UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The maritime foreign trade of British Columbia Kerfoot, Denis Edward 1964

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1964_A8 K47.pdf [ 9.44MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104954.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104954-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104954-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104954-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104954-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104954-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104954-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104954-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104954.ris

Full Text

THE MARITIME FOREIGN TRADE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by DENIS EDWARD KERFOOT B.Sc, King's College, U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia,, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study* I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission,. Department of Geography The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 1964 i i " ABSTRACT For almost a century, B r i t i s h Columbia has exhibited a marked dependence on overseas markets to absorb a large proportion of the p r o v i n c i a l , primary and secondary natural-resource production. The geographical l o c a t i o n of the province, on Canada's western seaboard, and the bulky nature of many of the export commodities, makes the ocean highway a l o g i c a l transportation l i n k i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s commerce to foreign markets. The objective of t h i s study i s to trace and quantify, as p r e c i s e l y as poss i b l e , the development of t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , seaborne trade. I t i s impossible to present a complete and comprehensive account of a l l the items of commerce entering i n t o B r i t i s h Columbia's maritime, foreign trade. However, a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast shows that, throughout the period under review, the export movement has been f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t than the corresponding import movement. Moreover, a few staple commodities, g r a i n , lumber, pulp and paper, c o a l , mineral concentrates and r e f i n e d metals, have formed the mainstay of t h i s outward t r a f f i c flow. Consequently, the scope of the study i s r e s t r i c t e d to a consideration of the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of maritime foreign trade associated with export shipments of these commodities. The preponderance of the export movement i s also r e f l e c t e d i n the t r a f f i c balance of the i n d i v i d u a l ports on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. A l l these ports e x h i b i t a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e i r function t o serve the province's b a s i c , export i n d u s t r i e s , and, to a l e s s e r extent, to tranship bulk commodities from Al b e r t a and Saskatchewan. This common bond con s t i t u t e s the ba s i s f o r a c o l l e c t i v e study of a l l these shipping points under a si n g l e term - The Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. A map showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these i i i shipping points, f u r t h e r demonstrates that most of them are located at points i n and around the S t r a i t of Georgia which, i n effect, constitutes one l a r g e , n a t u r a l harbour and i s the core region of the P a c i f i c Coast port. In addition to t h i s c e n t r a l core, the remaining shipping points may be grouped i n t o two export-oriented outports centred on the A l b e r n i Canal area and northern coast r e s p e c t i v e l y . The procedure adopted i n t h i s t h e s i s thus attempts to answer the f o l l o w i n g questions a r i s i n g out of a study of the maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. What were the c h i e f commodities exported, and i n what quantity? What e f f e c t d i d t h i s trade have with regard to the number, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and r e l a t i v e importance of shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia? What were the dominant d i r e c t i o n a l patterns of flow, and which were the most important forelands f o r these export shipments? The answers to these questions, with respect to the trade i n s p e c i f i c commodities, are given i n chapters three, four and f i v e . The maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia can be subdivided i n t o four r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t phases. Beginning i n the middle of the eighteenth century, trade increased s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1900, and, f o l l o w i n g a period of stagnation i n the f i r s t decade of t h i s century, continued to increase slowly u n t i l the end of the F i r s t World War. Throughout t h i s Phase of E a r l y Development, the p r i n c i p a l exports were coal from Vancouver Isla n d , and lumber from the Lower Mainland, and the number of shipping points c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d the number of operating mines and m i l l s . Export forelands were confined to markets w i t h i n the P a c i f i c Basin, c h i e f l y C a l i f o r n i a and A u s t r a l i a . The opening of the Panama Canal, the construction of grain elevators and the f i r s t pulp and paper m i l l s , together with an extremely favourable t r a d i n g environment a f t e r the war, stimulated a vast increase i n cargo t r a f f i c from the P a c i f i c Coast. The Phase of Expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, between 1919 and 1929, was based on the expansion and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the export trade i n f o r e s t products, and, a f t e r 1921, on the spectacular development of the western grain route. Patterns of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n maritime space were d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by the opening of the Panama Canal, and, throughout t h i s phase, the commodity flow through the new waterway dominated the pattern of foreign exports from the province. The United Kingdom emerged as the most important i n d i v i d u a l , export foreland, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of A t l a n t i c markets was f u r t h e r empha-si s e d by the growth of waterborne lumber shipments to the Eastern United States. In the Phase of Recession, between 1930 and 1945, the magnitude of the export movement underwent marked f l u c t u a t i o n s as f i r s t depression, and l a t e r war, profoundly influenced world commodity trade. The general decline i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y r e s u l t e d i n only a s l i g h t reduction i n the number of shipping points on the P a c i f i c Coast. Export forelands showed a marked contraction as t a r i f f b a r r i e r s excluded B r i t i s h Columbia exports from many for e i g n markets. The dominant d i r e c t i o n a l pattern of commodity flow was s t i l l southward through the Panama Canal, despite the dive r s i o n of the grain trade to Eastern Canadian ports, but i t now consisted c h i e f l y of lumber ship-ments destined f o r the United Kingdom. The f i n a l episode i n the development of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Phase of Post-War Growth, has witnessed an unprecedented expansion i n the volume of gr a i n , lumber, newsprint and woodpulp exported from the P a c i f i c Coast. Shipments of i r o n and copper concentrates, coking coal and aluminum, have given added strength to t h i s export movement. This phase of gr e a t l y augmented maritime intercourse has V brought a new era of prosperity to a l l sections of the coast, but e s p e c i a l l y to the area served by the two outports. The most s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of export forelands has been the development of a large commodity flow to Asian markets, the l o g i c a l destinations f o r export shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. For the f i r s t time since 1920, trade with P a c i f i c countries has exceeded that shipped through the Panama Canal. There i s every reason to conclude that the p o s i t i v e trend of the post-war period w i l l be continued over the next decade. Each of the export commodities, investigated i n t h i s study, e x h i b i t s a common growth p o t e n t i a l , and i n the future, as i n the past, the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l play an important r o l e i n the transportation of these exports to foreign markets. v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I t i s impossible to mention a l l the people who gave assistance i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . Singled out f o r p a r t i c u l a r thanks are: Dr. W.G. Hardwick, my advisor, f o r h i s h e l p f u l suggestions i n planning the t h e s i s and designing the maps, and f o r h i s c r i t i c a l evaluation of each d r a f t ; Dr. J.D. Chapman f o r h i s penetrating comments and shrewd advice at each stage i n the preparation of the f i n a l d r a f t ; Dr. James B i r d who, during my undergraduate t r a i n i n g at King's College, London, f i r s t i n s p i r e d my i n t e r e s t i n geographical port studies; Mr. W.A. Sankey of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange who supplied u s e f u l data and gave me a valuable i n s i g h t i n t o many of the shipping problems on the P a c i f i c Coast; and f i n a l l y my wife, Helen, f o r the innumerable occasions that I was able to c a l l upon her geographical and s e c r e t a r i a l s k i l l s . A p r i l , 1964. Denis E. Kerfoot v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE MARITIME COMMODITY TRADE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS 1 The Scope of the Study 1 A General Review of Geographical Port and Trade L i t e r a t u r e . . 4 The Hinterland Concept 6 S t a t i s t i c a l Sources 8 I I . THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 10 The Number, D i s t r i b u t i o n and Relative Importance of Shipping Points 10 The Basis of the 1961 Pattern 15 The Nature of the Trade 17 Summary 20 I I I . THE GRAIN TRADE 21 Factors i n f l u e n c i n g the Development of the Western Route . . 22 Areal S h i f t s i n Centres of Grain Production 24 Commercial I n e r t i a 25 The F i r s t Elevator and the Opening of the Panama Canal . . 26 Expansion of Elevator Capacity 28 Changing Freight Rate Structure 30 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Commercial Grain Shipments 32 The Period of Expansion, 1921-1932 . . 32 Grain Forelands 35 The Period of Recession, 1935-1945 37 Grain Forelands 41 The Post-War Period, 1946-1962 42 Changing g r a i n forelands of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 43 The Future 45 IV. TRADE IN FOREST PRODUCTS 48 1. The Lumber Trade 49 The Pioneer Period : 1850-1920 50 Lumber Forelands of the Pioneer Period 51 Expansion and Decline: 1921-1945 56 Lumber Forelands 57 T a r i f f e f f e c t s and Changing Foreland Patterns . . . . 61 Post-War Growth: 1945-1962 63 Lumber Forelands of the Post-War Period 64 The Future 66 2. The Pulp and Paper Trade 68 The Period of Development, 1894-1945 69 Pulp and Paper Forelands 71 i x CHAPTER PAGE The Period of Expansion, 1946-1962 73 Pulp and Paper Forelands 75 The Future 78 V.. THE TRADE IN MINERAL PRODUCTS 80 The Fuel Trade 81 The Growth of the Coal Trade 82 Fuel O i l Competition 86 Changing Patterns of Petroleum Trade 93 Conclusions 95 The Iron Ore Trade 96 The Copper Ore Trade 104 The Trade i n Refined Metals 107 Lead and Zinc Shipments 107 Aluminum Shipments 112 Summary of the Mineral Export Trade 113 V I . THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TJ RETROSPECT 115 -The Phase of E a r l y Development, 1860-1918 117 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping Points 120 Export Forelands during the Phase of E a r l y Development . . 122 -The Phase of Expansion, 1919-1929 122 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping Points 126 Export Forelands during the Phase of Expansion 131 X CHAPTER PAGE The Phase of Recession, 1930-1945 134 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping Points . . . . 135 Export Forelands during the Phase of Recession . . . . 138 The Phase of Post-War Growth, 1946-1962 140 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping Points . . . . 142 Export Forelands during the Phase of Post-War Growth . . 147 The Prospect 151 BIBLIOGRAPHY 153 APPENDICES I . Canadian Grain Exports by Seaboard Sector, Crop Years 1919-20 to 1962-63. I I . B r i t i s h Columbia Grain Exports by Trading Areas 1924-1962. I I I . B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Production and Waterborne Lumber Shipments 1910-1962. IV. B r i t i s h Columbia Iron Ore Shipments 1951-1962. V. Vancouver Island Coal Production and Exports 1874-1962. VI. The Maritime Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. x i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . The Maritime Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 3 I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n and Re l a t i v e Importance of Shipping Points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 12-13 I I I . The Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961, T r a f f i c Balance . . . . 18 IV. Overseas Exports of Canadian Grain f o r the Crop Year, 1962-63 . 23 V. Grain Elevators i n Canada 29 V I . Railway Freight Rates on Grain Moving f o r Export 1921 and I960 . 31 V I I . Lumber Production i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1908 53 V I I I . B r i t i s h Columbia Waterborne Lumber Shipments, 1900 53 IX. Pulp and Paper Shipments from a l l B r i t i s h Columbia Ports 1925-1937 . . 72 X. B r i t i s h Columbia Newsprint Production and Exports, 1940-1962 . 74 X I . Tonnages and Costs of B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a Coal so l d under Subsidy f o r Bunker and Export 91 X I I . A. Fuel O i l Supplies i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1924-1941 . . . . .94 B. Crude Petroleum Receipts at B r i t i s h Columbia ( i n c l u d i n g Yukon) R e f i n e r i e s , 1946-1960 94 X I I I . Japan: Iron Ore Imports by Source Areas, I960 103 XIV. Shipments of Copper Concentrates from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 106 x i i TABLE PAGE XV. Lead and Zinc Bar Metal Shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 109 XVI. Lead and Zinc Bar Metal Shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia by Dominant Foreland Areas I l l XVII. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Re l a t i v e Importance of Shipping Points Within the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1911 121 XVIII. D i s t r i b u t i o n and R e l a t i v e Importance of Shipping Points Within the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1919 and 1929 . . . 127^128 XIX. D i s t r i b u t i o n and R e l a t i v e Importance of Shipping Points Within the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934 and 1943 . . . 136-137 XX. D i s t r i b u t i o n and R e l a t i v e Importance of Shipping Points Within the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1945 and 1962 . . . 143-144 x i i i • LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. The Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 1961 . . . . 11 2. B r i t i s h Columbia Grain Exports by Trading Areas, 1922-1962 . . 33 3. Grain Exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1932 and 1961 . 56 4. Average Costs of Moving Wheat, Canada to the United Kingdom, Seasons of Navigation 1933 to 1963 40 5. Waterborne Lumber Exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1920-1962 58 6. Waterborne Lumber Shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1929, 1946 and 1962 60 7. B r i t i s h Columbia Coal Production 1860-1962 83 8. Coal Exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1868, 1900 and 1962 85 9. Relationship between Coal Production and Coal Exports A. Vancouver Island 87 B. East Kootenay 87 10. B r i t i s h Columbia Iron Ore Exports, 1951-1962 100 11. Vancouver Island Iron Ore Shipments 1962 100 12. The Maritime Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 1860 - 1962 116 13. The Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 1929 . . . . 130 14. The Foreign Trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 1945 . . . . 145 15. Export Forelands of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia 1945 and 1962 . 148 CHAPTER I THE MARITIME COMMODITY TRADE OP BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY The economic well-being of the people of B r i t i s h Columbia has, f o r more than a century, been heavily dependent upon export trade. The a b i l i t y to s e l l a high percentage of the annual production of lumber, pulp and paper, ore concentrates and r e f i n e d metals beyond the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, and t o tranship bulk commodities from A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan, has been of para-mount importance i n determining the rate of economic progress w i t h i n the province. The major portion of t h i s commodity flow i s by sea. The aim of t h i s t h e s i s i s to portray the development and s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the maritime trading patterns that have been established between B r i t i s h Columbia and other parts of the world, and to ind i c a t e some fact o r s which have influenced the emergence of the contemporary pattern. Studies of maritime trade are p a r t i c u l a r l y amenable to a geo-graphical approach f o r two major reasons. F i r s t l y , one of the fundamental causes of i n t e r n a t i o n a l commerce i s the uneven geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources and markets,^ and secondly, the commodity flow generated by these a r e a l differences provides a d i r e c t measure of s p a t i a l interconnections between places, and thus incorporates many of the p r i n c i p l e s put forward by proponents of a 'geography of c i r c u l a t i o n 1 . The d i r e c t i o n , type and magnitude Zimmerman, E.W. (1917) Foreign Trade and Shipping. V o l . 15 of Modern Business Series. Alexander Hamilton I n s t i t u t e , New York, p. 37. 2 of flow may be interpreted i n the l i g h t of Ullman's three concepts of 2 complementarity, intervening opportunity and t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y , or what Ginsburg has termed the d i f f e r e n t geographical dimensions: a h o r i z o n t a l dimension of surface pattern, and a v e r t i c a l dimension of concentration and 3 quantity. The l a t t e r concept introduces the element of r e l a t i v e importance at a s p e c i f i c period, and t o t h i s could be added a t h i r d , temporal dimension, to demonstrate the changing composition and or i e n t a t i o n of the commodity flow patterns through time. A comprehensive survey of a l l the commodities entering i n t o the foreign trade of B r i t i s h Columbia, constitutes a task f a r too broad f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s . As Table I shows, export movements account f o r almost 90 per cent, by weight, of the province's t o t a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade, and more than 78 per cent of t h i s export trade i s composed of t r a f f i c i n g r a i n , lumber, pulp and paper, r e f i n e d metals and mineral concentrates. In accordance with these f a c t s , the scope of t h i s t h e s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d to a consideration of the d i s t r i b u t i v e and fu n c t i o n a l patterns of trade established by these selected export commodities, and imports are considered only insomuch as they d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the volume of trade moving out of the province. Such a study, focusing on that portion of the trade passing through coastal ports and moving by water to foreign destinations, excludes any consideration of r a i l or truck commodity flow to the United States. Oilman, E.L. (1957) American Commodity Flow, U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, S e a t t l e , pp. 20-23. Ginsburg, N.S. (1949) Japanese Pre War Trade and Shipping i n the  O r i e n t a l Triangle, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper, No. 6, Chicago, p.3. 3 TABLE I THE MARITIME FOREIGN TRADE OF THE PORT OF BRITISH COLOMBIA, 1961 ( U n i t s . Tons 2000 lbs.) The Port of To t a l Exports 14,223,442 B r i t i s h Columbia Total Imports 2,128,961 Export Trade i n Selected Commodities Per Cent Total Commodity Volume Exports GRAIN Y/heat 4,054,323 Barley 764,928 Others 393.412 Tot a l 5,212,663 36.6 FOREST PRODUCTS Lumber and Timber 2,448,017 Woodpulp 570,071 Newsprint 694,412 Total 3,712,500 26.1 MINERAL PRODUCTS Iron Ore 1,191,838 Copper Concentrates 36,912 Other Concentrates 21,472 Refined Metal Ingots 266,528 Coal 702,905 T o t a l 2,219,655 15.6 Grand T o t a l Selected Commodities 11,144,818 78.3 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report 1961, Part II  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seaborne Shipping. Cat. No. 54-203, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 4 A GENERAL REVIEW OF GEOGRAPHICAL PORT AND TRADE LITERATURE Studies of foreign trade can o f f e r numerous, p o t e n t i a l con-t r i b u t i o n s to f u r t h e r elucidate such geographical concepts as 'areal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ' , ' s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ' and 'study of d i s t r i b u t i o n s ' ; concepts held by d i f f e r i n g a u t h o r i t i e s as being close to the p i t h of our subject. However, i n contrast to t h i s great p o t e n t i a l , the amount of research done by professional geographers i n t h i s f i e l d i s proportionately small. There are several economic texts dealing with p r i n c i p l e s of port operations, ocean shipping and foreign trade, but these are decidedly i n -adequate f o r the purposes of the geographer. A s i m i l a r degree of d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n must be expressed upon reviewing the majority of the geographical port studies; studies that are adequately summarized by the fo l l o w i n g quotation: "The t r a d i t i o n a l approach (to port studies) consists of a desc r i p t i o n of the port, i t s l o c a t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , followed or preceeded by an h i s t o r i c a l sketch, and concluded by a t r a f f i c study and an appraisal of i t s functions. Such studies are purely d e s c r i p t i v e . " 4 This d e s c r i p t i v e approach, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of many of the a r t i c l e s appearing i n the p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , i s also evident i n the recent texts 5 of Morgan and B i r d . Fortunately, as a r e s u l t of research completed at the ^Camu, P. ( 1 9 5 5 ) "Notes on Port Studies", The Canadian Geographer. No. 6 , p. 5 1 . ^Morgan, F.W. ( 1 9 5 8 ) Ports and Harbours. Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , London. Second E d i t i o n revised by James B i r d . B i r d , J . (1957) The Geography of the Port of London, Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , London. ( 1 9 6 3 ) The Major Seaports of the United Kingdom, Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., London. 5 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, a trend has emerged which places greater emphasis on actual flow patterns between ports, but these studies also s t r e s s the r o l e of g n a t i o n a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping l i n e s i n promoting foreign trade. The lack of a large, deep-sea mercantile marine i n Canada precludes any attempt at s i m i l a r studies r e l a t i n g t o B r i t i s h Columbia, and indeed,, i t i s a debatable point whether the n a t i o n a l i t y of the vessel carrying the cargo i s m a t e r i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t to geographical s t u d i e s . The afore-mentioned Chicago research i s an example of work i n which the treatment of i n d i v i d u a l ports i s considered to be subordinate to the tra d i n g patterns established by them. Trade, not the ports, becomes the focus of the study, and, by emphasising the flow patterns emanating from a port, or group of ports, the whole subject of port geography immediately becomes more dynamic. Most of these studies have been undertaken i n the period since the end of the Second World War, but one e a r l i e r , pioneer text i s p a r t i c u l a r l y worthy of note. In h i s study of the external areal r e l a t i o n s of Mobile, Ullman was the f i r s t geographer t o make a comprehensive survey of the water t r a f f i c flow to and from a port by considering the density of movements, routes, d i r e c t i o n of flow, and o r i g i n and destination of every major 7 commodity handled. S i m i l a r studies by urban geographers have concentrated almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s developed between c i t i e s and t h e i r surrounding land areas (an association also investigated by Ullman 6Ginsburg, N.S. (1949) op., c i t . Boxer, B. (1957) I s r a e l i Shipping and Foreign Trade, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper, No. 48, Chicago. (l96l) Ocean Shipping i n the Evolution of Hong Kong, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper, No. 72, Chicago. •7 Ullman, E.L. (1943) Mobile: I n d u s t r i a l Seaport and Trade Center, Chicago, pp. 109-123. 6 i n the case of Mobile): i n port studies t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p has been developed as the h i n t e r l a n d concept. By s u b s t i t u t i n g the c o l l e c t i v e ports of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a single c i t y , t h i s t h e s i s attempts to emulate some of the success achieved by Ullman through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the maritime connections c o n t r i b u t i n g to the a r e a l support of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Hinterland Concept. The hinterland concept, a t h e o r e t i c a l device f o r analysing the s p a t i a l connections between a port and the land area that i t serves, has most profoundly permeated the methodological t h i n k i n g of port geography. The term can be applied with varying degrees of s t a t i s t i c a l p r e c i s i o n , f o r , as the l a t e F.W. Morgan demonstrated, i n d i v i d u a l ports extend t h e i r sphere of influence f o r v a r i a b l e distances with respect to d i f f e r e n t commodities, cre a t i n g a pattern i n which the service function diminishes i n magnitude along a gradient sloping away from the port i n t o continental space. The success achieved by Morgan was, i n part, a r e s u l t of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d e t a i l e d data c o l l e c t e d by the German inland communication networks, but a recent study by Patton indicates that s i m i l a r information can sometimes be Q obtained from port a u t h o r i t i e s . Commendable as these and other studies are i n providing an adequate p i c t u r e of some geographical aspects of port a c t i v i t y , they have, nevertheless, tended to d i s t o r t the function of many ports by p l a c i n g undue emphasis on landward connections to the detriment of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s developed across maritime space; r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t i n the t r a d i n g patterns of B r i t i s h Columbia. The ports of B r i t i s h Columbia are located along the western front Morgan, F.W. (±948) "Pre-War Hinterlands of German North Sea Ports", I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Geographers Transactions, pp. 45-55. ^Patton, D.J. (1958) Port Hinterlands; the Case of New Orleans, Unpublished manuscript, no other d e t a i l s a v a i l a b l e . Photocopy i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y . 7 of the Coast Mountains, a s i t u a t i o n which exerts considerable influence upon t h e i r t rading s t r u c t u r e . With the exception of the Fraser and Skeena River v a l l e y s , the mountains form a s o l i d almost-impenetrable b a r r i e r m i l i t a t i n g against the easy construction of inland communications, so that only Vancouver-New Westminster, and to a l e s s e r extent Prince Rupert, have been able t o develop extensive •trading areas comparable to the h i n t e r l a n d types c i t e d i n the preceeding paragraph. The other ports possess hinterlands resembling Morgan's 'p r i m i t i v e ' or 'raw material' categories;*^ hinterlands that are simple i n composition and o u t l i n e , but u n l i k e Morgan's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia ports are export rather than import oriented. Drawing t h e i r cargoes from t h e i r immediate neighbourhood, they represent shipping points designed to f a c i l i t a t e the d i r e c t t r a n s f e r of bulk products i n t o ocean-going vessels f o r the long journey that B r i t i s h Columbia exports must take to reach t h e i r markets.** T r a d i t i o n a l h i n t e r l a n d studies thus have l i t t l e relevance to the majority of the ports i n t h i s province, which, rather than looking inward to the needs of a populous t r i b u t a r y area, face outward across maritime space f o r t h e i r commercial welfare. The port 'foreland', a term introduced by Weigend to denote those 12 areas which are connected t o a port by means of ocean c a r r i e r s , i s con-sequently of greater i n t e r e s t i n a study of the ports on Canada's P a c i f i c Coast. Of the twenty-nine ports involved i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade i n 1961, twenty-six could be classed as 'foreland' oriented. Morgan, F.W. (1958) op., c i t . , 111-116. "^Gibb, S i r Alexander. (1932) Dominion of Canada. National Ports  Survey. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 9. 1 2Weigend, G.G. (1956) "The Problem of Hinterland and Foreland as I l l u s t r a t e d by the Port of Hamburg", Economic Geography. V o l . 32, p. 3. 8 Most of the ports are small. Only s i x handled more than 500,000 tons of cargo each i n 1961, and only three, Vancouver, New Westminster and V i c t o r i a more than 1,000,000 tons. The remainder p r i m a r i l y serve the basic export i n d u s t r i e s which are the mainstay of the p r o v i n c i a l economy. In keeping with the aim of t h i s t h e s i s , to focus on the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of commodity trade, a l l the ports are treated c o l l e c t i v e l y as one shipping point — The Port of B r i t i s h Columbia — and are only referred to i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e c ontribution to the t o t a l export movement. STATISTICAL SOURCES No si n g l e comprehensive source i s a v a i l a b l e covering a l l the aspects of the maritime foreign trade of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Shipping Report, published annually by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s (D.B.S.), includes two sections devoted t o In t e r n a t i o n a l Seaborne Shipping and provides d e t a i l s of cargoes loaded f o r , and unloaded from, foreign countries by i n d i v i d u a l port and commodity. P r i o r to 1939, the Shipping Report was compiled by the Federal Department of National Revenue and gives records of the t o t a l exports and imports, by port but not by commodity, f o r the f i s c a l years 1916-1938 i n c l u s i v e . Information r e l a t i n g to the destination of exports and o r i g i n of imports, f o r P a c i f i c Coast ports as a whole, i s c l a s s i f i e d by country and commodity i n Part 1 of the D.B.S. Report. A more convenient grouping, p r i m a r i l y by commodity and secondly by country, i s adopted i n the Preliminary Statement of External Trade issued by the Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s i n V i c t o r i a , but t h i s source does not segregate waterborne shipments from others and caution i s required i n evaluating the flow of goods to the United States. More d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s , p e r t a i n i n g to trade i n s p e c i f i c commodities, are often contained i n the Annual Reports of the various branches of the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments, the Vancouver Merchants Exchange, and i n d i v i d u a l companies. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to attempt to answer the fo l l o w i n g questions a r i s i n g out of a study of the maritime foreign trade of B r i t i s h Columbia. What are the c h i e f commodities moved and i n what quantity? What are the general patterns of trade flow and how have they changed through time? The trade, and not the ports, i s the focus of the research: the foreign commerce of the "Port of B r i t i s h Columbia'. CHAPTER I I THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 THE NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SHIPPING POINTS Unlike the United States' c o a s t l i n e to the south, Canada's P a c i f i c seaboard possesses many s i t e s favourable to port development. The i n t r i c a t e pattern of f j o r d s and i s l a n d s , a legacy of the Pleistocene period, provides numerous, sheltered l o c a t i o n s capable of accommodating deep sea vessels, and the mild climate keeps these n a t u r a l harbours i c e - f r e e throughout the year. Export-oriented i n d u s t r i e s , located on the coast, are thus able to load t h e i r products d i r e c t l y i n t o ocean c a r r i e r s and obviate the necessity f o r c o s t l y transhipments. The B r i t i s h Columbia coas t l i n e extends f o r more than 600 miles, through seven degrees of l a t i t u d e , and although the favourable s i t e s are to be found i n many places along i t s e n t i r e length, the degree to which they have been u t i l i z e d i s f a r from uniform. Figure I , showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of ports engaged i n maritime foreign trade i n 1961, reveals that a l l but s i x are located south of the f i f t i e t h p a r a l l e l , at points circumjacent to the S t r a i t of Georgia and the Al b e r n i Canal. Table I I fur t h e r indicates that these southern ports c o l l e c t i v e l y account f o r 86.5 per cent of the t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the province. The S t r a i t of Georgia i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t e s one large natural harbour with one important outlet i n the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, with the i n d i v i d u a l ports representing developed sections of i t s waterfront. Such a marked concentration of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y i s a fur t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c o l l e c t i v e study of the shipping CAMPBELL RIVER BLUBBER BAY COURTENAY BRITANNIA BEACH THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1961 PORT^  MOODY EXPORTS: DOMINANT COMMODITIES GRAIN FOREST PRODUCTS MINERALS IMPORTS [ j < 30,000 TONS UNCLASSIFIED # 10 NEW WESTMINSTER 10 — I — 20 MILES Nil PRINCE RUPERT KITIMAT QUATSINO OCEAN FALLS PORT MCNEILL J) „ BEAVER COVE Figure I 12 TABLE I I DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SHIPPING POINTS WITHIN THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 Cargo Tons % 2000 l b s T o t a l A. SOUTH COAST (South of Lat. 50°N) 1. South Coast Mainland Lower Mainland Vancouver 8,521,668 New Westminster 1,328,737 Port Moody 246,573 Marpole ) ^ North Arm Fraser ) -<•:?,^  10,110,291 61.82 Other Mainland Ports Powell River 416,635 B r i t a n n i a Beach 110,857 Port Mellon 29,286 Andys Bay 2,375 559,153 3.42 Texada Island 622,028 3.80 To t a l - South Coast Mainland 11,291,472 69.04 2. East Coast Vancouver I s l a n d V i c t o r i a 1,027,654 Nanaimo-Harmac 482,321 Chemainus 226,230 Campbell River ) fi g Duncan Bay ) ^ o , w Crofton 189,882 Sidney 11,847 Bamberton 8,398 Courtenay 1,050 2,273,847 13-91 3. Port A l b e r n i 584,782 3.57 TOTAL - SOUTH COAST 14,150,101 86.52 13 TABLE I I (continued) B. NORTH COAST (North of Lat. 50°N) 1. Northern Vancouver Island 2. North Mainland Coast Cargo Tons f> 2000 l b s T o t a l Quatsino 535,791 Port McNeil 201,540 Beaver Cove 187,376 924,707 5.67 Prince Rupert 667,728 Kitimat 454,831 Ocean P a l l s 147,122 1,269,681 7.77 TOTAL - NORTH COAST 2,194,388 13.44 C. OTHER BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS 7,9H 0.04 TOTAL - PORT OP BRITISH COLUMBIA 16,352,403 100.00 Source: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report 1961. Part I I , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Seaborne Shipping, pp. 206-215. points and the adoption of the term — The Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n d i v i d u a l ports which together make up the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, have va r i e d i n t o t a l number and r e l a t i v e importance through time. Figure I i l l u s t r a t e s the 1961 pattern with base c i r c l e s proportionate to the t o t a l cargo tonnage of the shipping points they represent. Cartographic l i m i t a t i o n s make i t impossible to show the minor ports, handling l e s s than 30,000 tons of cargo, on the same volumetric s c a l e . Other generalizations have also been necessary t o a i d the c l a r i t y of presentation. Two of the minor ports, Marpole and North Arm of the Fraser, have not been included as they are r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t ports w i t h i n the Lower Mainland complex; shipments v i a Duncan Bay have been added to those of Campbell River as they represent l i n k e d operations of the same commercial enterprise. Table I I represents a grouping of the shipping points, shown i n Figure I , according to geographical l o c a t i o n , and emphasizes the dominant r o l e of the south coast ports. Within t h i s grouping the Mainland ports represent a f o c a l point handling more than two-thirds of the t o t a l maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver alone accounts f o r more than h a l f of t h i s trade, and the Lower Mainland port-complex also includes New Westminster, the second l a r g e s t shipping point on the P a c i f i c Coast. The Howe Sound ports, Powell River, and the three ports on Texada Island form minor n u c l e i of i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade w i t h i n the Mainland grouping The coastal p l a i n of south-east Vancouver Island i s another focus of f o r e i g n commerce w i t h i n the southern core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, and includes V i c t o r i a , the only other ' m i l l i o n a i r e ' port on the Canadian P a c i f i c seaboard. The subordinate r o l e of the ports i n t h i s grouping i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t that, c o l l e c t i v e l y , they handled l i t t l e more than a quarter of the cargo tonnage shipped through Vancouver. 