UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some behaviour problems and their treatment Hood, Jean Archibald 1937

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1937_A8_H7_S6.pdf [ 4.46MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105009.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105009-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105009-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105009-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105009-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105009-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105009-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105009-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105009.ris

Full Text

LE 2 6 7 / 9:«? 7 <r:?  SOME BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS AND  THEIR  TREATMENT,  by  Jean Archibald Hood.  A T h e s i s submitted f o r the Degree o f M A S T E R  OF  A R T S  i n t h e Department of PHILOSOPHY.  THE  DIVERSITY  OF  OCTOBER,  BRITISH 1937.  COLUMBIA  Some Behaviour Problems and their Treatments Chapter I,  The development of personality.  Chapter II.  The Child Guidance Clinic and Its Methods.  Chapter III.  Problem cases. a. Problem cases which appear among children with undesirable personal habits.  Chapter IV. Appendix.  b.  Problaa cases which appear among children with undesirable personality traits.  c.  Problem cases which appear among children with delinquent tendencies.  Summary. Additional case studies.  The Development of Personality. Chapter I* Psychologically, the term, personality, connotes a person's entire mental make-up - his i n t e l l e c t , his temperament, his s k i l l , his morality, together with his many other attitudes ( i . e . his habitual mode of response.) Each individual has developed a personality of his own; and the differences i n personality are due both to heredity and to environment. The marked differences shorn by infants at b i r t h - differences i n size and i n general bodily appearance, i n anatomical t r a i t s , i n the s e n s i t i v i t y of his organs, In the conductivity and m o d i f l a b i l i t y of the nervous system (on which the l e v e l of intelligence depends), i n the strength of the natural urges or so-called " i n s t i n c t s " - are differences due to heredity; but other differences that depend on the individual's experiences, on the way he learns by experience and the way he learns to adjust to his d i f f i c u l t i e s and to his successes, are differences due to environment» Let us look b r i e f l y at the way i n which an infant develops from birth.  He begins, as one psychologist has said, as a bundle of i n s t i n c t s  and reflexes.  A l l his behaviour ( i . e . his responses to stimulation) i s  at the automatic, .instinctive l e v e l . fear response.  A sudden loud noise w i l l bring a  Restraint w i l l bring the anger response.  He has to learn  to see, to hear, to taste; and then, through constant responding to stimuli, he gradually learns to perceive what he sees. gradually develop t h e i r feeling tone. f i r s t , primitive ones.  His experiences  His emotional responses are, at  There are differences i n the intensity and  duration of these responses, owing to the innate differences already mentioned. From the time of b i r t h , the c h i l d i s constantly responding to  s t i m u l a t i o n from t h e environment; but soon he i s making new responses, not  the u n i v e r s a l i n s t i n c t i v e ones.  He i s l e a r n i n g .  m e n t a l l y - i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , s o c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y .  He i s growing Whether he w i l l  develop i n t o a m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y I n d i v i d u a l depends both on the s t i m u l a t i o n he i s r e c e i v i n g from the environment and on t h e responses he i s l e a r n i n g to make t o t h a t s t i m u l a t i o n .  From b i r t h onward, he i s meeting o b s t a c l e s  i n h i s environment, thwartings o f h i s fundament a l urges, p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the  urge f o r mastery o r f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l .  Whether he w i l l develop i n t o  a w e l l - a d j u s t e d , m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l depends on the response he l e a r n s to make t o these i n e v i t a b l e t h w a r t i n g s . He may l e a r n t o make m e n t a l l y unhealthy adjustments.  Take, f o r example,  the r e t i r i n g , non-  communicative, daydreaming c h i l d who l a t e r develops i n t o the schyophienic type o f p a t i e n t , w i t h whom our mental h o s p i t a l s are crowded.  He i s not  l e a r n i n g t o meet h i s t h w a r t i n g s . He i s evading them; and i n s t e a d o f e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e f e e l i n g t h a t comes from h a v i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y  surmounted  o b s t a c l e s , h i s urge f o r mastery has been s a t i s f i e d , u n h e a l t h i l y , by daydreaming and b u i l d i n g c a s t l e s i n t h e a i r .  We a l l indulge i n day-  dreaming to some extent; but when t h i s daydreaming, t h i s s h r i n k i n g from r e a l i t y becomes our h a b i t u a l response to any d i f f i c u l t i e s we are encountering, are  we s h a l l soon be l i v i n g e n t i r e l y a l i f e apart.  Our mental h o s p i t a l s  f i l l e d w i t h such i n d i v i d u a l s - i n d i v i d u a l s who have l e a r n e d i n t h e i r  youth t o make these unhealthy mental responses t o t h e t h w a r t i n g s o f t h e i r urges. I f we l o o k around us, we s h a l l f i n d everywhere people who are i l l adjusted, people o f t h e worrying, overanxious type, people who cannot get  on w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s , people who are a n t i - s o c i a l - a l l types o f  maladjusted p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f v a r y i n g degrees o f maladjustment.  The  extremely maladjusted i n d i v i d u a l s are i n c a r c e r a t e d i n our mental h o s p i t a l s and penal i n s t i t u t i o n s .  From s t a t i s t i c s  recently available, i t i s  c o n s e r v a t i v e l y estimated that the mental h e a l t h o f twenty p e r cent o f the p u p i l s i n any average c l a s s in any average s c h o o l w i l l be such as t o i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r success i n adjustment  to adult l i f e ,  and t h a t f o u r  p e r cent of the p u p i l s i n the c l a s s w i l l f i n a l l y be committed t o mental hospitals.  The t r a g i c s i d e of t h i s s i t u a t i o n is t h a t from at l e a s t two-  t h i r d s to t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f these maladjusted  i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d have  learned t o adjust t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s In healthy ways had t h e i r t r e n d been r e c o g n i z e d d u r i n g t h e i r e a r l y , formative y e a r s . does not develop suddenly. development.  Mental  ill-health  There i s g e n e r a l l y a long, h i s t o r y o f gradual  I f t h e signs o f maladjustment were recognized i n the e a r l y  years o f development before the unhealthy responses t o the thwartings and d i f f i c u l t i e s had become h a b i t u a l ones, the outlook f o r a m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n would be b r i g h t . With t h i s o u t l o o k i n view, c h i l d guidance e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the l a s t for  c l i n i c s have been  two or t h r e e decades i n n e a r l y every country  the purpose o f s i n g l i n g o u t t h e c h i l d r e n who are already beginning  t o l e a r n t o a d j u s t t o t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m e n t a l l y unhealthy ways, and f o r the purpose of t r a i n i n g them i n l e a r n i n g t o make s o c i a l l y acceptable adjustments  so that they w i l l develop i n t o m e n t a l l y healthy a d u l t s .  T h i s t h e s i s does not p u r p o r t to give a f u l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment of  a l l the causes o r o f a l l t h e kinds o f maladjustment.  Some types o f  maladjustments have been b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . I t i s r a t h e r an account, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, o f t h e work t h a t i s being done at the P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Guidance O l i n i c i n Vancouver w i t h c h i l d r e n who are already showing s i g n s o f f a u l t y  adjustment  - "problem cases", as they have been c a l l e d .  have been taken from the everyday work of t h e c l i n i c ; methods o f the c l i n i c have been d e s c r i b e d ,  Illustrative  cases  and t h e g e n e r a l  The d i a g n o s i s and prognosis  f o r each case, the suggested treatment and, where p o s s i b l e , the r e s u l t s of the treatment, have been given,  A b r i e f summary of some of the outstanding  f a c t o r s i n the cases has a l s o been appended.  The C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c and I t s Methods. Chapter I I . The previous  aim o f the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c has been p o i n t e d out i n the chapter.  To help i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s aim, the i d e a l c l i n i c would  have a complete h i s t o r i c a l account o f the i n d i v i d u a l and of h i s f a m i l y and  connections,  and complete medical,  account o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  There would be,  i n any  psychiatrical  case study, the  diagnosis  o f the t r o u b l e ( the a s s i g n i n g of causes f o r t h e maladjustment), the progn o s i s o r the p r e d i c t e d f u t u r e development of the i n d i v i d u a l , the treatment, and  a r e c o r d of follow-up work o v e r a p e r i o d of years. F i n a n c i a l o u t l a y f o r such a c l i n i c i s heavy.  Guidance C l i n i c i n Vancouver had f i n a n c i a l support.  I t was  The P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d  to s t a r t i n a small way,  without much  e s t a b l i s h e d by a group of e n t h u s i a s t i c but  already heavily-worked government o f f i c i a l s , l o o k i n g t o "prevention mental i l l - h e a l t h r a t h e r than cure".  of  I t has g r a d u a l l y developed, as a  government s e r v i c e , to help p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s o r various welfare The clinic  r o u t i n e procedure f o r the study of any p a t i e n t e n t e r i n g  i s thorough and exhaustive.  three d i v i s i o n s : his  Roughly, i t may  agencies. the  be s a i d to f a l l  into  a study of the person's environment, h i s m e n t a l i t y  and  physical condition. The study of the person's environment must include a review of home  l i f e , c o n d i t i o n s of school or p l a c e of work-with i t s accompanying s o c i a l contacts.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s obtained through the various c h i l d  welfare  agencies or through the s o c i a l workers. The  c h i l d ' s m e n t a l i t y i s s t u d i e d through mental t e s t s ,  and o b s e r v a t i o n of the c h i l d at p l a y . Vancouver c l i n i c i s the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t .  