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Changing patterns of residential land use in the municipality of Maple Ridge, 1930-1960 Ivanisko, Henry Imrich 1964

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CHANGING PATTERNS OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE, 1930-1960 by HENRY IMRICH IVANISKO B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1964 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study, I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that, copying or publi-cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission* Department of Geography The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada Date August 14. 1964 ABSTRACT The Problem This study attempts to e x p l a i n and account f o r the r e s i d e n t i a l land use patterns of Maple Ridge f o r a t h i r t y year p e r i o d from 1930 to I960. The Methods of I n v e s t i g a t i o n Followed The r e s i d e n t i a l land use p a t t e r n f o r I960 i s presen-ted i n Chapter I; i t s development and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are accounted f o r by the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of patterns f o r 1930, 1940, and 1950, i n Chapters I I , I I I , and IV r e s p e c t i v e l y . Information from which the patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l land use emerged f o r each decade was obtained from Assessment R o l l s at the Maple Ridge M u n i c i p a l H a l l , Haney, and v e r i -f i e d by municipal o f f i c i a l s and observation. The General Conclusions R e s i d e n t i a l land use i n Maple Ridge began and spread from the centres of Haney and Hammond and formed a s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n extending away from the Fraser R i v e r along the major avenues and roads. An u n c o n t r o l l e d p a t t e r n of scat-tered r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of 1950 reached sprawl proportions by I960. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a s s i s t a n c e and encouragements of many i n d i v i d u a l s made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . Their help was g r e a t l y appre-c i a t e d and I express my g r a t i t u d e to them. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s due to the Cler k and the e n t i r e s t a f f of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Maple Ridge f o r a l l o w i n g the use of Assessment R o l l s . The Department of Geography and Dr. J.L. Robinson have been most generous i n p r o v i d i n g neces-sary a s s i s t a n c e . F i n a l l y , I wish to record my indebted-ness to my a d v i s o r , Dr. A.L. F a r l e y , f o r g i v i n g me needed encouragement and i n s p i r a t i o n to complete t h i s t h e s i s . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 Statement of the problem 1 Methods and Techniques 2 Field work 4 Sources of Information 6 Definition of Terms Used 6 Urban residential land 6 Suburban residential land . 7 Land use survey of 1959 7 CHAPTER I. THE I960 PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE 11 The Municipality of Maple Ridge . . . . 11 Area and physical features 15 Cultivable land in the municipality . . 16 Residential Land in I960 17 Urban Residential Land 20 Alouette River residential use . . . . 21 Residential building at Dewdney Trunk Road and 21st Avenue 22 Suburban Residential Land in I960 . . . 23 Land Use Survey of Maple Ridge in 1959 . . 24 V CHAPTER PAGE F i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land 24 Second c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land . . . . 26 T h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land 27 Smallholdings 3 0 Processes Responsible f o r I960 P a t t e r n . . 33 Population growth of Maple Ridge . . . 33 Comparison of population of Maple Ridge w i t h surrounding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . . 3 5 R e s d i e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n Maple Ridge . . 37 Farming i n Maple Ridge 40 I n d u s t r i e s i n Maple Ridge 41 Summary of Chapter I 44 I I . THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE . FROM ITS SETTLEMENT TO 1930 46 Method and Techniques Used 47 Urban R e s i d e n t i a l Land . 4 7 Suburban R e s i d e n t i a l Land 51 F i r s t Settlement of Maple Ridge . . . . 51 Settlement of Hammond Townsite . . . . 52 Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i n Hammond . . 54 Establishment of Hammond i n d u s t r y . . . 56 Settlement of Haney Townsite 57 Establishment of Haney i n d u s t r y 5$ v i CHAPTER PAGE Population of Maple Ridge in the 1921-1931 Decade 59 Summary of Chapter II 60 III. THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE BY 194-0 . . . 62 Urban Residential Land . . 6 2 Suburban Residential Land 66 Processes Responsible for 1940 Pattern . . 68 Japanese residents of Maple Ridge . . . 68 Depression of the 1930's 69 Summary of Chapter III . 7 1 IV. THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE BY 1950 . . . 73 Urban Residential Land 73 Suburban Residential Land 78 Changes in the Pattern of Residential Land from 1940 to 1950 78 Processes Responsible for the Pattern of Residential Land by 1950 80 Population growth of Maple Ridge in the 1941 to 1951 decade 80 Effects of boom conditions on agriculture . 80 Industrial development of Maple Ridge . . 82 Summary of Chapter IV / 84 v i i CHAPTER PAGE V. SUTYMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6 * 6 Summary $ 6 Conclusions 9 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 6 APPENDIX 9 9 LIST OF MAPS MAP NO. PAGE 1. M u n i c i p a l i t y of Maple Ridge 10 2. I960 R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use 12 3. I960 Haney Townsite . 13 4. 1959 Land Use Survey 14 5. 1930 R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use 43 6. 1930 Haney Townsite 49 7. 1940 R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use 63 £. 1940 Haney Townsite 64 9. 1950 R e s i d e n t i a l Land Use 74 10. 1950 Haney Townsite 75 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Population Growth of Maple Ridge 32 2. Population Rate of Growth of Maple Ridge and Surrounding M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 34 3. Value of R e s i d e n t i a l B u i l d i n g as Compared to Other B u i l d i n g 38 INTRODUCTION The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Maple Ridge has been undergoing changes i n character during the time encompassed by t h i s study, the three decades from 1930 to I960. I t s character and f u n c t i o n s have changed from p r i m a r i l y those of a f o r e s -t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l community w i t h the m a j o r i t y of r e s i -dents engaged i n occupations l o c a t e d w i t h i n Maple Ridge to a trend towards the f u n c t i o n s of a r e s i d e n t i a l community w i t h large numbers of r e s i d e n t s employed i n occupations outside the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The I960 p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use shows a sprawl development extending outward from the merging concentra-t i o n s of Haney and Hammond, along the Lougheed Highway, Dewdney Trunk Road, and other major avenues and roads. The r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , g e n e r a l l y l i e s s c a t t e r e d over the south-ern part of Maple Ridge and occupies much of the area which was once good a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The formerly small r u r a l settlements of A l b i o n , Whonnock, Ruskin, Yennadon, Alexander Robinson, and Webster's Corners have developed i n t o minor r e s i d e n t i a l concentrations. How d i d the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use p a t t e r n of Maple Ridge develop? This study attempts to answer the posed question by 2 i n v e s t i g a t i n g and a n a l y s i n g the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use pa t t e r n i n Maple Ridge, emphasizing i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . R e s i d e n t i a l land use patterns are recon-s t r u c t e d f o r the decades beginning w i t h 1930, 1940, and 1950. Having determined the nature of these p a t t e r n s , an attempt i s made to account f o r them by examining the various settlement processes t h a t , a c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n a group, l e d to t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e expression on the landscape. A comparison of the changes from one decade to another draws a t t e n t i o n to s p e c i f i c v a r i a t i o n s i n the p a t t e r n . Information from which the patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l land use emerged was p l o t t e d on base maps having a sc a l e of one inch to one and one-third m i l e s f o r the periods 1930, 1940, 1950, and I960. Maple Ridge M u n i c i p a l Assessment R o l l s , l o c a t e d i n the Mu n i c i p a l H a l l at Haney, provided the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . Only r e s i d e n t i a l land c o n t a i n -i n g dwellings was included i n the information f o r p l o t t i n g . Vacant l o t s d i d not form a part of t h i s study. The t o t a l assessed value of a r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t i n c l u d i n g a d w e l l i n g and a l o t v a r i e d according to the purchasing power of a d o l l a r i n each of the periods 1930, 1940, 1950, and I960. The year 1930 was used as base year and assessed values i n the f o l l o w i n g decades were compared to t h i s base year. I t was found that assessed values d i f f e r e d considerably f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d w e llings according to t h e i r s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s 3 i n Maple Ridge. Higher assessed values were generally-l o c a t e d at a moderate distance from the commercial core and at s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r distance from i n d u s t r y . Lower assessed values were l o c a t e d adjacent to the l o c a l i n d u s t r y or scattered throughout the d i s t r i c t on smallholdings and farms. Assistance i n e v a l u a t i n g average r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s was obtained through c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the l o c a l municipal assessor f o r Maple Ridge and through l o c a l r e a l t i e s and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . The average values a r r i v e d at from the above sources served as a valuable guide i n the c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use i n the populated parts of Maple Ridge. Assessed values of land and improvements were based on f i f t y percent of the I960 value of property, while the s e l l i n g p r i c e represented two to three times the assessed 1 values of the property. A number of r e s i d e n t i a l developments both i n Haney and Hammond were used i n determining an average assessed value of a r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g and l o t f o r each decade i n v e s t i -gated i n t h i s study. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows average assessed values f o r a d w e l l i n g and l o t used i n the c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use. 1 This value was a r r i v e d at by comparing the cost of property on s a l e through the l o c a l r e a l t i e s i n I960 w i t h assessed values obtained from_Municipal Assessment R o l l s l o c a t e d i n the M u n i c i p a l H a l l , Haney, B.C. 4 Year Average Assessed Value f o r : Dwelling Lot T o t a l 1930 1940 1950 I960 $ 860 1,335 1,750 3,300 $140 165 250 450 #1,000 1,500 2,000 3,750 The small number of r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings having assessed values lower than the preceding f i g u r e s have been included i n t h i s study. Every case w i t h lower assessed values was checked and the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t they were dwellings of depreciated value. A land use survey of Maple Ridge was c a r r i e d out during the successive summers from 1957 to 1959. With the exception of land used f o r farming, a l l other uses of land were included i n t h i s survey. R e s i d e n t i a l land was f u r t h e r subdivided i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s , f i r s t , second, and t h i r d c l a s s according to the value of land and d w e l l i n g . The r e s u l t s were p l o t t e d on small scale maps of one inch to 400 f e e t , l a t e r g e n e r a l i z e d , and the sc a l e reduced to a s i z e s u i t a b l e f o r present i n g i n t h i s study. The c h i e f con-cern during the survey was to p l o t land use as i t appeared from observation. Since f i e l d work f o r p l o t t i n g land use was c a r r i e d out during the summer months i t was p o s s i b l e t o determine land use to a much greater degree of d e t a i l because exact use of land was an a i d i n determining property 5 l i n e s . I t was p o s s i b l e to include some land i n the r e s i -d e n t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which was la r g e enough to be a small h o l d i n g i f , from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , the land appeared to be used p r i m a r i l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, w i t h the surrounding p o r t i o n of the property l e f t vacant w i t h no attempt being made to supplement the f a m i l y income through i t s use. Weaknesses i n the survey were c h i e f l y due to d i f f i c u l t y i n determining the land use, e v a l u a t i n g the improvements, and i n a s c e r t a i n i n g property l i n e s by cor-r e l a t i n g the information from mu n i c i p a l maps and d i r e c t observation. Chapter I discusses the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use pat t e r n which i s represented on the I960 d i s t r i b u t i o n map. The 1959 Land Use Survey supplements the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use patter n by showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e s i d e n t i a l land use to other uses of land . Subsequent chapters are based upon patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l land use represented on d i s t r i b u t i o n maps f o r 1930, 1940, and 1950. An a n a l y s i s of the patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l land use and the processes responsible f o r producing these patterns are used i n r e -c r e a t i n g the I960 p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use. This study may a s s i s t i n planning f o r the c o n t r o l of scattered r e s i d e n t i a l development which at present r e c e i v e s inadequate community s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . 6 Sources of Information Municipal Assessment Rolls located at the Maple Ridge Municipal Hall, Haney, B.C., covering the period of this study were the chief source of information for the plotting of maps of residential land use. Studies and reports on Subdivision Planning Policy of the Fraser Valley by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of British Columbia proved valuable. The studies by the Board of the Lower Fraser Valley showed the importance of the development of Maple Ridge as an integral part of the Lower Mainland. Field work conducted on foot and by car in the succes-sive summers of 1957 to 1959 and personal observation during seven years of residence in Maple Ridge provided knowledge and information relevant to this study. Much of the data obtained from municipal employees through interviews and information received from private individuals was validated by personal v i s i t s and additional checking. Definition of Terms Used Two categories based upon assessed values constitute residential land use for the purpose of this study as shown on Maps 2 and 3, 5 and 6, 7 and 8, 9 and 10. 1. Urban Residential land includes land chiefly sub-divided into lot-size not exceeding one-half acre, together 7 with improvements consisting of a dwelling, garage, etc. To this category belong most of the services of an urban community, such as sewers, paved streets, sidewalks and street lighting, water, f i r e , and police protection. 2. Suburban Residential land includes land chiefly subdivided into lots of one-half to two acres in size, together with improvements consisting of a dwelling, garage, and other outbuildings. Residences in this category have only the basic services provided, such as water, roads, f i r e , and police protection. Suburban residential land is gener-al l y located some distance from park and school f a c i l i t i e s . Country livin g and spacious surroundings located close to urban services and f a c i l i t i e s are attractions of the suburban residential land. The 1959 Land Use Survey map of the Municipality of Maple Ridge (see Map 4) employs the following terms: 1. Residential land includes a dwelling together with other buildings comprising the household unit. Classi-fication on the basis of value of the dwelling'"and lot provides a subdivision into the following classes: (1) First Class Residential unit consists of an excellent dwelling surrounded by well kept grounds o and good landscaping of lawns, flower beds, etc. The average size of lot is approximately 66 x 150 feet. Many of the units are located on small acreages. The 3 dwellings are of recent construction containing a floor space of over 1,100 square feet in area. The market value of the property exceeds $15,000. (2) Second Class Residential unit consists of a good quality dwelling located on an average size 60 x 120 foot lot with adequate landscaping. The average area of floor space seldom exceeds 1,100 square feet with the market value of the property ranging from $3,000 to $15,000. (3) Third Class Residential unit consists of f a i r to poor quality dwelling. The lot size is an average of 60 x 120 feet with l i t t l e or no landscaping. The dwelling is usually old and contains a floor space well under 1,100 square feet. Older poorly kept dwellings comprising of floor space area greater than 1,100 square feet have been included in this classification. Market value of property is generally under $3,000. 