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An experimental study of two methods of teaching oral French Brighouse, Thomas Joseph 1963

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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING ORAL FRENCH by Thomas J . Brighouse B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of L i v e r p o o l , 1952 A Thesis i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Arts i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the req u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia December, 1963 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives;: I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ... ft^^fY^fT.ft. i l^bk i i AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OE TWO METHODS OP TEACHING ORAL ERENCH. T h i s study i s an examination of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a method of te a c h i n g French phonics at the j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l and i t s e f f e c t i n red u c i n g the dangers of u s i n g the p r i n t e d word from the beginning of language study. F i f t y - t w o grade IX students w i t h no pr e v i o u s e x p e r i -ence of French were taught a s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n ten week course u s i n g the mimicry-memorization method o f l e a r n i n g sentence p a t t e r n s i n French. One group, the "two impression" group, s t u d i e d t h i s m a t e r i a l w i t h o n l y o r a l - a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i , seeing only the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t of the French they were expected to know. The ot h e r group, the " f o u r impression" group, l e a r n e d the same m a t e r i a l by the o r a l , a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l and k i n e s t h e t i c s t i m u l i s i n c e from the f i r s t l e s s o n they saw and copied the French s p e l l i n g a f t e r doing o r a l a u d i t o r y d r i l l . S p e c i a l care was taken i n d r i l l i n g the l a t t e r group i n the French o r t h o g r a p h i c system and i n i t s phonetic b a s i s . Students were expected i n t h i s way to " o v e r l e a r n " the u n i t on French phonics i n an attempt to reduce the E n g l i s h - t y p e m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n that could be expected. From the two groups were s e l e c t e d matched p a i r s u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a f o r purposes of matching: i i i f i r s t , I.Q.; secondly, the c u r r e n t year's grades on the June examinations i n E n g l i s h language, S c i e n c e , Mathematics and S o c i a l S t u d i e s ; and l a s t l y m u s i c a l a p t i t u d e . Groups had equal number of boys and g i r l s . T e sts were administered i n a u d i t o r y comprehension, i n o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n from E n g l i s h i n t o French, and i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n of French. A comparison of the means at the end of the ten week course showed a s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the two impression group i n a u d i t o r y comprehension and i n favour of the f o u r i m p r e s s i o n group i n o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . None of these d i f f e r -ences was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . The a n a l y s i s of type and number of e r r o r s i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t showed t h a t those who saw the French had s l i g h t l y more e r r o r s of p r o n u n c i a t i o n which seemed t o be caused by i n t e r f e r e n c e from the E n g l i s h o r t h o g r a p h i c system. There were twice as many e r r o r s of t h i s type i n the f o u r impression group as i n the two imp r e s s i o n group. These mistakes r e p r e s e n t e d only s i x per cent of the t o t a l number of mistakes made. I t was noted that those who had seen no French s p e l l i n g s t i l l tended t o mis-pronounce some French words i n an E n g l i s h way. I t i s concluded t h a t the o v e r l e a r n i n g of French phonics appeared t o have overcome what disadvantage might be expected to accrue from the t e a c h i n g of French i v u s i n g the w r i t t e n word from the beginning. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standards:, (Chairman) ACKNOWLEDGMENT For the many valuable pieces of advice and f o r i n s p i r a t i o n over a long p e r i o d of time I wish t o thank my teacher and s u p e r v i s o r , Professor S.M.. Boyles. I: must al s o acknowledge the whole-hearted cooperation of my f r i e n d and p r i n c i p a l , Mr. JJ.S. M i c h e l l i n making time-table adjustments t o permit t h i s experiment to be conducted and i n t a k i n g a much greater burden of work during the summer so tha t the f i n a l stages of the an a l y s i s of data and r e p o r t i n g of r e s u l t s could be completed. F i n a l l y , I owe thanks t o the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n which has co n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y i n money, and i n d i r e c t l y through the experience I have gained w h i l e an e l e c t e d o f f i c e r and member of the Research Committee of tha t o r g a n i z a t i o n . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 General Problem Area 1 S p e c i f i c Problem 1 A l l i e d Questions 2 Assumptions and L i m i t a t i o n s 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 5 I I A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 7 Previou s E xperimentation on the S p e c i f i c Problem 7 T r a i t s R e l a t e d to Oral-Auditory-Achievement 9 Elements Common to Both Methods Used i n T h i s Experiment 14 Elements D i f f e r i n g between the Two Methods Used i n T h i s Experiment ... 17 I I I THE DESIGN OP THE EXPERIMENT 19 The Hypothesis • • 19 A l l i e d Problems 19 The L e v e l of S i g n i f i c a n c e 20 Equating the Groups 20 Course M a t e r i a l 29 Methods o f Teaching the Experimental Course 29 D u r a t i o n o f Experiment 33 CHAPTER PAGE Measuring Instruments 3^ V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of T e s t i n g Instruments 36 S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment ^0 Summary * f l IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ... *f3 Auditory Comprehension *+3 Oral T r a n s l a t i o n *+3 P r o n u n c i a t i o n Test *+3 A n a l y s i s o f E r r o r s on the P r o n u n c i a t i o n Test M+ Evidence on Secondary Questions .. M-9 C o n c l u s i o n s on Major Hypothesis .. 52 Conclusions on Minor Hypotheses .. 52 General Remarks on the R e s u l t s ... 53 General Comments on Measuring Instruments 9+ Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY 58 APPENDIX A: PRESENTATION OF PHONICS MATERIAL 63 APPENDIX B: ACHIEVEMENT TESTS USED IN EXPERIMENT 70 APPENDIX C: MARKING SHEETS FOR PRONUNCIATION TEST 77 APPENDIX D: GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 78 LIST OF TABLES T A B L E PAGE I Means and Standard Deviations on Criteria used for Equating Groups .. 25 II Coefficients of Correlation showing Relationships between Achievement Tests and Criteria used for Matching 26 III Data Regarding Matched Pairs 27 IV Categories of Expected Errors on Pronunciation Test 38 V Summary of Design of the Experiment .. k2 VI Comparison of Results on Achievement Tests *+3 VII Analysis of Actual Errors on Pronunciation Test:: Four Impression Group h5 VIII Analysis of Actual Errors on Pronunciation Tests Two Impression Group *+6 IX Correlation Coefficients between Measures Used 50. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION General Problem Area. In the very l i m i t e d time allowed by the sch o o l programmes f o r the study of modern languages the teacher and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r are f a c e d w i t h the problem of b r i n g i n g the student to the degree of p r o f i c i e n c y i n understanding and i n u s i n g the spoken language which w i l l j u s t i f y the p l a c e of languages on the c u r r i c u l u m -Supported by the op i n i o n s of n e u r o l o g i c a l e x p e r t s , educa-t i o n a l l e a d e r s have i n s t i t u t e d an i n c r e a s i n g number of o r a l language programmes, f o r elementary and j u n i o r h i g h school grades. New methods of t e a c h i n g the o r a l - a u d i t o r y s k i l l s are being developed but few have been thoroughly appraised. Not a l l elements i n these methods are equal-l y i n need of such study.. Some can be adopted on the b a s i s of l o g i c . T h i s study attempts t o compare two methods between which an i n t e l l i g e n t choice cannot be made without experimentation. S p e c i f i c Problem. A l l t eachers of French have experienced f r u s t r a t i o n and annoyance at the extent t o which students mispronounce French words. Why these mistakes are made and what can be done t o reduce them are questions which should be answered before beginning courses can be soundly planned. The body of theory t o which one can r e f e r i s as yet l i m i t e d . Only i n recent years has there developed a r e a l i z a t i o n of the need f o r thorough study and only r e c e n t l y has the money f o r the work been a l l o t t e d . One g e n e r a l l y h e l d b e l i e f i s t h a t the problem of mis-p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s b e t t e r s o l v e d by postponing the s i g h t of the w r i t t e n words f o r a few weeks, a few months or even a few years. Some i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y known t e a c h e r s , however, recommend the use of the w r i t t e n word from the s t a r t as a support f o r the o r a l - a u d i t o r y impressions i n the b e l i e f t h a t l e a r n i n g w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d and r e t e n t i o n improved. In t h i s study an attempt i s made to d i s c o v e r i f a c e r t a i n method of t e a c h i n g phonics can overcome the t e n -dency f o r students t o respond i n an E n g l i s h way to the French s p e l l i n g . W i l l the students who are thus f o r t i f i e d against the expected " s p e l l i n g " p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s show be t t e r achievement than those who have only the a u d i t o r y and o r a l impressions as a i d s t o memory. A l l i e d Questions Besides i l l u m i n a t i n g the main problem i t i s hoped t h a t the experiment w i l l a s s i s t i n e x p l o r i n g the way f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . Since so l i t t l e i s known of those t r a i t s which are r e l a t e d to o r a l language a b i l i t y , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between I.Q.,, previous year's grades i n major s u b j e c t s , current year's grades i n the same s u b j e c t s , scores on a t e s t of mu s i c a l a p t i t u d e , and three achievement t e s t s w i l l be computed. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a u d i t o r y compre-hension, o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i l l a l s o be examined. Tests of mu s i c a l a p t i t u d e were i n c l u d e d i n an attempt t o t e s t a p o p u l a r l y assumed r e l a t i o n s h i p t o pronuncia-t i o n a b i l i t y . I t was thought at the beginning of the study that d i f f i c u l t y i n t e s t i n g techniques would be a handicap. However, wit h the use of a b a t t e r y of tape r e c o r d e r s many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s were overcome. The methods used and the measure of r e l i a b i l i t y of the three t e s t s w i l l be d i s -cussed and should be of a s s i s t a n c e t o others doing s i m i l a r work. Although i t was not p o s s i b l e to t r y out the i n s t r u -ments beforehand, they d i d prove adequate and wit h c e r t a i n refinements may be u s e f u l as models f o r Government Examinations at a higher l e v e l . Assumptions and L i m i t a t i o n s One of the primary assumptions made i s t h a t the sample of f i f t y - t w o students d i v i d e d i n t o two groups of twenty-s i x i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of some l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . Because of the small sample and the method of s e l e c t i o n i t w i l l be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o consider t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s Grade IX U n i v e r s i t y Programme students of a small B.C. v i l l a g e than that i t r e p r e s e n t s a l l French students of a s i m i l a r age - If -anywhere. How f a r beyond the a c t u a l school these r e s u l t s can be a p p l i e d w i l l be best d i s c o v e r e d by r e p e t i t i o n s of the study. Of the c r i t e r i a used f o r equating the groups none was shown t o be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the p r o n u n c i a t i o n achieve-ment t e s t , although s a t i s f a c t o r y c o r r e l a t i o n s between equating c r i t e r i a and the a u d i t o r y comprehension and the o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n were found. T h i s may mean t h a t , i n the most important matter of a p t i t u d e f o r lear-ning t o pronounce a c c u r a t e l y , the two groups were p o o r l y matched. I t i s hoped t h a t the number of students i n v o l v e d would make i t f a i r l y probable that a reasonable equivalence was achieved. One weakness which must be noted concerns the matter of matching p a i r s . C e r t a i n c r i t e r i a had t o be s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose. Because of the small number of students from which a choice could be made, the c r i t e r i o n of sex was compromised. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s compromise s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s s i n c e t h e r e remained equal numbers of boys and g i r l s i n each group. However the p o s s i b i l i t y must be admitted here. The second warning i s d i r e c t e d t o those v/ho might wish to repeat the experiment or even t o apply the r e s u l t s . Any v a r i a t i o n i n the use of the w r i t t e n word might be expected t o :give d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , and f o r t h i s reason d e t a i l e d notes on the methodology have been given. To - 5 -omit the phonics or to f a i l to have the student " o v e r l e a r n " the French r e a c t i o n to the s p e l l i n g p a t t e r n s would be t o change the method i n a very important r e s p e c t . