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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The idea of equality and its bearing on education. Bynoe, Jacob Galton 1964

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THE IDEA OF EQUALITY AND ITS BEARING ON EDUCATION by JACOB GALTON BYNOE A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y o f Education and the Department of Philosophy We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1964 i v In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . a n d study* I f u r t h e r agree that p e r  m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s unders tood that c o p y i n g or p u b l i  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Racial and p o l i t i c a l struggles throughout the world today seem to be p a r t l y an expression of the pressing demand f o r human equality, and suggest that the idea of equality needs urgent examination. The writer attempts, through a study of relevant, selected material, to arrive at some meaningful interpreta t i o n of thi s idea of equality, then examines the bearing of the idea on education. The f i r s t chapter of the paper analyses four theories which state some p a r t i c u l a r respect i n which men are held to be equal. A l l the examined propositions asserting the equality of men are found to be either i n  defensible or meaningless. The second chapter studies W. T. Stace's argument that men are of equal worth, and the conclusion i s reached that equality can be meaningfully interpreted only as an i d e a l . A s i g n i f i c a n t element i n struggles f o r the r e a l i z a  t i o n of the i d e a l of equality i s found to l i e i n the demand that persons s i m i l a r l y situated should be s i m i l a r l y treated and that any discrimination should be based on relevant differences. It i s also contended that the economic, l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l and educational aspects of the problem of equality are i n e x t r i c a b l y interwoven. The third and the fourth chapters are specially devoted to a study of the relevance of the ideal of equality to the educational process. It i s argued that the school has an indispensable part to play in the struggle for equality. The general conclusion of the thesis i s that the idea of equality i s a dynamic one needing continual rein- terpretation, not i n isolation, but in conjunction with other social ideals such as liberty and altruism; nowhere i s this constant re-examination more necessary than in the f i e l d of education. CONTENTS Chapter FOUR THEORIES EXAMINED a. Problem of e q u a l i t y p e r e n n i a l . b. Tv/o types o f p r o p o s i t i o n s con c e r n i n g e q u a l i t y . c. Examination of the i d e a t h a t men are born equal. d. Examination of the i d e a t h a t men are equal by v i r t u e of t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o reason. e. Examination of the i d e a t h a t men a r e equal i n t h e eyes of God. f . Examination of the i d e a t h a t men are equal by v i r t u e o f common n a t u r a l r i g h t s . g. E q u a l i t y as an i d e a l . I I TOWARDS AN INTERPRETATION OF THE IDEAL OF EQUALITY . a. The n o t i o n of i n f i n i t e worth. b. Fundamental p r i n c i p l e s i n  vo l v e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y . c. P o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y . d. L e g a l e q u a l i t y . e. Economic e q u a l i t y . f . J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the i d e a l . CONTENTS (Continued) EQUALITY AS AN AIM OF EDUCATION a. Can education have aims? b. Types o f aims f e a s i b l e . c. E q u a l i t y as an e d u c a t i o n a l aim. d. Method of f u l f i l m e n t . EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY a. Various forms of d i s c r i m i n a  t i o n . b. I n e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . c. E q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e f i n e d . d. CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY Abernethy, George L. (ed.). The Idea of Equality. Richmond, V i r g i n i a : John Knox Press, 1959. Austin, J. L. "The Meaning of a Word", Philosophy and Ordinary Language. Edited by Charles E. Caton. Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1963. Berm, S. I. and Peters, R. S. Social P r i n c i p l e s and the  Democratic State. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1959. Burns, Hobert W. "Social Class and Education In L a t i n America", Comparative Education Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, February 1963. C a s t e l l , Alburey. "Position Papers i n the Philosophy of Education", Curriculum B u l l e t i n , No. 241, Vol. XX, February, 1964. Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New York: The Macmlllan Company, 1916. Dewey, John. "Democracy and Education i n the World Today", Problems of Men. New York: Philosophic a-l Library, Inc., 1946. • . . . . . . . . Durkheim, Emlle. Moral Education. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1961. Engels, F r i e d r i c h . Anti-Duhrlng. Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House, 1954. Halsey, A. H., Floud, Jean, and Anderson, C. (eds.). Education, Economy and Society. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1963. Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Edited by M. Oakeshott. Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, I960. Hume Selections. Edited by Charles W. Hendel, J r . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1927. J o s e l i n , A. G. "English Secondary Education", The New Era  i n Home and School, The New Education Fellowship Journal, Volume 44, Number 10, December 1963. L a s k i , H a r o l d J . A Grammar of P o l i t i c s , New Haven: Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925. L i v i n g s t o n e , S i r R i c h a r d . Some Tasks f o r E d u c a t i o n . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946. Mannheim, K a r l . " H i s t o r i c i s m " and "The Problem of A S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge" i n Essays on the S o c i o   l o g y o f Knowledge. E d i t e d by P a u l K e e s k e m e t i . . New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. M a r i t a i n , Jacques . Ransoming the Time. T r a n s l a t e d by 3 Harry L o r i n B i n s s e . New Y o r k : Char les S c r i b - h e r ' s Sons, 1941. Marx, K a r l . " C r i t i c i s m of the Gotha Programme", C a p i t a l  and.Other W r i t i n g s . E d i t e d by Max E a s t m a n , . Modern L i b r a r y E d i t i o n . New Y o r k , Random House I n c . , 1932. Memorandum by the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l Develop- "lent on E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y ( B r i t i s h G u i a n a ) . F e b r u a r y , 1963. Myers , Henry A l o n z o . Are Men Equal? I t h a c a : Great S e a l Books, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. Onokpasa, B. E . The Hero of S h a r p e v i l l e . Ibadan: The A u g u s t i n i a n P u b l i s h e r s o f N i g e r i a . P a i n e , Thomas.. "The R i g h t s o f Man", i n The W r i t i n g s of  Thomas P a i n e . E d i t e d by M. D. Conway, V o l . 2. New Y o r k : G. P . Putnam's Sons, 1892. P e r r y , R a l p h B a r t o n . P u r i t a n i s m and Democracy. New Y o r k : Vanguard P r e s s , 1944. P e t e r s , R. S. E d u c a t i o n as I n i t i a t i o n . London: Evans B r o t h e r s , L t d . , 1964. Rousseau, Jean Jacques . The S o c i a l C o n t r a c t . T r a n s l a t e d by G . . D . H. C o l e . London: J . .M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1961. Rowan, R. J . The Common Good. Unpubl ished L e c t u r e . T y p e w r i t t e n . Rowan, R. J . P o l i t i c a l O b l i g a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l Purpose . Unpubl i shed L e c t u r e . T y p e w r i t t e n . i x Savery, Barnett. " R e l a t i v i t y vs. Absolutism i n Value-- Theory", The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 6, March 13, 1941. Stace, W. T. The Destiny of Western Man. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1942. Tawney, R. H. Equality. New York: Capricorn Books, 1961. Thompson, David. Equality. Cambridge: University Press, 1949. Tussman, Joseph. Obligation and the Body P o l i t i c . New York: Oxford University Press, I960. Tussman, Joseph and ten Broek, Jacobus. "The Equal Protection of the Laws", C a l i f o r n i a Law Review,. Vol. XXXVIII, Sept. 1949. Vlastos, Gregory. "Justice and Equality", Social J u s t i c e . Edited by-Richard Brandt. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1962. Wilde, Norman. The E t h i c a l Basis of the Modern State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1924• Williams, Bernard. "The Idea of Equality", Philosophy, P o l i t i c s and Society. Edited by Peter L a s l e t t and W. G. Runciman. Oxford: B a s i l Blackwell, 1962. 1 THE IDEA OF EQUALITY AND ITS BEARING ON EDUCATION CHAPTER I FOUR THEORIES EXAMINED The ques t i o n of human e q u a l i t y i s one of the c u r r e n t v i t a l problems i n the conduct of human a f f a i r s , both at the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s and c o n f l i c t s i n many p a r t s of the world, n o t a b l y i n South A f r i c a , Southern Rhodesia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America; the astounding d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n d i t i o n s and circumstances o f the r i c h and the poor i n most c o u n t r i e s ; the t e n s i o n between n a t i o n s great and s m a l l , a l l bear witness t o the urgent n e c e s s i t y f o r a c l e a r and sound i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i d e a of e q u a l i t y , and a common acceptance i n a t t i t u d e and behaviour of the p r i n c i p l e s suggested by t h i s i d e a . The purpose of t h i s study i s to s e l e c t and ana l y s e a few statements and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i d e a of e q u a l i t y , not n e c e s s a r i l y i n an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t i s hoped t h a t the process of a n a l y s i s w i l l b r i n g i n t o 2 clear r e l i e f some significant elements which can contri bute to the formulation of an ideal of equality. Finally, the implications of this ideal for education w i l l be examined and i t s s u i t a b i l i t y as an educational objective studied. (Education i s used in this paper to mean i n i t i a  tion into some body of knowledge and modes of conduct, iincluding modes of thought, considered valuable in a society, and the term i s used with special reference to the school context.) a. Problem of equality perennial The problem of equality, indeed, i s not a new one. Euripides' Jocasta articulately counsels her son Eteocles: " better to honour, son, Equality, which knitteth friends to friends, Cities to c i t i e s , a l l i e s to a l l i e s . Nature gave men the law of equal rights, And the less, ever marshalled foe against The greater, ushers in the dawn of hate." 1 In similar vein Pericles declares in his funeral oration: "Because in the administration i t hath respect not to the few but to the multitude, our form of. government i s called a democracy. Wherein there i s not only an equality amongst a l l men in point of law for their private controver sies, but in election to public offices, we consider neither class nor rank, but each man i s preferred according to his virtue or to the esteem in which he i s held for some special excellence." 2 1. George L. Abernethy (ed.), The Idea of Equality (Richmond, Virginia: John Knox Press, 1959), p.36. 2. Abernethy, op. c i t . , p. 3$» 3 The French R e v o l u t i o n and the American War of Independence are more commonly known ex p r e s s i o n s of the human quest f o r e q u a l i t y . Throughout the p e r e n n i a l s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y some d e c l a r a t i o n s of e q u a l i t y as a f a c t have c o n t i n u a l l y r e c u r r e d . Four of these w i l l be examined: 1. Men a r e born e q u a l . 2. Men are equal by v i r t u e o f t h e i r c a p a c i t y to reason, or by v i r t u e of equal c a p a c i t y of attainment. 3. Men are equal i n the eyes of God. Ii.. Men a r e equal by v i r t u e of common n a t u r a l r i g h t s . b. Two types of p r o p o s i t i o n s concerning E q u a l i t y I t s h ould be noted a t once t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n s concerning human e q u a l i t y f a l l g e n e r a l l y i n t o two c l a s s e s , namely, those t h a t purport t o be statements of f a c t , and those t h a t a r e c l e a r l y i n t e n d e d by t h e i r authors to express an i d e a l . Even many of the l a t t e r , however, are de c e p t i v e o r l o o s e i n t h e i r v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t e n r e  sembling f a c t u a l statements, but appearing i n contexts which make any f a c t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n v e r i f i a b l e . I n such cases one i s no doubt expected t o catch the s p i r i t of the author r a t h e r than t o take him too l i t e r a l l y . In h i s book " E q u a l i t y " , R. H. Tawney c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e d o u b l e s e n s e i n w h i c h E q u a l i t y i s s p o k e n o f He w r i t e s : " I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e w o r d ' E q u a l i t y * p o s s e s s e s m o r e t h a n o n e m e a n i n g a n d t h a t t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t a r i s e p a r t l y , a t l e a s t , b e c a u s e t h e same t e r m i s e m p l o y e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a  t i o n s . T h u s , i t m a y e i t h e r p u r p o r t t o s t a t e a f a c t , o r c o n v e y t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a n e t h i c a l j u d g m e n t . On t h e o n e h a n d , i t may a f f i r m t h a t men a r e , o n t h e w h o l e , v e r y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r n a t u r a l e n d o w m e n t s o f c h a r a c t e r a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t may a s s e r t t h a t , w h i l e t h e y d i f f e r p r o f o u n d l y a s i n d i v i d u a l s i n c a p a c i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r , t h e y a r e e q u a l l y e n t i t l e d a s human b e i n g s t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d r e s p e c t . " 3 T h e a u t h o r s o f t h e A m e r i c a n D e c l a r a t i o n o f I n d e  p e n d e n c e a p p e a r t o be a s s e r t i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l s a s f a c t u a l p r o p o s i t i o n s i n s t a t i n g : "We h o l d t h e s e t r u t h s t o b e s e l f - e v i d e n t , t h a t a l l men a r e c r e a t e d e q u a l ; t h a t t h e y a r e e n d o w e d b y t h e i r c r e a t o r w i t h c e r t a i n i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s " 4 S i m i l a r l y , t h e f i r s t c l a u s e o f t h e F r e n c h d o c u  m e n t , D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e R i g h t s o f M a n a n d o f t h e C i t i z e n , r e a d s : " M e n a r e b o r n , a n d a l w a y s c o n t i n u e , f r e e a n d e q u a l i n r e s p e c t o f t h e i r r i g h t s . C i v i l d i s  t i n c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , c a n b e f o u n d e d o n l y o n p u b l i c u t i l i t y . " 5 3. R . H . T a w n e y , E q u a l i t y (New Y o r k : C a p r i c o r n B o o k s , 1961), p . 35. 4. A b e r n e t h y , o p . c i t . , p . 147. 5. I b i d . , p . 156. Of the American D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence, L i n  c o l n observes t h a t the authors " d i d not i n t e n d to d e c l a r e a l l men equal i n a l l r e s p e c t s . " ^ He went on to say t h a t they d i d not mean t o a s s e r t the obvious u n t r u t h t h a t a l l men were enjo y i n g the e q u a l i t y of the i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s but t h a t they ."meant simply to d e c l a r e the r i g h t , so t h a t enforcement of i t might f o l l o w as f a s t as circumstances should permit."''' Thompson r e f e r s t o the p r i n c i p l e s put forward i n the French and American documents as " d o c t r i n a i r e e q u a l i t y " which he d e s c r i b e s a s : "an i d e a l put forward by prophets, p h i l o s o p h e r s , men o f v i s i o n and i n s i g h t , and dreamers of dreams, h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d by the system of i d e a s and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n which they a re p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t . " 6* There a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , many who f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t men a r e i n f a c t equal i n some r e s p e c t . Engels n o t e s : "The i d e a t h a t a l l men, as men, have something i n common, and t h a t they are t h e r e f o r e equal so f a r as these common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s go, i s of course p r i m e v a l . " 9 Some of the e f f o r t s t o e x p l a i n i n what sense t h i s c o n v i c t i o n must be understood w i l l now be s t u d i e d . 