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Man's relationship with nature in the works of Albert Camus. Button, Margaret Jean 1964

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MAN'S RELATIONSHIP WITH NATURE IN THE WORKS OF ALBERT CAMUS  by  MARGARET JEAN BUTTON Honour B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,  1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n the  Department of  Romance  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  Studies  as  conforming to  the  i  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  October  1964  COLUMBIA  In presenting the  requirements  British  Columbia,  available mission  for  for  for  I  agree  reference  extensive  representatives.  cation  of  this  Department  that  the  copying of by the  for  in partial  degree  and s t u d y *  It  thesis  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  thesis  an advanced  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  this  at  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I  this  further thesis  agree for  that  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  o r by  t h a t , - c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  permission*  per-  scholarly  Head o f my Department  i s understood  freely  publi-  be a l l o w e d '  ABSTRACT This thesis man's  is  an a t t e m p t  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the  writer:  physical universe  social,  works,  on,  he i n c r e a s i n g l y n e g l e c t e d  however,  before  a n d d w e l l on t h e works.  1941,  social,  works;  formed a p a t t e r n  of  nature  physical universe.  one  L'Etranger,  Camus'  and t h e  L'Envers  free i n his association Minotaure",  is  of  i s why theme  drop t h i s  present  subject  Camus* t r e a t m e n t  1941,  et  l'endroit to  he f i n d s as  to  comes a d i s t i n c t  t o - t h e man-nature  theme..  o f the  During the  he f e e l s  a result  first deep  with  sense o f  the  of t h i s  communion. man i s no  inhabitants,  first  communion w i t h  but c o n t r o l l e d by i t .  nature  theme  and Noces were Camus'  p u b l i s h e d work o f f i c t i o n ,  of l i f e close  throughout  Camus d w e l l s on man's  express h i s  with nature,  his  completely.  sense o f "oneness"  which b r i n g s s t e r i l i t y  I n 1941 attitude  neglected  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f O r a n and i t s  man has a c h o i c e from nature  it  career u n t i l  fifst  this  man-nature  completely  however,  was f o u n d t h a t  beliefs  theme.  i n favour  Perhaps,  c e n t r e on t h e  theme,  y o u t h f u l and i n g e n u o u s e f f o r t s and the  it  four chronological periods.  of h i s l i t e r a r y  s e n s i t i v i t y to  nature  of  p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s p e c t s o f  i n o n l y a few i s it  to  and t h e n t o  The m a n - n a t u r e  Moreover,  years  works o f  Camus was p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h i s  p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o p i c s .  his writings  Camus'  i n the  In h i s e a r l y  any c r i t i c i s m o f h i s works t e n d s  later  a g e - o l d theme  A l b e r t Camus.  Prom 1941  in  to t r a c e the  In longer  "Le  suggests  and h a p p i n e s s o r a l i f e  that away  and boredom. and d e c i s i v e  change  The e s s a y " L e s  i n Camus'  Amandiers"  announces.  ii  t h i s change; i n i t , nature i s reduced to a mere symbol of "the good"; r-i man  i s no longer portrayed enjoying the beauties of nature.  the works of t h i s second p e r i o d — output —  depict man  the longest and r i c h e s t  i n e x i l e from the nature he adores;  because of the "absurd" as i n C a l i g u l a ;  Indeed, in literary  exiled  because of circumstances of  b i r t h and l a c k o f money as i n Le Malentendu and because of plague (or war)  as i n La Peste.  as a memory or a d e s i r e .  Yet, i n a l l these works, nature i s present " L ' E x i l d'Helene" c l o s e s t h i s p e r i o d with a  b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m by the author of a world that has forsaken nature and i t s j o y s . Por a b r i e f i n t e r v a l i n 1952-1953, Camus' w r i t i n g s r e f l e c t a deep d e s i r e t o recapture h i s y o u t h f u l experience of nature i n i Algeria  and I t a l y .  relationship  During t h i s p e r i o d , he d e s c r i b e s h i s renewed  with nature i n the essays:"Retour a T i p a s a " and "La  Mer  au p l u s pres".' N e i t h e r essay, however, contains the freshness and enthusiasm  of the f i r s t p e r i o d . A f t e r 1953,  Camus' c h a r a c t e r s lose themselves  a o world that i s out of touch with nature. e x i l e of a l l men  once again i n  La Chute describes the  and La Femme a d u l t e r e , the communion of man  nature, but with a nature that i s s t e r i l e and  death-like.  with  C O N T  E N T S  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER I : M e d i t e r r a n e a n Summer  7  CHAPTER 1.  II: Exile  44  2. S e a r c h  62  3.  71  Sterility  CONCLUSION  79  BIBLIOGRAPHY  81  INTRODUCTION Man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature as r e f l e c t e d i n French l i t e r a t u r e v a r i e s g r e a t l y with the century.  During the Middle Ages,  the c o u r t l y w r i t e r s d e s c r i b e d nature as they saw i t i n t h e i r or orchards. to be f e a r e d .  In i t s " n a t u r a l " s t a t e , however, nature was Dark foreboding f o r c e s —  gardens  something  mythical beasts and g i a n t s  prowl through the f o r e s t s o f C h r e t i e n de Troyes, f o r example.  —  In the  S i x t e e n t h Century, the P l e i a d e d e p i c t e d nature q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y .  In  t h e i r works, i t was a b r i g h t , pleasant, sensual world i n which nymphs and s a t y r s , poets and t h e i r lady—loves f r o l i c k e d .  In the f o l l o w i n g  century, nature almost disappeared from the French l i t e r a r y Instead of man  and nature, man  himself —  preoccupied Racine and M o l i e r e .  scene.  h i s psychology and manners  —  With Rousseau, the theme of man's  r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature once more became popular.  For him,  was the "good" as opposed to the corrupt c i v i l i z e d world. Rousseau's w r i t i n g s i n p a r t i c u l a r was  nature  From  born the Romantic Movement  of the Nineteenth Century, i n which man's r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature was  the c e n t r a l theme.  emotions,  Nature then became an e x p r e s s i o n of man's  and h i s refuge from c i v i l i z a t i o n .  U n l i k e the Romantics,  the R e a l i s t s regarded nature from an i n t e l l e c t u a l standpoint. t h e i r works, nature l o s t a l l power of i t s own  In  and became instead  a c a r e f u l l y observed, o b j e c t i v e l y - d e s c r i b e d backdrop  f o r man's  actions. In the present century, man's r e l a t i o n s h i p • w i t h nature i s s t i l l a popular theme with many w r i t e r s : Ramuz, Giono, Bosco, C o l e t t e , and perhaps the most outstanding of a l l : Albert Camus.  - 2 -  The term "nature" has s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e connotations. There i s the nature o f a human being, f o r example, which i s h i s n a t i v e or inherent c h a r a c t e r . There i s a l s o the term "nature" which r e f e r s to the universe and i t s phenomena. a f i e l d of knowledge c a l l e d n a t u r a l s c i e n c e .  Thus, t h e r e i s  In t h i s t h e s i s ,  however, the term "nature" w i l l be taken to mean the  elements,  the " f l o r a " and the "fauna" of the p h y s i c a l universe as seen on e a r t h : the sea, sun, sky, the earth, i t s seasons, v e g e t a t i o n , and animal c r e a t u r e s ; i n short, what i s a u t h e n t i c and of man,  independent  as opposed t o the m a t e r i a l i s t i c , c i v i l i z e d world which i s  man's c r e a t i o n ,  i.,..Usually, i n Camus' works nature i s found i n a  s e t t i n g u n s p o i l e d by c i v i l i z a t i o n , somewhere i n a southern c l i m a t e : A l g e r i a , I t a l y , Spain, or Greece.  Only r a r e l y i s i t described i n  an urban s e t t i n g and then o n l y t o i l l u s t r a t e how  civilization  d i s t o r t s or destroys nature and man's experience of i t . Camus' l i t e r a r y c a r e e r spans roughly a twenty-year from 1936,  when he completed L'Envers et l e n d r o i t . u n t i l f  when A c t u e l l e s I I I was p u b l i s h e d .  1958,  During t h i s time, one can observe  a marked development i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man Camus' works.  period,  and nature i n  There are f o u r periods i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h i s develop-  ment: f i r s t l y , a Mediterranean p e r i o d i n which man  i s i n harmony  with nature; secondly, a l o n g p e r i o d of e x i l e i n which man i s i s o l a t e d from the joys o f nature; t h i r d l y , a b r i e f p e r i o d of search; and, f o u r t h l y , a f i n a l p e r i o d o f s t e r i l i t y . T h i s development i s g e n e r a l l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l .  Moreover,  i t corresponds, at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , t o c e r t a i n events and i n Camus' l i f e .  influences  -  In the e a r l y depicts this  man i n c l o s e  years  may a r o u s e truths  sight,  life  be s e e n c l e a r l y 1937),  This  father,  nature  on two p l a n e s :  Man's c l o s e et l ' e n d r o i t  e a r l y p e r i o d corresponds  1  at  beaches  2  Thus he wrote Mer,  plissais  du monde,  Non,  ce n ' e t a i t  1'accord  By c o n t r a s t  to h i s  of A l g e r i a afforded the  E a c h day he s p e n t  s u n n i n g oni t h e  In those days,  o n l y one -  silence,  days: p a r f u m s de c e t t e t e r r e ,  d'une v i e odorante  dore  Camus  t o Camus: t h e u n i o n between h i m s e l f and n a t u r e .  i n these e a r l y  campagne,  a charwoman.  his  — h i s domineering grand-  and swimming i n t h e s e a .  t h i n g r e a l l y mattered  (1936-  Mondovi i n 1913 o f humble p a r e n t s ,  h o m e - l i f e , the l u x u r i o u s nature happiness.  Noces  r o u g h l y t o Camus' y o u t h i n  r u l e d t h e f a m i l y w i t h an i r o n hand.  glistening  nature  (l939) .  a n a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r and h i s m o t h e r ,  young Camus g r e a t  i n terms  Then,  (1935-1936) ,  and " L e Minotaure"  He was b o r n t h e r e  unpleasant  first,  During  communion w i t h n a t u r e c a n  was v e r y p o o r and o f t e n unhappy as a c h i l d mother  surroundings.  and s m e l l i n p a r t i c u l a r .  and d e a t h .  (1940),  Camus  p h i l o s o p h i c a l musings o r t e a c h him v a l u a b l e  i n L'Envers  L'Etranger  Algeria.  sound,  i n him c e r t a i n  about  f r o m 1935 t o 1940,  harmony w i t h h i s n a t u r a l  p e r i o d , man e x p e r i e n c e s  of h i s senses:  of h i s career,  3 -  bouleverse  et  je m o r d a i s dans l e f r u i t  de s e n t i r  moi q u i c o m p t a i s ,  et l e s i l e n c e  j e m'em-  son jus sucre  et  n i l e monde, mais  q u i de l u i a. moi f a i s a i t  "''The d a t e s r e f e r r i n g t o Camus' works i n t h i s i n w h i c h t h e work was w r i t t e n .  thesis  deja.  fort.... seulement  naitre  1'amour.  indicate the  year  2' V a r i o u s e s s a y s i n L E t e , w r i t t e n f r o m 1939 t o 1953, show t h e d e v e l o p ment o f Camus' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s man and n a t u r e i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e p e r i o d s o f h i s work. 3 A l b e r t Camus, N o c e s , f i r s t e d i t i o n , ( P a r i s , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 2 9 . 1  D u r i n g the second p e r i o d , attitude  i n Camus' oe u v r e i s t h a t  Caligula,  o f man i n e x i l e  from n a t u r e .  t h e hero i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the a b s u r d .  (1942-1943),  the heroine  o f b i r t h and p o v e r t y . because  from 1940 t o 1952, t h e p r e d o m i n a n t  of a plague.  i s e x i l e d from n a t u r e  In La Peste At l e a s t  (1947),  I n Le M a l e n t e n d u  s i m p l y by  the c i t y  two e s s a y s i n L ' E t e  depict  exile  I n 1948,  from the beauties  with " L ' E x i l of nature  isolated  man's  In the  i s r e d u c e d t o a mere s y m b o l o f v i t a l i t y a n d v i r t u e ,  modern man has l o s t . plete  circumstances  o f Oran i s  " L e s A m a n d i e r s " (1940) and " L ' E x i l o d ' H e l e n e " ( 1 9 4 8 ) . nature  In  exile:  former,  both o f which  d ' H e l e n e " , man i s i n com-  as r e p r e s e n t e d  by G r e e k  civilization. Two e v e n t s ful  i n particular  i n t e r l u d e o f Camus' e a r l y  a f t e r t h e war b e g a n , in  it.  U n t i l then,  seem t o have  life:  he must  worse  were t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n certain  cases,  To s u p p r e s s t h e s e b u t c h e r s  II  use o f f o r c e  part  was j u s t i f i e d . by t h e N a z i  was n e c e s s a r y  avait  fallu  se m e t t r e en r e g i e  camps.-  and e x c u s a b l e .  innocent  savoir,  qu'un s o u v e n i r . . . .  nous e t i o n s  maintenant  L'Ete  (Paris,  1954),  p . 148.  avec l a n u i t ,  life  la  close  beaute  D'abord innocents coupables  Far  dictator-  and h i s i n e v i t a b l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n w a r :  vouloir....  Camus,  somehow t a k e  i n the concentration  he n o t e d t h e end o f h i s e a r l y  du j o u r n ' e t a i t le  it  of v i o l e n c e operated  s h i p and t h e mass murder t h e y p e r p e t r a t e d  nature  Soon  he had been f i r m l y opposed t o v i o l e n c e o f a n y  but now he saw t h a t ,  to  peace-  World War I I and i l l n e s s .  Camus r e a l i z e d t h a t  kind;  About t h i s t i m e ,  destroyed the  sans l e  sans  Wot o n l y t h e war but i l l n e s s in  Camus'  a t t i t u d e towards n a t u r e .  s t r i c k e n by t u b e r c u l o s i s . forced to convalesce. seemed c l o s e  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a change  A l r e a d y i n 1930,  I n 1942,  he was s t r i c k e n a g a i n by i t a n d  At t h i s p o i n t i n h i s l i f e ,  by t o Camus.  His illness  t h e m e a n i n g and p u r p o s e o f h i s l i f e .  l a force  d e a t h must have  probably l e d him to I n any c a s e ,  y o u t h f u l exuberance t e m p o r a r i l y : " . . . u n e grave visoirement  he had been  re-assess  i t destroyed h i s  maladie m'ota p r o -  de v i e q u i , e n m o i , t r a n s f i g u r a i t  tout...."  5  5 and f i l l e d " h i m w i t h " l a p e u r et l e  decouragement".  Unable t o j o i n t h e army f o r m e d i c a l r e a s o n s , i n s t e a d a member o f t h e R e s i s t a n c e  Camus became  Movement a n d , i n 1944,  co-director  o f i t s newspaper C o m b a t . The l a t t e r  part  o f 1952 u n t i l  r e t u r n o f man t o n a t u r e . Two s h o r t change i n a t t i t u d e Tipasa"  (1952)  i n nature, original  i n L'Ete  t o w a r d s t h e m a n - n a t u r e theme.  sensing that  i l l u s t r a t e Camus' They a r e " R e t o u r a.  (1953).  he had moved f a r away f r o m h i s s o u r c e  Camus made a s p e c i a l t r i p t o A l g e r i a i n s e a r c h o f h i s  inspiration.  l'ancienne  essays  and " L a Mer a u p l u s p r e s "  I n 1952,  1954-55 s i g n a l s a b r i e f  beaute,  T h e r e he met w i t h s u c c e s s :  un c i e l  jeune...."  I n 1954 came a r e t r e a t and a t r i p t o I t a l y ,  6  from p o l i t i c a l  e v i d e n c e o f Camus'  Camus,  L ' E n v e r s et l ' e n d r o i t  Camus,  L'Ete,  p . 157.  (Paris,  "Je retrou.vais i c i  and l i t e r a r y  continued desire  1935/36),  p . 19.  life,  - 6 -  in this his  p e r i o d t o escape t h e i n v o l v e m e n t s o f Europe and t o  y o u t h f u l joy i n nature. L a Chute (1956)  p e r i o d and man's most It influence the  and L a Femme a d u l t e r e  complete  his  exile  which l e d t o t h i s most  hostile  from  (1953)  mark t h e  last  nature.  i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e w h e t h e r t h e r e was a n y s i n g l e  reception  he r e c e i v e d  c a u s e o f deep d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . to  re-rcapture  pessimistic  p e r i o d o f Camus.  i n A l g e r i a i n January  Perhaps  1956 was a  When he p u b l i c l y a p p e a l e d f o r a t r u c e  e n d t h e A l g e r i a n w a r , he was booed by many o f h i s c o m p a t r i o t s . return  d'Algerie,  from A l g e r i a ,  he wrote t o G i l l i b e r t :  assez d e s e s p e r e . . . .  C'est  "Je suis  On  rentre  pour moi un malheur p e r s o n n e l . "  7  7  Theatre, 1962),  p.  recits, x  x  n o u v e l l e s d ' A l b e r t Camus, e d . Roger Q u i l l i o t x  v  i  .  -  (Paris,  CHAPTER I Mediterranean In the  work o f Camus, t h e  c e r n i n g the  relationship  with nature.  At l e a s t  t h r e e major  volumes,  one  L'Etranger.  work o f f i c t i o n , 1935  to  The and  1936,  ces  as  place  from t h i s  preface to just  the  et  this  l'endroit  attitude:  and N o c e s , Camus'  l'endroit  and  early  little  i n s p i r a t i o n and the  collection,  They r e l a t e h i s  written  before  we have  life.  s e m i n a l work i n h i s  1935  experien-  and  by t h e  truths  career:  it  is  author  In r e t r o s p e c t ,  first  i n 1954  his death,  book as a t e s t i m o n y  valuable  in  the  communion.  single, statement  of t h i s  were w r i t t e n  communion w i t h n a t u r e ,  two y e a r s  of nature i n h i s  dous v a l u e  con-  man i n communion  They a l l b e l o n g t o  i n L'Envers  which a r i s e  p u b l i s h e d i n 1958,  the  et  be s t u d i e d  1940.  essays  most i m p o r t a n t  is  works i l l u s t r a t e  L'Envers  a c h i l d and y o u t h i n c l o s e  The  is  a t t i t u d e to  when Camus was o n l y t w e n t y - t w o .  thoughts  and  first  between man and n a t u r e  two a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  period,  Summer  perhaps on t h e  the  meaning  Camus s e e s t h e  of his taught  "...L'Envers  and  et  tremen-  original him.  Indeed,  l'Endroit.  it  dont  8 on v o i t  les  traces  dans t o u t  Most a r t i s t s life-long truth believes.  dans  que  je  L'Envers,  sais  ^ibid.,  p.  13.  pp.  fait  ensuite...."  source of i n s p i r a t i o n ,  them t h r o u g h o u t  their  career,  a Camus  be f o u n d i n L ' E n v e r s : que ma s o u r c e e s t  ce monde de p a u v r e t e et  SCamus,  j'ai  a particular  which s t i m u l a t e s  H i s i s to  Pour moi,  have  ce  29-30.  dans L ' E n v e r s  de l u m i e r e  ou j ' a i  et  l'Endroit,  longtemps  vecu....  -  T h i s i s the world o f h i s childhood and youth.  85 -  T h i s "monde de  pauvrete" centres around t h e small f i l t h y d w e l l i n g where he grew up i n the care o f h i s grandmother and mother.  T h i s "monde...de  lumiere" r e f e r s t o the sun-drenched beaches o f A l g e r i a where he played l o n g hours as a c h i l d , and the o l i v e - t r e e s on the parched h i l l s o f Majorca and I t a l y , which he v i s i t e d as a young man. Camus claims t h a t , years afterwards, i t was the memory o f t h i s "monde...de lumiere" which i n s p i r e d him t o r e v o l t against the v i o l e n c e and i n j u s t i c e done t o men.  He wanted a l l men t o be free  from oppression, so that they might enjoy the "lumiere" as he had. His r e v o l t s , he w r i t e s , " f u r e n t presque toujours...des r e v o l t e s pour tous, et pour que l a v i e de tous s o i t elevee dans l a lumiere. Although daily l i f e ,  r e v o l t would l a t e r upset the e q u i l i b r i u m o f h i s  f o r the moment Camus was " . . . p l a c e a. mi-distance de 11  l a misere  et du s o l e i l " . During h i s childhood and youth, nature was Camus* most  v i t a l interest.  