15 Although Port Alberni is located near the western fringe of this coastal plain, its situation at the eastern end of the Alberni Canal makes it somewhat peripheral to the main core of shipping activity centred on the Strait of Georgia. Port Alberni resembles the conventional outport, but it does not possess the characteristics of an outport as elaborated by Pounds.''' In keeping with the other ports on the Pacific Coast it is oriented to the export of bulk commodities; such a role contrasts markedly with Pound's concept of an outport as a shipping point designed to facilitate the speedy handling of light, relatively-valuable, import cargoes. The six ports located north of the fiftieth parallel together constitute a second outport analagous to Port Alberni, although of a more dispersed and peripheral nature. In 1961, this northern outport accounted for slightly more than 13 per cent of the total maritime foreign trade of the Port of British Columbia. The Basis of the 1961 Pattern The reasons for this marked concentration of international shipping activity reflect the uneven distribution of human and natural resources within the province, and the relative ease with which commodities originating in other parts of Western Canada can be transported to the coast. Some of these factors will be elaborated upon in the course of the succeeding chapters. 1. The Lower Mainland region and south-east Vancouver Island have always been the most populous sections of the coast. 2. The distribution of level land capable of accommodating urban centres and industrial plants is restricted, with the best sites Pounds, N.J.G. (1947) "Port and Outport in North-west Europe", Geographical Journal, Vol. 109, pp. 216-228. 16 occurring on the Lower Mainland and the coastal p l a i n of eastern Vancouver Island. The greater a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l e s s exposed nature, and a v a i l a b l e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power and water supplies also make these southern coast locations the most favourable areas f o r commercial development. 3. Although primary logging operations have expanded a r e a l l y , the forest converting i n d u s t r i e s have remained concentrated around the shores of Georgia S t r a i t and A l b e r n i Canal. A few plants are located on the northern coast, but the economy has remained p r i m a r i l y e x t r a c t i v e rather than processing; technological improvements have permitted the transport of logs from t h i s part of the coast to the manufacturing plants i n the south, f o r conversion i n t o lumber, pulp and paper before being exported. 4. Since 1920, the movement of Canadian grain from the P r a i r i e s has been a s i g n i f i c a n t item i n the foreign commodity trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Although Prince Rupert i s one outlet f o r t h i s grain the volume moving to t h i s port has always been small compared with the shipments v i a the southern r a i l route. 5. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of commercial mineral deposits also a t t r a c t s more commerce to the southern coast. The Lower Mainland ports form a na t u r a l o u t l e t f o r the refined metal and coal exports from the Kootenays and the recent copper developments t o the south of Kamloops. For many years Nanaimo and B r i t a n n i a Beach dominated the coal and lode-metal mining i n d u s t r i e s on the coast and when a market was found f o r the i r o n ore deposits, Texada Island became a leading producer. At the same time, the i r o n ore developments have considerably augmented the volume of commerce of the northern outport. 17 THE NATURE OF THE TRADE In volume of cargo handled, the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i s more important i n the t o t a l Canadian export movement than i n the import movement. In 1961 the P a c i f i c Coast port exported 14.2 m i l l i o n tons of cargo t o over-seas markets, 26.3 per cent of the n a t i o n a l t o t a l , while imports amounted to only 2.1 m i l l i o n tons, or 5.4 per cent of the f o r e i g n imports by a l l Canadian seaports. This comparison, by weight, of the outward and inward flows of commodities may seem unreasonable i n view of the bulky nature of P a c i f i c Coast exports. However, i n 1961, the leading imports, accounting f o r one-half of the t o t a l inward flow, were f u e l o i l , bauxite, and sand and gravel, and i t i s evident that bulk commodity t r a f f i c i s by no means confined to the export movement. Figure I and Table I I I reveal that the predominant outward flow of t r a f f i c , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole, i s also t y p i c a l of the majority of the i n d i v i d u a l shipping points. I f one excludes the nine minor ports, which c o l l e c t i v e l y accounted f o r l e s s than 0.5 per cent of the t o t a l waterborne foreign trade, most of the remaining ports have an export-import r a t i o exceeding 4:1. Only one port, Ocean F a l l s , approaches 2 the i d e a l balance of t r a f f i c between ingoing and outgoing shipping, and only one port, Kitim a t , has a greater import than export movement. As the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i s overwhelmingly based on the export movement, many vessels are compelled to c a l l at points w i t h i n the port *TJntil recently Ocean F a l l s ' f u e l o i l imports and newsprint exports were shipped i n d i f f e r e n t c a r r i e r s . A modern vessel i s now i n use carr y i n g newsprint to the C a l i f o r n i a market, and c a l l i n g at Washington r e f i n e r i e s on the return journey to f i l l large b a l l a s t tanks with f u e l o i l . Information supplied by Mr. W. Conner, T r a f f i c Department, Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. Personal communication August 8th 1963. 18 TABLE I I I THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 Exports 80^-Exports 60— Balanced TRAFFIC BALANCE Cargo Tons % 2000 l b s Exports t i s h Columbia 16,352,403 86.98 Andys Bay 2,375 100.00 Beaver Cove 187,376 100.00 Courtenay 1,050 100.00 Port McNeil 201,540 100.00 Port Mellon 29,286 100.00 Port Moody 246,573 100.00 Texada 375,011 100.00 Vananda 9,104 100.00 B r i t a n n i a Beach 110,857 99.86 Blubber Bay 237,913 99.77 Port A l b e r n i 584,782 99.39 Duncan Bay 161,776 99.16 Chemainus 226,230 97.93 Crofton 189,882 93.99 V i c t o r i a 1,027,654 92.42 Campbell River 164,689 91.91 Nanaimo 478,882 90.96 Sidney- 11,847 90.55 New Westminster 1,328,737 89.50 North Arm Fraser 10,913 89.10 Vancouver 8,521,668 88.66 Quatsino 535,791 83.23 Powell River 416,635 81.77 Prince Rupert 667,728 63.64 Ocean F a l l s 147,782 44.59 Kitimat 454,831 21.55 Bamberton 8,398 _ Harmac 3,439 -Marpole 2,400 -Imports 13.02 0.14 0.23 0.61 0.84 2.07 6.01 7.58 8.09 9.04 9.45 10.50 10.90 11.34 16.77 18.23 36.36 55.41 78.45 100.00 100.00 100.00 Source: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report 1961. Part I I , I n t ernational Seaborne Shipping, pp. 206-215. e i t h e r i n b a l l a s t or i n a p a r t l y loaded s t a t e . The s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia thus confirms the view of Van Cleef that there i s a close r e l a t i o n between port trade balance and the elements of the area served, e s p e c i a l l y population s i z e and d i v e r s i t y of i n d u s t r i a l production. The export cargoes of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia are composed mainly of bulk commodities, and an examination of the commodity structure of each i n d i v i d u a l shipping point reveals that often there i s a tendency f o r one export cargo to dominate the others. Many ports are intimately l i n k e d with a primary industry and the materials associated w i t h that industry dominate the port's trading s t r u c t u r e . I t i s possible to c l a s s i f y the i n d i v i d u a l shipping points according t o the major commodity handled as shown i n Figure I . However, caution must be employed i n assessing the patterns shown on t h i s map; only the dominant cargoes are shown. For example, Vancouver i s c l a s s i f i e d as a g r a i n exporting port but i t also ships more lumber than any other i n d i v i d u a l shipping point i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The volume of g r a i n shipped accounts f o r almost 60 per cent of Vancouver's exports and represents more than f i v e times the amount of timber handled. Grain shipments form the dominant exports of two ports, Vancouver and Prince Rupert, both located at the termini of r a i l connections with the P r a i r i e . Eleven of the ports have f o r e s t products as the dominant export, with a l l but one — Ocean F a l l s — located i n the southern grouping. Seven of these ports, New Westminster, V i c t o r i a , Port A l b e r n i , Nanaimo, Chemainus, Crofton, and B r i t a n n i a Beach are p r i m a r i l y lumber exporting points; three, Powell River, Duncan Bay, and Ocean F a l l s ship c h i e f l y newsprint, while Campbell River i s p r i m a r i l y an exporter of woodpulp. Mineral exports form H/an Cleef, E. (1937) Trade Centers and Trade Routes. D. Appleton-Century Co., New York, p. 111. 20 the dominant cargoes of seven of the po r t s . Quatsino, Port M c N e i l l , and Beaver Cove i n the northern outport, and Texada i n the south, are associated with i r o n ore developments; Blubber Bay ships limestone; Kitimat r e f i n e d aluminum, and Port Moody i s the c h i e f exporting point f o r coal from the Kootenays. SUMMARY The Port of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s i n d i v i d u a l components e x h i b i t a marked inbalance of t r a f f i c flow i n which, with two exceptions, the export movement completely dominates the smaller inbound t r a f f i c . Moreover, there i s a tendency f o r one item of commerce to dominate the export commodity structure of i n d i v i d u a l shipping points, permitting a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o g r a i n , f o r e s t products or mineral exporting ports. These are the same commodities that have been shown t o account f o r more than 75 per cent of the t o t a l maritime f o r e i g n exports of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The three f o l l o w i n g chapters examine the development of the d i s -t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade w i t h respect to each of these major export groups, i n c l u d i n g a consideration of the number and r e l a t i v e importance of shipping points w i t h i n each. The f i n a l chapter w i l l attempt t o portray the changing status of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia over the past century. CHAPTER I I I THE GRAIN TRADE Grain from A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan i s the one major commodity o r i g i n a t i n g outside the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries that enters the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. During the 1962-63 crop year, the P a c i f i c Coast port shipped more than 160 m i l l i o n bushels of grain and acted as a v i t a l l i n k i n the transportation of Canadian grain to overseas markets. The present importance of the western grain route, however, obscures i t s uncertain beginnings, although a glance at any map of grain production centres i n Canada suggests a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between low-cost water transport, markets and gr a i n growing areas. Such a casual acceptance of the present s i t u a t i o n conceals the f a c t that the question of shipping the crop to a P a c i f i c port, i n p r e f e r -ence to the long haul to the A t l a n t i c seaboard, was strongly debated before commercial shipments began to flow through Vancouver i n the e a r l y 1920's. The growth of government controls of a l l kinds, at both n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , so that much of today's trade i s on a government to government b a s i s , has been an outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of world trade since the end of the Second World War.1 The a v a i l a b i l i t y of large q u a n t i t i e s of Canadian grain on s p e c i a l payment terms to Communist China, has generated a large flow of wheat from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia to t h i s market. The growing requirements of Japan and a lessening of the demand f o r grain imports i n many European countries, have combined to make the Orient one of the most important forelands f o r Canadian grain exports, and the P a c i f i c Coast a ^United Nations Food and A g r i c u l t u r e Organization, Grain, Commodity Series B u l l e t i n No. 18, Washington, D.C., May 1950, p. 24. 22 n a t u r a l o u t l e t f o r t h i s trade. As long as these d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade are maintained, the shipping points on the P a c i f i c Coast should r e t a i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e status of importance shown i n Table IV. The d i f f i c u l t i e s which beset the pioneer promoters of a western o u t l e t f o r Canadian grain are poorly chronicled i n geographical l i t e r a t u r e ; d i f f i c u l t i e s that are r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t that i t i s only i n the l a s t decade that the t r a d i t i o n a l pattern of west to east movement of Canadian g r a i n , des-2 t i n e d f o r export, has been reversed. The change i n r o u t i n g i n turn r e f l e c t s a r e a l s h i f t s i n centres of g r a i n c u l t i v a t i o n , changes i n transportation rates on land and sea, the construction of g r a i n handling and storage f a c i l i t i e s , and the changing d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of demand f o r Canadian grain exports. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WESTERN ROUTE At the time of Confederation, 85 per cent of Canada's wheat pro-duction came from Ontario, and grain from the Thames and R i c h e l i e u v a l l e y s was dispatched t o overseas markets. Judged by present standards, production and exports were small, but they represented a high percentage of the Canadian t o t a l . Population increases, the development of newer, s p e c i a l i s e d forms of a g r i c u l t u r e , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the opening of the P r a i r i e Provinces f o r settlement-have since combined to s h i f t the focus of g r a i n production to the west. Canada, Department of Trade and Commerce, Board of Grain  Commissioners f o r Canada Annual Report f o r 1954. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 50. ^ F a i r , L.M. (1925) "The Transportation of Canadian Wheat to the Sea," National Problems of Canada, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Economic Studies NO. 1, Montreal, pp. 6-7. TABLE IV OVERSEAS EXPORTS OP CANADIAN GRAIN FOR THE CROP YEAR, 1962-63 Bushels Via Canadian Pacific Coast Ports ,160,292,807 Canadian St. Lawrence Ports 121,650,454 Canadian Atlantic Ports 19,843,713 Churchill 21,761,757 .Fort William-Port Arthur Direct 20,706,987 .United States Atlantic Ports 366,343 Total 344,622,061 .Shipments via Individual Ports: Vancouver-New Westminster 150,406,777 Prince Rupert 3,664,234 Victoria 6,221,796 -Montreal 53,464,144 Baie Comeau 26,174,880 Sorel 19,295,516 Three Rivers 13,267,342 Quebec 8,343,139 Kingston 1,105,433 .West Saint John 9,706,534 Saint John 808,160 Halifax 9,329,019 Source: Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada, Canadian Grain Exports for the Crop Year 1962-63, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. 24 Area! Shifts in Centres of Grain Production The f i r s t attempt to cultivate grain in Western Canada, (defined as the area lying west of the meridian passing through the eastern limits of the city of Port Arthur), was in the Red River colony of Manitoba in 1813.^ The exacting conditions of the Prairie climate and the inadequacy of the trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s combined to keep acreages, production and exports to low levels, and i t was not until 1883, when the advent of the Canadian Pacific Railway provided r a i l connections with the head of navigation on the Great Lakes, that a suitable channel was established for the movement of Prairie grain to foreign markets. Even with the completion of the railway, i t was not until the 1890's that grain exports from Western Canada began to make their influence on world markets; and in 1892 Manitoba wheat was f i r s t quoted on the Liverpool 5 Exchange. At the turn of the century the major portion of the grain production of the Prairie Provinces s t i l l originated in Manitoba, but the development of newer, drought-resistant varieties permitted a further westward shift of grain growing areas. Most of this expansion was achieved in the decade 1905-1915, when the wheat acreage of Saskatchewan increased fourfold and that of Alberta quintupled.^ The period 1860-1915 thus witnessed a marked change in the geo-graphical distribution of Canada's principal centres of grain production; from an area immediately adjacent to the St. Lawrence to an area almost 1700 miles westward in Saskatchewan and Alberta. This shift brought the national granary increasingly nearer to the Pacific seaboard, thus making i t a possible outlet ^Ibid. 5Ma<eSifebon, D.A. (1932) "The Future of the Canadian Export Trade in Wheat", Contributions to Canadian Economics, vol. 5, University of Toronto, Toronto, p. 12. 6Bank of Nova Scotia, "The Last Best West", Monthly Review. Toronto, September 1955. for Canadian grain moving for export. Indeed, as early as 1906 there is refer-ence to pleas from Alberta farmers, to the Federal Government, that an export 7 channel be established via the port of Vancouver; aspirations which failed to materialize for almost two decades. The feasability of the western route becomes increasingly evident when one considers some of the basic factors underlying the transportation geography of Canada. East-West distances are great, and bulk commodities are cheaper to ship by water than by land. The r a i l haulnto tidewater is much shorter via the western route than via the long trans-continental journey to the eastern seaboard. The Great Lakes waterway reduces the cost of the east-ward haul during the summer months, but climatic conditions are such that the narrow connecting links between the Lakes, and the harbours of the St. Lawrence ports, are frozen for five to six months each year. Climatic conditions also control the season of navigation on the Hudson Bay route. By contrast, the shipping points on the Pacific Coast are ice-free a l l year round. Viewed mainly from a mileage basis, the westward shift of grain production drastically altered the location of the Port of British Columbia as a possible grain exporting port, but distance alone was incapable of determining the direction of flow of the grain. Commercial Inertia Elevators had been constructed at Port Arthur soon after the arrival of the trans-continental railway, and grain continued to flow eastward from the new centres of production to traditional exporting ports on the St. Lawrence. The established custom of shipping via eastern ports was viewed Canada, Report of the Royal Commission of the Grain Trade of  Canada 1906, King's Printer, Ottawa, 1908, p. 20. 26 more favourably i n the eyes of conservative traders, as the administration of the export trade was centred around the eastern route. A considerable amount of capital had been invested i n terminal f a c i l i t i e s . The requirements of a thriving flour m i l l i n g industry also continued to draw large quantities of grain to the east. The f i r s t Elevator and the Opening of the Tsn^m Canal Hi s t o r i c a l records of grain shipments from the P a c i f i c Coast are sparse, but they do indicate that limited quantities were sent to Mexico, Alaska, g the P h i l l i p i n e Islands, and China at least as early as 1905. A l l cargoes were of sacked grain to avoid shi f t i n g of the cargo during transit, and to provide adequate ventilation to the crop. This early export trade, involving sporadic shipments, was largely confined to markets bordering on the P a c i f i c Ocean. Two events, namely the construction of a terminal elevator and the opening of the Panama Canal, were i n f l u e n t i a l i n transforming these r e l a t i v e l y small beginnings of the Paci f i c Coast grain export trade into the commercial bulk shipments of the 1920's. The Royal Commission of 1906 expressed the belief that a consider-able grain trade could be developed between the Paci f i c Coast and the Orient i f q proper f a c i l i t i e s were constructed for handling the grain. The i n i t i a t i v e i n providing these f a c i l i t i e s came from the Federal Government, who b u i l t an elevator of !$• million bushels capacity at Vancouver i n 1914. The elevator was constructed i n anticipation of the second event; the opening of the Panama Canal. This new waterway profoundly altered the Williams, R.D. (1928) "The Eighty-Millionth Bushel", Presidential Address to the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange, Grain Trade Division, Vancouver, B.C. ^Report of the Royal Commission of the Grain Trade of Canada 1906, op. c i t . , p. 21. 27 l o c a t i o n of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r by obviating the necessity of shipping v i a the long, c o s t l y Cape Horn route, the P a c i f i c Coast port foreland areas expanded from t h e i r e a r l y P a c i f i c nucleus to one of worldwide extent. The European markets, the prime r e c i p i e n t s of Canadian export g r a i n , now l a y 8,000 miles nearer i n terms of distance across maritime space, and f o r the f i r s t time, became an i n t e g r a l part of the foreland of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f e a s a b i l i t y of the western route seemed t o have been established beyond a l l doubt, but a combination of unfavourable circumstances caused the v i s i o n of a large export trade i n grain to remain a dream u n f u l f i l l e d . The outbreak of World War I disrupted these e a r l y plans; world trade dwindled as shipping was used to meet wartime requirements. Speed became a v i t a l f a c t o r and shipping hazards placed the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n a disadvantageous p o s i t i o n , as the shorter sea haul from the A t l a n t i c coast took preference over the longer route from the P a c i f i c . Although the Panama Canal had been opened, a se r i e s of l a n d s l i d e s and a shortage of ocean vessels prevented i t s f u l l commercial use. Moreover, i t was feared that conditions i n the Tropics would be too severe f o r Canadian g r a i n and that, due to overheating, the crop would deteriorate i n t r a n s i t . C l o s e l y - c o n t r o l l e d , experimental ship-ments l e f t Vancouver i n 1917 and t h e i r safe a r r i v a l i n Europe demonstrated the s u i t a b i l i t y of the Panama route f o r bulk grain shipments.*^ Despite the construction of the terminal elevator and the proven s u i t a b i l i t y of the Panama Canal f o r bulk grain shipments, the western route was s t i l l a new venture, commercially u n t r i e d , and i t continued to be viewed l e s s favourably than the older established eastern route. The p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l elevator capacity on the P a c i f i c Coast, and an a l t e r a t i o n i n the 1 0 B i r c h a r d , P.J. and A l l c o c k , A.W. (1918) Report of T r i a l Shipment of Wheat from Vancouver, v i a the Panama Canal, to.the United Kingdom, Dominion Grain Research Laboratory B u l l e t i n No. 1, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. pattern of freight rate structures were needed to swell the volume of grain moving west. Expansion of Elevator Capacity The provision of a large elevator system in the Port of British Columbia was v i t a l to the growth of the grain export trade. In 1921 there was only one elevator, at Vancouver; loading costs were high and the restricted availability of berths caused frequent delays. At times there were as many as twenty ships at anchor in the harbour waiting to get into the elevator berths, and some of these vessels had to wait as long as five weeks to receive the . 11 grain. The dependence upon terminal elevators is much more marked in the Pacific Coast port than in the shipping points on the eastern seaboard. There is no great concentration of inland storage capacity in the west, and export shipments from the western l i t t o r a l must be drawn from supplies remaining on the farms, in small country elevators, or in the larger storage systems at Edmonton, Calgary and Lethbridge. The delay in assembling such widely-disseminated supplies necessitates a large storage capacity on the Pacific Coast to meet immediate shipping requirements. Such a situation contrasts sharply with Eastern Canadian ports which, in addition to their own elevator systems, are able to draw upon large storage systems as far east as Lakehead (Table V). Additional elevators were built at Vancouver, and by 1925 there were six with a total storage capacity of 6.9 million bushels. The elevator at Prince Rupert was completed in 1925 in the hope of developing an export trade with the Orient, but the provision of further terminal f a c i l i t i e s at Vancouver, harbour and Shipping Journal, vol. 22, 1939, p. 279. -TABLE V 29 GRAIN ELEVATORS IN CANADA (as at Aug. 1st. 1963.) Location No. of Storage Capacity Drying Capacity Elevators (bushels) of Heater Sections Licensed Semi-Public Terminal E l e v a t o r s . (60 l b . wheat) C h u r c h i l l 1 5,000,000 1,000 North Transcona 1 1,000,000 -Moose Jaw 1 5,500,000 1,000 Saskatoon 1 5,500,000 1,000 Calgary 1 2,500,000 2,000 Edmonton 1 2,350,000 2,000 Lethbridge 1 1,250,000 1,000 Vancouver 6 21,356,000 4,500 New Westminster 1 1,500,000 500 V i c t o r i a 1 1,040,000 750 Prince Rupert 1 750,000 500 Lakehead 24 103,447,210 25,030 , Licensed Eastern Elevators Ontario 19 56,666,000 Montreal 6 23,012,000 Baie Comeau 1 12,898,000 Quebec 1 6,00Q,:000 So r e l 1 4,480,000 Three Rivers 1 9,300,000 Saint John 1 500,000 West Saint John 1 2,576,800 H a l i f a x 1 4,152,500 Source: . Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Grain Elevators i n Canada 1963-64_> Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Victoria (1928) and New Westminster (1929), emphasised the pre-eminence of the southern shipping points. The construction of an elevator at Victoria i s interesting in that i t is somewhat anomalous to the pattern of location at the terminus of good r a i l connections, but i t illustrates one aspect of grain as a cargo, to f i l l 'dead space' in liners once a l l the higher-paying cargo has been booked. A l l supplies, to this elevator, must be ferried across on rail-car barges from the Mainland; the additional cost being borne by the railway companies who offer a through rate on grain from the Prairie Provinces to the 12 Pacific Coast. Changing Freight Rate Structures The complicated subject of freight rate structures, or the theory of rate-making, l i e s beyond the scope of this thesis, but i t i s relevant to examine some aspects of freight rates as they were a prominent factor in the early development of the western grain route. In the 1920's, r a i l freight rates from the Prairies westward were, proportionate to distance, much higher than from the same points eastward. The maladjusted structures of this period are shown in Table VI, revealing the pronounced discrimination against the westward movements of grain. These high rates westward made i t almost comm-ercially impracticable for grain to be exported in any volume from the Pacific Coast for, as the figures show, although the distance from Calgary to Port Arthur was 104 per cent greater than the distance from Calgary to Vancouver, the corresponding freight rates were only 16.1 per cent higher. Under the Crowsnest Pass Agreement of 1897, the Canadian Pacific Railway had introduced special low rates for the eastward flow of grain, and the company was opposed Information supplied by Mr. W.A. Sankey, Secretary of the Vancouver Merchants* Exchange. Personal communication November, 1962. 31 TABLE VI RAILWAY FREIGHT RATES ON GRAIN MOVING FOR EXPORT 1921 and I960 Distance Rate (Miles) (Cents/lOO lbs,) A. Rates in effect December 1. 1921 CALGARY To Vancouver 642 31,0 To Port Arthur 1,310 36.0 BATTLEFORD To Vancouver 1,022 37.0 To Port Arthur 1,022 35.0 MOOSE JAW To Vancouver 1,296 38.5 To Port Arthur 838 29.0 * B. Rates in effect July 31. I960 CALGARY To Vancouver 20.0 To Port Arthur 26.0 BATTLEFORD To Vancouver 24.0 To Port Arthur 24.0 MOOSE JAW To Vancouver 25.0 To Port Arthur 20.0 The rates for grain moving either for export or for local delivery to Port Arthur are the same. The rates on grain moving to Vancouver for local delivery from Calgary, Battleford and Moose Jaw were 65.0, 79,0, and 80.0 cents respectively. Sources: Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada, Report on the Grain  Trade of Canada for the Year ending July 31. 1926. King's Printer, Ottawa, pp. 169-177. Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Grain Trade of Canada  1959-60, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, pp. 108-110. 32 to the introduction of similar low rates on the western route. An equalization of this rate structure was demanded by the British Columbia Government:1^ a demand that was strongly contested by the railway company who argued that oper-ating costs were much higher in the mountainous terrain to the west. A long and bitter struggle ensued, during which a series of gradual reductions was obtained, leading to a final elimination of the disparity by 1927. The I960 rates on grain moving for export are also shown in Table VI; the effect of the special export rates being more apparent by comparing them with freight rates on grain intended for local delivery. COMMERCIAL GRAIN SHIPMENTS In 1921, when Prairie grain was f i r s t delivered into the holds of ocean-going vessels via the shortest land haul, the new grain export business of the Port of British Columbia began. The Period of Expansion 1921-1932 After a slow start, the grain trade developed with a rapidity that even the most ardent advocate of the western route could not have foreseen. The graph of total grain exports from British Columbia (Figure 2), shows that the volume of grain flowing via the western route increased steadily until 1928, and, following a temporary decline in 1929-30, rose again to a peak of more than 106 million bushels in 1932. The graph naturally exhibits the fluctuations associated with the marketing of a harvested crop; the size of which depends upon the actual acreage sown, and upon the variable conditions of such unpredictable factors "^oard of Railway Commissioners for Canada, General Submission of  the Attorney General of the Province of British Columbia. July 9., A.D. 1925. King's Printer, Ottawa. 33 BRITISH COLUMBIA GRAIN EXPORTS BY TRADING AREAS 1922-1962 2 0 0 r o i n Figure 2 34 as weather and pest damage, and government support. These fac t o r s determine the quantity of g r a i n a v a i l a b l e . The amount a v a i l a b l e f o r export i n any one year includes the crop harvested i n that year, plus the unsold carry-over from the preceding year, l e s s the amount needed f o r domestic and seed requirements. This exportable surplus must then be shared between the grain exporting ports on both the A t l a n t i c and P a c i f i c Coasts. The 1932 shipments represented a 750 per cent increase over the 1922 f i g u r e s , and out of a t o t a l of almost 650 m i l l i o n bushels exported v i a the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s decade, a l l but 20 m i l l i o n bushels was shipped through Vancouver. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o v i s u a l i z e the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the construction of elevators at Prince Rupert, New Westminster and V i c t o r i a at t h i s time, f o r these other shipping points d i d not a s s i s t , t o any reasonable extent, the westward flow of g r a i n . Grain shipments from the P a c i f i c Coast increased i n r e l a t i v e 14 importance over the same period. During the 1921-22 crop year, the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia accounted f o r only 4 per cent of the t o t a l Canadian grain exports; by comparison, the Eastern Canadian and United States' A t l a n t i c ports shipped 33 and 63 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . The corresponding values f o r the 1932-33 crop year were 41.9, 45.9, and 12.2 per cent. Within seven years therefore, the western grain route a r r i v e d at a point of s t a b i l i t y , permanence and economic competition with the older-established, export channels v i a s h i p -15 ping points on the eastern seaboard. The westward flow of grain expanded w h i l s t , at the same time, exports of Canadian grain through United States' ports contracted. "^Detailed f i g u r e s of shipments from the P a c i f i c Coast, Eastern Canadian and United States' ports, are included i n Appendix I . P a c i f i c Coast exports by t r a d i n g areas are given i n Appendix I I . 1 5 W i l l i a m s , R.D. (1928) op_. c i t . Reference to export shipments via United States' ports makes i t interesting to pause and consider the influence of the major physiographic divisions of the North American continent upon grain trade outlets. It has already been shown that many factors influence the marketing of the crop, and the choice of routes, and that transportation costs are undoubtedly a major factor. It follows that the grain growing area tributary to the various ports i s largely a matter of relative transport costs, and one can compare the loc-ation of the Port of British Columbia with United States' Pacific Coast ports. The short r a i l haul from the Prairie grain fields to the west coast, crosses the Cordilleran system where i t averages less than 700 miles in width, and where i t is penetrated by relatively low passes. Further south the mountainous belt has fewer passes and is wider, and i t pushes the American grain fields further away from the Pacific Coast, up to a distance of 1,250 miles at Cheyenne, Wyoming. The greater distances involve higher transport-ation costs, and the major centres of grain production in the United States are tributary to Great Lakes, East Coast, and Gulf Coast ports, rather than to shipping points cn the Pacific Coast. Consequently, exports of American grain through Seattle, Tacoma and Portland, rely mainly on Pacific Northwest supplies and have rarely achieved the volumes exported via Vancouver. Grain Forelands. It has already been noted that the Pacific Coast route was conceived as a possible 'Gateway to the Orient 1, with the hope of starting and developing a large grain trade with Trans-Pacific countries. At the same time advantage was to be taken of the Panama Canal route to capture a share of the grain exports to European markets. Figures 2 and 3A indicate the relative importance of these two foreland areas during the period of expansion. GRAIN EXPORTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1932 AND 1961 1932 VICTORIA D.E.K. F i g u r e 3 The visions of a large export trade to the Orient did not mater-ia l i z e . Japan and China were the only significant Asian markets, and together they rarely absorbed more than 25-30 per cent of the total grain shipments from the Port of British Columbia. The adherence to a traditional rice diet, the high prices of grain, and the low purchasing power of these countries, combined to restrict the grain shipments to the Orient to relatively small quantities. By contrast, the Panama Canal route became a v i t a l link in the distributional pattern of grain exports from the Pacific Coast port. As Figure 3A shows, the southbound flow to Panama and across the Atlantic Ocean dominated the trading patterns. The principal markets were those of Europe, with the United Kingdom outstandingly the most important. British imports frequently took more than 50 per cent of the grain flowing via the western route. Belgium, France, Germany and Holland were the most significant markets in Continental Europe.1^ The major distributional patterns of flow throughout this period of expansion, were thus a strong movement southward through the Panama Canal and across the Atlantic, with a much weaker, subordinate flow across the Northern Pacific. The Period of Recession 1953-1945 The years between 1935 and 1945, between the collapse of world prices during the economic depression and the close of the Second World War, were years of extreme hardship for the grain growers of Western Canada. The 17 problem of producing grain was replaced by the problem of disposing of i t . Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, The Port of Vancouver Annual  Report. Vancouver, B.C., 1952, p. 70. 17MacGibbcn, D.A. (1952) The Canadian Grain Trade 1931-1951. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, p. 5. It was a period of large surpluses, low prices and tight political controls, the roots of which lay in the events of the preceding decade. Immediately following the end of the First World War, the devastated areas of Europe created an enormous demand for cereals to compensate for their wartime losses of acreage and production. Exporting countries continued to increase their output even as European agriculture gradually attained i t s pre-war levels. There was an accelerating trend towards excessive production relative to demand, and the flooding of markets ultimately led to a collapse in world prices. Whereas during the period ^ 925-1929 the average price of wheat was 141 cents per bushel, i t had dropped to the extremely low value of 66 cents 19 per bushel in 1934. The graph of total grain exports from the Pacific Coast (Figure 2), shows that the worst effects of the economic depression were delayed until 1933. A preferential t a r i f f , amounting to six cents per bushel, was obtained in a trade agreement with Britain and helped maintain the flow of grain from the Pacific Coast. From 1932 onwards, however, the effects of the depression became more pronounced and shipments of grain via the Port of British Columbia f e l l to a low of 20 million bushels in 1937. A succession of poor harvests reduced the problem of surpluses, and the subsequent rise in world demand brought improved prices and a minor recovery in the grain export trade. The outbreak of the Second World War quickly stifled this recovery however, and exports f e l l to a mere 3 million bushels in 1942; the lowest value in the history of commercial grain shipments from the Port of British Columbia. The basis of economic grain shipments via the western route i s founded upon the geographical advantages of a short r a i l haul, and a long, 1 8[Jnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Grain, 1950, op. c i t . . p. 23. "^MacGibbon, D.A. (1952) op., c i t . . p. 4. cheap sea haul. Reference has already been made to the influence of r a i l freight rates, but the circumstances surrounding the depression and wartime years illustrate the far-reaching consequences of changing freight rates on the high seas. Low, unprofitable ocean freight rates during the 1930*s con-trasted sharply with the crippling rates of wartime, when the scarcity of vessels led to a shortage of cargo space. Ocean transportation costs from Vancouver to the United Kingdom increased from 12.3 cents per bushel in 1933, 20 to 69.8 cents per bushel in 1943. As a greater proportion of the cost of grain exported via the western route is for ocean transport, than i s the case with East Coast shipments, the Fort of British Columbia was placed in a dis-advantageous, competetive position with respect to grain exports to the British 21 market (Figure 4). The cost advantages of the shorter sea route from the East Coast to Europe more than offset the higher cost of the longer r a i l haul, and the eastern route regained i t s position as the premier export channel for Canadian grain. This preference for the shortest sea haul also influenced the flow patterns of grain from shipping points on the eastern seaboard; the relative importance of Montreal, among Eastern Canadian ports, declined as increasing quantities of grain were dispatched from Halifax and Saint John. The trend towards the diversion of Canadian grain exports away from American shipping points continued through this period, and was aided by the terms of the 1932 trade agreement. Grain receiving a preferential t a r i f f in the British market onrjn qualified for this financial benefit, i f i t was exported directly from Commonwealth points, and the volume of Canadian grain handled by United States' Atlantic ports dwindled to less than 8 per cent of Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada, Canadian Grain Exports  for the Crop Year 1949-1950. King's Printer, Ottawa, pp. 46-47. ^Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada, Canadian Grain Exports  for the Crop Year 1962-1963, Queen's Printer, Ottawa. Figure 4 i s taken directly from this source. AVERAGE COSTS OF MOVING WHEAT, CANADA TO THE UNITED KINGDOM SEASONS OF NAVIGATION 1933 to 1963 41 the total Canadian grain exports in 1939. Grain Forelands. The most significant change in market conditions, affecting the grain export business of the Port of British Columbia, was that the free trade policies of the 1920's were replaced by strict political controls over commodity flow. The economic crisis, and the lack of foreign exchange to finance imports, led many former importing countries to encourage and protect domestic production, with the result that imports of grain were either completely excluded from, or considerably reduced in, many markets. The hope of a large export trade in grain to the Orient failed to materialize in this period just as i t did in the proceeding decade. The Trans-Pacific flow, which had shown encouraging signs of development in the late 1920's (Figure 2), was curtailed to negligible proportions by 1933, as the Oriental countries were particularly affected by the foreign exchange d i f f -iculties. The allegiance of Japan with the German forces in the Second World War, and the wartime action in the North Pacific, resulted in the complete exclusion of Oriental markets from the distributional pattern of grain fore-lands associated with the Port of British Columbia. The flow of grain through the Panama Canal to European markets, whilst diminishing in absolute volume, achieved even greater relative import-ance throughout this period. Within this movement, the flow to the United Kingdom attained even more prominence as f i r s t , policies of self-sufficiency, and later, German occupation, eliminated the most important Continental European markets. Figure 2 indicates that Great Britain frequently took 80-90 per cent of the total grain exports from the Pacific Coast during these years of difficulty. Throughout most of the wartime period, the elevators in the Port of British Columbia remained idle as the reduced export flow of Canadian grain 42 was diverted to shipping points on the East Coast. The subdueing of enemy-naval a c t i v i t y l e d t o a s l i g h t r e v i v a l i n the export movement a f t e r 1942, but i t was not u n t i l a f t e r the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s that trade increased appreciably, and the western gr a i n route was born anew. The Post-War Period. 1946-1962. Exports of grain through the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have reached unprecedented volumes i n the years f o l l o w i n g the end of the Second World War. The s l i g h t wartime r e v i v a l of the export trade was continued i n the post-war years as food shortages created a large demand. Up to 1950, shipments s t i l l r e f l e c t e d the aftermath of h o s t i l i t i e s , but a f t e r 1950, as Figure 2 shows, the tempo of the export trade increased. In 1952, a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of twenty years of depression and war, exports of grain from the P a c i f i c Coast surpassed the previous peak volume of 1932. Total grain shipments rose above the 100 m i l l i o n bushel mark, and whereas t h i s was a l e v e l reached on only two previous occasions, grain exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have remained almost c o n s i s t e n t l y above t h i s l e v e l since 1952. The minor economic recession of the mid-1950's temporarily halted t h i s upward trend, but i n 1961 shipments reached an a l l time high of almost 190 m i l l i o n bushels. Throughout t h i s period, as i n the preceding ones, Vancouver has continued to be the most important shipping point f o r grain w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver s t i l l handles more than 90 per cent of the t o t a l g rain exports moving v i a the western route. The favourable t r a d i n g environment of the post-war period, e s p e c i a l l y since 1950, has enabled the minor grain shipping ports of Prince Rupert, V i c t o r i a and New Westminster t o ship 22 continuously, and although the c o l l e c t i v e movement from these ports i s s t i l l See Appendix I . New Westminster figu r e s are not shown separately, but are included i n the Vancouver shipments. small, i t has been consistently higher than in earlier years. The status of the western route, relative to the other export channels for Canadian grain, has also changed in the post-war years. The end of the war terminated the recovery in the amount of grain shipped via United States*s Atlantic ports. Until the 1952-53 crop year, exports through Eastern Canadian ports were approximately double those shipped from the Pacific Coast, but the following year the westward movement exceeded the eastward movement for the f i r s t time since 1935. The traditional supremacy of the eastern route was restored by a government policy which lowered prices on the eastern sea-board by as much as ? i cents per bushel, but since 1957-58, the western route has been the major channel for Canadian grain exports. In recent years, Vancouver has undoubtedly emerged as the premier grain exporting port in Canada, handling more than twice as much grain annually as Montreal, i t s closest competitor. This post-war emergence of the Port of British Columbia as the most important outlet for Canadian grain exports, is largely attributable to the changing pattern of grain forelands over the same period. Changing Grain Forelands of the Port of British Columbia. The influence of political controls in the post-war period has dominated the world trading patterns in grain. A series of International Wheat Agreements began in 1949, the objectives of which were to specify definite price limits within which guaranteed quantities of wheat would be offered by designated exporting countries, including Canada, and purchased by designated importing countries.^ 4 In an attempt to avoid the drastic experiences of the 1930*s, a The Vancouver Sun. February 18, 1954, p. 1. 24Farnsworth, H.C. (1956) "International Wheat Agreements and Problems 1949-56", Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 70, pp. 217-219. 44 system of quotas was established, providing assured markets at suitable prices to the exporting nations, and guaranteed supplies for importing countries. The United Kingdom - Canada Wheat Agreement of 1946 resulted in an agreement by Great Britain to purchase 600 million bushels of Canadian grain, 25 at fixed prices, over a four year period. Figure 2 shows that in the immediate post-war years European markets, and the United Kingdom in particular, continued to dominate the distributional pattern of grain forelands of the Port of British Columbia. Shipments to European markets however have declined in recent years as France, Sweden, Italy and Spain have become net exporters of grain. As European requirements have waned, there has been an unprecedented expansion of grain exports to Asian markets (Figure 2); indeed, i t is only during the last decade that the Orient has exhibited i t s legendary potential for grain imports, and the concept of the Port of British Columbia as a 'Gateway to the Orient* has become a reality. The traditional rice diets have, to some extent, been replaced by bread as a staple food, and, faced with the problems of increasing domestic rice production (in part, a result of the loss of former rice surplus territories in Formosa and Korea), Japan has become a large importer of wheat. British. Columbia grain exports to Japan rose from nothing in 1945, to 20 million bushels in 1950 and almost 60 million bushels in 1961. More spectacular has been the growth of grain shipments to Communist China. In less than five years, these shipments rose to a peak of 77 million bushels, to become the most important individual element in the distributional patterns of grain exports from the Pacific Coast. The Soviet Union preference to import grain supplies for Eastern Siberia via Vladivostok, rather than WcGibbcn, D.A. (1952) op., cit.. p. 121. 45 adopt the more c o s t l y a l t e r n a t i v e of hauling domestic production from Central 26 Russia along the Trans-Siberian Railway, has f u r t h e r augmented the flow of g r a i n across the Northern P a c i f i c . Figure JB i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade associated with the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961, and contrasts markedly with the patterns shown f o r 1932. Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l l y the dominant d i r e c t i o n of flow has been southward v i a the Panama Canal and across the A t l a n t i c Ocean, the P a c i f i c Ocean has now become the most important section of maritime space l i n k i n g the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia with i t s grain forelands. In 1961, O r i e n t a l markets took 63 per cent of the t o t a l g r a i n shipments from the P a c i f i c Caost, compared with 17.6 per cent taken by European markets. China and Japan have superseded the United Kingdom as the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l forelands f o r B r i t i s h Columbia grain shipments, as exports to the l a t t e r have f a l l e n t o a meagre 13 m i l l i o n bushels. In recent years Continental European markets, p a r t i c u l a r l y Germany and the Low Countries, have c o l l e c t i v e l y become more important than the B r i t i s h market. The Future. The geographical l o c a t i o n of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia on Canada's western seaboard, makes i t a l o g i c a l o utlet f o r grain shipments to Asian markets. The l a s t decade has been very re-assuring f o r the P a c i f i c Coast port, f o r a f t e r almost h a l f a century of doubts, the v i s i o n of a large export trade i n g r a i n to the Orient has become a r e a l i t y . Moreover, the Orient i s a market i n which the other export channels f o r Canadian grain are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y competitive. The negotation of a new three-year wheat pact with "Canadian Grain t o Flow West," C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor, (Boston), December 14, 1962, p. 10. Mainland China i s an encouraging omen, and as long as the Asian demand con-tinues to remain at i t s current high levels, the economic stability of the western grain route seems assured beyond a l l doubt. It appears unlikely that European markets will ever regain their former prominence among the grain forelands of the Port of British Columbia, despite the fact that, for the last five years, i t has been cheaper to ship grain from the Pacific Coast to these markets than from shipping points on the St. Lawrence (Figure 4). President De Gaulle's ambition to make France the granary of Western Europe could drastically alter the patterns of supply in this area. The completion of the St. Lawrence Seaway, permitting the direct overseas export of grain from Lakehead; the construction of large storage elevators on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where aerial surveys have shown that the Gulf does not freeze over completely during the winter and ice-breakers can keep ports, such as Bale Comeau, open a l l the year round; these factors should improve the competitive nature of the eastern route with respect to shipments across the Atlantic. The recent signing of a 250 million bushel wheat deal with Russia, has created a situation in which doubts have been expressed as to the cap-ability of the existing export facilities, on the Pacific Coast, to accommodate the current export movement of Canadian grain to Asian markets. The major portion of the Soviet wheat shipments is being dispatched from Eastern Canadian ports, but further expansion of the elevator capacity in the Port of British Columbia appears to be unwarranted unless continued exports to the Soviet Union are definitely to be anticipated. lercever, i f additional elev-ators are proved necessary, Prince Rupert would seem to be the most suitable location for these new f a c i l i t i e s . Such a location would reduce the probability of future delays encountered by ships calling for grain on the Pacific Coast. 47 These same shipping delays could also be alleviated by an expansion of the drying f a c i l i t i e s for grain in the larger terminal elevators on the Prairies (Table V), to reduce the necessity of performing these operations on the 27 Pacific Coast. The western-grain route has entered a period of prosperity unparalleled in the history of i t s development, and the Port of British Columbia, which has benefited so greatly from the commerce i t has brought, should look back with pride at the efforts of the early pioneers who fought for the initiation of this trade almost f i f t y years ago. Kerfoot, D.E. (1964) "The Western Grain Route", Occasional  Papers of the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Association of  Geographers, No. 6, (in press). CHAPTER IV TRADE IN FOREST PRODUCTS The f o r e s t lands of B r i t i s h Columbia, representing 58.2 per cent of the t o t a l land area, 1 form part of the great coniferous b e l t of the North American P a c i f i c Slope, and include the densest and most l u x u r i a n t stands of timber i n Canada. For more than a century the t r e e - c l a d slopes have formed one of the leading assets of the province's n a t u r a l endowment, and f o r e s t products have c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t item i n the export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The higher q u a l i t y and greater a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the Coastal Forests, and the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t i n p a r t i c u l a r , plus the dependence on overseas markets, combined to keep the focus of production on the coast u n t i l recent years; indeed, apart from the P r a i r i e demand of the e a r l y 1900*s, i t i s only i n the period since the end of the Second World War that r a i l cars have r i v a l l e d ships' holds as the primary transport media f o r d e l i v e r i n g export supplies to out of province purchasers. The lumber industry, which today accounts f o r 60 per cent of the t o t a l Canadian lumber production, was the f i r s t t o develop and i s s t i l l the leading sector of f o r e s t economic a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The pulp and paper industry, beginning i n 1909, has witnessed considerable expansion i n the l a s t two decades and i s the second most important wood-using industry i n terms of value of production. In 1962, the estimated value of pulp and "British Columbia, Department of Finance, An Economic Review of  Resources, Production and Government Finances, Quean's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., J u l y 1962, p. 57. 49 paper production was 292 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s compared to 388 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r 2 lumber production. The plywood and wood-shingle i n d u s t r i e s , w h i l s t making s i g n i f i c a n t contributions t o the p r o v i n c i a l economy, provide n e g l i g i b l e export cargoes f o r the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia: most of the plywood i s marketed w i t h i n Canada, and 87 per cent of the shingle production i s exported to the United States, c h i e f l y by r a i l . Less than 3 per cent of the annual 3 output of shingles i s shipped overseas. Accordingly, a t t e n t i o n i s confined t o a consideration of the d i s -t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of commodity trade associated w i t h the lumber and pulp and paper i n d u s t r i e s ; i n d u s t r i e s which, i n 1962, accounted f o r nearly 80 per A cent of the t o t a l value of B r i t i s h Columbia forest production, and, as i n e a r l i e r years, furnished the bulk of the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t products entering i n t o maritime f o r e i g n trade. THE LUMBER TRADE The f o r e s t resources of B r i t i s h Columbia a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of eighteenth-century navigators, e x p l o r i n g the P a c i f i c Coast, as they cut timbers and spars to r e p a i r t h e i r damaged vesse l s . Deck cargoes of timber, destined l a r g e l y f o r the Chinese market, formed a supplementary item of 5 commerce during the f u r - t r a d i n g epoch, but the amounts involved were so small British Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Report of the  Forest Service f o r 1962. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., March 1963, p. 83. •^Brit i s h Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 61st. Annual  Report 1961, Vancouver, B.C., 1962. S t a t i s t i c a l Supplement, Table I I . ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Forest Service f o r 1962, op_. c i t . ^Lamb, ¥. Kaye (1938) "Early Lumbering on Vancouver Island. Part 1: 1844-1855", B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 2, p. 31. and shipments so infrequent that they hardly c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s t i n c t lumber trade as such. The Pioneer Period 1850-1920. The growth of San Francisco as a supply centre f o r the C a l i f o r n i a gold rushes, presented the f i r s t opportunity f o r the development of an appreciable export trade i n lumber from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The ju x t a p o s i t i o n of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e supplies of timber, adequate water power and sheltered harbours, stimulated the construction of several sawmills on Vancouver Island during the decade 1850-1860, but, without exception, these e a r l y m i l l s f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h a s u b s t a n t i a l export movement. Operations at M i l l Stream (Esquimault), Sooke, Chemainus, Ladysmith and Nanaimo, were a l l terminated a f t e r only a few years of l i m i t e d production. Lack of s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l and exchange f a c i l i t i e s , plus an ignorance of marketing techniques,^ were contributory f a c t o r s to t h i s f a i l u r e , but the B r i t i s h Columbia lumber exporters also faced strong competition from sawmills i n the Puget Sound area. These Washington m i l l s were already established, better organized and financed, and were also favoured by a 20 per cent l e v y imposed on timber 7 supplies imported i n t o the United States. The f i r s t commercial export m i l l i n t h i s province was b u i l t at Port A l b e r n i i n 1861, and more than 30 m i l l i o n board feet of lumber were dispatched t o overseas markets before the m i l l was closed i n 1864. In 1866 the focus of the lumber industry migrated t o the shores of Burrard I n l e t , and the stands of v i r g i n timber were tapped t o feed new export m i l l s at 6Carrothers, W.A. (1938) Forest Industries of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n A.R.M. Lower, The North American Assault on the Canadian Forest. Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, 1938, p. 262. 7Lamb, W. Kaye (1938) op., c i t . , p. 46. Moodyville (near the present s i t e of North Vancouver), and at Hastings M i l l on the south shore. These two m i l l s f l o u r i s h e d long before Vancouver was b u i l t , and backed by adequate c a p i t a l and an awareness of market conditions, they formed the n u c l e i from which the export lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia began to develop. Lumber Forelands of the Pioneer Period. Throughout t h i s e a r l y period, e f f o r t s were made to s e l l the major portion of the lumber production i n overseas markets. The f i r s t shipments to the San Francisco area began i n g 1849, and i t continued t o be the most important point of exportation u n t i l the e f f e c t s of the gold rush diminished and the demand f o r timber declined. With the collapse of the C a l i f o r n i a market, attempts were made to extend the trad i n g area f o r B r i t i s h Columbia lumber, and the forelands expanded as the export m i l l s developed new ou t l e t s f o r t h e i r products. Macfie provides a measure of t h i s foreland expansion when, i n describing the Anderson M i l l at Port A l b e r n i , he wrote: "Besides supplying the French, Spanish and Sardinian Govern-ment dockyards with spars, they are doing a large trade i n sawn lumber f o r b u i l d i n g purposes. I notice among the destinations to which they have sent t h i s f r e i g h t C a l l a o , Honolulu, Sydney, London, Coquimbo, Adelaide, V i c t o r i a , Shanghai, Batavia, Lima, Melbourne, Hong Kong, Otago, Valparaiso, M a n i l l a , I t a l y , &c." 9 Trading patterns were thus more or l e s s confined t o shipments t o countries bordering on the P a c i f i c Basin. Mining developments i n A u s t r a l i a and C h i l e , and the emergence of Hawaii as an important centre of sugar production,*^ made these countries the most s i g n i f i c a n t lumber forelands 80rmsby, M.A. (1958) B r i t i s h Columbia: A History, The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, Vancouver, B.C., p. 114. ^Macfie, M. (1865) Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, London, p. 135. 1 0Lawrence, J.C. (1957) Markets and C a p i t a l : A Hi s t o r y of the  Lumber Industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, (1778-1952). Unpublished Master's Thesis, Department of Hi s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March, 1957. w i t h i n the P a c i f i c Basin, and together with thetSan Francisco trade, these markets frequently accounted f o r f u l l y 80 per cent of the waterborne lumber shipments. 1 1 Unfortunately, the meagre s t a t i s t i c a l records p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s e a r l y phase of the export lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, do not provide a comprehensive account of the volume of timber shipped to overseas markets. Exports of"rough and dressed plank' increased from 1.6 12 m i l l i o n feet i n 1866 to 20.2 m i l l i o n feet i n 1869. Exports of lumber 13 ranged between 25-30 m i l l i o n feet annually over the next three decades, and i f these values are compared with the f i g u r e s of estimated lumber production, shown i n Table V I I , the continued dependence on overseas markets can r e a d i l y be i n f e r r e d . Throughout t h i s period, the waterborne export movement continued to absorb 80-90 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l lumber production. With the opening of a new m i l l at Chemainus, exports of lumber rose sharply to over 80 m i l l i o n f e e t i n 1898, and, as Table V I I I i l l u s t r a t e s , although Burrard I n l e t retained i t s f o c a l p o s i t i o n i n the export trade, the Chemainus M i l l soon became the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l lumber shipping point w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Comparisons of Tables VII and V I I I i n d i c a t e a d r a s t i c reduction i n the r e l a t i v e importance of the waterborne shipments. In 1900, the movement of lumber across maritime space accounted f o r l e s s than one-third of the t o t a l production: trading patterns f o r B r i t i s h Columbia timber had entered a new phase. "Tloway, F.W. (1937) "Early Shipping i n Burrard I n l e t 1863-1870, B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 1, p. 20. 1 2Langevin, K.L. (1872) Report on B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa, p. 5. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c i a l Bureau of Information, Manual of P r o v i n c i a l Information 1950, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1930, p. 98. TABLE VII LUMBER PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1871 - 1908. Date Volume Date Volume ( i n f t . ) ( i n f t . ) Pre 1871 250,000,000 1898 124,546,658 1871 - 88 595,000,000 1899 217,085,656 1888 31,868,384 1900 276,236,470 1889 43,852,138 1901 241,311,709 1890 79,177,055 1902 281,945,866 1891 83,108,335 1903 317,551,151 1892 64,186,820 1904 348,031,790 1893 60,587,360 1905 473,713,986 1894 64,498,227 1906 508,069,969 1895 112,854,640 1907 846,000,000 1896 112,947,106 1908 658,000,000 1897 105,939,397 Source: R.E. Gosnell, Yearbooks of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1897-1911. TABLE V I I I BRITISH COLUMBIA WATERBORNE LUMBER SHIPMENTS 1900. U.K./ Continent A u s t r a l i a A f r i c a Peru C h i l e South America & Others China & Japan U.S. A t l a n t i c Mexico 25,043,613 33,936,773 5,887,385 4,554,350 3,858,830 327,995 9,463,501 1,061,405 76,701 84,210,553 Burrard I n l e t Hastings M i l l Moodyville Bamet Port Moody Tot a l 23,873,782 19,312,482 659,003 687,353 44,532,620 New Westminster Chemainus 1,312,100 38,365,833 84,210,553 Source: R.E. Gosnell, Yearbook of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1901. The d e c l i n i n g r e l a t i v e importance of waterborne lumber shipments by 1900, was part of a trend which, beginning i n the l a s t few years of the nineteenth century, gathered momentum during the f i r s t decade of t h i s century. P r i o r to the completion of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n 1866, overseas markets were the only sizeable o u t l e t f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia lumber manufacturers, but the establishment of r a i l connections to the east a l t e r e d the pattern of m o b i l i t y on continental space. The rapid expansion of settlement i n the t r e e l e s s P r a i r i e Provinces introduced new trading partners, and temporarily c o n s t i t u t e d a more l u c r a t i v e market f o r the sawmill operators. As a r e s u l t of the augmented demand, the lumber cut doubled between 1888 and 1894, quadrupled again by 1900, and reached a pre-war peak of 1.3 b i l l i o n feet i n 1911. Waterborne lumber shipments expanded at a much slower rate to a maximum of 85 m i l l i o n feet i n 1906; a fi g u r e which represented only 16 per cent of the t o t a l cut. By 1911, the seaborne export movement had dwindled t o a mere 46.5 m i l l i o n f e e t ; only 3.5 per cent of the t o t a l lumber production. Lumber forelands across maritime space were thus r e l a t i v e l y unimportant t o many of the new sawmills b u i l t i n the Lower Mainland area during these years. Indeed, the new m i l l s were so preoccupied with the requirements of the s e t t l e r s , that the P r a i r i e market became almost the only ou t l e t f o r t h e i r lumber. However, by 1912, the wave of immigrants had abated and a se r i e s of poor grain crops, combined with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of cheap supplies of United States timber, considerably weakened the demand on the P r a i r i e , and the lumber industry reverted t o i t s former dependence on overseas markets. American m i l l s i n Washington and Oregon had meanwhile stepped i n and cpatured the foreign markets, which had been l a r g e l y neglected by the B r i t i s h Columbia lumber manufacturers, and had achieved an almost complete monopoly of export lumber shipments from the P a c i f i c Northwest. Whereas B r i t i s h Columbia m i l l s had enjoyed a 30 per cent share i n the waterborne movement i n 1894, t h i s share had f a l l e n to only 8 per cent i n 1914: at the same time, the magnitude of the seaborne lumber trade increased i n volume 14 from 111 m i l l i o n t o over 600 m i l l i o n f e e t . E f f o r t s to regain former export markets were also confronted by new obstacles which had developed since the 1890's. Steamships had replaced s a i l i n g vessels as the c h i e f lumber c a r r i e r s , and many of the Canadian m i l l s were i l l - e q u i p p e d to handle 15 the l a r g e r v e s s e l s . San Francisco brokers had also obtained a f i n a n c i a l monopoly of the timber business, and companies, with head o f f i c e s located i n the United States, now handled approximately 69 per cent of a l l lumber ship-ments from B r i t i s h Columbia. 1^ I t i s l i t t l e wonder that waterborne lumber exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia f e l l to a low of 38 m i l l i o n feet i n 1914, f o r , as the American companies looked to t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s f i r s t , sawmills i n t h i s province had t o be content with the crumbs which f e l l from the master's t a b l e . Beginning i n 1915, there was a determined p o l i c y to recapture these former markets and develop new forelands f o r lumber exports. The opening of the Panama Canal promised t o a f f o r d that opportunity, but the wartime s c a r c i t y of shipping, and the unsettled conditions created by these h o s t i l i t i e s , prevented an immediate r e a l i s a t i o n of t h i s aim. I t was not u n t i l a f t e r the war was over, and the resumption of peaceful conditions Tease, H. (1914) "The Timber Export Trade of B r i t i s h Columbia", Western Lumberman, v o l . 7, No. 9, p. 33. 1^MacMillan, H.R. (1917) Report on the Timber Import Trade of A u s t r a l i a , King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 70. l 6 I b i d . ushered i n a new phase of r i s i n g prosperity, that a f t e r an i n t e r v a l of almost t h i r t y years of neglect and war the maritime lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was born anew. Expansion and Decline: 1921-1945. Total lumber production i n B r i t i s h Columbia increased by approxi-mately 150 per cent i n the period 1921-1929, to reach a new high of 2.5 b i l l i o n f e e t . Seaborne lumber exports expanded f o u r f o l d over the same years, and t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance to the lumber industry rose from 19 to 32 per cent (Figures of annual lumber production and waterborne shipments are given i n Appendix I I I ) . Economic recovery a f t e r the war, f u l l commercial use of the Panama Canal, and an aggressive sales p o l i c y by the timber manufacturers developing new l i n k s across maritime space, were i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s which helped to swe l l the export lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Associated with t h i s favourable trading environment, there was an increase i n the number of shipping points, exporting lumber, w i t h i n the P a c i f i c Coast port. Lower Mainland m i l l s maintained t h e i r r o l e as the p r i n -c i p a l focus of t h i s outward commodity flow, with Vancouver and New Westminster handling 52 and 24 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y of the annual seaborne lumber ship-ments. On Vancouver Island, Port A l b e m i , Chemainus, V i c t o r i a and Nanoose Bay were the most important shipping points. Unlike the logging industry, which experienced considerable a r e a l expansion, the sawmilling plants remained concentrated i n the economic core of the Port, centred on the Georgia 17 S t r a i t region. Primary logging a c t i v i t i e s were extended i n t o the area served by the northern outport, but although minor q u a n t i t i e s were exported 1 7 F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see Hardwick, W.G. (1962) The Forest  Industry of Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia, Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y <n£I:Minnesota, J u l y 1962. d i r e c t l y from Prince Rupert, Englewood and Butedale, the northern coast remained e s s e n t i a l l y a resource base, f u r n i s h i n g logs f o r the manufacturing plants i n the south. Lumber Forelands. The opening of the Panama Canal re v o l u t i o n i z e d the whole export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia by g i v i n g access to new sections of maritime space. For the f i r s t time, markets bordering on the A t l a n t i c Ocean were drawn i n t o the commercial timber forelands of the P a c i f i c Coast port, and the e f f e c t s of the new t r a d i n g l i n k s are g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s -t r a t e d i n Figure 5. The influence of the Panama Canal on lumber shipments i s most s t r i k i n g l y demonstrated by the growth of exports to the United States' 18 A t l a n t i c Coast. Whereas t h i s foreland took only 5 m i l l i o n feet of B r i t i s h Columbia lumber i n 1919, f o u r years l a t e r shipments had increased to almost 250 m i l l i o n f e e t , and the United States' eastern seaboard was by f a r the most important foreland i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of lumber commodity trade. The all-w a t e r route reduced transportation costs t o New York t o one-half of 19 the corresponding r a i l r a t e s , but other fac t o r s also contributed to the growth of the new flow pattern. American domestic supplies of timber declined, and smaller q u a n t i t i e s were a v a i l a b l e from Eastern Canada as more lumber was being di v e r t e d to the growing pulp and paper industry. United States' m i l l s i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, compelled by law t o use American vessels t o transport commodities shipped between American ports, were placed at a disadvantage compared to B r i t i s h Columbia m i l l s which were able t o use 18 Figures f o r shipments t o the A t l a n t i c Coast include minor q u a n t i t i e s destined f o r Eastern Canada. ^ F o r e s t s and Forestry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Revised Report to the Imperial Forestry Conference, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1923, p. 26. WATERBORNE LUMBER EXPORTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1920 - 1962 1.500 -1,200 -600 -300 >J1 0 0 59 20 cheaper, foreign tramp steamers. Exports to the United Kingdom increased s l i g h t l y , but B r i t i s h Columbia timber was unable t o compete with cheaper supplies from Scandinavia and Russia. This same competition also resulted i n a small," i n s i g n i f i c a n t flow to other European markets. Increased shipments to the Orient began soon a f t e r the end of the F i r s t World War, and f o r a short time, Japan was the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l overseas r e c i p i e n t of waterborne lumber shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. By 1923, and i n part due to the heavy demand f o r timber to r e b u i l d housing damaged during the great earthquake, (a demand which i s estimated to have t o t a l l e d 1.3 b i l l i o n feet of timber i n the c i t i e s of Tokyo and Yokohama 21 alone ), export lumber shipments to Japan were 2,300 per cent higher than the 1919 f i g u r e . T r a d i t i o n a l markets f o r B r i t i s h Columbia lumber, notably A u s t r a l i a , imported l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s throughout t h i s period, but the volumes were small compared to shipments from Puget Sound m i l l s . New Zealand, China and South A f r i c a were the most important other forelands, while small amounts were also dispatched t o points i n the P a c i f i c Basin. In general these were the markets that had been neglected by m i l l s i n t h i s province at the height of the demand on the P r a i r i e , and attempts t o increase lumber exports t o these forelands continued to meet strong competition from Washington and Oregon producers. Figure 6A i l l u s t r a t e s the t y p i c a l t r a d i n g patterns f o r seaborne lumber shipments during t h i s period. The dominant r o l e of the United States' A t l a n t i c Seaboard i s immediately apparent, accounting f o r approximately 50 per Lower, A.R.M. (1938) The North American Assault on the  Canadian Forest. Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, p. x v i . 2 1 B r y a n , A.E. (1926) The Lumber Market of Japan, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 23. 