conversation,  The standard mental t e s t at the This i s o f t e n supplemented w i t h  the Porteus Maze t e s t , various a s s o c i a t i o n and achievement t e s t s , and, the cases o f c h i l d r e n who  are of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e and yet who  backward i n s c h o o l , w i t h an examination f o r reading d i s a b i l i t i e s .  in  are Obser-  vation through conversation p s y c h i a t r i s t himself.  i s accomplished through t a l k s with the  Observation of the c h i l d at play i s generally made  by the s o c i a l worker as the c h i l d i s waiting i n the play-room for h i s turn to be examined. The physical examination i s made by the p s y c h i a t r i s t and nurse. I n special cases, s p e c i f i c tests may be procured through the Vancouver General Hospital* F i n a l l y , the w r i t i n g of the case history i s of great importance. This document must show, i n concise form, the complete h i s t o r y of the patient, and must be available before the examination i s started. The case h i s t o r y f a l l s naturally into sections.  The f i r s t of these  i s a short, but most important one. I t i s a concise statement of the main problems presented by the case.  The next section covers a l l the i n -  formation with regard t o the immediate family and t o the family history generally.  The personal history of the patient, which follows t h i s , i s  necessarily d e t a i l e d .  I t may be divided into four parts.  1.  Prenatal conditions.  2®  From b i r t h to s i x years—development including feeding habits,  age of walking and t a l k i n g , age of bowel and bladder c o n t r o l , and a r e cord of any diseases or i l l n e s s e s . 3.  From s i x years t o adolescence—a record of school progress, not-  ing any retardation or acceleration.  S o c i a l reactions and personality  t r a i t s may be Indicated by such words as " w i l l i n g , stubborn, secretive, f r i e n d l y " , and i l l u s t r a t e d wherever by concrete examples. 4. The period of post-adolescence—an account of further educationa l progress or of economic and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s case h i s t o r y , then, the c l i n i c provides the information  7  necessary before the psychiatrist can make a diagnosis of the trouble and suggest a treatment.  e  Problem  Cases.  Chapter I I I .  "What i s a problem case?  The term has a wide a p p l i c a t i o n .  I t applies  at one extreme, to t h e c h i l d who i s the d e s p a i r of h i s parents because he r e f u s e s t o e a t t h e f o o d p r o v i d e d f o r him; and i t a p p l i e s at the other extreme, t o the youth who has t a k e n h i s share i n a bank hold-up.  Itis  used o f the boy who i s too quiet and shy to take h i s share i n the p l a y of h i s f e l l o w s , as w e l l as of the man who b e l i e v e s t h a t the whole world i s against him. I n the f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f problem cases, o n l y those eases were chosen where f a u l t y adjustments o r h a b i t s were due t o environmental c o n d i t i o n s alone. mental c a p a c i t y was subnormal.  T h i s excludes a l l cases where the The cases were then, f o r purposes  of d i s c u s s i o n , c l a s s i f i e d under the three t y p e s o f maladjustment:-  habits.  (a)  cases m a n i f e s t i n g u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l h a b i t s .  (b)  cases m a n i f e s t i n g u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  (c)  cases m a n i f e s t i n g a n t i - s o c i a l ( i . e . delinquent)  a.  D i f f i c u l t i e s o f the f i r s t group seem to occur more o f t e n among young  c h i l d r e n , and others.  seem to s p r i n g more o f t e n from a s i n g l e cause t h a n the  The most usual are:  thumbsucking, n a i l - b i t i n g , enuresis, mastur-  b a t i o n , mannerismsj p e c u l i a r food fads, disturbances A number of t h e s e may be removed.  be due  in s l e e p .  to p h y s i c a l causes which can  frequently  Others are due t o mental causes which cannot be changed by  p h y s i c a l treatment. Case 1.  A t y p i c a l problem i n enuresis i s to be found i n t h e case of  a s i x - y e a r o l d boy.  He was  r e f e r r e d to the c l i n i c by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  S o c i e t y because o f e n u r e s i s , stubborness and disobedience. t r o u b l e was  a t f i r s t probably a p h y s i c a l problem.  The  original  Through unwise t r e a t -  ment, however, both at home and at s c h o o l , and through f o c u s s i n g  the  boy's a t t e n t i o n upon h i s d i f f i c u l t y , the t r o u b l e had been prolonged s e v e r a l years beyond the p o i n t where i t should have ceased. in h i s c h i l d i s h h a b i t , was  The  boy,  by p e r s i s t i n g  able to h o l d the a t t e n t i o n of the f a m i l y  on  himself,- to the e x c l u s i o n o f h i s younger s i s t e r . H i s mental age was 9jj.  He was  6;  a h e a l t h y boy,  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age 6 years 3 months; and I . Q,. e a t i n g w e l l and s l e e p i n g soundly.  n a i l s , however, and s u f f e r e d from p e r s i s t e n t e n u r e s i s .  He b i t h i s  H i s teacher  re-  ported that at f i r s t he spent h i s e n t i r e school time i n day-dreaming, a l though h i s a t t i t u d e was control.  The  teacher,  improving.  a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g with the mother who  the method o f treatment, threatened life, his  Even at school he lacked  him w i t h whipping.  and helped h i s f o s t e r f a t h e r around t h e grounds.  young s i s t e r , although he thought t h a t she was  K  See footnote at bottom of Page  10.  He  sphincter approved of  enjoyed farm  He played w i t h  too young.  He  was  s t u b b o r n and d i s o b e d i e n t , n o t a f f e c t i o n a t e h i m s e l f , b u t jeo.lous o f a f f e c t i o n shown t o o t h e r s , s u s p i c i o u s , s t o l i d , day-dreaming•  H i s f a t h e r , who  was  fairly  u n t r u t h f u l and g i v e n t o  intelligent  but l a c k i n g i n i n -  i t i a t i v e , worked i n a lumber m i l l *  The  m o t h e r had d i e d , two  t h e boy was  The  first  brought  t o the c l i n i c  years  before  f o s t e r p a r e n t s , who  were  i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h e money t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e f o r t h e i r c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , dealt very c a s u a l l y w i t h t h e i r charges. a f o s t e r home o f t h e Children»s A i d S o c i e t y , and a h a l f y o u n g e r . and p r a i s e d . was  She was  She was  T h e r e was  fond of the p a t i e n t .  I t was  clinic  d e c i d e d t h a t t h e e n u r e s i s was  t h e boy t o o much.  He was  the p r i n c i p a l  emphasized t h i s  foster  problem. failing  to  f o r success,  Gn  w e r e t h e y t o speak o f t h e m a t t e r b e f o r e t h e p a t i e n t , n o r t o  c o r p o r a l punishement. t w e e n t h e two  T h e y were t o show no d i f f e r e n c e o f a t t i t u d e  no  use be-  children.  S i n c e t h e c h i l d was  not r e t u r n e d t o t h e c l i n i c , the t r e a t m e n t  was  successful.  C a s e 2. iveness.  sib-  t o be g i v e n no d r i n k a f t e r s u p p e r , and not t o  be a d m o n i s h e d f o r f a i l u r e , b u t r a t h e r t o be r e w a r d e d  probably  foster  she  discrimination.  f o s t e r p a r e n t s were t o l d t h a t t h e y had  account  The  year  indulged  suspected t h a t  and a boy i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e s , f o l l o w e d t h e  mother's l e a d i n t h i s The  a sister a  b r i g h t , a c t i v e , n o r m a l , and was  h e l d up a s an e x a m p l e f o r t h e p a t i e n t t o f o l l o w .  lings, a girl  The  They were removed t o  i t second  cs.se o f e n u r e s i s was  T h i s c a s e seems t o be w o r t h  complicated with destruct-  quoting i n f u l l ,  even a l t h o u g h  one  * M e n t a l age i s t h e t e r m u s e d t o i n d i c a t e i n y e a r s t h e m e n t a l d e v e l o p ment o f an i n d i v i d u a l . When t h i s m e n t a l age i s p l a c e d o v e r t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a f r a c t i o n and m u l t i p l i e d by 1 0 0 , t h e r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e i s known a s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t ( I . Q.) The I . Q. o f a p e r s o n o f a v e r a g e i n t e l l i g e n c e w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be 1 0 0 .  other has been given.  Here, though there was a physical weakness t o be-  gin with, that weakness v/as made use of d e l i b e r a t e l y by an uncomfortable and unhappy boy. Both the father and mother were l i v i n g .  The mother however, who  was suffering from tuberculosis, had not had the strength t o cope with the patient and h i s younger s i s t e r .  In order that they might receive the  attention that they required, they were placed i n an i n s t i t u t i o n by the parents.  The report from the i n s t i t u t i o n stated that the boy was under  weight, and that h i s sleep was r e s t l e s s .  His bed had t o be changed every  night even when he was taken up every three hours.  On one occasion at  l e a s t , t h i s state of the bed seemed t o have been planned, because the boy had pulled up the robber sheet, had tucked i t c a r e f u l l y i n again, and declared that the bed was dry.  He v/as an untidy, quarrelsome c h i l d , and  somewhat of a b u l l y , deliberately destroying the other children's toys. Since he resented c r i t i c i s m , d e l i b e r a t e l y l i e d and took things from the lockers, he did not get on w e l l with h i s companions. He had been i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s i x months when brought t o the c l i n i c . When the boy's l i v i n g conditions at the I n s t i t u t i o n were i n v e s t i g ated, i t v/as found that he was cold at nights, since he was forced t o sleep on an uncovered rubber sheet.  He was given quantities of milk at  a l l times of the day i n an effort to bring his weight up t o normal. The other c h i l d r e n , who were t o l d not t o play with him because he was a " d i r t y " boy, obeyed i n s t r u c t i o n s .  The boy was apparently old enough t o  r e a l i z e that his troublesome behaviour was the quickest means of his being returned home. The c l i n i c recommended that he be sent baek to h i s mother, who v/as better and could cope with him.  The mother was t o l d not  t o mention the enuresis, but to v/atch his time for drinking. She reported  t h a t t h e r e was an improvement. Case 3.  E a t i n g problems, as w e l l as t h i s ,of e n u r e s i s , are very  o f t e n used as a means of a t t r a c t i n g a t t e n t i o n , and even of b u l l y i n g the f a m i l y i n t o submission t o the c h i l d ' s d e s i r e . the c h i l d ' s misbehaviour  I n the case which f o l l o w s  a t t a b l e seemed t o be the only method of s e l f  e x p r e s s i o n f o r him, s i n c e the normal channels were a l l blocked by  over-  p r o t e c t i v e parents. The boy was mentally.  