I t aroused i n him an " a p p e t i t desordonne de  12 vivre" with such  which remained with him a l l h i s l i f e ,  but never again  intensity. In a d d i t i o n t o arousing a tremendous " j o i e de v i v r e "  i n Camus, nature a l s o consoled him f o r the discomforts o f poverty he s u f f e r e d .  He had the sun, the sea, the sky —- what more could  he ask o f l i f e ? ^Camus, L'Envers, ^ibid.,  p. 14.  12 ibid.,  p. 27.  pp. 13-14.  Nor  does he envy anyone.  m a t e r i a l goods. 1954,  He h i m s e l f has never d e s i r e d  In f a c t , even when p r o s p e r i t y came h i s way i n  he s t a t e d : "Bien que j e v i v e maintenant sans l e s o u c i du , 1 3  lendemain, done en p r i v i l e g i e , je ne s a i s pas posseder."  For  Camus the a c q u i s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l goods means a l o s s o f l i b e r t y ; one  becomes a s l a v e t o possessions.  liberty.  Rather, Camus t r e a s u r e s h i s  I t a f f o r d s him f a r g r e a t e r joys than any possessions  the joys o f a l i f e c l o s e t o nature. Pendant hurt j o u r s , i l y a longtemps, j ' a i vecu comble des biens de ce monde: nous dormions sans t o i t , sur une plage, j e me n o u r r i s s a i s de f r u i t s et j e passais l a moitie 14 de mes journees  dans une eau deserte.  In "Entre o u i et non", the second essay i n L'Enve'rs, Camus, now a youth, r e t u r n s home a f t e r a short absence.  Seated  i n a cafe i n the Arab quarter he r e c a l l s some moments from the past.  Two aspects i n p a r t i c u l a r are o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s short  essay.  Here i s an example o f the importance o f nature t o Camus  as a c h i l d , as w e l l as the f i r s t  instance o f a scene i n nature  i n d u c i n g a mood and arousing various thoughts i n the person who beholds i t . Camus remembers summer evenings long ago when the workers used t o s i t on t h e i r b a l c o n i e s . had no balcony, to  sat outside t h e i r house i n s t e a d .  gaze long hours at the sky.  13 Camus, L'Envers, p. 18. 1 4  ibid.,  The Camus f a m i l y , who  pp. 17-18.  They used  For the r i c h , Camus notes, the  would  -  sky i s  but a n a t u r a l b o o n ,  ...au  bas de l ' e c h e l l e ,  une g r a c e s a n s ' p r i x . des  le  ciel  Nuits  reprend tout  d'ete,  mysteres  son  on  sens:  crepitaient  etoiles!  In a rare l y r i c a l  outburst,  strongly reminiscent Prom t h e on t h e boat  but  walls.  of the  cafe,  "...le  sky i n a v o c a b u l a r y  Romantics.  Camus watches t h e  The a i r t u r n s  sounds f r o m t h e  waves:  he p r a i s e s t h e  sea.  sun cast  c o o l s u d d e n l y , and t h e  Far  off,  he h e a r s  red  reflections  w h i s t l e of. a  t h e vague rumble o f  monde s o u p i r e v e r s moi dans un rythme l o n g et  m'apporte  16 l indifference  et  f  For  l a t r a n q u i l i t e de ce  Camus and h i s  characters,twilight  mood o f t r a n q u i l i t y and i n d i f f e r e n c e . above and beyond t h e It  is  to  take  daily  It  any s t a n d t o w a r d s l i f e  life.  is  —  is,  pas".  always induces  of d a i l y  man does not  or death.  life.  feel  same c o n c e p t  obliged  D u r i n g t h i s moment,  man g l i m p s e s a d e e p e r r e a l i t y t h a n t h a t  T h i s i s the  a  a t i m e when man i s  p r e o c c u p a t i o n s and s t r e s s e s  an h o u r between y e s and n o ; t h a t  suspended from t i m e ,  q u i ne meurt  as t h a t  of  his  h e l d by H e n r i B e r g s o n , 17  and at  least  one w r i t e r  both b e l i e v e d t h a t the those  15 16 1  Then,  the  Camus,  L Envers, p.  ibid.,  p.  f  of l i f e  are  c o n s c i o u s mind i s the true  In t h i s  63.  62. To t h e  Lighthouse  routine  r e l a x e d and one i s  reality.  They  apprehended d u r i n g  suddenly suspended from d a i l y  i n t u i t what i s t i m e l e s s ,  ' See V i r g i n i a Woolf, 7  real truths  moments when one i s  and c o n c e r n s . to  i n f l u e n c e d by h i m , V i r g i n i a W o o l f .  (London^916962).  case,  able Camus  10  -  -  a p p r e h e n d s two t r u t h s :  firstly,  o f pure emotion i n o n e ' s the  life  he p e r c e i v e s t h a t  which are  never  scenes o f c h i l d h o o d r e c a l l e d h e r e .  p e o p l e may want t o  die,  because  t h e r e are  forgotten,  11  moments  for  example:  S e c o n d l y , he u n d e r s t a n d s why  " . . . a u regard  d'une  certaine  trans-  18 parence  de l a v i e , In  records Isles,  "Amour de v i v r e " ,  d'importance".  the  f o u r t h essay  various p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiences i n particular  with nature that  plus r i e n n'a  he i s  at  here that  P a l m a and I b i z a .  sometimes  some o b j e c t  quarter  of the  example.  cathedral  i n Palma,  Balearic  So deep i s h i s communion  Camus has t h e  h i s walk at  S i g h t and s m e l l a r e  odeurs d ' o m b r e . . . . "  he had i n t h e  o r phenomenon i n t h e  s c e n e i n w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s  i n L ' E n v e r s . Camus  pantheistic  illusion  natural world.  noon a r o u n d t h e  The  deserted  Majorca, provides a s t r i k i n g  c o n f u s e d at  first:  "...les  rues  aux  19  T h e n , he has t h e s e n s a t i o n o f m e l t i n g " . . . d a n s 19 c e t t e o d e u r de s i l e n c e . . . " w h i c h i s s u e s f r o m t h e c o u r t - y a r d s and empty s t r e e t s . At l a s t : ...je  p e r d a i s mes l i m i t e s ,  pas,  ou ce v o l d ' o i s e a u x  haut  des murs e n c o r e The  yet  little  another t r u t h .  stones  of the  In the  colonnade.  L'Envers, p.  1 9  ibid.,  p.  2 0  ibid.,  pp.  dont  110. 110-111.  71.  p l u s que l e  j'apercevais  son de mes  1'ombre  sur  le  ensoleille.^  Gothic c l o i s t e r  18 Camus,  n'etais  garden,  o f San F r a n c i s c o  the  o f f e r s Camus  sun s h i n e s o n t h e  Women draw water  from the  well.  yellow At  the  -  sound o f the flight that  d r y b e a t i n g o f wings f r o m a f l o c k o f p i g e o n s t a k i n g  Camus has a s u d d e n happy f e e l i n g  this  moment,  like  suspended from t i m e . break i t s to  the  This  spell.  the  moment o f t w i l i g h t i n t h e  Expectantly,  Maybe t h e  La e t a i t p o u r ce  is  tout  He r e a l i z e s cafe  stop i n f l i g h t  But n o , t h e  spell  Therefore,  peut-etre are  let  young Camus:  precious,  s i m p l y because life  they are  and c u l t i v a t e  Camus p e r c e i v e s  the  e v e n i n g draw n e a r .  In the  de c r e p u s c u l e ,  distance,  regnait  little  from h i m .  This  experiences,  22  a soft  a l o n g day spent The h i l l s  o u r "amour  of time;  to  nature,  descend i n t o  arms o f a  " d a n s ce et  "amour de  court  wind-  instant  de m e l a n c o l i q u e . . . . "  Camus r e a l i z e s t h a t  any moment i t  will  slip  his away  r e a l i z a t i o n i n s p i r e s i n h i m a hunger f o r more s u c h  f o r more  Camus,  L'Envers, p.  ibid.,  p.  114.  seem t o  de f u g a c e  o f San F r a n c i s c o ,  i s part  close  breeze t u r n s the  quelque chose  cloister  communion w i t h n a t u r e  21  after  once more h i s g r e a t  The e v e n i n g l i g h t becomes g r e e n i s h :  As i n t h e  not  i  he watches  mill.  fall  m'echapper....  us t r e a s u r e  Seated i n a c a f e ,  sea.  and  mon amour de v i v r e : une p a s s i o n s i l e n c i e u s e  qua a l l a i t  At I b i z a ,  the  to  continues.  de v i v r e " .  vivre".  is  f o r some a c t i o n  a moment o f r e v e l a t i o n f o r t h e  C e r t a i n moments i n l i f e eternal.  he w a i t s  pigeons w i l l  ground with f o l d e d wings.  experience  of l u c i d i t y .  living.  112.  -  The M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o u n t r i e s nificance trouver  f o r Camus t h r o u g h o u t  i n general  his career:  have s p e c i a l  "J admire  qu'on  1  au b o r d de l a M e d i t e r r a n e e des c e r t i t u d e s  et  des  sig-  puisse  regies  23 de v i e . . . . " i n the  In these  beauties  countries  of nature.  he l e a r n s t o  He l e a r n s  as  love l i f e ,  well to  "des  ecrases  i s then that  perhaps  h i s most  important  death are  i n e x t r i c a b l y one,  desespoir  de v i v r e . "  "II  lesson i n l i f e :  for  a short  essay  time,  clearly  limited to  shows t h a t  nature  Andre G i d e ,  Italy,  countries  is  south to the  that  life  nature  brief:  "...le  This  i s indeed Unlike  variety  of  landscapes,  sunny l a n d s c a p e s  of  Algeria,  Any d e s c r i p t i o n ; o f n a t u r e  in  other  a response  or Spain.  sans  C e n t r a l Europe  i n s u n - l i t Mediterranean c o u n t r i e s .  to  the  petit  a great  he and  Mediterranean.  Camus' s e n s i t i v i t y t o  who seemed s e n s i t i v e t o  Camus o n l y f e e l s Greece,  then returns  Camus v i s i t s  In  paysages  n ' y a pas d ' a m o u r de v i v r e  I n " L a Mort dans l ' a m e " ,  revel  death.  landscapes  learns  s u c h as t h o s e o f t h e B a l e a r i c I s l e s , 23 23 de s o l e i l " , he g l i m p s e s " N a d a " . It  fear  to  cimetiere  g o t h i q u e de B a u t z e n , 24  le  rouge e c l a t a n t  de s e s  geraniums,  and l a c k i n g i n e n t h u s i a s m : impitoyables as  it  for  is  et  ingrates."  i n some o f h i s l a t e r  example.  23 Camus, 2 4  ibid.,  "...des  L'Envers, p.  94.  p.  113.  Tbis  et  l e matin b l e u "  or  sombre  l o n g u e s p l a i n e s de S i l e s i e * i s true  i n " L a Mort dans  l'ame"  w o r k s , Le M a l e n t e n d u and L a C h u t e ,  13  -  - 14 -  In the preface t o L E n v e r s Camus notes: 1  On trouve dans l e monde beaucoup d i n j u s t i c e s , maas i l 1  en est une dont on ne p a r l e jamais, q u i est c e l l e du , . . 25 clxmat. F o r t u n a t e l y , he h i m s e l f has never had t o s u f f e r , t h i s  injustice  as have those who dwell i n the h o r r i b l e suburbs o f France's cities.  There, a d r e a d f u l climate i s a l l i e d t o poverty i n what 26  i s t r u l y " 1 * i n j u s t i c e derniere, et l a plus r e v o l t a n t e " . a c l i m a t e Camus experiences i n Prague.  Such  Here, he f i n d s no soft  breezes nor murmuring sea, but only museums, cathedrals, and a r t galleries.  These o f f e r no comfort whatsoever  lonely soul.  t o h i s desperately  The sun alone i n t h i s c i t y makes l i f e  the young Camus.  bearable f o r  Each night when i t disappears below the h o r i z o n  f e a r g r i p s him a g a i n , "a 1*heure ou l e s o l e i l 27  declinait...la  panique me r e p r e n a i t " . Only once d u r i n g h i s stay i n Prague does nature almost d e l i v e r him from h i s anguish.  I t i s a nature, however, that i s  s t r o n g l y reminiscent o f the Mediterranean, i n p a r t i c u l a r the Balearic Isles.  I n no way i s i t d i s t i n c t i v e o f Prague. 28  as i n "Amour de v i v r e "  Again,  , Camus i s i n a c l o i s t e r at t h e t w i l i g h t  hour, and, again, he watches a f l o c k o f pigeons take f l i g h t .  In  s h o r t , Camus i s only s e n s i t i v e t o the nature i n Prague which reminds him o f h i s beloved Mediterranean c l i m a t e . Moreover, h i s 25 Camus, L'Envers, p. 16. 2  ^ i b i d . , p. 17.  2 7  i b i d . , pp. 86-87.  2 8  i b i d . , p. 111.  - 15 -  one e x p e r i e n c e quite  of closeness  imprecise terms.  to  nature  He d e s c r i b e s ,  i n Prague  is  expressed  f o r example,  in  "quelque  chose  29 ...comme  un p a r f u m d ' h e r b e s  et  One day i n P r a g u e ,  de  neant".  Camus* l o n e l i n e s s  A confrontation  with death  makes him r e c a l l  living,  expression  of t h i s  land. is  and t h e  An unknown b o a r d e r  found dead.  over the  dead man l i e s ,  p r o j e c t s the bouleversa. Lui at  etait the  Outside the  Elle etait  mort."^  certain  Alors,  je  that  29  seen i n the  episode,  he t o o  Camus,  will  soirs  guard:  une v r a i e  o f Camus  is  There,  "Cette  shining  Camus i s  it  did his  a ma v i l l e ,  room the  full  vie.... of  despair  neighbour.  au b o r d de  tant,  light  l u m i e r e me  l u m i e r e de  d ' e t e que j ' a i m e  ibid.,  p.  92.  ibid.,  p.  93.  s y m b o l i z e d by t h e  shadow on t h e life  is  confrontation  die;  L'Envers,  30  3 1  light  wall.  h i s room,  p e n s a i desesperement  d e a t h a w a i t s man,  above  that  native  tres  la  doux  l a lumiere v e r t e . . . . " ^  and d e a t h ,  the  body and i t s  Returning to  aux  to  joy i n  of his  h a l f - o p e n door l e a d i n g to the  authentique,  F o r Camus, l i f e ,  certain  nature  h o t e l room n e x t  d e a t h w h i c h a w a i t s him as  Mediterranee, dans  joy i n the  Camus watches t h e  shadow o f t h e  crisis.  h i s tremendous  That morning, a c o p p e r - c o l o u r e d  city.  where t h e  i n the  reaches a  p.  this  87.  wall,  copper-coloured  are  extremely  related.  precious  to  w i t h d e a t h makes Camus  makes him f e e l  despair.  Yet,  light,  Because him.  In  realize at  the  - 16  same t i m e , he  remembers h i s g r e a t "amour de v i v r e "  and t h e  ooy  he  e x p e r i e n c e d immersed i n t h e b e a u t i e s o f n a t u r e i n A l g e r i a . --•'  Soon a f t e r  Prague.  h i s experience i n the h o t e l ,  On t h e t r a i n ,  p a s s i n g t h r o u g h Germany and  Camus l e a v e s Poland,  he  d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s l a n d s c a p e s , but t h e y a r e — u n l i k e t h o s e o f t h e Mediterranean  —  g r i m and  Un v o l p e s a n t et  gloomy.  d'oiseaux passait  g r a s , au-dessus  des t e r r e s g l u a n t e s . . . . l a  t e n d r e et g r a v e . . . s e s . . . . 32 f r u x t s axgres. T h e s e l a n d s c a p e s do not  dans l e m a t i n  chemins b o r d e s  Moravie  de p r u n i e r s aux  penetrate his soul;  t o them, a mere o b s e r v e r .  brumeux  he  i s always  They n e i t h e r a r o u s e  an  h i s emotions  outsider nor h i s  mind. A l t h o u g h Camus was t h e good e f f e c t s t h a t he  was  isolated  speak.  Now,  he  la  way,  change o f scene  i n a foreign feels  than before h i s t r i p . in this  this  unhappy i n P r a g u e , had  he a p p r e c i a t e s upon him.  l a n d , h i s s o u l was  purged,  Because so t o  even more r e c e p t i v e t o n a t u r e ' s b e a u t i e s A change o f " c l i m a t e "  w r i t e s Camus: " . . . l e  p l u s tendre et l a p l u s f r a g i l e  i s often  moindre a r b r e i s o l e des  images."  beneficial devient  33  32 Camus, L ' E n v e r s , p . 94. C o n t r a s t with the f l i g h t o f pigeons from t h e c l o i s t e r i n "Amour de v i v r e " , p . 111. In the l a t t e r essay, the b i r d s seem t o r e p r e s e n t s e r e n i t y and p e a c e . Here, the f l i g h t i s "pesant", that i s , foreboding. ibid.,  p.  88.  -  - 17 -  The second part of the essay "La Mort dans l'ame" deals with Camus* v i s i t  to Vicenza i n northern I t a l y . *  by a countryside " f a i t  a mon  ame"  Here,  surrounded  34 , Camus f o r g e t s h i s l o n e l i n e s s  and despair i n an intense enjoyment of nature's b e a u t i e s .  His  enjoyment i s evident i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the I t a l i a n countrys i d e and Vicenza i n p a r t i c u l a r .  These d e s c r i p t i o n s provide an  e x c e l l e n t i n d i c a t i o n of h i s deep s e n s i t i v i t y t o nature. In t h i s essay, nature i s present i n such that i t seems to come a l i v e f o r Camus.  In a C i n d e r e l l a - l i k e  image he d e p i c t s the end of the day: " . . . l a 35 e n f u i e , me  laissant  sa douceur."  The  intensity  journee s'est  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of  l i g h t i s even more e x c i t i n g : Toute l a l u m i e r e . . . d e v a l a i t l a pente des  collines,  h a b i l l a i t l e s cypres et l e s o l i v i e r s , l e s maisons blanches et l e s t o i t s rouges, de l a plus chaleureuse des robes, puis a l l a i t se perdre dans l a p l a i n e q u i 36 fumait au  soleil.  Camus r e a c t s t o nature p r i m a r i l y through h i s s i g h t , as can be seen i n the above d e s c r i p t i o n .  Often, however, the  other senses come i n t o play more s t r o n g l y .  Years afterwards,  for  example, these s i x days at Vicenza come back t o Camus "dans 37 34 parfum de romarin". un At times, even h i s senses become Camus, L'Envers, p. 95. 35 " i b i d . , p. 98. 3 6  i b i d . , p.  99.  37 i b i d . , p. 95. Cf. Proust's s i m i l a r use of "memoire i n v o l o n t a i r e " i n the famous i n c i d e n t of the " p e t i t e madeleine". Marcel Proust, A l a Recherche du temps perdu: Du Cote 6hgg Iwann ( P a r i s , 1954), I, 65-69.  - 18 -  confused i n a b e a u t i f u l image of "correspondances":  " . . . l e parfum  38 d'eaux et d ' e t o i l e s . . . . "  I t i s sound, however, which f u r n i s h e s  the l e i t m o t i f o f the scene: " . . . l a f l u t e a i g r e et tendre des 38 cigales...."  The c h i r p i n g o f the cicadas g i v e s depth and  d i s t a n c e t o the scene. c l u c k i n g o f hens.  F i r s t , i t i s heard i n t e r s p e r s e d with the  Then, Camus hears them f a r ! o f f i n the d i s t a n c e .  As he walks along, they stop one by one.  Soon, a l l are q u i e t .  As  he passes by, they s t a r t up i n arcrescendo u n t i l they are i n f u l l voice a g a i n . The f i g u r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f nature found i n these pages i s an important i l l u s t r a t i o n of Camus' a b i l i t y t o commune with the elements  and h i s joy i n doing so. But, he w r i t e s ,  ...je separe mal mon amour de l a lumiere et de l a v i e d'avec mon secret attachement pour 1*experience 39 desesperee.... The l a t t e r experience i s that o f d i s p a i r at imminent death.  Just  as Camus sees landscapes at Vicenza which arouse i n him an "amour de v i v r e " , so he sees others which communicate despair t o him. 40  They represent death. —  Here i s an example o f such a landscape  t h e a d j e c t i v e s i n p a r t i c u l a r convey the i d e a o f s t e r i l i t y and  absence o f l i f e :  "rasees", "crouteuses", " b r u l e e s " , " d e p o u i l l e e " :  ...dans ces p l a i n e s t o u r b i l l a n t e s au s o l e i l et dans l a p o u s s i e r e , dans ces c o l l i n e s rasees et toutes crouteuses 38 Camus, L'Envers, p. 97. 3 9  4 0  i b i d . , p. 101. F o r s i m i l a r landscapes see p.13 o f t h e s i s .  -  d'herbes  brulees,  ce  que j e t o u c h a i s  uhe forme d e p o u i l l e e et . . • ..41 p o r t a i s en m o i . The  themes  sans a t t r a i t  of l i f e  l'ame"are  repeated  i n the  its  title  to the  and  " L a Mort dans l ' a m e " ,  are  inseparable  "le  grand courage,  du n e a n t  and d e a t h p r e s e n t  essay " L ' E n v e r s et  collection.  In t h i s  essay,  c'etait que  i n " L a Mort  as  de t e n i r  les  dans  which g i v e s  i n "Amour de v i v r e " , life  and i t s  For him, both c o n s t i t u t e  encore  je  l'endroit",  Camus c o n c l u d e s t h a t  from d e a t h . c'est  du d o i g t ,  joys  reality.  yeux o u v e r t s  sur  Thus, la  42 l u m i e r e comme s u r l a m o r t . " when e i t h e r is  life  There are  p r o l o n g e d f o r months o r y e a r s ,  who  built  she  saw o n l y d e a t h .  death  is  moments i n l i f e ,  o £ d e a t h p r e o c c u p i e s man.  h e r tomb b e f o r e  forgotten  she  This  is  as  died.  i n the Then,  "l'envers  i n an e c s t a t i c  Sometimes,  that  case o f the t u r n i n g her  du monde".  however, moment  old lady back on  As F o r  communion w i t h n a t u r e :  life,  others, "A cette  43 heure t o u t at  mon royaume e s t  h i s window, he d e s c r i b e s  on t h e the  white c u r t a i n s .  de ce monde"  s u c h a moment.  The f a i n t  window by a b r e e z e .  This  that  moment,  Camus f e e l s  suis-je  p l u s v r a i que l o r s q u e  41 Camus,  L'Envers,  ibid.,  p.  125.  44i b i d . , ibid.,  p. p.  123. 124.  4 2  4 3  p.  99.  ,  is  scent  je  Camus w r i t e s .  " l ' e n d r o i t du m o n d e " .  suis le  Seated  The sun and shadow p l a y  of d r i e d herbs  he i s most t r u e t o  19  is  wafted i n  At s u c h a  h i m s e l f : " . . . q u a n d done  monde?"  