2. Commercial land includes land used for a l l r e t a i l outlets such as stores and garages. 3 . Smallholdings include a l l parcels of land consisting of five acres in size or greater, together with dwellings and outbuildings. Each parcel of land shows evidence of producing agricultural products, poultry, or fur animals for sale. 4 . Industrial land includes a l l land associated with 9 enterprises that process or fabricate products from other materials such as agricultural processing plants, lumber mills, brick yards, and boat building establishments. 5. Recreational land includes a l l land used for the purpose of public recreation such as playgrounds, parks, and golf courses. 6. Institutional land includes land used for schools, churches, hospitals, and rest homes. MUNICIPALITY O F MAPLE RIDGE CHAPTER I THE I960 PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE The I960 p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l l a nd use i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Maple Ridge i s the r e s u l t of a century of settlement and growth. From the time of the f i r s t s e t t l e -ment i n I860 to the present many changes have taken place that have had a bearing on the I960 p a t t e r n . This chapter deals w i t h the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use p a t t e r n and ex-p l a i n s the s i g n i f i c a n t processes and changes re s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s development. The 1959 Land Use Survey (see Map 4, page 14) i s included i n t h i s chapter to show the r e l a t i o n -s h i p and p o s i t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l land i n respect to land use g e n e r a l l y . Before d e l v i n g i n t o the explanations of the r e s i d e n -t i a l p a t t e r n of land use i n Maple Ridge a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y may help to understand i t s background (see Map 1, page 10). Maple Ridge i s l o c a t e d on the f r i n g e of the Vancouver me t r o p o l i t a n area, a distance of twenty-eight miles from downtown Vancouver. I t i s s i t u a t e d on the n o r t h bank of the F r a s e r R i v e r w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of P i t t Meadows and'Mission forming i t s boundaries t o the west and east r e s p e c t i v e l y . The northern o n e - t h i r d of Maple P O R T I O N O F ?• T\ t» y eJ o S C A L E IN M I L E S MAP 3 p. 13 P O R T I O N O F MUNICIPALITY O F M A PLE RI DG E 15 Ridge, comprising much of the University of British Columbia Research Forest and Garibaldi Provincial Park, is part of the heavily glaciated Coast Mountains which present a very abrupt rise from the al l u v i a l plains and post-glacial terraces in the southern part of the municipality. The University of British Columbia Research Forest, leased from Maple Ridge by the Provincial Government, is located adja-cent to Garibaldi Park and together with i t comprise approximately one-half of the total area of Maple Ridge. The Research Forest is an integral part of the Faculty of Forestry of the University of British Columbia and forms a link between the University and the Municipality of Maple Ridge. The Federal Government holds two small Indian Reserves the position of which could be of some s i g n i f i -cance in the development of future residential land. Both are accessible from the Lougheed Highway. 2 Of the total area of Maple Ridge of 65,990 acres, 33,853 acres are held by the Provincial and Federal Govern-ments in the form of parks, Indian Reserves, and timber leases. The southern part of Garibaldi Provincial Park extends into the northern part of Maple Ridge, occupying an area which, because of its rugged and mountainous topography, could only be developed as a tourist attraction. The highest point in the municipality is in Garibaldi 2 Municipal Records for Maple Ridge, Municipal Hall, Haney, B.C., I 9 6 0 . 16 Provincial Park where the Golden Ears Mountain attains an elevation of 5,600 feet above sea l e v e l . The undulating to r o l l i n g topography that characterizes the southern part of the municipality i s interrupted by the Valley of the Kanaka Creek and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . The upper part of the Valley of Kanaka Creek i s narrow with steep sloping banks while the southern part, i n contrast, i s wider and the banks almost disappear. Much of the southern part of the val l e y i s low-lying and subject to floods; consequently i t i s l i t t l e developed. East of Kanaka Creek, Grant H i l l , which forms a second prominent feature i n the landscape reaches an elevation of 1,100 feet and because of an excessive slope which creates a water shortage, renders much of the southern part unsuitable to agriculture and r e s i d e n t i a l development. Much of the area l y i n g between the north and south arms of the Alouette River i s also low-l y i n g and as a resu l t i s poorly developed as a r e s i d e n t i a l area due to the frequency of floods during the freshet season. Cu l t i v a t i o n and development of land are li m i t e d to the a l l u v i a l plains and p o s t - g l a c i a l terraces which have been l a i d down by the Fraser River and i t s two l o c a l t r i b u t a r i e s , Alouette River and Kanaka Creek. The Fraser River has undercut these terraces i n the southwestern part of the municipality and as a resu l t they form an abrupt c l i f f 150 feet i n height. In early development th i s c l i f f 17 proved to be a b a r r i e r to communications between the r i v e r and the d i s t r i c t . River landings only occurred where the c l i f f descended to the l e v e l of the r i v e r . Municipal Records at the Maple Ridge Municipal H a l l , Haney, B.C., indicate that only about 10,000 acres of the municipality are under c u l t i v a t i o n or are developed. This represents about f i f t e e n percent of the t o t a l area of Maple Ridge or about t h i r t y percent of Maple Ridge not held by the Provin-c i a l or Federal Governments. The r e s i d e n t i a l land use of t h i s t h i r t y percent or 10,000 acres of the Municipality of Maple Ridge forms the subject of t h i s t h e s i s . The r e s i d e n t i a l land use f o r I960 was plotted on base maps (see Maps 2 and 3, pages 12 and 13), with Map 2 showing the pattern f o r the southern portion of Maple Ridge; Map 3 concentrates on the area containing the settlement of Haney and i t s immediate surroundings. The Haney area has shown the greatest r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n the municipality and, therefore, warrants sp e c i a l consideration. Both Maps 2 and 3 have been plotted from assessment values taken from Municipal Records f o r I960, Municipal H a l l , Haney, B.C. The assessed value of residence and l o t was set at $3,300 and the size of the r e s i d e n t i a l l o t was limited to under two acres. The greatest concentration of r e s i d e n t i a l land i n I960 occurred i n the southerwestern section of Maple Ridge west of 17th Avenue, centering on the townsites of Haney and 18 Hammond (see Map 2 ) . From these centers r e s i d e n t i a l land has spread i n t o the surrounding area as the o r i g i n a l s i t e s expanded away from the Fraser R i v e r and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. The most a t t r a c t i v e farmlands surrounding the townsites were occupied f i r s t . This r e s u l t e d i n the lar g e number of productive farms being subdivided p r i o r to need. The I960 p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use i n Maple Ridge as shown on Maps 2 and 3, forms an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s c a t t e r i n g along the main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and i n t e r -connecting avenues. This i n d i s c r i m i n a t e s c a t t e r i n g points to u n c o n t r o l l e d mushrooming development. Studies of the land use i n d i c a t e that the mu n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has lagged a step behind r e s i d e n t i a l development, thus f a l l i n g to pre-vent s u b d i v i s i o n of land and subsequent r e s i d e n t i a l develop-ment throughout the m u n i c i p a l i t y without adequate planning to ensure f o r necessary f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . Some areas l o c a t e d i n clo s e p r o x i m i t y t o the two townsites have been unsui t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s due to t h e i r adverse topog-raphy. Such u n s u i t a b l e topography i s noted west of 6 t h Avenue and south of the Lougheed Highway which appears i n the form of a c l i f f c o n t i n u a l l y weakened by s p r i n g s . This c l i f f continues along the Fraser R i v e r and, because the edge i s subject to s l i d i n g , r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s have tended to l o c a t e f a r t h e r away from the r i v e r . 19 Whereas Maps 2 and 3 were based upon assessed values for I960, Map 4 was based upon evaluation of residences through observation and includes a further subdivision of residential land into f i r s t , second, and third class according to the I960 market value of residence. Residen-t i a l lots were also limited to under two acres and only in a number of minor instances was the size of lot greater than two acres. The latter situation only arose when i t was impossible to establish lot limits through observation of property. A comparison of Maps 2 and 4 shows a very close cor-relation of urban and suburban residential land with the f i r s t , second, and third class residential land. The two maps together not only present a complete view of residen-t i a l land in Maple Ridge, but they also indicate the rela-tionship and the location of residential land as compared to other uses of land; the result is a complete land use picture. With less dependence upon the Fraser River and the Canadian Pacific Railway for transportation and because of. the development of roads, much of the increase in the area used for residential purposes has taken place north of the Dewdney Trunk Road between 2nd and 11th Avenues. The increase has chiefly been due to a number of dairy farms and small orchards that were subdivided into residential lots. Their owners found that due to the increased cost 20 of operating these farms they could not resist the attrac-tion of immediate profit by subdivision. The increase in the area of residential land has been discontinuous and greatly dispersed, thus straining the present community services to the point of inadequacy. Much of the unused land close to the townsites that is topographically un-attractive for residential purposes has been by-passed in preference for agriculturally productive land. The spread of residential sites has chiefly been along the two major highways, Dewdney and Lougheed and along the main north-south avenues. The two major residential concentrations of Haney and Hammond are merging into one large, sprawling development (see Maps 2 and 4 ) . This development f i r s t shows signs of merging along the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road chiefly as a result of the ease of east-west transportation. Uncontrolled large scale subdivision produced a scattered pattern of development. The most desirable areas for residential purposes were used f i r s t while much of the sub-divided land remained vacant. The residential growth of Haney had spread both westward and eastward (see Map 3 ) . The eastern expansion has chiefly been along the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road while the western expansion was concentrated over a smaller area and resulted in a compact development. It is expected that the eastern 21 growth of r e s i d e n t i a l land w i l l continue along the Dewdney Trunk Road and u t i l i z e many of the smallholdings (Map 4). Even i n I960, many small farmers have found i t more pro-f i t a b l e to subdivide t h e i r farms into r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s and in so doing they have encouraged the appearance of l o t s f a r i n excess of the needs f o r I960. Chief among the numerous subdivisions occurring out-side the two urban-type concentrations of Haney and Hammond, is the area located between the north and south arms of the Alouette River. This area extends between 14th and 17th Avenues and c h i e f l y l i e s south of 3 2 n d Road. Locally known as Yennadon, the area contains cottage-type dwellings each of which contains one or more acres of land. Retired residents and those seeking summer homes have been attracted to t h i s area as a re s u l t of i t s favourable location near the r i v e r . Many of the dwellings are on o r i g i n a l homestead si t e s of the 1900's and continue to be used as horse ranches by animal enthusiasts. Although many ranchers attempt to make a l i v i n g r a i s i n g horses, they f i n d l i t t l e success i n t h i s endeavor and horse r a i s i n g remains merely a hobby. Many l o c a l residents own a few l i g h t horses f o r the purpose of r i d i n g and display at horseshows. Typical of the larger horse ranches are the following: Maple Ridge Equitation Centre, Coniagas Ranch, Garibaldi Ranch, Lazy F Ranch and Ridgecrest. Ridgecrest, with approximately 2 2 t h i r t y horses, i s the l a r g e s t , s p e c i a l i z i n g i n race horses. R e s i d e n t i a l development i n the area has c h i e f l y concentrated on the main roads such as 3 2 n d Road w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n of a trend towards sideroads. There i s a move by the l o c a l horse ranch owners to sway the municipal government i n t o i n t r o d u c i n g zoning r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the purpose of r e s t r i c t i n g the use of the area to the r a i s i n g of horses. A large r e s i d e n t i a l development has occurred at Dewdney Trunk Road and 2 1 s t Avenue (see Map 2 ) which represents the f i r s t major area of r e s i d e n t i a l development to l o c a t e at a distance from the Haney and Hammond developments. I t s main f u n c t i o n was to serve as a r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e f o r approxi-mately 2 0 0 employees of the Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e who could r e s i d e i n t h i s area and be w i t h i n commuting d i s -tance of the I n s t i t u t e . At the same time the development was to serve as a place of overflow from the Haney and Hammond concentrations. The l a t t e r f u n c t i o n has shown some success while the former f u n c t i o n has had l i t t l e or no success since employees of the C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e con-tinue to be drawn from the whole m u n i c i p a l i t y . This sub-d i v i s i o n was formerly a s e r i e s of s m a l l f r u i t and vegetable farms which extended along the Dewdney Trunk Road and 2 1 s t Avenue. The farms were worked by Japanese labourers who d i d not r e t u r n to the area a f t e r being moved by the Canadian Government during the course of the Second World War. A Junior-Senior Secondary School has been b u i l t at the s i t e 23 to provide schooling for the teen-age population l i v i n g in the eastern part of Maple Ridge. Residential settlements developed out of the early-homesteads of the late lSOO's appeared at Albion, Whonnock, Ruskin, Alexander Robinson, and Webster's Corners (see Map 2 ) . The f i r s t three were situated along the original river and r a i l transportation lines. Alexander Robinson and Webster's Corners located along the Dewdney Trunk Road, were the f i r s t settlements to develop away from these communication lines and depend entirely upon road transpor-tation. With the further development of the road system, other small inconsequential settlements sprang up through-out the municipality following the same pattern as the larger residential developments discussed above. Fertile farm land attracted the homesteader, transportation im-proved, the homestead was subdivided, and residential units were b u i l t . In contrast to urban type, suburban type residential land use forms a more scattered pattern because i t usually indicates a f i r s t step in the subdivision of scattered farms into residential sites. Suburban developments usually surround an urban area. Thus in Maple Ridge the majority of suburban sites occur in close proximity to the Haney and Hammond concentrations, spreading along the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road as far east as 17th Avenue and west to Pitt Meadows. The density of suburban 24 lots diminishes with increased distance from the Haney and Hammond urban type areas and declines rapidly east of 17th Avenue where lots are largely confined to the major highways as a result of the inadequate development of feeder roads. An exception to the rule of decreasing density occurs towards the north-east of Haney where the attraction of view and river side lots has resulted in a higher density of suburban lots along the Alouette River than closer to Haney i t s e l f . In summary, a sprawl pattern of urban residential land spreads away from the merging concentrations of Haney and Hammond along the River Road, Lougheed Highway, and Dewdney Trunk Road. Much of the farming area between Haney and Hammond has been subdivided and this subdivision has resulted in an oversupply of residential lots. Residential land both urban and suburban was further classified as f i r s t , second, or third class according to the market value of residence and lot in a land use survey conducted in 1959, the results of which appear on Map 4 . 