6 years 5 months c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , and 6 years 2 months  The I . Q> was  96,  The parents reported t h a t he was hard t o ,  manage at any time., but e s p e c i a l l y so at meal t i m e .  He had had no  ill-  nesses, and has a good a p p e t i t e , but p l a y s w i t h h i s f o o d , t a l k i n g cont i n u a l l y , throwing h i s hands around and making h i m s e l f a g e n e r a l n u i s ances  He s l e e p s w e l l , but i s slow over washing and d r e s s i n g .  h i s n a i l s and becomes tense at t i m e s .  He b i t e s  H i s moods s h i f t r a p i d l y from  those of a l i k e a b l e boy t o those of a mean one. ment have been t r i e d without any success.  Many forms of p u n i s h -  Since he has no companions of  h i s own age, he contents h i m s e l f w i t h h i s t o o l s and p l a y s a l o n e . g i v e n no  He i s  allowance,  The people he l i v e s w i t h adopted him because they both wanted c h i l d r e n , but had none.  The boy does not know t h a t he i s adopted, but  they p l a n t o t e l l him i n the f u t u r e . c h i l d , and reads w i t h him. though the f a m i l y was present t i m e . I t was  The  f a t h e r i s I n t e r e s t e d i n the  The mother i s e x c i t a b l e and nervous.  Al-  f o r m e r l y w e l l o f f f i n a n c i a l l y , i t i s not so at the  The boy, however, l a c k s f o r n o t h i n g .  f e l t t h a t the boy, w i t h such o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n , had a p r o t e s t  feeding d i s a b i l i t y .  The  f a m i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n which takes place before  him shows t h a t a scene i s expected.  He enjoys the a t t e n t i o n which he  receives and the correction which i s attempted.  He has no proper play-  mates, not s u f f i c i e n t play and no group a c t i v i t i e s .  He has no idea of  the value of money. He i s inclined to be too dependent, and exhibits negativism.  The parents were cautioned not to give him so many orders,  and not to be too anxious about, but to l e t the c h i l d express himself' more. They were advised to see that he had playmates his own age, and group a c t i v i t i e s . The follow-up one month l a t e r reported that there had been no progress.  Meal-time i s s t i l l a signal to the boy to act his worst.  The  mother claims that they t r i e d the suggestion of l e t t i n g the boy alone, but that he got out of hand completely.  He s t i l l has no allowance and  no companions. One month l a t e r , the mother states that an allowance has been given him.  The boy bought a cheap t r a i n which broke a f t e r two or three days.  Although the boy says that he w i l l not buy anything so easily broken again, theVmother can see no value i n the experience and claims that the money was wasted.  Following t h i s incident, the boy was deprived of one  cent from his weekly allowance every time he was bad.  There was no  allowance l e f t f o r him by the end of the week. The boy's reaction i s , n  I  don't care.  I was t i r e d of that game anyway."  Lessons i n tap-danc-  ing were planned to give him group a c t i v i t y , with the promise of gymnasium classes for the following year. A month l a t e r there was further conversation with the mother about the emotional connection between parents and children, for i t was  be-  lieved that the c h i l d was s t i l l being over-directed. I t was shown how some parents t r y to l i v e t h e i r l i v e s through the c h i l d , and expect him to go t h e i r pace.  Once again the d e s i r a b i l i t y of freedom for the c h i l d  i n n o n - o s s e n t i a l s was s t r e s s e d .  I t i s thought t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no  f u r t h e r progress t i l l the parents grasp and act upon these Case 4,  facts.  S t i l l another case which seems t o f i t i n t o t h i s  classifi-  c a t i o n i s t h a t of a seven and a h a l f year o l d boy w i t h an I . Q. o f 93, Here the u n d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l h a b i t which manifested i t s e l f was d e s c r i b e d as " f i t s of some s o r t " .  The doctors thought t h a t they were from p h y s i c a l  causes which he would outgrow.  The root of the m a t t e r , however, seemed  t o be deeper, and the " f i t s " t o be a d i f f e r e n t sort of r e a c t i o n against • over-protection. The boy had had c o n v u l s i o n s w i t h t e e t h i n g , and l a t e r w i t h an a t t a c k of measles. vulsions.  The d o c t o r s a i d t h a t the c h i l d would soon out grow such conThe f a t h e r was dead.  was an ardent  churchwoman.  The mother, who supported the  family,  The boy was a good s l e e p e r , and the doctors  thought t h a t h i s " f i t s " were due t o d i e t .  Although he was a l e a d e r i n  p l a y , l i k e d a c t i v e games and had many f r i e n d s , he was m i s e r a b l e at school.  I l l s f i t s l a s t e d about f i v e minutes, d u r i n g which time he  ed o u t , w i t h h i s eyes r o l l e d backs  During the examination at the  stiffenclinic,  i t was noted t h a t the boy had very l i t t l e confidence i n h i m s e l f , t h a t he looked f o r someone e l s e t o get him out of d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The mother was  warned'not t o , d o so much f o r h i m , but t o a l l o w him t o act on h i s own r e sponsibility.  A year l a t e r the mother reported t h a t she r e a l i z e d how  much o f t h i s t r o u b l e had been due t o n e r v e s , and t h a t she had t r i e d to a s s i s t him t o h e l p h i m s e l f .  He l i k e d h i s s c h o o l b e t t e r ,  progress was s t i l l not o u t s t a n d i n g .  although h i s  The p a t i e n t had announced h i m s e l f  cured a f t e r prayer., and had had no s p e l l s s i n c e . Case 5 , Mannerisms, i f they have no d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l cause, n e a r l y always the r e s u l t of some i n n e r c o n f l i c t  or t e n s i o n .  are  This tension  may spring from a desire to hide something, or from a sense of g u i l t , or as a reaction from some outside s t r a i n which a c h i l d may sense without understanding.  Such a case follows.  In common with the two previous  cases, t h i s problem was created by an over-anxious rriother who t r i e d to protect her son from a l l hard exertion. A boy of 13-|- years of age was brought to the c l i n i c because of the mannerism of eye-blinking.  He had had the usual, diseases of childhood.  His health habits were good, although he had stuttered and had b i t t e n his n a i l s when he was younger.  His school v/ork was "Good, i f he makes up  his mind to i t . " His mother reported that " i t takes a l o t out of him physically i f he t r i e s too much"*  She says of h e r s e l f , " I f I t r y , I  nearly always get a l l I want, but at times the goal has not been worth the effort f o r what i t has taken out of me."  Although she was exceedingly  nervous, she had t r i e d to get over the handicap and believed that she had succeeded.  I t was thought that the boy's nervous mannerism was caused by  the tension'which radiated from the. over-anxious mother.  She said that  she f e l t better a f t e r the matter had been explained to her, and that she would have a more steadying influence on the boy.  As the tension becomes  l e s s , the boy's trouble should disappear. The case i s too recent to show results y e t .  Problem Oases which Appear Among C h i l d r e n of U n d e s i r a b l e Personality..: -:. 1  b.  The second group o f behaviour problems i s a l a r g e one, i n s p i t e of  the f a c t t h a t such cases a r e very o f t e n not recognized as problems by parents and t e a c h e r s .  The symptoms.are: s e n s i t i v e n e s s ; s e c l u s i v e n e s s ,  s e c r e t i v e n e s s , o v e r a n x i e t y , i n a t t e n t i o n , apathy, day-dreaming, f a n c i f u l l y i n g , "nervousness" and a tendency t o c r y e a s i l y , moodiness, o b s t i n a c y , quarrelsomeness, s e l f i s h n e s s , l a z i n e s s . The c o n d i t i o n s which cause these symptoms t o appear v e r y o f t e n l i e I n t h e home.  They may s p r i n g from a sense of t e n s i o n and unhappiness be-  tween t h e a d u l t s o f t h e household, o r from a f e e l i n g o f u n j u s t treatment, or from a f e a r of f i n a n c i a l i n s e c u r i t y , or even from i m i t a t i o n o f t h e grown ups.  Sometimes t h e y may have t h e i r o r i g i n i n t h e c h i l d ' s s c h o o l  l i f e , i n a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y t o other c h i l d r e n , o r i n e f f o r t which i s unrecognized because i t s r e s u l t s are not so s p e c t a c u l a r as those of b r i g h t e r p u p i l s , o r they may s p r i n g from l a c k of proper p l a y o u t l e t s . Cases which very o f t e n go unrecognized, o r , at l e a s t , u n t r e a t e d , are t h e n e g a t i v e o n e s — s e n s i t i v e n e s s , s e c l u s i v e n e s s , e x c e s s i v e day-dreaming. Inattention.  Since these t r a i t s are not a c t i v e l y d i s t u r b i n g t o the peace  of f a m i l y or c l a s s , they o f t e n escape n o t i c e .  However, some cases have  :  been brought t o t h e c l i n i c f o r t r e a t m e n t . Case 6.  A t y p i c a l c a s e , d e a l i n g w i t h l i s t l e s s n e s s and i n a t t e n t i o n ,  was r e f e r r e d by parents who were anxious about t h e boy's s c h o o l p r o g r e s s , The parents were c o r r e c t i n t h e i r estimate o f t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y . H i s I. Q. was 115.  Although he had made e x c e l l e n t progress up t o grade IV,  he had t h e n l o s t i n t e r e s t . effort.  He was obedient, but would put f o r t h no  H i s i n t e r e s t s were i n Meccano toys and a i r p l a n e s .  was a submissive type who made no attempt at d i s c i p l i n e . w o r k i n g , and g e t t i n g a good s a l a r y .  The f a t h e r  The mother was  There was f r i c t i o n between t h e boy  and h i s b r o t h e r , aged t h r e e , because the baby l o s t b o l t s and parts from the p a t i e n t ' s t o y s .  Upon examination, i t was found that the boy's a t t e n -  t i o n was e a s i l y gained and w e l l r e t a i n e d .  There was a considerable gap  i n h i s s c h o o l work due t o a change o f s c h o o l .  Apparently,  not a b l e t o overcome t h i s handicap by h i m s e l f . d i r e c t e d him. i n everything that he d i d , hindered initiative.  the c h i l d was  H i s mother, who overhim from developing any  She v/as cautioned that she should give fewer orders, and was  advised t h a t t h e boy be sent t o p r i v a t e school where he would be under the guidance o f men t e a c h e r s . Case 7.  O c c a s i o n a l l y a basic t r a i t which might pass unnoticed has  a reaction, which cannot be overlooked.  A good example of t h i s f o l l o w s .  A t e n year o l d boy of average i n t e l l i g e n c e was r e f e r r e d t o the clinic was  f o r h i s hard manner.  The o r i g i n o f t h i s assumed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  t o be found i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e step f a t h e r .  legitimate.  