6, 7. I b i d . , p. 185. £. David Thompson, E q u a l i t y (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949), p. 152. 9. F r i e d r i c h Engels, Anti-Duhring (Moscow: F o r e i g n Language P u b l i s h i n g House, 1954), pp. 143-144. 6 c. Examination of the i d e a t h a t men a r e born e q u a l . The D e c l a r a t i o n o f the Rights of Man begins by a s s e r t i n g t h a t men are born equal i n r e s p e c t of t h e i r r i g h t s . The authors of the D e c l a r a t i o n a t l e a s t l i m i t the r e s p e c t i n which men are born e q u a l , d e r i v i n g t h e i r i d e a s p a r t l y from Rousseau's t h e o r i e s of s o c i e t y . (Rousseau s t a t e s t h a t a l l men are "born f r e e and equal "-^ and expresses the view t h a t i t i s our s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i s a t i o n s which cause s u f f e r i n g , e v i l and i n e q u a l i t i e s , thus d e s t r o y i n g the equal freedom, inno cence and r i g h t s w i t h which men come i n t o the world.) I f the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t men are born equal r e  mains u n q u a l i f i e d , i t i s c l e a r l y i m possible t o m a i n t a i n . I t i s p o i n t l e s s to o b j e c t t h a t there are v a r i a t i o n s i n h e i g h t , weight, and c o l o u r and other p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i  s t i c s among men, f o r i t h a r d l y seems l i k e l y t h a t the authors of the D e c l a r a t i o n and o t h e r n o t a b l e h i s t o r i c a l documents i n t e n d such a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Then what e x a c t l y i s intended? Arguments concerning a b a s i c b i o l o g i c a l s t r u c  t u r e do not seem t o be of much h e l p f o r a t l e a s t two reasons: 1. What c o n s t i t u t e s b a s i c f e a t u r e s i s a pseudo- s c i e n t i f i c , v a l u a t i v e , and u l t i m a t e l y a r b i t r a r y c o n s i d e r a  t i o n , and one would be e q u a l l y j u s t i f i e d i n s e l e c t i n g those 10. Jean Jacques Rousseau, The S o c i a l C o n t r a c t , t r a n s . G. D. H. Cole(London: J . M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1961), p. A. a t t r i b u t e s possessed by the e n t i r e f a m i l y of animals to proclaim the e q u a l i t y of a l l animals, an obv i o u s l y mean i n g l e s s d e c l a r a t i o n . 2. I t has long been recognised t h a t a man i s not merely a b i o l o g i c a l e n t i t y . Of equal importance i s h i s membership of a s o c i e t y or h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other men and w i t h h i s environment. I t was perhaps w i t h t h i s thought i n mind th a t man was described by A r i s t o t l e as a " p o l i t i c a l animal", and by St. Thomas Aquinas as a " s o c i a l animal". John Dewey was more a r t i c u l a t e i n emphasizing the s o c i a l aspect of the l i f e and environment of man. I n view of the d i f f i c u l t y which confronts us i n determining b a s i c f e a t u r e s of human nature, t h e r e f o r e , we r e s t our case on very shaky foundations when we c l a i m t h a t men are born equal because they come i n t o the world w i t h common b i o l o  g i c a l f e a t u r e s . d. Examination of the ide a t h a t men are equal by v i r t u e of t h e i r c a p a c i t y to reason  A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n of the foregoing theory i s that men are equal by v i r t u e of t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o reason, or by v i r t u e of equal c a p a c i t y of attainment. Some w r i t e r s i n c l u d e "the cap a c i t y t o f e e l p a i n " , 1 1 but who knows whether a harpooned whale experiences such pain as man has never endured 1 11. Bernard W i l l i a m s , "The Idea of E q u a l i t y " , Philosophy, P o l i t i c s and S o c i e t y , ed. Peter L a s l e t t and W. G. Runciman (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1962), p. 112. : 8 Hobbes s e t t l e s f o r what one may c a l l approximate or compensatory e q u a l i t y i n the " L e v i a t h a n " . He w r i t e s : "Nature hath made men so equal, i n the f a c u l t i e s of body and mind; as though there be found one man sometimes m a n i f e s t l y s t r o n g e r i n body, or of q u i c k e r mind than another; yet when a l l i s reckoned 1 t o g e t h e r , the d i f f e r e n c e be tween man and man i s not so c o n s i d e r a b l e , as t h a t one man can thereupon c l a i m t o h i m s e l f any b e n e f i t t o which another may not pretend, as w e l l as he. F o r as to the s t r e n g t h of body, the weakest has s t r e n g t h enough t o k i l l the s t r o n g e s t e i t h e r by s e c r e t machination, or by confederacy with o t h e r s . . . " 12 The i d e a of what has been l a b e l l e d "compensatory e q u a l i t y " has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n another context. Granted t h a t one were a l l o w e d the use of the concept of e q u a l i t y i n d i s c u s s i o n s about man's c a p a c i t y t o reason, i t c o u l d be shown t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s have r e v e a l e d how v a r i e d and unequal t h i s c a p a c i t y i s . True, the i d e a of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s c o n s t a n t l y undergoing m o d i f i  c a t i o n , but has so f a r not changed so d r a s t i c a l l y as t o erase the d i s t r i b u t i o n curve from text-books i n Psychology and L e a r n i n g . I t i s sometimes cla i m e d , however, t h a t the equa l i t y of men c o n s i s t s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i n g to some degree the f a c u l t y of reason. The American p h i l o s o p h e r , Ralph B. P e r r y , f o r example, a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i s m i s s i n g as i r r e l e - 12. Thomas Hobbes, L e v i a t h a n , ed. M. Oakeshott (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , I960), p. 80. 9 vant and f r i v o l o u s those o b j e c t i o n s t o the c l a i m o f e q u a l i t y which p r o c l a i m men's unequal s t a t u r e , s t r e n g t h , f i n g e r p r i n t s or c e p h a l i c i n d i c e s , h i m s e l f goes on to express the d o c t r i n e t h a t " a l l men a r e e q u a l l y men - which means not t h a t they possess human a t t r i b u t e s i n the same degree, but t h a t they possess the same a t t r i b u t e s i n some d e g r e e " . ^ But t o make t h i s a s s e r t i o n i s no more h e l p f u l than t o s t a t e t h a t men are equal because they have c l e a r l y r e c o g n i s a b l e heads. Perhaps i t i s more reasonable t o a s s e r t , as does Dr. Alburey C a s t e l l , 1 ^ t h a t man's e q u a l i t y c o n s i s t s i n h i s being born i g n o r a n t t e. Examination of the i d e a t h a t men are equal i n the eyes of God  Some t h i n k e r s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s b i a s have found an easy way out of the problem of e q u a l i t y , a f f i r m i n g t h a t men are equal i n the s i g h t of God and are c r e a t e d equal by Him. There are oth e r r e l i g i o u s expressions of the n o t i o n o f e q u a l i t y . . Jacques M a r i t a i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , con s i d e r s e q u a l i t y a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r C h r i s t i a n thought and l i f e . He w r i t e s : 13. Ralph Barton P e r r y , P u r i t a n i s m and Democracy (Vanguard Press,. 1944), p. 551. 14. Alburey C a s t e l l , " P o s i t i o n Papers i n the Philosophy of Edu c a t i o n " . C u r r i c u l u m B u l l e t i n , No. 241, V o l . XX, Feb. 1964 (Eugene, Oregon: U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon), p. 2. "There must be i n man a natural love f o r his own kind without which the love of the gospel f o r men of every race and every condition would be contrary to nature rather than i t s exaltation. How should we a l l be c a l l e d upon thus to love one another i n God i f we are not a l l equal i n our condition and s p e c i f i c dignity as r a t i o n a l creatures?" • 15 And Maritain quotes the following from Pope Pius XII: "Marvellous i n s i g h t which makes us contemplate • the human race i n the unity of i t s o r i g i n i n God; i n the unity of i t s nature s i m i l a r l y com posed i n a l l men of a material body and a s p i r i t u a l and immortal s o u l . . . . i n the unity of i t s supernatural end - God himself...." 16 Within the l i m i t s of t h i s paper one cannot make any appropriate and s a t i s f a c t o r y comment on these r e l i g i o u s expressions of the idea of equality. I t may be noted, though,that i n an age when communication brings not only communities but nations into 'l i v e l y contact, and when events i n one region make a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on others, men need, metaphorically (and even l i t e r a l l y perhaps), to speak a common language and to embrace some common premises and rules f o r the conduct of t h e i r l i v e s . We cannot con tinue to debate with our brothers i n a language which we alone understand - granted of course that we wish to be understood, or that we wish to influence others. For t h i s reason, then, d i f f i c u l t i e s which are of universal i n t e r e s t 15. Jacques Maritain, Ransoming the Time, trans. Harry Lorin Binsse (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 194-1), pp. 18-19; 16. Ibid., p. 19. must seek s o l u t i o n s t h a t w i l l be u n i v e r s a l l y understood and, however formidable t h i s may seem, u n i v e r s a l l y accep t e d . The r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i d e a of e q u a l i t y h a r d l y meets these requirements and has n o t been g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h h i s t o r i c a l l y . Moreover, an answer to a s o c i o l o g i c a l problem i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e and u s e l e s s i f i t c o n t a i n s elements which are more i n s c r u t a b l e than the o r i g i n a l problem. Not t h a t men of r e l i g i o n have not e x c i t e d our i m a g i n a t i o n from time to time and i n s p i r e d us w i t h a f e e l i n g of oneness. Sometimes t h e i r m y s t i c a l and p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n s of f a i t h i n human e q u a l i t y can f i r e us w i t h hope and r e s o l v e . I t may be h e l p f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s b e l i e f . To c a t c h the beauty of h i s thought and h i s prose we must quote a f a i r l y l o n g passage from M a r i t a i n : "The e q u a l i t y i n nature among men c o n s i s t s o f t h e i r concrete communion i n the mystery of the human s p e c i e s ; i t does not l i e i n an i d e a , i t i s hidden i n t h e h e a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l and of the c o n c r e t e , i n the r o o t s of the substance of each man. " I t i s the n a t u r a l l o v e of the human being .for h i s own k i n d which r e v e a l s and makes r e a l the u n i t y of s p e c i e s among men. As l o n g as l o v e does not c a l l i t f o r t h , t h a t u n i t y slumbers i n a metaphysical r e t r e a t where we can p e r c e i v e i t o n l y as an a b s t r a c t i o n . "In the common experience of misery, i n the common sorrow of g r e a t c a t a s t r o p h e s , i n h u m i l i a  t i o n and d i s t r e s s , under the blows of the execu t i o n e r or t h e bombs of t o t a l war, i n concentra t i o n camps, i n the h o v e l s of s t a r v i n g people i n g r e a t c i t i e s , i n any common n e c e s s i t y , the doors of s o l i t u d e open and man r e c o g n i s e s man. Man a l s o r e c o g n i s e s man when the sweetness of a gr e a t j o y o r of a great l o v e f o r an i n s t a n t c l e a r s h i s eyes. Whenever he does a s e r v i c e t o • h i s f e l l o w men or i s helped by them, whenever he shares the same elementary a c t i o n s and the same elementary emotions, whenever he t r u l y c o n s i d e r s h i s neighbour, t h e s i m p l e s t a c t i o n d i s c o v e r s f o r him, both i n o t h e r s and i n h i m s e l f , the common res o u r c e s and the common goodness - p r i m i t i v e , • rudimentary, wounded, unconscious and r e p r e s s e d - of human nature. At once the r e a l n e s s of e q u a l i t y and community i n nature i s r e v e a l e d to him.as a very p r e c i o u s t h i n g , an unknown marvel, a funda mental b a s i s of e x i s t e n c e , more important than a l l the d i f f e r e n c e s and i n e q u a l i t i e s superimposed upon i t . When he w i l l have r e t u r n e d to h i s r o u t i n e p l e a s u r e s , he w i l l have f o r g o t t o n t h i s d i s c o v e r y . " 1 ' What M a r i t a i n has done i n t h i s passage i s what we d e c l a r e t o be necessary i n any human s t r u g g l e . The concept of e q u a l i t y has evolved through separate s t r u g g l e s . Man's enthusiasm and support f o r an i d e a l and f o r an encounter need to be won by emotional a p p e a l . E q u a l i t y i s an e v o l v  i n g i d e a l which i s g r a d u a l l y a c h i e v e d and maintained by s t r u g g l e , hence by such p e r s u a s i v e eloquence as M a r i t a i n ' s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a cause must have more t o recommend i t than the eloquence of i t s advocates. I t w i l l be the purpose of the next chapter t o d e f i n e e q u a l i t y as an i d e a l and to seek i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . 1.7. I b i d . . pp. 17-13. 13 f. Examination of the idea that men are equal by virtue of common natural r i g h t s  There i s one other proposition that must be brought up f o r scrutiny i n t h i s chapter, one that has been asserted again and again; i n eff e c t , i t i s that men are equal by virtue of common natural r i g h t s , as was suggested f o r instance i n the American Declaration of Independence, implied by Locke, and p o s i t i v e l y affirmed by Thomas Paine. This theory was evidently not meant l i t e r a l l y by i t s proponents, but i t contains two areas of confusion which some people take seriously and which w i l l be presently revealed. The two sources of confusion are the terms "natural"^and " r i g h t s " . The question 'What i s natural?' i s not merely a question requiring empirical observation; i t i s one demand ing an expression of i d e a l i s t i c preferences. In the former case 'natural' i s a most inappropriate epithet to p r e f i x before 'rights', and i n the l a t t e r case i t i s redundant. 18. Paine writes that a l l men are born equal and with equal natural r i g h t . He defines natural rights as "those which appertain to man i n right," of h i s exis tence. Of t h i s kind are a l l the i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g h t s , or r i g h t of the mind, and also a l l those rig h t s of acting as an i n d i v i d u a l f o r h i s own comfort and happiness, which are not injurious to the natural rig h t s of others." ("The Rights of Man", i n The  Writings of Thomas Paine, ed. M. D. Conway, Vol. I I . (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 16*92) pp. 305-306.) The matter t u r n s , then, on the n o t i o n of r i g h t s . ( I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a l l s i m i l a r i d e a s used t o e x p l a i n the i d e a of e q u a l i t y , when they are not p a t e n t l y absurd, f a l l w i t h i n the realm of v a l u i n g . ) 'Right', l i k e ' n a t u r a l ' , can be used i n many senses. I t can mean, f o r example, a p r i v i l e g e or b e n e f i t which has been p r e s c r i b e d to someone, or i t can mean a p r i v i l e g e or b e n e f i t which we t h i n k some one ought t o have. The authors of the D e c l a r a t i o n c o u l d never have intended the f i r s t meaning as L i n c o l n c l e a r l y noted. Taken i n t h e second sense, the term has no f i x e d content but needs to be c o n t i n u a l l y r e d e f i n e d w i t h the change of the circumstances of s o c i a l l i v i n g . In t h i s sense, t h e r e f o r e , i t cannot be c o n s i s t e n t l y q u a l i f i e d by the a c t u a l i n t e r  p r e t a t i o n of " n a t u r a l " . 