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Urbanization, migration and housing: a case study for India. Bhargava, Jagdish Prasad 1964

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U R B A N I Z A T I O N , MIGRATION A B B HOUSIIS©? A GAS I S T U D Y FOB  INDIA  JA6BI3H PBASHAS BHAB6A?A B . A . , The University of Luoknow, India, 1953B.Arch (Hons.),Indian Institute of Technology, Eharagpur,India 1958» 9  A  THESIS SUBMITTED I B P A B T I A I i fWufTIMWT  OF T H E  nmmmimfB won T H I nmms O F MASTER O f AHTS  i n the Department of C O W J H I T T AND BESIONAIi FLAHHIN8  We accept thi® thesis as conforming to the required standard  THI UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1964.  In the  presenting this  requirements  • B r i t i s h Columbia, available mission  for  for  for I  an advanced agree- t h a t  reference  extensive  representatives.  cation  of t h i s  thesis  and s t u d y *  by the  It for  in partial  degree  the  c o p y i n g of  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d his  thesis  at  f u l f i l m e n t of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t I  this  further thesis  agree for  that  per-  scholarly  Head o f my Department  i s understood  freely  or by  t h a t , c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not  publi-  be a l l o w e d  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n , ,  Ja^aish $ra3had Bhargava Department  of  Qowsxmlty  and Regional 'V%aatn%n&.  ,The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  A p r i l 24, 1964  ABSTBAQf India l e c u r r e n t l y experiencing a r a p i d Increase i n population growth and i n the urbanization process leading t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  This i s r e s u l t i n g i n an  overcrowding o f urban areas with attendant p r o b l e m s o f i l l i t e r a c y , unemployment, inadequate community f a c i l i t i e s and service© and d e p l o r a b l e housing conditions.  The  present u n s a t i s f a c t o r y urban housing s i t u a t i o n l a due to8 the comparatively email investment i n housing by p r i v a t e enterprise? the f a i l u r e o f the p u b l i c nousing programs t o cope with the complex problems of housings the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to the i n v e s t ment i n c a p i t a l asset®! and the inadequacies of urbanregional planning and administration.  India i s f a c i n g  the c r i t i c a l problem o f housing those r u r a l In  immigrants  th<§ urban areas who can not even a f f o r d to pay an  economic r e n t  g  who do not want to spend money on housing,  and who are not e a s i l y assimilated i n t o the urban environment.  The hypothesis of the study i s that  r u r a l immigrants  to urban areas i n India have s p e c i f i c  economic, p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l needs which must be considered to help India solve i t s urban housing problem. fhe study was undertaken because i t i s f e l t that housing r u r a l immigrants  to urban areas i s one of the  ill moat c r i t i c a l problem© f a c i n g I n d i a , and that there i s need f o r an approach which w i l l achieve a balanced s o c i a l and economic development program. Consideration i s given to the various concepts involved and terms such as •Housing % •economic absorption',  'rural immigrant•,  ' c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n ' and  •adjustment• are defined.  Urban problems associated  with the housing problem are reviewed, and the economic, s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , psychological and p h y s i c a l problems of the r u r a l immigrant i n the urban areas, are analysed. India's past and present p o l i c i e s regarding  housing,  urban land, and socio-economic goals are a l s o reviewed. I t i s observed that the housing problem i s only a "symptom" o f a complex of i n t e r - r e l a t e d urban problems which, i f resolved, would contribute to the s o l u t i o n of the housing problem.  The r u r a l Immigrant requires  adequate economic absorption, sociO-psychological adjustment, and adequate s h e l t e r and community f a c i l i t i e s i n the urban environment. fo meet the needs o f the r u r a l immigrants i t l a recommended that adult programs i n education,  work-cum-  o r l e n t a t i o n , paid, apprenticeships and t e c h n i c a l and vocational t r a i n i n g be expanded.  I t i s recommendeds  that amall s c a l e u n i t s of production and other labour intensive p r o j e c t s be u t i l i s e d together with large scale  iv unit© of production that f a m i l y migration and community l i f e be encouraged; and that community service® and f a c i l i t i e s be considerably expanded i n acope and volume. I t i s f u r t h e r recommended that these f a c i l i t i e s and services be provided as emergency measures i n e x i s t i n g slums i n order to motivate immigrant© towards s e l f improvement.  I t i s considered that the Government  should take measures to encourage the p r o v i s i o n of more housing by p r i v a t e sources and non-profit organisations using ©elf-help and mutual-help methods.  It i s  recoaaen&ed that the government should adopt the p r i n c i p l e of neighbourhood planning within an Urban-Regional p h y s i c a l planning program administered through a proposed M i n i s t r y o f Urban-Begional Planning and Development at the f a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . I t i s concluded that the approach to the problem of housing r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas can not be a departmentalIssed onei rather a slajtultaneous attack on a l l i n t e r - r e l a t e d urban problems „ using a comprehensive approach i s imperative.  Only thus can India hope to solve  i t s problem o f housing r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas.  My thanks go to Dr. H.P. Oberlander, Heat, Community and Begional Planning, t r . B . C ,  whose  knowledge of the problems of the developing  countries  was a great source of help i n s e l e c t i n g the t h e s i s topic*  I am also highly g r a t e f u l to Br, K.J. Cross  of the Comaunity & Kegional Planning Department, who spent many an hour supervising my work and making valuable suggestions5 h i s constructive c r i t i c i s m was a great source of i n s p i r a t i o n . My gratitude also goes to m y wife, S a r o j , and to my f r i e n d , Aasia-ul-Haq, f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s . l a s t l y , the Canadian Government deserves a word of thanks f o r awarding me the Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship f o r my two-years studies at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  T A K E OF SONraeS PASS  ABSTRACT ..........«.«..«....«..»««.*.*.». ACKHOW&S)&Bl[£8$8 ' P A S T J S OW  COH^I^TS  i  i v  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  v i  T*IST 01? TABLES ...........................  s  LIST OF  E  CHAPfIB I.  KAflXOKAX, f&AKHXNS AND B0E3XHS S X f P A f l O H HI INDIA DSPlfflSXOB OF »H0ttSBTG» WIfB RE3PECE •20 IHDIA'S HOUSIU©  fHB L A I D A I D PBOPLE OF INDIA  v%mmm.-ts  BBITISH IKDIA  E0VHS1H3? 3I0.R f AflOBAL PLAHHIHQ •' W IIDIA ;  ISBIA'3 COifStlTOflOH AND GOflTOMff OH0ABIZA £XQ!f r  INDIA'S RATIOSA£ PMOTXKG G0WI33I0W DBVlLOFMMf OF ?8'E HAUIOJffAL. HOUSING • POLICY AND FfiOGBAHS H0US2JG POLICY AID PR0OKB3S UBDEB fHB PLAINS  1  vii CHAPTER  PAGE  URBAH PLAWUXHG AID MHD poixet AS ADOPTED BY THE 0OV1RHMMT OF INDIA FOR fSB THI IB PITTS YBAR P1AW PBRIOD RURAL I0U8XIG AND PLAOTIHG POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF ISBXA FOR THIS THIRD OTB YEAR PLAN PIRXOD HOUSIHG SITUATION II? IHDIA SUMMARY ASSUMPTIONS  STAVmm* 09 THE HYPOTHESIS II,  PROBLEMS RELAT1D TO HOUSING SITUATION IN _INDIA •«••••••••••«••••«•«•••«• THE HOUSING SITUATION AND ITS ALLIED PBOELS8S  .  INDIA'S POPULATION GROWTH .ARD THE HOU8XIG SHORTAGE BSATIOBBHIf BRTWBE1 TUB SHORTAGE OF HOUSIIG IH URBAN AREAS AND THE URBAH POPULATION GROWTH IBBIA'S POLICY OF DECENTRALIZATION OF liSBUSTRIlS AHD T i l FUTURE URBAN GROWTH PATTERN . LACK OF URBAN F2LAEWXNG  9  . viii CHAPTER  PAGE  APATHETIC ATTITUDE OF THE UHBAH m E B  TOWARDS  JWB@WW$S.,  'AHX> LACK OF UNITY AMONGST URBAN  wm&WB  URBAHIEATIOK HAS FRSOKDED 1C0?I01IC  $Wmomwi% WP IlfDUSTRXALmTXOtJ LACK OF BUILDIHG IKDUST1Y, BUILBIPQ MATERIALS AHD SKILLED LABOR . SOCIO-POLITICAL PROBLEMS''  SUMMARY III.  PROBLBSS O F RURAL IMMIG1AKTS TO 73  URBAI ARIAS' DBF INITIO!? O f RURAL AND URBAR ARIAS URBAI? VERSUS RURAL WAY OP L I V I N G e O K D I f I O I OP BOUSXBG AND R1LATSB :, :, PROBLHIS I I INDIA RURAL IMMIGRANTS I N THS URBAW AREAS PROBLBIS OP TBI: RURAL IMMIGRANTS I N ' THB URBAH ARIAS . TBI-  fmmm  OP OVERALL  ABJUSTOTT  TO THE URBAU EPrVIROgrHMT •pit IPPSJTS OP O V E R A L L OH HOUSING SUMMARY  mmmmv  CffAPfIB  17, TO XIIPQHMCI OF KcmsxirG ABJUa'fHSWf OF  is  ms  BPRAIJ X?MIGRAfff S  2 0 f i t UBBAN MVIROHM^T Iff XNBXA .».•••.««..«•..»•••..•«. 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 ASSOSPTIOH* * E &  AMD  SOOXO-FStOHOI.OGXCJAX* ADJUSTOOT?. JSSEP AITB RBCOMMS8BATX0NS PHYSXGAXi FLAWING* NBID AND •g»30BffliH»»AfIO»S GBETBRAL OOlfSIDEHAfXOIS AJJD • . HBOOMMSJDAf IOWS . BVAXtfASIOH OF tHB SfUDY? LIMIl'AfXOHS AUD KEED FOR f mmm BIBIIIOGBAPHY  STUDY  L I S T Of TABLES TABLE . I.  PAGE F A i l L I I S LIVING IB 0WB -BOOK OS LESS ..  i i , HOUSIHOLDS mm  vm CAPITA PLOOI  ABBA OP LESS THAI 50 SQUARE f B B f III.  33  PROJECTED ISTIMAfm  ..  33.  OP CITYWARD  MIGRATIONS IH LIBIA  53  L I S T OP FIGURES PAGE  fIGtJRS I.  POLITICAL MAP OF INDIA .  7  CHAPTER I WAf IOSAL PLAKBIgQ AfTO HOgSISO  A  jminvBm  OF  «i©fsiEG»  mm  BBSPSGT  1*0 INDIA«$ HOUSING FEOBLMS A committee of ©averts on the p u b l i c h e a l t h aspect of housing convened by the World Health Organization i n 1 9 © 1 defined " s h e l t e r " as "an enclosed environment ( i n which man find©) p r o t e c t i o n against the elements,  n  (is)  "safe and secure from h o s t i l e f o r c e s and can f u n c t i o n with greater vigour, more e f f i c i e n c y , with increased comfort and s a t i s f a c t i o n , and i n which he can safeguard h i s possessions, and be assured o f privacy f o r himself and h i s family". * ffae Committee r e f e r r e d t o "housing" i n 2  i t s present day concept i n terms o f the " r e s i d e n t i a l environment", "neighbourhood*, "micro d i s t r i c t " , and the " p h y s i c a l structure that mankind uses f o r s h e l t e r and the environs o f that structure i n c l u d i n g a l l necessary  *World Health Organisation, Expert Committee on the P u b l i c Health Aspects of Housing t F i r s t Report. . t e c h n i c a l l e p o r t Series Ho. 225, Geneves IB®, 1961) p. 6. 9  s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s equipment and devices needed or desired f o r the p h y s i c a l and mental health and "the s o c i a l wellbeing of the family and i n d i v i d u a l * . 1  2  The International Labour.Ooafereaoe a t i t s f o r t y - f i f t h session at Geneva i n 1961  adopted a Beeos-  aeadation on Workers Housing which establishes that 8  the objective of national p o l i c y i s "to p r o m o t e within r  the framework of general housing p o l i c y , the  construction  of housing and related oogssunity f a c i l i t i e s with 'a-view to ensuring that adequate and decent housing accommodations and a s u i t a b l e l i v i n g environment are made a v a i l a b l e to a l l workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , * ^ The Conference re&Ofamended that .Workers' housing . should i n so f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e and taking i n t o account a v a i l a b l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e transport f a c i l i t i e s , within easy reach of places .of employment proximity  and i n close  e  to community f a c i l i t i e s , such as  shopping centres,  be  schools,  , and should be so s i t e d  as to form a t t r a c t i v e and w e l l - l a i d - o u t neighbourhoods, i n c l u d i n g open spaces."^" 2  I b l d . . p.7. .  ^International Labour Organisation Heoord of gfSS?** "**' j f fnational.- Labour, t w e r e g c e > j o r | ^ : f i f t h S e s s i o n _ i 9 6 j TBeeommendatxon lo» 115, Geneva* Infcerwilonal Labour O f f i c e , 1962), "paras', g and 41. t  1  I a  e  para 45 •  ^International Labour Organisation,  OP. cit..  3« "On  th© b a s i s of the d e f i n i t i o n of "housing* as  provided'by th© committee of  experts on the p u b l i c health  aspect of housing convened by the World Bealth"Organisat i o n and th® recommendation o'f the 'international Labour Conference, as stated above, i t seems l o g i c a l to conclude that. 1)  the meaning of Housing i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  r e s t r i c t e d to "shelter* or to the "physical structure 1  that the mankind uses f o r s h e l t e r " or to the "housing accommodation", i n c l u d i n g a l l "household f a c i l i t i e s " . 2)  By Housing i s meant at l e a s t both the "physical  structure" that mankind use© f o r s h e l t e r together with the environs of that s t r u c t u r e . 3)  fhe environs of the structure Includes a i l  necessary s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and  devices  needed or desired f o r the p h y s i c a l and mental health t h e ' s o c i a l wellbeing of  and  the family and'the i n d i v i d u a l .  It i s through these various f a c i l i t i e s , and u t i l i t i e s , that the i n d i v i d u a l and M s  services  family i s linked  to the community, and the community to the region i n which i t progresses and develops.  Housing thus c o n s t i t u t e s the  "physical environment" i n which the family, the society*& basic u n i t , must develop.  For the s a t i s f a c t o r y development  of the family an environment i n c l u d i n g more than simply the "physical environment" based on s o c i a l and economic needs, i s required.  $he very r e l a t i o n s h i p between the " s h e l t e r " and its"environment", involves relationship©•of far.reaching social.consequences between. (a) - numbers of  population,  (b) density of settlement, (e) heterogeneity or homogeneity of inhabitants and group' l i f e * and  (d) the need©  of individual© and those of the community, depending upon people's behaviour, welfare and a t t i t u d e s under d i f f e r e n t .environmental conditions,  fhe p h y s i c a l l i f e o f a  dwelling,  and the p h y s i c a l environment of a community have a great many s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s ,  f u r t h e r , the p h y s i c a l  and  mental health of the f a m i l y and of the i n d i v i d u a l are both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the space standards and dwelling types necessary to s a t i s f y various requirements.  family  In a d d i t i o n , the community f a c i l i t i e s !  aesthetics of housing design; e x t e r i o r space In a housing development i n f l u e n c i n g l i g h t , a i r , play space, "amenity", and p r i v a c y also contribute towards the same. fh©  study of "Housing" also involves the problem of  determining an economic r a t i o n a l e f o r on® of the most d i f • f l c u l t decisions f a c i n g low per .capita'- income countries, i n c l u d i n g I n d i a , i n t h e i r development programs and p o l i c i e s ? the r e l a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of resources to investment i n housi n g ( i n c l u d i n g community f a c i l i t i e s ) ,  fhe "peculiar d i f f i -  c u l t y i n a l l o c a t i o n of resources to housing a r i s e s from a number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the dual p o s i t i o n of housing  5.  as both a c a p i t a l and a consumption good,  traditionally,  the construction of housing and community•facilities.has , been considered a necessary but "unproductive** adjunct of i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and u r b a n i s a t i o n .  A housing p o l i c y  designed to optimise a country*s general economic growth 1 © a departure from past p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s and from t r a d i t i o n a l views*  Thus housing becomes an instrument of  economic growth p o l i c i e s o r ® t o o l f o r securing broader national goals. In  summary then, by "Sousing", f o r the purposes of  t h i s paper, thus i s meant a "balanced s o c i a l - p h y s i c a l environment"  i n which the f a m i l y , the s o c i e t y ' s basic u n i t  must develop,  from the f a m i l y ' s perspective, however,  housing i s not " s h e l t e r " o r "household f a c i l i t i e s " alone, but comprises a number of f a c i l i t i e s , u t i l i t i e s , services (physical and s o c i a l ) which affect, the environment  of the  s h e l t e r and which l i n k the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s f a m i l y to the community and the community to the region i n which I t grows and progresses.  A l s o , Housing has been considered  as a productive c a p i t a l investment and also a consumption good of f a r reaching s o c i a l and economic consequences f o r the community.  Henceforth, t h i s meaning s h a l l be used  with respect to. India'a housing problems.  6 fHB LAND AW f B I PSDPLB Of IBBIA • fh@ Republic of India, also known aa  Bharat,  i s w e l l segregated from the r e s t o f A s i a by mountains and the sea, whioh gives the country geographical u n i t y . Bounded by the Himalayas i n the north, th©  country  stretches southwards and, at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers o f f i n t o the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.  Lying e n t i r e l y  i n the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between l a t i t u d e s 8°4 '28* and 3T°17*9'3* north and longitudes 68°7 33" and 97°24'7" east, measuring about 2,000 miles 8  from north to south and about 1,850  miles from east to  west and covers an area of 1,261,411 square m i l e s .  It  has a land f r o n t i e r 9,425 miles long and a c o a s t l i n e of 3,535 mile©.  5  According to the 1961 was approximately  census, India's population  439 m i l l i o n , comprising 226  males and 212 m i l l i o n females.  million  f h i s vast population i s  d i s t r i b u t e d over 15 States ( a l s o known as Provinces) 8 Union t e r r i t o r i e s (See map,  page 7 ) .  and  the climate v a r i e s  considerably from the extreme c o l d of th© Himalayan region,  (Hew  'Government of India.•India - A Inference Annual Delhi» P u b l i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 19^2)'.'p'.i.'  ^Census of I n d i a 1961 ( F i n a l population t o t a l s , Paper No. 1 of 1962, $ew Delhi* Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962), p.v.  7.  POLITICAL M A P OF •  c  , r> JAMMU I KASHMIR j  <  v  S  r i.  ©Srinagar  '  Jammu ......  j  /  OLeh  r  digarh-.-./'Chandiga PUNJAB  ^  INDIA (SiliKiui .ind Bhutan States are attached to India oy special treaties)  Nainital/^ A S^,  .HipDelhi '  I  O.Bikaner v  RAJASTHAN  Z'  f*  /  <v  r  }  _~  Mathura  -P Agra  <  ^4 , V  Chitorgarh =.  'i  Banaras...  r  •: > Bhopal  O (V^-^  jabalpus  MADHYA PRADESH  Ahmedabad^..-  Q  L Patna Gaya O BIHAR  •'••- i  O  jw  f ^ 1  ^<£?,  {  ^  '.-?Oi".'  •  t  5  la : \  BENGALI. Calcutta  t  S  i MAHARASHTRA Poona  .v>>  x'''  •2i  Hyderabad  f Kumool ^ a h  r  MYSORE  °  .O  •y Bangalor^ \  = o z >  ^ Madras Mahabalirxiram  Mysore O  Pofidicherry  D O  ^ -P \  So 1- T  '7  ^Tiruchirapalll  °  <  ^  A /^ i> U * i .  Nagpur O  Bombay©^.  /-'j  ;  PAKISTAN  \Rajkot  ^0  '  VP  © Lucknow  Jaipur?  \.  t-'mi.-."BHUTAN.  Q  i  Madura! •: O  Trivandrum^' Cape Comorin  FIGURE I POLITICAL MAP OP INDIA (SOURCE: INDIA - A REFERENCE ANNUAL 1962)  t  0?  to the scorching- heat of-the plains- in'the sutamer ar d p  4  from'-a-yaiafali^of 50© inches i n th© Assam h i l l s , to t b « dry arid-'©Ximat©' o f the • Jaiealmor ia. Ra-Jaethan where'-not-: :  even f o u r inches o f r a i n i s recorded during the year. She sex rati© v a r i e s considerably l a the various p a r t s o f Indigu  l?h© number o f females per 1*000 i s l e s  was recorded as low as 616 i n Andaman and fflcobar© 1 elands and as high as 1,022 i n K e r a l a .  On an average the number  of f©sales-per thousand males i n 19$1 was 940. fhe density of population also v a r i e s throughout I n d i a .  In the e#nsus  o f 1 9 6 1 . , the lowest density (20 persons $ e r square mile) was recorded i n Andaman tficoear i s l a n d s whereas the highest ( 4 * 6 1 4 persons per square mile) was recorded i n Del-kl. • According' to - westem'fftaadards. Indians: h a v e - v # r y low l i f e expectancy.-  I t was 'estimated -in-1961--that the- •  expectation- o f l i f e - a t •birth' f o r male:- and/female- i s 4i»6$ 1  • and'42'-.©6-years-'respectively.  • $he- l a t e s t (i.961). census  also shows that the boys and g i r l s i n the age group o f 5 to 14 years 'dominate  the -age • s t r u c t u r e o f -Indian-popuia-  t i o a being 24• 8 percent o f t o t a l .population. ..'this age group i s followed by the-young men-and women, i n , the .age group o f 15 to 24-yeara and 25 t o 34 years amounting to 17.4 and'.15.6 percentage o f the t o t a l population. fhe • e l d e r l y persons i n the age-group--, of 55 and. up -are only 1  0.3 percentage of t o t a l population.-  $«*e«At-of  t»tai<'$epi&*ti<>& witla fh©/ %ato©# $Q&»i#» :  ting, of 8&6ii&, -Qivlatiatt,,  • ^al«« '-•lttiih&©t»  ;  that- th© ef f leiadk lang&ag© #f  teas*  Union snail -1© lim&i • -'  im -tli© tovoftgori -awwipt ©si tfe© feint of •mms©-**®!© im • o f f i e i J i l y»s$06ts- .tihalX  %M  tfe»' &mmmMmm.< ^mm '®f •  ludi&a ®jm«rml©».^latli©fe M l l  8  3tt*cva»« • #®iatim© f# M  th# #ffi«islHlaiiiaaf@' for .& period-of 15 f*tac# from -tb#  '*%mm& if? w&mm wm& . . fii&-..60iMH$t'  m& .seope of .;pl©^»img':.ias- ehaisnsd  considerably • l a . - l u i i a • i t o ® .  ^mmm • 4«i#f©s*d«t -is  If*?.* • iisao© tHttft>'.ylttsniiMi &&© -lte<aes*< aa.- mmmmm $m®«* tton of goir©3^@at. at a l l 3.«v&*#- fyiof.'-lo. ;l©4?» "th© ©Oii&try was divided 1st© ftritiafe $r&r&8at»'' « d f titter*}? • Stat©©,  m®.mmm-mm  sj&iay?  wa© c&rri-ad on by la6«$e&&#i»t  it&oi? « ^ a w * i r t i © a f & © ^ T # i m © s t of  Imdia WE© »%on»ibl© f o r th#. m®imt#nan©©'-of, .law .aa£ ord«y» mteetsnOFi asad f o ^ l g a aml&tioa® for-lis©©®.  #t&t«*«  ^i©  fh® f m m * * * Turn teewtjjr d©oi$©d 'Hfe^t after 1965» whan Hindi becomes th© p r i n c i p a l o f f i c i a l language of th© Oaten* tagaiflfe w i l l oo,a%lnu© aa. th©. a»b9idi©^f, ©#fi©l«& ia&g&aje f m m %m% m may be MMMMJIT* ?  10. provinces functioned independently  and separately,  fn©  Governor of the provinces was responsible to the Viceroy, the representative of the §rown.  Bach of these p o l i t i c a l  u n i t s c a r r i e d on development schemes without any r e l a t i o n to the other'unite. . fhe fubli© f o r k s ©epartaent played a major r o l e i n a l l the development,  fhe coordination  between the various provinces and the states was inadequate and the disputes were many,  the d i s p a r i t y and  imbalance o f r e g i o n a l development was an i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of the complex administrative and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . Most o f the development schemes c a r r i e d on by the c e n t r a l ' government were based on the needs o f the then government,  fhe i d e a o f 'planning f o r the nation• was beyond  the imagination of the administrators due to various administrative and p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and apathy on the part o f the r u l e r s .  fhus i t was but n a t u r a l that  the then government of I n d i a followed a p o l i c y o f l a l s s e s f a i r s which continued u n t i l 1947. Before India achieved her independence the p u b l i c e f f o r t s i n the f i e l d o f Sousing were l i m i t e d to the preventive measure against slum conditions and promotion o f p u b l i c health regulations, and were e n t i r e l y a provinc i a l and s t a t e matter*  Subsidised housing schemes were  unknown and loans f o r housing schemes were few except i n the cantonment ( m i l i t a r y settlements)  areas o f a few  11. • c i t i e s , which were u s u a l l y occupied by the  non-Indian  population. Land tenure varied, from• ©tat© to s t a t e and-. • province't® p-revlnee*  Absentee lamd-lordie® was p r e v a l -  ent i n a l l the provinces and the s t a t e s .  Within 'the.;-,  provinces and the atatea the Eaialndari •• system ^ s i s t e i . 8  By t h i s system, groups of v i l l a g e s and towns were'©mod • by a s i n g l e  'Saminfiar* who  would pay the taxes to the  government and c o l l e c t h i s own  tases f r o a a l l the teaaate*  In most o f the smaller s t a t e s , a l l the land was owned by the r u l e r s .  Only © very small percentage of tenants  oimed t h e i r lands e i t h e r i n - t h e provinces o r the state©, the i n h e r i t a n c e r i g h t s v a r i e d ' i n general from p a t r i a r c h y to the extreme matriarchy, i n the s t a t e of fravancore•Ooehia.  In the- Province of Aeaaa'and.the State of  f y®~ . .  vaneore~Go@hi» there was c o n t r o l over s u b d i v i s i o n of gardens and estates while i n other provinces - and states there  B O c o n t r o l e i t h e r with respect to the else or  to the type o f land holdings.  12» MOVIHWf FOR HAflOffAL P&APXM  XTOXA  While ialsae.ft faire offers ^individual reapoa©ibillty, individual i n i t i a t i v e , f l e x i b i l i t y and quickness' of decision, planning extends systematic coordination, rational application of s c i e n t i f i c and technical achievements, a balance between supply and demand guaranteeing a decent standard of l i v i n g . "  In hie pioneering work,  •Planned Sconomy for India• (1934), M . Visvesvaraya advocated the necessity f o r planning and also drew mp a ten-year programme of planned economic development for the whole of India.  In 193@# a National Planning Commit**  tee wad set up by the Indian National Congress to inquire into the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of planned economic development i n India and to ougg©a* practicable schemes f o r this purpose, fhe Committee issued a questionnaire and, at the end of World f a r I I , produced a series of studies on the ®ub|@ct edited by Prof. E.f.  Shah.  In June 1941, a number of  Beoonstructlon Committees were set up by the Government of India to deal with various aspect® of post-war reconstruction, and a Department of Planning and Development was created'in July 1944.  fhe Central Sovernmemt •*  various departments made separate plans, /proainent among . %.A. Sutkiad. Creative Demobilisation - Frinolgles of National Planning (London* Kegan Paul, breach, "frub'aer ^ 0 0 . , Ltd., 1943)• P« 16.  13. those were ©r* Howard's Post War --forest'Felicy,  Adaxfcev*a Post f a r BeveXopaen* of'Indian- f i s h e r i e s , . Br.  Gregory'a f e a t t a r frade P o l i c y and l o c a l i s a t i o n ' of  industries etc.  fhe P r o v i n c i a l Oovemaente were also  i n s t r u c t e d i n the same year post-war development,  to-prepare their-plans. "for • :  t h e - r e s u l t s were few-and i s o l a t e d  ones such as Ra. 600 crores (6 b i l l i o n ) plan f o r development of Bombay's countryside. Among the n o n - o f f i c i a l plans formulated World f a r It were* ( i )  during  the Bombay Plan, d r a f t e d by a  group of eooBon&ate and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , mostly from Bombayi ( i l ) the People'a Plan, drafted by H.if. Boy behalf of the f o s t ^ f a r Beeone true t i o n  on  ooaal'ttee of the  Indian f e d e r a t i o n of Labour; and ( i l l ) the Gandhian F l a n drafted by S.U-.  Agaraal*.  •  the Bombay Plan advocated i&temse indu&trialiaa*t i o n of I n d i a and aimed at doubling the per capita? income i n 15 years a f t e r making allowances f o r an increase i n the population at the r a t e of 5 m i l l i o n per annum. was proposed that the  It  .Plea be implemented by a supreme  economic c o u n c i l working alongside «tdth a  'Rational  Planning Committee • with the sanction and under the aegis of the Government of I n d i a . ^  fhe People •a plan emphasized  % i r Furahotamdas fhakurdas and Others, Bombay Plan o r ,fo#ia»a l y a p e A a B^veppment,(-gw Tor^a I n t e r n a t i o n a l e e r e t a r i a t of P a c i f i c d e l a t i o n s , 1944), pp. 9^14.  f  14 a scheme of labour welfare and the standardisation of the working c o n d i t i o n s . The p l a n envisaged  satisfaction  of B a s i c needs, c l o t h i n g , food, and s h e l t e r , w i t h i n ten years. ®  Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamehahd Gandhi),  1  who  i s known as  always advocated  'The f a t h e r of the Nation* i n I n d i a , the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s o c i a l l i f e  and cottage i n d u s t r i e s of the r u r a l areas.  In  1945,  n  •fhe Gandhian P l a n - S  brought  i n t o b o l d r e l i e f a code  of Gandhlan economics as a p p l i c a b l e to I n d i a . A l l these plans remained without any r e l a t i o n to the work done by the Government of I n d i a as they were a l l unofficial.  A f t e r independence, the National Planning  Commission was set up by the Government of I n d i a i n March 1950  to prepare a Plan f o r the most e f f e c t i v e and  balanced u t i l i z a t i o n of the country•s resources. J u l y 1950,  the Commission was  In  c a l l e d upon to prepare a  six-year plan f o r the economic development of the country, which was l a t e r incorporated i n the Colombo  !fl.N. Boy, People's Plan (Bombay8 Indian f e d e r a t i o n of Labour, 19 44), pp. 1-16. 1G  ^S.N. Agarwal, $he Gandhlan Plan (Bombay? Indian National Congress, 1945) .  15 Flan.  In July 1951,  the Planning Commission issued a  draft outline of the F i r s t f i v e tear Plan covering period April 1951 to March 1956. f i n a l version of India's Pirat  th® th©  In December' 1952,  iv© Year Plan"mm •submit-  ted to and, adopted by the Parliament.' " Since'' then India ha® completed two f i v e Year Plans and at present the third f i v e tear Plan (1961-1966) i@ operating in' India. fhe central objective of public policy and  of  national endeavour i n India since Independence has been the promotion of rapid and balanced economic development. National public policy also states that the planning must accelerate the institutional changes needed to make the economy more dynamic and more progressive i n terms of social as well as of economic goals.  Development has  been considered aa a continuous process, touching a l l aspects of community l i f e which must be viewed comprehensively.  Economic planning thus extends i t s e l f into  extra-economic spheres such as educational, social and cultural areas.  One of th® main objectives of planning  since Independence has been to i n i t i a t e a process of development f o r raising l i v i n g standards and to open, out to the people new opportunities f o r a richer and sore varied l i f e .  1 2  India'- A leference Annual, o>.eit... s. 175  16. fhe fir©-! Five Year Plan (1951-52 to 1955-56)  9  through i t s emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r e , i r r i g a t i o n , power and transport, aimed at c r e a t i n g the base f o r more r a p i d economic and i n d u s t r i a l advance i n the f u t u r e .  I t also  i n i t i a t e d some o f the basic p o l i c i e s by way ©f s o c i a l change and- i n s t i t u t i o n a l ref©pas, which were f u r t h e r developed during the Second F l a n ,  fh© Second Plan  (195©-  57 to 1960-61) not only c a r r i e d these p o l i c i e s a step f u r t h e r , but l a i d emphasis on the development o f basic and heavy i n d u s t r i e s . ^ 1  the immediate aim of the t h i r d f l a n (1960-61 to 1965-66) 1st ( i ) to secure an increase i n n a t i o n a l income of over 5 per cent per annum, and at the same time to ensure a pattern of investment so as to s u s t a i n t h i s rate of growth during subsequent Plan periods; ( i i ) to achieve s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n food supply and increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production industry and exports;  to meet the requirements of  ( i l l ) to expand basic 'industries  such as s t e e l , chemicals, f u e l , power and to e s t a b l i s h a machine b u i l d i n g capacity, so that the requirements of f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n can be met within a period of ten years o r so mainly from the country•© own r e sources; ( i v ) to u t i l i s e to the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e extent  17 the manpower resources of the country and to ensure a :  s u b s t a n t i a l expansion i n employment opportunities^ (v).  