44  -  The with in  nature  Noces  is  and  1936 as  second  work  Noces.  The  i n nature.  results  in  essays  in this  immediately after  1937,  in L'Envers,  elements  b y Camus w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s  a merging  Camus  enters  In  the  later  or  marriage  collection  L'Envers into  work,  man i n  et  were  harmony  written  l'endroit.  In  communion w i t h  various  this  sometimes  communion  with nature.  Then,  Camus  enjoys  45 "un  jour  de  noces  From victions. is  to  "joie of  de  in  wind, and  life,  them  as  at  an  Noces  believes  first  Secondly,  This  described  despair  he  horror  living.  monde".  communion i n  the  vivre". its  le  that  and i n p a r t i c u l a r  a Tipasa",  death,  joy  his  Firstly,  enjoy  "Noces  avec  in  and  death  Vent  are  equilibrium  he  of  is  as  well  Italian  Germaine Camus Barres,  Camus,  is  Bree  following both  Noces,  of  fearis,  that  an  writes great  whom a r e  1939),  he  in  the  integral  attitudes.  his  of  in  great  his the  living  Camus This  ("L'Ete  sees balance  a  Desert").  Noces  adept  combining  22.  of  joy  Chateaubriand  p.  d'homme"  possible.  part  emotions,  ("Le  con-  consciousness  masters, at  major  communion w i t h  believes  landscapes that  much a s  Although  interdependent  Algerian race,  i n various  as  description  contrary  p e r s o n i f i e d i n the  two  p r i n c i p a l "metier  from h i s  is  as  a  Djemila".  entirely  derives  nature,  believes  arises a  his  is  finality,  belief  "Le  essay,  Camus  and  landscapes  Alger"),  -  21  -  and t h e e m o t i o n s t h e y evoke w i t h m e d i t a t i o n s on man's fate.  4 6  The f i r s t  e s s a y i n Hoces opens w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  town o f T i p a s a a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r y s i d e . c o u n t r y s i d e has a deep e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t later  t o v a r i o u s t h o u g h t s about  d e s c r i p t i o n s of nature  life.  Initially,  this  o n Camus w h i c h l e a d s h i m Unlike the sentimental  found i n C h a t e a u b r i a n d and B a r r e s ,  Bree  46 notes,  Camus' d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e " v i o l e n t l y s e n s u o u s "  tone.  The extreme d e g r e e  an i m p o r t a n t in  o f sensuousness  i n emotional  i n "Noces a T i p a s a "  i n d i c a t i o n o f Camus' deep c a p a c i t y  is  to lose himself  nature. In the f i r s t  colour.  e s s a y he i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e  Everything i s coloured.  Camus o b s e r v e s  " l a mer c u i r a s s e e  to  A p p r o a c h i n g t h e town o f T i p a s a , d'argent,  le ciel  bleu  ecru...la  47 masse n o i r e du C h e n o u a . . . l e v i l l a g e . . . g a u n e et b l e u . - ' ! colour at  i s always n o t e d ,  often i t  i s not v e r y p r e c i s e .  Although The f l o w e r s  T i p a s a a r e a l m o s t a l l r e d o r a shade o f r e d : ...des  bougainvilles rosats...des  de l o n g s i r i s  46  rouges...les  h i b i s c u s au r o u g e . . .  bleus...fleurs violettes, 48 geraniums r o u g e s .  jaunes  et  Camus, (New B r u n s w i c k , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 7 8 . This technique i s c a l l e d " p a y s a g e m o r a l i s e " . I n L e s Mers e t l e s p r i s o n s , e s s a i s u r A l b e r t Camus ( P a r i s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 4 9 , Roger Q u i l l i o t n o t e s t h a t R o u s s e a u was one o f t h e f i r s t F r e n c h w r i t e r s t o " c o n f e r e r un s e n s a u p a y s a g e : l a montagne l u i r e v e l a i t l a p u r e t e " . Chateaubriand continued the tradition. " C h e z . e u x , p o u r t a n t , l a m e d i t a t i o n commentait 1 ' e m o t i o n et l a r e d u i s a i t en i d e e s c l a i r e s . Chez C a m u s . . . l a m e d i t a t i o n r e c o u v r e e t r o i t e m e n t l a s e n s a t i o n et s ' y i m b r i g u e . " 47 ^'Camus, 4 8  ibid.,  No6iesyr:pp. 1 1 - 1 2 . p p . 12,  13,  15.  - 22 -  H i b i s c u s and geraniums are not the same shade o f red! "fleurs...rouges"? of  I t must be admitted,  What are  however, that the r e p e t i t i o n  one c o l o u r does give a c e r t a i n v i s u a l i n t e n s i t y to the scene. The  smells too a r e described vaguely.  mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y : " I a b s i n t h e " . 1  Only one odour i s  Nevertheless, the smells  a s s a u l t the senses very powerfully, so p o w e r f u l l y that Camus pers o n i f i e s them:"...le s o u p i r odorant  et acre de l a t e r r e d'ete en  Algerie." ^ 4  Sounds do not u s u a l l y p l a y an important d e s c r i p t i o n s o f nature.  r o l e i n Camus  There i s only one i n t h i s scene, but i t  i s memorable i n i t s unpleasantness: ..50 de b a i s e r s . "  "...la  mer suce avec un b r u i t  .  Camus observes haze o f s u f f o c a t i n g heat  the colours and scents o f T i p a s a through a and b l i n d i n g l i g h t .  In f a c t , the sun and  i t s e f f e c t s dominate the d e s c r i p t i o n . Again and again, Camus r e f e r s to  them.  In the f i r s t  f i f t e e n l i n e s o f the essay there are s i x  references t o the sun. S i m i l a r references occur l i k e a l e i t m o t i f throughout the scene: le  s o l e i l . . .nous chauffe un s e u l cote du v i s a g e , nous 50 ere regardons l a lumiere descendre du c i e l . . . ...ce c i e l 51 gorge de chaleur.' In the f i r s t three paragraphs o f the essay, Camus i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s p e c t a t o r o f nature.  49  Camus, Noces, p. 12. "*°ibid., p. 13. 51 i b i d . , p. 16.  He observes  the town o f T i p a s a  - 23 -  and i t s n a t u r a l surroundings.  Then, he records h i s impressions i n  terms of c o l o u r and smell i n p a r t i c u l a r .  Upon l e a v i n g the o u t s k i r t s  of the town he notes: "...pour l a derniere f o i s nous sommes spec52 tateurs." As soon as he enters the ruins of T i p a s a Camus i s caught i n the g r i p of nature: " . . . l e grand l i b e r t i n a g e de l a nature et de 53 l a mer...m'accapare tout entier."  In the same way  as nature dominates  the author here, so i t predominates  over the works of men  i n the past.  The  f i n e b u i l d i n g s constructed l o n g ago by the Romans at Tipasa.are  now  i n ruins.  They have become mere stones again i n the vast n a t u r a l  u n i v e r s e : "...et perdant l e p o l i impose par l'homme, 53 rentrees dans l a nature."  JellesJsont  I t should be emphasized, however, t h a t  Camus, here as elsewhere, never completely l o s e s h i m s e l f i n nature. Even i n h i s most profound communion with nature he r e t a i n s a c e r t a i n consciousness of h i s own "Tout i c i me  identity.  Thus, he w r i t e s of T i p a s a :  l a i s s e i n t a c t , je n'abandonne r i e n de moi-meme...."^  4  F i r s t a s p e c t a t o r of nature, then caught Camus now  i n i t s grip,  becomes an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r i n the n a t u r a l world.  swim i n the sea marks t h i s stage i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to nature.  A For  Camus, the act of swimming i s always the most p e r f e c t expression o f 55  man's union with nature. 52 Camus, Noces, p. 13-14. 5 3  In a h i g h l y sensuous d e s c r i p t i o n the author  i b i d . , p. 15.  54 J  i b i d . , p. 21.  C f . Camus, L'Etranger ( P a r i s , 1957), p. 76, and La Peste ( P a r i s , 1947), pp. 275-278. 5 5  - 24 -  records h i s complete joy i n swimming. his  It i s t o be noted that a l l  senses come a c u t e l y i n t o p l a y : s i g h t , s m e l l , touch, t a s t e and  sound: Entre dans l'eau, c'est l e saisissement, glu  l a montee d'une  f r q i d e et opa&ue, puis l e plongeon dans l e bourdonne-  ment des o r e i l l e s , l e nez coulant et l a bouche amere.... Sur l e r i v a g e , c'est l a chute dans l e s a b l e . . . r e n t r e dans 56 ma pesanteur de c h a i r et d'os,  a b r u t i de  soleil....*'  P a r t s of the d e s c r i p t i o n have strong sensual " . . . l a course de l'eau sur mon  overtones:  corps, c e t t e possession tumultueuse  57  de l'onde par mes —  jambes...."  The  and i n h i s works on the whole —  e a r t h , and i t i s man between them.  who  sea which Camus describes here i s seen i n r e l a t i o n to the  provides the l i n k i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  E i t h e r he observes the sea from a point on land,  or e l s e he enters the sea i n the act of swimming and returns to the beach to sunbathe.  For Camus, the sea and the earth are two  elements i n the p h y s i c a l world with which man which he can enter i n t o a union. t h i s union of man, I I me  sea and  communes and  major  with  Here i s an excerpt d e s c r i b i n g  earth:  faut e t r e nu et puis plonger dans l a mer,  encore  tout parfume des essences de l a t e r r e , l a v e r c e l l e s - c i dans c e l l e s - l a , et nouer sur ma peau l ' e t r e i n t e pour l a q u e l l e soupirent l e v r e s a. l e v r e s depuis  s i longtemps  l a t e r r e et l a mer."58 S i m i l a r to the joy a r i s i n g from swimming i n the sea i s that  56  Camus, Noces, pp. 19-20.  5 7  i b i d . , p.  19.  5 8  ibid.,  19.  p.  experienced t h e s e two  i n e m b r a c i n g a woman, Camus w r i t e s .  joys  are  merged  into  Indeed,  in  L'Etranger  one when M e u r s a u l t and M a r i a swim and  59 caress  each o t h e r i n the In short,  Tipasa,  its  sea.  three  scenes i n n a t u r e :  surrounding landscape,  an e m o t i o n a l  response  i n Camus.  and t h e  the sea  deserted and s a n d ,  H i s experience  town all  o f them i s  of arouse  always  sensuous. In a d d i t i o n to also  l e a d him t o  s t i m u l a t i n g an e m o t i o n  form c e r t a i n  beliefs.  i n Camus, t h e s e  He w r i t e s :  "A T i p a s a ,  scenes  je  vois  60 e q u i v a u t a. j e c r o i s . . . . ' * I n o t h e r words, t h e n a t u r e w h i c h t h e a u t h o r e x p e r i e n c e s at T i p a s a i s a symbol o f what he b e l i e v e s : Tipasa m'apparait  comme c e s  signifier  indirectement  eux,  temoigne, .,60  elle  et  personnages  un p o i n t  qu'on decrit  de vue s u r  virilement.  le  E l l e est  pour  monde.  Comme  a u j o u r d ' h u i mon  personnage....' There i s  one  belief  i n particular  t h r o u g h h i s communion w i t h n a t u r e at "joie  de v i v r e "  is  Camus e x p r e s s e s h i s  the  essay,  enthused  joy i n l i v i n g ,  w h i c h Camus  T i p a s a : the  an adequate p h i l o s o p h y of  Throughout  joy:  at  " J ' a i m e c e t t e v i e a v e c abandon et  conviction  that  life.  by t h e  and t h e  arrives  beauties of  p r i d e he  feels  v e u x en p a r l e r  nature,  in  avec  this  liberte:  61 elle it  is  vivre  me donne l ' o r g u e i l sufficient de t o u t  Tipasa,  f o r him t o  mon c o r p s  temoigner....  II  •^Camus,  L'Etranger,  pp.  ^Camus,  Noces,  6 1  ibid.,  p.  21.  6 2  ibid.,  p.  25.  de ma c o n d i t i o n d'homme."  p.  24.  et  cultivate  this  de t e m o i g n e r  y a l a une 76-77.  joy:  de t o u t  liberte."^  "II  For the me s u f f i t  mon c o e u r .  moment, de  Vivre  -  "Le Tipasa".  Vent a D j e m i l a "  i s a p a r a l l e l essay to  Nature i n both essays  has an e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t  B o t h towns i n s p i r e i n him c e r t a i n c o n v i c t i o n s about are  the  symbols o f t h e s e c o n v i c t i o n s :  Djemila l ' e s t  a l a mort."  63  "Noces  que D j e m i l a j e t t e  le  j'en sais  le silence,  indifference,  les vrais  a la vie,  and j o y i n  l i v i n g w h i l e D j e m i l a s y m b o l i z e s d e a t h and d e s p a i r at  c i e l et  and b o t h  " C e que T i p a s a e s t  Ce g r a n d c r i de p i e r r e  a  on Camus.  life,  Tipasa symbolizes l i f e  26  entre  death: les  bien l a poesie:  montagnes,  lucidite,  s i g n e s du d e s e s p o i r ou de  la  beaute. Even the topography of D j e m i l a i s ville to  morte"  65  and " i n h u m a i n e "  l e a d nowhere,  enfonce entre  and r i s e s  de h a u t e s  foret  Tipasa,  there  brilliant  is  It  up " s u r un p l a t e a u aux c o u l e u r s  montagnes,  son s q u e l e t t e  jaunatre  s u n b e a t s down on D j e m i l a as i t  nothing else  A terrible  which s y m b o l i z e s absence sounds c a n be h e a r d ,  63  "la seems  eteintes, comme une  Quilliot,  Camus,  does on  i n common between t h e s e two t o w n s .  Mers et  Noces,  ^ibid.,  p.  35.  ibid.,  p.  43.  ^ibid.,  p.  35.  silence of l i f e  reigns instead. rather  f a r - o f f and u n r e a l :  prisons, pi  64  6  s u r r o u n d e d by r a v i n e s .  is  c o l o u r s and i n t o x i c a t i n g s c e n t s o f T i p a s a a r e  from D j e m i l a .  6 6  It  d'Jossements. . . . " Although the  6  ,  of death.  67  y\  The  66  suggestive  p..49.  53.  It  than absence  is a  absent silence  of sounds,  for  -  -  ...le  son f e u t r e  de l a f l u t e . . . u n p i e t i n e m e n t de  des rumeurs v e n u e s du c i e l . . . u n . 68 aigu.•..' However, element II  the  wind i s t h e  i n nature.  r e a l hero o f t h i s  Like a wild giant  s o u f f l a i t d e p u i s une t r o u e e  accourait  Sans a r r e t ,  un c i r q u e . . . b a i g n a i t l e s  entre  venait  se r e p a n d r e en o r i s  des morts c o n s c i e n t e s ,  c'est  entourait incessants  entrer  sans  d ' u n monde a. jamas  perdu.  le  Et  chant  de D j e m i l a m ' e n f o n c e p l u s 70  l'amertume  de c e t  of Djemila,  conveys w e l l  diminuer l a  des images  the  joie  dans  exaltantes  triste  avant  distance  des  dans  l'ame  ensexgnement. the  wind and t h e  T h r o u g h communion w i t h them,  h o r r i b l e , c e r t a i n and f i n a l . Camus, N o c e s , p p . 3 3 - 3 4 .  ibid.,  en  action.  conscient  collines  6 9  du monde, et  passage  l'accomplissement,  of death.  bondir  forum....  q u i nous s e p a r e  The h i l l s  montagnes...  amas de b l o c s g r e l e s ,  w i n d ' s c o n t i n u a l m o t i o n and v i o l e n t  is  e s s a y and t h e dominant  les  The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e v e r b a l f o r m i n t h i s  Creer  un c r i  i l s i f f l a i t . . . t o u r n a i t dans  chaque c o l o n n e . . . e t v e n a i t 69 le  sec,  chevres,  animal:  du f o n d de l ' h o r i z o n et  cascades....  sur  claquement  27  71  sun t e a c h  Gamus t h e  lessons  he r e - d i s c o v e r s t h a t  death  M o r e o v e r , Camus b e l i e v e s , ..  p p . 36-37.  70  i b i d . , p . 47. " C r e e r des m o r t s c o n s c i e n t e s " , t h a t i s , make p e o p l e f o r whom d e a t h i s i n e v i t a b l e be c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s d e a t h . This, i n f a c t , i s what C a l i g u l a s e t s out t o do i n t h e p l a y C a l i g u l a . 71 Camus d i s c o v e r e d t h i s thesis.  first  at  Vicenza i n L'Envers. c f .  p.18  of  -  -  man must  be c o n s c i o u s  consciousness  of i t ,  if  he i s t o  of death i s necessary  enjoy l i f e  fully.  In  i n any p h i l o s o p h y o f " j o i e  28  short, de  72 Camus s e e s d e a t h as Yet, But  although i t he r e f u s e s  with the  arouses  to  "une aventure  h o r r i b l e et  h i s i n d i g n a t i o n , he a c c e p t s i t  alleviate  sale". as u n a v o i d a b l e ,  h i s h o r r o r o f d e a t h by d e l u d i n g h i m s e l f  b e l i e f of immortality.  This is  a myth p e r p e t r a t e d  by  73 Christianity because  it  i n the  directs  from e n j o y i n g the Si  je  qu'il  world.  Moreover, i t  a man's t h o u g h t s t o t h e  obstinement s'agit  as much o f l i f e  tous  as  les  72  Camus,  of l i f e  Noces,  p.  is  "plus tard"  du monde,  renohcer  Therefore,  he c a n i n e a c h  In " L e Vent a D j e m i l a " e a c h foment  a h a r m f u l myth  f u t u r e and p r e v e n t s him  a u s s i b i e n de ne pas 74  richesse presente. The p r e s e n t i s a l l t h a t man p o s s e s s e s . experience  is  present:  refuse  c'est  western  a. ma  should 75 "present".  Camus f u r t h e r  he  realizes  e v e n g r e a t e r f o r him because  that  joy i n  he knows he must  41.  73 I n " L ' I n c r o y a n t et l e s C h r e t i e n s " , A c t u e l l e s I , Chroniques1944-1948 ( P a r i s , 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 213, Camus a d d r e s s e s a g r o u p o f D o m i n i c a n s t h u s : " . . . j e ne p a r t a g e pas v o t r e e s p o i r " o f a n o t h e r l i f e . 74 Camus, N o c e s , p . 4 0 . 75 L i k e Don J u a n , who had so many l o v e r s , man s h o u l d t r y t o m u l t i p l y h i s experiences i n l i f e . " . . . c e que Don J u a n met en a c t e , c ' e s t une e t h i q u e de l a q u a n t i t e , au c o n t r a i r e du s a i n t q u i t e n d v e r s l a qualite." Camus, Le Mythe de S i s y p h e ( P a r i s , 1 9 4 2 ) , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 .  -  - 29 -  d i e ; and because he enjoys l i v i n g so much, death seems a l l the more horrible: ...toute mon 76 vivre.  horreur de mourir t i e n t dans ma  Because horror of death i n c r e a s e s h i s t a s t e s t r o n g attachment  to i t . T h i s attachment  for l i f e ,  de  Camus f e e l s a  he shares with Djemila:  . . . j e s u i v a i s tout l e long de ce pays quelque n etait  jalousie  chose qui  pas a moi, mais de l u i , comme un gout de l a mort 77  1  qui nous e t a i t commun. In the t h i r d essay, "L'Ete a A l g e r " , Camus communes with nature as at T i p a s a and Djemila, and once more are performed " l e s 78 noces de l'homme et de l a t e r r e . The  c i t y of A l g i e r s  i t s e l f o f f e r s a great p r o f u s i o n of  nature's beauties: " . . . l a mer au tournant de chaque rue, un 79 poids de s o l e i l . . . " by those who  exclusively, attitude  These beauties, however, can only be a p p r e c i a t e d  are young at h e a r t .  which A l g i e r s demands.  They alone have the " j o i e de v i v r e "  They alone are prepared to l i v e i n the present  without any hope of i m m o r t a l i t y .  *<3 l i f e ,  certain  perhaps  Once they lose  because they have contemplated  this  death too  l o n g , then A l g i e r s has nothing to o f f e r : " . . . r i e n ou s'accrocher et pas un l i e u ou l a melancolie puisse se sauver d'elle-meme." *"* 76Noces, p. 45 Camus, 77 p. 39. ''ibid., 8  7 8  ibid.,  P.  84.  7 9  ibid.,  p.  53.  i b i d . , p.  56.  -  The A l g e r i a n s a r e their  l i v e s as  if  it  Ce, p e u p l e t o u t  a young p e o p l e who l i v e  were t h e i r entier  jete  last:  e a c h moment  30  -  of  81  dans son p r e s e n t  vit  sans  mythes, 82  sans  consolation. II  Like his compatriots, him,  are  ses  Camus e n j o y s l i f e  "amour de v i v r e " i s  These p l e a s u r e s  a mis t o u s  best  "des  intensely.  expressed  joies  saines.  biens sur cette  terre....  F o r them as  for  i n s u n n i n g and swimming. II  faut  bien croire  qu'elles  83 constituent  l'ideal  All  de c e s  jeunes  gens'.'  summer — and w i n t e r t o o  covered with half-nude sun-bathers.  —  the  beaches  " O n ne m e s u r e r a  of Algiers jamais  are  assez  83 haut  1'importance  For the  first  half-naked recalls  de c e t t e coutume p o u r n o t r e  time s i n c e the  i n close  contact  swimming i n t h e  G r e e k age man i s with nature.  bay y e a r s a g o ,  s h i p s which s m e l l of f a r - o f f l a n d s ,  Also  epoque't free at  i n and out  to  ,  Camus w r i t e s .  b a t h e and sun  Algiers,  Camus  among t h e  cargo  o f wood f r o m Norway and o i l f r o m  Germany. The summer at delights teach and D j e m i l a .  Camus a l e s s o n , Indeed, the  what d i f f e r e n t t e r m s . is  a t h i n g o f the  nature.  