UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A historical sketch of Roman law Russell, Elphinstone Mather 1938

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A HISTORICAL -SE^OHOOFJ JBffiHI. MW by E l p h i n s t o n e Mather R u s s e l l * A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS (Y*. (V 1 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia October. 1938, HISTORICAL SXBTCH ,QE ROJfcH TABLE OF CONTENTS. PART I.1. A H i s t o r i c a l Sketch of J S o n B n ' L S M • ' •'- • !• PROLOGUE: Great L e g a c i e s 1 • laome'k; V o c a t i o n 1 n e c e s s i t y . f o r H i s t o r i c a l Treatment 2 H i s t o r i c a l D i v i s i o n s 3 CHAPTER I. Tlie O r i g i n and Development of Roman Law. 4 The P r a c t i c a l Romans . . 4 Sources of Roman Law 5 "Leges Regiae" 5 R e g u l a t i v o s of P u b l i c & P r i v a t e Order 6 C o l l a p s e of The Monarchy 6 Roman Law.Offleers • 6 L&gi's3Ga1j ive?.*.Bo dies .7 "Mos Ma jo rum" 7 C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f "Mos Majorum" 8 C o m p i l a t i o n of X I I Tab l e s 8 Contents o f X I I Tables 9 The T r a n s i t i o n from U n w r i t t e n to W r i t t e n Law 9 G a i n s of the P l e b e i a n s 10 Subsequent L e g i s l a t i o n 10 Roman E x p a n s i o n 10 , Sources of "Jus Scrpptum" 11 Laws o f the " C o m i t i a C e n t u r i a t a " 11 Enactments o f " C o n c i l i u m P i e b i s " 11 The P e c u l i a r L e g i s l a t i v e System I S . The Senate 12 S e n a t o r i a l Decrees 13 The Scope of the S t a t u t e s 13 The Urban P r a e t o r s h i p 14 The P e r e g r i n P r a e t o r s h i p 14 The Stages o f Development of the E d i c t 15 The "Lex A e b u t i a " and the "Lex Cornelia'" 15 The "Jus Gentium" 16 S i m i l a r i t y of Law Merohant and t h e "Jus Gentium" 17 The "Jus N a t u r a l e " and t h e "Jus Gentium" 17 I n f l u e n c e of P r a e t o r s on the P r i v a t e Law 18 Resemblances between "Jus Honorarium" and E n g l i s h '. j S f u i t y 19 D i f f e r e n c e s between "Jus Honorarium" and E n g l i s h EquitySO S e c u l a r i z a t i o n of Law • 20 "Republican J u r i s t s 21 • P r o f e s s i o n a l Work . 2 1 Greek I n f l u e n c e 22 (II) E f f e c t s of P r o v i n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n • . E f f e c t of the D e c l i n e of R e l i g i o n on l a w 24 E f f e c t of the D e c l i n e of Morals on Law 25 CHAPTER I I . , THE Consummation of Roman Law 31 B.C. ; to 235 A. B. P o l i t i c a l u p h eavals ' 26 •General S h a r a c t e r i s t i & s of t h i s P e r i o d 26' Reasons f o r the C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of Roman Law 27 Important Enactments of the " C o m i t i a " 27 S e n a t o r i a l Decrees 27 . The P e r p e t u a l E d i c t 28 The P o s i t i o n and C h a r a c t e r of J u r i s t s 28 The l e ^ a l S c h o o l s • . • 29 L i t e r a t u r e of the C l a s s i c a l Roman Law 30 Gaius 30 • The D i s c o v e r y of R i e b u h r 31 The " I n s t i t u t e s " of Gaius 31 Sextus Pomponius 31 L i f e of P a p i n i a n • 32 W r i t i n g s o f P a p i n i a n 32 L i f e of U l p i a n ' 33 feiSings of U l p i a n 33 P a u l 33 Modestinus 33 The Method of- the Roman J u r i s t s 33 Idea of a "Jus N a t u r a l e " . 34 i m p e r i a l C o n s t i t t i t i o n s • 34 L e g a l and P o l i t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e of I m p e r i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n s - 35 Antonine C ons t i t u t i on 35 3HAPTER I I I . D e c l i n e , Codes, & C o n s o l i d a t i o n of Roman' P e r i o d of Decay 37 P o l i t i c a l Changes .37 Glass D i s t i n c t i o n s 37 C h r i s t i a n I n f l u e n c e on Roman Law 38 J u r i d i c a l .Stagnation 38 Be r y t u s Law S c h o o l . . 39 Ordinances ' . 39 G r e g o r i a n and Hermogenian Codes 40 The " C o l l a t i o " 4.-0 The V a t i c a n Fragments . 40 The " Q o n s u l t a t i o " 40 The Theodosian Code ' 4 0 Contents of Theodosian Code 41 T h e ' i l o v e l l a e of Theodosius & V a l e n t i n i a n 41 The P a l l of. the Western Empire ' 42-The' a d v e n t of the B a r b a r i a n s 42 The B r e v i a r y 42 The Code o f Theodorio • ' 43 The Burguuidian Code , 43 The Extent o f Ro m a n i z a t i o n of T r i b a l L a w 43 ( i l l ) ' -age P o l i t i c a l Changes 44 Reasons f o r J u s t i n i a n ' s C o d i f i c a t i o n of Roman Law . 4 4 The "Corpus l u r i s C i v i l i s " 44 The Codes • 45 C o m p i l a t i o n of the D i g e s t 45 C o n t r i b u t o r s t o the D i g e s t 45 arrangement of the D i g e s t 45 C r i t i c i s m s of D i g e s t 46 The I n s t i t u t e s 46 . The'Hovellae" • 47 . Importance' of J u s t i n i a n ' s Enactments 48 C r i t i c i s m s of '"Corpus l u r i s C i v i l i s " 48 The. Value of the "Corpus l u r i s C i v i l i s " • 48 CHAPTER IV. T r a n s m i s s i o n of Roman Law, The ".Corpus l u r i s C i v i l i s " i n e t h e E a s t 50 The " B a s i l i c a " .50 The " S c h o l i a " - 50 The "Lex Romana O u r i e n s i s " 51 T r i b a l Law . . 51 The S u r v i v a l of Roman Law 52 The G l o s s a r i s t s 52 The Importance o f Bologna. 53 I m e r i u s and o t h e r G l o s s a r i s t s 53 Canon Law & Modern I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law 54 V a r i e d " R e c e p t i o n " of Roman Law 54 Roman Law I n England i n the l a t h Century 54 The B a r t o l i s t s • 55 Study of Roman. Law i n France i n the 11th & 12th C e n t u r i e s " 55 L i t e r a r y Renaissance i n I t a l y 56 Roman Law i n France i n the 13th & 14th c e n t u r i e s 56 Fre n c h l e g a l P r o d u c t i o n s , 57 "Coutumes de B e a u v a i s i s " 57 Roman Elements .58 3eau¥manoir7s M o d i f i c a t i o n of Roman P r i n c i p l e s 58 E n g l i s h O p p o s i t i o n t o Roman -Law- 58 E n g l i s h a u t h o r s on Roman Law I n 12th & 13th c e n t u r i e s 59 Henry de B r a c t oi l ' s "Laws & Customs of England" 59 Bra c t o n ' s M o d i f i c a t i o n of Roman Concepts. 60 Roman Elements i n B r a c t on's Booic 60 "Confusion- : n i n Germany In 14th & 15th C e n t u r i e s 61 J u r i d i c a l Improvements i n Germany 62 i l R e c e p t i o n " i n 15th c e n t u r y 62 . Spread of Roman Law i n Germany 63 " I n f l u e n c e of Roman • . .A _\ _ - a ¥ Law an Europe i n M i d d l e Ages 63 R e c e p t i o n of Roman Law i n Renaissance P e r i o d , 64 Andrea A l c i a t i 65 Cuius 65 Doneau & Hotman •. • '66 C h a r l e s Dumoulin • 66 Ro oert Joseph Poth&er 66 P o t h i e r ' s Pandects 67 (IV) Pothier"s Arrangement 67 Import an oe of P o t h i e r ' s W r i t i n g s 67 The "Reichskammergericht" i n Germany 68 The O p p o s i t i o n of North. ^ Germany to C i v i l law 68 Soman Jurisprudence . i n England' 69 Roman law i n S c o t l a n d 70' Roman law i n H o l l a n d 72 Roman-Dutch law i n South A f r i c a 122 German G i v i l i a n S o f the 18th Century . 73 The H i s t o r i c a l S c h o o l of Germany . 73 F r e d e r i c k C h a r l e s von Savigny 74 Other German C i v i l i a n s of 19th Century 74 The N a t u r a l law Schools 74 The Fate of Roman law 75 PART I I . • flyman- Elements i n Modern J u r i s p r u d e n c e . Roman law in.Modern J u r i s p r u d e n c e 76 l a t i n Phrases . 76 l a t i n Maxims 77 U s e f u l L a t i n Maxims i n T o r t s & C o n t r a c t s 77 , The Hey t o C o n t i n e n t a l Law Systems and to I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law 78 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law 79 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law i n the F u t u r e 79 P r i v a t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law 80 L e g i t i m a t i o n ; , 80 The Corporate P e r s o n a l i t y 82 i'Commixtio" and " C o n f u s i o " 83 BaiIme nt 84 Roman Elements i n Real P r o p e r t y 85 Water R i g h t s i n a D e f i n e d Channel 85 Water Plights i n an U n d e f i n e d Channel 85 Stagnant Ponds 86 • The Ownership of I s l a n d s 86 Easements .; 87 P r i n c i p l e of U s u f r u c t 88 The Law of S u c c e s s i o n 89 E f f e c t o f Blirth of a C h i l d on W i l l 90 Roman Elements i n The Law of C o n t r a c t 91 M i s t a k e ' 91 Types of E r r o r 92 "Caveat Emptor" 94 Di s c h a r g e of C o n t r a c t 94 O b l i g a t i o n s .'''Quasi e x o o i i t r a e t u 2 ' . -96 Roman Law and T o r t s 97 The Art of .advocacy 98 I n f l u e n c e of Q i n t i l i a n - 98 -. oc L i t e r a r y Form ^  09 Conduct o f advocate 100 Importance of C i v i l Law 101 PART I I I . Roman Law i n Canadian Law S c h o o l s . Roman Law i n - Quebec 103 Roman Law i n Common Law P r o v i n c e s 103 The Western Law Schools 104 (V) Pa^e „ L e g a l Education i n O r i t I s h Oolumbia 104 Dr. Lee's S u g g e s t i o n 105 Recommendations 106 '•••The. Value of Roman law i n L e g a l E d u c a t i o n 107 Summary of Value of Roman Law i n L e g a l E d u c a t i o n 108 S e i i a e f f e r ; and Vi/eif e l s "GtWtti&riss" of Soman law 109 Recommendation of D o c t o r Aunroe Smith 110 EPILOGUE; 110 TABLE OE CONTESTS I Table o'f Oases VI APPEMDIX: O h r o n o l o g l e a l Table 112 L a t i n Phrases 119 L a t i n Maxims 144 Sxeerpt 152 B i b l i o g r a p h y 154 (VI) TAB 13 -Off -OASES., Ac t o n v« Blunde11 (18431 12 MA A W. 324, p. 75, 85, and 101. Irmory v. D e l a m i r i e (1722) 1 S t r . 505 - p. 77, ^ttwood v. H a y Main C o l l i e r i e s (1926) 1 Oh. 444. p. 458 - 85. B a l l a r d v. Tomlinson (1885) 29 Ch. D, 115, p. 121 - p. 86. B l a k e l y v. M u l l e r (1903) 2 i l . B . 760 - p. 95. B l v t h v. Curuf^: (1885) 12 &. 674 - p. 90. 3ou.lton v. Jones (1857) 2 H. & I. 547 - p. 93 B r i t i s h ' W a g o n Co. v. l e a (1879) 5 A.B.D. 149 - p. 93. B r a d f o r d Corp. v. P i c k l e s (1895) A. C. 587 - p. 86. Buckley v. Gross (1863) S B . & S. 566 - p. 83 Byrne v. Boadle•(1863) 2 H. & C* 722 - p. 97, Ca l d e r v. K a i k e t (1840) 3 Moo. P.0.0. 28 -p. 97 Calypso - The (1828) 2 Hagg. 209 p. 96. C a n t i e r e San Rocco v. Clyde S h i p - b u i l d i n g Co. (1922-24) A. 0.226 (1922 3. 0. 723; r e v e r s e d 1923 S.O. (H.I.) 105 - 95 C a r t e r v. St.. Mary Abboifs, K e n s i n g t o n \Testry (1900) 64 J.P. 548 p. 96. Chandler v. Webster (1904) 1 i l . B . 493, 499, p. 95, Chast-more v. R i c h a r d s (1859) 7 H. L. 384, p. 86. C l a r k v. L i n d s a y (1903) 88 l . T . 198, p. 95, Cl a r k e v. C a r f i n C o a l Co. (1891) A. C. 412, p. 81. Coggs v. Bernard (1703) 2 Ld. Raym. 909, p. 84. C o u t u r i e r v. H a s t i e (1856) 2 H. 1. 673, p i . 9 3 . Cox v. Troy . 5 B. & A i d . 480, p. 68. Cundy v. L i n d s e y (1878) 3 A. 0. 459, p. 93.' .Carii^.g.:. v. Coponius (n.d.) - p. 90. Cusack v. Day. (1925) 36 B.C.R. 106, 90 D a l t o n v. -angus (1881) L. R. 6 'App. Cas. 740, p. 88:: Dashwood v. Magnaic (1891) 3 Ch. D. 306, p. 88, 89. Duf f i e l d v. SLwes (1827) 1 B l i g h N. S. 497, p. 90. E a s t e r n C o n s t r u c t i o n v. N a t i o n a l T r u s t (1914) A. 0.197 , p. 96 F l a c k v. W i l l i a m s (1900 A. C. 176 p. 92. F l e t t ' s T r u s t e e s v. E l p h i n s t o n (1900) 38 S. L. R. 564, p. 91. F l e t c h e r v. Hylands (1866 ) I . 3. 1 Ex. 265, p. 86. Frogmo r t o n v. Holyday (1765) (3 B u r r . 1624) p. 91 F o s t e r v. Mackinnon (1869) L. R. 4 C. P. 711 p. 92. • G a i n e r s v. R y c r o f t (1901) 17 S. C. 569, 19 A. C. 130, p. 90. Goff v. Great N o r t h e r n Railway Co. 2 E. & B. 849, pp. 77. Gompertz v. Bart l e t t (1853 ) 2 E. &r B. 849, p. 93. H a l l v. H a l l (1891) 18 R. 690 - p. 90. Halton & Go. v. Jones (1910) A. C. 20 p. 77. I l o t t v. W i l k e s - 3 B. & M. '304 p. 77. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Banting Corp. v. Ferguson Shaw & Sones (1910) S. C. 182 - p. 83. ( V I I ) Johnstone v. Johnstone (1817) 1 P M l . 447 p. 90. Jones v. S c u l l a r d (1898( 2 Q. B. 565 p. 77. Kearney v, lond<, B r i g h t o n & South Coast E l y . Co. (1871) I , R. 6 A* B. 759, p. 98. E e i g h l e y v. Durant (1901) A. 0. 240, p. 96. Kennedy v. Panama M a i l Co* (1867) I.R. 2 -' 2 Q.B.580, p. 92. Eeniiffidy v. Thomas son (1929) 1 Ch. 426, p. 94. K e r r v. M a r t i n (1840) 2 D. 752, p. 81. LewisVT. JGlay' (-1898) L. J . Q.B. 224, p. 92. L i n l i t h g o w Mags, v, E l p h i n s t o n e . (1768) S c o t c h M. D i e t . 12, -805 p. 86. MaOartney v. Londonderry " Lough S w i l l y H l y . Co. (1904) C. 501 p. 85, McLean V. C l y d e s d a l e Banking Co. 9 A. C. 105, p. 68. .Macpherson"s E x e c u t r i x - v . MacKay (1932) 8, C. 565, p. 90. Mason v. H i l l (1835) 5 B. & Ad. I , p. 85. M o r r i s v, B i c k e t (1866) 1 H. 1. (Sc. ) 47, p. 85. M o r r i s v. R i d d i c k (1867) 5 M. 1036 p. 90. Nugent v. Smith (1875) 1 C.P.D. 19 (1876) 423, p. 84. Orr Ewing v. Colquhoun (1877) 2 App. Gas. 839, p. 854, p. 85. P a t e r s o n v. McEwan's T r u s t e e s (1881( 8 R. 646 p. 90. P i r i e v. P i r i e (1873) 11 M. 941 p. 90. R a f f l e s v. Wichelhauso (1864) 2 H. &• G. 906 p. 92.. Robs on v. S h a r p e ^ j v ^ Drummond (1831) 2 B. & A. 303. p. 93. S a l v a d o r (The) (1909) 2 S t . L. R. 384 p. 94. S c o t t v, Goulson (1903 2 Ch. 249 G. A. p. 94. Simpson v. Roberts(1931) S. C. 259, p. 90/ S i n c l a i r v. Brougham (1914) A. C. 398, p. 102. Smith v. Hughes (1871) L. R. 6 Q> B.D. 597, p. 94. Smith v. Wheatcroft (1876) 0. Ch. D. 223, p. 93. Spence v. U n i o n Marine Insurance Co. (1868) L.R.3 C. P. 427, p Stevenson v. Stevenson (1932) S. 0. 657 p. 90 St e w a r t . v . Kennedy (1890) 15 App. C a s . p. 121 p. 94, S t r i c k l a n d v. Turner (1852) 7 Ex. 209 p. 94 Samson v. Davie (1886) 4 R. 113, p.88.A Swindon Waterworks Co. v. V k ' i l t s & Berks Canal N a v i g a t i o n Co. (1875( L. R. 7 H. L. 697 p. 85 'Taylor v. C a l d w e l l (1863) 3 B. & 3. 826 p. 84 Thomas v. Quatermaine 18 A.B.D. 685 , p. 77. Thorogoods 1 case .(1-584) 2 Co. Rep. 9. p. 92. Ward v. 'Turner (1752) 2 Vesey, 431 p. 90. Ward.v. Hobbs (1878) 4 ^pp. C a s . 13 p. 94. Watson v. Shankland (1871) 10 M. 142 p. 95. Webster v. C e c i l (1861) 30 Beav. 62 p. 94. , Wedderburn v. Scrimgeour (1666) M. D i e t . 6587 p 91. Wylie & Lochhead v. M i t c h e l l (1870) 8 M. 552. p. 83. Young v. B a n k i e r D i s t i l l e r y Co. (1893) A . 0. 691 s698p p. 85. A HISTOHI GAD.. SZ^Gg^^^l^l^j ; PROLOGUE:y •.. •'" From time immemorial the Jaistory of A c i v i l i s a t i o n diss closes the'rise and f a l l of great nations; these nations, ;however, i n the time of t h e i r greatness have made immortal; contributions to the progress of mankinds Ancient Egypt whose art and, science were nurtured in the valley of the N i l e gave imankind the fundamentals .of geometry,, and the elementary principles of -architecture as embodied i n the Gr.eAt- Pyramid. The-inhabitants of the T i g r i s and Euphrates' valley produced many s c i e n t i f i c / inventions,. most, notable of which were the pulley and lever. During this time the. nomads wandering i n . .. the/desert fringe of the f e r t i l e Orescent were experiencing ' ^^ .e^ i ; . - r - j e l i g i ou s . ' traj^ f o rmat i on ; ; the primit Ive notion of 'oi^tfH-'tXKal-'.go.dS::was being displaced by the r e a l i z a t i o n of one supreme God; thus the Hebrew nomads bequeathed.to posterity: a religious conception that, has been man's anchor and i n spirals; tion: for generations, Anid yet man lacked many c u l t u r a l r e f i n e -ments/and" e s s e n t i a l s ; - a n , a l p h a b e t suitable f o r rapid use and international transactions must be invented i f better relations were to be developed, one that would be more practical'.than the awkward hieroglyphics of the Egyptians, and more p r a c t i c a l than the. large clumsy, cuneiform writing of the Babylonians; painting lacked perspective;, sculpture was s t i l l i n i t s i n -fancy; the science of democratic government Ahad yet to be evolved;.-. philosophy had yet to be born; and. law, i n the modern interpretation of the word, had been suggested, but not completely evolved, In the time of Hammurapin i n Babylonia and i n the age of Minos- in Crete. These precious g i f t s Phoenicia, Greece, and Borne were^ destined to give to mankind. The/practical Phoenician traders of the Mediterranean conceived the idea of the alphabet of today; the b r i l l i a n t , ingenious, daring, p r o l i f i c minds of Greek cit i z e n s pro duo eft', the. funda-mental principles of architecture, sculptilre^v and philosophy and some of the greatest l i t e r a r y masterpieces the world has known; the Roman mind, less b r i l l i a n t , , less daring, . but' more practical and more conservative, moulded for us the basic principles'; of law, : •> War f o r Rome was both a necessity and a means - to an end.; the law of survival decreed that she must t r a i n her: citizens' to bear arms for,the state, Originally she waged defensive wars; but, with,:',the passing of time,, the Roman c i t i z e n -soldiers carried into the midst of her enemies the Roman eagle, and subdued her neighbours-in a series of struggles. Conquest,, however,. was her immediate objective but organization of the vassal states,was her ultimate, i f unconscious, goal. Rome^  though late i n r e a l i z i n g her dest|ny of imposing the "Pax Somana'1 on her opponents along the Mediterranean eventu-a l l y applied herself seriously to her great Vocation. Rome (2) I assumed the dual role of governor and guardian which was hers I by right of -'conquest.' Conquest brought re s p o n s i b i l i t y and with 1 re s p o n s i b i l i t y came the urgent need f o r developments i n law, j a law which would justly and equitably s a t i s f y the requirements ; . of society. To this task a l l the genius and b r i l l i a n c e of j Soman o f f i c i a l s and j u r i s t s w/ere. devoted- t h e i r contributions J made i t the jurisprudence of the Romanworld, ( l ) . Indeed St. 1 Paul.,: the Christian martyr, paid a genuine tribute to the I J u s t i c e of Roman law when he i n distant Asia Minor demanded a I 'dfiD&p-. t r i a l ; for him the fairness of Roman law was not a myth j but an actual f a c t . Paul's words, "Ciyis Romanus sum" ( l am a Roman citizen") express his great f a i t h i n Roman justice and re-. S,echo the greatness of Rome's g i f t to the world. (2). Of a l l positive systems of law, no body of law lends i t s e l f more readily to h i s t o r i c a l development than Roman law. More-over, the Roman 'law has one decided advantage over the other systems of law i n that i t i s a homogeneous body complete i n i t s e l f . Rome deliberately and necessarily: adopted architecture, sculpture', and philosophy from Greece~t but; her jurisprudence was essentially Her' own and any: f r u i t f u l legal p r i n c i p l e s , borrowed made them her own. Again, the evolution o f Roman law i s con-tinuous and unbroken, the various stages of the. progress of law from i t s genesis to maturity can be traced i n unbroken continuity. Beginning i n 753 B. G., and continuing i t s course t i l l the death of Justinian i n .&. AD. 565, the Roman law has an authenticated evolution of about 1000 years. No other system of law, ancient or modern, has as remarkable a develop-ment as the development of Roman law. 1. Asquith, H. H.: Introduction: "Legacy.of/Rome". "This (Roman Law) was the domain i n which Rome showed con-* structive genius, she founded, developed, and systematized the jurisprudence of the world". A Decia r e u i l : Rome .the Law-Giver: - - - - - - p. Q» She considered her own law good for the subject peoples and gradually, by constant suggestion, induced them to submit to i t ; and because her laws, always introduced v.A..'.™ by the same sure methods held sway f o r a long time over very large and diverse regions and became insensibly adjusted to the most varied conditions of l i f e that arose while her empire lasted or could arise i n the future, she bequeathed to the world a body of Law glnd of Jurisprudence by. which a section of the human race has l i v e d ever since; a body, or .. more accurately, several bodies of doctrine and1 of ratio n a l forms f o r almost a l l the situations and fo r many aspects of soc i a l l i f e . - - At the b eg i nn i ng of the f i f t h century, when the tide of barbarism "was already .sweeping over Western Europe, a poet of Roman Gaul'sang over the ruins the im-mortal triumph of her laws: "Porrige. victuras romana i n saecula leges, . Solaque f a t a l e s non vereare. coles". ••. . Rutilius Olaudius lumahtiuss, Itiner, 20, 133-4. 2. lew Testament, The Acts: Chapter 22, Sec. 24,, and Acts 23 and 28. Words of 3? est us to Agrippa: "For i t seemeth. to me tin-reasonable to send a prisoner, and not withal to sign i f y the crimes l a i d against him". New Testament., The Acts,: ,. Chapter 25, sec. 27* (3) The h i s t o r i c a l development of Roman law i s analogous to the development of a p l a n t ; i t . g^rew^blossomed and decayed. During the p e r i o d of s p r i n g growth Roman law escaped from i t s o r i g i n a l f o r m a l i s m and l i t e r a l i s m and s t e a d i l y Improved. The f l o w e r i n g of Roman law took p l a c e i n the f i r s t t h r e e c e n t u r i e s a f t e r s the b i r t h of O h r i s t ; these c e n t u r i e s were the c e n t u r i e s of the b l e n d i n g of the p r i n c i p l e s of e q u i t y and the elements of l e g a l i t y . A f a t a l d e c a y . f o l l o w e d t h e h e a l t h y development of Roman law. T h i s decay s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h the p o l i t i c a l upheavals, the d e g e n e r a t i o n of the Romans, and the in r o a d s of the b a r b a r i a n s i n t o the empire. To u n f o l d the drama of Roman law, most modern w r i t e r s , s uch as Gibbon and Mu.irhead, have f o r the t w o f o l d purpose of convenience and s y s t e m a t i c treatment d i v i d e d the s u b j e c t i n t o d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s . Whatever d i v i s i o n s a r e adopted a r e e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y and are c h i e f l y employed to f a c i l i t a t e the comprehension of the t o p i c . The h i s t o r i c a l d i v i s i o n s adopted i n t h i s a r t i c l e a r e : 1. . The o r i g i n and development of Roman law; 2. The p e r i o d of consummation of Roman law;. 3. The p e r i o d of c o d i f i c a t i o n ; and 4. The p e r i o d of t r a n s m i s s i o n of Roman law. I t .is not suggested t h a t t h e r e i s any sharp or fundamental d i v i s i o n between these h i s t o r i c epochs f o r law i s a u n i t y t h a t has i t s r o o t s i n the past and grows and f a d e s w i t h the n a t i o n X "t S 6 1 £ « (4) Chapter I. ORIGIK.AND DEVELOPMENT OF ROMAN LAW:" 1200 - 31 B.O. To understand the development of Roman Law i t is nec-essary to understand the Roman people, and their outlook on l i f e , for law i s the product of the mental machinery and prac-t i c e of any race. Indeed, Roman Law i s a mirror r e f l e c t i n g the i n c l i n a t i o n s , the characteristics of the Romans. Their military weapons, t h e i r coins, t h e i r implements, t h e i r roads, their aqueducts, their laws reveal t h e i r innate love and passion f o r u t i l i t y . Intensely r e a l i s t i c , and u t i l i t a r i a n , t h e i r lifework breathes of this motivating t r a i t . Even t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e was coloured with a p r a c t i c a l tinge; the outstand-ing philosophical poem of lu c r e t i u s , MDe rerum Hatura" aimed at releasing the Romans from th e i r religious superstitions; V i r g i l ' s , f i r s t important verse, the "Georgics" was a g l o r i f i -cation of agriculture to encourage Rome's unemployed to return to the country; the c l a s s i c of Roman l i t e r a t u r e , V i r g i l ' s "Aeneid", sounded a cla r i o n ,call to a l l l o y a l Roman citizens to fight off the d e b i l i t a t i n g influences of vice and to awake to their sense of duty; with true Roman s p i r i t V i r g i l extols the mission of the Romans, "You, 0 Roman, remember to govern the peoples under your power, these w i l l be your accomplish-ments; to establish the rule of peace, to govern justly the conquered, to trample and subject your haughty foes". (1). The Romans were very unimaginative; their very realism and intense passion f o r the pr a c t i c a l tabooed a l l f l i g h t s of fancy. Some writers are inclined to consider Julius Caesar as imaginative, but they are confusing"imagination with foresight, opportunism and realism. Caesar is the acme of u t i l i t a r i a n i s m ; his masterpiece, "Be Bello G a l l i c o " , his . adventures i n Gaul served to advance his interests i n Rome. Their p r a c t i c a l bent, t h e i r dearth of imagination made the Romans essentially a.people of action; a l i v e to the necessi-tie s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i f e , they directed their strength to the p r a c t i c a l ends of l i f e , "ad u t i l i t a t e m vitae". Cato the Elder, the most t y p i c a l of Romans, never wearied of i n -si s t i n g on evaluating a l l things by their degree of useful-ness; no wonder, he appears callous to Christians when he decides thatVa slave who has outgrown his usefulness should be removed. The actual Roman vrords, most common i n des-cribing the characteristics of the average Roman c i t i z e n farmer,- connote " u s e f u l f i B S s " ; "gravitas" implies a. serious-ness of demeanour which is the v i s i b l e token of a steadfast purpose; "continentia", s e l f - r e s t r a i n t " , s i g n i f i e s an avoid-ance of rash and imaginative schemes; ."industria" and " d i l i g e n t i a " denote zeal.* This genius for the p r a c t i c a l prepared the Romans f o r their future destiny of building, century by century, a body of v^orkable, useful laws for Europe-, and thus ensuring the continuity of "Pax Romana" 1. "Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento. Hae t i b i erunt artes,pacisque imponere morem Parcere subiectis et debellare superbos". (Aeneid: v i , . 847-853). 1 (5) f o r c e n t u r i e s . To s i m p l i f y the study of Roman law, i t i s a d v i s a b l e to d i s c u s s at t h i s stage the main d i v i s i o n s of Roman Law. I n the f i r s t c e n t u r y B. 0, we f i n d two broad d i v i s i o n s of Roman Law, v i z ) , "Jus Publicum" ( P u b l i c Law) and "Jus Pri v a t u m " ( P r i v a t e Law}". • P u b l i c Law p r i m a r i l y concerned c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l , and a g r a r i a n problems and i s t h e r e f o r e not d i s c u s s e d i n th i s - a r t i c l e ; p r i v a t e law,, however,' p e r t a i n e d to the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , and the course of - i t s development I s o u t l i n e d i n the f i r s t -part of t h i s t h e s i s . "Jus P r i v a t u m " i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o "'Jus non s c r i p t u m " u n w r i t t e n customary law, a fea.tu.re of a l l p r i m o r d i a l 'races, and " j u s s c r i p t u m " , w r i t t e n law, the by-product of a c i v i l i z e d r a c e . • Roman p r i v a t e law has two main d i v i s i o n s : "Jus C i v i l e " - ( C i v i l Law) based on the Twelve'Tables and o r i g i n a l l y u s ed only f o r Roman, c i t i z e n s and "Jus Gentium" (Law of the N a t i o n s ) o r i g i n a l l y u s e d o n l y f o r .'non-Roman c i t i z e n s . Any s k e t c h of Roman Law must by i t s very n a t u r e r e f e r to the p o l i t i c a l development of Rome s i n c e the phases of p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i n f l u e n c e d the l e g a l development* The e a r l y h i s t o r y of Rome i s ve r y obscure; and co n s e q u e n t l y assumptions (1) must be made .concerning Rome's e a r l i e s t f o rm of government. Pro b a b l y the embryonic s t a t e , o f L a t i n t r i b e s was governed by a c h i e f who was. l a t e r r e c o g n i z e d :as k i n g ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t Rome's e a r l i e s t form of government resembles that of Greece and that of o t h e r Indo-European communities. Legend t e l l s us that Romulus was the f i r s t r u l e r and t h a t he b u i l t the g r e a t h i s t o r i c c i t y w hich was named i n honour of him. T h i s f o u n d i n g of Rome has been e s t i m a t e d as 755 y e a r s b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f C h r i s t . F o r over a span of r e g a l r u l e r s , c h i e f l y Romulus, luma, B e r v i u s T u l l i u s , decreed laws f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t s , but to what e x t e n t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say s i n c e no fragments remain. P r o b a b l y the main reason f o r the p a u c i t y of e a r l y Roman Laws ij$ t h a t the Romans were governed by the a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y of the king's ) ( 2 ) . Whatever laws were promulgated by the k i n g s were c a l l e d " l e g e s r e g i a e " (3) and were su b m i t t e d to the senate and t o the assembly of t r i b e s ("Comitia C u r i a t a " ) f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . A f t e r the reforms of 1, Ency. B r i t , V o l . 23, 11th ed. Our knowledge o f Roman customs and laws e a r l i e r than the XII Tables and even f o r some time a f t e r them cannot be based on s t r i c t h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e ; i t i s almost e n t i r e l y t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n j e c t u r a l and d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s w i l l take d i f f e r e n t views a c c o r d i n g to r e l a t i v e value they p l a c e upon t h i s or tha t p i e c e of presumptive e v i d e n c e . 2, 3). 1. 2. 2. Pomponius. 3, B i g . 1. 2. 2. p a r . 2 & par. 36. I n the l a t t e r passage P a p i r i u s Is g i v e n the praenomen P u b l l u s . A l s o t o l d by P a u l t h a t t h i s work was commented on by a c e r t a i n G r a n i u s E l a e c u s : D i g . I . 16. 144. (6) Servius T u l l i u s r„ a new assembly of centuries ..("comitia centuriataf) was created; t h i s body, consisting, e n t i r e l y of patrrei-ans, confirmed the laws. To attempt to establish that any definite system of law existed i n the early times of Koman history would be absurd. The most plausible theory about early Soman law (l) is that i t i s ' a composite of "fas", "jus" and "boni mores", "Fas" was the w i l l of the gods and.was the law given by heaven for men on earth; ceremonial because of i t s religious nature, i t consisted, chiefly of prohibitions. It punished murder because the crime was the taking' of a god-given l i f e ; i t punished the disobedience of a c h i l d , because the act was subversive of the f i r s t bond of society and r e l i g i o n , v i z . reverence of a child for his' parents. "Jus" as contrasted with "fas" might be termed the common law of the Roman r a o e — a law that might have resulted from e i t h e r - t r a d i t i o n a l custom f" jus mo r i bus const i -tutum") or from statute ("lax"). "Boni mores" was i n a sense the branch of order under the guardianship of the.family tribunal •t-i'l'^ir-.. .i;th% censor's "regimen mo rum". The guardians of "boni mores" exercised t h e i r duties either by restraining the ruth-less expi.se of legal rights,, or by supplementing the de-ficiences i n law. Their function of restraint could be ex-ercised by condemnation of a le g a l , but unjust act of the "pater familias"« Their function of supplementing could be exercised by i n s i s t i n g on the observance of duties, such as obedience from, i n f e r i o r s to superiors, and f i d e l i t y to engagements. Possibly the Belgns5 of the last three Etruscan kings : were too tyrannical f o r a revolution resulted i n 509. B.G. and Tarquin the Proud was driven by the s t r i c t and austere Brutus from the Glty of the seven h i l l s . His expulsion, although believed due to his immoral and debauched conduct, was the repercussion of th... discontent of the Romans; instead of being a benefactor, he had turned out to be the worst type of malefactor and thus Inculcated in the minds of the pract-i c a l Romans a loathing for the name of "rex" which henceforth became a synonym for tyranny. Two consuls supplanted the monarch. From t h i s time down to 27 B. G. the consuls carried out the wishes of the people; they were entrusted with the mi l i t a r y , c i v i l and l e g i s l a t i v e duties of the people. Accompanied by tine l i c t o r s who carried the "fasces", the symbols of law and order, the consuls, elected only for a year,^ presided i n the Senate and carried out i t s wishes; in times of mortal combat, usually one consul led the troopss into battle?; often, however., during the Roman1 period of expansion and conquest, both were sewing their country on the b a t t l e f i e l d . To ex-pedite c i v i c business, some important duties of the consuls were assigned to other o f f i c i a l s . . The princ i p a l o f f i c e r s were the praetors,ethe..:-ce'nsors:, the aediles, and the quaestors; the praetors supervised the legal matters; the censors, as the 1. Ency. B r i t . Vol. 23, 11th Ed. - pp. 529 - 536. Institutions of the Private law of this period. (7) name** indicated., took the census every "lustrum" or every, l i v e years and struck off the l i s t of c i t i z e n s ,any Soman,, unworthy of c i t i z e n s h i p . The policemen of Home were the aediies; the revenue collectors and paymasters were repre-sented by the quaestors. .This d i v i s i o n of administrative work indicates the teridsncy i n Rome; effic i e n c y and u t i l i t y demanded organization i n administration; and this same organization w i l l prepare the way for tremendous innovations and gigantic strides i n the legal department of Rome. It i s during this Republican period of goverment that Roman Law acquired i t s s p e c i f i c quality, S u p e r f i c i a l l y , a republic was founded i n Rome, but act-u a l l y the monarchy was succeeded by an oligarchy which was to prove more conservative, more harsh, more stubborn and more unscrupulous than the rule of the cruel kings. At the commencement of- the republic, the Senate had provided the leaders to overthrow, the monarchy and had also counselled the people i n the-? serious c r i s i s ; hence the problem of govern-ment was placed entir e l y i n the hands of these senatorial leaders who had shown note\>vorthy loyalty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Romans. Moreover, these early leaders springing from the patricians, the e l i t e of Roman society, as compared with the plebeians, the common people of Rome, had alvi/ays Insisted that the consuls must be of patrician stock; thus the oligarchy controlled the executives of the state. In addition to this control of the consuls, the Senate very s k i l f u l l y manipulated a l l proceedings i n the "Oomitia Genturiata" so that i t s mem-bers always received an overwhelming majority. Owing to the fact that representation i n this Assembly was not by population but by wealth and that voting was not an individual matter, but,; by group, the ,patricians, who composed the senatorial oody, always defeated the plebeians on any motion. The only body the ;s©na't;e' did not control was the "concilium plebis" which to the. annoyance of the plebeians was not an authorized l e g i s l a t i v e assembly. This anomalous p o l i t i c a l s i tuation was further widened by economic discriminations against the plebeian; these p o l i t i c a l and economic discriminations were greatly' aggravated by the ignorance of the plebeians of the unwritten laws; and by the fact that the administration of justice was entirely under the control of the patricians; as long as the Jlaws of Rome remained mysterious and cryptic the .-patricians could i n f l i c t divers injustices upon the plebeians. In everyday intercourse, the Romans were guided by principles evolved over, a long period of time by their fore-fathers,.-at he elders of, the prominent tribes. These p r i n c i -ples, or rather customs, owed t h e i r o r i g i n to some unknown authors or elders who in their relationships with their fellow-men deduced some principles that appealed to the sense of justice of the people; these principles., found to be p r a c t i c a l and workable, were enforced since the day of their o r i g i n by the people. These customs did not have spontaneous develop-ment; they... were invented spasmodically. Over a period of centuries iMiese decisions deriving t h e i r "authority from t h e i r (8) a n t i q u i t y and. from the t a c i t consent of the People", ( l ) . proved to be the most f r u i t f u l s ource, and, i n f a c t , the only source f o r c o n d u c t i n g the af...airs of the Romans. E n t r u s t e d t o the t r i b a l l e a d e r s were not only p o l i t i c a l power but a l s o the momentous duty of p a y i n g r i t e s to the gods; each l e a d e r be-came' the p r i e s t . And law, as w i t h the Hebrews, o c c u p i e d the a t t e n t i o n of the p a t r i c i a n p r i e s t s ; t h i s s t r a n g e c o m b i n a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l and l e g a l a f f a i r s s u r v i v e d f o r a long time be-cause i n both c e l e s t i a l and W o r l d l y m a t t e r s the same r i t u a l was used. R a t u r a l l y the q u e s t i o n w i l l a r i s e . ; What d i d Roman law owe to Custom? I n g e n e r a l , custom, as i n any l e g a l system, s u p p o r t s the w r i t t e n l e g a l s t r u c t u r e ; c l e a r l y t r a c e a b l e t o the "mos majorum" are the e s s e n t i a l p a r t s of the Roman c l a n and f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n , h e r o r i g i n a l system of land-owner-s h i p , h e r mid methods of t r a n s f e r and g u a r a n t e e , and h e r p r i m i t i v e system of p r o c e d u r e . I n o t h e r words, "mos. majorum" answered the problems of a l l i n t h e i r p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n ; u n e q u i v o c a U y , i t was the " j u s non scrip-turn". Customs, a l -though o f t e n i d e a l f o r the g e n e r a t i o n f o r w h i c h they are made, sometimes because o f t h e i r r i g i d i t y , t h e i r f o r m a l i s m , and symbolism, s h o u l d be r e l e g a t e d t©' %fo&tpa^'frth.es? fee.e.GMe--- h a n d i c a p not a i d s . But the p a t r i c i a n s , s a t i s f i e d w i t h the words and , g e s t u r e s to which a meaning i s a r b i t r a r i l y a t t a c h e d , opposed any s t e p s to g r a n t w r i t t e n laws f o r the p e o p l e . But an i r r e s i s t i b l e wave of p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n engS-ulfed the p a t r i c i a n s and they were f o r c e d t o make t h e i r f i r s t important l e g a l c o n c e s s i o n to the h a n d i c a p p e d . p l e b e i a n s . •The date 451 B. C. (450 B.C.?) marked a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the l e g a l h i s t o r y of Rome and i n the :status<' of the p l e b e i a n s . The c o n s t a n t demands f o r w r i t t e n laws produced the famous and the f i r s t w r i t t e n Roman code of l a w s , the Twelve T a b l e s . T r a d i t i o n r e l a t e s t h a t the law commissioners v i s i t e d Athens to seek the a d v i c e of the Greeks and to ex-amine the laws of Solon'sjsysteiii...ajad to c o l l e c t any m a t e r i a l s t h a t might be of g e r v i c e W i n d r a f t i n g - the p r o j e c t e d code. =••• Whether Borne received-much a s s i s t a n c e from. Greece l i s 1 ai-.moot poi n t ' and.:one-.that i s r e b u t t e d b y v I D e c l a r e u i l I n h i s c a r e f u l e x p o s i t i o n of Roman law i n "Rome the l a w - G i v e r " ; p o s s i b l y the fundamental i d e a of i n s i s t i n g t h a t the vagueness of c u s t -omary law must g i v e way t o w r i t t e n law, w h i c h i s a democratic c l a i m * o r i g i n a t e d i n Greece. A u t h o r i t i e s , however, agree t h a t i n 458 t e n commissioners,; m:;. A c :•-'•"•• s.* named-decemvirs j, u n d e r the p r e s i d e n c y of Appjpus C l a u d i u s were i n v e s t e d w i t h supreme a u t h o r i t y to c a r r y on the government and to d r a f t a body of laws. They drew up t e n t a b l e s to w h i c h two more supplementary ones were added the next y e a r . These laws, approved by t h e senate and c o n f i r m e d by the " C o m i t i a C e n t u r i a j a " were engraved on twelve t a b l e s and p l a c e d on the most c o n s p i c -uous p a r t o f the forum. A n c i e n t w r i t e r s , C i c e r o (2) and T a c i t u s i n h i s " a n n a l s " (3) have e u l o g i s e d t h i s Code; T a c i t u s , 1. D e c l a r e u i l : "Rome, The l a w ' G i v e r " - - - - - - - p . 17. . • 2. C i c e r o : de Oratore 1. 34. 3. T a c i t u s : A n n a l s H i . 27. (9) i n his. enthusiasm, and pride c a l l s i t "Eons omnis public! privatique j u r i s " , "the fountain o f . a l l public and private law". Despite these adulations, the mere fact that the un-' written customary law was reduced to the form of written law established the writing of the Code as an event of great importance. , , The 0ode i t s e l f . h a s not descended to usj s t i l l the frag-ments, due to the resegsrch and acumen of Godefroy ( l ) , reveal interesting features of Soman law. Typical of early codes • . .. the Twelve. Tables emulated Draco's laws f o r harshness; and like the' Mosaic law, i t adopted, the law of revenge, an' eye for an eye, a limb for a limb, a l i f e for a. l i f e . The f i r s t and second table provided f o r a summons before a magistrate and for j u d i c i a l proceedings. Table three, for creditors and debt&rs, subjected the debtor to great severity; as i n Ethio-pia, the creditor had the right to seize and chain his debtor; i f after sixty days the debt remained unpaid, the creditor could s e l l the debtor into foreign slavery. Table four ex-pounded the rights of "patria potestas", paternal power, a very'important discretionary power vested in the Roman father. Closely related to section four, Table f i v e outlined the con-ventions of inheritance and guardianship; i n this instance the p a t r i c i a n influence prohibited marriages between pa t r i c -ians and plebeians* Table Six dealt with ownership and possession; Table Seven had something i n common with Six in that i t set up provisions regulating real property. Criminal law forms a branch of any Code; and this branch i n Roman law was explained by Table Eight on d e l i c t s , l i f e . t o the Romans was always a sacrosanct thing and hence the commission-ers i n drafting the section on d e l i c t s decided that a c i t i z e n being t r i e d f o r his l i f e was.--not to be prejudiced by being t r i e d by a magistrate; he must be t r i e d before the "Comitia" of the Centuries. "The commercial and religious relations between c i t i z e n and state were regulated by Table l i n e on Public law and Table fen on Sacred law. Tables Eleven and Twelve supplemented the aforementioned Tables. Rudimentary in character these tables ( 2 ) , built on the customs of Rome, became the foundation for a l l subsequent l e g a l structures. (3). , AS has been said, the Twelve Tables signalled the advent f of "Jus. Scriptum"; they also indicate that legal relations at i Rome are growing more complicated and the s o c i a l group is-., g increasing i n si z e . In this evolution of society, the content f o i custom and i t s very existence become very uncertain and i. d i f f i c u l t to prove; i t s study i s f o r a. select group, usually j the aristocracy. Custom under them becomes s t a t i c and i n -i competent for the crying needs of the people; a change looms fc on the horigon; the State intervenes and "aims at a single, h all-embracing: l e g i s l a t i o n , whereas the sphere of custom i s i; always r e s t r i c t e d , almost parochial". (4). Thereupon the 1« ""^uat-tuOirPontes Juris C i v i l i s " , Geneva, 1653. 