to e s t a b l i s h progresaively greater e q u a l i t y of  opportunity and to bring abort reduction i n d i s p a r i t i e s i n income and wealth and a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic power. *  •  1  ..-.'••..•••<'•.•.  INDIA'S <X>N$$IOT)ION AND CGVIBNlOTf OEGANI2ATIOU . She '.independence of India i n IS47 was followed by the administrative i n t e g r a t i o n of the former p r i n c e l y states.  By January 26th  9  195©,  a l l the former p r i n c e l y  states had e i t h e r been integrated i n a separate bigger state or merged with the provinces r e s u l t i n g i n a smaller number of the component u n i t s o f the BniOn. This event was followed by the a b o l i t i o n of Eamindari and the merger of Samindari areas with the  provinces,  The i n t e g r a t i o n of s t a t e s j thus, opened the eyes of the l e g i s l a t o r s to the necessity of administrative u n i t y and cooperation f o r successful planning.  Section 3, o f the  Constitution of India empowers Parliament to a l t e r and adjust the state boundaries a f t e r a s c e r t a i n i n g the views of the State L e g i s l a t u r e s .  the objective o f t h i s Section  ^Government o f I n d i a ~ Planning Commission, t h i r d F i v e Year Plan (New D e l h i : Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19&1) p. 48.  /  18, was e s s e n t i a l l y to permit adjustment of the administrat i v e boundaries o f  the states to further the goal® of  economic development and planning* I n d i a has a f e d e r a l type o f government based on parliamentary democracy.  She Union Ixeeuflve ..consists  of the President, Vice-President a n d t h © Council o f M i n i s t e r s ( a l s o known as Cabinet) with the Prime S i n i s t e r a t i t s head,  the  L e g i s l a t u r e of; the 9 a l o n  c a l l e d "Parliament",  which i s  consists of the President and the r  1  two Bouses knemo as the C o u n c i l of States o r Upper House) and the o r Lower House).  t  (l&Jya Sabha  louse of the People (Lok Sabha  f he Union J u d i c i a r y i s known as the  Supreme Court of I n d i a and c o n s i s t s o f a Chief J u s t i c e and other Judges appointed by the President. - the system of Government i n the  s t a t e s as 'embodied i n F a r t VI o f  the C o n s t i t u t i o n , closely resembles that o f the Union, fhe State Executive c o n s i s t s o f the Governor and a Council of M i n i s t e r s ( P r o v i n c i a l Cabinet) with a Chief M i n i s t e r at i t s head,  for  every state there i s a L e g i s -  l a t u r e which c o n s i s t s of the Governor and the two Houses (except i n a few provinces which have only one Bouse the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i . e . , Lower House). a High Court i n each State which stands at the  the State's J u d i c i a l administration,  there i s head of  ©rery union t e r r i -  tory i s administered by the President a c t i n g , to such  19. extant a© a© thinks f i t , through an administrator. the head o f th© Indian ttaiea i© th© President. A l l executive authority o f the Galon , Including the supreme command o f the Defence F o r c e s  e  formally vests In  the President and a l l ©xeoutiv© actions o f the Government are taken In h i e name. In the ©xerois© o f M e  function©  e  the President 1®.aided, and advised'by a Cetuoall ©f . Minister© with th© Prim© 'flULmlater a t it© feoad. f h e Council o f Minister®, as a t present o<m6tlt&t«A. . t  @©mprl@@©  ( i ) M i n i s t e r s who mm member© ©f the Cabinet, ( i l ) M i n i sters, o f -State who are not aenaars o f th©- Cabinet but hold Cabinet rank and ( l i l ) Deputy Sinister©.  $he Cabinet  f i n a l s determines and lay©. down th© p o l i c y o f the Government.  In order to regulate the a l l o c a t i o n o f Government  business and 'it© convenient transaction, Bule© of .Business have been framed under A r t i c l e 77(3)  o f th© C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  fhe 'allocation 1© made by th® President on the advice o f th® Prime Miaiatar by s p e c i f y i n g th© item© o f toualnaaa a l l o t t e d to each s i n i s t e r and by ©©signing © M i n i s t r y o r ©• part of a M i n i s t r y o r more than one .tfialatry charge o f a M i n i s t e r ,  th®  t h e M i n i s t e r i s ©©metis*©© a s s i s t e d  by a Deputy M i n i s t e r , who performs such function© a© may b© assigned to him. A secretary t o Government 1© th© admlnletratlv© Head o f a S i a i s t r y and the p r i n c i p a l .advisor of th© M i n i s t e r .  20.  fhe Governor "is the head' i n each State.' ' A l l . executive actions' of the' State 'are'*' taken i n h i s ' name. In the exercise of h i s f u n c t i o n  Governor i s aided  and ''advise'^ by '"a'Council of' 'Mihi'st'ere 'with the.' Chief S i n i s t e r a t the head."' fhe 'Council Work's on 'the' p r i n c i p l e ' 1  of c o l l e c t i v e m i n i s t e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i s accountable to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the State,  fhe  p r i n c i p a l u n i t of administration i n a State i s t h e d i s t r i c t under a C o l l e c t o r and D i s t r i c t Magistrate.  As  C o l l e c t o r , he i s responsible to the Commissioner who heads a d i v i s i o n or to the Board of Revenue (depending upon the p r a c t i c e obtaining i n a p a r t i c u l a r S t a t e ) , and through that agency to the Government.  Co-ordination f o r  purposes of development programmes at State Headquarters i s achieved through an inter-departmental Committee of Secr e t a r i e s i n charge of v a r i o u s development departments with the Chief Secretary o r the Secretary i n charge of planning as the chairman.  Generally, the functions of co-ordina-  t i o n f o r planning and f o r the implementation of programmes i n the d i s t r i c t s are combined i n a s i n g l e o f f i c e r commonly described as the Development Commissioner.  As a r u l e , a  Gomkitiee of the State Cabinet under the Chief M i n i s t e r provides o v e r a l l guidance and d i r e c t i o n .  State Planning  Boards which include l e a d i n g n o n - o f f i c i a l s have also been c o n s t i t u t e d i n most of, the States.  L o c a l self-governing  21. imetitution© are broadly c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two • .tiategorlea * urban a n d r u r a l , Corporation©  l a th© b i g oltie© they &*a known as  and i n medium and small town© a© Municipal  9  Committee© o r Boards,  fhe pattern o f l o c a l government i n  r u r a l areas ha© raoe&tly been changed, and a three-tier.  ;  >..•  s t r u c t u r e , popularly known as •Panchayati ia3 % 1© being introduced'-in the-vaxiou© State®.  Paarfe  IV. of: tha C o n s t i t u t l o n  P r i n c i p l e s o f Stat©Policy, not  lays- down, Jht- D i r e c t i v e  fhea© ^Directive©*, though  enforceable through c o u r t s of law, are regarded a®  fundamental i n the governance o f the country*  fheee l a y  down that the State s h a l l strive- to promote, the welfare o f the.people by securing and p r o t e c t i n g as--effectively a© I t may a s o c i a l order i n Wbi'ob j u a t i c e , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l , ©hall inform a l l the institution© o f the national l i f e ,  fhee© Directive© f u r t h e r require the  Stat© to d i r e c t it© p o l i c y i n such a manner a© to ©©our© the  r i g h t o f a l l men and women to an adequate means o f  l i v e l i h o o d , equal pay f o r equal..work,- and, within th© limit© of it© ©oonomic capacity and development, to make e f f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n f o r securing the r i g h t to work, to education and to p u b l i c assistance i n the event of unemployment, o l d age, sickness and disablement*  fh© Stat©  i s also required to secure f o r worker© human© condition© of work, a decent standard^.©* l i f e , and to provide the  opportunities f o r .the---' f a i l enjoyment of*-their* l e i s u r e • time f o r t h e i r greater s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development In the economic sphere, the State i s to d i r e c t i t s p o l i c y i n a manner as to secure the d i s t r i b u t i o n - of ownership and c o n t r o l - o f the-material-resources o f the :  community to subserve'the  common .good-and t o ensure that .  the operation o f the economic system does not r e s u l t i n the concentration of wealth and means of production to eommon detriment, .-fhe.-State i s also enjoined t o guard against the abuse of workers  8  h e a l t h and strength and  to p r o t e c t childhood and youth from being f o r c e d by economic n e c e s s i t y t o enter evocations uasuited f o t h e i r age o r strength, -against e x p l o i t a t i o n and'against- -moral, and m a t e r i a l abandonment.^  It-was-imperative  f o r Parliament, t o work towards ;  s o l v i n g India»a socio-economic problems i n l i n e . with the " D i r e c t i v e s " o f the. Constitution.-  f o translate, the .dlreo^  t i v e a i n t o programmes o f planned a c t i o n • a Statutory . f  Planning Commission was set up by the Government o f I n d i a .  'India - A 'Befarenas Annual, op.. elt.«v a•-,14India - A Heference Annual, l o c . -.cit:. -  23. The p r i n c i p a l duties of the National Planning Commission ares  1.  f o make an assessment of the materials c a p i t a l and human resources o f the country. Including t e c h n i c a l -personnel and to i n v e s t i g a t e the • p o s s i M l l t i s s " of - augmenting' ''such; o f 'these " resources as are found to be d e f i c i e n t i n • relation :to'- the nation's requirement©. " s  ;  1  2.  3.  fo formulate a p l a n f o r the most e f f e c t i v e and balanced u t i l i s a t i o n o f the country »@ • resources*'" -fo define' the- stages "in which • the p l a n ' should ' be c a r r i e d out, and to propose the a l l o c a t i o n of resource© f o r the due completion of each stage on a determination of prioritie©.  4,  fo'-indicate th® factor© which are tending to . r e t a r d economic development, and to determine the conditions which, i n view o f the current social- and p o l i t i c a l ©ligation, should b e established f o r the successful execution of th© plan* ' •  5.  To determine the nature o f the machinery which would be necessary f o r securing the ©ue@©s©ful implementation of each stage o f th© plan i n a l l i t s aspect©.  6.  f o appraise from time to time the progress achieved i n th© execution o f each "©tag® o f the plan and to recommend the adjustment© of p o l i c y and measures that such a p p r a i s a l might ©how to be necessary.  7o  f o make such i n t e r i m o r a n c i l l a r y recommendation© a© might be appropriate on a considerat i o n o f the p r e v a i l i n g economic conditions, current p o l i c i e s , measures, and development programmes, or on an examination o f such s p e c i f i c problems as may be ref©rraft to'it' f o r advice by c e n t r a l o r ©tat© government,, o r f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the discharge of th© duties assigned to i t . - ' :  2  (Poonat p.90.  asning and Economic f?olioy i n India '" o f Politic© and loonomies ', 19&2)',' 1  24*  ; • the Hati©»al Planning ©©amission, was to prepare a P l a n - f o r the d©velopmeat o f I n d i a and to advise the Cabinet i n the • implementa-tion of, sa©h-a./Fl&»... As a s a f e * guard against the lational-Flaaning.Gommlssion  becoming a  super-cabinet, i t was to-serve in. an advisory-capacity to the Cabinet*  A l l the members o f t h e Commission are appoi:  nted while some o f them are ex^offieio-. fh© minister©" ;  of Planning, finance and i n d u s t r i e s a r e • e x - o f f i e l o members* fhe other m i n i s t r i e s nominate t h e i r own representatives • • to advise the Commission i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s . At l e a s t a t h i r d o f the members are nominated from among the members o f the Parliament by the President.  Also the  .President has powers to nominate anybody to the membership of the Commission,  fhe Chairman i s e l e c t e d by the  members from among..themselv©® o r outside.  the.vice-  chairman who i s the c h i e f executive o f the Commission, i s nominated by the .president under the advice o f the. frim® Minister,  f h e Commission has a t e c h n i c a l s t a f f o f i t s  own f u n c t i o n i n g under the executive d i r e c t i o n o f the VioeGhairman and derives i t s funds from the M i n i s t r y of Planning.  I t i s responsible to the Cabinet and the appointed  members hold o f f i c e f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e years o r u n t i l t h e i r s e r v i c e s are terminated by the President o f the Republic»  . w r w w m *  of  mi  FOM0T'  MTIOIAI,  25.  mmim  >B08RAH3  'fhe r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Government a n i p u b l i c bodies to provide adequate accommodation f o r t h e i r ©saployee© was recognised i n I n d i a even before •Independence,  fhe Government of Bombay pioneered i n t h i s d i r e c t  t i o n In 1921 by e s t a b l i s h i n g a Development Bop a r t men t o fhe e f f o r t ^ which was discontinued a f t e r 15,000 tenements were b u i l t , was resumed i n 1949 and a s p e c i a l Housing Board was s e t up f o r building houses f o r i n d u s t r i a l workers and other low income groups, developing land and a s s i s t i n g In the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of b u i l d i n g materials.  Improvement f r u s t a i n Bombay, C a l c u t t a , Madras  and Kanpur also undertook p u b l i c housing schemes.  Muni-  c i p a l i t i e s have also been engaged i n b u i l d i n g houses not only f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l s t a f f , but o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r low income groups i n general,  fhe M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and Improve-  ment t r u s t s , however, operate under severe l i m i t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in.the matter of- f i n a n c e . The a c t i v i t i e s of the Central Government t i l l  1950  were confined l a r g e l y t o p r o v i d i n g houses f o r t h e i r employ"* ees, p a r t i c u l a r l y In the e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s ,  fhe influx  of displaced persons from Pakistan provided the Union Government an opportunity to undertake f o r the f i r s t time a l a r g e scale housing programme f o r persons other than  2S. t h e i r own  employees.  A s i m i l a r extension o f State  a c t i v i t y was made i n West Bengal, Bihar, Oris©© and Punjab. Sine© May 1$§2,  when a separate p o r t f o l i o  was  created i n the Union iovernaeiat, organised' e f f o r t s being mad© on a governmental b a s i s to set up  .a*>  housing  a c t i v i t i e s i n general and In p a r t i c u l a r to provide s u i t a b l e f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of house©'for'individual©, by housing cooperative s o c i e t i e s , i n d u s t r i a l employer©, planter©:, l o c a l bodies, e t c . , through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of various housing schemes. Corresponding  to the Housing Wing i n the Union M i n i s t r y  of Work© Housing and Supply, th© State Governments have established separate department© ( o r Wings) f o r promoting housing a c t i v i t i e s .  Statutory Housing f c a r d s have  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n a few provinces, and a non-statutory Housing Board ha© been set up i n one province.  HOtJSIIfG POX.I0T AND PS06R18S MDBS £H1 PLANS fhe p e r i o d o f the F i r s t - f i v e Year Plan- was devoted to the formulation of p o l i c y regarding the i n i t i a l stage© In the ©volution of a n a t i o n a l housing program,  fwo  Urban Housing Schemes - the Subsidized I n d u s t r i a l Bousing Scheme and the Low fhoom© Group Bousing Scheme - envisagi n g an expenditure of B©# 365  m i l l i o n were i n i t i a t e d f o r  27. the construe t i o n of ,12 m i l l i o n dwelling u n i t s . e f f o r t was  fJiis  supplemented by housing programmes f o r c e r t a i n  sections of the population such as displaced persons, government servants, e t c . , launched by the Central and State Governments and by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . I t has been estimated  that the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s provided  about .742 m i l l i o n houses during the f i r s t f l a n period, During the Second f i v e Year Plan p e r i o d s i x more schemes were promulgated v i z , the P l a n t a t i o n Labour Housing Scheme, the Slum Glearanee Scheme, the V i l l a g e l o u s i n g P r o j e c t s Scheme, the Middle Income Group Housing  Schemej the Rental Housing Scheme f o r State Govern-  ment Employees, and the Land A c q u i s i t i o n and Development Schemes.  Government sources provided funds to the  extent of Bs. 840 m i l l i o n during the Second F l a n period for  a l l these, p u b l i c housing schemes i n c l u d i n g the  schemes c a r r i e d forward from the F i r s t P l a n .  Be.  two 172  m i l l i o n from the L i f e Insurance Corporation were also channelised i n t o housing (under the Middle Income Group Housing and Rental Housing Schemes), ing  programmes of t h e i r own  Substantial hous-  were also undertaken outside  these schemes by the Union, State and L o c a l Governments, fhe t o t a l outlay on p u b l i c h o u s i n g d u r i n g was  of the order of Bs. 2.5 b i l l i o n and  were constructed.  the Second Plan .5 m i l l i o n houses  In the p r i v a t e sector, an investment  28. of the order of Bs. 1 0 / b i l l i o n • i s estimated t o h a v e gone i n t o housing and other p r i v a t e construe t i o n . $he f h i r d f i v e Year F l a n envisages a p r o v i s i o n of Rs. 1.42 b i l l i o n fro© the Government sources, f o r town planning and urban development .programme® and 'the; p u b l i c housing schemes o f the Union and Stat© Governi  ments.- A f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n of about Its. .6 b i l l i o n i s expected to be made by the L i f e Insurance Corporat i o n f o r Housing Programmes during the same p e r i o d .  In  recognition of the inadequacy of the funds thus a v a i l a b l e the Flan also recommends the establishment of a Central Housing Board with s u i t a b l e statutory power© to r a i s e a d d i t i o n a l funds from p r i v a t e sources and to channel them i n t o the f i e l d of housing. ' f h e Important housing schemes f o r the f h i r d ' Plan period ares 1.  Land .Acquisition and- Development  2. • Housing of I n d u s t r i a l Workers  3.  Housing o f Dock Workers  4.  Housing f o r Low Income Groups  5. •Plantation Labour Housing .6.  Middle Income Group Housing Rental Housing -for Stat® Government Sai  8*  Slum Clearance and Improvement  29 •  USBAB PXARKIira  AKB I<Ai® P0LX0X A S AD0P&8D  ' Bt H E mtmuws m. WMA mn mn "mtm • FX VI TIAB PMH  •  th© faira.Piv© Tear P l a n of the Government of I n d i a recognlsae© Urbanisation a© an important aspect of the. process o f economic and s o c i a l development© i n India.  The P l a n a l s o recognises the close connection  between Urbanisation and many other s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l problems, faced by India i n recent time, fhe P l a n atat@© that out o f a l l the aspect© connected with Urbanisation, i n the long run, the most deoiaiv© are  the patterns of eoonomi© development and the general  approach to i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n ,  fh© broad o b j e c t i v e  stated i n the f h i r d f i v e Year Plan, f o r the Urban Planning and th® Land P o l i c y i s "to ©©our© balanced development between l a r g e , medium^slged and ©mall Industrie®, and between r u r a l and-urban areas, and the main i n g r e d i ents of developmental p o l i c y are th© f©llowin&s (i)  AB f a r a© p o s s i b l e , new i n d u s t r i e s ©hould be established away from large and congested c i t i e s .  (ii) In the planning''of large Industrie©, th® . concept o f the region should be adopted. In each ease, planning should extend beyond the immediate environs to a l a r g e r area for-Whose development th© mm indust r y would serve a© a major f o c a l -point. (ill)  In community development project© o r other areas w i t h i n a d i s t r i c t , th© r u r a l and urban components of development should  30  - be k n i t into a composite • each ease on schemes f o r economic interdependence and the surrounding r u r a l (iv)  plan based i n ' strengthening between towns areas*  Within each r u r a l area the e f f o r t should be to secure a d i v e r s i f i e d occupational pattern i n place of the present extreme dependence on a g r i c u l t u r e .  SDBAX  womxsis  F M W i i i POLIOY  of mn  the" P l a n .states "Improvement i n housing condi- • t i o n s i n the v i l l a g e s has a manifold s i g n i f i c a n c e .  It  r a i s e s the l e v e l of l i v i n g , provides greater opportunit i e s f o r work and i s a v i t a l element i n the t i o n of r u r a l l i f e .  transforma-  Yet, because of the magnitude of  the problem and i t s inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s the task of improving housing conditions i n the v i l l a g e s has to be viewed, not as an i s o l a t e d o b j e c t i v e , but as a part of the l a r g e r scheme of r u r a l development. .0on©.©QU©ntly, r u r a l housing i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y a-part of community development and v i l l a g e p l a n n i n g . f h e ing  scheme was  introduced during -the teoond f i v e 'Year  P l a n p e r i o d i n 1957,  and had been c a r r i e d over to the  ^ f h i r d Pive Year P l a n , 1 9  v i l l a g e hous-  f h i r d F i v e Year P l a n ,  op., c i t . , p.  689  -os>. - c i t . . pp. 693^94  3*.: t h i r d Five Tear Plan .period,. •. fhe .eignifleanee,. object i v e s and programme f o r r u r a l housing f o r the f h i r d f i v e Year P l a n period ar© the following* "The a p e c i f i e prograaaae f o r r u r a l ' housing as sueh is.intended-to supplement the resources of the community, development at the l e v e l of the block and the v i l l a g e by way of assistance i n the form of t e c h n i c a l advice, demonstration, p r o v i s i o n of improved •designs and l a y o u t s , b e t t e r use of l o c a l materials and, to a l i m i t e d extent,• p r o v i s i o n of finane®. I t s e s s e n t i a l object i s to help create healthy environmental conditions f o r a l l sections of the v i l l a g e population and f o r balanced development or r u r a l l i f e as a whole,"* 0  HOOSIH© SIff0ATIOK IH ItlBIA fhe population of I n d i a , according to the census, was  196I  436.42 m i l l i o n , and the increase during  1951-61 occurred at an average annual rate of about per cent,  2.5  fh© urban population has been i n c r e a s i n g at  a higher rate of about 4 per cent per annum, p r i m a r i l y owing to r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and large investment i n urban areas,  fhe Increased  employment opportunities thus  created i n the towns have accelerated migration from r u r a l areas to urban areas, i n urban areas i n 1961  2 0  Ibld.  f t  p.  was  694  fhe shortage o f housing estimated  to be about 5 m i l -  32.  l i o n units 1951).  2 1  (approximately double what i t was i n  I t was also assessed that 4 million houses  w i l l need to be constructed i n the Third Five Tear Flan period (1961-1966) merely to arrest further deterioration of the already grave housing.situation. . It seems that the problem of catching up with the deficiency of housing together with the requirements due to the increased growth of population w i l l continue to present serious problem f o r many years to come*  the  position In rural areas i s s t i l l worse , because the " condition of most of the housing i n the 558,©00 villages i n India i s so sub-standard that they should be either rebuilt completely or improved substantially. A large portion of India's population l i v e s and exists In overcrowded l i v i n g conditions.  These  conditions i n India may be well imagined by some Nationa l Sample Survey (7th round) figures as shown i n fables I and  II.  2 2  • ®hi® i s without reference to the deterioration of existing'houses and without, reckoning about one . million of slum dwellings. ^Catherine Bauer Wurster, "Urban Living Conditions, Overhead Costs and the Development Pattern", India's Urban future. Hoy burner, editor (Berkeley* University of California Press, 1962), p. 280, c i t i n g National Building Organisation, Monograph on the Housing Situation i n India, 1959•  TABLE I FAMILIES LIVING IH OHB ROOM OR LESS Sural. '•••».•««o ••'•>•••'•'••• o • • o • o • Urban «,»•••  # » • • ••••  • '44$'»  ••• •••  Four Biggest C i t i e s • • .•.. *. •. C a l c u t t a • *.»• ••• *«• .....*...«  .  ' 34$  67$ 79$  TABLE I I .. ...  HOUSEHOLDS WITH PES CAPITA FLOOR AKEA . OF LESS THAN 50 SQUARE FBET HllrSl  a « « « * * * s * « < > e  14$  • . • • « • • • • « » • «  Urban •••••••••••••••••••••••• Four Biggest C i t i e s Calcutta  21$  ..  • • • t o e » » ( i * » « * *  :  33$ 70$  Thee© tables were taken fromi" Rational B u i l d i n g Organisation, Monograph on the Housing S i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a 1959•  34. I'he Report o f the Advisory Committee on Slum Clearances appointed %  the Government o f I n d i a i n 1956  s t a t e s "On the basis o f previous reports and what other l i m i t e d data are a v a i l a b l e , i t i s estimated t h a t the slum population constitute from 1© per cent to'as high' as 60 per cent o f the t o t a l population i n the l a r g e Indian c i t i e s .  Were these slums', to be Judged-by West-  ern standards the percentage would undoubtedly be greater.  A conservative estimate would p l a c e urban  slum dwellings which are t o t a l l y u n f i t f o r human occupat i o n a t about 1.15 m i l l i o n . I n  the sample survey  c a r r i e d out by the State S t a t i s t i c a l Bureau o f the Govern* ment o f West Bengal i n 1956, i t was. estimated that nearly 600,000 people l i v e d i n slums i n the C i t y of C a l c u t t a OA alone.  For D e l h i , the D r a f t Master F l a n o f D e l h i  states "fhe enormity o f the problem can be w e l l imagined by the f a c t t h a t roughly one-eighth o f the t o t a l popul a t i o n o f urban-Delhi, i . e . , approximately 21akhs (.2 m i l l i o n ) , l i v e i n such jhuggis and b'&stia (local-name f o r slum areas) ^ R e p o r t o f the Advisory Committee on Slum^ Clearance, (New Delhi* Government of I n d i a . J u l y 18. 1958), p. 5. 2 4  I b i d . p . 5.  *'Delhi Development Authority* D r a f f F l a n f o r D e l h i (Volume I I , Appendices and Drawings, mw Delhi* ' A M , 1 9 5 9 ) ,  p.  107.  Urban alum dwellers reside i n %atra@'*, lanes, . •ch&wle%  'hastees', «ahtas% and *ehtri®'. "Katrae  axe. small, single-room' tenements, normally constructed . i n rows, w i t h i n a courtyard o r enclosure'aM'with a' s i n g l e entrance.  Lanes are narrow, winding, and o f t e n  damp, with densely populated houses on e i t h e r side* Hultlstoried buildings, called  •ehawia* i n c i t i e s l i k e  Bombay,-house numerous f a m i l i e s  5  islth many persons (often  more than one family) normally r e s i d i n g i n one room and using common, l a t r i n e s and d r i n k i n g and washing f a c i l i ties.  'Busteee • ar© located i n quite Open areas o f the  C i t y , o r outwards from the center, u s u a l l y on unauthorised s i t e s ,  they are g e n e r a l l y thick c l u s t e r s o f small,  d i l a p i d a t e d mud huts, o f t e n with roofs o r s i d e s made o f scraps of wood, gunny sacks, metal, o r other waste materials.  In some c i t i e s , such as Kanpur, buateas  are b u i l t w i t h i n a compound o r enclosed w a l l s and are called  'ahatas*.  I n the southern c i t i e s - of I n d i a slums  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of rather neat mud or thatched huts s i m i lar- to v i l l a g e huts.  I n Madras they are c a l l e d  "eheris•.  T y p i c a l l y i n slum areas the s t r e e t s , lanes ( g u l l i e s ) , - a n d drains - which are open - are f i l t h y , and people sleep as many ae s i x t o twelve i n a room or shack,  fhe Indian slum©,.•however, are more than  the aggregate of the p h y s i c a l surroundings*  they are  36. . also a way o f l i f e .  Disease r a t e s , poor h e a l t h , and  i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y ax© high, and there i s l i t t l e adequate knowledge of h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , o r e h i l d ©are.  I l l i t e r a c y i s exceedingly high, c u l t u r a l and  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are u s u a l l y l a c k i n g , except as provided by such commercial e n t e r p r i s e s as the cinema, or gambling,  and moat slum dwellers f e e l / a p a t h e t i c ' o r  even a n t a g o n i s t i c to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , whom they often blame f o r t h e i r p l i g h t .  Seldom do slum dwellers  cooperate with c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s to improve e i t h e r the l o c a l area or the c i t y as a whole, and they g e n e r a l l y lack community consciousness. In  1951, only 128 towns with a population of  50,000 and over, 60 towns with a population between 30,000 and 50,000 and 210 towns with smaller populations had protected water supply. that only 6.15  I t was  estimated  per cent of the t o t a l population i n 1951  was served by protected water supply and only 3 per cent enjoyed the amenity of sewerage system.  The National  Water Supply and Sanitation Programme, launched i n 1954 continues during the f h i r d f i v e t e a r Plan p e r i o d , of  tost •  the 369 urban water supply schemes, 100 urban drainage  schemes are expected to be completed by 1966. . In s p i t e of  these e f f o r t s , the widespread lack of ©oamunal f a c i l i -  t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of piped water i n the home and adequate sewage disposal;' i n the community, e x i s t s .  3? On the "basis of the •Analysis of the Present . Land Us© Structure of Selectea 5owns i n I n d i a * ,  L.R.  Vagal© s t a t e s : ."Indian towns are g r o s s l y d e f i c i e n t In parks,, playgrounds and other open spaces f o r recrea--. t i o a a l purposes. Out of th© 14 towns studied, only 1 town has tie-re than 10 per cent o f the - developed- area devoted- to parks and play*- ., grounds'i © town® have l e s s than 3 -per cent, and 4 towns have- less.than- 2*5-per cent of the developed area committed to r e c r e a t i o n a l uses." 2 0  A b r i e f account of the -housing s i t u a t i o n i n C a l c u t t a i s appropriate to -give an Idea of the grave ''' housing s i t u a t i o n i n l a r g e urban centres in'- I n d i a .  In  1951, i t was estimated that i n the c i t y proper, over three m i l l i o n people compete f o r a l i v e l i h o o d , i n an area of only 32.32 square miles, and with average dens i t y of about 90,000 persons per square m i l e .  There  were over 300,000 people l i v i n g on the pavements and side walks of the c i t y , with no homes a t a l l .  fhe  water supply, f o r many years inadequate f o r normal needs, has been strained f a r beyond oapaoity, and as a consequence outbreaks of diseases f a m i l i a r In C a l c u t t a - ' c h o l e r a , smallpox, plague, e t c . , have - occurred' .regularly.  Suburban, railway service has d e t e r i o r a t e d .  .8. Vagale, "Analysis of the Present Land .Use Structure o f Selected fowns i n India"„ Hkiatloa, XVI (November, 196-3)« P» 276.  38.  and limited funds for maintenance, and excessive use have led to a decline i n the effieleney of tramways, and huses. • Only 5 per eent of oity»a families l i v e in. separate f l a t s , and only 2 j>er eent of .the- c i t y *a f&mlliee " :  l i v e i n complete houesp,  fhua only 7 per cent.-of -the.'  families- l i v e i n exclusive dwellings.- Moat families l i v e i n rented quarters.  As f o r space, 17•per.cent- of  the families have no l i v i n g room at a l l , and 30 per eent have less than one third Of a room -for t h e i r use. 4 per cent possess one-half of a room, 33 t e r cent ©ne room, and only 16 per eent have more than one room. I t i s •etiaated- that at least 77 per cent of the people i n  Calcutta l i v e i n over-crowded rooms, that l a to say with more than two persons per room baaed on • 40 square foot minimum needed for every person. As for amenities, 30 per cent of O&leutta's families have no water tap ©f their own. (fhe custom i n these cases i s to use the public tape on the street). Sixty per'cent share water taps with ethers, $ per cent have one tap for themselves, and only 1. per eent.have more than a single water.tap..