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Influence of chemical fertilizers on the survival and growth of planted Douglas fir in coastal British… Jakoy, Andrew Geza 1965

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i INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ON THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR IN COASTAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by ANDREW JAKOY 3.S.F., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Sopron D i v i s i o n ) , 1959 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the Department of FORESTRY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia., I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y , I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t , c o p y i n g o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * D e p a r t m e n t o f f ore 5 ' " H The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a i i ABSTRACT The experiments d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s are p a r t of a co n t i n u i n g r e s e a r c h program t e s t i n g the i n f l u e n c e s o f chemical f e r t i l i z e r s on the s u r v i v a l , growth and cone production of Douglas f i r i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia. This study was i n i t i a t e d i n the e a r l y s p r i n g of 1963 by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada L i m i t e d , T r a i l , B. C , and the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h e s i s summarizes the i n f l u e n c e of s e v e r a l chemical f e r t i l i z e r s on the s u r v i v a l and growth o f p l a n t e d Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s from the beginning o f the study t o i i i e present date. During the f i r s t phase o f t h i s study, the responses of p l a n t e d Douglas f i r t o chemical f e r t i l i z a t i o n have been i n v e s t i g a t e d by four experiments. The f i r s t experiment, a t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , was i n i t i a t e d a t the end of A p r i l , 1963, at three l o c a t i o n s : U.B.C. Campus nursery, and TS 3 and TS 32b i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . I n a s p l i t p l o t design arrangement, Magamp, Urea, Aqua humus, Cxamide, Thiourea, Sludge and a bark product were dumped i n t o or mixed w i t h the s o i l i n the holes made f o r the p l a n t i n g o f four s i z e c l a s s e s of Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s . At the end of A p r i l , 1964, the t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s was repeated on the same l o c a t i o n s . This time, the response to three Magamp p a r t i c l e s i z e s (commercially d i s t r i b u t e d Magamp, Magamp -6+8, and Magamp -8+10) as w e l l as Sludge, Uramite and Thiourea was t e s t e d . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning s u r v i v a l of pl a n t e d Douglas f i r seedlings was obtained from the Tahsis Logging Company at Gold R i v e r , B. C , which, i i i i n 1963, c a r r i e d out a s i m i l a r experiment w i t h the same sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . I n a l l cases, the use of more r e a d i l y s o l u b l e sources of n i t r o g e n r e s u l t e d i n excessive m o r t a l i t y . The cl i m a t e i n 1963 and 1961; s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d the s u r v i v a l and growth of the f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s . I n the second experiment, the response of Douglas f i r seedlings p l a n t e d i n 1953, 1956 and 1959 t o ammonium n i t r a t e was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the U.B.C. F o r e s t . N i t r a p r i l l s was a p p l i e d randomly a t s i x l e v e l s (0 t o 800 l b . of n i t r o g e n par acre) t o a t o t a l of 360 t r e e s . T r e a t -ments were a p p l i e d i n May of 1963 and I96J4 at the time of f l u s h i n g of v e g e t a t i v e buds. To date, the f e r t i l i z a t i o n has improved n e i t h e r h e i g h t growth nor.-diameter increment and has had no i n f l u e n c e on cone prod u c t i o n . The t h i r d experiment •was i n i t i a t e d at the end of December, 1963, i n the U.B.C. Campus greenhouse. A. s i x - f a c t o r experiment was designed to t e s t the responses of 2+0 p l a n t e d Douglas f i r seedlings to Magamp and M i t r a p r i l l s . The f o u r t h experiment was planned to compare the e f f e c t s of Magamp and N i t r a p r i l l s on 2+0 p l a n t e d Douglas f i r seedlings i n the f i e l d i n the U.B.C. Research Forest d u r i n g the summer of I96I4. The r e s u l t s o f the t h i r d and f o u r t h experiments have proved t h a t the slowly s o l u b l e Magamp i s more advantageous t o seedlings than i s the r a p i d l y s o l u b l e N i t r a p r i l l s when both are a p p l i e d a t the time of p l a n t i n g . How-ever, these analyses have shown l i m i t e d advantage to us i n g e i t h e r f e r t i l i z e r i v during p l a n t i n g . The s t u d i e s of these f e r t i l i z e r s should be continued and extended t o i n c l u d e other sources of s l o w l y s o l u b l e n i t r o g e n . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Acknowledgement i s made to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada L i m i t e d and t o the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , experimental m a t e r i a l and edu c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The chemical analyses o f some s o i l samples c a r r i e d out by the l a b o r a t o r i e s of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada L i m i t e d i s a l s o appreciated. The w r i t e r i s indebted to Drs. Oscar S z i k l a i and J . Harry G. Smith for t h e i r counsel on designing and a n a l y s i n g the experiments and f o r t h e i r encouragement throughout the study. The h e l p f u l advice and c r i t i c i sm of Dr. P. G. Haddock and Mr. John Walters i s s i n c e r e l y a ppreciated. S p e c i a l thanks are due to Dr. A n t a l Kozak and Mr. Josef H e j j a s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h some of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. The w r i t e r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the advice and help of Mr. N u r e t t i n Keser and the Department of S o i l Science i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l p r o f i l e s and the a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples. v i CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v CONTENTS v i TABLES i x FIGURES xv INTRODUCTION I TRIALS OF SLOWLY SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS 5 A THE 1963 TRIAL $ MATERIALS AND METH0D5 $ F e r t i l i z e r s $ P l a n t i n g stock 8 D e s c r i p t i o n of l o c a t i o n s 9 OBSERVATIONS Al® RESULTS 11 A n a l y s i s of m o r t a l i t y of the 1963 t r i a l of 11 sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s A n a l y s i s o f the 1963 he i g h t growth o f the 1963 i l l t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s M o r t a l i t y t e s t on the p e r s i s t e n c e of s l o w l y 17 s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s f o r the 1963 t r i a l A n a l y s i s of 196U he i g h t growth o f the 1963 21 t r i a l of slowly s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s A n a l y s i s of m o r t a l i t y of the 1963 t r i a l of 2f> slowly s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s a t Gold R i v e r , B.C. Method 25 Observations 26 DISCUSSION 28 v i i Page B THE 196k TRIAL 31 MATERIALS AND' METHODS 31 F e r t i l i z e r s 31 P l a n t i n g stock 32 D e s c r i p t i o n of l o c a t i o n s 33 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 34 A n a l y s i s o f m o r t a l i t y of" the 1961; t r i a l of 34 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s A n a l y s i s of the 1964 height growth of the 39 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s A n a l y s i s of the 1964 height growth f o r P l o t s 42 No. 2 and No. 3 f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s DISCUSSION 45 CONCLUSION 47 I I A STUDY OF GROWTH OF DOUGLAS FIR PLANTATIONS 48 INFLUENCED BY AMMONIUM NITRATE BEFORE CONE PRODUCTION AGE MATERIALS AND METHODS 48 D e s c r i p t i o n of experimental areas 48 F e r t i l i z e r and treatments 58 I n i t i a l measurements on sample t r e e s 59 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 60 DISCUSSION 62 I I I GREENHOUSE EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF 63 MAGNESIUM-AMMONIOM-PHOSPHATE AND AMMONIUM NITRATE ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS v i i i Fage I I I GREENHOUSE EXPERIMENT - Continued MATERIALS AND METHODS 63 F e r t i l i z e r s 63 S o i l s 63 P l a n t i n g stock 65 Containers 66 Placement of f e r t i l i z e r s 67 I r r i g a t i o n treatments 68 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 68 DISCUSSION 83 CONCLUSION 9k IV TEST OF THE EFFECTS OF VERTICAL PLACEMENTS OF 95 MAGNESim^-AMMONIUM-PHOSPHATE AND AMONIUM NITRATE IN RELATION TO ROOTS OF PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS MATERIALS AND METHODS 95 F e r t i l i z e r s 95 D e s c r i p t i o n o f experimental area 96 P l a n t i n g stock 97 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 97 DISCUSSION 99 CONCLUSION , 99 DISCUSSIONS 102 CONCLUSIONS 109 LITERATURE CITED 111 APPENDIX l l i i TABLES Number Heading Page 1. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l p r o f i l e f o r the west s i d e 9a of f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus nursery, f o r the 1963 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). 2. Mechanical a n a l y s i s of s o i l p r o f i l e f o r the west s i d e 9a of f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus nur s e r y f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). 3. Number of se e d l i n g s dead as o f J u l y 10, 1963, i n the 12 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 4. I n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each 13 f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f or the 1963 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 5. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1963 h e i g h t growth of seed- l l j . l i n g s i n inches by f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 6. Mean 1963 he i g h t growth of see d l i n g s i n inches, a t 1$ each l o c a t i o n by f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1963 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 7. Mean 1963 he i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s i n inches, show- 16 the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 8. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1963 height growth of three 16 s i z e c l a s s e s of seedlings i n inches, f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 9. F i r s t t a l l y of m o r t a l i t y o f continued t r i a l s of s l o w l y 18 s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s showing the number of seedlings dead as of May 6, 1964. 10. Second t a l l y of m o r t a l i t y of continued t r i a l s of s l o w l y 20 so l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s showing the number of seedlings dead as of October h, 1964. 11. In f l u e n c e of 1963 t o t a l height on 1964 height growth o f 21 seedlings as determined by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , f o r the continued t r i a l of 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r e x p e r i -ment. X Number Heading Page 12. Increasing order of mean 1964 height growth of a l l 22 seedlings i n inches for each f e r t i l i z e r and control for the continued t r i a l of the 1963 slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r experiment. 13. Mean 1964 height growth of seedlings i n inches at 23 each location, for the continued t r i a l of the 1963 slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r experiment. 14. Increasing order of mean 1964 height growth of seed- 23 lings i n inches, for each f e r t i l i z e r and control, for the continued t r i a l of the 1963 slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r experiment. 15. Mean 1964 height growth of seedlings in inches for 24 each level within f e r t i l i z e r s and control, for the continued t r i a l of the 1963 slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r experiment. 16. Mean 1964 height growth of seedlings i n inches at 24 each location effected by each f e r t i l i z e r and control, for the continued t r i a l of the 1963 slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r experiment. 17. Number of dead seedlings In each experimental unit 26 for the 1963 t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s at Gold River, B. C. Submitted by Mr. R. Kosick. 18. Increasing order of mortality percentages for each 27 f e r t i l i z e r and control, for the 1963 t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s , at Gold River, B. G. 19. Mortality percentages for each level of f e r t i l i z e r 27 and control, for the 1963 t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s , at Gold River, B. C. 2Cv Screen analysis of the commercially distributed 31 Magamp f e r t i l i z e r used in the 1963 and 1964 t r i a l s of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s . 21. Chemical analysis of s o i l profile for the east side 33 a of the forestry section of the U.B.C. Campus nur-sery for the 1964 t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and Allen (1962). 22. Mechanical analysis of s o i l profile for the east side 33a of the forestry section of the U.B.C. Campus nursery for the 1964 t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and Allen (1962) x i Number Heading Page 23. Number of seedlings dead as of June 4, 1964, i n the 35 1964 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 2U. Number of seedlings dead as of October k> 1964, i n 36 the 1964 t r i a l o f slowly s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 25. I n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each 37 f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 26. M o r t a l i t y percentages of f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l at 37 each l o c a t i o n , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 27. M o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each l e v e l of f e r t i l i z e r 38 and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 28. I n f l u e n c e of 1963 t o t a l h e i g ht on the 1964 height 39 growth o f see d l i n g s f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 29. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1964 height growth of seed- 40 l i n g s f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 30. Mean 1964 h e i g h t growth of see d l i n g s i n inches, a t 40 each l o c a t i o n f o r f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 31. Mean 1964 h e i g h t growth of seedlings i n inc h e s , show- 4 l i n g e f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 32. Mean 1964 height growth of see d l i n g s i n inches, f o r 42 P l o t s No. 2 and No. 3 f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of slo w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t a t the 5% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . 33. The mean 1964 height growth of se e d l i n g s i n inches 43 a t P l o t s Nos. 2 and 3, f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and con-t r o l , f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . 34. E f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on the mean 1964 44 height growth of see d l i n g s i n inches f o r P l o t s No. 2 and 3} f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y soluble f e r t i l i z e r s . Number Heading x i l Page 35. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples f o r the southwest 51 corner of P l o t No. 1. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 36. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from the northeast 51 corner of P l o t No. 1. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 37. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from the south h a l f 52 of P l o t No. 2. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 38. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from the north h a l f 52 of P l o t No. 2. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 39. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from P l o t No. 3. 57 N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 1|0. Chemical a n a l y s i s o f s o i l samples from P l o t No, 4. 57 N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . i l l . L i s t of code numbers d e s c r i b i n g h e a l t h and crown 60 d e n s i t y of t r e e s s e l e c t e d f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . it2. L i s t of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the c o r r e - 61 l a t i o n of 1963 h e i g h t growth to the amount of n i t r o g e n i n the f e r t i l i z e r treatments and to the 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t , f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . 43. Average 1964 height growth o f t r e e s i n f e e t , f o r each 62 treatment and l o c a t i o n , f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a -p r i l l s . 44. Chemical a n a l y s i s of the s o i l from the east s i d e of 64 the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. Combined for sur f a c e 0-7 i n c h and B"horizons 7-12 i n c h , f o r the greenhouse experiment. Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962), 45. Mechanical a n a l y s i s of sand from the east s i d e of the 64 f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C Campus nursery. Com-bined f o r surface 0-7 i n c h and B horizons 7-12 i n c h , fo r the greenhouse experiment. Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). 46. A n a l y s i s of loam obtained from the southwest corner 65 of the U.B.C. Campus nursery, f o r the greenhouse experiment. x i i i Number Heading Page 47. Number of seedlings dead i n each experimental u n i t 69 a t the end of January, 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 48. Number of see d l i n g s f l u s h e d as of February 10, 1964, 70 evaluated by s o i l s , i r r i g a t i o n s , and c o n t a i n e r s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. 49. Average l e n g t h of new shoots i n centimeters as of 71 A p r i l 4, 1964, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s . 5>0. Average l e n g t h of new leader growth i n centimeters as 71 of A p r i l 4, 1964, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s . 51. L i s t o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each independent 72 v a r i a b l e , i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s of ammonium n i t r a t e on the t o t a l shoot growth o f seedlings i n centimeters as of A p r i l 4, 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 52. L i s t of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each independent 73 v a r i a b l e , i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s of Magamp on the t o t a l shoot growth of seedlings i n centimeters as of A p r i l 4, 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 53. Number of seedlings dead, i n each experimental u n i t , 74 as of A p r i l 4, 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 54. Number o f seedlings which f a i l e d to f l u s h i n each 75 experimental u n i t u n t i l A p r i l 4, 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 55* E f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on m o r t a l i t y 76 of s e e d lings as of A p r i l 4, 1964, and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r 1% l e v e l , f o r the green-house experiment. 56. Number of see d l i n g s dead as of June 1, 1964, e v a l u - 77 ated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the greenhouse experiments 57. Number of s e e d l i n g s dead a t the end of the experiment 78 (October 4, 1964) evaluated by S o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements of f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the green-house experiment. Heading Number of see d l i n g s which f a i l e d t o f l u s h u n t i l the end of the experiment, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements of f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the green-house experiment. Mean he i g h t growth of see d l i n g s i n centimeters, f e r t i -l i z e d by Magamp and ammonium-nitrate i n sand and loam, and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r 5% l e v e l , for the greenhouse experiment. Inc r e a s i n g order of mean height growth of seedlings i n centimeters f o r each l e v e l of Magamp and ammonium-n i t r a t e , and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r $% l e v e l , f o r the greenhouse experiment. Mean he i g h t growth of seedlings i n each experimental u n i t e x c l u d i n g containers and i r r i g a t i o n treatments. The number i n brackets a f t e r each mean shows the number of observations per mean. Greenhouse e x p e r i -ment. ANOVA of seasonal height growth o f s e e d l i n g s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. Seasonal height growth of s e e d l i n g s , f o r each v e r t i c a l placement o f Magamp and ammonium n i t r a t e . Weather observations f o r May, 1963 and 1964 as com-pared to 12 years' averages and extremes, obtained from G r i f f i t h (i960), i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . Weather observations f o r May, 1963 and 1964 i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery, obtained from the C l i m a t o l o -g i c a l Records of U.B.C. Campus. M o r t a l i t y percentages f o r c o n t r o l s , Magamp, Sludge and Thiourea i n 1963 and 1964, f o r the slo w l y s o l u -ble f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s . FIGURES Number Heading 1. Spacing of seedlings i n 1963 and 196U t r i a l s of 3h s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , a t J-road near Haney. 2. I l l u s t r a t i o n of the measurements taken of the seed- 66 l i n g s a t p l a n t i n g time, f o r the greenhouse experiment. 3. Band placements of f e r t i l i z e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o the 68 stems of s e e d l i n g s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. k. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s 88 on the r a t e of h e i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. 5. The e f f e c t of placements w i t h i n l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s 89 on the r a t e of h e i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. 6. The e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n between s o i l s and l e v e l s 91 of f e r t i l i z e r s on the r a t e of h e i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. 7. The e f f e c t of i n t e r a c t i o n between s o i l s and p l a c e - 92 ments of f e r t i l i z e r s w i t h i n l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s on the r a t e of height growth of s e e d l i n g s , for the greenhouse experiment. 8. Photograph showing the i n c r e a s e i n needle l e n g t h 93 due to n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n , f o r the greenhouse experiment. 9. V e r t i c a l placements of f e r t i l i z e r bands i n Experiment IV. 96 10. The r a t e of height growth of s e e d l i n g s f o r each 100 v e r t i c a l placement band of f e r t i l i z e r . x v Page INTRODUCTION The importance of n u t r i t i o n and the a r t i f i c i a l supply of d e f i c i e n t elements has been recognized i n a g r i c u l t u r e f o r the p a s t century. P l a n t s r e c e i v e a p e r i o d i c income of a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s from the s o i l i n the form of water s o l u b l e s a l t s which serve t o increase p l a n t growth or to balance d i s o r d e r s . I n the l a s t century, the most prominent i n v e s t i g a t o r of p l a n t n u t r i t i o n was L i e b i g who, i n 1843, formulated the "Law of the Minimum" which c e r t a i n l y i s not as simple as L i e b i g supposed i t t o be, as s t a t e d by Kramer and Kozlowski (i960). M i t s c h e r l i c h , c i t e d by Meyer et a l , (I960), f u r t h e r modified and developed L i e b i g f s theory and proposed a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the d e f i c i e n t f a c t o r s when, i n 1909, he s t a t e d : "An increment i n any crop produced by a u n i t increment of a d e f i c i e n t f a c t o r i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the decrement of t h a t f a c t o r from i t s optimum." Therefore, i t i s most d e s i r a b l e t o f i n d out the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s of the d e f i c i e n t f a c t o r s through s o i l and f o l i a r a n a l y s i s b efore making f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s (Gessel and Walker, 1959) and (Swan, 1963). Thus, the waste of f e r t i l i z e r and the cost of a p p l i c a t i o n can be avoided. I n modern f o r e s t r y and, moreover, i n the f o r e s t r y of the f u t u r e , the i n c r e a s e o f e a r l y growth of p l a n t e d stock i s c r i t i c a l f o r f u l l s t o c k i n g on a r e p l a n t e d area i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e time i n order t o a v o i d the frequent i n v a s i o n of undesirable s p e c i e s . Gessel (1962) p o i n t e d out t h a t f e r t i l i z a t i o n a t p l a n t i n g time has been shown to i n c r e a s e e a r l y growth. He s a i d t h a t : "The b a s i c philosophy of l a n d management must encompass the con-cept o f f u l l p r o duction and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of any method to a t t a i n the g o a l . " 2. According to Wilde (1958)j the development of s o i l science ( e s p e c i a l l y p h y s i c a l chemistry) revealed many important r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a n t growth and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of nutrients i n the s o i l . F e r t i l i z e r s a l t s introduce modifications i n the exchange reactions be-tween the s o i l arid root systems, and these modifications "may either depress or abnormally stimulate p l a n t growth". Despite the broad i n t e r e s t i n f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s and experiments, the place of f e r t i l i z e r s i s rather d i s t o r t e d i n f o r e s t r y , according to Laurie (I960), who wrote: "Much has been s a i d about the cases where responses have been obtained by f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s , but l i t t l e about the f a r more frequent occasions when r e s u l t s are negative." Investigations should be c a r r i e d out, however, with ever increasing i n t e n s i t y . In t h i s great task to increase p r o d u c t i v i t y of our f o r e s t lands, the knowledge of chemical f e r t i l i z e r s iB one f a c t o r . Swan (1963) s a i d : " I F e r t i l i z e r s are not a panacea: They w i l l not solve a l l a o u r s i l v i c u l t u r a l problems. One can, however, foresee an important r o l e o f f e r t i l i z e r s i n the more inten s i v e f o r e s t r y o f tomorrow." Many basic experiments have been designed to inve s t i g a t e the nutrient responses or e c o l o g i c a l requirements of f o r e s t t r e e s . For example: Vlamis, at a l , (1957), i n v e s t i g a t i n g the nu t r i e n t responses of ponderosa pine, proved that only nitrogen supplied i n a v a i l a b l e form i s necessary to improve growth of ponderosa pine, while l e t t u c e and b a r l e y r e q u i r e supplies of nitrogen and phosphorous for improved growth. Wfalker, et a l , (1959) investigated the n u t r i e n t responses of western red cedar. Swan (1963) published r e s u l t s of a thorough n u t r i e n t study on white spruce seedlings. In the P a c i f i c Northwest, the most important f o r e s t tree i s the 3. Douglas f i r . A thorough study on the importance of t h i s s p e c i e s i n the f o r e s t products economy of Canada was r e c e n t l y completed by Haley (1964). Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s here have experimented w i t h the growth responses of Douglas f i r t o chemical f e r t i l i z a t i o n . The most prominent researchers i n t h i s f i e l d a r e Dr. S. P. Gessel and Dr. R. B. Walker a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. I n 1959, they s t a t e d t h a t a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n i s d e f i c i e n t f o r Douglas f i r i n the P a c i f i c Northwest i f i t f a l l s below the l e v e l of .10 or ,12% i n the r o o t i n g zone. They a l s o p o i n t e d out the my c o r r h i z a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of f o r e s t t r e e s , f o r example, Douglas f i r , i s abl e to u t i l i z e phosphorous from the s o i l , which i s u n a v a i l a b l e f o r l e t t u c e . The experiments on the e c o l o g i c a l requirements of f o r e s t t r e e s i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, by K r a j i n a (1958) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t Douglas f i r has b e t t e r growth i n s o i l s where n i t r i f i c a t i o n i s supported. I n f o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n , the g r e a t e s t response may be expected from n i t r o g e n . Many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s support t h i s f a c t . Examinations by Hicock et a l , (1931) showed t h a t the q u a n t i t y of t o t a l n i t r o g e n i n the 'A' h o r i -zons was v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the p r o d u c t i v i t y . Aaltonen, c i t e d by Mayer - K r a p o l l (1956), s a i d , i n 1948: "The p r o d u c t i v i t y of the f o r e s t s o i l i s dependent t o a greater or l e s s e r extent on i t s a b i l i t y t o o f f e r the tr e e s n i t r o g e n i n a usable form." Experiments by Smith and A l l e n (1962) i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery to improve the q u a l i t y o f p l a n t i n g stock of Douglas f i r have shown p o s i -t i v e response to both organic and i n o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Three years a f t e r o u t - p l a n t i n g , the f e r t i l i z e d s e e dlings had 35$ b e t t e r h e i g h t growth and 18.1$ b e t t e r s u r v i v a l than d i d the c o n t r o l s . Knight (1963) f e r t i l i z e d young p l a n t a t i o n s of Douglas f i r on Vancouver I s l a n d and obtained favourable response i n height growth on poor s i t e s . He a l s o observed t h a t s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s showed p o s i t i v e h e i g h t growth increment three years a f t e r f e r t i l i z a t i o n . I n f a c t , Leyton (1958) and L a u r i e (i960) p o i n t e d out the importance o f the s l o w l y s o l u b l e n u t r i -ent sources i n f o r e s t p l a n t i n g . A u s t i n and Strand (i960) a p p l i e d s l o w l y s o l u b l e urea-formaldehyde and superphosphate to Douglas f i r a t p l a n t i n g time a i d obtained a k3% i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t growth. S i m i l a r experiments, however, by Walters e t a l , (1961) f a i l e d t o show height growth response of Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s to s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , b ut complete f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i e d i n 6-8-6 prop o r t i o n s gave a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n height growth i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney, B. C. Swan (1963) s a i d t h a t , f i r s t , the p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses of f o r e s t t r e e s t o chemical f e r t i l i z a t i o n have to be understood; then the ec o n i m i c a l aspects o f the f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s are t o be j u s t i f i e d . Armson (1962) s t a t e d t h a t the f e r t i l i z a t i o n a t o u t - p l a n t i n g appears to be j u s t i f i a b l e . F i r s t , many b a s i c investigations'^have t o be c a r r i e d out t o l i m i t the chances of f a i l u r e s when the a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s w i l l be a commonplace i n f u t u r e p l a n t a t i o n s . I t i s hoped th a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o f the f o l l o w i n g four experiments w i l l increase the knowledge of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s on Douglas f i r p l a n t a t i o n s . 5 I TRIALS 07 SLOWLY SOLUBLE FERTILIZERS A. THE 1963 TRIAL Th i s experiment was designed i n I963 t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of s i x s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s and a bark product on s u r v i v a l and growth of p l a n t e d Douglas f i r , when the f e r t i l i z e r was a p p l i e d a t p l a n t i n g time i n the p l a n t i n g h o l e . MATERIALS AND METHODS F e r t i l i z e r s 1. Magnesium-ammonium-phosphate (MgNH^POlj) i s a s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r c o n t a i n i n g 10% n i t r o g e n , 22% phosphorous and 17% magnesium i n i t s molecular weight. Magamp (trade name) has a s o l u b i l i t y o f ;oili gm i n 100 ml H2& a t 2$°C. N i t r o g e n , the most important growth c o n s t i t u e n t , i s o f t e n d e f i c i e n t i n the f o r e s t s o i l s o f the P a c i f i c Northwest (Gessel and Walker, 1959). In Magamp, n i t r o g e n i s contained i n ammonia form. Therefore, t h i s f e r t i -l i z e r may r e q u i r e c o n d i t i o n s favouring n i t r i f i c a t i o n i n order to make n i t r o g e n more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o Douglas f i r ( K r a j i n a , 1958). Phosphorous i s the c o n s t i t u e n t of b i o l o g i c a l energy compounds adenosine diphosphate "ADP" discharged, and adenosine triphosphate nATP" charged forms (Lehninger, 1961). "ATP" molecules have one more phosphate group than "ADP", attached by a high-energy bond. Energy i s needed t o make t h i s bond and thus charge 6 "ATP". This chemical energy i s made a v a i l a b l e again when "ATP" i s d i s -charged by l o s i n g i t s t e r m i n a l phosphate group and thus becomes "ADP". ThisNphosphorylation 1 1 energy may be termed as a b a s i s o f a l l l i f e . Magnesium, a v e r y important s p e c i f i c enzyme a c t i v a t o r , i s the centre c o n s t i t u e n t of the c h l o r o p h y l l molecule and a l s o renders t r a n s l o c a t i o n of phosphates i n p l a n t s . Nevertheless, i t i s r a r e l y a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n p l a n t n u t r i t i o n because i t i s needed only i n minute q u a n t i t i e s (Stoeckeler and Arneman, I960). Q 2. Urea (NH2 - C - NH2) contains lj6.0$ n i t r o g e n i n i t s molecular weight. According to Wilde (19^8), Urea r e a d i l y ammonifies i n most s o i l s 5 t h e r e f o r e , i t may cause r o o t i n j u r y o f p l a n t s . 3. Aqua humus has a mixture o f 38% s o l u b l e humic and f u l v i c a c i d d e r i v a t i v e s . I t i s a complete f e r t i l i z e r c o n t a i n i n g N.P.K. i n 12-9-6 p r o p o r t i o n s . Besides n i t r o g e n and phosphorous, i t a l s o s u p p l i e s potas-sium t o p l a n t s . This element i s b e l i e v e d t o be i n v o l v e d i n the synth e s i s of p r o t e i n from amino a c i d s . The fundamental r o l e s of potassium i n p l a n t metabolism are undoubtedly r e g u l a t o r y or c a t a l y t i c as s t a t e d by Meyer et a l ( I 9 6 0). Q Q n a k. Oxamide (NH>> - C - C - NH 2) contains 31.8$ n i t r o g e n i n i t s mole-c u l a r weight and has a s o l u b i l i t y o f 0.0U gm per 100 ml H 20 a t 20°C. This i s the second slowest s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r a f t e r Magamp among the f e r t i l i z e r s t e s t e d i n the experiment. Due t o i t s slow s o l u b i l i t y , the danger of ammonification which e x i s t s i n the case o f more r e a d i l y s o l u b l e Urea i s excluded. . 7. S tit $, Thiourea ( N H 2 - C - NHg) contains 36.8$ n i t r o g e n and 42.1$ s u l f u r i n i t s molecular weight. I t has the f a s t e s t s o l u b i l i t y r a t e among f e r t i l i z e r s t e s t e d (9.1 gm per 100 ml of H 2 0 a t 20°C). Thiourea a l s o s u p p l i e s s u l f u r which i s a c o n s t i t u e n t of some of the amino a c i d s and a l s o of such important p l a n t hormones as thiamine and b i o t i n . 6. Sludge (8-24-0) contains n i t r o g e n and phosphorous i n 8 and 24 p r o p o r t i o n s . I t i s a complex i r o n and aluminium ammonium phosphate. About 8.9$ of i t s molecular weight i s n i t r o g e n (Of t h i s , 4.3$ i s water s o l u b l e ) and 32$ P 2 0^ (31.3$ i s water s o l u b l e ) . Sludge contains 6.8$ i r o n . This element i s i n d i s p e n s i b l e f o r the sy n t h e s i s o f c h l o r o p h y l l i n green p l a n t s . D e f i c i e n c y o f i r o n soon causes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c h l o r o s i s . Enzymes and c a r r i e r s i n the r e s p i r a t o r y mechanisms of p l a n t s c o n t a i n i r o n compounds (mostly cytochromes). Sludge a l s o has aluminium i n the form o f AI2O3. This compound gives 10.9$ o f the t o t a l molecular weight. Traces of aluminium may be necessary i n some spe c i e s . Sludge a l s o c o n t a i n s 2.8$ c a l c i u m oxide. Calcium i s permanently f i x e d i n the middle l a m e l l a o f c e l l w a l l s , and i s known t o have an important r o l e i n n i t r o g e n metabolism o f p l a n t s . I n the absence o f calcium, many species are unable t o absorb and a s s i m i l a t e n i t r a t e s . 7. Bark product was s u p p l i e d by Mr. W. J . Burgon of Canadian F o r e s t Products L t d . I t contains 6.05$ phosphor-pentoxide ('?<£>£))l the a v a i l a b l e amount of which i s 4 .8$. The f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d a t random at three l e v e l s . These l e v e l s of a p p l i c a t i o n were determined by the gram weight of n i t r o g e n s u p p l i e d t o 8 the seedlings by the f e r t i l i z e r c a r r i e r . 2.5 grams of n i t r o g e n per seed-l i n g represented "low", 5 grams of n i t r o g e n per s e e d l i n g represented "medium"j and 10 grams o f n i t r o g e n per s e e d l i n g represented " h i g h " l e v e l . The bark product was s u p p l i e d by the gram amount o f ?205 gi v© n. Two grams per seedling represented "low", h grams as "medium", and 8 grams as "hig h " l e v e l . The f e r t i l i z e r s were dumped i n t o the bottom o f the p l a n t i n g holes. I n one treatment, they were- mixed w i t h the s o i l before the s e e d l i n g was p l a n t e d ; i n the other, the f e r t i l i z e r was not mixed w i t h the s o i l and the s e e d l i n g was p l a n t e d immediately above i t . These two treatments determined the s p l i t p l o t design arrangement of the experiment. P l a n t i n g Stock A l l s e e d l i n g s used i n the experiments had c o a s t a l o r i g i n . Three 3+0 s e e d l i n g s obtained from the U.B.C. Campus nursery were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s m a l l , medium and l a r g e s i z e s , and one 2+0 s e e d l i n g from the B. C. Fo r e s t S e r v i c e Green Timbers nursery was the f o u r t h member of the e x p e r i -mental u n i t . Two u n i t s represented one row which randomly r e c e i v e d one l e v e l of any f e r t i l i z e r treatment. The experiment was e s t a b l i s h e d i n three l o c a t i o n s : P l o t No. 1 was l o c a t e d i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery, and the p l a n t a t i o n was c a r r i e d out du r i n g the Last week of A p r i l , 1963. P l o t No. 2 was l o c a t e d i n TS 3 beside S-road i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t and was pl a n t e d during the f i r s t week of May, 1963. P l o t No. 3 was l o c a t e d i n TS 32B, beside J-road ( a l s o i n the U.B.C. Research Forest) and was pl a n t e d a t the same time as P l o t No. 2. Each experimental p l o t contained two b l o c k s . 9. The t o t a l number of seedlings i n one b l o c k was 192. D e s c r i p t i o n of Locations P l o t No. 1 This experimental p l o t was p l a n t e d i n the western p a r t o f the F o r e s t r y S e c t i o n i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery. The F o r e s t r y S e c t i o n i s i n the southeast quarter of the nursery. I t s s o i l ranges from coarse loamy sand t o sand w i t h low organic content and f e r t i l i t y (Tables 1 and 2 ) . The IOXJ f e r t i l i t y of t h i s s o i l provides a good c o n t r o l f o r t e s t i n g f e r t i l i z e r s (Smith and A l l e n , 1962). In the U.B.C. Campus nursery, the s e e d l i n g s were p l a n t e d i n l ' x l ' spacing w i t h one guard row of seedlings around the experimental p l o t con-t a i n i n g 2+0 s e e d l i n g s from the Green Timbers nursery. Weather record s f o r 1963 and 1961; were obtained from the C l i m a t o l o -g i c a l Records of the P l a n t Science Department, U.B.C. Campus, and are shown i n Table 67 (Appendix F ) . P l o t No. 1 i s l o c a t e d approximately 2000 f e e t from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . P l o t No. 2 This experimental p l o t was p l a n t e d i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t on TS-3, j u s t on the south s i d e of S-road, i n the n o r t h -west corner o f a l a r g e experimental p l a n t a t i o n and immediately west of a fenced g r a f t i n g study ( L o c a t i o n Map 2, Appendix 8 ) . T h i s area belongs to the l a n d p a t t e r n of h i l l y g r a n i t e cored uplands, according t o Lacate's (1962) l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t s s o i l i s water washed t i l l , g r a v e l l y sand and loamy t e x t u r e , o v e r l a y i n g g r a n i t e cored bedrock. The depth of s o i l i s approximately 3 f e e t . This s o i l i s w e l l drained and the area i s l o c a t e d on a minor r i d g e w i t h southwest exposure. The area was c l e a r e d by D7 b u l l d o z e r i n 1961 f o r experimental p l a n t a t i o n s . Table 1. Chemical analysis of soil profile for west side of forestry section of U.B.C. Campus Nursery for the 1963 t r i a l of slowly soluble fertilizers. Obtained from Smith and Allen (1962). No. Horizon Depth in. PH Larger than 2 ram % Organic Total Matter N % % Ad-sorbed P Ca lb/a Exchange Cations m.e./lOO g Mg K Na H Exch. Total Cap. Base me/ 100 g % Base Satura-tion 1 Surface 0-6 6.7 27.37 2.06 .18 35.2 .56 .20 .09 .06 6.98 0.91 7.89 11.53 2 B 6-12 5.9 53.67 0.59 .11 43.6 .31 .33 .08 .11 4.81 0.83 5.64 14.72 3 B 12^20 5.9 50.00 0.66 .13 27.6 .44 .22 .08 .06 5.62 0.80 6.42 12.46 4 B 20-30 5.9 37.65 0.78 .15 24.6 .37 .24 .07 .04 4.29 0.72 5.01 14.37 Table 2. Mechanical analysis of soil profile for west side of forestry section of U.B.C. Campus Nursery for the 1963 trial of slowly soluble fertilizers. Obtained from Smith and Allen (1962). Horizon Depth In. % Sand % Si l t % Clay Class; Surface 0 - 6 85.58 9.27 5.15 Loamy Sand B 6-12 94.83 2.77 2.U0 Sand B 12-20 92.79 4.44 2.77 Sand B 20-30 96.22 3.05 0.73 Sand 10. A s o i l p r o f i l e was dug on the n o r t h s i d e of the experimental p l o t and v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of the s o i l p r o f i l e was taken. L-H Up to 3 inches i n t h i c k n e s s , dark brown or b l a c k , mainly H, but mixed w i t h mineral sandy loam as a r e s u l t o f s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . B . . . . . . . . . Accumulation l a y e r i s 12 inches t h i c k , brown, w e l l d r a i n e d , g r a v e l l y , sandy loam. C . . • S u b s o i l i s 18 inches t h i c k , l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown or g r e y i s h . Loamy sand t e x t u r e w i t h g l a c i a l g r a v e l outwash. The depth o f s o i l above g r a n t i c cored bedrock i s 32 - 36 inches. C l i m a t i c data a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s area were obtained from the Clima-t o l o g i c a l Records of the Spur-17 weather s t a t i o n of the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t and are shown i n Table 69 (Appendix C). P l o t No. 2 i s l o c a t e d approximately 2|?00 f e e t from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . The s e e d l i n g s i n P l o t No. 2 were p l a n t e d i n a l ' x l ' spacing w i t h one guard row of 2+0 s e e d l i n g s from the Green Timbers nursery around them. P l o t No. 3 This experimental p l o t i s l o c a t e d i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t on TS 32b UOO f e e t southeast o f the j u n c t i o n of J- and G-roads ( L o c a t i o n Map 5, Appendix E ) . This area i s a 100 - lf>0 f e e t wide t e r r a c e - l i k e formation of the west bank of a s m a l l creek. F l a t or g e n t l y s l o p i n g , i t i s i n the extreme southwest corner of the F o r e s t which, according to Lacate (1962) belongs to the l a n d p a t t e r n o f glacio-marine and s u b s t r a t i f i e d d r i f t d e p o s i t s . I t s s o i l i s c l a y e y s i l t and r e l a t e d heavy t e x t u r e d t i l l - l i k e d e p o s i t . 11 Owing t o i t s heavy s t r u c t u r e , i t has a h i g h water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . The s o i l p r o f i l e was dug on November 8, 1964, i n the northeast corner of the experimental p l o t . Only v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of the p r o f i l e was taken. L-H . . . . V a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s (average h i n c h e s ) , dark brown, somewhat mixed w i t h m i n e r a l c l a y e y s i l t as a r e s u l t o f s i t e prepara-tioxu. B Theresis a gradual t r a n s i t i o n i n t o glacio-marine c l a y which i s cemented i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y hard l a y e r . I t s c o l o r i s y e l l o w i s h - g r e y . C . . . Grey c o l o r e d marine c l a y . The p r o f i l e i s weakly developed w i t h no apparent h o r i z o n d i f f e r e n t i -a t i o n . Weather data f o r t h i s area during the 1963 and 1961; growing seasons were taken from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the Weather S t a t i o n at the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n O f f i c e o f the U.B.C. Research Forest (Table 69, Appendix H). P l o t No. 3 i s approximately one m i l e from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . The s e e d l i n g s i n P l o t No. 3 were p l a n t e d i n a 3*x3' spacing w i t h one guard row of 2+0 seedlings around them from Green Timbers nursery. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS A n a l y s i s of m o r t a l i t y of the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s During the second week of J u l y , 1963, the m o r t a l i t y o f a l l three experimental p l o t s was recorded. A t the same time, the 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t and the 1963 height growth of the s e e d l i n g s were measured. The complete records of m o r t a l i t y are shown i n Table 3. Table 3. Number of seedlings dead as of July 10, 1963, in the 1963 t r i a l of slowly soluble fertilizers* £6 Loca- g tions ^ Treatments Control F E R I - I I ] Magamp Urea Aqua H. [ Z E R S Oxamide Thiourea Sludge Bark L M H L Levels M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H Totals a 1 h 1 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 4 66 63 129 255 b 1 1 2 1 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 65 61 126 Subtotal level 3 8 10 16 14 15 16 15 15 16 6 7 12 16 16 16 11 14 13 3 6 7 255 255 255 1 a s- b 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 1 1 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 2 3 2 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 2 2 3 4 2 59 59 118 231 Road g a b 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 1 3 4 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 1 1 2 2 57 56 113 Subtotal level 3 2 1 3 6 5 13 15 15 11 12 16 7 10 8 11 15 16 11 11 16 9 5 io 231 231 231 1 a J- ° 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 4 3 - 4 3 3 3 1 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 2 1 4 2 2 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 65 66 132 243 Road a 2 b 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 4 3 2 2 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 1 4 3 3 4 4 4 1 2 3 2 2 4 1 3L 1 1 1 4 49 63 112 Subtotal level 1 5 3 7 6 9 14 12 15 10 14 14 11 13 12 12 15 15 7 7 15 8 7 11 243 243 243 Total level U 10 4 18 22 30 4i 42 46 36 41 46 24 30 32 39 46 47 29 32 44 20 18 28 Total fertilizer 18 70 129 123 86 132 105 66 729 729 729 12.5 48.6 89.6 85.5 59.8 91.6 73.0 45.8 Total number of seedlings as of May 6th, 1963, was 1152. Mixed • a; Unmixed » b. L • lowj M = medium; H = high levels. 13 The m o r t a l i t y was expressed i n percentages of t o t a l number of seedlings r e c e i v i n g the same treatment. The i n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y percentages by each f e r t i l i z e r i s shown i n Table h» Table k» I n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . F e r t i l i z e r •51 g o 12.5 U5.8 68.6 <D X ) •rl 5 9 . 8 © H CO 73.0) to 3 3 8 5 . 5 ctS CD 89.6 td <D O •H 91.6 The a n a l y s i s of va r i a n c e w i t h the transformed data showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f e r t i l i z e r s . Any percentages which are underlined w i t h the same continuous l i n e are not h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at the 1$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . M o r t a l i t y was s i m i l a r i n a l l l o c a t i o n s . I n the U.B.C. nursery, i t was 66.k%l a t S-road i t was 60.2$, and a t J-road i t was 63.3$. M o r t a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h the l e v e l of f e r t i l i z a -t i o n from 56.0$ f o r "low" through 62.3$ f o r "medium"' t o 72.7$ f o r "high" l e v e l s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between the four s e e d l i n g s i z e s . The t o t a l number of see d l i n g s p l a n t e d i n one si§e range was 288. The m o r t a l i t y among s m a l l seedlings was 65$; f o r medium, 63$; f o r l a r g e , 64$. The m o r t a l i t y r a t e f o r seedlings from the Green Timbers nursery was 60$. I i i . M o r t a l i t y was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n the cases of unmixed treatment (6k»$%) and mixed treatment (62.7$). A n a l y s i s of 1963 height growth o f the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l o c a t i o n s i n height growth o f s e e d l i n g s . On the other hand, i t determined that the he i g h t growth of c o n t r o l s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than t h a t of see d l i n g s f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp, Oxamide and bark. The other four f e r t i l i z e r s had to be excluded because of the l a c k of r e p l i c a t i o n s due t o high m o r t a l i t y . Table 5 shows the mean height growth of seedlings t r e a t e d w i t h Magamp, Oxamide and Bark, and the mean height growth of c o n t r o l s . Table 5 . I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1963 height growth of see d l i n g s I n inches by f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . f e r t i l i z e r Oxamide Magamp Bark C o n t r o l Height growth 0.91 l . l i i 1.16 1.77 i n c h Each mean which i s underlined w i t h the same continuous l i n e i s not h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 1% l e v e l . At the 5% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l , there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the e f f e c t s of Magamp and Oxamide, but the height growth of seed-l i n g s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between the e f f e c t s of Magamp and bark. 15. The l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The means f o r t h i s source of v a r i a t i o n are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 6. Table 6. Mean 1963 height growth of see d l i n g s i n inches a t each l o c a t i o n by f e r t i l i z e r ' and c o n t r o l f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L o cations C o n t r o l Bark Oxamide Magamp U.B.C. 2.07 1.43 0.83 0.64 S-road 1.75 0.98 0.95 1.55 J-road 1.50 1,00 0.94 1.29 .05 .234 .306 .303 L.S.D. .01 .309 .391 .399 Average number of r e p l i c a t i o n s 42 26 18.6 24.3 L.S.D. - Least s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r 5$ and 1% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . For c o n t r o l s , the L.S.D. t e s t showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r height growth i n the U.B.C. nursery than a t S-road and J-road i n Haney. There was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n height growth between S-road and J -road experimental p l o t s . L.S.D. t e s t s f o r bark showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n height growth between the U.B.C. Campus nursery, S- and J-roads i n the Research F o r e s t at Haney. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Oxamide a t the three l o c a t i o n s , L.S.D. t e s t s f o r Magamp showed t h a t the height growth of seedlings was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t S-road and J-road than i n the U.B.C. nursery. 