2, .Brum Pontes l u r i s Roman! Antiqui", 7th ed. -.1919 Gira,rd: "Textes.de droit Romain", 5th ed., Paris, 1923. I Riceoboncj.;;: "Eontes i u r i s Romani Antejust&nianae"» .' • t 3. Development of the Substantive Institutions of' the law of t h i s period: See Ency. B r i t . v o l . 23, l l t h ed. pp. 539-553. ;| 4. Declareuil: "Rome, The law-Giver", - - - p. 18. (10 ) St a t e f i r s t s a n c t i o n s customary law that i s s t i l l c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the wants of s o c i e t y ; y e t , at the same tim e , i t r e s e r v e s | s o l e l y to i t s e l f the r i g h t of making f u t u r e law. This d e c i s i o n of the S t a t e i n a u g u r a t e s the ascendancy of w r i t t e n - l a w , the " j u s s c r i p t u m " . The f i f t h and f o u r t h and t h i r d c e n t u r i e s B. 0. w i t n e s s e d the adjustment of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l d i f f e r e n c e s between p a t r i c i a n s and p l e b e i a n s . The s e t t i n g - u p of the Twelve Tables d i d n o t end the monopoly of the p a t r i c i a n s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law remained i n t h e i r hands f o r they kept from the p l e b e i a n s a l l knowledge o f " d i e s f a s t i " and " n e - f a s t i " i . e . the days on w h i c h l e g a l p r o ceedings might or might npt.be t a k e n , as a l s o the form of p l e a d i n g " l e g i s a c t i o n e s which were r e g u l a r l y employed. These forms were h i g h l y important f o r the l e a s t i n f r i n g e m e n t of them would i n v o l v e the l o s s o f the case. T h i s a p p a l l i n g ' and u n j u s t c o n d i t i o n Appius Claudius' Gaecus .(504),. a f t e r whom the famous " V i a A p p i a " was named, r e c t i f i e d by drawing up a c a l e n d a r of the days on whi c h causes c o u l d be pleaded and by g i v i n g a l i s t of p l e a d i n g s . These were made p u b l i c about B. G. 304 by h i s s e c r e t a r y , Gnaeus F l a v i n s , a f t e r whom they were c a l l e d "Ius F l a v i a i i u m " . This s t e p a c c e l e r a t e d the l e g a l d e v e l o p -ment of the "Jus C i v i l e " and c r e a t e d a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n law. Thus we f i n d t h a t the marriage s t i g m a s , p o l i t i c a l d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n s , and economic d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the p l e b e i a n s had been removed. I n E50 B. G. the p l e b e i a n s had reached a s t a t u s o f e q u a l i t y w i t h the. p a t r i c i a n s . Of l e g i s l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e 4 t h and 5 t h c e n t u r i e s t h a t a f f e c t e d p r i v a t e law (1) t h e r e i s a ve r y s c a n t y r e c o r d . The most important and best known s t a t u t e s of thes e c e n t u r i e s are the G a n u l e i a n law of 445 B. C. t h a t s a n c t i o n e d the m a r r i a g e of p a t r i c i a n s and p l e b e i a n s ; the e q u a l l y important laws r e l a t i n g t o u s u r y and the r a t e of i n t e r e s t , v i z . the Genueian and M a r c i a n and o t h e r l a w s . The P o e t i l i a n Law o f 326 B. 0. m o d i f i e d t h e h a r s h law of the Twelve Tables con-c e r n i n g d e b t o r s by a b o l i s h i n g imprisonment o f a l l d e b t o r s by c r e d i t o r s . Not l o n g a f t e r w a r d s , t h e S i l i a h law i n t r o -duced a new form of p r o c e s s f o r a c t i o n s ' of debt. The ' A q u i l i a n Law of about 287 B. C. amended the d e c e m v i r a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r a c t i o n s of damages f o r c u l p a b l e i n j u r y to p r o p e r t y and c o n t i n u e d t o r e g u l a t e the law on the s u b j e c t even i n the books of Just i n i a n . W hile Rome was o c c u p i e d i n s o l v i n g h e r i n t e r n a l problems, she was con t e n d i n g w i t h h e r f i e r c e r i v a l s i n the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a f o r supremacy. Her t e n a c i t y , h e r doggedness f i n a l l y overwhelmed h e r G a l l i c opponent i n the N o r t h , the I t a l i c r a c e s t o the West and her Greek f o e s i n the South* But the p r a c t i c a l , courageous Romans had yet to ward o f f f o r e i g n i n v a d e r s ; P y r r h u s , i n the f i r s t - q u a r t e r of the t h i r d 1. Ancy. B r r t . v o l . 23, 11th ed. pp. 539-553, Development o f the S u b s t a n t i v e I n s t i t u t i o n s of the Law of t h i s p e r i o d . (11) o en "bury-,, coming to the a s s i s t a n c e of Tarentum, that proud f o r t r e s s o f G r e c i a n l e a r n i n g , t e r r i f i e d the Romans w i t h h i s 'dangerous e l e p h a n t s , but no t e r r o r s daunted the Romans; i-yfrhus was d e c i s i v e l y d e f e a t e d a t Bene ven turn i n 275 B. C. Rome's conquest o f the I t a l i a n boot alarmed the C a r t h a g i n i a n s who f e a r e d , f o r the wheat f i e l d s of S i c i l y , and the c o n t r o l o f the blue M e d i t e r r a n e a n . In those days c o n t r o l o f the M e d i t e r -ranean s i g n i f i e d c o n t r o l of the w o r l d f o r the l i f e l i n e s of j t r a d e s t r e t c h e d from the s t r a i t s of G i b r a l t e r to A s i a M i n o r . " T h r e e s e r i e s of sanguinary c o n f l i c t s . ( 1 ) s e t t l e d the q u e s t i o n i of who s h o u l d be m i s t r e s s of t h e - M e d i t e r r a n e a n . Hot the ; g e n e r a l s h i p of HasabLrubal, not the i n g e n u i t y , not the courage, s not the revenge of R a n n i b a l c o u l d smash the r e s i s t a n c e of the proud determined Romans. Rome was to be m i s p r e s s . I n the second and f i r s t c e n t u r i e s , Roman l e g i o n s s a i l e d east to sub-j e c t h e r more i n t e l l e c t u a l r i v a l s ; Caesar w i t h h i s f a i t h f u l l e g i o n s marched, west t o conquer G a u l . By 10 1. C. Rome, r e i g n e d | monarch of s o u t h e r n Europe, n o r t h e r n ; A f r i c a , and western A L&s.i*a I "Pax Romana" was a r e a l i t y from the Atlanticv to the muddy waters o f the T i g r i s , D u r i n g these phases of conquest, Roman law was e v e r widening i n t o the p e r f e c t f a b r i c t h a t i t was to become i n 130 A.D. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of the p e r i o d , the momentous s o c i a l i t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a few c i t i z e n - f a r m e r s ' i n t o p o w e r f u l land-owners, the i n f l u x of the poor v e t e r a n s i n t o the c i t y of Rome, the added w e a l t h from the s p o i l s of conquest, l a n d problems, commercial i n t e r c o u r s e c a l l e d f o r s o l u t i o n s ; and some of these s o l u t i o n s were, .foundsin. t h e many sources of the " j u s S c r i p t u m " . The body of p r i v a t e law w i l l e x p e r i e n c e a remarkable development and w i l l be m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t e d by the s t a t u t e s ( " l e g e s " ) f by t h e p l e b i s c i t e s ( " p l e b i s c i t a " ) by the senatusc©ns.ult's^, by the e d i c t s of the m a g i s t r a t e s , by t h e responses of the j u r i s t s and l a t e r by the i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s . " The " l e g e s " (laws) were w r i t t e n enactments of the " C o m i t i a G e n t u r i a t a " , a combined body of p a t r i c i a n s and plebeians', they were proposed by a m a g i s t r a t e , who had o b t a i n e d f a v o u r a b l e a u s p i c e s and was a u t h o r i z e d by the " C o m i t i a G e n t u r i a t a " to p u b l i s h the enactments under h i s name. At f i r s t these enactments always r e t a i n e d a r e l i g i o u s . f l a v o u r s i n c e - they were f e l t t o be i n s p i r e d by the gods; u n f a v o u r a b l e omens might n u l l i f y s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n of law d i d not d e v e l o p r a p i d l y because of the l a r g e mass of customary lav? a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n a e , and because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n convening.. The " p l e b i s c i t u m " a t f i r s t was a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n made by the " c o n c i l i u m P i e b i s " , an assembly of p l e b e i a n s a l o n e , on the p r o p o s a l of a t r i b u n e and b i n d i n g on the p l e b s a l o n e . A f t e r the p a s s i n g of the " l e x Valeria',', the l e x H o r a t i a , the l e x P u b l i l i a P h i l o n i s , and the l e x H o r t e n s i a of 287 B. C., the 1. F i r s t Punic War; 254-242 I n d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y f o r Rome, Second Punic War: 218-202 A s e r i e s ofArmageddons f o r Rome. B e g i n n i n g of l e g a l l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y . T h i r d P u nic War: 146 B. C. Cold blooded d e s t r u c t i o n of Carthage, c f . Cato's i n s i s t e n t demand: "Delenda est Carthago" "Carthage must be d e s t r o y e d " . (12) " p l e b i s c i t a " of the "o one ilium" acouited the same force, as the "leges". The' t i t l e s of bofh the "leges" and the " p l e b i s c i t e " were derived not from the subject-matter as i n the case of provincial statutes, but from the names of the magistrates who prepared them. This unsual existence of three distinct l e g i s l a t i v e or-gans , each of which exercised i n theory f u l l and-absolute?-authority to l e g i s l a t e for the republic, resulted from the class system of Home. The "original l e g i s l a t i v e body, the "Comitia curiata" based on the number of "gentes" (tribes) exemplified the f i r s t step i n parliamentary government. The new assemblies, the "comitia centuriate" and the "comitia tributa*", succeeded the "comitia curiata". As soon as i t s enactments had been put on a l e v e l with those J3£- the "comitia" the "concilium plebis" became the usual organ.of l e g i s l a t i o n and acquired the l e g i s l a t i v e -powers of both the "comitia • centuriata" and the, "comitia t r i b u t a " . These two bodies, however, maintained a formal existence. for over two hund-red years the plutocratic "comitia centuriata" exercised i t s ; l e g i s l a t i v e function. The thirdassemhLyl'A -the "concilium plebis", whose history i s obschoree, came into existence in the f i f t h century. In. a l l these assemblies the voting was not direct and individual,.-it .was entir e l y by groups. Be-sides this,' i t must be noted that even with the recognition of the "Comitia trib u t a " , democratic government was not established; the part of the Roman masses i n the creation of. Law was not changed; law-making was allocated enti r e l y to these special groups. With the existence of three r i v a l assemblies, the a natural Inference would- be that discord and confusion would evolve, but seldome, . except in the chaotic f i r s t century* (B.C.) of dictators, did such confusion a r i s e . The sienate and the "Oomitia Centuriata" preferred to r e c a l l the near revolution of the f i f t h century and consequently did not wish to p r e c i p i -tate another revolution: which would be t h e i r downfall. (1). Another l e g i s l a t i v e organ i n the Roman system of govern-ment which passsdd enactments was the Roman senate. As to the extent of their influence historians d i f f e r inasmuch as their power increased considerably during the crises of the t h i r d and second centaries; i n the time of the Punic Wars, and i n the second century of expansion, the absence of the. consuls conferred a greater degree of authority on the Senate and the senators availed themselves of t h e i r added responsi-b i l i t y . Previous to this time the elder Roman statesmen^ acted as the guardians of the customary law or the "mos majorum"; their influence checked any bold experiments and r a d i c a l steps. . They restrained any u l t r a - l i b e r a l programmes such as the radic a l and necessary l e g i s l a t i o n of Tiberius Gracchus. For a long time, however, the i r fihief function was to approve or disapprove of lavtfs voted by the "comitia". With the granting of the power Of "veto" to the 'tribunes .--of 361 by the L i c i n - . 1,. Humes' P o l i t i c a l Discourses, Essay e - "Of Some Remarkable Customs". (is) i a n Laws, t h e ' t r i b u n e s had the r i g h t to n e g a t i v e the decrees of the Senate; a f u r t h e r weakening of the S e n a t o r i a l a u t h o r -i t y occured by the granting- of f u l l l e g i s l a t i v e power to the " C o m i t i a T r i b u t a ; i which body d i d not need the concurrence or a p p r o b a t i o n of the s e n a t e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , though these g a i n s f o r the democratic p a r t y i n j u r e d the a u t h o r i t y . o f the Senate t h i s body because of I t s past i l l u s t r i o u s r e p u t a t i o n due to men of the stamp of ^ p p l ^ u G l a ^ j d i l i S and Cato, was a l e v e l l i n g , r e s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e oil: a l l l e g i s l a t i o n . I n the f i r s t c e n t u r y B. C.^and age of d a r i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s , the jsenate s u f f e r e d a temporary e l l i p s e but d i d not c o m p l e t e l y d i s a p p e a r . The p r e -C h r i s t i a n - c e n t u r y d e a l t a severe blow to t h e a u t h o r i t y of the Senate; the weak, stubborn,, s e l f i s h , d i l a t o r y t a c t i c s of the % e s n & t ^ l % the kowtii owing to u l t r a r e a c t i o n a r i e s such as S u l l a reduced t h e i r former h e a l t h y c o n s e r v a t i s m to an i n t e n s e r e a c t i o n . D e s p i t e the h e r o i c e f f o r t s of C i G e r o t o r e s u r r e c t the s^erfa'te'3, the. group had i n j u r e d i t s e l f permanently; i n f u t u r e , t h i s oody f o r m e r l y composed of a u s t e r e and mohXe c h a r a c t e r s ?;as to degenerate i n t o s e r v i l e meetings of s t a t e p o l i t i c i a n s , a nswering to the whims and c a p r i c e s of d i c t a t o r s and emperors. The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f the s e n a t o r i a l decrees "senatus-c o n s u l t a " r e f e r r e d c h i e f l y to s t a t e m a t t e r s or. the ''jus P ublicum t h i s was" n a t u r a l s i n c e the s e n a t o r s were concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h m a t t e r s t h a t a f f e c t e d the S t a t e as a whole , E a t h e r t h a n w i t h m a t t e r s which p e r t a i n e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s . Where a t h r e a t to the "mos majorum" appeared t o d e s t r o y the u n i t y of the Soman f a m i l y , the c o n s e r v a t i v e senate would n e g a t i v e such a motion, .^side from t h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e the s?ehate was l o a t h t o i n t e r v e n e i n the sphere of p r i v a t e law. x Only d u r i n g the d e c l i n e of the R e p u b l i c does the Senate inter-f-fewes. and t h e n i t does so i n d i r e c t l y ; sometimes, they order a .magistrate to use h i s " j u s e d i c t a l e " i n a p r e s c r i b e d sense; at o t h e r times t h i s bulwark of c o n s e r v a t i s m e n j o i n s the m a g i s t r a t e t o suspend t h e , a p p l i c a t i o n of a s t a t u t e f o r the time being. I n a l l these c a p a c i t i e s t h i s u n i t of government a c t s c h i e f l y as a cheek to r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e s i n p o l i t i c s and law; t h e i r c h i e f f u n c t i o n c o n s i s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g and i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the "mos ma jorum"; the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of law and p r o g r e s s i n l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e remaineif5tne p r a e t o r s and the j u r i s -c o n s u l t s , v . The s t a t u t e c o u l d g o v e r n every p o l i t i c a l and j u d i c i a l a c t i v i t y of c i t i z e n s and of o t h e r persons dependent on Rome's s o v e r e i g n t y , but the c h i e f sphere i t i n v a d e d was the p o l i t i c a l , sphere. I n the r e alm of p r i v a t e r e l a t i o n s i t . was r e l u c t a n t to go f o r the Roman S t a t e h e s i t a t e d t o i n t e r f e r e 1 / i t h the " p a t r i a p o t e s t a s " of the Roman f a t h e r . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e Roman f a t h e r s had., employed much p r a c t i c a l d i s c r e t i o n and t h e r e f o r e t h i s phase of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s needed few adjustment; on the whole, the S t a t e p r e f e r r e d to adopt a " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " a t t i t u d e i n f a m i l y m a t t e r s . The same was t r u e of r e l a t i o n s bet-ween--one- i n d i v i d u a l of one c l a n and another i n d i v i d u a l of a d i f f e r e n t c l a n or between d i f f e r -ent groups. Indeed, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d p r i v a t e law o?/ed l i t t l e to l e g i s l a t i o n . ..'The m a j o r i t y of the enactments d e a l t w i t h (14) c o n s t i t u t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s , m u n i c i p a l and c o l o n i a l ...-overnment agrarian arrangements, f i s c a l p o l i c y , c r i m i n a l and p o l i c e ' r e g u l a t i o n s uhat a f f e c t e d p u b l i c law r a t h e r than p r i v a t e . The enactments r e l a t i n g to p r i v a t e law mentioned by Gaius and A l p i a n s c a r c e l y exceed a score i n number; and of these about s i x e x e r c i s e d a permanent i n f l u e n c e ;on the law. Most of them were.enactments of the " c o n o i l i u m p l e b i s " or of the " c o m i t i a " of t r i b e s , which bodies had usurped the "Comitia c e n t u r i a t a " as they were more r e a d i l y convened and more e a s i l y worked. . D e c l a r e u i l has s a i d i n h i s "Some the l a w - G i v e r " t h a t the m a g i s t e r i a l e d i c t s and l a w y e r s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s gave Roman Law i t s most o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e x p l a i n a t the . same time i t s f e r t i l i t y and i t s f l e x i b i l i t y . ( 1 ) . The h i s t o r y of t h e magistrate^; • embraces a span of f i v e c e n t u r i e s -. w i t h i n t h a t t i m e , tehes® were important improvements i n Roman private law. When the p l e b e i a n s were s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the p a t r i c i a n s i n 567 B. 0., tlie f i r s t p r a e t o r , the "praetor urbanus" was s e l e c t e d to i n t e r p r e t and to apply the " j u s c i v i l e " 1 , h i s d u t i e s i n v o l v e d s o l e l y the •relations between .Romans; f o r e i g n e r s as yet v>had ' ,i.-..:Wl • .,m: \ l e g a l o::,r%h-fcs ' . i . i ; : s . This o f f i c e of " p r a e t o r urbanus" was not a p r o f e s s i o n a l plum f a l l i n g l i k e a Canadian j u d g e s h i p t o a f a i t h f u l l awyer of some p o l i t i a l party but was c o n f e r r e d upon a man who came from a govern-ing c l a s s , whose t r a d i t i o n of statesmanship i n c l u d e d jurisprudence; he was not n e c e s s a r i l y "prudens j u r i s -consult"; he was a d v i s e d by j u r i s t s of h i s " c o n s i l i u m " who aided i n d r a f t i n g the " c o n s i l i u m " . The p r a e t o r , before e n t e r i n g o f f i c e o r when he en t e r e d o f f i c e , p u b l i s h e d an e d i c t o u t l i n i n g h i s p o l i c y f o r the, y e a r ; t h i s p o l i c y con-tained the r u l e s by which he i n t e n d e d to a d m i n i s t e r j u s t i c e . This a n c i ent p r a c t i c e of p u b l i s h i n g an e d i c t a l l the p r a e t o r s , ourule a e d i l e s ( 2 ) , and p r o - p r a e t o r s f o l l o w e d , a l l of whom held a form of "imperium" . AS Roman s o l d i e r s , merchants, governors spread the seeds of Roman i n f l u e n c e , the number of p r a e t o r s , and q u a s i judges i n c r e a s e d ; c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t s w i t h f o r e i g n e r s i n the business .world and the e x i g e n c i e s of the p e r i o d demanded, some o f f i c e r to a d j u s t any l e g a l d i f f e r e n c e between Romans and f o r e i g n e r s and between f o r e i g n e r s . For such a p o s i t i o n a "praetor p e r e g r i n u s " was a p p o i n t e d i n 242 B. 0. He was to apply not " j u s C i v i l e " , but the " j u s gentium" or as was s l a t e r lea-the-" j u B ^ n o r a r i u m y . (») . Romans I n t h e i r f o l l y i n e a r l y 1. D e c l a r e u i l : "Rome the l a w - G i v e r " - - - P« i b . 2 . Aediles hadnao"imperium" t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d jus ^ d i c e n d i may have been c o n f e r r e d on them by custom or s t a t u t e 3* Digest 1. 1. 7. p a r . 1. days s c o r n e d t h i s " j u s gentium" which, produced many f r u i t f u l and p r o g r e s s i v e l e g a l i d e a s . For a l o n g time the " m a g i s t r a t u s edieturn" s h a r e d w i t h custom law and s t a t u t e law a p l a c e unknown i n p r e v i o u s l e g a l systems. I t was d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e from both custom law and s t a t u t e law f o r both i n a u t h o r s h i p and i n n a t u r e i t belongs t o j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The e d i c t s , p r o m u l g a t i n g the i n t e n t i o n s of the p r a e t o r s and other j u d i c i a l o f f i c e r s , i n c r e a s e d w i t h the d i v e r s i f y i n g o f s o c i e t y . The. o r i g i n a l e d i c t of the p r a e t o r was named the "Eclictum Perpetuum"; i t expounded the p r a e t o r ' s views and showed the cases i n which he would g r a n t or r e f u s e an a c t i o n or any o t h e r b e n e f i t ; i t set f o r t h the methods of' new a c t i o n s , the remedies and s u p p l e -mentary c l a u s e s , which he i n t e n d e d t o f o l l o w , and the l e g a l f o r m u l a s he proposed to employ. I n d r a f t i n g h i s e d i c t , the p r a e t o r ¥Jho was seldom a l a w y e r , would c o n s u l t h i s l e g a l f r i e n d s . As f r e q u e n t l y happens i n a com-p l e x s o c i e t y , a p a r t i c u l a r case might a r i s e f o r which the o r d i n a r y law p r o v i d e d no remedy; i n such a case the P r a e t o r i s s u e d an "edieturn repentinum" c o n t a i n i n g a s o l u t i o n f o r the problem a r i s i n g . I n a s h o r t time an important body of r u l e s which had proved t h e i r v a l u e a w a i t e d the i n -coming c a n d i d a t e s ; r a t h e r than d r a f t a new e d i c t , the new p r a e t o r adopted those p a r t s of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s ' e d i c t s which appealed to h i s sense of j u s t i c e , and w h i c h had s t o o d the t e s t of prac t i c e ; t h i s adopted p a r t was termed the "Edictum T r a l a t i c i u m " . But the adopted p a r t d i d n o t m e e t . a l l the r e o u i r e m e n t s ; new methods and d e c i s i o n s must be u t i l i z e d ; then a new e d i c t , c a l l e d the "Edictum novum", was added. By t h e s e types of e d i c t s c e r t a i n t y , d e f i n i t i o n , r e a l i t y , and p r a c t i c a l n e s s were impressed on the p r a e t o r i a n law. Such a system of e d i c t s p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l mode of e x p e r i m e n t i n g ; by t h i s t r i a l and e r r o r method the p r a e t o r s c o u l d modify or r e j e c t p r i n c i p l e s more e x p e d i t i o u s l y f o r the c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l l i f e than by hard and f a s t l e g l s l a t i o n . The " l e x ^ e b u t l a " ( l ) passed i n 150 B. 0. added more, power to the a u t h o r i t y of the p r a e t o r s ; i t l e g a l i z e d , pro-ceedings by f o r m u l a and i n c i d e n t a l l y set up new remedies and new r i g h t s . H e n c e f o r t h the m a g i s t e r i a l o f f i c e r was empowered to- sum up the i s s u e a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n i n a w r i t t e n f o r m u l a . and thus had an o p p o r t u n i t y of s t a t i n g the p r i n c i p l e i n -v o l v e d ; s e c o n d l y , he had the r i g h t to send t o t r i a l every c l a i m he thought j u s t , whether a c t i o n a b l e o r not a c t i o n a b l e . 1. Ency. B r i t . v o l * . 23. pp, 553 - 554. by the o l d la?;. Though- t he power c o n f e r r e d on t h e p r a e t o r seemed tantamount to complete l e g a l c o n t r o l , t h e r e were-a v a r i e t y of checks a c t i n g l i k e brakes fon any bent to i m p u l s i v e n e s s and r a s h n e s s ; f i r s t , t h e r e was the i n n a t e tendency of eadh Roman to be c o n s e r v a t i v e and.to adhere to the t r a d i t i o n s of the p a s t ; s e c o n d l y , h i s oath of o f f i c e imposed on him the duty to execute the laws and t o m a i n t a i n the t r a d i t i o n a l customs o f the n a t i o n ; he c o u l d n ' t a b o l i s h d i r e c t l y any s t a t u t o r y r i g h t , or i n t r o d u c e any new r i g h t ; t h i r d l y , the s h o r t t e n u r e of o f f i c e curbed a l l r a s h i n - . c l i n a t i o n s ; f o u r t h l y , h i s l i a b i l i t y t o impeachment i n the Assembly r e s t r a i n e d him from any i n i q u i t o u s a c t s ; he, too l i k e the c o n s u l s , was exposed t o the v e t o of the m a g i s t r a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of the t r i b u n e ; and f i n a l l y one o f the most potent i n f l u e n c e s on him was the c r i t i c i s m of an a c t i v e body of l a w y e r s . Much can be s a i d f o r the e f f i c i e n c y of the system inasmuch as the system worked smoothly and s t e a d i l y w i t h o u t any s t a t u t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s being found n e c e s s a r y u n t i l the p e r i o d of g e n e r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n towards the end of the R e p u b l i c . The l e x C o r n e l i a , r a t i f i e d i n t h e h e c t i c days o f Roman politics:-:--'(67 B, C.) p r e v e n t e d the p r a c t i c e of c a n c e l l i n g p r o v i s i o n s of t h e . e d i c t by sub-s e q u e n t l y i s s i m i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y o r d e r s ; t h i s measure was n e c e s s a r y to e n f o r c e adherence to the e d i c t s and t o prevent too many i n n o v a t i o n s ; i t safeguarded the i m p a r t i a l i t y and . p u r i t y of j u r i s p r u d e n c e . . " ^gAmentiioiied be|or..e, .ithe.i.ex.panding commerce a n | the i n f l u x of f o r e i g n e r s , f o r c e d ;/Romero3d to assume the j u r i s d i c t i o n over the f o r e i g n m e r c a n t i l e community. To p r o v i d e f o r such j u r i s d i c t i o n a " p r a e t o r p e r e g r i n u s " was a p p o i n t e d i n 242, who was to d i s p e n s e the law between the f o r e i g n e r s ("qui i n t e r p e r e g r i n o s i u s d i c i t " ) . The q u e s t i o n of what lav? the " f o r e i g n p r a e t o r " was to apply c o n f r o n t e d the Romans. T h e i r e x c l u s i v e n e s s , t h e i r i n t e n s e n a t i o n a l i s m , and r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o h i b i t e d the use of t h e i r " j u s c i v i l e " ; t o :Ac-. i--u..,v.,iiD suicb uae would d e s e c r a t e t h e i r l a w s . The s o l u t i o n was found i n an a d o p t i o n of the customs of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n p e o p l e s ; a g r a d u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of customs of t r a d e and of s u i t a b l e r u l e s and forms c o l l e c t e d from a l l q u a r t e r s at home and abroad. I n the second c e n t u r y B. 0.,,lawyers used the e x p r e s s i o n " j u s gentium" ( l ) to connote a body of customs found to be g e n e r a l l y p r e v a l e n t whether i n the d e a l i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s o r i n the i n t e r -course of f o r e i g n e r s ; thus i t s scope, i n c l u d i n g r u l e s of commercial and o t h e r r e l a t i o n s , a i d a l s o r u l e s of conduct r e c o g n i z e d as b i n d i n g on o t h e r s t a t e s " i n t e r s e " was very broad. I n a l l p r i v a t e t r a n s a c t i o n s y 1. V o i g t : "Das j u s n a t u r a l s , aequum. et bonum, und jus gentium". A. Romer (4 v o l s , HJelp^ig, 1856-1875) (17) the institutions and ways ol doing business are very muoh the same the world over; l o r instance, i n the transfer of'pro-perty, there are many forms of conveying property, but a l l have one constant feature-namely delivery.. Similarly the department of contracts, very essential i n trade, developed primarily under the supervision of the "foreign praetor"; the consensual contracts, sale, h i r e , partnership, mandate, were not instruments of the o r i g i n a l "jus c i v i l e " , but originated i n the "jus gentium". The usefulness of the rules i n the "law of the peoples" often caused the urban brother to adopt them into.the "jus c i v i l e " . This adoption of constant features developed'an instrument of law that was far more f l e x i b l e , more e l a s t i c , more p r a c t i c a l , more pro-gressive and more universal than the narrow "jus c i v i l e " . Progress i n commercial developments meant much progress i n the "la?; of the peoples"; i t grew In bulk and authority u n t i l i t r i v a l l e d the C i v i l law i t s e l f . By Soman j u r i s t s who wrote Commentaries on i t , i t was treated as an independent system. Above a l l i t s impartiality and equitable trend de-termined i t s future popularity and permanence; i t was im-p a r t i a l since i t was built up by the continuous labours of men who had control of the law, but were not performing their duties for personal gain; i t , too, was the embodiment., of equitable rules., f o r i t involved an adjustment of Roman Law and the law prevailing i n Italy and in the provinces. The "Jus Gentium" presents a s t r i k i n g analogy to the Law Merchant of the Middle Ages. Like the "Jus Gentium", the law merchant f a c i l i t a t e d trade and commerce between foreigners i t , moreover, was an assimilat ion t. of acceptable customs which had proved the test of relations because of i t s reasonableness and convenience. Unlike the "Jus Gentium", i t was administered by special courts and was embodied i n special t r e a t i e s . The chief matters of t h i s Law related to b i l l s of exchange, partnership and other mercantile matters; i t s value was recognized when nearly a l l the European countries adopted i t as part of their municipal system. It has bequeathed b i l l s of exchange and the principle of stopp-age i n transitu, both matters of pre-eminent importance i n modern commerce. In the opening passages of Justinian's"Institutes, the "Jus Gentium" (l) i s defined as "the^r law,.which natural rea-son has established among men, i s maintained equally by a l l nations, and i s call e d the law of nations, as being the law •which a l l nations adopt." Gaius has defined the "jus gentium" in a similar fashion; both, however, have forgotten the his-t o r i c a l o r i g i n and both are interpreting It in the l i g h t of philosophy. But the "jus gentium" was not an ideal law, i t was an essential and empirical f a c t ; necessity, not philosophy or some mystic sense of natural justice, begot i t . The universality of the system confused Gaius and the j u r i s t s of Justinianv' s age i n t h e i r thinking and induced them to the i li Institutes ( See Sncy. Brit.). '\.iuod vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constiituit, i d a pud omnes populos peraeque custoditur ,- vocaturque jus gentium, quasi quo jure omnes gentes utuntur. 1 1 ( 1 8 ) view that i t sjjrang from a process^ oi generalisations common to mankind.. Their i l l u s i o n i s possible due to the interven-ing speculations about the law of Nature which permeated the upper strata of Roman society i n the f i r s t century B. C. and the post-Ohristian centuries; Roman lawyers, touched with, 'the veneer of Greek philosophy, saw that the law of Nature furnished a th e o r e t i c a l basis f o r t h e i r p r a c t i c a l body of rules and customs actually i n force; such an, o r i g i n enhanced the value of the ''jus gentium", for the Romans always strove to find some divine reason f o r the o r i g i n of their race or of their c i t y . Thus Roman lawyers, and advocates such as Gicero say that the universal principles of' law are inspired by natural reason. "In other words, the law of Nature i s an ideal of morality, a justice towards Yi/hich positive law is constantly straining without ever quite r e a l i s i n g I t " ( l ) . The law of nature, though i t has the decided advantage of higher authority and greater permanence1 than municipal law of any state., yet from i t s very vagueness and generalities f a i l s to meet the needs of an imperfect society; to make i t workable i t must be combined w i t h some specific law and i n Roman jurisprudence i t was associated '-with the ..."jus gentium", : Thus as S i r H. Maine (2) suggested: "when "jus gentium" was thus seen i n the reflected glory of a philosophical theory, It went to a premium; the Romans now. transferred to i t the veneration which they had previously f e l t for the i r own indigenous law". , Theoretically speaking, the praetor could neither make nor abrogate the -iaw, but actually the taw only became effective .when...'he gave; his approval, his "judicium'dabo" and remained Inoperative'when he refused to give h i s consent, h i s "judicium non dabo". . Hence -this " jus. edicendi" of the c i t y and ali e n praetors, the aediles, the provincial governors and quaes-tors moulded the regulations for every day commerce. In the early part of the 'edicta 1 career, the praetors were limited by statutory processes and raarely exercised t h e i r power except by adopting certain powers, of constraint:, "missiones i n possesssionem", i n t e r d i c t s , and other praetorian stipulations, such rights being conferred on them by the "imperium". Nevertheless, i n cases where no remedies were provided, the praetors could temper the existing laws with equity 4, he could us his own ideas of justice and hand down a decision that would remedy the state of a f f a i r s . In the words of Papinian, the chief functions of the j u d i c i a l o f f i c e r s were to extend, to correct and to supplement -custom and statute.; "jus praetorim est quod praetores introducunt adjuvandi v e l supplendi, vel corrigendi j u r i s c i v i l i s g r a t i a praeter u t i l i t a t e m publica^A'. (.3 This extending, correcting,^supplementing custom and statute contributed to the f r u i t f u l development of Roman law to such an extent that statutes became exceedingly rare i n the sphere 1. Macintosh: "Roman law In Modern Practice" - - - - - p. 48. 2. cf. Ency. B r i t . . v o l . 23, 11th ed. pp. 561 - 562. Ancient law., Ghap, i i i . 3. Papinian, D.' 11, 7. (19) of Private Law. Instances of "adjuvandi" /'extending, i s exemplified i n the allowing by the praetor of the " u t i l e s Actiones"; o r i g i n a l l y by the Lex A q u i l i a , S. G. 287, the owner of the property was the only one who could bring an action; the praetor, however, by means of " u t i l e s Actiones", and "Actiones i n Factum" granted the right of suing' to the bona fide possessor, to the usufructuary and usuary-^ to a pledge, and to the "colonus" for damage to his crops., Sim±~ > l a r l y ^ i n cases of interpretation, the meaning of words en-closed a wider significance; for example, " k i l l i n g " , which o r i g i n a l l y applied only to cases where death was the direct consequence of the act, now included "indirect k i l l i n g " . The praetors supplemented the Law by extending legal protec-tion t-o a l i e n s . They' emended the Law by giving "bonorum possessio" to a person who was not s t r i c t l y the heir. In a l l these instances, the praetors tempered the law with principles of equity. Indeed, this "jus honorarium" presents so many a t t r i -butes of equitable law that i t has been called a "system of Soman Equity", and has been compared with English Equity. Although they resemble each other i n f i v e important respects, they d i f f e r fundamentally i n other respects. They both o r i g i n -ated from a oleaWage which occurred between law and equity owing to certain h i s t o r i c a l causes; the "jus gentium" resulted from.the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between Romans and foreigners; the courts of equity developed from a desire of the English 'Kings to control the law. They are s i m i l a r i n that each system operated as a separate system-a&£- supplemented the old law; Aghe praetor's Edict supplemented the "mo.sAg ma jorum"', statute Law and-the "jus c i v i l e " ; the English Equity broadened the application of the principles of English Common Lav&> tiiEhsy, too, claim to be based on a body of rules i n t r i n s i c a l l y sup-erior to the old; law; the leading cornerstone of Praetorian law i s good f a i t h "bona fides*/", that of chancery law "con-science"; this claim, however, developed only after both systems had proved t h e i r worth. Their purpose, too, blends l i k e two wines of the same vintage; both operated to pre-vent any miscarriages of justice; both remedied certain md&-aj^x m& defects and shortcomings i n 'Common Law; ssszl both met the incapacity of the Common Law i n many cases to do justicejand both modified and q u a l i f i e d the technical rules of the Common Law to make i t an instrument of j u s t i c e . In -their h i s t o r i c a l development they resemble each other; their o r i g i n , their phase of unpopularity, t h e i r recognition bear close resemblance to each other. Relief was given by the magistrate who had absolute power and was the centre of j u d i c i a l authority; equity of England was based on the author-i t y of the Lord Chancellor who represented the sovereign, the fountainhead of a l l justice; i n the time of Edward, i t was the practice of the king to refer a l l petitions to himself to the Chancellor, the "Keeper of the King's Conscience". At f i r s t both systems were severely c r i t i c i s e d and scorned; Mother necessity begot them not the wishes of either race; the appointment of the "praetor peregrinus" i n the t h i r d century B. C. was an involuntary concession made by the Roman people; the English Commons unanimously disputed the right of Edward III (1327-1377) to refer petitions to his . (20) Chancellor; such a right they considered an unjustifiable usurpation of j u d i c i a l power. But Blackstone and others, see i t more tr u l y as "a constitutional exercise of residuary or supplementary j u r i s d i c t i o n inherent i n the Sovereign", (l) Both'were established i n a similar manner; the Praetorian Law by edicts, the Chancery Law by decisions of successive Chancellors; neither was systematic in form; they simply advance by a. series of innovations; and both f i n a l l y resolved into stereotyped forms; the Praetorian Law was codified i n 130 A.D.; English Equity was c r y s t a l l i z e d , thanks to the pro-l i f i c work of Lord Eldon, i n the eighteenth century. Five fundamental differences are to be noted between the two systems; the Roman Praetorian Law never or seldom con-f l i c t e d with the'old law or the "jus c i v i l e " and eventually, replaced i t in.the fxision of law. and equity i n 550 A. L., but English Equity constantly c o n f l i c t e d •with English Common Law and this c o n f l i c t never disappeared u n t i l the-momentous Judicature Act of 1873, arid even'-.after that late date r e l i c s of t h i s con-f l i c t s t i l l remained. At thi s juncture a quotation by Lord Justice Gockburn on the English separation of Law and equity i s quite appropriate; "A discreditable anomaly unprecedented i n the history of jurisprudence; d i s t i n c t systems of law and equity are unnecessary i n a:well constituted system of jurisprudence". The source of each di f f e r e d ; the praetor appealed to the "jus gentium"; the English Chancellor appealed to the. I ing-!s con-science, since the £in& was "the fountain of just i c e " . The machinery of the "jus gentium" and English Equity was quite d i f f e r e n t : the Edict stated what r e l i e f would be granted in advance and i n general terms; i n equity, the practice was founded entirely on 'x^&or6iw^ precedents. In administration of law another difference existed: i n the words 'of Elaine,.. "The praetor was the chief eauity judge, as well as the great common-law magistrate" f2);,English Equity was .administered in a separate court and that was the court of E n g l i s h Chancellor; this important difference p a r t i a l l y accounts for the non-exist-ence of c o n f l i c t i n Soman courts. In the sphere- of w i l l s , another divergency appears; praetorian law dealt chiefly with intestate succession but English Equity dealt c h i e f l y with Trusts'. In the gradualy development of Roman laws a new profession was ushered i n i , d i f f i c u l t , vexatious,, legal questions required expert advice and a class of Roman j u r i s t s sprang up. Even i n the distant past, the Roman customary .law required a pract- •;• titioner. and this task devolved upon the shouldeis of the patr i c i a n priests as long as the r e l i g i o n and law were bound together? These priests were, in"a sense, the f i r s t j u r i s t s (3); as long as the law was reserved solely f o r them, the priests.alone applied i t to particular-cases; every year the college of priests' appointed one of i t s members to give such legal con-sultations, f he forward ?iiel;r£EHi'n^» n a m e l y the secularization of the Law, aided immensely A tne nev^profession i n Rome. Other innovations,, however.., had to be introduced before the monopoly of. 1, Macintosh: Roman law i n Modern Practice I I I , -9- --. -- p. 50 2, 'Sir H. Maine: "Ancient Law"'- - - - - - - - - - - - - p. 67 3, Lioy: "reconditum i n penetralibus pontificum". " i n • • pehetralibus pontif icum reposi'tum." (21) the p r i e s t s and p a t r i c i a n s was broken, Among the c h i e f events 'that r e l e a s e d law from the c o n t r o l of t h e p a t r i c ians-were such events <^ s the p u b l i c a t i o n of the "Jus Flav i a n u m " w i t h i t s f orfemulary , of, a c t i o n s , the p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g a d v i c e i n l a w - i n p u b l i c by ^4ibA@^t&i^.ie- Sto:ttm<3a3a3u£ and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the ^ r i p e r t i f e ' J r " ( a l s o c a l l e d "Jus A e l i a n u m " ) , c o n t a i n i n g the c u r r e n t " i n t e r p r e t a t . i o " . From t h i s $ime onwards t h e r e was a. s e r i e s of j u r i s t s ( j u r i s c o n s u l t ! " , " j u r i s p e r i t 1" " j u r i s p r u d e n t e s o r "prudentes" 1,'.as they were styled).;who g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d i n number and i n ' s k i l l . C i c e r o , i n h i s '^Dr^Pre*!! and " B r u t u s " has i m m o r t a l i s e d many o f the j u r i s t s and has thus demonstrated t h a t i n the f i r s t c e n t u r y B. C. the s t u d y of law was an Important vocat i o n . The most n o t a b l e l e g a l l u m i n a r i e s i n the dawn of Roman Law numbered i n t h e i r ranks P u b l i u s Senqpronius, T i b e r i u s , Go r ^ m e a n i u s who commenced g i v i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n s i n p u b l i c * Sextus A e l i u s Paetus, Junius B r u t u s , and the S c a e v o l a s . 