Algiers  and i m m e r s i o n i n t h e as  s u n and  d i d h i s union with nature  l e s s o n i s not new a l t h o u g h s t a t e d  As at  moment, t o  Tipasa,  Camus r e a l i z e s t h a t  be f o u n d i n a c l o s e  sea's at  Tipasa  i n some-  happiness  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  I n s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p man becomes h i s e s s e n t i a l  self,  "un  84 homme p u r "  ,  that  is,  he has  f o u n d once  more:  81 I n f a c t , 0rie~- o f Camus' c h i e f aims i n t h i s e s s a y i s t o show how t h e j o y i n l i v i n g and d e s p a i r at d e a t h w h i c h he e x p e r i e n c e d at T i p a s a and D j e m i l a r e s p e c t i v e l y a r e p e r s o n i f i e d i n t h e A l g e r i a n p e o p l e : " I I y a des p e u p l e s nes p o u r l ' o r g u e i l et l a v i e . . . . C ' e s t a u s s i c h e z eux que l e s e n t i m e n t 8de 342ii bb l iai d d mort .. , p . e s87 58. t07 . l e p l u s r e p o u s s a n t . " Camus, N o c e s , p . 7 1 . 8  ...cette  patrie  monde,  ou l e s  lentes  du  de l ' a m e  ou d e v i e n t  coups du s a n g r e j o i g n e n t  soleil....  les  du  pulsations v i o -  8 4  Any b e l i e f i n a f u t u r e is  s e n s i b l e l a parente  m e a n i n g l e s s f o r Camus.  happiness,  He remarks  in a  life-after-death,  sarcastically:,  "...je  ne  84 trouve  pas de sens  a u bonheur des a n g e s . "  one t o  wish f o r i m m o r t a l i t y , i s  Hope,  which i n s p i r e s  f o r Camus t h e u g l i e s t  of a l l  senti-  ments: De l a b o i t e  de P a n d o r e ou g r o u i l l a i e n t l e s  l'humanite,  les  tous  les  Grecs f i r e n t  autres,  sortir  comme l e p l u s t e r r i b l e  Gamus condemns hope because  it  maux de  l'espoir de  apres 85  tous.  teaches r e s i g n a t i o n to  s i t u a t i o n i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a b e t t e r one t o  come:  a  "Et  present vivre,  c'est  85 ne pas  se  destroys  resigner." one's  d'Algerie".  enjoyment  from A l g e r i a to  truths  Italy.  This  is  what m a t t e r s ,  "l'apre  "Le D e s e r t " ,  H e r e , as  i n the  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  Florence,  the  other  l e c o n des  setting  and hope etes  changes  e s s a y s o f N o c e s , Camus  various landscapes  beaute".  Camus,  Camus i s a g a i n caught  " c e t t e e n t r e e de l'homme dans l e s On t h i s  he 84 abandons " l a p e t i t e Noces,  ^ibid.,  p.  83.  ibid.,  p.  114.  8 6  and now, i s  and t h e  they teach him.  nature,  8  of i t .  f o u r t h essay,  his close  In  la  here  8 5  In the  discusses  Life,  p.  80.  occasion,  nature  monnaie de s a  is  up i n t h e  fetes like  spectacle  de l a t e r r e a god t o  personnalite".86  et  of  de  him t o whom  -  From t h e  city,  he c l i m b s h i g h up on a h i l l  where he v i e w s observes  the  Mount O l i v e t o .  On t h e  /K  olive-trees,  "pales  to  the  Boboli  garden  h i l l t o p s r o u n d about  comme de p e t i t e s  32  fumees"  him-he  87  and  87 "les to  jets  time  example  p l u s d u r s des c y p r e s " .  and blows away t h e  ...le  chaque  et  fois,  horizon.  Camus d e s c r i b e s  the  In a  movement  fine  of  the  terms:  meme s o u f f l e . . . r e p r e n a i t  de p i e r r e  comes up f r o m t i m e  low c l o u d s on t h e  of "correspondances"  clouds i n musical  A breeze  d'air  d'une  l e theme  de l o i n  fugue a l ' e c h e l l e  diminuait d'un  d ' u n coup d ' o e i l c e t t e r e s p i r a n t et a v e c e l l e 88  en l o i n l e  theme  du monde. A  ton...j'embrassais  f u i t e de c o l l i n e s t o u t e s ensemble comme l e chant de l a t e r r e  entiere. Then,  Camus remarks . . . i l  of t h i s  m'assurait  pierre,  tout  que s a n s mon amour et  etait  de l u i , p o i n t de If  man does not  the  natural  the  s o u l nor the  ce  i n u t i l e . Le monde e s t 89  beau c r i beau,  et  de hors  salut.  seek h i s  w o r l d here heart  s t o n e s and t r e e - c l a d  landscape:.  salvation i n a close  and now, t h e n l i f e are  hills  has no m e a n i n g .  o f any i m p o r t a n c e . "limitent  le  relationship with Neither  The sum*warmed  s e u l u n i v e r s ou  'avoir  89 raison'  p r e n d un s e n s : Later,  at  the  l a nature sight  o f some huge persimmons  87 s y rCamus, u p , Camus h1a5t. w i t h t h e N o c ens o , te ps. t 1 8 8  ibid.,  89  pp.  116-117.  ' i b i d . , p . 117.  s a n s hommes".  fruit  as  w e l l as  dripping  with the  cypresses  -  -  and  olive-trees 90  monde". this  he f e e l s  This  fraternity  w o r l d and t o  i d e a of  coeur  joy i n nature.  Un des  seuls  de ma r e v o l t e L'Etranger  the  early  It  qui m'accordait  a "consentement" is  91  to  au  life  b a l a n c e d by a r e v o l t  l i e u x d E u r o p e ou j ' a i  scenes of the  Noces.  dormait  i s the  un"consentement*  first  comes t o  novel, there  which d i f f e r s l i t t l e  I n the  climactic  at  in the  eventually,  new u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e munion d e e p e r t h a n any In  many ways,  91 relevant  relationship with nature. i s a treatment from the  n o v e l , however,  before the  and d e a t h ,  the  o f man's communion  The murder l e a d s t o  but,  In  communion i n L ' E n v e r s and  murder s c e n e o f t h e  death;  qu'au  work o f f i c t i o n w h i c h i s  dominate man c o m p l e t e l y .  and,  compris  1  d i s c u s s i o n o f man's c l o s e  with nature  nature  amounts t o  secrete  death:  Florence!  to  a "fraternite  nature  an e x i l e  from  e n d , man a r r i v e s  and r e t u r n s  to  at  i n a com-  of L ' E t r a n g e r ,  resembles  before. Meursault, the  fellow Algerians.  immortality, t h e r e were  hero  L i k e them,  p r e f e r r i n g to  an a f t e r - l i f e ,  he r e f u s e s  enjoy l i f e  i n the  Meursault envisages  to  believe  present. it  as  in  Indeed,  "une v i e  if  ou  je  93 pourrais  me s o u v e n i r de c e l l e - c i " .  w i t h h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , however, 90 Camus, N o c e s , pp. 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 . 9 1  ibid.,  92 93  p.  122.  ibid.,  p.  77.  Camus,  L'Etranger,  p.  a  nature  92 his  33  168.  The c l o s e s t  is their  a f f i n i t y he  common c a p a c i t y  to  has  enter  -  - 34 readily enjoys  i n t o the  natural  s i t t i n g outside  world.  L i k e Camus and h i s  f a m i l y , Meursault  on a summer e v e n i n g and w a t c h i n g t h e  s k y and  94 the  changing street  from e a r l y acutely  afternoon u n t i l  aware o f t h e  progresses. time  scene.  On one o c c a s i o n very late  changes  episode.  evening.  which take p l a c e  Moreover, t h e s e  i n the  i n the  he s t a y s on h i s  changes  E a r l y i n the  balcony  Meursault  i n the  s k y as t h e  v e r y s u b t l y mark t h e  a f t e r n o o n he n o t e s :  is day  passage  "Le c i e l  of  etait  95 pur  mais  sans e c l a t . "  Later  on, there  is  a suggestion  of  stormy  95 weather: "II  _  Jle  "...le ciel/  evening: lit  —.  s'est  "...le  i n the  ciel  s'est  -  decouvert  ciel  est  dark s t r e e t s :  premieres  assombri... „".  etoiles...."  sitting position.  peu  mal au c o u d ' e t r e  which i s  peu a p e u . . . . "  *  5  soon d i s p e l l e d :  With the  96  coming o f  F i n a l l y , t h e lamps o r r f c  fait  palir  les  —  s k y above and t h e  p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y —  so a b s o r b i n g t h a t  When he does get reste  streets  below him on  he even f o r g e t s  up he n o t i c e s :  longtemps appuye s u r  to  change  " J ' a v a i s un  l e dos de ma  97  chaise."  M e n t a l l y , he i s  whatsoever  troubles  when he comes de  9  change".  ^Camus,  himself,  9 8  L'Envers.  p.  63.  95 Camus, 9 6  ibid.,  97  "ibid.,  98 5  ibid.,  L ' E t ranger, p.  37.  p.  38.  p.  39.  so  involved i n observing that  him d u r i n g the  back t o  p.  are  9 7  The scene i s  his  ,  " E l l e s /les lampes7  relaxing effect  Meursault.  9  devenu r o u g e a t r e . "  Contemplation of the has a v e r y  .  36.  entire  episode.  he remarks t h a t  nothing  Eventually,  " i l n'y avait  rien  -  Meursault r e l a t i o n to describes  and M a r i e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  nature.  On t h e i r  his g i r l - f r i e n d  second meeting,  seen c o n s t a n t l y  f o r example,  i n an image drawn f r o m t h e  35 -  in  Meursault  natural  world:  99 "...le their  affaire  times, fill  is  it  d'accord  the  mouths w i t h w a t e r , up i n t o t h e  air.  Then,  feel  l i e on t h e i r  beach as  they  Meursault notes: dans n o t r e  i n the  sea,  Usually,  with n a t u r e .  In c h i l d l i k e  delight,  backs i n the  embrace  i n the  " . . . n o u s nous  etait  Juarlej  s'est  allongee  de s o n c o r p s  an important  toute visqueuse d'eau  f l a n c a f l a n c a v e c moi et  et  du s o l e i l  salee....  accompanies  their  de s e n t i r  over him. first  element  les  deux  Elle chaleurs  m ' o n t un peu e n d o r m i . 1  but  act:  "j/avais  l a nuit d'ete  laisse  couler  ma f e n e t r e  s u r nos c o r p s  With the  e v e n i n g s k y and t h e  with the  sun no d i a l o g u e i s p o s s i b l e .  This  change  g l i m p s e d on t h e  ouverte bruns."''"  sea Meursault i s  et  nature c'etait  0 3  able to  i n Meursault's r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature day o f h i s m o t h e r ' s  L'Etranger,  p.  f u n e r a l d u r i n g t h e .:.  53.  J o y i n n a t u r e i s compared t o t h e L ' E n v e r s , p . 25 o f t h e s i s . 1 0 0  1 0 1  Camus,  1 0 2  1 0 3  L'Etranger,  ibid.,  p.  ibid.,  pp.  77. 54-55.  p.  76.  com-  The s u n p r e d o m i n a t e s  99 Camus,  he  around them.  E v e n when t h e y make l o v e i n M e u r s a u l t s a p a r t m e n t ,  mune,  rollers  sensual r e l a t i o n s h i p :  Elle  bon  s e a and  Thus,  and w i t h n a t u r e is  they  sentions  1 0  nature  Some-  1 0 0  contentement. " " ' '  i n a c c o r d w i t h each o t h e r  On t h e in their  seaside. then  de f l e u r . "  contact  Other times,  dans nos g e s t e s et  Marie  un v i s a g e  c a r r i e d on i n c l o s e  swim i n u n i s o n .  and  lui faisait  t h e y p l a y games at  their  squirt or  b r u n du s o l e i l  j o y o f e m b r a c i n g a woman i n  is  -  procession  to the  preoccupies  grave.  Meursault that  down u n m e r c i f u l l y . already  fills  Very soon,  Mot d e a t h ,  the  the  Before sky.  day. the  It  as is  one would e x p e c t , no wonder;  procession  The day i s  sun r e a c h e s i t s  starts  getting  zenith.  In f a c t , appear  so i n t e n s e  " i n h u m a i n et  i..un  troublait the  le  first  regard  et  les  his  nature.  In the  murder s c e n e ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Camus'  the  him t o  104 105  Tout  Meursault i s  countryside  la  feels:  monotonie  noir  terne  cela...me  not  completely  While contemplating the sea  master  sky from  w i t h M a r i e , he was i n a c t i v e some o f h i s  relationship with a new s t a g e i s  control  self-control  nature.  reached  Por the  pawn o f n a t u r e .  world g r a d u a l l y t a k e s complete  et  du g o u d r o n o u v e r t ,  physical universe.  works man becomes  minute.  He h i m s e l f  blanc  but h e r e he has l o s t  l u c i d i t y o f mind i n h i s  sunlight  4  makes t h e  Meursault.  b l e u et  beating  gorgee  insoutenable."^ it  sun  idees."*"^  i n d i c a t i o n that  b a l c o n y and swimming i n t h e  the  -  notes:  lumineuse  n o i r l a q u e de l a v o i t u r e .  communion w i t h n a t u r e , and  to  ciel  n o i r gluant  of himself i n respect to his  le  105  out,  Meursault  sunlight that  deprimant"  couleurs,  des h a b i t s ,  is  the  peu p e r d u e n t r e  de ces  This  is  du c i e l e t a i t  sun i s  h o t t e r by t h e  A u t o u r de moi c ' e t a i t . . . l a . . . c a m p a g n e de s o l e i l . L ' e c l a t  the  but t h e  36  in  first  Here,  the  o f M e u r s a u l t and  man's time  in  natural drives  commit m u r d e r .  Camus, B i i . E t r a n g e r , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 .  ibid., 106., . , ibid.,  p. p.  26. _ 28. 0  C f . p.22  of thesis  f o r the  same  images,  - 37 -  On t h e the  day o f t h e  murder,  M e u r s a u l t had gone t o  s u b u r b s o f A l g i e r s w i t h M a r i e and h i s  he n o t e s ,  "le  soleil etait...ecrasant.  II  a beach  f r i e n d Raymond. se  brisait  That  in  day,  en morceaux  sur  107 le  sable  the  sea  et  sur l a mer."  On t h e  and a s p r i n g seem t o  he e n c o u n t e r s Meursault  the  beach,  have any r e a l i t y  h i m s e l f has no m o t i v e t o  sand,  Meursault.  When  kill.  One o f t h e is  A r a b s has  Raymond, t h e r e f o r e ,  taken who i s  vengeance. During the  second encounter  himself with a revolver choice  for  s u n , the  A r a b s w i t h h i s f r i e n d s Raymond and M a s s o n ,  Raymond's g i r l - f r i e n d away f r o m h i m ; i t seeking  only the  of action  lies  with the  i n h i s hand.  open t o  At t h i s  Arabs, Meursault f i n d s p o i n t he s e e s t h a t  him: " . . . o n p o u r r a i t  tirer  ou ne  a  pas  108 tirer."  Whether he k i l l s  Meursault.  Because  enjoyment to  A r a b o r not  he has a l l he wants  o f a woman and o f n a t u r e  anything else:  death,  he makes no d e c i s i o n a t itself  the  so c l e a r l y As t h e  marriage this  —  matters  in life  he i s  and t h e  the  completely  or murder.  point,  —  little  Unlike choice  to  physical indifferent  a Sartrian  never  hero,  presents  again. day p r o g r e s s e s ,  the  heat becomes  more and more  108 intense.  It  Meursault  f i n d s the  as  is  like  a "pluie aveuglante". heat u n b e a r a b l e .  i f he were i m p e l l e d by f a t e ,  xbid.,  p.  84.  P o r no p a r t i c u l a r  he r e t u r n s  Now, he has t o a c t i v e l y f i g h t t h e 107 Camus, L ' E t r a n g e r , p . 82,  heat  Back at  to  the  i n order to  Masson's c a b i n , reason,  almost  beach a t h i r d t i m e . advance  along  the  -  38  -  beach: ...je  serrais  dents,  tendais  tout  lvresse  opaque q u i'-i il  At  the  advance,  the  seems t o  attract  if  les  entier  little  me  de f u i r  le  de  cette  d e v e r s a .+109 it. heat  a magnet.  seems t o  A r a b s were It  oppose M e u r s a u l t ' s situated  earlier  would be s u c h a c o o l  relief,  de r e t r o u v e r  l e murmure de s o n e a u ,  s o l e i l . . . e n v i e enfin 109  de r e t r o u v e r  envie  1'ombre  et  repos.  wanted t o  kill  Meursault  is  at  is there,  has  /Ta  journee/ avait  the  o f the  been s h i n i n g w i t h t h e  Meursault  cannot  jete  face the  fait  se  Camus, 110., . , ibid., ibid.,  pp.  ibid.,  p.  86.  o c l  86-87.  112 87.  p.  eyebrows.  85.  sand.  At t h i s  point,  F o r two h o u r s , "...deux  heures  his steps:  derriere  la source."  j'ai  moi." 1 1 1  His forehead i s  The s u n b u r n s h i s c h e e k s :  L'Etranger, p.  of r e t r a c i n g  pressait  ne p o u v a i s p l u s s u p p o r t e r ,  109  heat.  A r a b whom Raymond  the qu'elle  dans un ocean de m e t a l b o . u i l l a n t . "  thought  on h i s  on t h e  terrible  q u e l q u e s pas v e r s  p e r s p i r a t i o n gather veins throb.  out  same i n t e n s i t y :  l'ancre  une p l a g e v i b r a n t e de s o l e i l "J'ai  s p r i n g , however, t h e  stretched  a g a i n aware  sun  1 1 : i  et  j e me  it:  envie  je  poings...  A-  s p r i n g where t h e  When M e u r s a u l t a r r i v e s  que  les  p o u r t r i o m p h e r du s o l e i l  him l i k e  J'avais  result:  fermais  same t i m e as t h e  he c o u l d r e a c h  son  je  fait  1  0  "...toute As a  1 1 1  Soon, drops aching.  " A c a u s e de c e t t e  1  of  His  brulure  un mouvement en  avant."  112  -  This  i s the  knife.  It  fatal  glitters  C'est  alors  s'ouvrait 113 feu. He s h o o t s  step.  S e e i n g Meursault advance,  i n the  que t o u t  sur toute  the  A r a b draws  39  his  sunlight, b l i n d i n g Meursault: a v a c i l l e . . . . II  m ' a semble que l e  ciel  son e t e n d u e p o u r l a i s s e r p l e u v o i r du  four times i n t o the  inert  body.  At o n c e ,  a feeling  of  113 release at  the  comes o v e r h i m : " J ' a i same t i m e :  "J'ai  secoue  c o m p r i s que j ' a v a i s  e x c e p t i o n n e l d ' u n e p l a g e ou j ' a v a i s In j a i l , f r o m w h i c h he i s ...l'envie vers  after  the  me p r e n a i t  d'etre  l a mer. A i m a g i n e r l e et  and a f i n a l  Meursault  soleil."  detruit...le  And,  silence  heureux."^^^  Meursault longs f o r  s u r une p l a g e e t  nature  descendre  M e u r s a u l t comes t o  du  trouvais...." a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g  deep communion w i t h n a t u r e .  avec sa n a t u r e  de  bruit des...vagues...1*entree  l a d e l i v r a n c e que j ' y  Faced with death, life,  murder,  ete  le  exiled:  c o r p s dans l ' e a u  of  l a s u e u r et  " L ' a c c o r d de  ( l a s s o m p t i o n de s a v i e t o t a l i s e e ) 1  est  115 aussi  un a c c o r d a v e c l a n a t u r e . "  p r i s o n padre,  who i s t r y i n g t o  discovers that  he i s  He was r i g h t t o beauties he was 113 114 1 1  perfectly  I n a h e a t e d argument  convert  him t o  of nature  because  life  L'Etranger,  ibid.,  p.  5Robert  p.  o f t h e s e he was s u r e ;  o f an  after-life  88.  109.  Champigny,  he d i d .  immerse h i m s e l f i n t h e  not:  Camus,  the  C h r i s t i a n i t y , Meursault  j u s t i f i e d i n l e a d i n g the  e n j o y e a c h moment and- t o  with  S u r un h e r o p a i e n ( p a r i s ,  1959),  p.  178.  -  - 40 -  ...j'etais  s u r de m o i , s u r de t o u t ,  de ma v i e ,  et  de c e t t e mort  He r e a l i z e s , m o r e o v e r , much man l o n g s f o r i t ...pendant  toute  to  plus sur  qui a l l a i t that  continue,  life  it  que l u i ,  venir. "'' 1  is  6  absurd.  No m a t t e r how  a l w a y s ends I n  c e t t e v i e absurde  que j ' a v a i s  sur  death: menee,  un 116  souffle The  obscur remontait  "souffle" is  certain  vers  death,  makes M e u r s a u l t i n d i f f e r e n t t o or  his love for Marie.  any s e n t i m e n t  moi, a traVers  e v e r y t h i n g : the  Because  ...je  mother  e v e r y o n e must d i e s o o n e r o r  later,  pointless.  Des  r e v e i l l e a v e c des  de t e r r e  et  de s e l  L a m e r v e i l l e u s e p a i x de c e t 117 comme une m a r e e . is  at  the  way he has  For  him, nature  o f h i s deepest he i s  116 117 118  to  means  ete  H i s peace i s life  conscious  Camus,  L'Etranger,  ibid.,  p.  p.  mes  he f e e l s  expressed  This  because,  still  tempes. en moi  vindicated for  i n terms is  of  nature.  perhaps the  moment  confronted with death,  j o y s which n a t u r e  e n j o y them w h i l e one i s  peace:  visage.  endormi e n t r a i t  and h a p p i n e s s .  of the  le  of  asleep  j u s q u ' a m o i . Des o d e u r s  p e a c e w i t h h i m s e l f because lived.  sur  rafraichissaient  communion w i t h n a t u r e  now f u l l y  necessity  Meursault f a l l s  etoiles  b r u i t s de campagne m o n t a i e n t  de n u i t ,  Meursault  padre,  On a w a k e n i n g , he has a w o n d e r f u l s e n s e  me s u i s  It  death of h i s  expended on them i s  his c e l l .  annees.  o v e r w h i c h man has no c o n t r o l .  A f t e r h i s meeting with the in  des  able.  offers,  and t h e  118  169.  171.  In Camus, p p . 6 6 - 6 7 , B r e e n o t e s t h a t i n Camus* f i r s t n o v e l , " L a Mort h e u r e u s e " ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) , t h e hero, P a t r i c e M e r s a u l t , who b e a r s many r e s e m b l a n c e s t o M e u r s a u l t , " . . . a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s human d e s t i n y , l o s i n g h i m s e l f at l a s t i n t h e c o s m o s . . . . I n t h e f u l l b l a z e o f s u n and s e a P a t r i c e M e r s a u l t goes t o h i s e c s t a t i c d e a t h . " Moreover: "The r a d i a n t sun o f l i f e and t h e ' b l a c k s u n ' o f d e a t h a r e one and t h e s a m e . "  -  "Le collection the  first  Minotaure" or " L a Halte d ' O r a n " , the  L ' E t e . . was w r i t t e n i n 1939-  his  of Oran.  it  also  contains  certain  is  reflective  Two.landscapes i n p a r t i c u l a r  those landscapes They themselves  and " l e  1 1 9  desert"?  