- fen per eent.of the famil i e s have ©ne or more latrines for their own uae, but 12 per cent have ao latrine, at a l l . '.f©rty*nifie'per cent of multi-member familiea have no ."separate-., bathing ; f a c i l i t i e s , and Calcutta average for no baths i e higher.  39. 61 per cent. • (Again,- the. taps -on the streets are used for. bathing). • Cooking-ia done by 3$ t o r oent ef Cal;  cutta's multi-meaber families in-the-living-room, -- • whereas 30 per cent of these- have .only,a.••"cooking  . .  corner"| -34' per cent .have separate,- kitchens*... fhe- Calcutta's average reveals that 78 per .cent- of a l l families- have no r e a l l y useable kitchen» , forty-five- per •• cent have no e l e c t r i c i t y , and 40 per cent have "some" electricity. . .f©:,pl©k out a few of the worst> aspects of, Calcutta's household's l i v i n g conditions* ^ 2  • 30 per. cent have no water, tap attached,to their residences 12 per cent have no latrine 61 per cent have' no bathroom 7© per cent have no separate kitchen 45 per cent have no eleetvle connection About a quarter of the population of the c i t y l i v e a single l i f e without their families, and they form more than half of the households,  l o s t o f these single  people are male, married, and migrants.  Many of them  *'Biehard L. Park, "the Urban Challenge to Local and State fovemment* West Bengal, with Special Attention to Calcutta, "India »a future". l e y turner* editor (Berkeley* University Of California Press, 1962), p.386,  40 are  i l l i t e r a t e , • u n s k i l l e d , workers,• isith• about -87- per -.  ©est-of them earaittg less- than 1 © . IGO-per^montb (an average o f Es. 74 per month).  I t w i l l also be noted  that t h i s larger 'group o f migrant men .-result® 'in a d i s proportionately small percentage .of women, in. C a l c u t t a . In 1957-58, the ©ity»© 2>©pul,atlon consisted o f about •' •35 per-cent women-and 65 • per ©est. men.  •mmkm l e f o p e 1947t the then Government o f I n d i a f o l lowed a p o l i c y of i a i a s e s fair©'.  Since I n d i a became  independent, i n 1947, planning has become an executive function of Qovernment at a l l l e v e l s ,  fhe Birective-  Principle© ©f State P o l i c y i s an important p a r t of th© c o n s t i t u t i o n of India. • fhe©® Bir©etlve© ,,  ,,  covering a l l  aspects o f l i f e are regarded a© "lUmdamental i n the governance o f the-country".  To t r a n s l a t e these d i r e c -  t i v e s i n t o program© o f planned action - to soXve the socio-economic problem© o f I n d i a - a statutory national Planning Commission,«a© set up by the ©overnmeat o f I n d i a in.If50.  'Sine© 19.51, I n d i a ha© completed two  Five Year Plana and the T h i r d Five. Year Flan- (1961 1966) i s i n operation. fhe  o v e r - a l l goal o f Indian society and th© ..  41. Indian nation l a human welfare, welfare, being considered . i n the broadest sense to include not only m a t e r i a l goods but a l s o human d i g n i t y and c u l t u r a l values*  fhe aehieve-  ment of o u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l welfare i s recognised.to • be dependent on a iainim&l l e v e l of p h y s i c a l welfare, which, i n turn, depends upon productive capacity* I t appears to be i m p l i c i t i n Indian planning that s o c i a l and o u l t u r a l goals cannot adequately be achieved without the necessary p h y s i c a l base i n the production o f food, housing, c l o t h i n g , and o u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . In the realm o f p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l values, I n d i a i s committed to a fundamentally democratic, and to some extent s o c i a l i s t , , patt@rh,of s o c i e t y - " s o c i a l i s t i c pattern o f s o c i e t y * . Since May  V§52  9  when a separate p o r t f o l i o was '  created i n the Onion Government, organised e f f o r t s have been mad® on a governmental b a s i s to set up housing a c t i v i t i e s i n general and i n p a r t i c u l a r to provide s u i t a b l e f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r construction o f housts, fhe p e r i o d o f the f i r s t F i v e t e a r Plan was devoted to the formulation o f t h e - I n i t i a l , stages i n the e v o l u t i o n of a n a t i o n a l housing program and two Urban Bousing Schemes were I n i t i a t e d .  During' the Second "five t e a r  Plan p e r i o d s i x more schemes were promulgated. F o r the f i r s t time /Schemes r e l a t e d to V i l l a g e . l o u s i n g Proj e c t s and Land A c q u i s i t i o n and Development were i n t r o -  42 duced.  fhe f h i r d Five t e a r F l a n recognizee the^close  r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n * u r b a n i s a t i o n and Housing shortage and needs i n the urban areas, f h i s Plan recommend© d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s and i n t e g r a t i o n of the r u r a l housing program with the community development program i n r u r a l areasIn  spit© of the organised e f f o r t s at a l l - t h e •  Government l e v e l s , the shortage of urban housing i e getting worse mainly due to the accelerated migration from r u r a l -areas to urban ®reae* the 'high rate of the natural Increase of population* l i t t l e ' o r no i n v e s t ment i n Rousing f o r the low income group by the p r i v a t e sector due to the lack of i n c e n t i v e and economic return* m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the improvement t r u s t s could not care f o r the low income group housing due to l a c k of funds and e f f i c i e n t organisation.  up t i l l the f h i r d  F i v e t e a r Plan p e r i o d , the e f f o r t s of the Government of  I n d i a had been mainly to eliminate the shortage of  housing with very l i t t l e e f f o r t to improve the e x i s t i n g deteriorated housing s i t u a t i o n ,  fhe present housing  s i t u a t i o n i n the urban areas i s grave and i s characteri s e d by congestion, overcrowding, lack of the e s s e n t i a l communal s e r v i c e s , p r i v a c y , e t c .  the slums i n the urban  areas and the shanty towns at th® periphery of the b i g c i t i e s and the urban sprawl along the ma*jor routes are  43. the extreme i l l u s t r a t i o n of housing  situation.  ASSUMPTIONS  Estimates of India's population growth, based on the f u l l e r studies on the basis of the d e t a i l e d data obtained i n the 1961 census, are not a v a i l a b l e . The Third Five f e a r Plan sets out the estimates o f the popu l a t i o n growth i n the f o l l o w i n g words:  "on the basis  of the present t e n t a t i v e estimates f o r 1971 and 1976, over the period 1961-76, the t o t a l increase i n popula28 t i o n may fee of the order o f 187 million".•  Further,  to emphasise the great volume of increase the T h i r d F i v e Year Plan states?  "The s i g n i f i c a n c e of population  i n r e l a t i o n to economic development may be fudged from the r e s u l t s of the 1961 census.  The increase i n India's  population between 1951-61 (about 77 m i l l i o n ) has been nearly as l a r g e as the increase (about 82 m i l l i o n ) i n the l a s t two preceding decade©".  Oft  •  29  Pitamber Pant on  ,v;.-.-  c w  T h i r d Five Year-Plan, op. c i t . . p. 22  2 9  I b i d . , p. 22.  44. _ .  the assumption of f e r t i l i t y declining i s India linearlyby 50-per eent between-1966-01 estimates India"© l a t i e n w i l l be about 62© million i n 1901?  popu-  the annual  inereas© being at the rat© of 2.1 per eent at the beginning of the period and 1*4 per eent by the end*3® It i s  assumed that for  the  next two decodes,  the popula-  tion of India i s going te increase substantially. One of the principal aims of the t h i r d f i v e Tear Flan i s "to expand basic industries such ae steel, chemical industries, -fuel and power and to establish . machine building capacity, eo that the requirements  of  further Industrialisation can be met within a period of ten years or so mainly from the country's own res-* oureeaj -* M  With the increased a v a i l a b i l i t y of basic  1  metals and the more l o c a l l y produced machine tools, a rapid spurt of development i s hoped for and i s enti r e l y possible.  fhi® spurt may be accentuated i f  vigorous foreign-exohange restrictions accelerate l o c a l production of the desired commodities.  Shi© may  result i n a more rapid rate of industrialisation, but 3°Pitamber Pant, "Orbanlsation and Long-Rauge Strategy*, India• a ®rbanl^ture ** Boy fumer, editor . (California! University of California Press, 1962), p. 184, citingg A.J• COLE and B.M. Hoover. Population CT  XfrlSie^ ^ f h i r d f i v e Year Platt«..o»«-olt«.,- D . 48  45 at l e a s t i t may be assumed, that the- seal© and volume • Of I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n i n I n d i a w i l l be the same a® i n the l a s t deoad© - between 1951-61* King©l@y Davi© on the b a s i s o f h i e estimates of net r u r a l to-wban migration-'©tates *1%should fee \ noted that i f any of our projection© prove true, th© b i g period -.of i n t e r n a l migration i n -India l e yet-.to come.  Th© quarter century between 1975  and 2000 w i l l  © © © t w o to thro© time© th© amount Of such movement i n 1950 - 1975 *32 #  Considering India*© p o l i c y o f l a r g e  seal© i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and t i n g a l e y Savi©«  conclusions  i t 1© assumed that India i s going to experience a large ©cale urbanisation at l e a s t a t th© same rat© a© experienced between 1951-1961 and that t h i s trend i s not going to get reversed. Th© author© of the T h i r d Five Year F l a n wail® s t a t i n g th© «©b^®otiv©s of Planned .J5©v©lop«©nt r@e©&e  ais© th© importance o f maintenance o f world peace i n the f o l l o w i n g word© *»In the l a r g e r context o f the world, the r e a l i s a t i o n of t h i s o b j e c t i v e (to provide th© maeee© of Indian people the opportunity, to lead a good l i f e ) f o r I n d i a , as f o r other eountrios, l a i n t i m a t e l y t i e d ^ K i n g s l e y Bavis, "Urbanisation In-X&Alat Past and Future"« India's Urban f u t u r e . Soy turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley* U n i v e r s i i y o f ' # a l i ^ o r n i a Pre©©, 1962), p. 22. 2  46. up with,, and dependent ©m the maintonajace'of world p©aee .^ w  Since 'lsAopoadett.ee (1947)» Indians foreign  policy bad been baaed on ©©-©aUs'teme© .with neighbour countries and non-alignment; with' p©w©F blook© (com**-, munlst and non-communist).  Considering the import-  ance of world peace recognised by th© f h i r d Five Tear Flan, th© "foreign policy" of India and with f a i t h and confidence i n the effectiveness of United Stations, I t -1© assumed her© that world peace' ©hall continue and. India w i l l not become involved i n any major war. the architects ©f the third f i v e fear Plan found i t "essential that the burdens of development during th© third Plan should be equitably distributed and, each ©tag©, the economic, f i s c a l and other policies adopted should bring about improvements i n the welfare and l i v i n g standard© of th© bulk of the people. "Housing and Urban and Sural Planning* have been accepted i n India a© an important part of the developmental program© and polieiee-.at federal and ©tat© levels, and the allocation of funds under t h i s heading f o r th© f h i r d Five Year Plan period ha© been much ®or© than previous plan©.  With this increase i n the allocation  of funds being made available, i t i s assumed that more i J  M  f h i r d Pive Year.Plan» • op. c i t . p.'!'  I b l d . . p. 49*  funds w i l l ;ise .allott ed;/:ltt'-ftt-tur'e''. f o r housing; a^d,urban v  and Sural Planning and Welfare a c t i v i t i e s i n I n d i a i  B T A T S I M OP  • Mmxsmxi  .. India's population" l a inereaalng at-'a f a s t r a t e , and i t s urban population i s multiplyinie a t "even :  faster rates,  fhe new  demand f o r housing and urban '  services created by t h i s growth aggravates the problem of inadequate supply of housing and, communal,, f a e l l t tiee. i n "the Urban,  areas.  Aaeka  Mehta states?  two tremendous forces have been unleashed i n I n d i a todays a r e l a t i v e l y rapid rate of population growth and an i n c r e a s i n g l y rapid rate of urbanination* I f these f o r c e s are allowed to operate unchecked, the r e s u l t s assuredly w i l l be explosive, the population of India can reach- by the year 2000 the f i g u r e of a b i l l i o n , with a t h i r d of that number crowding i n t o urban areas* A f i v e f o l d increase i n the urban population i n as many decades would pose a challenge unmatched before. These populations changes can r e s u l t i n the migration of 85 m i l l i o n people from r u r a l areas to urban areas. Even allowing f o r the d i s l o c a t i o n s caused by the war and the p a r t i t i o n of the country, between 19411951 r u r a l to urban migration involved some nine m i l l i o n people. Sueh vast currents of migrants can i n time bloat the major c i t i e s into metropolises of f a n t a s t i c e l s e , such as C a l c u t t a with a population of 66 m i l l i o n . The s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of.such urban agglomerations are staggering.  ^ A e o k a Mehta, "fhe Future of Indian 01ties? National Issues and goals". India's Brban Future,, BOy Turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley? U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press 1962), pp. 413-14.  48c  'Ms  degree of u r b a n i z a t i o n means nigh costs of  overhead, v i s . c a p i t a l costs o f urban amenities, housing, e t c . , also high s o c i a l costs i n terms.of s o c i a l - d i s l o c a t i o n and adjustment.  However, during t h i s c r i t i c a l  period of India's i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , more funds are to be d i r e c t e d , from the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources a v a i l able, towards i n d u s t r i a l development.  The urban s o c i a l  overhead expenditure must, therefore be kept ae low as possible.  To minimise the s o c i a l overhead expenditure  i t i s e s s e n t i a l to pay more a t t e n t i o n to the problems of r u r a l migrants to urban areas.  Due to the great  s o c i a l , o u l t u r a l and educational d i f f e r e n c e s i n the urban and r u r a l way of l i v i n g , a r u r a l migrant f i n d s himself l o s t i n urban environment.  Social, cultural  and educational d e f i c i e n c i e s and lack of t e c h n i c a l "know how"  compels the immigrant to accept lowest paid  jobs i n c i t i e s .  These d e f i c i e n c i e s of Immigrants to  c i t i e s , create b a r r i e r s which often are insurmountable and tend to w a l l up the newcomer i n the various ghettos, slums and shanty towns which have become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of large c i t i e s i n India.  The author's contention there-  fore i s : "that - -have needs solve  r u r a l immigrants to urban areas i n India s p e c i f i c economic, p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l which must be consideredJto help i t s urban housing problem".  India  49  GHAFfHB I I P S O B L H I S R S L A f S P f Q T8B  BOBBIM-  SIf0AfI©fS WZWBTk  THB HOTJSIM SIfUAfIGH AKD  ITS  ALLIED PaOBLUS A house l a the stoat fundamental of a l l the p h y s i c a l s o c i a l structures*  I t i s there where the  future c l t i s e n i s horn and brought up; where i n f a c t moat of h i s l i f e - t i m e i s spent, p h y s i c a l environment,  furthers the eoclo-  the Community, influences the  0 1 t i s e n ' a behavior, welfare and a t t i t u d e s .  Yet, un-  f o r t u n a t e l y , everywhere i n the world, m i l l i o n s of f a m i l i e s have extremely poor housing, or no housing at a l l *  "... Housing, having both s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l  objects,  can not be regarded as an i s o l a t e d or departmentalized f i e l d of study, but only as an integrated p a r t , and product, of the p h y s i c a l , economic, c u l t u r a l and p o l l tioall.lf© of a Society.;  fhe unwanted and grave Housing  s i t u a t i o n In the urban areas i s c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d with s o c i a l problems and, f o r this, reason.,., th® s o l u t i o n o f t  50. the housing problem depends, to a great extent, on th© s o l u t i o n o f the a l l i e d a o o i a l and eoonomie problem© of the Inhabitants. fhe urban housing problem faced by India today i s twofold; there i© a serious shortage o f housing, and the oharaoter of ©slating aocommodation and communal f a c i l i t i e s 1© unsatisfactory.' 'fhl© shortage has been, to ©oa©"©stent, due to th® continuous inereas© in'popul a t i o n since 1921.  However, the major c o n t r i b u t i n g  factor© have been, the heavy s h i f t o f population from the r u r a l to the urban area©} th© haphazard growth of town© due to inadequate state o r municipal c o n t r o l over b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y ? and the comparative i n a b i l i t y of private enterprise to keep pace with the growing demand due to the ever-Increasing p r i c e and shortage of land and o f b u i l d i n g material©.  fhe organised  effort© o f the Government of India since 1950 have not been able to cope with the complex problem o f Bousing due to the paucity of funds, and various other handicap©.  XEDIA'S POPBMflOf 0B0WT8 AS© THI HOUSING SHORTAGE The growth of India*© population sine© 1921, ha© been f a s t and s u b s t a n t i a l .  I t ha© ©eon estimated'  that i t ©hall incr©as© by about 43 per osnt by 1976 ^ This ©how© that the growth o f the urban population by th© "natural Increase stantial. ing  11  i t s e l f i s expected to be sub-  Tbie n a t u r a l growth w i l l aggravate the e x i s t -  complex problem of housing i n the urban areas. In t h i s connection  9  i t may b© mentioned that  the Government's e f f o r t to combat the population explosion, i n the form of the Family Planning Program, which was introduced during the f i r s t F i v e f e a r P l a n p e r i o d , 1© ©till continuing without much success -- a f a c t that has been recognised by the Government a© may be c l e a r from the following*  itselfs  "The (Family'Plan-  ning) programme, however, i s a most d i f f i c u l t one to c a r r y out and raise© problems of great complexity. Sustained and Intensive effort© are required over a f a i r l y long p e r i o d before f a m i l y planning can become a popular movement and a part of the accepted attitude© Of the people g e n e r a l l y " .  A  2  S u p r a . p. 43•  ^Government of I n d i a , t h i r d f i v e f e a r P l a n (Sew B@lhij Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n , 19»1}, p. 46.  52. $%AfX093HXP Wmfm  TO-  JM UBBAN AElAS ARD THI  TOW  ©f. H©tr$IH@ 3P©mA*IOR SHOWfH  Urbanisation u s u a l l y i s said to oe taking place when the proportion of t o t a l population that i s r e s i d i n g i n plaoes defined ae urban l e i n c r e a s i n g , o r when urban population i s growing a t a f a s t e r rate than the average rate of growth f o r the n a t i o n .  I.u p r i n c i p l e , a l l popu-  l a t i o n growth 1© composed o f two components' a) "tepro-duetlve change" o r "Natural increase' , i . e . , the excess 1  Of b i r t h s over deaths, and b) B e t migration —  which i n -  cludes migration from w i t h i n and without the country.  In  the case o f I n d i a , however, there i s no major i n t e r n a t i o n a l I n f l u x , and the migration component within I n d i a r e main® e n t i r e l y due to net i n t e r n a l migrations.  I n the  words o f Bogus and Zaoharlah, "lural^to-urban migration i s by f a r the major component of urbanisation.and i s the c h i e f mechanism by which a l l of the•world's'great urbani s a t i o n trends have been accompliahed".^  that the future  trends s h a l l be.in the same d i r e o t i o n has been i n d i c a t e d by f i n g e l e y Davis ' and presented, i n the fable'number I I I . 4  ^Donald J . Bogue and K.Q. Zacharlah, "Urbanizat i o n and Migration i n I n d i a " . India 'a Urban f u t u r e . l o y turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Frees, 1962), f . 28. *Kingeley Davie, "Urbanisation i n I n d i a : Past and f u t u r e " , India's Urban f u t u r e . Boy Turner, e d i t o r , (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Free®, 1962), p. 22.  53  • fA 3 L !  III  PBOSHOTD SSS£lfA$£3 0* 0ITYWA1© fILGBATOTS W v Year©  XHDIA ^ . l e t Migrants'(million©)  Into place© 20,OOG-plu©  Into place© 1,©OO,OOG-plu©  1950-1960 ...........  13«4  11.5  1960-1970 1970-1980  17.6 32.4  17.8 31-6  1980-1990 1990-2000  44.9 58.2  44.7 49.2  1950-1975 1975-2000 ...........  47.3 119.3  45.2 109.7  1950-2000  166.6  154.9  •  Kingaley Davis*© p r o j e c t i o n i s based on the a n a l y s i s o f the information and projected data provided by th© f o l l o w i n g sources* United nation®, fhe Future o f World Population (Hew fork* United nation©,"' 1 § W , " " p . f 4 § United Nations l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , fhe Population o f A s i a and the f a r Hast (Hew York, 1959/, pp. '100-102! Aneley • Goal© and Bdg©r M. Hoover, Population Growth and Iconomlo development i n Low Income Countries. (Princeton. n.J.8 Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Pre©a, 19^8).  F o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , the accuracy of the p r o j e c t e d f i g u r e s of th© urhan popuiatioh growth l e not as important as the general future; trend® i a d l i  cated by. these p r o j e c t i o n s , namely that there s h a l l - b e ' more migration towards p l a c e s wl%h population l e s s thea 1O0,©CO p l u s .  -pA$mm- • An i d e n t i f i a b l e 'pattern o f urban, development i e emerging.in' fedia-due,-to i t s .rapid rat®, of 'development. So f a r , the .general.'trend, baa been c e n t r a l l a a t i o i i of :  i n d u s t r i e s (and a l l i e d commercial a c t i v i t i e s ) i n a few large c i t i e s .  Consequently, th@s@ l a r g e c i t i e s are  becoming l a r g e r , and. the.-sooial p h y s i c a l gap between them- and the medium-aiae.towns i s g e t t i n g wider, and wider,  *£h@ reason-for t h i s .concentration of. I n d u s t r i e s  i n the already-developed  c i t i e s seems to be as follow®"  B i g urban centers have comparatively b e t t e r and more e f f i c i e n t community services- l i k e traneportation and  communication's' medical,, educational, c u l t u r a l ' and housing f a c i l i t i e s ; banking and; other eupforti'iiii eofifserclal ^ate-rprieea* etc-.-' • $hey also .provide; a ready'' market; f o r the f i n i s h e d goo.de.. - In'stead- o f bearing the burden-of  :  f r e s h i n f r a - s t r u e t u r e and---external esonomies, therefore, th© p r i v a t e sector always, look© towards the 'developed urban center© aa the Ideal l o c a t i o n i n whieh to e s t a b l i s h now p l a n t s .  India*© o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i© that nm  indus-  n  t r i e s should he established away froia l a r ^ e and congested cities".' tion.  fhi© statement o f p o l i c y require© i n t e r p r e t a -  Boee i t mean v l l l a g e - b a s e d - i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n of  India o r e s t a b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n medium ©issed c i t i e s and- towns? . Bee© i t Imply r e v e r s a l of the trend o f urbanisation?  On t h i s i s s u e , Sachin OhaudMri  coisaentss  "fhe diapereai o f Industrie© that i s being thought o f , and that may be f e a s i b l e , w i l l also favour  concentration  -rather than b r i n g - i n d u s t r i e s to-th© village©.  Planned  development o f industry, however, may avoid the much greater concentration -in a few place© • which would be i n e v i t a b l e i n the absence o f t h i s l i m i t e d but d e l i b e r a t e program of d i s p e r s a l .  I t should be noted that d i s p e r s a l  i n t h i s context mean© a more desirable p a t t e r n of. growth, not th© r e v e r s a l o f the trend toward .ooneentrati.oni . d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n , i n . t h i s ©ens©, does not attempt to reverse o r slacken the pace o f migration®,  fhi© asser-  •'Supra, -p. 43« S a c h i n CMudhuri, "0©»traliS5atioa and the Alt©raativ© .form© o f -Becentraliaatlos; A .Key Issu©.** • India'a Urban Future,, Boy turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley* U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), p . 220. • v  :  tloa- aeea*. reaaoimblet t»mettt£lesav 4*1 doe*-'--***$<'role, out' th© p o s s i b i l i t y o f ' l o c a t o r -the «$iaben#• $i&ten«ive* and' "SojOVeaelA .-Industrial'-'. 'proc.eases-- i n -vil-lai©©.  I t may'  he expected that -aeAluni -sl&ed towns- ihaving a. population- • of 10,000.person© ..and over- will-h^re< ifeo..rec@iv@ the . maximum number -of- immigrants, as t^.asj .mentioned' e a r l i e r .  Sl»o© • Sndependenee,, urban been -ea^erieftoing' Jh^idV ©hang©. fold.  ar©a© i n I n d i a hav©  fh@®o-. change© are  manl-  0 1 t i e a are growing i n area and population,, and  at the same time they are- acquiring a new character due to the Impaot o f Western technology., r a p i d rat© .of 'Industrialisation and associated change©* are c u r r e n t l y experiencing increased  Indian c i t i e s  economic a c t i v i t y  In ffeapoaeo-to th© o v e r - a l l influence©--of  iadepeadenee,  overaoaa trad©., and. the plaftneA development, program© und©r. th© f i v e Tear. .'Flans,  fhe .4egree .Of, tfce&e inflm*.  ©nee© v a r i e s i n d i f f e r e n t e l t i e s .  In general'the©®,  i n f l u e n c e s are manife©ttd i n i n d i v i d u a l c i t i e s by the •construction o f f a c t o r i e s and increased ©ommereial a c t i vity-, by the expansion o f  'govenuBenteJL function© i n the  national- - and th©' »'tate • capitals." -l-hes©; ©hang®'©, lit' the ; ;  - faiictlon • o f the, ©Iti©.© .hay© resulted' l a the constr«ictioa  57. of now housing at  city  "edge 4-'in' the growth of • die- •  tribution centre© within • and • out aid© 'the present' boundar;  tm of-the c i t i e s , ;aud. I n the- rapid/expansion '-of motor-hue service- and. other '-transportation f a c i l i t i e s • into • the'. :  '7  surrounding countryside.' • On the -basis of. 'these-'ebservatione, -JSiohard A* ''Hlof sea-states?  "It -eeeae -reasonable  to suppose that a larger urban periphery implies a larger hinterland and that the c i t y ' s increased a c t i v i t y i s effecting a regional/transformation"*  Or, i n other words,  urban planning should necessarily be oarried out on a regional scale. that; such an. isaportamt eonsideratlo» aheuld escape investigation - In - -the e a r l i e r attempt's - at planning  i n India may- eeest. .<p#er -but,- severthelesav  tt remains a  . aad fact to -whleh mm$ a -mm -town. fcnw* gainful: t e s t i mony*  $ot merely that.' A. sense .of. ooav-rehenalve plan-  ning seems lacking- even on' the town' scale. • In this • connection, the towns of•Faridabad, ^ l l o k h e r l , Bhuli and Kalyani may be. quoted as axaaplee*.  Faridsbad and  Ifilokheri, approximately 18 and; 80 miles from lew Delhi respectively, were constructed, after the end of the second world war, maialy to accommodate refugees* ^Hlehard A. H H f a o n , "Olty^Hinteriand.Selatiei'iahipa 'in India", I-aftla'a ffrban S\m\re> Boy fi*rher, editor ('Berkeley?. University of Oallfornia Frees,•. 1962), p*94. ' %eld.'  98. Apparently, adequate a t t e n t i o n was paid to the planning of these tewnsV" Problems,, however, aroeV'when'ta© towns were eoffipl'eted,' as' no-'industries were eefabiished to • give employment to' the '-people who .were.' -euppeeM ' to. have been adequately' 'housed''* ' Bimilariy,' M ' t h e .Ihaatoad  "  ;  ooai-alne'e area,' new iiousss f o r miners', in-'JhUil townwhip remained vacant f o r considerable period because %hey were to© f a r away'..fro® the miners' place \e.f work.' fhe' new  township o f Kalyani about 4G miles fro® C a l c u t t a was  to face s i m i l a r problems of ©reati&g employment near the town and of ©heap .and e f f i c i e n t transport" t e 'Oal'eutta.^' At t h i e stage' i t . i-» n©#@asary t© examine the :  s  structure and' reeeuroe'e • of the • '^ever«Miital apparatus :  whicn had' undertaken: 'fend' .which l a ' r e ^ e ^ s l b l e f e r 'tfease ;  tasks o f piasnntg,.  /nal» forma' *df' l o c a l government :  i n the urban areas are ii»niclpaieommitt#©#{ i n towns and i n some c i t i e s ) aa& {Municipal oorporatiene ( i n l a r g e r c i t i e s ) . ' In'the municipal ©osmmitteee, a l l autho r i t y i s v e s t e d ' i n the elected c o u n c i l and. i t s ©owuaWeea. fhe municipal 'corporation »s -functions are: g e n e r a l l y wider :  and their'power's o f taxation l a r g e r than'those of'.the municipal committees.* - % .B. Hayek, **fhe Challenge of ..Urban frowth to Indian I*oeal 9©vernment , I n d i a *s Urban f u t u r e . Boy •• Turner, .editor (Berkeley' U n i v e r s i t y of . C a l i f o r n i a • Frees, 19^2), p. 126. S  a  ^Kayak, ©ft. c i t . . p.  364.  '-59• Urban adttlsietisatloft'aas become today- an sarfereme7  l y arduous task) and th© part-time duty rendered toy elected e o u n c i H e r s to perhaps unequal to that^t&ak.. fhe'observed tendency among the c o u n c i l l o r s ' i s to ©ay things- that are p o l i t i c a l l y popular, rather than i n t r i n s i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r 'the c i t y . '  " I t may -affect •  slum clearance or the .redevelopment of as ere*-* f o r example, as e l t h e ? i s l i k e l y to le&d to the ©liifiieg and l o s s of valued v o t i n g st-rengtW  tension and"on*"  s t a b i l i t y Tooth eon tribute to create uBcsrtainty of d e c i s i o n -and to delay and -aggravate problems that demand urgent' attdatien". '^ 3  fbere' are certain, other f e a t u r e s which 'hinder i n th© sound • functioning ©f 'a l o c a l government ©rganl a a t l o n and ©ay  9  therefore, be mentioned*  Legisla-  t i o n f o r aeourlng'the long-term planning of urban growth at the regional scale i s inadequate, where i t exists.  Moreover, the a p p l i c a t i o n of .such'existing  law© has, i n p r a c t i c e , been of n e g l i g i b l e proportion© due to the p a u c i t y of q u a l i f i e d planning personnel-. Another d i f f i c u l t y ha© been the f i n a n c i a l stringency which render© any. plans that may d i f f i c u l t of f u l f i l m e n t ,  ee drawn up extremely  fhe m u l t i p l i c i t y o f l o c a l  •  government agencies i s an age-old problem i n the c i t i e s .  t b l d . , p.  364.  60. With the emergence ©f planning ae a pronounced feature of c i t y governments a planning agency, working apart from the •ordinary government of oivie.' a f f a i r s , i s a recent a d d i t i o n to the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f •local government bodies. In D e l h i , ' u n t i l about two year® ago, there were , eleven l o c a l ' b o d i e a i three s t a t u t o r y " boards c o n t r o l l i n g e l e c t r i c i t y . , . t r a n s • port,- and water supply and' sewage' d i s p o s a l ! and a Development Authority* •After* the- -formation, o f • the -Delhi- S&unioi- '' p a l Corporation, two years ago, there ... .ar© s t i l l • three local'bodies- and'a'''-' Development A u t h o r i t y . Greater Bombay .has. i3,ow-',mevid te* a u n i f i e d l o c a l government, but greater C a l c u t t a s t i l l - b e e . a, = • . m u l t i p l i c i t y of m u i i i c i p a i i t i e e at*'' Improvement t r u s t »eni separate p u b l i c r. u t i l i t y under taking^, where'the" growth of c i t i e s - makes a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s of .'....''- >adm-iai8tratlve • c o n t r o l u t t e r l y u»realist i c , the perpetuation of m u l t i p l e agencies ..• creates one 'more - problem.. f o r the' planner, the executor, and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r * :  1  9  ;  i2  She remedying o f urban problems has been rend-. ered d i f f i c u l t by the rat© of urbanisation and paucity of resources.  the  As new housing has not kept  pace with the growth of population, and property values have been kept depressed through rent c o n t r o l , property taxes, which are the l a r g e s t source of revenue, have mot y i e l d e d a corresponding increase i n revenue.  