8extus A e l i u s Paetus (204) bequeathed the " T r i p e r t i t a " c o n s i s t i n g of the t e x t o f the Twelve T a b l e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and the l e g a l "formulae" f o r c a r r y i n g on a s u i t or a work of form-u l a r i e s . J u n i u s Brutus wrote books on C i v i l Law. These e a r l y l e g a l w r i t i n g s d i d n o t , i n f a c t , i n t r o d u c e the s c i e n t i f i c e l a b o r a t i o n of law; not u n t i l the age of C i c e r o d i d Roman Law approach a s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . Mucins S c a e v o l a ( c o n s u l i n 97 B. 0 jpabilisiBsJL the f i r s t complete system w i t h the a i d of the f o r m a l p r e c i s i o n and s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t i s e of C i v i l law of S t o i c phchloso-phy. To him C i c e r o owes much of h i s i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s sub-j e c t . The p u r i t y of h i s m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , h i s profound sense of e q u i t y and f a i r d e a l i n g , h i s t a l e n t s as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , an o r a t o r , and a j u r i s t , make him one of the most i l l u s t r i o u s men of a l l ag.es and c o u n t r i e s . The a b i l i t y of Mucins i s obvious when we r e c a l l t h a t he i s the most a n c i e n t lawyer from whose works e x t r a c t s have been t a k e n by J u s t i n i a n i n whose D i g e s t there are f o u r fragments from Mucins. I n 51 B. C. S e r v i u s S u l p i c i u s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and f r i e n d of C i c e r o e q u a l l y eminent as an o r a t o r and a j u r i s c o n s u l t , produced the f i r s t commentary on the e d i c t s of the p r a e t o r s . H i s p u p i l , O f i l i u s , i m i t a t e d h i s master by w r i t i n g another book on the same s u b j e c t . He, t o o , rendered g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e to Caesar f o r h i s scheme f o r fo r m i n g the whole of " j u s c i v i l e " i n t o a Asingle code. A n o t h e r p u p i l , A l f e n u s Varug, . d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f by h i s " D i g e s t a " . I n these l a t e r w r i t i n g s , a d e f i n i t e improvements i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s i s q u i t e p e r c e p t i b l e . At f i r s t , the s e c u l a r I n t e r p r e t e r s f o l l o w e d t h e beaten track;- they gave o p i n i o n s "respenderunt" on w i l l s , ' c o n t r a c t s and r e l e a s e s knd v a r i o u s o t h e r deeds of a l e g a l c h a r a c t e r ; they t r a n s f e r r e d p r o p e r t y , " s c r i p s e r u n t " ; f o r tfexaj* c l i e n t s they drew p l e a d i n g s " c a v e r u n t " ; and b e f o r e . t h e Roman c o u r t s they conducted t h e i r c l i e n t ' . s case. This f u n c t i o n o f "agere" developed l a t e r . Thus t h e i r f o u r c h i e f f u n c t i o n s c o n s i s t e d i n a d v i s i n g "respondere", i n conveyancing " s c r i b e r e " , i n d r a f t i n g p l e a d i n g s " c a v e r e " , and f i n a l l y i n c o n d u c t i n g the case i t s e l f "agere". A l t h o u g h t h e i r o p i n i o n s were not b i n d i n g upon the jtidges, t he i n f l u e n c e of these ^--^ "prudentes" c a r r i e d ; much w e i g h t . T h e i r c o n s t a n t s t u d y of Roman law, t h e i r s u b t l e t y i n d r a f t i n g f o r m u l a s and t h e i r a r t i n c o n d u c t i n g cases s p e c i a l i s e d and. t e c h n i c a l i s e d the r u l e s of custom. O f t e n they a s s i s t e d the judges i n v e r y neat p o i n t s of law; whenever i n a (2B) •' •'•quandary,, the c i t i z e n judges would appoint renowned lawyers to act as assessors and to guide them i n their j u d i c i a l •decisions. True, their opinions were not expressions of the Roman courts, but only of the individual j u r i s t ; yet, i f these opinions on d i f f i c u l t points of law, were accepted by the legal profession, and then recognized by the magistrates, the "responsa eventually received the authority of law by being called "Sententiae receptae". This new profession of j u r i s t s was very aristocrati*c ^and limited; i t s doors were open only to those who came from the "mobilitas" (1); a "novus homo" such as Cicero might gain recognition as ai:uadvoaate i n the new courts, but. . . never as a "prudens" for this class stood apart and di s t i n c t from :advocates. The study of law was reserved for the notable families of Rome, the Mucii, the A e l i i , the P o r c i i , the S u l p i c i i , and became a t r a d i t i o n with them. "This a r i s t r o c r a t i c t r a d i -tion'gave to Roman law i t s exceptional ingredients of strength, •continuity and e l a s t i c i t y ; i n the hands of the .••"'.prudent es", •Soman law was caref u l l y moulded. These.republican "prudentes" were too sagacious to permit S c i e n c e of law to s l i p ' into the •'. control of underlings; they, anxious to promote the development of Roman law with the needs of the Roman state refused to be enslaved to t e c h n i c i a l i t i e s " . (2)« Horace has said, GG-racia capta, ferum Sletorea^ cepit, et artes i n t u l i t agresti Latio", ('Greece was taken captive, but she made, the f i e r c e conqueror captive and carried the arts into rustic Italy*) (3). On the whole, the veracity of this state-ment , and the shrewd observation of the very human Roman poet applies p a r t i c u l a r l y to philosophy, ll't'er&1tfiW2-,.. ^ A. sculp-' ture and architecture; i n these fine arts' domSt* Was singularly ; lacking; these s p i r i t u a l g i f t s Rome did not create, she •borrowed from Greece and consequently ihere was a wholesale reception of Greek culture by the upper classes. Cicero i n his "He O f f i c i i s " explains the main Greek doctrines, although at .no point does.he become o r i g i n a l (4).. If Rome was greatly indebted to Greece i n the fine arts, was she as greatly i n -debted in.the sphere of taw? With the importations of Greek spoils of war, treasures, to decorate the Roman v i l l a s , Greek vices which were to weaken the Roman state, surely some Greek conceptions i n jurisprudence were ca r r i e d into Rome? During the f i r s t century B. G. a c r u c i a l period in Roman history, the scions of wealthy Roman families., i n order to round out their education, must t r a v e l either to Athens or to Rhodes; Caesar, Brutus, Horace completed their education abroad; and .their foreign environment inevitably fashioned their ideas and enriched t h e i r own store of thought. In the same way, future j u r i s t s of Rome who travelled Abroad, broadened their legal concepts and'thus when they retrained to the i r nativeland they would u t i l i s e these concepts in..**? ••interpreting -Roman taw. The doctrines of the Stoics undoubtedly had a humane influence on them-and i n turn accounted f o r the more equitable treatment of cases. Although the GreekA philosophers i n -fluenced i n a general way the Roman j u r i s t s , they did not evolve 1. Cicero: "de Republica" I. - - - p. 5 2. P. de Zulueta: "The Science of Law" 3. Epist 1 e'stUEl. •'/S<o A , Sedgewick: "History of Ethics" - - - - - p. 95. • / , ; "There i s probably no ancient treatise which has done more to communicate a knowledge of ancient morality to mediaeval and modern Europe", a definite system of laws; their "jus naturale" represented , vague theories of justice; f o r example, slavery was declared incompatible with the ideal state; this principle was not accepted i n Borne f o r the vicious practice of slavery was an integral part of Roman society.. This wholesome influence of neo-platonism and stoicism expressed i n the eclectic treatises of Cicero (1) gave Roman.Law the necessary e t h i c a l touch which i t lacked and - was a - l e a ^ e n ' i n ^ ^ ^ ^ e law" i n a l l directions. From the f i r s t century the j u r i s t s conceive the idea of a written law composed by humans and the unwritten law revealed by /conscience, called "jus naturale". The'distinction of law from equity and the recognition of their interdependence further induced the.jurists to amend the old customs and to abolish . venerable statutes. Family relationships received a wider application; there was an extension of' certain consequences of Jflinship to a l l degrees of .consanguinity. Outstanding changes i n the two branches of law, namely d e l i c t and contract, oceured with the stressing of, intention in thecoiiiiiiitting of an act or •entering into 'a contract; just as i n modern law intention i s of paramount importance, so in Roman law intention, assumed greater ./significance. Ho longer did. the inquiring t r i b u n a l seek only the doer of the deed, but thanks to the influence, of Greek philoso-phy, i t sought the intention, She "causa fact I". Similarly in . the sphere of w i l l s , there was a c e r t a i n anxiety to discover the real wishes of the testator; this characteristic s t i l l p r evails i n modern law./ This period also witnessed a d i s t i n c -tion, though an imperfect one, between legal and moral responsi-b i l i t i e s . This moral influence inaugurated a demarcation between penalties and damages. Even i n the f i e l d of oratory theg&reeks contributed to Roman jurisprudence; Cicero i n "Brutus" ,' " . . •'•"•,' connected the origins of legal science with the art of the Greek rhetoricians and maintained that Servius Sulpicius owed -his superiority to his use of. Greek d i a l e c t i c ; t r u l y , many of the Roman j u r i s t s expressed themselves more flu e n t l y , more clearly, more concisely than their predecessors. This develop-ment of an international c i v i l i z a t i o n , a fusion of Greek and Soman elements, was to become, more pronounced i n the glorious > \ reign of Hadrian, who was: himself very cosmopolitan i n his views; and so the Greek culture'proved for law a wholesome food and one necessary for i t s due growth, nevertheless, though Greece i n j e c t e d a vaccine that was a protective a n t i -dote against excessive r i g i d i t y and materialism, the Roman ju r i s t s , even the most daring, Gaius, Ulpian, Papinian, remained essentially Roman at heart; the framework and technical methods of the j u r i s t s descended from the Republic, not from Greece*, both parts of Roman Law are a t r a d i t i o n that were formed i n a d i s t i n c t l y national period. The Romans always admitted the superiority of the Greeks in. the fine arts, but i n the sphere of law acclaimed themselves as the masters of the Greeks; Cicero, with true Soman pride (2) boasts of Rome's superiority, to Greece i n law. . 1. Cicero : "Brutus" - - - - - - - - - p. 41 Laferriere, "De I ' i n f l u e n c e du Stoicisme sur l a doctrine deu jurisconsultes Romains"(Paris, I860). . H i l d e r i brand: Gesch v. System'd. Kechtsund Stoats. Philosophie (Leipzig, 1866) v o l . i,.pp* 141, 142. 2. Cicero: "De Ora'tore" i . 44. , "In credible est---—quam s i t omne lus c i v i l e p r a e t e r hoc nostrum inconditurn ac paene ridiculum; de quo multa soleo i n sermonibus cotidianis dicere, cum hominum nostrorum prudent--. - iam ceteris omnibus et maxime Graecis antepono". ( E 4 ) O f f i c i a l s who jpre_cee'&eu ^° ^ e conauered p r o v i n c e s as governors found. themselves c o n f r o n t e d w i t h laws and i n s t i t u t i o n s , d i f f e r i n g i n many r e s p e c t s f r om those o f Some. P o l i t i c a l expediency d i c t a t e d how f a r these f o r e i g n laws were to be re s p e c t e d , how \ f a i " s u b v e r t e d . I n the East the tendency was to m a i n t a i n the e x i s t i n g system and to supplement t i t o n l y w i t h d o c t r i n e s of the " j u s gentium" and.the procedure of t h e p r a e t o r s ©<dl*ct>s; but .0'': , where - too t o l e r a n t an a t t i t u d e f o s t e r e d n a t i o n a l i s m , Roman Haw and i n s t i t u t i o n s were imposed on the conquered p e o p l e s , even to the: e x t e n t ' o f i n t r o d u c i n g f o r m a l t r a n s a c t i o n s w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y had been c o n f i n e d t o c i t i z e n s . I n e i t h e r case the e x p e r i e n c e of the governor i n f l u e n c e d t h e Roman m a g i s t r a t e , Before the n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n was d i s c a r d e d , i t s advantages and diadvantages must be w e i g h e d , and i f not d i s c a r d e d , i t had t o be adopted to the p r a e t o r i a n procedure.. Thus t h i s t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h the n a t i v e laws e x e r c i s e d a wholesome i n f l u e n c e on the m a g i s t r a t e s who, on t h e i r r e t u r n t o Rome, were t o be t h e l e g i s l a t o r s and a d m i n i s -t r a t o r s , of the law. Under the i n f l u e n c e of the s e p r o v i n c i a l p r a e t o r s ^ Roman law was e n r i c h e d and o b t a i n e d from the p r o v i n c e s i t s emphyteutic tfenure of l a n d , i t s hypothec, i t s Rhodian law of g e n e r a l average and numerous o t h e r u s e f u l f e a t u r e s . O l v l l wars, Greek i n f l u e n c e s brought, a d e c l i n e i n r e l i g i o u s sentiment and p u b l i c and p r i v a t e v i r t u e w h i c h r e a c t e d on Roman law. P r i v a t e law, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d es-p e c i a l l y those ^ranches which r e g u l a t e d the domestic r e l a t i o n s , and those v^hich (de&lt w i t h p r o p e r t y and c o n t r a c t . There i s a marked tendency on the p a r t of Romans t o d i s r e g a r d the s a n c t i t y of m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h from the f i r s t the law had opposed ca u s e l e s s s e p a r a t i o n and v i s i t e d i t w i t h p e n a l t i e s , I n p r i n c i p l e s i t s a n c t i o n e d the r i g h t of r e p u d i a t i o n of the husband. However, w i t h t h e . s i m p l e and f u g a l h a b i t s of the f i r s t f i v e c e n t u r i e s of Rom£M$ the r e c o g n i t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e produced no d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s , f a m i l y m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s were e a s i l y s e t t l e d and di v o r c e s ..ere e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e , but w i t h the l a x i t y of morals i n the second and f i r s t c e n t u r i e s , .the f a m i l y c o u n c i l l o s t much of i t s c o n t r o l . D o u b t l e s s l y , t h i s s i t u a t i o n vt/as due t o the decay of hand m a r r i a g e s , and to the d e s i r e of wives to c o n t r o l t h e i r own p r o p e r t y . And thus w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l u x u r y and d e c r e a s i n g r e s t r a i n t , d i v o r c e became common. T h i s l o o s e n e s s of the marr i a g e bond i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t e d the r i g h t s of i n h e r i t a n c e . Roman f a t h e r s , by v i r t u e of t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n j o u t upon the " u t i l e g e s s i t suae r e i i t a j u s e s t o " began t o d i s i n h e r i t t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n . order t h a t a s t r a n g e r might be r e c o g n i z e d . This d i s i n h e r i t a n c e of the o f f s p r i n g l e d to the r e c o g n i t i o n by the ce n t e n n i a l . . c o u r t of the "Querela i n o f f i c i o s i t e s t a m e n t i " , the c h a l l e n g e of a testament by a c h i l d whose n a t u r a l c l a i m s had been c a p r i c i o u s l y and u n j u s t l y d i s r e g a r d e d . At f i r s t - t h i s p r a c t i c e was u n c e r t a i n , but e a r l y i n the empire, t h r o u g h means of the " q u e r e l a " the r u l e was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the c h i l d was e n t i t l e d t o at l e a s t a f o u r t h ("portio l e g i t i m a , q u a r t a l e g i t i m a " ) of the e s t a t e i f h i s parent d i e d i n t e s t a t e , u n l e s s the parent had a j u s t i f i a b l e cause f o r e x c l u d i n g h i s h e i r . I n c i d e n t a l l y from t h i s t he l e g i t i m . of c h i l d r e n i s now r e c o g n i z e d by most c o n t i n e n t a l c o u n t r i e s . (25) No l o n g e r i n business was t t h e r e ..'tlie usame "bona f i d e s " as the e a r l y t r a n s a c t i o n s of d a i l y l i f e , the d e c l i n e of morals n e c e s s i t a t e d g r e a t e r safeguards and remedies which had not been r e q u i r e d i n the days when a g r i c u l t u r e was the c h i e f o c c u p a t i o n of the Romans. The l a s t days of the R e p u b l i c w i t n e s s e d so g r e a t a d i s t r u s t and g r e e d i n e s s that men no long e r trust'ed each o t h e r s good f a i t h u n l e s s backed by s t i p - m l a t i o n s , s e c u r i t i e s ("Oautiones" ) and guarantees $ a dis h o n e s t y i n m e r c a n t i l e d e a l i n g s l e d . t o the e n f o r c i n g of the R u t i l i a n bankruptcy arrangements of the " a c t i o 'Pauliana" f o r p r e v e n t i n g f r a u d . Moreover, the remedies " e x c e p t i o re'i'* v e n d i t a e et t r a d i t a e —aim answer t o a vendor (with' the p r i c e i n h i s pocket) who attempted to d i s p o s s e s s the vendee . because some of the f o r m a l i t i e s of conveyance had been omitted, and the " e x c e p t i o non numeratae pecuniae"^--an:, answer to an a c t i o n on a bond f o r repayment of money where the money had never been advanced-?* " i n d i c a t e t h a t f r a u d was &ommon"!: a n i t h a t "Craeca f i d e s " had d i s p l a c e d the o l d Roman p r o b i t y . (26) CHAPTER I I , -THE CQUSUM.iATIOH OP R O M LAW 31 B.C. - 235 A.D. The f i r s t , c e n t u r y brought i n i t s t r a i n a s e r i e s of ex-t e r n a l wars and i n t e r n a l wars. The a l l i e s , " S o c i i " , were clamouring and r e v o l t i n g f o r the r i g h t s . o f c i t i z e n s h i p ; i n 88 B.. C. t h e i r r e q u e s t s were conceded. I n t e r n a l weaknessess at Rome encouraged r e b e l l i o n s i n the E a s t ; M i t h r a d a t e s s l a u g h t e r e d m e r c i l e s s l y e i g h t y thousand (1) Romans i n the A s i a t i c p r o v i n c e s ; Roman l e g i o n s under a r r o g a n t S u l l a r e t a l i a t e d w i t h m e r c i l e s s butchery, and imposed on the East the Implacable u ? a x Romana". A l l events l i k e a s i g n p o s t wereoimdic.ating a s e r i e s of d i c t a t o r -s h i p s , and e v e n t u a l d e s p o t i c government; not even the p a t r i o t i s m of C i c e r o could stem t h e . i n c i s i v e f o r c e s a t work i n Rome. Ambitious demagogues, Cr a s s u s , Caesar, Pompey, and l a t e r Antony and O c t a v i u s (Augustus) were p l a y i n g f o r the power of Rome; the Romans were pawns i n the game and supreme c o n t r o l of t h e army and Rome's r e s o u r c e s were the s t a g e s . F i r s t the r u l e of S u l l a , then the b r i e f r u l e of the T r i u m v i r a t e c o n t r o l l e d the Roman s t a t e ; the c r i s i s of 49 p l a c e d supreme power i n Caesar's hands u n t i l the g r e a t c a t a s t r o p h e of the Ides of March; but where one Caesar f e l l a n o t her was to t a k e h i s p l a c e . The b a t t l e of Actium (31 B.C.) s o l v e d the q u e s t i o n of government; i n f u t u r e Roman was to be governed by one of the most benevolent, but one of the most a u t o c r a t i c e , p a t e r n a l governments that the World has ever seen. A l t h o u g h the f i r s t t h r e e c e n t u r e s of the Empire w i t n e s s e d the p e r f e c t i o n of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e , i t s h i s t o r y f o r the p e r i o d p r e s e n t e d no g r e a t landmarks such as the enactment of the Twelve T a b l e s , the commencement of the p r a e t o r s e d i c t , the r e c o g n i t i o n of s i m p l e consent as c r e a t i v e of a c o n t r a c t or the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new system of . j u d i c i a l p r ocedure. Yet one or two events are. worthy of n o t i c e , v i z . the c a d u c i a r y l e g i s -l a t i o n s , whereby t l - ^ u i j a g t ' ^ •  attempted to r a i s e the tone of domestic m o r a l i t y and t o prevent c e l i b a c y , and h i s l e g i s l a t i o n and t h a t of h i s s u c c e s s o r f o r r e g u l a t i n g the s t a t u s of en-f r a n c h i s e d s l a v e s . But on the whole these events,, except the f i r s t l e f t no g r e a t i m p r e s s i o n upon the law. I n d e t a i l r a t h e r t h a n " i n t o t o " , d i d the law change. The law became more f l e x i b l e , more s i m p l e , and l e s s f o r m a l . The sphere of "Jus A a r i t i u m " became more and more l i m i t e d , . a n d many of the f§^maiitle§s of t h e s t r i c t " j u s c i v i l e " d i s a p p e a r e d . I n the i?ealm':'©f domestic r e l a t i o n s the c o n t r o l of the husband over h i s w i f e decreased; t h e i r " p a t r i a p o t e s t a s " o f the f a t h e r l o s t much of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e by the r e c o g n i t i o n of an independent e s t a t e . In the branch of law' c a l l e d P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y conveyancing of goods become more s i m p l i f i e d . S e r v i t u d e s and. o t h e r r e a l r i g h t s c o n s t i t u t e d were e n f o r c e d by the p r a e t o r . I n c o n t r a c t t h e r e was a r e l a x a t i o n o f the former r i g i d p r i n c i p l e s ; w a r r a n t i e s , or c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t e d to t h e main s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w h i c h were 1. C i c e r o : ; "Pro Lege- M a n i l l a " . ' Ref.. Montesquieu: ' "G-randeur et Decadence des Remains" Chap. 9. (27) -formerly .embodied i n words ox s t i p u l a t i o n , were now e n f o r c e a b l e • ;on,.tlie str.e.ng.th of f o r m l e s s contemporaneous agreements, law had indeed reached the high, mater mark of j u s t i c e ; t h e r e was a happy u n i o n of l e g a l i t y and e q u i t y . The r e g a l p e r i o d and the r e p u b l i c a n p e r i o d had a i d e d tremendously _ i n c r e a t i n g and developing- Roman Law. The germ of Roman Law "conceived i n the "mos ma jo rum" s e r v e d i t s purpose and grew i n t o t h e w r i t t e n law; - e x p e r i e n c e s . l e f t t h e i r mark and a s s i s t e d i n the m a t u r i n g of the j u r i s p r u d e n c e of u t i l i t y . The age of the Emperors c l i m a x e d t h i s development; (1) the Roman j u r i s t s of the Empire consummated fend c r y s t a l l i z e d the work of e a r l y j u r i s t s . Two c h i e f reasons account f o r t h i s c r y s t a l l i s a t i o n of Roman Law i n the age of the gmperors; f i r s t , c r e d i t must be g i v e n to the emperors themselves who had the a b i l i t y and the f o r e -s i g h t to see t h a t t h e i r r u l e depended on the g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y i t a f f o r d e d t o the o r d i n a r y man, h i s f a m i l y and h i s p r o p e r t y ; secondly, and c h i e f l y - , i t belongs to the n a t i o n a l r e s p e c t f o r law, the c o n c e p t i o n s of which the R e p u b l i c a n j u r i s t s had e s t a b l i s h e d . .law; f o r the Romans, s a t i s f i e d t h e i r human needs; i t was not f a s t p o s i t i v e and enacted, i t . was something t h a t e x i s t e d i n i t s own r i g h t s to s a t i s f y t h e i r fundamental needs. M o n a r c h i a l government s y m b o l i z e d p o l i t i c a l decay; the rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m of the f o u r t h century B. 0. was sub-merged beneath the p a t e r n a l i s m , the s o c i a l i s m of the super bureaucracy, but wherever p o s s i b l e a n c i e n t forms of r e p u b l i c a n i s m and p r a c t i c e s were employed. Augustus, anxious to r e t a i n the form of r e p u b l i c a n i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o n t i n u e d t h e o l d p r a c t i c e of sub-m i t t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s t o the -tfot© of the " c o m i t i a " of the t r i b e . Some of the " l e g e s " of h i s r e i g n were very s i g n i f i c a n t . Besides v a r i o u s measures f o r the amendment of c r i m i n a l law, t h e r e were t h r e e s e t s of enactments w h i c h owed t h e i r a u t h o r s h i p to him. •The f i r s t t o improve domestic m o r a l i t y andloencouragee f r u i t f u l • marriage, the second to abate th e e v i l s % J t h a t had a r i s e n from the e m a n c i p a t i o n of too many s l a v e s , and t h e t h i r d to r e g u l a t e procedure i n p u b l i c j p r o s B c u t ! o i l s 3 and p r i v a t e l i t i g a t i o n s . Soon a f t e r the death of Augustus i n 14 A. D. the " C o m i t i a " l o s t i t s p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y and was s u p p l a n t e d by the senate which vbody from the time of T i b e r i u s onwards d i d the work of l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t the " c o m i t i a " was no l o n g e r f i t f o r i t . During the f i r s t c e n t u r y of the C h r i s t i a n e r a the jsenate was very a c t i v e . T h i s a c t i v i t y may have been due to some extent to the f a o t t h a t many p r o f e s s i o n a l juristsg» =^£Lgor,o—friwt-ktetr-pract-ic.c of . the 1 p o i n t s i n .which the law- r e q u i r e d amendment , possessed s e a t s i n the i m p e r i a l c o u n c i l , where d r a f t s of the senatus c o n s u l t s were pre p a r e d . These senates c o n s u l t s were the p r i n c i p a l s ftn^en^in^ f a c t o r s of what.was c a l l e d by both emperors and j u r i s t s t h e " j u s novum", a law t h a t d i f f e r e d w i d e l y i n many r e s p e c t s from the o l d " j u s c i v i l e " , and w h i c h was more i n accordance w i t h those o f the E d i c t . By.means of a motion ( " r e l a t i o " of a,magistrate who p r e s i d e d a t i t s meetings the senate e x e r c i s e d the l e g i s l a t i v e power of the " c o m i t i a " . With the elapse of a 1. Ency. B r i t . v o l . 23, 11th ed. Pp. 564-569. S u b s t a n t i v e changes i n the law f o r t h i s p e r i o d . century t h i s pd wei- ^ - f ^ r e l a t i o l ^ w a e .^arrsxferreu' t o-:the. emmeror: - the ' senate d e c l i n e d i n t o mere meetings of d i s c u s s i o n of t h e ^ r e l a l l i o , ' 'jJhis: " r e l a t i o " was now t r a n s f o r m e d by theAemperbrr i n t o h i s " o r a t i o " (1) or statement of grounds which " u s u a l l y r e c e i v e d the senate's a p p r o v a l . I n c r e a s i n g d e s p o t i c power e l i m i n a t e d the senate e n t i r e l y and the a u t o c r a t i c emperors of the t h i r d c e n t u r y used the " r e l a t i o " as a means of s t a t i n g t h e i r commands o r pro-h i b i t i o n s w i t h p u t even r e f e r r i n g ' to the .senate. In the regime • of Beptimius §er.ve:rus, the 'senate passed i n t o o b l i v i o n ; they no l onger-possessed'the r i g h t of l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . By t h i s time the r e s c r i p t s of the emperors f u l f i l l e d the gap of the decrees of the s e n a t e , l i k e the " c o m i t i a " , the senate v a n i s h e d i n the on-slaught of uatra-despcotlsfflVr.. Under the empire the e d i c t s of. the m a g i s t r a t e s and of the p r a e t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o e x e r c i s e a wholesome and tremendous i n f l u e n c e on ••the common law. The p r i n c i p a l changes were of d e t a i l e d d e velop-ment r a t h e r than of c r e a t i o n . U n t i l the r e i g n of H a d r i a n new e d i c t s were p u b l i s h e d but d e c r e a s e d i n q u a n t i t y as the " e d i c t a t r a l a t i c i a " i n c r e a s e d ; a g a i n , the dependency of the m a g i s t r a t e s upon the a u t o c r a c y curbed t h e i r ereat i v e n e s s and o r i g i n a l i t y . F i n a l l y i n il2"9?, at the command of H a d r i a n , 0. S l a v i u s J u l i a n u s c o l l e c t e d , r e v i s e d , and c l a s s i f i e d the e d i c t s of the.urban p r a e t o r s and the c u r u l e a e d i l e s . This r e v i s e d c o l l e c t i o n of e d i c t s , en-t i t l e d t h e P e r p e t u a l E d i c t ("Edictum Perpetuus") was r a t i f i e d by a eenatus-consul turn and became s t a t u t e law; t h u s , the m a g i s t e r i a l law was cons.olida.ted i n t h i s c o m p i l a t i o n of J u l i a n u s and was -hence-forward to be observed by a l l p r a e t o r s and c u r u l e aediles.; , .TAoughY the Senate a u t h o r i z e d the use of the P e r ^ p e t u a l E d i c t as s t a t u t e law, i t d i d not d e p r i v e the m a g i s t r a t e s of the " j u s e d i c e n d i " when new c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r o s e . But from t h i s time forw a r d s i n c e the " i u s c i v i l e " was p r e t t y w e l l s e t t l e d and the c h i e f p r i n c i p l e s of " i u s gentium" had been evolved^no a d d i t i o n s were made t o the p r a e t o r i a n law f o r "no p r a e t o r c a r e d to e x e r c i s e h i s q u a s i - l e g i s l a t i v e f u n c t i o n i n the f a c e of a b s o l u t e power entrenched i n the t h r o n e " ( 2 ) , Hence-f o r t h ^ the praetors•••ceasedoto be'/the " v i v a v o x j j i r i k ; c i v i l i s " w h i c h they had. been i n the time of C i c e r o ; the emperor,- i f anyone, was • now e n t i t l e d t o the e p i t h e t . The p e r p e t u a l e d i c t has not come down to us,., i n complete form; the only remnants of i t are a few fragments which modern s c h o l a r s have attempted to a r r a n g e . ( 3 ) . As the s e n a t e , the " c o m i t i a " , the o r a t o r s and p r a e t o r s decreased i n i m p o r tance, the i n f l u e n c e and p r e s t i g e of the. j u r i s t s i n c r e a s e d ; i n the f i r s t t h r e e c e n t u r i e s of the C h r i s t i a n era-, the j u r i s t s became the expounders of the law. Augustus c r e a t e d a c l a s s of patented j u r i s t s by c o n f e r r i n g upon c e r t a i n of .the "prudentes" the " j u s r e s p o n d e n d i " , that i s , a s o r t of p a t e n t , the, e f f e c t .of .which, was t h a t i f , a f t e r being c o n s u l t e d , the j u r i s t e xpressed a w r i t t e n and s e a l e d o p i n i o n , t h a t o p i n i o n , p r o v i d e d t h e r e was no disagreement among the o t h e r " p r u d e n t e s " , was b i n d i n g on the judge. This r i g h t (4) enhanced the p r e s t i g e of the . j u r i s t s and p a r t i a l l y 1. l i v . 39, 19; l a c . An. 12, 53: 13, 26: 16, 27. 2. M a c i n t o s h : Modern P r a c t i c e I I I . $ g g g - p. 44. 3. Fragmenta E d i c t ! P e r p e t u i , i n the Pandectae J u s t i n i a n i a e by P o t h i e r , t . i . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -p. 176. 4. c f . Seneca E p i s t l e ST. 94, 27; " J u r i s c o n s u l t o r u m v a l e n t r e s -ponsa e t i a m s i r a t i o non r e d d i t u r " . "The o p i n i o n s of the j u r i s « ..•• c o n s u l t s are b i n d i n g even i f no reason i s g i v e n " . Thus, these "responsa" c u r i o u s l y u n o f f i c i a l and t h e o r e t i c a l l y o n l y p e r s u a s i v e ••were.-like an ' E n g l i s h judgment s i n c e they had b i n d i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the •actual case and had a u t h o r i t y as p r e c e d e n t s . (29) v e S t e c L i n them .the a u t h o r i t y ,to i n t e r p r e t the law. I n f a c t ^ t h e c o n f e r r i n g o f t h i s r i g h t gave an a u t h o r i t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r to a . response so t h a t the judge who. had asked f o r i t and to'whom i t was presented^-!or the judges were p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , the m a j o r i t y of whom were u n l e a r n e d i n the law, "was p r a c t i c a l l y bound to accept i t as i f i t came from the emperor h i m s e l f . Thus the patented c o u n s e l s were a b l e to i n f l u e n c e c u r r e n t d o c t r i n e not s p e c u l a t i v e l y but p o s i t i v e l y (T j u r a condere") and so to add to t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the " j u s c i v i l e " and "jus honorarium" wit h the p r i n c i p l e s of n a t u r a l law as to g i v e a new complexion • to the system. I t was from the j u r i s t s as a d v i s e r s of the emperor that a l l l e g i s l a t i o n now proceeded; they had acce s s t o a l l the h i g h e s t o f f i c e s of t h e c o u r t and of the s t a t e . They • became the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . , the p r a e t o r i a n , p r e f e c t s pf the Eoman Empire; hence, men of the h i g h e s t g i f t s and c h a r a c t e r turned to the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n and improved the laws by i n t r o -ducing an i n c r e a s e d u n i t y , c o n s i s t e n c y , and s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s added a u t h o r i t y did not permit the j u r i s t s to make new laws; t h i s branch'of law "which u s u a l l y v e s t e d i n the supreme l e g i s l a t i v e body of the l a n d r e c e i v e d a g r e a t e r s a n c t i o n when H a d r i a n , (117-138) i n v e s t e d the o p i n i o n s of the j u r i s t s , when unanimous.with the f o r c e of law. Under Hadrian's •influence Eoman law became more c e n t r a l i z e d ; Hadrian's r e p l y to the p e t i t i o n e r s c o n c e r n i n g the "j u s respondendi" bears out the l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t ; i n g e n e r a l i t i s t h i s : "1 am d e l i g h t e d that anyone who has c o n f i d e n c e i n -ghis powers should o f f e r h i s "responsa" t o t h e p u b l i c , but the p r i v i l e g e of g i v i n g them on my a u t h o r i t y i s one which I g r a n t of. my own motion, not i n answer to p e t i t i o n s " . F i n a l d e c i s i o n s r e s t not w i t h the ' j u r i s t s on q u e s t i o n s of law .as i n the days of Augustus, but w i t h the Emperor. T h i s f a t a l s t e p was to produce the l a t e r s t a g n a t i o n and thus marks a d e f i n i t e stage i n the movement towards c e n t r a l i -z a t i o n . • . The advent of the monarchy produced two r i v a l l e g a l s c h o o l s . The reason f o r the s c h o o l s may be t r a c e a b l e t o p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s although i t Is h a r d l y p o s s i b l e t h a t August Yvould permit the ex-ist e n c e of a s c h o o l w h i c h was openly a n t a g o n i s t i c t o h i s system of government; t h i s development of two s c h o o l s p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d • from the n a t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i s m of the one s c h o o l , and t h e . l i b e r a l -l e d i n . i n t e r p r e t at axsnjof the law by the o t h e r . J u r i s t s and judges, at a l l times arid i n a l l places d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of law; some f a v o u r the s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - o f the law, t h a t i s , they i n t e r p r e t i t a c c o r d i n g to the l e t t e r ; o t h e r s f a v o u r i n t e r -p r e t i n g the law i n a wide sense and are thus accustomed to i n t e r -pret by the s p i r i t of the law, r a t h e r than by the l e t t e r . This method of int:erp:#etaM:Sn/may p o s s i b l y have been t h e cause of t h e ) two s c h o o l s i n Home: one of which was founded by a n t i s t i u s Xabeo :>, the other by Gaius Ateius C a p i t o . labeo, a s c h o l a r of T r e b a t i u s , of r e p u b l i c a n sympathies who wished to. extend h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, l e d the P r o c u l i a n s or Pegasians. C a p i t a f - J the p u p i l of O f i l i u s , and a s u p p o r t e r of .^lugustuss., of whose l i f e we have an account I n t h e "Annals" of T a c i t u s , c o n t r o l l e d the aBabl-nianss o r • Cassians,a name adopted from members of the s c h o o l ; he-.favoured the r e t e n t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n s of former j u r i s t s . A p p a r e n t l y upon fundamental q u e s t i o n s of law the .two groups v a r i e d l i t t l e (30) .'in o p i n i o n . Prominent i n . the s c h o o l o i the S a b i n i a n s were l i a s s t i r t e s s , Sabinus and 0. C a s s i a s Longinus-, By t h e middle of the second c e n t u r y , however, t h i s d i v i s i o n among the j u r i s -c o n s u l t s d i s a p p e a r e d and the g r e a t l i g h t s o f ^ u r i s p r u d e h c e ' t ^ S e a e v o l a , y phoninus-, P a u l , Papinan, OoLpilan, Modestinus,.' 'claim a l l e g i a n c e 1 to n e i t h e r group. The r e a r - g u a r d of t h i s g r e a t row o f j u r i s t s ends i n the g r e a t names of A ^ p i h i a r e , D o m i t i u s , U l p i a n e s , and J u l i u s Paulus;^ t h e y completed and concluded the development of c l a s s i c a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . A f t e r them no g r e a t j u r i s t of remark-able a b i l i t y o r o r i g i n a l cc4pa-ci;t'y.' appeared. The l e g a l p r o d u c t i o n s of the c l a s s i c a l age of Roman law are l a t e r than the g o l d e n l i t e r a r y age of Augustus., RougA^Ly* from the f i r s t c e n t u r y A. D. to 250 A. P. the j u r i s c o n s u l t s wrote t h e i r - e x c e l l e n t l e g a l t r e a t i s e s w hich were to supply the Pandect s w i t h i t s most u s e f u l s e c t i o n s ; t h i s i s the p e r i o d of G a i u s , Pa,plnAa»s U l p i a n , P a u l u s , i n whose w r i t i n g s Roman law a t t a i n e d i l s h i g h e s t degree of e x c e l l e n c e . T h e i r w r i t i n g s c o v e r a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s ; t h e i r commentaries e x p l a i n e d the s t a t u t e law, the decrees of the senate and the i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s , the p r a e t o r i a n e d i c t s and the works of o t h e r j u r i s t s . They produced e l a b o r a t e works on the g e n e r a l body of the law c a l l e d D i g e s t s or " l i b r i J u r i s C i v i l i s " . ^ h e i r p r a c t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f "responsa", and " q u a e s t i o n e s " , a more d e t a i l e d study than the " r e s p o n s a " , t h e i r " d i s p u t a t i o n e s " and " o p i n i o n e s " c r i t i c i z e d the c u r r e n t law and p r o v i d e d m a t e r i a l f o r thought f o r a l l Romans. F o r s t u d e n t s t h e r e were the " I n s t i t u -t i o n e s " or_ elementary t e x t b o o k s . The "notae" w i t h commendations cdid c r i t i c i s m s s u p p l i e d a n n o t a t e d e d i t i o n s of e a r l i e r j u r i s t s ' works. Then,. , the monographs p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s o f l e g a l Importance^ Court r u l e s , c u r r e n t l e g a l maxims, and s u c c i n c t statements of fundamental p r i n c i p l e s were found i n . '• • the "Regulae", " S e n t e n t i a e " and "def i n i t i o n e s " of t h e j u r i s t s . I n a d d i t i o n to these l e g a l essays, numerous.popular . t r e a t i s e s were e d i t e d f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Of t h i s greats 'mass o f l e g a l w r i t i n g t h e r e are few remnants. What remains has been p r e s e r v e d by the c o m p i l e r s of the D i g e s t . O u t s t a n d i n g among the j u r i s t s ( l T of t h i s epoch i s Gaius who i s one of the most eminent of the Roman j u r i s t s . O f t e n he i s d e s c r i b e d as t h e ' l a s t of the Sabinians". He "was a n a t i v e of t h e A s i a t i c p r o v i n c e s and spent the most p r o d u c t i v e p a r t of h i s l i f e i n Rome under H a d r i a n , A n t o n i n u s , P i u s and Marcus A u r e l i u s . A keen s t u d e n t , and i n d e f a t i g a b l e s c h o l a r , Gaius wrote numerous t r a c t s on law; h i s w r i t i n g s i n c l u d e the " I n s t i t u t e s " , numerous e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e s on the Twelve T a ^ l e s ^ t h e E d i c t s of the p r a e t o r s , on t h e i m p o r t a n t " l e x Papists. Poppaea" r e l a t i n g to the r i g h t s of women and s e v e r a l o t h e r works. H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to J u s t i n i a n s ' I n s t i t u t e s and D i g e s t gave the g r e a t Code of law i t c l a s s i c a l s p i r i t ; w i t h o u t the w r i t i n g s of G a i u s , the D i g e s t would be d e p r i v e d of much of i t s g r e a t e s t v a l u e . 1. Roby: I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Study of J u s t i n i a n ' s D i g e s t ; Chaps. IX.- XV. ^ a r l o w a : " R e c h t s g e s c h i c h t e " : i , Sec. 87-92. F i r s t E d i t i o n of Gaius;" Goschen & H o l l w e g : B e r l i n , 1820. Third e d i t i o n r e v i s e d by Lachmoun, . B e r l i n , • 1 8 4 2 , Bgst. t e x t i s now t h a t of H u s c h k l i n Teubner s e r i e s ; T r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o E n g l i s h w i t h commentaries ( 1 . A & Walker, Cambridge 1870 (2. S. P o s t e , Oxford, 1875. ( 3 . Muirhead, (Sdinburgh) 1880. (4. Mears, London, 1882. (31) Except f o r the i m p e r f e c t epitome i n the " B r e v i a r l u m " of A l a r i c , the w r i t i n g s of Gaius. l a y c o n c e a l e d ; i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, however, B. G. Hiebuhr, a' German philosopher^discovered i n the l i b r a r y of the c a t h e d r a l c h a p t e r i n Verona, a p a l i m p s e s t manuscript of the works of S t . Jerome. Between the l i n e s he p e r c e i v e d some o t h e r w r i t i n g ' w h i c h a f t e r w a r d s proved t o be a copy of the J n s t i t u t . e s of G a i u s . This d i s c o v e r y was v e r i f i e d by Savigny and the t r a n s l a t i o n of i t was e n t r u s t e d to t h r e e c l e v e r German p r o f e s s o r s , P r o f . GoJschen. and h i s two a s s i s t a n t s , P r o f . Becker and Holweg. The r e c o v e r y of t h i s p a l i m p s e s t and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the " I n s t i t u t i o n e s " c r e a t e d a r e v i v a l of the study o f Koman j u r i s p r u d e n c e o f the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . .This l e g a l t r e a t i s e c l e a r e d up many branches of law p r e v i o u s l y ob-s c u r e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y e n l i g h t e n e d s c h o l a r s as to the forms of j u d i c i a l p r o c e d u r e . These forms have p r o v i d e d the s c i e n c e of . comparative law w i t h v a l u a b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n s and may p o s s i b l y be a key to the e x p l a n a t i o n of s t r a n g e forms of l e g a l procedure found I n o t h e r e a r l y systems. Another f a c t o r t h a t makes t h e work of Gaius more I n t e r e s t i n g to the h i s t o r i c a l student than that of J u s t i n i a n i s t h a t Gaius l i v e d a t a time when a c t i o n s -were t r i e d by the system of "formulae", w h i c h d i s a p p e a r e d i n the time of J u s t i n i a n . Without a knowledge of the terms o f the "Formulae" i t I s i m p o s s i b l e t o show how the r i g i d r u l e s of the a n c i e n t law o f Home were m o d i f i e d by the e q u i t a b l e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the p r a e t o r s and a p p l i e d to new c o n d i t i o n s . B e s i d e s e x p l a i n i n g the system of f o r m u l a e , G a i u s ' s I n s t i t u t e s -A a s s i s t e d immensely I n e x p l a i n i n g and i l l u s t r a t i n g the • I n s t i t u t e s of J u s t i n i a n which have been b u i l t on the f o u n d a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e s of G a i u s . H i s " I n s t i t u t i o n e s " or i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p r i v a t e law of the Romans i s the o n l y one of h i s numerous w r i t i n g s t h a t have descended t o u s . The work i t s e l f i s i n f o u r books, the f i r s t o f which t r e a t s of the f a m i l y and the d i f f e r e n c e s of s t a t u s they may occupy i n the eyes of the law; the second of t h i n g s , and the modes i n w h i c h r i g h t s o v er them may be a c q u i r e d , i n c l u d i n g the law r e l a t i n g - to w i l l s ; the t h i r d of i n t e s t a t e , s u c c e s s i o n and of o b l i g a t i o n s ; t h e f o u r t h , on l e g a l procedure. In i t s heyday, i t s p o p u l a r i t y and i t s s c h o l a s t i c treatment of Roman. Law made i t the f a v o u r i t e hand book f o r a l l j u r i s t s . The most g l o w i n g restimony t o the e r u d i t i o n of t h i s l e g a l savant i s the permanence of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; the V a l e n t i n i a n Law of C i t a t i o n l i s t e d Gaius as one of the f i v e a u t h o r i t i e s f o r Roman Law and the D i g e s t of J u s t i n i a n borrowed p r a c t i c a l l y word f o r word 555 e x t r a c t s from h i s w r i t i n g s . A contemporary of Gaius earned r e c o g n i t i o n f o r h i s h i s t o r y o l law and j u r i s p r u d e n c e down t o . t h e time of H a d r i a n . The compilators of the " D i g e s t " made fre q u e n t a l l u s i o n s to h i s w r i t i n g s and acknowledge' t h e i r author Sextus Pomponius (1) as • .one of the most p r o l i f i c j u r i s t s i n Koman h i s t o r y . I n f a c t , Pomponius, a l t h o u g h not one o f the most b r i l l i a n t of Roman j u r i s t s , d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n because h i s fragment i n the Digest (1.3.2.) f u r n i s h e s the only 1 h i s t o r i c a l account of Roman law t r a n s m i t t e d to modern ti m e s . 