are  not  innocent,  which f o r e -  and p e o p l e  "les  terres  de 1 ' i n n o c e n c e "  finds himself i n close  free  of  nature.  him h e r e :  enjoyment  the  relation-  landscapes  The"terres  but man's  man e n j o y s them c o m p l e t e l y ,  from  the  interest  2 0  w i t h w h i c h man o f t e n  elements  i n exile  " L e M i n o t a u r e " Camus d i s c u s s e s  de l ' i n n o c e n c e "  is,  yet,  s e c o n d p e r i o d i n w h i c h man i s In  that  it  essay i n  p e r i o d i n Camus' works i n w h i c h man has a c l o s e  ship with nature; cast  In part,  first  41  are  harmony.  o f them  o f any p o l i t i c a l o r  is; social  121 concerns. In the Oran present Italy,  summer,  their  Camus i s  "les  beauties  terres  to  a l l men.  remarkably s e n s i t i v e  everything i n b r i l l i a n t patches of L a mer e s t plage  outremer,  route  j a u n e . Tout d i s p a r a i t  plus t a r d ,  les  traversent  parfois,  dans l e s  a f i n e example  et  les  lueurs  to  Here,  as  nature.  i n M a j o r c a and Sometimes,  c o u l e u r de s a n g c a i l l e ,  avec l e  s o l e i l vert;  he  sees  une  la heure  de l u n e . . . . Des o r a g e s  eclairs...mettent 122  les  sur l e sable  et  orangees.  p e o p l e o f O r a n Camus o b s e r v e s of pathetic  i n and a r o u n d  colour:  dunes r u i s s e l l e n t  yeux d e s  Even the In  la  de l ' i n n o c e n c e "  i n terms o f  f a l l a c y he d e s c r i b e s  b e a c h e s o f O r a n as f l o w e r s i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f 119 Camus, L ' E t e , p . 6 0 . 120 " i b i d . , p . 28. 121 The e x p r e s s i o n i s a t r a n s f e r r e d e p i t h e t . 122 i b i d . , p . 59.  nature.  young g i r l s on t h e  growth:  -  -  Chaque a n n e e , de f i l l e s  s u r ces  filles Or  que,  d'autres  l'ete  aux c o r p s  i n terms  c'est  une n o u v e l l e m o i s s o n  f l e u r s . Apparemment, e l l e s n ' o n t  L'annee suivante, placent  rivages,  of the  corolles  d'avant,  etaient  d u r s comme des  42  qu'une s a i s o n .  chaleureuses encore  des 123  les  rem- .  petites  bourgeons.  sea:  A onze h e u r e s du m a t i n , d e s c e n d a n t du p l a t e a u , t o u t e c e t t e jeune c h a i r , a p e i n e v e t u e d ' e t o f f e s b a r i o l e e s , 124 d e f e r l e s u r l e s a b l e comme une vague m u l t i c o l o r e . Unfortunately, vecu."  125  transmit  example.  Here i s  cise are  " l i s ont  le paysage." filled  h i s experience  to  ferme 126  l a fenetre, Because  " e n n u i " which devours them.  the  countryside of Oran.  123  P  Camus,  f l o w e r s are "le  L' E t e ,  1 2 4  ibid.,  P.  58.  1 2 5  ibid.,  P.  59.  126., . . lbxd.,  P.  55.  127., . , ibid.,  P.  29.  ibid.,  i s absent 127  w i t h a tremendous " e n n u i " .  i n fact,  P» 32.  to  the  Most o f t h e  is  b a c k s on exor-  Oran i s  its  only outstanding feature  caillou  est  roi"."  Even the  symbol  a n echo  like  gone,  they  the m y t h i c a l  the  emptiness f i n d s  L 2 7  for  from t h e i r l i v e s ,  human f l e s h ,  year,  nature,  l i s ont  The m i n o t a u r ,  Their  l'avoir  "Oranais",  i l s se s o n t . e n m u r e s ,  nature  the  Here,  faut  a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who have t u r n e d t h e i r  monster o f Greek a n t i q u i t y which ate  When t h e  others:  II  ' " r e l a t i o n s h i p with  A l t h o u g h Camus h i m s e l f has a c l o s e  he c a n n o t  nature:  " c e e i ne peut se p a r t a g e r .  a is  of in  desert. stone.  sky i s " m i n e r a l " . " ' "  2 8  -  Moreover, the  there  is  vegetation.  "...elle  pousse  little  In t h i s ses  green to city,  cris  be s e e n b e c a u s e  nature  violents  is  dust  held prisoner,  e n t r e chaque m a i s o n et  covers so t o  all speak:  au-dessus  129 de t o u s  les  toits."  wind enjoy f u l l ville  O n l y h i g h up above t h e  power a g a i n .  debraillee,  dispersee  There, they sans  city  "aerent  o r d r e aux q u a t r e  et  do t h e  s u n and  confondent  coins d'un  la  paysage  rocheux. With t h i s w h i c h man's g r e a t e s t nature  1 2 8  sans  Camus,  1 2 9  ibid.,  130  Camus,  p.  32.  p.  89.  31.  Noces,  ends t h e  first  happiness i s to  hommes".  L'Ete. p.  essay  p e r i o d o f Camus' works i n  be f o u n d i n a u n i o n w i t h " l a  -  CH'APITRE  44  II  Exile Germaine B r e e Minotaure", luxurious  "•••'^hisy  7  comments t h a t ,  essays  after  Camus had f i n i s h e d  changed g r e a t l y .  "Le  The g r a n d i o s e and  u n i v e r s e e x e m p l i f i e d by h i s A f r i c a n l a n d s c a p e s  dis-  131 appeared."  This  statement  works i n g e n e r a l f r o m 1940 nature  the  to  1952.  The deep communion o f man w i t h  f o u n d i n L ' E n v e r s , N o c e s , and L ' E t r a n g e r i s  from h i s w r i t i n g s . for.  c a n q u i t e e a s i l y be a p p l i e d t o Camus*  In f a c t , present.  now u s u a l l y a b s e n t  N a t u r e i s no more t h a n a memory o r  man i s  i n exile  from nature  I n C a l i g u l a he i s  i n exile  something l o n g e d  and any enjoyment o f i t  because  the  "absurd" pre-  o c c u p i e s h i m ; i n Le M a l e n t e n d u ,  because  of circumstances  lack  because  of a plague.  o f money, and i n L a P e s t e ,  man's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h nature during the  years  Amandiers"  (1940) a n d ' L ' E x i l  period, of  1940  Camus had f a r  to  The change  and in  1952.  Two s h o r t  essays  d ' H e l e n e " (1948),  in L'Ete,  show t h a t  "Les  during  this  more p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s t h a n h i s own enjoyment  nature..  Amandiers", are  still  memories o f i t s  beauties  me r e t o u r n e v e r s  forces  encore  sont  Camus,  of I t a l y  "Les  and M a j o r c a ,  follow.  This tree  Camus, p. L'Ete,  pp.  ces  pays e c l a t a n t s  cette  ou t a n t  de  i n t a c t es.-1-32  In "Les Amandiers", the  Bree,  and t h o s e  l e p o i d s de l a v i e d e v i e n t t r o p l o u r d dans  Europe...je  Camus t o  f r o m h i s homeland when he wrote  strong i n him:  ...quand  L 3 2  of birth  c a n be s e e n i n Camus' own a t t i t u d e  A l t h o u g h Camus was f a r  1 5 1  in  210. 73-74.  a l m o n d - t r e e p r o v i d e s an i d e a l  has c e r t a i n v i r t u e s ,  " l a v e r t u de  la  for  -  -  45  -  . 1 3 3 blancheur  et  to  the  resist  de l a s e v e . " e v i l present  of character,  pride,  v i o l e n c e and a r r i v e  at  man w i l l It  these,  life. to  support  rains  be s u c c e s s f u l ,  beauties on t h e  by t h e  if  of nature  he i s  d'Helene,  "...cet  order  strength  be a b l e t o  white blossoms o f  of  Camus has  fruit  is  end the  brought  virtues. reversed the  he s e e k s  certain  tech-  i n the  natural  Nature i s  of "the  convictions  not  g o o d " as  p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l  he p r a i s e s  the  about  w o r l d a symbol so much an  opposed to  the  world of Europe.  Camus s e e s E u r o p e a n man i n c o m p l e t e  In "L'Exil< Greeks:  tender  full  in  He must have  T h e n he w i l l  l e d him t o  an example  w h i c h Camus f i n d s i n t h e  nature.  virtues,  and winds u n t i l t h e  an a l r e a d y - f o f m e d t h o u g h t .  By 1948,  possess  t h r e e ma^or works p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d .  contrary,  i n s p i r a t i o n any more as evil  L i k e the  s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t  the  Here,  and wisdom.  peace.  n i q u e w h i c h he u s e d i n t h e In  must  i n war-torn Europe.  courage  almond-tree, which r e s i s t s forth,  Man t o o  exile  from  e q u i l i b r i u m maintained  e q u i l i b r e s u p e r i e u r ou l a n a t u r e  balancait  134 l'histoire,  l a beaute,  destroyed.  Men have t u r n e d t h e i r  ...le  monde a e t e  le  bien...."  ampute  To-day, this  backs on  de ce  balance  has  been  nature:  qui f a i t  s a permanence:  la  135 nature,  l a mer,  la  colline,  Even from European l i t e r a t u r e scapes i n Dostoyevsky, cuss  the  s oC ph e rus .s , am 1 3 3  natural L'Ete,  134 ibid., 135 -^ibid.,  p.  111.  p.  112.  world; p.  75.  for  l a m e d i t a t i o n des  nature  example.  reason  is  is absent.  soirs.  There are  no  land-  Nor does E u r o p e a n p h i l o s o p h y d i s -  a l l that  interests  modern  philo-  -  Christianity  is  o r i g i n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r man's  of nature,  Camus w r i t e s .  "C'est  le  christianisme  substituer  a l a c o n t e m p l a t i o n du monde l a t r a g e d i e  46  desertion  q u i a commence de de  l'ame."  136 Now t h a t  God i s  minds o f men. source  dead  ,  however,  Europe t o - d a y  i n nature,  ...notre 1'empire,  elle  is  h i s t o r y that  controls  (1948) has moved away f r o m i t s  i n an e f f o r t  epoque...se  it  to  raidit  make i t s  vital  mark on h i s t o r y :  pour a t t e i n d r e  veut t r a n s f i g u r e r  the  l ' a b s o l u et  l e monde a v a n t  de 137  l'avoir The d r i v e t o not  seem t o  epuise,  de l ' a v o i r  compris.  c o n q u e r and go on c o n q u e r i n g p r e d o m i n a t e s . realize that  L'Histoire elle,  l ' o r d o n n e r avant  the  h i s t o r i c a l approach to  Man does  life  n ' e x p l i q u e n i l ' u n i v e r s nature1 qui e t a i t  n i l a beaute  q u i est  au-dessus  d'elle.  Elle  is  limited:  avant  a done  c h o i s i de l e s i g n o r e r . At t h i s p o i n t , Camus makes a c r u c i a l s t a t e m e n t w h i c h w i l l determine the e n t i r e course of h i s future l i f e . No l o n g e r i s he 138 capable  of g l o r y i n g i n a "nature  he i s t e m p t e d t o  s a n s hommes".  t u r n h i s back o n l E u r o p e and i t s  No m a t t e r how p r o b l e m s , he  He must commit h i m s e l f t o a l i f e w i t h o t h e r s : . . . c e t t e epoque e s t l a n o t r e « , et nous ne pouvons v i v r e en nous h a ' i s s a n t . . . n o u s l u t t e r o n s vertus  pour c e l l e 139 q u i ' v i e n t de l o i n . . . l ' a m i t i e . . . .  '''^Camus,  L'Ete,  137 ""ibid., 138  p.  1 3 9  p.  113.  116.  Camus,  Noces,  p.  117.  Camus,  L'Ete,  p.  118.  de  ses  cannot,  -  -  This  is  the  reflected  b e g i n n i n g o f Camus' own e x i l e  constantly Caligula,  c o n s i d e r e d i n the play,  Caligula,  During the  i n his'V'oeuvre" f r o m 1941 written  has had a t  a c t i o n of the  At t h e  emperor C a l i g u l a  i n 1939,  i s the  s e c o n d p e r i o d o f Camus  1  however,  which i s  1952.  oeuvre.  m a j o r work t o 140  be  The h e r o o f  this  relationship with nature.  he i s no l o n g e r a b l e t o  enjoy  he i s o b s e s s e d by " l ' a b s u r d e " .  death of h i s beloved s i s t e r fled  to  first  one t i m e a c l o s e  play,  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p because 5  from n a t u r e ,  47  into i s o l a t i o n .  Drusilla,  the  young Roman  T h e r e he d i s c o v e r e d an a l l 141  important t r u t h : This  i s the  of i t .  et  i l s ne s o n t  " a b s u r d " which haunts C a l i g u l a  Back i n h i s p a l a c e ,  u n l i m i t e d death against  " L e s hommes meurent  death;  he d e c i d e s t o  on h i s s u b j e c t s  from the  pas  heureux."  moment he i s  impose u n r e a s o n a b l e  i n an e f f o r t  to  f o r o n l y by r e v o l t i n g w i l l t h e y  make them l e a r n to  aware  and  revolt  prize  the  142 wonderful l i f e  which i s t h e i r * s  i n the  The a b s u r d p r e o c c u p i e s h a s no t i m e to  f o r anything else  Thus,  when H e l i c o n ,  C a l i g u l a to  i n his l i f e .  make h i s e m p i r e aware o f t h e  death.  present.  his  such an extent t h a t He i s  especially  he  anxious  " a b s u r d " by i n i t i a t i n g a programme f r i e n d and a d v i s e r ,  suggests:  of  "...tu  143 devrais plus is  d'abord te  reposer"  jamais p o s s i b l e . "  essential  to  the  ,  Caligula replies:  No t i m e t o  rest  "...cela  means no l e i s u r e ,  c o n t e m p l a t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  ne and  sera leisure  nature.  140 A l t h o u g h C a l i g u l a , w r i t t e n i n 1938, i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y a work o f t h e f i r s t p e r i o d , i t b e l o n g s , i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e m a n - n a t u r e theme, t o t h e second p e r i o d . 1 4 1  Camus,  Caligula  (Paris,  1958),  I,  4,  p.  1 4? ^ i b i d . , I V , 9, p . 207. Cf. L'Envers. p. de v i v r e sans d e s e s p o i r de v i v r e . " 1 4 3  ibid.,  I,  4,  p.  113.  112. 113:  "II  n ' y a pas  d'amour  -  -  Before the  death of D r u s i l l a ,  48  C a l i g u l a probably enjoyed a  144 close  r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature.  "absurd",  Once he becomes o b s e s s e d w i t h  h o w e v e r , , communion w i t h n a t u r e  satisfying  experience  for  him: " . . . j e  the  i s no l o n g e r a c o m p l e t e l y  sais  trop l a force  de ma 145  p a s s i o n pour l a v i e , Joy i n nature  elle  ne se s a t i s f e r a  i s not a n a d e q u a t e  i s not  eternal.  approach to  because  it  nature,  he must t a k e d e a t h i n t o a c c o u n t  C a l i g u l a makes t h e  mistake,  nature's  beauties  the two:  joy i n nature  absurd.  Thus,  however,  le  q u i est et  Caligula loses chose 144  h i s enjoyment  death,  is  joy i n  Only a balance a solution to  of the  fails. for nature,  there are  moments  l a mienne,  je pouvais gouter 146  vraie,  d'un arbre.  d u l l e d by t h e  his s e n s i t i v i t y to  la  many d e a t h s  nature  he has i m p o s e d ,  altogether:  "Ce q u e l q u e  147 en m o i , ce l a c de s i l e n c e , c e s h e r b e s p o u r r i e s . " By A c t I I I , C a l i g u l a i s i n c o m p l e t e e x i l e f r o m n a t u r e .  See p . 47  of  thesis.  145 Camus,  Caligula,  of  de c e t t e s o l i t u d e empoisonnee de  l e tremblement  Eventually,  Caligula  pleasures:  du m o i n s , a u l i e u  silence  for  of suppressing h i s  and d e s p a i r at  when he l o n g s f o r i t s  nature,."  i n h i s p a s s i o n for.; l i f e .  and d w e l l i n g on d e a t h a l o n e .  Caligula's solution  presences  life  Since death c u t s short  A l t h o u g h C a l i g u l a has no t i m e  ...si  pas de l a  II,  14,  1 4 6  ibid.,  II,  14,  p.  165.  1 4 7  ibid.,  II,: ,14,  p.  164.  p p . 163-164.  At  -  this not  point, the  s o l u t i o n to  By t h e n , led  he s u s p e c t s  however,  the  it  role,  is  gramme o f d e a t h :  first  absurd:  "...trop  i s too  before D r u s i l l a ' s  important  f o r the  late  death,  " . . . i l  he i s  of nature. expressed  f o r him t o  faut  t u r n back.  He must  is  degarnit." The l i f e  148  he  had an  continue his  pro-  p o u r s u i v r e l a l o g i q u e . Le p o u v o i r  . ne r e v i e n t  unable to  cela  death  i n w h i c h communion w i t h n a t u r e  Although C a l i g u l a i s play,  arbitrary  de m o r t s ,  now an i m p o s s i b i l i t y .  , , . . jusqu'au bout...one  the  time that  pas  .» ,,148 arriere....  en  d o m i n a t e d by t h e  absurd throughout  completely suppress h i s  Manifestations of the  j o y he once  i n various reminiscences  fundamental l o v e  found i n nature  are  and i n h i s manner o f s p e a k i n g . 149  Caligula's largely  on t h e i r  admits,  himself, to  love for Scipion  common j o y i n n a t u r e ' s  They d i s c o v e r t h i s  Scipion:  parlais  d'un certain  is  In f a c t , memes  based Caligula  verites."^^  when S c i p i o n r e c o u n t s  the  written: a c c o r d de l a t e r r e . . . e t a u s s i  et  bouleversant  q u ' y ramene  le  de c e t  apaisement  de  fugitif  soir...  interjects:  du c r i des m a r t i n e t s Scipion  1 4 8  just  l i g n e des c o l l i n e s r o m a i n e s e t  Et  young p o e t ,  " . . . n o u s aimons l e s  la  Caligula  the  beauties.  mutual l o v e o f nature  c o n t e n t s o f a poem he has J'y  ,  dans l e  ciel  vert.  continues: de c e t t e m i n u t e s u b t i l e ou l e  Camus,  Caligula,  III,  149  5,  p.  c i e l encore  plein  d'or  185.  C a l i g u l a ' s s o l u t i o n t o t h e a b s u r d demands t h a t he be f r i e n d s w i t h no one so t h a t he may be p e r f e c t l y o b j e c t i v e i n m e t i n g out d e a t h . C a l i g u l a , however, c a n n o t s u p p r e s s h i s deep a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e young Scipion. 1 5 G  ibid.,  II,  14,  p.  163.  - 50 -  brusquement  bascule  autre  gorgee  Again,  face,  Caligula  e t " n o u s montre en un i n s t a n t d'etoiles  de l a t e r r e v e r s  S c i p i o n goes  luisantes.  interjects:  de c e t t e o d e u r de fumee, alors  d'arbres  et  d'eaux  on: des c i g a l e s  et  And f o r t h e  t h i r d time,  C a l i g u l a completes  l a retombee  des  chaleurs... Scipion*s thoughts:  et  l e s chemins n o y e s d ' o m b r e s dans l e s ,. . 151 les oliviers. scene  clearly indicates that  himself has,  at  one t i m e ,  h i s communion i s  lentisques  et  C a l i g u l a understands the  of a close r e l a t i o n s h i p with n a t u r e .  however,  q u i monte  la nuit.  Le c r i  This  son  Moreover, i t  been i n c l o s e  experience  implies that  he  communion w i t h n a t u r e .  no l o n g e r a r e a l i t y ,  but a f o n d  Here,  recol-  lection. Not o n l y h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e s which C a l i g u l a uses n i n g of the i n terms  suggest  a s e n s i t i v i t y to  p l a y when he r e t u r n s  of nature the  but a l s o t h e  figures of  nature.  At t h e  from i s o l a t i o n , C a l i g u l a  speech begin-  expresses  b u r n i n g d e s i r e he once had f o r i m m o r t a l i t y :  152 "Je  voulais l a lune."  had the Then,  moon.  O n l y once  however,  of the  natural world.  he f e l t  f o r a moment p a r t  In a l o v e l y  151  1 5 2  ibid.,  Caligula. I,  ever  4,  p>  II, 110.  14,  p p . 162-163.  of  the  sensual description  he d e p i c t s t h e moon as a b e a u t i f u l woman who came t o  Camus,  has he  One s u c h o c c a s i o n was t h e . p r e v i o u s summer, he e x p l a i n s .  i n a deep u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e ,  timelessness  or twice,  sleep with him:  ...c'etait  pendant  d'abord toute acommence  une b e l l e n u i t  sanglante,  a monter,  d'adut....  au-dessus  de 1 ' h o r i z o n .  de p l u s en p l u s l e g e r e . . . .  montait,  plus e l l e  devenait  laiteuse  au m i l i e u  de c e t t e n u i t p l e i n e de  d'etoiles. legere  et  Elle  est  arrivee  sourires  Since t h i s In other  sible  death cannot  Therefore,  alors  et  de s o n  experience,  moon a g a i n . dream;  claire...comme  n u e . . . j u s q u ' a . mon l i t ,  i n o n d e de s e s  words,  he d e c i d e s t o  confondre l a i d e u r  that  elle  d'eau  froissements douce,  et  m'a  of the  faire  been a b l e t o  immortality i s  There i s  order  beaute,  elle  eclat.  be a v o i d e d .  et  un l a c  C a l i g u l a has not  the  Puis Plus  s*y est coulee 153  he r e a l i z e s  upset  -  etait  dans l a c h a l e u r ,  p r e s s e s h i m s e l f i n t e r m s drawn f r o m n a t u r e : l a mer,  Elle  51  "Je  only the world.  le  the  an i m p o s -  "absurd". Again,  veux m e l e r l e  jaillir  find  rire  de  he  ex-  c i e l a. la  154 souffranee." By t h e attitude subject  end o f A c t I V , C a l i g u l a seems t o  to. e x i s t e n c e . is  death.  It  I n Scene is  13,  tacitly  he h o l d s a p o e t r y  S c i p i o n ' s poem w h i c h t o  admit a new  contest;  C a l i g u l a seems  the to  155 c o n t a i n " l e s v r a i e s l e g o n s de l a m o r t " . Scipion writes: C h a s s e . a u bonheur q u i f a i t l e s e t r e s p u r s , C i e l ou l e s o l e i l r u i s s e l l e , ,(-,F e t e s u n i q u e s et s a u v a g e s , mon d e l i r e s a n s e s p o i r ! Death,  the  i n terms o f l i f e ' s just 1 5 3  death alone,  Camus,  i^ibid.,  enjoyments: but  Caligula, I,  11,  h o r r i b l e and f i n a l  p.  3,  p.  depicted  a sky s t r e a m i n g w i t h s u n s h i n e .  