The c h i l d v/as i l -  The f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the home v/ere good, with t h e  f a t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the support  of the p a t i e n t .  However, t h e step-  f a t h e r was j e a l o u s of the c h i l d , and showed h i s f e e l i n g s .  The boy had  s t o l e n money t w i c e , apparently more from bravado than f o r the sake of the money*  I t was from h i s habit of f r e q u e n t l y c r y i n g i n secret that h i s  extreme s e n s i t i v i t y v/as d i s c o v e r e d .  The plan o f treatment was f o r him t o  j o i n a Scout Troop, and t o have a small r e g u l a r allowance. information i s available for t h i s Case 8.  No f u r t h e r  case.  Sometimes the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response t o home c o n d i t i o n s un-  f i t s him f o r f u n c t i o n i n g as one o f a group.  Such a case i s t o be found  i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f a g i r l whose c h r o n o l o g i c a l age v/as 14 years 10 months, whose mental age v/as 13 years 3 months, and whose I . Q. was 96. run away from a g i r l s '  She had  camp, and had never been a c t i v e i n a group.  Since the fathei-'s death, the mother, who was a fortune t e l l e r and c l a i r voyant, had supported the family. none of whom was unusual.  There were two s i s t e r s and one brother  The patient, who had been i l l , expected to  keep the centre of the family attention on herself. As she grew stronger and her i l l n e s s no longer gained t h i s for her, she t r i e d other means of making h e r s e l f noticed, even though they were not approved by the family. Although she was affectionate, she was very reticent about herself. An example of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was the fact that she did not t e l l the camp director why she refused t o swim. As she had had trouble with her ears, she could not go into the water.  But although she suffered from  teasing among.the g i r l s , and actual punishment from the i n s t r u c t o r , she would give no reason for her r e f u s a l . The mother believed that the daughter, l i k e the father, had been born under an "unlucky s t a r " . The plan advanced was that the mother keep the c h i l d a c t i v e , and that she was not t o stress any sickness. Case 9. Sometimes the symptoms are so slight: that they can be classed under the general heading of "nervousness".  This f a i l i n g may be  i n t e n s i f i e d by temperamental trends which, as we have discussed, are d i f f i c u l t to alter.  Nevertheless, i n the cases studied, the nervousness  has been I n t e n s i f i e d by s t r a i n of some sort i n the home. The case quoted i n f u l l Is a long one, but i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g as an example of what may be done with a deep-seated and long-standing nervous condition. The g i r l was 16 years 9 months old. Her i n t e l l i g e n c e was normal. Her d i f f i c u l t y was that she was continually crying and worrying over her homework, her future and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , her mental condition. Her health was only f a i r .  She was wakeful and unrefreshed  She ate neither breakfast nor lunch.  i n the morning.  Since she had weak arches, she wore  special shoes.  Her father, a professional man i n Europe, contracted  sleeping sickness and was refused admittance t o t h i s country.  The mothe  i s capable, i n t e l l i g e n t and upright. There are two brothers, one of whom, l i k e the g i r l , i s over-ambitious,, family.  The other i s estranged from the  When the patient was young, she was.accustomed to a luxurious  home. The patient was very musical, Although she was fond of swimming, she f e l t that she had no time for recreation. was anxious t o l e a r n .  In her school work, she  Since she had plodded along over language d i f f i -  c u l t i e s , her attainment was below the average.  She was so t e r r i f i e d of  f a i l i n g , that she would not help i n the house i f i t meant that she would have t o spare time from her studies. U n t i l two years previously, she was normal and happy. Then she l o s t the companionship of a friend who had to take care of a sick mother At the same time, family and fina.ncial troubles grew acute,  While the  young g i r l had these worries on her mind, she was forced t o change her school because the trouble with her arches prevented her from walking. There were few v i s i t o r s to the home. Although f i n a n c i a l conditions were becoming worse, the family sent the patient t o a camp for a summer, hoping that her mental attitude would benefit by the change. However, there was an emotional outbreak following a sleep-walking episode—an outburst of rage at the nurse.  Obviously camp was not suitable  for a g i r l of so unstable a temperament. Even there her mind was f i l l e d with worries about the health of her mother and brothers, and with fears that she would have to earn her l i v i n g i n a menial p o s i t i o n . The recommendations and follow-up information are as follows. F i r s t , i t was advised that she be removed from her home and board at  the school she was already attending as a day p u p i l . she passed her matriculation i n two subjects. the camp episode occurred.  During t h i s year  I t was i n this-summer that  A f t e r her next v i s i t to the c l i n i c , i t was  advised that she board at another school, where she would have outdoor recreation among companions of her own age. There was considerable improvement here, although the patient s t i l l .worried over her mother's health.  After the t h i r d v i s i t to the c l i n i c , i t was found, that she did  not j o i n i n the various exercises and games of the school because she lacked money and equipment.  I t was then decided that she should l i v e at  home and take as many subjects as she could handle comfortably t i l l she finished her education.  Her trouble, the c l i n i c ree.lize'd, was due t o  her mother's condition.  But i t was realized t h a t , i f the patient were  removed from home, she would be further upset, and would gradually shut herself o f f . With improvement, her fears l e f t her, her health b u i l t up, and her eating and sleeping became more normal.  She i s now happily married t o a:  man of assured income and good s o c i a l background.  She has moved away  from the scene of her former unhappiness and fear. Case 10. A very i n t e r e s t i n g case was brought to the c l i n i c by anxious parents who did not r e a l i z e what the real d i f f i c u l t y was. They requested an examination because t h e i r son had no idea of play.  I t was  during discussion of the boy that they mentioned casually that the c h i l d was incurably s e l f i s h .  His mental age was 10 years 4 months, and h i s  chronological age ?;as 9 years 4 months» The mother was a graduate nurse.  The father was interested i n h i s  home and c h i l d r e n . The s i s t e r , aged seven, was a l i v e l y c h i l d who found no d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping herself amused.  Although the boy had had two convulsions when he was a baby, h i s health was good. His class work at school was s a t i s f a c t o r y , but he would not play; he refused t o j o i n i n any group or team work. I f he had to go.outside, he would stand at the edge of the playground with h i s hands i n his pockets and with his hat on.. He started swimming lessons, but was afraid of the water. He would not go t o Sunday School t i l l his mother took a class i n the same department. The family had catered t o him because he was " d i f f e r e n t " . He had a typewriter whieh.he l e f t outside when he f e l t so i n c l i n e d . had several p r i n t i n g sets, with which he maile^ a sports paper. not much i n t e r e s t e d , however, even i n t h i s .  He  He was  He l i k e d music, and would  read everything he could f i n d . The chief characteristic of the boy was, the parents thought, that he wanted always t o be i n command of things.  Although he was p o l i t e , he  was usually whining about something, or arguing when his temper was aroused.  Then they volunteered the information that he was incurably  s e l f i s h , and hoarded h i s money. The treatment suggested was that the boy be encouraged to sifim so that he might get the benefit of the sun,  A bat and glove, I t was  thought, might encourage h i s playing among the boys. League games with his father.  He was to go t o  I t was advised that he j o i n a mymnasium  c l a s s , so that the competition of games might improve his s e l f i s h tendencies.  Above a l l , he was not to be given the centre of the stage at  home. In the follow up, i t was found that the patient was taking music and dancing lessons for rhythm, had joined a gymnasium c l a s s , and was taking advantage of the back yard which had been f i t t e d up for play.  (This work had been done for him, without any assistance from him.) was  playing better, though s t i l l not e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y .  He  His parents were  now r e a l l y concerned about his selfishness. He would share nothing, even with his l i t t l e s i s t e r .  He accepted i t  i n the natural course of events that he should be waited on, hand and foot.  The s o c i a l worker observed that the father had the attitude that  his wife was there f o r the sole purpose of attending to him.  I t seems  l i k e l y that the boy, who i s i m i t a t i v e of the father even to the way  he  wears h i s clothes, classes himself as a male creature who i s to be served by the woman members of h i s household.  The o r i g i n a l problem, then, has  i n great part been removed; but the other problem of selfishness i s not l i k e l y to improve i n the atmosphere of his home. Case 11.  Lying may spring from a number of causes,  from an effort to obtain an u n f u l f i l l e d wish. a fear-.of punishment, deserved or otherwise.  I t might occur  I t might be the result of I t might be occasioned by  hatred, or a desire to do some person harm i n the eyes of others.  But  occassionally there Is a case of l y i n g where the causes are so deeply hidden that they are hard to f i n d . Such a case i s to be found i n a l i t t l e g i r l , 6-|- years of age, with an I» Q. of 97.  She was reported by her step-mother. Nothing was known  of the c h i l d ' s parents. brothers, aged 18 and 21.  The step-father was dead. There were two  step-  The home was a happy one.  The c h i l d sought the approval of a l l her teachers.  Because the  other children do not l i k e her managing ways, she has no companions of her own  age.  She always had some imaginative story to t e l l as t r u t h to anyone who would l i s t e d .  One day she reported that the teacher's car had burnt  up.  Another day she said that the children at school had stolen her  apples.  I t was l a t e r discovered that she had thrown the apples av/ay,  and the children had returned them to her.  She returned home one day  from the school, which was about h a l f a mile away, saying that some boys had molested her. story.  She had even torn her clothes t o give colour t o her  Later, she t o l d the teacher that her mother starved her.  