60 WATERBORNE LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1929, 1946 AND 1962 UNITED KINGDOM ^ • M 100 MILLION FB.M. Figure 6 cent of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia's maritime lumber trade. Japan was the second most important foreland, taking 25-30 per cent of the annual ship-op ments, followed by the United Kingdom which took 5-10 per cent. T a r i f f E f f e c t s and Changing Foreland Patterns. A f t e r 1929, the worldwide economic depression caused a decline i n the maritime lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. This decline was only temporary however, f o r , as Figure 5 shows, the trade recovered a f t e r 1932 and rose t o a peak of almost 1.4 b i l l i o n feet i n 1938. The changing fortunes of the export lumber trade were almost e n t i r e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the growth of p o l i t i c a l controls which brought about a marked change i n the regional d i s t r i b u t i o n a l of lumber shipments. The t a r i f f imposed by the United States i n 1930, and increased 23 i n 1932, d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d the export movement to the A t l a n t i c Seaboard. Whereas i n 1929 t h i s foreland took 350 m i l l i o n feet of B r i t i s h Columbia timber, the volume had dwindled t o only 29 m i l l i o n feet i n 1933 (Figure 5). Suddenly deprived of t h e i r l a r g e s t s i n g l e customer, lumber manufacturers i n t h i s province were once again compelled t o seek new ou t l e t s f o r t h e i r product. P r e f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f s were obtained i n Commonwealth markets, and the s i t u a t i o n of the e a r l y 1900*s was reversed as Canadian m i l l s benefited at the expense of t h e i r American competitors. A comparison of the years 1929 and 1935 i l l u s t r a t e s the degree to which the American export lumber trade was captured: B r i t i s h Columbia's share of the t o t a l waterborne lumber shipments from the Figures 5 and 6 are based on data obtained from the Annual Reports of the Forest Service of B r i t i s h Columbia, and absolute values of lumber shipments to i n d i v i d u a l forelands can be found i n t h i s source. 2^Davis, J . , et a l . (±957) The Outlook f o r the Canadian Forest  I n d u s t r i e s , Report of the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects. Queen's P r i n t e r , H u l l , March 1957, p. 54. 62 P a c i f i c Northwest t o A u s t r a l i a increased from 16 to 92 per cent; to the United Kingdom from 20 to 83 per cent; and i n t o t a l exports from the P a c i f i c 24 Coast from 20 to 54 per cent. ^ By 1938 the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia accounted f o r 78.5 per cent of the t o t a l waterborne lumber shipments from the P a c i f i c Northwest. The e f f e c t s of these t a r i f f structures on the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of lumber forelands are shown i n Figure 5- The magnitude of the waterborne export movement increased despite the l o s s of the American market. This increase was l a r g e l y due to greater sales t o the United Kingdom, which replaced the United States as the most important buyer of B r i t i s h Columbia lumber. A u s t r a l i a became the second l a r g e s t market as exports t r i p l e d to 158 m i l l i o n f e e t i n 1937. Increased sales were also made t o South A f r i c a , but exports t o the Orient were reduced considerably as the depression years introduced serious f i n a n c i a l problems. The outbreak of World War I I caused a sharp decline i n water-borne lumber shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, to approximately one-half of the 1939 f i g u r e . Despite the d i f f i c u l t i e s and high costs of ocean tr a n s p o r t a t i o n , shipments to the United Kingdom were maintained. Indeed, throughout the wartime period, the B r i t i s h market was almost the only market f o r waterborne exports of lumber. Figure 6B shows the t r a d i n g patterns as they e x i s t e d at the end of the Second World War. The Panama Canal route was s t i l l the most important section of maritime space i n t h i s t r ading pattern, but the major portion of t h i s flow was now di r e c t e d across the A t l a n t i c Ocean t o the B r i t i s h market. The influence of the t a r i f f changes i s r e f l e c t e d i n the disappearance of the flow pattern to the East Coast Wentworth, L . J . (1936) "Where P a c i f i c Coast Export Business Has Gone", West Coast Lumberman,'vol. 63, No. 5, p. 38. United States, and the fa c t that, i n 1946, Commonwealth markets s t i l l accounted f o r f o u r - f i f t h s of the t o t a l waterborne lumber shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Post-War Growth: 1945-1962. In the seventeen years f o l l o w i n g the end of World War I I , waterborne lumber shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have reached unprecedented l e v e l s . Growth was slow and e r r a t i c u n t i l the e a r l y 1950's (Figure 5), as quotas and f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s contributed t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n world demand, but the pre-war peak figu r e s were surpassed i n 1954. The p o s i t i v e trend was temporarily halted by the general business recession of 1956-1958, but since 1959 the upward trend has been resumed t o reach the 1962 record shipments of more than 1.8 b i l l i o n f e e t . This 1962 f i g u r e represents a 150 per cent increase over the 1946 shipments. Although the absolute volume of seaborne lumber shipments has increased, t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance to the p r o v i n c i a l lumber industry has declined. The phenomenal growth of the I n t e r i o r sawmilling industry, sending increasing q u a n t i t i e s of timber by r a i l to American and Canadian markets, has created a s i t u a t i o n whereby I n t e r i o r m i l l s now supply one h a l f of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia lumber shipments. Overseas shipments or i g i n a t e almost e x c l u s i v e l y from Coast m i l l s and, i n 1961, absorbed s l i g h t l y l e s s than 50 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l lumber output. The number and d i s t r i b u t i o n of lumber shipping points, w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, during the post-war period, does not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the pattern established over the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s century. Lower Mainland points s t i l l handle the major portion of the trade, but t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance has f a l l e n : i n 1962, Vancouver and Fraser River handled one-third and one-sixth r e s p e c t i v e l y of the seaborne lumber shipments. V i c t o r i a , Port A l b e r n i , Chemainus and Nanaimo have a l l g r e a t l y increased t h e i r lumber shipments i n the post-war period. In the l a s t four years, Crofton and B r i t a n n i a Beach have also been added t o the number of shipping points, and i n the l a t t e r port the movement of f o r e s t products now g r e a t l y exceeds the 25 t r a d i t i o n a l mineral exports. The concentration of lumber shipments through ports located on Georgia S t r a i t and the A l b e r n i Canal s t i l l p e r s i s t s , and the northern outport as yet makes l i t t l e or no d i r e c t contribution to the export lumber movement. Figure 6C i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i v e importance of the 26 i n d i v i d u a l shipping points together with the 1962 t r a d i n g patterns. Lumber Forelands of the Post-War Period. Unlike the e a r l i e r phases of the export lumber industry, there have been few dramatic changes i n markets during the post-war period. The most s i g n i f i c a n t change has been the r e v i v a l of export shipments to the United States' A t l a n t i c Seaboard (Figure 5)• The removal of p r o h i b i t i v e t a r i f f s a f t e r the war, high l e v e l s of economic a c t i v i t y and a strong demand i n the United States have contributed to the growth of t h i s export movement, which i n 1962, amounted to more than 850 m i l l i o n f e e t . In recent years shipments of B r i t i s h Columbia lumber have also invaded the C a l i f o r n i a market. The United Kingdom i s s t i l l the second la r g e s t market f o r sea-borne lumber shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, although these shipments are w e l l below t h e i r 1930 l e v e l s . Several f a c t o r s have combined to reduce the flow of lumber to the B r i t i s h market t o l e s s than one-half of B r i t a n n i a Beach i n i t s e l f i s not a lumber-exporting port, but i t i s the custom's port f o r Squamish (lumber) and Woodfibre (pulp) -two other small shipping points i n Howe Sound. 2 6 In Figure 6, the i n d i v i d u a l shipping points are represented by i n i t i a l l e t t e r s . Lower Mainland ports include Vancouver, Fraser River, and B r i t a n n i a Beach. East Coast Vancouver Island ports include Chemainus and Nanaimo. 65 i t s immediate pre-war volume. European producers, c h i e f l y Sweden, Finland and Russia, b e n e f i t from much shorter and cheaper hauls to transport t h e i r timber to B r i t i s h ports, and t h e i r products, which do not constitute d o l l a r imports, have served to keep Canadian supplies to l e s s than o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l 27 B r i t i s h timber imports. The B r i t i s h Government has increased i t s a f f o r e s t a t i o n programme to reduce the dependence on imported sup p l i e s . Total imports have also f l u c t u a t e d with the degree of a c t i v i t y i n the housing programme, f o r housing construction i s by f a r the most important consumer of 28 imported softwoods. Commonwealth markets s t i l l f i g u r e prominently among the lumber forelands of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The 1947 Geneva Agreements reduced the t a r i f f preferences which had aided B r i t i s h Columbia shipments t o these countries since 1932. A u s t r a l i a s t i l l ranks as the t h i r d l a r g e s t buyer, and South A f r i c a , New Zealand and the West Indies have a l l made s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n t h e i r imports of lumber. Recent years have also witnessed a sudden r e v i v a l of waterborne lumber shipments to the Orient. Throughout most of the post-war period t h i s market-has absorbed n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t i e s of the export lumber shipments, but since 1961, Japan has imported more than 100 m i l l i o n feet annually and once again occupies a prominent p o s i t i o n among the lumber forelands. There are also signs of expansion i n the areal extent of the forelands. Central American imports have formed the most important component of the 'Other' MacBean, A.P. (±958) "Forestry of B r i t i s h Columbia i n Perspective", Transactions of the Eleventh B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources  Conference, V i c t o r i a , B.C., pp. 119-120. 2 8Rochester, G.H. (1957) "United Kingdom", Foreign Trade, v o l . 107, No. 11, p. 16. 66 markets (Figure 6c), and Puerto Rico i s now the f i f t h l a r g e s t r e c i p i e n t of lumber exports. Continental Europe has always been a minor market f o r B r i t i s h Columbia lumber, but i n recent years shipments to Belgium, France, Holland, I t a l y and Germany have shown considerable expansion. Figure 6C i l l u s t r a t e s the t r a d i n g patterns i n the waterborne lumber shipments f o r 1962. The tremendous expansion i n trade since 1946 i s immediately apparent, as i s the v i t a l r o l e of the Panama Canal. In 1962, t h i s waterway was the v i t a l l i n k j o i n i n g the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia with i t s most important forelands; forelands which took almost 1,500 m i l l i o n feet of B r i t i s h Columbia lumber. The Future. The lumber industry i n t h i s province was o r i g i n a l l y developed f o r the export trade, and export markets s t i l l f igure prominently i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of lumber shipments. The United States and the United Kingdom are the two most important forelands f o r t h i s commodity flow, and the future lumber trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l depend l a r g e l y on the prospective demands f o r timber i n these markets. In a report prepared by the Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e , i t was estimated that American timber imports would increase from 2.5 to 4.3 b i l l i o n feet over the period 1952-1975, and that most of these supplies would be drawn from Canada. The depletion of r e a d i l y accessible timber supplies and a consequent increase i n the stumpage, logging and manufacturing costs are c i t e d as contributory f a c t o r s which w i l l r e s t r i c t the expansion of domestic 29 production and necessitate l a r g e r imports. However, whether t h i s postulated ^America's Demand f o r Wood. 1929-1975, Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e , Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a , 1954, p. 22. 67 future demand w i l l present an opportunity f o r a Canadian export movement of equal magnitude, depends on the nature of the settlement of the current controversy i n the American lumber industry. United States' lumber manufacturers have vigorously sought, and are s t i l l seeking, a r e v i s i o n of the t a r i f f p o l i c y to r e s t r i c t softwood lumber imports from Canada, to ease the competitive pressure on domestic producers. Increased exports of lumber to the B r i t i s h market are also t o be a n t i c i p a t e d . The wartime s c a r c i t y of timber l e d to a decline i n the use of t h i s material and imports are s t i l l w e l l below the pre-war l e v e l s . A greater use of timber i n housing construction has been o p t i m i s t i c a l l y forecast by a recent B r i t i s h Columbia trade delegation to the United Kingdom. The general expansion of the Western European economy i s also l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n an augmented demand f o r imported timber supplies. The degree to which Canada can capture a share i n t h i s increase w i l l be dependent upon future patterns of supply from Scandinavian and Russian producers. The prospects of the future demand f o r Canadian timber appear to be b r i g h t . Insomuch as B r i t i s h Columbia produces two-thirds of the t o t a l Canadian lumber production, and possesses f o u r - f i f t h s of the t o t a l Canadian 30 accessible, merchantable timber supplies, these trends should grea t l y benefit lumber producers i n t h i s province. Coastal f o r e s t s w i l l not be able to meet the demands of t h i s export movement and the next few years should witness the f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l flow of I n t e r i o r lumber production through the export f a c i l i t i e s of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , B r i t i s h  Columbia Forest Industry S t a t i s t i c s I960, V i c t o r i a , B.C., January 1963, p. 4-THE PULP AND PAPER TRADE 68 The pulp and paper industry i s one of the most vigorously expanding sectors of the p r o v i n c i a l economy. In 1962, the estimated value of production of the fourteen pulp and paper plants i n the province was 292 m i l l i o n 31 d o l l a r s , a fi g u r e which represents a 300 per cent increase over the 1950 value. Thirteen of the plants are located on the coast, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g the d i r e c t shipment of a large proportion of t h e i r annual production to export markets. Indeed, ever since i t s e a r l y development, the industry has exhibited a marked dependence on overseas markets, and many of the m i l l s c onstitute important shipping points c o n t r i b u t i n g to the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Approximately one-half of the pulp produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s converted i n t o paper w i t h i n the province; one-quarter i s exported by r a i l or truck, and one-quarter enters i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade. Newsprint dominates the paper industry, accounting f o r almost 75 per cent of the t o t a l paper production and an even l a r g e r share of the paper moving f o r export. Shipments of other forms of higher q u a l i t y paper are r e l a t i v e l y small as they are subject t o su b s t a n t i a l import t a r i f f s i n most f o r e i g n countries. In accordance with these s t a t i s t i c s , discussion i s l i m i t e d to a consideration of the maritime f o r e i g n commodity trade i n newsprint and wood-pulp. A complete, d e t a i l e d breakdown of pulp and paper s t a t i s t i c s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain, but there has been a tremendous expansion i n the period since the end of the Second World War, and the year 1945 forms a convenient date separating two d i s t i n c t phases of the industry's development and trade. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Report of the  Forest Service f o r 1962, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., March 1963, p. 83. 69 The Period of Development, 1894-1945. The f i r s t attempt to manufacture paper i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n 1894 when a small rag m i l l was b u i l t on the Somass River near to the present 32 s i t e of Port A l b e r n i . Machinery and raw materials were imported from B r i t a i n , but although a market was av a i l a b l e f o r the product, d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered i n obtaining adequate supplies of rags, and the m i l l was closed down i n 1896. In 1901, the p r o v i n c i a l government took steps t o promote the development of a domestic pulp and paper industry based on the abundant supplies of pulpwood timber. Large t r a c t s of land were offered f o r lease at extremely low r e n t a l s , t o companies w i l l i n g to undertake the construction and operation 33 of a p u l p m i l l of designated s i z e . This l e g i s l a t i o n was repealed two years l a t e r when a t o t a l of almost 355,000 acres had been alienated f o r such 34 purposes. Unfortunately, each of the four companies involved i n the leases, experienced problems i n accumulating s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l and no m i l l s were erected u n t i l 1909. A d d i t i o n a l incentives were provided as a r e s u l t of t a r i f f changes i n the United States i n 1911 and 1913, which permitted the import of 35 newsprint, and l a t e r woodpulp, duty free i n t o the American market. 5 Carrothers, W.A. (1938) "Forest Industries of B r i t i s h Columbia", i n A.R.M. Lower, The North American Assault on the Canadian Forest, Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, p. 312. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, Royal Commission of Inquiry  on Timber and Forestry, 1909-1910, F i n a l Report, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., p. D50. The r e n t a l was 2 cents per acre, and i n return companies were obligated to erect, equip and maintain a m i l l with a d a i l y output capacity of not l e s s than 1 ton of pulp or -5- ton of paper f o r each and every square mile included i n the lease. 3 4 S l o a n , Hon. Gordon McG. (1957) The Forest Resources of B r i t i s h  Columbia 1956, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., v o l . 1, p. 345. ^ 5 R e i c h , N. (1926) The Pulp and Paper Industry i n Canada, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Economic Studies, National Problems of Canada, No. 7, p. 65. 70 This combination of ample supplies of pulpwood, water and power, together with tidewater l o c a t i o n s f a c i l i t a t i n g cheap transportation of bulk products, plus the opening of a large and expanding market, f i n a l l y a ttracted the necessary c a p i t a l f o r the development of a pulp and paper industry on the P a c i f i c Coast. The f i r s t pulp m i l l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were at Swanson Bay on Northern Vancouver Island, and Port Mellon on Howe Sound. Constructed i n 1909, these two m i l l s produced small q u a n t i t i e s of su l p h i t e pulp f o r the export market. With the opening of a d d i t i o n a l plants at Powell, River, Ocean F a l l s and Woodfibre (1912), Quatsino (1918), Sidney (1918), Beaver Cove (1919) and New Westminster (1922), the productive capacity of the industry was g r e a t l y increased and also became more d i v e r s i f i e d . In a d d i t i o n to the i n i t i a l manufacture of pulp, the Powell River and Ocean F a l l s m i l l s supplied the f i r s t newsprint, while smaller q u a n t i t i e s of higher-quality r o o f i n g paper, k r a f t and wrapping papers were produced at Sidney and New Westminster. Limited q u a n t i t i e s of these higher grade papers were exported but the predominance of the news-p r i n t and woodpulp shipments c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d the t a r i f f structure i n the market forelands. The pattern of growth exhibited by the pulp and paper industry throughout t h i s whole period was one of steady, but unspectacular expansion. T o t a l pulp production i n 1920 amounted to s l i g h t l y more than 217,000 tons, of which a l l but 50,000 tons of su l p h i t e pulp was converted i n t o paper. Out of a t o t a l of almost 150,000 tons of paper produced i n the province i n the same year, 93 per cent was newsprint. Output of both these commodities increased by approximately 50 per cent over the decade 1920-30 and again during the fol l o w i n g decade. The years of the economic depression had l i t t l e e f f e c t on trade as the market remained r e l a t i v e l y stable, though highly-competitive. S i m i l a r l y , the demand f o r newsprint was even strengthened during the wartime 71 i n response to the demand f o r more communication and the curtailment of exports from European producers. A l l these developments had a marked influence cn the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r as w e l l as the introduction of new items of commerce, new shipping points were created to serve the export movement. The majority of the pulp and paper shipments were, and s t i l l are, dispatched d i r e c t l y to foreign markets i n ocean f r e i g h t e r s loaded at the m i l l wharves. A much smaller flow pattern was by barge t o Vancouver f o r transhipment i n t o cargo l i n e r s , or move-ment by r a i l to i n t e r i o r points i n the United States and Western Canada. However, many of the m i l l s operated but i n t e r m i t t e n t l y and d i d not contribute g r e a t l y to the export movement. The trade, e s p e c i a l l y i n newsprint, was furnished almost e x c l u s i v e l y by the m i l l s at Powell River and Ocean F a l l s , w h i l s t Quatsino and Woodfibre were the most consistent other points of exportation. Pulp and Paper Forelands. Complete s t a t i s t i c s of pulp and paper exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia are d i f f i c u l t to obtain, but from the l i m i t e d data a v a i l a b l e , i t i s possible to evaluate the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade established by these commodities. Most of the shipments shown i n Table IX represent exports of newsprint to the United States market, e s p e c i a l l y 36 t o states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico and the P a c i f i c Coast. The large market of the populous north-east states was served by imports from Eastern Canada and d i d not form part of the pulp and paper foreland complex of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The major foreland f o r pulp shipments was Japan, and exports consisted mainly of s u l p h i t e pulp f o r manufacture i n t o rayon and other synthetic f i b r e s . Smaller q u a n t i t i e s of pulp were also shipped to China, 'Carrothers, W.A. (1958) op_. c i t . , p. 327. 72 TABLE IX PULP AND PAPER SHIPMENTS FROM ALL BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS 1925 - 1937 ( i n short tons) Destination Argentina Other S. American A u s t r a l i a Canada China Japan Europe (Cont.) United Kingdom United States India & E.Indies West Indies New Zealand Others T o t a l 1225. 1226 10,256 11,000 2,115 13,950 41,823 j 25,884 ~ 157,233 158,917 11,890 10,560 208,122 235,506 1927 1928 34,045 9,437 1,667 18,226 14,550 80 35 53,244 57,230 152,002 172,017 8,702 20,548 1,980 1,119 243,671 301,211 1929 1950 609 2,130 16,503 21,480 15,940 4,359 1,870 2,620 45,526 54,865 1,728 621 156,788 174,017 9,525 9,214 277 90 239,524 278,818 Destination 1951 1932 1955 1?54 1955 1936 1937 Argentina — 19,752 28,604 3,985 - - — Other S. American 22,657 6,404 12,695 7,314 2,867 - 2,628 A u s t r a l i a 11,855 15,314 14,685 26,053 26,026 42,876 18,810 Canada - - - - - - -China 489 16,105 24,494 40,062 5,281 5,084 1,651 Japan 78,631 59,959 100,257 93,212 155,550 131,795 83,764 Europe (Cont.) 1,918 246 2,627 5,359 2,958 245 123 United Kingdom 7,129 486 347 6,953 4,164 3,698 16,498 United States 157,943 130,771 117,733 128,224 125,343 175,861 205,981 Ind i a & E.Indies 316 273 1,601 1,359 493 - -West Indies 130 203 813 588 - - -New Zealand 5,363 4,251 4,254 2,845 3,206 5,289 2,331 Others • 12 9 543 4,545 1,538 2,926 11,892 290,860 257,595 314,671 545,059 351,085 397,388 372,888 Source: Annual Reports of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange. A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand and South American markets, p r i n c i p a l l y Argentina. The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade were thus l a r g e l y confined to exports to the United States and countries s i t u a t e d i n the P a c i f i c 'rim'. The Panama Canal d i d serve as a gateway t o the American Gulf Coast, but i t d i d not a i d the flow of pulp or paper to t r a n s - A t l a n t i c markets. A minor pattern of flow was developed to B r i t a i n a f t e r 1930, c h i e f l y pulp, but t h i s country and other European markets were adequately supplied by the highly-competitive Scandinavian producers. Even when wartime h o s t i l i t i e s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced sources of supply i n the B a l t i c area, the B r i t i s h market was more e a s i l y served by Eastern Canadian shippers. The Period of Expansion. 1946-1962. I f the years preceding the end of the Second World War were characterized by a steady, a l b e i t continuous growth, the post-war period must by comparison be described as one of explosive expansion. In 1945, t o t a l pulp production was s t i l l l e s s than 500,000 tons; t h i s f i g u r e has increased to more than 2,000,000 tons i n 1962. T o t a l paper production has increased from 335,000 tons to 1,210,000 tons over the same period. (Table x) Whereas the average rate of growth of output f o r the period 1928-1945 was only about 60 per cent, the corresponding rate f o r the post-war period has been greater than 350 per cent. The magnitude of t h i s expansion may be f u r t h e r emphasised by a comparison with the Scandinavian newsprint industry, f o r , although B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l produces l e s s than o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l Canadian newsprint, i n I960, the p r o v i n c i a l newsprint production was greater than 37 that of Finland or Norway and Sweden combined. 5 World Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Newsprint Paper 1959-1960, Newsprint Service Bureau, New York, March 1962, p. 3. 74 TABLE X BRITISH COLUMBIA NEWSPRINT PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS 1940 - 1962 Year 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 }955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 To t a l •Production 262,144 275,788 252,559 211,696 236,696 253,671 259,921 338,239 327,764 378,355 388,191 385,172 428,832 501,083 536,656 560,993 595,717 583,850 608,743 831,355 901,037 910,088 912,405 T o t a l  Exports 234,320 255,476 215,053 199,303 211,473 227,513 264,707 303,321 280,584 323,663 348,184 323,994 366,211 463,223 478,203 514,197 523,109 545,625 590,235 732,072 831,532 822,736 881,163 Exports to U.S.A. 171,108 210,871 204,421 172,467 178,076 192,013 222,497 243,125 247,322 285,764 334,912 299,889 342,857 418,621 433,063 465,098 495,552 502,651 537,137 672,963 767,803 755,239 811,347 T o t a l  Exports to U.S.A. 73.02 82.54 95.05 86.53 84.20 84.39 84.05 80.15 88.14 88.29 96.18 92.56 93.62 90.37 90.56 90.45 94.73 92.12 91.00 91.93 92.33 91.79 94.21 Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Reports of the  Forest Service 1940-1962, V i c t o r i a , B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , S t a t i s t i c a l  Record of the Export Trade of B.C. Forest Products. Part A Estimated Exports from B.C. through a l l Canadian Customs Ports by Countries (1940-1957). V i c t o r i a , B.C., J u l y 1959, Table VI. B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Preliminary  Statement of External Trade through B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Ports  f o r the Calendar Years 1958-1962. V i c t o r i a , B.C. 75 Accompanying t h i s expansion i n the pulp and paper industry there has been a p a r a l l e l growth i n the export movement. In 1945 97,000 tons of pulp and 228,000 tons of newsprint were exported from the province; the 1962 3 8 shipments were 668,000 tons and 861,000 tons r e s p e c t i v e l y . The trend towards more economic u t i l i z a t i o n of forest resources and elimination of wastage has l e d to the merger of the v a r i o u s sectors of the f o r e s t industry i n t o l a r g e r integrated operations. Consequently the post-war developments have l e d to the expansion and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the commodity trade of e x i s t i n g ports, as w e l l as to the creation of new, a d d i t i o n a l shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The construction of pulp and paper m i l l s at Port A l b e r n i (1947), Nanaimo (Harmac 1948), Prince Rupert (Port Edward 195l), are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the former process, w h i l s t the new m i l l s at Campbell River (Elk F a l l s 1952) and Crofton (1958), are examples of the l a t t e r . The p r i n c i p a l shipping points f o r woodpulp i n 1962 were Campbell River (117,000 tons), Nanaimo (104,000 tons), Vancouver (88,000 tons), Crofton (69,000 tons) and Quatsino (53,000 tons). The major points of exportation f o r newsprint i n 1962 were Powell River (245,000 tons), Port A l b e r n i (163,000 tons), Duncan Bay (138,000 tons) and Ocean F a l l s (63,000 tons). Pulp and Paper Forelands. Although the magnitude of the export movement has been g r e a t l y increased, the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade f o r newsprint have remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged. North American markets are s t i l l the most important foreland f o r shipments of newsprint from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia and, as Table X shows, the dependence on t h i s market has been strengthened over the post-war period. This trend r e f l e c t s the continued I t should be noted that these fig u r e s represent shipments through a l l B r i t i s h Columbia customs ports, and do not r e f e r s o l e l y to maritime trade. progressive conversion of United States paper-making plant to uses more p r o f i t a b l e than newsprint, thereby boosting the demand f o r newsprint imports 39 from Canada. The P a c i f i c Coast States are the most s i g n i f i c a n t regional market f o r B r i t i s h Columbia newsprint, e s p e c i a l l y C a l i f o r n i a which accounts f o r two-thirds of the newsprint consumption i n the American Far West. 4^ The second most important foreland grouping f o r newsprint exports includes the countries s i t u a t e d i n and around the P a c i f i c Basin. In 1962, these markets accounted f o r approximately 24,500 tons, or 3 per cent of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia newsprint trade. A u s t r a l i a i s by f a r the most important s i n g l e foreland w i t h i n t h i s grouping, taking almost two-thirds of the ship-ments. Other forelands, i n order of decreasing importance, are the P h i l l i p i n e s , India, Hong Kong, Malaya and Japan. The United Kingdom took 21,500 tons of newsprint i n 1962 and was the second la r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l foreland. Competition from Scandinavian and Eastern Canadian exporters, the d o l l a r shortage problem, plus a lessened demand 41 f o r newsprint i n the post-war period, have hampered the development of a l a r g e r export movement. Exports of B r i t i s h Columbia newsprint to other European markets have been n e g l i g i b l e throughout the post-war years. The growth of B r i t i s h Columbia wood pulp exports has been even more pronounced than that of newsprint,total shipments increasing 650 per cent over the period 1946-62. These exports are composed almost e x c l u s i v e l y of 39 The Problem of Newsprint, I n t e l l i g e n c e Unit of the Economist, London, published by UNESCO, P a r i s , 1949, p. 39. 4 0The Newsprint S i t u a t i o n i n the Western Region of North America, Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e , Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a , J u l y 1952, p. 10. 4 1 S m i t h , J.M. (1953) "Newsprint i n World A f f a i r s " , Behind the  Headlines, v o l . 13, No. 6, Toronto, November 1953, p. 10. The average s i z e of B r i t i s h d a i l y newspapers i s now 8 pages compared with 24-28 pages i n pre-war years. 77 chemical pulps, as most of the groundwood pulp i s used i n the manufacture of newsprint. The United States i s a l s o the main market f o r p r o v i n c i a l wood-pulp, but the dependence on t h i s market i s not as pronounced as i n the newsprint trade. Although shipments to the United States have increased 800 per cent since 1946 they only accounted f o r 43 per cent of the 1962 export f i g u r e s . The major regional markets are the Eastern and Great Lakes s t a t e s , ^ 2 thus d i f f e r i n g markedly from the pattern of newsprint trade. A greater s i g n i f i c a n c e of overseas forelands f o r woodpulp ship-ments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e f l e c t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade. The higher q u a l i t y chemical pulps are able t o compete more su c c e s s f u l l y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets, i n c l u d i n g Europe, which took more than 188,000 tons, or 28 per cent of the 1962 shipments. This f i g u r e represents but a small f r a c t i o n of European requirements, as woodpulp shipments are subject to the same competitive forces that confront the newsprint trade. However, exports to both the United Kingdom and Continental Europe show a 500-600 per cent increase over those of the immediate post-war period. The B r i t i s h market took almost 70,000 tons of B r i t i s h Columbia woodpulp i n 1962, and was the second most important i n d i v i d u a l foreland f o r t h i s commodity. I t a l y (39,000 tons), Germany (37,000 tons) and France (21,000 tons) l e d the Continental European markets, while smaller q u a n t i t i e s were dispatched to the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, Switzerland, A u s t r i a and Spain. Wartime a c t i v i t i e s and post-war f i n a n c i a l problems eliminated the pre-war trade i n pulp to Asian forelands, but there has been a marked r e v i v a l ^ P r o v i n c i a l Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, P o t e n t i a l Pulp and  Paper M i l l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1959, p. 6. i n t h i s trade, e s p e c i a l l y since 1950. Asian markets now take one-sixth of annual woodpulp exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Japan i s the t h i r d l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l foreland area. India, Pakistan, the P h i l l i p i n e s and Taiwan are the other s i g n i f i c a n t importing nations i n t h i s grouping. There has als o been an expansion of shipments to Central and South America which now amount to about 70,000 tons per annum. This trade i s d i s t r i b u t e d among several importing countries, of which Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru.and B r a z i l are the most important. The Future. Although the post-war years have brought a period of unprecedented expansion to the pulp and paper industry of B r i t i s h Columbia, there i s every sign that t h i s prosperity w i l l continue through the next two decades. World demand f o r newsprint i s anticipated to increase from 15-26 m i l l i o n tons over the period 1960-1980 and a su b s t a n t i a l proportion of t h i s increase i s expected 43 to come from Canadian m i l l s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l woodpulp requirements are expected to double over the same period. No other part of Canada i s expanding pulp and paper f a c i l i t i e s as i s t h i s province. E x i s t i n g pulp and paper companies have expansion proj e c t s , valued at more than one-hundred m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , which w i l l increase production 44 at the. Harmac, Port A l b e r n i , E l k F a l l s , Crofton and Prince Rupert m i l l s . In a d d i t i o n , new m i l l s are under consideration f o r construction at Tahsis and ^ D a v i s , J . , et a l . (1957) The Outlook f o r the Canadian Forest  I n d u s t r i e s , Report of the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, Queen's P r i n t e r , H u l l , March 1957, pp. 98-139. The Report included forecasts that world newsprint production would be 15 m i l l i o n tons i n I960. Actual production was 15,500,000 tons. ^"Paper Industry Again New Record i n B.C.", The Vancouver Sun, Vancouver, B.C., May 28, 1963, p. A5. 