 102.7 25,00 • 176.9 13.25 93.7 1921 109,483 104-. 0 31.44 ; 95 18.86 133.4 1922 114,229 108.5 31.81 »X 20.68 146.3 1923 114,458 108.7 ' 30.47 215,6 21.81 154.3 1924 111,594 106.0 32.18 22X«& 21,56 X5 2 * 13 1925 112,352 106.7 32.97 3 a 3 21,76 XD <o ^ 9 1926 112,391 106.8 31.76 224.7 20,64 146.0 1927 112,556 106.9 32,30 228.5 2 X • O 2 150.8 1928 112,898 107.2 33,49 : 237.0 22.10 156.4 1929 113,309 107.6 34,84 246.5 22.65 160.1 1930 115,860 103.2 34,86 246.7 23.01 162.8 . 1.9 51 115,511 109,7 36.31 25 6,9 26.51 187.6 1932 116,041 1-10.2 36.96 •261.7 29.58 209.3 1933 117,238 111.4 36.59 258.9 30.74 217.5 TABLE El 163 C H M G E S IN EffitQLMMT MI) COST PEE PUPIL, 1915 TO 1934 PBI3JCE EDWiffiL ISLiU'JD Year Enrolment Cost Per Pupil Current Dollars 1913 Dollars Number Index Dollars Index Dollars Index 1913 17,555 100.0 11.82 100.0 11.82 100.0 1914 18,069 102.9 12.06 101.5 11.82 100.0 1915 18,402 104.8 14.11 119.3. 13.69 115.8 1916- 18,362 104.6 13.32 112.6 11.99 101.4 1917 18,190 103.6 13.24 112.0 10.06 85.1 1918 17,8 61 101.7 15.03 127.1 9.07 76.6 1919 17,587 100.2 16.26 137.5 9.92 83,9 1920 , 17,354 ; 98.9 19.74 167.0 10.46 88.4 1921 17,510 99.7 22.08 186.8 3.0«25 112.0 1922 18,323 104.4 23.40 197.9 15 9 2 X 128.6 1923 17,742 101.0 26.42 231*9 17.82 150.7 1924 . 17,281 98.4 26.05 220.2 , 17.44 1 147.5 1925 17,427. 99.3 : 25.97 : 219.7 17.14 145.0 1926 17,324 98.7 16.24 22X • 9 17.06 144.3 1927 17,210 98.0 26614 225.3 17.58 149.7 1928 17,214 98.1 27.45 232.2i 18.12 ; 153.2 1929 17,180 97.9 23.23 238.8 18.95 155*2 1930 17,277 98.4 28.71 242.8 18.95 ; 160.3 1931 17/506 99.8 29.13 246.«4 : 21.26 179.0 1932 17,846 101.7 29.88 252.7 23.90 202.1 1933 18,247 103.9 28.87 244.2 24.25 205.1 TABLE El 164 C H M G E S IH SECONDARY Mi) Eli&JEffTAEY SCHOOL ElffiOLMEIT BRITISH COLUMBIA Year Enrolment Secondary'4^ Elementary % of Second-ary Schools to Total Schools Index Schools'" index Total 1913 2,786 100.0 54,598 100.0 57,384 4.85 1914 3,418 122.6 58,539 107.2 61,957 5 « o 2 1915 4,016 144.1 60,248 110.3 64,264 6.25 1916 4,973 178.4 59,597 ;109. 1 64,570 7.70 1917 5,990 182.6 60,028 109.9 65,118 7.82 1918 5,806 208.3 61,710 113.0 67,516 8.60 1919 6,078. 218.2 65,928 120.7 72,006 9«22 1920 6,636* 2 02«2 72,607 132 * 9 79,243 8.37 1921 7,259 260.5 78,691 144.1 85,950 8.44 1922 8 , 634 309.9 83,285 152.5 91,919 9.39 1923 9,220 330.9 85,668 156.9 94,888 9.71 1924 9,889 354.9 • 86,315 ;158 . 0 9 6,204 10.27 1925 10,597 380.3 87,357 160.0 97,954 10.81 1926 11,779 422 e 7 89,909 164.6 101,688 11.58 1927 12,906 463.2 92,102 168.6 105,008 12 a 29 1928 13,516 485.1 -94,663 173.3 108,179 • 12.4-9 1929 14,545 522.0 95,013 174.0 109,558 13.27 1930 14,675 526.7 96,342 17-6.4 111,017 13.22 1931 16,197 581.3 97,717 178.9 113,914 14.21 1932 18,134 650.8 97,785 179.0 115,919 15.64 1933 IB $ 552/p 665.9 9 8,264 179.9 116,816 15.88 1934 18,932 679.5 96,860 159.0 115,792 16.35 1» Numbers secured by subtracting secondary from total. 2 . Annual Eepol-t of ¥ . S.» 1934, p.IT. 1 2 . 