Since the c h i l d seemed t o have no c h i l d i s h outlets, and, apart from school, was always i n the company of adults, the suggestion was made that the mother take a f o s t e r c h i l d or two into the home. A year l a t e r , the c h i l d was reported as l i v i n g happily with two other c h i l d r e n , a g i r l and a boy, who had been taken into the home. The trouble about imaginative l y i n g had disappeared. Case 12. The cause of stubbornness, too, sometimes l i e s i n the home.  Selfishness, i n a previous case, was copied from a s e l f i s h father.  Subbornness i n a c h i l d i s often the result of obstinacy on the part of the parents.  By unwise treatment, a child's w i l l may be broken t i l l he  becomes apathetic or lacking i n i n i t i a t i v e , or, i t may be hardened into an unreasonable and unreasoning  stubbornness.  The c h i l d who has not had  the opportunity for mixing with other children and for having the easy give-and-take  of comradship i s more l i k e l y t o prove obstinate than the  c h i l d who has played much with others.  An unsympathetic attitude on the  part of parents or brothers and s i s t e r s may result i n a withdrawal into s e l f and accompanying stubbornness.  I n at least one case studied here,  there seems t o be some ground for believing that there might have been some hereditary t r a i t . This case, complicated by violent f i t s of temper, was found i n the study of an 8 year old g i r l with a mental age of 7 years 8 months. The  mother v/as married, at the age of fourteen, to a man who v/as so cruel and stubborn that she was forced to leave him.  There are three s i s t e r s  besides the patient. The mother's mother and s i s t e r both have bad tempers. The c h i l d ' s moods show i n her face.  During one of her stubborn  moods, she w i l l do no school work, although at other times she works extremely neatly. b i t e her eraser.  She w i l l p u l l her h a i r , become furious at her p e n c i l , She w i l l scream i f she i s corrected.  She i s so lack-  ing i n team s p i r i t that she d e l i b e r a t e l y t r i e s t o keep her team from gaining points.  The mother i s not stubborn, but loses patience v/ith  the children and gives i n to them. The older s i s t e r has a d i s p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to the patient's, although i t i s not-so pronounced. The younger children are,good natured and easy t o handle. .A few months a f t e r the o r i g i n a l report about the home conditions had been w r i t t e n , information v/as brought i n that.the mother i l l - t r e a t e d the patient, whipping her and marking her back.  S t i l l l a t e r , the c i t y  nurse believed that the c h i l d should be removed from the home, as the mother did not know how to handle her. The suggested treatment was that, since the home s i t u a t i o n was not good, (the other children called her "goofy") she would be benefitted by being i n another home where she would be quieter, and where she . would remain for a considerable period.  Problem Cases which Appear Among Children with Delinquent Tendencies. C«  The t h i r d group of problems Is to be found among children who are  either d e f i n i t e l y delinquent, or, at l e a s t , acquiring habits which might eventually lead them i n t o c o n f l i c t with the lav/. These tendencies are so i n c o n f l i c t with the l i v e s of the people around them that t h e i r f a u l t s cannot be overlooked  so e a s i l y as the less spectacular person-  a l i t y trends of the previous group. In t h i s section are the disobedient c h i l d r e n — s o seriously d i s obedient as to be c a l l e d • i n c o r r i g i b l e .  They are the teasing children -  who w i l l stop at nothing i n order to have t h e i r l i t t l e jokes. the children who have temper tantrums. f i e r s of authority.  They are  They are the braggarts and de-  They are the young people who keep late hours and  who seek bad companions. They are the children who play truant, l i e or s t e a l , who are destructive or cruel t o animals or persons, or who i n dulge i n unusual sex a c t i v i t i e s . The term disobedience covers a number of these misdemeanours such as keeping late hours, seeking bad companions, and defying.authority. Some cases are hard t o c l a s s i f y , so numerous are the forms that the d i s obedience takes. Case 13. A g i r l of sixteen, of average i n t e l l i g e n c e , was referred to the c l i n i c for refusing to stay at home at nights.  She would come i n  at any time a f t e r midnight and refuse t o t e l l where she had been. The family were on r e l i e f , with the mother earning a l i t t l e by washing dishes.  The three people l i v e i n two shabby, i l l - k e p t rooms which they  have not attempted t o make a t t r a c t i v e .  The g i r l i s healthy and ath-  l e t i c , being a good swimmer, baseball and basketball player.  She has  one s p e c i a l friend who, the parents claim, i s a bad influence because she does not have t o be home early. The patient w i l l not read. A l -  though she f a i l e d her grade s i x work, she was promoted because of her age.  Of a l l her subjects, she enjoyed only Art.  Her teachers reported  that she would not apply herself. The c l i n i c suggested that the g i r l refused to stay home because i t was so unattractive.  Since she had a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , i t was possible  that she might f e e l more interest i n the home i f she could be persuaded to help make i t more i n v i t i n g . dresser.  Her ambition was t o become a h a i r -  I t v/as recommended that she t r a i n i n her chosen work as. soon  as possible. Case 14-o Temper tantrums seem to occur most frequently 'among children who are overprotected and "spoiled". ren  In some cases, the c h i l d -  may outgrow t h i s method of gaining t h e i r own way.  however, they need help In gaining s e l f - r e l i a n c e .  In most instances;,  There i s one case of  special i n t e r e s t because the tantrums seemed to be the r e s u l t , not of pampering and indulgence, but of a mental c o n f l i c t caused by an I r r e g u l a r i t y i n the personal l i f e of the mother. The problem v/as found i n a. teen-aged g i r l of normal i n t e l l i g e n c e . The mother had divorced her husband and v/as l i v i n g with a common-lav/ husband who would not marry her because of the children.  He v/as a  middle aged man with old-fashioned Ideas about instant and unquestioning obedience. The g i r l s were resentful—"T/hy should we mind him?"  He  suspected them i f they were out a f t e r dark. That t f t e l g i r l s must have known of the relationship i s shown i n t h e i r persistent resentment and f a i l u r e t o obey the man.  There were continual quarrels In the house,  with the mother undecided, but generally siding with the rnan  a  For one  week "neither spoke to us kids," The patient was miserable at home and hated school.  She v/as not  27. i  notable at s c h o o l f o r e i t h e r good or bad behaviour.  The c l i n i c r e -  commended o b s e r v a t i o n i n a foster-home f o r at l e a s t a y e a r .  Her r e -  a c t i o n s were normal-to' the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n i n the home. Case' 15. the  The t r u a n c y cases s t u d i e d have a l l had t h e i r causes i n  home - or i n f a c t o r s over which the home had c o n t r o l . 5  I n one i n -  stance i t was a d i s l i k e o f the step-mother i n t e n s e enough t o cause the c h i l d t o run away.  I n two other i n s t a n c e s , the c h i l d r e n d i d not have  enough t o occupy t h e i r time and energy.  The f o u r t h case was one i n  which the g i r l had no proper p l a y o u t l e t s .  The background of t h i s i n -  stance was v e r y s i m i l a r t o the ones i n cases 3. and 10,  I n the f i r s t , a  f e e d i n g d i s a b i l i t y ¥/as the outcome, i n the second, i m a g i n a t i v e l y i n g ; and i n the one quoted, t r u a n c y . The g i r l was nine years and f o u r months of age, w i t h an I , Q. of 95.  She was i l l e g i t i m a t e , and had been cared f o r by people she r e -  membered as her own p a r e n t s . They moved away, l e a v i n g her w i t h other f o s t e r - p a r e n t s , although t h e y took w i t h them a c h i l d of t h e i r own whom she b e l i e v e d was her s i s t e r . always w e l l .  She had Impetigo, but apart from t h a t was  She was an average p u p i l i n her s t u d i e s , but her conduct  was below average. was always p a i d .  She was w i l l i n g t o do c h o r e s , f o r which work she She was somewhat of a tomboy and l i k e d rough p l a y . .  She had no companions of her own age, but enjoyed the s o c i e t y of the foster-mother.  She l i k e d t o t a l k and t o be the c e n t r e of the stage.  She would f i t her c o n v e r s a t i o n t o the l i s t e n e r .  To h e r , t h e r e were no  !  I  class distinctions.  She had a good i m a g i n a t i o n and a wonderful memory.  1  Her f i r s t t r u a n c y .from s c h o o l o c c u r r e d when her parents urged her t o work h a r d e r a f t e r she had brought home a note from her t e a c h e r . The second t r u a n c y took p l a c e when she was coming home from her grand-  !  /!  I  mother's. t i m e she  She  was  p i c k e d up  f a i l e d t o r e t u r n home, she  the  s t r e e t - c a r and  felt  had  b e e n t a k e n out  of school  ing,  by t h e New  that  she  said that  should  a f t e r the  clinic  had  suggested that  was  decided that  G i r l .Guide camp f o r t h e  was  l a c k i n g i n proper play Case 16.  child  One  rooted  t h i n g e s s e n t i a l f o r the I n the  t h a t the  p r o b l e m w i l l be  The  boy  was  d i f f i c u l t y was habit did  nine  The  provide  T h e r e v/as  an  When t h e  s e r t e d , the  child  society placed cause the the  him  own  So  d e e p l y has  seems t o be  age. a  but  the f e e l i n g  little  hope  o f 106.  i n h i s f o s t e r home, and  c h i l d , v/as i n t e l l i g e n t  a d o p t e d by  children.  f a t h e r had f e l l t o the  and  an  A. p a r t i a l  an u n c l e list  incurable  gambler  m o t h e r v/as  who  could  o f #his  objected  not  f o s t e r homes de-  of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y .  i n a home v/here he  remained only  f i v e months  to medical supervision.  n e x t home l a s t e d f o r s i x m o n t h s , when he was  who  The  pla.cedhim i n someone's c a r e , and care  His  g r a t e f u l f o r the  g i v i n g h i s son.  older brother  foster-mother  It  she  f e a r of punishment,  f a t h e r , a l t h o u g h he v/as a d r u n k a r d and  a f f o r d t o t a k e t h e two follows.  summer, s i n c e  a h a l f y e a r s - ' o l d , w i t h an I . Q.  care the Children's. A i d Society dead.  be  corrected.  and  f o r the  tutor-  c a s e w h i c h f o l l o w s - , t h e .problem  that there  a f a i l u r e to adjust  of l y i n g .  not  child's life  She  normal development o f  l a c k of a sense of s e c u r i t y .  i t s e l f i n the  given  on  f o u n d t o have d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n .  o f l y i n g seems t o h a v e been c a u s e d , p a r t l y by c h i e f l y by t h e  h e r bag  she m i g h t  o u t l e t s w i t h c h i l d r e n of her  i s a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y .  