joy i n l i f e  III,  end o f a l l men i s  and d e s p a i r  at  death are  the  Not dual  180.  126.  1 5 5 i b i d . , I V , 12, p . 216. Like Caligula, Scipion eventually finds enjoyment o f n a t u r e ' an i n a d e q u a t e a p p r o a c h t o l i f e ; a n d , l i k e C a l i g u l a , he r e a l i z e s i t s i n a d e q u a c y once he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h d e a t h . I n Act I V , S c e n e 13, p . 2 1 7 , he t e l l s C a l i g u l a : " . . j e c r o i s que j e t ' a i c o m p r i s . . . . Je v a i s p a r t i r t r e s l o i n c h e r c h e r l e s r a i s o n s de t o u t c e l a " , t h a t i s , he i s g o i n g t o s e e k a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e a b s u r d by m e d i t a t i n g i n s o l i t u d e as C a l i g u l a d i d .  - 52 -  realities  of existence, Man's e x i l e  and t h e  dual response  from n a t u r e  is  work t o  be s t u d i e d : Le M a l e n t e n d u .  Martha,  the  heroine,  subjected to is  never  one c l i m a t e  able to  attraction,  suffers  reach.  the  "absurd".  a l s o a m a j o r theme i n t h e In t h i s  exile  to  play,  from n a t u r e  written i n  f o r another  This  nature,  dual attitude  to  p r o v i d e s her c h i e f m o t i v a t i o n f o r Somewhere i n E u r o p e ,  1943,  i n two ways.  she d e t e s t s and l o n g s  next  She  is  w h i c h she  r e p u l s i o n and  murder.  M a r t h a and h e r o l d mother own a  little-  156 frequented i n n . the  unjust  L i k e the  climate  y o u n g Camus i n P r a g u e  of Europe.  She r e p r o a c h e s  ,  Martha  h e r mother  loathes  for  giving  157 b i r t h to  her i n t h i s  " p a y s de n u a g e s " .  Spring,  which i s  generally  158 a  joyous awakening o f n a t u r e , Ce  is  "aigre"  que nous a p p e l o n s l e p r i n t e m p s ,  ici,  in this  land:  c'est  une r o s e  et  159 deux b o u r g e o n s . . . . Martha f e e l s only  "ennui"  from i t  to  Un s o u f f l e p l u s p u i s s a n t like  a stranger  and u n h a p p i n e s s i n h e r .  a sunnier land:  "...je  in this She wants  suis lasse  les  fanerait....  climate.  It  arouses  desperately to  I m o u r i r de c e t  escape  horizon  160 ferme."  Thus i t  who  stay i n t h e i r  come t o  they plan to  leave  is  that  she and h e r mother r o b and murder  inn.  enoughmoney a c c u m u l a t e d ,  Europe f o r good:  Camus,  L'Envers,  Camus,  Le M a l e n t e n d u ( P a r i s ,  'ibid.,  II,  1, p .  'ibid.,  II,  1, p p . 56-57.  ibid.,  I,  8, p .  When t h e y have  p.  14.  56.  48.  1958), I ,  8, p .  those  49.  -  Quand nou a u r o n s  amasse beaucoup d ' a r g e n t  rons  terres  quitter  ville  ces  pluvieuse...ce 161  et  que nous  sans h o r i z o n . . . c e t t e  pays d ' o m b r e . . . c e  auberge  jour-la,  53  pouret  cette  v o u s me v e r r e z  sourire. Martha i s repelled  by t h e  l e d to  climate  commit murder not  of Europe,  but a l s o  o n l y because because  she  she  is  is  attracted  162 to  the  s u n and s e a o f s o u t h e r n l a n d s .  f o r M a r t h a ; she hopes i t J'ai  lu...qu'il  destroy  /le s o l e i l y  q u ' i l f a i s a i t des . . 163 l'xnteneur. 1  will  corps  7  memory o f m i s e r y and m u r d e r :  mangeait  j u s q u ' a u x ames  resplendissants,  et  mais v i d e s  par  on t h e  other  164 hand,  " h o l d s out  f r e e d o m f r o m h a r d work and f r o m t h e In the decide to however,  commit one l a s t  play,  murder b e f o r e  t h e i r ' next v i c t i m t u r n s daughter  years before.  l i b e r t y " to  oppressive  opening scene o f the  mother n o r t h e  twenty  the  oblivion  t  The s e a ,  the  The s u n r e p r e s e n t s  out  recognize  to  Martha  climate  , that  of Europe.  M a r t h a and h e r  leaving Europe.  mother  Unfortunately,  be M a r t h a ' s b r o t h e r .  Jan,  who had l e f t  P o r f i v e y e a r s now, he has  is,  Neither  home as  a boy  been l i v i n g h a p p i l y  w i t h h i s w i f e M a r i a i n N o r t h A f r i c a " d a n s un p a y s  que nous a i m i o n s ,  165 devant  l a mer et The  le  soleil."  evening Jan a r r i v e s  at  the  i n n , he has an  c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h M a r t h a d u r i n g w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s ^"*"Camus, Le M a l e n t e n d u , I , 1 , p . 1 6 .  the  important beauties  of  162 L i k e M a r t h a , M e u r s a u l t i s l e d t o commit murder because a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n o f n a t u r e ; p'. 38 o f t h e s i s . 163 Camus, Le M a l e n t e n d u , I , 1, g . 1 9 .  of  the  S . J o h n n o t e s : " . . . t h e sun i s d o u b l y d e s t r u c t i v e b e c a u s e i t c a n o n l y be e n j o y e d o v e r t h e c o r p s e s o f M a r t h a ' s v i c t i m s and i t a n n i h i l a t e s c o n s c i e n c e and t h o u g h t , and so v o i d s man o f h i s h u m a n i t y . " "Image and Symbol i n A l b e r t C a m u s " , F S , 9, N o . 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 4 2 - 5 3 . 165  Camus,  Le M a l e n t e n d u , I ,  3,  p.  24.  -  -  A f r i c a to  her:  "Le . p r i n t e m p s . . . v o u s prend a l a gorge,  les  54  fleurs 166  eclosent is  par m i l l i e r s . . . 1  like  o d e u r de m i e l  des  a second s p r i n g ; c o l o u r f u l leaves  e a r l y morning, the The  1  evening i s  beach i s  roses  replace  covered with the  overwhelming, f u l l  of "des  -jaunes." the  delicate  promesses  Autumn  flowers.  In  tracks  birds.  of  the  de b o n h e u r . "  J a n ' s g l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f A f r i c a makes M a r t h a e v e n more discontented Je  n'ai  w i t h her  lot:  p l u s de p a t i e n c e  l'automne a l e visage • * 168  en r e s e r v e p o u r c e t t e E u r o p e ou  de p r i n t e m p s et  le  printemps  odeur  de mxsere she  remarks  bitterly  d u r i n g her  conversation  with Jan.  He has  s t r e n g t h e n e d h e r d e s i r e t o go t o A f r i c a a n d , t h u s , g i v e n h e r , , . . . 169 armes c o n t r e l u i " : I I a r e v e i l l e en moi des d e s i r s q u i , p e u t - e t r e , s'end o r m a i e n t . . . . Mon gout p o u r l a mer et „. . 170 f m i r a par y gagner. A l t h o u g h h e r mother i s Martha determines i n t o the goal:  "II  river.  to  go a h e a d .  A f t e r the  u n e a s y about  171  murder,  me semble que j ' e n t e n d s  les  Jan i s  pays du s o l e i l  killing  drugged,  Martha f e e l s deja  "des  l a mer."  this  r o b b e d and dumped .  much c l o s e r 172  guest,  to  She i s t o  her be  166 Camus,  Le M a l e n t e n d u , I I ,  1 6 7  ibid.,  II,  1,  p.  51.  l 6 8  ibid.,  II,  1,  p.  57.  1 6 9  ibid.,  II,  8,  p.  72.  II,  1,  p.  59.  1,  p.  56.  170 'ibid., 171 M a r t h a i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e murder o f J a n . H e r mother h e l p s h e r because she wants M a r t h a t o a c h i e v e h a p p i n e s s . As f o r h e r : " J e me s o u c i e peu de m o u r i r devant l a mer ou au c e n t r e de nos p l a i n e s . . Camus, Le M a l e n t e n d u , I , 1, p . 1 8 . i b i d . , I l l , 1, p . 7 4 . 1 7 2  -  -  disappointed,  however,  news o f h e r v i c t i m ' s neither life:  dream.  identity,  the  sun, the  sea,  happiness.  one who d e s e r v e s p i t y .  s t r i c k e n at  their  identity,deaf  to  crime.  enough money,  her mother's  Her mother,  pleas,  death  of  someone  "absurd":  change  C o n f r o n t e d f o r the  she l o v e s ,  "Pourquoi c r i e r  She  a l l the  or l a t e r ,  she  other  joys  in  he had  hand,  discovers  i n Martha. leave  her  is  to is  horror-  son's  i n the  river.  Because she now  f o r the  south,  despite  time,  however,  by t h e  M a r t h a s u d d e n l y becomes  aware o f  the  vers  first  the  feels  had t h e s e p l e a s u r e s ,  on t h e  her to  brings  calmly.  she drowns h e r s e l f  one would e x p e c t  death.  Sooner  who has n e v e r  Then o c c u r s a c u r i o u s has  love.  Minutes a f t e r  Martha's  it  He has e x p e r i e n c e d  another's She,  When an o l d s e r v a n t  Martha r e c e i v e s  love nor p i t y f o r J a n .  pay f o r h i s the  i n her  l a mer ou v e r s  55  1'amour? C e l a  est  173 derisoire" —  nature  , . she s a y s t o or  love —  Jan's  wife,  when man cannot  Maria.  prevent  N o t h i n g has any meaning the  certain  • faces him,,, t h i s therefore, she  to  "injustice .qu'on-fait  remain i n Europe,  death which  174  a l'homme".  exiled forever  from the  She i s joys  doomed, of  nature  desires: ...je  reste  solitaire,  T o u t e ma v i e m*emporterait  s'est et  je  loin  de l a mer dont  p a s s e e dans l ' a t t e n t e sais  j'avais  soif....  de c e t t e vague  q u ' e l l e ne v i e n d r a p l u s !  II  me  qui faut  Camus, Le M a l e n t e n d u , I I I , 3, p . 94. C a l i g u l a made a s i m i l a r d i s c o v e r y at t h e d e a t h o f D r u s i l l a . He s a y s at one p o i n t t o C a e s o n i a : " L ' a m o u r ne m ' e s t pas s u f f i s a n t . . . . " , Camus, C a l i g u l a , I V , 13, p . 223; a n d t o S c i p i o n : " . . . l ' a m i t i e me f a i t r i r e . " Camus, C a l i g u l a , I , 10, p. 123. Camus,  Le M a l e n t e n d u , I I I ,  3,  p.  94.  -  -  demeurer et  avec...une  de montagnes,  j a c a s s e m e n t s et  f o u l e de p e u p l e s  qui arretent les  murmures  As M a r t h a s e e s i t , "Vous avez gluant  a choisir  entre  only resignation  despair,  Martha chooses t o  cussions  of the  1941-1943,  are  l e vent  de l a mer et  etouffent  son a p p e l  "absurd" leaves  de  plaines  dont V- - *  les 175  repete.  man o n l y / t w o  choices:  le  to  death  d i e as  or  suicide.  I n a mood o f  J a n and h e r mother  did —  lit words,  utter by d r o w n i n g  river. "La Peste"  central  de n a t i o n s ,  bonheur s t u p i d e des c a i l l o u x et l e 176 177 ou nous v o u s a t t e n d o n s " , she t e l l s M a r i a . In other  there i s  i n the  the  et  56  man-nature  depicts  man's  characters,  separated  s u f f e r the  i s the  next  work t o  theme.  This novel,  i s o l a t i o n from n a t u r e  quarantined i n the  from the  hostilities  be c o n s i d e r e d  natural  dis-  i n the  years  i n two w a y s .  plague-ridden city  world they  of a nature  written  i n the  love,  which i s the  of  The Oran,  and condemned very  symbol o f  to the  plague. Already surroundings pletely  175 1 7 6  .  i n " L e M i n o t a u r e " Camus had d i s c u s s e d O r a n and Here a g a i n ,  devoid of nature's  Camus,  ibid.,  3,  p.  this  city  which i s  com-  beauties:  Le M a l e n t e n d u , I I I , Ill,  he d e s c r i b e s  its  2,  p.  83.  94.  177 M a r t h a ' s d e s p a i r i n g end i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m M e u r s a u l t ' s , f o r example. He manages t o f i n d an e q u i l i b r i u m between j o y i n n a t u r e and d e s p a i r at d e a t h . M a r t h a , who has n e v e r known l i f e ' s p l e a s u r e s , e x p e r i e n c e s v o n l y d e s p a i r , and d e s p a i r a l o n e must r e s u l t i n s u i c i d e . O t h e r f r i g i d women i n Camus' works end i n s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n t o o : D o r a i n L e s J u s t e s and J a n i n e i n L a Femme a d u l t e r e . 178 p . 42 o f t h e s i s .  -  -  La  cite...est  laide...une ville  sans p i g e o n s ,  sans  j a r d i n s . . . n i battements d ' a i l e s 179 f e u i l l e s , un l i e u n e u t r e . . . . Yet,  it  lies  in a beautiful  ...elle d'un  s'est  greffee  Unfortunately,  however,  measures  among t h e s e  nor leave  it  inhabitants  closed.  the  was b u i l t  against  the  the  Ordinarily,  devant  une  with the  over.  e x i l e d to  this  plague i s  the  city,  combine t o  of nature. city  "sans  the quite  bay.  A l a r m e d by t h e takes  epidemic.  Most  no one c a n  enter  In a d d i t i o n , the  a p p r o a c h o f summer,  summer o f t h e  back t o  m u n i c i p a l government  of the  T h e s e two measures  t h e y are  goyous-f^but t h e  de  au m i l i e u  spread o f the  quarantine  plague i s  with i t s  plague h i t s O r a n .  o f O r a n f r o m any enjoyment  plague,  sans e g a l ,  de c o l l i n e s l u m i n e u s e s ,  city  i s the  u n t i l the  declared  of the  the  one d a y ,  important  are  n i froissements  s u r un paysage  i n c r e a s i n g number o f d e a t h s ,  various preventive  arbres,  parfait.  Suddenly, steadily  -  setting:  p l a t e a u n u , entoure  b a i e au d e s s i n  sans  57  city's  isolate Por the  beaches  the duration  vegetation".  " O r a n a i s " would have different:  been  " . . . l a mer 181  proche  etait  Gradually, Por them,  interdite  the as  et  le  forbidden sea  f o r Martha, i t  corps  n'avait  becomes is  less  a symbol o f  plus droit and l e s s  a ses  r e a l to  freedom,  joies." the  "Oranais".  a symbol w h i c h 182  "recedes  f r o m minds t h a t Not  is  b i r d s care to  absent:  179  Camus, 180.,.. ibid., 1 8 1  even t h e  no l o n g e r dare t o  ibid.,  182  John,  La Peste, _ p . 16.  p.  135.  c  p.  129.  "Image and S y m b o l " ,  p.  50.  visit  d w e l l on f r e e d o m " . this  city  from which nature  - 58  Des  bandes s i l e n c i e u s e s  sud, si  passerent  le  haut,  f l e a u . . . l e s tenait The  is  tres  d'etourneaux  " O r a n a i s " sense  et  de g r i v e s ,  mais c o n t o u r n e r e n t a  l'ecart.  v e n a n t du  la ville,  comme  1 8 3  vaguely that  their  i s o l a t i o n from nature  harmful: ...soudain couvercle  conscients  du c i e l . . . i l s  r e c l u s i o n menagait The  the  realities  nature  toute  leur  they  own n a t i v e  ...une terre  confusement  vie....  spend t h e i r  le  que c e t t e  i n Oran when t h e  of a l l .  T h e i r eyes  city  closed  to  days and n i g h t s r e c a l l i n g  land:  ou une c e r t a i n e  f a v o r i et  sous  1 8 4  be caught  most u n f o r t u n a t e e x i l e s  of Oran,  in their  l'arbre  sentaiant  o u t s i d e r s who happened t o  was c l o s e d a r e the  d ' u n e s o r t e de s e q u e s t r a t i o n ,  des v i s a g e s  l u m i e r e , deux ou t r o i s  collines,  de femmes c o m p o s a i e n t  un c l i m a t  p o u r eux i r r e m p l a c a b l e . Man's world.  exile  The t r i t e  suggests  a total  harrangues  his  from n a t u r e  nature  i s also  registered  i m a g e r y u s e d by F a t h e r  l a c k o f any r e a l  i n the  Christian  Paneloux i n h i s  s e n s i t i v i t y to  nature.  Thus,  sermons he  congregation:  Dans 1*immense grange battra  de l ' u n i v e r s , l e  l e b l e humain j u s q u ' a ce • 6 du g r a i n .  f l e a u implacable  que l a p a i l l e  soit  separee  1 8  T h e r e must be " d e s  183  Camus,  La Peste,  ibid.,  p.  115.  1 8 5  ibid.,  p.  88.  1 8 6  ibid.,  p.  110.  semailles qui prepareraient  p.  207.  l e s m o i s s o n s de  la  -  verite."  187  Only then w i l l  "cette  lueur exquise  59  -  d'eternite..eclaire...  188 les  chemins c r e p u s c u l a i r e s "  banal  expression o f n a t u r e ,  of their l i f e . the  l i v i n g nature  By c o n t r a s t outside the  to  Paneloux's  church  seems  f r e s h and r e a l : ...un  vent  assaillit  violent  s ' e n g o u f f r a par l a porte  en p l e i n e f a c e l e s  f i d e l e s . II  entrouverte  apportait  et  dans ,  l'eglise  une o d e u r de p l u i e ,  Nature,  at  first  m e r e l y absent  a d e f i n i t e annoyance t o t h e m . with the the to  outbreak of the  city.  The t e r r i b l e  make t h e  u n p a r f u m de t r o t t o i r  The coming o f t h e  plague. heat,  f r o m men's hot  the  bright  des e c l a t s  d'argent  une t o r p e u r morne r e g n a i t . . . . . , 190 du c i e l . The  wind too  from the  i n c r e a s i n g the  fire  is  light,  the  ou de f e r ,  soon  season  becomes  coincides  dust,  a l l combine  "Oranais".  La Peste,  '''^ibid.,  p.  113.  1 8 9  ibid.,  p.  248.  1 9 0  ibid.,  p.  43.  plain,  douloureux sur l a  mer,  un peu p r i s o n n i e r  F o r days on e n d , caking the  it  blows  c i t y w i t h dust  and  hazard. nature It  187 Camus,  On se s e n t a i t  unpleasant.  sea over the  Eventually, the  lives,  The sun b e a t s down u n m e r c i f u l l y on  p o u r l a v u e . . . . Dans l a v i l l e . . . a . p e i n e o u v e r t e  against  mouille.  e x i l e d "Oranais" uncomfortable:  La m e r . . . p r e n a i t  violently  189  p.  112.  is  j o i n s the the  p l a g u e " a n d becomes an  heat w h i c h i s  aggressor  responsible for  multi-  - 60 -  p l y i n g the  germs at  a terrific  rate:  "Ghacun comprenait  a v e c e f f r o i que  191 les  chaleurs  aideraient  symbol o f t h e the  plague.  plague.  l'epidemie." Constantly i t  People close  ...sans  Indeed,  q u ' o n put  their  is  nature  very  l i n k e d and e v e n c o n f u s e d w i t h  d o o r s and windows, f o r  savoir s i  becomes t h e  c'etait  de l a p e s t e  example.  ou du  192 soleil Moreover, Ce  qu'on entendait  nature  and t h e  silence,  a i n s i se  p l a g u e have  Thus,  l'air  the ...ce  etait  d'ete,  de l a p o u s s i e r e que l a c e n t a i n e 194  it  ces  hard to rires  characteristics: des mouvements,  pouvaieht  que c e u x du f l e a u . On ne  l o u r d de menaces  "Oranais" find ciel  similar  c e t t e mort des c o u l e u r s et  e t r e a u s s i b i e n c e u x de l ' e t e si  proteger.  ou de p o u s s i e r e s separate the  qui palissaient;;  et de 1 ' e n n u i , a v a i e n t de m o r t s dont l a v i l l e  et  savait *  193  de b r u l u r e .  two: sous l e s  teintes  l e meme sens menagant s ' a l o u r d i s s a i t chaque  jour. About two o ' c l o c k rendez-vous i n the ...le  silence,  every day,  Camus,  La Peste,  ibid.,  p.  127. '  193 * ibid., 194  p.  158.  ^lbid.,  p.  129.  ibid.,  p.  137.  1 9 2  1 9 5  and t h e  plague hold  a  streets: l a poussiere,  le  c o n t r e n t dans l a r u e . . . . Ce s o n t .. 195 sonnieres.... At t w i l i g h t , however, comes a r e s p i t e 191  nature  p.  128.  soleil  et  l a p e s t e se  ren-  de l o n g u e s h e u r e s p r i from the  p l a g u e and n a t u r e .  The  -  sun,  s i n k i n g low on t h e  over the  h o r i z o n seems t o  lose  some o f i t s  61  a w f u l power  plague-infested c i t y .  Toute l ' a n g o i s s e  q u i se p e i n t dans l a j o u r n e e  sur les  visages 195  se  resout  alors,  dans l e  Eventually, grip  on t h e  "Oranais".  a p a r t i a l release Rieux.  of  and t h e  Before the  e n j o y e d by t h e  E a r l y i n the  Since the  nature  crepuscule ardent  novel,  O r a n and swimming i n t h e  R i e u x d e c i d e one day t o  poussiereux.  plague r e l e a s e  final  their  terrible  l i b e r a t i o n , however, t h e r e  two main c h a r a c t e r s :  Tarrou i s  beginning of s p r i n g ,  et  d e p i c t e d as  T a r r o u and  a lover of  nature.  he has been s e e n s u n n i n g on t h e  sea.  In the t h i c k of the  disregard the  is  plague,  beaches he and  law and go f o r a swim i n t h e  196 sea. Peu  avant  d'y arriver,  l ' o d e u r de l ' i o d e et  annonce l a m e r . . . .  Elle  velours,  lisse  The  s o u p l e et sea  sifflait  plein  these  of  their  ils  two, the  d'un etrange  l o n g months o f t h e bonheur.  avancerent  195  Camus,  avec  La Peste,  In the  w a t e r t h e y swim " d a n s  l a meme c a d e n c e p.  et  ,  they  plague:  Tourne vers  swim i s t a k e n " p o u r l ' a m i t i e "  friendship.  comme du  bete.  il : d e v i n a . . . c e meme b o n h e u r q u i n ' o u b l i a i t r i e n , , . . ' 197 l'assassxnat. 198 For  leur  two a f e e l i n g o f h a p p i n e s s w h i c h  have n o t e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g a l l t h e Rieux e t a i t  doucement...epaisse  comme une  i n s p i r e s i n the  des a l g u e s  as  Tarrou,  pas meme  a  consecration  l e meme r y t h m e . . . ,  l a meme v i g u e u r . . . i l s a v a i e n t  137.  