3. Annual Report of Y . S., 1919-20, (1921), p.CIO. j 4* "Historical Survey of Education in Canada", 1921, p.49-53, Years 1913-1919, for all provinces, "Annual Survey of Education in Canada", Issues 1921-1933, for all provinces. (Tables used i.e. Ibid, 1933, p.20) 165 TABLE G2 CHANGES IN SECONDARY AND ELE3HSNTAEY SCHOOL E M O L M E N T ALBERTA Year Enrolment Secondary Elementary- t of Second-ary Schools to Total Schools Index Schools Inciex Total 1913 3,163 100.0 76,746 100*0 79,909 4.09 1914 3,974 125.6 85,936 111.9 i 89,910 4.44 1915 5 $ S 33 165,4 92,053 119.9 97,286 5,38 1916 99,201 5,81 1917 6,150 194.4 101,577 132.3 107,727 5.62 1918 6,948 219.6 104,161 135.7 111,109 6.22 1919 7,932 250.7 113,635 148.0 121,567 6.52 1920 135,750 6.74 1921 (1 7,509 ! 237,4 116,819^ lo 2.2 ,124,328^3 ^ 6,04 1922 10,762 340.2 132,140 172.1. 142,902 : 7,53 1923 12,262 387.6 135,783 176.9 , 148,045 8.29 1924 13,446 * 1 133,927 174.5 147,373 9.13 1925 14,713 465.1 133,083 173.4 147,376 9.95 1926 14,453 456*9 ' 136,073 177.3 150,526 9.60 1927 16,488 5 2 X«2 137,892 179,6 154,380 10.68 j 1928 18,218 575.9 140,868 183,5 159,086 11.44 1929 19,433 614.3 145,417 189.4 164,850 11.78 19 30 21,280 672.7 146,79 6 191,2 168,076 12,66 1931 24,266 . 767.1 144,464 188,2 168,730 14.38 19 32 28,247 893.0 142,548 185.7 170,795 16.55 19 33 28,189 891.2 140,803 183.4 168,992 16.68 1. 6 months. TABLE G-8 166 CHANGES IN SECOHDiHI Ml) ELMvDLlMTAEY SCHOOL EHROLUETCT SASKATCHEWAN Tear " Enrolment Secondary Elementary fo of secon-dary schools to Total Schools Index Schools Index Total 1913 4,456 100.0 97,007 100.0 101,463 4.48 1914 5,769 129.4 108,216 111.5 113,985 5.06 1915 6,790 152.3 116,072 119.6 122,862 5.53 1916 7,105 159.4 122,334 126.1 129,439 5.49 1917 7,279 163.3 135,338 139.5 142,617 5.10 1918 ; 7,489 168.0 143,837 148.2 151,326 4.95 1919 9,000 201.9 155,219 160.0 164,219 5.48 1920 : 10,296 231.0 164,629 169.7 174,925 5.89 1921 12,752 286.1 184,871 6.90 1922 10,714 , 240.4 178.6 183,935 5.82 1923 : 13,547 304.0 180,335 185.8 194,313 6.9 7 1924 16,014 359.3 188,017 ^  193.8 204,154 ' 7.84 1925 17,545 393.7 5 188,585 194.4 206*595 8.22 1926 19,454 436.5 193,373 199.3 213,404 9.12 1927 20,036 449.6 196,544 202.6 218,560 9.17 1928 20,852 467.9 200,878 207.0 223,049 9.35 1929 22,612 511.9 203,685 209.9 227,263 9.95 1930 24,451 548.7 203,293 209.5 228,434 10.70 1931 28,598 641.7 200,960 207.1 230,492 12.41 1932 33,936 761.5 194,268 200.2 229$ 19 <3 14.81 1933 35,104 787.7 189,999 | 195.8 226,007 15.53 CHMi Year 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 : TABLE El 173 ES IN SECONDARY Ml) ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROL M J M T O B A Enrolment Seicond'ary Schools Index Elementary Schools Index Total 4,996 5,518 6,387 6,696 6,294 6,579 6,803 7,996 8,651 10,729 12,803 12,876 13,367 13,551 13,420 14,163 15,292 15,819 18,344 19,816 20,384 100.0 110.4 127.8 134.0 125.9 131.7 138.1 160.0 173.1 214.7 256.2 257.7 265.5 271.2 268.6 283.4 306.0 316.6 367.1 396.6 408,0 78,683 88,435 94,576 97,100 100,294 103,346 107,849 115,456 120,400 126,147 129,566 131,615 132,467 134,728 135,343 136,720 135,225 136,027 135,209 132,111 129,686 100.0 13.2«3 120.1 123.4 127.4 131.3 137.0 146.7 lo3«0 160.3 164.6 167.2 168.3 171.2 172.0 173.7 171.8 172.8 171.8 167.9 164.8 83,679 93,954 100,963 103,796 106,588 109,925 109,662 123,452 129,015 136,876 142,369 144,491 145,834 148,279 148,763 150,883 150,517 151,846 153,553 151,927 150,070 147,253 TABLE G-8 168 CHANGES IN SECONDARY AED ELEIvlENTAfiY SCHOOL ENROLMENT ONTARIO Year Enrolment Secondary Elementary % of Second-ary Schools to Total Schools Index Schools Index Total 1313 45,819 100.0. 