'What Pomponius l a c k e d i n o r i g i n a l i t y and a b i l i t y he made up i n volume; he i s undoubtedly one of the most voluminous of j u r i s t i c w r i t e r s . C i t i n g h i s l e g a l t r e a t i s e s w i l l convey to the r e a d e r the i n d u s t r y , the Sextus Pomponius: " S e l e c t i o n s f r o m Roman law". J. J. Robinson, 1905. .American Book Company. z e a l , the s c h o l a r s h i p , t h e t y p i c a l Roman lawyers devoted to t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , . l i s " l i b r i ex Sabino" a commentary i n t h i r t y - s i x books t r e a t e d of the " i u s c i v i l e " a c c o r d i n g t o the arrangement of a s i m i l a r work by .Massurius S a b i n l & s . H i s book on p r a e t o r i a n law, "ad e d i c t u m ; ' l i b r i " c o n t a i n e d at l e a s t e i g h t y - t h r e e books ( l ) . Another commentary, "Ad Mucium l e c t i o n u m l i b r i " runs i n t o t h i r t y - n i n e books and f o l l o w s t h e arrangement of Muclus i n h i s t r e a t i s e o n . " i u s c i v i l e " . H i s "Ex P l a u t i o l i b r i " , i n seven books i s a commentary on t h e j u r i s t P l a u t i u s . A volume e n t i t l e d " S p i s t u l a r u m l i b r i " , a s e r i e s of twenty books., contained l e g a l o p i n i o n s i n e p i s t o l a r y form. H i s m i s c e l l a n e o u s d i s c u s s i o n s of l e g a l question,, h i s " V a r i a e l e c t i o n e s " r e q u i r e d f i f t e e n books. B e s i d e s t h i s l i s t of books, bulky w i t h d e t a i l s , . he wrote "De s t i p u l a t i o n i b u s " , a t r e a t i s e on s t i p u l a t i o n s i n at l e a s t e i g h t books, "De senatus c o n s u l t i s l i b r i " , a commentary on s e n a t o r i a l decrees i n f i v e books, the "Digestorum ab A r i s t o n e l i b r i - " , an e x p o s i t i o n of the D i g e s t of A r i s t o i n at l e a s t f i v e books, the " P i d e i commissorum l i b r i " , a comprehensive account o f t e s t a m e n t a r y t r u s t s i n f i v e books, a book of l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s , e n t i t l e d "Regularum l i b e r s i n g u l a r i s " and h i s " l i b e r singular i s e^&hi-r&ctM11 & s m a l l elementary hand book of law f o r s t u d e n t s . • . The g r e a t Roman j u r i s t A e m i l i u s P a p i h l a n u s was born about 140 A. D. i n the r e i g n o f A n t o n i n u s P i u s , ae was a contemporary and f r i e n d of Emperor Septimus Severus (193-211). I n 208 P a p i n i a n i n ' the c a p a c i t y o f " p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i s " accompanied him to B r i t a i n where the Emperor e r e c t e d the c e l e b r a t e d w a l l from the Solway t o the mouth of the Tyne. Severus, on h i s death bed a t Eboracum (York) l e f t to P a p i n i a n the g u a r d i a n s h i p of h i s two sons, Geta and Garacalla,/'Ahe ; next y e a r , 212 A . D . , O a r a c e l l a , one of h i s c h a r g e s , caused P a p i n i a n t o be put t o death on the day a f t e r the murder'of h i s b r o t h e r , Geta. This murder of P a p i n i a n was one of the most d i s g r a c e f u l crimes of t h a t time. His c h i e f w r i t i n g s were the t h i r t y - s e v e n books of "Quaestiones" ( l e g a l quest i o n s " ) a n d the n i n e t e e n books of "Eesponsa" ( l e g a l d e c i s i o n s ) . — Thes"^ two p r o d u c t i o n s were con-s i d e r e d the most imp o r t a n t and u n t i l the g r e a t c o m p i l a t i o n of law by J u s t i n i a n formed the n u c l e u s of that p a r t of j u r i s -prudence d e s c r i b i n g the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r i t i e s on Roman law. Today we possess o n l y fragments of them i n the f orm of numerous excerpts i n t h e " D i g e s t " ; r e c e n t l y the d i s c o v e r y of a few of. hi s w r i t i n g s on a few l e a v e s of a Manuscript w r i t t e n i n u n c i a l s i n the f i f t h (?) c e n t u r y has d i s c l o s e d more i n f o r m a t i o n about the f i f t h and s i x t h books' of the "Eesponsa"*.t._ rr-'lAV AV Hext to Papinianus, Dom i t i u s IJlpiahusP was t h e most eele- ' brated o f Roman j u r i s t s . Born at Tyre', i n A s i a Minor about 170 A. D., h i s most important work was a c c o m p l i s h e d at Rome under S e p t i m i u s Severus, a c o l l e a g u e of P a p i n i a n u s . He was an a s s e s s o r i n the " a u d i t o r i u m " of P a p i n i a n and^member of the c o u n c i l o f S e p t i n i u s Severus; under O a r a c a l l a he was master I*-. Digest 38, 5, 1, 14. (33) of the r e q u e s t s ( m a g i s t e r l i b e l l o r u m l . Banished from Rome by H e l i o g a b u l u s , he r e t u r n e d on the a c c e s s i o n of A l e x a n d e r i n 222 and became the emperor's c h i e f a d v i s e r and " p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i o " . RAs p o s i t i o n , however, was very i n s e c u r e , h e o a u s e h i s c u r t a i l m e n t of the p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d t o the p r a e t o r i a n guard by H e l i o g a b u l u s roused t h e i r enmity; u l t i m a t e l y i n 228, he was murdered by f e l l o w p r a e t o r i a n s i n the very presence, of the emperor. H i s fame as a j u r i s t r e s t s e n t i r e l y on h i s two c h i e f works, "Ad Edictum" a s c h o l a r l y t r e a t i s e on the p r a e t o r i a n law i n e i g h t y - t h r e e books, and "Ad Sabinum" t r e a t i n g of the c i v i l law i n f i f t y - o n e books, both o f which because of t h e i r comprehensive-n e s s ^ e % g . e r l y s e i z e d upon by J u s t i n i a n and T r i b o n i a n as the f o u n d a t i o n of the .Pandects. I n a d d i t i o n to t h e s e w r i t i n g s , he e d i t e d o p i n i o n s , responses, and d i s p u t a t i o n e s and.books of r u l e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , monographs on s t a t u t e s and testamentary t r e a t i s e s . One of h i s t r e a t i s e s , "De o f f i c i o p r o c o n s u l i i s : , ' i l i . i > ^ H i s a comprehensive e x p o s i t i o n of the c r i m i n a l law. He c o n t r i b u t e d about a t h i r d of the c o n t e n t s of J u s t i n i a n s D i g e s t . AS an a u t h o r , h i s d o c t r i n a l e x p o s i t i o n , h i s j u d i c i o u s ^ : .: : cA c r i t i c i s m , h i s l u c i d i t y of arrangement, h i s c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , have p l a c e d him i n the f r o n t ranks of the Roman j u r i s t s . A contemporary of P a p i n i a n u s and UHplan,, P a u l , ranks among the f i v e g r e a t e s t Roman j u r i s t s . I n the ireignccffi S'eptI'ml'asi. Severus, he , \ r i ; . . c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h P a p i n i a n "was l e g a l a s s e s s or t o emperor S e p t l m i u s ' S e v e r u s . On the a c c e s s i o n of H e l i o g a b a l u s he was banned from Rome and went i n t o e x i l e ; on h i s r e t u r n he was " P r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i o " w i t h U l p i a n , another d i s t i n g u i s h e d j u r i s t s . . But as a l e g a l author a l t h o u g h he was a most p r o l i f i c - w a i t e r r l i k e Yarrq^he was f a r i n f e r i o r t o h i s two contemporaries," both i n l i t e r a r y s k i l l and knowledge. E x t r a c t s from h i s . numerous monographs o r more comprehensive works form a p a r t o f the D i g e s t . H i s " S e n t e n t i a e " ^ a v e r y pop-u l a r compendium of l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s on the common 'points of law, ha@e been saved f o r p o s t e r i t y i n an a b r i d g e d form. The l a s t of the g r e a t Roman j u r i s t s , Herennius Modestinus was a p u p i l o f the l a w y e r U l p i a n . 5 He was a c t i v e f r om A. D. 222-244. H i s importance i s a t t r i b u t e d e n t i r e l y to the f a c t that the " D i g e s t " borrowed t h r e e hundred and f o r t y - f i v e e x c e r p t s from h i s t r e a t i s e s . F o r over 500 y e a r s the j u r i s t s e x p l a i n e d , e l a b o r a t e d and extended the " j u s c i v i l e " and the " j u s gentium". I n t h i s length of time they c r e a t e d an a r t of law, the " a r s boni et aequi", r a t h e r t h a n a s c i e n c e . Ho f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n was e v e r drawn,by a r a c e of j u r i s t s than by the Romans; every case I .r Ai o f f e r e d a c h a l l e n g e to them; they must expose what appeared to be :^a^ and a t the same time temper t h e i r f i n d i n g w i t h e q u i t y . N o t withstanding the i n f l e x i b i l i t y of the " j u s c i v i l e " , the customary law from i t s , v e r y o r i g i n and n a t u r e l e n t i t s e l f t o m o d i f i c a t i o n i n aeeO-rdaacee w i t h the v i c i s s i t u d e s of s o c i e t y ; i n f a c t ^ the j u r i s t s i n expanding the customary law r e a l l y sup-planted i t ; t h e i r " S e n t e n t i a e " , t h e i r o p i n i o n s , and t h e i r " r e g u l a e ' became the n e c e s s a r y appendages t o the "mos majorum" and the guide f o r a l l m a g i s t r a t e s . T h e i r e x p o s i t i o n s o f the law made (34) them the "-vox v i v a j u r i s , c i v i l i s " , r a t h e r than the p r a e t o r s who were the adaptergo Every case e n t a i l e d f o r them d e f i n i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r case, s k i l f u l diagnosing of. the problem con-t a i n e d i n i t , and the a p p l i c a t i o n of analogy;/ on u t i l i t a r i a n grounds or on s o c i a l e xpediency, law f o r the Koman j u r i s t s was no t h e o r e t i c a l , a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g ; i t breathed a r e a l i s m t h a t permeates t h e i r " Digest a", t h e i r "responsa", t h e i r " r e s Quot i d i a n a e " , t h e i r " I n s t i t u t i o n e s " , t h e i r " R e g u l a r ' , a l l of which d i s c u s s some p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . T h e i r r e a l i s t i c treatment resembled t h a t of the c a s u i s t s ; both the j u r i s t s and c a s u i s t " s t r i v e t o meet human problems w i t h human s o l u t i o n s whose • r a t i o n a l e i s d e r i v e d only from a c t u a l p o s s i b i l i t e s and from common sense" ( 1 ) . This treatment i s the q u i n t e s s e n c e of a l l t h e i r w r i t i n g s and i s t h e i r g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Roman ju s i p r u d e n c e ; f o r they c u l l e d the means by which every l e g a l problem c o u l d be s o l v e d r a t i o n a l l y , e q u i t a b l y , and p r a c t i c a l l y . D u ring t h i s p e r i o d of the p e r f e c t i o n of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e , the m a g i s t r a t e s , j u r i s t s and judges showed a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r the " j u s gentium" over t h e " j u s c i v i l e " , and a d i s t i n c t tendency to s u b o r d i n a t e word and deed to the " v o l u n t a s " fsrom which they arose. I n tne o p i n i o n of Muirhead (2) who f o l l o w s , the r e a s o n i n g o f V o i g t , t h i s tendency i s due t o the s t r i v i n g a f t e r a h i g h e r . i d e a l , v i z . what has been c a l l e d the " j u s nat u r a l e 1 . A l t h o u g h the c l a s s i c a l j u r i s t s a r e v e r y vague about t h i s I d e a l law, many of them r e f e r a g a i n and ag&ins to i t i n the sense of law based on n a t u r a l r e a s o n ; and Gaius d e f i n i t e l y - ' i d e n t i f i e s i t w i t h " j u s gentium", but both Muirhead and V o i g t maintan t h a t " j u s gentium" and " j u s n a t u r a l e " are not i d e n t i c a l and c i t e the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the l e g a l i t y of s l a v e r y . V o i g t goes f a r t h e r and iwiimmriz'eges the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s s p e c u l a t i v e " j u s n a t u r a l e " - 1. i t s p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y ...to a l l men, 2. among a l l p e o p l e s , 3. at a l l times., and 4. i t s correspondence w i t h the i n n a t e c o n v i c t i o n s of r i g h t . The t h e o r i e s of Muirhead and V o i g t a r e i n t e r e s t i n g , but whether such a body of law .based on n a t x i r a l r e a s o n i n g . , e x i s t e d i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o i n t . . I f we r e c a l l t h a t the Roman j u r i s t s were at h e a r t .practical;.,;;' c a s u i s t s not t h e o r i s t ^ , - , we are apt to conclude t h a t " j u s n a t u r a l e " always remained f o r them a vague h y p o t h e s i s , r a t h e r t h a n an a c t u a l i t y . M o n a r c h i a l government i n I t a l y produced t h e i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s ; these c o n s t i t u t i o n s are of primary importance h i s t o r i c a l l y f o r s i n c e they conclude Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e except f o r the Code of J u s t i n i a n , they c o n t a i n the only source of w r i t t e n law, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . The term c o n s t i t u t i o n , i n d i c a t e s in a g e n e r a l sense a l l the a c t s of the emperors; i n c l u d e d w i t h i n i t s meaning are the " e d i c t a " , the g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e enactments of the emperors, the " d e e r e t a " , the j u d i c i a l d e c r e e s , the " r e s c r i p t a " , the a u t h o r i t a t i v e answers t o i^equ-esi's3 f.or a d v i c e s the "mandata", the i n s t r u c t i o n s to i n d i v i d u a l i m p e r i a l o f f i c i a l s . In the . I n s t i t u t e s the d i v i s i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n s r e s o l v e s i t s e l f , i n t o t h r e e p r i n c i p a l branches; e d i c t s , r e s c r i p t s , and decrees. Due to the f a c t t h a t the r e s c r i p t s and decrees were*?, s o l u t i o n s f o r p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , they were n o t b i n d i n g on the c o u r t s ; s t i l l D e c l a r e u i l : "Rome the l a w - G i v e r " - - - - - - - - p . 26. 2. Ency. B r i t . v o l . 23, 1 1 t h ed.' r-.- :— pp. 561 and 562. (35) .proceeding as they did from the fountain of authoritative interpretations, t h e i r value far exceeded the value of a decision of the i n f e r i o r courts and ..they were therefore collected by lawyers and used as p.recedentl>; for solution of. similar problems. Moreover, these rescripts and decrees con-stituted one of the most important sources.of the law during the f i r s t three centuries of the Empire, and were discussed and annotated hy the;.most eminent j u r i s t s of the day. In brief their importance rests on the fact that from the time of the Gordians to that of the a&dicat ion of 'SD'S:©x3l.ettJ.jbaai they were almost the only channel of "jus scriptum"''"that remained. The construction of these constitutions depended on the emperor and his famous council of state, the "Auditorium Brincipis 1"', a . body of renowned c i v i l i a n s ; these advisors exhibited i n the constitutions much prudence and wisdom and deserve the credit that is of ten given to the Emperors. The influence of j u r i s t s vcte dominated i n the "consilium" of the emperor;- the j u r i s t s '•'were' responsible f o r the drafting, of the "sc r i p t a " which generally.took the old form of the "responsa". In the decay of legal science i n the t h i r d century the Imperial Chancery . stood : as a sacred repository of the old forms; indeed the manussripts of Diocletian, whffich remain c l a s s i c a l in form and in substance contain the last words of the true Roman t r a d i t i o n . The constitutions of the early emperors, Nero, Yespasian, are non-existent because the most ancient constitutions extend back Only -to the reign of Hadrian; that there other constitu-tions before t h i s i s evident from the reference'to them i n the Institutes and Digest (1). "Of what legal and p o l i t i c a l significance were the constitutions of the emperOrs? A brief resume', reveals that at f i r s t the emperors were hesitant about usurping-.the functions of the Roman courts and did not endeavour to Invent a nevtf method of law f o r t h e i r own use; yet. i n d i r e c t l y they'could mould the law for they had the "jus edicendi" on the same con-ditions as the curule magistrates; by t h e i r "decreta", judgments without appeal, they determined the•L^ wV;; by t h e i r "rescripta", .. they shared with the Roman lawyers the position of authorized counsel; by t h e i r "mandata" they had an authority which established administrative custom i n the provinces. A l l these patent means were ready for the more despotic rulers of the third, fourth and f i f t h centures; in. the second century the emperor and his council supplanted the "Ccomit.a", and the magistrates became the only source of law and of j u s t i c e . The "lex regia" proclaimed the right of;the emperor, to do anything necessary f o r the public welfare;;the. mere posting of t h e i r orders i n Rome and entering i n the " l i b e r rescriptorum" validated t h e i r constitutions ---••-:•— throughout the Empire. A great change i n the nature of .the evolution of Roman law was pending; i n :the c l a s s i c a l period the evolution of the law depended on the union of l i b e r a l and equitable principles,, working organically; i n the later period i t was mainly a result of external circumstances that Roman Law was confined gradually, to'the East where the exigencies of the East changed some of its native c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The epoch-making constitution of 1. Ortolan, History^de ,1a l e g i s l a t i o n , Romaine, t . i . 9-9- p. £64 e (56) Antoaane m 212 ,±, p., by extending c i t i z e n s h i p to a l l "pere-g r i n i was an important m i l e s t o n e i n t h i s new development, ( l ) . By c o n f e r r i n g c i t i z e n s h i p on p r o v i n c i a l p e r e g r i n s , the p r o v i n -c i a l s i n t h e i r l e g a l ' r e l a t i o n s became s u b j e c t e d t o the law of Home and at the same time- became q u a l i f i e d f o r talcing p a r t i n many, tans a c t i o n s both " i n t e r v i v o s " and " m o r t i s causa" which .were p r e v i o u s l y beyond t h i e r c a p a c i t y . Furthermore, i t a i d e d i n fusing- bo'th " j u s gentium" and "j u s c i v i l e " f o r t h e r e was now no n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n s i d e r i n g both d i s t i n c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r i n c i p l e s and d o c t r i n e s of " j u s gentium" s u r v i v e d and were s t i l l a n a l y z e d and e n l a r g e d , by the j u r i s t s ; but now, they were dealt w i t h as p a r t o f the c i v i l law of Rome w h i c h i n t u r n had l o s t i t s l o c a l tmngei and became i m p e r i a l i n scope. Prom the j u r i s t i c p o i n t of view th e r e were s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e pure Roman law, e s p e c i a l l y the f a m i l y law and the law of s u c c e s s i o n , c onfused the Easterners'-who pre-f e r r e d t h e i r own strongly r o o t e d n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h were a b o l i s h e d . Another i l l u s t r a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of t h e Con-s t i t u t i o n r e l a t e s , t o the department oi c o n t r a c t s ; the C o n s t i t u t i o n s decreed that t h e Roman c o n t r a c t of " s p o n s i o " was t o be the model -Ddbut:-"'' l e g i s l a t i o n f a i l e d t o uproot the custom of the o r i e n t a l p o p u l a t i o n s ; " n a t i v e custom p e r s i s t e d and the Roman IciW was g a r b l e d i n the attempt to adopt i t " . ( 2 ) . Hence, two separate' bodies of law e x i s t e d ; the law of the c e n t r a l govern-ment, and the law a c t u a l l y i n t o roe i n . the p r o v i n c e s ; or the pure Roman law and the Roman Law a d u l t e r a t e d by the o r i e n t a l l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s needed constant a t t e n t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n was p a r t i c a l l y r e c t i f i e d by the hand-to-mouth l e g i s l a t i o n of the emperors and by the g r e a t s y n t h e s i s of J u s t i n i a n . 1* "dp. i n " D i g " , I . s. 17, 1,1 m oroe Romano q u i sunt P „ G l v e 8 Ho^ani e f f e c t ! sunt":- primary purpose was p u r e l y f i s c a l . rt« i ' . de Z u l u e t a : "The Sci e n c e of Law" - - p. 300. (31) G H A P T ^ I I I ^ M ^ I ^ i J i ^ ^ a ^ J J T O O T m A T I O l I OP BDMAH LAW. Tie c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d of law ceased w i t h the de a t h of Alexander severus 11)' i n 235 A, D., t h e date of h i s death marks the terminus of the g r e a t p e r i o d of expansion i n t r a d e , end law. I h i s p e r i o d i s c h a r a c e r i z e d by the Romanization o f |he p r o v i n c e s and f o r the b a r b a r i z a t i o n of Rome. . i d e c l i n e set i n t h a t p o i n t s t o the e v e n t u a l d i s s o l u t i o n of the Empire-law was e x c l u s i v e l y i n the hands of the emperors; anarchy routed o r d e r ; a deadly moral d e g e n e r a t i o n contaminated a l l the Romans. Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e f a r e d badly; i t s development was d e f i n i t e l y i m p a i r e d ; indeed, i t no longer developed r a t i o n a l l y or s y s t e m a t i c a l l y ( 2 ) . The d r i f t of a b s o l u t i s l a n d the b i t t e r anatagonism between the C h r i s t i a n s and the pagans c u l m i n a t e d i n the v i c t o r y of Const ant ine a t the B a t t l e of' L i u l v i a n B r i d g e . C h r i s t i a n i t y had won and i n f u t u r e C h r i s t i a n i t y was t o be the s t a t e r e -l i g i o n . Important changes o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the government; the seat of government was t r a n s f e r r e d t o C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ; a complete r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e f f e c t e d by the s e p a r a t i o n o f the c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' f r o m the m i l i t a r y . The two s e n a t e s , one at Rome, the o t h e r at Con-s t a n t i n o p l e , e x i s t e d more i n name than I n f a c t ; the r e a l f u l e r was the emperor. T h i s super a b s o l u t i s m r e p l a c e d the magistrates with • i m p e r i a l f u n c t i o n a r i e s . C l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s became more a c c e n t u a t e d as t h e emperors c l o t h e d themselves I n r e g a l s p l e n d o u r . D i o c l e t i a n assumed the r o y a l diadem and wore the purpl e and gold., the ro y a l i n s i g n i a ; Constantine, h i s s u c c e s s o r , c r e a t e d a t i t l e d n o b i l i t y , a b u f f e r c l a s s between the thron e and the people. His i n t i m a t e . c o u n c i l l o r s he c a l l e d p a t r i c i a n s ; the new t i t l e s , Count, and Duke, spr e a d r a p i d l y throughout the Empire. This f l a t t e r i n g of f a m i l y p r i d e s e gregated the p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r s and m a g i s t r a t e s i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s , I n accordance with t h e i r rank and o f f i c e . Such a system windened the b a r r i e r s of c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n and r e l e g a t e d the mass of humanity i n t o the s t a t u s of s e r f s w i t h few r i g h t s . Such a c o n d i t i o n would not ensure . the t m e and j i i s t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the law f o r a l l c l a s s e s ; t h i s caste system l e d to p r o s t i t u t i o n of the law f o r the favoured c l a s s e s ; v e n a l i t y and .bribery swayed the i m p e r i a l f u n c t i o n a r i e s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . J u s t i c e was p e r v e r t e d , and degraded. l a m p r i d i u s : Biography of Alexa n d e r Severus: "The Roman World was crowded w i t h u n d e r s i r a ' o l e a l i e n s - a gre a t stream emerging i n t o the expanse of a d e l t a ; , i t s waters became s h a l l o w , sluggish and d i s c o l o u r e d by quantities^ of sands, i t c a r r i e d w i t h i t 0 . - - - - - - - - - pp. 13 & 14, Period of abandonment of the formulae system of .procedure. (.38$ .' • • The important victory of the Christians naturally reacted , on, the l aw , but not to such a great estent to a l t e r i t . A •Christian fmperor d i d not imply a Christian Empire; paganism s t i l l thrived i n the hamlets of the country and they remained f o r long the last outposts of paganism. In the provinces, Eoman customs, Roman laws changed l i t t l e ; .the c i t i e s f e l t the sociolog-i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l transformations more acutely than the country. Here the ideals of Christianity ameliorated the cruel laws of slavery, and the vicious practice of infanticide, and rejected the Roman law of marriage, but these changes were more sentimental than l e g a l . The attitude of a few people changed more than their laws* It i s true that the acdeptanoe of Christianity led to the creation of a new branch of law relating- to the Church; i t , too, was effective i n inj e c t i n g Christian ethics into reforms, but apart from these s p i r i t u a l refgrms, i t i s not clear that the change of r e l i g i o n greatly affected the domain of private law. Moreover, what legal changes took place did not take place u n t i l Constantine publicly sanctioned and more especially a f t e r the Theod'O^Mte declared i t to be the r e l i g i o n of the state. Property rights and the privileges of the legatee conferred by enactments, on the Church, the right of bishops to administer charitable i n s t i t u t i o n s , the power of the bishop to interfere in matters of guardianship, the recognition of il l e g i t i m a t e children, the Introduction of a mode of mgnumitting slaves " i n facie eAoc.l6#iae>» the recognition of the efficacy of certain acts done i n the presence of two or three clergymen, and the legal, limitations imposed on heretics and apostates indicate the extent to which Christianity influenced Roman law. But. even more important that these enactments were the. three reforms f h r which i t was solely responsible—the repeal of the caduciary provisions of the "lex J u l i a et Papia Poppa^aV' '-'-A of A. D. 9, the penalties imposed uuon divorce and the establish-ments of the In s t i t u t i o n of the "episcopalis audientia" or the bishop's court. This Christian court influenced the Roman law by promoting the tendency to subordinate act and word to the w i l l and intention and by tempering the rules of the "jus c i v i l e " with equity and Considerations of natural right. From the death of Alexander Severus, A. 1. 2355 to the commencement of Justinian's reign, a stagnancy overtook Roman jusrispudence; magisterial edicts had died i n the reign of Hadrian; the "Comitia" perished under the absolution of the monarchs; the "'genatus consult a" ceased in the second century; • .a«r.-.;A;ifc w i t h• the retrogression i n the a b i l i t y of the j u r i s t s , the "Sententiae", the "responsa" gradually dwindled and f i n a l l y jurists- from t h e i r lack of o r i g i n a l i t y and independence were forced to rely on the 11 sent ent iae" and "responsa" of the classical j u r i s t s . In the absence of the science of law, the .imperial l e g i s l a t i o n denationalized the law by removing the national p e c u l i a r i t i e s and the archaisms of c l a s s i c a l law, of the family law, and the formular system of procedure (1), by which system a Roman c i t i z e n formerly had the right to ta l s? the. cause of l i t i g a n t s . This right except i n t r i v i a l cases the emperor, transferred to the provincial governor.. The only branch.that grew was the constitution;, the personal ego of the l i Ency, B r i t , v o l , S3, l i t h e ed. - - - - - p* 570. Abandonment of the Eormular system of Procedure. -(39) emperors g u a r a n t e e d i t s growth. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r Roman l a i . t h i s growth, was more d e t r i m e n t a l than b e n e f i c i a l ; Roman c o n s t i t u t i o n s i n c r e a s e d i n b u l k i n e s s and u s e f u l n e s s , The most n o t a b l e f e a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the development o f the con-s t i t u t i o n s i s the number of codes t h a t were g a t h e r e d . One h o p e f u l r a y of sunshine i n the gloom-of l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e was the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a , law s c h o o l at Berytus i n P h o e n i c i a toward the middle of the t h i r d century. This s c h o o l a c o u i r e d g r e a t c e l e b r i t y and emulated f o r a lo n g time the o t h e r two d i s t i n g u i s h e d law s c h o o l s at Rome and C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . But i n the l a t t e r two schools c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e new work was ac c o m p l i s h e d ; t h e i r course depended e n t i r e l y on the c l a s s i c a l w r i t i n g s o f the g r e a t j u r i s t s of the bygone age. T h e i r f u n c t i o n a t these s c h o o l s was n o t i n v e n t i o n , not i n i t i a t i o n of l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s , but the i m i t a t i o n o f the o l d . The p a u c i t y of new l e g a l t r e a t i s e s on the 10aw f o r c e d the judges t o r e l y e n t i r e l y on the l e a r n e d e x p o s i t i o n s o f the e r u d i t e lawyers who p r a c t i s e d f rom the r e i g n of T r a j a n to that o f A l e x a n d e r Severus, The emperors f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s method of u s i n g the w r i t i n g s . C o n s t a n t i n e o r d a i n e d the works o f P a p i n i a n and the "Sentences" of P a u l f o r the guide o f the l e g a l t r i b u n a l s ; the n o t e s of P a u l and U l p i a n w r i t t e n upon P a p i n i a n he outlawed. I n the year '426, a remarkable o r d i n a n c e , the Talentenian^.law o f . C i t a t i o n s , agreed upon by Theodosius 11 and T a l e n t i n i a n I I I , was passed t o remedy the c o n f u s i o n caused by the c o n f l i c t of o p i n i o n s . ' T h i s w r i t i n g c o n f i r m e d w i t h l e g a l a u t h o r i t y a l l the w r i t i n g s of f i v e g r e a t j u r i s t s , v i z . G a i u s , P a p i n i a n U l p i a n , Paulus and Modestinus; i t f u r t h e r enacted t h a t , i f the o p i n i o n s of these j u r i s t s c o n f l i c t e d , the judge must f o l l o w the -ma j o r i t y ; i f the o p i n i o n s were e q u a l , the judge must f o l l o w t h a t of P a p i n i a n , who- was ranked as the f i r s t j u r i s c o n s u l t of a n t i q u i t y ; i f t h e r e were no o p i n i o n s of Pap i n i a n , the judge c o u l d use h i s own d i s c r e t i o n . T his law of C i t a t i o n s c l e a r l y d i s p l a y s the impasse t h a t had been reached i n l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e and the i n f e r i o r i t y of the ' judges and j u r i s t s of t h i s , e r a ; as a r e s u l t of t h i s p r a c -t i c e of b a s i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on the w r i t i n g s of j u r i s t s of two or t h r e e c e n t u r i e s ago, law f e l l behind the t i m e s ; t h i s obsolete law c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y ensure the maintenance of j u s t i c e f o r law i f i t i s to be a l i v i n g ' organism must change and expand w i t h the. t i m e s ; as soon as t h i s expansion and development cease, law r e v e r t s t o an e f f e t e , h a ndicapping instrument on s o c i e t y . And yet t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s continued i n the Roman Empire u n t i l the time of J u s t i n i a n ; he, r e a l i z i n g the f u t i l i t y and the d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t of such an a n t i m a t e d system on l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e , r e p e a l e d the law of C i t a t i o n s and r e s t o r e d t o the judges the r i g h t to decide s u i t s ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own judgments. (4-0) The e a r l y codes r e s u l t e d from the p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than emperors. The G r e g o r i a n Gode, p u l b i s h e d about 295, c o n t a i n e d the i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s from the time . of Hadrian (A,P. 117-185) to the end of the t h i r d c e n t u r y . The Codex Hermogenianus (c o m p i l e d i n the E a s t e r n Empire) supplemented the Codex G r e g o r i a n u s and c o n t a i n e d the C o n s t i t u t i o n s of D i o -c l e t i a n s and' M a x ! l i a l l (A.D. 284-305). Only fragmentary . remains of t h i s Code a r e exten. The work i t s e l f i s s m a l l e r than the l a t t e r , being d i v i d e d o n l y i n t o t i t l e s , and, u n l i k e . I t , c o n t a i n s no p r e - D i o c l e t i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n s . D e s p i t e t h i s o m ission, i t i s v a l u a b l e i n t h a t i t has a number of con-temporary c o n s t i t u t i o n s , i s s u e d by D i o c l e t i a n d u r i n g t h e years of 293 and 294. J u s t i n i a n o b t a i n e d from both t h e s e codes'the c o n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s Code f o r the p e r i o d p r i o r t o C o n s t a n t i n e . I n a d d i t i o n to these codes or c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t u t e s there were c o l l e c t e d j u r i s t i c works, c o n t a i n i n g both s t a t u t e law ("leges") and common law " j u s " i n c o m b i n a t i o n . Of these by f a r the most important are the " C o l l a t i o " , the V a t i c a n Fragments, the Consult at io„The " C o l l a t i o legum ifosaicarum et Komanarum" or* as i t s t i t l e b e a r s , "Lex Dei quam p r a e c i p l t dominus ad Hoysen", c o n s i s t e d of a p a r a l l e l of v e r s e s from the P e n t a t a u c h , and passages from the works of G a i u s , P a p i n i a n , P a u l , U l p i a n and Modestlnus, r e s c r i p t s from the G r e g o r i a n and. Hermogeniaii Codes, and one l a t e r enactment. I t s date i s probably a f t e r the y e a r 390, but i t s a u t h o r i s unknown. T h e ; J f e t l e a n Fragments ("Fragmenta V a t i c a n a " ) 372-438 discovered' by C a r d i n a l ^ n g e l o Mai i n the. V a t i c a n l i b r a r y i n 1821, c o n t a i n e d j u r i s t i c w r i t i n g s and i m p e r i a l o r d i n a n c e s . I t was a p p a r e n t l y a book of p r a c t i c e , c o m p i l e d i n the Western Empire. -The s u b j e c t matter of the fragments d e a l wi t h s a l e , u s u f r u c t , dowries, d o n a t i o n s , g u a r d i a n s h i p , and has been borrowed from the w r i t i n g s , of P a p i n i a n , P a u l and U l p i a n and from some of the i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s p r i o r to Theo-dosius, the l a t e s t o f - w h i c h i s of the y e a r 372. The " C o n s u l t a t i o " , o r t o use the f u l l t i t l e the " V e t a r i s cujusdam j u r i s c o n s u l t i c o n s u l t a t i o " , was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1577 by C u j u s , the eminent F r e n c h c i v i l i a n . The book i s a c o l l e c t i o n of answers by an advocate w i t h c i t a t i o n s of t e x t s / ' c o n s u l t a t i o n e s " upon the q u e s t i o n s of law submitted f o r h i s o p i n i o n by a s o l i c i t o r . I t i s of immense v a l u e ' t o c i v i l i a n s i n that i t c o i i t a i n s e x t r a c t s from P a u l ' s sentences and . from the aforementioned codes'. I t s author i s unknown, but i t i s b e l i e v e d t o have been w r i t t e n i n Gaul about the f i f t h c e n t u r y . Ly f a r the most o u t s t a n d i n g code u n t i l J u s t i n i a n ' s code -(-41) of t l i e s i x t h ^ c e n t u r y i s the Theodosian Code. Theodosius II, the E a s t e r n m p e r o r , ordered a commission under Ant i o elms, to review, a b r i d g e and even c o r r e c t the c o n s t i t u t i o n s of"The f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s . I n A. D. 456 the new c o l l e c t i o n was ready and became e f f e c t i v e on January 1st A 439, and i n the same year was o f f i c i a l l y adopted by Y a l e n t i n i a n T D . T h i s work embraces a s e l e c t i o n of the e d i c t s and r e s c r i p t s - from -.A. D. 312 to 458, and r e p r e s e n t s the i m p e r i a l decrees of s i x t e e n emperors. Bulky i n s i z e , the c o l l e c t i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t e e n books S u b d i v i d e d i n t o t i t l e s , each of which c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r number of fragments or abridgements arranged i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . T h i s compendious volume has not . s u r v i v e d i n i t s o r i g i n a l form; only the f i r s t f i v e books and p a r t of the s i x t h , as e p i t o m i s e d i n the " B r e v i a r i u m " of A l a r i c s u r v i v e d the b a r b a r i c Bark Ages. I n the f i r s t o u a r t e r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y O l o s s i u s at .Allan and. the Abbe Peyron at T u r i n d i s c o v e r e d some p a r t s of the l o s t books. ( l ) •fiu-Ai', • Ic^i'i.) The f i r s t f i v e books c o n t a i n i n g most of ( t h e '.enact ~ ments r e l a t i n g to p r i v a t e law are i n form modelled on 'the i commentaries on the E d i c t : The s i x t h , s eventh a r i d d l g h t h books c o n s i s t p r i n c i p a l l y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r d i n a n c e s . The ninth/Abook p e r t a i n s to c r i m i n a l lav;. The t e n t h and e l e v e n t h r e l a t e to the f i n a n c i a l system, and p a r t l y to procedure. B^oks twelve to f i f t e e n , w i t h t h e i r I n t e r e s t i n g treatment of the c o n s t i t u t i o n and . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o i towns and o t h e r c o r p o r a t i o n s i n v o l v e some modern t o p i c s . o f more than p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t . The s i x t e e n t h book c o n t a i n s the con-s t i t u t i o n s which d e a l w i t h the church and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l system i n g e n e r a l . The Code l a s t e d l o n g e r i n the West than i n . t h e East where J u s t i n i a n ' s l e g i s l a t i o n s u p e r s e d e d ^ i n the West the Code s u p p l i e d the l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r the degener-ated Romans and a f t e r t h e i r conquest by the i g n o r a n t , p r i m i t i v e b a r b a r i a n s , i t s e r v e d as a g u i d e f o r the r u t h l e s s i n v a d e r s . Of the importance of t h i s work. Gibbon has s a i d , "Among the books whioh I purchased'the T h e o i o s i a n Code w i t h the commentary of James Godefroy ( p r o f e s s o r of law at Geneva, d i e d t h e r e on June 2 4 t h , 1652), must be g r a t e f u l l y rememlieA-ed. I used i t (and I used i t much) as a work of h i s t o r y r a t h e r than of j u r i s - , prudence; but i n every l i g h t i t may be c o n s i d e r e d as a f u l l and c apacious r e p o s i t o r y o f the p o l i t i c a l s t a t e of the empire i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s . " B esides the v a s t Code, the f o r e r u n n e r of J u s t i n i a n ' s _ great c o l l e c t i o n of l a w s , Theo-v-dosius I I and T a l e n t i n i a n i l l i s s u e d a s e r i e s of l o v e l l a e . These Hovels completed the body of law f o r the Empire; the laws themselves r e v e a l the momentous departure from the c o n c e p t i o n s of the c l a s s i c a l age. i n the , golden age of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e p r i v a t e l i n i t i a t i v e and o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n a l s t a t u s were g r e a t l y stressed;, the c l a s s i c a l j u r i s t s aimed a t m o d i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m ; the ab-s o l u t e governments aimed a t S t a t e S o c i a l i s m and thus r e v o l u -t i o n i s e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the government and s o c i e t y p o l i t i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and l e g a l l y . S t a t e S o c i a l i s m under the d i r e c t i o n of a super s o c i a l i s t , the emperor, removed, the o l d 1. Peyron., A. " C o d i c i s T h e o d o s i a n i Aragmenta i n e d i t a " ( T u r i n , 1824) g» Gibbons' Memoirs - - - - - - - - - - - - - P« 215, 8 vo.-.