16 The e f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on h e i g h t growth were s i g n i -f i c a n t o n l y a t the 10$ l e v e l . The general r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t of higher l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g too high r a t e o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n the des c r i b e d circumstances, can be seen i n Table 7. Table 7. Mean 1963 height growth of s e e d l i n g s i n inches showing the e f f e c t s o f l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the 1963 t r i a l o f sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L e v els C o n t r o l Bark Oxamide Magamp Low 1.72 1.32 1.2h 1.39 Medium 1.92 1.19 0.77 1.06 High 1.68 0.90 0.71 l.oU The e f f e c t s of mixed and unmixed treatments d i d not cause s i g n i f i -cant d i f f e r e n c e s i n he i g h t growth among s e e d l i n g s . The h e i g h t growth o f d i f f e r e n t s e edlings s i z e s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i -c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r previous s i z e s . The i n c r e a s i n g order of mean height growth f o r each s e e d l i n g s i z e i s shown i n Table 8. The 2+0 se e d l i n g s from Green Timbers nursery were not graded f o r s i z e ; t h e r e f o r e , they are not i n c l u d e d i n the f o l l o w i n g Table. Table 8. I n c r e a s i n g order o f mean 1963 he i g h t growth of three s i z e c l a s s e s o f seedlings i n inches, f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . S i z e S m a l l Medium Large No. of r e p l i c a t i o n s Height growth i n inches 100 0.84 106 1.09 103 1.62 17. The l a r g e s i z e d s e e d l i n g s had h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater height growth than the medium and s m a l l s e e d l i n g s had. The height growth of medium s i z e d s e e d l i n g s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t 5$ l e v e l than that of the s m a l l s i z e d s e e d l i n g s . The mean he i g h t growth of 2+0 s e e d l i n g s from the Green Timbers nursery was 1.42 inches, and the t o t a l number of seedlings i n t h i s s i z e range was 114. M o r t a l i t y t e s t on the p e r s i s t a n c e of slowly s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s o f the  1963 t r i a l . During the t h i r d week of October, 1963, the dead s e e d l i n g s were r e p l a c e d on a l l three l o c a t i o n s by 2+0 s e e d l i n g s from the Green Timbers nursery i n order to t e s t the continued e f f e c t and s o l u b i l i t y of f e r t i l i z e r s . The m o r t a l i t y on these continued t r i a l s was t a l l i e d during the f i r s t week o f May, 1964, and i s shown i n Table 9. The t o t a l m o r t a l i t y , a t t h a t time, was 11$ of 1152 seedlings p l a n t e d i n the whole experiment. There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between l o c a t i o n s . The m o r t a l i t y i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery (15.7$) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i t was i n Haney a t S-road (9.7$) and at J-road (7 .2$) . The m o r t a l i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by f e r t i l i z a t i o n , according t o the r e s u l t s shown by the ANOVA w i t h transformed data. The order of t o x i c e f f e c t s of f e r t i l i z e r s had changed s i n c e the beginning of the experiment. The i n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y expressed i n percent-ages was: C o n t r o l - 4 .9$; Bark - 9.5$; Oxamide - 10.5$; Aqua humus - 11.0$; Sludge - 11.7$; Urea - 11.7$; Magamp - 13.2$, and Thiourea - 15.2$. ANOVA had a l s o f a i l e d t o show d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s . Nevertheless, ..Table 9. First tally of mortality of continued trials of slowly soluble fertilizers showing the number of seedlings dead as of May 6, I96I4. F E R T I L I Z E R S Loca- 0 Control Magamp Urea Aqua H. Oxamide Thiourea Sludge Bark Levels Totals tion ^ Treatments L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H 1 UBC a b 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 121 16 28 61 2 a b 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 18 15 33 Subtotal level 1 3 3 5 1 3 3 1 2 1; 2 3 2 3 2 8 2 5 4 1 3 61 61 61 1 S-a b 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 7 15 22 38 Road 2 a 1 1 2 2 1 7 16 b 1 1 2 1 3 1 9 Subtotal level 1 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 38 38 38 1 a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 0 JL J- b 1 1 y -28 Road 2 a 1 1 1 2 1 7 19 b 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1. 12 Subtotal level 1 1 2 1 1 4 1 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 28 28 28 Total level 2 2 3 7 3 9 2 6 9 5" .6 $ 5 4 6 4 5 13 4 7 6 4 5 Total fertilizer 7 19 17 16 15 22 17 14 127 127 127 % 4.9 13.2 11.8 11.1 10.4 15.3 11.8 9.5 Total number of seedlings at 'October, 1963, was Mixed = aj Unmixed = b L " lowj M " mediumj H • high levels. 1152. 19. the m o r t a l i t y increased w i t h the l e v e l of f e r t i l i z a t i o n . The m o r t a l i t y f o r "low" was 8 .5$, f o r "medium" 9.7$, and f o r "hig h " 11;.5$. The dead s e e d l i n g s on a l l three l o c a t i o n s were r e p l a c e d again by 2f0 stock from Green Timbers nursery d u r i n g the f i r s t week of May, 1961;. The aim was t o t e s t the p e r s i s t a n c e o f the f e r t i l i z e r s throughout the second growing season o f the experiment. I n September and October, 1961;, the m o r t a l i t y was t a l l i e d again on these continued t r i a l s . The data are shown i n Table 10. At the same time, the 1961; height growth and the 1963 height of the seedlings were measured. ANOVA was not computed on the m o r t a l i t y data, s i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n the records f o r May, 1961;, except f o r l o c a t i o n s , and s i n c e then the m o r t a l i t y and d i f f e r e n c e s had f u r t h e r decreased. The i n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y between f e r t i l i z e r s was expressed i n percentages i n order to compare them w i t h the previous m o r t a l i t y r e c o r d s . Their order was: C o n t r o l - 1;.9$; Aqua humus 6.9$; Sludge - 7.5$; Thiourea - 7.5$; Oxamide - 8.7$; Urea - 11.0$; Bark - 11.7$, and Magamp -15.2$. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the re v e r s e order of m o r t a l i t y between l o c a t i o n s as compared t o previous r e c o r d s . The m o r t a l i t y percentages^ were 6.0 f o r U.B.C., 10.5 f o r S-road, and 11.7 f o r J-road. The m o r t a l i t y r a t i o s o f l e v e l s were not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the previous records e i t h e r . They were 8.2$ f o r "low", 10.0$ f o r "medium", and 9.5$ f o r "high" l e v e l Table 10. Second t a l l y of m o r t a l i t y of continued t r i a l s o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s showing the number of s e e d l i n g s dead as of October 1;, 196U. F E R T I L I Z E R S C o n t r o l Magamp Urea Aqua H. Oxamide Thiourea Sludge Bark o Loca- £ t i o n « Treatments L M H L M H L M Levels H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H Totals 1 UBC a b 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 6 6 12 22 2 a b 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 2 10 S u b t o t a l l e v e l U U 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 22 22 22 1 S-a b 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 13 10 23 iiO Road 2 a b 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 7 10 17 S u b t o t a l l e v e l 3 2: 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 2 1*0 liO liO a 2 1 1 1 5 13 1 J -b 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 8 li5 Road 2 a 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 Hi 32 b 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 18 S u b t o t a l l e v e l 1 1 U 2 1 6 3 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 7 U U5 U5 U5 T o t a l l e v e l 3 3 1 7 9 6 5 3 8 3 1; 3 3 k 6 3 3 5 5 2 U 3 10 u T o t a l f e r t i l i z e r 7 22 16 10 13 11 11 17 107 107 107 % k.9 , 15.3 „ T o t a l number of seedlings at May 6 t h , 196u, Mixed • aj unmixed = b. L • low; M • medium] H • high l e v e l s . 11.1 _ 6.9 was 1152. 9.0 7.6 7.6 11.8 21. A n a l y s i s of 1961; h e i g h t growth of the s e e d l i n g s i n the 1963 t r i a l of  s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s In September, 1961;, the 1963 t o t a l height and the 1961; height growth of the s e e d l i n g s were measured i n a l l three l o c a t i o n s of the continued t r i a l s o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Before a n a l y s i s o f h e i g h t growth, r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was run on the 1961; h e i g h t growth w i t h 1963 height to determine the i n f l u e n c e of t o t a l h e i g h t i n the v a r i a t i o n of height growth. The r e s u l t s o f the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s are shown i n Table 11. Table 11. I n f l u e n c e of 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t on 1961; h e i g h t growth o f se e d l i n g s as determined by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , f o r the continued t r i a l s of 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r e x p e r i -ment. V a r i a b l e s i n inches y » 1961; h e i g h t growth x - 1963 height Means 5.U5 10.12 Standard d e v i a t i o n s 3.U1 2.hk C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r . o r 0 - n * 1.00 0.17U** ## The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h $7h e r r o r degrees of freedom. C o e f f i c i e n t of determination r % = 3%. The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s on the 1961; height growth w i t h 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o o r e l a t i o n between the previous t o t a l h e i g h t and the new height growth. The c o e f f i c i e n t of determination shows, however, that only 3% of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n was removed by the t o t a l h e i g h t growth of the s e e d l i n g s . The repeated replacement of dead seedlings w i t h 2+0 Douglas f i r p l a n t i n g stock undoubtedly caused the l a r g e s t p a r t o f the v a r i a t i o n . 22 The height growth of seedlings was good, however, on these t r i a l s i n 1964. The height "growth, 5.45 inches, was 53.8$ of the previous t o t a l h e i g h t , 10.12 inches. The i n c r e a s i n g order of mean height growth f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l i s shown i n Table 12. Table 12. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1964 height growth of a l l s e e dlings i n inches f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the continued t r i a l s o f 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r experiment. F e r t i l i z e r Urea Oxamide Thiourea Aqua humus Magamp Sludge C o n t r o l Bark /^JS0***1 4.44 4.71 4.77 5.29 5.34 5.77 5.94 5.97 These averages i n c l u d e the height growth o f three age c l a s s e s : A p r i l , 1963, p l a n t a t i o n ; October, 1963, replacements; and May, 1964, replacements. Therefore, they could not be analysed f u r t h e r . From seedlings planted i n A p r i l , 1963, an adequate number of r e p l i -c a t i o n s remained only among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp, Oxamide and bark. In the ANOVA c a r r i e d out on the 1964 height growth, only the measurements taken on these s e e d l i n g s c o u l d be compared to c o n t r o l s . The ANOVA of these measurements showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e i g h t growth between l o c a t i o n s . Table 13 shows the h e i g h t growth of seedlings a t each l o c a t i o n . 23. Table 13. Mean 1964 height growth o f se e d l i n g s i n inches a t each l o c a t i o n fo r the continued t r i a l o f 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r e x p e r i -ment. Locations U.B.C. '•• S-road J-road No. of see d l i n g s 112 103 104 Height growth i n inches 4.70 5.59 7.39 The means un d e r l i n e d w i t h the same continuous l i n e are not h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t 1% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among f e r t i l i z e r s . The mean height growth f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l i s shown i n Table 1 1 1 . Table l i u I n c r e a s i n g order of mean 1964 h e i g h t growth o f seedlings i n inches f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the continued t r i a l of the 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r experiment. F e r t i l i z e r Magamp Oxamide C o n t r o l Bark No. of s e e d l i n g s 69 52 123 75 Height growth i n inches 5.53 5.72 5.94 6.06 The a f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 15 shows the mean height growth o f se e d l i n g s i n each l e v e l w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r . 2U. Table 15. Mean 1961; h e i g h t growth o f see d l i n g s i n inches f o r each l e v e l w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l f o r the continued t r i a l of the 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r experiment. Levels C o n t r o l i n inches Magamp i n inches Qxamide i n inches Bark i n inches Low 6.27 5.09 5.5U 6.26 Medium U.U7 U.70 6.62 High 6.91 7.39 7.36 5.06 LSD .05 1.69 1.88 2.61 2.38 There i s a t i o n i s not a wide range of v a r i a t i o n between l e v e l s , but t h i s v a r i -c o n s i s t e n t . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r s became d i s t o r t e d f o r the second growing season and conclusions may not be drawn on i n d i v i d u a l f e r t i l i z e r s . The l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 16). Table 16. Mean 1961; h e i g h t growth of se e d l i n g s i n inches a t each l o c a t i o n a f f e c t e d by each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the continued t r i a l of the 1963 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r experiment. Locations C o n t r o l Magamp Oxamide Bark i n inches i n inches i n inches i n inches U.B.C. h.9k U.39 3.59 5.17 S-road 5.91 h.9h 5.98 5.60 J-road 7.32 6.85 7.78 7.78 The h e i g h t growth of see d l i n g s was greater i n a l l four cases a t J-road. I t i s known t h a t the a f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n shows up l e a s t i n a f e r t i l e s o i l . Presumably, t h a t i s why the height growth of c o n t r o l s 25. was not d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s a t J-road where the f e r t i l i t y o f the s o i l i s best. Nor were the c o n t r o l s d i f f e r e n t from the f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s a t the other two l o c a t i o n s . I t i s thought t h a t , due t o the c l o s e spacing a t these two l o c a t i o n s , the c o n t r o l s may have been a b l e to absorb n u t r i e n t s s u p p l i e d by f e r t i l i z e r s i n 1963. On the other hand, i t had been proved by the ANOVA of 1963 height growth t h a t the height growth of c o n t r o l s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than that of f e r t i l i z e d s e e dlings (Table 5 ) . Undoubtedly, the high s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e t a r d e d the height growth of f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s i n the 1963 growing season. I n 1964, however, when the s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s o i l became l e s s t o x i c f o r seedlings (continued m o r t a l i t y observations, Tables 9 and 10), the f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s were unable to overcome the i n i t i a l h e i g h t advantage of con-t r o l s which was a t t a i n e d during the 1963 growing season. The growth r a t e o f f e r t i l i z e d s e e dlings i n 1964, however, became s i m i l a r or s l i g h t l y l e s s than that of the c o n t r o l s (Table 14). A n a l y s i s of m o r t a l i t y o f the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s a t  Gold R i v e r , B. C. A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g m o r t a l i t y can be obtained from a s i m i l a r t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s which was c a r r i e d out i n Gold R i v e r , B.C., during 1963. The same f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d a t the same r a t e s by Mr. R. Kosick, r e s i d e n t f o r e s t e r of the Tahsis Logging Company. Method I n Gold R i v e r , f i f t y 2 + 0 Douglas f i r seedlings were p l a n t e d i n one 26. row. This experimental u n i t randomly r e c e i v e d one l e v e l of any o f the seven f e r t i l i z e r s . F o r t y - f i v e f e r t i l i z e d and three c o n t r o l rows of seedlings were p l a n t e d i n a randomized complete b l o c k arrangement. Observations The summary of m o r t a l i t y i s shown i n Table 17. Table 17. Number of dead seedlings i n each experimental u n i t f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s a t Gold R i v e r , B. C, Submitted by Mr. R. K o s i c k . Block I T o t a l of Block I I T o t a l of Block I Block I I F e r t i l i z e r s Levels Levels T o t a l L M H L M H C o n t r o l 2 2 2 6 3 3 3 9 15 Magamp 17 24 29 60 26 17 14 58 118 Urea 49 50 50 149 42 47 46 135 284 Aqua humus ia 49 49 139 28 38 46 112 251 Oxamide 34 40 45 119 33 42 47 122 241 Thiourea 38 So 48 136 39 47 46 132 268 Sludge 50 50 50 150 41 50 47 138 288 Bark 38 49 48 135 25 34 44 103 238 T o t a l 269 314 311 894 237 278 293 809 1703 % 67 78 77 74.5 59 69 73 67.5 71 T o t a l number of seedlings p l a n t e d - 2400. L = Low; M = Medium; H = High. 27. The ANOVA of t h i s m o r t a l i t y d a t a , w i t h a r c s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between b l o c k s . Block I , w i t h 7k»5%> had h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r m o r t a l i t y than Block I I w i t h 67.5$. There were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between f e r t i -l i z e r s . The retransformed percentages are shown i n Table 18. Table 18. The i n c r e a s i n g m o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s a t Gold R i v e r , B. C. F e r t i l i s e r C o n t r o l Magamp Oxamide Bark Aqua humus Thiourea Urea Sludge M o r t a l i t y $ 5.0 3 9.0 81.5 83.8 90.6 91 .9 96.8 98.7 The i n c r e a s i n g order of percentages o f dead s e e d l i n g s i n each f e r t i -l i z e r was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than i n the previous one, except i n Aqua humus and Thiourea. The a f f e c t of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r was a l s o h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n Table 19, the retransformed percentages are ta b u l a t e d . Table 19. M o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each l e v e l of f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1963 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , a t Gold R i v e r , B. C. Le v e l • C o n t r o l Oxamide Sludge Aqua humus Thiourea Magamp Urea Bark Low 5 .0 67.0 95.3 69.8 77.00 U l . 5 . 92.5 63.5 Medium 5.0 82 . 0 100.0 92.U 98.5 U0.9 98.5 90.1 High 5.0 92 . 1 98.5 99.5 9U.2 33.2 98.0 92.5 LSD i s 2.59 f o r 1% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . 28. There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n m o r t a l i t y w i t h the l e v e l of f e r t i l i z a t i o n among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Oxamide. SludgeJ Morta-l i t y i n medium l e v e l was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than i n low l e v e l . Aqua humus: There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n m o r t a l i t y w i t h l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Thiourea: The medium l e v e l was h i g h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l y greater than the m o r t a l i t y i n low and high l e v e l s , and the m o r t a l i t y r a t e was l e a s t a t low l e v e l . Magamp: M o r t a l i t y was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n high l e v e l than i t was i n low and medium l e v e l s . Urea: There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n m o r t a l i t y between the low and medium l e v e l s . Bark: There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n mojf'tality between low and medium l e v e l s . DISCUSSION The h i g h m o r t a l i t y of seedlings i n the e a r l y months of the summer of 1963 i s due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . The examination of weather records of May, 1963 (Tables 68, 69, and 70) shows t h a t the h i g h e s t maximum tem-perature was reached t h i s month f o r the whole summer of 1963, and the p r e c i p i t a t i o n was an average 2.l£ inches l e s s than f o r the same month i n 1961|. The p l a n t i n g of seedlings was l a t e , and some see d l i n g s were already p a r t i a l l y f l u s h e d . Yet the m o r t a l i t y among c o n t r o l s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than i t was among f e r t i l i z e d s e e dlings (Table U)» This f a c t seems to suggest t h a t the r a t e of f e r t i l i z a t i o n was h i g h and many seed l i n g s were unable t o endure the osmotic pressure of the bulk of hygroscopic f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r r o o t s . I n other words, they had t o compete w i t h the hygroscopic f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s 29 f o r the l i m i t e d amount of moisture i n the s o i l r i g h t a f t e r p l a n t i n g . Each f e r t i l i z e r , w i t h the exception o f the bark product, was a p p l i e d a t r a t e s e q u i v a l e n t to 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 gms o f n i t r o g e n per p l a n t i n g h o l e . These amounts, i n the case o f 1' x 1' spacing, represented a p p r o x i -mately 2hZ l b s . of n i t r o g e n per acre f o r low; I4.8JU l b s . per acre n i t r o g e n f o r medium; and 968 l b s . per acre n i t r o g e n f o r high l e v e l s . I f i t i s s u p p l i e d by a slow r e l e a s e source, 2i|2 l b s of n i t r o g e n per acre i s not unusually h i g h , but when t h i s amount was placed i n the p r o x i m i t y o f the r o o t s , i t caused over $0% m o r t a l i t y , on the average. With the l e v e l of f e r t i l i z a t i o n , the m o r t a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g from 56$ i n low, through 62$ i n medium, to 73$ m o r t a l i t y i n high l e v e l . The t o x i c e f f e c t of high s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n was tempered by the s o l u b i l i t y character o f the f e r t i l i z e r (Table U). The m o r t a l i t y among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp ( s o l u b i l i t y O.OII4 gm per 100 ml H2O), and Oxamide ( s o l u b i l i t y Q.Oh gm per 100 ml H2O), was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than among se e d l i n g s f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Sludge ( s o l u b i l i t y U.3 gm per 100 ml H 20), and Thiourea ( s o l u b i l i t y 9.1 gm per 100 ml H 2 0 ) . S i m i l a r observations can be made a f t e r the examinations of the Gold R i v e r e x p e r i -mental data of m o r t a l i t y (Tables 17 and 18). At Gold R i v e r , the m o r t a l i t y caused by the same f e r t i l i z e r s was higher than i t was a t the U.B.C. Campus nursery and the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . There were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the three most s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s (Magamp, Oxamide and b a r k ) . However, these three f e r t i l i z e r s are a t the beginning of the i n c r e a s i n g order of means (Table 18), as they are i n Table U where no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y were found among these three f e r t i l i z e r s . 30. The s o l u b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r of f e r t i l i z e r s was r e f l e c t e d by the continued observations of m o r t a l i t y (Tables 9 and 10). I n May, 1961|, Magamp became next to l a s t among f e r t i l i z e r s causing the highest m o r t a l i t y . By October, 196U, Magamp became the f e r t i l i z e r which caused the h i g h e s t m o r t a l i t y , although s t a t i s t i c a l l y there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n m o r t a l i t y among f e r t i -l i z e r s i n the continued t r i a l . Knight (1963) mentioned that the e f f e c t s of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s were n o t i c e a b l e three years a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n . Regarding the he i g h t growth of seedlings i n 1963, one can recog n i z e the r e t a r d i n g a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the h e i g h t growth o f f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s compared to t h a t o f c o n t r o l s (Table 5>). On the other hand, the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of height growth w i t h the decreasing r a t e s o f f e r t i -l i z a t i o n (Table 7) seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n was too high i n these circumstances. I n t h i s case, one might consider the l a t e n e s s of p l a n t i n g , the unusually dry and warm p e r i o d i n May, 1963, and the placement of f e r t i l i z e r s i n the p r o x i m i t y of the r o o t s . 31. B. THE 1961; TRIAL The 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s was designed t o i n v e s t i -gate the a f f e c t s of Magamp, Sludge, Uramite and Thiourea slow n i t r o g e n r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r s on s u r v i v a l and growth of 2+0 p l a n t e d Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s from Green Timbers nursery. I n a d d i t i o n , the s o l u b i l i t y of three Magamp p a r t i c l e s i z e s was t e s t e d . MATERIALS AND METHODS F e r t i l i z e r s Magamp (MgNH^PO^) The chemical components of Magamp were described on Page 5. I n t h i s experiment, Magamp was a p p l i e d i n three d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c l e s i z e s . With a l a r g e r p a r t i c l e s i z e , the s o l u b i l i t y of a f e r t i l i z e r can be c o n t r o l l e d p h y s i c a l l y . . The f i r s t Magamp f e r t i l i z e r was the commercially used m a t e r i a l w i t h a wide range i n p a r t i c l e s i z e (Table 20). Table 20. Screen a n a l y s i s of the commercially d i s t r i b u t e d Magamp f e r t i l i z e r used i n the 1963 and 1964 t r i a l s of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Screen A n a l y s i s Per cent - 4 + 6 0.5 - 6 + 8 20.0 - 8 + 10 28.5 -10 + 14 44.0 -14 + 20 6.0 -20 +65 0.5 -65 Q.5 100.0 Note: I n f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , Magamp w i l l always mean the commercially d i s t r i b u t e d f e r t i l i z e r . 32. The second Magamp p a r t i c l e s i z e was the m a t e r i a l which passes through 6-mesh s i z e d screen but a l l r e t a i n e d on 8-mesh s i z e screen. The t h i r d m a t e r i a l was -8-KLC—mesh s i z e . Sludge 8-2lj-0 The chemical components of Sludge are described on Page 7. I n t h i s experiment, i t was s u p p l i e d i n -8+lU-mesh s i z e * Uramite (M^^- CO - HGHO ) w i t h 31$ ni t r o g e n i n i t s molecular weight, i s a combination of urea and formaldehyde. I t has e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . Because of i t s slow s o l u b i l i t y , the danger of ammonification i s excluded. Therefore, i t cannot cause r o o t i n j u r y l i k e Urea does ( W i l d , 1958). Thiourea I t s chemical components are described on Page 7. I n t h i s experiment, Thiourea was s u p p l i e d i n -Ii+6-mesh s i z e . These f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d to se e d l i n g s i n a completely randomized complete b l o c k design w i t h s p l i t p l o t arrangement. The f e r t i l i z e r s , s i m i l a r l y t o the 1963 t r i a l , were s u p p l i e d a t r a t e s e q u i v a l e n t to 2,5 gm of n i t r o g e n f o r "low", 5*0 gm f o r "medium" and 10i0 gm fo r " h i g h " l e v e l s per p l a n t i n g h o l e . E i g h t seedlings were pl a n t e d i n one row, and h a l f a row randomly r e c e i v e d a treatment of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n . One treatment was given when the f e r t i l i z e r was mixed w i t h the s o i l i n the p l a n t i n g h o l e , and the other i n v o l v e d p u t t i n g the f e r t i l i z e r i n t o the p l a n t i n g h o l e and covering i t w i t h a one-half inch l a y e r o f s o i l , then the s e e d l i n g was p l a n t e d on top of the f e r t i l i z e r . One row randomly r e -ceived one l e v e l of any f e r t i l i z e r t e s t e d i n the experiment. I n one bl o c k w i t h the three a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l rows, 168 seedlings were p l a n t e d . P l a n t i n g Stock 2 - Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s were obtained from the Green Timbers nursery. 