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Oral S k i l l s . The conveying of idea s and emotions by the u t t e r a n c e of sounds w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as o r a l speech and the s k i l l sought w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g f l u e n c y and accuracy of the u t t e r a n c e . The aim w i l l be not so much to make the student sound l i k e a n a t i v e as t o e l i m i n a t e those sounds which act as an impediment t o easy comprehension by a n a t i v e . O r a l p r a c t i c e . Oral p r a c t i c e r e f e r s t o the p r a c t i s i n g by the student of the sounds, word groups and sentences. In the classroom t h i s can h a r d l y be d i v o r c e d from some p r a c t i c e i n a u d i t o r y comprehension s k i l l s by those l i s t e n i n g . Auditory s k i l l s . Often r e f e r r e d t o as a u r a l s k i l l s , they r e f e r t o the c o r r e c t h e a r i n g and a s s o c i a t i o n of sounds. Auditory comprehension. Auditory comprehension i n -cludes the a s s o c i a t i o n of the sounds one step f u r t h e r i n t o the f i e l d of idea s and emotions. The sounds c o r r e c t l y heard through the a u d i t o r y s k i l l s take on meaning, thus c o n s t i t u t i n g a u d i t o r y comprehension. O r a l r e a d i n g . Oral r e a d i n g as such does not imply understanding, but merely the u t t e r a n c e of the c o r r e c t sounds under the stimulus of the p r i n t e d words i O r a l r e a d i n g comprehension. The sound of the words - 6 -under the stimulus of the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l l i n k e d w i t h the comprehension of those words w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as o r a l reading comprehension. Reading comprehension. Reading comprehension w i l l r e f e r t o understanding the p r i n t e d word without the u t t e r a n c e of sound. Phonics:. Tnis' word i s used to i n d i c a t e the study and p r a c t i c e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p between the u n i t s i n French orthography and. the sound's they represent... Four impression group. That group of twenty—six students-, who were taught u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g sequence of s t i m u l i : a u d i t o r y , o r a l , v i s u a l , , and k i n e s t h e t i c . Two impression group.- The other group of twenty-six students who were taught u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g sequence of s t i m u l i : : a u d i t o r y and o r a l . CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE Previous Experimentation on the S p e c i f i c Problem. R i c h a r d and Appel used a c o n t r o l group which f o l l o w e d a short-term, o r a l w r i t t e n course i n Spanish and an experimental group which r e c e i v e d an e n t i r e l y o r a l course. On the f i n a l t e s t s the o r a l group showed s u p e r i o r f l u e n c y and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 1 D i f f e r e n c e s i n other f a c t o r s , such as comprehension and vocabulary, were n e g l i g i b l e , although they were i n favour of the experimental group. The groups used were s m a l l , f o u r -teen c o l l e g e students i n each group, and were matched on the b a s i s of I.Q., sex, age, grade l e v e l , and years of f o r e i g n language study. There was a l s o a p r e t e s t of l i n g u i s t i c a p t i t u d e which d i d not c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w ith the p o s t t e s t s of a u r a l comprehension, vocabulary, o r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The course was very short being no more than f i v e hours i n d u r a t i o n . The author i s r e t i c e n t - t o c l a i m that the r e s u l t s , although s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f o u r per cent and three per cent l e v e l , were v a l i d , and expresses some doubt as to the matching device p a r t i c u l a r l y as f a r as a r t i c u l a t o r y speed i s R i c h a r d , Sumner E., and Joan E. Appel, " E f f e c t s of W r i t t e n Words i n Beginning Spanish", Modern Language  J o u r n a l , XL (March 1956) 129-33. - 8 -concerned. In a l a t e r experiment about f i f t y f o u r t h grade students were taught Spanish f o r two twenty minute p e r i o d s per week f o r seven weeks. H a l f the number were taught by o r a l - a u d i t o r y methods while the other h a l f a l s o saw the w r i t t e n words. I t was concluded that those who saw the w r i t t e n word d i d not perform as w e l l on experimenters' p o r a l t e s t s . The students, however, were not beginners. They had been l e a r n i n g Spanish without see i n g the w r i t t e n word f o r some weeks p r e v i o u s l y . One p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s that n e i t h e r group s u f f e r e d any l o s s i n r e t e n t i o n of a u d i t o r y comprehension over the Christmas v a c a t i o n , but i n the vocabulary t e s t s the drop i n the r e t e n t i o n by the a u d i t o r y - o r a l group brought them down t o the l e v e l of the a u d i t o r y - o r a l - w r i t t e n group, who d i d not show any l o s s i n r e t e n t i o n . The p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t was somewhat suspect i n t h a t i t t e s t e d the students' a b i l i t y t o mimic the sound of a person s a y i n g c e r t a i n words i n Spanish. I t might be contended t h a t one could do w e l l on such a t e s t without any knowledge of Spanish at a l l . The authors recognize t h a t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t might be c r i t i c i z e d f o r t e s t i n g o r a l a c u i t y and might be c o n s i d e r a b l y Foster ?„ Dorothy P., and C l a r e n c e M. W i l l i a m s . " A u r a l -O r a l - W r i t t e n versus A u r a l - O r a l i n t e a c h i n g Spanish to Fourth Graders." Modern Language J o u r n a l XLIV ( A p r i l . I960) 153-57. - 9 -a f f e c t e d by nervousness:. C e r t a i n l y the c o e f f i c i e n t s ; of r e l i a b i l i t y between the two forms of the comprehension t e s t ( .39) and between the two forms of the vocabulary (.31)) are very low. The marking of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t by three judges showed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e p a n c y . F i n a l l y , i t seemed t h a t the a u d i t o r y - o r a l group f o r reasons other than the c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e , had b e t t e r rapport with the teacher.. In c o n c l u s i o n , the authors note a tendency i n the d a t a t h a t might i n d i c a t e t h a t the a u d i t o r y - o r a l - w r i t t e n approach might prove b e t t e r f o r r e t e n t i o n i n the l o n g run. These are the only two s t u d i e s found t o bear d i r e c t l y on the s p e c i f i c problem. Both s t u d i e s grapple w i t h the obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ways: and use t e s t s of d i f f e r e n t types: each w i t h i t s attendant weaknesses i n the absence of thoroughly r e l i a b l e instruments so u r g e n t l y needed i n the f i e l d of p r o n u n c i a t i o n and f l u e n c y . T r a i t s R e l a t e d t o O r a l - a u d i t o r y Achievement* A h g i o l i l l o , experimenting w i t h t e a c h i n g French t o g i r l s w i t h I.Q's of 1+0-75, r e p o r t e d t h a t the elementary stage of ac h i e v i n g a u r a l - o r a l f l u e n c y i s not a h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n . ^ However, another study u s i n g a sample of 9+5 J A n g i o l i l l o , P.F., "French f o r Feeble Minded:: An Experiment," 7 "Modern Language Journal," 25. 19^2 , pp 266-271. - 10 -cases, shows a r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores: made on a French-accent r a t i n g s c a l e (not o r a l fluency)" and an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t t o have been represented by a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t if of .59. Dunkel claims a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between speak-i n g a b i l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e when speaking a b i l i t y i s measured by the p r o d u c t i o n of longer u n i t s of the spoken language. Iii French as: i n most s u b j e c t s at the elementary and j u n i o r h i g h school l e v e l s , g i r l s can be expected to do b e t t e r than boys. Among many o t h e r s , Dawson makes t h i s p o i n t with p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o o r a l work.^ Curry notes that g i r l s do on the average achieve h i g h e r standards i n language l e a r n i n g than do boys who have the same mental 7 a b i l i t y . ' Von W i t t i c h , i n attempting to p r e d i c t student achievement i n second languages, t r i e d u s i n g s c h o o l grades o i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . She found t h a t a combination of scores on a l l s u b j e c t s p l u s the I.Q. was the best p r e d i c t o r , (.73) and t h a t the school s u b j e c t s without I.Q. was the Dunkel H..B., Second Language L e a r n i n g , Ginn and Co., 19W. ^Ebid ^Dawson, M i l d r e d , Teaching Languages i n the Grades, New York:.: World Book Co., 1951. 7 'Curry, K.V., Doctor's D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 1959. P Von W i t t i c h , Barbara, " P r e d i c t i o n of Success- i n F o r e i g n Language Study"', Modern Language Journal,, XLVI', (May 1962)' Nb. 5. 208-12. - 11 -second best predictor, (.66). This of course i s f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l school language teaching.. How these variables;; are related to oral-auditory s k i l l s i s not known. Pritchard found a su r p r i s i n g l y high relationship (.72) between oral fluency and certain personality t r a i t s , 9 notably s o c i a b i l i t y . Information on t h i s subject came too l a t e for the s t r i c t time schedule of equating classes for t h i s study. I t i s recommended that i n future experi-ments-, t h i s variable, be investigated.. After the experimental part of t h i s study had been completed, i t was discovered that the type of motivation might have considerable significance f o r oral work, A group of investigators found that students who genuinely wished to learn the language were divided into two main groups. Those who wished to learn i n order to communicate with those of the other language group did much better i n the perfecting of accent and i n the attaining of fluency than those who simply wished to learn French to claim another language as a sign of increased sophistication or to obtain a better p o s i t i o n , 1 0 Closely related to t h i s evidence on the importance of attitudes i s the observation over several years' 7 P r i t c h a r d , D.F., "An Investigation into the Relation-ship of Personality T r a i t s and A b i l i t y i n Modern Language," B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology, 22, 1952, 1^ 7-^ 8 1 0Lambert, W.E., R..C, Gardner, R. Olton and K.A. Tunstall, "A.itudy of the Roles and Motivation i n Second Language Learning," McGill University, (Mimeo, i960). - 12 -t e a c h i n g French t h a t students- who are by nature t a l k a t i v e or s o c i a b l e are among those who seem c o n s i s t e n t l y t o a t t a i n a h i g h e r o r a l standard than t h a t of t h e i r more t a c i t u r n peeirsv I t appears to be accepted that not a l l i n d i v i d u a l s -memorize most e f f i c i e n t l y i n the same way. V a l e n t i n e found s u r p r i s i n g l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s of .20 to .30 between performance i n a u d i t o r y r o t e memorization and v i s u a l m e m o r i z a t i o n . 1 1 De Sauze' attempts t o estimate average e q u i v a l e n t s of the impressions of the d i f f e r e n t senses f o r 12" purposes of memorization. One of our experiments showed t h a t i t takes" an average c h i l d w i t h h i s a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l senses e q u a l l y developed one hundred " s e e i n g s " of an a b s t r a c t word, before he has- an automatic r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s - w r i t t e n form, w h i l e twenty "hearings"' p l u s f i v e "seeings"' are s u f f i c i e n t t o i m p r i n t the same word i n a deep groove upon the memory c e l l s and to make i t a v a i l a b l e f o r purposes both of r e a d i n g and c o n v e r s i n g . Yet to t r y t o t i e the e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e s of d i f f e r e n t impressions to an average f i g u r e should only serve to remind the teacher t h a t f o r each student the r a t i o w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . I t seems c l e a r t h a t i n the i d e a l language school there might be d i f f e r e n t programmes f o r each V a l e n t i n e , C:.W., Psychology and I t s Bearing on  Education, London, Methuen and Co., 1950. ^De Sauze', E.B., The C l e v e l a n d P l a n f o r the Teaching  of Modern Languages, P h i l a d e l p h i a , John Winston Co., 1 9 2 9 . - 13 -of the main g r o u p s . 1 ^ No l i t e r a t u r e has so f a r been found of an e x p e r i -mental attempt t o f i n d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of musi c a l a b i l i t y or achievement w i t h success: i n o r a l language*. The i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study of a t e s t of musi c a l a p t i t u d e and the rough matching of p a i r s on t h i s c r i t e r i o n i s based on a commonly made assumption of a r e l a t i o n s h i p and on an i n t e n s e c u r i o s i t y on the subject.. I t i s unwise t o ig n o r e the o p i n i o n s of P e n f i e l d on n e u r o l o g i c a l aspects of language l e a r n i n g . He says t h a t up t o the age of t e n t o twelve years- the mind of lh the c h i l d i s r e c e p t i v e of new codes of language. He-f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a gradual change u n t i l about the age of s i x t e e n , a f t e r which age any new language sounds must be based on the p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y a s s i m i l a t e d . R e s u l t a n t d i f f i c u l t y i n f l u e n c y and good accent i s t o be expected. T h i s experiment uses Grade X£ students, ('the lowest grade a v a i l a b l e ) who, wit h an average age of f o u r t e e n years', are s t i l l i n t h a t t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s evidence, i t i s r e l e v a n t t o c i t e the c o n c l u s i o n s of a study quoted by KauTfers', on " ^ C a r r o l l , X.B., The Study of Languages'. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1953. P e n f i e l d , W., "A' c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the N e u r o l o g i c a l Mechanisms of Speech and Some E d u c a t i o n a l Consequences," Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Science, 82 1953, 201-l^f. - Ih -the difference i n language learning a b i l i t i e s at different age groups. This study showed that the younger the learner the greater are the gains i n oral 15 attainment. ' He also claims that i n grammar, vocabulary and reading adults with less than half the time spent on language study attain :twice the growth.. From th i s evidence, the danger of applying conclusions from one experiment to students of a d i f f e r e n t age group becomes clear. Elements Common to Both Methods Used i n ~This:"''ExVeriment' In t h i s section we must consider the psychological basis of language learning.. Attacking the theorists of the Associationist school, Lipsky saysr Language pedagogues of t h i s school have labored under the delusion that i t i s possible to construct a language from the part spin to which i t has been analysed He claims that language must be taught i n Gestaltsr There are Gestalts i n l i n g u i s t i c pedagogy of d i f f e r e n t orders.