'Rights' have a s o c i a l o r i g i n and development. Norman Wilde expresses t h i s p o i n t of view q u i t e w e l l i n "The E t h i c a l B a s i s o f the Modern S t a t e " . He observes t h a t what are c a l l e d fundamental r i g h t s are not determined by human nature i n the a b s t r a c t , but by the customs and e x p e c t a t i o n s of a given age and people and t h a t " i n every growing s o c i e t y t h e r e i s as much need f o r the r e v i s i o n and r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t s r i g h t s as t h e r e i s i n the growing c h i l d f o r a l t e r a t i o n of i t s c l o t h e s . " 19 1 9 . Norman Wilde.'The E t h i c a l B a s i s of the Modern St a t e ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 8 3 . The consequence of a l l t h i s i s t h a t t o say that men are e q u a l by v i r t u e of common n a t u r a l r i g h t s i s e i t h e r meaningless, or o b v i o u s l y f a l s e . I f the statement i s c h a r i t a b l y i n t e r p r e t e d , , i t becomes t a u t o l o g i c a l , meaning men ought t o be e q u a l because they ought t o be p r e s c r i b e d equal b e n e f i t s and p r i v i l e g e s . Myers r a i s e s a f u r t h e r p o i n t which needs to be mentioned. He contends t h a t the d o c t r i n e of n a t u r a l r i g h t s though once an e f f e c t i v e weapon i n the f i g h t f o r freedom " f u r n i s h e s ammunition to e x t r e m i s t s on both the r i g h t and the l e f t . . . " ^ and had i t not been f o r t h i s d o c t r i n e , " j u d i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the American Con s t i t u t i o n . ..might have been more r e s p o n s i v e to the popular d e s i r e f o r economic progress".21 I t i s suggested, t h e r e  f o r e , t h a t the two terms ' n a t u r a l 1 and ' r i g h t s ' should not be used t o g e t h e r . g. E q u a l i t y as an i d e a l One emerges from t h i s a n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d and widely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e o r i e s p r o c l a i m i n g human e q u a l i t y as a f a c t w i t h the f e e l i n g t h a t one has to look elsewhere f o r an i n t e l l i g i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of the concept. 20. Harry Alonzo Myers, Are Men Equal? (New York: Great S e a l Books, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959), p. 135. 21. I b i d . , p. 134. The proponents of the t h e o r i e s d i s c u s s e d seem to be t r y i n g to a s s e r t and sometimes to prove t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s what may be c a l l e d a common humanity; i . e . a common c l a s s of beings c a l l e d man, s h a r i n g some common c h a r a c t e r i  s t i c s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are then used, somewhat c i r  c u l a r l y , t o e s t a b l i s h the common humanity o f man. Thus a u n i v e r s a l l y accepted premise o f our t h i n k i n g comes to be f i l l e d w i t h content t h a t p u r p o r t s to be f a c t u a l , and.an i d e a l which has developed h i s t o r i c a l l y comes t o be d e c l a r e d as a f a c t . T h i s argument can be expressed i n another form. Even i f we were to draw upon a l l the r e s o u r c e s of s c i e n c e to e s t a b l i s h the f a c t of a common bl o o d s t r u c t u r e of man and a mental p o t e n t i a l i t y regarded to be c o n s t a n t , we would s t i l l be l e f t w i t h the problem: how should the demands of those people who clamor f o r e q u a l i t y be met? In o t h e r words, we s t i l l have to d e f i n e some s o c i a l i d e a l of e q u a l i t y , which cannot be i n f e r r e d from f a c t u a l s t a t e  ments about human anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y f o r example. I t i s not being contended t h a t matters of f a c t are wholly u n r e l a t e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of i d e a l s . There i s u s u a l l y much r e l e v a n t f a c t u a l data of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o any moral problem, and such data should not be i g n o r e d . But w i t h the present s t a t e o f our knowledge, we are unable, i t seems, t o i n f e r - a n s w e r s t o moral questions from e m p i r i c a l premises w i t h the l o g i c a l r i g i d i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a hypothetico-deductive system of pure mathematics. Whether there are f a c t s not yet a v a i l a b l e t o us t h a t would, i f discovered, change our view of the r e l a t i o n between l o g i c and e t h i c s and r e l i e v e us of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of choosing our goals i s another matter. The t h e o r i e s s t u d i e d , how ever, were not expressions of f a c t nor were they i n f e r e n c e s from f a c t u a l data. An appeal to b i o l o g y and other studies about man and h i s environment has a s p e c i a l usefulness not yet men tioned.. There are f a n a t i c s of the d o c t r i n e of i n e q u a l i t y who misuse science and c i t e f a u l t y s c i e n t i f i c d o c t r i n e s t o promote t h e i r cause and assuage t h e i r conscience. In such a s i t u a t i o n , we need to defeat bad science by b e t t e r s c i e n c e . For t h i s reason s t u d i e s and researches i n comparative'ana tomy and psychology w i l l remain necessary i n the s t r u g g l e f o r any i d e a l of e q u a l i t y , but these s t u d i e s cannot s u f f i c e alone to d e f i n e any i d e a l . I t seems necessary, then, to agree w i t h Stace, who w r i t e s : "So f a r as I know, there i s not a s i n g l e human q u a l i t y or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n regard t o which men could be s a i d to be equal. C l e a r l y we have to seek the meaning of the d o c t r i n e of e q u a l i t y - i f i t has any meaning - along some e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t l i n e . " 22 22. W. T. Stace, The Destiny of Western Han (New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 1 5 2 . I t w i l l be advanced i n the next chapter t h a t e q u a l i t y can b e s t be understood as an i d e a l . An attempt w i l l be made t o formulate an i d e a l of e q u a l i t y , a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the argument produced by Stace and Myers t h a t men are of 'equal worth'. CHAPTER I I TOWARDS AN INTERPRETATION OF THE IDEAL OF EQUALITY a. The n o t i o n of i n f i n i t e worth In the "Fundamental P r i n c i p l e s of the Metaphy s i c s of M o r a l s " Kant f o r m u l a t e s what he c a l l s a 'supreme p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e ' or a ' c a t e g o r i c a l i m p e r a t i v e ' : "So a c t as to t r e a t humanity, whether i n t h i n e own person o r i n t h a t of any o t h e r , i n e v e r y case as an end w i t h a l , never as a means o n l y . " l Stace comments t h a t Kant r e c o g n i s e s i n t h i s law the f a c t t h a t men have t o t r e a t each o t h e r as means, but the law e n j o i n s t h a t we always remember t h a t men are a l s o ends i n themselves. Stace next deduces from t h i s lav/ t h a t each man has two k i n d s of v a l u e , h i s value as an end, which i s an i n t r i n s i c , a b s o l u t e and i n f i n i t e v a l u e , and h i s v a l u e as a means. The l a t t e r v a l u e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l , r e l a t i v e and f i n i t e , and "can be p l a c e d i n a s c a l e of h i g h e r and lower". As means then, men are c l e a r l y unequal. The d o c t r i n e of e q u a l i t y i s then s t a t e d t o be: "Men are equal i n r e s p e c t of t h e i r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s as ends, unequal i n r e s p e c t of t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l Values." 3 1. Abernethy, op. c i t . , p. 155. 2. Stace, op. c i t . , p. 153. 3. I b i d . H i s ' p r o o f of e q u a l i t y runs thus: The s a t i s  f a c t i o n o f my p e r s o n a l i t y i s t o me of i n f i n i t e value; the s a t i s f a c t i o n of another person's p e r s o n a l i t y i s t o him of i n f i n i t e v a l u e . Therefore, "I ought t o t r e a t the s a t i s  f a c t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y as having the same i n f i n i t e value f o r me as.has the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f my own p e r s o n a l i t y . " Myers has a s i m i l a r argument: "....Such i s the t r u e meaning of human e q u a l i t y . I t may be s t a t e d c o l d l y , almost g e o m e t r i c a l l y . Each man i s to h i m s e l f equal t o the g r e a t world of h i s own experience. In what matters most t o men t h i s world has the same import t o a l l ; i t teaches each the l e s s o n of h i s own i n f i n i t e worth. And so men, who are equal t o the same t h i n g , are equal to each o t h e r . One being of. i n f i n i t e worth cannot be g r e a t e r or l e s s than another o f i n f i n i t e worth." 5 Gregory V l a s t o s i n an Essay, " J u s t i c e and E q u a l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e e q u a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l human worth as the b a s i s f o r the e q u a l i t y of p e r s o n a l r i g h t s which are not p r o p o r t i o n e d t o me r i t and c o u l d not be j u s t i f i e d by m e r i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note how V l a s t o s defends the e q u a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l human worth: T r a n s l a t i n g human worth i n terms of human w e l l - b e i n g and human freedom he argues: "In a l l cases where human beings are capable o f enj o y i n g the same goods we f e e l t h a t the i n  t r i n s i c v alue o f t h e i r enjoyment i s the same. In j u s t t h i s sense we h o l d t h a t one man's w e l l - being i s as v a l u a b l e as any o t h e r s . . . . ' one man's freedom i s as v a l u a b l e as any o t h e r s ' . " 6 4. I b i d . , pp. 154-155. 5. Myers, Loc. c i t . , p. 32. 6. Gregory V l a s t o s , " J u s t i c e and E q u a l i t y " , S o c i a l J u s t i c e ed. R i c h a r d Brandt (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1962), p.51. 21 Now we seem at l a s t to be hot i n p u r s u i t of some meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e q u a l i t y , but we should beware of the dangers which l i e i n our t r a c k . One of these dangers i s the p s e u d o - l o g i c a l approach of Stace and of Myers, the l a t t e r of whom thought he was p r o v i n g h i s case ' c o l d l y , almost g e o m e t r i c a l l y 1 . Myers was n e i t h e r c o l d nor g e o m e t r i c a l i n h i s argument, and Stace's argument was a mixture of l o g i c and f i c t i o n . Note t h a t Stace's argument proceeds from p r e  mises about what each man t h i n k s about h i m s e l f t o the ' c o n c l u s i o n ' made by Stace h i m s e l f t h a t men are e q u a l . The e q u a l i t y o f A and B cannot be l o g i c a l l y i n f e r r e d from the two p r o p o s i t i o n s : A f e e l s t h a t he has i n f i n i t e worth; and B f e e l s t h a t he has i n f i n i t e worth. The s i t u a t i o n becomes more s e r i o u s when Stace pretends t o draw i n f e r e n c e s about how each man ought to behave t o the o t h e r . The r e a s o n i n g of Myers e x h i b i t s s i m i l a r f a l l a c i e s . But Myers was c a r e f u l t o p o s i t a major premise of h i s judgment t h a t "what matters most t o men i n t h i s w o r l d has the same import t o a l l , " ' ' ' and d i d not r e l y s o l e l y as d i d Stace on the premise concerning what each man f e l t about h i m s e l f . 7. Myers, l o c . c i t . V l a s t o s i s an improvement on Stace and Myers i n t h a t he c l e a r l y s e t s out a s e r i e s o f p r o p o s i t i o n s as premises and he does not pretend t o i n f e r one from another. I t would seem up t o t h i s p o i n t t h a t b e l i e f s about the equal worth of i n d i v i d u a l s are hypotheses o n l y or con v i c t i o n s and cannot be d e r i v e d from other p r i n c i p l e s ; t h a t these b e l i e f s are b e s t e s t a b l i s h e d by a p p e a l i n g a f t e r t h e manner of M a r i t a i n perhaps or of Myers ( i n s p i t e o f h i s claims) t o the i m a g i n a t i o n and f e e l i n g o f each person. T h i s question of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f whatever i s s e t t l e d upon as the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n . At t h i s p o i n t two d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t one must f a c e i n such an appeal need t o be s t a t e d : 1. I t i s not i m p o s s i b l e f o r some people t o deny t h a t o t h e r s are of i n f i n i t e worth, while they make t h i s c l a i m f o r themselves. 2. The term "worth" opens up new areas of per p l e x i t y . I t may be s e r i o u s l y contended by the a p o s t l e s o f i n e q u a l i t y t h a t 'worth' cannot be used i n any a b s o l u t e sense, t h a t something must be worth something, and con sequen t l y t h a t any c r i t e r i a used t o measure worth w i l l r e v e a l marked d i f f e r e n c e s between any two persons. And i f we t r y t o answer t h i s by t a l k i n g about the worth of a human being qua human being, we a r e r i g h t back where we s t a r t e d a l o n g time ago. What s t a r t e d out as an a p p a r e n t l y p r e s c r i p t i v e use o f e q u a l i t y ends up d e s c r i p t i v e l y , and the d e s c r i p t i o n has proven u n r e l i a b l e , t o say the l e a s t . The i d e a o f i n f i n i t e worth no doubt rouses the enthusiasm of" e q u a l r i g h t s champions, but f a r from j u s t i  f y i n g the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y i t merely expresses t h i s i d e a l i n a new form. A l i t t l e r e f l e x i o n convinces one t h a t the i d e a of worth i s even more i n s c r u t a b l e than the i d e a of e q u a l i t y . Where then do we t u r n f o r an answer t o the q u e s t i o n : What i s the meaning of e q u a l i t y ? Perhaps the best d i r e c t i o n t o t u r n i s away from the q u e s t i o n . I t may w e l l be t h a t we are a s k i n g a bad or u n i n t e l l i g i b l e q u e s t i o n , t h a t i s a qu e s t i o n with no c l e a r meaning; or we may be i n t e r p r e t i n g an honest question b a d l y . To g i v e "the meaning of human e q u a l i t y " and to prove t h a t " a l l men are e q u a l " are e q u a l l y i n v i d i o u s t a s k s . ^ I t i s c e r t a i n l y more p r o d u c t i v e t o study the e v o l u t i o n o f the i d e a o f e q u a l i t y and the r o l e which t h i s i d e a p l a y s i n our s o c i e t y today. I t may w e l l be t h a t e q u a l i t y i s l i k e a banner which we use i n marching f o r a cause. On n o t i c i n g a group of people marching w i t h a banner we n o r m a l l y enquire what the event i s a l l about. In an e f f i c i e n t t r a d e union 8. See J . L. A u s t i n , "The Meaning of a Word", Philosophy  and Ordinary Language, ed. Ch a r l e s E. Caton ••.(.-.Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r ess, 1963). A u s t i n argues t h a t there i s no simple and handy appendage o f a word c a l l e d 'the meaning of (the word) "x"', t h a t o n l y sen tences have meaning; words do not have d e n o t a t i o n ; a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o the f a c t s o f a c t u a l language, but e f f o r t s can be made t o d e s c r i b e events o r exper i e n c e s i n b e t t e r language than t h a t which i s o r d i n a r i l y used. demonstration we get a rough i d e a of the nature o f the gri e v a n c e s s u f f e r e d or of the g o a l s sought, but only- f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the' p a r t i c u l a r s of the demon s t r a t i o n can g i v e us a l l the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . b. Fundamental p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y  At d i f f e r e n t times i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s oppressed people march under the banner of e q u a l i t y . In each s i t u a  t i o n d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f circumstances are i n v o l v e d but very o f t e n have much i n common. I t i s a proper task f o r h i s  t o r i a n s t o d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s circumstances which saw the e v o l u t i o n o f our i d e a l s of e q u a l i t y ; t h i s paper has the humbler purpose of g i v i n g e x p r e s s i o n t o the p r e v a i l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the contemporary s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y . The o b j e c t , o f cdurse, i s not t o e x p l a i n f u l l y what the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s , f o r t h i s i s a tremendous and continuous undertaking demanding much empi r i c a l e n q u i r y and s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n p a r t i c u l a r cases t o discover, any t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s t h a t may e x i s t of the concrete s t r u g g l e s f o r e q u a l i t y . In l e g a l d i s p u t e s , i n p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n , o r i n day t o day s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n , c e r t a i n human d e s i r e s o r demands are e v i d e n t : the demand not t o be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t on i r r e l e v a n t grounds, the demand not to be deprive of the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s which o t h e r s enjoy without p o s s e s s i n g any e x t r a r e l e v a n t c l a i m , the demand t h a t some should not f o r u n j u s t i f i a b l e o r i r r e l e v a n t reasons be r e l i e v e d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which others are r e q u i r e d to f u l f i l , the demand t h a t one should not be used by o t h e r s f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l advantage o n l y , without r e g a r d t o one's ch o i c e or f e e l i n g , or without regard to what i s honourable i n human r e l a t i o n s . Benn and P e t e r s i n " S o c i a l P r i n c i p l e s and the Democratic S t a t e " seem t o have summarized a l l t h a t i s s a i d here by a s s e r t i n g t h a t what men r e a l l y demand when they c l a i m e q u a l i t y i s t h a t "none s h a l l be h e l d to have a c l a i m t o b e t t e r treatment than another, i n -advance of good grounds being produced", t h a t a l l men should be t r e a t e d a l i k e "except where there are r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between them."9 A s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n can be r a i s e d immediately t o t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y : terms l i k e "honourable" do not s o l v e our problem but merely express i t i n new g u i s e - or perhaps i n d i s g u i s e . S i m i l a r l y too, the use of such ide a s as r e l e v a n c e and "good grounds" i s not v e r y i n s t r u c t i v e . Such an o b j e c t i o n , however, b r i n g s out a s a l i e n t p o i n t , t h a t i s , t h a t a c t u a l cases of a l l e g e d i n e q u a l i t y o r 9. S. I . Benn and R. S. P e t t e r s , S o c i a l P r i n c i p l e s and the  Democratic State (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1959) p. 110-111. of i r r e l e v a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n need to be examined on t h e i r m e r it j 1*- 1 out o f such examination, an i d e a l of e q u a l i t y can emerge. (And by 'examination' i s meant an o b j e c t i v e study of a l l a v a i l a b l e evidence w i t h a view to making reasonable c o n c l u s i o n s . ) The attempt w i l l be made to g i v e some substance now t o the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by d i v i d i n g the study i n t o three a r e a s , p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l , and s o c i a l , and by s t u d y i n g how these p r i n c i p l e s a pply. c. P o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y The problem of p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y can be t r a n s  l a t e d i n terms of "the common good". The i d e a of the common good, or as R. J . Rowan c a l l s i t , "the i n t e r e s t of the community as a whole", w h i l e i t does not p r o v i d e any concrete or p o s i t i v e g o a l f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , f u r n i s h e s us with a " c o n d i t i o n , which law and p o l i c y must s a t i s f y as they are d i r e c t e d to whatever s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s agents deem worthwhile. ""^ Rowan co n t i n u e s : "Thus procedures and t r i b u n a l s are e s t a b l i s h e d i n order to secure, i n s o f a r as mechanics can - pr o v i d e , t h a t p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y s h a l l not be turned t o e x p l o i t i v e , p r i v a t e , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g use, t h a t no one s p e c i a l s h a l l r e c e i v e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i t . " 12 10. "Out of co n t e x t , " w r i t e Benn and Peter s , " e q u a l i t y i s an empty framework f o r a s o c i a l i d e a l ; i t has content o n l y when p a r t i c u l a r i s e d " . - (Op. c i t . , p. 115) 11. R. J . Rowan, The Common Good (Unpublished Lecture),p.3« 12. I b i d . , p. 4. A l l r i g h t s t h a t are guaranteed any person because of the s o l e f a c t t h a t he i s a member of the community must be allowed t o a l l members, and any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e q u i r e d of one must be r e q u i r e d of a l l . (Rowan suggests t h a t some r i g h t s must o f t e n be allowed t o non-members as w e l l . While t h e r e i s some m e r i t i n t h i s s u g g e s t i o n and cases can be imagined i n which i t can be reasonable, t h e r e i s some danger i n a c c e p t i n g such a view; f o r once non-members a r e allowed p r i v i l e g e s which are g r a n t e d to persons s o l e l y because they are members, i t can without g r e a t e r i n c o n s i s t e n c y be argued t h a t some members may have t o be denied these p r i v i l e g e s . What i s needed i n s t e a d i s a s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of 'members1 and a c a r e f u l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of member-rights which w i l l take care of those cases which Rowan i s concerned about.) I t i s necessary t o add,too, t h a t the r i g h t s s h o u l d r e a l l y be allowed t o a l l under g e n u i n e l y common c o n d i t i o n s , t h a t i s , without any s p e c i f i c s t i p u l a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r cases. F o r example, i t can be claime d t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America some s t a t e s a l l o w the r i g h t t o vote t o a l l members. But t h i s c l a i m i s rendered f a r c i c a l by the f a c t t h a t Negroes alone have t o meet p e c u l i a r requirements b e f o r e they can e x e r c i s e the f r a n c h i s e . I t may a l s o be noted t h a t i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l sphere p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y demands t h a t r i g h t s which are. allowed t o some non-members must be a l l o w e d t o a l l non- members, without any c l e v e r r e g u l a t i o n s s u r r e p t i o u s l y c a l c u l a t e d to p e n a l i s e some f o r e i g n e r s because o f i r r e  l e v a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s not t o be imagined t h a t p o l i t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d e r a i s openly d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . In most cases d e l i c a t e and shrewd c l a s  s i f i c a t i o n s a re made which a r e o s t e n s i b l y reasonable but i n f a c t i n t e n s e l y wicked.. Next comes the thorny s u b j e c t of the r e l a t i o n between p r i n c i p l e s o f e q u a l i t y and the mechanics of p o l i t i c s . Rowan very a s t u t e l y observes: "....men seem t o assume t h a t a l l or most o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i s i n h e r e n t i n the p o l i t i c a l system, and i s t h e r e f o r e necessary, whereas one might argue t h a t a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y i s t r a c e a b l e not to the system, but t o the way i n which i t operates." 1-* Dewey r e f e r s t o the b a l l o t box and m a j o r i t y r u l e as " e x t e r  n a l and l a r g e l y mechanical symbols and e x p r e s s i o n s " of democracy, commonly regarded as the system best a f f o r d i n g p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , "expedients, the best d e v i c e s t h a t at a c e r t a i n time have been found. "-^ A l a s , t h i s i s t o o o f t e n f o r g o t t e n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n emergent t e r r i t o r i e s where p o l i  t i c i a n s commit themselves i r r e v o c a b l y and i n f l e x i b l y t o p a r t i c u l a r a l i e n or text-book forms of government, b e l i e v i n g t h a t a l l p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s can t h e r e b y be e r a d i c a t e d . 13. Rowan, P o l i t i c a l O b l i g a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l Purpose (Unpublished L e c t u r e ) , pp. 61-62. 14. John Dewey, "Democracy and Education i n the World Today", Problems o f Men (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , Inc., 1946.), p. 36. Perhaps i t i s even u n f a i r t o l a y t h i s charge on l y a g a i n s t p o l i t i c i a n s i n emergent c o u n t r i e s , f o r i n the grea t n a t i o n s of the world today there are many f a n a t i c a l , l e a d e r s who c o n s i d e r i n i q u i t o u s any p o l i t i c a l system o t h e r than t h e i r own. There,are, of course, i n i q u i t o u s p o l i t i c a l systems; but what i s being contended i s t h a t no p a r t i c u l a r form o f government guarantees t h a t p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l r e g a rd t h e " i n t e r e s t of the community as a whole." There are some guides a s to t h e degree to which p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y i s enjoyed. Dewey c o n s i d e r s t h a t two fundamental i d e a s u n d e r l y i n g the mechanical symbols of American demo cr a c y a r e : "the o p p o r t u n i t y , the r i g h t and the duty of every i n d i v i d u a l t o form some c o n v i c t i o n and t o express some c o n v i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g h i s own p l a c e i n the s o c i a l order, and the r e l a t i o n s of t h a t s o c i a l o r d e r t o h i s own w e l f a r e , " 15 and "the f a c t t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l counts as one and one o n l y on an e q u a l i t y w i t h others so t h a t t h e f i n a l s o c i a l w i l l comes about as the c o o p e r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of the i d e a s of many people." 16 Whether or not one admits the p o s s i b i l i t y o r makes sense of "the c o o p e r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e ideas of many people", the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t remains sound, v i z . t h a t the i n t e r e s t of each member o f the community i s f a i r l y regarded i n d e l i b e r a t i o n upon p o l i c y and i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and execu t i o n of p l a n s . 1 5 . I b i d . 1 6 . I b i d . I t i s important t o note t h a t t o the i d e a t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l should count as one and only one, Dewey adds, "on an e q u a l i t y w i t h o t h e r s " . The reason i s o f course t h a t i n any s o c i e t y some persons are more i n f l u e n  t i a l than o t h e r s and can form pressure groups t h a t can make a mockery of t h e most t h e o r e t i c a l l y l a u d a b l e v o t i n g system or o t h e r p o l i t i c a l machinery. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y r a i s e s another problem, t h a t of the c o n t r o l of wealth, communication, and d e c i s i o n making, which w i l l be c o n s i  dered l a t e r . What Dewey w r i t e s o f democracy can be approp r i a t e l y , s a i d of p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y ; t h a t i s , i t r e q u i r e s t h a t : "every i n d i v i d u a l must be c o n s u l t e d i n such a way, a c t i v e l y not p a s s i v e l y , t h a t he h i m s e l f becomes a p a r t o f the process o f a u t h o r i t y , of the process of s o c i a l c o n t r o l ; t h a t h i s needs and wants have a chance t o be r e g i s t e r e d i n a way where they count i n determining s o c i a l p o l i c y . Along w i t h t h a t goes...mutual c o n f i  dence and mutual c o n s u l t a t i o n and a r r i v i n g u l t i m a t e l y a t s o c i a l c o n t r o l by p o o l i n g , by p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r a l l of these i n d i v i d u a l expressions of ideas and wants." 17 Such n o t i o n s as the " p o o l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l expressions o f ideas and wants" can be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean, simply, t a k i n g i n t o account the i n t e r e s t of the community as a whole or the common good. 17. Loc. c i t . , pp. 35 - 36. I t has been f r e q u e n t l y suggested t h a t any c l a s  s i f i c a t i o n s and d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n the treatment of d i f f e r e n t members of a community must be made on r e l e v a n t and j u s t i f i a b l e grounds. The question then a r i s e s f o r each p a r t i c u l a r case, what i s r e l e v a n t and what i s j u s t i  f i a b l e ? T h i s q u e s t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the l e g a l aspect of t h e study. d. L e g a l e q u a l i t y Much o f what has been s a i d about p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y h o l d s good f o r l e g a l e q u a l i t y . But the law has a s p e c i f i c r o l e t o p l a y as the watch-dog f o r the p r e s e r  v a t i o n of a l l r i g h t s and e q u a l i t i e s . E q u a l i t y under t h e law can best be understood t o mean t h a t a country's laws should a p p l y e q u a l l y t o a l l i t s members, and a l l s h o u l d be e q u a l l y p r o t e c t e d under the law. Tussman and t e n Broek c r i t i c i s e such an expres s i o n of l e g a l e q u a l i t y . They w r i t e : " I t i s c l e a r t h a t the demand f o r equal p r o t e c  t i o n cannot be a demand t h a t laws apply u n i  v e r s a l l y t o a l l persons. The l e g i s l a t u r e , i f i t i s t o a c t a t a l l , must impose s p e c i a l burdens upon o r g r a n t s p e c i a l b e n e f i t s to s p e c i a l groups or c l a s s e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . " !° Now i t i s banal t o argue t h a t some r i g h t s o f some people must be w i t h h e l d under s p e c i f i c circumstances not merely t h a t the r i g h t s of o t h e r s may be maintained ( f o r t h i s 18. Joseph Tussman and Jacobus ten Broek, "The Equal P r o t e c t i o n o f the Laws", C a l i f o r n i a Law Review, V o l . XXXVII, Sept. 1949, No. 3, p. 343-alone would be a dangerously inadequate j u s t i f i c a t i o n ) but c h i e f l y t h a t the body p o l i t i c . m a y be kept i n t a c t . I f t h i s i s what Tussman and t e n Broek mean, then the p o i n t i s too obvious t o deserve comment. What i s i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e c o n d i t i o n under which such i n e q u a l i t i e s should be allowed. I t i s suggested by the authors t h a t the answer l i e s i n the l e g i s l a t i v e r i g h t o f reasonable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h a t "the reasonableness of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the degree of i t s success i n t r e a t i n g s i m i l a r l y those s i m i  l a r l y s i t u a t e d . " ^ Much the same i d e a i s expressed by Benn and P e t e r s who c o n s i d e r i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s c r e a t e d by law be determined on r e l e v a n t grounds and t h a t whoever would make d i s t i n c t i o n s " j u s t i f y the c r i t e r i a i n terms of more g e n e r a l r u l e s , and u l t i m a t e l y of a balance of advantage t o a l l concerned".20 While we s t i l l do not have p o s i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s f o r the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e s o r p e n a l t i e s - at any r a t e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s u p p l y these i n vacuo - we have at l e a s t one of the ground r u l e s governing t h e i r d i s t r i b u  t i o n . I t i s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f the lav/ to assess whether the r u l e i s observed. What has been c a l l e d i r r e l e v a n t . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s Tussman and t e n Broek would r e f e r t o as " f o r b i d d e n c l a s s i - 19. I b i d . , p. 344. 