33. They had been kept i n c o l d storage t o delay t h e i r f l u s h i n g . A t p l a n t i n g , the seedlings were checked to o b t a i n uniform experimental m a t e r i a l . The se e d l i n g s were pl a n t e d d u r i n g the l a s t week o f A p r i l , 1964, i n the U.B.C. nursery, and during the f i r s t week of May, 1964, a t S-road and J-road a t the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t a t Haney. D e s c r i p t i o n of Locations P l o t No. 1, U.B.C. Campus nursery This experimental p l o t was p l a n t e d i n the eastern p a r t of the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n . The s o i l of t h i s area i s b a s i c a l l y the same as that of the western s e c t i o n . The chemical and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of t h i s s o i l were obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962) and t a b u l a t e d i n Tables 21 and 22. The same c l i m a t i c observations can be a p p l i e d t o t h i s area as to the 1963 t r i a l . Weather observations are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 68 (Appendix F ) . The se e d l i n g s were planted i n 1' x 1' spacing i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery. P l o t No. 2 i n TS -3 , beside S-road i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney, B. C. This experimental p l o t i s l o c a t e d between the 1963 t r i a l and S-road. The s o i l and c l i m a t i c r e c o r d s are the same as they were f o r the 1963 t r i a l (Table;-;69, Appendix G). The s o i l p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n i s shown on Page 10. The se e d l i n g s on t h i s p l o t were planted i n 1' x 1' spacing. P l o t No. 3 i n TS-32b, beside J-road i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney, B.C. The se e d l i n g s of t h i s experimental p l o t are p l a n t e d i n between the rows o f the 1963 t r i a l . T h eir arrangement i s shown i n Figure 1. Table 21. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l p r o f i l e f o r east side of f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n o f U.B.C. Campus Nursery f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). No. Horizon Depth i n . PH Larger than 2 mm % Organic T o t a l Matter N % % Ad- Exchange Cations snrbed M.e.AOO g P Ca Mg K Na l b / a H Exch. T o t a l Cap. Base me/ lOOg % Base Satu r a -t i o n 1 Surface 0- 7 5.6 20.77 4.36 .32 54.0 1.12 .31 .09 .05 10.38 1.57 11.95 13.14 2 B 7-12 5.8 37.19 2.63 .26 23.0 1.04 .41 .08 .09 10.87 1.62 12.49 12.97 3 B 12-20 5.9 54.51 2.02 .29 27.6 .78 .30 .08 .07 9.68 1.23 10.91 11.27 4 B 20-26 5.9 27.75 1.82 .29 42.4 .50 .42 .09 .06 6.95 1.07 8.02 13.34 5 C 30 5.9 47.13 1.81 .30 46.8 .56 .31 .09 .07 6.42 1.03 7.45 13.82 Table 22. Mechanical a n a l y s i s of s o i l p r o f i l e f o r east s i d e of f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of U.B.C. Campus Nursery f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). Horizon Depth i n . % Sand % S i l t % Clay Class Surface 0- 7 76.87 15.74 7.39 Sandy loam B 7-12 88.59 5.71 5.70 Loamy sand B 12-20 92.08 7.92 - Sand B 20-26 93.32 6.68 - Sand C 30 93.96 6.04 - Sand 03 3 1 * Figure 1.. Spacing of seedlings i n the 1963 and 1961; t r i a l s of slowly-soluble f e r t i l i z e r s in TS 32b at J-road near Haney, B.C. o Seedlings of 1963 t r i a l , spacing 3'x3' x Seedlings of 1961; t r i a l , spacing 3'x3* New spacing: 2.11' x 2.11' between 1963 and 1961; seedlings. Climatic and s o i l records are the same as for the 1963 t r i a l (Table 70, Appendix H). OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Analysis of mortality of the 1961; t r i a l of slowly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s The f i r s t t a l l y of mortality was taken during the f i r s t week of June, I96U, and the observations are shown in Table 23. The more rapidly soluble f e r t i l i z e r s l i k e Sludge and Thiourea had already caused heavy mortality. There was no analysis of variance computed on the data of Table1 23. The f i n a l data of mortality for the 1961; growing season was taken during the last part of September and during the f i r s t week of October, 1961;. The records are shown i n Table 21;. Out of 5>0l; seedlings planted i n May, 1961;, 135 died, giving a mortality of 26.8$. ANOVA of this data showed highly significant differences between locations. The number of dead seedlings i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery was Iht which is kh*0% of the total number of seedlings planted. This number was highly significantly different from the total mortality at Table 23. Number o f seedlings dead as of June i i , 196U, i n the 1961; t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . F I R T I L I Z E R S Co n t r o l Magamp Magamp Magamp Sludge Uramite Thiourea _ -6+8 -8+10 L o c a t i o n Treatment Levels T o t a l s L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H U.B.C. a 1 1 U 2 1 8 1* 21 1*6 b 2 1 1 2 U 3 8 l i 25 S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 1 2 1 2 6 h 2 l i 16 8 U6 S-Road a 1 1 1 1 2 3 9 23 b 1 1 1 2 6 U l i * S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 1 1 3 8 7 23 a 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 10 J-Road , D 2 1 2 2 8 18 S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 5 18 18 T o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 3 7 7 2 5 8 19 20 87 87 T o t a l f e r t i l i z e r s 3. 1 6 6 17 7 1*7 87 % lt.2 l . U 8.3 8.3 23.6 9.7 65.3 17.3 T o t a l number o f seedlings p l a n t e d - 501*. T o t a l Treatment No. - % T o t a l L o c a t i o n No. - % T o t a l L e v e l - No. - % Mixed = a » liO - 15.9 U.B.C. = ii6 - 27.0 L = Low 18 10.7 Unmixed • b = -1*7 - 18.7 S-Road 23 - 13.7 M = Medium 32 19.0 J-Road 18 - 10.7 H = High 37 22.0 Table 24. Number of seedlings dead as of October 4> 1964, i n the 1964 t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . F E R T I L I Z E R s Control Magamp Magamp Magamp Sludge Uramite Thiourea -6+8 -8 +10 L o c a t i o n Treatment Levels T o t a l s L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H L M H U.B.C. a 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 4 1 2 1 8 4 32 74 b 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 8 4 42 S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 2 2 1 4 4 2 7 2 6 8 5 2? 5 1 6 8 74 74 S-Road a 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 4 12 31 b 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 19 S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 4 8 31 31 a 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 18 J-Road 30 b 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 12 S u b t o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 1 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 6 30 30 T o t a l l e v e l s 1 1 1 2 4 3 5 4 9 4 11 6 8 10 9 0 2 8 4 8 22 135 135 T o t a l f e r t i l i z e r 3 9 18. 21 27 10 47 135 % 4.2 12.5 25.0 29.2 37.5 13.9 65.8 26.8 T o t a l number of seedlings p l a n t e d - 504. T o t a l Treatment No, • % T o t a l L o c a t i o n No. - % T o t a l L e v e l No. - % Mixed • a = 62 • 24.6 U.B.C. a 74 _ 44.0 L » Low 27 - 16.1 Unmixed * b = 73 • 29.0 S-Road S 31 - 18.4 M « Medium 50 - 29.8 -J-^Road 30 17.8 H » High 57 - 33.9 37, S-road ( 3 1 , ; 18.1$) and at J-road ( 3 0 , 17.8$). There were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f e r t i l i z e r s . Table 25 shows the m o r t a l i t y percentages arranged i n an i n c r e a s i n g order f o r Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t . Table 2 5 . I n c r e a s i n g order of m o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1964 t r i a l o f sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . F e r t i l i z e r C o n t r o l Magamp Uramite Magamp -6+8 Magamp -8+10 Sludge Thiourea % 4.2 12.5 13.9 25.0 29.2 3 7 . 5 65.8 Those percentages which are not underlined by the same continuous l i n e are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 1% l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n c e between Magamp -8+10 and Sludge i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 5$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . The l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 26 shows the percentages of m o r t a l i t y by l o c a t i o n s and f e r t i l i z e r s . Table 2 6 . M o r t a l i t y percentages of f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l at each l o c a t i o n f o r the 1964 t r i a l o f slo w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L o c a t i o n C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp Magamp Sludge Uramite Thiourea T o t a l % -6-t-8 -8+10 (Average) U.B.C. 0.0 16.7 3 7 . 5 45.8 79.3 29.3 100.0) 44.0 S-road 8.2 12.5 1 6 . 7 16.7 20.8 4.2 50.0 18.4 J-road 4.2 8.2 20.8 25.0 12.5 8.2 45.8 17.8 T o t a l % ^ (Average) 12.5 25.0 29.2 37.5 13.9 65.8 26.8 38. LSD t e s t s which were c a r r i e d out on transformed data d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n t r o l s a t the th r e e l o c a t i o n s . The m o r t a l i t y r a t e f o r a l l f e r t i l i z e r s was higher i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery than i t was a t J - and S-roads near Haney. Levels w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r gave h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . Table 27 shows the m o r t a l i t y percentages by l e v e l s and f e r t i l i z e r s . Table 27. M o r t a l i t y percentages f o r each l e v e l of f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the l$>6k t r i a l o f sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L e v els C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp -6+8 Magamp -8+10 Sludge Uramite Thiourea T o t a l % (Average) Low U.2 8.2 20.8 16.7 33.3 0.0 29.3 16.1 Medium it. 2 16.7 16.7 U5.8 U l . 8 8.2 75.0 29.8 High U.2 12.5 37.5 25.0 37.5 33.3 91.7 33.9 T o t a l % (Average) U.2 12.5 25.0 29 .2 37.5 13.9 65.8 26.8 The LSD t e s t s on the transformed data showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l s between c o n t r o l s . Magamp: There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s . Magamp -6+8: The m o r t a l i t y i n h i g h l e v e l was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than i t was i n low and medium l e v e l s . Magamp -8+10: The m o r t a l i t y i n medium l e v e l was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than i n low and medium l e v e l s . Sludge: There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between l e v e l s . Uramite: There was a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n m o r t a l i t y between low, medium and high l e v e l s . Thiourea: The d i f f e r e n c e between low and medium-levels was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r t a l i t y between mixed and unmixed treatments. 39 A n a l y s i s o f 1961; h e i g h t g r o w t h o f t h e 1961; t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s B e f o r e t h e 1961; h e i g h t g r o w t h o f t h e s e e d l i n g s was a n a l y s e d , the i n f l u -ence o f the 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t ( h e i g h t a t p l a n t i n g ) on t h e 1961; h e i g h t g r o w th was c h e c k e d . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s on 1961; h e i g h t growth w i t h 1963 h e i g h t d i d n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n ( T a b l e 28). T a b l e 28. I n f l u e n c e o f 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t on 1961; h e i g h t growth o f s e e d l i n g s i n t h e 1961; t r i a l o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . V a r i a b l e s i n i n c h e s x = 1963 h e i g h t y = 1961; h e i g h t g r o w t h Means 10.12 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s 2.£6 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t r Q £ = 0.088 1.00 2 C o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n r % B 0.5$. ns - n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . H a v i n g o b t a i n e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , ANOVA was computed on t h e 1961; h e i g h t g r o w t h o f the s e e d l i n g s . The a f f e c t s o f S l u d g e and T h i o u r e a on 1961; h e i g h t g r o w th c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s because o f t h e h i g h m o r t a l i t y c a u s e d b y t h e s e two f e r t i l i z e r s - e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U.B.C. Campus n u r s e r y . The ANOVA showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e i g h t g r o w th between l o c a t i o n s . The a v e r a g e h e i g h t g r o w t h o f s e e d l i n g s i n t h e U.B.C. Campus n u r s e r y was 2.20 i n c h e s f o r 9k s e e d l i n g s , a n d i t was h i g h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h e ave r a g e h e i g h t g r o w t h o f 2.78 i n c h e s a t S-road f o r 137 s e e d l i n g s and 2.72 i n c h e s a t J - r o a d f o r 138 s e e d l i n g s . 2.61 1.3U 0.0711 Uo The ANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n 1964 height growth between f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l . Table 29 shows the average height growth f o r each f e r t i l i z e r . Table 29. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean I96I4 height growth of seedlings i n inches f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . F e r t i l i z e r C o n t r o l Uramite Magamp Magamp Magamp -8+10 -6+8 Mean height growth i n c h 2.44 2.48 2.50 2.67 2.85 No. of se e d l i n g s 69 62 51 54 63 The f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d h e i g h t growth, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The average height growth of see d l i n g s by l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i s ta b u l a t e d i n Table 30. Table 30. Mean 1964 height growth of seedlings i n inches a t each l o c a t i o n f o r f e r t i l i z e r s and c o n t r o l f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L o c a t i o n C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp -6+8 Magamp -8+10 Uramite U.B.C. 2.29 2.22 2.03 2.25 2.14 S-road 2.44 3.75 2.16 3.05 2.51 J-road 2.56 2.56 3.72 2.06 2.71 Ave. No. of Seedlings 23 21 18 17 21 .05 0.47 0.49 0.53 0.55 0.49 L S D .01 0.64 0.69 0.72 0.64 LSD = Least s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at 5$ or 1% l e v e l . 1*1. No d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the c o n t r o l s — only a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e w i t h l o c a t i o n s from U.B.C. Campus nursery to J-road. • Magamp: The h e i g h t growth of seedlings was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r at S-road thai! i t was a t the U.B.C. Campus nursery or a t J-road. Magamp -6+8: There was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r growth a t J-road than there was a t the other two l o c a t i o n s . Magamp -8+10: The height growth was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t S-road than i t was a t the other two l o c a t i o n s . Uramite: There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l o c a t i o n s . The l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The mean height growth of seedlings i s shown i n Table 31. Table 31. Mean 196U he i g h t growth o f seedlings i n inches, showing the a f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s f o r the 196)4 t r i a l of sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L e vels C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp -6+8 Magamp -8+10 Uramite 2.57 2.88 2.29 2.36 1.90 2.86 1.97 2.81 2.39 18 17 21 .53 .55 .1*9 .69 .72 ,6k There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n height growth between l e v e l s among c o n t r o l s . Height growth was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater i n the low l e v e l o f Magamp than i t was i n h i g h . Magamp -6+8-mesh s i z e gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r h e i g h t growth i n low than i t d i d i n h i g h l e v e l . Magamp -8+-10-mesh s i z e produced h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater h e i g h t Low Medium High Ave. No. of Seedlings .05 LSD .01 2.53 3.28 2.50 2.75 2.26 2.58 23 a .1*7 .1*9 .61+ 42. growth i n low and high l e v e l s than i t d i d i n medium. Uramite gave s i g n i -f i c a n t l y g reater height growth i n medium l e v e l than i t d i d i n low and h'igft\:.:s l e v e l s . A n a l y s i s of the 1964 height growth f o r P l o t No. 2 and P l o t No. 3 f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . An ANOVA was computed s e p a r a t e l y on the records of 1964 height growth f o r P l o t No. 2 a t S-road and P l o t No. 3 a t J-road. This way, Sludge c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s , but Thiourea s t i l l had to be omitted due to high m o r t a l i t y i t had caused. This ANOVA d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between l o c a t i o n s . Nor were the d i f f e r e n c e s between f e r t i l i z e r s s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n c r e a s i n g order of mean height growth of seedlings i s shown i n Table 32. Table 32. Mean 1964 height growth of seedlings i n inches f o r P l o t s No. 2 and 3 f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1964 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s , ' a n d Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t a t the 5% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . F e r t i l i z e r C o n t r o l Magamp -8+-10 Uramite Sludge Magamp -0+-8 Magamp Mean he i g h t 2.51 2.58 2.61 2.81 2.92 3.15 Each mean underscored w i t h the same continuous l i n e i s not s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the $% l e v e l . Magamp, however, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the c o n t r o l . Other f e r t i l i z e r s i n c reased h e i g h t growth, although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The l o c a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The means are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 33. 1*3. Tabla 33. Mean 196U h e i g h t growth o f seedlings i n inches a t P l o t s No. 2 and 3 f o r each f e r t i l i z e r and c o n t r o l f o r the 1961* t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L o c a t i o n C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp -6+8 Magamp -8+10 Uramite Sludge S-road, P l o t No. 2 2.1*1* 3.76 2.16 3.05 2.51 3.21* J-road, P l o t No. 3 2.56 2.57 3.73 2.07 2.71 2.1*3 Ave. No. of 25 21.5 19.5 19 25 20 Seedlings .05 0.503 0.52 0.55 o.55 0.503 0.51* LSD .01 0.68 0.72 0.72 0.71 LSD = Least s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r $% and 1% l e v e l . There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n h e i g h t growth between c o n t r o l s a t both l o c a t i o n s . The height growth i n Magamp was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t S-road than i t was a t J-road. Magamp -6+8 gave h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater h e i g h t growth a t J-road than i t d i d a t S-road. Magamp -8+10 gave h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater h e i g h t growth a t S-road than i t d i d a t J-road. There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n h e i g h t growth among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Uramite between the two l o c a t i o n s . The height growth of seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Sludge was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r a t S-road than i t was a t J-road. The a f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 3h shows the mean height growth f o r each l e v e l f o r each f e r t i l i z e r . Table 3h» E f f e c t s o f l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on the mean 1961; height growth o f seedlings i n inches f o r P l o t s No. 2 and 3 f o r the 1961; t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s . L e v e l s C o n t r o l Magamp Magamp Magamp Uramite Sludge - 6+8 -8+10 Low 2.82 3.88** U.08** 2.90 2.61 2.77 Medium 2.31; 2.60 2.68 2.02 2.83 3.02 High 2.33 . 2.81 2.01 2.77 2.32 2.62 Ave. No. of 1 5 1 U . 3 13 12.3 1 5 13.3 Seedlings . 0 5 0.63 0.61; 0.67 0.69 0.63 .66 LSD .01 0.81; 0.88 0.90 .87 LSD = Least s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r 5% and 1% l e v e l s . •SH* Hig h l y s i g n i f i c a n t at 1% l e v e l . The h e ight growth o f seedlings i n the low l e v e l o f Magamp and Magamp -6 8 was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the he i g h t growth of c o n t r o l s i n low l e v e l . There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n height growth between l e v e l s among con-t r o l s . Magamp gave h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r height growth i n low l e v e l . Magamp -6+8 gave h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r height growth i n low l e v e l , and the d i f f e r e n c e between medium and high l e v e l s was a l s o s i g n i -f i c a n t . Magamp -8+10 produced h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y g reater height growth i n low l e v e l than i t d i d i n medium, and there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e between medium and high l e v e l s . Uramite gave no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the three l e v e l s i n height growth. Neither d i d Sludge. 45. DISCUSSION The 1964 s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l gave b e t t e r r e s u l t s than the 1963 t r i a l d i d . This i s mainly due to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a i n f a l l f o l l o w i n g o u t p l a n t i n g . The examination o f weather records f o r May, 1963, and May, 1964, supports t h i s hypothesis (Tables 68, 69 and 70). The f l u s h i n g of see d l i n g s was delayed w i t h c o l d storage i n the Green Timbers nursery, and the p a r t i a l f l u s h i n g of p l a n t i n g stock was there f o r e avoided i n 1964. Nevertheless, the m o r t a l i t y among c o n t r o l s was s t i l l h i g h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l y l e s s than i t was among f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s (Table 25). Due t o t h e i r e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , commercial Magamp and Uramite caused h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s m o r t a l i t y than the smaller Magamp mesh s i z e s and the r e l a t i v e l y r a p i d l y s o l u b l e Sludge and Thiourea f e r t i l i z e r s d i d . The order of f e r t i l i z e r s i n the range of m o r t a l i t y proved the advantages of slow s o l u b i l i t y which i s c o n t r o l l e d by chemical or p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . The t o x i c a f f e c t of high s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y tempered by the f i n e r t e x t u r e of the s o i l a t S- and J-roads compared to the coarse sandy s o i l o f the U.B.C. Campus nursery.. The m o r t a l i t y was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery which may be explai n e d by the "poor" p h y s i c a l character of t h i s s o i l . I t can be seen e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the examination of the s o i l p r o f i l e (Tables 21 and 22). The su r f a c e l a y e r o f f i n e r loamy sand a f t e r 6-inch depth changes i n t o coarse sand, and the sand p o r t i o n of the s o i l g r a d u a l l y increases w i t h depth. This means t h a t the surface l a y e r d r i e s out extremely c u i c k l y because moisture i n the s o i l i s r a p i d l y l o s t through g r a v i t y and t r a n s p i r a t i o n . 1 * 6 . S i m i l a r observations were made by Cummings (1941) who a t t r i b u t e d the m o r t a l i t y o f f e r t i l i z e d s e e d lings to the poor p h y s i c a l character of the s o i l . With supplemental peat, the water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the s o i l was incre a s e d , and the height groxrth of f e r t i l i z e d s e e d lings i n c r e a s e d . Galoux (195k) s t a t e d t h a t the best technique on "heavy" s o i l s was t o apply f e r t i l i z e r s i n t o the p l a n t i n g hole by mixing them w i t h the f i l l . I n May, 1964, the p r e c i p i t a t i o n a t Haney was double t h a t of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. With the decreasing moisture content of the s o i l , the osmotic pressure of hygroscopic f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s i n creased abnormally. During May, 1964, these c o n d i t i o n s probably occurred i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery, but t o a much l e s s extent than they d i d i n Haney. During May, 1963, the c o n d i t i o n s were e q u a l l y disadvantageous a t a l l three l o c a t i o n s . This issshown by the s i m i l a r high m o r t a l i t y r a t e . The higher p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n May, 1964, may a l s o have advantageously i n f l u e n c e d the height growth of the seedlings and decreased the osmotic pressure exerted on the r o o t s by the f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s and, i n time, the seedlings could u t i l i z e the n u t r i e n t s s u p p l i e d by the f e r t i l i z e r s . At l e a s t , t h e i r h e i g h t growth was not h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e t a r d e d by f e r t i -l i z a t i o n as i t was i n the 1963 t r i a l (Table 5)> but i t had increas e d , although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y (Table 29). I n the comparison of S- and J-road p l o t s , even a s i g n i f i c a n t increase can be shown between c o n t r o l s and seedlings which were f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp (Table 32) . Examination of the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i -l i z e r s shows t h a t the height growth of seedlings was g e n e r a l l y decreased w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n . The he i g h t growth of seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h the low l e v e l of Magamp and Magamp -6+8 a p p l i -U7. c a t i o n s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than t h a t of c o n t r o l s (Table 3k). Therefore, lower r a t e s of a p p l i c a t i o n might have been more advantageous. On the other hand, the p a r t i c l e s i z e of Magamp c o u l d be manufactured i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by A u s t i n and Strand (i960) i n the case of urea-formaldehyde. The s o l u b i l i t y of the l a r g e p a r t i c l e s i z e would be decreased and the slow r e l e a s e p r o p e r t y would be prolonged. CONCLUSION Due t o i t s e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , the a p p l i c a t i o n of Magamp (w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r p e l l e t s i z e ) d i r e c t l y i n t o the p l a n t i n g h o l e may be j u s t i f i e d . F i r s t , however, many b a s i c questions have t o be r e -solved. The r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n has t o be determined, using lower r a t e s than those used i n these experiments. The even slower r e l e a s i n g p a r t i c l e s i z e s ranges can be t e s t e d . The a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r d i r e c t l y i n t o the p l a n t i n g hole probably cannot be used i n s o i l s where sudden f l u c t u -a t i o n s i n moisture content and s o i l temperatures e x i s t . This method can be a p p l i e d where the chance f o r drought and l i m i t i n g moisture content i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e a f t e r p l a n t a t i o n . These c o n d i t i o n s may be found i n c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia during the f a l l . S i m i l a r experiments might be c a r r i e d out w i t h f a l l p l a n t i n g . The continued m o r t a l i t y observations of the 1963 t r i a l have proven t h a t Magamp keeps i t s e f f e c t s throughout a t l e a s t two growing seasons. Therefore, Magamp placed i n t o the p l a n t i n g hole i n the l a t e f a l l would most c e r t a i n l y keep i t s e f f e c t s u n t i l next s p r i n g and would supply n i t r o g e n and phosphorous t o the see d l i n g s when they s t a r t t o grow i n t h e i r new environment. 