3 Fir s t class residential dwellings are chiefly located along River Road between 3rd and Carshill Avenues. An attraction of the area is in the view afforded by the Fraser River from a bluff slightly over 100 feet in height. A second attraction of the area is in the privacy possible due to i t s location some distance from the highway. The 3 For a definition of f i r s t , second, and third class residential dwellings see above pp. 7-8. 25 size of a l o t ranges from a large c i t y l o t , 66' x 120', to almost two acres. In every case the entire l o t i s well landscaped. F i r s t class r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s located off C a r s h i l l Avenue and along the southern part of C l i f f Drive are smaller with l o t sizes seldom exceeding one-half acre. The l o t s are not as elaborately landscaped as those along River Road, but t h e i r l ocation away from the main highway also enables some degree of privacy. The average market market value of residence i s $3,000 to $ 6 , 0 0 0 lower than those along River Road. Similar type of f i r s t class r e s i -dential land i s located north of the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road and along Maplewood Avenue. The major area of f i r s t class r e s i d e n t i a l land located north of the Dewdney Trunk Road appears west of the Senior Secondary School on Ridgeway Crescent, extending west to 3rd Avenue and continuing along 5th Avenue to 22nd Road. The f i r s t class dwellings along 22nd Road are comparable to those along River Road i n size and the extent of landscaping. Many of the dwellings appear amid natural growth of f i r s and cedars and enable the development of private parks surrounding each of the dwellings. The remaining f i r s t class r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings are scattered among the many new r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s and form no p a r t i c u l a r pattern. The dwellings are l a r g e l y contained on two 60 x 120 foot l o t s which are rar e l y f u l l y landscaped. 26 Older s e c t i o n s of Haney and Hammond contain only a few f i r s t c l a s s dwellings due to nearness to i n d u s t r y and the commercial cores. The few that appear were o r i g i n a l l y developed as la r g e country homes which have maintained t h e i r f u n c t i o n even though the two towns developed abound them. As could be expected, the present movement of f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l development has been away from the o l d r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings and l a r g e commercial cores and i n d u s t r i e s . A number of la r g e estates occur on the slopes over-l o o k i n g the Fraser R i v e r immediately north of Whonnock. The grounds around these estates c o n s i s t of two or more acres of land and appear f u l l y landscaped. Such estates employ f u l l t i m e gardeners. The l o c a t i o n of these estates i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area has been due c h i e f l y to t h e i r d i s -tance o f f the highway and as a r e s u l t o b t a i n d e s i r a b l e p r i v a c y from the r e s t of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A major concentration of second c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land occurs near the townsites of Haney w i t h the Lougheed High-way and 22nd Road forming the north and south l i m i t s respec-t i v e l y , and 3rd Avenue and 11th Avenue forming the east and west l i m i t s . This i s c h i e f l y due to new developments w i t h i n the area, the l o c a t i o n of which i s close t o the o r i g i n a l f a c i l i t i e s of the o l d t o w n s i t e . Second c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land occupies a p o s i t i o n between the t h i r d c l a s s , r e s i d e n t i a l land of the o l d townsite and the f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l 27 land which g e n e r a l l y appears some distance from the town-s i t e . Second c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land commands l e s s p r i v a c y due to the f a c t that i t s l o c a t i o n i s c l o s e r t o the commer-c i a l core than f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d . The l o t s of the second c l a s s dwellings are much l e s s landscaped. A much smaller concentration of second c l a s s dwellings appears near the o l d townsite of Hammond where the small s i z e of l o t a v a i l a b l e encouraged dwellings c l a s s i f i e d i n the next lower category. Even though much second c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land appears as part of new s u b d i v i s i o n s , i t i s l o c a t e d on through-streets which help to break down the atmosphere of pr i v a c y . Dewdney Trunk forms the access route to many sub-d i v i s i o n s l o c a t e d to the north and south of i t , some have lo c a t e d on higher ground i n search of w e l l drained s i t e s . In c o n t r a s t , the Lougheed Highway provides access t o fewer second c l a s s s i t e s since the highway passes.close t o the Fraser R i v e r and the Canadian P a c i f i c -Railway (see Map 1+) . Major areas of t h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings are found as part of the o l d townsites of Haney and Hammond. In Haney, t h i r d c l a s s dwellings appear on the land s l o p i n g toward the Fraser R i v e r from 20th Road i n the north and from 6th Avenue i n the west to 10th Avenue i n the east. Many o l d dwellings have ceased to be maintained because of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to i n d u s t r y and the commercial core. A n t i c i p a t i o n of a change i n land us.e from r e s i d e n t i a l to 28 commercial or even i n d u s t r i a l , has encouraged many land owners of t h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s to w a i t f o r the development i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y that w i l l r e s u l t i n a commercial or i n d u s t r i a l demand f o r t h e i r l a n d . Past patterns of commercial development of the m u n i c i p a l i t y have i n d i c a t e d t h a t such a change w i l l take place i n the near f u t u r e . In Hammond, t h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings are found i n the o l d s e c t i o n of the settlement f i r s t surveyed by the Hammond brothers i n the e a r l y lSSO's; a l a r g e num-ber of the dwellings were o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t by the Hammond Lumber Company to accommodate i t s employees. Many of the b u i l d i n g s erected at t h a t time have undergone only minor r e p a i r s s i n c e t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . As the o r i g i n a l l o t s were s m a l l , the townsite developed i n a compact manner which enabled the r e s i d e n t s t o l i v e i n close p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r occupations which at that time centered around the sawmill. Elsewhere i n Maple Ridge, t h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l lings appeared along the main thoroughfares. The c e n t r a l cores of A l b i o n , Whonnock, Ruskin, Yennadon, Alexander Robinson, and Webster's Corners c o n s i s t of t h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings b u i l t as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of a short period of o r i g i n a l development of these centres f o l l o w e d by a long p e r i o d of stagnation when l i t t l e or no b u i l d i n g took p l a c e . The o r i g i n a l dwellings have received l i t t l e improvement since they were f i r s t b u i l t . T h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d w e llings i n Maple Ridge have 29 been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of uses, two may be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d : ( l ) T h i r d c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d w e l l i n g s o r i g i n a l l y constructed as farm b u i l d i n g s and were l o c a t e d on l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d . Later these same dwellings were found on urban or suburban l o t s as a r e s u l t of a s u b d i v i s i o n of the farm. They are g e n e r a l l y found s c a t t e r e d through-out Maple Ridge forming ribbons of development along m u n i c i p a l roads. (2) Summer cottages l o c a t e d near a r i v e r or a lake f r e q u e n t l y became permanent residences due to the increased demand f o r residence. These dwellings are now the cheapest of a l l the homes i n Maple Ridge. In many cases they are no more than s m a l l cabins. The m a j o r i t y of summer cottages are l o c a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Maple Ridge Park on the banks of the north and south arms of the A l o u e t t e R i v e r . As s t a t e d above, t h i s area i s subject to f l o o d s during the e a r l y s p r i n g i n unusually wet years. A s i m i l a r type of cottage development i s p o s s i b l e i n the v i c i n i t y of Whonnock Lake where the lake provides the a t t r a c t i o n . The l o t s are inexpensive because of the d i s -tance from Haney and the need f o r c l e a r i n g the s m a l l t r e e and bush cover. A few such cottages already e x i s t . In summary, f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l d w e llings are c h i e f l y l o c a t e d on l a r g e l o t s away from main through-s t r e e t s or w i t h i n view of the Fraser R i v e r . An i n c r e a s i n g number of f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings appear as part 3 0 of new subdivisions. Second class residential dwellings are chiefly located adjacent to f i r s t class dwellings and constitute the majority of the dwellings of new sub-divisions. Third class residential dwellings are mainly located as part of the older sections of Haney and Hammond and close to the original industries. They also form the core of residential dwellings in the rural settlements of Albion, Whonnock, Ruskin, Webster's Corners, Yennadon, and Alexander Robinson. A brief discussion of smallholdings serves to draw attention to areas of Maple Ridge which are expected to be subdivided into residential sites. Smallholdings are usually the result of subdivision of farms and large tracts of land and represent an intermediate step in the ultimate subdivision of farms into residential lots.' They are generally about five acres in size but may range from two to over ten acres. The most important consideration in this discussion of smallholdings is not their over-all size but the number of acres in actual use. The area of the smallholding in use depends upon its function; many large smallholdings are only partially cleared and much of the remaining area is l e f t undeveloped. Residents of smallholdings add to their income from other occupations by the sale of agricultural products such as vegetables, small f r u i t s , berries, and hay. Where the depletion of the s o i l has been serious, many smallholdings have turned 31 to s pecialized kinds of land use which do not depend upon the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l , such as poultry r a i s i n g and fur farming. Smallholdings are c h i e f l y located east of 14th Avenue from the Fraser River i n the south to the forested and sloping f o o t h i l l s of the mountains i n the northern portion of Maple Ridge. This d i s t r i b u t i o n forms a d i r e c t cor-r e l a t i o n with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of farms, the majority of which are also located i n t h i s part of the municipality. West of 14th Avenue, smallholdings are confined to the area north of 21st Road. Much of t h i s area i s low-lying and poorly drained which necessitates an extensive system of dikes. In excessively wet years dikes overflow and large portions of the area are inundated. Even though the area i s best suited f o r smallholdings, a number of r e s i d e n t i a l subdivisions have occurred i n spite of the danger of floods. Residents of these subdivisions f e e l that the nearness to the Haney r e s i d e n t i a l area and i t s services outweigh the flood hazard. Very few smallholdings are found i n the urban area south of 21st Road and 14th Avenue because most of the former smallholdings i n this area have been subdivided into r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s . Residents of small-holdings generally derive t h e i r chief income from employ-ment i n the industries of Maple Ridge or Greater Vancouver since smallholdings rarely provide the means to an adequate l i v e l i h o o d . Some f i n d seasonal employment i n occupations 32 1921 1 9 3 1 1 9 4 1 1 9 5 1 Y E A R 9 6 1 FIGURE I POPULATION GROWTH OF MAPLE RIDGE S O U R C E : C E N S U S O F C A N A D A , I 9 6 1 , V O L . I 1 9 7 1 33 such as f i s h i n g . Other smallholding r e s i d e n t s who have s e t t l e d i n Maple Ridge because of the advantages of a comparatively low tax r a t e and the a t t r a c t i v e r u r a l sur-roundings , are commuters to the Vancouver metro p o l i t a n area on a f u l l time b a s i s . An i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l land i n Maple Ridge created by the shortage of such land i n Greater Vancouver has reduced some l o c a l farms i n t o smallholdings which have subsequently been sub-d i v i d e d i n t o suburban r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s . The p a t t e r n formed by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the changing land use i l l u s -t r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e of suburban sprawl w i t h i t s emphasis upon the wastage of land and the p r o v i s i o n f o r the l a c k of good community s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . P opulation growth of Maple Ridge over the past f o u r decades has been res p o n s i b l e f o r the development of the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use p a t t e r n . Figure 1, page 32, shows the growth of population of Maple Ridge from a p p r o x i -mately 3,300 i n 1921 to 16,743 i n 1 9 6 1 . The greatest r a t e of increase took place i n the 1951-1961 decade. The growth was 29 percent i n the 1921-1931 decade; 33 percent i n the 1931-1941 decade; 49 percent i n the 1941-1951 decade; and 69 percent i n the 1951-1961 decade. In a d d i t i o n , the 1951-1961 decade represents a t o t a l increase of 6,357 persons or 6 .9 percent increase per annum. A record i n -crease of 4,246 persons i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f i v e year period 1956-1961. This represents an annual increase 34 2 0 CD Q < CO o X h-< _J 0_ o a. FIGURE 2 POPULATION RATE OF GROWTH OF MAPLE RIDGE AND SURROUNDING MUNICIPALITIES S O U R C E : C E N S U S O F C A N A D A , 1 9 6 1 , V O L . I close to £.5 percent. Officials of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of British Columbia have estimated that the population of Maple Ridge could reach over 4 24,100 by 1971. The great population increase is not unique in the Fraser Valley. It is noted that the rate of growth of Maple Ridge is only slightly higher than adjoin-ing municipalities (see Figure 2, page 34). The population growth of Maple Ridge and the sur-rounding municipalities has been the result of their close proximity to the Vancouver metropolitan area. A scarcity of building sites and the increasing cost of building in Greater Vancouver have forced large numbers of urban residents to seek residential building lots in the Fraser Valley. Maple Ridge became a desirable location since the improved transportation f a c i l i t i e s reduced commuting dis-tances to industries located in Burnaby and New Westminster. The general trend of new industries is to establish on the fringes of the Vancouver urban market and at the same time create employment for some of the labour force of the Municipality of Maple Ridge. The eastern movement of Vancouver industries into Burnaby and Coquitlam has brought Maple Ridge within commuting distance. It is noted that larger municipalities surrounding Maple Ridge are located ^ Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B.C., Population Trends in the Lower Mainland Region, 1921-19711 (New Westminster: Lower Mainland Planning Board of B.C., January, 196l). 