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Intrinsic-extrinsic motivation and its effects upon feedback at mid-management levels MacGillivray, James 1964

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INTRINSIC - EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS UPON FEEDBACK AT MID-MANAGEMENT LEVELS JAMES MaeGILLlYRAY A Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of PSYCHOLOGY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study, I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this, thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by" his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission® Department of F<^ cUo--t<p^ ^ The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date 1^,-1 ZZ. i ABSTRACT This study was an attempt to determine the relationship between two broad motive patterns or* sets and preference for one or the other of two specific types of information which an executive might expect to receive from his superior. An Intrinsic-Extrinsic motive dichotomy was util i z e d , while i n -formation preferences were divided into Job-related and Career-related information. Data were gathered from ninety-one mid-management exe-cutives by means of a paired-comparison questionnaire and a special ranking scale devised for this study. The data were then analyzed on the basis of four clearly defined Motivation-Information groups: (l) Intrinsic — Job-related (2) Intrinsic — Career-related (3) Extrinsic — Job-related and (4) Extrinsic — Career-related. Analysis of the results confirmed the following three hy-potheses: (I) Intrinsically motivated executives w i l l prefer job-related information over career-related information. (II) Extrinsically motivated executives view information generally (i.e.: either job-related or career-related) as more important than do int r i n s i c a l l y motivated executives. ( I l l ) There were a significantly larger number of i n t r i n s i -cally than extrinsically motivated executives. i i The fourth hypothesis, that: (IV) Extrinsically motivated executives w i l l prefer career-related information over job-related information was rejected. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The writer wishes to express his thanks to the INSTITUTE OP INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS at the University of British Columbia, whose grant made this thesis possible. Also, the writer wishes to express his appreciation and thanks to his advisors, Dr. W.H. Read and Dr. D.L. Sampson for their helpful guidance and criticism. i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM. 1 II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2 Intrinsic Motivation 5 Extrinsic Motivation 6 Feedback 7 III STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESES 10 IT RESEARCH DESIGN 13 Sample 13 Method 14 Questionnaire Measures 14 Statistical Techniques 15 V RESULTS 17 VI DISCUSSION OP RESULTS 23 VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 27 REFERENCES 29 APPENDIX A: Paired comparison questionnaire 31 APPENDIX B: Questionnaire ranking supervisory practices 35 i v TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 A Breakdown of Motivation-Information Groups by Company 18 2 Comparison of Intrinsically and Extrin-s i c a l l y Motivated Subjects and their Selection of Either Job-Related or Career-related Information 19 5 A Comparison of the Number of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Subjects and the Rank They Assign to the Information (either Job-related or Career-related) which i s most Important to Them 21 4 A Breakdown of the Intrinsically and Extrinsically Motivated Subjects by Company 22 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM In recent years, many problems and setbacks encountered i n large organizations have been ascribed to "poor communica-tion" or to a "breakdown i n communication". Research on communication i n organizations seems to be at the stage i n which an attempt i s being made to identify some of the v a r i -ables which are operant within and tend to act upon the communication network. The problem of communication i s not a new one. However, research, rather than speculative theorizing, i s a f a i r l y recent trend. The present study i s concerned with the relationship be-tween motives and information preferences at the mid-manage-ment level i n organizations. More specifically, our purpose is to examine two broad motive patterns and to determine what effect, i f any, these two divisions of motivational factors have on the specific kinds of information the subordinate needs or demands from his superior i n industrial settings* CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND For many years the "Economic Man" motive was considered to be the dominant factor determining the behavior of the person i n a work setting. However, research i n recent years has demonstrated the operation of a number of motives which might influence the modern industrial worker and executive. Shaffer (1953) and Stagner (1950) indicate that i t i s now quite evident that some workers are primarily interested i n security, others in economic incentives, some i n interesting, challenging jobs and s t i l l others i n status, esteem or pro-motion. According to Burns (1959), there are a number of broad underlying social and cultural values which tend to influence and determine our needs and behavior. These are: 1) Emphasis on achievement and success, particularly occupational achievement and acquisition of s k i l l s and com-petence. There i s also a tendency to equate personal ex-cellence with competitive achievement measured i n terms of income, property, wealth, prestige and power. 