497,003 100.0 542,822 8.44 1914 49,422 107.8 512,505 103.1 561,927 8.80 1915 52,513 114.6 516,517 103.9 569 j 030 9«25 1916 40,639 88.7 519,701 104.5 560,340 7.25 1917 40,155 87.6 ;521,710 104.9 561,865 7.15 1918 41,419 90.3 523,236 105.2 564,655 7.34 1919 43,490 94.9 541,234 108.8 584,724 7*44 1920 • 1921 46,119 100.6 559,804 112.6 604,923 7.62 1922 54,890 : 119.8 577,253 116.1 632,123 8.68 1923 60,581 15 2 # 2 565,055 113*6 654,893 9.25 1924 65,425 142.6 574,506 115.5 667,922 9.80 1925 71,149 •L5 5 • 2 574,442 115.5 671,311 10. 60 1926 87,045 189.9 : 581,888 117.0 692,653 12.57 1927 86,948 189.7 583,072 117.3 703,614 12.36 1928 92,499 201.9 593,277 119.3 720,625 12.84 1929 97,833 213.5 608,350 122.4 731,258 13.38 1930 99,564 ,217.3 : 606,854 122.1 738,477 13.48 1931 103,320 225» 5 555,203 111.7 756,812 13.65 1932 117,831 257.1 572,416 115.1 772,388 15.26 1933 124,391 249.4 : 575,037 115.7 778,972 15.97 TABLE G-8 169 C H M G E S II SECONDARY M D ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BNEOLMENT MEW BRUNSWICK Year E nrolment Secondary Elementary % of Second-ary Schools to Total Schools Index Schools Index Total 1915 1,972 100.0 61,582 100.0 69,663 2 ® 83 1914 1,890 95.3 62,362 101.2 70,622 2.79 1915 2,030 102.9 64,998 105.5 72,013 2.82 1916 •2,161 109.6 64,616 104.9 73,007 2.96 1917 2,104 106.7 63,067 102.4 71,981 2.92 1918 2,043 103,6 63,495 103.1 71,782 2.85 1919 2,025 102.7 : 63,277 102.6 71,029 2.85 1920 72,988 1921 2,270 115.0 73,712 3.08 1922 2,693 136.6 77,774 3.46 1925 3,269 165.8 78,753 4.15 1924 3,425 173.7 79,265 4.32 1925 3,669 186.0' 80,145 4.57 1926 5,799 192.6 80,769 4.70 1927 4,035 204.6 80,690 5.00 1928 4,127, 209.2 82,170 5.02 , 1929 4,144 210.1 83,580 4.96 1930 4,801 243.4 85,635 5.61 • 1931 4,734 240.0 86,355 5.48 1932 5,571 282,5 87,648 6.36 1933 6,038 306.2 89,281 6.76 TABLE G-8 170 CHANGES II SECONDARY AID ELEIviEHTAET SCHOOL EHEOLI/EOT NO?A SCOTIA 1 Year Enrolment • Secondary Elementary Total % of second-ary Schools to Total Schools Index Schools Index 1913 8,-636 !100* 0 96,633 100.0 105,269 8.20 1914 8,903 103.1 97,448 100.8 106,351 8.37 1915 9,477 109,7 98,291 101.7 107,768 8.78 1916 9,726 112.6 99,463 102.9 ; 109,189 8.91 1917 9,088 ;105.2 99,944 103.4 i 109,032 8.34 1918 9,205 106.6 ; 98,895 102.3 108,097 8.51 1919 9,138 105.8 97,844 101.2 106,982 8.54 1920 9,491 109.9 98,605 102.0 108,096 8.78 1921 9,705 112.4 99,778 103.2 109,483 8.86 1922 11,029 127.8 103,190 106.7 114,229 9,66 1923 12,088 139.9 > 102,370 105.9 114,458 10.56 1924 11,632 134.7 99,962 103.4 : 111,594 10.42 1925 11,853 218«3 100,499 104.0 112,352 10.55 1926 11,948 138.3., 100,443 103.9 112,391 10.63 1927 11,970 138.6 100,586 104.0 112,556 10.63 1928 12,116 140.3 100,782 104.2 112,898 12 a 02 1929 12,513 144.9 100,661 104.1 113,309 11.04 1930 12 j 915 149.5 100,945 104.4 113,860 12.79 