20. Benn & P e t e r s , op. c i t . , p. 112. f i c a t i o n " , x so that to say that one's sex i s i r r e l e v a n t to whether one should be allowed to exercise the franchise i s equivalent to saying that a 'forbidden c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' has been made of those who are e l i g i b l e to do so. I t may be noted i n passing that once the c l a s s i  f i c a t i o n i s made and accepted, equality under the law has an exact meaning and does not have to be explained i n metaphorical terms. I t means simply that i f X or I f a l l s within the categories delineated by any p a r t i c u l a r law, then X - Y ; and the two can be interchanged with the same re s u l t s . Tussman and ten Broek also raise the important question of the function of the court with respect to the laws themselves passed by l e g i s l a t i v e bodies. They assert that "the equal protection of the laws i s a pledge of the protection of equal laws".^^ Benn and Peters s i m i l a r l y distinguish between "unjust administration of the law and an unjust law".23 I t i s even doubtful whether there can be at a l l equal protection of the laws without the protection, of equal laws, whether, that i s , the two p r i n c i p l e s are not two sides of the same coin. 21. Tussman.and ten Broek, op. c i t . , p. 353- 22. Ibid . , p. 344. 23. l o c . c i t . -The implication of a l l t h i s i s that for l e g a l equality to be guaranteed as f a r as i s humanly possible, i t seems that the courts must have j u r i s d i c t i o n over laws and p o l i c i e s enacted by the l e g i s l a t i v e authority when these are reasonably challenged.24 But just as i t i s possible to have a l e g i s l a t i v e body enacting unequal laws, i s i t not possible f o r the court deliberately to make unjust decisions? This p o s s i b i l i t y makes i t appear obvious that there i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any society through some agency or other to attempt to inculcate habits of thought and behaviour on which i t s continued and peaceful existence depends. More w i l l be said i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n the proper place. For the moment i t i s suggested that the court i s one of the l a s t bastions of defence against inequality and i n j u s t i c e . I t s authority f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the law at lea s t , must be therefore unlimited, i t s scholarship un questionable, and i t s morals beyond reproach. I t must, i n short, be devoid of a l l those impediments to free and fear l e s s thought and impartial judgment. Consequently, when decisions of the court are tampered with by p o l i t i c a l bodies as i n the Mandela t r i a l i n South Africa,25 or recent 24. The writer admits, and even cautions, that the implications of t h i s view render i t highly dangerous and debatable. 25. See-, "Facts on F i l e " , Volume XXIII, No. 1201, Oct.31- Nov. 6, 1963, 392B. t r i a l s i n Ghana^ 0 which have d i s t u r b e d the moral con s c i e n c e of people a l l over the world, then we must tremble with the premonition of impending s o c i a l d i s a s t e r . In some sense or other, people w i l l always remain the v i c t i m s of circumstances, and, as Hume argues so p a s s i o n  a t e l y i n h i s "Enquiry Concerning the Human Understanding", or as Mannheim observes i n an essay, "The Problem of a S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge", ° our d e c i s i o n s w i l l always be i n f l u e n c e d by our p a r t i c u l a r experiences and c o n d i t i o n s . For t h i s reason, i t i s a l l the more nec e s s a r y t h a t the u l t i m a t e g u a r d i a n of a na t i o n ' s r i g h t s and noble p r i n c i p l e s must be t h a t body which i s l e a s t l i k e l y to have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n (or one can say, which i s l i k e l y to have the l e a s t v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n ) the d e c i s i o n s i t makes concerning these matters. I t seems t h a t such a body i s a j u d i c i a l r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l one. Not t h a t i t i s f o r g o t t e n t h a t the r e a l guardians u l t i m a t e l y are i n d i v i d u a l persons, but 26. See, "Facts on F i l e " , Volume XXIII, No. 1209, Dec. 26- Jan. 1, 1964, 473B. 27. Hume S e l e c t i o n s , ed. Charles W. Hendel, J r . (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1927); see e s p e c i a l l y "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding", pp. 107-194. 28. K a r l Mannheim, " H i s t o r i c i s m " , and "The Problem o f a S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge", Essays on the S o c i o l o g y of Knowledge, ed. Paul Kecskemeti (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952). one has to pay attention to the formal arrangements which are made to f i l l the breach when the wisdom, sympathy, kindness and r a t i o n a l i t y of John Brown collapse. e. Economic equality The application of general p r i n c i p l e s of equa l i t y to the economic•sphere of our l i f e i s a most formi dable and embarrassing task, and ideals of economic equality are extremely d i f f i c u l t to define. Even K a r l Marx was content f o r s p e c i f i c reasons to s e t t l e f o r con ditions of economic equality which he himself considered to possess 'unavoidable shortcomings 1. Marx, indeed, did o f f e r what he regarded as an i d e a l interpretation of economic equality. Marx's view on t h i s matter runs as follows: encumbered with 'bourgeois l i m i t a t i o n s ' the right of producers i s proportional to the labour they supply; equality therefore "consists i n measur ing t h i s r i g h t by an equal standard: labour," a l l other considerations such as class d i s t i n c t i o n being irrelevant.. "Equal right i s an unequal r i g h t f o r unequal labour..... I t i s therefore a r i g h t of inequality, i n i t s substances as i s a l l right."29 But while right can only consist i n the applica t i o n of an equal standard the unequal individuals can be 29. K a r l Marx, " C r i t i c i s m of the Gotha Programme", Capital  and Other Writings, ed. Max- Eastman, Modern Library Edition (New York, Random House Inc., 1932), p. $. measured by an equal standard only from one d e f i n i t e p o i n t of view among many o t h e r s , i n t h i s case as workers. As a r e s u l t r i g h t would have t o be unequal, because w i t h an equal share o f t h e . s o c i a l consumption fund a worker who i s married and has c h i l d r e n w i l l be a c t u a l l y l e s s w e l l o f f than an unmarried c h i l d l e s s worker. "But t h e s e shortcomings are unavoidable i n the f i r s t phase of Communist s o c i e t y Right can never be on a h i g h e r l e v e l than the economic s t a t e of s o c i e t y and the s t a t e of s o c i a l c i v i l i  z a t i o n c o n d i t i o n e d by i t . In a h i g h e r phase of Communist s o c i e t y a f t e r the e n s l a v i n g s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l t o the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r s h a l l have disappeared.... when, w i t h the development of the i n d i v i d u a l i n every sense, the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s a l s o i n c r e a s e and a l l the s p r i n g s of c o l l e c t i v e wealth f l o w w i t h abundance - o n l y then.can the l i m i t e d h o r i  zon of bourgeois r i g h t be l e f t behind e n t i r e l y and s o c i e t y i n s c r i b e upon i t s banner: 'From each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y , to each a c c o r d i n g to h i s needs ! ' " ' 30 The f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c i s m of Marx's theory can be made a t once: 1. Even the most markedly c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s today have l o n g l e f t Marx's 'bourgeois r i g h t ' behind them adopting a more humane approach both i n theory and p r a c  t i c e than t h a t of equating p r i v i l e g e s w i t h p r o d u c t i o n . Not t h a t the u l t i m a t e has been achieved i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n or even t h e o r e t i c a l l y accepted, but "To each a c c o r d i n g to h i s l a b o u r " i s not the most r e s p e c t a b l e p r i n c i p l e of 30. I b i d . , p. 7. C a p i t a l i s t governments. 2. I t i s not necessary t h a t the s t r u g g l e f o r equal r i g h t s s hould wait on or be s e r i o u s l y d e l a y e d by the phenomenon of economic s c a r c i t y which w i l l ever be present with us. Economic s c a r c i t y c e r t a i n l y renders the s t r u g g l e more acute but i t a l s o makes the s t r u g g l e more urgent. 3. Marx's i d e a l , "From each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t i e s , t o each a c c o r d i n g to h i s needs 1" appears a t t r a c t i v e , but even with 'the spr i n g s of c o l l e c t i v e wealth f l o w i n g i n abundance', the i d e a l i s unjust and inadequate, f o r needs w i l l have t o be d e l i m i t e d and con t r o l l e d by some other p r i n c i p l e such as 'the common good' or 'the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' f o r example, while t h e r e always comes a p o i n t when a person should be allowed to decide f o r h i m s e l f whether he wishes to c o n t r i b u t e more to soc i e t y r e g a r d l e s s of h i s c a p a c i t y t o do so. In other words, c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e and p e r s o n a l w e l l - being i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y , such a c o n f l i c t being best r e s o l v e d by the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f . The s u b s t i t u t i o n of 'work' f o r 'need' makes the maxim even more p e r n i c i o u s . L e t us examine a few well-known maxims of d i s  t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e and see i f they can e n l i g h t e n us on the que s t i o n of economic e q u a l i t y . V l a s t o s l i s t s the f o l l o w  i n g : 1. To each a c c o r d i n g to h i s need. 39 2. To each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s worth. 3 . To each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s m e r i t . 4. To each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s work. 5. To each a c c o r d i n g to the agreements he has made. 31 * And i f one t h i n k s i n terms of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or d u t i e s , one may add 6. From each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s a b i l i t y . The f i r s t , second and s i x t h maxims have a l r e a d y been com mented upon. 'Worth* and 'merit' are v e r y tenuous and s u s p i  c i o u s c r i t e r i a f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s o c i e t y ' s r e s o u r c e s , however the two terms are d e f i n e d . The main reason, a p a r t from d i f f i c u l t i e s of d e f i n i t i o n and i d e n t i  f i c a t i o n , i s t h a t worth and m e r i t are c o r r e l a t i v e s o f , or dependent on, c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , on t a s t e , on the laws of supply and demand; and men are f r a i l and s e l f i s h enough to r e g a r d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n s or s o c i a l r o l e to be of unsurpassed s i g n i f i c a n c e and to demand the h i g h e s t rewards. In t h i s r e s p e c t , what has been c a l l e d Hbbbes' n o t i o n of "compensatory e q u a l i t y " i s u s e f u l t o remind us, as someone remarked, t h a t the n i g h t i n g a l e was p l a c e d i n t h e f o u r t h c l a s s a t the fo w l show; to complete the p i c t u r e one may observe t h a t the s t a n d i n g of the crow 31. Loc. c i t . should be p r e t t y h i g h among the scavengers of the e a r t h . For s i m i l a r reasons, any oppressed.people who c l a i m one k i n d of s u p e r i o r i t y or another over the r e s t of t h e i r f e l l o w men seem t o be d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r cause. One cou l d h a r d l y commend the a t t i t u d e which prompted one of Onok- pasa's c h a r a c t e r s i n "The Hero of S h a r p e v i l l e , " Gazo, t o excl a i m t o h i s mother: "Who f e a r s white men? Did my f a t h e r not f l o g Mr. Johannes on h i s f a r m ? " ^ 2 I t may take some time and perhaps some bloo d before such s p u r i o u s c r i t e r i a as 'worth' and 'merit' and 'production' cease to be measures of income or b e f o r e the no t i o n s as p r e s e n t l y conceived undergo the d r a s t i c over haul t h a t they r e q u i r e ; but, l i k e Tawney, one can be h o p e f u l though not sanguine o f the prospect. Nor w i l l the f i f t h maxim withstand s c r u t i n y . In h i s S o c r a t i c d i a l o g u e on P o l i t i c a l O b l i g a t i o n & P o l i t i  c a l Purpose, Rowan makes h i s main c h a r a c t e r , Hobbes, admit t h a t "a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the c i t i z e n r y are themselves par t y t o a misuse or a d i s t o r t i o n of p u b l i c purposes and procedures".-^ In the present t e x t t h i s means t h a t people o f t e n do make u n f a i r agreements which rob them even of a due reward f o r t h e i r l a b o u r . Among the many reasons are improper education and inadequate knowledge of r e l e v a n t 32. B. E. Onokpasa, The Hero of S h a r p e v i l l e (Ibadan: the A u g u s t i n i a n P u b l i s h e r s o f N i g e r i a , undated), p. 39. 33. Op. c i t . , p. 59. c o n d i t i o n s , i n d o l e n c e , r e s i g n a t i o n t o or acceptance of a hard core of t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s - l i k e the s e r f who would q u e s t i o n : Who am I to r i s e up a g a i n s t my Lord? - and v a r i o u s pressures such as f e a r of l o s i n g o r not o b t a i n i n g a means of l i v e l i h o o d . I t seems as though an impasse has been reached i n t h i s s e a rch f o r some understanding of economic equa l i t y . Two ways of escape are suggested: One may, l i k e Tawney, recommend a supple i n t e r p r e t a t i o n such as "equa l i t y of environment, of access to educ a t i o n and the means of c i v i l i z a t i o n , of s e c u r i t y and independence, and of the s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n which e q u a l i t y i n these matters u s u a l l y c a r r i e s w i t h i t " ; - ^ or one may submit t h a t equa l i t y i s a g r o s s l y inadequate or i n a p p r o p r i a t e i d e a l f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic b e n e f i t s . At any r a t e we must be a b l e t o accommodate such humane p r a c t i c e s as the g r a n t i n g of s e c u r i t y t o the unemployed and unemployable, which such maxims as "to each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s work" cannot j u s t i f y . By the same token, wages cannot be l e f t or t r u s t e d to a d j u s t themselves to the laws of supply and demand and to the d i c t a t e s of a r b i t r a r y standards of m e r i t . L a s k i has some i n t e r e s t i n g remarks on these and other matters. F o r L a s k i , e q u a l i t y " i n v o l v e s , up t o the margin of s u f f i c i e n c y , i d e n t i t y of response t o primary 34. Tawney, op. c i t . , p. 32. needs". Since the common.welfare i n c l u d e s the w e l f a r e of the weak as w e l l of the s t r o n g , the weak must be p r o t e c t e d from t h e i r own weakness or inadequacy which causes them to limp a f t e r the vanguard of society.- "The urgent c l a i m s of a l l must be met before we can meet the. p a r t i c u l a r c l aims of some. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s o c i a l or economic p o s i t i o n of men can o n l y be admitted a f t e r a minimum b a s i s of c i v i l i s a t i o n i s a t t a i n e d by t h e com munity as a whole." 35 One man i s not e n t i t l e d t o a house o f twenty rooms u n t i l a l l people are adequately housed. In s t e a d of the u n q u a l i f i e d maxim "to each a c c o r d  i n g t o h i s needs", then, L a s k i might s u b s t i t u t e , "to each e q u a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o the common need of a c i t i z e n " . L a s k i * s f o r m u l a t i o n of economic e q u a l i t y i s i n many r e s p e c t s s e n s i b l e and humane. S t r i c t l y speaking, i t departs i n one sense from any normal meaning of ' e q u a l i t y ' a s s e r t i n g more o r l e s s " e q u a l i t y at l e a s t up t o a p o i n t " , or minimum e q u a l i t y . In another sense, however, i t i s a remarkable embodiment of the s t r i c t e s t form of e q u a l i t y i n t h a t i t recommends t h a t the w e l l - b e i n g of each person must be e q u a l l y regarded. We s t i l l need t o ask, however, what- i s the p o i n t or margin of s u f f i c i e n c y up t o which there should be i d e n t i t y of response t o primary needs? And what are primary needs? What c o n s t i t u t e s w e l l - b e i n g ? 