2) An orientation towards action, efficiency and the practical, with a tendency to view work as an end i n i t s e l f . 3) Our combination of natural resources, technological accomplishments, social mobility and our emphasis upon success - 5 -and equality has promoted materialism, a pre-occupation with "creature comforts" and needs, and a somewhat material-i s t i c measure of happiness and progress. These broad values and orientations w i l l , according to Burns, affect our motives for working and have a direc-tional effect on the goals which we strive towards. The f i r s t stage or " f i r s t order" needs, as he calls i t , are physiological needs. The second-order needs or "situational" needs involve: (1) Need for security and surety (economic and emotional) (2) Need for opportunity and growth (3) Need for acceptance and belongingness (4) Need for recognition and respect. His third-order or "operational" needs stem from the work i t s e l f and the individual's relation to i t . More recently, Porter (1962, 1962, 1963) has carried out some extensive research on need-fulfilment and deficien-cies i n management and concludes that self-actualization, autonomy and esteem are the needs which management view as most important. He further contends that self-actualization and autonomy needs are seen by a l l management levels as the most important and least f u l f i l l e d types of needs, and that they are probably the most c r i t i c a l psychological need areas for organizations to consider i n their relations with their managers and executives. It has frequently been suggested that values may be classified as intrinsic or extrinsic; as those which are inherent in and derived from the activity or object i t s e l f , or as those which are the outcomes or concomitants of having the object or participating in the activity (Super, 1962). Rosenberg (1957) identifies the following value complexes i n his study of the values of college students: the self expressive (intrinsic) people and the extrinsic-reward (money-security) type people. Not only has this i n -trinsic-extrinsic dichotomy been applied to value complexes, but i t has also been utilized in classifying interest and motive patterns. Darley et a l (1955) and Fryer (1931) made use of the intrinsic-extrinsic model i n their measurements of vocational and job interests, while Ginzberg et a l (1951) suggest that significant satisfactions ffom work f a l l into three distinct, though related types. These are: (l) Rewards (monetary and prestige) (2) Coneommitants (social and environ-mental) and (3) Intrinsic satisfaction (pleasure i n the activity and i n the accomplishment of specific ends.). Two studies (Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, 1959; Gurin, Veroff and Feld, I960) have grouped various motiva-tional factors i n the work setting into two f a i r l y distinct categories. In essence, these two models closely resemble one another and are both very similar to an intrinsic-extrin-sic classification. The Gurin study used an extrinsic-ego-motive model, while Herzberg and his associates used a hygiene-motivation dichotomy. Although other studies (Brown 1954; Likert, 1956) have classified work motives into three - 5 -or four categories i t seems that a two-way classification scheme, similar to the Herzberg and Gurin models, could adequately account for the motivational factors influencing the industrial executive. The present study assume that an intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy w i l l adequately differen-tiate the primary motivating factors i n the mid-management level working environment. An intrinsic-extrinsic dicho-tomy w i l l now he outlined along with an explanation of the rationale for dichotomizing the motivational factors. Intrinsic Motivation In the intrinsic motivation category the focus i s upon the individual's actual performance of the work or task. The contention i s that the actual work activity i s the primary motivating factor and that the tasks are viewed as an end in themselves and are the main source of satisfaction. Here then, the incentives are i n the actual job performance. The motivational factors included within this particular category for the present study are as follows: (1) Interest (2) Challenge (3) Creativity These factors attempt to get at the nature of the work i t s e l f as i t appears to the individual; whether i t i s inter-esting and challenging, allows a person to use his own i n i -tiative and creativity and to realize the use of his potential a b i l i t y . - 6 -Extrinsic Motivation In the extrinsic motivation category, the contention is that the incentives l i e "outside" the job activity i t s e l f and that job performance i s viewed as instrumental to some external goal or end. The primary motives are thus the benefits which accrue from, and are commensurate with, occupying a particular position. The motivating factors i n this particular category are as follows: (1) Status, Prestige, Esteem ( 2 ) Security ( 3 ) Economic Incentives (4) Recognition (Promotion-Advancement) These factors relate to the security one's position may afford, the salary offered, promotional opportunities and the status commensurate with holding a particular position. Other Motivating Factors It i s impossible, in