Also,  the examples of u n d e r - u t i l i s e d l o c a l reeouroee. ©re not uncommon. mentioned*  S t i l l another important f a c t o r should be the process of plan preparation u s u a l l y  takes too l o n g .  Consequently, by the time these plans  '•'are ready tor^isa^lemefetatiom, • tJie ©ity.;.*ajr bav©'mder:  gone'©o^iderable change© ishieh may- rend®*/the 'plans . ;  ''obsolete and;impracticable•• •  ''^•""'  . . • APAfBSfXG;. A f f I f 8 l B OF fHB 9HBAH WtMSm .3D9A8&S .»HOtrfflIS$S, ABS &AGK OF ®»ISY  AlPSO'Stf i © M B i n s '"•  , India**Jieteregeaeo&s character and baph&aard .. growth o f the urban community and Im  p e r capita/  Income have mad© human relation© l a th© c i t i e s l a r g e l y anonymous, s u p e r f i c i a l , and t r a n s i t o r y ,  fher© 1© a  'general a t t i t u d e o f helplessness o r indlfforenoo to the defects and fault© i n municipal government, save efeon.- they affeot an i n d i v i d u a l personally.  ©©spit©  the deplorable p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , th© Indian urban dwellers i n general and slum dweller© In p a r t i c u l a r do l i t t l e themselves to c o r r e c t the s i t u a t i o n .  In part,  the©© situation® are due to a general laek of' unity and leadership among c i t y dwellers.  Her© the import-  ance 'of. s o c i a l organisation a© a means o f i n t e g r a t i o n ' o f the people i n t o an organised community need n© emphasis.  62.  musiusion  HAS  mmmm  SOOSOXXG  I t has been -observed that India i s s t i l l i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l phase proceeding economy.  towards a s e l f - r e l i a n t  In the present phase o f t r a n s i t i o n , undes-  i r a b l y , urbanisation has gone ahead of economic development, thus c r e a t i n g a wide "development gap '. 1  appears c i t i e s and towns have been i.e.,  It  "over-urbanised'',  urbanisation has exceeded the capacity f o r  economic development, r e s u l t i n g i n a marked d e f i c i e n c y of urban f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ,  fhe competing demand  and a v a i l a b l e l i m i t e d .resources,thus,  r a i s e s the  problem of choice between p r o v i s i o n of urban amenities to ensure t o l e r a b l e l i v i n g conditions f o r the mass of urban population, on the one hand, and a f a s t e r r a t e of grearth of the economy, ©a the other, by channeling aa large a part of the resource© as poss i b l e to produotiv© investae-nt and c r e a t i o n of c a p i t a l asset©. fh& economic f r u s t r a t i o n s , low Income and mental tensions of urban dwellers are o l o s e l y a s s o c i ated with th© present stage of urbanization* i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and economic development i n I n d i a .  Ghaudhurl, op. cit,.. p. 219  These  63. v i t a l economic aspects are i n t i m a t e l y connected with the problems associated with unemployment employment and mis-employment.  t  under-  In s p i t e of d e f i c i -  encies i n the a v a i l a b l e employment  f  mis-employment  and under-eraployment i s not l i k e l y to reverse i t s e l f i n the near future. "* 3  out:  In India* Shanti f a n g r i p o i n t s  "Corresponding to under-employment and  or disguised unemployment i n the v i l l a g e ,  seasonal  there i s  considerable disguised unemployment and/or mis-employment i n the c i t i e s , as r e f l e c t e d i n the r a p i d growth of th© low-productivity s e r v i c e sector i n which uns k i l l e d , uneducated workers, and e s p e c i a l l y the transis lent©, seek means to s u b s i s t " .  •  In the l a r g e r c i t i e s , Malenbaum p o i n t s out, out of the unemployed 78.4  percent were l i t e r a t e ,  amongst which 5.1 percent had c o l l e g e education! 46 percent  about  of the t o t a l educated unemployed being  concentrated  i n the four major c i t i e s i n I n d i a , namely  ^^For a review of v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s and ©valuat i o n of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a by the Rational P l a n ning Commission sees Government of India, I n d i a . A Reference Annual. 1962 ($©w Delhi* p u b l i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1962), pp. 164-65. ^ S h a n t i f a n g r l , "Urbanisation, P o l i t i c a l S t a b i l i t y , and Soonomic Growth", India*© Urban f u t u r e . Hoy turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley? U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), p. 199.  64. C a l c u t t a , Bombay, Madrasi and l e l h i . Wall© the growth of Indian population is. taking place, there i s not a corresponding increase i n the t o t a l n a t i o n a l income and r e a l per c a p i t a income. 1961,  In  f o r example, the p e r c a p i t a income In I n d i a was  as low as approximately 13©.00 (Canadian).  food eon-  sumption i s hardly above subsistence l e v e l , and yet 66 percent of the expenditure a v a i l a b l e for i s spent on food items.  Only 1.1  consumer goods  percent of t h i s low 17  per c a p i t a income l a spent on housing. various economic f a c t o r s have created d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of housing f o r iamlgramt© to urban areas, who  belong l a r g e l y to the lower income group,  l a r g e sections of the people who migrate i n t o towns and c i t i e s have t h e i r roots i n the r u r a l areas and, even though they l i v e i n the urban areas f o r p r a c t i c a l l y the whole of t h e i r productive l i f e , they never f e e l that they belong to the towns,  fhe common tendency i s  to spend a minimum and to save the maximum of t h e i r i n comes to be remitted to t h e i r v i l l a g e s ,  fhey do not  mind the hardships of poor and inadequate housing cond i t i o n and accommodation and urban f a c i l i t i e s i n towns. * W i l f r e d Malenbaum, "Urban Unemployment i n I n d i a " , P a c i f i c A f f a i r s . XXX, No. 2 (June, 1957),  pp. 136-40. x  ' I n d i a , A Reference Annual, op. c i t . , p.  167  65 A very small percentage o f t h e i r Incomes, sometimes as low as 2 to 5 percent i s spent on bouse r e n t . 1958,  i t was  recorded  as 7*3  (In  i n large c i t i e s , and  percent i n a l l to«ms and c i t i e s , on an average).  4.0 fhls  c o n s t i t u t e s an inadequate r e t u r n on investment In housing and hence th© supply of new  houses has been severely  cut out from the p r i v a t e sector f o r t h i s olas© of people. High subsidies become necessary to bridge the gap between the economic rent and the rent which these groups are prepared to pay f o r new  housing. ® 1  In a d d i t i o n , most  r u r a l immigrants expect to f i n d i n the c i t y not only a job, b e t t e r housing and p h y s i c a l amenities, but also r i c h e r s o c i a l and human experiences and access to n a t i o n a l and u n i v e r s a l c u l t u r e , which f u r t h e r worsens the s i t u a t i o n . fhe p r e d i c t a b l e wave of Urban growth has i n e s capable Implications f o r investment p o l i c y , both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e .  fhe increased number of person© In urban  areas mean© more households and jobs.  The p r o v i s i o n of  employment opportunities requires the p r o v i s i o n o f worki n g space and equipment.  The extension of urban services  mainly roads, u t i l i t i e s , and the improvement of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s required by the added volume of use, as associ^ % n i t e d nations. Housing i n Belatlonuto KeRlOna l Development In A s i a and the Far l a s t (Working Paper #2$, tiw> York* United Nations, 1956), p. 2.  66 ated with both r e s i d e n t i a l and employment a c t i v i t i e s would also he s u b s t a n t i a l .  Considering the present  trends of urban population growth i n India, B r i t t o n H a r r i s on the b a s i s of h i s rough " r e l a t i v e l y  conserva-  t i v e estimates" of the f i v e Year (1961-66) investment needed f o r urban areas f i n d s an approximate t o t a l of Hs. 20 m i l l i o n required f o r investment  not  provided f o r i n the f h i r d F i v e Tear P l a n . ^ 1  otherwise Fitamber  Pant, on the b a s i s of h i s model of economic growth of India, f i n d s the resources provided i n the F l a n f o r Housing s u f f i c i e n t .  Pant a l s o recognises the need of  considering the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of stepping up the rate of investment  i n urban Housing, but f i n d s s e r i o u s  l i m i t a t i o n s on grounds of p o l i t i c a l , f i s c a l and p h y s i cal f e a s i b i l i t y .  U l t i m a t e l y , Fant stresses the need  f o r d e v i s i n g methods of low-cost u r b a n i s a t i o n . sumption o f food, o l o t h i n g , and other basic  Con-  requirements  i s nearly as d e f i c i e n t as i s the supply of housing.  At  the same time, there i s an equally p r e s s i n g need f o r accumulating  a stock of c a p i t a l equipment v i t a l to the  ^ B r i t t o n H a r r i s , "Urban C e n t r a l i s a t i o n and Planned Development", India's Urban Future. Hoy turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley? U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), P. 265. F i t a m b e r Fant, "Urbanisation and the LongRange Strategy of .Economic Development", India's Urban Future. Boy Turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley? U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), pp. 189-90. 2C  67. future growth of p r o d u c t i v i t y and n a t i o n a l income.  LACK Of  IKDCSTST,  MXWUG  ttA£gBXAL3 & SKStXHD M10B  '  fhe shortage of s k i l l e d labour, organised b u i l d i n g Industry and of b u i l d i n g materials has long been recognised.  21  The e f f o r t s of the Government of India  to combat these shortages have met with l i t t l e so f a r . T h i s may  success  be e i t h e r because of production d e f i -  ciency, or because these materials are required e l s e where f o r productive a c t i v i t y l i k e b u i l d i n g f a c t o r i e s , r i v e r v a l l e y p r o j e c t s and defence b u i l d i n g s , e t c .  There  has been, In general, no shortage of manual labour i n b u i l d i n g Industry, but t e c h n i c a l personnel required f o r planning, designing and implementing large housing p r o j e c t s has been deplorably l i m i t e d . have aggravated  A l l thee© f a c t o r s  the housing problem i n urban areas.  • ft'ation&l Planning Commission ( I n d i a ) , Memorandum on Mousing, memographed, 1951, pp. 15-1©.  68  Because of the present acute housing shortages, low incomes, high oost of l i v i n g , i n s e c u r i t y of employment, and other s i m i l a r faetore i n urban areas, immigrat i o n from the r u r a l to the urban centers i n I n d i a has remained r e s t r i c t e d , p r i m a r i l y , to males.  A large  f r a c t i o n of these male Immigrant c o n s i s t s of married persons.  Being deprived of e s s e n t i a l community f a c i l i -  t i e s and organized s o c i a l l i f e , therefore, they are very e a s i l y transformed i n t o a demoralised, unhealthy, p i t i f u l mass.  They thus become susceptible to such  s o c i a l e v i l s l i k e d r i n k i n g , gambling, r a c i n g , dope peddling, p r o s t i t u t i o n , ©to. Though there are no estimates of the t o t a l economic costs of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n that a r i s e s due to the d e f i c i e n c i e s o r absence of proper housing, i t i s observed that, i n the long run, the s o c i a l and economic cost i s very high.  Delinquency,  drunkenness,  murder, t h e f t , and robbery Involve increased costs, i n c l u d i n g those f o r p o l i c e and j u s t i c e administration and f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the detention and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of c o n v i c t s . Another s o c i a l f a c t o r requires s p e c i a l mention. In  India, the ' I n t e l l e c t u a l C l a s s * (teachers, s o c i a l  workers, j o u r n a l i s t s , w r i t e r s , etc.) does not enjoy a  69 very high economic existence and i t therefore  finds  i t s e l f i n v a r i a b l y located amidst a growing world of slums,Worsening sanitary conditions,  overcrowded  community f a c i l i t i e s , lowering l i v i n g standards, unemployment-underemployment or mls-employment, conditions, etc. f e e l i n g s of  f h i s creates i n t h i s group the mixed  s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e , i n e q u a l i t y , mistrust  the Government, and the l i k e . conscience r e v o l t s and  Being educated, t h e i r  they t r y to  rouse p u b l i c  against the deplorable environment around them, apathetic to  of  a t t i t u d e of the administration  opinion fhis  gives r i s e  f e e l i n g s of impotence i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l s and  in  order to overcome t h i s they become 'Rebels*, 'Gut-, aiders',  'Angry Young len» and what not.'  That the more  a s p i r i n g , sentimental and l e s s thoughtful type amongst them become unintended t o o l s i n the hands of p o l i t i c a l conjurers i s a p a i n f u l f a c t . I f the educated provide leadership,  the  i e n t s around them provide raw material f o r mo*bs.  trans$he  o v e r a l l . s i t u a t i o n i s thus r i p e f o r any p o l i t i c a l manoeuvring by p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t o r s ,  fhis situation i s  encouraged by the c i t y structure i t s e l f .  High popula-  t i o n d e n s i t i e s , rapid means of >communication and l  trans-  p o r t a t i o n , and other a v a i l a b l e urban p o l i t i c a l organization  easier.  (Part of the successes of  70. Communists i n K e r a l a ana Bengal, two of the most densely populated areas i n India, may he due to t h i s reason). Speakers and audiences tend to stimulate each other i n t o states of i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and frenzy i n s i t u a t i o n s of crowding and anonymity which are more e a s i l y achieved i n c i t i e s than i n r u r a l areas.  P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s stand  to gain from s i t u a t i o n s i n which peaceful crowds can he turned i n t o i r r e s p o n s i b l e mobs.  • aUIMABY fhe urban housing problem faced by I n d i a today l e twofold?  there i s a severe shortage of housing; and  the character of the e x i s t i n g accommodation and communal f a c i l i t i e s i s unsatisfactory, to the f o l l o w i n g factors?  t h i s shortage has been due  the continuous increase i n  population since 1921 and the l i m i t e d success of the family planning program! the rapid rate of urbanization! the comparatively small investment i n housing by p r i v a t e enterprise due to the lack of a s a t i s f a c t o r y return! ever-increasing cost, and shortage of land and of b u i l d ing materials! and the low per c a p i t a income and low standard of l i v i n g of the people.  Public housing has  not been able to cope with the complex problem of Housi n g , mainly due to th© paucity of funds, and the o f f i c i a l n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of Investment  i n and c r e a t i o n of  71 • c a p i t a l assets. fhe overcrowding and lack o f housing at present i s due to various c u l t u r a l , economic and administrative reasons, important amongst which ere?  lack o f planned  development on a regional and comprehensive % a B i e i the i n e f f i c i e n c y , incompetence and lack o f f i n a n c i a l r e sources o f l o c a l governments• the apathetic a t t i t u d e of the urban dwellersj the concentration o f i n d u s t r i e s i n a few urban centers With no a d d i t i o n to and improvement o f the urban f a c i l i t i e s . fo cope with the present  shortage and u n s a t i s -  f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n o f Housing, huge a l l o c a t i o n of resources by both the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c sector i s required. Presumably, at the present atage o f i n d u s t r i a l and economic development m  India, the a l l o c a t i o n o f t h i s  required resources i s n o t s f e a s l b l e and t h i s low-cost urbanisation i s e s s e n t i a l . In I n d i a , urbanisation has preceded economic development and Induatrialissation, r e s u l t i n g i n a high degree o f unemployment, under-employment and misemployment among both the educated and uneducated c l a s s e s . This s i t u a t i o n i s causing f r u s t r a t i o n , tension and u n s t a b l l i t y among the masses i n general,  fhe unsatis-  f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n o f employment opportunities along with overorowdlng, and lack of Housing i s c r e a t i n g p o l i t i c a l  72. and o u l t u r a l problems.  Due to t h e i r p e c u l i a r c u l t u r a l ,  economic and p h y s i c a l problems, the low income group needs s p e c i a l  attention.  73.  GHA^TBH I I I  PBOBLMS OF RURAL IMMIglAHTS m vwm  ARIAS  DEFINHPIOH OF RURAL AND UBBAW AREAS According to the 1951 n a t i o n a l Census o f India, a settlement with a population o f 5,000 o r more i s characterised as urban.  However, there appears i n  each census a long l i s t of settlements which, although they have more than 5,000 inhabitanta are s t i l l  suf-  f i c i e n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t h e i r pattern of l i v e l i h o o d and h a b i t a t i o n to be c a l l e d v i l l a g e s i n the opinion of the census a u t h o r i t i e s . In other cases, communities of l e s s than 5,000 which are s a i d to possess "urban characteristics-*- are classed as towns.  This i n d i s -  t i n c t ! on o f the l i n e o f demarcation occurs not only i n demographic, but i n geographic d e l i m i t a t i o n o f urban and r u r a l areas as w e l l .  Many v i l l a g e s at the f r i n g e s  of b i g urban centers i n I n d i a are r u r a l or urban only i n the f a c t that the most recent l e g a l demarcation o f  The a v a i l a b l e information does not define these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  74. the municipal l i m i t s does or does not happen to include them.  2  Separate s t a t i s t i c a l grouping of urban centers  as contrasted with r u r a l areas becomes l e s s e f f i c i e n t considering the f o l l o w i n g f a c t s : Even those eoonosle a c t i v i t i e s which are normally considered to be urban a c t i v i t i e s — t e x t i l e manufacture, metal work, construction, the manufacture of chemicals and f e r t i l i s e r , e l e c t r i c machinery and supplies, cement, wholesale and r e t a i l trade, wearing apparel and food processing — have large segments of t h e i r labor force i n r u r a l areas. Nor are a c t i v i t i e s normally c l a s s i f i e d as r u r a l absent from even the l a r g e s t c i t i e s . Even a metropolis such as Madras had 32 persons per thousand engaged i n primary i n d u s t r i e s ( c u l t i v a t i o n and l i v e s t o o k tending) i n 1951.3 Klngsley Davis comments that a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of urban and r u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s In India i s that c i t i e s are the centers whence Western t r a i t s are d i f f u s ed and s o c i a l change begins.*  Various w r i t e r s have  t r i e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e urban and r u r a l areas i n India on the b a s i s of such f a c t o r s as rate of f e r t i l i t y , l i t e r a c y , s e x - r a t i o , economic a c t i v i t i e s , e t c ,  these  ''Richard D. Lambert, "fhe Impact of Urban Society upon V i l l a g e I»ife% India's Urban f u t u r e . Roy burner, e d i t o r (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), p. 117. ^Richard D. Lambert, on. p i t . , p.  118.  *Kingsley Davis, fhe Population of I n d i a and Pakistan (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951)« p. 127.  75. attempts are, however, bound to f a i l f o r the reason that no s i n g l e f a c t o r can encompass i n toto the whole multitude of i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d behaviourthinking patterns designated as • r u r a l ' or 'urban'} for,  as Crane observes?  "fhe dichotomy l e based on  two d i f f e r e n t ways of l i f e . " *  URBAN VERSUS RURAL WAY OF MVI^G S o c i a l l i f e i n the countryside moves and develops i n a r u r a l environment j u s t as s o c i a l  life  i n the urban area moves and develops i n an urban environment.  Desai observe© the following as the most  important c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the r u r a l from the  urban environment i n India?  Occupational d i f f e r -  ences? environmental d i f f e r e n c e s ; d i f f e r e n c e s i n the sis© of th© communities, i n the density o f population, i n the homogeneity and heterogeneity of population, i n the  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , i n the d i r e c t i o n of migration, i n  the  s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and i n  the  system of s o e i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .  •'Robert I . Crane, "Urbanism i n I n d i a " . America Journal of Sociology. V o l . XX, No.5,(March, 1955), p. 465. ft  A.E. Desai, "Rural Urban Differences", Rural Sociology i n India, (Bombay? fhe Indian Society of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, 1959), pp. 11-12.  76.  In the r u r a l werld the main p u r s u i t i s a g r i culture.  I n camparisen to t h i s , i n the urban world,  people are engaged p r i n c i p a l l y i n manufacturing, mechanical p u r s u i t s , trade, commerce, professions, governing, and other n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l occupations, fhe predominance of nature over anthropo-social environment of the r u r a l community, and a more d i r e c t r e l a tionship to nature are important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r u r a l environment.  Greater i s o l a t i o n from nature  and predominance of a man-made environment over nature marks the urban environment.  fhe population sla© i s  u s u a l l y smaller i n r u r a l than i n urban communities. In p r i n c i p l e , r u r a l ! t y and sis© o f population and the area pattern o f ths community are inversely  related.  Conversely, urbanity and else o f community are d i r e c t l y related.  Generally, density and r u r a l i t y are also  inversely  c o r r e l a t e d : density tends to be greater i n  urban than i n r u r a l areas.  Further, compared with  urban populations, r u r a l communities are more homogeneous i n r a c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a i t s .  Similarly,  s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the r u r a l areas i s l e s s than i n the urban community.  Also In  the r u r a l areas, there i e a r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y and s i n c e r i t y of s o c i a l relationships{;  even business  77. i n t e r a c t i o n s are predominantly personal and more durable. In contrast, i n the urban world, there axe more numerous contacts} predominance o f secondary contaotsf predominance o f impersonal casual and s h o r t - l i v e d r e l a t i o n s j greater complexity, manifoldnees, s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and a f o r m a l i t y of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . ^ fhese l a t t e r d i f f e r e n c e s have t h e i r roots i n the d i f f e r i n g r u r a l and urban pattern of l i v i n g .  eON0XTl©K W  HOUSING AID KELAfE© 'PJB0BU3E8 IN •  - 1RDXA fhe developed state o f the r u r a l economy i n Western countries has meant that s p e c i a l i z e d goods and services a v a i l a b l e to c i t y dwellers are also a v a i l a b l e to people i n the r u r a l areas, r u r a l areas i n I n d i a .  t h i s i s not true f o r the  V i l l a g e s do not possess specia-  l i s e d goods and services because there i s n e i t h e r a commercial core nor an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d place of b u s i ness i n each v i l l a g e such as one f i n d s i n the urban areas,  fhe presence o r absence of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  amenities i s frequently an i n d i c a t o r o f the sharp d i f f e r Tp.A. Sorekim and -0.0V li&mermam, F r l n e i y l g e of Urban-Rural Sociology (Hew York. H. Holt as Co., 1929), pp, 5&-57.  78. ence© between urban and r u r a l  India.  Only to a very  l i m i t e d extent do e l e c t r i c - p o w e r l i n e s , telephones* c i t y bus s e r v i c e , and water and sewage l i n e extend into the r u r a l areas. Results of the eleventh round of the National Sample Survey (August 1956 - January 1957) on housing conditions i n r u r a l and urban areas show that about 68 percent of households i n the r u r a l areas(and 6 9 percent i n the urban areas) possessed not more than two room© each, sing one  f h e percentage o f households posses-  r o o a j < m l y i n r u r a l areas varied between 25  anfl 42 i s d i f f e r e n t isarts of the country^  fhe percent-  age of households with 3 or more persona per room i n  t h e rural' areas v a r i e d b e t w e e n 16.5 a n d 38.3 i n t h e d i f f e r e n t population zones i n India.  I n the b i g c i t i e s  about 28 percent of the households had to accoaiaedate 3 o r mors persons per room.  In the r u r a l area about  30 percent of the households occupied f l o o r space between 101 and 200 square f e e t , excluding open space. I n t h © urban areas 26.6 percent o f the households had t h i s range of f l o o r with per c a p i t a  s^ace.  f h e percentage of households  f l o o r space up to 50 square f e e t  was  a  48.1 i n the r u r a l and 46.6 i n the urban areas.  Aa f a r  Government of India, I n d i a . A Reference Annual, 1962 (Few D e l h i * P u b l i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1962), pp. 171-72.  79. as mere »shelter * i s ooneemed, r u r a l areas provide 'shelter*  to more people than urban areas do.  the e s s e n t i a l the  It is  amenities and s e r v i c e s i n and around  'shelter' which are absent or d e f i c i e n t i n the  r u r a l areas. About 69 percent of the r u r a l households (71 percent of the r u r a l population) had d r i n k i n g water from w e l l s , 5 percent from tubewells and only one peroent had tap water. In the urban sector, 51 percent of the households (95 percent i n the f o u r b i g c i t i e s , 76 percent i n the b i g towns and about 39 peroent i n small towns) had drinking water from municipal taps. About 34 percent of the urban population as a whole got t h e i r supply o f d r i n k i n g water from tanks and ponds.9 further,  the average distance from schools,  post o f f i c e s , e t c . , gradually decreases as the s i s e of the v i l l a g e increases.  Thus, i n the t w e l f t h round  the average distance i n miles from a primary school decreases from 1.9 f o r a v i l l a g e with a population up to 200 to 0.3 f o r a v i l l a g e with population and above.  2,001  S i m i l a r l y , the average distance from a  high school decreases from 13.1 miles to 5.8 miles; that from the h o s p i t a l decreases from 9.8 miles to 7.1 miles; from post o f f i c e from 4.8 miles to 0.6 miles; and the distance from telegraph o f f i c e from  y  p. 172.  I n d i a , A Reference Annual, 1962, op. c i t . .  11.5 Biles to 8.0 miles.^  u  fa© economic l i f e of v i l l a g e r s i s a l s o poor. 3?he excessive pressure on land, stagnation of v i l l a g e industries,  l a c k of n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l occupations  and  job opportunities are f a c t o r s responsible f o r the underemployment, unemployment and the consequent poverty of the r u r a l people,  fhe A g r i c u l t u r a l  labour  Imquiriee conducted by the Government of I n d i a i n and 1957,  1951  to assess the impact of development schemes  undertaken during the f i r s t and Second Five Year F l a n s , show some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s ,  fhe l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l -  t u r a l labour households i n 1956-57 accounted f o r 57 percent of the t o t a l as against 50 percent i n 1950**51. fhe proportion of attached and casual a g r i c u l t u r a l labour households was 10s90 i n 1950-51.  In 1956-57,  attached labour households account f o r about 27 cent of the a l l - I n d i a t o t a l , the remainder being labour households,  fhe increase was,  percasual  to some extent,  du© to resumption of personal estates of s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n by the erstwhile intermediary land l o r d s l i k e • zemindars', •jagirdare*, 'talukdars*, e t c . , i n the different states.  In spit© of t h i s s e l f - c u l t i v a t i o n  by ex-intermediaries, the number of a g r i c u l t u r a l labourers during 1956-57 was  1 0  I b l d . . . p.  A  173.  . .  33 m i l l i o n s composed of  81  1 . 8 m i l l i o n men, 1 . 2 m i l l i o n women and 0 . 3 m i l l i o n children,  fhe corresponding f i g u r e s f o r 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 were  35 m i l l i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f 1 . 9 m i l l i o n men, 1 . 4 m i l l i o n women and 0 . 2 m i l l i o n c h i l d r e n .  Consequently, the  number o f unemployed persons increased.  Casual adult  male workers were employed, on an average, f o r wages for 57.  200 days i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 and f o r 197 days during 1 9 5 6 -  They were s e l f employed f o r 75 days i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1  and f o r 40 days i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 .  f u r t h e r , casual adult  male workers were unemployed f o r 1 2 8 days i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 as  compared t o 9 0 days i n 1950-^51.  In s p i t e o f t h e  f a c t that t h e cost of l i v i n g has r i s e n between 1 9 5 0 - 5 7 and the average d a l l y wage-rate o f adult male worker© decreased from 109 nP. ( l Canadian cent = 4 . 3 5 t o 4 . 3 7 nP), i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 to  nP. i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 ,  and the  average d a i l y wage-rate o f adult women also f e l l from 68 nP. i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 to 59 nP. i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 .  C h i l d labour  received an average wage o f 7 0 nP. i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 and 53 nP. i n 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 . the  f h i s r e s u l t e d i n the reduction o f  average annual Income o f an a g r i c u l t u r a l labour  household,  fhe income f e l l from I s .  d o l l a r a Rupees 4 . 3 5 to 4 . 3 7 ) i n 1956-57. of  447 ( 1 Canadian  i n 1 9 5 0 - 5 1 to I s . 437  fhe program o f the Government o f India  promoting cottage and small scale i n d u s t r i e s i n  r u r a l areas has met with l i t t l e success so f a r due  82 to an I n e f f i c i e n c y of production and lack of market, fhe various sources of income of a g r i c u l t u r a l labour household were: c u l t i v a t i o n of land, a g r i c u l t u r a l labour, n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l labeur and others,  fhe i n -  come derived from the n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s decreased from 11.9 percent,to 7.99  percent of t o t a l  incomes from a l l sources between .1951 the.same p e r i o d , the percentage  and 1957.  During  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l labour  increased from 64*2 to 73.04 percent.  Due to the  increase i n the cost of l i v i n g , the average annual consumption expenditure of a g r i c u l t u r a l labour households increased from Rs. 461 i n 1950-51 to Bs. 617 i n 1956-57, and the expenditure on food remained as the biggest f a c t o r i n expenditure accounting f o r 77.3 cent of the t o t a l income.  per-  This d e f i c i t between income  and expenditure has been met  from past savings ( i f any),  sale of stocks, remittances received and l o a n s .  Of  the t o t a l debt, about 46 percent was incurred f o r meetn  ing the consumption expenditure. K i n s h i p , caste, and t e r r i t o r i a l a f f i n i t i e s are the major determinants that shape the s o c i a l structure of Indian v i l l a g e communities.  