35. H a r o l d J . L a s k i , A Grammar of P o l i t i c s (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925) , p. 157. These q u e s t i o n s b r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n r i g h t back where i t s t a r t e d . However, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can now be drawn: 1. E q u a l i t y has no s t a t i c meaning i n p r a c t i c e but c o n s t a n t l y changes wi t h the change of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l circumstances. Each case o f a l l e g e d i n e q u a l i t i e s needs to be judged on i t s own m e r i t and each s t r u g g l e f o r e q u a l i t y examined f o r i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . 2. The d i v i s i o n of the s u b j e c t i n t o i t s econo mic, p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l a s p e c t s must be r e c o g n i s e d as a d i v i s i o n o n l y of convenience. The problems i n any one sphere throw t h e i r numerous t e n t a c l e s out i n a l l other d i r e c t i o n s and the spheres soon become i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . Hardly anyone needs t o be reminded of the i n f l u e n c e of economic wealth on p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . One may not wish to go as f a r as L a s k i i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y i s never r e a l u n l e s s i t i s accompanied by v i r t u a l economic e q u a l i t y , t h a t p o l i t i c a l power i s otherwise bound t o be the handmaid of economic power; but one cannot h e l p t h i n k  i n g t h a t t h i s i s very n e a r l y the case. At any r a t e u n l e s s i n d u s t r y i s democratised and the means of communication are c o n t r o l l e d by the p u b l i c , f o r p u b l i c purposes, and i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , any c o n d i t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y gained w i l l be p r e c a r i o u s l y maintained, with the d i g n i t y and w e l l - b e i n g of a s e c t i o n of the community on the b r i n k of d e s t r u c t i o n . 3. E q u a l i t y i s not the onl y i d e a l o f importance i n the conduct o f human a f f a i r s . As has been shown, i t i s sometimes an inadequate i d e a l needing t o be supplemented or supported by o t h e r i d e a l s , some of which have been ex pressed as j u s t i c e , l i b e r t y , brotherhood, humanitarianism, human happiness and even s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n which has been looming l a r g e i n recent l i t e r a t u r e on 'mental h e a l t h ' . So f a r no t h i n g has been s a i d about what was r e f e r r e d t o as ' s o c i a l e q u a l i t y ' . I t can be s a i d t h a t s o c i a l e q u a l i t y has been d i s c u s s e d throughout t h i s chapter. What i s i n v o l v e d , however, are not cases which can be covered by l e g i s l a t i o n , o f by any p o l i t i c a l or economic arrangements, but the o r d i n a r y day to day i n f o r m a l r e l a t  i o n s between man and man. One may t h i n k o f those i n s t a n c e s i n which the way a person i s addressed, t r e a t e d , or r e s  ponded t o i n g e n e r a l depends on h i s s o c i a l s t a t u s , on how many thousands he makes a year, on the f a b r i c o f h i s a t t i r e , on h i s accent and a host o f oth e r e x t e r n a l t r a p  pings of c u l t u r e and wealth which sometimes are an i n d i c a  t i o n of coarseness, mental and a e s t h e t i c obtuseness, and a very low l e v e l of co n s c i o u s n e s s . The w r i t e r has had the ex p e r i e n c e of r e c e i v i n g a rough condescending k i n d of treatment while being mistaken f o r a p o r t e r , a s a i l o r or an i l l i t e r a t e , and w i t n e s s i n g a complete metamorphosis of behaviour, a dramatic onset o f a f f a b i l i t y and deference, as soon as i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he was a u n i v e r s i t y student. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s not very profound, to be sure, f o r there are simple s o c i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s a t work here. Yet these phenomena are symptoms of s e r i o u s i n e q u a l i t i e s which e x i s t i n our s o c i e t y . To attempt the removal of these symptoms by education and propaganda i s both p o s s i b l e and necessary, but i n s u f f i c i e n t . We need to commit o u r s e l v e s t o an i d e a l of e q u a l i t y which -forbids the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f any k i n d to s p e c i a l people, on the b a s i s o f i r r e l e v a n t and u n j u s t i f i a b l e c r i t e r i a ; an i d e a l which demands t h a t the happiness or the w e l l - b e i n g of a l l people a l i k e becomes the concern of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agents; an i d e a l which e n j o i n s us to r e s p e c t the l i f e and d i g n i t y of the human person. f • J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the i d e a l At the beginning of t h i s work i t was claimed t h a t the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y demands urgent a t t e n t i o n , and i n the l a s t chapter i t was s t a t e d t h a t we 'need' t o commit o u r s e l v e s t o the i d e a l . The q u e s t i o n i s now asked, what makes the problem of e q u a l i t y urgent, and how can t h i s need of commitment be j u s t i f i e d ? To d e a l with the l a t t e r q u e s t i o n f i r s t , i t may be argued t h a t 'need' i n t h i s context i s an ambiguous e x p r e s s i o n , e i t h e r connoting an i n d i s p e n s a b l e requirement f o r t h e maintenance of l i f e , o r of some other c o n d i t i o n , or i s s u i n g a recommendation. In the f i r s t case t h e need i s rooted i n some f a c t about human makeup t h a t can be e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i e d . What about the second case? I s i t r e d u c i b l e u l t i m a t e l y to a q u e s t i o n of need i n the f i r s t sense? T h i s i s a s k i n g i n e f f e c t whether the demand f o r such e q u a l i t y as has been d e s c r i b e d i s j u s t i f i a b l e . Le t us begin the e n q u i r y by supposing t h a t the demand i s u n j u s t i f i a b l e and then t r y t o u n r a v e l the con sequences. I f the s t r u g g l e f o r no form of e q u a l i t y can be j u s t i f i e d , then one cannot on l o g i c a l grounds d e f e a t such advocates of i n e q u a l i t y as Dr. Verwoerd who d e c l a r e d i n the South A f r i c a n p a r l i a m e n t : " I f the n a t i v e i n South A f r i c a today .... i s being taught to expect t h a t he w i l l l i v e h i s a d u l t l i f e under a p o l i c y of equal r i g h t s , he i s making a b i g mistake." 36 But another term ' l o g i c a l ' has been s p i r i t e d i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n , which must t u r n f o r a moment on what i s meant by " j u s t i f y i n g " . In s p i t e of a l o n g and t u r b u l e n t h i s t o r y as a t a r g e t f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s a u l t the processes of v e r i  f i c a t i o n remain, simply, reason and e x p e r i e n c e . I t seems t h a t r a t i o n a l and e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i a can be a p p l i e d t o any matter worth d i s c u s s i n g . No attempt s h a l l be made t o 3 6 . Hansard V I I , 1 9 5 3 . c i t e d by Onokpasa, op. c i t . , p. 4 4 . d e f i n e 'reason' and 'experience' i n g e n e r a l , but t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r enquiry w i l l be e x p l a i n e d . 'Experience' r e f e r s t o the f e e l i n g s of men, the p a i n and j o y they l i v e through, the f e a r s t h a t haunt them, and the hopes they e n t e r t a i n . •Reason' r e f e r s t o the a c t i v i t y of drawing c o r  r e c t i n f e r e n c e s from p r o p o s i t i o n s or of r e c o g n i s i n g the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s between p r o p o s i t i o n s . In a wide sense e x p e r i e n c i n g can i n c l u d e reason i n g , and reasoning can i n c l u d e e x p e r i e n c i n g , o b s e r v i n g or p e r c e i v i n g r e l a t i o n s between o b j e c t s , but l i m i t s have been set on both terms f o r convenience and c l a r i t y . When we reason about p r o p o s i t i o n s , we r e a c h con c l u s i o n s about p r o p o s i t i o n s , while the continuum of exper ie n c e never i n i t s e l f r e v e a l s , embodies or i m p l i e s any recommendations f o r the use of words i n the p r o p o s i t i o n s or the making of i n f e r e n c e s . I t seems, then, t h a t we con s t a n t l y s t i p u l a t e d e l i b e r a t e l y or u n w i t t i n g l y , r u l e s f o r communicating our e x p e r i e n c e s , f o r ' o r d e r i n g ' them i n a communicable form, or f o r o r g a n i s i n g them i n a manner t h a t i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l y or e m o t i o n a l l y s a t i s f y i n g . I t i s tempting, then, to j o i n f o r c e s with Dr. Barnett Savery a g a i n s t the e t h i c a l a b s o l u t i s t s and i n t u i - t i o n i s t s , and a s s e r t t h a t s i n c e our circumstances, hence our experiences, are d i f f e r e n t , the r e s u l t i n g systems we organise w i l l v a r y a t l e a s t i n some d e t a i l s t h a t matter. "The system of value we adopt (or our ideals) will depend upon the kind of individuals we are."37 There are limits, then, to the justification of an ideal. But within these limits one can be i l l o g i c a l or unreasonable by making inferences inconsistent with principles ( i f any) which one considers or declares to be fundamental. Any ideals must be jus t i f i e d only on the basis of these and similar c r i t e r i a . While i t may not be pos sible then to justify ideals in any s t r i c t l y logical sense, one can be reasonable about the ideals one forms, or allows to grow into one's system. In social matters there is need for careful empirical study of human need and aspiration, but such a study when i t is required to issue in action must always be supplemented or completed by what may be called an 'idealistic leap'. It i s neither necessary nor desirable to indulge in daring dogmatism about man's social nature as does Stace in his 'Concept of Morals', or Myers who confidently speaks of man's need for the society of other men, and asserts that the answer to this need can come only from equals. It i s sufficient only to declare ourselves in favour of an ideal and thereafter be as consistent as we can. But our ideals must in some way survive the pragmatic test. We are 37. Barnett Savery, "Relativity vs. Absolutism in Value- Theory", The Journal of Philosophy (Vol. XXXVIII, No. 6,-March 13, 1941), p. 162. t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t o seek to come t o terms w i t h the d e s i r e s and a s p i r a t i o n s of one another. One would tend to conclude, then, t h a t t h e r e i s not much t h a t can be^ s a i d t o Dr. Verwoerd and h i s d i s c i p l e s u n l e s s everyone i s w i l l i n g to show sympathy f o r the happiness of others and i s eager t o s t r i v e f o r peace. Such a l t r u i s m and d e s i r e f o r peace l i e at the root of the recommendations of t h i s paper. Even i f i t i s t r u e t o state, as does Henry George, t h a t 'what has destroyed every previous c i v i l i s a  t i o n has been the tendency t o the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f wealth and power',3^ there s t i l l has not been found a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e q u a l i t y u n l e s s the p r i n c i p l e s suggested here, d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y perhaps, are c h e r i s h e d . I f these p r i n c i p l e s are h e l d very d e a r l y , then the problem of e q u a l i t y i s urgent not only at t h i s p e r i o d of h i s t o r y but as l o n g as d e s t r u c t i o n and misery t h r e a t e n or p r e v a i l . I f one should be p r e s s e d t o j u s t i f y t he ob j e c  t i v e s which one c o n s i d e r s fundamental, one might begin t o count noses, but i t should be made q u i t e c l e a r what pro cedure i s adopted. What i s beyond doubt, however, i s t h e f a c t t h a t a l l men have d e s i r e s and hopes which they seek t o r e a l i s e . 38. Henry George, Progress and Poverty (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883) p. -475. Very o f t e n t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t of d e s i r e and a c l a s h o f w i l l s when some are denied the o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o others f o r the attainment o f g o a l s . In such s i t u a t i o n s , we have t o decide whether we s h a l l r e l y u l t i m a t e l y on p h y s i c a l f o r c e t o r e s o l v e our c o n f l i c t s . I f we do not p l a c e t h e h i g h e s t premium on peace, happiness, and human l i f e , then reason and sympathy are unnecessary and uneco nomic, and any i d e a l of e q u a l i t y i s humbug. I f we do, however, t h e n c e r t a i n o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s must be c h e r i s h e d and observed, and the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y seems t o be one o f . t h e s e . CHAPTER I I I EQUALITY AS AN AIM OF EDUCATION There are many e d u c a t i o n a l problems t h a t one encounters i n any thorough study of the i d e a of e q u a l i t y . Some of these problems r e l a t e t o e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and t o the p r o v i s i o n of adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the development of i n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to examine the r e l a t i o n between e q u a l i t y and education by attempting to answer the q u e s t i o n whether e q u a l i t y can be one of the aims of e d u c a t i o n . The l a s t chapter w i l l be more s p e c i  f i c a l l y devoted to the i d e a of e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . a. Can e d u c a t i o n have aims? I t should f i r s t be c o n s i d e r e d whether education can be s a i d t o have aims, and i f so, i n what sense. The term "e d u c a t i o n " i s i t s e l f a source of much c o n f u s i o n , p o s s e s s i n g a t times a s t r o n g emotional appeal, c o n j u r i n g up d i f f e r e n t i d e a s t o d i f f e r e n t people a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r s o c i a l circumstances and d e s i r e s . The term w i l l be used here i n R. S. P e t e r s ' sense as " i n i t i a t i o n " , i n v o l v i n g e s s e n t i a l l y "processes which i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r a n s m i t what i s v a l u a b l e i n an i n t e l l i g i b l e and vo l u n  t a r y manner and which c r e a t e i n the l e a r n e r a d e s i r e t o achieve i t , t h i s being seen t o have i t s p l a c e along with o t h e r t h i n g s i n l i f e . " 1 Peters adds t h a t i n i t i a t i o n i s always i n t o some body of knowledge and mode of conduct. • I n i t i a t i o n ' w i l l be considered, too, s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the s c h o o l context. In other words, then, the term 'education' w i l l be c o n f i n e d i n t h i s paper t o t h e e x p l i c i t o r l a t e n t f u n c  t i o n s of the s c h o o l ; so t h a t t o ask whether educ a t i o n should have aims i s t o ask whether the schools should t r y to f u l f i l any d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n . Perhaps no-one would g i v e a negative answer t o a q u e s t i o n put i n t h i s manner. A l l i n t e l l i g e n t human a c t i v i t y i s d i r e c t e d t o some end, and the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on w i t h i n the s c h o o l f a l l g e n e r a l l y i n t o t h i s category. However, d i f f u s e the teacher's r o l e s are, the te a c h e r s e t s out t o f u l f i l many s p e c i f i c purposes. There i s i ndeed much d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n as to what these purposes should be, and much e d u c a t i o n a l debate centres around not the n e c e s s i t y f o r aims but the k i n d s of aims necessa r y . 1. Richard S t a n l e y P e t e r s , Education as I n i t i a t i o n (London: Evans Brother L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 34. Even when Dewey a s s e r t s t h a t " i t i s w e l l t o remind o u r s e l v e s t h a t education as such has no aims," 2 and t h a t i t i s " l i t e r a l l y and a l l the time i t s own reward,"3 we must understand him to be condemning s p e c i a l types o f aims which a r e form u l a t e d without due regard to the needs, the nature and the p o t e n t i a l i t y of the c h i l d , aims which are "imposed upon a process of a c t i o n from without".