- The essential requirements' are that the Gestalt be a complete f i g u r e , a closed c i r c u i t . Following t h i s idea to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion the course was taught to the students i n whole phrases treated" as 5Kaulfers W..V., Modern Languages' for" Modern' School's, McGraw-Hill, 19^2. Lipsky, A"., "Gestalt i n Language'Pedagogy,"' High Points', XIV, November, 1 9 3 2 pp 1 8 - 2 3 . - 15 -e n t i t i e s . . The students became aware of sentence p a t t e r n s and then secondly a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t each p a t t e r n was-made up of parts-which might be s u b s t i t u t e d . . By i n s i s t e n c e on s u b s t i t u t i o n , , on the other hand, i t was: hoped to d i m i n i s h the danger of l a c k of f l e x i b i l i t y which was i n h e r e n t i n many of the American Army A.S'.T.P. experiments d u r i n g World War I I . . Agard and Dunk e l s t a t e i n an e v a l u a t i o n of this-programmer We s-aw few e x h i b i t i o n s of what could h o n e s t l y be c a l l e d spontaneously f l u e n t speech.. While many students could p a r t i c i p a t e i n memorized conversations' s p e e d i l y and e f f o r t l e s s l y h a r d l y any c o u l d produce at l e n g t h f l u e n t v a r i a t i o n s from the b a s i c m a t e r i a l , and none could t a l k on unrehearsed t o p i c s without constant and p a i n f u l h e s i t a t i o n . The main c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r seems t o have been slow vo c a b u l a r y r e c a l l and d i f f i c u l t y i n m a n i p u l a t i n g grammatical forms.17 While the f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were borne i n mind, the a c t u a l d e t a i l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of the d r i l l s f o l l o w e d the p r i n c i p l e s emphasised by P i m s l e u r r s i n g l e emphasis, immediate r e i n f o r c e m e n t , and use of E n g l i s h f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . In support of u s i n g E n g l i s h and of u s i n g a. p a r t i c u l a r 3 9 form of t e a c h i n g idioms Asher may be c i t e d . He states' Agard, F.B.. and Dunkel, H.B., Ah* T h v e s t i g a t 1 on ""of  S'econd Language Teaching. Glnn & Co, 19^8. l 8 F i n s l e u r , P., "Pattern D r t l l s i n French" The French Review XXXIII, no. 6 , May i 9 6 0 . "^Asher, James J . , "The High V e l o c i t y Process of L o g i c i n V e r b a l T r a i n i n g , " ' Paper read at the C a l i f o r n i a Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a , March I 9 6 I . - 16 -that classic studies of interference effects1, in verbal learning tend to conclude that "noise"' or interference, i s maximum when one tries to learn new responses to old stimuli.. This generalization was modified by Asher. He predicted that noise would decrease as, the logical relationship between the old and new responses was increased. With nonsense syllables as the learning task and college graduates as subjects, the experiment confirmed the hypothesis. If this idea i s sound, then teaching should emphasize the logical connection with the f i r s t language. Following this approach, a l l idioms were given f i r s t in their l i t e r a l meaning and dri l l e d in that meaning, with the idiomatic meaning added second.. For instance, "qu'avez-vous?"' was dr i l l e d as "what have you?"; before the idiomatic'What1 s-. the matter with you?,,r and "what's.; wrong with you?"' were introduced.. This method seemed to eliminate many mistakes which are so very apparent from textbook linking of, .for example, "hier soir"'t last night-Students can almost be excused for believing that "last week" must therefore be "hier semaine"' unless the logical connection with English i s made very clear when the phrase is f i r s t introduced. Method of Learning Vocabulary. Several studies have been made recently to investigate efficiency in vocabulary learning. For instance, and experiment by Kale constitutes - 1 7 -a j u s t i f i c a t i o n of " c o n t e x t - l e a r n i n g " ' w i t h v i s u a l 20 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Words were more e f f i c i e n t l y -l e a r n e d and r e t a i n e d when they were d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d with the o b j e c t s , a c t i o n s or movements they r e p r e s e n t e d . This i s opposed t o the p r a c t i c e of p a i r i n g the f o r e i g n language word w i t h the n a t i v e language word. For t h i s reason the concrete nouns were taught i n t h i s e x p e r i -ment by diagrams r a t h e r than by E n g l i s h equivalents.. Elements D i f f e r i n g Between the Two Methods Used i n T h i s  Experiment.. The a u t h o r i t i e s recommending a p e r i o d of o r a l -a uditory work before i n t r o d u c i n g r e a d i n g and the v i s u a l form of the word are too numerous to name i n d e t a i l here. I t w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o say t h a t t h i s i s the recommended p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools not only where elementary French i s being taught but a l s o i n the new French 8 course. A t y p i c a l spokesman f o r t h i s group of teachers i s Ahdersson who says.r The theory t h a t the ear and the tongue should be thoroughly t r a i n e d before w r i t t e n , symbols are i n t r o d u c e d i s unquestionably sound 2 1 But can the ear and tongue not be t r a i n e d at the K a l e , S h r i k r i s h n a - V . , "Learning and R e t e n t i o n of En g l i s h - R u s s i a n Vocabulary under D i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s of M o t i o n - P i c t u r e Representation.,"' U n i v e r s i t y Park, Pennsylvania,"" P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1 9 5 3 -2 1 Ahdersson, T;, The Teaching of F o r e i g n Languages i n the Elementary School, Bostont D.C. Heath and Co., 1 9 5 3 . - 18 -same time as the s p e l l i n g of the words i s i n t r o d u c e d ? C e r t a i n a u t h o r i t i e s appear to b e l i e v e so. Brady used the "hear-say-see-say-read-write" method. By t e a c h i n g her p u p i l s how to pronounce l e t t e r s and symbols she hoped to enable them to pronounce c o r r e c t l y anything they ever 22 saw. B o r s t , a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, does not f e e l t h a t r e a d i n g should be f o r b i d d e n i n grades: t h r e e to s i x . 2 ^ The t h i r d and l a s t a u t h o r i t y to be quoted i s MacRae who advises t h a t c h i l d r e n should know the p r i n t e d word: The wise use of easy r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s can serve to c o n s o l i d a t e the a u r a l - o r a l gains and to focus them i n such way as to promote f u r t h e r ^ growth i n the power to speak and comprehend. Brady, A., S y l l a b u s f o r the Teaching of Spanish  i n the Grade School, Lawrence, Kansas:: The A l l e n Press 2 ^ B o r s t , R., Teacher's Guide: Spanish i n A c t i o n  f o r the Elementary School, M a l i s o n , Wisconsin, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n 1956. 2 l fMacRae, M.^Teaching Spanish i n the Grades, Boston:: Houghton M i f f l i n Cov, 1957-CHAPTER I I I THE DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENT The Hypothesis I t i s intended to t e s t the hypothesis t h a t a method u s i n g the o v e r l e a r n i n g of French phonics f o l l o w e d by j o i n t a p p l i c a t i o n of a u d i t o r y , o r a l and v i s u a l impres-sions f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by the k i n e s t h e t i c ( l i m i t e d ) im-p r e s s i o n w i l l be as e f f e c t i v e as the method which uses only the o r a l and a u d i t o r y i m p r e s s i o n s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the h y p o t h e s i s may be d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s : t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the means between the two groups w i l l not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (at the f i v e per cent l e v e l ) i n t e s t s of (a) a u d i t o r y compre-hension (b) o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and (c) p r o n u n c i a t i o n . A l l i e d Problems Further s u b s i d i a r y hypotheses w i l l be t e s t e d : (a) t h a t there i s a high p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between subtests of the Seashore Measures of M u s i c a l T a l e n t s and ( i ) the t e s t of a u d i t o r y comprehension and ( i i ) the t e s t of p r o n u n c i a t i o n accuracy. I t i s hoped t o draw some c o n c l u s i o n s on the s u i t a -b i l i t y of the t e s t s of o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r more widespread use i n r o u t i n e t e s t i n g programmes. By p r e s e n t i n g i n t a b u l a r form the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s measured - 20 -i t i s hoped to supply others doing s i m i l a r work w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o the a b i l i t i e s t h a t are r e l a t e d to o r a l - a u d i t o r y s k i l l s . The L e v e l of S i g n i f i c a n c e An e x p l a n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d of the d e c i s i o n to adopt .05 as the r e q u i r e d l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The even-t u a l choice of t e a c h i n g method w i l l depend on the e f -f e c t i v e n e s s and on the ease of a p p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as on other b e n e f i t s not measured i n t h i s experiment. Prom s u b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n i t has been n o t i c e d t h a t the f o u r impression method i s l e s s exhausting f o r the t e a c h e r , more conducive to thorough review h a b i t s on the p a r t of the student, as w e l l as more e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n to reading and a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l a t e r w r i t t e n work. For these reasons, i f the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the two methods i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , then there i s no reason why the Four Impression method should not be used i n p r e f e r e n c e t o the method which does not have these a d d i t i o n a l advantages. For t h i s reason the .05 l e v e l of confidence w i l l be used to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t e a d of the more s t r i n g e n t .01 l e v e l . Equating the Groups Because of the l a c k of an e a s i l y measurable v a r i -able c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o French o r a l e f f i c i e n c y the whole groups from which the matched p a i r s would l a t e r be taken - 21 -were i n i t i a l l y equated on the b a s i s of I.Q., and the previous year's grades i n E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , mathematics and science" 1'. A l l th r e e c l a s s e s t a k i n g Grade IX U n i v e r s i t y Programme French i n the J.L. Jackson J u n i o r Secondary School were used and were taught by the same te a c h e r . One of these c l a s s e s was taught by the f o u r impression method and the other two c l a s s e s by the two imp r e s s i o n method. I t be-came apparent t h a t the th r e e c l a s s e s although roughly equated on paper were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other i n terms of c l a s s tone and of teacher student i n t e r a c t i o n . I t appeared t h a t i n terms of p e r f o r -mance i n other s c h o o l s u b j e c t s the th r e e c l a s s e s were s l i g h t l y unequal i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o school work. Of the two i m p r e s s i o n c l a s s e s one was p e r c e p t i v e l y b e t t e r and one was p e r c e p t i v e l y worse i n a t t i t u d e than the f o u r impression c l a s s . T h i s i s not to exaggerate the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e a l l t h r e e were good c l a s s e s , but t h i s p e r c e p t i b l e d i f f e r e n c e should be noted. Inas-much as i t a f f e c t s matching of groups, i t i n d i c a t e s a p o s s i b l e weakness i n the experiment. See p r e v i o u s chapter f o r r a t i o n a l e of s e l e c t i o n of these c r i t e r i a . - 22 -To f u r t h e r r e f i n e the equating of the groups i t was decided t o use the matched p a i r s method f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In the matching, the number of students taken from the b e t t e r two i m p r e s s i o n group was approximately equal t o t h a t from the poorer two impression c l a s s . T h i s second more d e t a i l e d matching was done on the b a s i s of I.Q., the c u r r e n t year's grades - pre-sumably even more r e l a t e d t o t h i s y e ar's work i n 2 French than the previous y e a r ' s grades - and m u s i c a l a p t i t u d e s c o r e s . This l a s t c r i t e r i o n was l e a s t r i g i d l y equated i i n c e any r e l e v a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t i l l based on c o n j e c t u r e . The two groups contained equal numbers of boys and g i r l s . Although i t was hoped t o have a l a r g e r number of s t u d e n t s . i n the groups, because of absence from school at c r u c i a l times and because a number were found to have some background of French i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s the number matched i n p a i r s was e v e n t u a l l y reduced to twenty-six i n each group, g i v i n g a t o t a l of f i f t y -two. The I.Q. r a t i n g of each student was taken from the O t i s Beta Test which had been administered one T h i s assumption was p a r t l y j u s t i f i e d by the f i g u r e s given i n t a b l e I I page 26. - 23 -year previously. The number r a t i n g of the year's grades was found by allowing f i v e points f o r an A, four for a B, three for a C plus, two for a C, and one for a C- on the June report. F i n a l l y , to test the musical aptitude the Seashore Measures of Musieal Talents 1939 r e v i s i o n , Form A was used. The Test Manual has t h i s to say on the appro-priateness for our purposes: They are the standard measures used i n anthropology for comparison of natural capacities i n d i f f e r e n t races and c u l t u r e - l e v e l s , f o r analysis of types of achievement, inheritance of talent, speech disorders and technical auditory s k i l l s . They may be used extensively as class experiments i n general psychology, music, and phonetics. They are convenient measuring tools for acoustical research i n many f i e l d s . They do not measure t r a i n i n g or achievement i n music.3 Although the manual warns against averaging the scores, i n t h i s experiment the tests were averaged since i t seemed impractical to try to equate pairs on the basis of each subtest. The r e l i a b i l i t y co-e f f i c i e n t s of the subtests as computed by the s p l i t half method adjusted by the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula, for students of Grade nine age-range: Pitch .88, Loudness .88, Time .76, Timbre .7^, Rhythm .62, Tonal Memory .88. •''Seashore, Carl E., Don Lewis, and Joseph E. Saetveit Manual of Instructions and Interpretation for the Seashore Measures of Musical Talents. RCA Victor Camden (1939 Revision) - 2h -Table I gives the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the two groups on the d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a used f o r matching. Table I I gives the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s be-tween the equating c r i t e r i a and the achievement t e s t s computed at the end of the experiment. They are placed at t h i s e a r l y p o i n t i n the report t o show that the r e l a t i o n s h i p s l a t e r measured l a r g e l y j u s t i f i e d the choice of c r i t e r i a f o r matching. The scores used i n these computations were from the t o t a l of ffViftyt:--two students. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between achievement and matching c r i t e r i a are not hi g h and i n some eases very low, f o r example i n the case of the sub-test of timbre. Never-t h e l e s s i n the absence of other known r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n general are s a t i s f a c t o r y i n the case of auditory comprehension and o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . On the other hand, p r e d i c t i o n of pronunciation a b i l i t y by the v a r i a b l e s used here i s not n e a r l y so s a t i s f a c t o r y . With c o e f f i c i e n t s o f i c o r r e l a t i o n which range from minus .08 t o .36 (with IQ), one can only hope that w i t h twenty-six students i n each group an approximate equivalence i n pronunciation aptitude was a t t a i n e d . - 25 -TABLE I GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF CRITERIA USED FOR EQUATING GROUPS Va r i a b l e Four Impression Two Impression Group Group Mean S.D. Mean S.D. i.Q. 115.h 9.15. 115.5 8.19 Grades 13.5 3.73 13.2 >+.3*+ (previous year) Grades 12.k k.JO 12.6 "+.92 (current year) M u s i c a l t a l e n t s hk.5 18.06 "+8.6 18. Subtests (a) P i t c h 36.9 6.01 36.3 6.91 (b) Loudness "+0.5 ^.27 *+0.6 5.30 (c) Rhythm 2*+.3 3.86 2k.5 3.36 (d) Time 38.2 3.*+3 37.9 6.05 (e) Timbre 3^.5 5.92 37.2 5 A 6 ( f ) ; Tonal Memory 19.7 5.61 22.2 5.09 TABLE, II COEFFICIENTS* OF CORRELATIONS" SHOWING; RELATIONSHIPS' BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT TESTS AND CRITERIA USED FOR MATCHING Matching  C r i t e r i o n Gbmprehension .63 Oral Tr an s i a t ! on Pronunciiation Previous Year "ss grades . 5 8 academic subjects: Current year's grades .69 academic subjects; Musical Talents (total) .3*+ Subtests;* a) P i t c h . 1 1 . b) Loudness . 2 8 e) Rhythm . ^ 3 d) Time . 1 ? e) Timbre .07 f ) Tonal memory .29 .1*3 .62 . 3 3 .16 . 3 3 .1+1 . 2 1 • 3 5 . 2 5 . 3 6 +L9 .2>+ .2>+ . 1 2 : . 2 5 . 1 6 *.08 .17 - 27-Table III gives d e t a i l s of the twenty-six pairs of students. I t w i l l be noted that although there were over a hundred students from which to select candidates f o r p a i r i n g , a considerable amount of compromising had to be allowed. While i t i s recognized that there i s some deficiency here p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the equating of sexes i t i s claimed that the procedure used is; a considerable r e f i n e -ment on the process of merely equating mean scores of the groups. TABLE III DATA REGARDING MATCHED PAIRS S e r i a l Number ;udent Grades Music Ant. Sex l a 130 15 ho F l b 132 17 37 Mi 2 a 10k 8 ±7 2b 10^ 6 35 MI 3a 120 13 50 F 3b 118 15 37 F ka 118 11 7 F ^b 117 11 36 Mi 5a 125 20 51 M 5b 123a 20 69 F 6 a 123 18 65 M 6b 123 18 Mi 7a 113 17 87 Mi 7b 113 17 56 M; 8 a 135 17 h2 Mi 8b 126 l»f k8 F 9a 118 12 50 F 9b 117 11 57 F 28 -Serial Number of Student Grades Music Ant. Sex 10a 127 17 h2 M 10b 120 18 hh F l l a 108 10 27 M l i b 112 8 39 F 12a 116 17 h2 m 12b 118 19 75 F 13a 113 15 58 F 13b 115 16 66 F' lha 100 9 **9 F l»+b loh 8 19 M: 15a 118 6 17 F 15b 121 8 25 F 16a lOh 13 ^3 m 16b 101. *3 35 F 17a 118 17 38 m 17b 123 20 90 M; 18a 115 12 79 F 18b 123 l*f 82 F 19a 129 16 hi F 19b 122 13 36 F 20a 116 9 33 F 20b ll»f 9 h5 M 21a 108 15 32 Mi 21b 11»* 12 56 Mi 22a 116 16 60 F 22b 120 16 68 M 23 a 102 0 30 M; 23b 101 h 30 M: 2*fa 111 11 56 F 2*fb 110 10 63 m 25a 105 6 2h F 25b 106 lh M 26a i n 6 27 M: 26b 105 6 29 F - 29 -Course M a t e r i a l . A. s p e c i a l course was developed which i n c o r -porated the most u s e f u l sentence s t r u c t u r e s and vocab-u l a r y of a type that can be used t o communicate i n r e a l s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s thought f o r i n s t a n c e that the sentence patterns which take an i n f i n i t i v e are among the most u s e f u l i n the language and should t h e r e f o r e be learned as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e f o r o r a l use: " p u i s - j e prendre l ' a u t o ? " "voulez vous l e mettre l a - b a s ? " 11 j e v a i s r e n t r e r j " and "pouvez-vous v o i r ? " There was no attempt t o b u i l d a l e s s o n around one r e s t r i c t e d r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Rather a sentence p a t t e r n was taken and s u b s t i t u t i o n was; p r a c t i s e d t o make that p a t t e r n u s e f u l i n many d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . For inst a n c e "11 n'y a pas de ( d 1 ) " was used w i t h "quoi", w i t h "eau", w i t h "lumiere" and many other words from everyday l e x i c a l vocabulary. Methods of Teaching the Experimental Course. The teaching of French phonics t o four impression  group. This method i s based on the b e l i e f that the o r a l reading of French can be reduced i n a l l but a r e l a t i v e l y few ex c e p t i o n a l words t o a f a i r l y simple s k i l l of r e c o g n i z i n g the number of d i f f e r e n t s p e l l i n g s which produce a s i n g l e phone. I f one w r i t e s the French - 30 -from the E n g l i s h there i s c o n f u s i o n because there are a v a r i e t y of s p e l l i n g s f o r the sound / e / f o r i n s t a n c e : "e", "ez", " e t " , " a i " o r - "es" i n such words as " l e s " . But once these p o s s i b l e s p e l l i n g s are l i n k e d i n the student's mind wi t h the one p r o n u n c i a t i o n then o r a l r e a d i n g i s made more l o g i c a l and f u t u r e s p e l l i n g t r a i n i n g can be expected to be much e a s i e r . The phonetic alphabet i s no l o n g e r as popular as i t once was f o r the t e a c h i n g o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The main complaint seemed to be t h a t there was l o s s o f time i n t e a c h i n g students two s e t s of s p e l l i n g i n s t e a d of one. A combined method used i n t h i s experiment i s the r e a l core o f the teaching method. The c a r e f u l l e a r n i n g of a r t i c u l a t i o n which phonetic alphabet t r a i n i n g r e -qu i r e d and the b a s i c a l l y phonetic aspect of French (at l e a s t when working from the s p e l l i n g to the pro-n u n c i a t i o n ) were combined to g i v e the best o f both methods. I f the f o u r i m p r e s s i o n group perform as w e l l on the achievement t e s t s as the two imp r e s s i o n group then t h i s phonics u n i t can be s a i d to have worked. Needless to say, the o v e r l e a r n i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l e t t e r s to sounds i s e s s e n t i a l . Students f i r s t l e a r n e d the p r i n c i p l e s o f d i v i d i n g French words i n t o s y l l a b l e s . Rules f o r p r o n u n c i a t i o n of consonants were d r i l l e d and the vowels were pre-sented on the co n v e n t i o n a l phonetics diagram based - 31 -on tongue movement, which are presented i n appendix A. An important d i f f i c u l t y which a r i s e s i n applying the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of s p e l l i n g to p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i s i n the case of the two sounds i n French associated w i t h the s i n g l e s p e l l i n g form "a". While the d i f -ference i s non-phonetic i t i s none the l e s s r e a l and important i n n a t i v e French speech. For purposes of t h i s two and a h a l f month course the problem was l e f t unsolved and the students had to d i s t i n g u i s h by the auditory sense alone. Methods common t o both groups. Each phrase was given f i r s t by the teacher and then repeated im-mediately by the students. The next phrase was t r e a t e d i n the same way. A f t e r the group of sentence or phrase p a t t e r n s s e l e c t e d f o r the day had been t r e a t e d i n t h i s way, and d i f f i c u l t phonetics had been r e i n f o r c e d by i n d i v i d u a l r e p e t i t i o n , the E n g l i s h e q u i -v a l e n t s of the phrases were put on the board. Then the process of memorization was begun by g e t t i n g the c l a s s t o respond i n chorus when the E n g l i s h e q u i -v a l e n t was i n d i c a t e d by the teacher. At t h i s stage the teacher always repeated the phrase whether the c l a s s pronounced i t c o r r e c t l y or not. Each time a phrase was i n d i c a t e d and the o r a l response given by the c l a s s a check mark was placed next t o the E n g l i s h . The f i v e or s i x phrases were asked f o r i n v a r y i n g - 32 -order. I t was found a f t e r a few lessons that from twelve t o s i x t e e n r e p e t i t i o n s were necessary before a l l students i n the c l a s s were g i v i n g an automatic r e s -ponse. Maximum i n d i v i d u a l response was encouraged by the s e l f - t e s t device of asking students t o pro-nounce s i l e n t l y t o themselves the whole l i s t of phrases f o r the day. The teacher would i n d i c a t e them i n order and a f t e r a pause the co r r e c t pronunciation would be given. Students ftere then asked t o i n d i -cate i f they had the answer c o r r e c t . An advantage of u s i n g t h i s technique once or twice during each sequence of memorization was that the teacher could assess how much a d d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e was r e q u i r e d . The students then copied the E n g l i s h i n t o t h e i r note-books. (The f o u r impression group then copied the French word i n normal s p e l l i n g and read these words c h o r a l l y w i t h the teacher, p r a c t i s i n g s y l l a b i c a t i o n at the same time). D r i l l p r a c t i c e . At t h i s point i n the l e s s o n students were asked t o stand up and use the sentence patterns changing one word or adding a phrase t o make a f l u e n t meaningful utterance. The teacher ensured that each student s a i d something before resuming h i s seat. Sometimes during t h i s p r a c t i c e other students - 33 -were i n v i t e d to i n d i c a t e t h a t they knew what the French u t t e r a n c e meant, e i t h e r by g i v i n g the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t or by making some a c t i o n to i n d i c a t e t h e i r comprehension. Students were encouraged to use voca-b u l a r y and phrases l e a r n t i n p r e v i o u s l e s s o n s . The new m a t e r i a l i n each l e s s o n was reviewed at the beginning o f the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n . I t was not found p o s s i b l e to review each time to a p o i n t where the teacher knew that a l l students had remembered every p a r t of the pre v i o u s l e s s o n . Perhaps t h i s i s a weakness which should be avoided i n a r e p e t i t i o n of the experiment. I t w i l l be noted that the two impression group gained a s l i g h t amount of e x t r a time f o r o r a l a u d i t o r y p r a c t i c e while the other group was stu d y i n g phonetics and w r i t i n g the French i n t o notebooks. The teaching of vocabulary. Concrete nouns were taught by means of drawings, while a l l o t h e r vocabulary was p a i r e d w i t h the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t . D u r a t i o n o f the Experiment The l e s s o n s were of f i f t y minutes' d u r a t i o n , staggered so t h a t they occurred at d i f f e r e n t times on d i f f e r e n t days. In a seven day week the students had s i x f i f t y minute French p e r i o d s . In a p p r o x i -mately ten weeks the t o t a l time spent i n the classroom - 3*f.-was 2 0 5 0 minutes. Students were told that they should go over the phrases learnt for homework hut i t was impossible to find out how consistently this was done. Perhaps a more controlled method of as-signing homework would be used in a future study of this sort. The three months i n question were September, October and part of November, 1962. Measuring Instruments Test of oral pronunciation. The main test was a teacher-made test of fourteen one or two word items in English, for which the students were asked to give the French. This test was specially made from a l i s t of the most common mistakes made by English speaking people learning to speak French. The l i s t was compiled from a careful linguistic analysis of the two languages by Pditzer. The test, though rather short (and therefore f a i r l y easily admini-stered) contains examples of the main sources of mistakes which lead to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication.-2Politzer, R . L . , Teaching French; An Intro-duction -to applied Linguistics, New York, Ginn and Co., I960. •^ The test appears i n appendix B and an analysis of probable mistakes on page 70. - 35 -The t e s t of auditory comprehension. Since the E n g l i s h had been used as a teaching medium i t was a l s o decided to use E n g l i s h i n the t e s t i n g process. To t e s t comprehension the teacher read c e r t a i n sen-tences twice and the student wrote i n E n g l i s h h i s v e r s i o n of what was s a i d . There were t h i r t y - f o u r k sentences averaging f i v e words i n l e n g t h . The t e s t of o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . For the sake of o b j e c t i v i t y students were asked to give a s t r a i g h t -forward t r a n s l a t i o n of E n g l i s h sentences. There were twenty-five items of about f i v e or s i x words k i n l e n g t h . Each sentence was marked i n much the same way as w r i t t e n t r a n s l a t i o n i s often marked. In t h i s case d i v i s i o n s w i t h a l l o c a t i o n of one mark are i n d i c a t e d a c c u r a t e l y by u n d e r l i n i n g s . Accent and fluen c y are not acc u r a t e l y measured by t h i s t e s t except i n so f a r as marks were subtracted f o r words which were judged not t o be r e a d i l y comprehensible t o a n a t i v e speaker. The t e s t appears i n appendix B. - 3 6 -V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of T e s t i n g Instruments V a l i d i t y of comprehension and o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . The sentences i n the t e s t s of comprehension and the o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n are not a c t u a l sentences used i n the t e a c h i n g of the course but are composed of words or phrases taken at random from a l l p a r t s of the course. Since the aim of the course was t o teach communication of such messages as occur i n both these t e s t s the e s t a b l i s h i n g of v a l i d i t y of the t e s t s does not present any major problem. V a l i d i t y of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t . The t h i r d t e s t , t h a t of pronunciation,needs perhaps a l i t t l e more c a r e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n s i n c e the c h o i c e of items was a more r i g o r o u s p r o c e s s . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s t e s t was the f o l l o w i n g l i s t by P o l i t z e r ^ T h i s l i s t can serve as a check l i s t t h a t a French teacher may use to e v a l u a t e a s t u -dent's p r o n u n c i a t i o n or a guide t o be kept i n mind i n c o r r e c t i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n mistakes: A. 1. M i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the rounded f r o n t vowels. 