1931 13,852 160.5 101,815 104.3 116,041 13.12 1932 15,226 175.1 100<815 104.3 115,511 13.99 1933 16,701 193.4 100,537 -104.0 117 5 238 1 14.25 TABLE G-8 171 CHANGES II SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EIFFIOIKENT PRINCE'EDWARD ISLAND Year Enrolment % of Second-ary Schools to Total Secondary Elementary Schools Index Schools Index Total 1913 17,555 1914 2,412 100.0 15,956 1-00,0 (1 18,069 ' 13.35 1915 2,502 103,7 15,827 99,2 18,402 13,60 1916 ; 1,006 41.7 : 17,244 . 108,0 18,362 5.48 1917 1,013 41.9 17,123 107,3 18,190 5,56 1918 1,142 47,3 16,640 104,3 17,861 6.39 1919 1,047 43,4 16,089 100.8 17,587 6,51 1920 17,354 1921 17,510 1922 18,323 1923 1,390 57,6 16,332 102,3 17,742 7.84 1924 1,494 61,9 15,782 98.9 17,281 8,65 1925 1,459 60.4 ° 15,963 100,1 17,427 8,37 1926 1,532 63,5 . 15,831 99.3 17,324 8.84 . 1927 1,509 62,5 15,625 97.9 17,210 8.76 1928 1,531 63,4 15,727 98,5 17,214 8.89 1929 1,609 66.7 15,409 96.5 17,180 9.37 1930 .1,506 62.4 15; 39.4 ^  96.4 17,277 8.72 1931 1,888 778.2 15,38.9 96.4 17,506 10.78 1932 2,132 88,4 15,629 97,9 17,846 11,95 1933 2,288 94.8 14,599 91,5 18,247 12,54 1. In P.E.I., the total number of secondary and,elementary school pupils does not equal total enrolment as there are "unclassified students" included in total enrolment - Annual Survey of Education. -GEAR? PEECEliMGE CHAi'iGESI XJatl COST OF EDUQaT BRITISH COLUMBIA /-RQalSotal Cost ileal Cost Pejr Head of Population Real Cost J|gQenta£Q > > 1 Percentage Variatioi U a i L-:e Variation 1914 1930 r1 p £ & S & 2 5? « « « I CM CV tH rH q> <3% cr> r H r H p^l O i-H Ctf tO an- -j. , — — ... CO to to to c r > ^ c r > c h c h c ? > o > a i < ? > c r > c r > a > a > c T 5 r H r H r-H rk I TABLE El 178 CHANGES II" NET YALUE OP PRODUCTION M D TOTAL' COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS BRITISH ''COLUMBIA Year Net Yalue of Total Cost of ?roduction(l) Index Public Schools Index 1921 198,941,272 100.0 6,743,779 100.0 1922 206,297,558 103.7 7,388,578 109.6 1925 232,279,711 116.8 7,185,760 106.5 1924 256,816,575 119.0 7,758,572 114.8 1925 260,941,481 131.2 7,863,088 116. 6 1926 289,801,471 145.7 7,795,387 115. 6 1927 291,140,286 146.3 8,640,854 128 • 1 1928 521,354,242 161.5 8,715,178 12 9.2 1929 331,466,014 i 166.6 10,585,571 157.0 1930 268,972,091 135.2 9,401,431 159.4 19 31 19 3,751,045 97.4 9,519,958 141.2 1952 148,689,806 74.7 9,289,335 157.7 li Canada Yearbook, 1926, p.189 and succeeding yearly editions, (for all provinces). TABLE H2 CHANGES IN MET YALUE GP PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS ALBERTA Year. Net Yalue of Production Index Total Cost of Public Schools ! Index 1921 154,376,861 3100.0 12,134,188 100.0 1922 161,093,720 104.3 12,358,571 101.8 1925 241,241,457 156.2 11,865,567 97.7 1924 210,972,370 156.6. 11,458,506 94,4 1925 257,040,994 166*5 10,826,790 89.2 1926 298,026,980 193.0 11,280,112 92.9 1927 378,578,571 245.2 11,707,988 9 6.4 1928 341,413,575 221.1 15,036,866 107*4 1929 237,493,9 62 155,8 14,39 6,549 118.6 1950 184,659,449 119.6 14,050,524 115.7 1951 164,947,717 106.8 12,122,346 99.9 1932 157,015,824 101.7 11,495,120 94,7 TABLE K3 179 CHANGES IN SET VALUE OF PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS SASKATCHEWAN Net Value of Total Cost of Year Production Index Public Schools Index 1921 232,036,948 100.0 15,605,800 100.0 1922 311,313,707 134.1 14,919,803 95.6 1923 . 