36 to the south and east; P i t t Meadows, a small r u r a l munici-p a l i t y , i s l o c a t e d to the west. P i t t Meadows i s g e n e r a l l y l o w - l y i n g ; much of the area i s poorly drained and as a r e s u l t o f f e r s l i t t l e a t t r a c t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development. I t i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y i n which d a i r y farming forms the c h i e f occupation. The growth of Vancouver's po p u l a t i o n has been expanding up the Fraser V a l l e y i n two d i r e c t i o n s . One d i r e c t i o n of movement i s to the south of the Fraser R i v e r i n t o Surrey, Langley, Matsqui, and Sumas. The second d i r e c t i o n i s north of the Fraser R i v e r i n t o Coquitlam and continues eastward to P i t t Meadows, Maple Ridge, and M i s s i o n . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c l o s e s t to Greater Vancouver such as Surrey and Coquitlam have undergone the greatest population i n c r e a s e . The momen-tum generated by r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n these two munici-p a l i t i e s has increased s t e a d i l y and as a d i r e c t consequence the demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l land i n the a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s has a l s o increased s t e a d i l y . Maple Ridge i s expected to undergo i t s greatest population increase and as a r e s u l t r e s i d e n t i a l development, when r e s i d e n t i a l land i n Surrey and Coquitlam i s no longer a v a i l a b l e . The steady population growth of Maple Ridge and the consequent demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s encouraged l o c a l farmers to subdivide t h e i r l a n d . Unfortunately t h i s sub-d i v i s i o n of land and the growth i n r e s i d e n t i a l development 37 was c a r r i e d out at the expense of the small area under c u l t i v a t i o n . The a t t r a c t i o n of good a g r i c u l t u r a l land f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes stems from the advantage of i t s l o c a -t i o n which i s g e n e r a l l y close t o municipal f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and, because of i t s f l a t nature, needs l i t t l e or no preparation f o r the e r e c t i o n of d w e l l i n g s . I t i s e s t i -mated that about one-half of the undeveloped area of Maple 5 Ridge has a slope of 15 percent. This slope i s g e n e r a l l y too great f o r p r o f i t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r e because of the d i f f i -c u l t y i n maintaining the required s o i l moisture. I t has not a t t r a c t e d r e s i d e n t i a l development due c h i e f l y to i t s distance from adequate community s e r v i c e s and good communi-c a t i o n l i n e s . With an improvement i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n e s and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of other community s e r v i c e s the un-developed area of Maple Ridge could a t t r a c t f u t u r e r e s i d e n -t i a l development and a i d i n reducing the pressure.upon a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . One of the d i r e c t consequences of a population i n -crease i s the emphasis placed upon r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g . In Maple Ridge the value of r e s i d e n t i a l permits granted by the m u n i c i p a l i t y has amounted to a greater t o t a l value than the combined t o t a l of a l l other b u i l d i n g permits. Figure 3 , page 3 3 , shows the value of r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g permits 5 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, F a c u l t y of Graduate Studies, Community and Regional Planning, A Community Plan-ning Study of Maple Ridge (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., Spring, 1952) . H-i 1!: f - L t ; i : ±itr .1.1..,.. -3000 -2500 j: -to-2000-. , . _ ; : — < - 1 -.i. •. O • u. "1500 i . ' o i . l . 7 J,.;." - : - i • :  J..' < - C O - o -1000 ; O - ': -500-i - --o-11 •r-l 4..; ._ : . . u . ; .i . . .... . .!. T , : : ~ — -::rr::rt:::: — J - t--• 4 . . . . . . . i 948 \; 1950. . |...;-..!.4.4J 1-.-. •r-i-— — if 1952 . 1954 1956 : Y E A R . M GURE .3 IT 7ul r. :~ • - --r i - i 1 T - T-'If. F i . M 38. - * — I N D U S T R I A L ' - — ! IT - F A R M -.. , _ . . r C O M f i ::.n. =RES 958 : I960 )962: 1 r -r-t- - -t-r— TIT: -T M E R C I A L D E N T I A L " . ztzt • H -::n: :£zr VA LUE OF RES IDENTIAL BUIL A S C O M P A R E D T O 0 T h D.I.NG. S O U R C E - ' M U N I CI P A L R E C O R D S E R . B U I L D I N G , -i-rr-Tt!--..!..•.:.f4- -.- •f-r-... 1 39 as compared to other kinds of building permits in the municipality for the fifteen year period 1943-1962. Commercial building has always had high values because of the demand for increased shopping and other commercial f a c i l i t i e s required by the increasing population. Com-mercial building values include the building of new schools, churches and other institutions because they are directly connected with supplying services for the in-creasing residential population. Industrial and farm building has consistently indicated insignificant values in the fifteen year period. No large industries have been established in the municipality during this time and the existing industries have undergone l i t t l e or no expansion. The decline of industrial development has been: chiefly due to the depletion of resources that enabled existing indus-tries to continue. No large new industries have been established, but rather there has been a trend towards small handicraft type. The very small activity in industrial building has been the result of maintenance costs of existing industries. No new farms have been established but rather there has been a loss of existing farms through residential subdivision. Speculative subdivision of land has encouraged realty companies to subdivide productive farms into residential lots and these appear scattered indiscriminately throughout the municipality. A number of dairy farms have been forced 40 to subdivide because the f i n a n c i a l burden of modernization necessary f o r t h e i r operation has forced t h e i r owners into accepting immediate gains through subdivision. The cost of establishing a medium-sized, modern dairy farm and the cost of the land may range from $40,000 to $70,000. The average c a p i t a l f o r such a dairy farm has been estimated 6 as $52,770 by W.J. Anderson, formerly of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The status of farming i n Maple Ridge i n the past three decades has been declining s t e a d i l y as a r e s u l t of the sub-d i v i s i o n of farmland f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. As a r e s u l t of t h i s decline, farming plays only a minor role i n pro-viding occupations or i n supporting the population. In 1962 the Municipal Assessor f o r Maple Ridge estimated that there were 350 farms i n Maple Ridge. This number has been arrived at from an estimate of the number of parcels of land defined as farms by the Federal Government and which receive federal exemption with regards to property taxation. Of t h i s t o t a l only 100 are estimated to be i n a position to f u l l y support the families inhabiting them. The t o t a l number of persons who are a c t u a l l y supported by farming and can therefore be c l a s s i f i e d as farmers i s approximately 6 W.J. Anderson, "An Evaluation of the Future of Agriculture i n B.C.," Transactions of the Ninth B r i t i s h  Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , Depart-ment of Lands and Forests, 1956, p. 260 7 500. This figure represents less than three percent of the total population. Too hasty subdivision of many farms has permitted an early termination of their agricultural usefulness. In addition, the loss of farm labour to Vancouver metropolitan industries has resulted in the deterioration of many of the farms. The bulk.of the industries of Maple Ridge are based upon the processing of raw materials, notably forest and agricultural products. The largest sawmill in Maple Ridge is the British Columbia Forest Products, Hammond Division, which employs about 500 men, but employed as many as 700 during i t s peak production period. A number of smaller sawmills are also found in Maple Ridge each employing from ten to one hundred men. The sawmills were originally located near sources of local timber or with access to logs brought down streams from the northern part of the municipality. L i t t l e profit has discouraged many small mills in continuing operations in Maple Ridge. The deple-tion of timber stands in the vi c i n i t y of the mills has progressed to the point where only the largest find i t economically worthwhile to continue operation. At present timber from the local area supplies only a small propor-tion of the total requirement of these mills. A much larger fraction of the total requirement of logs must be ' Estimates made by the Municipal Assessor for Maple Ridge for 1962. 42 imported from the Fraser Basin and from the c o a s t a l area. As the distance to import logs i n c r e a s e s , t o t a l cost increases so that the operation of the l o c a l m i l l s i s becoming exceedingly p r e c a r i o u s . The o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n of the sawmills, t h e r e f o r e , has become a handicap because they are d i s t a n t from the raw m a t e r i a l and deep water export shipping. Food processing p l a n t s have played an important part i n the l i f e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Those e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to the Second World War were due c h i e f l y to the e f f o r t s of the Japanese i n h a b i t a n t s who r a i s e d considerable amounts of small f r u i t s and b e r r i e s . A f t e r the wartime removal of the Japanese p o p u l a t i o n , production of small f r u i t s and b e r r i e s d e c l i n e d s e r i o u s l y . The white r e s i d e n t s who took over the farms from the Japanese d i d not continue to use the farms f o r the same purpose; they were not w i l l i n g to devote the long hours of d i f f i c u l t t o i l necessary f o r t h e i r maintenance. Most of these farms f e l l i n t o disuse and were l a t e r subdivided i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s . C a p i t a l investment put i n t o the o r i g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l processing p l a n t s l a t e r t i e d these p l a n t s to t h e i r present l o c a t i o n s . They re c e i v e only a small f r a c t i o n of the raw f r u i t , b e r r i e s , and vegetables from the l o c a l area and the bulk of requirements are imported from the Langley area south of the Fraser R i v e r . The Okanagan V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia supplies part of the f r u i t f o r the l o c a l a g r i c u l -43 t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s w i t h some f r u i t shipped from as f a r away as the States of Washington and C a l i f o r n i a . The l a r g e s t food processing plant i n Maple Ridge i s the Berryland Canning Company Limited which employs fourteen persons during the w i n t e r season and a maximum of 140 persons during the summer canning season. Housewives are the c h i e f source of labour f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l processing p l a n t s i n Maple Ridge because they are a v a i l a b l e during the seasonal operation of these p l a n t s . The most important i n d u s t r i e s of Maple Ridge emphasize dependence upon raw m a t e r i a l s of the f o r e s t s and a g r i c u l -ture and to a l e s s e r extent upon c l a y products. These primary i n d u s t r i e s form a b a s i s f o r a number of much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t secondary i n d u s t r i e s c h i e f l y b u i l d i n g t r a d e s , h a n d i c r a f t , and s e r v i c e type i n d u s t r i e s . The h a n d i c r a f t , t r a d e , and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s have been growing i n impor-tance as a r e s u l t of the r i s i n g p o p ulation and i t s demands f o r them. A sample of the major l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s i s l i s t e d below together w i t h an approximate number of employees: Industry No. of Employees B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Products, Hammond D i v i s i o n 450-500 Whonnock Lumber Company number employed i n lumbering 100 number employed i n l o g g i n g 100 ° T o t a l s obtained from p r i v a t e telephone conversations w i t h the managers of each of the i n d u s t r i e s l i s t e d . 44 Industry No. of Employees Haney Brick and Tile Company 35 Berryland Canning Company number employed year round 14 number employed during canning season 140 Dunning Publishing Company 30 Haney Box and Lumber Company 12 Alouette Shingle Company 10 Clappison Meat Packers 10 Snowcrest Vegetable and Fruit Packers 10 Albion Boat Works 6 Haney Poultry Processors 6 The above l i s t of industries is in no way complete but i t does include the largest employers of local labour. It is important to note that with the best agricultural land being used for residential dwellings and the forests being exhausted, the basis for the local industries is being undermined. In summary, residential land use in the Municipality of Maple Ridge is scattered over the southern portion with the greatest concentration occurring in the southwestern section west of 14th Avenue. A sprawl pattern of residen-t i a l land extends from the merging clusters of Haney and Hammond along the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road into agricultural areas. This pattern is the result of the large population increase which caused an indiscriminate subdivision of land. The shortage of building sites in Greater Vancouver has forced large numbers of urban dwellers to seek residential sites in Maple Ridge. Commuters, who reside in Maple Ridge but work in industries in the Vancouver 45 metropolitan area, form a large part of the total popula-tion. With an expected increase in the population this group of commuters w i l l increase since i t is impossible for them to obtain local employment. Local industries are dependent upon the local raw materials from the forests and agriculture. Both of the resources are disappearing with the best agricultural land being used for residential building and the forests being depleted. These industries supply a livelihood for only a portion of the local labour force, large numbers of workers must seek employment else-where. The continued existence of the primary industries in Maple Ridge becomes increasingly precarious because there is a greater dependence upon imported raw materials. This chapter has presented the pattern formed by the residential land use and the processes responsible for its development. The following chapters w i l l investigate the residential patterns for the decades beginning with 1930 and trace their changes in order to explain the I960 residential land use pattern. CHAPTER II THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE FROM ITS SETTLEMENT TO 1930 The I960 pattern of residential land use presented in Chapter I was the result of processes active during the past three decades. The results of these processes are summarized on base maps for each decade beginning with 1930 and covering a period of thirty years. Chapter II presents the pattern of residential land use in 1930 and discusses the major processes responsible for producing i t . The year 1930 was used as a starting point because the major pattern of residential land use in Maple Ridge was already evident then and only minor variations in this pattern were introduced in the following decades. The minimum assessed value of $1,000 used as a basis for classifying residential land in 1930 varied from an average of $800 in the old section of Hammond to $1,200 in Haney. These values are shown in the following table of average assessment values taken from Municipal Assess-ment Rolls located at the Maple Ridge Municipal Hall, Haney, B.C., for Hammond and Haney for 1930: 47 Average value of Hammond Haney Average for both improvements |660 $1,050 $ 855 Average value of land 140 150 145 Total $800 $1,200 $1,000 Averages of assessed values for residential dwellings in other parts of Maple Ridge were invariably higher than the above figures and only minor problems arose in the over-all classification. A l l dwellings having assessed values between $#00 and $1,000 were checked with informa-tion provided by older residents of Maple Ridge. By 1930 urban residential land was centred upon the two townsites of Haney and Hammond, separated from each other by about three miles of small f r u i t and vegetable farms (see Maps 5 and 6, pages 48 and 49). Both settle-ments clung to the Fraser River and the Canadian Pacific Railway, the two modes of transportation that were respon-sible for their original location. The Fraser River pro-vided the only means of transportation in the early development of Maple Ridge with the second and more impor-tant means provided by the Canadian Pacific Railway after 18&5. Albion and Whonnock were other residential develop-ments on the bank of the Fraser River; both began as farming units or homesteads and later developed into small residential settlements. Both Albion and Whonnock depended ^ ^ I ..„.. c ^ _ _ _ _ _ i v , I A P _ 5 _ _ p . 