third  progress.  She  attend  left  The  go home w i t h o u t i t .  s u f f e r i n g from mythomania. she  was  not  she  f i r s t i n c i d e n t and  u n d e r w h i c h s y s t e m she m0.de r a p i d A f t e r examining her, the  Westminster p o l i c e .  g i v e n up  His  The  be-  stay i n  because  of  food-fussiness and enuresis.  He had been i n his next home.for two years  when he was moved t o the home of people who wished t o adopt him.- His prospective parents, however, did not wish a boy who talked baby t a l k and suffered from enuresis.  They also resented supervision, and com-  pared the c h i l d unfavorably with t h e i r own son.  In h i s next home, where  he stayed only two months, he was so unhappy that he was removed. He was seven months i n his new home. He had good care and t r a i n i n g there along with f i v e other c h i l d r e n , three of whom were Children's Aid Society wards. strict.  I t was f e l t , however, that the foster-mother was too  He was therefore moved t o another home where he so disgraced  himself by h i s untruths that he was removed t o the Orphanage after three months. There he was found t o be normal, likeable-and mischievous  0  F i n a l l y , he was wanted for adoption by a c h i l d l e s s couple who  were kindly and i n t e l l i g e n t . The boy was underweight, although he slept soundly.  His enuresis,  which had stopped for the l a s t four months, was due to l a z i n e s s .  Al-  though he had shown himself t o be a fussy eater i n his foster homes, he ate'well w h i l e . i n the Orphanage. His progress i n school was normal-, but he was not 'ambitious.  He did not l i k e strenuous games-, but was fond  of badminton, reading, music, mechanical toys.  His companions were  usually younger than himself. He had l i e d c o n t i n u a l l y from the age of seven. There was a quest i o n as,to whether his-habit might have original ed•from a fear of punishment.  His foster home at that time was unsatisfactory. He r e g i s t e r -  ed no emotion, and seemed unimpressed when scolded.  I t was possible  that his indifference might be due t o the number of adjustments that he had had t o make. Since he regarded the f i r s t adoption home as his own,  he m i g h t h a v e b e e n h u r t and  affection  the  guardian's back.  5  at h i s abrupt l o s i n g o f i t .  He e n j o y e d a t t e n t i o  was g e n e r o u s and u n s e l f i s h , b u t w o u l d m i s b e h a v e behind, I n s p i t e of h i s happy-go-lucky nature,  his first  r e p l y t o a p r o p o s i t i o n was " n o " . The  t r e a t m e n t recommended  x>ia&  t h a t he be moved t o h i s new a d o p t i o n  home where he w o u l d be t h e o n l y one i n t h e home, a n d where he w o u l d have understanding foster-parents. for himself. The  Perhaps h e r e he c o u l d b u i l d up a  "centre"  A d o p t i o n was n o t recommended.  f o s t e r - m o t h e r t o o k h i m . B e c a u s e she was a f r a i d t h a t he w o u l d  be h u r t , she k e p t h i m f r o m p l a y i n g w i t h o t h e r b o y s . stated.that  he was e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s f o s t e r - h o m e .  A later  report,  T h e r e i s no.marked  i m p r o v e m e n t , e x c e p t t h a t he i s p l a y i n g w i t h t h e boys more. Case 17.  S t e a l i n g , whether s e r i o u s  most common d e l i n q u e n c i e s .  o r p e t t y t h e f t , i s one o f t h e  Again, w i t h very  o f t h l s j . d e l i n q u e n c y l i e i n t h e home.  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  t h e causes  Unhappy o r a n t a g o n i s t i c homes,  lack  o f a d e q u a t e s u p e r v i s i o n a n d t r a i n i n g make f e r t i l e g r o u n d i n w h i c h  this  f a u l t may f l o u r i s h .  attempt t o please  The u n h a p p i n e s s may s p r i n g f r o m a n u n r e w a r d e d  an u n s y m p a t h e t i c and e x a c t i n g p a r e n t .  f o r t h e l o s s o f a mother. some c a s e s , so g r e a t  I t may be g r i e f  I t may come f r o m a s e n s e o f u n f a i r n e s s .  is. the t e n s i o n t h a t t h e c h i l d  In  commits a t h e f t  s e r i o u s enough t o p l a c e h i m i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l .  The f o l l o w i n g ,  h o w e v e r , i s a t y p i c a l c a s e i n w h i c h a f o s t e r home was t h o u g h t t o be a d e q u a t e t o remedy t h e s t e a l i n g . A twelve year o l d g i r l , Her-father  was a. good workman*  s h r i e k and n a g . and  o f I . Q. 1 0 6 , was r e p o r t e d H e r m o t h e r was u n t i d y  for stealing.  and a p t t h e  She b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p a t i e n t was a " r o t t e n  would never improve.  She a l w a y s e x p e c t e d t h e w o r s t .  apple",  T h e r e were t w o  s i s t e r s and t h r e e b r o t h e r s , a l l normal. The p a t i e n t ' s behaviour at s c h o o l mid Brownies was good. however, money was always m i s s i n g .  The  patient was  remarkably  At home, generous.  She was t h e cause o f c o n t e n t i o n i n an otherwise p e a c e f u l home. The c l i n i c b e l i e v e d t h a t she would be b e t t e r o f f i n another home, as t h e unsympathetic  a t t i t u d e i n her own would probably h o l d h e r back.  However, s i n c e she had been improving a l i t t l e , i f the parents so des i r e d , she might be g i v e n a f u r t h e r t r i a l where she was. When t h e d i f f i c u l t y f i r s t a r o s e , t h e f a m i l y f i n a n c e s were low; now t h e y were more adequates Case 18. One case o f s t e a l i n g which was brought forward was due, not t o f a u l t y home c o n d i t i o n , but t o a reading d i s a b i l i t y , . Because i t e x e m p l i f i e s t h e o c c a s i o n a l p h y s i c a l background o f delinquency, i t i s w o r t h quoting i n f u l l . A boy 7 years 8 months o f age, and I.Q, 91, was brought t o t h e c l i n i c for s t e a l i n g .  H i s h e a l t h was only f a i r .  he had l o s t s e v e r a l months on account  H i s s c h o o l i n g had s u f f e r e d because  o f h i s poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .  H i s t e a c h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t he had t o be encouraged, o r t h a t he would f a l l behind.  Some days he seemed a l e r t ; o t h e r s , he could not c o n c e n t r a t e .  He was fond o f animals and books.  He was p o p u l a r , and played w i t h w e l l -  mannered boys o f h i s own age. He had taken pennies, which he s a i d were given t o him.  L a t e r , he  took a k n i f e , and then v a r i o u s amounts of money w i t h which t o buy t h i n g s t h a t he wanted. him.  The store-keeper was warned not t o s e l l anything t o  He was s e n s i t i v e , dependable and fond o f company; he n e i t h e r h e l d  a grudge, n o r showed o f f , although he was i n c l i n e d t o day-dream. The mother was at t h a t time unable t o have t h e boy w i t h h e r , H i s  home was a Children's Aid Society foster-home where he was  comfortable  and w e l l cared f o r , along with three other wards of that Society. The c l i n i c a l diagnosis of the case was that the boy v/as suffering from a serious reading d i s a b i l i t y , and that he needed special i n struction.  The stealing was a substitute for his complex concerning  his schooling. Case 19.  The cases of stealing which pass through the Juvenile  Court and I n d u s t r i a l Schools are very numerous. As t y p i c a l instances, the following are appended. A boy was sent to the c l i n i c by the Children's Aid Society because he s t o l e , l i e d and was generally unreliable In foster homes. He transferred to the School.  was  He was given every'help, and stayed longer  than necessary i n order to f i n i s h h i s grade eight work. He then went to h i s father who was working some distance away from any c i t y .  The  boy d i d w e l l there, u n t i l the father became so exacting that he drove his son away. The l a t t e r went to the towns looking for work. He  met  some men who gave him some stolen clothes. A l l innocently, he wore them down the main s t r e e t , and was taken i n charge by the p o l i c e .  He  was sent for ten days to Okalla, and then sent back to the School.  When  he l e f t there, he found work i n the lumber camps. He s t i l l writes to the School, and seems to be doing.well. Case 20.  Another boy, whose mother had died, at the age of seven  stated h i s intention of becoming a bold, bad bandit.  Since he did not  have the courage to f u l f i l , h i s ambition himself, he contented with encouraging others to do what he wanted t o do. with the other boys.  himself  He was not  popular  Since the School found-, plenty of work for him to  do, he f i n a l l y pretended that he was crazy.  So successful was his pre-  tense that he was sent to a mental h o s p i t a l for observation.  When the  fraud was discovered, he was then sent back to the school, where he made a general nuisance, of himself. He was out for two years, and then was returned for questioning. Although he i s s t i l l blustering, the authori t i e s have not been able to connect anything d e f i n i t e with him. - He has now come to the point where h i s great need i s to build up his s e l f confidence, so that he can transform his high-sounding phrases into concrete and acceptable action. Case 2 1 • A t h i r d boy who was sent to the school for stealing found i t very hard to s e t t l e down and become a reasonable c i t i z e n . the School, he joined his father i n the i n t e r i o r .  When he l e f t  I t i s unknown whether  his father was too s t r i c t with him or not, but, at any rate, the boy ran back to the School.  He was then sent to his mother, who kept him a  public school for s i x weeks t i l l the police sent him back to the School. The supervisor reports t h a t , although they cannot build him up physica l l y , he i s more, stable than when he came. Case 22.  S t i l l another boy was a Juvenile Court case.  He had  been charged with petty p i l f e r i n g twelve different times, and also with the theft of a. car. He was physically perfect, and would do nothing to abuse h i s body. He ran away from the School i n a "borrowed" speed boat.  He was then kept under close supervision t i l l he settled down,  worked with the others and became reasonably contented.  When he could  not find work on his dismissal, he helped himself to a car so that he could t r y h i s luck Inland. He was returned to the School, where he again proved himself a natural leader, both i n the gymnasium and i n the class and shop. The second time he was released he went home, where, his family report, he has completely changed. He i s now i n a Forestry camp, where he i s constructing, i n his spare time, a wrestling  ring for the amusement of the men, Case 23, The l a s t case i s of a boy, 9 years and 3 months old, who had a penchant for taking other boys' b i c y c l e s . A f t e r he had "borrowed" six i n one week, and had f a i l e d t o return two of them, leaving them where he had finished with them, he was sent to the School.  His father, who  had worked steadily t i l l h i s wife's death, was drinking heavily, correcting his two boys spasmodically and i n d i f f e r e n t l y .  The older  brother who was better behaved at t h i s time, was ashamed of the nine year old.  