280,023,272 120*6 15,152,636 97.0 1924 : 237,254,471 102*2 14,761,168 94.5 1925 360,433,859 155® 3 14,981,083 85.9 1926 357,046,765 153.8 15,500,477 99.3 1927 406,098,995 175.0 17,269,620 110.6 1928 413,925,134 178.3 J £ 217 110.2 1929 238,781,959 . 102.9 18,228,806 116.8 1930 134,134,319 57.8 18,405,327 117.9 1931 ' 82,691,410 35.6 14,194,583 '90*9 1932 117,858,748 50*7 11,389,604 72 9 9 TABLE H4 CHANGES IN BET VALUE OF PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS MANITOBA ' Year Net Value of Production Index Total Cost of Public schools Index 1921 139,818,719 : 100*0 13,079,205 100.0 1922 158,031,262 5113.0 13,564,824 103*7 1923 124,228,542 88.8 12,999,254 99.3 1924 190,022,463 ! 135.9 11,284,095 86.2 1925 ' 181,977,811 : 130,1 , 10,671,328 81.5 1926 207,100,745 148,1 9,993,961 76.4 1927 200,050,712 143*0 10,249,476 78.3 1928 235,182,568 168,2 10,384,696 79.3 1929 185,231,376 132.4 10,406,305 7,9.5 1930 142,170,105 101.6 • 11,627,399 88.8 1931 113,396,393 81.1 11,715,425 89,5 1932 100j453,108 71.8 9,491,846 72,5 TABLE El 185 CHANGES IN NET YALUE QF PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS ONTARIO Net Yalue of Total Cost of Year Production Index Public schools Index 1921 1,115,962,19.3 100,0 36,739,654 100.0 1922 : 1,154,289,316 103.4 41,416,804 112.7 1923 1,211,877,669 108.5 48,034,564 130.7 1924 1,217,764,312 .109.1 45,030,685 1L2 2 • 5 1925 1,259,737,138 112.8 45,655,613 124.2 1926 1,371,688,666 9 9 46,495,220 126,5 1927 1,469,994,588 131,7 48,510,215 132.0 1928 1,572,835,443 140.9 52,389,674 142.5 1929 1,658,395,781 148.6 55,006,99 9 149.7 1930 1,380,458,865 123.7 61,975,091 168.6 1931 . 1,083,600,274 97.1 57,434,830 156.3 1932 884,801,710 79.2 50,571,034 137.6 TABLE H6 CHANGES IN NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST .OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS QUEBEC Year Net Yalue of Production Index Total Cost of Public Schools Index 1921 735,445,514 100.0 22,122,979 100.0 1922 7-24,.923,952 98.5 23,972,197 108.3 1923 744,895,912 101.2 25,396,268 114.7 1924 729,992,866 99.2 27,917,738 126.1 1925 795,993,531 108 j 2 28,980,568 130.9 1926 869,594,363 118.2 28,816,440 130.2 1927 920,270,084 125.1 ' 29,807,607 134.7 1928: 979,666,796 : 133.2 30,881,787 139.. 5 1929 1,049,515,828 142.7 32,917,489 148.7 1930 892,076,349 121,2 34., 562,530 156.2 1931 686,817,209 , 9 3.3 35,155,024 158.9 1932 557,659,317 75.8 34,483,498 155.8 TABLE El 186 CHANGES IN NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION AND TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS " . NEW BRUNSWICK Year Net Value of Production Index Total -Cost of Public Schools Index 1921 85,997,215 100.0 2,278,622 100.0 1922 86,742,905 100.8 2,657,046 116.6 1923 82,575,810' 96.0 2,674,377 117 e 3 1924 78,298,070 91.0 2,720,227 119.3 1925 87,097,614 101.2 3,348,374 146.9 1926 90,964,915 105.7 2,901,329 127.3 1927 86,871,419 101,0 3,071,315 134.7 1928 85,364,983 99.2 3,022,115 132.6 1929 87,382,143 101.6 3,068,670 134.6 1930 78,772,589 91,5 3,113,948 136. 