1*8. I I 4 STUDY OF GROWTH OF DOUGLAS FIR PLANTATIONS INFLUENCED BY AMMONIUM  NITRATE BEFORE CONE PRODUCTION AQE. This experiment i s p a r t of a co n t i n u i n g study i n v e s t i g a t i n g the improvement of Douglas f i r cone pr o d u c t i o n i n f l u e n c e d by ammonium n i t r a t e f e r t i l i z a t i o n . I n 1963, one 1953, two 1956 and one 1959 Douglas f i r p l a n t a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t f o r the purpose o f studying the i n f l u e n c e s of n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n on v a r i o u s age c l a s s e s commenc-in g cone pro d u c t i o n . F e r t i l i z a t i o n was f i r s t c a r r i e d out i n May, .1963, and. repeated i n May, I96I4. I t i s planned t o repeat f e r t i l i z a t i o n u n t i l a good l e v e l of cone pr o d u c t i o n i s observed. A summary of 1963 and 196k observations and r e s u l t s f o l l o w s , MATERIALS AND METHODS D e s c r i p t i o n of experimental areas P l o t No. 1. This experimental p l o t i s l o c a t e d approximately 800 f e e t from F- and S-road j u n c t i o n ( L o c a t i o n Map 1, Appendix A) on the northwest s i d e of S-road. This area i s one a t e r r a c e bench on the east s i d e of a minor creek which belongs t o the North A l o u e t t e R i v e r watershed. This area i s on the boundary of two l a r g e l a n d p a t t e r n s , according to Lacate's (1962) l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t i s on the southern edge of ihe h i l l y g r a n i t i c - c o r e d uplands and on the northern boundary of the g l a c i o - f l u v i a l outwash and d r i f t d e p o s i t s . The s o i l i s w e l l drained, water washed or reworked t i l l , w i t h g r a v e l l y loamy sand t e x t u r e and overlays g r a n i t i c U 9 . cored bedrock. The depth o f s o i l here i s 8 - 10 f e e t , as observed a t the road cut. T h i s area was logged i n 1955 and r e p l a n t e d i n 1956. The regenera-t i o n i s f a i r along o l d s k i d roads and on the east bank of the minor creek running through the area. From these patches, 120 t r e e s were chosen randomly f o r the study. Their age was t e n years, as of 1961;. During the summer of 196U, two s o i l p i t s were dug i n t h i s a rea. One was i n the southwest quarter; the other was i n the northeast quarter. S o i l samples were c o l l e c t e d from A, B and C horizons and were analysed f o r t h e i r chemical content i n T r a i l , B. C , by the l a b o r a t o r i e s of the Consolidated Smelting and Mining Company of Canada L i m i t e d . The r e p o r t on t h i s chemical s o i l a n a l y s i s i s shown i n Tables,'.: 35 a n c * 3 6 . V i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l p r o f i l e of the southwest quadrant. L . . . . . . . . V a r i e s i n thi c k n e s s up t o k i n c h e s , mor type, f u l l of undecomposed remains., H . . . About 6 inches t h i c k , b l a c k , g r a d u a l l y t u r n i n g to grey. Mor type interwoven w i t h r o o t s . A e . • About 3 inches t i c k , grey podzol l a y e r . B . . . . . . . . About 9 inches t i c k , accumulation l a y e r , reddish-brown loamy sand s t r u c t u r e . C » About 20 inches t h i c k , yellowish-brown loose g r a v e l l y loamy sand. Waterwashed g l a c i a l g r a v e l . The measured depth o f r o o t i n g was 1;0 inches. The area i s f l a t ; the exposure southwest. 5 0 . S o i l p r o f i l e of the northeast quadrant: The s u r f a c e l a y e r i s d i s t u r b e d ; there i s no l i t t e r accumulation. L - H . . . . . . . About 6 inches t h i c k , surface of o l d cat r oad, compacted b l a c k , p o o r l y drained, somewhat mixed w i t h mineral sandy loam due t o distu r b a n c e . A Q About 1 i n c h t h i c k grey podzol l a y e r . B . . . About 8 inches t h i c k accumulation l a y e r , cemented reddish-brown. G . . . . . . . . , About 10 inches t h i c k , g r e y i s h cemented sand, t i l l - l i k e s u b s o i l . The measured depth of r o o t i n g was 18 inches. B a s i c m a t e r i a l o f g l a c i a l g r a v e l l y outwash i s cemented t i l l w i t h f i n e r loamy sand t e x t u r e . The c l i m a t i c records f o r t h i s area are shown i n Appendix H, Table 69. P l o t No. 1 i s l o c a t e d approximately one mile from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l weather records were obtained from the weather s t a t i o n of the Oregon study (Appendix I , Table 70), which i s l o c a t e d 2000 f e e t from P l o t No. 1 and observed weekly. P l o t No. 2. This experimental area i s l o c a t e d approximately kOO f e e t n o r t h o f a creek c r o s s i n g on S-road i n TS-3 of the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . ( L o c a t i o n Map 2, Appendix 3) According to Lacate's (1962) l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h i s l a n d p a t t e r n belongs to the h i l l y g r a n i t i c - c o r e d uplands. I t s s o i l i s a b l a t i o n t i l l and c o l l u v i u m complex or g l a c i a l t i l l w i t h g r a v e l l y loamy sand t e x t u r e , o v e r l a y i n g g r a n i t i c bedrock. Depth o f the s o i l i s g e n e r a l l y 2 - 3 f e e t . Along the creek beds, the s o i l i s water washed, g r a v e l l y loamy sand. Table 35. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples f o r the southwest corner of P l o t No. 1 . N i t r a p r i l l s f e t i l i z a t i o n . Horizons Depth i n . PH OM % T o t a l N % PAN ppm Bi c a r b P ppm Non Ex ppm Exchangeable Cations K Ca Mg K Na ppm ppm ppm ppm T o t a l Ex Met Cations meq/lOOg CEC meq/lOOg L - H 1- 8 5.0 61*. .1*2 170. 11. 1*0. 12lt0. 120. 70. 10. 7.1*2 1*6.67 B 16-22 5.6 6.1 .13 120. 13. 10. 20. 20. 20. 10. .36 18.78 C 38-1*0 5.9 1.1* .OU U5. 6. SO- hO. 20. 20. 10. .1*6 10.00 Table 36. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from the northeast corner of P l o t No. l . N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Exchangeable Cations T o t a l Horizons Depth pH OM T o t a l N PAN Bicarb P Non Ex K Ca Mg K Na Ex Met CEC i n . % % ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Cations meq/lOOg meq/lOOg L - H 0- 2 5.1 66. .1*2 220. 8. 30. 71*0. 30. 70. 10. 1*.17 20.00 B 2-8 5.9 5.7 .17 85. 7. 20. 110. 20. 20. 10. .81 1*0.00 C 32-31* 5.1* 9.9 .27 130. 7. 20. 50. 20. 20. 10. .51 3lui*l* D e f i n i t i o n s : 1. OM - Organic Matter 2. PAN - P o t e n t i a l l y A v a i l a b l e Nitrogen" 3. Bicarb P - Bicarbonate E x t r a c t a b l e Phosphorus 1*. Noh Ex K - Non-exchangeable or Reserve Potassium 5. Tot Ex Met Cations - T o t a l Exchangeable M e t a l l i c Cations 6. CEC - Cations Exchange Capacity. Table 37. Chemical analysis of s o i l samples from the south half of Plot No. 2. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Horizons Depth i n . pH OM % Total N % PAN ppm Bicarb P ppm Non Ex ppm Exchangeable Cations K Ca Mg K Na ppm ppm ppm ppm Total Ex Met Cations meq/lOOg CEC meq/lOOg L - H 1 - 6 5.3 15.2 .28 205. 2. 0 420.. 20. 50. 10. 2.44 32,22 B 8 -12 5.8 6.8 .16 120. 3. 20. 70. 20 . 20. 10. .61 22.22 C 20 -22 5.6 7.0 .16 80. 3. 0 20. 20. 20. 10. ,36 26.67 Table 38. Chemical analysis of s o i l samples from the north half of Plot No. 2. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Horizons Depth In. pH OM % Total N % PAN ppm Bicarb P ppm Non Ex ppm Exchangeable Cations K Ca Mg K Na ppm ppm ppm ppm Total Ex Met Cations meq/lOOg CEC raeq/lOOg L - H 0 - 2 5.9 15.7 .22 165. 8. 40. 1180. 40. 60. 10. 5.88 23.33 B 2 - 8 6.0 4.6 .10 85. 6. 20. 100. 20. 20. 10. .76 16.67 C 32 -34 6.1 1.4 .06 65. 4. 50. 80. 20. 20. 10. .66 10.00 Definitions: 1. OM - Organic Matter 2. PAN - Potentially Available Nitrogen 3. Bicarb P - Bicarbonate Extractable Phosphorus 4. Non Ex K - Non-exchangeable or Reserve Potassium 5. Tot Ex Met Cations - Total Exchangeable Metallic Cations 6. CEC - Cations Exchange Capacity vn. [\3 53. This area p r e s e n t l y supports a 1959 p l a n t a t i o n w i t h the t o t a l age of seven years as of 196U. The p l a n t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r s c a r i f i -c a t i o n because the area was badly invaded by broad l e a f species v i n e maple and r e d a l d e r a f t e r l o g g i n g . Two s o i l p i t s were dug i n t h i s area. One was i n the northern f l a t p o r t i o n and the other was on the southern moderate sl o p e . The s o i l samples from A, B, and C horizons by T r a i l l a b o r a t o r i e s and r e p o r t e d i n Tables 37 and 38. V i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l p r o f i l e i n the southern p a r t of the experimental p l o t . L-H Up t o 3 inches i n t h i c k n e s s , dark brown or b l a c k , mainly H, but mixed w i t h m i n e r a l sandy loam as a r e s u l t of s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . B o About 12 inches t h i c k , reddish-brown g r a v e l l y loamy sand, l o o s e , w e l l drained. C About 18 inches t h i c k y e l l o w i s h l i g h t brown g r a v e l l y loamy sand, water washed and reworked g l a c i a l outwash s u b s o i l . The measured depth of r o o t i n g s was 20 inches. The s o i l r e s t s on g r a n i t i c - c o r e d bedrock a t a depth of 3k - 36 inches. Seepage i s present a t 32 - 3k i n c h depth. No l i t t e r l a y e r i s present because the surface l a y e r i s d i s t u r b e d by s c a r i f i c a t i o n . The g e n e r a l slope of t h i s southern p o r t i o n i s approximately 25$. Exposure i s s o u t h e r l y . D e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l p r o f i l e of the northern p a r t . L-H V a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s w i t h an average of 2 inches, dark brown or b l a c k , mainly H, but mixed w i t h mineral sandy loam as a r e s u l t of s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . B * . About 18 inches t h i c k , r e d d i s h brown, g r a v e l l y loamy sand. C . . . . . . . . . About 8 inches t h i c k y e l l o w i s h l i g h t brown, h i g h l y cemented t i l l , g r a v e l l y loamy sand t e x t u r e . Measured depth of the r o o t i n g was 20 inches. No d i s t i n c t l i t t e r or humus l a y e r i s present, s u r f a c e l a y e r i s d i s -turbed by s c a r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s area i s n e a r l y f l a t w i t h 0 - 5 $ s l o p e j i t s exposure i s south-w e s t e r l y . In the s p r i n g of 1963, 120 t r e e s were randomly s e l e c t e d on t h i s area for f e r t i l i z a t i o n study. The weather records were obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the weather s t a t i o n 1000 f e e t south of the j u n c t i o n of S-road and Spur 17-0 and t a b u l a t e d i n Table 68 (Appendix G). P l o t No. 2 i s l o c a t e d approximately 2500 f e e t from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . P l o t No. 3» This experimental p l o t i s l o c a t e d approximately hOO f e e t n o r t h of Spur 17-0 along the s o - c a l l e d "North Line'* of Dr. G r i f f i t h ' s t r e e s i n the v i c i n i t y o f t r e e s Nos. 133, 13U and 135 ( L o c a t i o n Maps 3 and k» Appendices C and D). This a r e a supports a s c a t t e r e d 25 t o 30 years o l d open grown Douglas f i r stand averaging l l | 0 s i t e index. This f o r e s t cover became e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r a w i l d f i r e i n o l d r a i l r o a d logged s l a s h . I n 1953, 2+0 Douglas f i x s e e d l i n g s were p l a n t e d i n the openings, and 60 of these were s e l e c t e d for t h i s study. The l a n d p a t t e r n of t h i s area was c l a s s i f i e d by Lacate (1962) as being h i l l y g r a n i t i c - c o r e d upland. I t s s o i l i s a b l a t i o n and c e l l u v i u m complex t i l l , 55. which i s g r a v e l l y loamy sand i n t e x t u r e . I n p l a c e s , b a s a l g l a c i a l t i l l i s present and c o n s i s t s of cemented g r a v e l l y sandy loam. The r e p o r t on the chemical a n a l y s i s o f t l i i s s o i l was compiled by T r a i l l a b o r a t o r i e s and i s shown i n Table 39. V i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o i l p r o f i l e of P l o t No. 3. L-H . . About 2 inches t h i c k b l a c k humus l a y e r , mor type, interwoven by r o o t s . A Q About 1 i n c h t h i c k grey p o d r o l i z a t i o n l a y e r not continuous and not d e f i n i t e . B About 12 inches t h i c k reddish-brown accu-mulation l a y e r l i g h t l y cemented g r a v e l l y sandy loam t e x t u r e . C . . . About 20 inches t h i c k l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown g l a c i a l g r a v e l and sand. W e l l drained. The measured depth of r o o t i n g was 3k inches. Seepage i s present a t 36 inch depth. The depth of s o i l i s about 28 - k0 inches over g r a n i t i c - c o r e d bedrock. The slope of t h i s area i s 10 - 15$, moderate, w i t h s o u t h e r l y exposure. The same weather records may be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s area as t o P l o t No. 2 (Table 68, Appendix G). P l o t No. 3 i s l o c a t e d approximately 2000 f e e t from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . P l o t No. U. This experimental p l o t i s l o c a t e d approximately 150 f e e t northeast of Spur 17-1, approximately 200 f e e t north of the j u n c t i o n of Spur 17-1 and 17-C (L o c a t i o n Map 3, Appendix G). Lacate (1962) c l a s s i f i e d t h i s l a n d p a t t e r n as being mountainous g r a n i t i c - c o r e d upland. The s o i l i s weathered from a b l a t i o n t i l l and c o l l u v i u m complex of g r a v e l l y loamy sand, and l a y s over g r a n i t i c bedrock. The area was r a i l r o a d logged i n 1926 and r e p e a t e d l y burned by a c c i -d e n t a l summer s l a s h f i r e s , and now supports s c a t t e r e d immature western hemlock, 56. western r e d cedar and Douglas f i r stands. Black cottonwood, v i n e maple and r e d alder represent the b u l k of the broad l e a f s p e c i e s . The openings were r e p l a n t e d w i t h Douglas f i r p l a n t i n g stock. This was done w i t h two years o l d stock i n 1956. I n t h i s area, 60 t r e e s were s e l e c t e d f o r the study. I n J u l y , 196I|., a s o i l sample p i t was dug i n t h i s area, and the samples from A, B and C horizons were analysed f o r t h e i r chemical composition by l a b o r a t o r i e s i n T r a i l . The r e p o r t on t h i s chemical s o i l a n a l y s i s i s shown i n Table I4O. V i s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s o i l p r o f i l e of P l o t No. U. L-H . . . . • . . . . About 3 inches t h i c k b l a c k mor type humus, interwoven w i t h r o o t s . Ag • About 2 inches t h i c k grey podzol l a y e r , extensive l e a c h i n g i s apparent. B . . . About 12 inches t h i c k , dark brown and b l a c k i s h accumulation l a y e r shoxd.ng sign s of organic matter washed i n t o t h i s h o r i z o n . C . . . -About 15 inches t h i c k s u b s o i l . Greyish brown g r a v e l l y loamy sand t e x t u r e . W e l l drained. The measured depth of r o o t i n g was 31 inches. The g r a n i t i c - c o r e d bedrock i s a t an average depth of i*0 inches. The area i s l o c a t e d on a secondary r i d g e w i t h steep slopes to a g u l l y on the south s i d e , and has a southwesterly exposure. The same c l i m a t i c data are a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s area as t o P l o t No. 2 and 3 (Table 68, Appendix G). P l o t No. h i s approximately one mile from t h i s weather s t a t i o n . Table 39. Chemical a n a l y s i s of s o i l samples from P l o t No. 3 . N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Horizons Depth i n . pH OM % T o t a l N % PAN ppm Bicarb P ppm Non Ex K ppm Exchangeable Cations Ca Mg K Na ppm ppm ppm ppm T o t a l Ex Met Cations meq/lOOg CEC meq/lOOg L - H 0 - 3 5 . 2 1 1 . 9 .21* 310. 9 . 1*0. 3 8 0 . 2 0 . 5 0 . 1 0 . 2.21* 2 6 . 6 7 B 3 - 1 0 5 . 9 5 . 8 .18 9 5 . 1*. 1 0 . 70. 2 0 . 2 0 . 1 0 . . 6 1 22.22 C 3 U - 3 6 5 . 8 5 . 1 .11* 1 0 0 . 3 . 6 0 . 1*0. 2 0 . 2 0 . 10., .1*6 21.11 Table 1*0. Chemical a n a l y s i s o f s o i l samples from P l o t No. 1*. N i t r a p r i l l s f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Horizons Depth i n . pH OM % T o t a l N % PAN ppm Bicarb P ppm Non Ex K ppm Exchangeable Cations Ca Mg K Na ppm ppm ppm ppm T o t a l Ex Met Cations meq/lOOg CEC meq/lOOg L - H 0 - h 5 . 1 2 2 . .10 205. 7. 1*0. 81*0. 1*0. 9 0 . 1 0 . 1*.80 3 5 . 5 6 B 1+-10 5 . 6 9 . 7 .19 165. 6 . 2 0 . 3 2 0 . 2 0 . 8 0 . 1 0 . 2 . 0 2 22.22 C 26-28 5 . 8 1*.8 .12 130. 5 . 3 0 . 1 0 0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 1 0 . .77 15.56 D e f i n i t i o n s : OM - Organic Matter PAN - P o t e n t i a l l y A v a i l a b l e Nitrogen B i c a r b P - Bicarbonate E x t r a c t a b l e Phosphorus Noh Ex K - Non-exchangeable or Reserve Potassium Tot Ex Met Cations - T o t a l Exchangeable M e t a l l i c Cations CEC - Cations Exchange Capacity 5 8 . F e r t i l i z e r and Treatments Ammonium n i t r a t e (NH^NO^) was a p p l i e d t o tree s i n the form of N i t r a p r i l l s (33.5-0-0), Ammonium (NH^) i s changed i n t o n i t r a t e form under c o n d i t i o n s which favour n i t r i f i c a t i o n . I n a c i d s o i l s , ammonium i s t i e d up w i t h m y c o r r h i z a l mycelium of symbiotic f u n g i , and i n time may be s u p p l i e d t o host i n n i t r a t e form (Buckman and Brady, I960). Many c o n i -ferous s p e c i e s , however, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r younger age, are abl e to u t i l i z e ammonium n i t r o g e n (Wilde, 1958). Ammonium n i t r a t e i s a f a s t - a c t i n g double s a l t f e r t i l i z e r . I t would be d e s i r a b l e t o decrease i t s h y g r o s c o p i c i t y . Because of i t s f a s t - a c t i n g c h a r a c t e r , Wilde (1958) suggested t h a t not more than 100 l b s . o f n i t r o g e n per acre be s u p p l i e d t o seedlings i n the form of ammonium n i t r a t e i n one a p p l i c a t i o n . N i trogen was a p p l i e d t o tr e e s a t f i v e l e v e l s . Treatment No. 1 was 200 l b s . N. per acre on east and west quadrants of the crown p r o j e c t i o n area. Treatment No. 2 was I4OO l b s . N. per acre on east and west quadrant. Treatment No. 3 was 200 l b s . N. per acre on east, west, south and north quadrants. Treatment No. U was 200 l b s . per acre on east quadrant and 600 l b s . per acre on west quadrant. Treatment No. $ was 1+00 l b s . N. per acre on east quadrant and 800 l b s . N. per acre on west quadrant. Each treatment was s u p p l i e d to a group of 20 t r e e s randomly out of a hundred on P l o t s No. 1 and 2 i n May, 1963. I n J u l y , 1963, an a d d i t i o n a l 20 t r e e s were s e l e c t e d as c o n t r o l s i n these areas. On P l o t s No. 3 and 1+, each treatment was a p p l i e d to a group of t e n t r e e s i n May, 1963, and i n J u l y , 1963, an a d d i t i o n a l t e n c o n t r o l t r e e s were chosen. 59. The area of a quadrant was determined by the average length of crown r a d i u s and an allowance of two f e e t f o r f o o t spread beyond the edge of the crown p r o j e c t i o n area. The allowance f o r r o o t spread was checked during the summer of 1963 and during the winter months of 1964 on w i n d - f a l l e n D o u g l a s - f i r s and on open grown Douglas f i r i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t and the U.B.C. Campus Endowment Lands. Root spread was found t o be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , but r o o t r a d i u s was more or l e s s equivalent t o crown r a d i u s and, t h e r e f o r e , the alloxrance o f two f e e t beyond crown p r o j e c t i o n area was adequate as Smith (1964) pointed out. I n i t i a l measurements on sample t r e e s . I n May, 1963, 300 t r e e s were s e l e c t e d and measured on these four p l o t s before f e r t i l i z a t i o n . A t t h i s time, t h e i r t o t a l 1962 h e i g h t , 1961 and 1962 seasonal growth, and crown diameter i n n o r t h , south, east and west d i r e c t i o n s were measured i n f e e t . Their d.b.h.'s were taken i n inches (on P l o t No. 2 some t r e e s had not reached 4.5 f e e t h e i g h t ; t h e r e -f o r e t h e i r stem diameter was measured a t age three above the t h i r d branch w h o r l ) . The number of branches per branch whorl at d.b.h. or at age three was counted. With f i v e code numbers, t h e i r h e a l t h and crown d e n s i t y was described as shown i n Table 41• 60, Table l | l . L i s t of code numbers d e s c r i b i n g h e a l t h and crown d e n s i t y of tr e e s s e l e c t e d f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . No. H e a l t h Crown De n s i t y 1 Vigorous, long needles, dark green. W e l l developed equal crown. 2 Good, l i g h t e r green. L i g h t e r crown. 3 Medium, short needles. Unequal or sided crown. k Poor, y e l l o w i s h , short needles. P o o r l y developed crown. 5 Dying. Broken crown. The bud c o n d i t i o n was described by s i x code numbers proposed by S z i k l a i (196U). C o n t r o l t r e e s (twenty f o r each treatment) were s e l e c t e d i n J u l y , 1963, i n the same areas. C o n t r o l s were measured by the same standards as the f e r t i l i z e d t r e e s . OBSERVATIOMS AND RESULTS I n September, 1963, the 1963 he i g h t growth and the crown diameter i n two d i r e c t i o n s were measured i n f e e t and the 1963 D.B.H. i n inches. The 1963 height growth was analysed by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n r e l a t i o n to 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t , 1963 D.B.H., 1961 and 1962 he i g h t growth, 1963 crown wid t h , number of branches a t bre a s t - h e i g h t per who r l , number of treatments and by code numbers expressing h e a l t h and crown d e n s i t y . The data were analysed f o r each p l o t and f o r a l l four p l o t s . Since no cone crop was observed i n 1963, the main concern was t o f i n d response to f e r t i l i z a t i o n treatments of 1963 height growth. Table U2 shows the 61 l i s t o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , obtained f o r f e r t i l i z e r treatments i n each p l o t and f o r a l l four p l o t s . P a r a l l e l w i t h them, the most i n f l u e n c i n g h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t has been shown as the t o t a l h e i g h t of t r e e s i n 1963. Table 42. L i s t of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s showing the c o r r e l a t i o n of 1963 height growth to the amount of n i t r o g e n i n the f e r t i l i z e r treatments as w e l l as t o 1963 t o t a l h e i g h t , for f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . V a r i a b l e s P l o t 1 P l o t 2 P l o t 3 P l o t 4 A l l P l o t s F e r t i l i z e r treatments .011 n s . 2 l 5 n s .21i i n S .131 n s . s i 1 1 5 1963 t o t a l h e i ght .779** .768** .826** .835** .778** No. of t r e e s 120 120 60 60 360 ns " c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1% l e v e l . I t can be concluded t h a t the 1963 height growth was not i n f l u e n c e d by n i t r o g e n i n f e r t i l i z a t i o n treatments a t the end of the 1963 growing season, but depended upon the t o t a l h e i g h t of the t r e e s on a l l four experimental p l o t s . I n May, 1964, the treatments were repeated according to the new crown r a d i u s obtained by 1963 f a l l measurements. At t h i s time, four female flowers were observed on Tree No. hi i n P l o t No. I . I n September,1964, the 1964 seasonal measurements were completed. The 1964 height growth and crown diameter i n two d i r e c t i o n s x^ere measured I n f e e t , and t h e i r D.B.H. i n inches. The h e a l t h of t r e e s •was described again by the f i v e code numbers. 62 The average 1964 height growth of t r e e s i s shown i n Table 43 by-treatments and l o c a t i o n s . Table 43. Average 1964 height growth o f t r e e s i n f e e t f o r each treatment and l o c a t i o n f o r f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . L ocations C o n t r o l 1 2 2 3 4 5 P l o t No. 1 2.35 2.81 2.81 2.76 2.53 2.44 P l o t No. 2 2.22 2.26 . 2.45" 2.33 2.37 2.30 P l o t No. 3 2.76 3.04 2.51 2.92 2.76 2.89 P l o t No. 4 2.19 1.77 1.83 1.70 2.31 2.01 ANOVA of 1964 h e i g h t growth was computed s e p a r a t e l y for. each l o c a t i o n , but the 1964 height growth was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by f e r t i l i z a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , h e i g h t growth was i n c r e a s e d by treatments w i t h the exception of measurements taken i n P l o t No. 4. However, the increase was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The 1964 diameter growth was not i n f l u e n c e d by f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . The average diameter growth of t r e e s i n inches f o r each treatment a t P l o t No. 1 was the f o l l o w i n g : C o n t r o l - 0.48; Treatment No. 1 - 0.44; Treatment No. 2 - 0.36; Treatment No. 3 - 0.33; Treatment No. 4 - 0.38, and Treatment No. 5 - 0.49 inches. DISCUSSION This experiment w i l l be continued f o r a longer p e r i o d of time, and, w i t h time, perhaps the new r e s u l t s w i l l j u s t i f y n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n . But a f t e r two y e a r s , as f a r as v e g e t a t i v e growth i s concerned, the f e r t i -l i z a t i o n was not s u c c e s s f u l . I t may be concluded t h a t n i t r o g e n probably i s not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n the growth of these p l a n t a t i o n s . 63 I I I GREEN HOUSE EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THE AFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM-AMWONIUM-PHOSPH&TE AND AMMONIUM NITRATE ON THE SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF 2+0 PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS. This experiment was i n i t i a t e d on December 19, 1963, i n the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus greenhouse. The purpose of the experiment was t o t e s t the response of 2+0 Douglas f i r p l a n t i n g s t o c k to ammonium n i t r a t e and Magamp f e r t i l i z a t i o n under the i n f l u e n c e of s i x combined f a c t o r s which were p a r t i a l l y c o n t r o l l e d during the f i r s t phase of the experiment. MATERIALS AND METHODS F e r t i l i z e r s Two formulations were used: 1. Magamp (l^NH^PO^) i s described on Page 5. I n t h i s experiment, the commercially d i s t r i b u t e d Magamp was a p p l i e d . This had a wide range i n p a r t i c l e s i z e and was shown i n Table 20. 2, Ammonium n i t r a t e (iffl^TC^) i s d e s c r i b e d on Page 58. I t i s com-m e r c i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d as N i t r a p r i l l s (33.5-0-0). S o i l s Sand. This s o i l was taken from the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. The te x t u r e i s loamy sand of low f e r t i l i t y which provides a good c o n t r o l f o r t e s t i n g f e r t i l i z e r s . The surface 3:2-inch.-layer was used i n the greenhouse i n the c o n t a i n e r s . Chemical and texture a n a l y s i s on t h i s s o i l was reporte d by Smith and A l l e n (1962) and i s shown i n Tables kh and kS» Table kk* Chemical a n a l y s i s of the s o i l from the east side o f the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. Combined f o r surface 0-7 i n c h and B horizons 7-12 inchpfor the greenhouse experiment. Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). Larger Ad- Exchange Cations Exch. % P l a c e Depth pH than Organic T o t a l sorbed m.e./lOO g T o t a l Cap. Base i n . 