4-8 tn 111 n i j j j i M j i ] m / I Z L T I J J J HJL HE III III , TTTlll I mm [IIIMIIILLQ: r i "i IJ j ! | M f f i roiiTca Hi i - 1 1 1 UJJJMII'il iLTLTTJIinr " T ^ I J J T J J D ! n ri D D X X I H I D E B f f l LT_L7, 1 9 3 0 HANEY TOWNSITE LAND USE URBAN RESIDENTIAL SUBURBAN RESIDENTIAL S C A L E O N E I N C H T O 1000 F E E T 50 upon agriculture, but since the surrounding area suitable for agriculture was small i t limited the size of these settlements. The influence of the larger sawmills and logging operations upon Albion and Whonnock was minor since the labour force for the mills resided chiefly in Haney and Hammond. After the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885, settlement in Maple Ridge relied much less upon the Fraser River for the movement of supplies because goods could now be transported much more quickly over land. With the development of a network of roads, settlement expanded away from the river and the dependence upon both the river and the railway diminished. The importance of roads is indicated by the development of Webster's Corners, the f i r s t settlement in the eastern portion of Maple Ridge. It was f i r s t started by a subdivision of a homestead owned by J.W. Webster and the settlement remained small because of i t s dependence upon agriculture. Like Albion and Whonnock, Webster's Corners had only a small area of c u l t i -vable land. Although Webster's Corners had the basis for a much greater agricultural development than either Albion or Whonnock, much of the possible agricultural land needed improvement by clearing small bush growth or providing proper drainage. Both needs were costly and development continued at a slow pace. An.improvement in the road net-work speeded the progress of opening up large portions of 51 this area to small farms. As in the case of Albion and Whonnock the influence of the sawmills and the logging operations upon Webster's Corners was only minimal. Suburban residential land was strung out along the Dewdney Trunk Road between 2nd Avenue in the west and 26th Avenue in the east. Dependence upon road transportation kept suburban lots close to the main roads with less accessible areas l e f t undeveloped. The largest area of suburban residential land was located between the Alouette and the Fraser Rivers as a result of the f l a t topography and the development of a good road network. Some of the smallholdings located on better roads surrounding Webster's Corners, Albion, and Whonnock were subdivided into choice suburban lots. Many more followed as the demand for these lots increased. The gently r o l l i n g slopes surrounding Grant H i l l , although at this time l i t t l e used, later pro-vided the location of future suburban residential lots since the area was of questionable agricultural value. A brief history of the two townsites of Haney and Hammond w i l l describe the residential use of land and the subsequent formation of residential land use patterns. The f i r s t rural settlement of Maple Ridge was scat-tered over the southern part of the d i s t r i c t as a direct result of scattered large tracts of land purchased by each settler and his family. Most of the settlers who came to 9 Maple Ridge from Langley in 1S60; others who were attracted to the Fraser Valley by the gold rush of 1858 took their land under the terms of the second Pre-emption Proclamation issued by Governor Douglas. Each settler purchased 160 acres of land and soon numerous homesteads appeared in the d i s t r i c t . Since only a small fraction of the land of Maple Ridge was suitable for agriculture the earliest settlers quickly pre-empted the best land, creating an a r t i f i c i a l shortage because few of the homesteads could be f u l l y c u l t i -vated. A division of land into sizes smaller than 160 acres would have encouraged a greater number of settlers. Late comers were forced to settle on poorer land away from the transportation f a c i l i t i e s of the Fraser River and were, as a result, isolated from each other and from the rest of the d i s t r i c t . Since agricultural land was scarce and widely scattered l i t t l e could be done to discourage scattered settlement. By allowing each settler 50 acres instead of 160 acres there could have been the beginning of clusters not just scattered settlement. Whonnock, Albion, and Webster's Corners were the f i r s t results of subdivision of particular farms. The Hammond townsite was established on the northern y J.E. Gibbard, "Early History of the Lower Fraser Valley, 1808-1885," (Unpublished Master's Thesis in History, University of B.C., Vancouver, 1937), p. 187. 53 10 shore of the Fraser River in 1882 when the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway was undertaken in Western Canada. The homestead on the present site of Hammond was owned by the Hammond brothers and was the most westernly point along the proposed railway to touch the Fraser River.. It was believed at that time that Hammond would become the western terminus of the railway and be the fresh water port on the Fraser River. Since large river boats encountered l i t t l e or no d i f f i c u l t y in reaching this site, i t was assumed that ocean going vessels could do the same. There was no need, therefore, to extend the railway any further west, necessitating a course away from the Fraser River. The homestead became a supply depot for railway building; large quantities of supplies, r a i l s , r o l l i n g stock and food were landed on a newly constructed dock and temporarily stored on the river bank. Steamer transportation was estab-lished with the south bank of the Fraser River. Shortly before the railway line was completed and for some time afterwards, two steamship lines came into operation with a regular run between Port Hammond, New Westminster, and the capital at Victoria. One line was owned by the Canadian Navigation Company and the other was operated by a Fraser River pilot by the name of Captain William Irving. After a survey of the port possibilities of Port Hammond and a 10 Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Gazette, Haney, December 31, 1958. 54 realization of its shortcomings, the Canadian Pacific Rail-way decided to abandon Port Hammond as i t s terminus and extend the railway line to Port Moody. This decision was a temporary discouragement to the development of Port Hammond. The disappointment was only transitory since the future of Port Hammond seemed assured because it s location formed a junction for river steamer connection with the south side of the Fraser River and Victoria. As a result of the possibility for residential development, the Hammond brothers began to subdivide their homestead. In August 1883, the Hammond homestead became the town of Port Hammond Junction; later the word "Junction" was dropped from the name when steamer service was abandoned. First signs of planning became evident when the streets of Port Hammond were carefully la i d out. Provision was made for a band-shell and a playground. A children's park, which is s t i l l in existence, was laid out, occupying a square block on Lorne Street near the present location of the Port Hammond Community Hall. A triangular area at the corner of Lorne Street and Maple Crescent was set aside for a bandshell but the latter was never b u i l t . Port Hammond was a busy town, u n t i l the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. There was a ready market for farm produce, railway ties and pilings from which the whole economy received a stimulus. As a consequence of the need for agricultural products there was a rush to 55 occupy and develop the best agricultural land. The area was underlain by good agricultural soils, classified as m Haney Clay. An area of about 4,500 acres contains Haney Clay at elevations ranging from 25 to 150 feet above sea level with a gently r o l l i n g topography which encourages good drainage. The growing season is f a i r l y long and crop loss due to frosts is extremely rare; k i l l i n g frosts occur between late October and mid-March. Agriculture, consisting of mixed farming, poultry and f r u i t growing, was well establsihed by the late 1880's. The railway did not reach the south side of the Fraser River for many years and Port Hammond became an entrepot for produce sent to the much more heavily populated centres south of the river. River boats plying to the south created flourishing business. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885 ended the construction boom. A steadier pace of growth followed, as a result of the entrepot location, the river boat business, and Port Hammond's location on the steamship runs from New Westminster to Chilliwack. The railway brought new opportunities: settlers came into the d i s t r i c t , new settlements sprang up along the railway, and a number of new wood and clay industries were established. Port 11 C.C. Kelly and Spilsbury ? R.H., Soil Survey of  the Lower Fraser Valley, Publication 650 (Ottawa, Canada Dept. of Agriculture, 1939), p. 36. Hammond grew rapidly in the generally prosperous years between IB96 and 1921 by the exploitation of the timber resources of the area and by the utilization of the Fraser River and the Canadian Pacific Railway transport f a c i l i t i e s . The establishment of a number of sawmills in the area provided a livelihood for much of the local labour force. The present British Columbia Forest Products M i l l , Hammond Division, was established in 1914 when the Hammond Lumber Company was formally taken over by the present owners. An indication that a l l was not well with the industry was shown by this takeover. The local newspaper, the Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Gazette, reported a bright economic 12 future in 1921. A short time later this bright outlook was followed by a depression. At this time the Hammond Lumber Company employed 150 men. Logs for the m i l l , prin-cipally cedar, were obtained from Pitt and Stave Lakes area and from areas further up the coast. The chief lumber market was in the eastern part of the United States, but exports were also reaching a l l parts of Canada. Accommodation for the local labour force was available at the townsite of Hammond. Many dwellings were built by the Hammond Lumber Company and were rented or sold to its employees at reasonable rates. There was l i t t l e need to 12 Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Gazette, "Maple Ridge in Retrospect. Hammond Industrious, Progressive and Happy," Haney, February 13, 1958. 57 extend urban development outside the existing townsite and the company ownership of the town and i t s nearness to the Hammond M i l l kept assessed values for the dwellings low. Company dwellings were generally built on narrow lots with a simple architectural style which changed only slightly from one dwelling to another. The generally lower values for the dwellings in the Hammond townsite provides the chief reason for the markedly lower assessed values in comparison with average assessed values in Haney noted at the beginning of this chapter. 13 The settlement of Haney f i r s t began in 1877 when Thomas Haney built a homestead on 160 acres of pre-empted land, That same year the subdivision of the homestead resulted in the beginning of the townsite and the name of the homestead became Haney's Landing. In 18$5 "the construc-tion of the Canadian Pacific Railway made Haney's Landing a centre of economic activity along with Port Hammond, and the name was changed to Port Haney. Thomas Haney was the chief surveyor, designing the townsite which today gives Haney the appearance of early planning. Provision was made to allot free land for the community church and a municipal h a l l . The main commercial core of Haney's Landing was located between the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Fraser River. This was a planning error and indicated a lack of 13 Ibid., December 31, 1958. 53 foresight because i t envisioned very l i t t l e future expan-sion. The commercial core later moved to the north side of the railway and up the h i l l along 3th Avenue. This migration took place as roads began to replace the railway in importance. The commercial core began to cluster to the northward along the major highway. Local industry consisted of a number of brickyards in the early 1330's and the f i r s t sawmill in 1905. The saw-mi l l passed into the hands of Abernethy and Lougheed who sold the plant to i t s present owners, the Maple Ridge Lum-ber Company in 1917. The local newspaper stated that the Abernethy and Lougheed Logging Company employed 700 men continually during the year 1926 at five logging camps 14 located throughout Maple Ridge. Many small logging operations were established in Maple Ridge about this time; however, depletion of forest resources was already notice-able , and many suspended operations and moved to other d i s t r i c t s . The fishing industry, almost entirely dependent upon the seasonal salmon run up the Fraser River, provided some part-time employment for the homesteaders whose time was rarely f u l l y occupied with agriculture. Increased numbers of fishermen from New Westminster and Vancouver appearing at the mouth of the Fraser River reduced the 14 Ibid., April 24, 1953. 59 possible catch at Maple Ridge, and as a result fishing played a minor role in the economy of Maple Ridge. The residential concentration of Haney moved along 8th Avenue, the only main street running north of the old townsite (see Map 6). The expansion of residential land was limited in the west by a gully created by the slide of 15 1878 while to the east land suitable for residential development was occupied by a lumber mill and a brick plant. The movement away from the Fraser River and the Canadian Pacific Railway has continued to the present time as a result of limited space near the river and residential building in the more attractive areas along the developing highways. Even the old commercial core of Haney began to feel the attraction of these highways. The population increase of 1,100 persons during the decade 1921-1931 raised the population of Maple Ridge to 16 4900. This increase was chiefly due to the slight exodus of people from Greater Vancouver because of a shortage of occupations in the urban area. Urban dwellers chose to leave the cities to seek cheap agricultural land in the Fraser Valley where i t was possible to exist on small-holdings by raising some of the food requirement. The population increase was accompanied by subdivision of farm 15 Gibbard, op. c i t . , p. 280. 16 Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, Census of Canada, 1921 and 1931. 60 land into small holdings. Only a small number of urban lots were established at this time. The advent of the automobile was a minor factor in subdivision at this time but i t introduced the f i r s t suburbanite to the di s t r i c t who came to take advantage of rural l i f e on a large parcel of landi Later decades were to feel the f u l l impact of the automobile. In summary, settlement of Maple Ridge began in 1360 when land was f i r s t pre-empted by agricultural settlers, attracted to the Fraser Valley by the gold rush of 1353, and who remained in the Valley to take up homesteads. At f i r s t the process of settlement was slow but gained momen-tum with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1335. Maple Ridge then served as an entrepot for goods shipped by r a i l and destined for the south side of Fraser River. After 1915 the.entrepot function was lost with the completion of a railway line along the south side of the River. The spread of residential land began with the development of Haney and Hammond and expanded along the River and the railway. Movement into the interior occurred only after the building of roads. Webster's Corners was the f i r s t settlement to appear away from the Fraser River, followed by others as the road system expanded. The main industries of Maple Ridge, including sawmills, logging operations, clay products and agricultural products, were 61 well established by 1930. The decade 1921-1931, however, had a serious economic depression that s t i f l e d the growth of the entire d i s t r i c t . A number of forest businesses both in Haney and Hammond were absorbed by larger interests due to financial d i f f i c u l t i e s . More serious effects of the depression were f e l t in the following decade. CHAPTER III THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE BY 1940 The world wide depression and stagnation associated with the 1930 fs was reflected in Maple Ridge where the residential land use pattern established by 1930 continued to expand very slowly. Minor changes were in evidence, however, by 1940 due possibly to the economic impulse generated by the Second World War. The 1940 pattern of residential land use is illustrated on Maps 7 and 6* (pp. 63, 64) . Urban residential land continued to extend away from the Haney and Hammond concentrations. Growth was moderate over the preceding decade and chiefly confined to the area between Haney and Hammond where extension was restricted to the main roads. No clusters of urban residential land were outside of the settlements of Albion, Whonnock, and Webster's Corners. Hammond grew considerably in the section located northeast of the railway and the British Columbia Forest Products M i l l . The section of Hammond located southwest of the railway had a more moderate increase because this area was less desirable as residential land. It is low-lying, being generally under twenty-five feet above sea =? T I O N O F MAP 7 p. 63 O F r MAP 8 p. 64 S C A L E O N E I N C H T O 1000 F E E T level, and in danger of flooding during early spring. Although dikes were built to alleviate the flood danger, i t was s t i l l a problem during exceptionally wet years. The whole area was poorly drained and most dwellings were built either with a shallow basement or with none at a l l . The 'Haney urban concentration showed consolidation within the townsite. The area between 6 t h and 9th Avenues to the Dewdney Trunk Road (see Map 3) had a considerable increase in population and only a small area remained unoccupied. With the opening of Lougheed Highway in 1931, many commercial establishments, formerly located near the Fraser River and along the foot of 3th Avenue, moved to 17 the new highway. This migration encouraged the trucking business. Goods were trucked more cheaply from Vancouver and from one d i s t r i c t to another. Much less time was wasted in the movement of local goods from chief wholesale houses and main depots to commercial outlets. The decade from 1930 to 1940 noted the end of the d i s t r i c t ' s depen-dence upon the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Fraser River. Much subdivided land was found along the new highway to accompany the commercial establishments. Much of this subdivision was at the expense of the orchards located 17 M. Gow, "Haney Walked 'Up H i l l ' , Modern Town Develops on Lougheed Highway Site as Fraser River Front Abandoned," Vancouver Sun, Magazine Supplement, September 1, 1951. 