An i n d i v i d u a l  belongs  to a family-nuclear, compound or joint} and the family I n d i a , A Reference Annual 1962, pp. 242-44. A X  op c i t * ,  83 belongs to a lineage as w e l l as to a large group of r e l a t i v e s having k i n or a f f i n i a l t i e s with i t . t r a r y to common b e l i e f , due  to the impact of  g i c a l developments, c a p i t a l i s t i c economy and  Contechnoloeducation,  the basic u n i t of s o c i a l organisation i n the r u r a l communities i n India 1 3 not the l a r g e j o i n t family, but the nuclear family and the smaller j o i n t family i n which only a part of those who  should have c o n s t i -  tuted the i d e a l l a r g e r j o i n t family l i v e  together,  the interdependence of the members of the r u r a l family and the dependence of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members on i t , strengthens emotions of s o l i d a r i t y and among them,  cooperation  fhey develop more c o l l e c t i v i s t family  consciousness and l e s s i n d i v i d u a l ©motions,  fhe  soli-  d a r i t y between t h i s c l u s t e r of families, expresses i t s e l f on ceremonial occasions and i n times of s t r e s s and calamity.  In th© hour o f seed they must support  each other, and mutual consultations among them i n regard to a l l major decisions, are  regarded:as d e s i r a b l e ,  fhe outlook of the people has been d i s t i n c t l y k i n oriented, and i n an hour of need they almost i n s t i n c t i v e l y look to t h e i r k i n f o r sympathy and support.  In  recent years there has undoubtedly been a change from a k l n - o r i e a t e d outlook to an Interest-oriented  outlook,  and a gradual breaking up of l a r g e e f f e c t i v e k i n groups  84. has been i n evidence. However, even under conditions of semi-urbanisation, caste and k i n groups have continued to perform important functions of s o c i a l i s a t i o n and s o c i a l c o n t r o l and socio-economic s e c u r i t y . .  MJRAI, XffMIGRAIffS IN TOAU  ASMS  'fhe urban population i n India i s made up of several l a y e r s of d i f f e r e n t i a l l y "urbanised" persons. The upper-most  l a y e r of the urban population c o n s i s t s  Of urban e l i t e " . M  The outlook of the urban e l i t e i n  the large c i t i e s , ( C a l c u t t a , Bombay, Madras, Delhi) d i f f e r s from that of the r u r a l e l i t e and the e l i t e i n small towns,  fhe urban e l i t e i n the l a r g e c i t i e s i s  Westernised, has a European o r at l e a e t western-style education, often uses Englishes a language o f communicat i o n , and i s comparatively f a r removed i n a t t i t u d e s and s t y l e of l i f e from the peasants and the mass of poorer urban workers.  1?he e l i t e i n the r u r a l areas and i n  smaller towns i s l e s s removed from the common people, i t speaks one of the vernacular languages, and i n i t s s o c i a l views, a t t i t u d e s and even i n i t s ordinary d a i l y * 3 . 0 . Bube, "Rural I n d i a — ©llmpses of S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l L i f e " , Rural Sociology i n I n d i a . A.R. Desai, e d i t o r (Bombayr fhe Indian Society o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Iconomics, 1959), pp. 210-17. fi  85 Behaviour pattern© i© c l o s e r to the masses.  For sure,  even i n the r u r a l areas and small towns difference© i n wealth and power between the e l i t e and the common people e x i s t , hut th© c u l t u r a l and behavioral gap i s u s u a l l y narrower and i n many instances absent. Another group o f people that e x i s t s w i t h i n the confines o f urban areas i s comprised of persons who culturally — —  i.e.*, i n a t t i t u d e s , values and behaviour  are v i l l a g e r s and may accordingly be c a l l e d "Urbanised  villagers". Some of them have come r e c e n t l y from a v i l l a g e , other© may have resided i n a c i t y f o r some time, and s t i l l other© may have been born there. Since these persons have S t i l l a v i l l a g e outlook, they often have not severed t h e i r tie© with the v i l l a g e . Many o f them return mor© or l e s s r e g u l a r l y to t h e i r v i l l a g e s , Iven though they were b o m i n the c i t y , some keep a l i v e t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n property i n the v i l l a g e t h e i r parents came from and maintain c l o s e tie© with the extended f a m i l y , p a r t s of which overcome the general economic outlook of v i l l a g e r s , fhey are employed as u n s k i l l e d workers, and they form u s u a l l y the most poorly paid sector of the population, fhey have unsteady and i r r e g u l a r employment, a large proportion o f them i s i l l i t e r a t e , and, i n s p i t e of the impact o f the demonstration e f f e c t upon them, they have patterns o f consumption which are l i t t l e removed from those o f Villagers.13  B e r t F. H o s e i l t s , "fhe Role of Urbanisation i n Economic Development: Some International Comparison©" India'e Urban Future. Boy burner, e d i t o r (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 172. 1 3  86  fhese "Urbanized-villagers" are those who -  the problem of g e t t i n g adjusted  face  to the urban-environ-  ment, and t h i s group i s the concern of t h i s t h e s i s . In the urban areas there are several intermedi a t e groups between these "Urbanized-villagers* and sophisticated urban e l i t e s ,  these intermediate  the  groups  tend to narrow the gap somewhat between the extremes.  PROBLEMS OP IBS SURAL IMIGRAIfS IH mn  URBAH ARIAS  Economic Problems The s o o i o - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n I n d i a between urban e l i t e s and r u r a l masses are enormous.  1?his, i n  turn, implies that the overcoming of t h i s g u l f f o r the newly-arrived difficult.  r u r a l immigrants i n the o i t l e s i s quite  Various f a c t o r s perpetuate the status  and hinder the rural-to-urban c u l t u r a l  quo  transformation.  Lack of adequate housing i s one of them, which, i n i t s e l f , i s d i r e c t l y associated with the lack o f adequate economic absorption of the immigrants. On the basis of a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s , Bogue & Zachariah drew a number of inferences regarding  the  l i v e l i h o o d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r u r a l immigrant to urban areas i n India, the most relevant of which are as follows :?f  87 (i)  fn# immigrants are found predominantly  in non-agricultural industries; (ii)  there - i s a s u b s t a n t i a l excess-of immi-  grants, i n l i v e l i h o o d ©lasses of production  (non-agri-  c u l t u r a l ) , commerce, transport, p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and miscellaneous, f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l services category, c o n s i s t i n g of lawyers, doctors, engineers, i s i r r e l e v a n t as the people of t h i s group are not  "urbanized-villagers". (iii)  A number of i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g Proces-  sing ft Manufacture; Commerce; Transport; Storage and Communications; and Health, Education and P u b l i c Adminis t r a t i o n had more than 75 percent o f i t s t o t a l labour force M  P  M  ot  -  iaaigranta. * 1  In t h i s connection-, t h e i r observations  of the  economic conditions of the rural-immigrant labour also worth mentioningt  are  "In the C a l c u t t a I n d u s t r i a l  l e g i o n a disproportionately large share of migrants are working at low status, lower paying, u n s k i l l e d - l a b o r e r s ' jobs and places where large q u a n t i t i e s of labour used on a mass s c a l e " F u r t h e r ,  are  "In any event, i t i s  ^ S o n a l d <5\ Bogue & K.C. Zachariah, "Urbanisat i o n and Migration i n India", India's Urban f u t u r e . Roy burner, e d i t o r (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), pp. 46-51. i 5  I b i d . , p.  50.  88.  c l e a r that the migrants have poorer work status and ' 1.6  l e s s income on an average* than the non-migrants". S i m i l a r l y , t h e i r speculative a s s e r t i o n o f the s i t u a t i o n of r u r a l immigrants to the urban areas l a s i t i s quit® p o s s i b l e , however, that the rural, migrant to the l a r g e c i t i @ e of I n d i a i s forced to bear hardships and undergo -suffering to a much greater extent than i s g e n e r a l l y appreciated.: A S population pressure mounts, i t may be neither the v i l l a g e r s nor the c i t y dwellers who bear the major burden of misery, but the d i s placed r u r a l population that can n e i t h e r ba accornmodated on the land ( i n r u r a l areas) nor f i n d an economic connection i n the e i t y . * 3  7  fheee immigrants to the l a r g e metropolis may possess i n some cases a considerably higher average l e v e l of education attainment than tha general populat i o n of the s t a t e s from which they are dra«a, but they tend to have a lower average l e v e l o f educational attainment than the population of the place to which they migrate. notwithstanding the f a c t that th©a© statements are based on the s i t u a t i o n i n Calcutta, they do represent the f a c t that comparatively i l l i t e r a t e person® are migrating from v i l l a g e s , and that these i l l i t e r a t e , u n s k i l l e d , and inexperienced a g r i c u l t u r i s t s are burdening  89 the labour market with l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s o f manpower than that which can be absorbed.  In t h i s connection  i t may be mentioned that during the coming decade young men and women with some educational background are expected to migrate to the urban areas.  Neverthe-  l e s s , t h i s minimal education, ( i . e . , the a b i l i t y merely to read and write to a very l i m i t e d extent one o f the vernacular languages), w i l l not be an adequate q u a l i f i c a t i o n to secure b e t t e r jobs? b e t t e r salary; better standard o f l i v i n g ? and b e t t e r housing, e i t h e r by owning a house o r by paying more rent.  Methods o f  technology and d i s t r i b u t i o n are r a p i d l y changing due to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n I n d i a .  As a r e s u l t of innova-  t i o n s , new s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s , and progress i n many areas of s o c i a l reforms, p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e , mining, manufacturing,  management, and  services has increased and i s bound to improve i n the future, and the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth seems greater even than achievements up to now.  This advance i n "know-  how" reduces the demand f o r u n s k i l l e d labour while i t tends to increase the need f o r s k i l l e d labour,  fhe  immigrant who i s seeking a job i s not aware o f the monetized system of commerce and trade and i s not accustomed to earning a l i v i n g i n a market oriented system of production establishments.  These immigrants  to. do not possess the necessary education, mechanical s k i l l s , commitment to a s p e c i f i c type of work and money consciousness to become adjusted to the urban environment. fhe obvious r e s u l t due  to these d e f i c i e n c i e s  i s lack of employment f o r t h i s group of immigrants. Consequently underemployment and misemployment occurs, causing a low standard of l i v i n g and negation of s a t i s f a c t i o n , inner s e c u r i t y , well being, belongingness to the new  environment and good health, both mental and  physical. The  r e s t r i c t i v e e f f e c t of unemployment on  the  o u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the r u r a l Immigrant has been j u s t l y stressed by Bonne: Unemployment has a d i s t u r b i n g influence on the capacity f o r i n t e g r a t i o n , i n the absence of p r o v i s i o n f o r a secure though modest way of l i v i n g which are o f f e r e d by s o c i a l system i n t o which Immigrant was born, h i s sense of s e c u r i t y i s disturbed by the prospect of being out of work without chance of redressing the p o s i t i o n . I f the immigrant succeeds i n adjusting himself to t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t can become one of the strongest incentives of work and behaviour and to s t r i v e f o r a s k i l l e d j o b . 1 8  On the other hand, among the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s  °Alfred Bonne, "Unemployment and O u l t u r a l Integration", i n International S o c i a l Science B u l i e t i n , Vol. H H , Ho. 1, 1956, p. 30.  91 that help r u r a l immigrants become adjusted to the urban environment, the importance of the "economic absorption f a c t o r " has l o n g been recognised.  For example, the  Havana Conference took i t as axiomatic that "economic absorption" was the e s s e n t i a l foundation f o r the l o n g process o f c u l t u r a l integration? the term "economic absorption" being understood therein to mean the enrichment of the a b i l i t i e s of the immigrant by p r o v i d i n g more t r a i n i n g , education, "know-how", e t c . , to make him capable of g e t t i n g introduced to new  economic  a c t i v i t i e s and occupations. ^ 1  C u l t u r a l Problems I f one analyses the problems urban l i f e poses f o r r u r a l immigrants, a few causes of f a i l u r e seem to stand out, as have been pointed out by Weaver,  fhe  pertinent amongst these are: ignorance of housing cond i t i o n s ! the geographic complexity of the c i t i e s which may put insuperable distance between home and place of work; the l a r g e s i z e of the c i t i e s and complex system of transportation and communication which immigrants f i n d d i f f i c u l t to comprehends lack of c i v i c sense? and ,B. Borrie and others, fhe C u l t u r a l Integrat i o n of Immigrants: A survey based upon the papers and Proceedings of the UNSS00 conference held i n Havana  (Paris: uKESCO, 1959), pp. 89-97.  92  abrupt severance s f t i e s with the home community which deprives him from sympathy, and support from k i n s . Other instances, again, the immigrant I s so a l i e n  In to  the urban community that he only knows those who migrated e a r l i e r from h i s own area and, as a r e s u l t , i s often dominated and exploited by them,  these handicaps  are frequently aggravated by ignorance about those i n s t i t u t i o n s of urban communities which could help the Immigrant o r are s p e c i a l l y designed to do t h i s (e.g., Employment Exchange O f f i c e i n I n d i a ) . i n I n d i a , the d i v e r s i t i e s o f languages and d i a l e c t s also create problems,  ©ranting a l l success  to the program of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of Industries as planned and executed by the Government of India, the language problem would be solved to a s u f f i c i e n t extent but the problem of d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s would  still  remain. S t i l l another f a c t o r needs mention.  An immi-  grant from a r u r a l area may not have to face overt h o s t i l i t y by the urban!tesj nevertheless, because o f h i s d i f f e r e n t modes, manners, mores and customs, he i s easily socially differentiated.  He i s l i k e l y to be  G e o r g e X..P. Weaver, "Adjusting E u r a l People to an Urban Environment", •Social Problems of Development and Urbanization. (Washington D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963), pp. 4 0 - 4 1 . 20  93. c a l l e d a !B!A®X" ( V i l l a g e r with a derogatory connoM  tation) by urban!tee and thus gets h i s p e r s o n a l i t y defined as belonging to the lowest s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . Again, an immigrant may have a vocabulary and pattern of speech which i e well adjusted to the r u r a l community, i t s work and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but i s decidedly i n adequate i n dealing with h i s new employers, and neighbours.  co-workers,  "Education d e f i c i e n c i e s , as well as  l a c k of s k i l l s and "know-how" required f o r urban occupations, create b a r r i e r s which often are insurmountable and tend to wall up the newcomer i n the various ghettos, slums and shanty towns which have become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l a r g e c i t i e s o f Argentina, B r a s i l and Peru. These are —  incidentally —  s t i l l amongst key problems  of c i t i e s i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries, such as Chicago, iondon, Hew York and P a r i s " .  2 1  Some associated p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s also deserve appreciation,  fhe immigrants to urban areas  are, i n general, people who have already suffered from l a t e n t mental health disturbances due to low standard of l i v i n g , poverty and unemployment i n v i l l a g e s ,  fheee  persons are more prone to endanger t h e i r already d e f i c i e n t mental equilibrium i n t h e i r search f o r economic Weaver, op. c i t . . p. 41.  94. and o u l t u r a l adjustment i n the a l i e n urban environment, fhey. are i n danger of exhausting themselves and thus c o n t r a c t i n g eota© disease, -through ove-r*@tr©ss,. or a mental brea&dewc* which ®&y hamper t h e i r progress. Consequently,  they ©ay be prone to remain i s o l a t e d or  become more: ©o, and to-escape tat© apathy and  depres-  s i o n , i f not Into a paraaeiaC o r -aggressive behaviour. fhe noxious i n f l u e n c e of the individual'© i s o l a t i o n and powerlesenees i n the modern s o c i e t y can also be hardly over-©tressed.  £0 counteract t h i s , one  f e e l s the need f o r belongingness *~ i . e . , the f e e l i n g of being an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the s o c i e t y through i t s representation-by the.'immediate s o c i a l environment, . namely family, f r i e n d s , community and other primary groups.  Further, considering the psyohopathoiogical  detail© of " l o n o l i n e s a " i t ha© been ©tressed by Odegoard that auch disturbed people do not take roots well i n t h e i r community} they tend more than others to migrate, i n search f o r belonging elsewhere.  In t h e i r  communities they are o f t e n the i n d i v i d u a l s who "loners" and who  are  are secluded from the general ©ommun-  ity.  fheae i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n contribute to discontent go and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the community. ^Abraham A.. Weinberg, Migration and lelpagings (the Hague's Martlaua .Nishoff, 1961?, pV 195 ' e i t i n g Odegoard 0. "Emigration and I n s a n i t y % Acta F s y c h i a t . et ffeur. Scand., Suppl* IV 1932. f  9  95. fhe need of'migrants to defend themselves against uprootedneaa and to r e t a i n , or to obtain anew, a f e e l i n g of having r o o t s , appears, as we already have aeatioued, i n t h e i r tendency to f l o c k together, to l i v e i n proximity t o former countrymen or of c o - r e l i g i o n l s t e , to continue t a l k i n g t h e i r mother-tongue and to p u b l i s h newspapers i n i t , to form immigrant a s s o c i a t i o n s , e t c . fheae tendencies, when s u c c e s s f u l , may help the immigrant to r e t a i n h i s inner s e c u r i t y and provide hiBi with backing when he attempt£» to enter the new society.and to f u l f i l appropriate i n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e s . She danger remains, however, that the immigrant l a c k i n g the necessary inner s e c u r i t y and a c t i v e adjustment, f a c u l t i e s , and f e e l i n g attached to a segregated community of former compatriots, w i l l belong to a ghetto or a secluded minority group, with a l l the dangers i n v o l ved. 23 fhe urban Indian society i s notably d i v i d e d into groups whose behaviour patterns, customs, occupations, and even food p r a c t i c e s vary.  Consequently,  the c i t y  population i n - I n d i a has long been d i s t r i b u t e d s p a t i a l l y i n the f orm <of " s o c i a l islands*', because of d i f f e r e n c e s in, r e l i g i o n ? caste (even sub-caete); t r i b e , languages occupations  etc.  fheae s o c i a l char-  a c t e r i s t i c s bad r e a l meaning and developed such extensive exclusivenese that these group settlements often constituted " c i t i e s w i t h i n c i t i e s " ,  these " c i t i e s " of  group settlements appear to have had a f a i r l y stable population, g i v i n g r e s i d e n t s greater opportunity to Abraham A. Weinberg, op. c i t . . p. 174.  96 know one another i n t i m a t e l y . fhese were the " c i t i e s " where r u r a l immigrants usee to f i n d t h e i r own v i l l a g e s , i.e.,  a l l needed aspect© of the v i l l a g e l i f e were  present i n those urban areas,  t h i s pattern of c i t i e s  has v a s t l y changed with the rapid i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , urbanisation, and unprecedented s p a t i a l expansion of urban areas.  low, inhabitants o f the l o c a l areas of  the c i t y tend to be mixed i n caste, r e g i o n a l grouping, occupation, e t c .  f u r t h e r , i n the P u b l i c housing, and  housing provided i n company towas (e.g., Jamshedpur, 7  Bourkela), and railway c o l o n i e s , the accommodation has been provided according to the "economical c l a s s e s " . Bach grade and wage l e v e l i s assigned a s p e c i f i c section o f township, c r e a t i n g an economic hierarchy of  status d i f f e r i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l "caste-creed"  groupings.  As a r e s u l t , f a m i l i e s of d i f f e r e n t  reli-  gion©, castes, regions and l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds now f i n d themselves l i v i n g side-by-side.  Although groups  of persons may l i v e i n close proximity, or a l a r g e area may even be predominantly  of a c e r t a i n group,  housing pressure has made I t i n c r e a s i n g l y impossible for  l a r g e numbers o f persons with s i m i l a r s o c i a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to form an exclusive group settlement i n any one p a r t i c u l a r area.  97. These changes have f a r reaching o v e r a l l consequences both f o r the r u r a l immigrants as w e l l as f o r the c u l t u r a l development of c i t y - l i f e I t s e l f .  Hot  f i n d i n g h i s v i l l a g e r - l i k e environment i n these newer areas of the c i t y and i n new towns (where housing i s being provided on the basis of "economic c l a s s e s " ) , and consequently, not f e e l i n g at home i n these newer places, e s p e c i a l l y i n the c r u c i a l i n i t i a l stages of adjustment, the r u r a l immigrant looks towards the other p a r t s o f the c i t y and f i n d s , i n the o l d e r p a r t s , the desired "homely" environment —  aa these are the  places inhabited by persons with c u l t u r a l backgrounds s i m i l a r to h i s .  Thus h i s successful attempt to f i n d a  f a m i l i a r environment aggravates the undesirable slum s i t u a t i o n i n the c i t i e s , on the one hand, and impedes the urban s o c i o - c u l t u r a l progress, on the other. Besides, i n the present-day p u b l i c housing i n India, the accommodation  provided f o r the low-income  group workers i s the "single-room tenements", which c o n s i s t s of one single room of 100-120 square f e e t , kitchen-eum-verandah o f 96 square feet and separate or communal t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s .  Such one-room tenements,  besides being unhealthy and unhygienic, are a l s o against even the elementary notions about privacy and family l i f e —  more e s p e c i a l l y t h i s f a c t should be taken  98. i n t o account sine© t h i s low-income group has comparat i v e l y l a r g e r f a m i l i e s with strong kinship t i e s .  TH1  OP OVERALL A M U S S p f OP BUBAL  -XIOaa-RAHfS fO f f f i URBAN  mnmVWB*  fhe adjustment of r u r a l people to l i v i n g i n an urban environment involves a process of economic, and c u l t u r a l change,  social  f h i l e s t r e s s i n g one o r the other  of the various problems associated with t h i s process, a number of authors have used d i f f e r e n t words such as " i n t e g r a t i o n " , " a s s i m i l a t i o n " , o r "absorption" to r e f e r to the same general problem,  fhe nature o f these prob-  lems oan g e n e r a l l y be c l e a r l y defined; there are, f o r example, problems associated with adjustment i n employmeat, language, the re-establishment o f primary group r e l a t i o n s h i p , e t c . Whether the emphasis i s placed on economic, p o l i t i c a l o r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , the main concept remains that the immigrants should be capable o f becoming an i n v i s i b l e part Of the general urban population,  i t may here be emphasized that the process o f  becoming an i n t e g r a l part o f the urban population Should not be understood to mean a complete absorption at a l l l e v e l s — desirable.  which would be neither p o s s i b l e nor  What i s required i s a c u l t u r a l r e o r i e n t s -  99 t i o n which tends to provide t h i s group with a harmonious r e l a t i o n s h i p within the complex c u l t u r a l matrix.  This  implies the persistence of some of the d i f f e r e n c e s between immigrants and non-immigrants i n c e r t a i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l areas, and r e s t s upon a b e l i e f i n the importance of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n a framework of s o c i a l u n i t y . The problems of economic absorption and sooloc u l t u r a l adjustment  are i n t e r - r e l a t e d and c o n s t i t u t e  two aspects of the o v e r a l l adjustment problem, which includes, i n i t s scope, both the problems of the urban as well as the r u r a l areas, as has been pointed out by Weaver? I t i s almost commonplace that occupations i n f a c t o r i e s , mines, and o f f i c e s require more and more s k i l l s and l e s s and l e s s purely manual labour, and the same i s equally true f o r modern a g r i c u l t u r e , fhe lack Of s k i l l s of underemployed or unemployed r u r a l workers thus c o n s t i t u t e s a handicap whether he migrates to the c i t y or decides to stay on the l a n d . S k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r success. Lack of r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s i s an adjustment problem which e x i s t s i n r u r a l areas as much as i n c i t i e s . T r a i n i n g programs are needed i n both areas but none of these can be i n i t i a t e d by a s o c i a l l y responsible community without companion measures to r a i s e l i v i n g standards at l e a s t to a l e v e l s u f f i c i e n t to permit average wage earners and the self-employed a degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n and well-being which alone can induce a voluntary permanent commitment to productive occupations and s p e c i f i c jobs . . . . I n t h i s regard also  100. there l e l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the task ©f adjustment o f r u r a l migrants t o c i t y l i f e and that o f adjustments necess i t a t e d by the s h i f t from subsistence farming to market-oriented a g r i c u l t u r a l production, fhe task o f adjustment i n c i t i e s and i n farms i s to provide i n d i v i d u a l s with "know-how*' and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to meet the requirements of l i f e and l i v e l i h o o d i n a more impersonal and l e s s p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y . * 2  I t Is not p o s s i b l e to deal with the adjustment problems o f r u r a l areas.in I n d i a here, as t h i s i s beyond th© scop© of t h i s t h e s i s ,  .nevertheless, i t i s  c l e a r that a comprehensive approach to th© o v e r a l l adjustment problem i # needed, which' may- require a simultaneous attack on r e l a t e d problems i n r n r a l end urban areas.  TBI  mmot  ot  wmm*  A B J U S T O T T OH H O U S I N G  O v e r a l l adjustment of the r u r a l immigrants e f f e c t s , and improves upon, the urban housing s i t u a t i o n i n two e s s e n t i a l wayss (a)  By helping to provide an 'inner s t a b i l i t y '  and an elevated standard of l i f e , i t i n c i t e s the immigrant to look f o r better housings and (b)  Because the r u r a l  'city-dweller' due to  h i s increased income i s now i n a p o s i t i o n to spend more 'Weaver, op. c i t . . pp. 4 0 * 4 1 -  101, In  renting a nous©, i t induces the p r i v a t e s e c t o r to  invest i n the b u i l d i n g of new houses. A b r i e f explanation of these factor© follow©% I t ha© long been observed i n India that the p r i v a t e sector 1© not i n t e r e s t e d i n investment f o r b u i l d i n g houses f o r the low income group,  fhe burden  of meeting the ever-increasing demand f o r housing i n developing urban area© has, therefore, rested almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the government, which, because, of  i t s l i m i t e d resources, ha© f a i l e d to f u l f i l the  need.  Consequently, there has been a continuing  serious shortage of housing i n the urban area©.  The  need f o r the p r i v a t e sector to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the housing programs i s ,  therefore, imperative,  fhe  p r i v a t e sector would, however, not l i k e l y partir... cipate u n t i l i t was convinced that now the • c i t y dweller* i s both w i l l i n g and able to invest an approp r i a t e amount from h i s ©alary i n housing.  On the other  hand, the immigrant would l i k e l y refuse to do so t i l l he start© r e c e i v i n g an adequate and regular souroe of income.  While economic absorption would provide the  required income, an o v e r a l l adjustment program would f u r t h e r help to change hi© general outlook towards l i f e , i n c l u d i n g housing condition©, and would imp©! him to a l l o c a t e more money from hi© income f o r housing and i t s r e l a t e d servicQ©.  102 As has been pointed out else-where, the f e e l i n g s of rootlessness and forlornnese compel the r u r a l immigrant to search f o r some v i l l a g e - l i k e environment i n the c i t i e s .  He u s u a l l y can f i n d t h i s environment i n  the older p a r t s o f the c i t y ? more s p e c i f i c a l l y i n alums and ghettos.  H i s successful attempt to take "roots" i n  the a l i e n urban world, therefore, adds to the deplorable slum s i t u a t i o n .  Further, because of h i s f e e l i n g s of  economic i n s e c u r i t y , he shows blindness towards the world-around-hiras  h® lacks community consciousness}  and he has l i t t i e i n i t i a t i v e and drive*  Again, h i s  l o n e l i n e s s coupled with his- strong kinship- f e e l i n g s ^takes' the form o f spending, a miuiaum on himself while saving and sending as .much as he ..can .back to h i s v i l l a g e . I t i s expected that- by economic absorption and o v e r a l l adjustment, these negative tendencies would be diminished and be u l t i m a t e l y replaced by t h e i r healthy counterparts.  .SWAM  The d i f f e r e n c e between urban and rural. India i s based on two d i f f e r e n t ways of l i v i n g ? f o r example, there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n occupation, environment, s i z e of .community, population density, c u l t u r a l homogeneity,  103 the system of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , etc*  fhese d i f f e r -  ences,- i n the socio-economic s t r u c t u r e , are. r e f l e c t e d i n the d i f f e r i n g urban or r u r a l ©motional s e n s i b i l i t y , and psychological.-patterns.  I t may  be mentioned In  passing that, with the small J o i n t family a© the fundamental socio-economic i n s t i t u t i o n , the outlook of the r u r a l people i s d i s t i n c t l y kin-oriented a f a c t which permeate© a l l the various:relationships-. en>ter4d* -into by the v i l l a g e r . At present i n r u r a l India, s p e c i a l i s e d goods and service©, and also p h y s i c a l amenities are e i t h e r t o t a l l y e x t i n c t or a v a i l a b l e only to a l i m i t e d extent, i'hus compared with urban standards, r u r a l housing cond i t i o n s are poor*  However, theae conditions do not  seem alarming due  to the f a c t that the r u r a l people  spend a great deal of t h e i r time out of door©. fhe economic standard i s also quite low.  of the v i l l a g e r s i n India  Ixceseive pressure on land, stag-  nation of v i l l a g e i n d u s t r i e s , l a c k of non-agricultural occupation© and job opportunities are a l l f a c t o r s responsible f o r the prevalent high rat© of underemployment, unemployment and poverty. fhe soeio-GUltural g u l f between the urban e l i t e and the "urbanized  villager  9  i s very wide, and pose©  a number of problems f o r the recent migrants,  fhe  104. various f a c t o r s impeding the adjustment of r u r a l immigrants to an urban environment.aret 1. • 3EOO-ROHXC3 Inadequate economic absorption,, which i s due to the l a c k of education and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , lack of f a m i l i a r i t y with the monetised system of commerce and trade$ p e c u l i a r i t i e s of market-oriented system o f production? non-commitment to a s p e c i f i c type of work? and to ©ome ©stent l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s , and l a c k of money consciousness.  