some cases, to create a completely comprehensive classificatory scheme. The extent to which one's goal are extrinsic or intrinsic depends upon the parti-cular situation in which they exist (i.e. such factors as power and autonomy can, depending upon the situation, be viewed as either extrinsic or intrinsic motivators.). It i s beyond the scope of this paper to effectively deal with these "mixed" factors, consequently, they have been omitted in favour of a relatively clear-cut and more arbitrary classification. - 7 -Feedback If, then, i t bears true that man's behavior i n his work setting i s determined by more than one motive, i t seems reasonable to assume that he should require infor-mation relative to his progress in achieving his goals, and, that this information may be of a specific nature, depending upon the motive factors involved. This "secondary" information or feedback informs the individual as to the results of his actions and may give him information with regard to an evaluation of his progress. For example, workers or executives primarily interested i n advancement may want to know "how well they are doing" or "what the chances are for promotion". On the other hand, individuals motivated primarily be security may want to know to what extent the job i s permanent. lokes (1961) defines feedback as a reality-orienting process and i n cases where feedback, for one reason or another, i s defective there i s imperfect contact with re-a l i t y . It has also been noted by Stagner (1950) that one of the primary areas of dissatisfaction among workers and executives i s a "lack of knowledge regarding whether work i s improving or not". This i s quite clearly a lack of feed-back to employees about the results of their activities. According to Read (1963), effective organizational functioning depends not upon maximum, but upon an optimum of - 8 -information exchange. Probably a number of factors are involved i n establishing an optimum level: the particular functions performed by the individuals, the personalities of the persons involved and their needs or goals. According to this author, emerging out of interaction over a period of time, a superior and his subordinate tend, implicitly, to work out a pattern or program of information exchange based upon mutual expectations of what information should be ex-changed. By a process of testing and feedback, of t r i a l and correction, each finds out what i s expected of each other in terms of information requirements. Thus, distinguishable and stable patterns of information exchange are built up. What, then, can we expect to find regarding the information which mid-management executives (depending upon whether they are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated) demand of their superiors? Our purpose here i s to examine two specific types of information: (l) Job-related Information and (2) Career-related Information. Job-related information i s here defined as that infor-mation which pertains to the actual nature of the work or task i t s e l f and with any factors which might tend to influence the individuals sphere of activity. That i s , job-related informa-tion i s information which deals directly with what the person "does". On the other hand, career-related information i s de-fined as that information which i s related to promotional opportunities, economic incentives, security, etc. In essence, - 9 -i t i s not information relating to the work which the i n d i v i -dual does, but rather, information dealing with the various benefits commensurate with occupying a particular position in the organizational hierarchy. This type of information i s necessarily mediated by the individual's superiors and i s usually dependent upon an evaluation of his career progress, i.e.: "how well he i s doing". The main contention of our study i s that individuals, depending upon whether they are intri n s i c a l l y or extrinsically motivated w i l l demand either job-related or career-related information from their superiors. We do not necessarily pro-pose that mid-management executives w i l l demand one class of information upon a l l occasions, but, that they w i l l , in the main, attach primacy to either job-related or career-related information, depending upon their basic motive pattern. CHAPTER III STATEMENT OP THE HYPOTHESES Since intri n s i c a l l y motivated individuals have been de-fined as persons whose primary source of satisfaction i s in the work i t s e l f , i t seems reasonable to conclude that infor-mation specifically related to that work, i.e.: job-related information would be of primary importance to them. HYPOTHESIS I: Intrinsically motivated individuals w i l l view job-related information as being more important than career-related information. That i s , they w i l l pre-fer or place greater emphasis on job-related than career-related information. On the other hand, we have pointed out that extrinsically motivated persons are primarily interested in the benefits commensurate with their position. They are interested in the job, not so much as an end in i t s e l f , but rather as a means to an end. Consequently, their focus of attention i s probab-l y not upon information regarding the work i t s e l f , but rather on information regarding the tangential benefits associated with their particular position. Such benefits are usually associated with the superior's evaluation of the subordinate in his job, and information regarding these benefits i