2. M i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the n a s a l s by p u t t i n g an /n/ a f t e r them: 3 . D i p t h o n g i z a t l o n of the French vowels / i / , / e / , / o / , / u / — " s e e " i n s t e a d of s i , " l a y " i n s t e a d of l e s , "bow" i n -stead of beau, and "do" i n s t e a d of doux. P o l i t z e r , op. c i t . page 70. - 37 -"+. A s p i r a t i o n of the i n i t i a l v o i c e l e s s stops. 5. P r o n u n c i a t i o n of the a l v e o l a r / t / and /d/. 6. P r o n u n c i a t i o n of an E n g l i s h / r / or /!/. 7. F a i l u r e t o pronounce f u l l y and explode the f i n a l consonants i n words l i k e p a t t e , /pat/, digue / d i g / . 8. Use of E n g l i s h s t r e s s p a t t e r n s i n French words, f o r i n s t a n c e , " l i b e r t e " w i t h s t r e s s on the i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e . 9. Making marked pauses ( E n g l i s h "open ju n c t u r e " ) between French words. 10. Avoiding the running together of words and open s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n i n f a v o r of the E n g l i s h s y l l a b l e p a t t e r n . I f the student has l e a r n e d French orthography, then the teacher must see t o i t t h a t he does n o t : B. 1. Miss the obvious cases of l i a i s o n as i n Les amis. 2. Pronounce / a / which no Frenchman would pronounce i n normal c o n v e r s a t i o n , as i n promenade. 3. Give obvious s p e l l i n g m i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n s . k. React t o French o r t h o g r a p h i c symbols as i f they were E n g l i s h . Table IV gives the t o t a l s of p o s s i b l e e r r o r s i n each of the c a t e g o r i e s j u s t l i s t e d . Except that A9 and A 10 have been combined, the headings f o r the v a r i o u s columns and rows i n the a n a l y s i s of pronuncia-t i o n are taken from t h i s l i s t . In p r e p a r i n g the t e s t of p r o n u n c i a t i o n care was taken to p r o v i d e scope f o r students t o make mistakes of these d i f f e r e n t types. - 38 -TABLE IV CATEGORIES'.: OF EXPECTED ERRORS ON PRONUNCIATION TEST Test Items Types of error as li s t e d on page 36 AT 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 10 BI 2 3 If le professeur 1 1 1- 1 l a petite cuillere 11 1 1 1 1 1 l a main 1 1 11 demain 1 1 1 quelle chance 1 1 1 1 le vin 1 1 je suis entre IL •1 1 1 1 1 IL du the 1 1 1 1 bonne ide'e 1 1 1 mes autos 1 1 1 1 1 l a toilette 1 1 1 1 1 1 tournez A droite 1 1 1 1 1 l e t i r o i r 1 1 1 1 une porte 1 1 1 1 1 5 M 3 7 6 £ 3 8 if 0 2 1 0 11 - 39 -From the table i t w i l l be noted that there are a large number of words which students might be tempted to mispronounce i n an English way. These were planted i n t h i s t e s t i n t e n t i o n a l l y since i t i s i n t h i s f i e l d that the difference between groups might be expected to show.. In. B3 no examples are given since almost a l l the words included i n this; o r al experiment were pronounced according to the phonetic rules and few exceptions were included. Mistakes made because of confusion with the English s p e l l i n g pronunciation are included under B1*-. R e l i a b i l i t y . Since there was no part of the tests that was speeded the s p l i t - h a l f method of testing f o r i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y was used by dividing f i r s t and second halves of each test.. This procedure was f e l t to be j u s t i f i e d i n that there was no gradual d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n d i f f i c u l t y from beginning to end of the t e s t , because the d i f f e r e n t test items were chosen at random from the course and because none of the tests were considered long enough f o r any serious e f f e c t s of fatigue to have beset the students. The i n t e r n a l consistency c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the ha l f - t e s t and the c o e f f i c i e n t s corrected by the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula f o r predicting the r e l i a b i l i t y of the whole t e s t , were as follows t f o r the auditory comprehension te s t the r e s u l t was .91, - J+o -corrected to . 9 5 ; ; that of the o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n test was . 8 6 corrected to .93; f o r the test of pronunciation, a much shorter one, the r e s u l t was . 6 5 corrected to . 7 8 . A l l tests were marked by the experimenter. In the comprehension t e s t , care was taken to score one item on a l l papers before proceeding to the next item. The test of pronunciation was marked f i v e times before the r e s u l t s were compiled. IH thl§ way i t was hoped to reduce the errors of scoring i n the more subjective aspects of t h i s t e s t . S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment It i s proposed to use the method recommended by McNemar^ for c a l c u l a t i o n of significance of difference between means of the two groups. The formula to be used i s for use when the two means are based on the same individuals or on paired cases, and makes allowance f o r the f a c t that the sets of scores are not random with respect to each other. With small samples i t i s easier to work with the differences between paired scores and thence the standard deviation of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sampling error of Mp. * =9D . \ -'MeNemar, Q., Psychological S t a t i s t i c s , New York, Wiley 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 0 8 . - hi. -The r e l a t i o n s h i p between musical a b i l i t y , and the achievement t e s t s w i l l be studied by computing the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n s . These w i l l then be subjected t o a t e s t of accuracy of p r e d i c t i o n by u s i n g the formula f o r e s t i m a t i n g the amount of the variance not explained by the p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e . Summary. In t a b l e V the design of the experiment i s summarised. Par t A. gives the experiment which i s designed t o t e s t the main hypothesis d e a l i n g w i t h the phonics and the postponement of the s i g h t of the w r i t t e n word. P a r t B describes the methods used t o give i n f o r m a t i o n on the nature of o r a l -auditory s k i l l s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o other v a r i a b l e s . 'Ibid 19*4-9 P. 31. - 1*2 -TABLE V SUMMARY OF DESIGN OF THE . EXPERIMENT EQUATING OF GROUPS Groups equated on I.Q., academic grades, musical aptitude and sex. MATCHING OF PAIRS P a i r s matched on I.Q., academic grades, musical a p t i t u d e . THE FOUR IMPRESSION GROUP THE TWO IMPRESSION GROUP 26 beginning s t u -dents 26 beginning s t u -dents Ten week course i n o r a l French beginning w i t h the o v e r l e a r n i n g The same ten week course i n o r a l French without of French phonics and seeing the French w i t h the s i g h t of normal French s p e l l -words i n any form. i n g from the very f i r s t . MEASUREMENT OF ACHIEVEMENT 1. Auditory Comprehension Test 2. Oral T r a n s l a t i o n Test 3. Pr o n u n c i a t i o n Test TREATMENT OF RESULTS Means f o r the two groups t o be compared and t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e by ' t ' t e s t . STUDY OF RELATIONSHIPS Using a l l %2 students' scores compute c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n among a l l t e s t s administered t o gain i n f o r m a t i o n on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between o r a l - a u d i t o r y s k i l l s and I.Q., academic grades, and musical a p t i t u d e . CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA Auditory Comprehension The students' papers were scored and the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were computed. There was a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the means i n favour of the two impression group, the f i g u r e s being 56.62 against 61.23. A greater spread of scores i n the f o u r impression group was i n d i c a t e d by the stan-dard d e v i a t i o n of the four impression group of 17. k 3 while that of the two impression group was 1 6 . 2 6 , but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e proved not t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . Oral T r a n s l a t i o n The computation of means showed a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i n favour of the four impression group. The means were 56.92 f o r the four impression group as against 55.00 f o r the other group. The standard d e v i a t i o n s were 20.b% and 16.hi r e s p e c t i v e l y . Pronunciation Test The f o u r impression group gained a higher mean score of 38.26, w i t h the two impression group r e g i s t e r -i n g 35.73. Standard d e v i a t i o n s were 5.86 and 5 . 6 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d i f f e r e n c e i n means was t e s t e d - % -f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e and found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t only at the ten per cent l e v e l and not at the p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d l e v e l of .05. Table 71 gives the most p e r t i n e n t s t a t i s t i c s f o r the three t e s t s . TABLE 71 COMPARISON OF RESULTS ON ACHIEVEMENT TESTS Four impres-s i o n group Two impres-s i o n group D i f f e r e n c e s S i g n i f i -cance at .05 l e v e l Auditory Compre-hension Mean 56.62 S.D. I 7 . k 3 Mean 61.23 S.D. 16.26 k.6l 1.17 None Or a l Trans-l a t i o n 56.92 20.81+ 55.00 16. kl 1 .92 k.kl None Pr onunci a-t i o n 38.26 5.86 35.73 5.62 2.53 ,2k None A n a l y s i s of E r r o r s on the P r o n u n c i a t i o n Test Perhaps more u s e f u l than the comparison of means i s the a n a l y s i s of e r r o r s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s g i v i n g type and frequency. Wright, speaking of an experiment c a r r i e d out i n t o d i f f e r e n t aspects of speaking French makes t h i s statement: In many of the comparisons no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found. The fo l l o w - u p study d i d p o i n t to one important aspect t o c o n s i d e r i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of language programs. Where s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were uncovered they were not i n t o t a l s c o r e s . For an e r r o r a n a l y s i s , t h i r t e e n c a t e g o r i e s of e r r o r s were e s t a b l i s h e d . Here some of the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were • noted. I s h a l l not go i n t o d e t a i l s on the various analyses that were conducted. I t i s enough t o note that there are many aspects of l e a r n i n g a modern language and t o t a l scores may be m i s l e a d i n g . ! Such an a n a l y s i s i s given f o r the pronunciation t e s t i n t a b l e s VII". and VIII.. I t should be noted that these charts do not i n c l u d e a l l mistakes made but only those made which correspond t o P o l i t z e r ' s l i s t of most l i k e l y mistakes. Hence the discrepancy between t h i s l i s t and those presented i n appendix C . Wright, E.N.V " A p p l i c a t i o n s of Programmed Learning and T e l e v i s i o n t o the Teaching of Modern Languages:" a paper read at the Seminar on the Teaching of Modern Languages, Ottawa, 1962. - 46 -TABLE VII ANALYSIS OF ACTUAL ERRORS ON PRONUNCIATION TEST FOUR IMPRESSION GROUP r-i - r l U - H © s?> P 3 3 O U U S O C -P m <B T i ( 0 0 ) XI <D * ID +! /S f( D <B+3 o T 3 o a > - H - P O -P - H C <1) G - H -»£ 3 -rj OD O g < D S tf> 3 <D -P © c d c d q > ; j © < i > 3 o a > c d o < D C S H H H T) o1 i—I " O T) ,0 B H - P i H 3 E-< 1. Rounded Front Vowels 10 2 0 0 0 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 23 2. "n n added to nasals 0 0 3 2 6 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 3. Dipthongization 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 9 4. Aspiration of consonants 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 5 5. Alveolar »t""d" recordings inadequate of this nature. to detect mistakes 6. «r" and "1" 19 9 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 7 4 9 54 7. Explosion of f i n a l consonant 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 5 0 8 37 8. Stress 6 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 18 9. Open juncture and pause 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 BI Liaison 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2. Pronounce "e" 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3. Exceptions pronounced as spelt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4. Pronounce French as English 2 3 0 0 0 6 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 18 Totals 37 25 3 2 10 13 -9 13 16 .1 17 12 5 21 184 - 47 -TABLE VIII ANALYSIS OF ACTUAL ERRORS ON PRONUNCIATION TEST WO IMPRESSION GROUP fn •H (D o 0 ) O C [fl CQ C O x : < D - p o «H •rl C O -P • H in < D u 0 ) in H a, o. a ma el o> cd cd H H H X i a * H c (0 •r l CO a ) •1-5 • p 5 0) • a •H 0> O CO o - p 3 co § fl) - p - p a > H • r l O -P Cd H a > • p •H o X ) A d N a > 3 o - p u - r l O •r l -P a > H - p f-i o 0) G 3 H cd -P 1. Rounded Front Vowels 17 -2 0 0 0 0 1 12 0 0 0 0 0 1 33 2. "n" added to nasals 0 0 5 6 13 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 3. Diphthongization 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 2 3 0 0 0 0 13 4. Aspirations of con-sonants 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 8 5. Alveolar "t» "d» recordings inadequate to detect mistakes of this nature 6. " r " and "1" 20 14 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 10 10 13 77 7. Explosion of f i n a l consonant 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 13 0 12 53 8. Stress 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 11 0 0 1 0 0 15 9. Open juncture and pause 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 BI Liaison 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2. Pronounce "e" 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 3. Exceptions pronounced as spelt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4. Pronounced French as English 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 8 Totals 39 30 5 6 13 14 14 21 13 5 19 27 10 27 243 - ^8 -Because of i t s r e l a t i o n t o phonics, the most i n t e r e s t i n g type of mistake i s the one which might be made because of an E n g l i s h - l i k e p r o nunciation of the French s p e l l i n g . . Of these mistakes the f o u r impression group made eighteen and the two impression group made l e s s than h a l f as many,, namely e i g h t . The s u r p r i s i n g aspect of these f i g u r e s i s not tha t the f o u r impression group made eighteen such mistakes, s i n c e t h i s was a very small number co n s i d e r i n g the t o t a l number p o s s i b l e , i . e . , one hundred e i g h t y two f o r each group.. Seven items were chosen e s p e c i a l l y t o tempt students t o make such mistakes so tha t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the phonic teaching i n overcoming t h i s tendency could be assessed. The s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g i s that the two impression group