66 south of Dewdney Trunk Road between 3rd and 6th Avenues (see Map &). These orchards were f i r s t subdivided into smallholdings to avoid the complete destruction of the fru i t trees and to permit their further u t i l i z a t i o n . In a later subdivision of the smallholdings into residential lots the f r u i t trees were completely removed. The development of residential land in other parts of Maple Ridge was in the vicinit y of the rural settlements of Albion, Whonnock, and Webster's Corners. No.large increase took place in any of these settlements. Elsewhere in the d i s t r i c t new residential land followed the main transportation lines. Only a moderate change is indicated in the pattern of residential land in comparison with the pattern for 1930. Much of the increase in population from 1930 to 1940 occurred as a result of an increase in the number of resi -dents livi n g on smallholdings. This population increase is not apparent in the residential pattern indicated on Map 7. These smallholdings were later subdivided into lots and appear as in the pattern of residential land in the following decade. The expansion of suburban residential land use f o l -lowed the pattern already evident in the preceding decade. A slight modification of the pattern occurs with the emergence of a greater number of suburban lots located at 67 some distance from the major settlements of Haney and Hammond. These lots were found along the main transporta-tion routes, the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road, forming a ribbon pattern. A f a i r l y dense development pat-tern along the major highways in the area between Haney and Hammond became discontinuous east of 17th Avenue. The Alouette River area, south of 32nd Road, from 14th Avenue in the west to 17th Avenue in the east, attracted a number of retired residents from metropolitan Vancouver. A similar climate, attractive natural surroundings, and easy access to Vancouver promoted the building of cottages along the river. The major disadvantage of the Alouette River area is its low elevation and danger of floods. Floods were frequent in the area almost every year prior to 1940, accompanied by serious damage to property. Exces-sively wet years resulted in more extensive damage to both the land and the dwellings. The municipality strengthened the river banks in an attempt to lessen the danger of floods, nevertheless, some damage to property was expected every year during the early spring run-off. Some residents of this area have lost much of their property on more than one occasion and were in danger of losing their lives had not the local volunteer f i r e and rescue department appeared on the scene. Yet these same residents returned to their dwellings soon after the flood had subsided only to rebuild and await the next flood. Japanese residents constituted a large percentage of the total population of Maple Ridge by 1941. They lived mainly on smallholdings and had their chief source of income from raising small fruits and berries, working at various logging operations throughout the Municipality, and fishing for salmon in the Fraser River, as well as off the Lower Mainland Coast. They established the Haney Box Company, an industry which f i r s t began as a lumber and box company. Much of the lumber was used for the produc-tion of f r u i t boxes. It is no longer a lumber company and purchases lumber for i t s continued production of boxes. These boxes were, and are, used in the marketing of local berries and small f r u i t s . At the time of the founding of this industry, local fruits and berries played a much more important part in the general economy of Maple Ridge. The Japanese were also responsible for establishing Pacific Co-op, the f i r s t berry processing, preserving and packing plant in Maple Ridge. It employed twelve persons year around and twice that number during the busy summer season. The plant was located at the foot of #th Avenue, near the Canadian Pacific Railway track and the Fraser River. Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries were shipped to the plant chiefly by r a i l where they were pre-served with sulphur dioxide and shipped to jam factories in Mission City and Vancouver. Many of the Japanese em-ployed at the plant were also part-time fishermen, who 69 utilized the lofts of the processing plant for storing their fishing nets. It was thus possible to shift emphasis to either fishing, the raising of berries and small f r u i t s , or to continue with both, depending upon the annual berry and small f r u i t crop or the salmon run. The berry and the small f r u i t industry reached its peak while in the manage-ment of the Japanese but declined seriously after the displacement of the Japanese by Europeans. A short time later many small f r u i t and berry farms were subdivided into suburban residential units. The depression of the 1930's had a profound effect upon the economy of Maple Ridge. Financially sound indus-tries, such as the British Columbia Forest Products, de-creased production. Less prosperous industries were forced to close, many of which never re-opened. The industries that survived the disastrous decade of 1930-1940 operated on less than half capacity. Even well established firms such as the Haney Brick and Tile Company ceased operations temporarily. When i t re-opened, the changing demands of the building market forced an alteration in i t s product. The original building brick was no longer in demand, and as a result a change to high quality agricultural drain t i l e and to various sizes of structural t i l e provided a new stimulus to the entire industry. Local reserves of clay show no sign of depletion, hence, the size of this indus-try is chiefly governed by the demand for i t s products. Of the industries that closed, the Abernethy Lougheed Logging Company was the largest and had the greatest i n f l u -ence on the economy of the municipality. It is believed that the company ceased to operate because its timber reserves had been almost completely logged off, and the depression only speeded up the inevitable end. Essentially the 1930 residential land use pattern was only slightly modified by 1940. Some residential lots that were available in Haney and Hammond townsites from the last decade were occupied by 1940. The effect of the f i l l i n g in of residential building on formerly empty lots produced a degree of consolidation within the two urban concentrations. A considerable number of vacant lots were s t i l l available in the southwestern portion of the Hammond townsite. The area between 7th and 3 t h Avenues south of the Dewdney Trunk Road was almost completely occupied with dwellings (see map 3 , p. 6 4 ) . Only a small number of utilize d urban residential lots were added to the 1930 total, chiefly in the area between Haney and Hammond. The suburban residential land use pattern in 1940 was very similar to the pattern for 1930 with the addition of a considerable number of suburban dwellings in the southern part of Maple Ridge. The greatest number of suburban dwellings were along Dewdney Trunk Road from 2nd Avenue in the west to 26th Avenue in the east (see Map 7, p. 6 3 ) . 71 The area located between Haney and Hammond formed into a compact residential pattern. Subdivision of most of the large tracts of land took place in the area much sooner than in other sections of Maple Ridge due to the position of this area between the two urban clusters of Haney and Hammond. The subdivision of orchards south of 21st and 22nd Roads (see Map 7), lying between Haney and Hammond, created an area of smallholdings whose size is slightly larger than two acres but the use of which is almost exclusively confined to residence. In summary, the depression of the thirties was a decade of stagnation in Maple Ridge. No new industries were established; those already in existence closed down, or reduced production. The slow growth of population was an accurate measure of economic growth. What progress there was took place in the last years of the decade when the depression gave way to the war years. Urban residen-t i a l development reflected the sluggish growth. The two arterial highways drew the commercial core of Haney away from the railway. There was a f i l l i n g in of lots within both townsites. Suburban residential development increased slowly along the main transportation lines especially in the area between Haney and Hammond. A pattern of ribbon development was emerging but as yet was quite discontinuous along the major roads to the east of Haney. In contrast 72 to the sluggish development of the 1930-1940 decade, the decade of 1940-1950 was to be one of acceleration. CHAPTER IV THE PATTERN OF RESIDENTIAL LAND USE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF MAPLE RIDGE BY 1950 In contrast to the sluggishness of the thirties the decade of the forties was prosperous. Maple Ridge experi-enced i t s greatest population growth. However, as popula-tion grew at an unprecedented rate the industries of Maple Ridge experienced a marked decline. Timber mills and clay-industries cut production, and agricultural activities declined. The residential pattern remained much the same as in 1930 or 1940, except for certain minor changes. But the process of subdivision was greatly accelerated and ex-ceeded the residential need. Maps 9 and 10 (pp. 74,75), illustrate the pattern for 1950. Urban residential pattern by 1950 indicated a west-ward sprawl from the Haney concentration along Dewdney Trunk Road, Lougheed Highway, and River Road (see Map 9). Since subdivision of land surrounding the Hammond urban concentration had not taken place to as great an extent as subdivision surrounding Haney, the sprawl of residential development had not been as pronounced. In this decade there was the f i r s t urban residential building north of the Dewdney Trunk Road. Although i t took place on. a moderate scale between 3th and 11th Avenues and along 20th P O R T I O N O F %mjY OF MAP 10 p. 75 S C A L E O N E I N C H T O 1000 F E E T and Metcalf Roads (see Map 10) greater subdivision into urban lots was anticipated. In the past decades, residen-t i a l use of land was confined to the area south of the Dewdney Trunk Road where an adequate supply of residential land was available. After 1%0 a number of small farms located north of the Dewdney Trunk Road began to subdivide into residential lots. Due to the large number of sub-divisions appearing at this time there was l i t t l e pressure towards compactness so that a scattered residential build-ing was encouraged. Haney urban development concentrated on the area south of the Dewdney Trunk Road extending to the Fraser River with special attention to the spread along Selkirk Street and C l i f f Drive (see Map 10). These areas were located adjacent to the expanding residential concentrations of Haney and were, therefore, logical areas to receive part of the increase. Hammond urban residential land use con-tinued to absorb the empty lots located in the old section of the townsite f i r s t l a i d out in the early 1900's. There were considerable variations in the residential use of the two sections of Hammond located on either side of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The section north of the railway was almost completely consolidated and only a small number of empty lots remained. Hammond's expansion eastwards was chiefly along Hammond Road, 2nd Avenue, and Maple Ridge Golf Course. Second Avenue became the major communication 77 link with the rest of the municipality and as a result residential building followed the avenue. The second section of Hammond lay southwest of the railway. Origi-nally i t was avoided because i t was low-lying and poorly drained. But now, due to improved streets and drainage f a c i l i t i e s , i t began to attract residents looking for inexpensive lots. Scattered urban residential land east of 14th Avenue was limited to major avenues crossing the two major high-ways . The beginning of a small settlement was indicated near Albion, south of the Lougheed Highway (see Map 10). The residents of this area are employed in fishing part of the time, and for the rest of the season they are engaged in repairing fishing nets, boats and other fishing equipment. Since this whole area is below twenty-five feet altitude i t is in danger of floods during the early spring. No large homes have been built and as a result damage and loss of property due to floods is usually-minimal. Frequently during years of poor fishing residents of the area seek employment in other occupations. The area had received a slight commercial stimulus from a provincial ferry link connection with Fort Langley on the south side of the Fraser River. The ferry provides the only crossing of the Fraser River from the Pattulo Bridge in New Westminster to the dual railway-highway bridge at Mission City. Suburban r e s i d e n t i a l land increased i n the area bet-ween Haney and Hammond, south of 21st and 22nd Roads. (See Maps 9 and 10), S u b d i v i s i o n of small farms was n o t i c e -able and a number of d a i r y farms became r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s to accommodate an i n f l u x of population from the Vancouver Me t r o p o l i t a n area. A s c a t t e r i n g of suburban l o t s a l s o appeared along the Alouette R i v e r where l a r g e t r a c t s of land had been improved by p r o v i d i n g more adequate drainage and l e s s e n i n g the danger of f l o o d s by improving and r e -i n f o r c i n g the r i v e r banks. Larger l o t s f o r cottages l y i n g along the r i v e r were d i v i d e d i n t o smaller u n i t s . As the b u i l d i n g l o t s i n the southern part of Maple Ridge were occupied, increase i n the number of residences occurred i n the areas north of the o l d e r developments. The l a t t e r became commercial areas because of t h e i r l o c a t i o n adjacent to the expanding commercial core. The l o c a t i o n of sub-urban r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s at greater distances from the Fraser R i v e r was i n d i c a t e d by the increase i n b u i l d i n g along 17th Avenue, north of A l b i o n , and along 3 0 t h Avenue north of Whonnock. Elsewhere i n Maple Ridge the suburban r e s i d e n t i a l land p a t t e r n remained s i m i l a r to the patter n of 1940. The major changes i n the pattern of r e s i d e n t i a l land use from 1940 to 1950 were c h i e f l y the r e s u l t of small c l u s t e r s detached from the major concentrations of Haney and Hammond. The best example appears south of 22nd Road 79 between 3rd and 5th Avenues (see Map 10). Sprawl charac-t e r i z e s much of the r e s i d e n t i a l development west of 14th Avenue, w i t h the Haney r e s i d e n t i a l concentration spreading i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e block containing the Maple Ridge M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u i l d i n g s . Lack of municipal d i r e c t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n of land was responsible f o r the sprawl p a t t e r n developed i n t h i s decade. Too many r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s were allowed to occur at any one time. Away from the r e s i d e n t i a l concentrations of Haney and Hammond a s c a t t e r e d and uncoordinated p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land use developed. Small c l u s t e r s of r e s i -dences were constructed east of 17th Avenue outside the settlements of Webster's Corners, A l b i o n , and Whonnock. The moderate demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s east of 17th Avenue had the e f f e c t of encouraging s u b d i v i s i o n upon areas close to ol d e r settlements. Suburban r e s i d e n t i a l land expanded west of 17th Avenue extending from the Alouette R i v e r i n the north to the Fraser R i v e r i n the south. In con t r a s t to the preceding decade when no major grouping appeared, the decade up to 1950 produced three d i s t i n c t areas of suburban development. The l a r g e s t was lo c a t e d between the Haney and Hammond urban r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r where a s u b d i v i s i o n of orchards and small f r u i t and berry farms had not only r e s u