6 1931 64,307,571 74.7 3,207,477 140.7 19 2 54,063,723 62.8 3,122,059 137.0 TABLE HQ CHANGES IN NET VALUE OP PRODUCTION AMD TOTAL COST 03? PUBLIC SCHOOLS NOVA SCOTIA Year Net Talue of Production JIndex Total Cost of Public schools Index 1921 130,279,898 100,0. 3,442,546 • 100,0 1922 115,446,269 88.6 3,646,570 106.5 1923 111,560,712 85.6 3,487,957 101.9 1924 9 6,071,433 73.7 3,591,338 104.9 1925 94,826,633 72.7 3,704,940 108.2 1926 : 124,218,480 95,3 3,570,626 104.3 1927 119,540,211 91.7 3,605,401 105.3 1928 144,272,367 110,7 3,781,215 110.4 1929 129,380,194 99.3 3,948,230 115.3 1930 144,402,720 110.8 3,970,025 115.9 1931 : 94,507,795 72.5 4,194,295 12 2 5 19 32 70,917,559 54.4 4,292,217 125.4 •TABLE H9 CHANGES IH HET VALUE OP PRODUCTION M B TOTAL COST : OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PRINCE EDWARD ISLAM) ! Tear : Net Value of Production Index Total Cost of Public Schools Index 1921 18,910,655 100,0 396,778 100.0 1922 17,145,781 ' 90.6 428,869 . 108*0 1923 17,286,696 91,4 496,550 1924 18,158,381 95.9 449,847 1925 23,110,406 »2 452,699 114, 0 1926 26,325,625 139.2 454,671 114.5 1927 23,734,082 125.5 458,477 n 5 5 1928 23,125,829 122,3 . 473,041 119.4 1929 23,452,390 124.0 485,138 122.2 1930 16,635,118 87.9 496,059 125.0 1931 11,925,262 63.0 510,952 128.7 19 32 10,264,666 54.2 533,308 . 134.4 TABLE HIO CHANGES IN 1ST VALUE OF PRODUCTION AID TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS CANADA Net Value of Total Cost of Hear : Production Index Public Schools' Index 1921 2,814,996,678 100.0 112,533,461 100,0 1922 2,939,313,953 104.4 120,353,052 106*9 1923 3,051,456,821 108.4 127,293,913 113.1 1924 3,018,182,081 107.2 124,952,176 111.0 1925 3,325,115,594 118.1 126,484,483 112.4 1926 3,640,356,606 129.3 " 126,808,223 112.7 1927 3,901,505,298 138.5 113,320,953 118.5 1928 4,122,509,882 146.4 139,89 6,880 124.3 1929 3,946,609,211 140.1 149,042,757 132,4 1930 3,216,746,735 114.2 157,602,335 140.0 1931 2,500,212,902 88.8 148,054,870 131. 6 1932 2,104,908,301 74.7 134,668,019 110,8 1. Totals of all provinces TABLE El 183 CHANGES II PER CAPITA WEALTH AS© COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS PER HEAD OP P O P U L A T I O N BRITISH COLUMBIA Year Per Gapita Wealth (1) Index Cost of Public Schools per Head of Population Index 1921 #2,6.04 100,0 ;|12.85 100.0 1928 3 s 359 135.9 13.37 104.0 1926 3,844 147.6 12.86 100.0 1927 4,016 154.2 13.86 107.8 1928 4,090 ' 157.0 13,59 : 105.7 1929 4,012 154.0 16,06 124.9 1. Canada Yearbooks; 1927-28 - p.849-850 (Statistics for 1921 and 1925 J 1930 - p.827 (Statistics for 1926) 1931 - p.870 (Statistics for 1927) 1932 - p.743 (Statistics for 1928 and 1929) TABLE J2 CHANGES IN.PER CAPITA WEALTH AND GOST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PEE HEAD OP -POPULATION • " 'ALBERTA Year Per Capita Uealth Index . Cost of Public Schools per Head of Population Index 1921 |>3,319 100.0 #20.62 100.0 1925 . 3,459 104.2 17.98 87.2 1926 3,608 108.7, 18.55 90.0 1927 3,757 104.4 18.49 8 9 . 