made ei g h t such mistakes having never seen the w r i t t e n words. I t would seem that the sound of these words was enough t o t r i g g e r the connection w i t h the E n g l i s h . I t may be that t h i s f a c t p o i n t s t o a weakness of the t e s t . For i n s t a n c e , should the word "i d e e " have been in c l u d e d i n a t e s t of pro n u n c i a t i o n when i t s consonant so r e a d i l y suggests the E n g l i s h , which a l l students had w r i t t e n i n t h e i r notebbfcfe. C u r i o u s l y enough the French word " v i n " was mispronounced as; / v i n / by three members of the two impression group p o s s i b l y because - k$ -of the connection w i t h the E n g l i s h "vineyard". Another l e s s l i k e l y e x p lanation i s that some students i n the two impression group had st u d i e d w i t h those of the fou r impression group outside school. This i s thought t o be u n l i k e l y because of the h i g h degree of cooperation on the part of the students i n a l l aspects of the experiment and on the l a c k of weight placed on the r e s u l t s f o r r e p o r t i n g purposes. A maximum penalty of f o u r p o i n t s f o r a l a x mouth was d e d u c t i b l e . I t w i l l be seen from appendix C that the f o u r impression group l o s t eight such p o i n t s w h i l e the two impression group l o s t over three times as many. Evidence on Secondary Questions. C o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n s among the var i o u s measures were computed and are given i n t a b l e IX. Ce r t a i n items are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Between the measure of I.Q. and the var i o u s French achievement t e s t s , the h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s were w i t h comprehension and o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n w h i l e the lowest were w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n . Between the measure of current year's grades i n the other major subjects and the achievement t e s t s the same t r e n d was observed:, the highest c o r r e l a t i o n was w i t h compre-hension and the lowest w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between the v a r i o u s musical a p t i t u d e scores and the f i n a l achievement t e s t s were low although there was a most i n t e r e s t i n g tendency f o r rhythm t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d than the other sub-t e s t s . Even so, rhythm f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n of being l e s s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o p r o n u n c i a t i o n than t o e i t h e r comprehension or to o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . Comprehension and o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n showed a h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n though n e i t h e r showed a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r o n u n c i a t i o n which seemed t o be the most "isolated"'' s k i l l . C onclusions on Major Hypothesis The r e s u l t s supported the hypothesis that t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the two groups on the achievement t e s t s . I t was concluded t h e r e f o r e t h a t the f o u r i m p r e s s i o n group, given the b e n e f i t of a u n i t i n French phonics, progressed as w e l l as the two impression group. The t e a c h i n g of the u n i t i n phonics had counter-acted any disadvantage t h a t might otherwise accrue from the s i g h t of French s p e l l i n g from the beginning. I t would be a mistake, however, t o conclude t h a t the i n d i s -c r i m i n a t e use of the w r i t t e n word i s t h e r e f o r e p e r m i s s i b l e . The same r e s u l t s c o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be expected i f the method of t e a c h i n g were a l t e r e d i n any a p p r e c i a b l e way. Conclusions on Minor Hypotheses In g e n e r a l , t h e r e was a low p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n be-tween n a t i v e m u s i c a l a b i l i t y and the achievements i n a u d i -t o r y comprehension, o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n and p r o n u n c i a t i o n , so t h a t the s u b s i d i a r y hypotheses were not supported. The lowest c o r r e l a t i o n appeared t o be between these t e s t s - 51 -TABLE IX CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN MEASURES USED pa CO •rl -p O <y co TS CO 00 rt CD >> co O •H > CD U P-. CO CD T i SH no a} C CD 5H o xi o -P 51 CO co •s CD • i •rl En g H C 0) TJ -P •rl +> < o •H CD H c I.Q. Otis B 1,00 .63 .65 .24 .13 .40 .09 .01 .19 .27 .63 .46 .36 Previous year's grades .63 1.00 .84 .32 .36 .32 .19 .11 .19 .38 .58 .62 .24 Current year 1s grades ..65 .84 1.00 .30 ,48 .46 .22 .35 .35 .58 .69 .64 .19 Pitch .24 .32 .30 1.00 .20 .32 .10 .35 .35 .67 .11 .16 .24 Loudness .13 .36 .48 .20 1.00 .04 .39 .22 .23 .55 .28 .33 .12 Rhythm .40 .32 .46 .32 .04 1.00 .02 .44 .39 .59 .43 .41 .25 Time .09 .19 .22 .10 .39 .02 1.00 -.10 .14 .41 .17 .21 .16 Timbre .01 .11 .35 .35 .22 .44 -.10 1.00 .34 .64 .07 -.05 -.08 Tonal Memory .19 .19 .35 .35 .23 .39 .14 .34 1.00 . 7 0 .29 .25 .17 General musical aptitude .27 .38 .58 .67 .55 .59 .41 .64 .70 1.00 .34 .33 .24 Compre-hension .63 .58 .69 .11 .28 .43 .17 .07 .29 .34 1.00 .82 .34 Oral Trans lation .46 .62 .64 .16 .33 .41 .21 -.05 .25 .33 .82 1.0© .34 Pronun-ciation .36 .24 .19 .24 .12 .25 .16 -.08 .17 .24 .38 .34 1.00 o •rl CQ a a > xi CD U % O o o •H -P rt r-\ CO CO u E H CO U o •rl -P rt •rl O Number of cases 52. - 52 -and the measure of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of timbre: .07, - . 0 5 and - . 0 8 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The highest c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n were w i t h the a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e rhythms: A 3 , »hl and .25 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that lowest c o r r e l a t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t l y observed between the achievement t e s t i n pronunciation and a l l other measures except the-subtest of p i t c h . The f i g u r e i n t h i s case was .2*+ as against .11 and .16 between p i t c h and the other two achievement t e s t s . The two highest c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n were taken as examples and submitted t o the t e s t f o r pre-d i c t i o n accuracy. In the case of rhythm and auditory comprehension ( A 3 ) the unexplained variance was estimated at .82 w h i l e the highest c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h pronunciation (.25) would give an estimate of ,9k. In general the c o r r e l a t i o n s are f e l t t o be too low t o consider musical aptitude as measured by the Seashore t e s t s t o be a u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r of success i n o r a l -auditory s k i l l s . The best that can be s a i d i s t h a t the matching of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s on the b a s i s of t h i s c r i t e r i o n was shown to be not e n t i r e l y i r r e l e v a n t . General Remarks on the Results The course as taught seemed s u i t a b l e t o the age group, i n t e r e s t i n g and conducive to a considerable degree of f l e x a b i l i t y i n f r e e o r a l expression. - 53 -The phonics method, which was shown to he success-f u l by the r e s u l t s of the pronunciation t e s t , may be recommended as an acceptable way of beginning French or of passing from the o r a l - a u d i t o r y t o the reading stage of language l e a r n i n g and of reviewing before w r i t t e n work or d i c t a t i o n i s begun. Mu s i c a l a b i l i t y d i d not prove to be a u s e f u l t r a i t on which to match groups. I.Q. and current year's grades proved to be r e l a t e d q u i t e h i g h l y w i t h auditory comprehension and o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n but not w i t h pronunciation. Before v a l i d experimentation on pronunciation using small groups can be pursued v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to pronunciation aptitude must be discovered. U n t i l then accurate balance of aptitude can be assured only by using l a r g e numbers or by r e p e t i t i o n of smaller scale s t u d i e s . General Comments on Measuring Instruments None of the t e s t s administered measuresquickness of response and i n any f u t u r e study i t would be w e l l to r e f i n e the procedures of measurement to i n c l u d e t h i s aspect of language. In using the tape r e c o r d e r s , the use of the pause button was encouraged i n both o r a l t e s t s w i t h the r e s u l t that there was no i n d i c a t i o n of the l e n g t h of pause needed f o r the student t o r e c a l l the response. - 5^ -Length of t e s t s The l e n g t h of time taken f o r the o r a l t e s t s i s probably worthy of note. The p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t which was comparatively short o f f e r e d no d i f f i c u l t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n c e i t was expected t h a t the students would know a l l words before attempting the response. T h i s t e s t was administered at l e s s than two minutes per student. The t r a n s l a t i o n t e s t was more d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i n i s t e r . A l l students were assembled i n the c a f e t e r i a of the s c h o o l and given the t e s t paper. They prepared t h e i r answers mentally without recourse t o w r i t i n g or other n o t a t i o n and as soon as any student was ready he or she l e f t h i s seat, went t o a t a p e - r e c o r d e r , of which t h e r e were f i v e , recorded the responses and l e f t t o resume normal c l a s s e s . The d i f f i c u l t y arose i n t h a t , i n s p i t e of the u n l i m i t e d time the student had f o r r e c a l l of m a t e r i a l before going t o the tape recorders, many students s t i l l tended t o i n d u l g e i n e x c e s s i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d s of s i l e n c e w h i l e s i t t i n g be-f o r e the microphones. Perhaps the use of the pause button should be f o r b i d d e n i n the f i n a l t e s t s thus per-m i t t i n g measurement of immediacy of response and redu c i n g the time of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s would of course i n c r e a s e the time spent on s c o r i n g . As i t was, the time at the microphone averaged s i x minutes per student. I t had bfeen a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t h a l f t h i s time would be needed. P r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t The aim of the course was t o - 55 -produce good French accent and not t o be t o l e r a n t of l o o s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n at a l l . However when c e r t a i n areas were found i n which the t e s t f a i l e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e , such as i n t o n a t i o n , and the p r o d u c t i o n of a l v e o l a r t ' s and d's, the t o l e r a n c e of Vinay's remarks o f f e r some c o n s o l a t i o n . I would be tempted t o say th a t from the remarks I have heard today t h a t p e r f e c t i o n i s not, at any r a t e i n a classroom, to be achieved at the l e v e l of the ph o n e t i c u n i t but on the l e v e l of phonemics, t h a t i s t o say, of the c o n t r a s t , and t h i s goes f o r the whole of the language. I f you, f o r i n s t a n c e , make a mis-take of gender t h i s i s a very bad mistake be-cause i t changes the whole meaning of your message. But i f you pronounce t h a t message wit h a pronounced French or E n g l i s h accent then i t ' s a l r i g h t , i t doesn't seem t o make any d i f f e r e n c e t o me.l In a r e p e t i t i o n of the experiment t e s t s of f l u e n c y and i n t o n a t i o n should be dev i s e d and the p r o n u n c i a t i o n t e s t r e f i n e d t o measure the a s p i r a t e d consonants and c o r r e c t -ness of p r o d u c t i o n o f the d e n t a l p l o s i v e . Recommendations f o r Fu r t h e r Research 1. R e p e t i t i o n of t h i s or a s i m i l a r study w i t h d i f f e r e n t age groups and memory groups w i t h t e s t s of f l u e n c y and i n t o n a t i o n i n c l u d e d . 2. The development of a u n i t of programmed i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the t e a c h i n g of the s y l l a b i c a t i o n of French i n pre -p a r a t i o n f o r the phonics u n i t . 3. The t e s t i n g of d i f f e r e n t ways of t e a c h i n g the phonics u n i t . Vinay, J.P., Teaching Modern Languages, A r e p o r t of a Seminar convened by the Canadian Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , Ottawa, 1962, p. 117. - 56 -k. The study of the e f f e c t of v a r y i n g the amount of a u d i t o r y d r i l l of new m a t e r i a l s at v a r i o u s stages of f i r s t and second year courses to attempt to d i s c o v e r the optimum time and r a t e f o r d e c r e a s i n g t h i s r a t h e r time consuming aspect of the French l e s s o n . 5. The comparison of the " s e n t e n c e - p a t t e r n o r i e n t e d l e s s o n " w i t h the " s i t u a t i o n o r i e n t e d l e s s o n " measuring p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t , f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n speech. 6. The t e s t i n g of the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e x p l a i n i n g the p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i o n of the sounds of a language w i l l ensure b e t t e r p r o n u n c i a t i o n than a method r e l y i n g on mimicry alone. 7. The comparison of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the phonics u n i t o u t l i n e d here and of the use of phonetic symbols i n a c h i e v i n g good p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 8. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the v a l u e of the o v e r l e a r n i n g of the phonics u n i t i n improving standards i n d i c t a t i o n e x e r c i s e s . 9. The e f f e c t of the t e a c h i n g of the phonics u n i t on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e a d i n g and on the speed of r e a d i n g comprehension. 10. The study of the p o s s i b i l i t y of adding t o the phonics u n i t a s e c t i o n on suprasegmental elements of the language: e.g. s t r e s s , i n t o n a t i o n . 11. A study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n i t i a l a b i l i t y t o adopt a more tense mouth iaaimimicry and the eventual - 57 -attainment of good accent and i n t o n a t i o n . 12. The a n a l y s i s of the t o l e r a n c e of n a t i v e l i s t e n e r s t o d i f f e r e n t degrees of poor accent and i n t o n a t i o n ( i n order to d i s c o v e r p r i o r i t i e s f o r t e a c h i n g purposes). 13. The r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s study w i t h c a r e f u l measures of r e t e n t i o n . lh. The f u r t h e r study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and f a c i l i t y i n o r a l language. 15. F u r t h e r study to v e r i f y P o l i t z e r ' s l i s t of expected e r r o r s of p r o n u n c i a t i o n g i v e n on page 36. 