s l i k e l y mediated through the boss. Thus, we might expect to find an extrinsically motivated executive demanding or showing - 11 -preference for career-related information, that i s , he wants to know "where he stands" or "how well he i s doing". HYPOTHESIS II: Extrinsically motivated individuals w i l l view career-related information as more important than job-related information. Intrinsically motivated individuals, since they view the performance of the job as the primary motivating factor, are li k e l y to be i n continuous contact with their primary goal object and source of reward. For this reason, they are un-l i k e l y to require or demand extensive information or evaluation from an external source, as they are capable of informing themselves as to the degree to which they may be attaining desired ends. On the other hand, extrinsically motivated individuals view the benefits commensurate with their position as the primary motivating factors. The goal object, i n this instance, is external to the actual performance of the work, and rewards depend upon evaluation by an external source. Consequently, they require information regarding their progress and achieve-ment from this external source, i n this instance, their su-periors. If we accept the foregoing rationale, our third hy-pothesis i s as follows: HYPOTHESIS III: Those executives who are extrinsically motivated w i l l view feedback from their superiors as being more im-12 portant than do those executives who are i n t r i n s i c a l l y motivated. The fourth hypothesis i s based upon the experimental findings of Porter (1962, 1962, 1963) that self-actualization and autonomy needs are the most important and least f u l f i l l e d types of needs. The intrinsic motivation category as outlined i n this study bears some similarity to the self-actualization concept Utilized by Porter. If this similarity bears true then we might expect to find results paralleling those of Porter. HYPOTHESIS IV: There w i l l be a significantly larger number of intrinsically motivated individuals than extrinsi-cally motivated individuals among mid-level executives. - 13 -CHAPTER IT RESEARCH DESIGN I Sample The subjects were selected from middle-management levels of four organizations. The basic requirement was that the supervisory position of each of these individuals be preceded by at least one subordinate position with supervisory capacity and followed by at least one superior position with super-visory capacity. The breakdown of the four companies i s as o follows: Company A The head office of a large insurance company i n Toronto. The total number of subjects selected here was 16 supervisory per-sonnel. Company B This group included 37 members of the administrative staff of a branch of the B.C. C i v i l Service. Company S Twelve executives from the administrative staff of the City of Vancouver Social Welfare Department. Company D This group included 27 junior executives from a large Vancouver Retail Merchandising firm. In a l l 92 cases, the individuals selected met with the previously stated requisite for inclusion i n the sample. - 14 -II Method (l) Questionnaire Measures (a) Independent Variable A paired comparison questionnaire was developed i n order to provide an objective measure whereby each executive could rank order the importance of their motives for working in a particular job. The three intrinsic and four extrinsic motives (i.e.: the independent variable) were compared here (see Appendix Z). Ross1 (1934, 1939) scheme for the optimal presentation of pairs has been utilized i n the present study. This method avoids bias which may result from the grouping or patterning of the items. In this scheme each specific motivating factor appeared equally often and was alternated in f i r s t and second position i n the pairs as far as conditions permitted, and each particular motive statement was separated as far apart i n the pairs as possible before appearing again. In this study each of the seven motives was paired with every other one, giving a total of 21 pairs. Mimeographed copies were given to each subject person-ally with the instructions that they check off their answers i n the square corresponding to the motive i n each pair of statements which they f e l t came closest to indicating their motive for working. Even though there might not be a plausible choice i n each ease, nevertheless each subject was asked to indicate a choice i n each pair of questions. - 15 -(b) Dependent Variable The dependent variable in this study was the type of information, either job-related or career-related, which the executive viewed as most important to him i n his work. This data was collected by means of a questionnaire which required the subject to rank order five statements which per-tained to practices which were l i k e l y to be carried out by his superior (see Appendix B). One of the statements referred specifically to Job-related information (the last statement) and another statement referred specifically to career-related information (the third statement). The other three statements  in the questionnaire were included to allow for variable  ranking of our two information items and also as a means of  collecting data for another study. They were, for this study, "dummy" items. (2) Statistical techniques used i n analysis of the data (a) Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation An operational definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation based upon the responses to the paired-comparison questionnaire was arrived at i n the following manner. (i) Since the three intrinsic motives are compared with one another on the paired comparison questionnaire then three of the total 21 responses must be answered i n the i n t r i n -sic direction. ( i i ) Since the four extrinsic motives are compared with one another on the questionnaire, then six of the total 21 - 16 -responses must be answered i n the extrinsic direction. ( i i i ) This leaves 12 of the responses free to vary i n either an intrinsic or extrinsic direction. (iv) If the 12 responses on the questionnaire free to vary i n an intrinsic or extrinsic direction are answered i n the following manner: 6 intrinsic and 6 extrinsic, this w i l l be called a Mixed motivational type. (v) If the results are such that of the 12 items which may be answered i n an intrinsic or extrinsic direction, 7 or more are marked in the intrinsic direction, this w i l l be called an Intrinsic Motivational type. (vi) If the results are such that of the 12 items free to vary i n either an intrinsic or extrinsic direction, 7 or more are answered extrinsic. then this w i l l be called an Extrinsic motivational type. (b) Testing the Evpotheses A Chi Square test for single samples was used to test hypotheses 1, 2 and 4. A Kolmogorov-Smirinox test for two independent samples was used in the analysis of hypothesis number 3. Hypotheses w i l l be accepted at the .05 level of significance. - 17 -CHAPTER V RESULTS The data was analyzed on the basis of four clearly differentiated groups. (1) Intrinsic - Job-related — Intrinsically motivated individuals who rank job-related information higher than career-related information. (2) Intrinsic - Career-related — Intrinsically motivated individuals who ranked career-related information higher than job-related information. (3) Extrinsic - Career-related — Extrinsically motivated individuals who ranked career-related information higher than job-related information. (4) Extrinsic - Job-related — Extrinsically motivated individuals who ranked job-related information higher than career-related information. RESULTS RELATING TO THE SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES  Hypothesis I The Chi Square value from Table 2 comparing int r i n s i c a l l y motivated subjects selecting either job-related or career related information as most important, i s significant at less than the .001 level. These results confirms our hypothesis that intrinsically motivated executives w i l l view job-related information as more important than career-related information. - 18 -TABLE 1 A BREAKDOWN OP MOTIVATION-INFORMATION GROUPS BY COMPANY Motivation-Information Company Total Categories A B C D Intrinsie-Job-related 10 21 9 15 55 Intrinsic-Career-related 4 4 2 5 15 Extrinsic-Job-related 1 3 1 3 8 Extrinsic-Career-related 0 7 0 0 7 - 19 -TABLE 2 COMPARISON OP INTRINSICALLY AND EXTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED SUBJECTS AND THEIR SELECTION OP EITHER INFORMATIVE OR EVALUATIVE INFORMATION 2 Motivation Highest Ranked Information X Job-Related Career-Related Intrinsic 55 15 22.8* Extrinsic 7 8 .006 * Significant at .001 level. - 20 -Hypothesis II On Table 2 the Chi Square value comparing extrinsic executives on their ranking of job-related and career-rela-ted information i s not significant. Thus our hypothesis that extrinsically motivated individuals w i l l view career-related information as more important than job-related i n -formation i s not supported. Hypothesis III Table 3 outlines the distribution of the ranks which intrinsic and extrinsic executives assign to the information which i s most important to them. In this case we are inter-ested i n the highest ranked statement pertaining to receiving information of any type, whether job-related or career-related. The Chi Square value of 3.898 as determined by the Kolmogorov-Smirinov Test i s significant at the .05 level of significance. These results support the proposition that extrinsically motivated individuals w i l l view feedback (i.e. information) from their superiors as being more important than do those persons who are intri n s i c a l l y motivated. Hypothesis IT Table 4 outlines a breakdown of the distribution of i n -trinsic and extrinsic executives over the four companies. Analysis of the data gives a Chi Square value of 35.4 which i s significant at less than the .001 level. These results are in support of the hypothesis that there w i l l be a significant-l y larger number of int r i n s i c a l l y than extrinsically motivated executives. TABLE 2 A COMPARISON OP THE NUMBER OP INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC SUBJECTS AND THE RANK THEY ASSIGN TO THE INFORMATION (EITHER JOB-RELATED OR CAREER-RELATED) WHICH IS MOST IMPORTANT TO THEM Rank of Information Number of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ss Intrinsic Extrinsic 1 14 6 2 27 7 3 27 1 4 2 1 X 2 3.897* * Significant at .05 level - 22 -TABLE 4 A BREAKDOWN OF THE INTRINSICALLY AND EXTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED SUBJECTS BY COMPANY  Motivation Companies Total A B C D  Intrinsic 14 25 11 20 70 Extrinsic 1 10 1 3 15 Mixed 1 2 0 3 6 X 2 35.4* * Significant at .001 level - 23 -CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The results of the present study confirm three of the hypotheses and lead to rejection of the other. It appears that one's motive patterns, as defined i n the present study, have a partial