7 1928 3,614 108.8 19.81 96.0 1929 3,518 105.9 21.04 102.0 125 TABLE J3 CHANGES II PEE CAPITA WEALTH AID COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PEE HEAD OF POPULATION S A S K A T C H M M Tear Per Capita Wealth. Index Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population Index 1921 #3,757 100.0 .^20.60 100.0 1925 3,544 94.3 18.58 90.2 1926 3,559 94.7 18.87 91.6 1927 3,592 95.6 20.53 9 9.7 1928 3,596 95.8 19.9 6 95.9 1929 3,451 91.9 20.64 100.2 TABLE J4 CHANGES IE" PEE CAPITA WEALTH AID COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PEE HEAD OF POPULATION MANITOBA Tear Per Capita 'wealth Index Cost of Public Schools Per Head - of Population Index 1921 •jp2,705 100.0 ,21.10 100.0 1925 2,9 09 102.5 16.88 80.0 1926 2,957 .109.3 15.64 . 74.1 1927 2,916 107.8 15.74 74.6 1928 2,971 109.6 15.63 74*0 1929 2,910 107.6 15.37 72,9 125 TABLE J5 CHANGES IS PEE CAPITA WEALTH M D . COST OP PUBLIC SGH00L3 PEE HEAD OP POPULATION " ONTARIO Tear Per Capita 'Wealth.' Index Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population Index 1921 .$2 , 5 07 100.0 ;-jl2.52 100.0 1925 2,901 115.7 14.67 117.1 1926 2,902 115.8 14. 69 117.3 1927 2,995 119.5 • 15.06 120,3 1928 3,098 123. 6 15.98 • 127.7 1929 3,188 127.1 16.49 131.7 TABLE J6 CHANGES IN PEE CAPITA WEALTH AND COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS PEE HEAD OF POPULATION QUEBEC Year Per Capita Wealth index Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population. Index 1921 #2,347 100.0 $ 9.37 100.0 1925 2,495 106.3 11.36 121.2 1926 2,598 110.7 11.07 119.2 1927 2,627 111.9 10.84 116.9 1928 2,765 117.8 11.37 121,3 1929 2,982 127.6 11.87 126.7 125 TABLE J7 CHANGES IH PER CAPITA WEALTH AND COST OE PUBLIC SCHOOLS PER HEAD OP POPULATION MS?' BRUNSWICK Tear Per Capita Wealth Index Cost Of Public Schools Per Head of Population Index 1921 #1,541 100.0 $5.84 100.0 1925 1,596 103.6 8.52 145.9 1926 1,777 115.3 7.32 125.3 1927 1,822 118,2 7.71 132.0 1928 2,047 132.8 7.53 128.9 1929 1.950 126.5 7.59 130.0 T ABLE J8 CHANGES IN PER CAPITA WEALTH AID COST OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS PER HEAD OP POPULATION i NOVA SCOTIA Tear Per Capita Wealth Index Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population Index 1921 §1,437 100.0 . ^6.57 100.0 1925 1,471 102.3 7.19 109,4 1926 1,548 107.7 6.93 105.5 1927 1,575 109.6 7.00 106.5 1928 1,746 121.5 7.34 111.7 1929 1,769 123.1 7.66 116.6 TABLE J9 CHANGES IN PER CAPITA WEALTH AND COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PER HEAD OF POPULATION PRINCE EDSARD ISLAND Year per Capita v/ealth Index Cost of Public Schools Per Head of Population Index 1921 #1,353 100.0 $4.36 100.0 1925 1,591 117.6 5.26 120.6 1926 1, 675 123.8 5.22 119.7 1927 1, 693 125.1 5.26 120.6 1928 1,784 131.9 5.37 123.1 1929 1,864 137.8 5*51 126.4 TABLE J10 CHANGES IN PES CAPITA, WEALTH AND COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PEE HEAD OF POPULATION CANADA Year Per Capita Wealth Index Cost of public Schools Per Head .of Population Index 1921 $>2,525 100.0 •;jl2. 