2 mm Matter N P Base Me/ Sat u r a -% % % Lb/a Ca Mg K Na H 100 g t i o n East End 0-12 5.7 28.98 3.U9 29 38.50 .,08 .36 .08 .07 10.75 1.59 12.22 13.05 Table h$* Mechanical a n a l y s i s of sand from the east s i d e o f the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n o f the U.B.C. Campus nursery. Combined f o r surface 0-7 i n c h and B horizons 7-12 i n c h f o r the greenhouse e x p e r i -ment. Obtained from Smith and A l l e n (1962). Place Depth % % % Class i n . Sand S i l t C l a y East End 0-12 82.83 10.72 6.55 Loamy Sand ON •P-65. Loam. This s o i l was obtained from the southwest corner of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. I t s t e x t u r e i s much f i n e r , and i t s water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s higher than t h a t of the sand from the f o r e s t r y s e c t i o n . Organic matter content, pH and t e x t u r e of the s o i l were determined i n December, I96I4, i n the S o i l Science Laboratory on the U.B.C. Campus and are shown i n Table 46. Throughout the study, these two s o i l s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d as sand and loam. A c t u a l l y , one i s loamy sand and the other i s sandy loam. I n f u r t h e r d i s -c u s s i o n , sand w i l l always mean loamy sand and loam w i l l always mean sandy loam. Table 46. A n a l y s i s of loam obtained from the southwest corner of the U.B.C. Campus nursery f o r the greenhouse experiment. Place Depth i n . O.M. % pH Southwest 0-12 7.59 6 .5 Corner Texture . % Sand % S i l t % Clay Class 65.8 18.0 16.2 Sandy loam P l a n t i n g stock. I n November, 1963, one thousand Douglas f i r 2+0 see d l i n g s of c o a s t a l o r i g i n were obtained from the B. C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Green Timbers nursery. They were heeled i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery to a l l o w t h e i r f u r t h e r harden-i n g . 6 6 . I n December, 1 9 6 3 , p l a n t i n g o f these seedlings began i n the U.B.C. Campus greenhouse using crocks and t i n s c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r sand or loam. A t o t a l of 1 9 2 seedlings were pl a n t e d i n crocks. Of these, 9 6 contained sand and 9 6 h e l d loam. A n equal number of se e d l i n g s ( 1 9 2 ) was p l a n t e d i n t i n cans c o n t a i n i n g sand or loam. At the time of p l a n t i n g , the t o t a l h e i g h t , the t o t a l l ength of r o o t s and the r o o t c o l l a r diameter were measured i n centimeters. The number of branches on the seedlings was a l s o counted. Figure 2 . I l l u s t r a t i o n of the measurements taken on the seedlings a t p l a n t i n g time f o r the greenhouse experiment. Root c o l l a r diam. cm. o O CD «H • O S O X ! + 5 W ttO -P c o „ CD O 1 ^ U Containers. The crocks had a volume of 4 3 7 0 cm?. A e r a t i o n and water o u t l e t were supplemented by p l a c i n g a handful of g r a v e l a t the o u t l e t o f the c o n t a i n e r s . They were numbered when the seedlings were pl a n t e d and l a t e r were randomized f o r treatments. I n crocks, the four l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n were determined by the eq u i v a l e n t amount of n i t r o g e n given per s e e d l i n g . C o n t r o l s r e c e i v e d no f e r t i l i z e r . "Low" l e v e l represented 1 , 2 5 grams of n i t r o g e n per s e e d l i n g ; 67. "medium" represented 2.5 grams, and "high " l e v e l of f e r t i l i z a t i o n r e p r e -sented 5.0 grams of n i t r o g e n per s e e d l i n g . These amounts were a p p r o x i -mately e q u i v a l e n t t o 1|00 l b s of n i t r o g e n per acre f o r "low", 800 l b s . f o r "medium" and 1600 l b s . f o r "high" l e v e l on the b a s i s of surface area of s o i l i n the crocks. The eq u i v a l e n t amounts of n i t r o g e n expressed on a p.p.m. b a s i s were lli O p.p.m. n i t r o g e n f o r the "low" l e v e l , 280 p.p.m. f o r the "medium", and 560 p.p.m. f o r the "high " l e v e l . The t i n cans had a volume o f 1350 cm^. Four holes were punched i n the bottom o f these c o n t a i n e r s to provide f o r water drainage and a e r a t i o n . A s m a l l amount o f g r a v e l l y sand was placed i n the bottom o f eachecontainer. Since the volume o f t i n s i s approximately one quarter t h a t o f the crocks , the f e r t i l i z e r doses were reduced by d i v i d i n g the e q u i v a l e n t amount of n i t r o g e n i n crocks by four i n order to supply the same amount of n i t r o g e n t o t i n s as t o crocks on a p.p.m. b a s i s . Placement o f f e r t i l i z e r s . VJhile four l e v e l s of each f e r t i l i z e r were a p p l i e d t o both s o i l s i n each c o n t a i n e r , the f e r t i l i z e r s were administered i n two treatments: l ) I n a band o f one-inch r a d i u s around the stems o f the see d l i n g s a t a depth o f one i n c h , and 2) I n a two-inch r a d i u s band around the stems a t a depth of one i n c h , (Figure 3). This form of a p p l i c a t i o n was based on the experimental r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by Meagher and Armson (1963). 68. Figure 3. Band placements of f e r t i l i z e r s i n r e l a t i o n to the stems of seedlings i n the greenhouse experiment. 1" band 1" i» t 4 1* / < '1 v , 2 " band 2L» 2» I r r i g a t i o n treatments. 1. One i n c h of water was s u p p l i e d t o 128 seedlings i n a time spread of 16 days, g i v i n g ^ - i n c h of water i n four-day i n t e r v a l s . 2. Two inches of water were s u p p l i e d t o 128 seedlings i n a time spread o f 16 days, i n -|-inch p o r t i o n s i n four-day i n t e r v a l s . 3. The t h i r d group of 128 se e d l i n g s was placed under the automati-c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d mist system which s u p p l i e d .20 i n c h r a i n during 24 hours. This system gave 3.2 inches o f r a i n during the 16-day p e r i o d . OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS The m o r t a l i t y data taken a t the end of January, 1964, (Table 47) show t h a t the t o t a l m o r t a l i t y was 18. F i f t e e n of these represented the seed l i n g s t r e a t e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e i n one-inch band a p p l i c a t i o n . Table hi'. Number of seedlings dead i n each experimental u n i t a t the end of January, 1961;, f o r the greenhouse experiment. I r r i g a t i o n 1" 2'» 3.2" S o i l Sand Loam Sand Loam Sand Loam Leve l s o f F e r t . 1 2 3 h 1 2 3 l i 1 2 3 l i 1 2 3 l i 1 2 3 l i 1 2 3 l i MgNH^FOjj c 1" 2»» 1 1 2 ^ NH||N03 1" 2" 1 2 1 1 1 6 m MgNHjjPO^ 1" 2" u N%N0 3 1" 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 9 11 T o t a l 1 2 2 l i 2 1 1 3 1 18 T o t a l number of seedlings planted: 381;. Note: L e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s : 1 = Cont r o l 2 = Low .?, 3 = Medium k " High .Levels of i r r i g a t i o n : 1"»1 i n c h r a i n 2tt »2 inch r a i n 3.2 - 3.2 inch r a i n Placement of f e r t i l i z e r : 1"= 1-inch band 2"= 2-inch band 70 The f i r s t t a l l y on f l u s h i n g was taken on February 10, 1961;. The number of s e e d l i n g s which had f l u s h e d before t h a t date i s t a b u l a t e d i n Table UB by s o i l c ontainers and i r r i g a t i o n treatments. Table 1;8. Number of se e d l i n g s f l u s h e d as of February 10, I96J4, evaluated by s o i l s , i r r i g a t i o n s and c o n t a i n e r s f o r the greenhouse e x p e r i -ment. S o i l Sand Sub-T o t a l Loam Sub-T o t a l T o t a l I r r i g a t i o n 1" 2'» 3.2" 1" 2» 3.2 1 1 Tins 3 2 7 12 10 11 16 37 h9 Crocks 2 3 6 11 5 3 7 15 26 T o t a l 23 $2 75 T o t a l number of seedlings planted was 381;. I r r i g a t i o n ; Vs - 1 i n c h r a i n 2" = 2 i n c h r a i n 3.2" = 3.2 i n c h r a i n The f l u s h i n g was d e f i n i t e l y advanced i n loam, where $2 seedlings f l u s h e d a g a i n s t 22 i n sand. The highest number of seedlings (37) f l u s h e d among those grown i n the t i n c o n t a i n e r s w i t h loam. The f i r s t measurements on the newrgrowth were taken during the f i r s t week of A p r i l , 1961;. The t o t a l height of new shoots and the growth of new le a d e r s were measured i n centimeters. The mean values of these measurements are t a b u l a t e d i n Tables h9 and £0 by treatments. 71. Table 49. Average l e n g t h of new shoots i n centimeters as of A p r i l h, 196k, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s , and placements of f e r t i -l i z e r s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. S o i l Sand Ave. per Loam Ave. Levels of f a r t . 1 2 3 4 F e r t . 1 2 3 4 ,pgp _. , F e r t . V* 3.0 MgNH^PO^ 2» l i t . 3 10.2 45.0 11.0 15.6 22.0 6.6 11 .5 20.4 23.4 17.6 19.2 18.7 27.0 22.2 18.8 30.0 22.1 23.4 15.9 22.7 1" 21.0 NHjjlK^ 2" 15.2 30.1 4i.o 15.7 15.5 19 .5 21.1 21.5 23.2 14.8 21.2 28.0 8.1 15.8 25.2 38.2 30.4 24.2 21.2 Average p er s o i l 22.3 19 .3 22,7 22.7 Table 50. Average l e n g t h o f new leader growth i n centimeters as of A p r i l 4, 1964, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. S o i l Sand Ave. Loam Ave. Levels o f f e r t . 1 2 3 4 per F e r t . 1 2 3 4 per F e r t . 1" Mg NH^PO^ 2,B 11.0 3.7 8.2 8.0 2.0 4.4 7.5 5.4 7.3 7.0 5.1 6.0 4.1 7.1 4.0 7.0 6.6 6.7 4.9 6.3 5.8 1" 5.6 NH3NO3 2" 7.5 6.3 4.9 5.0 6.3 6.5 6.6 5.6 6.3 4.9 7.8 7.8 9.8 5.0 4.1 5.0 6.3 5.7 7.;o Average per s o i l 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.1 Le v e l s of F e r t i l i z e r s : 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low 3 = Medium 4 = High Placements of f e r t i l i z e r s : 1" = 1-inch band 2" = 2-inch band 72. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was computed on the t o t a l l e n g t h o f new shoots i n the case of each f e r t i l i z e r i n r e l a t i o n t o the hei g h t , l e n g t h o f r o o t s , number of branches, and l e v e l s and placement o f f e r t i l i z e r a t p l a n t i n g . The purpose of the a n a l y s i s was t o determine the i n f l u e n c e of f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the e a r l y growth of the s e e d l i n g s . Table 51 shows the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained by the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n the case of ammonium n i t r a t e . Table 5>1. L i s t of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each independent v a r i a b l e i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s of ammonium n i t r a t e on the t o t a l shoot growth of see d l i n g s i n centimeters as of A p r i l k, l°61i> f o r the greenhouse experiment. V a r i a b l e s Height L. of Roots No. of Branches Levels Placements cm. cm. C o r r e l a t i o n .3304** .086 n s .0$$™ .019 n s C o e f f i c i e n t s Number of s e e d l i n g s : 15>2 ns = C o r r e l a t i o n - c o e f f i c i e n t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . •5BJ- « C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . L. of Roots = Length of r o o t s . Table $2 shows the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained f o r each v a r i a b l e i n the case of Magamp. 73. Table 52. L i s t of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each independent v a r i a b l e i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of l e v e l s o f Magamp on the total shoot groxrth of seedlings i n centimeters as of A p r i l 4, 1964, f o r the green-house experiment. V a r i a b l e s Height cm. L. of Roots cm. No. of Branches ' L e v e l s Placements C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s . 3 6 7 * * . 1 7 1n s . 4 5 7 » .117 n s . 0 6 3 M Number of s e e d l i n g s : 174 ns = C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . •if-* = C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . L. of Roots = Length of r o o t s . Tables 51 and 52 show t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n was not n o t i c e a b l e during the e a r l y stage o f the experiment. I n A p r i l , 1964, the m o r t a l i t y and f a i l u r e s t o f l u s h were a l s o recorded i n each experimental u n i t and tab u l a t e d i n Tables 53 and 54 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The ANOVA of the m o r t a l i t y data d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a f f e c t s o f c o n t a i n e r s , s o i l s and the three i r r i g a t i o n t r e a t -ments. The m o r t a l i t y (8.3$) among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than m o r t a l i t y (20.8$) among seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h N i t r a p r i l l s . The m o r t a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n creased w i t h the l e v e l o f f e r t i l i -z a t i o n (Table 55). Table 53. Number of seedlings dead i n each experimental u n i t as of A p r i l ht 196a > f o r the greenhouse experiment. I r r i g a t i o n 1" 2<t 3 . 2» S o i l Sand Loam Sand Loam Sand Loam Leve l s of F e r t . 1 2 3 U 1 2 3 U 1 2 3 a 1 2 3 k 1 2 3 a 1 2 3 a T o t a l MgNH^PO^ to 1" 2" 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 .5 EH NH^N03 1" 2» 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 11 5 M g N H ^ 1" 2is 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 a 3 O 1" 2« 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 19 5 T o t a l 2 3 U 1 6 1 3 1 5 1 2 h h 1 1 2 $ 2 3 2 3 56 T o t a l number o f "seedlings planted: 38a. 56 - LLt.5$ of the t o t a l number of seedlings p l a n t e d . Note: Levels of F e r t i l i z e r : 1 = Control 2 = Low 3 = Medium a = High L e v e l s of I r r i g a t i o n : 1" = 1 i n c h r a i n 2" = 2 i n c h r a i n 3.2" = 3.2 i n c h r a i n Placements of F e r t i l i z e r : 1" = 1-inch band 2'» = 2-inch band Table 5>4. Number of seedlings which f a i l e d to f l u s h i n each experimental u n i t u n t i l A p r i l 4> 1964, f o r the greenhouse experiment. I r r i g a t i o n 2" 3.2" S o i l Sand Loam Sand Loam Sand Loam T o t a l L e v e l s of F e r t . 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 g MgNRjjPO^ •H 1" 2" 2 2 1 1 l l 2 2 l l 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 l 1 16 11 &-» 2 1 1 1 1 6 NH^NO^ 2" 1 l 2 2 l 1 1 1 10 n ngmh?oh 1" 2 » 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 l 2 1 2 l 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 20 24 & I ^ N 0 3 1" 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 no 17 T o t a l 13 7 5 7 4 3 5 l 13 8 8 .$ 3 2 1 2 7 7 6 2 1 2 2 114 T o t a l number l i v e seedlings as of A p r i l 4, 1964: 328. 114 = 34.7$ of the t o t a l number of l i v e s e e d l i n g s . Note: L e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s : 1 = C o n t r o l 2 • Low 3 = Medium 4 a High L e v e l s of i r r i g a t i o n 1™ " 1 inch r a i n 2" = 2 i n c h r a i n 3.2" =3.2 i n c h r a i n Placements of f e r t i l i z e r : 1" a 1-inch band 2" = 2-inch band 76. Table 55. E f f e c t s o f l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on m o r t a l i t y of seedlings as of A p r i l 4, 1964, and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r 1$ l e v e l , f o r the greenhouse experiment. F e r t i l i z e r s hO M Levels 1 2 1 3 4 3 2 4 No. of M o r t a l i t y 2 2 3 4 8 8 10 19 $ 4.2 U.2 6.2 8.3 16.7 16.7 20.8 39.6 CO cH H •H 05 •H 5 ct) CO rH H •H ft •M ft •rl CO H H ft 05 1 - nonej 2 - low; 3 " medium; 4 " h i g h l e v e l s . Any percentage or number not underscored i n Table 55 by the same continuous l i n e i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the 1$ s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . The m o r t a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased by the one-inch band p l a c e -ment (19.3$) compared to the two-inch band placement (8.9$). ANOVA, computing the f a i l u r e t o f l u s h , showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between the two s o i l s i n f l u s h i n g . While o n l y 26 (13.5$) f a i l e d t o f l u s h i n loam, the number of f a i l u r e s i n sand was 88 (45.9$). The d i f f e r e n t c o n t a i n e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d f l u s h i n g : Only.43 (22.4$ f a i l e d to f l u s h i n t i n s , w h i l e 71 (37$) f a i l e d to f l u s h i n crocks. During the f i r s t week on June, 1964, the s e e d l i n g s i n the conta i n e r s were moved outside i n t o the c o l d frames of the U.B.C. Campus nursery. M o r t a l i t y and f l u s h i n g were recorded again, and the m o r t a l i t y i s shown i n Table 56. 77. Table 56. Number of see d l i n g s dead as of June 1, 1961+, evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements of f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the green-house experiment. S o i l s Sand Sub- Loam Sub- T o t a l T o t a l T o t a l Levels of F e r t . 1 2 3 1 2 3 l i 1» 1 1 2 1 1 6 8 10 MgNhYPO. 1 1 2 l i 1 2 6 2 11 1 5 1"' 1 5 5 11 2 2 1 2 1 6 1 0 3 2 ! NH, NCI k 3 2tt 2 3 3 8 1 2 1 2 6 I i i T o t a l 3 8 9 16 3 6 l i 7 8 1 6 3 5 71 T o t a l number of seedlings p l a n t e d : 38ii. 71 = 1 8 . 5 $ of the t o t a l number of see d l i n g s p l a n t e d . Note: L e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n 1 a C o n t r o l 2 = Low l e v e l 3 ™ Medium l e v e l l i a High l e v e l Placements of f e r t i l i z e r s l n a 1-inch band 2 " = 2 - i n c h band The ANOVA of m o r t a l i t y on the data recorded i n June showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f e r t i l i z e r s . The number of dead se e d l i n g s t r e a t e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e was 1+6 ( 2 1 $ ) w h i l e the m o r t a l i t y among see d l i n g s t r e a t e d w i t h Magamp was 2 5 ( 1 3 $ ) . The other f a c t o r s d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t on m o r t a l i t y at t h i s stage of the experiment. The c o n d i t i o n of f l u s h i n g had not changed b a s i c a l l y , s i n c e A p r i l . Only two more seedlings had f l u s h e d i n sand, reducing the number of f a i l u r e s to 8 6 . I t was hoped t h a t the n a t u r a l environment outside i n the nursery would 78. a c t i v a t e the f l u s h i n g of the seedlings advantageously during the remainder of the 1961; growing season. The l a s t seasonal measurement of the height growth of the seedlings was taken during the f i r s t week of October, I 9 6 U . At t h i s time, f i n a l m o r t a l i t y and f l u s h i n g f a i l u r e s were recorded, and the experiment was terminated. The f i n a l m o r t a l i t y records are shown i n Table 57. Table 57. Number of seedlings dead at the end of the experiment (October l i , 196U), evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s , and p l a c e -ments of f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the greenhouse experiment. S o i l s Sand Sub- Loam Sub- T o t a l Levels o f F e r t . 1 2 3 k T o t a l 1 2 3 l i T o t a l 1" 2 1 1 3 7 1 1 6 8 MgNH^PO^ 2" 1 1 3 5 2 2 6 2 12 32 S u b - t o t a l 3 2 1 6 12 3 3 6 8 20 1" 2 5- 5 11 23 2 2 2 7 13 NH, N0 o u 3 2" 3 3 3 9 1 2 1 5 9 5U S u b - t o t a l 2 8 8 lh 32 3 u 3 12 22 T o t a l 5 10 9 20 hh 6 7 9 20 H2 86 T o t a l number of seedlings p l a n t e d : 381u 86 r 22.2$ of the t o t a l number o f see d l i n g s p l a n t e d . Note: Levels o f f e r t i l i z e r 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low l e v e l 3 = Medium l e v e l it = High l e v e l Placement of f e r t i l i z e r 1" = 1-inch band 2" = 2-inch band 79 The ANOVA of f i n a l m o r t a l i t y d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n the experiment a t t h i s f i n a l stage. The m o r t a l i t y among see d l i n g s t r e a t e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e was s t i l l higher (54 or 28.1$) than t h a t caused by Magamp (32 or 1 6 . 7 $ ) . This d i f f e r e n c e , however, was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The number of f a i l u r e s to f l u s h was tabulated i n Table 58. Table 58. Number of seedlings which f a i l e d to f l u s h u n t i l the end of the experiment (October 4, 1964), evaluated by s o i l s , f e r t i l i z e r s , l e v e l s and placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s , f o r the greenhouse e x p e r i -ment. S o i l s Sand Loam Levels o f F e r t . 1 2 3 4 Sub-T o t a l 1 2 3 4 Sub-T o t a l T o t a l MgNH^PO^ 1" 2«i 6 3 1 1 1 l 8 5 1 2 1 2 2 17 S u b - t o t a l 9 1 2 l 13 1 1 2 4 NH^ NO-j 1" 1 3 1 2 l 4 4 1 1 1 2 1 11 S u b - t o t a l 4 1 2 8 2 I 3 T o t a l 13 2 4 2 21 3 2 2 7 28 T o t a l number of l i v e s e e d l i n g s a t the end of the experiment: 298. 28 = 9.4$ of the t o t a l number of l i v e s e e d l i n g s . Note: Levels of f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low l e v e l 3 = Mediumllevei 4 = High l e v e l Placements o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1" = 1-inch band 2" » 2-inch band 80. The ANOVA of f l u s h i n g , a t the end of the experiment, w i t h a r c s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of percentages of the number o f f a i l u r e s , showed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more seedlings f a i l e d t o f l u s h i n sand than IMloam. I t seems that more see d l i n g s f a i l e d to f l u s h among c o n t r o l s i n sand, but the va r i a n c e r a t i o f o r the l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The ANOVA of t o t a l h e i g h t growth showed h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f e r t i l i z e r s . The mean height growth o f seedlings t r e a t e d w i t h Magamp was 7.71 cm. w h i l e the mean he i g h t g r o T i r t h f o r ammonium n i t r a t e was cm. There were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two s o i l s . The mean h e i g h t growth i n loam was 7.96 cm., w h i l e i n sand i t was only 5.21; cm. The s o i l and f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 59 shows the i n c r e a s i n g order of mean he i g h t growth o f seedlings f e r t i l i z e d xtfith each f e r t i l i z e r i n both s o i l s . Table 59. Mean height growth o f se e d l i n g s i n centimeters, f e r t i l i z e d by Magamp and ammonium n i t r a t e i n sand and i n loam, and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r 5% l e v e l , f o r the greenhouse experiment. No. of seedlings 6k Bk 7U 76 F e r t i l i z e r NH^N03 MgNH^PO^ NH^NOj MgNH^PO^ S o i l Sand Sand Loam Loam Height growth/cm. 3.19 6.67 7.10 8.8U Each mean underscored by the same continuous l i n e i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the $% l e v e l . 81 The height growth o f the seedlings i n sand w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than i t was i n the other three cases. The com-b i n a t i o n of Magamp and loam produced the g r e a t e s t average h e i g h t growth o f se e d l i n g s . The e f f e c t of l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s was s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n c r e a s -i n g order of mean he i g h t growth of seedlings i n each l e v e l w i t h both f e r t i -l i z e r s i s shown i n Table 60. Table 60. I n c r e a s i n g order of mean height growth o f see d l i n g s i n centimeters f o r each l e v e l of Magamp and ammonium n i t r a t e f e r t i l i z e r s , and Duncan's m u l t i p l e range t e s t f o r 5$ l e v e l , f o r the greenhouse experiment. No. o f Seedlings 37 41 22 43 36 44 hi 34 Levels 3 1 4 1 2 2 3 4 F e r t i l i z e r s NH^NO^ MgNO^POj^ NH^NO^ NH^M^ NH^NC^ MgNH^PO^ MgNH^PO^ MgNB^PO^ Height Growth/cm 4.43 5.10 5.25 5.35 6.46 8.50 8.7 8.7 1 - C o n t r o l 2 = Low 3 = Medium 4 • High Each mean which i s underscored by the same continuous l i n e s t a t i s t i c a l l y i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t at 5$ s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . Table 60 c l e a r l y shows that f e r t i l i z a t i o n w i t h Magamp s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r eased height growth compared to c o n t r o l s and to seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e . There i s no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , however, between the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of Magamp f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 82 ANOVA d i d not show s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the height growth of se e d l i n g s between one-inch band and two-inch band placement of f e r t i l i z e r s . Table 61 shows the mean height growth of s e e d l i n g s i n each experimental u n i t excluding containers and i r r i g a t i o n treatments. The manual i r r i g a t i o n had been d i s c o n t i n u e d a f t e r A p r i l 1, 1961;. The b a s i c number of r e p l i c a t i o n s per experimental u n i t i n t h i s case became 12, according to the experimental d e s i g n . This number, however, became d r a s t i c a l l y reduced i n some u n i t s due to m o r t a l i t y . Table 61. Mean height growth of se e d l i n g s i n each experimental u n i t i n centimeters, excluding containers and i r r i g a t i o n treatments. The number i n brackets a f t e r each mean shows the number of observations per mean f o r the greenhouse experiment. Levels o f S a n d F e r t i l i z e r 1 2 3 h Loam 1 2 3 1; 1" 3.0(10) 7.6(11) MgNH|.P0], 2" 1.3(11) 7.7(11) 8.0(11) 9.6(12) 7.6(9) 8.2(9) 8.U(11) 8.7(11) 9.6(12) 9.1;(6) 7.3(10)10.0(10) 7.3(6) 9.9(10) 1» h . l ( l O ) 1;.5(7) NHi NOo 4 2« 2.8(12) U.5(9) 1.2(7) 2.5(9) 1.0(1) 2.9(9) 8.1;(10) 6.5(10) 6.7(10) 5.8(5) 5.5(11) 9.3(10) 6.UC11) 7.6(7) L e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s 1 a C o n t r o l 2 = Low 3 = Medium 1; = High Placements of f e r t i l i z e r s 1" = 1-inch band 2" = 2-inch band D i n c e there were many f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s experiment, i t i s probably d e s i r a b l e t o enclose the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t a b l e of seasonal h e i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s . The e f f e c t of co n t a i n e r s was not t e s t e d . 83 Table 62. ANOVA of seasonal height growth o f s e e d l i n g s f o r the green-house experiment. Source DF Means Sq. F F e r t i l i z e r (F) 1 385.50 12.75** S o i l (S) 1 550.82 18.21** F x S 1 148.39 4.91** L e v e l w i t h i n F. (L/F) 6 76.65 2.53* Placement w i t h i n L/F (P/L/F) 8 12.99 0.43 S o i l x L/F 6 35.33 1.17 S o i l x P.L.F 8 11.30 0.37 E r r o r 266 30.24 T o t a l 297 Highly s i g n i f i c a n t a t 1% l e v e l . # S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5$ l e v e l . DISCUSSION The f l u s h i n g of seedlings was not s a t i s f a c t o r y . This was due to the p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t t h a t Douglas f i r , as i s true of many p l a n t s i n the temperate zones, r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n d u r a t i o n of c o l d temperature and a r e s t during w i n t e r months. Therefore, t h e i r buds f a i l to f l u s h even i f they are provided w i t h favourable environmental c o n d i t i o n s during w i n t e r . This was discussed by Meyer, et a l (I960) and Kramer and Kozlowski (I960). The see d l i n g s which were used i n t h i s experiment had been h e e l e d - i n a t U.B.C. Campus nursery d u r i n g November and most of December, but t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t c o l d p e r i o d may not have been Qh. enough to c o n d i t i o n a l l of these seedlings to break t h e i r dormancy. On the other hand, Spurr (1962) s t a t e d t h a t along the P a c i f i c coast, s i n c e winter temperatures do not d i f f e r markedly from summer temperatures, the seasonal growth p e r i o d i c i t y o f n a t i v e species may be c o n t r o l l e d simply by t h e i r i n h e r i t e d photoperiodic requirements. The photoperiodic needs of these s e e d l i n g s may have been another reason why many of the seedlings f a i l e d to f l u s h during the w i n t e r , s i n c e they d i d n ot r e c e i v e the i l l u m i n a -t i o n p e r i o d they r e q u i r e d t o break t h e i r dormancy. Kramer and Kozlowski (i960) a l s o discussed the e f f e c t s o f the l e n g t h o f photoperiod on breaking o f dormancy. They s t a t e d t h a t dormancy of buds of many species can be broken by l o n g exposure to l i g h t . These s e e d l i n g s , however, were subjected to r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t winter days during January and February. F l u s h i n g was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by the texture of s o i l and a l s o by the c o n t a i n e r s . According to Table 52, the f l u s h i n g was most advanced by the beginning of A p r i l , 196k, i n the t i n containers w i t h loamy s o i l , and most delayed i n the crock c o n t a i n e r s w i t h sandy s o i l . There were e i g h t f a i l u r e s i n the f i r s t case, a g a i n s t 53 i n the l a t t e r . This s i t u a t i o n seems t o suggest t h a t the moisture content and the temperature of the s o i l may have a f f e c t e d f l u s h i n g i n a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t way. The t i n s , w i t h t h e i r smaller s o i l volume, may have warmed up f a s t e r , and the loam w i t h i t s higher waterholding c a p a c i t y , may have s u p p l i e d the seedlings w i t h s u f f i c i e n t amounts of water t o a c t i v a t e t h e i r f l u s h i n g . This i s an i n t e r -e s t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l problem. For t h i s phenomenon, one ex p l a n a t i o n i s giv e n here, and other e q u a l l y v a l i d hypotheses might be a v a i l a b l e . 