directional effect on the type of information which a subordinate prefers or demands from his superior. More specifically we found the following: (1) Intrinsically motivated executives view job-related information as more important than career-related information. Also, i t appears that being either in t r i n s i c a l l y or extrinsically motivated affects the degree of importance which an individual attaches to information of any sort, either job-related or career-related. We found that: (2) Extrinsically motivated executives viewed information as being more important to them than did intri n s i c a l l y motiva-ted executives. There i s also some support for the proposition that the executive population i s primarily motivated in their work by such factors as challenge, interest and creativity, rather than by more materialistic benefits such as salary, security, promotion and prestige. Our specific finding was that: (3) A significantly larger number of the executive po-pulation i n the present study was int r i n s i c a l l y rather than extrinsically motivated. - 24 -Our f i n a l contention, that the extrinsically motivated executives w i l l view career-related information as more im-portant than job-related information was not supported by the results of the present study. For one thing, the small number of extrinsic executives i n the study i s l i k e l y to lead to less stable results. In addition, since our extrin-sically motivated individual views information, per se, as being more important or crucial than does the intrinsic per-son, i t might well be that he i s more sensitive to any feed-back from his superior, whether i t be career-related or job-related. Such a situation might well confound any direction-a l effect from a particular motivational set. One might also propose that the intrinsic individual has achieved a better developed level of adjustment than the ex-trinsic person, and consequently can better direct his atten-tion to information which i s more relevant to him i n his work. The basis for assuming that the intrinsic executive has achieved a better level of adjustment i s the assumed similarity between intrinsic motives and self-actualization. Maslow (1954) proposes that self-actualization i s an advanced stage of personality development. Thus, we might propose that individuals who are approaching such a stage of develop-ment are better able than those not i n this position to direct their attention to information relevant to their work and own personal satisfaction. They are l i k e l y to be less vulnerable and better able to overcome frustrations which might disrupt them i n their work. - 25 -The results of the present research only tend to add to our ever-increasing awareness of the numerous and i n t r i -cate factors which influence information exchange i n indus-t r i a l and other type organizations. Our outmoded assumption that information flows relatively freely between individuals reflects a position which i s no longer tenable. Read (1962) found that there was a significant negative correlation be-tween mobility aspirations and accuracy of upward communica-tion. The relationship was even greater when subordinates held low trust in their superiors' motives and intentions. These results, according to Read, indicate that the motives and attitudes of organizational members strongly affect the manner i n which, and the degree to which, they exchange i n -formation. Also, the work of Mellinger (1956) and Cohen (1958) supports the contention that attitudes, motives, and position i n the organization structure have specific effects upon information flow. The implications from the present study are f i r s t : that particular motive sets influence one's sensitivity to infor-mation and, in some cases, direct attention towards particu-la r types of information. It might well be then, that parti-cular motive patterns not only affect sensitivity of reception of information but, in addition, they may have some influence on the transmitting or sending of specific categories of information. The existence of a situation i n which we have one individual who has a tendency to transmit more frequently one particular type of information to his subordinate, while - 26 -his subordinate may view as important, and be sensitive to, some other category of information, might well result i n disharmony i n their interpersonal relations and a breakdown of optimum information exchange. As pointed out by Read (1963) such a superior-subordinate pair may be unable to work out a pattern or program of information exchange based upon mutual expectations with the result that a stable communication pattern may f a i l to become established. Secondly, the study provides evidence that individuals who bring different patterns of goal-seeking to the work place have different expectations of the supervisory function, demanding different kinds of behavior from supervisors. It indicates that rigidly standardized methods of supervision, such as a highly "programmed" system of performance review to f i t a l l subordinates, are brought into serious question. The present study, then, reinforces the fact that much research w i l l be required i n identifying, much less solving the "communication" problems which beset the administrative hierarchy i n organizations. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that different motivation sets for working exist within the mid-management executive group, and that these different motive sets w i l l have some specific effect, f i r s t l y , upon the type of i n f o r m a t i o n desired, and secondly, upon the importance attached to such information. This question was examined hy comparing executives on an Intrinsic-Extrinsic motivation dichotomy, with regard to the type of information which they prefer, either Job-rela-ted or Career-related, and by determining the degree of importance (i.e.: rank) which they assign the information variables on a special scale. Data were collected on 91 mid-management executives from four organizations by means of a paired-comparison questionnaire and a ranking scale specifically designed for this study. Pour hypotheses were proposed: (1) That in t r i n s i c a l l y motivated executives would prefer job-related rather than career-related information. (2) That extrinsically motivated executives would prefer career-related rather than job-related information. (3) That extrinsically motivated executives would view feedback (i.e.: information) from their superiors as being more important than would intrin s i c a l l y motivated executives. - 28 -(4) That there would be a significantly greater number of intrinsically motivated executives than extrinsically motivated executives. The results confirmed hypotheses (1), (2) and (4) while leading to the rejection of hypothesis (3). Thus i t appears that motive sets at least partially affect information pre-ferences, and, possibly, sensitivity with regard to sending and receiving particular broad categories of information. The possible reason for the rejection of the hypothesis predicting a Relationship between extrinsic motivation and career-related information may be on account of the small size of the sample of extrinsically motivated executives. Also, since the extrinsic individual appraises information, per se, as being more important than does the intrinsic i n -dividual, then we might expect our extrinsic executive to be more sensitive to any information from his superior. Such a situation, then, might confound any proposed directional relationship between motive set and information preference. REFERENCES Bales, R.E.: Strodtbeck, F.L.: Mills, T.M., Roseborough, M.E., "Channels of Communication in Small Groups" Amer. Soc. Res.. 1951, i i , 461-68. Brown, J.A.C. The Social Psychology of Industry. Pelican, A296, 1954, 206. Cohen, A.R. "Upward Communication i n Experimentally Created Hierarchies", Human Relations. 1958, 11, 41-53. Gurin, G., Veroff, J., Feld, S., Americans view their Mental  Health. Basic Books, New York, I960, 149-50. Herzberg, P., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B.B., The Motivation to  Work. Wiley, New York, 1959. Korman, A.K., "The Cause of Communication Failure", Personnel  Administration. I960, 2, 17-22. Likert, R., Developing Patterns of Management: II, American  Management Association. New York, 1956. Maier, N.R.F., The Appraisal Interview. Wiley, New York, 1956. Maslow, A.H., Motivation and Personality. Harper, New York, 1954. Mellinger, G.D., "Interpersonal Trust as a Factor i n Communica-tion", J. Ab. and Soc. Psychol.. 1956, $g, 304-309. Nokes, P., "Feedback as an Explanatory Device i n the Study of Certain Interpersonal and Institutional Processes", Human  Relations. 1961, 1±, 381-87. Porter.-, L.W., Job attitudes i n Management: I. Perceived defi-ciencies i n Need Fulfilment as a Function of Job Level. J. A P P I . Psvchol.. 1962, 4 6 ( 6 ) 375-84. Porter, L.W., Job attitudes i n Management: II. Perceived Impor-tance of Needs as a function of Job Level. J. A P P I . Psychol.. 1963, 42(2) 141-48. Porter, L.W., A Study of Perceived Need Satisfaction in Bottom and Middle Management Jobs. J. A P P I . Psychol.. 1961, 45. 1-10 Read, W.H., "Upward Communication i n Industrial Hierarchies", Human Relations. 1962, 1£, 3-15. - 30 -Read, W.H., Communication i n Organizations: Some Problems and Issues, J, Pers. Admin.. 1963 Ross, R.T., "Optimal Orders for the Presentation of Pairs in the Method of Paired Comparisons". J. Educ. Psychol. 1934, 25_, 375-82. Ross, R.T., "Discussion: Optimal Orders i n the Method of Paired Comparisons", J. Exp. Psychol.. 1939, 414-25. Runkel, P.J., "Cognitive Similarity i n Facilitating Communi-cations" Sociometry. 1956, 1^, 178-191. Shaffer, R.H., "Job Satisfaction as Related to Need Satisfac-tion in Work", Psych. Monograph.. 1953, 61, 1-29. Stagner, R., "Psychological Aspects of Industrial Conflict. II. Motivation", Personnel Psych.. 1950, 2, 1-17. Triandis, H.C., "Some Determinants of Interpersonal Communi-cation", Human Relations. I960, 13, 279-87. - 31 -APPENDIX A JOB MOTIVATION STUDY Directions: The following questions attempt to determine different sources of satisfaction people derive from their work. Imagine yourself faced with the following alternatives. With the limited infor-mation provided make a decision as to which one you would choose and indicate your choice with a check mark ( ) in the box beside the chosen alternative. Please treat each set of two a l -ternatives separately, do not try to be "consis- tent". As this i s not a testthere are no right or wrong answers. Your answers w i l l be held i n strictest confidence. I would prefer: a highly respeeted job with a limited salary ( ) having a position which assures a long-term career even though i t may not allow for much creativity and original thinking OR OR a highly paid but not too well-respected job. ( ) having a job with an uncertain future but requiring creativity and new ideas. ( ) ( ) to