2.  SOOIO-GoXWSAr^ A© compared with a v i l l a g e , the c i t y i s too  enormou© i n i t s ©i&e and too complex i n it© s t r u c t u r e . Such being the ease a recent r u r a l immigrant would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, and become q u i c k l y adjusted to the c i t y - l i f e .  1?hi© i© e s p e c i a l l y true  i f the r u r a l immigrant lack© c i v i c sens© —  which,  unfortunately happen© to be the general cas©.  Also,  hi© d i f f e r e n t language ( o r d i a l e c t ) , vocabulary, and pattern o f ©poech, and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l behaviour, a l l a c t a© barrier© t o hi© smoother ©ooial r e l a t i o n ship© with the urbaaitea.  lurthtrmor©» he i s u s u a l l y  105  ignorant of those'-institutions o f ' urban 'communities which oould help the adjustment o f the immigrant i n t h e . i n i t i a l stages' o f h i s -settlement i  Fmemmmicm  3.  In g e n e r a l t h e person migrating to an urban area i s one who has suffered some considerable socioeconomic d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h i s home-village. As such i s the case he i s l i a b l e to give way even under normal stresses o f the a l i e n urban environment.  Besides, the  abrupt severance of t i e s with the home community, which deprives him from sympathy, and support of h i s k i n , i n c u l c a t e s i n him a f e e l i n g of acute forlornneso which may, consequently, be manifested i n the form of some psychotic o r neurotic behaviour.  4.  PHYSICALS  inadequate housing s i t u a t i o n i n the urban areas, which disallows the e s s e n t i a l family l i f e to the immigrant .  The problem of adjusting r u r a l people to an urban environment I s an o v e r a l l adjustment problem embracing a l l aspects o f the l i f e of the immigrant, v i a . .  106  'aeOBoaio, aoeio-cult-ural, psyehelegteal, physical and includes'such f a c t o r s a© age, -©ex, race, e t c .  CHAPTER I? TBS  tmomAKCl OF HOUSING IB THE  A P J U S K g f Off RURAL XMfSXORAKTS TO • ' f H l URBA1- IsmVUBOHMSSg 1® INDIA i  I n d i a i s c u r r e n t l y experiencing a r a p i d increase i n population growth and i n the u r b a n i s a t i o n process leading to i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n .  This i s r e s u l t i n g i n an  overcrowding o f urban areas with attendant problems of i l l i t e r a c y , unemployment, inadequate community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and deplorable housing conditions both i n quantity and q u a l i t y .  The present u n s a t i s f a c t o r y urban  housing s i t u a t i o n i s due tos  the comparatively  small  investment i n housing by p r i v a t e enterprise} the f a i l u r e of the.public housing program to cope with the complex problems o f housing} the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to the investment i n capital- assets $ the inadequacies of urban-regional planning and administrations the apathetic a t t i t u d e of the urban dwellers towards housing  situation  and t h e i r lack o f motivation toward® self-improvement} the concentration of i n d u s t r i e s i n a few urban centres} and rapid growth o f population.  The low-income group i n  general and the r u r a l immigrants i n t h i s group p a r t i c u l a r l y , due to t h e i r p e c u l i a r o u l t u r a l , economic and  108. p h y s i c a l problems need s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . Thus the housing problem i n India i s i n a c t u a l i t y only one r e s u l t o f a complex o f underlying urban problems, which are interdependent and which, i f resolved, would tend to contribute to the e l i m i n a t i o n of the housing problem I t s e l f .  I t was observed i n Chapter I I I that  the a o e i o - e u l t u r a l g u l f between the urban e l i t e and the 'urbanized v i l l a g e r ' i s very wide, and pose© a number of problems f o r the r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas. I t was also observed that the immigrant's problems o f economic absorption, soeio-psyohologieal adjustment, as well as hi© need f o r adequate r e s i d e n t i a l  accommodation  along with community services and f a c i l i t i e s are a i l interdependent.  Also, i t was indicated that the s o l u -  tions of these basic problem© would be h e l p f u l i n housing the r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas i n I n d i a . I t seems l o g i c a l her© to review these i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems of the immigrant and to i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e solutions and also the interdependence o f the solutions to the immigrant's problems. In t h i s chapter an attempt has been made to review the immigrant•© problems and make recommendations regardi n g possible a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s under the f o l l o w i n g headingss  economic absorption, soolo-psychological,  p h y s i c a l and general considerations.  109 ECONOMIC 'ABSOBPfZORi USED AMD 'SfiOOSHSRDAflOHS From previous discussion i t seems c l e a r , however, even without substantiation by exact and comprehensive data that f o r the majority o f the immigrants who move to the  c i t y , the r e s u l t s are merely an exchange of one form  of poverty, and underemployment  i n the r u r a l area, f o r  p o s s i b l y more extreme poverty, overcrowding, i l l h e a l t h and lack of employment i n the urban areas i n I n d i a . Under these condition© o f marginal l i v i n g , India l a suff e r i n g a l o s s o f human p o t e n t i a l and p r o d u c t i v i t y which I t can i l l a f f o r d to forgo. Once the immigrant has a r r i v e d i n the urban area, the f i r s t o f the various governmental agencies eonoem should be to get him established a© q u i c k l y as possible.  U s u a l l y the immigrant a r r i v e s i n th© urban  areas without income and without any p a r t i c u l a r  skills,  and he tends to remain a t a marginal l e v e l o f l i v i n g for  moat o f h i s l i f e time.  F a r from c o n t r i b u t i n g any-  thing to the wealth of the community, he l i v e s a t the expense of i t , and the cumulative e f f e c t o f l a r g e numbers of such persons i s to r e s t r i c t the whole urban economy to a mere subsistence l e v e l .  Under these conditions  there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of the l o c a l Governments f i n d i n g the revenue to finanee the community s e r v i c e s  120. and housing 'necessary' to -keep-pace: with the -growing population,  fhe poor h©alth  9  m a l n u t r i t i o n and overcrowding  r e s u l t i n g from thi© neglect o f community service© tend, i n turn, to perpetuate the low l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i v i t y , A major objective of national p o l i c y should  therefor©  he to break thi© ©elf-perpetuating oyel© of marginal subsistence and to turn each immigrant i n t o a productive member of the community with the l e a s t p o s s i b l e delay. The person with an income from employment 1© a consumer of good© and s e r v i c e s , and the demand f o r these stimulate© new c a p i t a l investment which i n turn create© a d d i t i o n a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The immigrant to the c i t y needs advice on the employment opportunities a v a i l a b l e , the qualification© required f o r them and, i f he lack© these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , he need© asei&tanc© i n obtaining them.  He l a c k s , i n  general, the minimum basic education necessary to take part f u l l y i n the economic l i f e o f the urban areas, or even to take s p e c i a l i s e d t r a i n i n g .  In such a case, he  w i l l need advice on l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s and opportunities f o r acquiring the required basic education.  In thi©  respect the s i t u a t i o n of the i l l i t e r a t e adult r u r a l immigrant i© p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , and need© s p e c i a l attention.  Consideration should be given to the esta-  blishment of s p e c i a l ©lasae© and program© f o r ©uch  Ill persons.  these classes or s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n programs  Should be a v a i l a b l e i n the evenings, to allow persons who  axe working to attend.  • •  ^ •  t e c h n i c a l Unemployment Heeds Bpsola! A t t e n t i o n In  the previous chapter i t was observed that  economic absorption i s an important aspect of the overa l l adjustment process of the r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas i n I n d i a .  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s need f o r  economic absorption the problems of unemployment, misemployment and underemployment among both the educated (persons having l i t t l e knowledge to read and write one of  the vernacular languages) and i l l i t e r a t e r u r a l immi-  grants p r e v a i l i n the urban areas.  Within the general  employment s i t u a t i o n , the problem of t e c h n i c a l unemploy* men#' needs s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . fhe rapid pace o f I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n during the l a s t ten years i n India has been accompanied by marked changes i n the occupational s t r u c t u r e of industry and commerce.  Industry now  employs •educated' persons  who  would formerly have been absorbed i n 'whit© ©©liar' employment.  lower Industries such a© i r o n and s t e e l ,  chemicals, petroleum r e f i n i n g , general and e l e c t r i c a l engineering, rubber tires,- aluminium," e t c . , are being developed r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r than older i n d u s t r i e s such  a© cotton textiles,, jut© and t e a . On the one hand the newer Industries employ the advanced mechanised and automatic techniques of production, while on the other hand the o l d e r induetries, with a n e y e on meeting compet i t i o n i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market, have introduced mechanised processes.' fhe r e s u l t of. these change© i n the techniques of production i n the o l d e r and the newer Industrie© i n I n d i a i s technological unemployment. 3?hl© mean© there 1© a ©hortaga' of. ©killed labour and also there i© a lack of jobs f o r u n s k i l l e d labour.  Keeping  i n mind the future prospect© of i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and the need© f o r mechanisation  f o r e f f i c i e n c y and economy  i n production, the employment opportunities f o r u n s k i l l e d . labour are bound to decrease i n India and t h i s make© i t eseehti'al to t u r n u n s k i l l e d manual worker© i n t o ©killed operator©.''  Increasing Imployment Opportunities f o r U n s k i l l e d Rural Immigrant© fhe ©eonomie absorption problem of .rural immigrant© i n the. urban area© has two main aspect©, f i r a t l y , , there i s am immediate need f o r c r e a t i n g more employment f o r u n s k i l l e d labour, at l e a s t f o r a short period of time.  Secondly, i t 1© imperative to turn r e l a t i v e l y  u n s k i l l e d manual workers i n t o ©killed operator©, e f f i -  111. elent. .©uperviaors and trained manBgerial s t a f f . '  When on.© epaeidWd' the. p o s s i b i l i t i e s ©j^ increasing .employment opportunities f o r unskilled Immigrants i n the urban area© i n India, tbe prospects seem meagre. but not impossible.. • "In l e s s develop'©*?. countries» • .Hie ;  numbers engaged i n trade (commerce) are l a r g e , i n r e l a t i o n to the work they are required to handle," ao'.tbat. the e f f e c t o f expansion i n ' t h e trading s e c t o r is.more • to reduce underemployment  than to produce a d d i t i o n a l  work opportunities to 'entrant© •• 11  • Similarly"In. .  industry, inorease i n investment and capacity doe© not lead to a proportionate growth o f employment because new processes, s p e c i a l l y i n l a r g e - s c a l e manufacture, have generally to be based on high p r o d u c t i v i t y techniques which are mechanised and automatic":.  The other  main agencies which could employ immigrant© are the Government o f f i c e s and other p u b l i c and semi-publi© offices.  These agencies have t h e i r own limitation©  f o r employing i l l i t e r a t e immigrants due to t h e i r need f o r better trained managerial and supervisory s t a f f f o r e f f i c i e n c y and economy.  ^Government o f India, Third f i v e Year f l a n (Rew Delhis Manager- o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1$61)'.-p. 157."" :  • I b i d . . p. 157.-" 2  114 Revertbeless, from the o v e r a l l development point of view o f the nation "the importance of keeping economic planning within hound© which w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the adaptat i o n and. a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and productive methods i n the new s o c i a l and economic environment"** seem© imperative.  What i© required l a that the immigrant®  should not he e n t i r e l y thrown i n t o the »©pen' market, with it© Impersonal relation© and posMbilltie© of d i s organisation § rather he should be provided with some s o r t of s e c u r i t y of employ&ent. tion.  This does not mean overprotec-  OverproteetlOQ i n employment can k i l l the i n i t i a -  t i v e whie^ the issmigrant must have i f he i© to become adjusted to h i s new environment.^ In so many induetrle© i t l a imperative to adapt the advanced technique© (high degree o f automation) and the scale and method© o f production which w i l l y i e l d the l a r g e s t economies.  Keeping i n view the present unemploy-  ment s i t u a t i o n and it© ramification© i n I n d i a  9  this  ©y©t©m of production has to be balanced by a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t i n other field© to employ technique© which w i l l •*w.D. Borri© and Other©, The O u l t u r a l I n t e g r a t i o n of I s B ^ ^ a n t e . (A Survey 'based upon the Papers" and Proceeding©"' or the' Uneseo Conference held i n Havana, 19S6, Paries. UWI3C0, 1959), p . 104. ... • H©en©tadt, 'Traditional and Modem S o o i a l Talues and iconomle Development •, i n Annal© of American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science©. May 1956 pp. 1^0-52. • •' " a  115. be more l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e ,  these labour-intensive  niques are also bound to save c a p i t a l resources s p e c i a l l y f o r e i g n exchange,  tech-  of India,  f o r example, labour-inten-  s i v e methods have wider application, p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the f i e l d of b u i l d i n g construction, given the necessary organization and advanced planning.  Also, i t i s neces-  sary to re-examine the scope that e x i s t s i n i n d i v i d u a l construction p r o j e c t s f o r the i n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of manual labour. I t seems l o g i c a l to mention here that technique© to be adopted, f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of manual labour, not be of a uniform nature f o r the whole of I n d i a .  can What  techniques should be adopted have to be determined not only according to the types of a c t i v i t i e s to be c a r r i e d out, but a l s o by the economic and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the regions i n which they are undertaken,  ©nder such  circumstances i t i s recommended that an attaok be made upon the employment problem within the regional  context,  furthermore, unemployment problems i n each province ahould, therefore, be analyzed  by d i s t r i c t s , and at each  l e v e l - v i l l a g e , block or d i s t r i c t - as much a© possible should be taokled.  Moreover, such an analysis of l o c a l  employment problem© should enable the a u t h o r i t i e s to focus a t t e n t i o n on and to mobilize resources- f o r dealing with s p e c i f i o employment aspects, e.g., unemployed s k i l l e d and ©killed labour.  116  Also, I t seem© p r a c t i c a l to reoommoad that the Government should encourage the development o f small scale u n i t s of production along with large ©eale unite of production,  fhese small s c a l e unite of production,  which mainly employ ©©fai-©killed and u n s k i l l e d labour, are now generally handicapped-by 'the/short supply'of raw m a t e r i a l , c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s , and the l a c k o f processing f a c i l i t i e s .  A comprehensively planned e f f o r t  should be made by the Government of-India to mitigate thee© handicap©.  It1@ recommended, wherever possible, that the Government encourage the development of i n t e n s i v e market gardening and truck farming (farm© of cash crop© are located near the metropolitan centres and the cash crop© ©re c a r r i e d to the urban area© by truck) on land s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s purpose within o r around the urban areas,  Shis w i l l require not only e f f e c t i v e  c o n t r o l over the use of land.(this-presupposes  physios!  planning a t the regional and l o c a l l e v e l ) but a c t i v e ©poneorship o f a g r i c u l t u r e t r a i n i n g program© and farm ©ettlemettt  schemes and assistance i n e s t a b l i s h i n g co-  operatives f o r marketing.  1X7. f u m i n g U n s k i l l e d Manual Worker© i n t o S k i l l e d Operator© I t i a now widely believed that s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the ©oeio-economic l i f e i n the urban areas i s the essent i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the c r e a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e economic absorption.  Successful ©tabllaation means I n t e g r a t i o n  of the immigrants i n t o the economic ©trueture of the new urban environment.  This can become p o s s i b l e only by  s u c c e s s f u l l y turning r e l a t i v e l y u n s k i l l e d manual worker© i n t o ©killed operators by v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i n - p l a n t t r a i n i n g , management technique t r a i n i n g programs, e t c . But t h i s i s not an easy task i n India, due to the scale of the problem and the lack of finance© and t r a i n i n g facilities. fhe m o b i l i t y of immigrants as well as t h e i r t r a n s i e n t nature are ©erlou© obstacle© to the development of skill©, since worker© r a r e l y ©tay long enough on a job to acquire experience and qualification© i n a given type of work, and the employer© also h e s i t a t e to i n c u r the cost of t r a i n i n g i n such cases.  The average  immigrant's lack of education make© t r a i n i n g d i f f i c u l t . There i®, moreover, a serious lack of t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s both i n school© and on the job i n general and f o r I l l i t e r a t e and u n s k i l l e d immigrant© p a r t i c u l a r l y .  In  s p i t e of an Increase ©inc© 1951 i n the number of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g school©, In-plant t r a i n i n g f a c i l i -  118. t i e s i n general and management technique  training  f a c i l i t i e s f o r educated youth^, vocational t r a i n i n g has often not kept pace with i n d u s t r i a l development e i t h e r i n q u a l i t y or i n quantity.  Adequate systematic  schemes o f t r a i n i n g generally e x i s t only i n government and government-aided schools, while well-organized apprenticeship systems are found only i n a few l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l undertakings.  Economic necessity and the  desire to earn higher wages often r e s u l t i n a breaking of apprenticeship contacts by the worker i n order to engage i n s e m i - s k i l l e d employment at the e a r l i e s t opport u n i t y . Moreover, a r u r a l immigrant f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to support himself and h i s family during the t r a i n i n g period without any outside f i n a n c i a l support. totally  Unfortunately, such f i n a n c i a l supports are absent. To attack s p e c i f i c a l l y the s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n ,,  problem of r u r a l immigrants i t i s imperative to design a program based on the p r i n c i p l e of 'earn while you l e a r n ' . The t r a i n i n g program also demands long term and short term measures.  Short term measures f o r r a p i d l y t r a i n i n g o r  r e t r a i n i n g adult workers to meet the needs o f developing i n d u s t r i e s and changing economies and the general  shortages  F o r the d e t a i l s regarding the t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s provided during the Second Five Year Plan and proposed schemes and programs f o r the T h i r d f i v e Year P e r i o d , see, T h i r d f i v e Year Plan, op. P i t . , pp. 26Q--S1. 5  119 • of s k i l l e d labour, have a p a r t i c u l a r urgency i n India. Since 1954  the Government of I n d i a has planned several  t r a i n i n g schemes to meet the s i t u a t i o n . In India, f o l l o w i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a r r i e d out by the Planning Commission i n 1954, a t r a i n i n g programme hae been i n s t i t u t e d to a s s i s t educated unemployed persona to enter i n d u s t r i a l occupations or to set up i n b u s i ness f o r themselves. Under t h i s scheme, •fork-cum-orlentation'• centres have been sat up which give s i x months p r a c t i c a l t r a i n ing i n f i v e basic trades ( l i g h t mechanics, wood-working, e l e c t r i c a l house w i r i n g , r e p a i r work on e l e c t r i c a l appliances and b u i l d i n g trades)? lecture© on general commercial subjects; and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g whieh aims p r i m a r i l y at persuading the educated unemployed to seek a means of l i v e l i h o o d other than c l e r i c a l employment, fhe f i r s t of these s p e c i a l , courcee was s t a r t e d i n D e l h i i n A p r i l 1957. B  Also, during the Second F i v e Tear f l a n Period an "apprenticeship t r a i n i n g scheme" was introduced i n I n d i a however without much success.  "During the Second Plan,  l i t t l e , p r o g r e s s has been r e g i s t e r e d under the apprenticeship t r a i n i n g scheme, which has so f a r been c a r r i e d out on a voluntary b a s i s .  I t has now been decided to place  the scheme en a compulsory f o o t i n g and a B i l l On the 7  aub~  j e c t i s proposed to be introduced i n Parliament". In terms of long range measures, i t i s recommended that much higher p r i o r i t y be given to t e c h n i c a l education  United nations S e c r e t a r i a t , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey  of Programmes of S o c i a l Development (Kew York. United Nations, 19591, p. 56. ^ T h i r d Five Year Plan, op. c i t . . p.  260  120. and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs i n th© urban areas and also v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s should be expanded on a large s c a l e i n the r u r a l areas simultaneously. Secondly, i t i s recommended that the type of t r a i n i n g given be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the present and future requirements of i n d u s t r y . In terms of short range measures, i t i s recommended that the Oovemment of India i n s t i t u t e a scheme to educate i l l i t e r a t e and u n s k i l l e d Immigrants,, s i m i l a r i n nature and scop© to the work-cum-orientation M  scheme  w  i n s t i t u t e d f o r educated unemployed persons.  Such a  course should l a s t f o r s i x to nine months (aooording to the trade) and the trainees should be paid an amount equal to the minimum wage.  I t Is important that program of t h i s  nature should develop from i t s i n c e p t i o n a reputation f o r e f f i c i e n c y and•effectiveness. . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s proj e c t should be a source of p r i d e and should provide a valuable experience i n good work habits and i n community service.  The program should not become a dumping ground  f o r those whom a l l other measures have proved  ineffectual.  To s a t i s f y these conditions i t i s recommended that the program should begin on a l i m i t e d scale and be  admini-  stered by a s t a f f of the highest c a l i b r e . In order to make a t r a i n i n g program of t h i s nature as p r a c t i c a l as p o s s i b l e , co-operation between the various  121 . •, minis t r i e s of the government"between various l e v e l s of government and between employer's and; worker*s organizat i o n are e s s e n t i a l .  I t i s t h e r e f o r e , recommended that  an Advisory Committee, with representatives from the M i n i s t r i e s , of Labour and EducationV;.as, well as from  •  prospective employers and workers organizations Should be formed.  fhe duties of this, agency should be to guide  the p o l i c i e s of the Government and to review the and the success of the program.  progress  I t i s , a l s o , recommended  that the e x i s t i n g equipment and b u i l d i n g and s t a f f of the I n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e s should be used and that the program .should be s t a r t e d immediately. since t h i s t r a i n i n g program may the; immigrant to a new  Further,  not be enough to adjust  job, what i s required i s a paid  apprenticeship,for a short period on a s p e c i f i c type of job, i . e . * i n - j o b apprenticeshipa  I t i s recommended  that the Government co-ordinate' the work^cnm-orientation program with the apprenticeship program f o r those  who  can b e n e f i t from both. The employment f i n d i n g , job placement and  counsel-  l i n g service© i n India are provided by the EmploymentExchanges I n the r u r a l and urban ;areasj Employment Market Information Programs and the State Employment D i r e c t o r ates .  Employment Exchanges also carry out s e r v i c e s sueh  as the Youth Employment Service and Youth Gounseiling  Services.  During the Third Five Year Plan Period, the  Government of India has en ambitious target to.©over each die t r i e t i n India by these ©ervi©es,... Miring  the  l a s t ten years the record of the placement, made by the Exchanges and State Employment Directorates has not been impressive,  and while t h i s i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e  to the condition of the employment market and the lack of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the job seekers,  the experience  of other countries has demonstrated that even i n these circumstances much waste-can be avoided by a vigorous and imaginative  employment s e r v i c e .  I t i s understood  that t h i s matter i s already r e c e i v i n g the a t t e n t i o n of the Central and P r o v i n c i a l Governments, and i t should be given every support.  SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT: NEED AHD HECOMMMDATIOH I t i s obvious from the experience of other countries, such as England and United States, that the conditions of rapid p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l change which the urban areas i n India are experiencing, cannot take place without c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o s t s .  With increasing urban  growth and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n India, new s t r a i n s are imposed upon the t r a d i t i o n a l family structure and s o c i a l  123. framework of the r u r a l immigrant to the urban areas. The growth of a money eeonomy confer© i n c r e a s i n g importance upon the monetary conetituents o f family l i v i n g , which i n turn means increasing dependence upon wage earning employment and i n ©erne case© income from ©elfemployment operations.  I f thi© income should become  inadequate o r eease altogether* the urban family would b© faced with a state o f d e s t i t u t i o n more severe than that of the v i l l a g e r who i© dependent on subsistence farming.  Apart from the p r o v i a i p n of the material base  f o r l i v i n g and economic absorption, there are also various problem© of adjustment to new value© end ©oeioc u i t u r a l condition© which must be taken i n t o account. f a m i l y tie© tend to be weakened by the m o b i l i t y .and p h y s i c a l separation of it© member©, while.the desire f o r improved standard© of l i v i n g , a better education f o r one*© c h i l d r e n and the a s p i r a t i o n s of various other kind accelerates the trend away from the extended family t o ward© the s m a l l conjugal family of husband, wife and children,  the extra emotional and economic load which  the ©mall family then has to c a r r y , together with the change© i n the statu© and r o l e of father and mother, intenaifie© the chance© of d i s c o r d and family breakdown. The anonymity of the l a r g e urban areas provide© freedom from the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l control© of c l a n , c l a s s ,  124. caste and v i l l a g e .  This freedom may be a necessary con-  d i t i o n f o r the expression o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y and exercise of i n i t i a t i v e , which are considered to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the u r b a n i t e s , but the reverse aide of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s confusion of moral standards and such manifestations of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n as family d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , mental i l l n e a a , crime and delinquency, The r u r a l immigrant i n the urban areas could be helped to f u n c t i o n on h i s highest l e v e l i n a comparatively shorter time, i f there were a s u f f i c i e n t e f f o r t to shorten the c u l t u r a l distance between him and the urbanitee.  This  could be made p o s s i b l e through o r i e n t a t i o n , c l a r i f i c a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the new a o c i o - c u l t u r a l urban environment, support and encouragement i n the adjustment process, fhe immigrant needs help which must be extended very promptly and through the e a r l i e s t contacts.  Hie need grows  from a feeble beginning, through many and sad misunderstandings, to s i z e a b l e proportions within a very short period a f t e r a r r i v a l i n the urban areas. I f t h i s need i s not met, i t may r e s u l t i n a prot e c t i v e s h e l l of aggression, b i t t e r n e s s and h o s t i l i t y againot and r e j e c t i o n o f h i s urban environment.  I t may  lead to h u r t i n g the emotions o f the immigrant and may lead to h i s withdrawal  i n t o s i l e n t and negative s u f f e r -  i n g , c u t t i n g deep i n t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and balance o f  125. the  s u f f e r e r and al© family u n i t .  I t may eventually  perpetuate i t s e l f In a f f e e t i n g , through c y n i c a l ana d e s t r u c t i v e generaliaatlon©, hi© relative® and f r i e n d s . Entering a new-eultu'ral community require© quick and ready appreciation of innumerable matter© wholly f a m i l i a r to the per©on«who ha© grown up i n that e n v i r onment.  There are no formal method© provided f o r such  learning. Job  Even i f he ha© a p l a c e to live,- ha© a good .  and ha© no language d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  he ©till may  fail  i n grasping the s i g n i f i c a n t difference© and ©iailarl--' t i e s between .hi© t r a d i t i o n a l ©et of. values, h i s t r a d i t i o n a l behaviour, and the accepted behaviour o f the community i n t o which he ha© entered. the  Consequently, i n  procee© o f c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n , the r u r a l immigrant  i n the urban areas, needs help In connection with.the adjustment of both hi© feeling© and hi® value©. Apart from the above mentioned dlffleultle© and need® o f the r u r a l immigrant i n the urban environment-, however, there are a number of complicating factor©, which make the s i t u a t i o n of an immigrant more d i f f i c u l t . A l t h o u ^ i knowledge of the language and d i a l e c t o f the urban".area©, i t s e l f , i a not the. answer to hi© problem, I t i© a very important f a c t o r .  