(42) c o n d i t i o n s of p e r s o n a l s t a t u s , and the r u l e s r e l a t i n g to the landed e s t a t e . The o l d s t r u c t u r e s f e l l under the constant blows of the new s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n . " U n t i l the r e i g n of the l a s t of the Severn, l e g i s l a t i o n , j u r i s p r u d e n c e and d o c t r i n e ha0s c o n f i n e d themselves to the g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e , p e r f e c t i o n , and amendment of l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h a l t h o u g h c o n s t a n t l y improved, had n e v e r undergone a r e v o l u t i o n ; but under the lower Empire t h e r e was a r e v o l u t i o n and most s o c i a l v a l u e s were t h e n r e v e r s e d . " ( l ) T h i s new tone i s r e f l e c t e d i n the subsequent n o v e l s of Marc Ian, M a j o r i a n u s , and Anthemius; u s u a l l y t h e s e n o v e l s are l i n k e d w i t h the Theodosian Code as a s o r t of supplement. • Super s t a t e s o c i a l i s m f a i l e d h o p l e s s l y t o d e f e a t t h e i n s i d i o u s f o r c e s of d e g e n e r a t i o n , debauchery, and the* d a r i n g i n r o a d s of the b a r b a r i a n s ; t h i s super s t a t e s o c i a l i s m adopted i n a s t a t e of d e s p e r a t i o n as a l a s t r e s o r t f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y b e c a u s e - i t was not the spontaneous development of the p e o p l e , the m a j o r i t y of whom l i v e d under s e r f c o n d i t i o n s . I o , t h i s s o c i a l i s m which the emperor imposed on the people and had hoped w i t h h i s c o h o r t of mercenary o f f i c i a l s t o promote e f f e c -i e n t government was doomed because a l l such attempts at govern-ment a r e o n l y temporary and d i s m a l prolonging- of t h e i r i n -e v i t a b l e d o o m - d e s t r u c t i o n . Odoacer'king of the H e r u l i , s u c c e s s i v e l y conquered.the p i t i f u l d e r e l i c t s of the once proud and p r a c t i c a l Soman r a c e . T h i s event, h i s t o r i a n s a r e wont to c o n s i d e r , the end of the Roman .Empire i n the West; i n the Dark Ages (400-800) b a r b a r i a n s c o n t r o l l e d what r e -mained of the g r e a t Western Empire; they p e r f o r c e adopted-'the Roman law t o s u i t t h e i r needs and d r a f t e d t h e i r own crude codes, i n the East the E a s t e r n Empire from i t s l o c a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y r e p e l l e d the b a r b a r i a n s ; t h i s Graeco-Roman Empire s u b s i s t e d f o r n e a r l y a thousand y e a r s l o n g e r and stood a l l o n s l a u g h t s - u n t i l .Constantinople was c a p t u r e d by the Turks i n 1453. For the next important development i n Roman law,, we must t u r n to the East the home of J u s t i n i a n ' s g r e a t Code, the storehouse of much of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . . But before we t r e a t of the l a s t great development, we must f i r s t take cognizance of the Roman ',barbarian "odes, which a re g r e a t l y indebted to Roman, law.and are, of c o n s i d e r a b l e u s e i n e x p l i c a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s and f i l l i n g up the lacunae i n e a r l i e r l aw Sources. The f i f t h c e n t u r y opened w i t h the l A n i g r a t i o n s of the V i s i g o t h s who founded a kingdom i n Southern Gaul i n 415. The Burgundians roamed a l o n g the banks of the Khone and s e t t l e d there about 450 A. D.; "Burgundy" has taken i t s name from ' these people-Odoacer, the l e a d e r of a medley of Teutonic t r i b e s , w r e s t e d the command of the Roman Empire from the l a s t of the Roman emperors and i n 47 6 informed C o n s t a n t i n o p l e t h a t there was no emperor i n the West. 'He was c r u s h i n g l y d e f e a t e d by the .leader of the O s t r o g o t h s . The i n r o a d s of the b a r b a r i a n s debasedTqpArevious h i g h l e v e l of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; Roman ../law was now b a r b a r i z e d . . A l a r i c I I , the r u l e r of the V i s i g o t h s , i n 506B. ,(C., im-posed upon t h e Romans i n h i s V I s i g o t h i c kingdom/,, h i s l e x •Romana V i s i g o t h o r u m * o r more commonly c a l l e d the " B r e v i a r i u m A l a r i c i a n u m " . (2.) F o l l o w i n g the u s u a l h a b i t of b a r b a r i a n •l» , D e c l a r e u i l ; "Rome the l a w - G i v e r " ; P r o l e g o m e n a - p. 32 2» Kef.; -Yinogradoff; Roman Law i n Me d i a e v a l Aurope- oh. I . (43) compilers the commission of lawyers a p p o i n t e d by A l a r i c adopted h o l u s - b o l u s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h e i r Homan pred e c e s s o r s which would a s s i s t them, They embodied w i t h i n the Code e x t r a c t from the Theodosian Code, and the H o v e l s ; they borrowed f r e e l y from the- w r i t i n g of G a i u s , and P a u l and from the "-Responses" of P a p i n i a n ; and t h e n u t i l i z e d the G r e g o r i a n and Hermogenian Codes? I n t r u t h , t h i s worA i s _ n o t so much a c r e a t i o n of t h e i r own as an a d a p t a t i o n of Roman Law and c o n s t i t u t i o n s ; i t s omissions, e.g., on sources of law, and on c o n t r a s t i n g systems of "jus c i v i l e " and "jus gentium" emphasize the s h r i n k i n g o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l h o r i z o n of l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The s i g n i f i -cance of t h i s code l i e s I n the f a c t t h a t i t formed the founda-t i o n f o r Spanish j u r i s p r u d e n c e u n t i l the middle of the seventh century; i n Prance, i t was the law f o r the s e c t i o n s under V i s -igothio c o n t r o l . Indeed, t h e B r e v i a r y exercised, a g r e a t i n -f l u e n c e not o n l y - i n Prance and S p a i n , but a l s o i n western ' Europe, i n a sense i t t r a n s m i t t e d Roman law to western t r i b e s , f o r u n t i l the r i s e of the Bologna s c h o o l i n the end of the 11th century, w e s t e r n Europe l o o k e d to It f a r more than to the books of J u s t i n i a n f o r the knowledge of Roman Law. T h i s t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y produced t h r e e l e g a l • codes. Theodoric p u b l i s h e d h i s e d i c t , at the commencement- o f the s i x t h c e ntury (512) and thus l a i d down the law both f o r the Ostrogoths and the Romans. The work b e t r a y s the c a l i b r e of the a u t h o r ; s h o r t , Incomplete, i t i s c h i e f l y a hodge-podge of e x t r a c t s from the- sources of Roman law, the G r e g o r i a n Codes and the Hermogenian. ( 1 ) . The- Code i t s e l f owes i t s o r i g i n to S i n g Guild o bad (474 - 516) who, when publishing h i s code of n a t i v e law f o r h i s n a t i v e s u b j e c t s , promised a Roman code for. h i s Roman s u b j e c t s . • I t d e a l s w i t h p r i v a t e law, c r i m i n a l law, and p r o c e d u r e , and is.' - arranged much i n the same order as "Gundobada". L i k e i t s r u l e r s , i t p e r i s h e d w i t h the conquest of I t a l y by ITarses- i n 553; the l e g i s l a t i o n of J u s t -i n i a n r e p l a c e d i t . The l a s t e s t and most i n s i g n i f i c a n t was the Burgundian Code, com p i l e d a f t e r 517. Through a c o p y i s t ' s e r r o r and .through t h e i g n o r a n c e o f these rude and crude l e g i s l a t o r s , the "Lex Romanan Burgundiorum" l o n g passed under the name of "Papianus". C u j a s , the remarjcable French s c h o l a r of the s i x -teenth c e n t u r y , c o r r e c t e d the e r r o r and a p p l i e d the c o r r e c t term "Papinianus". T h i s m i s t a k e i n name w e l l i l l u s t r a t es t h e d e c l i n e i n the study of Roman J u r i s p r u d e n c e . L i k e i t s pre-decessors , the "Edictum T h e o d o r i c i " and B r e v i a r y i t u t i l i z e d the o l d Codes, the I n s t i t u t e s of G a i u s , and the "Sententiae" of Paulus (2)• The " P a p i n i a n u s " law d i s a p p e a r e d upon the f a l l of the Burgundian kingdom-in 536; the " B r e v i a r i u m " ousted i t as a d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y but the Burgundian Code was used i n the. courts as a supplement. The w h o l e s a l e a d o p t i o n o f Roman Law by the b a r b a r i a n r u l e r s i n the s i x t h and s e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s i l l u s t r a t e the im-portant ...Romanization of t r i b a l law. But the .Romanization 1. Ref. Ed. Bluhme: "Monumenta Germaniae Leges" - pp. 145 SCO Hanover, 1875. 2. . Ref. Ed. Bluhme: "Monumenta German!ae Leges" - I I I pp. 579 f f . (44) was n o t c o m p l e t e l y overwhelming. B r e k e r ' s ( l ) remarkable i n v e s t i g a t i o n s - h a v e c l e a r l y demonstrated that Germanic l e g a l customs d i d n o t p e r i s h ; a continuous stream of Germanic l e g a l customs ru n n i n g i n an o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n to the Eoman stream of l e g a l enactments, r u l e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n t i n u e d to f l o w down the channel of time, to emerge a g a i n i n the l a t e r customs o f p r o v i n c e s . about the middles of the s i x t h c e n t u r y , J u s t i n i a n ' s generals r o u t e d the b a r b a r i a n s i n I t a l y and A f r i c a ; l i k e a M u s s o l i n i , he ordered the observance of h i s laws i n the con-quered t e r r i t o r i t y . S i n c e h i s conquests d i d not extend t o Gaul or S p a i n , where much of the Theodosian Code and o t h e r p a r t s of the Soman Law were employed, the i n f l u e n c e of J u s t -inian'was not f e l t u n t i l c e n t u r i e s l a t e r . Even i n I t a l y , J u s t i n i a n ' s supremacy gave way t o the v i c t o r i o u s Lombards; with the l o s s of the Exa r c h a t e of Ravenna i n 752 the East had l o s t a l l the t e r r i t o r y i n the West. The f i n a l c o m p i l a t i o n and the most permanent was due to the i n t e r e s t and s e a l of J u s t i n i a n , Over a space of t e n c e n t u r i e s t h e r e had accumulated volumes of j u d i c i a l o p i n i o n s innumerable s t a t u t e s , and i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s ; n e c e s s i t y decreed a p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s j u d i c i a l wisdom of past gen-e r a t i o n s . ( 2 ) . J u s t i n i a n , tiao, had the common sense to r e a l i z e that any attempts to imbibe a l l the books of the past gener-a t i o n s were f u t i l e and f o o l i s h . Gibbon i n h i s " H i s t o r y 1 1 has very a p t l y d e s c r i b e d the s t a l e m a t e i n l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e , "In the space of ten c e n t u r i e s , the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of laws aadr- • l e g a l o p i n i o n s had f i l l e d many thousand volumes, which no f o r t u n e c o u l d purchase and no c a p a c i t y c o u l d d i g e s t . Books c o u l d not e a s i l y be found; and the judges, poor i n the midst of r i c h e s , were reduced t o the e x e r c i s e of t h e i r i l l i t e r -ate d i s c r e t i o n . " ( S ) . The j u r i s c o n s u l t s and m a g i s t r a t e s were l i k e h e l p l e s s f l i e s e n t a n g l e d i n the web of l e g a l t r e a t i s e s and s t a t u t e s . I f Roman Law was to be employed as a v e h i c l e f o r everyday t r a n s a c t i o n s and f o r the f a c i l i t a t i o n of b u s i n e s s , the v a s t r e s e r v o i r c o n t a i n i n g the "leges"., the many and super-f l u o u s c o n s t i t u t i o n s of past Roman emperors, the " j u s " , the law l a i d down by the g r e a t j u r i s t s of the c l a s s i c a l age, must be d r a i n e d of i t s s l u g g i s h , stagnant waters of the p a s t . ( 3 ) . And t h i s e s s e n t i a l Work, though not performed p e r f e c t l y , was accomplished by J u s t i n i a n , and Tr-Ibonian of Side i n Pamphylia, «ho headed the I g g a l commission-* The name "Corpus " J u r i s • C i v i l i s " (body of C i v i l Law } s i n c e the s i x t e e n t h , c e n t u r y i s ' a p p l i e a ^ t h e whole body of Roman Law comprised i n the works of J u s t i n i a n ( 4 ) . This term covers s i x d i f f e r e n t l e g a l c o m p i l a t i o n s of v a r y i n g degrees of importance. Taken c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , r a t h e r than c l i m a t i c a l l y , they a r e : The Codex Vetus (Old Code) ( A p r i l , 529), The D i g e s t or Pandects, 1. E i c k e r , J. : "Untersuchungen zur E r b e n f o l g e der ostgenmarischa EechtS", I-V, 1, 1891-1902. 2. B i ^ o n : " H i s t o r y of the D e c l i n e A F a l l of the Roman Empire, 0 3. Of. D e s p a i r i n g remarxs of Theodosius l i (438 A.D.) on S t a t e of law: V i n o g r a d o i f : Roman Law i n i l e d i e v a l Europe. Ch. I , p. 17 4. J o l o w i c z : H i s t o r i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n to Roman law : Ch. S Z V l I I . (45) u.': e x c e r p t s from w r i t i n g s of j u r i s t s , Bee. 16, 533), The F i f t y D e c i s i o n s ( 5 2 9 and 5 3 1 ) , the i n s t i t u t e s ( K Q V . S I , 5 3 3 ) , The Codex R e p e t i t a e P r a e l e c t i o n i s (Hew Code) (Hov. 16, 5 3 4 ) and the N o v e l l a e (Hovels) enacted a f t e r 5 3 4 , Of a l l these pro-d u c t i o n s by f a r the most important Is the D i g e s t , Since the Digest has the g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e , a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h of tiiei o t h e r volumes w i l l s u f f i c e . I n 5 2 8 , J u s t i n i a n a p p o i n t e d a commission of t e n j u r i s -c o n s u l t s t o o v e r h a u l and r e v i s e a l l e x i s t i n g . donstitut i o n s and to e d i t the t e x t i n such a way t h a t the d i f f e r e n t con-s t i t u t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the same t o p i c c o u l d be combined. By A p r i l , 5 2 9 . t h e Code was completed, but was doomed f o r a s h o r t l i f e ' b e c a u s e of i t s i n c o n g r u i t y w i t h the D i g e s t . I t s s u c c e s s -or was the "Codex R e p e t i t a e P r a e l e c t i o n i s " , a r r a n g e d i n twelve books and s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t i t l e s a c c o r d i n g to s u b j e c t . T h i s new Code p u b l i s h e d on December 2 9 , 5 3 4 , superseded a l l p r e v i o u s codes and a n o n - i n c l u d e d c o n s t i t u t i o n was "eo Ipso" r e p e a l e d . The c o n t e n t s r e l a t e c h i e f l y to' i m p e r i a l ("ius p r i n c i p a l e " ) o r E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Law, w i t h only a few d e t a i l s on p r i v a t e . l a w ; t h e r e f o r e , t h i s code's i n t e r e s t l i e s i n i t s a n t i q u a r i a n r a t h e r than i t s p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . I n e d i t i n g t l i e Code, the j u r i s c o n s u l t s had no d i f f i c u l t y i n p r u n i n g the p r o l i x ; , u s e l e s s members of the c o n s t i t u t i o n s ; y e t , a more d i f f i c u l t t a s k a w a i t e d them i n the a b r i d g i n g of the w r i t i n g s of the j u r i s t s ; d i f f i c u l t i n t h a t the weight of l e g a l wheat f a r outweighted the c h a f f . R e a l i z i n g the her c u l e a n t a s k f o r such a p r o j e c t , J u s t i n i a n a s s i g n e d t e n years and" a p p o i n t e d a commission of seventeen men, f i v e law p r o f e s s o r s , and twelve p r a c t i s i n g advocates under T r i b o n i a n , to e x t r a c t the q u i n t e s s e n c e of the o l d j u r i s p r u d e n c e from t,he ancient Common Law and to present i t t o the people i n a com-pact and manageable form, w i t h the u s e l e s s d e b r i s removed and the v e x a t i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s s e t t l e d . D e s p i t e the many problems t h a t c o n f r o n t e d the commission, the work was com-p l e t e d w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s and p u b l i s h e d on December 16, 5 3 3 . Indeed, such a r e c o r d speaks w e l l f o r the z e a l and enthusiasm of these s c h o l a r s when one c o n s i d e r s the many handicaps they labored under and th a t t h e i r work i n v o l v e d the abridgment of 2 , 0 0 0 volumes, t o 5 0 , The s u b j e c t - m a t t e r summarized the w r i t i n g s of the t h i r t y -n ine j u r i s t s , the m a j o r i t y of whom, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of three j u r i s t s of the R e p u b l i c , belonged t o the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d ( c i r c a A . D . 131 to n.D. 235). The l a r g e s t s i n g l e con-t r i b u t o r i s U l p i a n ; others a r r a n g e d , a c c o r d i n g t o the e x t e n t of t h e i r w r i t i n g s a re P a u l u s , P a p i n i a n , S a l v i u s J u l i a n u s , Pomponius, Q. C e r v i d i u s S c a e v o l a , G a i u s , Marciamus, J o n s l e v u s , A f r i c a n u s , M a r c e l l u s . A s u p e r f i c i a l p e r u s a l of the Digest w i l l r e v e a l the d i s -J o i n t e d n e s s , the frecruent d i g r e s s i o n s , the tiresome r e p e t i t i o n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g these d e f e c t s , the. D i g e s t , d i v i d e d i n t o f i f t y books w i t h each book d i v i d e d i n t o ' - t i t l e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n (46) o i . t h e 3 0 t h , 3 1 s t , and 32nd, p r e s e n t s many aspects o f p r a c t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s . Thanks to 'J0ii3aiaew a. c l e v e r German g c h o l a r ( 1 ) , the method of arrangements, namely the a r r a n g i n g of fragments of the law under each t i t l e , seems l o g i c a l . The sources of fragments, now g e n e r a l l y arranged i n t h r e e groups, a re found i n the G i v i l Law Group. The C i v i l Law group i s based on t h e " l i b r i ad SabinumH"', a s e r i e s of commentaries by y l ^ i a n , Pomponius, P a u l and Sabinus, the founder of the S a b i n i a n s c h o o l and f i r s t r e c i p i e n t o f- 0* jus respond end I " , i t i s a l s o based on the E d i c t group, where U l p i a n took the ^.ecceftenKsee, and on the Pap-i n i a n ^ group. The S a b i n i a n group d e a l t c h i e f l y w i t h f a m i l y - l a w , e s p e c i a l l y marriage and g u a r d i a n s h i p , con-sensual and v e r b a l c o n t r a c t s , and i n h e r i t a n c e ; the E d i c t a l mass d e a l t w i t h " j u s honorarium"; and the P a p i n i a n group de a l t w i t h cases of s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h were s e t t l e d a y Pap in i an 1 s" "Qua e s t i on e s and Responsa" i n s e r t e d at the head o f t h i s group. Undoubtedly, from the e x i s t e n t arrangement of the ffrag-ments, no j o i n t s e s s i o n of the commissioners f o r a f i n a l r e v i s i o n , f o r f i n a l c u r t a i l i n g , and a d j u s t i n g was h e l d ; consequently, as has been s a i d b e f o r e , i n s t e a d of p r e s e n t i n g a p e r f e c t mosaic of s e l e c t e d p a t t e r n s , i t remains?, a hodge-podge of l e g a l t e x t s w i t h a v e r y poor o r d e r A n o t h e r c r i t -i c i s m e m i t t i n g from s c h o l a r s i s t h a t i t i s t h i c k w i t h i n t e r -p o l a t i o n s , or T r i b o n i a n i s m s ; i n f a c t , so common a r e the Tri b o n i a n i s m s t h a t i n many p l a c e s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to d i s -t i n g u i s h the s o l u t i o n s of the c l a s s i c a l law from the i n t e r -p o l a t i o n s . G r a n t e d the i m p e r f e c t i o n s of the Pandects, i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , of paramount importance f o r " i t i s the Digest which g i v e s to the "Corpus I u r i s " i t s s p e c i a l e x c e l l -ence and e x p l a i n s i t s c o n t i n u e d i n f l u e n c e " ( 2 ) . J u s t i n i a n , f e e l i n g t h a t law and the study of law co u l d be f u r t h e r a m e l i o r a t e d o r d e r e d the e d i t i n g of the " I n s t i t u t e s " by Theophilus and Dorotheus, under the s u p e r v i s i o n of T r i b o n i a n . I n b r i e f , i t f u r n i s h e d a v e r y necessary manual f o r law s t u d e n t s ; not o n l y was i t s o l d as a s t a n d a r d f o r law schools of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e but a l s o r e c e i v e d t h e f o r c e of law. Based on the I n s t i t u t e s o f Ga i u s , but revamped ¥/here nec-essary, the I n s t i t u t e s bound i n f o u r books, w i t h a t o t a l of n i n e t y - n i n e t i t l e s , expounded p r i n c i p a l l y matters, of p r i v a t e law, and p u b l i c law. The v a l u e of the lawbook can be as-c e r t a i n e d from the f a c t t h a t t h e r e have been numerous p r i n t s , t r a n s l a t i o n s , and commentaries on i t . The "proemiumi to the I n s t i t u t e s " c l e a r l y b e t r a y s J u s t i n i a n ' s a n x i e t y to reward h i s freshmen, the " n o v i J u s t i n i a n e i " , f o r t h e i r d i l i g e n c e ; they and they a l o n e w i l l be employed i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e o r i n one of the numerous government p o s t s . 1. Bluhme: " . Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r g e s c h i c h t l i c h e R e c h t s w i s s e n s c h a f t " IV. (1818), 256-474. 2. legacy o f Rome: The Science of Law: P. de Z u l u e t a , p. 184. (47) _So f a r the c h i e f l e g a l e d i t i o n s have been abridgments, but J u s t i n i a n consummated h i s work w i t h the i s s u i n g of o r -dinances from I . D, 53b t o 565. These ordinances reformed the law i n many r e s p e c t s ; however, a f t e r the death of T r i -bonian, i n 545, t h e i r number decreased. W r i t t e n c h i e f l y i n Greek, w i t h 'a* few i n L a t i n , they"embrace important reforms i n the Law of i n t e s t a t e s u c c e s s i o n , i n domestic law, and i n the law- Church and S t a t e . Of h i s t o r i c a l r a t h e r than l e g a l i n t e r e s t , they have descended t o u s t h r o u g h t h r e e channels; i n the "Epitome" of J u l i a n , p r o f e s s o r at the Law S c h o o l at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a l a t i n Abridgment of 124 of them; i n the " A u t h e n t i c a " o r "Authenticum n o v e . l l -arum corpus^,-jvhich c o n t a i n e s 134 Greek n o v e l s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o L a t i n ^ ' v e r s i o v u l g a t a " ; and In a "Greek C o l l e c t i o n " of 168 n o v e l s , seven of which are l a t e r t h a n J u s t i n i a n '.and f o u r are e d i c t s of p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t s . •The b u l k i n e s s and importance of J u s t i n i a n " s Enact-ment s i n the Code and Hovels cannot be d i s r e g a r d e d ; h i s l e g i s l a t i o n f a l l s not f a r s h o r t of 600 c o n s t i t u t i o n s , Bihd-le^ian'*s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Code are more than twice as "numerous, but most of them are n o t h i n g more than short d e c l a r a t o r y statements of p r e - e x i s t i n g law, J u s t -i n i a n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n s on the o t h e r hand, we re m o s t l y reformatory i n n a t u r e , and many of them, i n p a r t i c u l a r those i n the H o v e l s , were as long as an average acif of p a r l i a m e n t . I f we can remove the i r r i t a t i n g f a u l t s of v e r b o s i t y i n v o l v e d p e r i o d s , and of obnoxious v a n i t y , V;e' w i l l p e r c e i v e that - h i s l e g i s l a t i o n covered the whole f i e l d of law, p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , c i v i l and c r i m i n a l , s e c u l a r and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l . H i s two c h i e f modes i n l e g i s l a t i o n were the "humanitas" so f a r as law of persons was concerned, and";the " n a t u r a l i s r a t i o " so f a r s as t h i n g s were concerned. These two f a c t o r s - -h i s "human i t as'" and . " n a t u r a l i s - r a t i o " l e t to a great aeparture from former l e g a l p r a c t i c e s ; he i n t r o d u c e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes i n the law of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ; he amended the law of p r o p e r t y and o b l i g a t i o n by . a b o l i s h i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n between "res..mancipi'" and "res n-ee m a n c i m " ; he i n t r o d u c e d and r e g u l a t e d the e a s t e r n p r i n c i p l e of emphyteusis; and f a r s u r -passed h i s C h r i s t i a n p r e d e c e s s o r s , Theodosius I I and A n a s t i u s , by r e v o l u t i o n i s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of testamentary s u c c e s s i o n as i s e v i d e n t i n the " I n s t i t u t e s " (1)' and i n the 115th H ovel and 127th Hovels. T h i s c o s m o p o l i t a n body of law c o n t r i b u t e d much to every modern system of law. , . . !• I n s t i t u t e s : i i . 23 s e c . 12. (48) The "Corpus l u r i s • C i v i l i s ' ' c o n s i s t i n g of I n s t i t u t e s " " D i g e s t " , "Codex" and "No v e l s " , taken as a~whole, has l e f t i t s e l f an easy t a r g e t f o r s c h o l a r s ' to c r i t i c i s e ; c r i t i c i s m of i t run the gamut of f a v o u r and d i s f a v o u r . Some h i s t o r i a n s e m p h a t i c a l l y e n u n c i a t e t h a t i t i s not a. Code i n the sense of a modern code "»in that i t i s not an o r d e r l y and condensed statement of e x i s t i n g Roman law; y e t , at the same time, we * must bear i n mind the aims of J u s t i n i n a . He never i n t e n d e d to combine s t a t u t e and Roman common law; such c o m b i n a t i o n was c o n t r a r y to Roman p r a c t i c e . . S e c o n d l y , he i n t e n d e d that the D i g e s t s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t not a f r e s h r e n d e r i n g of law, but s h o u l d r e t a i n the language and the i n d e n t i t y of the authors o f the fragments. I n o t h e r words, he aimed at c o n s o l i d a t i n g and not c r e a t i n g a new and o r i g i n a l system of j u r i s p r u d e n c e which c r e a t i o n would be inane because the Soman c o u r t s were a l r e a d y submerged i n a vast w h i r l p o o l of case law and s t a t u t e law. ^ second c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a t the monumental work b e l i t t l e d Its:. I n f e r i o r L a t i n i t y ; such ' b e l i t t l i n g I s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f a c t s ; on the whole, the s t y l e and d i c t i o n show l i t t l e f a l l i n g o f f from the best models of the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d . - Indeed, t h i s c r i t i c i s m i s u n f a i r f o r language f l u c t u a t e s w i t h the passage of time and standards d i f f e r e from one age t o a n o t h e r ; however, no defense i s n e c e s s a r y ; the v e r d i c t of competent l a t i n s c h o l a r s i s t h a t the L a t i n of the "Corpus l u r i s " Is not i n f e r i o r to the s t a n d a r d o f the S i l v e r Age. A t h i r d c r i t i c i s m i s h u r l e d at the want of s c i e n t i f i c arrangement; a p p l y i n g the modern standards, and not the Roman, the student would n a t u r a l l y d i s l i k e the annoying arrangement, n e v e r t h e l e s s , to the Romans arrangement meant l i t t l e and f o r t h a t reason J u s t i n i a n d i r e c t e d h i s . c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o f o l l o w the order of the E d i c t s and Commentaries, which was f a m i l i a r t o the Roman p r o f e s s i o n by immemorial usage. The occurence of r e p e t i t i o n s and i n -c o n s i s t e n c i e s must be excused i n v i ew of the r a p i d i t y of e x e c u t i o n . Gibbon's c r i t i c i s m t h a t the a l t e r a t i o n s of the t e x t s as "fr a u d s and f o r g e r i e s" i s absurd f o r the commiss-io n e r s had express o r d e r s from J u s t i n i a n to make a l l necessary amendments; i f a n y t h i n g , they are t o be c r i t i c i s e d for not a l t e r i n g the t e s t s a l i t t l e more ..in compliance w i t h the need. ..^ 11 these, charges are r e b u t t e d by J u s t i n i a n ' s p r i n c i p a l aim** t h e p r o v i d i n g of a system of law com p a t i b l e w i t h the requirements of the Empire. He was f i r s t and f o r e -most a l e g i s l a t o r and r e f o r m e r , not a l e g a l h i s t o r i a n . Tot a s s e s s the importance o f the "Corpus l u r i s C i v i l i s " i s a problem f r a u g h t w i t h t r o u b l e ; and y e t a few. f r a n k admissions w i l l c l a r i f y any p o s s i b l e f a l s e I n f e r e n c e s , We must n o t conclude, t h a t t h i s c o d i f i c a t i o n of Roman Law by J u s t i n i a n marks the ..olden age of Roman Law; no, the h i g h -water mark o f Roman J u r i s p r u d e n c e was reached' i n the f i r s t two c e n t u r i e s a f t e r the r e i g n of Augustus. Hor must we t r a v e l , t o . t h e o t h e r extreme l i k e Gibbon, who i m p l i e s that Roman law was i n i t s " o l d age", w i t h a l l the sap of i n -v e n t i o n and improvement d r a i n e d . His i m p l i c a t i o n that i t bowed s u b m i s s i v e l y to the a u t h o r i t y of famous names of the past, though i t c o n t a i n s a k e r n e l of t r u t h , must be q u a l i f i e d (49) by the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t t h a t i t was s t i l l capable of innova-t i o n s i n the l e g a l f i e l d ; to r e c a l l one i n s t a n c e , the s t a t u t e of J u s t i n i a n which e n l a r g e d the scope of i n t e s t a c y . The gr e a t c o d i f i c a t i o n has l e f t i t s permanent f o o t s t e p s on the sands o f time; i t s e t t l e d the s t a t u s of the p e o p l e ; i t gave a u n i f o r m i t y to law throughout the.Empire. Furthermore, i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l law, the gem of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e , s e r v e d as an E l Dorado of l e g a l knowledge f o r the mediaeval age and subsequent c e n t u r i e s . "One of the m e r i t s of the By z a n t i n e c o m p i l e r s and that which secured the i m m o r t a l i t y of t h e i r work, was that they had the d i s -cernment to' c l i n g t o c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n so f a r as the l a p s e of c e n t u r i e s seemed geamiit." ( 1 ) . I t , t o o , was a u n i v e r -s a l i z i n g agency; without the c o d i f i c a t i o n of J u s t i n i a n the r e c e p t i o n of Roman law in ' E u r o p e would not have been so hearty. Bat I t s most i m p o r t a n t f tine t i on" i s j i $ hat -of • connect Log" l i n k i n the g r e a t c h a i n of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the l i n k t h a t connects Rome's g r e a t e s t l e g a c y , h er system of law.,with modern j u r i s -prudence. 1. l e g a c y o f Rome: F. de Z u l e t a : - - - - - - - - - - p„ p85 (50) CHAPTER I f a TRAHSMISSIOI OE THE LEGACY. 1;. The,. East has always been the c r a d l e of r e l i g i o n and not of law; hence the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s have never e v i n c e d the same i n t e r e s t i n l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e as the West.' The law o f the East c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as a mongrel type of O r i e n t a l and Roman Laws as evidenced by the "Syro-Roman Law Book" (L). Nevertheless, d e s p i t e the apathy of the people con-c e r n i n g law, the great compilations of J u s t i n i a n were the recog-n i s e d a u t h o r i t i e s on the s u b j e c t . The I n s t i t u t e s , Pandects, the oode, and most o f the Hovels were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Greek to supply a fundamental source f o r a l l judges and j u r i s t s i n the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s ; i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e u n a b r i d g e d e d i t i o n s of . J u s t i n i a n ' s c o m p i l a t i o n s , the s t u d e n t s , the j u r i s t s ^ t h e auth-o r i t i e s u t i l i z e d the a b s t r a c t s , the epitomes, the commentaries prepared by ihe t e a c h e r s f o r t h e i r pupilgS". Among the best known of these e d i t i o n s i s the Greek v e r s i o n of the I n s t i t u t e s by T h e o p h i l u s ( 2 ) , a p p e a r i n g a few y e a r s a f t e r the o r i g i n a l , i t became a f a v o u r i t e t e x t i n the law s c h o o l s of the East and thus bestowed on i t much p o p u l a r i t y and a u t h o r i t y i n the E a s t . Except f o r the few m o d i f i c a t i o n s by the emperors of the c i t y of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , the j u r i s p r u d e n c e p r o g r e s s e d very l i t t l e . Hot u n t i l the n i n t h c e n t u r y (867 A.LA) was a book of any consequence produced; t h e n the s t i m u l u s f o r the law came from, the Macedonian emperors, B a s . i l i u s and h i s p h i l o s o p h e r - s o n , Leo. To revives and s t i m u l a t e the study of law, the monarchs ordered •a c o l l e c t i o n o f the e x t r a c t s from the I n s t i t u t e s , the D i n g e s t , the Code and the Hovels of J u s t i n i a n to be a r r a n g e d i n a s y s -t e m a t i c o r d e r . Only t h o s e . p a r t s of the o p e r a t i v e law were ex-t r a c t e d , and j o i n e d t o g e t h e r under the a p p r o p r i a t e headings to form a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , c o n c i s e , u s e f u l code. P u b l i s h e d w i t h the t i t l e " B a s i l i c a " , i n s i x t y books, t h i s g u i d e f i l l e d a breach t h a t had l o n g e x i s t e d i n the law o f the E a s t . L a t e r . s u c c e s s o r s of the Macedonian monarchs added i m p e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s to supplement the Code. I n the t e n t h . c e n t u r y , (945) C o n s t a n t i n e Prophygrogenitus r e v i s e d the o l d e d i t i o n and i s s u e d a more modern e d i t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s time the o r i e n t a l j u r i s t s were w r i t i n g comment-a r i e s or r a t h e r e x t r a c t i n g i d e a s f rom e a r l i e r commentaries and e x p r e s s i n g them to s u i t t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l purposes; these com-mentaries o r " S c h o l i a " were added to the " B a s i l i c a " of Leo-to e l u c i d a t e i t . . The " H e x a b i b l o s " o f 1345. belonged to t h i s .: class-3 ; and has i n f l u e n c e d Greek law; i n 1835 i t was adopted f o r the r e s t o r e d Greek kingdom, Byron's f a i r . c h i l d ; t h i s law was t o remain u n t i l the p u b l i c a t i o n of a C i v i l Code. The " B a s i l i c a " and the e x e g e t i c a l " S c h o l i a " remained i n f o r c e u n t i l 1453. The importance of these l e g a l documents, many of w h i c h have come down to us i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y r e s t s on t h e i r use t o s c h o l a r s as a 1. Ency. B r i t . v o l . 23, 11th ed.: p. 572: "As a r e p e r t o r y of Roman Law i t i s of l i t t l e v a l u e , as i t misunderstands o r v a r i e s from t h a law i n many r e s p e c t s , but i t i s of importance as showing" how f i r m l y H e l l e n i u s law and customs m a i n t a i n e d themselves i n the East d u r i n g the decay of t h e Empire". 2. Ency. B r i t . , v o l . 23, 11th ed. p. 575. (51) means of i n t e r p r e t i n g the t r u e r e a d i n g of the J u s t i n i a n t e x t s , fabrot, a Fre n c h s c h o l a r , p u b l i s h e d a l a t i n e d i t i o n of them i n P a r i s ; and Gujas, t h e -..aeh founder of the h i s t o r i c a l s c h o o l of Soman J u r i s p r u d e n c e i n France borrowed f r e e l y f r om the "Promptuarium" of C o n s t a n t i n e HarmenopuP-S, a judge of T h e s s a l o n i e a . ( l ) . F u r t h e r , the s u c c e s s o r s "of the B y z a n t i n e s monarchs, the»Mohammedans i n c o r p o r a t e d many Roman elements garnered from the " B a s i l i c a " and the " s c h o l i a " ; many of these ideas, of co u r s e , were t r a n s f o r m e d and m o d i f i e d to s u i t the e x i g e n c i e s of the Arab s . 'The a b s o r p t i o n , however, of these Roman l e g a l i d e a s by t h e Arabs i s gerta/inly a remarkable testimony to the v i t a l i t y of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Undoubtedly, the g r e a t Mohammedan r e n a i s s a n c e of l e a r n i n g i n S p a i n under the l e a r n e d A rabs was su p p o r t e d by the Roman s t r u c t u r e of law, l i t e r a t u r e and the Greek s t r u c t u r e of a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e , .and p h i l o s o p h y . I n the West v e s t i g e s of a d u l t e r a t e d Roman law were i n c o r -porated i n crude oar b a r i c codes, A. good example of such codes i s the " l e x Romana C u r i e n s i s " . I t i s a statment of l e g a l custom drawn up f o r the Romance, population of E a s t e r n S w i t z e r l a n d , and was used i n T y r o l and northern Ital y . I t s language, as one may expect, i s b a r b a r i o u s ; i t s c o n t e n t s expose the c r u d i t y of barbarous c o n c e p t i o n s ; and i t s j u r i d i a l treatment i s so poor t h a t i t i s worse than the treatment of contemporary P r a n k i s h or Lombard l e g a l customs. The c o n t e n t s based.on the "l e x Romana V i s i g o t h o r u m " l a c k the I n s t i t u t e s of Gaius and the g r e a t e r p a r t of Paul's " S e n t e n t i a e " ; throughout t h e r e i s a misunderstanding of the I m p e r i a l enactments; m i s s p e l l i n g s a re f r e q u e n t ; "Gaius" appears i n the t e x t as "Gagius" and "S c a e v o l a " as " S c i f o l a " ; the method of s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s i s p r i m i t i v e . T his barbarous body of law, i f i f can be c a l l e d ".law", g i v e s h i n t s of the t r a c e s of b a r b a r i c usage making t h e i r way i n t o the debased Roman Law; h'term new to Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e , " f r e d i u m " ( p r i c e ob-t a i n e d f o r peace t h r o u g h i n t e r v e n t i o n of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s ) , crept i n t o l e g a l p h r a s e o l o g y ; and a „:-v. •-...j •,-,'_.'. .n..t .•....-re. the word "dos",. o r i g i n a l l y "dower", now meant " p o s s e s s i o n guaranteed to-7#s •wife-of a c r i m i n a l .whose p r o p e r t y has been c o n f i s c a t e d " . Since no s t a t e of t h i s p e r i o d was s t r o n g enough to e n f o r c e a compact l e g a l o r d e r of i t s . own, the Law i n the West was an a s s o r t e d c o l l e c t i o n of t r i b a l customs; legal u n i t y i n j u r i s -prudence d i s a p p e a r e d beneath the d e b r i s of the l o c a l customs which were e s s e n t i a l l y p e r s o n a l and l o c a l i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . 1 This c o n d i t i o n provoked many l e g a l c o n f l i c t s ; one set, of l o c a l customs would c l a s h w i t h another s e t ; s o l u t i o n s could be found only i n the a d o p t i o n of t h e Roman Law whi c h o c c a s i o n a l l y " broke thro ugh the many c o l o u r e d panes of l o c a l custom" (2) or i n the a s s e r t i o n of might. A .Bishop, c a l l e d Bishop Ago bard, n a r r a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g -s t o r y of c o n d i t i o n s i n 850 i n Lyons; of f i v e people, meeting i n a room, each f o l l o w e d a law of h i s own. One i n s t a n c e of c o n f l i c t -w i l l s u f f i c e ; i n c o n t r a c t s each p a r t y was h e l d bound by the r u l e of h i s own law. But a m o d i f i c a t i o n of'ithis r u l e occured whenever a c o n t r a c t was accompanied by a, wager, then :j;h_<| c o n t r a c t was i n t e r -preted a c c o r d i n g to the law ofApe r s o n making-A^/ager. T r u l y , t h i s p e r i o d was a p e r i o d of the.Bark Ages I 1. M o r t r e u i l : H i s t o i r e du D r o i t B y z a n t i n , 5 v o l s . 1847. 2. "Roman Law i n Med i a e v a l Europe", p. 28. Y i n o g r a d o f f . S u c c e s s i v e hordes of b a r b a r i a n s , p e r i o d s of d i s o r d e r and chaos m a t e r i a l l y damaged the Soman l a w , but d i d these b a r b a r i a n s , d i d the chaos of these gloomy c e n t u r i e s of c o l o s s a l i l l i t e r a c y submerge Roman |<aw? E a r l y h i s t o r i a n s were i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e that Roman l a w remained b u r i e d f o r c e n t u r i e s u n t i l i t was r e -v i v e d by the d i s c o v e r y of the F l o r e n t i n e copy of the Pj&e&ects, at the sack of 'the A m a l f i , i n 1135. This t h e o r y has been d i s -proved by Savigny and^the e x c e l l e n t t r e a t i s e V i n o g r a d o f f . ( l ) iUi i g n o r a n t race from s h e e r n e c e s s i t y and l a c k of a b i l i t y must adopt, even a l t h o u g h i t may modify, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a s u p e r i o r race whether i n the a r t of p o l i t i c s o r the sphere of law. I n the kingdoms of the Goths, the Lombards, and the Gar l o v i n g i a n s , Roman law, i n a debased and b a r b a r i a n c o n d i t i o n , supported a l l t h e i r l e g a l d e d u c t i o n s * I n the kingdom o f the Pranks, f o r i n s t a n c e , the a n c i e n t c o l l e c t i o n s of laws, such . as those of Marculf^, of An i o n , of Tours, a re f u l l of i n s t r u m e n t s formed on p a t t e r n of Roman deeds, l o t o n l y d i d the b a r b a r i c codes t r a n s m i t the l e g a l l e a r n i n g , but i t was a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d by the m o n a s t e r i e s . True, no d e f i n i t e system of o r g a n i z e d law scho o l s e x i s t e d ; y e t , t h e r e remains Bis h o p I s i d o r ' s m i s c e l l a n - ^ eous " e n c y c l o p e d i a " , d i s c l o s i n g t h a t the study of - Roman law c?/ was n o t • a n n i h i l a t e d . Books were few and v a l u a b l e , the study of l e g a l books we^e l i m i t e d to two narrow g r o o v e s , the " E p i t o n e f , the w r i t i n g s of months i n making a b s t r a c t s from p r o d u c t i o n s of Roman law, the,., c h i e f of which i s the " l e x Eomana Canonice Gompta" (aboutPi?inth c e n t u r y ^ ) and the " G l o s s " , a branch of w r i t i n g t h a t goes- on u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y from c l a s s i c a l times r i g h t through I f - d d l e s ^ g e s . The most n o t a b l e and o r i g i n a l g l o s s i s the P i s t o i a G l o s s of the t e n t h c e n t u r y . Moreover, l o n g b e f o r e the s i e g e of E m a i l i , the Pandects were known and s t u d i e d i n Europe. >..A; Roman wlaw c o n t i n u e d t o be studded i n the barr e n law s c h o o l s and was even observed i n p r a c t i c e to a c e r t a i n extent., because of t¥\?o p r e s e r v i n g a g e n c i e s * ine a d o p t i o n - o f p e r s o n a l law i n the kingdoms of the b a r b a r i a n s , i . e . , each i n d i v i d u a l was to be judged by the law of h i s o r i g i n . or pro-f e s s i o n , ensured the use of Roman law f o r the conquered Romans; secondly, the Church, • from an i n n a t e d e s i r e to maintain** .4 h e i r r i g h t s g r a n t e d by the C h r i s t i a n \Qnperors of the f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s , e a g e r l y defended and safeguarded t h e Roman law as the great "Magna C a r t a " of t h e i r r i g h t s , These Church o f f i c i a l s , u n f 0 r t u n -u t e l y , had a - v e r y . p a r t i a l and s u p e r f i c i a l acquaintance w i t h Roman t r e a t i s e s and the D i g e s t , the gre a t r e p o s i t o r y of l e g a l knowiedge, and thus the most v a l u a b l e p o r t i o n s of the Roman law lay n e g l e c t e d and dormant u n t i l the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . I n f a c t , some time between the n i n t h and the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the The0dosian Code r e t r e a t e d before the e x c e l l e n c e of the J u s t i n i a n Code, n law-book of P e t e r of Valence w r i t t e n i n the e l e v e n t h century, acknowledges the use of the I n s t i t u t e s , the Pandects, the Code and the t r a n s l a t i o n of the i l o v e l s by J u s t i n i a n . With the r i s e of the I t a l i a n c i t i e s and the r e s u r r e c t i o n of the f i n e a r t s came the r e v i v a l of Roman law as a s c i e n c e . I n !