The two boys prepared t h e i r own meals whenever they f e l t hungry,  went t o bed when they were rea.dy, and allowed t h e i r two roomed shack, •it.  that had been clean while t h e i r mother l i v e d , become f i l t h y .  The young  boy became the favorite with the boys at the School, during his eighteen months there.  On his release he was placed i n a foster home i n a farm-  ing d i s t r i c t .  Twice he ran away back to the School so that he could be  \yith the" boys.  Following t h i s , he bought a. b i c y c l e , did w e l l for a time,  and then went w i l d again.  The foster home was too quiet for him after  the. companionship of f i f t y other boys. However, he has settled down f a i r l y w e l l now, and should do wett. Some of these cases could have been handled successfully outside of the I n d u s t r i a l School altogether.  In the case just quoted, the older  brother, who became a problem a f t e r the younger brother had l e f t , was dealt with s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n a foster home. Although that home i s s t i l l not far enough away from the father's influence, the boy had greatly Improved.  The brother, on the other hand, whose desire for a bicycle was  so strong that he would go any lengths t o f u l f i l i t , became i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ca.se who found i t d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e back into normal l i f e . I t would seem, then, that the removal of s t r a i n end tension i n the  -lives of these p o t e n t i a l delinquents may be the remedy. For the simpler cases, a foster home under wise supervision i s s u f f i c i e n t to resolve the problem.  For other cases of long standing which need con  stant t r a i n i n g and supervision, the I n d u s t r i a l School offers the best training*  Summary from Case S t u d i e s .  The cases f u l l y o u t l i n e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the f o r e g o i n g chapter were chosen as i l l u s t r a t i v e cases from three hundred t h a t had been carefully studied.  A l l the c h i l d r e n were s o - c a l l e d "problem  cases" -  c h i l d r e n who were not a d j u s t i n g h e a l t h i l y and acceptably e i t h e r t o t h e i r own  l i m i t a t i o n s or short comings o r to the thwartings and o b s t a c l e s i n  t h e i r environment  - c h i l d r e n who  more s e r i o u s l y maladjusted.  would, i n l a t e r l i f e , be expected t o be  T h e i r h a b i t s i n responding i n s o c i a l l y  unacceptable ways were a l r e a d y being formed. What were the l i m i t a t i o n s or thwart ings w i t h which they were faced? I n t h e f i r s t group o f cases, we f i n d t h a t some of the c h i l d r e n had p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; and because the urge f o r s o c i a l approval was being thwarted by these d i f f i c u l t i e s , the c h i l d r e n were compensating  for their feelings  of i n f e r i o r i t y by responding (behaving) i n unacceptable ways. the other cases i n t h i s group, we  In a l l  f i n d t h a t the d i f f i c u l t i e s o r o b s t a c l e s  l a y i n the home r e l a t i o n s - t e n s i o n on the p a r t of t h e parents, over d i r e c t i o n and over-anxiety by adult members of t h e f a m i l y .  In one  case,  a c h i l d had f o r m e r l y been t h e c e n t r e of a t t e n t i o n i n the f a m i l y because of i l l - h e a l t h , was now w e l l and,consequently, attention.  no longer the centre of  S i n c e h i s urge f o r s o c i a l approval was no longer being  s a t i s f i e d , he was  g a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n by responding i n u n d e s i r a b l e ways -  u n d e s i r a b l e as f a r as h i s f u t u r e development was  concerned.  In t h e second group of cases we f i n d t h a t , although the d i f f i c u l t i e s and o b s t a c l e s t h a t the c h i l d r e n are f a c i n g are p r a c t i c a l l y the same, these c h i l d r e n are responding i n ways d i f f e r e n t , but e q u a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e . They are developing such h a b i t s as s e l f i s h n e s s and l y i n g r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l h a b i t s such as n a i l b i t i n g , mannerisms, f e e d i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s .  In  the t h i r d group of cases, we s t i l l f i n d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the home,  as i n the other two groups, hut we also f i n d other d i f f i c u l t i e s , though here again i t i s the urge f o r s e l f - a p p r o v a l or mastery t h a t i s b e i n g thwarted.  Take, f o r example, the boy with t h e r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y .  Since  the urge f o r mastery was thwarted, he s a t i s f i e d i t by s t e a l i n g and other anti-social  activities.  From t h i s b r i e f summary of cases, i t may  be seen how  i t i s that  c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o respond t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s which they are c o n s t a n t l y encountering. to  The  c h i l d who  i s not a problem case i s one who  adjust i n a m e n t a l l y h e a l t h y way.  l e a r n i n g to respond  i s learning  Our problem case c h i l d r e n are  i n s o - c a l l e d "unhealthy" ways'.  The d i s c u s s i o n of our  cases shows t h a t t h i s l a t t e r group.can be t r a i n e d t o develop h a b i t s of adjustment  t h a t w i l l h e l p them t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n adult l i f e .  Only by  d e t e c t i n g s i g n s o f maladjustment i n the e a r l y formative years can we hope to  develop a w e l l adjusted race of a d u l t s capable of f u n c t i o n i n g up to the  f u l l extent of t h e i r i n h e r i t e d c a p a c i t i e s . are h e l p i n g towards t h i s g o a l .  Our C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c s  39.  Appendix, Additional Case H i s t o r i e s . >^  Case 24. Problem—lack  of i n i t i a t i v e .  I.Q. 96. Chronological age 6 years 7 months. Health-- Spinal meningitis makes her feet droop as she walks. She had a poor appetite. Habits. W i l l not sleep by herself—Cannot dress h e r s e l f , a l though she helps a l i t t l e . Has no interest i n school, and cannot be taught punctuality. Is taken to school by parent. The teacher has t o see that she eats lunch. Does not make friends on own i n i t i a t i v e , but only i f they go to her. Ho tantrums, and no deliberate disobedience, but simply lack of obedience. Is dependent rather than a f f e c t i o n a t e . F a m i l y — One brother, aged three, referred at the same time for temper tantrumso Treatment—Both children badly over-protected. The g i r l demands too much of parents* attention and help. They were cautioned to l e t her do more on her own—gradually to shorten the distance they took her to school, and the time spent with her at night. Case 25. Problem—Completely negative personality, and the physical trouble of enuresis. Cronological age—7 years 6 months. Mental age 6 years 6 months. (The boy's mental age would o r d i n a r i l y leave hirn outside the r e s t r i c t e d group used f o r t h i s study. However, the person giving the test made a note that the rating was not v a l i d because the patient was frightened.) History—The father had deserted. The mother drinks and smokes heavily. Two brothers and two s i s t e r s , one subnormal. Home conditions—Vei-y l i t t l e known, except that there i s poverty. H a b i t s — E n u r e s i s apparently hopeless. There i s no attempt made at school work. Patient i s s t i l l i n grade 1 . never been heard to form a complete sentence. Plan—  Fo st er-h ome.  Has  Case 26  a  Problem— Fear and nervousness; fear of the dark, fear of being alone, fear of anything new, Y  )  .''  H i s t o r y — Father no longer able to work. The mother fights a l l the boy's b a t t l e s , threatening the playmates with the police " i f they don't treat my boy right.'  f  1  Habits—  Eats what he l i k e s , and vomits what he d i s l i k e s . Can not be trusted t o stay i n bed, but weeps and whines. Is up ten or twelve times i n the night. He needs constant prodding to accomplish anything. Can play only as a much younger c h i l d would. Cries when anything . happens to him, and complains that he i s picked on. He i s at a sanatorium, and i s notices.bly worse a f t e r a v i s i t from his mother.  Treatment-The boy i s badly over-protected, and uses his fears to hold the centre of the stage. I f he should be kept where he i s , the mother should not v i s i t him. Case 27. Problem— A g i r l with nervous fears. j S J i i s t o r y — Father of.uncertain temper—had deserted. Mother bright and a t t r a c t i v e . Two older brothers, both normal, and one brother r e ferred at the same time for being nervous and i r r i t a b l e and hard to manage. Habits—  She was nervous about school, and wakened early for fear that she would be l a t e . She would not eat with strangers. Mother thought that she would help the s i t u a t i o n by sending the c h i l d to the Fresh A i r Camp, but patient had to be sent home because she refused t o eat.  Treatment-The boy's school should be changed, since he was backward , and.regarded as a nuisance where he was. The g i r l should be given normal outlets, and play with children of her own age. Case 28: Problem— Boy referred for crying and Age 12 years;  nervousness.  I . Q. 109.  H i s t o r y — Father was worried about the boy because several of the maternal family had committed suicide. Father often makes fun of son for being a cry-baby.  School—  Private school. On one occasion, was to tales part i n a play, but came home before i t started, '{[hen asked for explanation, he rationalized his actions. Was t o l d t h a t , as eldest of the family, he had responsib i l i t y . He went and enjoyed the play.  Treatment-The boy should be encouraged i n sports and other accomplishments so that he w i l l compensate w i l l and f e e l at home i n the presence of others. Follow-up—A report that the father has stopped j e e r i n g , and that the boy should do w e l l with the co-operation of his parents. Case 29. Problem—  Two brothers referred f o r nervousness.  Chronological age; 12 years, I . Q. 123. He was over-anxious to co-operate i n the psychometric t e s t , and became flustered when he could not understand what was waited of him. Habits—  Sleeps w e l l — i s mechanically minded—is dependable. His brother, although younger, i s t a l l e r , and the older brother feels i n f e r i o r .  Chronological age of brother, 9 years 3 months; I . 0. Habits—  126.  Cries too e a s i l y ; Day enuresis for a while, but trouble has cleared up now. He has many f r i e n d s . Fie i s mechanical and neat, where the brother i s not. He i s the youngest, and trades on that f a c t .  Treatments—The two should be encouraged i n group play and i n the learning of d i f f e r e n t games. They should j o i n Cub or Scout movements. Academically, t h e i r future w i l l present no problems, but they should be encouraged i n physical exercise to even up t h e i r personalities. Case 30. Problem—  Boy referred f o r nervousness and i r r i t a b i l i t y .  Chronological age 12 years 3 months; I . Q. Health—  109.  