79 Kitimat on the coast, and Prince George and Kamloops i n the I n t e r i o r . I t thus appears c e r t a i n that t h i s province w i l l play an important r o l e i n meeting the demand f o r these commodities and that the maritime pulp and paper trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l continue to prosper. CHAPTER V THE TRADE IN MINERAL PRODUCTS Minerals, e i t h e r i n the form of concentrates or r e f i n e d metals, have been an important commodity, i n terms of value, i n B r i t i s h Columbia's export trade f o r more than a century. The discovery of placer gold and coal gave impetus t o the development of the province,* and coal shipments were among the e a r l i e s t cargoes exported from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The search f o r gold l a t e r brought at t e n t i o n t o the lode metal deposits, and copper, lead, z i n c and n i c k e l mines increased the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of mineral products shipped t o foreign ports. The fortunes of the export mineral trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have fluc t u a t e d through the years. Coal shipments from Vancouver Island , which formerly dominated the export trade, declined a f t e r the turn of the century. Many of the lode metal deposits have a low ore content, e s p e c i a l l y the copper and i r o n ores, and f o r many years, t h i s f a c t o r handicapped the competitive a b i l i t y of these minerals i n world markets. A high percentage of the production of the T r a i l lead-zinc smelter complex i s dispatched by r a i l to the United States, and consequently does not enter i n t o maritime foreign trade. In the l i g h t of these f a c t s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the t r a d i n g patterns established by export mineral commodities are, or have been, r e l a t i v e l y simple i n composition. The United States has been the dominant foreland f o r waterborne shipments of coal and ore concentrates, and 1 P i t t , Dale L. (1932) "What Mining Has Done For B r i t i s h Columbia", Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 23, No. 2, A p r i l 1932, p. 94. only the r e f i n e d metals have c o n s i s t e n t l y been shipped f u r t h e r a f i e l d . In recent years, the large scale i n d u s t r i a l expansion programme i n Japan, with i t s resultant demand f o r imported ores, has lessened the dependence on the United States market, and created a mining boom i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Japanese demand, accompanied by considerable c a p i t a l investment i n t h i s province, has provided a long-awaited market f o r the i r o n ore deposits, generated a r e v i v a l of the coal export trade, and stimulated a great increase i n copper and n i c k e l production. The export mineral trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia has also been enhanced by the growing demand f o r potash and sulphur, which has pre-c i p i t a t e d a flow of these minerals from the P r a i r i e Provinces through the newly-constructed bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s of the Port of Vancouver. Coal, i r o n and copper concentrates, and the r e f i n e d metals, lead, z i n c and aluminum,are the most important minerals entering i n t o the maritime export movement, and at t e n t i o n i s confined t o a study of the foreland patterns exhibited by shipments of these commodities; minerals that have made important contributions to the p r o v i n c i a l economy and which, at various times, have been dependent upon the export f a c i l i t i e s of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r transportation to fo r e i g n markets. THE FUEL TRADE Although coal deposits are widely d i s t r i b u t e d through the province, commercial development has been r e s t r i c t e d to a few l o c a l i t i e s . The bulk of the coal production has come from c o l l i e r i e s on Vancouver I s l a n d and i n the Crow's Nest Pass area and these mines have als o , almost e x c l u s i v e l y , furnished the coal supplies moving to export markets. The waterborne export movement reached a peak at the turn of the century, and l a t e r declined as f u e l o i l captured markets formerly dependent on coal supplies. 82 The Growth of the Coal Trade. Coal production, though beginning i n 1836, was r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g -n i f i c a n t u n t i l the development of the Nanaimo f i e l d s i n the middle of the l a s t century. Output increased s t e a d i l y , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the 1870's when new mines were developed near Wellington ( l 8 7 l ) and Comox (1875) on Vancouver Island, and reached one m i l l i o n tons by 1890 (Figure 7 ) . By 1898, the provision of adequate r a i l transport, coupled with growing demand, permitted the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the coal-bearing s t r a t a i n the south-east sector of the province, and with the opening of these new f i e l d s , production rose to a peak of j u s t over three m i l l i o n tons i n 1910. Since then, there has been an almost continuous decline, which, s t a r t i n g with increasing competition from other sources of energy, was l a t e r augmented, from 1920 onwards, by the progressive exhaustion of the coal seams on Vancouver Island. Indeed, although the Island c o l l i e r i e s continued to be the la r g e s t producers u n t i l 1940, there i s now only one large mine operating there. The f i r s t record of coal mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia was at Suquash 2 on the north-east coast of Vancouver Island i n 1836. Small q u a n t i t i e s were dug from surface showings, but the methods of ex t r a c t i o n were p r i m i t i v e and only minor shipments were exported from Fort Rupert. In 1852, the c o a l mining focus s h i f t e d south t o the Nanaimo area and output increased i n response to the growing demand f o r coal i n the San Francisco market. Coal production could not keep pace with the demand i n the i n i t i a l p eriod. As the c o a l export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia expanded, the number of shipping points, designed to handle t h i s commodity, also increased. Nanaimo maintained i t s r o l e as the premier coal shipping point, but the b u i l d i n g British Columbia, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, I n v i t a t i o n to Industry, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1961, p. 18. of new tramways and wharves brought a d d i t i o n a l small harbours i n t o existence on the east coast of Vancouver Is l a n d . The Wellington mine was opened i n 1869 and a shipping point established on Departure Bay, f i v e miles north of Nanaimo; i n 1888, the Comox Basin was f i r s t e x p l o i t e d , the town of Cumberland created, and a new port developed at Union Bay. Add i t i o n a l mines were also sunk south of Nanaimo and smaller coal ports were developed at Ladysmith and Boat Harbour. The net ef f e c t of t h i s period of expansion i s shown i n the comparison of the two flow maps f o r the years 1868 and 1900 (Figures 8A and 8B). The former year i s one of the e a r l i e s t dates f o r which d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s of shipments are a v a i l a b l e , while 1900 was the peak year f o r coal exports from the i s l a n d c o l l i e r i e s . The overwhelming importance of the C a l i f o r n i a market i s duly demonstrated, and throughout t h i s period, t h i s market frequently took more than 80 per cent of the t o t a l coal exports. San Francisco was the major destination f o r these coal shipments, although some were sent to Lower C a l i f o r n i a ports, p r i n c i p a l l y Los Angeles and San Diego. In ad d i t i o n to the export of c o a l , there was a small trade i n coke produced at the Union Bay coke ovens. Beginning i n 1896, thetxade involved some 12,000 tons of coke by 1900, but i t was only a temporary development which l a s t e d l e s s than a decade. A much smaller, regular movement of co a l went to the P a c i f i c Northwest States, ( c h i e f l y gas coals to S e a t t l e ) , averaging l e s s than 50,000 tons a year. Exports to other countries were sporadic and involved even smaller q u a n t i t i e s . Mexico was the most important 'other market, while the Hawaiian Islands, Alaska, Hong Kong, China, Japan and S i b e r i a were other countries which p e r i o d i c a l l y imported small amounts of B r i t i s h Columbia c o a l . The coal foreland of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was thus l a r g e l y l i m i t e d to points on the North American P a c i f i c Coast, with p e r i o d i c expansion to include other points i n the P a c i f i c Basin. COAL EXPORTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1868, 1900 AND 1962 A 1868 vv< \ S\ f i \ i I \ & L "7*"*—-—.. {% / K._ r : / \ P SAN FRANCISCO MEXICO B 1900 OTHERS " r — • LOS ANGELES SAN' 0IE60 200,000 TONS 0 200 400 600 MILES 86 In addition to these coal exports, there are numerous references to the use of coal supplies f o r bunkering ships, but i t i s impossible, from the meagre data a v a i l a b l e , to quantify p r e c i s e l y the amount used f o r these purposes. T r a n s - P a c i f i c mail steamships took supplies of Nanaimo coal from scows i n Vancouver harbour, and i n many cases, vessels taking f u l l cargoes at Puget Sound ports, bunkered at the B r i t i s h Columbia coal ports of Nanaimo, 3 Boat Harbour or Comox. B r i t i s h and American naval vessels also f i l l e d t h e i r bunkers i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Figure 9A indicates the extent to which the l a t e nineteenth-century Vancouver Island coal mining industry was dependent upon the export market f o r i t s s a l e s . Sales outside the province commonly absorbed more than 80 per cent of the t o t a l output, with the C a l i f o r n i a market alone tak i n g 50-60 per cent. These high percentages were achieved despite strong competition from other coal producing nations, whose exports r e s t r i c t e d the market f o r B r i t i s h Columbia coal even i n C a l i f o r n i a . The 767,000 tons of coal shipped to C a l i f o r n i a i n 1900 represented s l i g h t l y more than 40 per cent of the C a l i f o r n i a n imports i n 4 that year. A high protective duty imposed by the United States enabled Puget Sound c o a l f i e l d s to develop equally large sales i n San Francisco, and large q u a n t i t i e s of B r i t i s h and A u s t r a l i a n coal were al s o imported as b a l l a s t cargoes f o r ships loading grain and lumber. Fuel O i l Competition. The most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e event i n f l u e n c i n g the coal trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, was the discovery of extensive o i l f i e l d s i n the San •^Harbour and Shipping Journal, v o l . 2, No. 7, Vancouver, B.C., June 1920, p. 314. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r 6f Mines f o r 1900, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1901, p. 954. A. VANCOUVER ISLAND 1 5 r B. EAST KOOTENAY 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 I960 88 Joaquin v a l l e y i n 1896. O i l had been produced i n C a l i f o r n i a since 1865, but the new discoveries r a i s e d the l e v e l of production from 507,000 b a r r e l s i n 1890, to 4.5 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s i n 1900, and 29.5 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s i n 1905. Exploration f o r a d d i t i o n a l reserves l e d t o the Ldevelopment of the Los Angeles Basin o i l -f i e l d s i n 1922, and the annual crude o i l production was r a i s e d to more than 250 m i l l i o n b a r r e l s by the mid-19201s. A s i t u a t i o n was created whereby the supply of crude and r e f i n e d o i l products i n C a l i f o r n i a g r e a t l y exceeded the domestic demand. Moreover, the new o i l f i e l d s required only short p i p e l i n e s to transport the surplus production to tidewater and export markets.** These events had several profound e f f e c t s cn the coal export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f i r s t i m p l i c a t i o n of the new o i l discoveries was that i t caused a major reduction i n the volume of coal exported from B r i t i s h Columbia to the C a l i f o r n i a market. Whereas t h i s market took almost 65 per cent of the t o t a l Vancouver Island coal sales i n 1900, the proportion f e l l t o 24.5 per cent i n 1910, and 20 per cent i n 1920. Suddenly deprived of i t s most important f o r e -land, coal exportation from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia experienced a sharp dec l i n e . The general trend i s evident i n Figure 9A. From a peak of 900,000 tons i n 1900, coal exports from Vancouver Island f e l l q u i c k l y to 400,000 tons i n 1902, and they continued t o f l u c t u a t e between 500,000 and 400,000 tons annually f o r the next two decades. (Figure 9A also i l l u s t r a t e s how t o t a l out-put over the same period increased to 1.75 m i l l i o n tons despite the l o s s of export markets, as larg e r q u a n t i t i e s were taken by domestic consumers.) -'Bain, J.S. (;1945) The Economics of the P a c i f i c Coast Petroleum  Industry. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, p. 5. ^ I b i d . , p. 7. 89 Having severely c u r t a i l e d the market f o r coal i n C a l i f o r n i a , f u e l o i l supplies began to encroach upon the other o u t l e t s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia c o a l . O i l gradually reduced the market f o r coal i n the American P a c i f i c Northwest and began to invade the p r o v i n c i a l domestic market. The c o s t l y methods of e x t r a c t i n g coal from the h i g h l y - f a u l t e d , l e n t i c u l a r seams of the Coast c o l l i e r i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a pr i c e of $4.50 per ton, enabled the crude o i l , p r i c e d at $2.60 - $3.00 equivalent, to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the l o c a l market. Because of high transportation costs to the coast, coal produced i n the Kootenays, at $2.00 - $2.25 per ton, was unable to stem the imported flow of f u e l o i l . The f u e l o i l invasion was aided by a se r i e s of untimely s t r i k e s i n the coastal c o l l i e r i e s , and the resultant uncertainty of supplies turned consumers to a l t e r n a t i v e sources of f u e l . Wartime conditions marked a temporary return to a more favourable environment f o r coal as o i l supplies became scarcer and more c o s t l y . The abnormal conditions of the F i r s t World War thus arrested the trend towards a complete reversal of the fuelccommodity flow on the P a c i f i c Coast. For the Vancouver Island miners, however, i t was only a f l e e t i n g r e s p i t e , and hopes of a major r e v i v a l i n the coal export trade were soon quelled by the development of the Los Angeles Basin o i l f i e l d s a f t e r 1922. Vancouver Island coal exports f e l l from 350,000 tons i n 1922, to 50,000 tons i n 1930: a l e v e l above which they f a i l e d to recover save f o r a few i s o l a t e d years. In almost revolutionary s t y l e , 'Old King Coal' was 'dethroned', alienated from h i s followers by the r i s i n g p opularity of imported f u e l o i l . Small amounts of coal continued to move from Coast c o l l i e r i e s to export markets, but the volume was extremely small, and ceased completely i n 1957 (Figure 9A). B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1911. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1912, p. 217. Figures are based cn a thermal equivalent r a t i o of ba r r e l s of o i l = 1 ton of c o a l . 90 The pattern of d e c l i n i n g demand fo r coal profoundly a l t e r e d the t r a d i n g structure of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia with regard to mineral commodity flow. The foreland pattern remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same, but the major d i r e c t i o n of flow, B r i t i s h Columbia t o C a l i f o r n i a , was reversed as imported f u e l o i l t r a f f i c displaced the coal export movement. In 1930, the B r i t i s h Columbia Coal Committee was formed, the objectives of which were to "explore avenues along which increased sales of B r i t i s h Columbia coal could be e f f e c t e d . " 8 The exact r o l e of bunker supplies i n the p r o v i n c i a l coal exports i s d i f f i c u l t to assess, but i t was c e r t a i n l y prominent from the e a r l i e s t days of the c o a l mining industry. In 1910, i t was estimated that 80 per cent of the world's shipping used c o a l , and Nanaimo supplied the market on the P a c i f i c Coast, but by 1924 80 per cent of the world's shipping had switched to o i l , and q the C a l i f o r n i a o i l f i e l d s were providing the f u e l . The many advantages of f u e l o i l f o r bunkering vessels, more f l e x i b l e storage and loading methods, higher heat value per u n i t weight, and c l e a n l i n e s s , thus threatened to remove another ou t l e t f o r coal shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. On May 30, 1931, the f i r s t subvention assistance was authorized f o r B r i t i s h Columbia coal moving to export markets, other than the United States, and f o r sale to foreign ships f o r bunkering. The volume of coal moving under these subventions i s shown i n Table XL, and some measure of success i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t , during the period 1931-39, the amount of coal used f o r bunker supplies increased from 63,000 tons to 241,000 tons. These B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1930. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1931, p. 40. 9Johnson, P.M. (1958), A Short H i s t o r y of Nanaimo. B.C.. 1858-1958. C i t y of Nanaimo Centennial Committee, Nanaimo, B.C., p. 20. TONNAGES AND COSTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALBERTA COAL TABLE XI !S  SOLD UNDER SUBSIDY FOR BUNKER AND EXPORT F i s c a l Year Tons (2000 l b s . ) Cost Per Ton 1931- 32 91,925 $ 0.35 1932- 33 94,227 0.45 1933- 34 84,941 0.45 1934- 35 94,798 0.55 1935- 36 109,205 0.73 1936- 37 152,721 0.80 1937- 38 194,705 0.85 1938- 39 161,911 0.81 1939- 40 277,809 0,85 1940- 41 180,449 0.77 1941- 42 93,807 0.75 1942- 43 128,284 0~.75 1943- 44 37,857 0.75 1944- 45 30,287 0.75 1945- 46 20,777 0.75 1946- 47 11,493 0.75 1947- 48 7,684 0.75 1948- 49 5,592 0.82 1949- 50 37,683 0.75 1950- 51 5,931 0.97 1951- 52 112,942 0.96 1952- 53 46,417 0.75 1953- 54 1,683 0.75 1954- 55 283 0.75 1955- 56 180 0.75 1956- 57 1,264 0.95 1957- 58 43,833 2.13 1958- 59 27,647 3.63 1959- 60 263,542 4.43 1960- 61 677,396 4.50 Source: Canada, Annual Reports of the Dominion Coal Board, 1949-1961, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. subventions merely delayed an i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t , however, f o r f u e l o i l has proved to be a much more su i t a b l e bunker f u e l and present bunker supplies consist only of a few thousand tons annually. The f r e i g h t subsidies were o r i g i n a l l y designed t o place Canadian coal i n a more competitive p o s i t i o n with the imported f u e l s , but the amount of f i n a n c i a l a i d has been r a i s e d , and since 1949, the subvention has been extended to include Alberta c o a l . The current subvention payments on west-bound export coal amount to about $4.50 a net t o n , 1 ^ and i n the l a s t decade have resu l t e d i n s u b s t a n t i a l export shipments to Japan. The lack of adequate f a c i l i t i e s on the P a c i f i c Coast res u l t e d i n some of the t r i a l coal shipments going v i a S e a t t l e , but i n I960, the new bulk loading plant, s i t u a t e d at Port Moody on Burrard I n l e t , went i n t o operation. As a r e s u l t of these developments, B r i t i s h Columbia coal began once again t o f i l l ship's holds, instead of bunkers, and 685,000 tons were sent to Japan i n 1961, i n c l u d i n g 310,000 tons of A l b e r t a c o a l . This r e v i v a l of the coal export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia represents the f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l flow of Crow's Nest Pass coal to the coast.** Small q u a n t i t i e s of coal were shipped from the Kootenays, through 12 Vancouver, as e a r l y as 1890, but high f r e i g h t costs prevented t h i s movement from a t t a i n i n g large proportions. Consequently Figure 9B, showing coal exports from the East Kootenays, f o r the most part represents a southward r a i l 1 0Dubnie, A. (1962) Transportation and the Competitive P o s i t i o n of  Selected Canadian Minerals. Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mineral Survey 2, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 105. **Japanese import requirements are f o r coking c o a l . The absence of large reserves of these coals i n the Vancouver Island c o a l f i e l d s precludes a rejuvenation of the coal export trade from t h i s area. 1 2 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1890, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1891, p. 382. movement to railway and i n d u s t r i a l markets i n the United States. The con-version of railways to o i l f u e l caused a drop i n the percentage of coal exported a f t e r 1920, but the influence of the recent Japanese demand i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the r i s e i n export shipments a f t e r 1957. In 1961, the water-borne export movement accounted f o r approximately 40 per cent of the Crow's Nest coal production. Changing Patterns of Petroleum Trade. Coincident with these developments i n the coal trade, there were profound changes i n the nature of the petroleum trade. For many years, the imports consisted of f u e l o i l , but the f i r s t r e f i n e r y was established at loco, on Burrard I n l e t , i n 1915. Aided by a Dominion import duty of one-half of a cent per g a l l o n on f u e l o i l imported as such, there was a gradual change from imported f u e l o i l to a B r i t i s h Columbia product r e f i n e d from imported C a l i f o r n i a crude o i l . By 1930, imports of crude o i l stood at 137 m i l l i o n g a l l ons, four times the volume of imported f u e l o i l , and by 1939, imports were almost e x c l u s i v e l y composed of crude o i l . (Table XIIA). A d d i t i o n a l r e f i n e r i e s were constructed along the shores of Burrard I n l e t , and the crude o i l r e c e i p t s at these r e f i n e r i e s , f o r the years 1946-60 are shown i n Table XIIB. P r i o r to 1951, crude o i l supplies were imported by tanker c h i e f l y from C a l i f o r n i a and South America. The discovery of the Leduc o i l f i e l d s i n A l b e r t a i n 1947, and the subsequent confirmation of greater reserves, introduced the p o s s i b i l i t y of Canadian domestic o i l r e placing imported supplies. The expansion of the r e f i n e r y capacity i n the Vancouver area, and planned expansion of Puget Sound r e f i n e r i e s , encouraged the construction of the Trans Mountain O i l Pipe Line, completed i n 1953. B y 1955, B r i t i s h Columbia r e f i n e r i e s ceased to import C a l i f o r n i a n crude o i l , and received a l l t h e i r supplies from the A l b e r t a o i l f i e l d s . (Table XIIB). At the same time, an increasing demand TABLE XII A. FUEL OIL SUPPLIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1924 - 1941 94 Fuel O i l Imports ( i n gallons) Crude O i l Imports ( i n gallons) 1924 98,351,000 n.a. 1925 108,836,000 n.a. 1926 62,214,000 42,000,000 1927 42,954,000 79,000,000 96,000,000 1928 38,124,000 35,697,000 1929 140,000,000 1930 34,560,000 137,000,000 1931 27,794,000 24,964,000 118,000,000 1932 100,000,000 1933 21,379,075 100,000,000 1934 17,787,000 158,288,000 176,361,544 1935 15,250,493 1936 n.a. n.a. 1937 18,669,902 205,680,478 1938 5,789,000 189,917,000 1939 - 192,300,000 219,615,000 1940 -1941 - 199,275,000 1942-45 No data a v a i l a b l e Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Reports of the  Mi n i s t e r of Mines, 1924-1941. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. B. CRUDE PETROLEUM RECEIPTS AT BRITISH COLUMBIA (INCLUDING YUKON) REFINERIES 1946 - I960 Imported ( i n b a r r e l s ) 1946 5,715,512 1947 6,513,567 1948 7,303,538 1949 7,287,887 1950 7,832,059 1951 8,051,088 1952 7,406,780 1953 5,892,673 1954 1,759,789 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau i and Natural Gas Industry P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Canadian To t a l ( i n b a r r e l s ) ( i n b a r r e l s ) — 5,715,512 - 6,513,567 - 7,303,538 - 7,287,887 - 7,832,059 - 8,051,088 508,362 7,915,142 2,679,381 8,572,054 13,255,337 15,015,126 17,310,671 17,310,671 21,425,799 21,425,799 22,507,050 22,507,050 21,284,548 21,284,548 23,299,309 23,299,309 24,057,382 24,057,382 ' S t a t i s t i c s , The Crude Petroleum Cat. No. 26-213 Annual, Queen's 95 f o r petroleum products i n C a l i f o r n i a , accompanied by a l e v e l l i n g o f f i n production, has l e d to C a l i f o r n i a becoming a net importer of crude o i l . Indeed, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia and C a l i f o r n i a were reversed once again, when, i n 1956-57, at the time of the Suez c r i s i s , shipments of A l b e r t a crude o i l were sent by tanker from Vancouver to that State. This offshore movement was short l i v e d however; Al b e r t a o i l i s a high cost product and under normal conditions i s unable to compete with cheaper Middle East and South American supplies. CONCLUSIONS The f u e l trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia has been, i n the past, based l a r g e l y on the interactance between t h i s province and the State of C a l i f o r n i a . For more than h a l f a century, the dominant d i r e c t i o n of flow was southward, as coal was imported to meet American energy requirements. Later the d i r e c t i o n of flow was reversed, as imports of r e f i n e d and crude o i l captured t r a d i t i o n a l coal markets. This movement was i n turn arrested by the s u b s t i t u t i o n of A l b e r t a o i l f o r C a l i f o r n i a n supplies a f t e r 1953. The l i m i t e d domestic market i n the province s t i l l imposes c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on l o c a l r e f i n e r i e s , and most of the coastal pulp and paper m i l l s s t i l l import heavy f u e l o i l f r a c t i o n s f o r t h e i r energy requirements. In recent years, coal exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have regained some of t h e i r former prominence. The major shipping point has migrated from the East Coast of Vancouver Island to the shores of Burrard I n l e t , but as i n e a r l i e r years, a single foreland dominates the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade. At present, the future of the coal export movement seems to be i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d with the fortunes of the Japanese i r o n and s t e e l industry, the expansion of which i s dependent upon imported supplies of coking c o a l . Canadian exports to Japan i n I960 were only 6 per cent of t o t a l Japanese coal imports, (United States supplied 70 per cent, A u s t r a l i a 17 per cent). Estimates indicate that imports of coking coal w i l l increase t h r e e f o l d 13 by 1970, and may r e s u l t i n even greater export sales f o r B r i t i s h Columbia coal i n the future. However, a desire to economize on high f r e i g h t costs, by obtaining coal from c l o s e r sources of supply, has re c e n t l y contributed to a greater dependence on A u s t r a l i a n and Soviet coal, and smaller imports from the 14 United States. The volume of c o a l , which may be exported from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during the next decade, does not, however, depend s o l e l y on the competitive aspect of the Japanese market. The problem remains as to whether the Canadian Government can continue to subsidize the westbound movement of c o a l , to Vancouver, at the uneconomically high rate of $4.50 per ton. Plans to develop large thermal power st a t i o n s i n south-west A l b e r t a , by providing a market f o r the coal and continued employment f o r the miners, could r e s u l t i n a r e v i s i o n of the subvention p o l i c y , and a curtailment of the current coal export movement from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. THE IRON ORE TRADE During the period since the end of World War I I , the commercial development of i r o n ore deposits has brought t h i s mineral i n t o a prominent p o s i t i o n among Canada's exports. Most of these developments have occurred i n the Quebec-Labrador i r o n b e l t of Eastern Canada, and the gigantic scale of these operations dwarfs, by scale, s i m i l a r mining a c t i v i t y on Canada's P a c i f i c ^Japanese Industry 1961, Foreign C a p i t a l Research Society, Dai Nippon P r i n t i n g Co. Lt d . , Tokyo, 1962, p. 47. 1 4 I n d u s t r i a l Japan '65, Dentsu Ad v e r t i s i n g Ltd., Toppon P r i n t i n g Co., Tokyo, A p r i l 1963, p. 57. 97 Coast. Japanese ore demands, have, e s p e c i a l l y since 1950, created a minor mining boom and i n i t i a t e d a su b s t a n t i a l export movement of i r o n ore concentrates from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The majority of the B r i t i s h Columbia i r o n deposits, consist of magnetite, with an i r o n content ranging between 50-75 per cent i r o n . The ores are of metosomatic o r i g i n , being i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the s e r i e s of p l u t c n i c complexes, popularly, though erroneously, re f e r r e d t o as the 'Coast Range B a t h o l i t h ' . The degree of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s v a r i a b l e , but several pockets of economic s i z e have been developed on the western f l a n k of t h i s igneous mass between Vancouver and Texada Islands i n the south, and the Queen Charlotte Islands i n the north. This favourable d i s t r i b u t i o n has necessitated only minimal investments i n transportation f a c i l i t i e s , f o r short hauls, u s u a l l y l e s s than 25 miles, are a l l that are required t o b r i n g the i r o n concentrates t o deepwater berths cn the coast. Like the Quebec-Labrador ores, most of the B r i t i s h Columbia i r o n deposits were known f o r many decades before commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n was under-taken. The Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1874 r e f e r s t o the 15 •inexhaustible q u a n t i t i e s ' of magnetite on Texada Island, and most of the other ore bodies were known before 1900. Abundant surface outcrops were e a s i l y detected, but the r e a l extent of the ores remained unknown as few attempts were made to probe beyond s u r f i c i a l a d i t s and shallow p i t s t o trace the i r o n at depth. Precise evaluations of the amounts of ore a v a i l a b l e remained undetermined, and most of the outcrops were l e f t undeveloped f o r another h a l f century. The lack of a s u b s t a n t i a l market f o r the i r o n was undoubtedly a B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1874, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1875, p. 35. 98 strong deterrent against d e t a i l e d exploration, but f o r a few years, a market did e x i s t and small q u a n t i t i e s of ir o n ore entered i n t o the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The magnetite showings on Texada Island a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of a group of C a l i f o r n i a business i n t e r e s t s i n 1874, and they purchased the ore deposits and organized the Puget Sound Iron Company i n the f o l l o w i n g year. 1** Between 1881 and 1908, approximately 64,000 tons of magnetite were shipped t o the company's b l a s t furnace at Irondale, Washington (near Port Townsend). The plant was closed i n 1919 because of high operating 18 costs, and with the resultant l o s s of market, the Texada deposits lapsed i n t o temporary oblivion,along with the other west coast i r o n ores. Although the magnitude of t h i s i r o n ore export movement never achieved large volumes, i t d i d demonstrate that a good q u a l i t y p i g i r o n could be produced from the domestic ores. The P r o v i n c i a l Government, desirous of promoting an iro n and s t e e l industry on the coast, authorized several surveys to provide more d e t a i l e d knowledge of the exact extent of the ore bodies. The 19 f i r s t systematic survey of the i r o n - r i c h rocks was i n 1902, and subsequent studies were conducted by both federal and p r o v i n c i a l agencies, i n c l u d i n g attempts to f i n d more sui t a b l e processes f o r u t i l i z i n g the ores. The idea of a l o c a l i r o n and s t e e l industry continued to dominate government thin k i n g , and Brewer, W.M. (1917) Report on Some of the Occurences of Iron Ore  Deposits on Vancouver and Texada Islands, Bureau of Mines, B u l l e t i n No. 3, V i c t o r i a , B.C., p. 7. 17 A Survey of the Canadian Iron Industry with p a r t i c u l a r Reference  to B r i t i s h Columbia, Economic Council of B r i t i s h Columbia, Research Department, V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l 1936, p. 2. 1 8Highsmith, R.M. (1962) A t l a s of the P a c i f i c Northwest, Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y Press, C o r v a l l i s , Oregon, p. 133. 1Q B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1902, V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1903, pp. 201-229. the Iron Bounties Act of 1918 offered subsidies of $3.00 and $1.50 per ton on p i g i r o n produced from l o c a l or imported ores r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a n c i a l l u r e s , however, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l supplies of coking coal and limestone, proved incapable of overcoming the d i f f i c u l t i e s m i t i g a t i n g against the establishment of such an industry. The p r o h i b i t i v e cost of the f u e l or power, and the sulphur content of the ores, which presented smelting problems and required admixture with other ores, were two obstacles which prevented 20 commercial development. The lack of a sizeable market f o r the product nevertheless remained as the major f a c t o r which continued t o thwart commercial developments. In consequence, shipments of i r o n ore from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during the next three decades were hi g h l y sporadic, and involved only small q u a n t i t i e s shipped f o r experimental purposes. Interest i n the i r o n ores remained dormant u n t i l the era of phenomenal i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n Japan fo l l o w i n g her defeat i n the Second World War. The g r e a t l y increased output of the Japanese s t e e l m i l l s has been l a r g e l y based on imported ores, and the search f o r dependable supplies created a possible market f o r the magnetite ores of south-west B r i t i s h Columbia. An intensive d r i l l i n g and exploration programme was conducted by American and Canadian companies, and the f i r s t shipment of i r o n concentrates l e f t the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1951. Figure 10 i l l u s t r a t e s the growth of i r o n ore shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia over the period 1951-1962. The expansion of the export movement r e f l e c t s an increase i n the number of operating mines, and has been accompanied by an increase i n the number of shipping points designed to handle t h i s new commodity flow. The f i r s t shipment of i r o n concentrates, k Survey of the Canadian Iron Industry with p a r t i c u l a r Reference to B r i t i s h Columbia, op. c i t . , p. 42. BRITISH COLUMBIA IRON ORE EXPORTS 1951-1962 1.5 z o o _J . J s 1.0 0.5 h 0) 8 i n to o 0) i n CT) to Figure 10 Figure 11 D.E.K. 101 from the Iron H i l l property, l e f t Campbell River i n 1951, and the f o l l o w i n g year marked the r e v i v a l of i r o n ore exports from Texada I s l a n d . The number of 21 shipping points increased t o four i n 1959 and to s i x i n 1962 as new mines 22 were brought i n t o production on Vancouver Island (Figure l l ) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note therefore that the introduction of t h i s new item of commerce has, with the exception of Texada Island, resulted i n an expansion and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the commodity flow from the h i n t e r l a n d areas served by the two outports of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Most of the mines are worked by open p i t methods, and the magnetite ore i s u s u a l l y crushed and concentrated at the mine. The ore bodies are also favourably located f o r export shipments. Nimpkish Iron Mines L t d . were able to take advantage of the e x i s t i n g logging railway f a c i l i t i e s of Canadian Forest Products L t d . to move the concentrates t o the wharves at Beaver Cove; the i r o n mine on Texada Island i s located so close t o tidewater that a short conveyor system i s a l l that i s required to t r a n s f e r the concentrates from the concentrating plant to ships' holds; the other mines required only the construction of r e l a t i v e l y short t r u c k i n g roads t o connect the mines t o terminal shipping f a c i l i t i e s . The t y p i c a l i r o n ore shipping point on the P a c i f i c Coast consists of a wharf t o accommodate ocean-going vessels, and bulk loading equipment to f a c i l i t a t e low-cost t r a n s f e r operations. Despite the r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which i r o n concentrates can be shipped from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, the export movement has several problems t o surmount. Many of the ore bodies are of l i m i t e d extent as i s A d e t a i l e d l i s t of i r o n ore shipments from i n d i v i d u a l mines i s given i n Appendix IV. 2 2 F i g u r e 11 shows the l o c a t i o n of f i v e of the i r o n mines and associated shipping points on Vancouver and Texada Islands. The s i x t h mining operation i s at H a r r i e t Harbour on the south-eastern coast of Moresby Island i n the Queen Charlotte Islands. Shipments from t h i s mine began i n October 1962 and amounted t o 54,000 tons by the end of the year. exemplified by the Iron H i l l mine, where the economic l i m i t s of mining were reached i n 1957 and operations were closed down a f t e r s l i g h t l y more than 2,000,000 tons of concentrates had been shipped. The Hualapai mine never got f a r beyond the i n i t i a l development stage and exported only 25,000 tons of concentrates, and the recent temporary closure of the Zeballos project with a f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r debt a f t e r l e s s than one year's mining, bears witness t o the hazards surrounding such en t e r p r i s e s . Many of the mines are located i n rugged, mountainous t e r r a i n , experiencing high p r e c i p i t a t i o n , so that raging torrents may f l o o d the open p i t s or wash out the haulage roads. In a d d i t i o n , the overburden i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to s t r i p from the underlying ore, o r soon reaches thicknesses beyond economic l i m i t s . These hardships apart, the volume of concentrates shipped and the number of operating mines continues to increase. Active exploration i s annually adding to the proven reserves. The demand f o r i r o n ore i n Japan i s almost i n s a t i a b l e , and i s estimated to increase 3.8 times i f the target of 23 48 m i l l i o n tons of crude s t e e l i s t o be achieved by 1970. There appears to be every opportunity f o r i r o n ore shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia to increase i n volume over the next few years. Table X I I I shows that i n I960, Canadian exports s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e d only 7 per cent of the t o t a l Japanese i r o n ore imports. E x i s t i n g contracts between B r i t i s h Columbia ore producers and Japanese buyers are valued at $130,000,000, and involve approximately 13,000,000 tons of concentrates, with i n d i v i d u a l agreements covering periods 24 from one t o ten years. No marked increase i n the number of operating mines Japanese Industry 1961. op. c i t . , p. 47. 