85. The h i g h r a t e of f e r t i l i z a t i o n caused heavy m o r t a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y a t the beginning of the experiment (Tables kl and 53.) • The r a p i d l y s o l u b l e ammonium n i t r a t e had the most pronounced e f f e c t i n the more concentrated one-inch band p l a c i n g and i n the sandy s o i l . The danger of high s o l u b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ammonium n i t r a t e was pointed out by Wilde (1958). Due to the l a c k of c o l l o i d a l c l a y ( m i c e l l e s ) i n the sand, the surface e l e c t r i c charge of the s o i l p a r t i c l e s i s v e r y low. The f e r t i l i z e r ions may not be n e u t r a l i z e d and they r a i s e the s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o i l - w a t e r s o l u t i o n . This may increase the osmotic pressure of the s o i l - w a t e r s o l u -t i o n and decrease the water absorbing c a p a c i t y of the r o o t s . The com-b i n a t i o n of a r a p i d l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r and a coarse t e x t u r e d s o i l can be t o x i c f o r p l a n t s , and i n t h i s experiment t h i s s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d f o r the Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s . Mayer-Krapoll (1956) suggested t h a t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n are due t o excessive and too e a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n t h i s experiment, the f e r t i l i z e r s were a p p l i e d a t p l a n t i n g time i n r e l a t i v e l y h i g h q u a n t i t i e s , and ammonium n i t r a t e r a p i d l y went i n t o s o l u t i o n even before the s e e d l i n g s f l u s h e d . This was c r i t i c a l because, according t o Meyer, et a l (i960), p l a n t s need high r e s p i r a t o r y energy f o r a c t i v e s a l t accumulation. They have highest r e s p i r a t o r y energy when they grow r a p i d l y under favourable c o n d i t i o n s which p r e v a i l during the l a t e s p r i n g . These environmental c o n d i t i o n s were not provided i n the greenhouse f o r the seedlings during the w i n t e r months. Therefore, they d i d not grow a t a l l or grew v e r y s l o w l y . Under groxrth here, one must a l s o consider the growth of r o o t s and the phenomenon of growing r o o t t i p s . These t i s s u e s are known t o be the centers of high energy 86 a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t r o o t s were growing a t a f a s t r a t e e i t h e r . I t i s known t h a t the most important growth promoting sub-stances (auxins) are produced by the a p i c a l buds, and from here are b a s i p e t a l l y t r a n s l o c a t e d to growing r e g i o n s , e.g. r o o t t i p s . Develop-i n g buds or young leaves are more e f f e c t i v e i n promoting r o o t growth than dormant or quiescent buds. The f l u s h i n g o f these seedlings was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y during the winter due t o co n d i t i o n s which have been p a r t l y recognized and de s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y . I t i s p o s s i b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t growth promoting substances may not have been t r a n s l o c a t e d t o the r o o t t i p s of these seedlings i n optimum concentrations to i n i t i a t e t h e i r growth. Consequently, the r o o t t i p s probably had low r e s p i r a t o r y energy and were unable t o c a r r y out a c t i v e s a l t accumulation a t a d e s i r e d high r a t e . While t h e s s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o i l was r a p i d l y b u i l d i n g up u n t i l i t reached t o x i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n many i n s t a n c e s . This occurred most f r e q u e n t l y i n sandy s o i l w i t h r a p i d l y s o l u b l e ammonium n i t r a t e . Table 3>7 seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t f l u s h i n g was a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by f e r t i l i z a t i o n . For example, i n sand 30.2$ of the t o t a l number of l i v e u n f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s f a i l e d to f l u s h , w h i l e only 7.6$ of the t o t a l number of l i v e f e r t i l i z e d s e e d l i n g s f a i l e d to f l u s h . With regard to the theory of a c t i v e s a l t accumulation, however, i t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t those f e r t i l i z e d s eedlings which d i d not f l u s h d i e d because they were l e s s r e s i s t a n t t o higher s a l t c o n centrations. In the case of loamy s o i l , the high s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n may have been l e s s t o x i c because of the f i n e r t e x t u r e and the greater organic matter content of t h i s s o i l . The l a r g e r e l e c t r i c surface p o t e n t i a l of the s o i l c o l l o i d a l p a r t i c l e s may have n e u t r a l i z e d the osmotic pressure 87. of f e r t i l i z e r i o n s t o a r e l a t i v e l y greater extent. Under i d e a l condi-t i o n s , these ions were s e t f r e e when they were exchanged f o r ions r e -l e a s e d by the r o o t s . I n the case of the Magamp f e r t i l i z e r , the i n i t i a l h i g h s a l t con-c e n t r a t i o n was tempered by the slow s o l u b i l i t y of the f e r t i l i z e r . Leyton (1958) and L a u r i e (I960) mentioned the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a slow n i t r o g e n - r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r i n f o r e s t r y . Magamp f e r t i l i z e r seems t o meet t h i s need. The gradual a c t i o n of a s l o w l y - s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r can be a p p r o x i -mated by d i v i d i n g the e q u i v a l e n t amount of a f a s t - a c t i n g f e r t i l i z e r i n smaller doses and a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t a t s e v e r a l well-spaced i n t e r v a l s d u r i ng the growing season (Mayer-Krapoll, 1956) and (Franzmeier and Arneman, 1959). This type of a p p l i c a t i o n i s economically not f e a s i b l e compared t o an e q u i v a l e n t amount of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r which i s to be a p p l i e d only once. The a c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r l e v e l s on the height growth of seedlings i s shoxm i n F i g u r e h. The h e i g h t growth o f s e e d l i n g s was expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l height a t p l a n t i n g . I n Figure l i , the superior a c t i o n of Magamp f e r t i l i z e r can be seen c l e a r l y . This graph a l s o i n d i -cates (as Table 61 does) t h a t the same height growth was obtained w i t h a low l e v e l of a p p l i c a t i o n . Therefore, the higher l e v e l s of a p p l i c a t i o n were unnecessary f o r improved growth. There i s a general decrease i n the r a t e of h e i g h t growth w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f ammonium n i t r a t e . This may have been a r e s u l t o f t o x i c i t y . F igure 5 represents the height growth d i f f e r e n c e s between placements w i t h i n l e v e l s of f e r t i l i z e r s . The improving e f f e c t of magamp and the F i g u r e 4. The e f f e c t o f l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r s on r a t e o f h e i g h t growth o f s e e d l i n g s , i n t h e greenhouse e x p e r i m e n t . I | i _ 1 2 3 L e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low L e v e l 3 = Medium L e v e l 4 = H i g h L e v e l MgNH4P04 NH.NCL 4 3 89 F i g u r e 5. The e f f e c t o f p l a c e m e n t s w i t h i n l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s on t h e r a t e o f h e i g h t g r o w th o f s e e d l i n g s , i n t h e greenhouse e x p e r i m e n t . 2 3 L e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low L e v e l 3 = Medium L e v e l 4 = H i g h L e v e l 1" band MgNH.PO. 2" band 4 4 1" band „„ , NH,NO„ 2" band 4 3 9 0 . . r e t a r d a t i o n of ammonium n i t r a t e can be noted here. The graph i l l u s t r a t e s the r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t o f high s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the case of one-inch band placement w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e . F i g ure 6 shows the s o i l and l e v e l s w i t h i n f e r t i l i z e r i n t e r a c t i o n . I n t h i s case, an i n t e r e s t i n g improvement i s n o t i c e a b l e . The height growth of seedlings i n loam was i n i t i a l l y h i g h , but with the a p p l i c a t i o n of Magamp, the n u t r i e n t s t a t u s of sand was r a i s e d to approximately the same l e v e l as t h a t o f loam. Fi g u r e 7 shows the mean height growth of se e d l i n g s i n each e x p e r i -mental u n i t . I n the ANOVA, t h i s was the source of the i n t e r a c t i o n between s o i l s , and placements w i t h i n l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s . The one-i n c h band placement of ammonium n i t r a t e was r e t a r d i n g except f o r a s l i g h t r i s e i n sand from c o n t r o l t o low l e v e l . The gr e a t e s t improve-ment can be n o t i c e d w i t h the two-inch band placement of Magamp i n sand. G e n e r a l l y , the two-inch band placement showed an i n c r e a s e from c o n t r o l s to low l e v e l . A c t u a l l y , w i t h the two-inch band placement, the concen-t r a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r was decreased and the see d l i n g s responded favourably to the lower concentrations of f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s . I n F i g u r e 8, a photograph shows the e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the increased l e n g t h of needles. These twigs were s e l e c t e d samples a t the end o f the*experiment and are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l l s e e d l i n g s . Figure 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the same observation which was made by Gessel and Walker ( 1 9 5 > 9 ) t h a t n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s needle l e n g t h i f the combination of a l l f a c t o r s i s favourable. 91 F i g u r e 6. The e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between s o i l s and l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s on t h e r a t e o f h e i g h t g r o w t h o f s e e d l i n g s , i n t h e greenhouse e x p e r i m e n t . 1 L_ 2 3 L e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l • L o a m MgNH.PO. 2 = Low L e v e l U n d 4 4 3 = Medium L e v e l 4 = H i g h L e v e l loam NH.NO sand 4- 3 92 F i g u r e 7. The e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between s o i l s and placement o f f e r t i l i z e r s w i t h i n l e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s on t h e r a t e o f h e i g h t g r o w t h o f s e e d l i n g s , i n t h e greenhouse e x p e r i m e n t . 40 r 8~S g U b0 •H co 30 20 10 2 3 L e v e l s o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l 2 = Low L e v e l 3 • Medium L e v e l 4 = H i g h L e v e l 1" band 2" band 1" band 2" band 1" band 2" band 1" band 2" band sand MgNH.PO. 4 4 loam sand NH,N0_ 4 3 loam 93. Figure 8. Photograph showing the increase i n needle length due to nitrogen f e r t i l i z a t i o n , for the greenhouse experiment. (One square represents a square centimeter.) 1. Control: The lengths of 1963 and 196U needles were approximately equal, 2. Seedling which r e c e i v e d ammonium n i t r a t e : The 196U needles were longer than those on the other two twigs, but they were spindly in shape. 3. Seedling which received Magamp: The needle length was also increased during 1964. The shape of the needles was normal and equal and their color was darker. 9k. CONCLUSION This experiment showed the advantages of a slow n i t r o g e n r e l e a s e f e r t i l i z e r l i k e Magamp over a r a p i d l y s o l u b l e n i t r o g e n source l i k e ammonium n i t r a t e , e s p e c i a l l y when these f e r t i l i z e r s are a p p l i e d a t p l a n t i n g time. The e f f e c t o f t r a n s p l a n t i n g i s w e l l known, and seed-l i n g s have t o adju s t to t h e i r new environment before they are able t o s t a r t r a p i d growth. I n t h i s adjustment stage, the high s a l t concen-t r a t i o n which was provided by the ammonium n i t r a t e ( e s p e c i a l l y i n sand) could be only disadvantageous f o r the development of s e e d l i n g s . Magamp f e r t i l i z e r , i f i t i s a p p l i e d at proper r a t e s and these q u a n t i t i e s are adjusted f o r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o i l , can increase height growth o f seedlings when i t i s a p p l i e d a t p l a n t i n g time. However, these r e s u l t s have shown l i m i t e d advantage to using e i t h e r f e r t i l i z e r d uring p l a n t i n g . I t should be noted f o r future experiments t h a t Douglas f i r seedlings should not be expected t o grow i n normal warm greenhouses during the winter without p r i o r c h i l l i n g or other treatments to break the dormancy of t h e i r buds. 95. IV TEST OF THE EFFECTS OF VERTICAL PLACEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM-AMIIONIUM-PHOSPHATE AMD AMMONIUM NITRATE IN RELATION TO  ROOTS OF PLANTED DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS. This experiment was initi a t e d on May lit, 196iU, i n the U.B.C. Research Forest near Haney, B. C. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether f e r t i l i z e r , placed i n bands level with the bullc of the absorbing roots, would result i n better or worse survival and growth of planted Douglas f i r than when the same amount of f e r t i l i z e r was placed in the same radius bands on the surface of the s o i l or i n two-inch depth. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fer t i l i z e r s . Magamp (MgNH^POjJ). The properties of this f e r t i l i z e r are described on Page 5. In this experiment, the commercially distributed Magamp f e r t i l i z e r was used with a wide range i n particle size (Table 20). Ammonium nitrate (NH^NO-j). This f e r t i l i z e r i s described on Page 58. Nitraprills (33.5-0-0) was applied i n this experiment. The rate of f e r t i l i z e r was determined by the equivalent amount of nitrogen supplied by the carrier. Only one rate was applied, and i t was 2.5 gm. nitrogen per seedling. The f e r t i l i z e r pellets were admini-stered i n three-inch radius bands around the stems of the seedlings. These bands were placed in successive layers ranging from half an inch through two-inch and to four-inch depths. Figure 9 shows the arrange-ment of the bands. 96. Figure 9. Vertical placements of f e r t i l i z e r bands i n Experiment IV. Description of experimental area. This experiment was located 200 feet south of J-2 road in the extreme southwest corner of the U.B.C. Research Forest. The area i s on the east side of Donegoni Creek on a 200 - 2S>0-feet wide terrace l i k e bench, only 100 feet east of a fenced experimental area (Location Map S, Appendix E). Here, the land pattern, according to Lacate (1962), i s a f l a t or gently r o l l i n g complex of glacio-marine and substratified d r i f t deposits. On this natural hench, deep a l l u v i a l , s i l t y - c l a y loam has accumulated and become a heavy textured t i l l - l i k e deposit. During the summer of 1963, a ditch was dug in this area in order to improve drainage when the fenced plot was established. Presently, the s o i l at this location i s somewhat moist, but i t is well drained with the ground-water table being at a 2 . 5 - 3 f t . depth. However, i t i s not stagnant and changes with seasons. A s o i l sample p i t was dug i n this area in October, 1961;, and a visual inspection of the s o i l profile was madee M 97 D e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l p r o f i l e . L - H . . . . . . . V a r i e s i n th i c k n e s s t o a maximum of X5> inchesj dark brown, mainly H, but mixed w i t h mineral s o i l because of s i t e prepa-r a t i o n . B . . . . . . . . Gradual t r a n s i t i o n i n t o l i g h t e r brown, s i l t y c l a y loam. The s o i l p r o f i l e i s r e l a t i v e l y weakly developed w i t h no d i s t i n c t h o r i z o n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The te x t u r e of the s o i l i s heavy, but a t l e a s t the surface l a y e r i s w e l l aerated t o approximately 2 f t . depth. The same weather observations are a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s area as to the s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s a t J-road. The weather records are shown i n Table 69 (Appendix H). The weather s t a t i o n i s approximately one mile from t h i s a r e a . P l a n t i n g stock. Two-year-old Douglas f i r seedlings o f c o a s t a l o r i g i n were obtained from the Green Timbers nursery. These seedlings were p a r t of the p l a n t -i n g stock which was used i n the 1961+ t r i a l of s l o w l y soluble f e r t i l i z e r s . The experiment was designed as a randomized complete-block arrange-ment. I n a 2' x 3' spacing, a t o t a l o f 32 s e e d l i n g s were p l a n t e d i n two b l o c k s . An experimental u n i t of fou r s e e d l i n g s randomly r e c e i v e d one v e r t i c a l f e r t i l i z e r placement. I n each b l o c k , one u n i t was kept f o r use as a c o n t r o l . OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS At the end o f the 1961+ growing season, the s u r v i v a l of see d l i n g s was complete: No seedlings d i e d out of the 32 p l a n t e d . 98. The c o l o r of seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp was r i c h green, and t h e i r needles were lo n g e r . On September 8, 1964, the height growth of these seedlings was measured i n centimeters, and these measurements are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 63 by treatments. Table 63. Seasonal height growth of seedlings i n centimeters f o r each v e r t i c a l placement of Magamp and Ammonium n i t r a t e Magamp placements Ammonium n i t r a t e placements R e p l i c a t i o n s 1 2 3 4 / c m # 1 2 3 4 /, 1 5 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 0 2 2 . 0 6 . 0 7.0 8 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 3 4 . 0 8 . 0 1 0 . 0 2 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 0 3 .0 2 . 0 4 5 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 1 5 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 0 6 . 0 6 . 0 T o t a l 1 6.0 2 7.0 2 7.0 3 0 . 0 17.0 1 4 . 0 16.0 1 4 . 0 Mean Ht. Growth /cm.. U.o 6.7 6.7 7 . 5 6 . 2 5 4 . 2 3 . 5 4 . 0 3 . 5 3.81 Placements of f e r t i l i z e r s : 1 a 2 = 3 • 4 -C o n t r o l §-inch depth 2 - i n c h depth 4 - i n c h depth The ANOVA of the 1964 height growth showed that the he i g h t growth of s e e d l i n g s f e r t i l i z e d w i t h Magamp was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than was the height growth of seedlings f e r t i l i z e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the v e r t i c a l placements of f e r t i l i z e r s . 99. DISCUSSION In s p i t e o f the high q u a l i t y s i t e and the i n f e r r e d r e l a t i v e l y good s o i l f e r t i l i t y , the Magamp f e r t i l i z e r i n c r e a s e d the height growth of see d l i n g s to a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t degree compared t o c o n t r o l s and to se e d l i n g s f e r t i l i z e d w i t h ammonium n i t r a t e . Figure 10 shows the d i f f e r e n c e s when the h e i g h t growth i s expressed as a percentage of t o t a l h e i g h t a t p l a n t i n g . In t h i s diagram, a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n height growth i s n o t i c e a b l e w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g depth of Magamp f e r t i l i z e r bands, but t h i s increase i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i -f i c a n t . On the other hand, w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g depth of ammonium n i t r a t e , the r a t e of he i g h t growth decreases. This, however, i s not s i g n i f i c a n t . The diagram i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r a p i d l y s o l u b l e ammonium n i t r a t e unfavourably r a i s e s the s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o i l and r e t a r d s the height growth of seedlings even when i t i s a p p l i e d i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s and i n a s o i l which has high water ho l d i n g c a p a c i t y and r e l a -t i v e l y b e t t e r f e r t i l i t y . CONCLUSION This experiment a l s o showed the s u p e r i o r i t y of a s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r l i k e Magamp over a r a p i d l y s o l u b l e n i t r o g e n source l i k e ammonium n i t r a t e . S ince there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s obtained i n h e i g h t growth as a r e s u l t of the v a r i o u s depths o f f e r t i l i z e r bands, the more convenient surface placement of f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s may be a p p l i e d . I t i s advisable 100 F i g u r e 10. The r a t e o f h e i g h t growth o f s e e d l i n g s f o r e a ch v e r t i c a l p l a c e m e n t band of f e r t i l i z e r s . 40 r J I l _ 1 2 3 Placement o f f e r t i l i z e r s 1 = C o n t r o l MgNH^PO^ 2 = S u r f a c e p l a c e m e n t NH^NO^ 3 = 2 i n c h d e p t h 4 = 4 i n c h d e p t h 101. however, to cover the p e l l e t s w i t h s o i l o r , perhaps, to place them i n shallow furrows around the s e e d l i n g s i n order t o l o c a l i z e t h e i r e f f e c t s and prevent t h e i r removal by r u n - o f f water. 102. DISCUSSIONS One important concern of i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t r y i s t o in c r e a s e e a r l y growth o f p l a n t i n g s t o c k . F e r t i l i z a t i o n i s a recognized method of a t t a i n i n g t h i s g o a l (Gessel, 1962). These four experiments r e v e a l e d many important r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t f e r t i l i z e r s on the s u r v i v a l and growth of planted Douglas f i r under v a r i o u s s o i l and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . Regarding the a p p l i c a t i o n of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s d i r e c t l y i n t o the p l a n t i n g hole, one can detect a few problems which have to be i n v e s t i g a t e d before the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s method can be recommended. F i r s t , there i s the question of p l a n t i n g time. During the two successive springs of 1963 and 1964, the weather c o n d i t i o n s were t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t . Table 64 i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s between May, 1963, and May, 1964, at the U.B.C. Research Fo r e s t near Haney. I t shows the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the maximum temperature f o r the most c r i t i c a l p e r i o d a f t e r p l a n t i n g , and these are compared to the weather records compiled by G r i f f i t h (i960) f o r a 12-year p e r i o d between 1946 and 1957. 103 Table 61;. Weather observations f o r May, 1963, and 196I4 as compared t o 12 y e a r s 1 averages and extremes obtained from G r i f f i t h (I960) i n U.B.C. Research F o r e s t . 12 years' Standard No. D e s c r i p t i o n May, 1963 May, 1961; Observations D e v i a t i o n 1 T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c h 2.12 1;.75 3.5 Ave. 1.85 2 Average maximum 89.7 79.6 76.5 Ave. 7.25 Temperature ° F 3 Absolute maximum 9li.O 85.0 89.0/May, 1956 Temperature 0 F 1 and 2 are the averages o f three weather s t a t i o n s f o r May, 1963 and 1961;. I n the U.B.C. Campus nursery, the d i f f e r e n c e s between May, 1963 and May, 1961;, are shown i n Table 65. Table 65. Weather observations f o r May, 1963 and 1961; i n the U.B.C. Campus nursery obtained from the c l i m a t o l o g i c a l records of U.B.C. Campus. May, 1963 May, 1961; T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , i n c h l.k9 2.09 No. of days w i t h measurable p r e c i p i t a t i o n 5 11 Length o f longest d ry p e r i o d w i t h no measurable p r e c i p i t a t i o n May lli-May 31 May 1-May 6 T o t a l sun-hours/month 326.7 253.2 During both years, Magamp, Sludge and Thiourea f e r t i l i s e r s were used. Therefore, t h e i r e f f e c t s can be compared. Table 66 shows the m o r t a l i t y percentages caused by these f e r t i l i z e r s i n both y e a r s . io4. Table 66. M o r t a l i t y percentages f o r c o n t r o l s , Magamp, Sludge and Thiourea f o r the sl o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s . Year Co n t r o l s Magamp Sludge Thiourea T o t a l 1963 12.5 48.6 73.0 91.6 59.6 1964 4.2 12.5 37.5 65.8 29.9 The m o r t a l i t y i n 1963 was p a r t l y due to the p a r t i a l l y f l u s h e d c o n d i t i o n of the p l a n t i n g stock, w h i l e i n 1964 the f l u s h i n g of seed-l i n g s was delayed by c o l d storage. I t seems obvious, hoxirever, t h a t the l a r g e s t amount of v a r i a t i o n i n m o r t a l i t y between the two successive years i s undoubtedly due t o adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g p l a n t -i n g . Meyer, et a l (i960) s t a t e d t h a t the r a t e of ab s o r b t i o n of water by r o o t s decreases w i t h an increase i n the osmotic pressure of the sub s t r a t e . Due to dry weather c o n d i t i o n s i n May, 1963, the concen-t r a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s was abnormally i n c r e a s e d . Their osmotic pressure, t h e r e f o r e , prevented the r o o t s of seedlings from absorbing water. Si n c e the f e r t i l i z e r p e l l e t s were j u s t below the r o o t i n g zone, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l a r g e amount of a a p i l l a r y water was adsorbed by the f e r t i l i z e r before i t could reach the r o o t s . I n 1964, the co n c e n t r a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s was decreased by the adequate amount of moisture i n the s o i l , and m o r t a l i t y was pro-nounced o n l y i n the coarse, sandy s o i l o f the U . B . C . Campus nursery (Table 26), which had the lowest water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y among the s o i l s d e a l t w i t h . This was expressed by Meyer, e t a l (i960) i n the f o l l o w i n g way: io5 "Copious a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n sandy s o i l s , o f t e n r a i s e s the osmotic pressure of the s o i l s o l u t i o n . " The twelve years' records of monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n at the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , compiled by G r i f f i t h (i960) and Keser (I960), show a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c low p r e c i p i t a t i o n fois the month of May. The U.B.C. Research F o r e s t had been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the " L i t t o r a l zone" by Kendrew and K e r r ( 1955). The same c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s can be expected throughout the whole of southwestern c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia. When the se e d l i n g s are pla n t e d i n the s p r i n g , they may meet these adverse c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . This f a c t was pointed out by Walters and Soos (1961):: "The l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the same s p r i n g months of successive years on the U n i v e r s i t y Forest show a great v a r i a t i o n i n r i s k i n v o l v e d i n s p r i n g p l a n t i n g . " The a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s a t p l a n t i n g time increases t h i s r i s k manyfold. The e v a l u a t i o n of m o r t a l i t y i n 1963 (e.g. Table 4) and i n 196k (e.g. Table 25) seems t o j u s t i f y these observations i n view of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n weather c o n d i t i o n s (Tables 6k and 65) between the successive s p r i n g s . I t was pointed out i n the c o n c l u s i o n of the slo w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s , on Page kl> t h a t Magamp f e r t i l i z e r -seems to possess those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make i t s a p p l i c a t i o n a t f a l l p l a n t i n g b e n e f i c i a l for the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . On the other hand, the h i g h s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o i l s o l u t i o n would be eq u a l i z e d by mass movement during the w i n t e r , but the e f f e c t of f e r t i l i z e r would not be l o s t y e t . I t was proven by the continued m o r t a l i t y observations of the 1963 t r i a l of s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s / (Tables 9 and 10). 