• V i n o g r a d o f f : "Roman law i n Me d i a e v a l Europe", Chapter I . (53) I t a l y t h e r e was a spontaneous aAvafc&ning i n tne f i e l d of law. . ,As ' l e r m i n i e r i n h i s " H i s t o i r e du D r o i t " has s a i d , "To I t a l y , -the c r a d l e o f the Roman 4 a W ' was r e s e r v e d the honour oil being the t h e a t r e of i t s s c i e n t i f i c r e v i v a l " ( l ) . . Prom the e l e v e n t h . c e n t u r y - u n t i l the end of the f i f t e e n t h century Bologna's (S) fame as a c e n t r e of l e a r n i n g and as a re s e a r c h bureau of Roman l a ! spread over Europe, Here comments of the Bologna p r o f e s s o r s and of j u r i s t s * were-made on the o r i g i n a l t e x t s which were ambiguous or vobscure. Prom the word ."glosses" ("glossae o r d i n a r i a e " ) , m a r g i n a l and i n t e r l i n e a r ! a n n o t a t i o n s , arose t h e i r name of " g l o s s a t o r s " . " •• -The r e v i v a l of Roman l a w i n the u j c u i v e r s i t y of Bologna c o n t r i b u t e d enormously to the p r e s e r v i n g of the s c i e n c e of law -aid t n" e r a p i d developments of law i n the European c o u n t r i e s . Without the c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of (Bologna the "law of Europe might have been a medley o f ' o f customs". ( 3 ) . Upholding the c o n c e p t i o n of law as a reasoned s y s t e m a t i c e n t i t y t o be developed by s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and s u p p l y -i n g a common ground as a .meeting p l a c e f o r r i v a l systems of j u r i s p r u d e n c e , i t became, as Maine puts i t , the " l i n g u a f r a n c a " of j u r i s p r u d e n c e . . Just as i t i n f l u e n c e d the r e a l m of l e g a l h i s t o r y so i n the same manner i t r e a c t e d upon p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . The acceptance of the Roman law/ i n t o a l l the European l e g a l systems a c c e l e r a t e d the development of j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; Roman d e c i s i o n s , t h a t had been proved and founded, p e r m i t t e d much p r e l i m i n a r y ground t o be covered i n one s t r i d e . Here the s c h o l a s t i c method xa&s applie'd; here t h e books of J u s t i n i a n , the I n s t i t u t e s , the D i g e s t , the Code and H o v e l s , r e c e i v e d the f u l l a p p roval o f the Bolognese p r o f e s s o r s . These books were the sources of a u t h o r i t y from which a l l d e d u c t i o n s must proceed. The i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s or comments of the Bolognese s c h o l a r s were q u i t e l i t e r a l ; d e v i a t i o n s from t h i s livingYse'Iaom occured; t r u e t h e r e was an i n f u s i o n of .feudal - l a w { " l i b r i \ f eudorum" )to b r i n g the l e g a l system up to d a t e , but a s i d e from t h i s , l i t t l e was adopted from the c u r r e n t s o u r c e s , t h e G o t h i c Codes, l o c a l customs and precepts of the church. T h e i r B i b l e was the Di g e s t and t h e i r f a i t h f u l d e v o t i o n to i t r e s t o r e d i t to i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e . T h e i r d e l i g h t i n c o n t r o v e r s i e s has been p r e s e r v e d i n a few fragments of the more important d i s p u t e s , not a b l y the • " D i s s e n s i o n e s dominorum" and i n the summarizing g l o s s e s of AZO A c c u r s i u s . The founders of the g l o s s a r i s t s i w a s I r n e r i u s , 1 under h i s guidance t h e g l o s s a r i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n not only on the I n s t i t u t e s , the Code and H o v e l s , but a l s o on the D i g e s t . •Henoeforth . ,4dogmatic and e x e g e t i c teaching' of the "Corpus " l u r i s " i n a l l i t s p a r t s was begun. I r n e r i u s proved t o be more than a g l o s s a t o r , he was the f i r s t of the m e d i ^ a v e l i s t s to t r e a t law i n a i i •systematic way. H i s . "^urM2n^U-.Codicis" i s an ex» eel l e n t , s y s t e m a t i c ;manuall of the s u b j e c t matter of the Code, Other famous r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s c h o o l vk'ere i n the 12th 1. l e r m i n i e r : " H i s t o i r e du D r o i t " - - - - - - - - - - - - p. 462 2. o f . V i n o g r a d o f f : P. "The e x i s t e n c e of t h i s F r e n c h c e n t r e ( r e f e r e n c e to Valence, Provence) of l e g a l r e v i v a l h e l p s t o show t h a t the more p o w e r f u l and i n f l u e n t i a l r e -' v i v a l of Bologna was an e v e n t a r i s i n g out of the spontan-eous growth of id e a s and requirements i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a l -i t i e s of more c i v i l i z e d r e g i o n s of Europe". 3. ;-P.. de Z u l u e t a : "The Legacy of Rome" - - - - - - - - - p. 177. (54) century, B u l g a r i u s , M a r t i n u s , Jacobus and Hugo, known as . the "Quatktti'K d o o t o r e s " , P l a c e n t i n u s , V a c a r i u s , Azo and Odof reclusjand Accursius of the 13th ce n t u r y . The Sc h o o l ended w i t h E r a n c i s n c c u r s i u s who made i n 1250 a s y s t e m a t i c but summarized c o l l e c t i o n o f the g l o s s e s of h i s predecessors', which was a f t e r w a r d s known as t h e ; nG4o.s.sa0rdinaria" or the •'The Gr e a t G l o s s " . T h i s work was s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d f o r i t s a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t s . .The r e v i v a l of the study of C i v i l law i n the U n i v e r -s i t y o f Bologna a l s o i n s t i t u t e d the begi n n i n g of two im-portant i n t e r n a t i o n a l systems, Canon law and Modern I n t e r -n a t i o n a l l aw. About 1140, G r a t i a n , a monk, wrote the f i r s t a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n of "cannnes", the "Concordia d i s c o r d -ant ium canonum" o r the "Decretum G r a t i a n i " ; i t i s w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of. t h i s t r e a t i s e that Canon law began as a s c i e n c e , G r a t i a n ' s t r e a t i s e was based e n t i r e l y on the C i v i l law. T h i s t r e a t i s e formed the b a s i s f o r t h e "Corpus l u r i s Canonic!", completed a t -the b e g i n n i n g of the f o u r t e e n t h cen-t u r y , which "Corpus" d i d f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e / what J u s t i n i a n 1 s <£(MpilatuAmSJ had performed f o r c i v i l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Many of the p r i n c i p l e s and the processes of p r i v a t e and c r i m i n a l law of t h e Romans were adopted and s a n c t i o n e d by the Church i n a m o d i f i e d form t o comply w i t h mediaeval i d e a s . Indeed,. i t , i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the f a s h i o n began of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the s e c u l a r Roman"law from the new department of canon law; moreover, the assumption o f the C i v i l law, v i z . that of f o u n t a i n - h e a d of a l l a u t h o r i t y i s the elmperor c l a s h e d w i t h the c o n t e n t i o n of the church a u t h o r i t i e s "that the Pope was the s o v e r e i g n power; t h i s theory was repugnant to the e c c l e s -i a s t i c s . But d e s p i t e t h i s ; remarkable d i f f e r e n c e , " i t i s beyond di s p u t e t h a t the Canon Lawjwas' a p o w e r f u l , i f i n d i r e c t agency i n Romanising the law of Ghristendom", ( l ) . I n a s i m i l a r ikannersthe c i v i l i a n s ( s t u d e n t s of Roman law) and t h e moral t h e o l o g i a n s , who were steeped i n the Roman law, drew t h e i r m a t e r i a l s f o r the- f o u n d a t i o n s of modern I n t e r n a t i o n a l law from the C i v i l law. Prom the end o f the 15tn cen t u r y to the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e of the 0ivi l4-\^Faried from c o u n t r y to c o u n t r y ; at the h e i g h t of i t s p o p u l a r i t y , i t cu l m i n a t e d i n a g e n e r a l " r e c e p t i o n " . But a d o p t i o n d i d not mean wholesa l e , adoption of the C i v i l law; the C i v i l law of J u s t i n i a n thanks ''• to the commentaries of the G l o s s a t o r s and l a t e r . t h e B a r t o l i s t s , progressed i n t o a m e d i a e v a l Roman law; the "Corpus l u r i s " under?/ent p r o c e s s e s of s e l e c t i o n , of r e j e c t i o n and of combin-a t i o n w i t h elements from the l o c a l customs and laws. S c h o l a r s of Bologna In t r a v e l l i n g abroad as t e a c h e r s , or as j u d i c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n a r i e s s c a t t e r e d the seeds of the new rj^vivaai - i n the f e r t i l e s o i l of d i f f e r e n t parts of Europe; new u n i v e r s i t i e s sprang i n t o being i n Sp a i n , France,- Germany, and Europe. Y a c a r i u s ( 2 ) , a graduate from 1. M a c i n t o s h : "Roman law i n Modern P r a c t i c e " - Oh. Y. p. 79. 2. V i n o g r a d o f f : . "Roman law i n Med i a e v a l Ages". I I . • A u s e f u l o u t l i n e of V a c a r i u s ' s l i f e and d i s c u s s i o n of h i s "glosses" . (55) Lomnbard, t r a v e l l e d to Oxford and gave a course of l e c t t x r e s there i n 1149. R e a l i s i n g the d e a r t h of l e g a l m a t e r i a l f o r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s , he wrote h i s " L i b e r ex u n i v e r s o e n u c l e a t o jure e x c e r p t u s , et pauperibus p r a e s e r t i m d e s t i n a t u s " , con-t a i n i n g c h i e f l y e x t r a c t s from the Pandects and p a r t s of the Code. M a n u s c r i p t remains suggest t h a t the t e a c h i n g s of - V a c a r i u s and» of the. Anglo-Morman s c h o o l of G l o s s a t o r s ex--tended to Hormandy. The g l o s s e s of V a c a r i u s show u n i t e an a l o o f n e s s from the c o n d i t i o n s and the laws of England; they e x h i b i t the p u r e s t Romanism of the e a r l y G l o s s a t o r s . King dtephen, however, j e a l o u s of V a c a r i u s ' s p o p u l a r i t y , forbade Vaoarius to. t e a c h Roman Paw i n England and ordered the des-. t r a c t i o n of a l l m a n u s c r i p t s on t h a t s u b j e c t ; but t h i s e d i c t a f f e c t e d the c l e r g y to a ve r y l i m i t e d degree. The membere of the Church e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y pursued t h e i r s t u d i e s of t h e , C i v i l law and from i t c u l l e d many of the canons of their'Canon'Law. I n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a new group appeared, the S c h o l a s t i c l a w y e r s who were prominent f r o m t h e t h i r t e e n t h -to the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r s of t h i s group were Odofredus, B a r t o l u s , and B a l d u s . Compared w i t h the work, of the G l o s s a t o r s , t h e i r work, c o n s i s t i n g of " t i r e -some p r o l i x i t y , i d l e , s u b t l e t i e s , and barbarous s t y l e " Xl) i s shunned f o r i t s too f r e q u e n t i n t e r p o l a t i o n s and s a c r i -f i c e s of t h e Roman t e x t f o r the p r i v a t e o p i n i o n s of t h e i r own commentators. The l e a d e r from whom the j u r i s t s have r e c e i v e d . t h e i r name of B a r t o l i s t s was a n a t i v e of S a s s o f e r - -rate,' ficom.iaBl4.to'' LS'BS'o T h i s s c h o o l aimed at a d a p t i n g Roman law t o t h e i r a c t t x a l needs and consequently deformed the Roman Law. P o r t h i s d e f o r m a t i o n , the B a r t o l i s t s were l a t e r s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e d by t h e b r i l l i a n t h u m a n i s t i c s©ho.ols3 of the s i x t e e n t h end s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . But the B a r t o l i s t t r a d i t i o n s u r -vived because of i t s p r a c t i c a l n e s s ; the h u m a n i s t i c theory of r e t a i n i n g I n i t s . o r i g i n a l form the "Corpus l u r i s " was i m p o s s i b l e f o r l a wyers who had t o put law i n t o p r a c t i c e . D e s p i t e the corcItl'eiBffl o f the Humaniss-fe, the s c h o o l of B a r t o l i s t s d i d much toward d e v e l o p i n g a system of common law i n I t a l y , based •on the Roman, and thereby f a c i l i t a t e d the r e c e p t i o n of Roman Law i n Germany and i n o t h e r countries.. I n the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y Prance set out on the ro a d towards new i d e a l s of c u l t u r e and l e a r n i n g : the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s came i n t o being i n 1200 .SUB*, and the t h r e e main f a c u l t i e s of a r t s , d i v i n i t y and canon law were e s t a b l i s h e d . This e d u c a t i o n a l movement r e v i v e d an i n t e r e s t i n the study of law and r e s u l t e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n of many t r e a t i s e s on, the t o p i c of law. Fr e n c h s c h o l a r s turned to the"Corpus l u r i s " ^ iTiotable among the pro-ductions of t h i s c e n t u r y are "Except'iones P e t r i " ( 2 ) , w r i t t e n i n l a t i n the "Beereturn" and "Panormita" of Ivo of Chart r e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1100, the "Brachylogus j u r i s c i v i l i s " , a c l e a r and l e a r n e d manual f o r t e a c h i n g Roman Law and q u i t e o r i g i n a l i n i t s method of a r r a n g i n g m a t e r i a l s and s t a t i n g r u l e s , and the g r e a t "Lo C o d i " , a summary of J u s t i n i a n ' s Code and compiled f o r the use o f the judges i n Provence. On a l l 1. -MacKenzIe: jm* %IiQ-vdcfis " S t u d i e s i n Roman Law" - - - - - p „ g^, -P<.,; I ,-u'.-J.. mo.!... J.V> . , i . j L A th C;..'^:'.,J. 2. S&vigny, E. ; "Gesch d. r . R. i n M i t t e l a l t e r , I I . App. I . A. (56) these w r i t i n g s the i n f l u e n c e , of the Soman law and of the G l o s s a t o r s , the t r a n s m i t t e r s of Soman law, was.tremendous. The " C o d i " demands s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s i n c e i t i s . w r i t t e n e n t i r e l y i n the P r o v e n c a l language and i s the f i r s t t r e a t i s e of Soman law composed I n the n a t i v e d i a l e c t . The "Godi", un-• l i i c e the t r e a t i s e s of the G l o s s a t o r s , s e r v e d a v e r y p r a c t i c a l purpese; i t i s MMree from the pedantry and ab§itrusjlsg. argu- "7 ment of the G l o s s a t o r s and hence i s a u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e book <~ and was used as" such by the laymen; judges of A r i e s i n Provence. The book, too , i l l u s t r a t e s the m o d i f i c a t i o n of Soman law by l o c a l custom; th e r u l e s f o r n e g l i g e n c e d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from those of the c o m p i l a t i o n of J u s t i n i a n ; i n the sphere of damages and i n c o n t r a c t , -though the "Godi" f o l l o w s i n g e n e r a l the d o c t r i n e l a i d down i n the J u s t i n i a n ' s Code, many important v a r i a t i o n s i n p o i n t of d e t a i l are i n t r o d u c e d . Undoubtedly the P r o v e n c a l Godi, from i t s i n t e l l i g e n t and p r a c t i c a l ; use of Soman'law, a f f e c t e d m a t e r i a l l y l e g a l j u r i s -prudence i n Prance -whioh had l o n g be en governed! by the customary law of German t r a d i t i o n . Tne lo^. _ AJM.M A.: A:e uv.. \ " :A .' n'.c' A 3n. The Godi a i d e d i n the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of both Soman and Germanic elements, M o t h e r source of i n f l u e n c e that c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o s t e r i n g of Roman law on the Germanic was P l a c e n t i n u s , one of the most b r i l l i a n t of the F r e n c h G l o s s a t o r s . He was a t e a c h e r of the law s c h o o l of Mont-p e l l i e r , a l e g a l f a c u l t y s i t u a t e d i n .the "country of the W r i t t e n law" (Pays de d r o i t £crit"-) ; M o n t . p e l l i e r s e r v e d as a .. f r u i t f u l c e n t r e f o r the r e s t of Prance and c o n t r i b u t e d to the p r o g r e s s of law i t s e l f at a time when both'England and Prance were e v o l v i n g fundamental i n s t i t u t i o n s of n a t i o n a l law. I n the s c h o o l s of I t a l y j u r i s p r u d e n c e f l o u r i s h e d by the s i d e of l i t e r a t u r e and p o e t r y . Dante produced h i s g r e a t ; masterpiece-, " D i v i n e Commedia", at t h i s p e r i o d ; the l i t e r a r y masters-, Pge-t-rarbh1 B o c c a c i o were contemporaries of B a r t o l u s . In 1453, when the f u r k s ; c a p t u r e d C o n s t a n t i n o p l e some of the '• Greek e x i l e s f l e d ""to I t a l y which became t h e i r new havelW Here these newcomers i n v i g o r a t e d the f i n e a r t s by d i f f u s i n g a t a s t e f o r h i s t o r y and f o r a n t i q u i t i e s and d i r e c t l y influenc^ed' - ; j u r i s p r u d e n c e by t h e i r i d e a s from th e East and by t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c a t t a i n m e n t s . I n a sense they; added new m a t e r i a l f o r the s c h o o l s "of law; i n f a c t , one o r 1 t h e i r number, Angelos P o l i t i a n u s or P o l i t i a n , ' who d i e d i n 1494, i s remembered as one who u n i t e d c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e w i t h the study of law. D u r i n g the years of h i s p r o f e s s o r s h i p a t F l o r e n c e , he wrote a r e c e n s i o n of the t'-:'..g.. :AAAAandects" of Justinian, which, though i t does • no.l^pank h i g h i n "'scale O j f r 1 ( J u r i s t i c e r u d i t i o n , gave an impulse to s c h o l a r l y c r i t i c i s m of "Roman code. The t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i n v o l v e d s a l i e n t developments i n the " d r o i t Coutumier", custom-law, and the " w r i t t e n law" ("le d r o i t / e c r i t " ) ; i n f a c t , the custom law of Prance accepted.many important f e a t u r e s of the Roman law. The chief- c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s remarkable century i s the growth and development of the s c h o o l s of j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Towards the beginning of the c e n t u r y (1312), t h e s c h o o l of Orleans was o r g a n i z e d by P h i l i p IV, and became an a u t h o r i t a t i v e - r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e of the l e g a l t e a c h i n g i n the "pays de d r o i t coutumier" ( i h e country of the custom law''). The r e i g n of S t . l o u i s w i t n e s s e d as (57) much pr o g r e s s I n the development of the l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as i n the Crusades and i t s h e r o i c f e a t s of c h i v a l r y , i f a n y t h i n g , t h e r e was a c i v i l i z i n g of l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; t r i a l , by b a t t l e was r e l e g a t e d to- t h e p r i m i t i v e methods of the p a s t ; t h e . p r o d u c t i o n of evidence s y m b o l i s e d an important development i n c o u r t procedure; and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the "Parlement" of •Par i s , the co u r t of the l a n d , .inaugurated a s y s t e m a t i c method of d i s p e n s i n g law. Th i s j u r i d i c i a l r e v i v a l arose from the growth of the r o y a l . a u t h o r i t y and from the 3-i l i g e n t study of law. The r e s e a r c h of Ihe F r e n c h j u r i s t s a c c o u n t ^ f o r the n o t a b l e books of t h i s p e r i o d : " G o n s e i l a un ami" ("Advice to a F r i e n d " ) , by P i e r r e de F o n t a i n e s , the b a i l l l of Verman-d o i s , shows an e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t e r e s t i n law, but a poor u n d e r s t a n d i n g of w r i t t e n lav?; t h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c student l a c k e d the a b i l i t y t o -co-ordinate and t o i n t e r p r e t the passages from the D i g e s t and from the I n s t i t u t e s . The " l i v e r de j o s t i c e et de P l e t " , whose a u t h o r i s unknown, came f r o m the s c h o o l of O r l e a n s ; of I t s t h r e e hundred, and f o r t y - t w o c l a u s e s , one hundred and n i n e t y - s e v e n are borrowed from t h ^ Roman sources, the r e s t t i r e of -customary . o r i g i n . JA.A . t h i r d . volume of some consequence ' A a s s i s t e d m a t e r i a l l y i n the development of Fre n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e . I t , t o o , bears w i t n e s s t o the i n f l u e n c e of Rome, The two branches o f customary law a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r by the e x t r a c t s c u l l e d from t h e "Corpus l u r i s " . The f o u r t h and most s i g n i -f i c a n t p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s c entury i s t h e "Coutumes de Beau-v a i s i s " ("The Customs of B e a u v a i s i s " ) . The a u t h o r o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g - d o c t r i n e of the Fr e n c h r e v i v a l , P h i l i p p e de Remi, s i r e de Baaumanoir, g a i n e d fame as a b a i l l i judge, and deputy governor of Clermont i n . B e a u v a i s i s ; of. e x t r a o r d i n a r y v e r s a t i l i t y , he d i s p l a y e d pecu-l i a r g e n i u s both i n the f i e l d of law and l i t e r a t u r e , n •master of Roman law, yet not a s e r v i l e s l a v e of the s u b j e c t , he e x e r c i s e d g r e a t freedom and d e x t e r i t y i n a d o p t i n g i t to French law. I n the prologue t o t h i s r e f r e s h i n g l e g a l t r e a t i s e , he e x p l a i n s t h a t h i s aim i s t o g i v e p r i m a r i l y the substance of l o c a l custom, ( l ) . Roman law he w i l l adopt only when i t has been a c c e p t e d by the j u r i s p r u d e n c e of t h e l o c a l c o u r t s , o r by l o c a l custom, or g e n e r a l custom. The prologue of Beaumanoir resembles very c l o s e l y the prologue o f J u l i a n i n h i s D i g e s t ; they d i f f e r i n one ve r y important r e s p e c t , the source of the d e c i s i o n s ; where J u l i a n r e s o r t e d to the law of Rome as a f i n a l a u t h o r i t y , Beaumanoir w i l l r e s o r t to t h e "common laws of Fra n c e " , or to the "Customs of France". D e s p i t e t h i s remark i n h i s p r o l o g u e , he i s g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o the. Roman source of l e g a l , wisdom; " t o put i t s h o r t l y , he dea l s l a r g e l y , n o t w i t h w r i t t e n law i t s e l f , but w i t h the customary law p a r t l y d e r i v e d from Roman o r i g i n s " . ( 2 ) . H i s cha p t e r s on r e n u n c i a t i o n s are t i n g e d w i t h Roman remedies; a g a i n , i n the department of procedure, Beaumanoir's use of Roman terms and forms of procedure i l l u s t r a t e . h i s debt to Roman law; s i m i l a r l y i n the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of a c t i o n s , p e r s o n a l , r e a l and mixed, the I n s t i t u t e s 1. - Yinogradof f : Roman law i n the Middle .ages :• • Appendix: App. Y l . p. 149, 2. Yinogradof f ; "Roman law i n the Me d i a e v a l Eurove" X I 1 * P« 8 4 1 (58) , . , -, , . • /. \ J t'erta-inin",, t o . have guided, mm ( 1 ) . , ine xop i c of r e a l p r o p e r t y , i . e . , of l a n d , Beaumanoir i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n s on s e i s i n ( p o s s e s s i o n ) and .ownership f o l l o w s i n p a r t the Qsmm. law which i s Roman law developed by the Church. The f o r m u l a " l e mort s a i s i t . l e v i f " i s a s t r i d i n g way of s a y i n g t h a t the h e i r need not prove h i s t i t l e : , ; as i n Roman law, the s u c c e s s i o n to la n d was dependent on i n h e r i t a n c e , r a t h e r than on t i t l e ; and both Orlean customal and Beaumanoir l a y g r e a t s t r e s s on t h i s r u l e . I n f a m i l y law, the i n f l u e n c e of Roman • concept i o n s on Beauman-o i r I s not so obvious ; • f p t g t r i a pot est as 1' has become a r c h a i c * Indeed, t h e r e i s one v e r y noteworthy d e p a r t u r e c o n c e r n i n g the g u a r d i a n r i g h t s of a mother; c o n t r a r y t o the G-ermanic and even Roman ideas (2) the mother has the r i g h t to the g u a r d i a n s h i p of c h i l d r e n under age. One of the most f e r t i l e spheres of Roman law and most v a l u a b l e f o r F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e was t h a t of c o n t r a c t s . From the r e f i n e d , p r a c t i c a l j u d i c i a l r u l e s developed over a span of t e n c e n t u r i e s French b a r r i s t e r s and judges drew g e n e r o u s l y . Beaumanoir, moreover, f o l l o w e d t h e i r p r a c t i c e ; h i s d e f i n i t i o n of p a r t n e r s h i p resembles t h a t i n the I n s t i t u t e s ( 3 ) ; h i s a n a l y s i s of c o n t r a c t s c r e a t e d by order follows the >< 1 r u l e s i n the I n s t i t u t e s i n a l l i t s d i g r e s s i o n s ( 4 ) . T h i s i n f l u x of Roman p r i n c i p l e s i n t o F r e n c h departments of law d i d not v i t i a t e t h e i r customary law, but r a t h e r s e r v e d t o s t r e n g t h e n i t w i t h sinews t h a t had stood the t e s t of t i m e . Though Roman law i n f l u e n c e d Beaumanoir i n h i s l e g a l con-c e p t i o n s , he i n t u r n v i t a l l y changed the a p p l i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of well-known maxims, and phrases. He r e s t r i c t e d the e x t e n t of the a p p l i c a t i o n of "quod p r i n c i p i p l a c u i t i e g i s habet vigorem" ^(5) (fbecause i t p l e a s e d the k i n g , i t has the' s t r e n g t h of law ) ; , and - ^ m o d i f i e d the phrase " r e s j u d i c a t a " (.a j u d i c i a l t h i n g ) jBoith. of these he a p p l i e d n o t • as a Roman j u r i s t would .apply i n the time of J u s t i n i a n , but as a French judge f o r h i s own use. Under h i s g u i d i n g hand these two l e g a l terms were p e c u l i a r l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r the use of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and vie re r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . While Roman law was being added t o F r e n c h law, the .English were r e s i s t i n g attempt's? t o f o s t e r C i v i l law upon them; a p o w e r f u l a n t i d o t e to"1- any acceptance of the C i v i l law was the development of E n g l i s h common law (6) acknowledged and e n f o r c e d by the r o y a l c o u r t s ; a n other a n t i d o t e , was the strong anti-Roman f e e l i n g " t h a t e x i s t e d i n England, n e v e r -t h e l e s s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g I h i s o p p o s i t i o n , t h e . C i v i l law e x e r c i s e d a wholesome i n f l u e n c e on the f o r m a t i o n of l e g a l d o c t r i n e s d u r i n g the c r i t i c a l t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h centuries<>' The v a l u e of C i v i l law surmounted the o p p o s i t i o n of Stephen who forbade V a c a r i u s to te a c h i n England, s u r v i v e d the ban of Henry I I I (1216 - 1272) who banned the t e a c h i n g 1. I n s t i t u t e s : IV. i . 2. 20. 2. P a r . 629, c f . Hov. 118. 3.. i n s t i t u t e s : I I I , 25, p a r s . 1, 4. I n s t i t u t e s : I I I , 26, p a r s . 9, 5. I n s t i t u t e s : I.. 2 p a r . 6. 6. Ency. B r i t . : V o l . 9, 11th ed.: 3 a 10. . pp. 600-607. (59) : of c i v i l law i n London i n 1234, and o u t l i v e d the nobles, of Merton who stormed about the proposed m o d i f i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h , custom on 'bastardy; sstubho/mly/., they e x c l a i m e d : "We do not w i s h •to change the laws of England" ("nolumus leg e s A n g l i a e n u t a r e " ) . But iioman law s u r v i v e d i n the - p r i n c i p a l s e a t s of l e a r n i n g i n Oxford. W i l l i a m of Drogheda, a p r o f e s s o r , wrote i n the tthlrtee:rifrh c e n t u r y h i s "Golden Text-booh" ("Summa Aurea") o f t e n used by the Ca^jiiS'tes, at6Cambridge, the ^ C i v i l Law was used as a " h i n d of g e n e r a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e " ( l ) . I n d i r e c t l y , the t e a c h i n g s of these u n i v e r s t i e s would through t h e i r g r a d u a t e s i n f l u e n c e the E n g l i s h common law. I n p a r t i c u l a r , the d o c t r i n e of s e i s i n which was e v o l v e d d u r i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , appears'as a s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n of the c a n o n i s t i c a c t i o n of s p o l i a t i o n adopted from Homan Law. G l a n v i l l e , the a u t h o r of " T r a c t a t u s de l e g i b u s et C o n s u e t u dinibus Regal A i i g l i a e " , p u b l i s h e d a b o u t the y e a r 1181 h i s s k e t c h of the* proceedings i n the K i n g ' s Court which shows the i n f l u e n c e of C i v i l ,Law on h i s treatment of the gage of l a n d and on the formutpry system. About the same t i m e , W i l l i a m of Long champ, a Herman peasant, who l i k e Wo I s l e y , became a Bishop and the Regent of England i n the r e i g n of R i c h a r d Goeur-de-Lion, e d i t e d h i s " P r a c t i c e of Laws and Decrees" ( 2 ) , T h i s book p r o v i d e d a s h o r t manual of procedure based on c i v i l as w e l l As on canon law and was i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r the F r e n c h j u r i s t s and judges i n the F r e n c h 1 p o s s e s s i o n s o f the Crown. T h i s " P r a c t i c a " induced the E n g l i s h lawyers to adopt the theory of s t r i c t w r i t s adhered to by common law. And yet one of the most Roman of English j u r i s t s has n o t been mentioned. Henry de Bra c t on i s s a i d to have l i v e d toward the l a t t e r ID a r t of the r e i g n of Henry I I I . P o s s i b l y he was a judge of e x c e p t i o n a l a b i l i t y who had no p a t i e n c e w i t h judges of incompetence as can be g a t h e r e d from h i s remarks about some of the judges of h i s t i m e : "They a r e p o o r l y educated, and l e s s l e a r n e d who take on the seat of j u d g i n g before they have l e a r n e d the law" ( 3 ) . Hi s monumental work on the "Jaws and Customs of England" i s , d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e books and these i n t u r n i n t o t r a c t s and c h a p t e r s ( 4 ) . W r i t t e n i n L a t i n , the v e h i c l e of l e g a l e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s age, the book p r o v i d e s the r e a d e r w i t h a comprehensive and p a r t i c u l a r account o f E n g l i s h Law. At so e a r l y a p e r i o d i t i s remarkable that the a u t h o r adheres so s t r i c t l y to a method and system; such adherence a s i s t s m a t e r i a l l y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . Ho gaps . e s i s t i n the book; the s e v e r a l p a r t s of i t a r e f i l l e d w i t h copious and a c c u r a t e d e t a i l of l e g a l l e a r n i n g . The t o p i c 1. Y i n o g r a d o f f ; Roman Law i n M e d i a e v a l Europe" 17. p. 98. 2. " P r a c t i c a legum et decretorum": Ed..: E. C a l l l e m e r : "Le d r o i t c i v i l dans l e s p r o v i n c e s anglo-normandes au H I s i e c l e " . 3. B r a c t o n I . : . Hales B u s t o r y - - - - - p. 189. " I n s i p i e n t e s , et minus d o c t o s , q u i cathedram j u d i c e n d i ascendent antequam l e g e s d i d i c e r i n t " . 4. Ref.: Reeves' H i s t o r y 0. v i i i , 8G, note ( a ) : a n a l y s i s o f s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s -of the chapters and a complete d i g e s t of the c o n t e n t s of t h i s code. (50) of p r o p e r t y i s f u l l y d i s c u s s e d ; proceedings i n a c t i o n s , t h r o u g h the m i n u t e s t s t e p s , are t r a c e d ; and every p r o p o s i t i o n i s supported-'by reasonable deductions or c o r r o b o r a t e d by the a u t h o r i t y of some adjudged case, As a source of E n g l i s h p r a c t i c e and a g u i d e , B r a c t o n ' s c o l o s s a l t r e a t i s e h e l d f i r s t p o s i t i o n down to the time of l o r d * Coke ( l ) who l i v e d i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y * His'voluminous work, "laws and Customs of England" (De le g i b i a s et Con s u e t u d i n i b u s A n g l i a e ) i s one of the most important E n g l i s h c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Romanesque j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; though i t i s E n g l i s h i n su b s t a n c e , i t i s adorned w i t h Roman Ideas. Eor i n s t a n c e , i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of h i s t r e a t i s e on law, he draws l i b e r a l l y from ILzo's manuals of the I n s t i t u t e s and of t h e Code, But he s t r e s s e s the f a c t t h a t h i s aim i s d i f f e r e n t from that of h i s model; he i n t e n d s t o " b u i l d tip E n g l i s h I n s t i t u t e s w i t h the h e l p of Roman m a t e r i a l s " , ( 2 ) . I n oth e r words, he attempted t o do i n a v e r y s y s t e m a t i c i^ay what h i s Fre n c h Con-tem p o r a r i e s were a c c o m p l i s h i n g i n a very c a s u a l way. The • straanyng contrast's between E n g l i s h and Roman law l e d Bract on to s t r i k e a happy mean between the two p o i n t s of view; i n Roman law the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y and s a n c t i o n r e s t w i t h the Smperor; t h i s . v i e w B r a c t on u s u r p e d w i t h h i s view about the a u t h o r i t y of E n g l i s h r u l e s , yet he expresses h i s o p i n i o n i n the vaguest .Romanesque terms ( 3 ) . The absence of any author-ized' v e r s i o n of E n g l i s h l e g a l r u l e s both G A l a n v i l l e and B r a c t o n attempted to r e c t i f y by t h e i r p r i v a t e t r e a t i s e s on common law i n i t s r e l a t i o n to g e n e r a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . A g a i n , ; i n h i s use of the terms " j u s t i t i a and j u s " he a p p l i e d the-terms i n a wider sense than they were employed by the Bolognese d o c t o r s . P r i n c i p l e s r e l a t i n g to l a n d a re d i f f e r e n t * Roman la w y e r s drev/ a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between " p r o p r i e t a s " • (ownership^ and " p o s s e s s i o " ( t h e p r o t e c t e d enjoyment of a t h i n g ? ; B r a c t o n merges both Ideas i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e c o n c e p t i o n of s e i s i n . I n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the terms " j u s c i v i l e " and " j u s gentium" B r a c t o n ' s " j u s c i v i l e " d i f f e r e d w i d e l y from the o r i g i n a l law o f the Roman S t a t e . The law of persons the E n g l i s h Judge m o d i f i e d t o s u i t E n g l i s h c o n d i t i o n s ; but. the i n f l u e n c e o f Roman d o c t r i n e a f f e c t e d the E n g l i s h l e g a l treatment, of v i l l e B r a c t o n j b o r r o ^ i . from the "Romans the d i s t i n c t i o n be-tween r e a l and' p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ; the r o o t of which : l i e s i n 1. l o r d Chief J u s t i c e o f the Z i n g ' s Bench i n the time of Jas. I . . Reports and author of 4 volumes of " I n s t i t u t e s " on s u b j e c t of common law, and of an e d i t i o n of l i t t l e t o n ' s T r e a t i s e on Tenures. 2. V i n o g r a d o f f : Chap. I f . p. 102: "Roman law i n M e d i a e v a l Europe" and "The Roman E l e m e n t s _ i n B r a c t o n 's T r e a t i s e " . 3. V i n o g r a d o f f : . Appendix: App. V i i i . - - - - - - - - p« .ISO B r a c t o n I , 1 p a r s . 2, 56, f o l . 1, a. (ed. Aoodbine) (61) the t e a c h i n g of the Soman lawyers^ on a c t i o n s ; even today a c t i o n s are c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r " a o t i o n e s ' i n rea : i ( i . e . a c t i o n s to t r y c l a i m s ^ t o some p r o p e r t y or t i t l e s o r s t a t u s ) , o r as a c t i o n s ' i n personam ( r e l i e f i s sought a g a i n s t o r punisliment sought t o be i n f l i c t e d upon a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n ) . As i n France a :l some, ;3o'Mn:icoh^raetualvri.u: of the Ap^4noiple-i'-A-fwere - .-..c . a p p r o p r i a t e d by Bract on; some, p a r t s he adopted f o r t h e i r immediate use, o t h e r p a r t s he a p p r o p r i -a t e d f o r the sake of p o s s i b l e e v e n t u a l i t i e s ; he a c c e p t e d the p r i n c i p l e t h a t a ''nude p a c t " , t h a t i s , a covenant b e r e f t of p a r t i c u l a r formt , d i d not c o n s t i t u t e an o b l i g a t i o n en-f o r c e a b l e a t law. ( I ) . To e s t i m a t e B r a c t o n ' s borrowings from the D i g e s t and the.Code i s i m p o s s i b l e ; but, n e v e r t h e l e s s , d e f i n i t e t r a c e s remain i n the form of maxims, some of w h i c h have been borrowed from the Canon la?; ( 2 ) , and they emphasize the common p r a c t i c e of r e s o r t i n g to the L a t i n f o r an expre-s s i o n , c o n c i s e , complete and u s e f u l . The abundance of such maxims i n E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e proves t h a t the E n g l i s h l a w y e r s by no means a v o i d e d u t i l i s i n g " " t h e g r e a t s t o r e of Soman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Hot only d i d the maxims c o n t r i b u t e to E n g l i s h Law, but i n ' p e r u s i n g the L a t i n t e x t s , the E n g l i s h lawyers were bound to imbibe many Roman j u r i d i c a l Ideas; consequently t h i s eentury w i t n e s s e d a momentous.development i n j u r i d i c a l i d e a s . Roman d e c i s i o n s prompted and i n f l u e n c e d E n g l i s h judges and l a w y e r s i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s . I f England was ever i n f l u e n c e d by the C i v i l Law , i t was duri-. i n g - t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y when the language of t h e - c o u r t s was n a t i n , and h e r g r e a t e s t a u t h o r i t i e s ' on E n g l i s h Law s t u d i e d e a g e r l y -the C i v i l Law. Once the f a b r i c of E n g l i s h , j u r i s p r u d e n c e vst^ehg^h^ne^-#itai -Romanojmiat.erial'... ;:.was woven, no f u r t h e r r e c o u r s e to Roman Law was n e c e s s a r y . England by the end of the t h r s r t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r e s e n t e d a u n i t e d n a t i o n , l e g a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y ; Germany, groaned beneath the burden of l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . I n Germany a l o o s e c o n f e d e r a t i o n of numberless p o l i t i c a l u n i t s , the "j.ig-saftf" p u z z l e of Europe, without any e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l .government, encouraged the c h a o t i c e x i s t e n c e of tne s t a t e s and t h e feuds among the p r i n c e s , dukes and c o u n t s . I n the • f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , '(Frederick. I I - 1444-1447) d i d not set f o o t on I m p e r i a l ground f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ; leagues and a l l i a n c e s s u p p l a n t e d the s o v e r e i g n power. Under such t u r -bulent p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s - , p e c u l i a r and i n e f f i c i e n t l e g a l m a c h i n e r i e s were s e t up; as Y i n o g r a d o f f has s a i d , "The j u r i s d i c t i o n and law p u l v e r i z e d i n t o a q u a n t i t y of s m a l l e r and l a r g e r f r a c t i o n s " ( 3 ) . Law l a c k e d . a l l homogeneity; throughout the l a n d numberless v a r i a t i o n s were produced by the numerous s t r a t a of the German ca s t e - s y s t e m ; the law of the k n i g h t s d i f f e r e d from the law of the country f S t a d t -recht"), from the g u i l d law (the Z u n ^ t r e c h t ) , from the peasant law ( B a u e r n r e c h t ) ; and to i n c r e a s e the. c l a s h of law systems, t h e r e was a fundamental cleavage between the l a y 1. c f . C i t i n g of d o g g e r e l l i n e ; " r e , v e r b i s , s c r i p t o , con-sensu, t r a d i t i o n e , j u u c t u r a , v e s t e s sumere p a c t a so l e n t " . 2. of ."Year Books of Edward I I (Selden Soc. I , 5, 31, 186,-, I I , . 