^ Dewey pleaded f o r aims t h a t a re suggested by the circum stances of i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and students, aims t h a t are t e n t a t i v e , not u l t i m a t e and g e n e r a l , t h a t represent the f r e e i n g of a c t i v i t i e s and are capable of t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o a method of co o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s of those under going i n s t r u c t i o n . P e t e r s throxvs much l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n of aims. He notes t h a t "to ask ques t i o n s about the aims of educa t i o n i s ... a way of g e t t i n g people to get c l e a r about and focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on what i s worthwhile a c h i e v i n g . I t i s not to ask f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of ends e x t r i n s i c to a c t i o n . " 5 2. John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New l o r k : The Macmillan Company, 1961), p. 107. 3. I b i d . , p. 109. 4. I b i d . , p. 110. 5. Op. c i t . , p. 19* b. Types of aims f e a s i b l e A l b u r e y C a s t e l l proposes t h a t "to educate i s t o , l i q u i d a t e i gnorance".^ He does not deny t h a t t e a c h e r s have an i n d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n the q u e s t i o n of ' v a l u i n g 1 and a s s o c i a t e d behaviour, o r t h a t i t i s worthwhile t o ask "What i s the purpose of education?", but he s t r o n g l y a s s e r t s t h a t the tea c h e r ' s main business i s with the c h i l d ' s ' g e t t i n g to know'. S i r R i c h a r d L i v i n g s t o n e , however, i n h i s book, "Some Tasks f o r E d u c a t i o n " expresses h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance of Ruskin's view t h a t : "Education does not mean t e a c h i n g people what they do not know; i t means t e a c h i n g them t o behave as they do not behave." 7 Some r e c o n c i l i a t i o n can be e f f e c t e d between these two a p p a r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s . While i t i s c e r t a i n l y arguable t h a t knowledge of a course of a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d t o be good does not guarantee appro p r i a t e behaviour, i t seems t h a t such knowledge a t l e a s t tends t o i n s p i r e us to choose and a c t i n t h e d e s i r a b l e manner, though we may not and o f t e n i n f a c t do not. The ' l i q u i d a t i o n of ignorance' and the t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c behaviour p a t t e r n s can be seen, t h e r e f o r e , as mutually 6. Loc. c i t . 7. S i r R i c h a r d L i v i n g s t o n e , Some Tasks f o r Education (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1946), p. 28. accommodating e d u c a t i o n a l aims; but both must i n v o l v e understanding and v o l u n t a r i n e s s on the part of the person i n i t i a t e d . c. E q u a l i t y as an e d u c a t i o n a l aim I t remains to be i n v e s t i g a t e d whether t h e teach i n g of p r i n c i p l e s of e q u a l i t y and the promotion o f beha v i o u r r e q u i r e d by such p r i n c i p l e s a re f e a s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l aims. The f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggest an a f f i r m a t i v e answer: 1. The s c h o o l seems to be the s o c i a l i n s t i t u  t i o n t h a t a f f o r d s the best o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f o s t e r i n g the i d e a of the common d i g n i t y o f man. C h i l d r e n may be born v i c t i m s of economic and other s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s but onl y a c q u i r e from t h e i r s o c i a l groups the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n or r e s i g n a t i o n necessary f o r the acceptance o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of human beings. Pro v i d e d t h a t i t s t e a c h e r s have been ab l e t o r i s e above the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r a c t i c e s and a t t i t u d e s of the wider s o c i e t y , the s c h o o l o f f e r s abundant o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h i l d r e n t o p l a y t o g e t h e r , to s u f f e r t o g e t h e r , and thus to come to value a r e l a t i o n  s h i p with one another on a b a s i s of e q u a l i t y . While i t must be granted t h a t the success of the s c h o o l i n promot i n g d e s i r a b l e h a b i t s of thought or behaviour i s not i n  e v i t a b l e , small v i c t o r i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n a r e i n f a c t won on o c c a s i o n , w i t h q u i t e f a r - r e a c h i n g and happy r e s u l t s . 2. The s c h o o l i s a s p e c i a l i s t i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the task of i n i t i a t i o n . I t has resources of time, t e c h  nique and m a t e r i a l not normally a v a i l a b l e to parents w i t h i n the home, f o r example, who possess the added disadvantage of being too e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n with t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t i s t r u e t h a t t e a c h e r s themselves can be s i m i l a r l y a f f l i c t e d , but i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t a sense of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can h e l p them t o ach i e v e the degree of a f f e c t i v e n e u t r a l i t y necessary f o r the performance of t h e i r r o l e . 3. The i d e a l of e q u a l i t y s a t i s f i e s the best among Dewey's c r i t e r i a f o r good aims (mentioned e a r l i e r ) f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons: a. I t i s not an u l t i m a t e aim, s i n c e e q u a l i t y was g i v e n a dynamic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . b. The behaviour and p l a y of c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y c o n t a i n a l l the elements of b r o t h e r l y f e e l i n g , compassion, and mutual regard, t o g e t h e r w i t h an absence of s t u d i e d and i r r e l e v a n t s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f human bein g s . These c o n d i  t i o n s are a l l c o n s i s t e n t with the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y . c. The more a s o c i e t y a s p i r e s t o c o n d i t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l and economic e q u a l i t y , the more p o s s i b l e i t i s t o dev i s e methods of t r a i n i n g t h a t ensure "the f r e e i n g of a c t i v i t i e s of those undergoing i n s t r u c t i o n " , s i n c e r e s t r i c t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n are reduced to a minimum. Perhaps one can be d a r i n g enough t o argue not only t h a t - t h e s c h o o l s can h e l p to prepare a n a t i o n ' s c h i l d r e n t o e r a d i c a t e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e i r s o c i e t y , but t h a t such t r a i n i n g i s an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s c h o o l s . Indeed t h e r e i s too gre a t a tendency to saddle the s c h o o l with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e l i m i n a t i n g each new misfortu n e e x p e r i e n c e d by members of a s o c i e t y . There i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r burdening the s c h o o l with any respon s i b i l i t y which cannot be di s c h a r g e d t o c h i l d r e n and which does not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e the growth and s o c i a l i s a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . Since the s c h o o l i s i n a u n i q u e l y p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n to promote p u p i l growth under c o n d i t i o n s which encourage p u p i l s t o r e s p e c t one another, s i n c e mutual r e s p e c t i s the b a s i s o f a l l k i n d s of e q u a l i t y , and s i n c e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n a s o c i e t y r e s t r i c t the growth of some, then the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y suggested here i s an a p p r o p r i a t e one f o r the s c h o o l . Rowan r e c o g n i s e s the pa r t t h a t the s c h o o l needs to play i n f o s t e r i n g a t t i t u d e s necessary f o r c r e a t i n g con d i t i o n s of e q u a l i t y . ^ He observes t h a t no p o l i t i c a l o r other mechanical arrangements can prevent p u b l i c agents from d i v e r t i n g p u b l i c resources towards p r i v a t e ends or can prevent c i t i z e n s from a c q u i e s c i n g t o such t r e a s o n . So, l i k e Tussman, Rowan- sees the only p o s s i b i l i t y of 8. Loc. c i t . c r e a t i n g g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r c o n d i t i o n s of e q u a l i t y t o l i e fundamentally i n the a t t i t u d e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . He a c c o r d i n g l y suggests t h a t a democracy has a g r e a t stake i n adequate c i v i c e d u c a t i o n . Tussman c o n s i d e r s e d u c a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l l i f e a " c r u c i a l and' i n d i s p e n s a b l e e n t e r p r i s e " . 9 There seems no doubt t h a t both would have these t a s k s undertaken, not e x c l u s i v e l y of course, but a t l e a s t i n p a r t and w i t h s e r i o u s n e s s by f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u  t i o n s . d. Method of f u l f i l m e n t That the s c h o o l has among i t s r o l e s encouraging acceptance of some p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y i s c l e a r . What i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e c i d e and more debatable i s how i t s r o l e of i n i t i a t i o n should be f u l f i l l e d . The whole question of the f o r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s has been the centre of too much t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y and too l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l i n  v e s t i g a t i o n or a c t i o n r e s e a r c h . In f a c t i t has even been suggested by some t h a t the i n c u l c a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s i s not a proper f u n c t i o n of the s c h o o l . I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t , however, t h a t the s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n w i t h i n the classroom and the teacher's techniques have d e f i n i t e consequences i n the growth and behaviour of the c h i l d . T h e r e f o r e , i t would 9. Joseph Tussman,, O b l i g a t i o n and the Body P o l i t i c (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, I960), p. 10. seem necessary that the relat i o n s h i p between teaching techniques or organisation and attitudes should be studied. Gut of such a study may arise testable and proved methods fo r the deliberate transmission of habits of thought and behaviour. In the meantime, i t seems possible to outline b r i e f l y some broad rationale underlying any attempt (sub ject to r e s t r i c t i o n s already Imposed) to secure children's commitment to ideals of equality. 1. Since f a u l t y b i o l o g i c a l doctrines and i n  accurate anthropological h i s t o r y are u t i l i s e d to j u s t i f y i n e q u a l i t i e s , the findings of modern scholarship on such questions as ethnic origins and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s and res p o n s i b i l i t i e s should be presented to pupils whenever relevant and appropriate. 2. Despite the f a c t that men seldom behave with r a t i o n a l i t y the school must not give up the attempt to make children not only capable of r a t i o n a l judgment, but w i l l i n g to judge r a t i o n a l l y , with a profound respect and yearning f o r evidence. 3. I t follows that a r a t i o n a l morality as a basis f o r conduct should be the aim of both teacher and pu p i l a l i k e . In the absence of even minimum r a t i o n a l support f o r a b e l i e f or course of action, i t i s very l i k e l y that communication, tolerance and negotiation w i l l break down and any kind of behaviour and b e l i e f w i l l be regarded as being as sound as another. There s h o u l d be no doubt about the l e g i t i m a c y of the t e a c h e r ' s concern with m o r a l i t y . Durkheim observes t h a t a s o c i e t y such as ours cannot content i t s e l f w i t h , "a complacent p o s s e s s i o n of moral r e s u l t s t h a t have been handed down to i t . I t must go on t o new conquests; i t i s necessary t h a t t h e t e a  chers prepare the c h i l d r e n who are i n h i s t r u s t f o r the necessary advances." 10 I n s t e a d of t r a n s m i t t i n g w i t t i n g l y or u n w i t t i n g l y the moral gospel of our e l d e r s as "a s o r t of c l o s e d book",H teac h e r must e x c i t e i n our c h i l d r e n "a d e s i r e t o add a few l i n e s of t h e i r own, and g i v e them the t o o l s to s a t i s f y t h i s l e g i t i m a t e a m b i t i o n " . ^ 2 These ' t o o l s ' can best be under stood t o be a s p i r i t of a l t r u i s m , a w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y to examine evidence before coming t o c o n c l u s i o n s , and a c a p a c i t y f o r s o c i a l l i v i n g . 4. The o r g a n i s a t i o n of s c h o o l a c t i v i t y can be most e f f e c t i v e l y designed f o r the promotion of almost any type of s o c i a l a t t i t u d e . I t i s not beyond the scope of e d u c a t i o n a l experiment and r e s e a r c h t o d i s c o v e r what types of s c h o o l and classroom o r g a n i s a t i o n are most conducive to the development of r e s p e c t and concern f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of o t h e r s . TO. Emile Durkheim, Moral Education (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1961), p. 13. 11. Durkheim, l o c . c i t . 12. I b i d . The s o c i a l and o r g a n i s a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l i s so important t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i d e a l of e q u a l i t y and e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n needs to be s p e c i a l l y s t u d i e d . The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l be devoted, then, t o the more i n c l u s i v e problem of e q u a l i t y of educa t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . CHAPTER IV EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY a. V a r i o u s forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n A reputable- s c h o l a r o f Comparative Education, E. J . K i n g , w r i t e s : " I t i s always r e c o g n i s e d , of course, t h a t any stage of e d u c a t i o n i s more v a l u a b l e i f i t i s l i n k e d w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r development; but many of us are shocked i f we are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the p l a i n statement t h a t s c h o o l i n g i s a l s o a s o r t o f f i l t e r - a device f o r keeping coarse elements back while o n l y the f i n e r m a t e r i a l passes through. Yet t h a t i s what i t i s i n many c o u n t r i e s , and to some extent i t i s so i n a l l c o u n t r i e s even where such an i n t e n t i o n i s r e p u d i a t e d . " 1 In 'World P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Educa t i o n ' , K i n g argues t h a t f i l t e r i n g has taken p l a c e i n the form of s e l e c t i o n which i s a p r a c t i c e t h a t e x i s t s i n v a r i o u s forms i n d i f f e r  ent e d u c a t i o n a l systems. He observes, "The more open s o c i e t y becomes t o the upward and downward m i g r a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , who thus change t h e i r s t a t u s , the more i t i s l i k e l y t h a t those who r e l i s h t h e i r c l a s s p o s i t i o n w i l l apply i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b t l e c r i t e r i a to remind them s e l v e s and the i n t e r l o p e r o f h i s s o c i a l bastardy."2 1. Edmund J . K i n g , Other Schools and Ours (New York: .. Rinehart & Company, Inc., 1958), p. 52. 2. Edmund J . K i n g , World P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Education (New York: The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, Inc., 1962), p. 1 3 7 . S e l e c t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , K i n g b e l i e v e s , have been u t i l i s e d a t v a r i o u s times as instruments of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and e x c l u s i o n . Of course, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or the d e n i a l of equal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y has not always been too s u b t l e . In the Appendix to h i s p l a y , "The Hero of Sharpe v i l l e " , the South A f r i c a n w r i t e r , Onokpasa c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g from the 1936 Report of the Departmental Commit tee on N a t i v e Education: 'The Education of the white c h i l d prepares him f o r l i f e i n a dominant s o c i e t y and the educa t i o n of the black c h i l d f o r a subordinate s o c i e t y .... the l i m i t s of n a t i v e education form p a r t o f the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of the country'. - 3 Onokpasa a l s o c i t e s : 'We should not g i v e the n a t i v e s an academic educat i o n , as some people are too prone t o do. I f we do t h i s , we s h a l l l a t e r be burdened w i t h a number of a c a d e m i c a l l y t r a i n e d Europeans and non-Europeans, and who i s going t o do the manual l a b o u r i n the country? I am i n thorough agreement with the view t h a t we should so con duct our s c h o o l s t h a t the n a t i v e who attends those schools w i l l know t h a t t o a g r e a t extent he must be the l a b o u r e r i n t h e country.' -. Mr. J . N. LeRoux, M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e (Hansard, VI I , 1945). 