196 T h i s i s t h e o n l y e p i s o d e i n the n o v e l i n which the d e p i c t e d i n c l o s e communion w i t h n a t u r e . 197 * ' i b i d . , p . 277. 1 9 8  ibid.,  p.  276.  characters  are  -  -  lei meme c o e u r . . . . also  "an act It  A  2  0  199  Beyond an e x p r e s s i o n o f f r i e n d s h i p ,  of p u r i f i c a t i o n from the  the  p l a g u e . . . a n d a means o f  62  -  swim i s recovering  0  freedom". R e t u r n i n g home a f t e r  their  r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y must resume t h e i r e v e n t u a l l y t h e y may be f r e e pleasures  of nature With the  the is  pale  and  and t h e  fight against  again to  enjoy l i f e ,  the that  plague l o s e s  its  cold,  force.  the  p l a g u e so i s to  that  say,  the  la vraie  patrie  se t r o u v a i t  g r e y c l o u d s and  Then,  " O r a n a i s " f r e e d from t h e i r t e r r i b l e  P o u r eux t o u s $  T a r r o u and R i e u x  friendship.  a r r i v a l of winter — the  sunlight — the  lifted  union i n nature,  the  quarantine  exile:  a u - d e l a des murs  de c e t t e v i l l e e t o u f f e e . E l l e e t a i t dans c e s b r o u s a i l l e s o d o r a n t e s s u r l e s c o l l i n e s , dans l a m e r . . . c e t a i t vers e l l e , 201 c ' e t a i t vers l e bonheur, q u ' i l s v o u l a i e n t r e v e n i r . 1  SBarch " R e t o u r a T i p a s a " , i n the 1952.  It  is  a very important  i n Camus' a t t i t u d e o f h i s work. Algeria. nature,  towards  In content  placing it  the  i n the  h i s r e d i s c o v e r y of the  nificance  i n his l i f e .  i n w h i c h man r e t u r n s  war,  introduces the  f o r a b r i e f time to  199 Camus, 2 0 0  2 0 1  John,  Camus,  La Peste,  p.  278.  "Image aCnd s y m b o l " , La Peste,  p.  522.  p.  51.  change  s e c b n d and t h i r d p e r i o d s w h i c h Camus made  describes  pleausres  was w r i t t e n i n  states c l e a r l y the  two t r i p s  second p e r i o d .  describes  It  it  between t h e  concerns  One, s h o r t l y a f t e r thus  work i n t h a t  nature  it  c o l l e c t i o n L ' Et e,  to  h i s sense  of e x i l e  The o t h e r ,  taken i n  of nature  and t h e i r  from 1952,  sig-  t h i r d p e r i o d o f Camus' work, a close  r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature,  -  The  exile  w h i c h Camus e x p e r i e n c e d  T i p a s a i s announced a l r e a d y T u as n a v i g u e franchissant terre  d'une  ame f u r i e u s e  acrid nuit  beauties,  tiny  l'hiver  return  essay:  de l a demeure  paternelle,  2 0 2  Camus was v e r y  203  sensitive  to  Tipasa's the  However, t h e war and i t s a f t e r m a t h , 204  des v i s a g e s "  b o t h i n body and s p i r i t : des ames m o r t e s . "  to  roses i n bloom, the c h i r p i n g o f c i c a d a s ,  odour o f a b s i n t h e . d'Europe,  loin  return  r o c h e r s de l a mer, et t u h a b i t e s une  (Medee)  When he was y o u n g , natural  i n the epigraph to the  l e s doubles  etrangere.  i n his first  63  "C'est  • took  him f a r away from  l e temps de l ' e x i l ,  Soon a f t e r  nature,  de l a v i e s e c h e ,  t h e war, t h e r e f o r e ,  to A l g e r i a , to T i p a s a i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  "la  Camus d e c i d e d t o  i n search o f "une l i b e r t e  20 6 que  j e ne p o u v a i s  oublier"  munion w i t h n a t u r e .  ,  a liberty  w h i c h comes f r o m a c l o s e  Y e t , when he s e e s T i p a s a a g a i n ,  it  has  com-  changed  from the T i p a s a o f h i s c h i l d h o o d .  The r u i n s t h r o u g h which he wandered  are  w a l k i n g at n i g h t  now s u r r o u n d e d by b a r b e d w i r e ;  Fittingly  enough,  rain falls  Like Tipasa, ...j'avais les  polices,  a l l the r u i n s .  Camus and h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  commence  barbells,  over  par l a p l e n i t u d e .  j e veux d i r e  l e temps de l a  is prohibited.  Ensuite  les tyrannies,  have  etaient  l a guerre,  203 204  Camus, Cf.  L'Ete.  p . 141.  the f i r s t  period,  Camas, 205 2 0 6  2 0 7  Ete, p.  144.  i b i d M  p.  150.  ibid.,  p.  145.  ibid.,  p p . 147-148.  p . 22  changed:  venus les  revolte.  Sous l a l u m i e r e des i n c e n d i e s , l e m o n d e . . . a v a i t J t . . 207 d ' u n s e u -, l c o u p , et+ nous a v e c l, u x 20?  also  of  thesis.  vieilli  -  -  T h e war has innocence. to  nature,  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what Camus t e r m s  Before the blissfully  one a n o t h e r .  war,  unaware o f t h e  Once c o n s c i o u s  i n n o c e n c e was f o r e v e r C'est la  que l e  -  +  sang,  •  On h i s  first  from n a t u r e . f a r too  he f e e l s le  years  against  childhood  capacity  to  love:  coe u r l u i - m e m e ; 1*amour q u i  208  T i p a s a , Camus has no s u c c e s s at unable to  l o v e and a d m i r e i t s  s o u v e n i r lui-meme  His constant  isolee  finit  ne s e r t p e r s o n n e , . . . . -210 l'xnjustxce.  battle  all  in  beauties  s'estompaxt".  2 0 9  Camus was h a u n t e d by h i s  against  i n j u s t i c e had made  his  par g r i m a c e r , servir  la  justice  solitaire  l'une a 1'exclusion  n i lui-meme, et,  finalement  sert  de  finit  l'autre  deux  fois  t  Both the necessary  love of beauty i n nature elements Camus'  reversal  Camus,  i n his  in his attitude  L'Ete,  ibid.,  p.  210.,., xbxd.,  p.  148. . 150.  1 c r  p.  and'the  fight  towards  A l g e r i a i n 1952 nature.  This  Fo-r a b r i e f i n t e r l u d e ,  157.  against  injustice  were  life.  second t r i p to  p e r i o d of h i s work.  2 0 9  le  epuise  which f o l l o w e d ,  par o p p r i m e r . Q u i veut  2 0 8  their  their  of  one-sided:  La beaute  l  justice  naxssance.  c e t t e T i p a s a boueuse,  exile  however,  introduces reversal  i n 1952  a  sharp  marks t h e  and 1953,  -  close  men c o u l d perpetavate  h a i n e s decharnent  r e t u r n to  communing w i t h n a t u r e ;  life  les  A  During the  horrors  destroyed and, with i t ,  l u x ,a donne  -,  +  men had e n j o y e d a l i f e  of these h o r r o r s ,  l o n g u e r e v e n d i c a t i o n de l a  pourtant  "dans  he and o t h e r  a loss  64  third  Camus  -  returns  to a close  r e l a t i o n s h i p with nature,  enjoyed i n the f i r s t Tipasa,  the le  s i m i l a r t o t h e one he had  on t h e s e c o n d v i e w i n g , a p p e a r s  t o Camus i n a l l i t s  H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Chenou m o u n t a i n i s  o f Camus*"renewed s e n s i t i v i t y t o n a t u r e .  mountain i s but a " v a p e u r ciel".  21-1  -  period.  beauty and s e n s u a l i t y . indicative  65  Soon, however,  b l e u e et l e g e r e "elle  From a  especially  distance,  q u i se conrftond e n c o r e  avec  » peu a p e u . . . j u s q u ' a  se condense  211 prendre Then,  l a c o u l e u r des eaux q u i l ' e n t o u r e n t ,  up c l o s e , ...voici  it  seems t o come t o  s a masse s o u r c i l l e u s e ,  life: brune e t v e r t e ,  d i e u moussu que r i e h n ' e b r a n l e r a , 212 dont  je  Once more, voyait  grande vague i m m o b i l e " .  refuge  et p o r t  voici  le  vieux  pour ses  fils,  suis.  Camus f e a s t s  que des p i e r r e s  h i s eyes on t h e c i t y grelees  et  o f T i p a s a : " . . . o n ne  des a b s i n t h e s ,  des a r b r e s  et des 213  colonnes  parfaites The  l a transparence  sounds e s p e c i a l l y  w h i c h he has n e v e r ...la  dans  described  basse c o n t i n u e  de l ' a i r  seem t o b e s i e g e  cristallin." h i s senses,  many o f  before:  des o i s e a u x ,  les soupirs legers  et  b r e f s de l a m e r . . . l a v i b r a t i o n des a r b r e s , l e chant a v e u g l e des c o l o n n e s , l e s f r o i s s e m e n t s des a b s i n t h e s , l e s l e z a r d s 214 f u r t i f s . . . .Un>; The  birds burst  a211 lso  after  Camus, ibid., 3ibid.,  2 1 2 2 1  214  ibid.,  merle...  f o r t h i n joyous  i t s long e x i l e : L ' E t e , p . p . 153. p p . 153-154. p . 155. p p . 155-156.  song,  a song which h i s h e a r t  "...j ecoutais 1  aussi  les flots  echoes  heureux  66 214 q u i m o n t a i e n t en m o i . In t h i s s e l f purged m i r a c u l o u s l y . f r o m the aftermath.  He has  found the  moment o f h a p p i n e s s , Camus f i n d s h i m b u r d e n o f t h e war y e a r s and t h e i r  source  of strength  f o r w h i c h he has  been  searching: ...je soi  redecouvrais  a. T i p a s a q u ' i l  une f r a i c h e u r ,  une s o u r c e  echappe . . . .  a 1'injustice, . . 215  lumiere  conquise.  He d i s c o v e r s  et  also  s i n c e the  fallait  de j o i e ,  retourner  that  his  lying  dormant  leave  h i m : " A u m i l i e u de l ' h i v e r ,  garder  aimer  le  au combat  joy i n nature,  b e g i n n i n g o f the  war,  i n t a c t es jour qui  avec  cette  w h i c h has  w i l l never  j'apprenais  en  been  completely  enfin q u ' i l  y avait  en  216 moi  un e t e  invincible.  This  p l e t e l y d e s p a i r i n g over the reminder that  there  is  j o y has a l w a y s p r e v e n t e d him f r o m com-  injustices  he saw.  s o m e t h i n g i n a man's  It  has  been a  existence that  constant  makes  it  worthwhile. Dans t o u t  ce  que j ' a i  fait  semble b i e n r e c o n n a i t r e r e n i e r l a l u m i e r e ou je voulu refuser "La  les  1953.  It  on  a trip  he made t o  and 2 1 4  2  ibid.,  "^ibid.,  217  a series  register  ibid.,  pp.  pp.  158.  p.  159.  i l me  the  temps.  last  essay i n L ' E t e , sea  These  in this  p e r i o d are  was  written  r e c o r d e d by Camus selections,  Camus' renewed j o y i n n a t u r e ;  155-156.  157-158.  p.  de ce  S o u t h A m e r i c a i n 1945.  of nature  L'Ete,  jusqu'a present,  of impressions of the  enthusiasm.  Camus,  2 1 5  is  a. T i p a s a " ,  descriptions  servitudes  mer au p l u s p r e s " ,  in  "Retour  ou d i t  c e s deux f o r c e s . . . . Je n ' a i pu s u i s ne et cependant j e n ' a i pas 217  often lacking i n  yet,  like his  freshness  -  -  In the deep  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  sense o f e x i l e  from the  J'ai  g r a n d i dans  puis  j'ai  gris,  sea,  l a mer et  p e r d u l a mer,  l a misere Life  for  remote f r o m i t s  these selections,  tous  les  intolerable.  him i s  but  realities.  Camus e x p r e s s e s  and from n a t u r e ,  l a pauvrete.m'a luxes  p r i o r to  ete  alors  67  his  -  his  trip:  fastueuse,  m'ont  Depuis,j'attends.  paru  2 1 8  a s e r i e s of meaningless  gestures.  He  E v e n h i s e x i s t e n c e has no m e a n i n g :  is  " O n me 219  somme e n f i n de d i r e  q u i je  Sometimes, comes t o Je  him i n a  ' R i e n encore,  he has a b r i e f  rien  encore....'"  r e s p i t e when t h e  sound o f t h e  sea  dream:  me r e v e i l l e ,  Ije c r o i s 220  suis.  ainsi,  entendre  dans l a n u i t ,  un b r u i t  de v a g u e s ,  et,  a demi e n d o r m i ,  la respiration  des  plunged i n t o  deeper  eaux. Once t h e despair  dream i s than  ended,  however,  to  panic.  that  a  before.  On o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , i n New Y o r k ,  Camus i s  for  Yet,  somewhere  example, he i s  the  s u r r o u n d e d by masses o f human b e i n g s ,  his terrible  saved  f e e l i n g of  from complete  sea  is  waiting f o r him:  Ceux q u i s ' a i m e n t  et  q u i sont  despair  s e p a r e s peuvent  exile  c a u s e s him  b e c a u s e he knows  vivre  dans  l a d o u l e u r , mais ce n ' e s t pas l e d e s e s p o i r : i l s s a v e n t que l ' a m o u r e x i s t e . V o i l a " p o u r q u o i j e s o u f f r e , l e s yeux s e e s , 221 de l ' e x i l .  J'attends  In the his 2 1 8  r e t u r n to  Camus,  the  L'Ete,  219 ibid.,  p.  168.  ibid., 221.,.. , ibid.,  p.  169.  p.  170.  220  selections sea, p.  encore.... f o l l o w i n g the  w h i c h he has  167.  introduction,  desired for  so  long.  Camus Here,  describes as  in  68 -  T  t  222 N o c e s , he j o i n s i n a m a r r i a g e w i t h n a t u r e : " J ' e p o u s e i t s moods, t h e s e a and i t s w i l d l i f e d e l i g h t h i m : at dusk,  at  i n imagery.  s i t i v i t y to startling  .  It  nature;  ,223  Les  d e s c r i b i n g Camus' illustrates  yet,  new i m a g e s .  an a n i m a l  he i s  lourdes,  unable to  jappent  ...s'eparpille  en d e s s i n s  de q u e l q u e v a c h e b l e u e encore longtemps  et  derriere  Camus' d e s c r i p t i o n  different  A midi,  from t h a t  sous  a. p e i n e ,  one o f  the  has a s t r o n g  what the  he s e n s e s  sea  senin  i n terms  of  l'eau  gresille.  Elle  is  blanche,  bete f o u r b u e ,  fait  no way d i s t i n c t i v e . ...quelques  pelage  qui  siffler  grande  <»  f o r example l a mer se le  there  fume, is  sea  225  brule A  o i s e a u x de mer se  Le s o i r  venu,  heure  portee  au  enfin....  226  a swimming s c e n e .  be somewhere  disputent  not  :  Une  island i n a foreign sea.  Camus c o u l d e a s i l y  is  souleve  silence.  p l a q u e de t o l e elle  derive  224  n o o n - d a y s u n on t h e  gresille,  morceaux de r o s e a u x . . . .  renaissants,  sillage.  in L'Etranger,  a deserted  une ecume  et  of the  pale,  de baves  mourants  un s o l e i l a s s o u r d i s s a n t ,  et  setting  couvertes  contre l ' e t r a v e ;  As i n Noces and L a P e s t e , the  register  he d e s c r i b e s  notre  extenuee.. . e l l e  de c u i s s o n  time,  is  Camus s t i l l  ecailleuses,  vagues  blanc,  departure  :  eaux s o n t  Moreover,  that  As i n N o c e s ,  fralches...les  notably  In a l l n o o n , at  dark. The s e l e c t i o n . -  richest  l a mer." dawn, at  dans  sous  le  le  Yet  in  it  is  in  Algeria;  ciel  ciel  This  des  qui  222 Camus,  L'Ete,  p.  174.  223 Camus, N o c e s , p . 1 3 : e c l a t a n t e s " , and N o c e s ,  224  .  Camus, L ' E t e , 2 2 5 c f . p . 38 o f Camus, L'Ete, passage convey a 2 2 6  " L a mer sans une r i d e et l e s o u r i r e p . 17-; "Ses c h i e n s b l a n c s . "  p. 171. thesis. pp. 172-173. The s i b i l a n t s i n t h e f i r s t good sense o f h e a v i n e s s and d r o w s i n e s s .  de ces  two  lines  dents  of  this  -  verdit The  et  recule,  obvious pleasure  overtly  expressed  and t h e  act  journee,  la mer...s'apaise  w h i c h Camus f i n d s  here.  Instead,  227  enthusiasm i s  a simple statement:  dans l ' e a u p u i s nous nous s e c h o n s  restrained  "...toute sur  la  le  sable." On t h e nature for  hand, there are  among t h e s e i m p r e s s i o n s .  example, ...des  offers  sables  branches His its  monte,  Un i p e  It  seems  like  j a u n e ou un a r b r e  les  effect  aux  q u i t e memorable  reverse!  Du f o n d des e a u x , cendres  c i e l encore  de l e s o u v r i r , 230  les  qu'un epaisses,  pale....  Le  etoiles  liquide.  which the  by no means a new e x p e r i e n c e  le  is  in  peu a, peu de s e s  yeux,  dans l a n u i t  i n fact,  a nightfall  s u r l a mer.  au c o n t r a i r e , v e r s  temps de f e r m e r  The  b a i e t r a n q u i l l e , p l e i n e de v o i l e s  description of n i g h t f a l l ,  deja. noye n o i r c i t  pullulent  The s h o r e - l i n e o f S o u t h A m e r i c a ,  de l u n e s . . . . 229  L a n u i t ne tombe pas  elle  of  violettes....  originality.  soleil  some f r e s h d e s c r i p t i o n s  a m u l t i c o l o u r e d new l a n d s c a p e t o Camus:  lagunes emeraudes,  rouges,  in  other  s e a has upon t h e  i n the  author  works o f Camus.  i n " L a Mer" i s  F o r R i e u x and 231  Tarrou,  as  f o r Camus, t h e  s e a has a c l e a n s i n g and l i b e r a t i n g v a l u e .  " EC l laem u nous s , L l' aEvt ee , etp pnous . 1 8 6r-a1s8s7a.s i e  2 2 7  2 2 8  ibid.,  p.  186.  2 2 9  ibid.,  p.  184.  2 3 0  ibid.,.p.  231  p.  62  of  176. thesis.  -  i n swimming and s u n n i n g i s . n o t  his youthful  o f swimming r e d u c e d t o  nous e n t r o n s  encore.  69  dans s e s  sillons steriles,  elle  nous  -  libere  et nous t i e n t  debout."  232  Moreover,  something with which t o c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e contemporary Si  the hatred  renie  entoure  par l e s miens,  de montagnes a bout  love,  and t y r a n n y o f t h e  i s his religion, i n fact;  froides,  de f o r c e s  au d e r n i e r m o m e n t . . . v i e n d r a i t me s o u t e h i r » 233 meme et m ' a i d e r a m o u r i r s a n s h a i n e . It  i s something t o  -  world:  je devais m o u r i r ,  monde,  it  70  i g n o r e du  enfin,  l a mer,  au-dessus  de m o i -  " G r a n d e mer, t o u j o u r s  labouree,  toujours  232 vierge,  ma r e l i g i o n a v e c l a n u i t ! " Unfortunately,  Already  i n " L a Mer" t h e r e  As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ,  Camus' renewed j o y i n n a t u r e are i n d i c a t i o n s that  is short-lived.  h i s joy i s  the impressions recorded  ephemeral.  i n " L a Mer" a r e o f t e n  234 lacking signs  i n freshness  and e n t h u s i a s m .  o f the c i v i l i z e d  world,  sometimes  m i d s t o f Camus' e f f u s i o n s about l o n g p a s s a g e about ...dans sans  convoitise une l e n t e u r  intervene  the s e a .  Thus,  barbare  l'atteindre.  there occurs  devant  convulsee,  obstinee,  une e n e r g i e  rather  l a mer  hurlait...tremblait  de nouveaux e s p a c e s v i d e s a  a  aircraft:  d'un avion...j'attendais  Le monstre  elements,  f o r c e f u l l y i n the  a p r e v i o u s t r i p t o S o u t h A m e r i c a by  le cercueil  jamais  In a d d i t i o n , mechanical  de  devorer...avec hagarde  et  fixe,  i n t o x i q u e e . J e m o u r a i s a l o r s dans ma c e l l u l e m e t a l l i q u e , j e A r e v a i•s de c a r n a g e s , At d ' o r g• i e s . 235 c l a r i t j r , s i n c e r i t y and s t r e n g t h o f e x p r e s s i o n , t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y one A  In  of the f i n e s t world,  2 5 2  not  Camus,  233ibid., 2 5 4  2 3 5  p.  66  Camus,  passages  i n " L a M e r " , but i t  nature.  L'Ete,  p . 187.  p p . 187-188. of  thesis.  L'Ete,  p p . 182-183.  emphasizes t h e  civilized  -  71  -  Sterility L a Chute Camus'  ,  written  work i n w h i c h man i s  nature's scious  beauties.  of i t .  unaware of  2 36  i n 1956,  introduces  again plunged i n t o a t e r r i b l e  The h e r o ,  Clamence,  is  in exile,  The p e o p l e o f Amsterdam t o o  of i t .  The t a l e  a fourth period i n  are  ends o p t i m i s t i c a l l y ,  exile  but he i s  exiled, however,  from con-  but t h e y with a  are  promise  delivrance. Before  nature's  his isolation,  beauties,  En montagne, et  les  Les  but he o n l y f e l t je  fuyais les  plateaux;  sautes,  j'etais  les  cales,  g o U f f r e s me f a i s a i e n t This preference p e r s o n a l i t y at other  Clamence had b e e n i n c l o s e  les  point  human b e i n g s .  ease i n c e r t a i n  vallees  1'homme  with  locales:  e n c a i s s e e s pour l e s  cols  des p e n e p l a i n e s au m o i n s . . . .  souterrains, 237  les  grottes,  les  horreur.  for high places this  at  contact  i s an i m p o r t a n t  in his l i f e .  High p l a c e s  clue to  He e n j o y s  a l l o w him t o  Clamence's  feeling superior  l o o k down on  to  "JlesJ  238 fourmis  humaines". One n i g h t  the so  in Paris,  r e t u r n i n g home a l o n g t h e  sound o f a body s t r i k i n g t h e continues  that  follow,  water.  He l o o k s a r o u n d ,  on h i s way, t e l l i n g no one o f h i s the  events  of t h i s  Seine,  experience.  he  hears  sees n o t h i n g , In the  e v e n i n g keep h a u n t i n g C l a m e n c e .  weeks  Several  t i m e s he t h i n k s he h e a r s s c r e a m s . On one o c c a s i o n , at s e a , he f i n a l l y 2 36 Amsterdam's c a n a l s a r e l i k e t h e c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s o f D a n t e ' s i n f e r n o . The p e o p l e i n Amsterdam are on t h e bottom-most c i r c l e , about t o p l u n g e headlong into nothingness. At n i g h t t h e y r e s t , o n l y t o f a l l a g a i n at dawn. T h i s act o f f a l l i n g i s a k i n d o f e x i l e i n t e n s i f y i n g as t i m e goes o n . 