16. The r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s experiment w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the t e s t of p r o n u n c i a t i o n t o throw l i g h t on the b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n scores i n the "expected" e r r o r c a t e g o r i e s (see t a b l e s VII and V I I I ) . F u r t h e r t o p i c s not so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s study are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix B. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Agard, P.B. and Dunkel, H..B. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Second Language Teaching. Ginn and Co., 2. Andersson, T., The Teaching of F o r e i g n Languages i n the Elementary School. Boston:: D.C. Heath and Co., 1953. 3. A n g i o l i l l o , P.F., "French f o r Feeble Minded:; An Experiment" Modern Language J o u r n a l . 25, 19^2 pp 266-271. h. Asher, James J . "The High V e l o c i t y Process of L o g i c i n V e r b a l L e a r n i n g " , Paper read at the C a l i f o r n i a Research A s s o c i a t i o n . Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a , March I96I. 5. A s s a g l i o l i , R., "Etude des Langues par l e &ubconscient" La Nouvelle Revue P£dagogique, No. 7. A v r i l , l9Tc~ 6. Bagley, W.C., "The Apperception of the Spoken Sentence" American J o u r n a l of Psychology. X I I , 1900. 7. Best, J.W., Research i n E d u c a t i o n . Englewood C l i f f e , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1959. 8. Birkmaier, E., "Modern Languages", E n c y c l o p e d i a of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, New York, MacMillan, i 9 6 0 . 9. B i r k m a i e r , E., "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Outcomes i n the E c l e c t i c and M o d i f i e d Army Method Courses; i n Teaching of a Second Language", Doctor's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 19^9. 10. B o l l i g l i a , W., E d i t o r , Reports of Working Committees. 1957 Northeast Conference on the Teaching of F o r e i g n Languages, Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, 1957. 11. Bonnardel, R. "Etude experimentale d'un t e s t de comprehension v e r b a l e a b s t r a i t e " , J o u r n a l de  p s y e h o l o g i e Normale et Pathologique. No. 2, A v r i l - j u i n , 1950, pp 2*+5-78. 12. Borst, R., Teachers' Guide: Spanish i n A c t i o n f o r the Elementary School, Madison, Wisconsin, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n , 1956. 13. Brady, A., S y l l a b u s f o r the Teaching of Spanish i n the Grade School. Lawrence, Kansas:• The A l l e n P r e s s , 1956. - 59 -l k . Buros, C.K., The f i f t h Mental Measurements Year  Book.. Gryphon Pr e s s , 1959. 15. C a r r o l l , JJ.B.,, The Study of Languages. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y 1953. 16. Cotton, JT.C, "Normal V i s u a l Hearing," Science. LXXXIl:, (1935)/, PP 592-3. 17. Dawson, M i l d r e d , Teaching Languages i n the Grades. New Y o r k t World Book Co., 1951. 18. De Sauze', E*B., The Cleveland P l a n f o r the Teaching of Modern Languages. P h i l a d e l p h i a * John Winston Co., 1929. 19. Dunkel, H.B., Second Language Learning. Ginn and Co., 19"+8. 20. Dunkel, H.B. and P i l l e t R., "The French Program i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Elementary School," Elementary School J o u r n a l . 57, 1956, pp 17-27/ 21. Dunkel, H.B. and P i l l e t , R., "A Second Year of French i n Elementary School," Elementary  School J o u r n a l , 58, 1957. 22. F o s t e r , Dorothy P., and Clarence M. W i l l i a m s , "Aural-Oral-Written versus A u r a l - O r a l i n Teaching Spanish t o Fourth Grades." Modern Language Jo u r n a l XLIV ( A p r i l i960) 153-57. 23. F r i e s , C C . Teaching and Learning E n g l i s h as; a Foreign Language. U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1*5. 2k. G a r r e t t , H.E. S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New iiork, Longmans, u-reen andCGov, T?5sn— 25. Hohf i e l d , JJ.M., "An Experiment Employing Two Methods of Teaching Spanish t o College Fresh-men," Doctor's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y Pennsylvania, 1950. 26. H u l l , C.L. " R e l a t i v e l y Heterogeneous Compound T r i a l and E r r o r Learning w i t h D i s t r i b u t i o n T r i a l s and Terminal Reinforcement," J o u r n a l of E x p e r i -mental Psychology, 37, 19 k 7 , pp 118-35. - 6U -27. K a l e , S h r i k r i s h n a , V., "Learning and Retention of English-Russian Vocabulary under D i f f e r e n t Conditions of Motion-Picture Representation," Pennsylvania State U n i -v e r s i t y , 1953. 28. K a u l f e r s , W.V. Modern Languages f o r Modern Schools, McGraw-Hill, 19M-2. 29. K a u l f e r s , W.V., "Wartime Development i n Modern Language Achievement T e s t i n g , " Modern  Language J o u r n a l , 28, 1 9 ^ , pp 136-150. 30. Lamb, W. "Measurement of the L i n g u i s t i c Dominance of B i l i n g u a l e , " J o u r n a l of Abnormal S o c i a l Psychology. 50« 1955. pp 197-200. 31. Lambert, W.E., R.C. Gardner, R. Olton and K.A. T u n s t a l l , "A Study of the Roles and M o t i v a t i o n i n Second Language Learning," M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y (Mimeo 32. L i n d q u i s t , E.F., Design and An a l y s i s of Experiments i n Psychology and Education, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1956. 33. L i p s k y , A.,, "Ges t a l t i n Language Pedagogy," High P o i n t s , XIV, November, 1932, pp 18-23. 31+. Luneburg, O.K., "Recent Developments i n A u d i t i o n -Speech Tests," Modern Language J o u r n a l , 1929» p 200. 35. McDonald, D.F., "The Const r u c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e t e s t s of Oral Language S k i l l s , " Doctor's Thesis, Boston U n i v e r s i t y , 1957. 36. McNaughton, J . and Altenham, M., "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Prognosis i n German," Modern Language J o u r n a l . 3^, I960, pp 553-600. 37. Mc Nemar, Q., P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t a t i s t i c s , New York, Wiley 1955^ 38. MacFae, M., Teaching Spanish i n the Grades, Bostonr, . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1957. 39. Malecot, A. "Oral Grammar Tapes, Theory and Design," The French Review, X X X I I I , No. 5, A p r i l I960-- 6 i kO. Penfield, W., 11 A Consideration of the Neurophysical Mechanisms of Speech and Some Educational Consequences", Proceedings the American  Academy of Arts and Science, 82, 1953 < pp 201-14. * f l . Pimsleur, P. "Pattern D r i l l s i n French", The French  Review, XXXIII, no. 6, May I960. k2. Pitcher, S.L., "The Application of A.S.T.A., Experi-ment to Language Teaching Secondary and Elementary Schools," Hispana, May 29, 191+6. *+3. Politzer, R.L. Teaching French:. An Introduction to applied Linguistics, Ginn and Company, New York, I960. hk. Pronko, N.H.., "language and Psycholinguisties:. a Review," Psychological Bulletin, XLIII, 19*4-6, pp 139-239. H-5. Richard, Sumner E., and Joan E. Appel, "Effects of Written Words in Beginning Spanish," Modern  Language Journal, XL (March 1956) 129-33. 1+6. Sapon, S., "An Application of Psychological Theory to Pronunciation: Problems in Second Language Learning," French Review, 28, 1955, PP 3^5-50. V7. Taylor, D.W., "The Learning of Radi©telegraphic Code," American Journal of Psychology, 19^3, P 319-353. 1+8. Valentine, C.W.J Psychology and i t s bearing on  Education, London, Methuen and Co., 19'50. !l?9. Von Wittich, Barbara, "Prediction of Success in Foreign Language Study," Modern Language Journal XLVI (May 1962) No. 5, 209^12: 50. Walker, H.M. and J. Lev, Sta t i s t i c a l Inference Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York:: I"953. 51. Yamagiwa, J., "Checklist of Tests for various types of Proficiency i n Foreign Languages," Journal of applied Linguistics, Vol. VII, No. 3 and h 1956-57. APPENDICES - 63 -APPENDIX A PRESENTATION OF PHONICS MATERIAL The exceptions t o the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s are to be l e a r n t as they occur and should be marked w i t h an a s t e r i s k t o remind students t h a t the normal r u l e s of p r o n u n c i a t i o n do not apply. I . Consonants. 1. The f o l l o w i n g consonants are pronounced w i t h much smaller e x p l o s i o n than i n English:: ph f t . 2. C et G P r a c t i c e l a gorge Georges i c i l e f r a n c a i s n e i g e r nager j 1 a i r e c u ce c l cy ch ge g i gy S o f t ea 90 cu l a s u g g e s t i o n accepter l a page l ' e c o l e B r i g i t t e G i g i Hard ca co cu c ga go gu ( f o l l o w e d by consonant or i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n ) l a langue au secours un morceau l a gueule pouce coupe 3. gn i s pronounced almost as the n i i n E n g l i s h "onion" Montagne Charlemagne gagner mignon j pronounced as , ;s' i n p l e a s u r e w i t h l i p s t h r u s t forward. - 65: -h. h never pronounced but u s u a l l y t r e a t e d as a vowel sometimes as a consonant P r a c t i c e La haie - hedge en h i v e r - i n wi n t e r l e h a r i c o t - bean • t h 1 pronounced as ' t ' P r a c t i c e une tasse de the l e t h e a t r e 5. 1 i s pronounced l i g h t l y w i t h t i p of tongue j u s t behind top t e e t h . 6 . qu pronounced as 'k* P r a c t i c e qui que quel qu , ;est-ce que quo! 7. r 1) French Canadian - r o l l e d t i p of tongue ( a l s o some p a r t s of France) 2) standard French - tapped back of tongue 3); permitted - r o l l e d back of tongue P r a c t i c e ; - ar - ere - e r t - i r - ore - u r 1 arbre 1 or (m) 1 argent l a r a d i o murmurer pret prete l e r e s t a u r a n t 8. "S" i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n S i n medial p o s i t i o n alone Z SS i n medial p o s i t i o n S S i n medial p o s i t i o n a f t e r n, t , e t c . , S S i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n s i l e n t , unless next word begins w i t h vowel when sometimes pronounced Z - 65 -P r a c t i c e / la" aaison, l a t e l e v i s i o n , avec p l a i s i r , ; l e s oiseaux, l e poison, l e poisson, i n t e r e s s a n t , s a i s i s s a n t , s e s s i o n . 9. t t h -1 , ! t ' i n t i e n = s P r a c t i c e l e the l e theatre l a n a t i o n l a s i t u a t i o n s t a t i o n n e r I I . Vowels Much p r a c t i c e i n s y l l a b i c a t i o n should be given since the knowledge of l e t t e r groups can mislead unless the words are s p l i t c o r r e c t l y i n t o component s y l l a b l e s . 66 -Vowels I P r a c t i c e and s e l f - t e s t s : . The p r a c t i c e s are set out i n t h i s way t o enable students t o pace t h e i r mastery of the l e t t e r groups by p l a c i n g check marks i n the squares and r e c o r d i n g i n the space below the number c o r r e c t l y pronounced. When student scores ten p o i n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y over a p e r i o d of a week or more one can assume he has at t a i n e d mastery (has "overlearned"). \ A 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 C 1 2 3 D 1 2 3 1. au u ou eau 2. i y et o i I . a i a i s e est e e ez des a ou u et 6. o i o i eau ue 7. eau au er e 8. e u y ou 9. est i e o i a i 10. y - 0 - e - 0 'Total . Scores N\,B. • e 1 i s o f t e n omitted i n normal speech. I t i s always omitted i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n (except i n song or v e r s e , and -i n " l e " , "de", "ne" "me"-, " t e " and "ne"). - 60 -Vowels 11^ Practice and self-tests & 1 2 3 B 1 2 3 1. le feu 1. treize 2. le professeur 2. seize 3 . 1•amateur 3 . le bureau k. l'oeuf ou 5. neuf 5. le tableau 6. jeune 6. l a soupe 7. l e monsieur 7r l a blouse 8. l a douzaine 8. l e juge 9. le debut 9. l a flute 10. l a fleur 10. neuf Total Scores - 68 -Vowels I I I P r a c t i c e and s e l f - t e s t A B - C 1. l e singe 1. amener 1. honteux 2. l e b r i n 2. ampere 2. ange 3. l a danse 3. camp 3 • envoyer k . dans k . t r a i n k . calembour 5. parfum 5. f i n e 5. rhume 6. moyen 6. f i n 6. tambour 7. bien 7. ramine 7. examen 8. mon 8. savon 8. aniiee 9. mouton 9. emporter 9. ane 10. fromage 10. important 10. an T o t a l Scores S y l l a b i c a t i o n d r i l l an| on ainj un| um am[ an|e oiie aijne ujae uHne amme afnne dpne emj enj ebm e^i (changed e because of double consonant) - 6$ -Vowels IV P r a c t i c e and s e l f - t e s t In - i l l e the "11" i s pronounced as "y" i n yes L .1.2 3 B -1 2.3 C 1 2 3 1. l a p a i l l e l a c e d i l l e r e v e i l 2. s a i l l i r l a f a m i l l e mal 3. l a t a l l l e h a b i l l e r b r i l l a n t k. l a b o u t e i l l e j u i l l e t l e s b i l l e s 5. l a f e u i l l e M a r s e i l l e m e r v e i l l e 6. l a f i l l e m e i l l e u r g r e n o u i l l e 7. b r i l l e r t r a v a i l l e r d e u i l 8. m o u i l l e l e t r a v a i l s e u l 9. V e r s a i l l e s l e s e u l l c a i l l e 10. l e b r o u i l l a : •d l e s o l e i l c i e l T o t a l Scores APPENDIX B ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, USED IN EXPERIMENT Test of French comprehension. Student w i l l w r i t e down the meaning of the f o l l o w i n g sentences each of which w i l l be read twice i n suc-cession. This t e s t i s not timed and w i l l be read s u f f i c i e n t l y slowly f o r you to w r i t e your v e r s i o n without hurry. The stroke shows d i v i s i o n f o r marking only. The reading should be r a p i d and without pause. 1. Je v a i s / t r e s / b i e n . 2. Vous avez/un p e t i t / a p p e t i t . 3. Le monsieur/est dans/le bureau. h. Qu"avez-vous/sous/les pieds? 5. Ou /allez-vous^dans mon auto? 6. Pourquoi/dormez-vous/comme ca? 7. Marchez-vous/avec/ces garcons? 8. Que/dites-vous/au professeur? 9. Nous/sommes tombe's/du pont. 10. Tournez/a" gauche/et a l l e z tout d r o i t . 11. Les couteaux/sont dans/le t i r o i r . 12. C'est/de l 1 autre cote d e / l a rue. 13. Je suis/pres de l a maison^de Mr. Landers. Ih. Voulez-vous/me preter^ vos .'.cuilleres/encore une f o i 15. Un de mes amis/est arrive'/au l y c e e . 16. I I y a/du l a i t /a cote de l a g l a c i e r e . 17. De q u e l l e couleur/est l e l i v r e ? / I I est brun. 18. Est-ce que/la tableJest jaune? 19. I I a/beaucoup de pommes/dans l e sac. 20. I I est a l l e / a u t o u r d e / l ' e g l i s e . 21. I I n'y a pas/de nourriture/ehez moi. 22. Mes cheveux/ne sont pas /ontre l e mur. 23. Montrez-moi/un morceau de pomme/s'il vous p l a i t . 2h. J ' a i assez/de cafe pour/tous l e s etudiants. 25. Puis-je ^avoir/encore un cola? 26. Qu'est-ee qu"/il y a s u r / l a main? 27. Pourquoi/ne dansez-vous pas avec L u c i l l e ? 28. Je suis/avec l e s grenouilles/ n'est-ce pas? 29. Allez a madame/avec/une tasse de the. 30. I I est deseendu/vers/la v i l l e . 31. Que voyez-vous/sur/ l a maison? 32. Je ne sais pas/que Jacques/est present. 33. Je ne comprends pas/pourquoi i l n'a pas/de chapeau. 3*+. Merci bien. (one mark only) Marking 3 marks f o r each sentence 33 1 mark for number 3*+. Where a t h i r d of a sentence can be subdivided into two halves, subsections, a half mark w i l l be awarded f o r p a r t i a l l y correct answers to that t h i r d . - 7'2 -2. Test of o r a l t r a n s l a t i o n . Attempt as many of the f o l l o w i n g sentences as you can and where you cannot t r a n s l a t e the whole sentence t r y any p a r t you know. You should not h u r r y . You may use the pause button on the tape r e c o r d e r . When you s t a r t t o speak t r y t o make the sounds as f l u e n t and as accurate as you can. 1. 