65 100.0 1925 2,772 109.8 12.65 100,0 1926 2,842 122.6 12.35 97.6 1927 2,907 115.1 12.72 100.6 1928 3,013 119.3 12.95 102.4 1929 3,076 121.8 13,58 107.4 125 SABLE K CHANGES OF ESTIMATED INCOME OF CANADA, TOTAL COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND ESTIMATED INCOME PEE HEAD OF POPULATION OF CANADA Year Estimated Income of Canada*1 Index Total cost of Public Schools Est. Income per he aQ 0f population Index 1921 #4,215,000,000 100.0 100.0 $478 100.0 1922 4,500,000,000 106.52 106,9 504 105.4 1923 4,696,000,000 111.41 113.1 586 122.6 1924 4,643,000,000 110.15 111.0 507 106.0 1925 5,178,000,000 122.84 112.4 557 116.5 1926 .•» 5,600,000,000 132.85 112.7 592 123.9 1927 6,101,000,000 144.74 118.5 633 132.4 1928 6,342,000,000 150.46 124.3 645 134.9 1929 6,072,000,000 144.0 132.4 605 126.6 1930 5,150,000,000 122.18 140.0 504 105.4 1931 4,000,000,000 94.90 131.6 385 80.9 1932 3,181,513,000 75.48 110.8 1 . Cudmore, s . A., "The National Income", p. 7 . Publication of ".Sinister of Trade and Commerce, 1924. (Based on value and purchasing power of dollar). . . 189 • ' TABLE I). A ' " i: ' V ;; ;' :BTMiajOIGS;Git: Si^'.-'i^^BiS^^iiaS- i l ' C M A D A 1921-1933 : /V;- ; Tear-Index to Total Cost of P.S. Cigarettes -Selling Value at Factory Index NO. of passenger Autos Sold Index Total Production of Toilet Preparations 'Index ;-.Canadian Liquor Revenue Index 1921 .100.0 31,113,848 100.0 61,098 100.0 1922 106.9 25,989,079 r 83.5 92,838 151.8 23,699,792 100 iO: 1923 113.1 23,964,031 77*0 127,976 209.5 25,657,120 108.2 1924 111.0 26,455,986 85.0 114,537 180,7 30,202,110 127*4 1925 112.4 . 27,868,568 :: 89*5 : 135,573 220.3 29,852,127 126.1 1926 112.7 / : 31,455,213 ; 101*9 166,887 273. & : 35,063,229 \ 105. 7 1927 118 *5 : 36,281,937 110.1 146,421 ,< : 259.6 5,750,557 100.0 39,686,088 125*2 1928 124.3 41,706,317 134,04 197,848 324.0 6,161,711 107.1 54,109,008 22817 1929 132.4 49,258,851 158.31 203,307 332.2 7,272,572 i 12.6*4 . 59,595,573 251.4 1930 .140.0 49,835,366 160.1 121,337 198.6 6,719,986 :116.8 56,214,457 237.1 1931 131.6 42,865,121 137.77 65,072 106.4 6,751,542 117.4 43,263,871 182.5 1932 110.8 36,073,614 115.94 50,694 82.9 6,957,862 120.9 33,134,206 140.08 1933 53,849 88.2 1 . Report on the Tobacco Industries in Canada 1932, p.4. Department of Trade and Commerce Bulletin 1934. 2. Automobile Statistics for'Canada 1933, p.5, published by Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 1934. 3. The Toilet Preparations Industry in Canada 1932, p.4. Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 1933. 4. The Control and Sale of Liquor in Canada, p.20. Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, 1934. (Total sales statistics are not given) PERCENTAGE OHAlGE$ IN (1) TOTAL COST OF P ^ L I C jcHOOLS, (2) MET 125 VALUEjQF PRQDXTION, (3) ESTBftATE-U JlYERAGE I NO (MS PER H E A ^ O P POP-ULi^IOl* FOR u-oKALiA ^ a. .aiOLE, (4j PER HAi'lTk AL.U (-3) COST OF PljJBXIC $CH'OOL j PEB-aEaii 'Of POPU^iiHOH PERCENTAGE S H A M E S II CQSt OP PUBLIC SCHOOLS. (2 )jMIT (sp estimated INCO; PRODUCTION, VALUE OF HEAD OP POP. CAljiiDA AS A GGS® OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS PER POPULATION ONTARIO CHART F$ QUEBEC PBRCEHTiiGE CHANGES IN (l) TOTAL GOSlj OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, (2) :NET 193 

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