1 1 0 , 176. •3. Y i n o g r a d o f f : Chap. V. p. 121: Roman Law i n Liedia0,val Europe. ( 6 2 . ) c o u r t s and the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . T h i s c o n f u s i o n of law p r o l o n g e d the d i s u n i o n of the German race f o r u n i f i c a -t i o n r e s u l t s from o r d e r , not d i s o r d e r . T h i s 1 acic of c o o r d i n a t i o n was f u r t h e r aggravated by the m u l t i p l i c i t y of v a r i o u s l a y t r i b u n a l s ; these t r i b u n a l s , i g n o r a n t of t h e - • r a m i f i c a t i o n s of law, s e t t l e d t h e l e g a l q u e s t i o n s by an u n w r i t t e n , and unenacted law; indeed, these "Schbf f en"., o r > as s e s s o r s . . r e l i e d e n t i r e l y on t h e i r own l i m i t e d p e r s o n a l ex-p e r i e n c e , ' t h e i r own l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e ; '; ny£'%\.irt I v h , , : .., y ••ccivLri-wic b.;'ct on ' and r r - ;.;xs;.cui.. : The economic and s o c i a l boom, however, roused the Germans to seek_ more p r a c t i c a l , more e f f i c i e n t l e g a l systems, to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s of a common law based on s y s t e m a t i z e d knowl edge. The f i r s t attempt s to overcome t h e l e g a l c l u t t e r i n g r e s u l t e d i n the f o u n d i n g of German s u p e r i o r c o u r t s i n F r a n k f o r t - o n - t h e - M a i n f o r the p r o v i n c e s of the Rhine, of l i i b e c k f o r H a n s e a t i c c i t e s , and of Magdeburg f o r Saxony, T h u r i n g i a and"Airman s e t t l e -ments i n the E a s t . These s u p e r i o r c o u r t s , the "Oberirofe", h e l p e d t o s y s t e m a t i z e German l a w . The spread of a u t h o r i t a t i v e t r e a t i s e s on customary law, such as the "Sach- s e n s p i e g e l " .compiled by E i k e von Repgow e a r l y i n the 13th c e n t u r y , a l s o a i d e d i n u n i f y i n g the l e g a l systems of Germany; i n f a c t , t h e s e t r e a t i s e s s u p p l i e d the c o u r t s of Saxon Germany w i t h such afundamenta1 b a s i s of j u r i s p r u d e n c e . t h a t 1 at er d u r i n g the r e c e p t i o n of Roman Law i n the south of Germany these same c o u r t s opposed i t s use i n t h e i r courtrooms. But c e r t a i n f a c t o r s l e d to a wh o l e s a l e r e c e p t i o n of Roman Law i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . P o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l and l i t e r a r y i n -f l u e n c e s -prepared f o r the ascendancy of Roman Law i n Germany. The educated of Germany b e l i e v e d t h a t they were d i r e c t l y : descended from the Romans and that t h e i r Emperors were d i r e c t s u c c e s s o r s to C o n s t a n t i n e and J u s t i n i a n . So deep-rooted d i d t h i s i d e a become that F r e d e r i c k B arbarossaa and F r e d e r -i c k I I added t h e i r own enactments as sequels t o the " R o v e l l a e " of J u s t i n i a n . The Church, t o o , h e l p e d t o propagate the i d e a that, Roman Law was the f o u n t a i n of a l l j u s t i c e ; i n t h e i r Canon Law they i n c o r p o r a t e d many Roman p r i n c i p l e s and thus . were d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the Germanic custom law of the s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t i e s . The u n i v e r s i t i e s -of H e i d e l b e r g , L e i p z i g , G r e i f swa.:;ld, the r e s e r v o i r s of ©2Las.sieal, l e a r n i n g , s i n c e there was a j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l a f f i n i t y between the e c c l e s -i a s t i c a l and the ->Roman C i v i l law,,contributed t o the p o p u l a r i z i n g of the Roman Law. Soon the o r i g i n a l I t a l i a n p r o f e s s o r s made way f o r the b r i l l i a n t l i n e of. German p r o f e s s -ors that appeared i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c i s e d the Roman Law and thus paved the way f o r i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . I n 1400, a town c l e r k , ' l i v i n g between Swabia and F r a n c o n i a , wrote h i s " M i r r o r of a c t i o n s " , the s u c c e s s o r to p r e v i o u s " M i r r o r s " o f the f o u r t e e n t h century. H i s aim i s to b u i l d the Germanic law on the b a s i s of the Roman Code without n e g l e c t i n g the a n c i e n t and reason-able customs. H i s a n a l y s i s of o b l i g a t i o n s , h i s treatment of "jemph,;teusis", ( h e r e d i t a r y l e a s e s ) and h i s acceptance of the r u l e s l a i d down f o r Roman s l a v e s , s u f f i c e t o show that h i s mind r e a c t e d f a v o u r a b l y towards Roman d o c t r i n e s . I n 1452, Jodocus p u b l i s h e d h i s t r e a t i s e , c o n t a i n i n g s h o r t d e f i n i t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s of a l l s o r t s of terms used by Eoman j u r i s c o n s u l t s . This book was e x t e n s i v e l y c i r c u l a t e d ;,nd between the y e a r s 1473 and 1520Aover f i f t y - t w o e d i t i o n s of i t were made. "The T r i a l s of Satan", a t r e a t i s e r e l i g i o u s i n f l a v o u r , but Eoman i n substance, r e v e a l s t h e attempts of the German t h e o l o g i a n s t o i n c u l c a t e on the Germans minds l e g a l p o i n t s on Soman procedure, t e c h n i c a l terms, and fundamental forms of p l e a d i n g . Eoman Law g r a d u a l l y permeated a l l p a r t s of Germany; the e c c l e s i a s t i c s i n s e t t l i n g c o n t e n t i o u s m a t t e r s , based t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on O i v i l Law; t o w n - c l e r k s , a c t i n g as j u r i s -c o n s u l t s to c i t i e s and to p r i n c e s , sought i t i n t h e i r dilemmas f o r s o l u t i o n s ; b a r r i s t e r s , i n s e a r c h of arguments f o r t h e i r c l i e n t s , e a g e r l y e x p l o r e d the w r i t t e n 0 O i v i . i l b a s e d on the e x p e r i e n c e and d i s c o v e r i e s of c e n t u r i e s , i n p r e f e r e n c e to u t i l i z i n g t he German n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s of t h e a s s e s s o r s who f o l l o w e d t h e i r c a p r i c e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r reason. Courts of law, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , s e e k i n g answers to t h e i r problems t u r n e d to the w e l l known j u r i s t s , es-p e c i a l l y the d o c t o r s of the u n i v e r s i t i e s . To quote one example; The C o u n c i l of Cologne ( c i r c a 1395-1400) r e f e r r e d t& troublesome q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a r e l i g i o u s brotherhood, the "Brotherhoods of Common L i f e " (Cruder desgemeinsamen Le bens'") , to a c o u n c i l of two do.ctors and to two l i c e n t i a t e s of law& of the U n i v e r s i t y of Cologne t o decide whether t h i s body should be a l l o w e d to c o n t i n u e . Th&fP d e c i s i o n f a v o u r e d the c o n t i n u a n c e of the r e l i g i o u s brotherhood. This i n -c i d e n t marked a v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Soman t h e o r y of c o r p o r a t i o n s i n t o Germany; t h i s c o n c e p t i o n of a r e l i g i o u s group as an e n t i t y complete i n i t s e l f , endowed w i t h l e g a l r i g h t s and l i m i t a t i o n s s p r i n g s f r o m the Eoman c o n c e p t i o n of,) ? u u i i v e r s i t ~ A s " as a j u r i d i c a l p e r s o n . I n re a c h i n g a • s o l u t i o n of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and p r i v a t e d i f f i c u l t -i e s , the German j u r i s t s sought the t e a c h i n g s of the B a r t o l i s t s ; and thus i t was t h a t the Germans r e c e i v e d Soman La?/ i n the I t a l i a n g a r b ; t h i s method of t r a n s m i s s i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the ad o p t i o n of the Soman p r i n c i p l e s to German re q u i r e m e n t s . Since the German l e g a l arrangements of procedure based " p r i m a r i l y on l o c a l customs f a i l e d a t h e d o c t o r s of law were c o n s u l t e d and recommended the use of the Eoman procedure of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s . The f o r t u i t o u s concourse of p o l i t i c a l , economic and l e g a l events a i d e d g r e a t l y i n the r a p i d spread of C i v i l Law (1) 1. "The Legacy of Rome": Chapter e n t i t l e d , "The T r a n s m i s s i o n of the Legacy: Oesare E o l i g n o : p. 23: " P o l i t i c a l power may f a i l , but i n t e l l e c t u a l power w i l l prove unconouerable. One may say t h a t whatever the Middle Ages thought•and wrote, was thought and w r i t t e n i n L a t i n , was based on L a t i n f o u n d a t i o n s , and was expressed i n l a t i n . And i f i t i s time t h a t the n a t i o n s of modern Europe were formed d u r i n g the years A . D . 5U0 to 1200, i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e t h a t they were framed under the g u a r d i a n s h i p of the gr e a t m e m o r i e s of A n c i e n t Some". i n France and Germany and l a t e r H o l l a n d . P o l i t i c a l l y , the i d e a o l the Roman law, v i z . that the S t a t e towers over a l l i n d i v i d u a l s aha c l a s s e s , appealed to the would-be i c i n g s , c i d ' s t a t e execut i v i e s ^ r e f o r m i n g l e g i s t s and church o f f i c i a l s . E c o n o m i c a l l y , the ex p a n s i o n of commerce and the h i g h l y developed s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e m u l t i p l i e d the requirements of economic" and business w o r l d ; the hothouse p r o s p e r i t y that swept the n o r t h e r n c o u n t r i e s turned t o the l e g a l frames of the Roman law f o r a s s i s t a n c e ; the books o f t h i s age and the p r o g r e s s i v e b o u r g e o i s c l a s s a v a i l e d themselves of the g e n i u s of the Romans f o r d r a f t i n g c o n t r a c t s and for/n laying' down p r i n c i p l e s , l e g a l l y , the s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e o f Roman law a s s e r t e d i t s e l f as soon as the s c i e n c e of law was transmuted i n t o ' r e f l e c t i o n of l e g a l s u b j e c t s ; and when the e l a b o r a t i o n of common law became a s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y , the j u r i s t s , the p r o f e s s o r s , the judges t u r n e d t o something t a n g i b l e , p r a c t i c a l , ' and workable t h a t had proven i t s worth and that they found in ;a the Soman law. To them g r o p i n g i n the dark f o r an i n t e l l i g e n t system the Roman'^iystem, from a j u r i s -p r u d e n t i a l p o i n t of view, must have been an i l l u m i n a t i o n t h a t g u i d e d them and t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s f o r c e n t u r i e s . Through the e f f o r t s of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the s t a t e o f f i c i a l s , the a d u l t e r a t e d Roman law, fias i n t e r p r e t e d , moulded and f a s h i o n e d by s u c c e s s i v e s c h o o l s of Commentators, the p o s t - G l o s s a t o r s , the F r e n c h s c h o o l s , the Humanists, w i t h a few i n g r e d i e n t s from the Canon and f e u d a l law, came to be c o n s i d e r e d over Western Christendom as a s o r t of common la?/ ?\/hich c o u r t s were e n j o i n e d to Use i n a d m i n s t e r i n g j u s t i c e to supplement and i n some cases to supp l a n t the n a t i v e law and customs. I n the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the law s c h o o l s , the C i v i l law p l a y e d an important ro"le i n the t r a i n i n g of the st u d e n t s f o r p u b l i c l i f e ; the f u t u r e churchmen, the s t a t e s -men^ the d i p l o m a t s , the p h i l o s o p h e r s , even the poets, f o r example, M i l t o n , were d r i l l e d i n the p r i n c i p l e s of C i v i l law. I t s i n f l u e n c e passed f a r beyond the boundaries of la?/ and i t s v o c a b u l a r y and i t s modes of thought c o l o u r e d the s p e c u l a t i o n s of the p e r i o d on matters of t h e o l o g y , s t a t e c r a f t and l i t e r a t u r e . I n the law c o u r t s i t f u r n i s h e d a s t o c k - i n - t r a d e t h a t has s u r v i v e d to t h i s day. I t s whole-s a l e r e c e p t i o n may be due t o two important elements, besides the e x t r i n s i c p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s a l r e a d y men-t i o n e d , one, i t s c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m , and s e c o n d l y , i t s analogy v/ith the Renaissance. The C i v i l law had a l r e a d y been u n i v e r s a l i z e d i n the g o l d e n age of Soman c i v i l i z a t i o n and "once i t i s f u l l y n a t u r a l i z e d , i t op e r a t e s as a g r e a t c i v i l i z i n g agency, second i n importance to C h r i s t i a n i t y alone dominating the realm of law and c i v i l i n s t i t u t i o n s , and permeating.the whole s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . " (1) I t , t o o , must be l i n k e d w i t h the Renaissance and t r e a t e d as a p a r t of the c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l . The c o n d i t i o n s that pro-duced the l i t e r a r y r e v i v a l , the d i s c o n t e n t , the l o n g i n g f o r r e l e a s e from the f e t t e r s of custom, the u n e a r t h i n g of c l a s s i c a l t r e a s u r e s , begot the l e g a l r e v i v a l . The r e s u r r e c -1. M a c i n t o s h : "Roman haw i n Modern P r a c t i c e " : pp. 81 & 82. ('65> t i o n of the d o c t i n e s of P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e was marked by a s i m i l a r r e s s u r e o t i o n of U l p i a n and P a u l . Prom the s i x t e e n t h c entury onward, the F r e n c h and Dutch s c h o o l s of c i v i l i a n s tended t o t r e a t the Roman law as an e s s e n t i a l p art of c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n and to employ i t i n i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e , not the a d u l t e r a t e d Roman law w i t h the excrescences of the Schools and the Courts which attempted to t r e a t Roman lav/ as a. l i v i n g system of.t p o s i t i v e law. But the l e g a l r e v i v a l was more thoroughgoing than the l i t e r a r y ' r e v i v a l , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t modern j u r i s p r u d e n c e l e v i e d a g r e a t e r tax upon Roman law than modern c u l t u r e has l e v i e d upon the a r t s and l e t t e r s of a n t i q u i t y * ' The M i d d l e ^ges, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of England, made an« almost u n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r to C i v i l law; i n the R e f o r m a t i o n p e r i o d , t h e , Pandects came t o be.regarded as the l a s t word i n law; lawyers and judges spent t h e i r time i n a b s o r b i n g , m a s t e r i n g , harmon-i s i n g , and a p p l y i n g the mass of Roman m a t e r i a l s of C i v i l and Canon.law. With the p a c i f i c a t i o n of France and a r e t u r n to o r d e r , law r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r s t r e s s than i t had i n past c e n t u r i e s i n F r a n c e . I p the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y the - -science of t h e o r e t i c a l law passed from I t a l y to F r a n c e . Much i n t e r e s t was c r e a t e d w i t h the a r r i v a l of .Andre ,-MLciat of M i l a n at Bourges; t h e r e A l c i a t exp ounded the v i r t u e s of the Roman C i v i l law; h i s l e c t u r e s were w i d e l y attended and a s s i s t e d . g r e a t l y i n e n l i g h t e n i n g the F r e n c h about the famous Roman C i v i l lawf. To t h i s man A l c i a t t a l l s t r i d i n g p hysique, goes the c r e d i t f o r engendering an i n t e r e s t , i n the Roman law; he s t a r t e d a r e v i v a l of law i n France t h a t was to s e i z e and i hold the g i n t e r e s t of French, s c h o l a r s _ f q r c e n t u r i e s . . About the time of - * l c i a t L * s death, at P a v i a i n 1550, , C u j a s , c a l l e d C u j a c i u s i n l a t i n , was. i n s t a l l e d as p r o f e s s o r at Bourges. I n French l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e t h i s man g a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r g ^ i s t r e s e a r c h , mhLs e r u d i t i o n and l e g a l t r e a t i s e s ; as founder of the h i s t o r i c a l s c h o o l of j u r i s -prudence, he gained, immortal fame. H i s w r i t i n g s oover a wide range of s u b j e c t s ; u n l i k e the . s c h o l 4 & i ' s t s , h i s dis-.. cuss i o n s are c o n c i s e , and c l e a r w i t h l i t t l e s u p e r f l u o u s v e r b o s i t y or unnecessary comment. H i s " P a r a t i t l a " on the D i g e s t c o n t a i n i n g " an e x p o s i t i o n of every t i t l e i n o r d e r , r e v e a l s ' t h e l u c i d i t y and b r e v i t y of h i s s t y l e ; indeed, i t was so u s e f u l an e x p o s i t i o n that h i s g r e a t r i v a l , Hotman p a i d him one of the h i g h e s t compliments by a d v i s i n g - h i s son to r e f e r t o the book c o n s t a n t l y . Even by a l l modern i n t e r p r e t e r s of Roman law i n modern Europe, Cujas i s p l a c e d i n the f i r s t rank. H i s i n f l u e n c e and h i s w r i t i n g s extended beyond the banks of the Rhone into•Germany where he was r e s p e c t e d and r e v e r e d ; as a t o k e n of r e s p e c t , German s c h o o l boys removed t h e i r h a t s i n memory of the i l l u s t r i o u s French j u r i s t s ( l ) . I n 1590, the l e a r n e d s c h o l a r , who had been * born a t " T o u l o s e i n s o u t h e r n F r a n c e , d i e d at Bourges, the p M c e °1 h i s important and noteworthy s t u d i e s . , 1. 3 i o g . U n i v . Hallam's l i t e r a t u r e of Europe,' v o l . i i . p. 72, '(-66) D a r i n g Cujas' i 3 r i l i i a n t c a r e e r , two c r i t i c s , Doneau, an ant i - s Roman j u r i s t , and Francis-Hoiman aimed t h e i r s h a f t s of c r i t i c i s m at Oujas and Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Doneau's i n t e n s e d i s l i k e of Cujas i n t e n s i f i e d h i s v i t r i o l i c c r i t i c i s m ; i n 1567, F r a n c i s Hotman e d i t e d h i s "Anti-Tri'bonianus t o b e l i t t l e Cujas and at the same.time to i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f i n the f a v o u r of.. the C h a n c e l l o r ' de 1 ' h o p i t a l . The aim of t h i s whole book seems t o be the r i d i c u l i n g and d e r i d i n g of every-t h i n g t h a t i s Roman: upon J u s t i n i a n . , T r i b o n i a n , even P a p i n i a n P a u l , and U l p i a n he pours b i t t e r s c o r n and contempt. His parody 'of Roman Law_,for h i s " A n t i - T r i bonianus" was e s s e n t i a l l y of t h a t n a t u r e , bestowed on him the r e p u t a t i o n of f a t h e r of the a n t i - R o m a n i s t s . Throughout the whole of h i s c a r e e r , he recommended that the Roman system should be used o n l y where i t c o n t a i n e d v a l u a b l e p a r t s ; he appealed f o r a new code of laws, composed of the most v a l u a b l e elements of Roman law, and o t h e r systems that could be adopted. Many F r e n c h lawyers he i n f l u e n c e d and con v e r t e d t o h i s way of t h i n k i n g ; indeed, so many A n t i - T r i b o n i a n i s t s had been c o n s c r i p t e d t h a t by the o r d i n a n c e of B l o i s i n 1579, the C i v i l Law was banned from the c u r r i c u l u m of the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s . This a n t i -Romanism was not permanent- a c e n t u r y l a t e r the study of Roman law had to be resumed. The s t r i k i n g out of Roman l a w from the c u r r i c u l u m o c c a s i o n e d too g r e a t a gap i n the h i s t o r y of l e g a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Another ardent f o l l o w e r of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e and the su c c e s s o r of Cujas appeared i n the person o f . C h a r l e s Dumoulin. An advocate of the P a r l i a m e n t of P a r i s , Dumoulin was a c c l a i m e d by h i s f e l l o w - j u r i s t s as an eminent statesman, and the most s c h o l a r l y of h i s time i n c i v i l and the customary law of Fra n c e . A master of Roman Law, he i n c o r p o r a t e d l and embodied i n h i s t r e a t i s e s on F r e n c h law many f e a t u r e s e s s e n t i a l l y ' Roman; h i s success paved the way f o r the works of P o t h i e r ; h i s eminence as" a j u r i s t , and h i s b r i l l i a n c e a s a s c h o l a r , these two q u a l i t i e s have i m m o r t a l i s e d him as the g r e a t F rench j u r i s t of F r e n c h l e g a l a n n a l s ; he i s to French j u r i s -prudence what S i r Adward Coke i s to E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e and what Lord S t a i r i s to S c o t t i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; without the s e r v i c e s and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of these j u r i s t s , the l e g a l systems of the t h r e e c o u n t r i e s would be v o i d of much of i t s wisdom and e x c e l l e n c e . The g r e a t F r e n c h s c h o l a r who consummated the work: of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , C u j a s , Dumoulin, l i v e d i n the stormy e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Pothier®who d i e d "Al,7:>.: y e a r s before -the f a l l of the P a s t i l l e i n 1789, brought F r e n c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e to the acme of p e r f e c t i o n before tne f o r m a t i o n of the Codes. His w r i t i n g s g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d the f i e l d of study of Roman Law and i n -s t i l l e d keener r e s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h c o n c e r n i n g Roman Law; under h i s i n f l u e n c e F r e n c h Law was a s s i m i l a t e d w i t h the best and most v a l u a b l e f e a t u r e s of Roman Law. P o t h i e r , i n a d d i t i o n to h i s .worthwhile c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Fre n c h j u r i s -prudence, s i m p * l i f i e d the study of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; he r e a l i s e d the m a g n i f i c e n t p r o j e c t of L e i b n i t z , w h i c h was to reform the Roman law-of J u s t i n i a n , - by redu c i n g i t to system-a t i c o r d e r , without, d e s t r o y i n g the p u r i t y of the o r i g i n a l t e x t s . 1. Fremont: "Vie de R. J. P o t h i e r " ( O r l e a n s , 1850) (67) Ho s k e t c h of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e would be complete without a d i s c u s s i o n of P o t h i e r ' s Pandects. A-ft the mid-way p o i n t of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when V o l t a i r e and Kosseau were a g i t a t i n g f o r r e f o r m , P o t h i e r p u b l i s h e d h i s "Pandectae J u s t i n i a n a e i n novum ordinem d i g e s t a e " . H i s p r i n c i p a l a l m o i n e d i t i n g t h i s g r e a t work was to g i v e t o J u s t i n i a n ' s c o l l e c t i o n of law the arrangement that i t l a c k e d and i n >a- c o n n e c t i o n - w i t h t h i s aim to e l u c i d a t e t h e s e d i f f e r e n t branches of law; so h e r c u l e a n a t a s k r e q u i r e d c e a s e l e s s , unwearying hours, nay, y e a r s of study and p a t i e n c e . Twelve d i l i g e n t y e a r s were spent i n producing- t h i s g r e a t volume w r i t t e n i n l a t i n ; the work f o l l o w s t h e a n c i e n t d i v i s i o n of the book and t i t l e s of the Pandects;'the t e x t s , however, are a r r a n g e d accprdaxug to t h e i r n a t u r a l o r d e r sp? that each t i t l e c o n t a i n e d a complete t r e a t i s e on the s u b j e c t I n d i c a t e d i n the r u b r i c . F o l l o w i n g the e x p o s i t i o n of the s u b j e c t are the t e x t s , r e p l e t e w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s and g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . Other v a l u a b l e s e c t i o n s of t h i s volume are t h e m e t h o d i c a l d i v i s i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s which a s s i s t i n the. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; the e x p l a n a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n of a n c i e n t law -with i t s subsequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f ^ m o d i f i c a t i o n s *A by the I n s t i t u t e s , Oode, and HAvels c l e a r l y p o r t r a y the development of Roman law. ' , l !herever apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a p p e a r they are e x p l a i n e d ; obscure passages a r e c a r e f u l l y a n a l y s e d and r e l a t e d to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r sphere. Any a d d i t i o n s to the o r i g i n a l a r e i n i t a l i c s ; i n t h i s way P o t h i e r has r e t a i n e d the o r i g i n a l p u r i t y of the Roman Law. His b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s , h i s arrangement of h i s t o p i c s have ranked P o t h i e r as the most ing e n i o u s and b r i l l i a n t and yet p r a c t i c a l F r e n c h j u r i s t of a l l t i m e s . U n l i k e h i s compatriot. Gujas, P o t h i e r has adopted an e n t i r e l y - d i f f e r e n t method. The method of Gujas resembles that of a l i t e r a r y a n t i q u a r i a n ; he j o i n e d the f r a g m e n t s of the j u r i s - c o n s u l t s of the D i g e s t under the names of the authors-; f o r example, a l l the e x t r a c t s o f . U l p i a n were g a t h e r e d under h i s name; such arrangement d i d not m a i n t a i n any c o n t i n u i t y ; i t c r e a t e d a d i s j o i n t e d n e s s that l e s s e n e d the v a l u e of the work from a l e g a l p o i n t of view. 'But P o t h i e r 1 s method was more p r a c t i c a l and t h i s v e r y q u a l i t y of u t i l i t y - enhanced the v a l u e of the Pandects; he r e t a i n e d the same d i s t r i b u t i o n of the books and the same sequence of books and t i t l e s , but he a l t e r e d the o r d e r of the laws arranged under these t i t l e s so t h a t each s e c t i o n was r e l a t e d and u n i f i e d . . P h i s new method p r o v i d e d the Pandects w i t h a u n i t y and coherence that J u s t i n i a n ' s p r o d u c t i o n s l a c k e d . • -Any study o f Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e must employ t h i s work of P o t h i e r i f the s u b j e c t of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e i s - t o be t h o r -oughly canvassed. Furthermore, P o t h i e r ' s i n f l u e n c e on s u b -sequent F r e n c h j u r i s t s and French judges, can best oe judged, from the f a c t t h a t the "Code Napoleon" (1) and the c i v i l codeof Quebec are based l a r g e l y on the t e x t of P o t h i e r , H i s i n f l u e n c e E n g l i s h judges i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the remarks of tYvo l e a r n e d 1. Hon. Mr. J u s t i c e Anglin: "Some d i f f e r e n c e Between The Law of Quebec and the Law as A d m i n i s t e r e d i n the Other P r o v i n c e s of Gan.da" ; Canadian B a r Review: v o l . I . 1923 -( 6 8 ) judges: C h i e f J u s t i c e Best i n "Cox v. Troy", ( l ) s a i d : i t (the a u t h o r i t y of P o t h i e r ) " i s as h i g h as can be had next to the d e c i s i o n o f a court of j u s t i c e i n t h i s c o u n t r y " ; l o r d B l a c k b u r n i n the House of l o r d s , i n Mclean v. C l y d e s d a l e Banking Company ( 2 ) . s t a t e d , "Vje c o n s t a n t l y i n the E n g l i s h Courts upon the •question of what i s the g e n e r a l law, c i t e P o t h i e r " . P o l i t i c a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n s under the . euperor gave an added impetus 'to the a s s i m i l a t i o n of C i v i l law i n the h i g h c o u r t s of Germany, i n 1495, The "Reichskammergericht" was org a n i z e d Ss the c e n t r a l c o u r t of Germany; i t d e l i b e r a t e l y adopted C i v i l law f o r i t s guidance as the common law of Germany. • A strange p r o c e s s of f u s i n g the p e c u l i a r Roman procedure and the cusomary l o r e of Germany occxired. T h i s "Reichskammer-g e r i c h t " . formed the n u c l e u s f o r the development of Roman la?/; under M a x i m i l i a n the power -of t h i s H i g h Court and of t h e ' •:^np*eror i n c r e a s e d i n importance. - Mgal-feforffiB/establlshed'a f e d e r a t i o n f o r . m a i n t a i n i n g - p u b l i c peace and d i v i d e d the country i n t o l e g a l c o u n t i e s and thus i n a l e g a l sense sub-o r d i n a t e d the county c o u r t s t o the c e n t r a l c o u r t ("Reichskam- , • me r g e r i c h t " ) ;, tlhe o f f i c e r s i n charge of these c o u r t s were, l e a r n e d d o c t o r s , z e a l o u s s c h o l a r s of the C i v i l law and German k n i g h t s . These men, . i n p a r t i c u l a r the d o c t o r s , favoured the -adoption of the Roman law and used a l l t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n the " r e c e i p t i o n " of the f o r e i g n la?/ a g a i n s t the n a t i v e customary j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The i m p o r t a t i o n of the Roman la?/, however, came i n the t e x t s glossed by the I t a l i a n s c h o l a r s ; t h e i r t e a c h e r s were Azo, Ac curs i u s , 'Bartolus, and B a l d u s . The pressure from the h i g h c o u r t of Germany, the i n f l u e n c e of the p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , of the e c c l e s i a s t i c s induced the v a r i o u s c o u r t s of the German p r i n c i p a l i t i e s t o adopt the C i v i l la?/; i n 1497, Worms and Hurnberg f o l l o w e d the__lead of the " R e i c h -skammergericht". Between 1584 - 1537, J u l i c h and Berg passed a r e s o l u t i o n t o remodel t h e i r laws, on the Roman p a t t e r n i n order t o av o i d any . c o n f l i c t w i t h the "Reichskammergericht". But t h e Saxon N o r t h , l i k e the E n g l i s h barons, r e f u s e d to contaminate t h e i r " S a c h s e n s p i e g e l " ( n a t i v e customary law) by e x p o s i n g i t t o Roman p r i n c i p l e s . Hot only d i d the Ho r t h oppose t h i s r e c e p t i o n o f the C i v i l la?/, but a l s o the people of the l o w e r o r d e r s ; and the "SAhb'ffen" (the u n l e a r n e d a s s e s s o r s ) b i t t e r l y a t t a c k e d the j u r i s t s . For t h e i r a c c e p t -ance of the pagan law system, the > j u r i s t s were c a l l e d "bad C h r i s t i a n s " ("Die j u r i s t e n s i n d b'dse C h r i s t e n " ) ; i n Thurgau the members o f the " S c h o f f e n " who d i d n o t w i s h to l i s t e n to the l e a r n e d e x p o s i t i o n s about B a r t o l u s and Baldus by two d o c t o r s of law put them to f l i g h t . I n 1525, the , . peasants i n a f i c t i t i o u s document, "The Reformation of Emperor F r e d e r i c k I I I " , d e c l a r e d 1 t h a t a l l d o c t o r s of lawSjbe a b o l i s h e d and t h a t j u s t i c e s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d according to the la?/ of Moses, because i t i s not good l o r men t o get b e t t e r law than that p r o c l a i m e d by God" ( 3 ) . 1. Cox. V. Troy: 5 B. and A i d . 480. 2. Mclean V. C l y d e s d a l e Banking Company 9 A. C. 105. 3. V i n o g r a d o f f : Chap. V. p. 142: "Roman law i n Me d i a e v a l Europe". U l r i c h von Hut t e n , a l e a d e r o l the people, vehemently r e -buked the greedy, p e d a n t i c lawyers who employed the C i v i l law- to m i s l e a d the p e o p l e . Y e t , on the whole, t h ^ i s f o r e i g n common lav/ e n t e r e d Germany w i t h much l e s s c o n f l i c t and c o n f u s i o n than might .have been expected. Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e never assumed the same-a propor- ' t i o n s i n E n g l i s h law t h a t i s has r e c e i v e d i n o t h e r l a n d s . Very few books on the s u b j e c t have been produced by E n g l i s h -men, and those t h a t have cannot compare w i t h the w r i t i n g s of the German s c h o l a r s , The f i r s t t r e a t i s e of any conse-quence ..-.rid which r e c e i v e d a .favourable r e c e p t i o n i n Europe was a- s u c c i n c t t r e a t i s e of . C i v i l l a * by A r t h u r l u c k . I n the heyday of the E l i z a b e t h a n r e n a i s s a n c e , Dr. R i c h a r d Zouch p u b l i s h e d at Oxford h i s •-"Element a J u r i s p r u d e n t i a e ' J ; t h i s book was. r e p r i n t e d by the E l z e v i r s at l e y d e n and con-t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t abridgement of the d o c t r i n e s of Roman law. Dr. T a y l o r ' s "Elements" of the C i v i l law" has too many d e f e c t s to rank i t a s a c l a s s i c work; i t s imper-f e c t i o n s , i t s o m i s s i o n s of numerous s u b j e c t s , i t s b u l k i n e s s caused by the too f r e q u e n t h a b i t of q u o t i n g l o n g passages of both Greek and Roman authors d e p r e c i a t e the v a l u e of t h i s work. Dr. Browne, another E n g l i s h s c h o l a r of Eoman law, compared the Roma.11 system and the E n g l i s h system i n h i s "View of the C i v i l law"; the c h i e f d e f e c t of t h i s book l i e s •in. i t s i n a c c u r a c i e s . One of England's g r e a t e s t h i s t o r i a n s , Gibbons, who ranks as Macaulay's peer has i n h i s 4 4 t h chap-t e r o f h i s H i s t o r y w r i t t e n a r a p i d but. m a s t e r l y s k e t c h on Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; so r e n o w n e d became t h i s c h a p t e r of h i s h i s t o r y t h a t i t was t r a n s l a t e d by Hugo i n t o German i n 1789, and v?arnkoenig p u b l i s h e d a F r e n c h v e r s i o n of i t w i t h n otes i n 18S1. B e s t . i d e s the w r i t i n g s of these mauthor.s.i.;ona • Roman law, numerous a r t i c l e s on the s u b j e c t were p u b l i s h e d by the E n g l i s h p r e s s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; of these a r t i c l e s the most noteworthy i s Dr. CoInuhoun's e x h a u s t i v e t r e a t i s e on Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . I n the Church the Roman law e x e r c i s e d a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e ; many of the canons of the Church being based e n t i r e l y on Roman p r i n c i p l e s . Though Roman law d i d not a f f e c t E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e to the same degree'as . i t a f f e c t e d o t h e r systems of j u r i s p r u d e n c e , owing to the f a c t t h a t the e a r l y e f f i c i e n c y of England's p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the r o y a l c o u r t s s u p p l i e d a n a t i v e common law, i t seeped i n t o the E n g l i s h stream of jur i s p r u d e n c e ' through i n d i r e c t c h annels. . E a r l y E n g l i s h w r i t e r s , such as B r a c t o n , who c o n t r i b u t e d to the growth of E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e , borrowed many p r i n c i p l e s from Roman law; t h i s borrowing was q u i t e f r e q u e n t I n the t h i r t e e n t h , f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , the f o r m a t i v e c e n t u r i e s of E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e . Two o t h e r channels which f a v o u r e d the use of the C i v i l law were the Crown and,,t>h,j3. Church. I n a l l the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' ^ , ; . G l v i l ' l j a w 'wa-sthe vaagexly ;studied,r;-r od; Roman g i v i l $&& a i d e d i n the 'forma-t i o n of t h e i r canons and became so important a s u b j e c t t h a t degrees i n b o t h - c i v i l law and canon law were g r a n t e d . The (70) Hing's Court ( l ) f o u n d much i n the_Roman law t o g u i d e them i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s ; i n f a c t , much of E n g l i s h e q u i t y (2) i s based on the Roman law, o r on the canon law whi c h has come from the Roman £aw. But s i n c e Roman law set no l i m i t s t o the r o y a l p r e r o g a t i v e , and c o n f e r r e d on the p r i n c e immunity from the laws of the l a n d , the E n g l i s h people who were j e a l o u s of t h e i r n a t i o n a l freedom had an i n n a t e d i s l i k e f o r Roman law; to them Roman-law was the symbol of t y r a n n y ; consequently, whenever any changes based on Roman law were suggested i n P a r l i a m e n t , the E n g l i s h barons r e j e c t e d a l l such pro p o s i t i o n s f o r they f e a r e d an encroachment on the l i b e r t i e s of the people ( 3 ) . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Roman p u b l i c law renders i t i n -compatible f o r the s e r v i c e of democracies; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s p r i v a t e law does n o t d i s p l a y t h i s f e a t u r e and thus possesses f a r g r e a t e r elements of v a l u e t h a n the p u b l i c law, I t s v a l u e has o f t e n been r e c o g n i z e d by E n g l i s h j u r i s t s ; A u s t i n i n h i s l e c t u r e on J u r i s p r u d e n c e (4) s t a t e d : "the importance of se-c u r i n g a body of lawyers w i t h a somewhat e x t e n s i v e knowledge of the c i v i l law i s not t o be d i s p u t e d . Questions a r i s e i n c i d e n t a l l y i n a l l our t r i b u n a l s on systems of f o r e i g n law, •which are mainly f ounded on the c i v i l . The law o b t a i n i n g i n some of our c o l o n i e s i s p r i n c i p a l l y d e r i v e d from the same o r i g i n a l ; and q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g d i r e c t l y out of c o l o n i a l la?/ are brought before the P r i v y (Council by way of a p p e a l " . Thus by t h i s i n d i r e c t c h annel the h i g h e s t t r i b u n a l i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of R a t i o n s passes d e c i s i o n s on the cases of South A f r i c a and these cases o f t e n c oncern p o i n t s of law r a i s e d and answered by P a p i n i a n or U l p i a n i n the a n c i e n t days' of Rome. The l a n d n o r t h of the r i v e r Tweed, though b e n e f i t t i n g from Roman law l a t e r than England, was f a r more s u s c e p t i b l e to the p r i n c i p l e s of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e t h a n England, AS 1. Cf. Hon. Mr. J u s t i c A n g l i n : "Some D i f f e r e n c e Between the law of ..ueboo and the law as Administered i n the Other P r o v i n c e s of Canada". Chie f J u s t i c e H o l t : lane v. Cot ton'(13 Mod. 472, 4 8 3 ) : " I t must be owned t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s of our law a r e borrowed from the c o i v i l law, and t h e r e f o r e grounded upon the same re a s o n I n many t h i n g s " . J u s t i c e Jones i n I r v i n g ' s C i v i l l a w : " w i t h a l l the i m p e r f e c t i o n s the D i g e s t i s a v a l u a b l e mine of j u d i c i a l knowledge; i t g i v e s law a t t h i s hour to the g r e a t e s t p a r t of Europe, and, though few E n g l i s h lawyers dare make such an acknowledgement, i t i s the source of n e a r l y a l l our E n g l i s h laws that are not of f e u d a l o r i g i n . " . cf.. The debt of E n g l i s h E q u i t y to the d g i v i l Law. 2. c f . Ency. B r i t . v o l . 19, 11th ed. p. 605: "The p r i n c i p a l o u t l i n e s of e q u i t y were drawn by men who were steeped i n the common law, but the i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d by Roman law upon E n g l i s h e q u i t y has been the s u b j e c t of g r o s s e x a g g e r a t i o n . " 3. Dr. Hurd's M o r a l and P o l i t i c a l D i a l o g u e s , v o l . i i . -P. 194 - .209. 4. V o l . H i . p. 367. e a r l y as 1411^, C i v i l law was one of the s t u d i e s pur sited at St . Andrews, Soot l a n d ; and two c e n t u r i e s l a t e r the i n t e n s e . , study of the Soman C i v i l law c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p i b l i e a t i ' & n n of a t r e a t i s e on the "Sea law of S c o t l a n d " by V/elwood, p r o f e s s o r of C i v i l Law i n S t . Andrews. Scot landfe ev,.,:-a l l i a n c e w i t h Prance wrought great changes i n S c o t t i s h l e g a l system; by t h i s i n d i r e c t channel many Roman l e g a l Ideas f l o w e d i n t o the stream of Sco t c h j u r i s p r u d e n c e ; c.r f :lo« i c i i u a e s of S c o t l a n d ' s m u n i c i p a l law, l o n g crude and d e f i c i e n t , developed l i t t l e as a n a t i o n a l system u n t i l some time a f t e r the f o u n d i n g of the Court of S e s s i o n i n 1532. T h i s c o u r t r e p r e s e n t e d a d i r e c t copying of the French P a r l i a m e n t o f P a r i s ; t h i s c o urt composed of seven churchmen and seven laymen l e a r n e d i n the C i v i l law decid e d the few f o r S c o t l a n d . T h e i r e q u i t a b l e j u r i s d i c t i o n c o n f e r r e d on them power to c o r r e c t ^ the V i g o u r and to supply the blanks of w r i t t e n law; i n t h i s r e s p e c t , the Court resembled the E d i c t of the Roman p r a e t o r s . This S c o t t i s h court e n t e r t a i n e d p e t i t i o n s not founded on s t a t u t e , e x e r c i s e d j u r i s d i c t i o n over t r u s t s , s u p p l i e d the om i s s i o n s of the s t a t u t e s , p r o v i d e d the "casus i m p r o v i s u s " i n a deed and had the g e n e r a l power of r e v i e w i n g the pr o c e e d i n g s of a l l i n f e r i o r c o u r t s . D e c i d e d l y t h i s S c o t c h Court of J u s t i c e e x c e l l e d the E n g l i s h system where law and e q u i t y were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n s e p a r a t e c o u r t s ; t h a t the Sc6ach f u s i o n of both e q u i t y and law In the same co u r t was s u p e r i o r to the E n g l i s h was v e r i f i e d by the epoch-making J u d i c a t u r e Act of 1873 whereby a u n i f i c a t i o n of e q u i t y and 1 aw r e s u l t e d . Roman Law was d i r e c t l y imported by S c o t c h s t u d e n t s who, upon c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r coursed i n S c o t l a n d , journeyed a c r o s s to the C o n t i n e n t a l u n i v e r s i t i e s , to p o l i s h o f f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n w i t h a course i n G4isri".I Lam.-This f a c t l a t e r induced the e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s to e s t a b l i s h c h a i r s f o r t e a c h i n g C i v i l law i n S c o t l a n d . Re-g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a s t u d e n t ' s imowledge of C i v i l , Law/-are much more s t r i n g e n t i n S c o t l a n d than i n England;'to be ad m i t t e d as a member of the F a c u l t y of -.advocates the student must pass i n both S c o t c h Law and the Roman C i v i l l a w f ? A l l judges f o r the Supreme Court a r e u s u a l l y w e l l v e r s e d i n that s u b j e c t ; and i n the Court of S e s s i o n , every judge before he can be a p p o i n t e d must have passed an e x a m i n a t i o n i n Roman • Law; t h i s r u l e -was-laid dowia i n the Tre a t y of Union i n 17061T « The most o u t s t a n d i n g sAuidentsAof Sooifroh. Law.^'have ,.b.elen capable c i v i l i a n s ; to c i t e a few names* S t a i r i l ) .1619-1695j; 7who wrote "The I n s t i t u t i o n s of the Law of Scot l a n d " , evA^'Ao.is " D e c i s i o n s of the Court.of S e s s i o n between 1666 and 1671, and " P h y s i o l o g i a ex.perrmeritaiISA E r s k i n e (2) (1695 - 1768) author of " P r i n c i p l e ' s of Law of S c o t l a n d , (1754), and n i s great work, "The I n s t i t u t e s - of the L-aw of S c o t l a n d " , and B e l l (1770 - 1845), aut h o r of " T r e a t i s e on the Law of Bankruptcy*--i n S c o t l a n d " (1804) t :.d which was e n l a r g e d and p u b l i s h e d i n 1. , J a s . D. S t a i r : E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t . : V o l . 21:. 14 ed. pp. 297 - 298. 2. E n c y c l o p e d i a , B r i t . : v o l . I , 14 ed. '.Erskine' s " I n s t i t u t e s (1773; many l a t e r e d i t i o n s ) has. always been esteemed of the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y ' o n i c o t ' s .Law - p , 597, (7.2). 1826 as "Commentaries on the Law of S c o t l a n d and on the P r i n c i p l e s of M e r c a n t i l e J u r i s p r u d e n c e " . I n a l l t h e i r writing's they c l e a r l y e x h i b i t the i n f l u e n c e of Soman law on t h f j v r l e g a l c o n c e p t i o n s . P h i s r e n a i s s a n c e of Soman law a f f e c t e d the Somanee country of S p a i n , and the l a n d along the Z u i d e r Zee, H o l l a n d . I n H o l l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y , Hutch s c h o l a r s e x p l o i t e d a l l t h e i r a b i l i t y and enthusiasm i n i n t e r p r e t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the Soman law; ever s i n c e the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the n o t a b l e •school.of Dutch j u r i s t s has f l o u r i s h e d ^ . Outstanding among her l e a r n e d c i v i l i a n s are Vofetius, H e i n e e c i u s , Grot i u s who wrote a l e a r n e d t r e a t i s e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l law, Van leeuwen, V i n n i u s , Huber, S c h u l t i n g , and 3yfk.eoshoeM, a l l of whomjwere capable and keen s t u d e n t s of Soman*'law. The e x c e l l e n c e , , and the r e p u t a t i o n of H o l l a n d ' s p r o f e s s o r s spread f a r and wide and thus Ifcro a m-.gnet dfew- s t u d e n t s f rom England, Germany and Prance to Heyden, and U t r e c h t . The work of these s c h o l a r s have made Soman law the f o u n d a t i o n , the cornerstone of t h e i r l e g a l s t r u c t u r e ; t o understand Dutch law, a thorough knowledge of Soman " C i v i l lav/ i s n e c e s s a r y . I n H o l l a n d the s c h o l a r s , combined the indigenous law, S a l i c law, w i t h the Soman law; thus i t was t h a t Eoman law crept i n t o Dutch law, not by l e g i s l a t i v e p r e s c r i p t i o n , but by usage,' of the u n i v e r s i t i e s and by the v o l u n t a r y acoeptance. of the pe o p l e . I n the sevente e n t h c e n t u r y Van leeuwen, a* Dutch j u r i s t of h i g h e s t r e p u t e , s a i d "The Soman law i s at the present day almost everywhere and by every n a t i o n upheld as a common law of n a t i o n s , and adopted i n cases where p a r t i c u l a r laws or customs f a i l ; so t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n s , o r d i n a n c e s , s t a t u t e s and customs not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g the contrary,"-must be adapted and r e g u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to p r e c e p t of t n i s law. And even i f a n y t h i n g i n them may seem to m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t t h a t law^s t i l l i n d o u b t f u l cases i t s h o u l d be r e s t r a i n e d and l i m i t e d i n orde r t h a t the Eoman law be as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e i n j u r e d o r i m p a i r e d " . ( l ) Prom 1450 - 18f1 the elements of Soman law r e a c t e d on the Dutch law and were f r e e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the a n c i e n t customary laws o f H o l l a n d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of r e v i v a l i n the l i b e r a l a r t s and i n t r a d e , Dutch t r a d e r s were c a r r y i n g t h e Eoman Dutch law t o Borneo and to South A f r i c a . However,^,}/ Napoleon i n h i s b i d f o r w o r l d power conquered H o l l a n d ; 4?he re j e s t e d the Soman Dutch l a w . i n f a v o u r of h i s Code Hapoleon. •Though Soman-But ch law t e r m i n a t e d i n H o l l a n d because of the conquest of Hapoleon, i t d i d not cease i n South A f r i c a v.