move to a job which offers promotional op-portunities but where the work i s routine and does not make use of my best ab i l i t i e s remain i n my present position which I find exciting and challeng-ing but which offers me limited chances for promotion and advance-ment. ( ) ( ) to occupy a position i n which the work i s i n -teresting and absorbing even though others may not have very much re-spect for the job ( ) OR a highly respected, socially recognized job, even though the work i t s e l f i s routine and lacks interest. ( ) a position i n which the salary i s extremely good but the future of the po-sition i s somewhat un-certain. OR a position i n which the salary i s limited but my long term career i s assured. - 32 -to work at a job i n which career and promo-tional opportunities are at a minimum but where I am able to use my f u l l creative a b i l i -ties. ( ) a job i n which the tasks are not particularly i n -teresting but where, at times, my talents and s k i l l s are put to excel-lent use. ( ) a well respected job with an uncertain future ( ) a modestly-paid position with numerous promo-tional opportunities ( ) a position i n which the work i s interesting and absorbing but where my creative ab i l i t y and ingenuity i s not used to any great extent. working in a position which challenges my abi-l i t i e s but offers l i t t l e i n the way of prestige and social recognition. ( ) OR OR OR OR OR OR to work i n a job which requires a minimum of original thinking on my part, but i n which car-eer and promotional op-portunities are very food. ) a job i n which my abi-l i t y and talent i s not put to f u l l use, but where, at times, the tasks are stimulating and absorbing. ( ) assured long term em-ployment i n a job which i s "looked down upon" by others. ( ) a position which pays an excellent salary but with limited chance for promotion or advance-ment. ( ) a position which, at times, makes use of my ingenuity and creative abi l i t y but i n which a considerable amount of the work i s routine and uninteresting* ( ) a position which offers a great deal of social recognition and pres-tige but does not a l -low me to realize my f u l l potential ( ) - 33 -to move to a position with limited promotional opportunities hut which assures me of permanence and stability i n my career to move to a position in which the risk of f a i l -OE ure i s high but which could lead to a size-able promotion. ( ) a well paid job i n which I am required to do a large amount of routine work ( ) an intensely interesting OR and absorbing job i n which the salary i s rather modest, ( ) to occupy a position where my s k i l l and abi l i t y i s not challenged to any great extent, but where the emphasis i s on new and novel ideas. ( ) OR to occupy a position which, at times, re-quires the use of my s k i l l and ab i l i t i e s but where creativity and ingenuity are not a main feature of the job, ( ) to work i n a highly re-spected position even though i t holds only limited op-portunity for promotion and advancement. ( ) OR to occupy a position which offers good pos-s i b i l i t i e s for advance-ment even though i t i s not highly regarded or particularly well-respected. ( ) an interesting, stimulat-ing position with an uncertain future ( ) a position i n which the income i s modest but where the work challenges my f u l l range of poten-t i a l a b i l i t i e s . ( ) OR OR a position which offers me permanence and secur-i t y but in which the work i s routine and repetitive• ( ) a position with a high income i n which the work lacks challenge and places few demands upon my a b i l i t i e s . ( ) - 34 -a position which re-quires many new and novel ideas but which i s not too well-respected. ( ) GR a position which i s highly respected but does not require much i n the way of creativity and i n -a position i n which opportunities for ad-vancement and promotion are extensive but where the job requires large amounts of routine work ( ) a position i n which the work i s inter-esting and stimulat-ing even though I have limited oppor-tunities for promo* tion and advancement. a position i n which my abi l i t y i s not chal-lenged to any great de-gree but which affords me a steady, long-term career. ( ) a position in which the work offers OR strong challenge to my ab i l i t y but gives l i t t l e assurance as to the permanence of my position a job which pays me an outstanding salary but which demands very l i t t l e of creativity and new ideas ( ) a job i n which the salary i s limited but where inventive, creative ab i l i t y and new ideas are essen-t i a l . - 35 -APPENDIX B The following statements indicate some practices which a superior may carry out. Considering yourself as a subordinate, please rank the following statements in accordance with their importance to you in motivating you in your work and in bringing about maximum satisfaction for you on the job. Practices Rank ( l to 5) Takes every opportunity to involve me ( ) in decisions he must make. Goes out of his way to praise me when ( ) I do a good job and encourages me when things are not going well. Consistently evaluates my progress and ( ) performance on the job and keeps me "right up to date" on "where I stand" in the organization. Makes a point of leaving me alone to ( ) do my job in the way I think i t should be done. Goes out of his way to keep me posted ( ) on any matters affecting my job and the way I do i t . 

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