l t e d i n sm a l l -holdings but a l s o suburban l o t s . These orchards and small f r u i t and berry farms were encouraged to subdivide and 80 provided building sites for the increased population in the Haney and Hammond residential areas. The second grouping of suburban residential increase occurs near Albion, between the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Fraser River. The area included most of the fishermen of Maple Ridge (page 7 7 ) . The third grouping of suburban residen-t i a l land use was along the north and south arms of the Alouette River, between 14th and 17th Avenues. Cottages dominated the residential building, but with a greater demand for building lots cottages were located on smaller lots. East of 17th Avenue, suburban residential develop-ment was only moderate and chiefly in the vic i n i t y of Whonnock and Ruskin where building was confined to major roads and avenues. Major processes responsible for the residential land use pattern in 1950 were chiefly associated with general prosperity and a large population increase following the Second World War. The total population of 9,891 persons in 1951 represented an increase of 3,391 persons or f i f t y percent gain over 1941. The attraction of so many people by the municipality and the need for residential building lots was preceded by the subdivision of excessive areas of productive agricultural land. Large scale speculative subdivision reduced many small farms to residential lots. Prosperity had a great effect upon the agriculture of Maple Ridge. Products such as vegetables, dairy products, 81 small f r u i t s and b e r r i e s , were i n demand i n the Vancouver area during the e a r l y years of the Second World War. Maple Ridge farmers found a ready market f o r t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s . Unfortunately f o r t h i s i n d u s t r y , the Japanese r e s i d e n t s who were res p o n s i b l e f o r r a i s i n g the general status of a g r i c u l t u r e i n Maple Ridge were ordered by the Federal Government to leave Maple Ridge D i s t r i c t . I t was the b e l i e f of the Government that the presence of the Japanese i n Maple Ridge c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t to the s e c u r i t y of Canada. In the m a j o r i t y of cases the Japanese l o s t t h e i r e n t i r e a s s e t s , and the berry and small f r u i t i n d u s t r i e s d e c l i n e d r a p i d l y . Residents of Maple Ridge who took over the Japanese farms could not maintain the i n d u s t r y because only a small number were w i l l i n g to put i n long hours of hard work. The d e s t r u c t i o n of the remaining productive orchards l o c a t e d south of 20th Road was almost complete. Remaining orchards were neglected to the p o i n t where p r o d u c t i v i t y d e c l i n e d d r a s t i c a l l y . Such neglect was g r e a t l y encouraged by the a n t i c i p a t e d s u b d i v i s i o n at which time a complete d e s t r u c t i o n of f r u i t t r ees seemed eminent. Boom conditions motivated numerous urban dwellers to take up residence on l a r g e number of smallholdings which were found i n Maple Ridge at t h i s time. C i t y dwellers were a t t r a c t e d to the smallholdings because of the a s s o c i a t e d r u r a l surroundings and because of t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to urban 82 centres, r e l a t i v e l y low property taxes, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of supplementing family incomes by r a i s i n g vegetables and small f r u i t s f o r the market of Greater Vancouver. Many residents of smallholdings depended upon work outside of the Municipality of Maple Ridge because l o c a l industries could not absorb the increased manpower. Industries employ-ing l o c a l labour were already u t i l i z i n g natural resources to t h e i r maximum. It was during t h i s decade that the com-muter element was introduced into the general growth of Maple Ridge. These residents of Maple Ridge tr a v e l l e d d a i l y to t h e i r occupations i n Greater Vancouver. The muni-c i p a l i t y was able to provide r e s i d e n t i a l land f o r a large population because large numbers of residents were able to r e l y upon occupations outside the municipality. Many l o c a l forest and agriculture industries found that t h e i r source of raw materials had been disappearing and were i n danger of vanishing completely. In the case of forestry, small lumber m i l l s that survived the 1930-1940 decade closed as a r e s u l t of the exhaustion of l o c a l timber reserves. Only large m i l l s such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Products and Whonnock Lumber Company were f i n a n c i a l l y able to continue operations. They found i t economical to import large volumes of logs f o r l o c a l pro-cessing. Logs were being imported from as f a r away as 300 18 miles. In most cases logs originating along the coast x o This i s an estimate made by the personnel manager of B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Products, Hammond Div i s i o n , Hammond, B.C. 33 and Vancouver Island were brought to the m i l l by raft or boom. Heavy capital investment in these mills was a major factor in encouraging them to remain in Maple Ridge. Mills with a much smaller capital investment moved from Maple Ridge to be closer to the source of logs. Agricultural industries diminished in importance due chiefly to the constant loss of good agricultural land to residential purposes. Less than six dairy farms were l e f t in Maple Ridge from a total which was formerly more than twenty. Since most of the residents on smallholdings depended upon employment away from home, they considered that products of the land were of minor importance. Specialized kinds of farming, such as the raising of chic-kens, turkeys, and fur animals, took on a new significance because none of these uses depended upon the quality of the s o i l . Clay was the only natural resource in Maple Ridge that showed l i t t l e sign of depletion. Clay industries and clay products were important to the municipality from the f i r s t settlement and continued to play a significant role. There were, however, signs of the diminishing importance of clay products in the overall economy of the municipality. With the replacement of clay products in the building industry by wood and other cheaper materials, the number of employees who totally depended upon the clay industry was reduced substantially. 84 In summary, prosperity associated with the forties created a demand for residential land in excess of what was available in the Haney and Hammond residential concen-trations. As a result, the area of orchards and small f r u i t and berry farms between Haney and Hammond was sub-divided, indicating the approaching merger of these two centres along River Road, Lougheed Highway, and Dewdney Trunk Road. The Haney and Hammond townsites showed dif -ferences in the pattern of development due to the amount of available land each had for residential purposes. Ham-mond had a compact development as a result of the f i l l i n g in of the available empty lots, whereas Haney began to sprawl along major highways and avenues. Part of this sprawl was the result of the subdivision of dairy farms south of 20th Road. Clusters of residential land use were detached from major concentrations and contrasted to the pattern of residential land use in 1940. Suburban residen-t i a l land appeared in three groupings; near Haney and Hammond, Albion, and the Alouette River. The chief reason for the population increase in Maple Ridge in the 1941-1951 decade was the large number of former Greater Vancou-ver residents who had moved to Maple Ridge and who commuted to occupations in Greater Vancouver. An increase in the number of commuters from Maple Ridge resulted in a change in the function of Maple Ridge from that of supplying occupations for i t s residents to that of being a residential area f o r part of the labour f o r c e of Greater Vancouver. Boom co n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g throughout the f o r t i e s gained momentum i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s t hat l e d to the I960 r e s i d e n t i a l land use p a t t e r n . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS Residential land in the Municipality of Maple Ridge began i t s spread from the townsites of Haney and Hammond and extended away from the settlements forming a scattered pattern along the major avenues and roads. The pattern formed by residential land by 1930 showed two urban settle-ments, Haney and Hammond, located approximately three miles apart occupying their historic sites on the bank of the Fraser River. River transportation and local industry f i r s t attracted these settlements to the original sites on the river. With the addition of the Canadian Pacific Rail-way for transportation, the expansion of Haney and Hammond remained close to the Fraser River. Rural settlements of Albion, Whonnock, and Ruskin also showed an original depen-dence upon the Fraser River and the Canadian Pacific Rail-way. The later construction of highways and roads and the steady growth of Haney and Hammond encouraged settlement to spread away from the original transport f a c i l i t i e s of river and r a i l . The year 1931 marked the opening of the Lougheed High-way and the decade that followed resulted in a much reduced dependence upon the river and the railway. The 1940 pat-tern showed the beginnings of a residential growth in an 87 east-west d i r e c t i o n along the Lougheed Highway and Dewdney Trunk Road. With the continued spread of the r e s i d e n t i a l land use away from the Fraser R i v e r and the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, an u n c o n t r o l l e d p a t t e r n of s c a t t e r e d development was i n evidence and r e s u l t e d i n the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n the 1950 p a t t e r n . The f i r s t signs of the merging of the housing of Haney and Hammond occurred i n 1950. Sprawl proportions were reached by I960 when an increased number of r e s i d e n t s were detached from the o r i g i n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n . An u n c o n t r o l l e d s c a t t e r e d growth c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e s i d e n t i a l spread across most of the southern h a l f of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Throughout the t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d , r e s i d e n t i a l lahd showed a general d i s p e r s a l away from the two major centres. The s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e t r a c t s of unused land separating small r e s i d e n t i a l settlements. Patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l land use show l i t t l e c o n s o l i d a t i o n of r e s i -d e n t i a l land r a t h e r than an increase i n the amount of s c a t t e r i n g over a g r e a t e r area. S p e c u l a t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n of land i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i v i s i o n of many farms three or f o u r years ahead of cur-rent needs. I f t h i s trend continues, the s c a t t e r e d p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n t i a l land w i l l continue. The m u n i c i p a l i t y has changed i n character from that of a f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l community to that of a p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e n t i a l community. With the s u b d i v i s i o n of 88 farms into smallholdings and eventually into r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s , the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy almost vanished and much more w i l l disappear as the trend towards r e s i d e n t i a l use continues. At present only one large canning and preser-ving plant remains i n the municipality and i t r e l i e s c h i e f l y upon imported berries and small f r u i t s . Its location i n the municipality does not depend upon the supply of raw materials but upon the r e a d i l y available part-time labour force. Forestry, the largest employer of l o c a l labour, has used p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the reserves of l o c a l timber. It remains i n the d i s t r i c t because of the large c a p i t a l investment i n the m i l l s , and the economic p o s s i b i l i t y of importing logs from the Fraser Basin, the mainland coast and Vancouver Island. If costs of importing logs continue to increase even the largest of these m i l l s may abandon i t s location in the municipality. Many small m i l l s have already moved outside the d i s t r i c t , and most may be forced to move i n the next decade. Both the Whonnock Lumber Company and B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Products, Hammond Division, w i l l be among the lumber m i l l s that are i n dan-ger of closing i n the near future. With the large population increase i n the decade 1951-19 1961 and with an increasing population growth predicted 19 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B.C., "Population Trends i n the Lower Mainland Region, 1921-1971, New Westminster, L.M.R.P.B. of B.C., January 1961. 89 f o r the f u t u r e (see Chapter I, p. 33), the l a r g e r labour force w i l l look outside the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r i t s l i v e l i -hood. Many employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s have become a c c e s s i b l e because of the movement of Vancouver i n d u s t r i e s to Burnaby, therefore c l o s e r to Maple Ridge. This movement of indus-t r y encouraged the greater r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n the eastern part of the m u n i c i p a l i t y and sharply increased the number of commuters. Commuting dis t a n c e was a l s o reduced by the widening of the Lougheed Highway and the construc-t i o n of a l a r g e bridge over P i t t R i v e r . Further improve-ment i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i l l determine to some extent eastward spread of commuter r e s i d e n t s i n the munici-p a l i t y . Rural a t t r a c t i o n s of Maple Ridge w i l l continue to draw urban dwellers t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y as proximity to occupations no longer d i c t a t e s the l o c a t i o n of residence. The l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s w i l l continue to employ only a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l labour f o r c e since the e x i s t i n g establishments show no i n d i c a t i o n of a f u t u r e i n c r e a s e . The area of a c t i v i t y that i s expected to increase i n impor-tance, and provide occupations to l i m i t e d numbers, i s commercial f u n c t i o n s to supply s e r v i c e s to the i n c r e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n . Service f u n c t i o n s i n the munici-p a l i t y w i l l increase as the r e s i d e n t i a l population increases and the r a t i o of the number of s e r v i c e occupations to the t o t a l population i s expected to a l t e r r a d i c a l l y . In general, the m u n i c i p a l i t y w i l l continue to develop 90 as a r e s i d e n t i a l community f o r a greater number of commuters who w i l l depend upon employment i n the Greater Vancouver area. The a t t r a c t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y as a pleasant l o c a t i o n i n which to l i v e , w i l l r e s u l t i n the gradual absorp-t i o n of Maple Ridge i n t o the Vancouver metropolitan system and then i t w i l l no longer be r u r a l and a t t r a c t i v e . The low tax r a t e , the lowest i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s west of C h i l l i w a c k , which forms one of the a t t r a c t i o n s to the new r e s i d e n t s should climb as a r e s u l t of the need f o r increased community s e r v i c e s . I t was p o s s i b l e i n the past f o r Maple Ridge to do without many s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s of an urban area but, as the i n f l u e n c e of Greater Vancouver i n -creases, the need f o r these s e r v i c e s w i l l a l s o i n c r e a s e . Maple Ridge i s i n need of immediate planning to a v o i d f u t u r e d i f f i c u l t i e s as a r e s u l t of the increase i n the r e s i d e n t i a l use of l a n d . Urgent planning i s required f o r the f o l l o w i n g : 1 . The n e c e s s i t y of an adequate sewer system to enable extensions i n t o new s u b d i v i s i o n s . This i s necessary when compact urban development occurs. I t avoids l a r g e c a p i t a l outlays when r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g precedes s e r v i c e s . 2 . The need to plan f o r an adequate water d i s t r i b u -t i o n system to meet a r a p i d l y growing demand. 3 . The need to plan f o r a reserve of land f o r new schools and parks. The purchase of land f o r p u b l i c use 91 must anticipate the direction and growth of population. 4. The need to plan to reserve industrial and com-mercial sites located in areas which can best serve the entire community. 