Never good. The only time his mother spanked him he fainted. He i s e a s i l y upset. One day when a boy i n his class had fought with the teacher about taking the strap, the patient had come home so excited he could not eat. He walks i n his sleep.  Companions— Boys and g i r l s of h i s own  age.  Character-  For the last year, i r r i t a b l e and unstable emotionally. Has been spanked f o r tantrums, with result noted above; has not been touched since. Is fond of children, but i s suspicious. He w i l l hold a grudge, and brood.  History—  Father had died. The mother had threatened suicide at that time. She i s nervous and e a s i l y upset. The home conditions are good.  Treatment— Since the mother i s of a f e a r f u l and anticipatory . type, and has radiated t h i s tendency to the boy, she i s advised not to overprotect hirn, but to encourage him t o do things for himself and t o lead him into group sports. Case 31 Problem—  Boy of sixteen who was i n c o r r i g i b l e .  Intelligence Q u o t i e n t — 93. History—  The case seems to be complicated with poor family heredity, although there i s no specific weakness In the boy. Father had dementia praecox with paranoidal tendencies. The mother had died when the patient was a c h i l d . There are two brothers and one s i s t e r , none of high mental grading.  Home—  The standards of the Step-mother's home are high but exacting, and the atmosphere was antagonistic.  Habits—  The boy sleeps w e l l , although he masturbates, smokes heavily, and has been intoxicated. He i s d i r t y i n appearance. He i s laxy, Insolent, quarrelsome, conceited and s e l f i s h .  Treatment— I t i s recommended that he be deported t o his father's country where i n f l u e n t i a l r e l a t i v e s might procure him what he wants—a position as a s a i l o r . Case 32. Problem—  G i r l , i n c o r r i g i b l e , who has committed one t h e f t .  History—  The father a man of college education who deserted the mother. The mother an unstable woman who t r i e s to s h i f t her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s onto others.  Habits—  The patient i s out every evening, sometimes t i l l twelve. (She has not been encouraged t o bring her friends home, because her mother was ashamed of the  basement rooms i n which they l i v e . ) According to the mother's report, the g i r l w i l l not bathe frequently enough. (The suggestion was raised that t h i s r e fusal may be due to i n s u f f i c i e n t privacy. There i s no bathroom.) On one occasion she had taken twenty dollars of her mother's money which she spent on shows and gave to friends. (Since the stealing was only a specific instance, i t may be considered an outcrop of her general attitude.) She constantly uses profane language. She i s untruthful, quarrelsome, stubborn, and suspicious of her s i s t e r . Treatment— I t i s recommended that she be placed i n a foster home for at least six months, because of her need f o r t r a i n i n g and management. Since she needs the closest supervision, i f she cannot get t h i s adequately i n a foster home, she should be placed i n the G i r l ' s i n d u s t r i a l School* The stealing w i l l disappear as the i r r i t a t i o n caused by the home grows l e s s . I t i s suggested that there be v/ork done i n the home to prepare f o r the patient's re-establishment should she improve. Case 33. Problem—  Boy with temper tantrums.  Age 3"years.  Psychometric test not taken because of h i s age. He comes from a normal family and seems to be bright.  History--  Has a s i s t e r who i s a. problem because she lacks i n i t i a t i v e . The parents are i n ordinary circumstances.  Health--  Good.  Habits—  Temper tantrums at least once a day when he cannot have what he wants. He stamps and k i c k s , and then shakes a l l over. I t i s hard to divert h i s attention from one object of Interest to another. He i s said not t o understand very well what i s said to him.  Treatment— Both children are overprotected. The boy can manage his mother as he wishes. The parents are advised to l e t the children do more on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Case 3^ Problem—  Boy with temper tantrums.  Chronological age 3 years 4 months; mental age 3 years 2 months. History—  Mother v/as i l l during most of the pregnancy. The c h i l d had had nurse-maid care, but had t i r e d out two nurses. There had been a long succession of physical  Hi.  i l l n e s s e s . He comes from a family outstanding i n l i t e r a r y endeavor. Health—*  Wakens easily and stays av/ake. W i l l not eat when crossed i n a n y t h i n g — i s never hungry. Cannot hold p e n c i l , nor use his hands. Cannot repeat any nursery rhymes. Has no playmates.  Treatment— His i l l n e s s e s have l e f t him the centre of attention. He should he taught to do things for himself, should have d e f i n i t e times for play and should not be i n terfered with at that time. He should attend kindergarten for the play with other children. He i s overdirected and supervised, and not taught a s u f f i c i e n t amount of accurate and completed fact. (Stories should be read repeatedly), With more outlet for his energies, he w i l l eat and sleep better. Follow-up— He greatly enjoys Nursery School. He sleeps better, i s less i r r i t a b l e , and i s improving i n every way. Case. 35, Problem—  G i r l so unhappy because of d i s l i k e for step-mother that she runs away.  Health—  Thin and wiry b u i l d .  Habits—  U n t i l her father's remarriage, she was very d i r t y . Now she i s clean, with enuresis checked.  She i s highly strung.  Companions— No s p e c i a l f r i e n d s , but plays with class mates at school and with step-sisters at home. She i s not encouraged t o bring friends home. P e r s o n a l i t y — She i s agreeable, and untruthful only i n matters concerning the step-mother, whom she has d i s l i k e d since her father's marriage. Her d i s l i k e may be caused by objections advanced by some old friends of the father. On one occassion, she ran away to her grandmother. She was sent home, scolded, but not punished. Later, she ran away, but returned to school so as not to miss any new work. There are marks on her body which she says were i n f l i c t e d by the step-mother. They are believed, however, to be self-inflicted. Family—  The father i s a t h i n , harrassed man, much disturbed by the s i t u a t i o n . The mother neglected the c h i l d and husband. The step-mother has a c h i l d from a previous marriage. The union i s satisfactory, with no bickering. The parents are afraid of what step the patient may take next. She has threatened the father.  J  Treatment— I t i s advisable to remove the patient from the home to see, i f her attitude toward the step-mother may improve. The patient i s not t r u l y revealing hers e l f i n the home. She should be encouraged t o speak of her feelings freely to the mother, while the woman remains as silent as possible.  Problem—  Boy who has had contact with the Juvenile Court for s t e a l i n g . Referred for running away.  Chronological age 15 years, mental age 14 years 6 months. Health—  Normal.  There are marks of old wounds.  Habits—  Sleep I r r e g u l a r , bed-time at 11 or 1 A.M. He had no night t e r r o r s . Fortnightly sleeps away from home i n a barn. He smokes heavily.. He has f a i l e d twice i n school because of lack of e f f o r t . He l e f t school several months ago, and has since- been "just hanging around". He f e l t that most of the teachers "had i t i n for me»"  I n t e r e s t s — Boxing. He has a gang who sneak into shows, pick up scrap-iron for the the junk dealer. He belongs to no public club or organization, but appears to be the leader of his - own gang. Personality—He i s easy t o approach, but resentful of c r i t i c i s m that he feels i s unjust. He i s quicktempered, s e l f confident, l o y a l to his friends. He i s not s p i t e f u l , nor does he hold a grudge. History—  His parents are immigrants, now on r e l i e f . There are ten children. The home conditions are clean and t i d y . The family Is musical.  Treatment— He wishes to attend Barber College, The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the boy's not having enough t o do. He should be kept busy. His interest i n boxing might be diverted to gymnasium work under supervision. The boy admits his d i f f i c u l t i e s , and realiz.es where they w i l l lead i f they are continued. He should remain at home under the friendly supervision of the court. Case  37,  Problem—  A g i r l who runs away.  History—  Father had f a i r health. He was nervous and restless, and disappeared some ten years ago. The mother i s doing domestic work. There Is one brother, who i s normal and bright.  H6.  Home--  The house i s neat. The mother has roomers, although the patient does not help her much. The patient would rather do anything than housework.  Companions-- She has many who undermine the mother's control and keep the g i r l out at nights. Work—  She has had three housework positions which she l e f t a f t e r a short time because, she said, they were too hard.  I n t e r e s t s — Swimming, b i c y c l i n g and reading "trash". Treatment— She should take any opportunity for factory work, and j o i n the Y.W.C.A. for group i n s t r u c t i o n , so that she w i l l have her time more f u l l y occupied. Case 38. Problem—  A g i r l reported for s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , hurting companions and destroying property.  Chronological age 11 years 4 months, I . Q. 99. History— ' " < . >  The father i s a present time he The mother, who and was only an  steady worker, although at the i s working at whatever he can get. i s dead, was not a clean housekeeper, i n d i f f e r e n t mother.  Habits—  The g i r l i s always hungry. At night she i s always wide awake rather than drowsy. He had bad sex habits.  School—  She Is i n grade s i x , and not doing her best work.  Treatment— She must be moved from her present s i t u a t i o n . The father and grandmother, with whom she i s staying, are w i l l i n g for t h i s to be done. Since she was untrained and neglected when taken by the grandmother, she needed more supervision than the old woman could give her. Case 39. Problem.  A g i r l with kleptomaniac tendencies.  Age 13 years 3 months; I . Q.. 94. History—  The father i s on pension because of d i s a b i l i t y . The mother i s always i n an extremely nervous condition. There are three brothers and two s i s t e r s who are a l l excitable and Irresponsible.  Character and habits. She i s Inclined to be quarrelsome.  Al-  Hi  though she i s obedient and f r i e n d l y , she i s egot i s t i c a l , quick-tempered and impulsive. Her f i r s t known theft was the sum of eleven d o l l a r s o She has been caught s i l v e r i n g copper coins. She has stolen a dinghy and a b i c y c l e . She was accused of breaking, entering and stealing two r i f l e s , money and keys. Treatment— I t i s no use to t r y leaving her at home, as there i s no support there, only constant checking and nagging by the mother. There w i l l be only d i f f i c u l t i e s i f there i s an attempt t o place her i n a foster home. The best solution i s the I n d u s t r i a l School.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105009/manifest

Comment

Related Items