-hen t h a t t e r r i t o r y was ceded t o Great B r i t a i n by the "Dutch S t a d t h o l d e r i n 1814. Government o f f i c i a l s r e t a i n e d the Soman-Dutch law as i t e x i s t e d i n H o l l a n d p r i o r to i t s s u b j u g a t i o n by P r a n c e . The r e s u l t has been t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r blend of law s t i l l s t a n d s as the common law f o r the p r o v i n c e s of South A f r i c a , Cape Colony, N a t a l , Rhodesia, as w e l l as t&mr the T r a n s v a a l and the Orange Free S t a t e . At the time of the u n i o n of the T r a n s v a a l and the Orange Free State t h e r e was a 1. M a c i n t o s h : "Soman Law i n Modern P r a c t i c e " ; Chap. V. p. 88 (73) s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n t h a t the Courts must r e g u l a t e t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of law as l a i d down i n _ t h e " I n t r o d u c t i o n " of Grot i u s , i n the '"commentaries" of T a n Jjeeuwen, and i n the " I n s t i t u t e s " of v a n d e r l i n d e n ; wherever these a u t h o r i t i e s d i f f e r e d or o f f e r e d no a u t h o r i t y , the C o u r t s must de c i d e a c c o r d i n g to the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e •in South A f r i c a . S i n c e .1906, the date of the u n i o n of the p r o v i n c e s , t h e r e has been c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h E n g l i s h j u r i s - , prudence and consequently t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n -c o r p o r a t i o n of E n g l i s h law. This i n f l u e n c e has been f e l t I n the m e r c a n t i l e law where the i n c r e a s i n g commerce w i t h the Imperial c e n t r e and the consequent a s s i m i l a t i o n of E n g l i s h names and p r a c t i c e s have added to the Roman Dutch law. Moreover, the E n g l i s h d e c i s i o n s of the P r i v y C o u n c i l and of the House of Lords have r e a c t e d on the Courts of South A f r i c a ; furthermore, Dutch students Mho o b t a i n * t h e i r l e g a l t r a i n i n g • i n England favour the use of E n g l i s h law wherever i t can.be i n t r o d u c e d ; t h e n , t o o , the p r a c t i t i o n e r s , who f a c e d w i t h a problem of f i n d i n g a modern pr e c e d e n t , loot: f o r i t i n the E n g l i s h and American Reports and t e x t - b o o h s , " r a t h e r than attempt t o g a l v a n i z e a d e f u n c t system bach t o l i f e to -answer the r i d d l e s of to-day". ( 1 ) . D e s p i t e t h i s tendency to r e v e r t to E n g l i s h cases, the Roman Dutch Law i s s t i l l the preponderant element 5 t h i s f a c t was q u i t e obvious i n the case of " G a l H e r s v. R y c r o f t " where an o p i n i o n of P a p i n i a n on "fideieommissa" was u p h e l d . •The two German s c h o l a r s , H e i n e c c i u s and Bach, con-t r i b u t e d much t o the study of Roman Law. H e i n e c c i u s l i v e d i n the . f i r s t h a l f of the 18th c e n t u r y and d i e d i n 1741. He d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f as a h i s t o r i a n and h i s fame, r e s t s c h i e f l y on h i s h i s t o r y of Roman Law and German Law. Gibbon, w h i l e w r i t i n g h i s memorable volumes of h i s t o r y , owed much to H e i n e c c i u s f o r h i s c l e a r a n a l y s i s of the s u b j e c t , His booh on Roman A n t i q u i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the book e d i t e d by Haubold, r e p r e s e n t s h i s best work. H i s o t h e r elementary t r e a t i s e s on the I n s t i t u t e s and Pandects, remarkable f o r c o n c i s e -ness and p e r s p i c u i t y , were used In the p r i n c i p a l u n i v e r s s i t i e s of Europe as t e x t - b o o k s . The d i s c o v e r i e s of the h i s t o r i c a l s c h o o l of the n i n e t e e n t h century have s u p p l a n t e d these elementary t e x t s of H e i n e c c i u s , Seventeen y e a r s a f t e r the death of H e i n e c c i u s , Bach, H e i n e c c i u s ' s s u c c e s s o r , passed away. Bach earned a renowned r e p u t a t i o n as Germany's best h i s t o r i a n in- Roman Law b e f o r e the famous h i s t o r i c a l s c hool r e v o l u t i o n ^ e d the study of the s u b j e c t . Germany's r e b i r t h i n ' t h e n i n e t e e n t h century w i t n e s s e d a g r e a t r e b i r t h i n the study of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . D e t e r -mine dd ex p i ©rat i o n s rewarded the s e a r c h e r s w i t h important d i s c o v e r i e s of t h e sources of .A.Alaw.-A: ;, M I which i n t u r n have i n t r o d u c e d more l i g h t on Roman Lav/; l i k e heats who upon, f i r s t l o o k i n g i n t o Chapman's "Homer" f e l t as i f he had d i s c o v e r e d : a new world the German s c h o l a r s upon p e r u s i n g the newly d i s c o v e r e d " I n s t i t u t e s of G a i u s , the new c o n s t i t u t i o n s of the Theodosian Code, the "Fragmenta V a t i c a n a " , the "Re-p u b l i c " of C i c e r o , the L e t t e r s of Front 0 and Marcus 1. M a c i n t o s h : "Roman Law in-Modern P r a c t i c e " : - - - p. 91. (74) .lure 1 i u s , the " R h e t o r i c " of J u l i u s V i c t o r , the fragments of Symmachus, of D i o n y s i u s , of H a l i c a r n a s s u s , of Lydus on M a g i s t r a t e s e n t e r e d an unknown wealthy f i e l d of stu d y . These d i s c o v e r i e s gave a g r e a t impetus to t h e u n c o v e r i n g of f a c t s , f o r m e r l y unknown, t o the c o r r e c t i o n of a n c i e n t e r r o r s , and to k e e n e r s e a r c h f o r the t r u t h ; undoubtedly the study of Roman Law developed i n t o a science which c h a l l e n g e d the-, l a b o u r s and a b i l i t y of a l l German s c h o l a r s , The i n t e l l e c t u a l g i a n t s , Hugo, Haubold, Niebuhr, I h e r i n g , and Savigny l e d the h i s t o r i c a l s c h o o l ibo a s e r i e s of d a z z l i n g , b r i l l i a n t v i c t o r i e s I n the f i e l d of Roman j u r i s p r u d e n c e . I n 1812, w h i l e France and England were s t r u g g l i n g f o r supremacy, M. Hiehuhr (1776-1831) p u b l i s h e d h i s "Romische G e s c h i c h t e " , a book on "Roman H i s t o r y " ; l a t e r d i s c o v e r i e s caused many of h i s views as ex p r e s s e d i n the f i r s t e d i t i o n to be m o d i f i e d . The g r e a t e s t of a l l German s c h o l a r s of j u r i s p r u d e n c e was F r e d e r i c s C h a r l e s von Savigny (1779 - 1861). He s u r -passed a l l h i s contemporaries and has a c q u i r e d en immortal r e p u t a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r of law a t B e r l i n , from 1810 - 1842, he made a thorough s t u d y _ o f Roman law. .s e a r l y as 1803, he p u b l i s h e d a t r e a t i s e on P o s s e s s i o n ; i n 1614, he p u b l i s h e d h i s "Tom Bcruf u n s e r e r Z e i t f u r Gesetzgeburg" and "Rechte wiss e n s c h a f t newed" (1892), a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e demand f o r c o d i f i c a t i o n and a l s o important because ^ i t expresses the i d e a t h a t law i s woven w i t h i n the f a b r i c of n a t i o n a l l i f e . H i s two c l a s s i c books a r e " H i s t o r y - o f the Roman law d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages" and h i s "System of mct u a l Soman law"; both e x e m p l i f y the g r e a t e r u d i t i o n and d i l i g e n t study of • the German proiessor*v;- * ;> ... ' 11 H e i d e l b e r g , C h a r l e s de Vangerow, p r o f e s s o r of Roman law at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of H e i d e l b e r g , e d i t e d h i s admirable account of the Pandects. ( 1 ) , T h i s book s e t t l e d many of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s on the G l v i l l a w which have been a source of much t r o u b l e to a l l modern j u r i s t s . Successors t o these g r e a t s c h o l a r s have been M a r e z o l l , e d i t o r of an e x c e l l e n t work on elementary works of Roman law, and Warnkoenig. The work of these men c o n t r i b u t e d to the " R e c e p t i o n " of Roman law i n Germany and d e f i n i t e d l y a i d e d i n the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of many f e a t u r e s of Roman law i n German, law; indeed, so many Roman f e a t u r e s were i n f u s e d i n t o the German law t h a t u l t r a - p a t r i o t i c Germans r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the Pagan laws of Rome. In the 1 9 t h cen t u r y a'new p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l s p e c u l -a t i o n , s t r e s s e d the d o c t r i n e of n a t u r a l law; no lon g e r was the "Corpus l u r i s " c o n s i d e r e d the source of law; the "law n a t u r a l i s t s " abandoned the t h e o r y of the G l o s s a t o r s and B a r t o l i s t s . T his d o c t r i n e of n a t u r a l law was so r a p i d l y d i s s e m i n a t e d by the N a t u r a l law Schools that they were springing up l i k e mushrooms over Europe; t h e i r t e a c h i n g i n i t i a t e d the widesp r e a d movement' of modern codes i n p l a c e of the Roman law. N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e s p i t e the v i c t o r i e s o f the new sc h o o l , so many elements had been woven into, the ' f a b r i c of law, 1. " l e h r b u c h der Pandect en"'3 V o l s , 6 t h E d i t i o n , 1855. (75) e s p e c i a l l y the M u n i c i p a l Law, and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, that- Roman i n f l u e n c e d i d n ' t and c o u l d n ' t d i e . The f i n a l blow t o Roman Law as a l i v i n g system was d e a l t by the German h i s t o r i c a l s c h o o l w h i c h stood f i r s t i n the department of s c i e n t i f i c * l e g a l s t u d i e s . T h e i r c a r d i n a l d o c t r i n e was that Law i s the product of the n a t i o n a l g e n i u s ; t h i s h y p o t h e s i s would n a t u r a l l y e x c l u d e any f o r e i g n system such as Roman Law. Such a d o c t r i n e i n t e n s i f i e d the study of German l e g a l con-c e p t i o n s and the study of the Roman Law a c c o r d i n g t o the method of the Humanists; under the b r i l l i a n t l e a d e r s h i p of Savigny, Roman Law was expounded as the "law of a p a r t i c u l a r p e o p l e - i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g " (1). The u l t i m a t e r e s u l t of the r e s e a r c h of the German H i s t o r i c a l S c hool and of the Pan-Germanism that was sweeping the c o u n t r y was the a d o p t i o n of the German C i v i l Code wh i c h came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1900. l a p o l e o n ' s code i n Prance i n 1811 and the g r e a t code of Germany i n .J.900 and E n g l i s h Common Law as compressed i n Hals bury' s c l a s s i c "laws of England"' (2) have superseded to a g r e a t e x t e n t the p r a c t i c a l . a p p l l c a t i o n of the Roman Law; yet the r e s u l t s have not been so d i s a s t r o u s f o r Roman Law as was o f i e n p r e d i c t e d by i t s opponents. lu.Thex..- v ery prac-t i c a l n e s s and wisdom of the Law has ensured i t s continuance i n the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Oxford, Cambridge and many o t h e r c o n t i n e n t a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t s u n i v e r s i s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e , and i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e s t o r e o f g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s render i t too v a l u a b l e an ins t r u m e n t t o be d i s c a r d e d . For..advocates and judges i t remains a guide of i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e . .. C h i e f -J u s t i c e T i n d a l summed up very c o n c i s e l y the v a l u e of the C i v i l Law i n A c t o n v. P>lundel& "The Roman Law forms no r u l e b i n d i n g i n i t s e l f on the s u b j e c t s of those realms.; but I n d e c i d i n g a case upon p r i n c i p l e , where no d i r e c t a u t h o r i t y can be c i t e d from our .books, i t - a f f o r d s no s m a l l evidence of the soundness of the c o n c l u s i o n at which we have a r r i v e d , i f i t prove to be supporte d by t h a t la?; - the f r u i t of the r e -searches of the most l e a r n e d men, the c o l l e c t i v e wisdom of the ages, and the groundwork of the m u n i c i p a l law of most of the ^ c o u n t r i e s .of Europe" (-3). 1. P. de Z u l u e t a : S c i e n c e of Roman Law, The Legacy of Rome. p. 2. ' Hals bury' s Laws of England: "being- a complete statement of the whole Law of England, second e d i t i o n ; V i s c o u n t Hails-ham: Long; L u t t e r w o r t h & Company. 5. - c f . -Dr. Macintosh's re marie : "Roman Law i n Modern P r a c t i c e " p. 85. '"Thanks to t h e i r l e a r n e d l a b o u r s ( r e f e r e n c e t o -Savigny, I h e r i n g , Mo mmsen, and S i r -H. -Maine) we ar e . now i n a p o s i t i o n to pass much more i n s t r u c t e d and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . judgment on the m e r i t s of the system than our l e s s c r i t i c a l p r e d ecessors c o u l d . Howbeit, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e more l i g h t •-- has not meant d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . I t I s very c e r t a i n that our a n c e s t o r s were w e l l a d v i s e d not to l o o k t h i s g i f t - h o r s e i n the mouth; had they r e j e c t e d i t and chosen to ab i d e by such rudimentary law as they possessed or could hope t o procure elsewhere, our'whole c i v i l i z a t i o n would have been very d i f f e r e n t from what i t i s to-day". (76) PAST I I . • . RQ11MH IS1EMEN1S IN MODERN JUPJSPRUBENCE. The second p a r t of t h i s t r e a t i s e b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s the importance of Roman law In modern law. No attempt w i l l be, imade t o d i s c u s s the t o p i c i n d e t a i l f o r such-d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n would extend f a r beyond the scope of t h i s work:; f o r a more d e t a i l e d and m a s t e r l y review o f the s u b j e c t , the reader i s r e f e r r e d t o a r e c e n t book, "Roman law i n Modern P r a c t i c e " (1) , a s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d . b y P r o f e s s o r M a c i n t o s h at Tag ore U n i v e r s i t y , C a l c u t t a , I n d i a . To e s t i m a t e the importance of t h e ' s u b j e c t i n modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , w i t h i t s r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g i n v e n t i o n s and i n c l i n a t i o n s , i s a t a s k the a u t h o r h e s t i t a t e s .••to assume; f o r such a ta s k , a profound, expert knowledge of the C i v i l law and of E n g l i s h law i s r e q u i r e d ; the /author w i l l c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o s t r e s s i n g the f a c t t h a t Roman la?/ i s s t i l l a l i v i n g f o r c e v/ith i n the E n g l i s h f a b r i c and t h a t a v/orking knowledge of Roman la?/ i s a d e f i n i t e and r e q u i s i t e a s s e t t o any stuxlent of la?/. The g r e a t i n f l u e n c e of l a t i n j u r i s p r u d e n c e on E n g l i s h j u r i s p r u d e n c e i s v / e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the. abundant supply of l a t i n phrases and l a t i n r o o t s i n the l e g a l phraseology of E n g l i s h law. A few examples,• f r e q u e n t l y employed i n the Canadian.law c o u r t s , w i l l s u f f i c e e ; a more e x h a u s t i v e l i s t w i l l be found i n the appendix. "Prima f a c i e " ("at f i r s t appearance") has been so f r e q u e n t l y used that i t i s con-s i d e r e d p a r t of the E n g l i s h l e g a l t e r m i n o l o g y . I n the realm of c o n t r a c t , the e x p r e s s i o n , "ab i n i t i o " ("from the be-g i n n i n g " ) o f t e n crops up i n d i s c u s s i n g the o r i g i n of the c o n t r a c t . I n c o u r t p r o c e d u r e , a c o u n s e l a p p l y i n g f o r the r i g h t to i s s u e a w r i t out of• the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t , w i l l ask f o r a w r i t "ex j u r i s " . I n the s t y l e of cause, when t h e r e i s more t h a n one p l a i n t i f f , or more than one defendant, i n s t e a d of w r i t i n g out i n f u l l the names of the p a r t i e s , one may employ the a b b r e v i a t e d l a t i n "et a l " f o r the complete f orm. "et a l t e r ! " ("End others'). Another u s e f u l p h rase, d e n o t i n g that "necessary changes have been made", i s " m u t a t i s mutandis". Just as i n the E n g l i s h Common.law, the E n g l i s h j u r i s t s have borrowed p r a c t i c a l l a t i n p h r a s e s , the E n g l i s h e c c l e s i a s t i c s have l i k e w i s e adopted i n w h o l e s a l e f a s h i o n much of the L a t i n t e r m i n o l o g y . Not on l y are modern l e g a l systems supplemented, with. l a t i n maxims, l a t i n phrases, but a l l c o n t a i n innumerable l a t i n r o o t s ; e s p e c i a l l y , because of the Romanesque s t y l e ' of B r a c t o n and the r e c o u r s e o f the j u r i s t s , and s c h o l a r s such as Bacon, P e t r a r c h , of the Renaissance p e r i o d , t o l a t i n and a l s o because l a t i n was the v e h i c l e of thought f o r f o r e i g n diplomacy u n t i l the sev e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the study of l a t i n r o o t s i s i n v a l u a b l e i n a p p r o p r i a t i n g l e g a l terms. 1. M a c i n t o s h , J . : Soman la?/ i n Modern. P r a c t i c e : 1934: W.' Green & Son, l i m i t e d . (77) Y/ithou't;. Lat i n r o o t s I n English l e g a l t e r m i n o l o g y and i n commeroial t e r m i n o l o g y , our language would be bare. "Almost a l l our .wards that have a d e f i n i t e l e g a l import are French Yjfords, d e r i v e d from the L a t i n , and the language of our Courts i s the language of the Roman Law". (1) Another c o n t r i b u t i o n of Rome to modern systems of j u r i s p r u d e n c e , i s the v a s t s t o r e of l e g a l maxims, 'i'heir b r e v i t y , t h e i r e x actness save much d i f f i c u l t y of e x p l a n a t i o n and remove any tendency to v e r b o s i t y ; l i k e the S p a r t a n s , the Roman j u r i s t s were wont to e x p r e s s t h e i r l e g a l i d e a s i n s h o r t , p i t h y maxims and these maxims g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r gener-. a t i o n s o fc j u r i s t s have g l a d l y , adopted. A word of c a u t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of these maxims s h o u l d e l i m i n a t e any c o n f u s i o n s or h e s i t a t i o n i n pronouncing them; to pronounce them, the. E n g l i s h system of p r o n u n c i a t i o n , not the Roman system, i s employed. For example, the famous asyndeton of Caesar, " v e n i , v i d i , v i c i " , i s pronounced i n L a t i n "wenee, wedee, weelcee"; i n E n g l i s h , i t would be pronounced, " v e n i , v i d i , v i c i " . T h is method of p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n the l a w - c o u r t s i s important to remember i n order t o prevent any misunder-' s t a n d i n g . I n the appendix a f a i r s e l e c t i o n of l e g a l maxims from Broom have been g i v e n t o demonstrate the f r e q u e n t c y of these epigrams of l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s and the a p p l i c a t i o n of Roman p r i n c i p l e s i n the laws of to-day. I n the department of t o r t s , a few usefu.1 and o f t -quoted maxims are as f o l l o w s : " u b i jus i b i remedium", " v o l e n t i non f i t i n j u r i a " , "respondeat s u p e r i o r " , " q u i f a c i t p e r a l i u m T a c i t per s e " , and "omnia praesumuntur c o n t r a s p o l i a t orem" "Ubi j u s i b i re me: idium" (2) ("where th e r e i s a r i g h t , t h e r e i s a remedy") i s one of the funda-mental p r i n c i p l e s of t o r t s and- c o n t r a c t ; an i n f r i n g e m e n t of a r i g h t a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n f e r s on the i n j u r e d p a r t y - t h e r i g h t to demand r e d r e s s . " V o l e n t i non f i t i n j u r i a " (3) ("an i n j u r y i s not i n f l i c t e d on a p e r s o n who does an act of h i s ovm f r e e w i l l " ) has proved i n numerous cases a v a l i d defence t o an a c t i o n f o r damages i n a c a r a c c i d e n t or f o r a n . a c t i o n of t r e s p a s s . "Respondeat s u p e r i o r " (4), and ".qui f a c i t p e r - a l i u m f a c i t per se" (5) c o n t a i n the d o c t r i n e of the l i a b i l i t y of the master f o r h i s s e r v a n t ' s a c t s and the l i a b i l i t y of the p r i n c i p a l f o r the t o r t i o u s a c t s of the agent. "Omnia praesumuntur c o n t r a s p o l i a t o r e m " (6) 1. Can. Bar. Review, no. AS, Deo,, 1927; Hon. A..R. . H a l l , ^ and o f . P o l l o c k & life, i t l a n d : H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Law: 1 We e n t e r a Court of J u s t i c e . C o u r t s , j u s t i c e s , judges, j u r o r s , a t t o r n e y s , c l e r k s , p a r t i e s , , p l a i n t i f f , defendant, a c t i o n , s u i t , c l a i m , demand, i n d i c t m e n t , count, declaar at I o n , p l e a d i n g s , e v i d e n c e , v e r d i c t , c o n v i c t i o n , judgment, sentence, a p p e a l , r e p r i e v e , pardon, e x e c u t i o n , every one and e v e r y t h i n g , save the w i t n e s s e s , w r i t s , and o a t h s , have French names. (P.81) 2. E. H u l t o n & Co. v. Jones 11910) A . C. 20. 3. I l o t t v. W i l d e s , 3. B. & 304: Thomas v. ^uartermaine, .180 B. D. 685. 4. Jones v. S c u l l a r d (1898) 2 A. B. 565. 5. Goff v. Great P o r t h e r n Railway Co. 3 E & B. 672. 849. 6. armory v. D e l a m i r i e (1722) 1 s t r . 505. (78) i s a b a s i c p r i n c i p l e i n c a l c u l a t i n g damages a g a i n s t a person who r e f u s e s to d i s c l o s e the amount o l damages t o some a r t i c l e which he may have c o n v e r t e d to h i s own u s e . The. Roman 'law i s the key to the m a j o r i t y of the modern systems and to I n t e r n a t i o n a l law. The r e a l founda-t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l law of H o l l a n d , France, Germany, I t a l y , S c o t l a n d , gaebec and other dependencies of Great B r i t a i n such as Geylon, B r i t i s h Guiana, S t . l u c i a , •Mauritius and T r i n i d a d , o r i g i n a t e d i n Home; hence a know-ledge of the G i v i l Law equips the student w i t h the common element t h a t e x i s t s in a l l these systems; these cognate l e g a l systems have t h i s common h i s t o r i c f i l i a t i o n and common p r i n c i p l e s . "The immediate and obvious u t i l i t y of some acquaintance with the parent system i s one reason why each of these c o u n t r i e s makes G i v i l Law a v e s t i b u l e to f u l l l e g a l c u r r i c u l u m and c l o s e s a l l h i g h e r walks of the p r o f e s s i o n to those d e v o i d of t h i s t r a i n i n g " , ( l ) . I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e , t o o , t h a t i n 1926 Turkey adopted a s e r i e s of Codes a l l based on the C i v i l Law of Rome, However, as has been p o i n t e d o u t , C i v i l Law d i d not a f f e c t E n g l i s h Common Law (2) to the same extent as i t d i d o t h e r systems; but the E n g l i s h c l e r g y who f i r s t taught the k i n g s t o a l i e n a t e l a n d s and r o y a l j u r i s d i c t i o n by v/ritten c h a r t s , and taught the Anglo-Saxon p r o p r i e t o r s t o make written w i l l s (3) i n f u s e d many Roman elements i n t o the Common Law of England. I t i s by " p o p i s h clergymen that our -English Common Law i s c o n v e r t e d from a rude mass of customs i n t o an a r t i c u l a t e system" (4). Through these m i n i s t e r s of the g o s p e l , Roman i d e a s of contract., ownership, and of the Common Law of M a r r i a g e ('5) f i l t e r e d i n t o the English Law. E n g l i s h Courts of Chancery and 1. M a c i n t o s h : Roman Law i n Modern P r a c t i c e : .Chap. I I . p. 3 3 . 2. "Although they (Anglo-Saxon a c n e s t o r s ) scorned Roman towns and. v i l l a s , they-must have been i n contact w i t h many t r a c e s and r e l i c s of the h i g h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n , and, t h e r e f o r e , w h i l e we cannot say how -much Roman Law s u r v i v e d i n B r i t a i n , may not some of i t s s p i r i t have c o n t i n u e d ..to e x i s t ? " Can. Bar, Review: Ho. X, December 1927: A . R i v e s . 3. T r e v e l y a n , H i s t o r y of England - - - - - - p. 65 4. P o l l o c k and M a i t l a n d : - - - - - - - - - - p. 119. 5. B l a c k stone I . ------ - - - - - - - - - - p/ 3 4 . Hon. Mr. Jsfioe A n g l i n : "Some D i f f e r e n c e s -Between the • Law of Quebec and the Law as a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the Other p r o v i n c e s of Canada: Can. Bar. Review: V o l . 1, 1923; C a r s w e l l Company L t d . ' ' i t was i n the ( ( c i v i l law th a t the C h a n c e l l o r s g e n e r a l l y sought f o r the p r i n c i p l e s , and upon i t the.- grounded the remedies by which they supplemented d e f i c i e n c i e s of the common la?/ system". arid A d m i r a l t y d i d borrovsf some important p r i n c i p l e s from t h i s s o u r c e . Moreover, tne members of the .Privy C o u n c i l , the f i n a l t r i b u n a l of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Pat i o n s , must be w e l l v e r s e d I n C i v i l Law i n order t o a r r i v e a t reasonable d e c i s i o n s when cases from such p a r t s of the B r i t i s h Empire as S c o t l a n d , Quebec, South I f r i c a , C e y l o n , I n d i a n are being appealed; and t o unde r s t a n d the reasons f o r judgment'^these cases a thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d o - c t r i n e s of Ho man Law i s ireciulx 'e'di. '•" ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law may c o n v e n i e n t l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s , p u o l i c and p r i v a t e . P u b l i c I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, as the term s i g n i f i e s r e l a t e s to the n e g o t i a t i o n s between n a t i o n s ; and t h i s branch of law has a p p r o p r i a t e d many of the Soman l e g a l c o n c e p t i o n s , however,.much they have been c o l o u r e d by S c h o l a s t i c t r a d i t i o n . ' O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s branch of law was p r i m a r i l y concerned with, the b e l l i g e r -ent r e l a t i o n s of S t a t e s , but w i t h t h e developments i n . t r a d e . • and commerce, i t widened to i n c l u d e r e l a t i o n s between n a t i o n s i n time of peace, The f a t h e r of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, G r o t i u s , born at D e l f t , i n H o l l a n d , i n 1585 A . D., gl e a n e d from the " j u s gentium" of the rcomans as expressed i n J u s t i n i a n ' s c o m p i l a t i o n s many, ideas 0: P m h i s g r e a t e s t work, "De Jure P a c i s et B e l l i " ('.about the. Law of Peace and War), G r o t i u s r e p e a t s and a m p l i f i e s the g e n e r a l p r i n c i -p l e s of the "Jus H a t u r a l e " ( l ) and r e l a t e s them t o p h i l o s o p h i -c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l t e n e t s of h i s t i m e - ..A-ise-don fundamental, t e s t e d c o n c e p t i o n s , and w i t h a remarkable symmetry and p e r f e c t i o n of p l a n , t h i s book s e t the s t a n d a r d f o r Asiv i n t e r -n a t i o n a l d e a l i n g s . Maine i n h i s "Ancient Law" (_.„ WW) has remarked about the p r e v a l e n c e of Soman idea s i n h i s t r e a t i s e : " I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how l a r g e a p a r t of the system i s made up of pure Soman Law; where t h e r e i s a d o c t r i n e of t h e J u r i s -c o n s u l t s a f f i r m e d by them t o be In harmony w i t h "Jus gentium", the P u b l i c i s t s have a reason f o r borrowing i t "IP R e a l i z i n g that t h e r e was a common core on mutual r e l a t i o n s of p r i v a t e persons, and i n the mutual r e l a t i o n s of S t a t e s , G r o t i u s , -wherever t h i s common element was i d e n t i f i a o l e • w i t h the H a t u r a l . Law, a p p l i e d i t . Apropos of t h i s , t o p i c , t h e r e a r e the d o c t r i n e s (g.tj) of Soman Law of P r o p e r t y , d i s c o v e r y , conouest, o c c u p a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t , a l l of which are r e c o g n i z e d t o -day with c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as g i v i n g good t i t l e to p r o p e r t y ; t h e n , t o o , the c o n c e p t i o n t h a t the S u c c e s s i o n S t a t e must be r e g a r d e d as c o n t i n u i n g to enjoy the r i g h t s and to di s c h a r g e the o b l i g a t i o n s of i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s has- been c a r r i e d over from the Soman i d e a of s u c c e s s i o n . Thus through G r o t i u s and h i s s u c c e s s o r s much of Soman Law was adopted i n t o the'substance of I n t e r n a t i o n Law c o n s c i o u s l y and as a consequence of the views e n t e r t a i n e d . I n so advanced an age when i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r c o u r s e has m u l t i p l i e d many-fold thanks to the r a d i o , w i r e l e s s , and modern improvements i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , n a t i o n s w i l l rub shoulders more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n i n the p a s t ; f a r g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r i c t i o n and v i c e v e r s a f o r peace w i l l 1. Maine, H.: A n c i e n t Law: 17th I m p r e s s i o n : London: 1901: I V , p. 351 - 353. "The system of G r o t i u s i s im~ p l i c a t e d w i t h Soman Law at i t s very foundat i o n . 2*. Maine, supra-, - -p. 100. ,. Westlake-. C^LIeete'd' 'Papers-, .-p'. '97% {Vsh) r e s u l t ; under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the f i e l d of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law w i l l be g r e a t l y developed. To lay down r u l e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i l l , be a problem f r a u g h t w i t h t r o u b l e i n a w o r l d so n a t i o n a l l y minded.;, What system w i l l be u t i l i z e d ? The French j u r i s t w i l l v i o l e n t l y oppose the use of the German system'and the German j u r i s t w i l l r e f u s e to be governed by E n g l i s h law. Since Rome supplied the f o u n d a t i o n f o r ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l law, the tendency w i l l be. to r e v e r t to Roman law, i f i t o f f e r s an e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e i r problems. The Court of I n t e r n a t i o n a l law, c r e a t e d , a f t e r the g r e a t c a t a s t r o p h e of 1914rl918, has been charged by i t s s t a t u t e (Art. 36) w i t h a p p l y i n g the "General .Principles r e c o g n i s e d by c i v i l i s e d N a t i o n " , and i t i s empowered to d e c i d e cases i f p a r t i e s consent to submit t h e i r d i s p u t e s to i t . I n such d i s p u t e s Roman law i s bound to e x e r t a gre a t i n f l u e n c e because i t i s a system to which so many of the p u b l i c i s t s and the j u r i s t s of the m a j o r i t y of the S t a t e s have l o n g been accustomed, m. I n the attempt to s o l v e the Q u e s t i o n of spoils of war, the South African • statesman, General Smuts suggested the mandatory system ( 1 ) , the essence of which i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the Roman term, "tutelage"; being a lawyer deeply v e r s e d i n Roman-Dutch law, he twnuld: naturally, suggest.:such ;an Adea. . S e n s a t i o n a l • „ . :;-'.dev.elopments-, i:in gaeronau^ijcsi. ::fa(faVM~.<hriaiJ0 ^ H~ A •-.>,.: ... % to the f o r e the q u e s t i o n of the .law of the a i r , W i l l the Roman maxim, " t h a t the l a u d of the owner extends as f a r as the sky" "Cujus est solum, ejtis// e st "Usque ad caelum" be maintained? Or, i n the i n t e r e s t s of the p u b l i c w i l l the n a t i o n s agree t o a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h i s principle? R a t i o n s are g r a d u a l l y s o l v i n g these q u e s t i o n s and are thus e v o l v i n g a code f o r a i r t r a f f i c , but "whatever enactments may be passed by p a r t i c u l a r l e g i s l a t u r e s , whatever i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n tions may- be reached, i t i s s a f e t o say that Roman reasoning, w i l l have some c o n t r i o u t i o n t o make to the ascertainment of the r i g h t of the landowner to' prevent en-croachment on the a i r - s p a c e above h i s e s t a t e " . ( 2 ) . P r i v a t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l law, or the C o n f l i c t of laws, i s mucn younger than the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and indeed i s h a r d l y a cen t u r y o l d ; the n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t swept Europe i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r e a t e d i t and the common outbreaks of i t ever s i n c e t h a t century have renewed i t . This law a r i s e s where, the laws of the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s d i f f e r from each o t h e r and when the courts^of each country c l a i m to have the' prerogative to t r y a p a r t i c u l a r case w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . To t h i s development Gome has s u p p l i e d very few p r o l i f i c i d e a s and t h e r e f o r e t h i s s u b j e c t does not come w i t h i n the scope of t h i s s tudy; yet i n a few cases where prorogated j u r i s d i c t i o n and jurisdiction' concerning con-tracts and j u r i s d i c t i o n founded on p o s s e s s i o n of r e a l p r o p e r t y the Roman law has been used*:"7. I n recent c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y S cotch c a s e s , Roman 1. "Handatum" o f . P a u l D. 17, 1, 1: TJlp. D. 17, 1, 6: G a i . D. 17, 1, 2, & 17, 1, 27, 2; P a u l D. 13, 6, 17, 3. 2. - M a c i n t o s h , J : . Roman law i n Modern P r a c t i c e : - -' - p. 100 (81) d e t e r m i n a t i o n s have been c i t e d more f r e q u e n t l y I n quest i o n s r e l a t i n g ' to p r o p e r t y , s u c c e s s i o n , and o b l i g a t i o n s than i n q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o law of per s o n s , ( l ) . T h i s f a c t s p r i n g s from the d i f f e r e n c e between the p e r s o n a l and domestic, r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g i n Some i n the a n c i e n t f a m i l y ano^fhe .modern f a m i l y . The Roman Law, however, has been r e f e r r e d to'and c i t e d i n cases where t h e . t o p i c s of con-cubinage and l e g i t i m a t i o n ^ of c h i l d r e n through a subsequent .marriage have been debated (2).,.. I n the Scotch case of iCerr v . M a r t i n • .• ... ?,.•.'.•;•;, the r u l e of the Roman and Canon Law was invoiced ana l e g i t i m a c y was s u s t a i n e d by a bare m a j o r i t y , .mother moot p o i n t i n law thatf has now been s e t t l e d concerned the r i g h t s o f ^ a mother of an i l l e g i t i m a t e C h i l d ; i n the case of ..Salfiison v. Davie (4) i t was h e l d t h a t a b a s t a r d son must Support h i s i n d i g e n t mother. The judges i n a r r i v i n g at t h e i r d e c i s i o n based t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n l a r g e l y on the Roman Law. The Dige s t , d e c i d e s t h i s p o i n t i n u n e q u i v o c a l languages: "We w i l l compel the mother to support h e r c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y h e r ba s t a r d c h i l d r e n , and h e r c h i l d r e n we w i l l compel t o support h e r " . (•§) A very I n t e r e s t i n g o o i n t was l a t e r r a i s e d i n the case of Clarice v. O&rfin.'. Coal Co. (&>) when the Court of Appeal d e c i d e d whether a mother of an i l l e g i t i -mate c h i l d a had a r i g h t to r e c o v e r damages and "solatium" f o r the death of t h a t c h i l d ; the Scotch, Court of S e s s i o n , re ly ing on the C i v i l law, awarded damages to the mother; the E n g l i s h Court of A p p e a l , however, r e p e a l e d the dec i s i o n . . The d i c t a , of L ^ r d Watson, who u i s p o s e d of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s from n a t u r a l law and the Roman d o c t r i n e , i l l u s t r a t e h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o the use of C i v i l Law i n the CoramoniLaw C o u r t s : " I t has even been l a i d down t h a t a b a s t a r d i s ftfilius n u l lius*. I agree with l o r d young i n t h i n k i n g t h a t the r u l e s of the C i v i l Law and the age of J u s t i n i a n f u r n i s h a very unsafe guide to the Law of S c o t l a n d t o u c h i n g the p e r s o n a l • r e l a t i o n s of p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , whether l e g i t i m a t e 1. Robinson, J . : S e l e c t i o n s f r om Roman Law: Person s : pp. 72-102. "Persona": u s e d . m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n law to denote the r o l e played by the i n d i v i d u a l i n the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the drama of c i v i l l i f e . The same i n d i v i d u a l might be en-dowed w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y of f a t her,•husband,•guardian, e t c . ("persona, pafcris, m a r i . t i , t u t o r i s ). "Persona", there f o r e , i n l e g a l language denAotes whoever or whatever i s the s u b j e c t of l e g a l r i g h t s and d u t i e s or i s capable of assuming such r i g h t s and d u t i e s , i.e. i n d i v i d u a l s (but n o t s l a v e s ) , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and p u b l i c b o d i e s . A o s t r a c t con-c e p t i o n s c l o t h e d by lav; with l e g a l p e r s o n a l i t y ( a r t i f i c i a l j u r i s t i c , l e g a l p e r s o n s ) , the Romans' c a l l e d " c o r p o r a " , c o l l e g i a , s o c i e t a t e s " , " s o d a l i t a t e s , " e t c . , - - p. 77. D e c l a r e u i l ; J . : Rome the Law-Giver; Book I , Chap. I l l , The .Law of the F a m i l y and i t s Dependencies: and Book I I , Chap. I l l , The Fa m i l y and i t s Dependencies. 2. M a c i n t o s h , J. : Onap, V I I : Roman law i n Modern P r a c t i c e , '.a. 01.84Q), 2 :D. ,752 , 4. 1886, 14^ R. 113 1891, -i.# 0• 41^, _j-i i*. ,.' * or i l l e g i t i m a t e " , ( l ) , i n Canada, t h i s h a r s h and u n j u s t r u l e which r e f u s e d to r e c o g n i z e l e g i t i m a t i o n of c h i l d r e n by subsequent marriage of p a r e n t s has been r e c t i f i e d by the a d o p t i o n of the r u l e s of the C i v i l law on t h i s s u b j e c t i n the form of an act p r e p a r e d by the Conference of Commissioners'ok U n i f o r m i t y of l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. Thus the a d o p t i o n of t h i s -Let by the common law p r o v i n c e s i n the y e a r s , 1920, 1921, and 1922, r e v e r s e d the famous d e c l a r a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l i s t i c P a r l i a m e n t (2) of Merton of 1235-1236. "Holumus l e g e s A n g l i a e mutare quae u s i t atae sunt et appro batae". ("We do not w i s h to change the laws of England w h i c h have been used and approved"). The j u r i s t i c o r c o r p o r a t e p e r s o n a l i t y (3) which i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of modern business owes I t i n c e p t i o n to Roman j u r i s t s . - The p r e d e c e s s o r of the modern c o r p o r a t i o n s , the modei-n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were the c o l l e g e of p r i e s t s , and the Roman m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , t h e i m p e r i a l t r e a s u r y ( " f i s c u s e " ) the i n d u s t r i a l g u i l d s ( " c o l l e g i a o p l f i c u m " ) , m i n i n g and t a x g a t h e r i n g companies. R e c o g n i z i n g a c o r p o r a t i o n as an a r t i f i c i a l e n t i t y having the r i g h t s and l i m i t a t i o n s of a j u r i d i c a l p e r s o n , the c l a s s i c a l j u r i s t s d e f i n e d a c o r p o r a t i o n as " u n i v e r s i t a s " and a n a l y s e d i t s seven c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich are v e r y s i m i l a r to modern c o r p o r a -t i o n s . F i r s t , a c o r p o r a t i o n must r e c e i v e the s a n c t i o n of the s t a t e by the " l e x " o r "sentus consultum" (decree of the s e n a t e ) , or by an ^ I m p e r i a l oJamst i t u t i o n . . Secondly, i t must have a c o n s t i t u t i o n s e t t i n g f o r t h i t s management, and i t s a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s , and i t s purposes. T h i r d l y , i t i s a l e g a l p e r s o n e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t f r om i t s members; t h i s • c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c o r p o r a t i o n s i s v e r y much s t r e s s e d i n modern law, i n p a r t i c u l a r i n bankrupt p r o c e e d i n g s . F o u r t h l y , to constitute a c o r p o r a t i o n t h e r e must be t h r e e members ("tres f a c i u n t c o l l e g i u m " ) such a number presupposes that t h e r e w i l l be a m a j o r i t y t o d i r e c t the b u s i n e s s . A f i f t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the w i n d i n g up of the concern i s brought about by the death of a l l members, or .by the accomplishment of i t s purpose or the c a n c e l l a t i o n of i t s c h a r t e r . Another important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the l i a b i l i t y of the c o r p o r a t i o n f o r f r a u d committed by i t s o f f i c e r s by which the c o r p o r a t i o n has p r o f i t e d ( 4 ) ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t , Roman law does not go as f a r as