2. Good evening, s i r . Good l u c k i See you soon. (6) 3. Your cup i s i n my saucer. (6) h. Where i s i t s neck? (3) W. Why are you going l i k e t h a t ? O O ' 6. I'm going to the next c l a s s . {k) 7. Our teacher f e l l i n f r o n t of the room. (5) 8 . I s t h e r e a p i e c e of apple? (3) 9. There on the other s i d e of the desk. (3) 1G. There i s a l o t of m i l k . (3) 11. How do you dance w i t h a l l the g i r l s ? (5) 12. Something i s i n the room on the r i g h t . (3) 13. Go t o the blackboard w i t h a b i t of c h a l k . (6) lk. W i l l you show me t h e i r s c h o o l p l e a s e ? (5) 15. May I give you another c i g a r e t t e ? 0 0 1 6 . What do you want? Nothing. (3) 17. 1: know t h a t t h e r e are some p e n c i l s . (3) 1 8 . My white t a b l e i s near the window. (5) 19. I t i s behind the house, i s n ' t i t ? (*0 - 73 -20. I have too many boxes. (3) 21. I do not understand why I entered? (3) 22. Aren't you going t o church? (2) 23. How many books have you f o r me? ("+) 2 k . I'm going towards the green house. (3) 25. What colour are the w a l l s ? Grey and Yellow? (7) Did you give your name at the beginning? I f not give i t now. Je m'appelle Marking: One point i s a l l o c a t e d f o r each word or group of words i n d i c a t e d by the u n d e r l i n i n g . No h a l f p o i n t s are to be awarded. I n number 25 the e x t r a p o i n t i s f o r the 'de' of "De q u e l l e couleur?" - 78 -3. Pronunciation Test. A t e s t of words which a l l students have been d r i l l e d t o know thoroughly but which are now to be pronounced from r e c a l l . Bay the French f o r the f o l l o w i n g words and phrases. 1 I t i s important t h a t you attempt them a l l using as good a French accent as you can produce. Give your name f i r s t . 1. the teacher 2. the small spoon 3. the hand k. tomorrow 5. what l u c k 6. the wine 7. I came i n 8. some t e a 9. good i d e a 10. my cars 11. the restroom 12. t u r n to the r i g h t 13. the drawer I M - . a door Method of marking T o t a l number of p r o n u n c i a t i o n e r r o r s w i l l be subtracted from f i f t y . A f u r t h e r one to four marks w i l l be subtracted f o r ge n e r a l l y poor o r a l t e n s i o n , or poor i n t o n a t i o n . One mark w i l l be subtracted f o r each phrase or part of a phrase, omitted. APPENDIX C MARKING SHEETS FOR PRONUNCIATION TEST Four Impression Group o 0 a> co s O - n -Key t o the marking t a b l e . T - r e t r o f l e x Canadian 'R' ph - a s p i r a t e d v o i c e d stops as i n E n g l i s h -v-- - l a c k of n a s a l i z a t i o n [ & ] - mispronounced n a s a l given i n phonetic t r a n s c r i p t - d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n ^ - draws a t t e n t i o n t o the mistake (noted by other symbols); which p o s s i b l y r e s u l t from knowing the w r i t t e n form of the word. - i n d i c a t e s an E n g l i s h type s t r e s s p a t t e r n t o the phrase. -be - l a c k of r e l e a s e of f i n a l consonant 3 - g l o t t a l stop - a mistake i n l i a i s o n ^ - i n d i c a t e s no attempt / - i n d i c a t e s a p a r t i a l attempt YI - the pronunciation of the 'n 1 i n a n a s a l vowel A l l other l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e the part of the word i n which an e r r o r was made. - 7,8 -APPENDIX D GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This s e c t i o n w i l l be considered under f o u r headings:; measurement, theory, a t t i t u d e s , and general t o p i c s . These t o p i c s are chosen because they appear t o have p r i o r i t y i n importance over the very many other t o p i c s which are s t i l l i n need of research. Measurement. 1. Concise and accurate d e s c r i p t i o n s of methods which are producing outstanding r e s u l t s i n the f o u r main areas of the l e a r n i n g of languages:: auditory compre-hension, o r a l e xpression, reading comprehension, and w r i t t e n expression. 2. Studies t o evaluate the economy,validity and r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n t e r v i e w as a means of t e s t i n g o r a l -a uditory s k i l l s and a comparison w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a tape recorder used f o r the same purpose. 3. R e l i a b l e t e s t s of i n t o n a t i o n and flue n c y w i t h norms f o r groups of d i f f e r e n t ages and a b i l i t i e s . h. Measures of a t t i t u d e s as they r e l a t e t o language l e a r n i n g w i t h norms compiled f o r the various age groups, socio-economic l e v e l s , and geographical areas. Theory. 1. Studies t o t e s t the theory advanced by Asher that noise and i n t e r f e r e n c e are maximum when one t r i e s t o l e a r n new responses t o o l d s t i m u l i and that such noise w i l l be decreased as the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o l d response and the new response i s i n c r e a s e d . 1 2. Studies t o t e s t the a s s e r t i o n that f i f t e e n t o twenty per cent only of a l l mistakes i n French examina-t i o n s are due to what one might c a l l complete l a c k of l e a r n i n g , meaning t h a t the student does not know a French word or form, and th a t the vast m a j o r i t y of mistakes are t r a c e a b l e t o students having l e a r n t some French-E n g l i s h correspondence which i s then extended i n t o an are a where i t does not apply. 3. Studies t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f i c i e n c y i n methods of a v o i d i n g t h i s wrong e x t e n s i o n of the F r e n c h - E n g l i s h correspondence:: f o r example, by t e a c h i n g a l l a l t e r n a -t i v e correspondences when the word i s f i r s t encountered: e.g. time:: l ' h e u r e , l a f o i s , l e temps; then: p u i s , a l o r s , e n s u i t e , done, e t c . k. Studies t o d i s c o v e r how s o c i a b i l i t y and t a l k a -t i v e n e s s are r e l a t e d t o the mastering of o r a l - a u d i t o r y s k i l l s . 5. S t u d i e s t o d i s c o v e r i f the a b i l i t y t o reproduce m u s i c a l sounds i s r e l a t e d t o any of the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s : a u d i t o r y comprehension, accent, v o c a b u l a r y , b i l i n g u a l automacity. ( T h i s present study has been concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a b i l i t y i n the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l A s h e r , J . J . Sensory I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Automated Teaching of F o r e i g n Languages. Paper read at the F i r s t Conference of Language Programmes, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan. U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, I96I. - B6 -of sounds t o some of these t r a i t s . ) 6. A study t o t e s t the hypotheses (a) that b i l i n g u a l s , because of t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n two languages, become more adept at concept formation and abst r a c t t h i n k i n g , and (b) that b i l i n g u a l s may develop more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h i n k i n g . 7. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the age at which the advantage that young c h i l d r e n have i n the production and reproduction of vocal sounds begins t o disappear, and whether t h i s advantage i s due to the absence of negative a t t i t u d e s which may appear about the adolescent years. 8. Studies t o t e s t the a s s e r t i o n s of Arsenian that the c o n d i t i o n s , which permit the l e a r n i n g of a second language i n such a way that i t does not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the f i r s t are as f o l l o w s :;2 (a) that at the e a r l i e s t stages of the c h i l d ' s de-velopment a co n s i s t e n t source and method of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the language i s observed, i . e . one person speaks one language t o the c h i l d . (b) that p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s or negative a f f e c -t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , such as f e e l i n g s about the i n f e r i o r i t y u o r s u p e r i o r i t y of the languages i n v o l v e d or n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s a n i m o s i t i e s sometimes as s o c i a t e d w i t h languages are absent! *Ars enian, S. " B i l i n g u a l i s m i n the Post-war World." P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , k2 (February 19 k 5) , 65-86. - 83) -(c) that the languages are learned by spontaneous, informal methods, and not by formal and task methods. 9. Studies to test the assertion made by the Second Language Committee of the Ontario Curriculum Institute, that "Acquisition of language can follow a natural se-quence:, listening, understanding, reading, writing, and attempts to shortcut this sequence by reference to an already learned language may not only be valueless but indeed may be harmful."3 10. Studies of learning during sleep. Attitudes. 1. Since i t appears that so much depends on the frame of mind of the learner, experiments are needed to determine the most effective ways of preparing students in elementary schools to be receptive of second and third language learning. 2. Further studies to discover: (a) the optimum amount of second language preparation in elementary school which w i l l achieve willingness to tackle the oral aspects of language enthusiastically when the more formal courses in junior or senior secondary school are begun; (b) the length of the gap permissible between the introduction to a second language and i t s later resumption without detracting from the value of the early start. 3Mac©onald, G.E. et al (eds) French As a Second Language, Ontario Curriculum Institute, 1963, p. 1*+. - 82 -3. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n t o the e f f e c t of the i n t e -g r a t i v e motive f o r language study ( a r e a l d e s i r e to communicate and become " i n t e g r a t e d " w i t h the other l a n -guage group ); on o r a l - a u d i t o r y s k i l l s . "+. A study u s i n g s u i t a b l e measures of a t t i t u d e s as they r e l a t e t o language l e a r n i n g t o d i s c o v e r the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t approaches i n improving a t t i t u d e s t o other e t h n i c groups. General. 1. Studies t o t e s t the f o l l o w i n g hypo-t h e s e s : (a) t h a t time w i l l be most e f f i c i e n t l y spent on languages by commencing a second language i n elementary s c h o o l w i t h a study of sounds and b a s i c sentence p a t t e r n s and very l i t t l e v ocabulary, f o l l o w e d by a gap before a r e t u r n t o the more formal w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n and r e a d i n g s k i l l s of the language at s e n i o r h i g h l e v e l ; (b) t h a t time w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e l y spent by beginning languages i n j u n i o r secondary s c h o o l w h i l e the b r a i n i s s t i l l f a i r l y s e n s i t i v e t o l e a r n i n g new sound p a t -t e r n s and y e t l a t e enough f o r the students t o be s u f -f i c i e n t l y mature f o r r a p i d l e a r n i n g of w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n and reading s k i l l s . 2. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the v i s u a l l e a r n e r , the a u d i t o r y l e a r n e r and the "balanced" l e a r n e r , and the degrees of d i f f i c u l t y presented by methods which do not s u i t t h e i r n a t u r a l l e a r n i n g methods. - 83 -3. A study t o check the t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g t h a t vocabulary f i r s t l e a r n t by the v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the word f o l l o w e d by the a u d i t o r y review i s l e a r n t more e f f i c i e n t l y than by the more common rev e r s e approach. k. An experiment to check the a s s e r t i o n t h a t i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o teach the c o n t r a s t i n g s t r u c t u r e f i r s t and the p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e l a t e r : e.g. "ne me l e donnez pas" before "donnez-le-moi". 5. A study of the val u e of r e g u l a r tape r e c o r d e r assignments t o pr o v i d e i n c e n t i v e i n c o n t i n u a l mastering of o r a l e x p r e s s i o n . 6. A study t o measure the i n c r e a s e i n f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y gained by t e a c h i n g the v e r b a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s which take the i n f i n i t i v e e a r l y i n the course. 7. A study of the gain i n f l e x i b i l i t y and f l u e n c y gained by t e a c h i n g the passe compose" before the present t e n s e . 8. Studie s i n t o the a d v i s a b i l i t y of c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n the e a r l y stages of second language l e a r n i n g on s t r u c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y : e.g. souvent, i l y a, pouvez-vous, d e j a , d e p u i s , l ' h e u r e , l a f o i s , quelqu'un, quelque chose, and of l e a v i n g the s p e c i f i c l e x i c a l vocabulary of s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s u n t i l a f t e r b a s i c sentence p a t t e r n s and a l l the most common vocabulary necessary t o c o n s t r u c t i o n formation have been o v e r l e a r n t . 9. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c l a i m made by some t h a t the " s t a t i s t i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l " p r o p e r t i e s of the grammar of a language are best a c q u i r e d i n f o r m a l l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the more formal study l a t e r . 10. Experiments i n t e a c h i n g other s u b j e c t s i n the second language, e.g. guidance, s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 11. The development of a programmed l e a r n i n g s e r i e s on grammatical p o i n t s f o r improving w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n and another s e r i e s f o r the t e a c h i n g of r e a d i n g of a seoond language, as w e l l as a thorough study of t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. 12. C o n t r o l l e d experiments w i t h language l a b o r a -t o r i e s . Although there are under way at the moment s e v e r a l s t u d i e s t o t e s t the d e s i r a b i l i t y of language laboratories and the most e f f e c t i v e i . t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e i r use, there w i l l remain many questions even when the r e s u l t s are known. 13. Studies i n t o the use of v i s u a l a i d s . Much w<3rk on t h i s subject needs t o be done not only In the c l o s e , s c i e n t i f i c p r e p a r a t i o n of courses u s i n g f i l m s , f i l m s t r i p s and t e l e v i s i o n but i n the t e s t i n g and p e r f e c t i n g of them f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of age and a b i l i t y . Ik. The accumulation of evidence r e g a r d i n g the r a t e s of r e l e a r n i n g a language s e v e r a l years a f t e r f ormal study has ceased, and the e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t types of i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g on t h i s r e l e a r n i n g . 

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