2^$525 m i l l i o n i n Minerals f o r Japan i n 10 years", The Vancouver  Sun. Vancouver, B.C., A p r i l 3, 1962. TABLE X I I I JAPAN: IRON ORE IMPORTS BY SOURCE AREAS, I960. Thousand Tons Percentage Malaya 5,354 36 Ind i a 2,502 16 Goa 1,999 13 P h i l l i p i n e s 1,212 8 Others 373 3 Tot a l - As i a 11,442 76 Canada 1,084 7 United States 825 5 South America 1,271 9 South A f r i c a 286 2 Others 129 _ 1 T o t a l - Others 3,594 24 Grand Total 15,036 100 Source: I n d u s t r i a l Japan '62, Dentsu Ad v e r t i s i n g Ltd., Tokyo, 1963, p. 55. 104 and shipping points i s r e a l l y to be an t i c i p a t e d , but rather some degree of consolidation i s l i k e l y to occur. The future i r o n ore export movement of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l probably originate from the operations at Texada, Kennedy Lake, and the Queen Charlotte Islands; operations which together account f o r 11,500,000 tons of the concentrates covered by e x i s t i n g agreements. 2^ THE COPPER ORE TRADE Exports of copper concentrates have formed a s i g n i f i c a n t item of commerce i n the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r more than h a l f a century. Two copper smelters were operated a t Ladysmith (Tyee) and Crofton, on Vancouver Island, during the f i r s t decade of t h i s century, processing the ores from many small mines on the south coast, and 26 p e r i o d i c a l l y importing small q u a n t i t i e s of ore from Mexico. The closure of these two smelters by 1911 made i t necessary f o r f u r t h e r copper production to be shipped outside the province to the Tacoma smelter. The e a r l y h i s t o r y of the copper export movement was dominated by the production of the B r i t a n n i a and Hidden Creek mines. The B r i t a n n i a ore body, on the eastern f l a n k of Howe Sound, was discovered i n 1888, but commercial development did not r e a l l y begin f o r a f u r t h e r two decades. In 1908 the mine passed under American c o n t r o l , (The Howe Sound Co. of New York), and, whereas previously small amounts of ore had been shipped to the Crofton smelter, the new company i n i t i a t e d a much l a r g e r movement to the Tacoma smelter. This short coastal export movement has dominated the t r a d i n g pattern of the 2 5 I b i d . 26 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report of the  M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1907, King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1908, p. 154. B r i t a n n i a mine through to the present day. In 1916, another shipping point was established t o develop the Hidden Creek ores on the western shores of Observatory I n l e t i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia. The Granby Mining Company b u i l t and operated a smelter at Anyox, and copper shipments brought a b r i e f period of prosperity to t h i s remote sect i o n of the northern outport. The smelter operated u n t i l 1935 shipping almost 300,000 tons of b l i s t e r copper (98$ Cu.) from Anyox to the 27 Laurel H i l l R e f i n i n g Company, Long Island, New York. With the closure of the Anyox smelter, the copper export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was confined l a r g e l y t o shipments from the B r i t a n n i a mine, with smaller i n t e r -mittent exports from minor producers on Vancouver Is l a n d . Copper production, and the export movement, has been i n t e n s i f i e d during the post-war period i n response to the demand f o r these ores i n the Japanese market. As a r e s u l t of t h i s demand the number of shipping points i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, exporting copper, has increased t o f i v e i n 1963. In 1962, the magnitude of the export movement amounted to almost 180,000 tons, more than 80 per cent of which was shipped t o Japan. Shipments from i n d i v i d u a l mines are given i n Table XIV. Concentrates from the Craigmont mine and the more recent production from the Bethlehem Copper mine near Ashcroft are shipped, by road and r a i l r e s p e c t i v e l y , to the bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s i n the port of Vancouver. Two mines on Vancouver Islan d are a l s o exporting copper concentrates to Japanese buyers through Duncan and Port M c N e i l l . The current dominance of the Japanese foreland overshadows the t r a d i t i o n a l flow pattern t o the Tacoma smelter which continues to absorb the B r i t a n n i a output and the secondary production of the Texada mine. Information obtained through personal communication with The Granby Mining Company Limited, January 15, 1963. 106 TABLE XIV SHIPMENTS OF COPPER CONCENTRATES FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1962 Company Craigmont Mines L t d . Howe Sound Company (B r i t a n n i a D i v i s i o n ) Texada Mines L t d . Vancouver Island: Cowichan Copper Co. Ltd. Coast Copper Co. L t d . Location  of Mine M e r r i t t B r i t a n n i a Beach Texada Island Jordan River Benson Lake Shipping Point Vancouver B r i t a n n i a Beach Texada Islan d Duncan Port McNeill Tonnage  Shipped 135,649 25,223 5,850 10,148 1,776 T o t a l 178,646 Cowichan Copper Company shipped concentrates from t h e i r Cowichan V a l l e y mine to Tacoma from 1954-57. Mining i s now at Jordan River and the concentrates are trucked 58 miles to Duncan f o r shipment to Japan. Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual Report of the M i n i s t e r of Mines f o r 1962. Queen 1s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., March 1963, pp. A47-A48. 107 An analogy can thus be drawn between the maritime exports of copper and i r o n from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Because both the ores have low metal content, conentration i s necessary before export. Moreover the continued prosperity of the export trade i n these two minerals appears t o be i r r e f u t a b l y l i n k e d with the Japanese demand. I f the current exploration programme reveals a d d i t i o n a l copper ore reserves, i t seems probable that a continued market w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n Japan. B r i t i s h Columbia producers enjoy a f i f t y cents per pound of copper ocean f r e i g h t rate advantage over Chilean competitors, and a l s o b e n e f i t from low rates on westbound shipments i n 28 Japanese v e s s e l s . The desire, on behalf of the Japanese, to minimize transportation costs, could w e l l be a key f a c t o r i n cons o l i d a t i n g the export movement from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia over the next few years. THE TRADE IN REFINED METALS In discussing the export movement of mineral concentrates, i t i s apparent that the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade generated by these commodities, are and always have been, r e l a t i v e l y simple. Moreover, these tr a d i n g patterns have been almost e x c l u s i v e l y confined to foreland areas bordering on the P a c i f i c Ocean. Such a s i t u a t i o n contrasts w i t h the maritime l i n k s developed by r e f i n e d metal shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Lead and Zinc Shipments. The discovery of a su i t a b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l f l o t a t i o n process i n 1920 f i n a l l y unlocked the p o t e n t i a l wealth of the great S u l l i v a n ore-body i n south-east B r i t i s h Columbia, and l e d to the phenomenal growth of the Consolidated Dubnie, A. op_. c i t . . p. 14. 108 Mining and Smelting Company (Cominco). Today t h i s great m e t a l l u r g i c a l complex, centred on the T r a i l smelter, produces about 6 per cent of the world's lead 29 and z i n c supply. Much of t h i s production i s d i s t r i b u t e d by r a i l t o markets on the North American continent, but some i s transported by r a i l to the P a c i f i c Coast t o enter i n t o the maritime export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1961 approximately 48 per cent of the Cominco lead and z i n c 30 production was channelled i n t o t h i s waterborne movement. The growth of t h i s export movement v i a the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i s shown i n Table XV. Beginning i n the e a r l y 1920's, the export movement gathered momentum i n response to the world demand f o r lead and z i n c metal. This demand was only p a r t i a l l y abated during the depression years, and water-borne shipments increased s t e a d i l y t o more than 300,000 tons i n 1939. The outbreak of the Second World War reduced the maritime trade t o l e s s than one---h a l f of the pre-war movement, and shipments remained at r e l a t i v e l y lower l e v e l s i n the immediate post-war years. Since 1952 exports of l e a d and zinc from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia have been strengthened, but the 182,000 tons shipped i n 1962 i s s t i l l considerably below the pre-war maximum of 1939. The primary shipping point f o r the lead and z i n c metal has always been located i n the Lower Mainland port complex. Both Vancouver and New Westminster are located at the t e r m i n i of r a i l connections with the T r a i l smelter, and commodity r a t e s , of SI.11 per 100 pounds, are i n e f f e c t on r e f i n e d 31 metal shipments from T r a i l to these ports. P r i o r to 1930 Vancouver was the oo The Cominco Story. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, T r a i l , B.C., 1959, p. 32. 30 J The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited, Annual Report f o r 1961, p. 4. Lead and z i n c production i n 1961 amounted to 366,014 tons. ^Dubnie, A. (±962), Transportation and the Competitive P o s i t i o n of  Selected Canadian Minerals, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mineral Survey 2, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 103. 109 TABLE XV LEAD AND ZINC BAR METAL SHIPMENTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (short tons) Year 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 Source: V i a New Westminster N i l 5,033 24,057 30,505 17,321 68,632 67,974 105,039 151,725 118,206 181,991 219,494 210,020 245,098 243,471 223,591 276,121 245,514 97,288 151,080 123,383 78,264 119,568 50,407 35,541 26,574 50,721 38,415 78,636 86,743 99,227 116,596 131,031 106,162 116,709 117,127 125,988 155,251 137,054 148,277 V i a  Vancouver ' 52,722 76,104 95,254 113,905 153,135 138,662 110,788 70,452 61,679 52,258 32,358 27,537 30,878 36,422 33,140 33,406 33,696 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1,343 13,652 n i l 5,114 5,315 14,964 5,593 3,601 14,739 12,961 27,253 17,130 16,184 11,123 30,615 37,533 34,043 Tot a l 52,722 81,137 119,311 144,410 171,056 207,294 175,762 175,491 213,404 170,464 214,349 247,031 240,898 281,520 276,611 256,997 309,817 245,514* 97,288* 151,080* 123,383* 78,264* 119,568* 51,750 49,193 26,574 55,835 43,730 93,600 92,336 102,828 131,355 143,992 133,415 133,839 133,311 137,111 185,866 174,587 182,320 Annual Reports of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange. * New Westminster shipments only; f i g u r e s obtained from the Annual Report of the New Westminster Harbour Commissioners f o r 1945. n.a. data not a v a i l a b l e 110 dominant shipping point (Table XV), but the a c q u i s i t i o n of P a c i f i c Coast Terminals on the Fraser River by Cominco, has re s u l t e d i n New Westminster becoming the leading point of exportation. Normally 80-90 per cent of the lead and z i n c shipments passes through the Fraser River port. The foreland patterns f o r lead and zinc exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia e x h i b i t a much greater degree of f l e x i b i l i t y than do ship-ments of mineral concentrates. Unlike the l a t t e r , the dominant forelands f o r lead and z i n c have always been located i n t r a n s - A t l a n t i c destinations. (Table XVI). European markets frequently accounted f o r more than 60 per cent of these exports during the 1920's, with the B r i t i s h market alone t a k i n g 35 per cent. Germany, Holland, France, Belgium and I t a l y were the other major r e c i p i e n t s 32 w i t h i n the European foreland. Trading patterns with the Orient were dominated by Japanese imports, i n d i v i d u a l l y the second most important market, with smaller q u a n t i t i e s going to China. Less than f i v e per cent of the lead and zin c exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was shipped to markets outside these two foreland areas. These d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of trade remained r e l a t i v e l y unchanged through to 1939. The outbreak of the Second World War, however , d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l e d shipments to Continental European and Ori e n t a l forelands. The r e l a t i v e dependence upon the B r i t i s h market was increased, and i n the war-time years, as much as 90 per cent of the lead and zi n c export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was taken by t h i s market. The only other s i g n i f i c a n t foreland f o r r e f i n e d metal shipments during t h i s period was Russia. •^Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, The Port of Vancouver Annual  Reports 1920-1929, Vancouver, B.C. Rel a t i v e importance of foreland areas c a l c u l a t e d from Vancouver shipments alone. ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Preliminary  Statement of External Trade through B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Ports f o r the Calendar Year 1943. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1944, p. 248. I l l TABLE XVI LEAD AND ZINC BAR METAL SHIPMENTS FROM THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DOMINANT FORELAND AREAS (short tons) Year T o t a l Europe Orient Others 1926 144,410 86,815 55,719 1,876 1927 171,056 121,217 48,825 1,014 1928 207,294 129,036 65,459 2,799 1929 175,762 115,173 56,449 7,140 1930 175,491 113,665 56,243 5,583 1931 213,404 159,800 45,775 7,829 1932 170,464 120,671 45,388 4,405 1933 214,349 152,335 55,587 6,427 1934 247,031 178,431 59,701 8,989 1935 240,898 186,439 49,050 2,409 1936 281,520 204,834 74,879 1,807 1937 276,611 207,457 66,564 2,590 1938 256,997 203,183 46,663 7,151 1939 309,817 222,892 75,991 10,934 Data f o r the years 1940-1945 not a v a i l a b l e . 1946 51,750 48,638 126 3,112 1947 49,193 43,374 - 5,692 1948 26,574 24,780 50 1,744 1949 55,835 50,456 1,157 4,222 1950 43,730 40,789 90 2,851 1951 93,600 92,336 82,665 520 10,415 1952 90,865 - 1,471 3,163 1953 102,828 98,121 1,544 1954 131,355 118,251 4,141 1,346 8,963 1955 143,992 138,037 4,609 1956 133,415 115,197 14,599 3,719 1957 133,839 117,595 12,210 4,034 1958 133,311 120,838 6,123 6,350 1959 137,111 127,733 2,860 6,518 I960 185,866 138,445 44,873 2,548 1961 174,587 123,839 46,290 4,458 1962 182,320 131,844 34,356 16,120 Source: Annual Reports of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange. Throughout the period since 1945, European markets have maintained t h e i r r o l e as the major t r a d i n g partners i n the r e f i n e d metal interactance pattern. Although shipments to the European foreland are s t i l l considerably below t h e i r 1939 l e v e l , they s t i l l account f o r more than 70 per cent of the t o t a l lead and z i n c exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Of the 132,000 tons shipped to Europe i n 1962, 116,000 tons went to the United Kingdom, 4,500 tons t o the Netherlands, and smaller q u a n t i t i e s to Belgium, Luxembourg, 34 I t a l y , Greece and Czechoslovakia. Exports to Asian markets were slow to recover a f t e r the war and the lead and z i n c trade to these countries s t i l l e x h i b i t s marked f l u c t u a t i o n s . India i s now the most important market, i n 1962 accounting f o r almost 80 per cent of the t o t a l lead and z i n c shipments t o t h i s foreland complex. Japanese imports declined considerably i n 1962 and amounted to only 6,000 tons. There has also been a noticeable a r e a l expansion i n the Asian foreland, and the P h i l l i p i n e s , Taiwan, Thailand and Hong Kong have become f a i r l y regular, a l b e i t minor, markets f o r lead and z i n c shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Aluminum Shipments. The abundant supply of power furnished by the Kemano hydro - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u i t a b l e f l a t land capable of accommodating an aluminum smelter and townsite, at the head of Douglas Channel, were key f a c t o r s which l e d to the development of a new shipping point i n the northern outport of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1954. The growth of Kitimat has introduced a new set of maritime t r a d i n g patterns t o the P a c i f i c Coast and brought a new item of commerce to i t s t r a d i n g s t r u c t u r e . B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Preliminary  Statement of External Trade through B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Ports f o r the  Calendar Year 1962, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1963, pp. 67-68. 113 The most s t r i k i n g e f f e c t of the Kitimat operations i s i t s emergence as the second most important centre of f o r e i g n imports i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The magnitude of t h i s import movement (357,000 tons i n 196l), was more than twice that of New Westminster and represented 16 per cent of the t o t a l maritime foreign imports of the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. The bulky nature of the bauxite and alumina requirements of the Kitimat smelter accounts f o r the s i z e of t h i s import movement. The major source of the bauxite supply i s Jamaica (80 per cent), the remainder coming from B r i t i s h Guiana, A u s t r a l i a and the United States. The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of aluminum shipments bears some a f f i n i t y to that of the lead and z i n c exports. In 1962, approximately one-35 h a l f of the aluminum was sent to European markets, p r i n c i p a l l y to the United Kingdom (44,000 tons) and Germany (13,000 tons). Hong Kong and Japan were the most important markets i n the Oriental foreland, which absorbed s l i g h t l y more than 10 per cent of the t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia aluminum exports. The United States, South A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and Mexico constituted the other s i g n i f i c a n t forelands. SUMMARY OP THE EXPORT MINERAL TRADE The above discussion of the mineral commodity trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia indicates that the current maritime export movement compares favourably with any other e a r l i e r period. Indeed, i t i s probable that the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of mineral products t o the t o t a l trading structure i s on the verge of a period of unprecedented expansion. The negotiation of new I b i d . , pp. 66-67. The f i g u r e s are based on aluminum shipments through a l l B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Ports. 114 and e x i s t i n g contracts i s evidence that the present volume of co a l , i r o n and copper shipments t o Japan w i l l at l e a s t be maintained over the next few years. The f a c t that 1962 was the f i r s t year of production f o r the Kennedy Lake and Jedway i r o n ore mines, and f o r the Bethlehem Copper mine, prophesies an even l a r g e r export movement i n these minerals i n the f u t u r e . In ad d i t i o n to the minerals mentioned above the trade i n f e r t i l i z e r s from the Cominco plant at T r a i l , limestone from Texada Island, n i c k e l from Hope, and asbestos from Cassiar, i l l u s t r a t e s the current d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the mineral export trade. The demand f o r many of these minerals i n Japan has been a key f a c t o r i n the promotion of t h i s expansion i n the export mineral trade. In the l a s t two years, however, another development has given added impetus to mineral shipments. P r i o r to 1 9 6 1 , with the exception of Alb e r t a coal moving under subvention, the majority of the minerals exported from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia originated w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l boundaries. Since 1961 the mineral h i n t e r l a n d has expanded eastward to include shipments of sulphur and potash from the P r a i r i e Provinces. The sulphur i s produced as a by-product of the A l b e r t a petroleum industry, and the potash o r i g i n a t e s i n the Esterhazy mines i n Saskatchewan. Both these commodities are transported by r a i l to the bulk loading f a c i l i t i e s at Port Moody and North Vancouver f o r shipment to fore i g n markets. This new export movement i s s t i l l i n i t s infancy, but i s fu r t h e r evidence that the export mineral trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l achieve even greater r e l a t i v e importance during the coming years. CHAPTER VI THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA IN RETROSPECT The preceding three chapters have portrayed the changing d i s t r i b -u t i o n a l patterns of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia with respect to s p e c i f i c commodities. This chapter presents a synthesis of the material included t h e r e i n , and, by adopting a macroscopic approach, traces the evolution and changing functions of the P a c i f i c Coast port over the past century. Unfortunately, d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g to the t o t a l volume of goods handled by the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the whole of t h i s period. The Shipping Report, f i r s t published by the Department of National Revenue i n 1917, provides the e a r l i e s t source from which a cont i n -uous record of the exact magnitude of the waterborne export movement can be compiled. P r i o r to t h i s date, one can only surmise and a r r i v e at general approximations to the patterns of growth. Figure 12 i s a composite graph therefore, based on d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s f o r the period 1917-1962, and on i n t u i t i v e reasoning f o r the period 1860-1916.1 From t h i s graph, the maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia can be subdivided i n t o four r e l a t i v e l y - d i s t i n c t phases: ( l ) a Phase of E a r l y Development p r i o r to the end of the F i r s t World War, and characterised by an absence of any marked f l u c t u a -t i o n s ; (2) a Phase of Expansion f o l l o w i n g the end of the F i r s t World War and *The period 1917-1962 i s also composite insomuch as the data f o r the years 1917-1940 i n c l u s i v e , are f o r the f i s c a l years ending March 31, as compiled by the Department of National Revenue and, a f t e r 1938, by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . The data f o r the period 1941-1962 are f o r calendar years. These two sets of data have been l i n k e d over the period April-December, 1940, to preserve c o n t i n u i t y of the graph. 117 terminated by the onset of the economic depression; (3) a Phase of Recession extending through the depression years t o the end of the Second World War; (4) a Phase of Post-War Growth beginning with the cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s , and continuing through t o the present. Within each of these phases, i t i s relevant to seek pertinent answers t o the f o l l o w i n g problems. What were the c h i e f commodities moved, and what was t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the t o t a l waterborne export movement? What were the dominant d i r e c t i o n a l patterns of commodity flow, and which were the most s i g n i f i c a n t overseas forelands f o r p r o v i n c i a l exports? The Phase of E a r l y Development. 1860-1918 The e a r l i e s t phase i n the h i s t o r y of f o r e i g n commerce on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast, i l l u s t r a t e s the c r u c i a l importance of maritime space to the inhabitants of the western l i t t o r a l . The f i r s t trade was i n o t t e r and other f u r s ; products of the sea which were transported across i t s surface to d i s t a n t markets. Ships brought the f i r s t major i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s to the province, i n t h e i r quest f o r gold i n the a l l u v i a l deposits of the Fraser River, and when co a l and lumber began to move to export markets, i t was the ocean highway that provided the v i t a l transportation l i n k between producer and buyer. The r o l e of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the i n i t i a l stages of the economic development of the province cannot be over-emphasized. Communication f a c i l i t i e s with the contiguous land areas of the continent were v i r t u a l l y non-ex i s t e n t ; there was no l a r g e , domestic market capable of absorbing the products of pioneer entrepreneurs, who were therefore compelled t o seek o u t l e t s i n f o r e i g n markets. Increased production was thus l a r g e l y a response t o external demand, and the c r e a t i o n of shipping points was of paramount importance to the export movement. 118 With the exception of the f u r - t r a d i n g epoch, the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia began i n the middle of the eighteenth century. The f i r s t shipping points were a l l located on Vancouver Island, associated with sawmills on the south and east coasts, and the coal mines i n the v i c i n i t y of Nanaimo. These e a r l y years however, were p r i m a r i l y a period of e x p l o i t a t i o n during which n e i t h e r the volume of lumber nor coal exported at t a i n e d very large q u a n t i t i e s , as both i n d u s t r i e s experienced s i m i l a r d i f f -i c u l t i e s i n accumulating adequate f i n a n c i a l support. The f i r s t r e a l growth of i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia began i n the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s , with the development of organized companies, backed by s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l , but, more important, possessing an awareness of the problems of marketing techniques. These new corporate structures were imperative f o r the expansion of the export movement. As noted i n the introductory comments to t h i s chapter, there i s a paucity of data r e l a t i n g to t h i s e a r l i e s t phase of the maritime foreign trade. Figure 12 shows thai; i n 1918, the t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia amounted to almost three m i l l i o n tons, with an approximate balance between export and import t r a f f i c . As t h i s t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the export trade, the phase of e a r l y development, between 1860 and 1918, incorporates an expansion of the outbound commodity flow of almost 1,500,000 tons. One can only surmise as to the exact pattern of growth between these two dates, but i t i s possible to e s t a b l i s h a few well-defined trends. Through-out these years, the staple commodities entering i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade of the P a c i f i c Coast port, were the products of f o r e s t and mine, p a r t i c u l a r l y lumber and c o a l . I t i s a c o r o l l a r y therefore that the t o t a l export trade must have c l o s e l y - r e f l e c t e d the patterns exhibited by shipments of these two items of commerce. Consequently, from the more-detailed 119 information obtained r e f e r r i n g to coal and lumber shipments, i t i s possible to shed some l i g h t on the o v e r a l l growth of the export movement during t h i s phase. The maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia increased s t e a d i l y u n t i l the turn of the century (Figure 12), as l a r g e r quan-t i t i e s of coal and lumber were shipped to foreign markets. T o t a l waterborne exports increased to 500,000 tons by 1890, and surpassed the one m i l l i o n ton mark by 1900. The mainstay of t h i s outward commodity flow was the export of c o a l , shipments of which amounted to more than 900,000 tons i n 1900, compared 2 to approximately 175,000 tons of lumber. The decade 1900-1910 must have been accompanied by a decline i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast, as the export trade i n both coal and lumber decreased. Coal exports dropped sharply to l e s s than one-half of t h e i r previous peak values, as C a l i f o r n i a f u e l o i l captured markets formerly sustaining the coal mining industry. Waterborne lumber shipments declined f o r e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t reasons. The advent of the transcontinental railway i n 1886 a l t e r e d the pattern of m o b i l i t y i n continental space, and the i n f l u x of farmers to the P r a i r i e Provinces at the turn of the century, provided an a l t e r n a t i v e market f o r the lumber shipments, to the detriment of the waterborne export movement. As a d i r e c t consequence of these f a c t o r s , the steady expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was halted, and was replaced by a period of stagnation, or s l i g h t decline, during the f i r s t decade of t h i s century. This decline was followed by a r e v i v a l of shipping a c t i v i t y as the opening of the Panama Canal, and the introduction of new items of commerce, Annual coal exports from Vancouver Islan d are given i n Appendix IV. Lumber shipments are u s u a l l y expressed i n feet board measure (Appendix I I I ) . These may be converted to tons by using the conversion f a c t o r of 1,000 f.b.m. =1.7 short tons. Information obtained i n personal communic-at i o n w i t h Seaboard Lumber Sales Co. L t d . , Vancouver, January 27, 1964. 120 helped to s w e l l the volume of goods exported from the P a c i f i c Coast port. The e f f e c t of these new developments, however, was delayed by the outbreak of the F i r s t World War, and the slow expansion of the export movement, shown i n Figure 12, i s best interpreted as a t r a n s i t i o n a l period leading to the phase of expansion. The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping P o i n t s . The number of shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s phase of e a r l y development, and t h e i r l o c a t i o n , c l o s e l y - r e f l e c t e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of n a t u r a l resources. Coal deposits on Vancouver Isla n d , and large stands of v i r g i n timber, were located close to tidewater, and the number of shipping points f l u c t u a t e d according to the number of operating mines and m i l l s . Apart from a few sporadic shipments of metal concentrates and lumber, the whole of the northern coast contributed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e to the e a r l y growth of the export movement, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y was l a r g e l y confined to shipping points s i t u a t e d on the S t r a i t of Georgia; w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the present core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The core region exhibited i t s bi-nodal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s during t h i s phase of e a r l y development, with two n u c l e i of shipping a c t i v i t y centred on the Lower Mainland and the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . Table XVII provides a measure of the r e l a t i v e importance of these two f o c i of foreign commerce i n 1911. Vancouver Islan d shipping points accounted f o r two-thirds of the water-borne export movement, p r i n c i p a l l y as a r e s u l t of the coal trade. Nanaimo was the l a r g e s t of the ports w i t h i n t h i s grouping, and the second-largest on the P a c i f i c Coast, but as production spread to other c o a l f i e l d s , export shipments were channelled through new o u t l e t s at Union Bay and Ladysmith. Exports of lumber provided the most important cargoes loaded at Chemainus, V i c t o r i a and Sidney. Vancouver r a p i d l y emerged as the dominant shipping point i n the Lower 121 TABLE XVII DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SHIPPING POINTS WITHIN THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1911 Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s A. SOUTH COAST (South of Lat. 50°N) Exports Imports T o t a l 1. South Coast Mainland Lover Mainland Vancouver New Westminster White Rock 288,887 49,246 6,228 334,136 7,368 94 623,023 56,614 6,322 Tot a l - South Coast Mainland 344,361 341,598 685,959 2. East Coast Vancouver Islan d Nanaimo Union Bay Ladysmith V i c t o r i a Chemainus Sidney 366,952 142,561 86,754 19,792 46,845 6,742 15,917 138 16,534 57,234 1,000 1,460 382,869 142,699 103,288 77,026 47,845 8,202 To t a l - Vancouver Islan d 669,646 92,283 761,929 TOTAL - SOUTH COAST 1,014,007 433,881 1,447,888 B. NORTH COAST (North of Lat. 50°N) 1. North Coast Mainland Prince Rupert S t i k i n e Port Simpson 234 6 20 33,304 519 53 33,538 525 73 TOTAL - NORTH COAST 260 33,876 34,136 TOTAL - PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1,014,267 467,757 1,482,024 Source: R.E. Gosnell, Yearbook of B r i t i s h Columbia 1911, V i c t o r i a , B.C., p. 321. 122 Mainland port-complex, and also as the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l port on the P a c i f i c Coast. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t to note however, that i t was only able to assume t h i s r o l e , and surpass older-established ports, because of the magnitude of the i n -ward commodity flow which represented more than two-thirds of the t o t a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne imports i n t o the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia (Table X V I I ) . Vancouver's l o c a t i o n at the terminus of the transcontinental railway, upon which ocean l i n e r s converged b r i n g i n g valuable cargoes of O r i e n t a l , t e a and s i l k f o r transhipment to the east coast, a s s i s t e d the growth of t h i s import movement. Export Forelands during the Phase of E a r l y Development. The major export forelands of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, throughout t h i s phase, were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y confined to markets i n and around the P a c i f i c Basin. Small q u a n t i t i e s of g r a i n and lumber were shipped v i a Cape Horn and across the A t l a n t i c Ocean to the united Kingdom, but the route was extremely c i r c u i t o u s and, i n the days of s a i l i n g vessels, both c o s t l y and time-consuming. The main a r t e r y of commodity flow was southward to C a l i f o r n i a , and consisted mainly of coal exports. D i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of lumber shipments were more extensive, but not as intensive as coal t r a f f i c , being handicapped by the better-organized and highly-competetive f o r e s t industry i n the P a c i f i c Northwest States. A u s t r a l i a was the most consistent and important of the lumber forelands, which also included C h i l e , Peru, China, Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands. The Phase of Expansion 1919-1929 Even the most cursory perusal of the graph (Figure 12), j u s t i f i e s the recognition of t h i s decade as a d i s t i n c t phase i n the h i s t o r y of maritime f o r e i g n commerce on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. During t h i s phase, the maritime intercourse of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia experienced a tremendous 123 growth as new forces d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d patterns of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y on land and sea. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the Cape Horn route was the p r i n c i p a l maritime approach to the P a c i f i c Ocean, but i t s importance as an ocean highway v i r -t u a l l y disappeared i n 1914. The opening of the Panama Canal, i n August of that year, revolutionized shipping trade and routes, and stimulated a vast increase i n cargo t r a f f i c . By reducing distances across maritime space, the new waterway generated the f i r s t s u b s t a n t i a l , commodity interactance between P a c i f i c and A t l a n t i c nations, and the populous markets of Europe and the Eastern United States became i n t e g r a l parts of the export foreland of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. At the same time, m o b i l i t y i n maritime space was improved by the replacement of the picturesque s a i l i n g c l i p p e r s by more-businesslike steamships: vessels capable of t r a v e l l i n g at higher speeds and" carrying much l a r g e r cargoes. The increases i n trade were not s o l e l y a r e s u l t of bigger and b e t t e r connections across the high seas. Whereas previously the trans-continental railway had been used to t r a n s f e r lumber to the P r a i r i e s , and a few luxury items f u r t h e r east, i t now became a valuable transportation route f o r the westward movement of bulk commodities. In t h i s way, grain from the P r a i r i e s , and lead and zinc from the T r a i l smelter, helped to d i v e r s i f y the commodity structure of the P a c i f i c Coast port's export trade. The h i n t e r l a n d area of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia thus expanded eastward to incorporate large areas of A l b e r t a and Central Saskatchewan, and was no longer r e s t r i c t e d , as a source of outbound commerce, to a narrow f r i n g e zone bordering the western seaboard. This same f r i n g e zone however also contributed to the growth of i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade. Technological developments and the i n f l u x of American c a p i t a l , coupled with important changes i n the United States' t a r i f f s t ructure, stimulated an expansion of the f o r e s t industry. Waterborne lumber 124 shipments rose to unprecedented l e v e l s , and the growth of the pulp and paper industry introduced new items of commerce. As a r e s u l t of these developments, the maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was g r e a t l y increased. P r i o r to 1920, expansion was r e l a t i v e l y slow as engineering d i f f i c u l t i e s , and the s c a r c i t y of shipping, prevented f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the Panama route, and the e f f e c t s of wartime h o s t i l i t i e s disrupted i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade. Between 1920 and 1929 however, the province's maritime foreign trade increased from 2,5 to 8.0 m i l l i o n tons (Figure 12): an increase of 5,5 m i l l i o n tons or 220 per cent. The s i g n i f i c -ance of these f i g u r e s becomes more apparent when i t i s r e a l i s e d that t h i s expansion of trade, over the nine-year period, was more than double that of the preceding seventy years. Figure 12 a l s o i n d i c a t e s that the expansion was l a r g e l y a response to greater export shipments. Waterborne fo r e i g n imports increased only s l i g h t l y from 1.1 to 1.7 m i l l i o n tons, while exports increased 3 r a p i d l y from 1.5 to 6.3 m i l l i o n tons. I t i s evident therefore, that, during the phase of expansion, the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia q u i c k l y acquired i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a c k of balance between inward and outward commodity flow. The augmentation of maritime intercourse was accompanied by a marked change i n the commodity structure of waterborne exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Whereas the phase of e a r l y development was based mainly on the coal trade, the absolute and r e l a t i v e importance of mineral shipments experienced a sharp decline during the phase of expansion. Competition from C a l i f o r n i a f u e l o i l , i n both export and bunker markets, became more intense and coal shipments f e l l to l i t t l e more than 100,000 short tons i n 1929. The d e c l i n i n g coal shipments were p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by greater exports of Detailed s t a t i s t i c s of annual export and import tonnages of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia are given i n Appendix 71. 125 copper concentrates and lead and zi n c metal. The lumber trade expanded as new export m i l l s came i n t o production, and waterborne lumber shipments i n -creased to 800 m i l l i o n feet board measure i n 1929. Coastal pulp and paper m i l l s added greater d i v e r s i t y to the trade i n f o r e s t products. This growth of the export trade i n f o r e s t products was r i v a l l e d only by the spectacular development of grain shipments from the P a c i f i c Coast. The proven s u i t a b i l i t y of the Panama Canal route f o r bulk grain cargoes, the pro v i s i o n of elevators and a modification of the previously unfavourable r a i l f r e i g h t structure, helped to swel l the magnitude of the westward grain movement from n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t i e s i n 1921 to more than 104 m i l l i o n bushels i n 1928. An analysis of the commodity shipments permits an approximate evaluation of the changing operational functions of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during the phase of expansion. Of the 5.0 m i l l i o n ton expansion i n maritime foreign export t r a f f i c between 1920 and 1929, i t can be estimated that f u l l y 85 per cent of t h i s t o t a l can be a t t r i b u t e d to advances i n grain and lumber shipments alone. In t h i s nine-year period, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l sea-borne commerce i n these two commodities increased by 3.15 and 1.05 m i l l i o n 4 tons r e s p e c t i v e l y . These f i g u r e s suggest that although P r a i r i e grain only began to flow westward i n appreciable q u a n t i t i e s i n 1921, i t r a p i d l y became the most-important, s i n g l e item of commerce on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. Unlike the phase of e a r l y development therefore, the phase of expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia was based on the introduction of a new, export commodity, gr a i n , and increased exports of the older-established lumber trade. The f i g u r e f o r grain shipments i s obtained by using an approx-imate conversion f a c t o r of 33.2 bushels of wheat are equivalent to one short ton. Information obtained i n personal communication with the Weighmaster, Board of Grain Commissioners, Vancouver, January 27, 1964. 126 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping Points. This phase of greatly-augmented, maritime intercourse p r e c i p i t a t e d an increase i n the number of shipping points on the western l i t t o r a l . Powell River, Ocean P a l l s and Quatsino were the most important new ports created by the construction of pulp and paper m i l l s , while Port A l b e m i and Englewood developed to serve the t h r i v i n g lumber trade. Strong demands f o r metal concentrates, p a r t i c u l a r l y copper, stimulated greater exports from the B r i t a n n i a mine, and gave b i r t h to the development of a new town and port at Anyox on the northern coast. However, as Table XVIII shows, most of the b e n e f i t s associated with the increase i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y accrued to p r e - e x i s t i n g shipping points, e s p e c i a l l y those i n the Lower Mainland area. A regional d i s t r i b u t i o n of the quantitative changes i n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y (Table X V I I I ) , i l l u s t r a t e s that 87 per cent of the expansion i n maritime foreign trade was captured by shipping points located on the mainland section of the core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. This focus of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y r a p i d l y outgrew i t s r i v a l focus, across the S t r a i t of Georgia, as the Lower Mainland became the only important o u t l e t f o r the new export trade i n grain and r e f i n e d metals, and was also the most important source of the increased lumber shipments. Vancouver alone handled more than 78 per cent of the t o t a l increase, and emerged as the undoubted premier shipping point w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The growth of New Westminster r e f l e c t e d the emergence of the Fraser River as one of the most important centres of the sawmilling industry, while increased exports of newsprint, copper concentrates and limestone, from Powell River, B r i t a n n i a Beach and Blubber Bay r e s p e c t i v e l y , were other minor forces which combined to help s h i f t the mercantile crown across the S t r a i t of Georgia. Eastern Vancouver Islan d shipping points d i d not gain an appreciable share of 127 TABLE XVIII DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SHIPPING POINTS WITHIN THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1919 AND 1929 A. SOUTH COAST (South of L a t . 50°N) 1. South Coast Mainland Lower Mainland Vancouver New Westminster Others Other Mainland Ports B r i t a n n i a Beach Powell River Texada Island T o t a l - South Coast Mainland Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s 1912 1222 1,466,508 12,278 12,786 1,491,572 101,069 58,447 159,516 1,651,088 5,849,261 332,292 563 6,182,116 201,063 101,362 302,425 23,845 6,508,386 2. East Coast Vancouver I s l a n d Nanaimo Union Bay Ladysmith V i c t o r i a Chemainus Sidney 252,847 186,764 75,106 137,627 29,535 15,938 128,700 52,977 50,188 214,374 275,553 22,902 697,817 744,694 Pprt A l b e r n i 2,751 270,395 Bamfield - Kildonan - 29,112 2,751 299,507 TOTAL - SOUTH COAST 2,351,656 7,552,587 128 TABLE XVIII (continued) "Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s B. NORTH COAST (North of Lat . 50°N) ^ 1. Northern Vancouver Island A l e r t Bay 9,616 8,046 Englewood - 98,132 Quatsino - 49,315 9,616 155,493 2. North Mainland Coast Prince Rupert 51,192 163,698 Ocean F a l l s 97,815 82,993 Anyox - 119,258 Stewart - 5,211 149,007 371,160 TOTAL - NORTH COAST 158,623 526,653 TOTAL - PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 2,510,279 8,079,240 Source: Canada, Department of National Revenue, Shipping Reports f o r the  F i s c a l Years 1919-1920 and 1928-1929,gKing's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 129 t h i s expansion i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y . Indeed, Nanaimo, Union Bay and Ladysmith a l l experienced a l o s s of trade as coal exports, the mainstay of t h e i r commercial prosperity, were progressively reduced. The small increase i n maritime foreign trade which d i d accrue to the ports w i t h i n t h i s grouping, was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of greater lumber shipments from Chemainus and, to a l e s s e r extent, V i c t o r i a . The cargo tonnage dispatched from the area served by the two outports also increased during the phase of expansion. Absolute gains, though small compared to those of the Lower Mainland, were much greater than those experienced by the group of shipping points on the east coast of Vancouver Isla n d . I nternational shipping a c t i v i t y i n the A l b e r n i Canal area was c h i e f l y a response to the reopening of a lumber m i l l at Port A l b e r n i . Trade i n f o r e s t products was also the motivating force f o r the growth of export shipments from Englewood, Quatsino and Ocean F a l l s . Prince Rupert developed as the terminus of the Grand Trunk Railway, completed i n 1914, while Anyox and Stewart were a consequence of mining developments on the northern coast. These trends are summarized ca r t o g r a p h i c a l l y i n Figure 13, which shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t i v e importance of shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the f i s c a l year 1928-29. The undisputed dominance of Vancouver i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , as i t handled almost eighteen times the volume of cargo handled by any other i n d i v i d u a l shipping point on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast. Although i t must be conceded that the growth of the grain trade was the most important, s i n g l e , contributory f a c t o r to the expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s phase, i t s e f f e c t on the i n d i v i d u a l shipping points was extremely l o c a l -i s e d . Of the f i f t e e n major shipping points shown i n Figure 13, only two, Vancouver and Prince Rupert, had grain as t h e i r dominant export commodity. 131 By way of contrast, the e f f e c t of the expansion of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y stemming from the increased foreign trade i n f o r e s t products, was much more widely disseminated, and eight of the shipping points had f o r e s t products as t h e i r dominant export commodity. Five of these, New Westminster, Chemainus, V i c t o r i a , Port A l b e r n i and Englewood, were p r i m a r i l y exporters of lumber, while newsprint and pulp were the most important items of commerce shipped from Powell River, Ocean F a l l s and Quatsino. Five of the shipping points had mineral trade dominating the export movement, i n c l u d i n g coal from Nanaimo, Union Bay and Ladysmith, and copper from Anyox and B r i t a n n i a Beach. Export Forelands during the Phase of Expansion. The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h i s phase of expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, would have been l e s s e f f e c t i v e had they not been coupled with an extremely favourable t r a d i n g environment, caused by a r i s i n g demand i n world markets. The influence of t h i s demand i s r e f l e c t e d i n the changing d i r e c t i o n a l patterns of commodity flow emanating from the P a c i f i c Coast port. Once again however, caution must be exercised i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the quantitative values given below, f o r , i n the absence of complete and d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g to maritime foreign trade, the values suggested f o r shipments to s p e c i f i c foreland areas represent approximations based on a knowledge of export trends i n the commodities studied i n the preceding three chapters. The opening of the Panama Canal permitted an expansion of the export foreland of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia from i t s e a r l y P a c i f i c nucleus to one of worldwide extent. Indeed, the new waterway r a p i d l y became the most s i g n i f i c a n t avenue of commerce f o r waterborne shipments from Canada's western seaboard, as i s i n d i c a t e d by the expansion of trade with European countries, and the United Kingdom i n p a r t i c u l a r . Wartime devastation created havoc with the European economy, and, with the gradual abandonment of p o l i c i e s of 132 economic s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , the post-war economic recovery programme created a large demand f o r food and b u i l d i n g m aterials. In 1929 i t i s estimated that European markets took more than 2.7 m i l l i o n tons, or 43 per cent, of the t o t a l maritime f o r e i g n export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The bulk of t h i s commodity flow was composed of t r a f f i c i n grain (2.47 m i l l i o n tons), destined f o r the B r i t i s h market, along with smaller q u a n t i t i e s of lumber, lea d and z i n c . The Panama Canal route was also an important transportation l i n k with foreland markets i n the Eastern United States. A depletion of l o c a l timber resources, coupled with a reduction of the quantity of timber a v a i l -able f o r import from Eastern Canada, made t h i s foreland the l a r g e s t r e c i p i e n t of p r o v i n c i a l waterborne lumber shipments. The magnitude of t h i s export movement increased to approximately 650,000 tons i n 1929. To t h i s f i g u r e can be added the shipment of b l i s t e r copper from Anyox. These conservative estimates show that the Panama Canal route r a p i d l y became the most important section of maritime space f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l waterborne exports from the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast and, i n 1929, handled at l e a s t 3.5 m i l l i o n tons, or 55 per cent of the t o t a l export trade. Maritime intercourse with the American P a c i f i c Coast States continued to be important during the phase of expansion, despite marked changes i n the commodity interactance patterns. C a l i f o r n i a continued to import small amounts of Vancouver Island c o a l , but t h i s southward, export movement was gr e a t l y diminished, and gradually replaced by a northward, import flow of f u e l o i l . The decrease i n coal shipments was p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t by the growth of newsprint exports. A much smaller flow pattern involved the export of coal to the Puget Sound area, and the shipment of copper concentrates from the B r i t a n n i a mine, and other small mines, to the Tacoma smelter. The geographical l o c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, bordering on the 133 P a c i f i c Ocean, would seem to make P a c i f i c nations l o g i c a l o u t l e t s f o r export shipments from t h i s province. Although there was an absolute gain on:-the commodity flow to t h i s foreland area, the r e l a t i v e importance of markets s i t -uated i n and around the P a c i f i c Basin declined considerably. The t o t a l volume of trade with the Orient was suppressed by the adherence to t r a d i t i o n a l r i c e d i e t s , which l i m i t e d the growth of grain exports, and by the lack of s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l to finance greater imports. Consequently i n 1929, Oriental markets took approximately 1.2 m i l l i o n tons, or only 20 per cent, of a l l maritime foreign exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. This figure included 730,000 tons of grain and f l o u r , 400,000 tons of lumber, as w e l l as minor qua n t i t i e s of pulp, lead and z i n c . P a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy was the increase i n lumber and grain shipments to Japan. Small absolute gains were also experienced i n commodity shipments to other forelands i n the P a c i f i c Basin, e s p e c i a l l y to A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and the P h i l l i p i n e Islands. In summary, the phase of expansion of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, between 1919 and 1929, was based on the expansion and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the trade i n f o r e s t products, and, a f t e r 1921, on the spectacular development of the western grain route. The opening of the Panama Canal completely a l t e r e d the patterns of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n maritime space, and, throughout t h i s phase, the commodity flow through the new waterway dominated the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of foreign exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Mainly as a r e s u l t of the grain trade, the United Kingdom emerged as the most-important, i n d i v i d u a l , export foreland, but the s i g n i f i c -ance of A t l a n t i c markets was f u r t h e r emphasised as the Eastern United States became the most-important destination f o r the province's waterborne lumber shipments. Despite the decreased dependence upon markets wi t h i n the P a c i f i c Basin, the export trade to t h i s foreland exhibited an absolute increase. A 134 strong flow was maintained t o the American P a c i f i c Coast States, as newsprint and copper supplanted the e a r l i e r t r a f f i c i n c o a l , and a p o s i t i v e trend was also maintained i n export shipments to A u s t r a l a s i a . Increased interactance across the Northern P a c i f i c Ocean, created a s i t u a t i o n whereby Japan c l o s e l y r i v a l l e d the United States as the second-largest, i n d i v i d u a l foreland f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Phase of Recession. 1930-1945 The years between 1930 and 1945 witnessed marked f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, as f i r s t depression, and l a t e r war, profoundly influenced world commodity trade. Both events l e d to an abandonment of the healthy free-trade p o l i c i e s of the 1920's, and world trade dwindled as p r e f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f s were introduced to encourage and protect domestic production. The e f f e c t s on maritime trade were fu r t h e r com-p l i c a t e d by the h i g h l y - v a r i a b l e nature of ocean f r e i g h t r a t e s . During the depression, an excess of shipping capacity, r e l a t i v e to demand, made ocean f r e i g h t rates low and r e l a t i v e l y u n p r o f i t a b l e , while the wartime shortage of 5 vessels created abnormally high transportation costs on the high seas. The onset of the economic depression i n the l a t t e r part of 1929, brought an abrupt h a l t to the phase of expansion (Figure 12), as the t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia dropped sharply by 1.4 m i l l i o n tons. T o t a l trade continued to decline u n t i l 1934, when a return of more normal trading conditions ushered i n a new era of expansion. The water-borne export movement regained some of i t s former prominence, and, i r o n i c a l l y , the volume of trade i n 1937 was s l i g h t l y higher than the peak value of the ''The e f f e c t s of ocean f r e i g h t rates can be i l l u s t r a t e d by g r a i n rates from the P a c i f i c Coast to the United Kingdom. In 1933, the average cost was 12.328 cents/bushel; i n 1943, 69.792 cents/bushel; and i n 1963, 24.852 cents/bushel. 135 e a r l i e r phase of expansion. This r e v i v a l was only temporary, however, f o r the outbreak of the Second World War again caused a sharp drop i n export shipments and t o t a l maritime trade f e l l t o l i t t l e more than 5.0 m i l l i o n tons i n 1943. Within the short space of a decade and a h a l f , the phase of expansion became l i t t l e more than a t h i n g of the past, and the maritime f o r e i g n trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia showed l i t t l e or no advance over the 1920 t o t a l . Figure 12 shows that these f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the amount of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y on the P a c i f i c Coast c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the changing fortunes of the export movement, which continued t o exceed the import movement by a r a t i o of approximately three to one. Generalizations are d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h i n a phase wrought by such marked f l u c t u a t i o n s , but a broad a n a l y s i s of the commodity structure of t h i s export flow shows that the major cause of the decline i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, during the phase of recession, was the v i r t u a l e l i m i n a t i o n of the g r a i n trade. A comparison of the two years 1929 and 1943, indicates a decrease i n the outward commodity flow of approximately 4.5 m i l l i o n tons. The decrease i n the grain trade over the same period amounted t o s l i g h t l y more than 3.0 m i l l i o n tons. In part t h i s f i g u r e r e f l e c t s not simply a weaker demand f o r grain, but the f a c t that during these years of d i f f i c u l t y , beset by unfavourable ocean f r e i g h t r a t e s , l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s of Canadian grain were diverted t o Eastern Canadian ports t o take advantage of the shorter sea haul t o the B r i t i s h market. The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping P o i n t s . The e f f e c t s of depression and war on the i n d i v i d u a l shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia are shown i n Table XIX. Comparison with Table XVIII shows the most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of these two events was a marked decline i n the 136 TABLE XIX, DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OP SHIPPING POINTS WITHIN THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1934 AND 1943 A. SOUTH COAST (South of L a t . 50°N) . 1. South Coast Mainland , Lower Mainland , Vancouver New Westminster Others Other Mainland Ports B r i t a n n i a Beach Powell River Texada Island T o t a l - South Coast Mainland Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s 1934 1943 3,809,977 744,735 90 4,554,802 96,782 136,169 232,951 14,726 4,802,479 1,786,679 420,101 2,206,780 53,159 33,685 86,844 51,630 2,345,254 2. East Coast Vancouver Islan d Nanaimo Union Bay V i c t o r i a Chemainus Sidney 48,387 31,351 238,776 359,529 15,352 46,220 12,043 153,466 93,871 3,000 693,395 308,600 3. Port A l b e r n i 272,488 300,711 Bamfield - Kildonan 4,278 201 276,766 300,912 TOTAL - SOUTH COAST 5,772,640 2,954,766 137 TABLE XIX. (continued) B. NORTH COAST (North of Lat . 50°N) 1. Northern Vancouver I s l a n d 2. North Mainland Coast Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s 1224 1943 A l e r t Bay - 487 Englewood 42,317 Quatsino 32,174 14,688 74,491 15,175 Prince Rupert 17,633 80,262 Ocean P a l l s 56,137 17,129 Anyox 1,447 Stewart 23,898 6,365 Others 412 99,527 103,756 TOTAL - NORTH COAST 174,018 118,931 TOTAL - PORT OP BRITISH COLUMBIA 5,946,658 3,075,101 Sources: Canada, Department of National Revenue. Shipping Report f o r the  F i s c a l Year 1933-54, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1934. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Report f o r 1945. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1944. 138 absolute and r e l a t i v e importance of Vancouver. The t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the P a c i f i c Coast port f e l l from 8.0 m i l l i o n tons i n 1929, to 5.9 m i l l i o n tons i n 1934, and 3.1 m i l l i o n tons i n 1943: the f i g u r e s f o r Vancouver i n the same years were 5.8, 3.8 and 1.8 m i l l i o n tons r e s p e c t i v e l y . Thus f u l l y 80 per cent of the decrease i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l , seaborne commerce was a r e s u l t of reduced commodity flow through Vancouver. The reason f o r t h i s i s evident as Vancouver was p r a c t i c a l l y the only port to s u f f e r by the l o s s of the g r a i n trade. Most of the other shipping points also experienced a progressive con-t r a c t i o n of t h e i r outward commodity flow, but the e f f e c t s were l e s s pronounced because most of these ports depended on the r e l a t i v e l y - s t a b l e lumber trade f o r t h e i r commercial prosperity. The coal shipping ports on Vancouver Island continued to decline as the demand f o r coal was f u r t h e r reduced, and the exhaustion of e x p l o i t a b l e resources l e d to the closure of Anyox i n 1935. The core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia retained i t s r o l e as the most important focus of shipping a c t i v i t y on the P a c i f i c Coast, and a c t u a l l y increased i n r e l a t i v e importance. In 1943, 2.6 out of the t o t a l 3.1 m i l l i o n tons of maritime foreign trade, or 84 per cent, was handled by ship-ping points circumjacent to the S t r a i t of Georgia; compared to 75 per cent i n 1929. Vancouver continued to dominate a l l other shipping points despite the l o s s of the grain trade, accounting f o r almost 60 per cent of the t o t a l maritime foreign trade, but t h i s f i g u r e was now only four times greater than that of the second-largest shipping point, New Westminster. The f a c t that Vancouver handled almost 90 per cent of a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l , seaborne imports i n t o the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, compared to only one-third of the exports, enabled i t to maintain t h i s dominant p o s i t i o n . Export Forelands during the Phase of Recession. The changing d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of waterborne exports from the Port of B r i t i s h 139 Columbia during t h i s phase, may best be described i n terms of a progressive dependence on shipments to Commonwealth countries, and the United Kingdom i n p a r t i c u l a r . As noted previously, the free-trade p o l i c i e s of the 1920's were abandoned i n favour of p o l i c i e s of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , so that foreign imports i n t o many countries were e i t h e r completely excluded or d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. The e f f e c t of these t a r i f f structures had a marked influence on the d i r e c t i o n a l patterns of commodity flow from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The imposition of a t a r i f f against imported timber supplies i n t o the United States i n 1930, and again i n 1932, r e s u l t e d i n a r a p i d decrease i n waterborne lumber shipments, and, with the closure of the Anyox smelter i n 1935, the Eastern United States was v i r t u a l l y excluded from the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of export forelands associated with the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. Exports to Commonwealth countries increased as a r e s u l t of the p r e f e r e n t i a l t a r i f f agreements signed i n 1932. The most-significant e f f e c t of t h i s agreement on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast, was the expansion of lumber shipments to the United Kingdom (Figure 5), and, to a l e s s e r extent, to A u s t r a l i a and South A f r i c a . Apart from the lumber shipments to A u s t r a l i a , and the flow of newsprint to the American P a c i f i c Coast, exports to forelands i n the P a c i f i c Basin dwindled to n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t i e s . O r i e ntal countries were p a r t i c u l a r l y a ffected by the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s during the depression, and the allegiance of Japan with the German forces, and subsequent t r a n s f e r of wartime acti o n to the Northern P a c i f i c , l e d to an almost complete exclusion of these forelands from the t r a d i n g patterns. The combination of f i f t e e n years of depression and war thus exerted a profound influence on the magnitude, commodity structure and d i s -t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of export shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. 140 Unlike the preceding phase of expansion, the mainstay of the waterborne export movement was l a r g e l y dependent upon t r a f f i c i n f o r e s t products, esp-e c i a l l y lumber which, at the height of the war, accounted f o r almost 75 per cent of a l l maritime, foreign exports from the P a c i f i c Coast. The d r a s t i c reduction i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y , p r i m a r i l y due to the l o s s of the grain trade, was accompanied by only a s l i g h t change i n the number of shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, as exports were terminated from Anyox, Englewood and Ladysmith. An unfavourable t r a d i n g environment caused a notable contraction i n the areal extent of the export forelands, and a reduction or complete e x t i n c t i o n of many of the flow patterns. The dominant d i r e c t i o n a l pattern of commodity flow, as i n the preceding phase of expansion, was s t i l l southward through the Panama Canal, but i t now consisted c h i e f l y of lumber shipments destined f o r the United Kingdom. The Phase of Post-War Growth. 1946-1962. The r e v i v a l of the maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia a c t u a l l y began during the l a t t e r stages of the Second World War (Figure 12), and, with few exceptions, the p o s i t i v e trend has been maintained throughout the post-war period. This f i n a l episode i n the h i s t o r y of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l maritime commerce on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast bears many resemb-lances to the phase of expansion i n the 1920's. Both phases e x h i b i t s i m i l a r average growth ra t e s , a s i m i l a r dependence on the expansion of the export movement, and i n each case gr a i n shipments contributed to the l a r g e s t increases i n trade. The major contrast i s one of degree; the most recent phase having been sustained over a much greater number of years. T o t a l foreign trade increased slowly at f i r s t (Figure 12), as economic conditions s t i l l r e f l e c t e d the aftermath of the war, but the pre-war peak f i g u r e s were surpassed i n 1951. Trade continued to increase u n t i l the mid-1950's, when a minor business recession caused a minor setback i n the expansion of the export movement. Since 1958 however, the upward trend has been resumed, and the t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia reached an a l l - t i m e high of 16.6 m i l l i o n tons i n 1962. The phase of post-war growth has thus witnessed an expansion of i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne commerce on the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast of approximately 11.8 m i l l i o n tons; a f i g u r e which represents an average increment of more than 690,000 tons annually. Over the same period, foreign imports have increased by a meagre 900,000 tons, so that 90 per cent of the t o t a l trade expansion has been a consequence of greater export shipments. Important changes i n the commodity structure of waterborne exports have also taken place during t h i s phase. The r e v i v a l of the grain trade, to a point where i t i s once again the leading commodity shipped from the P a c i f i c Coast (Table l ) , has accounted f o r s l i g h t l y l e s s than one-half of the t o t a l expansion of the maritime, fo r e i g n , export trade. The trade i n f o r e s t products has also increased, as the volume of lumber, newsprint and woodpulp shipped overseas has r i s e n to unprecedented l e v e l s . Japan's tremendous, post-war, i n d u s t r i a l development programme has given a great stimulus to the trade i n mineral products: her demand f o r coking coal has created a r e v i v a l i n the coal export trade, while her search f o r dependable ore supplies has l e d to an increase i n copper shipments, and provided a long-awaited market f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia i r o n deposits. Aluminum shipments have added to the magnit-ude and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the trade i n r e f i n e d metals. The phase of post-war growth has therefore, as i n the e a r l i e r phase of expansion, been based on the introduction of new items of commerce, as w e l l as on the expansion of the export trade i n older-established commodities. 142 The Number and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Shipping P o i n t s . The expansion of maritime intercourse during the post-war years, has brought new prosperity to a l l sections of the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t l i n e . Table XX i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e l a t i v e importance of shipping points w i t h i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia at the close of the Second World War, and i n 1962. The cartographic expression of these changes i s shown by a comparison of Figure 14 and Figure 1. Approximately 9.3 m i l l i o n tons, or 79 per cent of the t o t a l expansion i n maritime foreign trade, was handled by shipping points located i n the core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, centred on the S t r a i t of Georgia. Vancouver alone has added an a d d i t i o n a l 5.2 m i l l i o n tons to i t s annual f o r e i g n cargo t r a f f i c , l a r g e l y due to the r e v i v a l of g r a i n exports, and throughout t h i s phase, as i n the e a r l i e r years, has continued to dominate a l l other shipping points on the P a c i f i c Coast. The magnitude of t h i s absolute increase however, does not conceal the f a c t that the r e l a t i v e importance of Vancouver has declined i n the post-war period. Whereas i n 1945 Vancouver handled more than 60 per cent of the t o t a l maritime foreign trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1962 the proportion had f a l l e n to 50 per cent. This d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y on the western l i t t o r a l , i s r e f l e c t e d i n the growth of f o r e i g n trade at other shipping points on the mainland section of the south coast. New Westminster, Powell R i v e r and B r i t a n n i a Beach have a l l benefited from the augmented trade i n f o r e s t products, but t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e growth has been l i t t l e more than the spectacular expansion of i r o n concentrate and limestone shipments from Texada I s l a n d . The maritime, foreign commodity trade handled by shipping points on the south-east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d amounted to 2.3 m i l l i o n tons i n 1962; a f i g u r e which incorporates a 400 per cent increase over the 1945 143 TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION AND RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SHIPPING POINTS WITHIN THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1945 AND 1962 Cargo Tons (2000 l b s ) 1945 1962 A. SOUTH COAST (South of Lat. 50°N) 1. South Coast Mainland Lower Mainland Vancouver New Westminster Port Moody-Others Other Mainland Ports Powell River B r i t a n n i a Beach Port Mellon Squamish Texada Island T o t a l - South Coast Mainland 2,956,805 616,656 49 3,573,510 74,276 41,246 115,522 49,821 3,738,853 8,364,580 1,107,685 292,086 7,503 9,771,854 344,286 173,544 37,988 550 556,368 928,287 11,256,509 2. East Coast Vancouver Island V i c t o r i a 250,887 1,067,595 Nanaimo-Harmac 115,010 467,499 Chemainus 90,296 221,821 Campbell River ) -Duncan Bay ) - ' Crofton - 171,233 Sidney 1,692 5,720 Bamberton - 8,050 Courtenay - 1,354 Ladysmith - 8,370 Union Bay 15,800 473,685 2,300,405 144 TABLE XX (continued) 3. Port A l b e r n i Bamfield-Kildonan Cargo Tons (2000 lbs.) 1962 194' 3.56,880 1,852 358,732 937,105 1,500 938,605 TOTAL - SOUTH COAST 4,571,270 14,495,519 B. NORTH COAST (North of Lat. 50°N) 1. Northern Vancouver Island Quatsino Beaver Cove Port McNeill 17,230 17,230 280,924 258,859 21,334 561,117 2. North Mainland Coast Prince Rupert Kitimat Ocean F a l l s Stewart Others 222,930 18,488 4,867 122 246,407 633,624 452,511 134,271 235 1,220,641 TOTAL - NORTH COAST 263,637 1,781,758 C. OTHER BRITISH COLUMBIA PORTS 358,953 TOTAL - PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 4,834,907 16,636,230 Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Reports f o r 1945  and 1962. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. J shipments. Most of t h i s expansion was the exclusive r e s u l t of the increased trade i n f o r e s t products. The growth of V i c t o r i a to the status of a m i l l i o n a i r e port has been founded p r i m a r i l y on an increase i n the waterborne lumber shipments, and t h i s commodity has also been the basis f o r the growth of Chemainus and Nanaimo. The exportnof logs has contributed to the expansion of foreign trade from Sidney, Ladysmith and Courtenay. These developments have been equalled by the introduction of pulp and paper shipments. New m i l l s constructed since the end of the war, have r e s u l t e d i n the growth of new shipping points at Campbell River - Duncan Bay, Crofton and Harmac. In t h i s phase of post-war growth, the core region of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia has not been the only b e n e f i c i a r y of the trade expansion. The area served by the two outports has made many contributions to the growth of the export movement. The construction of an integrated pulp and paper m i l l together with an expansion of sawmill operations, has both enlarged and d i v e r s i f i e d the outward commodity flow from Port A l b e r n i . The shipments of ir o n concentrates from Kennedy Lake, which forms part of the same customs port, has increased the volume of cargo exported from the A l b e r n i Canal area almost to the one m i l l i o n ton l e v e l . The northern outport has also made important contributions to the growth of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y i n the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia during the post-war period. Table XX shows that, between 1945 and 1962, a t o t a l of 1.5 m i l l i o n tons has been added to the annual maritime foreign trade of t h i s outport. Most of t h i s expansion has been a r e s u l t of the introduction of new items of commerce. The growth of exports of i r o n concentrates has formed the basis of the increased commerce at Quatsino, Beaver Cove and Port M c N e i l l , and has, by the i n c l u s i o n of the Jedway shipments w i t h i n i t s customs area, recently l e d to a fur t h e r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the outward commodity flow from Prince Rupert. The r e v i v a l of g r a i n shipments, and the construction of a pulp m i l l , have a l s o contributed to the. expansion of Prince Rupert, while the development of a new town and shipping point at Kitimat has been yet another f a c t o r which has promoted t h i s unprecedented expansion of i n t e r n a t i o n a l shipping a c t i v i t y i n the northern outport. Export Forelands during the Phase of Post-War Growth. The expansion of maritime foreign trade i n the post-war period has incorporated an increase i n waterborne exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia of approximately 11.0 m i l l i o n tons. The d i s t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of export trade, associated with t h i s increase, have also undergone a marked change, and are i l l u s t r a t e d diagrammatically i n the pie-charts of Figure 15. Both c i r c l e s are constructed on the same scale, and are subdivided on a percentage basis to demonstrate the changing r e l a t i v e importance of s p e c i f i c foreland areas. The most s t r i k i n g conclusion t o be drawn from these two diagrams i s the f a c t that, during the post-war period, the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia has f i n a l l y e x h i b i t e d i t s almost legendary p o t e n t i a l as a 'Gateway' to the Orient. Exports to Asian markets have increased by more than 6.0 m i l l i o n tons since the end of the Second World War, and, as Figure 15 shows, t h i s absolute increase has been accompanied by a pronounced change i n the r e l a t i v e importance of t h i s foreland area. Whereas i n 1945 Asian markets took 25 per cent of the t o t a l waterborne exports from t h i s province, i n 1962 the corresponding f i g u r e was 49 per cent. Undoubtedly the major explanation of t h i s increased commodity interactance across the P a c i f i c Ocean has been the phenomenal programme of i n d u s t r i a l development i n Japan, f o l l o w i n g her defeat i n the Second World War. A s u b s t a n t i a l part of t h i s development has been based on imported raw materials, e s p e c i a l l y the reconstruction of the i r o n and s t e e l industry. 148 EXPORT FORELANDS OF THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1945 1945 AND 1962 L E G E N D T O T A L EXPORTS 3 ,365 ,394 TONS [ . ; | EUROPE j i i i ASIA UNITED S T A T E S A U S T R A L A S I A UK. UNITEO KINGDOM CONTINENT J JAPAN C. CHINA a OTHERS PC. PACIFIC COAST A.©. ATLANTIC 8 GULF COASTS a OTHERS AFRICA a MIDDLE E A S T CENTRAL a SOUTH AMERICA 1962 T O T A L EXPORTS 14,279,758 TONS Figure 15 Iron and s t e e l production i n Japan i s faced with the problems of the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of domestic supplies of coking coal and i r o n ore, and the search f o r dependable overseas sources has generated a considerable flow of these two commodities from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1962 the trade i n i r o n and coal amounted to 1.7 m i l l i o n tons and 600,000 tons r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l o s s of former r i c e surplus colonies i n Korea and Formosa a f t e r the war, combined with an explosive growth of population, has also increased the pressure on the l i m i t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l resources of the country. The gargantuan task of increasing domestic food production has l e d to Japan becoming a large importer of wheat i n the post-war period, and P a c i f i c Coast wheat shipments to t h i s market amounted to 1.3 m i l l i o n tons i n 1962. Smaller q u a n t i t i e s of lumber, copper and woodpulp have also contributed to the growth of t h i s export move-ment which, i n 1962, t o t a l l e d 4.5 m i l l i o n tons; almost one-third of a l l maritime foreign exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The flow of p r o v i n c i a l exports across the North P a c i f i c Ocean has also been increased by the signing of several wheat agreements with Mainland China. A t o t a l of 1.9 m i l l i o n tons was shipped to t h i s foreland i n 1962, and, although t h i s flow pattern consisted almost e x c l u s i v e l y of grain t r a f f i c , i t was s u f f i c i e n t to make China the t h i r d l a r g e s t , i n d i v i d u a l foreland f o r waterborne exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r Japan and the United States. Trade with other Asian countries i s r e l a t i v e l y small, and amounted to only 500,000 tons i n 1962. The P h i l l i p i n e Islands (205,000 tons), Pakistan (81,000 tons), India (55,000 tons) and Hong Kong (54,000 tons), are the most s i g n i f i c a n t other export markets i n t h i s foreland complex. Although the export trade with European countries has shown an absolute increase from 1.1 m i l l i o n tons i n 1945, to 2.4 m i l l i o n tons i n 1962, the r e l a t i v e importance of t h i s foreland f o r export shipments from the Port 150 of B r i t i s h Columbia has declined considerably from 34.0 to 16.5 per cent. The United Kingdom i n p a r t i c u l a r has declined from f i r s t to fourth place i n the rank of i n d i v i d u a l forelands. The most important s i n g l e , contributory f a c t o r to t h i s change i n r e l a t i v e importance has, been the diversion of grain exports to the B r i t i s h market through Eastern Canadian ports, as the demand f o r grain i n the Orient has threatened overtax the export f a c i l i t i e s on the P a c i f i c Coast. Consequently exports to the United Kingdom from the P a c i f i c Coast port, amounted to s l i g h t l y more than 1.5 m i l l i o n tons i n 1962, e x h i b i t i n g a modest increase of only 600,000 tons over the 1945 shipments. Lumber (805,000 tons), wheat (202,000 tonsO, r e f i n e d metals (150,000 tons), and. newsprint (70,000 tons), are cu r r e n t l y the most important commodities involved i n t h i s export movement. Continental European markets have retained t h e i r r e a l a t i v e status i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern of overseas forelands, and i n 1962 took a t o t a l of 800,000 tons, or 5.6 per cent of the maritime foreign export trade of the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Netherlands, West Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and I t a l y are the most important i n d i v i d u a l markets f o r these shipments. The volume of seaborne trade with the United States foreland has increased from 715,000 tons to 3.8 m i l l i o n tons i n the phase of post-war growth. The removal of the t a r i f f on imported lumber supplies has revived the flow of lumber to the A t l a n t i c Coast. Most of the expansion i n trade, however, has been a r e s u l t of greater interactance between the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia and American P a c i f i c ports, which, i n 1962, t o t a l l e d more than 2.7 m i l l i o n tons: an increase of 2.0 m i l l i o n tons over the 1945 exports. Pulpwood (960,000 tons), newsprint (580,000 tons), limestone (420,000 tons) and woodpulp (145,000 tons), constitute the mainstay of t h i s commodity flow, which has made the American P a c i f i c Coast the second la r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l foreland f o r waterborne exports from t h i s province. The 'other' United 151 States' markets, shown i n Figure 15, include Hawaii, Alaska and a very minor export movement to shipping points on the Great Lakes. A l l other forelands took approximately 8 per cent of the t o t a l maritime foreign exports from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1962. The marked decline i n the r e l a t i v e importance of the Australasian foreland, which also includes ( i n Figure 15) the numerous islands c o l l e c t i v e l y r e f e r r e d t o as Oceania, i n part r e f l e c t s the post-war exclusion of Hawaii from t h i s foreland grouping. The A f r i c a n continent has never f i g u r e d prominently i n the d i s -t r i b u t i o n a l patterns of export trade from the Canadian P a c i f i c Coast, apart from the lumber shipments to South A f r i c a . In general, these other forelands have not shared i n the vigorous expansion of trade during the phase of post-war growth. The only exception to t h i s statement has been the steady expansion of exports to Central and South American markets, p r i n c i p a l l y to countries s i t u a t e d on the west coast. &he Prospect The phase of post-war growth has witnessed an unprecedented demand f o r export commodities shipped from the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. This demand has brought a new era of prosperity to the whole P a c i f i c Coast port, and there i s every reason to conclude that i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne trade w i l l continue to expand. Each of the export commodities, investigated i n the preceding three chapters, e x h i b i t s a common growth p o t e n t i a l , and i n the future, as i n the past, the port f a c i l i t i e s of the province w i l l be of v i t a l concern to the export movement. Af t e r almost a century of doubts, the v i s i o n of a large commodity flow to Asian markets, the l o g i c a l destinations f o r export shipments from the Port of B r i t i s h Columbia, has become a r e a l i t y , and, as stated a generation ago: •At i t s back press the resources of a l l Canada with r a i l r o a d s b ringing them to i t s f e e t . Before i t s face beckons the Orient, which must be i n the future . . . . i t s d i r e c t and omnivorous customer' 5Rothery, Agnes E. (1943) The Ports of B r i t i s h Columbia. Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., New York, p. 3. 153 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS, INCLUDING PARTS OP A SERIES Bain, J.S. The Economics of the P a c i f i c Coast Petroleum Industry. Parts I - I I I . Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1945. B i r d , James. The Geography of the Port of London. London: Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1957. B i r d , James. The Major Seaports of the United Kingdom. London: Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., 1963. Boxer, Baruch. I s r a e l i Shipping and Foreign Trade. Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 48. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1957. Boxer, Baruch. Ocean Shipping i n the Evolution of Hong Kong. Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 72, Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1961 F a i r , L.M. The Transportation of Canadian Wheat to the Sea. National Problems  of Canada. M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Economic Studies, No. 1. Montreal: M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1925. Ginsburg, Norton S. Japanese Pre-War Trade and Shipping i n the Oriental  Triangle. Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 6. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1949. Highsmith, R.M. A t l a s of the P a c i f i c Northwest. C o r v a l l i s , Oregon: Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962. Johnson, P.'.M. A Short H i s t o r y of Nanaimo. B.C. 1858-1958. Nanaimo: Nanaimo Centennial Committee, 1958. Lower, A.R.M. The North American Assault on the Canadian Forest. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1938. Macfie, Matthew. Vancouver Island and B r i t i s h Columbia. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, 1865. MacGibbon, Duncan A. The Canadian Grain Trade 1931-1951. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1952. Morgan, F.W. Ports and Harbours. Second E d i t i o n Revised by James B i r d . London: Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1958. Ormsby, Margaret A. B r i t i s h Columbia: A Hi s t o r y . Vancouver: The Macmillan Company of Canada Limited, 1958. 154 Reich, Nathan. The Palp and Paper Industry i n Canada. National Problems of  Canada. M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Economic Studies, No. 7. Montreal: M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1926. Rothery, Agnes E. The Ports of B r i t i s h Columbia. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1943. Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e . The Newsprint S i t u a t i o n i n the Western Region of North America. Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a : Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e , 1952. Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e . America's Demand f o r Wood 1929-1975. Tacoma, Washington: Weyerhaeuser Timber Co., 1954. Ullman, Edward L. Mobile: I n d u s t r i a l Seaport and Trade Center. Chicago: Published p r i v a t e l y , 1943. Ullman, Edward L. American Commodity Flow. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1957. Van Cleef, Eugene. Trade Centers and Trade Routes. New York: D.Appleton-Century C 0. Ltd., 1937. Zimmerman, E.W. Foreign Trade and Shipping. V o l . XV of Modern Business S e r i e s . New York: Alexander Hamilton I n s t i t u t e , 1917. B. PERIODICALS Camu, P i e r r e . "Notes on Port Studies," The Canadian Geographer. VI (1955), pp. 51-59. Farnsworth, Helen C. "International Wheat Agreements and Problems 1949-56," Quarterly Journal of Economics. LXX (May, 1956), pp. 217-248. Harbour and Shipping Journal, v o l . 2 (June, 1920), p. 314. Harbour and Shipping Journal, v o l . 22 (February, 1939), p. 79. Howay, F.W. "Early Shipping i n Burrard I n l e t 1863-1870," B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. I (January, 1937), pp. 3-20. Kerfoot, Denis E. "The Western Grain Route," Occasional Papers of the B r i t i s h  Columbia D i v i s i o n of the Canadian Association of Geographers. No. 6 (1964). Lamb, W. Kaye. "Early Lumbering on Vancouver Island. Part I : 1844-1855," B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. I I (January, 1938), pp. 31-53. MacBean, A.P. "Forestry of B r i t i s h Columbia i n Perspective," Transactions of the B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference. XI (1958), pp. 115-123. 155 MacGibbon, D.A. "The Future of the Canadian Export Trade i n Wheat," Contributions to Canadian Economics. V (1932), pp. 7-42. Morgan, F.W. "Pre-War Hinterlands of German North Sea Ports," I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Geographers Transactions. XIV (1948), pp. 45-55. Pearse, H. "The Timber Export Trade of B r i t i s h Columbia," Western Lumberman. XI (September, 1914), pp. 33-36. P i t t , Dale L. "What Mining has done f o r B r i t i s h Columbia," Washington H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, XXIII ( A p r i l , 1932), pp. 94-109. Pounds, N.J^G. "Port and Outport i n North-West Europe," Geographical Journal. CIX (1947), .pp. 216-228.' ^ Rochester, G.H. "United Kingdom," Foreign Trade. (Ottawa), CVII (May, 1957), pp. 16-17. Smith, J.M. "Newsprint i n World A f f a i r s , " Behind the Headlines. X I I I (November 1953). Weigend, G.G. "The Problem of Hinterland and Foreland as I l l u s t r a t e d by the Port of Hamburg," Economic Geography. XXXII (1956), pp. 1-16. Wentworth, L . J . "Where P a c i f i c Coast Export Business has gone," West Coast  Lumberman. LXIII (May, 1936), pp. 38 and 48. C. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS, AND PUBLICATIONS OF RELATED BOARDS, COMMISSIONS AND INSTITUTIONS Anderson, R.V. The Future of Canada's Export Trade. Royal Commission on  Canada's Economic Prospects. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Birchard, F.J. and A l l c o c k , A.W. Report of T r i a l Shipment of Wheat from  Vancouver, v i a the Panama Canal, to the United Kingdom. Dominion Grain Research Laboratory, B u l l e t i n No. 1, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1918. Brewer, W.M. Report on Some of the Occurrences of Iron Ore Deposits on Vancouver and Texada Islands. Bureau of Mines. B u l l e t i n No. 3, V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r , 1917. B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Forest Industry S t a t i s t i c s  I960. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., January 1963. B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of^Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . P o t e n t i a l Pulp and Paper  M i l l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., 1959-B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . Preliminary Statement of External Trade" through B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Po r t s . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., 1939-1963. 156 B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , S t a t i s t i c a l Record of  the Export Trade of B.C. Forest Products. Part A: Estimated Exports from B.C. through a l l Canadian Customs Ports by Countries (1940-1957). V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., J u l y 1959. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Finance. An Economic Review of Resources. Production and Government Finances. Twenty Second E d i t i o n . J u l y 1962. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce. B r i t i s h Columbia - I n v i t a t i o n to Industry. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1961. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Annual Report(s) of the  Forest Service. V i c t o r i a . B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1912-1962. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines. Annual Report(s) of the M i n i s t e r of  Mines. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1974-1959. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Annual  Report(s) of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960-1962. B r i t i s h Columbia, Economic Council, Research Department. A Survey of the  Canadian Iron Industry with p a r t i c u l a r Reference to B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r , 1936. B r i t i s h Columbia, L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Royal Commission of Inquiry on  Timber and Forestry. 1909-1910, F i n a l Report. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r , 1910. B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c i a l Bureau of Information. Manual of P r o v i n c i a l  Information 1930. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: King's P r i n t e r . 1930. Bryan, A.E. The Lumber Market of Japan. Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1926. Canada, Board of Grain Commissioners. Canadian Grain Exports f o r the Crop  Year 1962-63. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964. Canada, Board of Railway Commissioners. General Submission of the Attorney  General of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, J u l y 9_, AJ). 1925. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1925. Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Grain Elevators i n Canada 1963-64. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964. Canada, Department of National Revenue. Shipping Report(s). Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , F i s c a l years 1916/17-1937/38. Canada, Department of Trade and Commerce. Annual Report of the Board of Grain Commissioners f o r Canada f o r 1954. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955-157 Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Grain Trade of Canada. Cat. No. 22-201, Annual.-Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1918-1962. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Reporife). Part I I , International Seaborne Shipping. Cat. No. 54-203. Annual. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1938-1962. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . The Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas  Industry. Cat. No. 26-213. Annual. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951-1962. Canada, Dominion Coal Board. Annual Report(s) of the Dominion Coal Board. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1949-1962. Davis, John, et a l . The Outlook f o r the Canadian Forest Industries . Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Dubnie, A. Transportation and the Competitive P o s i t i o n of Selected Canadian  Minerals. Mineral Resources D i v i s i o n , Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Mineral Survey 2, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1962. Forests and Forestry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Revised Report to the Imperial Forestry Conference. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., 1923. Gibb, S i r Alexander. National Ports Survey. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1932. Langevin, S i r Hector Louis. Report of the M i n i s t e r of Pub l i c Works f o r Canada,  regarding B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1872. MacMillan, H.R. Report on the Timber Import Trade of A u s t r a l i a . Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1917. Report of the Royal Commission of the Grain Trade of Canada 1906. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1908. Sloan, Hon. Gordon McG. The Forest Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956. 2 v o l s . V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. United Nations, Food and Agr i c u l t u r e Organization. Grain. Commodity Series B u l l e t i n , No. 18. Washington, D.C.: United Nations, May 1950. Whitford, H.N. and Craig, Roland D. Forests of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1918. D. NEWSPAPERS C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor (Boston), December 14, 1962. The Vancouver Sun, February 18, 1954. 158 The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 3, 1962. The Vancouver Sun. May 28, 1963. E. YEARBOOKS Gosnell, R.E. The Yearbooks of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a , B.C.: n.n., 1897, 1897-1901, 1911. I n d u s t r i a l Japan '62. Dentsu Ad v e r t i s i n g Ltd., Tokyo: Toppon P r i n t i n g Co., 1962. I n d u s t r i a l Japan '65. Dentsu Advertising Ltd., Tokyo: Toppon P r i n t i n g Co., 1963. Japanese Industry 1961. Foreign C a p i t a l Research Society, Tokyo: Dai P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd., 1962. F. THESES Hardwick, Walter C. The Forest Industry of Coastal B r i t i s h Columbia. Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota, 1962. Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y Microfilms Inc., No. 63-7929. Lawrence, Joseph. Markets and C a p i t a l : A H i s t o r y of the Lumber Industry of  B r i t i s h ColumbiaTl778-1952). Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, March 1957. G. PAMPHLETS ETCETERA Bank of Nova S c o t i a . "The. Last Best West", Monthly Review, September 1955. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Manufacturers' Association. Annual Report(s) Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Manufacturers' Association, 1961-1963. Patton, D.J. Port Hinterlands: The Case of New Orleans. Unpublished Manuscript, n.n., 1958. Photocopy i n U.B.C. L i b r a r y . Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Limited. The Cominco Story. T r a i l , B.C.: Cominco, 1959. 159 The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Annual Report f o r 1961 T r a i l , B.C.: Cominco, 1962. The Problem of Newsprint. I n t e l l i g e n c e U n i t , "The Economist," London. P a r i s : UNESCO, 1949. Vancouver Harbour Commissioners. The Port of Vancouver Annual Report(s). Vancouver: Harbour Commissioners, 1920-1935. Vancouver Merchants' Exchange. Annual Reports. Vancouver: Vancouver Merchants' Exchange, 1920-1962. Williams, R.D. The E i g h t y - M i l l i o n t h Bushel. P r e s i d e n t i a l Address t o the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange, Grain Trade D i v i s i o n , Vancouver, 1928. World Production and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Newsprint Paper 1959-1960. New York: Newsprint Service Bureau, 1962. APPENDIX I CANADIAN GRAIN EXPORTS BY SEABOARD SECTOR CROP YEARS 1919-20 to 1962-63 (Figures i n Bushels) Crop Year 1919- 20 1920- 21 1921- 22 1922- 23 1923- 24 *1924-25 1925- 26 1926- 27 1927- 28 1928- 29 1929- 30 1930- 31 1931- 32 1932- 33 1933- 34 1934- 35 1935- 36 1936- 37 1937- 38 1938- 39 1939- 40 V i a . P a c i f i c Coast 68,649 475,042 7,978,800 18,213,800 55,781,197 25,100,924 53,404,917 40,060,415 87,365,840 99,142,752 49,281,363 75,866,876 83,909,074 102,605,170 52,269,892 56,681,324 59,979,234 34,481,422 14,386,211 45,445,210 10,732-, 516 V i a Canadian S t . Lawrence Ports and Lakehead d i r e c t 42,723,451 52,060,642 47,597,671 74,496,054 80,599,980 66,536,831 93,867,396 68,701,920 69,968,377 102,175,824 27,314,764 63,494,957 72,468,932 88,869,799 69,508,957 37,345,300 71,778,595 81,072,368 55,836,191 88,309,942 57,682,813 V i a Canadian A t l a n t i c Coast 17,996,454 9,816,619 10,496,443 16,296,028 16,433,633 8,878,876 15,949,686 21,373,617 11,907,677 16,994,022 4,858,211 11,108,439 4,551,731 9,235,332 8,471,027 9,001,802 13,705,896 10,914,166 11,062,727 3,922,147 33,314,491 V i a C h u r c h i l l 544,769 2,736,030 2,707,891 4,049,877 2,407,000 4,293,501 603,982 916,913 1,772,460 V i a U.S.A. A t l a n t i c Coast 21,959,835 64,081,181 118,279,470 153,693,499 170,449,348 111,265,612 175,017,226 166,721,975 159,848,826 184,734,634 71,469,140 98,699,930 53,010,460 55,516,238 44,803,301 39,416,655 75,429,096 25,858,497 14,508,614 12,701,198 66,575,266 APPENDIX I (continued) Crop Year 1940- 41 1941- 42 1942- 43 1943- 44 1944- 45 1945- 46 1946- 47 1947- 48 1948- 49 1949- 50 1950- 51 1951- 52 1952- 53 j 1953-54 1954- 55 1955- 56 1956- 57 1957- 58 1958- 59 1959- 60 1960- 61 1961- 62 1962- 63 V i a P a c i f i c Coast 4,106,681 2,422,160 1,597,593 3,083,940 8,644,184 66,951,931 61,714,920 36,853,961 60,696,149 62,651,440 68,481,315 113,411,669 121,373,940 133,971,937 98,427,801 113,583,463 138,967,570 169,555,385 154,107,056 136,755,314 159,813,278 180,907,299 160,292,807 V i a Canadian St . Lawrence Ports and Lakehead d i r e c t 63,237,914 38,488,490 15,447,424 25,753,191 106,949,477 121,681,233 87,174,772 71,660,743 99,955,589 86,740,805 94,958,555 191,471,067 241,319,428 106,244,888 134,046,450 147,816,095 117,392,898 123,508,932 120,087,656 110,432,715 139,659,437 144,101,869 142,357,441 V i a Canadian A t l a n t i c Coast 50,741,161 71,663,182 62,424,420 47,495,897 52,409,681 30,695,086 20,435,362 19,797,713 24,261,625 17,995,577 16,758,599 24,737,285 38,340,768 12,704,023 39,561,509 45,210,670 27,818,559 30,930,449 31,110,586 25,099,441 33,970,339 21,808,575 19,843,713 V i a C h u r c h i l l 2,928,875 4,975,753 5,314,342 5,527,535 6,767,743 7,545,443 8,620,622 10,980,712 12,245,093 12,818,845 16,250,320 18,451,796 18,723,151 21,838,398 20,203,266 19,244,868 21,761,757 V i a U.S.A. A t l a n t i c Coast 57,739,983 51,068,635 65,422,888 47,812,685 83,095,107 72,825,332 16,784,680 17,255,666 10,711,867 143,443 ,4,624,514 6,989,011 3,844,361 125,606 1,197,366 227,233 676,120 136,788 366,343 * Crop Year ending date advanced from August 31st. to J u l y 31st. Source: Board of Grain Commissioners f o r Canada, Canadian Grain Exports f o r the Crop Year 1962-63. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 31. APPENDIX I I BRITISH COLUMBIA GRAIN EXPORTS BY TRADING AREAS 1924 - 1962 (bushels) T o t a l Year Exports 1924 55,878,788 1925 33,405,872 1926 44,439,738 1927 43,397,192 1928 104,590,640 1929 74,936,300 1930 64,006,183 1931 72,902,951 1932 106,810,075 1933 73,081,562 1934 54,582,601 1935 51,741,422 1936 64,319,044 1937 19,967,573 1938 25,582,616 1939 34,734,470 1940 6,337,402 1941 3,049,431 1942 2,958,029 1943 5,421,979 1944 16,295,706 1945 34,929,654 1946 61,816,655 1947 49,915,181 1948 40,693,067 1949 75,547,229 1950 52,971,510 1951 89,663,434 1952 138,224,051 1953 126,479,869 1954 114,566,139 1955 92,687,214 1956 136,037,860 1957 153,873,589 1958 156,980,757 1959 161,192,661 U.K./ Continent 40,772,974 22,094,704 29,411,978 33,354,569 81,884,994 50,699,739 50,853,029 57,613,895 91,661,221 64,585,477 49,814,087 48,795,418 58,598,505 18,341,000 25,217,657 33,598,052 5,913,398 641,141 2,809,207 654,906 1,994,468 7,968,007 54,424,873 49,346,581 38,581,372 47,663,275 29,677,026 46,392,978 61,275,328 54,537,611 55,820,275 45,426,494 63,344,638 98,385,633 80,693,499 79,454,791 Orient 13,817,083 11,105,779 14,164,848 9,290,300 21,028,698 23,235,979 10,895,401 13,646,405 13,942,336 7,303,046 3,890,298 2,237,353 5,175,466 1,235,296 60,881 103,398 191,038 2,113,782 971,529 1,158,379 92 1,656,578 4,151,012 22,377,502 35,919,899 40,564,399 37,877,318 36,934,362 46,747,969 48,727,456 52,108,484 52,381,554 Central and South America 156,403 37,333 643,369 752,323 1,044,784 688,530 1,614,396 1,062,427 812,578 862,346 639,701 190,324 294,701 183,592 56,235 469,412 184,199 284,341 148,634 85,567 91,253 1,986,275 922,696 568,600 28,215 3,092,646 5,799,966 4,744,876 14,185,902 9,327,193 12,268,652 2,700,299 4,829,520 2,157,475 4,247,040 7,983,615 Others 1,127,328 168,056 219,543 631,664 312,052 643,357 580,224 394,140 330,693 238,515 518,327 250,372 207,685 247,843 563,608 48,267 10,167 188 4,681,506 14,209,985 24,003,843 5,310,707 2,083,388 23,134,730 13,343,506 16,148,078 26,842,922 22,050,666 8,599,894 7,626,059 21,115,733 6,212,486 19,931,734 21,372,701 APPENDIX I I (continued) Central Year To t a l Exports U.K./ Continent Orient and South America Others I960 1961 1962 137,843,783 189,439,590 169,795,824 66,743,839 33,446,357 30,291,326 57,370,980 138,786,782 129,550,169 5,050,951 4,368,792 7,450,150 8,678,013 12,837,659 2,504,179 Source: Annual Reports of the Vancouver Merchants' Exchange, Vancouver. APPENDIX I I I BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER PRODUCTION AND WATERBORNE LUMBER SHIPMENTS 1910 - 1962 (Figures i n Thousand Feet Board Measure. M.B.M.) Waterborne Year Production Shipments 1908 647,977,000 1909 790,601,000 1910 1,169,907,000 67,000,000 1911 1,341,942,000 46,500,000 1912 1,313,782,000 57,500,000 1913 1,173,647,000 51,512,000 1914 936,612,000 38,031,000 1915 669,816,000 58,074,000 1916 875,937,000 43,676,000 1917 1,200,544,000 43,922,000 1918 1,157,636,000 88,069,000 1919 1,164,340,000 108,872,000 1920 1,443,270,000 146,624,000 1921 996,266,000 188,733,000 1922 1,157,854,000 273,147,000 1923 1,578,199,000 521,707,000 1924 1,594,253,000 531,262,000 1925 1,724,832,000 577,560,000 1926 2,103,295,000 712,743,000 1927 2,176,876,000 740,230,000 1928 2,290,527,000 765,556,000 1929 2,460,500,000 801,518,000 1930 1,928,598,000 712,299,000 1931 1,342,164,000 566,129,000 1932 934,373,000 446,889,000 1933 1,133,344,000 662,560,000 1934 1,464,632,000 859,465,000 1935 1,610,347,000 853,978,000 1936 2,023,708,000 1,202,974,000 1937 2,072,675,000 1,107,377,000 1938 2,044,876,000 1,192,195,000 1939 2,276,033,000 1,409,052,000 1940 2,324,408,000 1,257,917,000 1941 2,407,800,000 736,035,000 1942 2,303,552,000 525,403,000 1943 1,941,966,000 735,859,000 1944 1,982,478,000 738,798,000 1945 2,055,082,000 747,032,000 APPENDIX I I I (continued) Waterborne Year Production Shipments 1946 2,169,096,000 745,215,000 1947 2,707,052,000 1,109,178,000 1948 2,937,410,000 841,598,000 1949 2,951,183,000 935,670,000 1950 3,508,787,000 1,251,196,000 1951 3,723,877,000 1,146,291,000 1952 3,696,459,000 1,148,053,000 1953 4,045,724,000 1,391,664,000 1954 4,378,695,000 1,579,946,000 1955 4,914,285,000 1,412,060,000 1956 4,734,970,000 989,664,000 1957 4,412,387,000 1,078,918,000 1958 5,034,007,000 1,314,361,000 1959 4,949,000,000 1,197,653,000 1960 5,305,000,000 1,675,351,000 1961 5,620,000,000 1,789,115,000 1962 6,254,000,000 1,847,000,000 Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, Annual  Reports of the Forest Service 1912-1962, V i c t o r i a , B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumber Manufacturers' Association, 65rd. Annual Report 1965. Vancouver. APPENDIX IV BRITISH COLUMBIA IRON ORE SHIPMENTS 1951 - 1962 (Figures i n short tons) Company Location of Mine Shipping Point Period of Operation Tonnage Shipped The Argonaut Co. L t d . Quinsam Lake, (Iron H i l l ) V.I. Campbell River 1951 - 1957 2,193,717 Texada Mines L t d . Texada Islan d Texada Island 1952 - 1962 3,896,247 Empire Development Co. L t d . Benson Lake, V.I. Port M c N e i l l 1957 - 1962 1,575,498 Nimpkish Iron Mines L t d . Nimpkish Lake, V.I. Beaver Cove 1959 - 1962 1,077,303 Hualpai Enterprises L t d . Nootka Sound, V.I. Head Bay 1959 25,000 Brynnor Mines L t d . Kennedy Lake, V.I. Toquart Bay 1962 451,623 Zeballos Iron Mines L t d . Zeballos, V.I. Zeballos 1962 250,397 Jedway Iron Ore L t d . H a r r i e t Harbour, Q.C.I. H a r r i e t Harbour Total 1962 • • • • 53,515 9,523,300 V.I. Vancouver I s l a n d Q.C.I. Queen Charlotte Islands Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual Report(s) of the M i n i s t e r of Mines, Queen * s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. 1951-1962. APPENDIX V VANCOUVER ISLAND COAL PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS 1874 - 1962 (Long Tons) Year 1874 1875 1876 1877 i878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 B.C. Total Coal Production 81,547 110,145 139,192 154,052 170,846 241,301 267,595 228,357 282,139 213,299 394,070 265,596 326,636 413,360 489,301 579,830 678,140 1,029,097 826,355 978,294 1,012,953 939,654 894,882 892,296 1,135,865 1,306,324 1,590,179 1,691,557 1,641,626 1,450,663 1,685,698 1,825,832 1,899,076 2,219,608 2,109,387 2,400,600 3,139,235 2,297,718 3,025,709 Vancouver Island Coal Production 81,547 110,145 139,192 154,052 170,846 241,301 267,595 228,357 282,139 213,299 394,070 265,596 326,636 413,360 489,301 579,830 678,140 1,029,097 826,355 978,294 1,012,953 939,654 894,882 892,296 1,125,9U 1,203,199 1,383,376 1,312,202 1,247,655 860,775 1,023,013 993,899 1,178,627 1,332,009 1,196,944 1,412,825 1,616,030 1,625,122 1,558,240 Vancouver Island Coal Exports 56,038 66,392 122,329 115,381 164,682 192,096 225,849 189,323 232,411 149,567 306,478 237,797 249,205 334,839 365,714 443,675 508,270 806,479 640,579 768,917 827,642 756,334 634,238 619,860 752,863 751,711 906,215 841,300 675,033 403,438 415,405 427,698 448,996 381,704 330,328 388,217 420,442 400,893 411,830 APPENDIX V (continued) Year 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937'. 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 B.C. T o t a l Coal Production 2,570,760 2,166,428 1,972,580 2,485,580 2,398,715 2,578,724 2,408,948 2,696,774 2,569,639 2,580,915 2,542,987 1,987,533 2,244,292 2,330,036 2,453,827 2,526,702 2,251,252 1,887,130 1,707,590 1,534,975 1,264,746 1,347,090 1,187,968 1,346,471 1,444,687 1,309,428 1,477,872 1,677,827 1,802,353 1,938,158 1,821,654 1,933,639 1,518,673 1,463,640 1,717,476 1,615,195 1,711,871 1,568,453 1,628,914 1,473,687 1,407,235 1,292,507 1,325,059 1,419,105 Vancouver Island Coal Production 974,493 1,072,314 1,020,942 1,492,761 1,695,721 1,666,211 1,699,348 1,698,254 1,625,931 1,754,656 1,574,663 1,486,332 1,412,757 1,293,175 1,331,225 1,277,533 1,120,805 998,805 831,925 749,006 613,203 574,508 630,213 713,037 818,447 684,398 717,334 732,659 647,958 738,000 729,989 689,714 557,778 547,468 493,998 400,371 538,659 513,596 481,381 360,467 236,988 183,857 187,307 178,881 Vancouver Island Coal Exports 96,327 210,719 284,230 451,408 553,119 457,048 385,927 316,432 291,513 356,088 156,463 118,554 141,623 96,409 105,035 89,516 89,187 65,279 37,774 31,757 19,686 22,003 31,104 36,870 46,199 44,045 40,885 79,597 38,055 64,414 24,457 54,197 32,763 30,285 15,466 61,026 35,894 16,939 55,043 37,007 11,160 445 408 347 APPENDIX V (continued) B.C. Vancouver Vancouver To t a l Isla n d Island Coal Coal Coal Year Production Production Exports 1957 1,090,862 178,754 268 1958 788,359 162,772 _ 1959 676,810 133,632 _ I960 754,018 81,611 1961 909,671 69,920 _ 1962 815,033 72,845 -Sources: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines, Annual Report(s) of the  Mi n i s t e r of Mines 1874-1959. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Annual Report(s) .of the M i n i s t e r of Mines and Petroleum Resources. 1960-1962. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C. APPENDIX VI THE MARITIME FOREIGN TRADE OF THE PORT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Cargo Tons 2,000 l b s . ) Year 1916- 17 1917- 18 1918- 19 1919- 20 1920- 21 1921- 22 1922- 23 1923- 24 1924- 25 1925- 26 1926- 27 1927- 28 1928- 29 1929- 30 1930- 31 1931- 32 1932- 33 1933- 34 1934- 35 1935- 36 1936- 37 1937- 38 1938- 39 1939- ^0 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 . 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 Imports 1,400,156 1,414,700 1,228,912 1,128,728 1,110,735 1,108,977 850,686 1,184,931 1,212,737 1,207,326 1,347,917 1,622,342 1,772,823 2,001,947 1,846,476 1,514,505 1,184,928 1,377,065 1,542,249 1,499,573 1,941,014 1,883,871 1,590,429 1,702,584 1,291,600 1,597,610 1,899,317 1,369,058 1,650,124 1,469,513 1,751,922 2,301,243 2,522,750 2,340,539 2,890,706 3,028,605 3,236,052 3,140,263 Exports 1,366,699 1,561,266 1,468,235 1,381,551 1,552,391 1,842,383 2,469,512 3,637,414 3,379,384 4,149,336 4,067,017 5,098,323 6,306,417 4,619,918 4,439,752 4,588,324 5,192,507 4,569,593 4,677,381 5,299,800 6,229,627 4,885,942 5,352,305 5,292,642 2,976,460 2,814,140 1,816,343 1,706,043 2,323,975 3,365,394 4,316,952 4,881,357 4,316,986 5,060,859 5,018,799 6,542,254 8,517,915 8,871,878 Tot a l 2,776,855 2,975,966 2,697,147 2,510,279 2,663,126 2,951,360 3,320,198 4,822,345 4,592,121 5,356,662 5,414,934 6,720,665 8,079,240 6,621,865 6,286,228 6,102,829 6,377,435 5,946,658 6,219,630 6,799,373 8,170,641 6,769,813 6,942,734 6,995,226 3,268,060 4,411,750 3,715,660 3,075,101 3,974,099 4,834,907 6,068,874 7,182,600 6,839,736 7,401,398 7,909,505 9,570,859 11,753,967 12,012,141 Figures f o r the period April-December only. APPENDIX VI (continued) Year Imports .Exports T o t a l 1954 2,115,586 8,810,720 10,926,306 1955 1,885,990 8,423,651 10,309,641 1956 2,518,386 9,745,052 12,263,438 1957 2,348,387 10,805,213 13,153,600 1958 1,782,571 9,922,426 11,704,997 1959 2,219,392 10,545,476 12,764,868 1960 2,259,885 12,113,066 14,372,951 1961 2,128,961 14,223,442 16,352,403 1962 2,356,472 14,279,758 16,636,230 Sources: Canada, Department of National Revenue, Shipping Reports f o r the  F i s c a l Years 1916-17 - 1936-37, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Reports f o r the  F i s c a l Years 1957-38 - 1939-40, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Shipping Reports f o r the  Calendar Years 1941-1962. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104954/manifest

Comment

Related Items