One could hardly disagree  that there i s no f r u s t r a t i o n l i k e the f e a r of not being able to make oneself understood when the necessity, arise©.  126. Further, the language diffl©ultl©@ coupled with • i l l i teracy make the- adjustment o f the immigrant dlfficuit.  really  aaothar .factor l e the immigrant »e e n t i r e l y -  new environment,• which produces i n him- a tr©it©ndou@ f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y . Be i s overwhelmed "by the sense :  of strangeness and i s u t t e r l y unable to.- analyze and d i s s e c t the strangeness i t s e l f i n order to f i n d channels . and opportunities which would provide meaningful c l a r i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s immediate p r e s s i n g purposes*. problem o f the immigrant  This  i s unfortunately accompanied  by h i s ignorance of the r o l e which eomssunity service©, and voluntary and government agencies p l a y In t h e urban environment  and o f th© many common resources they o f f e r .  Such being, the case he needs help to create community l i f e and etsasunity consciousness and to regain intimacy i n h i 3 impersonal surroundings • S o c i a l Welfare Services i n I n d i a A number o f welfare s e r v i c e s have been e s t a b l i shed t o provide f o r c a s u a l t i e s of the s o c i a l changes taking place i n I n d i a .  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these services  Is divided among a number,,of-different a u t h o r i t i e s . ..The. main a u t h o r i t i e s are« ^he C e n t r a l and P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r i e s o f Labour, Community Development and Health? and the Central and P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Boards.  In addition  to these agencies,'some local- Governments, such as the/  127 D e l h i Municipal Corporation, have s t a r t e d urban community development programs.  Besides these government provided  welfare s e r v i c e s , there are a number o f voluntary organisations a c t i v e i n the welfare f i e l d , although i t must be admitted that the concept of voluntary s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s s t i l l very much In i t s infancy i n I n d i a . the main s o c i a l welfare programs, which have been Implemented by voluntary organisations with the assistance of the C e n t r a l and State Governments are welfare  extension  projects undertaken by the C e n t r a l and State S o c i a l Welf a r e Boards, programs r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l defence,  social  and moral hygiene s e r v i c e s and other welfare programs. fhe programs taken by the Central and State Welfare Boards, also include preventive s e r v i c e s such ae mental hygiene services such as student and youth counselling, c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s and marriage counsell i n g , etc.  Also the a c t i v i t i e s f o r which the Central and  Stat© Boards are responsible are the establishment o f urban community s e r v i c e s centre, production u n i t s to a s s i s t women to supplement t h e i r incomes, and night s h e l t e r s i n urban areas,  fhe production u n i t scheme  also include© programs such as concentrated courses f o r women with the goal of a t t a i n i n g the minimum educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary f o r f u r t h e r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and employments and p r o v i d i n g maternity and c h i l d h e a l t h  128, s e r v i c e s , c r a f t s olaeaes., s o c i a l ©dueatien f o r women and oar© of c h i l d r e n .  Also there i s the Bnploye©*© State  Insurance Scheme which ha© been progressively implemented i n various centre© i n India.  I t include© medical care  and treatment i n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l i s a t i o n and midwifery service© to the f a m i l i e s of insured persons. i s administered  Thi© ©ohem©  by the M i n i s t r y of labour i n c o l l a b o r a -  t i o n with the M i n i s t r y of Health. However, fro© the above discussion i t i s not to be understood that the ©ocial welfare agencies i n India are adequately s e r v i c i n g l a r g e areas and extending t h e i r help to the majority of the population needing help. The f a c t s are ©adly otherwise, and may be made evident by the f o l l o w i n g remark© of Gadgils In respect of welfare- or s o c i a l ©eourity programme© i n general, nothing much need • to be ©aid. The ©overage of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s e c u r i t y programme i s l i m i t e d to a very ©mall f r a c t i o n o f the population. I t also happen© that the sections benefited thereby are not the most disadvantaged. Thi© not to say that normal development of thi© programme ©hould not take placej i t doe©, however, appear that i n view o f the cost to be incurred and of the l a r g e adminis t r a t i v e problem©, the normal s o c i a l s e c u r i t y approach cannot be pursued i n the near future i n I n d i a . The f a c t that the vast majority of the person© that require welfare and s e c u r i t y measure© are ©ither ©elf-employed, or employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e or ©mall businesses of a l l kinds, and  129* include, to a l a r g e extent, even f l o a t i n g ana casual labour, i s also as important consideration • 8 '. Evaluation of E x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , ' and Recommendations I t seems reasonable now  to review the s p e c i f i c  d i f f i c u l t i e s o f an Immigrant i n using the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l welfare f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ,  .Coming to an  urban area, the f i r s t thing that an immigrant would n a t u r a l l y look f o r i s at l e a s t a s h e l t e r .  I f he i s  fortunate enough to know someone of h i s region, caste or k i n i n the v i c i n i t y , he may temporary housing.  f i n d some help i n g e t t i n g  On the other hand, i f he does not  knew anybody, he f i n d s himself i n a hopeless s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s connection, i t may be stated that governmental agencies i n I n d i a provide a few "night s h e l t e r s " i n aome urban areas.  According to the information a v a i l -  able i n t h i s regard, there are 42 such urban night s h e l t e r s i n the whole of I n d i a , administered by Central and State S o c i a l Welfare Boards.  However, a d e t a i l e d  working procedure o f these s h e l t e r s i s not a v a i l a b l e but i t seeme probable that a person can atay only during n i g h t s , f o r a l i m i t e d number of nights with some nominal payment per n i g h t .  One can e a s i l y imagine  .B. Oadgil, Planning and Economic P o l i c y i n India (Poena. Gokhale I n s t i t u t e of'"Jpoiitiea and 'Economics, 1962), p. 130.  130. the Inadequacy o f accommodation o f t h i s type aa compared with I t s need*  Consequently, an immigrant f i n d s i t very  d i f f i c u l t to get a place i n these shelters-. he does not f i n d i t easy to a f f o r d  Moreover,  the rent unless he  gets sue& a job where advance payment i s made and t h i s state of a f f a i r s i s rather unusual.  In most oases these  so c a l l e d nominal rents are quite high f o r an unemployed, poverty-atrucken  r u r a l immigrant.  A f t e r obtaining a s h e l t e r , an immigrant t r i e s to f i n d a job. offices,  Ho looks forward to the Imployment Exchange  fhe usual procedure I s to f i l l up a form and  then wait t i l l the employment o f f i c e f i n d s some approp r i a t e vacancy. In wMcb ease i t ©ends a formal  letter  i n v i t i n g the immigrant to c a l l f o r an Interview with some organisation.  I t i s not very hard to imagine how an  immigrant would support himself f o r the period between the time o f h i s appearance before the employment o f f i c e r and h i s f i r s t interview with some employer, l e a v i n g alone the duration of waiting time.  At the time o f interview  he i s , a i a l n , handioapped by h i e r u r a l c u l t u r a l  traits,  l o r e often than not, he i s bound to f a l l a t the f i r s t interview.  When t h i s does happen, i . e . , when he f a i l s  to get a job, the employment o f f i c e goes on repeating its  duty i n a routine f a s h i o n , by repeatedly  inviting  hi® to c a l l f o r interviews, taking no consideration at  131. any .'time a$ to'©aether th© applicant-gets • the job or. not, and i f not why.  Consequently, the immigrant f e e l s  despondent s p e c i a l l y a f t e r several unsuccessful of the employment o f f l e e to f i n d him a job.  efforts  Also the  f e e l i n g of being l e f t ©lone when overwhelmed with strangeness may i n t e n s i f y the anxiety of an immigrant which may then severely handicap hi® chances for-getting-.  I t may b© suggested that an immigrant could • bring h i s problem©' to the -QBployaient O f f i c e r since the l a t t e r i s a p u b l i c servant.  I t i s p o s s i b l e that' the  Employment O f f i c e r would not turn down such a. request* However, there ar© other factor© which should be considered at t h i s p o i n t .  P i r a t , the attitud© of an immi-  grant toward p u b l i c servantmi the f e e l i n g which he brings with him from r u r a l areas l a one o f d i s t r u s t t  A. p u b l i c  servant i e a. w h i t e - c o l l a r o f f i c e r and i t i s always b e t t e r to remain a t some distance from him.  Second, the chances  of possible help o f f e r e d being e f f e c t i v e are remote. In general, the employment o f f i c e r s ar© not equipped with s u f f i c i e n t knowledge o f community resources! n e i t h e r have they enough time to spend with the problem© o f the immigrant, nor are they t r a i n e d to understand  confused,  emotionally upset "uncivilised** individual© j any fortunate v i s i t of a daring immigrant with such an " O f f i c e r " i s , therefore, l i k e l y to b© of not much a v a i l .  132. Besides, the d i v i s i o n o f welfare s e r v i c e s i n t o several a u t h o r i t i e s i s so confusing that even an urbanit© find© i t often complex and d i f f i c u l t to understand where to eeek help,  f u r t h e r , an immigrant has no previous  experience with p r o f e s s i o n a l help of t h i s k i n d .  In  v i l l a g e s the help l e provided by the immigrant*s k i n s . There i s a need, therefore, of hie being c a r e f u l l y i n t r o duced to hie new  environment.  Moreover, due to the  d i v i s i o n of s o c i a l welfare s e r v i c e s between s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s , a person seeking help has to run from one authority to another, because i t often happens that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r part of h i s request f o r help i s not "within the f u n c t i o n of the agency**.  In f a c t one agency  i s not f u l l y aware of the scope and l i m i t a t i o n s of the other agenclea* f u n c t i o n s .  Such being the case, by the  number of r e f e r r a l s and suggestions that may  be mad© to  him by person© not adequately informed regarding a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s , an immigrant may  e a s i l y get discouraged from  any f u r t h e r e f f o r t to seek help.  Also,the  impersonal  relation© between the various governmental welfare agencies and an immigrant discourage© the immigrant most from seeking help, and increase© h i s f e e l i n g of i  insecurity. from th©.previous d i s c u s s i o n , i t 1© evident that there 1© an urgent 'need f o r ' t h e following: •  133, (1)  An O r i e n t a t i o n Course to i n s t r u e t th© immi-  grant about th© general problems which he i© l i k e l y to encounter i n h i s new surroundings i n the urban areas, and t h e i r appropriate s o l u t i o n s .  f h i s Course could  also provide the general i n s t r u c t i o n s , regarding hygiene and sanitations (2)  Adult Education Programs may be introduced  to provide some minimal•primary.education  for.th© immi-•  grants, ©o as to prepare them b e t t e r to cope with the urban environments (3)  An Information Service to provide informa-  t i o n regarding the s e r v i c e s and f a o i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community, and the procedures of d e r i v i n g Benefit® from thems (4)  I n d i v i d u a l Counselling and Case-work to  create personal r e l a t i o n s between the various welfare agencies and the immigrant.  A l s o , I t i s e s s e n t i a l to  have some agenoy which could l i s t e n to the v a r i o u s problem© of the immigrant, advise him accordingly and, to' solve h i s problems' more e f f e c i e n t l y , could coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s of the welfare agencies. I t i s a l s o recommended that the Government should e s t a b l i s h more "urban community centers" covering each ward of the urban areas.  Besides, attempts should be  made to get maximum coordination at ©11 l e v e l s of the  134. government to organize the o r i e n t a t i o n comraea, adult education s e r v i c e s , i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g and oaee work s e r v i c e s , e t c .  that such a need has been f e l t by  the Government i t s e l f i s evident fro® the f o l l o w i n g remarks o f the authors o f the f h i r d Five Year Plan: M  A  stage has been reached i n the development o f welfare  services when, f o r the b e t t e r u t i l i s a t i o n of the a v a i l able resources and improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f the services o f f e r e d , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that the various Government agencies concerned, both at the Centre and the States, should achieve a l a r g e r measure of eoordiaa t i o n among themselves".  f u r t h e r , depending upon the  necessity, wards In separation o r i n combination should be designated as neighbourhood,  laoh neighbourhood or  the combination o f neighbourhoods, depending upon the eisse i n population and a r e a l p a t t e r n , should have one urban oommunity center.  Buildings of the e x i s t i n g schools  and t h e i r s t a f f along with equipment could be used f o r t h i s purpose,  the I^rovincial Welfare Boards could be  made s o l e l y responsible f o r coordinating the a c t i v i t i e s of the various agencies.  I t i a also suggested that the  administration o f the Steaployee'e State Insurance Scheme should be t r a n s f e r r e d from the M i n i s t r y o f labour to the  T h i r d f i v e Year P l a n , op. c i t . , p. 77  135, Central and State S o c i a l Welfare Boards,  f o r the  effi-  ciency and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s o c i a l welfare programs i n India, Central and P r o v i n c i a l Boards should remain the only agencies responsible f o r the coordination of th© programs,  thus with t h i s administrative change,  i t i s expected that a foundation f o r a comprehensive and well integrated s o c i a l welfare program administration could be l a i d * f o make the s o c i a l assistance program s u c c e s s f u l i t i s imperative  to have s o c i a l workers.  A s o c i a l worker  i s aware of the importance of the psychological s a t i s f a c t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l who  needs help and he i s able to  accept and understand h i s f e e l i n g s .  Since the d i f f i c u l -  t i e s of the immigrant are mainly i n the area of h i s f e s l i S f S , l e a v i n g the need of economic absorption ©lone, i n conjunction with hi© o u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n and need f o r coordinating the assistance o f the various agencies,  the  s o c i a l worker would be able to give e f f e c t i v e help. Seeping i n mind the huge scale of the problem of housing i n I n d i a and the r e l a t i v e shortage of t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers i t i s recommended that the t r a i n i n g programs be expanded and also that concentrated  courses i n  s o c i a l work f o r persons working i n Employment Exchange O f f i c e s , other voluntary organisations, and teachers be i n i t i a t e d ,  school  fhe i n s t r u c t i o n In such course  136 should include i n s t r u c t i o n s i n communications,, human r e l a t i o n s , psychology  and behaviour, community  agencies  and resources, home management and basic reeord keeping, fhe workers should also know the d i a l e c t s o f the various regions i n I n d i a . • A Suoeeasful f a m i l y Planning Program i s l a a e n t l a l f o r Soeio-Peyeholo&ieal Adjustment Assuming successful economic absorption i t could be expected  that a r u r a l immigrant w i l l not have mental  disturbances caused by unemployment.  Nevertheless an  immigrant would remain worried due to hi© low wage© and low standard of l i v i n g ,  fhi© i a a general problem f a c i n g  Indiafbu't the bigger f a m i l i e s of the low income group make the s i t u a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t .  With the succe©© of  India"© economic development, through the F i v e Year Plans, i t i© expected  that the socio-economic  situation w i l l  improve i n general, provided that the tremendous t i o n growth can be brought under c o n t r o l ,  popula-  fhu© i t aeem©  that the ©ueoee© of the family planning program i s a key issue. I t i© recommended that more e f f o r t with great determination should be made by a l l level© of the Government i a I n d i a to make t h i s program s u c c e s s f u l .  i n this  f i e l d ' t h e help of the voluntary agencies auch a© r e l i g i o u s  137.  i n s t i t u t i o n s should also he sought.  Consideration  should  ee given f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g © f a c t o r y , i n the p u b l i c sector to manufacture contraceptives  e t c . , on a mass s c a l e ,  fhe p r i c e s of these products should be kept as low  aa  ©an b© afforded by the lowest income group i n I n d i a . I t would be advantageous and p r o f i t a b l e i n the long run to even supply contraceptives f r e e to those who a f f o r d to buy them.  One  can not  of the main reasons why  family planning scheme was  the  not sucoessful with the  low  income group i n I n d i a i s the high rate of i l l i t e r a c y . E f f o r t s are being made to educate the .masses but  the  Government of I n d i a should use audiovisual techniques of mass education vigorously regarding the advantages of making family planning scheme sucoessful f o r the masse© and f o r the nation.  I t l a recommended that  the  Films D i v i s i o n of the Government o f India should produce more f i l m s on t h i s subject and that i t should  be  mad© compulsory by law to show these f i l m s along with each regular movie in- commercial theatres,  fhe A l l  India Radio should devote a few minutes every day  to  t h i s topic i n t h e i r programs, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the  vil-  lagers.  Consideration should also be given to such  methods as g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l support to those f a m i l i e s who  do not produce more than a c e r t a i n number of  children.  This may  income group.  have a dual e f f e c t on the  For those who  low  are successful i n family  ' 138. planning w i l l get a tangible reward and others w i l l . get i n c e n t i v e s to make the scheme a success. The Weed f o r Encouraging the formation of Peer Groups and Community F e e l i n g In a d d i t i o n to the foregoing there remains the problem o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n and h i s need f o r belonging to h i s peer groups and to th© community. To overcome and to avoid such situation© i t i s imperative to have both preventive measures as w e l l as c u r a t i v e pregrams. One  could ask does family immigration a s s i s t or  hinder c u l t u r a l Integration,  In the majority o f cases  the male immigrant comes to th© c i t y l e a v i n g h i s family behind i n th© v i l l a g e .  This l a p a r t i c u l a r l y due to the  shortage of the housing accommodation and other economic reasons, but the question a r i s e s - i s t h i s d e s i r a b l e from the o v e r a l l developmental  point o f view?  fhe migration  of the family c e r t a i n l y provides an i n c e n t i v e f o r the breadwinner to achieve economic success and may thus cut one important thread l i n k i n g him to h i s area o f o r i g i n . Thus i t may b© expected that no more w i l l he remain a part of the mobile population and that he w i l l t r y to take roots i n the urban areas.  But against t h i s the family•©  presence would provide a nucleus i n which the language  9  139. habits and eustoma of the-villages.may-be retained* • f h i s aay be true f o r a short--period of time -but-the obvious advantage of the family *s environment would be h i s improved mental s t a b i l i t y *  f u r t h e r , the migration of  •  the family brings pressure f o r the immigration of a -wider kinship group - whose entry may  be considered  due to the burden upon s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and resources, of the community and t h i s may  undesirable  financial  r e s u l t i n many  group settlements. . f h i e * f a m i l y migration would not  be  a f i n a n c i a l burden i f a l l the members of the family could be converted i n t o productive u n i t s of the sooio-eeonomie environment of the urban areas,  fhe p r e r e q u i s i t e of the  f a m i l i e a • migration i s eoonoaic absorption and adequate housing f o r immigrants.  I t i a h i g h l y recommended that  the Government should take every care to provide  the  necessary f a c i l i t i e s and to encourage the reunion of the family of the immigrants as soon as p o s s i b l e .  Improved Services and f a c i l i t i e s i n the -Residential. Environment w i l l A s s i s t family Development I t may  be expected that the improvement i n the  convenience and amenity of family l i v i n g w i l l improve the psychological s t a b i l i t y of the family by family members to better react to eaoh other,  enabling f h i s con-  cerns the p r o v i s i o n of eervicee and facllltle© at the  140.  neighbourhood and a community l e v e l which can family l i f e ,  assist  fhe services and f a c i l i t i e s should  he  adequate to s a t i s f y the needs of the family growth from the union to death of the marriage partners and  their  children. From a c h i l d ' s point of view, a s t a b l e family environment i n which love and emotional warmth e x i s t s i s considered security.  a basic need f o r the c h i l d ' s emotional  I t i s highly reasonable to expect that an  improvement i n the physios! q u a l i t y of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment w i l l e f f e c t a greater convenience and amenity of l i v i n g and w i l l enable family members to have more s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with each other. overcrowding may  By  contract,  r e s u l t In a l a c k of privacy f o r family  members with a high frequency of inter-personal contact and  the danger of provoking i r r i t a b i l i t y of family  members who  seem to get i n each Others way.  So, it.may  be generally assumed that the r e s i d e n t i a l environment which i s i r r i t a t i n g or f r u s t r a t i n g because of Inadequacy or inconvenience w i l l act as a negative  influence on the  q u a l i t y of family l i f e and the family'a psychological stability. Due  to the nuclear nature of the f a m i l i e s i n the  urban area©, i n general, the choice of r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a c h i l d within the family i s l i m i t e d , and the  opportunities  14X outside the home f o r guidance and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l contact become important.  For the healthy p e r s o n a l i t y develop-  ment o f c h i l d r e n , the r e s i d e n t i a l environment should provide s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s outside the house a l s o . f u r t h e r , to provide contact with a s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y o f people and experience f o r a c h i l d to c o n s t i tute a normal range o f experience, an invironment  with  v a r i e d r e s i d e n t i a l composition with broad l i m i t s as to aiae of f a m i l y , income and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e * Also, f o r proper development o f the mental h e a l t h o f the c h i l d there i a the need f o r opportunities to express c r e a t i v i t y , apontaniety, e t c .  For t h i s , properly designed  outdoor play spaces are required. S i m i l a r l y , f o r adolescents, considerations should b© given to p r o v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s designed t o aecbmtod&t*' v a r y i n g physique© and tesaperment©. Regarding  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n attached  to the r o l e o f a housewife, Margaret Mead observed? I f w® consider the complaint© about homemaking, the c h i e f complaint might be i d e n t i f i e d a© i s o l a t i o n . Sen have l e f t the home, grandparent© and maiden aunt© and widowed cousins no longer l i v e together i n the same house - and the wife remain© a t homo a l l alone, f h i s boredon and l o n e l i n e s s o f doing alone the jobs that were onoe done e i t h e r l a c h a t t e r i n g group© of women o r by  142. a whole family working together i o one thread that runs through women's d i s content .10 fhough these f e e l i n g s have been observed i n connection with the American woman, the f a c t remain© that i t i s a l s o true with the r u r a l immigrant •© nuclear f a m i l i e s i n urban areas i n I n d i a .  I t i s also true i n  the Indian context that the q u a l i t y of the r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g may  e i t h e r enhance the housewife's r o l e or  intensify Its dissatisfactions.  These negative f e e l i n g s  should be avoided by making a v a i l a b l e nursery and care f a c i l i t i e s within the community.  ohild  Such p r o v i s i o n  w i l l provide the basis f o r e i t h e r occasional or regular r e l i e f from the duties of c h i l d r e a r i n g and f a m i l y care. Further, such assistance w i l l save mothers from becoming i r r i t a t e d or r e s e n t f u l due to the constant demands of o h i l d r e a r i n g . I t i s recommended that under the community centres program, every e f f o r t should be made to encourage establishment of such I n s t i t u t i o n s as baby s i t t i n g p o o l ' , nursery, e t c .  'community  Such programs should  he organised p u r e l y on a mutual s e l f - h e l p b a s i s .  In the  i n i t i a l stages of such undertakings guidance by a trained s o c i a l worker would be of immense help.  Moreover, i n  Margaret Mead, "What American Woman Want", Fortune. XXXIV, Bo. 6, December 1946), p. 173.  143each neighbourhood, community space should be made a v a i l a b l e by the Government, where housewives might j o i n t l y undertake to meet some of t h e i r domestic  needs.  Such community space should a l s o have f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate such a c t i v i t i e s as cooperative nursery and c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s or group home care a c t i v i t i e s such as laundry, sewing, dress making, e t c .  I t could  be speculated on the basis of experience from other countries that by taking some o f these a c t i v i t i e s outside th© i n d i v i d u a l residence, housewives would improve mental outlook.  Besides o f f e r i n g opportunities f o r  companionship and community f e e l i n g , such a change might help to generate new i n t e r e s t i n these a c t i v i t i e s . In s p i t e of a l l these preventive measures, the need f o r the cure of the mentally disturbed immigrant ©till remains to be d e a l t with.  I t i s recommended that  consideration should be given to the p r o v i s i o n Of psyc h i a t r i c outpatient s e r v i c e s arid other f a c i l i t i e s to t r e a t neurotica through the Urban Community Centres. At the very l e a s t , medical and nursing s t a f f a t these community centre© should be s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l informed about mental i l l n e s s to be able to recognise symptoms  9  and to make r e f e r r a l s .  A l s o , the p r i n c i p l e s of mental  health should be emphasised i n the community education program f o r a d u l t s .  Much u s e f u l work could be  accomplished  144. at comparatively l i t t l e expense by the, employment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l workers with experience i n n e y c b i a t r i c work at the community centre©.  PHYSICAL PX.AHNXJWS REED AND  RBCOIifJPBAflQmS  The problem of housing the r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas i n India i s mainly two folds  the l a c k of an  adequate supply of housing u n i t s and the deplorable cond i t i o n of the e x i s t i n g housing.  Normally, an immigrant  i n the urban area f i n d s accommodation according to one of the  following baeic categories? (i)  are  the v i r t u a l l y homeless people, the ones who  squatting i n the c i t i e s without even a temporary roof  over t h e i r head©,  fhe©© people are l i v i n g , and very often  dying, r i g h t i n the street© of major urban centres? (ii)  inhabitant© of shack© - temporary houses  known as * j u g i s , e t c . , at the o u t s k i r t s of the urban ,  areas.  $be c o n d i t i o n i n these areas have become established  without any plan, and without any support f o r the people, who have u©ed temporary materials i n temporary small construction© without any community f a c i l i t i e s , water ©upply, sewerage f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . , and quite often on land which i s not owned by them? (Hi)  inhabitant© o f o l d , decaying houses u s u a l l y  145. i n the oldest parts of the c i t i e s .  These areas are  extremely overcrowded with inadequate community f a c i l i t i e s and are neglected by the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s since redevelopment would he an uneconomic propositions (iv)  p u b l i c housing - these are the houses  constructed by various Government agencies. b a s i c a l l y simply  These are  'shelter* because they are devoid  of  the required community l i f e due to the lack of basic community f a c i l i t i e s such as schools,  dispensaries,  l i b r a r i e s , recreation f a c i l i t i e s , etc.  This i s the  r e s u l t o f the Government's regarding h e r s e l f v i r t u a l l y a© only a eonstruction company whose only f u n c t i o n i s to produce houses, that i s 'shelters',  f u r t h e r , under  these schemes no consideration has been given to the accommodation needs of the f a m i l i e s .  Single room s h e l t e r s  are used to house f a m i l i e s of four to s i s members. From the above mentioned f a c t s i t i s c l e a r that housing must be provided f o r those who pay even economic rent and who t h e i r own.  cannot a f f o r d to  cannot own  a house on  Also, on a large s c a l e more and more houses  must be provided along with improving the e x i s t i n g housing by providing community f a c i l i t i e s , e t c .  For t h i s purpose  high subsidies by the Government are imperative.  The  Government recognises the need f o r achieving balanced economic and s o c i a l progress hut at present  priorities  146  are given to I n d u e t r i a l development and economic overhead investments,  fhe investments i n the s o c i a l over-  head has been postponed to some i n d e f i n i t e time i n the future,  fhe s o c i a l and economic overhead Investments,  as they are ueed here, r e f e r to the whole range of p u b l i c or quasi p u b l i c c a p i t a l improvements that s t r u c t u r e the community.  S o c i a l overhead Includes community improve-  ments such ae schools, education, housing, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and welfare expenditures, et®.  