4 Nor has i r r e l e v a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n been d i r e c t e d only a g a i n s t r a c i a l groups. R. H. Tawney observes: "The h e r e d i t a r y curse upon E n g l i s h e d u c a t i o n 3 . Onokpasa, op. c i t . , p. 42. 4. I b i d . i s i t s o r g a n i s a t i o n upon l i n e s of s o c i a l c l a s s . " - ' He a l s o notes t h a t h i s t o r i c a l l y 'elementary school e d ucation' meant a cheap education f o r a c e r t a i n s e c t i o n of E n g l i s h s o c i e t y . With the i n c r e a s i n g complexity and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the p r o v i s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y becomes more and more s u b t l e . I n many i n s t a n c e s , though, such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not d e l i b e r a t e , but i s an i n e v i t a b l e concomitant o f misguided e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s as w e l l as of economic s c a r c i t y . The examination system w i t h i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e can a l s o h e l p t o deprive many people of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n by r e q u i r i n g performance not r e l e v a n t t o l a t e r t r a i n i n g , o r by b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y b i a s e d i n f a v o u r of some members of the com munity. T h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s i s rendered more s e r i o u s when, through p o l i c y or through s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s , those who f a i l a l i m i t e d s e t of s p e c i f i c examinations are automa t i c a l l y shut out from any f u r t h e r avenue o f e d u c a t i o n a l development, while those who succeed a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y on the way t o p o s i t i o n s o f p r i v i l e g e i n the s o c i e t y . One might c a l l t he type of e l i t e produced i n such a s i t u a t i o n an "examination 5* Op. c i t . , p. 154. 65 b. I n e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y The constant clamour f o r e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s not unwarranted or i n s i g n i f i c a n t , but the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g what such equa l i t y can reasonably mean. Perhaps i t would be h e l p f u l t o approach t h i s problem by n o t i n g some cases of i n e q u a l i t y which v i o l a t e the main p r i n c i p l e s suggested i n the p r e v i o u s chapter: 1. There i s f i r s t the obvious d e n i a l of educa t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t o some people on i r r e l e v a n t grounds or on the b a s i s of a 'forbidden c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' , to use Tussman and ten Broek's e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s p o i n t has a l r e a d y been i l l u s t r a t e d . ^ 2. There i s the s u b t l e r e x c l u s i o n of s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s of people from f a c i l i t i e s open t o o t h e r s e i t h e r through economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o r through unsound educa t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s . The d i v i s i o n of e l e v e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n i n t o three d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of people s a i d t o be f i t t e d f o r 'Grammar', ' T e c h n i c a l ' , and 'Modern Education* - once a common p r a c t i c e i n secondary edu c a t i o n i n England - i s a case i n point.''' ( T h i s p r a c t i c e has been m o d i f i e d i n 6. See, too, Hobert W. Burns, " S o c i a l C l a s s and Education i n L a t i n America", Comparative Education Review, V o l . 6, No. 3, February 1963. 7. K i n g , Other Schools and Ours, Ch. 4. some c o u n t i e s ; L e i c e s t e r s h i r e , f o r example, has abandoned the 11/ examination as w e l l as s e l e c t i o n a t t h e age of e l e v e n ) . ^ B r i t i s h Guiana s t i l l r e t a i n s the method of s e l e c  t i o n f o r Secondary School on the b a s i s of an examination a t 11/, p a r t l y because o f shortage of f a c i l i t i e s and p a r t l y because the t r a d i t i o n , i n h e r i t e d from B r i t a i n , d i e s hard. No a c t u a l r e s e a r c h has been made i n t o the r e l a t i v e chances f o r s e l e c t i o n of upper and lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n , but a r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t the examination f a v o u r s the c h i l d r e n o f upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s . (From a survey d e a l  i n g w i t h a s i m i l a r problem i n France, i n 1954, A. G i r a r d concludes t h a t : " c h i l d r e n of v a r y i n g home backgrounds do not have equal chances of s e l e c t i o n a t elev e n o r twelve, or, i n p a r t i c u l a r , o f g a i n i n g admission t o secon dary s c h o o l s . " ? ) I t s h o u l d be noted, however, t h a t the M i n i s t e r of Education i n the present B r i t i s h Guiana Government proposed abandoning s e l e c t i o n f o r secondary s c h o o l s a l t o g e t h e r as w e l l as s e g r e g a t i o n o f s c h o o l s i n t o types i n or d e r t o achieve " e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y and an expanding a r e a o f 8. A. G. J o s e l i n , "Changing P a t t e r n s o f Secondary Educa t i o n i n England", The New Era i n Home and School, Volume 44, Number TO, Dec. 1963. 9. A. G i r a r d , " S e l e c t i o n f o r Secondary Education i n Fr a n c e " .Education, Economy & S o c i e t y , ed. A. H. Halsey, Jean F l o u d and C. Anderson (New York: The Free Press o f Glencoe, 1963), p. 193. 67 common e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l experience T o r the country's y o u t h . " 1 0 Another type o f i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y imme d i a t e l y suggests i t s e l f : s e l e c t i o n and d i f f e r e n t a t i o n a re not i n themselves u n j u s t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y d e v i c e s ; they become so when the s e l e c t i o n i s based on i r r e l e v a n t c r i  t e r i a , o r when some c a t e g o r i e s of students get the best treatment and most l a v i s h a t t e n t i o n while the remainder have t o make do with whatever t e a c h i n g s t a f f , l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r p h y s i c a l equipment are l e f t a v a i l a b l e , t h e i r t a l e n t s s t i f l e d and t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s f r u s t r a t e d . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s i m p l i c i t i n the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s . The theory t h a t i s proposed i s indeed a ve r y simple one, and w i l l be b r i e f l y s t a t e d . c. E q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y d e f i n e d I t i s c l e a r t h a t e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y cannot mean i d e n t i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . Any e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e based on the p r i n c i p l e o f i d e n t i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y would c e r t a i n l y be most inhuman and u n j u s t f o r the simple reason t h a t people are d i f f e r e n t i n i n t e r e s t and c a p a b i l i t i e s . 1 0 . Memorandum by the M i n i s t e r of Education and S o c i a l Development on Education P o l i c y , February, 1 9 6 3 , p. 7 . Such d i f f e r e n c e i s due p a r t l y t o environment, p a r t l y t o h e r e d i t y , and p a r t l y t o the response which t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes t o the stim u l u s p r o v i d e d by h i s environment. Both s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l would stand t o l o s e i f the same treatment o r o p p o r t u n i t y i s pro v i d e d t o everyone: the i n  d i v i d u a l would be f r u s t r a t e d i f he i s denied chances which can be o f b e n e f i t to him while he i s allowed f a c i l i t i e s which he cannot put t o advantage; the s o c i e t y would s u f f e r the wastage and m i s d i r e c t i o n of i t s r e s o u r c e s . Tawney observes t h a t e q u a l i t y of p r o v i s i o n i s t o be achieved not by t r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n t needs i n the same way, but by d e v o t i n g equal care t o ensuring t h a t they are met i n the d i f f e r e n t ways most a p p r o p r i a t e t o them. Tawne w r i t e s : "The more a n x i o u s l y , indeed, a s o c i e t y endeavours • t o secure e q u a l i t y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a l l i t s members, the g r e a t e r w i l l be the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of treatment which, when once t h e i r common human needs have been met, i t accords t o the s p e c i a l needs of d i f f e r e n t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s among them." 11 Many parents i n t h e i r understandable ambition f o t h e i r c h i l d r e n are s u s p i c i o u s o f any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t r a i n i n g w i t h i n the sc h o o l o r g a n i s a t i o n , l i n k i n g d i f f e r e n  t i a t i o n w i t h i n e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . Of course any d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based on tenuous c r i t e r i a and on t h e o r i e s no l o n g e r regarded t o be t e n a b l e i s t o be f o r t h r i g h t l y 11. Op. c i t . , p. 3 9 * 69 deplored and r e j e c t e d ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t , one can o n l y r e l y on the i n t e g r i t y and wisdom of e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s . As G. I . Sanchez empha s i s e s , i n t h i s matter of s e c u r i n g e q u a l i s a t i o n of educat i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y which i s i n f a c t the s e c u r i n g o f pe r s o n a l and community growth and development, " i t i s nec e s s a r y that the s e r v i c e s of those l e a d e r s - p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , p h i l o s o p h e r s and the l i k e - most conversant with the f i e l d of knowledge i n v o l v e d i n these aspects of l i f e be e n l i s t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a sound b a s i s f o r the e q u a l i z a t i o n p l a n . " 12 While a community should keep under continuous s c r u t i n y the p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l , c i v i l and e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i t should be c a r e f u l l e s t i n the clamour f o r e q u a l i t y and democracy i t o b j e c t s t o educa t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which have sound t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s and are more l i k e l y than any o t h e r measure t o promote the very p r i n c i p l e s which the community h o l d s dear. E. J . K i n g w r i t e s , f o r example, t h a t t o many pragmatic and p r a c t i c a l Americans, ". to g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n i s u s u a l l y s t i g m a t i s e d as undemo c r a t i c - at any r a t e when i t would r e s u l t i n a c c e l e r a t e d courses ." 13 And he adds the i n t e r e s t i n g comment, 12. G. I . Sanchez, The E q u a l i z a t i o n of E d u c a t i o n a l Oppor  tunity. - Some Issues and Problems (New Mexico, U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico Press, 1939), p. 6. 13. World P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Education, pp. 147-148. "yet no one in the United States quarrels with special coaching for athletes or with special adulation for the handsome, the heroic or the commercially venturesome. Unreflecting and repressive egalitarianism i s preached against intellectual eminence as against no other dis tinction." 14 Though equality of educational opportunity does not mean complete identity of provision,' i t may be that a common minimum.provision should be made to a l l on the basis of some fundamental concept of common humanity, as is suggested by Laski and Tawney, and that institutions should be established "which meet common needs, and are a source of common enlightenment and enjoyment".1'* But beyond this common point, equality of educational oppor tunity requires that the environment in general, and the formal educational structure in particular, should allow adequate varied opportunity for the f u l l development of the special talents and capacities of a l l members of the community. In more general terms, Tawney writes that equality of opportunity requires, "that what are commonly regarded as the prizes of l i f e should be open to a l l , but that none should be subjected to arbitrary penalties; not only that exceptional men should be free to exercise their exceptional powers, but that common men should be free to make the most of their common humanity." 16. 14. 15. 16. Ibid.. p. 148. Tawney, op. c i t . , p. 47. Ibid., p. 112. d. CONCLUSION Two f i n a l remarks are necessary t o c a u t i o n a g a i n s t any over-optimism which might, have been i n s p i r e d by t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l oppor t u n i t y , remarks which a t the same time summarise the main c o n c l u s i o n s reached i n t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t l y , i n no p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n can the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y o u t l i n e d be com p l e t e l y r e a l i s e d s i n c e economic res o u r c e s are always l i m i t e d and c h o i c e of p r i o r i t i e s has t o be e x e r c i s e d . Besides, the attainment of c o n d i t i o n s of e q u a l i t y i n g e n e r a l i s thwarted not only by economic s c a r c i t y but by the r e s t r i c t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s imposed by the l i m i t a t i o n s of human knowledge and g o o d w i l l , as w e l l as by the i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f our e x i s t  i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l . Secondly, t h e r e e x i s t i n any s o c i e t y people w i t h s e r i o u s handicaps, who are not abl e t o a v a i l themselves of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which are i n theory open t o a l l ; e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r , and e q u a l i t y i n g e n e r a l , are inadequate i d e a l s t o s t r i v e a f t e r i f these people are not t o be n e g l e c t e d . One can o f course argue t o r t u o u s l y t h a t e q u a l i t y r e q u i r e s t h a t the handicapped r e c e i v e f u l l a t t e n t i o n , but i t i s more apparent t h a t the i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y needs t o be supplemented by o t h e r i d e a l s , by humanitarianism, f o r example, not only f o r the reason just mentioned but f o r more general reasons suggested i n e a r l i e r chapters. In short, no attempt should be made to subsume under a s i n g l e , eternal aim, the diverse dynamic purposes of education and other human a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , though i t i s implied here and has been contended that equality needs to be continually re interpreted, as. i n e q u a l i t i e s w i l l always p r e v a i l , no society should give up the e f f o r t to win as many v i c t o r i e s as possible against i n e q u a l i t y . Tawney very eloquently advises that, "a society which i s convinced that inequality i s an e v i l need not be alarmed because the e v i l i s one which cannot wholly be subdued. In recognising the poison, i t w i l l have armed i t s e l f with an antidote. I t w i l l have deprived i n e q u a l i t y of i t s sting by stripping i t of i t s esteem." 17 17. Op. c i t . , pp. 47-48. 

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