5. The need to plan a modern system of streets and main t r a f f i c routes. As a result of the experience of other municipalities, i t may be concluded that greatly scattered patterns of residential land use, such as found in Maple Ridge, w i l l prove costly to the whole municipality for community ser-vices and f a c i l i t i e s . Services such as paved roads, water supply, sewers, f i r e and police protection, parks, and school f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be expected. Since costs of pro-viding municipal services are normally borne by the whole municipality through taxation, planning and wise develop-ment can help to control spiralling taxation. Since industries are few, and in decline, the burden of providing municipal services must be carried by residential taxation. It w i l l prove less of a financial burden to the municipality i f a l l residential subdivisions occur close to or adjacent to existing developments. The problem is then translated to the extension of presently existing services and f a c i l i -ties rather than the establishment of new ones. It is true that a l l f a c i l i t i e s cannot be extended. For example, a water supply system can only be extended by a definite and limited amount before the pressure is below acceptable levels along the whole l i n e . Larger pipes are then required to accommodate the increase in pressure created by the introduction of boosters along the whole system. The water supply of Maple Ridge is connected with the Greater Vancouver Water Supply and is supplied to the municipality through narrow pipes leading off the main supply lines. Wooden connections have been used exten-sively in the construction of the main lines which can only withstand a minor increase in water pressure. The municipality has undertaken the cost of changing a l l wooden connections to plastic, t i l e , or metal connections and the replacement of smaller main lines with larger ones. This preparation w i l l ensure that the water network w i l l service a greater area. The sewer system of the municipality is grossly neg-lected and needs special consideration. The old rural sewage disposal system through septic tanks is strongly criticized by the Public Health Department and a strong recommendation has been made to the municipal authorities that future subdivisions be supplied with adequate sewer systems. Since small sections of the townsites of Haney and Hammond are at present served by sewers, the munici-pality would do well to give priority to extending this v i t a l service to the urbanized areas of Haney and Hammond and eventually include a l l new subdivisions before they become f u l l y occupied. 93 The building of new schools and the extension of old existing ones requires careful planning in the acquisition of land at a reasonable price. The cost of new community-services for residential developments cannot be met by these areas alone but must be shared by the whole munici-pality. A similar lack of planning resulted in a costly 20 experience by communities such as Surrey. In their study of urban growth in the Lower Fraser Valley, o f f i c i a l s of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board state: With the rapid growth of Greater Vancouver i t is a l -most inevitable that Maple Ridge w i l l in time become increasingly dominated i f not absorbed, by the metro-politan area. . . . the speculative subdivision of land for suburban development on a large scale has now begun. The scale of problems created by this type of develop-ment is correspondingly greater. 21 The report goes on to point out that an unexpected number of new dwellings added to one area within a very short space of time throws an almost impossible burden on each of the existing f a c i l i t i e s , which in most cases were not built to absorb a large increase. The problem i s , there-fore, not simply a matter of extending or enlarging existing f a c i l i t i e s but a much greater problem of replacing 20 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, "A Report to the Council of the District of Maple Ridge on Subdivision Planning Policy" (New Westminster: Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, July, 1959), p. 3- (Mimeographed) 21 Ibid., p. 2. the old f a c i l i t i e s with much more adequate ones. A l l problems become more serious as the distance of the new subdivisions increases from exi s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The number and a v a i l a b i l i t y of f a c i l i t i e s and services there-fore diminishes with distance to the new subdivisions. The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board c l e a r l y points out that i t i s not merely extensions of e x i s t i n g problems that arise but that new kinds of problems, absent i n small r u r a l communities, come into being. Urban dwellers who seek r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n the municipality are o r i g i n a l l y attracted by the r u r a l surroundings and low taxes but they expect services and f a c i l i t i e s that approximate the urban area. Enough pressure i s exerted by these residents to introduce services and f a c i l i t i e s not normally provided. The highly speculative nature of most of the new sub-divisions of land i n Maple Ridge have created new b u i l d i n g l o t s f a r i n excess of the present demands and takes out of production much needed a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Far too often this land remains i d l e f o r three or four years while wait-ing for the r e s i d e n t i a l need to absorb i t . No municipality i s in a position to afford t h i s kind of land wastage. It has been pointed out that t h i s kind of development cannot begin to meet the expense that i t creates and the f i n a n c i a l burden i s thrown on the rest of the municipality. 22 Municipal o f f i c i a l s have estimated that i n 1959 there 22 Estimates made by Municipal O f f i c i a l s , Haney, Municipal H a l l , May 1962. 95 were about 1,000 vacant l o t s on the market i n the munici-p a l i t y , enough to accommodate the population growth f o r three or four years. No subdivision of land was necessary u n t i l 1963 or 1964. Rapid subdivision of land took place in t h i s period of time due to a lack of a controlled zoning p o l i c y . With the present rate of population increase the municipality w i l l need accommodation fo r 3,000 more families by 1971. This means that about 1,000 additional acres of land w i l l be absorbed by r e s i d e n t i a l building by 1971. If t h i s rate of r e s i d e n t i a l growth i s projected into the future a need f o r at l e a s t 1,000 acres of land may be expected i n each decade. Since only cultivated or developed land has been subdivided f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use i n the past, t h i s pattern i s expected f o r the future. Thus, the existing cultivated and developed land of about 10,000 acres may be absorbed by r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n about s i x t y or seventy years. B I B L I O G R A P H Y 97 A. AUTHORS CONSULTED Anderson, W.J. "An E v a l u a t i o n of the Future of A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Transactions of the Ninth B r i t i s h  Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 255-260. The B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1956. C a r r o l , R. "Maple Ridge." Coquitlam S t a r , May 8. 1912. (At Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Vancouver, B.C.) Gibbard, J.E. " E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , 1808-1885." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1937. Gow, M. "Haney 'Walked Up H i l l , ' Modern Town Develops on Lougheed Highway S i t e as Fraser R i v e r Front Abandoned." Vancouver Sun Magazine Supplement, September 1, 1951. Johnson, W.A. "Geology of the Fraser R i v e r D e l t a Map Area." G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Memoirs 135. Ottawa, 1923. Pp. 1-83. K e l l y , C.C. and R.H. S p i l s b u r y . S o i l Survey of the Lower  Fraser V a l l e y . Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Pub-l i c a t i o n 650. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939. Santy, T. " P i c t u r e of Haney and Environs." Vancouver  D a i l y Province, Magazine S e c t i o n . September 3, 1949. Stevenson, G. "Haney, T h i r t y Years Ago." Maple Ridge-P i t t Meadows Gazette, Haney, February 22, 1923. V i l l i e r s , E. " E a r l y H i s t o r y of Haney." Maple R i d g e - P i t t  Meadows Gazette, Haney, June 27, 1963. B. OTHER SOURCES Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. "A Report to the Co u n c i l of the D i s t r i c t of Maple Ridge on S u b d i v i s i o n Planning P o l i c y . " New Westminster, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B.C., J u l y 1959. (Mimeographed.) . "Outlook on Industry i n the" Lower Mainland Region." A P r e l i m i n a r y Report. New Westminster, L.M.R.P.B. of B.C., December 1957. 98 Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of British Columbia. "Urban Sprawl." New Westminster, L.M.R.P.B. of B.C., 1956. . "Population Trends in the Lower Mainland Region, 1921-1971." New Westminster, L.M.R.P.B. of B.C., January 196l. "Haney Centennial Issue." Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Gazette, Haney, November 13 , 1958V Maple Ridge-Pitt Meadows Gazette. Exerpts. December 31, 1 9 5 8 > " University of British Columbia. "A Community Planning Study of Maple Ridge." Community and Regional Planning, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Vancouver, Spring, 1952. A P P E N D I X The following pages indicate the assessed values of residential developments in Haney and Hammond used in determining average values for classifying residential use of land. The assessed values of one residential development located in each of Haney and Hammond are traced from 1930 to I960. Markedly increased assessed values are indicated from one decade to another. It was possible to make a direct comparison of the changing assessed values for many individual lots over the thirty year period up to I960 since their sizes remained un-changed. A comparison of the changing assessed values for dwellings was of l i t t l e significance since most dwellings built by 1930 had undergone major improvements or disappeared by I960. Many old dwellings had been destroyed by f i r e or were torn down to make way for the new. 101 1930 assessed values for an urban residential develop-ment in the Haney townsite. Taken from Maple Ridge Assess-ment Rolls located at the Municipal Hall, Haney, B.C. D.L. 393, Map number 2399. Lot no. Size 1-2 132x110 3 66x111 4-5 132x132 6 66x131 7 66x131 3-9 112x230 10 56x150 11 56x156 12-13 132x111 14-16 193x333 17 44x110 13 44x110 19 50x120 20-21 100x240 22 50x120 23-24 100x240 25-26 100x240 27 50x120 23 50x120 29 50x120 30 50x120 31-33 153x147 34 50x119 35-36 100x240 37 50x120 Dwelling Land Total Classification $250 $ 250 $ 500 700 125 250 125 625 950 125 old res. residential 700 1,000 1,000 125 400 200 325 1,400 1,200 1,175 325 old res. n n ti i t 1,000 175 325 residential 1,250 450 150 1,700 150 residential 150 150 125 125 2,400 250 125 2,650 125 residential 1,200 250 250 1,450 250 residential 125 125 800 125 200 925 200 residential 1,000 1,500 600 400 200 500 125 250 125 1,200 2,000 725 650 125 residential n old res . 102 1940 assessed values for an urban residential develop-ment in the Haney townsite (see above). D.L. 398, Map number 2899. Lot no. Size Dwelling Land Total Classif icatioi 1 66x110 1 625 $180 $ 805 residential 2 i t 200 200 3 »» 500 200 700 old res. 4 n 200 200 5 66x131 1,200 200 1,400 residential 6 tt 200 200 7 St 700 200 900 residential 8 56x137 1,400 280 1,680 tt 9 56x143 250 250 10 56x150 1,200 250 1,450 residential 11 56x156 2,000 280 2,280 12 & 13 132x111 4,000 400 4,400 church 14 66x111 200 200 15 n 200 200 16 it 1,800 200 2,000 residential 17 44x110 1,100 120 1,220 tt 18 tt 1,100 120 1,220 » 19 50x120 170 170 20 it 1,500 170 1,670 residential 21 tt 1,300 170 1,470 St 22 it 120 120 23 » 170 170 24 It 1,500 170 1,670 residential 25 it 170 170 26 St 170 170 27 tt 170 170 28 St 1,400 170 1,570 residential 103 1950 assessed values for an urban development in the Haney townsite (see above). D.L. 393, Map number 2399. Lot no. Size Dwelling Land Total Classification 1 66x110 $1 ,100 $360 $1,460 residential 2 n 1 ,450 390 1,340 «t 3 66x111 300 360 1,160 tt 4 tt 360 360 5 tt 1 ,500 360 1,360 residential 6 it 2 ,200 360 2,560 . it 7 it 1 ,350 360 1,710 n 3 56x137 550 550 9 56x143 4 ,450 630 5,030 commercial 10 56x150 2 ,000 490 2,490 it 11 55xirreg. 15 ,300 790 16,090 tt 12 & 13 132x111 4 ,000 720 4,720 it 14 66x111 1 ,300 360 2,160 residential 15 n 360 360 16 n 2 ,100 360 2,460 residential pt.17&13 44x110 1 ,400 240 1,640 it D " n 1 ,400 240 1,640 tt E » tt 1 ,000 240 1,240 it 19 50x120 1 ,550 300 1,350 n 20 n 1 ,300 230 2,030 it 21 n 1 700 230 1,930 tt 22 » 2 ,000 270 2,270 it 23 it 1 ,700 270 1,970 » 24 it 1 ,500 270 1,770 it 25 it 1 ,200 270 1,470 tt 26 tt 3 000 270 3,270 it 27 it 270 -270 23 it 2,400 270 2,670 residential 104 I960 assessed values of ment in the Haney townsite (s D.L. 398, Map number 2899. Lot no. Size Dwelling 1 66x110 $ 2,780 2 it 1,976 3 tt 1,755 4 66x111 5 » 3,160 6 tt 3,125 7 !t 2,498 8 84x137 31,041 9 28x143 3,010 10 38x150 21,710 11 55xirreg. 19,800 12 & 13 132x111 14 66x111 3,880 15 it 16 tt 3,560 Dof 17 44x110 2,535 C » tt 2,810 Eof 18 tt 1,210 19 50x120 3,375 20 tt 3,005 21 1; 2,860 22 n 2,775 23 it 2,920 24 J! 6,552 25 tt 3,065 26 tt 3,065 27 It 28 It 4,670 n urban residential develop-e above). Land Total Classification 1,215 #3 ,795 residential 1,145 1,145 3 ,121 2 ,900 tt 1,145 1 ,145 1,145 3 ,305 residential 1,145 • 4 ,270 tt 1,145 3 ,643 tt 5,270 36 ,311 commercial 1,945 4 ,955 residential 2,560 23 ,270 commercial 4,100 23 ,900 tt 1,550 1 ,550 1,145 5 ,025 residential 1,145 1 ,145 1,145 4 ,705 residential 760 3 ,295 i t 760 3 ,570 tt 760 2 010 tt 940 4 ,315 tt 885 3 ,890 i t 885 3 ,745 tt 830 3 ,605 it 830 3 750 tt 830 7 ,382 St 830 3 ,895 tt 830 3 ,895 tt 830 830 830 5,500 residential 1 0 $ 1 9 3 0 assessed values for an urban residential develop-ment in the Hammond townsite. Taken from Maple Ridge Assessment Rolls, D.L. 278, Map number 114. Lot no. 601 602-604 6 0 5 - 6 0 6 6 0 7 - 6 0 8 6 0 9 - 6 1 1 6 1 2 - 6 1 5 6 1 6 6 1 7 618 6 1 9 6 2 0 6 2 1 6 2 2 - 6 2 7 & 6 2 9 628 6 3 0 6 3 1 6 3 2 6 3 3 6 3 4 6 3 5 6 3 6 6 3 7 6 3 8 6 3 9 - 6 4 0 6 4 1 Size 60x120 180x120 120x120 tt 180x120 240x120 60x120 ?t it tt tt tt 420x120 60x120 w tt tt st it tt tt 120x120 60x120 Dwelling I 4 0 0 4 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 ~ ~ 4 7 0 900 1,000 800 400 800 800 800 6 0 0 Land $150 3 5 0 2 5 0 2 5 0 3 5 0 7 0 0 150 150 1 5 0 150 1 5 0 2 0 0 9 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 5 0 180 2 0 0 1 5 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 Total Classification 5 550 3 5 0 2 5 0 2 5 0 7 5 0 1 , 7 0 0 1 5 0 6 5 0 5 5 0 1 5 0 6 2 0 2 0 0 900 200 200 200 1,050 1,180 1,000 550 950 1,000 1,000 200 800 old res. residential old res. « old res. residential tt n residential tt residential 106 1940 assessed values for an urban residential develop-ment in the Hammond townsite (see above). D.L. 278, Map number 114. Lot no. Size Dwelling Land Total Classification 601 60x120 $1,000 $150 $1,150 residential 602 150 150 6©3 150 150 604 150 150 605 H 450 150 600 old res. 606 tt 900 170 1,070 residential 607 «i 170 170 608 n 150 150 609 n 1,100 150 1,250 residential 610 n 150 150 611 tt 200 200 612 tt 200 200 613 tt 1,000 220 1,220 residential 614 it 180 180 615 tt 160 160 616 n 1,350 150 1,500 residential 617 n 1,100 180 1,280 tt 618 tt 1,000 180 1,180 tt 619 tt 150 150 620 n 700 200 900 residential 621 it 220 220 622 tt 220 220 623 « 220 220 624 n 150 150 634 1,400 200 1,600 residential 107 1950 assessed values fo merit in the Hammond townsite D.L. 278, Map number 114. Lot no. Size Dwelling; 601 60x120 $1,400 602 1,400 603 u 1,000 604 it 1,800 605 tt 1,200 606 n 1,200 607 tt 1,100 608 it 2,300 609 it 1,500 610 it 611 90x120 612 60x120 1,200 1,400 613 it 614 it 615 tt 616 it 1,200 900 617 u 618 it 900 619 it 1,300 620 it 1,000 621 it 1,500 622 tt 623 it 624 tt 1,100 1,600 634 tt an urban residential develop-(ss above). Land Total Classification $220 . $1,620 residential 220 1,620 " 200 1,200 » 200 2,000 " 200 1,400 " 220 1,420 " 220 1,320 n 200 2,500 " 200 1,700 » 100 100 » 320 320 220 1,420 residential 220 1,620 »» 200 200 _________ 200 200 200 1,400 residential 200 1,100 » 200 1,100 w 200 1,500 » 220 1,220 *' 220 1,720 » 220 220 220 220 200 1,300 residential 200 1,800 " 168 I 9 6 0 assessed values for an urban residential develop-ment in the Hammond townsite (see above). D.L. 2 7 8 , Map number 114. Lot no. Size Dwelling Land Total Classification 601 60x120 $ 2 , 0 0 0 # 3 8 5 # 2 , 3 8 5 residential 602 Tt 1 ,712 3 8 5 2 , 0 9 7 tt 6 0 3 tt 2 , 0 0 4 3 5 0 2 , 3 5 4 tt 6 0 4 tt 2 ,428 3 5 0 2 , 7 7 8 tt 6 0 5 tt 1 , 7 5 7 3 5 0 2 , 1 0 7 tt 6 0 6 tt 1 , 5 7 6 3 8 5 1 , 9 6 1 it 6 0 7 tt 2 , 2 7 6 3 8 5 2 , 6 6 1 tt 60$ tt 3 , 1 0 4 3 5 0 3 , 4 5 4 tt 6 0 9 tt 2 ,508 3 5 0 2 , 8 5 8 ti 6 1 0 9 0 x 1 2 0 4 9 5 4 9 5 6 1 2 6 0 x 1 2 0 2 , 2 8 4 3 8 5 2 , 6 6 9 residential 6 1 3 tt 1 , 9 5 2 3 8 5 2 , 3 3 7 n 6 1 4 tt 3 8 5 3 8 5 6 1 5 tt 1 , 9 4 3 3 5 0 2 , 2 9 8 residential 6 1 6 tt 1 , 6 2 8 3 5 0 1 , 9 7 8 « 6 1 7 tt 1 , 3 8 0 3 5 0 I , 7 3 0 tt 6 1 8 it 1 , 2 6 4 3 5 0 1 , 6 1 4 it 6 1 9 tt 2 , 7 6 0 3 5 0 3 , 1 1 0 tt 6 2 0 tt 1 , 6 3 6 3 8 5 2 , 0 2 1 » 6 2 1 « 2 , 3 6 8 3 8 5 2 , 7 5 3 tt 6 2 2 n 2 , 7 9 5 3 8 5 3 , 1 8 0 it 6 2 3 it 3 , 4 5 2 3 8 5 3 , 8 3 7 tt 6 2 4 n 1 , 6 8 0 3 5 0 2 , 0 3 0 it 6 3 4 it 2 ,460 3 5 0 2 , 8 1 0 ?t 

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