106. Another p h y s i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n may be noted by a study o f the greenhouse experiment. This concerns the mineral s a l t absorbing capa-c i t y of p l a n t s . This has been discussed by Meyer, e t a l (i960) and S u t c l i f f e (1962). They recognized the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i v e s a l t accumulation when p l a n t s u t i l i z e t h e i r r e s p i r a t o r y energy to absorb.--s a l t s by t h e i r r o o t s . The phenomenon of a c t i v e s a l t accumulation seems to be confined l a r g e l y to c e l l s which posses the c a p a c i t y f o r c e l l d i v i s i o n and enlargement. I n the case of r o o t s , i t i s mostly r e s t r i c t e d t o r a p i d l y growing r o o t meristems. These organs a l s o have high r e s p i r a t o r y a c t i v i t y . T h i s , i n t u r n , i s i n d i r e c t l y con-nected to the r a t e of photosynthetic a c t i v i t y of the a e r i a l organs. Meyer, et a l (i960) s a i d t h a t any f a c t o r s which markedly reduce the r a t e of photosynthesis and/or the r a t e of downward t r a n s l o c a t i o n of foods may t h e r e f o r e a l s o b r i n g about a diminution i n the r a t e of s a l t accumulation of r o o t s . These observations seem to suggest t h a t seedlings i n the green-house would have had to c a r r y out t h e i r metabolic a c t i v i t i e s a t an increased r a t e t o compete and/or b e n e f i t from the higher s a l t con-c e n t r a t i o n o f the s o i l . The f l u s h i n g of these s e e d l i n g s , however, was not s a t i s f a c t o r y (Page 83, d i s c u s s i o n of greenhouse experiment). Their photosynthetic a c t i v i t i e s were probably decreased because of s h o r t winter days and greenhouse c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r r o o t growth was a c c e l e r a t e d e i t h e r , c o n s i d e r i n g the i n f l u e n c e s of increased hormone production of developing buds on the growth of r o o t s (Page 86, d i s c u s s i o n of greenhouse experiment). Therefore, the r o o t s probably d i d not have high r e s p i r a t o r y energy t o accumulate 107. s a l t s . Meanwhile, the s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the s o i l s o l u t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g , and, i n c e r t a i n cases, i t reached t o x i c q u a n t i t i e s . These were h i g h e s t i n the case o f ammonium n i t r a t e i n sand (e.g. Table 53). At the beginning o f the experiment, f e r t i l i z a t i o n d i d not increase growth. This was shown by the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses of measure-ments taken before A p r i l , I96I4 (Tables 51 and 52). These r e s u l t s show tha t the se e d l i n g s had not u t i l i z e d the f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s f o r t h e i r growth y e t , or t h a t other f a c t o r s were l i m i t i n g . Mayer - K r a p o l l (1956) p o i n t e d out t h a t the s a l t a b s o r p t i o n of woody p l a n t s i s pro-longed longer i n t o the growing season than t h a t of herbacous p l a n t s , which complete 98% of t h e i r seasonal s a l t a bsorption by the end of June i n western Europe. On the other hand, i n view of the theory of a c t i v e s a l t a b s o r ption, the see d l i n g s had a r e l a t i v e l y low s a l t acumu-l a t i o n c a p a c i t y i n the greenhouse because of the c o n d i t i o n s described above. I n e i t h e r case, the slow n u t r i e n t r e l e a s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Magamp were advantageous f o r the growth of these s e e d l i n g s . I n comparison w i t h the greenhouse experiment and the slowly s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r t r i a l s , one can note t h a t , although the nature of en v i r o n -mental f a c t o r s were d i f f e r e n t , t h e i r r e t a r d a t i o n on the a c t i v e s a l t absorbing c a p a c i t y of see d l i n g s was s i m i l a r . The hot and dry weather of May, 1963, e s p e c i a l l y increased the osmotic pressure of f e r t i l i z e r s a l t s i n the s l o w l y s o l u o l e f e r t i l i s e r t r i a l . T h i s , i n t u r n , may have reduced the r a t e o f water abserption by r o o t s , and the r e d u c t i o n of water content of needles then may have diminished the e f f e c t i v e n e s s 108. of photosynthesis. Consequently, the s a l t absorbing c a p a c i t y of the seed l i n g s may have been r e t a r d e d . This may have been one reason why the height growth of the f e r t i l i z e d seedlings was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than t h a t of c o n t r o l s (Table 5) . The advantages of a s l o w l y SD l u b l e n i t r o g e n source such as Magamp over a r a p i d l y s o l u b l e one such as ammonium n i t r a t e were proven i n the v e r t i c a l placement t r i a l (Experiment IV).. I n t h i s experiment, the s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n was not t o x i c t o the s e e d l i n g s . This i s shown by the 100$ s u r v i v a l . I t may have been p a r t l y due to the f e r t i l e , f i n e t e x -t u r e d s o i l i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . The a p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s was r e l a t i v e l y low (2.X.gm. n i t r o g e n per s e e d l i n g i n a 3-inch r a d i u s band). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n sandy s o i l even t h i s r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n would have been t o x i c , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of ammonium n i t r a t e . The seedlings apparently u t i l i z e d the n u t r i e n t s y i e l d e d by the s l o w l y s o l u b l e Magamp, but they d i d not respond to ammonium n i t r a t e (Table 63J F i g u r e 10). This may be due to the prolonged s a l t a bsorption of woody p l a n t s , noted by Mayer-Krapoll (1956) or t o the r a p i d l y s o l u b l e ammonium n i t r a t e being leached out from the s o i l before the seedlings s t a r t e d t o growoand s t a r t e d t h e i r a c t i v e s a l t a b s o r p t i o n a f t e r p l a n t a t i o n . Ammonium n i t r a t e was a p p l i e d to the p l a n t a t i o n s of 1953, 1956, and 1959 at " f l u s h i n g time" as recommended by Stoate et a l , (1961). This type of a p p l i c a t i o n i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y sound, re g a r d i n g the higher s a l t absorb-i n g c a p a c i t y of p l a n t s w i t h increased metabolic a c t i v i t i e s . Y e t , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the he i g h t growth of these immature t r e e s (Table h3)* This might be expl a i n e d by the observation of 109. Tarrant (I9k9) who s t a t e d t h a t i n the P a c i f i c Northwest i n undisturbed c o n d i t i o n s , there i s no n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y f o r Douglas f i r . Of course, these areas were d i s t u r b e d by lo g g i n g and f i r e s , but t h e i r adequate n u t r i e n t supply might have been r e - e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e disturbance. The examination of s o i l analyses shows t h a t , f o r example, the t o t a l n i t r o g e n content of these s o i l s (Tables 35, 36, 37, 38,, 39 and 1*0) never f a l l s below the c r i t i c a l .10 or .12$ l e v e l , n o t e d by Gessel and Walker (1959). These p l a n t a t i o n s are h e a l t h y j they do not seem t o have any v i s u a l symptoms of n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y . The increased n i t r o g e n content of the s o i l may i n f l u e n c e t h e i r e a r l y cone bearing i n the f u t u r e . CONCLUSIONS The r e s u l t s of some of these experiments have shown the merits of f e r t i l i z a t i o n a t p l a n t i n g time w i t h r e g a r d to the height growth of s e e d l i n g s . Nevertheless, when f e r t i l i z e r s are a p p l i e d at p l a n t i n g time, many important p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s o i l and c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s should be considered. A l l of these f a c t o r s have t o be evaluated c a r e f u l l y before a p l a n t a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . 1. The higher s a l t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s o i l can be disadvantageous to s e e d l i n g s before they s t a r t t o grow because the higher osmotic pressure of the s o i l s o l u t i o n may r e t a r d t h e i r water a b s o r p t i o n . The f e r t i l i z e r which i s a p p l i e d a t p l a n t i n g time, t h e r e f o r e , should have s l o w l y s o l u b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 110. 2. The e f f e c t o f f e r t i l i z e r should be long l a s t i n g because the s a l t a b s o r p t i o n c a p a c i t y need of seedlings i s prolonged through most of the summer. 3 . The r a t e and placement of f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n should be adjusted t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s o i l . That i s , s o i l s w i t h higher c o l l o i d a l c l a y m i c e l l e content may be able t o adsorb more f r e e ions from the s o i l - w a t e r s o l u t i o n . Therefore, the s a l t concen-t r a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r would not perhaps reach t o x i c q u a n t i t i e s . In s o i l s w i t h low f e r t i l i t y and coarse t e x t u r e s , the amount of f e r t i l i z e r must be l e s s , and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n must be gradual (Figure 6, greenhouse experiment, sand versus loam). h. Since weather c o n d i t i o n s are u n p r e d i c t a b l e , there i s a great r i s k i n v o l v e d w i t h h i g h - r a t e f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s . These should be avoided i f optimum moisture supply t o seedlings cannot be secured i n some way. S e v e r a l more experiments are needed to i n v e s t i g a t e the r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s s o i l s . The optimum p a r t i c l e s i z e f o r a slow-r e l e a s e n i t r o g e n source which g r a d u a l l y s u p p l i e s adequate amounts of n u t r i e n t s under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s should be determined. The optimum time of a p p l i c a t i o n and p l a n t i n g should be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order t o a v o i d , i f p o s s i b l e , unfavourable weather c o n d i t i o n s soon a f t e r p l a n t i n g . 111. LITERATURE CITED Armson, K. A. 1962. A s p e c t s o f c e r t a i n f o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n s t u d i e s i n O n t a r i o . F o r e s t F e r t i l i z a t i o n i n Canada. U n i v e r s i t y L a v a l , Quebec. B u l l . No. $; l i 3 - U6. A u s t i n , R. C. and R. F. S t r a n d , i 9 6 0 . The use o f s l o w l y s o l u b l e f e r t i l i z e r s i n f o r e s t p l a n t i n g i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . J . F o r . 58(8)f 619 - 627. Buckraan, H. L. and N. C.Brady. I 9 6 0 . The n a t u r e and p r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l s . The M c M i l l a n Co., New Y o r k , 567 pp. Cummings, W. H. 191+1. F e r t i l i z e r t r i a l f o r i m p r o v e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s h o r t l e a f p i n e , w h i t e as h and y e l l o w p o p l a r p l a n t i n g s on a d v e r s e s i t e s . J . F o r . 3 9 ( 1 2 ) : 91+2 - 9l|6. G a l o u x , A. 195U. L a f e r t i l i z a t i o n m i n e r a l e en s y l v i c u l t u r e ( M i n e r a l f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n s i l v i c u l t u r e ) . T r a v . S t a . Rech. G r o e n d a e l , S e r i e B : l 6 : 62 pp. G e s s e l , S. P. and R. B. .Walker. 1959. D i a g n o s i n g n u t r i e n t needs o f o f f o r e s t t r e e s . P u b l . i n t h e F o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n , a new e r a . (Handbook) 57 pp. By t h e Amer. P o t a s h I n s t . : 20 - 26. G e s s e l , S. .P. 1962. F e r t i l i z e r s and F o r e s t r y . P l a n t Food Review. N a t i o n a l P l a n t Food I n s t i t u t e , 1700 K. S t r e e t , N. ¥., W a s h i n g t o n 6 , D. C. 8 ( 3 ) : 10 - 12. G r i f f i t h , B. G. I 9 6 0 . Growth o f D o u g l a s f i r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h F o r e s t a s r e l a t e d t o c l i m a t e and s o i l . U n i -v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , B u l l . No. 2 . Vancouver 8 , B. C. 58 pp. F r a w z m e i e r , D. P. and H. F. Arneman, 1959. The e f f e c t o f n i t r o g e n f e r t i -l i z e r s on the a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t o f a n u r s e r y s o i l and on t h e n i t r o g e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n r e d p i n e ( B i n u s r e s i n o s a ( A i t ) s e e d l i n g s . M i n n e s o t a F o r e s t r y N o t e s No. 77, 2 pp. H a l e y , D a v i d . 1961+. P a s t demand and f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s f o r C a n a d i a n Douglas f i r . M. F. T h e s i s . F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y ' o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. 8U pp. H i c o c k , H. W., M. F. Morgan, H. J . L u t z , H. B u l l and H. A. L u n t . 1931. The r e l a t i o n s o f f o r e s t c o m p o s i t i o n and r a t e o f g r o w t h t o c e r t a i n s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Con. A g r i c . Exp. S t a t . B u l l . No. 3 3 0 . 112 Kendrew, ¥. G. and D. K e r r . 1955. The cl i m a t e of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Edmund C l o u t i e r , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 222 pp. Keser, N u r e t t i n . I960. A study of s o i l s as r e l a t e d to s i t e index of Douglas f i r a t Haney, B. C. M. F. Thesis, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, B.C. 148 pp. Knight, H. 1963. The e f f e c t of n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n on the height growth of Douglas f i r on a poor s i t e . For. Chron. 39(4): 403 - 411. K r a j i n a , V. J . 1958. E c o l o g i c a l requirements of Douglas f i r , western hemlock, S i t k a spruce and western redcedar. Presented by H. H. Hutchinson, F.R. S. C. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, B. C. 3 pp. Kramer, P. J . and T. T. Kozlowski. I960. Physiology of t r e e s . McGraw-H i l l Book Co. Inc. New York, Toronto, London. 642 pp. Lecate, D. S. 1962. F o r e s t l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Haney F o r e s t , Department o f F o r e s t s of Canada, F o r e s t Research Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t , V i c t o r i a , B. C. 25 pp. L a u r i e , M. V. I960. The p l a c e of f e r t i l i z e r s i n f o r e s t r y . J . The S c i . Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . (Reprint) No. 1; 8 pp., Lehninger, A. L. 1 9 6 l . How c e l l s transform energy. S c i e n t i f i c American. (R e p r i n t ) 13 pp. Leyton, L. 1958. F o r e s t f e r t i l i z i n g i n B r i t a i n . J . For. 56(2) 104 - 106. Mayer-Krapoll, H. 1956. The use of commercial f e r t i l i z e r s - p a r t i c u -l a r l y n i t r o g e n i n f o r e s t r y . T r a n s l . and p u b l . by Nitrogen D i v . , A l l i e d Chemical and Dye Corp., New York. I l l pp. Meagher, M. D. and K. A. Armson. 1963. The e f f e c t o f phosphorous placement on the growth of white spruce s e e d l i n g s . J . For. 61(12): 918 - 920. Meyer, B. S., D. B. Anderson and R. H. Bohning. I960. I n t r o d u c t i o n to p l a n t physiology. D. Van Nostrand Co. L t d . , New York, 541 pp. Smith, J . H. G. and G. -S. A l l e n . 1962. Improvement of Douglas f i r p l a n t i n g stock. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , Research Papers No. 55, 16 pp. 113 Smith, J . H. G. 1964. Progress r e p o r t on a study of the i n f l u e n c e of chemical f e r t i l i z a t i o n on improvement of Douglas f i r cone produ c t i o n , supported by a research grant from the C o n s o l i -dated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada L i m i t e d , T r a i l , B. C. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , (Unpublished) 5 pp. Spurr, S. H. 1962. Forest ecology. Ann Arbor P u b l i s h e r s . Ann Arbor, Michigan. 290 pp. Stoate, T.N., T. Mahood and E. C. C r o s s i n . 1961. Cone pro d u c t i o n of Douglas f i r . The Empire F o r e s t r y Review. No. 104, 40(2): 105 - no. S t o e c k e l e r , J . H. and H . E. Arneman. I960. F e r t i l i z e r s i n f o r e s t r y . V o l . X I I . 220 pp. Academic Press I n c . , New York: 127 - 195. S u t c l i f f e , J . F. 1962. M i n e r a l s a l t a b s o r p t i o n i n p l a n t s . Pergamon Pre s s , New York. 194 pp. Swan, H. S. D. 1963. The s c i e n t i f i c use of f e r t i l i z e r s i n f o r e s t r y . Trend, 1963 Autumn: 9 - 1 3 . S z i k l a i , 0. S. 1964. V a r i a t i o n and i n h e r i t a n c e of some p h y s i o l o g i c a l and morphological t r a i t s i n Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i (Mirb.) Franco v a r . m e n z i e s i i . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , Ph.D. Thesis, Vancouver, B. C. 162 pp. Tarrant, R. F. 1949. Douglas f i r s i t e q u a l i t y and s o i l f e r t i l i t y . J . F o r e s t r y . 47(9): 716 - 719. Vlamis, J . , H. H. B i s w e l l and A. M. S c h u l t z . 1957. N u t r i e n t responses of ponderosa pine s e e d l i n g s . J . For. 5 5(l)s 25 - 28. Walker, D. P., S. P. Gessel and P. G. Haddock. 1955. Greenhouse s t u d i e s i n mineral requirements of c o n i f e r s : western redcedar. For. S c i . 1 ( 1 ) : 51 - 60. W a l t e r s , J . and J . Soos. 1961. The e f f e c t of month of p l a n t i n g upon s u r v i v a l and-growth of Douglas f i r and scots pine s e e d l i n g s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , Research Papers No. 38. 11 pp. Walters, J . , ^ ; . Soos and P. G. Haddock. 1961. The i n f l u e n c e of f e r t i -l i z a t i o n on the growth of Douglas f i r seedlings i n the U n i -v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Research F o r e s t , Haney, B. C. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , Research Papers, No. 31* 6 pp. Wilde, S. A. 1958. Forest s o i l s , t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s and r e l a t i o n to s i l v i c u l t u r e . The Ronald Press Co., New York. 537 pp. l l l i . APPENDIX L i s t of Appendices Page Appendix A L o c a t i o n Map 1 115 Appendix B L o c a t i o n Map 2 116 Appendix C L o c a t i o n Map 3 117 Appendix D L o c a t i o n Map k 118 Appendix E L o c a t i o n Map 5 119 Appendix F Table 67. Weather records f o r 1963 and 1961;, 120 obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the weather s t a t i o n a t the U.B.C. Campus. Appendix G Table 68. Weather records f o r 1963 and 196k, 121 obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the weather s t a t i o n a t Spur-17 i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney, B. C. Appendix H Table 69. Weather records f o r 1963 and 196k, 122 obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the weather s t a t i o n a t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n O f f i c e of the U.B.C. Research Fo r e s t , Haney, B. C. Appendix I Table 70. Weather records f o r 1963 and 196k, 123 obtained from the weekly observations of the Oregon study weather s t a t i o n , west of F-road i n the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney, B. C. Location Map I Appendix A 115. Location of Plot No-1, Experiment 2 Lacate Legend 700 l"=200' siographic site map-Hilly granitic cored uplands-Dry Fresh or well drained Ablation till and colli/vial complex Glacial ti l l, basal till compact subsoil-Water-washed or reworked till- Loamy sand-Edge of clearing-Appendix B l l 6 -Location Map 2-Location of Plot No 2, Experiment 2,and Experimental Plots la and lb at S-Road physiographic site map- /^±.=^^>*<^=_^z. // / \ Legend ^ / ^ b Bedrock less than 2-3' '/f / beneath surface of '/ / topsoll / d Ablation till and colluvlal complex Gravelly sand loam texture-m Glacial till compact and cemented gravelly sand and loam-w Water washed or reworked til I,gravelly loamy sand-u Outwash, gravelly loamy sand-B Hilly granitic cored uplands-C Glaclo-fluvial outwash,substratif ied drift-Appendix C 117. Location Map 3-Location of Experimental Plots No 3 and 4 of Experiment 2-S c a l e d =approx 1000 Symbols are taken from L o c a t e s physiographic ^. s i te map-Legend A Mountainous ,grani t ic cored 8 H i l l y , g ran i t i c cored-1 Dry 2 Fresh well d ra ined d Ab la t i on and co l l uv i a l complex-Gravelly sand loamy texture-fa Bedrock under lay ing topso i l m 2 - 3 ' d e p t h m Glac ia l till, b a s a l till compact and cemented^ gravelly sandy loam to loamy sand-Plot No 3 1953 8 1956 Plant-6 0 trees a t l 0 n 2 d - m Appendix D. Location Map 4. Area of Plot No. 3. Experiment 2-118, S c a l e s l =400 1953 PI am ration Symbols are taken from Lacate's physiographic si ttt mop-Legend : 2 Fresh well drained d Ablation and colluuialcomplex-m Glacial <il(, basal til l compactanci cemenfed orqv/etly sandy loam to loamy sand-Appendix E Location Map 5-Location of Experiments No la, I b,and 4 in J-Road Area 119. Symbols taken from Locate s physiographic site map-Legend D Scale: | = 2 0 0 Q b d Glacio-marine and substratified deposits Glacio-marine,clayey silts and heavy textured till-like Bedrock less than 2-3'beneath surface deposit* -Ablation till and colluvial complex APPENDIX F Table 67. Weather records f o r 1963 and 1964, obtained from the Cl i m a t o l o g i c a l Records o f the weather s t a t i o n a t the U.B.C. Campus. 1963 1964 Temperature - - .' - Temperature Months Max. F° Min. Average F° P r e c i p i t a t i o n Max. F° Min. F° Average F° P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) (inches) January 48 12 33.03 .94 50 .30 40.35 9.16 February 58 26 45.45 5.87 52 30 40.50 3.28 March 59 33 43.05 3.36 64 32 42.20 1.97 A p r i l 60 35 47.90 2.91 57 35 46.20 4.31 May 85 37 55.45 1.49 74 37 51.40 2.09 June 79 48 58.70 1.62 72 49 57.35 2.65 J u l y 74 50 60.75 3.10 78 50 60.85 2.95 August 77 54 63.75 .68 78 47 60.45 1.45 September 77 49 62.20 1.26 67 43 55.20 5.57 October 72 38 53.15 7.57 70 33 50.65 2. 33 November 54 26 44.00 7.35 52 29 41.45 6.71 December 57 30 41.00 10.28 50 1 34.35 6.10 T o t a l /year 608.43 46.43 580.95 95.00 Average /month 50.70 3.87 48.41 7.92 r o o APPENDIX G Table 68. Weather records f o r 1963 and 196U, obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records of the weather s t a t i o n Spur-17 a t the U.B.C. Research Tore s t near Haney, B. C. 1963 1961+ Months Max. F° Temperature Min. F° Average F° P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) Max. F° Temperature Min. F° Average F° P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) January 1+5 10 31.2U 3.35 1+9 28 36.1+0 13.50 February h9 25 115.62 9.91 53 29 36.79 6.38 March 57 31 1+0.98 5.78 69 29 38.61+ 10.78 A p r i l 67 30 1+5.16 6.79 60 31 U2.25 6.26 May 88 32 51+.6U 2.07 82 32 1+9.11+ 5.06 June 85 U3 55.56 U.09 Ih 1+3 51+.1+8 7.81 J u l y 77 1+6 58.U2 5.01 81 1+8 58.93 6.09 August 83 5o 62.79 2.63 82 i+5 58.81+ U.93 September 86 16 61.U5 2.19 71+ .h2 51+. 91 8.77 October 68 35 50.93 9.60 76 36 52.78 5.81* November 51+ 30 1+0.81 13.35 50 26 38.1+0 13.U6 December 56 27 1+0.36 15.97 11 -2 31.53 10.92 T o t a l '/. year 587.96 80.7U 520.33 99.80 Average 7. month U8.99 6.73 i+3.36 8.31 APPENDIX H Table 69. Weather records f o r 1963 and 1964, obtained from the C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Records o f the weather s t a t i o n a t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n O f f i c e o f the U.B.C. Research F o r e s t near Haney, B.C. 1963 1964 Temperature Temperature Months Max. F Min. F Average P r e c i p i t a t i o n Max. F Min. F Average F P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) (inches) January 48 10 31.03 3.57 48 29 38.30 13.34 February 61 24 43.73 9.40 53 28 38.62 6.00 March 59 28 42.06 5.68 72 29 40.35 10.55 A p r i l 67 28 47.10 6.62 63 30 44.58 6.47 May 87 33 55.13 2.30 85 30 50.79 4.79 June 86 43 57.73 3.60 78 44 56.68 7.40 J u l y 77 45 60.52 5.08 82 48 60.47 5.84 August 84 49 62.83 2.47 84 46 60.39 5.12 September 86 45 61.56 2.51 75 43 55.66 8.46 October 69 38 52.19 10.28 74 31 54.39 5.59 November 55 24 42.17 14.81 53 25 39.10 13.47 December 56 27 38.90 16.14 50 2 32.67 8.11 T o t a l / year S9H.9S 82.76 571.49 94.94 Average 7. month 49.57 6.89 47.62 7.91 ro ro APPENDIX I Table 70. Weather records for 1963 and 1961*, obtained from the weekly observations o f Oregon study weather s t a t i o n west of F^Road i n the U.B.C. Research Forest near Haney, B .C . 1963 1961+ Months Max. F ° Temperature Min. F ° Average F° P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) Max. F ° Temperature Min. F ° Average F ° P r e c i p i t a t i o n (inches) January U8 16 31.50 2.95 55 30 1*0.30 15.51 February 66 8 1+1.50 6.22 58 28 1*1.16 6.1+5 March 61* 2l+ 1+2.70 6.38 71* 28 1*3.25 10.J1+ A p r i l 66 25 1+1+.66 7.65 73 30 1+9.00 6.77 May 91* 30 57.50 2.07 72 31 51.00 1+^ 1*1 June 81+ kk 62.33 1.77 90 1+0 62.25 7.71 J u l y 90 k2 6k. 66 7.69 86 1*6 61*.00 3.91+ August 86 50 65.00 1.97 86 1+5 69.90 6.56 September 91 k3 62.30 2.67 78 39 57.25 5.52: October 76 31 53.00 8.12 80 . 36 56.30 7.52 November 60 29 1*2.37 13.29 59 28 1*1.1+0 11.72 -Becember 58 26 1+0.66 17.13 50 2 30.75 8.33 Average/moa&h 650.68 6.U9 50.51* 7.93 Total/year 608.18 77.91 606.56 95.18 

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