2 37 Camus, L a C h u t e , i n Roger Q u i l l i o t , T h e a t r e , a i e c i t s , H o u v e l l e s d ' A l b e r t a  Camus, 2 3 8  Bruges,  ibid.,  p.  1963, 1486.  p.  1485.  -  realizes i he l o s t  that  he w i l l  never  forget  his experience,  because  his innocence:  . ..j'etais  that  72  -  evening  i  toujours  c o i n c e . . . i l f a l l a i t m'en a r r a n g e r .  Finie  la  v i e g l o r i e u s e . . . . I I f a l l a i t se s o u m e t t r e et r e c o n n a i t r e <• 239 s a c u l p a b i l i t e . I I f a l l a i t v i v r e dans l e m a l c o n f o r t . C l a m e n c e ' s d i s c o v e r y d r i v e s him i n t o  loves,  and " l a d o u c e u r du s o i r " .  240  from the  city  he  refuge i n Holland, 241 " u n d e s e r t de p i e r r e s , de brumes et d ' e a u x p o u r r i e s " . Amsterdam, the 242 s e t t i n g o f t h e t a l e , i s t h e symbol o f a s o r t o f h e l l : " L ' e n f e r b o u r g e o i s " in  Paris,  exile  w h i c h man i n e x i l e  meaningless lis  existence  from t h e  eternal  i n a mechanical  v i e n n e n t . de t o u s  les  viennent The  boats  found.  of nature  a  et  lis...cherchent  s'arretent en v a i n  la  Transis,  ils  genievre...."  w h i c h would c a r r y unable to  pursues  world:  des b a t e a u x dans l a brume, p u i s . . . . .,243  demander...du  They are  beauties  c o i n s de 1 ' E u r o p e  a u t o u r de l a mer i n t e r i e u r e . silhouette  He t a k e s  them t o sail  sun-lit  on t h e  sea,  isles  are  nowhere t o  therefore,  be  which promises  them d e l i v r a n c e . The no  dismal climate  o f Amsterdam d e n o t e s  s u n l i g h t , no c o l o u r f u l v e g e t a t i o n ,  only r a i n :  it "II  as a c i t y  of  death:  y a des s i e c l e s  que  239  Camus, L a C h u t e , p . 1529. A c c o r d i n g t o Camus, l i f e i s a c o l l e c t i v e venture. T h e r e f o r e , e v e r y man i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s b r o t h e r : "Chaque homme t e m o i g n e du c r i m e de t o u s l e s a u t r e s , v o i l a . ma f o i , et mon esperance." Camus, L a C h u t e , p . 1530. 240  ibid., 241 * ibid., 242 ibid., 243 ibid., many o t h e r p. 1480.  p.  1492,  p.  1533.  p.  1481.  Amsterdam i s s y m b o l i c o f many o t h e r c i t i e s , and i t s p e o p l e o f p e o p l e : " . . . i l e s t d o u b l e . I I e s t i c i et i l est a i l l e u r s . "  - 73 -  des  fumeurs de pipe y c o n t e m p l e n t  l a meme p l u i e tombant  s u r l e meme  244 canal."  The e v e n i n g s i n t h i s  "...l'air  est  si  lourd q u ' i l  city  e s p e c i a l l y depressing: 245 sur l a p o i t r i n e . "  pese  are  Clamence l i k e s Amsterdam, h o w e v e r .  The l i f e l e s s  climate  k e e p s h i m e v e r m i n d f u l o f d e a t h and h i s g u i l t : J'aime  le  s o u f f l e des eaux m o i s i e s ,  mortes...et  celle,  de f l e u r s . . . c e L i k e Oran, the  birds.  Creatures  funebre,  gout...c'est, the  city  c h e z m o i , un p a r t i  of the  Doves h o v e r above t h e of.the  plague,  city,  physical universe,  c i e l de H o l l a n d e  i n v i s i b l e s tant attendent rien,  elles  est  se t i e n n e n t  les  canaux,  s e i g n e s , et n u l l e t e t e ou se Although the Dutch l i v e very a i r they breathe, is  " u n songe d ' o r  de n e o n , et  de g e n i e v r e  vertes".  noires  et  248  de f u m e e " . et  They are  2 4 5  ibid.,  p.  1495-  2 4 6  ibid.,  p p . 1495-1496.  2 4 7  ibid.,  p p . 1510-1511.  2 4 8  ibid.,  p.  1480.  pris.  unable to  deserted  symbolize hope:  the  haut....  descendre. des t o i t s  de c o l o m b e s ,  Les  colombes  Mais i l n ' y couverts  a  d'en-  poser. i n a c o u n t r y where d e a t h i s of i t .  They are  lost,  F o r them,  funebres q u i tournent  i n the Holland  " d a n s c e t t e brume  ^ l i k e L o h e n g r i n s : " f i l a n t reveusement  1502.  by  descend.  de menthe q u i d e s c e n d des e n s e i g n e s  24.4  La Chute, p .  248  pleines 246  nature:  t h e y seem o b l i v i o u s  bicyclettes...cygnes  Camus,  but a r e  r e m p l i de m i l l i o n s  la-haut...voudraient  que l a mer et  feuilles  Amsterdam i s  t h e y seem t o  p r o m i s e o f man's renewed communion w i t h ...le  l ' o d e u r des  q u i monte des p e n i c h e s  sans t r e v e ,  rouges sur dans  leurs  - 74 248 tout  l e p a y s , a u t o u r des m e r s . " Unaware o f d e a t h , t h e D u t c h a r e  ment o f n a t u r e .  As a r e s u l t ,  o f f a r - o f f sunny i s l a n d s : ...vers  ^ l'ile  Java,  sometimes;  at  t i m e and a s m a l l ..le  sont  lointaine."  248  partis  i s o l a t e d from the dreams  for reality,  a des m i l l i e r s  T h e i r dreams a r e  by p r o s t i t u t e s  enjoydreams  de k i l o m e t r e s  i n d u c e d by l i q u o r  who o f f e r them f o r a  short  price  voyage aux I n d e s !  Vous e n t r e z ,  elles  Ces p e r s o n n e s  tirent  Les dieux descendent dementes, c o i f f e e s 249 le  they substitute  "Ils  other times,  also  les  sur l e s  se p a r f u m e n t aux  r i d e a u x et  epices.  l a n a v i g a t i o n commence.  c o r p s nus et  les  xles  derivent,  d ' u n c h e v e l u r e e b o u r i f f e e de p a l m i e r s  sous  vent. Clamence,  tainable.  the Dutch,  He l o v e s e s p e c i a l l y t h e  o f Mount E t n a , - Greece.  like  Thus,  Java —  ciel,  a t r i p he once t o o k  de n o u v e l l e s l i e s  de l ' h o r i z o n .  landscapes of I t a l y  when t h e t r a d e - w i n d s b l o w ,  he d e s c r i b e s  Sans c e s s e ,  dreams o f a n a t u r e  leur rivage  D e p u i s ce t e m p s ,  rocheux t r a n c h a i t  —  unat-  from the  top  and, above a l l ,  there:  apparaissaient  Leur echine sans a r b r e s  which i s  tragait  nettement  sur  le  cercle  l a l i m i t e du sur l a  mer....  l a Grece elle-meme d e r i v e quelque part :  en  moi...inlassablement." Despite the optimistic. Amsterdam,  In t h e  c l o s i n g scene,  c o m p l e t e l y c o v e r i n g the  inhabitants both the  h e a v y pessimismv-.throughout L a C h u t e , t h e  city.  t e m p o r a r i l y , p r e p a r i n g them,  d e s p a i r o f d e a t h and t h e  248 ^ Camus, L a C h u t e , p . 249  2 5  snow and t h e  ibid.,  p.  1481.  °ibid.,  p.  1523.  1480.  joys of  end  is  d o v e s d e s c e n d on  They seem t o  cleanse  as Clamence h o p e s , nature:  to  the receive  -  Amsterdam endormie dans l a n u i t sombre s o u s l e s fugitive...les Elles  petits enormes  se d e c i d e n t  Esperons  flacons.  q u ' e l l e s apportent  heroine of t h i s t a l e , nature,  but t h e Ona  Marcel,  froide,  l a seule  •ou p o u s s a i e n t . . 252 seches. Over t h e tinually,  d r i v i n g the  combines t o  in  251 252  couple stop its  f o r the  garden are  Camus,  Janine  de p i e r r e ,  s u n and t h e  desert,  land.  "des...arbres  253  of the  mineraux '.  land:  la  pierre  comme s u r l e  pierres,  n i g h t seems p a r t  the  and h e r h u s b a n d ,  crissante  sand i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s .  b l o t out t h e  of Janine,  in  and i m m o r a l .  encore,  of t h i s  par-  o f a communion w i t h  la pierre,  entre l e s  b i t t e r l y c o l d expanses  le  marks a new s t a g e  i n a thoroughly unpleasant  seulement,  purete,  colombes....  exile  North.'Africa,  c i e l ou r e g n a i t  jade  Quelle i n v a s i o n !  the  both s t e r i l e  poussiere  la  de  l e s peines seront  d e s c r i b e d i n terms  business t r i p to  dans l e  et  Paradoxically,  communion i s  sera  les  w r i t t e n i n 1953,  desert...etait...seulement  partout,  the  is  f i n d themselves  ...le  Ce s o n t  canaux  l a bonne n o u v e l l e . T o u t  richesses  L a Femme a d u l t e r e , from n a t u r e .  les  ponts n e i g e u x . . . c e  enfin a descendre....  monde s e r a s a u v e . . . l e s . . 251 tagees.  man's e x i l e  blanche,  75  des  the  et sol  graminees  wind blows c o n -  With the  dust,  the  Even the  oasis  where  desert.  fog  The t r e e s  254  1  La Chute, p.  1548. » L a Femme a d u l t e r e , i n Q u i l l i o t ,  Camus, Theatre, r e c i t s , nouvelles, p. 1560. 253 The d e s e r t i s a r e c u r r i n g l a n d s c a p e i n Camus* w o r k s : i n L ' E n v e r s , p . 18 o f t h e s i s ; N o c e s , p . 26 o f t h e s i s . 254 . Camus, Femme a d u l t e r e , p . 1564.  -  76  -  Like the  desert,  which i s , i n f a c t ,  a m i r r o r of her  -  soul,  255 Janine too Elle  is  barren  sentait  penetrait, 256 coeur.  et  :  seulement  to  to  the  outdoors.  beach;  Besides, plages,  the  however,  first  le  froid  qui l a  l o u r d a l ' e n d r o i t du  married, Janine  In those  days,  he was not  and M a r c e l had  beauties,  to  approach the  she i s h e l d  A sa gauche...les  M a r c e l had o f t e n t a k e n h i s w i f e  r e a l l y fond of p h y s i c a l  fit  oasis,  the  symbol o f l i f e  p r e m i e r s p a l m i e r s de l ' o a s i s  eux. 258 frissonner.  Mais...le  froid  etait  et  vif;  L i k e t h e m i d d l e - a g e d Camus, who r e t u r n e d t o his source,  Janine  aux p a l m i e r s d r o i t s  ., avait  ,,256 ete." One i n the  Janine,  the  day,  les-; when  and  nature's  elle  aurait  le  vent  Tipasa i n  search  dreams o f a renewed communion w i t h n a t u r e :  revait  fort  exercise.  back.  voulu a l l e r vers  of  lived  b u s i n e s s was f a r more a b s o r b i n g t o h i m . Now " l ' e t e , ^ 257 l e s p r o m e n a d e s , l e c i e l meme e t a i e n t l o i n " . Thus,  Janine t r i e s  la  s o l i t u d e , et  un p o i d s p l u s  When t h e y were close  sa  Janine  et  flexibles,  et  a la  jeune  and h e r husband c l i m b t o  town where t h e y a r e  staying.  fille  "Elle  qu'elle  the t e r r a c e  of  The day i s d r y and c o l d .  s k y seems a c o n f u s i o n o f sound and  a To  light:  255 The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e s e r t h e r e i s what T . S . E l i o t t e r m s an o b j e c t i v e correlative. I n t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e t o o , J a n i n e i s b a r r e n ; she has no children. 256.. Camus, ?-Pemme ^adultere, P • 1563. 257  2 5 8  ibid.,  p.  1560.  ibid.,  p.  1562.  -  L'air  illumine  passage  semblait v i b r e r autour  faisait  naltre  onde s o n o r e . . . l e e c l a t a n t e et  sur  le  c i e l entier  breve  dont  les  d eux...comme 1  cristal  si  77  leur  de l a l u m i e r e une  retentissait  d'une seule  note  e c h o s peu a. peu r e m p l i r e n t  l'espace. This  passage  announces a c r i s i s  much as t h e  c o n f u s i o n of sound,  light  260 and h e a t the  i n L'Etranger  oasis  to  where t h e  the  precedes  desert,  Janine  s k y and l a n d meet:  t h e murder s c e n e . f e e l s as  if  L o o k i n g out  something awaits  her  " . . . q u e l q u e c h o s e . . . q u l e l l e avait  across there  ignore  .261 j u s q u ' a ce For the  j o u r et  first  freedom.  qui pourtant  n'avait  t i m e i n many y e a r s ,  Then,  she  sees the  pas c e s s e  Janine  de l u i m a n q u e r . ' ^  has a b r i e f s e n s a t i o n  nomads camped by t h e  wadi:  of  "...seigneurs  2 61 miserables  et  l i b r e s d ' u n etrange  she  feels  she  i s t i e d to  "...elle  a great  sadness.  They are  allait  mourir...sans  i n answer t o  rushes  out  to  night:  the  with the  "Je not  259 260 261  night.  a v o i r ete  w i t h the  qui m'avait  Camus, Femme a d u l t e r e , is  ibid.,  delivree. ^ 2  1571.  earth,  resurrected  the  her:  As  h o t e l room and  Christ,  she e n t e r s  l u x u r i o u s landscapes  but  2  awakes f r o m a deep s l e e p .  That n i g h t ,  plus a l u t t e r  p.  a good example o f  p.  the  o f them,  Only death awaits  she c a l l s  contre  le  p.  1567. synesthesia. 1568.  out  i n t o a communion  o f T i p a s a , however,  e n v a h i l a n u i t . . . . Aucun s o u f f l e , aucun b r u i t ,  This  to  sight  desert.  Camus, Femme a d u l t e r e , 2 6 2  Janine  L i k e the  reviens."  cold sterile  Le f r o i d ,  and c l o s e  a summons, she s t e a l t h i l y l e a v e s  into the  with nature,  free  At t h e  an unhappy and b a r r e n m a r r i a g e .  The f o l l o w i n g n i g h t , if  royaume."  soleil,  avait  sinon, p a r f o i s ,  but  -  -  le  crepitement  en  sable...." Like  filled  etouffe  a s k y on a c a n v a s s  s k y above J a n i n e  pouvait  des p i e r r e s  begins to  que l e  of the  c o l d desert  laisserent  night takes  feux, h e r as  a. l a d e r i v e . ^ 1  its  et  submergea l e  c e n t r e o b s c u r de son e t r e  s'immobiliserent.  et  froid,  entier  la terre  s'etendait  thus  hood c l o s e For  to  au-dessus  nature,  Janine, least  oubliait le  mourir....  racines,  nevertheless,  froid,  l a longue angoisse  l a seve montait plus.  Femme a d u l t e r e , pp.  renversee  sur  1572-1573.  p.  1572.  sterile  from her innocent benefits past  from her  twenty  etres,  years:  l a vie  de v i v r e et  i l l u i semblait  7  ibid.,  the  l e p o i d s des  Of." )  2 6 4  d'apres,  a n a d u l t e r o u s one w i t h a  she f o r g e t s  En meme t e m p s ,  q u i ne t r e m b l a i t  Camus,  L'instant  d'elle,  emphasizing her c o n t i n u e d e x i l e  demente ou f i g e e ,  ses  commenca  froide.  a b r i e f moment at ...elle  Alors,  d e b o r d a en f l o t s i n i n t e r r o m p u s  A l t h o u g h h e r communion i s nature,  des  monta peu a peu du  j u s q u ' a . s a bouche p l e i n e de g e m i s s e m e n t s . ciel  3  lover:  etoiles  a v e c une d o u c e u r i n s u p p o r t a b l e , l ' e a u de l a n u i t  le  star-  tomber l e u r s g r a p p e s un p e u p l u s  bas s u r 1 ' h o r i z o n du d e s e r t ,  d'emplir Janine,  the  w h i r l a r o u n d and a r o u n d : " J a n i n e ne  J a n i n e s ' o u v r a i t . . .a. l a n u i t . . . . L e s d e r n i e r e s constellations  -  reduisait  demented Van Gogh,  s ' a r r a c h e r a. l a c o n t e m p l a t i o n de c e s  Then, g r a d u a l l y , t h e  froid  78  de  retrouver  a. nouveau dans s o n  corps  childexperience.  -  79  -  CONCLUSION W i t h L a Femme a d u l t e r e , i n Camus  works i s c o m p l e t e :  1  nature's  beauties,  sterility. nature's entire  life.  left  nature  of the  His e a r l y experience  as  man-nature  exile  and f i n a l  w h i c h Camus spent  an i n d e l i b l e  again i n his writings.  pattern  M e d i t e r r a n e a n summer,  b r i e f r e t u r n to  The happy y e a r s  beauties  the  from  exile  and  a youth close  i m p r e s s i o n on h i m d u r i n g of nature  Hanna n o t e s  is  that the  repeated  images  theme  to  his  a g a i n and  f r o m Noces  "never 265  cease to After  haunt t h e  1941,  literary  however,  intensity.  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l works o f C a m u s " .  Camus n e v e r a g a i n e x p e r i e n c e d n a t u r e  The war y e a r s  and t h e i r  aftermath  and l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n on him t h a n n a t u r e 1952, as  Camus became  had.  From 1941  until  i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s ;  justice  l o n g second p e r i o d are  a n d , above a l l ,  recurring like attempt  recapture  a faithful  Roger Q u i l l i o t L'exil; sont il  est  notes  the  lui a fallu rongee  ^Thomas Hanna,  end o f v i o l e n c e ,  Except  h i s youthful experience physical universe  of  keeps brief  nature, on,  and  exile.  f o r Camus i n c r e a s i n g l y :  plus precaires tolerer par l e  for a  f r o m 1941  r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s own p r o g r e s s i v e  that  His  m a n - n a t u r e theme  devenu l a l o i du m o n d e . . . . L a n a t u r e  en e f f e t  morale,  yet,  a l e i t m o t i f throughout these y e a r s .  i n 1952-1955 t o  works a r e  a plea f o r the  f o r peace;  Camus moved s t e a d i l y away f r o m t h e his  ever  a more p o w e r f u l  a p u b l i c man, he had no more t i m e f o r m e d i t a t i n g on n a t u r e .  works i n t h i s for  deeply involved  left  with such  que j a m a i s . . . .  q u ' e l l e se d e s s e c h e cancer  des v i l l e s et  The Thought and A r t o f A l b e r t  et  l'amour  Son 6'euvre meme, au c o n t a c t  de  la  des c i v i l i s a t i o n s . . . .  Camus, C h i c a g o , 1958,  p.  4.  -  Les visages  80  ont e f f a c e l e s paysages; l a verve poetique,  rigoreusement c a n a l i s e e , n ' a f f l e u r e qu'a  Q u i l l b t , Mers et p r i s o n s , p.  254.  de raires i n s t a n t s .  2 6 6  -  -  81  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I.  BOOKS BY CAMUS  Camus,  Albert.  . Paris,  Actuelles  I,  Chroniques 1944-1948.  Actuelles  II.  Actuelles  III,  Paris,  Chroniques 1948-1955.  1950.  Paris,  Chroniques algeriennes  1953.  1959-1958.  1958. Caligula. L'Envers  —.—•  L'Ete.  Paris,  et l ' e n d r o i t .  Paris,  L'Etranger. .  1958. Paris,  1954.  Paris,  L'Homme r e v o l t e .  1957.  Paris,  1951.  L e t t r e s a, un ami a l l e m a n d . Le M a l e n t e n d u . P a r i s ,  Paris,  Paris,  1948.  1958.  Le Mythe de S i s y p h e . P a r i s , Noces.  1958.  1942.  1939.  Notebooks  1935-1942,  La P e s t e .  Paris,  trans.  P h i l i p . ' T h o d y , New Y o r k ,  1963.  Theatre, Quilliot. II.  Paris,  recits,  1947. nouvelles  d'Albert  Camus,  e d . Roger  1962.  BOOKS ON CAMUS  Bonnier, Bree,  Henry.  Germaine. , Cliffs,  Champigny,  A l b e r t Camus o u l a f o r c e Camus. New B r u n s w i c k , ed.  Lyon,  1959.  1959.  a Collection of C r i t i c a l Essays.  Englewood  1962.  Robert.  Cruickshank, 1959.  Camus;  d'etre.  John.  S u r un h e r o p a i e n . Albert  Paris,  1959.  Camus and t h e L i t e r a t u r e o f R e v o l t .  London,  - 82 -  I I . BOOKS ON CAMUS (continued) Hanna, Thomas. The Thought and Art of Albert Camus. Chicago, 1958. Hourdin, Georges. Maquet, Albert.  Camus l e .juste. Paris, I960. Albert Camus ou 1'invincible ete. Paris, 1955.  Q u i l l i o t , Roger. Paris, 1956.  L<&. Mer^f et l e s prisons, essai sur Albert Camus.  Simon, Pierre-Henri. Thody, P h i l i p .  Presence de Camus. Bruxelles, 1961.  Albert Camus, a Study of His Work. New York, 1959.  III. ARTICLES ON CAMUS Aney, Georges. "L'Indifference", Nouvelle revue francaise, V o l . "¥Tfo ;  (mars I960), 522-526.  \  (  "Albert Camus et l ' l t a l i e " , NRF, Vol. ItT (mars  Antonini, Giacono. 196fi?), 563-567.  Audisio, Gabriel.  "L*Algerien", NRF, V o l . Yf (mars 196P), 432-435.  Bespaloff. Rachel. 1950), 1-26.  "Le Monde du condamne a mort", Esprit (Janvier  de Lacretelle, Jacques.  "Haute mer", NRF, V o l . if*(mars 196$),  591-593.  Desgraupes, Pierre. "La Geographie du desert", Confluences, Nouvelle serie, 5 annee (septembre 1945), 790-791. Dhotel, Andre.  "Le S o l e i l et l a prison", NRF, Vol. L f (mars 196#),  606-607.  Frohock, W.M. "Camus, Image, Influence and S e n s i b i l i t y " , Yale French Studies, 2, No. 2 (Summer 1949), 91-99. Heppenstall, Rayner. "Albert Camus and the Romantic Protest", Penguin New Writing, No. 34 (1948), 104-116. John, S. "Image and Symbol i n Albert Camus", French Studies, 9, No. 1 (January 1955), 42-53.  Levy, Yves.  "Noces par Albert Camus", Paru, No. 10 (ao ut=septembfe• A  1945 )» PP- 65-68. ;  Manzini, Gianna. 196J),  "Pris au piege de l a poesie", NRF, Vol. l^"(mars  549-555.  III.  ARTICLES ON CAMUS  (continued)  Menard, Rene. " A l b e r t Camus devant 1960), 608-613.  no.  424  "Le Secret (aout 1954),  de l ' e t e " , 282-290..  un s e c r e t " ,  Les Cahiers .  NRF, V o l . l 5 ~ ( m a r s  du S u d , 1 4  Mohrt, M i c h e l . " E t h i c a n d P o e t r y i n t h e Work o f Camus", N o . 1 (Spring-Summer 1 9 4 8 ) , 1 1 3 - 1 1 8 . R o b l e s , Emmanuel. " J e u n e s s e d ' A l b e r t Camus", 196d>), 4 1 0 - 4 2 1 . IV.  6  annee  Y F S , 1,  NRP, V o l . l$"*(mars  BOOKS CONTAINING CHAPTERS ON CAMUS  G u i c h a r n a u d , J a c q u e s , and June B e c k e l m a n . f r o m G i r o u d o u x t o B e c k e t t . New H a v e n , S a r t r e , Jean P a u l . P a r i s , 1947.  "Explication  Modern F r e n c h 1961.  de l * e t f a n g e r " ,  Theatre  Situations, V o l .  

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