By economic overhead i s  meant those investments more d i r e c t l y geared to productive a c t i v i t i e s such as i r r i g a t i o n or power p r o j e c t s , p r o v i s i o n of roads, u t i l i t i e s and communication f a c i l i t i e s . In f a c t , s o c i a l overhead investment i s p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r economic development as observed by United nations Expertss Housing, together with education and h e a l t h , belongs to the category of 'social overhead* proj eete. fhey are considered basic to economic development. In t h i s respect, they can be compared to the 'economic overhead' p r o j e c t s such ae transport, communication and power, which are generally considered to be r e q u i s i t e f o r e f f e c t i v e economic development, fhese overhead p r o j e c t s provide l i t t l e or no y i e l d s i n the short run and take a considerable time to r e a l i s e any y i e l d s i n f i n a n c i a l terms, f h e i r b e n e f i t s , however,, are derived from the'more balanced development of economic a c t i v i t i e s which utilise', them.XI • • So, consideration should be given by the Government  U n i t e d Hations, IGOSOC, Financing of Housing and Cemajunlty Improvement a«, (New Yorks United Nations, i a  -  147.  of India to a l l o c a t e mors funds f o r s o o i a l overhead expenditure.  Along with p u b l i c expenditure en housing  the need f o r a t t r a c t i n g the p r i v a t e sector to invest i n housing i s imperative. . I n t h i s regard consideration . should he given to exploring the following f i n a n c i a l sources and methods of f i n a n c i n g housing projectstCl)  Borrowingfey.the State ©r Homsiiag .Board©-" . 1  from the money market or by f l o a t i n g , bonds* • (2)  Voluntary o r compulsory contributions by •  employer© for-housing t h e i r employees,.. . (3) •(•4) (5)  -Saving: b y nous©' -owners... . • Self-help-and. mutual help.. , A .combination of -two or'.more, of the -above ,. .  souroe^-.  ...  ,  In Industrie©'':hav£si£. low- e'apitel/l'abour., r a t i o s • the cost of providing; worker© • bousing/beebmes",disprop o r t i o n a t e l y high as compared to the''total .eapital cost of ©stablishing the industry ;and .the -'Government i s not generally prepared to compel i n d u s t r i e s to b u i l d houses f o r workers employed by thea since I t would reduce the employment potemtial of the a v a i l a b l e c a p i t a l i n economic overhead i n v e s t m e n t H o w e v e r , the Government should make i t compulsory f o r employers to house a c e r t a i n percentage of t h e i r employee©••  12  This percentage should go u p p r o g r e s -  S u p r a . , p. 28.  148. l i v e l y along with the ©la© o f the t o t a l c a p i t a l invested i n the i n d u s t r y . . fhe experience from the other countries shows that borrowing from the money market i s an e f f e c t i v e .method of r a i s i n g ..funds.  Consideration, should be given  by th© Bousing Boards to a t t r a c t p r i v a t e Investment i n 'lousing by inducements such as' tax rebates,'income 'tax exemptions and other such measures. General experience shows that many people are w i l l i n g to save f o r housing i f not f o r b e t t e r housing, who would not make t h e i r savings availabl© f o r otber investments and that d d l t l o n a l savings are achieved through houae construction.  The Bousing Board should  explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u t i l i z i n g t h i s type o f saving. Perhaps the most importanteconomic  justification  f o r ©elf-help, mutual-help housing i s provided by an e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n of i r r e g u l a r , seasonal and disguised unemployment. ' Low income' f a m i l i e s a r e characterised by :  a'feigh propensity to consume a d d i t i o n a l income, t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ©elf-help'-and mutual-help housing proj e c t s r e s u l t i n forced savings, thus r e d i s t r i b u t i n g income on a more permanent b a s i s .  A l s o , the success o f such  p r o j e c t w i l l develop a community consciousness and sense of c o l l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s f o r housing and other r e l a t e d  149. problems.  Such programs need to be provided by the  Government to provide the t e c h n i c a l know how.  This  could be i n the for© of demonstrating a design of a prototype dwelling that could be b u i l t up from a number of prefabricated components with the a i d of  c l e a r working  plan© and a d e t a i l e d schedule of instruction© and an instructor,  P r e f a b r i c a t l o n aeems to overcome three  construction d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , construction  time and t e c h n i c a l supervision,  fhe cost of construction  ©hall go down due to the mas© production of b u i l d i n g component©.  I t i© recommended that consideration should  be given by the Government to launch aided s e l f - h e l p and mutual-help housing program© i n the urban area©,  fhe  prefabricated b u i l d i n g component© should be supplied on a long term h i r e purchase arrangement.  Consideration  should also be given to provide developed land with 'core house©*" "* by the Government and the employers on the long 1  term h i r e purchase system, the  l o r e room© could be added i n  future by the owner when needed.  fhe P r o v i s i o n o f Community F a c i l i t i e s as an Emergency Program f o r the Slum Area© i n India Apart from housing the homeless people there i© an urgent need to check the f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g *"*A 'cor© house' means s i n g l e room house with necessary t o i l e t and community f a c i l i t i e s .  150 housing by improving th© sub-standard housing.  It  appears that v i t a l r e l i e f can b© given q u i c k l y through emergency programs that w i l l provide i n sub-etandard areas the neeeeeary- water supply and. sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , acoees s t r e e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y , p l a y areas, eohoole, community centres f o r meeting and adult t r a i n i n g , and c l i n i c s o r dispensaries,  fhe r e s u l t s may not be as  dramatic as clearance and r e b u i l d i n g .  At best, annual  new construction can house only a email percentage of those i n serious need o f b e t t e r housing and those who ©re homeless, so what should the others do u n t i l Oppertunity'arrives - i f i t ever does?  their  Further, the  savings o f scarce monetary and material resources under such a program can be s u b s t a n t i a l .  Besides, most impor-  tant of ©11 i© the importance o f attacking the core problem o f the lack of^motivation toward  self-improvement  and community i n e r t i a which 1© c o n s i s t e n t l y found among " f l o a t i n g population'* who f e e l no sen©© o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the whole urban community,  f o attack t h i s core problem  the best way seem© to be by urban community development. She b a s i s task of urban community development should be to stimulate, f o s t e r and e s t a b l i s h common f r o n t i e r s o f a s s o c i a t i o n paving the way f o r community consciousness and i n t e g r a t i o n on th© basis o f common concerns and shared p r o j e c t s . She Community development  151.  project- should alao i d e n t i f y and prepare n a t u r a l leader® of the area, eo ae to enable them to take care o f t h e i r day-to-day problems on a mutual a i d and s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . And i t should i n e u l c a t e p r i d e and a sense o f belonging to the place o f t h e i r residence and i t should pave the way f o r t a c k l i n g o f c i v i c s e r v i c e s on a d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s . I t i s worth noting, that urban community development through c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e l f - h e l p programs i s no substitute f o r profound changes which must be made i n the standard of l i v i n g , economic absorption, housing and other amenities of urban people i n India,  f h e program  Should be l i m i t e d only to those areas and problems where there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e l f - h e l p . program presupposes  Also, such  help from Government and other  voluntary agencies with respect to funds, t e c h n i c a l assistance and organization guidance*  S o c i a l and community  workers can be o f immense help. In I n d i a , the urban community development approach to urban problems has already been i n i t i a t e d . project has been started i n D e l h i .  A pilot  The progress of the  program i s not a v a i l a b l e , however, the prospects seem encouraging as stated by B. Chatterjee, D i r e c t o r , Urban Community Development. Sx^orienoo gained so f a r Is very encouraging and i n d i c a t i v e of th© f a c t i f properly motivated, people even i n most depressed l o c a l i t i e s have th© necessary w i l l and resource to t a c k l e t h e i r  152. own problem© with minimum external guidance and help. The Evaluation Report r e c e n t l y brought out indicate© that some 40© natural leader© ©pread over 21 Vlka© l a n d a l s (Citisen©• Development Councils) have been involved i n the programme. According to the study 60$ of the©©leader© had no previous experience i n community work. Some 500 ©elf-help project© with some f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or "educational a i d " have been undertaken and On an average ©ome 59$ adults i n the area have become subscribing member©.14 Consideration should be given by th© Government to launch s i m i l a r program© i n other urban areas. Planning Housing on the Neighbourhood P r i n c i p l e In India I f i n Western countrie© neighbourhood planning bring© to i n d u s t r i a l man some humanising elements, i t ha© a s p e c i a l appeal f o r the people of India.  Indian  s o c i e t y i© gregarious i n nature and even th© Urban people l i v e d i n village© u n t i l r e c e n t l y .  They haven*t taken to  c i t y l i f e very w e l l , and l i v i n g i n planned neighbourhood© would be to t h e i r heart*© d e s i r e .  However, the neighbour-  hood w i l l have to be very intimate, designed to f a c i l i t a t e the  s o c i a l habits of the p e o p l e . ^ 1  fhe great drawback  • B, Chatterjee, "Community Development i n Urban Areas - S p e c i a l ieeda and Characteristics' i n Th© Indian Journal o f S o c i a l Work. V o l . XXII, Ho. 4 (March, 1962), p. 378. " ™ 4  1  A l b e r t Mayer, '"The Hew C a p i t a l of the Punjab," i n American I n s t i t u t e of Architect©. V o l . XIV, Ro. 4 (October, pv'is&ffg. 1 5  153. of the neighbourhood u n i t is  the formation of eeonesiie  and social, group©.-, fhe existence of • th© caste system, • :  makes the p o t e n t i a l use of the neighbourhood concept rather dangerous i n India due to th© p o s s i b i l i t y of group 'Settlements c r e a t i n g group loyalties- stronger than n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s ,  $m  I n d i a i s t r y i n g to get-  away from the t r a d i t i o n of caste and ©very e f f o r t should be made to avoid i t .  fhe other kind of grouping i s the  economic c l a s s , which c u r i o u s l y seems to bs f o s t e r e d by the Government.  On grounds of economy, Government i s  b u i l d i n g d i f f e r e n t type© of houses according to the incomes of t h e i r employees and grouping th® same type-' o f house© together.  I t seems the planning of housing  on the neighbourhood p r i n c i p l e has i t s appeal to the Indian temperament and f a m i l y i n s t i t u t i o n s to which an immigrant i s f a m i l i a r . P u b l i c housing should be planned on the neighbourhood basis f o r a mixture of s o c i a l and economic groups i n the same proportion as they are found i n the population and which w i l l also f i n d i t e c o r r e l a t i o n i n the mixture o f housing type© and d e n s i t i e s .  Such a  housing development w i l l provide an opportunity to an immigrant to l i v e among the people of a s i m i l a r background of h i s own  and also to provide him with the  opportunity o f mixing with people of d i f f e r e n t s o c i o -  154. economic backgrounds which w i l l help him i n g e t t i n g adjusted  to h i s new  environment,  f u r t h e r . while  planning  p u b l i c housing the Government should create housing environment on a sound community planning b a s i s instead of c r e a t i n g simply s h e l t e r s . proceed p h y s i c a l planning.  S o c i a l planning  should  The need f o r community f a c i l i -  t i e s should be predetermined by proper surveys and adequate f a c i l i t i e s should be provided f o r i n each housing development. P h y s i c a l Planning i s i s s e n t l a l f o r Improving? the Housings S i t u a t i o n i n India I t has been observed that the housing s i t u a t i o n i n India has deteriorated also because of the undue concentration of employment opportunities and concentration  i n a few b i g c i t i e s .  concentration  of population  population  To check the f u r t h e r  i n a few congested o l t i e s  and  to provide a balanced regional growths the Government of India has adopted a p o l i c y that "As f a r as p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i e s should be established away from large congested c i t i e s . T h i s  new  and  involves, f i r s t of a l l , p l a n n i n g  the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n and form of many d i f f e r e n t kinds of development - f a c t o r i e s , houses, schools, h o s p i t a l s and  T h i r d f i v e tear Plan, op. c i t . , p.  689.  road© to  meet  th© new demand©.  I t also involves the  a l l o e a t i e n • of broad c l a s s e s o f use for- th© land • at a l l ;  l e v e l s ©ttoh-ae n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l and l o c a l .  I t means  'physical planning* which i© p r i m a r i l y concerned with coordination by r e c o i i c i l i n g c o n f l i c t i n g claim© f o r a v a i l a b l e urban land, i s e s s e n t i a l .  end product  of t h i s a c t i v i t y , the p h y s i c a l development p l a n , seek© to provide th© p h y s i c a l framework within which many types of planned a c t i v i t y . - economic development,, educat i o n , s o c i a l service©, housing, transport, e t c . - can be aehieved without wasteful competition, misuse o f land 17 o r the c r e a t i o n o f undesirable environmental condition."*' Socio-economic- planning and physical planning, both-are neeeeeary and are- e s s e n t i a l l y complementary, fhe economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the plan can be achieved only within the co-ordinating framework provided by th© p h y s i c a l development p l a n . At present-in India, i n general, p h y s i c a l planning i© l i m i t e d to the- city' acale.  There are a few example©  such as the Greater D e l h i Plan, the Burga Pur Kegion F l a n , the Rajaathan Canal Undertaking, and the Banda Karanya Resettlement scheme, e t c . , where p h y s i c a l planning ha© 'United'Nations,-Sept. o f Economic and S e e l a l Affair©, Report o f the Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Houaing and development tHew Torks United Nation©, 1962j, p. 21. 1  1% been attempted on a r e g i o n a l ©oale.  Also, almost i n  every case p h y s i c a l planning i n I n d i a ha© been c a r r i e d out a© a r e c t i f y i n g measure to the urban problems. The same mistake© are bound to get repeated-in the f u t u r e i f proper p h y s i c a l planning doe© not preceed th© decentral i s a t i o n - o f •industries. Sh© r e a l issue i s that a very l a r g e amount o f urbaa-reglonal-phyeioal planning must be undertaken and accomplished  within th© very near f u t u r e , so that the  d i f f i c u l t i e s do not p i l e up excessively before I n d i a can make a f u l l s c a l e attack - i f any a t a l l - causing i n the meantime even greater waste©, diseconomies, and extension© o f the past mi©take© o f obsolete trends.  Also  the actual establishment of new i n d u s t r i e s should be preoeeded by proper p h y s i c a l development plan o f the area. the coordination o f planning i s necessary at a l l level©, even a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  I t i© e s s e n t i a l f o r  India to have a National P h y s i c a l Plan to ©et out th© broad framework within which urban and r e g i o n a l development plan© can be coordinated.  I t i s recommended that a  new s e c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l planning should be created within the e x i s t i n g n a t i o n a l Planning Commission,  fhe Planning  Commission should always have a p h y s i c a l planner a© a f u l l fledged member to advise and guide the p o l i c i e s o f the Commission.  157 "The most e f f e c t i v e u n i t f o r p h y s i c a l planning i s the region, "because i t provides a s u i t a b l e frame of reference f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n and balance of economic and s o c i a l development p r o j e c t s of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and those based on l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e . " *  u  In t h i s respect,  during the Third f i v e Year Plan period, a meager s t a r t has been made by the Government of India by recognising the need of preparing regional plans of urban areas  and  i t has a l l o c a t e d some funda f o r preparing.the plans f o r f i v e i n d u s t r i a l centres. which must be appreciated.  This i s d e f i n i t e l y a beginning However, to have e f f e c t i v e  planning and some meaningful r e s u l t s , i t i s recommended that more funds should be made a v a i l a b l e f o r urban and regional planning.  GSRSBAXi C0KSIDEEATI0K8 ABB  BIGQ11OTMTI0NS  Heed f o r a Comprehensive Approach I t has been observed that the immigrants • problems and t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s are interdependent. i s not p o s s i b l e to t a c k l e one problem at a time. achieve any meaningful r e s u l t , a l l problems should  It  To be  approached and attacked simultaneously and t h i s requires a comprehensive and integrated approach to the problems  l 8  I b i d . . p. 21  158. of housing and other r e l a t e d problems,  f o r example, an  adult education program i s needed f o r the economic absorpt i o n as well as f o r soclo-psychological adjustment? a oommunity development program ha® been recommended f o r motivating self-improvement• e  f e e l i n g but i t i s also  necessary f o r c r e a t i n g community consciousness  and  oommunity l i f e which i n turn i s so necessary f o r psychol o g i c a l adjustment.  I t seems imperative to integrate the  various programs within one o v e r a l l program. The Urban Community Centre should be the centre of community a c t i v i t i e s , where an Orientation course, adult education program, information s e r v i c e s , cooperative nursery, c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s , medical and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , and other community f a c i l i t i e s such as sewing, dress making, e t c . , could be organised. of  The  activities  the 'production u n i t scheme• f o r the woman should  also be a p a r t of the Community Centre.  At t h i s very  centre the s o c i a l worker should act as f r i e n d , helper, and co-ordinator of the a c t i v i t i e s o f various other agencies p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l welfare services to the community.  199. More E f f i c i e n t Planning and P o l i c y Formulation i s E s s e n t i a l to Meet the Urgent Heeds On© of the major defects i n the planning  process  i n India i s that an unnecessarily long time i a taken i n preparing p i a n s .  By the time the plan i s ready f o r a c t i o n  i t i s found redundant and i n need of r e v i s i o n s . due  to two main reasons,  i n general?  This i s  the rapid socio-economic changes  and the f a c t s and f i g u r e s of the survey f o r  the plan beeotalag outdated.  I t i s generally and  considered that planning without a reasonably  rightly  r a p i d and  comprehensive development time table Is not a s a t i s f a c t o r y process, because perhaps development i s obviously touch stone of r e a l i s t i c planning.  the  So, i n India to  obtain r e a l progress on a l l f r o n t s , p h y s i c a l planning based on s o c i a l and economic goals must leap forward at a tremendous s c a l e of development.  What i s immediately  needed i s the p r o v i s i o n of a framework and  skeleton  within which whatever development that may  occur (whether  p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) can be o r g a n i c a l l y f i t t e d to avoid f u r t h e r haphazard development and deterioration? and expediting of the more massive and p o s i t i v e development measures required i n order that the required major r e d i r e c t i o n s may  take place.  To make any s i g n i f i c a n t impnot on the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , rapid preliminary or interim planning w i l l  ISO. have to be done, s e t t i n g up broad and unrefined outl i n e s and p o l i c i e s .  I t may  well be preferable to deploy  the very l i m i t e d trained manpower a v a i l a b l e i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of preliminary or i n t e r i m urbanregional planning agencies than to do the f u l l job i n a r e l a t i v e l y few place©. may  9  exhaustive  D e t a i l e d exhaustive jobs  follow.  Creation of E f f e c t i v e Pnderatandlng  and P u b l i c  Opinion f o r Successful urban-Begional  Planning  Apart from th© I l l i t e r a t e masse© only a f r a c t i o n of the s o p h i s t i c a t e d people of I n d i a have a grasp of the terminology of planning or any serious i n t e r e s t i n i t , and i n a d d i t i o n the number to whom the dynamic© of planning are c l e a r i© quite n e g l i g i b l e .  Another f a c t o r  worth mentioning i© the obsolete notion that planning i a a one-3hot e f f o r t and that as urban-regional plan i© a s t a t i c ©vent, a s i n g l e , elaborate b l u e p r i n t once and f o r a i l .  Alao, there i s no s u b s t a n t i a l weight of  e f f e c t i v e opinion behind urban-regional planning a© there i© behind economic planning.  There 1© a© yet no  r e a l awareness of the b i g ©ocial and economic stake© involved, or the urgency of the s i t u a t i o n .  In general,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the o v e r - a l l n a t i o n a l population explosion ar© appreciated i n terms of food ©hortage,  161. but not i n terms o f migration causing -sever© s c a r c i t y o f - u r b a n accommodation. ^ 1  The Government of I n d i a should authorise a program o r even a s i n g l e s t a f f person f o r the purposes of p u b l i c education. areas.  Such programs are a must f o r urban  The completed urban-regional plans should be  used as an example to make people understand  the Impli-  cations .and.ramifications e f p h y s i c a l planning.' Also, each planning o f f i c e Should have p r o v i s i o n f o r a "PUblio Information" function and s t a f f .  What i s  needed Immediately i s a d i s p e r s a l of the negativism and i n e r t i a , and a f i l l i n g of t h i s vacuum by understanding. Equally l a c k i n g and s u r e l y needed i s the c r e a t i o n of an e x c i t i n g and expectant atmosphere, ao that people at a l l l e v e l s can experience some f e e l i n g of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , some sense of the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the community and t h e i r place i n i t .  ••  In a d d i t i o n to the few m i n i s t e r s and o f f i c i a l s advocating and supporting planning there i s a need f o r public participation.  Perhaps India can l e a r n from the  experiences o f the other countries where the gap between planners and the p u b l i c has been f i l l e d by maintaining a ^ A l b e r t Mayer, "National Implications o f UrbanRegional Planning" India's Urban Future. Boy turner, e d i t o r (Berkeley U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1962), p. 343.  162. dynaaie e^gftoiticationa through Begional' Planning Boards, etc  I t is-recommended that each planning organisation •  should have an Advisory Board i n v o l v i n g p o l i t i c a l  leader©,,  official©, minister©, representative© of i n d u s t r i e s , trade, e t c . fhe press, the A l l India Badio, and the periodical© a l l have an important r o l e to p l a y i n the p r o v i s i o n of background and i n t e r p r e t i v e material© f o r l i t e r a t e people.  Film©, l e c t u r e s , tours, and mobile  exhibit© are v i t a l a© media f o r i n v o l v i n g the people. A M i n i s t r y of Housing,' and t?rban-Begd.qnal .'Planning and Development 1© E s s e n t i a l i n India fher© i© an urgent need f o r strength and determination, the u n i f i c a t i o n o f thinking on the part o f the Government necessary to launch th© complex effort© i n the comparatively new f i e l d of urban-regional planning i n I n d i a .  Also, i t i s e s s e n t i a l a© observed  by Mayers fo f o l l o w them (these effort©) through with determination, continued and renewed observat i o n and t h i n k i n g , and, above a l l , to c a r r y understanding and c o n v i c t i o n - t h i s new f i e l d (urban-regional planning) i© of v i t a l , . pervasive importance and urgency, to the p o l i t y , economy, e f f i c i e n c y , and s o c i a l effectiveness of I n d i a . Shis, emerging and overdue urban-regional planning and development i© invested with an immediacy and a pervasiveness which  163. require i t to have the most powerful launching. I t cannot continue to be a minuscule e f f o r t lodged i n odd corners of the Health M i n i s t r y , and Horn© Minis t r y , the M i n i s t r y of Works, Housing and Supply, and the e h a r a e t f s r i s t i e a l l y weak M i n i s t r i e s of l o c a l Self-Government i n th© S t a t e s . 2 0  I t i s recommended that a M i n i s t r y of cabinet rank should be created i n the Centre and i n the States, with a strong and i n f l u e n t i a l M i n i s t e r and Secretary who have personal, v i t a l i n t e r e s t and commitment to t h i s f i e l d .  STAZilJATXO!! Of fHB  XIIIfAflOlS  AHD ®w& POP FOBJHm'aaitnwr. the present study i s mainly based upon l i b r a r y research and the main sources of material are second hand, such as p u b l i c documents and p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the learned s o c i e t i e s ,  f o some extent materials from p e r i o d i -  c a l s have been used which were i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to India.  Above a l l , most o f the information a v a i l a b l e  were four to f i v e years o l d and the reader  should  appreciate t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . There ar© other l i m i t a t i o n s experienced author while completing  by the  t h i s work, which should a l s o be  appreciated! f u r t h e r research and i n v e s t i g a t i o n should  Maver. OP. e i t . „ p. 345.  164. be mad© to mitigate these limitation©.  One o f the  l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study i a that only the need© of th© immigrant have been considered.  Hot enough i s  known about the immigrant©* want© and t h i s require© f u r t h e r study,  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the consumer was supposed  to decide f o r himself how and where he would l i v e .  How  when planner© a r e taking decision© on behalf o f an immigrant i n p u b l i c housing there i© need o f r e a l knowledge o f hi© want© and also hi© r e a c t i o n towards th© e x i s t i n g housing.  I t ha© been recommended i n the study to plan  the p u b l i c housing should be planned on the neighbourhood p r i n c i p l e , but no i n v e s t i g a t i o n ha© been made a© to the s p e c i f i c need© o f community facilitie© i n quant i t y and q u a l i t y , the ©ia© and th© a r e a l pattern o f th© neighbourhood.  This study doe© not answer d e c i s i v e l y  and c o n c l u s i v e l y such question© a©g - How do we decide what kind of housing promote® adequate family l i f e , o r the exact nature of an integrated neighbourhood, and what make© a r e a l community f o r the immigrant?  I t ha©  been observed that heterogeneity i n the neighbourhood 1© good f o r th© mental and p h y s i c a l development o f the family but t h i s proposal needs f u r t h e r research regardi n g the economic© o f providing community facilitie© and aerviees f o r d i f f e r e n t type© o f f a m i l i e s i n the same housing development.  F o r the s a t i s f a c t o r y home and  165. community f o r r u r a l immigrants there i s the need to know more about those f a c t o r s which a f f e c t h i s l i f e such ass the  ©isse and appearance o f h i e house, f o r instance, the  convenience o f the shops, who h i e neighbours should be, and how f a r h© should t r a v e l to work.  Also s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t s should -'study the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s i n environment on the immigrant*© behaviour, welfare, and a t t i t u d e s ,  f h e various problems o u t l i n e d  i n t h i s study have not been c a r e f u l l y weighed as to t h e i r relative significance.  Also the study has been done  mainly by g e n e r a l i s a t i o n o f the problems and needs o f the  immigrant.  Further consideration must be given to  the needs and problems of the various members o f the family.  There i s the need f o r the a r c h i t e c t to i n v e s t i -  gate ©pace standard© (minimum and optimum), and the most appropriate design® to house the r u r a l immigrant i n the urban areas. of  He should also i n v e s t i g a t e the aesthetic©  *I*arg© Scale Housing*. India- i© passing through those*stages of indus-  t r i a l i s a t i o n and urbanisation through which other indust r i a l i s e d countries have already experienced.  There i s  the need f o r evaluating the recommendation© o f t h i s study i n l i g h t of t h e experience o f the other countries i n comparable situation©.  166. I t ha© heen observe© that th© transient nature and the m o b i l i t y of the r u r a l immigrant do hamper h i s adjustment, but why the immigrant moves needs f u r t h e r Investigation.  I t i s unknown to what extent geographic  mobility i s r e l a t e d to s o c i a l and economic needs.  And  i t i s not known to what extent and under what conditions, the immigrant people moves p r i m a r i l y because of the way he wants to l i v e , i n terms o f h i s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment. The hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s i s that r u r a l immigrants to urban areas i n I n d i a have s p e c i f i c  economic,  p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l needs which must be considered to help India solve i t s urban housing problem,  fhe major  purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e an approach which India must use to house r u r a l immigrants i n the urban areas.  At t h i s stage i t i s e s s e n t i a l to review  the assumptions and check the v a l i d i t y of the study and hypothesis. fhe assumptions made were,  that the population  of India i s going to increase s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n the next two decadess that the scale and volume of i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n i n India w i l l he s i m i l a r to that experienced i n the period between 1951-61? that I n d i a i s going to experience a large scale urbanisation at l e a s t at the same rate as experienced between 1951-61 and that t h i s trend i s not  16? going to be reveraedj that world peaee s h a l l edatinu© and India w i l l not become involved i n any major war? that more funds w i l l be a l l o c a t e d i n future f o r housing and urban'and r u r a l planning and welfare-'• a c t i v i t i e s In India.  These assumptions are s t i l l v a l i d and they are  not l i k e l y to become i n v a l i d a t e d , The hypotheais f o r thi© study i s i  "that r u r a l  it&migrants to urban area© i n I n d i a have s p e c i f i c economic, p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l need© which must be considered to help India solve it© urban houeing problem".  M r i n g th©  couree of the study i t was observed that th© problem of housing r u r a l immigrant© i n th© urban areas i s the r e s u l t of a complex o f underlying problem© o f the immigrant. These problem© of the immigrant are economic, p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l i n nature.  These problem© are interdepen-  dent and, i f resolved, would tend to contribute to the e l i m i n a t i o n of the housing problem i t s e l f .  On the baei©  of the above ©tatedobservation© and finding©, i t 1 © considered that the hypothesi© i© ©till v a l i d . 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